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Full text of "Professor Norton B. Smith's practical treatise on the breaking and taming of wild and vicious horses"

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mmW TQEOTISE 

( . N I I I K, 

BREAKING & TRAINING 




WIUIMIGiS HOUSE!! 

AS TAUGHT BY 

t' PROF. NORTON B. SMITH, |j 

UNDER THE MANAGEMENT OF 

NAT BEHJRENTS. 



PJROFE SSOR 



NORTON B. SMITH 

Emperor of all Jlorse Educators. 

MARVELLOUS, SCIENTIFIC, AND EDUCATIONAL 
EXHIBITION, HANDLING AND SUBDUINC 

^viL.r> & VICIOUS 



Those who attend my Exl 


lie Lectures 


which I ^ive will receive a 


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! exploding 


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to 


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free of ch;ii<jc, ano 




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by foolish nnd ignorant actions. My 'l"i. 


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of a horse should l)e without, is sold for 1 v> 





ONLY EXHIBITION OP THE KIND IN THE WORLD. 

Professor NORTON B. SMITH'S 

Record of the Past a Guarantee of the Future. 
Years of Brilliant Success the Reward of Merit. 

ALL WILD, VICIOUS, AND NERVOUS HORSES 



Professor NORTON B. SMITH'S 

IMPROVED PATENT BIT 

The present Bit is a vast improvement on his previous one, which 
has given universal satisfaction to all who have used it. 




The above Fh<»U)j;Taph -<h(«w.s the Bit as used for Onlinary Diiviug. 
'J'his is undoubtedly the finest Bit in the market. It is of the 
}i€i*t English workmanship, manufactured for use with a double curb, 
and lias a smooth round mouth- bar, and can be used for Riding or 
Driving. It is the best Bit made for Trotters, Manufactured in 
;> sizes, Full, Cob, and Pony, steel and nickel-plated, 6s. each. Free 
hj post, 6s.6d. May be purchased at our places of Exhibition, or 
l>y applying to ^^^^ BEHRENS, Co-Partner and Manager. 
rcrmanent Address : c/o Stafford & Co., Netlierfield, Nottingliam. 



s^ 






^ 




Yours tntly, 

Emperor oi« am, Horsk Eul'Cators. 



m 



PROFESSOR 



[53 

t 



NORTON B. SMITH, 

EMPEROR OF ALL HORSE EDUCATORS, 

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF HIS 

CO-PARTNER AND MANAGER, 




Voi/7^s truly 



7Ut £^L 



i TO WHOM ALL BUSINESS LETTERS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED % 






AT PLACES OF EXHIBITION. 



. » —--••♦— '^ <•- 



Prof. NORTON B. SMITH'S IMPROVED PATENT BIT 

Fox> RXX>II9G and DRIVII90. 

Protected by Royal Letters Patent No. 24512. 
The last Bit brought out by the Professor won the approbation of all 
Veterinary Surgeons and Experts, and these declare the present Bit 
to l)e absolutely the best that can })e obtainetl for either liitling or 

Driving. 




The above Photograph Shows the Bit as u.sed for Riding. 

Each Bit is of the Best English Manufacture, made for use with a 

Double Curb, and has a Smooth Round Mouth- Bar tliat cannot Chafe 

the Horse's Mouth. It is a sure Cure for Pullers, and tlie Greatest 

Preventive against Runaways ever invented. For Trotters this 

Bit is invaluable, it being fitted with a special slot for the Overdraw 

Rein. |^~ The Most Useful and Handsomest Bit in the Market. 

Made in 3 Sizes— FULL, COB, and PONY, in Steel and Nickel 

Plated, 6/- each^ Post Free, 6/6. For Sale at our place of 

Exhibition, or can be ordered by applying to 

NAT BEHRENS, Co- Partner and Manager, 

Permanent Address— c/o STAFFORD & CO., Netherfield, Nottingham. 






fjortop B. SfT\itl7's 

PRACTICAL TREATISE 

ON THE 

UlmD RJiD VICIOUS 




XD ExD, 



Uiitl? ouer forty Illustrations. 



COPYRIGHTED BY 

NAT BEHRENS and NORTON B. SMITH, 

PIIOPRIETOIIS, WHILE AT THE 

CRYSTAL PALACE, LONDON, JUNE 20th, 1892, 

AND NOW 

Revised and Enlarged for its 2^oih Thousand, 



im'M&mmfMmmmm&f&B)&m<mwB 




INTllODrCTION. 



It is necessary for any man wishing- to handle horses 
successfully, to be self-possessed, determined, and to give 
some attention to the horse's natural habits and disposition. 
I do not think it is claiming too much for my system to- 
say, by its use, any horse may be broken (regardless of his 
being previously spoiled) so as to make him perfectly docile 
and even safe for a family horse. 

In dealing with my plan, you are not wasting your time 
with a mysterious trick, with which so many are humbugged 
by unprincipled men who have nothing good at heart for 
either horse or man. In my book you will find the princi- 
ples of a universally applicable system for the better training 
of horses for man's use, producing such matchless docility 
as has not before been found. The three fundamental 
principles of my theory are : First, control — teaching 
submission and docility. (This being the first lesson for 
the horse, is of the greatest importance, and is the same to 
his after education that the alphabet is to the boy's, and 
should be learned perfectly for ease and success in after 
lessons). Secondly, let kindness run through all your 



actions towards the horse. Thirdly, appeal properly to 
the horse's understanding-, prudently associating- mastery 
with kindness ; rebuke wrong and reward right. 

Although the horse possesses some faculties superior to 
man, yet he is deficient in reasoning power ; he is naturally 
of a kind disposition, as evidenced by his attachment to his 
kind keeper. He has no thought of disobedience, except 
by the pernicious imprudence of violating the laws of his 
nature, in which case he is not in fault, but the violator. 
You will hereinafter learn that he may be taught to per- 
fectly submit to anything, however odious it may have 
been to him at first. 

As the value of the horse is daily becoming more mani- 
fest, it is presumed that any attempt to reduce into a system 
the art of preserving him in health, and of removing disease, 
will not be unacceptable. 

It is certain that at no period in the history of this 
country has the horse stood so high in general estimation, 
or by the display of his various powers rendered himself 
an object more worthy of our consideration. As greater 
attention is now paid to the breeding of horses, for the 
different purposes of the turf, the road, etc., so should our 
anxiety for their education increase. 

The object of this publication is to render as plain and 
familiar as possible a subject that has for a length of time 
remained in obscurity. The want of a work possessing 
practical facts and illustrations has long been severely felt 
and acknowledged. 

Under this conviction I am induced to lend my aid in 
bringing forth the present volume, with such alterations 
and additions as an extensive experience has taught me. 

To remove long-standing prejudices, I am aware, is a 
difficult task ; still, I venture to hope that a careful perusal 
of these pages will excite, in some degree, the feelings of 
humanity in respect to the many sufferings to which the 
generous animal is frequently liable from unmerited cruelty 
and injudicious treatment, and that mankind may be induced 



to view his sufferings with an eye of sympathy and tender- 
ness, and have recourse to a rational mode of practice 
when accident or disease may require it. 

I am not aware that any publication has been issued from 
the press of any country in which the science of horseman- 
ship has been laid down in such a manner as to be clearly 
understood. The present work is so familiar in its com- 
position as to render it at once interesting and intelligible 
to every one who may think proper to peruse its contents. 

This is a day of progression. Men are respected in pro- 
portion to their education, intelligence, and usefulness ; 
governments are respected for the soundness of their con- 
stitutions, and intelligence of their laws, and enforcement 
of the same, and the size and efficiency of their armies. The 
soldier who receives a careful training and useful education 
in the military science, and conducts himself properly, is 
respected, trusted, and promoted. I contend that the 
soldier's education has not been completed until he has a 
thorough knowledge of the great art of horse-training and 
educating his horse, for he should be to him a daily com- 
panion. By a thorough knowledge of this great art, he is 
capable of judging the most intelligent, hardy, and useful 
horse for his department of the service. The more useful 
the animal to his master, the more companionable and 
highly appreciated. The better the horse, the better the 
master. It is for this purpose that I have written this 
book, from an experience of over six years in the study 
of the training and education of the horse, and if these 
instructions are put to practical use, they will improve the 
military service in all departments in which horses are used. 

My one aim and object is to get my methods of training 
and educating the noble and intelligent horse before the 
people of this country, for I feel by so doing a great and 
lasting good will be done the poor, unappreciated dumb 
brute ; and though the}' can never know the good I shall 
have done them, their masters will be able to appreciate, 
if they learn and understand my method. 



Permit me to state briefly, that I have travelled all over 
the United States and Canada, which has required years of 
the best part of my life. I have given public exhibitions in 
all of the principal cities and towns. I have handled over 
eight thousand of the most vicious kickers, jibbers, strikers, 
plungers, biters, bolters, shiers, and horses possessing all 
other vicious habits known, but I have yet to find the horse 
I could not by my methods conquer, subdue, and make 
docile in a short time. And in all the time I have mentioned 
I have not injured one horse, nor is it necessary for me 
to be cruel, owing to the simplicity and perfection of my 
methods. 

It is with a feeling of pride — for I have earned my suc- 
cess by honesty of purpose, straightforward action, hard 
labour, and close study — that I refer to crowded houses 
wherever I have shown, and audiences made up of the 
very best class of citizens, which is the best evidence that 
my labours have been appreciated, and my methods a 
success. 

All of the engravings in this work are original ideas 
of mine, and are fully protected and covered by 
copyright. 

I forbid any person publishing this book, or one of the 
cuts therein. 

In giving out this work I have tried to make it as 
simple and as plain as possible, as I do not approve of a 
large book filled up with a lot of trash. All the scientific 
points of horsemanship are laid down here in common- 
sense talk. They can be readily understood by a boy of 
twelve. It has cost a large sum of money to engrave the 
different cuts and to make them plain, so that they can be 
quickly understood by the reader. 

Following this is the Horseshoeing Department, in 
which I have not gone into all its details, but have simply 
called the reader to a few of the main facts which are 
apparent to all horsemen ; to dwell on this subject, and 



give It a general sifting', would occupy too much space, to 
the crowding out of other important matter. 

Following this is the Veterinary Department, which 
contains hints and suggestions from a regular graduate of 
a veterinary college, who has had a practice of thirty years, 
and anyone using the recipes or remedies herein named 
can do so with perfect safety, for in my practice I have 
used them all, and certainly attest as to their efficacy. 
Still, I would advise any person having a sick horse to 
immediately call upon a veterinary surgeon, and never rely 
upon too many persons giving you advice. We cannot 
pay too high a tribute to the good work our veterinary 
colleges are doing for us, and be assured that it is always 
safe to employ a graduate therefrom. In cases where it 
becomes necessary to perform a surgical operation, I would 
always suggest that a thorough and practical veterinarian 
be called quickly, as in case of doubt, always take the safe 
side. There can be no adequate suggestions laid down in 
any book touching such cases, hence I refrain from making 
the attempt. Hoping and fully believing that all persons 
who may chance to peruse this work, if they fully carry out 
the principles laid down, which have cost me a lifetime of 
ni.ental and physical labour to acquire (not mentioning the 
thousands of dollars squandered in its accumulation), will 
be benefited thereby, 

I remain, respectfully, 

Your obedient Servant, 

Emperou of all Hoksk Edlcatous. 



THE WORLD'S OPINION 

.... OF OUR .... 



A few of the many thousand Letters in the 
possession of Professor SMITH. 



Cleveland, Ohio, March loth, 1892. 
Pkof. Nohtox B. Smith, Woodland Guards' Armoury. 

Dear Sir, — Having witnessevl your performance at the above 
Armoury three times, I will cheei'fully hay that your method of 
handling horses is by far the kindest to the horse, with as little risk 
to the owner as anything tliat I have ever seen, and think that it is 
a lesson that is good for the man as well as horse. 

When you return to our city again I will do all I can for your 
interest. 

Yours, etc., 

C. Ueblet, 

Reblet's Livery Transfer Co. 



Cleveland, Ohio, March '2Gth, 1892. 

Prof. Norton B. Smith, Akron, Ohij. 

Dear Sir, — Having attended several of your entertainments 
while in our city for the past two weeks, 1 take pleasure in saymg I 
enjoyed them most heartily. The skill in which you handle unruly 
horfecs and without harm, is simply wonderful, and in my judgment 
it is well worth the price of admission to all. And to all owners of 
liorse-fiesh your lecture and entertainment is without price, and if 
every city could at all times have one like yourself among their 
number it would be a great help to the public, and save many lives 
that are lost simply by the drivers of horses in many cases not having 
as much good sense as the <lumb brute, and they are made to go 
wrong by abuse ami improjier treatment. That you are a young 
man I trust that your future niay be a bright one, and that 3'^ou may 
meet with success in all your undertakings. 

I remain, Sir, Most respectfully yours, 

G. K. Carpenter. 



COLDWATER, MiCII., 

March '2nd, 1892. 
To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN : — 

Last week Prof. Norton B. Smith gave live marvellous 
exhibitions in our city. He handled many wild and vicious horses, 
all of which succumbed to his will in a few moments' time. 

He handled two of mine, one of which had not l»een driven l)efore 
for over a year. They were both greatly benefited by the lessons 
which they receired under Prof, Smith. I regret that I did not take 
them to him the first evening he was here. 

He may justly claim the title "Emperor of all Horse Educators," 
and I trust he will succeed wherever he goes. 

Very respectfully, 

J. C. Ives, 

Veterinary Surgeon of Coldwater, Mich,, for thirty years. 



Atkins, Ark., June 20th, 1891. 

To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN :— 

This is to certify that Prof. Norton B, Smith, horse trainer, 
came to our town on the 19th inst,, and inside of ten hours had a 
mare that had never been hitched working nicely and as calm as an 
old harness horse. The information received of him in regard to 
training stock I value very high, and would not be without it for any 
reasonable consideration. 1 heartily recommend him to the public 
in general. 

G. W. Nease, 

Liveryman, 



Springfield, Mo., August I9th, 1891. 
To THE Public:— 

I was the owner of one of the most vicious horses in the city of 
Springfield, Mo, He was a Hermit colt, three years old, and had 
been comjdetely spoiled by men who claimed to be horsemen. He 
kicked, he laid down, he ran away whenever he could get a chance, 
so that after paying out considerable money on him I was completely 
disgusted. Prof, Smith came to our city and called on me for the 
purpose of doing some advertising. I told him about my horse and 
he agreed to break him. I am pleased to say that he made a success 
of it, and to-day I have a good, gentle animal, and I have been 
driving him three or four weeks and he shows no signs of returning 
to his once vicious habits, and under the circumstances I cannot do 
less than say that I think Prof. Smith a horseman of very rare 
ability ; as he uses uo violence, no abuse of horses is ever seen at his 
exhibitions, and I highly recommend him to all those who are in 
possession of bad horses. My colt is aa gentle and reliable as any 
fine-spirited animal can be. 

A. Z. Chambers, 

Manager, Springfield Leader, 




THE FINEST HALL IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN. 

Grand Rapids, Mich., January 28th, i8g2. 

To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN :— 

Some four weeks ago I made a contract with Mr. N. Behrens, 
manager for Prof. Norton B. Smith, the horse educator, for the use of my 
large hall lor eight nights. I did so with some misgivings, but now that 
the entertainments have closed I am free to say I will gladly re-rent them 
the hall at any time, as they lived up to every and all agreements and con- 
tracts made, and left the hall in first-class condition. 

Frankly, 

C. S. Hartman. 




INTERIOR OF BUILDING, OMAHA, NEIL, THE NIGHT I HANDLED THE 
MAN-EATING STALLION VINCO BEFORE THREE THOUSAND PEOPLE. 




Sioux City, Iowa, October 2ist^ i8gi. 

To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN : — 

We, the undersigned, Directors of the Sioux City Corn Palace, do 
cheerfully recommend the exhibitions of Prof. Norton B. Smith to the public, 
as being instructive and highly interesting, and first-class in all details. 

The Professor's exhibition at our Corn Palace of 1891, proved to be a 
great attraction, and drew large crowds. The Professor is a horseman of 
rare ability, and should receive the liberal patronage of the public, as we 
consider him a public benefactor, and his methods will improve the interest 
of the noble animal, the horse, wherever he may exhibit. 



J. R. Kathrens, Secretary. 
E. C. Palmer, Mayor. 

J. E. BOOGE. 

L. L. Kellogg. 
E. P. Stone. 
G. P. King. 
Hessant S. Baker. 
C. G. Culver. 
C. A. Demun. 



Zeno R. Brown, 
Geo. a. Mead. 
C. M. Swan. 
N. Desparois. 
James P. Wall. 
Robert Fowle. 
Jas. V. Mahoney. 
J. P. Martin. 



Sunderland, December 15th, 1892. 
Dear Sir, — We, tlie undersigned, constituting a committee, and 
having visited your exhibition on Monday, December 12th, 1892, at 
the '-Arcadia," Sunderland, for the express purpose of satisfying the 
public and ourselves regarding your methods, whether "humane" 
or not, -vve unanimously pronounce your methods and treatment as 
"humane" in every respect, and a great benefit to the horse, as you 
educate him to know the difference between right and wrong, and 
by suppressing the vices of the horse you confer a public benetit. 

Wishing you every success, Ave have great pleasure in signing 
our names hereto. 

Thomas Laverick, Auctioneer, 

Union Chambers, Sunderland. 
A. T. Crow, Junr., Solicitor, Sunderland. 
Oswald Charlton, Solicitor, Sunderland. 
Ft. J. Burns, Surgeon, 

Sunderland Borough Police. 
Robert Bradford, Jeweller, 

Bridge Street, Sunderland. 
Jas. Lunn, Manager, P. Lockie&; Co., 

Sunderland Street. 
J. H. Smith, Paley Street, Sunderland. 
W. Amison, Tramway Manager, Sunderland. 
Thomas Jack, M.B.C.V.S., 

65, Brougham Street, Sunderland. 

To Professor Norton B. Smith. 



Nottingham, September 19ih, 1892. 

Dear Sir, — The black cob that you handled for me is driving 
in harness without jibbing or kicking. He is a horse that all the 
horse-dealers and gipsies 1 know of have had, and never before has 
he been mastered. It is truly wonderful to know that he has turned 
out to be a good driving cob. Anyone doubting your mode of 
treatment will be convinced differently if they were acquainted with 
this horse. Faithfully yours, 

Professor Norton B. Smith. W. Pymell. 



2, Parker Street, Liverpool, November 2Srd, 1892. 

Dear Sir, — We, the undersigned, beg to tender our thanks for 
the wonderful improvement that you have wrought in our chestnut 
gelding since you gave him several lessons to break him of kicking. 

Previous to placing him in your hands he was a most vicious 
kicker in harness, and entire master of all about him ; but now we 
can drive him with perfect safety, his kicking habits having entirely 
left him. 

We consider your method of breaking horses of bad habits is 
worthy of all praise. Yours faithfully. Turner Bros. 

To Professor Norton B. Smith, Henglers Circus. 



6, Plough Road, Rotiierhithe, London", S.E. 

Sej^tember 3rd, 1892, 

Dear Sir, — Permit me to offer you my best thanks for the 
manner in whicli you handled the three horses I sent you during 
your stay at the Crystal Palace, When I first saw your exhibition 
I was greatly pleased with your skill, so I sent you two horses a\ hich 
were thouglit to be incorrigibly nervous, but I am glad to say your 
treatment of them has resulted in a complete success. The colt 
also wliich you handled only twice is now as docile as a lamb. I 
think your success is greatly augmented by the kindness, as well as 
firmness, which you show towards the animals, and I can strongly 
recommend owners of unbroken colts, and horses spoiled by l>ad 
inanagement, to entrust them to your charge, and I shall be pleased 
for you to refer anyone to me, as I feel sure your mode of treatment 
cannot be excelled. 

Yours truly, 

J. G. Hor.MAN. 
To Professor Norton B. Smith. 



High Street, Lincoln, September 30^/*, 1803. 

Dear Sir, — I wish to express the great satisfaction you have 
given in the city of Lincoln, and also the firm, kind, certniu and 
effective manner in which you handle the most awkward animals, 
your large audiences applauding you immensely. I hope, should 
you and your enterprising and experienced manager (Mr. Nat 
Behrens) have an opportunity of again visiting our city, you will 
have the same splendid reception and success. I am sure I shall be 
willing to give you every facility, as I consider the entertainment 
has enhanced the value of my large central hall and premises, 
containing about 3,300 square yards, and 1 shall only be too pleased 
to let you have it at any time you m.ay wish to pay a second visit. 

I am, yours respectfully, 

Elton Scott. 
To Prof. N. B. Smith. 

P.S. — I must say you have handled my two, three, and four- 
year-old horses most successfully, and really marvellously. — E.S. 



Cranborne Villa, Armley, near Lekds, 

Janufiry 13/A, 1893. 

Dear Sir, — Permit me to thank you for the training and kindness 
you have shown to my four-year-old Irish colt, which, liefore you 
handled, was of a most nervous disposition and given to shying at 
strange objects whenever he met them. But, now, things are 
changed, and for the best. He will pass anything with the greatest 
confidence in himself and driver. In a large manufacturing town 
like I>eeds we have a great many strange and trying things to meet. 



which are Avell calculated to frigliten the best of horses, such as 
trains, steam tram cars, traction engines, etc. Since his tliree 
lessons I have tried him past all these, and he takes no notice of them 
whatever, but has turned out the most tractable and affectionate 
horse I have ever seen. I can ride or drive liim in single or double 
harness. I consider the three lessons you have given him liave 
enhanced his value by twenty pounds, and that he will never forget 
them again. 

I have been present at seven of your exhibitions, and ha^•e seen 
you handle over twenty different horses, and can compliment you 
upon the results in every case. Your system and kindness are all that 
can be desired, and I am sure that the most fastidious humanitarian 
could not object to any of the methods you adopt in your system of 
training. You certainly have deservedly earned the title of 
" Emperor of all Horse Educators ! " 

Again thanking you for your kindness, and the beneht ^\ hich 
my horse has received, I wish you every success and prosperity in 
your future career. 

Believe nie to remain, 

Yoiirs sincerely, 

Thomas Tiihesii. 



ScoREBY Grange Gate, Helmsley, York, 

Sejjtember 2l.st, 1893. 

Dear Sir, — I am pleased to say that 1 am perfectly satisfied 
with youi" methods in handling my two wild, nervous horses. 

If many so-called horse-breakers would follow your method 
there Avould not be so many vicious horses in the country. 

Am pleased to say I can with confidence recommend anyone 
possessed of wild, vicious horses, which they Avished to be cured, to 
place them under your training. 

With many thanks for the good done to my animals, wishing 
you health and e\ery success. 

Yours truly, 

H. Martin. 
Professor Norton B. Smith. 



13, Botanic Avenue, Belfast, 3Iai/ 17th, 1894. 

Professor Norton B. Smith. 

Dear Sir, — The pony which gave such a splendid exhibition of 
your powers on Monday and Tuesday, the 14th and 15th May, and 
belonging to me, is a well-bred Welsh mountain pony of a high 
nervous temperament, untrained to ride or drive, had been haltered 
and handled very little. 



My friends who knew the pony and its disposition, together 
with myself, were quite astounded with the marvellous short time 
you took to bring it to subjection without punishment or pain. 
The harnessing in single and driving was " Al," but to nut it into 
double harness with a mare with a noted disgraceful chara^.ter, and 
make them work kindly and perfectly under steam, steam whistles, 
rifle shooting, flying paper, fire crackers, bsiss drums, sleigh bells, 
and your frightful tin ware, I must say can only be seen to be 
believed. 

A word regarding the bay mare you handled on 16th May 
(submitted to your consideration by the owner through me, but not 
wishing his name known, with her character in owner's own words, 
" she is the gi-eatest villain ever came into the city of Belfast ") and 
which you did so successfully, fully entitles you to rank as your bill 
proclaims you, " Emperor of all Horse Tamers." 

Yours truly, 

Arthur Galloway. 



49, Newport Road, E., Middlesborougii, 

August oth, 1893. 
Dear Sir, — Since you handled my three-year-old colt (which 
shied at miller's wagons, furniture vans, paper, engines, etc.), it has 
been driven about Middlesborough and district daily without 
blinkers, and is now perfectly quiet. 
With many thanks, 

Yours respectfully, 
Mr. N. B. Smith. Thomas Nettlkton. 



Leamington Mews, Leamington Street, 

Manchester, Api-U smh, 1S9-1:. 

Sir, — The mare which we sent to you about ten days ago, and 
which previous to that time was well-known for her kicking powers 
when being harnessed, put in or out of the shafts, and when at work, 
so much so that we discontinued using her for fear of injuring the 
men, has now become perfectly quiet. 

After being put through her facings once by you, she was sent 
out the following morning, and has worked regularly since without 
showing any signs of wickedness. 

As a further proof of her quietness we may add that a strange 
driver was sent out with her, and when loading a trunk on the 
vehicle, his foot accidentally slij^ped and he fell backwards on to the 
horses's hind quarters, and she never moved. 

After such demonstrations we have conhdunce in saying that we 
consider your system of handling and dealing with horses of this 
class the most efficacious of any that has yet come under our notice. 

We are, Sir, 

Yours respectfully, 

Thomas Potts & Son. 

Norton B. Smith, Free Trade Hall, Manchester. 



From Francis Evelyn Place, M.R.C.V.S.LoyDON, 

Veterinary Surgeon, HoNITON, DEVON, 1896, 
Mr. Nat Behrens, jSIanager for Prof. Smith, 

c/o Stafford & Co., Netherfield, Notts. 

Sir, — Enclosed please find cheque £1, and forward per Midland 
Ry., Car. forward, 

2 Smith's training bridles @ 2/- 

2 halters @ 1/6 - 

1 cob bit @. 6/- - 

1 single driving whip @. 5/- 

1 riding whip @ 2/- - 



By means of Prof. Smith's method I have rendered manageable 
a mare that three breakers gave np as utterly hopeless, also several 
unbroken colts. Every V.S. should learn these ways of handling 
horses. 

Yours truly, 

Francis E. Place, 



£ 


s. 


d. 


- 


4 





- 


3 





- 


6 





- 


5 





- 


2 





£1 









[Copi/ of Letter received from LORD Drogheda,] 

Sir, — I have much pleasure in stating that the horse which I 
sent up to Exeter to be treated by you has been much improved, and 
is less nervous than he was. He does not seem to mind the steam 
roller now nearly so much. Thanking you for the treatment, 

I remain. 

Yours faithfully, 

Delamore, Exmouth, 29fh March, 1896. Drogiieda, 



83, Market Side, Bulwell, Nottingham, 

May 19 fh, 1893. 

To Prof. Norton B. Smith, Victoria Hall, Nottingham. 

Dear Sir, — Before your leaving Nottingham I should like to 
thank you for handling two of my horses, more especially a three- 
year-old colt. Although for three weeks previously a Nottingham 
horse-breaker had been trying to break him, he had not even driven 
him in lines, as he was afraid of him, the colt being nervous and a 
bad kicker when anything touched him. He has now been home 
nearly a week, and I can drive and ride him, his nervousness being 
quite gone. He does not shy at anything. 

I remain. 

Yours sincerely, 

Walter \Viddowson. 



Burton-PN-Trent, April ISth, 1S9S. 

Dear Sir, — I am very pleased to tell you that the grey pony 
3^ou had from me, which was unbroken and very nervous, is going 
in harness and very quiet ; the only thing now is to get him a good 
mouth, and then I shall Jaave a pony fit for anyone to look at. 

Let me thank you for the good you have done him, and, also. I 
should be very ])leased to recommend your treatment to anyone. 

Yours truly, 

G. Giles, 

Farm Bailiff, 

To Prof. Norton Smith. Y. D. Com. 



Melton House, 165, High Street, 

Burton-on-Trent, Jime 6th, 1898. 

To Prof. Norton B. Smith. 

Dear Sir, — Having heard so much about my mare kicking the 
front of the cart in twice, I feel it nothing but fair to tell yt>u 1 am 
much surprised at the most unfair and untruthful statement. I 
thought when she was in my Hoater to-day she went on as (piiet as a 
horse could, and showed not the least vice or any sign of kicking. 
I must tell you before you took her in hand we could not ])ut her in 
without breaking all before her, at least I gave her up as a bad job, 
and now we don't feel the least afraid of her. 

I am. 

Yours respectfully, 

R. Peck. 

I shall send you a letter later on as to her ways, as 1 feel you 
are worthy of all to know. 



Braemar, Invermay, Launceston, 

Tasmania, June Wh, 1897. 

To Prof. Norton B. Smith, Launceston. 

Dear Sir, — I would be ungrateful if on the eve of your 
departure 1 did not convey to you my sincere thanks for the really 
excellent manner in which you have handled my two unbroken seven 
and eight year old fillies. These animals, until they were placed 
into your hands, had never had the hand of man upon tliem, and you 
haA e returned them to me so docile that I shall have practically no 
trouble in putting them into work. I have witnessed your method 
of training and subduing horses of bad habits, and in all cases you 
have been successful. I have been acquainted with the ' Rarey ' 
system, as taught by several, but your method is a considerable step 
in advance of all previous exponents in the art of horse training. 



1 am sincerely glad of your visit, because it must of necessity 
bear fruit in the direction of improving the way in which horses are 
usually broken, and I trust that your tour through the southern 
lands will be attended with pecuniary benefit to your pocket, and 
that ere you decide on returning to your native land that Launceston 
will be again honoured with another visit from you. 

In conclusion, allow me to also state that having purchased your 
Practical Treatise on breaking and training wild and vicious horses, 
I am highly delighted with its contents, and would strongly 
recommend everyone who has horses to possess themselves of so 
admirable a work, and also a fair assortment of the excellent 
tackling which you offer for sale, because many young horses are 
ruined in the breaking by using bad gearing; looking forward to the 
time when you will be once more in our midst, 

With pleasure, 

I am, dear sir, 

J. H. MC'dKKGOR, 



Prof. Norton B. Smith, 

Good Hope Hall, CAPiaowN, South Africa. 

Dear Sir, — I am very pleased with the result of your treatment 
of the horse that I brought in to you last Monday. 

I have driven him since that time without blinkers, and have 
purposely taken him before most of the objects that he used to shy 
at, and he faced them without a sign of fear. 

I remain, 

Yours faithfully, 

ROSEBANK, 15/1/97. OWE\ AT,(f AR, 



Town' Office, The Port Elizabeth MuxicirALiTr. 

2ml Ftb., 1897, Cape of Good Hope, 

To Professor Norton B. Smith, Horse Trainer. 

Dear Sir, — -I have much pleasure in bearing testimony as to 
the etticacy of your system of horse education. My brown geMing, 
wliicli had always been given to bolting and shying at paper or 
strange objects, was placed in your hands for treatment, and after 
two les-<ons these faults were quite eradicated and he is now being 
ridden through the streets with perfect safety. He will face steam, 
bands, or any noise whatever without flinching, and in fact is now a 
pleasure to ride. Thanking you for your valuable treatment of my 
horse, 

I am, dear sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

Chas. L. Newcombe, 

Supt. of Locations. 



Johannesburg, February I9(h, is97. 
Professor Smith, Horse Educator and Tamer. 

Dear Sir, — Just a line thanking you for the good you have 
(lone my cream horse sent to you last night. He was a fair terror, 
and we could not drive him at all, and this morning I drove him 
round town in single harness and a light buggy perfectly quiet, 
thanks to you. 

G. Major, 

Horse Dealer. 



George Hudson, Timber Merchant y 

52, Regent Street, Redfern, \%th October, 1897 
Prof. N. B. Smith, Exhibition Buildings, Sydney. 

Dear Sir, — On Friday, the 8th inst., I sent to you a wild colt 
fresli from the country, bought by me that day at the Cam))erdown 
sale yards. The next night the colt was in the shafts ; on Tuesday, 
the 12th, he was working in the dray, and to-day he was drawing 
loads equal to those taken by my other horses. I am very pleased 
with the manner the horse was broken in by you, and I am much 
surprised it was done in bo short a time. You are at liberty to use 
thia letter for publication, as I thoroughly approve of the treatment 
of luy horse, and am perfectly satisfied with the results. 

Yours faithfully, 
George Hudson. 



Memo, from A. Saunders, Watchmak<:r and Jeweller, 

815 & 817, George Street, Sydney. 

Messrs. Behrens & Smith. 

I cannot let this opportunity pass without letting you know 
how I appreciate your ifvonderful system and control you have of the 
horse ; it surpasses all other trainers I have ever seen. I admired 
Sample's rules, but when I had seen your controlling powers and the 
masterly effect you had over the horse, to my thinking you have no 
equal, especially after you handled my black mare, which was so 
nervous and afraid of all sudden noises such as a cracker, vteam, etc. 
I will drive her anywhere, past trams or trains, whicli makes driving 
a pleasure. I am sure all admirers and lovers of the horse must 
a«lmit your system of education with kindne-s cannot be equalled, 
and my greatest wish is that your rules will be adopted by all horse 
lireakers. Your book I purchased with much pleaMire : the 
knowledge given therein mu.>t and should command a ready sale icir 
and wide, even if you had cluirged £2 2s. instead of 2s. You can 
alw;iys rely upon me as one of your admirers and well wishers. 

A. Saunders. 



17 



TREATISE ON HORSES. 



The first lesson to give a colt should be to turn him 
into a box stall or enclosure of some kind about 
twenty feet square, taking in your right hand a whip, 
and approaching the colt. If he runs away from you, 
give him a crack of the whip around the hind limbs, 
and follow this up until he will turn his head towards 




you, then throw the whip back under your left arm, 
holding out your right hand, using the words, *' Come 
here." If, as you approach the colt, he turns to run away 
from you, give him the whip. When he comes to you, 
offer him an apple. In thirty or forty minutes' time you 
will teach him that it is wrong to turn his heels towards 
you ; but when he finds he is being rewarded, he will soon 
learn that the right way is to keep his head to you. 



i8 

When working- with a colt, always have plenty ot 
patience ; go slow and easy, be gentle with him, and teach 
him as you would a child his A, B, C. 

Horses vary in disposition the same as people. Some 
have nervous, excitable dispositions, while others are 
treacherous and sullen. If the horse has long ears, long 
hair on the inside, is narrow between the ears, narrow 
between the eyes, with a small round eye, sunken in tlie 
back of the head, and a small, thick nostril, you have a 
horse of poor intelligence and of a very sluggish disposition. 
If you have a horse with small ears, furry inside, broad 
between the ears, broad between the eyes, with a large full 
hazel eye, and a large, thin nostril, he is a quick, nervous, 
intelligent animal, ready to obey any command that you 
give him; but you must not whip or spur him. Now, if 
you ever find a horse that drops in on the top of his head, 
and full between his eyes, and a kind of Roman nose on 
him, and the face between the eyes dished out, these are 
generally horses that have some vicious or bad trait, and 
have a treacherous and vicious disposition. 

During my professional career of over ten years, and 
having handled throughout the world over twenty thousand 
horses, I have found the easiest subjects were horses of 
the following colours: Black, dark bay, dark brown, and 
chestnut. Horses of iron grey, light chestnut or sorrel, 
and light bay, generally are horses of a mean disposition 
or a very stubborn will. 

Thoroughbred horses require more hard work and 
longer lessons to get them under perfect control than a 
cold-blooded horse, but when once thoroughly taught what 
you want him to do he will never forget your teachings. 

To make a Colt Follow you. 

Take hold of his halter with one hand (left hand), take a 
bow whip in your right hand, let the cracker of the whip 
touch him on the tail, carrying the whip directly over his 



19 

back, as seen in the following^ engraving-; touch him lightly 
with the whip, and say, "Come here." 




The proper manner to Handle a Colt's Feet 
for Shoeing. 

In handling- a colt for the blacksmith's shop, place a 
surcing-le around his body, then take a strap about ten 
inches long, and strap his front foot up to the surcingle. 
How many times in picking up the foot have you seen a 
great many persons, especially a blacksmith, pound a colt's 
foot to make him take it up ! Now, instead of doing that, 
place your left hand upon the horse's shoulder, wuth the 
right hand take hold of the horse's ankle. When you wish 
the foot to come up, press against the horse's shoulder 
with your left hand, this throws him off his balance, and 
you can very easily take the foot from the ground. As 
your strength is nothing compared with the horse's 



20 



Strength, you must use such means as to overpower him, 
and to place him in the position where he cannot get away 
from you in order for you to meet with success. Now, 
after you have strapped his front foot up to the surcingle, 
you then compel the colt to make four or five steps on 
three legs. If he is inclined to be wild, he will rear, pitch, 
and plunge in the air, but it is impossible for him to get his 
foot away ; but as soon as he finds out that he is fast he 
will give up ; you can unbuckle the strap and loosen his 
foot, and you then have his limb under perfect control. 
Now this is only one front limb ; the other must be handled 
in the same way. 




To Break a Colt to Ride. 

First put on a riding bridle and an ordinary surcingle. 
Let one man stand on the off side of the colt with his right 
hand on the bridle bit, and another man stand on the nieh 



21 

side of the colt with his left hand holding the bridle bit. 
Then take a boy and let him mount the colt. The moment 
he is on the colt's back, the man on the off side, with his 
left hand, takes hold of the boy's leg, and the man on the 
nigh side also takes hold of the boy's leg with his right 
hand. Now, if the colt should plunge, there are two of 
you to hold him, and at the same time you are holding on 
to the boy, and it is impossible for the colt to throw him off. 
Lead him around for ten or fifteen minutes in this way. 
Then you can let go of the boy's legs, and one man can 
lead the colt. Be very careful to caution the rider not to 
touch his heels to the colt's side. Lead him around, say 
for ten or twenty minutes. Let the driver dismount and 
mount him again. Then put the colt away. In two or 
three hours bring him out again and get on him. If he 
should make any attempt to throw the rider the second 
time, let him take the left-hand line in four inches shorter 
than the other. That pulls the colt's head around to his 
side and sets him on a whirl. After he has whirled around 
six or eight times he becomes a little dizzy. You can then 
straighten up on the lines, and say, " Get up," and he will 
move off nicely. Work as easy with him as you possibly 
can. I would advise that all colts, before being ridden, 
should be thrown. Then you will have no. difficulty 
whatever. 

Handling and Driving a Colt. 

Teach him not to be afraid of all kinds of objects. In 
the handling of a colt for driving purposes, first take an 
ordinary open bridle and straight bar bit and a surcingle, 
or a pad of harness, and run the lines through the thill 
straps of the harness ; then step back behind the colt, and 
take hold of the lines and commence to teach him to turn 
right and left by the bit. Never teach him more than one 
thing at a time. After you get him so he will turn quickly 
to the right and left by line, you then can teach him the 
word ''whoa." Then after this has been accomplished, 



22 



teach him to back. Then, before ever putting a colt 
before a waggon, be sure you have him thoroughly bitted, 
and have taught him all of the above commands. Now, 
before hitching the colt, you want to make him familiar 
with everything that will be liable to frighten him on the 
start, such as umbrellas, tin pans, paper, fire-crackers, 
buffalo robes, blankets, top carriages, and, in fact, every 
object that frightens many of our horses and makes them 
run away. In order to control the colt, teach him that 
these objects are harmless, in the following manner : — 
Buckle an ordinary hame strap around each front limb 




below the fetlock joint ; then take a rope twenty feet long, 
tie one end of this rope into the ring of the nigh front limb; 
then place the rope over the ring in the surcingle under- 
neath the horse's body ; now through a ring on the off 
front limb, back through the ring into the surcingle ; this 



23 

gives you a double lever purchase on the front limbs (as 
seen in engraving) ; now step back behind the colt, take the 
lines in the right hand and the rope in the left, give the 
colt the command to move forward ; when you wish him 
to stop use the word *' whoa," and pull the rope at the 
same time, which will bring the colt to his knees. Now, 
after you have practised with the working of this rope, 
you then have a boy take an umbrella and come up in 
front of him, then place umbrella over his head, rattle tin 
pans, sleigh bells, shake buffalo robes, and, in fact, intro- 
duce him to everything that is liable to frighten him. If 
he makes any attempt to get away bring him to his knees 
and hold him there, and teach him he is not going to be 
hurt. These lessons must not be over one hour, giving 
two of them per day, and in five days your colt is ready 
to drive. 

All colts should be broken thoroughly to harness when 
one year old, but never put to hard work until they are 
five years of age. When breaking, use as light a vehicle 
as possible. Always educate your colt to drive single first, 
and any one can drive him double. 

Too much importance cannot be attached to the manner 
of educating a horse's heels, as it is in that point his great- 
est means of defence and resistance lies, and most men 
make the mistake of breaking one end of the horse, while 
they allow his hinder parts to go uneducated. The instruc- 
tions I am about to give will, if properly followed, ensure 
success. 



To Educate a Colt not to Kick at objects 
near his Heels. 

While you have the colt down, as illustrated in the 
following cut, make him thoroughly acquainted with the 
bells, drums, tin pans, and cracking of the whip, being 
careful all the while not to inflict pain. Roll an empty 



24 

barrel over him, all the time creating as much noise as 
possible ; you will find he will soon give up to it, lying 
perfectly still like a philosopher until the confusion is 
stopped, and you command him to get up. When hj gets 
up, caress him by patting him on the neck, giving him an 
apple, etc. Now, give the colt this same lesson every day 




for three or four days, and you will soon see the practical 
utility of this teaching when you come to drive him, as you 
will have a young horse that will not be afraid of bands 
of music or any sudden noises which he may come in con- 
tact with, and he will always remember the lesson. 

The above instruction is equally applicable to a kicking 



25 

horse, but in his education lie will require more lessons 
before the habit will be entirely removed. Still, kindness 
and a little patience will soon accomplish all you desire. 

Men in general exercise too little patience in the training- 
of their colts, and they frequently expect to accomplish 
more in a short space of time than can possibly be per- 
formed. Yet the time really required, when measured by 
days, is so short as to be really surprising*. Let us suppose 
that in training a colt one were to spend two hours a day 
for ten days, which is the longest time that could possibly 
be needed. Compute the time at ten hours to a day, and 
the whole amounts to but two days, at the end of which 
he would have a well educated animal. I doubt if a farmer 
or horse raiser could employ his time more profitably in any 
other way than in thoroughly educating* his colts, as he 
thus enhances their value, for there is no sensible man who 
would not give more for a properly educated animal than 
for one improperly trained. 



To Properly Halter-Break a Colt. 

Take a rope twenty feet long, making a slip-knot in one 
end, passing it round the body in front of the colt's hind 
legs, with the knot directly under the horse's belly, bring- 
ing the other end between his front legs, then up through 
the halter; then hitch him to the manger or post, throwing 
the halter strap over his back so as to be out of the way. 
Be sure and have a halter with a strong head stall. Then 
step in front of him, and show him parasol, beat a drum, 
doing anything and everything you can to frighten him,, 
being careful not to inflict pain, and repeat this lesson to 
him every day for two or three days, and you will have 
him thoroughly broken. Use the same treatment for a. 
halter puller. 



26 




A Good Rule to Buy a Perfect Horse. 

Your horse should stand sixteen hands high, the ears 
very small, pointed, and furry inside, very wide between 
the ears ; a large, bright, hazel eye standing out promin- 
ently ; the nostrils must be large and thin ; neck long and 
well cut up under the jaw ; heavy muscle on top. The 
withers must always be higher than the hips ; back broad, 
and long hips, and close-jointed. 

For durability always buy a close-jointed horse, and one 
with fine, short hair. The finer the hair the longer-lived 
the horse. For a good road horse, he should measure 
•exactly as much from between his ears and his withers as 



27 

from withers to the coupling" of the hip ; that is, the withers 
should be exactly midway between his ears and the coup- 
ling" of the hip. From the point of the withers to the 
shoulder should be just as long as from the coupling of the 
hip to the point of hip by tail. The horse should measure 
from the point of his withers to the bottom of his front 
foot fifty-seven inches, and from the point of the shoulder 
to the point of the hip, or length of horse, sixty-two inches. 
Parties buying by this rule will find it invaluable. 




The Way to Shoe a Yicious Horse. 

Take a strap and buckle around the hind foot below the 
fetlock joint, and take a rope ten feet long, and place it 
through the ring upon this strap ; take a wooden pin four 
inches long and an inch in diameter, lay directly across the 
hair of the horse's tail— doubling the hair over the pin 



28 

makes a loop — then tie a slip-knot in one end of the rope, 
and pass it over the end of the tail and the pin ; now reach 
down and take hold of the rope, stepping directly behind 
the colt, and say to him '' Take up your foot, sir," and pull 
the rope at the same time, as seen in engraving. After 
picking up his foot four or five times, by the use of this 
rope, you can handle his hind feet with ease to be shod. 
Handle the other foot by the same process. 




HANDLING A COLT S HIND FEET. 

When you have a horse that will not stand to be 
shod in a blacksmith's shop, use my training bridle 
as explained on page 76". Then use in combination my 
method of handling a horse's foot : rope, wooden pin, 
and strap, as seen in engraving above. By this means 
you have complete control of your horse. Always be 
gentle with your horse, but be firm, and teach him that 
you must have your way. 



29 

I Condemn the Use of the Check Rein. 

I think the check reins, as used by many of our horse 
owners, are a cruelty to animals. I will give you my idea 
of the check rein, and as I think it should be used. In 
the first place, if your horse is born into this world with 
style, he will always have it. If he is born into the world 
without style, you cannot produce style where Nature de- 
signed for it not to go by the use of straps or ropes, unless 
you are torturing the poor dumb brute. 

I approve of the side check rein used only to prevent 
the horse from putting his head to the ground when you 
stop your team. I condemn the use of all overdraw check 
reins, also check bits of every description. A great many 
believe that by using an overdraw check rein, and ele- 
vating their horses' heads in the air, that they drive easier, 
and that they are guarding against the horse running 
away. This is wrong. No horse, in my estimation, looks 
handsomer, freer, and easier than those that are driven 
with open bridles, and no check rein. I would here sug- 
gest that every team horse to-day used, or heavy draught 
horse, or hack horses, and all animals used by transporta- 
tion companies, should be worked with open bridles, 
doing away with the blinders and the check rein. Give 
the work horse and the driving horse the free use of his 
head, the same that you wish yourself ; not only will they 
drive better, but last longer, and keep on five per cent. 
less food. 

A law should be passed prohibiting the use of all over- 
draw check reins, as it passes directly over the brain of 
the horse. 

As will be seen, the horse, which is one of the most 
beautiful animals in existence, is largely so because of 
its fi.ne proportions and graceful curving outline. 

In all her objects of beauty Nature furnishes the curve. 
She never allows a straight line. We see this in the 
outer form of bird, leaf, blossom, tree, forest, mountain, 



and planet. This is strikingly shown in the human 
countenance, which, when wasted by disease, loses its 
beauty through becoming thin, angular, and full of straight 
lines. With returning health, the face becomes more full 
and more curved, and more colour comes into its lines, 
and beauty is restored. 




Horsemen, in the dressing of the horse, should under- 
stand this law, as a well-cared-for, well-groomed horse can- 
not be improved in appearance by harness. There should be 
just as little of it used as possible, and every strap should 



be made as small as safety would allow. In short, the 
harness should be such as will allow the perfect outline of 
the animal, in all its parts, to stand freely forth. 

To fully realise the barbarities practised upon some of 
our best horses, watch a beautiful team standing in front 
of some store, while the occupants of the carriage are 
engaged elsewhere. 

Possibly the heads of the horses are held in torturing 
positions by the side check, which oftentimes holds them 
too cruelly high, but quite likely it is the over check. See 
the vigorous pawing of the earth, the champing of the bit, 
the tossing of the head, the restless turning of the neck 
to one side in order to loosen the check, lower the head, 
and give them ease. 

See the ignorant driver perched on the seat, all-oblivious 
to the restlessness and frantic efforts of the horses to free 
themselves from their terrible pain. He supposes spec- 
tators will think that, with all their restlessness and 
foaming at the mouth, his horses have high mettle. 



My Idea as to how Horses should be Checked. 

Road horses and others, I positively condemn the over- 
draw check ; it certainly is, and there is no gainsaying it, 
cruelty to animals to use it. The only utility I can 
perceive there is in the check at all is to keep a horse from 
putting his nose to the ground when he stops ; and when 
a check is used, place the loops high up on the cheek pieces 
to the head stall, as the horse can in such cases have th^ 
free use of his head, and can comport himself with ease 
and grace. For speeding horses it might become necessary 
to use the overdraw in some cases, but it must be under- 
stood that I hold firmly to my idea as to the practicability 
of its general usefulness. 



Breeding of Draught Horses, and the Care and 
Early Training of the Colt. 

It has been the stupendous error of the average farmer 
to consider that any mare will do to raise a colt from. 
Thousands of worthless horses bear witness to the absur- 
dity of this. The mare should be, as nearly as we can 
have her, what we hope the colt to be. Above all, she 
must be sound in feet, bone, and wind. She should be 
rangy to have room for the growth of the foetus, and 
wide in the hips to allow of easy parturition. The stallion 
should be rather more compactly built than the mare. 
*'A short back and a long belly," is an old and correct rule 
for a serviceable horse. It means good shoulders, good 
withers, good back and loin, and powerful quarters. The 
breeder may be assisted by giving some attention to the 
rule, which has many exceptions, that the male parent 
gives the external, and the female the internal structure ; 
that the sire gives the locomotion, and the dam the vital 
organs, that is, the constitution. The mule and the hinny 
are striking illustrations of this rule. 

I am decidedly in favour of autumn foals. The press of 
spring work upon the farm demands more service from the 
foal-bearing mare than she should be required to perform. 
The flies of summer annoy and often nearly devour the 
youngster. Both dam and colt often suffer from insufficient 
food in short pastures of a drought, and at length the colt 
is weaned when the frost-bitten grass has lost its nutri- 
ment, and the increasing cold demands abundant food. 
The first winter is a trying time with colts, and many never 
recover from the injury they then receive from insufiicient 
or improper food. With warm stables and comfortable 
sheds, the autumn colt can suck the well-fed mare in the 
winter, and be weaned upon fresh grass in the spring, and 
never know a check in his growth. He is old and strong 
enough to withstand the attacks of flies in the summer, 
and to endure without injury the colds of his second winter. 



33 

He should receive regular rations of oats and wheat bran 
as soon as he has learned to eat along with the mare when 
she is taking her feed. These can best be given him at a 
little distance from the mare, she being secured in her place 
by a halter. For the first year he should receive liberal 
allowance of these foods twice a day, with such mixed hay 
and pasturage as he can take beside. These with linseed 
meal must be the main reliance for making him all we hope 
him to be. They are rich in the elements which make 
growth, and without these no perfect animal can be reared. 
Corn should never be given except in limited quantity in 
winter when warmth from carbohydrates is needed. Where 
corn must be given, it should always be ground and mixed 
with finely-cut clover hay, slightly moistened. The clover 
supplies the nitrogenous food in which the corn is so deficient, 
and also gives the necessary bulk of proper digestion in 
the stomach. It should always be remembered that the 
horse has but one stomach, and that is small. While on 
the one hand this cannot contain enough of coarse in- 
nutritious food, like straw or poor hay, to meet the demands 
of subsistence and growth, yet on the other the food must 
be bulky enough to admit of the speedy and thorough action 
of the gastric juice, so that the nutritive portions may be 
quickly dissolved and the refuse discharged. Where corn 
meal is given alone it goes into the stomach in the plastic 
condition of dough, is there rolled about by the muscular 
action, is as impervious to the digesting juices as a ball of 
india-rubber, and produces fever and frequently serious 
colic. Where corn is largely fed, its heating effects upon 
the blood are readily shown in unsoundness at the extremi- 
ties. The oat is a wholesome food when given alone, because 
nearly one-third of its bulk is husk, which make the mass 
in the stomach porous like a sponge. I desire to repeat 
that mixed hay, with a good proportion of clover, oats, 
wheat, bran, and linseed meal, all containing albuminoids 
which furnish the materials for growth, must be relied upon 
to develop a draught horse to his true proportions. He 



34 

must never know a hungry day, and he must never spend 
an hour shivering on the north side of a barn, waiting for 
his food. While, on the other hand, a stable may be too 
Avarm, on the other, every storm in winter is too cold for 
a steady and vigorous growth. An exposure to cold that 
produces an active circulation on the surface, and gives to 
boys and girls bright, rosy cheeks, conduces to health ; but 
every exposure that chills the blood draws upon the vital 
forces and saps the foundations of the constitution. It 
costs more, and costs double the time, to regain a pound 
of lost weight than it does to add five pounds in a continuous 
growth. 

I am strongly in favour of grooming colts in winter, not 
with the expenditure of labour necessary in using the curry- 
comb and brush, but by a hasty rubbing with a stiff stable 
broom. It accomplishes two important results — the stimu- 
lation of a healthful action of the skin, and the acquaintance 
of the colt with handling and with the contact with sub- 
stances that otherwise would occasion alarm. This must 
be commenced with great gentleness. 

At all ages colts should have abundant exercise. The 
pasture in summer, and well enclosed ; well-shedded pad- 
docks in winter furnish the best opportunities for this. 
They should be frequently handled from the beginning by 
cool and judicious hands, ever remembering that, like 
ourselves, they can learn but one letter of their alphabet 
and one step in their knowledge at a time. Every colt, 
whatever his class, should be broken to the saddle, because 
at some time in after life he must be ridden, and because 
in no other way can he obtain such acquaintance with his 
master's will. The colt reared for draught purposes can 
have the walking gait developed when under the saddle 
more readily than in any other way. This should after- 
ward be continued by service beside a fast walking horse. 

In conclusion, I will only add that the expense of breaking 
a draught horse is less, by many times, than any other. He 
sooner pays for his keep by service upon the farm than 



35 

does any other. When old enough for the market, he finds 
a readier sale than does any other, and a given number of 
them, from ten to one hundred, taken together, will sell 
for more money than will any equal number of any other 
class of horses whatsoever. 



The Stable. 

This is a very important part of the subject, and one 
which is too often neglected by people who own horses, 
and who leave their general management to stable keepers 
or grooms often grossly neglectful or ignorant. Many 
horses die yearly from the neglect of their owners to enforce 
the ordinary laws of health in the stable. A site should be 
chosen nearly or quite as well situated as that for the 
dwelling, and the stable may be, if possible, separate and 
distinct from the barn with advantage. Hide it if you like 
behind trees, but do not cut off the 

Circulation of Air. 

A supply of pure air is as necessary to the life and health 
of a horse as of man. In many stables air is carelessly 
admitted, and blows either on the head of the horse or in 
such a way that cold and cough is the inevitable result. 
The practice of feeding hay through a hole above the head 
of the horse invites fatal results in the way of cold, not to 
mention the possibility of hayseed falling into the eyes of 
the horse when it is looking up for its food. An opposite 
error, however, is to exclude every possible breath of air, 
and have the atmosphere of the stable hot and unwhole- 
some. The effect of several horses being shut up in one 
stable is to render the air unpleasantly warm and foul. A 
person coming from the open air cannot breathe in it many 



36 

minutes without perspiring. In this temperature the horse 
stands, hour by hour, often with a covering on. This is 
suddenly stripped off, and it is led into the open air, the 
temperature of which is many degrees below that of the 
stable. It is true that while it is exercising it has no need 
of protection, but, unfortunately, it too often has to stand 
awaiting its masters convenience, and this, perhaps, after a 
brisk trot which has opened every pore, and its susceptibility 
to cold has been excited to the utmost extent. In ventilating 
stables it should never be forgotten that the health of a 
horse depends on an abundant supply of fresh, dry air, 
introduced in such a manner as to prevent a possible chance 
of a draught on any of its inmates. Many old stables may 
be greatly benefited by the introduction of a window or 
windows, which will require but little expenditure and save 
many a dollar's worth of horseflesh. 



Hay Tea. 

This is also refreshing for a tired horse. Fill a pail with 
the best clean, bright hay, and pour in as much boiling 
water as the pail will hold. Keep it covered and hot for 
fefteen minutes, turn off the water into another pail and 
add a little cold water, enough to make a gallon and a half 
OF so, and when cold feed it to the horse. 



Always have Plenty of Light. 

Many horses are compelled to stand in the stall where 
tiliere is a window three or four feet above their heads. 
This I don't approve of, as the horse will naturally strain 
to look out of the window, and the light coming so high 
above his head many times hurts the eyesight of the horse. 
I would advise all to have \he windows put at one side of 
the stall, or I would rather they should be directly behind 
%he horse. Always have your stall and stable well ven- 
tilated, and have it aired out thoroughly every morning for 
at least two hours. 



37 
The Proper Bedding. 

I approve of straw, using about on an average four 
pounds per day. The first bedding will require ten pounds. 
Over two-thirds of this can be saved every morning and 
placed in the sun where it can dry, ready for the bedding 
at night. Great economy can be practised in bedding 
horses. I don't approve of sawdust or shavings, as it 
causes many diseases in the horse's feet, such as thrush 
and other like diseases. I would rather, if you cannot get 
straw for your horse, to stand in the summer time on tan 
bark. And let me say here that if you have a horse that 
has contracted feet, sore-footed, or that his tendons are 
diseased, place him in a big box stall bedded with nothing 
but tan bark, and you will see an improvement in a very 
few days. 



Give your Horses the Proper Exercise. 

There are more horses to-day that die from the want of 
not having proper exercise than by any other cause. There 
are hundreds and thousands of horses that are owned by 
Avealthy people, and not having the proper work for their 
animals they are compelled to stand in the stable from one 
week to another, being fed very high, and the result is that 
the horse becomes stiff, lazy, and of a sluggish disposition. 
A horse, in order to be in health, should have not less than 
five miles of exercise every day. It matters not whether 
this is given in the carriage or under the saddle. It is 
better for our horse to be worn out than it is to rust out. 
Many times coUc and different diseases originate from the 
horse being over-fed and not having the proper exercise. 
Such diseases as staggers, fits, and dummies, all come 
from over feeding. 

I could go into quite a lengthy argument on the above 
question, but it is unnecessary ; I only give you this good 



38 

advice. If you cannot drive your horse and give him the 
proper exercise, let some of your neighbours do it. 



Feeding Bran Mashes. 

Horses should have a bran mash twice a week. In the 
spring of the year horses should have a few potatoes, 
carrots, or roots of any kind, as it is now known generally 
that both contribute to the strength and endurance of the 
sound horse, and to the rapid recovery of a sick one. 
Carrots and potatoes should be given the horse twice a 
week during the spring months. 



To Clean a Grey Horse. 

Take Castile soap and add charcoal, and wash him 
thoroughly ; this will leave your horse's hair perfectly 
white, the charcoal being a great cleansing article. Always 
use the two together. 



My Idea of Feeding Horses. 

I will commence by giving you my idea of how horses 
should be fed and cared for through the day. I will lay 
these rules down for general driving and draught horses. 
In the morning, the first thing, give your horse a pailful 
of water ; following this give him some grain ; following 
this give him some hay, a very little, not over one-half 
an armful. After the horse has eaten his grain and hay, 
bring him out of his stall, give him a sharp, quick groom- 
ing, and then give him as much water as he wants. He is 
now ready for work. If you are driving the horse upon 
the road, it is the habit of a great many horsemen to 
continually water their horses on a very warm day ; this 
I do not approve of, unless you have a pail with you ; 
then at about nine or ten o'clock in the forenoon give 
your horse one-half a pailful of water. At noon, just 



39 

before you give him his dinner, let him have about a third 
of a pailful, then give your grain, but no hay. Just before 
you harness him for his afternoon's work, let him have 
what water he may want ; then following the same rule as 
in the forenoon as to water. When you have finished the 
day's work, and are putting your horse up for the night, 
see first that the stall is well bedded and your horse is 
cool ; place the horse in his stall, give him his grain, then 
take him out and give him what water he may need. When 
he is drinking the water have the hay for the night placed 
in the stall — a good quantity. Your horse is then cared 
for, and will rest during the night. 

Under no circumstances give hay first, or with the grain- 
Always give your horse his hay after he has eaten up his 
grain. If you will follow the above rule you will never 
have a horse sick with colic. 

I am a great believer in good oats, and then they should 
be all sifted, every particle of dust and dirt taken from 
them, giving the horse nothing but the clean oats. All 
hay, when pitched down from the mow, or taken from the 
bale, should be shaken with the fork, and every particle of 
dust and chaff shaken from it. In this way your horse 
gets clean and wholesome food, and then he is not pulling 
out his hay, or he is not wasting his oats, but he is at all 
times ready to eat his meals, as they are placed before him 
in an eatable form. There is a great deal of grain wasted 
by the carelessness of man. 

A book could be written on the manner of feeding, but 
I don't think it is necessary forme to speak on this subject, 
only of the general principles, and leave the rest to you 
and your good judgment. 

I might add that I do not recommend the feeding of corn 
unless ground together with oats in equal proportion* 
There are many dummies and horses with staggers, and 
horses that die with colic, caused entirely by the great 
amount of corn that is fed to them. Many old horses can- 
not masticate this corn, and the result is that it is not 



digested. So give your horse good pure oats, and good 
bright hay, and pure water. I would recommend the use 
of soft water from brooks and mill streams. When this 
cannot be had, and you have to draw the water from a 
well, let it stand in a trough or tub one hour before letting 
your horse drink. Many say that muddy water or any 
kind of water from a muddy pool is good ; but don't ask 
your horse to drink what you would not drink yourself. 

It is the practice of almost every horse owner to compel 
his horse to eat from high racks or mangers. This is 
something that I do not approve of, as it is unnatural for 
a horse to reach up after his food. In the first place, all 
the chaflF, hayseed, dirt, etc., are liable to get into his eyes 
and ears, and many times when horses are fed their grain 
they eat it so fast that they do not masticate it properly, 
and the result is that their digestive organs have to per- 
form what their teeth ought to do. 

Take and turn your horse out into a field, or say on the 
side of a hill, and you will never see him feeding up the 
hill ; he will always feed sideways of the hill or down the 
hill. I claim that many horses are made sprung knee and 
stiff-necked ; many times coming out of the stable acting 
as though they were foundered, caused from the continual 
strain of standing and reaching up for feed, which is 
positively unnatural for all dumb animals. Think oi' your- 
self getting your breakfast, reaching three feet above your 
head for every mouthful that you get. It would be more 
pleasant, and you would relish your meal more, by having 
the food placed one or two feet below your mouth. I 
approve of having all horses fed in the following manner : 
Take your mangers and racks entirely out of the stall ; 
feed the hay from the floor, even with your horse's feet. In 
giving grain have a box made movable, and place the grain 
in this box, and let the horse eat that from even with his 
feet. He eats his grain slowly, masticating it properly, 
and the result is that while you have had to give your 
horse twelve quarts of grain in feeding from a high manger, 



41 

nine quarts fed from even with his feet will keep him in 
better condition than the twelve quarts fed from the 
manger ; and I think that you will soon find out that my 
idea will save ten per cent, of food in one year. 



How to Use my Surcingle. 

The surcingle that I use in all my exhibitions is eight 
feet long, and around the horse's body four inches wide, 
with a three inch buckle, and the part of the surcingle that 
goes through the buckle two and one-half inches wide. 
When the surcingle is on the horse the buckle comes right 
on the side of the animal, half up the horse's body. There 
are four two-inch rings, one on each side, one underneath, 
and on the top of the surcingle a ring. These rings under- 
neath the horse's body are used for the working of my 
double safety rope ; the rings on the side of the surcingle 
are used for the reins to pass through ; the ring on the top 
of the surcingle is used to pass the rope through and hold 
the horse down after you have thrown him. This sur- 
cingle is a very handy thing for every one to have, and 
any man that has a number of horses to handle or break 
should not be without one. 

They are very handy to have in the stable in case of a 
sick horse or any surgical operation that you may wish to 
perform. 

They should cost you about £i, according to the. 
material that you have in them. 

If in throwing a horse you find it requires too much 
strength, the horse being too large or fights too hard, 
when using my method of drawing up one foot, I would 
suggest the appliance of my double safety strap. Buckle 
the strap around each front limb below^ the fetlock joint. 
Take a strap twenty feet long, snapping to strap on nigh 



42 

front limb, place through the ring in surcingle underneath 
his body, draw through ring on off front limb and back 
through ring in surcingle. Now take hold of strap with 
right hand, take the halter in the left hand. Your horse is 
standing on three legs. Now pull him to you, and when 
he makes a move, you pull the strap and raise the other leg; 
this brings him to his knees. Now pull his head around 
to you, and the horse will gently fall upon his right side. 
This is the safest and best method of throwing a horse 
I know of, there being no danger of hurting either horse 
or man. 




To Educate Horses Not to be Afraid of Objects 
when Driven. 



It is impossible to overestimate the value of the subjoined 
instructions respecting nervous and shying horses, there- 
fore on this topic I wish to be particularly clear and explicit. 
Let the reader understand that horses take fright at objects 
because they fancy that those objects will harm them, and 



43 

if you can by any means appeal to the horse's brain, and 
satisfy him that he is not going to be hurt, you have 
accomplished your object. And in order to do so you must 
have control of your horse. I do not mean by this that you 
are to adopt the too frequent course pursued by many, viz., 
subduing with the whip, or other harsh means, which will, 
without almost an exception, increase the fear instead of 
removing the habit. Again, when a horse shies, the driver 
commences to jerk on the reins nearest to the object, and 
at once applies the whip, fully determined to master his 
horse. Both man and horse get excited, and the horse 
comes off victorious, because he cannot control him by the 
means used, and the result is that the next time the animal 
is frightened it bears a two-fold character — the fear of the 
object and the fear of the whip punishment. 

It is generally a crude habit of many persons when 
driving a horse past an object of which he is afraid, to begin 
with *'Whoa, boy! whoa, boy! whoa, boy!" and when 
the horse has passed the object, to take the whip and lash 
him with it, and say, '*I will teach you to shy," etc. Now 
when this treatment is pursued, I claim the horse believes 
that the object that he was afraid of inflicted the pain, and 
consequently he is made worse instead of better. Now my 
theory is to use the whip gently when approaching the 
object, and compel him to walk right up to it, and let him smell 
of it, stopping him, showing him that it will not hurt him. 

Only use the whip when you give the word of command, 
speaking with force and distinction, as I believe nine- 
tenths of our runaways are due more to the one driving 
him than to the horse himself. The horse is a cunning 
animal and sizes up his driver with the rapidity of thought; 
and when he is fully aware that his driver is afraid of him, 
he takes advantage of it and runs away. If my instructions 
are fully carried out by my readers, as to the thorough 
way herein laid down, I am positively certain there will be 
no runaways. 



Throwing Horses for Educational Purposes, 

Put on your horse a gfood strong halter ; take a strap 
with a ring in it and buckle around the horse's off front 




FIRST POSITION TAKEN IN THROWING A HORSE. 



limb, below the fetlock joint ; take a rope eight feet long- 
and tie into this strap ; place a surcingle around the horse's 
body ; take your position on the nigh side of the horse, 
bring the rope over the horse's back from the off side, 
taking hold of the rope with your right hand, pull his foot 
to his body ; take a firm hold of this, holding the foot in 
this position ; then take hold of the horse's halter with 
your left hand, pull his head to you and press against his 
body with your elbow, using the words *' Lie down." The 
majority of horses you can throw in a minute, while others 



45 

may fight you for three or four mhiutes, but you will soon 
master them and they will have to come down. As soon as 
the animal has been thrown, take the rope that is under- 
neath him, bring- it under the surcingle and place it through 
the ring of the halter, back under the surcingle again, and 




here you have the rope to bring his head to his shoulder ; 
make' him put his head down to the ground, and then if 
you want to rattle pans or shake buffalo robes around him. 
and he makes any attempt to get up, pull his head up 
immediately, which will prevent him from doing so ; then 



46 

take a whip and crack it around him ; give him to 
thoroughly understand that you are his master. I am a 
great believer in throwing horses, and would recommend 
that every horse should be thrown, for this reason, that it 
takes the conceit out of them, and gives them to under- 
stand that man has more power than they have. If used 
by men of good judgment and patience, all young horses 
can be thoroughly brought under control by this manner 
of handling. 

If the horse is nervous and excitable, have your assistants 
crack the whip, rattle tin pans, and shoot firearms around 
him, until he lies perfectly quiet, with his head resting on 
the ground. In order to familiarise your horse to all 
objects of which he is afraid, repeat this lesson once a day 
for three or four days. I would recommend that every 
horse should be thrown, as it takes the conceit out of him. 



You must Educate your Horse. 

Educate and teach him as you would a child, and thus 
make him more useful and valuable to man. The horse is 
an animal of no little intelligence, docility, and faithfulness, 
qualities which would be more generally apparent were it 
not for the cruel treatment so commonly practised in 
breaking him. Have patience with him, and practise good 
judgment and common sense in handling him. Understand 
before you commence to drive him that he is a dumb brute, 
and as he cannot talk he will watch your every movement. 
A finely bred horse is as sensitive as a well-bred person, 
and you should not haloo, whip or spur him as you would 
an old dung-hill of a brute. 

The whip is a very good thing, but should only be used 
in its place, which I will give you a little illustration of 
here. If you are driving along the road, and your horse 
shies at a covered waggon, or a bicycle, or a white dog, or 
anything that excites his fright and causes him to shy, do 
not wait until he gets by and then up and whip him for the 



47 

next fifteen minutes, but when he discovers it, take the 
line in the left hand and the whip in the right, and when 
he makes his first shy give him a sharp crack of the whip, at 
the same time saying, *' Take care, sir; what do you mean?" 
Don't talk as though you were half asleep, but as if you 
meant just what you said. Keep both eyes open, and don't 
whip him as though you were trying to kill him. Never 
use the whip unless the voice accompanies it ; the word 
and proper use of the whip should go together. 

One failing the horse owners have is, they do not talk 
to their horses enough. If a horse starts and runs you 
will stay in the carriage and not open your mouth, but sit 
pulling on the reins. You should speak to the horse, and 
if he is afraid of anything, tell him to " take care, &c., it 
is not going to hurt you ;" the same time crack the whip 
to draw his attention. As a horse cannot think of two 
things at once, the consistency of this is of course apparent 




Bad Biters. 

If the horse is a stallion with a confirmed habit of biting 
and striking, you are always in risk of your life or limb 
while you have such an animal about. If a mare or gelding, 
put on my training bridle, and watch him closely, in a sly 
way, not letting him know you are watching him, but 
when he attempts to bite give him a few severe pulls on 
the bridle. Do this in such places as he is most likely to 
bite, and we will warrant that a few efforts will teach your 
animal that his jaws were not made to bite his keeper. To 
prevent a stallion from biting his mate when hitched up 
double, attach an independent line to the outside ring of 



48 

his bit, letting it hang loosely, the end being held by the 
driver. As he attempts to bite, pull up sharply, and hit 
him with the whip. 




To Handle a Vicious, Biting Stallion. 

The first thing I should do with him would be to throw 
him four or five times. When the horse is down handle 
his head, open his mouth, and handle his mouth. Put on 
my training bridle, take the whip in your right hand, cord 
in the left, and give him a thorough handling with this 
bridle, teaching him to stop when you say " Whoa," and 
turn right and left quickly at the word of command. I 
have handled a great number of vicious, biting stallions by 
the use of gunpowder, using revolvers holding thirty-eight 
blank cartridges. The moment the horse comes near you, 
or makes an attempt to bite you, discharge the revolver 
directly in front of him, which frightens the animal, and 



49 

gives him such a sudden shock that it makes him afraid to 
bite you. All vicious, biting^ staUions should be w^atched 
closely, and never trusted, as I believe an old biting horse 
can never be broken of the habit so that everybody could 
handle him. 




To Educate a Bad Shier. 

In educating a bad shier, select a soft piece of ground, 
put on my double safety rope, a surcingle around his body, 
buckle a strap around each front foot below each fetlock 
joint, then take a rope twenty feet long, tie one end 
of that rope into ring on nigh front limb, bring over 
ring in surcingle under the horse's body down to ring on 
off front limb, back over the ring in the surcingle. Put on 
open bridle and straight bar bit, run the lines through ring 
on side of surcingle, then take and teach the horse the 
word ''Whoa" thoroughly, to ''get up" by word of com- 
mand, and to back by word of command ; then throw 
papers at him, blankets, buffalo robes ; roll barrels around 
him ; wave flags over his head. If he makes any attempt 
to get away pull your safety rope, and bring him to both 
knees, and hold him there. As soon as he becomes quiet 



50 



let him up on his feet ; crack the whip around him, and, in 
fact, give him to thoroughly understand that these objects 
are perfectly harmless. After giving the horse two lessons 
he is ready to drive on the street. 



To Educate a Bad Runaway Horse. 

Use same treatment as a bad shier, only more severe. 



To Educate and Break a Horse from Running 
Backwards with a Waggon. 

Put on my double safety rope, harness your horse up to 
the waggon, get into the waggon, take the lines in the 
right hand and the safety rope in the left : you say ''Back" 
to the horse. When he has backed as far as you wish 
him to, say "Whoa," and pull the safety rope, which 
prevents him from backing any further. After giving 
three or four lessons in this manner the horse will under- 
stand what you mean by ''Back," and when you say 
*' Whoa" will immediately stop. 



How to Drive a Horse up to Objects that he 
is Afraid of. 

A practical way of driving a horse up to an object that 
he is afraid of is : Take the whip in your right hand, the 
lines in the left ; when you are within ten or fifteen feet of 
the object, speak to your horse sharp and firmly, using 
about this language : "Get up there, sir, what is the matter 
with you; that won't hurt you;" at the same moment 
hitting him with the whip ; but do not repeat the blow 



51 

unless it is necessary to hold him at his post. The 
moment that you have driven him up to the object he is 
afraid of, stop him, get out of your waggon and caress 
him, teach him that he is not going to be harmed, and by 
all means let him walk away from the object, never letting 
him go faster than a walk. 

This same rule is laid down for saddle horses. 



To Stop a Runaway Horse. 

Always, when driving, hold your reins firmly, whether 
the horse is vicious or not ; you should at all times be on 
your guard, as they are never to be trusted. If your horse 
should take fright and start to run away, take a firm hold 
of the left line with your left hand, reach down upon the 
right line with your right hand and say *' Whoa," sharp, 
and pull the line quickly at the same time that you give 
the command, but do not move the left line ; this at once 
pulls your horse's head around to his side, and in nine 
cases out of ten will bring him to a stand-still ; never 
see-saw the reins or pull upon both lines, as you have no 
power then to stop the animal. Never jump from the 
carriage, as more lives are lost and more limbs broken by 
being frightened and jumping from the carriage when the 
horse is running away. Keep cool, and you will control 
the horse by following the above directions. 



To Drive a Lugger or Puller on the Bit. 

I would use a plain straight bar bit wound with rubber 
or leather, doing away with the check rein. It is necessary 
in order to drive a lugger successfully to give him 
three or four lessons on the word ** Whoa" and the word 
** Steady ;" teach him that when you say '* Steady" it is 
to slack up in speed, but when you say ** Whoa" it is for 
him to stop. 



52 

See that his teeth are not sharp, and if they are, have 
them fixed at once. There is no law that can be laid down 
for the driving of a lugger, only to use as gentle and soft 
bits as possible. 



To Educate or Break a Vicious Kicking Horse 
so he will drive gentle and be fit for family use. 

In the first place take your horse out on a soft place, or 
on the ploughed ground, and throw him down by working 
as follows : Put a surcingle around his body ; take a strap 
and buckle around the off front limb, below the fetlock 
joint ; take a rope eight feet long and tie into that strap, bring- 
it up over the horse's back ; you stand on the nigh side of 
the horse and take hold of this rope with your right hand 
and pull his foot to his body ; then you take hold of the 
halter with the left hand and pull his head around to you, 
placing your right elbow against the horse's side, using 
the words ''Lie down." He may fight for three or four 
minutes, but if you hold to his head and keep it pulled 
around to you he must go down. After he has been thrown, 
then take the rope and run it through the ring in the 
surcingle at his back, through the halter, back through the 
ring in the surcingle, then you take hold of the rope, and 
if he goes to get up pull the rope, and this brings his head 
to his shoulder and prevents him from getting up ; then 
take tin pans, bells, rattle them all around him, then you 
can let him up ; then you take and put on an ordinary open 
bridle, straight bar bit, using the pad of your harness, run 
the rings through the thill straps, then put on my single 
foot strap, which goes as follows : 

Buckle the strap around near front limb below fetlock 
joint; take a rope twenty feet long, pass through ring in sur- 
cingle under horse's body down through ring on foot, back 
to same ring on surcingle, and tie; step back behind horse, 
take reins in right hand, rope in left. Have some one to 



53 

assist in placing- on a back strap or crupper ; attach to 
crupper sleigh bells, tin pans, bundles of straw, allow them 
to dangle at his heels, giving him a cause to kick ; then 
commence to drive him ; when he kicks pull on ropo in 
left hand, which allows him on three limbs, at the same 
time speak to him sharply, ** Take care there, sir," in a 
commanding voice. Then your assistant should take a 
pole, rattling the tin pans and bells, also placing the pole 
in front and behind his limbs ; by using this method one 
hour twice each day, in five days your horse is thoroughly 




broken, and gentle to drive to the carriage. Wher> 
working the horse always use him on soft ground where 
there are no stones. 



To Break a Bad Jibber. 

There are three or four kinds of jibbers; some are nervous 
and excitable, while others seem to have no ambition 
whatever. A dead-Iifed jibber, to my knowledge, is not 
worth breaking. All high-lifed jibbers can be brought 



54 

tinder perfect control and thoroughly broken by following 
these directions : 

Take your horse out and throw him repeatedly fifteen or 
twenty times ; then put on the bridle and the harness, 
running the lines through the thill strap and telling him to 
*'Get up" by the word of command. Teach him this 
thoroughly before you place him before the waggon. If he 
will not move forward when you give him the word, take a 
rope or a strap twenty feet long, tie around his neck, and 
then place through ring in bit, having one of your men 
standing directly in front of the horse with this rope in his 
hand, which I term as a guy line. When you give the 
word *' Get up," let him pull this rope at the same time, 
which will move the horse forward quickly. Now under- 
stand that the command and the pull of the rope must both 
take place at the same time, in order for you to have 
success. Practise this two days, not making the lessons 
over one hour in length, then hitching him to a light 
vehicle, first working with your horse quietly and after- 
wards giving him to understand what you want him to do. 
Never make any false motion, never lose your temper, and 
always have plenty of patience, and you will meet with 
victory. 

All Grades of Jibbers. 

I am asked the question almost every day, ** Can you 
break a jibby horse?" Yes. "Can you break a jibby 
horse so anybody can drive him?" No. **Why?'^ 
Because it is impossible for me or any other man to break 
all the jibby drivers in the land. Now, there are many 
grades of jibby horses. It is a habit of a great many 
persons, when breaking a colt, to hitch him up first beside of 
an old farm horse that is lazy, blind in one eye, and so old 
that he is deaf. When you have got this nervous, excitable 
colt harnessed beside the old, slow horse, you then 
take up the lines and ask your team to go. The colt 
plunges ahead, the old horse having spent many days in 



55 

the harness, takes life very easy and gradually gets m 
motion. The colt comes back, the load don't move. The 
next time you ask them to go the old horse moves ahead, 
the colt sits back in the breeching. ''Ha! ha!" your 
neighbour says, ''got a jibby colt there." Not at all. 
You certainly will have if you persist in your present course. 
Take him out of the double harness, break him to drive 
single, and you will have no trouble with him, single 
or double. 

In handling a jibby horse of long standing, one that has 
been spoiled by mismanagement, it is advisable to first 
throw him four or five times. Then put your harness on 
with an open bridle, running the lines through the thill 
straps, get behind him with a good whip, and teach him 
the words " Get up." At the same time that you give him 
the command to move forward, hit him a cut with the whip, 
showing him that that means "Move forward." Work with 
him in this manner for three or four lessons. You then tie 
a rope in the traces, carrying it around your back, and teach 
him to pull your weight, walking behind him. When you 
have got him so that he v^ill turn right and left quickly, 
stop at the word " Whoa," get up at the word and pult 
your weight, you can hitch him to a light road cart, getting 
into the waggon, giving him the word " Get up, sir." If 
he should fail to go, have your assistant take a rope. Let 
your assistant stand directly in front of the horse with the 
rope being slack. Hold your whip in the right hand, when 
you are ready to go give the word, and the man pulls the 
rope, and you hit the horse with the whip, all at the same 
moment. If he don't move forward then, let the party who- 
holds the rope step to the right and left, jerking his head 
until he moves forward, you using the words at each and 
every time, "Get up, sir." Give him a few lessons for 
three or four days in this manner, and in the majority of 
cases you have got a horse that will pull. 

There are other jibby horses that it is necessary to throw. 
This character of a horse is generally of a sluggish 



56 

disposition, and the only way that you can get it to go 
Avill be to frighten it with the whip. 

There are other horses that it will be necessary to handle 
an a more quiet manner, but in some cases you must use 
the whip to get the animal frightened, so that when you 
speak to him he knows that he must move forward. When 
working a horse, you must not leave him till you conquer- 
him, if it takes twenty-four hours. But understand me 
correctly, don't lose your temper, don't use a club, don't 
kick him ; use a good whip. Be careful and not hit him 
on the body or in the eyes. Use the whip on his legs. I have 
started a great many jibby horses by striking them with a 
whip around their front legs. This is a very tender spot, 
and they won't stand long and take the punishment there. 
In working a jibby horse, always keep a large stock of 
patience on hand, and don't think you are going to break 
him in two hours, because you are not. The moment he 
goes, reward him for it by giving him an apple. 



To Break a Halter Puller. 

Take a rope fifteen feet long, and throw it over his back ; 
reach under his body, take hold of the end of the rope, and 
tie an ordinary slip-knot ; have this knot come directly 
under the horse's body ; place the rope between his front 
limbs up through the halter, and hitch to a post or to a 
ring in the manger ; do not hitch the halter rope. Then 
step in front of your horse with tin pans, blankets, 
umbrellas, and all kinds of objects, in fact, everything, 
and frighten him, and make him pull if possible. After 
pulling back upon this rope, he will not make more than 
the second or third attempt. Repeat these lessons twice a 
day for five days. This will break any horse of the habit 
of pulling on the halter if you follow my instructions. 



To Break Horses to Cars and Steam. 

In taking a horse up to the cars, put on my training 
bridle, taking the rope in your left hand, with the whip in 



57 

the right, making the horse follow you, and take him right 
up to the cars and hold him there. It is impossible for him 
to get away from you or this bridle. You then should 
caress him and teach him that the cars are not going ta 
hurt him. One of the main objects of your lesson should 
be to teach the animal that you are his friend and protector ; 
get him to place confidence in you, and he will go through 
fire with you. 

In driving a horse up to steam, I would advise the putting 




on of my double safety rope, and run the reins through the 
thill strap of the pad, and drive him first up to the steam. 
If he makes a determined attempt to get away, bring him 
to his knees. It may be necessary for you to use the guy 
strap, having a man hold the guy strap, that will hold the 
horse up to the steam ; but you must be very careful not ta 
get him burned, or hurt him in any way, but teach him 
that the steam is perfectly harmless. As soon as the horse 
finds out that the steam will not injure him, you will find 
that in the second or third lesson he will walk right up to 



it from command of his master. Make your lessons short,, 
but firm. I would advise, in training horses to steam, to 
take them up to a traction engine, or up to a mill where 
there is steam used, taking them to the cars afterwards. 

Another good way of breaking a horse to the cars, is to 
.hitch your horse up beside a heavy team horse, where he 
•cannot get away, and after he has been driven up to the 
cars four or five times he is then safe to drive to your 
single waggon. 




I 



t&»'<^ 



^^e^. 



To Educate a Nervous Horse. 

I would first place upon him my double safety rope, which 
is thoroughly described elsewhere, and make him thoroughly 
acquainted with the beating of drums, the rattling of tin 
pans, floating the ''Union Jack," and the shooting off fire- 
arms, fire crackers, music, etc., by driving him right up to 
them and giving him to understand he will not be hurt. 
And by repeating this lesson every day for three or four 
days, your horse has become thoroughly conversant with 
tUcm and will never show fear when approaching them. 



59 
Always in giving these lessons to your horse, bear in mind 




that you must be very careful that none of the devices you 
use must hit him in such a manner as to cause pain. 



My Opinion of the Word " Whoa." 

It is the greatest command that we have in horseman- 
ship ; it is the habit of almost every person when driving 
to continually use the word '' Whoa." Now let me say to 
you that you should never use this word only when you 
want your horse or horses to stop. If you are driving along 
a street and you come to a crossing or a bad place, and you 
wish your horses to slack up in speed, use this language 
to them : ''Steady there, my boy ;" but when you wish- 
them to stop, speak out sharply and firmly, '' Whoa." If 
you will practise this when you are driving your horse, in- 
two weeks you will have him so that he will understand 
every command that you give him. 

Never use one word with too many meanings. You 
must never lie to your horse, and never deceive him or 
make false motions ; if you do you will never make a 
success as a trainer of the horse. 

Mankind are too apt to depend upon their own strength 



6o 

to beat the horse, without making any use of their reasoning" 
powers to out-general him ; and, in many instances, 
such an exercise of tyranny over the horse only engenders a 
rebellious spirit on the part of the animal. Therefore, lay 
aside your strength and use your reason. Be moderate, be 
temperate. No man can become a good horseman and not 
have first learned to control himself before he attempts to 
control the animal. Be firm, be persevering, be honest. 
Never lie to your horse. Endeavour to have him under- 
stand what you want, and do not confuse him by attaching 
different meanings to the same word. It is quite common 
to say " Whoa," when it is only intended to go slower; or, 
when tiie horse has not stirred a foot, to let him know of 
your presence ; and then when you want a " Whoa," when 
your life may depend on your having a good '* Whoa" upon 
your horse, you find you have not got it. You have played 
it entirely out of him. Never say "Whoa" unless you 
mean to stop right there. Speak always in a natural tone 
of voice under all circumstances. 

Have your horse understand, by examination and 
experience, that the things liable to frighten are harmless, 
and be sure not to whip him for being frightened. Always 
let your horse face the object of fear ; and, when frightened, 
remember the slower you move your horse the more power 
you have over him. There are times w^hen letting a horse 
trot is almost as bad as letting him run auay. 

Fear is something a horseman should never exhibit in his 
-countenance or voice, as the horse is a close observer, and 
soon learns to take advantage of such indication to become 
careless of control, if not indeed aggressive. Let your 
lessons be thorough but not very long. Be gentle and 
patient with the colt, but make the wilful, stubborn horse 
feel the full extent of your power till he submits. Though 
if he should become much heated and excited, it is prudent 
to stop and repeat the lesson at some future time — repeat 
until there is thorough and unconditional submission. Let 
your treatment be characterised by gentleness afterwards. 



6i 

To Get a Horse up when he Throws Himself. 

Blow in his ear ; if he does not get up by this, take a 
glass of water, or a dish of water, and pour in his nostrils ; 
he will rise to his feet very quickly. And in the handling" 
of a mustang", which becomes very stubborn and sulky, 
sometimes this treatment will fail on them, and it will be 
necessary to take a light whip and use it on the end of the 
nose. They will soon learn that when they throw them- 
selves they are punished, and when they don't they are re- 
warded. In this manner you teach them right from wrong. 



To Start a Jibby Horse in Double Team. 

After you have taken your horse out and given him a 
thorough handling, then hitch him up beside an honest, 
true horse that will pull every time you ask him. Take a 
half-inch rope and tie around the jibby horse's body, right 
in front of his hips, in an ordinary slip-knot ; have this 
knot come directly on the side of the horse, then carry the 
rope directly over the waggon pole and hitch to the true 
horse's collar. Get into your waggon, pick up the reins, 
and hit the true horse a crack with the whip, saying : *' Get 
out of here." When you do he will jump and take the rope 
with him, and when he does the jibby horse must come. 



To Break a Horse from being Afraid of a Dog 
or a Hog. 

Handle the same as for shiers. Keep one eye on the hog 
and one eye on the horse. In order to break your horse 
of this habit it will require five or six lessons. 

The best way to break your horse of being afraid of a 
hog is to take a small pig right into the buggy or break- 
waggon, or whatever you are using, having the horse 
worked with open bridle ; but be sure and have on my safety 
rope, as when he sees the pig and the pig squeals, you will 



62 

find things will get very interesting ; but the moment he 
starts to run say '' Whoa," sharp and firm, pull the safety 
rope and bring the horse to his knees. 

If it is a dog that he is afraid of, let the dog run around i 
him and in front of him ; put my training bridle on the 
horse and make him come up and smell of the dog ; walk 
around him. Then throw your horse and hold him down, 
and take the dog and put him on top of the horse. Work 
like this two or three days with the animal, giving short 
lessons, and you have got the best broken hog and dog 
horse in the world. 



How to Use the Whip. 

No lady or gentleman should ride or drive a horse with- 
out having with them a good whip. The whip in its place 
is a good instrument, but it is very often misused by parties; 
for instance, how many do you see driving through the 
streets of our cities, and in our public parks, that if a horse 
becomes frightened at a bicycle or a band, or any object 
whatever, and he makes an attempt to shy, will get him by 
it the best way he can, and the moment he has passed the 
object out comes the whip with the words, *' I'll teach you 
to shy," and the horse receives a severe punishment. The 
horse, not having the reasoning power that you have, 
believes that the punishment that he has just received has 
come from the object that he was so much frightened at. 



t 



To Prevent a Horse from Pawing in the Stable. 

Take a piece of chain seven inches long, not a plough 
chain, but trace chain ; tie on one end of that a piece of 
hard wood five inches long and one inch in diameter ; then 
take a strap and buckle around the horse's limb above the 
knee, letting this chain and wood hang from the strap. 
Every time the horse paws this piece of wood will hit his 



I 



63 

limb, and as he cannot think of two things at one time, it 
will draw his attention in such a manner as to prevent him 
from pawing. 

To Prevent a Horse from Kicking in the Stall. 

Take a piece of elastic about ten inches long, sew a vest 
buckle one end of it and buckle this around the horse's hind 
limb above the hock joint. When the horse kicks the leader 
must expand, the result is the elastic prevents it from doing 
so, and the horse's habit of kicking in the stall will soon be 
broken up. Never use a strap or rope ; if you do it will 
stop the circulation. In all cases use the elastic. 



Whirling a Horse by his Tail. 

If you have a horse bad to harness, or will not stand to 
be bridled or saddled, take the halter strap in your left 




64 

hand, take hold of the horse's tail with your right hand,, 
and whirl him around eight or ten times. He will become 
dizzy, and the moment you let go of him he will stagger or 
fall. Then say " Whoa ;" pick up your saddle, harness, 
or bridle, or whatever you want to put on him, and you 







will find that he will stand perfectly quiet. It is a quick 
and effective method. 

Never tie your horse's head and tail together, but follow 
the above instructions. 



To Break a Horse from Switching his Tail. 



Place on the horse a collar and hames, and then take hold 
of his tail. Take a wooden pin five inches long, one inch 
in diameter, lay directly across the hair of his tail, double 
the end of the tail over the pin ; then take a rope ei^ht feet 
long, in the middle of the rope make a slip-knot and faslen 
over the end of the tail and pin ; then bring the horse's 
tail up over his back, bringing one of these ropes down to 



65 

the ring of the hame and tying it, and on the other side m 
the same way ; the rope prevents the tail from going 
either side ; take an ordinary cloth surcingle and put that 
over and around his body ; leave the tail up in this matiner 
for six hours ; if a very bad case, repeat three times. This 
is the best method I ever used, and will surely do its work. 







To Educate a Horse not to be Afraid of 
Fire-crackers. 

Hitch him to a waggon, put on my double safety rope, 
and drive him right up to the fire-crackers, and if he goes 
to turn around with you, or run back, or run away, pu^ll 
the rope, which will immediately bring him to his knees, 
but do not hold the rope. As soon as he comes to his knees 
loosen the rope and pull the lines, using the command, 
"Whoa, sir." Now have boys throw fire-crackers under 
him, all around him, up in the air, and if he makes any 
attempt to gee away say ''Whoa," sharp and firm. For 
you to meet with success with a horse of this character, 
or, in fact, any horse, you must talk to him, always speak- 
c 



66 



ing distinctly and firmly. After you have given the horse 
two lessons he will pay no attention to fire-crackers. 



To Educate a Horse not to be afraid of Paper 
and Umbrellas. 

Put on my double safety rope, take your horse out into 
the field where there are boys with flags, paper, umbrellas, 
and drive him right up to the flags, paper, etc. ; if he 
makes any attempt to get away, bring him to his knees ; 




tf necessary, throw him ; have the boys wave the flags 
over his head, throw the paper up in the air, put umbrellas 
over his head, drive him over the paper, drive him up to 
the flags, drive him over the umbrella, make him step into 
it, stand on it, in fact, teach him that these objects are 
perfectly harmless. Two lessons a day for two days, not 
having the lesson over one hour in length, will thoroughly 
break your horse. The most dangerous shier can be 
thoroughly broken by following the above directions. 



67 

To Break a Plunger or Bolter. 

Put on my double safety rope, and when he plunges in 
the air, pull the rope, when he will come down on his 
knees. He will not plunge over three or four times before 
he will be sick of his job. Then introduce him to drums, 
pans, bells, and, in fact, give him a general handling 
in the same way that I control runaways. After giving 
him two lessons he will not bother you with bolting or 
plunging. 



To Prevent a Horse from Putting his Tongue 
out of his Mouth over the Bit- 
Get a piece of sole leather, the shape of cut below, 
and according to size of horse. Lay a straight bar bit 




in the middle of the leather, bringing the points up 
together. 

Sew it on to the bit so it cannot turn, and sew up the 
sides. Put this in your horse's mouth over the tongue, 
running backwards toward the throat. He cannot get his 
tongue back far enough to get it over this leather. It is 
very simple, and will only cost you one shilling. It is the 
best I have ever used. Make this piece of leather according 
to the size of the horse ; if the animal is a pony, reduce 
the size of the leather accordingly. 



68 




Manner of Driving and Breaking a Bad Kicker 
when all other Methods Fail. 

Ptace foot strap on each limb below fetlock, have ropes 
or straps placed on, and crossed in ring on surcingle, as 
above engraving ; give one hour's lesson each day for 
one week. 



To Approach a Biting Horse. 

Always do so with a revolver heavily loaded with blank 
cartridges in your right hand. Advance this hand towards 
the horse's mouth, the muzzle pointing past him, so the 



69 

powder will not burn him. If he attempts to bite you, at 
that instant shoot off the rev^olver. Every time he makes 
the attempt repeat the shooting. This causes the horse 
to think the biting causes the explosion ; this he wishes 




to avoid, and will soon cease to bite at you. The old theory 
of clubbing a horse only adds to and increases his vicious 
temper. This is an original method of my own, which I 
have successfully used in handling many vicious, biting 
stallions. >, 



Collars, Harness, and Saddles. 

Harness used on all draught horses should be carefully 
cleaned regularly once a week. Collars should be cleaned 
daily, thoroughly scraping all scurf arising from heating 
the horse from the collar before it is used a second time. 
Always have your harness properly oiled and pliable, so 
that it will fit the horse as a boot fits a man. 

Saddles should have the same care and attention, and 
great pains should be taken that the saddle fits the back, 
to prevent galls and sores. This is almost universally 
neglected. 



70 

To Prevent a Horse from Jumping over 

a Fence. 

Buckle around his body a surcingle with a two-inch 
ring directly under his body ; take two straps with an inch 
ring in each end, and buckle them around the horse's front 
limbs above the knees ; then take a strap thirteen inches 
in length, with a driving strap in one end, strapping one 
of them into the ring on the off front limb ; bring through 




the ring in surcingle, and strap into ring on nigh front 
limb. The horse can walk and trot, lie down and get 
up, but he cannot run or jump, as he cannot move both 
front feet at the same time. This can be used upon colts 
as well as horses. 



71 




To Prevent a Horse from Biting his Blankets. 



Sew a piece of leather about five inches square on each 
side of the halter, letting it come down even with his 
mouth , 
have to chew the leather. 



when he reaches down to grab the blanket he will 



To Keep a Horse from Getting Cast in the Stall. 



Put on the horse a halter ; sew a ring in the halter over 
the horse's head ; on top of the stall drive a staple and 
ring ; at the side of the stall drive another staple and ring ; 
take a rope ten feet long with a driving snap threaded into 



72 

one end of it ; feed your horse from the floor with a manger 
of oats. When your horse's head is down, snap this rope 
into the ring on top of the halter, and pass up through ring 
over his head, through ring on side of the stall, and hang 




a weight there ; that will take up the slack of the rope the 
moment he raises his head. Hitch him in this way only ; 
he cannot roll over or get cast in the stall, as you will see 
it is impossible for him to turn his head around. (See 
engraving). 



Grooming a Horse. 

When you are grooming a horse you must remember that 
horses are like people, some have a very thin skin and are 
very tender. One-half of the grooms of to-day, when using 
their curry-combs and brush, bear on with the curry-comb 



73 

as hard as possible, the result is that a thin-skinned horse 
cannot and will not stand it. I have seen many high-bred 
horses, trotters and runners, that have been made vicious 
biters and strikers, caused by ignorant grooming. Now 
when you find a horse that has a very thin skin run the 
curry-comb over him light and easy and soft as possible, 
getting most of the dust out with a good brush, using 




directly after the brush straw, and rub him thoroughly with 
it ; then use a rubbing cloth, which will put on a polish. 
One of the best methods for cleaning and caring for a 
horse that has been driven fast and comes into the stable 
very warm, is to take a meal sack, turn it wrong side out 
with meal all over it, rub this meal right into the hair, rub 
him as near dry as possible, put the blanket on him as 



74 

soon as he is dry, then you can use the curry-comb and 
clean the horse as usual ; this will leave him in fine con- 
dition. The meal will make the horse's hair glossy and 
shine like a blackened boot. 

A horse should be cleaned but once a day, and this should 
be at night, after he has done his day's work ; in the morn- 
ing merely straighten his coat and clean off what dirt may 
have collected in the stall during the night. My reason for 
giving a horse a thorough cleaning at night is the same 
that you would do yourself after a hard day's work: taking 
a good wash and general cleaning up refreshes you 
wonderfully. 

What is good for man is good for the horse ; they need 
the same care and treatment. This method, you must 
understand, I mean for work horses. 



To Teach a Horse to Back. 

Put on my training bridle, drawing the strap in your 
right hand, and stand at the horse's shoulder ; press your 
left hand upon his neck ; use the words ** Back, sir," and 
pull the strap at the same time. This will give the horse 
a severe jerk in the mouth and he will back four or five 
inches. The moment that he does so, caress him and 
teach him that he has done right. Then repeat the lesson 
again and again, until shortly the horse will back any 
distance for you at the word of command. Some colts will 
be very stubborn and fight you for five or ten minutes ; 
but keep at them, always having plenty of patience, and 
at last you will gain your point. 



Bitting a Colt. 



If Nature has not designed the colt to have a high head 
and carriage no art of man can alter it, aiid the old fashion 



75 

of strapping up the neck in an unnatural position, and 
leaving- it there for hours, in nine cases out of ten results 
in a heavy headed lugger on the bit. I do not believe or 
endorse the working of the old-fashioned bitting reins. 
Put on an ordinary open bridle and straight bar bit, teach- 
ing him to guide by line quickly and easily ; working in 
this way with a colt for three or four days, then you can 
put on the side check rein and check him up to his natural 
position. The next day you can check him a little higher, 
and the next day a little higher yet ; then you understand 
that the horse generally elevates his head, works pleasantly 
upon the bit, and you are not getting him mad nor break- 
ing down his constitution by forcing and straining him 
with the old-fashioned bitting reins. 




To Make a Simple Riding Bridle. 

Take a rope eight feet long ; place the middle of this rope 
on top of your horse's head, carry it down the side of 
his face, placing each rope through his mouth, bringing 
the ends up to the back, and the riding bridle is complete. 

This bridle is simple and useful, handy to ride a horse 
to pasture, or to exercise horses with. 



76 

How to Teach a Horse to Lie Down at the 

Word of Command. 

Take him out into a field or nice soft place and throw 
him twelve or thirteen times, using the words '' Lie down," 
plain and distinct. After you throw him let him lie quietly 
for about five minutes ; caress him ; feed him an apple. Do 
not make your lessons over an hour long. The third day, 
by taking a little riding whip and touching him on the 
knees, using the command ** Lie down," he will obey you 
quickly. 




SHOWING DOUBLE SAFETY ROPE ON OFF HORSE IN DOUBLE 
TEAM, USED IN DRIVING A BOLTER OR PLUNGER OR ANY 
GENERAL MEAN HORSE IN DOUBLE HARNESS. 



77 
My Opinion of Clipping Horses. 

For driving' horses who have a thick coat of very long 
hair, I would recommend clipping, for in such cases th« 
horse can be much more easily taken care of, and really, I 




think he is benefited by it. But, in all cases, when you re- 
move Nature's covering you must substitute another, in the 
way of warm blankets, etc. When a horse's coat of lortg, 
thick hair is allowed to remain as Nature has calculated 



78 

it, as a protection from the cold, storms, and rigours 
of winter, when taken out and speeded the perspiration 
arising from his body causes his hair to become thoroughly 
saturated, and then when he comes to stand still, it becomes 
cold and consequently chills the horse through, and not 
only makes him very uncomfortable, but he is quite liable to 
take cold and have inflammation of the lungs, '* epizootic,'* 
etc. Whereas, if this coat of thick and long matting of 
hair, which gets so sour when it becomes wet, and, as all 
horsemen know, always retains the dust and excrements of 
%he horse's body, is removed and proper care is taken of 
covering him, his coat can be kept looking so much nicer 
and with less labour, and the horse's skin will be in a more 
healthy condition. The same rule will apply to work 
harses, if they can have the same care. 

The question is often asked me if I approve of clipping 
the fetlock. I answer. Yes, on driving horses only. All 
team horses and heavy draught horses should be left their 
natural fetlocks. After driving your horse in muddy 
weather, let the mud dry on his feet and legs. Then clean 
it off with a brush. Do not wash your horse upon coming 
in from a muddy drive. By following my instructions in 
this particular you will prevent scratches, greased heels, 
and many other disagreeable diseases of the leg. 



Prof. Norton B. Smith's Training Bridle. 

This bridle is made of three pieces of rope connected by 
rings. 

The shortest piece (or bit) is six inches long ; attached 
to this is a piece eighteen inches long, with rings on outer 
end. 



79 



On opposite side of bit is another piece of rope eight 
feet long", used for the leading line. 




Directions for Placing on Horse. 

Place in the horse's mouth the bit, having the eighteen- 
inch piece on the right side of the horse's head, then bring 
ring in same piece over head from right side to left side, 
and hold below left ear. 

Take long leading line, pass back of under jaw through 
ring on right side of bit, carry the same leading line over 
horse's neck from right side, down through bit-ring on left 



8o 

side ; now take same leading line and bring up through 
ring on eighteen-inch piece held below left ear, then back 
through ring on left side of bit once more, drawing the 
leading line all the way through, which gives you the 
power to handle the most vicious horse, making him 
familiar with buffalo robes, umbrellas, drums, paper, 
steam, and all other objects. > 

In presenting an umbrella to your horse, take it in your 
left hand and the long rope in your right hand, letting the 
horse smell of the umbrella, then opening it and letting 
him look into it, then holding it over his head, then raising 
it and lowering it, and alternately doing this until he is 
used to it. Then you can open and shut it without his 
making any move, or seeming to notice it, and by being 
thorough in handling him with all objects he is afraid of, he 
will soon become familiar with them all. 

The preceding cut shows bridle when placed on horse. 

Parties wishing to purchase bridles can have them sent 
by mail by forwarding 2s. 6d. Price of bridles when 
bought at my exhibitions, 2S. 



The Use of my Guy Line. 

The following engraving illustrates the use of my guy 
line, used for starting jibby horses, and teaching colts to 
tu.rn to the right or left. A man stands directly in front 
or to the right or left, as the case may be, and is controlled 
wholly by the driver, who sits in the waggon, and whose 
commands he must listen to and strictly obey, so that the 
working of both men may be in unison, and by giving the 
horse short lessons, not more than an hour's length per 
day for say two or three days, the horse will become 
thoroughly broken and subdued. It will also be found 
very useful in handling a horse who is stubborn and wants 
io go on one street while you desire to go another. 

To educate a colt to pull in harness, take hold of the 
traces in the left hand, and pulling gently back on them 



8i 

while he moves forward, getting him used to the pressure 
of the collar on his breast. After which he may be hitched 
to a two-wheeled vehicle, and taking care in giving the 
first lessons to select some level ground for the work, and 
make no false motions, never lie to him or deceive- him. I 




GUY LINE AS PLACED OX HORSE. 

condemn all bitting harness. It is certainly cruelty to 
animals to use them. It is a mistaken idea of any man to 
entertain to presume he can change the form or frame of a 
horse that was made by Dame Nature's own handiwork. 



82 




How to Handle a Wild and Vicious Horse, 
which will not allow you to approach him 
to place on my ropes and straps. 

In handling any wild or vicious horse, many times they 
are so dangerous that it is impossible to approach them 
with safety. I will lay down a rule to handle a wild and 
vicious mustang or western broncho. First throw a lasso 
over his head, then take a half-inch rope fifty feet long, 
make a slip noose in one end of it, lay this on the 
ground, making a large loop about three and one-half 
feet across it, as in the above engraving, then lead the 
broncho into it so as to get his front feet into the loop, as 
seen in the opposite engraving. The moment that he gets 



83 

into the rope, pull the rope, which will bring his two front 
limbs together ; you pull to the left, and the man that has 
hold of the broncho or mustang, pull to the right ; you will 
at once bring him to his back, as seen on page 84. Now 
you can take the mustang and put on my double safety 
rope and the driving bridle, and handle him the same as I 
have laid down for handling any vicious animal, kickers, 
or runaways. In working mustangs, let me say that you 
must work them slow and easy ; their lessons should not 
be over thirty minutes long. Repeat them twice a day, 
and in one week the mustang is ready to drive. In working 
this animal, always use a great deal of judgment and plenty 




of patience ; never show your temper ; whatever they do 
is not because they are vicious, but because they are afraid 
that you are going to hurt them, and they are of a wild 
nature. They can be easily brought under control by kind 
and gentle treatment. 

The above cut is to illustrate to the reader the position 



84 

of man and horse, with the animal's fore feet in the lariat 
loop ; you should now pull the rope quickly, and you should 
step to the right, while your assistant, who is holding the 




A WILD MUSTANG. 

halter rope, steps to the left, and the engraving below will 
show the horse as thrown. The man who holds the halter 



^,L_, 




THE MUSTANG THROWN. 



8s 

trap quickly passes it down the horse's back to his hips, 
nd pulls the horse's head to his shoulder, thereby pre- 
enting him from getting up. Now put on your driving 
ridle, surcingle, and safety rope. Commence the training 
y letting him get up, and handling him the same as a 
unaway, kicker, or colt. 



Questions Asked and Answered. 

Can a cribbing horse be cured ? No. 

Can ringbones be cured ? No. 

Can spavins be cured ? Not after they have become 
eated. 

Can heaves be cured ? No. 

Can blindness be cured ? No. 

Can nervicular lameness be cured? Not after long 
tanding. 

Can splints be cured ? No. 

Do you approve of condition powder ? Yes, if made 
resh every spring from recipes given in my book. Condition 
owders that lie in stores for five to ten years are not very 
aluable. The strength of the medicine must be gone. I 
/ould advise all horse owners not to waste their money in 
uying such trash. 

Can contracted feet be cured ? Not in all cases. 

Can sprung knees be cured ? No. 

Can curb be cured ? No. 

Can bog spavin be cured ? No. 

Can a meaner be cured ? No. 

Can a corn from long standing be cured ? No. 



86 




Ladies* Equestrian Horsemanship. 

The saddlery for the use of the ladies is similar i 
principle to that devoted to gentlemen's riding, with tb 
exception that the bits and reins of the bridle are lightu 
and more ornamental and the saddle furnished with crutcht s 
for side riding ; the reins are narrower than those used h» 
the gentlemen, but otherwise the same. The saddle shoul : 
be carefully fitted to the horse, and there should always tt 
a third crutch, the use of which will hereafter be explaine(^ 
There is an extra leather girth, which keeps the flaps d 
the saddle in their places. The stirrup may be either likt 
a man's, with a lining of leather or velvet, or it may be 3 
slipper, which is safer and also easier to the foot. Tht 
lady's whip is a light affair, but as her horse ought seldoi i 
to require punishment, it is carried more to threaten thai 
to give punishment. A spur may be added for a lady ■ 
use ; it is sometimes needful for the purpose of giving i 
stimulus at the right moment. If used, it is buckled on t : 
the boot, and a small opening is made in the habit with « 
string attached to the inside, which is then tied around th: 



87 

mkle, and thus keeps the spur always projecting beyond 
he folds of the habit. A nose martingale is generally 
idded for ornament ; but no horse which throws his head 
ip is fit for ladies' use. The lady's horse ought to be a 
nost perfect goer, instead of being, as it often is, a stupid 
)rute, fit only for a dray. 

Many men think that any horse gifted with a neat out- 
ine will carry a lady ; but it is a great mistake ; and if the 
adies themselves had the choice of horses they would soon 
lecide to the contrary. The only thing in their favour, in 
:hoosing a lady's horse, is that the weight to be carried is 
generally light, and therefore a horse calculated to carry 
hem is seldom fit to mount a man, because the weight of 
he male sex is generally so much above that of a 
adv. Few ladies who ride are above one hundred 
md thirty pounds, and most are below that weight. 
?ut in point of soundness, action, mouth, and temper, 
he lady's horse should be unimpeachable. A gentleman's 
lorse may be good yet wholly unable to canter, 
md so formed that he cannot be taught ; he, therefore, is 
msuited to a lady ; but on the other hand, every lady's 
lorse should do all his paces well. Many ladies, it is true, 
lever trot ; but they should not be furnished with the 
excuse that they cannot because their horses will not. In 
ize, the lady's horse should be about fifteen hands, or from 
ourteen and a half to fifteen and a half ; less than this 
Hows the habit to trail in the dirt, and more makes the 
orse too lofty and unwieldy for a lady's use. In breaking 

lady's horse, if he is of good temper and fine mouth, 

ttle need be done to make him canter easily, and with the 

Ight leg foremost. This is necessary, because the other 

I ig is uncomfortable to the rider from her side position in 

16 saddle. The breaker, therefore, should adopt the 

! leans elsewhere described, and persevere until the horse 

; quite accustomed to the pace, and habitually starts off 

I ath the right leg. He should also bend him thoroughly, 

i 3 as to make him canter well on his hind legs and not 



88 

with the disturbed action which one so often sees. Thfel 
curb must be used for this purpose, but without bearing' 
too strongly upon it. The horse must be brought to his' 
pace by a fine handling rather than by force, and bf' 
occasional pressure which he will yield to and play with f 
allowed, rather than by a dead pull. In this way, by takin r 
advantage of every inch yielded, and yet not going too fai^ 
the head is gradually brought in and the hind legs as 
gradually are thrust forward, so as instinctively to stead/ 
the mouth and prevent the pressure which is feared. Whe i 
this "sitting on the haunches" is accomplished, a horsj 
cloth may be strapped on the near side of the saddle t > 
accustom him to the flapping of the habit; but I ha\; 
always found in an ordinary good-tempered horse, that, f 
the paces and mouth were all perfect, the habit is sure t? 
be borne. 

It is a kind of excuse which gentlemen are too apt tjj 
make that their horses have never carried a lady ; but f 
they carry a gentleman quietly they will always carry i 
lady in the same style, though they may not perhaps tb 
suitable to her seat or hand. The directions for holdin j 
the reins, and for their use, elsewhere given, apply equal; |r 
well to ladies, the only difference beingthat the knee preven s 
the hand being lowered to the pommel of the saddL . 
This is one reason why the neck requires to be moi3 
bent for the lady's use, because, if it is straight, (r 
at all ewe-necked, the hands being high, raise the heai 
into the air and make the horse more of a *' star-gazer T 
than he otherwise would be. Many ladies hold the reirs 
as in driving. It is in some respects better, because t 
allows the hand to be lower than the gentleman's mod< , 
and the ends of the reins fall better over the habit. 1 1 
mounting, the horse is held steadily, as for a gentleman s 
use, taking care to keep him well up to the place whet J 
the lady stands, from which he is very apt to slide awa}. 
The gentleman assistant then places his right hand on hi 5 
right knee, or a little below it, and receives the lady's le t 



89 

lOt. Previously to this she should have taken the rein in 
;r right hand, which is placed on the middle crutch, then, 
ith her left hand on the gentleman's shoulder, and her 
ot in his hand, she makes a spring from the ground and 
imediately stiffens her left leg, using his hand, steadied 
/ his knee, as a second foundation for a spring, and then 
le is easily lifted to her seat by the hand following, and 
lishing her spring with what little force is required. As 
le rises the hand still keeps hold of the crutch, which 
1 rows the body sideways on the saddle, and then she lifts 
I jr right knee over the middle crutch. After this she lifts 
i ;rself up from the saddle, and the gentleman draws her 
[ ibit from under her until smooth, he then places her left 
: ot in the stirrup, including with it a fold of her habit, 
id she is firmly seated, and should take her reins and use 
I em as directed for the gentleman. The great mistake 
i hich is constantly made in mounting is in the use of the 
; dy's knee, which should be carefully straightened the 
[ oment it can be effected, for if kept bent it requires a 
: 'eat power to lift a lady into the saddle, whereas, with a 
[ )od spring and a straight knee, she ought to weigh but 
few pounds in the hand. The lady's seat is very corn- 
only supposed to be a weak one, and to depend entirely 
>on balance ; but this is the greatest possible mistake, 
id there can be no doubt, from what is seen in private 
; well as in the circus, that it requires as great an effort 
: the horse to dislodge a good female rider as to produce 
\ e same effect upon a gentleman. Even with the old 
i igle crutch there was a good hold with the leg, but now 
r at the third is added, the grip is really a firm one. When 
': is is not used the crutch is laid hold of by the right leg 
I d pinched between the calf of the leg and the thigh, so 
5 to afford a firm and steady hold for the whole body, 
5 pecially when aided by the stirrups. But this latter 
L pport merely preserves the balance, and is useful also in 
■ )tting. It does not at all give a firm, steady seat, though 
adds to one already obtained by the knee. When two 



90 

crutches are used, the leg is brought back so far as t< 
grasp the crutch as before, but between the two knees th \ 
two crutches are firmly laid hold of, the upper one beinj 
under the right knee, and the lower one above the left 1 
The right knee hooked over the crutch keeps the body fron( 
slipping backwards, while the left keeps it from a forwani 
motion, and thus the proper position is maintained. Ii 
all cases the right foot should be kept back and the poin i 
of the toe should scarcely be visible. These points shouh 
be carefully kept in view by all lady riders, and they should 
learn as soon as possible to steady themselves by the gras|| 
of the crutches without reference to the stirrup-iron, li 
spite of her side seat, the body should be square to th( 
front, with the elbow easily bent and preserved in its prope 
position by the same precaution. The whip is generally 
held in the right hand, with the lash pointing forward an( 
towards the left, and by this position it may be used or 
any part of the horse's body by reaching over to the lef 
and cutting before or behind the saddle, or, with grea 
ease, on the right side. Its use may, therefore, in all case: 
be substituted for the pressure of the leg in the description 
of the modes of effecting the change of leg, turning to th< 
left or right, or leading with either leg. With this sub 
stitution, and with the caution against all violent attempt! 
at coercion, which are better carried out by the fine hanc 
and delicate tact of the lady, all the feats which man car 
perform may well be imitated by her. In dismounting 
the horse is brought to a dead stop, and his head held b) 
an assistant. The lady then turns her knee back agair 
from the position between the outside crutch, takes hei 
foot out of the stirrup, and sits completely sideways. She 
then puts her left hand on the gentleman's shoulder, whc 
places his right arm around her waist and lightly assist* 
her to the ground. 



9' 

L Few out of many Unsolicited Testimonials regard- 
ing Horses that I have Handled and Subdued in 
England. 

31, Park Road, Fokesi- hill, S.E., June 30th, i8g2, 
[r. N. Smith. 

Sir, — Having now witnessed many of your " Horse- training Exliil)i- 
ons," both in public and through your courtesy in private, I must own 
lat I have been most favourably impressed ; more particularly have I been 
leased, that the methods used are so humane. Never have I detected 
nything that a rational being could possibly call cruel, or even rough. Let 
»e thank you for the good you have done to my mare, an obstinate jiblitr. 
Yours truly, 

Ernest C. Arnold, M.B., F.R.C.S. Eng. 

"White Swan " Yard, Upper Norwood, S.E., July 4th, iSg^. 
£r. Norton B. Smith. 

Dear Sir, — As you have now had four of my horses under your hands, 
take this opportunity of thanking you for your most successful treatment 
f them. I have seen the methods you use with them at your public shows, 
nd also by your kindness at some private lessons you have given them, an(i 
am most perfectly satisfied that nothing in the way of cruelty is practised, 
ut that your schooling is far kinder than what horses as a rule have to 
xbmit to from very many horse-breakers and dealers in this country. As 
have had a large and varied experience with horses in this country and 
I Africa, I am in a position to form a good opinion. 

If, during your stay in this country, I should become the owner of any 
orse with bad habits, I shall without hesitation send it to you wherever 
ou may be. 

Believe me, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

F. C. Wilson. 
.S.— You are at liberty at any time to refer any one to me. F. C. W. 

120, Falmouth Road, New Kent Road, S.E., June 28th, iSg3. 
ROF. xN'oRTON B. Smith. 

Dear Sir, — I wish to thank you for what you have done for my 
orse, and I can only say that you have made a complete cure of him. 
le was a bad jibber and kicker, and I could never drive him, and he 
as to me of no earthly use. The two lessons you gave him have made 
im to me a valuable horse, and all this was done before the public 
'ithout injuring the horse, and in accordance with the humane socie'y. 
shall always consider myself under obligations to you, and shall only be 
)0 pleased to give you any reference to owners of wild or vicious horses, 
ad I am confident they will never regret sending you their horses, for 
ley certainly receive the proper education, and you do all you advertise,, 
iid I consider you the best horse trainer that I have ever seen. 

Yours truly, 

Thomas Russell, 



92 

High Street, Sydenham, /w/y 7^^' 
Prof. Norton Smith. 

Dear Sir, — I am very pleased with your treatment of my horses; 
they are both much better, quiet, and docile. I should be pleased to 
recommend your treatment to any one. 

Yours truly, 

J. Nalson. 



5, New Croxted Road, West Dulwich, S.E.,/«/^jrM, iSgz. 

Prof. Norton B. Smith. 

Dear Sir,— Since your arrival at the Crystal Palace, I have frequently 
been present at your exhibitions of horse taming, and I have seen you 
handle a great number of different horses. The means by which you 
educate timid horses to face unaccustomed sights, and your methods for 
overcoming and rendering docile kicking, jibbing, or biting horses, have 
always been completely successful. In my opinion your system of training 
is perfectly humane, and does not cause physical suffering to the horse. 

Yours very truly. 

Major J. W. Telfer. 



57, Hawthorn Grove, Pence, July 8th, j8g2. 

To Prof. Norton Smith. 

Deak Sir, — I be^ to tender you my sincere thanks for the manner in 
which you have treated my horse. Before going to your establishment I 
could do nothing with it, being such a vicious and spiteful kicker, having 
damaged a van in trying to get it to work ; but since being under your 
treatment it works splendidly, showing no signs of vice or kicking. 

Hoping many more who have kicking horses may avail themselves of 
your treatment during your stay in England, 

I am, 

Yours truly, 

J. M. Thody. 



From Rev. J. G. Pilkington, Vicar of St. Mark's, Dalston, N.E, 

Mr. Pilkington has pleasure in stating that the nervousness exhibited 
V>y one of his horses was considerably alleviated by Professor Norton Smith's 
treatment. On two of the days the horse was handled Mr. Pilkington was 
present, and saw nothing to object to in the methods employed. Had he 
done so he would, of course, have withdrawn the horse at once. 



93 

St. Germain's, 42, Croham Road, South Croydon, 

^u£. 2jrd, i8g2. 
To Prof. Norton B, Smith, Crvstal Palace. 

Dear Sir, — I cannot help expressing my thanks to you for the manner 
in which you humanely handled my brown horse, which was an inveterate 
jibber and kicker, also very nervous, and impossible to drive in single or 
double harness. I could use him under saddle only, and then was at any 
time liable to be thrown on account of his bad habits. Since you have 
handled my horse I am able to drive him single or double, and feel perfectly 
safj. I can highly indorse your methods to all owners of horses possessing 
bid habits, and by all means advise owners of horses possessing them to 
allow you to use your own discretion, and am positive you will accomplish 
a good result. I consider that you have increased the value of my horse 
£\Q, and am willing to furnish you with any further testimonials that you 
may require. 

Yours truly, 

T. NUNN 



Special to the Farmer. 



The necessity for improvement in farm stock to meet the 
exigencies of close times, of which much has been 
said of late, is one which does not end with cattle, sheep, 
and swine, but includes the horse stock as well. Perhaps 
the improvement in these other descriptions of stock is of 
more importance because of their greater numbers, but a 
great deal can be gained by giving more attention to the 
character of the horses produced and maintained on the 
farm. Horses cannot be dispensed with on the farm, and 
no one makes the attempt, as the major part of the farm 
work is performed with their help, but the cost of their 
keep is a heavy burden. Many farmers do not realise this, 
because the food they consume is produced upon the farm ; 
but inasmuch as if not consumed by them, this food could 
be sold, or something saleable raised in its stead, the 
support of the horse stock is a very material item of farm 
expense. On a very large proportion of farms, if not upon 
the majority, the class of horses maintained is such that 
practically no return is secured from them beyond the 
labour they perform. This is a good deal, of course, but it 



94 

is not enough, for with a better grade of foundation stock, 
and more care in the selection of stallions, the production 
of horses can be made to contribute very handsomely to 
farm revenues without going further in the direction of 
breeding than the usual force of farm teams will justify. 
There is a great demand in this country for good horses, 
and it is so diversified in its character, and so wide in its 
extent, that practically it can never be overdone. The far- 
mer need not be restricted to any one type of horse, and if 
he has any preferences in the matter, they may safely be 
consulted, since every really good horse finds ready sale. 
But whatever the type selected, the farmer should always 
breed for strength and stamina, with a fair measure of 
style, and a movement and disposition suited to the purpose 
for which the animal is to be ultimately devoted. And the 
effort should constantly be made to produce animals for 
some particular purpose, and stallions patronised with the 
power to produce just the kind of horse the farmer desires, 
avoiding the nondescripts who get colts too slow to trot, 
too light to pull, and without style and character for any- 
thing else. We know of many farmers so negligent in 
this matter as to maintain teams of geldings for farm work. 
If a farmer wishes and can afford a driving team in which 
his personal pleasure is a fair compensation for their keep, 
he has as good a right to such horses as anybody ; but as 
for horses maintained simply for farm purposes, we have 
often thought that a farmer had full as much use for a top 
hat in the harvest field as for a team of geldings at the 
reaper. 

A few remarks to the farmers of this country would 
be well received. 

Breed as good a mare as you can aff'ord to own ; breed 
to as good a stallion as you feel that you can afford to use, 
but always keep in view the general useful qualities of the 
horse for any work covering good size, fifteen and one-half 
to sixteen and one-half hands, good strong bone, heavily 
muscled, good disposition, good appearance, with sound- 



1 






95 

ness of parts and well-gaited and high breeding, and you 
will not go astray. Above all, avoid the use of cheap, 
low-bred, country stallions standing at a low fee and dear 
at that ; also horses of unfashionable colours, and those 
that entail upon their stock white faces and three or four 
white feet. Such stock is not popular, and if buyers can 
be got to buy them it will be at a reduced price. A colt 
from a high-bred horse can be raised as cheap as that from 
a low-bred one, but when you come to sell him, the one by 
the high-bred horse will sell for two cr three times as much. 
Buyers appreciate the value of good blood and will pay 
more for it, because their experience has taught them that 
it is worth more and will sell more rapidly. Feed your 
colts liberally and they will well repay you for your liber- 
ality by making better horses at three or four years of age 
than they would if half fed at six years old. 

I have presented these thoughts to you as I hastily jotted 
them down, but I have probably said enough to call your 
attention to the matter so that you can fully consider it. 



What Errors in Feeding will Do, and How to 
Prevent Diseases of the Digestive Organs. 

With very rare exceptions diseases of the digestive or- 
gans are results of errors in feeding, and all observations 
point to the conclusion that in the horse the intestines are 
more liable to suffer from disease than the stomach. The 
stomach of a horse is a simple organ, small in comparison 
to the size of the animal and in contrast with the volume 
of the intestines. It is but slightly called into action during 
the digestive process, and, provided the food be properly 
masticated, and incorporated with the salivary secretions, 
it is arrested for a short time only in the stomach, but is 
passed onward into the intestinal canal, where the process 
of digestion is completed. On this account the intestines 
are more liable to disease. It is also a remarkable fact 



96 

that easily digested food, if given over abundantly, is apt 
to derange the small intestines ; whereas food containing 
much woody fibre, such as over-ripe hay, coarse straw, 
etc., accumulate in the large intestines and there causes 
derangement, inflammation, and even paralysis of the in- 
testinal muscular tissue. It is also a fact worthy of notice, 
that if food be given artificially prepared, by boiling or 
steaming, it is retained in the stomach itself, and if given 
in too large quantities causes distension, inflammation, 
paralysis, and even rupture. This is accounted for by the 
circumstance that food imperfectly prepared for intestinal 
digestion is retained or imprisoned by the action of the 
pyloric structures, and thus distends the stomach by its 
bulk or by gases evolved by the process of fermentation, 
which is apt to ensue. 

The food of the horse contains an abundant quantity of 
starchy materials, and the process by which these are 
rendered soluble commences in the mouth, not only by their 
admixture with the salivary secretions, but by a chemical 
change through which the non-soluble starch is converted 
into dextrine and grape sugar, and made fit for the action 
of the intestinal, biliary and gastric secretions, and for ab- 
sorption by the vessels of the gastric and intestinal walls. 
For the purpose of performing this process the horse is 
provided with twenty-four millstones, in the form of molar 
teeth, which have the power of crushing and triturating 
the hardest food, and of an extensive system of salivary 
organs which secrete very actively, during the process of 
mastication, a lluid which eff'ectively blends with and 
chemically changes the food thus triturated. On this ac- 
count it is found that when horses are sufficiently but not 
over fed with dry food of a proper quantity, the stomach 
rarely suff'ers from disease. An error in the diet, however, 
or a sudden change from one kind of food to another, not 
only deranges the stomach, but the intestinal canal as well. 

From various causes, such as improper food, the process 
ot' dentition, diseases of the teeth causing imperfect masti- 



97 

cation, ravenous feeding, the presence of other diseases, 
debility of the stomach itself, resulting from some consti- 
tutional predisposition, or from food given at uncertain 
and rare intervals, a condition of indigestion is induced in 
the horse. In young animals the same is induced by 
draughts of cold milk, removal from the dam at too early 
an age, or what is commonly the case in some places, 
compelling the dam to work shortly after the birth of the 
offspring, and allowing it to suckle at rare intervals and 
when the dam is heated. In the horse the symptoms of 
indigestion are loss of appetite, or depravity and capricious- 
ness of it, manifested by the horse eating at irregular 
intervals, or having a desire to eat filth, with sourness of 
the mouth and usually increased thirst. The animal soon 
becomes hide-bound, has a dry, scurfy skin ; there is irregu- 
larity of the bowels and frequent escape of flatus by the 
anus. If caused by imperfectly masticated food, such as 
whole oats or coarse hay, these may be found in the faeces. 
In addition to the above diagnostic symptoms, there may 
be a dry cough, or irregularity of the pulse, which may be 
slower or faster than natural ; colicky pains may also be 
present in some cases, occurring more particularly in an 
hour or two after the animal has partaken of its food, 
whilst in others fits of giddiness, and even paralysis, 
occur ; the latter condition being not seldom seen in cattle, 
and very often in horses. 

In the young animal the above symptoms are more com- 
monly associated with diarrhoea than in the older ones, in 
which constipation is generally present. The faeces often 
resemble the colour of the food ; for example, if the horse 
is fed on dark-coloured hay or clover, the faeces will be 
dark-coloured also ; if, on the contrary, it is fed on oats, 
the faeces will be light in colour ; and in the young animal, 
when fed on milk, it will often resemble it both in colour 
and consistence, mixed, however, with large masses of 
curdled milk, and often very foetid. It has often been 
noticed that when indigestion is induced by clover the 

D 



g8 

urine is very dark in colour, and deposits a thick, almost 
brick-coloured sediment. This condition of the urine, 
however, need cause no apprehension, as it is often seen 
in the clover-fed animal without any disease being present. 
Indigestion is a fertile source of deposits in the urine, 
which results from imperfect nutrition of the tissues, or a 
chemical change in the constituents of the blood-plasma, 
due to the products being imperfectly prepared or contain- 
ing some material unfit for healthy nutrition. 

In the treatment of indigestion, the cause ought to be 
carefully inquired into and removed. If due to the process 
of dentition, the presence of unshed crowns of the tem- 
porary teeth irritating and wounding the mouth, or to any 
irregularity of the dental apparatus, these must be attended 
to according to the directions laid down under their several 
heads. In all instances where such causes are not in 
operation, even when the cause cannot be traced to the 
food, it will be necessary to make some alteration in the 
diet, and to examine the various alimentary matters, in 
order to detect the offending one if possible. If the 
diarrhoea is not excessive, and the animal thereby much 
debilitated, it would be advisable to give a mild aperient 
or a moderate cathartic. To the young animal a dose of 
castor oil or linseed oil, to the older a moderate dose of 
aloes, combined with a vegetable bitter, ginger, or gentian. 
In foals pepsin can be administered, as in all probability 
the indigestion is due to imperfect secretion of the gastric 
glands ; even in the older animal this is often presumably 
the case, and more especially when the disorder occurs 
without apparent cause ; the same remedy will prove bene- 
ficial. The diet of the animal is also to be carefully con- 
ducted, and that pure air, moderate exercise, and good 
grooming are essential to proper digestion. Occurring in 
the winter, if the horse is thickly covered with hair, clip- 
ping will have a beneficial result, restoring the digestion 
and appetite, which may have been long impaired, not- 
withstanding remedies, in the course of a few hours. 



99 

Distension of the stomach may arise from repletion with 
so Id food, or from the evolution of g-ases arising- from 
sohds or hquids contained within it undergoing the process 
ot fermentation, or disengaged from the gastric wails when 
the stomach is empty, as occurring in conditions of great 
prostration. The cause of impaction of the stomach results 
trom the indigestion of food too abundant in quantity or 
greedily swallo^ved and imperfectly masticated. In those 
parts of the country where the cooking of food for horses 
IS a common custom, it is found that deaths from diseases 
and lesion of the digestive apparatus are very common 
l^rom the reasons that it is necessary for the food to 
undergo not only the process of trituration by the teeth 
but that it requires to be chemically altered by combination 
with the sahva, it will be understood that food prepared in 
any other way, as cooking by boiling and steaming, is un- 
fitted to be acted upon by the stomach, and is consequently 
retained within it, the animal meanwhile continuing to eat 
until its walls become distended, paralysed, and even 
ruptured. Some kinds of food, nutritious in themselves 
and theoretically calculated to be proper for the horse, are 
found practically to be highly dangerous. Wheat, for 
instance, which is highly nutritious, is considered to be 
improper food, deranging the stomach, causing purgation 
laminitis, and death. Barley has a similar effect. When 
It becomes compulsory to cook the food, it should be o-iven 
with the greatest caution and in small quantities. Bran 
in mash or otherwise, musty hay, or too ripe before bein- 
cut, barley and green foods, not only induce engorgement'' 
but also undergo fermentation in the stomach, and thus 
bring on tympanitis. 



How should a Horse be Fed during a Hard 
March or a luong Drive? 

How many times have I seen farmers and horse owners 
before starting on a visit or a long journey give their horse 



lOO 

a big- breakfast, saying, " He's got a hard day's work 
before him." About ten o'clock, when he has gone twenty- 
five or thirty miles from home, Mr. Horse lies on the side 
of the road with a good case of acute colic. Cause, " good 
breakfast." Now, I will give you my idea of the way a 
horse should be fed, in order for him to do the work and 
prevent sickness. Give him a good big supper. This 
allows his digestive organs all night to perform their func- 
tions, and your horse has laid up a reserve for a journey. 
In the morning give a light breakfast of grain, say four 
quarts of oats, no hay. Same at noon. Always water 
your horse after, never before, eating. Never drive up to 
a trough when on the road and let him drink. Use a pail, 
that you may know how much he is drinking. For myself 
1 do not approve of watering a horse more than four times 
a day when on a journey, early in the morning, again at 
ten o'clock, again at four, and again at night when putting 
hjm up for his rest. 

When you desire to stop but a short time for dinner, 
you need not wait until your horse is cool before you feed 
him. Give him his grain at once, and as soon as he has 
eaten it he is ready for business. A great many horsemen 
will tell you that there is danger in feeding a horse when 
very warm ; but it is not so. Understand me correctly, 1 
refer only to instances where you are going to put your 
horse to work immediately after he has eaten his dinner. 
When warm, his stomach is expanded, and your keeping 
him warm, it remains in that state. On the other hand, 
if you allow him to stand, the stomach contracts, and the 
gas from the grain bringi on coHc. 



Taking Care of Horses when Heated. ' ^ 

It is the habit of a great many persons when their horses 
become heated to cover them with a great heavy blanket. 
This is wrong. Do not cover your horse for about five 



I 



lOl 



minutes, let him steam. Then put on a Hg^ht blanket, 
allow him to stand with this blanket on for half-an-hour, 
then remove it and put on your heavy one. This gives the 
animal a warm dry covering, after you have removed the 
light blanket which is wet from the steam of the horse. 
Follow these directions, and it will prevent your horse 
from catching cold. I approve of giving the horse a 
thorough rubbing first, if convenient. 



Care of Horses in the Spring of the Year. 

Great care should be given the animals during the months 
of April and May, to prepare them for the warm weather. 
As soon as the grass starts your horse should be grazed 
thirty to forty minutes each day, and this as early in the 
morning as possible. Green grass will physic your horse, 
purify his blood, and get the grain that he has been eating 
through the winter months out of his system. At the 
same time that you are grazing the horse, give bran 
Hashes, and stop giving grain for a week or ten days, 
antil you get his system in a thoroughly good condition. 
I would also advise that driving-horses, with feet that are 
nclined to contract, be walked in the dew every morning 
hrough the summer months. This is one of the greatest 
reatments in the world for softening and expanding the 
lorse's feet. It is much better than all the hoof ointment 
here is on the market, and it is a great deal cheaper. 

In cities, where it is not feasible to graze your horse, 
j^ive him a bucket of green grass cut from the lawn. 



Management of Horses. 

In the management or mismanagement of horses some- 
hing like one-half of their life of utility is involved, 
lismanagement has its basis in the mistaken idea that vice 



in animals is hereditary. Thus, if a foal is spirited, playful, | 
and full of life and courage, it is said to be vicious, anc 
needs the devil taken out of it. If, on the other hand, it i<| 
stern and dull, it Is reputed to be sullen and vicious, ancj 
needs waking- up. These characters follow the animals intc 
the breaker's hands, and the common treatment is severity 
frequently falling into brutality. Day by day the mistakeri 
struggle between man and horse goes on, and, in the grea i 
majority of cases, the horse, in place of learning to love anci 
obey man, hates him, and this feeling is responsible fo 
many accidents. Ere the breaking struggle is completed, 
a large portion of the utility of the horse has been takei^ 
out of it ; it has received nothing but abuse at man's hands 
and the devil, in place of being exorcised, is only the mor 
firmly planted, with the addition of others more malevolen 
than were the original ones of temper. A horse so broken 
is weakened in constitution, rendered of fitful temper, an<l 
is never again to be relied on. Another practice by whic) 
the utility of driving horses is impaired is the thoughtles i 
use of the whip in ascending hills. It would be interestinjj 
to know how many valuable horses have been injured an«1 
had to be sold cheap owing to this practice. Horses i:| 
such positions should never be called upon to make sudde I 
efforts, when rising hills should never feel the whip, unt i 
the voice of the driver has first prepared them for it. l , 
sudden cut with the whip, without the slightest warning i 
and the spirited horse flings itself violently to the attempt ; 
a rupture of the bowels, a sprain of some of the tendon*! 
and the owners wonder how the injury has been sustaineci 
Probably that one careless cut of the whip has cost fifty cr 
one hundred pounds. — By the kind permission of th; 
Editor, Live Stock Jounial. 



How to Examine the Horse. 

In the first place use your own judgment and do nc \ 
listen to what your neighbours say. If you are In a localit H 



103 

lere you can get a good veterinary to examine him, I 
)uld advise you to do so, unless you consider yourself 
ly qualified ; if such is the case with the reader, I can 
ly say go ahead. 

tiave the horse led out of the stable, as all horses should 
exammed in the open air. First of all look to his 
^. For ascertaining the correct age of the horse you 
1 find directions elsewhere in this book. Open the 
•se's mouth, look at his grinders, and see that they are 
i proper condition. Next examine his eyes, then his 
s, running your fingers carefully in them to see that 
re IS no unnatural growth of warts or bunches, such as 
IS, etc., which could not otherwise be discerned, as 
reby many horses have been rendered deaf from such 
ses. Take your right hand, place it on the top of his 
d, and feel for the effects of Poll-evil, or any sores of 
nature that may be there. Then run your hand back 
us withers, and examine for any marks of the surgeon's 
'e or fistula ; also, while examining the mouth, look 
ifully for any marks or scars that might be the result 
he use of the knife. Now run your hand on the horse's 
k to the region of his kidneys, to ascertain if there is 
weakness there. Now stand directly in front of the 
nal, and see if he has a full chest, and that his shoulders 
both alike. Now look at his fore feet, and see if they 
both the same size. 

ow pick up his feet, and see that the frog is of a yielding 

tender character. See that he does not have ''Thrush," 

:h you can detect from the offensive odour arising 

sfrom. Now look on the inside of his front leg, and 

vhether he has splints, or any unnatural enlargements 

. ly character or nature. Now examine the hind legs 

■ 'one spavin, or any enlargement of the hock joint, such 

lood spavins, bog spavin, thorough-pin, curve, etc. 

nine the leaders and tendons. Now have the horse 

led at a slow and also a quick pace ; then take a side 

i of the same action. Then have him backed quickly, 



I04 

and led up quickly, keeping yx)ur eyes on his hind legs 
looking for string halt. Now have him turned roum! 
short, looking for any weakness about his front legs, 
which he will exhibit by dragging one of his limbs. Alsd 
examine his throat and nostrils, looking for any diseas; 
that might be located there. 

The ears of a horse should be small ; broad betweei i 
them, broad between his eyes, with a large and full hazel 
eye, perfectly level and straight from the forehead dow i 
to the nostril, with a large, full nostril, and thin. Size cl 
the animal varies according to what you want to use hiri 
for. The bones of the horse's leg should be flat, and witi 
very little flesh upon them, showing the cords and leadeti 
perfectly. The foot should be of a flat nature. I ha\i 
found those to be of a more lasting kind. The foot tht; 
contracts easiest is of a high wall and closed heel. (S^i 
engraving in this book for perfect horse.) 

The reader may be assisted by reviewing the followini 
list of common terms used in expressing the unsoun 
points about the horse ; 

Contractu n of the foot - - - Unsound. 

Thrush in the foot until c«ed. 

Toe Crack . - - - 

Quarter Crack . - • - 
Coin ---•-■ 
Fiat foot, when sole has dropped 
romace sole, or any inflammation ol 

the laminse ♦» 

Callousness upon the knee, caused by a horse falling down, or otherwi 
is an evidence of unsoundness. 

If the knee is swollen, but no wen or protuberance of a callous natu 

sound. , , . ^ 

As to the eye, any disease, even from the slightest cold or mflammati i 
until it be completely cured, or has resulted in total blindness, stamps 
animal as unsound. 

In short, a horse with either eye not actually perfect 

unsound. 

r>- u ^ . - - - Unsound. 
Rmgbone 

Cojiker in the foot '» 



lO: 



Windgalls I consider not in the full sense of the term unsound, but 
rather as a blemish brought on by overwork or strain. 

Curb ♦ - - - - - - - Unsound. 

Spavins of all natures and kind^. 

Capped Hocks 

Rheumatism 

Thorough-pin 

Blood Spavin 

Bog Spavin .--..- 

String halt 

Low hip, or any protuberance of the hip 

Grease Heels, until cured 

Cracked Heels 

Enlargement of the hind leg, or what 
technically termed " Elephantine" 

Weak back 

Knuckling of the pastern joint, or sprung knees 

Stumbling, which is generally caused by the 
weakness of the tendons 

All enlargements of the sinews or tendons 

Heaves, or broken wind 

Cough, until cured . . . . 

Crib biting 

Wind sucking 

Heaving, a nervous affection not necessarily injurious, but more of a 
aabk. 

Surfeit, or Mange, until cured - - - Unsound. 

(Glanders 

Strangles 

Colds and distempers, until cured - 

Enlarged joints 

Soft enlargements on any part of the limb 

Sore shoulders, or galled backs, until cured 

Horses where the shoulder has shrunk or perished, it is caused by 

nflamm.ation of the tendons, originating in the foot, and they are unsound. 

Stiff Hocks Unsound. 

Wounds of every na'ure, until cured - - ,, 

Scars of all kinds, if properly healed, not leaving u bone fracture, are 
;oimd. 

Horses who cut their quarters when speeding, or when lying down in 
tall have caused the shoe boil, are unsound until cured. 

Roman-backed horses are the most durable animals we have. 
Saddle-backed, hollow-backed, and low-backed horses may be con* 
idered sound, but are nevertheless an eyesore to the ovtner. 



io6 

Wall-eyed or moon-eyed horses, if not sightless, I consider sound. 

All humours arising from impurities of the blood, or otherwise, I a 
sider an evidence of unsoundness until cured. 

Pigeon-toed horses, or horses toeing in, unsound, being an unnatu 
development, liable to cork themselves or interfere. 

Lampas. — This is a fulness of the roof of the mouth, ai 
is most frequently found among young horses. 

Treatment. — Cut the first bar in roof of the mout 
squeezing out the blood, then add a little salt. Never bu 
them as in our grandfathers' days. This is not consider 
by me as an evidence of unsoundness, as the remedy 
simple and effectual. 

Firing horses for any enlargement of the limb, or a 
other cause, I consider a brutal treatment, and when It 
so treated, I consider him unsound. 

Wolf teeth are two small teeth, and found on either si 
of the upper jaw, next to the grinders. If they set clc: 
to the grinder there is danger of their affecting the 63 
They should never be knocked out, as is practised 
many, but should be removed by a pair of forceps. Th 
are peculiar to young horses or colts ; after they have bei 
abstracted I consider the horse sound. If, by a care 1 
perusal of what I have said upon the most natural cauji 
that render the horse unsound, and a few suggestions ! 
to the treatment of them, I have rendered the reader a i 
assistance, and saved the noble horse, man's true relian* 
any torturous treatment, I am satisfied. 



-r:^^^^ 



i07 



» 



THE TEETH. 



FOAL at birth has three molars, or grinding teeth, iust 
rough the gums, upon both sides of the upper and of the 
wer jaws. It generally has no incisor or front teeth ; but 
e gums are inflamed, and evidently upon the eve of 
irsting-. The molars or grinders are, as yet, unflattened, 
have not been rendered smooth by attrition. The lower 
w, when the inferior margin is left, appears to be very 
ick, blunt and round. 

A fortnight has rarely elapsed before the membrane 
ptures, and two pairs of front, very white teeth, begin 
appear in the mouth. At first these new members look 
^proportionately large to their tiny abiding place, and 
len contrasted with the reddened gums at their base, 
sy have that pretty pearly aspect, which is the common 
aracteristic of the milk teeth in most animals. 
In another month, when the foal is six weeks old, more 
;th appear. Much of the swelling at first present has 
^tened down. The membrane, as time progresses, will 
e much of its scarlet hue. In the period which has 
psed since the former teeth were looked at, the sense of 
proportionate size has gone. The two front teeth are 
vv fully up, and these are almost of suitable proportions, 
hen the two pairs of lateral incisors first make their 



io8 

appearance, it is in such a shape as can imply no assurance 
of their future form. They resemble the corner nippers, 
and do not suggest the smallest likeness to the lateral 
incisors which they will ultimately become. 

There is now a long pause before more teeth appear. 
The little one lives chiefly upon suction and runs by its 
mother's side. Upon the completion of the first month, 
seldom earlier, it may be observed to lower its head and 
nip the young grass. From the third month, however, the 
habit grows, until by the sixth month the grinders will be 
worn quite flat and have been reduced to the state suited 
to their function. 

The corner incisors come into the mouth about the ninth 
month, the four pair of nippers which have already been 
traced being at this time fully developed. The corner 
incisors do not yet meet, though these organs point towards 
each other, neither has the membrane of the mouth at this 
time entirely lost the deepened hue of infancy. 
- From this date, however, the gums gradually become 
pale, till by the end of the first year the membrane has 
nearly assumed its normal complexion. All the incisors 
are, by the first birthday, well up. The grinding teeth 
which are in the mouth when the foal first sees the light, 
are of a temporary character. The jaw, therefore, has to 
hold and to mature the long permanent grinders which 
within the substance of the bone are growing beneath the 
temporary molars. To contain and to develop the large 
uncut teeth, before appearing above the gums, causes the 
small jaw of a diminutive foal to be disproportionately 
thick, especially as compared with the same structure in an 
adult horse. 

At one year old the first permanent tooth appears. This 
is the fourth molar, or the most backward grinder. The 
jaw bone at one year old has become longer and wider. 
This increase of size was necessary to cover the increasing 
size of the new molar and to afford room for the partial 
development of two other grinders, which will appear 



IC9 

behind what is now the last tooth. Often little nodules of 
bone, without fangs, merely attached to the gums, appear 
in front of each row of grinders. These are vulgarly 
denominated *' wolves' teeth." They generally disappear 
with the shedding of those members facing which they are 
located. 

The changes in the teeth, after the first year, are 
characterised by the longer periods which divide them. 
Months have heretofore separated the advent of single 
pairs ; but from this date these appearances are to be 
reckoned by numbers and by years. The foal has teeth 
sufficient to support and to maintain its growth. Preparation 
is being made for the advent of the sixth grinder, and for 
changes in those milk molars which were in the mouth 
when the animal was born. At the same time additional 
width is needed to allow the permanent incisors to appear 
when their time comes. In the front teeth of a two-year- 
old, there is a want of that fixedness which, one year before, 
was characteristic of these organs. The central nippers 
have done their duty, or, at all events, something approach- 
ing to maturity has been attained. 

Three years old is the period when the greater number 
of colts are brought to market. The bit then is put into 
its mouth, and it is driven from the field. At a period of 
change and of debility it is expected to display the greatest 
animation and to learn strange things. When its gums 
are inflamed, when the system is excited, when the strength 
is absorbed by an almost simultaneous appearance of 
twelve teeth, it is led from the pasture and made, with its 
bleeding jaws, to masticate sharp oats and fibrous hay. 

It has been said that a three-year-old colt cuts twelve 
teeth. Those organs which are of recent appearance will 
be recognised by their darker colour, by their larger size, 
or by their differing in shape from the other members. 
These new teeth are central incisor and the first two 
grinders. The horse has two jaws and two sides to each 
iaw ; therefore the same number being present within each 



side of both jaws, the teeth already alluded to appear 
during the third year. However, even this quantity rather 
understates than overrates the fact, for frequently the 
tusks are cut during- this period. In such a case the colt 
acquires no less than sixteen teeth in twelve months. 

The four-year-old has to perfect as many teeth as are 
known to protrude into the mouth of the three-year-old. 
But the precise time of the appearance of the tusks is 
uncertain. They may come up at the third or the fourth 
year ; sometimes they never pierce the gums, it being very 
far from uncommon to see horses' mouths of seven years 
without the tusks. 

By the end of the fourth year the colt has certainly 
gained twelve teeth. By this time there should exist, on 
each side of both jaws, one new lateral incisor and two 
fresh molars, being the third and the sixth in position. 
The appearance of the mouth now indicates the approach 
of maturity ; but the inferior margin of the lower bone 
still feels more full and rounded than is consistent with the 
consolidation of an osseous structure. 

The process of dentition is not finished by the termination 
of the fourth year. There are more teeth to be cut, as well 
as the fangs of those already in the mouth to be made 
perfect. 

The colt, with four pairs of permanent incisors, has still 
the corner milk nippers to shed, yet while the provision 
necessary for that labour is taking place within the body, 
or while nature is preparing for the coming struggle, man 
considers the poor quadruped as fully developed and as 
enjoying the prime of its existence. 

The teeth may be scarcely visible in the mouth, never- 
theless such a sign announces the fifth year to be attained. 
There are, at five, no more bothering teeth to cut. All are 
through the bone, and the mouth will soon be sound. 

The indications of extreme age are always present, and 
though during a period of senility the teeth cannot be 
literally construed, nevertheless it should be impossible to 



1 1 1 



iook upon the *' venerable steed" as an animal in its 
colthood. 



How to Tell the Age of Horses. 

There are many methods of telling* the ages of horses, 
but I have a new method, and one that you can always 
tell within one or two years of their correct age, which is 
as follows : 

A horse has forty teeth — twenty-four grinders, twelve 
front teeth, and four tusks. A mare has thirty-six teeth — 
twenty-four grinders, twelve front teeth, and sometimes 
they have tusks, but not very often. Fourteen days old a 
colt has four nipper teeth, at three months old he has four 
middle teeth, at six months old he has four corner teeth ; 
at one year old the cups leave the nipper teeth, at two 
years old the cups leave the middle teeth, at two-and-a-half 
years old he sheds his nipper teeth, at three years old full- 
size nipper teeth ; three-and-a-half years old he sheds his 
middle teeth, four years old full-size middle teeth ; at four- 
and-a-half years old sheds his corner teeth, five years old, 
full-size corner teeth ; six years old, large cups in corner 
teeth, small cups in middle teeth, and still smaller cups in 
nipper teeth ; seven years old, cups leave nipper teeth ; 
eig-ht years old, cups leave the middle teeth ; nine years 
old, cups leave the corner teeth ; at ten years old a dark 
groove will make its appearance on the upper corner tooth ; 
at fifteen years old the groove will be one-half way down 
the upper corner tooth ; at twenty-one years old the 
grooves will be at the bottom. At this age give your horse 
his time, and let him have rest in his future days. 

The groove alluded to will be found on the corner tooth 
of the upper jaw, running down the middle of the tooth. 
When a horse is from fourteen days to six years old, I 
judge by the appearance of both jaws ; when from six to 
ten years by the lower jaw ; and when from ten to twenty- 
one years, by the groove in the upper jaw. 



112 

Remember This ! 



To Tell the Age of Horses. 



To tell the age of any horse, 
Inspect the lower jaw, of course. 
'J he six front teeth the tale will tell, 
And every doubt and fear dispel. 

Two middle "nippers" you behold 
Before the colt is two weeks old. 
Ik fore ei^ht weeks two more will come ; 
l^i.i;hl months, the " corners " cut the giim. 

Two outside grooves will disappear 
From niiJdle two in just one year. 
In two years from the second pair ; 
In three, the corners, too, are bare. 

At two, the middle " nippers" drop ; 
At three, the second pair can't slop. 
When four years old, the third pair goes ; 
At five, a full new set he shows. 

The deep black spots will pass from view 
At six years from the middle two. 
The second pair at seven }ears ; 
At eight the spot each "corner" clears. 

From middle " nippers," upper jaw, 
At nine the black spots will withdraw. 
The second pair at ten are vi-hite ; 
Eleven finds the '* corners " light. 

As time goes on, the horsemen know, 
The oval teeth three-sided grow ; 
They longer get, project before. 
Till twenty, when we know no more. 



PuoF. Norton L. Smith. 



113 
Horses' Teeth. Their Care and Treatment. 

There are hundreds and thousands of horses that are 
suffering- daily on account of their teeth. The upper jaw of 
the horse is one inch wider than the lower jaw, causing the 
upper grinders to shut half an inch over the lower grinders. 
This causes the upper set of teeth to wear sharp on the out- 
side next to the cheek, and the lower grinders to wear sharp 
on the inside next to the tongue. After these teeth become 
sharp, in using- a bridle on a horse, the pulling of the lines 
brings the check-pieces of the bit against the horse's mouth, 
pressing the inside of the cheek against the sharp edges 
of the grinders, causing inflammation, and many times 
cutting large gashes. The horse will throw its head up 
and down, slobber, drive uneven, pull on the lines, many 
times will jib ; his grain passes through him whole ; he 
cannot masticate it properly. During my professional 
career, I have seen hundreds of horses become jibby for 
no other reason than that their teeth were sharp on the 
edges, causing the mouth and cheeks to become sore and 
lacerated, which, in a high-strung and nervous beast, 
causes him to jib. Now, to have your horse's teeth fixed, 
take a float or rasp and file off the inside edges of the teeth 
— just the sharp edges. Never let a man cut your horse's 
teeth with shears, as it is impossible to cut ivory without 
fracturing it. This operation of floating should be done 
once a year regularly. Always have the operation per- 
formed by a man of good judgment. Many a time a horse 
loses a grinder, then the opposite grinder is given a chance 
to grow, and eventually comes into direct contact with the 
opposite gum, making it impossible for the horse to eat at 
all. Examine your horse's mouth thoroughly ; see that 
the teeth are even ; if not, take a float and make them so. 
Many of our best veterinarians prescribe condition powders 
and medicines for horses that are in thin flesh, hide-bound, 
etc., when the proper operation upon the teeth will cure 
your horse without buying a lot of this trash. 



114 
How a Horse should be Shod. I 

Pare the foot perfectly level ; never take any more out 
at the heel than you do at the toe ; never allow your horse's i 
frog" to be cut in any way, shape, or form. If there are< 
rag's hanging to the frog, let them remain there ; never i 
have the bars of your horse's foot cut. Let the horse-shoer 
cut enough of the sole out of the horse's foot so that the 
shoe will not rest or press upon the sole, leaving an equal 
bearing or pressure upon the sole of the horse's foot. 

Have a shoe made that is concave from the third nail 
hole all the way round to the other third nail hole, from 
the last nail hole back to the heel of the shoe ; have it 
bevelled outwardly, having the shoe thinner on the outside 
at the heel than it is on the inside. My philosophy of this 
is, to let the horse's frog come down even with the sihoe, 
as when he puts his foot down on the ground, by the shoe 
being bevelled at the heel, it gives the quarters a chance 
to expand. 

You probably are aware of the fact that the horses' shoes 
that are manufactured at the present time are concaved all 
the way around ; the result is that the shoe is slanting in- 
wardly, and when the horse's foot is placed upon his shoe, 
with four nails driven upon each side, you have nailed his 
foot to an iron vice, and it is impossible for it to expand, 
for the reason that the shoe slanting inwardly causes the 
foot to contract. I would advise that all driving or saddle 
horses should only have six nails in the front feet and five 
in the hind feet ; have them driven well to the middle of the 
horse's foot and come out of the horn as low as possible. 
Never file your horse's foot on the outside above the nail 
heads. Never file the crease under the clinches, as when 
you do you are weakening the crust of the horn of your 
horse's foot. You stop the growth of this live horn, 
causing the foot to become dry and brittle, and when the 
old shoes are removed you will find large chunks of the 
horse's foot breaking away with the old horseshoe nails. 



"5 

Never have a red-hot shoe placed upon your horse's foot. 
[t draws the moisture and the oil from the hoof, making it 
become dry and brittle. Nature never destined that a 
tiorse's foot should be burned with a red-hot iron — warm 
shoes placed upon a horse's foot will do no harm. 

Always have the shoes made to fit the foot, and not fit 
the foot to the shoe, as is the practice with many would-be 
[lorse-shoers. 

No scientific workman will contradict the above facts. 




ii6 



A FEW GOOD GENERAL POINTS 
ON HORSEMANSHIP. 



Match horses with reference to size and motion, par- 
ticularly to colour, if you can. 

Always have inside lines on double team quite long, and 
back straps short. 

Never check a horse if you wish him to last long. 

Never feed from mangers. Let your horse eat his food 
from the floor even with his feet. A great many horses 
suffer from indigestion, and are made stiff and lame from 
eating from hay-racks and mangers, which is unnatural to 
the animals. 

Water and oats should be given first, hay afterwards. 
If you are working your horses hard, give them very little 
water at night. 

Always stop at the top of the hill and let your horse get 
his breath. If you have ever run uphill yourself think of 
your horse. 

Always have the shoes fit the foot, and not fit the foot 
to the shoe. 

Never cut the bars of a horse's foot. 

For a coughing horse, wet his hay and not his oats. 

Never let your horse stand facing a cold wind. 

Always feed light when changing feed. 



"7 

When training- a horse in a barn, have carriages and all 
objects removed, except those that you are using. 

Use very few words with a horse, but have them 
thoroughly understood. 

Be earnest and prompt, but not harsh. 

Always approach a strange horse near the shoulder. 

Never pat or caress a horse on the head, always pat him 
on the shoulder. Think of some person coming- up to you 
and patting you on the head. What would you do ? 

Teach your horse before whipping", and, when you whip, 
do it to frighten, not to enrage him. 

Never jump from a waggon when your horse is running 
away. 

Always exercise sound judgment by purchasing a horse 
suited to the business you require of him. Some horses are 
good saddle horses, but might not make good cart horses. 

If your horse cribs — 'Sell him. 

He who buys a horse needs a hundred eyes. 

Always try before you buy. 

Use your own judgment, and never take others* opinions. 

Your first thought is always the best. 

Never spare time or labour to relieve a suffering animal. 
Remember he is a dumb brute and cannot talk to you. 

In treating a disease that a horse may have, never spare 
a hair to do your work faithfully for the noble animal. 

Never have a blacksmith to put a red-hot shoe on your 
horse's foot. 



ii8 

Always patronise the best horse-shoers of your city. It 
is one of the greatest professions known to-day. 

Do not overload your animal. 

Have your horse's shoes reset every four weeks. 

Never soak your horse's feet. 

Never clip a team horse. Driving horses can be clipped 
if their owners will see that they are properly cared for, 
but I do not approve of clipping any more than I wou4d 
take off my overcoat in winter. 

The best feed for horses — good oats, good hay, good 
pure water. Never give over twelve quarts a day. 

See that all collars are properly cleaned after using, in 
order to prevent gall and sore necks. 

When using your saddle in a storm, see that the blankets 
are properly dried before using again. 

Always have the collar fit your horse's neck properly. 

See that all saddles fit your horses properly. 

In the winter time be very careful and not put a cold iron 
bit in your horse's mouth. Think of yourself, and you will 
have sympathy for the poor brute. 

Drive slow in turning corners. 

Don't hit your horse with a whip unless he knows what 
you hit him for. 

Use as little medicine as possible, but prevent sickness in 
your horses by giving them proper care and attention. 

Give your horse who works hard through the day a good 
bed to sleep on. 



119 

The curry-comb and brush, well used twice a day, is as 
g-ood as three quarts of grain. 

Feed your horses regularly. Water them often when 
doing hard work in very warm weather. 

Give bran mashes twice a week. 

Use only the best of hay. It is the cheapest in the end. 

Have horses shod as light as possible. Never use over 
six nails in the front feet and five nails in the hind feet for 
all light driving or saddle horses. 

When breaking a horse, use as light a break-waggon as 
possible. 

Make your lessons short. 

Never lose your temper. Always have plenty of patience. 

Never drive fast downhill. 

Let your horse walk uphill. 

Let him go on the level. 

When you are coming from a drive and your horse is 
very warm, let him stand five minutes and steam before 
you put a blanket on him. 

Before leaving him for the night, change blankets — a dry 
one for the wet one. Nine-tenths of the diseases of horses 
are caused from their not having the proper care. 

If you have a heavy horse, sell him. 

Never put a horse to hard work until he is five years old. 

Never pack your horse's feet. 



I20 

Never allow a blacksmith to sand-paper your horse's feet. 

Never allow oils of any kind to be placed on the outside 
of a horse's hoof, as it closes the pores. In order to keep 
a horse's foot in good order, and free from disease, take a 
pailful of salt water and wash his legs, from his knees 
down, three times a week. 

Where your horse's foot is contracted, or the frog has 
become hard and dry, use poultice. (See Veterinary 
Department in this book). 



VETERINARY DEPARTMENT 



The author of this book does not claim to be a veterinary 
surgeon, but does claim to have a fair practical knowledge 
of the treatment of the many ordinary diseases of horses, 
and will endeavour to make a few suggestions, to enable 
the horse owner to relieve the animal of some of the many 
troubles to which he may be subject. The majority of the 
diseases mentioned in this department are easily detected, 
and the remedies prescribed plain and practical. 

A few of the more common symptoms or signs of diseases 
will be considered, but we shall have to depend upon close 
observation and a strict attention to the different peculiari- 
ties exhibited, in order to determine the cause and result 
of the disease. 

The general appearance and actions of the horse must 
first be observed carefully. The positions assumed by the 
horse when ailing are quite different from those in health. 
The most prominent symptoms are seen in the eyes, nos- 
trils, ears, and flanks ; if the eye appear dull, weeping, and 
inflamed, give cooling medicine for fever ; if the eyes are 
staring and glazed, you have a bad case, and an indication, 
of fatal termination. If the nostrils are expanded, the 
breathing laborious, and the ears drooping and cold, there= 
is serious trouble, and needs immediate attention. 



122 

The horse cannot describe to us his sickness, but by his 
general appearance and motion, it is not difficult to dis- 
tinguish between disease and health. 

When an animal is seen to be ailing, he should be placed 
in a roomy box stall, care being taken to keep the stall 
clean and dry. The manger should be washed out, at least 
once a day, with strong salt water ; the floor should be 
well littered with clean straw ; the drains should have a 
little lime or copperas water poured in once a day. A horse 
that is sick wants rest and quietness. Be sure that you 
understand the disease, and in administering medicine use 
only such as you are certain will do no harm, remembering 
that more horses die from improper use of medicines than 
natural deaths. 

By watching carefully a few minutes, you will, very 
likely, see that the animal points his nose to the place of 
pain. If it is lameness, he will rest the affected limb. 
Watch carefully for any alteration in temperature or breath- 
ing. Diseases arise principally from obstructed or impaired 
digestion ; care should be taken to give only such food as 
we know to be clean and sweet, and to give it in proper 
quantities. A horse should never be driven fast on a full 
stomach. The feet should be carefully examined after 
work, to see if there are any stones or nails ; the dust 
should be washed from the eyes, mouth, and nostrils. It 
is much easier to prevent disease than to cure it. 

A horse is also very much like man in the general struc- 
ture of the internal organs, and the treatment of diseases 
very much the same. The average size of a horse being 
nine times that of a man, with few exceptions, he requires 
nine times the amount of medicine ; the same remedies 
used in the human family will be applicable and beneficial 
to the horse. 

Many disorders of man and beast arise from obstruction 
and derangement of the circulation and secretive functions ; 
therefore, to keep in health, prevent obstructions, and to 
restore health, remove them. The fewer medicines given 



123 

the horse, provided the cure is effected, the better ; nature 
cannot be forced, but can be assisted and reHeved, and to 
accompHsh this there must be an adaptation of the treat- 
ment to the nature of the disease. As has heretofore been 
said, the owner is at a great disadvantage in treating a 
horse, from the fact that the animal cannot speak ; but the 
treatment may be undertaken with greater hope and con- 
fidence than with the human patient, because it may be 
made with more safety, much more vigorous and decided. 

The following- recipes have all been tested, and are 
selected from formulas used by some of the best veterina- 
rians in this and the old country ; the most of them are 
easily obtained, and just such as all horsemen are con- 
versant with. 



Pneumonia (Lung Fever) 

Begins with a chill, and is accompanied by fever ; ears and 
legs cold ; breathing hurried and distressed ; fore feet 
widely apart ; eyes inflamed and drooping lids ; breath 
very hot; will not lie down, and groans when moved. 
Give ten-drop doses tincture of aconite root every hour, for 
five hours. Rub the chest with mustard and vinegar. 
The second day, mix half-ounce of quinine to a pint of 
whisky, and give two table-spoonfuls every three hours. 
Bandage the legs with flannel ; if very cold, rub them first 
with dry mustard, and then bandage. Repeat this process- 
of rubbing and bandaging until they are warm. 



- Pleurisy 

Is accompanied by short breathing and intense pain ; legs 



124 

drawn together ; very sore to the touch on the sides ; 
moans when moved. Treatment similar to that of lung: 
fever, only that instead of using mustard on the sides, 
apply blankets, soaked in and wrung out of hot water, and 
give two table-spoonfuls of sweet spirits of nitre in bucket 
half full of water, twice a day. 



Gravel or Stone in the Bladder. 



Symptoms very much like colic. The horse in motion 
has a straddling gait ; difficulty of urinating, accompanied 
by groans ; urine dark and hot ; patient perspires pro- 
fusely, especially in the region of the flanks. Apply hot 
blankets over the loins, and give ten drops o( muriatic 
^cid in bucket half full of water, twice a day 



Founder. 



The horse breathes laboriously ; stands upon his heels, 
with fore feet and legs stretched out, throwing his weight 
on the hind feet ; shows intense pain when moved. Treat- 
ment : Take off the front shoes ; give ten-drop doses of 
tincture of aconite every three hours until five doses have 
been administered ; soak the front feet in hot water with a 
handful of washing soda in it, for an hour at a time, twice 
a day ; after each soaking, apply poultices of cold water 
and bran ; feed the horse on warm bran mash, and if the 
bowels are costive, drench with one pint of flaxseed oil 
and one half-ounce of oil of sassafras. 



125 

Rubbing the Tail. 

If troubled with pin worms, inject with eight ounces of 
linseed oil and two ounces of turpentine ; wash the tail 
with strong salt water every other day. An injection of 
strong salt water will often destroy the pin worms. 



Impure Blood. 



There are many diseases of the blood, but the most com- 
mon are itching and skin eruptions. Take equal quantities 
of snake root, sassafras root, and rhubarb root, and boil 
them sufficiently to make a strong tea. Give a half-pint 
in mixed feed every night for a week. The best time to 
give this is in the spring, when the horse begins to shed 
his coat. 



► 



Lockjaw. 



This is one of the most fatal diseases of the horse. It 
generally comes from a wound, and can be easily dis- 
tinguished from any other disease. If it comes from a 
wound, open the wound and soak in warm water and 
poultice. Give ten drops tincture of aconite and twenty 
drops tincture of belladonna every three hours. Keep the 
horse perfectly quiet. 



I 



Injury from Nails. 



After drawing the nail, soak the foot in hot soda water^ 
clean the opening so as to allow discharge, then poultice 
with flaxseed or onions. 



Splints. 

Mix one drachm biniodide of mercury with one ounce of« 
lard. Rub a portion of the ointment on the enlargement. 
In twenty-four hours grease with lard, and in an hour washi 
off with warm water and soap. If not relieved repeat inii 
ten days. j 



Burns and Scalds. 



Bathe with equal parts of lime water and linseed oil, and I 
sprinkle a little flour over to keep air out. 



Stings pr Mosquito Bites. 

Bathe the parts with diluted spirits of hartshorn or 
strong solution of hyposulphite of soda. 



Chronic Discharge of the Horse 

(Nasal Gleet). 

Mix equal parts powdered bluestone and gentian root ; 
give teaspoonful three times a day in the feed, and steara 
the horse with a little tobacco sprinkled over red coals. 



Ulcerated Mouth or Sore Tongue. 

Equal parts of tincture of myrrh and water, and bathft 
mouth twice a day. 



127 

Chicken Lice. 



Bruise an ounce of quassia wood and put to soak in a 
quart of soft water ; after standing one day, wash the 
dorse and let him stand in the sun until dry, and then 
brush out with a stiff brush. If not all removed, repeat 
the washing- and brushing in a few days. 



Distemper. 

Pink eye, catarrh, bronchitis, and strangles, and pretty 
nuch all of the diseases accompanied with a discharge 
rom the nostrils, are classed as distemper. The treatment 
n all of these is similar, and the cases should be treated 
iccording to the symptoms shown. First stage : Give 
nedicine for fever (ten-drop doses tincture of aconite, 
)unce dose sweet spirits of nitre, or flaxseed tea, should 
)e given) ; the animal should have warm bran mashes, and 
)e kept in a well-ventilated stable, without much draught. 
3athe the throat twice a day with hartshorn and sweet oil 
two parts of sweet oil to one of hartshorn). If the 
hroat be much swollen and shows indication of pus form- 
ng, poultice with flaxseed until the enlargement breaks, 
hen wash clean with warm water and Castile soap. As 
oon as the fever is subdued, give the following powders 
o cleanse and build up the system : Two parts gentian 
oot (powdered), two parts saltpetre, one part ginger root, 
nd one part Peruvian bark. Powder fine and mix well, 
rive a teaspoonful three times a day. If the horse does 
ot improve in a few days, send for a veterinarian, as there 
lay have set in some complication, such as lung fever, 
leurisy, dropsy, etc., which are serious. Great care 
hould be taken to keep the horse quiet, and if summer, 
ut some grass and give him a few handfuls three or four 
mes a day. 



128 

Hide-bound and Dead Coat. 

Give a tablespoonful of powdered jimpson seed in mixed 
feed every night for four nights, then stopping for four 
nights, and again repeating as before. 



Rheumatism. 



Make a strong decoction of poke berries and whisky ; 
give two tablespoonfuls in a little water night and morning. 



Weak or Inflamed Eyes. 

If eyelids are much swollen and red on the inside, take 
three eggs, mix them together, yolks and whites, put them 
into a quart of warm water and let simmer for one half- 
hour, then add half-ounce of sulphate of zinc ; let stand 
and settle until cold, then strain. Poultice eye with the 
curd, allowing it to remain on for two hours. Wash the 
eye with the liquid two or three times a day. 



Thumps — Spasm of the Diaphragm. 

The diaphragm is the curtain-like muscle which separates 
the chest from the abdomen. For this spasm give ten 
drops tincture of aconite in a little water ; bathe the head 
and nostrils with cold water, and in half-hour give a bottle 
of ale or porter. 



129 

strains. 

In all strains there Is more or less swelHng" and heat. 
First soak or bathe the parts in hot water, with a handful 
of washing soda to each bucket. Bathe for half an hour ; 
then rub dry and bathe with tincture of arnica flowers. 



Bruised Heels or Corns. 

Remove the shoe, soak in hot soda water and poultice 
with flax seed or onions. If there be a corn, have it cut 
out, pour some tincture of iodine on it, and dry it in with 
a hot iron. Have horse shod so that the shoe will not 
bear on the corn. 



Fistula or Poll Evil. 



When the enlargement first shows, apply a hop bag, of 
about two quarts, dipped in boiling vinegar, to the swell- 
ing, laying a piece of oil-cloth on top of the bag to keep 
in the steam. Repeat every fifteen minutes for an hour 
twice a day, continuing the process for three days. Then 
dissolve an ounce of corrosive sublimate and an ounce of 
camphor in a pint of turpentine, and apply this liniment 
once a day. If this does not effect a cure, and there is a 
pus formed inside, open it well with a sharp knife and 
wash it out with one part of carbolic acid to eight parts of 
glycerine. Both of these drugs (corrosive sublimate and 
carbolic acid) are violent poisons, and should be used with 
great care. 



Sun Stroke. 

When a horse is overcome with heat, get him into the 
shade, if possible, and bathe the head and back the entire 



130 



length of the backbone with cold water; sponge the mouth 
out well with a little whisky and cold water and give him 
a couple of ten-drop doses of tincture of aconite. If the 
legs are cold, bathe them well with whisky and red pepper, 
and bandage them with red flannel. 



Paralysis. 

Horses that are well fed and not regularly exercised are 
most subject to paralysis. The hind portions are the most 
liable to be affected. Try to keep the horse on his feet; 
if already down, make a sling of bags and raise him, as he 
will do much better if standing. Steep blankets in hot 
water and wring out dry, apply them to back as hot as 
possible. Leave the blankets on for a couple of hours, 
then remove them and rub the horse dry, and bathe the 
back well with hot vinegar and salt and cover with a dry 
blanket. Give half a pint of ale or porter every two or 
three hours and send for a veterinarian. 



Cramps and Spasmodic Colic. 

Th- horse refuses his feed ; paws with the fore feet ; 
tries to kick his belly with his hind feet ; looks round at 
his side ; during the spasm he is greatly excited, kickmg 
and rolling ; sweats freely ; there are also frequent inter- 
missions of pain. Give half a pint of warm ale or porter 
with a tablespoonful of ginger, or half-pint of whisky and 
tablespoonful of essence of peppermint ; if not relieved 
give an ounce of laudanum, two ounces of sweet spirits oi 
nitre in half-pint water ; repeat either of the doses every 
half-hour. 



Inflammation of the Bowels. 

The symptoms are somewhat similarto those of spasmodic 
colic, the only difference being that there is no intermission 
of pain. The horse rolls, paws and shifts about, has a high 
fever, hot breath, and is greatly excited. First : relieve 
the pain by giving ten drops of tincture of aconite and 
twenty drops of tincture of belladonna in two tablespoonfuls 
of water every hour. Apply blankets wrung out of hot 
water to the belly ; use the hot blankets for several hours, 
then rub dry ; if no better apply a mustard plaster made of 
hot w^ater and vineg'ar and strong mustard, mixed thick as 
cream. This is a dangerous disease ; send for your 
veterinarian as soon as possible. 



Wind, or Flatulent Colic, 

Resembles the two former diseases, excepting that the 
belly is swollen with gas caused by the fermentation of 
food. Give a tablespoonful of baking soda in half-pint of 
water ; inject with warm, soapy water ; if the w^ind passes 
off with the water, you may consider your horse out of 
danger. If not relieved give an ounce of hyposulphite of 
soda, one ounce of laudanum, and one ounce of tincture of 
assafcetida in half-pint of water. 



Bone Spavin. 



When fully developed there is no cure. If there is fever 
in the joint, bathe with warm soda water, then use bandages 
soaked in cold water on the parts until the hock is as cool 
is other portions of the leg. Then apply a blister of 



132 

biniodide of mercury the same as used in splint. This 
treatment may reduce the enlargement and relieve the 
lameness. 



Bog and Blood Spavin, or Thorough-Pin, 

Is incurable, but may be relieved by hot fomentations and 
the use of the biniodide blister. 



Suppression of Urine, or Stoppage of Water. 

The horse tries to urinate, but only a few drops pass at 
a time. Examine the sheath, and see that there are no 
obstructions, and that the parts are clean. (A horse's 
sheath should be washed out with warm water and soap 
at least once a month.) Apply a warm blanket to the back 
over the kidneys ; make a strong tea of water-melon seeds, 
and give a teacupful every couple of hours. If not relieved 
the first day, give two ounces sweet spirits of nitre in half- 
pint of water. 



Scratches, or Cracked Heels. 

If the legs are swollen and hot, poultice for twenty-four 
hours, changing the poultice every six hours with boiled 
carrots and sufficient charcoal (powdered) to colour it black. 
Then clean the parts with a sponge, dampened with warm 
water and Castile soap, and apply an ointment composed 
of two ounces sulphur, one half-ounce sugar ot lead, one 
drachm of carbolic acid, and four ounces lard ; mix well, 
vise the ointment twice a day, and keep the legs dry. 



133 

Collar or Saddle Galls. 

Jimpson leaves bruised and mixed with an equal quar.lity 
of hot lard, make good healing- ointment. 



Heaves or Broken Wind. 

Heaves cannot be cured. Care in feeding and watering 
is the best remedy. Give feed and water in small quantity. 
Dampen the feed with lime-water and give teaspoonful 
doses of pine tar on the tongue once a day. 



Diarrhoea or Scouring. 



Brown half-pound of rice the same as you would brown 
coffee. Grind in a coffee mill, and boil in two quarts of 
water, add two ounces of laudanum, and give a teacupful 
two or three times a day. 



Chronic Cough. 



Two ounces of pine tar, four ounces honey, and one 
ounce powdered Irish moss ; mix and give a teaspoonful 
night and morning on the tongue. 



Slobbering. 

Look for sharp edges on the teeth ; if they are rough, 
smooth with a tooth rasp, then make a strong sage tea, 
well sweetened with honey, and swab the mouth out two 
or three times a day. 



134 

Hemorrhage or Bleeding from Wound. 

If the blood be a light red or pink, and spurts out, it is 
from an artery ; if possible, find this artery and tie it with 
a strong thread, and bind on the wound a thick plaster of 
cobweb. If it is only veins that are injured, apply the 
cobweb. If that does not stop the flow, touch with a hot 
iron and repeat the application of cobweb. 



Staggers. 

Staggers generally comes from disordered stomach or 
close and ill-ventilated stables. If the animal stops on the 
road and staggers, take the small blade of your penknife 
and stick him in the upper jaw; not above the third ridge. 
Bathe the head and nostrils with cold water and quietly 
walk him home, then feed with bran mash or cut grass. A 
horse subject to staggers should not be turned out to 
pasture. Dispose of him, he is of no account. 



Worms. 

Mix a handful of cut and dry tobacco with the feed, twice 
a week. 



Profuse Stalling. 



Urinating profusely and frequently may be corrected by 
giving a teaspoon half full of iodide of potassium every 
night for two weeks in mixed feed. 



135 

Swollen or Inflamed Udders. 

Dissolve a piece of g'um camphor the size of a hazel nut 
in two tablespoonfuls of hot lard. Bathe the udder with 
this twice a day. Give the mare bran mashes and moderate 
exercise. 



To Clean and Oil Harness. 

First, take the harness apart, having each strap and 
piece by itself; then wash it in warm soapsuds. When 
cleaned, black every part with the following dye : One 
ounce extract logwood, twelve grains bichromate of potash, 
both powdered fine; then put into two quarts of boiling 
rain-water, and stir until all is dissolved. When cool it 
may be used. You can bottle and keep for future use if 
you wish. It may be applied w-ith a shoe brush or any- 
thing else convenient. When the dye has struck in, you 
may oil each part with neatsfoot oil, applied with a paint- 
brush or anything convenient. For second oiling use 
one-third castor oil and two-thirds neatsfoot oil, mixed. 
A few hours after, wipe clean with a woollen cloth, which 
gives the harness a glossy appearance. 

The preparation does not injure the leather or stitching, 
makes it soft and pliable, and obviates the necessity of 
oiling- as often as is necessary by the ordinary method. Its 
use is, therefore, economical. 



Corns. 

Cause. — In a flat foot, the heels of the coffin-bone squeeze 
the sensitive sole by pressing it against the shoe. In a 
€4)atracted foot, the sensitive sole is squeezed between the 



136 J 

wings of the coffin-bone and the thick, horny sole. A 
bruise results, the blood is effused and the stain of this 
left upon the horny sole — g-enerally upon the inner side and 
anterior to the bars — constitutes a horse's corn, which is 
mostly found on the fore feet. 

Syinptovis. — If the stain is dark and is to be removed 
with the knife, this indicates that a corn was there but no 
longer exists. The smallest stain of bright scarlet testifies 
to the existence of a new and present corn. Corns are of 
four kinds, the old, the new, the sappy, and the suppurative. 
The old and new are produced by the blood, and are judged 
by the scarlet or dark-coloured stain. The old is generally 
near the surface ; the new is commonly deep-seated. The 
sappy is when the bruise is only heavy enough to effuse 
serum. The new corn alone produces lameness. The 
suppurating corn may start up from either of the others 
receiving additional injury. It causes intense pain and 
produces acute lameness. 



Recipe to Stop the Growth of Bone Spavins, 
Ringbones, and Curbs; also to Remove 
Splints from Horses. 

Take corrosive sublimate, one-quarter ounce; tartar 
emetic, one-half ounce; gum euphorbium, one-half ounce; 
cantharides, one-quarter ounce; oil of spike, two ounces; 
verdigris, fine ground, one-quarter ounce; oil of worm- 
wood, one-half ounce; oil of turpentine, two ounces; 
croton oil, one-half ounce ; mercurial ointment, three-fourths 
ounce; tincture iodine, one and one-half ounces; crude 
oil, or alcohol, four ounces; tincture capsicum, one ounce 
put in last one ounce sulphuric acid; mix all. 



i 



137 

Directions. — First, shear off the hair; then take hot soap- 
suds, say three-fourths pailful, and put into a pint of old 
chamber lye, and foment or bathe the foot or joint ten 
minutes; then put as much of the medicine on as will pene- 
trate; rub with finger a minute; do so once in three days 
until the lameness is gone. Always foment before putting 
on medicine, and let the colt run out or the horse work. It 
is better than to stand still. It keeps the strength of the 
muscles, and when well will not get hurt again. 



Recipe for Blood or Bog Spavins, Enlargement 
of Back Sinews, near the Pastern Joint, 
called Windgalls. 

Take four drachms iodide of potassium; two ounces oil 
of hemlock ; three ounces turpentine ; two ounces oil stone ; 
one ounce oil of wormwood ; mix all with eight ounces 
alcohol and two ounces tincture of cantharides. 

Directions. — Shake well and rub the parts of blood spavin 
every other day until you have used the medicine nine 
times; then wash the parts and grease for a week. For 
windgalls, same way. Two to four applications will be 
enough. This will remove any soft blemish on the horse. 
Bathe with hot water first. 



For Shoulder, Hip, or Stifle liameness. 

Take oil of fireweed, one-half ounce; oil of wormwood, 
one-half ounce ; ammonia, two ounces; tincture of myrrh, 
one ounce ; oil of spike, one and three-fourths ounces ; tinc- 
ture of cantharides, one and three-fourths ounces ; alcohol, 
three ounces ; mix all. 



•38 

Directions, — First wet the parts with hot water for five 
or six minutes ; rub on medicine well ; then cover the 
shoulder or hips with as many blankets as you can, and 
leave them on eight hours. Do this once in three days, 
until you have done it four times ; then once in six days, 
until you have done it three or four times more. Always 
bathe the hip or shoulders with hot water first. 



Blood Purifier. 



To be given to horses twice a 5'ear, in spring and fall. 
This will keep your horses from having distemper, coughs, 
colds, or farcy, and keep them in good health. 

Take gentian root, pulverised, two and one-half ounces; 
sassafras bark, two ounces; elecampane, two ounces; 
skunk cabbage, one ounce: cream of tartar, one ounce; 
saltpetre, two and one-half ounces; ginger, two ounces; 
sulphur, six ounces; digtails, one ounce; bloodroot, one 
ounce; and buchu leaves, one ounce. Mix all together 
well. If your horse is in bad health give a teaspoonful 
twice a day in bran mash, or to prevent all internal diseases 
give a tablespoonful in spring and fall, once a day, for 
fifteen or seventeen days. 



For Scratches. 



One ounce sugar of lead, one ounce burnt alum, one- 
half ounce sulphate zinc, one quart rain water. Wash off 
clean with Castile soap and water. Let dry and apply the 
liquid for three or four days. A sure cure if not grease heel. 



Recipe to Cure Grease Heels or Big Leg. 

Take two ounces tincture of cantharides, two ounces 
aqua ammonia, two ounces oil of turpentine, one ounce 
laudanum, three ounces alcohol. Mix all together. 



139 

Directions. — First bathe the heel or leg with hot soft 
soap suds well for five or six minutes, then rub o\\ the 
medicine well enough to wet the skin. Rub in well. Do 
this once in six days until you have done it from two to 
five times. If the disease is not of long standing, two 
applications are enough. In case of bad scratches or 
grease, give the horse the blood purifier. 



Recipe to Cure Poll Evil or Fistula, if Broken 
Out. 

Take tincture of lobelia, one ounce; cantharides, one 
ounce; croton oil, one-fourth ounce; corrosive sublimate, 
one-fourth ounce; euphorbium, one-fourth ounce ; mercurial 
ointment, one-half ounce; tartar emetic, one-eighth ounce; 
turpentine and oil of spike, each one and three-fourths 
ounces; sulphuric acid, one ounce; alcohol, one and one- 
half ounces. 

Directions. — Insert with a probe to bottom of pipe and 
find which way they run, then put a small sponge on your 
probe and put as much medicine in as will ^o once a day 
for ten days. This will take out all the pipes and branches 
at the bottom. Then take one ounce nitrate of potash, 
put into a pint of soft water, and use with a syringe. This 
will heal from the bottom to surface. Same with fistula. 
Keep the parts clean with soft soap suds, and give the 
blood purifier. 



For Poll Evil or Fistula, if Not Broken Out. 

Take tincture of iodine, three ounces; turpentine, three 
ounces ; aqua ammonia, two ounces ; tincture of cantharides, 
two ounces; oil of spike, two ounces; kerosene oil, six 
ounces. Mix all together. Rub the parts over once a day 
well for ten days, and give the horse blood purifier, Na 7, 
in both cases. 



T40 

Remedy for Colic and Belly-Ache. 

Take one and one-half ounces of laudanum, two ounces 
essence of peppermint, two ounces sweet nitre, one ounce 
capsicum, and ten drops tincture of aconite. Mix with one 
pint of whisky. Give half the dose. If not well in ten 
minutes give the other half. Cover the horse with blankets 
and do not move him. 



Worms. 

Cause. — Deranged condition of the digestive organs. 

Symptoms. — Voracious appetite, loss of flesh, and general 
unthrifty condition, and accompanied often by a dry, hack- 
ing cough. The excrement is usually covered with slime, 
and the anus is the seat of a morbid secretion of white 
colour. 

Treatment. — Oil of savin, give ten drops three times a 
week. This is a valuable remedy for worms. Always 
give the blood purifier at the same time. Do not give to 
mares with foal. 



Recipe to Cure Fresh Wounds, Cuts, Kicks, or 
Collar Gall. 

Take one and one-fourth ounces sugar of lead, one- 
fourth ounce sulphate of zinc, one and one-fourth ounces 
saltpetre, one-fourth ounce sal ammonia, one-half ounce 
copperas. Mix all with one-half pint of alcohol, and two 
quarts of soft water. Wet the parts three or four times 
a day. This will keep Inflammation and proud flesh from 
the parts, and heal them very fast. 



141 
Corns. 

Cause. — Contraction of the feet and bruises of the soles. 

Symptoms, — Pain and lameness discoverable in one or 
both fore feet. On removing a flake or two of the sole at 
the inner angle of the foot, a dark spot will be discovered. 
This is called the corn spot. 

Treatment. — Take corrosive sublimate, two drachms ; 
mercurial ointment, two drachms ; verdigris, one drachm ; 
croton oil, three drachms. Mix and heat in foot when shod. 



To Cure the Mange. 



Symptoms. — The hair will rub off, and the skin break out 
in scabs. 

Take tincture of cantharides, two ounces; oil of spike, 
two ounces ; aqua ammonia, one and three-fourth ounces ; 
turpentine, one and one-half ounces; chloroform, one-half 
ounce; oil of amber, one ounce; alcohol, four ounces. Mix 
all and rub parts. 



liiniment for Bruises or Lame Back for Man 
or Beast. 

Take alcohol, three ounces ; oil of origanum, two ounces ; 
oil of hemlock, two ounces; opodeldoc, two ounces; tinc- 
ture of arnica, two ounces; chloroform, one-half ounce. 
Mix all. This is good for rheumatism. 



Hoof Ointment. 



This will grow the hoof very fast, and is good for con- 
traction or thrush. To be used between the hair and hoof. 



142 

Balsam fir, oil hemlock, white pine pitch, honey, Venice 
turpentine, beeswax, each one and three-fourth ounces ; 
lard, one-half pound; fine ground verdigris, three-fourths 
ounce. Simmer all together over a slow fire. When 
melted, take off the fire and stir until it is cool. 



A Liniment for Man or Beast. 

One pint turpentine, one pint beef gall, one pint harts- 
horn, two ounces oil of sassafras, and two ounces of sweet 
oil. For external use. 



Colic and Stoppage of the Urine. 

Symptoms. — Frequent attempts to urinate; looking round 
at his side ; lying down ; rolling and stretching. 

Cure. — One ounce chloroform, one pint of linseed oil, 
two ounces sweet spirits of nitre; mix and drench. 



Physic Ball for Horses. 

Barbadoes aloes, from three to five or six drachms (ac- 
cording to the size of the horse) ; tartrate of potassia, one 
drachm ; ginger and Castile soap, of each two drachms ; 
oil of anise or peppermint, twenty drops. Pulverise and 
make all into one ball with thick gum solution. 



Chest Founders. 



Symptoms. — Not unlike lung fever. The horse is stiff, 
but has no fever in his feet. Very sore in the chest; inclined 
to stand very wide with his fore legs. 



143 

Cnre.— Bleed just above each hoof, and bind up legs 
with oat straw, and bathe with warm water for half an 
hour; then rub dry with hot cloths, and pour in bottom of 
each foot one tablespoonful of turpentine. Give internally 
one spoonful of pulverised alum. Take equal parts of 
boiled turnips and bran, add four ounces of ground flax- 
seed for poulticing feet. 



General Liniment. 



Turpentine, half pint; linseed oil, half pint; acqu 
ammonia, four ounces; tincture iodine, one ounce. Good 
for fresh sores, swellings, bruises, etc. Apply twice a day. 



White Ointment. 

Fresh butter, two pounds ; tincture of iodine, one ounce ; 
oil of origanum, two ounces. Ready for use in fifteen 
minutes. 



Jaundice— Yellow Water. 

Symptoms.— The hair in the mane and tail gets loose; 
the white of the eye turns yellow and the bars of the 
mouth; he refuses to eat, and limps in his right fore leg 
generally. 

Cure —Give every morning until it operates, Barbadoes 
aloes, seven drachms; calomel, one drachm; ginger, four 
drachms. Mix with molasses. Feed scalded bran and 
oats, or grass if it can be had. Stop the physic when the 
bowels move ; then give spirits of camphor, one ounce 
every day for twelve days. 



144 
Sweating Liniment. 

Laudanum, gum camphor, spirits of turpentine, tincture 
of myrrh, Castile soap, oil of origanum, and nitrous ether, 
each one ounce; alcohol, one quart. Shake well before 
using. Apply twice or three times a day, as the case may 
require. 



A Liniment to Use on Swollen Glands. 

Tincture arnica, chloroform, ammonia, and sweet oil 
four ounces of each. Mix well. Rub on the horse's 
throat twice a day. 



Condition Powders. 

Fenugreek, cream of tartar, gentian, sulphur, saltpetre, 
resin, black antimony, and ginger, equal quantities of 
each, say one ounce, all to be finely pulverised; cayenne, 
also fine, half the quantity of any one of the others, say a 
half-ounce. It is used in yellow water, coughs, colds, 
distemper, and all other diseases where condition powders 
are generally administered. They carry off the gross 
humours and purify the blood. 

Dose.— In ordinary cases give two teaspoonfuls once a 
day in feeding; in extreme cases give twice daily. If this 
does not give as good satisfaction as any other condition 
powder that costs more than double what it does to make 
this, then I will acknowledge that travel and study are of 
no account. 



Sore Mouth or Tongue. 

Cause. — Inferior provender, and abuse by pulling on 
the reins. 

First take his grain from him, then take half an ounce 
of alum and two drachms of sugar of lead, one pint of 



H5 

vinegar, and half a gallon of water. Open the mouth and 
swab it out with this every morning and night. This 
should cure in all cases in five or six days. 



To Stop Blood. 

Swab the wound with Monsel's solution of iron, 



Bran Mash. 

I have frequently alluded in this work to the free use of 
bran mash for sick horses. They are invaluable, yet 
require some attention to the proper mode of preparing the 
same. The following is the rule: The bran should be 
clear and glossy in the colour of its scales; the scales 
should be of moderate size and perfectly sweet to the smell; 
very fine bran is unfit for sick horses. The common prac- 
tice is to place a certain quantity of bran within a bucket, 
then to pour hot water upon it and stir the rness and give 
it to the horse immediately. To prepare a mash properly 
proceed as follows : First, pour the bran into a clean 
bucket and add to it a tablespoonful of salt; then pour on 
it the required quantity of boiling water, and, in doing so, 
contrive to let the water run upon every portion of the sur- 
face of the bran; then immediately afterwards spread a 
thin coating of oatmeal upon the mass, and upon the oat- 
meal a dry covering of bran ; then cover the vessel with a 
clean sack or a thick woollen cloth, and set the same in a 
cool place about a half-hour, after which remove the 
covering from the bucket and lightly stir the contents; it 
is ready then for the patient. This plan of preparing a 
mash will thoroughly steep the bran, and at the same time 
preserve its aroma. 



146 

strong Blister Ointment. 

Hog's lard, four ounces ; oil of turpentine and Spanish 
flies, each one ounce ; mix. 



For Fomenting Swollen or Stocked Legs. 

Procure one pound of smartweed ; place the same in an 
eight-gallon kettle, with four gallons of soft water ; place 
over a slow fire and boil down to two gallons ; strain the 
solution into another iron or tin vessel ; get one pound of 
alum, place in a mortar and pulverise fine ; sift the alum 
into the liquid ; again place over the fire, and stir until 
well dissolved. Now wind the limb tight with a hay rope ; 
pour one pint of the solution in at the top of the bandage 
when blood-warm. Repeat every hour for forty-eight 
hours. This is the best fomentation used. It will remove 
all inflammation and swelling in two days. If there is a 
cut or wound after fomenting, apply white ointment until 
healed. In case of strain or bruise, apply the general 
liniment. 



Diseases of the Mouth, or Lampas. 

Sy?npto?ns. — Swelling of the gums, and bars, and roof ot 
the mouth. In many colts and horses it occasions but 
little or no inconvenience, while in others the pain is so 
great as to interfere with their feeding. 

Treatment. — Some barbarous pretenders burn with hot 
iron. But act humanely. Lance the bars, or use the jack- 
knife, if you can get nothing better. Use judgment, and 
in a few days the animal will feed as usual. 



147 

To Grow Hair. 

Add as much sulphur to sweet oil as will make it as 
thick as cream; apply to the mane and tail, rubbing- in 
thoroughly, at least twice a week. This, it is said, will 
g-row hair on the mane and tail rapidly. Must cleanse 
parts well with Castile soap and water each time before 
applying the ointment. 



Galls, Cuts, and Sores. 



Galls, cuts, and sores should be kept well cleansed as 
often as possible with Castile soap and water, and if they 
are chafed and rubbed by the harness, the parts of the har- 
ness should be kept clean at all times wherever they touch 
the cut, gfall, or sore. Apply an ointment of the following: 
Pulverised alum, four ounces; pulverised bloodroot, four 
ounces ; white lead, four ounces ; calomel, two ounces. 
Mix wuth glycerine, sweet oil, or lard, to make an ointment. 
I have never known it to fail on cuts, galls, or even 
scratches. 

Or, pulverised Castile soap, four ounces; camphor gum, 
four ounces; calomel, two ounces. Mix with glycerine, 
sweet oil, or lard, to make an ointment. I have known 
galls or cuts to heal up readily while at work, especially 
if the horse's blood is well cleansed. 



Thrush. 

The cause and symptoms of thrush are usually well 
known, yet I will describe them as follows: First, fever 
in feet, bad stable and management, wet bedding, etc., etc. 

Treatment. — Cleanse well the parts affected with Castile 
soap and water ; open the crevices and apply chloride of 
zinc thoroughly, or crystallised carbolic acid; repeat every 



148 

day until relieved. Cleanse well each time before an appli- 
cation is made. Keep the horse's feet on dry floor. Dilute 
with soft water one ounce of either the zinc or the acid, 
when it is fit for use. 



To Dry Up Old Sores. 



Quarter of a pound of white lead ; dust on the places 
twice a day. Horses can be worked all the time. This is 
simple and g^ood. 



To Restore the Appetite. 

Use of pulverised caraway seed and bruised raisins, four 
ounces each ; of ginger and palm oil, two ounces each ; 
always use twice as much of the first as of the last in what- 
ever quantity you wish to make it. Give a small ball once 
a day until the appetite is restored ; use mashes at the 
same time. 



Recipe for Swellings. 



Double handful each of mullen leaves, May apple roots, 
poke roots, one gallon of water ; boil and add double hand- 
ful of salt ; apply as warm as the hand can bear it. Good 
and cheap. 



Cleansing Powders. 

Pow^dered fenugreek, two ounces ; black antimony, one 
ounce ; sulphur, one ounce ; saltpetre, one ounce ; 
powdered gentian, two ounces ; glauber salts, two ounces ; 
ginger, two ounces ; resin, two ounces ; assafoetida, one 
ounce. Good for coughs, colds, distemper, bad blood, 
yellow water, loss of appetite, etc. 

Dose. — One tablespoonful once a day in wet food. 



149 

Poultices. 

Few horsemen are aware of the value of these simple 
preparations in abating" inflammation and allaying" pain, 
cleansing wounds and causing them to heal. They are the 
best kind of fomentations ; they continue longer and keep 
the pores open. In all inflammation of the feet they are 
very beneficial, and in cases of contraction a poultice 
that contains the heat and moisture longest is the best. 
They will relieve swellings, take out the soreness from the 
pores, and draw out unnatural substances. Linseed oil 
makes the best poultice ; it will hasten any tumour that is 
necessary to open and cleanse any old one, causing a healthy 
discharge when it is off"ensive. But in this case — where 
the ulcer smells badly — add two ounces of pulverised char- 
coal or chloride lime, half an ounce to one pound of meal. 
This is good to use in grease or cracked heel. A poultice 
should never be put on tight. Carrots are very good ; 
mash fine after boiling soft. The charcoal may be used in 
this also, where the parts smell offensively. 

Medicated Food for Horses and Cattle. 

Take linseed cake and pulverise or grind it up in the 
shape of meal, and to every fifty pounds of this ingredient 
add ten pounds of Indian meal, two pounds of sulphuret of 
antimony, two pounds of ground ginger, one and three- 
fourth pounds of saltpetre, and two pounds of powdered 
sulphur. Mix the whole thoroughly together. Put in 
neat boxes or packages, for sale or otherwise, as desired, 
and you will have an article equal to Thorley's food, or 
almost any other preparation that can be got up for the 
purpose of fattening stock or curing disease in every case 
when food or medicine can be of any use whatever. This 
article can be fed in any desired quantity, beginning with a 
few tablespoonfuls at a time for a horse, mixing it with his 
grain, and in the same proportion to smaller animals, 
repeating the dose and increasing the quantity as the case 
may seem to require. 



■5° 



13 F^I EFlaETS 

FROM THE 

PRESS OF THE WORLD. 



MORNING ADVERTISER. "The Profef^sor is a master of his 
Wiisiness." 

"TJie Professors skill is decidedly worth seeing." 
"It is a capital show, and well worthy a visit." 

MORNING POST. " The Professor claims to be able to subdue, 
in view of tlie audience, the wildest and most vicious 
hor^e that can be brought him, and his performance is 
ecjual to his promise."' 

" I'rofe^i.sor Smith":- clever Horse Taming Exhibition, in 
wliich hkill and patience render docile even the most 
vicious animals.'" 

STANDARD. "The manner in which he performed his task 
earned for liim the plaudits of his audience, and the 
warm approval of the owners of the animals." 

SPORTSMAN. " The Professors method has never been known 
to have any but successful results." 

DAILY CHRONICLE. "Has made good his claim to cure a 
liorse of any vice." 

DAILY MAIL. " The methods of taming are perfectly humane, so 
the Inspector of S.P.C.A. informed our representative." 

" Should be witnessed by all who are the least interested 
in such matters." 

COURIER. "Should not be missed by anyone who has the lea^-t 
to do with horses." 

PORCUPINE. "Fun and instruction are to be obtained from 
Ji visit." 
" Some of his feats are quite uni)aralleled. " 



SOUTH AFRICA. 

CAP£: TOlliTN. 

CAPE TIMES. "Is a most daiin"^ and accoinplif<hed whip anf 
rider, and the control he exercises over refractory horses, 
togetlier with the very short time in which lie has thera 
well in hand, is indeed marvellous." 
*' Showed himself a master of equitation." 

PORT Sr^IZABET:^. 

ADVERTISER. " Professor Smith claims that he is the Charapion; 
Horse Trainer of the World, and we are quite at ona 
with him, as he proved beyond 'all possible probable 
shadow of doubt' that he can do just as he pleases with 
vicious, unmanageable, and untrained horses." 
"One of the best shows that has visited Port Elizabeth." 

TELEGRAPH. "Such a performance has never been witnessed 
here before." 

GI^AKAIVES'rOllirN^. 

GROCOTT'S MAIL. "Justly called the Emperor of Horse 
Educators." 

JOH AN^ N^£: S^ XJ I^G. 

STAR. "The cleverest display of its kind ever 3een in 

Johannesburg." 

STANDARD AND DIGGERS. "That Professor Smith was a 
thorough master of his profession was proved con- 
clusively. . . . The way in which he handled the 
horses was truly wonderful." 

LICENSED VICTUALLERS* GAZETTE. "Professor Smith 
has created quite a furore in Johannesburg. He i* 
certainly a master of his art." 

TRANSVAAL CRITIC. " I should like to see Professor Smith a, 
resident here." 

PIETEHlVIAI^ITZlBXJFtG. 

TIMES OF NATAL. "Throughout the whole exhibition thera 
was no trace of cruelty." 

NATAL CRITIC. " There is not the slightest doubt his methods 
are genuine and above-board. The whole exhibition 
was clever, interesting, and excitinii." 



152 

TASMANIA. 

HOB ART MERCURY. "The whole of the proceedings were 
thoroughly genuine." 

LAUNCESTON TELEGRAPH. "The performance will com- 
mend itself to all. Cruelty is not used by the Professor, 
his success depending on scientific and humane 
treatment." 

AUSTRALIA. 

AGE, " The young Canadian undoubtedly possesses the rare 

gift — ^with the super-addition of vast experience — of 
overcoming, without recourse to harsh treatment, vices 
to which horses are subject." 

HERALD. " His feats excite much wonder and admiration." 

WEEKLY TIMES. "The exhibition is of interest to the outsider 
as well as the horseman, and certainly is a great object 
lesson in humanity to animals." 

"The exhibition is decidedly educational as well as 
being interesting, and farmers and horse owners will 
get valuable liints by visiting it." 

REGISTER. "Deafening shouts greeted Professor Smith wlien 
he jumped out of his buggy. It was the triumph of the 
evening, and fittingly closed the finest display of horse- 
manship ever seen in Adelaide." 

ARGUS. "The exhibition is interesting and instructive, and is 
one that a lady of the keenest sensitiveness might go 
and see without having her modesty in any >\ay 
offended." 

COURIER. " The onlookers soon came to the conclusion that they 
had a master trainer before them." 

STAR. " His kind, firm, intelligent treatment." 



I 



153 

ADVERTISER, " Tlie Professor's skill is remarkable." 

INDEPENDENT. "All Ment home astonished at what they 
had seen.'" 

MORNING HERALD, "Interesting, and in every way remark- 
able exhibition." 

TELEGRAPH. " The performance is one that all lovers of horses 
should see." 

TRUTH. "Now go, see, wonder, and applaud." 

MAIL. "In all cases the owners have been as enthusiastic in 

their applause as the audiences." 

NEW ZEAL.AND. 

HERALD. " Instructive, interesting, and highly enjoyable." 

SPORTING REVIEW. "His method may be described in one 
word, 'kindness.'" 

GRAPHIC. "The cleverest thing of its kind ever seen in tlie 
Colonies." 

HA WKE'S BA Y HERALD. ' ' Thorouglily entertaining, should 
profit all. ' ' 

NEW ZEALAND TIMES. "Most instructive, all interested in 
horses should patronise it." 

PRESS. "One of the cleA-erest and most interesting entertain- 
ments ever given here." 

TIMES. "Capable judges expressed that Professor Smith was 
fairly ' entitled to the cake ' as a horse trainer." 



154 

ILiOI^DON -2iid Visit. 

SPORTSMAN. "I liad very great pleasure in being present 
at Professor Sniithb remarkable exhibition of the 
oom[>lete mastery he has over vicious and unruly horses 
after he liandled them a few minutes. It was truly 
Avonderful to see the manner in >\hich Mr. Smith, by 
kind but firm management, succeeded in a very 
brief period in brin;i,ing them to submission, until 
they Avere yjerfectly docile and manageable. All done 
Avithout any punishment whatever. The exhibition 
should be visited by all practical horsemen and thofce 
interested in the welfare of horses." 

MORNING ADVERTISER. "Possesses a world-wide reputation. 
If the measure of his future success is to be judged by 
the reception he recei\ed yesterday the Professor's stay 
is likely to be a long and profitable one." 
"Should draw good audiences to his novel and interesting 
entertainment." 

MORNING LEADER. "Professor Norton Beverley Smith is a 
remarkable num. The Professor throws no cloak of 
mystery round his methods. He relies on the knowledge 
he has gained by constant study, in conjunction with 
a ne\ er-failing fund of patience and determined will and 
humane treatment. The plucky young trainer did all 
he claii)ied in the arena at the Agricultural Hall. 
Horses he had never seen before were in the space of a 
<^uarter-of-an-hour reduced from kicking and plunging 
brutes into such a state of subjugation as to easily 
permit of riding or driving in single or double harness.' 

DAILY CHRONICLE. "The whole entertainment formed a 
.striking example of nand over matter." 

WEEKLY DISPATCH. "The Professor shows marvellous skill 
in liandling the noble animal, and his experiments upon 
>\ ild and ^ icious brutes have met with astounding results. 
The docility shown by the animals under his masterly 
hand wins him rounds of applause." 

THE SPORTSMAN. " The Professor is raaivellously clever in 
handling wild, vicious and nervous horses." 

NEWS OF THE WORLD. " A}>art from the educational side of 
the exhibition, the Professor gives a most interesting 
show, and should have a good season." 

THE REFEREE. " The Professor, who has exhibited all over the 
w orld, is marvellously clever in handling wild, vicious 
and nervous horses. The show is >\ ell worth a visit from 
ail interested in horses. ' ' 



155 

THE STANDARD. ' • The first hor-ie was from the Royal Artilleiy 
at Woolwich, and hail refused to work in harness and 
suffered badly from nervousness. In ten min\ites the 
subjugation of the aniiiuil was complete, and the audiencd 
<?ave an approving cheer." 

NATIONAL POLICE GAZETTE. "Our earnest advice to all 
horse owners, dealers anci coachmen is — go and see the 
exhibition, and if you have a vicious or timid animal 
take him along."' 

MORNING POST. "The exhibition is invariably interesting aa 
it is instructive, and being free from any suggestion 
of cruelty or even rougliness should prove a great 
attraction." 

DAILY NEWS. " Tliere is at any rate no doubt abou.t the efficacy 
of his methods. Horses were brought to him with 
certificates of bad character from their owners. They 
were sul)jected to a rapid course of training, and in ten 
minutes from the l)eginning Professor Smith wouM be 
driving them round tlie ring in double harness, though 
they had never been together before and some of them 
had kicked the vehicles of their owners to pieces rather 
than suffer the indignity of being put between the shafts. 
There is no appearance of cruelty in Professor Smith'a 
system." 

ST, JAMES'S GAZETTE. "Has no difficulty in reducing 
vicious beasts to a condition of quiet and even affable 
docility that appears as pleasant to the animals as it id 
astonishing to the spectators." 

THE OBSERVER. " One has only to witness his exploits to feel 
that his claims are justified. There is no doubt about 
the efficacy of his methods. It is pleasing to note, also, 
that the system pursued is thoroughly humane and to 
have no element of cruelty in it." 

THE ERA. "One of the most wonderful exhibitions of horse- 
education. Should be seen by everyone interested in the 
noble animal. It is the finest thing of the kind we have 
ever witnessed." 

HOLLO WAY AND HORNSE Y PRESS. ' ' Anyone who takes 
an interest in horseflesh will be intensely fascinated." 

ECHO. "A most wonderful exhibition of horse training is now 
taking place in the Royal Agricultural Hall. Professor 
Smith is breaking- in any horse free of charge and 
without any cruelty. ' 



156 

SUNDAY TIMES. "In his handling of nervous, vicious, 
and uuhroken hoi;>es he gives a re^viarkahle exhibition 
of what kindness, firmness and patience will do." 

Special lengthy articles, mostly profusely illustrated, appeared in the 
following : 

STRAND MAGAZINE. 

CASSELL'S MAGAZINE. 

THE FAVORITE MAGAZINE. 

LONGBOW. 

TIT-BITS. 

ANSWERS. 

SUCCESS. 

THE RIVAL. 

WESTMINSTER BUDGET. 

GOLDEN PENNY. 

PEARSON'S WEEKLY. 

PHYSICAL CULTURE. 

Etc., Etc. 




PROF. NORTON B. Sn/IITK 

Has been pronounced by the Press and Public as 

me Ereaiesl Horse Tiainei In iQe WorM 

HE HAS HANDLED MORE 

U)il9, Cicious, an9 3Vercous Jforses 

THAN ALL THE COM^NED 

. . . HORSE XRT^INERS . . . 

Since the Bducation of the Horse has been known. 

He is the World's Public Benefactor! 

The Great Saver of Lives & Broken Limbs. 



The Exhibition has never l»een equalled in magnitude in the world's 
hi-stoiy, travelling the 

LARGEST STAFF EVER KNOWN 

By any Horse Trainer in the Universe. 

Messrs. BEHRENS & SMITH - - Proprietors 

Mr. NAT BEHRENS - - - - Manager 

Mr. N. B. SMITH, Emperor of all Horse Educators 

THE STAFF COMPRISES: 



Tivo Representatives, 
Tivo Business Agents, 
One Secretary, 



One Treasurer, 

Five Advertising Agents, 

Ten Distributors, 



Assisted by all the Local Advertisers & Bill Posters. 



. . . THE CONCERT AND MUSICAL PART . . . 

Oi?' THE ICXHIBITIOX BY 

Proi. Silt's Silver Bans of solo grtistes 

Performing all the Latest Operas, Selections, and ilarches. 



ai Sp^<si®:riii^.^ 



The following: Articles are sold at our 
place of Exhibition. 

LIST OF ARTICLES. 



Prof. SMITH'S BOOK 


. Is. 


It If 


BRIDLE 


- 2s. 


9) n 


BITS (Steel & Nickle Plated), 6s. 


1) n 


SOLID NIOKLE \ 
BITS & CURBS \ 


) Cob - 8s. 
> Pony - Ts. 
iFuNSize, 9s 


f/ fi 


DRIVING WHIP 


- 3s. 


f! JJ 


RIDING WHIP 


- 2s. 


II Jl 


HALTERS 


- Xs6d. 


II 5? 


REIN HOLDERS 


- 2s.6cl. 



Goods can be ordered by enclosing Posted 
Order to 

NAT BEHRENS, 

CO-PARTNER AND MANAGER, 

do STAFFORD & CO., Netherfield, 

near Nottingham. 

BEHRI^NS & SMITH, 

I»Il.OI»«.IETO^S. 



COUNTRIES VISITED -^^ 

BY 

PROF. NORTON B. SMITH 



EMPEROR OF ALL 

HORSE EDUCATORS, 

The Greatest Horse Trainer since the days of RAREY, 
Under the Direction of his Co- Partner and Manager, 



Engfland \ SOUTH AFRICA 

\ INCLUDING 

Ireland i Cape Colony 

_ ., . \ The Orange Free Staie 

Scotland ^ The Transvaal 

Wales I ''a**'. *<=■ 

■.-.... x ^ ex X \ AUSTRALIA 

The United States 1 including 

Canada i westraiia, 

^ South Australia 

Holland \ victoria 

^ New South Wales, 
\ Queensland, &c. 

\ NEW ZEALAND 

\ TASMANIA 

i &c. 

##i all of iv#»/c/t his Tour was a triumphal progress, 
winning the unanimous plaudits of Press, 
Horsemen, and the Public, 



A STYLISH TURNOUT kequires a BAivosomE BARivess. mna 1 

'4^ a liandsonic ,- ItaroesS requires the coatinued use of y 

FRANK ^K MILLER'S^,^^^ HARNE88 «:^DRESSINC. 



TIte Standard of the WORLD and sold by all Baraess Dealers. 



HARNESS PREPARATIONS 




Are USED and 
RECOMMENDED 

ALL THE 

LEADING 
JOB MASTERS, 




[liRNESi 
Olli 



MlNUFACTLIRED 



HORSE 
OWNERS 



^l^^^ 



AND 



Saddlers 

THROUGHOUT 
THE WORLD. 





3N£:Vir YOftK, 1838. 



r^OI^DOM^, ISTS. 



THE FRANK MILLER COMPANY, 

Towep Chambers, Moorg-ate, London, E.C. 






PROFC: SSOR 



NORTON B. SMITH'S 



AUTOMATIC 



REIN HOLDER 



IBE: Hit £21^8 &• SIMIXrrH, Px*opx*ietO]:^. 



A device which, if placed on the dash-board of a Buegy, 
Carriage, or Wagon, will safely hold the Reins, and keep 
them from being trampled on and soiled under the 

Horses' feet. 

It saves your whip and whip socket, and keeps the 

driver in good humour. 



It prevents Horses, 
when left, from 
starting, as the 
Rein Holder always 
holds them in 

check. 

When in use, the 

work of the Rein 

Holder is entirely 

automatic. 



It is Dseful, 
Durable, and 
Ornamental. 




Directions. 



Place the Rein Holder 
on the right hand side of 
dash-board with .screws 
on the inside. Put the 
piece of leather on front 
and back of dash-board, 
under clamps. Bring the 
Rein Holder down over 
dash - board as far as 
l>ossible, and fasten set 
screws securely. Slide 
the reins from the sid<t 
under tongue and swing- 
ing carriage, allow tongue 
to drop back so as to 
prevent the reins fron\ 
sliding out to the right. 
In removing reins from 
holder, pull towards you 
and then to the right, 
when reins will be re- 
leased. 







-V ;,. 




.!?«^ 



d, 








'■<^J^ V 



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