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Full text of "Programme"

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SYAPnONY 
ORCnESTRH 

TWENTY-EIGHTH M 

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TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

prngramm? of t\^t 

First 
Rehearsal and Concert 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIP- 
TIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 




FIR'IDAV AFTEPJ^OON; OCTOBER 9 
AT 2^30 O'CLOCK 

SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 10 ^ 

AT SCO O'CI^OCK i. 

,■'.-'.,' ^ ' ' -^•' a^ 

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY C. A. ELLIS - 

PUBLISHED BY C. A, ELLIS, MANAGER 



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Twenty -eighth Season, 1908-1909 




MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 








First Violins. 




Hess, Willy 


Roth, O. 


Hoffmann, J. 


Krafft, W. 


Concert-master. Kuntz, D. 


Fiedler, E, 


Theodorowicz, J. 


Noack, S. 








Mahn, F. 
Strube, G. 


Eichheim, H. 
Rissland, K. 


Bak, A. 
Ribarsch, A. 

Second Violins. 


MuUaly, J. 
Traupe, W. 


Barleben, K. 
Fiumara, P. 


Akeroyd, J. 
Currier, F. 


Fiedler, B. 
Rennert, B. 


Berger, H. 
Eichler, J. 


Tischer-Zeitz, 


H. Kuntz, A. 


Marble, E. 




Goldstein, S. 


Kurth, R. 


Goldstein, H. 
Violas. 




F^rir, E. 


Heindl, H. 


Zahn, F. Kolster, A. 


Krauss, H. 


Scheurer, K. 


Hoyer, H. 


Kluge, M. Sauer, G. 
Violoncellos. 


Gietzen, A. 


Warnke, H. 


Nagel, R. 


Earth, C. Loeffler, E. 


Warnke, J. 


Keller, J. 


Kautzenbach, A. 


Nast, L. Hadley, A. 
Basses. 


Smalley, R. 


Keller, K. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Agnesy, K. 
Kunze, M. 


Seydel, T. 
Huber, E. 


Ludwig, O. 
Schurig, R. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Maquarre, A. 
Maquarre, D, 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 


Grisez, G. 
Mimart, P. 


Sadony, P. 
Mueller, E. 


Brooke, A. 


Sautet, A. 


Vannini, A. 


Regestein, E. 


Fox, P. 


English Horn. 


Bass Clarinet. Contra-Bassoon. 




Mueller, F. 


Stumpf, K. 


Helleberg, J. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. Trombones. Tuba. 


Hess, M. 
Lorbeer, H. 


Schmid, K. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Kloepfel, L. Hampe, C. Lorenz, 0, 
Mann, J. Mausebach, A. 


Hain, F. 


Hackebarth, A. 


Heim, G. Kenfield 


1, L. 


Phair, J. 


Schumann, C. 


Merrill, C. 




Harp. 


Tympani. 


Percussion. 


Schuecker, H. 


Rettberg, A. 


Dworak, J. 


Senia, T. 




Kandler, F. 


Ludvvig, C. 

Librarian. 
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TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, NINETEEN HUNDRED EIGHT AND NINE 



First Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 9, at 2.30 o'clock. 



SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER JO, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 



Beethoven 



. Overture, "Leonora" No. 3, Op. 72 



Brahms .... Symphony No. i, in C minor, Op. 68 

I. Un poco sostenuto; Allegro. 

II. Andante sostenuto. 

III. Un poco allegretto e grazioso. 

IV. Adagio; Allegro non troppo, ma con brio. 



Richard Strauss 



Love Scene from the Opera, " Feuersnot," Op. 50 



Wagner 



Overture to "Tannhauser" 



There will be an mtermission of ten minutes after the symphony. 



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Overture to "Leonora" No. 3, Op. 72. 

LuDwiG VAN Beethoven 

(Born at Bonn, December i6 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

Beethoven's opera, "Fidelio, oder die eheliche Liebe," with text 
adapted freely by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Bouilly 
("Leonore; ou, ly'Amour Conjugal," a "fait historique" in two acts 
and in prose, music by Gaveaux, Opera-Comique, Paris, February 19, 
1798), was first performed at Vienna, November 20, 1805, with Anna 
Pauline Milder,* afterward Mrs. Hauptman, as the heroine. The first 
performance in Boston was on April i, 1857, with Mrs. Johannsen. 
Miss Berkiel, Beutler.f Neumann, Oehlein, and Weinlich as the chief 
singers. 

"Leonore" No. 2 was the overture played at the first performance 
in Vienna. The opera was withdrawn, revised, and produced again 
on March 29, 1806, when "Teonore" No. 3, a remodelled form of No. 
2, was played as the overture. The opera was performed twice, and 
then withdrawn. There was talk of a performance at Prague in 1807, 

* Pauline Anna Milder was bom at Constantinople, December 13, 1783. She died at Berlin, May 29, 
1838. The daughter of an Austrian courier, or, as some say, pastry cook to the Austrian embassador at 
Constantinople, and afterward interpreter to Prince Maurojeni, she had a most adventurous childhood. (The 
story is told at length in von Ledebur's " Tonkiinstler -Lexicon Berlin's.") Back in Austria, she studied three 
years with Sigismund Neukomm. Schikaneder heard her and brought her out in Vienna in 1803. as Juno in 
Siismayer's "Der Spiegel von Arkadien." She soon became famous, and she was engaged at the court opera, 
where she created the part of Leonora in "Fidelio." In 1810 she married a jeweller, Hauptmann. She 
sang as guest at many opera houses and was offered brilliant engagements, and in 1816 she became a member 
of the Berlin "Royal Opera House at a yearly salary of four thousand thalers and a vacation of three months. 
She retired with a pension in 1831, after having sung in three hundred and eighty operatic performances. 
She was also famous in Berlin as an oratorio singer. She appeared again in Berlin in 1834, but her voice 
was sadly worn, yet she sang as a guest in Copenhagen and St. Petersburg. Her funeral was conducted with 
pomp and ceremony, and it is said that the "Iphigenia in Tauris," "Alceste," and "Armide," her favorite 
operas, were put into her coffin, — a favor she asked shortly before her death. 

t Mr. Beutler sang that night for the last time. He had a cold, and the physician warned him against 
singing, but the audience filled the theatre, and he was persuaded. He became hoarse immediately after the 
performance, and, as his vocal cords were paralyzed, he never sang again. Mendelssohn, who had given him 
musical instruction, praised his voice, but urged him not to use it in opera, as it would not stand the wear 
and tear. Beutler then gave up the ambition of his life, but in the Revolution of 1848 he and other students 
at Heidelberg were obliged to leave the country. He came to the United States, and yielded to the temptation 
of a good offer from an opera manager. Pie became an understudy of Mario, then the misfortune befell him. 
I am indebted for these facts to Beutler's daughter, Mrs. Clara Tippett, of Boston. 



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and Beethoven wrote for it a new overture, in which he retained the 
theme drawn from Florestan's air, "In des Lebens FriihHngstagen," 
but none of the other material used in Nos. 2 and 3. The opera was 
not performed, and the autograph of the overture disappeared. "Fi- 
delio" was revived at Vienna in 18 14, and for this performance Beet- 
hoven wrote the "FideHo" overture. We know from his diary that 
he "rewrote and bettered" the opera by work from March to May 15 
of that year. 

The dress rehearsal was on May 22, but the promised overture was 
not ready. On the 20th or 21st Beethoven was dining at a tavern 
with his friend Bartolini. After the meal was over, Beethoven took 
a bill-of-fare, drew lines on the back of it, and began to write. "Come, 
let us go," said Bartolini. "No, wait awhile: I have the scheme of 
my overture," answered Beethoven, and he sat until he had f^.nished 
his sketches. Nor was he at the dress rehearsal. They waited for 
him a long time, then went to his lodgings. He was fast asleep in 
bed. A cup and wine and biscuits were near him, and sheets of the 
overture were on the bed and the floor. The candle was burnt out. 
It was impossible to use the new overture, which was not even fin- 
ished. Schindler said a " Leonore" overture was played. According to 
Seyfried the overture used was that to "The Ruins of Athens," and 
his view is now accepted, although Treitsche asserted that the "Pro- 
metheus" overture was the one chosen. After Beethoven's death a 
score of an overture in C was found among his manuscripts. It was 
not dated, but a first violin part bore the words in the composer's 
handwriting : "Overtura in C, charakteristische Ouverture. Violino I." 
This work was played at Vienna in 1828, at a concert, as a "grand 
characteristic overture" by Beethoven. It was identified later, and 
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The order, then, of these overtures, according to the time of com- 
position, is now supposed to be "Leonore" No. 2, "Leonore" No. 3, 
"Leonore" No. i, "Fidelio." It may here be added that Beethoven 
wished, and for a long time insisted, that the title of his opera should 
be "Leonore"; and he ascribed the early failures to the substitution 
of the title "Fidelio." But the manager of the theatre and friends of 
Beethoven insisted with equal force on "Fidelio," because the same 
story had been used by Gaveaux ("Leonore," Opera-Comique, Paris, 
1798) and Paer ("Leonora," Dresden, 1805). 

It is said that "Leonore" No. 2 was rewritten because certain pas- 
sages given to the wood-wind troubled the players. Others say it 
was too difificult for the strings and too long. In No. 2, as well as in 
No. 3, the chief dramatic stroke is the trumpet signal, which announces 
the arrival of the Minister of Justice, confounds Pizarro, and saves 
Florestan and Leonore. 

The "Fidelio" overture is the one generally played before perform- 
ances of the opera in Germany, although Weingartner has tried ear- 
nestly to restore "Leonore" No. 2 to that position. "Leonore" No. 3 
is sometimes played between the acts. "Leonore" No. i is not often 
heard either in theatre or in concert-room. Marx wrote much in favor 
of it, and asserted that it was a "musical delineation of the heroine 



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of the story, as she appears before the clouds of misfortune have set- 
tled down upon her." 

The "Leonore" No. 2 was Beethoven's first grand overture; and in 
general scope and in the richness of development it was far in advance of 
its time. There is still more pronounced dramatic development in the 
No. 3. The exceedingly long free fantasia of No. 2 is shortened, and 
its character is changed. In No. 2, between the trumpet-calls, there 
is a return to certain developments of the chief theme. This does not 
appear in No. 3, but there are some measures from the "Song of 
Thanksgiving" in the scene in the opera where these trumpet-calls 
are heard, and the return to the first theme occurs only after the episode 
is over. The thematic material of Nos. 2 and 3 is practically the same, 
but the differences in treatment are great and many. 

"lyconore" No. 2 begins with a slow introduction, adagio, C major, 
3-4. There are bold changes of tonality. Clarinets, bassoons, and 
horns enter with a slow cantilena from Florestan's air in the prison 
scene. The main portion of the overture, allegro, C major, 2-2, 
begins pianissimo, with an announcement of the first theme, which is 
not taken from the opera itself. The second theme, in oboe and 'cellos 
against arpeggios in violins and violas, is borrowed, though altered, 
from the Florestan melody heard in the introduction. In the free 
fantasia there is first a working-out of the first theme in imitative 



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counterpoint. Then the second theme enters in F major, then in C 
minor ; and the work on the first theme is pursued at length, until 
the climax rushes to the celebrated trumpet-call, which is different in 
tonality and in other respects from the one in No. 3. The second call 
is followed by strange harmonies in the strings. There are a few meas- 
ures, adagio, in which the^lorestan melody returns. This melody is 
not finished, but the violins take up the last figure of wood-wind instru- 
ments, and develop it into the hurry of strings that precedes the coda. 
This well-known passage is one-half as long as the like passage in No. 
3. The coda, presto, in C major (2-2), begins in double fortissimo 
on a diminution of the first theme; and that which follows is about 
the same as in No. 3, although there is no ascending chromatic cres- 
cendo with the new and brilliant appearance of the first theme, nor 
is there the concluding roll of kettledrums. 

This overture and No. 3 are both scored for two flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
a pair of kettledrums, strings. 

The No. 3 begins, to quote Mr. Apthorp, "with one of Beethoven's 
most daring harmonic subtleties. The key is C major; the strings, 
trumpets, and kettledrums strike a short fortissimo G (the dominant of 
the key), which is held and diminished by the wood- wind and horns, 
then taken up again piano by all the strings in octaves. From this 
G the strings, with the flute, clarinets, and first bassoons, now pass 
step by step down the scale of C major, through the compass of an 
octave, landing on a mysterious F-sharp, which the strings thrice swell 
and diminish, and against which the bassoons complete the chord of the 
dominant seventh and at last of the tonic of the key of B minor. From 
this chord of B minor the strings jump immediately back to G (domi- 
nant of C major), and pass, by a deceptive cadence, through the chord 



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of the dominant seventh and minor ninth to the chord of A-flat major. 
Here we have in the short space of nine measures a succession of keys^ 
C major, B minor, A-flat major — such as few men before Beethoven 
would have dared to write ; but such is the art with which this extraor- 
dinary succession is managed that all sounds perfectly unforced and 
natural." After the key of A-flat major is reached, clarinets and bas- 
soons, supported by strings and two sustained notes for trombones, 
play the opening measures of Florestan's air, "In des Lebens Friih- 
lingstagen" (act ii. of the opera). The buoyant theme of the Allegro, 
C major, begins pianissimo in first violins and 'cellos, and grows in 
strength until the whole orchestra treats it impetuously. The second 
theme has been described as "woven out of sobs and pitying sighs." 
The working-out consists almost wholly in alternating a pathetic figure, 
taken from the second theme and played by the wood-wind over a 
nervous string accompaniment, with furious outbursts from the whole 
orchestra. Then comes the trumpet-call behind the stage. The twice 
repeated call is answered in each instance by the short song of thanks- 
giving from the same scene: Leonore's words are, "Ach! du bist 
gerettet! Grosser Gott ! " A gradual transition leads from this to the 
return of the first theme at the beginning of the third part (flute solo) . 
This third part is developed in general as the first, and leads to a wildly 
jubilant coda. 

The overture "Leonore" No. 3 was first played in Boston at a concert 
of the Musical Fund Society on December 7, 1850. Mr. G. J. Webb 
was the conductor. The score and the parts were borrowed, for the 
programme of a concert by the society on January 24, 1852, states 
that the overture wns then "presented by C. C. Perkins, Esq."- 

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Bouilly, a pompous, foolish fellow they say, wrote other librettos, 
among them the book of Cherubini's "Les Deux Journ6es" ("The 
Water-carrier"), and the authors of "Annales Drama tiques" (Paris, 
1809) state that the interest of his plots and the skill shown in their 
construction were the features that distinguished his work and brought 
O'traordinary success. 

Pierre Gaveaux, who set music to this libretto, was a singer as well 
as composer. Born at Beziers in 1761. he was as a boy a chorister, 
and, as he was intended for the priesthood, he learned Latin and pur- 
sued other necessary studies. But, like the hero in the elder Dumas's 
"Olympe de Cleves," he left the church, and appeared as an operatic 
tenor at Bordeaux. In 1789 he went to Paris, and was the first tenor 
at the Theatre de Monsieur; when the Feydeau Theatre was opened 
in 1 79 1, Gaveaux sang there for the rest of his singing life. He com- 
posed thirty-six or thirty-seven operas. In 181 2 his mind was affected, 
and he was obliged to leave the stage for some months. He returned, 
cured, as it was thought, but in 1819 he was again insane, and he died 
in a madhouse near Paris in 1825. During his eailier years his voice 
was light, flexible, agreeable, and he was an expressive and even pas- 
sionate actor; but during the last ten years of his career his tones 
were nasal and without resonance. He created the part of Florestan 
in his "Leonore." The part of the heroine was created by Julie An- 
gelique Legrand, known on the stage as Mme. Scio. She was born 
at Lille in 1768. An army ofiicer ran off with her and abandoned her, 
and she was obliged to support herself at the age of eighteen by singing 
in the theatre. At first her engagements were in the provinces, and 
at Montpellier she was in the company with Gaveaux. She married 
at Marseilles in 1789 a violinist, Etienne Scio. She went to Paris in 
1 79 1, and the next year she joined the Opera-Comique company, and 
soon made a brilliant reputation. Her voice was pure and sonorous, 
she was an excellent musician, and she was a most intelligent actress, 
both in comedy and tragedy. Too ambitious, she assumed certain 
parts that were too high for her voice, which soon showed wear. A 
widow in 1796, she made an unhappy second marriage, which was 



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dissolved by mutual consent, and she died of consumption at Paris in 
1807. 

Berlioz tells us that Gaveaux's opera was considered a mediocre 
work in spite of the talents of the two chief singers, and that the score 
was extremely weak; but he praises Gaveaux's music to Rocco's song 
about gold for its melody, diction, and piquant instrumentation. 
Gaveaux used trombones sparingly, yet he introduced them in the 
Prisoners' chorus. Berlioz also says that when "Fidelio" was per- 
formed at the Theatre Lyrique, Paris, the manager, Carvalho, wished 
to introduce as the characters in Bouilly's situations Ludovic Sforza, 
Jean Galeas, Isabelle d'Aragon, and Charles VIII., and to have the 
scenes at Milan, 1495, for the purpose of more brilliant costumes and 
tableaux. Was this the revival in i860, when Carre and Barbier signed 
the libretto, and Pauline Viardot impersonated the heroine ? 



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Two years later Ludwig von Bernuth, the founder and director of 
the Hamburg Conservatory of Music, appointed him teacher of the 
advanced piano classes of that institution, and since that time Ham- 
burg has been Mr. Fiedler's home. On the retirement of von Ber- 
nuth in 1894 Mr. Fiedler succeeded him as director of the Conservatory, 
which post he now holds. 

Mr. Fiedler made his first appearance as conductor in 1886 when 
he gave in Hamburg a concert, the programme of which contained 
two of his own compositions, a symphony in D minor and a work for 
women's voices and orchestra. After the retirement of von Bernuth 
in 1894 from the conductorship of the Hamburg Philharmonic concerts, 
which post he gave up the same time he left the Conservatory, Mr. 
Fiedler organized a series of orchestral concerts of his own under the 
name of Fiedler concerts. The first year he gave but one, then in suc- 
cessive years he increased them to four, six, and eight, which number 
held until his concerts were combined with those of the Philharmonic 
Society, under the latter's name, and he became conductor of the 
consolidated orchestra. 

Mr. Fiedler is well known in Europe as a "guest" conductor. He 
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visited this country at the invitation of the Philharmonic Society of 
New York, to conduct a pair of its concerts. 

Mr. Fiedler has composed a symphony in D minor, a pianoforte 
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vSymphony in C minor, No. i, Op. 68 Johannes Brahms 

(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.) 

Brahms was not in a hurry to write a symphony. He heeded not 
the wishes or demands of his friends, he was not disturbed by their 
impatience. As far hack as 1854 Schumann wrote to Joachim: "But 
where is Johannes? Is he flying high or only under the flowers? Is 
he not yet ready to let drums and trumpets sound ? He should always 
keep in mind the beginning of the Beethoven symphonies: he should 
try to make something like them. The beginning is the main thing; 
if only one makes a beginning, then the end comes of itself." 

* * 

Just when Brahms began to make the first sketches of this symphony 
is not known. He was in the habit, as a young man, of jotting down his 
musical thoughts when they occurred to him. Later he worked on 
several compositions at the same time and let them grow under his 
hand. There are instances where this growth was of very long duration. 
He destroyed the great majority of his sketches. The few that he did 
not destroy are, or were recently, in the Library of the Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde at Vienna. 

We know that in 1862 Brahms showed his friend Albert Dietrich * 
an early version of the first movement of the symphony. Brahms 
was then sojourning at Miinster. He composed in the morning, and 
the afternoon and evening were spent in excursions or in playing or 
hearing music. He left Hamburg in September of that year for his 
first visit to Vienna, and wrote to Dietrich shortly before his departure 

* Albert Hermann Dietrich was born August 28, 1829, near Meissen. He studied music in Dresden and 
at the Leipsic Conservatory. In 1851 he went to Diisseldorf to complete his studies with Schumann. He 
cunducted the subscription concerts at Bonn from 1855 till 1861, when he was called to Oldenbure as court 
conductor. He retired in 1890 and moved to Berlin, where he was made an associate member of the Konigliche 
."M^ademie der Kiinste and in 1899 a Royal Professor. He composed two operas, a symphony, an overture, 
choral works, a violin concerto, a 'cello concerto, chamber music, songs, piano pieces. 



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that the symphony was not ready, but_that he had completed a string 
quintet in F minor. 

This first movement was afterward greatly changed. He told his 
friends for several years afterward that the time for his symphony 
had not yet arrived. Yet Theodor Kirchner wrote to Marie lyipsius 
that Brahms had carried this symphony about with him "many years" 
before the performance; and Kirchner said that in 1863 or 1864 he 
had talked about the work with Clara Schumann, who had then showed 
him portions of it, whereas "scarcely any one knew about the second 
symphony before it was completed, which I have reason to believe 
was after the first was ended ; the sec-ond, then, was chiefly composed 
in 1877." In 1875 Dietrich visited Brahms at Zigelhausen, and he saw 
his new works, but when Dietrich wrote his recollections he could not 
say positively what these works were. 

The first performance of the Symphony in C minor was from manu- 
script at Carlsruhe by the grand ducal orchestra, November 4, 1876. 
Dessoff conducted and the composer was present. Brahms conducted 
the performances of it at Mannheim a few days later and on November 
15, 1876, at Munich. He also conducted performances at Vienna, 
December 17, 1876; at Leipsic, January 18, 1877; and at Breslau, 
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allowed to hear the symphony played as a pianoforte duet by Brahms 
and Ignaz Briill. 

Early in 1877 Cambridge University offered Brahms an honorary 
degree. If he had accepted it, he would have been obliged to go to 
England, for it is one of the University's statutes that its degrees may 
not be conferred in absentia. Brahms hesitated about going, although 
he was not asked to write a work for the occasion. The matter was 
soon settled for him: the directors of the Crystal Palace inserted an 
advertisement in the Times to the effect that, if he came, he would be 
asked to conduct one of their Saturday concerts. Brahms declined the 
honor of a degree, but he acknowledged the invitation by giving the 
manuscript score and parts of the symphony to Joachim, who led the 
performance at Cambridge, March 8, 1877, although Mr. J. L. Erb, 
in his "Brahms," says that Stanford conducted. The programme 
included Bennett's overture to "The Wood Nymph," Beethoven's 
Violin Concerto (Joachim, violinist), Brahms's "Song of Destiny," violin 
solos by Bach (Joachim), Joachim's Elegiac overture in memory of 
H. Kleist, and the symphony. This Elegiac overture was composed 
by Joachim in acknowledgment of the honorary degree conferred on 
him that day. He conducted the overture and Brahms's symphony. 
The other pieces were conducted by Charles Villiers Stanford, the 
leader of the Cambridge University Musical Society. The symphony 
is often called in England the "Cambridge" symphony. The first 
performance in I^ondon was at the Philharmonic concert, April 16 of 
the same year, and the conductor was W. G. Cusins. The symphony 
was published in 1877. The first performance in Berlin was on 
November 1 1 of that year and by the orchestra of the Music School, 
led by Joachim. 

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those at Carlsruhe, Mannheim, and Breslau were friendly. Dorffel 
wrote in the Leipziger Nachrichten that the symphony's effect on the 
audience was "the most intense that has been produced by any new 
symphony within our remembrance." 

* * 

The symphony provoked heated discussion. Many pronounced it 
labored, crabbed, cryptic, dull, unintelligible, and Hanslick's article 
of 1876 was for the most part an inquiry into the causes of the popular 
dislike. He was faithful to his master, as he was unto the end. And 
in the fall of 1877 von Biilow wrote from Sydenham a letter to a Ger- 
man music journal in which he characterized the Symphony in C minor 
in a way that is still curiously misunderstood. 

"One touch of nature makes the whole world kin." This quotation 
from "Troilus and Cressida" is regarded by thousands as one of Shake- 
speare's most sympathetic and beneficent utterances. But what is 
the speech that Shakespeare put into the mouth of the wily, much- 
enduring Ulysses ? After assuring Achilles that his deeds are forgotten ; 
that Time, like a fashionable host, "slightly shakes his parting guest 
by the hand," and grasps the comer in his arms; that love, friendship, 
charity, are subjects all to "envious and calumniating time," Ulysses 
says : — 

"One touch of nature makes the whole world kin, — 
That all, with one consent, praise new-born gauds, 
Though they are made and moulded of things past, 
And give to dust, that is a little gilt, 
More laud than gilt o'erdusted." 

This much admired and thoroughly misunderstood quotation is, in 
the complete form of statement and in the intention of the dramatist, 
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Ask a music-lover, at random, what von Biilow said about Brahms's 
Symphony in C minor, and he will answer: "He called it the Tenth 
Symphony." If you inquire into the precise meaning of this character- 
ization, he will answer: "It is the symphony that comes worthily after 
Beethoven's Ninth"; or, "It is worthy of Beethoven's ripest years"; 
or in his admiration he will go so far as to say : ' ' Only Brahms or Beet- 
hoven could have written it." 

Now what did von Biilow write? "First after my acquaintance 
with the Tenth Symphony, alias Symphony No. i , by Johannes Brahms, 
that is since six weeks ago, have I become so intractable and so hard 
against Bruch-pieces and the like. I call Brahms's first symphony the 
Tenth, not as though it should be put after the Ninth; I should put it 
between the Second -and the 'Eroica,' just as I think by the First Sym- 
phony should be understood, not the first of Beethoven, but the one 
composed by Mozart, which is known as the 'Jupiter.' " 

* * 

The first performance in Boston was by the Harvard Musical Asso- 
ciation, January 3, 1878. 

The New York Tribune published early in 1905 a note communicated 
by Mr. Walter Damrosch concerning the first performance of the sym- 
phony in New York: — 

"When word reached America in 1877 that Brahms had completed 
and published his first symphony, the musical world here awaited its 
first production with keenest interest. Both Theodore Thomas and 
Dr. Leopold Damrosch were anxious to be the first to produce this 
monumental work, but Dr. Damrosch found to his dismay that Thomas 
had induced the local music dealer to promise the orchestral parts to 
him exclusively. Dr. Damrosch found he could obtain neither score 
nor parts, when a very musical lady, a pupil of Dr. Damrosch, hearing 



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ofphis predicament, surprised him with a full copy of the orchestral 
score. She had calmly gone to the music dealer without mentioning 
her purpose and had bought a copy in the usual way. The score was 
immediately torn into four parts and divided among as many copyists, 
who, working day and night on the orchestra parts, enabled Dr. Dam- 
rosch to perform the symphony a week ahead of his rival." 

* 
* * 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
kettledrums, strings. The trombones appear only in the finale. 

The first movements open with a short introduction, Un poco soste- 
nuto, C minor, 6-8, which leads without a pause into the first move- 
ment proper, Allegro, C minor. The first four measures are a prelude 
to the chief theme, which begins in the violins, while the introductory 
phrase is used as a counter-melody. The development is vigorous, 
and it leads into the second theme, a somewhat vague melody of mel- 
ancholy character, announced by wood-wind and horns against the 
first theme, contrapuntally treated by strings. In the development 
wind instruments in dialogue bring back a fragment of this first theme, 
and in the closing phrase an agitated figure in rhythmical imitation 
of a passage in the introduction enters. The free fantasia is most 
elaborate. A short coda, built chiefly from the material of the first 
theme, poco sostenuto, brings the end. 

The second movement, Andante sostenuto, E major, 3-4, is a pro- 
foundly serious development in rather free form of a most serious 
theme. 

The place of the traditional scherzo is supplied by a movement, Un 
poco allegretto e grazioso, A-flat major, 2-4, in which three themes of 
contrasted rhythms are worked out. The first, of a quasi-pastoral 



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nature, is given to the clarinet and other wood-wind instruments over 
a pizzicato bass in the 'cellos. In the second part of the movement 
is a new theme in 6-8. ^ The return to the first movement is like unto 
a coda, in which there is varied recapitulation of all the themes. 

The finale begins with an adagio, C minor, 4-4, in which there are 
hints of the themes of the allegro which follows. And here Mr. Ap- 
thorp should be quoted : — 

"With the thirtieth measure the tempo changes to piu andante, 
and we come upon one of the most poetic episodes in all Brahms. 
Amid hushed, tremulous harmonies in the strings, the horn and after- 
ward the flute pour forth an utterly original melody, the character of 
which ranges from passionate pleading to a sort of wild exultation, 
according to the instrument that plays it. The coloring is enriched by 
the solemn tones of the trombones, which appear for the first time in 
this movement. It is ticklish work trying to dive down into a com- 
poser's brain, and surmise what special outside source his inspiration 
may have had; but one cannot help feeling that this whole wonderful 
episode may have been suggested to Brahms by the tones of the Alpine- 
horn, as it awakens the echoes from mountain after mountain on some 
of the high passes in the Bernese Oberland. This is certainly what 
the episode recalls to any one who has ever heard those poetic tones 
and their echoes. A short, solemn, even ecclesiastical interruption 
by the trombones and bassoons is of more thematic importance. As 
the horn-tones gradually die away, and the cloud-like harmonies in the 
strings sink lower and lower — like mist veiling the landscape — an 
impressive pause ushers in the Allegro non troppo, ma con brio (in C 
major, 4-4 time). The introductory Adagio has already given us 
mysterious hints at what is to come ; and now there bursts forth in the 
strings the most joyous, exuberant Volkslied melody, a very Hymn 
to Joy, which in some of its phrases, as it were unconsciously and by 
sheer affinity of nature, flows into strains from the similar melody in 
the Finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. One cannot call it pla- 
giarism: it is two men saying the same thing." 

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Op^ra, Paris, March 13, 1861. Some consider therefore the overture 
in its original shape as a concert overture, one no longer authentically 
connected with the opera. 

The overture is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass-tuba, 
kettledrums^ cymbals, triangle, tambourine, strings. 

It begins with a slow introduction. Andante maestoso, E major, 
3-4, in which the pilgrims' chorus, "Begliickt darf nun dich, o Heimath, 
ich schauen" from the third act, is heard, at first played piano by 
lower wood- wind instruments and horns with the melody in the trom- 
bones against a persistent figure in the violins, then sinking to a pian- ' 
issimo ((clarinets and bassoons). They that delight in tagging motives 
so that there may be no mistake in recognition call the first melody 
the "Religious Motive" or "The Motive of Faith." The ascending 
phrase given to the violoncellos is named the "Motive of Contrition," 
and the persistent violin figure the "Motive of Rejoicing." 

The main body of the overture, Allegro, E major, 4-4, begins even 
before the completion of the pilgrims' song with an ascending first 
theme (violas), "the typical motive of the Venus Mountain." 

"Inside the Horsel here the air is hot; 
Right Uttle peace one hath for it, God wot ; 

The scented dusty daylight burns the air, 
And my heart chokes me till I hear it not." 

The first period of the movement is taken up wholly with baccha- 
nalian music from the opening scene in the Venus Mountain; and the 
motive that answers the ascending typical figure, the motive for vio- 
lins, flutes, oboes, then oboes and clarinets, is known as the theme 
of the bacchanal, "the drunkenness of the Venus Mountain." This 
period is followed by a subsidiary theme in the same key, a passionate 



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figure in the violins against ascending chromatic passages in the 'cellos. 
The second theme, B major, is Tannhauser's song to Venus, "Dir 
tone Lob!" The bacchanal music returns, wilder than before. A 
pianissimo episode follows, in which the clarinet sings the appeal of 
Venus to Tannhauser, "Geliebter, komm, sieh' dort die Grotte," the 
typical phrase of the goddess. This episode takes the place of the free 
fantasia. The third part begins with the passionate subsidiary .theme, 
which leads as before to the second theme, Tannhauser's song, which 
is now in E major. Again the bacchanalian music, still more frenetic. 
There is stormy development; the violin figure which accompanied 
the pilgrims' chant returns, and the coda begins, in which this chant 
is repeated. The violin figure grows swifter and swifter as the fortis- 
simo chant is thundered out by trombones and trumpets to full har- 
mony in the rest of the orchestra. 

* 
* * 

Commentators* have written singular "explanations" of this over- 
ture, but no one has surpassed the ingenuity of some programme an- 
notator of Munich. Wagner wrote Uhlig, November 27, 1852: "In 
general I begin to be afraid of performances in chief towns. I shall 
never find such good will there as in the smaller towns, especially not 

* Charles Baudelaire's gloss in his essay, " Richard Wagner et Tannhauser," first published in the 
Revue Europeenne, April i, 1861, is highly characteristic of the poet. "The overture sums up the thought 
of the drama by two songs, the religious song and the voluptuous song, which, to borrow Liszt's phrase, 'are 
here placed as two terms, which find their equation in the finale.' The Pilgrim Chant appears first, with the 
authority of the supreme law, as the immediate iadication of the true meaning of life, the goal of the universal 
pilgrimage, that is, God. But, as the intimate knowledge of God is soon drowned in every conscience by 
the lusts of the flesh, the representative song of holiness is little by little submerged in voluptuous sighs. 
The true, the terrible, the universal Venus arises already in all imaginations. And he that has not yet heard 
the marvellous overture of Tannhauser should not fancy here a song of vulgar lovers trying to kill time in 
arbors, nor are the accents those of a drunken crowd, as Horace says, throwing defiance at God. Here is 
something at once truer and more sinister. Languors, delights now feverish, now cut with anguish, incessant 
returns towards a voluptuousness which promises to quench thirst but never quenches it, furious palpitations 
of the heart and the mind, are now heard, imperious commands of the flesh, the whole dictionary of the onoma- 
topoeias of love. At last the religious theme little by little resumes its sway, slowly, by degrees, and absorbi 
the other in a peaceful victory as glorious as that of the irresistible being over the one sickly and disorderly, 
of Saint Michael over Lucifer." This quotation gives only a faint idea of the whole rhapsody. 



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among self (!) -opera-composing Capellmeisters. Do you really know 
what happened with the 'Tannhauser' overture in Munich? The ap- 
plause was 'very divided.' But I must tell you a joke from there. I 
had sent the programme to I^achner, and had received no answer: 
after I had read about the performance, I reminded him of it. Then I 
got for answer that they had not ventured to make known the pro- 
gramme, but that they had added the following notice to the concert 
programme: ' Holy, serene frame of mind ! Night draws on — ^The pas- 
sions are aroused — ^The spirit fights against them — Daybreak — Final 
victory over matter — Prayer — Song of triumph,' consequently — they 
now say — I can rest assured that my composition was completely 
'understood.' (Is that not delicious ?) " 



* 



Wagner's own programme was published in the Neue Zeitschrift of 
January 14, 1853. It was written at the request of orchestral players 
who were rehearsing the overture for performance at Zurich. The 
translation into English is by William Ashton Ellis. 

"To begin with, the orchestra leads before us the Pilgrims' Chant 
alone; it draws near, then swells into a mighty outpour, and passes 
finally away. — Evenfall; last echo of the chant. As night breaks, 
magic sights and sounds appear, a rosy mist floats up, exultant shouts 



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61 



assail our ear ; the whirlings of a f earsomely * voluptuous dance are 
seen. These are the 'Venusberg's' seductive spells, that show them- 
selves at dead of night to those whose breast is fired by daring of the 
senses. Attracted by the tempting show, a shapely human form draws 
nigh: 'tis Tannhauser, Love's minstrel. He sounds his jubilant Song 
of Love in joyous challenge, as though to force the wanton witchery 
to do his bidding. Wild cries of riot answer him : the rosy cloud grows 
denser round him, entrancing perfumes hem him in and steal away 
his senses. In the most seductive of half-lights, his wonder-seeing 
eye beholds a female form indicible; he hears a vdice that sweetly 
murmurs out the siren-call, which promises contentment of the darer's 
wildest wishes. Venus herself it is, this woman who appears to him. 
Then heart and senses burn within him; a fierce, devouring passion 
fires the blood in all his veins ; with irresistible constraint it thrusts 
him nearer ; before the Goddess' self he steps with that canticle of love 
triumphant, and now he sings it in ecstatic praise of her. As though 
at wizard spell of his, the wonders of the Venusberg unroll their bright- 
est fill before him; tumultuous shouts and savage cries of joy mount 
up on every hand ; in drunken glee Bacchantes drive their raging dance 
and drag Tannhauser to the warm caresses of Love's Goddess, who 
throws her glowing arms around the mortal drowned with bliss, and 
bears him where no step dare tread, to the realm of Being-no-more. 
A scurry, like the sound of the Wild Hunt, and speedily the storm is 
laid. Merely a wanton whir still pulses in the breeze, a wave of weird 
voluptuousness, like the sensuous breath of unblest love, still soughs 
above the spot where impious charms had shed their raptures, and 
over which the night now broods once more. But dawn begins to 

* "Fearsomely": John Frederick Rowbotham, in the description of a banquet held in the gardens of 
Sallust, introduces Syrian dancing-girls: "and these had cymbals that they clashed above their heads, and 
there was something fearful in their wild immodesty." ("A History of Music," vol. iii. pp. 80, 81. London, 
1887.) 




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63 



break already; from afar is heard again the Pilgrims' Chant. As 
this chant draws closer yet and closer, as the day drives farther back 
the night, that whir and soughing of the air — which had erewhile 
sounded like the eerie cries of souls condemned — now rises, too, to 
ever gladder waves ; . so that when the sun ascends at last in splendor, 
and the Pilgrims' Chant proclaims in ecstasy to all the world, to all 
that lives and moves thereon. Salvation won, this wave itself swells 
out the tidings of sublimest joy. 'Tis the carol of the Venusberg it- 
self, redeemed from curse of impiousness, this cry we hear amid the 
hymn of God. So wells and leaps each pulse of Life in chorus of 
Redemption; and both dissevered elements, both soul and senses, 
God and Nature, unite in the atoning kiss of hallowed Love." 



* 
* * 



Wagner was disgusted with the first performances at Dresden, and in 
his letters to Theodor Uhlig showed his disappointment and rage. 
Thus he wished the end of the opera rectified in both text and piano- 
forte score: "The miracle only hinted at in the altered form must be 
completely restored. . . . The reason for leaving out the announce- 
ment of the miracle in the Dresden change was quite a local one: the 
chorus was always bad, flat, and uninteresting; also an imposing scenic 
effect — a splendid, gradual sunrise — ^was wanting." Again: "For 
me, it was a necessity to protest against the Dresden performance of 
'Tannhauser' and against the opinion that it had satisfied me; this 
was still tingling in all my limbs." Wagner wrote, October 12, 1852: 
"The Dresden 'Tannhauser' is no advertisement for me; they may 
even do there what they like with the ending! Dresden can be of no 
more use to me, as it has never been of use — it has, indeed, harmed 
me; but it cannot even do that any more. It can only sink deeper 
into my indifference. Enough; the remembrances of the Dresden 
'Tannhauser' are a torture to me." 

Mr. GEORGE HAMLIN, Tenor 

will present at his 



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The following special program, being the 
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Direction LOUDON CHARLTON 

Local Manager, L. H. MUDGETT 



... PROGRAM ... 

Deh piu a me non v' ascondete . . Bononcini 
O Sleep, why dost thou leave me . . Handel 
Lindenlaub . . . . . Old German 

Oh, bid your Faithful Ariel fly . . Linley 

An eine Quelle Schubert 

Der.Kuss Beethoven 

StilleThranen. Schumann 

In's Freie I 

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Im Kahne Grieg 

Minnelied Brahms 

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O Siisser Mai Strauss 

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2. Darkness 4. Requies 

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Twilight Walter Rummel 

Black-eyed Susan . . . Edwin Schneider 
Oh, I'm not Myself at All . . . Lover 

The Lamp of Love Salter 

Mr. Edwin Schneider at the Piano 



54 



* 
* * 

The part of Tannhauser was created by Joseph Alois Tichatschek 
(1807-86), who was a member of the Dresden Opera House from 1838 
to 1872. The part of Venus was created by Wilhelmine Schroder- 
Devrient (1804-60). The passionate lovers of the story were shown 
on the stage as mature persons of discreet years, for the Tannhauser 
was thirty-eight years old and Venus was in her forty-first year. 

Tichatschek was for years the glory of the Dresden Opera House; but 
there were cavillers even when he was at the zenith of his glory. He 
was a dramatic, not a lyric singer. He was accused of stiJBfness in gest- 
ure and certain mannerisms that grew upon him while he was under 
the influence of Schroder-Devrient. His voice was not naturally free 
or flexible, and he was ill at ease in the Italian operas of the repertory 
of the period. "Al. Sincerus," the author of "Das Dresdner Hofthe- 
ater" (1852), does not attempt to suppress the criticisms unfavorable 
to his hero : on the contrary, he publishes them at length, and then he 
exclaims in a fine burst: "Tichatschek is a German singer. We are in 
Germany, and, thank God, we are not without old and new German 
works, which can stand honorably in competition with the new Italian 
weak and sickly productions." 

But let us listen to the testimony of an outsider, an acute, most expe- 
rienced, discriminating judge of singing. Henry F. Chorley heard 
Tichatschek in several operas, among them "Tannhauser." He wrote 
of him: "Among the tenors of Germany, Herr Tichatschek bears a 
high reputation ; and few, in any country, have ever crossed the stage 
with an ampler proportion of natural advantages. He is of the right 
height, handsome, his voice strong, sweet, and extensive, taking the 
altissimo notes of its register in chest tones. He possessed, too, in 
1839, a youthful energy of manner calculated to gain the favor of all 



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who hear and see him. But, on returning to Dresden in 1840, 1 found 
that he had abused this energy to the evident deterioration of his voice 
and style; and there was cause to fear that a few seasons more may 
rivet him in bad habits never to be thrown off, such as sink their owner 
among the disappointing legion of those who 'might have done great 
things.'" 

After Chorley had heard "Tannhauser" at Dresden in the forties, 
he wrote as follows of the great scene in the third act: "I remember 
the howling, whining, bawling of Herr Tichatschek (to sing or vocally 
to declaim this scene is impossible)." 

In Germany the tradition still lives that Tichatschek was the ideal 
Tannhauser. Yet Wagner wrote of him to Liszt : "In spite of his voice 
Tichatschek did not bring out many points that have not proved 
beyond the- reach of far less gifted singers. He has only brilliance or 
suavity, not one single true accent of grief." For his sake Wagner was 
obliged to make several cuts and minor omissions. 

Schroder-Devrient created the part of Venus. She was an ardent 
admirer of Wagner; she was in sympathy with his desire to make the 
German operatic stage still more illustrious ; she was delighted with his 
enthusiasm, his scorn of the conventionalties ; and some say that she 
shared his revolutionary views concerning politics. According to 



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Glasanap-Ellis's biography of Wagner: "Only out of personal attach- 
ment to the author did she finally consent to undertake the part of 
Venus, but with the remark- that she didn't know what to make of it 
— unless she were to appear in fleshings from top to toe; 'and that,' 
she added with mock seriousness, 'you could scarcely expect of a woman 
like me.' The jest stood cover to a very solid reason: the miseries of 
her private life had made this role a peculiarly trying one for Schroder- 
Devrient." As Wagner himself said: "The exceptional demands of 
this role were doomed to non-fulfilment, because irreparable circum- 
stances deprived her of the unembarrassment required by her task." 

This extraordinary woman was not a singer; she was a play-actress 
who for some strange reason preferred the opera house to the theatre. 
She was irresistible in "Fidelio," and her Lady Macbeth in Chelard's 
forgotten opera was "one of those visions concerning which young 
men are apt to rave and old men to dote." 

Chorley first heard her in London in 1832. What he then wrote of 
her is well worth reading and consideration, especially in these days, 
when rough, uncontrolled temperament is accepted as an excuse for 
vocal indifference or ignorance. 

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the value of which she thoroughly understood, delighting, in moments 
of great emotion, to fling it loose with the wild vehemence of a maenad. 
Her figure was superb, though full, and she rejoiced in its display. 
Her voice was a strong soprano, not comparable in quality to other 
German voices of its class (those, for instance, of Madame Stockl- 
Heinefetter, Madame Durde-Ney, Mademoiselle Tietjens), but with 
an inherent expressiveness which made it more attractive on the stage 
than many a more faultless organ. Such training as had been given 
to it belonged to that false school which admits of such a barbarism 
as the defence and admiration of 'Nature-Singing.'" 

The part of Elisabeth was created by Johanna Wagner, the niece of 
the composer, the daughter of Albert Wagner (1799-1874). She was 
born October 13, 1828, in a village near Hannover; she died at Wiirz- 
burg, October 16, 1894. As a five-year-old child she appeared in 
Iffland's "Spieler" at Wurzburg. She was first engaged in a theatrical 
company at Bernburg when she was thirteen, but she soon began to 
devote herself to opera. Her uncle, conductor at Dresden, invited her 
to appear there as guest in 1844, and she was engaged for three years. 
She was sent to Paris to study with Pauline Viardot. In 1849 she sang 
at Hamburg, and in 1851 she was engaged at Berlin, where she was 
long a favorite. In 1859 she married the Landrat Jachmann, and, 
•as she lost her voice suddenly in 1861, she turned play-actress until 
1872, when she left the stage; but she sang in 1872, and in 1876 she 



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created the parts of Schwertleite and the first Norn at Bayreuth. 
From 1882 to 1884 she taught dramatic singing at the Munich Royal 
Music School. The last ten years of her life were spent at Berlin. 
She was first famous in England by the breaking of her contract with 
the manager Lumley and the consequent litigation.* Her father's 
remark in a letter, "One only could go to England to get money," 
aroused a storm of indignation ; but all was forgiven when she appeared 
at Her Majesty's in 1856 as Romeo in Bellini's opera, Lucrezia Borgia, 
Orpheus, and Tancred. 

Chorley described Johanna Wagner as follows: "She was one of 
the many who sing without having learned to sing. Her voice — an 
originally limited one, robust rather than rich in tone — was already" — 
Chorley heard her in Berlin in 1853 — "strained and uncertain; deliv- 
ered after a bad method, and incapable of moderate flexibility — as 
was to be felt when she toiled through Mozart's air, 'Parto,' from 'La 
Clemenza,' with its clarinet obbligato. She wore man's attire welf 
and decorously, but she had too much of the elaborate and attitudi- 
nizing style of her country to be acceptable as an actress, especially in 
the Italian drama, where the passion, if it cannot be made to seem 
spontaneous, becomes intolerable. . . . She was most striking to see, 
but the mechanical vehemence of second-hand German acting proves 
less attractive in London than at Berlin. There, as a part of a picture 
(got up by machinery) and as addressing a public to whom the style 
of elaborate violence is congenial, it can be submitted to. Here — it 
seems extravagant, pedantic, and distasteful, in no common degree. 
The German actor's alphabet (I do not here speak of such admirable 
artists as Seydelmann or Emil Devrient, who make a law for them- 
selves out of a pedantic formula) has always struck me as singular 
and limited. I have a book in which dancing is taught by diagrams, — 
'Here bend — there twirl — when you offer hands across, smile,' — and 
so forth ; and I think that this book must be the text-book for many 
actors whom I have seen on the German operatic stage. One can count 
their steps whether in advance or retreat. They kiss in time — they 
go mad telegraphically. This may be very meritorious; it is clearly 

* See "Reminiscences of the Opera," by Benjamin Lumley (London, 1864), chapters xxi. and xxiii. 

Mme. J. a Rondelle MISS GAFFNEY 

de Paris Hygienic Treatment of Head, 

Face, and Neck 

KLyr>il.o Jl. 1 iVlAIN iHAUA. Kemoviag and preventing wrinkles and 
Original Designs I improving the complexion by restoring 



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muscular tone and tissue building, WITH- 
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Manicuring and Shampooing 



Address, 486 BOYLSTON STREET 

Until after alterations in the Oak Grove 
Building 



59 



most popular in Prussia; but here it is not found welcome, after the 
first impression of strenuousness has passed over. 

"Considered as a singer, the claims of Mademoiselle * Wagner were 
very meagre. She must have had originally a fine mezzo-soprano 
voice. She can never have learned ho^ to produce or how to use it. 
Whether as Romeo, or Tancred, or Lucrezia Borgia, the insubordinate 
toughness of the organ could not be concealed. Though she dashed 
at every difficulty, w^th an intrepidity only to be found in German 
singers, none was, in very deed, mastered." 

Ivumley thus described her entrance as Romeo: "She appeared; tall, 
stately, self-possessed, clothed in glittering gilded mail, with her fine, 
fair hair flung in masses upon her neck; a superb air that seemed to 
give full earnest of victory, and a step revealing innate majesty and 
grandeur in every movement." 

On account of the inexperience of the young Johanna when she cre- 
■ ated the part, Wagner was compelled to omit a portion of Elisabeth's 
prayer. 

Anton Mitterwurzer (1818-72), the Wolfram, was the one singer 
in the first performance that wholly satisfied the composer. 

* 

The Paris correspondent of the New York Evening Post wrote, Sep- 
tember 9, 1903: — 

"The friends of M. Gaston Paris have just republished in a volume 
under the general title of ' Legends of the Middle Ages ' several arti- 
cles which he had inserted in various reviews. The first three articles, 
'Roncevaux,' 'Le Paradis de la Reine Sibylle,' 'La Legende du Tann- 
hauser,' were composed between 1897 and 1901, and appeared not 
long before the death of Gaston Paris in the Revue de Paris. . . . 

"A world-wide reputation has been given by the genius of Wagner 
to the legend of Tannhauser: — 

"'When,' says Gaston Paris, 'Richard Wagner composed in 1842 
his musical drama, he was not yet fully in possession of all the ideas 
which he afterwards seized and realized with so much strength; but 
they were already floating in his mind, and he had at least indicates 
in the "Fljdng Dutchman" the idea which dominates and resumed 
them all, and which he incarnated so powerfully in "Tannhauser." I 
mean that grandiose conception according to which music, closely 
allied to poetry and emanating from the same soul, ought to be the 
deepest and most pathetic interpretation of the mystery of human 
existence, suspended between love and death, between egoism and 
sacrifice, between ideal aspiration and the fascination of the senses.' 

"This complete union of poetry and music was more easily derived 
from popular legends than from history. History is too precise and 
does not give scope enough to the imagination of the poet. Wagner 
sought his legends in the German poems of the Middle Ages, knowing 
little of their origin in antiquity, unconscious that they were not purely 
Germanic, but Celtic, that they expressed the feelings of the race to 
which belonged the Gauls, the Irish, the Gaels of Scotland, the inhab- 
itants of Wales and of Brittany. Wagner did not take the legend of 
Tannhauser directly from a German poem of the thirteenth century, 
but simply from a much more recent popular song, which he found 

* Why " Mademoiselle" ? But the English programmes of to-day amiounce a Bohemian ora Himgarian 
or even a German as " M., " and I have seen the prefix " Signer" thus misapplied. — Ed. 

60 



in Heinrich Heine.* 'What an admirable poem!' said Heine in speak- 
ing of an old Volkslied which he reproduced. 'Except the Song of 
Solomon, I don't know a song more burning with love than the dia- 
logue between Dame Venus and Tannhauser. This song is like a love- 
battle: you see flowing in it the reddest blood of the heart.' Wagner 
became enamoured of this legend, and saw in it an expression of the 
struggle between carnal love and pure and ideal love. In reality, it 
is something different : it is the adventure of a man who, thanks to the 
love of a goddess, penetrates the supernatural regions where reigns 
perpetual spring. Wagner added to the legend of Tannhauser the 
episode of the poetical war of the Wartburg, which has nothing to do 
with it. He added also the element drawn from the personage of 
Elisabeth, whom he created wholly, and who plays such an important 
part in his musical drama. 

"The story of the knight Tannhauser, of his entering the Venusberg 
and coming out of it, does not appear in Germany before the middle 
of the fifteenth century. Hermann von Sachsenheim wrote in 1453 a 
long poem on the enchanted mountain where Venus kept her court 
with her husband, Tannhauser. About the same time there appeared 
a small poem in which Tannhauser expresses his regret for having entered 
the Venusberg, and tells how the Pope Urban IV. refused to pardon 
him. Another little poem, of the middle of the fifteenth century, in 
the form of a dialogue, represents Tannhauser declaring to Venus that, 
notwithstanding her reproaches, he counts on obtaining pardon of 
Jesus and his mother. But it was only in the sixteenth century that 

*See Heme's "Der Tannhauser, eine Legende" (1836). — Ed. 



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61 



322 



MISS M. F. FISK 

THE RED GLOVE SHOP 
BOYLSTON STREET 

Opposite Arlington Street 



Announces her opening of Ladies', Gentlemen's, 

and Children's Gloves 

Ladies' Neckwear, Veiling, and Belt. 



Mr. ALVAH GLOVER SALMON 

Pianist 

Season 1908-1909 

Lecture-recitals (Russian music), the re- 
sult of personal investigation and study in 
Moscow and St. Petersburg. Circulars 
containing criticism from American, Eng- 
lish, French, German, Russian, and Austra- 
lian journals forwarded upon request. 

Mr. Salmon will be available for recitals, 
after October i, for cities in New England, 
Middle West, and Upper Southern States. 
For terms, dates, etc., address 

G. W. THOMPSON & GO. 

A and B Park Street, Boston, Mass. 

Publishers of Mr. Salmon's original compositions 
and revised editions of pianoforte studies and 
Slavonic works (in preparation). 



Foreign Books 
Foreign Periodicals 

TauGhnitz's British Authors 



SCHOENHOF BOOK CO. 

128 Tremont St., 2d door north of Winter Street 
over Wood's Jewelry Store. (Tel., Oxford 1099-3. 



Art Needlework 

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EMMA L. SYLVESTER 

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Elevator 



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Exclusive agency for the WADE CORSET 



367 BOYLSTON STREET 

TelepHone, 3142-5 BacR Bay 

62 



appeared the song which gave to the legend itS present form, and which 
was so much admired by Heine. It ends with censure of the Pope 
for his refusal to pardon Tannhauser. 'No Pope, no Cardinal, ought 
to condemn a sinner, be the sin never so great. God can always for- 
give.' 

"The curious emblem of the dry stick which becomes green and bears 
flowers again is a mere spontaneous invention of the popular imagina- 
tion. In the legend, as it was transformed, we see the unforgiving 
Pope telling Tannhauser that he would be pardoned only when his 
stick became green. Already, in Homer, we see Achilles swearing 
by the wand which he carries in his hand, and 'which will bear no 
more leaves or branches, since the sword has taken from it its foliage 
and its bark.' M. Gaston Paris will have it that in the legend the name 
of Venus was substituted for that of the Sibyl, and that the Venus- 
berg was originally a mountain, not of the Thuringer Wald, but of the 
Apennines in Italy. 

'"The Italian legend travelled to Germany, probably through Switzer- 
land. The name of the Sibyl was replaced by the name of Venus, 
and the Venusberg long became for the Germans an object of terror 
and of desire; only they did not know where to place' it. ... It was 
in Italy that the legend must have taken its religious form, localizing 
itself in the mount of the Sibyl. . . . The journey to Rome seems to 
indicate this. It is not far from the Sibylline hills to Rome, and it 
is said that in fine weather the dome of St. Peter's is visible from their 
summit. . . . The legend of Tannhauser as it appears in Germany in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is not of Germanic orgin ; it goes 
back to the legend of the "Monte della Sibilla." ' 

"It must be added that this religious form of the Tannhauser is only 
an adaptation to Christian ideas of a legend anterior to Christianity 
and probably of Celtic origin, brought to Italy from the distant shores 
of the Britannic sea." 




BENJAMIN H.LUDWIG 

FURRIER 

420 BOYLSTON STREET BOSTON, MASS. 

Telephone, Back Bay 3149=5 

HIGH GRADE FURS that will be fashion- 
able this season and many others may be inspected 
at my establishment. 

REPAIRING REDYEING 
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Old Fur garments altered to the newest 
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Every garment sold by me must carry a 
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son everything is of the best quality procurable. 
63 



LEWANDOS 
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or telephone 

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LEWANDOS 

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1274 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge 

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64 



Second Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER J 6, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 17, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME, 



Rimsky- Korsakoff .... Symphonic Suite, " Scheherazade ' 
(In memory of Rimsky-Korsakoff, died June 21, 1908.) 



Sauer . . . . . . . . Concerto for Pianoforte, No. 2 



Weber Overture, " Oberon " 



SOLOIST, 
Mr. EMIL SAUER. 



65 



Mr. LOUIS BACHNER 

Will give a 

PIANO RECITAL 

on 

MONDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 23, AT 3 O'CLOCK 
ON WEDNESDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER U 

RICHARD CZERWONKY 

Will give a 

VIOLIN RECITAL 

Mr. and Mrs. DAVID MANNES 

Announce a series of 

THREE SONATA RECITALS 

On Three Friday Evenings — December 4, January 29, February J 9 

Further particulars at the hall 

Mr. HEINRICH MEYN, Baritone 

Assisted by Mr, COENRAAD V, BOS, the World's Greatest Accompanist 

Will give a 

SONG RECITAL 

on 

THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 10 

CAROLYN LOUISE WILLARD 

Will give a 

PIANOFORTE RECITAL 

on 

WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER J8, at 3 O'CLOCK 

~ Mr. NATHAN FRYER 

Announces his 

FIRST RECITAL IN BOSTON 

to take place 

EARLY IN DECEMBER 

Mr. FELIX FOX 

Announces his 

Third Season of CHAMBER RECITALS 

DATES TO BE GIVEN LATER 

66 



The 

Fox-Buonamici School 

of 

Pianoforte Playing 

Offers a complete course of instruction, extending from the elemen- 
tary to the most advanced grades. The work of the school is carried 
on by a corps of able and experienced teachers under the personal 
supervision of the directors. 



Faculty 

Mr. FELIX FOX In,. 

> Directors 
Mr. CARLO BUONAMICI ) 

Mr. Georgfe F. Hamer Miss Alice McDowell 

Miss Mary Pratt Mrs. Grace Marshall Libkc 

Miss M. Rose Rochette ' Miss Laura M. Webster 

Mr. Enrico Leboffe 



The school aims primarily at pianoforte teaching, but all sides of 
the art are thoroughly presented, there being classes for the study of 
harmony, sight-playing, solfeggio, etc. 

Pupils may enter at any time. 



STEINERT HALL ANNEX 
BOSTON 

67 



The Adamowski Trio 

Will give two concerts in 

STEINERT HALL 

The date of the first concert to be announced 



The second concert will take place on 

FEBRUARY 22, 1909 

Chopin s Birthday 

PROGRAMME 

The TRIO \ 

The POLONAISE (for Piano and 'Cello) SBy Chopin 

A GROUP OF PIANO SOLOS . . / 

All the proceeds of the concert will be given to the fund for 

the monument to be erected to Chopin 

in Warsaw, Poland 

68 . . - 



FELIX FOX 
CARLO BUONAMICI 

Have resumed Teaching 

39-43 STEINERT HALL 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra Programme 

For the twenty-four Boston Concerts, with Historical and 
Descriptive Notes by Philip Hale. Bound copies of the 
Programme for the entire season can be had at $2.00 
by applying before the last concert. Address all com- 
munications to 

F. R. COHEE, 

Symphony Hall, Boston. 



Mme. EDITH ROWENA NOYES 

1 8th Season 
PIANOFORTE, THEORY, INTERPRETATION 

New Studio • • • • • 50 1 Huntington Chambers 

69 



SANDERS THEATRE, Cambridge 



Boston 
SymphonyOrchestra 

MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 
Twenty=eighth Season, Nineteen Hundred Eight and Nine 



EIGHT CONCERTS, THURSDAY EVENINGS AT 8 

October 22, November 19, December 10, January 21, 

February 11, March 4, April i and 29 



SOLO ARTISTS 

Miss LILLA ORMOND, Contralto 

LAURA HAWKINS, Pianist 

OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH, Pianist 

NINA FLETCHER, Violinist 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT 

SEASON TICKETS for the eight concerts, $7. 

The sale will be conducted according to the plan in use last season. 

Subscribers of last season may secure the same seats by filling out 
and mailing the enclosed blank, with check payable to George H. Kent, on 
or before Wednesday, October 14, igo8. On receipt of check, tickets will 
be mailed. 

The unclaimed seats will be offered for sale in the usual manner at Kent's 
University Bookstore, Harvard Square, Cambridge, on Saturday morning, 
October 17, 1908, at eight o'clock. A limited number of seats have been 
reserved for college officers and invited guests. 

70 



THE 

KNEISEL QUARTET 

FRANZ KNEISEL, Flm Viilht LOUIS SVECENSKI, KitU 

JULIUS ROENTGEN, s,«ndfi^n WILLEM WILLEKE, Vuh/iulb 

TWENTY-FOURTH SEASON, I90a-I909 

FENWAY COURT 



FIVE CONCERTS 

TUESDAY EVENINGS 



at 8. 1 5 o'clock 




November lo , 


. 1908 


December 8 ... 


1908 


January 5 ... 


. 1909 


February 16 . 


1909 


March 16 . . . 


. 1909 



ASSISTING ARTISTS: 

Miss KATHARINE QOODSON Mr. OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH 

Mr. ERNEST CONSOLO Mr. COURTLANDT PALMER 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE 

Subscribers to the concerts, season of 1907-08, have the priv- 
ilege of renewing subscriptions by applying to the Boston Music 
Co., 26—28 West Street, on or before October 17th. General 
subscriptions may be secured on and after October 19th. ^Single 
tickets on sale at the BOSTON MUSIC CO. before each 
concert. ^Tickets will be forwarded on receipt of cheque or 
money order payable to the Kneisel Quartet. ^All communi- 
cations regarding the Boston Concerts should be addressed to the 
BOSTON MUSIC CO. 



SUBSCRIPTION SEASON TICKETS, FLOOR OR BALCONY, $6.25 
TICKETS FOR SINGLE CONCERTS, $1.50 AND $1.00 



71 



Mme. Antoinette Szumowska 

Will accept a limited 
number of pupils 

163 WALNUT STREET, BROOKLINE 



J. D. BUCKINGHAM 

TEACHES THE METHOD A/ND TECH/^ICS OP 

ISIDOR PHILIPP 

AT THE PERSONAL RCQUEST OF THAT 
FAMOUS MASTER 




« I 



WILHELM HEINRICH 

TEACHER OF 
SINGING 



149 A Tremont Street Room 63 

72 



Alfred Peals Wall Paper 



EFFECTIVE 
INTERIOR 
DECORATION 



The modern idea of furnishing a 
room — a rug, not too much furniture, beau- 
tiful walls. That is all. The effect is 
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With the accumulation of wealth 
taste or style in the decorations of the home has advanced. This 
improved taste recognizes more and more that the keynote of 
interior decoration is the walls — that there is nothing more 
important. 

In the whole history of interior decoration, nothing has been 
shown to equal the papers we are showing this fall. Our immense 
stock is drawn from every corner of the globe. The most discrimi- 
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as moderate as can be found anywhere for the same grade of goods. 

BOSTON'S EXCLUSIVE WALL PAPER SHOP 

116=120 SUnnER STREET 



HOTEL RENNERT 

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Within one square of the shopping dis- 
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MODERN IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 

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Rooms, $1.50 per day and upwards Fire-proof building 



73 



Symphony Hall - - - Boston 



FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 

THIRTEENTH, NINETEEN 

HUNDRED ^WEIGHT, at EIGHT 

O'CLOCK 

THE NIGHT BEFORE THE FOOTBALL GAME 
AT CAMBRIDGE 



SECOND JOINT CONCERT 

by the Glee, Mandolin^ 
and Banjo Clubs of 

HARVARD 

and DARTMOUTH 

UNIVERSITIES 



Orders by mail, accompanied, by cheque made payable to 
F. R. COMEE and addressed to Symphony Hall, Boston, 
will be filled in the order of their reception, and seats 
will be assigned as near the desired location as possible. 

TICKETS, ^1.50 and $1.00 
74 




MUSICAL INSTRUCTION. 



VOCAL INSTRUCTION and 

SOPRANO SOLOIST 

Miss HARRIET S. WHITTER, *"""»• ^^^ h""""?*"" *«»««. 

Exponent of the method of the late Charles R. Adam*. 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Mondays. 



^) 



Mr. CHARLES B. STEVENS, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

STUDIOS, 
Suite 14, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 

Telephone, 133 1 Oxford. 

Miss Harrietts C. Wescott, 

Accompanist and Assistant Teacher. 



Miss LAURA HAWKINS, 



PiA/NIST. 

No. 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Miss CAROLINE M. SOUTHARD, 

TEACHER OF THE PIANOFORTE. 



Classes in Sight Reading 

(EIGHT HANDS). 

Advanced pupils follow the Symphony programmes 
as far as practicable. 

165 Huntington Avenue - Boston 



Miss GERTRUDE EDMANDS, 



Concert and Oratorio. 

Vocal Instruction. 

The Copley, 18 HuntinEton Areaut. 



76 



Mrs. HALL MCALLISTER, 



TEACHER of SINGING. 

407 Pierce Building, 
COPLEY SQUARE. 

I^usical Manaqement. 



Miss ELEANOR BRIGHAM, 



Pianist and TeacKer. 

Trinity^ Court. 



Training to competent teachers prin- 
cipal aim. Ensemble lessons. 

OFFICE 



Mr. BERNHARD LISTEHANN'S 

_- e L I %/•!••* 703 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE. 

IVIaStBr OChOOl for violinists* Hours: Monday and Thursday, from i p.m. 

Wednesdays and Saturdays, 9 to i and 2 to 4. 



mss CLARA E. HUNGER, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Century Building, 
177 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 



Miss JOSEPHINE COLLIER, 



PIANIST and TEACHER. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Walter E. Loud — Violin. 
Pupil of Ysaye. 



32 Batavia Street. 



Miss Bertha Wesselhoeft Swift, 



Soprano Soloist, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
Studio, TRINITY COURT, Boston. 

Miss Swift is ready to give her children's programs 
before clubs, church societies, and in private houses 
Wheeler & Pitts, Mauiagers, Huntington Chamberi. 



mss LUCY CLARK ALLEN, 



Pianoforte Lessons. 

Accompaniments. 

LANG STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Mr.SAMDELJ.MacWATTERS, 

Professor of Voice Building in 
Boston University. 



VOICE PLACING, 

Development of Tone and 
Resonance. 

72 MOUNT VERNON STREET. 



76 



Mrs. CAROLYN KING HUNT, 



PIANISTEaad TEACHER. 

Hemenway Chambers, 
BOSTON. 



Mrs, LUCIA GALE BARBER. 



Physical and Personal Culture, 

Rhythm, Poise, Breathing, 
Concentration, Relaxation, 

Normal Course. 

The Ludlow, Copley Sq., Boston. 



ARL 



TENOR- BARITONE. 

Pupil of Professor Jachraan-Wagner, Berlin, and 
Professor Galliera, Milan, Italy. 

Training and Finishing of Voice. 

School for Grand Opera and Oratorio. 

STE INERT HALL, ROOM 27. 

Open Monday, October 12. Send for new Prospectus 



BERTHA GUSHING CHILD. 



38 BABCOCK ST., BROOKLINE. 

TEACHING AT 

6 NEWBURY ST., BOSTON. 



MARY B. SAWYER 



5 
Leschetizky Method. 



PIANO AND HARMONY. 

For four years Pupil and Authorized Assistant of 

Frau VARETTE STEPANOFF, 

BERLIN, GERMANY. 

Studio, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 



Miss RENA I, BISBEE, 



TEACHER OF PIANO, 

6 NEWBURY STREET. 



LDCY FRANCES GERRISH, 



PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION. 

GERRISH STUDIO, 
140 Boylston Street . . . Boston. 



EDITH LYNWOOD WINN 



LECTURE-RECITALS, 



This season, Russian, Hungarian, 17th 
Normal and Teachers' Courses for ^^d i8th Century Music. 

Violin. 



Children's classes at special rates 



TRINITY COURT 



BOSTON. 



The Guckenberger School of 
;ic. 



B. GUCKENBERGER, Director. 



Piano, Voice, Violin (and all orchestral 
instruments), Theory, Musical Analysis, 
Analytical Harmony, Composition, Score 
Reading, Chorus and Orchestral Con- 
ducting. . 
30 Huntington Avenue Boston 



77 



HENRY T. WADE, 



Teacher of 

Pianoforte, Church Organ* 

Theory oF Music. 

Steinert Hall, Boston. 
77 Newtonville Avenue, Newton. 



RICHARD PLATT, 



PIANIST. 



23 Steinert Hall . . Boston. 

Mason & Hamlin Piano. 



CHARLES S. JOHNSON, 



PIANO, ORGAN, 
HARMONY. 



LANG STUDIO, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Iss HARRIET A. SHAW, 



HARPIST. 

186 COMMONWEALTH AVENUE 

Telephone. 



SAM L. STHDLEY, 



Pierce Building, Copley Square, Room 313. 

INSTRUCTION IN THE 
ART OF SINGING. 

OPERA, ORATORIO, AND SONG. 



Miss JESSIE DAVIS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
289 Newbury Street, Boston. 



Miss Rose Stewart, 

Vocal Instruction. 

246 Huntington Avenue. 



Miss EDITH E. TORREY, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 
164 Huntington Avenue, Boston, 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Wellesley College. 



Mrs. E. C. WALDO, 

Teacher of Music. 

Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



HELEN ALLEN HUNT. 

CONTRALTO SOLOIST. 

Teacher of Singing. 
No. 514 Pierce Building Boston. 



BOSTON MUSICAL BUREAU. 

Established 1899. 

Supplies Schools, Colleges, and Conservatories 
with Teachers of Music, etc.; also Churches with 
Organists, Directors, and Singers. 

Address HENRY C. LAHEE, 

'Phone, 475-1 Oxford. 218 Tremont St., Boston_ 



Mrs. S. B. FIELD, 

Teacher of the Piano and Accompanist. 
HOTEL NOTTINGHAM. 

Mrs. Field makes a specialty of Coaching; in both 
vocal and instrumental music. 

Artists engaged, programmes arranged, and all 
■-esponsibility assumed for private musicales. 



Miss MARIE L EVERETT, 

Teaclier of Singing. 

Pupil of MADAME MARCHESI, 

Paris. 
THE COPLEY. BOSTON. 



78 



Miss MARY D. CHANDLER, \ Miss PAULA MUELLER. 



Concert Pianist and Teacher. 

Pupil of Philipp, Paris. 

I49A TREMONT ST., Monday and Thursday. 

Residence, 5 Ashland Street, Dorchester. 

Telephone, 1S2S-3 Dorchester. • 



Teacher of Piano 
and German Language. 

STUDIOS, 
28 Central Avenue, Room .30, Steinert Hall, 

MEDFORD. BOSTON. 

RECITALS. 



LISTER, 



MR. ROBT. N. 
MRS. ROBT. N. 

Teacher of Singing, 

Soprano Soloist. 

Symphony Chambers, opposite Symphony Hall, 

BOSTON. 



CHARLOTTE WHITE, 

Violoncellist of the Carolyn Belcher String Quartet 

TEACHER AND SOLOIST. 

608 Huntington Chambers, Boston, Mass. 



Mrs.V.PERNAUX=SCHUMANN, 

TEACHER OF FRENCH and GERMAN. 
French and German Diction a Specialty. 

32 BATAVIA STREET, Suite 8, BOSTON. 



Mr. EMIL MAHR. 

JOACHIM SCHOOL. 

Address, 69 Crawford St., Roxbury, Mass. 



THOMAS L. CUSHIVIAN, 

VOCAL TEACHER. 
218 TREMONT STREET. 



L. B. 

MERRILL 



BASS SOLOIST 

AND 

TEACHER. 

218 Tremont Street. 



Mrae. de BERQ-LOFGREN, 
TEACHER OF SINGING. 

The "GARCIA" Method. 
Studio, 12 Westland Avenue. BOSTON, MASS. 



Mrs. H. CARLETON SLACK, 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Lyric Soprano. Concerts and Recitals. 

Lessons at residence, 128 Hemenway Street. 



Miss PEARL BRICE, 

CONCERT VIOLINIST, TEACHER. 
6 Newbury Street. 



Mrs.LOUISELATHROP MELLOWS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 

STUDIO, Jefferson Hall, 
Trinity Court, Dartmouth Street, Boston. 



Miss M. B. HARTWELL, 

PIANO AND HARMONY. 
Studio, 9 St. James Avenue. 

Miss Hartwell has but recently returned from 

Vienna, where she studied the Leschetizky 

Method for three years and a half. 



VIOLET IRENE WELLINGTON 



Humorous and Dramatic Reader. 

Also 
Teacher of Voice, Elocution, Physical Culture. 

59 "Westland Avenue. 

Telephone, 34.39-1 Back Bay. 



TippEn '^^^* 

PA II I I ^^' ^^^^^ 

STUDIOS 

Assistant, GRACE R. HORNE 

312 PIERCE BUILDING 
COPLEY SQUARE 



VOICE 



LUISE LEIMER, 

Contralto Soloist and Teacher of Singing. 

Studio, 23 Crawford Street 

and Steinert Building. 

Clarence B. Shirley, 
Tenor Soloist and Teacher. 

CONCERT AND ORATORIO. 

Studio, Huntington Chambers, Bosteo. 



79 



Allen H. Daugherty, 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION, 
HARMONY. 

Tel., Oxford 1629-1. 318 Tremont Street. 



Miss MARY A.STOWELL. 

Teacher of Piano and Harmony. 
The ILKLEY, 

Huntington Avenue and Cumberland Street. 
(Cumberland Street entrance.) 



Miss KATHERINE LINCOLN, 

Soprano Soloist. 
Teacher of Singing. 

514 Pierce Building, Copley Square, Boston. 



BARITONE. 



George W. Mull, 

Teacher of Singing. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue,Boston. 



JOHN GROGAN MANNING, 

CONCERT PIANIST and TEACHER. 

Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday 
afternoons 

Symphony Chambers, 246 Huntington Ave. 


Mr. WILLIS W. GGLDTHWAIT, 

Teacher of Piano. 

Thorough instruction in Harmony, class or private. 

7 Park Square, Boston. 


JOHN BEACH, 

PIANIST. 
10 Charles Street. 


Miss MARGARET GORHAM, 

PIANIST. 

Trinity Court, Boston. 


Mrs. HIRAM HALL, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
118 Charles Street. 


Mrs. Alice Wentworth MacGregor, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

Residence Studio, 780 Beacon Street. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Abbot Academy. 


Mrs. NELLIE EVANS PACKARD. 

Studio, 218 Tremont Street (Room 308), Boston. 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Mrs. Packard is commended by Walker, Randegger 
(London), Marches!, Bouhy, Trabadelo (Paris), 
Leoni (Milan), Vannuccini (Florence), Cotogni, 
Franceschetti (Rome). 


Mr. P. nUMARA 

Will furnish a Small Orchestra of mem- 
bers of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
for Musicales, Dinners, Receptions, etc. 

Address, Symphony Hall. 



ARTHUR THAYER, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
200 Huntington Avenue 



Mr. CHARLES DUMAS, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 
Former Assistant at Harvard. 

French (all grades), Lectures, Diction, 

Elocution, etc. 
286 Columbus Ave., 0pp. Back Bay Station. 



CLAUDE HACKELTON, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, Room 515, Boston 



EVEREH E. TfiUETTE, 

CONCERT ORGANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, BOSTON. 



EDWIN N. C. BARNES, 

Basso Cantate and 
Teacher of Singing. 

Symphony Chambers . . . Boston. 

Opposite Symphony Hall. 



Concert. Oratorio 

Lafayette bUUllDnlli soloist. 
TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

Thorough preparation for Concert and Church. 

Studio . . Steinert Hal!. 

'Photle, Oxford 1330. Mondays and Thursdays. 



Willy Hess 

Concert-master of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
First Violin of the Hess-Schroeder Quartet, 
and a virtuoso of international re- 
nown, writes as follows of the 

PIANOS 



MASON & HAMLIN CO.: 

Dear Sirs, — I write to offer yoo my sincere congratu- 
lations on the manufacture of your very beautiful pianos, — 
they are to me matchless. As you are aware, I have heard 
the Mason & Hamlin piano at many concerts given by my 
quartet, and with orchestra, and it has been my constant 
companion at my home. It has never failed to meet all the 
demands, however exacting, made upon it, and I believe 
that the Mason & Hamlin pianos excel all others in the 
essential qualities which go to make up an artistic piano of 
the very first quality. 

(Signed) PROFESSOR WILLY HESS. 



MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

Opp. Institute of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 




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STEINWAY & SONS 

NEW YORK 
LONDON HAMBURG 



REPRESENTEI> BY 

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162 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 




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Second, The Full Iron Frame and Over-strung Scale, 1859 

Third, The Mason & Hamlin Tension Resonator, 1900, — 

the most important of the three, as it pertains to tone 

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in a piano is dependent upon the crown, or arch, 
one of its sounding-board. Loss of tone-quality is 



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caused by the flattening of the sounding-board through the action of the 
atmosphere and the great downward pressure of the strings. 

TKc Mason & liamlin Tension Resonabor 

Permanently preserves the crown, or arch, of the sounding-board, and gives to 
the Mason & Hamlin piano a superior quality of tone and a tone which is inde- 
structible. 

A Technical Description in "The Scientific American" of October 11, 
1902, contains the following: 

■ " One imperfection in the modern pianoforte, found even in the instruments 
made by standard makers, has been the loss in tone quality, due to the inability 
of the sounding board to retain its tension. The problem seems at last to have 
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in the pianos of Mason & Hamlin of Boston, U.S.A." 

A copy of the Scientific American article will be mailed upon application 



MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

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SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON 6- MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

T,„. , „„^^ j Ticket Office, 1492 ) „ , _, 

;^^^«P^°"^H Administration Offices, 3200 } BackBay 

TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

Prngramm? nf ttjp 

Second 
Rehearsal and Concert 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIP- 
TIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 




FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 16 
AT 2.30 O'CLOCK 

SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 17 
AT 8.00 O'CLOCK 

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY C. A. ELLIS 

PUBLISHED BY C. A. ELLIS, MANAGER 



81 



Mme. CECILE CHAMINADE 

The World's Greatest Woman Composer 

Mme. TERESA CARRENO 

The W^orld's Greatest ^A/oman Pianist 

Mme. LILLIAN NORDICA 

The World's Greatest W^oman Singer 

USE 




Piano. 



THE JOHN CHURCH CO., 37 W^est 32d Street 
New York City 



REPRESENTED BY 

G. L SGHIRMER & CO., 38 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



82 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

PERSONNEL 



Twenty-eighth Season, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 







First Violins. 


« 


Hess, Willy Roth, O. 

Concert-master. Kuntz, I). 
Noack, S. 


Hoffmann, J. 
Fitdler. E. 


Krafft, W. 
Theodorowicz, J[. 


Mahn, F. 
Strube, G. 


Eichheim, H. 
Rissland, K. 


Bak, A. 
Ribarsch, A. 

Second Violins. 


Mullaly, J. 
Traupe, W. 


Barleben, K. 
Fiumara, P. 


Akeroyd, J. 
Currier, F. 


Fiedler, B. 
Rennert, B. 


Berger, H. 
Eichler, J. 


Tischer-Zeitz, 
Goldstein, S. 


H. Kuntz, A. 
Kurth, R. 


Marble, E. 
Goldstein, H. 

Violas. 


^ 


Ferir, E. 
Scheurer, K. 


Heindl, H. 
Hoyer, H. 


Zahn. F. Kolster, A. 
Kliige, M. Sauer, G. 

Violoncellos. 


Krauss, H. 
Gietzen, A. 


Warnke. H. 
Keller, J. 


Nagel, R. 
Kautzenbach, A. 


Barth, C. Loeffler, E. 
Nast, L. Hadley, A. 

Basses. 


Warnke, J. 
Smalley, R. 


Ke'ller, K. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Agnesy, K. 
Kunze, M. 


Seydel, T.' 
Huber, E. 


Ludwig, O. 
Schurig, R. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Maquarre, A. 
Maquarre, D. 
Brooke, A. 
Fox, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 

Sautet, A. 

English Horn. 


Grisez, G. Sadony, P. 
Mimart, P. Mueller, E. 
Vannini, A. Regestein, E. 

Bass Clarinet. Contra-Bassoon. 




Mueller, F. 


Stumpf, K. 


Helleberg, J. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. Trombones. Tuba. 


Hess, M. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Phair, J. 


Schmid, K. 
Gebhardt, W. 
Hackebarth, A. 
Schumann, C. 


Kloepfel, L. Hampe, C. Lorenz, O 
Mann, J. Mausebach, A. 
Heim, G. Kenfield, L. 
Merrill, C. 


Harp. 


Tympani. 


Percussion. 


Schuecker, H. 


Rettberg, A. 


Dworak, J. 


Senia, T. 




Kandler, F. 


Ludwig, C. 

Librarian. 
Sauerquell, J. 


Burkhardt, H. 



83 






It 



OTfjitiktritTg 




^iuno 



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as representing the highest possible value produced 
in the piano industry. 

It has been associated with all that is highest and best 
in piano making since 1823. 

Its name is the hall mark of piano worth and is a 
guarantee to the purchaser that in the instrument 
bearing it, is incorporated the highest artistic value 
possible. 

CHICK ERING & SONS 



PIANOFORTE' MJ-KERS 

Established 1823 

791 TREMONT STREET 

Cor. NORTHAMPTON ST. 

Near Mass. Ave. 

BOSTON 



84 



TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, NINETEEN HUNDRED EIGHT AND NINE 



Second Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER i6, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER J 7, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 

Rimsky- Korsakoff . . Symphonic Suite, "Scheherazade" (after "The 

Thousand Nights and a Night"), Op. 35 
(In memory of the composer, who died June 21, J908.) 
I. The Sea and Sindbad's Ship. 
II. The Story of the Kalandar-Prince. 

III. The Young Prince and the Young Princess. 

IV. Festival at Bagdad. The Sea. The Ship goes to Pieces against 

a Rock surmounted by a Bronze Warrior. Conclusion. 



Sauer . . Concerto No. i, E minor, for Pianoforte and Orchestra 

First time in America 
I. Allegro patetico. 
II. Scherzo: molto vivace. 

III. Cavatina : Larghetto amoroso. 

IV. Rondo : Tempo giusto. 

Weber Overture to the Opera "Oberon" 



SOLOIST, 
Mr. EMIL SAUER. 

The pianoforte is a Knabe. 
There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphonic suite. 



The doors of the hall will be closed during the performance of 
each number on the programme. Those who wish to leave before 
the end of the concert are requested to do so in an interval 6«- 
tween the numbers. 

City of Boston. Revised ReiSulation of August 5. 1898.— Chapter 3. relating to the 
coverinii of the head in places of public amusement. 

Every licensee shall not, in his place of amusement, allow any person to wear upon the head a covering 
which obstructs the view of the exhibition or performance in such place of any person seated in any seat thereia 
provided for spectators, it being understood that a low !\ead covering without projection, which does not 
obstruct such view, may be worn. Attest : J. M. GALVIN, City Clerk. 

85 



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That aside from their r 



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ART ROOMS, AN EXCELLENT ASSORTMENT OF 
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In the principal hutoric art period*, such as 
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Spedat Designs and Estimates Furnished upon Application. 

WM. KNABE & CO. 

BALTIMORE. NEW YORK WASHINGTON 



86 



"Scheherazade," Symphonic vSuite after "The Thousand Nights 
AND A Night," Op. 35. 

Nicolas Andrejevitch Rimsky-Korsakoff 

(Born at Tikhvin, in the government of Novgorod, March 18,* 1844; died June 
21, 1908, at St. Petersburg.) 

The first performance of the suite in Boston was at a concert of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra led by Mr. Paur on April 17, 1897. 

The suite, dedicated to Vladimir Stassoff, is scored for one piccolo, 
two flutes, two oboes (one interchangeable with English horn), two 
clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
one bass tuba, kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, tambourine, cym- 
bals, triangle, gong, harp, and strings. 

The following programme is printed in Russian and French on a 
fly-leaf of the score : — 

"The Sultan Schahriar,t persuaded of the falseness and the faith- 
lessness of women, has sworn to put to death each one of his wives 
after the first night. But the Sultana Scheherazade J saved her life 
by interesting him in tales which she told him during one thousand 
and one nights. Pricked by curiosity, the Sultan put off his wife's 
execution from day to day, and at last gave up entirely his bloody 
plan. 

* This date is given in the catalogue of Belaieff, the late Russian publisher. One or two music lexicons give 
May 22. 

t Shahryar (Persian), "City-friend," was according to the opening tale " the King of the Kings of the Banu 
Sasan in the islands of India and China, a lord of armies and guards and servants and dependents, in tide 
of yore and in times long gone before." 

t Shahrizad (Persian), "City-freer," was in the older version Scheherazade, and both names are thought 
to be derived from Shirzad, "Lion-born." She was the elder daughter of the Chief Wazir of King Shahryar 
and sh« had "perused the books, annals and legends of preceding Kings, and the stories, examples and in- 
stances of by-gone men and things; indeed, it was said that she had collected a thousand books of histories, 
relating to antique races and departed rulers. She had perused the works of the poets and knew them by 
heart; she had studied philosophy and the sciences, arts and accomplishments; and she was pleasant and 
polite, wise and witty, well read and well bred." Tired of the slaughter of women, she purposed to put an 
end to the destruction. 



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PAGODA OF FLOWERS, a Burmese Story in Song, by 

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EIGHT NURSERY RHYMES for Quartette of Solo Voices, 

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"Many marvels were told Schahriar by the Sultana Scheherazade. 
For her stories the Sultana borrowed from poets their verses, from 
folk-songs their words ; and she strung together tales and adventures. 

"I The Sea and Sindbad's Ship. 

"II. The Story of the Kalandar-Prince. 

"III. The Young Prince and the Young Princess. 

"IV. Festival at Bagdad. The Sea. The Ship goes to Pieces on 
a Rock surmounted by a Bronze * Warrior. Conclusion." 

This programme is deliberately vague. To which one of Sindbad's 
voyages is reference made? The story of which Kalandar, for there 
were three that knocked on that fateful night at the gate of the house 
of the three ladies of Bagdad? "The young Prince and the young 
Princess," — but there are so many in the "Thousand Nights and a 
Night." "The ship goes to pieces on a rock surmounted by a brass 
warrior." Here is a distinct reference to the third Kalandar's tale, 
the marvellous adventure of Prince Ajib, son of Khazib; for the mag- 
netic mountain which shipwrecked Sindbad on his voyage was not sur- 
mounted by "a dome of yellow laton from Andalusia, vaulted upon 
ten columns; and on its crown is a horseman who rideth a horse of 
brass and holdeth in hand a lance of laton; and there hangeth on his 
bosom a tablet of lead graven with names and talismans." The com- 
poser did not attempt to interline any specific text with music: he 
endeavored to put the mood of the many tales into music, so that 
W. E. Henley's rhapsody might be the true preface : — 

"They do not go questing for accidents: their hour comes, and the 
finger of God urges them forth, and thrusts them on in the way of 
destiny. The air is horrible with the gross and passionate figments 
of Islamite mythology. Afrits watch over them or molest them ; they 

* "Bronze" according to Rimsky-Korsakoff; but the word should be brass, or yellow copper. 



RIDOLF FRIML 

New Pianoforte Compositions 



OP. 35. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 4. 
No. 5. 
No. 6. 



SUITE MIGNONNE 

Solitude 

Morning Song . 
Valse romantique 
A little Story 
Danse Bohemienne 
Contemplation 



Complete. (Edition Schmidt No. 129) 
OP. 36. THREE COMPOSITIONS. 

No. 1. At Dawn 

No. 2. Twilight 

No. 3. Melodie sentimentale 



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BOSTON 



89 



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All music performed at these concerts 
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90 



are made captive of malignant Ghouls; the Jinns take bodily form 
and woo them to their embraces. The sea-horse ramps at them from 
the ocean floor; the great roc darkens earth about them with the 
shadow of his wings; wise and goodly apes come forth and minister 
unto them; enchanted camels bear them over evil deserts with the 
swiftness of the wind, or the magic horse outspreads his sail-broad 
vannes, and soars with them ; or they are borne aloft by some ser\^ant 
of the Spell till the earth is as a bowl beneath them, and they hear the 
angels quiring at the foot of the Throne. So they fare to strange and 
dismal places; through cities of brass whose millions have perished 
by divine decree; cities guilty of the cult of the Fire and the Light 
wherein all life has been stricken to stone ; or on to the magnetic moun- 
tain by whose horrible attraction the bolts are drawn from the ship, 
and they alone survive the inevitable wreck. And the end comes. 
Comes the Castle of Burnished Copper, and its gates fly open before 
them; the forty damsels, each one fairer than the rest, troop out at 
their approach; they are bathed in odors, clad in glittering apparel, 
fed with enchanted meats, plunged fathoms deep in the delights of 
the flesh. There is contrived for them a private paradise of luxury 
and splendor, a practical Infinite of gold and silver stuffs and jewels 
and all things gorgeous and rare and costly ; and therein do they abide 
for evermore. You would say of their poets that they contract im- 
mensity to the limits of desire; they exhaust the inexhaustible in their 
enormous effort; they stoop the universe to the slavery of a talisman, 
and bind the visible and invisible worlds within the compass of a ring." 

A characteristic theme, the typical theme of Scheherazade, keeps 
appearing in the four movements. This theme, that of the Narrator, is 
a florid melodic phrase in triplets, and it ends generally in a free cadenza. 



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91 



It is played, for the most part, by a solo violin and sometimes by a 
wood-wind instrument. "The presence in the minor cadence of the 
characteristic seventh, G, and the major sixth, F-sharp, — after the man- 
ner of the Phrygian mode of the Greeks or the Doric church tone, — 
might illustrate, the familiar beginning of all folk-tales, 'Once upon a 
time.'" 

I. The Sea and Sindbad's* Ship. 
Largo e maestoso, E minor, 2-2. The chief theme of this movement, 
announced frequently and in many transformations, has been called by 
some the Sea motive, by others the Sindbad motive. It is proclaimed 
immediately and heavily in fortissimo unison and octaves. Soft chords 
of wind instruments — chords not unlike the first chords of Mendelssohn's 
"Midsummer Night's Dream" overture in character — lead to the 
Scheherazade motive. Lento, 4-4, played by solo violin against chords 

* "The 'Arabian Odyssey' may, like its Greek brother, descend from a noble family, the 'Shipwrecked 
Mariner,' a Coptic^ travel-tale of the twelfth dynasty (b.c. 3500), preserved on a papyrus at St. Petersburg. 
In its actual condition 'Sindbad' is a fanciful compilation, like De Foe's 'Captain Singleton,' borrowed from 
travellers' tales of an immense variety and extracts from Al-Idrisi, Al-Kazwini, and Ibn al-Wardi. Here we find 
the Polyphemus, the Pygmies, and the Cranes of Homer and Herodotus; the escape of Aristomenes; the 
Plinian monsters, well known in Persia; the magnetic mountains of Saint Brennan (Brandanus); the aero- 
nautics of 'Duke Ernest of Bavaria' and sundry cuttings from Moslem writers, dating between our ninth and 
foitfteenth centuries. The 'Shaykh of the Seaboard' appears in the Persian romance of Kamarupa, trans- 
lated by Francklin, all the particulars absolutely corresponding. The 'Odyssey' is valuable because it shows 
how far eastward the mediaeval Arab had extended; already, in The Ignorance he had reached China and 
had formed a centre of trade at Canton. But the higher merit of the cento is to produce one of the most 
charming books of travel ever written, like 'Robinson Crusoe,' the delight of children and the admiration of 
all ages" (Sir Richard F. Burton). See also the curious book, "Remarks on the 'Arabian Nights' Enter- 
tainments, in which the origin of Sinbad's Voyages and other Oriental Fictions is particularly considered," by 
Richard Hole (London, 1797). 



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on the harp. Then follows the main body of the movement, Allegro 
non troppo, E major, 6-4, whichl^begins^withja combination of the 
chief theme, the Sea motive, with a rising and falling arpeggio figure, 
the Wave motive. There is a crescendo, and a modulation leads to 
C major. Wood-wind instruments and 'cellos pizz. introduce a motive 
that is called the Ship, at first in solo flute, then in the oboe, lastly in 
the clarinet. A reminiscence of the Sea motive is heard from the horn 
between the phrases, and a solo 'cello continues the Wavk motive, 
which in one form or another persists almost throughout the whole 
movement. The Scheherazade motive soon enters (solo violin). 
There is a long period that at last re-establishes the chief tonality, E 
major, and the Sea motive is sounded by full orchestra. The develop- 
ment is easy to follow. There is an avoidance of contrapuntal use of 
thematic material. The style of Rimsky-Korsakofif in this suite is 
homophonous, not polyphonic. He prefers to produce his effects hy 
melodic, harmonic, rhythmic transformations and by most ingenious 
and highly colored orchestration. The movement ends tranquilly. 

II. The Story op the KaIvANDar*-Prince. 
The second movement opens with a recitative-like passage. Lento, 

* The Kalandar was in reality a mendicant monk. The three in the tale of "The Porter and the Three 
Ladies of Bagdad" entered with beards and heads and eyebrows shaven, and all three, by fate, were blind 
of the left eye. According to d'Herbelot the Kalandar is not generally approved by Moslems: "He labors 



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B minor, 4-4. A solo violin accompanied by the harp gives out the 
Scheherazade motive, with a different cadenza. There is a change 
to a species of scherzo movement, Andantino, 3-8. The bassoon begins 
the wondrous tale, capriccioso quasi recitando, accompanied by the 
sustained chords of four double-basses. The beginning of the second 
part of this theme occurs later and transformed. The accompaniment 
has the bagpipe drone. The oboe then takes up the melody, then the 
strings with quickened pace, and at last the wind instruments, un 
poco piu animato. The chief motive of the first movement is heard 
in the basses. A trombone sounds a fanfare, which is answered by 
the trumpet; the first fundamental theme is heard, and an Allegro 
molto follows, derived from the preceding fanfare, and leads to an 
orientally colored intermezzo. "There are curious episodes in which 
all the strings repeat the same chord over and over again in rapid 
succession, — very like the responses of a congregation in church, — as 
an accompaniment to the Scheherazade motive, now in the clarinet, 
now in the bassoon." The last interruption leads to a return of the 
Kalandar's tale, con moto, 3-8, which is developed, with a few inter- 
ruptions from the Scheherazade motive. The whole ends gayly. 

III. The Young Prince and the Young Princess. 

Some think from the similarity of the two themes typical of prince 

and princess that the composer had in mind the adventures of Kamar 

al-Zaman (Moon of the age) and the Princess Budur (Full moons). 

"They were the likest of all folk, each to other, as they were twins or 

to win free from every form and observance." The adventurous three, however, were sons of kings, who 
in despair or for safety chose the garb. D'Herbelot quotes Saadi as accusing Kalandars of being addicted 
to gluttony: "They will not leave the table so long as they can breathe, so long as there is anything on the 
table. There are two among men who should never be without anxiety: a merchant whose vessel is lost, a 
rich heir who falls into the hands of Kalandars." 




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an only brother and sister," and over the question, which was the 
more beautiful, Maymunah, the Jinniyah, and Dahnash, the Ifrit, 
disputed violently. 

This movement is in simple romanza form. It consists in the long 
but simple development of two themes of folk-song character. The 
first is sung by the violins, Andantino quasi allegretto, G major, 6-8. 
There is a constant recurrence of song-like melody between phrases in 
this movement, of quickly rising and falling scale passages, as a rule 
in the clarinet, but also in the flute or first violins. The second theme, 
Pochissimo piu mosso, B-flat major and G minor, 6-8, introduces a sec- 
tion characterized by highly original and daringly effective orchestra- 
tion. There are piquant rhythmic effects from a combination of 
triangle, tambourine, snare-drum, and cymbals, while 'cellos (later 
the bassoon) have a sentimental counter-phrase. 

IV. Festival at Bagdad. The Sea. The Ship goes to Pieces 
AGAINST A Rock surmounted by a Bronze Warrior. Conclusion. 

"A splendid and glorious life," says Burton, "was that of Bagdad 
in the days of the mighty Caliph, when the capital had towered to the 
zenith of grandeur and was already trembling and tottering to the fall. 
The centre of human civilization, which was then confined to Greece 
and Arabia, and the metropolis of an Empire exceeding in extent the 
widest limits of Rome, it was essentially a city of pleasure, a Paris of 
the IXth century. . . . The city of palaces and government offices, 
hotels and pavilions, mosques and colleges, kiosks and squares, bazars 
and markets, pleasure grounds and orchards, adorned with all the grace- 
ful charms which Saracenic architecture had borrowed from the Byzan- 
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the luxury of tranquil enjoyment. It was surrounded by far-extend- 
ing suburbs, like Rusafah on the Eastern side and villages like Baturan- 
jah, dear to the votaries of pleasure; and with the roar of a gigantic 
capital mingled the hum of prayer, the trilling of birds, the thrilling 
of harp and lute, tTie shrilling of pipes, the witching strains of the pro- 
fessional Almah, and the minstrel's lay." * 

Allegro molto, E minor, 6-8. The Finale opens with a reminiscence 
of the Sea motive of the first movement, proclaimed in unisons and 
octaves. Then follows the Schkherazadk motive (solo violin), which 
leads to the fete in Bagdad, Allegro molto e frenetico, E minor, 6-8. 
The musical portraiture, somewhat after the fashion of a tarantelle, 
is based on a version of the Sea motive, and it is soon interrupted by 
Scheherazade and her violin. In the movement Vivo, E minor, there 
is a combination of 2-8, 6-16, 3-8 times, and two or three new themes, 
besides those heard in the preceding movements, are worked up elabo- 
rately. The festival is at its height— "This is indeed life; O sad that 
'tis fleeting!" — when there seems to be a change of festivities, and the 
jollification to be on shipboard. In the midst of the wild hurrah the 
ship strikes the magnetic rock.t 

* For a less enthusiastic description of Bagdad in 1583 see John Eldred's naxrative in Hakluyt's Voyages, 
The curse of the once famous city to-day is a singular eruption that breaks out on all foreign sojourners. 

t The fable of the magnetic mountain is thought to be based on the currents, which, as o£E Eastern Africa, 
will take a ship fifty miles a day out of her coirrse. Some have thought that the tales told by Ptolemy (VII. 2) 
were perhaps figurative, — "the iron-stealers of Otaheite allegorized in the Bay of Bengal." Aboulfouaris, a 



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' Or, sailing to the Isles 

Of KJialedan, I spied one evenfall 

A black blotch in the sunset ; and it grew 

Swiftly . . . and grew. Tearing their beards, 

The sailors wept and prayed ; but the grave ship, 
; Deep laden with spiceries and pearls, went mad, 

Wrenched the long tiller out of the steersman's hand, 
i And turning broadside on, 

I As the most iron would, was haled and sucked 

■^ Nearer, and nearer yet; 

I And, all awash, with horrible lurching leaps 

Rushed at that Portent, casting a shadow now 

That swallowed sea and sky ; and then 

Anchors and nails and bolts 
i Flew screaming out of her, and with clang on clang, 

: A noise of fifty stithies, caught at the sides 

Of the Magnetic Mountain ; and she lay, 

A broken bundle of firewood, strown piecemeal 
i About the waters ; and her crew 

Passed shrieking, one by one; and I was left 

To drown. 

W. E. Henley's Poem, "Arabian Nights' Entertainments" (1893). 

The captain said to Ajib in the story: "As soon as we are under 
its lea, the ship's sides will open and every nail in plank will fly out 

Persian Sindbad, is wrecked by a magnetic mountain. Serapion, the Moor (1479), "an author of good esteem 
and reasonable antiquity, asserts that the mine of this stone [the loadstone] is in the seacoast of India, where 
when ships approach, there is no iron in them which flies not like a bird unto those moimtains; and, there- 
fore, their ships are fastened not with iron but wood, for otherwise they would be torn to pieces." Sir Thomas 
Browne comments on this passage ("Vulgar Errors," Book II., chapter ii.): "But this assertion, how positive, 
soever, is contradicted by all navigators that pass that way, which are now many, and of our own nation; and 
might surely have been controlled by Nearchus, the admiral of Alexander, who, not knowing the compass, 
was fain to coast that shore." Sir John Mandeville mentions (chapter xxvii.) these loadstone rocks: " I myself 
have seen afar ofiE in that sea as though it had been a great isle full of trees and bush, full of thorns and briars, 
great plenty. And the shipmen told us that all that was of ships that were drawn thither by the adamants 
for the iron that was in them." See also Rabelais (Book V., chapter xxxvii.); Puttock's "Peter Wilkins"; 
the "Novus Orbis" of Aloysius Cadamustus, who travelled to India in 1504; and Hole's book, already quoted. 
Burton thinks the myth may have arisen from seeing craft built, as on the East African coast, without nails. 
Egede, in his Natural History of Greenland, says that Mogens Heinson, a seaman in the reign of Frederic 
the Second, king of Denmark, pretended that his vessel was stopped in his voyage thither by some hidden 
magnetic rocks, when under full sail. The Berlin correspondent of the Pall Mall Gazette wrote not long ago 
that Norwegian newspapers were discussing the dangerously magnetic properties of a mountain in the Joedern 
province on the Norwegian coast. "There can be no question as to the existence of the 'mountain,' though 
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length. The bulk of the dime is composed of sand, with which, however, is intermingled such a large propor- 
tion of loadstone in minute fragments that the compass of a ship coming within a certain distance of the coast 
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and cleave fast to the mountain; for that Almighty Allah hath gifted 

the loadstone with a mysterious virtue and a love for iron, by reason 

whereof all which is iron travelleth towards it." And A jib continued: 

"Then, O my lady, the captain wept with exceeding weeping, and we 

all made sure of death-doom, and each and every one of us farewelled 

his friend, and charged him with his last will and testament in case 

he might be saved." The trombones roar out the Sea motive against 

the billowy Wave motive in the strings, Allegro non troppo e maestoso, 

C major, 6-4; and there is a modulation to the tonic, E major, as the 

tempest rages. The storm dies. Clarinets and trumpets scream one 

more cry on the march theme of the second movement. There is a 

quiet ending with development on the SKa and Wave motives. The 

tales are told. Scheherazade, the narrator, who lived with Shahrydr 

"in all pleasance and solace of life and its delights till there took 

them the Destroyer of delights and the Severer of societies, the 

Desolator of dwelling-places and Garnerer of grave-yards, and they 

were translated to the ruth of Almighty Allah," fades with the vision 

and the final note of her violin. 

* 
* * 

Rimsky-Korsakoff studied at the Naval Institute in St. Petersburg, 
which he entered in 1856, but even then he gave much time to music. 
He studied the violoncello with Ulich and the pianoforte with Fedor 
Kanille. He was an officer in the marine service of Russia until 1:873, 
and it would appear from a passage in Habets's "Alexandre Borodine" 
(Paris, 1893, p. 20) that about 1862 he came as an officer to the United 
States. His cruise lasted three years (i 862-1 865). He wrote his first 
symphony, the first written in Russia, according to Riemann's Musik- 
Lexicon (1905, sixth edition), when he was a midshipman. It was in 
1 86 1 that he began the serious study of music with Mily Balakireff,* and 
he was one of the group — Borodin, Moussorgsky, Cui, were the others — 

* Mily Alexeiewitch BalakireS, born in 1837 at Nijni-Novgorod, and now living at St. Petersburg, began 
his musical career as a pianist. He has written a symphony in C major (played here at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, Dr. Muck, conductor, March 14, 1908) and other orchestral pieces, as "King Lear," 
"Thamara," "In Bohemia," which was played in Boston at Mrs. R. J. Hall's concert in Jordan Hall, Mr. 
Longy conductor, January 21, 1908; a pianoforte sonata and other pianoforte pieces, the most famous of 
which is "Islamey"; songs, etc. He published in 1866 a remarkable collection of Russian folk-songs. 



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who, under Balakireff, founded the modern Russian school. His first 
symphony was performed in 1865/^ In 1871 he was appointedprofessor 
of composition at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. He was inspector of 
the marine bands from 1873 to 1884, director of the Free School of 
Music from 1874 to 1887 and conductor of concerts at this institution 
until 1 88 1, assistant conductor in 1883 of the Imperial Orchestra; and 
from 1886 till about 1901 he was one of the conductors of the Russian 
Symphony Concerts, afterward led by Liadoff and Glazounoff. He 
conducted two Russian concerts at the Trocadero, June 22, 29, at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1889; and he has conducted in the Netherlands. 
His thirty-fifth jubilee as a composer was celebrated with pomp and 
circumstance at St. Petersburg, December 8, 1900, and at Moscow, 
January i, 1901. 

Rimsky-Korsakoff married in 1873 Nadedja Nicholaevna Pourgold, 
a pianist of distinction and an arranger of orchestral scores for the 
pianoforte. 

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Conservatory of the Imperial Society of Russian Music. He had 
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classes contrary to the advice of the "Artistic Council," and against the 
dilettantism which rules absolutely the affairs of the Conservatory. 
The only member of the Directorial Committee who had by nature 
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resigned after Rimsky-Korsakoff was ejected. The teachers Glazounoff, 
lyiadoff, Blumenfeld, Verjbielovitch, and others, severed their connec- 



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tion with the Conservatory. Letters of protestation against the treat- 
ment of Rimsky-Korsakoff were sent from the chief European cities. 
The Russian journals attacked savagely the Directorship. When a new 
opera by Rimsky-Korsakoff, "Kotschei," was produced in St. Peters- 
burg at the Theatre-du-Passage, March 27, with an orchestra made up 
of students who had struck for some weeks and with Glazounoff as 
leader, the tribute paid Rimsky-Korsakoff by musicians, journalists, 
writers, artists, was memorable, nor were the police able to put an 
end to the congratulatory exercises which followed the performance. 
For a full account of all these strange proceedings see the article 
written by R. Aloys Mooser and published in the Courrier Musical 
(Paris), November i, 1905. In the fall of 1905 Glazounoff was elected 
director of the Conservatory and Rimsky-Korsakoff was reinstated. 

In 1907 Rimsky-Korsakoff was present at the "Five Historical Rus- 
sian Concerts" at Paris (May 16, 19, 23, 26, 30), when his "Christmas 
Night" symphonic poem, Prelude and two songs from "Snegourotchka," 
"Tsar Saltan" suite, and the submarine scene from the opera "Sadko" 
were performed, and he then conducted his works. (The regular 
conductors of the series were Messrs. Nikisch and Chevillard.) In the 
fall of 1907 he was chosen corresponding member of the Academic 
des beaux-arts, to take the place vacated by the death of Grieg. 

The list of his opera is as follows : — 
'The Maid of Pskoff" (St. Petersburg, 1873 revised in 1904); "A 
Night in May" (St. Petersburg, 1880, 1894); "The Snow Maiden" 
(St. Petersburg, 1882); "Mlada," ballet opera, originally an act by 
Borodin, Cui, Moussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakoff each (St. Peters- 
burg, 1892 ?); "Christmas Eve" (St. Petersburg, 1895); "Sadko of 
Novgorod" (Moscow, 1897); "Mozart and Salieri" (Moscow, 1899 ?) ; 
" Boyarina vera Sheloga," prologue to "The Maid of Psoff" (Moscow, 
1899); "The Bride of the Tsar" (Moscow, 1899); "The Tale of the 
Tsar Saltan" (Moscow, 1900); "Servilia" (St. Petersburg, 1902); 
" Koschtsei, the Immortal" (Moscow, 1902). "Pan Voyvode" (St. 
Petersburg, 1905); "The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitesch and 
the Maiden Fevronia" (St. Petersburg, 1907); "Zolotoi Pietouchok." 

His chief works besides those alrady mentioned are a Fantasia on 




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Servian themes for orchestra, Op. 6; Overture on Russian themes for 
orchestra, Op. 28; Fairy Tale for orchestra, Op. 29; Concerto in C- 
sharp minor (to the memory of Liszt) for pianoforte and orchestra, 
Op. 30; Symphoniette in A minor on Russian themes for orchestra, 
Op. 31; Symphony No. 3, in C major. Op. 32; Concert Fantasia on 
Russian themes for vioHn and orchestra, Op. 33; Serenade for 'cello 
with pianoforte, Op. 37; "By the Grave," prelude for orchestra, Op. 
61; Russian Song for orchestra (chorus ad lib.), Op. 62; songs and 
pianoforte pieces; string quartet, F major, Op. 12; string sextet, A 
major ((MS.), and other chamber music; choruses with and without 
orchestra; a portion of the liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Op. 22; 
six transpositions, including the psalm, "By the Waters of Babylon," 
Op. 22a. He edited "one hundred Russian Folk-songs," Op. 24 
(1877), and "Forty Russian Folk-songs (1882). 

* * 
Rimsky-Korsakoff is known in Boston chiefly by his orchestral 
works. "Scheherazade," a symphonic suite. Op. 35, was played at 
concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on April 17, 1897, 
December 11, 1897, January 13, 1900, February 4, 1905; "La Grande 
Paque Russe," overture on themes of the Russian Church, Op. 36, 
on October 23, 1897; "Antar," symphony No. 2, Op. 15, on March 12, 
1898; "Sadko," a musical picture, Op. 5, March 25, 1905; the over- 
ture to "The Betrothed of the Tsar," November 15, 1902, April 16, 
1904, November 24, 1906; "Caprice on Spanish Themes," February 
15, 1908. 

* 

The "Spanish Caprice" was performed at St. Petersburg in 1887, 
and it was published in that year. Yet we find Tschaikowsky writing 
to Rimsky-Korsakoff in 1886 (November 11): "I must add that your 
'Spanish Caprice' is a colossal masterpiece of instrumentation,* and you 
may regard yourself as the greatest master of the present day." 
Tschaikowsky's admiration for his colleague was, however, a plant 
of slow growth. He wrote to Mrs. von Meek, in a letter dated San 

* These words are italicized in the original letter. 




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Rerao, January 5, 1878: "All the young composers of vSt. Petersburg 
are very talented, but they are frightfully self -conceited, and are 
infected by the truly amateurish conviction that they tower high 
above all other musicians in the world. Rimsky-Korsakofif is (of late 
years) an exception. He is truly a self-taught composer, as the others, 
but a mighty change was wrought in him some time ago. This man 
is by nature very serious, honorable, conscientious. As a youth he 
was told in a society which first assured him that he was a genius, and 
then persuaded him not to study, that schooling killed inspiration, 
withered creative force, etc. This he believed at first. His first 
compositions showed a conspicuous talent, wholly devoid of theoretic 
education. In the circle in which he moved each one was in love with 
himself and the others. Each one strove to imitate this or that work 
which came from the circle and was stamped by it as distinguished. 
As a result the whole circle fell into narrow-mindedness, impersonality, 
and affectation. Korsakoff is the only one of them who about five 
years ago came to the conviction that the ideas preached in the circle 
were wholly unfounded; that the scorn of school and classical music 
and the denial of authorities and master-works were nothing else than 
ignorance. I still have a letter of that period which much moved and 
impressed me. Rimsky-Korsakoff was in doubt when he became 
aware of so many years passed without advantage and when he found 
himself on a road that led nowhere. He asked himself: 'What shall 
I then do?' It stood to reason he must learn. And he began to study 
with such fervor that school -technic was soon for him something 
indispensable. In one summer he wrote a mass of contrapuntal 
exercises and sixty-four fugues, of which I received ten for examination. 
The fugues were flawless, but I noticed even then that the reaction 
was too violent. Rimsky-Korsakoff had jumped suddenly from 
contempt for the school into worship of musical technic. A symphony 
and a quartet appeared soon after; both works are full of contra- 
puntal tricks, and bear — as you justly say — the stamp of sterile 
pedantry. He has now arrived at a crisis, and it is hard to predict 
whether he will work his way till he is a great master or whether he 
will be lost amid hair-splitting subtleties." 



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It should be remembered that this was written before the teacher 
of GlazounoflF had composed his "Scheherazade," his " Caprice io 
Espagnol," and his better operas. Tschaikowsky in later years showed 
the warmest appreciation for his colleague and his works. He wrote 
in his diary of 1887: "I read Korsakoff's 'Snegourotchka,'* and was 
enchanted by his mastery; I even envied him, and I should be 
ashamed of this." 

Tschaikowsky first became acquainted with compositions by Rimsky- 
Korsakoff when he visited St. Petersburg in 1867 and made his first 
public appearance as a conductor, at a concert in aid of the famine 
fund (March 2). He led the Dances from his own "Voyevode," 
and Rimsky-Korsakoff's "Serbian" Fantasia was on the programme. 
Early in 1871 Balakireff wrote Tschaikowsky that Mme. Rimsky- 
Korsakoff (bom Nadejda Pourgould) had scratched out certain chords 
in the manuscript score of Tschaikowsky's "Romeo and Juliet" 
overture fantasia, sent to Balakireff for criticism, "with her own fair 
hands, and wants to make the pianoforte arrangement end pianissimo." 
(In the final arrangement the composer omitted these chords.) 

In 1872 Tschaikowsky, visiting St. Petersburg again, met frequently 
the members of the "Invincible Band," and it is said that under their 
influence he took a Little Russian folk-song as the subject of the finale 
of the Second Symphony, ' 'At an evening at the Rimsky-Korsakoff's," 
he wrote, "the whole party nearly tore me to pieces, and Mme. Kor- 
sakoff implored me to arrange the Finale for four hands." 

We find Tschaikowsky writing to Rimsky-Korsakoff from Moscow, 
September 22, 1875: "Thanks for your kind letter. You must know 
how I admire and bow down before your artistic modesty and your 
great strength of character! These innumerable counterpoints, these 
sixty fugues, and all the other musical intricacies which you have 
accomplished, — all these things from a man who had already produced 
a 'Sadko' eight years previously, — ^are the exploits of a hero. I want 
to proclaim them to all the world. I am astounded, and do not know 

* "The Snow Maiden," a fantastic opera in a prologue and four acts, book based on a poem by Ostrow- 
ski, music by Rimsky-Korsakoff, was produced at St. Petersburg in March, 1882. It has been announced 
for performance in Paris this season. 



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how to express all my respect for your artistic temperament. How 
small, poor, self-satisfied, and naive I feel in comparison with you! 
I am a mere artisan in composition, but you will be an artist, in the 
fullest sense of the word. I hope you will not take these remarks as 
flattery. I am really convinced that with your immense gifts — and 
the ideal conscientiousness with which you approach your work — you 
will produce music that must far surpass all which so far has been 
composed in Russia. I await your ten fugues with keen impatience. 
As it will be almost impossible for me to go to Petersburg for some time 
to come, I beg you to rejoice my heart by sending them as soon as 
possible. I will study them thoroughly and give you my opinion in 
detail. ... I should very much like to know how the decision upon the 
merits of the (opera) scores will go. I hope you may be a member 
of the committee. The fear of being rejected — that is to say, not 
only losing the prize, but with it all possibility of seeing my 'Vakoula' 
performed — worries me very much." 

He wrote to Rimsky-Korsakoff, November 24 of the same year, 
about a pianoforte arrangement of his second quartet by Mme. Rimsky- 
Korsakoff, and ended : "A few days ago I had a letter from von Biilow, 
enclosing a number of American press notices of my pianoforte con- 
certo.* The Americans think the first movement suffers from 'the 
lack of a central idea around which to assemble such a host of musical 
fantaisies, which make up the breezy and ethereal whole.' The same 
critic discovered in the finale 'syncopation on the trills, spasmodic 
interruptions of the subject, and thundering octave passages' ! Think 
of what appetites these Americans have: after every performance 
von Billow was obliged to repeat the entire finale! Such a thing could 
never happen here." The next month Rimsky-Korsakoff answered: 
" I do not doubt for a moment that your opera will carry off the prize. 
To my mind the operas sent in bear witness to a very poor state of 
things as regards music here. . . . Except your work, I do not consider 
there is one fit to receive the prize or to be performed in public." 

* It will be remembered that the first performance of Tschaikowsky's pianoforte Concerto in B-flat minor 
was by von Biilow at Boston, October 25, 1875, in Music Hall. Mr. Lang conducted the orchestra, which was 
a small one. There were only four first violins. — Ed. 

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Tschaikowsky wrote to his colleague, October ii, 1876: "I know 
how your quartet improves on acquaintance. The first movement 
is simply delicious and ideal as to form. It might serve as a pattern 
of purity of style. The andante is a little dry, but just on that account 
very characteristic — as reminiscent of the days of powder and patches. 
The scherzo is very lively, piquant, and must sound well. As to the 
finale, I freely confess that it in no wise pleases me, although I acknowl- 
edge that it may do so when I hear it, and then I may find the obtru- 
sive rhythm of the chief theme less frightfully unbearable. I consider 
you are at present in a transition period, in a stage of fermentation; 
and no one knows what you are capable of doing. With your talents 
and your character you may achieve immense results. As I have 
said, the first movement is a pattern of virginal purity of style. It 
has something of Mozart's beauty and unaffectedness." This was 
the String Quartet in F major. Op. 12. 

I have quoted these excerpts to show Tschaikowsky's opinion of 
Rimsky- Korsakoff and his works before he wrote to Mrs. von Meek 
his famous characterization of the "Invincible Band." 

He wrote to Rimsky- Korsakoff afterward from Maidanovo, April 
18, 1885: "Since I saw you last I have had so much to get through 
in a hurry that I could not spare time for a thorough revision of your 
primer." This was Rimsky-Korsakoff's Treatise on Harmony (trans- 
lated into German by Hans Schmidt). The original edition was 
published in 1886; the third, in Russian, in 1893. "But now and again 
T cast a glance at it, and jotted down my remarks on some loose sheets. 
To-day, having finished my revision of the first chapter, I wanted to 
send you these notes, and read them through again. Then I hesitated: 
should I send them or not ? All through my criticism of your book 
ran a vein of irritation, a grudging spirit, even an unintentional sus- 
picion of hostility towards you. I was afraid the mordant bitterness 
of m}^ observations might hurt your feelings. Whence this virulence? 
I cannot say. I think my old hatred of teaching harmony crops 
up here, — a hatred which partly springs from a consciousness that 
our present theories are untenable, while 'at the same time it is impos- 
sible to build up new ones, and partly from the peculiarity of my 



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musical temperament, which lacks the power bf|imparting conscientious 
instruction. For ten years I taught harmony, and during that time I 
loathed my classes, my pupils, my text-book, and myself as teacher. 
The reading of your book reawakened my loathing, and it was this 
which stirred up all my acrimony and rancour. . . . Dare I hope that 
you would accept the position of the Director of the Moscow Con- 
servatory, should it be offered you? I can promise you beforehand 
so to arrange matters that you would have sufficient time for compos- 
ing, and be spared all the drudgery with which N. Rubinstein was 
overwhelmed. You would only have the supervision of the musical 
affairs. Your upright and ideally honorable character, your dis- 
tinguished gifts both as artist and teacher, warrant my conviction that 
in you we should find a splendid Director. I should consider myself 
very fortunate, could I realize this ideal." Rimsky- Korsakoff declined 
the offer, courteously, but in no uncertain words. 



* 

* * 



Borodin wrote of him in 1875: "He is now working for the Free 
School: he is making counterpoint, and he teaches his pupils all sorts 
of musical stratagems. He is arranging a monumental course in 
orchestration, which will not have its like in the world, but time fails 
him, and for the moment he has abandoned the task. . . . Many have 
been pained to see him take a step backward and give himself up to 
the study of musical archaeology; but I am not saddened by it, I under- 
stand it. His development was exactly contrary to mine: I began 
with the ancients, and he started with Glinka, Liszt, and Berlioz. 
After he was saturated with their music, he entered into an unknown 




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sphere,? which^ for him has the character of true novelty." Yet in 
i877^Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakoff, Liadoff, and Cui were working 
together amicably^on the^amazingl" Paraphrases" for pianoforte, which 
lyiszt valued highly, and^to^whichjie contributed ; and after the death 
of Borodin, in 1887, Rimsky-Korsakoff undertook the revision and 
the publication of his_friend's^manuscripts. He completed, with the 
aid of Glazounoff, the opera^" Prince,- Igor" (St. Petersburg, 1890), 
just as he had completed and prepared for the stage Dargomijski's 
"Stone Guest" (St. Petersburg, 1872) and Moussorgsky's "Kho- 
vanschtchina"* (St. Petersburg, 1886, by the Dramatic Musical 
Society; Kief, 1892) ; yet he was more radical and revolutionary in his 
views concerning the true character of opera than was Borodin. 
And when, in 1881, Nikisch^conducted "Antar" at the Magdeburg 
festival, it was Borodin who conveyed co the conductor the wishes 
of Rimsky-KorsakofE concerning the interpretation. 

Liszt held Rimsky-Korsakoff in high regard. Rubinstein brought 
the score of "Sadko"t to him and said, "When I conducted this it 
failed horribly, but I am sure you will like it"; and the fantastical 
piece indeed pleased lyiszt mightily. Liszt's admiration for the 
Russian is expressed in several letters. Thus, in a letter (1878) to 
Bessel, the publisher, he mentions "the 'Russian national songs edited 
by N. Rimsky-Korsakoff,' for whom I feel high esteem and sympathy. 

* Rimsky-Korsakoff also orchestrated Moussorgsky's Intermezzo for pianoforte and " La Nuit sur le 
Mont-Chauve" (St. Petersburg, 1886), played here at a concert of the Boston Orchestral Club, Mr. Longy 
conductor, January s, 1904. 

t Habets tells this story as though Rubinstein had conducted "Sadko" at Vienna; but the first perform- 
ance of the work in that city was at a Gesellschaft concert in 1872. Did not Rubinstein refer to a performance 
at St. Petersburg? 



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To speak frankly, Russian national music could not be more felt or 
better understood than by Rimsky-Korsakoff." In 1884 he thanked 
Rahter, the publisher at Hamburg, for sending him the "Slumber 
Songs" by Rimsky-Korsakoff, "which I prize extremely; his works 
are among the rare, the uncommon, the exquisite." To the Countess 
Louise de Mercy-Argenteau* (born Louise de Caraman-Chimay) he 
wrote in 1884: "Rimsky-Korsakoff, Cui, Borodin, Balakireff, are 
masters of striking originality and worth. Their works make up to 
me for the ennui caused to me by other works more widely spread and 
more talked about. ... In Russia the new composers, in spite of 
their remarkable talent and knowledge, have as yet but a limited 
success. The high people of the Court wait for them to succeed else- 
where before they applaud them at Petersburg. Apropos of this, 
I recollect a striking remark which the late Grand Duke Michael made 
to me in '43: 'When I have to put my officers under arrest, I send 
them to the performances of Glinka's operas.' Manners are softening 
and Messrs. Rimski, Cui, Borodin, have themselves attained to the 
grade of colonel." In 1885 he wrote to her: "I shall assuredly not 
cease from my propaganda of the remarkable compositions of the 
New Russian School, which I esteem and appreciate with lively sym- 
pathy. For six or seven years past at the Grand Annual Concerts 
of the Musical Association, over which I have the honor of presiding, 
the orchestral works of Rimsky-Korsakoff and Borodine have fig- 
ured on the programmes. Their success is making a crescendo, in 
spite of the sort of contumacy that is established against Russian 
music. It is not in the least any desire of being peculiar that leads me 
to spread it, but a simple feeling|of justice, based on my conviction 
of the real worth of these works of high lineage." 

Liszt's enthusiasm was shared by von Biilow, who wrote to the 
Signale in 1878: " Rimsky-Korsakoff 's 'Antar,' a programme-sym- 
phony in four movements, a gorgeous tone-picture, announces a tone- 
poet. Do you wish to_|know what I mean by this expression? A 

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tone-poet is first of all a romanticist, who, nevertheless, if he develop 
himself to a genius, can also be a classic, as, for example, Chopm." 



* 
* * 



Two more recent opinions concerning the music of Rimsky-Korsa- 
koff are worthy of consideration. 

Mr. Heinrich Pudor, in an essay, "Der Klang als sinnlicher Reiz in 
der modemen Musik" (Leipsic, 1900) wrote: 'Rimsky-Korsakoff is 
in truth the spokesman of modern music. Instrumentation is every- 
thing with him; one might almost say, the idea itself is with him 
instrumentation. His music offers studies and sketches in orchestration 
which remind one of the color-studies of the Naturalists and the 
Impressionists. He is the Degas or the Whistler of music. His music 
is sensorial, it is nourished on the physical food of sound. One might 
say to hit it exactly, though in a brutal way: the hearer tastes in his 
music the tone, he feels it on his tongue." 

And Mr. Jean Mamold, the learned and brilliant critic of the Mercure 
de France, wrote in an acute study of the New Russian School (April, 
1902): "Of all the Slav composers, Rimsky-Korsakoff is perhaps the 
most charming and as a musician the most remarkable. He has not 
been equalled by any one of his compatriots in the art of handling 
timbres, and in this art the Russian school has been long distinguished. 
In this respect he is descended directly from Liszt, whose orchestra 
he adopted, and from whom he borrowed many an old effect. His 
inspiration is sometimes exquisite; the inexhaustible transformation 
of his themes is always most intelligent or interesting. As all the 
other Russians, he sins in the development of ideas through the lack 
of cohesion, of sustained enchainment, and especially through the lack 
of true polyphony. The influence of Berlioz and of Liszt is not less 
striking in his manner of composition. 'Sadko' comes from Liszt's 
'Ce qu'on en tend sur la montagne'; 'Antar' and 'Scheherazade' at 
the same time from 'Harold' and the 'Faust' Symphony. The oriental 
monody seems to throw a spell over Rimsky-Korsakoff which spreads 
over all his works a sort of 'local color,' underlined here by the chosen 
subjects. In 'Scheherazade,' it must be said, the benzoin of Arabia 
sends forth here and there the sickening empyreuma of the pastilles 



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120 



of the harim. This 'symphonic suite' is rather a triple rhapsody in 
the strict meaning of both word and thing. One is at first enraptured, 
astonished, amused, by the wheedHng grace of the melodies, the fantasy 
of their metamorphoses, by the dash of the sparkling orchestration; 
then one is gradually wearied by the incessant return of analogous 
effects, diversely but constantly picturesque. All this decoration 
is incapable of supplying the interest of an absent or faintly sketched 
musical development. On the other hand, in the second and the 
third movements of 'Antar,' the composer has approached nearest true 
musical superiority. The descriptive, almost dramatic, intention is 
realized there with an unusual sureness, and, if the brand of Liszt 
remains ineffaceable, the ease of construction, the breadth and the 
co-ordinated progression of combinations mark a mastery and an 
originality that are rarely found among the composers of the far North, 
and that no one has ever possessed among the 'Five.'"* 

See also a study of Rimsky-Korsakoff by Camille Bellaigue ("Im- 
pressions Musicales et Litteraires," pp^ 97-140); "A propos de 'Sche- 
herazade' de Rimsky-Korsakoff," by Emile Vuillermoz, in Le Courrier 
Musical (Paris), Ferbuary 15, 1905; Mercure Musical (Paris), March 
i5> 1907, pp. 282-284, article by N. D. Bernstein on R.-K.'s opera, 
"Legend of the Invisible City," etc.; June 15, 1907, pp. 652-656, 
by Louis Laloy; Alfred Bruneau's "Musiques de Russie et Musiciens 
de France," pp. 20-25 (Paris, 1903). 

* Mr. Marnold wrote a little less enthusiastically about Rimsky-Korsakoff in the Mercure de France of 
September i6, 1908, and then reproached him sternJy for his "pedantic" revision of Moussorgsky's opera 
"Boris Godounoff." 



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Mr. EmiIv SauEr, pianist, composer, teacher, was bom at Hamburg, 
October 8, 1862. His mother gave him his first pianoforte lessons, 
and F. A. Riccius, of Hamburg, taught him theory. On the recom- 
mendation of Anton Rubinstein, Nicolas Rubinstein received him as a 
pupil at the Moscow Conservatory, where he studied from 1876 till 
1 88 1. Mr. Sauer afterward studied with Liszt. Since 1882 he has led 
the life of a virtuoso. In 1901 he was appointed head teacher of the 
Pianoforte Master School connected, with the Vienna Conservatory. 
He gave up this position in April, 1907, and chose Dresden as his 
dwelling-place. 

The list of his compositions includes the pianoforte Concerto, No. i, 
in E minor, the second pianoforte Concerto in C minor, a Suite Modeme 
and smaller pieces for the pianoforte, and songs, among them "Hymne 
Bulgare" and "Serenata Veneziana." He has also written a book, 
"Meine Welt: Bilder aus dem Geheimfache meine Kunst und meines 
Leben," which was published in 1901. 

Mr. Sauer played for the first time in Boston at a concert of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra January 14, 1899 (Henselt's Concerto in 
F minor). He gave pianoforte recitals in Music Hall January 20, 
1899 (pieces by Bach, d'Albert, Schumann, Chopin, Raff, Mendelssohn- 
lyiszt, Liszt, and his own "Feuilles de Tremble"), February 28 (pieces 
by Brahms, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Saint-Saens, Rubinstein, 

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Mrs. Avonia Bonney Lichfield 

(60 BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON) 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

According to the method of the old ItaHan masters of singing. A pupil 
of the last of these masters, Gerli, of Milan. 

Mfs. Lichfield refers to the following remarks about her 
distinguished pupil^ Miss 

Charlotte Qrosvenor 

as Violetta in Verdi^s 

"LA TRAVIATA" 

New York, May 7. 

In taking up a New York paper yesterday I found Verdi's "Traviata" 
announced at one of the up-town theatres, and (the Manhattan and Metro- 
politan being closed) I hied me forth to listen to the tuneful music, not 
expecting much from the vocal efforts of the troupe, and prepared to smile 
at probably finding even less than I expected. My programme announced 
Violetta (a Miss Charlotte Grosvenor) as a debutante; but then every 
European prima donna, first-rate or third-rate, even of advanced years, too, 
has "debut" written after her name when singing in our country for the 
first time, so that, like a Patti farewell, the word means little. 

Up went the curtain, and in a few moments there entered a Violetta, a 
vision of youth in pale blue satin and pink roses, with the most glorious 
red-gold hair. I certainly did not expect this. She took the breath of the 
house quite away, and a ripple of applause burst forth; then the "Vision" 
opened her mouth, and lo, she could sing, and certainly no one expected 
this. After hearing all the best singers both here and abroad, 'tis but fair 
to herald the advent of so exceptional a debutante. From the sparkling 
brindisi of the first act to the final death scene at the end all was well done, 
well sung and well acted, though she was no singing actress. It may be 
old-fashioned for a prima donna to be a singer nowadays, but for a 
debutante to be a singer who can really sing is certainly a remarkable fact. 
The ease and security of her notes, and the flawless intonation of it all, the 
absolute accuracy of the full-voice high notes in the concerted piece of the 
third act, and in the death scene, the sweet fragrance that lingered around 
her notes and herself. If all this is made in America, then America at last 
has a great master, and let us say " All Hail." 

AN OLD OPERA-GOER. 

123 



and his own Prelude Passionne from the "Suite Moderne," "Propos 
de Bal," Galop de Concert, and March 23 of that year (pieces by 
Rameau, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Rubinstein, 
Sgambati, Liszt, and his own E^tude de Concert). 



Concerto No. i, E minor, for Pianofort:^ and Orchestra. 

EMiiy Sauer 

(Born at Hamburg, October 8, 1862; now living.) 

The score of this concerto was published in 1900. It is dedicated: 
"To the memory of my great master Nicolas Rubinstein." It was 
performed May 27, 1900, at the thirty-sixth festival of the Allgemeiner 
Deutscher Musikverein held at Bremen, and the composer was the 
pianist. 

The orchestral portion of the work is scored as follows: two jflutes 
(one interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, three horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
and strings. 

I. Allegro patetico, E minor, 3-4. The first chief .[motive is 
announced immediately by the trumpets, forte, and continued by the 
violins. A second fermata leads to the dominant. A short thematic 
treatment (oboes, 'cellos, bassoons, horn) is followed by the chief 
theme given risoluto to the pianoforte. A crescendo for this instru- 
ment leads to the return of the prevailing tonality. The chief theme 
is played in broad chords by the pianist. The orchestra takes it up, 
and there is a modulation to D major. The second and melodious 
theme appears, G major for solo instrument, as does a subsidiary 
motive which is taken up by various instruments. The song grows 
more passionate. In the development the two themes are treated until 

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125 



the first dominates, and with a powerful crescendo brings in the repe- 
tition. The second theme now appears in B major. The trumpets 
again announce the chief theme. A short and sturdy coda brings the 
end in the prevailing tonality. 

II. Scherzo, molto vivace, E minor, 3-4. The lively chief theme is 
given immediately to the pianoforte, accompanied. This theme is 
developed both alternately and in common with the orchestra. There 
is a more peaceful middle section, Andante con moto, quasi allegretto^ 
C major. The second theme, however, is repeated fortissimo by the 
full orchestra, and there is a sort of working out of the scherzo theme. 
The first motive finally serves for a fugato which introduces the reprise. 
The coda is short, and the ending sinks to a pianissimo. 

III. Cavatina : Larghetto amoroso, C major, 4-4. There is a short 
introduction for strings. The chief and expressive theme is given to 
the pianoforte unaccompanied. The pace is quickened, un pocO 
animato, G major. The violins take up the melody in the original 
tempo, and sing it to an accompaniment of arpeggio figures for the 
pianoforte. The ending is after the nature of the introduction. 

IV. Rondo: Tempo giusto, E major, 2-2. The chief theme of the 
Cavatina is brought in at once, and serves as a prelude to the Rondo. 
The first three notes of the theme are taken as an independent motive 
and developed. A subsidiary theme begins in the dominant. Wood- 
wind instruments repeat the motive, accompanied by figures for the 
solo instrument, which then takes up the prelude theme in the chief 
tonality. The thematic treatment of the first three notes is now in 
A major, and the subsidiary theme is in this key. The pianoforte 
brings back the tonality of E major, and there is a brilliant ending. 

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ENTR'ACTE. 

A RUSSIAN COMPOSER. 
(From the Sun (N.Y.), August 21, 1908.) 

Rimsky-Korsakoff, who died recently at St. Petersburg, was the 
most distinguished Russian composer since the passing away of Tschai- 
kowsky. He was born in 1 844 at Tikhvin, in the government of Nov- 
gorod, and Hke many of his musical contemporaries was educated 
in another profession. The most Russian of the Russian composers, 
his genius has been gloriously vindicated by the performances last 
spring in Paris of his opera, "Boris Goudounoff." Of this work fore- 
most French critics said some amazing things; Jean Marnold, for 
example, declaring that Debussy and Ravel and Dukas had been antici- 
pated by the Russian; and Marnold is, as every one knows in Paris, 
a strong partisan of Debussy. Yet all the novelties acclaimed in 
"Pell6as et Melisande" may be found in the opera of Moussorgsky, — 
the fluid tonal tapestry, the subordination of the music to the poem, 
and the absence of set lyric pieces or operatic discursions. 

The gift of Rimsky-Korsakoff was more lyrical than his fellow stu- 
dents at Balakireff's. Without having anything particularly novel 
to say, he developed into a master painter in orchestration. He 
belonged to the group of composers who are more prolific in the crea- 
tion of images than of ideas. A close student of Berlioz and Liszt, 
it was natural, with his fanciful imagination and full-blooded tempera- 
ment, that his themes would be clothed in shining orchestration, that 
his formal sense would work to happier results in the Lisztian Sym- 
phonic Poem. He wrote symphonies and a symphoniette on Russian 
themes, but his genius was best displayed in the briefer, freer forms. 
His third symphony, redolent of Haydn, — with a delightful scherzo, — 
his fugues, his quartet, show him a master of his technical medium: 



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129 



he was skilled in counterpoint and wrote an excellent treatise on har- 
mony; but the real, engaging, and fantastic personality of the man 
evaporated in these learned exercises. He was at his top notch in his 
"Sadko," with its marvellous depiction of a calm and stormy sea; 
in his "Antar," with its evocation of vast, immemorial deserts; in his 
"Scheherazade" with its background of Bagdad and the mysterious 
atmosphere of the "Arabian Nights." His sense of instrumentation is 
as subtle and as exquisite as anything by Berlioz: the pupil equals 
the master, particularly in his symphonic suite "Scheherazade," which 
has been so adequately interpreted in New York by the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra. 

On the first Sunday of December, 1878, "Sadko," a symphonic 
e^end of Korsakoff's, was both hissed and applauded at a Pasdeloup 
concert in the Cirque d'Hiver, Paris. The new music made, on the 
whole, a disturbing impression . To quell the altercation in the audi- 
ence, the conductor, Jacques Pasdeloup, — whose real name is said to 
have been Jacob Wolfgang, — played Weber's'" Invitation to the Valse," 
arranged by Berlioz, which tribute to a national composer — beloved 
since he was dead, though despised when alive — put the huge Sunday 
afternoon audience in good humor. But in 1889, after Korsakoff 
directed two concerts of Russian music at the Trocadero, Paris fell in 
love with his compositions. From 1871, when he was named professor 
of composition at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, he devoted him- 
self entirely to teaching and composing. He wrote a dozen operas, 
a concerto for the piano, a fantasie for violin, also a caprice for orches- 
tra on Spanish motives which is quasi-Moorish. A pious undertaking 
was his orchestrating of Dargomijski's "Stone Guest"; an opera by 
Moussorgsky and, with the assistance of his pupil, Glazounoff, the 
completion of the "Prince Igor" of Borodine. An indefatigable 
workman of art, he made arrangements for various combinations of 
instruments, conducted, and wrote many songs. His opera, rather a 
lyric piece, "Snowdrop," — the Russian equivalent would be too for- 
midable here, — has met with much success: it is charming, tender, 
melodious, with Russian folk-song, in which the composer was thor- 
oughly versed. 



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130 



His pupils are numerous, and some of them attained a fame that 
has crossed foreign seas, — too often crossed them : New York has had 
more than its share of Slavic music during the past few years. Gla- 
zounoff, Arensky, Sokoloff, Wihtol, Solotoreff, Tscherepnin, Akimenko, 
were among those who profited by his luminous precepts. But his 
fame will endure — if the fame of an epigone of Berlioz and Liszt can 
long endure! — because of his gorgeous handling of orchestral tints. 
Rimsky-Korsakoff will certainly rank among the great modern impres- 
sionist painters in tone. Praised by Liszt, admired by von Biilow, 
he showed the influence of the former. Profound psychologist he was 
not; an innovator like Moussorgsky he never could have been; the 
tragic eloquence vouchsafed Tschaikowsky was denied ; but he wielded 
a brush of incomparable richness, he spun the most various evanescent 
and iridescent orchestral web, he was the Berlioz of Russia. This 
will keep his music grateful to the the ears until a new color king enters 
the dynasty of tone. 



Ov:eRTuim TO THE Opera "Oberon" . . . Carl Maria von Weber 

(Born at Eutin, Oldenburg, December i8, 1786; died at London, June 5, 1826.) 

"Oberon; or, the Elf-king's Oath," a romantic opera in three acts, 
book by James Robinson Blanche, music by Carl Maria von Weber, 
was first performed at Covent Garden, London, on April 12, 1826. 



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Weber conducted the performance. The first performance in Boston 
was at Music Hall by the Parepa Rosa Company, May 23, 1870. 

Weber was asked by Charles Kemble in 1824 to write an opera for 
Covent Garden. A sick and discouraged man, he buckled himself to 
the task of learning English, that he might know the exact meaning 
of the text. He therefore took one hundred and fifty- three lessons 
of an Englishman named Carey, and studied diligently, anxiously. 
Planche sent the libretto an act at a time. Weber made his first sketch 
on January 23, 1825. The autograph score contains this note at the end 
of the overture: "Finished April 9, 1826, in the morning, at a quarter 
of twelve, and with it the whole opera. Soli Deo Gloria! ! ! C. M. V. 
Weber." This entry was made at London. 

The overture is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
strings. The overture begins with an introduction (Adagio sostenuto 
ed il tutto pianissimo possibile, D major, 4-4). The horn of Oberon 
is answered by muted strings. The figure for flutes and clarinets is 
taken from the first scene of the opera (Oberon's palace; introduction 
and chorus of elfs). After a pianissimo little march there is a short 
dreamy passage for strings, which ends in the violas. There is a full 
orchestral crashing chord, and the main body of the overture begins 
(Allegro con fuoco in D major, 4-4). The brilliant opening measures 
are taken from the accompaniment figure of the quartet, "Over the 
dark blue waters," sung by Rezia, Fatime, Huon, Scherasmin (act 
ii., scene x). The horn of Oberon is heard again; it is answered by 
the skipping fairy figure. The second theme (A major, sung first by 
the clarinet, then by the first violins) is taken from the first measures 
of the second part of Huon's air (act i.. No. 5). And then a theme 
taken from the peroration, presto con fuoco, of Rezia's air, "Ocean! 




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133 



Thou mighty monster" (act ii., No. 13), is given as a conclusion to 
the violins. This theme ends the first part of the overture. The free 
fantasia begins with soft repeated choriis in bassons, horns, drums, 
basses. The first theme is worked out in short periods; a new theme 
is introduced and treated in fugato against a running contrapuntal 
counter-theme in the strings. The second theme is treated, but not 
elaborately; and then the Rezia motive brings the spirited end. 
At the first performance of the opera the overture was repeated. 

* * 
The story of Oberon was founded by J. R. Planche on Wieland's 
"Oberon," which in turn was derived from an old French romance, 
"Huon de Bordeaux." As much fault has been found with the libretto, 
and several have endeavored to tinker the opera, the remarks of Planche 
himself are of interest. They may be found in his "Recollections and 
Reflections" (lyondon, 1872), vol. i. pp. 79-84: "Such was the state of 
music in England six-and-forty years ago that when, in conjunction 
with Bishop, I had made an attempt in my second opera, 'Cortez; or, 
the Conquest of Mexico' (produced November 5, 1823), to introduce 
concerted pieces and a finale to the second act more in accordance 
with the rules of true operatic construction, it had proved, in spite of 
all the charm of Bishop's melody, a signal failure. Ballads, duets, 
choruses, and glees, provided they occupied no more than the fewest 
number of minutes possible, were all that the play-going public of that 
day would endure. A dramatic situation in music was 'caviare to the 
general,' and inevitably received with cries of 'Cut it short!' from the 
gallery and obstinate coughing or other significant signs of impatience 
from the pit. Nothing but the Huntsman's Chorus and the diablerie 
in 'Der Freischiitz' saved that fine work from immediate condemna- 
tion in England ; and I remember perfectly well the exquisite melodies 

LOUDON CHARLTON 

868 CARNEGIE HALL, NEW YORK 

Has the honor to announce the followingf eminent artists under 

his managfement this season: 

Mme. Johanna Gadski * Mr. Ossip Qabrilowitsch * 

Mme. Marcella Sembrich * Miss Katharine Goodson * 

Mr. David Bispham* Mr. Ernest Schelling* 

Mme. Mary Hissem de Moss Mr. Theodore Spiering 

Mr. George Hamlin* Miss Geraldine Morgan 

Mr. Francis Rogers* Mr. Henry Bramsen 

Miss Leila Livingston Morse Mr. Albert Rosenthal 

Miss Cecelia Winter Mr. Edwin H. Lemare* 

Miss Gertrude Lonsdale The Flonzaley Quartet* 

* Artists thus designated will be heard here in recital this season. Specific announce- 
ments in later issues* 

134 



in it being compared by English music critics to 'wind through a key- 
hole'!* 

"An immense responsibility was placed upon my shoulders. The 
fortunes of the season were staked upon the success of the piece. Had 
I constructed it in the form which would have been most agreeable to 
me and acceptable to Weber, it could not have been performed by the 
company at Covent Garden, and if attempted must have proved a 
complete fiasco. None of our actors could sing, and but one singer 
could act — Madame Vestris, who made a charming Fatima. . . . No 
vocalist could be found equal to the part of Sherasmin (sic). It was, 
therefore, acted by Fawcett, and a bass singer, named Isaacs, was 
lugged in head and shoulders to eke out the charming quatuor, 'Over 
the Dark Blue Waters.' Braham, the greatest English tenor perhaps 
ever known, was about the worst actor ever seen, and the most unro- 
mantic person in appearance that can well be imagined. His deserved 
popularity as a vocalist induced the audience to overlook his deficiencies 
in other qualifications, but they were none the less fatal to the dramatic 
effect of the character of Huon de Bordeaux, the dauntless paladin 
who had undertaken to pull a hair out of the Caliph's beard, slay the 
man who sat on his right hand, and kiss his daughter! Miss Paton, 
with a grand soprano voice and sufficiently prepossessing person, was 
equally destitute of histrionic ability. . . . 

"My great object was to land Weber safe amidst an unmusical public, 
and I therefore wrote a melodrama with songs, instead of an opera, 
such as would be required at the present day. I am happy to say that 
I succeeded in that object, and had the great gratification of feeling 
that he fully appreciated my motives, and approved of my labors. 
On the morning after the production of the opera I met him on the 

*Ina number of the Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review for June, 1825, a critic, describing the 
music of " Der Freischtiiz, says: " Nearly all that was not irresistibly ridiculous was supremely dull." — J . R. P . 



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135 



stage. He embraced me most affectionately, and exultingly exclaimed, 
'Now we will go to work and write another opera together, and then 
they shall see what we can do ! ' 

"Much has been said of the want of human interest in the story. 
The same complaint might be made of nearly every drama founded on 
a fairy tale, or in which supernatural agency is employed to work out 
the plot. But it seems to have escaped the objectors that, as far as 
the expression of the passions is concerned, there can be no difference, 
either in words or music, whether the personages are mortals or fairies. 
The love, the jealousy, the anger, the despair of an elf or a demon must 
be told in the same language, and set to the same notes, as would be 
employed to express similar emotions in human beings, while much 
more scope is given to the fancy of the composer in the supernatural 
situations. But, independently of this argument, the trials of Huon 
and Rieza (sic) are among the severest known to humanity, — shipwreck 
on a desolate island, separation, slavery, temptation in its most alluring 
forms, and the imminent danger of death in the most fearful, — not, 
as the writer of 'The Life of Weber' incorrectly states, 'with the lily 
wand of Oberon always behind them,' but utterly hopeless of fairy aid; 
for the magic horn that should evoke it is lost before their trials com- 
mence, and only recovered at the last moment, to bring the opera to 



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136 



a happy termination. That I may have failed in my attempt to depict 
the passions aroused by those situations is another question, and that 
I leave the critics to decide. I simply contend that the charge of want 
of human interest in the story is not founded on fact." 



* * 



Although Weber in London was so feeble that he could' scarcely 
stand without support, he was busy at rehearsal, and "directed the 
performance at the pianoforte." According to Parke, the first oboist 
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and characteristic composition, and the overture is an ingenious and 
masterly production. It was loudly encored. This opera, however, 
did not become as popular as that of 'Der Freischiitz. ' " Weber died 
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137 



whose pseudonym was Th. Helt. An early version, "orchestrated, 

increased, and modified; from the pianoforte score by Franz Glaser." 

was produced in Vienna. Later the recitatives supplied by Benedict 

for performance in Italian were used in Germany, also secco recitatives 

by Lampert, the court conductor at Gotha; and recitatives by Franz 

Wiillner were approved in many German theatres. The character of 

the Singspiel therefore wholly disappeared. A new version of ' ' Oberon," 

with libretto revised by Major Josef Laufif and with additional music 

by Josef Schlar, was produced at Wiesbaden in May, 1900. "There 

was an attempt to make the music harmonize more or less with the 

spirit of the present day." Still another version was produced at the 

Dresden Court Opera, September 29, 1906. There was a new dialogue 

by an unnamed person, but Weber's music remained unchanged. 

The new dialogue was based on Hell's translation. 

* 
* * 

The woman who created the part of Rezia was Mary Anne Paton, 

who, years ago as Mrs. Joseph Wood, was the toast of this town. Her 

life was an adventurous one. She was born (1802) in Edinburgh, the 

daughter of a master in the high school; and, as a little girl, she played 

the violin, piano, and harp. When she was eight years old, she played 

ai\fi sang in public, and she published some of her own compositions. 

She went to London in 181 1 and applied to Bishop for singing lessons. 

He refused to teach her. She went about offering her services without 

charge, but she was constantly repulsed, and she sang chiefly at private 

parties. At last in 1822 she appeared at the Haymarket as Susanna 

in "The Marriage of Figaro," triumphed gloriously, and was then 



Miss FRANCES L THOMAS 



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138 



engaged at Covent Garden to sing in leading parts. She was "a very 
agreeable-looking girl. Her figure was about the ' middle height, 
slender and delicate. Her hair and eyes were dark, her complexion 
clear. Her face was not very beautiful when in repose, but, when 
animated in acting or singing, its expression reflected every change 
of sentiment, and her countenance beamed with vivacity. ... Her 
voice was sweet, brilliant, and powerful, -its compass extending from 
A to D or E, and her intonation was correct. . . . Her style was nat- 
urally florid. . . . She had warm sensibility." 

About this time Miss Paton fell madly in love with a young man 
named Blood, a surgeon of good family, who was extremely fond of 
music. They were betrothed, but her father objected violently. 
She was obstinate until the day of the wedding, when she "stated that 
prudential motives induced her for the present to recede." She also 
returned her lover's gifts. He immediately married a play-actress, 
and Miss Paton, who began "to droop and become melancholy," was 
consoled only by a secret marriage (1824) with Lord William Pitt 
Lennox, a younger son of the fourth Duke of Richmond. 

Weber first heard Miss Paton — for she kept her maiden name — in 
his own "Der Freischiitz." He was delighted with her. He wrote his 
wife: "Miss Paton is a singer of the first rank and will play Rezia 
divinely. ... I really cannot see why the English singing should be 
so much abused. The singers have a perfectly good Italian education, 
fine voices and expression." After the performance of "Oberon" 
he wrote, "Miss Paton sang superbly." 

Planche says in his "Recollections and Reflections": "Miss Paton, 
with a grand soprano voice and sufficiently prepossessing person, was 
equally destitute of histrionic ability." "Equally" here refers to 
Braham, the Sir Huon. 

In 1826 Miss Paton was acknowledged and received as the wife of 
Lord William Lennox. Her days and nights were full of trouble. Her 
health was such that the public was often disappointed; ugly stories 
were noised about ; there was a divorce ; and Miss Paton chose for her 
second husband "Mr. Wood, a kind-hearted young vocalist, who had 
lately appeared on the Covent Garden boards." 



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139 



We learn from the "Memoir of Mr. and Mrs. Wood'* that Miss Paton 
as Lady Lennox was well treated by her husband's family: "She was 
never asked to sing, even at their domestic parties, but was treated 
with the greatest respect, though she often voluntarily delighted the 
circle with the syren strains of her melodious voice." Lennox was 
jealous, and had "groundless suspicions" of Wood; but let us listen 
to the biographer: — 

"He charged Lady Lennox with having transferred her affections 
from himself to Wood. The lady repelled the allegation indignantly. 
Crimination and recrimination followed; and Lennox, forgetful of 
every honorable feeling, regardless of every manly impulse, struck 
her a violent blow, which felled her to the earth ! We have no words 
to ex;press our indignation at this outrage. 

'The man who lays his hand upon a woman, save in the way of kindness, 
Is a wretch, whom 'twere gross flattery to call a coward.' 

"The injured woman rose with a changed spirit, and left the house 
of Lord Lennox, never to return." 

Wood and Miss Paton were married in 1831. The jewels given her 
by Lord Lennox were sold, and brought five hundred and twenty-nine 
pounds. 

The Woods first visited the United States in 1833, and appeared 
at the Park Theatre, New York, in September. Richard Grant White 
is the author of this characteristic note: "Her voice was powerful, 
of uncommon compass, and agreeable in quality, although not sym- 
pathetic. Her vocalization was moderately good, her style brilliant; 
and as a bravura singer she could hold her own even with all but the 
greatest of the Italian prima donnas of her day. It was in finish of 
vocalization, in purity and simplicity of style in cantabile passages 
(supreme test of high vocal art), and in expression, that she fell short 
of their excellence. She was a 'fine woman,' but not handsome, her 
mouth being so large that when she opened it it became cavernous 
with stalactic teeth. But her eyes were bright, and her face when she 
was acting pleased her audiences. She had been married to Lord 
William Lennox, a squint-eyed scapegrace, who treated her so brutally 
that she obtained a divorce from him and eagerly accepted as her 
second husband Joseph Wood, a tall, handsome pugilist, whose fine 
but quite uncultivated, tenor voice took him out of the prize ring, 
and who won her heart by giving her noble husband a thrashing. . . . 
Mrs. Wood was worshipped almost as if she had been a beauty. I 
remember, being at boarding-school, in the lowest form, how a young 
gentleman in the highest, the cock and the swell of the school — an 
awful being who had attained the mature age of perhaps seventeen 
years, and of whom it was said that he could raise whiskers, — return- 
ing from Philadelphia after the long vacation, brought with him a lith- 
ographic portrait of Mrs. Wood as Amina. This he had framed and 
hung in the most conspicuous part of his room, with a crimson cushion 
before it, upon which he compelled all his visitors to kneel, at least 
once, on pain of exclusion from his apartment and his good graces. 
The Woods preserved their popularity here until, on occasion of a 
petty quarrel with a New York actress named Conduit, there was a 
cabal raised against them, the American eagle screamed defiance, 
and amid a disgraceful disturbance, which attained almost the pro- 

140 



portions of a riot, they were driven from the stage of the Park Theatre 
in 1836." 

General James Watson Webb of the Courier was prominent in foment- 
ing this row, which is described at length in the "Memoirs" above 
quoted. All sorts of missiles were thrown on the stage, from a cent 
to a piece of a bench six feet long. The friends of Wood — among them 
were Wetmore, Hone, Ogden, Pell, Livingstons, and Carrolls — pre- 
sented the Woods with "a splendid service of plate." Of this service 
were two goblets with covers, "surmounted with a beautifully chased 
American eagle, of the frosted chasing, gilded inside richly, with scroll 
in front for .engraving inscription." 

The Woods made their first appearance in Boston, December 4, 1833, 
in an English adaptation of Rossini's "La Cenerentola." They were 
here again in 1835, 1836, 1840. And here, too, there were squabbles, 
which are described in Colonel W. W. Clapp's "Record of the Boston 
Stage." 

In 1843 Mrs. Wood entered a convent, which she soon left. Her 
career as a public singer ended about 1844. She went into the coun- 
try and took "a warm interest in the Anglican service," drilled a choir, 
and sang solos. She died in 1864. Her husband married a singer 
named Sarah Dobson, and died in 1890. 

* * 
The first performance of "Oberon" in the United States was at New 
York, October 9, 1828, at the Park Theatre. Mrs. Austin was the 
heroine, and Horn the Sir Huon. (There was a performance of "Obe- 
ron," a musical romance, September 20, 1826; but it was not Weber's 
opera. It may have been Cooke's piece, which was produced at lyon- 

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141 



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142 



don early in that year.) This performance was "for the benefit of 
the beautiful Mrs. Austin." An admirer, whose name is now lost, 
spoke of her "liquid voice coming as softly on the sense of hearing as 
snow upon the waters or dew upon the flowers." White says that 
her voice was a mezzo-soprano of delicious quality. "She was very 
beautiful, in what is regarded as the typical Anglo-Saxon style of 
beauty, — 'divinely fair,' with blue eyes softly bright, golden brown 
hair, and a well-rounded figure." She was praised lustily in print 
by a Mr. Berkeley, "a member of a noble English family, who accom- 
panied her, and managed all her affairs with an ardent devotion far 
beyond that of an ordinary man of business. She visited Boston 
during the season of 1828-29, and she sang here in later years, White 
says that she was not appreciated at first in New York, because she 
had made her debut at Philadelphia. "For already had the public of 
New York arrogated to themselves the exclusive right of deciding upon 
the merits of artists of any pretensions who visited the country pro- 
fessionally. And it is true that, if they received the approbation of 
New York, it was a favorable introduction to the public of other towns. 
Not so, however, with those who chose Philadelphia or Boston as the 
scene of their d^but. The selection was in itself regarded by the 
Manhattanese as a tacit acknowledgment of inferiority or as a slight 
to their pretensions as arbiters; and in such cases they were slow at 
bestowing their approval, however well it might be deserved." 

I doubt whether "Oberon" was performed in New York exactly as 
Weber wrote it, for it was then the fashion to use the framework and 
some of the songs of an opera and to introduce popular airs and incon- 
gruous business. "Oberon" was in all probability first given in this 
countr}^ in 1870. Performances, however, have been few. There 
were some at San Francisco in December, 1882, when the part of Rezia 
was taken alternately by Miss Lester and Miss Leighton. 




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144 



Third Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 23, at 2.30 o'clock. 



SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 24, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 



Beethoven 



Symphony No. 3, " Eroica " 



McDowell 



Symphonic Poem, "Lamia" (after Keats) 



Wagner 



Prelude to "The Mastersingers " 



145 



3 T IS X 2>r :ei 'Hj rr n a. Xi Xj 

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supervision of the directors. 



Faculty 

Mt. FELIX FOX ) „. , 

> Dtrectors 

Mr. CARLO BUONAMICI f 
Mt. Gcofgfe F. Hamcr Miss Alice McDowell 

Miss Mary Pratt Mrs. Grace Marshall Libke 

Miss M. Rose Rochette Miss Laura M. Webster 

Mr. Enrico Leboffe 



The school aims primarily at pianoforte teaching, but all sides of 
the art are thoroughly presented, there being classes for the study of 
harmony, sight-playing, solfeggio, etc. 

Pupils may enter at any time. 



STEINERT HALL ANNEX 
BOSTON 

146 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Jordan Hall, Saturday Afternoon, October 24, at 3 

Miss Adela Verne IZXZi 

Tickets and Programs at Box Office, Symphony Hall 

$1.50, $1.00, and 50c. 

Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, October 26, at 3 



Violinist 



Arthur Fi8.rtina.nii Assutedby 

■*^* ******* '■' **** l.AAAC*i»AA ALFRED CALZIN. Pianist 

Tickets and Programs at Box Office, Symphony Hall 

$1.50, $1.00, and 50c. 

Symphony Hall, Friday Afternoon, November 6, at 2.30 

Mme. Sembrich in song Recitai 

TICKETS, $2.00, $1.50, and $1.00 

Public Sale opens Friday, October 30 

Symphony Hall, Monday Evening, November 9, at 8 

A mm ^^ m m Assisted by 

Apollo dub Geraldine Farrar 

EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor and COMPLETE ORCHESTRA 

1871— 200th CONCERT — 1908 

TICKETS, $2.50 and 2.00 

Public Sale opens Monday, November 2 

Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, November i6, at 3 

Dr. Ludwig Wiillner RecLi 

TICKETS, $1.50, $1.00, and 50c. 

At Symphony Hall on and after Monday, November 9 

MAIL ORDERS for the above concerts, accompanied by check or 
money order, and addressed to L. H. Mudgett, Symphony Hall, 
filled in order of receipt and as near the desired location as 
possible, prior to public sale. 



147 



The LONGY CLUB 

NINTH SEASON 

WILL GIVE THREE CONCERTS 

AT 

POTTER HALL 

MONDAY EVENINGS AT 8J5 O'CLOCK 

NOVEMBER 23, 1908 ^M 

DECEMBER 21, 1908 

FEBRUARY 8, 1909 



Flutes . 
Oboes . 
Clarinets 
Horns . 
Bassoons 
Piano . 



MEMBERS 

Messrs. D. MAQUARRE and A. BROOKE 

Messrs. G. LONGY and C. LENOM 

. Messrs. G. GRISEZ and P. MIMART 

. Messrs. F. HAIN and H. LORBEER 

Messrs. P. SADONY and J. HELLEBERG 

. Mr. A. de VOTO 



ASSISTING ARTISTS and PROGRAMMES TO BE ANNOUNCED 

148 



Debuchy's Concert 

SYMPHONY HALL 

Tuesday Afternoon, November 17th 

at 2.30 o'clock 
CONCERT of FRENCH OPERA- 
TIC and ROMANTIC MUSIC 
Soloist 

Mme. EMMA QHL^E 

Orchestra of 74 under the direction of 
Mr. ALBERT DEBUCHY 

Orchestral works by Reyer, Erlanger, Wider, 
Chabrier, Bruneau, Saint-Saens. 

Mme. CALVE will sing 

Stances from " Sapho " .... Gounod 

Aria from " Les P^cheurs de Perles" . Bizet 

With orchestra 

Ave Maria Bach-Gounod 

With Violin, Harp, Organ accompaniment 
and Songs with piano 
Mr. G. Barrere will play the Intermezzo, Fhite 
solo, from " Conte d' Avril " by Widor. 

Tickets $2.50, $2.00, $1.50, $1.00. On sale at 
Symphony Hall on and after November 2. 

Advance orders by mail, accompanied by cheque made 
payable to ALBERT DEBUCHY and addressed to 
Symphony Hall, Boston, will be filled in the order of 
their reception, and seats will be assigned as,'near the 
desired location as possible. 







140 



SANDERS THEATRE, Cambridge 



Boston 
SymphonyOrchestra 

MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

Twenty-eighth Season, Nineteen Hundred Eight and Nine 



EIGHT CONCERTS, THURSDAY EVENINGS AT 8 

October 22, November 19, December 10, January 21, 

February 11, March 4, April i and 29 

First Concert, Thursday Evening, October 22, 

at 8 



PROGRAMME 

Beethoven Overture, "Leonora" No. 3 

Brahms ...... Symphony No. i, in C minor 

Richard Strauss . . . Love Scene from the Opera, " Feuersnot" 
Wagner . Overture to "Tannhauser" 



SOLO ARTISTS 

Miss LILLA ORMOND, Contralto Miss NINA FLETCHER, Violinist 

Miss GERMAINE ARNAUD, Pianist Mr. GEORGE PROCTOR, Pianist 

Miss LAURA HAWKINS, Pianist Mr. WILLY HESS, Violinist 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT 

SEASON TICKETS for the eight concerts, $7. 

The seats unclaimed by last year's subscribers will be offered for sale 
in the usual manner at Kent's University Bookstore, Harvard Square, Cam- 
bridge, on Saturday morning, October 17, 1908, at eight o'clock. A limited 
number of seats have been reserved for college officers and invited guests. 

ISO 



THE 

KNEISEL QUARTET 

FRANZ KNEISEL, First Vhlin LOUIS SVECENSKI, VhU 

JULIUS ROENTGEN, S^ond Violin WILLEM WILLEKE, VioUcelb 

TWENTY-FOURTH SEASON. 1908-1909 

FENWAY COURT 



FIVE CONCERTS 

TUESDAY EVENINGS 



at 8. 1 5 o'clock 




November lO . 


. 1908 


December 8 . . 


1908 


January 5 ... 


. 1909 


February 16 . 


1909 


March 16 . . . 


. 1909 



ASSISTING ARTISTS: 

Miss KATHARINE QOODSON Mr. OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH 

Mr. ERNEST CONSOLO Mr. COURTLANDT PALMER 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE 

Subscribers to the concerts, season of 1907-08, have the priv- 
ilege of renewing subscriptions by applying to the Boston Music 
Co., 26-28 West Street, on or before October 17th. General 
subscriptions may be secured on and after October 19th. ^Single 
tickets on sale at the BOSTON MUSIC CO. before each 
concert. ^Tickets will be forwarded on receipt of cheque or 
money order payable to the Kneisel Quartet. ^All communi- 
cations regarding the Boston Concerts should be addressed to the 
BOSTON MUSIC CO. 



SUBSCRIPTION SEASON TICKETS, FLOOR OR BALCONY, $6.25 
TICKETS FOR SINGLE CONCERTS, $1.50 AND $1.00 



161 



HoFFmann Quartet 

J. HOFFMANN, First Violin 

A. BAK, Second Violin 

K. RISSLAND, Viola 

C. BARTH, Violoncello 

Will give three Chamber Concerts 

NEW JACOB SLEEPE-R HALL 

688 Boylston Street 

Next to the Public Library 

On Monday Evenings 
November 16, December 14, and February 1 




WILHELM HEINRICH 

TEACHER OF 
SINGING 



149 A Tremont Street Room 63 

152 



Alfred Pea(s Wall Paper 



EFFECTIVE 
INTERIOR 
DECORATION 



The modern idea of furnishing a 
room — a rug, not too much furniture, beau- 
tiful walls. That is all. The effect is 
most charming, if the walls are beautiful. 
With the accumulation of wealth 
taste or style in the decorations of the home has advanced. This 
improved taste recognizes more and more that the keynote of 
interior decoration is the walls — that there is nothing more 
important. 

In the whole history of interior decoration, nothing has been 
shown to equal the papers we are showing this fall. Our immense 
stock is drawn from every corner of the globe. The most discrimi- 
nating and careful buyer will find exactly what is required at prices 
as moderate as can be found anywhere for the same grade of goods. 

BOSTON'S EXCLUSIVE WALL PAPER SHOP 

116=120 SUnnER STREET 



HOTEL RENNERT 

BALTIMORE, MD. 




Within one square of the shopping dis- 
trict. 

The standard hotel of the South. 

The cuisine of this hotel has made 
Maryland cooking famous. 

The only hotel in the world where the 
Chesapeake Bay products, Fish, Oysters, 
Terrapin, and Canvas-back Duck, are 
prepared in their perfection. 



MODERN IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

Rooms, $1.50 per day and upwards Fire-proof building 



15.3 



SYMPHONY HALL ^ BOSTON 

FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 

THIRTEENTH, NINETEEN 

HUNDRED ^WEIGHT, at EIGHT 

O'CLOCK 

THE NIGHT BEFORE THE FOOTBALL GAME 
AT CAMBRIDGE 



SECOND JOINT CONCERT by the Glee, 
Mandolin, and Banjo Clubs of 

HARVARD % DARTMOUTH 
UNI VERSIT IES 

Orders by mail, accompanied by cheque made payable to 
F. R. COMEE and addressed to Symphony Hall, Boston, 
will be filled in the order of their reception, and seats 
will be assigned as near the desired location as possible. 

TICKETS, $\.so and ;^i.oo 

CHICKERING HALL 



Hess-Schroeder 
Quartet 

Prof. Willy Hess First Violin 

Julius Theodorowicz Second Violin 

Emil Ferir . . Viola 

Alwyn Schroeder Violoncello 

Will give five Chamber Concerts on Tuesday Evenings, November 1 7 
December 22, January 19, March 2, and March 23 



Season tickets with reserved seats for the five concerts, j?6.oo, $4.00, 

and $2.50. Now on sale at Box Office, Symphony Hall. 

Further particulars later. 

154 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION. 



VOCAL INSTRUCTION and 

SOPRANO SOLOIST 

HARRIET S. WHITTIER, «»"<"<'• 2^* Hunti„gt.a Av.nu.. ' 

Exponent of the method of the late Charles R . Adams. 
Portsmouth, New Harapshin, Mondays. 



Mr. CHARLES B. STEVENS. 



TEACHER OF SI/NGI^G. 

STUDIOS, 
Suite 14, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 

Telephone, 1331 Oxford. 

Miss Harriette C. Wescott, 

Accompanist and Assistant Teacher. 



Miss LAURA HAWKINS, 



PIA/NIST. 

LANQ STUDIOS, 

No. 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Miss CAROLINE M.SODTHARD, 

TEACHER OF THE PIANOFORTE. 



Classes in Sight Reading 

(EIQHT HANDS). 

Advanced pupils follow the Symphony prognunmes 
as far as practicable. 

165 Huntington Avenue - Boston 



Miss GERTRUDE EDMANDS, 



Concert and Oratorio. 

Vocal Instruction. 

The Copley, ISHuntinetoa Areaae. 



Mrs. HALL MCALLISTER. 



TEACHER of SI/NGrNG. 

407 Pierce Building, 
COPLEY SQUARE. 

Musical Management. 



Miss ELEANOR BRIGHAM, 



Pianist atid TeacKer. 

Trinitx Court. 



Mr. BERNHARD LISTEMANN'S 

Master School for Violinists. 



Training to competent teachers prin- 
cipal aim. Ensemble lessons. 

OFFICE 
703 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE. 

Hours: Monday and Thursday, from i p.m. 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, 9 to i and 2 to 4. 



155 



Miss CLARA E. fflUNGER, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Century Building, 
177 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 



Miss JOSEPHINE COLLIER, 



PIANIST and TEACHER. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Walter E. Loud — Violin. 
Pupil of Ysaye. 



32 Batavia Street. 



Miss Bertha Wesselhoeft Swift 



Soprano Soloist, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
) Studio, TRINITY COURT, Boston. 

Miss Swift is ready to give her children's programs 
before clubs, church societies, and in private houses 



Miss LUCY CLARK ALLEN. 



Pianoforte Lessons. 

Accompaniments. 

LANG STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Mr.SAMDELJ.MacWATTERS, 

Professor of Voice Building in 
Boston University. 



VOICE PLACING, 

Development of Tone and 
Resonance. 

72 MOUNT VERNON STREET. 



Mrs. LUCIA GALE BARBER, 



Physical and Personal Culture, 

Rhythm, Poise, Breathing, 
Concentration, Relaxation, 

Normal Course. 

The Ludlow, Copley Sq., Boston. 



ARL OOERING, 



TENOR- BARITONE. 

Pupil of Professor Jachman-Wagner, Berlin, and 
Professor Galiiera, Milan, Italy. 

Training and Finishing of Voice. 

School for Grand Opera and Oratorio. 
STEINERT HALL, ROOM 27. 

Open Monday, October 12. Send for new Prospectus 



156 



Mrs. CAROLYN RING HUNT, 



PIANISTEand TEACHER. 

Hemenway Chambers, 
BOSTON. 



BERTHA CDSHING CHILD, 



38 BABCOCK ST., BROOKI.INE. 

TEACHING AT 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY ST., BOSTON. 



MARY B. SAWYER, 

Leschetizky Method. 



PIANO AND HARMONY. 

For four years Pupil and Authorized Assistant of 

Frau VARETTE STEPANOFF, 

BERLIN, GERMANY. 

Studio, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 



Miss RENi I. BISBEE, 



TEACHER OF P3AN0, 

LANG STUDIOS, 
6 NEWBURY STREET. 



LUCY. FRANCES GERRISH, 



PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION. 

GERRISH STUDIO, 
140 Boylston Street . . Boston. 



EDITH LYNWOOD WINN, 



LECTURE-RECITALS 



This season, Russian, Hungarian, 17th 
Normal and Teachers' Courses for ^^^^ j3th Century Music. 

Violin. 



Children's classes at special rates 



TRINITY COURT 



BOSTON. 



The Guckenberger School of 
Music. 

B. GUCKENBERGER, Director. 



Piano, Voice, Violin (and all orchestral 
instruments), Theory, Musical Analysis, 
Analytical Harmony, Composition, Score 
Reading, Chorus and Orchestral Con- 
ducting. 
30 Huntington Avenue Boston 



HENRY T. WADE, 



Teacher of 

Pianoforte, Church Organ, 

Theory of Music. 

Steinert Hall, Boston. 
77 Newtonville Avenue, Newton. 



CLARENCE B. SHIRLEY, 



Tenor Soloist and Teacher. 
Concert and Oratorio. 

studio, Huntington Chambers, Boston. 



167 



RICHARD PLATT, 



PIANIST. 



23 Steinert Hall . . Boston. 

Mason & Hamlin Piano. 



CHARLES S. JOHNSON, 



PIANO, ORGAN, 
HARMONY. 



LANG STUDIO, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Iss HARRIET A. SHAW, 



HARPIST. 

186 COMMONWEALTH AVENUE 

Telephone. 



SAM L. STUDLEY. 



Pierce Buildingt Copley Square^ Room 313. 

INSTRUCTION IN THE 
ART OF SINGING. 

OPERA, ORATORIO, AND SONQ. 



Miss JESSIE DAVIS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
289 Newbury Street, Boston. 



Miss Rose Stewarf^j 

Vocal Instruction. 

246 Huntington Avenue. 



Miss EDim E. TORREY, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

164 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 
Tuesdays and Fridays at Wellesley College. 



Mrs. E. C. WALDO. 

Teacher of Miusic. 

Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



HELEN ALLE/N HUNT, 

CONTRALTO SOLOIST. 

Teacher of Singing. 
No. 514 Pierce Building . Boston. 



BOSTON MUSICAL BUREAU. 

Established 1899. 
Supplies Schools, Colleges, and Conservatories 
with Teachers of Music, etc.; also Churches with 
Organists, Directors, and Singers. 

Address HENRY C. LAHEE, 
'Phone, 475-1 Oxford. ziSTremont St., Boston 



Mrs. 5. B. FIELD, 

Teacher of the Piano and Accompanist. 
HOTEL NOTTINGHAM. 

Mrs. Field makes a specialty of Coaching, in both 
vocal and instrumental music. 

Artists engaged, programmes arranged, and all 
responsibility assumed for private musicales. 



Miss MARIE L EVERETT, : 

Teacher of Singing. 

Pupil of MADAME MARCHESI, 

Paris. 

THE COPLEY, BOSTON. 



Miss MARY D. CHANDLER, 

Concert Pianist and Teacher. 

Pupil of Philipp, Paris. 

149a TREMONT ST., Monday and Thursday. 

Residence, 5 Ashland Street, Dorchester. 

Telephone, 1828-3 Dorchester. 



Miss PAULA MUELLER, 

Teacher of Piano 
and German Language. 

STUDIOS, 
28 Central Avenue, Room 30, Steinert Hall 

MEDFORD. BOSTON. 

RECITALS. 



158 



MR. ROBT. N. 
MRS. ROBT. N. 



LISTER CHARLOTTE WHITE. 

I Violoncellist of the Carolyn Belcher String Quartet. 

Teacher of Singing, j 

Soprano Soloist. | TEACHER AND SOLOIST. 

608 Huntington Chambers, Boston, Mass. 



Symphony Chambers, opposite Symphony Hall, 
BOSTON. 



Mrs.V.PERNAUX=SCHUMANN, 

TEACHER OF FRENCH and GERMAN. 
French and German Diction a Specialty. 

32 BATAVIA STREET, Suite 8, BOSTON. 



Mr. EIVIIL MAMR, 

JOACHIM SCHOOL. 
Address, 69 Crawford St., Roxbury, Mass. 



THOMAS L. CUSHMAN, 

VOCAL TEACHER. 
2i8 TREMONT STREET. 



L. B. 

MERRILL 



BASS SOLOIST 

AND 

TEACHER. 

2i8 Tremont Street. 



Mrae. de BERQ-LOFGREN, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

The "GARCIA" Method. 
Studio, 12 Westland Avenue. BOSTON, MASS. 



Mrs. H. CARLETON SLACK, 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Lyric Soprano. Concerts and Recitals. 
Lessons at residence, 128 Hemenway Street. 



Miss PEARL BRICE, 

CONCERT VIOLINIST, TEACHER. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



Mrs.LOUISELATHROP MELLOWS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 

STUDIO, Jefferson HaU, 
Trinity Court, Dartmouth Street, Bostoa. 



Miss M. B. HARTWELL, 

PIANO AND HARMONY. 
Studio, 9 St. James Avenue. 

Miss HartweU has but recently returned from 

Vienna, where she studied the Leschetizky 

Method for three years and a half. 



VIOLET IRENE WELLINGTON, 

Humorous and Dramatic Reader. 

Also 
Teacher of Voice, Elocution, Physical Culture. 

59 "Westland Avenue. 

Telephone, 3439-1 Back Bay. 



STUDIOS 

Assistant, GRACE R. HORNE 

312 PIERCE BUILDING 
COPLEY SQUARE 



VOICE 



LUISE LEIMER, 

Contralto Soloist and Teacher of Singing. 

Studio, 23 Crawford Street 

and Steinert Building. 

Miss RUTH LAIGHTON, 

Violinist and Teacher 

19 Chestnut Street - Boston 



Miss jane:t duff, 

(7 years pupil of Francis Korbay) 

Contralto, Concerts, Oratorios, and Song Recitals. 

Teacher of Voice Production and Singing. 

Studio, 402 Huntington Chambers. 

Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday morn- 
ings 



Miss KARIE WARE LAUGHTON, 

Lecturer and Reader of Shakspere. 
Instructor of tlie VOICE IN SPEECH. 
Courses of Study for Personal Culture and Pro- 
fessional Training. 
418 PIERCE BUILDING. COPLEY SQUARE 



Allen H. Daugherty, 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION, 
HARMONY. 

Tel., Oxford 1629-1. 218 Tremont Street. 



MlisslVf ARY A.STOWELL, 

Teacher oF Piano and Narmony. 
The ILKLEY, 

Huntington Avenue and Cumberland Street. 
(Cumberland Street entrance ) 



Miss KATHERINE LINCOLN, 

Soprano Soloist. 
Teacher of Singing. 

514 Pierce Building, Copley Square, Boston. 


BARITONE. 

George W. Mull, 

Teacher of Singing. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue,Boston. 


JOHN CROGAN MANNING, 

CONCERT PIANIST and TEACHER. 

Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday 
afternoons 

Symphony Chambers, 246 Huntington Ave. 


Mr. WILLIS W. GOLDTHWAIT, 

Teacher of Piano. 

Thorough instruction in Harmony, class or private. 

7 ParK Square, Boston. 


JOHN BEACH, 

PIANIST. 
10 Charles Street. 


Miss MARGARET GORHAM, 

PIANIST. 

Trinity Court. Boston. 


Mrs. H8RAM HALL, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
118 Charles Street. 


Mrs. Alice Wentworth MaoGregor, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
Residence Studio, 780 Beacon Street. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Abbot Academy. 


Mrs. NELLIE EVANS PACKARD. 

Studio, 218 Tremont Street (Room 308), Boston. 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Mrs. Packard is commended by Walker, Randegger 
(London), Marchesi, Bouhy, Trabadelo (Paris), 
Leoni (Milan), Vannuccini (Florence), Cotogni, 
Franceschetti (Rome). 


Mr. P. FIUI^ARA 

Will furnish a Small Orchestra of mem- 
bers of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
for Musicales, Dinners, Receptions, etc. 

Address, Symphony Hall. 



ARTHUR THAYER, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
200 Huntington Avenue 



Mr. CHARLES DUMAS, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 
Former Assistant at Harvard. 

French (all grades), Lectures, Diction, 

Elocution, etc. 
286 Columbus Ave.,Opp. Back Bay Station. 



CLAUDE HACKELTON, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, Room 515, Boston 



EVEREH E. TRUETTE, 

CONCERT ORGANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, BOSTON. 



EDWIN N. C. BARNES, 

Basso Cantate and 
Teacher of Singing. 

Symphony Chambers . . . Boston. 

Opposite Symphony Hall. 



Concert. Oratorio 

Mrs. AflfinDAD SOPRANO 
Lafayette I1UUUDIIII9 30L0IST. 
TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Thorough preparation for Concert and Church. 

Studio . . Steinert HaU. 

( 'Phone, Oxford 1330. Mondays and Thursdays . 

160 



Willy Hess 

Concert-master of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
First Violin of the Hess-Schroeder Quartet, 
and a virtuoso of international re- 
nown, writes as follows of the 

PIANOS 



MASON & HAMLIN CO.: 

Dear Sirs, — I write to offer you my sincere congratu- 
lations on the manufacture of your very beautiful pianos, — 
they are to me matchless. As you are aware, I have heard 
the Mason & Hamlin piano at many concerts given by my 
quartet, and with orchestra, and it has been my constant 
companion at my home. It has never failed to meet all the 
demands, however exacting, made upon it, and I believe 
that the Mason & Hamlin pianos excel all others in the 
essential qualities which go to make up an artistic piano of 
the very first quality. 

(Signed) PROFESSOR WILLY HESS. 



MASON&HAMLIN COMPANY 

Opp. Institute of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 




HERE are many 
things which may 
be prophesied for 
the future, but it is 
a fixed fact that the 
STEINWAY Piano 
will continue to be the 
Standard of the World. 

The Steinway Organiza- 
tion insures this. 

STEINWAY & SONS 

NEW YORK 
LONDON HAMBURG 



REPBESENTEI> BY 

M. STEINERT & SONS COMPANY 
162 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 




PRoGRSAAE 






TENSION RESONATOR 

(PATENTED IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE) 

Used exclusively in the 

PIANOS 

T'he Three Rpoch-making Discoveries 

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF GRAND PIANOS ARE 

First, The French Repeating Action, 182 1 

Second, The Full Iron Frame and Over-strung Scale, 1859 

Third, The Mason & Hamlin Tension Resonator, 1900, — 

the most important of the three, as it pertains to tone 
production 

QjjL L T-.n« i" ^ piano is dependent upon the crown, or arch, 

UdlUy 01 1 OlHi of its sounding-board. Loss of tone-quahty is 
caused by the flattening of the sounding-board through the action of the 
atmosphere and the great downward pressure of the strings. 

The Mason & liamlin Tension Resonator 

Permanently preserves the crown, or arch, of the sounding-board, and gives to 
the Mason & Hamlin piano a superior quality of tone and a tone which is inde- 
structible. 

A Technical Description in "The Scientific American" of October 11, 

1902, CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING: 

"One imperfection in the modern pianoforte, found even in the instruments 
made by standard makers, has been the loss in tone quality, due to the inability 
of the sounding board to retain its tension. The problem seems at last to have 
been satisfactorily solved by a most simple and ingenious construction embodied 
in the pianos of Mason & Hamlin of Boston, U.S.A." 

A copy of the Scientific American article will be mailed upon application 

MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

0pp. Inst, of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON <S- MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

^ , . ( Ticket Office, 1492 I „ , „ 

Telephones ] Administratiin Offices. 3200 \ Back Bay 

TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

pr0gramm? of tijp 

Third 
Rehearsal and Concert 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIP- 
TIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 




FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 23 
AT 2.30 O'CLOCK 

SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 24 
AT 8.00 O'CLOCK 

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY C. A. ELLIS 
PUBLISHED BY C. A. ELLIS, MANAGER 



161 



Mme. CECILE CHAMINADE 

The World's Greatest "Woman Composer 

Mme. TERESA CARRENO 

The World's Greatest Woman Pianist 

Mme. LILLIAN NORDICA 

The World's Greatest Woman Singer 

USE 



^^ Piano. 



THE JOHN CHURCH CO., 37 West sad Street 
New York City 



REPRESENTED BY 

G. L SCHIRMER & GO,, 3S Huntington Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



162 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

PERSONNEL 



Twenty-eighth Season, 1908=1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 







First Violins. 




Hess, Willy Roth, O. 

Concert-master. Kuntz, D. 
Noack, S 


Hoffmann, J. 
Fiedler, E. 


Krafft, W. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


Mahn, F. 
Strube, G. 


Eichheim, H. 
Rissland, K. 


Bak, A. 
Kibarsch, A. 

Second Violins. 


Mullaly, J. 
Traupe, W. 


Barleben, K. 
Fiumara, P. 


Akeroyd, J. 
Currier, F. 


Fiedler, B. 
Rennert, B. 


Berger, H. 
Eichler, J. 


Tischer-Zeitz, 
Goldstein, S. 


H. Kuntz, A. 
Kurth, R. 


Marble, E. 
Goldstein, H. 

Violas. 




Ferir, E. 
Scheurer, K. 


Heindl, H. 
Hoyer, H. 


Zahn, F. Kolster, A. 
Kluge, M. Sauer, G. 

Violoncellos. 


Krauss, H. 
Gietzen, A. 


Warnke, H. 
Keller, J. 


Nagel, R. 
Kautzenbach, A. 


Barth, C. Loeffler, E. 
Nast, L. Hadley, A. 

Basses. 


Warnke, J. 
Smalley, R. 


Keller, K. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Agiiesy, K. 
Kunze, M. 


Seydel, T. 
Huber, E. 


Ludwig, O. 
Schurig, R. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Maquarre, A. 
Maquarre, D. 
Brooke, A. 
Fox, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Sautet, A. 

English Horn. 


Grisez, G. Sadony. P. 
Mimart, P. Mueller, E. 
Vannini, A. Regestein, E. 

Bass Clarinet. Contra-Bassoon. 




Mueller, F. 


Stumpf, K. 


Helleberg, J. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. Trombones. Tuba. 


Hess, M. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Phair, J. 


Schmid, K. 
Gebhardt, W. 
Hackebarth, A. 
Schumann, C. 


Kloepfe], L. Hampe, C. Lorenz, O. 
Mann, J. Mausebach, A. 
Heim, G. Kenfield, L. 
Merrill, C. 


Harp. 


Tympani. 


Percussion. 


Schuecker, H. 


Rettberg, A. 


Dworak, J. 


Senia, T. 




Kandler, F. 


Ludwig, C. 

Librarian. 
Sauerquell, J. 


Burkhardt, H 



163 




OTttiktrtng 




i^tano 



Bears a name which has become known to purchasers 
as representing the highest possible value produced 
in the piano industry. 

It has been associated with all that is highest and best 
in piano making since 1823. 

Its name is the hall mark of piano worth and is a 
guarantee to the purchaser that in the instrument 
bearing it, is incorporated the highest artistic value 
possible. 



CHICK ERING & SONS 

PIANOFORTE MAKERS 

Established 1823 



791 TREMONT STREET 

Cor. NORTHAMPTON ST. 
Near Mass. Ave. 



BOSTON 





4aacfciid < 



TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, NINETEEN HUNDRED EIGHT AND NINE 



Third Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 23, at 2.30 o'clock. 
SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 24, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 



Beethoven . . Symphony No. 3, in E-flat major, "Eroica," Op. 55 

I. Allegro con brio. 

II. Marcia f unebre : Adagio assai. 

III. Scherzo: Allegro vivace; Trio. 

IV. Finale : Allegro molto. 



MacDowell . "Lamia," third Symphonic Poem (after Keats), Op. 29 

First performance 

Wagner .... Prelude to "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg" 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony. 



The doors of the hall will he closed during the performance of 
each number on the programme. Those who wish to leave before 
the end of the concert are requested to do so in an interval 66- 
tween the numbers. 



City of Boston. Revised Reiiulation of Auiiust 5. 189$.— Chapter 3. relating to the 
coverinii of the head in places of public amusement. 

Every licensee shall not, in his place of amusement, allow any person to wear upon the head a covering 
which obstructs the view of the exhibition or performance in such place of any person seated in any seat therein 
provided for spectators, it being understood that a low head covering without projection, which does not 
obstruct such view, may be worn. Attest : J. M. GALVIN, City Clerk. 

165 




THE KNABE^PIANO 

^11 1 III 



with its supreme st£uidard of musical excellence and its many styles of case, ranging from 
the simplest to the most elaborate, is witliin reach of the man of fine musiced tztste, be 
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Symphony No. 3, in E-flat major, "Eroica," Op. 55. 

LuDwiG VAN Beethoven. 

(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

Anton Schindler wrote in his Life of Beethoven (Miinster, 1840): 
''First in the fall of 1802 was his [Beethoven's] mental condition so 
much bettered that he could take hold afresh of his long-formulated 
plan and make some progress : to pay homage with a great instrumental 
work to the hero of the time. Napoleon. Yet not until 1803 did he 
set himself seriously to this gigantic work, v/hich we now know under 
the title of 'Sinphonia Eroica' : on account of many interruptions it 
was not finished until the following year. . . . The first idea of this sym- 
phony is said to have come from General Bernadotte, who was then 
French Ambassador at Vienna, and highly treasured Beethoven. I 
heard this from many friends of Beethoven. Count Moritz Lichnow- 
sky, who was often with Beethoven in the company of Bernadotte, . . . 
told me the same story." Schindler also wrote, with reference to the 
year 1823 : "The correspondence of the King of Sweden led Beethoven's 
memory back to the time when the King, then General Bernadotte, 
Ambassador of the French Republic, was at Vienna, and Beethoven 
had a lively recollection of the fact that Bernadotte indeed first awak- 
ened in him the idea of the 'Sinphonia Eroica.'" 

These statements are direct. Unfortunately, Schindler, in the third 
edition of his book, mentioned Beethoven as a visitor at the house of 
Bernadotte in 1798, repeated the statement that Bernadotte inspired 
the idea of the symphony, and added: "Not long afterward the idea 
blossomed into a deed"; he also laid stress on the fact that Beethoven 
was a stanch republican, and cited, in support of his admiration of 
Napoleon, passages from Beethoven's own cop}' of " Schleiermacher's 
translation of Plato. 



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Thayer admits that the thought of Napoleon may have influenced 
the form and the contents of the symphony, and that the composer 
may have based a system of poHtics on Plato; "but," he adds, "Ber- 
nadotte had been long absent from Vienna before the Consular form 
of government was adopted at Paris, and before Schleiermacher's 
Plato was published in Berlin." 

The symphony was composed in 1 803-1 804. The story is that the 
title-page of the manuscript bore the word "Buonaparte" and at the 
bottom of the page "L-uigi van Beethoven"; "and not a word more," 
said Ries, who saw the manuscript. "I was the first," also said Ries 
"who brought him the news that Bonaparte had had himself declared 
Emperor, whereat he broke out angrily: 'Then he's nothing but an 
ordinary man ! Now he'll trample on all the rights of men to serve his 
own ambition; he will put himself higher than all others and turn 
out a tyrant!'" 

Furthermore, there is the story that, when the death of Napoleon 
at St. Helena was announced, Beethoven exclaimed, "Did I not foresee 
the catastrophe when I wrote the funeral march in the 'Eroica'?" 

The original score of the symphony was bought in 1827 by Joseph 
Dessauer for three florins, ten kreuzers, at auction in Vienna. On 
the title-page stands "Sinfonia grande." Two words ' that should 
follow immediately were erased. One of these words is plainly "Bona- 
parte," and under his own name the composer wrote in large charac- 
ters with a lead-pencil: "Written on Bonaparte." 

Thus it appears there can be nothing in the statements that have 
come down from Czerny, Dr. Bartolini, and others: the first allegro 
describes a sea-fight; the funeral march is in memory of Nelson or 
General Abercrombie, etc. There can be no doubt that Napoleon, 
the young conqueror, the Consul, the enemy of kings, worked a spell 

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over Beethoven, as over Berlioz, Hazlitt, Victor Hugo; for, according 
to W. E. Henley's paradox, although, as despot, Napoleon had "no 
love for new ideas and no tolerance for intellectual independence," 
yet he was "the great First Cause of Romanticism." 

The symphony was first performed at a private concert at Prince 
Lobkowitz's in Decem.ber, 1804. The composer conducted, and in 
the second half of the first allegro he brought the orchestra to grief, so 
that a fresh start was made. The first performance in public was at 
a concert given by Clement at the Theater an der Wien, April 7, 1805. 
The symphony was announced as "A new grand Symphony in D- 
sharp by Herr Ludwig van Beethoven, dedicated to his ^Excellence 
Prince von Lobkowitz." Beethoven conducted. Czerny remembered 
that some one shouted from the gallery: "I'd give another kreuzer if 
they would stop." Beethoven's friends declared the work a master- 
piece. Some said it would gain if it were shortened, if there was more 
"light, clearness, and unity." Others found it a mixture of the good, 
the grotesque, the tiresome. 

The symphony was published in October, 1806. The title in Italian 
stated that it was to celebrate the memory of a great man. And there 
was this note: "Since this syniphony is longer than an ordinary sym- 
phony, it should be performed at the beginning rather than at the end 
of a concert, either after an overture or an aria, or after a concerto. 
If it be performed too late, there is the danger that it will not produce 
on the audience, whose attention will be already wearied by preceding 
pieces, the effect which the composer purposed in his own mind to 



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concert of the Musical Fund Society, Mr. G. J. Webb conductor, 
December 13, 1851, The programme was as follows: — 

PART I. 

I. Grand Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" Beethoven 

(First time in Boston.) 

PART II. 

1. Grand Overture to "Waverley" Berlioz 

(First time in Boston.) • 

2. Cavatina, "Robert, toi que j'aime" Mayerbeer (sic) 

Mme. GoRiA BoTho. 

3. Fantaisie pour la clarionette, avec accompag't d'orchestra, "L'Attente 

et TArrivee" {sic), Op. 180 G. G. Reissiger 

Thomas Ryan. 

4. Air from "Charles VI." Halevy 

Mme. GoRiA BoTho. 

5. Grand Fantaisie for the 'Cello, on a theme from "Robert the Devil" 

and an original theme by Molique F. A. Kummer 

WuLF Fries. 

6. Overture, " II Barbiere de Seviglia " Rossini 

* 
* * 

The first movement, Allegro con brio, E-flat major, 3-4, opens with 

two heavy chords for full orchestra, after which the chief theme is given 

out by the 'cellos. This theme is note for note the same as that of 

the first measures of the Intrade written by Mozart in 1786 at Vienna 

for his one-act operetta, "Bastien et Bastienne," performed in 1786 



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at a Viennese garden-liouse (K. 50). Mozart's theme is in G major. 
Beethoven's theme is finished by the violins and developed at length. 
There is a subsidiary theme, which begins with a series of detached 
phrases distributed among wood-wind instruments and then the violins. 
The second theme, of a plaintive character, is given out alternately by 
wood-wind and strings. The development is most elaborate, full of 
striking contrasts, rich in new ideas. The passage in which the horn 
enters with the first two measures of the first theme in the tonic chord 
of the key, while the violins keep up a tremolo on A-flat and B-flat, 
has given rise to many anecdotes and provoked fierce discussion. The 
coda is of unusual length. 

The funeral march. Adagio assai, C minor, 2-4, begins, pianissimo 
e sotto voce, with the theme in the first violins, accompanied by simple 
chords in the other strings. The theme is repeated by the oboe, 
accompanied by wood-wind instruments and strings; and the strings 
give the second portion of the theme. A development by full orchestra 
follows. The second theme is in C major. Phrases are given out by 
various wood-wind instruments in alternation, accompanied by triplet 
arpeggios in the strings. This theme, too, is developed; and there is a 
return to the first theme in C minor in the strings. There is fugal 
development at length of a figure that is not closely connected with 
either of the two themes. The first theme reappears for a moment, 
but strings and brass enter fortissimo in A-flat major. This episode 
is followed by another; and at last the first theme returns in fragmen- 
tary form in the first violins, accompanied by a pizzicato bass and chords 
in oboes and horns. 



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Scherzo: Allegro vivace, E-flat major, 3-4. Strings are pianissimo 4 
and staccato, and oboe and first violins play a gay theme which Marx 
says is taken from an old Austrian folk-song. This melody is the basic 
material of the scherzo. The trio in E-flat major includes hunting- 
calls by the horns, which are interrupted by passages in wood-wind 
instruments or strings. 

Finale: Allegro molto, E-flat major, 2-4. A^theme,^or, rather, a 
double theme, with variations ; and Beethoven was fond of this theme, 
for he had used it in the finale of his ballet, "Die Geschopfe des Pro- 
metheus," in the Variations for pianoforte. Op. 35, and in a country 
dance. After a few measures of introduction, the bass to the melody 
which is to come is given out, as though it were an independent theme. 
The first two variations in the strings are contrapuntal. In the third 
the tuneful second theme is in the wood-wind against runs in the first 
violins. The fourth is a long fugal development of the first theme 
against a counter-subject found in the first variation. Variations in 
G minor follow, and the second theme is heard in C major. There is 
a new fugal development of the inverted first theme. The tempo 
changes to poco andante, wood-wind instruments play an expressive 
version of the second theme, which is developed to a coda for full 
orchestra, and the symphony ends with a jo}^ul glorification of the 
theme. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, three horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. 

* * 

What strange and even grotesque "explanations" of this symphony 
have been made ! 

At the second concert of the Philharmonic Society of New York, 
February 18, 1843, the following comments were printed on the pro- ] 
gramme: "This great work was commencecTwhen Napoleon was first 
Consul, and was intended to portray the workings of that extraordinary ! 
man's mind. In the first movement, the simple subject, keeping its 
uninterrupted way through harmonies that at times seem in almost 



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chaotic confusion, is a grand idea of Napoleon's determination of 
character. The second movement is descriptive of the funeral honors 
paid to one of his favorite generals, and is entitled 'Funeral March on 
the Death of a Hero.' The winding up of this movement represents 
the faltering steps of the last gazers into the grave, and the listener 
hears the tears fall on the coffin ere the funeral volley is fired and 
repeated faintly by an echo. The third movement (Minuet and Trio) 
describes the homeward march of the soldiery, and the Finale is a 
combination of French Revolutionary airs put together in a manner 
that no one save a Beethoven could have imagined." And this note, Mr. 
Krehbiel tells us, was inserted in the programme for several, even 
twenty-five, years after. 

Marx saw in the first movement of the symphony the incidents of a 
battle as it is preconceived in the mind of the conqueror. The different 
mcidents are characterized by the chief themes and their developments 
The ending with the return of the first theme is the triumph of the 
victor's plan. The funeral march pictures Night spreading her shade 
oyer the battlefield, which is covered with the corpses of those who 
died for glory; in the scherzo are heard the rejoicings of the soldiery 
homeward bound; and the finale is Peace consecrating the victories 
of the hero. 

Griepenkerl preferred to see in the fugued passage of the first move- 
ment the entrance of the nineteenth century. 

Berlioz insisted that there should be no thought of battles or 
triumphant marches, but rather profound reflections, melancholy 
recollections, imposing ceremonies,— in a word, the funeral oration 
over a hero. 

Wagner wrote: "The designation 'heroic' is to be taken in its widest 
sense, and in no wise to be conceived as relating merely to a military 
hero. If we broadly connote by 'hero' {'Held') the whole, the fuU- 
lledged man, in whom are present all the purely human feelings— of 
love, of grief, of force— in their highest fill and strength, then we shall 
rightly grasp the subject which the artist lets appeal to us in the 



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speaking accents of his tone-work. The artistic space of this work 
is filled with all the varied, intercrossing feelings of a strong, a consum- 
mate Individuality, to which nothing human is a stranger, but which 
includes within itself all truly Human, .and utters it in such a fashion 
that, after frankly manifesting every noble passion, it reaches a final 
rounding of its nature, wherein the most feeling softness is wedded 
with the most energetic force. The heroic tendency of this art work 
is the progress toward that rounding off" (Englished by Mr. W. A. 
Ellis). And Wagner explained on these lines each movement. As 
the second shows the "deeply, stoutly suffering man," so the scherzo 
reveals the "gladly, blithely doing man"; while the finale shows us 
finally "the man entire, harmoniously at one with self, in those emotions 
where the Memory of Sorrow becomes^ itself the shaping -force of 
noble Deeds." 

Nor should the " rededication " of the "Eroica" to Bismarck by von 
Biilow, cher unique, as Liszt frequently called him, be forgotten. Von 
Billow said, at a concert of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Berlin (May 
28, 1892): "Yes, the hero was the quintessence of the world to Beet- 
hoven. We cannot know, we cannot surmise, what slumbered in his 
soul. Perhaps there slumbered the picture of the great American 
citizen, George Washington. But he looked for a hero of his own time, 
a European hero; and his eyes fell on the great star of Bonaparte." 

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181 



"IvAmia/' Third Symphonic Poibm, (after Keats), Op. 29. 

Edward MacDowelI/ 

(Born in New York, December 18, 1861; died there, January 23, 1908.) 

This symphonic poem was pubHshed a few weeks ago by Arthur P. 
Schmidt, of Boston, Leipsic, and New York. 

The score, dedicated to Henry T. Finck, has an argument printed in 
German and EngHsh. The English version is as follows: — 

Lamia, an enchantress in the form of a serpent, loves Lycius, a young Corinthian. 
In order to win him, she prays to Hermes, who answers her appeal by transforming 
her into a lovely maiden. Lycius meets her in the wood, is smitten with love for 
her, and goes with her to her enchanted palace, where the wedding is celebrated 
with great splendor. But suddenly ApoUonius, the magician, appears ; he reveals 
the magic. Lamia again assumes the form of a serpent, the enchanted palace 
vanishes, and Lycius is found lifeless. 

The symphonic poem is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba, kettledrums, cymbals, tam-tam, and the usual strings. 

The introductory section is a slow movement, Lento misterioso, 
con tristezza, 9-8, with a theme that is afterward much used in various 
forms. After a long, stormy crescendo and crashing climax, an episode 
for wind instruments and strings (3-4) leads to an Allegro con fuoco, 
B-flat major, 9-8. This movement opens with a fanfare passage for 
muted horns with theme for violins. The passage for horns, reinforced 
by bassoons, returns fortissimo. There is development of this thematic 
material. The contrasting section is a Piti moderato, e con tenerezza, 
with a long and flowing theme. After a return to the mood of the 
opening measures, comes a long Allegro con fuoco, with restless theme 
for first violins. A fortissimo section, maestoso, changes the mood, but 



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only for a moment. The fury of the Allegro subsides. The clarinet 
laments. The poem ends with a few furious measures. 

* 
* * 

I am indebted to Mrs. Edward MacDowell for the following informa- 
tion concerning the composition and history of the work : " It [ " Lamia ' '] 
was written in 1888, that is to say practically finished, though the 
score was not in shape until the following year. We were in Wies- 
baden,* then, living in the little cottage we had on the edge of the 
forest. . . . Edward worked feverishly on the 'Eamia,' realizing that 
his few free years were coming to an end. Both Shelley and Keats 
had taken hold of him that year, for, strange to say, they were unknown 
to him before we were married. He read them with the vivid imagi- 
nation with which the unreal always filled him, though in a way the 
'Lamia' seemed a strange subject for him to choose. It was never 
published until now for the simple reason that, when he would have 
been glad to see it in print, he did not have the money necessary, nor 
had he had the opportunity of hearing it played. 

"When we came to America, he ran up against the fact that it would 
be impossible for him to get any orchestra to try over a composition 
for him in a rehearsal unless it were going to be played in a concert. 
He never wanted to publish a work unheard, and in Germany it had 
been a simple and easy thing to accomplish. I can see, as if it were 
yesterday, the kindly faces of the members of different orchestras in 
Wiesbaden, Darmstadt, Frankfort, so wihing to help out the young 

* Frankfort had little interest for MacDowell after the death of Rafi in 1882. In 1884 he married Miss 
Marian Nevins, of New York, and in 1885 he made his'home at Wiesbaden until he returned to America. At 
Wiesbaden he gave his undivided attention to composition, and, according to the statement in Mr. Lawrence 
Oilman's "Edward MacBowell" (London and New York, 1905), he wrote at Wiesbaden all that is comprised 
between his Op. 23 and 3s, — the second pianoforte concerto; the four pieces of Op. 24; "Lancelot and 
Elaine," for orchestra; the songs, "From an Old Garden"; three songs for male chorus; the "Idyls" and 
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shine," "Winter"; the songs of Op. 33 and Op. 34; and the Romance for 'cello and orchestra. — P. H. 



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Atnerican by trying over his compositions. As I think of it now, 
it seems quite wonderful, the ease with which all this came. For 
instance, the 'Hamlet and Ophelia,' I think, was tried over at least 
twice. The 6nly grumble I ever heard was over the voice parts. I 
copied most of them, and the early ones must have been awful! I 
can hear an old musician say under his breath, 'Schrecklich copiert,' 
until he saw my look of distress and guessed the truth ! Then he gave 
me a kindly nod, as much as to say, 'You will improve.' 

"When the money was there for the necessary expense, or when he 
might have been able to have it printed for nothing, it was too late. 
Edward felt then that the 'Lamia' belonged to a period quite different 
from the work he was doing, and he was most critical about work he 
had finished. I think I do not exaggerate when I say, I doubt whether 
he would have published any of his compositions if they had been 
laid aside for even three or four years. He was merciless in his judg- 
ment of himself. But, as it chanced, he never had any trouble in find- 
ing a publisher for all he wrote, though with the orchestral things, as 
I said before, he helped pay for all the early compositions. 

"As the years rolled on, newer music pushed, 'Lamia' aside, 
though it was always on the list of his printed works. Finally, his 
feeling was that it was too late for it to appear as a recent work, too 
soon to stand as a youthful one. Repeatedly, he said to me, 'When 

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187 



I am old, I shall have it printed, though there is a lot in the orches- 
tra tion|I should like to change.' This he said of his printed works 
as well. 

"I hope I shall not be misunderstood in this matter. There has 
not been one particle of vanity in wishing to add to Edward's pub- 
lished works, and, fine as the 'I^amia' may or may not be, I think I am 
not wrong in saying that his reputation in the future will rest greatly 
on the work he did in the twelve years, between 1890 and 1902. The 
'Lamia' was written when he was twenty-six. 

"Three reasons decided me to have it published: first, because he 
himself repeatedly said that in years to come he would do this, and 
for that reason he would allow it to stay on his list of compositions; 
secondly, I feel the wisdom of doing this while I am still alive, and 
with authority can say that the 'Lamia' is in exactly the same con- 
dition it was when first written, — not one note changed; thirdly, it 
were better to publish it at once, during my lifetime, and avoid the 
possibility of any question of its authenticity in the future. Whether 
I have been wise or not, of that I cannot be sure. I hope the 'Lamia' 
will be listened to and judged for just what it is, — a youthful work, 
interesting as such." 

MacDowell, while he was living in Boston, spoke to me about his 
"Lamia," but only incidentally, when the conversation was about 
various poets. He said, or rather he shyly admitted, that Keats's 
"Lamia" had impressed him so deeply that he once wrote a sym- 
phonic poem based on it. "If I ever have the time, I may rewrite 
it." The subject of the poem evidently interested him then, and he 
spoke of his own work with affection; but he said he had no wish to 
publish it as then written. He said at the same time that he should 
like to rewrite pages of his "Lancelot and Elaine." As he remembered 
the music of the latter symphonic poem, it was "too full of horns." 

Mr. Arthur P. Schmidt, who has done much for the interests and 
the reputation of American composers, says that about two years 
before MacDowell was taken sick they drew up together a catalogue 
of MacDowell's compositions. This catalogue, which is now current, 
though published by Mr. Schmidt, includes all compositions of Mac- 




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188 



Dowell in the catalogues of other pubHshers. In this complete cata- 
logue the "Lamia" was included in the list of orchestral works, 
though no publisher was then named. When Messrs. MacDowell 
and Schmidt were at work on this catalogue, the former destroyed 
manuscripts that he did not wish to leave behind him, for, though 
he was apparently robust, he had then the premonition that he should 
not live after his forty-fifth birthday, and this he said to Mr. Schmidt. 
Among these manuscripts was a sketch of a string quartet. I am told 
that a manuscript of three movements of a symphony is now in 
existence, but there was never any thought of publishing this work 
either when the composer was living or since his death. 

* 

Keats was fond of Robert Burton's "Anatomy of Melancholy." 
Charles Brown gave him a copy* of it in 1819. Keats read it care- 
fully "with pen in hand, scoring the margins constantly, even when 
not annotating and underlining freely. He also began an index of 
special passages on the last fly-leaf. Now and again his note is but a 
word, a name, or a parallel quotation; once it is but a note of exclama- 
tion. His underlinings are full of interesting suggestions connected 
with his life and works." 

He found the story of Lamia in Burton's book: "Third Partition, 
Second Section, First Member, First Subsection : Heroical Love causeth 
Melancholy. His Pedigree, Power, and Extent." And the story is 
told as follows: — 

"Philostratus in his fourth book, 'De Vita Apollonii,' hath a mem- 
orable instance in this kind, which I may not omit, of one Menippus 
Lycius, a young man twenty-five years of age, that, going between 
Cenchreas and Corinth, met such a phantasm in the habit of a fair 
gentlewoman, which, taking him by the hand, carried him home to her 
house in the suburbs of Corinth, and told him she was a Phoenician 
by birth, and if he would tarry with her, 'he would hear her sing and 
play, and drink such wine as never any drank, and no man should 

* After the death of Keats this book went back to Brown, whose son, Major Charles Brown, of Taranaki, 
New Zealand, gave it to Sir Charles Dilke. 



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molest him; but she being fair and lovely would live and die with 

him that was fair and lovely to behold.' The young man, a philoso- 
pher, otherwise staid and discreet, able to moderate his passions, 
though not this of love, tarried with her awhile to his great content, 
and at last married her, to whose wedding, amongst other guests, 
came Apollonius, who, by some probable conjectures, found her out to 
be a serpent, a lamia, and that all her furniture was like Tantalus' 
gold described by Homer, no substance, but mere illusions. When she 
saw herself descried, she wept and desired Apollonius to be silent, but 
he would not be moved, and thereupon she, plate, house and all that 
was in it, vanished in an instant: many thousands took note of this 
fact, for it was done in the midst of Greece." 

There is a striking version of this tale in Alexandre Dumas' fan- 
tastical "Isaac Laquedem," which was never completed; and in Flau- 
bert's "Temptation of St. Anthony," Damis tells the story to Anthony, 
while Apollonius stands by silently exulting. 

* 
* * 

Keats wrote from Winchester to his brother George, September i8, 
1 819: "I have been reading over a part of a short poem I have com- 
posed lately called 'Lamia,' and I am certain there is that sort of fire 
in it which must take hold of people in some way. Give them either 
pleasant or unpleasant sensation, — what they want is a sensation of 
some sort." He had written to Benjamin Bailey on August 15 of the 
same year : "I have written two tales, one from Boccaccio called ' The 
Pot of Basil,' and another called 'St. Agnes's Eve,' on a popular super- 
stition, and a third called 'Lamia' (half finished)." We know from a 
letter of Keats to Reynolds that the first part of the poem was finished 
by July 12 of that year. "I have great hopes of success," he added, 
"because I make use of my judgment more deliberately than I have 
yet done; but in case of failure with the world, I shall find my con- 
tent." The extract from Burton is not in the manuscript copy; but 
there is this foot-note on page i: "The groundwork of this story will 
be found in Burton's 'Anatomy of Melancholy,' Part 3, Sect. 3, Memb. 
ist. Subs, ist." 



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191 



ENTR'ACTE. 

KEATS'S "LAMIA." 
Part I. 
Hermes searches after the nymph "to whom all hoofed Satyrs 
kndt." 

There as he stood, he heard a mournful voice. 

Such as once heard, in gentle heart, destroys 

All pain but pity: thus the lone voice spake: 

"When from this wreathed tomb shall I awake! 

When move in a sweet body fit for life. 

And love, and pleasure, and the ruddy strife j? 

Of hearts and lips! Ah, miserable me!" 

The God, dove-footed, gUded silently 

Round bush and tree, soft-brushing, in his speed. 

The taller grasses and full-flowering weed. 

Until he found a palpitating snake. 

Bright, and cirque-couchant in a dusky brake. 

She was a gordian shape of dazzling hue. 
Vermilion-spotted, golden, green, and blue; 
Striped like a zebra, freckled Uke a pard. 
Eyed Uke a peacock, and all crimson barr'd ; 
And full of silver moons, that, as she breathed, 
Dissolv'd, or brighter shone, or interwreathed 
Their lustres with the gloomier tapestries — 
So rainbow-sided, touch'd with miseries. 
She seem'd, at once, some penanced lady elf, 
Some demon's mistress, or the demon's self. 
Upon her breast she wore a wannish fire 
Sprinkled with stars, like Ariadne's tiar: ■ 
Her head was serpent, but ah, bitter-sweet! 
She had a woman's mouth with all its pearls complete: 
And for her eyes: what could such eyes do there 



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But weep, and weep, that they were born so fair ? 
As Proserpine still weeps for her Sicilian air. 
Her throat was serpent, but the words she spake 
**4 Came, as through bubbling honey, for Love's sake. 

Then, once again, the charmed God began 

An oath, and through the serpent's ears it ran 

Warm, tremulous, devout, psalterian. 

Ravish'd, she lifted her Circean head, 

Blush'd a live damask, and swift-lisping said, 

"I was a woman, let me have once more 

A woman's shape, and charming as before. 

I love a youth of Corinth — O the bliss! 

Give me my woman's form, and place me where he is." 

^lf}~~ ' Left to herself, the serpent now began 

To change; her elfin blood in madness ran. 

Her mouth foam'd, and the grass, therewith besprent, 

Wither'd at dew so sweet and virulent; 

Her eyes in torture fix'd, and anguish drear. 

Hot, glaz'd, and wide, with lid-lashes all sear, 

Flash'd phosphor and sharp sparks, without one cooling tear. 

The colours all infiam'd throughout her train, 

She writh'd about, convuls'd with scarlet pain: 

A deep volcanian yellow took the place 

Of all her milder-mooned body's grace; 

And, as the lava ravishes the mead. 

Spoilt all her silver mail, and golden brede ; 

Made gloom of all her freckhngs, streaks and bars, 

EcUps'd her crescents, and lick'd up her stars: 

So that, in moments few, she was undrest 

Of all her sapphires, greens, and amethyst. 

And rubious-argent: of all these bereft, 

Nothing but pain and ugliness were left. 

Still shone her crown; that vanish'd, also she 

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Melted and disappear'd as suddenly; 
And in the air, her new voice luting soft, 
Cried, "Lycius! gentle Lycius!" — Borne aloft 
With the bright mists about the mountains hoar 
These words dissolv'd : Crete's forests heard no more. 

Whither fled Lamia, now a lady bright, 
A full-born beauty new and exquisite ? 
She fled into that valley they pass o'er 
Who go to Corinth from Cenchreas' shore; 
And rested at the foot of those wild hills, 
The rugged founts of the Peraean rills. 
And of that other ridge whose barren back 
Stretches, with all its mist and cloudy rack, 
South-westward to Cleone. There she stood 
About a young bird's flutter from a wood. 
Fair, on a sloping green of mossy tread, 
By a clear pool, wherein she passioned 
To see herself escap'd from so sore ills, 
While her robes flaunted with the daffodils. 

Ah, happy Lycius! — for she was a maid 
More beautiful than ever twisted braid. 
Or sigh'd, or blush'd, or on spring-flowered lea 
Spread a green kirtle to the minstrelsy: 
A virgin purest lipp'd, yet in the lore 
Of love deep learned to the red heart's core: 
Not one hour old, yet of sciential brain 
To unperplex bliss from its neighbour pain; 
Define their pettish limits, and estrange 
Their points of contact, and swift counterchange ; 
Intrigue with the specious chaos, and dispart 
Its most ambiguous atoms with sure art ; 
As though in Cupid's college she had spent 
Sweet days a lovely graduate, still unshent, 
And kept his rosy terms in idle languishment. 



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Why this fair creature chose so faerily 
By the wayside to Unger, we shall see; 
But first 'tis fit to tell how she could muse 
And dream, when in the serpent prison-house, 
Of all she list, strange or magnificent: 
How, ever, where she will'd, her spirit went; 
Whether to faint Elysium, or where 
Down through tress-lifting waves the Nereids fair 
Wind into Thetis' bower by many a pearly stair; 
Or where God Bacchus drains his cups divine, 
Stretch'd out, at ease, beneath a glutinous pine; 
Or where in Pluto's gardens palatine 
Muldber's columns gleam in far piazzian line. 
And sometimes into cities she would send 
Her dream, with feast and rioting to blend; 
And once, while among mortals dreaming thus. 
She saw the young Corinthian Lycius 
Charioting foremost in the envious race, 
Like a young Jove with calm uneager face. 
And fell into a swooning love of him. 
Now on the moth-time of that evening dim 
He would return that way, as well she knew , 
To Corinth from the shore; for freshly blew 
The eastern soft wind, and his galley now 
Grated the quaystones wdth her brazen prow 
In port Cenchreas, from Egina isle 




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Fresh anchor' d; whithef he had been awhile 

To sacrifice to Jove, whose temple there 

Waits with high marble doors for blood and incense rare. 

Jove heard his vows, and better'd his desire; 

For by some freakful chance he made retire 

From his companions, and set forth to walk, 

Perhaps grown wearied of their Corinth talk: 

Over the solitary hills he fared. 

Thoughtless at first, but ere eve's star appeared 

His phantasy was lost, where reason fades, 

In the calm'd twilight of Platonic shades. 

Lamia beheld him coming, near, more near — 

Close to her passing, in indifference drear. 

His silent sandals swept the mossy green; 

So neighbour' d to him, and yet so unseen 

She stood: he pass'd, shut up in mysteries, 

His mind wrapp'd like his mantle, while her eyes 

FoUow'd his steps, and her neck regal white 

Turn'd — syllabling thus, "Ah, Lycius bright, 

And will you leave me on the hills alone? 

Lycius, look back! and be some pity shown." 

He did ; not with cold wonder fearingly, 

But Orpheus-Uke at an Eurydice; 

For so deUcious were the words she sung. 

It seem'd he had lov'd them a whole summer long: 

And soon his eyes had drunk her beauty up. 

Leaving no drop in the bewildering cup. 

And still the cup was full, — while he, afraid 

Lest she should vanish ere his lip had paid 

Due adoration, thus began to adore; 

Her soft look growing coy, she saw his chain so sure: 

"Leave thee alone! Look back! Ah, Goddess, see 



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VANTINE'S ORIENTAL PERFUMES 

ARTISTIC LAMPS AND SHADES 

The freedom of Vantuie's is always yours, and involves no obligation on your part to 
purchase. 

IN THE BASEMENT 

Another new departure. In our large and spacious basement salesroom will he found 
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A. A. Vantine & Company j 



ORIENTALISTS and 
E W E L E R S 

BOSTON NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA 

a98 



Whether my eyes can ever turn from thee! 

For pity do not this sad heart beUe — 

Even as thou vanishest so shall I die. 

Stay! though a Naiad of the rivers, stay! 

To thy far wishes will thy streams obey: 

Stay! though the greenest woods be thy domain, 

Alone they can drink up the morning rain: 

Though a descended Pleiad, will not one 

Of thine harmonious sisters keep in tune 

Thy spheres, and as thy silver proxy shme? 

So sweetly to these ravish'd ears of mme 

Came thy sweet greeting, that if thou shouldst fade 

Thy memory will waste me to a shade: — 

For pity do not melt!"— "If I should stay," 

Said Lamia, "here, upon this floor of clay, 

And pain my steps upon these flowers too rough, 

What canst thou say or do of charm enough 

To dull the nice remembrance of my home? 

Thou canst not ask me with thee here to roam 

Over these hills and vales, where no joy is. 

Empty of immortality and bUss! 

Thou art a scholar, Lycius, and must know 

That finer spirits cannot breathe below 

In human climes, and Uve: Alas! poor youth. 

What taste of purer air hast thou to soothe 

My essence ? What serener palaces, 

Where I may all my many senses please. 

And by mysterious sleights a hundred thirsts appease? 

It cannot be— Adieu!" So said, she rose 

Tiptoe with white arms spread. He, sick to lose 

The amorous promise of her lone complain, 

Swoon'd, murmuring of love, and pale with pain. 

The cruel lady, without any show 

Of sorrow for her tender favourite's woe, 

But rather, if her eyes could brighter be. 

With brighter eyes and slow amenity, 

Put her new lips to his, and gave afresh 

The life she had so tangled in her mesh : 

And as he from one trance was wakening 

Into another, she began to sing, 

Happy in beauty, Ufe, and love, and every thing, 

A song of love, too sweet for earthly lyres, ,. ^ 

While; Uke held breath, the stars drew m their panting fires. 



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199 



And then she whisper'd in such trembling tone, 

As those who, safe together met alone 

For the first time through many anguish'd Jays, 

Use other speech than looks; bidding him raise 

His drooping head, and clear his soul of doubt. 

For that she was a woman, and without 

Any more subtle fluid in her veinsj 

Than throbbing blood, and that the self-same pains 

Inhabited her frail-strung heart as his. 

And next she wonder' d how his eyes could^miss 

Her face so long in Corinth, where, she said. 

She dwelt but half retir'd, and there had led 

Days happy as the gold coin could invent 

Without the aid of love ; yet in content 

Till she saw him, as once she pass'd him by. 

Where 'gainst a column he leant thoughtfully 

At Venus' temple porch, 'mid baskets heap'd 

Of amorous herbs and flowers, newly reap'd 

Late on that eve, as 'twas the night before 

The Adonian feast; whereof she saw no more. 

But wept alone those days, for why should she adore ? 

Lycius from death awoke into amaze. 

To see her still, and singing so sweet lays ; 

Then from amaze into delight he fell 

To hear her whisper woman's lore so well ; 

And every word she spake entic'd him on 

To unperplex'd deUght and pleasure known. 

Let the mad poets say whate'er they please 

Of the sweets of Faeries, Peris, Goddesses, 

There is not such a treat among them all, 

Haunters of cavern, lake, and waterfall. 

As a real woman, lineal indeed 

From Pyrrha's pebbles or old Adam's seed. 

Thus gentle Lamia judg'd, and judg'd aright, 

That Lycius could not love in half a fright. 

So threw the goddess off, and won his heart 

More pleasantly by playing woman's part. 

With no more awe than what her beauty gave. 

That, while it smote, still guaranteed to save. 

Lycius to all made eloquent reply ,| 

Marrying to every word a twinbom sigh; 

And last, pointing to Corinth, ask'd her sweet, 

If 'twas too far that night for her soft feet. 



SYMPHONY CONCERT and 
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After filling our orders, we have a few seats in different 
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'Phone, Oxford 942 SeasoH Seats to rent for Single Symphonies 



200 



The way wa? short, for Lamia's eagerness 
Made, by a spell, the triple league decrease 
To a few paces; not at all surmised 
By blinded Lycius, so in her comprized. 
They pass'd the city gates, he knew not how, 
So noiseless, and he never thought to know. 

As men talk in a dream, so Corinth all, 
Throughout her palaces imperial, 
And all her populous streets and temples lewd, 
Mutter'd, Uke tempest in the distance brew'd, 
To the wide-spreaded night above her towers. 
Men, women, rich and poor, in the cool hours, 
Shuffled their sandals o'er the pavement white, 
Companion'd or alone; while many a light 
Flared, here and there, from wealthy festivals. 
And threw their moving shadows on the walls, 
Or found them cluster'd in the corniced shade 
Of some arch'd temple door, or dusky colonnade. 

MufHing his face, of greeting friends in fear. 
Her fingers he press'd hard, as one came near 
With curl'd gray beard, sharp eyes, and smooth bald crown, 
Slow-stepp'd, and robed in philosophic gown: 
Lycius shrank closer, as they met and past, 
Into his mantle, adding wings to haste. 
While hurried Lamia trembled: "Ah," said he, 
"Why do you shudder, love, so ruefully? 
Why does your tender palm dissolve in dew?" 
"I'm wearied," said fair Lamia: "tell me who 
Is that old man ? I cannot bring to mind 
His features: — Lycius! wherefore did you blind 



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201 




Yourself from his quick eyes?" Lycius replied, 
" 'Tis Apollonius sage, my trusty guide 
And good instructor; but to-night he seems 
The ghost of folly haunting my sweet dreams." ' 

While yet he spake they had arrived before 
A pillar' d porch, with lofty portal door, 
Where hung a silver lamp, whose phosphor glow 
Reflected in the slabbed steps below. 
Mild as a star in water; for so new. 
And so unsullied was the marble's hue, 
So through the crystal polish, liquid fine. 
Ran the dark veins, that none but feet divine 
Could e'er have touch'd there. Sounds ^olian 
Breath'd from the hinges, as the ample span 
Of the wide doors disclos'd a place unknown 
Some time to any, but those two alone. 
And a few Persian mutes, who that same year 
Were seen about the markets : none knew where 
They could inhabit ; the most curious 
Were foil'd, who watch'd to trace them to their house: 
And but the flitter-winged verse must tell, 
For truth's sake, what woe afterwards befel, 
'Twould humour many a heart to leave them thus, 
Shut from the busy world of more incredulous. 

Part II. 

Love in a hut, with water and a crust. 

Is — Love, forgive us! — cinders, ashes, dust; 

Love in a palace is perhaps at last 

More grievous torment than a hermit's fast: — 



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202 •'"-•^*-_'-"- 



I 



Mrs. Avonia Bonney Lichfield 

(60 BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON) 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

According to the method of the old Italian masters of singing. A pupil 
of the last of these masters, Gerli, of Milan. 

Mrs* Lichfield refers to the following remarks about her 
distinguished pupil. Miss 

Charlotte Grosvenor 

as Margherita in Gounod^s 

« FAUST " 

New York, May 14. 

I have heard my American debutante, (Miss Charlotte Grosvenor), 
three nights in " Traviata " and she makes prodigious strides each per- 
formance. The girlish timidity is gone, — that is, the timidity, not the 
girlishness, — though she still has an innocent surprised look when the 
applause refuses to stop. Last night I heard her as Margherita in 
"Faust." If my "vision" was lovely in her pale blue satin and pink roses 
as "Violetta," in Faust she was Margherita herself standing amongst the 
flowers in her simple white gown, a cross at her throat, and the splendid 
glory of her red-gold hair falling to her knees. A halo seemed to hover 
round her head, and one felt sure the devil had much wisdom in choosing 
so saint-Uke a temptation for the world-jaded Faust. And, best of all, the 
singer's voice, wdth its fragrant freshness, matched the picture. I have 
been told that this girl has been trained entirely in America, but one is told 
so many tales nowadays. Be that as it may, wherever she may have 
learned it, she can sing, and she may well be proud of it. The absolute 
security of her notes was again apparent, and again the flawless intonation 
seemed to create a whole army of charms in itself; the dainty peal of 
staccato notes in the jewel song as she laughs to herself in the mirror was 
in charming contrast to the beautiful legato of the "Moria cara Sorella 
Mia." In the trio of the prison scene her way of throwing the high notes 
was electrifying. She looked like a Madonna by some old master in this 
scene and the angels who bore her upward seemed a fitting background. 
The audience, however, contended with the angels for the possession of 
this Margherita, insisting on the repetition of the high notes of the trio 
before yielding her finally to the shelter of their white wings. 

Fare thee well, Margherita 1 that a great future should await you is the 
belief of AN OLD OPERA-GOER. 

203 



That is a doubtful talP froro faery land, 

Hard for the non-elect to understand. 

Had Lycius liv'd to hand^his story down, 

He might have given the moral a fresh frown. 

Or clench'd it quite : but too short was their bUss 

To breed distrust and hate, that make the soft voice hiss. 

Beside, there, nightly, with terrific glare, 

Love, jealous grown of so complete a pair, 

Hover'd and buzz'd his wings, with fearful roar, 

Above the Untel of their chamber door, 

And down the passage cast a glow upon the floor. 

For aU this came a ruin: side by side 
They were enthroned, in the even tide. 
Upon a couch, near to a curtaining 
Whose airy texture, from a golden string. 
Floated into the room, and let appear 
Unveil'd the summer heaven, blue and clear. 
Betwixt two marble shafts : — there they reposed. 
Where use had made it sweet, with eyeUds closed, 
Saving a tythe which love still open kept. 
That they might see each other while they almost slept ; 
When from the slope side of a suburb hill. 
Deafening the swallow's twitter, came a thrill 
Of trumpets — Lycius started — the sounds fled, 
But left a thought, a buzzing in his head. 
For the first time, since first he harbour'd i.l 
That purple-lined palace of sweet sin. 
His spirit pass'd beyond its golden bourn 
Into the noisy world almost forsworn. 

The lady, ever watchful, penetrant, • 

Saw this with pain, so arguing a want 
Of something more, more than her empery 
Of joys ; and she began to moan and sigh 
Because he mused beyond her, knowing well 
That but a moment's thought is passion's passing bell. 
"Why do you sigh, fair creature?" whisper'd he: 
"^Why do you think?" retum'd she tenderly: 
"You have deserted me; — where am I now? 
Not in your heart while care weighs on your brow: 
No, no, you have dismiss' d me; and I go 
From your breast houseless : aye, it must be so." 
He answer'd, bending to her open eyes, 

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204 




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205 



Where he was mirror'd small in paradise, 

"My silver planet, both of eve and mom! 

Why will you plead yourself so sad forlorn, 

While I am striving how to fill my heart 

With deeper crimson, and a double smart ? 

How to entangle, trammel up and snare 

Your soul in mine, and labyrinth you there 

Like the hid scent in an unbudded rose ? 

Aye, a sweet kiss — you see your mighty woes. 

My thoughts ! shall I unveil them ? Listen then ! 

What mortal hath a prize, that other men 

May be confounded and abash' d withal. 

But lets it sometimes pace abroad majestical. 

And triumph, as in thee I should rejoice 

Amid the hoarse alarm of Corinth's voice. 

Let my foes choke, and my friends shout afar, 

While through the thronged streets your bridal car 

Wheels round its dazzling spokes." — The lady's cheek 

Trembled ; she nothing said, but, pale and meek, 

Arose and knelt before him, wept a rain 

Of sorrows at his words ; at last with pain * 

Beseeching him, the while his hand she wrung. 

To change his purpose. He thereat was stung, 

Perverse, with stronger fancy to reclaim 

Her wild and timid nature to his aim: 

Besides, for all his love, in self despite. 

Against his better self, he took delight 

Luxurious in her sorrows, soft and new 

His passion, cruel grown, took on a hue 

Fierce and sanguineous as 'twas possible 

In one whose brow had no dark veins to swell. 

Fine was the mitigated fury, like 

Apollo's presence when in act to strike 

The serpent — Ha, the serpent ! certes, she 

Was none. She burnt, she lov'd the tyranny. 

And, all subdued consented to the hour 

When to the bridal he should lead his paramour. 

Whispering in midnight silence, said the youth. 

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206 



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207 



"Sure some sweet name thou hast, though, by my truth, 

I have not ask'd it, ever thinking thee 

Not mortal, but of heavenly progeny, 

As still I do. Hast any mortal name, 

Fit appellation for this dazzling frame? 

Or friends or kinsfolk on the citied earth. 

To share our marriage feast and nuptial mirth?" 

"I have no friends," said Lamia, "no, not one; 

My presence in wide Corinth hardly known : 

My parents' bones are in their dusty urns 

Sepulchred, where no kindled incense burns. 

Seeing all their luckless race are dead, same me, 

And I neglect the holy rite for thee. 

Even as you list invite your many guests ; 

But if, as now it seems, your vision rests 

With any pleasure on me, do not bid 

Old Apollonius — from him keep me hid." 

Lycius, perplex'd at words so blind and blank. 

Made close inquiry ; from whose touch she shrank. 

Feigning a sleep ; and he to the dull shade 

Of deep sleep in a moment was betray'd. 

It was the custom then to bring away 
The bride from home at blushing shut of day, 
Veil'd, in a chariot, heralded along 
By strewn flowers, torches, and a marriage song, 
With other pageants : but this fair unknown 
Had not a friend. So being left alone, 
(Lycius was gone to summon all his kin) 
And knowing surely she could never win 
His foolish heart from its mad pompousness. 
She set herself, high-thoughted, how to dress 
The misery in fit magnificence. 
She did so, but 'tis doubtful how and whence 
Came, and who were her subtle servitors. 
About the halls, and to and from the doors, 
There was a noise of wings, till in short space 
The glowing banquet-room shone with wide-arched grace 
A haunting music, sole perhaps and lone 
Supportress of the faery-roof, made moan 
Throughout, as fearful the whole charm might fade. 
Fresh carved cedar; mimicking a glade I 
Of palm and plantain, met from either side. 



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FRANK DAMROSCH, Director 

53 Fifth Avenue 
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An advanced school of music in all branches for talented students 
Catalogue by mail. 



208 



HENRY F. MILLER 

GRAND, UPRIGHT 

AND 

PLAYER-PIANOS 




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396 BOYLSTON STREET 

209 



High in the midst, in honour of the bride: 

Two palms and then two plantains, and so on. 

From either side their stems branch'd one to one 

All down the aisled place; and beneath all 

There ran a stream of lamps straight on from wall to wall. 

So canopied, lay an imtasted feast 

Teeming with odours. Lamia, regal drest. 

Silently paced about, and as she went. 

In pale contented sort of discontent, 

Mission'd her viewless servants to enrich 

The fretted splendour of each nook and niche. 

Between the tree-stems, marbled plain at first. 

Came jasper pannels; then, anon, there burst 

Forth creeping imagery of slighter trees, 

And with the larger wove in small intricacies. 

Approving all, she faded at self-will. 

And shut the chamber up, close, hush'd. and still, 

Complete and ready for the revels rude. 

When dreadful guests would come to spoil her solitude 

The day appear'd, and all the gossip rout. 
O senseless Lycius! Madman! wherefore flout 
The silent-blessing fate, warm cloister'd hours, 
And show to common eyes these secret bowers? 
The herd approach'd; each guest, with busy brain. 
Arriving at the portal, gaz'd amain. 
And enter'd marvelling: for they knew the street, 
Remember' d it from childhood all complete 
Without a gap, yet ne'er before had seen 
That royal porch, that high-built fair demesne; 
So in they hurried all, maz'd, curious and keen: 
Save one, who look'd thereon with eye severe, 
And with calm -planted steps walk'd in austere; 
'Twas ApoUonius: something too he laugh'd. 
As though some knotty problem, that had daft 
His patient thought, had now begun to thaw. 
And solve and melt: — 'twas just as he foresaw. 

He met within the mvtrmurous vestibule 
His young disciple. "'Tis no common rule, 
Lycius," said he, "for uninvited guest 
To force himself upon you, and infest 
With an unbidden presence the bright throng 



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210 



Of younger friends; yet must I do this wrong, 
And you forgive me." Lycius blush' d, and led 
The old man through the inner doors broad-spread; 
With reconciling words and courteous mien 
Turning into sweet milk the sophist's spleen. 

Of wealthy lustre was the banquet-room, 
Fill'd with pervading brilhance and perfume: 
Before each lucid pannel fuming stood 
A censer fed with myrrh and spiced wood, 
Each by a sacred tripod held aloft. 
Whose slender feet wide-swerv'd upon the soft 
Wool-woofed carpets: fifty wreaths of smoke 
From fifty censers their light voyage took 
To the high roof, still mimick'd as they rose 
Along the mirror'd walls by twin-clouds odorous. 
Twelve sphered tables, by silk seats insphered, 
High as the level of a man's breast reared 
On libbard's paws, upheld the heavy gold 
Of cups and goblets, and the store thrice told 
Of Ceres' horn, and, in huge vessels, wine 
Come from the gloomy tun with merry shine. 
Thus loaded with a feast the tables stood. 
Each shrining in the midst the image of a God. 

When in an antechamber every guest 
Had felt the cold full sponge to pleasure press'd. 
By minist'ring slaves, upon his hands and feet, 
And fragrant oils with ceremony meet 
Pour'd on his hair, they all mov'd to the feast 
In white robes, and themselves in order placed 
Around the silken couches, wondering 
Whence all this mighty cost and blaze of wealth could spring. 



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ALSO A CHOICE LINE OF FURS 



211 



Soft went the music the soft air along, 
While fluent Greek a vowel'd undersong 
Kept up among the guests, discoursing low 
At first, for scarcely was the wine at flow; 
But when the happy vintage touch'd their brains. 
Louder they talk, and louder come the strains 
Of powerful instruments: — the gorgeous dyes, 
The space, the splendour of the draperies, 
The roof of awful richness, nectarous cheer, 
Beautiful slaves, and Lamia's self, appear. 
Now, when the wine has done its rosy deed. 
And every soul from human trammels freed. 
No more so strange; for merry wine, sweet wine, 
Will make Elysian shades not too fair, too divine. 
Soon was God Bacchus at meridian height; 
Flush'd were their cheeks, and bright eyes double bright: 
Garlands of every green, and every scent - 
From vales deflower'd, or forest-trees branch-rent. 
In baskets of bright osier'd gold were brought 
High as the handles heap'd, to suit the thought 
Of every guest; that each, as he did please. 
Might fancy-fit his brows, silk-pillow'd at his ease. 

What wreath for Lamia? What for Lycius? 
What for the sage, old ApoUonius? 
Upon her aching forehead be there hung 
The leaves of willow and of adder's tongue; 
And for the youth, quick, let us strip for him 
The thyrsus, that his watching eyes may swim 
Into forgetfulness ; and, for the sage, 
Let spear-grass and the spiteful thistle wage 
War on his temples. Do not all charms fly 
At the mere touch of cold philosophy? 
There was an awful rainbow once in heaven: 
We know her woof, her texture ; she is given 
In the dull catalogue of common things. 
Philosophy will clip an Angel's wings. 
Conquer all mysteries by rule and line, 
Empty the haunted air, and gnomed mine — 
Unweave a rainbow, as it erewhile made 
The tender-person' d Lamia melt into a shade. 

By her glad Lycius sitting, in chief place, 
Scarce saw in all the room another face, 




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213 



Till, checking his love trance, a cup he took 

Full brimm'd, and opposite sent forth a look 

'Cross the broad table, to beseech a glance 

From his old teacher's wrinkled countenance, 

And pledge him. The bald-head philosopher 

Had fix'd his eye, without a twinkle or stir 

Full on the alarmed beauty of the bride. 

Brow-beating her fair form, and troubling her sweet pride 

Lycius then press'd her hand, with devout touch. 

As pale it lay upon the rosy couch : 

'Twas icy, and the cold ran through his veins; 

Then sudden it grew hot, and all the pains 

Of an unnatural heat shot to his heart. 

Lamia, what means this? Wherefore dost thou start? 

"Know'st thou that man?" Poor Lamia answer'd not 

He gaz'd into her eyes, and not a jot 

Own'd they the lovelorn piteous appeal: 

More, more he gaz'd : his human senses reel : 

Some hungry spell that loveliness absorbs; 

There was no recognition in those orbs. 

"Lamia!" he cried — and no soft-toned reply. 

The many heard, and the loud revelry 

Grew hush ; the stately music no more breathes ; 

The myrtle sicken'd in a thousand wreaths. 

By faint degrees, voice, lute, and pleasure ceased; 

A deadly silence step by step increased, 

Until it seem'd a horrid presence there. 

And not a man but felt the terror in his hair. 

"Lamia,!" he shriek' d; and nothing but the shriek 

With its sad echo did the silence break. 

"Begone, foul dream!" he cried, gazing again 

In the bride's face, where now no azure vein 

Wander' d on fair-spaced temples ; no soft bloom 

Misted the cheek; no passion to illume 

The deep-recessed vision : — all was blight ; 

Lamia, no longer fair, there sat a deadly white. 

"Shut, shut those juggHng eyes, thou ruthless man! 

Turn them aside, wretch! or the righteous ban 

Of all the Gods, whose dreadful images | 

Here represent their shadowy presences. 

May pierce them on the sudden with the thorn 

Of painful blindness ; leaving thee forlorn. 

In trembUng dotage to the feeblest fright 



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214 



Of conscience, for their long offended might, 

For all thine impious proud-heart sophistries, 

Unlawful magic, and enticing lies. 

Corinthians! look upon that grey-beard wretch! 

Mark how, possess'd, his lashless eyelids stretch 

Around his demon eyes! Corinthians, see! 

My sweet bride withers at their potency." 

"Fool!" said the sophist, in an under-tone 

Gruff with contempt; which a death -nighing moan 

From Lycius answer'd, as heart-struck and lost. 

He sank supine beside the aching ghost, i <)>''^'^ 

"Fool! Fool!" repeated he, while his eyes still 

Relented not, nor mov'd; "from every ill 

Of life have I preserv'd thee to this day. 

And shall I see thee made a serpent's prey?" 

Then Lamia breath'd death breath; the sophist's eye. 

Like a sharp spear, went through her utterly, 

Keen, cruel, perceant, stinging: she, as well 

As her weak hand could any meaning tell. 

Motion' d him to be silent ; vainly so. 

He look'd and look'd again a level — No ! 

"A serpent!" echoed he; no sooner said. 

Than with a frightful scream she vanished: 

And Lycius' arms were empty of deUght, 

As were his limbs of life, from that same night. 

On the high couch he lay! — his friends came round — 

Supported him — no pulse, or breath they found, 

And, in its marriage robe, the heavy body wound. 



Prelude to "The Mastersingers op Nuremberg." 

Richard Wagner 

(Bom at Leipsic, May 22, 181 3; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The Vorspiel to "Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg" was performed 
for the first time at Leipsic, November i, 1862. The opera was first 
performed at Munich, June 21, 1868. 

The idea of the opera occurred to Wagner at Marienbad in 1845, and 
he then sketched a scenario, which differed widely from the one finally 



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215 



adopted. It is possible that certain scenes were written while he was 
composing "Lohengrin," and there is a legend that the quintet was 
finished in 1845. Some add to the quintet the different songs of Sachs 
and Walther. Wagner wrote a friend, March 12, 1862: "To-morrow 
I at least hope to begin the composition of 'Die Meistersinger.'" The 
libretto was completed at Paris in 186 1. He worked at Biebrich in 
1 862 on the music. In the fall of that year he wished the public to hear 
fragments of his new works, as yet not performed nor published,— 
fragments of "Siegfried," "Tristan," "Die Walkiire,"— and he himself 
added to these the overture to "Die Meistersinger," the entrance 
of the mastersingers, and Pogner's address, from the same opera. 

His friend, Wendelin Weissheimer (born in 1838), opera conductor at 
Wiirzburg and Mainz, composer, teacher, essayist, organized a concert 
at Leipsic for the production of certain works. Von Bulow was inter- 
ested in the scheme, and the concert was given in the hall of the Gewand- 
haus, November i, 1862, as stated above. 

The programme was as follows : — 



Part I. 



Wagner 



Prelude to "Die Meistersinger zu Numberg" (new) 

"Das Grab im Busento," Ballade for Bass, Male Chorus, and 

Orchestra • • • • '. . Weissheimer 

Sung by Mr. RtyssAMEN. 



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" Ritter Toggenburg," Symphony in one movement (five 

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Chorus, "Trocknet nicht" Weisslieimer 

Chorus, " FriihUngsUed " Weissheimer 

The duet simg by Miss Lessiak and Mr. John. 

Overture to the opera "Tannhauser" Wagner 

Wagner conducted the two overtures. The hall was nearly empty, 
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217 



October 12, 1862: "Good: 'Tannliauser* overture, then! l^hat's 
all right for me. For what I now have in mind is to make an out-and- 
out sensation, so as to make money." Wagner had proposed to add 
the prelude and finale of "Tristan" to the prelude to "Die Meister- 
singer"; but his friends in Leipsic advised the substitution of the 
overture to "Tannhauser." There was not the faintest applause when 
Wagner appeared to conduct. Yet the prelude to "Die Meistersinger " 
was received then with such favor that it was immediately played 
a second time. 

One critic wrote: "The overture, a long movement in moderate 
march tempo with predominating brass, without any distinguishing 
chief thoughts and without noticeable and recurring points of rest, 
went along and soon awakened a feeling of monotony." The critic 
of the Mitteldeutsche Volkszeitung wrote in terms of enthusiasm. The 
critic of the Signale was in bitter opposition. He wrote at length, and 
finally characterized the overture as "a chaos, a 'tohu-wabohu,' and 
nothing more." For an entertaining account of the early adventures 
of this overture see "Erlebnisse mit Richard Wagner, Franz Liszt, 
und vielen anderen Zeitgenossen, nebst deren Brief en," by W. Weiss- 
heimer (Stuttgart and Leipsic, 1898), pp. 163-209. 

The overture was then played at Vienna (the dates of Wagner's 
three concerts were December 26, 1862, January 4, 11, 1863), Prague 
(February 8, 1863), St. Petersburg (February 19, March 6, 8, 10, 1863), 
and Moscow, Budapest, Prague again, and Breslau, that same year. 

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218 



I give in condensed and paraphrased form Mr. Maurice Kufferath's 
analysis of this overture.* 

This Vorspiel, or prelude, is in reality a broadly developed overture 
in the classic form. It may be divided into four distinct parts, which 
are closely knit together. 

1. An initial period, moderato, in the form of a march built on four 
chief themes, combined in various ways. The tonality of C major 
is well maintained. 

2. A second period, in B major, of frankly lyrical character, fully 
developed, and in a way the centre of the composition. 

3. An intermediate episode after the fashion of a scherzo, developed 
from the initial theme, treated in diminution and in fugued style.. 

4. A revival of the lyric theme, combined this time simultaneously 
with the two chief themes of the first period, which leads to a coda, 
wherein the initial phrase is introduced in the manner of a stretto. 

The opening energetic march theme serves throughout the work to 
characterize the mastersingers. As Wagner said, "The German is 
angular and awkward when he wishes to show, his good manners, but 
he is noble and superior to all when he takes fire." The theme might 
characterize the German bourgeoisie. (Compare Elgar's theme of 
"London Citizenship," in "Cockaigne.") Secondary figures are 
formed from disintegrated portions of this theme, and there is a 
peculiarly appropriate scholastic, pedantic polyphony. Note also how 
from the beginning a cunning use of the ritardando contributes to the 
archaic color of the work. 

The exposition of the initial theme, with the first developments, 
leads to a second theme of wholly different character. It is essentially 
lyrical, and, given at first to the flute, hints at the growing love of 
Walther for Eva. Oboe, clarinet, and horn are associated with the 
flute, and alternate with it in the development. 

A Weberish flourish of violins.leads to a third theme, intoned by the 
brass, sustained by harp. It is a kind of fanfare. The theme seems 
to have been borrowed by Wagner from the "Crowned Tone" of 

*See "Les Maitres Chanteurs de Nuremberg," by Maurice Kufferath (Paris and Brussels, 1898), pp. 
200-210. 



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Heinrich Miigling.* This pompous theme may be called the fanfare of 
the corporation, the theme of the guild, or the theme of the banner, 
the emblem of the corporation. It is soon combined with the theme of 
the mastersingers, and at the conclusion the whole orchestra is used. 
There is in this brilliant passage an interesting chromatic walk of trum- 
pets and trombones, supported by violas and 'cellos. 

A short and nervous episode of eight measures introduces a series of 
modulations, which lead to a sweet yet broadly extended melody, — 
the theme that characterizes in general the love of Walther and Eva. 
And here begins the second part of the overture. The love theme 
after development is combined with a more passionate figure, which 
is used in the opera in many ways, — as when Sachs sings of the spring ; 
as when it is used as an expression of Walther's ardor in the accompani- 
ment to his trial song in the first act. 

The tonality of the first period is C major, that of the love music is 
E major. And now there is an allegretto. The oboe, in staccato notes, 
traces in double diminution the theme of the initial march; while the 
clarinet and the bassoon supply ironical counterpoint. The theme of 
youthful ardor enters in contention ; but irony triumphs, and there is a. 
parody (in E-flat) of the solemn March of the Mastersingers, with a 
new subject in counterpoint in the basses. The counter-theme in the 
'cellos is the theme which goes from mouth to mouth in the crowd wheri 
Beckmesser appears and begins his Prize Song, — ' ' What ? He ? Does 
he dare ? Scheint mir nicht der Rechte! " " He's not the fellow to do it. " 
And this mocking theme has importance in the overture ; for it changes 
position with the subject, and takes in turn the lead. 

After a return to the short and nervous episode there is a thunderous 
explosion. The theme of the mastersingers is sounded by the brass 
with hurried violin figures, at first alone, then combined simultaneously 
with the love theme, and with the fanfare of the corporation played 
scherzando by the second violins, violas, and a portion of the wood-wind. 
This is the culmination of the overture. The melodious phrase is 
developed with superb breadth. It is now and then traversed by the 
ironical theme of the flouted Beckmesser, while the basses give a martial 
rhythm until again breaks forth from the brass the theme of the corpora- 
tion. The fanfare leads to a last and sonorous afiirmation of the 
mastersinger theme, which serves at last as a song of apotheosis. 

* 

Weissheimer states that Wagner at Biebrich began his work by writing 
the overture. "He showed me the broad development of the first 
theme. He already had the theme in E, as well as the characteristic 
phrase of the trumpets. He had written these themes before he had 
set a note to the text ; and, writing this admirable melody of Walther, 
he surely did not think of the Preislied in the third act." 

Julien Tiersot replies to this: "But, when Wagner began to write 
this music, not only had he been dreaming of the work for twenty 
years, but he had finished the poem. Is it not plain that after such 
elaboration the principal musical ideas were already formed in his 
mind ? On the other hand, since the verses were already written, can 
any one suppose that the melody which was applied to them was com- 
posed without reference to them, that a simple instrumental phrase 

* See " Der Meistergesang in Geschichte und Kunst," by Curt Mey (Carlsruhe, 1892, pp. 56, 57). 

220 



was fitted to verses that were already in existence? Impossible. If 
we admit that the theme has appeared in notation for the first time in 
this overture, we cannot agree with Weissheimer in his conclusion, that 
it was composed especially for the overture, and that the composer 
had not yet thought of applying it to the Preislied. On the contrary, 
we may confidently affirm that the Preislied, words and music, existed, 
at least in its essential nature, in Wagner's brain, when he introduced 
the chief theme of it into his instrumental preface." 

* * 

And it is Tiersot who makes these discriminative remarks on the 
overture as a whole: — 

"Scholastic themes play the dominating parts. This is a curious 
fact : the forms of ancient music are revived in such a masterly fashion 
that the more modern elements seem to have assumed a scholastic 
appearance. Look, for instance, at the themes borrowed from the music 
of Walther. The composer has introduced several to mark the oppo- 
sition of the tendencies which form the subject of the drama. In the 
absorbing neighborhood of classic motives and developments the 
modern themes lose largely their idealistic character. It is even hard 
to explain why the composer, when he exposed for the first time the 
melody of most lyrical nature, presented it at first (at the beginning 
of the episode in E major) at a pace twice as rapid as that of its real 
character, and why he overloads this song of pure line with arabesques, 
which clasp it so closely that they deprive it of freedom, and give it a 
kind of dryness that is foreign to its nature and peculiar character. 

"In truth the scholastic style reigns here as sovereign. One would 
think from the overture that Wagner had taken the side of the master- 

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singers to the injury of Walther. But the work itself has the duty of 
undeceiving us. 

"And is it true that in this overture there are only contrapuntal 
combinations? By no means: enthusiasm, hidden, but full of ardor, 
expands under formulas that are voluntarily conventional. The 
expression of this enthusiasm is truly emotional in two passages of the 
overture: in the episode that follows the first exposition of the theme 
of the guild, when the violins sing with dazzling brilliance the long 
phrase derived from the theme of the masters ; then toward the end of 
the piece, when, after three superposed themes are combined, the 
basses solemnly and powerfully unroll this same theme, while the 
violins seem to abandon themselves to a joyous, inspired improvisation, 
leap up as rockets which mount higher and higher, prepare the 
triumphant explosion of the peroration, which finally will become that 
of the whole work, when the brilliance and power are redoubled by the 
addition of shouts from the populace, a veritable and splendid hymn 
in honor of Art." 



* 



Theodore Thomas's orchestra played this overture in Boston, 
December 4, 1871; and Mr. John S. Dwight then undoubtedly spoke 
for many hearers of that year : — 

"Save us from more acquaintance with the Introduction to the 
'Meistersinger' ! It is hard, harsh, forced, and noisy, ever on the verge 
of discord (having the ungenial effect of discord, however literally 
within the rules of counterpoint). .It is a kind of music which does 
not treat you fairly, but bullies you, as it were, by its superior noise 
of bulk, as physically big men are prone to do who can so easily displace 
you on the sidewalk. We doubt not there is better music in the 
'Meistersinger'; for this could never have won the prize before any 
guild, whether of 'old fogy' Philistines or fresh young hearts." 




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Fourth Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 30, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 31, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME* 

Smetana ...... Symphonic Poem, " Moldau " 

Hugo Wolf Italian Serenade 

Tschaikowsky .... Variations on a Roecoco Theme for 

Violoncello and Orchestra 

Schumann Symphony in D minor, No. 4 



SOLOIST, 
Mr. ALWIN SCHROEDER. 



225 



Th- CZERWONKY 
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RICHARD CZERWONKY, First Violin CARL SCHEURER, Viola 

WILLY KRAFT, Second Violin RUDOLF NAGEL, Violoncello 

Beg to announce 

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Announce a series of • 

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Friday Evenings, December 4, 1908, January 29, February 
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Subscription Tickets, $3.00 and $2, according to location, now on 
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Wednesday Evening, November U, at 8. J 5 

PROGRAM 

1. SONATA IN A Handel 

2. FANTASIA APPASSIONATA ....... Vieuxtemps 

3. (a) ADAGIO Viotti 

(d) ZEFIR Hubay 

(c) ALLA POLACCA Ph. Scharwenka 

4. AIRS HONGROISES Ernst 

Mr. carl LAMSON, Accompanist 

Reserved Seats, 75c., $1, $1.50. Tickets are now on sale at the hall 

(Oxford 1330) 

THE HUME PIANO USED 
226 



Miss 

Carolyn Louise Willard 



- (01 Chicago) 

ANNOUNCES A 



PIANOFORTE RECITAL 

TO BE GIVEN ON 

Wednesday Afternoon, /November 18 

AT THREE O'CLOCK 



Reserved Seat Tickets at 50c., $1.00, $1.50, are on sale at the Hall, or may bejordered 

by telephone (Oxford 1330) 

(Miss Willard is a former pupil of Leschetizky in Vienna, and a co-laborer 

with Mrs. Zeisler) 



THE STEINWAY PIANO USED 



NEW JACOB SLEE-PER HALL 

688 Boylston Street 

Next to the Public Library 

MoFFmann Quartet 

J. HOFFMANN, First Violin K. RISSLAND, Viola 

A. BAK, Second Violin C. BARTH, Violoncello 

WILL GIVE THREE CHAMBER CONCERTS 

On Monday Evenings 
November 16, December 14, and February 1 

Assisting Artists : Messrs. Charles Anthony, Richard Piatt, Walter Spry (Chicago), and others. 
Compositions by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Borodin, Foote, Reger, Castillon, etc., will be performed. 



PROGRAM FOR NOVEMBER 16 

Quartet, in B major . . . . . . . Mozart 

Sonata, op. 72, for violin and piano ..... Reger 

(isttime) 
Quartet No. 2, in D major ....... Borodin 

Mr. CHARLES ANTHONY Assisting 

MASON & HAMLIN PIANO USED 



Season tickets $4.00, $2.50, $1.50; on sale at 688 Boylston Street, Treasurer's office, on and after 
October 26; orders for seats (accompanied by check made out to Hoffmann Quartet), may be sent to 
J. Hoffman, go Gainsboro Street, and will.receive prompt attention. 

227 



The 

Hess - Schroeder 
Quartet 

Prof. Willy Hess First Violin 

J. Von Theodorowicz Second Violin 

Emile Ferir Viola 

Alwin Schroeder . . . . . . Violoncello 

Will give Five Chamber Music Concerts on 
Tuesday Evenings at 8A5 O* Clock 

NOVEMBER 17, 1908 

DECEMBER 22, 1908 

JANUARY 19, 1909 

MARCH 2, 1909 

MARCH 23, 1909 

At CHICKERING HALL 



PROGRAMME for First Concert, November 17 

I. QUARTET in G major, No. i . . . . Mozart 

II. QUARTET in E minor, Op. 59, No. 2 . . . Beethoven 

III. QUARTET in C major, Op. 33 . . . . Haydn 



Season Tickets for Five Concerts, $6, $4, and $2.50, according 
to location, now on sale at Box Office, Symphony Hall. 

Single Tickets, ^1.50 ^i.oo, and 50 cents, on sale on and after 
Monday, November 9. 



228 



DEBUCHY'S CONCERT . SYMPHONY HALL 

Tuesday Afternoon, November 17, at 2.30 

Concert of French Theatrical and Romantic Music, Orchestra of 74 
Mr. Albert Debuchy, Conductor 
Orchestral works by 

Reyer, Erlanger, Widor, Chabrier, Bruneau, Saint-Saens 



Mme. CALVE 



Soloist 



WILL SING 



STANCES from "SAPHO" (with Orchestra) ■ Gounod 

ARIA from " LES PECHEURS DE PERLES" (with Orchestra) . . . Bizet 
AVE MARIA (with Violin, Harp, Organ Accompaniment) . . Bach-Gounod 

and SONGS WITH PIANO 

Mr. G. BARRERE will play the Intermezzo, flute solo froni " Conte d'Avril " by Widor 



TICKETS, $2.50, ^2 00, ^1.50, $1.00. On sale at Symphony Hall on and after 
November 2. 

ADVANCE ORDERS BY MAIL accompanied by check made payable to 
Albert Debuchy and addressed to him at Symphony Hall, Boston, will be filled in the 
order of their reception. 




fimT enLComnMi, 




is. 



229 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, October 26, at 3 



Arthur Hartmann 



Violinist 



Assisted by 
ALFRED CALZIN, Pianist 

Tickets and Programs at Box Office, Symphony Hall 

$1.50, $1.00, and 50c. 

Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, November 2, at 3 

SAUER Piano Recital 

Tickets $2.00, $1.50, $1.00 and 50c., at Symphony Hall 

Symphony Hall, Friday Afternoon, November 6, at 2.30 

Mme. Sembrich in song Redtai 

TICKETS, $2.00, $1.50, and $1.00 

Public Sale opens Friday, October 30 

Symphony Hall, Monday Evening, November 9, at 8 

A V V ^^1 1 1 Assisted by 

Apollo txlub Geraldine Farrar 

EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor and COMPLETE ORCHESTRA 

1871 — 200th CONCERT — 1908 

TICKETS, $2.50 and 2.00 

Public Sale opens Monday, November 2 

Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, November i6, at 3 



Song 
Recital 



Dr. Ludwig Wiillner 

TICKETS, $1.50, $1.00, and 50c. 

At Symphony Hall on and after Monday, November 9 

MAIL ORDERS for the above concerts, accompanied by check or 
money order, and addressed to L. H. Mudgett, Symphony Hall, 
filled in order of receipt and as near the desired location as 
possible, prior to public sale. 



230 



THE 

KNEISEL QUARTET 

FRANZ KNEISEL, Tint Violin LOUIS SVECENSKI, Viola 

JULIUS ROENTGEN, Sicmd Violin WILLEM WILLEKE, Violoncello 

TWENTY-FOURTH SEASON. 1908-1909 

FENWAY COURT 



FIVE CONCERTS 

TUESDAY EVENINGS 



at 8.15 o'clock 




November lO . 


. 1908 


December 8 ... 


1908 


January 5 ... 


. 1909 


February 16 '. 


1909 


March 16 . . . 


. 1909 



ASSISTING ARTISTS: 

Miss KATHARINE QOODSON Mr. OSSIP QABRILOWITSCH 

Mr. ERNEST CONSOLO Mr. COURTLANDT PALMER 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE 



PROGRAM OF FIRST CONCERT 

Haydn ..... Quartet in E-flat, Op. 33, No. 2 

Courtlandt Palmer ...... Quintet in A minor 

For Pianoforte, two Violins, Viola and Violoncello. (M.S. first time) 
Beethoven ..... Quartet in C major, Op. 59, No. 3 

ASSISTING ARTIST 

Mr. COURTLANDT PAIMER 



THE PIANO IS A STEINWAY 



Subscription tickets for season of five Concerts, ;jS6.25. Tickets for single 
• Concerts, ^1.50, {Ji.oo. Now on sale at 

THE BOSTON MUSIC CO. (Q, Schirmer) 
26 and 28 WEST STREET 



231 



SYMPHONY HALL - BOSTON 

FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 

THIRTEENTH, NINETEEN 

HUNDRED and EIGHT, at EIGHT 

O'CLOCK 

THE NIGHT BEFORE THE FOOTBALL GAME AT 

CAMBRIDGE 

SECOND JOINT CONCERT by the Glee, 
Mandolin, and Banjo Clubs of 

HARVARD s DARTMOUTH 
UNIVERSITIES 

Orders by mail, accompanied by cheque made payable to 
F. R. COMEE and addressed to Symphony Hall, Boston, will be 
filled in the order of their reception, and seats will be assigned as 
near the desired location as possible. 

TICKETS, ;^i.5o and ;^i.oo 




WILHELM HEINRICH 

TEACHER OF 
SINGING 

149 A Tretnont Street Room 63 

232 



Alfred Peats Wall Paper 



EFFECTIVE 
INTERIOR 
DECORATION 



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room — a rug, not too much furniture, beau- 
tiful walls. That is all. The effect is 
most charming, if the walls are beautiful. 
With the accumulation of wealth 
taste or style in the decorations of the home has advanced. This 
improved taste recognizes more and more that the keynote of 
interior decoration is the walls — that there is nothing more 
important. 

In the whole history of interior decoration, nothing has been 
shown to equal the papers we are showing this fall. Our immense 
stock is drawn from every corner of the globe. The most discrimi- 
nating and careful buyer will find exactly what is required at prices 
as moderate as can be found anywhere for the same grade of goods. 

BOSTON'S EXCLUSIVE WALL PAPER SHOP 

116=120 SUnnER STREET 



HOTEL RENNERT 

BALTIMORE, MD. 




Within one square of the shopping dis- 
trict. 

The standard hotel of the South. 

The cuisine of this hotel has made 
Maryland cooking famous. 

The only hotel in the world where the 
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prepared in their perfection. 



MODERN IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

Rooms, $1.50 per day and upwards * Fire-proof building 



233 



The LONGY CLUB 

Will give three 
concerts in 

POTTER HALL 

on 

THE MONDAY EVENINGS 

November 23 December 21 

February 8 



The programmes will be selected amongf 
the following^ works; 

BACH . . . . Aria for Soprano, flute, and 2 English horns 

HAENDEL ... Oboe Concerto with strings accompaniment 

MOZART . Divertissement for 2 oboes, 2 horns, and 2 bassoons 

BEETHOVEN .... Trio for 2 oboes and EngUsh horn 

(First time at these concerts) 

FALCONI Sextet for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon, and piano 

DESTENAY .... Trio for oboe, clarinet and piano 

WOOLLETT . . 5 pieces for two flutes, clarinet, horn, and piano 

ENESCO . Symphonic for 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, 2 clarinets, 

2 horns, and 2 bassoons 
(New, and first time in America) 

CAPLET Suite Persane for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 horns, and 

2 bassoons 

LOEFFLER .... Rapsodies for oboe, viola, and piano 

MALHERBES Sextet for flute, oboe, English horn, clarinet, horn, 

bassoon 

PIERNE Pastorale Variee for flute, oboe, clarinet, trumpet, horn, and 

2 bassoons 

Assisting Artists to be announced 

234 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION. 



Bss HARRIET S. WHIHIER, 



VOCAL INSTRUCTION and 

SOPRANO SOLOIST. 
Studio, 246 Huntington Avenue. 

Exponent of the method of the late Charles R. Adams. 
PoitKmouth, New Hampshira, Mondays. 



Mr. CHARLES B. STEVENS. 



TEACHER OF SIMGING. 

STUDIOS, 
Suite 14, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 

Telephone, 133 1 Oxford. 

Miss Harriette C. Wescott, 
Accompanist and Assistant Teacher. 



Miss LADRA HAWKINS, 



PIA/NIST. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

No. 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Miss CAROLINE M. SOUTHARD, 

TEACHER OF THE PIANOFORTE. 



Classes in Sight Reading 

(EIGHT HANDS). 

Advanced pupils follow the Symphony programmes 
as far as practicable. 

165 Huntington Avenue - Boston 



Hiss GERTRUDE EDHAND8. 



Concert and Oratorio. 

Vocal Instruction. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenae. 



Mrs. HALL MCALLISTER. 



TEACHER oF SINGING. 

407 Pierce Building, 
COPLEY SQUARE. 

Musical Management. 



Miss EEANOR BRIGHAM, 



Pianist amd TeacHer. 

Trii\ity Court. 



Mr. BERNHARD LISTEMANN'S 

Master School for Violinists. 



Training to competent teachers prin- 
cipal aim. Ensemble lessons. 

OFFICE 
703 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE. 

Hours: Monday and Thursday, from i p.m. 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, 9 to i and 2 to 4. 



235 



Miss CLARA E. MHNGER, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Century Building, 
177 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 



Miss JOSEPHINE COLLIER, 



PIANIST and TEACHER. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Walter E. Loud — Violin. 
Pupil of Ysaye. 



32 Batavia Street. 



Miss Bertha WesseMt Swilt 



Soprano Soloist, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
) Studio, TRINITY COURT, Boston. 

Miss Swift is ready to give her children's programs 
before clubs, church societies, and in private houses 



Miss LUCY CLARK ALLEN, 



Pianoforte Lessons. 

Accompaniments. 

LANG STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Mr.SAfflOELJ.MacWATTERS, 

Professor of Voice Building in 
Boston University. 



VOICE PLACING, 

Development of Tone and 
Resonance. 

72 MOUNT VERNON STREET. 



Mrs. LUCIA GALE BARBER, 



Physical and Personal Culture, 
Rhythm, Poise, Breathing, 
Concentration, Relaxation, 

Normal Course. 

The Ludlow, Copley Sq., Boston. 



KARL DOERING, 



TENOR- BARITONE. 

Pupil of Professor Jachman-Wagner, Berlin, and 
Professor Galliera, Milan, Italy. 

Training and Finishing of Voice, 

School for Grand Opera and Oratorio. 

STEINERT HALL, ROOM 27. 

Opeo Monday, October 12. Send for new Prospectus 



236 



Mrs. CAROLYN KING HUNT, 



PIANISTEand TEACHER. 

Hemenway Chambers, 
BOSTON. 



BERTHA GDSHIN6 CHILD. 



MARY B, SAWYER 



38 BABCOCK ST., BROOKLINE. 

TEACHING AT 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEAA^BURY ST., BOSTON. 



Leschetizky Method. 



Miss RENA I. BISBEE. 



PIANO AND HARMONY. 

For four years Pupil and Authorized Assistant of 

Frau VARETTE STEPANOFF, 

BERLIN, GERMANY. 

Studio, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 



TEACHER OF PIANO, 

LANG STUDIOS, 
6 NEWBURY STREET. 



LUCY FRANCES GERRISH, 



PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION. 

GERRISH STUDIO, 
140 Boylston Street . . Boston. 



EDITH LYNWOOD WINN 



LECTURE-RECITALS 



Normal and Teachers' Courses for '^^'^ '^f H^'fifv,"^^'^!^' ^""&^."^"' ^7th 
YJqUjj and 18th Century Music. 

ChUdren's classes at special rates TRINITY COURT 



BOSTON. 



The Gnckenberger School of 
Music. 

B. GUCKENBERGER, Director. 



HENRY T. WADE, 



RICHARD PLATT, 



Piano, Voice, Violin (and all orchestral 
instruments). Theory, Musical Analysis, 
Analytical Harmony, Composition, Score 
Reading, Chorus and Orchestral Con- 
ducting. 
30 Huntington Avenue Boston 



Teacher oF 

Pianoforte, Church Organ, 

Theory of Music. 

Steinert Hall, Boston. 
77 Newtonville Avenue, Newton. 



PIANIST. 



23 Steinert Hall 



Boston. 



Mason & Hamlin Piano. 



237 



CHARLES S. JOHNSON, 



PIANO, ORGAN, 
HARMONY. 



LANG STUDIO, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Miss HARRIET A. SHAW, 



HARPIST. 

186 COMMONWEALTH AVENUE 

Telephone. 



SAM L. STUDLEY. 



Pierce Building, Copley Square, Reom 313. 

INSTRUCTION IN THE 
ART OF SINGING. 

OPERA, ORATORIO, AND SONG. 



Miss JESSIE DAVIS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
289 Newbury Street, Boston. 



Miss Rose Stewart, 

Vocal Instruction. 

246 Huntington Avenue. 



Miss EDITH E. TORREY. 

TEACHER OF SINQING. 

164 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Wellesley College. 



Mrs. E. C. WALDO, 

Teacher oF Music. 

Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



HELEN ALLE/N HUNT, 

CONTRALTO SOLOIST. 

Teacher of Singing. 
No. 514 Pierce Building Boston. 



BOSTON MUSICAL BUREAU. 

Established 1899. 
Supplies Schools, Colleges, and Conservatories 
with Teachers of Music, etc.; also Churches with 
Organists, Directors, and Singers. 

Address HENRY C. LAHEE, 
'Phone, 475-1 Oxford. 2i8Tremont St., Boston 



Mrs. 5 B. FIELD, 

Teacher of the Piano and Accompanist. 
HOTEL NOTTINGHAM. 

Mrs. Field makes a specialty of Coaching, in both 
vocal and instrumental music. 

Artists engaged, programmes arranged, and all 
•■Ksponsibility assumed for private musicales. 



Miss MARIE L EVERETT, 

Teacher of Singing. 

Pupil of MADAME MARCHESl, 

ParU. 
THE COPLEY, BOSTON. 



Miss MARY D. CHANDLER, 

Concert Pianist and Teacher. 

Pupil of Philipp, Paris. 

149A TREMONT ST., Monday and Thursday. 

Residence, 5 Ashland Street, Dorchester. 

Telephone, 182S-3 Dorchester. 



Miss PAULA MUELLER, 

Teacher of Piano 
and German Language. 

STUDIOS, 
28 Central Avenue, Room 30, Steinert HaU 

MEDFORD. BOSTON. 

RECITALS. 



Miss EDITH JEWELL, 
VIOLINIST AND TEACHER, 

37 BRIMMER STREET. 

Refers by permission to Mr. C. M. Loeffler. 



Clarence B. Shirley, 
Tenor Soloist and Teacher. 

CONCERT AND ORATORIO. 

Studio, Huntington Chambers, Boston. 



238 



MR. ROBT. N. 
MRS. ROBT. N. 



LISTER, 



Teacher of Singing, 
Soprano Soloist. 

Symphony Chambers , opposite Symphony Hall, 
BOSTON. 



CHARLOTTE WHITE, 

Violoncellist of the Carolyn Belcher String Quartets 

TEACHER AND SOLOIST. 
608 Huntington Chambers, Boston, Mass. 



Mrs.V.PERNAUX=SCHUMANN, 

TEACHER OF FRENCH and GERMAN. 
French and German Diction a Specialty. 

32 BATAVIA STREET, Suite 8, BOSTON. 



Mr. EMIL MAHR. 

JOACHIM SCHOOL. 
Address, 69 Crawford St., Roxbury, Mass- 



THOMAS L. CUSHMAN, 

VOCAL TEACHER. 
2i8 TREMONT STREET. 



L. B. 

MERRILL 



BASS SOLOIST 
TEACHER. 
2i8 Tremont Street. 



Mrae. de BERQ-LOFQREN, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

The "GARCIA "Method. 
Studio, 12 Westland Avenue. BOSTON, MASS. 



Mrs. H. CARLETON SLACKr 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Lyric Soprano. Concerts and Recitals. 
Lessons at residence, 128 Hemenway Street. 



Miss PEARL BRICE. 

CONCERT VIOLINIST, TEACHER. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



Mrs.lOUISELATHROP MELLOWS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 

STUDIO, JeHerson Hall, 
Trinity Court, Dartmouth Street, Bostoo, 



Miss M. B. HARTWELL, 

PIANO AND HARMONY. 
Studio, 9 St. James Avenue. 

Miss Hartwell has but recently returned from 

Vienna, where she studied the Leschetizky 

Method for three years and a half. 



VIOLET IRENE WELLINGTON, 

Humorous and Dramatic Reader. 

Also » 

Teacher of Voice, Elocution, Physical Culture. 

59 "Westland Avenue. 
Telephone, 3439-1 Back Bay. 



TIPPEH ^ "'^ 

PAIII I ^^' ^^^^^ 

STUDIOS 



VOICE 



Assistant, GRACE R. HORNE 

312 PIERCE BUILDING 
COPLEY SQUARE 



LUISE LEIMER, 

Contralto Soloist and Teacher of Singing, 

Studio, 23 Crawford Street 

and 5teinert Building. 

Miss RUTH LAIGHTON, 

Violinist and Teacher 

19 Chestnut Street • Boston 



Miss JANET DUFF. 

(7 years pupil of Francis Korbay) 

Contralto, Concerts, Oratorios, and Song Recitals. 

Teacher of Voice Production and Singing. 

Studio, 402 Huntington Chambers. 

Management, W. S. Bigelow, Jr., Boston 
Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday morn- 
ings 



Miss urn WARE LAUGHTON, 

Lecturer and Reader of Shakspere. 
Instructor of the VOICE IN SPEECH. 
Courses of Study for Personal Culture and Pro- 
fessional Training. 

418 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE 



239 



Allen H. Daugherty, 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION, 
HARMONY. 

Tel., Oxford 1629-1. 218 Trcmont Street. 



MissMARY A.STOWELL, 

Teacher of Piano and Harmony. 
The ILKLEY, 

Huntington Avenue and Cumberland Street. 

(Cumberland Street entrance.) 



Miss KATHERINE LINCOLN, 

Soprano Soloist. 
Teacher of Singing. 

514 Pierce Building, Copley Square, Boston. 



BARITONE. 



George W. Mull, 

Teacher of Singing. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue,Boston. 



JOHN CROGAN MANNING, 

CONCERT PI ANISTmnd TEACHER. 

Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday 
afternoons 

Symphony Chambers, 246 Huntington Ave. 



Mr. WILLIS W. GOLDTHWAIT, 

Teacher of Piano. 

Thorough instruction in Harmony, class or private. 

7 Park Square, Boston. 



JOHN BEACH, 

PIANIST. 
10 Cliarles Street. 



Miss MARGARET GORHAM, 

PIANIST. 

Trinity Court. Boston. 



Mrs. niRAM HALL, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
118 Charles Street. 



Mrs. Alice Wentworth MacGregor, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 
Residence Studio, 780 Beacon Street. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Abbot Academy. 



Mrs. NELLIE EVANS PACKARD. 

Studio, 248 Tremont Street (Room 308), Boston. 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Mrs. Packard is commended by Walker, Randegger 
<London), Marchesi, Bouhy, Trabadelo (Paris), 
Leoni (Milan), Vannuccini (Florence), Cotogni, 
Franceschetti (Rome). 



Mr. P. nUMARA 

Will furnish a Small Orchestra of mem- 
bers of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
for Musicales, Dinners, Receptions, etc. 

Address, Symphony Hall. 



ARTHUR THAYER, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
200 Huntington Avenue 



Mr. CHARLES DUMAS, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 
Former Assistant at Harvard. 

French (all grades), Lectures, Diction, 

Elocution, etc. 
286 Columbus Ave., Opp. Back Bay Station. 



CLAUDE HACKELTOIN, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 
2i8 Tremont Street, Room 515, Boston 



EVERETT E. TRUEHE, 

CONCERT ORGANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, BOSTON. 



EDWIN N. C. BARNES, 

Basso Cantate and 
Teaclier of Singing. 

Symphony Chambers . . . Boston. 

Opposite Symphony Hall.. 



Concert. 
Mrs. 
Lafayette 



GOODBAh, 



Oratorio 
SOPRANO 
SOLOIST. 



240 



TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

Thorough preparation for Concert and Church. 

Studio . . Steinert Hall. 

'Phone, Oxford 1330. Mondays and Thursdays. 



Willy Hess 

G)ncert-mastcr of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
First Violin of the Hess-Schroeder Quartet, 
and a virtuoso of international re- 
nown, writes as follows of the 

PIANOS 



MASON & HAMLIN CO.: 

Dear Sirs, — I write to offer you my sincere congratu- 
lations on the manufacture of your very beautiful pianos, — 
they are to me matchless. As you arc aware, I have heard 
the Mason & Hamlin piano at many concerts given by my 
quartet, and with orchestra, and it has been my constant 
companion at my home. It has never failed to meet all the 
demands, however exacting, made upon it, and I believe 
that the Mason & Hamlin pianos excel all others in the 
essential qualities which go to make up an artistic piano of 
the very first quality. 

(Signed) PROFESSOR WILLY HESS. 



MASON&HAMLIN COMPANY 

Opp. Institute of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 




HERE are many 
things which may 
be prophesied for 
the future, but it is 
a fixed fact that the 
STEINWAY Piano 
will continue to be the 
Standard of the World. 

The Steinway Organiza- 
tion insures this. 

STEINWAY & SONS 

NEW YORK 
LONDON HAMBURG 



HEPRESBNTEB BY 

M. STEINERT & SONS COMPANY 
162 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 






'^JU.^.^-A 





Ayt 



fN' 



BOSTON 

SYAPnONY 

ORCnCSTRH 

TWENTY-EIGHTH 
^^VJE^ SEASON 
J908-J909 



PRoGRAnnE 



5? 4 {5 



iiasxm^l|amttn 

TENSION RESONATOR 

(PATENTED IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE) 

Used exclusively in the 

iias0n^i|aralin 

PIANOS 

"The 'Three Epoch-making Discoveries 

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF GRAND PIANOS ARE 

First, The French Repeating Action, 182 1 

Second, The Full Iron Frame and Over-strung Scale, 1859 

Third, The Mason & Hamlin Tension Resonator, 1900, — 

the most important of the three, as it pertains to tone 
production 

Ql.. f 'T' in a piano is dependent upon the crown, or arch, 

Uclliry 01 1 one of its sounding-board. Loss of tone-quality is 
caused by the flattening of the sounding-board through the action of the 
atmosphere and the great downward pressure of the strings. 

The Mason & llamlm Tension Resonator 

Permanently preserves the crown, or arch, of the sounding-board, and gives to 
the Mason & Hamlin piano a superior quality of tone and a tone which is inde- 
structible. 
A Technical Description in "The Scientific American" of October II, 

1902, CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING: 

"One imperfection in the modern pianoforte, found even in the instruments 
made by standard makers, has been the loss in tone quality, due to the inability 
of the sounding board to retain its tension. The problem seems at last to have 
been satisfactorily solved by a most simple and ingenious construction embodied 
in the pianos of Mason & Hamlin of Boston, U.S.A." 

A copy of the Scientific Atnerican article will be mailed upon application 

MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

0pp. Inst, of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 






SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON <9- MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

_ , , { Ticket Office, 1492 ) ^ , r> 

Telephones] Administrati;n Offices, 3200 } ^^'^'^^^^ 

TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

Programme nf t\}t 

Fourth 

Rehearsal and Concert 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIP- 
TIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 




FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 30 
AT 2.30 O'CLOCK 

SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 31 
AT 8.00 O'CLOCK 

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY C. A. ELLIS 
PUBLISHED BY C. A. ELLIS, MANAGER 



Mme. CECILE CHAMINADE 

The World's Greatest Woman Composer 

Mme. TERESA CARRENO 

The World's Greatest Woman Pianist 

Mme. LILLIAN NORDICA 

The World's Greatest Woman Singer 

USE 



<f 



^^ Piano. 



THE JOHN CHURCH CO., 37 West 32d Street 
New York City 



REPRESENTED BY 

G. L SGHIRMER & CO., 38 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



242 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

PERSONNEL 





Twenty *ei 


ighth Season, IPOS- 1909 




^ 


MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 








First Violins. 




Hess, Willy 


Roth, 0. 


Hoffmann, J. 


Krafft, W. 


Concert-master. Kuntz, D. 


Fiedler, E. 


Theodorowicz, J. 


Noack, S. 








Mahn, F. 
Strube, G. 


Eichheim, H. 
Rissland, K. 


Bak, A. 
Ribarsch, A. 

Second Violins. 


Mullaly, J. 
Traupe, W. 


Barleben, K. 
Fiumara, P. 


Akeroyd, J. 
Currier, F. 


Fiedler, B. 
Werner, H. 


Berger, H. 
Eichler, J. 


Tischer-Zeitz, H 


Kuntz, A. 


Marble, E. 




Goldstein, S. 


Kurth, R. 


Goldstein, H. 
Violas. 




Ferir, E. 


Heindl, H. 


Zahn, F. Kolster, A. 


Krauss, H. 


Scheurer, K. 


Hoyer, H. 


Kluge, M. Sauer, G. 
Violoncellos. 


Gietzen, A. 


Warnke. H. 


Nagel, R. 


Barth, C. Loeffler, E. 


Warnke, J. 


Keller, J. 


Kautzenbach, A. 


Nast, L. Hadley, A. 


Smalley, R. 




• 


Basses. 




Keller, K. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Agnesy, K. 
Kunze, M. 


Seydel, T. 
Huber, E. 


Ludwig, O. 
Schurig, R. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Maquarre, A. 
Maquarre, D. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 


Grisez, G. 
Mimart, P. 


Sadony, P. 
Mueller, E. 


Brooke, A. 


Sautet, A. 


Vannini, A. 


Regestein, E. 


Fox, p. 


English Horn 


Bass Clarinet. Contra-Bassoon. 




Mueller, F. 


Stumpf, K. 


Helleberg, J. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. Trom: 


bones. Tuba. 


Hess, M. 
Lorbeer, H. 


Schmid, K. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Kloepfel, L. Hampe, C. Lorenz, O 
Mann, J. Mausebach, A. 


Hain, F. 


Hackebarth, A. 


Heim, G. Kenfield, L. 


Phair, J. 


Schumann, C. 


Merrill, C. 




Harp. 


Tympani. 


Percussion. 


Schuecker, H. 


Rettberg, A. 


Dworak, J. 


Sen'ia, T. 




Kandler, F. 


Ludwig, C. 

Librarian. 
Sauerquell, J. 


Burkhardt, H. 



243 




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TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, NINETEEN HUNDRED EIGHT AND NINE 



, Fourth Rehearsal and G)ncert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 30, at 2.30 o'clock* 

SATURDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 3J, at S o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 

Smetana . "The Moldau," Symphonic Poem (No. 2 of the cycle 

" My Country ") 
The source; the hunt; the rustic wedding; moonlight and 
dance of the nymphs; the St. John Rapids; the broad river; 
Vysehrad motive. 

Wolf Italian Serenade for Small Orchestra 

Tschaikowsky . Variations on a Rococo Theme for Violoncello 

with Orchestral Accompaniment, Op. 33 

First time at these concerts 



Schumann .... Symphony in D minor, No. 4, Op. 120 

I. Ziemlich langsam ; Lebhaft. 



I. Ziemlich langsam ; Lebhaft. \ 

II Romanze : Ziemlich langsam. ( without pause. 

III. Scherzo : Lebhaft ; 1 no. I 

TV Tcinorsam • T pViViaft. ' 



IV. Langsam ; Lebhaft 



SOLOIST, 
Mr. ALWIN SCHROEDER. 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the symphony. 



T7ie doors of the hall will be closed during the performance of 
each number on the program,me. Those who wish to leave before 
the end of the concert are requested to do so in an interval be- 
tween the numbers. 

City of Boston, Revised Reiiulatlon of Aniiust 5. 1898.— Chapter 3, relating to the 
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obstruct such view, may be worn. Attest J. M. GALVIN, City Clerk 

245 




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246 



Symphonic Poem, "The Moldau" (from "My Country," No. 2). 

Friedrich Smetana 

(Born at Leitomischl, Bohemia, March 2, 1824; died in the mad-house at Prague, 

May 12, 18S4.) 

Smetana, a Czech of the Czechs, purposed to make his country 
famihar and illustrious in the eyes of strangers by his cycle of sym- 
phonic poems, "Ma Vlast" ("My Country"). The cycle was dedicated 
to the town of Prague. In a letter written (1879) to the publisher he 
complained of the poem put as preface to "Vysehrad": "What is 
here portrayed in tones is not mentioned in the verses!" He wished 
a preface that might acquaint the foreigner with the peculiar love 
entertained by the Czech for this fortress. Lumir sees visions the 
moment he touches the harp ; and he tells of the founding of Vysehrad 
in heathen times, of the various sights seen by the citadel, feasts, 
jousts, court sessions, war and siege, until he at last tells of the down- 
fall. 

The cycle includes: — 

I. Vysehrad (which bears this inscription on the score: "In a 
condition of ear-disease"). Completed November 18, 1874, twenty- 
four days after he had become completely deaf. The first performance 
was at Prague, January 14, 1875. 

II. Vltava* ("The Moldau"). Begun November 20, 1,874; com- 
pleted December 8, 1874, and performed for the first time at Zofin, 
April 4, 1875. 

III. Sarka. Composed at Prague; completed February 20, 1875. 
Performed for the first time at Zofin, May 17, 1877. Sarka is the 
legendary Czech Amazon. 

IV. Zceskych Luhuv a Hajuv ("From Bohemia's Fields and 

* " ' Multava,' the Latin name of the river. But as the u is written v, Mvlta\'a, the words are the same." 
William Ritter, in his interesting Life of Smetana, published at Paris by Felix Alcan, 1908. 4^ 

GRAND OPERAS 

In this Season's Repertory 

TIEFLAND, by E. D Albert, German and EngUsh text 
LA HABANERA, by R. La Parra, French text . 
LE VILLI, by G. Puccini, EngHsh text 

The Same, Italian text 

LA WALLY, by A. Catalani, Italian text . 

F.-^LSTAFF, by Giuseppe Verdi, Itahan and English textj' 



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Groves"). Composed at Jakbenice; completed on October i8, 1875; 
and performed for the first time at Zofin on December 10, 1876. Sme- 
tana wrote to Dr. Ludwig Prochazka that in this piece he endeavored 
to portray the life of the Bohemian folk at work and in the dance; "as 
the Germans say, "Volksweisen" or "Tanzweisen." 

V. Tabor. Composed at Jakbenice in 1878; first performed at 
a jubilee concert in honor of Smetana at Zofin, January 4, 1880. This, 
as well as "Blanik," the sixth of the series, is based on the Hussite 
choral, "Kdoz jste Bozibojovnici." The composer in a letter to Dr. 
Otakar Hostinsky observed that in "Tabor" the choral, "You are 
God's Warriors," dominates completely, while in "Blanik" there 
are only partial remembrances of the choral, the last verse of which, 
"With Him you will at last triumph, " serves as the motive of the finale. 

VI. BiyANiK. Completed at Jakbenice on March 9, 1879 ; performed 
for the first time with "Tabor" at the jubilee concert at Zofin. The 
Hussite warriors sleep in the mountain of Blanik, and await the hour 
to reappear in arms. 

The first performance of the cycle as a whole was at a concert for 

Smet^na's benefit at Prague, November 5, 1882. 

* 
* * 

The following Preface* is printed with the score of "The Moldau" : — 

Two springs gush forth in the shade of the Bohemian Forest, the one warm and 
spouting, the other cold and tranquil. Their waves, gayly rushing onward over 
their rocky beds, unite and glisten in the rays of the morning sun. The forest 
brook, fast hurrying on, becomes the river Vltava (Moldau), which, flowing ever 
on through Bohemia's valleys, grows to be a mighty stream: it flows through 
thick woods in which the joyous noise of the hunt and the notes of the hunter's 
horn are heard ever nearer and nearer; it flows through grass-grown pastures 
and lowlands where a wedding feast is celebrated with song and dancing. At night 

* The translation into English is by Mr. W. F. Apthorp. 



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Arietta Jo. 60 

FOOTE, ARTHUR. Op. 33. Romanza . .75 

FRIML, RUDOLF. Op. 36 No. 2. Cre- 

puscule (Twilight) .... .60 

S0U2A, DAVID DE. Op. 17. Doux Som- 

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ALLITSEN, FRANCES 

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249 



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the wood and water nymphs revel in its shining waves, in which many fortresse 
and castles are reflected as witnesses of the past glory of knighthood, and the van- 
ished warlike fame of bygone ages. At the St. John Rapids the stream rushes 
on, winding in and out through the cataracts, and hews out a path for itself with 
its foaming waves through the rocky chasm into the broad river bed in which it 
flows on in majestic repose toward Prague, welcomed by time-honored Vysehrad, 
whereupon it vanishes in the far distance from the poet's gaze. 

* 
* * 

"The Moldau" begins Allegro commodo non agitato E minor, 6-8, 
with a flute passage accompanied by pizzicato chords (violins and 
harps). The "first stream of the Moldau" is thus pictured. The flow- 
ing figure is then given to the strings and first violins, oboes and 
bassoon play a melody against it. Development follows. Hunting 
calls (C major) are heard from horns and other wind instruments, 
while the strings continue the running figure. The noise of the hunt 
waxes louder, the river is more and more boisterous. There is gay 
music of the wedding dance, G major, 2-4. It swells to fortissimo, and 
then gradually dies away." ' 'The moon rises in soft sustained harmo- 
nies in the wood-wind ; and the flutes, accompanied by flowing arpeggios 
in the clarinets and high sustained chords in the strings and horns, 
begin the nimble nymphs' dance. Soon soft stately harmonies are 
heard in the horns, trombones, and tuba, their rhythm being like that 
of a solemn march." The strings take again the original flowing 
figure and the graceful melody for first violins, oboes, bassoon, is again 
against it. The development is much as before. The rhythm is now 
livelier. There is a musical picture of St. John's Rapids, and, with a 
modulation to E major, behold "the broadest part of the Moldau." 
The melody continues fortissimo until a gradual decrescendo leads to 
its disappearance. 

"The Moldau" is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two 



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clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba, kettledrum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, harp, and strings, 
thus divided throughout: first violins, second violins, violas, first 

'cellos, second 'cellos, double-basses. 

* 

* * 

These works by Smetana have been performed at Symphony Con- 
certs in Boston : — 

"Vysehrad," April 25, 1896, October 22, 1898, November 14, 1903. 
March 16, 1907. 

"Vltava," November 22, 1890, December 2, 1893, April 15, 1899. 

"Sarka," January 26, 1895. 

"From Bohemia's Fields and Groves," December 8, 1901. 

"Wallenstein's Camp," symphonic poem, January 2, 1897. 

"Richard III.," symphonic poem, April 25, 1903. 

Overture to "The Sold Bride," December 31, 1887, March 23, 1889, 
January 15, 1898, March 10, 1900, January 30, 1904, April 27, 1907. 

Overture to the opera, "The Kiss," played only at the public 
rehearsal, April 7, 1905. Beethoven's "Leonore" Overture, No. 3, 
was substituted at the following concert (April 8). The programme 
was changed suddenly, to pay tribute to Beethoven. 

Overture to the opera "Libussa," October 21, 1905. 

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Smetana in 1881 told the story of his deafness to Mr. J. Finch Thome, 
who wrote to him from Tasmania a sympathetic letter. Smetana 
answered that for seven years the deafness had been gradual ; that after 
a catarrh of the throat, which lasted many weeks, he noticed in his right 
ear a slight whistling, which was occasional rather than chronic; and 
when he had recovered from his throat trouble, and was again well, the 
whistling was more and more intense and of longer duration. Later he 
heard continually buzzing, whistling in the highest tones, "in the form 
of the A-flat major chord of the sixth in a high position." The physician 
whom he consulted found out that the left ear was also sympathetically 
affected. Smetana was obliged to exercise extraordinary care as 
conductor; there were days when all voices and all octaves sounded 
confused and false. On October 20, 1874, he lost the sense of hearing 
with the left ear. The day before, an opera had given him such enjoy- 
ment, that, after he had returned home, he improvised for an hour at 
the pianoforte. The next morning he was stone deaf and until his 
death. The cause was unknown, and all remedies were in vain. "The 
loud buzzing and roaring in my head, as though I were standing under 
a great waterfall, remains to-day and continues day and night without 
interruption, louder when my mind is employed actively, weaker when 
I am in a calmer condition of mind. When I compose, the buzzing is 
noisier. I hear absolutely nothing, not even my own voice. Shrill 



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tones, as the cry of a child or the barking of a dog, I hear very well, 
just as 1 do loud whistling, and yet I cannot determine what the noise 
is or whence it comes. Conversation with me is impossible. I hear my 
own pianoforte-playing only in fancy, not in reality. I cannot hear 
the playing of anybody else, not even the performance of a full orchestra 
in opera or in concert. I do not think it possible for me to improve. 
I have no pain in the ear, and the physicians agree that my disease is 
none of the familiar ear troubles, but something else, perhaps a paralysis 
of the nerves and the labyrinth. And so I am wholly determined to 
endure my sad fate in a calm and manly way as long as I live." 

Deafness compelled Smetana in 1874 to give up his activity as- a 
conductor. In order to gain money for consulting foreign specialists 
Smetana gave a concert in 1875, at which the symphonic poems 
"Vysehrad" and "Vltava," from the cycle "My Fatherland," were 
performed. The former, composed in 1874, bears the inscription, "In 
a condition of ear suffering." The second, composed also in 1874, bears 
the inscription, "In complete deafness." In April, 1875, he consulted 
physicians at Wiirzburg, Munich, Salzburg, Linz, Vienna ; and, in hope 
of bettering his health, he moved to Jabkenitz, the home of his son-in- 
law, and in this remote but cheerful corner of the world he lived, 
devoted to nature and art. He could compose only for three hours a 
day, for the exertion worked mightily on his body. He had the tunes 
which he wrote sung aloud to him, and the singer by the end of an hour 
was voiceless. In February, 1876, he again began to compose operas. 
Under these conditions he wrote "The Kiss." The libretto pleased 
him so much that he put aside the opera "Viola," which he had begun, 
and composed the music to "The Kiss" in a comparatively short time 
(February— August, 1876). He determined henceforth to set operatic 
music only to librettos by Eliska Krasnohorska. The success of * 'The 






256 



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Kiss" at the first Jperformance was brilliant, and the opera gained 
popularity quicker than "The Sold Bride." 

There are references to his deafness in the explanatory letter which 
he wrote to Josef Srb about his string quartet in E minor, "Aus 
meinem Leben" : "I wish to portray in tones my life: First movement: 
Love of music when I was young ; predisposition toward romanticism ; 
unspeakable longing for something inexpressible, and not clearly 
defined; also a premonition of my future misfortune (deafness). The 
long drawn-out tone E in the finale, just before the end, originates from 
this beginning. It is the harmful piping of the highest tone in my ear, 
which in 1878 announced my deafness. I allow myself this little trick 
because it is the indication of a fate so important to me. . . . Fourth 
movement : The perception of the individuality of the national element 
in music: the joy over my success in this direction until the interrup- 
tion by the terrible catastrophe ; the beginning of deafness ; a glance at 
the gloomy future ; a slight ray of hope of betterment ; painful impers- 
sions aroused by the thought of my first artistic beginnings." 

The years of Smetana's deafness might well be named his classic 
period, for during these years of discouragement and gloom were born 
the cycle of symphonic poems, "My Fatherland"; the string quartet 
in E minor; the opera, "Tajemstvi" ("The Secret") (September 18, 
1878, Prague). 

His last appearance in public as a pianist was at his fiftieth jubilee 
concert at Prague, January 4, 1880. His opera, ' 'Certova Stend" (' 'The 
Devil's Wall"), was produced October 29, 1882, The proceeds of the 
third performance were intended for the benefit of the composer, but the 
public was cold. "I am at last too old, and I should not write anything 
more; no one wishes to hear from me," he said. And this was to 



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No. 27-29. Drawing-RoomFavorites Vols.I.-III. 
No- 30-33. Oesterle 's Instructive C!ourse. Vols. 

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No. 37,57. Little Classics. Vols. I. and II. 

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No. 55-56. Little Pieces for Little Players. 

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him the blow of blows, for he had comforted-himself in former misfort- 
unes and conflicts by indomitable confidence in his artistry; but now 
doubt began to prick him. 

And then he wrote: "I feel myself tired out, sleepy. I fear that the 
quickness of musical thought has gone from me. It appears to me as 
though everything that I now see musically with the eyes of the spirit, 
everything that I work at, is covered up by a cloud of depression and 
gloom. I think I am at the end of original work; poverty of thought 
will soon come, and, as a result, a long, long pause, during which my 
talent will be dumb." He was then working at a string quartet in D 
minor; it was to be a continuation of his musical autobiography; it 
was to portray in tones the buzzing and hissing of music in the ears of 
a deaf man. He had begun this quartet in the summer of 1882, but 
he had a severe cough, pains in the breast, short breath. 

There was a dreary benefit performance, the first performance of the 
whole cycle, "My Fatherland," at Prague, November 5, 1882. On the 
return from Prague, overstrain of nerves brought on mental disturbance. 
Smetana lost the ability to make articulate sounds, to remember, to 
think. Shivers, tremors, chills, ran through his body. He would 
scream continually the syllables te-te-ne, and then he would stand for 
a long time with his mouth open and without making a sound. He 
was unable to read. He forgot the names of persons near him. The 
physician forbade him any mental employment which should last over 
a quarter of an hour. Soon he was forbidden to read or write or play 



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261 



pieces of music ; he was not allowed to think in music. Humor, which 
had been his faithful companion for years, abandoned him. Strange 
ghosts and ghastly apparitions came to him, and played wild pranks 
in his diseased fancy. 

In March, 1883, he went to Prague, and, in spite of the physician, 
completed his second string quartet. He dreamed of writing a cycle 
of national dances, "Prague, or the Czech Carnival," and he composed 
the beginning, the mob of masks, the opening of the ball with a polonaise. 
He again thought of his sketched opera, "Viola." 

The greatest of Czech composers knew nothing of the festival by 
which the nation honored his sixtieth birthday in 1884. His nerves 
had given way; he was in utter darkness. His friend Srb put him 
(April 20, 1884) in an insane asylum at Prague, and Smetana died 
there on the twelfth of the next month without once coming to his 
senses. 



ITAUAN SkrBnade; for Small Orchestra ..... Hugo Wolf 

(Born at Windischgratz, Steiermark, March 13, i860; died in a mad-house at Vienna, 
February 22, 1^03.) 

Wolf at Vienna in 1887 composed two movements for string quartet, 
a " Humoristisches Intermezzo" and an "Italienische Serenade." 
The latter is related thematically to the "Italienische Serenade" for 
small orchestra, on which he worked in the course of the years 1893-94. 

Only one movement, the first, was completed. Some say it was 
finished in 1890. A second movement, orchestrated at Traunkirchen 
in 1893, has only twenty-eight measures. Its chief theme is a gentle 
song. The third movement, composed early in December, 1897, 
when the unfortunate man was at Dr. Svetlin's asylum in Vienna, 
has about forty measures. It is entitled "Tarantella," and in this 







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tnOvement he introduced the celebrated "I^uniculi-I^unicula"* melody 
of Denza, of which he was fond. 

The score of this finished movement, edited by Max Reger, was 
published in 1903. The piece is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two 
clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, solo viola, and the usual strings. 
In the original version the English horn was used instead of the solo 
"viola. 

Wolf did not hear this music in his lifetime. The Serenade as a 
quartette was performed in Vienna in January, 1904, and the applause 
was so great that the performance was repeated. On January 29 of 
the same year the Serenade was performed at an orchestral concert of 
the Styrian Music Society. 

The first performance of this orchestral serenade in the United States 
was by the Chicago orchestra at Chicago, January 21, 1905. 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, led by Mr. Gericke, April i, 1905. 

The string quartette Italian Serenade, edited by Max Reger, was 
played for the first time in Boston by the Kneisel Quartette, October 25, 
1904, and repeated by request at a concert of the same club, March 14, 
1905. 

The movement is a rondo on piffero t melodies. It opens in G major, 
"Ausserst lebhaft" (as lively as possibly), 3-8. The chief theme, which 
returns after two long spun-out interruptions, is given to the solo 'viola. 
The pifferari are soon heard, for there is a droning-bass with empty 
fifths. The development of the chief theme is divided into three sec- 

* This Neapolitan ditty was composed by Luigi Denza in 1880, and was soon known throughout the 
world. Richard Strauss, believing it to be a folk-tune, introduced it as the chief theme of the foitrth move- 
ment, "Neapolitan Folk Life," of his symphonic fantasia, "From Italy." 

tThe pifaro, or piffero, is an old form of the oboe, still in use in some districts of Italy and the Tyrol. 
It was formerly called the " Schalmey." The pifferari are peasants who come to Rome in Christmas-tide 
to pipe pastoral melodies to the street Madonnas. "The Pastoral Symphony" in "The Messiah" is based 
on such tunes. 



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tions easily distinguished by characteristic, melodic use of solo instru- 
ments. The first episode begins with a 'cello theme, "with great 
expression," 6-8, which is followed by a phrase for oboe. A crescendo 
leads to a dashing melody, which, to borrow Dr. Ernst Decsey's phrase, 
has Chianti in its veins, — tutti, and in a fiery manner, ff. At the end 
of this episodic section the violins bring the chief melody back, and a 
solo flute furnishes an opposing melody. There is free development of 
the chief theme. A violoncello solo leads to the second episode. A 
short period in imitation breaks the song of this serenade ; a crescendo 
follows, and after a fortissimo is reached there is a dreamy theme for 
the solo viola. Fantastically colored measures (tremolo of muted 
strings) prepare the repetition of the chief theme. This time there is 
no new development; the movement ends with the few introductory 
measures, as it began. (See "Hugo Wolfs Letzten Jahren," by Dr. 
Ernst Decsey, of Graz, an article published in Die Musik (1901, pp. 
215-220), Professor Dr. H. Reimann's notes to the Berlin Philharmonic 
Concerts, October 10, 1904, and Dr. Ernst Decsey's "Hugo Wolf" in 
four volumes (Berlin and Leipsic, 1903-06). 

* * 
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will. The man was interested in literature and art, but he was com- 
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by fire thai he was never again prosperous. Phihpp was something 
of a violinist and guitarist, and he was the first teacher of Hugo, the 
fourth of eight children. The boy learned the violin and the piano, 
and there was household music, — string quartets or pieces for small 
orchestra. From 1865 to 1869 Hugo attended the Pfarrhauptschule 
in his native town; in 1870-71 he went to the Gymnasium in Graz, 
where he took piano lessons of Joh. Buwa and violin lessons of Ferd. 
Casper. He then studied at the Gymnasium in St. Paul and in 1874-75 
the Gymnasium at Marburg. 

In 1875 Hugo entered the Vienna Conservatory. He studied har- 
mony with Franz Krenn and the piano with Wilhelm Schenner. In 
1877 he was dismissed from the Conservatory. The Director of the 
Conservatory was Josef Hellmesberger (1828-93), "a classical violinist 
and classical conversationalist, a musician comme il faut and a Viennese 
comme il faut, an artist whose quartet playing was as celebrated as was 
the legion of bonmots told by him or attributed to him, a man of the 
world, a distinguished character in the music life of Vienna." One 
day he received an astounding note, which read pretty much as fol- 
lows: "You have only one more Christmas to celebrate, then your 
end will come. Hugo Wolf." Some humorous student played this 
trick on Hellmesberger and Wolf. In vain did the latter protest his 
innocence and show his own handwriting: he was dismissed. Then 
began Wolf's dark and dreary life. From 1877 to 1 881 he lived in 
Vienna as a needy music teacher. In 1875 he had experienced a great 
pleasure, one that influenced him mightily. He met Richard Wagner, 
and for a few minutes talked with him. The fifteen-year-old boy 
wished to show him some of his compositions, and Wagner in a most 
friendly manner told him to wait until he had written riper and more 
important works; but the courtesy of Wagner's refusal moved Wolf 




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deeply, just as the perfonnaiice of "Tannhauser" at Vienna in Novem- 
ber, 1875, had turned him into a fanatical Wagnerite. In these years 
of poverty Wolf became intimate with Felix Mottl and Adalbert von 
Goldschmidt, and they endeavored to find violin and piano pupils 
for him. In 1879 his lessons brought him in only thirty-six or thirty- 
eight guldens a month. He loathed the drudgery of teaching the 
dull, and he did not hesitate to address any such daughter of a most 
respectable family as "blodes PVauenzimmer." He had begun to 
compose songs in 1875. Tlie list of his works written from 1875 to 1889 
and unpublished at the time of his death is in Decsey's lyife of the 
Composer. 

Wolf thought of going to America to try his fortune, for America 
was surely a Tom Tiddler's ground for musicians, but in 1881 he went 
to Salzburg as second conductor of the opera. He did not distinguish 
himself at Salzburg, but he was allowed to conduct only light operas 
and operettas. They say that at a rehearsal he addressed the chorus 
as follows: "O let that stuff alone; I'll play you something from 
'Tristan and Isolde.'" He left Salzburg in 1882. 

From January 27, 1884, to May, 1887, Wolf was the music critic of 
the Salonblatt, "a society journal of the high life of Vienna." It is to 
be hoped that the Wolf Society will publish in book form the best 
of the contributed articles, for they are singularly shrewd, pungent, 
entertaining, and written with infinite gusto. The critic sided with the 
Wagner-Bruckner faction, and, as we have already seen, he was reck- 
oned by the superficial, indiscriminative readers of Vienna as a malig- 
nant foe of Brahms.* He wrote enthusiastically in praise of Gluck. 
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Weber, Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, 
Saint-Saens, and, above all, Wagner and Berlioz. 

* See the reference to Wolf's articles in Miss Florence May's smug " Life of Johannes Brahms," vol. 
ii. pp. 220-221 (London, 1905). Miss May speaks of Wolf gaining "unenviable notoriety by his persistent 
attacks upon Brahms' compositions." On the other hand, see Decsey's "Hugo Wolf," vol. i. pp. 87-93. 



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Wolf's first songs were published in 1887, and with the winter of 
1888 began the period of his artistic ripeness. His fertility was amaz- 
ing, and perhaps it will prove the destruction of his fame. He set 
music to poems by Morike, Eichendorff, Goethe, Keller, cycles from 
the Spanish and Italian song-books of Geibel and Heyse. It is said 
that he composed over five hundred songs besides works of larger 
proportions. His music to Ibsen's "Fest auf Solhang" was performed 
at Vienna in 1892. His first opera, "Der Corregidor," was produced at 
Mannheim, June 7, 1896. In 1892 he began to be known in Northern 
Germany, and a propaganda soon made his name familiar. A Wolf 
Society was started in Berlin, another in Vienna, for the purpose of 
giving the composer material assistance and spreading his fame. 
There were friends who were practical counsellors, as Joseph and Franz 
Schulk in Vienna, and there were hysterical enthusiasts who did not 
hesitate to call him the first of living composers. 

Cut is the branch that might have grown full straight, 
And burned is Apollo's laurel bough. 

Wolf had always been of an excitable nature, and his enthusiasm 
was akin to frenzy. In a letter written to Dr. Emil Kauffman * in 
1890: "To me the supreme principle in art is the stern, harsh, inex- 
orable truth, truth that goes to the extent of cruelty. Kleist, for 
example, — Wagner always first, — is my man. His wonderfully mag- 
nificent ' Penthesilea ' is in a lllikelihood the truest and at the same 
time the most horribly ferocious tragedy that ever originated in a 
poet's brain." Hermann Bahr tells us that, when he was with Wolf 
at Rimbach in 1883, the composer generally had Kleist's tragedy with 
him; "he raved about it; his hands shook if he read only a couple of 

* Dr. Kauffmarm, son of a Heilbronn Gymnasium professor and song-writer, was then music-director of 
the. University of Tubingen. 



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271 



verses from it; his eyes glittered; and he appeared as one transfigured, 
as though he saw a higher and brighter sphere whose gates had opened 
suddenly." When Wolf went home after a long absence he would 
hardly exchange greetings before he would take a volume of Kleist 
from his pocket and read from it to his family and friends. Bahr 
tells a story that might have been imagined by B. T. A. Hoffmann, 
and surely Wolf was an Hoflfmannesque character. Bahr and Wolf 
were living together with a common friend, a Dr. E. L., in Vienna. 
Bahr and his friend were given to hearing the chimes at midnight. 
Returning home from a "Kneipe" about five one morning, they were 
eager to go to bed. "The door opened, and from the other room 
appeared to us Hugo Wolf in a very long shirt, with candle and book 
in his hand, a most pale and fantastic apparition in the grey uncertain 
light, with puzzling gestures, now scurrilous, now solemn. He laughed 
a shrill laugh and jeered at us. Then he came to the middle of the 
room, waved his candle, and while we were undressing, he began to 
read to us, chiefly from 'Penthesilea.' And this with such force that 
we became silent and did not dare to stir; so effective was his speech. 
The words rushed from his pale lips like black and monstrous birds, 
which seemed to grow until they filled the whole room with their hor- 
rible living shadows ; then he suddenly laughed again, and again scoffed 
at us, and in his long, long shirt, with the flickering candle in his out- 
stretched hand, he disappeared slowly through the door." Bahr then 
proceeds to tell in extravagant language how, when Wolf read, the 
words became things of flesh and blood. (See his preface to "Ge- 
sammelte Aufsatze liber Hugo Wolf," vol. i., Berlin, 1898.) 

In 1888 Wolf wrote:— 

"March 20. Just after my arrival to-day I produced my master- 
work: 'Brstes lyiebeslied eines Madchens' is out and away the best 



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thing I have ever done. In comparison with this song everything 
hitherto composed is child's play. The music has such a striking char- 
acter, as well as such an intensity, that it would rend the nervous sys- 
tem of a block of marble. 

"March 21. I withdraw the statement that the 'Erstes Liebeslied 
eines Madchens' is my best work, for what I wrote this forenoon, 'Fuss- 
reise,' is a million times better. When you have heard this last song, 
you can have only one wish — to die!" 

His mind began to give way in the fall of 1897, when he told his 
friends'that he had been appointed Director of the Vienna Court Opera. 
His friends persuaded him that it was his duty to call on Gustav Mahler, 
the director and conductor. He dressed himself in a ceremonious suit 
of black, but he was taken to Dr. Svetlin's asylum in Vienna. There 
he worked on "Penthesilea," the Italian Serenade, and other composi- 
tions. He purposed to make Penthesilea the heroine of his third 
opera, — his second, "Manuel Venegas," is unfinished. It was thought 
that he was again sane, and in February, 1898, he was released. He 
seemed the old familiar Wolf, amiable and social, even more amiable 
than before his sickness. He visited, he journeyed for recreation. 
Disappointed because "Der Corregidor" was not produced at the 
Vienna opera season in the season of 1898, he worked hard on his 
"Manuel Venegas." But his mind failed him, and he begged to be 
taken again to an asylum. He entered the lyower Austrian State Insane 
Asylum, where he was five years in dying. Now and then he would 
exclaim, "God, I am then mad!" For a time he recollected clearly 
, the titles, texts, melodies, of his songs, and, when a friend once read 
to him a newspaper article in which Marcella Pregi was praised for 
singing "Ich hab' in Pena einen Liebsten wonnen," he laughed and 
whispered, "Yes, that is my song," and with his hand he gave the 
right tempo. 



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Mr. Alwin SchroEder, violoncellist, was born at Neuhaldensleben 
June 15, 1855. He at first studied the pianoforte with his father Karl, 
a conductor and a composer of operas (1823-89), and with his brother 
Hermann; afterward he took lessons of J. B. Andre. Then he took 
violin lessons of de Ahna in Berlin, and lessons in theory with Wilhelm 
Tappert. In 1871-72 he played viola in the Schroeder Quartet, — ^his 
three brothers were the other members. He abandoned the violin for 
the violoncello, which he studied by himself. In 1875 he entered 
lyiebig's Orchestra as first 'cellist. He was a member in like capacity 
of Fliege's Orchestra, of Laube's in Hamburg, and in 1880 he joined 
the Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leipsic, as the successor of his brother 
Karl, who went to Sondershausen as chief conductor. He was in 
Leipsic a member of the Petri Quartet, and he taught in the Leipsic 
Conserv^atory of Music. 

Mr. Schroeder came to Boston as the solo violoncellist of the Boston 
vSymphony Orchestra in the fall of 1891, and at the same time he joined 
the Kneisel Quartet. He resigned his position in the orchestra, with 
his Quartet co-mates at the end of the season of 1902-03. With 
them he afterward made New York his dwelling-place until the spring 
of 1907, when he resigned from the Quartet and moved to Frankfort- 
on-the-Main. His farewell concert in Boston was on April 25, 1907. 
Returning to the United States late in the summer of 1908, he is now 
the violoncellist of the Hess-Schroeder Quartet. 

Mr. Schroeder has played as solo violoncellist with the Symphony 
Orchestra in Boston: — 

1 89 1, Oct. 24. Volkmann's Concerto in A minor, Op. 33. 

1892, Nov. 26. Davidoff's Concerto No. 3, one movement. (First 
time in Boston.) 



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PHILIP STOCKTON, President 
ChaelesFrancis Adams, 2d, Vice-President Arthur Adams, Vice-President 
George S. Mumford, Secretary George W. Grant, Treasurer 

S. Parkman Shaw, Jr., Asst. Secretary Frank C. Nichols, Asst. Treasurer 
Percy D. Haughton, Asst. Secretary H WARDSwoRTHHiGHT,Asst.Treasurer 

S. W. Webb, Asst. Secretary 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 



275 



1893, Nov. 18. Brahms's Concerto in A minor, for violin and violon- 
cello, Op. 102. (With Mr. Kneisel.) 

Ivoeffler's Fantastic Concerto. (MS. First time.) 
2. DvoMk's "Waldesruhe" and Julius Klengel's 



Dvofdk's Concerto in B minor, Op. 104. (First time 



1894, Feb. 3. 

1895, March 
Capriccio, Op. 8 

1896, Dec. 19. 
in Boston.) 

1897, April 10. Brahms's Concerto in A minor, for violin and violon- 
cello, Op. 102. (With Mr. Kneisel, at a concert in memory of Brahms.) 

1898, Feb. 12. lyoeflfler's Fantastic Concerto. 

1898, Nov. 19. Saint-Saens's Concerto in A minor, Op. 33. 

1900, Jan. 6. Dvorak's Concerto in B minor, Op. 104. 

1 901, March 9. D'Albert's Concerto in C major, Op. 20 (First time 
in Boston.) 

1902, Feb. I. Brahms's Concerto in A minor, for violin and violon- 
cello, Op. 102. (With Mr. Kneisel.) 

1903, Jan. 10. Saint-Saens's Concerto in A minor, Op. 33. 



PIANO COMPOSITIONS of ^^^ Moreau Gottschalk 




LOUIS MOREAU GOTTSCHALK 
Chas. H Ditson & Co., New York 



In Two Volumes Price, $1.00 each, postpaid 

These two volumes contain the cream of the works of the cele- 
brated and first American composer-pianist. A number of them 
are still in the teaching and concert repertoire. One hundred and 
twenty-eight pages of music, full sheet size. A biographical sketch 
adds value to the book for permanent reference. 

CONTENTS 
VOLUME I. 

Illusions Perdues. (Caprice) 

, Op. 36 

Jeunesse. {Mazurka Brillante) 

Last Hope, The (AUditatton 
religietise .) Op. 16 

Love and Chivalry. {Caf>rtce 
iUgani) 

Maiden's Blush, The {Grande 
valse de concert) 

Printemps d'Amour. {Mazur- 
ka.) (Caprice de concert.) 
Op. 40. 



America. Op. 41 
Bamboula. Op. 2 
Bananier, Le (The Banana 

Tree). Op. 5 
Banjo, The. Op. 15 
Berceuse (Cradle Song). Op. 47 
Creole Eyes {Ojos criollos.) 

Op. 37 
Dying Poet, The {Mkditation) 
Forest Glade Polka 
Qallina, La(The Hen). {Danse 

Cubaine )■ Op. 53 
Home, Sweet Home. Op. 51 



VOLUME II. 



■March de Nuit. Op. 17 
Miserere from " Trovatore.' 

Op. 52 
Mortel (She is dead!) Op. 60 
Murmures Eoliens. Op. 46 
Orf a. ( Grande Polka de salon) 
Pasquinade. (Caprice.) Op. 59 
Pensee Poetique. Op. 62. 
Ricordati. {Mkdiiation.) Op. 26 
Serenade. Op. n 



Scintilla, La (The Spark.) 
Mazurka sentimentale . Op.20 
Sixth Ballade. Op. 85. 
Solitude. Op. 65 
Sospiro. {Valse poHique.) 

^ Op. 24 
Tremolo. {Gratuie itude de 



concert^ Op.jS 
Water Sprite, The. 

de salon) 



{Polka 



Your home dealer will order these volumes for you 
if not in stock 



OLIVER DITSON 

Lyon & Healy, Chicago 

276 



COMPANY, BOSTON 

J. E. Ditson & Co., Philadelphia 



PADERE WSKI 

to the WEBER PIANO 

COMPANY 



New York, May the;4th, 1908. 
To the WEBER PIANO CO: 

Gentlemen — It seems to me superfluous to give you in 
wi'iting my appreciation of your instruments. Practically 
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seven months in this country, and this fact alone proves 
more than anything which could be said or written. 
Whatever "disinterested" detractors may object to, had I 
not found in your pianos a perfect medium for my art I 
would have never played them in public. 

But you insist upon having my opinion. So let me 
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after a long concert tour. I gave during the season 
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arms are not aching, my nerves and muscles are as strong 
and fresh as on the day of my arrival. This is entirely 
due to the supreme qualities of your instruments: positive 
perfection of mechanism, exceptionally easy production of 
tone, its beautiful singing quality, and, in spite of it, its 
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THE WEBER PIANO COMPANY 

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Write for Special Catalog and Description of New Weber Models 



277 



Variations on a Rococo * The^mis for VioIvONC^IvIvO with OrchEvS 
TRAL Accompaniment, Op. 33 Peter Tschaikowsky 

(Born at Votkinsk, in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7. 1840; died at 
St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893.) 

These "Variations sur un Theme rococo" are dedicated to Wilhelm 
Fitzenhagen.t In Mr. Paul Juon's translation into German of Modest 
Tschaikowsky's life of his brother Peter, it is stated that the Varia- 
tions were composed in December, 1876. Mrs. Newmarch's condensa 
tion and translation into English of this monumental work says, after 
the quotation of a short and dismal letter of Tschaikowsky to S. Tan- 
eieff, dated February 10, 1877: "In spite of the bitterness left by the 
comparative failure of 'Vakoula,' and the many other blows which 

* The Italian adjective "rococo" means "old-fashioned." The noun means "antiquated style." 

Mr. E. Markham Lee in his Life of Tschaikowsky says with reference to this title: "The term Rococo, 
together with its companions Zopf and Baroque, refers to manner, and it is a term borrowed from architecture, 
where it refers to a highly ornamental period, denoting a certain impress derived from the study of a school 
of thought foreign to that of the artist's own natural groove. One would therefore not expect the theme of 
this set of variations, although original, to be in Tschaikowsky's own distinctive style, nor is it really so, exhib- 
iting rather a dainty Mozartean grace and simplicity together with a certain rhythmic charm." 

"Rococo. The style of decoration into which that of the Louis Quinze period culminated, distinguished 
for a superfluity of confused and discordant detail." J. W. MoUett's "Dictionary of Words used in Art and 
Archseology." 

Hence, according to the Standard Dictionary, "anything that is quaint, fantastic or tasteless in art or 
literature." 

t Wilhelm Karl Friedrich Fitzenhagen was born at Seesen, Brunswick, September 15, 1848. He died at 
St. Petersburg, February 14, 1890. A distinguished violoncellist, he wrote much for his instrument. 
He was violoncello professor at the Moscow Conservatory and 'cello leader of the Imperial Russian Musical 
Society of the same city. Tschaikowsky's second quartet was first played at Nicolas Rubinstein's in Mos- 
cow early in 1874 by £.aub, Hrlmaly, Gerber, and Fitzenhagen. 



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278 



his artistic ambitions had to suffer, Tschaikowsky, after his return to 
Moscow, did not lose his self-confidence, nor let his energy flag for a 
moment. On the contrary, although grieved at the fate of his 'favorite 
offspring,' 'Vakoula,'" — the opera "Vakoula the Smith" was pro- 
duced at St. Petersburg, December 6, 1876, and on December 14 the 
composer heard that his orchestral "Romeo and Juliet" had been hissed 
in Vienna, — "and at his unlucky debut as a composer in Vienna* and 
Paris, although suffering from a form of dyspepsia, he was not only 
interested in the propaganda of his works abroad, but composed his 
Variations on a Rococo Theme for violoncello, and corresponded with 
Stassov about an operatic libretto. The choice of the subject — 
'Othello' — emanated from Tschaikowsky himself. When Stassov 
tried to persuade him that this subject was not suitable to his tem- 
perament, he refused to listen to arguments, and would only consider 
this particular play." His enthusiasm cooled in a few months. 

According to Mr. Juon's translation, the Variations were composed 
in 1876, and during the season of 1876-77 Tschaikowsky also wrote 
his Slav March, Op. 31; the symphonic fantasia, "Francesca da 
Rimini," Op. 32; and the Valse Scherzo for violin and orchestra. Op. 

*"Hans Richter, who conducted the Vienna performance of 'Romeo,' declared that the comparative 
failure of the work did not amount to a fiasco. Certainly at the concert itself a few hisses were heard, and 
Hanslick wrote an abusive criticism of it in the Neue Freie Presse but at the same time much interest, even 
enthusiasm, was shown for the new Russian work." Mrs. Newmarch, "Lifeof Tschaikowsky," p. 191. 

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279 



34- He also sketched his fourth symphony and two-thirds of his 
opera, "Eugene Oniegin." 

Modest Tschaikowsky is usually careful to give the dates of first 
performances of works by his brother. He does not give information 
concerning the first performance of the Variations, but he refers to a 
letter received by Peter from Fitzenhagen in June, 1879, in which the 
violoncellist told him of the great success of this work as played by 
him at a music festival at Wiesbaden. Liszt was present, and is re- 
ported to have said, "This is indeed music." At this same festival 
von Billow played Tschaikowsky 's first pianoforte concerto. 

The Variations are scored for solo violoncello, two flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, and strings. 

A few introductory measures, Moderato quasi andante, leads to the 
theme played by the violoncello, moderato semplice, A major, 2-4. 
There are seven variations, interspersed with numerous cadenzas for 
the solo instruments and separated by orchestral interludes. The first 
two variations are in the tempo of the theme. The third. Andante 
sostenuto, C major, 3-4, has a distinguished melody which is richly 
accompanied. The fourth is an Andante grazioso, 2-4; the fifth an 
Allegro moderato, 2-4; th« sixth an Andante, D minor. The seventh, 
with coda, is of a brilliant nature. 



* 



The programme of Mr. P'rank Van der Stucken's concert in Chickering 
Hall, New York, November 28, 1888, announced a theme and variations 
"from concerto for violoncello" by Tschaikowsky, "accompaniment 
for orchestra transcribed from the pianoforte arrangement by Mr. 
Herbert and Mr. J. Ch. Rietzel."^ Mr. Herbert was the violoncellist. 
Tschaikowsky never wrote a concerto for violoncello. He revised, 
however, the Theme and Variations after publication, and the second 
edition is the one known to-day. Is it possible that the title-page of 
the first edition made any reference to a "concerto"? No biographer 
of Tschaikowsky speaks of the composer's intention of writing a con- 
certo for the violoncello. 



^bamjf ^ou^t l^ljone^, <©jcforti 942, 4X330 
#ranb (0pera Citkets jToot pall ®itkets5 

280 



ENTR'ACTE. 
TAME ANIMALS AND MUSIC: AN INQUIRY. 

BY JOHN F. RUNCIMAN. 
(From the Saturday Review (London), October lo, 1908.) 
To question the authority of Shakespeare on any matter whatsoever 
has required some audacity since sundry gentlemen accompanied by 
their ladies discovered that he is dead and set about devising a monu- 
ment to his memory. However, the bones of the newly discovered 
hero, regardless of the threat in his epitaph, were moved to West- 
minster Abbey by a ha'penny morning paper for the purpose of laying 
Sir Henry Irving's remains near them ; and encouraged by such temer- 
ity, let us ask — but in all humility — if Shakespeare was quite correct 
in his description of the efifect of music on animals. Let us consider 
one passage: 

"For do but note a wild and wanton herd. 
Or race of youthful and unhandled colts 

If they but hear perchance a trumpet sound, 
Or any air of music touch their ears. 
You shall perceive them make a mutual stand, 
Their savage eyes turned to a modest gaze 
By the sweet power of music." 

Is this indeed so ? 



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281 



Indeed it is not so. Shakespeare drew this from imagination, not 
from memory's store of observed facts. Lorenzo on that moonHght 
night described things as his mood would have them be, not as they 
are. Not even as they were in Shakespeare's time, unless we are 
prepared to accept the theory that just as in the period between him 
and Orpheus trees and the mountain tops that freeze had given up 
following itinerant fiddlers, so since his time youthful and unhandled 
colts and other animals have ceased to make mutual stands and to 
turn their savage eyes to modest gazes under the sweet power of music. 
We cannot assume this: it is bad natural history and worse evolu- 
tionary history. Darwin would have scornfully rejected it, and so, 
in all probability, would Spencer and Owen. It is a sad truth that 
nowadays the effects of music are not soothing. The beanfeaster's 
comet may petrify human beings to a mutual stand for a moment, 
but it makes cab-horses bolt. Most dogs howl when the sweet power 
of music is tried on them. Most cats twitch their ears nervously and 
run home. Even well-bred parrots will mutter unintelligible but 
doubtless terrible maledictions. Shakespeare loved music with a de- 
vouring love and ruthlessly sacrificed innocent plain facts to justify 
his passion. See how fiercely he condemned "the man that hath no 
music in himself." Yet with the exception of Shakespeare himself, 
Milton and Browning, the poets resembled Charles Lamb in that they 

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282 



Mrs. Avonia Bonney Lichfield 

(60 BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON) 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

According to the method of the old Italian masters of singing. A pupil 
of the last of these masters, Gerli, of Milan. 

Mrs* Lichfield refers to the following remarks about her 
distinguished pupil. Miss 

Charlotte Grosvenor 

as Gilda in Vcrdi^s 

"RIQOLETTO" 

New York, May 21. 

I have heard my American debutante (Miss Charlotte Grosvenor) 
three nights in "Faust," and last night I heard her as Gilda in "Rigoletto." 
If my "vision " was lovely in her pale blue satin and pink roses as Violetta, 
and a Madonna by an old master as Margherita, as Gilda she was a 
"dream." Centuries rolled back as one gazed on her, a castle seemed to 
rise in view for a background, and there stood revealed in the dim light a 
girlish figure in draperies of blue and white and old lace, " ye lady of ye 
olden time," with her red-gold hair caught back from the white brow by a 
silver fillet and falling in masses over her shoulders. Yes ! this daughter 
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three times, and she sang all of the part well. That flawless intonation re- 
fuses to be lured from any note this singer utters. I have tried to analyze 
in what consists her charm as a singer and it all reduces itself to the one 
simple truth, that she can really sing. As far as I can make out from my 
orchestra chair at the Metropolitan and Manhattan, leaving aside the big 
celebrities, we have professional beauties for prime donne and singing ac- 
tresses, and then those "horrors" called "experienced artists" who can 
take a part at a moment's notice and tear it to pieces. Why not add a 
" vision " in pale blue satin and pink roses who can sing, or a madonna by 
an old master with a beautiful legato, or a dream-maiden with a beautiful 
smile and a flawless intonation?? Hammerstein and Gatti Casazza take 
note ! ! ! We patient season-ticket holders swallow whole singing actresses 
and professional beauties, but we are tired to death of the eternal experi- 
enced artist who tears things, and in her place why not give us a few 
"visions," "madonnas," and "dream-maidens" who can sing? Made in 
America ! ! No matter where they are made we wish them, we need them, 
and so do you managers. Let us place at the feet of a master who can 
give us a debutante like Charlotte Grosvenor a laurel wreath in all homage. 

AN OLD OPERA-GOER. 

283 



had "no ear." Carlyle had no ear, and tried a thousand times to 
make Shakespeare's utterance carry another meaning than its obvious 
one. But Shakespeare was wrong about men, just as he was wrong 
about animals. Men, said Sancho Panza, are as God made them and 
often a good deal worse; and they may look after themselves. Animals 
remain as God made them, and are comparatively helpless. May not 
we, misled by Shakespeare, wrong them in expecting from them that 
which it is not in their nature to give ? 

Opportunities of studying animals in a wild state are scarce. Mr. 
Selous prefers a rifle to a concertina for persuading his big game to 
make a mutual stand. Mr. Roosevelt's lions, in these days, wear 
trousers or petticoats, and are trapped in his drawing-room or at his 
dinner- table ; and that amazing personage, Mr. Garnier, was much 
too busy writing books to observe the effect of a piano on those apes 
of which we have all heard so much more talk than he ever did. As 
for tame animals, careful studies have still to be made. Novelists 
use cats and dogs chiefly for decorative purposes. A cat meanders 
through some chapters of "Daniel Deronda," but it is not a cat of 
high intelligence; and Dickens makes no reference to the musical 
proclivities of either Bill Sykes' dog or Hugh's — even Grip the raven 
is not alleged to have done any singing. Playwrights touch neither 
dogs nor cats. Excepting under the eye of a severe trainer they 
cannot be relied on. The dog that played the piano ran away when 
some one shouted "rats," and the piano proved to be a mechanical 
one. We have heard of a play written round a poodle, but who has 
seen it? Mr. Shaw ought to study animals and do something in that 
line, if he is not occupied in dramatizing the forty-seventh proposition 
of the first book of Euclid (Euclid, by the way, is too much neglected 
by dramatists). 

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The tales commonly recounted of the feats of animals cannot be 
trusted as evidence. For the purpose of amusing (or boring) our 
friends, or for profit, we may accept and retail any story; but in mak- 
ing a scientific investigation like the present, when the reputation of 
a Shakespeare is in the balance, we must weigh all we hear and cannot 
be too careful. When to the sessions of sweet silent thought Shakes- 
peare summoned up remembrance of things past, he ought with 
microscopic pains to have gone over some of the colt stories he had 
heard. He would then have been less eloquent about modest gazes 
and mutual stands. We should have lost some fair poetry and found 
fewer untruths in the poetry. I have kept and nurtured many pets, 
but nothing startling in the musical way came of them. There was, 
for example, Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. This cat was given to me 
by a thorough musician, and every care was bestowed on his education. 
He had ample opportunities of hearing fine music of every description 
in my own household. With such a name and such chances, surely 
if ever cat should have developed extraordinary musical powers, this 
was the cat. But, incredible though it will seem to those who blindly 
follow Shakespeare, he had no more taste or judgment than a musical 
critic. He never learnt to distinguish between "Knocked 'em in the 
Old Kent Road" and a Bach fugue. The majority of critics can do 
that, though their writings do not often lead one to think so. Felix 
liked to sit on the piano and see the hammers flying; but he had no 
regard for the instrument as a musical instrument at all, and was 
wont to drop meat, cheese, fish, and dead mice into it. When Mr. 

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Balling got out his viola-alta, he watched the tip of the bow, and after- 
wards examined it curiously, and tried to make it squeak by tapping 
it with his paw. Of the fiddle he took no notice. He evidently thought 
the sounds came from the bow, which was a poor conclusion for a cat 
whose education had cost such pains. Then there was Mopsy. Un- 
doubtedly, he liked the vibrations caused by the piano ; but he discerned 
no difference between a mellifluous third and a harsh minor ninth. 
In fact, he was not ill-pleased if one sat on the keyboard. Dixie, an 
Irish terrier, lifted up his head, stretched his throat, and emitted an 
agonizing note, and this we called his singing. He was given bits of 
sugar to do it to a piano accompaniment, but, though the thing had 
become a habit with him, I am certain it had its origin with the com- 
motion in his inside produced by music. This is true, I believe, of all 
dogs that persist in joining in with the strains of a band. Their case 
is the reverse of the case of S. Gregory, who always had pains in his 
inside excepting while Mass was being sung. A rabbit I had used to 
run up and down the keyboard, and he ate a great quantity of sheet 
music; but he had no music in his soul, however much there might be 
at times in his stomach. 

These are my experiences. As for other credible tales, even the most 
interesting only show that music is, for all animals, a kind of. noise, 
and that in certain case, they associate noises with ideas. The war- 
horse and the trumpet is a familiar instance, and I heard the other 
day of a horse who had been in the South African war: he turned and 
fled when a pistol was let off. There seems little hope that animals 
will develop within the next million years, — wild animals because they 
hear no music, and domestic ones because of the music they hear. 
On that something might be said, only my subject is "Tame Animals 
and Music," not "Animals and Domestic Mlisic." I don't know 



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288 



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whether young ladies home from school ought to be classed as Domestic 
Animals. Certainly, they are becoming more and more undomesti- 
cated, and certainly are as little sensitive to fine music as any qat or 
dog. But consider the music whose sweet power the majority of them 
are subjected to. I would rather hear the pianola than a piano mal- 
treated by an ill-taught girl, but pianolas, pianos, and indeed all decent 
instruments seem in course of- being driven out by that abomination, 
the gramophone. This is not an invention of the Evil One, — he would 
have made it more sweetly seductive. It is the very product of that 
stupidity against which the gods are powerless. Go through the streets 
of Suburbia and listen: the noises proceeding from family sitting- 
rooms proclaim loudly the news of tastes depraved, of harmless men 
being driven frantically to drink, of wrecked homes, jail, and suicide. 
Under the sweet power of such music human beings rapidly sink lower, 
musically, than cats or dogs, — they even sometimes learn to like such 
noises, which cats and dogs never do. A man who will buy a gramo- 
phone and take it home will poison his innocent children. A man 
who will insist on his invited guest listening to the infernal invention 
will shoot the guest in the back. 



MUSIC AND CHARITY. 

(From the Daily Telegraph, London.) 

"O Charity, Charity, how many taradiddles are uttered in thy 
name!" Though this is not precisely what Madame Roland observed, 
it will serve, since it is at least as true. Music almost more than any 
other of the arts is in a chronic condition of helping on the sacred cause 
of charity. And mighty well she does her work, performs her labor 
of love. None but a churl would have it otherwise. But — there is 



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290 



a "but," for all things are not what they seem in the matter of music 
and charity- Much is done unthinkingly by charity promoters, on the 
basis that the end justifies the means, but those whose lot it is to 
mingle with all sorts and conditions of musicians know that to many 
of the latter the "sacred cause of charity" spells something very like 
ruin. The bitter cry of the practical musician, instrumentalist, vocal- 
ist, and, to some extent, composer, has not yet, perhaps, been uttered 
aloud ; but it has been and is being constantly muttered, as all who are 
cognizant of our musical life and its conditions of competition and 
the like are only too well aware. It is more than likely that the time 
is not far off when the discontent now only smouldering will burst into 
flame, and the artists make their perfectly reasonable demand that 
a broader interpretation be put upon the word "charity," that they, 
too, have their share of it. A step in this direction has, as a matter 
of fact, already been taken, for in the agreements to be signed by all 
soloists engaged to appear at certain established and important con- 
certs there is a clause which debars the artists from performing else- 
where for a lesser or for no fee. As these particular concerts give a 
cachet to an artist, he must (and, of course, is only too glad to) fall 
in with this clause. 

The term "charity" already covers a wide area. There is that 
form which is for the benefit of the blind, the maimed, and the halt. 



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291 



There is another (though somewhat disguised) that ministers by means 
of the multifarious Sunday concerts to the wants of — whom? Those 
for whom they were primarily intended, the busy but poor bee, who 
on the six working days of the week has not the leisure to attend a 
concert (or, what is part and parcel of the same idea, visit a museum) ? 
Not a bit. It is notorious that the more important of these concerts 
are patronized by those who have "nothing to do to kill time" on a 
L-ondon Sunday afternoon, who yet can perfectly well afford the time 
(and the money) to extend their patronage to week-day concerts. 
Do these "art patrons" realize where the charity comes in that on the 
seventh day the fees fpr orchestras and artists are not doubled, as 
justice and reason alike would seem to demand, but are actually halved 
in most cases? 

Up to a few years ago it was only on the rarest occasions (and then 
usually to foreign musicians) that the management of the provincial 
musical festivals thought fit to pay the composer of a "commissioned" 
work any fee at all, or even to defray the travelling expenses to which 
he was put in going personally to conduct his work. Few composers 
are in a sufficiently substantial financial position to give a year's work 
for nothing and to pay for the privilege of conducting it. We know 
the case of a young Englishman whose life was one long struggle, bravely 
and enthusiastically borne, to obtain the bare necessaries of existence, 
who, on being invited to a wealthy musical city to direct a gratis per- 
formance of one of his works, actually was compelled by his circum- 
stances to sleep the long night through upon a public bench on the 
cliffs above the sea, waiting wearily for the first morning train to 
bring him back to town. To this type of musician is any kind of 
"charity" extended once his academic scholarships are expired and he 
is adrift on the ocean of life ? 




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293 



By common consent, the encore nuisance is another form of one- 
sided charity. A performer, whose stock-in-trade is his voice or his 
skill upon some instrument, is paid a fee for certain work. Having 
accomplished that which is legitimately asked of him, is it either just 
or common-sense business to demand more, for which he receives 
nothing? A great many , musicians of the ingenuous or mediocre 
kind look upon an encore as a compliment to them, with never an idea 
that in a vast number 6f cases the applauders are merely "earning" 
their free tickets. 

Do the butcher, the Isaker, the candlestick-maker, throw in such 
bonuses with your purchases? A pity, indeed, that the encore cannot 
be regarded as coming within the meaning of the Secret Commission 
Act. Mr. Henry J. Wood has been known to adopt a very subtle 
form of punishment for the too exigent of the audience on the occasion 
of encores, which upset the balance of a programme that has cost much 
thought in the making. He simply omitted a later number from the 
printed scheme. But so drastic a measure has this weak point that 
the good are punished for the faults of the evil. Only a short time 
ago a well-known Londoner protested loudly that he attended a con- 
cert for the express purpose of hearing one particular work. When, 
however, its place in the programme was reached, the piece was omitted, 
because a too-lenient singer had used the time it was to have occupied 
in ministering, by means of an encore, to the inconsiderate demands 
of a handful of the large audience. 

It is curious that the generally prevalent, but entirely fallacious, 
idea is that by giving his services to charity, by performing "free, 
gratis, and for nothing," the artist is giving that which costs him 
nothing. For obviously the musicians, who receive no fee whatever 
for their services on such occasions, are literally "running the show" 

LOUDON CHARLTON 

868 CARNEGIE HALL, NEW YORK 

Has the honot to announce the following eminent artists under 

his management this season: 

Mme. Johanna Qadski* Mr. Ossip Qabrilowitsch * 

Mme. Marcella Sembrich * Miss Katharine Qoodson * 

Mr. David Bispham * Mr. Ernest Schelling* 

Mme. Mary Hissem de Moss Mr. Theodore Spiering 

Mr. Qeorge Hamlin* Miss Geraldine Morgan 

Mr. Francis Rogers * Mr. Henry Bramsen 

Miss Leila Livingston Morse Mr. Albert Rosenthal 

Miss Cecelia Winter Mr. Edwin H. Lemare* 

Miss Gertrude Lonsdale The Flonzaley Quartet* 

* Artists thus designated will be heard here in recital this season. Specific announce- 
ments in later issues. 

294 



at their own expense, neither more nor less, since theV are charging 
nothing for their wares, their stock-in-trade which is their means of 
livelihood. A beginner, for whom, by the way, the excuse for a free 
appearance may be made that any appearance is better than none, 
may be mulcted in the cost of a new gown if she is to appear at a par- 
ticularly "smart" charity concert. But this is as nothing by com- 
parison with the price paid by the well-known artist, a price w^ell-nigh 
incalculable, since he is spoiling his own market, while the visitor 
who pays a guinea for charity will not pay the half of that to attend 
the singer's own concerts. It is said that each concert-hall in London 
has, roughly, its own audience. Much the same is as true of charity 
concert audiences, a large number of whose members hear no other 
than "charity" music during the year; and a grievous complaint 
in the profession is that, while the elect are constantly being pressed 
to lend their services, no form of reciprocity is practised by the organ- 
izers, who neither engage the said artists for their private "parties" 
nor attend their concerts. There is some truth in a statement once 
made, some years ago, to the present writer by an eminent singer, 
that, paradoxical though it may seem, the -less a well-known artist 
appears in public, the greater demand there is for his services, and the 
more, therefore, these artists lend their art for nothing, bv so much 
do they discount the public demand for them. 

As a general rule, — for all are not Pattis or Santleys,— the "life" 
of a vocal artist is a short one, shorter than almost any other. Here 
to-day, gone to-morrow, is true of an enormous number, and the case 
of the distinguished singer who, holding an exalted position here 
some years ago, toured the Colonies, only to find on returning that 
a dozen had since filled the place once occupied so easily, is by no 
means singular. On no professional folk is it so incumbent to make 



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295 



hay while the sun shines as upon the singers. Their public life is short, 
far too short for them to make themselves independent or to lay up 
a sufficient provision for old age, even if all received the fabulous fees 
so often attributed by those ignorant of the facts to singers in general. 
The days of fancy fortunes for vocalists (with very rare exceptions) 
are gone with the advent of the enormous body of competitors out of 
all proportion to the prizes that are to be won. Not long ago a well- 
known musician said with some truth and much bitterness that only 
they made fortunes as musical soloists who opened their careers with 
a violin in one hand and a feeding-bottle in the other. These happy 
children of fortune are, however, carefully guarded; kept, as it were, 
under lock and key, and are very rarely permitted to appear at pseudo- 
charity concerts. 

Whether anything will be brought about to mitigate or, perhaps, 
abolish the undoubted grievance by the movement now on foot among 
artists remains to be seen. For the present we must rest content 
with the knowledge that the attempt is being made. The spirit of 
benevolence is deep in the human breast, but in none deeper than in 
the musician's. But no true explanation has ever been vouchsafed 
as to why every person practically employed at charity concerts should 
receive his fee, with the single, solitary exception of the principal attrac- 
tion, — the musician. 



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Symphony in D minor, No. 4, Op. 120 . . . . Robert Schumann 

(Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, July 29, 1856.) 

This symphony was composed in 1841, immediately after the Sym- 
phony in B-flat major, No. i. According to the composer's notes it 
was "sketched at Leipsic in June, 1841, newly instrumentated at Diis- 
seldorf in 1851. The first performance of the original version at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipsic, under David's direction, December 6, 1841." 
Clara Schumann wrote in her diary on May 31 of that year: "Robert 
began yesterday another symphony, which will be in one movement, 
and yet contain an adagio and a finale. I have heard nothing about 
it, yet I see Robert's bustle, and I hear the D minor sounding wildly 
from a distance, so that I know in advance that another work will 
be fashioned in the depths of his soul. Heaven is kindly disposed 
toward us: Robert cannot be happier in the composition than I am 



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when he shows me such a work." A few days later she wrote: 
"Robert composes steadily; he has already completed three move- 
ments, and I hope the symphony will be ready by his birthday." 

Their first child, Marie, was born on September i, 1841, and on the 
thirteenth of the month, his wife's birthday, Marie was baptized and 
the mother received from her husband the D minor symphony; "which 
I have quietly finished," he said. 

The symphony was performed for the first time at a concert given by 
Clara Schumann in the Gewandhaus, lycipsic, December 6, 1841. The 
programme included Schumann's "Overture, Scherzo, and Finale," de- 
scribed as "new"; the Symphony in D minor, then entitled the "Sec- 
ond"; piano pieces by Bach, Bennett, Chopin, Mendelssohn, and Liszt 
("Fantasia on Themes of 'Lucia'"); an aria from "Don Giovanni," 
sung by one Schmidt; Schumann's "Two Grenadiers," sung by Pogner; 
a Rhine wine song by Liszt for male chorus (sung by students) ; and 
a duet, "Hexameron," for two pianos by Liszt, which was played by 
Clara Schumann and the composer. The Allgemeine Musikalische 
Zeitung found that in the orchestral works there was no calmness, 
no clearness in the elaboration of the musical thoughts; and it re- 
proached Schumann for his "carelessness." 

The "Hexameron" was the feature of the concert, as far as the audi- 
ence was concerned. Clara wrote: "It made a furore, and we were 



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298 



obliged to repeat a part of it. I was not contented: indeed, I was 
very unhappy that night and the next day, because Robert was not 
•satisfied with my playing, and I also was vexed because Robert's 
symphony was not especially well performed. Then there were many 
little accidents that evening, — the carriage, forgotten music, a rickety 
piano stool, uneasiness in the presence of Liszt, etc." There was an 
audience of nine hundred. 

Schumann was not satisfied with the symphony, and he did not pub- 
lish it. In December, 1851, he revised the manuscript, and the sym- 
phony in the new form was played for the first time at the Diisseldorf 
Festival, May 15, 1853. During the years between 1841 and 1853 
Schumann had composed and published the Symphony in C (No. 2) 
and the Symphony in E-flat (No. 3) ; the one in D minor was published 
therefore as No. 4. 

This symphony was performed in Boston for the first time at a Phil- 
harmonic Concert, led by Carl Zerrahn, February 7, 1857. The pro- 
gramme was as follows : — 

PART I. 

1. Symphony in D minor, No. 4 Schumann 

(First time in Boston.) 

2. Grand Fantasia for Violin Ernst 

Mr. Eduard MollenhauEr.* 

3. Second Part from "Hymn of Praise" Mendelssohn 

(By request.) 

PART II. 

4. Grand Overture to Goethe's "Faust" Wagner 

(By request.) 

5. La Sylphide: Grand Fantasia Mollenhauer 

Mr. Eduard MollEnhauer, 

* Eduaxd Mollenhauer, bom at Erfurt in 1827, studied the violin with Ernst and Spohr. He landed in 
New York in 1853 as a member of Jullien's famous orchestra. He composed an opera, "The Corsican Bride" 
(New York, 1861), operettas, string quartets, violin pieces, songs, etc. He played as a soloist at Keith's 
Theatre in Boston in the season of 1905-06 . 



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299 



6. Terzetto prom "Attila" (with solos for clarinet, English horn, 

and bassoon) Verdt 

Messrs. SchtjlTz, de Ribas Hunstock. 

7. Overture, "Semiramis" Rossini 

Mr. John S. Dwight found many beauties in the new symphony ; but 
he also said — and the year was 1857 — that the orchestration of Wag- 
ner's "Faust" overture was "masterly": "clearer and more eupho- 
nious, it seemed to us, than much of Schumann's." 

It was said for many years that the only changes made by Schumann 
in this symphony were in the matter of instrumentation, especially 
in the wood- wind.* Some time after the death of Schumann the 
first manuscript passed into the possession of Johannes Brahms, who 
finally allowed the score to be published. It was then found that 
the composer had made important alterations in thematic develop- 
ment. He had cut out elaborate contrapuntal work- to gain a broader, 
simpler, more rhythmically effective treatment, especially in the last 
movement. He had introduced the opening theme of the first move- 
ment "as a completion of the melody begun by the three exclamatory 
chords which make the fundamental rhythm at the beginning of the ^ 
last movement." And, on the other hand, some thought the instru- 
mentation of the first version occasionally preferable on account of 
clearness to that of the second. This original version was performed 
at a Symphony Concert in Boston, March 12, 1892. It was performed 
by the Philharmonic Society of New York, February 13, 1892. 

It was Schumann's wish that the symphony should be played without 
pauses between the movements. Mendelssohn expressed the same 

* Schumann wrote from Dusseldorf (May 3, 1853) to Verhulst in Rotterdam that the "old symphony" 
was performed almost agamst his will. "But the members of the committee, who heard it lately, urged me 
so hard that I could not resist them. I have thoroughly re-instrumentated the symphony, and truly in a better 
and more effective way than it was scored at first." 




300 



wish for the performance of his "Scotch" Symphony, which was pro- 
duced nearly four months after the first performance of this Sym- 
phony in D minor. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and strings. 

The first movement begins with an introduction, Ziemlich langsam 
(Un poco lento), in D minor, 3-4. The first motive is used later in the 
"Romanze." The orchestra gives out an A which ser^^es as background 
for this motive in sixths in the second violins, violas, and bassoons. 
This figure is worked up contrapuntally. A dominant organ-point 
appears in the basses, over which the first violins play an ascending 
figure; the time changes from 3-4 to 2-4. 

The main body of this movement, Lebhaft (Vivace), in D minor, 
2-4, begins forte with the development of the violin figure just men- 
tioned. This theme prevails, so that in the first section there is no 
true second theme. The characteristic trombone figure reminds one 
of a passage in Schumann's Piano Quartet in E-flat, Op. 47, and there 
is a heroic figure in the wood-wind instruments. After the repetition 
comes a long free fantasia. The true second theme, sung in F major 
by first violins, appears. The development is now perfectly free. 
There is no third part. 

The Romanze, Ziemlich langsam (Un poco lento), in D minor — or, 
rather, A minor plagal — opens with a mournful melody said to be 
familiar in Provence, and Schumann intended originally to accompany 
the song of oboe and first 'cellos with a guitar. This theme is followed 
by the dreamy motive of the Introduction. Then the first phrases 
of the Romanze are sung again by oboe and 'cellos, and there is a 



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No. I. Reverie 90 

No. 2. Petite Piece . -. . . .go 
No. 3. Meditation . . . .1.00 

ALSO NEW FOREIGN MUSIC 



G. W. THOMPSON & GO. 

A and B Park Street, Boston. 



Foreign Books 
Foreign Periodicals 

Tauchnltz's British Authors 



SCHOENHOF BOOK CO. 

128 Tremont St., 2d door north of Winter Street 
over Wood's Jewelry Store. (Tel., Oxford 1099-a. 



Art Needlework 

Beads 

EMMA A. SYLVESTER 

3 Winter Street Room 32 

Elevator 



Mrs. J. M. MORRISON 

CORvSETvS 

LINGERIE AND FRENCH NECKWEAR 
Exclusive agency for the WADE CORSET 



367 BOYLSTON STREET 

TelepKone, 3142-5 BacR Bay 

302 



second return of the contrapuntal work — now in D major — with 
embroidery by a solo violin. The chief theme brings the movement 
to a close on the chord of A major. 

The Scherzo, Lebhaft (Vivace), in D minor, 3-4, presents the devel- 
opment of a rising and falling scale-passage of a few notes. The Trio, 
in B-flat major, is of a peculiar and beautiful rhythmic character. 
The first beat of the phrase falls constantly on a rest in all the parts. 
The melody is almost always in the wood-wind, and the first violins are 
used in embroidery. The Scherzo is repeated after the trio, which 
returns once more as a sort of coda. 

The Finale begins with a short introduction, Langsam (Lento), in 
B-flat major, and it modulates to D minor, 4-4. The chief theme of 
the first movement is worked up against a counter-figure in the trom- 
bones to a climax. The main body of the movement, Lebhaft (Vivace), 
in D major, 4-4, begins with the brilliant first theme, which has the 
character of a march, and it is not unlike the theme of the first move- 
ment with its two members transposed. The figure of the trombones 
in the introduction enters. The cantabile second theme begins in B 
minor, but it constantly modulates in the development. The free 
fantasia begins in B minor, with a G (strings, bassoons, trombones), 
which is answered by a curious ejaculation by the whole orchestra. 
There is an elaborate contrapuntal working-out of one of the figures 
in the first theme. The third part of the movement begins irregu- 
larly, with the return of the second theme in F-sharp minor. The 
second theme enters in the tonic. The coda begins in the manner of 
the free fantasia, but in E minor; but the ejaculations are now fol- 
lowed by the exposition and development of a passionate fourth theme. 
There is a free closing passage, Schneller (Pii^ moto), in D major, 2-2. 

For a poetic appreciation of the many beauties of this romantic 
symphony see W. J. Henderson's "Preludes and Studies" (New York, 
1891). 




BENJAMIN H. LUDWIG 

FURRrER 

420 BOYLSTON STREET BOSTON, MASS. 
Telephone, Back Bay 3149-5 

HIGH GRADE FURS that will be fashion- 
able this season and many others may be inspected 
at my establishment. 

REPAIRING REDYEING 
REMODELING 

Old Fur garments altered to the newest 
styles. Each order receives the same careful 
attention as new work. 

Every garment sold by me must carry a 
recommendation to other customers, for the rea- 
son everything is of the best quality procurable. 

303 





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Also Philadelphia Washington Albany Providence Newport Hartford 
New Haven Bridgeport Worcester Lynn and many other cities inth« East 



304 



First orchestral trip next -week. There will be no public 
rehearsal and concert on Friday afternoon and Saturday 
evening, November sixth and seventh. 



Fifth Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER J3, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER J4, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 

Tschaikowsky . . . - . Symphony No, 6, "Pathetic" 



Other selections announced later. 



SOLOIST, 
Miss JEANNE GERVILLE-REACHE, 

Of the Manhattan Opera Company, New York. 



305 



VIOLIN RECITAL 

BY 

RICHARD CZERWONKY 

Wednesday Evening, November U, at 8. J 5 

PROGRAM 

1. SONATA IN A . . . Handel 

2. FANTASIA APPASSIONATA Vieuxtemps 

3. (a) ADAGIO Viotti 

{i>) ZEFIR Hubay 

(c) ALLA POLACCA Ph. Scharwenka 

4. AIRS HONGROISES Ernst 

Mb. carl LAMSON, Accompanist 
Reserved Seats, 75c., $1, $1.50. Tickets are now on sale at the hall 

(Oxford 1330) 

THE HUME PIANO USED 

Mr. and Mrs. 
DAVID MANNES 

Aimoimce a series of 

THREE SONATA RECITALS 

VIOLIN AND PIANO 

Friday Evenings, December 4, J 908, January 29, February 
J9, J909, at 8J5 o'clock 

Subscription Tickets, $3.00 and $2, according to location, now on 
sale at Steinert Hall, Boston. Telephone, Oxford 1330. 

STEINWAY PIANO USED 

A PIANOFORTE RECITAL 

Will be given by 

Mr. LOUIS BACHNER 

on 

MONDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 23, AT 3 O'CLOCK 

Reserved seats at 75c., $J.OO, $1.50, may be engaged at the Hall, or by tele- 
phone, Oxford J 330. 

Mr. HEINRICH MEYN, Baritone 

Assisted by Mr. COENRAAD V. BOS, the World's Greatest Accompanist 

Will give a 

SONG RECITAL 

on I 

THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER JO 

Tickets, $1.50, $L00, 75c., are now on sale at the Hall 

306 



IM CZERWONKY 
String Quartet 

RICHARD CZERWONKY, First Violin CARL SCHEURER, Viola 

WILLY KRAFT, Second Violin RUDOLF NAGEL, Violoncello 

Beg to announce THREE C/ONC^ElxXib to be given on 

Wednesday Evenings, December 9, February \0, and March 24 

Course tickets, $3.00 and $2.00, at the Hall. Tickets for single concerts, $1.50, $1.00 

Miss 

CAROLYN LOUISE WILLADD c.^) 

Announces a PIANOFORTE RECITAL 
to be given on 

Wednesday Afternoon, /November 18, at three o'clock 

Reserved Seat Tickets, at 50c., ;^i.oo, J1.50, are on sale at the Hall, or may be ordered 

by telephone (Oxford 1330) 

(Miss Willard is a former pupil of Leschetizky in Vienna, and a co-laborer 

with Mrs. Zeisler) 

THE STEINWAY PIANO USED 

NEW JACOB SLEEPER HALL 

688 BOYLSTON STREET (Next to Public Library) 

HoFfmann Quartet 

J. HOFFMANN, ) xr.^. K. RISSLAND, Viola 

A. BAK, i VicAin^ q BARTH, Violoncello 

THREE CHAMBER CONCERTS 

On Monday Evenings, November 16, Decem- 
ber 14, February 1, at 8.15 o'clock 

Assisting Artists : Messrs. Charles Anthony, Richard Piatt, Walter Spry (Chicago), and others to be an- 
nounced. 

The programs will be selected from compositions by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, Borodin 
Foote, Max Reger, Castillon, etc. 

PROGRAM FOR THE FIRST CONCERT, NOVEMBER 16 

Quartet in D major (K. V. 499) ....... Mozart 

Sonata in C major, Op. 72. For violin and pianoforte .... Max Reger 

(ist time) 
Second Quartet (in D major) . ...... Borodin 

Mr. CHARLES ANTHONY Assisting 

Mason & Hamlin Pianoforte used 



Subscription tickets at $4.00, $2.50, ;?i. 50; (balcony unreserved) on sale at 688 Boylston Street, Treasurer's 
office, or orders (accompanied by check) maybe mailed to J. Hoffmann, 90 Gainsborough Street, Boston. 
Single Tickets, $1.50, ^i.oo, 50 cents. 

307 



The 

Hess - Schroeder 
Quartet 

PROF. WILLY HESS, First Violin 

J. VON THEODOROWICZ, Second Violin 

EMILE FERIR, Viola 

ALWIN SCHROEDER, Violoncello 

Will give Five Chamber Music Concerts on 
Tuesday Evenings ^at 3A5 

NOVEMBER 17, 1908 

DECEMBER 22, 1908 

JANUARY 19, 1909 

MARCH 2, 1909 

MARCH 23, 1909 

At CHICKERING HALL 



PROGRAMME for First Concert, November 17 

I. QUARTET in C major . . . . Mozart 

II. QUARTET in A major, Op. 41, No. 3 . Schumann 

III. QUARTET in G major, Op. 18, No. 2 . '. Beethoven 



Season Tickets for Five Concerts, $6, $4, and $2.50, according 
to location, now on sale at Box Office, Symphony Hall. 

Single Tickets, $1.50, $1.00, and 50 cents, on sale on and after 
Monday, November 9. 



DEBUCHY'S CONCERT . SYMPHONY HALL 

Tuesday Afternoon, November 17, at 2.30 

Mm£: CALVE 

And an orchestra of 74, 
ALBERT DEBUCHY, Conductor 

TICKETS, $2.50, $2.00, $1.50, $1.00 

Sale opens at Symphony Hall next Monday, 

November 2 

JORDAN HALL SPECIAL ENGAGEMENT 

Isadora Duncan 

In Classic Dances 

Wednesday Evening, November 11, at 8.15 

Thursday Evening, November 12, at 8.15 

A REVIVAL OF THE GREEK ART OF 2,000 YEARS AGO 



Miss Duncan will dance and interpret in pantomime a special pro 
gramme of classical music. The music will be played by an orchestra. 

FURTHER DETAILS LATER 



Tickets $2.00, $1.50 and $1.00, on sale at Symphony Hall on and after Monday, 
November 2. Mail orders may be addressed to L. H. Mudgett. 

309 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Jordan Hall| Monday Afternoon, November 2 

THREE O'CLOCK 

Piano Recital by EMIL SAUER 

PROGRAM 

I. Concerto, D minor, Friedematm Bach. Transcribed by August Stradel. Molto maestoso e 
pesante. Grave. Fuga. Largo. Finale. 2. Sonata No. i, D Major, Emil Sauer. Mod- 
erato assai. Scherzo. Intermezzo. Tama con variazione. 3. {a) Impromptu, Op. 142, No. 
i, Schubert. (6) Scherzo, "Midsummer Night's Dream," Mendelssohn. 4. (a) Ballade, 
Op. 38, No. 2 ; {b) Nocturne, Op. 27, No. a; (c) Study, Chopin. 5. {a) Nocturne, Op. 54, 
No. 4, Grieg, (b) Gnomenrkigen, Liszt. 6. Tarantelle, " Venezia e Napoli," Liszt. 

Tickets now on sale at Symphony Hall. Prices, 50c., $1, $1.50 and $2. 

Symphony Hall, Friday Afternoon, November 6, at 2.30 

Mme. Sembrich in song Recitai 

MR. ISIDORE LUCKSTONE AT THE PIANO 
TICKETS, $2.00, $1.50, and $1.00, now on sale. 

Symphony Hall, Monday Evening, November 9, at 8 

A « « ^^ « « Assisted by 

Apollo Club Geraldine Farrar 

EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor and COMPLETE ORCHESTRA 

1871 — 200th CONCERT — 1908 

TICKETS, $2.50 and 2.00 

Public Sale opens Monday, November 2 

Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, November i6, at 3 

Dr. Ludwig Wiillner RecLi 

TICKETS, $1.50, $1.00, and 50c. 

At Symphony Hall on and after Monday, November 9 

MAIL ORDERS for the above concerts, accompanied by check or 
money order, and addressed to L. H. Mudgett, Symphony Hall, 
filled in order of receipt and as near the desired location as 
possible, prior to public sale. 



310 



THF 

KNEISEL QUARTET 

FRANZ KNEISEL, Tim Violin LOUIS SVECENSKI, VicU 

JULIUS ROENTGEN, Second Violin WILLEM WILLEKE, ViolmuBa 

TWENTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1908-1909 

FENWAY COURT 



FIVE CONCERTS 

TUESDAY EVENINGS 



at 8.15 o'clock 




November lo . 


. 1908 


December 8 ... 


1908 


January 5 ... 


. 1909 


February i6[. 


1909 


March 16 . . . 


. 1909 



ASSISTING ARTISTS: 

Miss KATHARINE GOODSON Mr. OSSIP QABRILOWITSCH 

Mr. ERNEST CONSOLO Mr. COURTLANDT PALMER 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE 



PROGRAM OF FIRST CONCERT 
Haydn ..... Quartet in E-flat, Op. 33, No. 2 

Courtlandt Palmer ...... Quintet in A minor 

For Pianoforte, two Violins, Viola and Violoncello. (M.S. first time) 
Beethoven . . . . . Quartet in C major, Op. 59, No. 3 

ASSISTING ARTIST 

Mr. COURTLANDT PALMER 



THE PIANO IS A STEINWAY 



Subscription tickets for season of five Concerts, ^56.25. Tickets for single 
Concerts, ^1.50, $1.00. Now on sale at 

THE BOSTON MUSIC CO. (G. Schirmer) 
26 and 2? WEST STREET 



811 



SYMPHONY HALL - BOSTON 



FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 

THIRTEENTH, NINETEEN 

HUNDRED and EIGHT, at EIGHT 

O'CLOCK 



THE NIGHT BEFORE THE FOOTBALL GAME AT 

CAMBRIDGE 



SECOND JOINT CONCERT by the Glee, 
Mandolin, and Banjo Clubs of 



HARVARD 

and DARTMOUTH 

UNIVERSITIES 



Orders by mail, accompanied by cheque made payable to 
F. R. COMEE and addressed to Symphony Hall, Boston, will be 
filled in the order of their reception, and seats will be assigned as 
near the desired location as possible. 

TICKETS, ;^i.50 and $\.oo 

812 



Woolsey Hall - - New Haven 



FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 

TWENTIETH, NINETEEN 

HUNDRED AND EIGHT, AT EIGHT 

O'CLOCK 

THE NIGHT BEFORE THE FOOTBALL GAME 
AT NEW HAVEN 



NINTH JOINT CONCERT 

by the Glee, Mandolin, 
and Banjo Clubs of 

Yale and Harvard 
Universities 



Orders by mail, accompanied by cheque made payable to 
F. R. COMEE and addressed to Symphony Hall, Boston, 
will be filled in the order of their reception, and seats 
will be assigned as near the desired location as possible. 

TICKETS, $i.so and ^i.oo 

313 



TOWN HALL - - - MEDFIELD, MASS. 

Wednesday Evening, November J 8, at 7.30 

AMERICAN STRING QUARTETTE 

GERTRUDE MARSHALL, First Violin ETHEL BANKART, Viola 

EVELYN STREET, Second Violin GEORGIE PRAY LASELLE, Violoncello 

Mr. HEINRICH QEBHARD Assisting 

Programme 

Dvorak • Quartet for Strings, Opus 96, in F 

Benjamin Godard Three Duettini from Opus]i8, for two violins, with piano accom- 
paniment. 

Schumann Piano Quintet, Opus 44 

Mail orders, accompanied by cheque made payable to Miss Evelyn Street, Medfield, Mass., 

will be filled in the order of their reception. Tickets, 50 cents. 

Mason & Hamlin Piano used 



HUNTINGTON CHAMBERS HALL 
FOR RECITALS 
30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE 



The Boston Symphony Orchestra Programie 

For the twenty-four Boston Concerts, with Historical and 
Descriptive Notes by Philip Hale. Bound copies of the 
Programme for the entire season can be had at $2.00 
by applying before the last concert. Address all com- 
munications to 

F. R. COHEE, 

Symphony Hall, Boston. 



314 



Alfred Peats Wall Paper 



EFFECTIVE 
INTERIOR 
DECORATION 



The modern idea of furnishing a 
room — a rug, not too much furniture, beau- 
tiful walls. That is all. The effect is 
most charming, if the walls are beautiful. 
With the accumulation of wealth 
taste or style in the decorations of the home has advanced. This 
improved taste recognizes more and more that the keynote of 
interior decoration is the walls — that there is nothing more 
important. 

In the whole history of interior decoration, nothing has been 
shown to equal the papers we are showing this fall. Our immense 
stock is drawn from every corner of the globe. The most discrimi- 
nating and careful buyer will find exactly what is required at prices 
as moderate as can be found anywhere for the same grade of goods. 

BOSTON'S EXCLUSIVE WALL PAPER SHOP 

116=120 SUnriER STREET 



HOTEL RENNERT 

BALTIMORE, MD. 




Within one square of the shopping dis- 
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The standard hotel of the South. 

The cuisine of this hotel has made 
Maryland cooking famous. 

The only hotel in the world where the 
Chesapeake Bay products. Fish, Oysters, 
Terrapin, and Canvas-back Duck, are 
prepared in their perfection. 



MODERN IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

Rooms, $1.50 per day and upwards Fire-proof building 



315 



The LONGY CLUB 

Will give three 
concerts in 

POTTER HALL 

on 

THE MONDAY EVENINGS 

November 23 December 21 

February 8 

The programmes will be selected among 
the following works: 

BACH .... Aria for Soprano, flute, and 2 English horns 

HAENDEL . . . Oboe Concerto with strings accompaniment 

MOZART . Divertissement for 2 oboes, 2 horns, and 2 bassoons 

BEETHOVEN .... Trio for 2 oboes and English horn 

(First time at these concerts) 

FALCONI Sextet for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon, and piano 

DESTENAY .... Trio for oboe, clarinet and piano 

WOOLLETT . . 5 pieces for two flutes, clarinet, horn, and piano 

ENESCO . Symphonic for 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, 2 clarinets, 

2 horns, and 2 bassoons 
(New, and first time in America) 

CAPLET Suite Persane for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 horns, and 

2 bassoons 

LOEFFLER .... Rapsodies for oboe, viola, and piano 

MALHERBES Sextet for flute, oboe, EngUsh horn, clarinet, horn, 

bassoon 

PIERNE Pastorale Variee for flute, oboe, clarinet, trumpet, horn, and 

2 bassoons 

Assisting Artists to be announced 



316 



SANDERS THEATRE, Cambridge 



Boston 
SymphonyOrchestra 

MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

Twenty»eighth Season, Nineteen Hundred Eight and Nine 



THURSDAY EVENINGS AT 8 

November 19 December 10 January 21 

February 11 March 4 April i and 29 



SOLO ARTISTS 

Miss LILLA ORMOND, Contralto Miss NINA FLETCHER, Violinist 

Miss GERMAINE ARNAUD, Pianist Mr. GEORGE PROCTOR, Pianist 

Miss LAURA HAWKINS, Pianist Mr, WILLY HESS, Violinist 



Tickets on sale at Kent's University Bookstore, Harvard Square 

317 




318 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION. 



VOCAL INSTRUCTION and 

SOPRANO SOLOIST 

Hiss HARRIET S. IHITTIER, st-"'"- ^'o "-tin^fn Avenue. ■ 

Elxponent of the method of the late Charles R. Adams. 
Portsmouth, New Hampshir*, Mondays. 



Mr. CHARLES B. STEYENS. 



TEACHER OF Si/NGiNG. 

STUDIOS, 
Suite 14, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 

Telephone, 1331 Oxford. 

Miss Harriette C. Wescott, 

Accompanist and Assistant Teacher. 



Miss LAURA HAWKINS, 



PIA/NIST. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

No. 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Miss CAROLINE!. SOUTHARD, 

TEACHER OF THE PIANOFORTE. 



Classes in Sight Reading 

(EIGHT HANDS). 

Advanced pupils follow the Sjrmphony programme! 
as far as practicable. 

165 Huntington Avenue - Boston 



Miss GERTRUDE EDMANDS, 



Concert and Oratorio. 

Vocal Instruction. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington ATvaae. 



Mrs. HALL MCALLISTER. 



TEACHER of SI/NGING. 

407 Pierce Building, 
COPLEY SQUARE. 

Musical Mlanagement. 



Miss ELEANOR BRI6HAM, 



Pianist and TeacHer, 

Triiiity Court. 



Mr. BERNHARD LISTEMANN'S 



Training to competent teachers prin- 
cipal aim. Ensemble lessons. 

OFFICE 

Macl^ Q h I f V I* • * ^®^ PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE. 

IVIaSier OCnOOl for VlOliniSlS* Hours: Monday and Thursday, from i p.m. 

Wednesdays and Saturdays, 9 to i and 2 to 4. 
319 



Miss CLARA E. MUN6ER, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Century Building, 
177 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 



Hiss JOSEPHINE COLLIER, 



PIANIST and TEACHER. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Walter E. Loud — Violin. 
Pupil of Ysaye. 



32 Batavia Street. 



Miss Bertlia Wesselhoeft Swiit 



Soprano Soloist, 

TEACHER OF SINGING, 
J Studio, TRINITY COURT, Boston. 

Miss Swift is ready to give her children's programs 
before clubs, church societies, and in private houses 



Miss LUCY CLARK ALLEN, 



Pianoforte Lessons. 

Accompaniments. 

LANQ STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Mr.SAHDELJ.MacWATTERS, 

Professor of Voice Building in 
Boston University. 



VOICE PLACING, 

Development of Tone and 
Resonance. 

72 MOUNT VERNON STREET. 



Mrs. LUCIA GALE BARBER. 



Physical and Personal Culture, 

Rhythm, Poise, Breathing, 
Concentration, Relaxation, 

Normal Course. 

The Ludlow, Copley Sq., Boston. 



KARL DOERING, 



TENOR- BARITONE. 

Pupil of Professor Jachman-Wagner, Berlin, and 
Professor Galliera, Milan, Italy. 

Training and Finishing of Voice. 

School for Grand Opera and Oratorio. 

STE INERT HALL, ROOM 27. 

Opea Monday, October 12. Send for new Prospectus 



BERTHA GUSHING CHILD, 



38 BABCOCK ST., BROOKLINE. 

TEACHING AT 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY ST., BOSTON. 



320 



Mrs. CAROLYN KING BUNT, 



PIANiSTEand TEACHER. 

Hemenway Chambers, 
BOSTON. 



PIANO AND HARMONY. 

MA BY R ^AWYFR ^°^ *°"'' y*"^ P^P^^ and Authorized Assistant of 

mniii u, on uiuii, Frau VARETTE STEPANOFF, 

Leschetizky Method. BERLIN, GERMANY. 

Studio, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 



Miss RENil I. BISBEE, 



TEACHER or PIANO, 

LANG STUDIOS, 
6 NEWBURY STREET. 



LUCY FRANCES GERRISH, 



PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION. 

GERRISH STUDIO, 
140 Boylston Street . . . Boston. 



EDITH LYNWOOD WINN 



Normal and Teachers' Courses for 
Violin. 
Children's classes at special rates 



LECTURE-RECITALS 

This season, Russian, Hungarian, 17th 
and i8th Century Music. 



TRINITY COURT 



BOSTON. 



The Guckenberger School of 
Mnsic. 

B. GUCKENBERGER, Director. 



Piano, Voice, Violin (and all orchestral 
instruments), Theory, Musical Analysis, 
Analytical Harmony, Composition, Score 
Reading, Chorus and Orchestral Con- 
ducting. 
30 Huntington Avenue . Boston 



HENRY T. WADE. 



RICHARD PLATT. 



Teacher of 

Pianoforte, Church Organ, 

Theory oF Music. 

Steinert Hall, Boston. 
77 Newtonville Avenue, Newton. 



PIANIST. 



23 Steinert Hall . . Boston. 

Mason & Hamlin Piano. 



CHARLES S. JOHNSON, 



PIANO, ORGAN, 
HARMONY. 



LANG STUDIO, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 

321 



Miss HARRIET A. SHAW, 



HARPIST. 

186 COMMONWEALTH AVENUE 

Telephone. 



SAM L. STUDLEY, 



Picfoe Buildingt Copley Square, Room 313. 

INSTRUCTION IN THE 
ART OF SINGING. 

OPERA, ORATORIO, AND SONG. 



Miss JESSIE DAVIS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
289 Newbury Street, Boston. 



Miss Rose Stewart, 

Vocal Instruction. 

246 Huntington Avenue. 



Miss EDITH E. TORREY, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

164 Huntington Avenue, Boston^ 
Tuesdays axid Fridays at Welleeley College. 



Mrs. E. C. WALDO, 

Teacher of Music. 

Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



HELEN ALLE/M HUNT, 

CONTRALTO SOLOIST. 

Teacher of Singing. 
No. 514 Pierce Building . Boston. 



BOSTON MUSICAL BUREAU. 

Established 1899. 
Supplies Schools, Colleges, and Conservatories 
with Teachers of Music, etc.; also Churches with 
Organists, Directors, and Singers. 

Address HENRY C. LAHEE, 
'Phone, 47S-I Oxford. 218 Trkmont St., Boston . 



Mrs. 5. B. FIELD, 

Teacher of the Piano and Accompanist. 
HOTEL NOTTINGHAM. 

Mrs. Field makes a specialty of Coaching, in both 
vocal and instrumental music. 

Artists engaged, programmes arranged, and all 
responsibility assumed for private musicales. 



Miss MARIE L EVERETT, 

Teacher of Singing. 

Pupil of MADAME MARCHESI, 

Paris. 

THE COPLEY, BOSTON. 



Miss MARY D. CHANDLER, 

Concert Pianist and Teacher. 

Pttpil o/Philipp, Paris. 

149A TREMONT ST., Monday and Thursday. 

Residence, 5 Ashland Street, Dorchester. 

Telephone, 1828-3 Dorchester. 



Miss PAULA MUELLER, 

Teacher of Piano 
and German Language. 

STUDIOS, 
28 Central Avenue, Room 30, Steinert Hall 

MEDFORD. BOSTON. 

RECITALS. 



Mrs.V.PERNAUX=SCHUMANN, 

TEACHER OF FRENCH and GERMAN. 
French and German Diction a Specialty. 

32 BATAVIA STREET, Suite 8, BOSTON. 



Mr. EMIL MAHR. 

JOACHIM SCHOOL. 
Address, 69 Crawford St., Roxbury, Mass 



Miss EDITH JEWELL, 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER, 

37 BRIMMER STREET. 

Refers by permission to Mr. C. M. LoefHer. 



Clarence B. Shirley, 
Tenor Soloist and Teacher* 

CONCERT AND ORATORIO. 

Studio, Huntington Chambers, Boston. 



322 



MR. ROBT. N. 
MRS, ROBT. N. 



LISTER, 



Teacher of Singing, 
Soprano Soloist. 

Symphony Chambers, opposite Symphony Hall, 
BOSTON. 



CHARLOTTE WHITE. 

Violoncellist of the Carolyn Belcher String Quartet. 

TEACHER AND SOLOIST. 

608 Huntington Chambers, Boston, Mass. 



THOMAS L. CUSHMAN, 

VOCAL TEACHER. 
218 TREMONT STREET. 



L. B. 

MERRILL 



BASS SOLOIST 

AND 

TEACHER. 

218 Tremont Street 



Mrae. de BERQ-LOFGREN, 
TEACHER OF SINGING. 

The "GARCIA" Method. 
Studio, 12 Westland Avenue. BOSTON, MASS. 



Mrs. H. CARLETON SLACK, 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Lyric Soprano. Concerts and Recitals. 
Lessons at residence, 128 Hemenway Street. 



IVIiss PEARL BRICE, 

CONCERT VIOLINIST, TEACHER. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



Mrs.lOUISELATHROP MELLOWS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 

STUDIO, Jefferson HaU, 
Trinity Court, Dartmouth Street, Bostoa. 



Miss M. B. HARTWELL. 

PIANO AND HARMONY. 
Studio, 9 St. James Avenue. 

Miss Hartwell has but recently returned from 

Vienna, where she studied the Leschetizky 

Method for three years and a half. 



VIOLET IRENE WELLINGTON, 

Humorous and Dramatic Reader. 

Also 
Teacher of Voice, Elocution, Physical Culture. 

59 Westland Avenue. 
Telephone. 3439-1 Back Bay. 



TIPPEH " "^^ 

PAIII I ^^' ^^^^^ 

STUDIOS 



VOICE 



Assistant, GRACE R. HORNE 

312 PIERCE BUILDING 
COPLEY SQUARE 



LUISE LEIMER, 

Contralto Soloist and Teacher of Singing. 

Studio, 23 Crawford Street 

and 5tf inert Building. 

Miss RUTH LAIGHTON, 

Violinist and Teacher 

19 Chestnut Street • Boston 



Miss JANET DUFF, 

(7 years pupil of Francis Korbay) 

Contralto, Concerts, Oratorios, and Song Recitals. 

Teacher of Voice Production and Singing. 

Studio, 402 Huntington Chambers. 

Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday morn- 
ings 
Management, W. S. Bigelow, Jr., Boston 



Miss MARIE WARE LAUGHTON, 

Lecturer and Reader of Shakspere. 
Instructor of the VOICE IN SPEECH. 
Courses of Study for Personal Culture and Pro- 
fessional Training. 

418 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE 



Arthur M. Curry, 

Teacher of 

Violin, Hatmony, Composition. 
34 STEINERT HALL. 



Ellen M. Yerrinton, 

Vorbereiter to Teresa Carreno, 
Uhland Str. 30, BERLIN, W., GERMANY 



323 



Allen H. Daugherty, 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION, 
HARMONY. 

Tei„ Oxford 1629-1. 218 Tremont Street. 



MissMARY A.STOWELL, 

Teacher of Piano and l1arnioni|. 
The ILKLEY, 

Huntington Avenue and Cumberland Street. 

(Cumberland Street entrance.) 



Miss KATHERINE LINCOLN, 

Soprano Soloist. 
Teacher of Singing. 

514 Pierce Building, Copley Square, Boston. 



BARITONE. 



George W. Mull, 

Teacher of Singing. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue,Boston. 



JOHN CROGAN MANNING, 

CONCERT PIANIST and TEACHER. 

Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday 
afternoons 

Symphony Chambers, 246 Huntington Ave. 



Mr. WILLIS W. GOLDTHWAIT, 

Teacher of Piano. 

Thorough instruction in Harmony, class or private. 

7 Park Square, Boston. 



JOHN BEACH, 

PIANIST. 
10 Cliarles Street. 



Miss MARGARET GORHAM, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 

Trinity Court. Boston. 



Mrs. HIRAM HALL, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
1x8 Charles Street. 



Mrs. Alice Wentworth MacGregor, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Residence Studio, 780 Beacon Street. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Abbot Academy. 



Mrs. NELLIE EVANS PACKARD. 

Studio, 218 Tremont Street (Room 308), Boston. 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Mrs. Packard is commended by Walker, Randegger 
(London), Marchesi, Bouhy, Trabadelo (Paris), 
Leoni (Milan), Vannuccini (Florence), Cotogni, 
Franceschetti (Rome). 



Mr. P. FIUMARA 

Will furnish a Small Orchestra of mem- 
bers of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
for Musicales, Dinners, Receptions, etc. 

Address, Symphony Hall. 



ARTHUR THAYER, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
200 Huntington Avenue 



Mr. CHARLES DUMAS, 

Gradupite of the University of Paris. 
Former Assistant at Harvard. 

French (all .grades), Lectures, Diction, 

Elocution, etc. 
286 Columbus Ave., Opp. Back Bay Station. 



CLAUDE HACKELTON, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, Room 515, Boston 



EVEREH E. TRUETTE, 

CONCERT ORGANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, BOSTON. 



EDWIN N. C. BARNES, 

Basso Cantante and 
Teacher of Singing. 

Symphony Chambers . . . Boston. 

Opposite Symphony HalL 



Oratorio 
SOPRANO 
SOLOIST. 



Concert. 

ur^y^iteGOODBAR, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Thorough preparation for Concert and Church. 

Studio . . Steinert Hall. 

'Phone, Oxford 1330. Mondays and Thursdays 



324 



<^ 



ALWIN SCHROEDER 

The glorious artist and distinguished musician, 

^Cellist of the Hess-Schroeder Quartet 

writes as follows of the 

PIANOS 



MASON & HAMLIN CO., Bostont 

Gentlemen: — During my residence in America for the 
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all the various pianos made in this country, as indeed I have 
had opportunity of studying the pianos abroad before I came 
to America. I want to write to express to you my sincere 
admiration and appreciation of your very beautiful pianos. 
I have heard them with orchestra, in hundreds of chamber 
concerts, and at my home under various conditions; always 
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I am, very truly yours, 

(Signed) ALWIN SCHROEDER. 



MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

Opp. Institute of Technology BOYLSTON STREET 




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SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON 6- MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

T, , , 5 Ticket Office, 1492 ) „ , ^ 

Telephones J Administratiin Offices, 3200 } Back Bay 

TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

pirngramm^ of ti|p 

Fifth 

Rehearsal and Concert 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIP- 
TIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 




FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 13 

AT 2.30 O'CLOCK 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 14 

AT 8.00 O'CLOCK 

COPYRIGHT. 1908, BY C. A. ELLIS 
PUBLISHED BY C. A. ELLIS, MANAGER 



.325 



Mme. CECILE CHAMINADE 

The World's Greatest W^oman Composer 

Mme. TERESA CARRENO 

The World's Greatest Woman Pianist 

Mme. LILLIAN NORDICA 

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USE 




Piano. 



THE JOHN CHURCH CO., 37 West 32d Street 
New York City 



REPRESENTED BY 

G. L SCHIRMER & GO., 38 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

PERSONNEL 



Twenty ^eighth Season, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 







First Violins. 




Hess, Willy Roth, O. 

Concert-master. Kuntz, D. 
Noack, S. 


Hoffmann, J. 
Fiedler, E. 


Krafft, W. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


Mahn, F. 
Strube, G. 


Eichheim, H. 
Rissland, K. 


Bak, A. 
Ribarsch, A. 

Second Violins. 


Mullaly, J. 
Traupe, W. 


Barleben, K. 
Fiumara, P. 


Akeroyd, J. 
Currier, F. 


Fiedler, B. 
Werner, H. 


Berger, H. 
Eichler, J. 


Tischer-Zeitz, 
Goldstein, S. 


H. Kuntz, A. 
Kurth, R. 


Marble, E. 
Goldstein, H. • 

Violas. 




Ferir, E. 
Scheurer, K. 


Heindl, H. 
Hoyer, H. 


Zahn, F. Kolster, A. 
Kluge, M. Sauer, G. 

Violoncellos. 


Krauss, H. 
Gietzen, A. 


Warnke, H. 
Keller, J. 


Nagel, R. 
Kautzenbach, A. 


Barth, C. Loeffler, E. 
Nast, L. Hadley, A. 

Basses. 


Warnke, J. 
Smalley, R. 


Keller, K. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Agoesy, K. 
Kunze, M. 


Seydel, T. 
Huber, E. 


Ludwig, O. 
Schurig, R. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Maquarre, A. 
Maquarre, D. 
Brooke, A. 
Fox, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Sautet, A. 

English Horn 


Grisez, G. Sadony, P. 
Mimart, P. Mueller, E. 
Vannini, A. Regestein, E. 

Bass Clarinet. Contra-Bassoon. 




Mueller, F. 


Stumpf, K. 


Helleberg, J. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. Trombones. Tuba. 


Hess, M. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Phair, J. 


Schmid, K. 
Gebhardt, W. 
Hackebarth, A. 
Schumann, C. 


Kloepfel, L. Hampe, C. Lorenz, O. 
Mann, J. Mausebach, A. 
Heim, G. Kenfield, L. 
Merrill, C. 


Harp. 


Tympani. 


Percussion. 


Schuecker, H. 


Rettberg, A. 


Dworak, J. 


Senia, T. 




Kandler, F. 


Ludwig, C. 

Librarian. 
Sauerquell, J. 


Burkhardt, H. 



327 





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TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, NINETEEN HUNDRED EIGHT AND NINE 



Fifth Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 13, at 2.30 o^cIock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER J4, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME* 

Tschaikowsky . Symphony No. 6, "Pathetic." in B minor, Op. 74 

Dfed November 6, J 893. 

I. Adagio ; Allegro non troppo. 
II. Allegro con grazia. 

III. Allegro molto vivace. 

IV. Finale: Adagio lamentoso. 



Weber . . Scene, " How Tranquilly I Slumbered," and Aria, " Softly 
Sighing," from the Opera ""Der Freischiitz" 

Grdtry . . Three Dance Pieces from "Cephalus and Procris," 
Heroic Ballet. First time in Boston 
I. Tambourin. 
II. Menuet ("The Nymphs of Diana"). 
III. Gigue. 

(Freely arranged for concert use by Felix Mottl.) 

Songs with Pianoforte Accompaniment: 

a. Richard Strauss ...... "Allerseelen " 

b. Mozart "Das Veilchen" 

c. Grieg "Ein Traum" 

Beethoven .... Overture to Goethe's "Egmont," Op. 84 



SOLOIST, 
Mme. MARIE RAPPOLD. 



The pianoforte is a Stein-way. 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony. 



The doors of the hall will he closed during the performance of 
each number on the program^me. Those who wish to leave before 
the end of the concert are requested to do so in an interval &e- 
tween the numbers. 

City of Boston. Revised Reiinlation of Ani{ust 5, 1898.— Chapter 3. relatlnii to the 
coverinii of the head in places of public amusement. 

_ Every licensee shall not, in his place of amusement, allow any person to wear upon the head a coveriog 
which obstructs the view of the exhibition or performance in such place of any person seated in any seat therein 
provided for spectators, it being understood that a low bead covering without projection, which does not 
obstruct sxich view, may be worn. Attest J. M. GALVIN, City Clerk. 

329 




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330 



Symphony No. 6, ix B minor, "Pathetic," Op.. 74. 

Peter Tschaikowsky 

(Born at \'otkinsk, in the government of ^'iatka, Russia, May 7,* 1840; died at St 
Petersburg, November 6, 1S93.) 

This symphony is in four movements: — 

I. Adagio, B minor, 4-4. 

Allegro non troppo, B minor, 4-4 
II. Allegro con grazia, D major, 5-4. 

III. Allegro, molto vivace, G major, 4-4 (12-8). 

IV. Finale: Adagio lamentoso, B minor, 3-4. 

Tschaikowsky embarked at New York in May, 1891, for Hamburg. 
The steamer was the "Ftirst Bismarck." His diary tells us that on 
his Aoyage he made sketches for a sixth symphony. (The Fifth was 
first performed in 1888.) The next mention of this work is in a letter 
dated at Vichy, June 30, 1892, and addressed to W. Naprawnik: "After 
you left me, I still remained at Klin about a month, and sketched two 
movements of a symphony. Here I do absolutely nothing; I have 
neither inclination nor time. Head and heart are empty, and my 
mental faculties are concentrated wholly on my thoughts. I shall 
go home soon." He wrote his brother in July that he should finish 
this symphony in Klin. From IClin he wrote Serge Taneieff, the 
same month, that before 'his last journey he had sketched the first 
movement and the finale. "When I was away, I made no progress 
with it, and now there is no time." He was then working on the opera 
"lolanthe" and the ballet "The Nut-cracker," performed for the first 
time at St. Petersburg, December i8,t 1892. He was reading the 
letters of Flaubert with the liveliest pleasure and admiration. In 
September he went to Vienna, and he visited Sophie Menter, the pianist, 
at her castle Itter in the Tyrol. He wrote from IClin in October: "I 

* ^Irs. Kewmarch, in her translation into English of Modest Tschaikowsky's life of his brother, gives 
the date of Peter's bu-th April 28 (May 10). Juon gives the date April 25 (May 7). As there are typographical 
and other errors in Mrs. Newmarch's version, interesting and valuable as it is, I prefer the date given by Juon, 
Hugo Riemann, Iwan Knorr, and Heinrich Stiimcke. 

t Mrs. Newmarch, in her translation into English of Modest's life of his brother, gives December 17 as 
the date. 



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shall be in St. Petersburg the whole of November; I must devote 
December to the orchestration of my new symphony, which will be 
performed at St. Petersburg toward the end of January." But in 
December he travelled; he visited Berlin, Basle, Paris; and from Berlin 
he wrote to W. Davidoff (December 28) : — 

"To-day I gave myself up to weighty and important reflection. 
I examined carefully and objectively, as it were, my symphony, which 
fortunately is not yet scored and presented to the world. The impres- 
sion was not a flattering one for me; that is to say, the symphony is 
only a work written by dint of sheer will on the part of the composer : 
it contains nothing that is interesting or sympathetic. It should be 
cast aside and forgotten. This determination on my part is admirable 
and irrevocable. Does it not consequently follow that I am generally 
dried up, exhausted? I have been thinking this over for three days. 
Perhaps there is still some subject that might awaken inspiration in me, 
but;I do not dare to write any more absolute musijc, — that is, symphonic 
or chamber music. To live without work which would occupy all of 
one's time, thoughts, and strength, — that would be boresome. What 
shall I do ? Hang composing upon a nail and forget it ? The decision is 
most difficult. I think and think, and cannot make up my mind how 
to decide the matter. Anyway, the last three days were not gay, 
Otherwise I am very well." 

On February 17, 1893, he wrote to his brother Modest from IClin: 
"Thank you heartily for your encouraging words concerning compo- 
sition — ^we'll see! Meanwhile think over a libretto for me when you 
have time, something original and deeply emotional. Till then I shall 
for the sake of the money write little pieces and songs, then a new 
symphony, also an opera, and then'I shall perhaps stop. The operatic 
subject must, however, move me profoundly. I have no special liking 
for 'The Merchant of Venice.'" ^ 

The symphony, then, was destroyed. The third pianoforte concerto, 
Op- 75» was based on the first movement of the rejected work; this 
concerto was played after the composer's death by Taneieff in St. 
Petersburg. Another work, posthumous, the Andante and Finale for 
pianoforte with orchestra, orchestrated by Taneieff and produced at 

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Mrs. H. H. A. Beach Arthur Foote 

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Two Folk Songs George W. Chadwick An Irish Love Song Margaret R. Lang 

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St. Petersburg, February 20, 1896, was also based on the sketches for 
this symphony. 



* 



The first mention of the Sixth Symphony is in a letter from 
Tschaikowsky to his brother Anatol, dated at Klin, February 22, 
1893: "I am now wholly occupied with the new work (a symphony), 
and it is hard for me to tear myself away from it. I believe it comes 
into being as the best of all my works. I must finish it as soon as 
possible, for I have to wind up a lot of other affairs, and I must also 
soon go to London and Cambridge." He wrote the next day to W. 
Davidoff : " I must tell you that I find myself in most congenial mood 
over my work. You know that I destroyed the symphony which I 
composed in part in the fall and had orchestrated. I did well, for it 
contained little that was good: it was only an empty jingle without 
true inspiration. During my journey I thought out another symphony, 
this time a programme-symphony, with a programme that should 
be a riddle to every one. May they break their heads over it ! It will 
be entitled 'Programme Symphony' (No. 6). This programme is 
wholly subjective, and often during my wanderings, composing it in 
my mind, I have wept bitterly. Now, on my return, I set to work 
on the sketches, and I worked so passionately and so quickly that the 
first movement was finished in less than four days, and a sharply 
defined appearance of the other movements came into my mind. Half 
of the third movement is already finished. The form of this symphony 
will present much that is new; among other things, the finale will 
be no noisy allegro, but, on the contrary, a very long drawn-out adagio. 
You would not believe what pleasure it is for me to know that my 
time is not yet past, that I am still capable of work. Perhaps I am 
mistaken, but I do not think so. Please speak to no one except 
Modest about it." On March 31 he wrote that he was working on the 
ending of the sketches of the Scherzo and Finale. A few days later he 
wrote to Ippolitoff-Ivanoff : "I do not know whether I told you that I 
had completed a symphony which suddenly displeased me, and I tore 
it up. Now I have composed a new symphony which I certainly shall 
not tear up.*' He was still eager for an inspiring opera libretto, He 



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did not like one on the story of Undine, which had been suggested. 
He wrote to Modest: "For God's sake, find or invent a subject, if 
possible not a fantastic one, but something after the manner of 'Carmen' 
or of 'Cavalleria Rusticana.'" 

Tschaikowsky went to London in May, and the next month he was 
at Cambridge, to receive, on June 13, with Saint-Saens, Grieg, Boito, 
Bruch, the Doctor's degree honoris causa. Grieg, whom Tschaikowsky 
loved as man and composer, was sick and could not be present. ' ' Out- 
side of Saint-Saens the sympathetic one to me is Boito. Bruch — an 
unsympathetic, bumptious person." At the ceremonial concert 
Tschaikowsky's "Francesca da Rimini" was played. General Roberts 
was also made a Doctor on this occasion, as were the Maharadja of 
Bhonnaggor and Lord Herschel. 

At home again, Peter wrote to Modest early in August that he was 
up to the neck in his symphony. "The orchestration is the more 
difficult, the farther I go. Twenty years ago I let myself write at ease 
without much thought, and it was all right. Now I have become 
cowardly and uncertain. I have sat the whole day over two pages: 
that which I wished came constantly to naught. In spite of this, I 
make progress." He wrote to Davidoff, August 15: "The symphony 
which I intended to dedicate to you — I shall reconsider this on account 
of your long silence — is progressing. I am very well satisfied with 
the contents, but not wholly with the orchestration. I do not succeed 
in my intentions. It will not surprise me in the least if the symphony 
is^^cursed or judged unfavorably; 'twill not be for the first time. I 
myself consider it the best, especially the most open-hearted of all 



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my works. I love it as I never have loved any other of my musical 
creations. My life is without the charm of variety; evenjngs I am 
often bored ; btit I do not complain, for the symphony is now the main 
thing, and I cannot work anywhere so well as at home." He wrote 
Jurgenson, his publisher, on August 24 that he had finished the orches- 
tration: "I give you my word of honor that never in my life have I 
been so contented, so proud, so happy, in the knowledge that I have 
written a good piece." It was at this time that he thought seriously 
of writing an opera with a text founded on "The Sad Fortunes of the 
Reverend Mr. Barton," by George Eliot, of whose best works he was 
an enthusiastic admirer. 

Early in October he wrote to the Grand Duke Constantine : " I have 
without exaggeration put my whole soul into this symphony, and I 
hope that your highness will like it. I do not know whether it will 
seem original in its material, but there is this peculiarity of form: the 
Finale is an Adagio, not an Allegro, as is the custom." Later he 
explained to the Grand Duke why he did not wish to write a requiem. 
He said in substance that the text contained too much about God as 
a revengeful judge; he did not believe in such deity; nor could such 
a deity awaken in him the necessary inspiration: "I should feel the 
greatest enthusiasm in putting music to certain parts of the gospels, 
tf it were only possible. How often, for instance, have I been enthu- 
siastic over a musical illustration of Christ's words: 'Come unto me, 
all ye that labor and are heavy laden'; also, 'For my yoke is easy, 
and my burden is light'! What boundless love and compassion for 
mankind are in these words!" 



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* * 

Tschaikowsky left Klin forever on October 19. He stopped at 
Moscow to attend a funeral, and there with Kaschkin he talked freely 
after supper. Friends had died; who would be the next to go? "I 
told Peter," said Kaschkin, "that he would outlive us all. He disputed 
the likelihood, yet added that never had he felt so well and happy." 
Peter told him that he had no doubt about the first three movements 
of his new symphony, but that the last was still doubtful in his mind ; 
after the performance he might destroy it and write another finale. 
He arrived at St. Petersburg in good spirits, but he was depressed 
because the symphony made no impression on the orchestra at the 
rehearsals. He valued highly the opinion of players, and he con- 
ducted well only when he knew that the orchestra liked the work. 
He was dependent on them for the finesse of interpretation. "A 
cool facial expression, an indififerent glance, a yawn, — these tied his 
hands; he lost his readiness of mind, he went over the work carelessly, 
and cut short the rehearsal, that the players might be freed from their 
boresome work." Yet he insisted that he never had written and 
never would write a better composition than this symphony. 

The Sixth Symphony was performed for the first time at St. 
Petersburg, October 28. The programme included an overture to an 
unfinished opera by I^aroche, Tschaikowsky' s B-flat minor Concerto for 
pianoforte, played by Miss Adele aus der Ohe, the dances from 
Mozart's "Idomeneo," and lyiszt's Spanish Rhapsody for pianoforte. 
Tschaikowsky conducted. The symphony failed. "There was 
applause," says Modest, "and the composer was recalled, but with no 
more enthusiasm than on previous occasions. There was not the 
mighty, overpowering impression made by the work when it was con- 
ducted by Naprawnik,. November 18, 1893, and later, wherever it was 

played." The critics were decidedly cool. 

* 

* * 

The morning after Modest found Peter at the tea-table with the 
score of the symphony in his hand. He regretted that, inasmuch as 
he had to send it that day to the publisher, he had not yet given it 



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341 



a title. He wished something more than "No. 6," and did not like 
"Programme Symphony." "What does Programme Symphony mean 
when I will give it no programme?" Modest suggested "Tragic," but 
Peter said that would not do. "I left the room before he had come 
to a decision. Suddenly I thought, ' Pathetic' I went back to the 
room, — I remember it as though it were yesterday, — and I said the 
word to Peter. 'Splendid, Modi, bravo, ''Pathetic"!' and he wrote 
in my presence the title that will forever remain." 

On October 30 Tschaikowsky asked Jurgenson by letter to put on 
the title-page the dedication to Vladimir Liwowitsch Davidoff, and 
added: "This symphony met with a singular fate. It has not exactly 
failed, but it has incited surprise. As for me, I am prouder of it than 
any other of my works." 

On November i Tschaikowsky was in perfect health, dined with an 
old friend, went to the theatre. In the cloak-room there was talk 
about Spiritualism. Warlamofif objected to all talk about ghosts 
and anything that reminded one of death. Tschaikowsky laughed at 
Warlamoff's manner of expression, and said : ' 'There is still time enough 
to become acquainted with this detestable snub-nosed one. At any 
rate, he will not have us soon. I know that I shall live for a long time." 
He then went with friends to a restaurant, where he ate macaroni and 
drank white wine with mineral water. When he walked home about 
2 A.M., Peter was well in body and in mind. 

There are some who find pleasure in the thought that the death of 
a great man was in some way mysterious or melodramatic. For years 
some insisted that Salieri caused Mozart to be poisoned. There was 
a rumor after Tschaikowsky's death that he took poison or sought 
deliberately the cholera. When Mr. Alexandre Siloti, a pupil of 
Tschaikowsky, visited Boston, he did not hesitate to say that there 
might be truth in the report, and, asked as to his own belief, he shook 
his head with a portentous gravity that Burleigh might have envied. 
From the circumstantial account given by Modest it is plain to see that 
Tschaikowsky's death was due to natural causes. Peter awoke 
November 2 after a restless night, but he went out about noon to make 
a call; he returned to luncheon, ate nothing, and drank a glass of water 

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that had not been boiled. Modest and the others were alarmed, but 

Peter was not disturbed, for he was less afraid of the cholera than of 

other diseases. Not until night was there any thought of serious illness, 

and then Peter said to his brother: "I think this is death. Good-by, 

.Modi." At eleven o'clock that night it was determined that his 

sickness was cholera. 

Modest tells at length the story of Peter's ending. Their mother 

had died of cholera in 1854, at the very moment that she was put into a 

bath. The physicians recommended as a last resort a warm bath 

for Peter, who, when asked if he would take one, answered: "I shall 

be glad to have a bath, but I shall probably die as soon as I am in the 

tub — as my mother died." The bath was not given that' night, the 

second night after the disease had been determined, for Peter was too 

weak. He was at times delirious, and he often repeated the name of 

Mrs. von Meek in reproach or in anger, for he had been sorely hurt by 

her sudden and capricious neglect after her years of interest and devotion. 

The next day the bath was given. A priest was called, but it was not 

possible to administer the communion, and he spoke words that the 

dying man could no longer understand. "Peter Iljitsch suddenly 

opened his eyes. There was an indescribable expression of unclouded 

consciousness. Passing over the others standing in the room, he looked 

at the three nearest him, and then toward heaven. There was a certain 

light for a moment in his eyes, which was soon extinguished, at the 

same time with his breath. It was about three o'clock in the morning." 

* 

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346 



says that, if the composer had disclosed it to the public, the world 

would not have regarded the symphony as a kind of legacy from oijte 

filled with a presentiment of his own approaching end ; that it seems 

more reasonable "to interpret the overwhelming energy of the third 

movement and the abysmal sorrow of the Finale in the broader light 

of a national or historical significance rather than to narrow them to 

the expression of an individual experience. If the last movement 

is intended to be predictive, it is surely of things vaster and issues 

more fatal than are contained in a mere personal apprehension of 

death. It speaks rather of a 'lamentation large et souff ranee inconnue' 

and seems to set the seal of finality on all human hopes. Even if we 

eliminate the purely subjective interest, this autumnal inspiration of 

Tschaikowsky, in which we hear 'the ground whirl of the perished 

leaves of hope, still remains the most profoundly stirring of his 

works.*" . . . 

* 
* * 

Each hearer has his own thoughts when he is "reminded by the 
instruments." To some this symphony is as the life of man. The 
story is to them of man's illusions, desires, loves, struggles, victories, 
and end. In the first movement they find with the despair of old age 
and the dread of death the recollection of early years with the trans- 
ports and illusions of love, the remembrance of youth and all that is 
contained in that word. 

The second movement might bear as a motto the words of the Third 
Kalandar in the "Thousand Nights and a Night" : "And we sat down 
to drink, and some sang songs and others played the lute and psaltery 
and recorders and other instruments, and the bowl went merrily round. 
Hereupon such gladness possessed me that I forgot the sorrows of the 
world one and all, and said: 'This is indeed life. O sad that 'tis fleet- 
ing!'" The trio is as the sound of the clock that in Poe's wild tale 
compelled even the musicians of the orchestra to pause momentarily in 
their performance, to hearken to the sound; "and thus the waltzers 
perforce ceased their evolutions ; and there was a brief disconcert of the 
whole gay company; and, while the chimes of the clock yet rang, it 



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was observed that the giddiest grew pale, and the more aged and 
sedate passed their hands over their brows as if in confused revery 
or meditation." In this trio Death beats the drum. With Tsehai- 
kowsky, here, as in the "Manfred" symphony, the drum is the most 
ttagic of instruments. The persistent drum-beat in this trio is poignant 
in despair not untouched with irony. Man says: "Come now, I'll 
be gay"; and he tries to sing and to dance, and to forget. His very 
gayety is labored, forced, constrained, in an unnatural rhythm. And 
then the drum is heard, and there is wailing, there is angry protest, 
there is the conviction that the struggle against Fate is vain. Again 
there is the deliberate effort to be gay, but the drum once heard beats 
in the ears forever. For this, some, who do not love Tschaikowsky, 
call him a barbarian, a savage. They are like Danfodio, who attempted 
to abolish the music of the drum in Africa. But, even in that venerable 
ahd mysterious land, the drum is not necessarily a monotonous instru- 
ment. Winwood Reade, who at first was disturbed by this music 
through the night watches, wrote before he left Africa: "For the drum 
has its language: with short, lively sounds it summons to the dance; 
it thunders for the alarm of fire or war, loudly and quickly with no 
intervals between the beats ; it rattles for the marriage ; it tolls for the 
death, and now it says in deep and muttering sounds, 'Come to the 
ordeal, come to the ordeal, come, come, come. ' " Rowbotham's claim 
that the drum was the first musical instrument known to man has been 
disputed by some who insist that knowledge and use of the pipe were 
first; but his chapters on the drum are eloquent as well as ingenious 
and learned. He finds that the dripping of water at regular intervals 
on a rock and the regular knocking of two boughs against one another 
in a wood are of a totally different order of sound to the continual 
chirrup of birds or the monotonous gurgling of a brook. And why ? 
B^ecause in this dripping of water and knocking of boughs is "the 
innuendo of design." Rowbotham also shows that there was a period 
in the history of mankind when there was an organized system of 
religion in which the drum was worshipped as a god, just as years 
afterward bells were thought to speak, to be alive, were dressed and 
adorned with ornaments. Now Tschaikowsky's drum has "the 



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innuendo of design " ; 1 am not sure but he worshipped it with fetishistic 
honors; and surely the Tschaikowsky of the Pathetic Symphony 
cries out with the North American brave: "Do you undef stand what 
my drum says?" * 

The third ^movement— the march-scherzo — is the excuse, the pre- 
text, for the final lamentation. The man triumphs, he knows all that 
there is in earthly fame. Success is hideous, as Victor Hugo said. The 
blare of trumpets, the shouts of the mob, may drown the sneers of 

♦Compare Walt Whitman's "Beat! Beat! Dnims!" published in his "Drvim-Taps" (New Ywk, 
1865). 

1. 
Beat! beat! drums! — Blow! bugles! blow! 

Through the windows — through doors — burst like a force of ruthless men, 
Into the solemn church, and scatter the congregation; 
Into the school where the scholar is studying: 

Leave not the bridegroom quiet — no happiness must he have now with his brid»: 
Nor the peaceful farmer any peace, plowing his field or gathering his grain; 
So fierce you whirr and pound, you drums — so shrill you bugles blow. 

2. 
Beat! beat! drums! — Blow! bugles! blow! 

Over the traffic of cities — over the rumble of wheels in the streets; 
Are beds prepared for sleepers at night in the houses? 
No sleepers must sleep in those beds; 

No bargainers' bargains by day — no brokers or speculators — Would they continue? 
Wojild the talkers be talking? Would the singer attempt to sing? 
Would the lawyer rise in the coiurt to state his case before the judge? 
Then rattie quicker, heavier drums — you bugles wilder blow. 

3 

Beat! beat! drums! — Blow! bugles! blow! 

Make no parley — stop for no expostulation; 

Mind not the timid — mind not the weeper or prayer; 

Mind not the old man beseeching the young man; 

I^et not the child's voice be heard, nor the mother's entreaties; 

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envy; but at Pompey passing Roman streets, at Tasso with the laurel 
wreath, at coronation of Tsar or inauguration of President, Death 
grins, for he knows the emptiness, the vulgarity, of what this world 
calls success. 

This battle-drunk, delirious movement must perforce precede the 

mighty wail. 

The glories of our blood and state 

Are shadows, not substantial things; 
There is no armour against fate; 

Death lays his icy hands on kings. 

Mr. Vernon Blackburn has compared this threnody to Shelley's 
"Adonais": "The precise emotions, down to a certain and extreme 
point, which inspired Shelley in his wonderful expression of grief and 
despair, also inspired the greatest of modem musicians since Wagner 
in his Swan Song, — his last musical utterance on earth. The first 
movement is the exact counterpart of those lines: — 

'He will awake no more, oh, nevermore! — 
Within the twilight chamber spreads apace 
The shadow of white death.' 

"As the musician strays into the darkness and into the miserable 
oblivion of death, . . . Tschaikowsky reaches the full despair of those 

other lines: — 

'We decay 
Like corpses in a chamel; fear and grief 
Convulse us and consume us day by day, 
And cold hopes swarm like worms within our living clay.' 

With that mysterious and desperate hopelessness the Russian comes 

to an end of his faith and anticipation. . . . Fo^ as 'time,' writes Shelley, 

'like a many-colored dome of glass, stains the white radiance of eternity,' 

even so Tschaikowsky in this symphony has stained eternity's radiance : 

he has captured^the years^and bound^them into a momentary emotional 

pang." " , / \ e~;i Ml 

* 
* * 

Tschaikowsky was not the first to put funeral music in the finale 

of a symphony. The finale of Spohr's Symphony No. 4, "The Con- 




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secration of Tones," is entitled "Funeral music. Consolation in Tears." 
The first section is a larghetto in F minor, but an allegretto in F major 
follows. 

* 
* * 

The symphony is scored for three flutes (the third of which is inter- 
changeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four 
horns, two trumpets, three trombones, one bass tuba, a set of three 
kettledrums, gong, and strings. 

The first performance in Boston was at a Boston Symphony 
Orchestra Concert, December 29, 1894. Other performances at these 
concerts were on January 11, 1896, February 15, 1896, April 3, 1897, 
February 5, 1898, October 29, 1898, January 11, 1902, December 23, 
1904, March 16, 1907. 

The first performances in America were by the Symphony Society of 
New York, Mr. Walter Damrosch leader, on March 16, 17, 1894. 



Mrs. Julius Rappold was born, Marie Winteroth, in Brooklyn, N.Y. 
She sang as a child, and it has been stated that she appeared as a 
singer in London when she was ten years old. After her marriage 
to a Brooklyn physician, she studied seriously with Mr. Oscar Saenger, 
of New York, and sang at concerts of the German singing societies of 
New York and Brooklyn, also in light operas given by the Lieder- 
kranz of the former city and by Arion of the latter. She also sang 
with orchestras and at music festivals in other States. Mr. Conried 
heard her at the Schiller celebration in the Montauk Theatre, Brooklyn, 
in May, 1905, and asked her to sing for him at the Metropolitan Opera 
House. 

She made her first operatic appearance at the Metropolitan Opera 
House, New York, in a revival of Goldmark's "Die Konigin von 
Saba," * November 22, 1905. The cast was as follows: the Queen of 

*The first performance of the opera in America was at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, 
December 2, 1885, when the chief singers were Mmes. Kramer-Wiedl, Lilli Lehmann, Marianna Brandt, and 
Messrs. Stritt, Robinson, Fischer, and Alexi. Mr. Seidl conducted. The first performance in Boston was at 
the Boston Theatre, January 10, 1888 : The Queen of Sheba, Clara Poole ; Sulamith, Bertha Pierson; Asta- 
roth, Amanda Fabris; Assad, Barton McGuckin; Solomon, A. E. Stoddard; the High Priest, Frank Vetta; 
Baal-Hanan, William Merton. Mr. Hinrichs conducted. 



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364 



Sheba, Edyth Walker; Sulamith, Marie Rappold; Astaroth, Bella 
Alten; Assad, Heinrich Knote; Solomon, Anton van Rooy; the High 
Priest, Robert Blass; Baal-Hanan, Adolf Muehlmann. Mr. Hertz 
was the conductor. Since then she has appeared at the Metropolitan 
as Elsa and Elisabeth, and sung the music of the Forest Bird in "Sieg- 
fried." 



Recitative, "How tranquiIvIvY I sivUmber'd," and Aria, "vSofti^y 

SIGHING," FROM THE OpERA, "DER FrEISCHUTZ." 

CarIv Maria von Weber 

(Born at Eutin, Oldenburg, December i8, 1786; died at London, 
June 5, 1826.) 

"Der Freischiitz," a romantic opera in three acts, book by Friedrich 
Kind, music by Weber, was first performed at Berlin, June 18, 1821. 

The recitative and aria of Agathe (act ii., No. 8) are sung by her 
in a narrow antechamber with two side doors. In the centre is a 
curtained doorway, which leads to a balcony. Aennchen's spinning- 
wheel is on one side; on the other is a large table, upon which are a 
lighted lamp and a white dress trimmed with green. Agathe is now 
alone. 

Wie nahte tnir der Schlummer, bevor ich ihn geseh'n! 
Ja Liebe pflegt mit Kummer stets Hand in Hand zu geh'n. 
Ob Mond auf seinem Pfad wohl lacht? 
Welch' schone Nacht! 

Leise, leise, fromme Weise 
Schwing' dich auf zum Sternen-kreise ! 
Lied erschalle! Feiemd walle 
Mein Gebet zur Himmelshalle. 

O wie hell die goldnen Sterne, mit wie reinem Glanz' sie gliih'n! Nur dort, in der 
Berge Feme, scheint ein Wetter aufzuziehn. Dort am Wald auch schwebt ein Heer 
diist'rer Wolken dumpf und schwer. 

Zu dir wende ich die Hande, 
Herr ohn' Anfang und ohn' Ende! 



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365 



Vor Gefahren uns zu wahfen 
Sende deine Engelschaaren ! 

AUes pfle|t schon langst der Ruh' ; 
Trauter Freund! was weilest du ? 
Ob mein Ohr auch eifrig lauscht, 
Nur der Tannen Wipfel rauscht, 
Nur das Birkenlaub im Hain 
Fliistert durch die hehre Stille; 
Nur die Nachtigall und Grille 
Scheint der Nachtluft sich zu freu'n 

Doch wie! tSuscht mich nicht mein Ohr? Dort klingt's wie Schritte, dort aus 
der Tannen Mitte kommt was hervor — Er ist's! Er ist's! die Flagge'der Liebe 
mag weh'n! Dein Madchen wacht noch in der Nacht! Er scheint mich noch 
nicht zu seh'n— Gott! tauscht das Licht des Mond's mich nicht, so schmiickt ein 
Blumenstrauss den Hut! Gewiss, er hat den besten Schuss gethan! Das kiindet 
GlUck fiir morgen an! O siisse Hoffnung! Neubelebter Muth! 

Air meine Pulse schlagen 
Und das Herz wallt ungestfim, 
Siiss entziickt entgegen ihm! 
. Konnt' ich das zu hoflfen wagen? 
Ja! es wandte sich das Gliick 
Zu dem theuren Freimd zuriick; 
Will sich morgen treu bewahren ! 

■ Ist's nicht Tauschung, ist's nicht Wahn? 
Himmel, nimm des Dankes Zahren 
Fflr dies Pfand der Hofifnung an ! 
Air meine Pulse schlagen 
Und das Herz wallt ungestiim, 
Sflss entziickt entgegen ihm! 



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357 



* How tranquilly I slumber'd before on him I gaz'd! But evermore with sorrow 
love hand in hand must go. The moon reveals her silv'ry light. {She draws the 
curtain from before the balcony; a bright starlight^ night is seen.) O lovely night ! 
(She steps out upon the balcony and folds her hands in prayer.) 

Softly sighing, day is dying, y 

Soar my prayer heav'nward flying! 
Starry splendor shining yonder, 
Pour on us thy radiance tender! 

{Looking out.) How the golden stars are burning thro' yon vault of ether blue; 
but, lo, gath'ring o'er the moimtains is a cloud, foreboding storm, and along yon 
pinewood's side veils of darkness slowly glide. 

Lord, watch o'er me, I implore thee; 
Humbly bending, I adore thee;^ 
Thou hast tried us, ne'er denied us. 
Let thy holy angels guide us ! 

Earth has lull'd her care to rest; 
Why delays my loit'ring love? 
Fondly beats my anxious breast: 
Where, my Rodolph,t dost thou rove ? 

Scarce the breeze among the boughs wakes a murmur thro' the silence; save 
the nightingale lamenting, not a sound distturbs the night. But hark! doth my 
ear deceive? I heard a footstep; there in the pinewood's shadow I see a form! 
'Tis he, 'tis he ! O love, I will give thee a sign. Thy maiden waits through storm 
and shine. {She waves a white kerchief.) He seems not to see me yet. Heav'n, 
can it be I see a-right? With flow'ry wreath his hat is bound! Success at last 
our hopes have crown'd. What bliss to-morrow's dawn will bring! Oh! joyful 
token, hope renews my soul! 

How ev'ry pulse is flj^ng. 
And my heart beats loud and fast ; 
We shall meet in joy at last. 
Could I dare to hope such rapture? 
Frowning Fate at last relents 
And to crown our love consents. 
Oh, what joy for us to-morrow! 
Am I dreaming? Is this true? 

* The translation into English is by Natalia Macfarren. 

1 Here the translator follows an old English version, in which Rodolph was substituted for Max. 

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ijounteous heav'n, my heart shall praise thee 

For this hope of rosy hue. 

How ev'ry pulse is flying, 

And my heart beats loud and fast; 

We shall meet in joy at last. 

The accompaniment is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, strings. 



Three Dance Pieces from "Cephalus and Procris," Heroic Bal- 
let; Tambourin; Menuet ("The Nymphs of Diana"); GiguE: 

FREELY arranged FOR CONCERT PERFORMANCE BY FELIX MoTTL. 

Andr6 Erneste Modeste Gr^ry. 

(Gretry, born at Li^ge, February 8, 1741; died at Montmorency, near Paris, 

September 24, 1813. 
Mottl, born at Unter St. Veit, near Vienna, August 29, 1856; now living in 

Munich.) 

Gretry 's "Cephale et Procris," heroic ballet in three acts, words by 
Jean Francois Marmontel (1723-99), was performed for the first time 
at Versailles before Louis XV., December 30, 1773, at the wedding 
festivities of Charles Philippe of France, Count of Artois, who married 
the Princess Marie Theresa of Savoy November 16 of that year.* 
There was only this one performance at Versailles, and the singers were 
as follows: Larrivee, Cephale; Sophie Arnould, Procris; Mme. Larriv^e, 
I'Aurore; Miss Rosalie (afterward Levasseur), Flore and I'Amour; 
Miss Beaumenil, Pal^s; Miss Duplant, la Jalousie; Miss La Suze, la 
Soupgon; Miss Dubois, Une Nymphe. The ballets were arranged by 
Vestris and Gardel. 

* Gustave Chouquet in his "Histoire de la Musique Dramatique en France" (p. 357), says that "Cephale 
et Procris" was performed at Versailles at the end of the series of entertainments in honor of the inarriag;e 
of the Dauphin and Marie Antoinette. The late conservator of the collection of musical instruments belong- 
ing to the Paris Conservatory was an unusually accurate and sound writer, but the marriage of the Dauphin 
and Marie Antoinette took place on May 16, 1770, over three years before the performance of "Cephale 
et Procris" at Versailles. The marriage of the Comte d'Artois and Marie Theresa was first by procuration at 
Turin in the palace of the King of Sardinia and Savoy, Marie's father, October 24, 1773. On November 14 
of that year- she arrived in the environs of Fontainebleau, and was there met by the KiiQg of France. Castil- 
Blaze, in his "L'Acad^mie Imp^riale de Musique" (Paris, 1855), makes the mistake of Chouquet. No doubt 
Chouquet followed Castil-Blaze blindly in the matter. 



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Percy D. Haughton, Asst. Secretary H Wardsworth HiGHT,Asst.Trea8urer 

S. W. Webb, Asst. Secretary 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

359 



"Cephale et Procris" was produced at the Academie Royale de 
Musique, Paris, May 2, 1775, and performed a dozen times. Larriv^e, 
Cephale; Miss Levasseur, Procris; Miss Mallet, Flore and I'Amour; 
Miss Beaumenil, Pal^s; Miss Duplant, la Jalousie; Miss Chateauneuf, 
la Soupfon; Miss Dubois, Une Nymphe. The chief dancers were 
Mmes. Guimard, Peslin, Dorival; Messrs. Vestris, d'Auberval, Gardel. 

There was a revival May 23, 1777, and there were twenty-six per- 
formances that year. 

Marmontel based his libretto on the story as told by Ovid in the 
seventh book of the "Metamorphoses." In Marmontel's version, 
Aurora, in love with Cephalus, disguises herself as a nymph, and comes 
down from her celestial home to see him; but her brilliance betrays 
her. She learns from him that he loves Procris. She then informs 
him that Diana has condemned Procris to die by the hand of her lover, 
but Cephalus runs to his fate. Jealousy and her followers prepare to 
take vengeance on Aurora, who appears as one of Diana's nymphs. 
Procris calls Cephalus. Jealousy advances, and tells her that her lover 
has abandoned her for Aurora. Cephalus, wearied by the chase, falls 
on the ground. Faint and wishing a refreshing breeze, he calls on 
Aura.* There is a stir in the foliage, and he hurls a dart. Procris 
comes forward with the dart that she has drawn from her breast. 
Jealousy rejoices, but Love brings Procris back to life, and the lovers 
are joined. 

Mottl has taken three of the dance numbers and arranged them for 

* Aiira, a light wind. There were two statues called " Aurae" at Rome in the time of Pliny the Elder. 
The Aurae were represented by the ancients as clothed in long and floating veils of a light texture. 




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The preceding volvune of this collection consisted entirely 
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360 




PADEREWSKI 

to the WEBER PIANO 

COMPANY 



New York, May theJ4th, 1908. 
To the WEBER PIANO CO: 

Gentlemen — It seems to me superfluous to give you in 
writing my appreciation of your instruments. Practically 
you do not need it. I have been playing the Weber for 
seven months in this country, and this fact alone proves 
more than anything which could be said or written. 
Whatever "disinterested" detractors may object to, had I 
not found in your pianos a perfect medium for my art I 
would have never played them in public. 

But you insist upon having my opinion. So let me 
say this: 

For the first time I do not feel tired of piano-playing 
after a long concert tour, I gave during the season 
ninety-three performances and my fingers are not sore, my 
arms are not aching, my nerves and muscles are as strong 
and fresh as on the day of my arrival. This is entirely 
due to the supreme qualities of your instruments: positive 
perfection of mechanism, exceptionally easy production of 
tone, its beautiful singing quality, and, in spite of it, its 
marvelous clearness. 

There is an unquestionably great progress in piano- 
playing among the American public; there mu^t be a progress 
in piano-making. You have realized it. The public will 
not fail to recognize your merit. 

Most sincerely yours, 

I. J. PADEREWSKI. 



THE WEBER PIANO COMPANY 

AEOLIAN HALL 362 Fifth Avenue, near 34th Street, New York 

Write for Special Catalog and Description of New Weber Modek 



361 



concert use. The fifth scene of the first act is entitled "Les Nymphes 
de Diane." There is a chorus, which is followed by a ballet'of Diana's 
njonphs: Minuet, Contredanse, Pantomime (followed by a'^repetition 
for chorus of the Minuet), Tambourin. The Gigue of Mottrs|suite is 
from the fifth scene of the second act; chorus, "Mouvement de^Loure," 
Gigue. 

I. Tambourin, Presto, ma non troppo (original, presto), D major 
(original key, C major), 2-2. Mottl has scored the music for two flutes 
(interchangeable with two piccolos), two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, triangle, tambourine, 
strings. The chief motive is given to piccolos and oboes, while violas, 
'cellos, horns, and tambourine play rhythmically a pedal with violins 
pizzicati, and the triangle on the weaker beat. The middle section is 
in D minor (C minor in the original) with melody for violins, while 
the horns sustain a pedal. After the repetition in major there is a 
coda. 

The Tambourin is an old dance popular on the French stage of the 
eighteenth century. The melody was gay and lively. At the moment 
the flutes imitated the "fluitet," or "flaiutet," or "galoubet" of Pro- 
vence, the bass marked strongly the note of the tambourin, or "tam- 
boron." This tambourin of Provence should not be confounded with 
the familiar tambourine. The former is a long drum of small diameter, 
beaten with a stick in one hand, while the other hand plays the galou- 
bet, a pipe with three holes, which are covered by the thumb, index 
finger, and the middle one. Prsetorius attributes an English origin to the 
galoubet. The music for this instrument is written two octaves lower 



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362 



than the real sound, and the instrument has a chromatic'scale of at least 
an octave and four notes. The tambourin, as a rule, has no snare. 
When there is one, it is a single cord stretched across the upper end 
of the drum. The player (le tambourinaire) bears the drum suspended 
from his left forearm; he beats with his right, and holds the galoubet 
in his left. If he plays the galoubet, he is called an "Escoular." To 
play the two instruments together is called "tutupomponeyer," and 
Daudet in "Port Tarascon" gives the transport ship the name "Tutu- 
panpan," a name expressive of the sound of the two instruments. 
Bizet in "L'Arl^sienne" gives an imitation of galoubet and tambourin, 
substituting the piccolo in the place of the former. For a further 
description of the instruments, their history, literature, and the man- 
ner of playing them, see "Lou Tambourin," by F. Vidal (Avignon, 
s. d.), and "Notice sur le Tambourin," by "Un Tambourinaire," — de 
Lombardon-Montezan (Marseilles, 1883). 

The Tambourin, the dance, was a stage dance. Folk-dances of 
Provence were the Olivettes, the Lacets, the Quenouilles, the Soufflets, 
the Joilte, the Cocos, the Cerceaux, the Folies Espagnoles, the Faran- 
dole, and all Branles for which the tambourin, the instrument, was 
used. As a stage dance, the tambourin was most popular, so that, 
according to rule, every opera at the Academic Royale de Musique 
had passepieds in the prologue, musettes in the first act, tambourins 
in the second, and chaconnes and passepieds in those remaining. Marie 
Anne Camargo was famous for dancing the tambourin. 

There is a celebrated tambourin in Rameau's "Pieces for Clavecin," 

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363 



and the composer introduced it afterward in his opera-ballet, "LeS 
Fetes d'H^be" (Paris, 1739). There is another one in Berton's "Aline, 
Reine de Golconde" (Paris, 1803). A still more celebrated one is 
in Adam's "Le Sourd" (Paris, 1853), with the couplets beginning 

Sur le pont 
D'Avignon, 
En cadence 
L'on y danse ; 
Sur le pont 
D'Avignon 
L'on y danse 
Tous en rond. 

Mr. Fritz Kreisler has played in Boston transcriptions of tambourins 
for violin: Rameau (February 12, 1901), Leclair's (January 23, 1902J 
and January 13, 1905). 

II. Menuetto: moderato, B-flat major, 3-4 (original, menuet, C 
major, 3-4, without indication of pace). Mottl has scored this music 
for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two 
trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. 



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The minuet was a dance in Poitou, F^rance. It was called menuet 
on account of the small steps, — pas menus. The dance, it is said, was 
derived from the courante. It quickly made its way to court, and 
Louis XIV. danced it to music composed for him by Lully. For the 
minuet, originally a gay and lively dance, soon lost its vivacity when 
exported, and became a stately dance of the aristocracy. The Grande 
Encyclopedic described its characteristic as "a noble and elegant 
simplicity; its movement is rather moderate than rapid; and one 
may say that it is the least gay of all such dances." Louis XV. was 
passionately devoted to the minuet, but his predecessor, the Grand 
Monarch, is said to have excelled all others. 

The court minuet was a dance for two, a man and a woman. The 
tempo was moderate, and the dance was followed in the balls by a 
gavotte. Those proficient in other dances were obliged to spend three 
months learning the most graceful and ceremonious of all dancing 
steps and postures. 

An entertaining volume could be written on this dance, in which 
Marcel saw all things, and of which Senac de Meilhan said: "Life is 
a minuet: a few turns are made in order to curtsy in the same spot 
from which we started." It was Count Moroni who remarked that the 
eighteenth century was truly portrayed in the dance. "It was the 
expression of that Olympian calm and universal languor which char- 
acterized everything, even the pleasures of society. In 1 740 the social 
dances of France were as stiff as the old French gardens, and were 
marked by an elegant coolness, prudery, and modesty. The pastime 
was not even called 'dancing.' People spoke of it as 'tracer les chiffres 




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d'amour,* and no such commonplace expression as violin was used 
during this stilted period. The musical instruments which accom- 
panied the dance were called 'les dmes des pieds.'" Women never 
looked more beautiful when dancing than in a minuet. Don John 
of Austria journeyed to Paris in disguise merely to look on Marguerite 
of Burgundy in the dance. There were five requisites, — "a languishing 
eye, a smiling mouth, an imposing carriage, innocent hands, and 
ambitious feet." 

When Haydn was in London in 1791, he went to balls in November, 
and he described his adventures in his entertaining diary. He wrote 
of one ball: "They dance in this hall nothing but minuets. I could 
not stay there longer than a quarter of an hour; first, because the heat 
was so intense on account of so many people in a small room ; secondly, 
on account of the miserable dance music, for the whole orchestra con- 
sisted of two violins and a violoncello. The minuets were more like 
the Polish ones than ours or those of Italy." 

The four famous minuets were the Dauphin's, the Queen's, the 
Minuet of Exaudet,* and the Court. 

The minuet has been revived within recent years in Paris, in London, 
and even in this country, as a fashionable dance, and it has kept its 
place on the stage. 

For a minute description of the steps of minuets, ancient and modem, 
see G. Desrat's " Dictionnaire de la Danse," pp. 229-246 (Paris, 1895) 

HI. Gigue. Allegro non troppo, D major, 6-8 (original, "Gigue 

* The song known as Minuet d'E:5audet — the words axe from Favart's comedy, " La Rosifere de Salency " — 
was sung m Boston at a Symphony Concert by Mr. Charles Gilibert, AprU 4, 1903. It was sung here by Mme. 
Blanche Marches!, January 21, 1899. 



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According to the method of the old Italian masters of singing. A pupil 
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Mrs. Lichfield refers to Mr. Louis C. Elson^s remarks in the Boston 
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Charlotte Qrosvenor 

as Juliette in Gounod's 

"Romeo et Juliette" 

Yesterday the performance of "Romeo et Juliette" was chiefly 
memorable because of the debut of a new Juliette. Two years ago we 
listened to the work of Miss Charlotte Grosvenor in concert with much 
pleasure and predicted at least a chance of an operatic career for 
the young singer. She is a pupil of Mrs. Avonia Bonney Lichfield, 
who was herself an operatic singer of renown, and who seems singu- 
larly successful in imparting her knowledge to those who study under 
her. Miss Grosvenor deserves especial attention as being an Ameri- 
can singer, trained in America, a living proof that it is not always 
necessary to take the voyage to Italy before treading the operatic 
boards. In passing judgment upon the young debutante two points 
must be kept in mind. She was hampered in some degree by the 
inequality of the support which was sometimes overweighted in the 
Gounod masterpiece. Secondly, it is not possible to attain one's very 
best when the results of years of training are focussed into one single 
occasion. We do not believe in triumphant operatic debuts — they 
are impossible. A little allowance must always be made for the 
abnormal situation. Miss Grosvenor certainly required only the 
minimum of allowances on this occasion. She acted and sang with 
almost veteran ease and "gewandheit." Her Waltz in the first act 
(her opening number) was as delicate and as easily sung as possible. 
There was not a trace of nervousness in her work and the action was 
without any of the stiffness of the amateur. Her vocal work was 
definitely in advance of her histrionic ability, but the latter can only 
come with acquaintance with the stage. The audience was a very 
brilliant one, evidently drawn by interest in the debutante. At the 
end of the first act there was a long procession of flower-bearers carry- 
ing public tribute to the new Juliette. These things, however, do not 
make a true success. It is far more to the purpose that Miss Gros- 
venor sang without a flaw of intonation and that there was a sym- 
pathetic quality in her voice that was quite in keeping with the char- 
acter of the Shakespearian heroine. The balcony scene was very 
near to perfection. The heroine rose to the occasion, and there is no 
doubt but that Mrs. Lichfield (the teacher of Miss Grosvenor) has 
here launched a sterling prima donna, and to her and to the new Juliette 
all good wishes may be extended. 

Louis C. Elson. 

387 



tr^s l^^re, A major, 6-8). Mottl has changed the melodic contour of 
Grfeury's simple littk dance, and elaborated the music. He has scored 
the jig for piccolo, flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two 
horns, two trumpets, a set of three kettledrums triangle, and strings. 

Dr. Hugo Riemann derives the word "gigue'* from "giga," the name 
of the old Italian fiddle, and says that it was originally a French nick- 
name for a violin (viella, fidel) with a big and bulging belly, so that 
it looked not unlike a ham (gigue). The word first appeared in the 
dictionary of Johannes de Garlandia (about 1230). This form of fiddle 
was popular in Germany, so that the troubadour Adenes spoke of the 
gigueours d'Allemagne (German fiddlers). Others dispute this origin. 
Stainer and Barrett's "Dictionary of Musical Terms" (first published 
in 1876) says: "A fiddlestick is still called in the west of England a 
'jigger,'" but the word does not appear with this meaning in Wright's 
great "English Dialect Dictionary" (i 896-1905). Dr. Murray's "New 
English Dictionary" says that the origin of the word is uncertain. 
The first appearance of the word in English literature was about 1560 
in A. Scott's poems. 

* * 

"Airs de Ballet" from "Cephale et Procris" were played at a concert 
of the American Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Sam Franko, conductor, at 
the Lyceum Theatre, New York, January 15, 1901. These airs were 
Tambourin, Air lent. Gavotte, and Gigue legere. The programme 
stated "First time in America." This was a statement not easily con- 
tradicted, yet much music by Gretry was played and sung in the United 
States in the eighteenth century. 

Mr. Franko joined the Gavotte from "Cephale et Procris" with three 
dances from other operas by Gretry, and they were played at one of 
his Concerts of Old Music in Mendelssohn Hall, New York, February 
23, 1905. At one of Mr. Franko's concerts, February 14, 1907, Ballet 
des Nymphes de Diane, Pantomime, and Tambourin from "Cephale 
et Procris" were performed. The Pantomime was also played as the 
fourth movement of "Suite de Danses Villageoises " at Mr. Franko's 
concert in Daly's Theatre, New York, February 17, 1903. 

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Gr^try says of "C^phale et Procris" in his "M6moires ou Essais 
sur la Musique" (Paris, Pluvi6se, An V., 3 vols.) '• "This opera was 
performed the year of the marriage of the Comte d'Artois; its success 
was only mediocre both at Versailles and at Paris. At the time it was 
received at the Op6ra, there was no such thing as strict time except 
for choruses and dances. If certain verses of recitative were expres- 
sive, the actor would give it the importance to which a pathetic air 
is susceptible. If the accompaniments forced him to follow an indi- 
cated movement, he attained it only by running after the orchestra; 
and the result of this was a shock, a counterpoint, a perpetual syncope. 
The effect of this I leave to your imagination. 

"One of the rehearsals was interrupted by the following dialogue, 
from which the state of affairs can be judged: — 

' 'The Actress on the stage : ' What is the meaning of this, sir ? I 
think there is a rebellion in your orchestra.' 

"The Conductor at his post: 'A rebellion? We are all here in the 
service oi*the King and we serve him zealously.' 

"The Actress: 'I too should like to serve him, but your orchestra 
puts me out, and prevents me from singing.' 

"The Conductor: 'But we were keeping the time.' 

"The Actress: 'In time? What sort of a beast is that? Follow 
me, sir, and know that your accompaniment is the most humble ser- 
vant of the actress who recites.' 

"The Conductor: 'When you recite, I follow you; but you are 
singing an air with a decidedly marked time.' 

"The Actress: 'Well, leave all these follies, and follow me.'" 

(The actress, others tell us, was Sophie Arnould; the condiictor 
was Francoeur.) 

"The dance tunes were esteemed by the dancers. The duet, 'Donne- 
la moi dans nos adieux,' was not known until it had made its way 

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in the societies. After the performances, I proposed the following 
changes: 'The Vengeance of Diana in three acts.' Diana began the 
piece by receiving a new nymph. She then called Jealousy, acquainted 
her with the desertion of Procris, seduced by the hunter Cephalus, 
and charged her with her vengeance. This was a terrible lesson for 
the novice. This scene with dances and pantomime, with the choruses 
of nymphs imploring Diana to forgive Procris, would have made a 
long act, and prepared the interest. I cut out wholly the part of 
Aurora, which had given an uninteresting double action. Men as- 
sembled together do not like to see a woman disdained, and this woman 
is Aurora, more beautiful than the day. Jealousy disguised as a 
nymph would have taken her place ; and Procris with Cephalus would 
have ended the second act as it is in the poem. The third act remained 
as it is. . . . The author did not wish to adopt these changes, and the 
opera has not been performed since. 

"Gluck was at two of my rehearsals at Versailles. The music of 
the third act should have appeared to him as dramatic as it really is. If 
Gluck had been only a disinterested amateur, he would have said with- 
out doubt that which a consummate artist has the right to say to a 
young man of thirty years: 'Measured song, as you have made it, does 
not suit your actors ; your poet nevertheless should inspire you to put 
more warmth and interest in your first two acts; he should cut out 
airs in which he has made you too subservient, and allow you to make 
measured song when it pleases you; then you can choose the places 
which admit of a music that will suit your singers.' But Gluck was 
preparing his 'Iphig6nie en Aulide' and it was more natural for him 
to profit by my mistakes than to draw me from them." 

* 

* * 

"C^phale et Procris" at Versailles ended a long row — several weeks 
— of festivities arranged by Papillon de la Ferte. After the operatic 
performance, which provoked yawns, the Dauphin was reported as 
saying to the Due de Richelieu: "At last our divertissements are at 
an end! Now we can begin to amuse ourselves." But Grimm wrote 
in his "Correspondance Litt^raire" (January, 1774) : " Of all the operas 



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performed for the court festivities 'C^phale' gave the most pleasure, 
and this is not a high eulogy. The success of the work seems at present 
below the reputation of the two authors. But it is only at Paris that 
these important cases are judged in a court of last resort, and we await 
the supreme judgment. . . . The poem, which, according to custom, 
has been printed for Versailles, has found very severe judges. The 
amiability of Mr. de Marmontel in cutting and hacking his verses to 
make them more suitable for musical expression has not been suflGi- 
ciently recognized. Miss Arnould has even been so malicious as to 
say that the music of 'Cephale' seemed to her much more French than 
the words. The word 'aura,' which the poet thought he should keep 
in French, has inspired puns, because it recalled 'ora pro nobis.' But 
all these jests of the moment do not destroy the interest inspired by 
a good work. The first scene of the second act where Flora surprises 
adroitly the secret of Aurora is conceived in a most ingenious manner, 
and the details are charming; but the scene where Cephalus makes 
long excuses to Procris for having killed her appeared rather ridicu- 
lous to everybody. As it probably will be corrected, we give a few 
lines of it: — 

Cephalus. 
And thou- diest by my hand. 

Procris. 
I still cherish this hand; ' 

Give it to me. 



No. 



Cephalus 



Procris. 
Give, give it. 

Cephalus. 
Pardon, alas! Pardon 
For the error of my hand 

Procris 
You love me; I pardon 
The error of thy hand. 

"The 'erreur de ma main' is not surely, in this situation, theheart- 



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felt word. Bonus aliquando dormitat Homer us; but he should at least 

have chosen his moment a little better." 

* 

* * 

Miss de Lespinasse was not pleased with the opera in Paris. She 
wrote: "This music is of a pale color. My friend Gr^try should keep 
to his own style, which is gentle, agreeable, sensitive, witty — it is good 
enough, and when a man of a small figure is well made, it is dangerous 
and surely ridiculous for him to mount on stilts; he falls on his nose 
and the passers-by laugh. The worst of Gr6try's operas for the Co- 
m^die Italienne is better than this one at the Theatre Lyrique." 

Perhaps Gr^try was consoled by the sums given him at Versailles: 

2,000 francs for the composition and 3,599 for the "copies." 

* 

* * 

Gr^try in his "Memoirs" often complains of the stupidity and the 
shrieking of the singers at the Opera. Burney heard Mr. and Mrs. 
Ivarrivee in Paris and other famous singers of Gretry's time, and he 
censured their art severely, yet he added : ' ' One thing I find here which 
makes me grieve at the abuse of nature's bounty, the voices are in 
themselves really good and well toned ; and this is easily to be discov- 
ered, in despite of false direction and a vitiated taste." "The French 
voice never comes further than from the throat; there is no voce di 
petto, no true portamento, or direction of the voice, on any of the 
stages." 

As for the dancers, male and female, their inordinate vanity, incred- 
ible extravagance, and extraordinary lives, the curious reader should 
consult "La Guimard" by Edmond de Goncourt (Paris, 1893); "La 



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375 



Camargo" by Gabriel Ivetainturier-l^radm (Paris, s. d.) ; "Les Vestris" 

by Gaston Capon (Paris, 1908.) The life of Sophie Arnould, brilliant 

wit and accomplished actress, has been written by the de Goncourts; 

also by Robert B. Douglas (Paris, 1898). 

* 
* * 

Henri Lavoix, the Younger, describes Gretry, Monsigny, Dalayrac, 
Nicolo, as "a school whose expression is accurate and true, whose 
melody is somewhat short-breathed, but most expressive, with en- 
sembles slightly developed, but admirably true to the scenic situation. 
Not only were they the musical representatives of Sedaine, Marmontel,* 
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, but they enlarged the qualities that distin- 
guished these writers and at the same time shunned their faults. Their 
music remains touching and simple, while the writers fell into senti- 
mentalism and mannerisms. ... As Adolphe Adam wittily wrote: 
'Gretry had learned badly, but he divined much.' His instrumentation 
is weak and his harmony is often insufficient. He reduced the string 
quartet to three parts, and, as they said^even in his time, 'You can 
drive a coach and four between the bass and the two upper parts.' 
In spite of this, thanks to the accuracy of his dramatic talent, thanks 
to the true sentiment of the effect to be produced, the composer of 
'Richard Coeur de Lion' found things full of finesse, things unex- 
pected. An entertaining chapter could be written on the instrumen- 
tation of masters who did not know how to write. . . . We study in this 
volume" — "Histoire de 1' Instrumentation" (Paris, 1878) — "only those 
who have contributed to the progress of the orchestra, and in this 
instance the position of Gretry can be only one of little importance. 
Sonorous combinations, powerful orchestral effects, are little suited to 
the witty composer; I might even say that his musical thought, fine, 
true, and sometimes rather curt, would not bear heavy orchestral 
ornamentation; for him the orchestra was simply the fitting pedestal 
for his charming statutte. There are few new instrumental devices 
to note in Gretry' s operas; yet we should cite from memory the in- 
troduction of the organ in opera in 'La Rosiere republicaine ' and in- 

- *For an interesting discussion of early French librettists see "Le Livret d'Op&a francais de Lully k 
Gluck" by Eugfene H. de Bricqueville (Paris, 1888). [Ed.] 




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377 



struments of percussion in 'La Fausse Magie.' * The latter are thus 
indicated in the orchestral score: 'March of Gypsies, accompanied by 
cymbals, triangles, and other singular instruments.' Gr^try also used 
cymbals, bass drum, and snare drum in the finale of the second act of 
his 'Guillaume Tell.'" t 



"AlI/ SouivS' Day," Op. ID, No. 8 Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich, June ii, 1864; now living at Charlottenburg, Berlin.) 

"Acht Gedichte aus 'Letzte Blatter' von Hermann von Gilm" 
were composed by Strauss in 1882-83. 

ALLERSEELEN. 

Stell' auf den Tisch die duftenden Reseden, 
Die letzten rothen Astern trag' herbei, 
Und lass uns wieder von der Liebe reden, 
Wie einst im Mai. 

Gib mir die Hand, dass ich sie heimlich drucke, — 

Und wenn man's sieht, mir ist es einerlei ; 
Gib mir nun einen deiner sUssen Blicke, 
' ' Wie einst im Mai. 

Es bluht und duftet heut auf jedem Grabe, 
Ein Tag im Jahr ist ja den Todten frei, 
Komm an mein Herz, dass ich dir wieder habe, 
Wie einst im Mai. 

ALL SOULS' DAY. 

(English version by Dr. Th. Baker.) 

Beside me set the ruddy glowing heather. 

The last autumnal asters bring to-day, 

And let us tell again of love together, ■"■^ -;: 

As once in May. 1 

*"La Fausse Magie" (Aux Italians, Paris, Febraary i, i77S). 
t" Guillaume Tell" (Aux Italiens, Paris, April 9, 1791). 



LOUDON CHARLTON 

868 CARNEGIE HALL, NEW YORK 

Has the honor to announce the following eminent artists under 

his management this season: 

Mme. Johanna Qadski* Mr. Ossip Qabrilowitsch * 

Mme. Marcella Sembrich * Miss Katharine Qoodson * 

Mr. David Bispham* Mr. Ernest Schelling* 

Mme. Mary Hissem de Moss Mr. Theodore Spiering 

Mr. George Hamlin * Miss Qeraldine Morgan 

Mr. Francis Rogers* Mr. Henry Bramsen 

Miss Leila Livingston Morse Mr. Albert Rosenthal 

Miss Cecelia Winter Mr. Edwin H. Lemare* 

Miss Gertrude Lonsdale The Flonzaley Quartet* 

* Artists thus designated will be heard here in redtal this season. Specific announce- 
ments in later issues. 

378 



Give me thy hand, that I may fondly press it, 
Should others see^ — I care not what they say. 
Let one fond glance, love, fill my heart and bless it, 
As once in May. 

On every grave to-day sweet flowers are glowing. 
So every year we give the dead one day; 
Come to my heart, thy love again bestowing. 
As once in May. 



"The Violet" Wolfang Amadeus Mozart 

(Bom at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.) 

Goethe vi^rote this ballad surely as early as 1773. He afterward 
put it in his Singspiel "Erwin und Elmire, " and it was published in 
Jacobi's Iris in 1775. It was widely copied, and in 1789 it was included 
in the first genuine edition of Goethe's works. 

Mozart wrote the music at Vienna, June 8, 1785. This song and a 
song of farewell ("Die Trennung,"' K. 519?) were the only ones of 
Mozart's songs published in his lifetime. They appeared in 1790. 

DAS VEILCHEN. 

Ein Veilchen auf der Wiese stand 

Gebtickt in sich und unbekannt: 

Es war ein herzig's Veilchen. 

Da kam eine junge Schaferin 

Mit leichtem Schritt und muntrem Sinn 

Daher, daher, 

Die Wiesse her und sang. \ 

Ach! denkt das Veilchen, war' ich nur 

Die schonste Blume der Natur, 

Ach, nur ein kleines Weilchen, 

Bis mich das Liebchen abgepfliickt 

Und an dem Busen matt gedruckt! 

Ach nur, ach nur 

Ein Viertelstiindchen lang! 



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379 



Ach, aber ach I das Madchen kam 

Und nicht in Acht das Veilchen nahm, 

Ertrat das arme Veilchen. 

Es sank und starb und freut' sich nodi : 

Und sterb' ich denn, so sterb' ich doch 

Durch sie, durch sie, 

Zu ihren Fflssen dodi. 



THE VIOLET. 
(English version by the Rev. J. Trout beck.) 

A violet in the meadow grew, 

It dwelt apart, and hid from view, 

It was a lovely violet. 

There came a gay young shepherdess, 

And lightly tripped in carelessness 

Along, along, 

The fields along, and sang. 

Ah, thought the violet, would^I were 
Among the flowers supremely fair 
Awhile, though but a violet. 
Until this dear one gathers me 
Upon her bosom pressed to be 
Awhile, awhile, 
Although it be not long. 

But, but alas, the maiden gay, 
When passing heedless on her way. 
Trod down the hapless violet. 



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380 



It sunk and died, yet thought with joy, 
If die I must, 'tis mine to die 
Through her, through her, 
And at her feet to lie. 



"A Dream" Edvard Grieg 

(Bom at Bergen, Norway, Jxme 15, 1843; died there September 4, 1907.) 

EIN TRAUM. 
(Friedrich Bodenstedt.) 

Mir traumte einst ein schoner Traum, 

Mich liebte eine blonde Maid; 
Es war am griinen Waldesraum, 

Es war zur warmen Friihlingszeit 

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381 



Die Knospe sprang, der Waldbacli schwoll, 
Fern aus dem Dorfe schoU Gelaut, 

Wir waren ganzer Wonne vol! — 
Versunken ganz in Seeligkeit. 

Und schoner noch als einst der Traum 
Begab es sich in Wirklichkeit; 

Es war am griinen Waldesraum, 
Es war zu warmen Eriihlingszeit. 

Der Waldbach schwoll, die Knospe sprang, 
Gelaut erschoU vom Dorfe her, 

Ich hielt dich fest, ich hielt dich lang, 
Und lasse dich nun nimmermehr. 

O friihlingsgrUner Waldesraum, 
Du lebst in mir durch alle Zeit ; 

Dort ward die Wirklichkeit zum Traum, 
Dort ward der Traum zur Wirklichkeit. 



A DREAM. 
(Translation by Frederick Corder ) 

I had a wondrous, lovely dream : 

Methought'I wooed a blue-eyed maid; 

We stood beneath the greenwood shade 
When April shed his sunny beam. 

The buds did throng, the brooklet gushed, 
Afar we heard the village chime; 

Through ev'ry vein the rapture flushed. 
We stood entranced in bliss sublime! 



Miss FRANCES L THOMAS 



.. Covrsetiere .. 



BERKELEY BUILPING - BOSTON, MASS. 




382 



But fairer far than was my dream, 
The bliss one waking hour displayed: 

We stood beneath the greenwood shade 
When April shed his sunny beam. 

The brooklet gushed, the buds did throng. 
And village chime the breezes bore; 

I held thee fast, I held thee long, — 
For fate shall part us nevermore ! 

A greenwood lit by April's beam, 

Through life thou wilt abide with me! 

Here did the truth a vision seem. 
Here was my dream made verity! 



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383 



OvERTUim TO "EgmONT," Op. 84 



IvUDwiG VAN Beethoven 



(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

This overture was composed in 18 10; it was published in 181 1. 
The music to Goethe's play — overture, four entr'actes, two songs 
sung by Clarchen, "Clarchen's Death," "Melodram," and "Triumph 
Symphony" (identical with the coda of the overture) for the end of 
the play, nine numbers in all — ^was performed for the first time with 
the tragedy at the Hofburg Theatre, Vienna, May 24, 1810. Antonie 
Adamberger was the Clarchen. 

The first performance of the overture in Boston was at a concert 

of the Boston Academy of Music, November 16, 1844. ^^1 the music 

of "Egmont" was performed at the fourth and last Philharmonic 

concert, Mr. Zerrahn conductor, on March 26, 1859. This concert 

was in commemoration of the thirty-second anniversary of Beetho- 

J ven's death. The programme included the "Bgmont" music and the 

''■ Ninth Symphony. The announcement was made that Mrs. Barrows 

had been engaged, "who, in order to more clearly explain the com- 

• poser's meaning, will read those portions of the drama which the music 

especially illustrates." Mr. John S. Dwight did not approve her 

reading, which he characterized in his Journal of Music ais "coarse, 

inflated, over-loud, and after all not clear." Mrs. Harwood sang 

Clarchen's solos. The programme stated: "The grand orchestra, 

perfectly complete in all its details, will consist of fifty of the best 

-Boston musicians." 

All the music to "Egmont" was performed at a testimonial concert 
to Mr. Carl Zerrahn, April 10, 1872, when Professor Evans read the 
poem in place of Charlotte Cushman. who was prevented by sickness. 




384 



This music was performed at a Symphony Concert, December 12, 

1885, when the poem was read by Mr. Howard Malcolm Ticknor. 

When Hartl took the management of the two Vienna Court theatres, 
January i, 1808, he produced plays by Schiller. He finally determined 
to produce plays by Goethe and Schiller with music, and he chose 
vSchiller's "Tell" and Goethe's "Egmont." Beethoven and Gyrowetz 
were asked to write the music. The former was anxious to compose 
the music for ' 'Tell " ; but, as Czemy tells the story, there were intrigues, 
and, as "Egmont" was thought to be less suggestive to a composer, 
the music for that play was assigned to Beethoven. Gyrowetz's 
music to "Tell" was performed June 14, 1810, and it was described 
by a correspondent of a Leipsic journal of music as "characteristic 
and written wdth intelligence." No allusion was made at the time 
anywhere to Beethoven's "Egmont." 

iyong and curious commentaries have been written in explanation 
of his overture. As though the masterpiece needed an explanation! 
We remember one in which a subtle meaning was given to at least 
every half-dozen measures: the Netherlanders are under the crushing 
weight of Spanish oppression; Egmont is melancholy, his blood is 
stagnant, but at last he shakes off his melancholy (violins), answers 
the cries of his country-people, rouses himself for action; his death 
is portrayed by a descent of the violins from C to G; but his country- 
men triumph. Spain is typified by the sarabande movement; the 
heavy, recurring chords portray the lean-bodied, lean-visaged Duke 
of. Alva; "the violin theme in D-flat, to which the clarinet brings 
the under-third, is a picture of Clarchen," etc. One might as well 



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385 



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OF NEW YORK 

Formerly one of the first violias in the 

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A Vision 30 

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Sung by Herbert Witherspoon 
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The Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Programme 

For the twenty-four Boston concerts, with Historical 
and Descriptive Notes by Philip Hale. Bound 
copies of the Programme for the entire season can 
be had at $3.00 by applying before the last concert. 
Address all communications to 

F. R. COMEE. 
Symphony Hall, Bostoo 



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/ 386 



illustrate word for word the solemn ending of Thomas Fuller's life of 
Alva in "The Profane State" : "But as his life was a mirror of cruelty, 
so was his death of God's patience. It was admirable that his tragical 
acts should have a comical end; that he that sent so many to the 
grave should go to his own, and die in peace. But God's justice on 
offenders goes not always in the same path, nor the same pace: and 
he is not pardoned for the fault who is for a -while reprieved from the 
punishment; yea, sometimes the guest in the inn goes quietly to bed 
before the reckoning for his supper is brought to him to discharge." 
The overture is at first a mighty lamentation. There are the voices 
of an aroused and angry people, and there is at the last tumultuous 
rejoicing. The "Triumph Symphony" at the end of the play forms 

the end of the overture. 

* 
* * 

The overture has a short, slow introduction, sostenuto ma rion 
troppo, F minor, 3-2. The main body of the overture is an allegro, 
F minor, 3-4. The first theme is in the strings; each phrase is a 
descending arpeggio in the 'cellos, closing with a sigh in the first violins ; 
the antithesis begins with a "sort of sigh" in the wood- wind, then 
in the strings, then there is a development into passage-work. The 
second theme has for its thesis a version of the first two measures 
of the sarabande theme of the introduction, fortissimo (strings), in 
A-flat major, and the antithesis is a triplet in the wood-wind. The 
coda. Allegro con brio, F major, 4-4, begins pianissimo. The full 
orchestra at last has a brilliant fanfare figure, which ends in a shout- 
ing climax, with a famous shrillness of the piccolo against fanfares of 
bassoons and brass and between crashes of the full orchestra. 

The overture is scored for two flutes (one interchangeable with pic- 
colo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, 
kettledrums, and strings. 




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388 



Sixth Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 20, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 21, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME- 



Sibelius 



(First time.) 



a. Varsang (Spring Song) 

b. Finlandia. 



Max Bruch 



Concerto for Violin No. 3 



Beethoven 



Symphony No. 7 



SOLOIST, 
Mn WILLY HESS. 



389 



FIRST PIANO_^ RECITAL by 

Carolyn LoviscWillard 

WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER i8, AT 3 





PROGRAM 




Loeilly (1660), Godowsky . . . 


Gigue, E mindr (first time) 


Beethoven 


1. 


Sonata, op. loi 


Schumann 




. Ende vom Lied 
Des Abends 


Chopin 


- - . 


Four Preludes — C major 
A major 
C-sharp minor 


Chopin 




. Scherzo, C-sharp minor 


Ernest Hutcheson 




. Andante Tranquillo (first time) 


MacDowell 




Hungarian, op. 39, No. 12 


Liszt 




. Eclogue 


Liszt-Busoni 




. Heroischer Marsch (first time) 




STEINWAY PIANO 


USED 




RESERVED SEATS, 75c., 


$1.00, $t.50 




Tickets are now on sale at the Hall 



SONG RECITAL by 

Heinrich Meyn 

THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER lo, AT 8.15 



II. 



HI. 



PROGRAM 




Ganymed ....... 


Schubert 


Kinderwacht ....... 


, Schumann 


Aus Meinen Grossen Schmerzen .... 


Franz 


Standchen ....... 


Jensen 


Feldeinsamkeit t 
Von Ewiger Liebe ( ' 


Brahms 




Abendlied with violin obligate \ 
Jetzt und Immer J * 


. Hugo Kaun 


Im Zitternden Mondlicht . . . . 


Eugen Haile 


Drei Wandrer . . 


Hans Hermann 


Tryste Noel ....... 


. Gerrit Smith 


Ballad of the Bony Fiddler .... William G. Hammond 


CesDeuxYeux ) ^ Schastian B. Schlesinger 
Avec Un Bouquet J 


Vielle Chanson ...... 


Nevm 


Les Deux Amours | 
Un Grand Sommeil Noir ) ' 


Clayton Johns 


Benvenuto ....... 


. Diaz 


THE STEINWAY PIANO USED 




Mr. COENRAAD V. BOS, Accompanist 





RESERVED SEATS, $1.50, $100, $75 
Tickets are now on sale at the Hall (Telephone, Oxford 1330) 
300 



SECOND SEASON - = - 1908*1909 

THREE CHAMBER CONCERTS BY THE 

CZERWONKY 

String Quartet 

RICIL\RD CZERWONKY, First Violin CARL SCHEURER, Viola 

WILLY KRAFT, Second Violin RUDOLF NAGEL, Violoncello 

Wednesday Evenings, December 9, February JO, and March 24 

AT 8.15 O'CLOCK 
PROGRAM for December Ninih 

1. QUARTET, C minor • Beethoven 

2. QUARTE r, C major, op. 5 Pogojeff 

(First time in Boston) 

3. QUARTET, C minor H. Kann 

(First time in Boston) , 

Tickets for the course of three concerts, $2.00 and $3.00 (with reserved seat), may be obtained at the 
hall (Telephone Oxford 1330). 

A PIANOFORTE RECITAL 

Will be given by 

Mr. LOUIS BACHNER 



MONDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 23, AT 3 O'CLOCK 

Reserved seats at 75c., $1.00, $1.50, may be engaged at the Hall, or by tele- 
phone, Oxford 1330. 

Mr. and Mrs. 
DAVID MANNES 

Announce a series of 

THREE SONATA RECITALS 

VIOLIN AND PIANO 

Friday Evenings, December 4, J 908, January 29, February 
J 9, 1909, at 8.1*5 o'clock 

Subscription Tickets, $3.00 and $2, according to location, now on 
sale at Steinert Hall, Boston. Telephone, Oxford 1330. 

STEINWAY PIANO USED 

391 



NEW JAGOB SLEEPER HALL 

688 BOYLSTON STREET (Next to Public Library) 



Monday Evening, November 16, at 8.15 
FIRST CONCERT by the 

HoFfmann Quartet 

J. HOFFMANN, First Violin K. RISSLAND, Viola 

A. BAK, Second Violin C. EARTH, Violonceflo 

(Seventh Sea3on, 1908-1909) 

Program 

Quartet in D major (K.V. 499) Mozart 

Sonata in C, Op. 72. For violin and pianoforte. (First time) . . Max Reg«r 

Second Quartet (in D major) . Borodin 

Assisting Artist, Mr. CHARLES A/NTHO/SV 

Mason & Hamlin Piano 



Tickets at $1.50, Ji-oo and 50 cents (balcony unreserved) on sale at the Hall. 

SANDERS THEATRE, Cambridge 

Boston 
SymphonyOrchestra 

MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

SECOND CONCERT, THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 19, at 8 

PROGRAM 

BRAHMS Symphony No. i 

TSCHAIKOWSKY ..... Concerto for Pianoforte, No. i 

WAGNER Vorspiel, "Die Meistersinger" 

Soloist, Mr. GEORGE PROCTOR 



Tickets on tale at Kent's University Bookstore, Harvard Square. 

30« 



DEBUCHY'S CONCERT . SYMPHONY HALL 

Next Tuesday Afternoon, November 17, at 2.30 



Madame 



CALVE 

And an orchestra of 74, 
ALBERT DEBUCHY, Conductor 

Tickets, $2.50, $2.00, $1.50, $1.00 at Symphony Hall 

JORDAN HALL - - - - BOSTON 

Friday Evening and Saturday Evening, November 27 
and 28, J908, at 8.J5 



TWO PERFORMANCES ONLY by 

Isadora Duncan 

Accompanied by an Orchestra under the directioi\ of Paul Eisler of the Metropolitan 

Opera House, New York 

A REVIVAL OF THE GREEK ART OF 2,000 YEARS AGO 
PROGRAM, NOVEMBER 27 

iphige:nie: en aulide 

PROGRAM, NOVEMBER 28 

DANCES IDYLLES 



Tickets, $2.00, $1.50, and $1.00 at Symphony Hall. 

Tickets for November 1 1 a»d 1 2 wiil be good for November 27 and 28 

Boston Management, L. H. MUDGETT. 
393 



The 

Hess - Schroeder 
rw Quartet 

PROF. WILLY HESS, First Violin 

J. VON THEODOROWICZ, Second Violin 

EMILE FERIR, Viola 

ALWIN SCHROEDER, Violoncello ^ 



Will give Five Chamber Music Concerts on 
Tuesday Evenings at 8. J 5 

NOVEMBER 17, 1908 

DECEMBER 22, 1908 

JANUARY 19, 1909 

MARCH 2, 1909 

MARCH 23, 1909 

At CHICKERING HALL 



PROGRAMME for First Concert, November 17 

I. QUARTET in C major . . . . Mozart 

II. QUARTET in A major, Op. 41, No. 3 . Schumann 

III. QUARTET in G major, Op. 18, No. 2 . . Beethoven 



Season Tickets for Five Concerts, $6, $4, and ^2.50, according 
to location, now on sale at Box Office, Symphony Hall. 

Single Tickets, 1^1.50, $1.00, and 50 cents, on sale on and after 
Monday, November 9. 



394 



THF 

KNEISEL QUARTET 

FRANZ KNEISEL, Fir,t Violin LOUIS SVECENSKI, yiola 

JULIUS ROENTGEN, Stcond Violin ^X^ILLEM WILLEKE, yiohncclh 

TWENTY-FOURTH SEASON. 1908-1909 

FENWAY COURT 



FIVE CONCERTS 

TUESDAY EVENINGS 

at 8. 1 5 o'clock 

November lo . . . . 1908 

December 8 ... 1908 

January 5 .... 1909 

February 16 . . . . 1909 

March 16 .... 1909 

ASSISTINQ ARTISTS: 

Miss KATHARINE GOODSON Mr. OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH 

Mr. ERNEST CONSOLO Mr. COURTLANDT PALMER 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE 



The programme of the Second Concert and the 
name of the assisting artist will be announced in 
next week's issue of this book. 

Admission tickets, at $1.00, entitling to a seat, for sale at 

THE BOSTON MUSIC CO. (Q. Schirmer) 
26 and 28 WEST STREET 

395 



CONCERT ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, November i6 

THREE O'CLOCK 
FIRST APPEARANCE IN BOSTON 

li^.Wb. DR. LUDWIG WiJLLNER 

Accompanist, COENRAAD V. BOS 

PROGRAMME 

(Dr. Wullner's Repertoire comprises some 700 works) 

1. 3. 

I. Der Wanderer l ^ i. Auf dem Kirchhofe ) t t> 

a. Du liebst mich nicht { p Schubert '■ "^^"^^ • Brahms 

3. Der Doppelganger ( ' 3. Verschwiegene Liebe ) tj •,,, 

4. Erlkonig ^ ^ j 4. DerGartnlr l Hugo Wolff 

2_ 5- Das Lied des Steinklopfers ) Richard 

_.. ~ . . '^ 6- Cacilie ) Strauss 

1 . Die Taubenpost \ 

2. Die Forelle I 4- 

3. Alinde V tt. Or-„,,„„„T '■ Mit Myrthen und Rosen \ 

4. Eifersucht und Stolz f *• Schubert ^ Der Soldat I t, c 

5. Das Lied im Griinen 1 3. Waldesgesprach ( ^- Schumann 

6. Der Musensohn J 4. Die beiden Grenadiere ) 

Reserved Seats now on sale at Box Office, Symphony Hall 

Jordan Hall ORGAN RECITAL 

Tuesday Evening, November 24, at 8.15 

WILLIAM WOLSTENHOLME 

ASSISTED BY 

E. BLUM (Tenor) 
Tickets, $i.oo, 75c., and 50c., at Symphony Hall 

Symphony Hall, Saturday Afternoon, December 12, 
1908, at 2.30 

MME. CECILE GHAMINADE ITSsr 

ASSISTED BY 

Mile. YVONNE DE ST. ANDRE, Mez7 --soprano, and 

Mr. ERNEST QROOM, Baritone 

Tickets, $2.00, $1.50 and $1.00 Public sale opens Friday, December 4 

Symphony Hall, Tuesday Evening, November 24, 

at 8.15 

ILLUSTRATED 
LECTURE 



KELLOGG, THE BIRD MAN 

Wonderful discoveries in nature during the past 8 months. 

Bird, Animal, Reptile, and Insect Life portrayed by moving pictures. 

Tickets, $1.50, $1.00, and 50c., on and after November 16 

MAIL ORDERS for the above concerts, accompanied by check or 
money order, and addressed to L. H. Mudgett, Symphony Hall, 
filled in order of receipt and as near the desired location as 
possible, prior to public sale. 

396 



Woolsey Hall - - New Haven 



FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 

TWENTIETH, NINETEEN 

HUNDRED AND EIGHT, AT EIGHT 

O'CLOCK 

THE NIGHT BEFORE THE FOOTBALL GAME 
AT NEW HAVEN 



NINTH JOINT CONCERT 

by the Glee, Mandolin, 
and Banjo Clubs of 

Yale and Harvard 
Universities 



Orders by mail, accompanied by cheque made payable to 
F. R. COMEE and addressed to Symphony Hall, Boston, 
will be filled in the order of their reception, and seats 
will be assigned as near the desired location as possible. 

TICKETS, ^1.50 and ^i.oo 

307 



Mr. H. G. TUCKER | 

Announces a SERIES OF SIX 

SUNDAY CHAMBER CONCERTS 

At CHICKERING HALL 

SUNDAY AFTERNOONS IN 

JANUARY AND FEBRUARY, 1909 

At 3.30 O'CLOCK 



Organizations and Artists to be announced later 



Tickets for the Course, $2.50, and a limited number at $4 

Subscription List now open at Chickering Hall 

Subscribers may have the privilege of securing their former seats 
for the series of Sunday Chamber Concerts 



HUNTINGTON CHAMBERS HALL 

rOR RECITALS 

30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE 



TESTIMONIAL CONCERT 

TO 

Miss MABEL GOING 

Under the auspices of the Professional Women's Club 
CHICKERING HALL, THURSDAY AFTERNOON. NOVEMBER 19, AT 3 P.M. 

TALENT: Mr. Arthur Foote, Mr. Felix Fox, Mrs. Bertha CusWng Child, Mr. Stephen Townsend, 
Mrs. Jeanette Bell Ellis, Miss Going and others. 

(Songs by Mr. Foote and Miss Going, with the composers at the Piano.) 

Tickets $1.00 each, obtainable at the Hall (Telephone 1670 Back Bay), or of Miss Going, 
332 Massachusetts Avenue. (Telephone 22005 Back Bay). All checks made payable to Miss 
Mabel Going. Balcony, 50 cents. 

The HUME PIANO used. 
398 



Alfred Peats Wall Paper 



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INTERIOR 
DECORATION 



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room — a rug, not too much furniture, beau- 
tiful walls. That is all. The effect is 
most charming, if the walls are beautiful. 
With the accumulation of wealth 
taste or style in the decorations of the home has advanced. This 
improved taste recognizes more and more that the keynote of 
interior decoration is the walls — that there is nothing more 
important. 

In the whole history of interior decoration, nothing has been 
shown to equal the papers we are showing this fall. Our immense 
stock is drawn from every corner of the globe. The most discrimi- 
nating and careful buyer will find exactly what is required at prices 
as moderate as can be found anywhere for the same grade of goods. 

BOSTON'S EXCLUSIVE WALL PAPER SHOP 

116=120 SUnriER STREET 



HOTEL RENNERT 

BALTIMORE, MD. 




Within one square of the shopping dis- 
trict. 

The standard hotel of the South. 

The cuisine of this hotel has made 
Maryland cooking famous. 

The only hotel in the world where the 
Chesapeake Bay products, Fish, Oysters, 
Terrapin, and Canvas-back Duck, are 
prepared in their perfection. 



MODERN IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

Rooms, $1.50 per day and upwards Fire-proof building 



399 



POTTER HALL 

Monday Evening, November 23, at 8.15 o'clock 

Season 1908-1909 
Ninth Season 



Chamber Music for Wind Instruments 



BY 



The LONGY CLUB 

MEMBERS. 
Flutes : Messrs. D. Maquarre and A. Brooke. 
Oboes : Messrs. G. Longy and C. Lenom. 
Clarinets : Messrs. 6. Grisez and P. Mimart. 
Horns : Messrs. F. Hain and H. Lorbeer. 
Bassoons : Messrs. P. Sadony and J. Helleberg. 
Piano : Mr. A. de Voto. 



PROGRAMME OF THE FIRST CONCERT. 

No. I. FALCONI . Sextet for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and^piano 

(First time) 

No. 2. HANDEL . Concerto for Oboe with strings accompaniment 

(First time at these concerts) 



No. 3. CAPLET Suite Persane for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 horns, 
and 2 bassoons 



Tickets now on sale at Box Office, Symphony Hall. 
Season tickets for the three concerts, four dollars. 
Single tickets, $1.50. 



PIANO, MASON AND HAMLIN 
400 



SYMPHONY HALL 



Wednesday Evening^ November 18^ 1908 



AT 8J5 O'CLOCK 



Ben Greet^s Players 

In a performance of 
Shakespeare's 

"A MIDSUMMER 
NIGHT'S DREAM" 

Mendelssohn's incidental music by an orchestra of fifty 
Symphony players, Gustav Strube, Conductor 





PRINCIPAL CHARACTERS 




BOTTOM 




BEN GREET 


OBERON 










. 


MILTON ROSMER 


DEMETRIUS 










J. 


SAYRE CRAWLEY 


LYSANDER . 












ERIC BLIND 


PUCK 












GEORGE VIVIAN 


TITANIA 












. RUTH VIVIAN 


HELENA 












IRENE ROOK 


HERMIA 












VIOLET VIVIAN 



The company numbers fifty. 

Incidental dances by Mrs. Lou Wall Moore, assisted by a ballet of 
children. 

Incidental solos by Mrs. John Warren and Mrs. Kenny. 

Decorative draperies by Troy and Marguerite Kenny. 

Seats, $1.50, $1.00, and 50 cents. Now on sale at box oflfice of 
Symphony Hall. 

401 



SUNDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 13 

AT EIGHT 



CONCERT 



BY THE 



BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 



IN AID OF ITS 



PENSION FUND 



PROGRAMME AND FURTHER DETAILS LATER 





II -fr^ 



402 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION. 



VOCAL INSTRUCTION and 

SOPRANO SOLOIST 

Miss HARRIET S. WHITTIER, s"""". 2^* H«ntingtoo av.»u.. " 

Exponent of the method of the late Charles R. Adans. 
Portsmouth, New Hampshira, Mondays. 



Mr. CHARLES B. STEVENS, 



TEACHER or Si/NGING. 

STUDIOS, 

Suite 14, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 

Telephone, 1331 Oxford. 

Miss Harriette C. Wbscott, 

Accompanist and Assistant Teacher. 



Miss LADRA HAWKINS, 



PIA/NIST. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

No. 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Miss CAROLINE M. SOUTHARD, 

TEACHER OF THE PIANOFORTE. 



Classes in Sight Reading 

(EIGHT HANDS). 

Advanced pupils follow the Symphony programmes 
as far as practicable. 

165 Huntington Avenue - Boston 



Iss GERTRUDE EDMANDS, 



Concert and Oratorio. 

Vocal Instruction, 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue. 



Mrs. HALL MCALLISTER, 



TEACHER of SI/NGING. 

407 Pierce Building, 
COPLEY SQUARE. 

Musical Manaqement. 



Miss ELEANOR 6RI6HAM, 



Pianist and TeacHer« 



Trinity Court. 



Mr. BERKHARD LISTEMANN'S 

Master School for Violinists. 



Training to competent teachers prin- 
cipal aim. Ensemble lessons. 

OFFICE 
703 PIERCE' BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE. 

Hours: Monday and Thursday, from i p.m. 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, 9 to i and 2 to 4. 



Miss JOSEPHINE COLUER, 



PIANIST and TEACHER. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY STREET. 



403 



Miss CLARA E. MDN&ER, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Century Building, 
177 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 



Walter E. Loud— Violin. 
Pupil of Ysaye. 



32 Batavia Street. 



Hiss Bertba Wesselhoeft Svift, 



Soprano Soloist, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
Studio, TRINITY COURT, Boston. 

Miss Swift is ready to give her children's programs 
before clubs, church societies, and in private houses 



Hiss LUCY (MRK ALLEN, 



Pianoforte Lessons. 

Accompaniments. 

LANG STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Hr.SAHUELJ.MacWATTERS, 

Professor of Voice Building in 
Boston University. 



VOICE PLACING, 

Development of Tone and 
Resonance. 

72 MOUNT VERNON STREET. 



Mis. LUGIA GALE BARBER, 



Rhythm applied to Physical and Per- 
sonal Development, 
Music Interpretation, 
Lectures and Instruction. 

The Ludlow, Copley Sq., Boston. 



KARL DOERINfi, 



TENOR- BARITONE. 

Pupil of Professor Jachman-Wagner, Berlin, and 
Professor Galliera, Milan, Italy. 

Training and Finishing of Voice. 

School for Orand Opera and Oratorio. 

STEINERT HALL, ROOM 27. 

Open Monday, October i2'. Send for new Prospectus 



BERTHA GDSHIN6 CHILD, 



38 BABCOCK ST., BROOKLINE. 

TEACHING AT 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY ST., BOSTON. 



MARY B. SAWYER, 

Leschetizky Method. 



PIANO AND HARMONY. 

For four years Pupil and Authorized Assistant oi 

Frau VARETTE STEPANOFF, 

BERLIN, GERMANY. 

Studio, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 



404 



PIANISTEand TEACHER. 

Mrs. CAROLYN KING HUNT, Hen,e„„.ycb.»,b„s, 



BOSTON. 



Hiss RENA I. BISBEE, 



TEACHER or PIANO, 

LANG STUDIOS, 
6 NEWBURY STREET. 



LDCY FRANCES GERRISH, 



PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION. 

GERRISH STUDIO, 
140 Boylston Street . . . Boston. 



EDITH LYNWOOD WINN, 



LECTURE-RECITALS 



This season, Russian, Hungarian, 17th 
Normal and Teachers Courses for and i8th Century Music. 

Violin. 
Children's classes at special rates TRINITY COURT . . BOSTON. 

The Guckenberger School of inSrLrnTs')!'7h^tr"y,^MiiSiT^^^^^ 

II ■ Analytical Harmony, Composition, Score 

fflllSlCi Reading, Chorus and Orchestral Con- 

ducting. 
B. GUCKENBERGER, Director. 30 Huntington Avenue . . Boston 

Teacher of 

Pianoforte, Church Organ, 

TKeory of Music. 

Steinert Hall, Boston. 
77 Newtonville Avenue, Newton. 



HENRY T. WADE, 



RICHARD PLATT, 



PIANIST. 

23 Steinert Hall . . Boston. 

Mason & Hamlin Piano. 



PIANO, ORGAN, 

CHARLES S. JOHNSON, HARMONY. 

LANG STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 

HARPIST. 

Miss HARRIET A. SHAW, '^^ commonwealth avenue 

Telephone. 

405 



SAM L. STHDLEY, 



Pierce Buildings Copley Square, Room 313. 

INSTRUCTION IN THE 
ART OF SINGING. 

OPERA, ORATORIO, AND SONQ. 



mss PRISCILLA WHITE, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

602 Pierce Building, 
Copley Square, BOSTON. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Lasell Seminary. 



EARL CARTWRMT, 



BARITO/ME. 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



Miss JESSIE DAVIS, 

Pianist and Teaclier, 
289 Newbury Street, Boston. 



Miss Rose Stewart, 

Vocal Instruction. 

246 Huntington Avenue. 



Miss EDITH E. TORREY, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

164 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 
Tuesdays and Fridays at Wellesley College. 



Miss EDITH JEWELL, 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER, 

37 BRIMMER STREET. 

efers by permission to Mr. C. M. Loeffler. 



HELEN ALLE/M HUNT. 

CONTRALTO SOLOIST. 

Teacher of Singing. 
No. 514 Pierce Building Boston. 



BOSTON MUSICAL BUREAU. 

Established 1899. 
Supplies Schools. Colleges, and Conservatories 
with Teachers of Music, etc.; also Churches with 
Organists, Directors, and Singers. 

Address HENRY C. LAHEE, 
'Phone, 47S-I Oxford. 2i8Tremont St., Boston, 



Mrs. S. B. FIELD, 

Teacher of tlie Piano and Accompanist. 
HOTEL NOTTINGHAM. 

Mrs. Field makes a specialty of Coaching, in both 
vocal and instrumental music. 

Artists engaged, programmes arranged, and all 
responsibility assumed for private musicales. 



Miss MARIE L EVERETT, 

Teacher of Singing. 

Pupil of MADAME MARCHES!, 

ParU. 
THE COPLEY, BOSTON. 



Miss MARY D. CHANDLER, 

Concert Pianist and Teacher. 

Pui>il ofPhilipp, Paris. 

I49A TREMONT ST., Monday and Thursday. 

Residence, s Ashland Street, Dorchester. 

Telephone, 182S-3 Dorchester. 



Miss PAULA MUELLER. 

Teacher of Piano 
and German Language. 

STUDIOS, 
28 Central Avenue, Room 30, Steinert Hall 
MEDFORD. BOSTON. 

RECITALS. 



Mrs.V.PERNAUX=SCHUMANN, 

TEACHER OF FRENCH and GERMAN. 
French and German Diction a Specialty. 

32 BATAVIA STREET Suite 8, BOSTON. 



Clarence B, Shirley, 
Tenor Soloist and Teacher. 

CONCERT AND ORATORIO. 

Studio, Huntington Chambers, Boston. 



406 



S^s "r^o'Jt blister, charlotte white. 



Teacher of Singing, 
Soprano Soloist. 

Symphony Chambers, opposite Symphony Hall, 
BOSTON. 



Violoncellist of the Carolyn Belcher String Quartet. 

TEACHER AND SOLOIST. 

608 Huntington Chambers, Boston, Mass. 



THOMAS L. CUSHMAN, 

VOCAL TEACHER. 
218 TREMONT STREET. 



L. B. 

MERRILL 



BASS SOLOIST 

AND 

TEACHER. 

218 Tremont Street. 



Mme. de BERQ-LOFGREN, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

The "GARCIA" Method. 
Studio, 12 Westland Avenue. BOSTON, MASS. 



Mrs. H. CARLETON SLACK, 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Lyric Soprano. Concerts and Recitals. 
Lessons at residence, 12S Hemenway Street. 



Miss PEARL BRICE, 

CONCERT VIOLINIST, TEACHER. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



Mrs.LOUISELATHROP MELLOWS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 

STUDIO, JeHerson Hall, 
Trinity Court, Dartmouth Street, BosbMi, 



Miss M. B. HARTWELL, 

PIANO AND HARMONY. 
Studio, 9 St. James Avenue. 

Miss Hartwell has but recently returned from 

Vienna, where she studied the Leschetizky 

Method for three years and a half. 



VIOLET IRENE WELLINGTON, 

Humorous and Dramatic Reader. 

Also 
Teacher of Voice, Elocution, Physical Culture. 

59 "Westland Avenue. 
Telephone, 3439-1 Back Bay. 



TIPPETT 



CLARA 

WM. ALDEN 



STUDIOS 



VOICE 



Assistant, GRACE R. HORNE 

312 PIERCE BUILDING 
COPLEY SQUARE 



LUISE LEIMER, 

Contralto Soloist and Teacher of Singing. 

Studio, 23 Crawford Street 

and 5teinert Building. 

Miss RUTH LAIGHTON, 

Violinist and Teacher 

19 Chestnut Street • Boston 



Miss JANRT DUFF. 

(7 years pupil of Francis Korbay) 

Contralto, Concerts, Oratorios, and Song Recitals. 

Teacher of Voice Production and Singing. 

Studio, 402 Huntington Chambers. 

Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday morn- 
ings 
Management, W. S. Bigelow, Jr., Boston 



Miss MARIE WARE LAUGHTON, 

Lecturer and Reader of Shakspere. 
Instructor of the VOICE IN SPEECH. 
Courses of Study for Personal Culture and Pro- 
fessional Training. 

418 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE 



ARTHUR M. CURRY, Ellen M. Yerrinton, 

Teacher of 

Violin, Harmony, Composition, I Vorbereiter to Teresa Carreno, 



34 STEINERT HALL. 



Uhland Str. 30, BERLIN, \\ ., GERMANY 



407 



Allen H. Daugherty, 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION, 
HARMONY. 

Tel., Oxford 1 629-1. 218 Trcmont street. 



IVIisslVIARYA.STOWELL, 

Teacher of Piano and Harmony. 
The ILKLEY, 

Huntington Av.enue and Cumberland Street. 

(Cumberland Street entrance ) 



Miss CATHERINE LINCOLN, 

Soprano Soloist. 
Teacher of Singing. 

514 Pierce Buildine, Copley Square, Boston. 


BARITONE. 

George W. Mull, 

Teacher of Singing. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue,Boston. 


JOHN GR06AN MANNING, 

CONCERT PIANIST and TEACHER. 

Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday 
afternoons 

Symphony Chambers, 246 Huntington Ave. 


Mr. WILLIS W. GGLDTHWAIT, 

Teacher of Piano. 

Thorough instruction in Harmony, class or private. 

7 Park Square, Boston. 


JOHN BEACH, 

PIANIST. 
10 Charles Street. 


Miss MARGARET GORHAM, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 

Trinity Court. Boston. 


Mrs. HIRAM HALL, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
118 Charles Street. 


Mrs. Alice Wentworth MacGregor, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Residence Studio, 780 Beacon Street. 
Tuesdays and Fridays at Abbot Academy. 


Mrs. NELLIE EVANS PACKARD. 

Studio, 218 Tremont Street (Room 308), Boston. 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Mrs, Packard is commended by Walker, Randegger 
(London), Marches!, Bouhy, Trabadelo (Paris), 
Leoni (Milan), Vannuccini (Florence), Cotogni, 
Franceschetti (Rome). 


Mr. P. nUMARA 

Will furnish a Small Orchestra of mem- 
bers of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
for Musicales, Dinners, Receptions, etc. 

Address, Symphony Hall. 



ARTHUR THAYER, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
200 Huntington Avenue 



Mr. CHARLES DUMAS, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 
Former Assistant at Harvard. 

French (all grades), Lectures, Diction, 

Elocution, etc. 
286 Columbus Ave., Opp. Back Bay Station. 



CLAUDE HACKELTON, I EVERETT E. TRUETTE, 



PIANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, Room 515, Boston 



CONCERT ORGANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, BOSTON. 



EDWIN N. C. BARNES, 

Basso Cantante and 
Teacher of Singing. 

Symphony Chambers . . . Boston.. 

Opposite Symphony Hall. 



Oratorio 
SOPRANO a 



SOLOIST. 



Concert. 

u,^?». GOODBAR, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Thorough preparation for Concert and Church. 

Studio . . Stelnert Hall. 

'Phone, Oxford 1330. Mondays and Thursdays 



408 



ALWIN SCHROEDER 

The glorious artist and distinguished musician, 

'Cellist of the Hess-Schroeder Quartet 

writes as follows of the 

ilason^Jjaralin 

PIANOS 

MASON & HAMLIN CO., Boston: 

Gentlemen: — Dwring my residence in America for the 
past several years, I have had great opporttjnity of studying 
all the various pianos made in this country, as indeed I have 
had opportunity of studying the pianos abroad before I came 
to America. I want to write to express to you my sincere 
admiration and appreciation of your very beautiful pianos. 
I have heard them with orchestra, in hundreds of chamber 
concerts, and at my home under various conditions; always 
your noble instruments have stood the test, and not only 
have they stood it, but they have added to the general 
beauty and musical value of the occasion, whatsoever it 
might have been. 

I am, very truly yours, 

(Signed) ALWIN SCHROEDER. 



MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

Opp. Institute of Technology BOYLSTON STREET 




HERE are many 
things which may 
be prophesied for 
the future, but it is 
a fixed fact that the 

STEINWAY Piano 
will continue to be the 
Standard of the World. 

The Steinway Organiza- 
tion insures this. 

STEINWAY & SONS 

NEW YORK 
LONDON HAMBURG 



REPEESENTED BY 

M. STEINERT & SONS COMPANY 
162 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 




PRoGRSnAE 






TENSION RESONATOR 

(PATENTED IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE) 



Used exclusively in the 




PIANOS 

'The Three Epoch-making Discoveries 

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF GRAND PIANOS ARE 

First, The French Repeating Action, 182 1 

Second, The Full Iron Frame and Over-strung Scale, 1859 . 

Third, The Mason & Hamlin Tension Resonator, 1900, — 

the most important of the three, as it pertains to tone 
production 

Ql.f. C "ir^^^ in a piano is dependent upon the crown, or arch, 

U3liry OT 1 On^ of its sounding-board. Loss of tone-quality is 
caused by the flattening of the sounding-board through the action of the 
atmosphere and the great downward pressure of the strings. 

TKe Mason & liamlin Tension Resonator 

Permanently preserves the crown, or arch, of the sounding-board, and gives to 
the Mason & HamUn piano a superior quality of tone and a tone which is inde- 
structible. 

A Technical Description in "The Scientific American" of October 11, 

1902, CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING: 

"One imperfection in the modern pianoforte, found even in the instruments 
made by standard makers, has been the loss in tone quality, due to the inability 
of the sounding board to retain its tension. The problem seems at last to have 
been satisfactorily solved by a most simple and ingenious construction embodied 
in the pianos of Mason & Hamlin of Boston, U.S.A." 

A copy of the Scientific Atnerican article will be mailed upon application 



MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

0pp. Inst, of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON 6- MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

T, , , j Ticket Office, 1492 ) „ id 

^^^^P^°"^n Administration Offices, 3200 J ^^*=^^^y 

T^VENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

f rogramm? of tijp 

Sixth 

Rehearsal and Concert 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIP- 
TIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 




FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 20 
AT 2.30 O'CLOCK 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 21 
AT 8.00 O'CLOCK 

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY C. A. ELLIS 
PUBLISHER BY 0. A. ELLIS, MANAGER 



409 



Mme. CECILE CHAMINADE ' 

The "World's Greatest "Woman Composer 

Mme. TERESA CARRENO 

The World's Greatest "Woman Pianist 

Mme. LILLIAN NORDICA 

The W^orld's Greatest W^oman Singer 

USE 




Piano. 



THE JOHN CHURCH CO., 37 West sad Street 
New York City 



REPRESENTED BY 

G. L SCHIRMER & CO., 38 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



410 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

PERSONNEL 





Twenty -ei 


ighth Season, 1908° 1909 






MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 








First Violins. 




Hess, Willy Roth, O. 

Concert-master. Kuntz, D. 
Noack, S. 


Hoffmann, J. 
Fiedler, E. 


Krafft, W. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


Mahn, F. 
Strube, G. 


Eichheinfi, H. 
Risslandj K. 


Bak, A. 
Ribarsch, A. 

Second Violins. 


Mullaly. J. 
Traupe, W. 


Barleben, K. 
Fiumara, P. 


Akeroyd, J. 
Currier, F. 


Fiedler, B. 
Werner, H. 


Berger, H. 
Eichler, J. 


Tischer-Zeitz, 
Goldstein, S. 


H. Kuntz, A. 
Kurth, R. 


Marble, E. 
Goldstein, H. - 

Violas. 




Ferir, E. 
Scheurer, K. 


Heindl, H. 
Hoyer, H. 


Zahn, F. Kolster, A. 
Kluge, M. Sauer, G. 

Violoncellos. 


Krauss, H. 
Gietzen, A. 


Warnke, H. 
Keller, J. 


Nagel, R. 
Kautzenbach, A. 


Barth, C. Loeffler, E. 
Nast, L. Hadley, A. 

Basses. 


Warnke, J. 
Smalley, R. 


Keller, K. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Agnesy, K. 
Kunze, M^ 


Seydel, T. 
Huber, E. 


Ludwig, O. 
Schurig, R. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Maquarre, A. 
Maquarre, D. 
Brooke, A. 
Fox, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Sautet, A. 

English Horn 


Grisez, G. Sadony, P. 
Mimart, P. Mueller, E. 
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Hess, M. 
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Schmid, K. 
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Kloepfel, L. Hampe, C. Lorenz, O, 
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Heim, G. Kenfield, L. 
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411 


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TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, NINETEEN HUNDRED EIGHT AND NINE 



Sixth Rehearsal and G^ncert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 20, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 2t, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 



Sibelius 



(a) "A Song of Spring" for Orchestra, Op. i6 
I First time in Boston 

j(d) "Finland": Symphonic Poem for Orchestra, 
Op. 26, No. 7. First time in Boston 



Bruch . . . . Concerto No. 3, for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 58 

I. Allegro energico. 

II. Adagio. 

III. Finale: Allegro molto. 



Beethoven 



Symphony in A major, No. 7, Op. 92 

I. Poco Sostenuto ; Vivace. 

II. Allegretto. 

III. Presto : Presto meno assai. 

IV. Allegro con brio. 



SOLOIST, 
Professor WILLY HESS. 



There will be an interimssion of ten minutes befofe the symphony. 



The doors of the hall will be closed during the performance of 
each number on the programme. Those who wish to leave before 
the end of the concert are requested to do so in an interval 66- 
tween the numbers. 

City of Boston. Revised Re^nlation of Anfiust 5. 1898.— Chapter 3. relating to the 
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413 




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"A Song of Spring," Op. i6; "Finland": Symphonic Poem for 
Orchestra, Op. 26, No. 7 Jean Sibeuus 

(Born at Tavastehus, Finland, December 8, 1865; now living in Helsingfors.*) 
The score of "Varsang" was copyrighted in 1903. The title-page 
bears these titles: "Varsang," "Friihlingslied," "La Tristesse du 
Printemps." I do not know whether the French ""title is the com- 
poser's or the publisher's. Mrs. Newmarch in her biographical sketch 
of Sibelius says: "The second title of this work, 'The Sadness of 
Spring,' seems to indicate that it is not so much a glad and triumphant 
vernal mood which this music is intended to express, as some subjective 
feeling not easy to define. Perhaps the dryness of heart which fol- 
lows upon some corroding embittering sorrow, for which the swift, 
magic beauty of the northern spring bears a message of mockery 
rather than of hope.. But this is left to our imagination, as also the 
meaning of the strange peal of bells and the impassioned coda at the 
close of the work." 

The music, one continuous song, romantic and gradually increasing 
in passion, requires no analysis. It is scored for two flutes (inter- 
changeable with piccolos), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three 
kettledrums, bells (in F, B-flat, C), and strings. The song begins, tempo 
moderato e sostenuto, F major, 3-4, with a theme for 'cello, violas, and 
clarinet. 

* * 
"Finlandia: Tondight for orkester," Op. 26, No. 7, was composed in 
1894, some years before the loss of Finland's identity as a nation, yet 
it is said to be so national in sentiment, "and it evokes such popular 
enthusiasm in the composer's native land, that during the recent 
political conflict between Russia and Finland its performance is said 

* It was stated recently that Mr. Sibelius now lives at Kerava, near Helsingfors. 

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to have been prohibited." It is not a fantasia on genuine folk-tunes. 
The composer is the authority for this statement. To quote Mrs. 
Newmarch again: "Like Ghnka, Sibelius avoids the crude material 
of the folksong; but like this great national poet, he is so penetrated 
by the spirit of his race that he can evolve a national melody calculated 
to deceive the elect. On this point the composer is emphatic. 'There 
is a mistaken impression among the press abroad,' he has assured 
me, 'that my themes are often folk melodies. So far I have never 
used a theme that was not of my own invention. Thus the thematic 
material of "Finlandia" and "En Saga" is entirely my own.'" 

"Finlandia" was performed for the first time in America at a Metro- 
politan Opera House Concert in New York, December 24, 1905. Mr. 
Arturo Vigna conducted. It was performed at concerts of the Russian 
Symphony Society, Mr. Modest Altschuler conductor, in Carnegie Hall, 
New York, December 30 and 31, 1905. 

The following note is from the programme notes of the Russian 
Symphony Society: — 

"'Finland,' though without explanatory sub-title, seems to set 
forth an impression of the national spirit and life. . . . The work records 
the impressions of an exile's return home after a long absence. An 
agitated, almost angry theme for the brass choir, short and trenchant, 
begins the introduction, Andante sostenuto (alia breve). This theme 
is answered by an organ-like response in the wood-wind, and then a 
prayerful passage for strings, as though to reveal the essential earnest- 
ness and reasonableness of the Finnish people, even under the stress 
of national sorrow. This leads to an allegro moderato episode, in 
which the restless opening theme is proclaimed by the strings against 
a very characteristic rhythmic figure, a succession of eight beats, the 
first strongly accented. . . . With a change to Allegro, the movement, 



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418 



looked at as an example of the sonata form, may be said to begin. 
A broad, cheerful theme by the strings, in A-flat, against the per- 
sistent rhythm in the brass, is followed by a second subject, introduced 
by the wood-wind and taken up by the strings, then by the 'cello and 
first violin. This is peaceful and elevated in character, and might 
be looked upon as prophetic of ultimate rest and happiness. The 
development of these musical ideas carries the tone poem to an eloquent 
conclusion." 

"Finland" is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, and strings. 

The following paragraphs from Mrs. Rosa Newmarch's "Jean Si- 
belius: A Finnish Composer," 24 pp. (1906), are here pertinent. (See 
also the entr'acte.) 

"From its earliest origin the folk music of the Finns seems to have 
been pentrated with melancholy. The Kanteletar, a collection of 
lyrics which followed the Kalevala, contains one which gives the 
key-note of the national music. It is not true, says the anonymous 
singer of this poem, that Vainomoinen made the 'Kan tele' out of the 
jaw of a gigantic pike: — 

The Kan tele of care is carved, 
Formed of saddening sorrows only ; 
Of hard times its arch is fashioned 
And its wood of evil chances. 
All the strings of sorrows twisted, 
All the screws of adverse fortunes ; 
Therefore Kantele can never 
Ring with gay and giddy music, 
Hence this harp lacks happy ditties, 
Cannot sound in cheerful measures. 
As it is of care constructed, 
Formed of saddening sorrows only. 



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"These lines, while they indicate the prevailing mood of the future 
music of Finland, express also the difference between the Finnish 
and Russian temperaments. The Finn is more sober in sentiment, 
less easily moved to extremes of despair or of boisterous glee than his 
neighbor. Therefore, while we find accents of tragic sorrow in the 
music of the Russian peasantry, there are also contrasting moods in 
which they tune their gusslees * to 'ga}^ and giddy music' 

"The causes of this innate gravity and restrained melancholy of 
the Finnish temperament are not far to seek. Influences climatic and 
historical have moulded this hyperborean people into what we now 
find them. Theirs is the most northern of all civilized countries. From 
November till the end of March it lies in thrall to a gripping and relent- 
less winter ; in the northern provinces the sun disappears entirely during 
the months of December and January. Every yard of cultivated 
soil represents a strenuous conflict with adverse natural conditions. 
Prosperity, or even moderate comfort, has been hardly acquired under 
such circumstances. 

* The gusslee, or gusli, was a musical instrument of the Russian people. It existed in three forms, that 
show in a measure the phases of its historical development: (i) the old Russian gusli, with a small, flat^ousding 
box, with a maple-wood cover, and strung with seven striags, an instrument not linlike those of neighboring 
folks, — the Finnish "kantele," the Esthonian "kannel," the Lithuanian "kankles," and the Lettic "kuakles"; 
(2) the gusli-psaltery of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, difEering from the first named in these respects, 
— greater length and depth of the sounding-box, from eighteen to thirty-tsjro strings, and it was trapeziform; (3) 
the piano-like gusli of the eighteenth centm-y, based on the form and character of the clavichord of the time. 
See Faminzin's "Gusli, a Russian Folk Musical Instrument" (St. Petersbm-g, 1890). The gusli is not to be 
confounded with the Dalmatian gusla, an instrument with soundiag-box, swelling back, and finger-board cut 
out of one piece of wood, with a skin covering the mouth of the box and pierced with a- series of holes in 
a circle. A lock of horse-hairs composed the one string, which was regulated by a peg. This string had no 
fixed pitch; it was tuned to suit the voice of the singer, and accompanied it always in unison. 'The gusli was 
played with a horse-hair bow. The instrument was'foimd on the- wall of a tavern, as the guitar, orj Spanish 
pandero on the wall of a posada, or as the English cithern of the sixteenth and seventeenthjcenturies, commonly 
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421 



"Situated between Sweden and Russia, Finland was for centuries 
the scene of obstinate struggles between these rival nationalities; 
wars which exhausted the Finns without entirely sapping their fund 
of stubborn strength and passive endurance. Whether under Swedish 
or Russian rule, the instinct of liberty has remained unconquerable 
in this people. Years of hard schooling have made them a serious- 
minded, self-reliant race; not to be compared with the Russians for 
receptivity or exuberance of temperament, but more laborious, steadier 
of purpose and possessed of a latent energy which, once aroused, is not 
easily diverted or checked. 

. . . "Many so-called Finnish folk-songs being of Scandinavian 
origin. That the Finns still live as close to Nature as their ancestors, 
is evident from their literature, which reflects innumerable pictures 
from this land of granite rocks and many- tin ted moorlands; of long 
sweeps of melancholy fens and ranges of hills clothed with dark pine- 
forests ; the whole enclosed in a silver network of flashing waters — ^the 
gleam and shimmer of more than a thousand lakes. The solitude and 
silence, the familiar landscape, the love of home and country — ^we 
find all this in the poetry of Runeberg and Tavaststjerna, in the paint- 
ings of Munsterhjelm, Westerholm, and Jarnefelt, and in the music of Si- 
belius. 

. . . "Sibelius's strong individuality made itself felt at the outset 
of his career. It was, of course, a source of perplexity to the academic 
mind. Were the eccentricity and uncouthness of some of his early 
compositions the outcome of ignorance, or of a deliberate effort to be 
original at any price ? It was, as usual, the public, not the specialists, 



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who fouud the just verdict. Sibehus's irregularities were, in part 
the struggles of a very robust and individual mind to express itself in 
its own way; but much that seemed weird and wild in his first works 
was actually the echo of the national spirit and therefore better under- 
stood by the public than by the connoisseurs. . . . From his novitiate 
Sibelius's melody has been stamped with a character of its own. This 
is due in a measure to the fact that it derives from the folk-music and 
the runo: — the rhythm in which the traditional poetry of the Finns 
is sung. The inviolable metrical law of the rune makes no distinction 
between epos and melos. In some of Sibelius's earlier works, where 
the national tendency is more crudely apparent, the invariable and 
primitive character of the rune-rhythm is not without influence upon 
his melody, lending it a certain monotony which is far from being 
devoid of charm. 'The epic and lyric runes,' says Comparetti, 'are 
sung to a musical phrase which is the same for every line; only the 
key is varied every second line, or, in the epic runes, at every repetition 
of the line by the second voice. The phrase is sweet, simple without 
emphasis, with as many notes as there are sylables.' Sibelius's 
melody, at its maturity, is by no means of the short-winded and broken 
kind, but rather a sustained and continuous cantilena, which lends 
itself to every variety of emotion curve and finds its ideal expres- 
sion through the medium of the cor anglais. His harmony — a law 
unto itself — is sometimes of pungent dissonance and sometimes has a 
mysterious penetrating sweetness, like the harmony of the natural 
world. In the quaint words of the Finnish critic Flodin: 'It goes 
its own way which is surely the way of God, if we acknowledge that 
all good things come from Him.' It seems impossible to hear any one 
of Sibelius's characteristic works without being convinced that it voices 
the spirit of an unfamiliar race. His music contains all the essential 
qualities to which I have referred as forming part and parcel of the 
Finnish temperament." 
! • * * 

These works of Sibelius have been performed in Boston by the Bos- 
ton Symphony Orchestra: — 



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Symphony, No. i, K minor, Op. 39, January 5, 1907, Dr. Muct 
conductor. 

Symphony No. 2, D major, Op. 43, March 12, 1904, Mr. Gericke 
conductor 

Concerto in D minor, for violin and orchestra, Op. 47, April 20, 1907 

(Mme. Maud Powell, violinist). 

* 
. * * 

Sibelius at first studied the violin ; but, as it was intended that he 
should be a lawyer after his schooling, he entered the University 
of Helsingfors in 1885. He soon abandoned the law for music. He 
studied at the Helsingfors Conservatory under Martin Wegelius, then 
with Albert Becker and Woldemar Bargiel at Berlin (1889-90) and 
with Fuchs and Goldmark at Vienna (1890-91). He then returned 
to Helsingfors. He received a stated sum from the government, so 
that he was able to compose without annoyance from the cares of this 
life that is so daily, — to paraphrase Jules Laforgue's line: "Ah! qiie 
la Vie est quotidienne! " * 

His chief works are the Symphony No. i, E minor, composed in 
1899; Symphony No. 2, D major (1901-1902) ; Symphony No. 3,! led 
by the composer in St. Petersburg in November, 1907; "Kullervo," 
a symphonic poem in five parts for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra 
(composed in 1898, but not yet published); "Lemminkainen," sym- 
phonic poem in four parts. Op'. 22 (two of these parts are entitled, 
respectively, "The Swan of Tuonela," Op. 22, No. 3, and "Lem- 
minkainen's Home-faring," Op. 22, No. 4); "Finlandia," symphonic 
poem; overture and orchestral suite, "Karelia," Op. 10 and Op. 11; 
"Islossningen," "Sandels," and "Snofrid," three symphonic poems 
with chorus; "Varsang," Op. 16; "En Saga," tone poem. Op. 9; 
"Jungfrau i Tornet" ("The Maid in the Tower"), a dramatized bal- 
lad in one act, the first Finnish opera (Helsingfors, 1896); incidental 
music to Adolf Paul's tragedy, "King Christian II." (1898),' — an 
orchestral suite has been made from this music; incidental music to 

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t The Symphony No. 3, was performed in New York at a concert of the Russian Symphony Society, Jan- 
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Maeterlinck's "Pelleas and M61isande," an orchestral suite, Op. 46, 
of eight numbers; Concerto for violin, Op. 47, played in Berlin, October 
19, 1905, by Carl Halir, and in New York by Mme. Maud Powell at a 
Philharmonic Concert, November 30, 1906; Valse Triste for orchestra 
from the music to Arvid Jarnefelt's drama "Kuolema" (Death); 
"Des Feuer's Ursprung," cantata; "Koskenlaskijan Morsiamet" 
("The Ferryman's Betrothed"), ballad for voice and orchestra, Op. 33; 
Sonata for pianoforte, Op. 12; pianoforte quintet, string quartet. 
Fantasia for violoncello and pianoforte; "Kylliki," lyric suite for 
pianoforte, Op. 41 ; other pieces for pianoforte, as Barcarole, Idyll, 
and Romanze, from Op. 24, also Op. 5, 13, 15, 18, 26, 27, 31, 36, and 
transcriptions for the pianoforte of his songs; choruses and many 
songs. Op. 13, 31, 36, 37, 38, — fifteen have been published with 
English words. 



Mr. Willy Hess was born on July 14, 1859, at Mannheim. When 
he was six years old, he began to study the violin with his father, 
Julius, a pupil of Spohr. He was in America with his family in 1865, 
and in 1868-69 he made a tour with Theodore Thomas's orchestra. 
He played in Music Hall, Boston, on November 6, 1869, Leonard's 
"Concert Militaire" and Beethoven's Romanze in F major. In 1872 
he left America for Holland. In 1873 he made Heidelberg his dwell- 
ing-place. He visited London for the first time in 1874. In 1876 he 



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went to Berlin to study with Joachim. In 1878 he was appointed con- 
cert-master of the Opera and of the Museumsgesellschaft orchestra at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, where he founded a string quartet and a trio 
with Kwast and Hugo Becker. He remained in Frankfort for eight 
years. In 1 886 he was called to Rotterdam as professor at the Con- 
servatory and as concert-master, but after two years he was called to 
Manchester, England, to take the place of lyudwig Strauss, who had 
resigned his position as concert-master of the orchestra led by Charles 
Hall6. In 1895 he settled at Cologne as concert-master of the Guer- 
zenich concerts, leader of the Guerzenich Quartet, and professor of 
the violin at the Conservatory. He was appointed professor of the 
violin at the Royal Academy of Music, London, 1903, and he re- 
signed this position to come J:o Boston in 1904 as concert-master 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. At the end of the season of 
1906-07 he obtained a leave of absence for one year. He was 
given the title of "Royal Prussian Professor" by the Emperor Wil- 
helm II. in 1900 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the es- 
tablishment of the Conservatory of Music at Cologne. 

Mr. Hess has played at concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
in Boston these pieces : — 

Joachim: Hungarian concerto. Op. 11, October 22, 1904. 

Bruch: Concerto No. i, G minor. Op. 26, November 12, 1904. 

Beethoven: Concerto, D major, Op. 61, January 6, 1906. 

Spohr: Concerto No. 9, D minor, October 20, 1906. 

He was leader 1904-07 of the Boston Symphony Quartet, which 
was composed 1904-05 of Messrs. Hess, Roth, Ferir, Krasselt, and 
1905-06 and 1906-07 of Messrs. Hess, Roth, Ferir, and Warnke. 

In the course of the three years of this Quartet the following com- 
positions were performed : — 




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.An asterisk here denotes a first performance in Boston or the first public appearance here of a singer or 
player. Two asterisks denote a first performance.) 

Arensky: Piano trio, D minor, Op. 32 (Carlo Buonamici, pianist), 
March 5, 1906. 

Aus der Ohe: Violin sonata, F-sharp major, Op. 16 (MSS.),** Janu- 
ary 2, 1905 (Adele aus der Ohe, pianist). • 

Bach: Ciaconna for violin alone, November 7, 1904 (Mr. Willy 
Hess, violinist). 

Beethoven: Quartet, G major. Op. 18, No. 2, January 2, 1905. 

Beethoven: Quartet, C minor. Op. 18, No. 4, November 27, 1905. 

Beethoven: Quartet, C major. Op. 59, No. 3, March 6, 1905. 

Beethoven: Quartet, F minor. Op. 95, November 19, 1906. 

Beethoven: Quartet, B-flat major. Op. 127, March 5, 1906. 

Beethoven: Quintet, C major. Op. 29, November 7, 1904 (Max 
Zach, second viola). 

Beethoven: Septet, E-flat major, Op. 20, April 22, 1907 (Messrs. G. 
Grisez, clarinet, M. Hess, horn, P. Sadony, bassoon, K. Keller, double 
bass) . , 

Beethoven: Trio, B-flat, Op. 97, February 6, 1905 (Eugen d'Albert, 
pianist) . 

Brahms: Sextet, B-flat major. Op. 18, October 30, 1905 (Max Zach, 
second viola, J. Keller, second 'cello). 

Brahms: Quintet, piano and strings F minor, Op. 34, February 6, 
1905 (Eugen d'Albert, pianist). 

Brahms: Quartet, piano and strings, A major, Op. 26, February 
5, 1906 (Carl Stasny, pianist). 

Brahms: Quartet, B-flat major. Op. 67, January 21, 1907. 

Brahms: Song, "Liebliche Wangen," April 9, 1906 (Susan Metcalfe*). 

Brahms: Song, "Die Mainacht," April 9, 1906 (Susan Metcalfe*). 

Cherubini: Scherzo from Quartet in D minor, No. 3, March 6, 1905. 



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Debussy: Quartet, G minor, Op. lo, February 25, 1907. 

Dvorak: Sextet, A major. Op. 48, March 6, 1905 (Max Zach, second 
viola, C. Earth, second 'cello). 

Dvorak : Quartet for piano and strings, E-flat major. Op. 87, Novem- 
ber 19, 1906 (H. G. Tucker, pianist). 

Faure: violin sonata, A major, Op. 13, February 25, 1907 (Willy 
Hess and Ossip Gabrilowitsch) . 

Franck: Quintet for piano and strings, October 29, 1906 (Heinrich 
Gebhard, pianist). 

Franck: Violin sonata, A major, November 27, 1905 (Willy Hess 
and Raoul Pugno). 

Glazounoff : Quintet, A major. Op. 39,* January 2, 1905 (J. Keller, 
second 'cello). 

Glazounoff: Novelettes, Op. 15 (Alia Spagnuola, Interlude in modo 
antico, Orientale) October 30, 1905. 

Handel: Air from "Serse," April 9, 1906 (Susan Metcalfe*). 

Haydn: Quartet, C major. Op. 33, No. 3, December 17, 1906. 

Haydn: Quartet, D minor. Op. 76, No. 2, February 6, 1905. 

Jaques-Dalcroze : Three movements from Serenade, Op. 61,* April 
22, 1907. 

Kaun: Quartet, D major. Op. 41, No. 2,* November 19, 1906. 



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Leclair: Sonata for violin and viola with piano,*(?) D major, Novem- 
ber 28, 1904 (Willy Hess and Emile Ferir). 

Mendelssohn: Octet, E-flat major, Op. 20, April 10, 1905 (with the 
Hoffmann Quartet). 

Mozart: Quartet, C major (K. 465), February 5, 1906. 

Mozart: Quartet, B-flat major (K. 589), April lo, 1905. 

Mozart: Clarinet quintet (K. 581), January 21, 1907 (G. Grisez, 
Clarinet) . 

Mozart: Song, "Das Veilchen", April 9, 1906 (Susan Metcalfe*). 

Reger; Serenade for flute, violin, viola, D major, Op. 77a*, February 
5, 1906 (Andre Maquarre, flute, Willy Hess and Emile Ferir). 

Saint-Saens; Piano trio, F major. Op. 18, January i, 1906 (George 
Proctor, pianist). 

Saint-Saens: 'Cello sonata, C minor. Op. 32, April 10, 1905 (Olga 
Samaroff,* pianist). 

Saint-Saens: 'Cello sonata, F major. Op. 123,* December 17, 1906 
(Otto Neitzel,* pianist). 

Schubert: Piano quintet, A major, Op. 114, December 17, 1906 
(Otto Neitzel,* pianist, K. Keller, double bass). 

Schubert: Quintet, C major. Op. 163, January i, 1906 (Carl Barth, 
second 'cello). 

Schubert: Quartet, A minor. Op. 29, October 30, 1905. 

Schubert: Quartet, D minor. Op. posth., November 7, 1904. 

Schubert: Quartetsatz, Op. posth., October 29, 1906. 

Schubert: Song, "Der Neugierige," April 9, 1906 (Susan Metcalfe*). 

Schubert: Song, "Ungeduld," April 9, 1906 (Susan Metcalfe*). 

Schumann: Quartet, A major, Op. 41, No. 3, January i, 1906. 

Schumann: Piano trio, F major. Op. 80, February 25, 1906 (Ossip 
Gabrilowitsch, pianist) . 

Schumann: Piano quintet, E-flat major, Op. 44, November 28, 
1904 (Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler, pianist). 

Sinding. Andante and allegretto scherzando from Quartet in A 
minor. Op. 70, March 5, 1906. 

Suk: Quartet, B-flat major. Op. 11, October 29, 1906. 



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436 



Svendsen: Octet, A major, Op. 3, April 9, 1906 (Messrs. Kuntz, 
Krafft, Zach, and Nagel, assisting). 

Taneieff, S.: Quartet, B-flat minor, Op. 4,* November 27, 1905. 

Tschaikowsky : Quartet, D major. Op. 11, No. i, April 22, 1907. 

Tschaikowsky. Quartet, F major. Op. 22, No. 2, November 28, 1904. 

Tschaikowsky: Piano trio, A minor. Op. 50, January 21, 1907 
(Victor Benham, pianist). 

Wolf: Quartet, D minor,* April 9, 1906. 

* 
* * 

In 1908 Mr. Hess founded, with Mr. Alwin Schroeder, the Hess- 

Schroeder Quartet (Messrs. Hess, Theodorowicz, Ferir, Schroeder). 

The first concert of this Quartet in Boston was on November 17, 1908, 



Third Concerto for Violin with Orchestral Accompaniment, 
Op. 58 Max Bruch 

(Born at Cologne, January 6, 1838; now living at Friedenau, Berlin.) 

This concerto, dedicated to Josef Joachim, was played for the first 
time at a concert given in honor of the composer at Diisseldorf, May 
31, 1 89 1. Joachim was the violinist. The programme was made up 
of works by Bruch: selections from "Das Lied von der Glocke," 
"Frithjof," and "Achilleus"; the whole of "Das Feuerkreuz." Miss 
Wally Schauseil and Max Biittner were the chief singers. 

Joachim played the concerto in Berlin at a Philharmonic Concert, 
November 9, 1891, and at Hamburg and Frankfort-on-the-Main in the 
same year. Sarasate played it in London for the first time, October 
17, 1891 ; and Heermann played it in 1891 at Wiirzburg. 

The first performance of the concerto in the United States was at 
a concert of the Symphony Society led by Walter Damrosch at New 
York, February 6, 1892, when Miss Geraldine Morgan was the violinist. 



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The concerto was played at a concert of the Philharmonic Society of 
New York by Mme. Camilla Urso, February 13, 1892. Miss Geraldine 
Morgan played the concerto at a concert of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra in Philadelphia, February 8, 1892. 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Nikisch, conductor, March 5, 1892. Mme. 
Camilla Urso was the violinist. 

The concerto was published in 1892. The accompaniment is scored 
for two flutes, two 'oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, 
two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and strings. 

I. Allegro energico, D minor, 4-4. There is an orchestral intro- 
duction in which the strongly rhythmed first theme and another sturdy 
motive (largamente) are introduced. The solo violin after a cadenza 
takes up the energetic first theme, then the sturdy theme and a third, 
a more melodious and expressive cantilena. This material is used at 
great length. Portions of the themes are interwoven, and they are 
developed into essential elements of the solo part. 

II. Adagio, B-flat major, 6-8. The solo violin preludes to a slight 
accompaniment. The chief theme, a tender melody, is sung by orches- 
tral violins. The solo violin takes up this melody. The second motive, 
not unlike a chant, is played by strings, then by wood-wind instruments, 
and is embroidered by the solo violin. There are changes of tonality 
and a return to the first subject. 

III. Finale. Allegro molto, 3-4. Introductory measures in D 
minor have a nimble dancing theme for solo violin that is used liberally 
in the main body of the movement. The chief theme of a heroic char- 
acter is announced by the solo violin. The song theme, also for solo 
violin, is opposed to the dance theme. 

F major. Song theme in orchestra is embroidered by the solo instru- 



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ment. The coda is based on foregoing thematic material, and there 

is a brilliant close in D major. 

* 
* * 

The following compositions by Max Bruch have been played in 
Boston at concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra : — 

Symphony No. 3, in E (MSS.), March 3, 1883 (first time in Boston). 

Prelude to "Loreley": December 16, 1882; November 17, 1883. 

Concerto for violin and orchestra, No. i, G minor: October 21, 
1882 (Louis Schmidt, Jr.); November 28, 1885 (C. M. Loeffler) ; March 
5, 1887 (Maud Powell); January 21, 1893 (Henri Marteau) ; April 
13, 1895 (I. Schnitzler) ; November 12, 1904 (Willy Hess). 

Concerto for violin and orchestra. No. 2, D minor, Op. 44*. Adagio 
from it (first time), December 20, 1884 (C. M. Loeffler); whole con- 
certo, March 2, 1889 (Otto Roth); December 3, 1904 (Eugene Ysaye) . 

Concerto for violin and orchestra. No. 3, Op. "; March 5, 1891 
(Camilla Urso); November 21, 1908 (Willy Hess). 

Scottish Fantasie for violin and orchestra, Op. 46: November 24, 
1888, first time (C. M. Loeffler); January 11, 1896 (Timothee Ada- 
mowski) ; February 4, 1899 (Timothee Adamjowski) ; November 28, 
1903 (Alexander Birnbaum). 

Serenade in A minor for violin and orchestra, Op. 75, February 11, 
1905 (Marie Nichols). 



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441 



I 

Romanza for violin and orchestra, Op. 42, F'ebruary 17, 1894 (C M. 
Loeffler). 

"Kol Nidrei" for violoncello and orchestra, Op. 47: November 16, 
1889 (Leo Schulz); March 24, 1894 (Leo Schulz). 

"Odysseus," Op. 41: Scene and air, "Thou far-darting sun," 
October 22, 1881 (Annie Louise Cary), the first concert and the first 
soloist; April 23, 1904 (Marguerite Hall); January 7, 1905 (Muriel 
Foster). 

"Odysseus," Op. 41: Scene: "Penelope weaving," January 12, 1884 
(Louise Rollwagen). 

"Achilles," Op. 50: Aria, December 10, 1887 (Gertrude Edmands). 

"Achilles," Op. 50: Andromache's Lament, February 27, 1904 
(Ernestine Schumann-Heink). 



ENTR'ACTE. 
MUSIC IN FINLAND. 

The Musical Courier (London) published in 1899 a sketch of the 
early history of music in Finland. This article, signed A. Ingman, 
is of interest in connection with the performance of Sibelius's two 
pieces. « 

"For the right judgment of the character of this music a short pre- 
liminary sketch as to the origin of the people seems necessary. We 
learn from history that the Finns belong to a tribe of the Aryan and 
Turanian race, called Ugro-Finns, being first spoken of in the second 
century by Ptolemaeus. About five hundred years later they settled 
on the Finnish peninsula, gradually driving the Laps, who then occu- 

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pied the countn^, towards the North, into those regions now known 
as Lapland. In the twelfth century Swedish influence took root among 
the people, when King Erik Yedwardson undertook the first crusade 
to Finland, the inhabitants of which in 1157 became converts to the 
Christian faith, the two first bishops — Saint Henry and Saint Thomas — 
being, by the way, English by birth. By a treaty from 132^ the whole 
country was subdued, remaining under Swedish government until 
1809, when, after several wars with Russia, Tsar Alexander I. became 
Grand Duke of Finland, confirming by his 'Act of Assurance to the 
Finnish people,' their religion, their laws, and their constitution, as 
runs the edict, 'for the time of his reign and the reigns of his successors.' 
"The rich imagination of the Finns and their prominent mental 
endowments are manifested in their mythology contained in the grand 
national epic, 'Kalevala.'* The folk-songs testify the deep musical 
vein of the people. The Finnish tunes are of a simple, melancholy, 
soft character, breathing the air of the lonely scenery where they were 
first sung; for there is a profound solitude in that beautiful 'land of 
the thousand lakes,' as it has been called, a loneliness so entire that it 
can be imagined only by those who have spent some time there, an 
autumnal day, for instance, in those vast forests, or a clear summer 
night on one of its innumerable waters. There is a sublime quietude, 
something desolate, over those nights of endless light, which deeply 

* Max Miiller said of this epic: "A Finn is not a Greek, and a Wainamoinen was not a Homer. But if 
the poet may take his colors from that nature by which he is surrounded, if he may depict the men with 
whom he lives, 'Kalevala' possesses merits not dissimilar from those of the 'Iliad,' and will claim its place 
ai the fifth national epic of the world, side by side with the Ionian songs, with the 'Mahabharata,' the 'Shah- 
nameh,' and the ' Nibelunge.' It may be remembered that Longfellow was accused in 1855 of having borrowed 
'the entire form, spirit, and many of the most striking incidents' of 'Hiawatha' from the 'Kalevala.' The 
accusation, made originally in the National Intelligencer of Washington, D.C., led to a long discussion in this 
country and England. Ferdinand Freiligrath published a summary of the arguments in support and in refu- 
tation of the charge in the Athenceum (London), December 29, 1855, in which he decided that 'Hiawatha' was 
written in 'a modified Finnish metre, modified by the exquisite feeling of the American poet, according to 
the genius of the English language and to the wants of modem taste'; but Freiligrath, familiar with Finnish 
runes, saw no imitation of plot or incidents by Longfellow." The " Kalevala, " translated from the original 
Finnish by W. F. Kirby, F.L.S., F.E.S., corresponding member of the Finnish Literary Society, was included 
in 1908 in Everyman's Library, and is therefore within the reach of all. — P. H. 



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443 



impresses the native, and still more strangely touches the mind of the 
foreigner. At intervals such a one is overcome by those moods, often 
pictured in the songs, some of which are full of subdued resignation 
to fate, most touchingly demonstrating that the people 'learned in 
suffering what it taught in song.' The rough climate made the Finns 
sturdy in resistance, and all the hard trials which in course of time 
broke in upon them were braved valiantly, until better days dawned 
again. This theme of a 'hope on, hope ever,' is highly applicable to 
the nation. Even some of their erotic songs bear this feature, — the 
rejected lover seldom despairs, — although there are, of course, excep- 
tions of a very passionate colouring. Many are a mere communion 
with the singer's nearest and truest friend, — the beauty of nature 
around him. 

"The original instrument (constructed somewhat like a harp) to 
which these idyllic strains were sung is called 'Kantele.'* The na- 
tional epic, 'Kalevala,' translated into English by Mr. Crawford, con- 
tains the ancient myth of the origin of this instrument, beginning with 
the fortieth canto. 

* A kantele was shown at the Paris Exposition of 1889. It was a horizontal sort of the lute as known to 
the Greeks. It had sixteen steel strings, and its compass was from D, third line of the bass staff, to E, 
fourth space of the treble staff, in the tonality of G major. Its greatest length was about thirty inches; its 
greatest width, about ten inches. The late General Neovius, of Helsingfors, invented a kantele to be played 
with a bow in the accompaniment of song. This instrument looks like a violin box; it has two strings, and 
requires two players, who, on each side of the instrument, rub a bow on the string nearer him. For a minute 
description of this kantele and the curious manner of timing see Victor Charles MahUlon's "Catalogue du 
Mus^e instrumental du Conservatoire Royal de Musique de Bruxelles," vol. iii. pp. 9-11 (Ghent, 1900). — P. H. 



A NEW VOLUME OF THE MUSICIANS LIBRARY 

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PADERE WSKI 

to the WEBER PIANO 

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New York, May the24th, 1908. 
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445 



"Wainamoinen, the inspired bard and ideal musician — thus runs 
the tale — out of the jawbones of a big fish had made himself an uncom- 
monly lovely specimen of an instrument, which he called kantele. 
For strings he took some hairs from the mane of tlie bad spirit's (Hiisi's) 
horse, which gave it a mysterious, bewitching sound. When singing 
to its accompaniment, he, by his soul-compelling mighty melodies, 
awakened the sympathy of all beings, charming and ruling the powers 
of nature around him. The sun, the moon, and the stars descended 
from heaven to listen to the songster who was himself touched to tears 
by the power of his own song. 

"His happiness, however, did not last very long. The harp, his 
greatest comfort, was lost in the waves, where it was found by the sea 
nymphs and the water king, to their eternal joy. When sounding the 
chords to their fair songs of old, the waves carried the tunes along to the 
shores, whence they were distantly echoed back by the rocks around; 
and this, one says, causes the melancholy feelings which overcome the 
wanderer at the lonely quietude of the clear northern summer nights. 

"Deploring the loss of his kantele, old Wainamoinen, the bard, 
was driving restlessly along through the fields, wailing aloud. There 
he happened to see a young birch complaining of its sad lot: in vain, 
it said, it dressed itself so fairly in tender foliage, in vain it allowed 
the summer breezes to come and play with its rustling leaves, nobody 

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enjoyed it. It was bom to 'lament in the cold, to tremble at the frost* 
of the long dreary winter. But the songster took pity upon it, saying 
that from it should spring the eternal joy and comfort of mankind, 
and so he carved himself a new harp from the tender birch-tree's wood. 
For chords he asked the tresses of a beautiful maiden, whom he met 
in the bower waiting for her lover. By means of this golden hair, 
her languishing sighs crept into the instrument, which sounded more 
fascinating than ever the old one did. This restored to the bard the 
full possession of his supernatural power. His success henceforth was 
something unheard of. 

"The following cantos may be regarded as proofs of the influence 
of Christianity upon the epic: A maiden, Mariatta, and a child (the 
Virgin Mary and Christ) came to deprive the bard of his reign. He 
found that his time had come to an end, and he once more took his 
harp. He sang for the last time, and by words of magic power he 
called into existence a copper boat. On this he took his departure, 
passing away over the waste of waters, sailing slowly toward the un- 
fathomable depth of space, bequeathing his harp, as a remembrance 
of him, to his own people for their everlasting bliss. 

' 'The period of musical culture in Finland may be said to have begun 

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447 



about a hunaiea years ago, wlien|in 1790 the first musical society was 
founded by members of the University under the leadership of K. V. 
Salg4. His successor, Fredrik Pacius, was the founder of the national 
musical development, and to him the merit is due of having given the 
Finns their beautiful national anthem. Their enthusiasm knew no 
bounds when, on the solemn never-to-be-forgotten May festival, 1848, 
this song was first heard in the park of Kajsaniemi, near Helsingfors. 
The spontaneous inspiration of the music, borne along and carried away 
by the glowing patriotic spirit of Runeberg's poem 'Wartland,' makes 
the composition immortal. As long as the Finnish nation exists 
'Wartland' shall never lose its magnetism and its elevating sway over 

the hearts of the people." * 

* 

* * 

Let us add to the sketch of Ingman. For much of the information 
about the present condition of music in Finland we are indebted to 
Dr. Karl Flodin, of Helsingfors. 

The national epic, "Kalevala," and the lyric poems known under the 
collective name "Kanteletar" were first transcribed and arranged by 
Elias lyonnrot (1802-84). The first composer who was born in Fin- 
land and made a name for himself was Bernhard Crusell (1775-1838), 
who lived for the most part in Sweden and Germany. A famous 
clarinetist, he set music to Tegner's "Frithjof," and he wrote an opera, 
"Die kleine Sklavin." 

The father of Finnish music was Pacius, to whom reference has 
already been made. His son-in-law. Dr. Karl Collan (1828-71), 
wrote two popular patriotic marches with chorus, "Wasa" and "Sa- 
volaisen laulu." Filip von Schantz (1835-65), conductor, composed 
cantatas, choruses, and songs. Carl Gustaf Wasenius, of Abo, which 
was formerly the capital of Finland, conductor, composer, and director 
of an organ school, died an old man in 1899. Conrad Greve, of Abo, 

* Pacius was'born at Hamburg in 1809; he died at Helsingfors in 1891. A pupil of Spohr, he was an 
excellent violinist, and he was active as composer and conductor. He founded orchestral and choral societies 
at Helsingfors, and was music teacher at the University. His "Kung Carls jakt," produced in 1852, was 
the first native Finnish opera. His opera "Loreley," produced in 1887, was more in accordance with the. 
theories of Wagner. Pacius wrote a lyric "Singspiel," "The Princess of Cyprus," a symphony, a violin con- 
certo, choruses, songs, etc. His hymn, "Suomis Sang" (text by the Finnish poet, Ercul von Qvanten), is, as 
well as his "Wartland" ("Our Country"), a national song. — P. H. 



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448 



who wrote music to Fredrik Berndtson's play, "Out of Life's Struggle," 
died in 1851, and A. G. Ingelius, a song writer of wild talent, died in 
1868. Other song writers were F. A. Ehrstrom (died in 1850), K. J. 
Mohring (died in 1868), teacher and conductor at Helsingfors, Gabriel 
Linsen, born in 1838. 

Richard Falten, born in 1835, succeeded Pacius as music teacher 
at the University of Helsingfors. He founded and conducted a choral 
society; he is an organist and pianoforte teacher. He has composed 
a cantata, choruses, and songs. 

Martin Wegelius, born in 1846, is director of the Music Institute of 
Helsingfors, which is now about twenty years old. Busoni once taught 
at this Institute. Wegelius has composed an overture to Wecksell's 
tragedy, "Daniel Hjort," cantatas, choruses, and he has written trea- 
tises and a "History of Western Music." 

Robert Kajanus, born in 1856, is the father and the conductor of 
the Philharmonic Society of Helsingfors. He has made journeys with 
this orchestra and Finnish singers in Scandinavia, Germany, France, 
and Belgium, and with his symphony chorus he has produced at Hel- 
singfors Beethoven's Mass in D, Berlioz's "Romeo and Juliet" and 
"Damnation of Faust," Bach's Mass in B minor, and other works of 
importance. Among his own compositions are the symphonic poems, 
"Kullervos Trauermarsch " and "Aino," illustrative of subjects in the 
"Kalevala"; Finnish Rhapsodies; an orchestral suite, "Recollections 
of Summer," which are founded on folk-songs or folk-dance rhythms. 

Armas Jarnefelt, born in 1869, has composed orchestral suites, 
symphonic poems, as " Heimat-Klang, " overtures, the prelude "Kors- 



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holm," etc. The death of Ernst Mielck, who died at IvUC9,rno in 1899, 
at the age of twenty-two, was a severe loss, for his orchestral composi- 
tions, among them a symphony, had attracted marked attention. 
Mielck studied in St. Petersburg the pianoforte with Tietzes, and 
studied at Berlin (1890-94) with Erhlich, Radecke, and Bruch. His 
Symphony in F minor. Op. 4, the first Finnish one, was composed in 
1897 and revised in 1899 for Dresden. He also wrote a " Dramatic" 
overture, Op. 6, a Fantasia for pianoforte with orchestra, Op. 9, a 
" Finnish suite," Op. 10, for orchestra, and other works of merit. He 
left in manuscript an overture to " Macbeth," Op. 2, and a violin Con- 
certo in D major, Op. 8. His music, as a rule, was intended to illustrate 
Finnish life and to glorify his country. Oskar Merikanto, born in 
1868, has composed an opera, "The Maiden of Pohja," * and songs; 
Erik Melartin, born in 1875, who studied under Wegelius and after- 
ward at Vienna and in Italy, has written songs and a Symphony in 
C minor, which was played at Helsingfors in a revised form in the 
season of 1905-06. Dr. Ilmari Krohn, a music teacher at the Uni- 
versity, has composed motets and instrumental works; Emil Genetz, 
born in 1852, has written choruses for male voices, among them the 
patriotic hymn, "Heraa Suomi!" ("Awake, O Finland!"); and Selim 
Palmgren, born in 1878, has composed songs and pianoforte pieces, 
among them a concerto produced at Helsingfors in the season of 
1904-05. Karl Flodin, the most distinguished music critic of Finland, 
born in 1858, has composed: " Helen," a dramatic scene from Goethe's 

* " Pohian Reito" was performed at Wiborgjin June, 1908, and has been announced for performance at 
Helsingfors. 

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Mrs. Avonia Bonney Lichfield 

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TEACHER OF SINGING 

According to the method of the old Italian masters of singing. A pupil 
of the last of these masters, Gerli, of Milan. 

Mrs* Lichfield refers to Mr. Louis C. Elson's remarks in the Boston 
Daily Advertiser about her distingushed pupil. Miss 

Charlotte Qrosvenor 

as Juliette in Gounod's 

"Romeo et Juliette" 

Yesterday the performance of "Romeo et Juliette" was chiefly 
memorable because of the debut of a new Juliette. Two years ago we 
listened to the work of Miss Charlotte Grosvenor in concert with much 
pleasure and predicted at least a chance of an operatic career for 
the young singer. She is a pupil of Mrs. Avonia Bonney Lichfield, 
who was herself an operatic singer of renown, and who seems singu- 
larly successful in imparting her knowledge to those who study under 
her. Miss Grosvenor deserves especial attention as being an Ameri- 
can singer, trained in America, a living proof that it is not always 
necessary to take the voyage to Italy before treading the operatic 
boards. In passing judgment upon the young debutante two points 
must be kept in mind. She was hampered in some degree by the 
inequality of the support which was sometimes overweighted in the 
Gounod masterpiece. Secondly, it is not possible to attain one's very 
best when the results of years of training are focussed into one single 
occasion. We do not believe in triumphant operatic debuts — they 
are impossible. A little allowance must always be made for the 
abnormal situation. Miss Grosvenor certainly required only the 
minimum of allowances on this occasion. She acted and sang with 
almost veteran ease and "gewandheit." Her Waltz in the first act 
(her opening number) was as delicate and as easily sung as possible. 
There was not a trace of nervousness in her work and the action was 
without any of the stiffness of the amateur. Her vocal work was 
definitely in advance of her histrionic ability, but the latter can only 
come with acquaintance with the stage. The audience was a very 
brilliant one, evidently drawn by interest in the debutante. At the 
end of the first act there was a long procession of flower-bearers carry- 
ing public tribute to the new Juliette. These things, however, do not 
make a true success. It is far more to the purpose that Miss Gros- 
venor sang without a flaw of intonation and that there was a sym- 
pathetic quality in her voice that was quite in keeping with the char- 
acter of the Shakespearian heroine. The balcony scene was very 
near to perfection. The heroine rose to the occasion, and there is no 
doubt but that Mrs. Lichfield (the teacher of Miss Grosvenor) has 
here launched a sterling prima donna, and to her and to the new Juliette 
all good wishes may be extended. 

Louis C. Ei^son. 

461 



" Faust," for soprano and orchestra; " Cortege," for wind instruments; 
" Sommemacht, " for mixed chorus; " Auf der Fraueninsel, " for male 
chorus; stage music for Hauptmann's "Hannele, " etc. 

Wegelius, Kajanus, Krohn, and Merikanto studied at I^eipsic, and 
Kajanus with Svendsen when the latter was living at Paris. Jarnefelt 
studied with Massenet, 

* * 

Finnish singers. Johanna von Schoultz in the thirties of the last 
century sang successfully in European cities, but she fell sick, left the 
stage, and died alone and forgotten in her native land. Ida Basilier, 
an operatic coloratura singer, now lives in Norway. Emma Strommer- 
Achte, herself a successful singer, is the mother of Aino Achte (or 
Ackte) , formerly of the Paris Opera and of the Metropolitan, New' York. 
Aino was born at Helsingfors, April 23, 1876, studied at the Paris 
Conservatory, where she took the first prize for opera in 1897, and 
made her debut as Marguerite at the Opera, Paris, October 8, 1897.* 
Her younger sister Irma is also a singer of reputation in Europe. 
Emma Engdahl-Jagerskold created the part of Loreley in Pacius's 
opera, and has sung in Germany. Alma Fohstrom-Rode,t a member of 
the Moscow opera, has sung in other countries, especially in Germany. 
Elin Fohstrom-Tallqvist, a coloratura singer, is her sister. Hortense 
Synnerberg, mezzo-soprano, has sung in Italy and Russia. J Maikki 
Jarnefelt is known in German opera-houses, and Ida Ekman is engaged 
at Nuremberg. Adee Ivcander-Flodin, once of the Opera-Comique 
Paris,: has made concert trips in Scandinavia and South America 
Filip Forsten became a teacher m Vienna, Hjalmar Frey is a member 
of the Court Opera of St. Petersburg, and Abraham Ojanpera now 
teaches at the Music Institute of Helsingfors. 

Karl Ekman and Mrs. Sigrid Sundgren-Schneevoigt are pianists of 

* Aino Ackte appeared with the Metropolitan Opera House Company at the Boston Theatre in 1904 as 
Elsa (April 4), Juliet (April 9). Marguerite (April 13), Elisabeth (April 14). 

t Alma Fohstrom made her first appearance in the United States at the Academy of Music, New York, 
as Lucia, November 9, 1885. She sang at the Boston Theatre in 1886; Zerlina in "Fra Diavolo," January 
5,13; Maritana (in Italian), January 7; Margherita La Goimod's" Faust," January 11; and Martha in Flotow'i 
opera, January i5. She also sang in a Sunday night operatic concert. 

t A Mme. Synnerberg visited Boston in March, 1890, as a member of the Abbey, Schoeffel and Grau 
Company, and sang the parts of Emilia in Verdi's "Otello" and Azucena. 

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talent, and the husband of the latter, Georg Schn^evoigt, is a violon- 
cellist and a conductor of repute. 

There are many male choruses in Finland. The "Muntra Mu- 
sikanter," led by Gosta Sohlstrom, visited Paris in 1889. A picked 
chorus from the choral societies gave concerts some years ago in Scan- 
dinavia, Germany, and Holland. The churches all have their choir of 
mixed voices and horn septet. At the Music Festival at Helsingfors 
in 1900 about two thousand singers took part. 

Mr. Charles Gregorowitsch, a Russian by birth, for some years con- 
cert-master at Helsingfors, gave a recital in Boston, February 27, 1897, 
and played here at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
December 7, 1901. 



Symphony in A major. No. 7, Op. 92 . . I^udwig van BeiSThovsn 

(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?) 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

The first sketches of this symphony were made by Beethoven prob- 
ably before 181 1 or even 18 10. Several of them in the sketch-book 
that belonged to Petter of Vienna, and was analyzed by Nottebohm, 
were for the first movement. Two sketches for the famous allegretto 
are mingled with phrases of the Quartet in C major. Op. 59, No. 3, 
dedicated in 1808 to Count Rasoumoffsky. One of the two bears the 
title: "Anfang. Variations." There is a sketch for the Scherzo, first 
in F major, then in C major, with the indication: "Second part." An- 
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ginning of the "Dance of Peasants" in the Pastoral Symphony, for 

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which reason it was rejected. In one of the sketches for the Finale 
Beethoven wrote: "Goes at first in F-sharp minor, then in C-sharp 
minor." He preserved this modulation, but he did not use the theme 
to which the indication was attached. Another motive in the Finale 
as sketched was the Irish air, "Nora Creina," for which he wrote an 
accompaniment at the request of George Thomson, the collector of 
Scottish, Welsh, and Irish melodies. 

Thayer states that Beethoven began the composition of the Seventh 
Symphony in the spring of 1812. Prod'homme believes that the work 
was begun in the winter of 1811-12. The autograph manuscript that 
belongs to the Mendelssohn family of Berlin bears the inscription: 
"Sinfonie. L. v. Bthvn 1812 i3ten M." A clumsy binder cut the 
paper so that only the first line of the M is to be seen. There was 
therefore a dispute as to whether the month were May, June, or July. 
Beethoven wrote to Varena on May 8, 181 2: "I promise you imme- 
diately a wholly new symphony for the next Academy, and, as I now 
have opportunity, the copying will not cost you a heller." He wrote 
on July 19: "A new symphony is now ready. As the Archduke Ru- 
dolph will have it copied, you will be at no expense in the matter.'' 
It is generally believed that the symphony was completed May 13, 
in the hope that it would be performed at a concert of Whitsuntide. 

Other works composed in 181 2 were the Eighth Symphony, a piano- 
forte trio in one movement (B-fiat major), three equale for four trom- 
bones, the sonata in G major for pianoforte and violin. Op. 96, some of 
the Irish and Welsh melodies for Thomson. 

The score of the symphony was dedicated to the Count Moritz von 
Fries and published in 181 6. The edition for the pianoforte was 
dedicated to the Tsarina Elizabeth Alexiewna of All the Russias. 




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The first performance of the symphony was at Vienna, in the large 
hall of the University, on December 8, 1813. 

Malzel, the famous maker of automata, exhibited in Vienna during the 
winter of 181 2-13 his automatic trumpeter and panharmonicon. 
The former played a French cavalry march with calls and tunes; the 
latter was composed of the instruments used in the ordinary military 
band of the period, — trumpets, drums, flutes, clarinets, oboes, cymbals, 
triangle, etc. The keys were moved by a cylinder, and overtures by 
Handel and Cherubini and Haydn's Military Symphony were played 
with ease and precision. Beethoven planned his "Wellington's Sieg," 
or "Battle of Vittoria," for this machine. Malzel made arrangements 
for a concert, — a concert "for the benefit of Austrian and Bavarian 
soldiers disabled at the battle of Hanau." 

This Johann Nepomuk Malzel (Malzl) was bom at Regensburg, August 
15, 1772. He was the son of an organ-builder. In 1792 he settled at 
Vienna as a music teacher, but he soon made a name for himself by 
inventing mechanical music works. In 1808 he was appointed court 
mechanician, and in 181 6 he constructed a metronome, though Winkel 
of Amsterdam, claimed the idea as his. Malzel also made ear- trumpets, 
and Beethoven tried them, as he did others. His life was a singular 
one, and the accounts of it are contradictory. Two leading French 
biographical dictionaries insist that Malzel's "brother Leonhard" 
invented the mechanical toys attributed to Johann, but they are wholly 
wrong. Fetis and one or two others state that he took the panhar- 
monicon with him to the United States in 1826, and sold it at Boston 
to a society for four hundred thousand dollars, — an incredible statement. 
No wonder that the Count de Pontecoulant, in his "Organographie," 
repeating the statement, adds, "I think there is an extra cipher." But 
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at New York, F'ebruary 3, 1826, and the Ship News announced the 
arrival of "Mr. Maelzel, Professor of Music and Mechanics, inventor 
of the Panharmonicon and the Musical Time Keeper." He brought 
with him the famous automata, — the Chess Player, the Austrian 
Trumpeter, and the Rope Dancers, — and he opened an exhibition of 
them at the National Hotel, 112 Broadway, April 13, 1826. The 
Chess Player was invented by Wolfgang von Kempelen. Malzel 
bought it at the sale of von Kempelen's effects after the death of the 
latter, at Vienna, and made unimportant improvements. The Chess 
Player had strange adventures. It was owned for a time by Eugene 
Beauharnais, when he was viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, and Malzel 
had much trouble in getting it away from him. Malzel gave an ex- 
hibition in Boston at Julien Hall, on a corner of Milk and Congress 
Streets. The exhibition opened September 13, 1826, and closed 
October 28 of that year. He visited Boston again in 1828 and in 1833. 
On his second visit he added "The Conflagration of Moscow," a pano- 
rama, which he sold to three Bostonians for six thousand dollars. 
Hence, probably, the origin of the parharmonicon legend. He also 
exhibited an automatic violoncellist. Malzel died on the brig "Otis" 
on his way from Havana to Philadelphia on July 21, 1838, and he was 
buried at sea, off Charleston. The United States Gazette published his 
eulogy, and said, with due caution: "He has gone, we hope, where the 






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459 



music of his Harmonicons will be exceeded." The Chess Player was 
destroyed by fire in the burning of the Chinese Museum at Philadelphia. 
July 5, 1854. A most interesting and minute account of Malzel's life 
in America, written by George Allen, is published in the "Book of the 
•First American Chess Congress," pp. 420-484 (New York, 1859). See 
also "Metronome de Maelzel" (Paris, 1833); the "History of the 
Automatic Chess Player," published by George S. Hilliard, Boston, 
1826; Mendel's "Musikalisches Conversations- Lexicon." In Poe's 
fantastical "Von Kempelen and his Discovery" the description of his 
Kempelen, of Utica, N.Y., is said by some to fit Malzel, but Poe's story 
was probably not written before 1848. Poe's article, "Maelzel's Chess 
Player," a remarkable analysis, was first published in the Southern 
Literary Messenger of April, 1836. Portions of this article other than 
those pertaining to the analysis were taken by Poe from Sir David 
Brewster's "Lectures on Natural Magic." 

The arrangements for this charity concert were made in haste, for 
several musicians of reputation were then, as birds of passage, in Vienna, 
and they wished to take parts. Among the distinguished executants 
were Salieri and Hummel, two of the first chapel-masters of Vienna, 
who looked after the cannon in "Wellington's Sieg"; the young 
Meyerbeer, who beat the bass drum and of whom Beethoven said 
to Tomaschek : ' ' Ha ! ha ! ha ! I was not at all satisfied with him ; he 
never struck on the beat ; he was always too late, and I was obliged to 
speak to him rudely. Ha ! ha ! ha ! I could do nothing with him ; he 
did not have the courage to strike on the beat!" Spohr and Mayseder 
were seated at the second and third violin desks, and Schuppanzigh 
was the concert-master; the celebrated Dragonetti was among the 
double-basses. Beethoven conducted. 

The programme was as follows: "A brand-new symphony," the 



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Seventh, in A major, by Beethoven ; two marches, oiie by Dussek, the 
other by Pleyel, played by Malzel's automatic trumpeter with full 
orchestral accompaniment; "Wellington's Sieg, oder die Schlacht bei 
Vittoria." "Wellington's Sieg" was completed in October of 1 813 to 
celebrate the victory of Wellington over the French troops in Spain on 
June 21 of that year. Malzel had persuaded Beethoven to compose 
the piece for his panharmonicon, and furnished material for it, and had 
even given him the idea of using "God save the King" as the subject 
of a lively fugue. Malzel's idea was to produce the work at concerts, 
so as to raise money enough for him and Beethoven to go to London. 
He was a shrewd fellow, and saw that, if the "Battle Symphony" were 
scored for orchestra and played in Vienna with success, an arrangement 
for his panharmonicon would then be of more value. Beethoven 
dedicated the work to the Prince Regent, afterward George IV., and 
forwarded a copy to him, but the "First Gentleman in Europe" never 
acknowledged the compliment. "Wellington's Sieg" was not per- 
formed in London until February 10, 1815, when it had a great run. 
The news of this success pleased Beethoven very much. He made a 
memorandum of it in the note-book which he carried with him to 
taverns. 

This benefit concert was brilliantly successful, and there was a 
repetition of it December 1 2 with the same prices of admission, ten and 
five florins. The net profit of the two performances was four thousand 
six gulden. Spohr tells us that the new pieces gave "extraordinary 
pleasure, especially the symphony; the wondrous second movement 
was repeated at each concert; it made a deep, enduring impression on 
me. The performance was a masterly one, in spite of the uncertain and 
often ridiculous conducting by Beethoven." Gloggl was present at a 
rehearsal when the violinists refused to play a passage in the symphony. 



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Mr. George Hamlin * Miss Geraldine Morgan 

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462 



and declared that it could not be played. ' ' Beethoven told them to take 
their parts home and practise them ; then the passage would surely go," 
It was at these rehearsals that Spohr saw the deaf composer crouch 
lower and lower to indicate a long diminuendo, and rise again and spring 
into the air when he demanded a climax. And he tells of a pathetic 
yet ludicrous blunder of Beethoven, who could not hear his own soft 
passages. 

The Chevalier Ignaz von Seyfried told his pupil Krenn that at a 
rehearsal of the symphony, hearing discordant kettledrums in a passage 
of the Finale and thinking that the copyist had made a blunder, he said 
circumspectly to the composer: "My dear friend, it seems to me there 
is a mistake: the drums are not in tune." Beethoven answered: 
"I did not intend them to be." But the truth of this tale has been 
disputed. 

Beethoven was delighted with his success, so much so that he wrote 
a public letter of thanks to all that took part in the two performances. 
"It is Malzel especially who merits all our thanks. He was the first 
to conceive the idea of the concert, and it was he that busied himself 
actively with the organization and the ensemble in all the details. I 
owe him special thanks for having given me the opportunity of offering 
my compositions to the public use and thus fulfilling the ardent vow 
made by me long ago of putting the fruits of my labor on the altar of the 
country." 

The symphony was repeated in Vienna on February 27, 18 14. On 
November 29 of that year it was performed with a new cantata, "Der 
glorreiche Augenblick," composed in honor of the Congress at Vienna 
and "Wellington's Sieg." The Empress of Austria, the Tsarina of 
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was repeated for Beethoven's benefit on December 2, but the hall was 
half empty. 

* * 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Boston 
Academy, November 25, 1843. 

The first performance in New York was at a concert of the Phil- 
harmonic Society, November 18, 1843, when Mr. U. C. Hill conducted. 

The first performance in Leipsic was on December 12, 1816. The 
symphony was repeated "by general request" on April 23, 1817, and a 
third soon followed. Yet Friedrich Wieck, the father of Clara Schu- 
mann, could find nothing in the music, and he declared that musicians, 
critics, amateurs, and frankly unmusical persons were unanimous in 
the opinion that this symphony, especially the first movement and the 
finale, had been composed in a lamentable state of drunkenness {trun- 
kenen Zustand) ; it lacked melody, etc. 

Other first performances: London, June 9, 181 7 (Philharmbnic So- 
ciety). Only the allegretto found favor with the critics. Paris, — the 
allegretto was performed at the Concerts Spirituels of the Opera in 182 1, 
and it was substituted for the larghetto of the Second Symphony, in D 
major. In 1828 the Seventh Symphony, as a whole, was played in a 
transcription for the pianoforte, eight hands, April 20, by Bertini (the 
transcriber), Liszt, Sowinski, and Schunke. The first orchestral per- 
formance of the whole was by the Societe des Concerts, March i, 1829, 
under the direction of Habeneck. St. Petersburg, March 6, 1840. Mos- 
cow, December 28, i860. In Italy the Societa orchestrale romana per- 
formed the symphony seven times during the years 1874-98. 

The symphony has been played at Colonne concerts in Paris twenty 
times from February 8, 1874, to December, 1905. It has been played 
thirty-five times at Lamoureux concerts in Paris from October 23, 1881, 



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to March 17, 1906. The symphony was "danced" by Miss Isadora 
Duncan at the Trocadero, Paris, in 1904, when Mr. Laporte conducted 
Colonne's orchestra. 



* 



Beethoven gave a name, "Pastoral," to his Sixth Symphony. He 
went so far as to sketch a simple programme, but he added this caution 
for the benefit of those who are eager to find in music anything or 
everything except the music itself: "Rather the expression of the re- 
ceived impression than painting." Now the Seventh Symphony is a 
return to absolute music, the most elevated, the most abstract. 

Yet see what commentators have found in this same Seventh Sym- 
phony. 

One finds a new pastoral symphony; another, a new "Eroica." 
Alberti is sure that it is a description of the joy of Germany delivered 
from the French yoke. Nohl shakes his head and swears it is a knightly 
festival. Marx is inclined to think that the music describes a Southern 
race, brave and war-like, such as the ancient Moors of Spain. An old 
edition of the symphony gave this programme : ' 'Arrival of the Villagers ; 
Nuptial Benediction; The Bride's Procession; The Wedding Feast. 
Did not Schumann discover in the second movement the marriage cere- 
mony of a village couple? D'Oftigue found that the andante pictured 
a procession in an old cathedral or in the catacombs; while Diirenberg, 
a more cheerful person, prefers to call it the love-dream of a sumptuous 
odalisque. The Finale has many meanings: a battle of giants or war- 
riors of the North returning to their country after the fight ; a feast of 
Bacchus or an orgy of villagers after a wedding. OulibicheflF goes so 
far as to say that Beethoven portrayed in this Finale a drunken revel, 
to express the disgust excited in him by such popular recreations. Even 
Wagner writes hysterically about this symphony as "the apotheosis of 
the dance," and he reminds a friend of the "Stromkarl" of Sweden, 
who knows eleven variations, and mortals should dance to only ten of 
them: the eleventh belongs to the Night spirit and his crew, and, if 
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465 



the blind and lame, yea, the children in the cradle, fall to dancing. 
"The last movement of the Seventh Symphony," says Wagner, "is this 
eleventh variation." 

In these days the first question asked about absolute music is, "What 
does it mean?" The symphonic poem is free and unbridled in choice 
of subject and purpose. The composer may attempt to reproduce in 
tones the impression made on him by scenery, picture, book, man, 
statue. He is "playing the plate," like the sesthete-pianist in Punch. 

But why should anything be read into the music of this Seventh Sym- 
phony? It may be that the Abbe Stadler was right in saying that the 
theme of the trio in the third movement is an old pilgrim hymn of 
Lower Austria, but the statement is of only antiquarian interest. 

To them that wish to read the noblest and most poetic appreciation 
of the symphony, the essay of Berlioz will bring unfailing delight. 
Such music needs no analysis: it escapes the commentator. As the 
landscape is in the eye of the beholder, so the symphony is in the ear 

of the hearer. 

* 
* * 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings. 

I. The first movement opens with an Introduction, poco sostenuto, 
A major, 4-4. A melodic phrase is given to the oboe, then clarinets, 
horns, bassoons, against crashing chords of the full orchestra. This 
figure is worked contrapuntally against alternate ascending scale 
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A more melodious motive, a slow and delicate dance theme, is given 
out by wood-wind instruments, then repeated by the strings, while 
double-basses, alternating with oboe and bassoon, maintain a rhythmic 
accompaniment. (A theme of the first movement is developed out of 
this rhythmic figure, and some go so far as to say that all the movements 
of this symphony are in the closest relationship with this same figure.) 
The initial motive is developed by the whole orchestra fortissimo, A 
major; there is a repetition of the second theme, F major; and a 
short coda leads to the main portion of the movement. 

This main body. Vivace, A major, 6-8, is distinguished by the per- 
sistency of the rhythm of the "dotted triplet." The tripping first 
theme is announced, piano, by wood-wind instruments and horns, 
accompanied by the strings. It is repeated by the full orchestra 
fortissimo. The second theme, of like rhythm and hardly distin- 
guishable from the first, enters piano in the strings, C-sharp minor, 
goes through E-flat major in the wood-wind to E major in the full 
orchestra, and ends quietly in C major. The conclusion theme is 
made up of figures taken from the first. The first part of the movement 
is repeated. The free fantasia is long and elaborate. The third 
section is in orthodox relationship with the first, although the first 
theme is developed at greater length. The coda is rather long. 

II. Allegretto, A minor, 2-4. The movement begins with a solemn 
first theme played in harmony by violas, violoncellos, and double- 
basses. The strongly marked rhythm goes almost throughout the 
whole movement. The second violins take up the theme, and violas 
and violoncellos sing a counter-theme. The first violins now have the 

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chief theme, while the second violins play the counter- theme. At 
last wood-wind instruments and horns sound the solemn, march-like 
motive, and the counter-theme is given to the first violins. The 
rhythm of the accompaniment grows more and more animated with 
the entrance in turn of each voice. A tuneful second theme, A major, 
is given to wood-wind instruments against arpeggios for the first violins, 
while the persistent rhythm is kept up by the basses. There is a 
modulation to C major, and a short transition passage leads to the 
second part. This is a repetition of the counter-theme in wood-wind 
instruments against the first theme in the basses and figuration for the 
other strings. There is a short fugato on the same theme, and the 
second theme enters as before. There is a short coda. 

III. The third movement. Presto, F major, 3-4, is a brilliant scherzo. 
The theme of the trio, assai meno presto, D major, 3-4, is said to be that 
of an old pilgrim hymn in I^ower Austria. "This scherzo in F major 
is noteworthy for the tendency the harmony has to fall back into the 
principal key of the symphony, A major." A high-sustained A runs 
through the trio. 

IV. The Finale, Allegro con brio, A major, 2-4, is a wild rondo on two 
themes. Here, according to Mr. Prod'homme and others, as Beethoven 
achieved in the Scherzo the highest and fullest expression of exuberant 
joy, — "unbuttoned joy," as the composer himself would have said, — 
so in the Finale the joy becomes orgiastic. The furious, bacchantic 
first theme is repeated after the exposition, and there is a sort of coda 
to it, "as a chorus might follow upon the stanzas of a song." There is 
imitative contrapuntal development of a figure taken from the bacchan- 



Miss FRANCES L THOMAS 



.. Corsetiere .. 



BERKELEY BUILDING - BOSTON, MASS. 




468 



tic theme. A second theme of a more delicate nature is announced by 
the strings and then given to wind instruments. There are strong 
accents in this theme, accents emphasized by full orchestra, on the 
second beat of the measure. Brilliant passage-work of the orchestra, 
constantly increasing in strength, includes a figure from the first theme. 
There is a repeat. The first theme is then developed in an elaborate 
manner, but the theme itself returns, so that the rondo character is 
presei-ved. There is a return to the first theme in A major. The third 
part of the movement is practically a repetition of the first, but the 
second theme is now in A minor. There is a long coda with a develop- 
ment of the figure from the first theme over a bass which changes from 
E to D-sharp and back again. The concluding passage of the theme 
is used fortissimo, and the movement ends with a return of the con- 
spicuous figure from the main theme. 



* * 



Richard Wagner, in "The Art Work of the Future": "To give his 




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Until after alterations in *be Oak Orove 
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469 



tone-shapes that same compactness, that directly cognisable and 
physically sure stability, whiclj he had witnessed with such blessed 
solace in Nature's own phenomena — this was the soul of the joyous 
impulse which created for us that glorious work, the Symphony in 
A major. All tumult, all yearning and storming of the heart, become 
here the blissful insolence of joy, which snatches us away with bac- 
chanalian might and bears us through the roomy space of Nature, 
through all the streams and seas of Life, shouting in glad self-con- 
sciousness as we tread throughout the Universe the daring measures of 
this human sphere-dance. This symphony is the Apotheosi of Dance 
herself: it is Dance in her highest aspect, as it were the loftiest Deed 
of bodily motion incorporated in an ideal mould of tone. Melody and 
Harmony unite around the sturdy bones of Rhythm to firm and fleshy 
human shapes, which now with giant limbs' agility, and now with 
soft, elastic pliance, almost before our very eyes, close up the supple, 
teeming ranks; the while now gently, now with daring, now serious,* 
now wanton, now pensive, and again exulting, the deathless strain 
sounds forth and forth; until, in the last whirl of delight, a kiss of 
triumph seals the last embrace"! — Englished by William S. Ellis. 

* 
* * 

Miss Isadora Duncan, assisted by the Symphony Orchestra of New 

York, Mr. Walter Damrosch conductor, danced the Seventh Symphony in 

the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, November 6, 1908. While 

Mr. H. E. Krehbiel in the Tribune of November 7 deplored the fact that 

* Amid the solemn -striding rhythm of the second section, a secondary theme uplifts its wailing, yearning 
song ; to that rhythm, which shows its firm-set tread throughout the entire piece, without a pause, this longiag 
melody clings like the ivy to the oak, which without its clasping of the mighty bole would trail its crumpled, 
straggling wreaths upon the soil, ia forlorn rankness ; but now, while weaving a rich trapping for the rough 
oak-rind, it gains for itself a sure and undishevelled outline from the stalwart figure of the tree. How brain- 
lessly has this deeply significant device of Beethoven been exploited by our modern instrumental-composers 
with their eternal "subsidiary themes"! — R. Wagner. 




470 



this music was chosen to display Miss Duncan's art, he declared that her 
exhibition was "dignified, beautiful, moving," and he made these re- 
marks, which are now pertinent: — 

"The suggestion to use Beethoven's A major symphony as an accom- 
paniment to a pantomimic dance evidently came from Wagner, who 
once, descanting on its superbly rhythmical character, spoke of it as 
the 'apotheosis of the dance, the ideal embodiment in tones of bodily 
movements.' It is not the first time that it has occurred to some one 
to associate a plastically delineative art with Beethoven's symphonic 
music; but heretofore the purpose has been to help to an appreciation 
of the beauty and significance of the music, not to make the music a 
help to an appreciation of the art arbitrarily consorted with it. Years 
ago in Germany the experiment was tried of accompanying the 'Pas- 
toral' symphony with a series of panoramic paintings. The 'Pastoral' 
symphony is programmatic music of a pretty obvious sort, with its 
imitations of nature's voices; but the experiment was a failure be- 
cause the listeners who loved the music did not want to have imagina- 
tion and emotion fettered by the pictures presented to another sense. 
The same objection militates against Miss Duncan's pantomimic inter- 
pretation of the seventh symphony, though in a less degree, perhaps, 
because that interpretation is sufficiently vague to leave the imagina- 
tion free; but it does disturb perfect appreciation of the music which 
is here sufficient unto itself. 

"It is a pleasure to recognize great beauty, exquisite grace and elo- 
quent expressiveness in Miss Duncan's art. It is easy to ridicule her 
claim that she is reviving an art which was cultivated by the Greeks 



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There are Safe Deposit Vaults and Storage Vaults at the Branch Office. 

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Steamship Lines. 

471 



322 



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THE RED GLOVE SHOP 

BOYLSTON STREET 

Opposite Arlington Street 



Announces her opening of Ladies', Gentlemen's, 

and Children's Gloves 

Ladies' Neckwear, Veiling, and Belt, 



SONGS BY 
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Norwegian Love Song 50 

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Album of Six Songs . . . . net i. 00 
Words by F. W. Bourdillon 

1. In an Album. 

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Foreign Books 
Foreign Periodicals 

Tauchnitz's British Authors 



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A and B Park Street, Boston. 



SCHOENHOF BOOK CO. 

128 Tremont St., 2d doornorth of Winter Street 
over Wood's Jewelry Store. (Tel., Oxford 1099-2. 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Programme 

For the twenty-four Boston concerts, with Historical 
and Descriptive Notes by Philip Hale. Bound 
copies of the Programme for the entire season can 
be had at $2.00 by applying before the last concert. 
Address all communications to 

F. R. COMEE, 
Symphony Hall, Boston. 



Mrs. J. M. MORRI SO J^ 

COR^ETvS 

LINGERIE AND FRENCH NECKWEAR 
Exclusive agency for the WADE CORSET 



367 BOYLSTON STREET 



TelepKone, 3142-5 BacR Bay 

472 



two millenniums ago, but one possessed of artistic sensibilities cannot 
see her without feeling some of the enthusiasm which fired the mind of 
Charles Kingsley at the mere imagining of what the ancient dance was 
— 'in which every motion was a word, and rest as eloquent as motion; 
in which every attitude was a fresh motion for a sculptor of the purest 
school, and the highest physical activity was manifested, not, as in 
coarse pantomime, in fantastic bounds and unnatural distortions, but 
in perpetual, delicate modulations of a stately and. self-sustained grace.' 
We can scarcely think of a happier description than this of Miss Duncan's 
art. When applied to so extended a work as a symphony, however, 
it necessarily loses consistency, becomes diffuse. Her notion of Beetho- 
ven's instrumental poem seems to be something like that of Professor 
Ludwig Bischoff, one of the early antagonists of Wagner, and the one 
to whom we owe the phrase 'music of the future.' In a programme 
written more than a generation ago he treated the work very happily 
as a sequel to the 'Pastoral' symphony, conjuring up pictures of the 
autumnal merrymakings of the gleaners and vine-dressers, the tender 
melancholy of a lovelorn youth (here, in the allegretto, is where Miss 
Duncan entered the wordless play yesterday), the pious canticle of joy 
and gratitude for Nature's loveliness and Nature's gifts, and the final 
outburst when 'Joy beckons again and the dance melodies float out upon 
the air and none stands idle ; the ground trembles, joyous shouts sound 
through the merry din and old and young are borne off in the mazes.' 
All this is fanciful, of course, but Miss Duncan made it seem very real 
and natural. Her finale was a classic bacchanale in which there floated 
past the vision scores of the pictures with which ancient art has made 
us familiar, their beauty enhanced by the exquisitely rhythmic move- 
ments of the dancer's bod}'. No doubt there were many who went 
to yesterday's exhibition filled merely with curiosity; if so, they surely 
remained to wonder and admire." 




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FURRIER 

420 BOYLSTON STREET BOSTON, MASS. 
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473 



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474 



Seventh Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 27, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 28, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 



Richard Strauss 



Tone Poem, "Ein Heldenleben " 



Tschaikowsky . 



Concerto for Pianoforte, in B-flat minor. No. i 



Wagner 



Vorsplel and Liebestod from " Tristan und Isolde " 



SOLOIST, 
Mt. OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH. 



475 



Mr. SYDNEY BECKLEY 

THE ENGLISH ELOCUTIONIST 

Now touring the United States, will, on MONDAY EVENING, 
November 30, at 8,15 o'clock, read Tennyson's 



"ENOCH ARDEN 



9f 



assisted by Mr. BENJAMIN LAMBORD, Mosenthal Fellow at Columbia 
University, who will play Richard Strauss' illustrative music. 

Reserved Seats, $1.00 and ^1.50, tickets for which may now be obtained 
at Herrick's or at the Hall. 



SECOND SEASON = . . 1908-1909 

THREE CHAMBER CONCERTS BY THE 

CZERWONKY 

String Quartet 

RICHARD CZERWONKY, First Violin CARL SCHEURER, Viola 

WILLY KRAFT, Second Violin RUDOLF NAGEL, Violoncello 

Wednesday Evenings, December 9, February JO, and March 24 

AT 8.15 O'CLOCK 
PROGRAM for December Ninth 

1. QUARTET, C minor • Beethoven 

2. QUARTET. C major, op. 5 Pogojeff 

(First time in Boston) 

3. QUARTET, C minor H. Kaun 

, (First time in Boston) 

Tickets for the course of three concerts, $2.00 and $3.00 (with reserved seat), may be obtained at the 
hall (Telephone Oxford 1330). 



MONDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 23, J908, at thtce o'clock 
PIANOFORTE RECITAL 

BY 

LOUIS BACHNER 





PROGRAM 




BACH . 


Transcribed for piano by Liszt 


Prelude and Fugue in A minor 


BEETHOVEN 




Sonata in E Major. Op. log 


BRAHMS 




Ballade. Op. ii8 


SCHUMANN . 




Arabesque 


DEBUSSY 




Passepied 


SCRIABINE . 




Poeme d' Amour 
Etude. Op. 8, No. 5 


CHOPIN 




Nocturne in B. Op. 62 

Impromptu in G flat 

Etude in E-flat from Op. 10. 

Etude in C sharp minor from Op. 25 






Scherzo in B-flat minor. Op. 31 



TICKETS, 7Sc„ $1.00, and $1.50 NOW ON SALE AT THE HALL 

THE MASON & HAMLIN PIANOFORTE 
476 



First of a. Series of 

THREE SONATA RECITALS BY 

(Violin and Pianoforte) 

Mr. and Mrs. 
DAVID MANNES 

FRIDAY EVENING, DECEMBER FOURTH, at 8.15 



PROGRAM 



BACH— 1685-1750 
GRIEG— 1843-1907 
NARDINI— 1722-1793 
LEKEU — 1870-1894 



Sonata in E Major 

Sonata in G Major, Op. 13 

Sonata in D Major 

Sonata in G Major 



STEINWAY PIANOFORTE USED 

Tickets for Course of Three Recitals, $3.00, $2.00 Single tickets $ 1 .50, $ 1 .00 

Tickets are now on sale at the Hall 

SONG RECITAL by 

Heinrich Meyn 

THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER lo, AT 8.15 



II. 



III. 





PROGRAM 




Ganymed 




Scbubert 


Kinderwacht 




Schumann 


Aus Meinen Grossen Schmerzen .... 


Franz 


Standchen 




Jensen 


Feldeinsamkeit ( 
Von Ewiger Liebe i 




Brahms 


Abendlied with violin obligate 
Jetzt und Immer 


) 


Hugo Kaun 


Im Zitternden Mondlicht 




Eugen Haile 


Drei Wandrer 




Hans Hermann 


Tryste Noel . 




. Gerrit Smith 


Ballad of the Bony Fiddler 


Willi: 


im G. Hammond 


Ces Deux Yeux [ 
Avec Un Bouquet j 


Sebastian B. Scblesinger 


Vielle Chanson 




Nevin 


Les Deux Amours { 
Un Grand Sommeil Noir \ 




Clayton Johns 


Benvenuto 




. Diaz 


THE STEINWAY PIANO USED 




Mr . COENRAAD V. BOS, Accompanist 





RESERVED SEATS, $1.50, $J.OO, $.75 

Tickets are now on sale at the Hall (Telephone, Oxford 1330) 

477 



CHICKERING HALL 

TUESDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 24, AT 8.15 



PIANOFORTE RECITAL by 

GEORGE COPELAND, Jr. 



PROGRAM 


- 




First Movement of Italian Concerto .... 




Bach 


"Alceste," Caprice sur les airs de Ballet 


. Gliick-Saint-Saens 


Polonaise Op. 44 | 

Valse Op. 34, No. 2 > ..... 

Ballade No. i ) 




Chopin 


Reflets dans I'eau | 

Cortege et air de Danse, first time V . . 

Et la lune descend sur le temple qui fut, first time ) 




Debussy 


Spanish Dances Habanera ..... 




Chabrier 


Alborada del graciosa, first time 


HALL 


Ravel 


TICKETS, $1.50, $1.00, 50c., AT THE 




MASON & HAMLIN PIANO 






CHICKERING HALL 






SATURDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 28 




at 3.30 o'clock 







Beatrice Herford 



IN HER 



Original Monologues 



TICKETS, $1.50, $1, and 75 cents 

On sale at Chickering Hall and Herrick's 

478 



The Cecilia Society 

WALLACE GOODRICH, Conductor 

THIRTY.THIRD SEASON 

First Concert 

Symphony Hall, Wednesday, Dec. 9, 1908, at 8.15 P. n. 
**THE LEGEND OF ST. CHRISTOPHER" 

By Horatio Parker. 

A dramatic work for Chorus, Solo Voices, Orchestra, and Organ 

Soloists: Mrs. Blanche H. Kilduff, Soprano 
Miss Charlotte Williams, Soprano 

Dr. Franklin D. Lawson, Tenor 

Mr. Stephen Townsend, Baritone 

Mr. Reinald Werrenrath, Bass 

Second Concert 

Jordan Hall, Tuesday, February 2, 1909, at 8.15 p.m. 
A PROGRAM OF SHORT WORKS FOR CHORUS 

a capella and with accompaniment 
Soloists to be announced. 



Third Concert 

Jordan Hall, Thursday, flarch 25, 1909, at 8.15 p.m. 
**LA VITA NUOVA" 

By Ermanno Wolf- Ferrari 
{First time in Boston^ 

A cantata based on Dante's poem, for Baritone and Soprano Solos, Chorus, 
Orchestra, Organ and Pianoforte. 

Soloists: Mrs. Frances Dunton Wood, Soprano 

Mr. Earl R. Cartwright, Baritone 



Season ticket subscriptions, at $5 each, will be received at Box Office, 
Symphony Hall. 

479 



The 



Hess -Schroeder 
Quartet 



PROF. WILLY HESS, First Violin 

J. VON THEODOROWICZ, Second Violin 

EMILE FERIR, Viola 

ALWIN SCHROEDER, Violoncello 



At CHICKERING HALL 



Second Concert, December 22 



Tickets, ^1.50, $1.00, and 50 cents, on sale at Symphony Hall. 




THE 

KNEISEL QUARTET 

FRANZ KNEISEL, Frm n^Hn LOUIS SVECENSKI, F10/4 

JULIUS ROENTGEN, Stand f^iolin WILLEM WILLEKE, riolmulb 

TWENTY-FOURTH SEASON. 1908-1909 

FENWAY COURT 



FIVE CONCERTS 

TUESDAY EVENINGS 



at 8. 1 5 o'clock 




November lo , 


. 1908 


December 8 ... 


1908 


January 5 ... 


. 1909 


February 16 . 


1909 


March 16 . . . 


. 1909 



ASSISTING ARTISTS: 

Miss KATHARINE GOODSON Mr. OSSIP QABRILOWITSCH 

Mr. ERNEST CONSOLO Mr. COURTLANDT PALMER 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE 



PROGRAMME OF THE SECOND CONCERT 

Schumann, R Quartet in A major, Op. 41, No. 3 

Arthur Foote ...... Trio (No. 2) in B-flat major, Op. 65 

Eugene D'Albert . . . Scherzo from Quartet in E-flat major, Op. 1 1 
Grieg, E. ..... . Unfinished Quartet in F major, (Posth) 

ASSISTING ARTIST 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE 



Admission tickets, at $1.00, entitling to a seat, for sale at 

THE BOSTON MUSIC CO. (Q. Schirmer) 
26 and 28 WEST STREET 



481 



CONCERT ANNOUNCEMENTS 

Symphony Hall, Tuesday Evening, November 24, 

KELLOGG, THE BIRD MAN tMb^xJa^"' 

Wonderful discoveries in nature during the past 8 months. 

Bird, Animal, Reptile, and Insect Life portrayed hy moving pictures. 

Tickets, $1.50, $1.00, and 50c., on and after November 16 

Jordan Hall ORGAN RECITAL 

Tuesday Evening, November 24, at 8.15 

WILLIAM WOLSTENHQLME H^otrr' 

ASSISTED BY 

E. BLUM (Tenor) 
PROGRAM 

t. Toccata and Fugue in F . . ... . . . J. S. t ach 

2. Evening Song . . . . . . . . C. E. Bairstow 

( a. Panis angelicus ........ Cesar Franck 

3- ) b. Prayer (Gebet) Hugo Wolf 

' Mr. E. BtuM 

4. Suite Gothique . . . . . . Boellmann 

(Chorale. Minuet. Priere a Notre Dame. Toccata) 

5- {t Kfvaf Toccata in B-flat! Wolstenholme 

6. Benediction Nuptiale ........ A. Hollins 

(rt. Allah G. W.Chadwick 

7. } b. Requiem ......... Arthur Foote 

[c. June ......... Mrs. H. H. A. Beach 

Mr. E. Blum 

S f«. PsstoraleinD ,,«,.,,} . . . Wolstenholme 

( b. Intermezzo and Y male from Sonata m F I 
9. Extemporization. 

Tickets, $i.oo, 75c., and 50c., at Symphony Hall 

Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, November 30 

AT THREE 
CDilCOT eOUCI I lilf^ ONLY PIANO RECITAL IN 

tKNtol OuHtLLINu boston this year 

Tickets, 5S1.50, $1.00, and 50c., at Symphony Hall 

Symphony Hall, Saturday Afternoon, December 12, 
1908, at 2.30 

MME. GEGILE GHAMINADE ^^p^n^st 

ASSISTED BY 

Mile. YVONNE DE ST. ANDRE, Mezzo-soprano, and 

Mr. ERNEST GROOM, Baritone 

Tickets, $2.00, $1.50 and $1.00 Public sale opens Friday, December 4 

MAIL ORDERS for the above concerts, accompanied by check or 
money order, and addressed to L. H, Mudgett, Symphony Hall, 
filled in order of receipt and as near the desired location as 
possible, prior to public sale. 



482 



SUNDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 13 

AT EIGHT 



CONCERT 



BY THE 



BOSTON 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

IN AID OF ITS 



PENSION_ FUND 

PROGRAMME AND FURTHER DETAILS LATER 

Geo. Lincoln Parker 
PIANOS 

The Krakauer, "the Piano with a Human Voice." 
The Sohmer-Cecilian 88 note Player, the acme of 

Player construction. 
"Connorized" guaranteed music for Player-Pianos. 
Catalogs on postal card request. 



GEO. LINCOLN PARKER 

213 TREMONT STREET 



Near Majestic Theatre 

4S3 



The Lekeu Club 

MR. GEORGE COPELAND, Jr., Piano MR. FREDERICK MAHN, 1st Violin 

MR. HANDASYD CABOT, Violoncello MR ALFRED GIETZEN, Viola 

FRANK CURRIER, 2nd Violin 

Will give Three Concerts on Sunday Afternoons at 4 o'clock 

November 29th, December 20th, and January 1 7th 

AT POTTER HALL 

Each program will be shorter than is customary, about one hour and twenty minutes, and 
will include one group of solo pieces. 

Subscription tickets for the Series, ;?3.oo for two reserved seats ; single tickets 75 cents each, are on sale at 
Symphony Hall and the Boston Music Co., 26 West Street. 

THE MASON & HAiWLIN PIANO 



HUNTINGTON CHAMBERS HALL 
rOR RECITALS 
30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE 



JORDAN HALL 
Thursday Evening, December 10, at 8.15 

PIANOFORTE RECITAL 

BY 

CHARLES ANTHONY 

PROGRAM 

SONATA IN G MINOR • • Chopin 

TWO CHORALS • Bach 

Arranged for piano by Max Reger 

VARIATIONS ON A THEME BY BACH Max Reger 

IMPROVISATION ) 

I MacDowell 

THE JOY OF AUTUMN ) 

SCHERZO, C SHARP MINOR Chopin 

Tickets on sale at Jordan Hall Box Office. 

Management of Ralph L. Flanders. 
484 



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as moderate as can be found anywhere for the same grade of goods. 

BOSTON'S EXCLUSIVE WALL PAPER SHOP 

116=120 SUnnER STREET 



HOTEL RENNERT 

BALTIMORE, MD. 




Within one square of the shopping dis- 
trict. 

The standard hotel of the South. 

The cuisine of this hotel has made 
Maryland cooking famous. 

The only hotel in the world where the 
Chesapeake Bay products, Fish, Oysters, 
Terrapin, and Canvas-back Duck, are 
prepared in their perfection. 



MODERN IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

Rooms, $1.50 per day and upwards Fire-proof building 



486 



POTTER HALL 

Next Monday Evening, November 23, at 8.15 



FIRST CONCERT 

OF 

Chamber Music for Wind Instruments 



BY 



The LONGY CLUB 



(Ninth Season) 



... PROGRAMME... 



No. I. FALCONI . . Sextet for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon, 

and piano 

No. 2. HAENDEL . Concerto for Oboe with strings accompaniment 



No. 3. CAPLET Suite Persane for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 horns, 
and 2 bassoons 



Mr. MAX FIEDLER, Conductor, ASSISTING 



Tickets now on sale at Box Office, Symphony Hall. 
Season tickets for the three concerts, four dollars. 
Single tickets, $1.50. 



PIANO, MASON and HAMLIN 
4S6 



MUMCAL INSTRUCTION. 



Miss HARRIET S. WHITTM, 



VOCAL INSTRUCTION and 

SOPRANO SOLOIST. 
Studio, 246 Huntington Avenue. 

Exponent of the method of the late Charles R. Adams. 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Mondays. 



Mr. CHARLES B. STEVENS. 



TEACHER OF SI/NGING. 

STUDIOS, 

Suite 14, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 

Telephone, 133 1 Oxford. 

Miss Harriettk C. Wbscott, 

Accompanist and Assistant Teacher. 



Iss MORA HAWKINS, 



PIA/NIST. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

No. 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Miss CAROLINE!. SOUTHARD, 

TEACHER OF THE PIANOFORTE. 



Classes in Sight Reading 

(EIGHT HANDS). 

Advanced pupils follow the Symphony programmes 
as far as practicable. 

165 Huntington Avenue - Boston 



Miss GERTRUDE EDMANDS, 



Concert and Oratorio. 

Vocal Instruction. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue. 



Mrs. HALL MCALLISTER, 



TEACHER of Si/NGING. 

407 Pierce Building, 
COPLEY SQUARE. 

Musical IVIanaqement. 



Miss ELEANOR BRIGHAM, 



Pianist and TeacHer. 



Trinity Court. 



Mr. BERNHARD LISTEMANN'S 

IVfaster School for Violinists. 



Training to competent teachers prin- 
cipal aim. Ensemble lessons. 
OFFICE 
703 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE. 

Hours: Monday and Thursday, from i p.m. 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, 9 to i and 2 to 4. 



Miss JOSEPHINE COLLIER, 



PIANIST and TEACHER, 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY STREET. 



487 



Iss GLARA E. HUNGER, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

« 

Century Building, 
177 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 



Walter E. Loud— Violin. 
Pupil of Ysaye. 



32 Batavia Street. 



Hiss Bertha Wesselhoelt Swift, 



Soprano Soloist^ 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
Studio, TRINITY COURT, Boston. 

Miss Swift is ready to give her children's programs 
before clubs, church societies, and in private houses 



Miss LUCY CLARK ALLEN, 



Pianoforte Lessons. 

Accompaniments. 

LANG STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Hr.SAMDELJ.MacWATTERS, 

Professor of Voice Building in 
Boston University. 



VOICE PLACING, 

Development of Tone and 
Resonance. 

72 MOUNT VERNON STREET. 



Mis. LUGIA GALE BARBER, 



Rhythm applied to Physical and Per- 
sonal Development, 
Music Interpretation, 
Lectures and Instruction. 

The Ludlow, Copley Sq., Boston. 



KARL DOERING, 



TENOR= BARITONE. 

Pupil of Professor J achman- Wagner, Berlin, and 
Professor Galliera, Milan, Italy. 

Training and Finishing of Voice. 

School for Grand Opera and Oratorio. 
STE INERT HALL, ROOM 27. 

Open Monday, October 12. Send for new Prospectus 



BERTHA GUSHING CHILD, 



38 BABCOCK ST., BROOKLINE. 

TEACHING AT 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY ST., BOSTON. 



MARY B. SAWYER, 

Leschetizky Method. 



PIANO AND HARMONY. 

For four years Pupil and Authorized Assistant of 

Frau VARETTE STEPANOFF, 

BERLIN, GERMANY. 

Studio, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 



488 



PiANiSTEand TEACHER. 

Mrs. CAROLYN KING BDHT, h™-- ^ c"™^'-. 



BOSTON. 



Miss REN& I. BISBEE, 



TEACHER OF PIANO, 

LANG STUDIOS, 
6 NEWBURY STREET. 



LDCY FRANCES GERRISH, 



PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION. 

GERRISH STUDIO, 
140 Boylston Street . . . Boston. 



EDITH LYNWOOD WINN 



LECTURE-RECITALS 



, , „ ^ , „ . This season, Russian, Hungarian, 17th 

Normal and Teachers' Courses for ^^^ i8th Century Music. 

Viohn. 

Children's classes at special rates TRINITY COURT . . BOSTON. 



The Guckenberger School of 
Mosic. 



Piano, Voice, Violin (and all orchestral 
instruments), Theory, Musical Analysis, 
Analytical Harmony, Composition, Score 
Reading, Chorus and Orchestral Con- 
ducting. 
B. GUCKENBERGER, Director. 30 Huntington Avenue . . Boston 



HENRY T. WADE. 



Teacher of 

Pianoforte, Church Organ, 

Theory of Music. 

Steinert Hall, Boston. 
77 Newtonville Avenue, Newton. 



RICHARD PLATT, 



PIANIST. 

23 Steinert Hall . . Boston. 

Mason & Hamlin Piano. 



PIANO ORGAN 

CHARLES S. JOHNSON, HARMONY. 

LANG STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 

HARRIST. 

ISS HARRIET A. SHAW, ^^^ commonwealth avenue 

Telephone. 

489 



SAM L. STUDLEY, 



Pierce Buildingt Copley Square, Room 3)3. 

INSTRUCTION IN THE 
ART OF SINGING. 

OPERA, ORATORIO, AND SONG. 



Miss PRISCILLA WHITE, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

602 Pierce Buiidlng, 
Copley Square, BOSTON. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Lasell Seminary. 



EARL CARTWRIGHT, 



BARITO/ME. 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



Miss JESSIE DAVIS, 

Pianist and Teacher, 
289 Newbury Street, Boston. 



Miss Rose Stewart, 

Vocal Instruction. 

246 Huntington Avenue. 



Miss EDITH E. TORREY, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

164 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Wellesley College. 



Miss EDITH JEWELL, 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER, 

37 BRIMMER STREET. 

efers by permission to Mr. C. M. Loeffler. 



HELEN ALLEM HUNT, 

CONTRALTO SOLOIST. 

Teacher of Singing. 
No. 514 Pierce Building Boston. 



BOSTON MUSICAL BUREAU. 

Established 1899. 
Supplies Schools, Colleges, and Conservatories 
witii Teachers of Music, etc.; also Churches with 
Organists, Directors and Singers. 

Address HENRY C. LAHEE. 
'Phone, 475-1 Oxford. 2i8Trkmont St., Boston. 



Mrs. S. B. FIELD, 

Teacher of the Piano and Accompanist. 
HOTEL NOTTINGHAM. 

Mrs. Field makes a specialty of Coaching, in both 
vocal and instrumental music. 

Artists engaged, programmes arranged, and all 
•■esponsibility assumed for private musicales. 



Miss MARIE L EVERETT, 

Teacher of Singing. 

Pupil of MADAME MARCHESI, 

Paris. 
THE COPLEY, BOSTON. 



Miss MARY D. CHANDLER, 

Concert Pianist and Teacher. 

Pupil of Philips, Paris. 

I49A TREMONT ST., Monday and Thursday. 

Residence, 5 Ashland Street, Dorchester. 

Telephone, 1828-3 Dorchester. 



Miss PAULA MUELLER, 

Teacher of Piano 
and German L.anguage. 

STUDIOS, 
28 Central Avenue, Room 30, Steinert Hall 

MEDFORD. BOSTON. 

RECITALS. 



Mrs.V.PERNAUX=SCHUMANN, 

TEACHER OF FRENCH and GERMAN. 
French and German Diction a Specialty. 

32 BATAVIA STREET Suite 8, BOSTON. 



Clarence B. Shirley, 
Tenor Soloist and Teacher. 

CONCERT AND ORATORIO. 

Studio, Huntington Chambers, Boston. 



490 



MR. ROBT. N. 
MRS. ROBT. N. 



LISTER, 



Teacher of Singing, 
Soprano Soloist. 

Symphony Chambers, opposite Symphony Hall, 
BOSTON. 



CHARLOTTE WHITE, 

Violoncellist of the Carolyn Belcher String Quartet. 

TEACHER AND SOLOIST. 

608 Hontington Chambers, Boston, Mass. 



THOMAS L. CUSHMAN. 

VOCAL TEACHER. 
218 TREMONT STREET. 



L. B. 

MERRILL 



BASS SOLOIST 

AND 

TEACHER. 

218 Tremont Street. 



Mme. de BERG-LOFGREN, 
TEACHER OF SINGING. 

The '« GARCIA " Method. 
Studio, 12 Westland Avenue. BOSTON, MASS. 



Mrs. H. CARLETON SLACK, 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

I Lyric Soprano. Concerts and Recitals. 
Lessons at residence, 128 Hemenway Street. 



Miss PEARL BRICE, 

CONCERT VIOLINIST, TEACHER. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



MrslOUISELATHROP MELLOWS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 

STUDIO, Jefferson Hall, 
j Trinity Court, Dartmouth Street, Boston. 



Miss M. B. HARTWELL, 

PIANO AND HARMONY. 
Studio, 9 St. James Avenue. 

Miss HartweO has but recently returned from 

Vienna, where she studied the Leschetizky 

Method for three years and a half. 



VIOLET IRENE WELLINGTON, 

Humorous and Dramatic Reader. 

Also 
Teacher of Voice, Elocution, Physical Culture. 

59 Westland Avenue. 
Telephone, 3439-1 Back Bay. 



TIPPETT 



CLARA 



WM. ALDEN 



VOICE 



Assistant, GRACE R. HORNE 

312 PIERCE BUILDING 
COPLEY SQUARE 



LUESE LEIMER, 

Contralto Soloist and Teacher of Singing. 

Studio, 23 Crawford Street 

and Steinert Building. 

Miss RUTH LAIGHTON, 

Violinist and Teacher 

19 Chestnut Street - Boston 



Miss JANET DUFF, 

(7 years pupil of Francis Korbay) 

Contralto, Concerts, Oratorios, and Song Recitals. 

Teacher of Voice Production and Singing. 

Studio, 402 Huntington Chambers. 

Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday morn- 
ings 
Management, W. S. Bigelow, Jr., Boston 



Miss MARIE WARE LAUGHTON, 

Lecturer and Reader of Shakspere. 
Instructor of the VOICE IN SPEECH. 
Courses of Study for Personal Culture and Pro> 
I fessional Training. 

I 418 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE 



ARTHUR M. CURRY, 

Teacher of 

Violin, Harmony, Composition. 
34 STEINERT HALL. 



Ellen M. Yerrinton, 

Vorbereiter to Teresa Carreno, 
Uhland Str. 30, BERLIN, W., GERMANY 



491 



Allen H. Daugherty, 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION, 
HARMONY. 

Tel., Oxford 1629-1. 218 Tremont Street. 



MissMARY A.STOWELL, 

Teacher of Piano and Harmony. 
The ILKLEY, 

Huntington Avenue and Cumberland Street. 

(Cumberland Street entrance ) 



Miss kATHERINE LINCOLN, 

Soprano Soloist. 
Teacher of Singing. 

514 Plarc« Building, Copley Square, Boston. 



BARITONE. 



George W. Mull, 

Teacher of Singing. 

TheCop]ey,I8 Huntington Avenue,Boston. 



JOHN GROGAN MANNING, 

CONCERT PIANIST and TEACHER. 

Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday 
afternoons 

Symphony Chambers, 246 Huntington Ave. 



Mr. WILLIS W. GOLDTHWAIT, 

Teacher of Piano. 

Thorough instruction in Harmony, class or private. 

7 Park Square, Boston. 



JOHN BEAGH, 

PIANIST. 
10 Charles Street. 



Miss MARGARET GORHAM, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 

Trinity Court. Boston. 



Mrs. HIRAM HALU 

Pianist and Teacher. 
118 Charles Street. 



Mrs. Alice Wentworth MaoGregor, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

Residence Studio, 780 Beacon Street. 
Tuesdays and Fridays at Abbot Academy. 



Mrs. NELLIE EVANS PACKARD. 

Studio, 218 Tremont Street (Room 308), Boston. 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Mrs. Packard is commended by Walker, Randegger 
(London), Marchesi, Bouhy, Trabadelo (Paris), 
Leoni (Milan), Vannuccini (Florence), Cotogni, 
Franceschetti (Rome). 



Mr. P. FIUIVIARA 

Will furnish a Small Orchestra of mem- 
bers of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
for Musicales, Dinners, Receptions, etc. 

Address, Symphony Hall. 



ARTHUR THAYER, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
200 Huntington Avenue 



Mr. CHARLES DUMAS, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 
Former Assistant at Harvard. 

French (all grades), Lectures, Diction, 

Elocution, etc. 
286 Columbus Ave., Opp. Back Bay Station. 



CLAUDE HACKELTON. 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, Room 515, Boston 



EVEREH E. TRUETTE, 

CONCERT ORGANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, BOSTON. 



EDWIN N. C. BARNES, 

Basso Cantante and 
Teacher of Singing. 

^mphony Chambers . . . Boston., 

Opposite Symphony Hall. 



492 



Concert. Oratorio 

Mrs. nnnnDAD soprano 

Lafayette UUIIUDAIi^ soloist. 
TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

Thorough preparation for Concert and Church. 

Studio . . Steinert Hall. 
'Phone, Oxford 1330. Mondays and Thursday!. 






ALWIN SCHROEDER 

The glorious artist and distinguished musician, 

^Cellist of the Hess-Schroeder Quartet 

writes as follows of the 

Mason ^l|amlm 

PIANOS 

MASON & HAMLIN CO., Boston: 

Gentlemen: — Daring my residence in America for the 
past several years, I have had great opportttnity of studying 
all the varioas pianos made in this country, as indeed I have 
had opportunity of studying the pianos abroad before I came 
to America. I want to write to express to you my sincere 
admiration and appreciation of your very beautiful pianos. 
I have heard them with orchestra, in hundreds of chamber 
concerts, and at my home under various conditions; always 
your noble instruments have stood the test, and not only 
have they stood it, but they have added to the general 
beauty and musical value of the occasion, whatsoever it 
might have been. 

I am, very truly yours, 

(Signed) ALWIN SCHROEDER. 



MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

Opp. Institute of Technology BOYLSTON STREET 




HERE are many 
things which may 
be prophesied for 
the future, but it is 
a fixed fact that the 

STEINWAY Piano 
will continue to be the 
Standard of the World. 

The Steinway Organiza- 
tion insures this. 

STEINWAY & SONS 

NEW YORK 
LONDON HAMBURG 



KEPRESENTEU BY 

M. STEINERT & SONS COMPANY 
162 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 







y^'^T 



BOSTON 



SYAPHONY 




PRoGRHnnc 






TENSION RESONATOR 

(PATENTED IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE) 

Used exclusively in the 

PIANOS 

Ti'he Three Kpoch-making Discoveries 

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF GRAND PIANOS ARE 

First, The French Repeating Action, 182 1 

Second, The Full Iron Frame and Over-strung Scale, 1859 

Third, The Mason & Hamlin Tension Resonator, igoo, — 

the most important of the three, as it pertains to tone 

production 

Ql.i f nr in a piano is dependent upon the crown, or arch, 

U3liry 01 1 One of its sounding-board. Loss of tone-quality is 
caused by the flattening of the sounding-board through the action of the 
atmosphere and the great downward pressure of the strings. 

The Mason & llamlin Tension Resonator 

Permanently preserves the crown, or arch, of the sounding-board, and gives to 
the Mason & Hamlin piano a superior quality of tone and a tone which is inde- 
structible. 

A Technical Description in "The Scientific American" of October U, 

1902, CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING: 

"One imperfection in the modern pianoforte, found even in the instruments 
made by standard makers, has been the loss in tone quality, due to the inability 
of the sounding board to retain its tension. The problem seems at last to have 
been satisfactorily solved by a most simple and ingenious construction embodied 
in the pianos of Mason & Hamlin of Boston, U.S.A." 

A copy of the Scientific American article will be mailed upon application 

MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

0pp. Inst, of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON ^-MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

», , , < Ticket Office, 1492 ) „ , „ 

Telephones j Administratiin Offices, 3200 \ Back Bay 

TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

programme of % 

Seventh 

Rehearsal and Concert 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIP- 
TIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 




FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 27 

AT 2.30 O'CLOCK 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 28 
AT 8.00 O'CLOCK 

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY C. A. ELLIS 
PUBLISHED BY C. A. ELLIS, MANAGER 



493 



GABRILOWITSCH 



ENDORSES 




{^lANO 



EVERETT PIANO CO.: 

Gentlemen — Having^ just reached St. Petersburg' I take the first opportunity to 
express to you what I feel concerning the pianos you furnished for my American 
tour and to offer you my gratitude and heartiest thanks for the same. 

I am quite conscious of the enormous share which belongs to the superior 
qualities of your pianos for the success of my tour, and it gives me much pleasure 
to say so openly. There is no necessity, at this time, to dwell upon the many 
special attainments of the Everett concert grand; it is a wonderful instrument 
and its future is enormous. It is amazing what a number of enthusiastic friends 
among musicians and the public generally it has made in this short time. Anyone 
who has heard it cannot fail to recognize and admit that in beauty and nobility 
of tone, in power and brilliancy, in color, in absolute perfection of mechanism and 
action, it cannot be surpassed. These qualities, combined with a wonderfully sym- 
pathetic singing tone, enabled me to express my musical feelings most satisfactorily. 

Your baby grands and uprights are to me just as perfect as the concert grands 
and the more I have played them the more I got to appreciate and admire them. 
I am confident that the Everett is destined to be famous the world over, and 
America may well be proud of having produced such a beautiful work of art 
Believe me, gentlemen, very sincerely yours, 

OSSIP GABRILOWITSCP 



THE JOHN CHURCH CO., 37 West 32d Street 
New York City 



REPRESENTED BY 



G. L. SCHIRMER & CO. 



38 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



494 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

PERSONNEL 





Twenty -ei 


ighth Season, 1908-1909 






MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 








First Violins. 




Hess, Willy 


Roth, O. 


Hoffmann, J. 


Krafft, W. 


Concert-master. Kuntz, D. 


Fiedler, E. 


Theodorowicz, J. 


Noack, S. 








Mahn, F. 
Strube, G. 


Eichheim, H. 
Rissland, K. 


Bak, A. 
Ribarsch, A. 

Second Violins. 


Mullaly, J. 
Traupe, W. 


Barleben, K. 
Fiumara, P. 


Akeroyd, J. 
Currier, F. 


Fiedler, B. 
Werner, H. 

Marble, E. 


Berger, H. 
Eichler, J. 


Tischer-Zeitz, 


H. Kuntz, A. 




Goldstein, S. 


Kurth, R. 


Goldstein, H. 
Violas. 




Ferir, E. 


Heindl, H. 


Zahn, F. Kolster, A. 


Krauss, H. 


Scheurer, K. 


Hoyer, H. 


Kluge, M. Sauer, G. 
Violoncellos. 


Gietzen, A. 


Warnke, H. 


Nagel, R. 


Barth, C. Loeffler, E. 


Warnke, J. 


Keller, J. 


Kautzenbach, A. 


Nast, L. Hadley, A. 
Basses. 


Smalley, R. 


Keller, K. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Agnesy, K. 
Kunze, M. 


Seydel, T. 
Huber, E. 


Ludwig, O. 
Schurig, R. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Maquarre, A. 
Maquarre, D. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 


Grisez, G. 
Mimart, P. 


Sadony, P. 
Mueller, E. 


Brooke, A. 


Sautet, A. 


Vannini, A. 


Regestein, E. 


Fox, p. 


" English Horn 


Bass Clarinet. Contra- Bassoon. 




Mueller, F. 


Stumpf, K. 


Helleberg, J. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. Trombones. Tuba. 


Hess, M. 
Lorbeer, H. 


Schmid, K. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Kloepfel, L. Hampe, C. Lorenz, O 
Mann, J. Mausebach, A. 


Hain, F. 


Hackebarth, A. 


Heim, G. Kenfielc 


I, L. 


Phair, J. 


Schumann, C. 


Merrill, C. 




Harp. 


Tympani. 


Percussion. 


Schuecker, H. 


Rettberg, A. 


Dworak, J. 


Senia, T. 




Kandler, F. 


Ludwig, C. 

Librarian. 

Sauerquell, J. 

495 


Burkhardt, H. 



^w X,.- 






Bears a name which has become known to purchasers 
as representing the highest possible value produced 
in the piano industry. 

It has been associated with all that is highest and best 
in piano making since 1823. 

Its name is the hall mark of piano worth and Is a 
guarantee to the purchaser that in the instrument 
bearing it, is incorporated the highest artistic value 
possible. 



CHICKERING & SONS 

PIANOFORTE MAKERS 

Established 1833 

791 TREMONT STREET 

Cor. NORTHAMPTON ST. 

Near Mass. Ave. 

BOSTON 



496 



TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, NINETEEN HUNDRED EIGHT AND NINE 



Seventh Rehearsal and Concert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 27, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 28, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 

Strauss Tone Poem, "A Hero Life," Op. 40 

Tschaikowsky . Concerto for Pianoforte, No. i, in B-flat minor, Op. 23 

I. Andante non troppo e molto maestoso. 
Allegro con spirito. 
II. Andantino semplice. 
Allegro vivace assai. 
III. Allegro con fuoco. 



Wagner . Prelude and " Love Death" from " Tristan and Isolde" 



SOLOIST, 
Mr. OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH. 



The Mason & Hamlin Pianoforte. 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the Concerto. 



The doors of the hall will he closed during the performance of 
each number on the programme. Those who wish to leave before 
the end of the concert are requested to do so in an interval 6c- 
tween the numXters. 

City of Boston, Revised Refiulation of Auifust 5, 1898.— Chapter 3. relatlnii to the 
covering of the head In places of puhllc amusement. 

Every licensee shall not, in his place of amusement, allow any person to wear upon the head a covering 
which obstructs the view of the exhibition or performance in such place of any person seated in any seat therein 
provided for spectators, it being understood that a low head covering without projection, which does not 
obstruct such view, may be worn. Attest J. M. GALVIN, City Clerk. 

497 




nee Ac Kiale 
Always ftel^abe 




C. C. HARVEY CO. 

144 BOYLSTON STREET 
BOSTON 



49S 



Tone Poem, "A Hero IvIFE," Op. 40 .... Richard Strauss 

(Bom at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living at Charlottenburg, Berlin.) 

"Ein Heldenleben," a "Ton-Dichtung," was first performed at a con- 
cert of the "Museumsgesellschaft," Frankfort-on-the-Main, March 3, 
1899, when Strauss conducted. In the course of the year it was per- 
formed at BerHn (March 22), Cologne (April 18), Diisseldorf (May 22), 
Munich, Dresden (December 29), Mayence, Constance, Crefeld, Bremen. 
There were also early performances at Hamburg, Leipsic, Sonders- 
hausen, Halle, Mannheim, Paris (March 4, 1900), Brussels (October 21, 
1900), and other cities. 

The first performance in America was by the Chicago orchestra, 
Theodore Thomas, conductor, at Chicago, March 10, 1900. The first 
performance in New York was by the Philharmonic Society, Mr. Emil 
Paur conductor, December 8, 1900, when th.e orchestra numbered one 
hundred and twenty-five players. The first performance in Boston 
was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Gericke conductor, 
December 7, 1901. 

The score calls for these instruments: Sixteen first and sixteen sec- 
ond violins, twelve violas, twelve violoncellos, eight double-basses, 
two harps ; a piccolo, three flutes, three or four oboes, an English horn, 
one clarinet in E-flat, two clarinets in B-flat, one bass clarinet, three 
bassoons, one double-bassoon, eight horns, five trumpets, three trom- 
bones, a tenor tuba, a bass tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, snare- 
drum, side-drum, cymbals. The score is dedicated to Wilhelm Mengel- 
berg* and his orchestra in Amsterdam. 

Strauss has said that he wrote "A Hero Life" as a companion, work 

* J. W. Mengelberg was born at Utrecht, May 28, 1870. He studied music at Utrecht, then at the Cologne 
Conservatory witli Seiss and Jensen. In 1891 he conducted a society at Lucerne, and in 1895 he was 
appointed conductor of the Concertuebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam. He conducted the concerts of the 
Philharmonic Society of New York, November 10, 11, 190s. 



SONGS WORTH SINGING 



KING FISHER BLUE by Amy Woodforde-Finden. 2 Keys 
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to his ' Don Quixote," Op. 35: "Having in this later work sketched 
the tragi-comic figure of the Spanish Knight whose vain search after 
heroism leads to insanity, he presents in 'A Hero's Life' not a single 
poetical or historical figure, but rather a more general and free ideal 
of great and manly heroism — not the heroism to which one can apply 
an everyday standard of valour, with its material and exterior rewards, 
but that heroism which describes the inward battle of life, and which 
aspires through effort and renouncement towards the elevation of the 
soul." 

* * 

Mr. Krehbiel wrote in his program notes for a concert of the Philhar- 
monic Society of New York: "Those who wish to understand the poetic 
purposes of the composer in this work must yield to him not only 
the right to try to express the simpler feelings, which are generally 
conceded to be in the province of absolute music, but to publish a 
great variety of emotional phases, and to do so by giving arbitrary 
significance to the themes out of which the work is woven. They 
must note significances not only in the character of the themes them- 
selves, but also in the transformations which they go through, their 
combinations and their instrumental colorings. They may, if they 
wish, rest on the music alone, or they may take the program of the 
composer and its amplification by sympathetic analysts, as a starting 
point and guide for the imagination." 

There are many descriptions and explanations of "Ein Helden- 
leben." One of the longest and deepest — and thickest — is by Mr. 
Friedrich Rosch. This pamphlet contains seventy thematical illus- 
trations, as well as a descriptive poem by Mr. Bberhard Konig. 

What is the purpose of the story, of this "tone-poem" or "poem of 
sounds"? (It has been said that Strauss is a musician who wishes to 



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write poetry.) Is the heroic life that of a hero famous in war and dear 
to the people or the life of a hero who does not wrestle merely against 
flesh and blood? It seems to be the purpose of the composer to show 
the hero as one arrayed against the world, a hero of physical and mental 
strength, who fights to overcome the world and all that is common, low, 
pitiably mean, and yet perhaps dominant and accepted. Mr. Remain 
Rolland quotes Strauss as saying: "There is no need of a program. 
It is enough to know there is- a hero fighting his enemies." 

The work is in six sections: — 

(i) The Hero, (2) The Hero's Adversaries, (3) The Hero's 
HeivPmate, (4) The Hero's Battlefield, (5) The Hero's Works 
OF Peace, (6) The Hero 's Escape I^rom the World, and the Com- 
pletion. 

Mr. Rosch makes two divisions of the contents, — one of the poetic 
sequence of ideas, one of purely technical interest. The former is as 
follows : — 

I. The Hero (first section). 
II. The World that enters in Opposition to the Hero. 

(a) The Foes of the Hero (second section) . 

(b) The Helpmate of the Hero (third section). 

III. The Life-work of the Hero. 

(a) The Battlefield of the Hero (fourth section). 
(6) The Hero's Works of Peace (fifth section). 

IV. The Hero's Escape from the World, and the Completion, — 
the conclusion of the whole matter (sixth section). 

The technical division is as follows : — 
I, Introductory clause (introduction of themes). 

(a) Group of the chief themes of the whole work (first sec- 
tion). 



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(b) Group of the chief contrasting themes (sections 2 and 3) . 

II. Intermediate sentence (thematic development). Working-up 

of the chief themes from the preceding introduction; and there is a 

subordinate clause with themes which in part are new (sections 4 and 5). 

III. Concluding clause (coda). Short development and repetition 

of some earlier themes. 

The Hero. 

The chief theme, which is typical of the hero, the whole and noble 
man, is announced at once by horn, violas, and 'cellos, and the violins 
soon enter. This theme, E-flat major, 4-4, is said to contain within 
itself four distinct motives, which collectively illustrate the will power 
and self-confidence of the hero, and their characteristic features are 
used throughout the work in this sense. Further themes closely 
related follow. They portray various sides of the hero's character, — 
his pride, emotional nature, iron will, richness of imagination, "inflex- 
ible and well-directed determination instead of low-spirited and sullen 
obstinacy," etc. This section closes with pomp and brilliance, with 
the motive thundered out by the brass ; and it is the most symphonic 
section of the tone-poem. "A pause is made on a dominant seventh: 
'What has the world in store for the young dreamer?'" 



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Ths Hero's Antagonists. 
They are jealous, they envy him, they sneer at his aims and endeavors, 
they are suspicious of his sincerity, they see nothing except for their 
own gain ; and through flute and oboe they mock and snarl. They 
are represented by about half a dozen themes, of which one is most 
important. Diminutions of the preceding heroic themes show their 
belittlement of his greatness. (It has been said that Strauss thus 
wished to paint the critics who had not been prudent enough to pro- 
claim him great.) "Fifths in the tubas show their earthly, sluggish 
nature." The hero's theme appears in the minor; and his amazement, 
indignation, and momentary confusion are expressed by "a timid, writh- 
ing figure." Finally the foes are shaken off. 

The Hero's Hei^pmate. 

This is an amorous episode. The hero is shy. The solo violin 
represents the loved one, who at first is coy, coquettish, and disdains 
his humble suit. There is a love theme, and there are also two "the- 
matic illustrations of feminine caprice" much used later on. At last 
she rewards him. The themes given to the solo violin, and basses, 
'cellos, and bassoon, are developed in the love duet. A new theme is 
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crowning of happiness. The clamorous voices of the world do not 
mar the peacefulness of the lovers. 

Th^ H:eRO's Battive;imki<,d. 
There is a flourish of trumpets without. The hero rushes joyfully to 
arms. The enemy sends out his challenge. The battle rages. The 
typical heroic theme is brought into sharp contrast with that of the 
challenger, and the theme of the beloved one shines forth amid the din 
and the shock of the fight. The foe is slain. The themes lead into a 
song of victory. And now what is there for the hero ? The world does 
not rejoice in his triumph. It looks on him with indifferent eyesv 

The Hero's Mission of Peace. 
This section describes the growth of the hero's soul. The composer 
uses thematic material from "Don Juan," "Also sprach Zarathustra," 
"Tod und Verklarung," "Don Quixote," "Till Eulenspiegel's lustige 
Streiche," "Guntram," "Macbeth," and his song, "Tiraum durch die 
Dammerung." Mr. Jean Mamold claims that there are twenty- three 
of these reminiscences, quotations, which Strauss introduces suddenly, 
CM- successively, or simultaneously, "and the hearer that has not been 
warned cannot at the time notice the slightest disturbance in the devel- 
opment. He would not think that all these themes are foreign to the 
work he hears, and are only souvenirs." 

The Hero's Escape from the WorivD, and Conci^usion. 
The world is still cold. At first the hero rages, but resignation and 
content soon take possession of his soul. The bluster of nature reminds 
him of his old days of war. Again he sees the beloved one, and in peace 



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and contemplation his soul takes flight. For the last time the hero's 
theme is heard as it rises to a sonorous, impressive climax. And then 
is solemn music, such as might serve funeral rites. 

* * 

It has been said that Strauss chose the appellation "tone-poem" for 
these compositions to mark the predominate importance of the purely 
musical character; that he repudiated the word "symphonic" to show 
that he did not fear to abandon the guiding thread when he plunged 
boldly into the tonal labyrinth ; that his musical poems are subjective, 
untainted by that material objectivity into which too definite pro- 
grams lead the composer. It is true that these works of Strauss 
have no detailed program, and that titles and even sub-titles or 
quotations are used as hints to suggestions, not as maps, not even as 
inexorable guide-posts. On the other hand, the music itself is by no 
means music that exists through very independence of form, and is 
ruled by laws of development even when the subject suggests a spe- 
cial color or tendency. This later music of Strauss seems to be gov- 
erned by a fancy that is heated by a program which is fully and 
clearly in the mind of the composer, and is not given to the hearer 
for his advantage. 

The melody of vStrauss is chiefly diatonic, and melodic invention is 
not his strongest characteristic. As a melodist he is nearer Brahms 
than Wagner, Weber, Tschaikowsky, Verdi. Yet his themes have a 
common physiognomy, and they are individual. Nor is it too much 
to say that his whole inspiration is diatonic rather than chromatic. 
As a developer of themes, as a polyphonist, Strauss is a virtuoso of 
amazing brilliance, and whatever may be thought of his aims, and — 
is recklessness the word ? — his wildest pieces are by no means without 
a certain unity. His inspiration is not versatile: his thought, where- 



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ever it be directed, wears the same face. His orchestration is almost 
always interesting. And, after all, is his polyphony art? Is not his 
genius sometimes hidden by fumes of "Dionysiac drunkenness"? 
There are these thoughts, and Mr. Jean Marnold has voiced them 
admirably. 

There are others who claim that Strauss has gone beyond Wagner* 
that he is the founder not of a new school, but of a new art. Their 
eulogy is frenetic, nor do they hesitate to proclaim Strauss as the hero 
of his ''Heldenleben." 

Some, as Claude Achille Debussy, rub their eyes and would say as he 
said after hearing "Till Bulenspiegel " : "This piece is like an hour of 
new music at the madhouse, — clarinets describe distracted trajectories, 
trumpets are always muted, horns foresee a latent sneeze, and hurry 
to say politely, 'God bless you !' a big drum makes the boum-boum that 
italicizes the clown's kick and gesture; you burst with laughter or 
howl in agony, and you are surprised to find things in their usual 
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rubbed their tubes with an imaginary bow, and if Mr. Nikisch were 
found seated on the knees of an ouvreuse, all this would not sur- 
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Thus are men divided, in opinion; thus is there wrangling in families; 
thus is their wordy war on account of Music, which to thousands of 
well-to-do and estimable citizens is nothing but a succession of more 
or less displeasing sounds. 

* * 

The symphony in F minor by Strauss, which first called marked 
attention to the composer, was an orthodox work. It was cast in the 
traditional mould. It was in no wise revolutionary. Themes were 
conscientiously developed, the spirit was respectful and serious, and 
there was a technical facility unusual in such a young man. Here 
was a composer who had been brought up on the classics, knew his 
Brahms, and was without any pronounced individuality. 

It was the year 1885 that Strauss became intimate with a man who 
influenced him mightily. This man was Alexander Ritter.* "Before 
I knew Ritter," says Strauss, "I had been brought up in a severely 
classical school. I had been nourished exclusively on Haydn, Mozart, 

* Ritter was bom at Narva, Russia, June 27, 1833; he died at Munich, April 12, 1896. Although Ritter 
was bom in Russia, he was of a German family.- His forbears had lived at Narva since the seventeenth 
century. In 1841, soon after the death of his father, he and his mother moved to Dresden, where he became 
the school-fellow of Hans von Biilow, and studied the violin with Franz Schubert (1808-78). Ritter afterward 
studied at the Leipsic Conservatory under David and Richter (1849-51), and in 1852 he was betrothed to 
the play-actress, Franziska Wagner, a niece of Richard Wagner. ,He married her in 1854 and moved to 
Weimar, where he became intimately acquainted with Liszt, Cornelius, Raff, Bronsart, and of course saw 
much of von Bulow. He determLaed to devote himself to composition, but in 1856 he went to Stettin to 
conduct in the City Theatre, where his wife played. They lived in Dresden (1858-60), again in Stettin 
(1860-62), but Ritter then had no official position, and in 1863 they made Wurzburg their home. (The winter 
of 1868-69 was spent in Paris and thaj; of 1872-73 in Chemnitz.) From 1875^ to 1882 he was at the head 
of a music shop at Wurzburg. In 1882 he gave over the business to an agent, and in i88s_ sold it,_ for m 
1882 he became a member of the Meiningen orchestra led by von Bulow. After von Biilow resigned this posi- 
tion (in the fall of 1885), Ritter moved to Munich and made the town his dwelling-place. His most important 
works are the operas: "Der faule Hans," one act (Munich, 1885), dedicated to Liszt; "Wem die Krone?" 
one act. Op. 15 (Weimar, June 7, 1890), dedicated to Richard Strauss; "Gottfried der Sanger,'' one act, 
was only partially sketched, but the poem was completed; orchestral: "Seraphische Phantasie"; "Erotische 
Legende," composed in 1890-91, with use of former material; "Olaf's Hochzeitsreigen," composed in 1891-92; 
"Charfreitag und Frohnleichnam," composed in 1893; "Sursum Corda! Storm and Stress Fantasia," jiro- 
duced at Munich early in 1896; "Kaiser Rudolf's Ritt zum Grabe" (1895), produced by Richard Strauss 
at Weimar (?) and at Berlin in 1902. 

"Olaf's Wedding Dance" was played in Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Dr. Muck conduc- 
tor, March 2, 1907. Before that he was known here as the author of the poem published in the score of 
Strauss's "Death and Transfiguration," a poem written a}ter the music had been composed. A life of Ritter 
by Sigismund von Hausegger was published at Berlin in 1908. 




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and Beethoven; and then I became acquainted with Mendelssohn, 
Chopin, Schumann, and Brahms. It is through Ritter alone that I 
came to understand Liszt and Wagner." 

Strauss journeyed to Rome and Naples. The result of his impres- 
sions was the symphonic fantasie, "Aus Italien" (1886). The com- 
poser gave an explanatory title to each of the four movements. Yet 
this step toward program music was a modest one. The indications 
were of the nature of those inscribed by Beethoven in his "Pastoral" 
symphony. Suddenly Strauss began his cycle of "Tone-poems" with 
"Macbeth" (1887). There is no explanation or guide except the word 
"Macbeth," written over a theme, and later in the work the annota- 
tion "Lady Macbeth" and a quotation from the tragedy (Act I., 
scene v.). This score was dedicated to Ritter. Then followed "Don 
Juan" (1888), a musical gloss on Lenau's poem; "Tod und Verkla- 
rung (1889); "Till Eulenspiegel's lustige Streiche" in rondo form, after 
an old Rogue's tune (1895), — Strauss refused to furnish a program 
for this work: "Let me leave it therefore to my-hearers to crack the 
hard nut which the Rogue has provided for them," yet he gave a hint 
by pointing out the two motives, which "in the most manifold dis- 
guises, moods, and situations, pervade the whole up to the catastro- 
phe, when, after he has been condemned to death. Till is strung up to 
the gibbet"; "Also sprach Zarathustra" (1896), a translation into 
music of certain passages from Nietzsche's book of that name; "Don 
Quixote" (1897), fantastical variations on a theme of a chivalric 
character, with themes appropriate to the Don and Sancho Panza, 
with thoughts of the Lady Dulcinea of Toboso and the famous sheep and 
windmills, and hints at "the tendency of Don Quixote toward erro- 
neous conclusions," as the indefatigable commentator, Mr. Arthur 
Hahn, assures us. Add to this list an opera, "Guntram" (1892-93), 
and pieces of smaller dimensions. Then came "Ein Heldenleben." 
Remember that during several of these years Strauss was exceedingly 
busy as a conductor, stationary and wandering, and we may then 



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form some idea of the remarkable capacity and ability of the man 

for work. 

* 
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A Hst of works by Richard Strauss which has been performed at these 
concerts in Boston: — 

"Aus Italien," symphonic fantasia, Op. i6: December 22, 1888; 
January 12, 1901; March 3, 1906. 

"Don Juan," tone poem, Op. 20: October 31, 1891; November 5, 
1898; November i, 1902; February 11, 1905; April 29, 1905 (by 
request); October 27, 1906. 

Symphony in F minor. Op. 12: November 4, 1893; January 6, 1900. 

Prelude to Act I. of "Guntram," Op. 25: November 9, 1895; Novem- 
ber 12, 1904. 

Prelude to Act II. of "Guntram," Op. 25: November 9, 1395; March 
25, 1905- 

"Till Eulenspiegel's lustige Streiche," Op. 28: February 22, 1896; 
November 25, 1899; January 6, 1906; January 25, 1908. 

"Tod und Verklarung," tone poem. Op. 24: February 6, 1897; 
March 18, 1899; February 7, 1903; October 21, 1905; April 21, 1906. 

"Also sprach Zarathustra," tone poem, Op. 30: October 30, 1897- 
March 17, 1900. 

"Ein Heldenleben," tone poem. Op. 40: December 7, 1901; Novem- 
ber 28, 1908. 

"Ivove Scene," from the opera "Feuersnot," Op. 50: March 8, 1902; 
October 10, 1908. 



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519 



Burle&ke in D minor for pianoforte and orchestra (Heinrich Gebhard, 
pianist) : April i8, 1903. 

"Don Quixote," fantastic variations, Op. 35 (Rudolf Krasselt, 
violoncello; Max Zach, viola) : February 13, 1904. 

Symphonia Domestica, Op. 53: February 16, 1907; March 30, 1907. 

Song, "Serenade" (Lillian Nordica) : March 15, 1902. 

Song, " Mutter tandelei (Muriel Foster): April 2, 1904- 

Song, "Allerseelen" (Marie Rappold) : November 14, 1908. 



Mr. OssiP Gabrilowitsch was born, the son of a lawyer, at St. 
Petersburg on January 26, 1878. When he was six years old, he 
received his first piano lessons from his brother. Rubinstein advised 
the parents to allow their son to be a professional pianist. Ossip 
then studied under Tolstoff at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. When 
he was sixteen, he had taken many prizes, among them the Rubin^ 
stein prize. In St. Petersburg he was constantly under the super- 
vision of Rubinstein himself. In 1894 Mr. Gabrilowitsch went to 
Vienna, where he studied the pianoforte with Leschetitzky and com- 
position with Nawratil. In 1898 he began his career as a virtuoso. 
His first appearance in America was at New York, November 12, 1900. 
His first appearance in Boston was at a Kneisel concert, November 
19, 1900 (Arensky's Trio in D minor and Brahms's Quintet in F minor. 
Op. 31). He played Tschaikowsky's Concerto in B-flat minor and 
Liszt's Hungarian Fantaisie at a charity concert in Symphony Hall, 
December 16, 1900, and he gave recitals in Boston, January 2,* March 9, 
.March 22, 1901. He played at a Kneisel concert in Boston, November 
17, 1902 (Schubert's Trio in B-flat major), and gave recitals, April 18 
and 22, 1903. He visited Boston again in the season of 1906-07: 

*The date January 3 in the Programme Book of February 16, 1907, is incorrect. 



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Kneisel Quartet Concert, November 6 (Beethoven's pianoforte trio 
in E-flat major, Op. 70, No. 2); Boston Symphony Quartet, February 
25, 1907 (Faure's sonata for pianoforte and vioUn, A major, with Mr. 
Willy Hess; Schumann's pianoforte trio in F major. Op. 80, with 
Messrs. W. Hess and Warnke) ; recitals, November 17, 1906, January 
7, February 20, 1907. 

His first appearance with the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston 
was on February 16, 1907 (Brahms's pianoforte concerto, B-flat major, 
No. 2, Op. 83). He was engaged to play with the orchestra in Janu- 
ary, 1903, but was prevented from fulfilling the engagement. 

He has played these compositions of his own in Boston: Gavotte, 
D minor (January 2, 1901); Caprice-Burlesque (March 9, 1901); Petite 
Serenade (March 22, 1901); Caprice-Burlesque — by request — (April 
22, 1903); Theme varie. Op. 4 (November 17, 1906). 



Concerto for Pianoforte, No. i, in B-flat minor, Op. 23. 

Peter Tschaikowsky 

(Born at \'otkinsk, in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7,* 1840; 
died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893.) 

The very first performance of this concerto in public was at Boston 
in Music Hall, October 25, 1875, when Hans von Biilow was the pianist. 

In 1874 Tschaikowsky was a teacher of theory at the Moscow Con- 
serA'atory. (He began his duties at that institution in 1866 at a salary 
of thirty dollars a month.) On December 13, 1874, he wrote to his 
brother Anatol: "I am wholly absorbed in the composition of a piano- 

* Mrs. Newmarch, in her translation into English of Modest Tschaikowsky's Life of his brother, gives 
the date of Peter's birth April 28 (May 10). Juon gives the date April 25 (May 7). As there are typographical 
and other errors in Mrs.' Newmarch's version, interesting and valuable as it is, I prefer the date given by 
Juon, Hugo Riemann, Iwan Knorr, and Heinrich Stiimcke. 



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forte concerto, and I am very anxious that Rubinstein (Nicholas) 
should play it in his concert. I make slow progress with the work, and 
without real success; but I stick fast to my principles, and cudgel 
my brain to subtilize pianoforte passages: as a result I am somewhat 
nervous, so that I should much like to make a trip to Kieff for the 
purpose of diversion." 

The orchestration of the concerto was finished on February 21, 1875; 
but before that date he played the work to Nicholas Rubinstein. The 
episode is one of the most singular in the history of this strangely sen- 
sitive composer. He described it in a letter written to Nadeshda 
Filaretowna von Meek, the rich widow who admired Tschaikowskv's 
music so warmh^ that in 1877 she determined to give him a sum of six 
thousand roubles annually, that he might compose without cark or 
care. They never met. Never did either one hear the voice of the 
other ; but they exchanged letters frequently, and to her Tschaikowsky 
unbared his perturbed soul. This letter is dated San Remo, February 2, 
1878. It has at last been published in Modest Tschaikowsky's Life 
of his famous brother. 

"In December, 1874, I had written a pianoforte concerto. As I am 
not a pianist, I thought it necessary to ask a virtuoso what was tech- 
nicalh' unplayable in the work, thankless, or ineffective. I need- the 
advice of a severe critic who at the same time was friendly disposed 
toward me. Without going too much into detail, I must frankly say 
that an interior voice protested against the choice of NicholasRubinstein 
as a judge over the mechanical side of my work. But he was the best 
pianist in Moscow, and also a most excellent musician ; I was told that 
he would take it ill from me if he should learn that I had passed him by 
and shown the concerto to another; so I determined to ask him to hear 
it and criticise the pianoforte part. 



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"On Christmas Eve, 1874 we were all invited to Albrecht's, and 
Nicholas asked me, before we should go there, to play the concerto in a 
class-room of the Conservatory. We agreed to it. I took my manu- 
script, and Nicholas and Hubert came. Hubert is a mighty good and 
shrewd fellow, but he is not a bit independent; he is garrulous and 
verbose; he must always make a long preface to 'yes' or 'no'; he is 
not capable of expressing an opinion in decisive, unmistakable form; 
and he is always on the side of the stronger, whoever he may chance 
to be. I must add that this does not come from cowardice, but only 
from natural unstableness. 

"I played through the first movement. Not a criticism, not a word. 
You know how foolish you feel, if you invite one to partake of a meal 
provided by your own hands, and the friend eats and — is silent! 'At 
least say something, scold me good-naturedly, but for God's sake speak, 
only speak, whatever you may say ! ' Rubinstein said nothing. He was 
preparing his thunder-storm ; and Hubert was waiting to see how things 
would go before he should jump to one side or^the other. The matter 
was right here: I did not need any judgment on the artistic form of 
my work; there was question only about mechanical details. This 
silence of Rubinstein said much. It said to me at once: 'Dear friend, 
how can I talk about details when I dislike your composition as a 



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whole?' But I kept my temper and played the concerto through. 
Again silence. 

"'Well?' I said, and stood up. Then burst forth from Rubinstein's 
mouth a mighty torrent of words. He spoke quietly at first; then he 
waxed hot, and at last he resembled Zeus hurhng thunderbolts. It 
appeared that my concerto was utterly worthless, absolutely unplay- 
able ; passages were so commonplace and awkward that they could not 
be improved; the piece as a whole was bad, trivial, vulgar. I had 
stolen this from that one and that from this one ; so only two or three 
pages were good for anything, while the others should be wiped out 
or radically rewritten. 'For instance, that! What is it, anyhow?' 
(And then he caricatured the passage on the pianoforte.) 'And this? 
Is it possible?' and so on, and so on. I cannot reproduce for you 
the main thing, the tones in which he said all this. An impartial 
bystander would necessarily have believed that I was a stupid, igno- 
rant, conceited note-scratcher, who was so impudent as to show his 
scribble to a celebrated man. 

"Hubert was staggered by my silence, and he probably wondered how 
a man who had already written so many works and was a teacher of 
composition at the Moscow Conservatory could keep still during such a 
moral lecture or refrain from contradiction, — a moral lecture that no 
one should have delivered to a student without first examining care- 
fully his work. And then Hubert began to annotate Rubinstein; that 
is, he incorporated Rubinstein's opinions, but sought to clothe in milder 
words what Nicholas had harshly said. I was not only astonished by 
this behavior: I felt myself wrong and ojffended. I needed friendly 
advice and criticism, and I shall always need it; but here was not a 
trace of friendliness. It was the cursing, the blowing up, that sorely 
wounded me. I left the room silently and went upstairs. I was so 

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excfted and angry that I could not speak. Rubinstein soon came up, 
and called me into a remote room, for he noticed ]that I was heavily 
cast-down. There he repeated that my concerto was impossible, 
pointed out many passages which needed thorough revision, and added 
that he would play the concerto in public if these changes were ready 
at a certain time. 'I shall not change a single note,' I answered, 'and 
I shall publish the concerto exactly as it now is.' And this, indeed, 
I did." 

Tschaikowsky erased the name of Nicholas Rubinstein from the score, 
and inserted in the dedication the name of Hans von Biilow, whom he 
had not yet seen ; but Kllindworth had told him of von Billow's interest 
in his works and his efforts to make them known in Germany. Von 
Buiow acknowledged the compliment, and in a warm letter of thanks 
praised the concerto, which he called the "fullest" work by Tschaikow- 
sky yet known to him : ' 'The ideas are so original, so noble, so powerful ; 
the details are so interesting, and though there are many of them they 
do flot impair the clearness and the unity of the work. The form is so 
mature, ripe, distinguished for style, for intention and labor are every- 
where concealed. I should weary you if I were to enumerate all the 
characteristics of your work, characteristics which compel me to 
congratulate equally the composer as well as all those who shall enjoy 
actively or passively (respectively) the work." 

For a long time Tschaikowsky was sore in heart, wounded by his 
friend. In 1878 Nicholas had the manliness to confess his error; and 
as a proof of his good will he studied the concerto and played it often 
and brilliantly in Russia and beyond the boundaries, as at the Paris 
Exhibition of 1878. 

Other works of 1874-75 by Tschaikowsky were Symphony No. 3; 



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''Serenade Melancolique," Op. 26, for violin and orchestra; six piano 
pieces, Op. 19; six songs, Op. 25; six songs, Op. 27; six songs, Op. 28. 
The first performance of this concerto, as I have said, was at Boston, 
Mass., in Music Hall, October 25, 1875. Von Biilow was the pianist, 
and the concert was the fifth of his series. Mr. B. J. Lang was the 
conductor. The programme was as follows : — 

PART I. 

Overture, "Jessonda" Spohr 

Orchestra. 

Grand Concerto (Op. 23) in B-flat (sic) Tschaikowski 

(Piano and Orchestra.) 
Hans von Bulow. 

PART II. 

Sonata quasi Fantasia (Moonlight Sonata) Beethoven 

Hans von Bui.ow. 

Overture, "Prometheus" Beethoven 

Orchestra. 

Grand Fantaisie (Op. 1 5) in C major Schubert 

(Arranged for piano and orchestra by LiszT.) 
Hans von Bulow. 

Wedding March Mendelssohn 

Orchestra. 

The programme contained this astonishing announcement : — 

"The above grand composition of Tschaikowsky, the most eminent 



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528 




PADERE WSKI 

to the WEBER PIANO 

COMPANY 



New York, May the^th, 1908. 
To the WEBER PIANO CO: 

Gentlemen — It seems to me superfluous to give you in 
writing my appreciation of your instruments. Practically 
you do not need it, I have been playing the Weber for 
seven months in this coimtry, and this fact alone proves 
more than anything which could be said or written. 
Whatever "disinterested" detractors may object to, had I 
not found in your pianos a perfect medium for my art I 
would have never played them in public. 

But you insist upon having my opinion. So let me 
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For the first time I do not feel tired of piano-playing 
after a long concert tour. I gave during the season 
ninety-three performances and my fingers are not sore, my 
arms are not aching, my nerves and muscles are as strong 
and fresh as on the day of my arrival. This is entirely 
due to the supreme qualities of your instruments: positive 
perfection of mechanism, exceptionally easy production of 
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Russian maestro of the present day, completed last April and dedicated 
by its author to Hans von Biiflow, has NEVER BEEN PERFORMED, 
the composer himself never having enjoyed an audition of his master- 
piece. To Boston is reserved the honor of its initial representation and 
the opportunity to impress the first verdict on a work of surpassing 
musical interest." 

Von Biilow sent Tschaikowsky a telegram announcing the brilliant 
success of his work. Of course, this news gratified the composer; but 
just then he happened to be very short of money, and it was not without 
some compunction that he spent it all in answering the message. 

The concerto was played again at the matinee, October 30. The 
orchestra during the engagement was small ; there were only four first 
violins. The concerto was well received, and one critic discovered that 
the first movement was not in "the classical concerto spirit." 

The concerto has been played at these concerts by Mr. I^ang (1885), 
Mme. Hopekirk (1891), Mr. Sieveking (1896), Mr. Joseffy (1898), Mr. 
Slivinski (1901), Mr. Randolph (1902), Mr. Bauer (1903), Mme. Sam- 
aroff (February 9, 1907). 

Von Biilow was an admirer of Tschaikowsky before as well as after he 
played the concerto in Boston. In a letter dated Milan, May 21, 22. 
1874, he spoke warmly of a string quartet, two symphonies, some piano 
pieces, and above all of an "uncommonly interesting" overture, "Romeo 



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and Juliet," which was "conspicuous for originality and wealth of 
melody." He hoped that Tschaikowsky's versatility would prevent 
him from sharing the fate of Glinka, — neglect in foreign lands. Four 
years later von Biilow wrote from London to the Signale, and after some 
words about the reception by the London audience of a set of variations 
for piano by Tschaikowsky (Op. 19, No. 6) he hailed the composer as a 
' ' true tone-poet, sit venia verbo." He spoke of the composer's wretched 
health, and then said: "His new string quartet in E-flat minor, his 
second symphony, his fantaisie, 'Francesca da Rimini,' have enchanted 
my somewhat used-up ears by their freshness, power, depth, originality." 
Nor was von Biilow ever weary of playing this same concerto. He as 
well as Liszt was deeply interested in the younger Russians, and, as 
conductor of the Meiningen orchestra, this "Achilles of propagandists" 
gave Russian concerts in Germany with the hope of breaking down a 
contumacy that still flourishes in certain parts of Germany (see Liszt's 
letter to the Countess Mercy-Argenteau, January 20, 1885). 

Nor was ingratitude a characteristic of Tschaikowsky, who was in turn 
•one of the most lovable of men. In an account of his visit to Hamburg 
in 1888 he speaks of von Biilow: "He had in time past done me inval- 
uable ser\ ice, and I considered myself forever in his debt." 

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531 



The first performance of the concerto in Russia was by Kross at a 
concert of the Russian Musical Society, St. Petersburg, November i, 
1875. The first performance in Moscow was November 21, 1875, when 
Serg Taneieff,* the favorite pupil of Nicholas Rubinstein and Tschai- 
jkowsky, was the pianist. 

Modest Tschaikowsky says nothing about the first performance in 
IBoston, but he quotes from a letter written by his brother to Rimsky- 
Xorsakoff and dated Moscow, November 12, 1875, iii which Peter 
mentions the receipt a few days before of a lot of clippings from 
American newspapers sent by von Biilow. "The Americans think," 
•wrote Peter, "that the first movement of my concerto 'suffers in con- 
sequence of the absence of a central idea,' . . . and in the Finale this 
reviewer has found 'syncopation in trills, spasmodic pauses in the 
theme, and disturbing octave-passages ! ' Think what healthy appetites 
these Americans must have: each time Biilow was obliged to repeat 
the whole Finale of my concerto ! Nothing like this happens in our 
'Country!" 

Modest tells us that the chief theme of the first allegro is a tune 
that bis brother heard sung by a blind beggar at Kamenka,t and that the 
irresistibly gay tune introduced in the lively episode of the second move- 
ment is that of a French song, "II faut s'amuser, danser, et rire," 
* 'whic"h brother Anatol and I in the early seventies used continually to 
troll, and hum, and whistle in memory of a bewitching singer." This 
last tune bears a grotesque resemblance in notation, rhythm, and gen- 

* Tan^ieff's Symphony in C, No. i, and overture to "The Oresteia" have been played in Boston by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. 

t Tschaikowsky wrote from Brailow to Mrs. von Meek (May 21, 1879): "I have just been in the abbey 
■church. A crowd had gathered in the church as well as in the courtyard. I heard the 'Ijre-song' of the 
blind; it is so called on account of the accompanying instrument, the lyre, which, by the way, has nothing in 
•common with the classic instrument. It is remarkable that in Little Russia all blind singers sing the same 
tune with the same refrain. I used a portion of this refrain in the first movement of my pianoforte concerto." 
Tschaikowsky gives the tune in notation. The lyre of Little Russia is an instrument of three strings, and is not 
unlike the instrument known formerly in Italy as the lyra tedesca or lyra rustica." 



^dam^ i^ou^c ^fjone^, <0jcforD 942, 41330 
#ranb ©pera 3Cicfeets jFoot pall ©icfeets; 



532 



eral character to that of "The Irish Christening at Tipperary," * by 
Dan Maguinnis, once a favorite comedian at the Boston Theatre. 

The first movement begins with a long introduction, Andante non 
troppo e molto maestoso, 3-4, which is based and developed on its own 
peculiar theme. After a short prelude in B-fiat minor by full orchestra 
there is modulation to D-flat major. The stately theme is sung by 
first violins and 'cellos in octaves ; wood-wind and horns furnish a back- 
ground, and full chords are swept by the pianist. The pianoforte repeats 
and varies the theme, which leads to a cadenza; and after a series of 
imitations between pianoforte and orchestra the great theme is pro- 
claimed by all the violins, violas, and 'cellos in double octaves. There 
is a short coda. Harmonies in the brass lead to the key of B-fiat minor 
and the main body of the first movement, Allegro con spirito, 4-4. The 
chief theme is the beggar tune above mentioned, a tune in nervous 
rhythm, given out by the pianoforte. The rhythmic movement in the 
course of the dialogue between solo instrument and orchestra is hurried 

* The air is first heard with the words: — 

'Twas down in that place Tipperary, 
Where they're so airy and so contrary, 
They cut up the devil's figary, 
When they christened my beautiful boy. 
In the corner the piper sat winkin' 
And a-blinkin' and a-thinkin', 
And a noggin of punch he was drinkin' 
And wishing the parents great joy. 



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533 



into sixteenths. Then follows an episode with the second theme, an 
expressive melody announced by wood-wind and horns. A subsidiary 
and sensuous theme in A-flat major is whispered by the muted strings. 
The second theme is developed and led to a mighty conclusion in C 
minor. The sensuous theme reappears, is developed at length, and 
there is a return to the beggar melody. In the free fantasia the second 
theme is worked out at length to a powerful climax. The pianoforte 
attacks a formidable cadenza on figures from this theme. The sen- 
suous, caressing melody reappears near the end, and swells to fortis- 
simo. 

The second movement, Andantino semplice, D-flat major, 6-8, is a 
combination of slow movement and scherzo. The first theme is a^ul- 
laby, sung by the flute and repeated by the pianoforte. The second 
theme, chiefly in D major, is of a curious pastoral nature, and is given 
out by oboe, clarinets, bassoons. The first theme returns in the 'cellos. 
The second part of the movement is of scherzo character. Violas and 
'cellos play the French "chanson." After a cadenza of the pianoforte 
the lullaby melody returns in D-flat major and is developed. 

The Finale : Allegro con fuoco, B-flat minor, 3-4, is a rondo on three 
themes. After four measures of orchestral introduction the pianoforte 
announces the chief melody, a wild and characteristic Slav, dance. The 
second theme is also exceedingly characteristic. After the exposition 

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534 



Mrs. Avonia Bonney Lichfield 

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TEACHER OF SINGING 

According to the method of the old Italian masters of singing. A pupil 
of the last of these masters, Gerli, of Milan. 

Mrs. Lichfield refers to Mr. Louis C Elson's remarks in the Boston 
Daily Advertiser about her distingushed pupil, Miss 

Charlotte Grosvenor 

as Juliette in Gounod^s 

"Romeo et Juliette" 

Yesterday the performance of "Romeo et Juliette" was chiefly 
memorable because of the debut of a new Juliette. Two years ago we 
listened to the work of Miss Charlotte Grosvenor in concert with much 
pleasure and predicted at least a chance of an operatic career for 
the young singer. She is a pupil of Mrs. Avonia Bonney Lichfield, 
who was herself an operatic singer of renown, and who seems singu- 
larly successful in imparting her knowledge to those who study under 
her. Miss Grosvenor deserves especial attention as being an Ameri- 
can singer, trained in America, a living proof that it is not always 
necessary to take the voyage to Italy before treading the operatic 
boards. In passing judgment upon the young debutante two points 
must be kept in mind. She was hampered in some degree by the 
inequality of the support which was sometimes overweighted in the 
Gounod masterpiece. Secondly, it is not possible to attain one's very 
best when the results of years of training are focussed into one single 
occasion. We do not believe in triumphant operatic debuts — they 
are impossible. A little allowance must always be made for the 
abnormal situation. Miss Grosvenor certainly required only the 
minimum of allowances on this occasion. She acted and sang with 
almost veteran ease and "gewandheit." Her Waltz in the first act 
(her opening number) was as delicate and as easily sung as possible. 
There was not a trace of nervousness in her work and the action was 
without any of the stiffness of the amateur. Her vocal work was 
definitely in advance of her histrionic ability, but the latter can only 
come with acquaintance with the stage. The audience was a very 
brilliant one, evidently drawn by interest in the debutante. At the 
end of the first act there was a long procession of flower-bearers carry- 
ing public tribute to the new Juliette. These things, however, do not 
make a true success. It is far more to the purpose that Miss Gros- 
venor sang without a flaw of intonation and that there was a sym- 
pathetic quality in her voice that was quite in keeping with the char- 
acter of the Shakespearian heroine. The balcony scene was very 
near to perfection. The heroine rose to the occasion, and there is no 
doubt but that Mrs. Lichfi.eld (the teacher of Miss Grosvenor) has 
here launched a sterling prima donna, and to her and to the new Juliette 
all good wishes may be extended. 

Louis C. Elson. 

535 



hy the orchestra it is developed for a short time, and suddenly the third 
theme (violins) enters. After development according to the rules of 
the rondo, the tempo is changed to allegro vivo, and a coda on the first 
theme brings the end. 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for two flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
a set of three kettledrums, and strings. 



ENTR'ACTE. 

LIGHTER SIDE OF WAGNER. 

(From the Daily Telegraph, London.) 
Nowadays we all take our Wagner with uncommon and uninterrupted 
seriousness. "And well we might," quoth one, which is perfectly true. 
It is, of course, an uncommonly serious matter to have to arrive at 
Covent Garden at four o'clock on a sunny afternoon in June and remain 
there, on and oflf, till well on towards midnight, and in a milder form, 
also, it gives one pause to remain in one's seat for some two and a half 
hours without moving. But, though this belongs to the heavy side of 
Wagner, the blame for its invention most certainly does not rest with 
liim. I imagine that no human being would feel the physical discom- 
fort of sitting through "Gotterdammerung" without the usual pauses 
so exacting as a similar sitting through possibly either, and certainly 
the second part, of Goethe's "Faust," as it used to be, and no doubt 
still is, played in many German theatres at Easter time. But there 
is a side of Wagner which is less serious than the rest. A good deal 
of capital could be made out of Wagner's birds, beasts, and fishes, 
the Rhine-maidens being included in the last category for the sake of 

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536 



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completeness. But that is not only cheap: it is also stale. For the 
press ancestors of the present-day critics left no fur on the bear, no 
feather on the various birds, no wool on the rams, no scales on the 
dragon, serpent, and so on, not a hair in the mane or tail of Grane, 
so scalding were their denunciations. Yet the birds and the beasts and 
the fishes, otherwise the ravens, the bear, the rams, the horse, and 
the Rhine maidens still perform their functions as in the heyday of 
their greatest abuse. 

They must have been a cheery crew, those early critics, as certainly 
they were happy in their good fortune in having so great a bird to pluck, 
or, as the popular phrase had it once upon a time, a bubble to prick. 
Nowadays there are by comparison a few mere sparrows for the prey 
of the critics. And no one will deny that the elder generation did that 
they set out to do with a rare completeness, even if their efforts have 
proved in course of time to have been unavailing. Not all were either 
vindictive or venomous. Indeed, the fun was mildly furious at times. 
Thus a foreigner once quoted (more or less) the rubric, "Briinnhilde 
flings herself wildly on to the horse, and leaps with it 'cum Grane salis' 
into the burning pyre." Quite a good joke that. Of course, no good 
Wagnerite — and there are some — -need be reminded that Grane is the 
name of Briinnhilde's steed. It is not very long ago that a picture 
appeared in which a presumably typical German operatic director 
was drawn as he inspected his troupe of leading" ladies." "None of 
our singers weigh less than one hundred kilos; we can, therefore, only 
produce Wagner operas," he is made to remark. 

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539 



This particular form of wit was the common property of all countnes 
for a time. It was, unhappily, reserved for England to heap the heav- 
iest calumny on the wretched Wagner's head, and, perhaps, never had 
critic previously driven his quill so furiously as when a lyOridoner wrote 
an almost historical diatribe against Wagner at the Philharmonic in 
1855. The overture to "The Flying Dutchman" was described as the 
"most abominable and horrible of all his productions," and among 
other fancy expletives were, "A mass of worthless rubbish," which was 
applied to "Lohengrin," as "insufferably dull" was applied to "Tann- 
hauser." But the poor man, Wagner, was himself even more roundly 
abused than his music. One writer rather cruelly dubbed him in cold 
print a politically-defamed traitor, who was "wanted" by the police. 
Perhaps Wagner felt none of these pin-pricks, if, indeed, they came to 
his knowledge. But one can imagine his "squirming" at being de- 
scribed, tout court, as "no musician whatever." "Absolute chaos," 
' ' Wild, aimless cacophony," even ' ' What is music to him or he to music ? 
His puny feeling for pure melody can only be compared with matri- 
cide," and the thousand and one similar expressions may, or may not, 
have amused Wagner. But "no musician whatever," — that is quite 
another story. 

Wagner, of course, was not all his days to be consciously or uncon- 
sciously seriously worried by his critics. When he had "arrived" 
in the public estimation, as well as in that of most who wrote about 
him, he was a very great man indeed, as we all know. But, even 
so, he was not permitted invariably to have matters entirely his own 
way. For it is recorded, though I have not seen the tale in English 
before, that, after the production of "The Nibelung's Ring," the Kaiser 
sent his aide-de-camp to inform ' ' Wagner of his Majesty's wish to speak 
with him." Wagner, however, had withdrawn to his room, whence 




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he refused to move, even when the aide-de-camp had retired, returned, 
and repeated the request. At last the composer was induced to visit 
the Kaiser's box, when his Majesty said: "Dear Wagner, I am deHghted 
that I do not play the flute as my great ancestor played it, for otherwise 
you would finally have compelled me to play in your orchestra. This 
is all I wish to say." 

Of pictures dealing with the light side of Wq,gner there is no end. 
Not the least amusing of them is that from a Berlin newspaper, which 
depicts the arrival of Ivohengrin upon a "patent steam-swan," which 
carries on its breast what appears (or deserves) to be the German equiv- 
alent of the initials "L. C. C." In another, Briinnhilde is shown asleep, 
awaiting Siegfried's arrival. On the rock at her side is seen a tablet 
bearing the legend, "Wotan's Fire Insurance." The remainder is lost 
beneath the rock's mossy covering. 

For the looker-on there is an abudance of fun and laughter to be ob- 
tained from the lighter side of Wagner. As I have said, all the world 
nowadays regards with utmost complacency the man who half a cen- 
tury ago was, according to the press, hardly less than an unmitigated 
scoundrel in virtue of his ideas of musical art. So the world wags. 
Very similar, if not so violent, things are being said of the would-be 
"path-breakers" of to-day, and no doubt to-morrow they will be 
repeated of yet others. Fortunately, time brings its revenges. With 
one of these bygone attacks — a quotation from a technical jeu d' esprit, 
written many years ago after a performance of "Siegfried" at Covent 
Garden by a distinguished scientist — this article may come to a close: 

"With our usual desire of keeping our readers informed of all that 
goes on, we sent our metallurgist to represent us at a recent performance 
of 'Siegfried.' He reports that the art of casting steel is quite old, 
as it was known in pre-historic times. The only property left to Sieg- 
fried was a broken sword. This Mime, obviously a registered plumber, 
had failed to mend. So Siegfried, a non-union man, decided he would 
repair the article. Mime told him to solder it, as far as could be made 
out. As our readers are aware, 'Siegfried ' is the third volume of a four- 
volume opera, and as, according to the genius of the German language, 
the verbs all come at the end of the fourth volume, at whose perform- 



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542 



ance we have not been represented, we cannot give accurate details 
as to the proposed method of soldering. Siegfried, however black 
his character in other ways, was no plumber, and, as the sword was 
not for the British Army, he refused to repair it with solder. He 
clamped the pieces in a fifteen-shilling vise, being unacquainted with 
the quick-gripping kinds, and filed it into 'shreds,' which shows the 
curious molecular structure of early cast steel. The pre-historic fitter 
holds a 14-inch rough-cut in one hand, and gives it a seesaw motion, 
while he waves the other hand above his head, and sings lustily, but 
with unjust intonation. Finally, the shreds were put in a Battersea 
5-lb. crucible, which was perched on the top of a cool part of the fire. 
After being sung at for a little time, the shreds succumbed and fused, 
as they could not stand a tremolo, and they were poured into a mould 
resembling one of the cases in which fish-slices for wedding presents 
are sold. The whole mould was then quenched in water and the fin- 
ished blade taken out. Siegfried poked the fire with it, laid it on the 
anvil, and hammered the anvil, producing sparks that must have made 
the lamps of the other consumers on the Metropolitan Electric Supply 
Company's circuit jump badly. The blade was now finished. If 
Siegfried had had any of the blood of the famous Ritter Kuno in his 
veins, he might have utilized the dragon's blood for tempering the 
sword, as Fafner's internals were at about 1,000 degrees C, and glowed 
through cracks in his sides. The sword finally cut the anvil clean in 
two, or would have done so if the anvil had not fallen in two before 
the sword was even raised, the catch having been released prematurely." 



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543 



TRISTAN'S DEATH. 

(Englished for this Programme Book from " ' Le Roman de Tristan at Iseut'; Traduit et restaure par Joseph 

Bgdier.") 

Tristan at Carhaix, to aid his dear companion Kaherdin, warred against a baron 
named Bedalis, and fell into an ambuscade, prepared by the baron and his brothers. 
He slew the seven brothers, but he himself was wounded by a poisoned lance. He 
was borne back to his castle at Carhaix, and learned leeches did their utmost to cure 
him, but he knew that he must die and he would fain see Iseut the Blonde. Calling 
Kaherdin, he begged him to go to her, and Iseut of the White Hands, Tristan's wife, 
eavesdropping, knew his wish and order. Kaherdin sailed to Mark's court at 
Tintagel, found means to acquaint Iseut with Tristan's sad lot, and the two em- 
barked. 

Listen, lords, to a dolorous adventure, pitiful to all those that love. 
Already was Iseut nearing Carhaix; already the cliff of Penmarch was 
rising afar off, and the vessel was sailing the more joyously. A storm- 
wind suddenly arose, struck against the sail and turned the vessel in 
its course. The sailors ran to the loof, and against their wish found 
the wind behind them. The wind raged, the depths of the sea were 
stirred, the air grew thick with darkness, the ocean blackened, the 
rain came in squalls. Stays and bowlines parted, the seamen lowered 
sail and then tacked by aid of wind and wave; unfortunately, they 
had forgotten to hoist on board the barge which was fastened to the 
poop and followed the track of the vessel. A billow broke it and bore 
it away. 

Iseut cried out: "Alas, O puny one! God does not wish that 1 
should live to see Tristan, my love, once more, only once more. He 
wills that I should be drowned in this sea. Tristan, if I had spoken once 
more with you, I should care little about dying afterward. If I do 
not come to you, it is because God does not wish it, and this is my 
hardest sorrow. My death is nothing to me: since God wishes it, I 
accept it; but when you know about it, you will die, I know it well. 
Our love is of such a kind that you cannot die without me, nor I die 




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545 



without you. I see your death before me at the same time as mine. 
Alas, I have failed in my desire: this was to die in your arms, to be 
buried in your cofifin; but we have failed in this. I am going to die 
alone, and without you, disappear in the sea. Perhaps you will not 
know of my death; you will live longer, waiting always for me to come. 
If God wishes it, you will even get well — ah! perhaps after me you 
will love another woman, you will love Iseut of the White Hands! I 
do not know what will become of you ; as for me, if I knew that you 
were dead, I should hardly live afterward. May God grant us that I 
cure you, or that we die together in the same agony!" 

Thus groaned the queen, as long as the storm lasted. But after fiA^e 
days, the storm died away. Kaherdin hoisted joyously the white sail 
to the top of the mast so that Tristan could recognize its color as far 
as possible. And now Kaherdin saw Brittany. Alas, nearly at the 
same moment calm followed the tempest, the sea became gentle and 
smooth, the wind ceased swelling the sail, and the sailors tacked every 
way in vain. They saw the coast in the distance, but the storm had 
borne away their barge, so that they could not reach land. On the 
third'night Iseut dreamed that she held in her lap the head of a great 
boar who fouled her gown with blood, and she knew by this that she 
would not see her lover alive. 

Tristan was too weak to watch longer on the cliff of Penmarch, and 
for long days, shut up far from the shore, he wept for Iseut who did 
not come. Doleful and weary, he complained, sighed, and was restless. 
The wonder is he did not die from his longing. 

At last the wind freshened, and the white sail appeared; then Iseut 
of the White Hands took her revenge. 

She came to the bed of Tristan and said: "My love, Kaherdin is 
here. I have seen his vessel on the sea. It comes slowly, but I have 
recognized it; may it bring that which will cure you!" 

Tristan trembled : 

' ' Fair love, are you sure it is his ship ? Now tell me what sort of a 
sail it has?" 

"I have seen it clearly. They have spread it and hoisted it very 
high, for they have little wind. The sail is all black." 



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546 



Tristan turned towards the wall and said: "I cannot hold my life 
any longer." He said three times: "Iseut, love!" At the fourth, he 
gave up the ghost. 

Then the knights, Tristan's companions, wept through the house. 
They took him from his bed, stretched him on a rich carpet, and covered 
his body with a shroud. 

On the sea the wind had freshened, and it struck the sail full in the 
middle. It pushed the ship to the shore. Iseut the Blond disem- 
barked. She heard loud mourning in the streets, and the bells were 
tolling in monasteries and chapels. She asked the townsfolk why 
these funeral bells, why these tears. 

An old man said unto her : "Lady, we have a great sorrow. Tristan, 
the frank, the valiant, is dead. He was generous to those in need. He 
helped the suffering. This is the worst disaster that has ever fallen on 
this land." 

Iseut heard him. She could not speak a word. She went up to the 
palace. She followed the street, her wimple loose. The Bretons 
wondered as they looked at her ; never had they seen a woman of such 
beauty. Who is she? Whence comes she? 

Near Tristan, Iseut of the White Hands, crazed by the evil she had 
wrought, uttered loud cries over the corpse. The other Iseut came in, 
and said to her: 

"Lady, raise yourself and let me approach. I have more right to 
bewail him than you, believe me this. I loved him more." 

She turned toward the east and prayed to God. Then she uncovered 
a little the body, stretched herself near him, the whole length of her 
lover, kissed his mouth and face, and pressed him close to her: body 
against body, mouth against mouth, she thus gave up her soul, she 
died near him for sorrow for her lover. 

When King Mark learned the death of the lovers, he crossed the sea, 
and, arriving in Brittany, he opened two coffins, one of chalcedony for 
Iseut, one of beryl for Tristan. He bore their lov^d bodies on his ship 
to Tintagel. Near a chapel, to the left and to the right of the apse, 
he buried them in two tombs. But, in the night, a green and leafy 
briar, with strong branches and odorous flowers, burst forth from 



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547 



Tristan's tomb, and, making its way above the chapel, sank into the 
tomb of Iseut. Thrice the people cut this briar; but in the morning 
it started up as green, as flowery, as full of life. They told this marvel 
to King Mark. The king forbade them to cut the briar again. 



Prelude and "Love Death," i^rom "Tristan and Isolde." 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The thought of "Tristan and Isolde" was first mentioned by Wagner 
in a letter to Liszt in the latter part of 1854; the poem was written at 
Ziirich in the summer of 1857, and finished in September of that year;, 
the composition of the first act was completed at Ziirich, December 31, 
1857 (some say, only in the sketch); the second act was completed at 
Venice in March, 1859; the third act at Lucerne in August, 1859. 
The "action in three acts" was performed for the first time at the 
Royal Court Theatre, Munich, June 10, 1865;* the first performance. 
in America was at the Metropolitan Theatre, New York, December i, 
i886;t the first performance in Boston was at the Boston Theatre, 
April I, 1895. J 

Both the Prelude and the Love Death were performed in concerts be- 
fore the production of the opera at Munich. The Prelude was played for 
the first time at Prague, March 12, 1859, and von Billow, who con- 

* The cast at Munich was as follows: Tristan, Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld; Kurvenal, Mitterwurzer; 
Melot, Heinrich; Marie, Zottmayer; Isolde, Mrs. Schnorr von Carolsfeld; Brangane, Miss Deinet. Hans 
von Biilow conducted. 

fThe cast at the first performance in New York was as foll6ws: Tristan, Albert Niemann; Kurvenal, 
Adolph Robinson; Melot, Rudolph von Milde; Marke, Emil Fischer; Isolde, Lilli Lehmann; Brangane, 
Marianne Brandt; Ein Hirt, Otto Kemlitz; Steuermann, Emil Sanger; Seemann, Max Alvary. Anton Seidl 
conducted. 

+ The cast at the first performance in Boston was: Tristan; Max Alvary; Kurvenal, Franz Schwarz; Melot, 
Jas. F. Thomson; Marke, Emil Fischer; Seemann, Mr. Zdanow; Isolde, Rosa Sucher; Brangane, Marie 
Brema. Walter Damrosch conducted. 



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548 



ducted, composed a close for concert purposes. It was stated on the 
program that the Prelude was performed ' ' through the favor of the com- 
poser." The Prelude was also played at Leipsic, June i, 1859. Yet, 
when Johann Herbeck asked later in the year permission to perform 
it in Vienna, Wagner wrote him from Paris that the performance at 
Leipsic was against his wish, and that, as soon as Herbeck knew the 
piece, he would understand why Wagner considered it unsuitable for 
concert purposes. And then Wagner put the Prelude on the pro- 
gram of his concert given in Paris, January 25, i860. 

Wagner himself frequently conducted the Prelude and Love Death, 
arranged by him for orchestra alone, in the concerts given by him in 
1863. 

The Prelude, Langsam und schmachtend (slow and languishingly) , 
in A minor, 6-8, is a gradual and long-continued crescendo to a most 
sonorous fortissimo; a shorter decrescendo leads back to pianissimo. 
It is free in form and of continuous development. There are two 
chief themes : the first phrase, sung by 'cellos, is combined in the third 
measure with a phrase ascending chromatically and given to the oboes. 
These phrases form a theme known as the Love Potion motive, or the 
motive of Longing; for commentators are not yet agreed even as to 
the terminology. The second theme, again sung by the 'cellos, a 
voluptuous theme, is entitled Tristan's Love Glance. 

The Prelude is scored for three flutes (one interchangeable with 
piccolo), two oboes, cor anglais, two clarinets, bass clarinet, three 
bassoons, four horns, three trumpts, three trombones, tuba, kettle- 
drums, strings. 

Isolde's Love Death is the title given, as some say, by Liszt to the 



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549 



music of Isolde dying over Tristan's body. The title is also given to 
the orchestral part of the scene played as concert music without the 
voice part. The music is scored for the same orchestra as the Prelude 
with the addition of a harp. 
The text of "Isoldens Liebestod" isfas follows: — 



ORIGINAL GERMAN 
Mild und leise 
wie er lachelt, 
wie das Auge 
hold er offnet: 
seht ihr's, Freunde, 
sah't ihr's nicht? 
Immer lichter 
wie er leuchtet, 
Stem-umstrahlet 
hoch sich hebt: 
seht ihr's nicht? 
Wie das Herz ihm 
muthig schwillt, 
voll und hehr 
im Busen quillt, 
wie den Lippen 
wonnig mild 
siisser Athem 
sanft entweht: — • 
Freunde, seht, — 
fiihlt und seht ihr's nicht? — 
Hore ich nur 
diese Weise, 



ENGLISH PROSE TRANSLATION.* 

How gently he smiles and softly, how 
he sweetly opens his eyes: see ye it, 
friends, can ye not see it? How he 
shines ever brighter, raises himself on high 
amid the radiant stars : do ye not see it ? 
How bravely his heart swells and 
gushes full and sublime in his bosom, 
how sweet breath is gently wafted from 
his lips, ecstatically tender: — Friends, 
look, — feel ye and see ye it not? — 
Do I alone hear this lay which so won- 
drously and softly, ecstatically com- 
plaining, all-saying, gently reconciling, 
sounds forth from him and pentrates me, 
soars aloft, and sweetly ringing sounds 
around me? As it sounds clearer, 
billowing about me, is it waves of gentle 
breezes? Is it clouds of ecstatic per- 
fume? As they swell and roar around 
me, shall I breathe? shall I hearken? 
Shall I sip, dive under, sweetly exhale 

* This prose translation is by Mr. W. F. Apthorp. 



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550 



die so wunder- 
vpli tuid leise, 
Wonne klagend, 
AUes sagend, 
mild versohnend 
aus ihm tonend, 
in mich dringet, 
auf sich schwinget, 
hold erhallend 
um mich klinget? 
Heller schallend, 
mich umwallend, 
Sind es Wellen 
sanfter Liifte? 
sind es Wolken 
wonniger Diifte? 
Wie sie Sch wellen, 
mich Umrauschen 
soil ich athmen, 
soil ich lauschen ? 
Soil ich schliirfen, 
imtertauchen, 
^ siiss in Diiften 

mich verhauchen ? 
In dem wogenden Schwall, 
In dem tonenden Schall, 
in des Welt-Athems 
wehenden All — 
ertrinken — 
versinken — 
unbewusst — 
hochste Lust! 



myself away in odors? In the billow- 
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World-breath's waving All — to drown — 
to sink — unconscious— highest joy ! 



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551 



[Isolde sinkt, wie verklart, in 
Brangane's Armen sanft auf Tristan's 
Leiche. Grosse Riihrung und Entriikc- 
heit^imter den Umstehenden.] 



[Isolde sinks, as if transfigfured, in 
Brangane's arms gently upon Tristan's 
dead body. Great emotion in all 
present.] 






Mr. Richard Le Gallienne translated Wagner's text into verse : 



Oh, how gently 
He is smiling, 
See his eyelids 
Open softly ,^ 
See how brightly 
He is shining! 
See, you, friends— 
Oh, see you not? 

Mark you how he 

Rises radiant, 

Lifts himself, 

AH clothed in starlight! 

See, you, friends— 

Oh, see you not? 

How his mighty heart 

Is swelling, 

Calm and happy. 

In his breast! 

From his lips 

How sweet an incense 

Softly breathes! 



Oh, hearken, friends- 
Hear ye nothing, 
Feel ye naught! 
It is I alone 
That listen 
To this music 
Strangely gentle. 
Love-persuading, 
Saying all things; 
To this music 
From him coming. 
Through me hke 
A trumpet thrilling, 
Round me like 
An ocean surging. 
O'er me like 
An ocean flowing! 

Are these waves 
About me breezes? 
Are these odors 
Fragrant billows? 



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6S2 



How they gleam 




In the billows, 


And sing about me! 




In the music, 


Shall I breathe, 




In the world's 


Oh, shall I listen? 




Great whirlwind— lost ; 


Shall I drink, 




Sinking, 


Oh, shall I dive 




Drowning, 


Deep beneath them — 




Dreamless, 


Breathe my last? 


* 
* * 


Blest. 



Wagner wrote, after telling the legend of Tristan and Isolde down 
to the drinking of the philter: "The musician who chose this theme 
for the prelude to his love drama, as he felt that he was now in the 
boundless realm of the very element of music, could only have one 
care: how he should set bounds to his fancy, for the exhaustion of 



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553 



the theme was impossible. Thus he took, once for all, this insatiable 
desire. In long-drawn accents it surges up from its first timid con- 
fession, its softest attraction, through sobbing sighs, hope and pain, 
laments and wishes, delight and torment, up to the mightiest onslaught 
the most powerful endeavor to find the breach which shall open to the 
heart the path to the ocean of the endless joy of love. In vain! Its 
power spent, the heart sinks back to thirst with desire, with desire 
unfulfilled, as each fruition only brings forth seeds of fresh desire, till, 
at last, in the depths of its exhaustion, the starting eye sees the glim- 
mering of the highest bliss of attainment. It is the ecstasy of dying, 
of the surrender of being, of the final redemption into that wondrous 
realm from which we wander farthest when we strive to take it by 
force. Shall we call this Death? Is it not rather the wonder- world 
of night, out of which, so says the story, the ivy and the vine sprang 
forth in tight embrace o'er the tomb of Tristan and Isolde?" 

* 
* * 

Wagner at first intended that Therese Tietjens (1831-77) should 
create the part of Isolde; but, when he engaged Ludwig Schnorr von 
Carolsfeld (1836-65) for his Tristan, he took the tenor's wife, Malvina 
Guarrigues, or Malwina Garrigues, originally of a French family and 
the great-grand-niece of David Garrick. For the singular silence of 
Wagner in his writings concerning his first Isolde, see Maurice KufiFer- 
ath's "Tristan et Iseult" (Paris, 1894), pp. 61-63. Wagner compli- 
mented her highly at the time of the performances. The fourth and 




554 



last was on July i, 1865. Schnorr died at Dresden, July 21 of that 
year, from the results of a cold contracted in the third act of the opera. 
His wife then left the stage. Born at Copenhagen, December. 7, 1825, 
she died at Carlsruhe, Fehruary 8, 1904. 



* * 



. The Pall Mall Gazette in November, 1906, published this note: — 

"M. Ferdinand Brunetiere has produced a study of the legend of 
Tristram and Isolt, which is, like everything that comes from his pen, 
charming. He takes as his text some recent publications of the So- 
ciete des Textes Frangaises, a body which corresponds pretty closely 
to our own Early English Text Society, of which one is sorry not to 
hear so much as one did twenty years ago. The antiquarian keenness 
of scent of one of its members, M. Bedier, has led him to disinter for the 
Societe all the facts that can really be verified about 'Tristram bold,' 
who was, it seems, a real personage — at least, if he can be identified with 
Drest or 'Drostan, son of Tallorch,' who flourished among Mr. Old- 
buck's friends the Picts about the year 780. So also was Mark or 
March, King of Cornwall, called in the chronicles also Quonomorius, 
a name that we may be sure would have delighted Sir Arthur Wardour, 
particularly when we learn that it is the supposed Pictish equivalent 
of Mark. Poor Isolt also figures as Essylt, and Tristram is assigned to 



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555 



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566 



her as lover by the legend, though why M. Bruneti^re — or is it M. 
B^dier? — should go out of his way to suggest that Tristram's expedi- 
tion against and slaying of Morolt is copied from the story of Theseus 
and the Minotaur, is hard to see. One likes him better when he pro- 
ceeds to analyze the love interest of the story, and gives some playful 
digs to those pedants who would pretend that the story is plainly 
Celtic because the love of Tristram for Isolt is 'contemplative and 
sentimental' like that of a Breton swain at the present day. The story 
of Tristram seems to have been first given to the world by Gottfried 
of Strassburg, and, as M. Brunetiere points out, was long before its 
adaptation for the stage by Wagner the most popular in Germany of 
all the Round Table Legends. We may heartily agree with him also 
when he says that its author was a great poet, who, like all great poets, 
took his material where he could find it, and without troubling himself, 
whether it was Pictish or Welsh, Breton, Anglo-Norman, French, or 
German. Although the public do not seem to have been enthusiastic 
about the last version of it put upon the London stage, it is pleasing 
to find that interest in the simple tale of passion still survives. It would 
seem to show that, book clubs and publishers' wars notwithstanding, 
the proper telling of a story yet goes for something." 

* * 
The reference ' 'about the last version " is to Comyns Carr's * 'Tristram 
and Iseult" produced at the Adelphi Theatre, London, September 4, 
1906: Tristram, Matheson Lang; King Mark, Oscar Asche; Alfred 
Brydone, Tristram's Squire; H. R. Hignett, Gormon; Iseult, Lily 
Brayton; Brangwaine, Edith Wynne-Matthison ; Oren, Gertrude 
Scott; Iseult of the White Hands, Agnes Brayton. The music to the 
play was by Christopher Wilson. 




BENJAMIN H.LUDWIG 

FURRIER 

420 BOYLSTON STREET BOSTON, MASS. 
Telephone, Back Bay 3149-5 

HIGH GRADE FURS that will be fashion- 
able this season and many others may be inspected 
at my establishment. 

REPAIRING REDYEING 
REMODELING 

Old Fur garments altered to the newest 
styles. Each order receives the same careful 
attention as new work. 

Every garment sold by me must carry a 
recommendation to other customers, for the rea- 
son everything is of the best quality procurable. 
557 



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and with a Care" 

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LEWANDOS 

1S29-1908 

NEW YORK SHOP 557 FIFTH AVENUE 

Also Philadelphia Washington Albany Providence Newport Hartford 
New Haven Bridgeport Worcester Lynn and many other cities in the East 





668 



Second orchestral trip next week. There will be no public 

rehearsal and concert on Friday afternoon and Saturday 

evening, December fourth and fifth. 



Eighth Rehearsal and G)ncert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, DECEMBER H, at 2.30 o'clock, 

SATURDAY EVENING, DECEMBER i2, at 8 o'clock. 



H. G. Noren 



Aria 



Debussy 



Aria 



PROGRAMME. 



Kaleidoskop, Op. 30 



First time. 



Trois Nocturnes for Orchestra and Female Chorus 



First time. 



Weber 



Overture, '* Die Freischutz " 



SOLOIST, 
Miss EMMY DESTINN. 



559 



a T :Ei X HT :Ei :jr, T hzjlxjXj 
Mr. SYDNEY BECKLEY 

THE ENGLISH ELOCUTIONIST 

Now touring the United States, will, on MONDAY EVENING, 
November 30, at 8.15 o'clock, read Tennyson's 

"ENOCH ARDEN" 

assisted by Mr. BENJAMIN LAMBORD, Mosenthal Fellow at Columbia 
University, who will play Richard Strauss' illustrative music. 

Reserved Seats, $1.00 and $1.50, tickets for which may now be obtained 
at Herrick's or at the Hall. 

SECOND SEASON - - - 1908-1909 

THREE CHAMBER CONCERTS BY THE 

CZERWONKY 

String Quartet 

RICHARD CZERWONKY, First Violin CARL SCHEURER, VioU 

WILLY KRAFT, Second Violin RUDOLF NAGEL, Violoncello 

Wednesday Evenings, December 9, February 10, and March 24 

AT 8.15 O'CLOCK 
PROGRAM for December Ninth' 

1. QUARTET. C minor • Beethoren 

2. QUARTETTINO. C major, op. 5 . PogojefE 

(First time in Boston) 

3. QUARTET, C minor . . H. Kaun 

(First time in Boston) 
Tickets for the course of three concerts, $2.00 and $3.00 (with reserved seat), may be obtained at the 

hall (Telephone Oxford 1330). 

First of. a Series of THREE SONATA RECITALS by 

(Violin and Pianoforte) 

Mr. and Mrs. 
DAVID MANNES 

FRIDAY EVENING, DECEMBER FOURTH, at 8.15 

PROGRAM 
BACH — 1685-1750 ...... Sonata in E Major 

GRIEG — 1843-1907 ..... Sonata in G Major, Op. 13 

NARDINI— 1722-1793 ..... Sonata in D Major 

LEKEU — 1870-1894 ...... Sonata in G Major 

STEINWAY PIANOFORTE USED 

Tickets for Course of Three Recitals, $3.00, $2.00 Single tickets $ 1 .50, $ 1 .00 

Tickets ate now on sale at the Hall 
560 



S T E I 3Sr B lEgy T BE A Xj Xi 
SONG RECITAL by 

Heinrich Meyn 

THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER lo, AT 8.15 



II. 



III. 



PROGRAM 
Ganymed 
Kinderwacht 

Aus Meinen Grossen Schmerzen 
Standchen 
Feldeinsamkeit J 
Von Ewiger Liebe J 
Abendlied with violin obligate "l 
Jetzt und Immer J 

Im Zittemden Mondlicht 
Drei Wandrer 
Tryste Noel . . * 

Ballad of the Bony Fiddler 
Ces Deux Yeux ) 
Avec Un Bouquet ) 
Vielle Chanson 
Las Deux Amours / 

Un Grand Sommeil Noir j 
Benvenuto 

THE STEINWAY PIANO USED 



Schubert 

Schumann 

Franz 

Jensen 

Brahms 

Hugo Kaun 

Eugen Haile 

Hans Hermann 

. Gerrit Smith 

William G. Hammond 

Sebastian B. Schlesinger 

Nevin 

Clayton Johns 

Diaz 



Mr. COENRAAD V. BOS, Accompanist 

RESERVED SEATS, $1.50, $i.OO, $75 
Tickets are now on sale at the Hall (Telephone, Oxford 1330) 

JACOB SLEEPER HALL ^ ^^s boylston street 

Y. ^ *^M-,.M^M^^ .^^^ A*.j.M.^j^ v^ NEXT TO PUBLIC LIBRARY 

SECOND CONCERT by the 

HoFfmann Quartet 



J. HOFFMANN, First Violin K. RISSLAND, Viola 

A. BAK, Second Violin C BARTH, Violonceflo 

(Seventh Season, 1908-1909) 

Monday Eveniny, DECEMBER 14, at 8.15 

PROGRAMME 
I. Quartet in F minor. Op. 95 . 



J 



2. Tema con variazioni, Op. 32 

3. Piano Quintet, Op. 81 



Beethoven 
A. Foote 
Dvorak 



Assistiny Artist, Mr. RICHARD PLAIT 



The Maton & Hamlin Pianoforte 



Tickets ^^1.50, ;5!i.oo and 50 cents (balcony unreserved) on sale at 
688 Boylston Street, Treasurer's Office 

561 



JORDAN HALL 
Thursday Evening, December 10, at 8«30 

PIANOFORTE RECITAL 



BY 




CHARLES ANTHONY 



PROGRAM 

SONATA IN G MINOR . Schumann 

TWO CHORALS . . . . » Bach 

Arranged for piano by Max Reger 

First time. 

VARIATIONS ON A THEME BY BACH Max Reger 

First time. 

IMPROVISATION ^ 

> . . . . . . . . . MacDcwell 

THE JOY OF AUTUMN ) 

SCHERZO, C SHARP MINOR Chopin 

Mason & Hamlin Piano 

Tickets, $1.50 and $1.00, on sale at Jordan Hall Box Office. 

Management of Ralph L. Flanders. 



CHICKERING HALL 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 28 
at 3.30 o'clock 



Beatrice Herford 



IN HER 



Original Monologues 



TICKETS, $1.50, $1, and 75 cents 

On sale at Chickering Hall and Herrick's 

662 



The Cecilia Society 

WALLACE GOODRICH, Conductor 

THIRTY-THIRD SEASON 

Symphony Hall, Wednesday, December 9, 1908 

"The Legend of Saint Christopher" 

By Horatio Parker. 
A dramatic work for Chorus, Solo Voices, Orchestra, and Organ 

SOLOISTS 

Mrs. Blanche H, Kilduff, Soprano 

Miss Charlotte Williams, Soprano 

Dr. Franklin D. Lawson, Tenor 

Mr. Stephen Townsend, Baritone 

Mr. Reinald Werrenrath, Bass 



Box Office sale of single tickets at $2.00, $1.50, and $1.00, commences 
MONDAY, NOVEMBER 30, J908. 

MILTON EDUCATION SOCIETY 
CONCERTS 

FOURTH SEASON 



In the Town Hall of Milton, at 8 

December 7. RECITAL, M. CHARLES GILIBERT 
Assisted by Mme. Gilibert 
Accompanist, Mr. Alfred de Voto 

February L PIANO RECITAL, OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH 

April J2. ADAMOWSKI TRIO 



A limited number of tickets for the series $1.50, single tickets, 75 cents. 
Now on sale at Symphony Hall. 

663 



The Hess=Schroeder Quartet 

PROF. WILLY HESS, First Violin 

J. VON THEODOROWICZ, Second Violin 

EMILE FERIR, Viola 

ALWIN SCHROEDER, Violoncello 

At CHICKERING HALL 



Second Concert, December 22 

Tickets, 1^1.50, $1.00, and 50 cents, on sale at Symphony Hall. 




SVMPitomrlMll. 




564 




FIVE CONCERTS 

TUESDAY EVENINGS 



at 8.15 o'clock 




November lo . 


. 1908 


December 8 


1908 


January 5 . . . 


. 1909 


February 16 . 


1909 


March 16 


. 1909 



ASSISTING ARTISTS: 

Miss KATHARINE GOODSON Mr. OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH 
Mr. ERNEST CONSOLO Mr. COURTLANDT PALMER 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE| 



PROGRAMME OF THE SECOND CONCERT 

Schumann, R. ..... . Quartet in A major, Op. 41, No. 3 

Arthur Foote ...... Trio (No. 2) in B-flat major. Op. 65 

Eugene D' Albert . . . Scherzo from Quartet in E-flat major, Op. 11 
Grieg, E Unfinished Quartet in F major, (Posth) 

ASSISTING ARTIST 

Mr. ARTHUR FOOTE 

The Piano is a Chickering 

Admission tickets, at $1.00, entitling to a seat, for sale at 

THE BOSTON MUSIC CO. (Q. Schirmer) 
26 and 28 WEST STREET 

565 



Mr. H. G. TUCKER ANNOUNCES A SERIES OF SIX 

Sunday Chamber 
Concerts 

AT CHICKERING HALL 

SUNDAY AFTERNOONS 
January 10, 17, 24, 31, February 7, 14, 1909 

AT 3.30 O'CLOCK 



ORGANIZATIONS 

THE ADAMOWSKI TRIO 

THE HESS-SCHROEDER QUARTET 

THE LONGY CLUB 

THE CZERWONKY QUARTET 



ARTISTS 



Mr. T. ADAMOWSKI 

Mr. J. ADAMOWSKI 

Mr. C. W. ADAMS 

Mr. A. BROOKE 

Mr. RICHARD CZERWONKY 

Mr. ARNOLD DOLMETSCH 

Mrs. ARNOLD DOLMETSCH 

Mr. EMILE FERIR 

Mr. CECIL FANNING 

Mr. G. GRISEZ 

Mile. ERNESTINE GAUTHIER 

Mr. F. HAIN 

Mr. F. HELLEBERG 

Prof. WILLY HESS 

Mr. WILLIAM KRAFFT 



Mr. G. LONGY 

Mr. C LENOM 

Mr. H. LORBEER 

Mr. P. MIMART 

Miss EMMA BUTTRICK NOYES 

Mr. RUDOLF NAGEL 

Mr. GEORGE PROCTOR 

Mr. J. VON THEODOROWICZ 

Mr. P. SADONY 

Mr. ALWIN SCHROEDER 

Mr. CARL SCHEURER 

Mme. SZUMOWSKA 

Mr. H. G. TUCKER 

Mr. A. DE VOTO , 



Tickets ioi the course, $2.50 and $4.00 

Subscription list now open at Chickering Hall, closing December 28 

Public season ticket sale December 29 



566 



J 



SUNDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 13 

AT EIGHT 



CONCERT 



BY THE 



BOSTON 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

IN AID OF ITS 



PENSION FUND 



PROGRAMME AND FURTHER DETAILS LATER 

Geo. Lincoln Parker 
PIANOS 

The Krakauer, "the Piano with a Human Voice." 
The Sohmer-CeciHan 88 note Player, the acme of 

Player construction. 
"Connorized" guaranteed music for Player-Pianos. 
Catalogs on postal card request. 



GEO. LINCOLN PARKER 

213 TREMONT STREET 



Near Majestic Theatre 

567 



The Lekeu Club 

MR. GEORGE COPELAND, Jr.. Piano MR. FREDERICK MAHN. 1st Violin 

MR. HANDASYD CABOT, Violoncello MR. ALFRED GIETZEN, Viola 

FRANK CURRIER, 2nd Violin 

Will give Three Concerts on Sunday Afternoons at 4 o'clock 

November 29th, December 20th, and January 17th 

AT POTTER HALL 

PROGRAM FOR FIRST CONCERT 

■Quartet, Lekeu. Soli po& Piano. Solo for Violin, Strube. Quintet, Dvorak 

Subscription tickets for the Series, ;?3.oo for two reserved seats ; single tickets 75 cents each, are on sale at 
Symphony Hall and the Boston Music Co., 26 West Street. 

THE MASON & HAMLIN PIANO 



HUNTINGTON CHAMBERS HALL 

FOR RECITALS 

30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE 



Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, November 30 

At three •o'clock 

?i-.tlri^ MR. ERNEST SCHELLING 

Tickets, 50 cents, $1.00, and $1.50, on sale at Symphony Hall 
Direction: LOUDON CHARLTON Local Management: L. H. MUDGETT 



Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue 
Ssrmphonic Etudes . 
Two Intermezzi from Op. 117 . 
Two Etudes, F major (Op. 25) 
A-flat (Op. 10) . 



Programme 
Bach 
Schumann 
. Brahms 



Chopin 



Two Overtures, Op. 27 

Valse, A-flat 

Alborado del graciosa 

Barcarolle in G minor 

Rhapsodie Number 10 



. Chopin 

Chopin 

Ravel 

Rubenstein 

Liszt 



Steinway Piano Used 



Jordan Hall, Monday Afternoon, December 7, at 3 

DR. LUDWIG WiiLLNER 



Song R.ecital 
by 



ACCOMPANrST, COENRAD V. BOS 

Second Appearance in Boston. Tickets, $L50, $L00, and 50 cents, at Symphony Hall 

MAIL ORDERS for the above concerts, accompanied by check or money order, and a(}dressed 
to L. H. Mudgett, Symphony Hall, filled in order of receipt and as near the desired location as 
possible prior to public sale. 



568 



Alfred Peats Wall Paper 



EFFECTIVE 
INTERIOR 
DECORATION 



The modern idea of furnishing a 
room — a rug, not too much furniture, beau- 
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With the accumulation of wealth 
taste or style in the decorations of the home has advanced. This 
improved taste recognizes more and more that the keynote of 
interior decoration is the walls — that there is nothing more 
important. 

In the whole history of interior decoration, nothing has been 
shown to equal the papers we are showing this fall. Our immense 
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nating and careful buyer will find exactly what is required at prices 
as moderate as can be found anywhere for the same grade of goods. 

BOSTON'S EXCLUSIVE WALL PAPER SHOP 

116=120 SUnnER STREET 



HOTEL RENNERT 

BALTIMORE, MD. 




Within one square of the shopping dis- 
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The standard hotel of the South. 

The cuisine of this hotel has made 
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The only hotel in the world where the 
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MODERN IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 

EUROPEAN PLAN 

Rooms, $1.50 per day and upwards Fire-proof building 



569 



Mr. ERNST PERABO begs to announce 

Two Soirees Musicales 

Tne first will take place at the 

FENWAY COURT 

On WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 16, 1908, at 8.15 RM. 

When h^ will be assisted by Professor Willy Hess, Violin, Mr. H. Warnkej 
'Cello, and Mr. E. Blum, Tenor 

the second at 

CHICKERING HALL 

On WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 20, 1909, at. 8,15 RM. 

With the assistance of Mr. Alwin Schroeder, 'Cello, and Miss Virginia 

LiSTEMANN, Soprano 



Subscription Tickets for the two concerts, ^2.50 each. 

Single Tickets, with reserved seats, ^1.50 and ^i.oo, at The Boston Music Company, 
26 28 West Street (G. Schirmer) and at Chickering Hall. 



Miss LAURA HAWKINS 



P 



NUMBER 6 NEWBURY STREET 

Play by C A ¥ /^^t^yHT Mttsic by 

Oscar Wilde J3.r%.L«l^ IV IIL Richard Strauss 

This opera, arranged as a Reading, with music 

HOTEL TUILERIES, BOSTON, MASS. 

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 3rd, at 3.30 O'CLOCK 

AMY GRANT, Reader JESSIE DAVIS, at the Piano 

TICKETS, TWO DOLLARS AT HERRICK'S 

570 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION. 



VOCAL JNSTRUCTION and 

30PRANO SOLOIST 

Miss HARRIET S. WHITTIER, ^f""". ^^^ """tmgton Aven„e. " 

Exponent of the method of the late Charles R. Adams. 
Portsmoutb, New Hampshire, Mondays. 



Mr. CHARLES B. STEVENS, 



TEACHER or Si/\GING. 

STUDFOS, 
Suite 14, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 

Telephone, 133 1 Oxford. 

Miss Harriette C. Wepcott, 

Accompanist and Assistant Teacher. 



MissGAROLINEM. SOUTHARD, 

TEACHER OF THE PIANOFORTE. 



Classes in Sight Reading 

(EIGHT HANDS). 

Advanced pupils follow the Symphony programmes 
as far as practicable. 

165 Huntington Avenue - Boston 



Miss GERTRUDE EDMANDS, 



Concert and Oratorio. 

Vocal Instruction. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue. 



Mrs. HALL MCALLISTER, 



TEACHER or SI/NGING. 

407 Pierce Building, 
COPLEY SQUARE. 

Musical Management. 



Hiss ELEANOR BRI6HAM, 



Pianist and TeacHer. 

Trinity Court. 



Mr. BERNHARD USTEMANN'S 

Master School for Violinists. 



Training to competent teachers prin- 
cipal aim. Ensemble lessons. 

OFFICE 
703 PIERCE! BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE. 

Hours: Monday and Thursday, from i p.m. 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, 9 to i and 3 to 4. 



Miss JOSEPHINE COLLIER, 



PIANIST and TEACHER. 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Walter E. Loud — Violin. 

Pupil of Ysaye. 



32 Batavia Street. 



571 



Miss CLARA E. MUNGER, 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

Century Building, 
177 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 



Iss Bertha Wesselhoeit Swilt, 



Soprano Soloist, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
Studio, TRINITY COURT, Boston. 

Miss Swift is ready to give her children's programs 
before clubs, church societies, and in private houses 



Hiss LUCY CLARK ALLEN, 



Pianoforte Lessons. 

Accompaniments. 

LANG STUDIOS, 6 NEWBURY STREET. 



Hr.SAMUELJ.HacWATTERS, 

Professor of Voice Building in 
Boston University. 



VOICE PLACING, 

Development of Tone and 
Resonance. 

72 MOUNT VERNON STREET. 



His. LUCIA GALE BARBER, 



Rhythm applied to Physical and Per- 
sonal Development, 
Music Interpretation, 
Lectures and Instruction. 

The Ludlow, Copley Sq., Boston. 



KARL DOERING, 



TENOR- BARITONE. 

Pupil of Professor Jachman-Wagner, Berlin, and 
Professor Galliera, Milan, Italy. 

Training and Finishing of Voice. 

School for Grand Opera and Oratorio. 
STEINERT HALL, ROOM 27. 

Open Monday, October 12. Send for new Prospectus 



BERTHA CDSHIN6 CHILD, 



38 BABCOCK ST., BROOKLINE. 

TEACHING AT 

LANG STUDIOS, 

6 NEWBURY ST., BOSTON. 



HARY B. SAWYER 



5 
Leschetizky Method. 



PIANO AND HARMONY. 

For four years Pupil and Authorized Assistant of 

Frau VARETTE STEPANOFF, 

BERLIN, GERMANY. 

Studio, Steinert Hall, 162 Boylston St. 



THEODORE SGHROEDER, 

(BASSO-CANTANTE). 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

(Garcia Method). 
Studio, 326 Huntington Chambers, Boston 

Mr Schroeder makes a specialty of VOICE BUILD- 
ING and FREEDOM of Tone Emission. 
Professionals COACHED in standard Operas 
Oratorios, and German Lieder. 



572 



PIANISTEand TEACHER. 

Mrs. CAROLYN KING HUNT, «— ^ =— "-. 



BOSTON. 



Hiss REN& I. BISBEE, 



TEACHER or PIANO, 

LANG STUDIOS, 
6 NEWBURY STREET. 



LOCY FRANCES GERRISH, 



PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION. 

GERRISH STUDIO, 
140 Boylston Street . . . Boston. 



EDITH LYNWOOD .WINN 



LECTURE-RECITALS 



,,„,,„ , This season, Russian, Hungarian, iTtb 

Normal and Teachers' Courses for a„d ^Sth century Music. 
Viohn. 

Chndren'B claBses at special rates TRINITY COURT . . BOSTON. 



Piano, Voice, Violin (and all orchestral 
instruments), Theory, Musical Analysis, 
Analytical Harmony, Composition, Score 
Reading, Chorus and Orchestral Con- 
ducting. 
B. GUCKENBERGER, Director. 30 Huntington Avenue . . Boston 



The Guckenberger School of 
Mdsig. 



HENRY T. WADE, 



Teacher of 

Pianolorte, Church Organ, 

Theorg of Music. 

Steinert Hall, Boston. 
77 Newtonville Avenue, Newton. 



PIANIST. 

RICHARD PLATT, 23 steinert Hall . . Boston. 

Mason & Hamlin Piano. 

PIANO ORGAN 

CHARLES S. JOHNSON, HARMONY. 

LANG STUDIOSt 6 NEWBURY STREET. 

HARRIST. 

ISS HARRIET A. SHAW, ^^^ commonwealth avenue 

Telephone. 

Tenor Soloist and Teacher. 

CLARENCE B. SHIRLEY, ,. !ir""*=^5*^^"'l<^'"??'""i.«- 

' Studio, Huntington Chambers, Boston. 

573 



SAM L. STUDLEY. 



Pierce Building, Copley Square, Room 313. 

INSTRUCTION IN THE 
ART OF SINGING. 

OPERA, ORATORIO, AND SONG. 



mss PRISCILLA WHITE. 



TEACHER OF SINGING. 

602 Pierce Buiidlng, 
Copley Square, BOSTON. 

Tuesdays and Fridays at Lasell Seminary. 



EARL CARTWRIGHT, 



BARITO/NE. 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



Miss JESSIE DAVIS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
289 Newbury Street, Boston. 



Miss Rose Stewart, 

Vocal Instruction. 

246 Huntington Avenue. 



Miss EDITH E. TORREY, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

164 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 
Tuesdays and Fridays at Wellesley College. 



Miss EDITH JEWELL, 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER, 

37 BRIMMER STREET. 

efers by permission to Mr.,C. M. Loeffler. 



HELEN ALLE/N HUNT. 

CONTRALTO SOLOIST. 

Teacher of Singing. 
No. 514 Pierce Building Boston. 



BOSTON MUSICAL BUREAU. 

Established 1899. 
Supplies Schools, Colleges, and Conservatoriei 

with Teachers of Music, etc.; also Churches wit£ 
Organists, Directors, and Singers. 

Address HENRY C. LAHEE, 

'Phone, 47S-I Oxford. 2iSTrbmont St., Boston. 



Mrs. S. B. FIELD, 

Teactier of the Piano and Accompanist. 
HOTEL NOTTINGHAM. 

Mrs. Field makes a specialty of Coaching, in both 
vocal and instrumental music. 

Artists engaged, programmes arranged, and all 
•■esponsibility assumed for private musicales. 



Miss MARIE L EVERETT, 

Teacher of Singing. 

Pupil of MADAME MARCHESI, 

Paris. 

THE COPLEY, BOSTON. 



Miss MARY D. CHANDLER, 

Concert Pianist and Teacher. 

Pupil o/Philipp, Paris. 

149A TREMONT ST., Monday and Thursday, 

Residence, 5 Ashland Street, Dorchester. 

Telephone, 1828-3 Dorchester. 



Miss PAULA MUELLER, 

Teacher of Piano 
and German Language. 

STUDIOS, 
28 Central Avenue, Room .30, Steinert Hall 

MEDFORD. BOSTON. 

RECITALS. 



Mrs.V.PERNAUX-SCHUMANN, 

TEACHER OF FRENCH and GERMAN. 
French and German Diction a Specialty. 

33 BATAVIA STREET Suite 8. BOSTON. 



Miss l/NEZ DAY, 

PIANIST and TEACHER. 

LANQ STUDIOS, 
6 NEWBURY STREET. 



574 



MR. ROBT. N. 
MRS. ROBT. N. 



LISTER, 



Teacher of Singing, 
Soprano Soloist. 

Symphony Chambers, opposite Symphony Hall, 
BOSTON. 



CHARLOTTE WHITE, 

Violoncellist of the Carolyn Belcher String Quartet. 

TEACHER AND SOLOIST. 
608 Huntington Chambers, Boston, Mass* 



THOMAS L. CUSHMAN, 

VOCAL TEACHER. 
218 TREMONT STREET. 



L. B. 

MERRILL 



BASS SOLOIST 

AND 

TEACHER. 

218 Tremont Street. 



Mme. de BERG-LOFGREN, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 

The " GARCIA " Method. 
Studio, 12 Westland Avenue. BOSTON, MASS. 



Mrs. H. CARLETON SLACK, 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Lyric Soprano. Concerts and Recitals. 
Lessons at residence, 128 Hemenway Street. 



Miss PEARL BRICE, 

CONCERT VIOLINIST, TEACHER. 
Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street. 



Mrs.LOUISELATHROP MELLOWS, 

Pianist and Teacher. 

STUDIO, Jefferson HaU, 
Trinity Court, Dartmouth Street, Boston. 



Miss M. B. HARTWELL, 

PIANO AND HARMONY. 
Studio, 9 St. James Avenue. 

Miss Hartwell has but recently returned from 

Vienna, where she studied the Leschetirky 

Method for three years and a half. 



VIOLET IRENE WELLINGTON, 

Humorous and Dramatic Reader. 

Also 
Teacher of Voice, Elocution, Physical Cultnra. 

59 Westland Avenue. 
Telephgne, 3439-1 Back Bay. 



TIPPEH 



CLARA 



PA II I I ^^'^^^^'^ 

STUDIOS 



VOICE 



Assistant, GRACE R. HORNE 

312 PIERCE BUILDING 
COPLEY SQUARE 



LUISE LEIMER, 

Contralto Soloist and Teacher of Singia{. 

Studio, 23 Crawford Street 

and 5teinert Building. 

Miss RUTH LAIGHTON, 

Violinist and Teacher 

19 Chestnut Street - Boston 



Miss JANET DUFF. 

(7 years pupil of Francis Korbay) 
Contralto, Concerts, Oratorios, and Song Recitals. 
Ea jiTeacher of Voice Production and Singing. 
Studio, 402 Huntington Chambers. 

Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday morn- 
ings 
Management, W. S. Bigelow, Jr., Boston 



Miss MARIE WARE LAUGHTON, 

Lecturer and Reader of Shakspere. 

Instructor of the VOICE IN SPEECH. 

Courses of Study for Personal Culture and Pro* 

fessional Training. 

^18 PIERCE BUILDING, COPLEY SQUARE 



ARTHUR M. CURRY, 

Teacher of 

Violin, Hafmony, Composition. 
34 STEINERT HALL. 



Ellen M. Yerrinton, 

Vorbereiter to Teresa Carreno, 

Uhland Str. 30, BERLIN, W., GERMANY 



575 



Allen H. Daugherty, 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION, 
HARMONY. 

Tel., Oxford 1629-1 . 2 1 8 Tremont Street . 



Miss MARY A.STOWELL, 

Teacher of Piano and Harmony. 
The ILKLEY, 

Huntington Avenue and Cumberland Street. 

(Cumberland Street entrance.) 



Miss KATHERINE LINCOLN, 

Soprano Soloist. 
Teacher of Singing. 

514 Piarce Building, Copley Square, Boston. 



BARITONE. 



George W. Mull, 

Teacher of Singing. 

The Copley, 18 Huntington Avenue,Boston. 



JOHN GROGAN MANNING, 

CONCERT PIANIST and TEACHER. 

Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday 
afternoons 

Symphony Chambers, 246 Huntington Ave. 



Mr. WILLIS W. GGLDTHWAIT, 

Teacher of Piano. 

Thorough instruction in Harmony, class or private. 

7 Park Square, Boston. 



JOHN BEACH, 

PIANIST. 
10 Charles Street. 



Miss MARGARET GORHAM, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 

Trinity Court. Boston. 



Mrs. HIRAM HALL, 

Pianist and Teacher. 
118 Charles Street. 



Mrs. Alice Wentworth MacGregor, 

TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

Residence Studio, 780 Beacon Street. 
Tuesdays and Fridays at Abbot Academy. 



Mrs. NELLIE EVANS PACKARD. 

Studio, 218 Tremont Street (Room 308), Boston. 

VOCAL INSTRUCTION. 

Mrs. Packard is commended by Walker, Randegger 
(London), Marchesi, Bouhy, Trabadelo (Paris), 
Leoni (Milan), Vannuccini (Florence), Cotogni, 
Franceschetti (Rome). 



Mr. P. nUMARA 

Will furnish a Small Orchestra of mem- 
bers of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
for Musicales, Dinners, Receptions, etc. 

Address, Symphony Hall. 



ARTHUR THAYER, 

TEACHER OF SINGING. 
200 Huntington Avenue 



Mr. CHARLES DUMAS, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 
Former Assistant at Harvard . 

French (all grades), Lectures, Diction, 

Elocution, etc. 
286 Columbus Ave.jOpp. Back Bay Station, 



CLAUDE HACKELTON, 

PIANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, Room 515, Boston 



•i 



EVERETT E. TRUETTE, 

CONCERT ORGANIST AND TEACHER. 
218 Tremont Street, BOSTON. 



EDWIN N. C. BARNES, 

Basso Cantante and 
Teacher of Singing. 

Symphony Chambers . . . Boston. 

Opposite Symphony Hall. 



Concert. 

L^^fe GOODBAR, 



Oratorio 
SOPRANO 
SOLOIST. 



TEACHER OF SINQINQ. 

Thorough preparation for Concert and Church. 

Studio . . Steinert Hall. 

'Phone, Oxford 1330. Mondays and Thursday*. 



576 



Gabrilowitsch 

Recognized throughout the world as one of the fore- 
most pianists of the day, writes as 
follows concerning the 

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PIANOS 



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in all the essential qualities which go to make up an 
artistic instrument of the very first quality; they are, in 
my opinion, in advance of all others because of certain 
important structural features (notably the Tension Resonator) 
invented and developed by yourselves, which in my judgment 
give the Mason & Hamlin piano an exceptional position 
among the pianos of the world. 

(Signed) OSSIP GABRILOWITSCH. 



MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

Opp. Institute of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 




" New York, December 19, 1905. 

" Dear Mr. Steinway : On the eve of my departure, after having had 
the honor of conducting the Philharmonic Orchestra, I cannot but 
express my unbounded admiration for your great country and^institutions. 
The reality far surpasses my fondest anticipations, and I hope that I 
may soon again have the opportunity to visit the United States. 

" What interested me most as a musician was the revelation your 
wonderful pianos proved to my highest musical instincts. Thanks to 
your courtesy, I had the opportunity of testing your various models, and 
the absolute, unapproachable perfection I found in all of them, from the 
smallest upright piano to the largest concert grand, impels me to request 
you to add my name to the long list of musicians who have placed the 
'Steinway' in a class by itself. Every trial of them discovered to me 
new beauties of tone and depths of power and resonance, and this one art 
product alone places the United States in the front rank of musical and 
artistic achievement. 

"Trusting to have the pleasure of receiving you in my home in 
Hamburg, Germany, when you will visit that city next summer, and with 
kindest greetings to all the members of your house, I am, 

" Yours most sincerely, 

"MAX FIEDLER," 



THE STEINWAY REPRESENTATIVES IN BOSTON ARE THE 

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Qiialihv cS TrttlO i'l^.piano is dependent upon the crown, or arch, 
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caused by the flattening of the sounding-board through the action of the 
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1902, CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING: 

"One imperfection in the modern pianoforte, found even in the instruments 
made by standard makers, has been the loss in tone quality, due to the inability 
of the sounding board to retain its tension. The problem seems at last to have 
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in the pianos of Mason & Hamlin of Boston, U.S.A." 

A copy of the Scientific American article will be mailed upon application 



MASON & HAMLIN COMPANY 

0pp. Inst, of Technology 492-494 Boylston Street 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON 6- MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

™ , , ( Ticket Office, 1492 ) ^^ , ^ 

Telephones { Administratiin Offices, 3200 ( Back Bay 

TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, 1908-1909 



MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 

f rngramm? of ti|P 

Eighth 

Rehearsal and Concert 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIP- 
TIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 




FRIDAY AFTERNOON, DECEMBER 11 

AT 2.30 O'CLOCK 

SATURDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 12 
AT 8.00 O'CLOCK 

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY C. A. ELLIS 
PUBLISHED BY C. A. ELLIS, MANAGER 



577 



Mme. CECILE CHAMINADE 

•The World's Greatest Woman Composer 

Mme. TERESA CARRENO 

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Mme.* LILLIAN NORDICA 

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USE 




Piano. 



THE JOHN CHURCH CO., 37 West 32d Street 
Nev/ York City 



REPRESENTED BY 

G. L SGHIRMER & CO., 38 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



578 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

PERSONNEL 





Twenty -e 


Ighth Season, 1908° 1909 


» 




MAX FIEDLER, Conductor 








First Violins. 


, 


Hess, Willy Roth, O. 

Concert-master. Kuntz, D. 
Noack, S. 


Hoffmann, J. 
Fiedler, E. 


Krafft, W. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


Mahn, F. 
Strube, G, 


Eichheim, H. 
Rissland, K. 


Bak, A. 
Ribarsch, A. 

Second Violins. 


Mullaly, J. 
Traupe, W. 


Barleben, K. 
Fiumara, P. 


Akeroyd, J. 
Currier, F. 


Fiedler, B. 
Werner, H. 


Berger, H. 
Eichler, J. 


Tischer-Zeitz, 
Goldstein, S. 


H. Kuntz, A. 
Kurth, R. 


Marble, E. 
Goldstein, H. 

Violas. 




Ferir, E. 
Scheurer, K. 


Heindl, H. 
Hoyer, H. 


Zahn, F. Kolster, A. 
Kluge, M. Sauer, G. 

Violoncellos. 


Krauss, H. 
Gietzen, A. 


Warnke, H. 
Keller, J. 


Nagel, R. 
Kautzenbach, A. 


Barth, C. Loeffler, E. 
Nast, L. Hadley, A. 

Basses. 


Warnke, J. 
Smalley, R. 


Keller, K. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Agnesy, K. 
Kunze, M. 


Seydel, T. 
Huber, E. 


Ludwig, O. 
Schurig, R. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Maquarre, A. 
Maquarre, D. 
Brooke, A. 
Fox, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Sautet, A. 

English Horn 


Grisez, G. Sadony, P. 
Mimart, P. Mueller, E. 
Vannini, A. Regestein, E. 

Bass Clarinet. Contra-Bassoon. 




Mueller, F. 


Stumpf, K. 


Helleberg, J. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. Trombones. Tuba. 


Hess, M. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Phair, J. 


Schmid, K. 
Gebhardt, W. 
Hackebarth, A. 
Schumann, C. 


Kloepfel, L. Hampe, C. Lorenr, 0. 
Mann, J. Mausebach, A. 
Heim, G. Kenfield, L. 
Merrill, C. 


Harp. 


Tympani. 


Percussion. 


Schuecker, H. 


Rettberg, A. 


Dworak, J. 


Senia, T. 




Kandler, F. 


Ludwig, C. 
Librarian. 


Burkhardt, H. 












Sauerquell, J. 








579 








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TWENTY-EIGHTH SEASON, NINETEEN HUNDRED EIGHT AND NINE 



Eighth Rehearsal and G^ncert* 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, DECEMBER U, at 2.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY EVENING, DECEMBER J 2, at 8 o'clock. 



PROGRAMME. 



Noren 



Wagner . 



Debussy 



*' Kaleidoscope " : Original Theme and Variations 
for Orchestra, Op. 30. First time in Boston 

Senta's Ballad from " The Flying Dutchman " 



Three Nocturnes: "Clouds"; "Festivities"; "Sirens" 
(Chorus of Sirens sung by the Choral Club of the 
New England Conservatory of Music). 

First time at these concerts 



Songs with Pianoforte Accompaniment 

Schubert .... -s ^. "Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel" 



(a. "The Sign Post" 
< b. "Gretchen -^- +1^" 
( c. " Erlking " 



Weber 



Overture to the Opera " Der Freischutz " 



SOLOIST, 
Miss EMMY DESTINN. 

Of the Metropolitan Opera House, New York. 



The Pianoforte is a Stein^way. 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the W^agner selection. 



The doors of the hall will be closed during the performance of 
each number on the programme. Those who wish to leave before 
the end of the concert are requested to do so in an interval &e- 
tween the numbers. 

City of Boston. Revised Regulation of August 5. 1898.— Chapter 3. relating to the 
covering of the head In places of public auinsenient. 

Every licensee shall not, in his place of amusement, allow any person to wear upon the head a covering 
which obstructs the view of the exhibition or performance in such place of any person seated in any seat therein 
provided for spectators, it being understood that a low head covering without projection, which does not 
obstruct such view, may be worn. Attest J. M. GALVIN, City Clerk. 

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BOSTON 



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"Kaleidoscope," Original Theme and Variations for Orchestra, 
Op. 30 Heinrich Gottlieb Noren 

(Born at Grat-z, about 1863; now living at Loschwitz, near Dresden.) 

Noren's father was a Moravian; his mother was a Slovak. Heinrich 
was for a time director of the Music School, afterward the Conserva- 
tory of Music at Crefeld (i 896-1 903). He lived for a time in Berlin,, 
where he was a teacher at the Stern Conservatory. He resigned this 
position in the fall of 1907 to devote himself to composition. Among 
his compositions are a trio for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello. Op. 
28; a suite for violin and piano, Op. 16; "Pastoral Sketches" for har- 
monium, violin, and violoncello ; songs, etc. It is said that a symphony 
is almost completed, and that he is also at work on an opera. 

" Kaleidoskop : Originalthema und Variationen fiir Orchester," 
was begun about 1904, but it was not completed until the winter of 
1906-07. The first performance was on July i, 1907, at a concert in the 
course of the 43d Festival of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein, 
held at Dresden. Publication of the work was delayed on account of 
a singular lawsuit, to which reference is made later in this article. 
Therefore, the performances announced for the season of 1907-08 in 
Boston and Philadelphia did not occur. Nevertheless, "Kaleidoscope" 
was performed at a concert of the Ro^^al Musical Orchestra, Dresden, 
January 31, 1908. 

The first performance in the United States was at Chicago by the 
Theodore Thomas Orchestra, October 30, 1908, Frederick Stock, con- 
ductor. 

Mr. Felix Borowski in his programme notes for the concert in Chicago 
says: "Mr. Noren states that in constructing his theme and variations 
he endeavored to treat the latter, not in the conventional manner, but 



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TIEFLAND, by E. D 'Albert, German and English text 
LA HABANERA, by R. La Parra, French text . 
LE VILLI, by G. Puccini, English text 

The Same, Italian text 

LA WALLY, by A. Catalani, Italian text . 
FALSTAFF, by Giuseppe Verdi, Italian and English text 



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to give each a characteristic stamp — to bring before the listener a 
picture of some moment of existence or some mood." 

Mr. Johannes Reichert says that the work is neither absolute music, 
after the fashion of Max Reger's Variations on a Merry Theme of 
J. A. Hiller, nor extreme programme music, as the variations "Don 
Quixote" by Richard Strauss. "In some of Noren's variations the 
programme of the contents is hinted at ; in others, it is not ; but each 
variation has its own life and existence." 

* * 

The work is scored for three flutes (one interchangeable with piccolo) 
two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, 
double bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 
a set of three kettledrums, bass drum, snare-drum, tambourine, cym- 
bals, triangle, xylophone, tamtam, Glockenspiel, two harps, strings. 
It is dedicated to Ernst von Schuck, the distinguished court opera and 
orchestral conductor at Dresden. 

There is a short introduction, Langsam, fast Adagio (slow, almost 
Adagio), E minor, 4-4. There is a rhythmic motive for snare-drum, 
which begins m/ and grows softer. There is a hint of the theme given 
to the wood-wind. The strings take up this fragment. 

Theme : Sostenuto, E minor, 2-4. The theme opens with English 
horn and bassoon, and it has the nature of an old church mode. D 
takes the place of D-sharp as leading tone, somewhat after the fashion 
of the hypodorian mode. The middle section is treated canonically. 
A new motive leads back to the first section of the theme, which appears 
as a whole in song-form and in a richer dress. 

Variation I. "Praeambulum," Un poco piii mosso, E minor, 2-4. 
This variation is in the nature of a gay improvisation, with the theme 
easily recognized. There are two contrasting ideas: one is expressed 



RUDOLF FRIML 

NEW PIANOFORTE MUSIC 

Op. 35. Suite Mignonne. 

No. I. Solitude . . (2B) .30 

No. 2. Morning Song . (3A) .30 

No. 3. Valse romantique (3A) .30 

No. 4. A little Story . (3A) .30 

No. 5. Danse Bohemienne (3A) .30 

No. 6. Contemplation . (2c) .40 
Complete. (Edition Schmidt No. 

129 75 

Op. 36. Three Compositions. 

No. I. At Dawn . . (3c) .40 

No. 2. Twilight . . (3B) .40 

No. 3. Melodie sentimentale (3A) .40 

Arthur P. Schmidt 

120 Boylston Street, (Walker Building) 
BOSTON 



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Voice, Song, and Speed . • 2.00 
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All music performed at these concerts 
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JDy powerful and sweeping scale passages for strings and wood-wind 
instruments ; the other by a staccato and alternating figure. 

Variation II. "Elegischer Reigen." (At the first performance the 
title ran "Melancholischer Reigen.") "Mournful Dance," Allegretto 
(gemachliches Landler tempo), — in the time of an easy-going Landler, — 
E minor, 3-4. The theme is transformed into a melody that has the 
rhythm of the Landler or slow waltz. The melody is given to the 
clarinets, and the bassoons have a drone bass. An expressive counter- 
melody is soon given to the English horn. In the second part of the 
period 'cellos, violas, and bassoons have the melody, while violins and 
horns have a theme in opposition. 

Variation III. "Canon," Moderato assai, C-sharp minor, 2-2. At 
the first performance in Dresden, this variation was the Seventh. 
The canon is in the octave. The subject is begun by the wood-wind, 
and the imitation is in lower strings. Free voices are afterward added. 

Variation IV. Scherzo ("Humor "), Vivace assai con spirito, E major, 
6-8. This variation is described by Mr. Noren as "alight chuckling 
(or snickering) and skipping presto, in which, after every period of four 
measures, there is a melodic stroke of the theme." These strokes give 
the intervals of the scale which are peculiar to the theme in its original 
tonality. The middle section is more extended. The repetition is 
fortissimo ^with percussion instruments. There is a motive of the 
theme introduced suddenly fortissimo (strings and horns) with power- 
ful cymbal -crashes. A German commentator, Johannes Reichert, is 
moved to inquire whether a faun falls in with elves dancing who, 
frightened, vanish as smoke, or whether in the gay and careless life of 
man there is all at once a voice of bodement. 

Variation V. "Im Dom" (In the Cathedral), Andante sostenuto, 
C major, 4-4. The theme is given as a cantus firmtis to the first and 
second horns, while slowly moving eighth notes for strings, the low C 
in the third and fourth horns, and the sustained harmonies in the wood- 
wind suggest organ-playing. At the expiration of the episode an organ 
point prepares the return of the theme, which is now given to the 
strings with slight rhythmic variations. Wood-wind instruments and 



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horns now have the full-voiced passage in eighth notes. The close is 
as the Amen with the old-fashioned ecclesiastical cadence. 

Variation VI. "Pastorale," Allegretto, A minor, 6-8. A shepherd's 
tune, somewhat monotonous and melancholy, 'is played by the English 
horn, and is interrupted after every four measures by a light orchestral 
interlude. Later bassoons and clarinets have the shepherd's tune, while 
violins and flutes play in counterpoint against it. 

Variation VII. "Trauermarsch: langsam und feierlich" (Funeral 
March: slow and solemn), B minor, 4-4. This variation was not in 
the score that was used at the first performance at Dresden. The 
introductory measures have the rhythm of the snare-drum heard at 
the beginning of this work. The theme of the march is given to violas 
and bassoons. A new melody is sung by 'cellos with bassoons. There 
is a long crescendo to a climax, and then the theme repeated by full 
orchestra dies gradually until it ends as softly as it began. 

Variation VIII. "Frisch" (A Slav Dance), Allegro molto, A major, 
2-4. This dance of joyful, almost tempestuous character is from be- 
ginning to end built on a sixteenth-note figure. 

Variation IX. "From Far-off Days" ("Aus fernen Tagen"), Adagio, 
E major, 4-4. This variation was not played at the first or at the 
second performance in Dresden. The variation is in the nature of a 
revery. There is elaborate part writing, and at times the -strings are 
divided into sixteen parts. In the middle of the variation a trumpet 
is heard — as from a distance — playing the theme on which the varia- 
tions are constructed. 

Variation X. Mazurka, D-flat major, 3-4. A fiery folk-dance. 



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589 



The theme is announced by 'cellos and clarinets, while there is a wild 
accompaniment. 

Variation XI. "To a celebrated Contemporary," Fantasia ("An 
einen beriihmten Zeitgenossen : Fantasie") maestoso, un poco agitato, 
B minor, 4-4. Here Noren has combined two motives taken from 
Richard Strauss's tone-poem, "A Hero Life, " with material of his own. 
While the upper voice varies Noren's theme, violoncellos and horns 
announce the Straussian hero's theme, yet this theme is not exactly 
the one fashioned by Strauss. There is also a free and invented theme 
in opposition. After development of this material, another reminder 
of Strauss is introduced, in the episode: the motive of "The Hero's 
Antagonists," the "Norgler" (or "Nergler") motive. This is first 
given to flute and oboe, and then used polyphonically with Noren's 
themes. At last, after the Variation theme is sounded in the brass, 
the "Antagonists" theme serves to usher in the Double Fugue (Allegro 
molto moderato, E minor, 2-4. The first theme of this double fugue 
is the "Antagonists" motive, and it is given to the bassoon. In the 
second development, Noren's original theme, somewhat modified, 
rhythmically enters as the second subject of the fugue (horns and 
oboes, ff). Mr. Noren says in his short notes prepared -for the first 
performance at Dresden that in the third development the first subject 
now inverted loses its mocking character and is more humorous. 
A fresh, original motive is added (strings), and the stretto of the fugue 
begins which leads to augmentation of the two subjects. They come 
against each other with full force, and there is a mighty crescendo over 
an organ point. Noren's theme waxes stronger and stronger, har- 



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monized variously while the "Antagonists" motive buzzes about it, 
and arrives (trumpets and trombones) at the Choral, Moderate 
maestoso, E major, ,4-4. . This Noren theme is the theme of the 
Choral. The "Antagonists" motive is now an accompanying figure 
in the harmonic scheme. After a climax at the end of the Choral, 
gentle ascending harmonies in the rhythm of the original theme are 
built on a descending bass. The ending is pianiossimo in the mood of 
the opening measures of the composition. 

* * 

Soon after the first performance pf "Kaleidoscope" the publisher 
of "A Hero Life" protested against the publication of Noren 's theme 
and variations. The story is best told in an extract from an edi- 
torial article in the Evening Post, New York: — 

"What is a melody? This question had to be answered the other 
day in a German law court. A composer named Noren wrote a sym- 
phonic piece entitled the 'Kaleidoskop,' in which he embellished a 
theme of his own with variations introducing two themes from Richard 
Strauss's 'Heldenleben.' It was intended as a deliberate act of 
homage, as was indicated by the words, 'To a famous Contemporary,' 
printed in the score over the bars cited. Strauss himself had no ob- 
jections; indeed, he actually congratulated Noren on his achievement. 
The publisher of 'Heldenleben,' on the other hand, protested against 
the printing and sale of the 'Kaleidoskop,' on the strength of section 
13 of the copyright law of 1901, which says: 'In a musical composi- 
tion it is not permissible to take a recognizable melody from it and in- 
corporate it in a new work.' The jurists, in course of the trial, appealed 
to the royal Saxon musical experts for a definition of melody, and got 
one which at the same time sounds like a justification of those who 
claim that there is no melody in Strauss's music. 

"'From the standpoint of musical composition,' the royal expert 
said, 'neither the leading theme [in the "Heldenleben"] nor the motive 
of the opponents is a "melody." The science of music makes a strict 




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distinction between motive, leading motive, theme, phrase, and melody. 
While the motive represents the smallest independent oneness of a 
musical thought, and the theme is a chain of motives that are repeated 
or linked together, the word melody, in accordance with its origin — 
melodia, allied to melos, limb, and Ode, song — signifies a group of tones 
which embodies the musical thought in artistic, singable form, as an 
articulated, rounded whole. In the motive as well as in the theme 
the melodic element may find expression; but a melodious motive or 
a well-sounding theme does not constitute a melody. One may in 
particular call the main theme in the "Heldenleben" a melodic theme: 
a melody it is not ; and as for the motive of the opponents, that is the 
direct and conscious negation (Gegensatz) of melody,' In accordance 
with this explanation, the Landgericht of Leipsic granted Noren per- 
mission to publish his 'Kaleidoskop.' 

"Perhaps Strauss is sorry now that he congratulated the man who 
cited his music; for not only have the experts failed to find melody in 
this music, but the court, in announcing its verdict, rubbed salt into 
the wound by saying : 'Inasmuch as the "melody " still remains the truly 
attractive and popular part of every musical composition, the new 
German copyright law has provided for it thorough protection against 
all unwarranted exploitation. The appropriation of motives and 
themes in the compositions of others remains, on the other hand, per- 
missible in accordance with Section 13, on the condition that these 
motives and themes are subjected to a new artistic manipulation and 
development. The difference thus established between the constitu- 
ents of the music of another party is not to be wondered at, for a motive 
or a theme is capable of the most diverse changes and artistic elabora- 
tions, whereas a melody, in consequence of the finished form in which 
it appears, does not permit inversions, shortenings, or other changes 
without losing its individuality. By means of the new elaboration of 
a theme or motive it is therefore possible to produce an entirely new 
and individual composition, whereas the appropriation of a melody, 
since it can only be taken as a whole, is usually an act of deliberate 
plagiarism.' 

"It is difficult to avoid expecting that this verdict will lead to many 

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complications and a number of lawsuits. Strauss' s imitators — who 
have again greatly distressed the critics at this summer's music festivals 
in several German cities — ^will now be able to steal not only his orches- 
tra thunder and his insulting dissonances, but his very motives and 
themes. We may expect, too, that the legion of Wagner's imitators 
will take fresh courage, appropriating the Nibelung motives of the 
dwarfs, gods, and giants bodily and constructing new tetralogies there- 
with. Who is to prevent them, as long as they avoid the complete 
melodies into which these buds gradually develop in Wagner's scores? 
The new German copyright law, as interpreted in Leipsic, will certainly 
prove a boon to the minor composers who have no ideas of their own, 
and encourage them in their petty pilferings. The borrowing of com- 
plete melodies being forbidden, none of them will, however, be able to 
compete with Handel, whose wholesale appropriations of complete 
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Senta's Ballad from "The Flying Dutchman," Act II. No. 3. 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 
Senta, leaning back in an arm-chair, is absorbed in dreamy contem- 
plation of a portrait on the further wall of the room in which maidens 
and Mary, Senta's nurse, are sitting and spinning. The portrait is of 
a pale man with a dark beard, and in a black Spanish dress. The sing- 
ing at last irritates Senta. She asks for some better song. The 
maidens 'tell her to sing something. 

Senta: "Much would I rather Dame Mary sang to us the ballad." 
Mary: "I'd rather not attempt the thing! Let the Flying Dutch- 
man alone!" 

Senta finally says she will sing the tale of sorrow. The wretched 
man's fate must surely affect her companions. The girls move their 
seats nearer to the arm-chair, after they have put away their spinning- 
wheels, and group themselves around Senta. Mary goes on spinning. 
Allegro ma non troppo, G minor, 6-8. 

Johohoe! Johohohoe! Johohoe! Johoe! 
Traft ihr das Schiff im Meere an, 
Blu troth die Segel, schwarz der Mast? 
Auf hohem Bord der bleiche Mann 
Des Schiffes Herr, wacht ohne Rast. 
Hui! Wie pfeipt's im Tau! Johohe! 
Wie ein Pfeil fliegt er hin. 




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Ohne Ziel, ohne Rast, ohne Ruh'! 

Doch kann dem bleichen Manne 

Brlosung einstens noch Werden, 

Fand' er ein Weib, das bis in den Tod 

Getreu ihm auf Erden. 

Ach! Wann wirst du, bleicher Seemann, sie finden! 

Betet zum Himmel, dass bald ein Weib treue ihm halt'! 

i Bei bosem Wind und Sturmeswuth, 

Umseglen wollt' er einst ein Cap; 

Er flucht' und schwur mit toUem Muth: 

"In Ewigkeit lass' ich nicht ab!" 
i Hui! Und Satan hort's! Johohe! Johohe! 

Hui! Nahm ihn bei'm Wort! Johohe! Johohe! 

Hui! Und verdarnmt zieht er nun 

Durch das Meer, ohne Rast, ohne Ruh'! 

Doch, dass der arme Mann noch Erlosung fande auf Erden, 

Zeigt' Gottes Engel an, wie sein Heil ihm einst konne werden : 

Ach! Konntest du, bleicher Seemann, es finden! 

Betet zum Himmel, dass bald ein Weib treue ihm halt' ! 

Vor Anker alle sieben Jahr', 

Ein Weib zu frei'n, geht er an's Land; 

Er freite alle sieben Jahr' 

Noch nie ein treues Weib er fand. 

Hui! "Die Segel auf!" Johohe! Johohe! 

Hui! "Den Anker los!" Johohe! Johohe! 

Hui ! " Falsche Lieb', falsche Treu' ! 

Auf in See, ohne Rast, ohne Ruh'!" 

Chorus op Maidens 

Ach! wo weilt sei, die dir Gottes Engel einst konne zeigen? 
Wo triffst du sie, die bis in den Tod dein bleibe treueigen ? 

Allegro con fuoco, B-flat major. 

Senta 

Ich sei's, die dich durch ihre Treu' erlose ! 
Mog' Gottes Engel mich dir zeigen! 
Durch mich soUst du das Heil erreichen! 



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SEnTa (in the arm-chair). 

Yohohoe! Yohohoe! Yohohoel* 

Saw ye the ship on the raging deep, — 

Blood-red the canvas, black the mast? 

On board unceasing watch does keep 

The vessel's master, pale and ghast ! 

Hui! How roars the wind! Yohohoe! 

Hui ! How bends the mast ! Yohohoe ! 

Hui ! Like an arrow she flies, 

Without aim, without goal, without rest! 

Yet can the weary man be released from the curse infernal, 

Find he on earth a woman who'll pledge him her love eternal. 

Ah ! where canst thou, weary seaman, but find her? 

Oh, pray to Heaven that she 

Unto death may faithful be! 

(SENTa has turned toward the picture. The maidens listen absorbed, Mary has stopped 

spinning.) 

Once round the Cape he wished to sail 

'Gainst 'trary winds and raging seas; 

He swore" "Tho' hell itself prevail, 

I'll sail on till eternity!" 

Hui ! This Satan heard ! Yohohoe ! . 

Hui! Took him at his word! Yohohoe! 

Hui ! And accursed he now sails, 

Through the sea, without aim, without rest! 

But that the weary man be 'freed from the curse infernal. 

Heaven shall send him an angel to win him glory eternal. 

*This English version is for the most part by John P. Jackson (1847-97). 



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Oh, couldst thou, weary seaman, but find her! 
Oh, pray that Heaven may soon 
In pity grant him this boon! 

(SENTa, who at the second verse has risen from the chair, conies forward more agitated.) 

At anchor every seventh year, 
A wife to woo he wanders round ; 
He wooed -ach seventh year, but ne'er 
A faithful woman has he found ! 
Hui! "Unfurl the sails!" Yohohoe! 
Hui! " The anchor weigh ! " Yohohoe! 
Hui! "False the love, false the troth! 
To the sea, without aim, without rest!" 

(SEnTa, exhausted, sinks back in the chair. After a long pause, the maidens sing 

softly. ) 

Ah! where is she to whose loving heart the angel may guide thee? 
Where lingers she, thine own unto death whatever betide thee? 

SEnTa {suddenly inspired and springing up from the chair). 

Thou shalt be freed, yea, through my heart's devotion ! 
Oh that God's angel guidance gave him! 
Here he shall find my love to save him! 

* 
* * 

Wagner wrote in "A Communication to my Friends" that before 
he began to work on the whole opera "The Flying Dutchman" he 
drafted the words and the music of Senta's ballad. Mr. Ellis says 
that he wrote this ballad while he was in the thick of the composition 
of "Rienzi." The ballad is the thematic germ of the whole opera, 
and it should be remembered that Wagner felt inclined to call the 
opera itself a dramatic ballad. 

"Der Fliegende Hollander," opera in three acts, was performed for 
the first time at the Court Opera House, Dresden, January 2, 1843. 
The cast was as follows: Senta, Mme. Schroeder-Devrient ; the Dutch- 
man, Michael Wachter; Daland, Karl Risse; Erik, Reinhold; Mary, 
Mrs. Wachter; the steersman, Bielezizky. Wagner conducted. 

The first performances in America was in Italian, "II Vascello Fan- 



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604 



tasma," at Philadelphia November 8, 1876, by Mme. Pappenheim's 
Company. 

The first performance in Boston was in English at the Globe Theatre, 
March 14, 1877: Senta, Clara Louise Kellogg; Eric, Joseph Maas; 
Daland, George A. Conly; the steersman, C. H. Turner; Mary, Marie 
Lancaster; Vanderdecken, the Dutchman, William Carleton. 



* 
* * 



It was undoubtedly due to the dramatic genius of Mme. Wilhelmine 
Schroder-Devrient (1804-60) that a poor performance was turned 
the first night into an apparent triumph. She is said in the part of 
Senta to have surpassed herself in originality ; but Wagner wrote to 
Fischer in 1852 that this performance was a bad one. "When I recall 
what an extremel}^ clumsy and wooden setting of 'The Flying Dutch- 
man ' the imaginative Dresden machinist Hanel gave on his magnificent 
stage, I am seized even now with an after-attack of rage. Messrs. 
Wachter's and Risse's genial and energetic efforts are also faithfully 
stored up in my memory." 

Wagner wished Senta to be portrayed as "an altogether robust 
(kerniges) Northern maid, thoroughly naiive in her apparent senti- 
mentality." He wrote: "Only in the heart of an entirely naive girl 
surrounded by the idiosyncrasies of Northern nature could impressions 
such as those of the ballad of the 'Flying Dutchman' and the picture 
of the pallid seaman call forth so wondrous strong a bent, as the im- 
pulse to redeem the doomed: with her this takes the outward form of 
an active monomania such, indeed, as can only be found in quite 
naive natures. We have been told of Norwegian maids of such a 
force of feeling that death has come upon them through a sudden rigor 
of the heart. Much in this wise may it go, with the seeming 'morbid- 
ness' of pallid Senta." 

* 
* * 

Wagner's contract with Holtei, the manager of the Riga Theatre, 
expired in the spring of 1839. He was without employment; he was 
in debt. He determined to go to Paris, but on account of his debts 
he could not get a passport. His wife went across the border dis- 
guised as a lumberman's wife. Wagner himself was hid in an empty 



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sentry-box till he could sneak through the pickets on the frontier line. 
Composer, wife, and dog met at Pillau, where they embarked on a 
sailing-vessel bound for London. The vo3'age was violently stormy, 
and it lasted three and a half weeks. Once the captain was compelled 
to put into a Norwegian haven. At Riga Wagner had become ac- 
quainted with Heine's version of the Flying Dutchman legend. The 
voyage, the wild Norwegian scenery, and the tale, as he heard it from 
the sailors, exerted a still greater influence. 

In Paris Wagner became acquainted with Heine, and they talked 
together concerning an opera founded on the legend. The opera was 
written at Meudon in the spring of 1841. All of it except the over- 
ture was completed in seven months. Prager says that the work was 
composed at the piano. "This incident is of importance, since for 
several months he had not written a note, and knew not whether he 
still possessed the power of composing." 

How a French libretto was made for the production of the work at 
the Paris Opera, how Wagner suspected treachery and sold the sce- 
nario for 500 francs, how "Le Vaisseau Fantome, paroles de Paul 
Foucher, musique de Diestch," was produced at the Opera, November 
9, 1842, and failed, — there were eleven performances, — all this has been 
told in programme-books of these concerts. Music was set by Ernst 
Lebrecht Tschirch (1819-52) to Wagner's libretto about 1852. Cle- 
ment and Larousse say that this work was performed at Stettin in 1852 ; 
Riemann says it was not performed. 



Nocturnes: No. I., "Clouds"; No. II., "Festivals"; No. III., 
"Sirens" Claude Debussy 

(Bom at St. Germain (Seine and Oise), August 22, 1862; now living at Paris. "» 

The Nocturnes by Debussy are three in number. The first two, 
"Nuages" and "Fetes," were produced at a Lamoureux concert, 
Paris, December 9, 1900, and they were played by the same orchestra 
January 6, 1901. The third, "Sirenes," was first produced — in com- 



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pany with the""other two — at a Lamoureux concert, October 27, 1901. 
The third is for orchestra with chorus of female voices. At this last 
concert the friends of Mr. Debussy were so exuberant in manifesta- 
tions of delight that there was sharp hissing as a corrective. 

The first performance of the three Nocturnes in the United States 
was at a Chickering "Production" Concert in Boston, February 10, 
1904, when Mr. Lang conducted. The Nocturnes were played twice at 
this concert. Nocturnes Nos. i and 2 were played by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, led by Mr. Vincent d'Indy as guest, at Phila- 
delphia, December 4, 1905, Washington, D.C., December 5, 1905, 
New York, December 9, 1905. 

The composer furnished a programme for the suite: at least, this 
programme is attributed to him. Some who are not wholly in sym- 
pathy with what they loosely call "the modern movement" may 
think that the programme itself needs elucidation. Debussy's peculiar 
forms of expression in prose are not easily Englished, and it is well- 
nigh impossible to reproduce certain shades of meaning. 

"The title 'Nocturnes' is intended to have here a more general and, 
above all, a more decorative meaning. We, then, are not concerned 
with the form of the nocturne, but with everything that this word 
includes m the way of diversified impression and special lights. 

"'Clouds': the unchangeable appearance of the sky, with the slow 



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and solemn march of clouds dissolving in a gray agony tinted with 

white. 

"'Festivals': movement, rhythm dancing in the atmosphere, with 
bursts of brusque light. There is also the episode of a procession 
(a dazzling and wholly idealistic vision) passing through the festival 
and blended with it; but the main idea and substance obstinately 
remain, — always the festival and its blended music, — aluminous dust 
participating in the universal rhythm of all things. 

"'Sirens': the sea and its innumerable rhythm; then amid the 
billows silvered by the moon the mysterious song of the Sirens is heard ; 
it laughs and passes." 

The Nocturnes are scored as follows : — 

I. Two flutes, two oboes, one English horn, two • clarinets, three 
bassoons, four horns, kettledrums, harp, strings. The movement begins 
Modere, 6-4. 

II. Three flutes, two oboes, one English horn, two clarinets, three 
bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, one bass tuba, 
two harps, a set of three kettledrums, cymbals, and snare-drum (in 
the distance) , strings. Anime et tres rhy thme, 4-4. 

III. Three flutes, one oboe, one English horn, two clarinets, three 
bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, two harps, eight soprano voices, 
eight mezzo-soprano voices, strings. Mod6rement anim6, 12-8. 

The score is dedicated to Georges Hartmann, the late music pub- 
lisher and librettist. Mr. Jean Marnold contributed an elaborate study 
of these Nocturnes to Le Courrier Musical (Paris), March 1,15, May i, 
December 15, 1902; January 10, February 15, 1903. Reanalyzed them 
minutely, with the aid of many illustrations in musical notation, and 
dissected the tonal and harmonic syntax of the composer. He arrived 
at two conclusions:^ 

1. "The natural predisposition of the human organism to perceive 
sonorous combinations according to the simplest relations would as a 
consequence have only the introduction into our music of the interval 
corresponding to the harmonics 7 and 11. 

2. "After all the masterpieces which constitute the history of our 
music as it is written by the greatest masters, the Nocturnes and the 

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whole work of Claude Debussy are as a flat denial to every dogmatic 
theory. But in the ten centuries of the evolution of our musical art 
there is, perhaps, not one instance of such an important step as this in 
advance." 

* * 

Mrs. Franz Liebich in her life of the composer (published by John 
Lane, London and New York, 1908) says that Debussy's own programme 
notes, outlining or sketching an impression of an impression, may 
indicate the association of ideas in Debussy's mind, ' ' but each separate 
listener is at liberty to develop the ideas and to discern for himself 
all the imagery and symbolism issuing from the more obvious anal- 
ogies. . . . These words, suggestive rather than expository, convey a 
very precise idea of the proximity of Debussy's mind and soul to the 
'time vesture of God ' which is Nature. The great interpretative 
painter of rural life (F. Millet) expressed the wish to make others hear 
'the songs, the silences, the rustlings of the air.' He longed to make 
them see all that he saw. Through the medium of sound Debussy 
has accomplished a little of what the French painter aspired to and in 
a way achieved. He has made himself one with elemental things, 
and from their secret lore he has woven this tone poem, in which he 
also has essayed to disclose to others something of the mystery that 
underlies the objective existence of all things." 

These tone poems are based on an indefinite evolution of the cyclical 
method, which was developed and perfected by Cesar Franck. This 
method consists in using one or two generative themes. "The modi- 
fications of these are the progenitors of numberless others which in 
their turn have their development and ramifications while the parent 
themes are maintained more or less integral through the work." 

I. "Clouds" opens with a theme in B minor (clarinets and bassoons). 
It is interrupted by the English horn, which has a short motive that 
completes and ends the first theme. Later these two motives have 
each a distinct individuality. The first is developed, but the English 
horn motive in all these developments and metamorphoses is heard, and 
its structure remains the same. Toward the end the curved first motive 
is blended in a quiet melody|(flute^and harp) which forms the second 



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theme of the movement. The English horn motive is again heard, and 
there are hints at the first motive. The movement ends with muted 
brass and strings pizzicati. 

II. "Festivities." The opening theme is in triplets (English horn 
and clarinets, later with flutes and bassoons). The theme is a modi- 
fication of the first one in "Clouds." There is a sudden pianissimo, and 
in 2-4 time there is the accompaniment of a processional march. 
Muted trumpets introduce a theme that is derived from the English 
horn motive in "Clouds." This theme is enlarged, and becomes more 
and more sonorous and pompous. After the close of this march the 
first mood with its lively theme returns'. 

III. "Sirens." There is a "rhythmic undulation" of muted lower 
strings while arpeggios are played by flutes and clarinets. The female 
voices sing without words a fragmentary melody derived from the 
generative theme of "Clouds." A new subject is given to the strings. 
"Coming after the radiant 'F^tes, '" says Mrs. Liebich, "with its alle- 
gorical dramatic procession of life, the third number ('Sirenes') seems 
by contrast woven of neutral tints and half-lights. The rocking, 
wave-like rhythm, the reminiscent themes recurring in broken 
snatches like gleams on the more uniform structure of the surging 
string accompaniment, the sad undertone of the siren voices, give a 
pictorial effect to this movement which approximates it to one of 
Whistler's silver and blue-toned nocturnes." 

* 
* * 

Questioning the precise nature of the form that shapes these 

Nocturnes, the reader may well ponder the saying of Plotinus in his 




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Essay on the Beautiful: "But the simple beauty of color arises, when 
light, which is something incorporeal, and reason and form, entering 
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"Th^ Sign Post," Op. 89, No. 20 ........ I^ranz Schubert 

(Born January 31, 1797, at Lichtentha], near Vienna; died November 19, 1828, at 

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"Der Wegweiser" is the twentieth song in the cycle "Winterreise" 
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The original key is G minor ; ' ' massig " (in moderate time) ,2-4. 

Der WEjWEiser. ' 

Was vermeid' ich denn die Wege, 

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? Durch verschneite Felsenhohn? 

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Weisser stehen auf den Wegen, 
Weisen auf die Stadte 7U, 
Und ich wandie sender Massen 
Ohne Ruh' und suche Ruh*. 

Einen Weiser seh' ich stehen, 
Unverriickt vor meinem Blick, 
Eine Strasse muss ich gehen 
Die noch keiner ging zuriick. 

"The Sign Post." 

Why forsake the beaten highway 

Which the traveller invites? 
Wherefore seek a rugged byway 

'Midst the snowy mountain height? 

Nothing have I once committed 

That I should avoid mankind, j 

Thought alone for idiots fitted 

Through these wilds a path to find. , 

Guide Posts, village names displaying, 

Stand to show which way is best, 
While beyond all bounds I'm straying. 

Restless, ever seeking rest. 

There's a Guide Post frowning o'er me. 

Cold, immovable, and stem ; 
There's a road which lies before me. 

Where no wanderers return. 

(Anonymous Translation ) 

iLieberijeim ^cfjool of ^ocal iHuSit 

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Schubert began to set music to the "Winterreise"inl^ebruary, 1827, 
at Vienna, and at Vienna he wrote the second part (Nos. 13-24) in 
September and October of the same year. Half a dozen songs of the 
first part were written in one morning, according to Franz Lachner, and 
HasHnger, the pubHsher, gave Schubert about twenty cents a piece for 
them. The poems of "Winterreise" were written by Wilhelm Miiller, 
and were pubHshed in the second volume of Miiller's "Gedichte aus 
den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhomist" (Poems 
found among the Papers of a Travelling French Horn Player) . The first 
volume contained the "Schone Miillerin'^ poems. The second volume 
was published at Dessau in 1824. 

"On the 14th" (November, 1828), says Sir George Grove, "Schubert 
took to his bed. He was able to sit up a little for a few days longer, 
and thus to correct the proofs of the second part of the 'Winterreise,' 
probably the last occupation of those inspired and busy fingers. He 
appears to have had no pain, only increasing weakness, want of sleep 
and great depression. Poor fellow! no wonder he was depressed! 
everything was against him, his weakness, his poverty, the dreary 
house, the long lonely hours, the cheerless future — all concentrated 
and embodied in the hopeless images of Miiller's poems, and the sad 
gloomy strains in which he has clothed them forever and ever — the 
'IvCtzte Hoffnung,' the 'Krahe,' the 'Wegweiser,' the 'Wirthshaus,' 
the 'Nebensonnen,' the 'Leiermann' — all breathing of solitude, broken 
hopes, illusions, strange omens, poverty, death, the grave! As he 
went through the pages, they must have seemed like pictures of his 
own life; and such passages as the following, from the 'Wegweiser' 
(or Signpost) can hardly have failed to strike the dying man as aimed 
at himself: 

Einen Weiser seh' ich stehen, 

Unverriickt vor meinem Blick, 

Eine strasse muss ich gehen, 

Die noch keiner ging zuruck. 

"Alas! he was indeed going the road which no one e'er retraces!" 
Schubert died five days after he corrected these proofs. 



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"Gretchen at the Spinning-wheel," Op. 2 . . Franz Schubert 

This music to words of Goethe's "Faust" (Part I.) was composed 
October 19, 1814. The original key is D minor. The original indica- 
tion of tempo was "Etwas Schnell," rather fast; the later indication is 
"Nicht zu geschwind," — not too fast, — 6-8. The song is dedicated to 
Moritz Reichsgrafen von Fries. The accompaniment was orches- 
trated by Liszt in i860, and this arrangement was published in 1863. 

Bayard Taylor in the notes to his translation into English of 
"Faust," says that the words here put into Gretchen's mouth are a 
revery, not a song. Goethe remembered the Gretchen of his youth, 
whom he knew at Frankfort when he was not quite fifteen. Visiting 
her house one day, — she was the sister of one of his disreputable com- 
panions, — only one of the young people was at home. Gretchen sat at 
the window and span. The mother went back and forth. 



Gretchen's Stube. 

Gretchen am Spinnrade allein. 

Meine Ruh ist hin, 
Mein Herz ist schwer; 
Ich finde sie nimmer 
Und nimmermehr. 

Wo ich ihn nicht hab' 
Ist mir das Grab; 
Die ganze Welt 
Ist mir vergallt. 



Margaret's Room. 

Margaret at the spinning-wheel alone. 

My peace is gone,* 
My heart is sore ; 
I never shall find it, 
Ah, nevermore! 

Save I have him near, 
The grave is here; 
The world is gall 
And bitterness all. 



* Translated into English by Bayard Ta