( . N I I I K,
BREAKING & TRAINING
AS TAUGHT BY
t' PROF. NORTON B. SMITH, |j
UNDER THE MANAGEMENT OF
NORTON B. SMITH
Emperor of all Jlorse Educators.
MARVELLOUS, SCIENTIFIC, AND EDUCATIONAL
EXHIBITION, HANDLING AND SUBDUINC
^viL.r> & VICIOUS
Those who attend my Exl
which I ^ive will receive a
irn how to
j^l^f 1. ,.-^. [ y.,y..r.- - 1
^lu'.iiiv'l ; liow to
■ w to
ptcvcnt Horses fro
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free of ch;ii<jc, ano
lesson ^iven a hor
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i^ct it, and
irjii-i ■■;'■:.'■'-'•■ ^
by foolish nnd ignorant actions. My 'l"i.
of a horse should l)e without, is sold for 1 v>
ONLY EXHIBITION OP THE KIND IN THE WORLD.
Professor NORTON B. SMITH'S
Record of the Past a Guarantee of the Future.
Years of Brilliant Success the Reward of Merit.
ALL WILD, VICIOUS, AND NERVOUS HORSES
Professor NORTON B. SMITH'S
IMPROVED PATENT BIT
The present Bit is a vast improvement on his previous one, which
has given universal satisfaction to all who have used it.
The above Fh<»U)j;Taph -<h(«w.s the Bit as used for Onlinary Diiviug.
'J'his is undoubtedly the finest Bit in the market. It is of the
}i€i*t English workmanship, manufactured for use with a double curb,
and lias a smooth round mouth- bar, and can be used for Riding or
Driving. It is the best Bit made for Trotters, Manufactured in
;> sizes, Full, Cob, and Pony, steel and nickel-plated, 6s. each. Free
hj post, 6s.6d. May be purchased at our places of Exhibition, or
l>y applying to ^^^^ BEHRENS, Co-Partner and Manager.
rcrmanent Address : c/o Stafford & Co., Netlierfield, Nottingliam.
Emperor oi« am, Horsk Eul'Cators.
NORTON B. SMITH,
EMPEROR OF ALL HORSE EDUCATORS,
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF HIS
CO-PARTNER AND MANAGER,
i TO WHOM ALL BUSINESS LETTERS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED %
AT PLACES OF EXHIBITION.
. » —--••♦— '^ <•-
Prof. NORTON B. SMITH'S IMPROVED PATENT BIT
Fox> RXX>II9G and DRIVII90.
Protected by Royal Letters Patent No. 24512.
The last Bit brought out by the Professor won the approbation of all
Veterinary Surgeons and Experts, and these declare the present Bit
to l)e absolutely the best that can })e obtainetl for either liitling or
The above Photograph Shows the Bit as u.sed for Riding.
Each Bit is of the Best English Manufacture, made for use with a
Double Curb, and has a Smooth Round Mouth- Bar tliat cannot Chafe
the Horse's Mouth. It is a sure Cure for Pullers, and tlie Greatest
Preventive against Runaways ever invented. For Trotters this
Bit is invaluable, it being fitted with a special slot for the Overdraw
Rein. |^~ The Most Useful and Handsomest Bit in the Market.
Made in 3 Sizes— FULL, COB, and PONY, in Steel and Nickel
Plated, 6/- each^ Post Free, 6/6. For Sale at our place of
Exhibition, or can be ordered by applying to
NAT BEHRENS, Co- Partner and Manager,
Permanent Address— c/o STAFFORD & CO., Netherfield, Nottingham.
fjortop B. SfT\itl7's
UlmD RJiD VICIOUS
Uiitl? ouer forty Illustrations.
NAT BEHRENS and NORTON B. SMITH,
PIIOPRIETOIIS, WHILE AT THE
CRYSTAL PALACE, LONDON, JUNE 20th, 1892,
Revised and Enlarged for its 2^oih Thousand,
It is necessary for any man wishing- to handle horses
successfully, to be self-possessed, determined, and to give
some attention to the horse's natural habits and disposition.
I do not think it is claiming too much for my system to-
say, by its use, any horse may be broken (regardless of his
being previously spoiled) so as to make him perfectly docile
and even safe for a family horse.
In dealing with my plan, you are not wasting your time
with a mysterious trick, with which so many are humbugged
by unprincipled men who have nothing good at heart for
either horse or man. In my book you will find the princi-
ples of a universally applicable system for the better training
of horses for man's use, producing such matchless docility
as has not before been found. The three fundamental
principles of my theory are : First, control — teaching
submission and docility. (This being the first lesson for
the horse, is of the greatest importance, and is the same to
his after education that the alphabet is to the boy's, and
should be learned perfectly for ease and success in after
lessons). Secondly, let kindness run through all your
actions towards the horse. Thirdly, appeal properly to
the horse's understanding-, prudently associating- mastery
with kindness ; rebuke wrong and reward right.
Although the horse possesses some faculties superior to
man, yet he is deficient in reasoning power ; he is naturally
of a kind disposition, as evidenced by his attachment to his
kind keeper. He has no thought of disobedience, except
by the pernicious imprudence of violating the laws of his
nature, in which case he is not in fault, but the violator.
You will hereinafter learn that he may be taught to per-
fectly submit to anything, however odious it may have
been to him at first.
As the value of the horse is daily becoming more mani-
fest, it is presumed that any attempt to reduce into a system
the art of preserving him in health, and of removing disease,
will not be unacceptable.
It is certain that at no period in the history of this
country has the horse stood so high in general estimation,
or by the display of his various powers rendered himself
an object more worthy of our consideration. As greater
attention is now paid to the breeding of horses, for the
different purposes of the turf, the road, etc., so should our
anxiety for their education increase.
The object of this publication is to render as plain and
familiar as possible a subject that has for a length of time
remained in obscurity. The want of a work possessing
practical facts and illustrations has long been severely felt
Under this conviction I am induced to lend my aid in
bringing forth the present volume, with such alterations
and additions as an extensive experience has taught me.
To remove long-standing prejudices, I am aware, is a
difficult task ; still, I venture to hope that a careful perusal
of these pages will excite, in some degree, the feelings of
humanity in respect to the many sufferings to which the
generous animal is frequently liable from unmerited cruelty
and injudicious treatment, and that mankind may be induced
to view his sufferings with an eye of sympathy and tender-
ness, and have recourse to a rational mode of practice
when accident or disease may require it.
I am not aware that any publication has been issued from
the press of any country in which the science of horseman-
ship has been laid down in such a manner as to be clearly
understood. The present work is so familiar in its com-
position as to render it at once interesting and intelligible
to every one who may think proper to peruse its contents.
This is a day of progression. Men are respected in pro-
portion to their education, intelligence, and usefulness ;
governments are respected for the soundness of their con-
stitutions, and intelligence of their laws, and enforcement
of the same, and the size and efficiency of their armies. The
soldier who receives a careful training and useful education
in the military science, and conducts himself properly, is
respected, trusted, and promoted. I contend that the
soldier's education has not been completed until he has a
thorough knowledge of the great art of horse-training and
educating his horse, for he should be to him a daily com-
panion. By a thorough knowledge of this great art, he is
capable of judging the most intelligent, hardy, and useful
horse for his department of the service. The more useful
the animal to his master, the more companionable and
highly appreciated. The better the horse, the better the
master. It is for this purpose that I have written this
book, from an experience of over six years in the study
of the training and education of the horse, and if these
instructions are put to practical use, they will improve the
military service in all departments in which horses are used.
My one aim and object is to get my methods of training
and educating the noble and intelligent horse before the
people of this country, for I feel by so doing a great and
lasting good will be done the poor, unappreciated dumb
brute ; and though the}' can never know the good I shall
have done them, their masters will be able to appreciate,
if they learn and understand my method.
Permit me to state briefly, that I have travelled all over
the United States and Canada, which has required years of
the best part of my life. I have given public exhibitions in
all of the principal cities and towns. I have handled over
eight thousand of the most vicious kickers, jibbers, strikers,
plungers, biters, bolters, shiers, and horses possessing all
other vicious habits known, but I have yet to find the horse
I could not by my methods conquer, subdue, and make
docile in a short time. And in all the time I have mentioned
I have not injured one horse, nor is it necessary for me
to be cruel, owing to the simplicity and perfection of my
It is with a feeling of pride — for I have earned my suc-
cess by honesty of purpose, straightforward action, hard
labour, and close study — that I refer to crowded houses
wherever I have shown, and audiences made up of the
very best class of citizens, which is the best evidence that
my labours have been appreciated, and my methods a
All of the engravings in this work are original ideas
of mine, and are fully protected and covered by
I forbid any person publishing this book, or one of the
In giving out this work I have tried to make it as
simple and as plain as possible, as I do not approve of a
large book filled up with a lot of trash. All the scientific
points of horsemanship are laid down here in common-
sense talk. They can be readily understood by a boy of
twelve. It has cost a large sum of money to engrave the
different cuts and to make them plain, so that they can be
quickly understood by the reader.
Following this is the Horseshoeing Department, in
which I have not gone into all its details, but have simply
called the reader to a few of the main facts which are
apparent to all horsemen ; to dwell on this subject, and
give It a general sifting', would occupy too much space, to
the crowding out of other important matter.
Following this is the Veterinary Department, which
contains hints and suggestions from a regular graduate of
a veterinary college, who has had a practice of thirty years,
and anyone using the recipes or remedies herein named
can do so with perfect safety, for in my practice I have
used them all, and certainly attest as to their efficacy.
Still, I would advise any person having a sick horse to
immediately call upon a veterinary surgeon, and never rely
upon too many persons giving you advice. We cannot
pay too high a tribute to the good work our veterinary
colleges are doing for us, and be assured that it is always
safe to employ a graduate therefrom. In cases where it
becomes necessary to perform a surgical operation, I would
always suggest that a thorough and practical veterinarian
be called quickly, as in case of doubt, always take the safe
side. There can be no adequate suggestions laid down in
any book touching such cases, hence I refrain from making
the attempt. Hoping and fully believing that all persons
who may chance to peruse this work, if they fully carry out
the principles laid down, which have cost me a lifetime of
ni.ental and physical labour to acquire (not mentioning the
thousands of dollars squandered in its accumulation), will
be benefited thereby,
I remain, respectfully,
Your obedient Servant,
Emperou of all Hoksk Edlcatous.
THE WORLD'S OPINION
.... OF OUR ....
A few of the many thousand Letters in the
possession of Professor SMITH.
Cleveland, Ohio, March loth, 1892.
Pkof. Nohtox B. Smith, Woodland Guards' Armoury.
Dear Sir, — Having witnessevl your performance at the above
Armoury three times, I will cheei'fully hay that your method of
handling horses is by far the kindest to the horse, with as little risk
to the owner as anything tliat I have ever seen, and think that it is
a lesson that is good for the man as well as horse.
When you return to our city again I will do all I can for your
Reblet's Livery Transfer Co.
Cleveland, Ohio, March '2Gth, 1892.
Prof. Norton B. Smith, Akron, Ohij.
Dear Sir, — Having attended several of your entertainments
while in our city for the past two weeks, 1 take pleasure in saymg I
enjoyed them most heartily. The skill in which you handle unruly
horfecs and without harm, is simply wonderful, and in my judgment
it is well worth the price of admission to all. And to all owners of
liorse-fiesh your lecture and entertainment is without price, and if
every city could at all times have one like yourself among their
number it would be a great help to the public, and save many lives
that are lost simply by the drivers of horses in many cases not having
as much good sense as the <lumb brute, and they are made to go
wrong by abuse ami improjier treatment. That you are a young
man I trust that your future niay be a bright one, and that 3'^ou may
meet with success in all your undertakings.
I remain, Sir, Most respectfully yours,
G. K. Carpenter.
March '2nd, 1892.
To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN : —
Last week Prof. Norton B. Smith gave live marvellous
exhibitions in our city. He handled many wild and vicious horses,
all of which succumbed to his will in a few moments' time.
He handled two of mine, one of which had not l»een driven l)efore
for over a year. They were both greatly benefited by the lessons
which they receired under Prof, Smith. I regret that I did not take
them to him the first evening he was here.
He may justly claim the title "Emperor of all Horse Educators,"
and I trust he will succeed wherever he goes.
J. C. Ives,
Veterinary Surgeon of Coldwater, Mich,, for thirty years.
Atkins, Ark., June 20th, 1891.
To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN :—
This is to certify that Prof. Norton B, Smith, horse trainer,
came to our town on the 19th inst,, and inside of ten hours had a
mare that had never been hitched working nicely and as calm as an
old harness horse. The information received of him in regard to
training stock I value very high, and would not be without it for any
reasonable consideration. 1 heartily recommend him to the public
G. W. Nease,
Springfield, Mo., August I9th, 1891.
To THE Public:—
I was the owner of one of the most vicious horses in the city of
Springfield, Mo, He was a Hermit colt, three years old, and had
been comjdetely spoiled by men who claimed to be horsemen. He
kicked, he laid down, he ran away whenever he could get a chance,
so that after paying out considerable money on him I was completely
disgusted. Prof, Smith came to our city and called on me for the
purpose of doing some advertising. I told him about my horse and
he agreed to break him. I am pleased to say that he made a success
of it, and to-day I have a good, gentle animal, and I have been
driving him three or four weeks and he shows no signs of returning
to his once vicious habits, and under the circumstances I cannot do
less than say that I think Prof. Smith a horseman of very rare
ability ; as he uses uo violence, no abuse of horses is ever seen at his
exhibitions, and I highly recommend him to all those who are in
possession of bad horses. My colt is aa gentle and reliable as any
fine-spirited animal can be.
A. Z. Chambers,
Manager, Springfield Leader,
THE FINEST HALL IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN.
Grand Rapids, Mich., January 28th, i8g2.
To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN :—
Some four weeks ago I made a contract with Mr. N. Behrens,
manager for Prof. Norton B. Smith, the horse educator, for the use of my
large hall lor eight nights. I did so with some misgivings, but now that
the entertainments have closed I am free to say I will gladly re-rent them
the hall at any time, as they lived up to every and all agreements and con-
tracts made, and left the hall in first-class condition.
C. S. Hartman.
INTERIOR OF BUILDING, OMAHA, NEIL, THE NIGHT I HANDLED THE
MAN-EATING STALLION VINCO BEFORE THREE THOUSAND PEOPLE.
Sioux City, Iowa, October 2ist^ i8gi.
To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN : —
We, the undersigned, Directors of the Sioux City Corn Palace, do
cheerfully recommend the exhibitions of Prof. Norton B. Smith to the public,
as being instructive and highly interesting, and first-class in all details.
The Professor's exhibition at our Corn Palace of 1891, proved to be a
great attraction, and drew large crowds. The Professor is a horseman of
rare ability, and should receive the liberal patronage of the public, as we
consider him a public benefactor, and his methods will improve the interest
of the noble animal, the horse, wherever he may exhibit.
J. R. Kathrens, Secretary.
E. C. Palmer, Mayor.
J. E. BOOGE.
L. L. Kellogg.
E. P. Stone.
G. P. King.
Hessant S. Baker.
C. G. Culver.
C. A. Demun.
Zeno R. Brown,
Geo. a. Mead.
C. M. Swan.
James P. Wall.
Jas. V. Mahoney.
J. P. Martin.
Sunderland, December 15th, 1892.
Dear Sir, — We, tlie undersigned, constituting a committee, and
having visited your exhibition on Monday, December 12th, 1892, at
the '-Arcadia," Sunderland, for the express purpose of satisfying the
public and ourselves regarding your methods, whether "humane"
or not, -vve unanimously pronounce your methods and treatment as
"humane" in every respect, and a great benefit to the horse, as you
educate him to know the difference between right and wrong, and
by suppressing the vices of the horse you confer a public benetit.
Wishing you every success, Ave have great pleasure in signing
our names hereto.
Thomas Laverick, Auctioneer,
Union Chambers, Sunderland.
A. T. Crow, Junr., Solicitor, Sunderland.
Oswald Charlton, Solicitor, Sunderland.
Ft. J. Burns, Surgeon,
Sunderland Borough Police.
Robert Bradford, Jeweller,
Bridge Street, Sunderland.
Jas. Lunn, Manager, P. Lockie&; Co.,
J. H. Smith, Paley Street, Sunderland.
W. Amison, Tramway Manager, Sunderland.
Thomas Jack, M.B.C.V.S.,
65, Brougham Street, Sunderland.
To Professor Norton B. Smith.
Nottingham, September 19ih, 1892.
Dear Sir, — The black cob that you handled for me is driving
in harness without jibbing or kicking. He is a horse that all the
horse-dealers and gipsies 1 know of have had, and never before has
he been mastered. It is truly wonderful to know that he has turned
out to be a good driving cob. Anyone doubting your mode of
treatment will be convinced differently if they were acquainted with
this horse. Faithfully yours,
Professor Norton B. Smith. W. Pymell.
2, Parker Street, Liverpool, November 2Srd, 1892.
Dear Sir, — We, the undersigned, beg to tender our thanks for
the wonderful improvement that you have wrought in our chestnut
gelding since you gave him several lessons to break him of kicking.
Previous to placing him in your hands he was a most vicious
kicker in harness, and entire master of all about him ; but now we
can drive him with perfect safety, his kicking habits having entirely
We consider your method of breaking horses of bad habits is
worthy of all praise. Yours faithfully. Turner Bros.
To Professor Norton B. Smith, Henglers Circus.
6, Plough Road, Rotiierhithe, London", S.E.
Sej^tember 3rd, 1892,
Dear Sir, — Permit me to offer you my best thanks for the
manner in whicli you handled the three horses I sent you during
your stay at the Crystal Palace, When I first saw your exhibition
I was greatly pleased with your skill, so I sent you two horses a\ hich
were thouglit to be incorrigibly nervous, but I am glad to say your
treatment of them has resulted in a complete success. The colt
also wliich you handled only twice is now as docile as a lamb. I
think your success is greatly augmented by the kindness, as well as
firmness, which you show towards the animals, and I can strongly
recommend owners of unbroken colts, and horses spoiled by l>ad
inanagement, to entrust them to your charge, and I shall be pleased
for you to refer anyone to me, as I feel sure your mode of treatment
cannot be excelled.
J. G. Hor.MAN.
To Professor Norton B. Smith.
High Street, Lincoln, September 30^/*, 1803.
Dear Sir, — I wish to express the great satisfaction you have
given in the city of Lincoln, and also the firm, kind, certniu and
effective manner in which you handle the most awkward animals,
your large audiences applauding you immensely. I hope, should
you and your enterprising and experienced manager (Mr. Nat
Behrens) have an opportunity of again visiting our city, you will
have the same splendid reception and success. I am sure I shall be
willing to give you every facility, as I consider the entertainment
has enhanced the value of my large central hall and premises,
containing about 3,300 square yards, and 1 shall only be too pleased
to let you have it at any time you m.ay wish to pay a second visit.
I am, yours respectfully,
To Prof. N. B. Smith.
P.S. — I must say you have handled my two, three, and four-
year-old horses most successfully, and really marvellously. — E.S.
Cranborne Villa, Armley, near Lekds,
Janufiry 13/A, 1893.
Dear Sir, — Permit me to thank you for the training and kindness
you have shown to my four-year-old Irish colt, which, liefore you
handled, was of a most nervous disposition and given to shying at
strange objects whenever he met them. But, now, things are
changed, and for the best. He will pass anything with the greatest
confidence in himself and driver. In a large manufacturing town
like I>eeds we have a great many strange and trying things to meet.
which are Avell calculated to frigliten the best of horses, such as
trains, steam tram cars, traction engines, etc. Since his tliree
lessons I have tried him past all these, and he takes no notice of them
whatever, but has turned out the most tractable and affectionate
horse I have ever seen. I can ride or drive liim in single or double
harness. I consider the three lessons you have given him liave
enhanced his value by twenty pounds, and that he will never forget
I have been present at seven of your exhibitions, and ha^•e seen
you handle over twenty different horses, and can compliment you
upon the results in every case. Your system and kindness are all that
can be desired, and I am sure that the most fastidious humanitarian
could not object to any of the methods you adopt in your system of
training. You certainly have deservedly earned the title of
" Emperor of all Horse Educators ! "
Again thanking you for your kindness, and the beneht ^\ hich
my horse has received, I wish you every success and prosperity in
your future career.
Believe nie to remain,
ScoREBY Grange Gate, Helmsley, York,
Sejjtember 2l.st, 1893.
Dear Sir, — I am pleased to say that 1 am perfectly satisfied
with youi" methods in handling my two wild, nervous horses.
If many so-called horse-breakers would follow your method
there Avould not be so many vicious horses in the country.
Am pleased to say I can with confidence recommend anyone
possessed of wild, vicious horses, which they Avished to be cured, to
place them under your training.
With many thanks for the good done to my animals, wishing
you health and e\ery success.
Professor Norton B. Smith.
13, Botanic Avenue, Belfast, 3Iai/ 17th, 1894.
Professor Norton B. Smith.
Dear Sir, — The pony which gave such a splendid exhibition of
your powers on Monday and Tuesday, the 14th and 15th May, and
belonging to me, is a well-bred Welsh mountain pony of a high
nervous temperament, untrained to ride or drive, had been haltered
and handled very little.
My friends who knew the pony and its disposition, together
with myself, were quite astounded with the marvellous short time
you took to bring it to subjection without punishment or pain.
The harnessing in single and driving was " Al," but to nut it into
double harness with a mare with a noted disgraceful chara^.ter, and
make them work kindly and perfectly under steam, steam whistles,
rifle shooting, flying paper, fire crackers, bsiss drums, sleigh bells,
and your frightful tin ware, I must say can only be seen to be
A word regarding the bay mare you handled on 16th May
(submitted to your consideration by the owner through me, but not
wishing his name known, with her character in owner's own words,
" she is the gi-eatest villain ever came into the city of Belfast ") and
which you did so successfully, fully entitles you to rank as your bill
proclaims you, " Emperor of all Horse Tamers."
49, Newport Road, E., Middlesborougii,
August oth, 1893.
Dear Sir, — Since you handled my three-year-old colt (which
shied at miller's wagons, furniture vans, paper, engines, etc.), it has
been driven about Middlesborough and district daily without
blinkers, and is now perfectly quiet.
With many thanks,
Mr. N. B. Smith. Thomas Nettlkton.
Leamington Mews, Leamington Street,
Manchester, Api-U smh, 1S9-1:.
Sir, — The mare which we sent to you about ten days ago, and
which previous to that time was well-known for her kicking powers
when being harnessed, put in or out of the shafts, and when at work,
so much so that we discontinued using her for fear of injuring the
men, has now become perfectly quiet.
After being put through her facings once by you, she was sent
out the following morning, and has worked regularly since without
showing any signs of wickedness.
As a further proof of her quietness we may add that a strange
driver was sent out with her, and when loading a trunk on the
vehicle, his foot accidentally slij^ped and he fell backwards on to the
horses's hind quarters, and she never moved.
After such demonstrations we have conhdunce in saying that we
consider your system of handling and dealing with horses of this
class the most efficacious of any that has yet come under our notice.
We are, Sir,
Thomas Potts & Son.
Norton B. Smith, Free Trade Hall, Manchester.
From Francis Evelyn Place, M.R.C.V.S.LoyDON,
Veterinary Surgeon, HoNITON, DEVON, 1896,
Mr. Nat Behrens, jSIanager for Prof. Smith,
c/o Stafford & Co., Netherfield, Notts.
Sir, — Enclosed please find cheque £1, and forward per Midland
Ry., Car. forward,
2 Smith's training bridles @ 2/-
2 halters @ 1/6 -
1 cob bit @. 6/- -
1 single driving whip @. 5/-
1 riding whip @ 2/- -
By means of Prof. Smith's method I have rendered manageable
a mare that three breakers gave np as utterly hopeless, also several
unbroken colts. Every V.S. should learn these ways of handling
Francis E. Place,
[Copi/ of Letter received from LORD Drogheda,]
Sir, — I have much pleasure in stating that the horse which I
sent up to Exeter to be treated by you has been much improved, and
is less nervous than he was. He does not seem to mind the steam
roller now nearly so much. Thanking you for the treatment,
Delamore, Exmouth, 29fh March, 1896. Drogiieda,
83, Market Side, Bulwell, Nottingham,
May 19 fh, 1893.
To Prof. Norton B. Smith, Victoria Hall, Nottingham.
Dear Sir, — Before your leaving Nottingham I should like to
thank you for handling two of my horses, more especially a three-
year-old colt. Although for three weeks previously a Nottingham
horse-breaker had been trying to break him, he had not even driven
him in lines, as he was afraid of him, the colt being nervous and a
bad kicker when anything touched him. He has now been home
nearly a week, and I can drive and ride him, his nervousness being
quite gone. He does not shy at anything.
Burton-PN-Trent, April ISth, 1S9S.
Dear Sir, — I am very pleased to tell you that the grey pony
3^ou had from me, which was unbroken and very nervous, is going
in harness and very quiet ; the only thing now is to get him a good
mouth, and then I shall Jaave a pony fit for anyone to look at.
Let me thank you for the good you have done him, and, also. I
should be very ])leased to recommend your treatment to anyone.
To Prof. Norton Smith. Y. D. Com.
Melton House, 165, High Street,
Burton-on-Trent, Jime 6th, 1898.
To Prof. Norton B. Smith.
Dear Sir, — Having heard so much about my mare kicking the
front of the cart in twice, I feel it nothing but fair to tell yt>u 1 am
much surprised at the most unfair and untruthful statement. I
thought when she was in my Hoater to-day she went on as (piiet as a
horse could, and showed not the least vice or any sign of kicking.
I must tell you before you took her in hand we could not ])ut her in
without breaking all before her, at least I gave her up as a bad job,
and now we don't feel the least afraid of her.
I shall send you a letter later on as to her ways, as 1 feel you
are worthy of all to know.
Braemar, Invermay, Launceston,
Tasmania, June Wh, 1897.
To Prof. Norton B. Smith, Launceston.
Dear Sir, — I would be ungrateful if on the eve of your
departure 1 did not convey to you my sincere thanks for the really
excellent manner in which you have handled my two unbroken seven
and eight year old fillies. These animals, until they were placed
into your hands, had never had the hand of man upon tliem, and you
haA e returned them to me so docile that I shall have practically no
trouble in putting them into work. I have witnessed your method
of training and subduing horses of bad habits, and in all cases you
have been successful. I have been acquainted with the ' Rarey '
system, as taught by several, but your method is a considerable step
in advance of all previous exponents in the art of horse training.
1 am sincerely glad of your visit, because it must of necessity
bear fruit in the direction of improving the way in which horses are
usually broken, and I trust that your tour through the southern
lands will be attended with pecuniary benefit to your pocket, and
that ere you decide on returning to your native land that Launceston
will be again honoured with another visit from you.
In conclusion, allow me to also state that having purchased your
Practical Treatise on breaking and training wild and vicious horses,
I am highly delighted with its contents, and would strongly
recommend everyone who has horses to possess themselves of so
admirable a work, and also a fair assortment of the excellent
tackling which you offer for sale, because many young horses are
ruined in the breaking by using bad gearing; looking forward to the
time when you will be once more in our midst,
I am, dear sir,
J. H. MC'dKKGOR,
Prof. Norton B. Smith,
Good Hope Hall, CAPiaowN, South Africa.
Dear Sir, — I am very pleased with the result of your treatment
of the horse that I brought in to you last Monday.
I have driven him since that time without blinkers, and have
purposely taken him before most of the objects that he used to shy
at, and he faced them without a sign of fear.
ROSEBANK, 15/1/97. OWE\ AT,(f AR,
Town' Office, The Port Elizabeth MuxicirALiTr.
2ml Ftb., 1897, Cape of Good Hope,
To Professor Norton B. Smith, Horse Trainer.
Dear Sir, — -I have much pleasure in bearing testimony as to
the etticacy of your system of horse education. My brown geMing,
wliicli had always been given to bolting and shying at paper or
strange objects, was placed in your hands for treatment, and after
two les-<ons these faults were quite eradicated and he is now being
ridden through the streets with perfect safety. He will face steam,
bands, or any noise whatever without flinching, and in fact is now a
pleasure to ride. Thanking you for your valuable treatment of my
I am, dear sir,
Chas. L. Newcombe,
Supt. of Locations.
Johannesburg, February I9(h, is97.
Professor Smith, Horse Educator and Tamer.
Dear Sir, — Just a line thanking you for the good you have
(lone my cream horse sent to you last night. He was a fair terror,
and we could not drive him at all, and this morning I drove him
round town in single harness and a light buggy perfectly quiet,
thanks to you.
George Hudson, Timber Merchant y
52, Regent Street, Redfern, \%th October, 1897
Prof. N. B. Smith, Exhibition Buildings, Sydney.
Dear Sir, — On Friday, the 8th inst., I sent to you a wild colt
fresli from the country, bought by me that day at the Cam))erdown
sale yards. The next night the colt was in the shafts ; on Tuesday,
the 12th, he was working in the dray, and to-day he was drawing
loads equal to those taken by my other horses. I am very pleased
with the manner the horse was broken in by you, and I am much
surprised it was done in bo short a time. You are at liberty to use
thia letter for publication, as I thoroughly approve of the treatment
of luy horse, and am perfectly satisfied with the results.
Memo, from A. Saunders, Watchmak<:r and Jeweller,
815 & 817, George Street, Sydney.
Messrs. Behrens & Smith.
I cannot let this opportunity pass without letting you know
how I appreciate your ifvonderful system and control you have of the
horse ; it surpasses all other trainers I have ever seen. I admired
Sample's rules, but when I had seen your controlling powers and the
masterly effect you had over the horse, to my thinking you have no
equal, especially after you handled my black mare, which was so
nervous and afraid of all sudden noises such as a cracker, vteam, etc.
I will drive her anywhere, past trams or trains, whicli makes driving
a pleasure. I am sure all admirers and lovers of the horse must
a«lmit your system of education with kindne-s cannot be equalled,
and my greatest wish is that your rules will be adopted by all horse
lireakers. Your book I purchased with much pleaMire : the
knowledge given therein mu.>t and should command a ready sale icir
and wide, even if you had cluirged £2 2s. instead of 2s. You can
alw;iys rely upon me as one of your admirers and well wishers.
TREATISE ON HORSES.
The first lesson to give a colt should be to turn him
into a box stall or enclosure of some kind about
twenty feet square, taking in your right hand a whip,
and approaching the colt. If he runs away from you,
give him a crack of the whip around the hind limbs,
and follow this up until he will turn his head towards
you, then throw the whip back under your left arm,
holding out your right hand, using the words, *' Come
here." If, as you approach the colt, he turns to run away
from you, give him the whip. When he comes to you,
offer him an apple. In thirty or forty minutes' time you
will teach him that it is wrong to turn his heels towards
you ; but when he finds he is being rewarded, he will soon
learn that the right way is to keep his head to you.
When working- with a colt, always have plenty ot
patience ; go slow and easy, be gentle with him, and teach
him as you would a child his A, B, C.
Horses vary in disposition the same as people. Some
have nervous, excitable dispositions, while others are
treacherous and sullen. If the horse has long ears, long
hair on the inside, is narrow between the ears, narrow
between the eyes, with a small round eye, sunken in tlie
back of the head, and a small, thick nostril, you have a
horse of poor intelligence and of a very sluggish disposition.
If you have a horse with small ears, furry inside, broad
between the ears, broad between the eyes, with a large full
hazel eye, and a large, thin nostril, he is a quick, nervous,
intelligent animal, ready to obey any command that you
give him; but you must not whip or spur him. Now, if
you ever find a horse that drops in on the top of his head,
and full between his eyes, and a kind of Roman nose on
him, and the face between the eyes dished out, these are
generally horses that have some vicious or bad trait, and
have a treacherous and vicious disposition.
During my professional career of over ten years, and
having handled throughout the world over twenty thousand
horses, I have found the easiest subjects were horses of
the following colours: Black, dark bay, dark brown, and
chestnut. Horses of iron grey, light chestnut or sorrel,
and light bay, generally are horses of a mean disposition
or a very stubborn will.
Thoroughbred horses require more hard work and
longer lessons to get them under perfect control than a
cold-blooded horse, but when once thoroughly taught what
you want him to do he will never forget your teachings.
To make a Colt Follow you.
Take hold of his halter with one hand (left hand), take a
bow whip in your right hand, let the cracker of the whip
touch him on the tail, carrying the whip directly over his
back, as seen in the following^ engraving-; touch him lightly
with the whip, and say, "Come here."
The proper manner to Handle a Colt's Feet
In handling- a colt for the blacksmith's shop, place a
surcing-le around his body, then take a strap about ten
inches long, and strap his front foot up to the surcingle.
How many times in picking up the foot have you seen a
great many persons, especially a blacksmith, pound a colt's
foot to make him take it up ! Now, instead of doing that,
place your left hand upon the horse's shoulder, wuth the
right hand take hold of the horse's ankle. When you wish
the foot to come up, press against the horse's shoulder
with your left hand, this throws him off his balance, and
you can very easily take the foot from the ground. As
your strength is nothing compared with the horse's
Strength, you must use such means as to overpower him,
and to place him in the position where he cannot get away
from you in order for you to meet with success. Now,
after you have strapped his front foot up to the surcingle,
you then compel the colt to make four or five steps on
three legs. If he is inclined to be wild, he will rear, pitch,
and plunge in the air, but it is impossible for him to get his
foot away ; but as soon as he finds out that he is fast he
will give up ; you can unbuckle the strap and loosen his
foot, and you then have his limb under perfect control.
Now this is only one front limb ; the other must be handled
in the same way.
To Break a Colt to Ride.
First put on a riding bridle and an ordinary surcingle.
Let one man stand on the off side of the colt with his right
hand on the bridle bit, and another man stand on the nieh
side of the colt with his left hand holding the bridle bit.
Then take a boy and let him mount the colt. The moment
he is on the colt's back, the man on the off side, with his
left hand, takes hold of the boy's leg, and the man on the
nigh side also takes hold of the boy's leg with his right
hand. Now, if the colt should plunge, there are two of
you to hold him, and at the same time you are holding on
to the boy, and it is impossible for the colt to throw him off.
Lead him around for ten or fifteen minutes in this way.
Then you can let go of the boy's legs, and one man can
lead the colt. Be very careful to caution the rider not to
touch his heels to the colt's side. Lead him around, say
for ten or twenty minutes. Let the driver dismount and
mount him again. Then put the colt away. In two or
three hours bring him out again and get on him. If he
should make any attempt to throw the rider the second
time, let him take the left-hand line in four inches shorter
than the other. That pulls the colt's head around to his
side and sets him on a whirl. After he has whirled around
six or eight times he becomes a little dizzy. You can then
straighten up on the lines, and say, " Get up," and he will
move off nicely. Work as easy with him as you possibly
can. I would advise that all colts, before being ridden,
should be thrown. Then you will have no. difficulty
Handling and Driving a Colt.
Teach him not to be afraid of all kinds of objects. In
the handling of a colt for driving purposes, first take an
ordinary open bridle and straight bar bit and a surcingle,
or a pad of harness, and run the lines through the thill
straps of the harness ; then step back behind the colt, and
take hold of the lines and commence to teach him to turn
right and left by the bit. Never teach him more than one
thing at a time. After you get him so he will turn quickly
to the right and left by line, you then can teach him the
word ''whoa." Then after this has been accomplished,
teach him to back. Then, before ever putting a colt
before a waggon, be sure you have him thoroughly bitted,
and have taught him all of the above commands. Now,
before hitching the colt, you want to make him familiar
with everything that will be liable to frighten him on the
start, such as umbrellas, tin pans, paper, fire-crackers,
buffalo robes, blankets, top carriages, and, in fact, every
object that frightens many of our horses and makes them
run away. In order to control the colt, teach him that
these objects are harmless, in the following manner : —
Buckle an ordinary hame strap around each front limb
below the fetlock joint ; then take a rope twenty feet long,
tie one end of this rope into the ring of the nigh front limb;
then place the rope over the ring in the surcingle under-
neath the horse's body ; now through a ring on the off
front limb, back through the ring into the surcingle ; this
gives you a double lever purchase on the front limbs (as
seen in engraving) ; now step back behind the colt, take the
lines in the right hand and the rope in the left, give the
colt the command to move forward ; when you wish him
to stop use the word *' whoa," and pull the rope at the
same time, which will bring the colt to his knees. Now,
after you have practised with the working of this rope,
you then have a boy take an umbrella and come up in
front of him, then place umbrella over his head, rattle tin
pans, sleigh bells, shake buffalo robes, and, in fact, intro-
duce him to everything that is liable to frighten him. If
he makes any attempt to get away bring him to his knees
and hold him there, and teach him he is not going to be
hurt. These lessons must not be over one hour, giving
two of them per day, and in five days your colt is ready
All colts should be broken thoroughly to harness when
one year old, but never put to hard work until they are
five years of age. When breaking, use as light a vehicle
as possible. Always educate your colt to drive single first,
and any one can drive him double.
Too much importance cannot be attached to the manner
of educating a horse's heels, as it is in that point his great-
est means of defence and resistance lies, and most men
make the mistake of breaking one end of the horse, while
they allow his hinder parts to go uneducated. The instruc-
tions I am about to give will, if properly followed, ensure
To Educate a Colt not to Kick at objects
near his Heels.
While you have the colt down, as illustrated in the
following cut, make him thoroughly acquainted with the
bells, drums, tin pans, and cracking of the whip, being
careful all the while not to inflict pain. Roll an empty
barrel over him, all the time creating as much noise as
possible ; you will find he will soon give up to it, lying
perfectly still like a philosopher until the confusion is
stopped, and you command him to get up. When hj gets
up, caress him by patting him on the neck, giving him an
apple, etc. Now, give the colt this same lesson every day
for three or four days, and you will soon see the practical
utility of this teaching when you come to drive him, as you
will have a young horse that will not be afraid of bands
of music or any sudden noises which he may come in con-
tact with, and he will always remember the lesson.
The above instruction is equally applicable to a kicking
horse, but in his education lie will require more lessons
before the habit will be entirely removed. Still, kindness
and a little patience will soon accomplish all you desire.
Men in general exercise too little patience in the training-
of their colts, and they frequently expect to accomplish
more in a short space of time than can possibly be per-
formed. Yet the time really required, when measured by
days, is so short as to be really surprising*. Let us suppose
that in training a colt one were to spend two hours a day
for ten days, which is the longest time that could possibly
be needed. Compute the time at ten hours to a day, and
the whole amounts to but two days, at the end of which
he would have a well educated animal. I doubt if a farmer
or horse raiser could employ his time more profitably in any
other way than in thoroughly educating* his colts, as he
thus enhances their value, for there is no sensible man who
would not give more for a properly educated animal than
for one improperly trained.
To Properly Halter-Break a Colt.
Take a rope twenty feet long, making a slip-knot in one
end, passing it round the body in front of the colt's hind
legs, with the knot directly under the horse's belly, bring-
ing the other end between his front legs, then up through
the halter; then hitch him to the manger or post, throwing
the halter strap over his back so as to be out of the way.
Be sure and have a halter with a strong head stall. Then
step in front of him, and show him parasol, beat a drum,
doing anything and everything you can to frighten him,,
being careful not to inflict pain, and repeat this lesson to
him every day for two or three days, and you will have
him thoroughly broken. Use the same treatment for a.
A Good Rule to Buy a Perfect Horse.
Your horse should stand sixteen hands high, the ears
very small, pointed, and furry inside, very wide between
the ears ; a large, bright, hazel eye standing out promin-
ently ; the nostrils must be large and thin ; neck long and
well cut up under the jaw ; heavy muscle on top. The
withers must always be higher than the hips ; back broad,
and long hips, and close-jointed.
For durability always buy a close-jointed horse, and one
with fine, short hair. The finer the hair the longer-lived
the horse. For a good road horse, he should measure
•exactly as much from between his ears and his withers as
from withers to the coupling" of the hip ; that is, the withers
should be exactly midway between his ears and the coup-
ling" of the hip. From the point of the withers to the
shoulder should be just as long as from the coupling of the
hip to the point of hip by tail. The horse should measure
from the point of his withers to the bottom of his front
foot fifty-seven inches, and from the point of the shoulder
to the point of the hip, or length of horse, sixty-two inches.
Parties buying by this rule will find it invaluable.
The Way to Shoe a Yicious Horse.
Take a strap and buckle around the hind foot below the
fetlock joint, and take a rope ten feet long, and place it
through the ring upon this strap ; take a wooden pin four
inches long and an inch in diameter, lay directly across the
hair of the horse's tail— doubling the hair over the pin
makes a loop — then tie a slip-knot in one end of the rope,
and pass it over the end of the tail and the pin ; now reach
down and take hold of the rope, stepping directly behind
the colt, and say to him '' Take up your foot, sir," and pull
the rope at the same time, as seen in engraving. After
picking up his foot four or five times, by the use of this
rope, you can handle his hind feet with ease to be shod.
Handle the other foot by the same process.
HANDLING A COLT S HIND FEET.
When you have a horse that will not stand to be
shod in a blacksmith's shop, use my training bridle
as explained on page 76". Then use in combination my
method of handling a horse's foot : rope, wooden pin,
and strap, as seen in engraving above. By this means
you have complete control of your horse. Always be
gentle with your horse, but be firm, and teach him that
you must have your way.
I Condemn the Use of the Check Rein.
I think the check reins, as used by many of our horse
owners, are a cruelty to animals. I will give you my idea
of the check rein, and as I think it should be used. In
the first place, if your horse is born into this world with
style, he will always have it. If he is born into the world
without style, you cannot produce style where Nature de-
signed for it not to go by the use of straps or ropes, unless
you are torturing the poor dumb brute.
I approve of the side check rein used only to prevent
the horse from putting his head to the ground when you
stop your team. I condemn the use of all overdraw check
reins, also check bits of every description. A great many
believe that by using an overdraw check rein, and ele-
vating their horses' heads in the air, that they drive easier,
and that they are guarding against the horse running
away. This is wrong. No horse, in my estimation, looks
handsomer, freer, and easier than those that are driven
with open bridles, and no check rein. I would here sug-
gest that every team horse to-day used, or heavy draught
horse, or hack horses, and all animals used by transporta-
tion companies, should be worked with open bridles,
doing away with the blinders and the check rein. Give
the work horse and the driving horse the free use of his
head, the same that you wish yourself ; not only will they
drive better, but last longer, and keep on five per cent.
A law should be passed prohibiting the use of all over-
draw check reins, as it passes directly over the brain of
As will be seen, the horse, which is one of the most
beautiful animals in existence, is largely so because of
its fi.ne proportions and graceful curving outline.
In all her objects of beauty Nature furnishes the curve.
She never allows a straight line. We see this in the
outer form of bird, leaf, blossom, tree, forest, mountain,
and planet. This is strikingly shown in the human
countenance, which, when wasted by disease, loses its
beauty through becoming thin, angular, and full of straight
lines. With returning health, the face becomes more full
and more curved, and more colour comes into its lines,
and beauty is restored.
Horsemen, in the dressing of the horse, should under-
stand this law, as a well-cared-for, well-groomed horse can-
not be improved in appearance by harness. There should be
just as little of it used as possible, and every strap should
be made as small as safety would allow. In short, the
harness should be such as will allow the perfect outline of
the animal, in all its parts, to stand freely forth.
To fully realise the barbarities practised upon some of
our best horses, watch a beautiful team standing in front
of some store, while the occupants of the carriage are
Possibly the heads of the horses are held in torturing
positions by the side check, which oftentimes holds them
too cruelly high, but quite likely it is the over check. See
the vigorous pawing of the earth, the champing of the bit,
the tossing of the head, the restless turning of the neck
to one side in order to loosen the check, lower the head,
and give them ease.
See the ignorant driver perched on the seat, all-oblivious
to the restlessness and frantic efforts of the horses to free
themselves from their terrible pain. He supposes spec-
tators will think that, with all their restlessness and
foaming at the mouth, his horses have high mettle.
My Idea as to how Horses should be Checked.
Road horses and others, I positively condemn the over-
draw check ; it certainly is, and there is no gainsaying it,
cruelty to animals to use it. The only utility I can
perceive there is in the check at all is to keep a horse from
putting his nose to the ground when he stops ; and when
a check is used, place the loops high up on the cheek pieces
to the head stall, as the horse can in such cases have th^
free use of his head, and can comport himself with ease
and grace. For speeding horses it might become necessary
to use the overdraw in some cases, but it must be under-
stood that I hold firmly to my idea as to the practicability
of its general usefulness.
Breeding of Draught Horses, and the Care and
Early Training of the Colt.
It has been the stupendous error of the average farmer
to consider that any mare will do to raise a colt from.
Thousands of worthless horses bear witness to the absur-
dity of this. The mare should be, as nearly as we can
have her, what we hope the colt to be. Above all, she
must be sound in feet, bone, and wind. She should be
rangy to have room for the growth of the foetus, and
wide in the hips to allow of easy parturition. The stallion
should be rather more compactly built than the mare.
*'A short back and a long belly," is an old and correct rule
for a serviceable horse. It means good shoulders, good
withers, good back and loin, and powerful quarters. The
breeder may be assisted by giving some attention to the
rule, which has many exceptions, that the male parent
gives the external, and the female the internal structure ;
that the sire gives the locomotion, and the dam the vital
organs, that is, the constitution. The mule and the hinny
are striking illustrations of this rule.
I am decidedly in favour of autumn foals. The press of
spring work upon the farm demands more service from the
foal-bearing mare than she should be required to perform.
The flies of summer annoy and often nearly devour the
youngster. Both dam and colt often suffer from insufficient
food in short pastures of a drought, and at length the colt
is weaned when the frost-bitten grass has lost its nutri-
ment, and the increasing cold demands abundant food.
The first winter is a trying time with colts, and many never
recover from the injury they then receive from insufiicient
or improper food. With warm stables and comfortable
sheds, the autumn colt can suck the well-fed mare in the
winter, and be weaned upon fresh grass in the spring, and
never know a check in his growth. He is old and strong
enough to withstand the attacks of flies in the summer,
and to endure without injury the colds of his second winter.
He should receive regular rations of oats and wheat bran
as soon as he has learned to eat along with the mare when
she is taking her feed. These can best be given him at a
little distance from the mare, she being secured in her place
by a halter. For the first year he should receive liberal
allowance of these foods twice a day, with such mixed hay
and pasturage as he can take beside. These with linseed
meal must be the main reliance for making him all we hope
him to be. They are rich in the elements which make
growth, and without these no perfect animal can be reared.
Corn should never be given except in limited quantity in
winter when warmth from carbohydrates is needed. Where
corn must be given, it should always be ground and mixed
with finely-cut clover hay, slightly moistened. The clover
supplies the nitrogenous food in which the corn is so deficient,
and also gives the necessary bulk of proper digestion in
the stomach. It should always be remembered that the
horse has but one stomach, and that is small. While on
the one hand this cannot contain enough of coarse in-
nutritious food, like straw or poor hay, to meet the demands
of subsistence and growth, yet on the other the food must
be bulky enough to admit of the speedy and thorough action
of the gastric juice, so that the nutritive portions may be
quickly dissolved and the refuse discharged. Where corn
meal is given alone it goes into the stomach in the plastic
condition of dough, is there rolled about by the muscular
action, is as impervious to the digesting juices as a ball of
india-rubber, and produces fever and frequently serious
colic. Where corn is largely fed, its heating effects upon
the blood are readily shown in unsoundness at the extremi-
ties. The oat is a wholesome food when given alone, because
nearly one-third of its bulk is husk, which make the mass
in the stomach porous like a sponge. I desire to repeat
that mixed hay, with a good proportion of clover, oats,
wheat, bran, and linseed meal, all containing albuminoids
which furnish the materials for growth, must be relied upon
to develop a draught horse to his true proportions. He
must never know a hungry day, and he must never spend
an hour shivering on the north side of a barn, waiting for
his food. While, on the other hand, a stable may be too
Avarm, on the other, every storm in winter is too cold for
a steady and vigorous growth. An exposure to cold that
produces an active circulation on the surface, and gives to
boys and girls bright, rosy cheeks, conduces to health ; but
every exposure that chills the blood draws upon the vital
forces and saps the foundations of the constitution. It
costs more, and costs double the time, to regain a pound
of lost weight than it does to add five pounds in a continuous
I am strongly in favour of grooming colts in winter, not
with the expenditure of labour necessary in using the curry-
comb and brush, but by a hasty rubbing with a stiff stable
broom. It accomplishes two important results — the stimu-
lation of a healthful action of the skin, and the acquaintance
of the colt with handling and with the contact with sub-
stances that otherwise would occasion alarm. This must
be commenced with great gentleness.
At all ages colts should have abundant exercise. The
pasture in summer, and well enclosed ; well-shedded pad-
docks in winter furnish the best opportunities for this.
They should be frequently handled from the beginning by
cool and judicious hands, ever remembering that, like
ourselves, they can learn but one letter of their alphabet
and one step in their knowledge at a time. Every colt,
whatever his class, should be broken to the saddle, because
at some time in after life he must be ridden, and because
in no other way can he obtain such acquaintance with his
master's will. The colt reared for draught purposes can
have the walking gait developed when under the saddle
more readily than in any other way. This should after-
ward be continued by service beside a fast walking horse.
In conclusion, I will only add that the expense of breaking
a draught horse is less, by many times, than any other. He
sooner pays for his keep by service upon the farm than
does any other. When old enough for the market, he finds
a readier sale than does any other, and a given number of
them, from ten to one hundred, taken together, will sell
for more money than will any equal number of any other
class of horses whatsoever.
This is a very important part of the subject, and one
which is too often neglected by people who own horses,
and who leave their general management to stable keepers
or grooms often grossly neglectful or ignorant. Many
horses die yearly from the neglect of their owners to enforce
the ordinary laws of health in the stable. A site should be
chosen nearly or quite as well situated as that for the
dwelling, and the stable may be, if possible, separate and
distinct from the barn with advantage. Hide it if you like
behind trees, but do not cut off the
Circulation of Air.
A supply of pure air is as necessary to the life and health
of a horse as of man. In many stables air is carelessly
admitted, and blows either on the head of the horse or in
such a way that cold and cough is the inevitable result.
The practice of feeding hay through a hole above the head
of the horse invites fatal results in the way of cold, not to
mention the possibility of hayseed falling into the eyes of
the horse when it is looking up for its food. An opposite
error, however, is to exclude every possible breath of air,
and have the atmosphere of the stable hot and unwhole-
some. The effect of several horses being shut up in one
stable is to render the air unpleasantly warm and foul. A
person coming from the open air cannot breathe in it many
minutes without perspiring. In this temperature the horse
stands, hour by hour, often with a covering on. This is
suddenly stripped off, and it is led into the open air, the
temperature of which is many degrees below that of the
stable. It is true that while it is exercising it has no need
of protection, but, unfortunately, it too often has to stand
awaiting its masters convenience, and this, perhaps, after a
brisk trot which has opened every pore, and its susceptibility
to cold has been excited to the utmost extent. In ventilating
stables it should never be forgotten that the health of a
horse depends on an abundant supply of fresh, dry air,
introduced in such a manner as to prevent a possible chance
of a draught on any of its inmates. Many old stables may
be greatly benefited by the introduction of a window or
windows, which will require but little expenditure and save
many a dollar's worth of horseflesh.
This is also refreshing for a tired horse. Fill a pail with
the best clean, bright hay, and pour in as much boiling
water as the pail will hold. Keep it covered and hot for
fefteen minutes, turn off the water into another pail and
add a little cold water, enough to make a gallon and a half
OF so, and when cold feed it to the horse.
Always have Plenty of Light.
Many horses are compelled to stand in the stall where
tiliere is a window three or four feet above their heads.
This I don't approve of, as the horse will naturally strain
to look out of the window, and the light coming so high
above his head many times hurts the eyesight of the horse.
I would advise all to have \he windows put at one side of
the stall, or I would rather they should be directly behind
%he horse. Always have your stall and stable well ven-
tilated, and have it aired out thoroughly every morning for
at least two hours.
The Proper Bedding.
I approve of straw, using about on an average four
pounds per day. The first bedding will require ten pounds.
Over two-thirds of this can be saved every morning and
placed in the sun where it can dry, ready for the bedding
at night. Great economy can be practised in bedding
horses. I don't approve of sawdust or shavings, as it
causes many diseases in the horse's feet, such as thrush
and other like diseases. I would rather, if you cannot get
straw for your horse, to stand in the summer time on tan
bark. And let me say here that if you have a horse that
has contracted feet, sore-footed, or that his tendons are
diseased, place him in a big box stall bedded with nothing
but tan bark, and you will see an improvement in a very
Give your Horses the Proper Exercise.
There are more horses to-day that die from the want of
not having proper exercise than by any other cause. There
are hundreds and thousands of horses that are owned by
Avealthy people, and not having the proper work for their
animals they are compelled to stand in the stable from one
week to another, being fed very high, and the result is that
the horse becomes stiff, lazy, and of a sluggish disposition.
A horse, in order to be in health, should have not less than
five miles of exercise every day. It matters not whether
this is given in the carriage or under the saddle. It is
better for our horse to be worn out than it is to rust out.
Many times coUc and different diseases originate from the
horse being over-fed and not having the proper exercise.
Such diseases as staggers, fits, and dummies, all come
from over feeding.
I could go into quite a lengthy argument on the above
question, but it is unnecessary ; I only give you this good
advice. If you cannot drive your horse and give him the
proper exercise, let some of your neighbours do it.
Feeding Bran Mashes.
Horses should have a bran mash twice a week. In the
spring of the year horses should have a few potatoes,
carrots, or roots of any kind, as it is now known generally
that both contribute to the strength and endurance of the
sound horse, and to the rapid recovery of a sick one.
Carrots and potatoes should be given the horse twice a
week during the spring months.
To Clean a Grey Horse.
Take Castile soap and add charcoal, and wash him
thoroughly ; this will leave your horse's hair perfectly
white, the charcoal being a great cleansing article. Always
use the two together.
My Idea of Feeding Horses.
I will commence by giving you my idea of how horses
should be fed and cared for through the day. I will lay
these rules down for general driving and draught horses.
In the morning, the first thing, give your horse a pailful
of water ; following this give him some grain ; following
this give him some hay, a very little, not over one-half
an armful. After the horse has eaten his grain and hay,
bring him out of his stall, give him a sharp, quick groom-
ing, and then give him as much water as he wants. He is
now ready for work. If you are driving the horse upon
the road, it is the habit of a great many horsemen to
continually water their horses on a very warm day ; this
I do not approve of, unless you have a pail with you ;
then at about nine or ten o'clock in the forenoon give
your horse one-half a pailful of water. At noon, just
before you give him his dinner, let him have about a third
of a pailful, then give your grain, but no hay. Just before
you harness him for his afternoon's work, let him have
what water he may want ; then following the same rule as
in the forenoon as to water. When you have finished the
day's work, and are putting your horse up for the night,
see first that the stall is well bedded and your horse is
cool ; place the horse in his stall, give him his grain, then
take him out and give him what water he may need. When
he is drinking the water have the hay for the night placed
in the stall — a good quantity. Your horse is then cared
for, and will rest during the night.
Under no circumstances give hay first, or with the grain-
Always give your horse his hay after he has eaten up his
grain. If you will follow the above rule you will never
have a horse sick with colic.
I am a great believer in good oats, and then they should
be all sifted, every particle of dust and dirt taken from
them, giving the horse nothing but the clean oats. All
hay, when pitched down from the mow, or taken from the
bale, should be shaken with the fork, and every particle of
dust and chaff shaken from it. In this way your horse
gets clean and wholesome food, and then he is not pulling
out his hay, or he is not wasting his oats, but he is at all
times ready to eat his meals, as they are placed before him
in an eatable form. There is a great deal of grain wasted
by the carelessness of man.
A book could be written on the manner of feeding, but
I don't think it is necessary forme to speak on this subject,
only of the general principles, and leave the rest to you
and your good judgment.
I might add that I do not recommend the feeding of corn
unless ground together with oats in equal proportion*
There are many dummies and horses with staggers, and
horses that die with colic, caused entirely by the great
amount of corn that is fed to them. Many old horses can-
not masticate this corn, and the result is that it is not
digested. So give your horse good pure oats, and good
bright hay, and pure water. I would recommend the use
of soft water from brooks and mill streams. When this
cannot be had, and you have to draw the water from a
well, let it stand in a trough or tub one hour before letting
your horse drink. Many say that muddy water or any
kind of water from a muddy pool is good ; but don't ask
your horse to drink what you would not drink yourself.
It is the practice of almost every horse owner to compel
his horse to eat from high racks or mangers. This is
something that I do not approve of, as it is unnatural for
a horse to reach up after his food. In the first place, all
the chaflF, hayseed, dirt, etc., are liable to get into his eyes
and ears, and many times when horses are fed their grain
they eat it so fast that they do not masticate it properly,
and the result is that their digestive organs have to per-
form what their teeth ought to do.
Take and turn your horse out into a field, or say on the
side of a hill, and you will never see him feeding up the
hill ; he will always feed sideways of the hill or down the
hill. I claim that many horses are made sprung knee and
stiff-necked ; many times coming out of the stable acting
as though they were foundered, caused from the continual
strain of standing and reaching up for feed, which is
positively unnatural for all dumb animals. Think oi' your-
self getting your breakfast, reaching three feet above your
head for every mouthful that you get. It would be more
pleasant, and you would relish your meal more, by having
the food placed one or two feet below your mouth. I
approve of having all horses fed in the following manner :
Take your mangers and racks entirely out of the stall ;
feed the hay from the floor, even with your horse's feet. In
giving grain have a box made movable, and place the grain
in this box, and let the horse eat that from even with his
feet. He eats his grain slowly, masticating it properly,
and the result is that while you have had to give your
horse twelve quarts of grain in feeding from a high manger,
nine quarts fed from even with his feet will keep him in
better condition than the twelve quarts fed from the
manger ; and I think that you will soon find out that my
idea will save ten per cent, of food in one year.
How to Use my Surcingle.
The surcingle that I use in all my exhibitions is eight
feet long, and around the horse's body four inches wide,
with a three inch buckle, and the part of the surcingle that
goes through the buckle two and one-half inches wide.
When the surcingle is on the horse the buckle comes right
on the side of the animal, half up the horse's body. There
are four two-inch rings, one on each side, one underneath,
and on the top of the surcingle a ring. These rings under-
neath the horse's body are used for the working of my
double safety rope ; the rings on the side of the surcingle
are used for the reins to pass through ; the ring on the top
of the surcingle is used to pass the rope through and hold
the horse down after you have thrown him. This sur-
cingle is a very handy thing for every one to have, and
any man that has a number of horses to handle or break
should not be without one.
They are very handy to have in the stable in case of a
sick horse or any surgical operation that you may wish to
They should cost you about £i, according to the.
material that you have in them.
If in throwing a horse you find it requires too much
strength, the horse being too large or fights too hard,
when using my method of drawing up one foot, I would
suggest the appliance of my double safety strap. Buckle
the strap around each front limb below^ the fetlock joint.
Take a strap twenty feet long, snapping to strap on nigh
front limb, place through the ring in surcingle underneath
his body, draw through ring on off front limb and back
through ring in surcingle. Now take hold of strap with
right hand, take the halter in the left hand. Your horse is
standing on three legs. Now pull him to you, and when
he makes a move, you pull the strap and raise the other leg;
this brings him to his knees. Now pull his head around
to you, and the horse will gently fall upon his right side.
This is the safest and best method of throwing a horse
I know of, there being no danger of hurting either horse
To Educate Horses Not to be Afraid of Objects
It is impossible to overestimate the value of the subjoined
instructions respecting nervous and shying horses, there-
fore on this topic I wish to be particularly clear and explicit.
Let the reader understand that horses take fright at objects
because they fancy that those objects will harm them, and
if you can by any means appeal to the horse's brain, and
satisfy him that he is not going to be hurt, you have
accomplished your object. And in order to do so you must
have control of your horse. I do not mean by this that you
are to adopt the too frequent course pursued by many, viz.,
subduing with the whip, or other harsh means, which will,
without almost an exception, increase the fear instead of
removing the habit. Again, when a horse shies, the driver
commences to jerk on the reins nearest to the object, and
at once applies the whip, fully determined to master his
horse. Both man and horse get excited, and the horse
comes off victorious, because he cannot control him by the
means used, and the result is that the next time the animal
is frightened it bears a two-fold character — the fear of the
object and the fear of the whip punishment.
It is generally a crude habit of many persons when
driving a horse past an object of which he is afraid, to begin
with *'Whoa, boy! whoa, boy! whoa, boy!" and when
the horse has passed the object, to take the whip and lash
him with it, and say, '*I will teach you to shy," etc. Now
when this treatment is pursued, I claim the horse believes
that the object that he was afraid of inflicted the pain, and
consequently he is made worse instead of better. Now my
theory is to use the whip gently when approaching the
object, and compel him to walk right up to it, and let him smell
of it, stopping him, showing him that it will not hurt him.
Only use the whip when you give the word of command,
speaking with force and distinction, as I believe nine-
tenths of our runaways are due more to the one driving
him than to the horse himself. The horse is a cunning
animal and sizes up his driver with the rapidity of thought;
and when he is fully aware that his driver is afraid of him,
he takes advantage of it and runs away. If my instructions
are fully carried out by my readers, as to the thorough
way herein laid down, I am positively certain there will be
Throwing Horses for Educational Purposes,
Put on your horse a gfood strong halter ; take a strap
with a ring in it and buckle around the horse's off front
FIRST POSITION TAKEN IN THROWING A HORSE.
limb, below the fetlock joint ; take a rope eight feet long-
and tie into this strap ; place a surcingle around the horse's
body ; take your position on the nigh side of the horse,
bring the rope over the horse's back from the off side,
taking hold of the rope with your right hand, pull his foot
to his body ; take a firm hold of this, holding the foot in
this position ; then take hold of the horse's halter with
your left hand, pull his head to you and press against his
body with your elbow, using the words *' Lie down." The
majority of horses you can throw in a minute, while others
may fight you for three or four mhiutes, but you will soon
master them and they will have to come down. As soon as
the animal has been thrown, take the rope that is under-
neath him, bring- it under the surcingle and place it through
the ring of the halter, back under the surcingle again, and
here you have the rope to bring his head to his shoulder ;
make' him put his head down to the ground, and then if
you want to rattle pans or shake buffalo robes around him.
and he makes any attempt to get up, pull his head up
immediately, which will prevent him from doing so ; then
take a whip and crack it around him ; give him to
thoroughly understand that you are his master. I am a
great believer in throwing horses, and would recommend
that every horse should be thrown, for this reason, that it
takes the conceit out of them, and gives them to under-
stand that man has more power than they have. If used
by men of good judgment and patience, all young horses
can be thoroughly brought under control by this manner
If the horse is nervous and excitable, have your assistants
crack the whip, rattle tin pans, and shoot firearms around
him, until he lies perfectly quiet, with his head resting on
the ground. In order to familiarise your horse to all
objects of which he is afraid, repeat this lesson once a day
for three or four days. I would recommend that every
horse should be thrown, as it takes the conceit out of him.
You must Educate your Horse.
Educate and teach him as you would a child, and thus
make him more useful and valuable to man. The horse is
an animal of no little intelligence, docility, and faithfulness,
qualities which would be more generally apparent were it
not for the cruel treatment so commonly practised in
breaking him. Have patience with him, and practise good
judgment and common sense in handling him. Understand
before you commence to drive him that he is a dumb brute,
and as he cannot talk he will watch your every movement.
A finely bred horse is as sensitive as a well-bred person,
and you should not haloo, whip or spur him as you would
an old dung-hill of a brute.
The whip is a very good thing, but should only be used
in its place, which I will give you a little illustration of
here. If you are driving along the road, and your horse
shies at a covered waggon, or a bicycle, or a white dog, or
anything that excites his fright and causes him to shy, do
not wait until he gets by and then up and whip him for the
next fifteen minutes, but when he discovers it, take the
line in the left hand and the whip in the right, and when
he makes his first shy give him a sharp crack of the whip, at
the same time saying, *' Take care, sir; what do you mean?"
Don't talk as though you were half asleep, but as if you
meant just what you said. Keep both eyes open, and don't
whip him as though you were trying to kill him. Never
use the whip unless the voice accompanies it ; the word
and proper use of the whip should go together.
One failing the horse owners have is, they do not talk
to their horses enough. If a horse starts and runs you
will stay in the carriage and not open your mouth, but sit
pulling on the reins. You should speak to the horse, and
if he is afraid of anything, tell him to " take care, &c., it
is not going to hurt you ;" the same time crack the whip
to draw his attention. As a horse cannot think of two
things at once, the consistency of this is of course apparent
If the horse is a stallion with a confirmed habit of biting
and striking, you are always in risk of your life or limb
while you have such an animal about. If a mare or gelding,
put on my training bridle, and watch him closely, in a sly
way, not letting him know you are watching him, but
when he attempts to bite give him a few severe pulls on
the bridle. Do this in such places as he is most likely to
bite, and we will warrant that a few efforts will teach your
animal that his jaws were not made to bite his keeper. To
prevent a stallion from biting his mate when hitched up
double, attach an independent line to the outside ring of
his bit, letting it hang loosely, the end being held by the
driver. As he attempts to bite, pull up sharply, and hit
him with the whip.
To Handle a Vicious, Biting Stallion.
The first thing I should do with him would be to throw
him four or five times. When the horse is down handle
his head, open his mouth, and handle his mouth. Put on
my training bridle, take the whip in your right hand, cord
in the left, and give him a thorough handling with this
bridle, teaching him to stop when you say " Whoa," and
turn right and left quickly at the word of command. I
have handled a great number of vicious, biting stallions by
the use of gunpowder, using revolvers holding thirty-eight
blank cartridges. The moment the horse comes near you,
or makes an attempt to bite you, discharge the revolver
directly in front of him, which frightens the animal, and
gives him such a sudden shock that it makes him afraid to
bite you. All vicious, biting^ staUions should be w^atched
closely, and never trusted, as I believe an old biting horse
can never be broken of the habit so that everybody could
To Educate a Bad Shier.
In educating a bad shier, select a soft piece of ground,
put on my double safety rope, a surcingle around his body,
buckle a strap around each front foot below each fetlock
joint, then take a rope twenty feet long, tie one end
of that rope into ring on nigh front limb, bring over
ring in surcingle under the horse's body down to ring on
off front limb, back over the ring in the surcingle. Put on
open bridle and straight bar bit, run the lines through ring
on side of surcingle, then take and teach the horse the
word ''Whoa" thoroughly, to ''get up" by word of com-
mand, and to back by word of command ; then throw
papers at him, blankets, buffalo robes ; roll barrels around
him ; wave flags over his head. If he makes any attempt
to get away pull your safety rope, and bring him to both
knees, and hold him there. As soon as he becomes quiet
let him up on his feet ; crack the whip around him, and, in
fact, give him to thoroughly understand that these objects
are perfectly harmless. After giving the horse two lessons
he is ready to drive on the street.
To Educate a Bad Runaway Horse.
Use same treatment as a bad shier, only more severe.
To Educate and Break a Horse from Running
Backwards with a Waggon.
Put on my double safety rope, harness your horse up to
the waggon, get into the waggon, take the lines in the
right hand and the safety rope in the left : you say ''Back"
to the horse. When he has backed as far as you wish
him to, say "Whoa," and pull the safety rope, which
prevents him from backing any further. After giving
three or four lessons in this manner the horse will under-
stand what you mean by ''Back," and when you say
*' Whoa" will immediately stop.
How to Drive a Horse up to Objects that he
is Afraid of.
A practical way of driving a horse up to an object that
he is afraid of is : Take the whip in your right hand, the
lines in the left ; when you are within ten or fifteen feet of
the object, speak to your horse sharp and firmly, using
about this language : "Get up there, sir, what is the matter
with you; that won't hurt you;" at the same moment
hitting him with the whip ; but do not repeat the blow
unless it is necessary to hold him at his post. The
moment that you have driven him up to the object he is
afraid of, stop him, get out of your waggon and caress
him, teach him that he is not going to be harmed, and by
all means let him walk away from the object, never letting
him go faster than a walk.
This same rule is laid down for saddle horses.
To Stop a Runaway Horse.
Always, when driving, hold your reins firmly, whether
the horse is vicious or not ; you should at all times be on
your guard, as they are never to be trusted. If your horse
should take fright and start to run away, take a firm hold
of the left line with your left hand, reach down upon the
right line with your right hand and say *' Whoa," sharp,
and pull the line quickly at the same time that you give
the command, but do not move the left line ; this at once
pulls your horse's head around to his side, and in nine
cases out of ten will bring him to a stand-still ; never
see-saw the reins or pull upon both lines, as you have no
power then to stop the animal. Never jump from the
carriage, as more lives are lost and more limbs broken by
being frightened and jumping from the carriage when the
horse is running away. Keep cool, and you will control
the horse by following the above directions.
To Drive a Lugger or Puller on the Bit.
I would use a plain straight bar bit wound with rubber
or leather, doing away with the check rein. It is necessary
in order to drive a lugger successfully to give him
three or four lessons on the word ** Whoa" and the word
** Steady ;" teach him that when you say '* Steady" it is
to slack up in speed, but when you say ** Whoa" it is for
him to stop.
See that his teeth are not sharp, and if they are, have
them fixed at once. There is no law that can be laid down
for the driving of a lugger, only to use as gentle and soft
bits as possible.
To Educate or Break a Vicious Kicking Horse
so he will drive gentle and be fit for family use.
In the first place take your horse out on a soft place, or
on the ploughed ground, and throw him down by working
as follows : Put a surcingle around his body ; take a strap
and buckle around the off front limb, below the fetlock
joint ; take a rope eight feet long and tie into that strap, bring-
it up over the horse's back ; you stand on the nigh side of
the horse and take hold of this rope with your right hand
and pull his foot to his body ; then you take hold of the
halter with the left hand and pull his head around to you,
placing your right elbow against the horse's side, using
the words ''Lie down." He may fight for three or four
minutes, but if you hold to his head and keep it pulled
around to you he must go down. After he has been thrown,
then take the rope and run it through the ring in the
surcingle at his back, through the halter, back through the
ring in the surcingle, then you take hold of the rope, and
if he goes to get up pull the rope, and this brings his head
to his shoulder and prevents him from getting up ; then
take tin pans, bells, rattle them all around him, then you
can let him up ; then you take and put on an ordinary open
bridle, straight bar bit, using the pad of your harness, run
the rings through the thill straps, then put on my single
foot strap, which goes as follows :
Buckle the strap around near front limb below fetlock
joint; take a rope twenty feet long, pass through ring in sur-
cingle under horse's body down through ring on foot, back
to same ring on surcingle, and tie; step back behind horse,
take reins in right hand, rope in left. Have some one to
assist in placing- on a back strap or crupper ; attach to
crupper sleigh bells, tin pans, bundles of straw, allow them
to dangle at his heels, giving him a cause to kick ; then
commence to drive him ; when he kicks pull on ropo in
left hand, which allows him on three limbs, at the same
time speak to him sharply, ** Take care there, sir," in a
commanding voice. Then your assistant should take a
pole, rattling the tin pans and bells, also placing the pole
in front and behind his limbs ; by using this method one
hour twice each day, in five days your horse is thoroughly
broken, and gentle to drive to the carriage. Wher>
working the horse always use him on soft ground where
there are no stones.
To Break a Bad Jibber.
There are three or four kinds of jibbers; some are nervous
and excitable, while others seem to have no ambition
whatever. A dead-Iifed jibber, to my knowledge, is not
worth breaking. All high-lifed jibbers can be brought
tinder perfect control and thoroughly broken by following
these directions :
Take your horse out and throw him repeatedly fifteen or
twenty times ; then put on the bridle and the harness,
running the lines through the thill strap and telling him to
*'Get up" by the word of command. Teach him this
thoroughly before you place him before the waggon. If he
will not move forward when you give him the word, take a
rope or a strap twenty feet long, tie around his neck, and
then place through ring in bit, having one of your men
standing directly in front of the horse with this rope in his
hand, which I term as a guy line. When you give the
word *' Get up," let him pull this rope at the same time,
which will move the horse forward quickly. Now under-
stand that the command and the pull of the rope must both
take place at the same time, in order for you to have
success. Practise this two days, not making the lessons
over one hour in length, then hitching him to a light
vehicle, first working with your horse quietly and after-
wards giving him to understand what you want him to do.
Never make any false motion, never lose your temper, and
always have plenty of patience, and you will meet with
All Grades of Jibbers.
I am asked the question almost every day, ** Can you
break a jibby horse?" Yes. "Can you break a jibby
horse so anybody can drive him?" No. **Why?'^
Because it is impossible for me or any other man to break
all the jibby drivers in the land. Now, there are many
grades of jibby horses. It is a habit of a great many
persons, when breaking a colt, to hitch him up first beside of
an old farm horse that is lazy, blind in one eye, and so old
that he is deaf. When you have got this nervous, excitable
colt harnessed beside the old, slow horse, you then
take up the lines and ask your team to go. The colt
plunges ahead, the old horse having spent many days in
the harness, takes life very easy and gradually gets m
motion. The colt comes back, the load don't move. The
next time you ask them to go the old horse moves ahead,
the colt sits back in the breeching. ''Ha! ha!" your
neighbour says, ''got a jibby colt there." Not at all.
You certainly will have if you persist in your present course.
Take him out of the double harness, break him to drive
single, and you will have no trouble with him, single
In handling a jibby horse of long standing, one that has
been spoiled by mismanagement, it is advisable to first
throw him four or five times. Then put your harness on
with an open bridle, running the lines through the thill
straps, get behind him with a good whip, and teach him
the words " Get up." At the same time that you give him
the command to move forward, hit him a cut with the whip,
showing him that that means "Move forward." Work with
him in this manner for three or four lessons. You then tie
a rope in the traces, carrying it around your back, and teach
him to pull your weight, walking behind him. When you
have got him so that he v^ill turn right and left quickly,
stop at the word " Whoa," get up at the word and pult
your weight, you can hitch him to a light road cart, getting
into the waggon, giving him the word " Get up, sir." If
he should fail to go, have your assistant take a rope. Let
your assistant stand directly in front of the horse with the
rope being slack. Hold your whip in the right hand, when
you are ready to go give the word, and the man pulls the
rope, and you hit the horse with the whip, all at the same
moment. If he don't move forward then, let the party who-
holds the rope step to the right and left, jerking his head
until he moves forward, you using the words at each and
every time, "Get up, sir." Give him a few lessons for
three or four days in this manner, and in the majority of
cases you have got a horse that will pull.
There are other jibby horses that it is necessary to throw.
This character of a horse is generally of a sluggish
disposition, and the only way that you can get it to go
Avill be to frighten it with the whip.
There are other horses that it will be necessary to handle
an a more quiet manner, but in some cases you must use
the whip to get the animal frightened, so that when you
speak to him he knows that he must move forward. When
working a horse, you must not leave him till you conquer-
him, if it takes twenty-four hours. But understand me
correctly, don't lose your temper, don't use a club, don't
kick him ; use a good whip. Be careful and not hit him
on the body or in the eyes. Use the whip on his legs. I have
started a great many jibby horses by striking them with a
whip around their front legs. This is a very tender spot,
and they won't stand long and take the punishment there.
In working a jibby horse, always keep a large stock of
patience on hand, and don't think you are going to break
him in two hours, because you are not. The moment he
goes, reward him for it by giving him an apple.
To Break a Halter Puller.
Take a rope fifteen feet long, and throw it over his back ;
reach under his body, take hold of the end of the rope, and
tie an ordinary slip-knot ; have this knot come directly
under the horse's body ; place the rope between his front
limbs up through the halter, and hitch to a post or to a
ring in the manger ; do not hitch the halter rope. Then
step in front of your horse with tin pans, blankets,
umbrellas, and all kinds of objects, in fact, everything,
and frighten him, and make him pull if possible. After
pulling back upon this rope, he will not make more than
the second or third attempt. Repeat these lessons twice a
day for five days. This will break any horse of the habit
of pulling on the halter if you follow my instructions.
To Break Horses to Cars and Steam.
In taking a horse up to the cars, put on my training
bridle, taking the rope in your left hand, with the whip in
the right, making the horse follow you, and take him right
up to the cars and hold him there. It is impossible for him
to get away from you or this bridle. You then should
caress him and teach him that the cars are not going ta
hurt him. One of the main objects of your lesson should
be to teach the animal that you are his friend and protector ;
get him to place confidence in you, and he will go through
fire with you.
In driving a horse up to steam, I would advise the putting
on of my double safety rope, and run the reins through the
thill strap of the pad, and drive him first up to the steam.
If he makes a determined attempt to get away, bring him
to his knees. It may be necessary for you to use the guy
strap, having a man hold the guy strap, that will hold the
horse up to the steam ; but you must be very careful not ta
get him burned, or hurt him in any way, but teach him
that the steam is perfectly harmless. As soon as the horse
finds out that the steam will not injure him, you will find
that in the second or third lesson he will walk right up to
it from command of his master. Make your lessons short,,
but firm. I would advise, in training horses to steam, to
take them up to a traction engine, or up to a mill where
there is steam used, taking them to the cars afterwards.
Another good way of breaking a horse to the cars, is to
.hitch your horse up beside a heavy team horse, where he
•cannot get away, and after he has been driven up to the
cars four or five times he is then safe to drive to your
To Educate a Nervous Horse.
I would first place upon him my double safety rope, which
is thoroughly described elsewhere, and make him thoroughly
acquainted with the beating of drums, the rattling of tin
pans, floating the ''Union Jack," and the shooting off fire-
arms, fire crackers, music, etc., by driving him right up to
them and giving him to understand he will not be hurt.
And by repeating this lesson every day for three or four
days, your horse has become thoroughly conversant with
tUcm and will never show fear when approaching them.
Always in giving these lessons to your horse, bear in mind
that you must be very careful that none of the devices you
use must hit him in such a manner as to cause pain.
My Opinion of the Word " Whoa."
It is the greatest command that we have in horseman-
ship ; it is the habit of almost every person when driving
to continually use the word '' Whoa." Now let me say to
you that you should never use this word only when you
want your horse or horses to stop. If you are driving along
a street and you come to a crossing or a bad place, and you
wish your horses to slack up in speed, use this language
to them : ''Steady there, my boy ;" but when you wish-
them to stop, speak out sharply and firmly, '' Whoa." If
you will practise this when you are driving your horse, in-
two weeks you will have him so that he will understand
every command that you give him.
Never use one word with too many meanings. You
must never lie to your horse, and never deceive him or
make false motions ; if you do you will never make a
success as a trainer of the horse.
Mankind are too apt to depend upon their own strength
to beat the horse, without making any use of their reasoning"
powers to out-general him ; and, in many instances,
such an exercise of tyranny over the horse only engenders a
rebellious spirit on the part of the animal. Therefore, lay
aside your strength and use your reason. Be moderate, be
temperate. No man can become a good horseman and not
have first learned to control himself before he attempts to
control the animal. Be firm, be persevering, be honest.
Never lie to your horse. Endeavour to have him under-
stand what you want, and do not confuse him by attaching
different meanings to the same word. It is quite common
to say " Whoa," when it is only intended to go slower; or,
when tiie horse has not stirred a foot, to let him know of
your presence ; and then when you want a " Whoa," when
your life may depend on your having a good '* Whoa" upon
your horse, you find you have not got it. You have played
it entirely out of him. Never say "Whoa" unless you
mean to stop right there. Speak always in a natural tone
of voice under all circumstances.
Have your horse understand, by examination and
experience, that the things liable to frighten are harmless,
and be sure not to whip him for being frightened. Always
let your horse face the object of fear ; and, when frightened,
remember the slower you move your horse the more power
you have over him. There are times w^hen letting a horse
trot is almost as bad as letting him run auay.
Fear is something a horseman should never exhibit in his
-countenance or voice, as the horse is a close observer, and
soon learns to take advantage of such indication to become
careless of control, if not indeed aggressive. Let your
lessons be thorough but not very long. Be gentle and
patient with the colt, but make the wilful, stubborn horse
feel the full extent of your power till he submits. Though
if he should become much heated and excited, it is prudent
to stop and repeat the lesson at some future time — repeat
until there is thorough and unconditional submission. Let
your treatment be characterised by gentleness afterwards.
To Get a Horse up when he Throws Himself.
Blow in his ear ; if he does not get up by this, take a
glass of water, or a dish of water, and pour in his nostrils ;
he will rise to his feet very quickly. And in the handling"
of a mustang", which becomes very stubborn and sulky,
sometimes this treatment will fail on them, and it will be
necessary to take a light whip and use it on the end of the
nose. They will soon learn that when they throw them-
selves they are punished, and when they don't they are re-
warded. In this manner you teach them right from wrong.
To Start a Jibby Horse in Double Team.
After you have taken your horse out and given him a
thorough handling, then hitch him up beside an honest,
true horse that will pull every time you ask him. Take a
half-inch rope and tie around the jibby horse's body, right
in front of his hips, in an ordinary slip-knot ; have this
knot come directly on the side of the horse, then carry the
rope directly over the waggon pole and hitch to the true
horse's collar. Get into your waggon, pick up the reins,
and hit the true horse a crack with the whip, saying : *' Get
out of here." When you do he will jump and take the rope
with him, and when he does the jibby horse must come.
To Break a Horse from being Afraid of a Dog
or a Hog.
Handle the same as for shiers. Keep one eye on the hog
and one eye on the horse. In order to break your horse
of this habit it will require five or six lessons.
The best way to break your horse of being afraid of a
hog is to take a small pig right into the buggy or break-
waggon, or whatever you are using, having the horse
worked with open bridle ; but be sure and have on my safety
rope, as when he sees the pig and the pig squeals, you will
find things will get very interesting ; but the moment he
starts to run say '' Whoa," sharp and firm, pull the safety
rope and bring the horse to his knees.
If it is a dog that he is afraid of, let the dog run around i
him and in front of him ; put my training bridle on the
horse and make him come up and smell of the dog ; walk
around him. Then throw your horse and hold him down,
and take the dog and put him on top of the horse. Work
like this two or three days with the animal, giving short
lessons, and you have got the best broken hog and dog
horse in the world.
How to Use the Whip.
No lady or gentleman should ride or drive a horse with-
out having with them a good whip. The whip in its place
is a good instrument, but it is very often misused by parties;
for instance, how many do you see driving through the
streets of our cities, and in our public parks, that if a horse
becomes frightened at a bicycle or a band, or any object
whatever, and he makes an attempt to shy, will get him by
it the best way he can, and the moment he has passed the
object out comes the whip with the words, *' I'll teach you
to shy," and the horse receives a severe punishment. The
horse, not having the reasoning power that you have,
believes that the punishment that he has just received has
come from the object that he was so much frightened at.
To Prevent a Horse from Pawing in the Stable.
Take a piece of chain seven inches long, not a plough
chain, but trace chain ; tie on one end of that a piece of
hard wood five inches long and one inch in diameter ; then
take a strap and buckle around the horse's limb above the
knee, letting this chain and wood hang from the strap.
Every time the horse paws this piece of wood will hit his
limb, and as he cannot think of two things at one time, it
will draw his attention in such a manner as to prevent him
To Prevent a Horse from Kicking in the Stall.
Take a piece of elastic about ten inches long, sew a vest
buckle one end of it and buckle this around the horse's hind
limb above the hock joint. When the horse kicks the leader
must expand, the result is the elastic prevents it from doing
so, and the horse's habit of kicking in the stall will soon be
broken up. Never use a strap or rope ; if you do it will
stop the circulation. In all cases use the elastic.
Whirling a Horse by his Tail.
If you have a horse bad to harness, or will not stand to
be bridled or saddled, take the halter strap in your left
hand, take hold of the horse's tail with your right hand,,
and whirl him around eight or ten times. He will become
dizzy, and the moment you let go of him he will stagger or
fall. Then say " Whoa ;" pick up your saddle, harness,
or bridle, or whatever you want to put on him, and you
will find that he will stand perfectly quiet. It is a quick
and effective method.
Never tie your horse's head and tail together, but follow
the above instructions.
To Break a Horse from Switching his Tail.
Place on the horse a collar and hames, and then take hold
of his tail. Take a wooden pin five inches long, one inch
in diameter, lay directly across the hair of his tail, double
the end of the tail over the pin ; then take a rope ei^ht feet
long, in the middle of the rope make a slip-knot and faslen
over the end of the tail and pin ; then bring the horse's
tail up over his back, bringing one of these ropes down to
the ring of the hame and tying it, and on the other side m
the same way ; the rope prevents the tail from going
either side ; take an ordinary cloth surcingle and put that
over and around his body ; leave the tail up in this matiner
for six hours ; if a very bad case, repeat three times. This
is the best method I ever used, and will surely do its work.
To Educate a Horse not to be Afraid of
Hitch him to a waggon, put on my double safety rope,
and drive him right up to the fire-crackers, and if he goes
to turn around with you, or run back, or run away, pu^ll
the rope, which will immediately bring him to his knees,
but do not hold the rope. As soon as he comes to his knees
loosen the rope and pull the lines, using the command,
"Whoa, sir." Now have boys throw fire-crackers under
him, all around him, up in the air, and if he makes any
attempt to gee away say ''Whoa," sharp and firm. For
you to meet with success with a horse of this character,
or, in fact, any horse, you must talk to him, always speak-
ing distinctly and firmly. After you have given the horse
two lessons he will pay no attention to fire-crackers.
To Educate a Horse not to be afraid of Paper
Put on my double safety rope, take your horse out into
the field where there are boys with flags, paper, umbrellas,
and drive him right up to the flags, paper, etc. ; if he
makes any attempt to get away, bring him to his knees ;
tf necessary, throw him ; have the boys wave the flags
over his head, throw the paper up in the air, put umbrellas
over his head, drive him over the paper, drive him up to
the flags, drive him over the umbrella, make him step into
it, stand on it, in fact, teach him that these objects are
perfectly harmless. Two lessons a day for two days, not
having the lesson over one hour in length, will thoroughly
break your horse. The most dangerous shier can be
thoroughly broken by following the above directions.
To Break a Plunger or Bolter.
Put on my double safety rope, and when he plunges in
the air, pull the rope, when he will come down on his
knees. He will not plunge over three or four times before
he will be sick of his job. Then introduce him to drums,
pans, bells, and, in fact, give him a general handling
in the same way that I control runaways. After giving
him two lessons he will not bother you with bolting or
To Prevent a Horse from Putting his Tongue
out of his Mouth over the Bit-
Get a piece of sole leather, the shape of cut below,
and according to size of horse. Lay a straight bar bit
in the middle of the leather, bringing the points up
Sew it on to the bit so it cannot turn, and sew up the
sides. Put this in your horse's mouth over the tongue,
running backwards toward the throat. He cannot get his
tongue back far enough to get it over this leather. It is
very simple, and will only cost you one shilling. It is the
best I have ever used. Make this piece of leather according
to the size of the horse ; if the animal is a pony, reduce
the size of the leather accordingly.
Manner of Driving and Breaking a Bad Kicker
when all other Methods Fail.
Ptace foot strap on each limb below fetlock, have ropes
or straps placed on, and crossed in ring on surcingle, as
above engraving ; give one hour's lesson each day for
To Approach a Biting Horse.
Always do so with a revolver heavily loaded with blank
cartridges in your right hand. Advance this hand towards
the horse's mouth, the muzzle pointing past him, so the
powder will not burn him. If he attempts to bite you, at
that instant shoot off the rev^olver. Every time he makes
the attempt repeat the shooting. This causes the horse
to think the biting causes the explosion ; this he wishes
to avoid, and will soon cease to bite at you. The old theory
of clubbing a horse only adds to and increases his vicious
temper. This is an original method of my own, which I
have successfully used in handling many vicious, biting
Collars, Harness, and Saddles.
Harness used on all draught horses should be carefully
cleaned regularly once a week. Collars should be cleaned
daily, thoroughly scraping all scurf arising from heating
the horse from the collar before it is used a second time.
Always have your harness properly oiled and pliable, so
that it will fit the horse as a boot fits a man.
Saddles should have the same care and attention, and
great pains should be taken that the saddle fits the back,
to prevent galls and sores. This is almost universally
To Prevent a Horse from Jumping over
Buckle around his body a surcingle with a two-inch
ring directly under his body ; take two straps with an inch
ring in each end, and buckle them around the horse's front
limbs above the knees ; then take a strap thirteen inches
in length, with a driving strap in one end, strapping one
of them into the ring on the off front limb ; bring through
the ring in surcingle, and strap into ring on nigh front
limb. The horse can walk and trot, lie down and get
up, but he cannot run or jump, as he cannot move both
front feet at the same time. This can be used upon colts
as well as horses.
To Prevent a Horse from Biting his Blankets.
Sew a piece of leather about five inches square on each
side of the halter, letting it come down even with his
have to chew the leather.
when he reaches down to grab the blanket he will
To Keep a Horse from Getting Cast in the Stall.
Put on the horse a halter ; sew a ring in the halter over
the horse's head ; on top of the stall drive a staple and
ring ; at the side of the stall drive another staple and ring ;
take a rope ten feet long with a driving snap threaded into
one end of it ; feed your horse from the floor with a manger
of oats. When your horse's head is down, snap this rope
into the ring on top of the halter, and pass up through ring
over his head, through ring on side of the stall, and hang
a weight there ; that will take up the slack of the rope the
moment he raises his head. Hitch him in this way only ;
he cannot roll over or get cast in the stall, as you will see
it is impossible for him to turn his head around. (See
Grooming a Horse.
When you are grooming a horse you must remember that
horses are like people, some have a very thin skin and are
very tender. One-half of the grooms of to-day, when using
their curry-combs and brush, bear on with the curry-comb
as hard as possible, the result is that a thin-skinned horse
cannot and will not stand it. I have seen many high-bred
horses, trotters and runners, that have been made vicious
biters and strikers, caused by ignorant grooming. Now
when you find a horse that has a very thin skin run the
curry-comb over him light and easy and soft as possible,
getting most of the dust out with a good brush, using
directly after the brush straw, and rub him thoroughly with
it ; then use a rubbing cloth, which will put on a polish.
One of the best methods for cleaning and caring for a
horse that has been driven fast and comes into the stable
very warm, is to take a meal sack, turn it wrong side out
with meal all over it, rub this meal right into the hair, rub
him as near dry as possible, put the blanket on him as
soon as he is dry, then you can use the curry-comb and
clean the horse as usual ; this will leave him in fine con-
dition. The meal will make the horse's hair glossy and
shine like a blackened boot.
A horse should be cleaned but once a day, and this should
be at night, after he has done his day's work ; in the morn-
ing merely straighten his coat and clean off what dirt may
have collected in the stall during the night. My reason for
giving a horse a thorough cleaning at night is the same
that you would do yourself after a hard day's work: taking
a good wash and general cleaning up refreshes you
What is good for man is good for the horse ; they need
the same care and treatment. This method, you must
understand, I mean for work horses.
To Teach a Horse to Back.
Put on my training bridle, drawing the strap in your
right hand, and stand at the horse's shoulder ; press your
left hand upon his neck ; use the words ** Back, sir," and
pull the strap at the same time. This will give the horse
a severe jerk in the mouth and he will back four or five
inches. The moment that he does so, caress him and
teach him that he has done right. Then repeat the lesson
again and again, until shortly the horse will back any
distance for you at the word of command. Some colts will
be very stubborn and fight you for five or ten minutes ;
but keep at them, always having plenty of patience, and
at last you will gain your point.
Bitting a Colt.
If Nature has not designed the colt to have a high head
and carriage no art of man can alter it, aiid the old fashion
of strapping up the neck in an unnatural position, and
leaving- it there for hours, in nine cases out of ten results
in a heavy headed lugger on the bit. I do not believe or
endorse the working of the old-fashioned bitting reins.
Put on an ordinary open bridle and straight bar bit, teach-
ing him to guide by line quickly and easily ; working in
this way with a colt for three or four days, then you can
put on the side check rein and check him up to his natural
position. The next day you can check him a little higher,
and the next day a little higher yet ; then you understand
that the horse generally elevates his head, works pleasantly
upon the bit, and you are not getting him mad nor break-
ing down his constitution by forcing and straining him
with the old-fashioned bitting reins.
To Make a Simple Riding Bridle.
Take a rope eight feet long ; place the middle of this rope
on top of your horse's head, carry it down the side of
his face, placing each rope through his mouth, bringing
the ends up to the back, and the riding bridle is complete.
This bridle is simple and useful, handy to ride a horse
to pasture, or to exercise horses with.
How to Teach a Horse to Lie Down at the
Word of Command.
Take him out into a field or nice soft place and throw
him twelve or thirteen times, using the words '' Lie down,"
plain and distinct. After you throw him let him lie quietly
for about five minutes ; caress him ; feed him an apple. Do
not make your lessons over an hour long. The third day,
by taking a little riding whip and touching him on the
knees, using the command ** Lie down," he will obey you
SHOWING DOUBLE SAFETY ROPE ON OFF HORSE IN DOUBLE
TEAM, USED IN DRIVING A BOLTER OR PLUNGER OR ANY
GENERAL MEAN HORSE IN DOUBLE HARNESS.
My Opinion of Clipping Horses.
For driving' horses who have a thick coat of very long
hair, I would recommend clipping, for in such cases th«
horse can be much more easily taken care of, and really, I
think he is benefited by it. But, in all cases, when you re-
move Nature's covering you must substitute another, in the
way of warm blankets, etc. When a horse's coat of lortg,
thick hair is allowed to remain as Nature has calculated
it, as a protection from the cold, storms, and rigours
of winter, when taken out and speeded the perspiration
arising from his body causes his hair to become thoroughly
saturated, and then when he comes to stand still, it becomes
cold and consequently chills the horse through, and not
only makes him very uncomfortable, but he is quite liable to
take cold and have inflammation of the lungs, '* epizootic,'*
etc. Whereas, if this coat of thick and long matting of
hair, which gets so sour when it becomes wet, and, as all
horsemen know, always retains the dust and excrements of
%he horse's body, is removed and proper care is taken of
covering him, his coat can be kept looking so much nicer
and with less labour, and the horse's skin will be in a more
healthy condition. The same rule will apply to work
harses, if they can have the same care.
The question is often asked me if I approve of clipping
the fetlock. I answer. Yes, on driving horses only. All
team horses and heavy draught horses should be left their
natural fetlocks. After driving your horse in muddy
weather, let the mud dry on his feet and legs. Then clean
it off with a brush. Do not wash your horse upon coming
in from a muddy drive. By following my instructions in
this particular you will prevent scratches, greased heels,
and many other disagreeable diseases of the leg.
Prof. Norton B. Smith's Training Bridle.
This bridle is made of three pieces of rope connected by
The shortest piece (or bit) is six inches long ; attached
to this is a piece eighteen inches long, with rings on outer
On opposite side of bit is another piece of rope eight
feet long", used for the leading line.
Directions for Placing on Horse.
Place in the horse's mouth the bit, having the eighteen-
inch piece on the right side of the horse's head, then bring
ring in same piece over head from right side to left side,
and hold below left ear.
Take long leading line, pass back of under jaw through
ring on right side of bit, carry the same leading line over
horse's neck from right side, down through bit-ring on left
side ; now take same leading line and bring up through
ring on eighteen-inch piece held below left ear, then back
through ring on left side of bit once more, drawing the
leading line all the way through, which gives you the
power to handle the most vicious horse, making him
familiar with buffalo robes, umbrellas, drums, paper,
steam, and all other objects. >
In presenting an umbrella to your horse, take it in your
left hand and the long rope in your right hand, letting the
horse smell of the umbrella, then opening it and letting
him look into it, then holding it over his head, then raising
it and lowering it, and alternately doing this until he is
used to it. Then you can open and shut it without his
making any move, or seeming to notice it, and by being
thorough in handling him with all objects he is afraid of, he
will soon become familiar with them all.
The preceding cut shows bridle when placed on horse.
Parties wishing to purchase bridles can have them sent
by mail by forwarding 2s. 6d. Price of bridles when
bought at my exhibitions, 2S.
The Use of my Guy Line.
The following engraving illustrates the use of my guy
line, used for starting jibby horses, and teaching colts to
tu.rn to the right or left. A man stands directly in front
or to the right or left, as the case may be, and is controlled
wholly by the driver, who sits in the waggon, and whose
commands he must listen to and strictly obey, so that the
working of both men may be in unison, and by giving the
horse short lessons, not more than an hour's length per
day for say two or three days, the horse will become
thoroughly broken and subdued. It will also be found
very useful in handling a horse who is stubborn and wants
io go on one street while you desire to go another.
To educate a colt to pull in harness, take hold of the
traces in the left hand, and pulling gently back on them
while he moves forward, getting him used to the pressure
of the collar on his breast. After which he may be hitched
to a two-wheeled vehicle, and taking care in giving the
first lessons to select some level ground for the work, and
make no false motions, never lie to him or deceive- him. I
GUY LINE AS PLACED OX HORSE.
condemn all bitting harness. It is certainly cruelty to
animals to use them. It is a mistaken idea of any man to
entertain to presume he can change the form or frame of a
horse that was made by Dame Nature's own handiwork.
How to Handle a Wild and Vicious Horse,
which will not allow you to approach him
to place on my ropes and straps.
In handling any wild or vicious horse, many times they
are so dangerous that it is impossible to approach them
with safety. I will lay down a rule to handle a wild and
vicious mustang or western broncho. First throw a lasso
over his head, then take a half-inch rope fifty feet long,
make a slip noose in one end of it, lay this on the
ground, making a large loop about three and one-half
feet across it, as in the above engraving, then lead the
broncho into it so as to get his front feet into the loop, as
seen in the opposite engraving. The moment that he gets
into the rope, pull the rope, which will bring his two front
limbs together ; you pull to the left, and the man that has
hold of the broncho or mustang, pull to the right ; you will
at once bring him to his back, as seen on page 84. Now
you can take the mustang and put on my double safety
rope and the driving bridle, and handle him the same as I
have laid down for handling any vicious animal, kickers,
or runaways. In working mustangs, let me say that you
must work them slow and easy ; their lessons should not
be over thirty minutes long. Repeat them twice a day,
and in one week the mustang is ready to drive. In working
this animal, always use a great deal of judgment and plenty
of patience ; never show your temper ; whatever they do
is not because they are vicious, but because they are afraid
that you are going to hurt them, and they are of a wild
nature. They can be easily brought under control by kind
and gentle treatment.
The above cut is to illustrate to the reader the position
of man and horse, with the animal's fore feet in the lariat
loop ; you should now pull the rope quickly, and you should
step to the right, while your assistant, who is holding the
A WILD MUSTANG.
halter rope, steps to the left, and the engraving below will
show the horse as thrown. The man who holds the halter
THE MUSTANG THROWN.
trap quickly passes it down the horse's back to his hips,
nd pulls the horse's head to his shoulder, thereby pre-
enting him from getting up. Now put on your driving
ridle, surcingle, and safety rope. Commence the training
y letting him get up, and handling him the same as a
unaway, kicker, or colt.
Questions Asked and Answered.
Can a cribbing horse be cured ? No.
Can ringbones be cured ? No.
Can spavins be cured ? Not after they have become
Can heaves be cured ? No.
Can blindness be cured ? No.
Can nervicular lameness be cured? Not after long
Can splints be cured ? No.
Do you approve of condition powder ? Yes, if made
resh every spring from recipes given in my book. Condition
owders that lie in stores for five to ten years are not very
aluable. The strength of the medicine must be gone. I
/ould advise all horse owners not to waste their money in
uying such trash.
Can contracted feet be cured ? Not in all cases.
Can sprung knees be cured ? No.
Can curb be cured ? No.
Can bog spavin be cured ? No.
Can a meaner be cured ? No.
Can a corn from long standing be cured ? No.
Ladies* Equestrian Horsemanship.
The saddlery for the use of the ladies is similar i
principle to that devoted to gentlemen's riding, with tb
exception that the bits and reins of the bridle are lightu
and more ornamental and the saddle furnished with crutcht s
for side riding ; the reins are narrower than those used h»
the gentlemen, but otherwise the same. The saddle shoul :
be carefully fitted to the horse, and there should always tt
a third crutch, the use of which will hereafter be explaine(^
There is an extra leather girth, which keeps the flaps d
the saddle in their places. The stirrup may be either likt
a man's, with a lining of leather or velvet, or it may be 3
slipper, which is safer and also easier to the foot. Tht
lady's whip is a light affair, but as her horse ought seldoi i
to require punishment, it is carried more to threaten thai
to give punishment. A spur may be added for a lady ■
use ; it is sometimes needful for the purpose of giving i
stimulus at the right moment. If used, it is buckled on t :
the boot, and a small opening is made in the habit with «
string attached to the inside, which is then tied around th:
mkle, and thus keeps the spur always projecting beyond
he folds of the habit. A nose martingale is generally
idded for ornament ; but no horse which throws his head
ip is fit for ladies' use. The lady's horse ought to be a
nost perfect goer, instead of being, as it often is, a stupid
)rute, fit only for a dray.
Many men think that any horse gifted with a neat out-
ine will carry a lady ; but it is a great mistake ; and if the
adies themselves had the choice of horses they would soon
lecide to the contrary. The only thing in their favour, in
:hoosing a lady's horse, is that the weight to be carried is
generally light, and therefore a horse calculated to carry
hem is seldom fit to mount a man, because the weight of
he male sex is generally so much above that of a
adv. Few ladies who ride are above one hundred
md thirty pounds, and most are below that weight.
?ut in point of soundness, action, mouth, and temper,
he lady's horse should be unimpeachable. A gentleman's
lorse may be good yet wholly unable to canter,
md so formed that he cannot be taught ; he, therefore, is
msuited to a lady ; but on the other hand, every lady's
lorse should do all his paces well. Many ladies, it is true,
lever trot ; but they should not be furnished with the
excuse that they cannot because their horses will not. In
ize, the lady's horse should be about fifteen hands, or from
ourteen and a half to fifteen and a half ; less than this
Hows the habit to trail in the dirt, and more makes the
orse too lofty and unwieldy for a lady's use. In breaking
lady's horse, if he is of good temper and fine mouth,
ttle need be done to make him canter easily, and with the
Ight leg foremost. This is necessary, because the other
I ig is uncomfortable to the rider from her side position in
16 saddle. The breaker, therefore, should adopt the
! leans elsewhere described, and persevere until the horse
; quite accustomed to the pace, and habitually starts off
I ath the right leg. He should also bend him thoroughly,
i 3 as to make him canter well on his hind legs and not
with the disturbed action which one so often sees. Thfel
curb must be used for this purpose, but without bearing'
too strongly upon it. The horse must be brought to his'
pace by a fine handling rather than by force, and bf'
occasional pressure which he will yield to and play with f
allowed, rather than by a dead pull. In this way, by takin r
advantage of every inch yielded, and yet not going too fai^
the head is gradually brought in and the hind legs as
gradually are thrust forward, so as instinctively to stead/
the mouth and prevent the pressure which is feared. Whe i
this "sitting on the haunches" is accomplished, a horsj
cloth may be strapped on the near side of the saddle t >
accustom him to the flapping of the habit; but I ha\;
always found in an ordinary good-tempered horse, that, f
the paces and mouth were all perfect, the habit is sure t?
It is a kind of excuse which gentlemen are too apt tjj
make that their horses have never carried a lady ; but f
they carry a gentleman quietly they will always carry i
lady in the same style, though they may not perhaps tb
suitable to her seat or hand. The directions for holdin j
the reins, and for their use, elsewhere given, apply equal; |r
well to ladies, the only difference beingthat the knee preven s
the hand being lowered to the pommel of the saddL .
This is one reason why the neck requires to be moi3
bent for the lady's use, because, if it is straight, (r
at all ewe-necked, the hands being high, raise the heai
into the air and make the horse more of a *' star-gazer T
than he otherwise would be. Many ladies hold the reirs
as in driving. It is in some respects better, because t
allows the hand to be lower than the gentleman's mod< ,
and the ends of the reins fall better over the habit. 1 1
mounting, the horse is held steadily, as for a gentleman s
use, taking care to keep him well up to the place whet J
the lady stands, from which he is very apt to slide awa}.
The gentleman assistant then places his right hand on hi 5
right knee, or a little below it, and receives the lady's le t
lOt. Previously to this she should have taken the rein in
;r right hand, which is placed on the middle crutch, then,
ith her left hand on the gentleman's shoulder, and her
ot in his hand, she makes a spring from the ground and
imediately stiffens her left leg, using his hand, steadied
/ his knee, as a second foundation for a spring, and then
le is easily lifted to her seat by the hand following, and
lishing her spring with what little force is required. As
le rises the hand still keeps hold of the crutch, which
1 rows the body sideways on the saddle, and then she lifts
I jr right knee over the middle crutch. After this she lifts
i ;rself up from the saddle, and the gentleman draws her
[ ibit from under her until smooth, he then places her left
: ot in the stirrup, including with it a fold of her habit,
id she is firmly seated, and should take her reins and use
I em as directed for the gentleman. The great mistake
i hich is constantly made in mounting is in the use of the
; dy's knee, which should be carefully straightened the
[ oment it can be effected, for if kept bent it requires a
: 'eat power to lift a lady into the saddle, whereas, with a
[ )od spring and a straight knee, she ought to weigh but
few pounds in the hand. The lady's seat is very corn-
only supposed to be a weak one, and to depend entirely
>on balance ; but this is the greatest possible mistake,
id there can be no doubt, from what is seen in private
; well as in the circus, that it requires as great an effort
: the horse to dislodge a good female rider as to produce
\ e same effect upon a gentleman. Even with the old
i igle crutch there was a good hold with the leg, but now
r at the third is added, the grip is really a firm one. When
': is is not used the crutch is laid hold of by the right leg
I d pinched between the calf of the leg and the thigh, so
5 to afford a firm and steady hold for the whole body,
5 pecially when aided by the stirrups. But this latter
L pport merely preserves the balance, and is useful also in
■ )tting. It does not at all give a firm, steady seat, though
adds to one already obtained by the knee. When two
crutches are used, the leg is brought back so far as t<
grasp the crutch as before, but between the two knees th \
two crutches are firmly laid hold of, the upper one beinj
under the right knee, and the lower one above the left 1
The right knee hooked over the crutch keeps the body fron(
slipping backwards, while the left keeps it from a forwani
motion, and thus the proper position is maintained. Ii
all cases the right foot should be kept back and the poin i
of the toe should scarcely be visible. These points shouh
be carefully kept in view by all lady riders, and they should
learn as soon as possible to steady themselves by the gras||
of the crutches without reference to the stirrup-iron, li
spite of her side seat, the body should be square to th(
front, with the elbow easily bent and preserved in its prope
position by the same precaution. The whip is generally
held in the right hand, with the lash pointing forward an(
towards the left, and by this position it may be used or
any part of the horse's body by reaching over to the lef
and cutting before or behind the saddle, or, with grea
ease, on the right side. Its use may, therefore, in all case:
be substituted for the pressure of the leg in the description
of the modes of effecting the change of leg, turning to th<
left or right, or leading with either leg. With this sub
stitution, and with the caution against all violent attempt!
at coercion, which are better carried out by the fine hanc
and delicate tact of the lady, all the feats which man car
perform may well be imitated by her. In dismounting
the horse is brought to a dead stop, and his head held b)
an assistant. The lady then turns her knee back agair
from the position between the outside crutch, takes hei
foot out of the stirrup, and sits completely sideways. She
then puts her left hand on the gentleman's shoulder, whc
places his right arm around her waist and lightly assist*
her to the ground.
L Few out of many Unsolicited Testimonials regard-
ing Horses that I have Handled and Subdued in
31, Park Road, Fokesi- hill, S.E., June 30th, i8g2,
[r. N. Smith.
Sir, — Having now witnessed many of your " Horse- training Exliil)i-
ons," both in public and through your courtesy in private, I must own
lat I have been most favourably impressed ; more particularly have I been
leased, that the methods used are so humane. Never have I detected
nything that a rational being could possibly call cruel, or even rough. Let
»e thank you for the good you have done to my mare, an obstinate jiblitr.
Ernest C. Arnold, M.B., F.R.C.S. Eng.
"White Swan " Yard, Upper Norwood, S.E., July 4th, iSg^.
£r. Norton B. Smith.
Dear Sir, — As you have now had four of my horses under your hands,
take this opportunity of thanking you for your most successful treatment
f them. I have seen the methods you use with them at your public shows,
nd also by your kindness at some private lessons you have given them, an(i
am most perfectly satisfied that nothing in the way of cruelty is practised,
ut that your schooling is far kinder than what horses as a rule have to
xbmit to from very many horse-breakers and dealers in this country. As
have had a large and varied experience with horses in this country and
I Africa, I am in a position to form a good opinion.
If, during your stay in this country, I should become the owner of any
orse with bad habits, I shall without hesitation send it to you wherever
ou may be.
Believe me, dear Sir,
F. C. Wilson.
.S.— You are at liberty at any time to refer any one to me. F. C. W.
120, Falmouth Road, New Kent Road, S.E., June 28th, iSg3.
ROF. xN'oRTON B. Smith.
Dear Sir, — I wish to thank you for what you have done for my
orse, and I can only say that you have made a complete cure of him.
le was a bad jibber and kicker, and I could never drive him, and he
as to me of no earthly use. The two lessons you gave him have made
im to me a valuable horse, and all this was done before the public
'ithout injuring the horse, and in accordance with the humane socie'y.
shall always consider myself under obligations to you, and shall only be
)0 pleased to give you any reference to owners of wild or vicious horses,
ad I am confident they will never regret sending you their horses, for
ley certainly receive the proper education, and you do all you advertise,,
iid I consider you the best horse trainer that I have ever seen.
High Street, Sydenham, /w/y 7^^'
Prof. Norton Smith.
Dear Sir, — I am very pleased with your treatment of my horses;
they are both much better, quiet, and docile. I should be pleased to
recommend your treatment to any one.
5, New Croxted Road, West Dulwich, S.E.,/«/^jrM, iSgz.
Prof. Norton B. Smith.
Dear Sir,— Since your arrival at the Crystal Palace, I have frequently
been present at your exhibitions of horse taming, and I have seen you
handle a great number of different horses. The means by which you
educate timid horses to face unaccustomed sights, and your methods for
overcoming and rendering docile kicking, jibbing, or biting horses, have
always been completely successful. In my opinion your system of training
is perfectly humane, and does not cause physical suffering to the horse.
Yours very truly.
Major J. W. Telfer.
57, Hawthorn Grove, Pence, July 8th, j8g2.
To Prof. Norton Smith.
Deak Sir, — I be^ to tender you my sincere thanks for the manner in
which you have treated my horse. Before going to your establishment I
could do nothing with it, being such a vicious and spiteful kicker, having
damaged a van in trying to get it to work ; but since being under your
treatment it works splendidly, showing no signs of vice or kicking.
Hoping many more who have kicking horses may avail themselves of
your treatment during your stay in England,
J. M. Thody.
From Rev. J. G. Pilkington, Vicar of St. Mark's, Dalston, N.E,
Mr. Pilkington has pleasure in stating that the nervousness exhibited
V>y one of his horses was considerably alleviated by Professor Norton Smith's
treatment. On two of the days the horse was handled Mr. Pilkington was
present, and saw nothing to object to in the methods employed. Had he
done so he would, of course, have withdrawn the horse at once.
St. Germain's, 42, Croham Road, South Croydon,
^u£. 2jrd, i8g2.
To Prof. Norton B, Smith, Crvstal Palace.
Dear Sir, — I cannot help expressing my thanks to you for the manner
in which you humanely handled my brown horse, which was an inveterate
jibber and kicker, also very nervous, and impossible to drive in single or
double harness. I could use him under saddle only, and then was at any
time liable to be thrown on account of his bad habits. Since you have
handled my horse I am able to drive him single or double, and feel perfectly
safj. I can highly indorse your methods to all owners of horses possessing
bid habits, and by all means advise owners of horses possessing them to
allow you to use your own discretion, and am positive you will accomplish
a good result. I consider that you have increased the value of my horse
£\Q, and am willing to furnish you with any further testimonials that you
Special to the Farmer.
The necessity for improvement in farm stock to meet the
exigencies of close times, of which much has been
said of late, is one which does not end with cattle, sheep,
and swine, but includes the horse stock as well. Perhaps
the improvement in these other descriptions of stock is of
more importance because of their greater numbers, but a
great deal can be gained by giving more attention to the
character of the horses produced and maintained on the
farm. Horses cannot be dispensed with on the farm, and
no one makes the attempt, as the major part of the farm
work is performed with their help, but the cost of their
keep is a heavy burden. Many farmers do not realise this,
because the food they consume is produced upon the farm ;
but inasmuch as if not consumed by them, this food could
be sold, or something saleable raised in its stead, the
support of the horse stock is a very material item of farm
expense. On a very large proportion of farms, if not upon
the majority, the class of horses maintained is such that
practically no return is secured from them beyond the
labour they perform. This is a good deal, of course, but it
is not enough, for with a better grade of foundation stock,
and more care in the selection of stallions, the production
of horses can be made to contribute very handsomely to
farm revenues without going further in the direction of
breeding than the usual force of farm teams will justify.
There is a great demand in this country for good horses,
and it is so diversified in its character, and so wide in its
extent, that practically it can never be overdone. The far-
mer need not be restricted to any one type of horse, and if
he has any preferences in the matter, they may safely be
consulted, since every really good horse finds ready sale.
But whatever the type selected, the farmer should always
breed for strength and stamina, with a fair measure of
style, and a movement and disposition suited to the purpose
for which the animal is to be ultimately devoted. And the
effort should constantly be made to produce animals for
some particular purpose, and stallions patronised with the
power to produce just the kind of horse the farmer desires,
avoiding the nondescripts who get colts too slow to trot,
too light to pull, and without style and character for any-
thing else. We know of many farmers so negligent in
this matter as to maintain teams of geldings for farm work.
If a farmer wishes and can afford a driving team in which
his personal pleasure is a fair compensation for their keep,
he has as good a right to such horses as anybody ; but as
for horses maintained simply for farm purposes, we have
often thought that a farmer had full as much use for a top
hat in the harvest field as for a team of geldings at the
A few remarks to the farmers of this country would
be well received.
Breed as good a mare as you can aff'ord to own ; breed
to as good a stallion as you feel that you can afford to use,
but always keep in view the general useful qualities of the
horse for any work covering good size, fifteen and one-half
to sixteen and one-half hands, good strong bone, heavily
muscled, good disposition, good appearance, with sound-
ness of parts and well-gaited and high breeding, and you
will not go astray. Above all, avoid the use of cheap,
low-bred, country stallions standing at a low fee and dear
at that ; also horses of unfashionable colours, and those
that entail upon their stock white faces and three or four
white feet. Such stock is not popular, and if buyers can
be got to buy them it will be at a reduced price. A colt
from a high-bred horse can be raised as cheap as that from
a low-bred one, but when you come to sell him, the one by
the high-bred horse will sell for two cr three times as much.
Buyers appreciate the value of good blood and will pay
more for it, because their experience has taught them that
it is worth more and will sell more rapidly. Feed your
colts liberally and they will well repay you for your liber-
ality by making better horses at three or four years of age
than they would if half fed at six years old.
I have presented these thoughts to you as I hastily jotted
them down, but I have probably said enough to call your
attention to the matter so that you can fully consider it.
What Errors in Feeding will Do, and How to
Prevent Diseases of the Digestive Organs.
With very rare exceptions diseases of the digestive or-
gans are results of errors in feeding, and all observations
point to the conclusion that in the horse the intestines are
more liable to suffer from disease than the stomach. The
stomach of a horse is a simple organ, small in comparison
to the size of the animal and in contrast with the volume
of the intestines. It is but slightly called into action during
the digestive process, and, provided the food be properly
masticated, and incorporated with the salivary secretions,
it is arrested for a short time only in the stomach, but is
passed onward into the intestinal canal, where the process
of digestion is completed. On this account the intestines
are more liable to disease. It is also a remarkable fact
that easily digested food, if given over abundantly, is apt
to derange the small intestines ; whereas food containing
much woody fibre, such as over-ripe hay, coarse straw,
etc., accumulate in the large intestines and there causes
derangement, inflammation, and even paralysis of the in-
testinal muscular tissue. It is also a fact worthy of notice,
that if food be given artificially prepared, by boiling or
steaming, it is retained in the stomach itself, and if given
in too large quantities causes distension, inflammation,
paralysis, and even rupture. This is accounted for by the
circumstance that food imperfectly prepared for intestinal
digestion is retained or imprisoned by the action of the
pyloric structures, and thus distends the stomach by its
bulk or by gases evolved by the process of fermentation,
which is apt to ensue.
The food of the horse contains an abundant quantity of
starchy materials, and the process by which these are
rendered soluble commences in the mouth, not only by their
admixture with the salivary secretions, but by a chemical
change through which the non-soluble starch is converted
into dextrine and grape sugar, and made fit for the action
of the intestinal, biliary and gastric secretions, and for ab-
sorption by the vessels of the gastric and intestinal walls.
For the purpose of performing this process the horse is
provided with twenty-four millstones, in the form of molar
teeth, which have the power of crushing and triturating
the hardest food, and of an extensive system of salivary
organs which secrete very actively, during the process of
mastication, a lluid which eff'ectively blends with and
chemically changes the food thus triturated. On this ac-
count it is found that when horses are sufficiently but not
over fed with dry food of a proper quantity, the stomach
rarely suff'ers from disease. An error in the diet, however,
or a sudden change from one kind of food to another, not
only deranges the stomach, but the intestinal canal as well.
From various causes, such as improper food, the process
ot' dentition, diseases of the teeth causing imperfect masti-
cation, ravenous feeding, the presence of other diseases,
debility of the stomach itself, resulting from some consti-
tutional predisposition, or from food given at uncertain
and rare intervals, a condition of indigestion is induced in
the horse. In young animals the same is induced by
draughts of cold milk, removal from the dam at too early
an age, or what is commonly the case in some places,
compelling the dam to work shortly after the birth of the
offspring, and allowing it to suckle at rare intervals and
when the dam is heated. In the horse the symptoms of
indigestion are loss of appetite, or depravity and capricious-
ness of it, manifested by the horse eating at irregular
intervals, or having a desire to eat filth, with sourness of
the mouth and usually increased thirst. The animal soon
becomes hide-bound, has a dry, scurfy skin ; there is irregu-
larity of the bowels and frequent escape of flatus by the
anus. If caused by imperfectly masticated food, such as
whole oats or coarse hay, these may be found in the faeces.
In addition to the above diagnostic symptoms, there may
be a dry cough, or irregularity of the pulse, which may be
slower or faster than natural ; colicky pains may also be
present in some cases, occurring more particularly in an
hour or two after the animal has partaken of its food,
whilst in others fits of giddiness, and even paralysis,
occur ; the latter condition being not seldom seen in cattle,
and very often in horses.
In the young animal the above symptoms are more com-
monly associated with diarrhoea than in the older ones, in
which constipation is generally present. The faeces often
resemble the colour of the food ; for example, if the horse
is fed on dark-coloured hay or clover, the faeces will be
dark-coloured also ; if, on the contrary, it is fed on oats,
the faeces will be light in colour ; and in the young animal,
when fed on milk, it will often resemble it both in colour
and consistence, mixed, however, with large masses of
curdled milk, and often very foetid. It has often been
noticed that when indigestion is induced by clover the
urine is very dark in colour, and deposits a thick, almost
brick-coloured sediment. This condition of the urine,
however, need cause no apprehension, as it is often seen
in the clover-fed animal without any disease being present.
Indigestion is a fertile source of deposits in the urine,
which results from imperfect nutrition of the tissues, or a
chemical change in the constituents of the blood-plasma,
due to the products being imperfectly prepared or contain-
ing some material unfit for healthy nutrition.
In the treatment of indigestion, the cause ought to be
carefully inquired into and removed. If due to the process
of dentition, the presence of unshed crowns of the tem-
porary teeth irritating and wounding the mouth, or to any
irregularity of the dental apparatus, these must be attended
to according to the directions laid down under their several
heads. In all instances where such causes are not in
operation, even when the cause cannot be traced to the
food, it will be necessary to make some alteration in the
diet, and to examine the various alimentary matters, in
order to detect the offending one if possible. If the
diarrhoea is not excessive, and the animal thereby much
debilitated, it would be advisable to give a mild aperient
or a moderate cathartic. To the young animal a dose of
castor oil or linseed oil, to the older a moderate dose of
aloes, combined with a vegetable bitter, ginger, or gentian.
In foals pepsin can be administered, as in all probability
the indigestion is due to imperfect secretion of the gastric
glands ; even in the older animal this is often presumably
the case, and more especially when the disorder occurs
without apparent cause ; the same remedy will prove bene-
ficial. The diet of the animal is also to be carefully con-
ducted, and that pure air, moderate exercise, and good
grooming are essential to proper digestion. Occurring in
the winter, if the horse is thickly covered with hair, clip-
ping will have a beneficial result, restoring the digestion
and appetite, which may have been long impaired, not-
withstanding remedies, in the course of a few hours.
Distension of the stomach may arise from repletion with
so Id food, or from the evolution of g-ases arising- from
sohds or hquids contained within it undergoing the process
ot fermentation, or disengaged from the gastric wails when
the stomach is empty, as occurring in conditions of great
prostration. The cause of impaction of the stomach results
trom the indigestion of food too abundant in quantity or
greedily swallo^ved and imperfectly masticated. In those
parts of the country where the cooking of food for horses
IS a common custom, it is found that deaths from diseases
and lesion of the digestive apparatus are very common
l^rom the reasons that it is necessary for the food to
undergo not only the process of trituration by the teeth
but that it requires to be chemically altered by combination
with the sahva, it will be understood that food prepared in
any other way, as cooking by boiling and steaming, is un-
fitted to be acted upon by the stomach, and is consequently
retained within it, the animal meanwhile continuing to eat
until its walls become distended, paralysed, and even
ruptured. Some kinds of food, nutritious in themselves
and theoretically calculated to be proper for the horse, are
found practically to be highly dangerous. Wheat, for
instance, which is highly nutritious, is considered to be
improper food, deranging the stomach, causing purgation
laminitis, and death. Barley has a similar effect. When
It becomes compulsory to cook the food, it should be o-iven
with the greatest caution and in small quantities. Bran
in mash or otherwise, musty hay, or too ripe before bein-
cut, barley and green foods, not only induce engorgement''
but also undergo fermentation in the stomach, and thus
bring on tympanitis.
How should a Horse be Fed during a Hard
March or a luong Drive?
How many times have I seen farmers and horse owners
before starting on a visit or a long journey give their horse
a big- breakfast, saying, " He's got a hard day's work
before him." About ten o'clock, when he has gone twenty-
five or thirty miles from home, Mr. Horse lies on the side
of the road with a good case of acute colic. Cause, " good
breakfast." Now, I will give you my idea of the way a
horse should be fed, in order for him to do the work and
prevent sickness. Give him a good big supper. This
allows his digestive organs all night to perform their func-
tions, and your horse has laid up a reserve for a journey.
In the morning give a light breakfast of grain, say four
quarts of oats, no hay. Same at noon. Always water
your horse after, never before, eating. Never drive up to
a trough when on the road and let him drink. Use a pail,
that you may know how much he is drinking. For myself
1 do not approve of watering a horse more than four times
a day when on a journey, early in the morning, again at
ten o'clock, again at four, and again at night when putting
hjm up for his rest.
When you desire to stop but a short time for dinner,
you need not wait until your horse is cool before you feed
him. Give him his grain at once, and as soon as he has
eaten it he is ready for business. A great many horsemen
will tell you that there is danger in feeding a horse when
very warm ; but it is not so. Understand me correctly, 1
refer only to instances where you are going to put your
horse to work immediately after he has eaten his dinner.
When warm, his stomach is expanded, and your keeping
him warm, it remains in that state. On the other hand,
if you allow him to stand, the stomach contracts, and the
gas from the grain bringi on coHc.
Taking Care of Horses when Heated. ' ^
It is the habit of a great many persons when their horses
become heated to cover them with a great heavy blanket.
This is wrong. Do not cover your horse for about five
minutes, let him steam. Then put on a Hg^ht blanket,
allow him to stand with this blanket on for half-an-hour,
then remove it and put on your heavy one. This gives the
animal a warm dry covering, after you have removed the
light blanket which is wet from the steam of the horse.
Follow these directions, and it will prevent your horse
from catching cold. I approve of giving the horse a
thorough rubbing first, if convenient.
Care of Horses in the Spring of the Year.
Great care should be given the animals during the months
of April and May, to prepare them for the warm weather.
As soon as the grass starts your horse should be grazed
thirty to forty minutes each day, and this as early in the
morning as possible. Green grass will physic your horse,
purify his blood, and get the grain that he has been eating
through the winter months out of his system. At the
same time that you are grazing the horse, give bran
Hashes, and stop giving grain for a week or ten days,
antil you get his system in a thoroughly good condition.
I would also advise that driving-horses, with feet that are
nclined to contract, be walked in the dew every morning
hrough the summer months. This is one of the greatest
reatments in the world for softening and expanding the
lorse's feet. It is much better than all the hoof ointment
here is on the market, and it is a great deal cheaper.
In cities, where it is not feasible to graze your horse,
j^ive him a bucket of green grass cut from the lawn.
Management of Horses.
In the management or mismanagement of horses some-
hing like one-half of their life of utility is involved,
lismanagement has its basis in the mistaken idea that vice
in animals is hereditary. Thus, if a foal is spirited, playful, |
and full of life and courage, it is said to be vicious, anc
needs the devil taken out of it. If, on the other hand, it i<|
stern and dull, it Is reputed to be sullen and vicious, ancj
needs waking- up. These characters follow the animals intc
the breaker's hands, and the common treatment is severity
frequently falling into brutality. Day by day the mistakeri
struggle between man and horse goes on, and, in the grea i
majority of cases, the horse, in place of learning to love anci
obey man, hates him, and this feeling is responsible fo
many accidents. Ere the breaking struggle is completed,
a large portion of the utility of the horse has been takei^
out of it ; it has received nothing but abuse at man's hands
and the devil, in place of being exorcised, is only the mor
firmly planted, with the addition of others more malevolen
than were the original ones of temper. A horse so broken
is weakened in constitution, rendered of fitful temper, an<l
is never again to be relied on. Another practice by whic)
the utility of driving horses is impaired is the thoughtles i
use of the whip in ascending hills. It would be interestinjj
to know how many valuable horses have been injured an«1
had to be sold cheap owing to this practice. Horses i:|
such positions should never be called upon to make sudde I
efforts, when rising hills should never feel the whip, unt i
the voice of the driver has first prepared them for it. l ,
sudden cut with the whip, without the slightest warning i
and the spirited horse flings itself violently to the attempt ;
a rupture of the bowels, a sprain of some of the tendon*!
and the owners wonder how the injury has been sustaineci
Probably that one careless cut of the whip has cost fifty cr
one hundred pounds. — By the kind permission of th;
Editor, Live Stock Jounial.
How to Examine the Horse.
In the first place use your own judgment and do nc \
listen to what your neighbours say. If you are In a localit H
lere you can get a good veterinary to examine him, I
)uld advise you to do so, unless you consider yourself
ly qualified ; if such is the case with the reader, I can
ly say go ahead.
tiave the horse led out of the stable, as all horses should
exammed in the open air. First of all look to his
^. For ascertaining the correct age of the horse you
1 find directions elsewhere in this book. Open the
•se's mouth, look at his grinders, and see that they are
i proper condition. Next examine his eyes, then his
s, running your fingers carefully in them to see that
re IS no unnatural growth of warts or bunches, such as
IS, etc., which could not otherwise be discerned, as
reby many horses have been rendered deaf from such
ses. Take your right hand, place it on the top of his
d, and feel for the effects of Poll-evil, or any sores of
nature that may be there. Then run your hand back
us withers, and examine for any marks of the surgeon's
'e or fistula ; also, while examining the mouth, look
ifully for any marks or scars that might be the result
he use of the knife. Now run your hand on the horse's
k to the region of his kidneys, to ascertain if there is
weakness there. Now stand directly in front of the
nal, and see if he has a full chest, and that his shoulders
both alike. Now look at his fore feet, and see if they
both the same size.
ow pick up his feet, and see that the frog is of a yielding
tender character. See that he does not have ''Thrush,"
:h you can detect from the offensive odour arising
sfrom. Now look on the inside of his front leg, and
vhether he has splints, or any unnatural enlargements
. ly character or nature. Now examine the hind legs
■ 'one spavin, or any enlargement of the hock joint, such
lood spavins, bog spavin, thorough-pin, curve, etc.
nine the leaders and tendons. Now have the horse
led at a slow and also a quick pace ; then take a side
i of the same action. Then have him backed quickly,
and led up quickly, keeping yx)ur eyes on his hind legs
looking for string halt. Now have him turned roum!
short, looking for any weakness about his front legs,
which he will exhibit by dragging one of his limbs. Alsd
examine his throat and nostrils, looking for any diseas;
that might be located there.
The ears of a horse should be small ; broad betweei i
them, broad between his eyes, with a large and full hazel
eye, perfectly level and straight from the forehead dow i
to the nostril, with a large, full nostril, and thin. Size cl
the animal varies according to what you want to use hiri
for. The bones of the horse's leg should be flat, and witi
very little flesh upon them, showing the cords and leadeti
perfectly. The foot should be of a flat nature. I ha\i
found those to be of a more lasting kind. The foot tht;
contracts easiest is of a high wall and closed heel. (S^i
engraving in this book for perfect horse.)
The reader may be assisted by reviewing the followini
list of common terms used in expressing the unsoun
points about the horse ;
Contractu n of the foot - - - Unsound.
Thrush in the foot until c«ed.
Toe Crack . - - -
Quarter Crack . - • -
Fiat foot, when sole has dropped
romace sole, or any inflammation ol
the laminse ♦»
Callousness upon the knee, caused by a horse falling down, or otherwi
is an evidence of unsoundness.
If the knee is swollen, but no wen or protuberance of a callous natu
sound. , , . ^
As to the eye, any disease, even from the slightest cold or mflammati i
until it be completely cured, or has resulted in total blindness, stamps
animal as unsound.
In short, a horse with either eye not actually perfect
r>- u ^ . - - - Unsound.
Cojiker in the foot '»
Windgalls I consider not in the full sense of the term unsound, but
rather as a blemish brought on by overwork or strain.
Curb ♦ - - - - - - - Unsound.
Spavins of all natures and kind^.
Bog Spavin .--..-
Low hip, or any protuberance of the hip
Grease Heels, until cured
Enlargement of the hind leg, or what
technically termed " Elephantine"
Knuckling of the pastern joint, or sprung knees
Stumbling, which is generally caused by the
weakness of the tendons
All enlargements of the sinews or tendons
Heaves, or broken wind
Cough, until cured . . . .
Heaving, a nervous affection not necessarily injurious, but more of a
Surfeit, or Mange, until cured - - - Unsound.
Colds and distempers, until cured -
Soft enlargements on any part of the limb
Sore shoulders, or galled backs, until cured
Horses where the shoulder has shrunk or perished, it is caused by
nflamm.ation of the tendons, originating in the foot, and they are unsound.
Stiff Hocks Unsound.
Wounds of every na'ure, until cured - - ,,
Scars of all kinds, if properly healed, not leaving u bone fracture, are
Horses who cut their quarters when speeding, or when lying down in
tall have caused the shoe boil, are unsound until cured.
Roman-backed horses are the most durable animals we have.
Saddle-backed, hollow-backed, and low-backed horses may be con*
idered sound, but are nevertheless an eyesore to the ovtner.
Wall-eyed or moon-eyed horses, if not sightless, I consider sound.
All humours arising from impurities of the blood, or otherwise, I a
sider an evidence of unsoundness until cured.
Pigeon-toed horses, or horses toeing in, unsound, being an unnatu
development, liable to cork themselves or interfere.
Lampas. — This is a fulness of the roof of the mouth, ai
is most frequently found among young horses.
Treatment. — Cut the first bar in roof of the mout
squeezing out the blood, then add a little salt. Never bu
them as in our grandfathers' days. This is not consider
by me as an evidence of unsoundness, as the remedy
simple and effectual.
Firing horses for any enlargement of the limb, or a
other cause, I consider a brutal treatment, and when It
so treated, I consider him unsound.
Wolf teeth are two small teeth, and found on either si
of the upper jaw, next to the grinders. If they set clc:
to the grinder there is danger of their affecting the 63
They should never be knocked out, as is practised
many, but should be removed by a pair of forceps. Th
are peculiar to young horses or colts ; after they have bei
abstracted I consider the horse sound. If, by a care 1
perusal of what I have said upon the most natural cauji
that render the horse unsound, and a few suggestions !
to the treatment of them, I have rendered the reader a i
assistance, and saved the noble horse, man's true relian*
any torturous treatment, I am satisfied.
FOAL at birth has three molars, or grinding teeth, iust
rough the gums, upon both sides of the upper and of the
wer jaws. It generally has no incisor or front teeth ; but
e gums are inflamed, and evidently upon the eve of
irsting-. The molars or grinders are, as yet, unflattened,
have not been rendered smooth by attrition. The lower
w, when the inferior margin is left, appears to be very
ick, blunt and round.
A fortnight has rarely elapsed before the membrane
ptures, and two pairs of front, very white teeth, begin
appear in the mouth. At first these new members look
^proportionately large to their tiny abiding place, and
len contrasted with the reddened gums at their base,
sy have that pretty pearly aspect, which is the common
aracteristic of the milk teeth in most animals.
In another month, when the foal is six weeks old, more
;th appear. Much of the swelling at first present has
^tened down. The membrane, as time progresses, will
e much of its scarlet hue. In the period which has
psed since the former teeth were looked at, the sense of
proportionate size has gone. The two front teeth are
vv fully up, and these are almost of suitable proportions,
hen the two pairs of lateral incisors first make their
appearance, it is in such a shape as can imply no assurance
of their future form. They resemble the corner nippers,
and do not suggest the smallest likeness to the lateral
incisors which they will ultimately become.
There is now a long pause before more teeth appear.
The little one lives chiefly upon suction and runs by its
mother's side. Upon the completion of the first month,
seldom earlier, it may be observed to lower its head and
nip the young grass. From the third month, however, the
habit grows, until by the sixth month the grinders will be
worn quite flat and have been reduced to the state suited
to their function.
The corner incisors come into the mouth about the ninth
month, the four pair of nippers which have already been
traced being at this time fully developed. The corner
incisors do not yet meet, though these organs point towards
each other, neither has the membrane of the mouth at this
time entirely lost the deepened hue of infancy.
- From this date, however, the gums gradually become
pale, till by the end of the first year the membrane has
nearly assumed its normal complexion. All the incisors
are, by the first birthday, well up. The grinding teeth
which are in the mouth when the foal first sees the light,
are of a temporary character. The jaw, therefore, has to
hold and to mature the long permanent grinders which
within the substance of the bone are growing beneath the
temporary molars. To contain and to develop the large
uncut teeth, before appearing above the gums, causes the
small jaw of a diminutive foal to be disproportionately
thick, especially as compared with the same structure in an
At one year old the first permanent tooth appears. This
is the fourth molar, or the most backward grinder. The
jaw bone at one year old has become longer and wider.
This increase of size was necessary to cover the increasing
size of the new molar and to afford room for the partial
development of two other grinders, which will appear
behind what is now the last tooth. Often little nodules of
bone, without fangs, merely attached to the gums, appear
in front of each row of grinders. These are vulgarly
denominated *' wolves' teeth." They generally disappear
with the shedding of those members facing which they are
The changes in the teeth, after the first year, are
characterised by the longer periods which divide them.
Months have heretofore separated the advent of single
pairs ; but from this date these appearances are to be
reckoned by numbers and by years. The foal has teeth
sufficient to support and to maintain its growth. Preparation
is being made for the advent of the sixth grinder, and for
changes in those milk molars which were in the mouth
when the animal was born. At the same time additional
width is needed to allow the permanent incisors to appear
when their time comes. In the front teeth of a two-year-
old, there is a want of that fixedness which, one year before,
was characteristic of these organs. The central nippers
have done their duty, or, at all events, something approach-
ing to maturity has been attained.
Three years old is the period when the greater number
of colts are brought to market. The bit then is put into
its mouth, and it is driven from the field. At a period of
change and of debility it is expected to display the greatest
animation and to learn strange things. When its gums
are inflamed, when the system is excited, when the strength
is absorbed by an almost simultaneous appearance of
twelve teeth, it is led from the pasture and made, with its
bleeding jaws, to masticate sharp oats and fibrous hay.
It has been said that a three-year-old colt cuts twelve
teeth. Those organs which are of recent appearance will
be recognised by their darker colour, by their larger size,
or by their differing in shape from the other members.
These new teeth are central incisor and the first two
grinders. The horse has two jaws and two sides to each
iaw ; therefore the same number being present within each
side of both jaws, the teeth already alluded to appear
during the third year. However, even this quantity rather
understates than overrates the fact, for frequently the
tusks are cut during- this period. In such a case the colt
acquires no less than sixteen teeth in twelve months.
The four-year-old has to perfect as many teeth as are
known to protrude into the mouth of the three-year-old.
But the precise time of the appearance of the tusks is
uncertain. They may come up at the third or the fourth
year ; sometimes they never pierce the gums, it being very
far from uncommon to see horses' mouths of seven years
without the tusks.
By the end of the fourth year the colt has certainly
gained twelve teeth. By this time there should exist, on
each side of both jaws, one new lateral incisor and two
fresh molars, being the third and the sixth in position.
The appearance of the mouth now indicates the approach
of maturity ; but the inferior margin of the lower bone
still feels more full and rounded than is consistent with the
consolidation of an osseous structure.
The process of dentition is not finished by the termination
of the fourth year. There are more teeth to be cut, as well
as the fangs of those already in the mouth to be made
The colt, with four pairs of permanent incisors, has still
the corner milk nippers to shed, yet while the provision
necessary for that labour is taking place within the body,
or while nature is preparing for the coming struggle, man
considers the poor quadruped as fully developed and as
enjoying the prime of its existence.
The teeth may be scarcely visible in the mouth, never-
theless such a sign announces the fifth year to be attained.
There are, at five, no more bothering teeth to cut. All are
through the bone, and the mouth will soon be sound.
The indications of extreme age are always present, and
though during a period of senility the teeth cannot be
literally construed, nevertheless it should be impossible to
1 1 1
iook upon the *' venerable steed" as an animal in its
How to Tell the Age of Horses.
There are many methods of telling* the ages of horses,
but I have a new method, and one that you can always
tell within one or two years of their correct age, which is
as follows :
A horse has forty teeth — twenty-four grinders, twelve
front teeth, and four tusks. A mare has thirty-six teeth —
twenty-four grinders, twelve front teeth, and sometimes
they have tusks, but not very often. Fourteen days old a
colt has four nipper teeth, at three months old he has four
middle teeth, at six months old he has four corner teeth ;
at one year old the cups leave the nipper teeth, at two
years old the cups leave the middle teeth, at two-and-a-half
years old he sheds his nipper teeth, at three years old full-
size nipper teeth ; three-and-a-half years old he sheds his
middle teeth, four years old full-size middle teeth ; at four-
and-a-half years old sheds his corner teeth, five years old,
full-size corner teeth ; six years old, large cups in corner
teeth, small cups in middle teeth, and still smaller cups in
nipper teeth ; seven years old, cups leave nipper teeth ;
eig-ht years old, cups leave the middle teeth ; nine years
old, cups leave the corner teeth ; at ten years old a dark
groove will make its appearance on the upper corner tooth ;
at fifteen years old the groove will be one-half way down
the upper corner tooth ; at twenty-one years old the
grooves will be at the bottom. At this age give your horse
his time, and let him have rest in his future days.
The groove alluded to will be found on the corner tooth
of the upper jaw, running down the middle of the tooth.
When a horse is from fourteen days to six years old, I
judge by the appearance of both jaws ; when from six to
ten years by the lower jaw ; and when from ten to twenty-
one years, by the groove in the upper jaw.
Remember This !
To Tell the Age of Horses.
To tell the age of any horse,
Inspect the lower jaw, of course.
'J he six front teeth the tale will tell,
And every doubt and fear dispel.
Two middle "nippers" you behold
Before the colt is two weeks old.
Ik fore ei^ht weeks two more will come ;
l^i.i;hl months, the " corners " cut the giim.
Two outside grooves will disappear
From niiJdle two in just one year.
In two years from the second pair ;
In three, the corners, too, are bare.
At two, the middle " nippers" drop ;
At three, the second pair can't slop.
When four years old, the third pair goes ;
At five, a full new set he shows.
The deep black spots will pass from view
At six years from the middle two.
The second pair at seven }ears ;
At eight the spot each "corner" clears.
From middle " nippers," upper jaw,
At nine the black spots will withdraw.
The second pair at ten are vi-hite ;
Eleven finds the '* corners " light.
As time goes on, the horsemen know,
The oval teeth three-sided grow ;
They longer get, project before.
Till twenty, when we know no more.
PuoF. Norton L. Smith.
Horses' Teeth. Their Care and Treatment.
There are hundreds and thousands of horses that are
suffering- daily on account of their teeth. The upper jaw of
the horse is one inch wider than the lower jaw, causing the
upper grinders to shut half an inch over the lower grinders.
This causes the upper set of teeth to wear sharp on the out-
side next to the cheek, and the lower grinders to wear sharp
on the inside next to the tongue. After these teeth become
sharp, in using- a bridle on a horse, the pulling of the lines
brings the check-pieces of the bit against the horse's mouth,
pressing the inside of the cheek against the sharp edges
of the grinders, causing inflammation, and many times
cutting large gashes. The horse will throw its head up
and down, slobber, drive uneven, pull on the lines, many
times will jib ; his grain passes through him whole ; he
cannot masticate it properly. During my professional
career, I have seen hundreds of horses become jibby for
no other reason than that their teeth were sharp on the
edges, causing the mouth and cheeks to become sore and
lacerated, which, in a high-strung and nervous beast,
causes him to jib. Now, to have your horse's teeth fixed,
take a float or rasp and file off the inside edges of the teeth
— just the sharp edges. Never let a man cut your horse's
teeth with shears, as it is impossible to cut ivory without
fracturing it. This operation of floating should be done
once a year regularly. Always have the operation per-
formed by a man of good judgment. Many a time a horse
loses a grinder, then the opposite grinder is given a chance
to grow, and eventually comes into direct contact with the
opposite gum, making it impossible for the horse to eat at
all. Examine your horse's mouth thoroughly ; see that
the teeth are even ; if not, take a float and make them so.
Many of our best veterinarians prescribe condition powders
and medicines for horses that are in thin flesh, hide-bound,
etc., when the proper operation upon the teeth will cure
your horse without buying a lot of this trash.
How a Horse should be Shod. I
Pare the foot perfectly level ; never take any more out
at the heel than you do at the toe ; never allow your horse's i
frog" to be cut in any way, shape, or form. If there are<
rag's hanging to the frog, let them remain there ; never i
have the bars of your horse's foot cut. Let the horse-shoer
cut enough of the sole out of the horse's foot so that the
shoe will not rest or press upon the sole, leaving an equal
bearing or pressure upon the sole of the horse's foot.
Have a shoe made that is concave from the third nail
hole all the way round to the other third nail hole, from
the last nail hole back to the heel of the shoe ; have it
bevelled outwardly, having the shoe thinner on the outside
at the heel than it is on the inside. My philosophy of this
is, to let the horse's frog come down even with the sihoe,
as when he puts his foot down on the ground, by the shoe
being bevelled at the heel, it gives the quarters a chance
You probably are aware of the fact that the horses' shoes
that are manufactured at the present time are concaved all
the way around ; the result is that the shoe is slanting in-
wardly, and when the horse's foot is placed upon his shoe,
with four nails driven upon each side, you have nailed his
foot to an iron vice, and it is impossible for it to expand,
for the reason that the shoe slanting inwardly causes the
foot to contract. I would advise that all driving or saddle
horses should only have six nails in the front feet and five
in the hind feet ; have them driven well to the middle of the
horse's foot and come out of the horn as low as possible.
Never file your horse's foot on the outside above the nail
heads. Never file the crease under the clinches, as when
you do you are weakening the crust of the horn of your
horse's foot. You stop the growth of this live horn,
causing the foot to become dry and brittle, and when the
old shoes are removed you will find large chunks of the
horse's foot breaking away with the old horseshoe nails.
Never have a red-hot shoe placed upon your horse's foot.
[t draws the moisture and the oil from the hoof, making it
become dry and brittle. Nature never destined that a
tiorse's foot should be burned with a red-hot iron — warm
shoes placed upon a horse's foot will do no harm.
Always have the shoes made to fit the foot, and not fit
the foot to the shoe, as is the practice with many would-be
No scientific workman will contradict the above facts.
A FEW GOOD GENERAL POINTS
Match horses with reference to size and motion, par-
ticularly to colour, if you can.
Always have inside lines on double team quite long, and
back straps short.
Never check a horse if you wish him to last long.
Never feed from mangers. Let your horse eat his food
from the floor even with his feet. A great many horses
suffer from indigestion, and are made stiff and lame from
eating from hay-racks and mangers, which is unnatural to
Water and oats should be given first, hay afterwards.
If you are working your horses hard, give them very little
water at night.
Always stop at the top of the hill and let your horse get
his breath. If you have ever run uphill yourself think of
Always have the shoes fit the foot, and not fit the foot
to the shoe.
Never cut the bars of a horse's foot.
For a coughing horse, wet his hay and not his oats.
Never let your horse stand facing a cold wind.
Always feed light when changing feed.
When training- a horse in a barn, have carriages and all
objects removed, except those that you are using.
Use very few words with a horse, but have them
Be earnest and prompt, but not harsh.
Always approach a strange horse near the shoulder.
Never pat or caress a horse on the head, always pat him
on the shoulder. Think of some person coming- up to you
and patting you on the head. What would you do ?
Teach your horse before whipping", and, when you whip,
do it to frighten, not to enrage him.
Never jump from a waggon when your horse is running
Always exercise sound judgment by purchasing a horse
suited to the business you require of him. Some horses are
good saddle horses, but might not make good cart horses.
If your horse cribs — 'Sell him.
He who buys a horse needs a hundred eyes.
Always try before you buy.
Use your own judgment, and never take others* opinions.
Your first thought is always the best.
Never spare time or labour to relieve a suffering animal.
Remember he is a dumb brute and cannot talk to you.
In treating a disease that a horse may have, never spare
a hair to do your work faithfully for the noble animal.
Never have a blacksmith to put a red-hot shoe on your
Always patronise the best horse-shoers of your city. It
is one of the greatest professions known to-day.
Do not overload your animal.
Have your horse's shoes reset every four weeks.
Never soak your horse's feet.
Never clip a team horse. Driving horses can be clipped
if their owners will see that they are properly cared for,
but I do not approve of clipping any more than I wou4d
take off my overcoat in winter.
The best feed for horses — good oats, good hay, good
pure water. Never give over twelve quarts a day.
See that all collars are properly cleaned after using, in
order to prevent gall and sore necks.
When using your saddle in a storm, see that the blankets
are properly dried before using again.
Always have the collar fit your horse's neck properly.
See that all saddles fit your horses properly.
In the winter time be very careful and not put a cold iron
bit in your horse's mouth. Think of yourself, and you will
have sympathy for the poor brute.
Drive slow in turning corners.
Don't hit your horse with a whip unless he knows what
you hit him for.
Use as little medicine as possible, but prevent sickness in
your horses by giving them proper care and attention.
Give your horse who works hard through the day a good
bed to sleep on.
The curry-comb and brush, well used twice a day, is as
g-ood as three quarts of grain.
Feed your horses regularly. Water them often when
doing hard work in very warm weather.
Give bran mashes twice a week.
Use only the best of hay. It is the cheapest in the end.
Have horses shod as light as possible. Never use over
six nails in the front feet and five nails in the hind feet for
all light driving or saddle horses.
When breaking a horse, use as light a break-waggon as
Make your lessons short.
Never lose your temper. Always have plenty of patience.
Never drive fast downhill.
Let your horse walk uphill.
Let him go on the level.
When you are coming from a drive and your horse is
very warm, let him stand five minutes and steam before
you put a blanket on him.
Before leaving him for the night, change blankets — a dry
one for the wet one. Nine-tenths of the diseases of horses
are caused from their not having the proper care.
If you have a heavy horse, sell him.
Never put a horse to hard work until he is five years old.
Never pack your horse's feet.
Never allow a blacksmith to sand-paper your horse's feet.
Never allow oils of any kind to be placed on the outside
of a horse's hoof, as it closes the pores. In order to keep
a horse's foot in good order, and free from disease, take a
pailful of salt water and wash his legs, from his knees
down, three times a week.
Where your horse's foot is contracted, or the frog has
become hard and dry, use poultice. (See Veterinary
Department in this book).
The author of this book does not claim to be a veterinary
surgeon, but does claim to have a fair practical knowledge
of the treatment of the many ordinary diseases of horses,
and will endeavour to make a few suggestions, to enable
the horse owner to relieve the animal of some of the many
troubles to which he may be subject. The majority of the
diseases mentioned in this department are easily detected,
and the remedies prescribed plain and practical.
A few of the more common symptoms or signs of diseases
will be considered, but we shall have to depend upon close
observation and a strict attention to the different peculiari-
ties exhibited, in order to determine the cause and result
of the disease.
The general appearance and actions of the horse must
first be observed carefully. The positions assumed by the
horse when ailing are quite different from those in health.
The most prominent symptoms are seen in the eyes, nos-
trils, ears, and flanks ; if the eye appear dull, weeping, and
inflamed, give cooling medicine for fever ; if the eyes are
staring and glazed, you have a bad case, and an indication,
of fatal termination. If the nostrils are expanded, the
breathing laborious, and the ears drooping and cold, there=
is serious trouble, and needs immediate attention.
The horse cannot describe to us his sickness, but by his
general appearance and motion, it is not difficult to dis-
tinguish between disease and health.
When an animal is seen to be ailing, he should be placed
in a roomy box stall, care being taken to keep the stall
clean and dry. The manger should be washed out, at least
once a day, with strong salt water ; the floor should be
well littered with clean straw ; the drains should have a
little lime or copperas water poured in once a day. A horse
that is sick wants rest and quietness. Be sure that you
understand the disease, and in administering medicine use
only such as you are certain will do no harm, remembering
that more horses die from improper use of medicines than
By watching carefully a few minutes, you will, very
likely, see that the animal points his nose to the place of
pain. If it is lameness, he will rest the affected limb.
Watch carefully for any alteration in temperature or breath-
ing. Diseases arise principally from obstructed or impaired
digestion ; care should be taken to give only such food as
we know to be clean and sweet, and to give it in proper
quantities. A horse should never be driven fast on a full
stomach. The feet should be carefully examined after
work, to see if there are any stones or nails ; the dust
should be washed from the eyes, mouth, and nostrils. It
is much easier to prevent disease than to cure it.
A horse is also very much like man in the general struc-
ture of the internal organs, and the treatment of diseases
very much the same. The average size of a horse being
nine times that of a man, with few exceptions, he requires
nine times the amount of medicine ; the same remedies
used in the human family will be applicable and beneficial
to the horse.
Many disorders of man and beast arise from obstruction
and derangement of the circulation and secretive functions ;
therefore, to keep in health, prevent obstructions, and to
restore health, remove them. The fewer medicines given
the horse, provided the cure is effected, the better ; nature
cannot be forced, but can be assisted and reHeved, and to
accompHsh this there must be an adaptation of the treat-
ment to the nature of the disease. As has heretofore been
said, the owner is at a great disadvantage in treating a
horse, from the fact that the animal cannot speak ; but the
treatment may be undertaken with greater hope and con-
fidence than with the human patient, because it may be
made with more safety, much more vigorous and decided.
The following- recipes have all been tested, and are
selected from formulas used by some of the best veterina-
rians in this and the old country ; the most of them are
easily obtained, and just such as all horsemen are con-
Pneumonia (Lung Fever)
Begins with a chill, and is accompanied by fever ; ears and
legs cold ; breathing hurried and distressed ; fore feet
widely apart ; eyes inflamed and drooping lids ; breath
very hot; will not lie down, and groans when moved.
Give ten-drop doses tincture of aconite root every hour, for
five hours. Rub the chest with mustard and vinegar.
The second day, mix half-ounce of quinine to a pint of
whisky, and give two table-spoonfuls every three hours.
Bandage the legs with flannel ; if very cold, rub them first
with dry mustard, and then bandage. Repeat this process-
of rubbing and bandaging until they are warm.
Is accompanied by short breathing and intense pain ; legs
drawn together ; very sore to the touch on the sides ;
moans when moved. Treatment similar to that of lung:
fever, only that instead of using mustard on the sides,
apply blankets, soaked in and wrung out of hot water, and
give two table-spoonfuls of sweet spirits of nitre in bucket
half full of water, twice a day.
Gravel or Stone in the Bladder.
Symptoms very much like colic. The horse in motion
has a straddling gait ; difficulty of urinating, accompanied
by groans ; urine dark and hot ; patient perspires pro-
fusely, especially in the region of the flanks. Apply hot
blankets over the loins, and give ten drops o( muriatic
^cid in bucket half full of water, twice a day
The horse breathes laboriously ; stands upon his heels,
with fore feet and legs stretched out, throwing his weight
on the hind feet ; shows intense pain when moved. Treat-
ment : Take off the front shoes ; give ten-drop doses of
tincture of aconite every three hours until five doses have
been administered ; soak the front feet in hot water with a
handful of washing soda in it, for an hour at a time, twice
a day ; after each soaking, apply poultices of cold water
and bran ; feed the horse on warm bran mash, and if the
bowels are costive, drench with one pint of flaxseed oil
and one half-ounce of oil of sassafras.
Rubbing the Tail.
If troubled with pin worms, inject with eight ounces of
linseed oil and two ounces of turpentine ; wash the tail
with strong salt water every other day. An injection of
strong salt water will often destroy the pin worms.
There are many diseases of the blood, but the most com-
mon are itching and skin eruptions. Take equal quantities
of snake root, sassafras root, and rhubarb root, and boil
them sufficiently to make a strong tea. Give a half-pint
in mixed feed every night for a week. The best time to
give this is in the spring, when the horse begins to shed
This is one of the most fatal diseases of the horse. It
generally comes from a wound, and can be easily dis-
tinguished from any other disease. If it comes from a
wound, open the wound and soak in warm water and
poultice. Give ten drops tincture of aconite and twenty
drops tincture of belladonna every three hours. Keep the
horse perfectly quiet.
Injury from Nails.
After drawing the nail, soak the foot in hot soda water^
clean the opening so as to allow discharge, then poultice
with flaxseed or onions.
Mix one drachm biniodide of mercury with one ounce of«
lard. Rub a portion of the ointment on the enlargement.
In twenty-four hours grease with lard, and in an hour washi
off with warm water and soap. If not relieved repeat inii
ten days. j
Burns and Scalds.
Bathe with equal parts of lime water and linseed oil, and I
sprinkle a little flour over to keep air out.
Stings pr Mosquito Bites.
Bathe the parts with diluted spirits of hartshorn or
strong solution of hyposulphite of soda.
Chronic Discharge of the Horse
Mix equal parts powdered bluestone and gentian root ;
give teaspoonful three times a day in the feed, and steara
the horse with a little tobacco sprinkled over red coals.
Ulcerated Mouth or Sore Tongue.
Equal parts of tincture of myrrh and water, and bathft
mouth twice a day.
Bruise an ounce of quassia wood and put to soak in a
quart of soft water ; after standing one day, wash the
dorse and let him stand in the sun until dry, and then
brush out with a stiff brush. If not all removed, repeat
the washing- and brushing in a few days.
Pink eye, catarrh, bronchitis, and strangles, and pretty
nuch all of the diseases accompanied with a discharge
rom the nostrils, are classed as distemper. The treatment
n all of these is similar, and the cases should be treated
iccording to the symptoms shown. First stage : Give
nedicine for fever (ten-drop doses tincture of aconite,
)unce dose sweet spirits of nitre, or flaxseed tea, should
)e given) ; the animal should have warm bran mashes, and
)e kept in a well-ventilated stable, without much draught.
3athe the throat twice a day with hartshorn and sweet oil
two parts of sweet oil to one of hartshorn). If the
hroat be much swollen and shows indication of pus form-
ng, poultice with flaxseed until the enlargement breaks,
hen wash clean with warm water and Castile soap. As
oon as the fever is subdued, give the following powders
o cleanse and build up the system : Two parts gentian
oot (powdered), two parts saltpetre, one part ginger root,
nd one part Peruvian bark. Powder fine and mix well,
rive a teaspoonful three times a day. If the horse does
ot improve in a few days, send for a veterinarian, as there
lay have set in some complication, such as lung fever,
leurisy, dropsy, etc., which are serious. Great care
hould be taken to keep the horse quiet, and if summer,
ut some grass and give him a few handfuls three or four
mes a day.
Hide-bound and Dead Coat.
Give a tablespoonful of powdered jimpson seed in mixed
feed every night for four nights, then stopping for four
nights, and again repeating as before.
Make a strong decoction of poke berries and whisky ;
give two tablespoonfuls in a little water night and morning.
Weak or Inflamed Eyes.
If eyelids are much swollen and red on the inside, take
three eggs, mix them together, yolks and whites, put them
into a quart of warm water and let simmer for one half-
hour, then add half-ounce of sulphate of zinc ; let stand
and settle until cold, then strain. Poultice eye with the
curd, allowing it to remain on for two hours. Wash the
eye with the liquid two or three times a day.
Thumps — Spasm of the Diaphragm.
The diaphragm is the curtain-like muscle which separates
the chest from the abdomen. For this spasm give ten
drops tincture of aconite in a little water ; bathe the head
and nostrils with cold water, and in half-hour give a bottle
of ale or porter.
In all strains there Is more or less swelHng" and heat.
First soak or bathe the parts in hot water, with a handful
of washing soda to each bucket. Bathe for half an hour ;
then rub dry and bathe with tincture of arnica flowers.
Bruised Heels or Corns.
Remove the shoe, soak in hot soda water and poultice
with flax seed or onions. If there be a corn, have it cut
out, pour some tincture of iodine on it, and dry it in with
a hot iron. Have horse shod so that the shoe will not
bear on the corn.
Fistula or Poll Evil.
When the enlargement first shows, apply a hop bag, of
about two quarts, dipped in boiling vinegar, to the swell-
ing, laying a piece of oil-cloth on top of the bag to keep
in the steam. Repeat every fifteen minutes for an hour
twice a day, continuing the process for three days. Then
dissolve an ounce of corrosive sublimate and an ounce of
camphor in a pint of turpentine, and apply this liniment
once a day. If this does not effect a cure, and there is a
pus formed inside, open it well with a sharp knife and
wash it out with one part of carbolic acid to eight parts of
glycerine. Both of these drugs (corrosive sublimate and
carbolic acid) are violent poisons, and should be used with
When a horse is overcome with heat, get him into the
shade, if possible, and bathe the head and back the entire
length of the backbone with cold water; sponge the mouth
out well with a little whisky and cold water and give him
a couple of ten-drop doses of tincture of aconite. If the
legs are cold, bathe them well with whisky and red pepper,
and bandage them with red flannel.
Horses that are well fed and not regularly exercised are
most subject to paralysis. The hind portions are the most
liable to be affected. Try to keep the horse on his feet;
if already down, make a sling of bags and raise him, as he
will do much better if standing. Steep blankets in hot
water and wring out dry, apply them to back as hot as
possible. Leave the blankets on for a couple of hours,
then remove them and rub the horse dry, and bathe the
back well with hot vinegar and salt and cover with a dry
blanket. Give half a pint of ale or porter every two or
three hours and send for a veterinarian.
Cramps and Spasmodic Colic.
Th- horse refuses his feed ; paws with the fore feet ;
tries to kick his belly with his hind feet ; looks round at
his side ; during the spasm he is greatly excited, kickmg
and rolling ; sweats freely ; there are also frequent inter-
missions of pain. Give half a pint of warm ale or porter
with a tablespoonful of ginger, or half-pint of whisky and
tablespoonful of essence of peppermint ; if not relieved
give an ounce of laudanum, two ounces of sweet spirits oi
nitre in half-pint water ; repeat either of the doses every
Inflammation of the Bowels.
The symptoms are somewhat similarto those of spasmodic
colic, the only difference being that there is no intermission
of pain. The horse rolls, paws and shifts about, has a high
fever, hot breath, and is greatly excited. First : relieve
the pain by giving ten drops of tincture of aconite and
twenty drops of tincture of belladonna in two tablespoonfuls
of water every hour. Apply blankets wrung out of hot
water to the belly ; use the hot blankets for several hours,
then rub dry ; if no better apply a mustard plaster made of
hot w^ater and vineg'ar and strong mustard, mixed thick as
cream. This is a dangerous disease ; send for your
veterinarian as soon as possible.
Wind, or Flatulent Colic,
Resembles the two former diseases, excepting that the
belly is swollen with gas caused by the fermentation of
food. Give a tablespoonful of baking soda in half-pint of
water ; inject with warm, soapy water ; if the w^ind passes
off with the water, you may consider your horse out of
danger. If not relieved give an ounce of hyposulphite of
soda, one ounce of laudanum, and one ounce of tincture of
assafcetida in half-pint of water.
When fully developed there is no cure. If there is fever
in the joint, bathe with warm soda water, then use bandages
soaked in cold water on the parts until the hock is as cool
is other portions of the leg. Then apply a blister of
biniodide of mercury the same as used in splint. This
treatment may reduce the enlargement and relieve the
Bog and Blood Spavin, or Thorough-Pin,
Is incurable, but may be relieved by hot fomentations and
the use of the biniodide blister.
Suppression of Urine, or Stoppage of Water.
The horse tries to urinate, but only a few drops pass at
a time. Examine the sheath, and see that there are no
obstructions, and that the parts are clean. (A horse's
sheath should be washed out with warm water and soap
at least once a month.) Apply a warm blanket to the back
over the kidneys ; make a strong tea of water-melon seeds,
and give a teacupful every couple of hours. If not relieved
the first day, give two ounces sweet spirits of nitre in half-
pint of water.
Scratches, or Cracked Heels.
If the legs are swollen and hot, poultice for twenty-four
hours, changing the poultice every six hours with boiled
carrots and sufficient charcoal (powdered) to colour it black.
Then clean the parts with a sponge, dampened with warm
water and Castile soap, and apply an ointment composed
of two ounces sulphur, one half-ounce sugar ot lead, one
drachm of carbolic acid, and four ounces lard ; mix well,
vise the ointment twice a day, and keep the legs dry.
Collar or Saddle Galls.
Jimpson leaves bruised and mixed with an equal quar.lity
of hot lard, make good healing- ointment.
Heaves or Broken Wind.
Heaves cannot be cured. Care in feeding and watering
is the best remedy. Give feed and water in small quantity.
Dampen the feed with lime-water and give teaspoonful
doses of pine tar on the tongue once a day.
Diarrhoea or Scouring.
Brown half-pound of rice the same as you would brown
coffee. Grind in a coffee mill, and boil in two quarts of
water, add two ounces of laudanum, and give a teacupful
two or three times a day.
Two ounces of pine tar, four ounces honey, and one
ounce powdered Irish moss ; mix and give a teaspoonful
night and morning on the tongue.
Look for sharp edges on the teeth ; if they are rough,
smooth with a tooth rasp, then make a strong sage tea,
well sweetened with honey, and swab the mouth out two
or three times a day.
Hemorrhage or Bleeding from Wound.
If the blood be a light red or pink, and spurts out, it is
from an artery ; if possible, find this artery and tie it with
a strong thread, and bind on the wound a thick plaster of
cobweb. If it is only veins that are injured, apply the
cobweb. If that does not stop the flow, touch with a hot
iron and repeat the application of cobweb.
Staggers generally comes from disordered stomach or
close and ill-ventilated stables. If the animal stops on the
road and staggers, take the small blade of your penknife
and stick him in the upper jaw; not above the third ridge.
Bathe the head and nostrils with cold water and quietly
walk him home, then feed with bran mash or cut grass. A
horse subject to staggers should not be turned out to
pasture. Dispose of him, he is of no account.
Mix a handful of cut and dry tobacco with the feed, twice
Urinating profusely and frequently may be corrected by
giving a teaspoon half full of iodide of potassium every
night for two weeks in mixed feed.
Swollen or Inflamed Udders.
Dissolve a piece of g'um camphor the size of a hazel nut
in two tablespoonfuls of hot lard. Bathe the udder with
this twice a day. Give the mare bran mashes and moderate
To Clean and Oil Harness.
First, take the harness apart, having each strap and
piece by itself; then wash it in warm soapsuds. When
cleaned, black every part with the following dye : One
ounce extract logwood, twelve grains bichromate of potash,
both powdered fine; then put into two quarts of boiling
rain-water, and stir until all is dissolved. When cool it
may be used. You can bottle and keep for future use if
you wish. It may be applied w-ith a shoe brush or any-
thing else convenient. When the dye has struck in, you
may oil each part with neatsfoot oil, applied with a paint-
brush or anything convenient. For second oiling use
one-third castor oil and two-thirds neatsfoot oil, mixed.
A few hours after, wipe clean with a woollen cloth, which
gives the harness a glossy appearance.
The preparation does not injure the leather or stitching,
makes it soft and pliable, and obviates the necessity of
oiling- as often as is necessary by the ordinary method. Its
use is, therefore, economical.
Cause. — In a flat foot, the heels of the coffin-bone squeeze
the sensitive sole by pressing it against the shoe. In a
€4)atracted foot, the sensitive sole is squeezed between the
wings of the coffin-bone and the thick, horny sole. A
bruise results, the blood is effused and the stain of this
left upon the horny sole — g-enerally upon the inner side and
anterior to the bars — constitutes a horse's corn, which is
mostly found on the fore feet.
Syinptovis. — If the stain is dark and is to be removed
with the knife, this indicates that a corn was there but no
longer exists. The smallest stain of bright scarlet testifies
to the existence of a new and present corn. Corns are of
four kinds, the old, the new, the sappy, and the suppurative.
The old and new are produced by the blood, and are judged
by the scarlet or dark-coloured stain. The old is generally
near the surface ; the new is commonly deep-seated. The
sappy is when the bruise is only heavy enough to effuse
serum. The new corn alone produces lameness. The
suppurating corn may start up from either of the others
receiving additional injury. It causes intense pain and
produces acute lameness.
Recipe to Stop the Growth of Bone Spavins,
Ringbones, and Curbs; also to Remove
Splints from Horses.
Take corrosive sublimate, one-quarter ounce; tartar
emetic, one-half ounce; gum euphorbium, one-half ounce;
cantharides, one-quarter ounce; oil of spike, two ounces;
verdigris, fine ground, one-quarter ounce; oil of worm-
wood, one-half ounce; oil of turpentine, two ounces;
croton oil, one-half ounce ; mercurial ointment, three-fourths
ounce; tincture iodine, one and one-half ounces; crude
oil, or alcohol, four ounces; tincture capsicum, one ounce
put in last one ounce sulphuric acid; mix all.
Directions. — First, shear off the hair; then take hot soap-
suds, say three-fourths pailful, and put into a pint of old
chamber lye, and foment or bathe the foot or joint ten
minutes; then put as much of the medicine on as will pene-
trate; rub with finger a minute; do so once in three days
until the lameness is gone. Always foment before putting
on medicine, and let the colt run out or the horse work. It
is better than to stand still. It keeps the strength of the
muscles, and when well will not get hurt again.
Recipe for Blood or Bog Spavins, Enlargement
of Back Sinews, near the Pastern Joint,
Take four drachms iodide of potassium; two ounces oil
of hemlock ; three ounces turpentine ; two ounces oil stone ;
one ounce oil of wormwood ; mix all with eight ounces
alcohol and two ounces tincture of cantharides.
Directions. — Shake well and rub the parts of blood spavin
every other day until you have used the medicine nine
times; then wash the parts and grease for a week. For
windgalls, same way. Two to four applications will be
enough. This will remove any soft blemish on the horse.
Bathe with hot water first.
For Shoulder, Hip, or Stifle liameness.
Take oil of fireweed, one-half ounce; oil of wormwood,
one-half ounce ; ammonia, two ounces; tincture of myrrh,
one ounce ; oil of spike, one and three-fourths ounces ; tinc-
ture of cantharides, one and three-fourths ounces ; alcohol,
three ounces ; mix all.
Directions, — First wet the parts with hot water for five
or six minutes ; rub on medicine well ; then cover the
shoulder or hips with as many blankets as you can, and
leave them on eight hours. Do this once in three days,
until you have done it four times ; then once in six days,
until you have done it three or four times more. Always
bathe the hip or shoulders with hot water first.
To be given to horses twice a 5'ear, in spring and fall.
This will keep your horses from having distemper, coughs,
colds, or farcy, and keep them in good health.
Take gentian root, pulverised, two and one-half ounces;
sassafras bark, two ounces; elecampane, two ounces;
skunk cabbage, one ounce: cream of tartar, one ounce;
saltpetre, two and one-half ounces; ginger, two ounces;
sulphur, six ounces; digtails, one ounce; bloodroot, one
ounce; and buchu leaves, one ounce. Mix all together
well. If your horse is in bad health give a teaspoonful
twice a day in bran mash, or to prevent all internal diseases
give a tablespoonful in spring and fall, once a day, for
fifteen or seventeen days.
One ounce sugar of lead, one ounce burnt alum, one-
half ounce sulphate zinc, one quart rain water. Wash off
clean with Castile soap and water. Let dry and apply the
liquid for three or four days. A sure cure if not grease heel.
Recipe to Cure Grease Heels or Big Leg.
Take two ounces tincture of cantharides, two ounces
aqua ammonia, two ounces oil of turpentine, one ounce
laudanum, three ounces alcohol. Mix all together.
Directions. — First bathe the heel or leg with hot soft
soap suds well for five or six minutes, then rub o\\ the
medicine well enough to wet the skin. Rub in well. Do
this once in six days until you have done it from two to
five times. If the disease is not of long standing, two
applications are enough. In case of bad scratches or
grease, give the horse the blood purifier.
Recipe to Cure Poll Evil or Fistula, if Broken
Take tincture of lobelia, one ounce; cantharides, one
ounce; croton oil, one-fourth ounce; corrosive sublimate,
one-fourth ounce; euphorbium, one-fourth ounce ; mercurial
ointment, one-half ounce; tartar emetic, one-eighth ounce;
turpentine and oil of spike, each one and three-fourths
ounces; sulphuric acid, one ounce; alcohol, one and one-
Directions. — Insert with a probe to bottom of pipe and
find which way they run, then put a small sponge on your
probe and put as much medicine in as will ^o once a day
for ten days. This will take out all the pipes and branches
at the bottom. Then take one ounce nitrate of potash,
put into a pint of soft water, and use with a syringe. This
will heal from the bottom to surface. Same with fistula.
Keep the parts clean with soft soap suds, and give the
For Poll Evil or Fistula, if Not Broken Out.
Take tincture of iodine, three ounces; turpentine, three
ounces ; aqua ammonia, two ounces ; tincture of cantharides,
two ounces; oil of spike, two ounces; kerosene oil, six
ounces. Mix all together. Rub the parts over once a day
well for ten days, and give the horse blood purifier, Na 7,
in both cases.
Remedy for Colic and Belly-Ache.
Take one and one-half ounces of laudanum, two ounces
essence of peppermint, two ounces sweet nitre, one ounce
capsicum, and ten drops tincture of aconite. Mix with one
pint of whisky. Give half the dose. If not well in ten
minutes give the other half. Cover the horse with blankets
and do not move him.
Cause. — Deranged condition of the digestive organs.
Symptoms. — Voracious appetite, loss of flesh, and general
unthrifty condition, and accompanied often by a dry, hack-
ing cough. The excrement is usually covered with slime,
and the anus is the seat of a morbid secretion of white
Treatment. — Oil of savin, give ten drops three times a
week. This is a valuable remedy for worms. Always
give the blood purifier at the same time. Do not give to
mares with foal.
Recipe to Cure Fresh Wounds, Cuts, Kicks, or
Take one and one-fourth ounces sugar of lead, one-
fourth ounce sulphate of zinc, one and one-fourth ounces
saltpetre, one-fourth ounce sal ammonia, one-half ounce
copperas. Mix all with one-half pint of alcohol, and two
quarts of soft water. Wet the parts three or four times
a day. This will keep Inflammation and proud flesh from
the parts, and heal them very fast.
Cause. — Contraction of the feet and bruises of the soles.
Symptoms, — Pain and lameness discoverable in one or
both fore feet. On removing a flake or two of the sole at
the inner angle of the foot, a dark spot will be discovered.
This is called the corn spot.
Treatment. — Take corrosive sublimate, two drachms ;
mercurial ointment, two drachms ; verdigris, one drachm ;
croton oil, three drachms. Mix and heat in foot when shod.
To Cure the Mange.
Symptoms. — The hair will rub off, and the skin break out
Take tincture of cantharides, two ounces; oil of spike,
two ounces ; aqua ammonia, one and three-fourth ounces ;
turpentine, one and one-half ounces; chloroform, one-half
ounce; oil of amber, one ounce; alcohol, four ounces. Mix
all and rub parts.
liiniment for Bruises or Lame Back for Man
Take alcohol, three ounces ; oil of origanum, two ounces ;
oil of hemlock, two ounces; opodeldoc, two ounces; tinc-
ture of arnica, two ounces; chloroform, one-half ounce.
Mix all. This is good for rheumatism.
This will grow the hoof very fast, and is good for con-
traction or thrush. To be used between the hair and hoof.
Balsam fir, oil hemlock, white pine pitch, honey, Venice
turpentine, beeswax, each one and three-fourth ounces ;
lard, one-half pound; fine ground verdigris, three-fourths
ounce. Simmer all together over a slow fire. When
melted, take off the fire and stir until it is cool.
A Liniment for Man or Beast.
One pint turpentine, one pint beef gall, one pint harts-
horn, two ounces oil of sassafras, and two ounces of sweet
oil. For external use.
Colic and Stoppage of the Urine.
Symptoms. — Frequent attempts to urinate; looking round
at his side ; lying down ; rolling and stretching.
Cure. — One ounce chloroform, one pint of linseed oil,
two ounces sweet spirits of nitre; mix and drench.
Physic Ball for Horses.
Barbadoes aloes, from three to five or six drachms (ac-
cording to the size of the horse) ; tartrate of potassia, one
drachm ; ginger and Castile soap, of each two drachms ;
oil of anise or peppermint, twenty drops. Pulverise and
make all into one ball with thick gum solution.
Symptoms. — Not unlike lung fever. The horse is stiff,
but has no fever in his feet. Very sore in the chest; inclined
to stand very wide with his fore legs.
Cnre.— Bleed just above each hoof, and bind up legs
with oat straw, and bathe with warm water for half an
hour; then rub dry with hot cloths, and pour in bottom of
each foot one tablespoonful of turpentine. Give internally
one spoonful of pulverised alum. Take equal parts of
boiled turnips and bran, add four ounces of ground flax-
seed for poulticing feet.
Turpentine, half pint; linseed oil, half pint; acqu
ammonia, four ounces; tincture iodine, one ounce. Good
for fresh sores, swellings, bruises, etc. Apply twice a day.
Fresh butter, two pounds ; tincture of iodine, one ounce ;
oil of origanum, two ounces. Ready for use in fifteen
Jaundice— Yellow Water.
Symptoms.— The hair in the mane and tail gets loose;
the white of the eye turns yellow and the bars of the
mouth; he refuses to eat, and limps in his right fore leg
Cure —Give every morning until it operates, Barbadoes
aloes, seven drachms; calomel, one drachm; ginger, four
drachms. Mix with molasses. Feed scalded bran and
oats, or grass if it can be had. Stop the physic when the
bowels move ; then give spirits of camphor, one ounce
every day for twelve days.
Laudanum, gum camphor, spirits of turpentine, tincture
of myrrh, Castile soap, oil of origanum, and nitrous ether,
each one ounce; alcohol, one quart. Shake well before
using. Apply twice or three times a day, as the case may
A Liniment to Use on Swollen Glands.
Tincture arnica, chloroform, ammonia, and sweet oil
four ounces of each. Mix well. Rub on the horse's
throat twice a day.
Fenugreek, cream of tartar, gentian, sulphur, saltpetre,
resin, black antimony, and ginger, equal quantities of
each, say one ounce, all to be finely pulverised; cayenne,
also fine, half the quantity of any one of the others, say a
half-ounce. It is used in yellow water, coughs, colds,
distemper, and all other diseases where condition powders
are generally administered. They carry off the gross
humours and purify the blood.
Dose.— In ordinary cases give two teaspoonfuls once a
day in feeding; in extreme cases give twice daily. If this
does not give as good satisfaction as any other condition
powder that costs more than double what it does to make
this, then I will acknowledge that travel and study are of
Sore Mouth or Tongue.
Cause. — Inferior provender, and abuse by pulling on
First take his grain from him, then take half an ounce
of alum and two drachms of sugar of lead, one pint of
vinegar, and half a gallon of water. Open the mouth and
swab it out with this every morning and night. This
should cure in all cases in five or six days.
To Stop Blood.
Swab the wound with Monsel's solution of iron,
I have frequently alluded in this work to the free use of
bran mash for sick horses. They are invaluable, yet
require some attention to the proper mode of preparing the
same. The following is the rule: The bran should be
clear and glossy in the colour of its scales; the scales
should be of moderate size and perfectly sweet to the smell;
very fine bran is unfit for sick horses. The common prac-
tice is to place a certain quantity of bran within a bucket,
then to pour hot water upon it and stir the rness and give
it to the horse immediately. To prepare a mash properly
proceed as follows : First, pour the bran into a clean
bucket and add to it a tablespoonful of salt; then pour on
it the required quantity of boiling water, and, in doing so,
contrive to let the water run upon every portion of the sur-
face of the bran; then immediately afterwards spread a
thin coating of oatmeal upon the mass, and upon the oat-
meal a dry covering of bran ; then cover the vessel with a
clean sack or a thick woollen cloth, and set the same in a
cool place about a half-hour, after which remove the
covering from the bucket and lightly stir the contents; it
is ready then for the patient. This plan of preparing a
mash will thoroughly steep the bran, and at the same time
preserve its aroma.
strong Blister Ointment.
Hog's lard, four ounces ; oil of turpentine and Spanish
flies, each one ounce ; mix.
For Fomenting Swollen or Stocked Legs.
Procure one pound of smartweed ; place the same in an
eight-gallon kettle, with four gallons of soft water ; place
over a slow fire and boil down to two gallons ; strain the
solution into another iron or tin vessel ; get one pound of
alum, place in a mortar and pulverise fine ; sift the alum
into the liquid ; again place over the fire, and stir until
well dissolved. Now wind the limb tight with a hay rope ;
pour one pint of the solution in at the top of the bandage
when blood-warm. Repeat every hour for forty-eight
hours. This is the best fomentation used. It will remove
all inflammation and swelling in two days. If there is a
cut or wound after fomenting, apply white ointment until
healed. In case of strain or bruise, apply the general
Diseases of the Mouth, or Lampas.
Sy?npto?ns. — Swelling of the gums, and bars, and roof ot
the mouth. In many colts and horses it occasions but
little or no inconvenience, while in others the pain is so
great as to interfere with their feeding.
Treatment. — Some barbarous pretenders burn with hot
iron. But act humanely. Lance the bars, or use the jack-
knife, if you can get nothing better. Use judgment, and
in a few days the animal will feed as usual.
To Grow Hair.
Add as much sulphur to sweet oil as will make it as
thick as cream; apply to the mane and tail, rubbing- in
thoroughly, at least twice a week. This, it is said, will
g-row hair on the mane and tail rapidly. Must cleanse
parts well with Castile soap and water each time before
applying the ointment.
Galls, Cuts, and Sores.
Galls, cuts, and sores should be kept well cleansed as
often as possible with Castile soap and water, and if they
are chafed and rubbed by the harness, the parts of the har-
ness should be kept clean at all times wherever they touch
the cut, gfall, or sore. Apply an ointment of the following:
Pulverised alum, four ounces; pulverised bloodroot, four
ounces ; white lead, four ounces ; calomel, two ounces.
Mix wuth glycerine, sweet oil, or lard, to make an ointment.
I have never known it to fail on cuts, galls, or even
Or, pulverised Castile soap, four ounces; camphor gum,
four ounces; calomel, two ounces. Mix with glycerine,
sweet oil, or lard, to make an ointment. I have known
galls or cuts to heal up readily while at work, especially
if the horse's blood is well cleansed.
The cause and symptoms of thrush are usually well
known, yet I will describe them as follows: First, fever
in feet, bad stable and management, wet bedding, etc., etc.
Treatment. — Cleanse well the parts affected with Castile
soap and water ; open the crevices and apply chloride of
zinc thoroughly, or crystallised carbolic acid; repeat every
day until relieved. Cleanse well each time before an appli-
cation is made. Keep the horse's feet on dry floor. Dilute
with soft water one ounce of either the zinc or the acid,
when it is fit for use.
To Dry Up Old Sores.
Quarter of a pound of white lead ; dust on the places
twice a day. Horses can be worked all the time. This is
simple and g^ood.
To Restore the Appetite.
Use of pulverised caraway seed and bruised raisins, four
ounces each ; of ginger and palm oil, two ounces each ;
always use twice as much of the first as of the last in what-
ever quantity you wish to make it. Give a small ball once
a day until the appetite is restored ; use mashes at the
Recipe for Swellings.
Double handful each of mullen leaves, May apple roots,
poke roots, one gallon of water ; boil and add double hand-
ful of salt ; apply as warm as the hand can bear it. Good
Pow^dered fenugreek, two ounces ; black antimony, one
ounce ; sulphur, one ounce ; saltpetre, one ounce ;
powdered gentian, two ounces ; glauber salts, two ounces ;
ginger, two ounces ; resin, two ounces ; assafoetida, one
ounce. Good for coughs, colds, distemper, bad blood,
yellow water, loss of appetite, etc.
Dose. — One tablespoonful once a day in wet food.
Few horsemen are aware of the value of these simple
preparations in abating" inflammation and allaying" pain,
cleansing wounds and causing them to heal. They are the
best kind of fomentations ; they continue longer and keep
the pores open. In all inflammation of the feet they are
very beneficial, and in cases of contraction a poultice
that contains the heat and moisture longest is the best.
They will relieve swellings, take out the soreness from the
pores, and draw out unnatural substances. Linseed oil
makes the best poultice ; it will hasten any tumour that is
necessary to open and cleanse any old one, causing a healthy
discharge when it is off"ensive. But in this case — where
the ulcer smells badly — add two ounces of pulverised char-
coal or chloride lime, half an ounce to one pound of meal.
This is good to use in grease or cracked heel. A poultice
should never be put on tight. Carrots are very good ;
mash fine after boiling soft. The charcoal may be used in
this also, where the parts smell offensively.
Medicated Food for Horses and Cattle.
Take linseed cake and pulverise or grind it up in the
shape of meal, and to every fifty pounds of this ingredient
add ten pounds of Indian meal, two pounds of sulphuret of
antimony, two pounds of ground ginger, one and three-
fourth pounds of saltpetre, and two pounds of powdered
sulphur. Mix the whole thoroughly together. Put in
neat boxes or packages, for sale or otherwise, as desired,
and you will have an article equal to Thorley's food, or
almost any other preparation that can be got up for the
purpose of fattening stock or curing disease in every case
when food or medicine can be of any use whatever. This
article can be fed in any desired quantity, beginning with a
few tablespoonfuls at a time for a horse, mixing it with his
grain, and in the same proportion to smaller animals,
repeating the dose and increasing the quantity as the case
may seem to require.
13 F^I EFlaETS
PRESS OF THE WORLD.
MORNING ADVERTISER. "The Profef^sor is a master of his
"TJie Professors skill is decidedly worth seeing."
"It is a capital show, and well worthy a visit."
MORNING POST. " The Professor claims to be able to subdue,
in view of tlie audience, the wildest and most vicious
hor^e that can be brought him, and his performance is
ecjual to his promise."'
" I'rofe^i.sor Smith":- clever Horse Taming Exhibition, in
wliich hkill and patience render docile even the most
STANDARD. "The manner in which he performed his task
earned for liim the plaudits of his audience, and the
warm approval of the owners of the animals."
SPORTSMAN. " The Professors method has never been known
to have any but successful results."
DAILY CHRONICLE. "Has made good his claim to cure a
liorse of any vice."
DAILY MAIL. " The methods of taming are perfectly humane, so
the Inspector of S.P.C.A. informed our representative."
" Should be witnessed by all who are the least interested
in such matters."
COURIER. "Should not be missed by anyone who has the lea^-t
to do with horses."
PORCUPINE. "Fun and instruction are to be obtained from
" Some of his feats are quite uni)aralleled. "
CAPE TIMES. "Is a most daiin"^ and accoinplif<hed whip anf
rider, and the control he exercises over refractory horses,
togetlier with the very short time in which lie has thera
well in hand, is indeed marvellous."
*' Showed himself a master of equitation."
ADVERTISER. " Professor Smith claims that he is the Charapion;
Horse Trainer of the World, and we are quite at ona
with him, as he proved beyond 'all possible probable
shadow of doubt' that he can do just as he pleases with
vicious, unmanageable, and untrained horses."
"One of the best shows that has visited Port Elizabeth."
TELEGRAPH. "Such a performance has never been witnessed
GROCOTT'S MAIL. "Justly called the Emperor of Horse
JOH AN^ N^£: S^ XJ I^G.
STAR. "The cleverest display of its kind ever 3een in
STANDARD AND DIGGERS. "That Professor Smith was a
thorough master of his profession was proved con-
clusively. . . . The way in which he handled the
horses was truly wonderful."
LICENSED VICTUALLERS* GAZETTE. "Professor Smith
has created quite a furore in Johannesburg. He i*
certainly a master of his art."
TRANSVAAL CRITIC. " I should like to see Professor Smith a,
TIMES OF NATAL. "Throughout the whole exhibition thera
was no trace of cruelty."
NATAL CRITIC. " There is not the slightest doubt his methods
are genuine and above-board. The whole exhibition
was clever, interesting, and excitinii."
HOB ART MERCURY. "The whole of the proceedings were
LAUNCESTON TELEGRAPH. "The performance will com-
mend itself to all. Cruelty is not used by the Professor,
his success depending on scientific and humane
AGE, " The young Canadian undoubtedly possesses the rare
gift — ^with the super-addition of vast experience — of
overcoming, without recourse to harsh treatment, vices
to which horses are subject."
HERALD. " His feats excite much wonder and admiration."
WEEKLY TIMES. "The exhibition is of interest to the outsider
as well as the horseman, and certainly is a great object
lesson in humanity to animals."
"The exhibition is decidedly educational as well as
being interesting, and farmers and horse owners will
get valuable liints by visiting it."
REGISTER. "Deafening shouts greeted Professor Smith wlien
he jumped out of his buggy. It was the triumph of the
evening, and fittingly closed the finest display of horse-
manship ever seen in Adelaide."
ARGUS. "The exhibition is interesting and instructive, and is
one that a lady of the keenest sensitiveness might go
and see without having her modesty in any >\ay
COURIER. " The onlookers soon came to the conclusion that they
had a master trainer before them."
STAR. " His kind, firm, intelligent treatment."
ADVERTISER, " Tlie Professor's skill is remarkable."
INDEPENDENT. "All Ment home astonished at what they
MORNING HERALD, "Interesting, and in every way remark-
TELEGRAPH. " The performance is one that all lovers of horses
TRUTH. "Now go, see, wonder, and applaud."
MAIL. "In all cases the owners have been as enthusiastic in
their applause as the audiences."
HERALD. " Instructive, interesting, and highly enjoyable."
SPORTING REVIEW. "His method may be described in one
GRAPHIC. "The cleverest thing of its kind ever seen in tlie
HA WKE'S BA Y HERALD. ' ' Thorouglily entertaining, should
profit all. ' '
NEW ZEALAND TIMES. "Most instructive, all interested in
horses should patronise it."
PRESS. "One of the cleA-erest and most interesting entertain-
ments ever given here."
TIMES. "Capable judges expressed that Professor Smith was
fairly ' entitled to the cake ' as a horse trainer."
ILiOI^DON -2iid Visit.
SPORTSMAN. "I liad very great pleasure in being present
at Professor Sniithb remarkable exhibition of the
oom[>lete mastery he has over vicious and unruly horses
after he liandled them a few minutes. It was truly
Avonderful to see the manner in >\hich Mr. Smith, by
kind but firm management, succeeded in a very
brief period in brin;i,ing them to submission, until
they Avere yjerfectly docile and manageable. All done
Avithout any punishment whatever. The exhibition
should be visited by all practical horsemen and thofce
interested in the welfare of horses."
MORNING ADVERTISER. "Possesses a world-wide reputation.
If the measure of his future success is to be judged by
the reception he recei\ed yesterday the Professor's stay
is likely to be a long and profitable one."
"Should draw good audiences to his novel and interesting
MORNING LEADER. "Professor Norton Beverley Smith is a
remarkable num. The Professor throws no cloak of
mystery round his methods. He relies on the knowledge
he has gained by constant study, in conjunction with
a ne\ er-failing fund of patience and determined will and
humane treatment. The plucky young trainer did all
he claii)ied in the arena at the Agricultural Hall.
Horses he had never seen before were in the space of a
<^uarter-of-an-hour reduced from kicking and plunging
brutes into such a state of subjugation as to easily
permit of riding or driving in single or double harness.'
DAILY CHRONICLE. "The whole entertainment formed a
.striking example of nand over matter."
WEEKLY DISPATCH. "The Professor shows marvellous skill
in liandling the noble animal, and his experiments upon
>\ ild and ^ icious brutes have met with astounding results.
The docility shown by the animals under his masterly
hand wins him rounds of applause."
THE SPORTSMAN. " The Professor is raaivellously clever in
handling wild, vicious and nervous horses."
NEWS OF THE WORLD. " A}>art from the educational side of
the exhibition, the Professor gives a most interesting
show, and should have a good season."
THE REFEREE. " The Professor, who has exhibited all over the
w orld, is marvellously clever in handling wild, vicious
and nervous horses. The show is >\ ell worth a visit from
ail interested in horses. ' '
THE STANDARD. ' • The first hor-ie was from the Royal Artilleiy
at Woolwich, and hail refused to work in harness and
suffered badly from nervousness. In ten min\ites the
subjugation of the aniiiuil was complete, and the audiencd
<?ave an approving cheer."
NATIONAL POLICE GAZETTE. "Our earnest advice to all
horse owners, dealers anci coachmen is — go and see the
exhibition, and if you have a vicious or timid animal
take him along."'
MORNING POST. "The exhibition is invariably interesting aa
it is instructive, and being free from any suggestion
of cruelty or even rougliness should prove a great
DAILY NEWS. " Tliere is at any rate no doubt abou.t the efficacy
of his methods. Horses were brought to him with
certificates of bad character from their owners. They
were sul)jected to a rapid course of training, and in ten
minutes from the l)eginning Professor Smith wouM be
driving them round tlie ring in double harness, though
they had never been together before and some of them
had kicked the vehicles of their owners to pieces rather
than suffer the indignity of being put between the shafts.
There is no appearance of cruelty in Professor Smith'a
ST, JAMES'S GAZETTE. "Has no difficulty in reducing
vicious beasts to a condition of quiet and even affable
docility that appears as pleasant to the animals as it id
astonishing to the spectators."
THE OBSERVER. " One has only to witness his exploits to feel
that his claims are justified. There is no doubt about
the efficacy of his methods. It is pleasing to note, also,
that the system pursued is thoroughly humane and to
have no element of cruelty in it."
THE ERA. "One of the most wonderful exhibitions of horse-
education. Should be seen by everyone interested in the
noble animal. It is the finest thing of the kind we have
HOLLO WAY AND HORNSE Y PRESS. ' ' Anyone who takes
an interest in horseflesh will be intensely fascinated."
ECHO. "A most wonderful exhibition of horse training is now
taking place in the Royal Agricultural Hall. Professor
Smith is breaking- in any horse free of charge and
without any cruelty. '
SUNDAY TIMES. "In his handling of nervous, vicious,
and uuhroken hoi;>es he gives a re^viarkahle exhibition
of what kindness, firmness and patience will do."
Special lengthy articles, mostly profusely illustrated, appeared in the
THE FAVORITE MAGAZINE.
PROF. NORTON B. Sn/IITK
Has been pronounced by the Press and Public as
me Ereaiesl Horse Tiainei In iQe WorM
HE HAS HANDLED MORE
U)il9, Cicious, an9 3Vercous Jforses
THAN ALL THE COM^NED
. . . HORSE XRT^INERS . . .
Since the Bducation of the Horse has been known.
He is the World's Public Benefactor!
The Great Saver of Lives & Broken Limbs.
The Exhibition has never l»een equalled in magnitude in the world's
hi-stoiy, travelling the
LARGEST STAFF EVER KNOWN
By any Horse Trainer in the Universe.
Messrs. BEHRENS & SMITH - - Proprietors
Mr. NAT BEHRENS - - - - Manager
Mr. N. B. SMITH, Emperor of all Horse Educators
THE STAFF COMPRISES:
Tivo Business Agents,
Five Advertising Agents,
Assisted by all the Local Advertisers & Bill Posters.
. . . THE CONCERT AND MUSICAL PART . . .
Oi?' THE ICXHIBITIOX BY
Proi. Silt's Silver Bans of solo grtistes
Performing all the Latest Operas, Selections, and ilarches.
The following: Articles are sold at our
place of Exhibition.
LIST OF ARTICLES.
Prof. SMITH'S BOOK
BITS (Steel & Nickle Plated), 6s.
SOLID NIOKLE \
BITS & CURBS \
) Cob - 8s.
> Pony - Ts.
Goods can be ordered by enclosing Posted
CO-PARTNER AND MANAGER,
do STAFFORD & CO., Netherfield,
BEHRI^NS & SMITH,
COUNTRIES VISITED -^^
PROF. NORTON B. SMITH
EMPEROR OF ALL
The Greatest Horse Trainer since the days of RAREY,
Under the Direction of his Co- Partner and Manager,
Engfland \ SOUTH AFRICA
Ireland i Cape Colony
_ ., . \ The Orange Free Staie
Scotland ^ The Transvaal
Wales I ''a**'. *<=■
■.-.... x ^ ex X \ AUSTRALIA
The United States 1 including
Canada i westraiia,
^ South Australia
Holland \ victoria
^ New South Wales,
\ Queensland, &c.
\ NEW ZEALAND
##i all of iv#»/c/t his Tour was a triumphal progress,
winning the unanimous plaudits of Press,
Horsemen, and the Public,
A STYLISH TURNOUT kequires a BAivosomE BARivess. mna 1
'4^ a liandsonic ,- ItaroesS requires the coatinued use of y
FRANK ^K MILLER'S^,^^^ HARNE88 «:^DRESSINC.
TIte Standard of the WORLD and sold by all Baraess Dealers.
Are USED and
3N£:Vir YOftK, 1838.
THE FRANK MILLER COMPANY,
Towep Chambers, Moorg-ate, London, E.C.
NORTON B. SMITH'S
IBE: Hit £21^8 &• SIMIXrrH, Px*opx*ietO]:^.
A device which, if placed on the dash-board of a Buegy,
Carriage, or Wagon, will safely hold the Reins, and keep
them from being trampled on and soiled under the
It saves your whip and whip socket, and keeps the
driver in good humour.
It prevents Horses,
when left, from
starting, as the
Rein Holder always
holds them in
When in use, the
work of the Rein
Holder is entirely
It is Dseful,
Place the Rein Holder
on the right hand side of
dash-board with .screws
on the inside. Put the
piece of leather on front
and back of dash-board,
under clamps. Bring the
Rein Holder down over
dash - board as far as
l>ossible, and fasten set
screws securely. Slide
the reins from the sid<t
under tongue and swing-
ing carriage, allow tongue
to drop back so as to
prevent the reins fron\
sliding out to the right.
In removing reins from
holder, pull towards you
and then to the right,
when reins will be re-