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Originator of Illustrated Lectures on Race Progress, 





Copyrighted, 1902, by G. F. RiCHlNGS. 


IT is a pleasant thing to introduce an individual or 
a friend to another individual or a friend ; but to in 
troduce a book is more important than an individual 
introduction. Books are good and they are bad, just 
in proportion as their contents tend to producing 
right or wrong action of life; or convey truth or 
error. When the mission of a book is to present 
facts versus theory about an individual or a race, it 
ought to be encouraged by all who believe in fair 

The author of this book has for a number of years 
been collecting facts in relation to the Progress of the 
Race since Emancipation. He has traveled East and 
West, North and South, with his eyes and ears open. 
For several years he has thrown these facts on the 
canvas to be seen and read in the New and Old 
World. He now proposes to present them to a 
larger and greater audience. It was impossible for 
all to attend his entertainments, but now he proposes 
to send the entertainments to the audience. 

The pages of this book will take the place of the 
canvas ; the dim light of the lantern will be super 
seded by the clear light of reason, and the race. that 
has been so long misrepresented will appear in a new 





light as the representative characters of this book 
pass a thorough examination as to their capability 
of self-culture, self-improvement, self-support and 

The Home, the Store, the School and Church, and 

the Factory are the infallible signs of civilization ; the 
people who support these exhibit the true signs of 

In this volume you will have an opportunity of 
learning how the leading schools were started by the 

Introduction. v 

friends of the race. You will learn how men and 
women left their homes of ease and comfort and went 
among the new-born Freedmen, and assisted in re 
constructing the individual and home life. You will 
also learn the names of noble men and women who 
have founded, supported and endowed institutions for 
the training of the head, hand and heart of the coming 

An account will be given of the schools founded, 
manned and supported by the race itself; and, for the 
first time, the world will be enlightened as to what 
the race is doing for its own education ; illustrations 
of buildings, presidents, professors and students will 
gladden your eyes. 

Short sketches of men and women who have shown 
skill in the professions, and achieved success in busi 
ness, will be presented, calculated to give inspiration 
to the youth of the future. 

Having witnessed the instructive exhibitions of the 
author of this volume, and heard with pleasure his 
instructive Lectures, I take great pleasure in intro 
ducing to the present arid future generations " EVI 
For I know no man better qualified by his knowledge 
of the history of the race and by his personal exami 
nation and careful study of our problem, also his 
intimate acquaintance with individuals about whom he 
writes, than Mr. G. F. Richings. 

I am yours for God and the Race, 


WILBERFORCE, OHIO, March 30, 1896. 

G. F. ETCHINGS, Author. 


THERE seems to be a general impression and a 
growing sentiment in this country that the colored 
people, as a class, have not, and are not, making any 
progress ; or, that they have not improved the educa 
tional opportunities offered them by the philanthropic 
white people who have proven themselves friendly to 
the cause of Negro education. This feeling has de 
veloped from two causes : First, we have a large and 
wealthy class of white people who go South every 
year during the cold season for either their health or 
pleasure, and while in the South, they see a great 
many colored people on the streets of Southern cities 
who appear to have no employment. In many cases 
this may be true; sometimes because they do not 
want to work ; but in the majority of cases the true 
cause of so much idleness among the colored people 
in the South lies in the fact that they are not able to 
get work, no matter how much they may seek it. 
Let this be as it may, the presence of these people on 
the streets, dressed as the unemployed usually dress 
in the South, gives these Northern white people an 
unfavorable impression of the colored brother and an 
erroneous idea of the real condition of these people. 
Hence they return to their Northern homes with a 

riii Preface. 

very pessimistic story to tell regarding the Southern 
colored people. 

The second reason for this erroneous impression 
regarding the condition of the colored people of the 
South, lies in the fact that white people never look in 
the right direction for evidences of race progress, but 
are continually drawing their comparisons from the 
lowest types and judging the whole race by a few 
who occupy only the lowest levels in common society. 
For an illustration : A country girl from the South, 
who has never spent six days of her life in a school 
room, is employed in a Northern family t<? do menial 
work. The mistress of the household finds her 
ignorant and sometimes absolutely stupid, and instead 
of classing this girl where she belongs, as all races are 
divided into classes, she immediately arrives at the 
conclusion that because the girl hails from the South, 
she must be a fair specimen and a true representative 
of all the colored people in that section. And she 
further concludes that all this talk about the wonder 
ful progress made by the Negro since the war is mere 
talk, having no foundation in fact, and that this 
talk is kept up in order that the people may be mis 
led into subscribing their money for educational 

I have talked with a great many white people on 
this subject, and they have, in almost every instance, 
expressed about the same sentiment I have given 
above. One lady, in Boston, Mass., said to me : 
" But colored people are so ignorant." I asked her 
with whom she was acquainted among colored people. 

Preface. ix 

" Why," said she, " we have employed colored help 
for years, and one colored woman has washed for our 
family ever since I was a child." It will be seen that 
her conclusions were drawn from a very low level, 
and that her contact with colored people had always 
been limited to the poorer, working classes. Indeed, 
so general is the impression among white people that 
no real progress has been made by the ex-slaves, that 
at least seven out of every ten seem to think of the 
colored people as a worthless, inflexible element, in 
capable of mental, moral and other developments 
essential to a high state of civilization. 

I think that I can safely say that the only white 
people who are willing to admit that there is a better 
class of colored people, are those who have either 
taught in their institutions, or have intimate friends 
engaged in that kind of work. Friends who are 
anxious to help the race, find that these wrong im 
pressions have been so thoroughly established, that 
the educational work is very much hampered and 
interfered with from year to year ; and the success of 
Southern schools, dependent on Northern philan 
thropy, has been very much hindered on account of 
the gloomy aspect given by Northern people visiting 
Southern cities. The contributions from the North 
to these schools, have been very meagre and, of 
course, the higher possibilities of negro education 
have not been reached. Enemies of the race, and 
those laboring under false impressions, are led to be 
lieve that the money invested in Southern Educa 
tional Institutions has been simply thrown away. 

x Preface. 

We cannot hope for a change for the better as long 
as colored people are only known as coachmen, 
waiters, cooks, and washerwomen. 

I have called your attention to a very gloomy as 
pect of the Southern situation. But while the aspect 
is a gloomy one, it represents the true attitude of the 
American people, with a few exceptions. I have put 
forth this effort to set my friends right on this im 
portant question, and I sincerely believe that the 
time is not for distant when the white people will see 
to it that these Southern Institutions are guaranteed 
more liberal support and better encouragement. I 
see the colored people in a much brighter light and 
in a more hopeful condition than the men of my race 
who visit the South for the purpose of making super 
ficial observations. And because I have found so 
many interesting " Evidences of Progress Among Col 
ored People," I offer this as my apology for writing 
this book. The facts contained in this work have 
been gathered during sixteen years of actual labor 
and contact with the colored people in all parts of 
the United States. I have had to go deeper into the 
question, to secure my information, than merely to 
visjt street-corners and hold casual conversation with 
the unfortunate and the unemployed, North or 

When those who read this book take into con 
sideration the fact that many of the characters herein 
mentioned started some thirty years ago without a 
dollar, without a home, and without education, 
except here and there a few who had, in some mys- 

Preface. xi 

terious way, learned to read and write, they will, I 
am sure, be willing to admit that some progress has 
been made by the people in whose interest this book 
is published. I wish to make prominent four phases 
of the race question, namely: (i) The schools which 
have been built for colored people and managed by 
whites; (2) The schools managed by colored people; 

(3) The church work carried on among them, and 

(4) The business and professional development as 
the result of education. 

I am well aware that, had it not been for the philan 
thropists who gave their money so freely at the close 
of the Civil War for the education of the freedmen, 
and the Christian and unselfish missionaries who 
went South to teach the ex-slaves, I would not have 
been able to present so many interesting and, in many 
cases, startling " Evidences of Progress Among Col 
ored People." I want to mention most of the schools 
started by white friends. But I shall deal more at 
length and in greater detail with the school work 
carried on by the colored people themselves. There 
are many who are asking if the colored people are 
doing anything for themselves in an educational way. 
This question will be clearly answered in this book. 
I do not claim that colored people support entirely 
all of the schools managed by them, nor have the 
white people a right to expect that they should be 
able to do so, in so short a time. For my part, I 
shall feel that they will have accomplished a great 
deal if, in the next hundred years, they will have 
reached that point where they can support their own 

xii Preface. 

schools and meet all the financial obligations involved. 
I have no doubt but that many who shall read this 
book will be, as I was, greatly surprised, yes, 
astonished; for some of the sketches read like 
romances more than the ordinary things of life. 

I shall mention the names of one or more of the 
many men and women I have found engaged in all 
the pursuits and walks of life. I present in many 
cases the portraits of characters whose sketches ap 
pear, in order that the white people may make a study 
of their faces. Some, in fact many, of them are very 
dark. I mention this because I have been led to be 
lieve that it is the general opinion among Americans 
that quite a percentage of white blood runs through 
the veins of colored people who have proven their 
susceptibility to higher education. I believe, and I 
am confident, that the contents of this book will help 
me to demonstrate that the color of the skin, the tex 
ture of the hair, and the formation of the head, have 
nothing whatever to do with the development and 
expansion of the mind. I only hope that the white 
friends may be made to feel that the colored people 
are entitled to more consideration and ought to be 
given a better opportunity to fill the places for which 
they are being fitted, in the commercial and business 
life of this country. 

Among the colored readers I hope to stimulate a 
greater interest in these institutions and thereby help 
to bring the race up to a higher educational and social 
level. In order that my book might not be too large, 
I had to omit a great many sketches of worthy per- 

Preface. xiii 

sons and institutions ; but I tried to mention one or 
more persons engaged in the different branches of 
business and professions. So any who are omitted 
will please attribute it to a want of space and not a 
neglect or oversight on my part. 

I shall feel that I have accomplished a good work 
if I have set before my readers food for earnest 
thought on the questions involved. 




PREFACE . . . . " 












A. M. E. SCHOOLS . . .. . . . . H? 


I M. E. ZION SCHOOL . . . . . . . .143 









SCHOOLS . . . . . . . . . . 2l8 


Contents. xv 




SCHOOL . . . ... 254 


NASHVILLE, TENN. . . . 264 




FINE PENMEN . .... ... . . . 278 














CHURCHES . . . . .. . . . . 375 


HOSPITALS AND HOMES . . . . , ... 392 








jcvi Contents. 



HAMPTON, VA. . . . 




. 461 






. d.76 






. 486 
















IN 1865 four million colored people suddenly 
emerged from bondage, poor, ignorant, and in 
many cases with very crude notions of religion or 
morality. Not one-third of those who had arrived 
to years of understanding at that time can be found 
among the eight millions of colored population 
to-day. And consequently, the younger element of 
this race know little or nothing about the great con 
flict, the culmination of which brought to their fathers 
and mothers that boon of all human aspiration 
liberty. ."With the mutations of time in Egypt, a 
king arose who knew not Joseph. In these changes 
here, a new generation comes on, to whom occur 
rences of the past are but dim and sometimes distorted 

To my mind, the last generation has been charac 
terized by greater conflicts and has been freighted 
with more thrilling events than any generation 
through which the history of this country has brought 

I& Evidences of Progress 

us. Through ignorance, and sometimes indifference, 
we are in serious danger of depreciating the wonder 
ful agencies that have been such potent factors in the 
growth and development of a people. It is, therefore, 
important that some close observer of events con 
stantly keep before the people, in whose interest these 
factors have been set in operation, full accounts of all 
the developments, that the young may be inspired to 
noble aims and lofty endeavors. 

While such a task is not an easy one, I feel it my 
duty to attempt its performance. All the data and 
every observation set forth in these chapters have 
been the result of personal investigation among the 
colored people. I shall give in this chapter a brief 
history of the schools conducted by white people of 
the Baptist denomination for the education of colored 
people. In this work the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society has expended since 1862 $3,000,000. 
The value of school property acquired by the so 
ciety amounts to $900,000. 

When before this society " came the vision of 
emancipated millions, desperately needy, in dire dis 
tress and full of forebodings, stretching forth their 
unshackled, but empty, unskilled and helpless hands 
for friendly aid and guidance," this society at once 
took them in and offered them shelter and comfort. 
The society has accomplished wonders for the colored 
people, and I am sure that the colored people appre 
ciate all that it has done for them. 

I shall begin my history of Baptist schools with 
Spelman Seminary. 

Among Colored People. 19 


The history of Spelman Seminary reads like a 
romance. Beginning in 1881, in the gloomy base 
ment of the Friendship Baptist Church, Atlanta, Ga., 
a church owned by the colored people, without any 
of the accessories needed for successful school work, 
with but two teachers, Miss S. B. Packard and Miss 
Harriet E. Giles, and with less than a dozen pupils, it 
has grown to be the largest and best equipped school 
for the training of colored girls in the United States. 

The institution has a magnificent location, and all 
of the buildings are specially suited to its needs. 
Spelman has a large and able faculty of earnest, de 
voted teachers, an attendance of pupils numbered by 
the hundreds, a constituency of friends and patrons 
rapidly extending in numbers and interest, and has 
made for itself a large place in the educational forces 
of the South, and established a reputation of a very 
high order. 

The question of the education of the colored peo 
ple as a preparation for citizenship, just after the war, 
demanded careful thought and prompt treatment, 
and among the noble women who ventured into the 
South, fully equipped to do the service they felt was 
needed, were Miss S. B. Packard and Miss H. E. 
Giles. The Southern white people could not reason 
ably be expected to throw to the winds all their 
cherished traditions and preconceptions simply be 
cause they had acknowledged defeat at the hands of 
the Northern people. They could not even be ex- 

2O Evidences of Progress 

pected to at once admit their former slaves into po 
litical fellowship, recognizing them as equals in all 
the rights of citizenship ; nor could they be expected 
to provide schools for the education of these people. 
Out of a consideration of these facts, Northern people, 
moved by noble and unselfish impulses, made their 
way to the South and established these great institu 
tions for the education of colored people. 

Both Miss Packard and Miss Giles had made for 
themselves a reputation before moving from their 
homes in New England to Atlanta. They were 
identified with the Woman s Baptist Home Mission 
Society and had indicated their zeal for the promo 
tion of the Society s interest in the most practical 
manner. The work done at Spelman is a practical 
Christian work, and the young ladies who graduate 
from that institution are the very best specimens of 
cultured and refined womanhood. This school is 
modeled after those of like grade established for 
white people. This should be the case with all 
Southern schools. There are required the same 
qualifications in the teachers, the same text-books, 
the same course of study, the same kinds of disci 
pline that are found in similar institutions. There 
seems to be no point in the equipment or general 
management of these institutions where they can 
diverge safely from those which the history of educa 
tion has shown to be most desirable and best adapted 
to their purpose. The grounds, buildings, furniture, 
libraries, text-books, apparatus, endowments of a Ne 
gro school in Georgia, should not differ in any re- 

Among Colored People. 21 

spect from the equipment of a similar institution for 
white pupils in Massachusetts. 

Spelman Seminary is a power for good, and since 
the death of Miss S. B. Packard is managed by Miss 
H. E. Giles, principal, and Miss L. H. Upton, asso 
ciate principal. 


Roger Williams University was founded in 1863 
by Rev. D. W. Phillips, D. D., who was for many 
years its president. Its present president is the Rev. 
P. B. Guernsey, A. M. The total enrolment for 1900 
was 222 122 young men and 100 young women. 
The school is beautifully situated in the suburbs of 
the city of Nashville, in the State of Tennessee. 

Nashville has become the chief centre of education 
in the South, both for the white and colored people. 
No other city south of the Ohio offers so many ad 
vantages as the seat of an institution for higher learn 
ing. The University grounds lie close to the city 
limits, on the Hillsboro turnpike, just beyond the 
Vanderbilt University. The location is high and 
airy, and commands an unsurpassed prospect of the 
city and surrounding country. 

It is a school for both sexes. It has Collegiate, 
Biblical and Theological, Academic, Normal, Eng 
lish, Musical and Industrial Departments. 

The Collegiate Department aims at a thorough 
liberal education which gives the student the posses 
sion of his faculties developed and trained, a general 
acquaintance with the broad principles of all human 
knowledge, and a preparation for a special study of 

22 Evidences of Progress 

any of the learned professions. This department has 
two courses : the classical, leading to the degree of 
B. A., and the scientific, leading to the degree of 
B. S. 

The Biblical and Theological Department has a 
general and special aim. Its general aim is to make 
the Bible a living book to each student. Every 
pupil in the school receives during his entire course 
a daily lesson in the Bible. Its special aim is to fur 
nish better preachers of the Gospel and better pas 
tors of the churches. Every year a " ministers 
class " is conducted for ten weeks, beginning with the 
first day of January. Members of the class have 
three recitations daily. They may also attend such 
other classes as they can with profit to themselves. 

The Academic Department prepares for college. 
It consists of a three years course in classic and 
mathematic studies that link the English Department 
to the college work. 

The Normal Department aims to furnish, for the 
public schools of the land, teachers that will raise the 
tone of education and make these schools more effi 
cient. It consists of a three years course in subjects 
best adapted for this purpose. 

The English Department aims to give the pupil a 
thorough drill in the elements of common intelligence. 
Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Grammar, Geography, 
Spelling and History are taught by the best of 
teachers, so that the young people are prepared to 
take their places as citizens alongside of pupils of 
the most favored city schools. Parents who live in 

24 Evidences of Progress 

rural districts and in country towns, where the public 
schools are of short duration and scant equipments 
and feeble teaching, will find here facilities for Eng 
lish education that are not surpassed in the South. 

The Musical Department aims to give a musical 
education, both vocal and instrumental, that will 
make the young people efficient workers in church 
and Sabbath school and elevating and refining mem 
bers of the home and social circles. 

The Industrial Department does not aim to fit 
students for the various mechanical trades, but it 
does aim to give them instruction and experience, 
that will train their eyes and hands and make them 
handy in the use of tools. 

The school has a total teaching force of sixteen 
persons. Six of these are graduates of the best 
Northern Universities. Others are teachers of ex 
cellent education and wide experience. 

The young ladies are under the close and affec 
tionate watchcare of a New England lady, whose 
treatment of them is noted for its conscientiousness, 
its piety and its motherliness. 

A number of the male teachers live in the build 
ing with the young men and thus become to them 
constant advisers, counsellors and friends. 

The religious influences of the school are pure, 
constant and strong. 

The University is grandly located for accessi 
bility, healthfulness, and beauty. It is near enough 
to the city of Nashville to give it all the advantages 
of city life. Yet it is so far removed from the 

Among" Colored People. 25 

crowded city with its slums, saloons and other evils, 
that it is virtually in the country. 

The property of the school is valued at $80,000. 
It has a small endowment fund of less than $1,000. 
Several Indian youths from the Indian Territory 
have been students in this institution. The graduates 
are widely scattered throughout the South, occupy 
ing positions of influence and usefulness. 


Virginia Union University has been formed out of 
two very excellent schools, where a great work has 
been done for the education and advancement of the 
colored people, namely, Wayland College, which 
was located at Washington, D. C., and Richmond 
Theological Seminary, at Richmond, Va. Both of 
these schools have a very interesting history. Way- 
land Seminary, as it was called, was founded at 
Washington, D. C., in 1865. Rev. G. M. P. King 
was president of it for twenty-seven years. The 
work began in 1865, was vigorously followed up by 
the purchase of property on " I " street at a cost of 
$1,500 from monies contributed by women of the 
North. The school was named in honor of President 
Francis Wayland, of Brown University. In 1871 
a new site, 150 feet square, on Meridian Hill, in the 
northern part of the city, was purchased at a cost of 
$3375- The erection of a new building was begun 
in 1873. It was a fine four-story building, with 
basement and accommodations for seventy-five stu 
dents, with recitation rooms and rooms for the faculty. 

26 Evidences of Progress 

It cost about $20,000. The walls, from the founda 
tion to the crowning, were constructed by colored 
bricklayers under the supervision of a master work 
man, an ex-slave from Virginia, who purchased his 
freedom before the war. Wayland Seminary has 
turned out some very able men, among them Rev. 
Harvey Johnson, D. D., of Baltimore, Md., who is 
one of the most noted colored preachers in the 
country. He has held charge of one of the largest 
Colored Baptist churches in the United States for 
nearly thirty years. 

The Richmond Theological Seminary, at Rich 
mond, Va., has a very remarkable history. It was 
first commenced in 1868, and started its work in 
Lumpkin s Slave Jail, and was first known as Colver 
Institute. In 18/6 it was incorporated as the Rich 
mond Institute. Subsequently the trustees and offi 
cers of the American Baptist Home Missionary Soci 
ety decided to make it a school for ministers only, 
and in 1886 the name was changed to the Richmond 
Theological Seminary. Rev. Charles Corey, A. M., 
D. D., was elected president in 1868. and remained 
in charge until 1899, when the school went into the 
Union University. In speaking of the work, Rev. 
Corey said : " Of students there have been in at 
tendance nearly 1,100; total preparing for the min 
istry, 540; graduates with diplomas from Richmond 
Institute, 73 ; total graduates with degree of B. D. 
from Richmond Theological Seminary, 27. Some 
of these graduates are now in charge of institutions 
of learning, others are professors in 5eminaries 

Among Colored People* 27 

and universities. Six entered the foreign mission 
field. The former students of the Richmond Theo 
logical Seminary are to be found from Canada to 
Texas, and in the lands far beyond the sea." The 
school has had among its teachers such men as 
Prof. J. E. Jones, D. D., and Prof. D. N. Vassar, 
D. D. Both of these men are well educated and 
represent a high type of true manhood, and they 
have done much to advance the race they are identi 
fied with. Now Wayland College and Seminary and 
Richmond Theological Seminary are united under 
one board of trustees. They have at present the 
Theological Department, the College Department, 
the Academic Department and the Preparatory De 
partment. An industrial plant will, it is hoped, be 
built. They already teach the students in a practical 
way the art of printing and of managing the steam 
and electrical plant. This last gives them quite a 
knowledge of engineering. The new buildings num 
ber eight a fine library building, including a chapel 
and library, a lecture hall, a dining hall, a dormitory, 
a power plant, two residences and a stable. They 
are constructed of the finest granite, and could not 
be duplicated for $300,000. They are situated on a 
hill about fifty feet above the valley a beautiful lo 
cation in the centre of thirty acres. The buildings 
contain every modern improvement steam heat in 
all the rooms and halls, electric lighting and a com 
plete telephone system for the different buildings 
and floors, and most approved toilet and bath ar 
rangements. It is said to be the finest group of 
buildings in the whole South. 

28 Evidences of Progress 

Rev. M. Mac Vicar, Ph. D., LL. D., is the presi 
dent of the University, George Rice Hovey the dean 
of Wayland Seminary and College, Rev. George F. 
Genung, D. D., the dean of the Theological School. 
The faculty consists of fifteen teachers of unusual 
ability, graduates of the best colleges, some of whom 
have made a name for themselves already. About 
one-half are white. The courses of study are equal 
to those of the ordinary Northern schools of similar 
grade. Virginia Union University will doubtless be 
the largest Baptist school operated for colored people, 
and it is located in a part of the country where the 
colored population is very large, and especially 
among the Baptists. 


On the corner of Hunter and Elliott streets, in the 
city of Atlanta, Ga., there stands a smoke-begrimed 
and somewhat dilapidated brick building bearing the 
inscription/ American Baptist Home Mission Society, 
1879." Directly in front of the building lies the 
shunting-yard of the Southern Railroad. The local 
ity is one of the nosiest, dustiest and smokiest in the 
city. It was in this building, among these unfavorable 
surroundings, that the work of the Atlanta Baptist 
Seminary was carried on from 1879 ^ l $9O- 

In the old building no provision was made for 
dormitories. The students, most of whom were from 
the country, were left to find boarding-houses where 
they could, and besides living in close and crowded 
homes, where the atmosphere was not specially intel- 

Among Colored People. 29 

lectual and where the opportunities for quiet study 
were not great, they were, except for the few hours 
of school each day, beyond the control and watch- 
care of the teachers and exposed to the distractions 
and temptations of the city. 

For twelve years prior to the year 1 879 the Seminary 
had been located at Augusta, Ga., and was known as 
" The Augusta Institute." 

Upon the death of Rev. Joseph T. Robert, LL. D., 
president for fourteen years, which occurred in 1884, 
Rev. Samuel Graves, D. D., was appointed. Dr. Graves 
was quick to see that the first requisite to the vigorous 
growth of the school was a transplanting. Accord 
ingly, he set to work to secure ground and building. 
As the result of his efforts the present campus was 
secured and the present building erected, and in the 
spring of 1890 the Seminary bade farewell to the old 
building and its noisy neighbors and took up its 
abode in its new home. 

The main building of the institution was erected 
in 1889 at a cost of $27,000. In this beautiful build 
ing the visitor will find chapel, library, eight class 
rooms, president s apartments and rooms for six 
teachers, dormitory accommodation for about one 
hundred students, besides kitchen, dining-room and 
storerooms, laundry, printing office, workshop and 
boiler-room. Rev. George Sales is president. 


Shaw University is beautifully located in the city 
of Raleigh, North Carolina, within ten minutes walk 

30 Evidences of Progress 

of the post-office and capitol. The grounds, upon 
which have been erected five large brick buildings 
and several of wood, are among the finest in the city r 
and include several acres. This institution furnishes 
by far the largest accommodations of any colored 
school in North Carolina, and, in the large number 
of advanced pupils, it is not surpassed by any colored 
school in the country. 

Shaw University was founded in 1865 by Dr. H. 
M. Tupper, D. D., who conceived the desire for school 
work among the colored people while serving as a 
soldier in our late war. He started his first school, 
which has grown into the present university, in a 
cabin scarcely ten by twenty feet. The large brick 
structures, which now form a part of the institution, 
are looked upon with great interest because of the 
fact that the bricks in them were made by student 
labor under the direction of Dr. Tupper. 

There are normal, collegiate, scientific, music and 
industrial departments, as well as schools of pharmacy, 
law and medicine, and a missionary training school, 
and all doing good work. Every graduate of the 
pharmacy school, class of 1900, recently appeared be 
fore the State Board of Examiners and obtained cer 
tificates as required by law. Prof. Chas. F. Meserve 
is its present president, since the death of Dr. Tupper. 

The Baptists have cause to be proud of the good 
work done at Shaw University. Preachers and 
teachers by the hundreds have been educated at 
this excellent institution for home and foreign mission 

Among Colored People. 31 


Bishop College is located in the city of Marshall, 
the county-seat of Harrison county, Texas. For 
beauty of situation, commodiousness of buildings, 
and completeness of outfit for the work, this institu 
tion is unsurpassed by any school for the colored 
people west of the Mississippi. 

The Rev. N. Wolverton has been succeeded as 
president by the Rev. Albert Loughridge, who will 
push the work with the same degree of vigor. The 
dormitories are spacious and pleasant, the grounds 
are ample for recreation, and those who go there to 
live find all the advantages of a Christian home. 

Every student must understand that, in entering 
the school, he stands pledged to willing and cheer 
ful conformity to the regulations prescribed by the 
faculty for its government. 

This institution was founded in 1881. It now em 
ploys nine white teachers and seven colored. Total 
number of students in attendance daily about two 
hundred. Amount of money expended yearly for 
the support of the school, $7,434. 


In 1870 a desirable site for an institution for the 
education of colored people was found available at 
Columbia, S. C. As this was the capital of the State, 
and central, it was decided to locate it here. A 
noble woman in New England, Mrs. B. A. Benedict, 
of Providence, R. I., gave $10,000 towards its pur 
chase, the cost being $16,000. The property con- 

32 Evidences of Progress 

sisted of nearly eighty acres of land. In honor of 
the deceased husband of the donor, Dea. Stephen 
Benedict, brother of David Benedict, the historian, 
the Board called the school " Benedict Institute." 

It was opened December I, 1870, . under the 
charge of Rev. Timothy S. Dodge, as principal. 
The first pupil was a colored preacher, sixty years 
old. In October, 1887, Rev. Lewis Colby succeeded 
Mr. Dodge under appointment of the Board. 

Upon his resignation in 1879, Rev. E. J. Good- 
speed, D. D., was appointed. He entered upon his 
work in October, continuing until his death, in the 
summer of 1881. Rev. C. E. Becker was selected 
as his successor and went to Columbia in October, 
1882, but at this writing the president is Rev. A. C. 
Osborn, D. D. 

During 1879-80, Rev. Lewis Colby, deeply im 
pressed with the need of better accommodations, 
rspecially for girls, devoted his time without com 
pensation, and with the approval of the Board, to 
raising $5,000 for a girls building. This amount 
being secured, together with an additional offering 
from Mrs. Benedict, two frame buildings were 
erected in 1881. Towards the furnishing of the 
buildings, the colored people of the State gave over 
$1,600. The girls building is known as "Colby 
Hall." Better quarters for the young men are 
greatly needed. By special act of the South Caro 
lina Legislature, through the efforts of President 
Becker and the co-operation of leading Baptists, the 
institution in 1882 was exempted from taxation. 

Among Colored People. 33 


Leland University was founded in 1870 for the 
higher education of such men and women as desired 
to fit themselves for Christian citizenship, either as 
ministers, teachers, or tradesmen. It is open to all 
persons who are fitted to enjoy its advantages, with 
out distinction of race, color, or religious opinions. 
The University owes its existence to the late Hoi- 
brook Chamberlain, Esq., of Brooklyn, N. Y., who 
erected the buildings, assisted in its management, 
and at his death left to it the bulk of his property, 
about $100,000, as an endowment fund, the interest 
of which goes to the payment of teachers. 

The University has a library and reading-room, 
which is supplied with the leading journals and 
periodicals of the day. 

There is a Literary Society, the " Philomathean," 
composed of young men and young women, which 
holds weekly meetings for mutual improvement. 

The students also constitute a recognized branch 
of the International Young Men s Christian Associa 
tion and of the National Society of Christian En 

Dr. R. W. Perkins was elected president in 1901 
to fill the place of Pres. Mitchell, deceased. He will 
be supported by a corps of earnest, faithful teachers. 

The University is situated on St. Charles avenue, 
New Orleans, La., and its retirement from the 
crowded part of the city renders it peculiarly adapted 
to study. 

34 Evidences of Progress 


This institution was chartered by the Legislature 
of Virginia, March 13, 1884, with full collegiate and 
university powers. 

Hartshorn Memorial College is located at the west 
end of Leigh street, Richmond, Va. The grounds 
comprise eight and one-half acres, well elevated, and 
shaded in part by a belt of native forest trees. The 
object of the institution is to train colored women 
for practical work in the broad harvest of the world. 

The president, Rev. Lyman B. Tefft, D. D., claims 
that among the millions of colored women in 
the United States there is the same need and the 
same field for trained and cultured Christian service 
as among the whites. Life for them has the same 
meaning as for any other race. They have the same 
social, intellectual and spiritual necessities. They 
are a people essentially by themselves. There is, 
therefore, for the educated colored woman, the same 
wide and ready field of Christian work and influence 
as for any others. 


This school is located on a bluff in the suburbs of 
Beaufort, S. C. It was established just after the war, 
by Mrs. Rachel C. Mather, of Boston, Mass., who is 
still its principal, assisted by six other white teachers. 

Mrs. Mather was a teacher in the public schools 
of Boston during the Civil War, and just after the 
conflict was over she went South to do the work of 

Among- Colored People. 35 

her life. The history of her efforts are interesting 
in every detail and inspires the reader with an appre 
ciation for the noble work of a noble woman. 

Mrs. Mather conducts an orphanage in connection 
with the school, and during the twenty-seven years 
of her labors in this section, a great many orphan 
children have been cared for and trained from child 
hood to noble manhood and womanhood. 

It is the aim of this school to reach the homes 
of the common people and develop the good quali 
ties in the young men and young women of the race. 

I regard this work as being one of the most im 
portant schools in the South. This lady has borne 
all the cares, anxieties and difficulties engendered in 
this peculiar work for these many years, with remark 
able fortitude and courage. 

People who have always lived in the North cannot 
appreciate what it means to go South and take charge 
of a colored school. I have talked with many of the 
men and women now at the head of such institutions, 
and they tell me that it is the rarest thing for the 
Southern white people to ever come near them, or 
even speak of them, except in the most disrespectful 
manner. In fact, in the early days of freedom 
Northern teachers could hardly stay, because of their 
treatment on the part of the whites. There has 
been a great change, and many of the Southern 
people are willing now to admit that the white 
teachers have done a most excellent work for the 
race, but they still let them good and well alone. 
But in many cases it is a great help to be let alone, 
and especially when their recognition would not be 

36 Evidences of Progress 


Dawes Academy is located at Berwin, I. T. Rev. 
Geo. Home, principal. This school. has an average 
attendance of about 100. It is developing rapidly. 
Rev. Horne is assisted by three teachers. 


This institution, as Natchez College, was founded 
by the A. B. H. Miss. Soc. at Natchez, Miss., in 1878. 
In 1883, as Jackson College, it was established in 
Jackson, the State capital. Rev. Luther G. Barrett, 
A. M., is president, a graduate of Harvard College 
and of Newton Theological Institution, a practical 
educator, and who was for a time professor in Shaw 
University, Raleigh, N. C. It is beautifully and 
healthfully situated in the outskirts of the city, with 
fine buildings and an able corps of ten teachers. Its 
field is immense, Mississippi having 800,000 negroes. 
It had, up to the present yellow fever scourge, 200 
students, and will, no doubt, with the passing of the 
fever, soon eclipse this number, as under its present 
efficient management it is fast gaining in popularity. 
It does superior work, its academical and classical 
departments comparing favorably with those of simi 
lar first-class institutions of the North, while it is 
just beginning regular college work. It has also a 
fine preparatory department and excellent graded 
musical course. It is pre-eminently a Christian 
school, the Bible being taught in grades one hour 
daily. Revivals are frequent, and generally each 

Among Colored People. 37 

session closes with nearly every student a Christian. 
Its students stand high in the State as teachers, while 
many go on to professional schools of law, medicine 
and theology. Its great aim is to supply leaders. 


At Harper s Ferry, W. Va., within sight of where 
John Brown made his famous raid, stands Storer 
College. The beautiful valley of the Shenandoah 
could not contain anything that would add more 
to its beauty than this splendid institution of learn 

This school has a most interesting history. Just 
after the Civil War, when the glare of cannon and the 
din of gun had faded away, this school was started. 

The school is conducted by the Free-will Baptists. 

In February of 1867, President O. B. Cheney visited 
Mr. John Storer, of Sanford, Me., in behalf of Bates 
College. Although not a Free-will Baptist, Mr. Storer 
was deeply interested in the history and aims of the 
denomination. During the conversation he said to 
Dr. Cheney: "I have determined to give $10,000 
to some society which will raise an equal amount 
toward the founding of a school in the South for the 
benefit of the colored people. I should prefer that 
your denomination have this money, only that I fear 
that they will not or can not meet my condition. I 
am old and I desire to see the school started before 
I die ; so as you came I was about writing to the 
American Missionary Association, making them this 

38 Evidences of Progress 

proposal, and I am confident they will accept and 
rapidly advance the project." 

In reply Dr. Cheney pleaded that he be allowed to 
make an effort. He told him of the Southern enter 
prise, of its needs, and added : "A school there is just 
what we must have in order to carry forward the 
work. We shall feel that God has heard our prayers 
and is blessing our labor if you will give us your 
support. You may set your own time one year, 
six months, or less only let us try 

Mr. Storer came to a favorable decision before 
twelve o clock that night. 

Monday, Oct. 2, 1867, Storer College commenced 
its noble work the outcome of which eternity alone 
can truly unfold. It began with nineteen pupils 
(from the immediate vicinity) and with one assistant 
teacher, Mrs. M. W. L. Smith, of Maine, under Mr. 
Brackett as principal. The school opened in the 
government building known as the " Lockwood 
House " and this one building served for dwelling- 
house, school and church. 

The efforts to obtain a gift of this property were 
now redoubled. Dr. James Calder of Harrisburg, 
Pa., was especially active in furthering this project. 
Finally, through the earnest support of Mr. Fes- 
senden in the Senate and of Gen. Garfield in the 
House, a bill to this effect passed Congress Dec. 3, 
1868, and the four buildings, with seven acres of 
land, worth about $30,000, became the property of 
the institution. Had this failed, the site of the school 
would have been at the Bolivar Farm. As it was, 

Among Colored People. 39 

the farm, through cultivation and sale of lots, largely 
assisted in supporting the school during its infancy. 

In September of 1867 the Freedmen s Bureau 
donated $500, which was used in making needed 
repairs, and soon after the school opened, paid over 
the promised $6,00 to a temporary Stock Company 
organized under the laws of West Virginia. But 
the " Bureau " did far more than it promised, and as 
long as it existed ceased not to render generous and 
efficient aid. Among its further benefactions were 
$4,000 to renovate the shattered government build 
ings, and about $1,500 toward the running expenses. 
Altogether, including about $4,000 for the erection, 
in 1868, of Lincoln Hall a boarding-hall for boys 
the Freedmen s Bureau contributed $18,000 toward 
the upbuilding of Storer College. How the institu 
tion could have flourished or even lived without this 
external aid, it is difficult to realize, for the denomina 
tion was heavily freighted with the needs of other 
important enterprises. 

The school is now in a flourishing condition and 
is doing a noble and elevating work in behalf of 

Crowning, as they do, the heights of Harper s 
Ferry, the buildings of Storer College are conspicuous 
objects in every direction. A passing allusion 
should be made to the wondrous scenery which sur 
rounds Storer College to witness which, Thomas 
Jefferson wrote : " It were worth a journey across the 
Atlantic." And the most unappreciative observer can 

4O Evidences of Progress. 

but feel that the outspread grandeur and beauty must 
exert an elevating influence. 

The institution has three departments Prepara 
tory, Normal, and Classical. It has had over 1,200 
different pupils, has sent out more than 300 teachers 
and about 30 ministers. In one year its students have 
numbered 232, and both total and average attendance 
are constantly increasing. In 1875 a summer term 
for teachers was inaugurated. Its session holds 
through June and July, and it is greatly appreciated 
by those whose only opportunity for further study 
and progress is at this time. 

No one can visit Harper s Ferry without coming 
away overflowing with wonder and enthusiasm. One 
stands abashed before the brave spirit, the devotion 
and never-mentioned sacrifices of our toilers there. 

Rev. N. C. Brackett served this institution as 
its president from its beginning until 1897, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. Ernest Earle Osgood, a young 
man of most excellent qualifications for such a 
position. He comes of that class of New England 
people who have done so much for the education of 
colored people. Rev. Osgood will doubtless, because 
of his youth, add vigor and energy to the school 
that will be helpful in bringing a larger attendance. 



IN this chapter I shall deal with the Baptist schools 
managed by colored people. Many of these schools 
have had a very hard struggle ; but by the patriotism 
and race pride of the colored people, they have been 
constantly growing and developing, until to-day 
they are among the very best educational institutions 
in this country. 

I open this chapter with a brief sketch of " The 
Western College," located at Macon, Mo., because I 
regard it as one of the best schools of the kind in 
the West. 


One of the best institutions in the West for the 
education of Negroes is The Western College located 
at Macon, Mo. Since it was founded, in Jan 
uary, 1890, its growth has been extraordinary, and 
to-day (1901) its temporary buildings are crowded 
with earnest young men and women anxious to secure 
a Christian education. Believing that religious prin 
ciples should underlie all true education, the Negro 
Baptists of Missouri, several years prior to 1890, had 
in mind the establishment of a Christian institution 
in which ministers might receive biblical training 
and where hundreds of men and women might be 


42 Evidences of Progress 

educated and thoroughly trained for teaching and 
other useful pursuits in life. They realized that the 
Christian college is one of the greatest forces in the 
aid of Christianity, inasmuch as its great aim is to 
build up a character in accord with the principles 
of God s Word. When first opened, the school was 
conducted in rented quarters at Independence, Mo., 
for a part of two sessions. In the Fall of 1891 
the Board of Trustees purchased twelve acres of 
land, conveniently located within the city limits, at 
a cost of $4,000. The school was opened here 
in January, 1892. At present two buildings are 
occupied, but the growth of the school has rendered 
these wholly inadequate for the demands of the work. 
The colored Baptists themselves have raised a large 
amount of money for paying on the property, for 
current expenses and for building purposes. In 
this work they have been kindly assisted by The 
Home Mission Society of New York, which has 
contributed annually toward the payment of teachers. 
But for its timely aid, the work, so well begun, must 
have suffered. 

Located as this school is, in the northern 
part of Missouri, it has a large territory from 
which to draw. Students have matriculated from 
Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, Mississippi and Alabama. 
With enlarged facilities in the v/ay of commo 
dious buildings and apparatus, the power of this 
institution in the development of the Negro race in 
Missouri and the West will be beyond calculation. 
In view of these facts the college should receive 

Among Colored People. 


substantial encouragement from those who are philan- 
thropically inclined. 


Realizing that the lives of public men are in some 


sense the property of the world, and also that true 
lives are not lived for self, but for humanity, it affords 
the writer pleasure to speak of one of Missouri s 
noble sons, President Enos L. Scruggs, B. D., one 

44 Evidences of Progress 

who has risen by gradual steps to the position he 
now holds, overcoming many flinty obstacles to 
progress. He is an example of a self-made man. 
Having been left both motherless and fatherless early 
in life, he was left to combat with the world without 
the loving and tender care and helpful influences of 
a mother. By great perseverance and earnest efforts 
he completed with credit the course of study at Lin 
coln Institute, Jefferson City, Mo. 

Early in life he professed a hope in Christ, and 
feeling that he was called to the work of the min 
istry, he prepared himself by a course of study in 
the Union Baptist Theological Seminary, Morgan 
Park, 111., which has recently become " The Di 
vinity School " of the University of Chicago, grad 
uating from there with honor with the degree of B. D. 
He accepted a call immediately to the Second Bap 
tist Church, of Ann Arbor, Mich. Ever seeking 
to go higher and higher intellectually, he availed 
himself of the opportunities afforded him at the Uni 
versity of Michigan. After a very successful pas 
torate of twenty-eight months, he resigned October 
I, 1892, to accept the Presidency of the Western 
College, where he has most creditably filled the 
position ever since, doing a noble work in this field. 
He is building a monument by his earnest efforts 
and faithfulness to duty that will always be an honor 
to him, to the race and to the denomination. As he 
is a young man and constantly striving for richer 
and better results, we wish for him continued success 
and that no record will reveal greater riches than his, 

Among- Colored People. 45 

and that his may present to all a heritage of heroic 


The above-named institution was founded and in 
corporated in Memphis, Tenn., in the year 1887, 
through the philanthropy of Mr. Peter Howe, of 
Winona, 111. Located as it is near the lines of three 
States Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas the 
school has great possibilities among the host of 
Baptists in that section, under whose auspices it is 

The Howe building, which the school occupies, is 
a brick structure two stories above the basement, and 
is valued at nearly $18,000. The primary depart 
ment is conducted in the basement. The first floor 
contains the principal s office, the chapel, and recita 
tion-rooms, while a commodious and well-fitted lec 
ture-room and several " living rooms " comprise the 
second floor. 

As the charter of incorporation indicates, the insti 
tution was established for the purposes of giving 
Bible, literary, scientific, and industrial instruction ; 
training preachers and teachers and other Christian 
workers. The history of the institution is a proof 
of the fact that these objects have constantly been 
before the management of the same. Many of the 
very best teachers, preachers, and other missionary 
workers in the section from which the school draws 
its patronage owe their success directly to its in 
struction and influence. 

The success of the women s missionary and nurse 

46 Evidences of Progress 

training and the theological departments has been 
very marked. 

The session of 1896 and 1897 was the first under 
the control of a colored principal, Prof. Nathaniel H. 


Pius, a graduate of Leland University, New Orleans, 
La., who held the position for two years, when he 
was succeeded by Prof. Joshua Levister, A. B., who is 
a graduate from Shaw University, at Raleigh, N. C. 
Prof. Levister is a native of North Carolina. He is 

Among Colored People. 47 

a young man of splendid character and very much 
thought of by all who know him. 

The statistics for the session of 1897 and 1898 
show the following figures : Enrollment, males, 85 ; 
females, 90; number preparing to teach, 35; num 
ber preparing to preach, 19; number pursuing mis 
sionary and nurse-training course, 30. 

At present the faculty consists of seven members, 
five colored and two white. 

The school is located among thousands of Baptists, 
and will in time take its place as one of the very 
large Baptist schools. Prof. Levister is a young 
and energetic man, who will be able to push the 
work with vigor. They will in time be able to add 
more of the industrial work, which will be of great 
help to certain classes of students who do not care 
to take the higher courses, and will find industrial 
education very helpful to them. 


The Virginia Seminary was founded by the Vir 
ginia Baptist State Convention during its annual 
session of May, 1887, at Alexandria, Va., and was 
incorporated February 24, 1888, by an act of the 
General Assembly. The aim of the Seminary is to 
give a thorough and practical education to the col 
ored youth. Under the provisions of the charter a 
committee was appointed to purchase suitable grounds, 
which committee purchased the present site at Lynch- 
burg. The corner-stone was laid in July, 1888. The 

48 Evidences of Progress 

school was opened January 13, 1890. The property is 
held in trust by a Board of Managers for the Virginia 
Baptist State Convention. The school is supported 
by the colored Baptists of Virginia, who number 
more than 200,000. 

At the time this sketch was written the valuation 
of the entire property of the institution was estimated 


at $40,000. The enrolment of students for 1900 
numbered 250. The development of this institution 
has been most creditable to the Baptists of the State 
of Virginia. 

The following compose the faculty of this institu 
tion for 1896 : 

Prof. Gregory W. Hayes, A. M., President, Prof. 
Bernard Tyrrell, A. M., Prof. J. M. Arter, A. M., Prof. 
U. S. G. Patterson, George Moore, Mrs. Mittie E. 
Tyler, Miss Lula E. Johnson, R. Lee Hemmings, 

Among- Colored People. 49 

Lewis W. Black, Miss Carrie L. Callaway, Walter 
W. Johnson, Miss Minnie Norvell. 

The chairman of the Board of Managers is Rev. 
R. Spiller ; secretary, Rev. P. F. Morris. 

Rev. P. F. Morris, D. D., was the first president of 
the Seminary, but on account of failing health he 
resigned the position before the institution had been 


When President G. W. Hayes was appointed to 
take charge of the work, he had to start under many 
disadvantages, a depleted treasury on the part of 
the Baptist State Convention, and with no available 
sources from which financial aid could readily be pro 
cured. By his zeal and enterprise a large building 
now crowns one of the most beautiful hills in the 
vicinity of Lynchburg. 

Prof. Gregory W. Hayes was born of slave par 
ents in Amelia county, Va., September 8, 1862. 
He graduated from Oberlin, one of the first institu 
tions of learning in the State of Ohio, in the class of 
88 and was elected to the chair of pure mathematics 
in the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, 
which position he held for three years. He was the 
first president of the National Baptist Educational 
Convention for the United States and was commis- 
sioner-in-chief from Virginia for the Southern Inter- 
State Exposition. He was elected president of Vir 
ginia Seminary in 1891. 

In young men like Prof. Hayes rests the future of 
the race. He is an able orator, and whenever he 

50 Evidences of Progress 

speaks to a body of people he enlightens them. The 
future before him is bright. Modest, unassuming, 


brilliant, he stands tip-toe upon the threshold of suc 
cess and justice bids him enter. 


The Arkadelphia Academy was organized Aug, 
15, 1890, as Arkadelphia Industrial College. In 
1892 the name was changed to the Arkadelphia 

Among Colored People. 51 

Academy, and it was made tributary to the Arkansas 
Baptist College at Little Rock, Ark. The school 
had few friends and no money when started ; but in 
1896 the property was valued at $12,000. 

F. L. Jones, A. M., is the principal. The object of 
the school is to train workers for the Sabbath school 
and other departments of church and Christian work . 
to this end every person in the school is required to 
study the Bible, as the Bible is the foundation of all 
instruction given, and with it go all the cognate 
studies. The institution is located at Arkadelphia, 


The history of " The Florida Institute," at Live 
Oak, Fla., is interwoven with every effort of the 
colored Baptists of the State. As early as 1 868, when 
the colored Baptist churches in Florida were very 
few, the fathers of the church in that section took 
the initiatory steps toward the establishment of this 

After much deliberation Live Oak was chosen as 
the place of location. About three and a half acres 
of land, with an incomplete building, originally in 
tended for a court house, were purchased at a cost of 
$2,000. This money was raised by the colored Bap 
tists of Florida. The final payment was made in 
1876. The school was incorporated the same year. 
The school was opened October I, 1860. Rev. J. L. 
A. Fish was the first president. He was assisted in the 
work by his wife and other teachers from the North. 

52 Evidences of Progress . 

Under his wise management the school rose rapidly, 
against many odds, and took rank among the best of 
its kind in the State. His administration lasted ten 
years, during which time the school developed into a 
power for good, and its influence became far-reaching. 
Many of the ablest teachers and ministers of the 
State were trained in this institution. Others, who 
have made success in business and in professions, re 
ceived their training in the Florida Institute. 

In 1882 a two-story frame building for the accom 
modation of girls was erected. In 1884 additional 
grounds and a building for a boys dormitory were 
purchased, making in all about ten acres of land, a 
school building, two dormitories, and the president s 
residence. Total valuation, about $15,000. 

From 1882 to 1887 Dr. Fish edited and published 
The Florida Baptist, the denominational State organ. 
The work was done chiefly by the students. Also 
in the Institute s printing office the work of printing 
the minutes of the State Convention and the various 
associations was conducted for several years. The 
Florida Institute Messenger is now published monthly 
by the school. 

The library of the school contains about I,OOO 
volumes, many of which are of great value. 

The annual enrolment averages about 125. Many 
of the students are from the best families, and represent 
every part of the State, and some from other States. 

The courses of study embrace the Normal Prepar 
atory, Academic, Theological, and Industrial. 

About twenty acres of land near the school are 

Among Colored People. 53 

rented at moderate cost, making in all about twenty- 
five acres cultivated by the students under the direc 
tion of a competent professor. 

The religious character of the school is a marked 


Prof. Lawrence, of Massachusetts, served as pres 
ident during the school year 1890-1891. Rev. M. 
W. Gilbert was appointed to succeed him in 1891. 
His administration lasted one year. This year (1896), 
for the first time, the entire faculty is colored. 

October I, 1892, Rev. G. P. McKinney was 
appointed president, and now serves his fourth year. 

The school is enshrined in the hearts of the col 
ored Baptists of Florida. This is evidenced by the 
large and liberal contributions they make annually 
for its support. 


In May of 1892, Rev. George P. McKinney was 
called upon to take the presidency of this institution, 
the same school in which he began his student life 
ten years previous. 

As president of Florida Institute, pastor of the 
African Baptist Church, president of Florida Baptist 
Congress, corresponding secretary State Convention, 
vice-president State Teachers Association, and vice- 
president of the Sunday-school State Convention, 
he has indicated his fitness and ability. 

His field of labor is the State of Florida, and as a. 

54 Evidences of Progress 

bold defendant of truth, virtue and morality, he feels 
himself specially appointed to attack the wrong 
wherever it is found. By his bold and unmitigating 
attacks he does not always receive compliments 


from the assaulted. He teaches the young men 
under his care to stand by the right even though you 
be left alone in doing so. In giving this advice to 
his students, with a serious look into the future, zeal- 
ous that they should rise up and bless the world, his 

Among Colored People. 55 

profound earnestness discloses the fact that he is a 
man who knows what he wants and goes straight to 
his goal. 


The State University of Louisville, Ky., is the 
oldest, largest and most influential institution in 
the State owned and operated by the colored people. 

This institution is the outcome of a general discus 
sion which followed the close of the war, among the 
colored people, as to the best means of elevating the 
race and teaching true citizenship. In these discus 
sions the Baptists were foremost, and took the first 
steps looking forward to bringing about some of the 
wise suggestions made by those who had spent their 
lives as slaves and had just been given the rights of 
American citizens by the Emancipation Proclamation 
of Abraham Lincoln. 

A call for a convention issued by the leading 
Baptist ministers to be held in August, 1865, at the 
Fifth Street Baptist Church, Louisville, Ky., was 
responded to by a large delegation. 

Annual meetings were held at such times and 


places as agreed upon by each annual gathering. In 
1869, the necessity for fostering an institution where 
colored men and women could obtain a Christian 
education was brought up and practical steps were 
taken to perfect the organization. 

The session held at Lexington, Ky., made applica 
tion to the State Legislature for a charter. This 
petition was granted by a charter to the General Asso- 

56 Evidences of Progress 

elation of Colored Baptists, authorizing them to estab 
lish a school in the State. 

The purchase of ground and the erection of an 
edifice was the next thing to receive attention. 
Subscriptions were taken by the leaders, and collec 
tions raised in all the churches. It resulted in Old 
Fort Hill at Frankfort being purchased, but it was 
found that it could not be utilized for the purpose for 
which it was bought, and it was sold. 

Contributions were raised, the trustees were kept 
busy looking out for another site, a few young and 
active men were members of the Board and rendered 
good service. Among them was William H. 
Steward, who was employed in the Louisville post- 
office as carrier, and a representative of his race. 

In February, 1879, the school was opened by 
Rev. E. P. Marrs, with his brother, H. C. Marrs, as 
assistant, and the attendance was large. Mr. Stew 
ard was elected Chairman of the Board of Trustees. 
Thus the work progressed and students came in 
from all parts of the State. At the close of the first 
year the work looked encouraging. 

William H. Steward is termed the pioneer of 
colored Baptists in Kentucky. This distinction he 
has won by personal attention to the religious and 
educational work. In order that the new institution 
meet with success, he has given hundreds of dollars 
at a time to assist in prosecuting the work of this 

Through the efforts of Mr. Steward, the State 
University is the great institution that it is to-day. 

Among Colored People. 57 

It was through his efforts that the services of the late 
Rev. William J. Simmons, D. D., as president of the 
institution, and also that the present president, Rev. 
Charles L. Puree, D. D., were secured. 

The faculty of State University is composed of 
some of the best educated men and women of the 
country. It consists of Rev. C. L. Puree, D. D., 
President, Theology and Philosophy; Prof. R. S. 
Wilkinson, A. M., Languages and Political Science ; 
Prof. W. H. Huffman, A. B., Mathematics and 
Natural Sciences ; Prof. A. G. Gilbert, M. D., Eng 
lish and Hygienic Science ; Prof. L. M. Seeley, 
English and History ; Prof. L. V. Jones, English 
and Cognate Branches ; Mrs. M. E. Steward, Music ; 
Mrs. F. R. Givens, Art ; Mrs. M. B. Wallace, Matron. 

This institution is well supported by the colored 
people of the State and its work is deserving of 
high praise, 


Dr. Puree is one of the best known educators in 
this country. He was for ten years president of the 
Selma University, located at Selma, Ala. He ac 
cepted the presidency in 1894, and has done good 
work for the elevation of the denomination. 

He succeeded in paying off the debt of Selma 
University of $8,OOO, and by his pluck and persever 
ance he made many additions to the school and im 
proved the system of education in it. He is a man 
of good common sense as well as of high mental 
attainments. He never allows himself to suffer defeat 

58 Evidences of Progress 

under any circumstances. As a leader among the 
colored people, he is highly esteemed and acknowl 

The following letter from Mrs. M. C. Reynolds, 


President of State University, Louisville, Ky. 

corresponding secretary of the New England Wo 
men s Home Mission Society, of Boston, Mass., 
will show in what light Dr. Puree is regarded by 
noble white people in the North : 

" Dr. Puree is highly esteemed by me. I visited his 

Among- Colored People. 59 

work, in Selma, Ala., and I liked him very much. 
He is one of the few colored men who now are 
fitted to lead. So many are impetuous, sensitive, 
not well balanced. So many fail to see that it takes 
time to bring order out of this race chaos. Patience 
is what is needed. Some have it, some have it not. 
Some are far-sighted and are willing to bide God s 
time ; these are the leaders." 

The corps of competent instructors under Dr. 
Puree at State University are busily engaged daily in 
the theological, college, normal, grammar, art, music, 
sewing and printing departments, preparing young 
men and young women for future usefulness. 

Never before in the history of Kentucky were there 
so many boys and girls, men and women, striving to 
get an education. And this desire has been inspired 
by the noble life and character of Rev. C. L. Puree. 


Walker Institute was founded at Augusta, Ga. In 
corporated in 1885. Teachers employed are all col 
ored. The school has an average attendance of over 
one hundred. This institution takes its name from 
the Walker Baptist Association under whose auspices 
it exists. For the last few years the work has made 
rapid strides forward, winning the patronage of Bap 
tists in both the city and adjoining counties. Two 
classes have graduated, and the young people are 
leading useful lives as teachers and preachers. The 
Walker Baptist Institute aims at Christian education 
and the perpetuity of the church which gave it birth, 

60 Evidences of Progress 

It aims at the highest good of man at home and 
abroad. Its course of study is academic, and, since 
this is the golden mean between the common school 
and the higher and professional institutions of learn 
ing, it aims at a happy combination of quality and 
quantity. Its management is in hearty accord with 
higher training as the shortest and safest route to 
successful leadership in literary or professional life. 
The main support of this work is derived from the 
following organizations for stated purposes : the 
American Baptist Home Mission Society, Walker 
Baptist Association, the Home Board of the South 
ern Baptist Convention ; while a small part of the 
current expense is met by tuition fees and subscrip 
tions by a few friends. 


Prof. N. W. Curtwright, principal of Walker Bap 
tist Institute, is a native of Georgia. He had but very 
little time in his younger life that he could devote to 
his education. But being by nature a close student 
made the most of what time he did have to attend 
school. In 1888 he received his first certificate to 
teach in the public schools of his State. In 1889 
he entered the junior preparatory class of Atlanta 
University at Atlanta, Ga. During his seven years 
course in this school he was regarded as a very hard 
and energetic student and made rapid progress in 
his studies. When he graduated in 1896 he was 
chosen to represent his class at commencement. 
Immediately after graduation he was called to the 
chair of Latin and Greek at Haine s Normal and 

Among Colored People. 6 1 

Industrial Institute at Augusta, Ga. He served in 
this position one year and part of the second year, 
when he resigned to accept the principalship of Eddy 
High School at Milledgeville, Ga. At the close of 


the year was re-elected. But on the same day was 
elected as principal of Walker Baptist Institute, which 
position he had never in any way sought. We feel 
that the trustees have made no mistake in placing 
Prof. Curtwrisfht at the head of this institution. 

62 Evidences of Progress 


Coleman Academy was founded at Gibsland, La., 
and incorporated in 1 887. The teachers employed are 
all colored, and there are six in number. This insti 
tution was founded by Prof. O. L. Coleman, who saw 
the need of such a school in north Louisiana, as there 
was a wide scope of country where there had never 
been a high school for colored people. The school 
was first opened in a church building in Gibsland, 
La., in 1887, with only ten pupils. The school has 
grown rapidly, and during the first five years of its 
history but little money was received by the princi 
pal or teachers, as they allowed their salary to go 
toward building better and more suitable buildings 
for their purpose. The institution has six depart 
ments, and a full and competent faculty. An indus 
trial and ministerial department were added in 1897. 
The school has an enrollment of over 200 from some 
four different States. Ten acres of land, three large 
two-story buildings, one kitchen laundry building, 
and a new barn constitute the property of the insti 


Prof. O. L. Coleman is a native of Livingston, 
Miss. He first attended the public school of that 
town. He afterwards went to Alcorn College, then 
Alcorn University. He also attended school at 
Washington, D. C. At that time he thought of read 
ing medicine, but gave that up to devote his life as a 
teacher. He took a course at Chautauqua University, 
New York, of four years in the study of classics, 
elocution, and pedagogy 

Among Colored People. 



This school is located at Little Rock, Ark. It 
was originated by the colored Baptists, in their 
convention in session at Hot Springs, August, 
1884. In the following autumn, school was begun 
and operated as " The Baptist Institute," using the 
Mt. Zion house of worship in this city as its first 
schoolroom. In 1885 Mt. Pleasant house of worship 
was secured. In that same year, with the aid of 

64 Evidences of Progress 

Rev. Harry Woodsmall, articles of association were 
drawn up, and the Institute was legally organized 
and incorporated under the laws of the State, and 
known henceforth as the Arkansas Baptist College, 
with capital stock of $50,000, divided up into shares 
of $50 each, payable in instalments of $10 a year. 

While the " Pastors Course " was the most promi 
nent feature of the school to begin with, this served 
as a nucleus around which popular interest collected 
and grew, and as fast as possible Literary Courses of 
study were developed and taught, and students from 
different parts of the State increased in attendance 
every year, until now the institution has grown in 
numbers, work and workers, to a very favorable com 
parison with other colleges in the South. 

The spirit of the school is decidedly of a missionary 
nature. It was established, more than for anything 
else, to aid teachers and preachers in a higher fitness 
for their work. Indeed, it .aims to specially train 
preachers and teachers on moral questions, religious 
obligations and spiritual work. But it also aims to 
give liberal education in those branches of science, 
arts, literature and language commonly taught in 
American colleges, and to give practical training in 
the industrial and business features of lifework.. It 
is quite unpretentious in all its work, aiming to be, 
rather than to seem. 

The school owns one block, in the southwest part 
of the city. This property was bought by the colored 
people at a cost of $5,000. The site is high and desir 
able, overlooking its surroundings in every direction. 

Among Colored People. 


Rev. Joseph A. Booker is the president of this 
school, and his services are highly appreciated by the 
citizens of the State. 



Waters Normal Institute, located at Winton, N. C, 
was incorporated in 1887. Rev. C. S. Brown is its 
principal. Four colored teachers are employed in 
this school and excellent work is being; done. Rev. 


Evidences of Progress 

Brown has, by energy and determination, built up 
this work, and as some of the evidences of the thor 
oughness of the instruction given, a large number of 
teachers, holding first grade certificates have gone 
out of this school to teach in the public schools of 
Hertford and adjacent counties. The Baptists in 


Eastern North Carolina appreciate his executive 
ability and they render him hearty support in his 


Rev. C. S. Brown is an interesting character. He 
was born of slave parents. He became a teacher in 
one of the public schools of Salisbury, N. C., at the 
age of fifteen, having stood an examination before 
the school board of that city and received a first grade 

Among Colored People. 

6 7 

certificate. In 1880 he entered Shaw University for 
the purpose of studying theology. Six years later 
he graduated and was valedictorian of his class. He 
is not only an active man as the principal of the 
Waters Normal Institute, but is the successful pastor 


of a large Baptist church at Pleasant Plains, in Hert 
ford county, near Winton, N. C. At one time he 
held four churches with an aggregate membership 
of 2,500. For some years he was the editor of The 
Baptist Pilot, secretary of the State Ministerial Asso- 

68 Evidences of Progress 

elation and secretary of the State Baptist Associa 


This institution is located in the suburbs of 
Selma, Alabama, on what was known as the agricul 
tural fair grounds. The property was bought in 
1878, comprising thirty-six acres of land with one 
small building, at a cost of $3,000. Not only did 
the colored people of the State pay for this, but pro 
ceeded to make improvements, and at the same time 
gave money for the support of the school. The 
property is now valued at $15,000. 

Rev, R. T. Pollard is now president of Selma Uni 
versity. He succeeds the late Rev. C. S. Dinkins. 


Hearne Academy, at Hearne, Texas, is one of the 
best institutions of the kind in the State. The 
colored people contribute $2,405 toward the support 
of this school yearly, and while the enrolment of 
students only numbers 76 for 1896, the influence of 
the school is felt throughout the entire State. Rev. 
J. F. Anderson is principal. Five colored teachers 
are employed. Rev. Anderson will push the work at 
Hearne in a faithful and vigorous manner which will 
bring to the institution both friends and success. 


Natchez College is located at Natchez, Miss. This 
school is one of very great interest, and one that the 
colored people are very proud of, from the fact that 

Among Colored People. 

the support of this institution comes entirely from 
the colored Baptists of the State. The school is at 
tended by about two hundred students, mostly 
from the State of Mississippi. Prof. S. H. C. Owen, 

PROF. S. H. C. OWEN, A. M. 

Prof. Samuel Henry Clay Owen, president of 

PROF. S. H. C. OWEN, A. M. 

Natchez College, was born at Durhamville, Tenn., 
March 6, 1856. He is a graduate of Roger Williams 

70 Evidences of Progress 

University. Prof. Owen has been twice elected presi 
dent of the Natchez College. He is doing a most 
excellent work there and has made the school one 
of the leading institutions of the South, 


Jeruel Academy, located at Athens, Ga., is a small 
school, but it is doing a splendid work. Rev. J. H. 
Brown is its principal. There are upward of sixty 
young men and women in regular attendance. 


Howe Institute, at New Iberia, La., was estab 
lished in 1888; Rev. E. N. Smith, principal. Con 
sidering the many disadvantages of the locality, the 
school has done remarkably well. Rev. Mr. Smith 
is aided by three colored teachers. 


Spiller Academy, located at Hampton, Va., was 
founded by Rev. R. Spiller, and in 1897 became af 
filiated with the Virginia Union University; Rev. G. 
E. Read, principal, 1898; colored teachers, 4. Rev. 
Spiller, the founder of this institution, has been for 
years one of the most prominent Baptist pastors in 


This school is located at Jacksonville, Fla. It was 
incorporated in 1892. Prof. N. W. Collier is its prin 
cipal. There are six colored teachers at work in this 
institution, and the reports from this school are very 
encouraging. The colored people in the State con 
tributed $1,320 toward its support in 1895. 



IN this chapter, I propose to set forth the important 
educational work carried on in the South by the 
American Missionary Association. This work has 
certainly been significant, and I can do nothing 
better than quote from Mr. L. B. Moore, Professor at 
Howard University, Washington, D. C, these words 
on the industrial schools : 

"These industrial schools have been sending to 
the country places and to the small towns a host 
of young people who have gone forth as skilled me 
chanics, and they have gathered them in from the 
hills and valleys and said, Go and learn how to 
farm with improved implements; go and learn the 
carpenter s trade with the best tools; learn painting 
and shoemaking and blacksmithing, and carry the 
knowledge of these things back to the homes whence 
you came. They have been teaching the dignity of 

" These industrial schools have also been teaching 
the value of free labor. The South is just waking 
up to see what it has lost by slavery. If the white 
man of the South had been as shrewd as the white 
man of the East was, he would not now be groaning 
in poverty and saying, We would like to help in 
this work, but we are so poor. 


72 Evidences of Progress 

" The colleges of this Association are sending out 
leaders for the people, and oh, how my people need 
leaders ! I can take you to places where the blind 
are leading the blind, and they are both falling into 
the ditch together. How important it is that there 
should be leaders among this people to instruct and 
help them! These colleges have sent forth 1,000 
college-bred men who are going to teach that peo 
ple; and I tell you the time is coming vvhen that 
thousand will be increased by another thousand, and 
the ignorant and ofttimes immoral leaders will have 
to give way before the light which is now rising. 

" Now, why ought this work to be sustained ? 
The first reason is, it pays, and that is the business 
reason. When a man invests money he wants to 
know whether it is going to yield him a large in 
come. Can you show me a work that has brought 
a larger income than the work of the American 
Missionary Association ? Can you show me a peo 
ple in all history that has made the progress which 
has been made by the black people in the South 
according to your own testimony and the testimony 
of white men in the South ? 

" Then there is another thing : this work is but 
justice. It is but just to the slave who toiled for 
250 years and accumulated the wealth of this nation. 
The white man and the colored man were in partner 
ship together for 250 years John Smith & Co.: but- 
when the dividends were declared, John Smith got 
them all and the poor colored man has yet to get a 

Among Colored People. 


settlement. So he is just asking for a share in the 


Fisk University is located at Nashville, Tenn. 
Rev. J. G. Merrill, D. D., is the president. 

The work of founding Fisk University was begun 
in October, 1865, by the purchase of a half square of 
ground in Nashville and securing the large Govern- 



ment hospital that had been erected during the war. 
The Fisk School was opened January 6, 1 866, and 
the attendance for the first year was over 1,000. 
There were then no public schools in Nashville for 
colored children. 

The charter for the incorporation of the University 
under the laws of Tennessee was secured August 22, 

74 Evidences of Progress 

The Jubilee Singers were sent forth to raise 
money for the University October 6, 1871. The net 
result of their campaign was $i 50,000 in money, 
besides valuable apparatus, books for the library, and 
several valuable portraits. This success led to the 
establishment of the University on its present most 
beautiful and commanding site, one and a quarter 
miles north-west of the State capital. 

The University has in successful operation the 
following departments : 

1. The Common English, which has been main 
tained to meet a continued need on the part of many 
of the patrons of the University. 

2. The Normal, which has a course of study 
extending over four years, beginning with Latin and 

3. The College Preparatory, which has a course 
of study extending over three years, beginning with 
Latin and Algebra, and requiring two years of Greek. 

4. The College, which has a four years course of 
study additional to that provided in the College 
Preparatory course. 

5. Department of Music, with an extended course 
in both instrumental music and voice culture. 
There are 150 pupils in this department. In addi 
tion, vocal music is taught throughout all the courses 
of study. The Mozart Society studies and renders 
the classics in music. 

6. Industrial. Printing and Carpentry are taught 
to young men. The young women are instructed 
in Nursing, Cooking and Sewing. 

Among Colored People. 75 

7. Theological. For the use of this Department 
the Theological Hall, represented in the cut on page 
73, has been erected. The course of study extends 
over three years. 

The University has a campus of thirty-five acres 
with buildings and other appliances for its educa 
tional work, which could not be replaced for 
$350,000. Number of officers and teachers, thirty. 
Number of students last year, 478, representing 
twenty-three States and Territories. 

The constant aim in Fisk University has been to 
build up a great central institution for the higher 
education of colored youth of both sexes. The 
faculty and trustees have held undeviatingly to this 
purpose and the result is that Fisk offers unusual 
advantages to those who are seeking earnestly for a 
thorough education. 

For healthfulness and beauty of location, in build 
ings and apparatus, the University is justly ranked 
as foremost. 

Already 291 have been graduated from the Col 
lege and Normal Departments. The Theological 
Department, though the last established, offers ex 
cellent facilities to those who wish to prepare them 
selves for the Christian ministry. 

The Department of Music numbers over one hun 
dred and offers superior advantages for the study of 
piano-forte, organ and voice culture. 


This institution was founded in 1867 by the 

76 Evidences of Progress 

American Missionary Association at Talladega, Ala. s 
and incorporated for the purpose of affording " facili 
ties for the education and training of youth, from 
which no one shall be debarred on account of race 
or color." 

It is easily accessible from all parts of the State, 
and is so far removed from the great cotton belt as 
to escape the more intense heat and malaria of that 
region. The buildings, shaded by trees, stand on 
high ground, about half a mile from the village of 

In the vicinity of coal fields, surrounded by hills 
filled with iron, in the midst of a rapidly increasing 
population, with clear air and pure water, Talladega 
College is not surpassed in advantages of location 
and beauty of scenery by any institution in the 

The departments of study are Theological, College 
Preparatory, Normal, Grammar and lower grades, 
Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

The industries are Agriculture, Architectural Draw 
ing, Carpentry, Cooking, Housekeeping, Nursing, 
Printing, Sewing. There are twenty-four instructors 
and officers. Over 500 pupils in annual attendance, 
representing most of the Southern States. 

Graduates from various departments of the College 
are occupying prominent positions as pastors and 
teachers, or in business. Seven mission Sunday 
schools in the vicinity of Talladega, enrolling 350 
pupils, are maintained by students during term time. 
At least 3,000 pupils are in attendance upon the 

Among Colored People. 77 

country district schools in charge of undergraduates. 
An institute for the farmers of the county is statedly 
held under Collegiate auspices and annual meetings 
of several days length are conducted in three or 
four of the counties of the State for the benefit of 
teachers. In these and similar ways the College is 
proving itself a mighty and growing force in pro 
moting the physical, intellectual and moral welfare 
of the people. 

From numerous testimonials concerning the worth 
and work of the College, the following are here 
given. The County Superintendent of Education 
writes : 

" I have a favorable opportunity of knowing the 
thoroughness with which your students are taught. 
Many of the undergraduates have applied to me for 
certificates of qualification to teach in the public 
schools. They show that they have been success 
fully instructed in both manners and matter. It is 
quite observable that the influence of the College is 
seen and felt by both races ; and I cheerfully recom 
mend it to all lovers of fallen humanity." 

An editorial in the Mountain Home, the principal 
paper in the county, makes this statement: "In two 
particulars we had the same impression in all cases, 
namely: that the teachers are thoroughly equipped 
in all that constitutes efficiency as instructors, and 
that the students showed remarkable proficiency in 
their studies." 

Rev. G. A. Lofton, D. D., in writing to the New 
York Examiner y says : "It would be impossible to tell 

78 Evidences of Progress 

the moral effect of this school as immediately felt 
upon this section of the State. Especially does itlay 
an excellent moral foundation upon which the stu 
dents build character ; and culture and refinement in 
all directions are everywhere manifest." 


This institution is located in the beautiful little 
village of Tougaloo, in the very middle of the State 
of Mississippi, a few miles from Jackson, the capital. 
It is in the heart of the Black Belt, where the colored 
people outnumber the whites. The standards in 
this school are very good, while the teaching is 
especially excellent. 

Rev. Frank G. Woodworth, D. D., is its president 
The number of pupils in all the departments of this 
institution for 1896 was upwards of 400. 

Industrial education is thoroughly graded and ably 
taught. Students are not only made familiar with 
the use of tools, but are required to make out 
bills of material, working plans, plans for construc 
tion, etc., and to execute them intelligently. In agri 
culture, the plantation of Tougaloo comprises 640 
acres, and about 150 acres are under excellent culti 
vation, and pupils are practically taught the care of 
cattle, horses, and mules, plowing and planting, culti 
vation of crops, gardening, fruit-culture, steam-sawing 
and the like. In nurse-training this school has had 
special advantages. Instruction is daily given in 
nursing and hygiene, with a special course of two 
years for those who desire to make nursing the sick a 

Among Colored People. 


profession. The course in cooking, and in sewing 
and dressmaking, is excellent. 


This institution was established by the friends of 
the freedmen especially through the instrumentality 
of the distinguished soldier whose name it bears, and 
whose spirit its teachers seek to emulate imme- 


diately after the war. It has always welcomed all 
nationalities alike. Its work of years is now before 
the country. Every year the Trustees seek to enlarge 
its scope and fit it for greater usefulness. Important 
additions have lately been made to its teaching force, 
and to its literary and scientific appliances. 

The institution occupies an elevated and beautiful 
site at the northern edge of the city of Washington, 
on a twenty-acre campus, fronting a park of ten acres, 

80 Evidences of Progress 

and having the Reservoir Lake immediately adjacent 
on the east. The University edifice, four stories in 
height, contains recitation and lecture rooms, chapel, 
library, and laboratory rooms, museum, and offices. 
The Medical Building is on the south of the Park, 
and the Law Building is on the west side of 
Judiciary Square. Miner Hall, presided over by the 
Matron and Preceptress, is set apart for young lady 
students. Clark Hall is for young men. Spaulding 
Industrial Hall (named after Martha Spaulding, of 
Lowell, Mass.) is devoted to instruction in various 

Rev. John Gordon, D. D., is the president; Mr. 
George H. Sofford, secretary and treasurer. The 
work at Howard University is thorough and sys 
tematic. A great many applicants are refused admis 
sion to this institution from year to year, because 
they cannot meet the necessary requirements. How 
ard graduates are usually regarded as thoroughly- 
equipped men and women. 


This institution is located at Austin, Tex.; Mar 
shall R. Gaines, President. It was established by 
the American Missionary Association, and is main 
tained under its supervision. It was opened to 
students in January, 1881. The Institute was named 
in honor of the late Rev. George J. Tillotson, of 
Wethersfield, Conn., whose generous contributions 
and earnest efforts were greatly instrumental in 
purchasing the lot and erecting Allen Hall. It has 

Among Colored People. 8 1 

enjoyed a steady growth in the public confidence 
from the first. 

During the present year a new charter has been 
granted and the name changed to Tillotson College. 

There are two entirely separate buildings, especially 
designed and erected as dormitories, and for school 
purposes. These will accommodate, without crowd 
ing, 125 students, besides the rooms for members of 
the faculty. The boys and girls are, therefore, in 
different buildings. The boarding department is in 
the girls hall, 600 feet north of Allen Hall. 

The object of the College is to furnish an oppor 
tunity to acquire a thoroughly practical common- 
school education; to prepare those who propose to 
take a more extended course for entrance to the 
highest educational institutions of the land; to train 
teachers for all positions in the public schools. It 
is a Christian institution, conducted in the belief 
that Christian faith is the true source of the highest 


Straight University is located at New Orleans, La. ; 
Oscar Atwood, A. M., President. The first building 
for this school was erected by the United States 
Government about three years after the war, upon 
land purchased by the American Missionary Asso 

The history of the University is a record of steady 

growth and expanding influence. It was the pioneer 

school in this section of the South, in offering the 

recently emancipated race the opportunity for an 


82 Evidences of Progress 

education leavened with the spirit of the Gospel -an 
opportunity of which, from the very first, they availed 
themselves with grateful appreciation. During all the 
years since, though not without those trials which 
have tested the faith and devotion of her friends, her 
progress has been steady and salutary, keeping pace 
with the growing intelligence of the people, her 
courses of study being enlarged from time to time to 
meet their higher intellectual wants, the manifest 
fruit, in large part, of her own faithful educational 

Thus her history is, in some respects, the intellect 
ual history of the colored people in this part of the 
South, since they received the gift of freedom, the 
successive additions of the Normal, Collegiate and 
Theological Departments marking and measuring 
the moral and intellectual advancement of the race. 

The institution received its name from Hon. Sey 
mour Straight, of Hudson, Ohio, in grateful acknowl 
edgment of his liberal gifts and wise counsel. Mr. 
Straight is still the President of the Board of 

Stone Hall, with the ground upon which it stands, 
is a fine monument to the considerate generosity of 
Mrs. Valeria G. Stone, of Maiden, Mass. It is a 
dormitory for the girls, and the home of the President 
and most of the teachers. Here, too, are the kitchen 
and the cool and spacious dining room. 

The general housekeeping is under the supervision 
of an efficient matron, and an experienced and com 
petent preceptress teaches the girls how to care for 

Among Colored People. 83 

their rooms and their health, and trains them in the 
manners of a refined, Christian home. In a word, 
the whole management of Stone Hall, with the con 
stant inculcation of the principles of good breeding 
by precept and example, is an impressive object- 
lesson to the students of what constitutes the ideal 
Christian family. 

Whitin Hall, a dormitory for boys, is a memorial 
of the generosity of Hon. Seymour Straight and the 
late John C. Whitin, of Massachusetts. This is 
under the charge of an accomplished matron. 


Beach Institute is located at Savannah, Ga. ; Miss 
M. L. Graham, Principal. 

The educational movement which finally took the 
name " Beach Institute " began thus : 

Soon after the surrender of Savannah to General 
Sherman, educational work for colored people was 
begun under the direction of an " Educational Com 
mission," organized by Rev. J. W. Alvord and Rev. 
M. French. The first schools were opened by Rev. 
W. F. Richardson with the aid of colored teachers in 
the old slave mart and the Styles building in Yama- 

Soon after, Rev. S. W. Magill, a native of Georgia 
and agent of the American Missionary Association in 
Connecticut, came from the North with a corps of 
competent teachers and opened a school in the Meth 
odist Church on South Broad street. At the close 
of the first week 300 children and 118 women were 

84 Evidences of Progress 

enrolled. The school soon outgrew its quarters and 
was removed to the Massie school on Gordon street, 
which building was assigned to this service by Gen 
eral Grover, commander of the district. 

Previous to 1867 the colored Methodist Church, 
New street ; Lamar Hall, Liberty street ; the lecture 
rooms of First and Bryan Baptist Churches ; Sturte- 
vant Hall, an old wooden structure on the site of 
present buildings at corner of Price and Harris streets, 
sheltered this A. M. A. work. 

In 1867 commodious buildings were erected by the 
American Missionary Association, and dedicated as 
Beach Institute, in honor of Alfred E. Beach, Esq., 
editor of the Scientific American, who donated the 
funds to purchase the site. 

There were 600 scholars, with ten teachers, at this 

The teachers home, 30 Harris street, was first oc 
cupied on Thanksgiving day, 1867. 

The attendance and teaching force remained at 
about the same numbers until 1875, when the build 
ing was rented to the city for the use of the public 
school conducted by the Board of Education. 

In 1879 tne Association again assumed charge in 
order to secure a higher grade of instruction than 
the public school authorities thought it wise for 
them to furnish. 


The Avery Institute at Charleston, S. C, is doing 
a splendid work for the educational and moral uplifting 
of the colored people of the State. I do not know of 

Among Colored People. 85 

a single school in the State where so many children 
are in constant attendance. I have visited this 
school and I have always found every seat in the 
chapel occupied ; in fact, the entire building is usually 

The following is a complete list of all the normal 
and graded schools conducted by the American Mis 
sionary Association in the South : 

Gregory Institute, Wilmington, N. C, Washburn 
Seminary, Beaufort, N. C., Lincoln Academy, All 
Healing, N. C, Skyland Institute, Blowing Rock, N. 
C., Saluda Seminary, Saluda, N. C., Brewer Normal 
School, Greenwood, S. C., Dorchester Academy, 
Mclntosh, Ga., Storrs School, Atlanta, Ga., Ballard 
Normal Institute, Macon, Ga., Allen Normal and In 
dustrial School, Thomasville, Ga., Knox Institute, 
Athens, Ga., Normal Institute, Albany, Ga., Normal 
School, Orange Park, Fla., Union School, Martin, Fla., 
Trinity School, Athens, Ala., Normal School, Marion, 
Ala., Emerson Institute, Mobile, Ala., Burrell School, 
Selma, Ala., Green Academy, Nat, Ala., Industrial 
Training School, Anniston, Ala., Carpenter High 
School, Florence, Ala., Le Moyne Institute, Memphis, 
Tenn., Warner Institute, Jonesboro , Term., Slater 
Training School, Knoxville, Tenn., Grand View 
Academy, Grand View, Tenn., Pleasant Hill, Tenn., 
Cumberland Gap, Tenn., Crossville, Tenn., Chandler 
Normal School, Lexington, Ky., Williamsburg, Ky., 
Meridian, Miss., Jackson, Miss., Almeda Gardner 

86 Evidences of Progress 

School, Moorehead, Miss., Helena Normal School, 
Helena, Ark. 

Total number of schools, 84; total instructors, 
408; total pupils, 12,604. 

Theological, 113; Collegiate, 55; Collegiate Pre 
paratory, 151 ; Normal, 1,455 ; Grammar, 2,770; In 
termediate, 3,241 ; Primary, 4,937. Total, 12,604. 

Some of these schools are located in the remote 
districts of the South among what might be classed 
the neglected classes of the colored people. It is a 
hard matter to correctly calculate the real worth 
of these institutions. 


Dorchester Academy, Mclntosh, Ga., is but one 
type of a class. It is in the rice fields of Georgia. 
Beginning with one teacher, it now numbers 413 
pupils, five of whom are in the advanced normal grade. 
The principal writes us : " Although my boys and 
girls wear dark skins, and come from the rice fields 
and turpentine swamps, and their native speech is 
sometimes little better than a jargon, still I would 
not have hesitated in an exhaustive review of as much 
of the work of the year as could be covered in two 
days examination to have put them beside boys and 
girls coming from far more favorable surroundings. 
It was a thorough test and was well met." 

This is a school which, with many variations, may 
stand for many. Next, we advance to schools of 
higher grade, such as Beach Institute, in Savannah; 
Gregory Institute, in Wilmington ; Ballard Normal 

Among Colored People. 87 

Institute, in Macon ; Allen Normal, in Thomasville ; 
Orange Park Normal, in Florida ; Le Moyne Insti 
tute, in Memphis ; and Avery Institute, in Charleston 
(which has merited its place among chartered insti 
tutions) ; and in the entire field twenty-seven more, 
each deserving consideration, which together form a 
system of schools where disciplined and experienced 
instructors are preparing youth for worthy life and 
many to be worthy teachers for their less privileged 
people. These schools, though unlike in their en 
vironments and characteristics, are yet similar in 
purpose and not dissimilar in their courses of study. 
Northern visitors often express surprise in their dis 
covery of the quality of their work. 

In referring again to Le Moyne Normal Institute, 
I will say it was founded in 1871 by the American 
Missionary Association, and named after Dr. F.Julius 
Le Moyne of Washington, Pa., who gave some 
$20,000 for that purpose. 

The course of study is English only, including the 
training of teachers through a good normal course 
and with considerable attention to manual training, 
including woodworking and printing for the boys, 
and sewing, cooking, and nursing for the girls. The 
school was originally designed to accommodate about 
250 pupils, but has grown to a capacity of over 600 
in regular attendance, with an annual enrollment of 
over 750. The buildings are good and well adapted 
to the work carried on in them. 

The principal of this school, Mr. A. J. Steele, has 
had charge of the work since January, 1874. 



WHILE the Episcopal Church has not built up as 
many schools for the education of colored people in 
the South as many other denominations, the work it 
has accomplished is of the most thorough and sys 
tematic character. 


Mr. Russell s early training was under sober, il 
literate Christian parents. In very early life he made 
a profession of religion, was baptized and joined a 
neighboring denominational church. His member 
ship remained here until he had read the book of 
Common Prayer, when he at once changed his faith 
and offered himself as a candidate for the ministry 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church. He at first felt 
that he would like to be a missionary to Africa, and 
his mind was so made up until it was changed by the 
earnest persuasions of his aged mother, whose only 
child he was. He has long since felt that rich fields, 
white and ready to be harvested, awaited him in his own 
native State, where his ministry is considered a success. 

Mr. Russell had been appointed on different com 
mittees in the diocese of Virginia, and at the council 
in Norfolk in 1893, diocese of Southern Virginia, 
he was made a member of the Committee of the 

Among Colored People. 89 

State of the church. He was also notified by Bishop 
Randolph at this council that he had nominated him 
for his Arch-deacon of the diocese, to have general 
charge of the colored work in Southern Virginia, 


This nomination was confirmed at the meeting of the 
Church Commission in Washington, October nth, 
of the same year, and the Venerable Arch-deacon 
Russell entered upon his new duties immediately 
thereafter. This new office relieves him of none of 
the work already carried by him as principal of thf? 

go Evidences of Progress 

school, for he has the entire care of raising funds to 
operate his large school at Lawrenceville, situated in 
the heart of the "Black Belt " of Virginia. The school 
is inculcating the self-help principle in its students. 
The education of head, hand and heart are com 

The industries carried on at present are Black- 
smithing, Wheelwrighting, Carpentering, Printing, 
Shoemaking, Farming, Grist and Saw-Milling for the 
boys, and Cutting, Fitting, Dress-Making, Tailoring, 
Cooking, Washing and Ironing for the girls. Machin 
ery and material for these departments are needed 
and earnestly solicited. 

The school has been, and is still, dependent upon 
voluntary support from the friends of industrial edu 

The cost of educating a student in St. Paul s is 
only $75.00 a year, and the student is required to pay 
$50.00 in money and labor, and the friends of the 
school are asked to give the $25.00, styled a scholar 

There were over 300 students in attendance for 
session 1895-96. The graduating class numbers 
twenty, and they represent nine distinct States. The 
school has students from sixteen States in the Union. 

No discrimination is made on account of one s re 
ligious belief, but all are treated alike and all are re 
quired to comply with the rules and regulations as 
laid down. 

The Arch-deacon would find no trouble in ad 
mitting 500 or more students if he only had the 

Among Colored People. 91 

necessary accommodations for them. The Arch 
deacon is meeting with great success in the mission 
work of his church in the diocese of Southern Vir 


This is one of the most interesting Institutions I 
know of in the South. It was chartered by the Legis 
lature of Virginia, in the year 1889, and is established 
for the benefit of colored orphans of the whole conti 
nent, to rescue them from brutal treatment, ignorance, 
vice, and lives of shame and crime, and to endeavor 
to make of them sensible, sober, chaste, industrious, 
religious, and useful members of society. 

No higher education is here contemplated, ex 
ceptional cases aside, than to make of them intelli 
gent farmers, mechanics, cooks, etc. 

This is a much-needed work. Most abject pov 
erty, ignorance and improvidence cause the death 
of many, whose offspring are left to the mercy of the 
poor neighbor. The orphan, originally received out 
of kindness, is kept as a slave, when it is able to do 
any kind of work ; and no one suspects that there are 
innumerable orphans scattered in cabins, who are 
practically slaves, groaning under the bitter burden 
of work and the lash of taskmasters of their own 
race. The slavery of adults has been abolished, and 
the slavery of children has been made more bitter 
and more brutal. Now brutal treatment produces 

92 Evidences of Progress 

brutes ; the man avenges by crime society s guilt in 
heartlessly neglecting innocent childhood in its suffer 
ings and degradation. 

Sufficient as is the direct object of redeeming neg 
lected orphans, by itself, to appeal to the heart and 
conscience, it is also the most promising work for the 
elevation of the whole race. 

This race needs examples of new life to free itself 
from the influences of the past. It needs examples, 
not so much of college-bred men who follow the pro 
fessions, as of pure men and women who walk in the 
common paths of life, and who can lead in the way 
of sensible, honest, industrious, cleanly, and thrifty 
living, that the sense of sin and virtue, of the morally 
right and wrong, may be developed. This is the 
noblest and most promising of charities, because it 
is for the youngest, the weakest and the lowest. 

The institution occupies a farm of one hundred and 
a fraction acres, in a most healthful spot, affording as 
fine an opportunity for the bringing up of children 
as is to be found in the whole country. When com 
pleted, several hundred children will be comfortably 
provided for and trained for their life s work. One 
wing has been built, and shelters between fifty and 
sixty children, who range in age from infancy to fif 
teen or sixteen. A second wing is in progress of 
erection at this writing. A steam brick yard fur 
nishes the brick and will also form part of the indus 
trial system. 

As to results, so far, it is but the literal truth to 
say that orphans who would otherwise have been 

Among Colored People. 


doomed to child slavery and devoted to destruction 
of body and soul, not only wonderfully prosper in 
health, but are manifestly influenced by the regular 
occupation, the firm discipline, the atmosphere of 
honesty and fidelity in work, and the mental and re- 


ligious instruction. The Rev. Paul Sterling, of Mel- 
rose, Mass., writes to the New York Churchman:" 
" It goes without saying that such a work is doing 
good, but its beneficial effects are very evident, even 
in the case of the youngest child, and are the best 

94 Evidences of Progress 

possible endorsement of the wisdom and capacity of 
those who have the Institution in charge. The scru 
pulous cleanliness and orderliness that prevail is also a 
thing that commends the Institution to the observer." 
This Institution is without any endowment and is 
entirely dependent for building fund and for daily 
bread upon voluntary contributions. The small sum 


of sixty dollars a year rescues, shelters, trains, feeds 
and clothes one child ! In consideration of the great 
need of such work as this institution is doing, and 
of the many well-equipped Institutions all over the 
South for meeting the other needs of the race, it is to 
be hoped that means will be soon forthcoming to 

Among Colored People. 95 

complete and endow this noble work. Contributions 
may be sent to Rev. A. Jaeger, D. D., general mana 
ger, or to Rev. C. Breckinridge Wilrner. Superin 
tendent, Lynchburg, Virginia. 


While mission work of various kinds must be 
carried on, it is evident that, through the work of 
schools, the Church will accomplish its greatest work. 
The ambition of the people for education is very 
great, and it must be along these lines that the 
Church will not only satisfy the longings of the 
people, but also give them the greatest training in 
Christian discipline. 

St. Augustine s School, at Raleigh, N. C., has led 
the way in this training. It has already sent out 
from its walls hundreds of teachers and over twenty 
of the colored clergy. A large number of the 
teachers and clergy now at work under the Commis 
sion for Work among the Colored People received 
their training here. It was founded just after the 
war by the Rev. J. Brinton Smith, D. D., from the 
diocese of Pennsylvania, with the hearty co-operation 
of Bishop Atkinson, of North Carolina. Dr. Smith 
secured money with which its land was purchased 
and buildings erected. 

Its work is carried on along three lines Indus 
trial, Normal and Collegiate. With the exception of 
a cook and farm hand, with occasional assistance, 
the whole work of the school is done by the students. 
The girls have the care of the household, the young 

g6 Evidences of Progress. 

men the care of the grounds. Besides that, the girls 
receive thorough and systematic training in both 
cooking and sewing, the courses extending over 
several years. Instruction has been given to the 
young men in carpentering and in brick-laying. It 
is greatly to be desired that this trade instruction 
might be furthered by the establishment of a trade 
school, modelled after the New York Trade School, 
founded by Col. Auchmuty and so well endowed by 
Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. The skilled mechanics of 
the South were largely trained in the days of slavery, 
and, with the passing of this generation, it is impor 
tant that younger men should be thoroughly trained 
and enabled to earn an honest living. The develop 
ment of the South depends not alone upon its rich 
and various resources, nor upon the muscle of the 
colored laborers, but also upon the brain and skill 
of those laborers. 

In its normal work, the school is continually 
sending forth a stream of teachers for the public 
schools as well as for the Church schools. There is 
little danger of carrying on higher education, as 
some have thought. The greatest difficulty is in 
securing, at this stage of the race s development, 
students who have the grit to persevere in their 
school work so as to reach the higher classes. 

The school has an endowment of about $30,000, 
of which $25,000 reverts to the Board of Managers 
of Missions, in case of impairment or misuse. There 
are large buildings for both girls and young men. 
Two of the buildings have been erected almost entirely 
by the students. 



THE Methodist Church has been very active in its 
educational work at the South, and its schools rank 
among the very best. It is noticeable that this 
church has paid special attention to industrial educa 
tion among the colored people. I have visited 
some of these schools and I was pleased to see how 
highly the young men and young women appreciate 
the opportunities afforded them to learn trades and 


At the close of the Rebellion in 1865, the con 
dition of the emancipated slaves attracted the at 
tention of patriots, philanthropists, and Christians 
North and South. There were millions of them 
ignorant of books and of their duty as freedmen. 
They were poor, having only the clothes they wore, 
or if they had other property, it could usually be 
carried in a bundle in the hand or on the head. All 
the leading religious denominations of the North 
entered this field of missionary work the Methodist 
Episcopal Church among the first. In 1865 the mis 
sionary society of this church appropriated $10,000 
to establish a school for the freedmen in the South. 
This sum was placed under the direction of Rev. 
7 (97) 

98 Evidences of Progress 

Bishop D. W. Clark, D. D., who, having visited 
Nashville, authorized Rev. John Seys and Rev. O. O. 
Knight to open a school in Clark Chapel, a church 
building purchased from the M. E. Church, South, 
and then known as Andrew Chapel. Rev. O. O. 
Knight was principal, assisted by Mrs. Julia North, 


D> . J. Benson Hamilton, President. 

Mrs. Mary Murphy, and Miss O. D. Barber. All of 
the assistants were colored. The school was com 
posed of scholars of all ages and sizes grandparents 
and grandchildren, parents and children, were in the 
same classes. They were poorly clad, and mostly 
homeless wanderers from the plantations. They found 
shelter in the army barracks, in abandoned houses, 
in cellars or garrets, stables, or other out-houses 
whatever would afford them a present shelter. Yet 
in the midst of this destitution they were hungry for 

Among Colored People. 99 

education. Never did teachers have more earnest 
pupils. The crowded condition of the church soon 
led the teachers to seek for better accommodations, 
and the next year the school was moved into the 
building known as the Gun Factory. 

The school was chartered in 1 866 by the Legislature 
of Tennessee. A large portion of the students have 
been teachers, and are at school preparing for more 
advanced work. 

Since this school has had its charter, we know of 
none where a greater amount of good has been ac 
complished. The graduates from there are found in 
all parts of the country engaged in all useful walks 
of life. There is a theological training given to 
young men wishing to enter the ministry. Also a 
splendid law department where young men are pre 
pared to plead in the highest courts of the land. 
Dr. J. Braden, D. D., who has for years stood at the 
head of this Institution as its president, is one man 
among a million, for when he went to Nashville, it 
was worth more than mere talk for a white man to 
declare himself a friend to negro education. He 
grew old in the work, and was much beloved by all 
who knew him. At his death he was succeeded as 
president by Dr. J. Benson Hamilton, a man who is 
known as a strong leader, and doubtless one who will 
take up the work Dr. Braden had for years carried 
on with such marked success, and continue to make 
Walden University one of the best known schools. It 
was for years known as Central Tennessee College. 

IOO Evidences of Progress 



The Meharry Medical Department was organized 
in October, 1876, and was the first school opened in 
the Southern States for the education of Colored 
Physicians. Since that date, 482 students have been 
enrolled, 263 of whom have received the degree of 
M. D., and most of whom are now engaged in the 
practice of their profession in the Southern States, 
and have been cordially received by the White Physi 
cians; they consult with them in serious cases and 
assist in difficult surgical operations. 

The success which has attended the professional 
work of their alumni has been very encouraging, 
and the professional reputation they have acquired 
is such as any college might well be proud of. 

Ever since the organization of Meharry Medical 
College, the want of means has been greatly felt. 
Every year, many students have been unable to at 
tend on account of the lack of sufficient means. 
With few exceptions, they are entirely dependent on 
their own labor to meet their college expenses, and 
many have younger brothers or sisters to assist or 
families of their own to support. During the session 
of 1894-95, one of their students sacrificed his life 
in his efforts to supply the needs of his family and 
carry on his medical studies. The applications are 
frequent asking for a little aid, or for an opportunity 
to work to help pay their college expenses. 

The Dental and Pharmaceutical Hall contains a 

Among Colored People. 101 

clinical amphitheatre capable of seating two hundred 
students, a Dental Infirmary, Dental Laboratory, two 
rooms for pharmaceutical work, a laboratory for 
analytical chemistry and a museum. 

The twenty-first annual session of the college 
opened September 14, 1896. 

The Meharry Dental Department was opened in 
1885, and since that time twenty-two have completed 
a course in dentistry and received the degree of Doc 
tor of Dental Surgery. 

A most promising and useful field is now open in 
this profession, as there is a large and increasing 
demand for dental work, and good and competent 
Dentists will find plenty of work and fair remunera 

This school is a member of the "American Asso 
ciation of Dental Faculties," and diplomas from this 
college receive due recognition wherever they are 

The Pharmaceutical Department has been in suc 
cessful operation for five years, during which time 
thirty-one students have finished the course and 
have been fitted for the responsible position of prac 
tical druggists. With scarcely an exception the 
graduates in pharmacy have made good records be 
fore the different State Boards of Pharmacy, and 
most of them are either owners or managers of drug 
stores in different parts of the South. 

The question is often asked, " What are the young 
men of the colored race doing after they have obtained 
a college or professional education? * 

IO2 Evidences of Progress 

The following table will show what the graduates 
of Meharry are doing: Teaching, 9; Preaching, 4; 
Employees of U. S. Government, 3 ; Editor, I ; Sun 
day School Agent, i; Occupation unknown, 6; 
Practising medicine, 218. Total number living, 242. 


Clark University is a Christian school, founded in 
the year 1870 by the Freedmen s Aid and Southern 
Education Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
It is open to students of all classes regardless of sex 
or color, the sole conditions of admission being a 
desire to learn, good moral character, and obedience 
to lawfully constituted authority. 

The buildings and grounds are located just south 
of the corporation line of the city of Atlanta, Ga. 
The campus is sufficiently elevated to overlook the 
city, and has perfect natural drainage on all sides. 
It is beautifully shaded with oak and pine, which 
with its great elevation 1,200 feet above sea level 
makes it a delightful retreat in midsummer. It 
would be difficult to find a more healthful location in 
the United States an assertion proven by the fact 
that, among the thousands who have been in attend 
ance, but one has died on the grounds during eight 
years of operation. 

Prof. W. H. Crogman, A. M., has succeeded Rev. 
Charles Manly Melden as President of Clark Uni 
versity. For some years Prof. Crogman has been at 

Among Colored People. 103 

the University as teacher of Latin and Greek lan 
guages and literature. This is the first time in the 
history of the school that it has had a colored Presi 
dent, and we feel that a wise choice has been made. 
Prof. Crogman, is the author of a very useful and well- 
written book on the subject of race progress, entitled 
" The Remarkable Advancement of the Negro Race." 
His book is full of very instructive and interesting 
matter, giving a great many valuable facts touching 
.upon the history and progress of the race in this 
country, in such a way that no family can well afford 
to be without a copy. 

Too much cannot be said in favor of books writ 
ten by colored authors upon the subject of race 
progress. While the race is making such marked 
and rapid progress, a new book could appear each 
year full of useful information. 

The industrial features of Clark University are in 
teresting in the extreme. I found well equipped 
shops where wagons and carriages are made by 
students, also a splendid harness shop, where several 
young men have been taught the trade and have 
since started harness shops of their own. Large ex 
press and ice wagons, now in use in Atlanta, were 
made at Clark University entirely by student labor. 
Every young man above the age of sixteen and be 
low the college classes is required to devote two 
hours per day to manual training, consisting both 
of theoretical and practical work. Pupils are required 
not only to construct miniature models, but products 
for the market as well, and thus are prepared for the 
struggle of life, should no professional position open 
to them. Not all students can fill professions. 

IO4 Evidences of Progress 

Skilled bread-winners are second only to skilled 
soul-winners. The great need of the South and 
especially of the Colored people, is skilled workmen 
who can wield a deft hand and teach others to do 
the same men who can earn $2.50 per day while 
others are earning 75 cents. 

Clark University is endeavoring to supply this 
want through her Industrial Department. It teaches 
Carpentry, Wagon-making, Carriage-trimming, Har 
ness-making, Painting and Printing. 


This home, as its name indicates, is modeled after 
a real home, and is furnished with all modern im 
provements. It can accommodate about twenty 
young ladies, who are taught to cook, keep house 
and do other things practised in a well ordered 

Miss Flora Mitchell, who superintends this home, 
is in my opinion, one of the finest specimen of noble 
womanhood I have ever met. 

The work of the home is done by the occupants 
alternately, so as to give all a practical knowledge of 
model housekeeping. Lectures are given on domes 
tic science, food, dress, physical culture and social 
ethics. In short, the aim of the Home is to fit 
young ladies to conduct and adorn a model Chris 
tian home. 

Too much cannot be said in praise of the excellent 
work done at Thayer Home, and especially when we 
take into consideration the very crude homes that 

Among Colored People. 105 

many of the girls come from who are students there. 
I had the pleasure of eating a meal at the Home on 
one occasion and I was very much impressed with 
the extreme neatness of the place. Miss Mitchell 
told me many interesting things about the Home 
and its work, also showed me quite a lot of needle 
work done by the girls. She said, " I have visited 
several homes of students from here who have mar 
ried, and it was such a pleasure to see our girls 
located in neat, clean homes of their own when both 
husband and wife were happy, and it was positive 
proof to me that our labor had brought forth good 
results." I met in Philadelphia Mrs. Rev. P. 
O Connell who was at one time a student under Miss 
Mitchell, and she is very enthusiastic over the good 
work done at " Thayer Home" for Colored girls. I 
will say in conclusion that if Mrs. O Connell s home 
is a specimen of other homes kept by students from 
there, then " Thayer Home" is indeed a blessing. 


The existence of Claflin University is due largely 
to the generosity of the Hon. Lee Claflin and family, 
of Boston, Mass. 

In 1869 this property was purchased and set apart 
to its present purpose and is now one of the most 
interesting schools in existence for the education of 
the Colored youth ; located at Orangeburg, S. C, 
where the Colored Methodists are strong in number. 
Rev. L. M. Dunton, A. M., D. D., president of 

io6 Evidences of Progress 

Claflin, went South as a preacher in the early days 
of freedom and has remained ever since. Claflin 
University has now one hundred acres of ground 
that are worked by students. The school has been 
assisted by the Peabody and John F. Slater funds at 
different times. It is the only Methodist school in 
the State under the auspices of the M. E. Church 
or its aid and educational society. There have been 
enrolled since 1869, when the school was founded, 
about 8,OOO different students. It is estimated that 
one thousand Christian teachers, besides many minis 
ters, mechanics, and intelligent laborers, have been 
educated there. It is impossible to make an estimate 
as to the great good that has been done by prepar 
ing Christian young men and women to be laborers 
among their own race. The number of teachers 
required to man the school is a ^out nineteen and the 
property is estimated at one hundred thousand dol 
lars in value, and has some twenty buildings con 
nected with the institution. Besides the Collegiate, 
College Preparatory, Normal and English courses, 
twenty distinct industries are taught. 


The University is situated at 1428 St. Charles 
avenue, in one of the most beautiful and healthful 
sections of the city of New Orleans, La. The ground 
includes nearly two squares. 

The main building is of brick, five stories high, 
furnished with the best of furniture. 

Among Colored People. 107 

Besides large parlors and society rooms, there are 
rooms for 150 students in the building. 

The heating is by steam and every precaution has 
been taken for comfort and for safety. 

A frame building is used exclusively for recitation 
rooms. It will accommodate 350 students, so that 
ample provision has been made for all who can 

The value of the entire property is $100,000. 

It has an industrial school in connection, in the 
way of carpenter-shop, printing office, tinshop, and 
surgery school. 

In about 1889 there was a Medical School estab 
lished at New Orleans University, and up to 1892 the 
first class graduated. The charter of the institution 


admits students of this school to practise in its wards ; 
Also admits them to practise in the State of Lousiana. 
Rev. L. G. Adkinson, A. M., D. D., the president, 
is a man of great ability and has accomplished great 
good during his professorship. 


Cookman Institute is located at Jacksonville, Fla. 
The beginning of this Institute was very unpreten 
tious. It was started in 1872, simply to do good 
among the colored people in the immediate locality. 
Prof. H. R. Bankerd is president. 

In an old church, then in an unfinished building^ 
and finally in a small, two-story wooden building, 
Cookman Institute took on its more permanent 

io8 Evidences of Progress 

Property adjoining the Methodist Episcopal Church 
was purchased by the Freedmen s Aid Society, and 
upon it began the long and laborious task of erect 
ing buildings suitable for the work, and also the 
greater difficulty of raising the money to pay for 
them. The institution has buildings worth $25,000, 
accommodating one hundred boarders and 400 day 
pupils. These serve for the present size of the school. 
They are constructed of brick, and convey the idea 
of strength and durability. 

Of far greater value than building has been the 
desire to see the intellectual work carried forward. 
This has been no easy task. To organize the various 
departments, get the classes well defined and students 
brought on to fill the several stations in the progress 
of the work, has taken years of patient toil and the 
expenditure of much money. 

Those who have been with the school have won 
for themselves many golden opinions. The grad 
uates honor themselves in their success in life, and 
show what education will do for the people when ex 
tended courses of study are pursued. 


This school is located at LaGrange, Ga. The 
faculty consists of Miss Carrie King, Principal; Carrie 
E. Campbell and Julia Gilmore, Tutors. 

This school was organized in 1876, and is now 
under the auspices of the Freedmen s Aid and 
Southern Education Society. Its design is to meet 
the great demand for a thorough and systematic 

Among Colored People. 109 

course through the English, Normal and Academic 
studies. The Academy is an auxiliary to Clark 
University, and the text-books used are the same as 
at the University. The building is situated in the 
northwestern part of the town, three-fourths of a 
mile from the station. 


This Institution is located at Holly Springs, Miss., 
and was started in the early days of freedom by the 
Freedmen s Aid Society and represents one of the 
best schools in the South for the education of the 
colored youth. Being a Methodist School, it has a 
large number of families to draw its scholars from, 
for Mississippi is largely made up of Methodists and 
Baptists. I found a much better state of affairs in 
Mississippi from an educational standpoint among 
the colored Methodists than I expected, and I am 
sure the credit is largely due to the very excellent 
work done at Rust University. I found that, in ad 
dition to the Academic, Normal and Collegiate courses 
taught there, they give industri-al training in printing, 
sewing, plumbing, rustic work, and domestic in 
dustry. They also have a splendid model home for 
girls. The president, William W. Foster, Jr., D. D., 
is a most excellent man. He comes to this insti 
tution from the East, where he lias served some of the 
leading M. E. Churches as pastor. He is a graduate 
of Boston University, and comes well fitted to take 
charge of such a school as Rust. Mrs. Foster, who is 
as well known in the church as her husband, will be 
of great help and inspiration to him in this new field. 

no Evidences of Progress 


This school is located at Princess Anne, Mci 
Princess Anne Academy was founded as a branch of 
Morgan College, Baltimore, Md., in September, 1886, 
and in 1891 was also made the Eastern Branch of 
the Maryland Agricultural College. 

A good farm containing 12 1 acres, together with 
barns, stock, farming implements, &c., have been 
added for practical instruction in Farming and Gar 
dening ; also shops, tools and materials for teaching 
Carpentry, Blacksmithing, Shoernaking, Tailoring, 
Masonry, &c., have been provided for the boys; and 
facilities for teaching the girls Cooking, Laundering, 
Sewing, and the general proprieties of housekeeping, 
have been added, and very gratifying results have 

Students are allowed to select their own trades, at 
which they are required to work one hour daily ex 
cept on Saturday, when they devote five hours. 
They rise at 5.45 A. M., and retire at 9. 45 p. M., thus 
devoting at least eight hours to rest and sleep ; of the 
remaining time about ten hours are spent in Literary 
Work and Manual Training. The course of study is 
broad, thorough, and perfectly in keeping with the 
spirit and needs of the times. Nearly one thousand 
persons have received more or less training since the 
organization of the Academy, and few have any dif 
ficulty in securing profitable employment as soon as 
they leave school. 

The school was founded by the late Prof. B. O. 
Bird. At his death Rev. P. O Connell took charge ; 
but at this time Prof. Frank Trigg is principal. 

Among- Colored People. \\\ 


Wiley University is located at Marshall, Texas, 
a quiet city of ten thousand inhabitants. It is now 
enjoying a period of unparalleled prosperity along 
all lines. For the years 1897-98, the enrollment 

REV. M. W. DOGAN, A. M. 

reached 352. These pupils come from Texas, Lou 
isiana, and Arkansas, and represent some of the best 
homes in this section. 

It is the aim of the management to keep the 

112 Evidences of Progress 

courses of study fully abreast of the best in the South. 
To this end the departments are being constantly 
strengthened. In addition to a well-equipped college 
department, the following departments are success 
fully operated : preparatory, normal, English, musical, 
and industrial. 

Wiley University is distinctively a Christian insti 
tution and no apology is made for insisting on Chris 
tian instruction. The pupils are taught that the most 
enduring education has Christianity for its basis. 

The faculty of Wiley is composed of 1 5 professors 
and instructors, all colored but two. Rev. M. W. 
Dogan, A. M., is a young man of most excellent 
educational qualifications for the place he holds as 
president of Wiley University. He has taught at 
some of the best schools in the South. 


Morgan College is located in Baltimore, Md. Rev. 
F. J. Wagner was for years its president. The 
school has played an important part in the education 
of the race. It has its representatives as graduates 
all over the State of Maryland. The higher grades 
are taught there, and the teachers employed are the 
best. In addition to its regular work it has two 
branches, in the way of the Lynchburg, Va., Annex 
and Princess Anne Academy, located at Princess 
Anne, Md., which is mentioned in another write-up. 
Since Rev. Wagner retired as president, Prof. J. O. 
Spencer, A. M., Ph. D., has taken charge of the 
work. Mr. Spencer is a white man who is much in 
terested in the race. 

Among Colored People, 113 


Located at Greensboro , N. C., in a part of the 
State where the colored population is very large. 
This school when first opened had a white president 
in the person of Rev. E. O. Thayer, but of recent 
years the board has had colored teachers in charge. 
Rev. C. N. Grandison at one time was president. 
At this time Prof. J. D. Chavis, A. M., B. D., is presi 
dent with a good corps of colored teachers under him. 
I regret that I am unable to present his picture, for I 
am of the opinion that he is a most worthy young 


An industrial and high-grade school for girls, is 
located in the historic town of Camden, S. C., within 
the bounds of the district. The work done there and 
the discipline are so thorough that it deserves more 
than mere mention. The Home was built in 1887 
by the Woman s Home Missionary Society of the 
M. E. Church, to educate girls and young women 
along the line of practical housekeeping. Since the 
opening of the school, about one hundred and twenty- 
five have received training. Connected with the 
Home is a day-school of high grade, having a regular 
course of study, from which three classes have grad 
uated. The school this year is well attended, having 
an enrollment of over two hundred ; and thirty-seven 
girl boarders in the Home. 

The Home will be enlarged so as to accommo- 

114 Evidences of Progress 

date all who may come. Total expenses for board 
and tuition, five dollars per month. 

Mrs. Gordon, the superintendent, and her corps 
of teachers, are a noble band of self-sacrificing women, 
who came from the North. They have been the sub 
jects of opposition, and abuse, and ostracism, in their 
efforts to elevate a downtrodden people, and they de 
serve, and ought to have, the patronage, sympathy, 
and good-will of all. 


Gammon Theological Seminary, at Atlanta, Geor 
gia, is the largest theological school for the exclusive 
education of colored men in the United States. It 
stands to-day a monument to the philanthropy of 
Elijah H. Gammon, of Maine, a noble gentleman, 
who endowed, the school with nearly half a million 
dollars. Dr. Gammon was certainly a philanthropist. 
This fact is plainly indicated by his splendid benefi 

He did not wait till in sight of the grave and then 
cast off his wealth as a possession he could no 
longer use ; but living, he poured out his treasures; 
yea, more, he gave the ripe thought of his last years 
planned and wrought for the equipment of this 
Seminary. The measure of his philanthropy is not 
in that he gave $io,OOO to Garrett, $5,000 to the 
Maine Wesleyan, thousands to churches and aid to 
many struggling students. The mere catalogue of 
benefactions is no measure of the real philanthropist. 
The man himself, his motive, his purpose, his sacri- 

Among Colored People. 115 

fice, his unselfish enthusiasm, his giving of thought 
and time and heart for humanity these are the tests 
of genuine philanthropy. 

He did not endow this school merely for the sake 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He wanted to 
help all his fellow-men through all the churches. It 
was entrusted to the care and direction of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, as best adapted through 
its spirit, .organization and government in the South, 
to carry out his plans. 

His benefactions took the form of a theological 
school because he believed that the ministers held 
the centre of power, and were to be the leaders of 
their race for years to come. 

He established an institution opened especially for 
the Negro race, not because they were black, but 
because they were the most needy of all men. He 
simply gave practical expression to his faith in the 
fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. 
He was no sentimentalist as regards the Negro. 
He simply had a heart as broad as humanity a 
great heart backed by conscience and without prej 
udice, it went out to this race as a part of God s 
family, needing the touch of Christ s hand, through 

Rev. Wilbur P. Thirkield, D. D., President of 
Gammon Theological Seminary, is laboring hard and 
earnestly to make the institution all that Dr. Gam 
mon, its founder, had aimed to have it ; and the class 
of young men who are receiving their training for 
the ministry in this school is certainly a compliment 
to the endeavors of its president. 

Il6 Evidences of Progress 

There has been something over one hundred 
young ministers who have graduated from Gammon 
Theological Seminary. 

Dr. J. W. E. Bowen, one of the best educated 
colored men in this country, is one of the instructors 
in this institution ; and his work is regarded as being 
very fruitful and effectual. 

The position Dr. Bowen holds at Gammon Theo 
logical Seminary is one that could only be filled by 
a man of a splendid education. He is Professor of 
Church History. 

Dr. Bowen was a representative to the last General 
Conference of the M. E. Church, which met in 
Cleveland, Ohio, in May, 1896. He secured a large 
vote for the Bishopric, but I am sorry indeed to say 
was not elected. I was in hopes that the M. E. 
Church had grown magnanimous enough to at least 
elect such a worthy colored man to preside over the 
thousands of colored members they have, if no 

In addition to the schools already mentioned in 
the M. E. work, I wish to mention Philander Smith 
College at Little Rock, Ark., Rev. J. M. Cox, D. D., 
president; George R. Smith College, Sedalia, Mo., 
E. A. Robertson, principal; Central Alabama Acade 
my, Huntsville, Ala., A. W. McKinney, principal; Gil 
bert College, Baldwin, La., A. E. P. Albert, princi 
pal ; Meridian Academy, Meridian, Miss., J. L. Wil 
son, principal ; Morristown Academy, Morristown, 
Tenn., J. L. Hill, principal. I regret that want of 
space will not admit of special mention of all the 
above schools, for I can assure my readers that they 

Among Colored People. 117 

are all worthy institutions that are playing a great 
part in the education of the race. 

Rev. M. C. B. Mason, D. D., was elected as a 
general corresponding secretary of the Freedmen s 
Aid and Southern Educational Society. Mr. Mason 
is a graduate of New Orleans University, also of 
Gammon Theological Seminary. He is the first 
colored man to hold this position in the history of 
the Society. The Methodist Church will doubtless 
find places for a larger number of the educated 
colored students from her schools to labor in the dif 
ferent departments of the church than have been em 
ployed in the past. 



I DESIRE to call the reader s attention to the fact 
that all of the A. M. E. Schools are supported 
entirely by the colored people. In this regard they 
are unlike i>ther denominational institutions. 


It is a beautiful coincidence, full of historic value, 
that appears in the planting of two institutions in 
Greene county, Ohio, some four miles apart. 
Between them runs a highway over which passed, 
some thirty-five years ago, that mysterious line 
known in history as the Underground Railroad. It 
was wh.*s the slave was yet hastening his flight from 


Evidences of Progress 

the tobacco patches, the cotton fields, the sugar 
plantations of the Central South to the sterner clime 
of England s Colony, cold yet free, that Wilberforce 
University rose, right beside his perilous path, to 
offer freedom of mind and heart to him who dared 
remain. The war came with its carnage and death. 
Twenty years later Ohio built a home where the 
orphan of the soldier who died to free the slave 
might be succored in the years of its helplessness. 
In sight of each other and on opposite sides of the 
fugitive s path to liberty, stand these historic monu- 


ments, the results of a civilization that is the glory 
of the century. 

Wilberforce University was organized in 1856 by 
the M. E. Church. Its object was higher educa 
tional facilities for colored youth. In its first Board 
of twenty-four Trustees was Hon. Salmon P. Chase, 
then governor of Ohio, and the fugitive slave s 
powerful advocate ; also Rev. Richard S. Rust and 
Bishop Paniel A, Payne, Its first active president 

Among Colored People. 


was Dr. R. S. Rust, and its students were largely 
"the natural children of Southern and South 
western planters." On the beautiful premises, for 
which Nature has done so much, with its sparkling 
mineral springs, its varying landscape, its superb 
repose, the young institution grew and flourished. 
But the dark days of civil strife closed in upon it and 
its patronage from the South ceased, its operations 
were suspended. 


First President of Wilberforce. 

1 20 Evidences of Progress 

While the war was still in progress, the future, full 
of misgivings, without a dollar and alone, on the 
night of the loth of March, 1863, Bishop Payne 
purchased the college property for $10,000. He at 
once associated with himself Rev. James A. Shorter, 
afterward Bishop, and Prof. J. G. Mitchell, now Dean 
of Payne Theological Seminary. An act of incor 
poration was duly taken out, with the broad principle 
embodied in it that "there shall never be any dis 
tinction among the trustees, faculty or students on 
account of race, color or creed." 

The financial obligations which Bishop Payne had 
assumed were being promptly met through his inde 
fatigable efforts, and everything indicated a prosper 
ous future, when, on the I4th of April, 1865, and by 
the hand of incendiaries, the beautiful edifice went 
up in flame and smoke. That night Lincoln laid his 
life on Freedom s Altar. Undismayed, President 
Payne began the labor of reconstruction. A four- 
story brick building was commenced on the original 
site. Congress was importuned, and through the 
influence of Senators John Sherman, Charles Sumner 
and others, $28,000 was appropriated to complete 
and equip the work. The consecrated efforts of the 
Founder of Wilberforce University were fruitful in 
other directions. Through his influence, the society 
for the promotion of Collegiate and Theological edu 
cation at the west made appropriations from its funds, 
of $1,800 per annum for two years. The American 
Unitarian Association supported a lecture course 

Among Colored People. 121 

from 1868 to 1875 at an outlay of $6,000. The will 
of Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase contained as its 
first bequest, $10,000 for Wilberforce University, and 
the executors of the Avery estate in Allegheny City 
added $10,000 to its endowment. 

For thirteen years Bishop Payne presided over the 
affairs of the University. He called to his aid such 
instructors as Dr. Wm. Kent, of England, Prof. T. E. 
Sullot, of Edinburgh, Scotland, Dr. J. G. Mitchell, 
of Oberlin, Prof. W. B. Adams, of Amherst, Prof. B. 
K. Sampson, of Oberlin, and Prof. J. P. Shorter, of 
Wilberforce, Ohio. Among the ladies who rendered 
valuable service were Miss Esther T. Maltby and 
Miss Sarah Jane Woodson, of Oberlin, Mrs. Alice 
M. Adams, of Holyoke, and Miss Mary McBride, of 

From under Bishop Payne s hand went out such 
graduates as Dr. J. T. Jenifer, Dr. T. H. Jackson, 
Prof. J. P. Shorter, Bishop B. F. Lee, Dr. J. W. 
Beckett, President S. T. Mitchell, Miss Hallie Q. Brown, 
the Misses Copeland and others of large acquirements 
and wide influence, known over the continent. In 
the undergraduate column were Bishop Cain, Bishop 
Salter, Dr. Wm. Hunter, Hon. C. L. Maxwell, Poet 
A. A. Whitman and others. President Payne left his 
impress on every line of college development. He or 
ganized the Trinity Church, the Society of Inquiry 
on Missions and the Women s College Aid Society. 

In the summer of 1879 his earnest endeavors 
placed in position our most valuable teaching auxil- 
liary, the Payne Museum, built by Prof, Henry A. 


Evidences of Progress 

Ward, of Rochester, and illustrating the various de 
partments of Natural Science. The Museum is 
worth $2,000. Bishop Payne resigned the presidency 
in 1876 and it was in the administration of his suc 
cessor that this important acquisition was made. 

REV. B. F. LEE, D. D. 

President Lee brought to the conduct of the affairs 
of the University splendid moral, mental and physi 
cal abilities. In all the elements of devotion to a 
great enterprise, of personal sacrifice, of tireless in 
dustry, of uprightness of character, of accurate judg 
ment, he was a worthy successor to the great 

Among Colored People. 123 

And the University grew in usefulness, in popu 
larity, in the scope and character of its departments. 
On the 2Oth of June, 1878, the buildings and grounds 
were dedicated and a bright era dawned. President 
Lee held most of the faculty for a period and joined 
to it such talent as Prof. W. S. Scarborough, Mrs. 
S. C. Bierce, Miss E. R. George and others. 

Through the Missionary Department of the church, 
the island of Hayti was brought into close relations 
and five of her sons entered upon various courses of 
study. Under the efficient management of Mrs. 
Bierce (now Mrs. Scarborough), a graduate of Os- 
wego, N. Y., the Normal Department rapidly de 
veloped into a most vigorous arm of the University 
work. President Lee organized and sent out the 
Wilberforce Concert Company that sang its way to 
the hearts of thousands in the West and Northwest. 
Financially it was not a success, but the good it 
accomplished was inestimable. 

This administration gave to the world a brilliant 
galaxy of cultured young men and women, for the 
pulpit, for the schoolroom and for general service. 
It included such graduates as Profs. H. A. Talbert, 
Ex-Professor of Languages at Wilberforce University ; 
F. S. Delany, Principal High School, Madison, Ind.; 
Edward A. Clark, War Department, Washington, 
D. C. ; M. H. Vaughn, D. M. Ashby, J. R. Gibson, 
Principal High School, Galveston, Tex.; G. W. Prio- 
leau, Chaplain gth Cavalry, U. S. A. ; Drs. W. H. 
Yeocum, I. M. Burgan, Ex-President Paul Quinn 


Evidences of Progress 

College, J. R. Scott, President Edward Waters Col 
lege, Jacksonville, Fla. ; Miss Georgiana White, Mrs. 
Alice E. Gary, Principal of one of the largest public 
schools in Atlanta ; Miss A. H. Jones, and others. 


President of Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio. 

The University reached its highest enrolment, for the 
first twenty years, in /Q- So, a total of 171 students. 
All through these years revivals occurred with the 
return of every session and hundreds of young men 
and young women learned life s noblest lesson of 
consecrated purpose to the cause of God and man 

Among Colored People. 125 

In 1884, President Lee accepted the Editorial 
Chair of the Christian Recorder, Philadelphia, from 
which he rose to the highest station in the gift of 
his church the bishopric. The presidency came to 
the hands of another of Bishop Payne s graduates, 
Prof. S. T. Mitchell, of class of 73. It is preferable 
to let another speak, and Prof. W. S. Scarborough, 
in the Ohio State Journal, of February 5, 1894, has 
the following comment: 

" President Mitchell s incumbency has been fraught 
with nothing but good for the college. He is to be 
congratulated on the marvelous success that has 
attended his efforts of upbuilding and enlarging the 
usefulness as well as the domains of the institution." 

The last decade has witnessed a continuation of 
the steady growth of the University. Four Depart 
ments now represent its work. The Collegiate, in 
cluding law, music and art, with its preparatory 
courses; the Normal and Industrial, under State 
patronage ; the Theological, under the name of the 
Payne Theological Seminary ; and the Military, under 
the National Government. The second of these de 
partments came into existence in 1887 under a statute 
of law providing both for its organization and main 

From that time until the present (April 10, 1896), 
the State has appropriated $100,000 to support the 
department, and the 72d General Assembly of Ohio, 
by a majority vote greater than that given to any 
other State Institution, authorized a levy on the 
grand tax duplicate of the State that will yield a 

126 Evidences of Progress 

permanent revenue of $17,500 at the beginning, to 
increase annually with the financial growth of the 
commonwealth. No greater endorsement of a 
Colored Institution can be found anywhere in the 
United States. It has a faculty of nine members who 
give instruction in Normal branches, business course, 
shorthand, typewriting, nurse training, vocal culture, 
dressmaking, cooking, carpentry and printing. 

The faculty is exceptionally strong. Oswego 
Normal School, New York, furnishes the principal 
of the Normal Department ; from Central Commer 
cial College, Iowa, comes the business professor; 
Ann Arbor gives a trained medical doctor (a lady), 
resident physician and head of the nurse-training de- 
partmem. An experienced mantua-maker, who in 
Washington, D. C, counted among her patrons 
Presidents , senators and diplomats wives and daugh 
ters, trains the girls in dressmaking, using Mc 
Dowell s system, of highest honors at the World s 
Fair. A graduate of Mrs. Rorer, head of the cook 
ing department at the Columbian Exposition, teaches 
cooking; an experienced, thoroughly competent in 
structor, whose education was obtained in Boston, 
trains in vocal culture. Skilled workmen of ten and 
fourteen years experience, teach the trades of car 
pentry and printing. By a provision of the statute, 
every member of the General Assembly may nomi 
nate a student resident in the State, whose tuition, 
room rent, fuel and incidentals are furnished free. 

The equipment includes the splendid Normal Hall, 
provided with office, library, reception room, cook- 

Among Colored People. 12 7 

ing apparatus for instruction, rooms for sewing and 
nurse-training and teachers and ladies resident room. 
It is heated by the Gurney system of hot water, and 
is supplied with bath rooms, laundry room, dining 
room and every convenience. A fire-escape at each 
end of the building furnishes ready exit from every 
floor. The printing office, carpenter shop, and cook 
ing school, each fully equipped for its work, are 
operated in a new three-story brick industrial build 
ing, constructed by students. Here is located a 
forty-five horse-power engine, and an electric plant 
sufficient for all purposes of water supply, illumina 
tion and general work. 

A magnificent mineral spring of 2,500 bbl. capacity 
per diem is the source of water. 

To the sixty-two acres of ground now occupied 
will be added the beautiful estate of Robert Ken 
dall, just adjoining, and which contains 130 acres. 

The University also owns 1,250 acres of eastern 
Kentucky coal lands. 

The typewriting, stenography, and business de 
partment of the Normal and Industrial classes have 
quarters in the Main University Hall. 

The Payne Theological Seminary was organized 
under distinct management in 1891, with Bishop 
Payne as its Dean, with whom were associated Dr. 
J. G. Mitchell, D. D., Prof. W. S. Scarborough, LL. D., 
and Prof. G. W. Prioleau, B. D., succeeded by 
Prof. George W. Woodson, of Drew Seminary. The 
hall is a beautiful and substantial structure of brick 
and is well equipped. Each conference in the A. M. 
E. connection is expected to maintain a conference 

128 Evidences of Progress 

student. To this Seminary, Bishop Payne left three- 
fifths of the main portion of his real estate for an en 
dowment fund, and Bishops Campbell, Ward and 
Wayman their valuable libraries. 

To the University faculty, of experienced, earnest, 
competent, Christian instructors, graduates mainly of 
the University, and including a Ph. D. of Harvard 
and a post-graduate student at Berlin, is added the 
professor of military science and tactics by the ap 
pointment of the President of the United States. No 
other colored institution in America enjoys such a 
distinction ; no other colored officer has received 
such a promotion. 

Lieutenant Charles Young, the only colored grad 
uate from West Point, now in the U. S. A., compe 
tent, vigorous, soldierly, is achieving splendid results 
in that department. 

An examination of the Alumni Register will show 
a list of exceptionally strong graduates, such as 
Profs. Scott, Roberts, Arnett, Revs. Jones, Ransom, 
Johnson, Misses Clark, Jackson and others who are 
rapidly rising to prominence because they are capa 
ble. It is a high mark of confidence that the presi 
dent of the University is called upon not only to rec 
ommend Wilberforce s trained workmen for impor 
tant positions, but to send them in answer to urgent 
letters and telegrams. Just recently Metropolis, 111., 
made such a call ; later, the Alabama Normal and 
Industrial Institute summoned an instructor for its 
agricultural department. Now, a graduate of our C. 
N. and I. Department is pursuing a special course 

Among Colored People. 129 

preparatory to taking a position in Prof. Booker T. 
Washington s school at Tuskegee, Ala. 

Wilberforce University is consecrated to the 
Christian enlightenment of the race, and the atten 
dance grows larger from year to year. In June, 1900, 
Pres. S. T. Mitchell resigned as President on account 
of failing health, and Rev. Joshua H. Jones, D. D.> 
was elected in his place. Rev. Jones was born in 
South Carolina, and received his education at Claflin 
University, at Orangeburg, S. C, and at Howard 
University, Washington, D. C. He afterwards took 
his theological course at Wilberforce, where he is now 
President. I regard Rev. Jones as a strong man, 
who has for years rendered the church great service, 
and I feel confident he will make a most excellent 
President for the University, who will doubtless be 
able to still increase the attendance. 


The Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla., is 
an institution of learning founded in 1885 by the A. 
M. E. Church in Florida, and has been sustained and 
operated by that organization ever since. Its object 
is to give the Negro youth of its section a thorough 
training both intellectually and industrially. Its 
courses of study extend from that of the Grammar 
School to the College. Some instruction has been 
given in sewing, printing and tailoring; but the au 
thorities recognize the fact that in order to reach the 
great mass of colored people in the South, and do 

the greatest good, the school must make it possible 

1 30 

Evidences of Progress 

to give a student a trade along with his college 
course. This serves several purposes: it helps the 
student through school, teaches him to rely upon his 
own powers, and gives something to lean upon 
he has gone from school. 


The president receives numerous letters every year 
from young men and women who desire an educa 
tion, but are too poor to pay their way. They are 
willing to work, but he has not sufficient for them. 
Hence, every year scores of worthy young men and 

Among Colored People. 131 

women, eager to obtain an education, are turned 

Prof. Richardson is now making an earnest appeal 
to the friends of education and progress everywhere 
to charitably help him build up an industrial depart 
ment to his school, in which he can teach the young 
men and women who apply, some of the useful 
trades, thus helping them to become more worthy citi 
zens. Grateful acknowledgment of all amounts re 
ceived will be made in their annual catalogue. 

They now have an excellent three-story brick 
building, and two board structures, a strong faculty, 
and usually enroll more than 200 students. Any 
thing that will help them to broaden their field of 
usefulness or increase their facilities for doing the best 
work in the best way, will be highly appreciated. 


A. St. George Richardson, President of Edward 
Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla., is regarded by 
all who know him as one of the bright young men 
of the race who has by hard work acquired a splendid 


This school now ranks as one of the best in the 
South, being conducted on the plan of combining the 
education of heart, head and hand. Founded in 
1886 and incorporated in 1887, the growth of the 
school from year to year has been most remarkable 
and it bids fair to still greater usefulness. This school 


Evidences of Progress 

is located at Kittrell, N. C. The school property is 
valued at $15,000, consisting of sixty acres of land 
and four buildings, with livestock of most kinds. 
The work is so arranged as to give all students 


a chance to woik out a part of their schooling, and 
at the same time pursue their regular course of 
study in either the Scientific, Normal or Intermediate 

The principal of this institute is Joseph S. Wil 
liams, A. M., who is devoted to his work and pushes it 

Among Colored People. 133 

with courage and vigor. There are associated with Mr. 
Williams seven teachers and officers, all of whom are 
in sympathy with their leader and stand by him 
in the belief that a very high standard of excellence 
should be maintained in all school work. The school 
is largely dependent upon the charitable public for 
support, and has won the respect and confidence of 
many benevolent friends who are able to help sup 
port it. 

At the last General Conference of the A. M. E. 
Church, held in Wilmington, N. C., in May of 1896., 
Mr. John R. Hawkins, the founder of Kittrell 
Institute, was elected as the secretary of education of 
the A. M. E. Church. This is the first time in the 
history of the Church that a layman has held this 
position. But his election to this place is due entirely 
to his most excellent fitness for the position. Mr. 
Hawkins is now reaping the reward that always 
comes in the end to those who are worthy. He 
has been a hard student all his life, and many a 
night when other young men were seeking amuse 
ments, or asleep, Mr. Hawkins could have been 
found in the late hours of night hard at work over 
his books. He has to-day an honored position, while 
some of his associates have gone to the bad. I am 
told Mr. Hawkins has, since his election as secretary 
of education, been able to very much enlarge the 
educational work of the A. M. E. Church, and in 
crease the amount of money given for connectional 
schools in all parts of the country. 

134 Evidences of Progress 


Allen University is the outgrowth of Payne Insti 
tute, which was established in the romantic and 
historic town of Cokesbury, S. C, July 29, 1870* 

Allen University, established Dec. 24, 1880, is 
pleasantly situated in the eastern suburbs of the city 
of Columbia, S. C., and comprises four acres of ex 
cellent ground, four cottages, and one main building, 
which has forty-two rooms. The Girls Industrial 
Hall is considered one of the finest structures in the 
State. It is a silent but eloquent monument of the 
zeal, labor, ability, unselfish devotion of Negroes de 
voted to the cause of Christian education. All 
efforts that are the results of Negro self-dependence 
should always merit our devotion and steadfast en 
couragement. The departments are as follows : 
Theological, Law, Classical, Normal, Musical, Inter 
mediate, Graded, and Domestic Enconomy. 

Rev. David Henry Johnson, D. D., is president of 
Allen University. He is a fine scholar and regarded 
as one of the leading educators. 


Wayman Institute is located at Harrodsburg, Ky. 
The course of studies taught there are College Pre 
paratory, English, Theological, Normal, Music, Do 
mestic Economy. This institution takes its name 
from the late Bishop A. W. Wayman, in whose honor 
it was built. The president, Rev. I. H. Welch, D. D., 
is a very able man and will doubtless make Wayman 
Institute one of the leading schools of the connection. 

Among Colored People. 135 

He has been for years one of the prominent pastors 
of the church. As a scholar he ranks among the 
leading men of the race, and is in every way prepared 
for the work he now has in hand. 

In that part of Kentucky the A. M. E. Church 
has a large membership, and there is no reason 
why an A. M. E. school should not succeed in 
building up a large work. Harrodsburg is situated 
in the very best part of Kentucky as far as the 
wealth of the State is concerned, and .there are 
many well-to-do people in that section of the 


The site upon which these buildings, Morris 
Brown College, are erected, was purchased by W. J. 
Gaines, of Atlanta, Ga., February, 1881 now bishop. 

He paid the first $1,000 out of his own pocket. 

This ground was bought at a cost of $3,500. The 
buildings and grounds now are worth $7,500. It 
contains four acres of ground, fronts three streets, 
Boulevard, Houston and Howell, and is situated in 
the heart of Atlanta. The money to buy and com 
plete these buildings was raised by the Georgia, 
North Georgia, and Macon, Ga., Conferences. 
Bishop Gaines raised a good deal of money by sub 
scriptions. He raised $2,600 by advertisement with 
James Armstrong Soap Company, Baltimore, Md. 
The first building, which fronts Houston street, was 
erected while the bishop was presiding elder of 
Atlanta District. The other building was erected 

36 Evidences of Progress 

after he was elected bishop in 1888 and appointed to 
the Sixth Episcopal District. 

When the bishop left the district there was $3,500 
indebtedness upon the property. 

The bishop says he owes lasting gratitude to the 
ministers of the three Georgia Conferences for stand 
ing by him in this the greatest struggle of his life. 

The number of students is now between 300 and 

For the first time in the history of Morris Brown 
College it is to have a president in the person of 
Rev. James M. Henderson, D. D., an exceedingly 
able man. He graduated from Oberlin College, 
Ohio, with fine honor. Is also a graduate in law 
and theology. Morris Brown must under the 
management of such a man become one of the great 
schools for the education of the Colored outh. Mr. 
Henderson is the choice of Bishop H. M. Turner, 
D. D., LL. D., now in charge of the diocese Morris 
Brown College is in. Mr. Henderson began his 
work at this school in the fall session of 1896. 



Paul Quinn College is not the result of an impulse, 
but of well-considered promptings. While the estab 
lishment of the school in its present scope may be 
dated from 1881, the real beginning of the institu 
tion took place in Austin, in 1874, when, after dis 
cussion and prayer, it was decided to found a " Con 
ference High School" in Austin, which was done. 

Among Colored People. 137 

It was thought best, however, to broaden the 
purpose of the school and locate it in the town or 
city that offered the best inducements. Several 
places vied for the location, and after a very inter 
esting canvass of the State, Waco, by reasons of 
liberal donations, eligible and beautiful situation, was 
chosen as the site. 

The promoters were, in the main, uneducated 
men, with no experience in, and but little observa 
tion of, school matters ; but all were impressed with 
two things: first, the necessity of a school for 
higher learning in Texas ; secondly, the need of the 
negro s assuming responsibility and depending upon 
self-help, if he would ever reach the full stature of 
manhood. While grateful for schools established in 
the South by members of the other race, and appre 
ciating fully their benefactions, the founders of Paul 
Quinn thought that self-reliance was an essential 
part of a perfect education, and that could only 
come through the onus of managing enterprises call 
ing for sacrifice, planning, devising, suffering, triumph 
ing, in the first person. 

Paul Quinn College is under Negro management, 
and is doing as much as any institution in the land 
to teach the lesson of self-help. It is an object 
lesson of Negro capacity to plan, manage, and pro 
mote enterprises involving self-denial and hard work. 

The growth of the school has been steady and 
solid. Bishop Atticus G. Haygood, while agent for 
the Slater fund, visited it and said it was the best 
managed and conducted school he had seen, 

138 Evidences of Progress 

The school property consists of twenty acres of 
land, worth $65,000; two brick buildings and one 
brick addition ; ten frame buildings; eight teachers ; 
225 students enrolled. 

For the second time in the history of this school 
Rev. I. M. Burgan, A. M., has been elected as Presi 
dent of Paul Quinn College. He is a graduate of 
Wilberforce, and the institution has just cause to be 
proud of him. His election this time is to succeed 
Prof. H. T. Kealing, who was elected as editor of the 
A. M. E. Revieiv. The fact that Mr. Burgin has 
been the second time placed at the head of this 
institution speaks well for his ability as an educator. 



This institution is pleasantly located about four 
miles from Kansas City, Kans., on a high bluff over 
looking; the Missouri River. The location is one of 


the healthiest centres in one of the healthiest States 
in the American Union. It is in easy walking dis 
tance from the West Side Electric Line and has the 
advantages accruing to a suburb of a great metrop 
olis. It offers a full course of instruction in the 
following departments : 

Theological, Preparatory Normal, Normal In 
dustrial and Collegiate. 

Western University : tuition, room rent, fuel and 
board eight dollars and fifty cents per school month 
in advance. Each room is comfortably furnished, 

Among Colored People. 139 

Students are expected to bring bedclothes and 

The president of Western University at this time 
is Rev. W. T. Vernon, A. M., who is regarded as an 
able man for the place. 


Campbell and Stringer College owes its existence 
to the policy of the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church to establish schools in every State where its 
membership is very large. The movement was in 
augurated in 1887, headed by the chartered trustees 
and located in the cities of Vicksburg and Friars 
Point, where for a number of years they remained. 
Owing to their unfavorable location, and in order 
that the endowment of the church would not be di 
vided between several educational institutions, through 
the wisdom of Rt. Rev. W. B. Derrick, D. D., Bishop 
of the A. M. E. Church, presiding over the Eighth 
Episcopal District, and the trustees of said colleges, 
it was agreed upon to unite these two institutions of 
learning, and locate them in the city of Jackson. 

The progress of the college is due to the active 
service of the ministers and laymen of the A. M. E. 
Church in Mississippi, who have given labor and 
money to promote liberal learning in its borders, in 
the effort of elevating those of the race who pre 
viously have been deprived of the opportunities now 
offered them. 

We plan to meet the needs of the negro youth 
of the last quarter of the nineteenth century in offer- 

140 Evidences of Progress 

ing them the advantages of an English, Classical, 
Theological, Missionary, and Industrial education. 
It aims to give ample preparation to young men and 
women for personal success and usefulness, and it 
endeavors to correct the effects of too great special 
ization on the one hand and extreme diffusion on the 

The College campus is on the highest point of 
ground in West Jackson, at foot of Lynch Street. 
Nature and art have combined to make the surround 
ings pleasant and attractive. During the summer 
months it is one of the most inviting spots in the city. 

The main building is a good substantial frame 
structure, two and a-half stones high. In this build 
ing are the chapel, the library, the halls for the 
literary societies, also recitation rooms. The school 
is near a large number of African Methodists, and 
will be a great help to the church in that part of the 

Rev. Daniel Hunter Butler, D. D., who at this 
time is President of Campbell College, is a native of 
Mississippi, having been born of slave parents. His 
early life was one of privation and suffering, having 
lost his parents while young. He worked his way 
through school, and graduated with high honors 
at Jackson College, located at Jackson, Miss. He at 
one time attended Oberlin College, at Oberlin, Ohio, 
but could not remain for want of funds. 

Rev. Butler has been a very successful teacher and 
pastor. He has been principal of some of the large 
public schools in both Mississippi, Alabama and 
Tennessee. As a pastor he has had charge of some 

Among Colored People. 


of the leading churches in Atlanta and other large 
towns of the South. 

His theological training was received at Gammon 
Theological Seminary. Since Prof. Butler took 


charge of Campbell College the school has taken 
on new life, and the attendance has been increased 
very much, and the outlook for the school is much 

142 Evidences of Progress 


Payne University is located at Selma, Ala. It is 
now being conducted in a frame building, and is well 
attended. The school is in a part of the South 
where the African Methodist Church has a large 
membership, and as a connectional school will do 
great good. The courses of study are College, Nor 
mal and Academic. Prof. J. S. Moten, A. M., LL. B., 
is president of Payne University, and is regarded by 
all who know him as a fine scholar. He has had 
charge of this work for several years, and the school 
has grown both in attendance and popularity under 
his management. Prof. Moten is assisted by his very 
able and accomplished wife, besides other able 
teachers. I was very favorably impressed with the 
school as a power for good. 


Shorter College is located at Argenta, Ark., and 
is a great help to the A. M. E. Church in that State. 
They have a splendid frame building and an able 
body of teachers. Courses there are College, Nor 
mal, Classical English, Theological and Industrial. 
The school is indeed fortunate in having Dr. Thos. 
H. Jackson as its president, as he is known to 
be one of the best scholars in the United States, and 
will be a great blessing to the school and church in 
that section of the South. 



IN this chapter I present a brief history of the great 
work started by the late Dr. J. C. Price. This in 
stitution is one of great interest. 


Among the evidences of Negro ability to establish 
and control great institutions, we have no better ex 
ample than Livingstone College. In a quiet, anti 
quated-looking town of historic connection with those 
stirring times of our American Revolution, and with 
those more than rebellious times of our country s 
civil strife, where the Confederate Government in 
humanly treated Union soldiers in one of their most 
noted prison-pens, in the town of Salisbury, N. C., 
and under the shadow of that prison, is Livingstone 
College the pride of a great church, an honor to the 
Negro race. This institution stands as a towering 
monument to the heroes of that bloody struggle 
whose lives were lost for their country s sake and to 
make an enslaved people free. 

The A. M. E. Zion Church had long desired an 
institution for a thorough education of its children, 
and accordingly a school under the auspices of the 
North Carolina Conference was started in 1879 in 
the town of Concord, N. C. It was incorporated 



Evidences of Progress 

under the name of Zion Wesley Institute, and after 
two sessions, depending upon collections from the 
churches of that conference, it was forced to close 


President of Livingstone College, Salisbury, N. C. 

its doors. Therefore it was in May, 1881, when it 
became apparent that the school must close then 
being taught by Prof. A. S. Richardson. The 
Ecumenical Conference of the Methodist Church was 
held this year in England and in this month of May. 
Bishop J. W. Hood, D. D., who was president of the 

Among Colored People. 145 

Board of Trustees of the Institute, and Rev. J, C. 
Price, with other representatives of the Zion Church, 
were in attendance. 

Bishop Hood, recognizing the ability of Dr. Price, 
who was then a young man just out of school, pre 
vailed upon him to become an agent for the school 
and to remain in England after the close of the con 

During the conference Dr. Price made himself 
famous among the delegates and visitors as an elo 
quent orator and after its close had no trouble in 
getting before the English people, who welcomed 
him everywhere and responded to his appeals in a 
sum amounting to $9,100. This, of course, was great 
encouragement to the Trustees and the Church. The 
congregation of the Zion Church, in Concord, offered 
seven acres of land for a site to erect buildings and 
locate the school permanently. But the trustees de 
cided that Salisbury would be a more favorable 
place and the school was located in that city. 

It was in the spring of 1882 that Bishops Hood 
and Lomax, with $3,000 of the money raised by 
Prof. Price in England and $1,000 donated by the 
business men of Salisbury, purchased the site now 
occupied by Livingstone College. There was on the 
place one two-story building with ten rooms includ 
ing basement. The tract of land consisted of forty 
acres and the total cost of the place amounted to 

The Board of Bishops at the meeting in Chester P 
S. C., in September, 1882, adopted Zion Wesley In- 


146 Evidences of Progress. 

stitute as a connectional school, electing a faculty 
with Rev. J. C. Price, president, Rev. C. R. Harris, 
Prof. E. Moore, instructors ; Mrs. M. E. Harris as 

October 9, 1882, the Institute was opened on its 
own premises in Salisbury. The name was soon 
changed to Zion Wesley College, and in 86 or 87 
became Livingstone College, in honor of the great 
African explorer, David Livingtone. 

It may not be out of place to mention here that 
the president and faculty felt that in the scope of the 
work the institution aimed to do, it would be less 
hampered by the new name. The wisdom of this 
has doubtless been seen by those intimately associated 
with the College. 

The first day the school opened there were five 
day students, but no boarders. About the middle of 
October the first student from abroad came Miss 
Lizzie Williams, of Newbern, N. C. When the 
session closed, however, there were in all ninety- 
three students. A small frame building (16x40) for 
boys had been erected and the girls were crowded 
in rooms with two beds each, and so great was the 
need for rooms that they were compelled in some in 
stances to sleep three in a bed. 

When the second session began, another teacher 
was added, this being necessary because the president 
was required to travel and solicit donations. Dr. W. 
H. Goler, a personal friend and college-mate of the 
president, was the teacher added. The institution 
was very much strengthened by this new addition, 


Evidences of Progress 

for, besides the literary advantages to the school, the 
business tact of Dr. Goler, as well as his practical 
knowledge along certain industrial lines, made the 
addition very valuable. It mav be well to mention 

KKV. \V. H. GOLER, D. D. 

here that Dr. Goler had the distinction of preaching 
the first annual or baccalaureate sermon, and the late 
Bishop S. T. Jones of delivering the first annual 

In the middle of the second session, when the 

Among Colored People. 149 

number of students reached 120, the building for 
boys was taken for girls and rented houses in the 
community were provided for the boys. This meant 
to the young men inconvenience and a sacrifice 
of comfortable quarters, but they were in full sym 
pathy with the school and its struggles, and bore the 
hardships without a murmur. These days are often 
referred to as the "Dark Days " of Livingstone 
College for both teachers and students. Then it was 
that some of the teachers were laboring without 
knowing what they would receive for salary, and Dr. 
Goler often says " he never received a penny during 
his first year s work." 

The faithful discharge of duty by Prof. Moore, 
Prof. Harris (now Bishop Harris), Mrs. Harris as 
matron, and Prof. Goler, was of incalculable value to 
the president in these struggling years of the school 
for existence. 

In 1884 an addition (42 x 56) was made to the orig 
inal ten-room house, for a chapel, a dining room and 
dormitories for girls. Mr. C. P. Huntington was the 
chief donor, and the building, "Huntington Hall," is 
named for him. The dimensions of the building are 
91 x 38. It is four stories high, including basement. 

In the fall of 1885 the necessity for more buildings 
caused Dr. Price to visit the Pacific coast. After 
lecturing about four months he secured the donation 
of $5,OOO from the late Senator Leland Stanford and 
$1,000 from Mrs. Mark Hopkins. The entire amount 
collected by Dr. Price on the coast was about 
$9,000. Only a little over $1,000 was needed 

150 Evidences of Progress 

to make up the sum of $20,000. The Hon. Wm. E. 
Dodge, who had assisted Mr. Price through school, 
promised him a donation of $5,000 if he should raise 
that sum. Mr. Price lost no time in securing the 
residue and Mr. Dodge kept his word. 

In March, 1886, ground was broken for the erec 
tion of a dormitory for boys Dodge Hall a four- 
story brick building 60x40, and a four-story brick, 
100x40, for girls, known as Hopkins Hall, forming a 
nucleus to Stanford Seminary. It will be observed 
that all these buildings are named for their principal 

In 1887, Mr. Stephen F. Ballard of New York 
erected the Ballard Industrial Hall (60 x 39) and fitted 
it up with complete outfits for the department of 
carpentry, shoemaking and printing. The entire val 
uation of the buildings and grounds (now about fifty 
acres) is estimated at $IOO,OOO. 

The aim of the school has been to give a thorough 
literary training to colored young men and women. 
The industrial feature has not been neglected, although 
recently the school has not been able to do as much 
in that line as formerly. The reason for this has 
been the withdrawal of the Slater Fund. However, 
mis department has been operating with such means 
as the officers have been able to obtain. The students 
in the carpentry shop make and repair all the furni 
ture used irt the school, such as bedsteads, chairs, 
tables, desks, washstands and dressers. The printing 
office is well equipped and much minute and 
pamphlet work has been done besides the publish- 

Among Colored People. 151 

ing of the College journal, which is now conceded to 
be one of the best, if not the best, College magazine 
published by a colored institution in the country. 
The. institution has been running but little over a 
decade. It boasts, however, of a prominence equal to 
any institution in the south founded and sustained by 
colored men. The character of its graduates and the 
showing they have made bespeak the thoroughness 
of its work. In fact, the officers of the institution, 
while recognizing the need and the cry for the in 
dustrial training of the Negro, have stoutly main 
tained that industrial education should not supplant 
the higher educational development of the Negro. 
The success of the 130 graduates since 85 has been 
sufficient argument for them to hold this point. 

The young men who have entered the ministry are 
all prominent in the great church under whose aus 
pices the school works. Many of the largest and 
most prominent churches in the connection are held 
by them, and they have merited each place. In the 
law and in medicine they are not behind, and in the 
schoolroom as teachers, many brilliant records have 
been made by its young men and women. As 
teachers, they are in demand, and in most cases give 
entire satisfaction. 

The work of Dr. Price, in his efforts to lift the race 
to a higher plane of intellectual and moral develop 
ment, is well known on both sides of the Atlantic. 
To speak of Livingstone and its aim is to speak of 
the one great desire of its lamented president. So 
thoroughly wedded was he to this idea and its 

152 Evidences of Progress 

development through the work of Livingstone College 
that no honor in church or state, however tempting 
the emolument attached to it, could induce him to 
give it up. 

His great influence rests upon his successor and 
his associates ten in number. These are making 
noble self-sacrifices to carry on the work. 

The maintenance of this work is wonderful when 
it is remembered that Livingstone has no endowment 
fund for teachers, no scholarship fund for students, 
and only a small appropriation from the church 
under whose auspices it is operated only a little 
over half of this being received annually to carry on 
the work and pay teachers. 

The death of Dr. Price occurred Oct. 25, 1893. 
To him directly is due the permanent establishment 
of the institution. 

Dr. W. H. Goler, the new president, took charge 
with a vim that delighted all. His ability, his friend 
ship for and acquaintance with Dr. Price, and his ex 
perience give him a confidence that makes success 
doubly sure. 

During the past five or six years the school has 
averaged an enrolment of over 200 students. The 
enrolment one year was about 300. Students rep 
resenting New England, Michigan, Missouri, Ken 
tucky, Illinois, and all the States along the coast, 
from Massachusetts to Florida, as well as Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Tennessee, have 
been enrolled. Besides these, representatives of 

Among Colored People. 153 

Liberia, West coast of Africa, and the West Indies 
are among the number. 

The death of Dr. Price was a great blow to Living 
stone. Its friends were thrown into a state of anx 
iety for its future. But many believed that Price s 
work was accomplished when he demonstrated to 
the world his practical production of his great lec 
ture " Negro Capabilities." When Livingstone 
started, the world had not learned that a College 
could be established and controlled entirely by 


Clinton Institute is located south of Rock Hill, 
S. C., in a section of the State densely populated 
with colored people. 

I was very much impressed with the work done 
at Clinton Institute. The school is under the 
auspices of the A. M. E. Zion connection, but has 
some help from outside. Prof. R. J. Crokett, who is 
president of the school, is a graduate of Livingstone 
College, and is a most excellent and worthy young 
man. The school has a graded department, in 
which are taught the ordinary and higher English 
branches. It has a normal department, in which are 
taught some of the sciences, and in which is the 
practice school for young teachers who work in the 
more rural districts. It has an industrial department, 
in which it is designed to introduce all the industrial 
arts that are of practical benefit to the colored people 
in the South. 



IT is a great pleasure to me to note, in these 
sketches, the splendid work done by the Presbyterian 
Church for the education of the colored people. 

Rev. I. N. Randall, D. D., President. 

Among the instrumentalities through which the 
friends of the Negro may convey to him the blessings 
of education, Lincoln University especially deserves 
the confidence of the Christian public. She was the 
first to enter this field. Lincoln University was 
chartered by the State of Pennsylvania to give a 
liberal Scientific, Classical and Theological education 
to colored youth of the male sex in 1854, six years 
before the war which resulted in emancipation. The 
school is located in Chester county, half a mile from 
Lincoln University Station. A liberal Christian edu 
cation was the policy adopted by Lincoln University 
for the elevation of our colored population before the 
body of them became freedmen. 

Four hundred and ninety-five have been graduated 
from the Collegiate Department, after a course of 
instruction extending through four and, in many 
cases, seven years. Most of these graduates are en 
gaged in professional and educational labors in the 
Southern States. Two hundred and sixteen of the 

Among Colored People. 155 

students of Lincoln University have received ordina 
tion as ministers in Evangelical Protestant denomina 
tions. Thirteen students have gone to Africa as 
missionaries. Three young men from Liberia are 
now in the University. 

Such men as J. C. Price, W. H. Goler and hundreds 
of others are the class of men educated at Lincoln 
University. There can be no question but that this 
institution has accomplished more for the colored 
people both North and South than any other north 
of Mason and Dixon s line. 


Scotia Seminary is one of the most interesting 
schools I have ever visited. It was founded to bring 
within the reach of colored girls in and about Con 
cord, N. C., where it is located, the advantages of a 
thorough Christian education and to aid in building 
up the Presbyterian Church among the colored 
people. It is chartered by the State of North Caro 
lina. Says Rev. D. J. Satterfield, D. D., the presi 

"Our aim has always been to appeal to the nobler 
natures of our students in order to secure compliance 
with our wishes. Our rules prohibit what is unlady 
like and disorderly and require only what is necessary 
to provide for the mental, moral and physical welfare 
of all. 

" For the enforcement of these rules we hold 
students as well as teachers responsible. We pro 
pose to maintain a moral sentiment in the school, 

156 Evidences of Progress 

which will make anything vulgar or vicious so much 
out of place here, that it cannot stay." 


This institution is located at Crockett, Texas, 
and was founded by Mrs. Mary Allen, who was a 
true friend to the colored people, and especially to 
colored women. The purpose of this school is to 
train up colored women in such arts and sciences as 
are taught in schools of high grade, in all kinds of 
domestic duties. Rev. Jno. B. Smith, D. D., is pres 
ident, and he is assisted by an able body of teachers. 


Mary Holmes was founded and is now sustained by 
the Board of Missions for Freedmen of the Presby 
terian Church. The school was first located at 
Jackson, Miss., and was built as a memorial to Mrs. 
Mary Holmes, wife of Rev. Mead Holmes, of Rock- 
ford, 111. The buildings at Jackson were destroyed 
by fire, and the school was then moved to West 
Point, Miss. The object of this institution is the 
higher education for colored women. Rev. H. N. 
Payne, D. D., is president. 


Barber Memorial Seminary is the thoughtful and 
loving gift of a Christian woman for the education 
and elevation of colored girls. Ardently interested 

Among- Colored People. 157 

in the welfare of the colored people, Mrs. P. M. 
Barber, of Philadelphia, has founded this school as 
a memorial to her late husband, whose expressed 
purpose it had been to provide an institution of this 
kind. The school is located at Anniston, Ala. Rev. 
S. M. Davis, D. D., president. 


Brainerd Institute, established for the Christian 
education of Colored youth of both sexes, is located 
in Chester, S. C. John S. Marquis, Principal. 

The school grounds comprise 13 acres. There 
are two large buildings ; one being principal s home, 
young women s dormitories, dining room and kitchen ; 
the other containing class-rooms, printing office, 
and young men s dormitories. 

Brainerd Institute has turned out some very useful 
men and women. Rev. George W. Clinton, now a 
Bishop in the A. M. E. Zion Church, was at one 
time a student there. 


Ingleside is located at Burkville, Va., and, like 
Mary Holmes, Mary Allen, and Barber Memorial, this 
seminary was founded for the higher education of 
colored girls. In addition to the literary work, they 
have an industrial department, where sewing and 
other domestic work are taught. Rev. Graham C. 
Campbell, A. M., president. 

In addition to the schools mentioned in the Pres 
byterian work they have quite a number of large 
parochials which are doing splendid work. 



IT will be noticed that quite a number of the Pres 
byterian Schools are under the management of col 
ored people. These schools are very well managed 
and reflect great credit on the ability of colored men. 


Swift Memorial Institute is located at Rogersville, 
Tenri. It was begun by Rev. W. H. Franklin in 1883, 
under the most unfavorable circumstances. He be 
gan at the very bottom and had no other capital save 
intellectual ability, school-training, strong purpose, 
perseverance, and unswerving faith in God and the 
righteousness of his cause. It is true that he had 
the hearty endorsement and co-operation of the 
Presbytery of Holsten, the Synod of Tennessee, and 
the Freedmen s Board, but they were not in a con 
dition to render him the assistance required and the 
conduct of the whole work, for a number of years 
rested upon his shoulders. In the face of opposition, 
discouragement and prejudice of every kind, the 
work had a gradual and solid growth. Each year 
found the school advancing and intrenching itself in 
the confidence of the people at home and abroad. 
Mr. Franklin did not lose any opportunity to earnestly 
present the necessity and the claims of the school in 

Among Colored People. 159 

Tennessee, in Ohio and in Michigan. In 1887, when 
the founder had raised a subscription of $500, the 
Freedmen s Board appropriated $1000 to purchase 
a desirable site which had been selected. The school 
soon outgrew its new accommodations. In 1890, 
the school had prospered to such an extent, and had 
so favorably commended itself to the Board that it 
pledged $5,000 for a suitable building provided 
that the friends of Rev. E. E. Swift, D. D., of Alle 
gheny, for whom the school was named, would raise 
$5,OOO additional. After two years of soliciting, 
pleading, praying and hoping, the Board and the 
Ladies of the Church in Pennsylvania, Illinois and 
elsewhere took hold of the matter in real earnest and 
soon the building was erected. The site was enlarged 
and made -more desirable by an additional purchase. 
May, 1893, found the school in an elegant and sub 
stantial brick building, 1 16 x 42, and three stories high, 
erected at a cost of $15,000. The building has all 
the modern improvements and is much admired by 
all visitors for its simplicity, its neatness and its con 
veniences. It has many visitors. The whole plant, 
site, building and furniture, cost about $25,000. 
These funds have been supplied by the Freedmen s 
Board, Women s Societies and benevolent individuals, 
besides many gifts annually for current expenses and 

The literary work will compare most favorably 
with that done in other like institutions of the best 
grades. The students have taught in this State and 
in other States and are much in demand. It is a 

160 Evidences of Progress 

Christian centre and is giving a thorough Christian 
training to all of its students. Its industrial and 
domestic departments are giving such training as 
will revolutionize the home life, give intelligent di 
rection to the applied hand, and give business-like 
system to all the activities. The present year 
marks the most interesting and prosperous one in its 
history. All the rooms in the girls dormitory are 
occupied, and no place can be found for the boys. 
The great, pressing and immediate want of the 
institution, is a dormitory for the boys. With this 
want supplied, the ability of the school to do a 
much-needed and urgent work for Christ and hu 
manity will be increased many fold. Few schools 
under the auspices of the Freedmen s Board have a 
better field and a better opportunity to do a great, 
useful and permanent work for a needy, meritorious, 
and appreciative people. With timely and sufficient 
aid, few schools have a brighter, more fruitful, or a 
more glorious future. The faculty of the school is 
as follows : 

Rev. W. H. Franklin, A. M., Mr. J. J. Johnson, 
A. B., Miss Ada G. Battle, N. S., Mrs. Flora E. 
Elms, N., Mrs. Ida V. Penland Love, N., and Mrs. 
Laura C. Franklin, Matron. 


Rev. W. H. Franklin, A. M., was born at Knox- 
ville, Tenn., April 14, 1852. His parents were free 
and enjoyed the respect and confidence of all who 
knew them. His father was a competent brick- 

Among Colored People. 


mason and was much in demand in his trade. His 
mother is a modest and sensible woman. The an 
cestors of both parents were influential. His grand 
mother, with several members of her family, went to 


Liberia in 1850. Mr. Franklin had the opportunity 
of attending school one month, just as the Rebellion 
began. He learned to read and to write his name 
in that month. When Burnside came to Knoxville 
in 1865, he entered school again. He was generally 

i62 Evidences of Progress 

acknowledged not only the head of his class, but 
also the head of the school he attended. He at 
tended the schools of Knoxville until 1870. He 
then taught school at Hudsonville, Marshall Co., 
Miss., for two terms and saved sufficient money 
to help build a better house for his mother and to 
enter Maryville College, Maryville, Tenn. In that 
institution he took high rank in his class, and in the 
college. His talents received immediate recognition. 
The first year he appeared as Vice-President of the 
Athenian Society and a participant in its annual 
exercises, delivering a recitation and the diplomas to 
the graduates of the society. From that time his 
recognition and place was secured until his gradua 
tion in 1880 from the classical course. His graduat 
ing oration was said to be the best on the occasion. 
He entered Lane Theological Seminary in Sept., 
1880, and graduated from it in 1883, in a class 
known for its high ability. The Commercial 
Gazette awarded him the highest medal of praise. 
From Lane he came in June of the same year to 
Rogersville, Tenn., which was to be his future field 
of labor. He was ordained minister by Union 
Presbytery, Synod of Tennessee, in 1883. In June 
he took charge of his work at Rogersville. He 
began the work of making a real church and of 
founding a school for the higher education of colored 
youth. The task was to make brick without straw 
and in the face of persistent, opposition and preju 
dice. He disregarded both. The result is that he 
has succeeded in building up a strong church work 

Among Colored People. 163 

and a splendid school. He has a plant estimated to 
be worth $25,000 and a full school of students 
representing four different States. 

He has done much other work in the interest of 
the race. He has corresponded with newspapers, 
represented his people in conventions, represented his 
Presbytery in the memorable Centennial General 
Assembly and is now a director of Maryville College. 
His alma mater conferred A. M. upon him several 
years ;igo. Mr. Franklin has the respect and confi 
dence of all his acquaintances in Church and State, 
and is known as a scholar, educator, orator and 
preacher of no mean ability. He has never sought 
notoriety, but has been contented to do his duty con 
scientiously and efficiently in the field which he has 
chosen for his labors. 


The Haines Normal and Industrial Institute is the 
product of the great missionary effort of Miss Lucy 
C. Laney, formerly of Macon, Ga. It was estab 
lished in Augusta, Ga., in 1886, where it is now 
located and successfully managed by its founder, to 
whose personal efforts its existence for the first three 
or four years is solely due. 

After that time she succeeded in having it placed 
under the auspices of the Northern Presbyterian 
Church, and it is to-day under the care of the Freed- 
man s Board of that church. 

The present usefulness of the school has doubtless 
outreached the expectations of its founder and the 

164 Evidences of Progress 

Board. The original design was to make it simply a 
home where a few girls might receive an all-round 
development, and a means for furnishing day-school 
advantages to as many as could be cared for. It 
is now a large boarding school, furnishing home ac 
commodations in the main buildings for sixty or 
seventy girls, and in rented cottages for fifteen or 


twenty boys ; class-room facilities for 550 pupils, the 
highest number reached being 436 ; industrial train 
ing in sewing, laundrying, nursing, printing, shoe- 
making and general house-cleaning. 

The following selection taken from an article 
written by Rev. E. P. Cowan, D. D., Secretary of the 
Freedmen s Board of the Presbyterian Church, in the 
August number of TJic Church at Home and Abroad 
(1893), presents very forcibly the real character of 

Among Colored People. 165 

this school growing out of the character of its 
founder and present head. " He (referring to Rev. 
David Laney, who died a year ago,) has put no son 
into the Gospel ministry to succeed him, but his 


worthy daughter Lucy is to-day pratically doing the 
work of a faithful minister or servant of Christ. 
Miss Laney is a graduate of Atlanta University, and 
has an education of which no woman in this land, 
white or colored, need be ashamed. 

" Equipped for the work and fired with a dauntless 

1 66 Evidences of Progress 

zeal for the elevation of her race, of whom she always 
speaks as my people, she entered Augusta, Ga., 
single-handed and alone and began te-iching the few 
children she could at the beginning draw around 
her. As she taught, her school increased. No one 
stood with her at the first. The Freedmen s Board 
was back of her, but we scarcely knew her value at 
the time, commissioning her for the work, but giving 
her only what she could collect for her services on 
the field. On this point her success brought us the 
information we needed. We did not help her at the 
first as we would now. Her courage, patience, self- 
forgetfulness, and withal her good common sense, 
attracted attention. She began with a few and at the 
end of the first year reported seventy-five scholars 
under her care. At the end of the second year she 
reported 234. The progress of her work was so satis 
factory that when the opportunity to place $10,000 in 
some particular educational work in the South came 
to the Board, the unanimous opinion of the members 
was that Miss Laney s school had merited the pro 
posed help. 

" When the Assembly met at Minneapolis in 1886, 
Miss Laney met the late Mrs. F. E. H. Haines. who 
was then President of the Women s Executive Com 
mittee of Home Missions, and was so impressed with 
her earnest Christian character and her deep interest 
in the colored people of the South, that she went 
home and named her school the Haines School." 

The literary department of Haines School consists 
of College Preparatory course, Higher English, 

Among Colored People. 167 

Grammar School, Primary and Kindergarten. The 
school contains the material for a strictly Normal 
course, and more than a dozen young women have 
graduated from the higher English or high-school 
course. Trained teachers are needed to put such a 
course into effect. 

The Grammar School department, except the high 
est grade, furnishes practice work for these young 
women And it is preparatory to the higher English 

The College Preparatory course aims to prepare 
students for college. With a very few exceptions 
all of the graduates from this course have entered 
Lincoln University, making at entrance Sophomore 
class. One entered Junior class two years ago. 

The Higher English course aims to prepare the 
average young man and woman for active life as well 
As to stimulate them to further study in school. 

The Kindergarten is complete in itself. Its fur 
nishing, the training of the Kindergartner and her 
salary, are a gift to the school from its friends in 
Buffalo, N. Y. Though but lately added to the 
school, the Kindergarten is the result of the long- 
cherished plans and personal efforts of Miss Laney. 
Not only the Kindergarten, but the entire success of 
the school, is due to contributions from friends who 
have been reached and impressed with the actual 
needs of the Negro by Miss Laney in her numerous 
speeches to Northern audiences ; " a mission," says 
Dr. Cowan in the same article quoted from, " for 
which she has a rare gift, apparently without know- 

1 68 Evidences of Progress 

ing it." No less able is she to impress, by her own 
life of sacrifice, Christian character and native ability. 

A lasting influence for good in this school, and 
especially in the home life, now lives, sacred to the 
memory of Miss Cora Freeman, who was associated 
with Miss Laney, when the foundation of the work 
was being laid, and who shared bravely the hard 
things which necessarily attend the beginning of a 
large, unselfish work of this kind. She died after a 
service of three years. 

Miss Irene Smallwood, the present Kindergartner, 
Mr. Frank P. Laney and Mr. James Smith, both of 
Washington, D. C., at present, were also associated 
with Miss Laney in the earlier work of the school. 

A large four-story brick building, a wooden build 
ing for the industrial work and Kindergarten, one 
acre of land, three rented cottages, together with 
radiating Christian influences, constitute Haines 
School, one of the evidences of the native ability 
and disposition of the Negro, of the hopeful results 
of Christian education for the Negro, of Northern 
devotion to the Negro, and the promise of a fuller 
development of better things for the Negro eager to 
be uplifted, and for consecrated hearts, willing to 


The story of the development of this school is 
better told when interwoven with the life of Rev. 
C. S. Mebane, its founder. Rev. C. S. Mebane, A. M., 
Principal of Monticello Seminary, Monticello, Ark., 
ivas born of slave parents in Alamance county, N. C., 

Among Colored People. 


in the year 1857. At the close of the late war he 
and six other children with penniless parents wit 
nessed the hardships that confronted those who were 
thrown out upon the frozen charities of the world. 
A few years of earnest toil rewarded the oncepoverty- 


stricken family with a comfortable living. Having 
reached the years of manhood he was not content 
with a common school education, but had a thirst 
for higher training, and as soon as the necessary 

170 Evidences of Progress 

arrangements could be made he entered Lincoln 
University, Chester county, Pa., for the purpose of 
fitting himself for the ministry. Here he made the 
acquaintance of the late Mr. W. R. Davenport, of 
Erie, Pa., who supported him through school in 
honor of his deceased son, Frank R. Davenport 
Having completed his course in school he entered 
upon the church and school work at Monticello, 
Ark., in the fall of 1888. Of a self-denying, fatherly 
disposition, he has often cared for the suffering and 
unfortunate both with hands and purse. He revised 
the old organization, infused new life into it, gathered 
about him the handful of members, selected officers, 
and began the race to success. A Sabbath School 
was organized and regularly kept up, and preaching 
service was at first observed twice a month. 

But before the church work was well on footing, 
he entered the schoolroom ; and here the struggle 
began in earnest. 

The school session continues eight months and is 
divided into four departments : the Primary, Pre 
paratory, the Teacher s and Higher courses. 

The boarding pupils live in the " Home " and are 
taught domestic work in connection with their 

The last two years have been the most successful 
in the history of the school. The enrolment for the 
first passed the 200 line ; and while it may not go 
beyond that this year on account of " hard times," 
it has drawn upon larger areas and new territory. 

Among- Colored People. 171 


This work was begun in a small dilapidated frame 
building at Aiken, S. C, in 1882. That building 
constituted a part of the first real estate, which, 
through the aid of Dr. Derby, Mrs. H. G. Burlingame, 
Miss E. M. Greenleaf, and many other friends, was 
purchased for the colored people s use in April, 1882. 
As witnesses to the lawful execution of the deed, 
Dr. Derby and his brother-in-law, Mr. George H. 
Kennedy, who was spending the season in Aiken, 
signed their names to it. 

That unfinished boarding house, which has since 
been used as a home, church, school and boarding 
hall for students, all at the same time, was, in a sense, 
the foundation of what is now Derby Hall one of 
the best buildings of the school. To accommodate 
it to the various demands of the work, changes were 
made from time to time. But after the erection of a 
houseof worship and a school building, there remained 
but one thing more to do, and that was to reconvert 
the entire structure into a boarding halt principally 
for the accommodation of students from a distance. 
The new mansard roof was put on and other neces 
sary alterations and improvements made during the 
summer of 1891, at a cost of $1,600. The building 
now contains twenty-six rooms. 

All of the helpful branches of industry are taught 
in this school. 


Rev. W. R. Coles, the superintendent of the Imman- 
uel Training School, and pastor of Immanuel Presby 

172 Evidences of Progress 

terian Church, of Aiken, S. C, was one of the first 
graduates of Lincoln University. Speaking of his 
work as founder of the Immanuel Church, he had the 
following to say : 

* Laboring as Sy nodical Missionary, by appoint- 


ment of the Synod of Atlantic (and approved by the 
Presbyterian Committee of Missions for Freedmen), I 
came to Aiken on the 23d day of May, A. D. 1 88 1, 
seeking a home for my family, and to look after the 

Among Colored People. 173 

general interests of our work. While here (June 10, 
1881), I received a communication from the Freed- 
men s Committee, informing me that my work as 
Synodical Missionary would terminate with June 30, 
and that it was the will of the Committee that I 
locate again in the pastorate. 

" I, therefore, settled in Aiken, and commenced 
missionary work, holding services in my own house 
from June 30 till the latter part of November, when 
we moved into a rented house, the property of Henry 
Smith, on Newberry street. This building was, on 
the night of the third Sabbath in November, 1881, 
formally set apart as a place of worship, under the 
name of The Newberry Street Presbyterian Mis 
sion. The way being clear we organized a Sabbath 
School on the fourth Sabbath in November, 1 88 1, with 
thirteen members : Mr. J. F. Chestnut, Superintend 
ent ; teachers, Mr. James F. Chestnut, W. R. Coles, 
Mrs. R. E. Coles ; Librarian, Mr. T. G. Bronson ; 
Treasurer, Mrs. R. E. Coles. Thus established, we 
labored, preaching and conducting Sabbath School 
every Sunday, holding prayer-meeting one night 
during the week, and visiting, etc., till the fifth Sab 
bath in January, 1882, when, at the request of nine 
communicants, I, acting as an evangelist, assisted by 
Rev. T. P. Kay, of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Aiken, S. C., formally organized The Immanuel Pres 
byterian Church of Aiken, S. C. Messrs. Alexander 
Johnson and Vincent Green were elected, ordained 
and installed as Ruling Elders ; John Mayes as 


Evidences of Progress 


The history of Dayton Academy and the career 
of Rev. Henry D. Wood must go together. 

Rev. Henry D. Wood, A. M., Principal of Dayton 


Academy, Carthage, N. C., was born in Trenton, N. J., 
Feb. 10, 1847. He received his early training in the 
public school of that city. A youth of sixteen years 
(1863) he enlisted in the famous 54th Massachusetts 
Regiment and served in defence of his country and 

Among Colored People. 175 

for the freedom of his people until these were accom 
plished. He returned to Brooklyn, N. Y., and for 
several years found employment with the Orington 
Bros., Importers, working his way from the position 
of porter to a clerkship in the shipping department 
of that house. United with the Siloam Presbyterian 
Church, and was at once made an elder in that 
church, and though holding a lucrative position, was 
so impressed with his call to the ministry that he 
resolved to make preparation for that work. He 
entered Lincoln University, where he held high rank 
in character and proficiency in studies, and was 
graduated from the Theological Department in 78. 
In 1880 he was commissioned by the "Presbyterian 
Board of Missions for Freedmen," ordained by the 
Presbytery of Yadkin, and entered upon the work in 
which he is now engaged. He found here a desti 
tute, neglected field, an organization of about forty 
members in two churches, no Sabbath schools, public 
schools limited to two months, and the people too 
poor to better their condition. 

He made known the condition of things to per 
sonal friends North, who generously responded to 
his appeal for help, and arousing his people to effort 
in their own behalf soon succeeded in erecting" one 


of the neatest and most comfortable churches in this 
part of the country. 

The people were encouraged to deeper interest in 
their own improvement. Day school was opened in 
his residence, but it proved too small ; many were 
crowded out. The Board established a parochial 

176 Evidences of Progress 

school and each year it was enlarged. In 86 it was 
found necessary to advance the grade, hence " Day 
ton Academy," a handsome three-story building 
comprising class-rooms and girls dormitory, also a 
boys dormitory, with dining-room and kitchen. 

Three church buildings are valued at about $3,500; 
school property about $1,500; church membership 
about 400; Sabbath school about 450; Day school 
scholars, 260; five teachers in Academy. 

This school supplies teachers for the public 
schools, and they are found doing good service in 
Sabbath schools and in churches, and everywhere. 


The Albion Academy, at Franklinton, N. C, was 
founded in the year 1877, by the late Moses A. Hop 
kins, Minister to the Republic of Liberia. At the 
time of the founding of this Academy there were no 
adequate facilities to serve a liberal education in the 
community. Aided by friends at the North, the late 
William Shaw, of Pittsburg, Pa., and John Hall, 
and the First Presbyterian Church, of Albion, N. Y., 
the Academy was organized and established amid 
the strenuous efforts of bitter opponents to resist it. 

The first principal of the school was its founder, 
the late Rev. Moses A. Hopkins. 

Many young men and women have been sent from 
this institution to higher schools, as Lincoln Univer 
sity, Pa., Biddle University, N. C., Fisk University, 
Tenn., and Howard University, D. C., etc. The 
school is designed for the education of the many 

Among Colored People. 

thousands in this section of the State. It is the only 
educational centre of the Presbyterian Church, in 
Eastern North Carolina, for the Negro race. It offers 


the benefits of a liberal education to the Negroes of 
the South, as well as the State of North Carolina. 

Many friends in the North have given largely to 
the support of the Academy. There are three 
halls. The Stamford Hall, and the Darling Hall. 


1 78 Evidences of Progress 

are for the young ladies. The Academy Hall con 
tains eight recitation-rooms and a chapel hall. 


After the resignation of Rev. Samuel S. Sevier in 
the year of 1892, as the principal of the Academy, 
Rev. John A. Savage, D. D., was called and ap 
pointed by the Board of Trustees to the presidency 
of th e Academy. Since his government the Aca 
demy has taken a fresh start in every direction. 

Rev. Mr. Savage, the president of Albion Academy, 
is a graduate of Lincoln University. He is an 
unassuming gentleman of much natural ability and 
his work in the State of North Carolina is most 
creditable. The school has been rapidly built up 
under his charge, and many young men and women 
in the community are thankful to Rev. Savage for 
his kind attention and earnest interest in their educa 


This University is located at Charlotte, N. C., and 
is named in memory of the late Henry J. Biddle, of 
Philadelphia, whose widow, Mrs. Mary D. Biddle, 
has been one of its most liberal supporters. It is 
chartered by the Legislature of the State, and is 
under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States. 

The object of the institution is the education of 
colored teachers and preachers, and leaders for the 
race in other walks of life. 

It stands at the terminus of seven railroads, in the 

Among Colored People. 


midst of a dense and comparatively intelligent col 
ored population, and occupies a site of sixty acres in 
the suburbs of the city. 

It is situated in the heart of the South Atlantic 
region, which contains the two Synods of Atlantic 
and Catawba, having 290 colored churches, 180 min- 


isters, scores of young men in preparation for the 
ministry, with a large number of schools and acad 
emies under their care. These schools and churches 
must be furnished with intelligent Christian teachers 
and preachers, who must be largely educated on the 
field, and in contact with the people among whom 
they are to labor. Such a training is given here at 
less expense than it could be elsewhere ; the student 


Evidences of Progress 

has the best opportunities for a liberal education to 
gether with the refining influence of a Christian home, 
and he is kept at the same time in contact and sym 
pathy with the people. 


President of Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C. 

This institution has a colored president and J 
think that he has demonstrated the ability of the 
colored man to govern. I regard Rev. D. J. Sanders, 
D. D., as a very able man, and I think he has done 
as well at Biddle as any other man could have done. 

Among Colored People. 181 

considering the period through which the institution 
has just passed. 

No institution in the care of the Presbyterian 
Church has a wider field or greater opportunities. 
Its students are gathered from all the South Atlantic 
States, and are scattered in their school and church 
work through all this vast region, and as far west as 

It is the only institution of its kind maintained by 
our Presbyterian Church in the South ; and it cer 
tainly is one of the most important agencies in the 
hands of the Church for the accomplishment of good 
among 8,000,000 of colored people. It commends 
itself to the prayers and gifts of all good men. 

The importance in the eyes of the Church, of the 
interests which Biddle University represents, is forci 
bly put in the language of a recent circular addressed 
to churches on its behalf by the Board of Missions for 
Freedmeu : 

" What is done," say they, " for Biddle University, 
will, in a great measure, determine the success of 
our whole work among the Freedmen." 


Ferguson Academy is situated at Abbeville, S. C. 
The property was acquired by the Freedmen s Board 
of the Presbyterian Church in 1891. In 1892 Rev. 
Thomas H. Amos, A. M., then pastor of the First 
African Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, was elected 
principal to succeed Rev. E. W. Williams. The enrol- 


Evidences of Progress 

ment then consisted of sixty-two students, which 
have grown from that number to 210. 

The property consists of three buildings valued at 
$7,000 or $8,000, free of debt. 



The course of instruction is divided into nine grades. 
The faculty consists of Rev. T. H. Amos, A. M., 
Principal ; Prof. Joseph W. Lee, Mrs. Ida B. Amos, 
Eliza A. Pindle, Misses Carrie M. Richie and Mattie 
F. Barr. 

Among Colored People. 183 

There is an industrial department connected with 
the school, and most of the work is done by the 
students. The management of the work is economi 
cal; the instruction painstaking and thorough, the 
discipline kind, and the graduates have the reputa 
tion of being moral and efficient teachers. There is 
no doubt but that the influences of such a school are 
uplifting to the masses of colored youth in the com 
munity. Those who have investigated the work of 
the school praise the management and thank its bene 
factors for what it is doing. The friends of Negro 
education may have confidence in Ferguson Acade 
my, and find it an appropriate channel through 
which the rising generation of this people can be 
helped to places of usefulness and respectability. 
The religious tone of the instruction is deep and in 
addition to this the diligence and experience of its 
faculty and the supervision of the officers of the 
Presbyterian Board guarantee that this is a light to 
scatter the night in the regions where its graduates, 
both male and female, will go forth. 


Harbison Institute is located at Beaufort, South 
Carolina; Rev. G. M. Elliott, President. 

The aim of Harbison Institute is to give thorough 
training in those studies laid down in the course, and 
thereby fit those who attend upon its instruction for 
practical life, and help them to succeed in the work 
of their choice. 

Persons whose moral character, or whose general 

1 84 Evidences of Progress 

influence would be detrimental to the good of the 
school, will not be received or retained in the school. 

The use of intoxicating liquors, tobacco, profane 
or indecent language, card-playing, and everything 
tending to immoral life, are strictly forbidden. 

Immoral or vicious conduct; insubordination to 
school authority ; habitual tardiness, or truancy ; 
habitual uncleanliness of person, or indecency in 
dress ; persistent disorder, or misdemeanor on street, 
while going to or from school, will be deemed suf 
ficient grounds for suspending the offender from the 
privileges of the school. 

This school is doing just the kind of work needed 
in the locality where it is situated. 

j. B. SWANN. 

Rev. J. B. Swann, who is conducting an Indus 
trial School, at Lothian (Anne Arundel county), 
Maryland, has been a very active worker in behalf of 
Negro education, from the time he entered Lincoln 
University in the fall of 1867, up to the present time. 

He started out as a Missionary teacher under the 
Board of Home Missions for Freedmen during the 
summer months while attending Lincoln, and suc 
ceeded in building his first day-school at Mocksville, 
N. C., in 1869. From Mocksville, he was com 
missioned by the Board to West River, Md., where 
he labored for twelve years. From this place he 
was sent to Greensborough, N. C. Here he took 
charge of a school which had been previously 
organized and he made quite a success of the work. 

Among Colored People. 185 

A few years later Mr. Swann returned to Lincoln for 
the purpose of taking a theological course. After 
finishing his studies he began his present work. 
His success has been marked and the results of his 


untiring efforts have been gratifying both to him and 
the Board. 


Mary Potter Memorial School is located at Oxford, 

1 86 

Evidences of Progress 

N. C., and is under the management of Prof. G. C. 

This school is named in honor of Mrs. Mary 
Potter, of Schenectady, N. Y., who was very much 


interested in the Freedmen and contributed liberally 
toward their educational improvement. She donated 
the money to start this school, and after it had be 
come too small for the accommodation of the many 
young people who crowded into it, friends of Mrs. 

Among Colored People. 187 

Potter and friends of the colored people contributed 
to its enlargement. It is now in a splendid condi 
tion and very creditable work is being accomplished. 

Professor Shaw, the principal of this school, was 
born of slave parents at Louisburg, N. C., June 19, 
1863. He entered Lincoln University in 1881 and 
graduated in 1886. Devoted one year to the study of 
theology at Princeton Theological Seminary. 
Graduated from Auburn Theological Seminary, of 
Auburn, N. Y., in 1890. 

It was while he was at Auburn that he made the 
acquaintance of Mrs. Potter, who offered him 
encouragement in the line of work he had mapped 
out for his life. 

While in Oxford, he has succeeded in organizing 
a church and building up the school. Mr. Shaw tells 
me that he contemplates adding an industrial depart 
ment to the school shortly and thereby increasing its 


Cotton Plant Academy is located at Cotton Plant, 
Ark. Rev. F. C. Potter, Principal. It is a school 
for co-education, and is doing very good work for 
the moral uplifting of the colored people in the 
section where it is located. 


Named after Rev. R. H. Allen, D. D., late Secre 
tary of Board of Missions for Freedmen of the Pres 
byterian Church; is the outgrowth of the Mission 

1 88 Evidences of Progress. 

established in 1885 by the Presbytery of Pine Bluff, 

The school was opened November 7, 1887, in the 
dwelling-house of the principal, and at first occupied 
one room; a second and then a third were soon in 
demand ; from an enrolment of twenty-one pupils it 
increased to 138, and has steadily advanced until the 
roll has reached nearly 300. With the assistance of 
Messrs. W. B. Alexander, J. W. Crawford, J. B. 
Speers, Judge W. S. McCain, J. R. Westbrooks, ct al.; 
a title with no encumbrance was secured to the 
property, and a building commenced, foundation 
and studding in place, when the weather prevented 
further work. When completed, this building had 
four rooms below, two rooms in second story, and 
one extended room on the third floor. In this, from 
250 to 300 pupils were accommodated. The loss of 
this house by fire on the 1 7th of January, 1894, was 
a severe blow, entailing a loss of $5,000, confining 
the whole school in the dormitory of Richard Allen 
Institute, which was erected in 1892, by the assist 
ance of Miss Mary E. Holmes, and fitted up to 
accommodate a number of pupils. 

This is a chartered Institute under the laws of 
Arkansas, and is supported like all other Missions 
under the Board of Missions for Freedmen of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

Rev. Lewis Johnston, Principal, 



IN this and the next two chapters I shall deal with 
the Indepednent and State schools. I open this 
chapter with Tuskegee Normal and Industrial In 
stitute because it has created a greater amount of 
interest and has been the subject of more discussion 
in recent years than any other. 


Charles Dickens says somewhere : " There is not 
an atom in Tom s slime, not a cubic inch in any pes 
tilential gas in which he lives, not one obscenity, or 
degradation about him, not an ignorance, not a 
wickedness, not a brutality of his committing, but 
shall work its retribution through every order of 
society, up to the proudest of the proud and the 
highest of the high." 

Ignorance and degradation among the people 
clearly menace the South, and not only the South, 
but the entire country. The action and reaction of 
human life is such that no class of persons, however 
wise or wealthy, can stand aloof from those lower, 
and remain unaffected, even though unmoved, by 
their misfortunes. More and more is this fact being 
recognized, and, as a means of self-protection, as well 


190 Evidences of Progress 

as from philanthropic motives, a widespread interest 
is being taken in the education of the Negro. 

Perhaps the phase of this question which has 
aroused the greatest discussion is, " What kind of 
education does the Negro need ? " Yet, probably, 
if we would try better to understand each other, 
there would be less difference of opinion. He who 
claims that there are those who should receive the 
higher education, and he who contends that what the 
masses need is an English course and a trade, are 
not necessarily antagonistic in their views. They 
may simply stand each for the prominent presenta 
tion of a special phase of the work to be done for the 
race. Bright colored girls and boys who wish to go 
to college and can do so, certainly should be en 
couraged to go. We have need of men and women 
with trained and disciplined minds. Besides there 
are individuals who are endowed with special gifts 
which can be used, to the greatest advantage, for the 
race and for humanity, only by giving them the 
highest possible degree of culture. On the other 
hand, there are the masses, who, like the masses of 
any race, are not able, either intellectually or finan 
cially, to take a college course, and who, besides, are 
destined to callings which require training other than 
that the college gives. What is to be done for them ? 
This Booker T. Washington is ably demonstrating 
at Tuskegee. Both of these cases should be pre 
sented in equity, and the importance of either should 
not cause the other to be overlooked. 

The success of the Tuskegee School is due, in a 

Among Colored People. 19! 

large measure, to the fact that it meets what is recog 
nized as a great educational need. It carries along 
with the training of the head the training of the 
hand makes possible an education to the poorest boy 


Principal of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, 
Juskegee, Ala. 

and girl in the land, and sends each graduate out 
into the world familiar with some form of labor to 
the extent that he can earn thereby his daily bread. 
The experiment of this kind of training in solving 


Evidences of Progress 

the much-talked-of problem, is being watched on all 
sides with eager curiosity. 

Tuskegee is no more Hampton than Hampton is 
the little school in the Sandwich Islands, from which 
General Armstrong received those earliest concep- 

Built by Students. 

tions of the industrial education, afterwards realized 
on American soil in behalf of the American Negro. 
The peculiar exigencies of the situation gave rise to 
features in the more Southern school which are not 
to be found in the one nearer Mason and Dixon s 
line, and, in like manner, account for the absence in 
the younger school, of certain characteristics belong 
ing to the older institution. 

As those acquainted with the history of Tuskegee 
know, the school started in 1881 in an humble church 

Among- Colored People. 193 

and two shanties in the town of Tuskegee. There 
was then one teacher with thirty pupils ; no land, no 
buildings, no apparatus, nothing but the $2,OOO ap 
propriated by the State for the payment of salaries. 
There are now over one hundred persons connected 
with the school in the capacity of instructors of some 
kind, nearly 1,200 pupils, including those attending the 

Built by Students. 

Training School ; more than forty buildings erected 
by student labor, 2,600 acres of land, and a property 
valued at $225,000, unincumbered by mortgage. 

This marvelous growth is due mainly to one man, 

Booker T. Washington, the principal of the school; 

and his success may be attributed to a combination 

of qualities marked executive ability, high enthusi- 



Evidences of Progress 

asm, keen, prophetic vision, and a wonderful power 
to see and to state the value of things commonly con 
sidered of small account. Some one has character 
ized Mr. Washington as " the man with a genius for 
common sense," and, probably, one might use many 
words in telling of him without giving so good a de 
scription as that conveyed in this terse expression. 


Built by Students. 

Tuskegee stands for the education of the head, the 
hand, and the heart, the three H s which include the 
three R s and much more. It gives a good Normal 
course, which fits one fairly well for the race of life, 
or serves as an excellent foundation for a more ad 
vanced course. Stress is laid on the study of peda 
gogy and practice in the training school; for the in 
stitution acts on the theory, which in most cases is 
correct, that these young people, after graduation, 

Among Colored People. 195 

will teach at some time, whether or not during their 
schooldays they expect to do so, and, therefore, pro 
tects the future pupils of these embryo teachers by 
requiring every one who aspires to a diploma to re 
ceive training in the theory and practice of teaching. 
The Phelps Hall Bible School, connected with the 
Tuskegee Institute, is the gift of a Northern friend, 

Built by Students. 

and is designed especially to help the ministers of 
the South, among whom it is doing a great work. 
Many pastors in charge of churches, learning of the 
advantages of the institution and the possibility of 
getting through school with very little money, resign 
their churches to come here and better fit themselves 
for the work. Others, nearer, enter the school and 

196 Evidences of Progress 

trudge several miles on Saturday or Sunday to meet 
and minister to their congregations. Those not 
pastoring churches while in school, carry on some 
form of mission work, and so keep in touch with the 
people and help lift up others even while they are 
being lifted up. 

There are over twenty-five industries operated by 
students under experienced and efficient instructors. 
A limited number of young men and women work 
during the day and attend school at night, in this 
manner supporting themselves and laying by a sur 
plus for expenses when they enter the day-school, 
besides fortifying themselves with the knowledge of 
a trade. In order to teach the dignity of labor, as 
well as for the sake of the skill thus acquired by 
each student in some industry, all are required to do 
a certain amount of work. 

Besides the literary societies of the school, of 
which there are four, doing good service along the 
lines usually adopted by such student bodies, there 
are several religious organizations. The Y. M. C. A. 
has a large membership and is doing a most effective 
work. The young men belonging to this association 
are of an especially high type of young manhood, 
and they are exerting a most helpful and healthful 
influence on the morals of the school. After a great 
deal of worthy effort they have succeeded in getting 
a pretty well-stocked reading-room and library, and 
they are now bending their energies toward securing 
a building of their own. They feel that they have 

Among Colored People. 197 

outgrown the one little room which is all the school 
can afford to give them. 

The Y. P. S. C. E. is full of vigorous life. Its 
presidents have always been teachers, while the va 
rious committees are composed of both teachers and 
students. Besides the Executive Committee there is 
a Lookout Committee, which looks out for the wel 
fare of the society, and keeps trace of the members 
who are absent from the consecration meetings ; a 
Prayer Meeting Committee which has charge of all 
the prayer meetings ; a Flower Committee, which 
carries flowers to the sick, and decorates the chapel 
for special exercises, and a Mission Committee, which 
does work in the neighborhood among the poor, 
carrying food and clothing to them from time to 
time during the year. 

The Mite Society is a branch of the W. H. M. S. 
Besides general work among the poor in the vicinity 
of the school, it has given special care to the old 
people of the county poorhouse. This society exacts 
one cent weekly from its members, and when this 
cannot be given, accepts, in lieu thereof, a sheet of 
paper, a stamp, an envelope, or anything which may 
be sold by a committee appointed for that purpose. 

The Tuskegee Women s Club is not, like the or 
ganizations already mentioned, for the students ; but, 
as an outgrowth of the school, and one of the most 
helpful influences in the community, it may be men 
tioned here. This club is composed of the women 
connected with the institution, either as teachers or 
the wives of teachers. At the regular semi-monthly 

198 Evidences of Progress 

meetings a literary and musical program is rendered, 
and there is a sub-organization which meets weekly 
for an informal discussion of current topics ; but these 
efforts for self-improvement do not limit the activity 
of the club. Among the branch organizations con 
ducted by its members are social purity clubs among 
the girls of the institution, a humane society, to 
which both boys and girls belong, a club for the 
ministers wives of the town and vicinity, where they 
are helped to a fuller realization of the responsibili 
ties and opportunities of their position, and are shown 
how they may best work among the girls and women 
of the churches, a club for mutual improvement 
having as members girls attending the institution, but 
living in town, a Y. W. C. T. U., and a club con 
ducted in the town on Saturday afternoons in the 
special interest of the country women, who flock in 
on that day to see the sights and to do their small 
shopping. This club was organized by Mrs. Booker 
T. Washington, several years ago, even before the 
organization of the main club of which it is now con 
sidered a branch, and it has done much to elevate 
the morals and improve the manners of the women 
in and near Tuskegee. 

The influence of the school is still further extended 
by means of the farmers conferences, with which the 
public is very generally acquainted. These confer 
ences are held annually, towards the latter part of 
February or the first of March, and are largely at 
tended. The men are advised to buy land and to 
cultivate it thoroughly, to raise more food supplies. 

Among Colored People. 199 

to build houses with more than one room, to tax 
themselves to build better school houses, and to ex 
tend the term to at least six months, to give more 
attention to the character of their leaders, especially 
ministers and teachers, to keep out of debt, to avoid 
law suits, to treat their women better, and where 
practicable, to hold similar conferences in their 
several communities. A woman s conference is held 
on the afternoon of the same day, and topics relating 
to the home and the care of children are discussed. 
The next day there is a congress of workers, which 
is attended by teachers and others who labor for the 
elevation of the colored people. 

Tuskegee not only advises the people to get 
homes, but, through the generosity of a friend who 
established a fund for this purpose, she has been 
enabled to help several families to this end. The 
sum of $4,500 was given to be loaned in amounts 
ranging from $30 to $300, to graduates of the 
school or to other worthy persons. Already more 
than twenty homes have been secured in this man 
ner, and, as a result, Greenwood, a model little 
community, is growing up just beyond the school 

The Summer Assembly furnishes help of another 
kind. This is a sort of Southern Chautauqua, mod 
ified to meet the needs of the section and of the 
people for whose benefit it is held. Here tired 
teachers, preachers, and others meet annually and 
combine pleasure with instruction, holding daily 
morning sessions at which papers on subjects of 

2OO Evidences of Progress 

practical importance are read and discussed, and 
spending afternoons and evenings in rest and recrea 

These are influences emanating directly from the 
school, but what of the work of its graduates, of 
the indirect influences thus set in motion ? Their 
name is legion. These graduates and undergraduates 
are scattered throughout the South, engaged in the 
great work of trying to elevate a race. We find them 
in the shops, comparing favorably with their white 
fellow-workmen, at the head of industrial departments 
in smaller schools planned after the order of the 
Tuskegee Institute; preaching among the people, 
trying to clear their minds of ignorance and supersti 
tion, and seeking to raise the standard of the ministry 
of which they form a part; teaching in remote coun 
try districts, probably for salaries hardly more than 
sufficient to pay their board, perhaps building with 
their own hands the schoolhouse they have induced 
the people to assist in erecting ; on their own little 
pieces of land farming after the improved methods 
they learned at school; nursing, sewing, caring for 
their own homes and children all, we trust, many, 
we know lights in the communities in which they 
reside and living embodiments of the principles for 
which the beloved parent institution stands. 

The aim has always been to have the instructors 
at Tuskegee persons of ability; frequently they have 
been also persons of considerable reputation. One 
of the most remarkable characters ever connected 
with the school and the one to whom, more than to 

Among Colored People. 20 1 

any other, with the exception of Mr. Washington 
himself, is due Tuskegee s phenomenal progress, was 
Mrs. Olivia Davidson Washington, the now deceased 
wife of the principal. She was Mr. Washington s 
assistant almost from the first, and being a woman 
of great enthusiasm, earnestness, and fixity of pur 
pose, and being, besides, widely and favorably known 
in the North where she received her education, she 
made many friends for the institution, and brought 
to it many gifts. 

Mrs. Warren Logan, who is yet teaching in the 
school, was associated very early in the work with 
Mr. Washington and Miss Davidson, she and Miss 
Davidson being for some time the only women 
teachers in the school. Mrs. Logan helped to train 
many of the teachers who have gone out from Tus- 
kegee, and has done other work in that line, having 
been appointed at various times to hold teachers insti 
tutes in different parts of Alabama and of Georgia. 

Mr. Logan, the secretary and treasurer, holds a 
position in the institution second in importance only 
to that of the principal, and has proved his worth by 
long years of faithful service. The head teacher, 
Mr. Nathan B. Young, is a graduate of Oberlin Col 
lege ; he is a close student and a man of recognized 

Mr. R. R. Taylor, who is in charge of the depart 
ment of architectural and mechanical drawing, was 
graduated from the Boston School of Technology. 

Rev. E. J. Penney, at the head of the Phelps Hall 
Bible Training School, is of the Yale Divinity School. 

2O2 Evidences of Progress 

Prof. J. W. Hoffman, an agricultural specialist, is 
a member of the American Academy of Natural 
Sciences, and of several English and continental 
scientific bodies. 

At one time Miss Hallie Quinn Brown, the noted 
elocutionist, served as lady principal. 

Dr. Tanner s talented daughter, Dr. Hallie Tanner 
Dillon, was resident physician until she married, and 
her husband accepted the presidency of Allen Uni 
versity in South Carolina. 

Something may be judged of Mrs. Booker T. 
Washington from what has been already told of her 
work among the women. She is now more widely 
known, perhaps, as the President of the National 
Federation of Afro-American Women ; but it is in 
the State of Alabama, the heart of the Black Belt, 
where her influence is really exerted and felt, as it 
can be exerted and felt nowhere else. Mrs. Wash 
ington is a very strong character, and is truly a help 
meet for the husband who has chosen her. 

Of Mr. Washington, the whole country knows how 
he struggled for an education at Hampton, was se 
lected by General Armstrong to take charge of the 
work at Tuskegee, and with one bound has leaped 
to the front, making himself the most prominent 
figure among living colored men and his school the 
greatest educational influence in the South at the 
present day. 

This brief mention gives some idea of the status 
of the men and women who compose the teaching 
force of the school at Tuskegee. The best talent is 

Among Colored People. 203 

none too good for such work. The school is in the 
centre of a vast Negro population, where the blacks 
outnumber the whites three to one. Here are un 
paralleled opportunities for helping the masses of the 
people; and in their redemption, even more than in 
the higher education of a gifted few, the welfare of 
the country is involved. 


While the State Normal and Industrial School, at 
Normal, Alabama, has made little display through 
the public prints, it is a fact that it is doing a great 
work for Negro Education, and stands among the 
best schools of the land. 

This institution, like many others in the South, is 
the work of sacrifice and charity. The early teach 
ers taught for a bare living in order to make the 
school a fixture. Prof. Councill, the founder and 
president of the school, gave his entire earnings for 
more than ten years to the work. The documents 
which the teachers signed, donating their salaries to 
the cause of education of the Negro race, is a part 
of the records of the institution, and a witness of 
their devotion and consecration to the work. 

The school began its existence in the city of 
Huntsville, Ala., May I, 1875. It was first taught 
in a little church, and then in rented houses about 
the city until, September I, 1882, a beautiful lot con 
sisting of five acres of land, on which stood several 
buildings, was purchased and the school permanently 


Evidences of Progress 

Beginning May I, 1875, with not one dollar in 
property, only one teacher, nineteen pupils, annual 
income of $1,000, in 1878, its work was so satis 

factory that the annual appropriation was increased 
to $2,OOO, and it then had four teachers and over 200 
pupils. The Peabody and Slater funds made liberal 
contributions to its support. In 1884, the Alabama 

Among Colored People. 205 

Legislature increased the annual appropriation to 
$4,000, the city of Huntsville gave aid, and warm 
friends, North and South, contributed liberally. The 
old buildings on the grounds were improved, and by 
1890, two large handsome brick buildings, one large 
frame dormitory for young men, and a commodious 
industrial building had been erected and fitted up; 
the faculty had been increased to eleven teachers, and 
more than 300 students were receiving instruction 
in a thorough Normal Course and in important 
industries. The Legislature of Alabama, in further 
recognition of the merits of this institution, selected 
it as the recipient of that portion of the Congres 
sional grant under act approved August 30, 1890, 
known as the Morrill Fund " for the more complete 
endowment and maintenance of colleges for the 
benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts," given 
to Alabama for Negro Education. This action of 
the Legislature gave new force and broader scope to 
the work. It was seen that larger quarters were 
necessary, that the beautiful grounds, handsome 
buildings supplied with gas and. water, must be given 
up and the school removed from Huntsville to 
some suitable place near by. A great many lo 
cations were offered, and, after due consideration, 
the present location was purchased. Palmer Hall 
and Seay Hall, a barn and a dairy were erected and 
the session opened for 1891-2, September I, in its 
new quarters three months after the closing of the 
session, June I, 1891. The new location was com 
monly known as Green Bottom Inn, or Connally 


Evidences of Progress 

Race-Track. It has an interesting history, as old 
almost as the State itself. There once stood upon 
these grounds a famous inn, a large distillery, grog 
shop, slave cabins, rows of stables in which were 
kept the great trotting horses of fifty years ago, while 
in the beautiful valley, circling at the foot of the hill, 
was the race-course, where thousands of dollars 
were lost and won. Stretching faraway to the south, 
west and north of the hill (now Normal) are broad 


fields wherein worked hundreds of Africa s dusky 
sons, filling the air with merry songs accompanying 
plow or hoe, or with silent prayers to heaven for de 
liverance from bondage. Here men, as well as 
horses, were bought and sold, and often blood was 
drawn from human veins by the lash like the red 
wine from bright decanters. But what a change! 
The famous old inn is no more. The distillery has 

Among Colored People. 


crumbled to dust. Not a vestige of those stables re 
main. The old grog-shop, too, has gone forever. 

"There are still some few remaining, 
Who remind us of the past." 

The beautiful mountains and the same broad fields, 
made more beautiful by Freedom s touch, still 


Evidences of Progress 

stretch far, far away ; the race-course is gone, but a 
little higher up the hillside is a road along which 
thousands of slaves have passed from the Carolinas 

and Virginia to the bottoms of the Mississippi,; and 
the road now is a main street of Normal ; four of the 
old slave cabins remain, one of which for three years 

Among Colored People. 209 

served as the president s office and three repaired 
and occupied by teachers and their families; the great 
old gin-house, built of logs, where so many slaves 
trembled at the reckoning evening hour, now used as 
Normal s blacksmith shop, wheelwright shop, broom 
factory, mattress factory; the old log barn, repaired, 
and with additions, serving as Normal s laundry; the 
little saddle house whose framework is put together 
entirely with pegs instead of nails, now serves as 
barber shop; the carriage house, which has served 
as sewing room and printing office ; and last the 
grand old residence of the "lord of the manor," 
partly of stone (walls three feet thick) and partly of 
wood covered with cedar shingles, under a heavy 
coating of moss, containing in all eight rooms. In 
this typical, hospitable Southern home, the great 
Andrew Jackson, once President of the United 
States, was entertained when he attended the races 
and bet his eagles on the trotters. This home is 
now the residence of the President of Normal who 
was himself a slave. The mutations of time ! 

The income is derived from the State of Alabama, 
U. S. Government (Morrill Fund), and charitable 
sources. This is steadily increasing every year. 

Since the organization, the institution has sent 
forth 218 graduates from its various departments. 
Besides these graduates, there are hundreds of under 
graduates doing great work among thousands of the 
Negro population of the country. 

In the Literary Department of Normal there are 


Evidences of Progress 

six well organized schools or courses of study, to 
wit : 

I. Normal or Professional School, with a course 
of three years. 

2. Normal Preparatory School, two years. 

3. Model School, four years. 

4. Bible Training School, two years. 

Among Colored People. 2 It 

5. School of Music Instrumental and Vocal. 

6. Business Course, including Bookkeeping, 
Shorthand, Type-writing, Telegraphy and Commer 
cial Law. 

Normal has, also, a liberal Post-Graduate Course. 

The Industrial Department has twenty schools or 
courses, from one to three years, in Cooking, Sewing 
Sick Nursing, Laundering, Housekeeping, Network, 
Blacksmithing, House Carpentry, Wheelwright, 
Cabinet-making, Shoe-making, Painting, Printing, 
Broom-making, Mattress-making, Plumbing, Agri 
culture, Horticulture, Dairy Farming, Stock Raising. 

Normal is fortunate in her abundant water supply. 

The school has an excellent laboratory, and a 
very good library consisting of choice books, and a 
reading room, wherein are some of the best magazines 
and journals of the country. 

There are quite a number of Religious Societies 
which are doin<r much sfood. 

o o 

There are more than twenty buildings of various 
sizes and uses upon the grounds. 

A post-office has been established on the Elora 
branch of the N. C. & St. L. R. R., right at the 
school, and the stati on has been named Normal, 
Alabama, in honor of the school. Fearns is the 
name of the station on the M. & C. R. R., situated 
also on the school grounds. Normal does registry 
and money-order business. It has also an express 
office and telegraph station. 

All work, including building, repairing, black- 
smithing, wheelwrighting, painting, broom-making, 


Evidences of Progress 

printing, shoe-making, mattress-making, farming, 
cooking, dining-room and general house-work, is 
performed by the students. 

The shops are well supplied with ordinary ma 
chinery and tools. 

The farm comprises about 2OO acres of land, on 
which are cultivated for general and experimental 

Among Colored People. 213 

purposes many varieties of cotton, grain, and all 
kinds of vegetables. The farm is well stocked with 
mules, horses, Devon, Holstein and Jersey cows, 
best breeds of hogs and poultry ; vehicles and 
implements of every kind. 

The various fruits of this section are found in the 
orchards of the farm. 

The healthfulness of this entire section is generally 
known. But this school is particularly favored in 
this regard on account of its excellent location and 
surroundings. Normal is 1,200 feet above sea-level, 
with a natural drainage unsurpassed in the United 
States. The atmosphere is pure and bracing at all 

Very few of the students of Normal received 
other help than a chance to work out their destinies. 

The teachers contribute a portion of their salaries 
to our " Student Aid Fund" and other causes for the 
promotion of the work. 

The work of elevating the plantation life of the 
Negro is one of the most important connected with 
the work of education in the South. It is hard for 
the schools to reach these people. Hence the im 
portance of special effort in this direction. Normal 
has organized to meet the demand. Young women 
are trained especially for this work. Those who 
will dedicate their lives to this work on the planta 
tion, to work regardless of pay, have all of their ex 
penses paid in school while they are in preparation. 
Normal hopes to do much in this line. 

The young men are also organized for Sunday- 


Evidences of Progress 

school Mission Work. Many of them walk five to 
ten miles every Sabbath, to organize and conduct 
Sunday schools. Everywhere they go, school-houses 

are built and repaired, homes are refined and general 
intelligence scattered among the people. The 
ingenuity displayed by these young men to overcome 
the poverty which confronts them in their work is 

Among Colored People. 215 

quite remarkable. One of them bought Sunday- 
school literature and started a library, on a collection 
of one egg each Sunday, from those who could 
afford to make such a contribution. 

The U. S. Government has made Normal a Weather 
Service Station, and the signals are read by the 
farmers for miles away. Normal has a brass band, 
also an excellent string band. 

Prof. W. H. Councill owns a farm adjoining 
Normal, and occupying a portion of the triangle be 
tween the two great railroad lines approaching each 
other after passing on either side of Normal. He 
has laid a portion of this land off in lots, streets, 
avenues, alleys, and gives the odd numbers to bona 
fide settlers, who will build a specified house, and sub 
scribe to certain, other conditions, such as keeping 
up fences, streets, sidewalks, etc. Men who can turn 
their brains and muscles into things of use are en 
couraged to settle here. 


W. H. Councill was born in Fayetteville, N. C., in 
1848, and brought to Alabama by the traders in 1857, 
through the famous Richmond Slave Pen. He is a 
self-made man, having had only few school advan 
tages. He attended one of the first schools opened 
by kind Northern friends at Stevenson, Ala., in 
1865. Here he remained about three years, and this 
is the basis of his education. He has been a close 
and earnest student ever since, often spending much 
of the night in study. He has accumulated quite 

Evidences of Progress 

an excellent library and the best books of the best 
masters are his constant companions, as well as a 
large supply of the best current literature. By 
private instruction and almost incessant study, he 


Principal of State Normal and Industrial School, Normal, Ala. 

gained a fair knowledge of some of the languages, 
higher mathematics and the sciences. He read law 


and was admitted to the Supreme Court of Alabama 
in 1883. But he has never left the profession of 
teaching for a day, although flattering political posi- 

Among Colored People. 217 

tions have been held out to him. He has occupied 
high positions in church and other religious, tern- 
perance and charitable organizations, and has no 
mean standing as a public speaker. And thus by 
earnest toil, self-denial, hard study, he has made 
himself, built up one of the largest institutions in the 
South and educated scores of young people at his 
oivn expense. 

Just before closing this sketch, I want to say that 
I regard Mr. Councill as being one of the most re 
markable colored men in the United States to-day. 
I have known him for a great many years and I 
recognize in him the true, honest man in every 
sense a man. 



THIS school was founded by one of the most suc 
cessful educators of the race, the late Rev. Wm. J. 
Simmons, D. D., and his associate, Rev. C. H. Par- 
rish, A. M., who is its worthy president. In 1890 it 
opened under the most favorable auspices, and each 
year has succeeded beyond the sanguine expectations 
of its friends. For purity of atmosphere, for develop 
ment of the physical powers, for freedom from the 
allurements and unwholesome amusements of city 
life, no better place could have been selected than 
Cane Spring, Bullitt county, Ky., twenty-nine miles 
from Louisville. 

The object is to teach the students how to work ; 
to teach the dignity of labor, that hands must be 
used as well as heads and that both can be success 
fully used together. It teaches manliness and race 
pride; that skill tells regardless of skin or parentage. 
It gives, besides the industries, a literary training 
which begins with the primary and ends with the 
college. As much is required from the study of 
the Bible as from any other book. 

This school has had its adversities in deaths of 
teachers and conflagration of buildings, yet it has 
bravely struggled through all. 

Its session for 1896 opened with students from 


Evidences of Progress 

fourteen different States, and with prospects bright 
and encouraging. Students who enter this University 
must come with a purpose and must use with profit 
their time. Anything short of this will not be 

Children who come as young as eight years are 
under a special matron who cares for them as a 
mother. In the Industrial Department will be found 
carpentry, blacksmithing, farming, printing, plain- 
sewing, dressmaking, tailoring, cooking, etc. Busi 
ness Department includes Shorthand, Typewriting, 
Bookkeeping, etc. 

The Musical Conservatory is the first of the race 
manned by teachers from the best Conservatories of 
Music of this country. The course of study is in 
accord with Oberlin, Boston, Chicago and others. 
A Conservatory building is now being erected under 

Among Colored People. 221 

the direction of Prof. Hattie A. Gibbs, who has traveled 
extensively through the East in its interest. 

Many of the graduates who have gone out from 
this institution are successfully teaching in the various 
districts of their counties, and some are assistants 
in the schools of their towns. Many of these young 
men and women return after their schools close and 
take up their duties in the College Department. 
Classes and studies are so arranged that students 
may study what is most desirable, leave off at any 
staere, recruit their health or finances, and return 

o * 

to complete the course at any future time. The 
time to finish any course is the least possible, con 
sistent with thorough work in all departments. The 
school recognizes annually the i6th of December 
(birthday of Honorable Eckstein Norton, after whom 
the school is named), Donor s Day, at which time 
the work is reviewed and the memory of those who 
have helped the institution, living or dead, is kept 
fresh and revered by students and friends; letters 
of encouragement are read and contributions an 

The faculty is competent and consists of the fol 
lowing persons : 

Rev. C. H. Parrish, A. B., A. M., President ; P. T. 
Frazier, A. B. ; Mary V. Cook, A. B., A. M. ; Alice 
P. Kelley, A. B., A. M. ; Hattie A. Gibbs, Oberlin 
Conservatory ; Minnetta B. James, Minnesota ; Cor 
nelia Burk, Virginia; Amanda V. Nelson, Matron. 

222 Evidences of Progress 


One of the most remarkable men among the Negro 
educators of this country is Rev. C. H. Parrish. He 
is a native Kentuckian, and worked his way up from 
errand boy in a dry goods store to the presidency of 
a flourishing school, and one of the most noted min 
isters in the Baptist denomination. In infancy his 
mother beheld a son in whom her soul could delight 
Obedient, true and faithful were traits in his character 
so conspicuous that he was a favorite in his town 
among all people. 

He entered State University, Louisville, Ky., Sep 
tember, 1880, with Dr. William J. Simmons as presi 
dent, and graduated May, 1886, at the head of his 
class with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In i88 
he became pastor of the Calvary Baptist Church, 
where he still remains greatly beloved by a large 
membership, and enjoys the respect and confidence 
of all who know him as being an efficient minister 
and a Christian gentleman who loves truth for its 
own sake and pursues it faithfully regardless of 

Many honors have come to him as delegate to 
State, Educational and National Conventions hold 
ing offices of trust in many. At this time he is 
President of the State Teachers Association, and 
Chairman of the Executive Board of the General 
Association of Colored Baptists. 

He stands at the head of the Eckstein Norton 
University, an institution devoted to the training of 

Among Colored People. 


the head, heart and hand, and therefore gives to the 
Negro youth the kind of education best adapted to 
his development. He has traveled extensively in the 
interest of the school, and by his strict attention to 
business he has made the work a success. 


Though Rev. Parrish leads a busy life, he finds 
time to look after race interests. He is author of 
"What We Believe," a hand-book for Baptist 
Churches. So highly was this work prized that the 

224 Evidences of Progress 

American Baptist Publication Society compiled it 
with works by Dr. John A. Broadus, Dr. Alvah 
Hovey, Dr. J. L. Burrows and others. Rev. Parrish 
ranks high as an educator, pulpit orator, president 
and author. He is clear, comprehensive and con 
vincing in the presentation of his views upon all 
subjects, and adds to this fact a beauty of language, 
grace of rhetoric, and forceful logic, which stamps 
him at once as extraordinary in his gifts and acquire 


The subject of this sketch is a native of Bowling 
Green, Ky. Her life was uneventful till she reached 
school age, when her ability for learning asserted it 
self. By her persistent efforts and her insatiable de 
sire for knowledge, she soon outgrew the educational 
facilities of the place, and was chafing for better ad 
vantages, when Dr. Wm. J. Simmons made it possi 
ble for her to enter the State University at Louisville, 

After her graduation she was elected permanent 
teacher and made principal of the Normal Depart 
ment, and professor of Latin and Mathematics in the 
State University, which position she held until a few 
years ago, when she was called to a like position 
in the Eckstein Norton University. 

Miss Cook has appeared on the programmes of 
some of the most noted bodies of the race, read a 
paper on Afro-American women at the Educational 
Congress in Chicago, 1893, and has addressed 
crowded houses throughout the New England States 

Among Colored People. 


under the auspices of the Baptist Women s Home 
Mission Society. 

In 1892, when a fight was made against the enact 
ment of the Separate Coach Law, she, with three 


A. B., A. M. 

other ladies, was invited to the State Capital to enter 
protest before the Legislature. She has traveled ex 
tensively through the South land and made a close 
study of her people, their progress, etc. She has 
gone as far west as California in the interest of the 

226 Evidences of Progress 

work in which she is engaged, and the school is now 
reaping the benefits of that trip. She has recently 
accepted a place on the Executive Board of the 
National Federation of Women, of which Mrs. Vic 
toria Mathews is chairman. 

Miss Cook is a thorough business woman ; her 
industry and close application to affairs intrusted to 
her is of marked comment. She is conscientiously 
consistent with an honest conviction of right, to which 
she adheres with admirable fearlessness. She is, by 
her very constitution, compassionate, gentle, patient, 
self-denying, loving, hopeful, trustful, and by the 
power of her own pure soul she unconsciously molds 
the lives of those under her. It would be utterly 
impossible to live on day after day with Miss Cook, 
and not feel the desire for as noble a life springing 
up in your own heart. She has a wonderful influence 
over her pupils, who love her with the love that 
casteth out fear. And she not only influences them, 
but all who come in contact with her are wonderfully 

Miss Cook is an intelligent little woman, a deep 
thinker ; keeps abreast of the times and holds no 
mean place in the galaxy of distinguished colored 

The women of her own State delight to honor her 
and have conferred upon her some of the highest 
offices in the organizations of which she is a mem 
ber. Miss Cook has a literary inclination ; being a 
strong, graceful writer, she has contributed much that 
is good to colored journalism. 

Among Colored People. 227 

When she has appeared on the public platform, 
she has never failed to carry her audience by the 
force of her terse style and convincing argument. 
She was recently appointed Commissioner of the 
State of Kentucky to the Women s Congress which 
convened at Atlanta, Ga., December, 1895, before 
which body she read an interesting paper. 

Slowly and surely, step by step, Miss Cook has 
risen to this high plane of usefulness and her life 
is an inspiration, modestly displaying the great un 
selfish heart of the woman, whose highest ambition 
is to be of use to her race and humanity. 


Miss Hattie A. Gibbs is the youngest of five 
children of Hon. Mifflin W. Gibbs, of Little Rock, 
Ark., and his amiable wife, Mrs. Anna Alexander 

Miss Gibbs entered the Oberlin Public School at 
six, and began the study of music at nine under the 
direction of her sister, who at that time had made 
considerable advancement in that study. At eleven 
she entered the Oberlin Conservatory of Music, and 
also kept up her studies in school for three years, 
after which she entered the high school and devoted 
all her time to those studies. After two years of 
hard study of Greek, Latin and Mathematics, she 
graduated with honors before her fifteenth birthday. 

As a student she was an untiring worker, her hours 
for study encompassed almost the entire day. She 


Evidences of Progress 

accustomed herself to rising at four o clock to begin 
her practice. 

In the Conservatory Department of Oberlin Col 
lege the attendance is about 500, and out of this 


number the average attendance of colored students 
is eight or ten. Students are required to finish a 
course of three studies before a diploma is awarded. 
Besides finishing the studies of piano, pipe organ 
and harmony, she had the advantage of several terms 
in voice culture, and since her graduation she has 

Among Colored People. 229 

made special study of the violin in order to better 
prepare herself as director of Eckstein Norton Con 
servatory of Music, of which she was a founder and 
of which she is now in charge. 

The women of the race should be proud of her. 
The people of Kentucky should be proud that one so 
able has placed her services within reach, and ought 
to show the colored peoples appreciation, by con 
tributing money toward erecting such suitable build 
ings, as will stand long after the founder is num 
bered with the dead a race monument in itself. 

In disposition Miss Gibbs is amiable ; in mind she 
is great; in heart she is noble; in manners she is 
gentle ; she has a steadfast and undeviating love of 
truth, fearless and straightforward in action and in 
tegrity and an honor ever unsullied by an unworthy 
word or deed, and after all, these traits so prominent 
in her make-up make her greater than her worldly 
success in her art, for in themselves they constitute 

She has a clever handicraft at all the arts com 
monly styled " woman s work." Not only have her 
hands been trained to glide dexterously over the key 
board, but she has made every day of her life tell, 
and the result of her industry is that she is skilled in 
painting, crayon work, artistic embroidery, dress 
making, cooking and all that goes to make up an 
accomplished woman. 

This brief sketch has been given with the hope 
that young people, who wish to accomplish any par 
ticular pursuit in life, may herein find an example of 


Evidences of Progress 

what a woman can do, and the truth may be brought 
to them that " there is no excellence without great 



Professor W. B. Weaver, the principal of the 
Gloucester Agricultural and Industrial School was 
born April 7, 1852, at Winton, N. C. The first 
school he attended was taught by his oldest brother 
under a cart shelter, from there to a log hut 

Among Colored People. 231 

which had been used as a barn, making seats out 
of boxes and plank boards. In 1869 he spent a few 
months in a public school, where he was advanced to 
the grade from which he could enter Hampton Normal 
and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Va. He 
worked his way through, and in 1873 began teach 
ing his first school, in his native State, having in his 
school 112 pupils. In 1875 and 1876 he taught in 


the Valley of Virginia, in 1878, at Williamsport, 
Pa., and in the fall of 1879, he returned to Virginia, 
and looking for a fruitful field, was sent by Gen. S. 
C. Armstrong to Gloucester county, where he be 
gan this noble effort for the uplifting of his race. 
He opened school in December, 1879, m a ^^ e lg 
cabin, which was used by slaves as a meeting-house 
before the war. In this dark room he taught over 
75 pupils. He soon caused the people in the com 
munity to see and feel the need of education ; and 
securing the co-operation of the School Board and 
by the aid of the Colored people, a two-story building 


Evidences of Progress 

was erected known as Bethel Public School-house 
Here 196 pupils were in attendance and three 
teachers employed. His school did not close at the 
end of the public school term of five months as 
other schools ; but by keeping the people interested, 
he raised money enough to continue for eight months. 
Seeing the need of an industrial school for 
Gloucester and surrounding counties, he gave up the 
public school work and entered upon the work of 


establishing an industrial school. An educational 


mass-meeting was called in which the Board of 
Trustees were elected. Prof. Weaver then com 
menced the work of raising money for the proposed 
school. In October, 1888, he opened school with 
four pupils in a board house once used for a store. 
Coming out of a well-arranged crowded school-room 
into this dilapidated make-shift with only four pupils, 
made him feel strange. But having made a start in 
the direction which he believed to be right, he did not 
look back, but daily pressed on the work of teaching. 

Among" Colored People. 


In 1890, thirty -three acres of land were bought 
and Richmond Hall commenced. In October of that 
year he opened school in this building though only 
partly finished. 


Since that time 120 acres more of land have been 
purchased, a large farm put under cultivation, other 
buildings erected, and industrial shops opened. 
One large building known as Douglass Hall has re 
cently been erected and in use, though no 4 t completed. 
It is a three-story building 78 x 60 in size and will 
cost, when completed, upward of $6,000. 


Evidences of Progress 

The school is located in Gloucester county, on 
York river, and is accessible by a daily line of 
steamers plying between Baltimore and West Point. 

It is in easy reach of over 30,000 colored people. 
It has sent out several graduates, who are doing 
good work among their people and for their coun- 


try. There are at present ninety-seven pupils on 
roll, and the school property is valued at $15,000. 

Mrs. A. B. Weaver, the wife of Prof. Weaver, has 
been a strong helper with him in this work. He 
says that his success is largely due to her constant 
work, wise counsel and strong faith in God. Many 
times, when the way would be dark, and to con 
tinue in this industrial school work looked impos 
sible, she would encourage him to hold on a few 

Among Colored People. 


days longer. She graduated from the Albany High 
School of New York in 1880, and in 8 1 became 
one of his assistant teachers in the Bethel Public 


School, and she has stuck firmly to the work ever 

The object of this school is to make good and 
useful citizens, to train teachers, preachers, mechanics, 
farmers and leaders for the race. 

The school depends largely on charity for sup- 

236 Evidences of Progress 

port. The colored people in Gloucester are very 
proud of this school, its work and its workers, and 
contribute freely of their small means to its support. 
It is an outgrowth of the Hampton school and is 
known as Hampton s second son, and shows the 
wonderful influence of that school. It also shows 
how the colored people are striving to help them 
selves, and how they succeed when they have had a 
chance in such schools. 


This school was established in 1868 by Martha 

It was started in a little frame schoolhouse which 
was soon crowded to its utmost capacity. To-day 
the property, entirely free from debt, is worth $30,000, 
and includes two substantial brick buildings, and two 
frame buildings in Aiken, S. C., with a farm of 281 
acres three miles distant. 

Through all these years it has influenced and 
moulded many lives. In the North and South, in 
the city and country, you will find colored men and 
women who will tell you that they received their 
education at the Schofield School. 

Much has been done, much remains to be done. 
In the country places, in the towns and villages of 
the South, are hundreds of young men and women 
growing up in the densest ignorance in ignorance 
cf the commonest decencies and proprieties of life 
with minds capable of greatest effort, but darkened 

Among Colored People. 237 

and obscured ; with immortal souls clouded with su 
perstition and the teachings of ignorant preachers. 
They reach out their hands to us with the cry: 
14 Come over and help us ! " What can we do for 
them ? 

In our schoolrooms they receive thorough train 
ing in the branches of a common-school education. 
In the boarding department they may receive indus 
trial instruction which will fit them to take up the 
duties of everyday life. Daily contact and associa 
tion with refined, cultured teachers will develop latent 
possibilities, will arouse new ambitions and longings 
for a higher, purer life. Even a few months sojourn 
at the institution leaves an indelible mark on the 
character. When a student comes back year after 
year until he has completed the required course of 
study, his growth is more rapid, the results of incal 
culable value. Not until one realizes the narrowness, 
the poverty of the environment from which such a 
student comes, can one fully estimate the benefit of 
such an institution. Nor does the good stop with 
the one directly benefited. As the scholars go out 
into their homes to be teachers and workers, they 
carry the knowledge gained, and the light in their 
own hearts, and thus reach multitudes with whom 
we never, directly, come in contact. 

There are those whose lives are consecrated to 
this work, whose daily time and strength are spent 
among these people for their uplifting. There are 
constant calls on their sympathy, constant appeals 
for help, but unless the help and support comes from 
the North they cannot respond. 

Evidences of Progress 

Their greatest need is a larger Endowment Fund 
to meet the current expenses, that the labor and care 
connected with the raising of money may be ren 
dered unnecessary, when there would be more time 
and strength to meet the demands of the work at 
their doors. 

Can there be a greater privilege than to use the 
money the Lord has sent them than bringing into 
the fold some of His stray lambs? "For I was an 
hungered and ye gave me meat ; I was thirsty and 
ye gave me drink ; I was a stranger and ye took me 
in ; I was naked and ye clothed me ; I was sick and 
ye visited me ; I was in prison and ye came unto 

Who will open the door of knowledge to these 
minds, held in the bondage of ignorance; who will 
help to feed the souls hungering and thirsting for the 
bread of life; who will aid them in their attempt 
to clothe these rude, untrained spirits in the gar 
ments of refinement and culture, in which even they 
may stand arrayed ? " Inasmuch as ye have done it 
unto the least of these my brethren, ye have done unto 

Among Colored People. 239 


The Reed Orphan Home, at Covington, Ga., was 
founded by Mrs. Dinah P. Pace, who was gradu 
ated from Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga., in 1883. 
During this year (1883) Mrs. Pace went to Coving- 
ton to teach for a few months only, but while there 
she became greatly interested in the work of uplift 
ing her race. Her labors did not end with the rou 
tine of ordinary school duties, for she visited the 
homes and assisted in caring for the little ones of the 
families, very few of which did not greatly need her 
services. Her interest in both mother and children 
soon caused her to take under her roof several chil 
dren who were left orphans. 

The institution has grown considerably during the 
last few years. The work is quietly carried on with 
out attracting any great amount of notice from other 
towns or cities. With the aid of Northern benefac 
tors and a few friends of the neighborhood, several 
buildings have been erected, but these are fast be 
coming insufficient, owing to the rapid growth of 
the school. 

Mrs. Pace is assisted by three other teachers, who 
are also either graduates or under-graduates of At 
lanta University. 

The children of the " family " spend their vacation 
in the country, taking care of a farm upon which 

Evidences of Progress 

many articles of food for the winter are produced, 
As far as the means at hand permits, the children 
are being trained industrially, as well as intellectually. 
The work is not confined to any one denomination ; 


It is entirely unsectarian. Especial effort is being 
made to prepare those under her charge for the 
higher duties of life, both as citizens and Christians. 
Like most institutions of this character, the " Reed 
Home " is greatly in need of means. It is to be 

Among Colored People. 24! 

hoped, however, that a brighter future awaits it, and 
that the noble work may be abundantly prospered. 
No one can realize what it is to care for a large 
number of children, bestowing upon each a mother s 
affection none can know but those who have under= 
taken such a labor of love. 


The A. & M. College, at Greensboro, N. C., is a 
State school for the education of the colored youth 
of North Carolina. The buildings and appointments 
are the best of any school in the South, except Fisk 
University. While the main object at this institution 
is to prepare teachers for the State, they have a splen 
did industrial department. In the machine shop a 
young man made a perfect steam engine, which was 
the first made by a colored man in the State. Another 
student made in the wood shop a valuable office 
desk and another a handsome pulpit. I think I can 
safely say that the wood shop and machine shop have 
the best set of tools and machinery I have seen any 
where. Prof. Jas. B. Dudley, A. M., who is presi 
dent of this school, is a native of Wilmington, N. C. 
He received his education at the public schools of 
Wilmington, and he also attended the Institute for 


colored youths at Philadelphia, Pa., and Shaw Univer 
sity at Raleigh, N. C. Prof. Dudley began teaching 
in the public schools of his native State in 1876, and 
has been thus engaged ever since. As president of 

242 Evidences of Progress 

the State College he has improved the condition of 
the school and also increased the attendance very 


much. He has been prominent in the literary world 
as a writer for both papers and magazines. 


The Georgia State Industrial College is a State in- 

Among Colored People. 243 

stitution, the only one of its kind in Georgia for 
colored youths. It is endowed by the General Gov 
ernment and supported by the State. The grounds 
contain about eighty-six acres, consisting of thirty- 
five acres in the campus and fifty-one acres in the 
college farm. The campus, shaded by tall live-oaks, 
festooned by pretty pendant moss, is, for natural 
scenery, the most attractive in the State. The loca 
tion is perfectly healthful. 

The college farm is separated from the campus 
only by the railroad, by which passengers are con 
veyed from the city to their grounds. There are at 
present the following buildings on the grounds : 
Dormitory, two school buildings, chapel, farm house, 
blacksmith shop, wheelwright and carpenter shops 
and four cottages for the professors. 

The courses at present established are the indus 
trial, sub-normal and collegiate. 

Richard R. Wright, A. M., LL. D., who is presi 
dent of the Georgia State College, was born of slave 
parents, and is a very remarkable man, and one of 
the best-educated men of his. race, and one of the 
most prominent educators in the country. I was 
very much impressed with the most excellent work 
at the State school, both in the class-room and work 
shop. There is no doubt but a great work is being 
done for the colored youth through Prof. Wright s 
very able efforts. 

In the late war with Spain Mr. Wright was ap 
pointed as one of the regular paymasters, and did the 
work with great credit to himself and his race. He 


Evidences of Progress 

has been something of a political leader in the State 
of Georgia; but his greatest work has been as an 
educator. In 1878 he called the first convention of 


colored teachers ever assembled in Georgia, and for 
three years was president of that convention. Mr. 
Wright is the founder of the Ware High School at 
Augusta, Ga., the first high school for colored 

Among Colored People. 


youths, and the only one supported by city funds in 
the State. 


The Slater Industrial Academy was incorporated 


September 28, 1892. The State Normal School was 
established March 13, 1895 ; the Legislature appro 
priating $1,000 per annum for its maintenance. This 
institution is located at Winston-Salem, N, C. ; Prof, 
S. G. Atkins, A. M-., Principal. 

246 Evidences of Progress 

The Governor of North Carolina has the following 
to say for him : 


RALEIGH, June 21, 1894. 

Prof. S. G. Atkins is a distinguished educator, and 
a man of great moral worth and fine intellectual 

He is deeply interested in the moral, intellectual 
and material advancement of his race, and his un 
tiring efforts in this direction should have the recog 
nition and support of all who desire the improvement 
of their fellow-beings. 

His high standing in this State is beyond question, 
and entitles his claims to your earnest consideration, 
and I trust that you will lend him what assistance 
you can. 

Prof. Atkins has been an earnest worker in the 
field of education, and his example and personal en 
deavors have exerted a beneficial influence on the 
fortunes of his race. I take pleasure in endorsing 
him. I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully yours, 

ELIAS CARR, Governor N. C. 

Mr. Atkins may feel proud of the high praise 
given him by the Governor. His school opened in 
a small building, 20x40, with one teacher and 25 
pupils. The school now has twelve teachers and last 
session enrolled 250 pupils in all departments, and 
Jias property valued at $25,000. 

Among Colored People. 247 

This institution is founded on the idea that intel 
lectual development and industrial training should 
go hand in hand. 

The departments of instruction may be denomi 
nated as follows: I. Industrial. 2. Literary. 3. Musi 
cal. The literary department has in view chiefly the 
preparing of teachers for the public schools of the 

Both races have contributed help, and especially 
white men of means in Winston-Salem. 


Established in 1891. 

The State of Delaware has at last been aroused to 
a sense of its duty toward the education of the Negro, 
and in 1891 the Legislature of Delaware gave 
$8,000, and in 1893 $1,000. The first $S,ooo was 
for buildings. The school is located two miles north 
of Dover, the State Capital, on the Loockerman farm, 
a tract of about one hundred acres. A workshop 
has been erected and fitted with tools and machinery 
for teaching the industrial arts. Rev. W. C. Jason, 
A. M., D. D., a very able young colored man, has 
been elected president of this State Institution. Mr. 
Jason is a graduate of Drew Theological Seminary. 
Professor Lorenzo D. Hileland has charge of the 
departments of Mathematics and Physics, also is 
superintendent of industrial work. 

This Institution is the most northern State School 
now in operation for the education of the race. 




ATLANTA UNIVERSITY Rev. Horace Bumstead, 
D. D., President located at Atlanta, Ga., has special 
claims for recognition and support because of the 
somewhat unique character of its work for the 
Negro. It is not duplicating the educational work 
done by the State or most other private institutions. 
It is supplementing and strengthening the work of the 
public schools and of private industrial and trade- 
schools by furnishing thoroughly trained teachers 
and manual training superintendents to carry on the 
elementary and industrial education of the masses. 
It is elevating and purifying the domestic and civic 
life of the Negroes, by furnishing those moral and 
spiritual forces needed to counteract the gross ma 
terialism which threatens to engulf them. It is pro 
viding intelligent and conscientious leaders for this 
race so sadly deficient in power of organization, so 
that it may become self-directing and cease to be, 
what it has so long been, a dependent race. To 
accomplish all this Atlanta University is now, more 
than almost any other institution in the South, con 
fining itself to the work of Higher Education. It 
receives no students who have not had a good gram 
mar-school training or its equivalent. 

Higher Education is not given to the Negro in 

Among Colored People. 


Atlanta University in any 
but with a "practical end 
made to force it upon the 
masses of the race, but to 
give it to the few for the 
sake of the masses. It is 
not given to these selected 
few as a luxury, but as a 
trust; not as a mere means 
of personal profit and enjoy 
ment, but as an equipment 
for the service of others. 
It does not educate the 
students away from labor, 
but from lower to higher 
forms of labor, more prof 
itable to himself and 
others. It does not dis 
honor manual toil even in 
its humblest forms. 

Industrial training is an 
integral part of the Higher 
Education which Atlanta 
University gives, and it is 
compulsory upon all stu 
dents. It differs, however, 
from that which is found 
in the more distinctively 
industrial or trade schools 
productive industry. The 
rather than commercial. 

merely sentimental spirit, 
in view. No attempt is 

No attempt is made at 
methods are educational 
The shop exists for the 

250 Evidences of Progress 

boy rather than the boy for the shop. As soon as 
skill is acquired that might have some commercial 
value in some one particular direction, the boy is set 
to learning something else that he may have skill in 
many directions. He is himself the product of the 
shop rather than the table or wheelbarrow which he 
might make for the shop. 

Graduates to the number of nearly 300 have been 
sent out during the past twenty-six years from the 
College and Normal courses. Of these about two- 
thirds are teaching, mostly in public grammar and 
high schools, in Southern cities and towns. In the 
other third of the living graduates are ministers, 
lawyers, doctors, business men, and married women. 

Students to the number of 265 are enrolled this 
year in Collegiate, Normal, and Sub-normal classes 
under twenty-three officers and teachers. Rather 
more than half of the students are young women. 
Nine-tenths of the whole number are members of 

The institution is chartered, is controlled by an 
independent Board of Trustees, is undenominational 
but earnestly Christian in its religious influence, 
owns sixty-five acres in the city of Atlanta with four 
large brick buildings, and other property, valued at 
$250,000. In strategic location, efficient organiza 
tion, successful maintenance of high standards, and 
opportunities for future development and usefulness, 
few institutions present so strong a claim for liberal 
support and permanent endowment. 

An endowment of at least $500,000 is needed, 

Among Colored People. 251 

Of this amount less than $5,000 is as yet secured. 
The institution has about $28,000 of scholarship and 
library funds, but these are not available for general 
current expenses. It is earnestly hoped that the 
needed endowment may be provided by friends either 
in their wills or, better still, by their generous gifts 
while living. The corporate name of the institution 
is " The Trustees of the Atlanta University," in At 
lanta, Ga. 

Donations to the amount of $25,000 a year are 
needed to provide for the present unendowed work. 
Scholarships of forty, fifty and sixty dollars each are 
solicited to cover the cost of the tuition of one 
student for one year over and above the nominal 
tuition fees paid by the student. Gifts of any 
amount, large or small, for general current expenses 
are asked for. 

Remittances may be made, or requests for further 
information sent to the president either at Atlanta, 
Ga., or at his Northern address : 


Care of the J. F. Bumstead Co., 

340 Boylston street, Boston. 


This remarkable institution, which has done in 
some respects more for the colored race than any 
other, is a monument of the old anti-slavery senti 
ment of the South. It was founded before the war 
among liberal-minded Southerners John G. Fee. 
Cassius M. Clay, and others and the first principal, 

252 Evidences of Progress 

Rev. J. A. R. Rogers, and his wife were so popular 
that they attracted the sons and daughters of slave 
holders even while the school was running the gant 
let of mobs and persecutions. 

Soon after the war colored students were admitted 
on the same terms as whites the first, and to this day, 
almost the only instance in the South. In the words 
of Geo. W. Cable, u Berea is a college which predicts 
the millennium." 

This just and fearless course has led to none of the 
evils which were feared by many good people. 
There has never been a collision between white and 


colored students, and the relation of the two races is 
more pure and natural in the sphere of Berea s in 
fluence than in any other part of the South. 

The college has given well-trained teachers to 
the colored schools of Kentucky and other States, 
men like J. H. Jackson of the Normal School of 
Missouri, J. W. Bate of Danville, Ky., J. C. Lewis 
of Cairo, 111., Green P. Russell of Lexington, Kirke 
Smith of Lebanon, Ky. , E. H. Woodford of Ma- 
nassas, Va. besides those in other occupations like 
Rev. James Bond of Nashville, Tenn., and Lieut, 
Woodford of the 8th U. S. I. 

Among Colored People. 2$ 3 

Berea enables young people of color to measure 
themselves by the standard of the race which has 
had greatest opportunities in the past, and teaches 
white young people to know the merits and respect 
the worth of colored students. 

The school, like Hampton, is earnestly Christian, 
and managed by a board of trustees representing all 
the leading Christian bodies, no one of which has a 
controlling influence. It has buildings and equip 
ments valued at above $150,000, including a library 
of over 15,000 volumes, and was attended in 1898 
by 674 students, 169 of whom were colored. Alone 
among Southern schools it has had superior advan 
tages sufficient to draw a considerable number of 
white students from the North. 

The institution includes Collegiate, Normal, and 
Industrial Departments, and is making decided pro 
gress under the presidency of Wm. Goodell Frost, 
Ph. D., formerly of Oberlin College, who is a grand 
son of Wm. Goodell, the great anti-slavery editor. 
Associated with him are Geo. T. Fairchild, LL. D., 
late President of the State Agricultural College of 
Kansas, Mrs. General Putnam, and about thirty other 

Receiving no aid from any State or society, Berea 
is mainly dependent upon individual gifts. Remit 
tances should be made to the treasurer, and bequests 
to the trustees, of Berea College, Berea, Madison Co., 

This college is now doing much good for the so- 
called "mountain whites" as well as for colored 


Continuation of Independent Schools. 


PHILADELPHIA is known for her facilities for educa 
tion. Few American cities are better equipped with 
schools, public and private free schools and those 
in which tuition fees are demanded schools devoted 
to languages, schools devoted to art. In short, 
everything that one might desire as a means for ob 
taining an education in any known branch is provided 
for the student, and the road to knowledge is made 
about as easy as it can possibly be made. 

But of all the schools provided for the instruction 
of children, youths and adults, none is of greater 
importance, perhaps, than that known as the "Insti 
tute/or Colored Youtli" Strange to say, it had its 
origin in the kindly forethought of one who had 
once been a slave-holder. In the year 1832 Richard 
Humphreys, a native of the West Indies, but at that 
time a citizen of Philadelphia, died, leaving $IO,OOO 
to found an institution, " having," as he worded it, 
" for its object the benevolent design of instructing 
the descendants of the African race in school-learn 
ing, in the various branches of the mechanic arts and 
trades, and in agriculture, in order to prepare, fit and 
qualify them to act as teachers." 

This sum was left with the Society of Friends (of 
which sect he was a member), with the provision that 

Among Colored People. 255 

this society should have the care of the institution. 
In accordance with this bequest and stipulation, in 
1837 the " Institute " was founded, the sum of money 
left for the purpose amounting at this time, through 
careful investment, to about $13,300. The charter 
was not obtained from the State of Pennsylvania until 
1842. Shortly after this the sum of $18,000 was 
left by another Friend for educational purposes, which 
was given to further the interests of the Institute. 

From time to time, different sums were bequeathed 
and bestowed for this enterprise by philanthropic 
people until, in 1851, buildings were erected on 
Lombard street for the permanent establishment of 
this institution of learning, in which location it re 
mained until 1866. At that time it had become 
clearly evident that the enterprise had reached such 
proportions that more ample and convenient accom 
modations were urgently required. A movement, 
therefore, was set on foot to accomplish the work, if 
possible, and a sufficient number of interested friends 
were found to erect the large and commodious build 
ing now situated on Bainbridge street, above Ninth, 
at a cost of $40,000, including the ground. 

The officers and committees of the corporation are 
men belonging to the Society of Friends, but most 
of the teachers are women who have worked hard to 
obtain the education necessary to make them capable 
instructors of their own race. The principal, Mrs. 
Fanny L.Jackson Coppin, whose attainments fit her for 
the principalship of any of the highest grade schools, 
has received an education that would graduate her 

256 Evidences of Progress 

from any of our first-class colleges. Besides this she 
is a woman of strong common sense. The following 
persons are the instructors : 

Principal, Fanny L.Jackson Coppin; principal of the 
female department, Frazelia Campbell ; teacher of 
natural and physical science, Edward A. Bouchet ; 
teachers of English studies, Charles L. Moore, 
Charlotte Basse;t, Julia F. Jones, Fanny A. Ramsey; 
teacher of sewing, Martha F. Minton ; teacher of 
drawing, Katharine H. Ringwalt. 

One splendid feature of this school is its prac 
ticality, an instance of which is shown in the fact 
that the boys are taught to sew as well as the girls. 
Realizing that the time will probably come to most 
of them when they will be obliged to do for them 
selves in every way, they are taught sewing on but 
tons, patching, darning and buttonhole-making. A 
boy who goes out from the Institute need never have 
his clothes in a dilapidated condition because he has 
no " women folks " to take care of them. 

" Heed life s demands " is the watchword of the 
principal, and everything is made to conserve to that 
idea. Again, with this in mind, there is established 
in connection with the regular school of education 
what is known as a " kitchen garden." In this the 
little girls are taught housework in a limited way. 
They learn to sweep and scrub and make beds and 
all the rest of that kind of work, not only in a prac 
tical way, but from a common-sense point of view. 

They are not merely taught that part of sweeping 
a room is wiping the finger-marks off of the doors, 

Among Colored People. 257 

but they learn that when they bring the pail in for 
that purpose they must also bring with them a piece 
of carpet, or some such thing, upon which to set the 
pail and thus prevent an ugly ring or splashes upon 
the carpet or matting upon the floor. This is indeed 
a practical education. " We have this kitchen gar 
den," says the principal, " for many of our pupils 
leave before they have completed the school course 
to go out to service or to remain at home. When 
they go from us they are not igorant of the duties 
which await them." 

In connection with the Institute there is an indus 
trial department open to adults on three evenings of 
the week, Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Men 
who are otherwise employed through the day can 
come here to learn bricklaying, carpentry, painting, 
shoemaking, tailoring, plastering and shorthand and 
typewriting. This part of the school is under the 
supervision of George Astley, an instructor in the 
Manual Training School at Seventeenth and Wood 
streets. For women, three afternoons in the week 
are given ; there are lessons in dressmaking, millinery 
and cooking, under the following instructors : Ida A. 
Burrell, instructor in dressmaking; M.Anna Earns, 
instructor in cooking. 

There are other schools supported by the Friends, 
not only in the State of Pennsylvania, but in other 
States. Each one of these schools is well managed 
and is well supported. I am sorry that I cannot 
devote more space to this work, for it is so helpful 
and so characteristic of the Quakers. 


Evidences of Progress 


Mrs. Fanny L. Jackson Coppin was born in Wash 
ington, D. C.,and was educated at Oberlin University, 
Oberlin, Ohio, from which institution she graduated. 


In 1865, she came, by invitation, to Philadelphia, Pa., 
and accepted a position as teacher in the " Institute 
for Colored Youth," where she has taught constantly 
ever since ; for the past twenty-eight years she has 
filled the position of principal. Under her manage- 

Among Colored People. 259 

ment the Industrial Department was originated and 
is now an important part of the work of this splendid 
school. She is also the originator of the " Woman s 

While there are a great many persons in Philadel 
phia who know and admire Mrs. Coppin for her 
great executive ability, few really know what a re 
markable woman she is. And yet but a brief con 
versation with her, or a few moments contact and 
association, suffices to convince any one that she is 
not only a woman of marked intellectual power, but 
one of a wide and diverse scope of knowledge, both 
abstruse and applied. 

She is a credit to womankind and while her work 
as a teacher has been among colored people, few 
women are better known as educators and few if any 
schools have done a better work in the interest of the 
race, than the one she is at the head of. I am told 
that the " Institute for Colored Youth " was in the 
first place started as an experiment, because it was 
generally believed that the Negro could not master 
the higher branches of education. But in that the 
colored youth has proven quite as able as the whites 
and the results have been most satisfactory. 


Camp Nelson Academy is situated in Jessimine 
Co., Ky., near Nicholasville, and is midway between 
Lexington and Danville. 

The academy has one good school building and 
a dormitory 30x60, three stories high. 

260 Evidences of Progress 

To the academy lot is added one hundred and 
fifteen acres of land, as endowment, thus far. 

The design is to establish a first-class Normal 
School with an Industrial Department. 

More lands are needed, and can be secured. The 
academy has a charter from the State Legislature, by 
which the school is opened to all of good moral 
character colored or white. 

Practically, at present, the school is colored. The 
buildings are adjacent to the village of Camp Nelson, 
composed of colored citizens who settled there im 
mediately after the war. 

Of the forty-four families in the village, forty-two 
have their own homesteads. 

The village has a charter from the State Legisla 
ture and no intoxicating liquors are sold in it. 

The situation is central, high, and beautiful. In 
the county of Jessimine and the five counties adja 
cent there are over forty thousand colored people. 
These with Christian culture and skilled labor could 
be a great power for social well-being in that centre 
of the State. 

Who will help uplift and save ? 

Mr. John G. Fee is President of the Board of 
Trustees of Camp Nelson Academy, and much could 
be said about him that would be of interest to the 
public. Few men have suffered more for the colored 
people than Mr. Fee, not only in a social way, but he 
has suffered from mob-violence because of the stand 
he took in favor of the race in their educational inter 
est and their rights as American citizens. 

Among Colored People. 261 


The world will always pay homage to those men 
who demonstrate their ability to create something. 
The Buckeye State gave birth to a boy that has won 
a place in history worthy of the highest praise. 

The ennobling inspiration, that God made him for 
some good purpose, has been a guiding star to this 
boy, and, by push and energy, he stands to-day a 
conspicuous figure in the arena of great men. 

It hardly seems possible for one to accomplish so 
much in a short length of time without material 
means not even proper encouragement as the sub 
ject of this sketch has done. The Negro race is full 
of young men who can build lofty air-castles and 
plan for great institutions, but few are found who can 
execute these plans. 

We need young men who are willing to give time 
for the proper training of head, hand, and heart, so that 
they can come before the world with Christian char 
acter, intellectually brilliant, ambitious and full of 

The future of the race will depend upon those who 
are qualified to impress the world that the man of 
color can attain to any height if he will pay the price, 
the same as any other man, in spite of race preju 

Prof. E. W. B. Curry, Urbana, O., the founder and 
president of the Curry School, stands for all this and 
even more. He first saw the light of day in Dela 
ware, O., thirty-one years ago. His parents were poor, 
and lived in a log cabin within two months of El- 

262 Evidences of Progress 

mer s graduation in the High School, which he did 
at the age of seventeen years. 

His father, Rev. George W. Curry, was a Baptist 
minister, and his mother a hard-working woman who 


found great delight in the Christian training of her 

Prof. Curry at the age of eleven gave his heart to 
God, and connected himself with the Second Baptist 
Church in Delaware, O. He received his training in 
the High Schools, Michael College and the Ohio 
\Vesleyan University at Delaware, 

Among Colored People. 263 

He read law under Marriott and Wickham, taught 
a district school near Wilshire, Van Wert Co., O. 
He was the founder of the Public Night School of 
Delaware, and taught as a regular teacher in the 
mixed schools for two years. 

He worked night and day to earn enough money 
to carry himself through school. At the age of sev 
enteen he founded the Curry School in a shed 
kitchen 12 by 14, which was rented for fifty cents per 
month, on David street, Delaware, O. He built the 
chimney from brick-bats gathered from a brickyard 
where he once worked, and furnished his little 
shanty with $6.15 worth of second-hand goods. 

The enrollment on the first night was one, at 
twenty-five cents tuition per week. To-day the 
school that had its beginning in a fifty-cent shed 
kitchen is located in Urbana, O., in an elegant brick 
48 by 88, with L, containing in all twenty-two 
apartments, used for office, recitation-room, industries 
and dormitory. 

The school grounds comprise sixteen city lots, 
one-half square, decked with a variety of shade and 
fruit trees, four blocks from the Monument Square. 

The school is on equal footing with the best regu 
lated institutions of the North. They operate a 
Higher Normal, Literary, English, Bible Course, 
Shorthand and Typewriting, Domestic Sciences, 
Sowing, Gardening, Printing, Use of Tools, and Ce 
ment Paving. 

Students were enrolled this year from thirteen 



UNDER this heading I shall call attention to the 
.advance made by the colored people of this great 
city. Nashville certainly has all the essentials of a 
great city ; it has a rich tributary country, a healthful 
climate, river and rail transportation, proximity of 
abundant raw material, and a sturdy, healthy indus 
trious population. 

Having all of these then, Nashville, the capital of 
Tennessee, situated in the centre of a realm un 
equalled in variety and amount of production on 
the American continent, with 100,000 people largely 
native to the soil through long generations, is 
assuredly a great city. 

It has been just thirty-one years since the war 
closed. Nashville then contained a scant 25,000 
people. Ten years later her population was 40,000. 
In 1885 it was 6o,OOO, and to-day within her borders 
there are more than 100,000 souls. No better evi 
dence of the advance and the prosperity of the city 
than that could be given. 

And through this entire history, the colored peo 
ple have figured conspicuously during every step of 
her progress. 

During the many years I have spent in the South 
among the colored people, I have made a special 

Among Colored People. 265 

study of the development of many of the towns and 
cities. I have done this to ascertain what part the 
colored man is playing in this development. In 
view of the fact that Nashville has three large col 
leges for advanced studies and a number of well- 
equipped day-schools, I devoted special attention to 
this city. 

It is a well-known fact that a very small percentage 
of all the educated people, white or colored, put 
their education to any practical use. I claim that 
there are as many, if not more, of the colored peo 
ple who make good use of their education as any 
other class in this country. I found in this city (Nash 
ville) men of culture and refinement, who possessed 
all the energy, enterprise and push that characterize 
any thoroughly civilized people. 

I think I can safely say that Nashville, for its size, 
can boast of a larger number of colored business 
and professional men than any other Southern city. 
Among those I met in person was Dr. D. L. Martin, 
who has the honor of being the first colored drug 
gist in the State. He has succeeded in building 
up a fine drug trade, and has purchased some very 
good property. Speaking of colored Doctors, I am 
told that there are not less than six in the city. 
And they each have a good practice. One of this 
number is Dr. L. W. Crostwait, who is of the School 
of Homoeopathy; but few colored men have gone 
into that branch of medicine. 


Evidences of Progress. 

DR. R. F. BOYD. 

Those who have attended my illustrated lectures 
will doubtless remember Dr. Boyd, one of the most 
progressive colored physicians in the South. I 

DR. R. F. I50YD. 

have never met a man with whom I became more 
favorably impressed than I was with Dr. Boyd. He 
is a man of deep thought, lofty aspirations and un 
tiring zeal. His work at Meharry Medical and 
Pharmaceutical College marks him as one of the 

Among Colored People. 


most useful men of the race. He is a graduate 
from this institution ; and I feel that if it had never 
turned out but one such man, it would have accom 
plished wonders. He came out of this school after 
a hard struggle for an education, and cast his lot 
among the people he had come in contact with from 


day to day in that community. You have only to go 
into his office any day and see the number of patients 
waiting for him; then see the splendid horses and 
carriages used in his practice, to form an idea of his 
success. Still, one of the best evidences of his pros 
perity to me was the fact that all over the city he 
owns houses which are rented. 

The new Boyd Building has twenty-eight rooms 
which are rented to Colored business and professional 

268 Evidences of Progress 

j. c. NAPIER. 

Another interesting character in Nashville is Mr. 
J. C. Napier, attorney-at-law, who has a large prac 
tice, and has also accumulated quite a bit of valuable 
property. Mr. Napier owns one building that was 
of special interest to me. He calls it " Napier 
Court." The building is divided into offices. Every 
room is occupied by a colored professional man. I 
think there are nine offices in the upper part of the 
building. I have never found in any other city 
buildings owned by colored men where each room 
was rented to colored men. I am pleased to note 
that Mr. Napier has been selected as the head of the 
colored people s exhibit for the Centennial to be held 
in Nashville in 1897, but has since resigned. 

After Mr. Napier came out of school he was for 
several years active in politics, and has held several 
government positions. His home is without doubt 
one of the most attractive it has ever been my 
pleasure to visit. Mrs. Napier, who is a daughter of 
the Hon. John Mercer Langston, is indeed a most 
charming lady. 

While I am referring to lawyers, I must not forget 
to mention the firm of Crostwait & Young, who 
also have a good practice. 

In 1884 I met, for the first time, Mr. S. A. 
McElwee, who was then keeping a small grocery 
store at Brownsville, Tenn. Since that time I have 
watched his progress with much pleasure. He has 
served two terms in the Legislature and finished his 
course in law at Fisk University. He, like Dr. 

Among Colored People. 269 

Boyd, began his practice where he received his educa 
tion. His success has been almost phenomenal. 

I have visited his office a great many times and 
each time I found quite a number of white and 
colored people waiting to consult him in regard to 
legal matters. 

He owns a very neat little home that is furnished 
in a most exquisite manner, and is just opposite 
Central Tennessee College. 

Among the business men of the city, I wish to 
mention the firm of Harris & Barbour, furniture 
dealers. These men make a specialty of dealing in 
antique furniture. Many an old piece of household 
furniture has been bought by these enterprising men, 
fixed up, advertised, and often sold in New York and 
Boston at high prices. 


Mr. Taylor is a man who will impress you when 
you meet him as thoroughly in earnest. He is never 
idle, always with new plans, warm-hearted, generous, 
sympathetic and a true brother to all men who 
deserve the recognition of earnest, faithful workers 
for Christ. 

In the spring of 1888, he embarked in the under 
taker s business, and has met with unbounded success. 
He stands at the head of his profession, not only as 
a funeral director, but as a safe and wise business 
man. It is said by men competent to know, that he 
does the largest business of any man of his race en 
gaged in the same business in the country. He 

270 Evidences of Progress. 

owns and occupies the large two-story brick at 449 
North Cherry street ; the building is 42 x 180 feet and 
it is divided and furnished in the most convenient 
style, with reception hall, office, chapel, show rooms, 
supply rooms, trimming rooms, dry rooms, carpenter 
shop, paint shop and a morgue. In the rear stands 
a large stable occupied by eighteen horses, seven 
carriages, hearses and all kinds of vehicles used 
in the undertaker s business. The entire building 
is lighted by electricity and fitted up with electric 
bells. He is the only man in the city who manu 
factures his own goods. He works sixteen men in 
his establishment and often is compelled to call in 
extra help. He has the honor of managing the 
largest funeral that ever passed through the streets 
of Nashville. It was the three colored firemen who 
were killed on January 2, 1892, in a great conflagra 
tion. He built a large catafalque with his own men, 
which held all three of the caskets, which were 
drawn by six beautiful black horses, followed by 
sixty carriages two abreast, accompanied by all the 
officials of the city, the police and fire departments, 
the schools, the lodges and citizens by the thousands. 
In all his business enterprises he ascribes his mar 
velous success to his Heavenly Father, and he never 
neglects his chosen calling, the preaching of the word 
of God. In the last few years he has bought and 
built one of the handsomest and most convenient 
churches in the city, the Lee Avenue Christian 
Church, of which he is now the pastor. 

Among Colored People. %jt 

Mr. W. T. Hightower started in business as a 
dealer in old rags and iron with a capital of 25 cents. 
He now owns a large brick building and a beautiful 

Mr. Joseph Brown, who lives just outside of the 
city limits, operates a large nursery and hot-house. 
He does a very successful business among the best 
people of Nashville. 

Mr. H. C. Gibson, a blacksmith, who started in 
business on a capital of $2.00, has made wonderful 
progress and employs quite a number of men in his 
shop. His bills for stock used in his shop amount 
to upwards of ,$150 per month. 

Mr. Geo. W. Frazher holds a position that, for the 
South, is indeed unique. He is the cutter and fitter 
for E. Fuller & Co. s shoeshop, where he is the only 
colored man employed. 

Dr. Hadley has been a cripple the greater part 
of his life, but notwithstanding that fact, he has 
had great success. He owns valuable property in 
Nashville, and is at the head of the Immaculate So 
ciety, a society organized for the purpose of caring 
for the sick and burying the dead. His daughter 
Willa has the honor of being the first graduate in 
music from Fisk University. 

Mr. J. C. Crawley, a successful teacher of Nash 
ville, is another gentleman worthy of special mention. 
He, like many others, has, by hard work and strict 
economy, accumulated property and is living well. 

I have left until the last to be mentioned, a man 
who ought to be known throughout this entire 

272 Evidences of Progress 

country. I refer to Lewis Winters, who is the largest 
egg and poultry dealer south of the Ohio River. 
Mr. Winters was born a slave, and has never had any 
educational advantages whatever. But while that is 
true, he has a knowledge of all the essential qualities 
of a successful business man. Mr. Winters has shipped 
goods to New York by the train load. I found him 
a very active worker in the A. M. E. Church. 

While I have mentioned quite a number I have 
not called your attention to all, and among those not 
named are Lowery & McGavock, shoe dealers and 
makers. There are also two colored men in Nash 
ville who manufacture brooms, and have quite a 
large trade. 

Mention at least should be made of Dr. F. A. 
Stewart, A. M., who is one of the leading colored 
physicians of Nashville. He, like Dr. Boyd, has a 
very large practice. In addition to his very exten 
sive practice he is engaged as teacher of Pathology 
at Meharry Medical College. Dr. Stewart is a grad 
uate of Howard University, Washington, D. C, and 
stands very high in his profession. He also owns 
very valuable property. 



ATLANTA, Ga., is another educational centre. I 
found over fifty colored men in this city engaged in 
business, professional and other pursuits. 

I can only mention a few of these. I met in Atlanta 
a very successful colored undertaker in the person of 
David T. Howard, who was prompted to go into that 
business because of the way white undertakers treated 
the colored people when they had their funerals in 
charge. Mr. Howard has succeeded in building up 
a very large business. Atlanta can boast of one 
of the largest contractors among colored people 
in the country. I refer to Alexander Hamilton, an 
ex-slave. Mr. Hamilton showed me a number of very 
fine residences owned by the leading white people in 
the city, which he had the contract to build. He 
also drew his own plans and specifications to work 

There were two men in Atlanta who should have 
special mention, namely, Mr. Joseph Rivers, and Mr. 
Jacob McKinley. The latter, I am sorry to say, is 
numbered among the dead. Both of these men were 
born slaves and they were uneducated. Mr. Rivers 
was, by trade, a blacksmith, and began life for 
himself without one penny. He owns quite a deal 
of property, among which is what is known as 
18 (273) 

274 Evidences of Progress 

"Rivers Block," and the business rooms are rented 
to white business men. Jacob McKinley made quite 
a large fortune in the manufacture of brick and deal 
ing in real estate. I am glad to note that several of 
those connected with school work in Atlanta report 
that Mr. McKinley was always willing to contribute 
of his means for the education of his race. He was 
very much loved by both white and colored. 

Atlanta has several colored doctors. Among them 
are Drs. Butler and Slater. They came out of school 
together, and for some years carried on their pratice 
in partnership. Dr. Slater now owns an interest in 
a drug store, while Dr. H. R. Butler devotes all of 
his time to a very extensive practice. He is also 
Grand Master of Georgia of the Free and Accepted 
Masons. Dr. Butler s wife is a graduate of Spelman 
Seminary, and I want no better evidence of the very 
excellent work done at that school than the doctor s 
very neatly-kept home. 

Dr. O. A. Lockhart is another young man with a 
good practice and the owner of a successful drug 
store. He is a self-made man, who had a hard 
struggle to get an education. 

Mr. F. H. Crumbly, who has for some years been 
in the regular army, has returned and opened a dry 
goods and notions store. Mr. Crumbly is a graduate 
of Atlanta University, and is a man who is much 
thought of by both white and colored people, and is 
meeting with success in his business because of his 
popularity and good judgment. He stood high as a 
soldier, and was a commissioned officer in the late war 
with Spain. He gave up a business to go in the army. 

Among Colored People. 

On the same street is to be found Mr. Peter 
Eskridge, who learned while a slave. the blacksmith s 
trade, which he followed until 1880, when he started 
a grocery business, and in this he has succeeded. 
He had not the educational advantages needed for a 
successful business man, but he educated his daugh 
ters and since they have been of great help to their 
father in keeping his accounts. 

I have always claimed that in most cases in the 
South white people would give some of their patron 
age to colored merchants, and I am more and more 
of that opinion since I met Mr. Willis Murphy & Son, 
who carry on a large and very successful grocery 
business in a part of the city of Atlanta where they 
reach a great number of the working people among 
the whites, and most of the trade comes from that 

Mr. G. M. Howell, a young man, does quite a good 
business as a merchant tailor in one of the rooms 
under the Kimble House. I can speak for Mr. 
Howell s workmanship as a tailor from the fact that 
I have had work done by him. I think a large por 
tion of his patronage comes from white people. 

Mrs. M. A. Pennamone, of Atlanta, does quite a 
business as a milliner, and strange to say most of 
her customers are white people. I have often won 
dered why there were not more colored women in 
the millinery business. 

In addition to those already mentioned from At 
lanta, there are many engaged in various walks of 
life, such as conducting wood yards, coal yards, dray- 

276 Evidences of Progress 

ing and doing just what white people do who want 
to earn an honest living. Atlanta has six educa 
tional institutions, to say nothing of the city or public 
schools, in which there are employed some seventy-five 
colored teachers. I have been told by the better class 
of white men in the South, that " colored people own 
far more property and are getting along much better 
than the middle and lower classes of the whites." 
I have heard it said that the only progress being 
made by colored people in this country was in the 
South. I am indeed willing to give the South 
credit for its wonderful development, but as a friend 
to the race in all parts of the country, I must say 
that the colored people are also making progress in 
the North. True, many of our successful men in the 
North came from the South ; but they built up their 
business in the North. 

I met while in Indianapolis, Ind., some very suc 
cessful people in the persons of the following gentle 
men : 

Capt. J. Porter is employed as a bank clerk in a 
white bank. He is the only colored man I have met 
holding just such a position. The men at the head 
of the bank regard him as a very reliable and com 
petent man. 

The late Benjamin Thornton, of Indianapolis, es 
tablished for himself a great reputation as a first- 
class detective. He stood alone in this respect as a 
colored man. He has often been sent for to work up 
large cases in some of our leading cities where large 
amounts of money and jewels have been stolen. Mr. 

Among Colored People. 277 

Thornton was quite a public-spirited man, and has 
done a great deal to help others secure homes, and 
well thought of by both white and colored. 

The city can boast of two magnificent barber shops 
owned by colored men. One at the Hotel Dennison 
is owned by Messrs. Moore and Lanear, costing 
about $6,000. The other one is owned by Geo. L. 
Knox at the Bates House. Some twenty men are 
employed there, and several ladies in the ladies hair- 
dressing department. This shop is said to have cost 
$10,000. Mr. Knox is also the publisher of the 
Freeman, which is mentioned in another part of my 

Mr. Baptist, of Indianapolis, is a very successful 
contractor, and in 1893 built for John C. New a $10,- 
OOO residence. There were quite a number of white 
contractors competing for the work. 

Mr. Puryear, of Indianapolis, does a large express 
business, giving employment to quite a number of 
men. Mr. Puryear was at one time, and perhaps is 
yet, a member of the city council. 


Mr. H. L. Sanders, of Indianapolis, is the only 
colored man in the country doing the kind of work 
he is engaged in. In 1889 he began in a small way 
to make jackets for butchers, waiters and cooks out 
fits, also barbers coats for shop wear. At first he 
did not have work enough to keep one woman busy, 
but now he has several at work all the time, and 
his sewing machines are operated by steam. And 
aside from his manufacturing he carries a splendid 
line of gents furnishing goods. 



I DEVOTE an entire chapter to Penmen, because I 
regard this art as one of the special evidences of race 
progress. The delicacy of the work and the close 
application to study required to succeed in it make it 
doubly hard to command any considerable attention. 


Prof. Richard Hill, who is principal of Writing, 
Drawing and Music in the colored schools in Nash 
ville, Tenn., has much to be proud of. Mr. Hill is a 
native of Nashville ; he attended the city schools 
until he had gone through the ninth grade. At that 
time the colored schools were not carried any higher. 
In order that he might better prepare himself for a 
useful life in the interest of his race, he earned money 
by blacking boots on the streets until he saved 
enough to attend Gaines High School in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. At nineteen years of age he came home, and 
began teaching in the same room where he himself 
had been taught his letters. We feel warranted in 
saying that Mr. Hill is the only colored man in the 
country who has been placed in charge of Writing, 
Drawing and Music in so many schools. He has 
seven buildings, fifty-six teachers, nearly 4,000 children 
under his care in the branches named. In 1893 the 

Among Colored People. 279 

Penman s Art Journal, of New York, held a public 
school writing contest. The colored children in the 
Nashville schools were allowed to enter on equal 
footing with the whites. There were two prizes 


offered and I am glad to say that the colored schools 
won them both. But we are sorry to say the colored 
schools have not been asked to take part in any 
other contests. Penman s Art Journal said recently : 
" Superintendent Webb, of Nashville, Tenn., writes 

280 Evidences of Progress 

us that the winners of the two certificates awarded 
to Nashville in The Journal s public school competi 
tion, as well as three other pupils whose names were 
included in the roll of honor, are pupils in the 
colored schools of that city. Richard Hill, Assistant 
Supervisor of Drawing and Writing, has charge of 
the work in these schools, and to him should be 
given the credit that, without this explanation, would 
naturally be given to me. This speaks very well 
for the colored schools of Nashville and their Super 
visor, himself a colored man, and the only one we 
know of who occupies this responsible post. He is 
a fine writer and skilled in ornamental work. We 
are reliably informed that he acquired this skill and 
knowledge at the cost of great personal sacrifice, his 
preceptor being our friend, Lyman D. Smith, the 
well known author and teacher, whose methods he 
closely follows. The Journal takes pleasure in 
according this deserved recognition to Mr. Hill, his 
pupils and his race." 


Mr. Frederic S. Monroe, of New Bedford, Mass., 
is employed as stenographer and typewriter to the 
Pairpoint Mfg. Co. (a corporation with a paid-in 
capital of $825,000, a weekly pay-roll from $6,000. 
to $8,OOO, employing a force of several hundred 
skilled workmen), and engaged in the manufacture 
of gold and silver plated ware, casket hardware, fine 
cut glass, decorated ware and decorated French china. 
The company ha? stores in New York, Chicago, 

Among Colored People. 


San Francisco and Montreal ; from each of these 
places as well as from the factory a force of traveling 
salesmen are sent out, who cover the whole of the 
United States and Canada. 

He has held this position for four years, and has 


given perfect satisfaction. He resigned a clerkship 
in the book and stationery store of Robert W. Taber 
to accept his present position. Was in the employ 
of Mr. Taber for about two years and a half, and 

282 Evidences of Progress 

prior to that time had filled the same position with 
his predecessor in this business, Jas. M. Lawton, Jr. 
Was with Mr. Lawton for about twelve years, and 
for the last three had entire charge of the book and 
stationery department, when he increased the busi 
ness by the purchase of a music and art store. 

So far as the character of the service rendered in 
these different positions is concerned, I think the 
length and regularity of the employment will speak 
for him. 

Speaking to Mr. Monroe regarding the position he 
now holds, he said : " I taught myself stenography 
as a boy of twenty, and after having mastered it tried 
to maintain such proficiency in it as to be ready at 
any time to accept a position in which a knowledge 
of stenography would be a prerequisite. Have 
never thought that luck had anything to do with 
the opportunities I have had, and rather think they 
are due to hard work in making myself competent, 
and then, when a chance was offered, to try and be a 
little more than equal to the demands made on me." 


While traveling in New England a few years ago, 
I visited New Bedford, Mass., where I met Mr. Chas. 
J. Becker. This young man executes some of the 
finest penmanship I ever saw in my life. He is em 
ployed in one of the largest and best business colleges 
in New England. He has held his present position 
for five years. 

Mr. Becker was born in Fitchburg, Mass., in 1858, 

Among Colored People. 283 

commenced his life-work in Chas. B. Dennis s In 
surance Office at nine years of age ; at twelve he wrote 
a good business hand; at fourteen wrote all the poli 
cies and daily reports for that firm at sixteen his 


writing showed up to Mr. Dennis so well, that he 
sent him to Boston to attend Kendall s Normal Writ 
ing Institution where he took a three months course, 



IN this chapter, I do not attempt to call attention 
to anything like all of the successful colored lawyers. 
I simply select from the hundreds of prominent 
men practising law in courts throughout the United 
States, two : D. Augustus Straker and T. McCants 


D. Augustus Straker was born in Bridgetown, in 
the Island of Barbadoes, one of the West Indies, on 
July II, in the year 1842. 

His early education was fostered by his mother, a 
pious and industrious woman, who took great pride 
in her only child, and strove by the labor of her 
hands to give him a liberal education, his father 
having died when he was eleven months old. 

He received a good English education at the 
Central High or Preparatory School of the island, 
under Robert Pierre Elliott, of Battersea, England, 
and afterwards received supplementary training in 
philosophy from lectures given by R. R. Rawle, Princi 
pal of Codrington College, as well as private in 
structions in Latin, Greek and French, from Rev. 
Joseph N. Durant, D. D., of said island. At the 
early age of seventeen years he became school 
master of one of the principal schools of the island. 

In 1867, he was induced, with two others, by the 
invitation of Rt. Rev. B. B. Smith, of the Episcopal 

Diocese of Kentucky, U. S. A., on hearing preached 

Among Colored People. 


a sermon on the cruelties of slavery and the de 
plorable ignorance of his race in the United States, 
upon their emancipation from bondage, to come to the 
United States and engage in the uplifting of his race, 


by teaching in the schools of Kentucky, under the 
auspices of the Avery P. E. Institute and the Freed- 
men s Bureau, under the superintendence of the Chris 
tian soldier, statesman and humanitarian, General O. 
O. Howard. Before leaving his native land he had 

286 Evidences of Progress 

commenced the study of law, preparatory to entering 
the Middle Temple, England. While teaching school 
in Kentucky he was persuaded to prepare for the 
ministry in the P. E. Church, but did not enter upon 
such duties, owing to the prejudice against color and 
his race, even in said church, an inconsistency which 
he could not reconcile with Christian practices. 

In 1868 Hon. John M. Langston, then Dean of the 
Law School of Howard University, was engaged in 
lecturing through the South, upon the advantages of 
said institute to the colored race, and the opportunity 
afforded to receive a professional education therein. 
Mr. Straker attended one of such lectures, and was 
attracted to the University. He gave up his theo 
logical studies and returned to his first love, entering 
Howard University Law School as a law student in 
1869, in a class six months advanced. He graduated 
in 1871, with honor and distinction, and at Com 
mencement delivered an address on " The Necessity 
for a Common Tribunal Among Nations for the 
Arbitration of International Disputes." His views 
then are greatly verified as to the necessity of such a 
tribunal, by the experiences of the present day. 
His learning in the law and masterly discussion of 
the subject secured him the praise and commenda 
tion of the scholar and statesman, Hon. Charles 
Sumner, of Massachusetts. 

While studying law, he secured a clerkship in the 
Sixth Auditor s office of the U. S. Treasury, in which 
post he remained until 1875. In 1871 he was mar 
ried in Detroit, Mich., to Miss Annie M. Carey, his 

Among Colored People. 287 

present wife, with whom he now lives, having had no 
children born to them. 

In 1875, he resigned his position in the Treasury 
Department, and went to South Carolina as Inspector 
of Customs, at Charleston. 

In 1876, he resigned said post, and began the prac 
tice of his profession in the town of Orangeburg, 
S. C, and soon was recognized as a capable criminal 
lawyer by his white brethren at that bar, and the 
community in general. In the fall season of said 
year, he was elected to the General Assembly of that 
State, and took his seat in the famous House, well 
known as the Hampton-Mackey dual Legislature, 
by which Governor Chamberlain, the duly elected 
Governor of the State, was driven from his post. 
Mr. Straker was not long a member, because of his 
eviction with others, on account of his politics, he 
being one of the most prominent Republicans of the 
State. During this period Mr. Straker suffered 
much persecution at the hands of his political op 
ponents, the Democrats, in this struggle. He re 
turned to his constituents and was re-elected in 1878. 
He was again denied his seat. He was again elected 
in 1880, and again denied his seat, although on both 
occasions receiving larger majorities than his politi 
cal opponents. The grounds of objection were that 
" he was not a citizen," although his naturalization 
papers were produced and the proof of his citizen 
ship evident and conclusive. 

In 1882 he was elected by the Trustees, Dean and 
Professor of Common Law in the University Law 

288 Evidences of Progress 

School of Allen University, Columbia, S. C, an in 
corporated institution of learning, under the auspices 
of the A. M. E. Church. In 1883, he presented a 
class of four colored youths to the Supreme Court 
of that State for examination for admission to prac 
tise law, the result of his sole instruction the insti 
tution being too poor to hire a corps of law instruc 
tors. These colored youths, the first in the history 
of the State, were examined in open court, and hav 
ing passed a most creditable examination, as told by 
the court in open session, were admitted to practice, 
and became members of the learned profession, and 
the peers under the law of those who, but less than 
a quarter of a century before, held them or their 
parents in slavery. In 1884, another class was pre 
sented by Mr. Straker, examined and admitted by 
the court. Mr. Straker, having now severed his 
connection with the law school, resumed the prac 
tice of his profession at Columbia, S. C. He won 
great distinction in the management as attorney for 
the defendant in the celebrated murder case of the 
State vs. Coleman, reported in I2th S. C., the de 
fence being insanity, in which Mr. Straker was de 
clared to have shown deep research in the law of the 
plea of transitoria mania. 

The prejudice of the community keeping distinct 
all business between black and white of a profes 
sional character, Mr. Straker was unable to support 
himself and family by his profession in the South, 
and after giving the same a fair test, and spending 
fourteen years of his life in the endeavor to uplift 

Among Colored People. 289 

his race in the South, was compelled to seek a new 
field. He came to Detroit, Mich., in 1887, bringing 
with him, from his white fellow-citizens, the highest 
testimonials of ability and character, who, while they 
disliked him politically, admired and recognized his 
legal ability. This, with his own natural energy and 
legal acumen, soon gave him distinction in his new 
home. He soon found himself in a fairly lucrative 
practice, and had for his clients a large number of 
whites, his own race being too poor to afford such. 
He distinguished himself as an advocate of ability, 
as was seen in his victory of the Civil Rights case 
of Ferguson vs. Gies, 82d Michigan, which decision 
settled the status of the colored citizen within 
Michigan, as to his right to accommodation in pub 
lic places, equally with his white fellow-citizen. His 
legal argument in this case fully showed him a cap 
able and learned attorney-at-law. 

He rose at once to great distinction at the bar of 
Detroit, and his white brethren at the bar soon rec 
ognized him as a good lawyer, a gentleman in his 
manners, and a faithful advocate. This recognition 
was made manifest in his election in 1893, to the 
office of Circuit Court Commissioner for Wayne 
County, Michigan, a District at that time accredited 
with a Democratic majority of 4,000 voters ; while 
Mr. Straker was an uncompromising Republican. 
Mr. Straker s opponents for this office were all white 
citizens. He was re-elected to same office in 1895, 
by a majority of over 7,000 his opponents again 
being all white citizens. He now holds said office, 

296 Evidences of Progress 

and is spoken of for a third term, which he is likely 
to obtain, if not deprived through the divisions of a 
few of his own race, who seem in many instances not 
content to see one of their own rise to distinction. 

Mr. Straker is widely known throughout the 
United States, having lectured in many States, and 
attended wellnigh all of the principal conventions, 
held by his race, since emancipation. He is a con 
tributor to the newspapers and magazines of his race, 
and also of some of the Anglo-Saxon. 

He is an author, having written a book entitled, 
" The New South Investigated," which has received the 
widest commendation for its cleverness, impartiality 
and good taste. He has also written a unique law 
pamphlet, on the " Larceny of Dogs," showing con 
clusively that punishment for stealing dogs can only 
be by statute, dogs being at common law of no value. 
His pamphlet on " Reflections on the Life and Times 
of Toussaint-Louverture " is interesting and shows 
great race pride in the writer. 

On December 14, 1895, at a Conference of Colored 
Men of the United States, held in the city of Detroit, 
Mich., Mr. Straker was chosen President of the 
National Federation of Colored Men of the United 
States of America; an organization established by 
said conference for the purpose of seeking a remedy, 
or putting an end to the barbarous practice of 
lynching colored men in the Southern States, for 
alleged offences, without trial by law. Already Mr. 
Straker has placed this organization in the confidence 
of his race and their white sympathizers, and much 

Among Colored People. 29! 

goocl is expected from the agitation created by it 
of the wrongs done the colored people in the South, 
both as to their civil, as well as their political rights. 


Mr. T. McCants Stewart is one of the most re 
markable colored men in the United States : he is a 
lawyer of unusual ability. He was born in Charles 
ton, S. C, December 28, 1854. 

After graduating from the common schools in 
June, 1869, he entered the Preparatory Department 
of Howard University, Washington, D. C., and 
finished the course, entering college in September, 
1871. He stood at the head of his class throughout 
the course, making special record in the foreign 
languages, in belles lettres, and as a public speaker. 
In the summer of 1871, he lectured at various places 
in Virginia. Although a very young man, being 
then only seventeen years of age, he was heard by 
large audiences and took back to Howard University 
enough money to get well started in his college 
course. In the midst of his junior year, feeling that 
the facilities for the study of the sciences were 
better in the University of South Carolina than at 
Howard University, Mr. Stewart left the latter and 
entered the former institution, and in December, 1875, 
he graduated, at the head of his class, from the Col 
lege and Law Departments of the University of South 
Carolina, delivering the validictory oration, and 
receiving the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and 
Bachelor of Laws. 

292 Evidences of Progress 

Gen. Robert B. Elliott, one of the ablest men of 
his day, and, at that time, one of the most successful 
practitioners at the South Carolina bar, took Mr. 
Stewart into partnership and formed the law firm of 


Elliott, Dunbar & Stewart, which firm was retained 
in many important cases. Mr. Stewart began his 
professional career in a murder case, in which there 
was unusual interest in every part of the State. The 
ablest attorneys and counsel appeared for the people 

Among- Colored People. 293 

and Gen. Elliott and Mr. Stewart appeared for the 
defence The General guided his young partner, but 
imposed upon him the burden of the work. 

Mr. Dunbar died early in 1876, and Hon. D. 
Augustus Straker, now Circuit Court Commissioner, 
Detroit, Michigan, entered the law firm which then be 
came Elliott, Stewart & Straker. The firm practised in 
several counties of the State. Wherever he appeared 
Mr. Stewart s management of his cases was highly 
skilful, and he was usually successful. The Claren 
don Press, a newspaper edited and published b} 
Southern white men at Manning, S. C., makes thr 
reference to Mr. Stewart s appearance in court there 1 
" We must admit that Mr. Stewart displayed signa! 
ability in the management of several cases. His 
respectful manner and modesty have created for him 
a favorable impression amongst the people." 

In 1877, Mr- Stewart accepted the chair of Professor 
of Mathematics in the State Agricultural College of 
South Carolina, at Orangeburg, S. C. He resigned 

O O 3 

in 1878 to attend the post-graduate course of philoso 
phy at Princeton College under Dr. James McCosh, 
and he also pursued the theological course in the 
seminary there. He went to New York in 1880, and 
made a national reputation in the ministry as an 
earnest and eloquent preacher. In November, 1882, 
he resigned from the church to accept the position 
of Professor of Belles Lettres and Law in the College 
of Liberia, on the West Coast of Africa. After 
traveling in Europe, he went to Liberia, remaining 
there until January, 1884. He returned to the 

294 Evidences of Progress 

United States and was appointed General Agent foi 
Industrial Education in Liberia, West Africa. He 
traveled extensively in the New England States, 
making addresses in the principal cities. He was 
everywhere received with great enthusiasm, and 
Joseph Cook gave up the platform of Tremont Tem 
ple to Mr. Stewart, who made a brilliant address 
there on March 23, 1885, to an audience which ap 
plauded him heartily, and his address was subse 
quently published in full in the New York Independent 
of April 2, 1885. 

In the fall of 1885, Mr. Stewart decided to return 
to the practice of law, and in January, 1886, he 
was admitted before the General Term of the 
Supreme Court of the State in New York City. The 
New York Freeman of January 9, 1886, contained 
this reference to the proceedings in Court : 

" On Wednesday morning, before the Supreme 
Court in General Term, Algernon S. Sullivan, Esq., 
rose and submitted the papers of T. McCants Stewart, 
signed by Chief Justice Simpson of the South Caro 
lina Supreme Court ; and after a brief and generous 
reference to Mr. Stewart s ability and character, moved 
that he be admitted to practise law in the courts of 
New York. Hon. A. M. Keiley, late minister to 
Austria, seconded the motion. Mr. Keiley said he 
deemed it a great privilege to speak in behalf of this 
learned and well-beloved member of the African race, 
and was sure the members of the bar would extend 
to Mr. Stewart a fraternal welcome. Mr. Stewart 
was then sworn in. Ex-Governor Chamberlain, who 

Among Colored People. 295 

was absent from the city, joined Mr. Keiley in sec 
onding the motion for admission." 

Mr. Stewart has been a very successful practitioner, 
and has appeared in several important cases. He 
has confined himself to the civil practice, and enjoys 
the unusual distinction of having his efforts at the 
bar commended in the written and published opin 
ions of several judges. In a decision, rendered by 
the Court of Appeals, which is the tribunal of final 
resort, the court says : " On the argument here, the 
accused (convicted of murder) was represented by 
counsel of his own race, who argued the case with 
courage and zeal, and a professional ability worthy 
of commendation" (140 N. Y., 359). In an opinion 
by the Surrogate s Court of the city and county of 
New York, the Surrogate says : " The masterly ar 
gument of counsel for the contestant greatly im 
pressed me. His conduct of the proceeding has 
been so admirable that I feel it to be my duty to 
commend him. He has throughout the case dis 
played all the qualities of a safe adviser and a skilled 
and eloquent advocate. His appearance before me 
will always be welcomed, as his unusual ability, 
learning and industry will greatly aid me in disposing 
of any proceedings in which he may be employed " 
(5 N. Y. Sup., 23). 

Mr. Stewart ranks high as an orator. He is also 
an author, his best-known book being "Liberia; 
The Americo-African Republic," and he is a fre 
quent contributor to literary publications. He was 
a member of the Board of Education of the city of 

296 Evidences of Progress. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 1891 to 1895. Served as chairman 
of the Committee on Rules and Regulations, and on 
the Committee on Law, on Studies, and on Free 
Scholarships. While on the Board, he succeeded in 
removing the word " colored " entirely from the 
school system and was instrumental in having colored 
teachers appointed to mixed classes of white and col 
ored children. 

ored children. Since the first edition of this book 
was issued Mr. Stewart has given up his practice 
in New York and moved to Honolulu, Hawaii, 
where he is meeting with very great success in his 



IN this and the next chapter I shall call attention 
to a few prominent business men. I begin here with 

j. H. LEWIS. 

Mr. J. H. Lewis, the second largest merchant tailor 
in the State of Massachusetts, and the fourth largest 


298 Evidences of Progress 

merchant tailor in the United States. He is a remarka 
ble man to say the least. His birthplace was at Heaths- 
vine, N. C. The first eighteen years of his life were 
spent on a farm. He went to Concord, N. H., in 
1875 or 76 to learn the tailoring business. After 
working three or four years at the business in Con 
cord, he moved to Boston, Mass. He started in 
business on a capital of $IOO; by close attention, he 
soon began to make money, and now (1896) his 
business is estimated at $ 1 50,000 per year. Mr. Lewis 
devotes his personal attention to all of his customers, 
and to this fact, as much as any other, is his marvelous 
success due. His store is at 417 Washington street, 
Boston, Mass. 

w. Q. ATWOOD. 

Mr. W. Q. Atwood, of East Saginaw, Mich., is one 
of the largest lumber dealers in the United States. 

Mr. Atwood was born a slave, but in spite of that 
fact he is a well-informed man in everyway. He was 
born in Alabama, but left there for East Saginaw, 
Mich., in 1863. He has been a successful land, real 
estate and lumber dealer ever since he landed in 
the city. 

In 1863, he located 1600 acres of land and sold the 
same during the same year, clearing $4,000. This 
was his first deal. 

In 1868, with thirty men and eight teams, he cut 
and put in 3,000,000 feet of pine saw logs, and manu 
factured the same into lumber during the following 
year. tje continued lumbering each year, cutting 

Among Colored People. 


from one to five million feet, until 1877, and has made 
from ten to twenty-five dollars per thousand feet. 

Mr. Atwood has given employment to large bodies 
of men. In all his business transactions he has en 

vy. Q. ATWOOD. 

deavored to use his own capital, and has invested it 
very carefully. He is worth about $100,000. He is 
a leader in political, social and commercial matters 
in his city. He is the only colorecj member of the 
Board of Trade. 

300 Evidences of Progress 

I regard his career a worthy example of what can 
be accomplished by men of the race, possessing the 
requisite qualities of patience, enterprise and foresight. 


I present here a picture of Mr. Samuel Harris. 


The subject of this brief sketch lives at Williams- 
burg, Va. I had occasion to visit that town a few 
years ago, and when it became known to the white 

Among Colored People. 301 

people that I was interested in colored people, the 
hotel proprietor where I stopped seemed very anxi 
ous to give me all the in formation he could regard 
ing the condition of the race in that section of 
Virginia. After telling me all that he knew, and 
much that he did not know, he said he wanted to 
take me to see a store owned by a colored man by 
the name of Harris. I was only too glad to go. 
To see a large store owned by a colored man was 
to me a thing of wonderful interest. We went, and 
I am unable to put in words how much I was helped 
and inspired by what I saw in that store. I got 
while there these very interesting facts. 

Mr. Harris started in business about twenty-five 
years ago. His capital amounted to seventy dollars, 
He is now doing a business of $55,000 a year; owns 
ninety-six building lots in his town ; four large farms 
in the State, and property in Richmond, Norfolk and 
Newport News. All of the goods sold in his store 
are shipped in his own vessel that is manned by his 
own crew. 


William H. Davis, who has a well-equipped shoe 
store in Louisville, Ky., deserves special mention incur 
publication. Mr. Davis is a young man of about 26 
years of age and owes his success entirely to his 
own efforts. He was at one time engaged as private 
secretary by the mayor of that city. He afterwards 
taught type-writing and short-hand in the schools 
there. . It might be well to mention that he taught 


Evidences of Progress 

himself both type-writing and short-hand, as none of 
the schools there where those branches were taught 
would admit colored students. There are but very 
few colored men engaged in the shoe business, and I 
know of none who have as large a stock and are in 
every way as well prepared to suit all kinds of trade 
as Mr. Davis. He has in connection with his stock 
of boots and shoes a fine line of furnishing goods, 


also employs a first-class workman, so that he can 
take orders for fine hand-made shoes for men and 
women. I hope that this short sketch and picture of 
Mr. Davis may inspire other young men to start in 
some business enterprise. The sooner colored men 
begin to represent some of the business interests of 
this country the better for the race. There .is not a 
city in the country where the colored population is 

Among Colored People. 303 

large that several business enterprises could not be 
started by colored men with success. Every store 
owned and controlled by a colored man with success 
not only helps him, but it in a way lifts up the entire 
race, and shows that colored men can do other things 
besides clean houses and drive coal-carts. Mr. Davis 
finds to his surprise that he has a fair trade among 
the white people ; that fact alone should encourage 
other young men to make an effort to go into some 
business. As long as colored men own no stores, 
they have no right to complain of their treatment in 
stores owned by white people. When colored men 
are felt as competitors in business, then, and not until 
then, will white men see the need of making any 
special effort to secure and hold colored people s 
trade. Then, too, when members of the race own 
large stores, they can give employment to young 
women as clerks, and by so doing take a large num 
ber of colored girls out of wash-tubs and cook 
kitchens. Mr. Davis says that he has not had the 
support he had hoped for from the better class of 
colored people, such as the teachers and other pro 
fessional people. But he feels that that will come 
in time. In closing this sketch I regret to say that 
Louisville has for a city with such a large colored 
population a very small number of colored men en 
gaged in any kind of business. In fact, the whole 
State of Kentucky is behind in that respect. I have 
found but very few towns in the State that had col 
ored men doing any kind of business. Mr. Davis 
desires that any young men who want to go into 

304 Evidences of Progress 

business, and feel that they would like some advice 
and information as how to start, should write to him, 
and he will gladly help them in the way of giving 
them an account of how he started and his methods 
of carrying on his business. I have often thought 
that in towns where no one colored man felt able to 
start some business enterprise alone several men 
could put their means together and start a co 
operative store, and in that way encourage a 
business effort among the people, and at the same 
time furnish employment for members of the 

J. E. REED. 

Mr. J. E. Reed was born of free parents in North 
Carolina, and knew nothing of slavery. He came to 
New Bedford, Mass., in 1878, where he attended 
school for two years ; at the end of that time, in 
1880, he secured employment as errand boy in 
Mr. G. F. Parlow s photograph galleries of that 
city. Mr. Parlow found that the young man pos 
sessed very excellent qualities of mind, and as an 
evidence of his appreciation, asked him if he would 
like to learn photography. I need not add that Mr. 
Reed was only too glad to accept the offer. After 
mastering the profession he worked as an assistant to 
Mr. Parlow until 1888, when he formed a partnership 
with Mr. P. C. Headly, a young white man. The two 
young men bought out the gallery where Mr. Reed 
had learned his profession. This firm of Headly & 
Reed continued in business until 1895, when Mr 

Among Colored People. 


Reed bought out the interest of Mr. Headly. These 
young men were regarded as by far the best work 
men in their line the city afforded. Their patrons 
were numbered among the very best people in New 

J. E. REED. 

Bedford. To me, the most interesting phase of Mr. 
Reed s work was his partnership with Mr. Headly, 
for I have always felt that one of the very best things 
that could be done, in solving what is called in this 
country the " Race question," would be to bring white 


306 Evidences of Progress 

and colored men together in a business way, where 
they will have an opportunity to study each other 
as only those whose financial interests are blended 
can. I have no doubt but many comments, and 
doubtless unpleasant ones too, were made about the 
co-partnership of a white and colored man. But the 
fact that they succeeded, and won the respect and 
confidence of the best people in New Bedford, makes 
me hope we may hear of more such firms, in other 
parts of the country, for I am sure that it will prove 
helpful to both races to be brought more together 
in a business way. I can speak for Mr. Reed s 
ability as an artist, having had work done in his gal 
lery. I am also pleased to note that Mr. Reed is 
a very useful and energetic church and Sunday- 
school worker. 


John S. Trower, as a successful business man, 
ranks among the leading men of this country. 
He was born in the State of Virginia. When a 
young man, in 1870, he moved to Philadelphia, Pa. 
He found employment in various lines of work, until 
ambition led him to commence an enterprise of his 
own. He started and conducted for fifteen years 
on Chelten avenue a catering business. By much 
economy and a strict adherence to his work, he 
soon found his project assuming much larger pro 
portions than he had ever hoped for, and in 1887 
he purchased the old Germantown Savings Bank 
for $25,000. This building has been put in good 
shape, with all the modern improvements, with 

Among Colored People. 


telephone, and all that goes to make up a first-class 
business house. His business office is presided over 
by three competent clerks, all of whom are colored. 


On the second floor he has a magnificent parlor with 
every evidence of culture and comfort. Mr. Trower 
has won high distinction in his business. 

3O& Evidences of Progress 


I know of but few others who are doing what 
might be regarded as a very large business in that 
line; one is Mr. C. H. Smiley, of Chicago. He went 
there some years ago from Philadelphia and started 
out in 1880 as a waiter. His first experience as a 
caterer was in a very small way. But his success 
has been something phenomenal. I had the pleasure, 
while in Chicago attending the World s Fair in 1893, 
of going through his establishment. 

At that time he was giving employment to twenty 
people and owned the building in which he carried 
on his enterprise. In fact he was then getting ready 
to build a larger building more suited to his pur 
pose. His patrons were only among the very best 
people, and he thought nothing of serving banquets 
or weddings, when his bill alone would run as high 
as one or more thousand dollars. I found him a 
most generous man. On one occasion I went to him, 
asking aid for a department of church and educa 
tional work I had been commissioned to raise funds 
for. I had hardly stated my case, when he handed 
me a $100 bill. I am told that he has given many 
such sifts to churches and other Christian societies. 


Many who have attended my illustrated lectures will 
remember a picture of Mr. Smiley. I regret that I 
am unable to produce it in this book. 


Mr. E. I. Masterson is a successful merchant-tailor 
in Louisville, Ky. We present his cut and a few 

Among Colored People. 


words about him, with a great deal of pleasure, be 
cause he is a graduate from the tailoring department 
of Booker T. Washington s great school at Tuskegee, 
Ala. It has been said by those who are not friendly 
to the Industrial Schools that we never " see any of 



the industrial graduates putting any of their indus 
trial education into practice." Then, again, it 
has been said that the " industrial training given 
in these schools is never thorough enough to be of 
any practical benefit to the students," So as an 

310 Evidences of Progress 

offset to these objections, we are glad to introduce 
Mr. Masterson as a successful tailor. Not that he is 
the only one engaged in business as a result of an 
education received at a trade school. In fact, we 
know of some printers, blacksmiths, harness-makers, 
and others who learned their trades at the different 
Industrial Schools. Mr. Masterson is patronized by 
both white and colored people, and having had 
clothing made by him I can recommend his work 
manship as first class. 


I shall give in this sketch what I consider a very 
interesting history. The latter months of 1876 saw 
the dawn of a business career which was destined 
to spread itself like the mighty Mississippi, though 
small in its incipiency ; having been retarded by many 
obstructions, which were gradually removed, it worked 
its way through valleys and plains, finally broaden 
ing and deepening itself as it went ; having gathered 
volume and velocity, it is no longer mindful of such 
small obstructions as hindered its course in the be 

Such has been the business career of C. A. Webb, 
whose cut adorns page 311, and who is the president 
of the Webb-Jameson Co. 

Like many others, he saw the light of freedom 
without money, education or friends, but being 
possessed of courage and a determination that always 
succeeds, having worked a few years as a laborer 

Among Colored People. 

3 11 

and in a few other minor capacities, he decided to 
venture for himself. 

His first venture was teaming and making gravel 
streets and alleys. After a time, a new field was 


opened, and he began buying and selling wood in car 
lots to the large pork-packers for smoking purposes. 
Being successful thus far, he established a coal and 
wood yard to supply small consumers. Little by 
little the business grew, and in those days when the 

3 12 

Evidences of Progress 

winters were more severe in Indianapolis than they 
are now, and natural gas was unknown, the coal and 
wood business was a busy one. So much so, that 
after the business was run a few years, and the bor 
ders of trade extended, it became necessary, in order 
to supply the demand promptly, to employ a steam- 
splitter and saw, instead of men who usually per- 


formed this work, and two to four teams, instead of 
one. The business up to this time had increased 
from $500 to $5,OOO per year. 

Still broadening itself, heavy draught and lumber- 
hauling were added, which required more teams and 
men to do the work, until now this branch of the 
business, which belongs to Mr. Webb individually, 
amounts to $10,000 per year. 

All radical changes in the life of a city bring about 
changes in established business, and cause new ven 
tures to spring up. In 1887, natural gas having been 

Among Colored People. 313 

discovered near Indianapolis, all was excitement. 
The general topic in the papers and at the fireside 
was cheap fuel, which of course meant death or a 
meagre existence to the coal and wood dealers. 

Whenever natural gas was mentioned the brow of 
the coal and wood dealers became clouded, but this 
could not remove the difficulty. 

About this time J. W. Davis & Co., one of the 
oldest house and safe moving firms in the city, desired 
to retire from business, and here the light began to 

The opportunity was presented and accepted to 
purchase the outfit of tools and appliances com 
monly used in that branch of business. 

The outfit as stated together with the good will 
and name of the firm were purchased for $1,000. 
The company at that time consisted of C. A. Webb, 
Walter Jameson and Samuel Smith. The firm as 
such did not have a dollar to start with. Mr. Webb, 
who had been long in business, and had broad 
acquaintance, assumed the debt and according to con 
tract, within eighteen months after the firm began 
under the name of Webb, Jameson & Co., they were 
able to settle the debt besides living off the net 
earnings of the business at the same time. 

Messrs. Jameson and Smith were practical movers, 
having worked at the business for the same firm 
whom they united in buying out. Mr. Jameson hav 
ing been employed in the capacity of foreman. 

In the organization of the firm, Mr. W r ebb had 
charge of all financial matters and the making of 

314 Evidences of Progress 

contracts ; Mr. Jameson general superintendent of 
the work and Mr. Smith assistant. 

The firm proceeded in this way, declaring weekly 
dividends from May 28, 1889, the time of its organiza 
tion, until May I, 1892. 

The business increased so from the start that it 
was considered unnecessary to use the name of the 
old firm in operating the business. 

By judicious advertising and skilful management, 
the firm under the name of Webb, Jameson & Co. be 
came well known at home and throughout the State. 

The reputation of the firm having been established 
for their reliability, honesty and responsibility, always 
fulfilling their contracts to the letter, was often able to 
secure better prices than other contractors. 

The business having increased to such an extent 
during the first three years, it was decided to increase 
the capital stock and incorporate the company. 
Accordingly the corporation was formed May I, 1892, 
under the name of The Webb-Jameson Co. The 
capital stock was $3,000, fully paid. The stockholders 
consisted of C. A. Webb, Walter Jameson, Samuel 
Smith and Mrs. Ida M. Bryant. At the first meeting 
of the stockholders, officers were elected as follows : 
C. A. Webb, President ; Walter Jameson, Vice-Presi 
dent ; Samuel Smith, Superintendent, and Mrs. I. M. 
Bryant, Secretary and Treasurer, with the same 
officers as directors. The business has gone on 
adjusting itself to the conditions of the times, but 
never losing ground, not even in the trying times of 
1893-4, from which the country has apt even yet 
fully recovered. 

Among Colored People. 315 

Notwithstanding the increased competition which 
each year brings forth, The Webb-Jameson Company 
maintains their position in the lead. The entire 
business operated under the management of C. A. 
Webb amounts to from twenty to twenty-five thou 
sand dollars per year. This volume of business 
necessitates the employing of twenty-five to thirty 
clerks and workmen, and six teams to prosecute the 
work, and during the busy season more are required. 

The expenses of the company in wages, the 
purchase of new and improved tools, repairs, taxes, 
advertising and insurance, amount to several thou 
sand dollars per year all of which goes to show 
that they are doing business according to the meth 
ods approved by the best and most conservative 
business men of the opposite race. Much more 
might be said of the business of The Webb-Jameson 
Company, but be it said to their credit that many 
who seek business relations with them are sur 
prised to meet colored men. So great is their 
surprise, they often make the ludicrous statement, 
" I thought Mr. Webb was a white man," and fre 
quently add, " Well, who is Mr. Jameson ? " thereby 
showing that the general idea, without positive 
knowledge, is that The Webb-Jameson Company is 
conducted by white instead of colored men. 

Besides the business already mentioned, Mr. Webb 
is president of a building and loan association, con 
ducted entirely by colored men and patronized en 
tirely by the colored people. This enterprise thus 
far has been very successful. 



I MET Mr. Walter P. Hall for the first time in 1892, 
when giving my first course of Illustrated Lectures 
on " Race Progress " in Philadelphia. 

It seems that our subject never spent more than 
one year in school, on account of his father s death. 
.He had to help support his mother, and other mem 
bers of the family. From the age of seven years to 
sixteen he worked very hard, and was his mother s 
main support. When he had arrived at the age of 
sixteen, our country was then engaged in the great 
civil war. Mr. Hall s love for his race, his patriotism 
and love for our country prompted him to enlist as a 
soldier in the 24th United States Regiment. At the 
close of the war he returned to Philadelphia, where 
he secured work and assumed the responsibility of 
supporting his mother, sister and younger brother. 
In 1871 he was employed by Mr. Oscar Robbins in 
the old Fifth Street Market. His employer was the 
the largest poultry and game dealer in Philadelphia. 
Mr. Hall held his position for over ten years. In 
a short while after leaving Mr. Robbins, he started 
in business for himself. Having but little money, 
and a great deal of opposition to contend with, it was 
for a while an awful struggle, so much so, that he 
frankly admits, that had it not been for his noble and 

Among Colored People. 

loving wife he would on several occasions have given 
up. True merit will always win in the end, and this 
proved true in his case ; for to-day, Mr. Hall has one 
of the largest wholesale and retail poultry and game 


stalls in the I2th Street Market He employs four 
men, paying each of them the same salary he received 
when on a salary himself. 

One need only see how well his home is managed 
and kept, to fully realize that it is a happy home. You 

3 1 & Evidences of Progress 

also behold the power and usefulness of a true 
and loving wife. In addition to his regular business 
he finds time to do great good in church-work as a 
class leader. He has filled that position for seventeen 
years, and has been a trustee for fifteen years, and a Sun 
day-school teacher for five years, having a large class 
of young men in whom he feels great interest His 
class he had to give up on account of being elected 
as Sunday-school Superintendent. Then to add to 
his church-work he has been made president of the 
Southeast Branch of the Y. M. C. A. For seven 
years Mr. Hall has been the president of the Pioneer 
Building and Loan Association of Philadelphia, which 
stands second to none of its kind in the country. 
Many poor people have this association to thank for 
the homes they live in to-day. 

I think our readers need not be told that Mr. Hall 
is a busy man. Rev. John M. Palmer, his pastor, 
says, " Few men so prosperous in business, so com 
fortable in possession of this world s goods, show 
such ardent devotion for church-work and active par 
ticipation in all its varied forms, as does Mr. Walter 
Hall, at the same time meeting the requirements of 
the several positions which he holds. As class leader, 
trustee, steward, and Sunday-school superintendent, 
he is always on hand. Among the members of his 
class none are so poor but that he will hunt them up 
when sick, to offer with them a word of prayer, and 
very often giving them financial aid. One old member 
said, before passing away, How he has helped me! 
God will bless him!" 

Among Colored People. 



Mr. S. L. Parker, whose picture I give here, be 
longs to that class of men who are able to not only 
do what they have seen others do, but able to create 


something out of almost nothing. Mr. Parker, when 
a mere boy, began business for himself in the town 
of Laurel, Delaware, in the month of May, 1885, 
with a stock of $19.50 worth of goods, bought on 
credit of a friend. At that time for a colored man to 

320 Evidences of Progress 

attempt to sell anything in Laurel, except ginger 
bread on the street corners, or fish on the street, was 
looked upon with no little curiosity, for, while Dela 
ware is practically a Northern State, I was surprised 
to see what a great amount of race prejudice existed 
in it. At first, Mr. Parker was regarded as a lazy 
fellow, trying to get his living without hard work. 
But we are glad to note that he was fairly well pat 
ronized from the beginning of his business career. 
On account of his lack of business knowledge he 
met with several reverses during his first three years 
experience ; but, by constant efforts on his part, he 
gradually gained a footing that is regarded by even 
his opposers as firm and secure. So great has been 
his progress that last year his business amounted to 
over $io,OOO. He now conducts a general grocery 
store, manufactures ice cream for both wholesale and 
retail, having over $1,300 worth of machinery for that 
use. He has two ice cream parlors, which are well 
patronized by the very best people in the town, with 
out any discrimination whatever. He also handles 
the ice business of the place, running two delivery 
wagons. He has packed this year 1,000 tons of ice 
for his next season s trade. In addition to his busi 
ness already mentioned, Mr. Parker, during the sea 
son, ships large amounts of fruit and produce. I am 
glad to add to what has been said of our subject. I 
found, while in the town, that he had the respect and 
esteem of the very best people. 

Among" Colored People. 321 


H. A. Tandy is a successful contractor and builder 
of brick buildings. Some of the largest brick struc 
tures in Lexington, Ky., where he resides, have been 
built by him. Mr. Tandy has a partner whose name 
is Bird. These very successful contractors have in 
addition to many other large buildings been awarded 
the brick-work on the new court house that is now 
in progress of building in the fall of 1898. The 
court house is to be one of the finest and largest in 
the United States. Several million bricks will be 
used to complete their part of the work. There 
were many other bids put in for this work by con 
tractors from all over the State, and some from other 
States. The fact that the firm of Tandy & Bird 
got the contract shows in what high esteem they are 
held by the public in a business way. In order that 
my readers may fully appreciate the importance of 
Mr. Tandy s work there are a few things that must 
be considered. First, one must take into account the 
extreme and uncalled-for prejudice against the col 
ored man in a business way, both North and South. 
Then all of the labor unions have refused to admit 
colored members. That in itself would have much 
to do in discouraging any colored man to try to com 
plete with white men as contractors and builders. 
Then, too, a colored man would find it harder to 
secure skilled mechanics to help him complete the 
work after he had obtained the contract. But all of 


322 Evidences of Progress 

the things referred to that would hinder a colored 
man has been overcome by Mr. Tandy. He is a 
first-class workman in his line, and by doing business 
in a straightforward manner he has made men recog 
nize his true worth as a man, regardless of color. 


Mr. Tandy has made himself both helpful and 
useful to his race, not only by giving employment to 
many of them, but he has taken an active part in 
church and Sunday-school work in the A. M. E. 

Among Colored People. 323 

Church. He has also been active in the Masonic 
Order, and is serving his second term as State Grand 
Master of the Order known as U. B. F. and S. M. T. 
Mr. Tandy is also connected with the Colored Fair 
Association of Lexington, which is the largest thing 
of its kind in the world carried on by colored people. 


Mr. Daniel Purdy, of Chester, Pa., is another of 
the men I regard as being worthy of special mention. 
He was born a slave, left Virginia when a small 
boy in 1864, was brought to Washington, D. C., and 
was bound out until he was eighteen years of age, 
with the understanding that he was to have three 
months of schooling each year, and when he arrived 
at his eighteenth year, was to have $100. But none 
of these conditions were fulfilled by those who had 
taken the boy to raise. So that at eighteen he found 
himself without education and without money. 
From the time Mr. Purdy was eighteen years of age 
until he was twenty, he worked at whatever he could 
find in the State of Maryland. He then came to 
Chester, his present home. His first wages in 
Chester were about $1.00 per day, but by close ap 
plication to his work, he so gained the confidence of 
his employers that they advanced his salary from time 
to time until he received $18 per week, which was 
regarded as very large pay for a colored man. In 
1886, Mr. Purdy, after working in the iron mills for 
several years, had saved quite a sum of money, and 
decided to go into business for himself. He has 


Evidences of Progress 

built up a large grocery trade and owns the building 
in which his store is situated, also his residence. It 
is a fine brick structure on the corner of two promi 
nent streets. In addition to his grocery store he 


does a general contracting business, employing dur 
ing the summer months about twenty-five men, owns 
six horses, and keeps two clerks employed in the 
store. He tells me that the principal part of his 
trade is among the white people. I did not press 

Among Colored People. 325 

him as to what he is really worth, but he said I could 
safely say $15,000, and that he does a business of 
from $2O,OOO to $25,000 per year. Who will say 
that Mr. Purdy should not be classed among the 
successful business men, both white and colored, and 
especially when we take into consideration the fact 
that all of his success has been accomplished with 
out education or business experience. I only wish 
some of our white college graduates would do as 


Dr. W. T. Dinwiddie, a young man who is en 
gaged in the practice of dentistry at Lexington, Ky., 
is a credit to the race. He is a native of Danville, 
Ky., where he attended the public schools of that 
city, afterwards taking a two years course in the 
Knoxville College at Knoxville, Tenn. Dr. Dinwid 
die first learned the carpenter s trade, and was re 
garded as a very fine workman ; but, having a natu 
ral desire to practice dentistry, he decided to enter 
Meharry Medical and Dental College at Nashville, 
Tenn., and fit himself for the practice of that profes 
sion. After a three years course he graduated with 
high honors, and was called by the President and 
Faculty of Meharry Dental College to accept a pro 
fessorship ; and he took the chair of Prosthetic Den 
tistry, which position he held with both success and 
honor, until he resigned to enter into the practice of 
his profession at Lexington, Ky., where he has by 
his most excellent workmanship and genial manners 
built up a very large practice. 

Evidences of Progress 



Mr. James E. Dixon, of Providence, R. I., belongs 
to that class of men who are helpful to my book in 
enabling me to demonstrate that the colored people 
are entering all the professions and business walks of 
life in which white men enter and succeed. 

Mr. Dixon went to the North from Richmond, Va. 

Among Colored People. 327 

Having lost both his parents at a very early age, it 
left him to look after himself, just at the time when 
a loving mother is most needed. What he has in 
the way of an education was obtained at New Bed- 

j. E. DIXON. 

ford, Mass. But having a desire to travel, he ac 
cepted an offer to go to sea, which vocation he fol 
lowed for a number of years, rounding the globe at 
least seven times, visiting one or more parts of every 
continent, inclusive of Australia, New Zealand and 

328 Evidences of Progress 

a number of Islands in both the Pacific and Atlantic 
Oceans. Finding it to his advantage, he hailed from 
an English port, and stuck to the English Merchant 
Service. He secured a mate s certificate, and worked 
himself up to a position as chief officer of one of the 
finest sailing ships under the English flag. But by 
an unfortunate accident in Calcutta, July 4, 1884, 
he lost his right arm. He then returned to New 
Bedford, Mass., and after a hard struggle against 
big odds, mastered telegraphy. The Western Union 
Telegraph Co., in recognition of his services in 
their main office, appointed him on June 1 1, 1889, 
as manager of their branch office at the Parker 
House, New Bedford, which place he held until he 
resigned June 3, 1893, to take charge of his present 
position at Signal Tower on the main line of the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford Rail Road, at Prov 
idence, R. I. Some idea of his work and responsi 
bilities is given in this statement. In 1894, 34,284 
trains passed this point, and the number is never 
under this. The operator has to know and report 
the exact condition of every train. In addition he 
has to give a signal to each train whether or not it is 
all right to go ahead. The position held by Mr. 
Dixon is indeed one of great responsibility, and 
should he fail to discharge his whole duty in giving 
each train the proper signal, great loss of life and 
property would result. So well has the company 
been pleased with his work, that they offer employ 
ment to other members of the race when they can 
show that they are properly fitted for duty. 

Among Colored People. 329 


Mr. Philip J. Allston, of Boston, Mass., is holding 
what I consider a very unique position. After leav 
ing the public school of Boston he accepted a 
position in the firm of Weeks & Potter, wholesale 
and retail druggists and chemists of that city. He 
was first employed as a bottle washer in 1878, but 
had not been in the establishment very long when 
he had learned the business of manufacturing the 
famous articles sold by that firm. 

Mr. Warren B. Potter, of the firm, took great in 
terest in Mr. Allston, and when a vacancy occurred 
in the laboratory he asked him if he would like to 
enter the laboratory. He said he would. After a 
year the chemist went on a vacation, leaving Mr. 
Allston in full charge of the laboratory. Mr. Potter 
being impressed with his work, asked him if he 
could take charge of the new laboratory erected at 
135 and 137 Columbus avenue. He said : " Give me a 
trial." In 1882 he took charge of the laboratory with 
one man assistant. During this time he attended the 
Star School for drawing, and the English Evening 
High School, receiving instructions in the advanced 
branches. In 1889 Mr. Potter allowed him to take a 
course in Analytical, General and Qualitative Chem 
istry, as well as Practical Pharmacy, which he fol 
lowed until Mr. Potter s death, in 1892. The labora 
tory is, without dispute, the finest in New England, 
($10,000) ten thousand dollars being laid out in the 
summer of 1895 for repairs. Many appliances and 


Evidences of Progress 

improvements at Mr. Allston s suggestion has been 
added, and many new devices for facilitating the 
work. He has now five men under him, all mem 
bers of his race, and all receiving twice the amount 


in wages he received when he began work for the 
company. He is well known among the pharmacists 
of Boston. In 1895, a personal letter from Prof. 
Capen, of Tufts College, presented him to every 
druggist in the city, he being a member of the corn- 

Among Colored People. 331 

mittee on finance which raised over ($23,000) twenty- 
three thousand dollars for the Christian Endeavor- 

In 1892 he married Miss Maggie A. Whiting, 
formerly of Virginia. 

He has always been an active member of the A. 
M. E. Zion Church, having held the following posi 
tions : Teacher in the Sunday school ; president of 
Clinton Literary Association; conductor of choir; 
assistant superintendent ; superintendent, and now a 
member of the Board of Trustees. He is a member 
of the Suffolk Investment Association, secretary of 
the Wendell Phillips Club and secretary of the 
Crispus Attucks Club. 

He has had many offers to fill other laboratories, 
but declined them, as well as inducements to fill 
positions in the South. 


Dr. Jared Carey, Chiropodist and Manicure, is a 
very interesting character. My attention was called 
to him while lecturing in Cincinnati. He is a native 
of North Carolina, but left his native State before the 
war, coming to Ohio with some Quakers and free 
colored people. In his early life he worked on a 
farm and engaged in all kinds of hard work, and 
many a month got as pay only $6.00, which in those 
days was considered large wages for a farm hand. 

Dr. Carey had a great desire to travel and took up 
the profession of Chiropody in order that he might 
better his own condition and in his profession visit 


Evidences of Progress 

some of the larger cities, which he did in both the 
United States and Canada. I do not find many col 
ored men engaged as Chiropodists, and none that I 
have met are as well prepared to do the work as Dr. 


Carey. He has several rooms handsomely fitted up 
for his work at 43 Arcade, up-stairs, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Dr. Carey gives employment to at least six 
people all the time. His patrons are among the best 
people in Cincinnati. In addition to his regular work 

Among Colored People. 333 

he has written a book on Chiropody and Manicure. 
I^or quite a number of years he has, in connection 
with his profession, conducted a school of Chiropody, 
and quite a number of his pupils are engaged in 
their profession in other large cities. Dr. Carey is 
assisted in his work by his wife, who is quite an ex 
pert at both Chiropody and Manicure. She is a very 
refined and pleasant lady, who is much thought of 
by their patrons. Dr. Carey has by good manage 
ment been able to purchase some valuable property. 
He has been an active and useful member of the M. 
E. Church. Any young person, either lady or gentle 
man, desiring to learn Chiropody or Manicure would 
do well to write Dr. J. Carey at 43 Arcade, Cincin 
nati, for full particulars as to terms. I am confident 
that in most any large town a good Chiropodist 
could do well, and I should like to see more of the 
colored people thus engaged. 



THERE has been an impression in the public mind 
that colored men had not the ability to successfully 
conduct such enterprises as Banks, Insurance Com 
panies and Building and Loan Associations. But 
this impression is an erroneous one. I have come 
in contact with a great many of the men who have 
embarked in the Banking, Insurance, and Building 
and Loan Associations, and I have positive proof that 
they are as successful as the average white man who 
starts out in these lines of business. 

Dr. Daniel H. Williams, Imperial Regent ; Head Office, 3245 State St. 

The colored people in the United States are the 
only people who have not been permitted to know 
the meanin^ and feel the benefits of what is known 


as " Fraternal Insurance." 

During the past 35 years over 200 Fraternal As 
sociations have been organized, and many of them 
have developed into the most formidable agencies in 
the world for the protection of the families and homes 
of the white races. Under this protection, millions 
of men and women of all races of men, except the 
Negro, have collected from and paid to each other 
millions of dollars in benefits, ameliorated human 

Among Colored People. 335 

conditions, purified and strengthened social relations, 
and added immensely to the sum total of human 

The United Brotherhood is a Fraternal Insurance 
Association that has been planned with the greatest 
care and study of every question and circumstance 
that are considered as peculiar to the colored race as 
an insurable risk. 

The plan of organziation embraces the best features 
of the best established associations in the world. It 
was chartered under the laws of the State of Illinois, 
on the 5th day of September, 1900. 

The laws of the State of Illinois governing Fra 
ternal Insurance are the most exacting that can be 
found in any State of the Union. Under these laws 
the methods of doing business are subject to inspec 
tion by the State Insurance Commissioner at all times. 


The True Reformers, of Richmond, Va., was started 
by W. W. Browne, at his own residence ; and while 
I fully believe that Mr. Browne knew just what 
he wanted to do, I don t think that even he foresaw 
the gigantic affair the True Reformers have turned 
out to be. They have their headquarters at Rich 
mond, Va., in a splendid building of their own, 
which is three stories high. In the upper story 
they have a very excellent opera house ; in the second 
lodge rooms, and in the first the largest bank in the 

33^ Evidences of Progress 

world owned by colored people. I shall now give 
an account of the work of the True Reformers fur 
nished me by Mr. W. P. Burrell, General Secretary 
of the society : 

"The Grand Fountain, United Order of True Re 
formers, founded by Wm. W. Browne in Virginia in 
January, 1881, now numbers 1500 Fountains, 400 
Rosebud Societies and 1000 Class Circles. The 
total benefited membership is 50,000. The order 
operates in twenty-two States and holds forty pieces 
of real estate, valued at more than $2,000,000. It 
has paid in death benefits over $500,000 and more 
than $1,000,000 in sick dues. 

" Besides the purely benevolent part of the order 
there is connected with it their Savings Bank of the 
Grand Fountain, with a capital stock of $100,000 
and deposits exceeding $200,000. The Reformers 
Mercantile and Industrial Association, organized 
April, 1900, now does a business of $1500 a week. 
The Old Folks Home Department, organized for 
the benefit of the old members of the race, is in 
good shape. A farm of 624 acres has been bought 
and paid for, and arrangements are now being 
pushed to put about 100 old colored people at the 

" In 1 88 1 Rev. Wm. W. Browne started the order, 
being assisted by one clerk and boy of all work, Mr. 
W. P. Burrell. At the death of Rev. Browne, in 
1897, he was succeeded by Rev. W. L. Taylor, who 
had for twelve years been connected with the work 
as an organizer. While under Mr. Browne the work 

Among Colored People. 337 

succeeded beyond expectations, yet the growth under 
Rev. Taylor has been phenomenal. The plans as 
laid by Rev. Browne have been more appreciated 
since his death than before. Many new features 
have been introduced, and the order continues to in 

" The management is divided into departments, 
and at the main office there are over eighty clerks 

" The following are the general officers of the or 
ganization : Rev. W. L. Taylor, Grand Master and 
President; W. P. Burrell, General Secretary; R. T. 
Hill, Cashier; E. W. Brown, Editor of the Re 
former; J. C. Robertson, Attorney and Chief of 
Real Estate; T. W. Taylor, Chief of Old Folks 
Home; Edward Ellis, Jr., Accountant. 

" Under Rev. Taylor there are a large host of depu 
ties and field workers, at the head of whom are Rev. 
E. T. Anderson, Vice Grand Master and Deputy 
General of the Southern Field ; Rev. J. T. Carpenter, 
Deputy General of the Western Field ; Mr. C. A. 
Puryear, Deputy General of the Northern Field. 

"Since the organization of the bank, in 1888, 
there have been handled by it $6,000,000. The Re 
formers Hotel is conveniently located, is steam- 
heated, and has first-class accommodations for 105 
guests. It is at the corner of Sixth and Baker 
streets, and a line of street-cars pass the door. 

" The work of the main office is commenced with 
prayer each morning; the clerks assemble at eight 
o clock." 


Evidences of Progress 

I am sure that my readers will agree with me 
that the account given by Secretary Burrell, showing 
what has been done by the True Reformers, is 
worthy of more than passing comment. It is a 


Founder of True Reformers. 

matter that should demand the greatest interest and 
consideration of the colored people in all parts of 
our country. To me there is one grand lesson 
taught in the success of this order that all may profit 
by if they will, and that is that colored people can 

Among Colored People. 


successfully manage a large business enterprise with 
out any assistance or advice on the part of the 
whites. Now comes the question that doubtless 
many will ask. If the colored people can organize 
and push on with great success the bank, hotel and 
wholesale and retail grocery store, as Mr. Burrell s 
statement proves beyond a doubt, then why cannot 
colored people in all parts of this country organize SO- 


cieties and .stock companies for the purpose of get 
ting members of the race into all kinds of business, 
which would not only help those engaged in the dif 
ferent enterprises, but it would give the colored 
people as a race dignity and standing among the 
better class of the whites that would prove helpful 
beyond my power to express ? Let us hope that 
.the time is not far distant when we may count with 
pride many such grand societies as the True Re 

34O Evidences of Progress 


It was opened for business the 1 5th of October, 
1890. Rev. W. R. Pettiford was elected President, 
which position he now holds, being elected seven 
consecutive times. Mr. B. H. Hudson as Cashier has 
held his position from the first. Mr. Peter F. Clark 
is Vice-President ; to these are added as Directors 
Rev. J. I. Jackson, Thomas Benford, Prof. F. S. Hayel, 
Rev. T. W. Walker, T. D. Davis and Rev. J. Q. A. 
Wilhite who has charge of the Institution. These 
men sold stock sufficient to be incorporated Feb. i6th, 
1894, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dol 
lars, ($25,000) with the privilege of increasing to one 
hundred thousand. There is deposited from one hun 
dred thousand to one hundred and twenty-five thou 
sand dollars per year. They carry $28,000 on deposit 
now. The bank owns its business house of three 
story brick, which is well tenanted and from this and 
other Real Estate, it has a rental income of one thou 
sand two hundred and ninety-seven dollars, ($1,297) 
per year. The Real Estate is worth over ten thou 
sand dollars. The bank has made rapid progress 
under the present management and is now regarded 
as a fixture. It has four persons in its employ, a good 
safe vault and a neat set of oak finish fixtures which 
makes the appearance attractive. 

This bank pulling through the panic and buying a 
nice three story brick building on 2Oth street, has 
greatly strengthened confidence in its business. 

Among Colored People. 341 


The Washington Commission and Supply Com 
pany of Washington, D. C, started in 1897, is a 
movement on the part of a number of Colored men 
of this city to control much of the trade among the 
Colored residents and to give the youth an oppor 
tunity in business pursuits. It is a co-operative con 
cern, but somewhat restrictive as to membership. 
Those who started the enterpise decided, in order to 
insure success, it should be self-supporting. Thirty 
men of families, fifteen of whom were clergymen and 
fifteen laymen, joined heartily in the enterprise. It 
was estimated that these families would spend from 
$20 to $40 each for table supplies. If these men 
would patronize their own interests, the store would 
do a business from $600 to $1000 per month inde 
pendent of outside trade. 

The store has been in operation but three months. 
Three clerks are employed and five agents are at work. 
The store has sold a little over $1800,00 worth of 
goods in these three months. Indications are flatter 
ing for a larger business. 

The last week before writing this, was the best in 
its history. It contemplates opening branch stores 
all over the city. The authorities believe in moving 
continuously. They believe it is only a matter of time 
when through the pastors connected with them and 
through their many friends they will control much of 
the trade of the 85,000 colored people in the District 
of Columbia. They will add a boot and shoe 



AMONG the colored people we find a few inventors 
whose patents are being used throughout this coun 
try. Mr. E. McCoy, of Detroit, Mich, invented the 
" Lubricator," and it is being used on nearly all the 
railroad engines in the United States. A large fac 
tory has been built in Detroit for the manufacture of 
the Lubricator. The late Mr. D. F. Black, of 
Mechanicsburg, Pa., had invented several patents, and 
was before his death engaged in manufacturing a 
cocoanut food, and, I understand, met with fair 
success. Rev. J. B. Randolph, of Trenton, N. J., 
has taken out a patent on an apparatus for heating 
and cooking, claiming that at least one-half of the 
fuel now used in heating a house can be saved by the 
use of his patent. 

Mr. H. Creamer, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has invented 
an automatic steam pump that seems to have made a 
good impression among those who have tested it, for 
it is very highly spoken of. 

I shall mention in this chapter a few colored men I 
have met who are engaged in various lines of business. 
Mr. W. A. Hazel, of St. Paul, Minn., is a decorator 
and designer. Some of the handsomest window 
glass used for churches is designed by Mr. Hazel. 

Mr. Jas. H. Matthews, of New York City, has 

Among- Colored People. 343 

built up a very large business as an undertaker. His 
patrons are among all classes of people. He has 
been an active member of the Undertakers Associa 
tion of the State. In fact, he has held responsible posi 
tions in the association. 

It is quite a common thing to find colored men 
engaged in large business enterprises in the South, 
where the colored population is large. There are, 
however, a few North who are engaged in business 
to a greater or lesser degree. In Trenton, N. J., I 
met Mr. J. W. Rodman, who has built a splendid 
brick building, in which he conducts a very success 
ful grocery business, and I am sure the largest trade 
he has is among the white people. 

At Evansville, Ind., I found Mr. John Neville and 
Mr. McWhorter. These gentlemen were conducting 
a fine barber shop and a magnificent Turkish bath 
house. It is the only place of its kind I ever found 
operated by colored men. That was in 1893, and I 
suppose they are still engaged in the same work. 

Providence, R. I., has a colored man by the name 
of Richard Grant who was in his younger days a 
slave in North Carolina. He began life in Providence 
as a common day-laborer. He now owns and con 
trols the street-sprinkling business of that city, 
having five wagons made for that special work. 

Hopkinsville, Ky., can boast of one, at least, very 
successful colored merchant in Mr. Peter Postel, who 
was once a slave. He owns a very large brick build 
ing where his business is conducted, besides houses 
he has to rent. I am unable to say what his wealth 

344 Evidences of Progress 

is, but I am told that he is quite a wealthy man. 
While he has been deprived of an education, he has 
given his children every advantage along that line. 

Mr. E. Watts, of South Chester, Pa., has by hard 
work and close attention to his business built up a 
good trade in the grocery business. His brother, 
Mr. John A. Watts, who has passed away, began in 
Chester at hard work, and when he died owned a 
fine grocery store and several houses. 

At Boston, Mass., one of the most successful wig- 
makers is a colored man who conducts what is 
known as Gilbert & Co. s Wig Manufactory. He 
owns the establishment he learned his trade in. His 
name is Gilbert Harris. 

The late Thomas H. Boling, of Philadelphia, Pa., 
operated quite a wholesale and retail store where 
choice flour, soaps, starch, and a general line of 
groceries were sold. In speaking of his success he 
said : " When I started this business I did not have 
as many hundred dollars as I can muster thou 
sands now." And yet he did not try to impress me 
with the fact that he was wealthy. But it is 
generally known that Mr. Boling has been a very 
successful man. 


Joseph H. Dickinson was born June 22, 1855* ^ e 
attended school in Detroit, Mich. At the age of 
fifteen he enlisted in the United States Revenue 
Service. At seventeen years he entered the employ of 
the Clough & Warren Organ Co., where he now is. 

Among Colored People. 345 

and in whose service some of his best work has been 
accomplished. In 1880, he married Miss Eva Gould, 
of Lexington, Mich., and two years after formed a 
partnership with his father-in-law, known as the 


Dickinson-Gould Organ Co., for the manufacture of 
parlor and chapel organs. This firm sent to the 
New Orleans exhibition a large chapel organ as an 
exhibit showing the progress of the colored people 
in manufacturing. Prior to this, for the Centennial 

34-6 Evidences of Progress 

Exposition in 1876, Mr. Dickinson helped to construct 
a large combination organ for the Clough & Warren 
Organ Co., which received a diploma and medal. In 
1886. Mr. Dickinson returned to the employ of 
Clough & Warren and his chief work lies in superin 
tending the building of the higher grade of organs. 

Mr. Dickinson is a practical workman of an 
inventive turn of mind, a good draughtsman and 
designer, and an expert in all kinds of organ-build 
ing. A few years ago he built and finished two 
organs for the royal family of Portugal. A pipe 
organ built on new methods is one of the products 
of the Clough & Warren Co., and is pushing its way 
into many places. The Christian Church, St. 
Matthews P. E. Church, and the Church of the 
Sacred Heart, all of Detroit, have organs built on 
this method, that were designed by and constructed 
under his superintendency. Last year, against the 
competition of Eastern manufacturers, this company 
secured the contract for putting in a large pipe 
organ for the Tabernacle Methodist Church, at Cam- 
den, N. J. The case for the same was also subject 
to competition, and the design of Mr. Dickinson was 
chosen in preference to that of Eastern designers and 

The reed organs of Clough & Warren are cele 
brated and are largely made so through the ideas 
and supervision .of the subject of this sketch. He is 
now engaged in perfecting a reed organ that pos 
sesses some of the qualities and tones of a pipe 
organ a tubular pneumatic action that bids fair 

Among Colored People. 347 

to be very successful. An organ on this plan is be 
ing used at the Sunday evening services at the 
Detroit Opera House. 

Mr. Dickinson possesses good, strong, sterling 


On May 3, 1897, a few persons, led by Rev. John 
T. Martin, joined themselves together for the pur 
pose of buying and selling groceries, etc. About 
sixty dollars was collected and paid over to Rev. 
Martin, who was made business manager. 

A room belonging to the business manager was 
rented and the money invested in goods. Thus was 
formed the foundation of the successful organization 
known as the Trade Union. 

In the fall a lot was purchased on the corner of 
Eighth and Lendon streets, and a building 20 x 40 
feet was erected thereon. The following summer a 
great addition was made to this structure, and now 
the Trade Union building contains an area of 3,200 
square feet of floor space, and is now the largest 
store building owned by colored people in the city 
of Winston-Salem. 

On January 9, 1899, a charter was granted by the 
Secretary of State, and the Trade Union became a 
corporate body, with a capital privilege of ten thou 
sand ($10,000) dollars ; also rights and powers which 
enable the Directors to deal in all manner of real 
and personal property. On the second anniversary 

348 Evidences Progress* 

of this company the assets amounted to more than 

$3 Poo- 
It is the purpose of the Union to open a savings 
bank in connection with their business. Mr. J. 
S. Mill, a most excellent man, is now president of 
the company. 


While in Boston, Mass., in 1895, I met Mr. Nel 
son A. Primus, who painted that wonderful picture 
(18 x 24 feet), " Christ Before Pilate." This gentleman 
is certainly a remarkable artist and his portrait work 
is received in Boston alongside of the productions 
of the very finest artists of the city. 

Mr. M. E. Bannister, of Providence, R. I., painted 
the picture called " Under the Oaks," that was 
awarded the first gold medal at the great Centennial 
Exposition at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1876. His 
painting was sold for $1,500. 

Prof. H. O. Tanner has painted a picture called 
"The Banjo Lesson," that sold for $800. 

The colored race has produced a great many ex 
ceptionally fine artists, and it is in the realm of art 
that the highest possibilities of any race are 

Prof. Tanner has recently sold to the French Gov 
ernment for the Luxembourg Gallery a large picture 
representing " The Raising of Lazarus." Mr. Tanner 
is the second American artist who has sold one of 
his paintings to the French Art Gallery. 



THERE are published in the United States to-day 
between 250 and 300 newspapers and periodicals de 
voted to the interests of the colored people. The 
prices of these, compared with the many other arti 
cles of luxury for which they pay so freely, are ridic 
ulously low ; and yet no field of labor for educated 
men and women of the race is so perplexing and en 
cumbered with so many difficulties. 

But among those who have made a success 
of journalism are the men and women mentioned 
in this chapter. 


Mr. T. Thomas Fortune, the best-known journal 
ist, both among white and colored people, is really 
the pioneer among the colored journalists of 
the United States. He has labored as an editorial 
writer on the New York Sun for a great many years, 
and he is the only colored man whose opinions on 
important questions are published at length in white 
newspapers. His work on the Times-Herald, of 
Chicago, 111., and other great dailies, has been the 
most creditable, and has been the subject of more 
liberal discussion than that of any other writer. 

Mr. Fortune s stand for right and justice to all 
classes of American citizens has endeared him to 



Evidences of Progress 

every man and woman who appreciates fair play. 
He is in Negro journalism what Charles Dana, Esq., 
is to white journalism a leader. He has been pub 
lishing the New York Age for a great many years, 


and that paper is recognized to-day as the official 
organ of the colored people. Wherever Mr. Fortune 
goes he is always sought out by the leading news 
paper and professional men and accorded a royal 

Among Colored People. 351 

reception. I regard him as the most valuable man 
in his line living to-day. 


Edward Elder Cooper is a man of Southern birth, 
full of vim, energy, enterprise and pluck. He is 
the founder of the Indianapolis Freeman, which at 
tained a national reputation under his skilful man 
agement some years ago. He removed to Wash 
ington, D. C, in 1892, after disposing of his interest 
in the Freeman, where he established the Colored 
American, an eight-page illustrated newspaper. Mr. 
Cooper s strong point is as a business manager. 
He has had phenomenal success with the Colored 
American, among the solid business men of Wash 
ington, who know it as a safe, reliable and useful 
advertising medium. One of the great features of 
the Colored American is its portraits of eminent 
Negroes, which it publishes from week to week; this 
feature is a big card for the paper and is greatly ap 
preciated by the masses. The Colored American is 
national in its scope and work and publishes the 
news from every section of the country. A compe 
tent force of Negro compositors and correspondents, 
which include some of the best writers among the 
race, make the Colored American a very desirable 
and welcome weekly visitor in the homes of thou 
sands of the best people of both races. 

Mr. Cooper is comparatively a young man ; he is 
not yet forty. He has, through his paper, popularized 


Evidences of Progress 

more struggling Negroes, who have been hitherto 
unknown, than any other publisher of a race paper. 
The subscription to the Colored American is two dol 
lars per annum. It is published at 829 /th street N. W., 


Washington, D. C, in one of the most central busi- 
ness locations in the capital city. In connection with 
his newspaper, Mr. Cooper keeps on sale at his count 
ing-room all of the most prominent Negro journals 
published, and has also undertaken to cater to the 

Among Colored People, 353 

wants of those desiring Negro literature. All the 
latest books, pamphlets, public addresses of colored 
authors, writers and speakers can be obtained from the 
Colored American office on application. And there 
are many good books by Negro authors and by 
others friendly to the race which may be found on 
his shelves. This paper recently issued a mammoth 
edition of 50,000 copies which is said to be the 
largest edition ever issued by a Negro publisher. 
Mr. Cooper is popular with the members of the 
profession, and never hesitates to lend a helping 
hand to his struggling brethren of the press. He 
is a genial, open-hearted, open-handed, rollicking 
good fellow, who makes friends easily and who 
knows how to keep them. He exercises a sort of 
hypnotic influence over prospective advertisers who 
generally come his way. The American is strictly 
a newspaper in the broader sense of the term neivs- 
paper, and is conscientiously devoted to the moral and 
material uplifting and advancement of the race whose 
necessities have called it into being. He deserves great 
credit for his courage and his unyielding faith in the 
possibilities of Negro journalism; and he will, in the 
future, command the admiration of his race, which 
has now but small appreciation for the sacrifices, and 
self-denial, of the brave men who fight its battles 
through the media of the Negro press of the country. 


Prof. Scarborough is the most distinguished 
scholar of the race to-day. His experience in teach- 


Evidences of Progress 

ing has been large and varied. Clear in explanation, 
polished in language and bearing, profound in schol 
arship, always the perfect gentleman, he has im 
pressed himself upon many young minds as few 


young men have been able to do. Add to these 
characteristics a most laudable ambition, an unflinch 
ing steadfastness of purpose, unwavering uprightness 
and straightforward devotion to principle, and we 
find wherein lies the power which has enabled him 

Among Colored People. 355 

to attain the heights and win the fame which is un 
deniably his. But his has not been the mere routine 
of a teacher s life; he has been an incessant student, 
an indefatigable worker. During 1880 he prepared 
his " First Lessons in Greek," which was published 
by A. S. Barnes & Co., in June, 1881. This book, 
the first of the kind ever written by a colored man, 
has received the highest encomiums from the press, 
while its merits have been recognized and acknowl 
edged by some of the finest scholars in the land. It 
has also received the most practical recognition 
that of adoption by schools and colleges, both white 
and colored. 

Mr. Scarborough is a regular contributor to Har 
per s Magazine, the Forum, and the North American 

REV. H. T. JOHNSON, D. D., PH. D. 

Rev. Henry Theodore Johnson was born at 
Georgetown, S. C, October 10, 1857. 

His early life was spent in the public schools of 
his native town until his fourteenth year. 

He has attended the State Normal School at 
Columbia, the South Carolina University, Howard 
University at Washington, D. C., and Lincoln Uni 
versity in Pennsylvania. 

His " Elements or rsycnic Philosophy," a clear cut 
but brief treatise on mental science, and his " How 
to Get On," an admirably written and highly instruc 
tive series of essays, are two of his books. Having 


Evidences of Progress 

REV. H. T. JOHNSON, D. D., PH. D. 

been called to the chair of mental and moral phi 
losophy by the trustees of Allen University in South 
Carolina, he taught but a short time, when he re 
signed for a more inviting field in Tennessee. Under 
the auspices of his church, he here founded the in 
stitution known as Slater College. In connection 
with his school presidency, he was presiding elder 
of a large district for three years. 

His " Divine Logos " was written and published in 
1891. As a unique Christological treatise it was 
spoken of in the highest terms. Some idea of the 

Among Colored People. 357 

recognized ability of Dr. Johnson is indicated by his 
having been clothed with the editorial responsibility 
of the leading organ of his church and race at the 
session of the General Conference in May, 1892. 
The degee of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred on 
him by Paul Quinn College, while that of Doctor of 
Divinity was granted by Wilberforce University. 
Dr. Johnson has already exerted an abiding influ 
ence upon his race. 

REV. j. w. SMITH. 

Rev. J. W. Smith was elected at the last General 
Conference of the A. M. E. Zion Church, which met 
in Mobile, Ala., in May, 1896, as the Editor of the 
Star of Zion, which is the official organ of the church- 
As a writer Mr. Smith is an able one, and I am sure 
that the general feeling is that a wiser choice could 
not have been made. The paper is published at 
Charlotte, N. C, where the Zion Church owns a splen 
did property known as their publishing department. 
I have known Rev. Smith for years, and I am glad 
for the good of the connection that he has been 
chosen as their editor. 

He succeeds Rev. Geo. W. Clinton, D. D., who was 
elected to the Bishopric at the last General Conference. 


Wm. H. Stewart is a native of Louisville, Ky. He 
has always taken an active part in all public affairs, 
and is an active member of the Baptist Church. He 
is the superintendent of the Sunday-school of the 5th 


Evidences of Progress 

Street Baptist Church and leader of its choir, which 
is one of the best in the country. Mr. Stewart is 
chairman of Board of Trustees of State University, 
located in Louisville, Ky., and is secretary of the 


National Baptist Convention ; he has held this posi 
tion for many years. 

Mr. Stewart also has charge of the Sunday-school 
work of the State, for the American Baptist Pub 
lication Society of Philadelphia. He is m;ui;i^cr 
and publisher of the American Baptist, which is the 

Among Colored People. 


oldest and most extensively circulated newspaper in 
the denomination. Mr. Stewart holds other useful 
places, where he is helpful to the race. He owns a 
beautiful home, and has some very refined and 
cultured children. His daughters, at least two of 
them, have taken a course in art, and they paint 
beautifully; most of the fine paintings in his home 
were painted by them. 


Rev. L. J. Coppin, D. D., who for eight years 
was editor of the A. M. . Church Review^ is a 

360 Evidences of Progress 

bright literary light. He is the author of quite 
a number of interesting books. The following 
are the titles of some of them : " The Sunday 
School : Its Work and How to Do it ; " "In Me- 
moriam : Katie S. Campbell Beckett ; " " The Rela 
tion of Baptized Children to the Church," and a 
" Key to Scriptural Interpretation." 

Rev. Coppin is a graduate of the P. E. Divinity 
School of Philadelphia, Pa. He was elected editor 
of the A. M. E. Church Review in May, 1888, and 
re-elected in 1892. The work has been admirably 
done under his editorship. He now gives way to 
his successor, Prof. H. T. Kealing, B. S., A. M., who 
was elected at the last General Conference. 


Mr. Anderson is one of the bright literary lights 
among the young men of the race. His work, with 
that of Mr. Stowers, a novel, entitled " Appointed," 
is a very creditable showing of his ability as a writer. 
His first work as a writer was done when he was em 
ployed as the mailing clerk of the Detroit Free Press. 
After his graduation from the city high school he 
entered the employ of Newcomb, Endicott & Co., 
to carry parcels. He has been working for this com 
pany ever since. He now has charge of the books 
and credits for the carpet department of Newcomb, 
Endicott & Co. No goods come into his department 
unless checked by him and none go out without his 

Mr. Anderson s editorials, written for the Plain- 
dealer, on social and economic questions, were read 

Among Colored People. 

3 6, 


with great interest. He was also a part owner of the 
Plaindealer, which was a magnificent paper. 

j. E. BRUCE. 

John Edward Bruce (Bruce Grit) was born a slave 
in the State of Maryland. He attended school in 
the District of Columbia, at the close of the war, for 
a period of three months, when he became a student 
in the University of Adversity, where he acquired dis 
tinction as a racy and trenchant writer. He has been 


Evidences of Progress 

a regular contributor to newspapers and special cor 
respondent since 1874. 

He is the author of a well-written pamphlet, en 
titled " The Blot on the Escutcheon," which treats of 

j. E. BRUCE. 

the lynching evil in the South. Has written numer 
ous short stories for race papers, more or less meri 
torious, and which show him to have the journalistic 
instinct. He has a larger acquaintance with public 
men than any other Negro newspaper correspondent 

Among Colored People. 363 

in America, and has been the recipient of hundreds 
of autograph letters from eminent men concerning 
public questions affecting- the Negro. Among them 
are such distinguished men as Wm. E. Gladstone, 
Roscoe Conkling, Levi P. Morton, John A. Logan, 
Geo. F. Hoar, J. S. Clarkson, A. W. Tourgee and 
many others. Mr. Bruce has possibly as fine a col 
lection of scrap-books as one would wish to see. 
Among them (there are three of them) is one 
which contains over a thousand columns of matter 
from his own pen, the result of his labors since 1874. 
Another contains important correspondence valued 
for the autographs of the distinguished writers; in 
this scrap-book is contained a letter from Mr. Glad 
stone, with his autograph, the autographs of Grover 
Cleveland, Chester A. Arthur, Cardinal Gibbons, 
Baron H. Von Lindern, of Amsterdam, Holland, 
James Russell Lowell, John Hay, W. W. Astor, 
Frederick Douglass, James Freeman Clark, R. G. 
Ingersoll, William McKinley, J. N. Bonaparte, Geo. 
F. Edmunds, Geo. William Curtis, William Mahone, 
William E. Dodge, Bishop Phillips Brooks, James 
Theodore Holly, Bishop of Hayti, Hon. John W. 
Foster, Rev. Alexander Crummell, Hon. Edward 
Wilmot Blyden and other distinguished personages, 
Mr. Bruce is a voluminous and witty writer, and rep 
resents over a dozen of the best Negro newspapers 
now published. 


In noting the journalistic efforts of the colored 

^64 Evidences of Progress 

people, Philadelphia can proudly boast of having 
eight live newspapers and two magazines that reflect 
real credit on the colored race. The first to be con 
sidered is the Weekly Tribune, one of the very few 
colored papers in the United States that is actually 
making money. It was founded in 1884 by Mr. 
Christopher J. Perry, and has steadily advanced as 
the years rolled on, until now it is established on 
a solid financial basis. It is bright, crisp, newsy, and 
the most popular newspaper among the colored peo 
ple in the city. 

The Standard-Echo began publication in 1883, 
with Mr. Abel P. Caldwell as managnne editor. The 

o o 

Ec/whas enjoyed all the experiences of the average 
Negro journal. 

The Sunday Journal, a new feature in Negro jour 
nalism, was founded by the late Robert G. Still, in 
1895. After his death Messrs. Hart & Gee assumed 
the management of it. and through their combined 
efforts it is rapidly rearing the goal of success. 

For workmanship, bright and crisp news, the Sun 
day Herald has no superior. It was established by 
T. Wallace Swarm, January, 1896. The paper has 
struck the public s vein, and bids fair to outstrip some 
of the older journals. 

The Christian Banner is a Baptist paper, and is 
largely circulated throughout the United States. Rev. 
G. L. P. Taliaferro is the editor. 


Rev. C. H. PbVlips is the editor of the Christian 

Among Colored People. 365 

Index, which is the official organ of the C. M. E. 
Church. Their publishing house is located at Jack 
son, Tenn., where they own their building and a 
splendid printing plant. Dr. Phillips was born at 
Milledgeville, Ga., in 1858. He is a graduate from 
Central Tennessee College, and has been prominent 
since then both as teacher and pastor. Rev. Phillips 
has made the Index one of the leading church papers 
published in the country, and the church may well 
be proud of him. 


Remarkable types in Negro journalism are Cyrus 
Field Adams and John Quincy Adams, of the Chi 
cago Appeal. The Appeal is regarded as one of the 
best weekly newspapers published. 


A musician, a composer, and an editor, a composite 
body, is Hon. Harry C. Smith, editor and publisher 
of the Cleveland Gazette. He is a born artist, a deep 
thinker, liberal and fair-minded. A valuable acquisi 
tion to Negro journalism. 


Hon. John C. Dancy, editor of the A. M. E. Zion 
Quarterly, published at Wilmington, N. C., in the 
interest of the A. M. E. Zion Church, has held many 
responsible positions in the State and Nation. His 
ability as an editor, and as an orator, has already 
been acknowledged by the most reliable newspapers 

Evidences of Progress 

in this country. Mr. Dancy is well known through^ 
out the United States and Europe. His career has 


been remarkable, and his attitude in defence of human 
rights is stern and unsympathetic. 


That the Negro is advancing toward an improved 
condition there is conspicuous proof in the well- 
attended schools called into existence by his demand 

Among Colored People. 


for enlightenment, in the number of. blacks found in 
the practice of medicine and law, and in the strength 
ened position of the race in financial, commercial, and 
industrial affairs of cities East and South. But ad- 


ditional evidence is the high class literature issued in 
the Negro cause. Daily newspapers are published 
for his entertainment and improvement, and in Bos 
ton there is the relatively new "Colored American 
Magazine," a monthly more beautiful in its typo- 

368 Evidences of Progress 

graphic finish than most of its white rivals. It is de 
voted to the literature, science, music, art, religion, 
and traditions of the Negro race, and fulfils its mis 
sion creditably, being illumined with pleasing illus 
trations, and having for its purpose the cultivation of 
the best that the Negro has in him and, generally, 
the presentation of the brighter side of life to him. 

The Colored Co-operative Publishing Company, 
publishers of the magazine consists of the following 
officers: Col. W. H. Dupree, President Board of 
Directors ; Jesse W. Watkins, Treasurer ; Wm. O. 
West, Secretary. Miss Pauline E. Hopkins, a radical 
race woman, is the literary editor. 

REV. I. B. SCOTT, A. M., D. D. 

Rev. I. B. Scott, A. M., D. D., who was president 
of Wiley University at Marshall, Texas, was at the 
last General Conference of the M. E. Church, held in 
Cleveland, Ohio, in May, 1896, elected as editor of 
the Southwestern Christian Advocate, which is pub 
lished in the interest of the Colored members of the 
M. E, Church. 


Published by the Georgia Baptist Printing Co., Au 
gusta, Ga., began publication in October, 1880. Has 
come out regularly every week. Rev. W. J. White 
has been editor from beeinnin<j, and also business 

o o 

manager. The plant is worth about $3,000, has one 
large cylinder and two first-class job presses, employs 
the year round twelve to eighteen hands, all colored, 
and prints minutes for about sixty religious bodies, 
conventions and associations. 

Among Colored People. 

3 6 9 


Mr. George L. Knox, the publisher of the Freeman, 
at Indianapolis, Ind., has given the colored people 
one of the best illustrated weekly papers ever issued 
in this country. Mr. Knox is a hard worker, and 
the Freeman is doing a most creditable work. 



Mr. Walter H. Stowers is a city clerk in Detroit. 

37^ Evidences of Progress 

Mich. He is one of the bright minds among young 
colored men. He is Deputy County Clerk for 
Wayne County, Mich., his special duty being clerk 
of one of the Circuit Court rooms. He has also 
been admitted to the bar, and is a member of the law 
firm of Barnes & Stovvers. He was at one time one 
of the editors of the Plaindealer. Mr. Stowers and 
Mr. Wm. Anderson wrote " Appointed," an American 
novel, which has attracted considerable attention. 


Mr. Stewart has for years done work on white 
daily papers as a regular reporter. At the last Gen 
eral Conference of the A. M. E. Church, which met 
in Wilmington, N. C, Mr. Stewart took all of the 
conference reports, and the Wilmington Messenger 
has this to say of him : 

" The Messenger gave full and readable reports of 
the proceedings of the conference, and we take this 
opportunity to commend Mr. Charles Stewart for the 
excellent and satisfactory manner in which he made 
the reports for us. It was a laborious piece of work, 
and all who read the reports can testify that the work 
was efficiently and cleverly done. 

Mr. Stewart is a native of Kentucky, and began 
newspaper work on the Louisville Courier- Journal 
in 1880. Subsequently he was engaged by the 
Chicago Inter-Ocean and worked as a reporter on 
that paper from 1885 to 1892, since which time he 
has been on the editorial staff of the Chicago Dis 
patch. He is said to be the only Negro holding such 
a position in journalism. 

Among Colored People. 



Mr. James H. Moody was born of slave .parents at 
Clarksville, Va. His education was received in the 
public schools at Louisville, Ky. He has been ac 
tive in politics, and has held some important posi 
tions. While President Garfield was in office, Mr. 
Moody was appointed a Deputy United States Mar 
shal for the State of Kentucky. He was the first 
colored man appointed to such a position in the State. 
After Mr. Cleveland was elected, Mr. Moody came 
to Chicago, where he is respected by all who know 
him. He at one time had charge of the Chicago Con- 

372 Evidences of Progress 

r] but has since established a most excellent 
and useful paper known as the Chicago Monitor. It 
has a lar^e circulation, and is doincr much ood for 

<-> o fc> 

the race. Mr. Moody has shown great courage in 
the manly stand he has taken for the good of his 


This young man has written and published several 
books. His first book, " The Afro-American Press," 
gave short sketches of the colored editors and writers. 
The book had large sale all over the country. Mr. 
Penn is at the head of the Colored schools of Lynch- 
burg, Va., his native town. He was appointed chief 
commissioner of the Cotton States and International 
Exposition, at Atlanta, Ga., for the Colored people s 
department. He is a very young man to have accom 
plished so much and we feel sure that he has before 
him a bright and useful future. 


Prof. E. Johnson, of Raleigh, N. C, now a teacher 
in the law department of Shaw University, has written 
the only school history now in use in Colored schools 
which makes any reference to what Colored people 
have done. I feel that Mr. Johnson did a grand work 
to get his book into the public schools of North Caro 
lina, and I only wish such books could be in use in all 
Colored schools, for all over this country, Colored 
children are being taught out of books which make 
no reference whatever to what progress has been 
made by the race. It is very hard to stimulate race 
pride without race information. 

Among Colored People. 


PROF. H. T. KEALING, B. S., A. M. 

The present editor of the A. M. E. Cl lurch Review, 
who takes Dr. Coppin s place, is indeed a unique 
character and has filled some important positions 
as an educator and writer. He was elected Assistant 
Principal of Prairie View State Normal School of 

PROF. H. T. KEALING, B. S., A. M. 

Texas in 1883. While here he attracted much atten 
tion throughout the country by an impromptu speech 
before the National Educational Association in To- 

374 Evidences of Progress 

peka, Kan., which the New England Journal of Educa 
tion pronounced the brightest and wittiest piece of ora 
tory in the whole session. He contributed in 1886 
to The Century Magazine, of New York, for which 
he was well paid. He at one time was supervisor 
of the Colored schools in Austin, Tex. The posi 
tion was created by the board for him. I know of 
no other such case. For four years he was Presi 
dent of Paul Quinn College at Waco, Tex. While 
there he added several new features to its curricu 
lum. During his vacations he spent his time in the 
South and Northwest as a lecturer, and is now 
known as one of the best platform speakers in the 
country regardless of color. His lecture, " The 
American Jonah," is unique, witty, forcible, and a 
popular favorite. As an editor he has had some 
experience before and has been a regular contributor 
to Inter-Ocean, N. E. Journal of Education, Texas 
School Journal, Galvcston News, and many other 
leading papers of the country. I am sure the A. 
M. E. Review has fallen into good hands. Mr. 
Kealing was elected to his present position in May, 
1896, at Wilmington, N. C. 


whose book of poems brought forth high praise from 
the Hoosier poet, James Whitcomb Reilly. His book 
also attracted the attention of William Dean Howell 
who wrote a splendid review of it in Harper s Maga 
zine, in which he said, " Mr. Dunbar s poems have 
giyen me a much higher estimate of the Negro." 



I SHALL not attempt to give a history of the various 
denominations with which the colored people are 
identified. I simply desire to set forth a few facts 
which indicate that they have, by vigorous efforts, 
made the same wonderful progress along church 
lines that they have along educational, industrial and 
professional lines. 

The colored people are represented in nearly every 
denomination known in the United States. 

The Baptists, Congregationalists, Episcopalians, 
Methodists Episcopal, African Methodists Episcopal, 
African Methodists Episcopal Zion, Colored Metho 
dists Episcopal, Congregational Methodists Episco 
pal, the Presbyterians, and other denominations are 
very well supported by the colored people, and the 
church work has been a great help to the race since 

I cannot give the amount of space to this phase of 
the so-called Negro problem that it deserves ; but ir 
order that my readers may get some idea of the 
development of the race along religious lines, I offer 
here a brief sketch of the Bethel A. M. E. Church, 
of Philadelphia, Pa., for this is a fair representation 
of church work among the colored people throughout 
the United States. And what is said of Bethel will 


Evidences of Progress 

apply to all other denominations in proportion to 
their membership. 


In November, 1787, the colored people belonging 
to the Methodist Society of Philadelphia (St. 
George s) convened together, in order to take into 
consideration the evils under which thev labored, 


growing out of the unkind treatment of their white 
brethren, who considered them a nuisance in the 
house of worship, and even pulled them off their 
knees while in the act of prayer and ordered them 
to the back seats. 

For these and various other acts of unchristian 
conduct, they considered it their duty to devise plans 
to build a house of their own, that they might wor- 

Among Colored People. 377 

ship God under their own vine and fig-tree unmo 

The causes which produced Bethel were race 
prejudice on the one hand and an innate desire of 
the heart for religious liberty and determination on 
the other to be content with nothing less than an 
opportunity for the exercise of the fullest Christian 
manhood in the house of God. 

Hence the organization in 1787 (November) of 
Bethel Society, the oldest colored church organiza 
tion in America. In 1793, Richard Allen, a preacher 
and leading spirit among his brethren, proposed the 
erection of a house of worship on his own ground, 
at his own expense, which being acceded to by his 
brethren, the first church edifice was erected on 
the present site of Bethel, Sixth street below Pine, 
Philadelphia, Pa., which house of worship was duly 
consecrated and opened for divine service by Francis 
Asbury, the then Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, at the invitation of Richard Allen. And 
the house was named Bethel notwithstanding the 
severest persecutions at the hands of their white 
brethren for a number of years. Bethel continued 
to grow in usefulness and influence, both locally and 
generally. So that in the year 1816 the spirit of 
Allen and his coadjutors had become so powerful 
that the hour was ripe for the organization of a con 
nection to carry on the work everywhere so well 
begun by Bethel in Philadelphia. 

Rev. Richard Allen now became to the connection 
what he had been for twenty-five years to Bethel* 

37 8 Evidences of Progress 

the acknowledged and honored leader, as the first 
Bishop of the connection, Bethel remaining the 
pivotal centre, around which the spirit of religious 
liberty and Christian manhood revolved ; ever ex 
tending its influence until, like in the family, all over 
the connection it came to be known and called by 
the endearing name of " Mother Bethel." 


This first Bethel served to meet the demands of 
the growing congregation up to 1841, when it was 
found expedient to rebuild, and June 2, 1841, the 
corner-stone of the Second Bethel Church was for 
mally laid with appropriate ceremonies by Rt. Rev. 
Morris Brown, the acting Bishop, Bishop Allen 

Colored People. 


having died in 1831. This church was completed in 
the following year at a cost of $14,000, the first 
church having been valued at about $10,000. 


Projected and Built under the Pastorate of Rev. C. T. 
Shaffer, M. D., D. D. 

A most remarkable feature of this church has 
been, that notwithstanding the fact that Union, Little 
Wesley (now Murray Chapel), Zion Chapel, and finally 
Allen Chapel, were all colonies from this church, 
all of which are now flourishing organizations, 

3^ Evidences of Progress 

Bethel has maintained such a hold on the community 
as to carry a congregation commensurate with the 
capacity of the building, through the century of her 
history, and for more than half a century sustained 
a membership ranging from 1,500 to 1,600 strong. 

For some years the congregation, and especially 
the more advanced thinkers, had felt the necessity of 
a new church, the old one being both unsightly 
and unsafe, though no practical efforts had been 
put forth in that direction until 1889. 

The Rev. C. T. Shaffer, M. D., was appointed to 
the pastorate of Bethel, May, 1888. He at once set 
about unifying and organizing, for the purpose of 
rebuilding. He soon had plans laid, the church in 
spired with larger hope, so that the people had a 
mind to work. And, during his first year, had struck a 
blow for the new Bethel by conducting a rally, the 
money being banked for the building. 

On his return from Conference, and entering his 
second year, on the first Sunday of June, he held 
another rally, the last service in the old Bethel. The 
next Sabbath worship was held in Horticultural Hall, 
on Broad street, adjoining the Academy of Music. 
The old Bethel was torn down, and, on August 8, 1889, 
at 9:15 A. M., ground was broken for the new build 
ing, excavations made, and on November 7, 1889, 
the corner-stone of the new Bethel was laid, with 
imposing ceremonies, by the Rt. Rev. H. M. Turner, 
D. D., LL. D., assisted by the pastor, C. T. Shaffer, 
D. D., and associate pastors of the city and vicinity, 
from which time there was hardly a day lost by the. 

Among- Colored People. 381 

workmen until the church was completed, which was 


REV. C. T. SHAFFER, M. D., D. D. 

done and formally dedicated to the worship of 
Almighty God, October 23, 1890, and a congregation 

382 Evidences of Progress 

equal to the capacity of the new Bethel returned to 
continue the worship of God on this sacred spot 
which they have held in undisputed possession for 
one hundred and three years as a church site, and the 
first piece of ground ever bought, and now held for 
church purposes, by colored people in the United 
States, and on which three churches have been 
erected by the congregation: the first in 1793; the 
second in 1841-2; and the third in 1889-90. This 
building is heated throughout with steam, and is one 
of the most completely modern in all its appointments, 
solid and massive in construction, of this great city 
of churches, and has not a superior in the whole 
connection of which it is the mother. 

The cost of this building was about $50,000 and it 
is valued to-day at $85,000. 

The Revs. W. H. Heard, D. D.. Consul General to 
Liberia, and W. D. Cook, D. D., have served with 
marked success as pastors since the erection of the 
New Bethel, and the Rev. Theo. Gould, who served 
this church very successfully twenty years ago, is its 
present pastor. 

The connection of which this church is the mother 
has fourteen Bishops, eleven general secretaries of de 
partments, 4,365 itinerants, and 15,885 local preach 
ers, full membership, 543,604, probationers, 35,287; 
total membership, 599,141. Church edifices, 4,575, 
valuation, $8,650,155; parsonages, 1,650, value, 
$75,950; schools, colleges and universities, 41, value 
of buildings and grounds, $756,475 ; grand total 
valuation of property, $9,482,580. 

Among Colored People. 383 

What hath God not wrought ! 

Is not this the fulfilment of that prophecy, "And 
Ethiopia shall stretch forth her hand unto God? " 

Verily it would seem so. 

Dr. C T. Shaffer, the builder of Bethel Church, 
has a very interesting history. I am only sorry that 
space will not admit of a full account of his life. 
He is a splendid type of manhood that shows what 
can be done by push and energy. Dr. Shaffer is a 
native of Ohio ; in his younger days he learned and 
worked at the plastering trade and in that way earned 
money enough to educate himself and a younger 
sister. He graduated at Berea College. He also 
had the honor of serving his country as a soldier in 
our late war. As a pastor, he has held the largest 
and best appointments in the connection. While he 
was pastor of different churches in Philadelphia, he 
took advantage of the opportunity and read medicine, 
graduating with honor in a class of 208 in 1888 from 
the Jefferson Medical College, Phila. He has 
never engaged in the practice of his profession, 
although it would pay him far better than church 
work, but he feels called upon to serve his church. 
At the present time he is general corresponding 
secretary and treasurer of the church extension 
department. This department of church work he 
created and has been twice elected to fill his present 

Before closing this chapter I wish to mention the 
names of the general officers of the A. M. E., 
Church, in order that my readers who may not be 
familiar with the great work of the " African Metho- 

384 Evidences of Progress 

dist Episcopal Church" may form some idea what a 
work is being done, also a better knowledge of the 
men who stand at the head of the connection. I 
only wish I had the space to give a short history of 
each of the men whose names will be mentioned. 
To begin with, the church has fourteen Bishops, who 
are all able men, and we head our list with the 
senior Bishop, H. M. Turner, D. D., LL. D., who is 
a native of South Carolina. He was never a slave. I 
regard Bishop Turner as one of the most remarkable 
men I have ever met. He was the first colored man 
appointed a commissioned officer by President 
Lincoln, his appointment was as Chaplain of the 
First United States Infantry during the late war. 
When mustered out he was recommissioned a Chaplain 
in the regular service of the United States Army by 
President Johnson. He has been a member of the 
Georgia Constitutional Convention, and has served 
two terms as a member of the Georgia Legislature, 
was twice appointed to positions of honor by Presi 
dent Grant. He now represents the Liberian Gov 
ernment in the United States. He at one time was 
the manager of the publishing department of the 
A. M. E. Church, and was consecrated a Bishop in 
1880. So it is very easy to see that Bishop Turner 
has led a busy and useful life. I have been person 
ally acquainted with the Bishop for years, and I am 
only one of thousands who know him to love him. 
In the State of Georgia, where Bishop Turner 
resides, I found him very much thought of by the 
leading white people. 

Among Colored People. 385 

Bishop W. J. Gaines, D.D., is a native of Georgia and 
at one time was owned by that famous Toombs family. 
His first work in the church was in a very humble 
way, that of member. As a preacher he did a great 
deal for the church in Georgia. He wrote a book 
on African Methodism in the South that was both 
interesting and useful. It was through the efforts of 
Bishop Gaines that Morris Brown College was estab 
lished at Atlanta. He was elected as Bishop in 1888, 

Bishop B. W. Arnett, D. D., is a native of Penn 
sylvania and is entirely a self-made man. He, like 
Bishop Turner, has held some high positions of 
honor. He was at one time a member of the Ohio 
Legislature and while serving his district in that 
capacity he introduced a bill, known as the Arnett 
Bill, that wiped out the old and infamous black laws 
that were a disgrace to the State of Ohio. Just 
before he was elected Bishop in 1888, he served the 
church as financial secretary. He is the father of 
several very intelligent sons. Is also very active in 
Christian Endeavor work. 

Bishop B. T. Tanner, D. D., is also a native of 
Pennsylvania. He began life as a barber, and has 
held every position from lay member up to the 
Bishopric. He was editor of the A. M. E. Review, 
and at one time editor of the Recorder, the church 
organ. Bishop Tanner was elected in 1888 as 
Bishop. Few men in this country have been harder 
students than Bishop Tanner ; he has a magnificent 
library, and one can see at once that he has taken 

386 Evidences of Progress 

advantage of his fine collection of books, and is 
regarded by the connection a very able man. 
- Bishop A. Grant, D.D., is a native of Florida and was 
born a slave and, what makes this man more remark 
able, was born in an ox-cart, while his poor mother 
was being taken from one plantation to another 
where she had been sold. Some men are bor.n to 
lead others, and it would seem that Bishop Grant 
was one of them. I have never met any man who 
had such a magnetic influence over his hearers. I 
had the pleasure of being present at the A. M. E. 
Missionary Jubilee held at Ocean Grove, July 24th, 
1896, when the Bishop presided, and his address to 
the thousands who heard it was a gem. He was 
elected Bishop in 1888. 

Bishop M. B. Salter, D.D., was elected to the Bishop 
ric in 1892. He is a native of South Carolina, and he 
too was born a slave. His owner was a watch 
maker, and he taught the trade to Mr. Salter when 
he was a young man ; that of course made him a 
valuable piece of property. And when freedom 
came it was a great blessing to Mr. Salter to have a 
trade. Bishop Salter grew in the church from the 
walks of a member up to the Bishopric, and is much 
loved by men under him. 

Bishop Jas. A. Handy, D. D., was elected Bishop 
in 1892. He is a native of Maryland, and I am told 
never had any schooling except what he got in night 
school. He is regarded as a very able man, and is 
a great lover of education. He at one time repre 
sented the church as its financial secretary, and when 

Among Colored People. 387 

in the ministry was pastor of some of the largest 
churches in the connection. 

Bishop B. F. Lee, D. D., is a native of New Jersey. 
He went when a young man to Wilberforce Univer 
sity, Ohio, to obtain an education, but being poor, he 
had to work his way through. In thirteen years 
from the time he went there as a student he was 
elected President of the University. He was for 
quite a number of years editor of the Christian 
Recorder. Bishop Lee was made a Bishop in 1892 
and I am sure the church never did a better thing 
for its interest than to elect him. He is not only a 
Christian, but a magnificent scholar. 

Bishop J. C. Embry, D. D., who was elected as Bis 
hop in 1896, was one of the most profound scholars in 
the church. For twelve years he managed the A. 
M. E. Book Concern in Philadelphia, Pa. He only 
lived about two years after his election. 

Bishop J. H. Armstrong, D. D., was elected as 
Bishop in 1896. For four years he had filled the 
office of financial secretary with great credit to him 
self. He lived about three years after his election. 

Bishop W. B. Derrick, D. D., was elected Bishop 
in 1896 by a very large vote. For eight years he 
had been secretary of Missions. Dr. Derrick was 
known far and wide as a powerful orator, and has 
been associated in great meetings with some of our 
greatest white leaders. I give here a beautiful trib 
ute he paid to the American flag, on one occasion. 

"The American flag has been washed, and 
cleansed from the foul stain of Negro slavery until 

388 Evidences of Progress 

it is to-day among the most beautiful of national 
emblems. The stars represent the stars of heaven; 
the blue the sky; the white a higher Christian civili 
zation; the red the blood of the various nationalities 
who fought to make the principles of the Republic 
more lofty and enduring. It is our purpose to con 
tinue agitating until beneath its silken folds shall 
stand as equals before the law the inventive German, 
the wily and industrious Irishman, the trafficking 
and cunning Jew, the musical and wandering Italian, 
the polite Frenchman, the hospitable and tenacious 
Englishman, the granite-minded and scholarly Scotch 
man, the pagan Chinese, the unconquered Indian, 
and last, but not least, the industrious, kind-hearted 
and forgiving Negro." 

Bishop Evans Tyree, D. D., was elected as Bishop 
in 1900. He was born Aug. 19, 1854, of slave 
parents, and was twice sold as a slave. His educa 
tion was received at Central Tennessee College. 
Bishop Tyree never held a general office before his 
election as Bishop. He received a very large vote 
in fact the largest ever given any one man. 

Bishop M. M. Moore, D. D., was elected to the 
bishopric in 1900. For four years he had served the 
church as financial secretary. He was a native of 
Georgia. He was elected Bishop in May, 1900, and 
died in November of the same year. 

Bishop Charles S. Smith, D. D., who is a native of 
Canada, was elected as Bishop in 1900. He was for 
seventeen years manager of the Sunday-School 
Union, a department of church work he created. 

Among Colored People. 389 

As a scholar he is regarded as one of the best in this 

Bishop C. T. Shaffer, M. D., D. D., was elected as 
Bishop in 1900. He had been for eight years secre 
tary of the church extension department. Splendid 
mention of Bishop Shaffer will be found on page 
383 of this book. 

Bishop L. J. Coppin, D. D., who was for eight 
years editor of the A. M. E. Church Review, was 
elected as Bishop in 1900. Mention of his life and 
work can be found on page 359 of this book. 

Rev. H. B. Parks, who is a very able man and was 
for years a prominent pastor, is now secretary of 
the missionary department. 

Rev. J. H. Collett, D. D., is now business man 
ager of the A. M. E. Publishing House, 631 Pine 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. E. W. Lampton is secretary of the financial 
department of the church located at Washington, 
D. C. 

Prof. John R. Hawkins, A. M., secretary of edu 
cation, is mentioned on page 132 of this book. 

Rev. W. D. Chappelle, D. D., of South Carolina, 
is secretary of the Sunday-School Union, at Nashville, 

Rev. H. T. Johnson, D. D., Ph. D., editor of the 
Chistian Recorder, is mentioned on page 356. 

Prof. H. T. Kealing, editor of the A. M. E. Church 
Review i is mentioned on page 373. 

Rev. G. E. Taylor is editor of the Southern Chris 
tian Record, located at Atlanta, Ga. 

3QO Evidences of Progress 

Rev. John T. Jenifer, D. D., is Secretary of the 
Preachers Aid Society, located at Baltimore, Md. I 
regret that, for want of space, I am not able to give 
a more extensive account of the general officers, who 
are all worthy men, and most of them have been 
prominent pastors, holding charge of some of the 
largest churches in the connection. 

The next largest body of Methodists among Col 
ored people is the A. M. E. Zion Church, which is 
organized on the same principle as the A. M. E. 
Church, with an able force of Bishops. They also 
have a publishing department, located at Char 
lotte, N. C 

Bishop J. W. Hood, D. D., stands as the lead 
ing spirit of the Zion connection. He has done a 
great work for the church and the race at large. He 
is the author of two books, in the way of a book of 
Sermons and a history of the Zion Church. 

Bishop C. R. Harris, D. D., is a graduate and was, 
before his election to the Bishopric, connected with 
educational work at Livingstone College, also gen 
eral steward of the Zion Church. 

Bishop C. C. Petty, D. D., is also a graduate and 
before he was made Bishop was one of the leading 

Bishop I. C. Clinton, of South Carolina, has been 
one of the most useful men in the connection as 
a church builder and organizer. 

Bishop A. Walters, D. D., was, when elected, the 
youngest Bishop in the country. He is a very 

Among Colored People. 391 

energetic and hard worker for the cause of his 

Bishop T. H. Lomax, of N. C, is also known as a 
church builder. At their last General Conference at 
Mobile, Ala., in May, 1896, they elected three new 
Bishops in the persons of Rev. George W. Clinton, 
D. D., Rev. J. B. Small, D. D., and Rev. J. Holliday. 

Rev. Clinton I have known for years, and I 
regard him by far one of the ablest men in the con 
nection, both as a speaker and writer. 

Rev. J. B. Small is one of the best scholars in the 
country, and should have been a Bishop long ago. 

William Howard Day, who is mentioned in another 
part of my book, is their financial secretary, and Rev. 
J. W. Smith, also mentioned, is editor of the Star 
of Zion. 

Bishop J. W. Alstork was elected as Bishop at the 
last General Conference, held by the A. M. E. Zion 
Church in 1900, at Washington, D. C. Rev. Alstork 
is regarded an able man. 



THE Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and 
Training School was organized during the month of 
July, 1895, through the earnest effort of Dr. N. F 
Mossell. Its purpose is to give larger opportunities 
for the training of colored girls as nurses, this class 
of learners in this profession being to a large extent 
excluded from the other training schools in Phila 
delphia. Girls of no race will be debarred from the 
course of training offered in this hospital. This in 
stitution is open to all without regard to race or 

The building is located at 1512 Lombard street. 
The money necessary to equip and furnish the building 
has been raised through the efforts of the management 
and four lady auxiliaries. The special need of the work 
at the present time is support for free beds. The hos 
pital has been in operation four months, and its suc 
cess up to the present date (April, 1896) shows both 
the feasibility and necessity for its establishment. The 
class of nurses in training are progressing in efficiency. 
There have been admitted a number of cases that 
have been successfully treated. 

The wards are light and airy, and are equipped 
with the most recent appliances for hospital work; 

Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School. 


394 Evidences of Progress 

they are entirely aseptic, the furniture consisting of 
enamelled iron and glass ; the walls and floors have 
been properly treated to preserve this condition, the 
operating room is a perfect gem. The out-patient 
department is thoroughly equipped for the various 
clinics. The drainage, plumbing and ventilation are 
of the best. One fact worthy of notice is the hearty 
co-operation in the work shown by both the best 
elements of colored and white citizens, through con 
tributions and subscriptions, also by the patronage 
of all entertainments given for the benefit of the hos 
pital. Desiring to receive patients from all parts of 
the country, the management feel that, as the work is 
not localized, the support should not be, and in many 
cases friends at a distance have shown their kindly 
interest by liberal donations. As the hospital stands, 
it offers a notable proof of self-reliance and self- 
sacrificing devotion. 

Mr. Jacob C. White, the able principal of the 
Robert Vaux School, is President of the Board of 
Management ; Mr. S. J. M. Brock, Vice-president ; 
Mr. Henry M. Minton, Secretary ; S. B. Henry, Esq., 
Treasurer; N. F. Mossell, M. D., Chief of Staff; Miss 
Minnie M. Clemens, Head Nurse and Matron ; A. A. 
Mossell, Esq., Solicitor. 

Medical Staff Consulting Surgeons : John B. 
Deaver, M. D., Thos. S. K. Morton, M. D. ; Consult 
ing Physicians : James Tyson, M. D., Roland G. 
Curtin, M. D. ; Consulting Gynecologists : B. F. Baer, 
M. D., Hannah T. Croasdale, M. D. ; Attending Sur 
geons : J. P. Tunis, M. D., N. F. Mossell, M. D, ; 

Among" Colored People. 395 

Attending Physicians: E. C. Howard, M. D., Wm. H. 
Warrick, M. D., James T. Potter, M. D. ; Attending 
Gynecologists : Caroline V. Anderson, M. D., Theo. 
A. Erck, M. D. ; Assistants : George R. Hilton, M. D., 
D. W. Ogden, M. D. ; Ophthalmogist, H. F. Han- 
sell, M. D. ; Pathologist, A. A. Stevens, M. D. ; 
Dermatologist, J. Abbott Cantrell, M. D. ; Dental 
Surgeon, Wm. A. Jackson, D. D. S. ; Pharmacist, 
Henry M. Minton, Ph. G. 

The first benefit for the hospital was given February 
26, 1896, at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia, with 
the " Black Patti " as the star. The ticket-selling on 
this occasion broke the record for concerts given at 
the Academy. Amount raised, over $3,000; amount 
cleared, $ 1, 600. This institution is without doubt the 
greatest memorial yet established in honor of that 
great friend of humanity, Frederick Douglass. 


Dr. N. F. Mossell, of Philadelphia, was born in 
Hamilton, Canada, in July, 1856. He entered Lin 
coln University in 1874, graduating in 1879 with 
honor, delivering the philosophical oration and re 
ceiving the Bradley medal for excellence in physical 
sciences. In the fall of 1879 he entered the Medical 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania, being 
the first colored student to enter that department of 
the University. And after bearing the taunts and 
scoffs of his fellow-students during the first year, 
he won their confidence and respect and at gradua 
tion was photographed with his class. His grade 

39^ Evidences of Progress 

was sufficient at graduation to call forth the following 
comment from Dr. James Tyson, Secretary of the 
Faculty, and the same appeared in the Medical News 
of May 20, 1882. 

" Dr. Mossell had graduated with an average 

N. F. MOSSELL, A. M., M. D. 

higher than three-fourths of his class " the com 
ment being called forth during a discussion as to the 
necessity for separate colleges for colored students. 
He was the first colored member admitted to the 

Among Colored Peoph. 397 

Philadelphia County Medical Society, February, 
1888. He has for a number of years secured sup 
port for from one to two students in the Medical 
Department of the University. The appointment of 
Mrs. Minnie Hogan, the first and only colored 
graduate of the University Hospital, was secured by 
Dr. Mossell. Since his graduation he has built up 
a lucrative practice. 

He has systematized the beneficial departments 
of the various secret orders of which he is a member. 

He is deservedly one of the most popular men 
among his race in the city. His watchword, enun 
ciated in one of his addresses, while yet a stripling 
student in the college, was then and is yet, " He who 
spares his toil spares his honor." 


Mr. Jacob C. White, the president of the Board of 
Directors of the Frederick Douglass Memorial 
Hospital and Training School, is better known to 
the colored people of Philadelphia as the " pioneer 

From the year of his graduation from the Insti 
tute for Colored Youth, in 1856, Jacob C. White, Jr., 
has been continuously engaged as a school teacher, 
his nearly forty years of service having been spent 
in two schools. For thirty years he has been priir 
cipal of the Robert Vaux School, and in that posi 
tion has won the highest esteem of all connected 
with public school work. 

Mr. White comes of one of the oldest and best- 

Evidences of Progress 

known colored families in Pennsylvania. His 
maternal great grandfather, one of the Bustil family, 
which intermarried with Lenni Lenape Indians, was 
a baker in Washington s army. His grandparents 


were all Philadelphians, and his father was secretary 
of the very first organized society of the famous 
* Underground Railroad," which aided slaves to 
escape to Canada. Robert Purvis was president of 

Among Colored People. 399 

the organization. As a lad young Jacob assisted in 
caring for the fugitives, who came here in a wretched 
condition, and he tells many an interesting story of 
those who sought escape from slavery, a score of 
whom would be hidden at one time in the garret of 
his father s house. 

Mr. White has always been actively identi 
fied with movements for the betterment of the 
colored people. He is a member of the Teachers 
Institute, Annuity and Aid Association, Educational 
Club and the Teachers Beneficial Association. 


Dr. Daniel H. Williams, one of the best physi 
cians in this country, white or colored, of Chicago, 
111., now of Washington, D. C, was born January 
18, 1858, at Hollidaysburg, Pa. He attended the 
Janesville, Wis., High School, and was graduated 
from Janesville Classical Academy in 1878. Com 
menced the study of medicine at Janesville in 1880, 
under Surgeon-General Henry Palmer; attended 
three courses of lectures at Chicago Medical College, 
from which he was graduated March 28, 1883, his 
education having been obtained through his own 
exertions, his parents being unable to render finan 
cial assistance. In May, 1883, he located per 
manently in the practice of medicine in Chicago. 

Dr. Williams is a member of the American Medi 
cal Association ; Illinois State Medical Society ; 
Chicago Medical Society; Ninth International Medi 
cal Congress. He was a surgeon to South Side 

4-OO Evidences of Progress 

Dispensary, Chicago, 1884-92 ; surgeon to Provi 
dent Hospital, 1890-93; physician to Protestant 
Orphan Asylum, 1884-93; member of Illinois 
State Board of Health, 1889; reappointed in 1891. 


He is also a member of the Hamilton Club, of 
Chicago. Was appointed surgeon in charge to the 
Freedmen s Hospital, Washington, D. C, February 
15. 1894. 

Among Colored People. 401 


Provident Hospital, Chicago, was instituted in 
January, 1891, by a few gentlemen of that city, 
who saw the need of an opening for colored physi- 
cians, as well as for colored women. At that time 
there was not a hospital in the United States that 
admitted colored men as resident physicians or 
internes. There was no place, in fact, that a colored 
man could get a good practical experience so neces 
sary for the proper equipment of the young men in the 
practice of medicine and surgery ; as well to colored 
women, there were no institutions where they could 
be admitted into the higher scientific work of nurs 
ing. There may have been one or two exceptions 
in which persons of very light color, who could not 
possibly be detected, were admitted into one or two 
of the Eastern institutions for the higher education 
of women as nurses. 

Each year, Provident Hospital has graduated a 
class of ladies who have scattered themselves through 
out the United States ; and in every instance they 
are succeeding and doing commendable work, demon 
strating at once the necessity of opening a field of 
usefulness to colored women who are debarred from 
every avenue of employment on account of color. 

Provident Hospital, since its inception, has been 
blessed in having as its supporters sincere and honest 
helpers, white and colored, in Chicago. It has done, 
already, a good work, and is on the road to prosperity. 
In March, 1896, ground was broken for the erection 

Evidences of Progress 

of a new building, the like of which will not be seen 
anywhere in the West. Fifty thousand dollars has 
been donated by a philanthropic gentleman, in 
Chicago, for the erection of the building, his only 
request being that his name be not mentioned. This 
building is to be erected in the southern part of the 
city, and with all the modern improvements. Another 
gentleman, Mr. H. H. Kohlsaat, one of the persistent 
and faithful friends of the colored people in this 
country, gave the ground on which the building is 
to be erected. Mr. George H. Webster, the partner 
of Mr. Armour, of Chicago, and a member of the 
Board of Trustees, is a sincere and sympathetic 
friend of the colored people in their efforts to upbuild 
and maintain Provident Hospital. The gentlemen 
composing the Board of Trustees, a mixed board of 
Chicago s prominent citizens, are untiring in their 
endeavors to promote the interests of the institution. 


Within the past eighteen months, Freedmen s Hos 
pital, Washington, D. C., has been entirely reorgan 
ized. In the fall of 1894 the reorganization began 
by instituting a training school for nurses. A com 
petent superintendent was had, and reorganization, 
reform and improvement went hand in hand until the 
present time. Now, there is a training school of 
forty nurses, all colored, selected from hundreds of 
applicants and from every State in the Union. The 
work of the training school is commended by every 
one who takes the trouble to study it. Marked 

Among Colored People. 43 

change in every department of the institution was 
manifested by the advent of these intelligent women, 
who brought new life and a new future to the hos 
pital. Instead of remaining a political institution, it 
was converted, at once, into a scientific institution for 
the education and upbuilding of the more progressive 
members who have selected this as their life-work. 
You cannot overestimate the good that will come 
from the education of the young men and women in 
this institution. 

In connection with other features, a corps of 
internes has been added. These are young graduates 
of medical colleges who are giving a service of twelve 
months of practical work in the several departments 
of the hospital. At the expiration of this service, 
they receive certificates which commend them at 
once to the people in the communities in which they 
are to reside. 

In keeping with other lines of progress, an ambu 
lance, with all the modern improvements, has been 
added to the service within the last year. This 
ambulance is complete in all its appointments, with 
the quickest emergency service to any part of the 
city. This feature of hospital work is one that has 
been neglected by colored people in this country, 
and one which they are particularly adapted to suc 
ceed in. 

It is a marvel to the observer of human affairs 
that this institution has existed, for over twenty 
years, receiving an annual appropriation of over fifty 
thousand dollars, without an ambulance in its service, 

44 Evidences of Progress. 

in a city like Washington, where a great many of 
the people are poor and depend upon charity in cases 
of sickness and distress. This ambulance makes as 
many as sixty or seventy-five emergency calls per 
month, furnishing a rich field of surgical study to 
the internes and nurses in the institution. 

I have given in this sketch but a brief outline of 
the noble work of Dr. Williams. I can testify to his 
ability as a physician, and I take great pleasure in so 
doing. He is one of the cultured and polished 
gentlemen who reflect credit on the race. 


The Home for Aged and Infirm Colored Persons, 
in West Philadelphia, Pa., is one of the best institu 
tions of the character in the United States. The 
society, under whose auspices the home was founded, 
was organized September 28, 1864, in a private 
dwelling on South Front street. 

The first Board of Managers and principal pro 
moters of this most noble charity was composed of 
Friends and colored persons, whose circumstances 
gave them the confidence of and influence in the 
community, and was elected in the month of No 
vember, 1864, whose names are as follows: Officers; 
Dellwyn Parrish, President; Stephen Smith, Vice- 
President; Marcellus Balderson, Secretary; Samuel 
R. Shipley, Treasurer; William J. Alston, William 
Still, William H. Bacon, Abram Fields, Joshua 
Brown, Maurice Hall, Israel H. Johnson, Joseph M. 
Truman, Jr., Henry Gorden, Clayton Miller, Jacob Co 

406 Evidences of Progress 

White, Sr., and John S. Hills. Female members : 
Sarah M. Douglas, Helen Johnson, Rachel T. Jack 
son, Anna M. Laws, Catharine M. Shipley, Priscilla 
H. Heniszey, Sarah Parrish, Mary Jeanes, Eliza 
Harris, Alice Hudson, Grace Mapes and Mary 

The original constitution was adopted on the 25th 
day of the tenth month (October), 1864, the pre 
amble of which most clearly reveals the noble im 
pulses and sentiments which burned upon the altar 
of these noble hearts, and actuated this noble band 
of true disciples of the blessed Christ to such splen 
did deeds. 

The preamble reads as follows : " For the relief 
of that worthy class of colored persons who have 
endeavored through life to maintain themselves, but 
who from various causes are finally dependent on 
the charity of others, an association is hereby organ 
ized under the name of The Home for Aged and 
Infirm Colored Persons. " 

The number of persons admitted to the home 
within the first thirteen months, or up to the twelfth 
month, 1865, was (21) twenty-one, and all women, 
representing the States of New Jersey, Delaware, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Massachusetts, 
South Carolina, West Indies and far-away Africa ; 
their ages ranging from (70) seventy to (102) one 
hundred and two years, which clearly indicates how 
nobly they had struggled on in the race of life 
against all odds. 

The receipts for the establishment and mainten- 

Among Colored People. 


ance of the home during the first fiscal year were 

The work of the home was conducted in the house 
at 340 South Front street until 1871, when, through 
the munificence of Rev. Stephen Smith and his wife, 
colored persons of considerable means, one acre of 
ground on the corner of Girard avenue and Belmont 


avenue was given the Board, together with a magnifi 
cent four-story brick building, valued at $40,000. 
The inmates of the home on Front street moved to 
West Philadelphia. This building was opened June 
29, 1871, since which time it has stood there as an 
ornament to the city and an enduring and fitting 
monument to the memory of its noble donors, and 

408 Evidences of Progress 

with ever-widening influence, power and helpfulness, 
standing for and fulfilling all that is involved in the 
term " Home " for that worthy and deserving class 
of Aged and Infirm Colored Men and Women. 

Mr. Edward T. Parker, of Philadelphia, who died 
October 3d, 1887, gave $85,000 to the institution 
for the purpose of erecting the annex to the old 
building. Additions have been made to the home 
in recent years at a cost of $85,000, thus making 
the entire plant cost upward of $150,000, with ca 
pacity for the maintainance of a family of near 200 
persons, and giving us a home at once the most 
complete, extensive and far-reaching in its benefits 
of any institution of its kind in the city, and for the 
class whom it is designed to bless, possibly in the 
world. The total number cared for by the home 
has been: men, 116; women, 427; total, 543, while 
the present number in the home is 138; or the 
whole family, help and all, 160; the maintenance 
of which requires an expenditure monthly of from 
$1,500 to $1,600, or near $20,000 per annum. With 
the enlarged facilities come greatly increased de 
mands and largely increased outlays. 

The chief need now, therefore, is more means, 
that the Home may always be able to extend the 
hand of help to worthy applicants, and comfortably 
maintain this large and most interesting family of 
worthy aged and infirm colored persons, up to the 
full capacity of the building to accommodate. 

This noble charity has been supported largely by 
members of the Society of Friends, they constituting 

Among Colored People. 


the principal portion of the Board of Managers. Yet 
the colored people themselves have contributed to 


this institution between $175,000 and $2OO,OOO since 
its establishment. 

410 Evidences of Progress. 

The present Board of Management consists of six 
teen men and fifteen women, with a co-operative com 
mittee of nineteen women, all of whom are most 
earnest and self-sacrificing in behalf of the Home and 
the family of old people. 

Officers of the corporation are : Wm. Still, 244 
South Twelfth street, President ; Joseph M. Truman, 
1500 Race st., Vice Pres. ; Walter Penn Shipley, 
404 Girard Building, Treas. ; Thos. H. McCollin, 
1030 Arch st, Secty. ; C. T. Shaffer, M. D., 1821 
Carnac st, Chairman of Board of Managers. 

Communications addressed to any one of the above- 
named gentlemen will receive prompt, courteous, and 
careful attention. 



As a splendid type of noble womanhood I know 
of no better subject than Dr. Hallie Tanner Johnson. 


She is a daughter of Bishop B. T. Tanner, of the 
A. M. E. Church, who is justly proud of her. 

4.12 Evidences of Progress 

Not only as teachers have colored women labored 
for the race, but they can be found in most of the 
professions also. The subject in question saw and 
felt the need of lady physicians, and, acting upon her 
feelings in the matter, she read medicine at the 
Women s Medical College in Philadelphia, and grad 
uated with high honor. There being an opening at 
Tuskegee Institute for a resident physician, Dr. 
Johnson went to fill the place. But before she could 
practise medicine in the State of Alabama, she had 
to stand an examination before a State Board of 
Examiners. She has the distinction of being the 
first lady, white or colored, to receive a certificate to 
practise medicine in the State of Alabama. It is 
with the greatest regret that I call my readers atten 
tion to the fact that since the first edition of my book 
came out Dr. Johnson has passed away. She died 
at her home in Nashville, Tenn. 

There are other interesting characters among col 
ored ladies who have read and are now engaged in 
the practice of medicine, one of whom is Dr. Caro 
line V. Anderson, of Philadelphia. Her experience 
has been very interesting and useful, for her practice 
has, been about evenly divided between white and 
colored people, and among the whites she has been 
called into some of the very best families. I re 
gard Mrs. Anderson as one of the most intellectual 
women I have ever met. She is a daughter of Mr. 
William Still, who wrote that most interesting book, 
"The Underground Railroad." 

Among the earliest to graduate as lady physicians 

Among Colored People. 413 

from the Women s Medical College, of New York, 
is Dr. Susan McKinney. 

Dr. Alice Woodby McKane has lately organized 
a nurses training school, at Savannah, Ga. Dr. 
Georgia L. Patton, who is a graduate of Meharry 
Medical College, now enjoys a good practice at 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Miss L. C. Fleming, who worked for five years in 
the Congo, has just finished her medical course at 
the Women s Medical College of Philadelphia, and, 
I am told, returned to Africa. 

Dr. S. B. Jones, who is a graduate of the University 
of Michigan, and has done good work as the Resi 
dent Physician at Spelman Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., 
and since had a splendid practice at St. Louis, Mo., 
is successful. 

Colored women have also gone into the practice 
of dentistry. 

In the profession of law we have three colored 
ladies who have graduated. Mrs. Mary Shadd Cary, 
of Washington, D. C. ; Miss Florence Ray, of New 
York; and Miss Ida Platt, of Chicago. The first 
named is well known as a brilliant speaker. Miss 
Ida B. Platt is the only representative of the race 
now practising at the bar. 

I have found quite a number of colored women 
engaged in various branches of business. At St. 
Johns, New Brunswick, Mrs. Georgia Whetzell con 
trols the entire ice business of that city, giving em 
ployment to 75 men each winter, packing ice. 

At Milford, Del, I found Miss Serrenna Palmer, 

Evidences of Progress 

who began business in 1889 with a cash capital of 
$7, which she invested in notions. She has had 
wonderful success, and in addition to a good-sized 
stock of goods she has paid for two houses. 

Among the highly cultured and brilliant women 
of America I present here a portrait of Mrs. Victoria 


Earle Matthews, who has done grand service for the 
race as President of the Women s Loyal Union, of 
New York and Brooklyn. Mrs. Matthews began 
life in Georgia as a slave, but came North when quite 
young, and made the very best of her educational 

Among Colored People. 415 

Mrs. Matthews is now doing a splendid work in 
what is known as the White Rose Mission, which 
was the outcome of a desire on the part of a few 
Christian women to create sympathy and practical 
interest in the isolated condition of the Afro-Ameri 
can wpman and girl in New York City. At the 
urgent solicitation of Rev. H. G. Miller, of Mt. Tabor 
Presbyterian Church, the neighborhood surrounding 
East 9/th Street was decided upon as a basis of 
.wojrk. Mr. Winthrop E. Phelps offered free use of 
rooms for a year. A small company of Afro-Amer 
ican women volunteered regular service. and contri 
butions of furniture. For more than eighteen months 
it Ijias successfully conducted Neighborhood Visiting, 
Mothers and Young People s Meetings, also classes 
in (Sewing, Dressmaking, Cooking, and Kindergarten. 

While I am making mention of a few writers, I 
wijl call your attention to Mrs. Frances Ellen Wat- 
kins Harper, who has been a writer of ability for 
many years. She is also a well-known temperance 
wqrker, and at one time had charge of the colored 
work for the W. C. T. U. among colored women. 
THe literary effort of her life is the beautiful story, 
entitled, " lola Leroy ; or, The Shadows Uplifted." 

This book is indeed a gem and should be read by 
every one. I am confident if such books written by 
Colored writers c;ould be read by the leading White 
people of our country, much good might be done in 
breaking down the awful t prejudice which now exists. 
Her book receivetj many very fine press comments 
from the leading White papers of this country; for 
yvant of ( space.,j can,, only, give one: 


Evidences of Progress 

"The story of * lola Leroy is well worth reading. 
The plot is natural and the characters are to be 
found in everyday life. The dialogue is exceedingly 
clever, full of pathos, humor, and authentic. The 
plot covers periods before, during, and after the war, 
and gives abundant opportunity for changing scenes 


and dramatic effects. Mrs. Harper has never written 
to better effect nor with a more worthy object in 
view. The book will greatly increase her popularity 
as a writer and prove vastly beneficial to the cause 
of her brethren." Public Ledger, Philadelphia. 

The Chicago Inter-Ocean, New York Independent, 

Among Colored People. 417 

Daily Evening Telegraph, Philadelphia, and Boston 
Herald all spoke in the highest praise of " lola 

Oberlin College, in Oberlin, Ohio, has turned out 
quite a number of colored graduates who have done 
good work for humanity. Among them is Mrs. A 
J. Cooper, who is connected with the High School at 
Washington, D. C. I wish to speak more especially 
of her book, "A Voice From the South," by a black 
woman of the South. It is just what Mrs. Mossell 
says "One of the finest contributions yet made 
toward the solution of the Negro problem." One 
gets in reading her book a sense of her strong intel 
lectual and spiritual power. As an educated woman 
we have none better, white or colored. I have had, 
for some time, a picture of Mrs. Cooper in my illus 
trated lecture on " Race Progress," and while I was 
in England her face created quite an interest among 
the cultured people who attended the lectures. 

Mrs. N. F. Mossell is a native of Philadelphia, 
Penna. She is an ex-pupil of the Robert Vaux 
Grammar School. Since her sixteenth year she has 
been a constant contributor to the Christian Recorder, 
Standard Echo, and other journals at a later date. 
As editor of the Women s Departments of the 
New York Age and the Indianapolis World, Mrs. 
Mossell became widely known. Becoming the wife 
of Dr. N. F. Mossell, during the year 1880, she as 
sisted him for two years in the publication of the 
Alumni Magazine. For seven years she worked on 


Evidences of Progress 

three of the most influential dailies in Philadelphia, 
The Press, Times, and Inquirer. 
Some of her best literary efforts have appeared in 



A. M. E. Review, A. M. E. Zwn Review, Our Women 
and CJdldren, and Ringsivood s Magazine. In the 
past year Mrs. Mossell has been the editor of the 
" Open Court," an ably-edited department of the 
Woman s Era. 

" The Work of The Afro-American Woman," 
her first attempt at authorship, was given an excep 
tionally kindly reception. An edition of 1,000 copies 
was soon exhausted. Many of the finest comments 
ever received by any race author fell to the happy 

Among Colored People. 419 

lot of this lady. Such journals as the New York 
Independent, CJiicago Inter- Ocean and Springfield 
Republican spoke in high terms of her publication. 

A talented young woman, and a noteworthy 
representative of the educated, cultured and refined 
class of colored women in the United States to-day, 
is Miss Alice Ruth Moore, of New Orleans, La. 

As a gifted author, Miss Moore is entitled to un- 


usual consideration, while her versatility in other 
directions proves that she is a worthy type of pro 
gressive womanhood. 

426 Evidences of Progress 

She was a quick, apt scholar during her school 
days, and developed such talent for composition 
that she was encouraged to devote special attention 
to English literature and the classics, and to what 
end her efforts in this direction were expended is 
plainly noticeable in the excellence of her style of 
Writing. The warmth and vigor of imagination 
which characterizes all of her writings, inspires and 
helps one to appreciate the true joys of an ever- 
varying and fluctuating life. 

The colored race has produced some very sweet 
singers. I shall name a few of them in this chapter. 
Many of my readers will remember the " Original 
Fisk Jubilee Singers," who created such wide interest 
in all sections of this country and in Europe. Among 
the ladies were Miss Maggie Porter-Cole, who is still 
singing, and Miss Jennie De Hart Jackson, who has 
retired. Among those of more recent date I would 
mention Madame Selika, who has appeared in all of 
the principal cities of the world ; Madame Sisseretta 
Jones, who has just returned from an extensive trip 
through Europe ; Miss Bessie Lee, of Philadelphia, 
who has a very sweet voice, and Miss Jennie Robin 
son Stewart, who comes of a musical family. While 
I was attending the World s Fair in Chicago, I met, 
for the first time, Gertrude Hawkins. I have heard 
many singers, but a sweeter voice I have never heard. 

I have left until the last Madam Flora Batson Ber 
gen, because I want to present a picture of her, and 
make special mention of her work as a singer. Some 
singers render a class of music either in some foreign 

Among Colored People. 


language, or else give us music that is on such a high 
plane that ordinary people can not understand it. But 
Madam Bergen gives us the old songs we heard when 
we were children, and she sings them in such a way 
as to reach our very souls. 

On Thursday, March 19, 1896, the funeral service 


of Rev. R. H. Stitt, one of our young men who had 
just passed away, was held in A. M. E. Zion Church, 
Philadelphia. Madam Bergen sang two selections on 

422 Evidences of Progress 

that occasion, and never will I forget the impression 
made upon me by her sweet voice. She sang "No 
Tears in Heaven." That may be true. But there 
were plenty of tears shed by that audience while slu 
was singing the song. I am positive that all of these 
great singers must be a help to the race in educating 
white people up to a better knowledge of what the 
race can do. It might be well at this point to call 
attention to the elocutionists of the race. I feel that 
some day they must play a prominent part in the 
dramatic world. In a small way, they have done that 
already, among themselves. . 

In 1893, Miss Henrietta Vinton Davis organized a 
colored company in Chicago, and produced " Dessa- 
lines," a play written by William Edgar Easton, of 
Texas, a bright young colored man. While the pro 
duction in some ways was crude, I am sure that when 
we take into consideration how great were the disad 
vantages under which Miss Davis had to labor, I feel 
that the general verdict would be in her favor. 
Among those who took part in the play was Miss 
Fannie Hall, of Chicago, who is without question a 
fine dramatic reader, and who should, by all means, 
be kept more prominently before the public. 

One of the first colored ladies to take up elocution 
as a profession was Miss Hallie Quinn Brown, who 
is well known and admired throughout the United 
States. Miss Brown has great powers in winning 
friends, and great control over an audience. For 
several years she spent her time in England. I had 
the pleasure of being present at her first entertain- 

Among Colored People. 423 

went in London after her arrival. She has had the 
distinction of displaying her talent to a greater num 
ber of white people than any other colored lady of 
her calling. 

Mrs. Florida D. Carr, of Savannah, Ga., has made 
a splendid reputation as an elocutionist. She is a 
graduate of the New England Conservatory of 
Music and Elocution. I was very much impressed 
with her power as a reader. Mrs. Carr has a wonder 
ful voice and perfect control of it in both humorous 
and pathetic selections. 

In Atlanta, Ga., my attention was called to Mrs. 
Carrie Steel Logan, who began a home for orphan 
children a few years ago; I think in 1889. She 
started in a miserable little hut with some five 
fatherless and motherless children. At first it was 
hard to get any help from either the colored or white 
people. But right will, as a rule, prevail, and so it 
proved in this case, for now I am told that there 
is not a colored church in Atlanta that does not give 
something to support this Home. The city gave her 
four acres of ground a short while ago, on which has 
been erected a fine brick house. When I visited the 
Home in 1894 there were fifty-three children being 
cared for in this institution. Mrs. Logan visits 
the merchants of Atlanta from time to time, and by 
these visits procures provisions enough to help in the 
support of these children. 

Mrs. Lucy Thurman, from Jackson, Mich., who has 
given the best part of her life to temperance work, is 
now managing the work among the colored people. 
As a public speaker she ranks among the best. 

424 Evidences of Progress 

Mrs. Julia Ringwood Coston, who published 
Ringwoods Journal, which took the place in a way 
of The Ladies Home Journal, is one of the re 
markable literary women of the race. 

Mrs. Harvey Johnson, of Baltimore, has written 
two very useful books, which have been published by 
the American Baptist Publication Society, one called 
" Clarence and Corinne," and the other, " The Hazeley 
Family." Both were regarded as especially adapted 
to Sunday-school purposes. 

Her husband, Rev. Harvey Johnson, said, in speak 
ing of his wife s ability: "I can t understand how 
she does it, but although she has the care of this 
house, and does a great deal of her own work, she 
in some way finds time to write." And I could add 
that what she writes is of the very best quality. 

When referring to the women who have made 
a name for themselves in the musical world, 
I failed to call attention to Mrs. E. Lyons, of New 
York, who delights the people of New York with her 
sweet voice. She has just organized a quartette of 
young colored ladies, which is the only one of the 
kind in the country. 

Philadelphia, Pa., can boast of a few colored ladies 
who are engaged in large business enterprises, 
namely : Mrs. Henry Jones, whose husband in his 
life was a large and successful, caterer. At his death, 
instead of her giving up the work, she went on with 
it, and although she is quite an elderly lady now, 
she is still actively engaged in the business. In her 

Among Colored People. 425 

case I am sure it is genuine enterprise, for I am told 
her husband left ample means for the support of the 

There are two very successful lady undertakers in 
Philadelphia, in the persons of Mrs. Henrietta Du- 
terte and Mrs. Addison Foster. Mrs. Duterte is the 
oldest colored undertaker in the city. Mrs. Foster, 
who is a younger woman, and for that reason more 
active, is doing a very large business. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Rails, who has been engaged in 
mission work in Philadelphia, and who organized the 
Sarah Allen Mission and Faith Home, is worthy of 
special mention ; not because she is wealthy or 
highly intellectual, but because she has a heart full 
of love for God and humanity. Every year she 
serves a Christmas dinner to the poor. At some of 
these dinners over 500 poor colored men and women 
have been present. 

Among the lady writers who are doing good work 
in general I invite your attention to a publication called 
Light and Love, a journal for Home and Foreign 
Missions, published by Mrs. Lida Lowry and Mrs. 
Emma Ranson. These two ladies are regarded as 
very energetic and useful workers in the " Mite Mis 
sionary Society of the A. M. E. Church." 

The great work that is being done for the elevation 
of the colored people by the untiring workers, such as 
Mrs. Victoria Matthews, Mrs. Booker T. Washington 
and Mrs. Libbie C. Anthony, and others, who are 
leaders in what is known as the Federation of Afro- 
American Women. The object of this organization 

426 Evidences of Progress 

is the " concentration of the dormant energies of the 
women of the Afro-American race into one broad 
band of sisterhood ; for the purpose of establishing 
needed reforms, and the practical encouragement of 
all efforts being put forth by various agencies, re 
ligious, educational, ethical and otherwise, for the 
upbuilding, ennobling and advancement of the race ; 
(2) To awaken the women of the race to the great 
need of systematic effort in home making and the 
divinely imposed duties of motherhood. 

The need of rescue work among our people by 
our women. The establishment of Christian homes 
and asylums for our fallen and wayward. 

The separate car law. 

Prison reform. 

The plantation woman and child. 

The John Brown Memorial Association. 

The proposed international exposition in Paris, 
1900; the part Afro-American women should take. 

The need of a National Afro-American woman s 

Plans for raising necessary money and securing 
necessary support for the same. 

How can the National Federation of Afro-Ameri 
can Women be made to serve the best interests and 
needs of our women ? 

The strength of this new national organization, 
even while yet in its infancy, gives encouragement 
of its ultimate power among the people it represents. 
The roll now includes fifty organizations, the average 
number composing a local organization being seventy- 

Among Colored People. 427 

five members, many of the clubs having on roll as 
many as 250 names. 

Mrs. Booker T. Washington, wife of that great 
educator, has a very interesting history. She is a 
Southern-born woman, having first seen the light of 
day at Macon, Miss., in 1865. She is truly a self- 
made woman, the story of her life and struggles to 
attain intellectual life being full of pathetic interest. 
A mere outline is inadequate to do justice to the 
heroic efforts that have placed her to-day as one of 
the prominent women of her race. One of a large 
family, of which the mother was bread-winner, her 
father having died when she was a small child, she 
would have had no opportunity for education had 
she not through her own exertions created for her 
self a way into the school life. Until her graduation 
from the Fisk University she gave her own labor in 
payment of board and tuition, gaining spending 
money through services rendered teachers and pupils 
and by teaching at fifteen, it can be readily seen 
that all the usual pleasures of youth were sacrificed 
in the cause of education. Her experience as a 
teacher well fitted her to accept the offer that came to 
her on graduating, of a place in the faculty of 
Tuskegee Institute. She immediately entered upon 
her duties there, and at the time of her marriage to 
the principal of the institution, she was lady prin 
cipal. Appreciating her own struggles, she stands, 
it is said, as a changeless friend to every girl working 
her way through school. 

She is one of the leading spirits of this grand or- 

428 Evidences of Progress. 

ganization that is destined to do wonders for the 
colored people as a race. She was succeeded as 
president by Mrs. Mary C. Terrell, whose portrait is 
given and of whom mention is made in connection 
with school work in Washington in another part of 
this book. 


Mrs. M. E. Stewart, of Louisville, Ky., is the wife 
of Wm. H. Stewart, who is editor of the American 
Baptist. Mrs. Stewart is a very intelligent and refined 
lady, and one of the most useful women in the State. 
She is an accomplished musician, having completed a 
course in the National Music School of Chicago. 
For many years she has had charge of the musical 
department of State University in Louisville, and has 
made an enviable record as an instructor. Her 
pupils are among the most accomplished musicians 
of the young people. At the meetings of the 
National Baptist Convention, of which she is a mem 
ber, her services are always in demand, as she is an 
expert performer on the pipe organ. For a number 
of years she has been organist of the 5th St. Baptist 
Church, and has the record of never being tardy nor 
absent. She is a leading member and officer of the 
Baptist Women s Educational Convention of Ken 
tucky. Mrs. Stewart s home life is beautiful and her 
children show the influence of a refined and cultured 



Dr. John R. Francis is distinctly a product of 


Washington, D. C, having first seen the light of day 
in that city. He is the only son of one of the city s 



Evidences of Progress 

most worthy citizens, Richard Francis, his mother 
being Mrs. Mary E. Francis. He has been loyal to 
his place of birth, having remained constantly there 
except during his absence in other states in the pur 
suit of his education. His early school days were 
spent in the private and public schools of the Dis 
trict of Columbia; his academic education was re 
ceived at Wesleyan academy at Wilbraham, Mass- 

His professional course 
was taken at the Univer 
sity of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Mich., where he 
graduated with high hon 
ors in the class of 1878, 
which class is noted for 
the fact that some of its 
members are the most dis 
tinguished scientists of 
the world to day. His 
career since graduation 
has been that of the typ 
ical doctor. He has devo 
ted his time and energy 
during that period to the 
relief of suffering human 
ity. With Dr. Francis it has not been a mercenary 
pursuit, but the relief of the wounded and sick has 
always been his first thought when called upon. 
Indeed his career has been such that he has been in 
variably sought by the people of Washington as a 
most desirable person to assume the several respon- 



Among Colored People. 431 

sible positions that have fallen to him. He has served 
that city and the colored people faithfully, and has 
done most excellent service in the many offices of 
trust and honor which he has held. Among his 
works we find that individuality and originality of 
thought and action which is doing so much at the 
present time to draw, to the colored citizens of this 
country, the attention of the civilized world, and to 
command its respect for the former s intellectual abil 
ity and skill to cope with the other American citizens 
in the upbuilding of the government and the de 
velopment of its grand institution. 

As a member of the school board of the District 
of Columbia Dr. Francis was very progressive, and 
equally as aggressive in his attempt to bring about 
the many needed reforms in the public schools of 
that city. Although having done much good, on 
account of the lack of support by the colored citi 
zens, being ahead of the times as they saw it, he re 
signed his position on the board because he saw the 
impossibility of accomplishing the desired good and 
securing for them the many benefits it was possible 
to gain at that time. His strengthening of the 
teaching ability of the Washington High School and 
his improvement of the Normal school, with the sub 
sequent retrogressions is but a fair example of his 
good work and the difficulties he had to overcome. 

While acting surgeon-in-chief of Freedmen s Hos 
pital during the several months illness of the surgeon- 
in-chief, he instituted reforms there in the conduct of 
its professional workings, notably the surgical and 


Evidences of Progress 

obstetrical department ; in the management of ward 
work and the installment of the present training 
school for nurses, which his characteristic modesty 

has kept from the outside world and for which he has 
never been given credit. 

He is now obstetrician to the Freedmen s Hospital 

Among Colored People. 


and demonstrator and clinical lecturer of obstetrics in 
the medical department of Howard University. 

One of his most worthy contributions, however, 
to the District of Columbia and to the professional 
ability and business tact of the colored man is the 


Evidences of Progress. 

Francis Sanatorium at 2112 Pennsylvania Ave., N. 
W., Washington, D. C. 

This institution is established for the care of sick 

persons whose home environments, as is well known, 
so often prevent proper treatment and rapid convale 
scence. The object is to guarantee to such persons 

Among Colored People. 435 

the careful scientific treatment of the hospital com 
bined with the comforts of home. 

Any physician in good standing is permitted to 
enter and treat here proper cases, from his private 
practice, the compensation being as usual, a matter 
of agreement between himself and his patient. In 
such cases a fee is charged only for room, board, 
nursing, ordinary medicine, and any assistance by 
Dr. Francis which may be desired. 

A corps of trained nurses is constantly on hand by 
day and night. 

No insane, contagious or other objectionable cases 

All surgical operations will be charged for accord 
ing to agreement made, in advance. 

Trained nurses are furnished, any hour of the day 
or night, to families in the city where such services 
are needed. 

This institution is conspicuous in being the only 
place of its kind in the United States, established, 
owned and managed by a colored man. Indeed we 
believe it is the only one in the world. 

The works of this man are a credit to any com 
munity in which they exist, and we advise the youth 
of to-day to imitate the example of Dr. John R. 



IN this chapter I wish to mention the school-work 
done for the race by the United Presbyterian Church. 
This matter should have appeared with the other 
Presbyterian work, but for the fact that I was unable 
to secure the data when the first edition was pub 
lished. I shall also mention in this chapter some 
other school-work that came too late. 


Knoxville College is located at Knoxville, Tenn., 
and is under the control of the Board of Missions to 
the Freedmen of the United Presbyterian Church of 
North America. By arrangement with the Univer 
sity of Tennessee the college is also the industrial 
department of the university for colored students. 
For this purpose the university has added largely to 
the equipment of the agricultural department and 
mechanical department, provides for the salaries of 
the professors of these departments, and sets aside 
$600 annually to pay for the labor of students in 
these departments. Thus they are enabled to earn 
somewhat of their expenses, and especially is each 
one taught a trade. Aside from the funds received 
43 6 

Among Colored People. 437 

from the university as indicated above, the college 
is supported by voluntary contributions of the church. 

The faculty of the college, including matrons and 
instructors in the industrial department, numbers 
twenty-five. The president of the college is Rev. 
R. W. McGranahan, D. D., who has been in that 
position since 1899, succeeding at that time Dr. J. 
S. McCulloch, who had served the institution as 
president for twenty-two years. 

Knoxville stands for the most thorough training 
possible in an intellectual way, and at the same time 
provides for the most helpful industrial training. It 
is in hearty sympathy with all efforts to teach the 
trades to the colored people, and is maintaining a 
thorough industrial department for that purpose. At 
the same time the literary standard is not lowered 
one whit, but is being constantly elevated. The 
courses of study offered are classical, scientific, 
theological, normal and common school. The 
industrial department offers training in agriculture, 
carpentering, electrical work, printing, sewing and 

The college occupies a commanding site on one 
of the hills made historic by the siege of Knoxville 
during the Civil War. The buildings consist of a 
recitation hall, McCulloch Hall (boys dormitory), 
Elnathan Hall (girls dormitory), boys home, girls 
home, mechanical building, heating plant, president s 
cottage and barn. Its property is valued at $1 10,000. 

The work the college is doing is best seen in the 
lives of those who have gone out from it. 

43 8 Evidences of Progress 

profession of teaching claims the larger number; 
but these, for the most part, do not confine their 
efforts to one profession, but teach, both by example 
and precept, some manual art farming, sewing, 
printing, or some other useful occupation. 


Located at Norfolk, Virginia, is under the manage 
ment of the United Presbyterian Church. Rev. Wm. 
M Kirahan, is Principal at this time, and has under 
him an able body of teachers. The teachers em 
ployed are both white and colored. 

The wisdom of the Board of Freedmen s Missions 
of the United Presbyterian Church in the location 
of one of its Schools in Norfolk is easy of vindica 
tion. In behalf of the Mission College appeal may 
confidently be made both to its supporters in the 
North and its patrons in the South. Nearly ten 
thousand colored children of school age have their 
homes within a radius of four miles of its walls. 
Two-thirds of these are not in any school. 

A good Normal course is given there, and an In 
dustrial training is given in sewing, garment-making 
and fancy work for girls. 

Boys are taught the trade of printing. That de 
partment gives employment to 28 pupils for a short 
time each day. The training given here includes the 
application of the rules of grammar and rhetoric as 
well as instruction in composition and press-work. 
Several of the boys who spent some time in this de- 

Among Colored People. 439 

partment are now employed as compositors on one 
of the city papers. 

The graduates of the Mission College number 
one hundred and thirty-four. Nearly all are usefully 
employed. More than half are teachers. A good 
number are in colleges and professional schools re 
ceiving further preparation for life s work. 


Thyne Institute is located at Chase City, Va., on 
the Richmond and Danville Railroad. The location 
is one of the most beautiful in South Side Virginia. 

The buildings are four in number, and are fitted up 
in modern style. Every appliance necessary for suc 
cessful school-work has been provided. 

The aim of the officers of the Institute is to edu 
cate the students along lines tending to fit them for 
life s work in the home, in society, as teachers in the 
public schools, and as religious instructors. The 
moral, mental, and industrial are united. 

Rev. J. M. Moore, A.M., Ph.D., is Principal, with 
an able body of teachers. The course taught there 
is Normal, and they have a fine Industrial Home for 
girls, where they are taught all kinds of housework. 
The school is under the control of the United Pres 
byterian Church. 


The Henderson Normal Institute, located at 
Henderson, N. C, is a school established and con 
ducted to afford the colored people an opportunity 

44 Evidences of Progress 

of obtaining a good education. It is a part of the 
missionary work of the United Presbyterian Church, 
which has always taken a deep interest in the welfare 
of the colored race. Having opposed slavery as a 
principle, it was natural that as soon as slavery was 
abolished, this church should show its interest in the 
future of the freedmen by doing what it could for their 
moral and intellectual development. The members 
of the church in the North have given freely of .their 
means to support the work and to afford the colored 
people an opportunity of rising and enjoying the 
blessings and advantages which God has opened to 
all in this free land. The United Presbyterian Church 
gives each year nearly $50,000 in money, besides 
many contributions in other forms, to carry on the 
work it has undertaken for the colored people. 

Rev. C. L. McCracken, A.M , is Principal, and is 
assisted by able teachers. 

The course of study embraces the ordinary Eng 
lish branches from the primary to the high school 
and normal grade. 

For four years a sewing department has been 
maintained in connection with the school. The 
purpose of this department is to teach all the girls 
in the school to do plain sewing, and to cut and 
make their own garments. A competent teacher 
gives her whole time to this department, and from 
1 2O to 156 girls, in six classes, receive instruction 
.nearly one hour each day. During the year many 
hundred garments are made, and these are sold to 
the pupils for less than the cost of the materials. 

Among Colored People, 441 

An industrial department has been added for the 
boys. The colored people are making rapid progress 
in knowledge, and taking a more intelligent interest 
in business and politics. In consequence they are 
beginning to publish their own papers; and each 
year the papers published by them and in their 
interest will increase. 

In addition to the schools just mentioned, the 
United Presbyterian Church has some smaller schools 
in other parts of the South, as follows : 

At Blue Stone, Va., with an attendance of about 
2OO pupils. One at Athens, Tenn., with nearly 200 
pupils, and at Miller s Ferry, N. C., of over 2OO 
students. One at Prairie Bluff, Ala., of about 200, 
and at Camden, Ala., of 200. One at Canton Bend, 
Ala., of 50, and one at Summerfield, Ala., of nearly 

The data given regarding these schools will 
enable my readers to see that the United Presbyte 
rian Church is doing its share in educating the 
colored people. 


The institute is located in a beautiful grove of 
oaks, a mile from Boydton, Mecklenburg County, Va. 
The Atlantic and Danville Railroad passes through 
the town of Boydton. President, Mrs. Lucretia A. 
Cullis, Boston, Mass. ; Principal, Rev. D. F. Lam- 
son ; Associate Principal, Mrs. H. B. Sharpe ; Treas 
urer, Miss Mary H. Ware. 

In 1878, the "Randolph Macon " property, con- 

442 Evidences of Progress 

sisting of a four-story brick college building, steward s 
house, and about 425 acres of land, was purchased 
by Dr. Charles Cullis, of Boston, Mass., with funds 
donated for the purpose. It was regularly incor 
porated as a branch of the " Faith Work," and a 
school for colored people immediately opened. The 
college building has a chapel, school-rooms, and 
library, with sleeping-rooms for more than one 
hundred students. The dormitories have fire-places, 
which enable the students to be 1 comfortable in the 
coldest weather. 

This institute is intended for the education of 
colored young men and women, who wish to fit 
themselves for usefulness among their own people. 

In addition to the common English branches, 
provision is made for classes in English Literature, 
Rhetoric, Civil Government, and the Theory and 
Practice of Teaching. The principal also gives 
instruction in Bible History and Interpretation, in 
Theology and in Evangelistic and Pastoral work. 
Special attention will be given to the needs of post 
graduates and of ministers. 


The Christiansburg Industrial Institute, at Cam 
bria, Va., is supported by the Friends Freedmen 
Association of Philadelphia, and is situated in the 
southwestern part of Virginia, in the town of Cam- 

Among Colored People. 443 

bria, on the Norfolk and Western Railroad. The 
location is healthful and quiet. 

For the sake of pure, moral and religious training, 
which is so much needed by both boys and girls, the 
boarding department has been established. Students 
living at a distance can secure board, room furnished, 
fuel and lights, for $7.50 per month, 

The design of this institution is to send out young 
men and women well qualified for the great work of 
life; young men and women who will lead the way 
to the highest usefulness. To send forth such a 
class of students it will be necessary to train their 
heads as well as their hearts, and their hands as well 
as their heads. 

We are certain that at this institute a good English 
course of study and the most needed industries can 
be carried on without conflict, and to a very great 
advantage to all who may attend the school. 

The prime object of this institution, aside from the 
literary training, is to put within the hands of each 
young man and woman some industry by which 
they will be able to secure a livelihood in the world. 

It -will be modeled after the Tuskegee Industrial 
Institute at Tuskegee, Ala., and the Friends are 
advancing every effort to put it practically on the 
same basis. 

There are no industries from which can be obtained 
such profitable and immediate results as those of 
scientific agriculture, stock-raising, fruit-growing, 
mattress-making, carpentry, wheelwrighting, black- 

444 Evidences of Progress 

smithing, dressmaking, printing, and methodical 
cooking and housekeeping. 

The Friends Freedmen Association of Philadel 
phia have placed the Christiansburg Industrial 
Institute for the coming year under the supervision 
of the officers of the Tuskegee Industrial Institute, 
Tuskegee, Ala., which gives Booker T. Washington 
a general oversight of that work. 



THE Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute 
first opened its doors for the reception of the freed- 
men in April, 1868. Of its beginning and purpose, 
General Armstrong, its founder and for twenty-five 
years its principal, writes : 

"Two and a half years service with the Negro sol 
diers (after a year as Captain and Major in the 1 25th 
New York Volunteers), as Lieutenant-Colonel and 
Colonel of the Ninth and Eighth Regiments of U. S. 

o o 

Colored Troops, convinced me of the excellent quali 
ties and capacities of the freedmen. Their quick re 
sponse to good treatment and to discipline was a 
constant surprise. Their tidiness, devotion to their 
duty and their leaders, their dash and daring in battle, 
and ambition to improve often studying their spell 
ing books under fire showed that slavery was a 
false, though doubtless, for the time being, an educa 
tive condition, and that they deserved as good a 
chance as any people. 

"In March, 1866, I was placed by General O. O. 
Howard, Commissioner of the Freedmen s Bureau, 
in charge of ten counties in Eastern Virginia, with 
headquarters at Hampton, the great contraband 
camp, to manage Negro affairs and adjust, if possible, 
the relation of the races. 



Evidences of Progress 

" I soon felt the fitness of this historic and strategic 
spot for a permanent and great educational work. 
The suggestion was cordially received by the Ameri 

can Missionary Association, which authorized the 
purchase, in June, 1867, of Little Scotland, an es 
tate of 125 acres on Hampton River, looking out 

Among Colored People. 447 

over Hampton Roads. Not expecting to have 
charge, but only to help, I was surprised, one day, 
by a letter from Secretary E. P. Smith, of the A. M. 
A., stating that the man selected for the place had 
declined, and asking me if I could take it. I replied, 
4 Yes. Till then my own future had been blind ; 
it had only been clear that there was a work to be 
done for the ex-slaves and where and how it should 
be done. 

"A day-dream of the Hampton School, nearly as it 
is, had come to me during the war a few times ; once 
in camp during the siege of Richmond, and once one 
beautiful evening on the Gulf of Mexico, while on 
the wheel-house of the transport steamship Illinois, 
enroute for Texas with the 25th Army Corps (Negro) 
for frontier duty on the Rio Grande River, whither it 
had been ordered, under General Sheridan, to watch 
and if necessary defeat Maximilian in his attempted 
conquest of Mexico. 

" The thincf to be done was clear: to train selected 


Negro youth who should go out and teach and lead 
their people, first by example by getting land and 
homes ; to give them not a dollar that they could 
earn for themselves ; to teach respect for labor ; to re 
place stupid drudgery with skilled hands ; and. to these 
ends, to build up an industrial system, for the sake 
not only of self-support and intelligent labor, but also 
for the sake of character. And it seemed equally 
clear that the people of the country would support a 
wise work for the freedmen." 

Thus, under a man of the broadest views and al- 


Evidences of Progress 

most prophetic foresight, the school had its begin 
ning. Xvvo teachers and fifteen students found living 

room and class room in the dismantled mansion, the 
old brick mill and the newer barracks, relics of the 
slavery days and of the civil war. At the end of the 

Among Colored People. 


school s twenty-fifth year Gen. Armstrong died, see 
ing, as it is given to few to see, great and tangible 

results from his years of self-sacrificing labor. Since. 
his death, the work has been carried on by Rev. H 


45 6 Evidences of Progress 

B. Frissell, D. D., who has taken up with wisdom 
and courage the task laid upon him and has a record 
behind him now of five years, during which the in 
stitution has shown steady growth and improvement. 

At the beginning of the present year there were on 
the grounds 1,001 students; of these 135 are Indians 
representing ten States and Territories ; 361 are chil 
dren coming from the immediate neighborhood, who 
are instructed in the Whittier Primary School. There 
are 630 boarders 383 boys and 247 girls. Of the 
eighty officers, teachers, and assistants, about one- 
half are in the industrial department. 

Instead of the old barracks, there are now over 
fifty-five buildings, including dormitories, academic 
and science buildings, a large trade school, domestic 
science and agricultural buildings, a beautiful church, 
a large saw-mill and shops where students help to 
earn their board and clothes and receive instruction 
in blacksmithing, wheelwrighting, painting, house 
building, cabinet-making, upholstery, shoemaking, 
tailoring, harness-making, printing, and engineering. 
Two large farms with greenhouses, barns, and experi 
ment stations give employment to students and in 
struction in agriculture. The laundry, dining-rooms, 
kitchens, and sewing-rooms give employment to the 
girls, and in them they receive instruction in sewing, 
dressmaking, laundering, and other branches which 
fit them to instruct their people in these lines. All 
the domestic work of the place is performed by the 
students. The average age of the pupils is nineteen 

Among- Colored People. 



Evidences of Progress 

In 1870 this institution was chartered by special 
act of the General Assembly of Virginia. It is not 
owned or controlled by State or government, but by a 

Board of seventeen Trustees, representing different 
sections of the country, and six religious denomina 
tions, no one of which has a majority. The school 
now has a property worth over $600,000, free from 

Among Colored People. 453 

debt, and an endowment fund of over a half-million. 
It receives aid through the State of Virginia for its 
agricultural work and from the general government 
toward the board and clothes of Indians, but it is 
obliged to appeal to the public for $8o,OOO a year. 

The Slater Fund Board makes a generous yearly 
appropriation toward its trade-school work, and help 
is received from the Peabody Fund, but the school 
depends for the large part of its yearly expenses upon 
charitable contributions. 

Twenty-five years ago the imperative need of the 
Negro was teachers in the country public schools of 
the South, who could show the people by example, 
as well as by precept, how to live, how to get land 
and build decent houses. This need still remains, 
but, with the improvement of the colored racs, more 
thoroughly equipped teachers are necessary, not only 
for the public schools, but for the workshops, and 
for the industrial and agricultural schools that have 
started up all through the South and among the 
Indians of the West. To meet this need Hampton 
provides an Academic Department with a corps of 
able teachers, mostly graduates of normal schools 
and colleges, who give thorough instruction in the 

o o o 

English branches. Beside this, manual training is 
given to the boys, and sewing, cooking, and bench 
work to the girls. Those of the boys who show ap 
titude for trades in the manual training classes can 
receive thorough instruction in the Trade School, a 
building costing $50,000 and especially adapted to 
the work. Competent instruction in carpentry, wood 


Evidences of Progress 

turning, cabinet-making, bricklaying, plastering, 
wheelwrighting, blacksmithing, painting, machine 

work, and mechanical drawing carry students through 
a systematic course in their different departments. 

Among Colored People. 


fitting them to be teachers of trades. Chance is also 


given to do actual work in the sixteen productive 
industries on the school grounds. 

Those of the girls who wish trades can be admit 
ted into the Domestic Science Department where they 

456 Evidences of Progress 

are fitted to be teachers of sewing, cooking, and 
laundering, with an opportunity to do actual work in 
the school s laundry and kitchen. 

All students of the school receive instruction in 
agriculture, but those who wish to devote themselves 
especially to it can receive special instruction in the 
Agricultural Department, with experiments in the 
laboratory and practical work upon the school s two 

Those who wish to fit themselves to become teach 
ers in the public schools, after graduation from the 
Academic Department, enter the Normal Department, 
where they receive instruction in methods of teach 
ing, and have practice in the Whittier School, in 
which there are over three hundred children, with 
kindergarten and classes in cooking, gymnastics, 
and the English branches. 

The boys are formed into a battalion under the 
.Commandant of Cadets, a graduate of the school, 
from whom they receive military drill and gymnastic 
training. A United States officer from Fort Monroe 
assists in this work. The care of persons, quarters, 
and grounds are largely under the care of the offi 
cers of the school battalion. The girls are similarly 
organized under their matrons and are instructed in 
habits and manners. 

The school is non-sectarian but earnestly Chris 
tian. Careful instruction in the Bible is given by 
teachers representing different denominations. The 
Chaplain is assisted by the clergymen of Hampton 
in the religious work of the school. 

Among Colored People. 457 

Six thousand young people of the Negro and In 
dian races have had the advantages of the school s 
training and gone out as teachers, farmers, and busi- 


ness men, to lift their people to a higher level. 
Nearly 1,000 have graduated from the school s Aca 
demic Department, and of these 90 per cent, have be- 

458 Evidences of Progress 

conic teachers. The great majority have gone into 
the public schools. Whole counties have been 
transformed by their work. Homes, churches, and 
schools have been built, land purchased, and the 
morals of the community improved. 

Booker T. Washington, a graduate of Hampton, 
founded the Tuskegee School in Alabama, and over 
forty other graduates have gone to help him in his 
work. Schools at Calhoun and Mt. Meigs, Alabama, 
Kittrell, North Carolina, Lawrenceville and Glou 
cester, Virginia, are established on the Hampton 
plan and carried on by graduates of the school. 
Under the teachers who have gone out from Hamp 
ton and its offshoots more than I5O,O OO children have 
received instruction. Of the 500 Indians who have 
been trained at Hampton, 87 per cent, are engaged 
as teachers, farmers, missionaries, and in other 
regular occupations. Twenty years ago, Capt. Pratt 
brought fifteen prisoners of war from Fort Marion, 
St. Augustine, to Hampton and remained there one 
year, bringing in the meantime other Indians from 
the West. So successful was that first experiment 
in industrial education that Carlisle School was es 
tablished and now hundreds of thousands of dollars, 
which were formerly devoted to fighting the Indians, 
are given by the government to training their chil 
dren in industrial schools. 

Hampton has given an impetus to industrial edu 
cation among the Negroes which is felt in every 
State of the South. But 75 per cent, of the race still 
live in one-room cabins on rented land, in ignorance 

Among Colored People. 


and poverty. Teachers of agriculture and home 
builders are needed. 

There is danger that the blacks will lose the trades, 
which were their best heritage from slavery, unless 

460 Evidences of Progress 

industrial education is pushed. Well-trained young 
women must go out to reconstruct the homes. 

In addition to the work done by the school directly 
for its pupils in class-ioom and industrial-training 
shop, it reaches out continually into the home life of 
its graduates and ex-students. Its graduate mission 
aries visit in many homes, inspiring interest in land 
purchase, home building, school-term extension, thrift, 
temperance, and good citizenship. Its monthly paper, 
the Southern Workman, deals in a spirit of free in 
quiry and broad humanity with the race question in 
its many phases, and publishes in its columns articles 
of value from leading men and women of both the 
Negro and white races. Its Summer Conference, 
held in the vacation season, calls together for earnest 
discussion some of the best thinkers, white and 
colored, in the country ; and the Virginia Teachers 
Institute, assembling each summer on the school 
grounds, keeps the school in touch with the educa 
tional system of the State in which it works. Its aim 
is, and has been from its beginning, to lay firm and 
broad the foundation of character upon which all true 
civilization is built. 




THIS is an institution supported by the State of 
Virginia for the education of the colored youth. The 
aim of the institution is to impart knowledge, disci 
pline the mind and train the hand and heart, so that 
those who leave its walls shall be better prepared for 
the diversified duties of life. In the Normal course 


of three years, the training has special reference to 
preparing the student to become a successful teacher. 
It is to this department that most of the students 
naturally find their way. This course is comprehen 
sive and endeavors to give all that is essential to fit 
their graduates to teach any of the public schools of 
Virginia. Although the course covers a wide field, 



Evidences of Progress 

they endeavor to so drill the student in the branches 
taught that his knowledge is thorough, and not a 
mere smattering. Considerable time is given to 


actual teaching of little children under the supervis 
ion of the Model School teacher. 

The college course is designed to give a higher 

Among Colored People. 463 

and broader culture to those of their youth who are 
able to remain longer in school, or desire to pursue 
the professions. This course covers four years. The 
school is young, and quality, not quantity or number, 
being their standard of success, they have thus far 
labored to prepare thoroughly those who have taken 
the college studies before admitting them to this de 
partment. Their curriculum will compare favorably 
with the best. The advantages here offered for ob 
taining a college education at small cost are unparal 

James Hugo Johnston, A. M., Ph. D., president 
and Professor of Psychology and Moral Science, is 
indeed a self-made man. His first work in life was 
that of a newsboy on the streets of Richmond. In 
fact he kept his paper route for some time after he 
began teaching in the public schools of that city. 
His most excellent work as president of the institute 
at Petersburg places him among the most prominent 
educators of his race. He has under him a very able 
set of teachers. 


Is a school and social settlement in the blackest belt 
county of Alabama. Opened and incorporated, 1892. 
Trustees : Hon. John Bigelow, President, New York, 
N. Y. ; Mr. B. T. Washington, Vice-President, Tus- 
kegee, Ala. ; Mr. R. P. Hallowell, Auditor, Boston, 
Mass. ; Rev. Pitt Dillingham, Secretary, Calhoun, 
Ala.; Miss C. R. Thorn, Treasurer, Calhoun, Ala. ; 
Rev. H. B. Frissell, D. D., Hampton, Va. ; Col. T, W. 

464 Evidences of Progress 

Higginson, Cambridge, Mass. ; Mr. C. F. Dunbar, 
Buffalo, N. Y. ; Rev. Silas Jones, Mount Meigs, Ala. 
Principals : Rev. Pitt Dillingham and Miss C. R. 

The school is located at Calhoun, Lowndes Co., 
Alabama, on Louisville and Nashville R. R., 28 miles 
southwest of Montgomery. It is a one-room cabin 
and crop-mortgage region. 

The plant is a farm of 100 acres, with stock and 
tools, eleven buildings, namely, two schoolhouses, 
two dormitories, three teachers cottages, office, in 
dustrial building, barn and farmhouse. 

Students number 350 and upwards; 46 boarding 
students ; 32 of the 46 work all day and attend night 
school. Three hundred and more from the cabins 
of the county. 

Their teaching staff is seven white teachers from 
the North, four colored teachers from Hampton, one 
graduate of Calhoun, five other workers seventeen 
in all. 

The departments are Academic with Kindergar 
ten and eight years Common School Course. Indus 
trial with Agriculture for boys and Domestic Train 
ing for girls. 

Our graded school makes a natural centre for 
community-life. Calhoun is in the midst of 28,000 
plantation negroes. It lives in touch with all the life 
of its township and county, and limits its aim to this 
social group. 

They have Farmers Conferences, Mothers Meet 
ings, Sunday and Mission Services. Cabin, School 

Among Colored People. 465 

Church and Plantation Visiting. Agricultural Fairs, 
Teachers Institutes, Celebration of National Holi 
days, and Christian Festivals. Thrift and Land Buy 
ing Meetings, Sociological Study of the County, etc. 

To change the crop-mortgage peon into an Amer 
ican small farmer, with land and home of his own, 
is our problem and opportunity. " The family is the 
foundation of the nation." 

From three to four thousand acres are being 
bought at $6 and $7 an acre. 75 families (500 indi 
viduals) are being planted near the school. A 
Southern white planter and neighbor is assisting. 

Calhoun believes in the educational and religious 
value of work and property. It stands for a vital and 
practical Christianity. 

In my opinion the Calhoun School and Social 
Settlement is based on the right principle to solve 
the so-called race problem. When the colored peo 
ple in the South own their own homes, as they can 
under the system that has been established at Cal 
houn, they will not only be more independent, but 
more prosperous, and, as a result of the very practi 
cal training given there, they will not only send out 
farmers, but teachers, mechanics, and merchants as 
well. As colored men are able to start stores in the 
South they will be able to furnish employment to 
graduates from such schools as clerks and book 
keepers. I am sure that if the people in the North 
could only understand what a real blessing such an 
institution is to the South, it would, at least, not want 
for means to carry on its wonderful work. 

466 Evidences of Progress 


The State Normal School is situated about one and 
one-half miles from Frankfort on a beautiful hill 
overlooking the city. The site comprises about 
thirty acres of tillable land and meadow, upon which 
are located the main school building, with recitation- 
room and chapel, a new mechanical shop, forty feet 
by sixty feet, with modern equipments and furnish 
ings, the " Ladies Hall," recently built, and cottages 
for the resident professors. Our students are free 
from the many temptations and social demands inci 
dent to those who attend school in a city. 

Our location, being " elevated, healthful, and de 
lightful," renders our students less liable to malaria 
and other diseases due to impurities, both in the 
water and in the atmosphere. 

Nothing in our power will be neglected which can 
add to the mental, moral, and manual training of our 
students, or which can in the least contribute to their 
comfort and general welfare. 

"The object" of this State Normal School, estab 
lished and maintained by Act of the General Assem 
bly, " shall be the preparation of teachers for teaching 
in the Colored Public Schools of Kentucky." 

I have had the pleasure of making a visit to this 
school, and was very well impressed with the institu 
tion. I found there an able body of teachers and a 
very fine-looking and intelligent class of students. 

Among Colored People. 467 


This school is located at Orangeburg, S. C., and 
in my opinion is one of the best State schools in the 
South for the education of the colored youth. They 
have very excellent buildings, not only good, but 
beautiful. The course of study there is, as in all 
State schools, normal. Their object is to prepare 
teachers for the public schools of the State. Many 
students, however, attend there who do not expect to 
teach. Special attention is given to the industrial 
training of both boys and girls. The wood shop has, 
I think, about the best equipment in the way of 
tools and up-to-date machinery I saw in any of the 
Southern schools. The attendance is large; in fact, 
they often have to send students away for want 
of room. Hon. Thos. E. Miller, L.L. D., who is 
president, I found a very pleasant and able man. 
He is assisted by a strong force of competent 
teachers, who have been educated in the best schools 
of our country. I am sure the people at large will 
agree with me in saying that South Carolina de 
serves great credit for the establishment of such an 
excellent school for the race. 


Lincoln Institute, a State Normal, Collegiate, 
and Industrial School for Negroes, with ten well 
equipped departments, is admirably located at 
Jefferson City, Missouri, and was founded in 1866 
by funds contributed by the Sixty-second and Sixty- 

468 Evidences of Progress 

fifth regiments of United States Colored Infantry 
when they were discharged from service in the late 
Civil War. In a comparatively short time the 
school was taken under the care and patronage of 
the liberal State of Missouri, and, as the oldest, best 
equipped and most influential school west of the 
Mississippi river exclusively for the education of 
Negroes, affords most excellent opportunities for 
both higher and industrial training, and through its 
long line of graduates has furnished Missouri and 
other States, not only many high grade teachers, but, 
in addition, many of the leading lawyers, physicians, 
and other professional and business men and women 
of color, who, in a most practical manner, are helping 
to solve the Negro problem as it presents itself in the 
great Middle West and Southwest. 

The campus, buildings, and surroundings com 
modious, sightly, and modern are well situated on a 
height of land that commands a fine view of Jefferson 
City and its picturesque vicinity for miles around. 
With such a location, excellent water, good drainage, 
food well selected, and carefully prepared ; with 
athletic sports in which all are encouraged to take 
part, the health of students and of all connected with 
the institution is record-breaking in its excellence. 

Entering now upon the thirty-eighth year of its 
career, Lincoln Institute is fortunate in having as its 
administrative head a gentleman and scholar of wide 
experience in educational matters in the person of 
President Benjamin Franklin Allen, A. M., who, by 
eight years spent as a professor in one of the most 

Among Colored People. 469 

important departments of the school, and for the 
greater part of this time its vice-president, brings 
with him a more than theoretical knowlege of ex 
isting conditions, and of both the general and the 


specific needs of the young people who come under 
his care and guidance. Earnestly desirous of being 
helpful to his race, and believing most throughly in 
a happy combination of both higher and industrial 
education as a means of symmetrical development, 

Evidences of Progress 

President Allen leads out along the most practical 
lines of work, and is rapidly bringing the institution 
to the front as one of the great schools of the country. 
" The Lincoln Institute idea " is "progress" in the 
fullest and highest significance of the term. 

A well prepared and enthusiastic Faculty ably 
seconds the President s noble efforts. Among the 
men and women composing it are graduates of the 
leading colleges and universities of the United 
States. Presiding over the department of Latin and 
Greek one finds Prof. J. H. Garnett, A. M. ; 
Mathematics, Prof. J. S. Moten, A. M. ; Science, G. 
S. Murray, A. B. ; English, Josephine Silone-Yates, 
A. M. Mrs. Yates is also President of the National 
Association of Colored Women. 

The students are a high-minded, energetic set of 
young people, many of whom are making heroic 
struggles to get an education ; and their example of 
working late and early, in season and out of season, 
may well be emulated by those who daily are wast 
ing golden opportunities, and simply increasing the 
numbers of mere " consumers ." 

During his administration of barely one year and a 
half President Allen already has inaugurated many 
reforms and many new features in the work of the 
institution ; but possibly no one feature is destined 
to be of more practical value to the Negro of this 
section than the " Farmers Convention," which, pur 
suant to his call, has now held two very valuable 
sessions ; has created much interest among both 
white and colored educators, and is likely to prove 

Among Colored People. 471 

an important and invaluable factor in developing an 
agricultural spirit, desire for the ownership of land, 
and practical knowledge of agricultural pursuits, 
among Negroes who are living in one of the most 
fertile areas of the United States. 

Although the buildings are State structures, much 
of the original work and of the necessary repairs 
from time to time is done by the students ; and this, 
with many other lines of industrial work done on the 
grounds, demonstrates its practical value, both from 
educational and from utilitarian points of view. 

Many of the graduates from the industrial depart 
ment, young men and young women, have found it 
possible with the knowledge acquired in it to set up 
individual establishments, or secure lucrative posi 
tions of trust and honor in their special line of work. 

The State diploma received on graduating from 
the four years normal course is a life certificate, and 
is furnished by no other school for Negroes in the 
State of Missouri. 

With its one hundred and forty-four counties and 
its entirely separate system of education for whites 
and Negroes, Missouri has a large number of Negro 
schools, and many of the best teachers in the State 
are those who have received their academic and pro 
fessional training at Lincoln Institute. 

One great aim of the institution, and one in which 
it seems admirably to have succeeded, is to develop 
in its students the power of independent thought and 
research, the desire and ability to be continuous 
searchers after truth throughout life, 



IN this chapter I shall give brief mention of the 
schools managed by the " Colored Methodist Epis 
copal Church in America." The connection was 
organized in 1870, and set apart from the M. E. 
Church South. They have at this time five Bishops, 
namely : Bishop Isaac Lane, Bishop J. A. Beebe, 
Bishop L. H. Holsey, D. D., Bishop R. S. Williams, 
D. D., Bishop Elias Cottrell, D. D. 

The Rev. C. H. Phillips, D. D., who is mentioned 
on page 364 as editor of the Christian Index, was at 
the last general conference of the C. M. E. Church 
elected as a Bishop. 


Lane College is located at Jackson, Tenn. It was 
founded by the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church 
in America, and is still under its fostering care. The 
school takes its name from Bishop Isaac Lane, who 
has been the leading spirit in establishing the insti 
tution. The work done at Lane College will com 
pare favorably with other schools in the South. 

The main building was erected at cost of $15,- 
OOO. It is a fine three-story brick, with stone 
trimmings, artistically covered with malleable iron, 
with two beautiful lofty towers. 

Among- Colored People. 473 

Lane College, like all institutions, is in need of 
funds to put the school in excellent condition. Any 
one desiring to bless a worthy educational enterprise 
would find the school in great need of means to 
better equip it for the training of young men and 
women to advance Christian civilization. Let your 
gifts be ever so small, they will be duly credited and 
rightly applied. 

Their wonderful progress thus far is largely attrib 
uted to the untiring labors of Bishop Isaac Lane. 

In addition to the other branches of studies, and 
recognizing the fact that the mind is often cultivated 
at the expense of the body, and that trades are medi 
ums through which young men may obtain occupa 
tions, giving them a capital to fall back on should 
they fail to make practical what they have learned 
from books, industrial features are added. Girls will 
be given lessons in needlework, cutting, sewing, and 
cooking. Young men will be given lessons in ele 
ments of gardening and carpentry. 

An experienced teacher will have charge of each 

The president of Lane College is Rev. T. F. San 
ders. He is a Southern white man, who has taken 
up the work in that Christian spirit which means to 
lift up humanity to a higher intellectual and spiritual 
condition, regardless of race or color. 

Rev. Robert T. Brown, A. M., is teacher of 
language and mathematics. I regard Prof. Brown 
as a very able man, and one who desires very much 
to see his race educated in order that tV* colored 

474 Evidences of Progress 

people may take a more active part in the professional 
and business world. 


Paine Institute is another of the C. M. E. Schools. 
It is located at Augusta, Ga. The school is doing 
about the same grade of work as that done at Lane 
College. They have a beautiful brick structure 
known as " Haygood Memorial Hall ;" it is named in 
honor of the late Bishop Haygood of the M. E. 
Church South, He was far in advance of the church 
in his desire to see the colored people educated. 
The bishop wrote a most excellent work on the race 
question, entitled " Our Brother in Black." The book 
had a large sale both North and South. He, like 
Booker T. Washington, believed that the masses of 
colored people should have an industrial education. 
But he also recognized that those who felt called to 
teach or preach should have the best education they 
could secure. 

The president of Paine Institute is Rev. G. W. 
Walker. He is a Southern white man who sees the 
great work that must be done for the colored people, 
and is willing to help do it. I am told that he 
takes an active part in everything that is of interest 
to the school and scholars, making the students feel 
that his heart is in the work. His family is also 
helpful to him in his great effort. I hope it will not 
be many years until a large number of Southern 
white people will see the need of just such work as 

Among Colored People. 475 

Rev. Walker is doing, and be willing to assist in the 

There are a few smaller schools managed by the 
C. M. E. Church, but for want of space we must 
omit mention of them, at least until they are more 


THIS chapter will be devoted to the work of the 
Christian Church. The schools operated by that 
church in the interest of the race are not as numer 
ous nor as large as other connectional institutions, 
but what they have are doing a splendid work. 


Franklinton Christian College is situated in Frank- 
linton, Franklin County, North Carolina, on the Sea 
board Air-Line Railroad, twenty-seven miles north 
east from the city of Raleigh. The college buildings 
are on high ground, which is well drained; and there 
is a grove of beautiful oak trees on the campus, 
which, with other immediate surroundings, makes 
the location one of special attraction. 

The college entered on its mission of education in 
1878 as a common school. Professor Henry E. 
Long was placed in charge, and the interest taken in 
the new movement by the colored people was so 
general that an assistant teacher was employed to aid 
Professor Long in his work. In 1880 Rev. George 
Young, of Carlisle, New York, was appointed prin 
cipal of the school, under the direction of Rev. J. 
P. Watson, D. D., who was at that time Secretary of 
the Children s Mission. It was during the first year 

Among Colored People. 477 

of Professor Young s administration of the school 
that the college building was erected and the school 
formally opened under the name, " The Franklinton 
Theological and Literary Institute." The institute 
remained under the supervision of the Secretary of 
Missions until the meeting of the American Christian 
Convention in 1886. The convention at that meet 
ing received the institute to its care, and appointed a 
board of control to take direct supervision of its 
work and interests. The Board of Control obtained 
a charter for the institute in 1890, and its name was 
changed to Franklinton Christian College. In this, 
its corporate name, the college has authority to give 
diplomas and confer degrees. It may be said of the 
college that its work has from the first been progress 
ive in character. Its constant aim has been to assist 
the student to high moral and intellectual, attain 

In addition to the regular course of studies taught 
they have some industrial work in the way of sewing 
and fancy work for the girls, and it is hoped that this 
department will soon be extended to include all that 
is essential to good housekeeping and home decora 
tion. Rev. Zenas A. Poste is president, and is as 
sisted by five other teachers. 


Is a missionary school, inaugurated by the General 
Christian Missionary Convention, now the American 
Christian Missionary Society : Headquarters, Cincin^ 
nati, Ohio, and under the immediate supervision of 

47 8 Evidences of Progress 

the Board of Negro Education and Evangelization : 
Headquarters, Louisville, Kentucky. 

While it is not the present purpose of the school 
to maintain classes in those branches of study which 
do not properly constitute part of a theological 
course in English ; yet, to meet the needs of such 
students as have not had the advantage of proper in 
struction in the subjects of Course I, classes will be 
maintained, continuously in a number of them, and 
in others will be formed from time to time as the 
necessity may arise. 

The purpose of the school is to do what it can in 
supplying one of the greatest needs of the colored 
people of this county, namely, preachers and other 
religious workers of their own race, who shall be 
deeply imbued with the knowledge and spirit of the 
Word of God. In doing this work it is not the. aim 
of the school to give extended courses of instruction 
in anything save in the English Scriptures. These 
it proposes to teach as thoroughly as possible to col 
ored candidates for the ministry, whether, in the com 
mon use of the terms, such candidates be educated or 

Adoniram Judson Thomson, A. M., is principal. 
He impressed me as a very fine man, who is much 
interested in the elevation of the colored people. 
Prof. Thomson is assisted by Prof. Octavius Single 
ton, B. L., who is a very able young man and a credit 
to the race. 


The plantation upon which the Southern Christian 

Among Colored People. 479 

Institute is located contains eight hundred acres of 
land, being a mile and a quarter long by a mile wide. 
It is located on the Big Black River, on the direct 
road between Jackson and Vicksburg, being twenty- 
five miles from the former and eighteen miles from 
the latter. It is two miles from Edwards, which is 
its postoffice. The name of the plantation is Mount 
Beulah. The Vicksburg and Meridian Railroad 
passes directly through the plantation, in which there 
is a flag station. It is only six miles from the famous 
battlefield of Champion Hill, and Pemberton s sol 
diers retreated directly across it ; and the battle of 
the " Big Black " was fought partly upon it. The 
east end of the plantation is rolling, containing most 
of the timber and all the buildings connected with the 
institution : the old plantation building, to which has 
been added the dining-room, kitchen and office, and 
a girls dormitory; a separate building for school- 
house and boys dormitory ; a barn and eight cabins, 
six of which are located at this end of the plantation. 
The timber is nearly all of the hard-wood variety, 
such as oak, hickory, sweet gum, beech, etc. All 
rough-bark trees are covered with long festoons of 
Spanish moss. This part of the plantation has a 
beautiful situation on a bluff, which rises about fifty 
feet from the river. The western part of the planta 
tion, containing about five hundred acres, is level, 
but is located in what is called the second river 
bottom, and hence is never overflowed. 

The plantation contains such fertile soil, and has 

4&3 Evidences of Progress 

such a location, that all the crops that are raised in 
the North can be raised here to advantage. 

J. B. Lehman, President, has six assistant teachers, 
while A. T. Ross is superintendent of Industrial De 
partment, and Mrs. A. T. Ross is matron of the in 
stitution. The enrollment of the school now reaches 
125. We have every reason to believe that it will 
be much larger the coming year. The course of in 
struction is divided into Primary, Normal, Classical, 
Biblical, and Industrial Departments. The Industrial 
Department includes practical housekeeping, sewing, 
broom-making, the making of molasses from sugar 
cane, farming, fruit-canning, carpentry, and printing, 
and the new machinery plant will add new industries. 


The Lum Graded School was started four years 
ago, with Robert Brooks as principal. Robert 
Brooks was educated at the Southern Christian Insti 
tute, completing the full course there. He took the 
Alabama teachers examination, receiving the highest 
certificate given, and then returned to his home in 
Lowndes County, Alabama, and opened a school in 
a miserabe shanty at Lum. In this undertaking he 
was encouraged and directed, and to a small extent 
aided financially, by the Board of Negro Education 
and Evangelization. The school having this humble 
origin is now known to us and through all the section 
of the country where it is located as " The Lum 
Graded School," and last year enrolled one hundred 
and eleven pupils. 



CAN the negro race successfully own and operate 
cotton mills ? This question, so long in doubt, is 
about to be answered, and we believe in the affirma 
tive. The first great stride in that direction was 
taken when, on the 8th of February, 1898, was laid 
with Masonic honors the corner-stone of the hand 
some three-story brick building, 80x120 feet in 
dimensions, of the Coleman cotton mill. It was 
indeed a marked epoch in the history of the negro 
race, and pronounced by all present an entire success. 
Noted speakers from all over the United States were 
invited, and the railroads gave reduced rates from all 
points. Following the laying of the corner-stone was 
the annual election of old officers, who are as follows : 
R. B. Fitzgerald, of Durham, N. C, president; E. A. 
Johnson, of Raleigh, N. C., vice-president; and W. 
C. Coleman, of Concord, N. C., secretary and treas 
urer. The following gentlemen constitute the Board 
of Directors : Rev. S. C. Thompson, Camden, S. C; 
L. P. Berry, Statesville, N. C. ; John C. Dancy, Salis 
bury, N. C. ; Prof. S. B. Pride, Charlotte, N. C. ; Prof. 
31 (481) 

4$ 2 Evidences of Progress 

C. F. Meserve, Raleigh, N. C. ; and Robert McRee, 
Concord, N. C. Among these are some of the 
highest lights of the negro race, and under their 
careful direction we have no doubts as to the final 
results of the enterprise. The promoter of this en- 


terprise, W. C. Coleman, is the wealthiest negro in 
the State, and he has rallied around him not only the 
leaders of his race, but has the endorsement of many 
of the most successful financiers among our white 
citizens throughout the State. 

Among Colored People. 483 

The mill is to have from 7,000 to 10,000 spindles, 
and from 100 to 250 looms, and, by their charter, will 
be allowed to spin, weave, manufacture, finish, and 
sell warps, yarns, cloth, prints, or other fabrics made 
of cotton, wool, or other material. They own at 
present, in connection with the plant, about IOO acres 
of land on the main line of the Southern Railway, and 
near the site of the mill. The mill and machinery 
with all the fixtures complete will represent an outlay 
of nearly $66,000, and will give employment to a 
number of hands. The building is now completed 
and ready for machinery. 

Let us add that Concord has reason to and does 
feel proud of the fact that she has the only cotton mill 
in the world owned, conducted, and operated by the 
negro race. 

At a meeting of the directors recently the capital 
stock was increased $50,000, and those wishing a 
good safe investment should secure some of this 
stock. The mill will be under good and safe man 
agement, and will, no doubt, be a paying institution. 

Special inducements will be offered to any party or 
parties who desire to establish enterprises that colored 
labor may be employed. Full particulars can be 
obtained from the secretary and treasurer, W. C. 
Coleman, Concord, N. C. 

When the Coleman Manufacturing Company de 
monstrates to the world, as it will, that colored girls 
can weave cloth, and that this enterprise is a paying 
one, there will be other men who will start similar 
institutions throughout the South. I am sure that my 


Evidences of Progress 

readers will read this article with more race pride than 
they have ever felt before when they realize that, while 
they read it, cloth is being woven by colored girls. 
This cotton mill, which is the result of Mr. Coleman s 
push and energy, will give the colored man a stand 
ing in the business world he has never had before, 
and will be. indeed, helpful. 

Warren C. Coleman is a most remarkable man, 


starting as he did from slavery, without money or 
education ; in fact, he only had one term of school 
ing in Howard University j Washington, D. C. Mr. 
Coleman has for years operated a successful grocery 
store. He has met with heavy losses, caused by fire, 
to the amount of several thousand dollars. Many a 
man would have given up with the idea that fate was 

against him. 


Coleman is one of the largest 

Among Colored People. 485 

owners of real estate in Concord. He also operates 
several farms in that county. He has educated out 
of his resources a number of young colored men and 
women. Mr. Coleman is doubtless one of the richest 
colored men in the United States. 

The Southern Age, of Atlanta, Ga., on February 6, 
1897, among other things, says of W. C. Coleman: 
" The greatness of the man appears particularly in 
the way he makes obstacles and difficulties helps and 
not hindrances. He will rank with Abraham Lincoln 
as their practical friend and benefactor. One gave 
them freedom the other will give them an indus 
trial position." 



THIS chapter is devoted to the business interests of 


the colored people in Richmond, and I am sure my 
readers will find it a valuable addition to my book. 

Among Colored People. 



In July, 1894, a company of twenty men v-as 
formed and began this work with $200. 


started against many odds; their chief opposers were 
the agents of white insurance companies. 

Three years have told the story. They now have 
a membership of 15,000, and employ seventy persons 
as managers, clerks, and agents. They own their 

488 Evidences of Progress 

own property, a handsome three-story building, 
valued at $6,000, and every cent of it paid for. The 
worth of the company is $13,000. They are begin 
ning to branch out in all cities of Virginia, and are 
very cautious and careful with their money, their in 
tention being the founding of an organization that 
shall " stay " permanently, and are doing a business 
now of $30,000 yearly. 

Rev. W. F. Graham, the founder and president of 
this company, was born of slave parents, in the State 
of Mississippi, attended school in Arkansas, and fin 
ished at Wayland Seminary, Washington, D. C. He 
is also pastor of one of the largest and finest Baptist 
churches in the South, and is what I regard as a 
splendid type of manhood. 

Mr. John T. Taylor is secretary and business man 
ager for the company. Mr. Taylor taught school for 
several years, and gave up that work to accept his 
present position. He is regarded as a very compe 
tent and energetic business man. 


Richmond has one of the most successful colored 
undertakers in the country in the person of William 
Isaac Johnson. His place of business and residence 
is located at 207 Fonshee Street. Mr. Johnson owns 
a magnificent brick building, three stories high. The 
basement is used for his workshop and stables for his 
horses. The ground floor is used as an office and 
storeroom for ready-made coffins and trimmings. 
The second story is used as a residence for his family, 

Among Colored People. 489 

and the third story is divided into lodge-rooms, which 
are rented to different colored societies that hold 
monthly meetings there. 

The horses and hearse, also the carriages, used in 
Mr. Johnson s business are as fine as any owned by 
the leading white undertakers in Richmond. I found 
him a pleasant and a very thorough business man. 


Mr. A. D. Price, of Richmond, is also an under 
taker, who owns good horses, hearse, and carriages 
for his work. 


Mr. Paul C. Easley has an ice-cream parlor, also 
manages a steam ice-cream manufactory, and has a 
large trade, both wholesale and retail. 


One of the best drug stores owned by colored men 
in the country is at Richmond, carried on by Thomp 
son & Benson, two young and intelligent men, who 
are both, as the result of a splendid education, com 
petent to manage just what they have a splendid 
drug store. I was very much impressed with the 
cleanliness, neatness, and perfect system that I found 
throughout the entire building. Of all places that 
ought to be clean and neat is a drug store. 


Richmond Steam Laundry is owned by G. W. 
Bragg, a very progressive colored man, who has, be 

49 Evidences of Progress 

yond doubt, the largest and best-equipped steam 
laundry owned by a colored man in the United States. 
Every modern machine for doing first-class laundry 
work can be seen at his establishment. He employs 
the most intelligent colored girls he can secure, and 
has so far had but very little trouble in teaching them 
to handle the different machines. I am pleased to 
note also that his patrons are made up of the best 
white families in Richmond. Mr. Bragg has a 
brother in Farmville, Va. , who also owns a laundry, 
but on a much smaller scale. 


at 601 North Thirtieth Street, Richmond, Va,, is a 
splendid enterprise, that has been put on foot by such 
men as Rev. Evans Payne, R. F. Tancil, Rev. W. S. 
Christian, E. A. Washington, Anderson Evans, R. J. 
Bass, J. Henry Jones, who are the board of directors. 
In order that my readers may get some idea of the 
method adopted by the Nickel Savings Bank, I re 
produce some matter that appeared on a circular 
handed me by the cashier: 

" The bank safe is a nickel-plated brass bank, with 
combination lock, and is highly ornamental and con 
venient. All sizes of coin or paper money can be 
put into it. 

" These banks are loaned to anyone free of charge 
who has or will deposit $1.50 with us (for which we 
give a pass-book) ; it being understood that if you 
lose the bank, or fail to return it in reasonably good 
condition when we call for it, we charge you $1.50 

Among Colored People. 491 

for the box, but you may return it at any time and 
get all the money you have on deposit. It is under 
stood that in consideration of our loaning you a bank 
free of charge you will deposit your savings with 
us once in three months or oftener. 

" Money deposited in this safe can be taken out 
only at the Nickel Savings Bank, as they keep the 
key. When brought to us the safe is opened and the 
amount is counted in your presence, and placed to 
your credit on your pass-book. 

" This is one of the best plans ever devised for en 
couraging economy and frugality in children, as 
money once placed in the safe cannot be taken out 
except at our bank, and there it must be deposited. 
At the same time it gives a child valuable business 
experience, and the first lessons of economy are more 
easily learned if the savings are for some fixed or 
definite purpose. 

" Laboring men and women who are able to lay 
aside a small amount daily or weekly will find these 
safes the most convenient and effectual means jof 
accomplishing that end." 

My object in reproducing a part of their circular; is 
to furnish the matter that it may be the incentive or 
suggestion to people in other cities to start similar 
institutions for the benefit of the poor. 


The Planet, published by John Mitchell, Jr., 
has, without doubt, the largest circulation of any 
paper published by a colored man. Had the South 

49 2 Evidences of Progress 

a few more men who are as brave as John Mitchell 
has shown himself, the lynchings of the South 


would not have been so numerous. The Planet 
has not only the largest circulation, but The Planet 
office is the best-equipped printing establishment 

Among Colored People. 493 

owned by a colored man in this country. Mr. 
Mitchell has recently purchased a dwelling-house 
at 311 North Fourth Street, Richmond, Va., and had 
the house entirely made over to suit his purpose. 

John Mitchell, Jr., was born in Henrico County, 
Va., about three miles from Richmond, Va., at a place 
called Laburnum. His parents were slaves. He at 
tended the public schools of Richmond, and grad 
uated from the Richmond Normal School, June 14, 
1 88 1, with the highest honors. He received a gold 
medal for scholarship, and was awarded a special 
gold medal for excellence in map-drawing. He 
taught public school in Fredericksburgh, Va., two 
years, and also in those of Richmond one year. His 
editorial career began in 1884. He has made a 
specialty of lynchings and Southern outrages, etc. 
His efforts to prevent the hanging of Simon Walker, 
a fifteen-year-old colored boy, was crowned with suc 
cess. He was threatened with hanging if he visited 
Charlotte County, Va. His bold reply in the columns 
of the Richmond Planet, supplemented by the arming 
of himself and going alone into the county and visit 
ing the scene of the lynching of the unfortunate 
Richard Walker, caused the late Rev. Dr. J. W. 
Simmons to denominate him the "bravest Negro ed- 


itor on the continent." 

Mr. Mitchell secured the release of Isaac Jenkins 
in 1893, the colored man who was beaten, shot, and 
hanged, but still lives. His last great feat was th? 
saving of the lives of the three Lunenburg County 
women, who were charged with the murder of Mrs. 

494 Evidences of Progress 

Lucy Jam. Pollard, near Fort Mitchell, Va. Gov 
ernor O Fei/all used the troops of the State to pre 
vent their lynching, and editor Mitchell employed 


Hon. Geo. D. Wise, Hon. A. B. Guigon, and Hon. H. 
W. Flournoy to defend them. The women Pokey 
and Mary Barnes and Mary Abernathy were ac 
quitted and now reside in this city. 

Among Colored People. 


The Richmond Planet continues its crusade against 
these outrages. 

In February, 1897, the present building, in which 
the plant is now located, was purchased, and with the 
improvements cost $5,000. The presses, type, en- 


gine, stereotype outfit, cost $4,000. The office force 
consists of fifteen persons. 


J. C. Farley, the well-known colored photographer 

496 Evidences of Progress 

of Richmond, Va., was born in Prince Edward 
County, Va., August 10, 1854. He came to Rich 
mond in 1 86 1 and engaged in the bakery business. 
He entered the photographic establishment of C. R. 
Rees & Co. in 1872. He left there and labored in 
the service of Mr. G. W. Davis, with whom he re 
mained until 1895. It was while there that he be 
came the operator, his rare talent winning for him 
commendation and promotion from his employer. 
He has been for years one of the most accom 
plished photographers in the South, his work rank 
ing with that of the best artists in this country and 

In August, 1895, he entered into the photographic 
business for himself, under the style and title of the 
Jefferson Fine Art Gallery, and is at present conduct 
ing a profitable business upon the most fashionable 
business thoroughfare in Richmond. Some of the 
leading society and business leaders in the State have 
sought Mr. Farley in order to secure the benefit of 
his truly wonderful ability. 

He married Miss Rebecca P. Roberts, of Amelia 
County, Va., in 1876, and has a promising family of 
seven girls. 


Among the colored lawyers at Richmond, Va., is 
Mr. T. C. Johnson, who was born of slave parents. 
He attended Springfield (Mass.) Institute, then read 
law and was admitted to the bar. Mr. Johnson has 
an office in both Richmond and Petersburg, Va. He 
has the honor of being the local attorney for two 

Among Colored People. 49? 

large white companies doing business in Richmond, 
which is another evidence of the fact that a colored 
man can do business in the South with white people. 


Mention will be found of this order in Chapter 
XXI. of this publication. 


.- , : j ~i ~ 


IN this chapter it is my purpose to mention, some 
men and women engaged in different lines of business 
throughout the country. 


Mr. Dibble is a native of South Carolina, and is at 
present operating a large store in Camden, S. C., 
where he keeps a stock of dry goods, boots, shoes, 
fancy and family groceries. Aside from the store he 
owns he also has an interest in another one in the 
same town, which is operated by his brother. The 
patrons at either one of the stores are not all colored 
by any means, but a large percentage of their trade 
comes from a splendid class of white people. My 
object in making mention of so many men engaged 
in business in the South is to stimulate among my 
readers, and especially in the North, a determination 
to at least make some effort along that line. 


Robert G. Walker, of Springfield, Ohio, is a car 
penter and contractor the race may be proud of. He 
was born in Ohio. At one time he was the leading 


Among Colored People. 499 

contractor of Hill City, Kansas, and gave employment 
to fourteen men as carpenters. He built the court 
house, jail, and many of the store buildings. He 
also served there as city clerk. He returned to 
Springfield because of hard times in the West, and 
began contracting for himself after working a while 
as foreman for a white contractor. Mr. Walker has 
built some of the finest houses in Springfield owned 
by white people. He is very much thought of by his 
race and the better class of the whites. 


manufacturer of " IXL " and Whiteley plows, two and 
four-horse wagons, carts, etc., in Springfield, Ohio. 
Mr. Nelson was born a slave in the State of Kentucky, 
and learned his trade as blacksmith while a slave. 
He has carried on a business in Springfield for him 
self, with a great deal of success, for quite a number 
of years. He bought out the entire right to manu 
facture the "IXL" and Whiteley plows, and has 
very much improved the plow and worked up a splen 
did sale for it, principally throughout the various 
Middle, Western, and Southern States. 

He also makes a specialty of manufacturing an iron 
tank-wagon, used by men who are in the oil business 
and deliver oil from house to house. He has shipped 
these tank-wagons to several of the different States. 


John H. Anderson, of Urbana, Ohio, is the leading 
contractor and builder of that city. He has had and 

500 Evidences of Progress 

finished some very large contracts. He built the 
Y. M. C. A. building in Piqua, Ohio, also a beautiful 
passenger station at same place. Mr. Anderson had 
a contract to build a factory in Urbana that cost one 
hundred thousand dollars. His finest work, he says, 
was done on a residence in Urbana that cost forty 
thousand dollars. Most of the men employed by Mr. 
Anderson are white; but whenever he can secure a 
good workman among colored men, he is only too 
glad to give him work. I regard him as one of the 
leading colored contractors in the country. 


Mr. Henry, of Pocomoke City, Md., better known 
as " Captain Henry," owns several sailing vessels that 
are manned by colored men, which he operates be 
tween Pocomoke City, Md., and Philadelphia, Pa. 
He ships large cargoes of wood, used in Philadelphia 
for fuel. Mr. Henry also has a large dry goods and 
grocery store in Pocomoke City. 


Mr. George H. White, of Staunton, Va., has a large 
and well-stocked grocery store, and very nearly all of 
his patrons are white. He was born a slave in Vir 
ginia, and spent the early part of his life at the black 
smith trade. He has been in the grocery business 
since 1892, and his trade has been growing larger 
ever since. He owns a beautiful home and has the 
confidence and respect of the best citizens, both white 
and colored. 

Among Colored People. 501 


Frank T. Ware was born a slave at Staunton, Va.i 
May 15, 1843. His master "hired him out" until 
1860, when he was sold to Negro traders, who took 
him to Vicksburgh, Miss. There he served as 
dining-room waiter until the beginning of the war. 
He was then taken as a body servant into the Con 
federate Army, but was soon captured by the Federal 
troops. He then became a soldier in the Union 
Army, and rose to the position of orderly sergeant 
and continued as such until the war closed. He then 
came back to Staunton and went into the express 
business, which he followed for twelve years. Next 
he embarked into the hardware and furniture business, 
and is now said to be the leading colored man in that 
line of business in the United States. His store is 
three stories high and is packed from bottom to top. 
It is in the business center of Staunton. His race iden 
tity is no barrier to his success. He buys from the 
best firms in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Richmond, 
and a large number of his customers are of his own 
race, but the bulk of his patrons are the white people 
of this city and adjoining counties. Scrupulously 
honest in his dealings, he has won an enviable busi 
ness reputation and enjoys the implicit confidence of 
all. He is a man of means and influence, and every 
good cause receives his aid. 


Mr. A. R. Cooper, of Findley, Ohio, has invented a 
strictly water-proof shoe. Manufacturers of shoes 

502 Evidences of Progress 

have always claimed to make them water-proof, but 
who ever wore them ? Mr. Cooper is a practical 
shoemaker, and for a long time has been giving this 
matter serious thought and consideration, until now 
his efforts have been rewarded by the invention of 
this shoe. It is not only guaranteed by the maker 
to be water-proof, but also protects the foot from 
any dampness whatever. The shoe will be easier, 
warmer, and cheaper than the ordinary make. 


Robert Orrick owns the largest livery, sale, 
and feed stable in the city of Winchester, Va. Mr. 
Orrick was born a slave. He began business for 
himself in 1859, which was before freedom was 
granted. This he did by paying to his master a cer 
tain amount of money for his time. He married a 
freeborn woman, and as a slave could not transact 
any business, all business matters had to be done in 
his wife s name. The amount named for his time by 
his owner was $65 per year. His first business ven 
ture was hauling baggage and freight, and by degrees 
his work developed into a regular livery business. 
He now owns forty horses and some forty-five dif 
ferent kinds of vehicles. His residence and stable 
join, and are valued at about ten thousand dollars. 
In the country he has two farms of three hundred 
acres, valued at one hundred dollars per acre. 

MR. N. T. GANT. 

Mr. N. T. Gant, of Zanesville, Ohio, is a very in- 

Among Colored People. 503 

teresting man ; looks enough like the late Frederick 
Douglass to pass for his brother. Mr. Gant was born 
a slave in Virginia. He bought his own and wife s 
freedom. For his wife he paid fifteen hundred dol 
lars. He moved to Zanesville before the war, and 
began life as a truck farmer. He made money like 
magic, and owns several farms now, after giving 
all of his children good homes. The property now 
used as " Gant Park " was sold by him for twenty 
thousand dollars, with the understanding that no 
intoxicating drinks were to be sold on the ground. 
His residence in Zanesville was a part of the park. 
He has one of the best-furnished homes in the 
State of Ohio. Among the leading business and 
moneyed men of Zanesville, Mr. Gant is considered 
one of them. 


Norfolk, Va., can boast of a progressive man in 
the person of Casper Titus, a thriving florist, in 
Huntersville, Norfolk, Va.; carries about 3,000 feet of 
glass ; grows plants, flowers, and vegetables ; has a 
good patronage from white as well as colored ; is the 
leading colored florist south of Baltimore ; began 
business with ten lilies and eight geraniums, the few 
brought to him by his wife. The total number of 
lilies to-day is 500, with a spring sale of about 5,OOO 
plants of different varieties. 


Mr. J. Stephenson, watchmaker and jeweler, does 

504 Evidences of Progress 

a good business in Norfolk, Va., and has a splendid 
stock of goods. He began first by repairing watches 
and clocks, until he had built up a trade, and at the 
same time saved enough money to put in a small 
stock of goods. His trade is by no means confined 
to colored people. His success simply shows what 
can be done when the proper effort is put forth. 


Mr. Overton, of Clarksville, Tenn., was for years 
before his death foreman and manager of the Clarks 
ville ice factory. He began work there as a fireman. 
Mr. Overton had the confidence and respect of the 
best people in the city. He, by hard work and good 
management, saved enough money to purchase splen 
did property. 

j. w. PAGE. 

Mr. J. W. Page is also of Clarksville, Tenn., and is 
regarded by all as a very prominent man. For years 
he was one of the city councilmen, and much of the 
public improvement in his ward has been done through 
his effort. He owns a great deal of property, which 
is rented. At his home he operates a grocery busi 
ness that is well patronized in that portion of the city. 
Mr. Page takes an active part in church and Sunday- 
school work ; in fact, in all things that will in any 
way lift up his people. 


Messrs. Botts & Hensley, at Mt. Sterling, Ky., own 

Among Colored People. 505 

and operate one of the leading grocery stores of that 
city. Both of these men stand high and own good 
homes. Their patrons are mostly white. 


Mr. J. R. Hawkins, of Hopkinsville, Ky., has a 
very large and well-furnished grocery store. His 
trade is about equally divided between the white and 
colored people. As for his white patrons, he has 
some of the leading families in the city who deal 
there. He owns a splendid home, and is very highly 
respected by all. 


Mr. A. C. Brent, also of Hopkinsville, Ky., is en 
gaged in the grocery business. He has a large 
trade and many white patrons. Hopkinsville has 
many things of interest among colored people. In 
addition to Mr. Hawkins and Mr. Brent s grocery 
business, Mr. Peter Postell has a large store, which is 
mentioned in another part of this publication. 


Mr. E. W. Glass, of Hopkinsville, Ky., is a suc 
cessful undertaker. He is a native of Hopkinsville. 
and has always taken an active part in all movements 
that would advance his people. Mr. Glass has been 
one of the city teachers, and for some four years was 
engaged in the revenue service as United States store 
keeper. He was at one time an alderman in his 
ward. As an undertaker he is a success, and is re- 

506 Evidences of Progress 

garded as one of the leading men in that line in the 


Mrs. C. Hodges, a colored woman, is holding the 
position of Deputy Meat Inspector in one of Mr. 
Armour s large packing houses at Kansas City, Kan. 

f * b- .i i ; ; 


Mrs. M. M. Brown, of Staunton, Va., has a good 
dressmaking business. She keeps on hand a large 
stock of ladies ready-made clothing of all kinds. She 
owns a splendid building on Main Street. The most 
of her customers are white. 

i V , M:-. -f\ V, . r -. ;j . .} , . ,,: 


Miss E. B. Slaughter, of Louisville, Ky., is a young 
lady who deserves more than passing mention. She 
is.engaged in the millinery business, and has built up 
a splendid trade among both white and colored 
patrons. Miss Slaughter learned her trade in the 
"Armour Institute " at Chicago, 111., where she, in 
part, worked her way through that institution. Her 
store is well and neatly furnished, and she keeps on 
hand a line of goods that will please the best class 
of patrons among both races. I regard her work of 
great interest from the fact that she is one of the first 
among colored ladies who have made an effort along 
this line. We publish a splendid picture of Miss 
Slaughter in this edition in the hope that it, along 
with this short sketch of her work and success, may 

Among Colored People. 


inspire some other young lady to start in business of 
some sort. When colored people, and especially 
ladies, are engaged in different business enterprises, 
such as women take up as a means of support, white 
people will then be compelled to see them not only as 


cooks and washerwomen, but as business women and 
competitors. Then, too, when colored ladies can 
operate successful millinery stores, that in itself will 
at least have a tendency to make white women en 
gaged in such business treat their colored customer 

508 Evidences of Progress 

with more consideration. Miss Slaughter is a grad 
uate from the schools of this city. She is very highly 
respected, and I am sure that the better class of 
colored ladies are proud of the fact that Louisville has 
a colored milliner. At Lexington, Ky., Mrs. J. C. 
Jackson and Mrs. Hathaway have opened a millinery 
and notion store, and they are meeting with success. 


Andrew Hayden, of Cynthiana, Ky., a blacksmith 
by trade and an ex-slave, has, by very hard work 
and good business judgment, built up quite a start in 
life in the way of good property. He owns, in addi 
tion to his residence, which is a beautiful brick struc 
ture, several houses, which are rented one as a busi 
ness house, and some ten others as dwellings. Mr. 
Hayden has his own home in the most aristocratic 
part of the town, and his family are the only colored 
people on that street. His house is well furnished, 
and his wife takes great pride in her home. She has 
a very large and fine collection of house plants, and 
Mr. Hayden built her a very fine pit to keep them 
in during the cold weather. He has but little educa 
tion, but a large stock of good common sense. I re 
gard him as a credit to the town. 


The People s Drug Store, located at Louisville, 
Ky., is another evidence of colored people s ability to 
manage business enterprises of their own. The store 

Among Colored People. 


is well equipped with a good stock of goods, and is 
patronized by both races. It is kept neat and clean. 
Mr. R. F. White, who has charge of the store, is a 
graduate in pharmacy from Howard University, at 
Washington, D. C., and stands high in his profession. 


In speaking of the class of people who give the most 
support to race enterprises, Mr. White thinks " that 
the middle-class seem to have more interest and pride 
in the places of business started by colored men than 
those who have had better advantages, and ought, 

5 1 6 Evidences of Progress 

because of their ability, feel a deeper interest in all 
things that would help in any way the business de 
velopment of the race." Of all stores that would be 
helpful to the colored people a drug store would be 
one of them, from the fact that the business could 
only be carried on by educated people, and the more 
of that class who can be brought into prominent 
places the better for the entire race. Mr. White is a 
native of Florida and is much thought of by his 
people. He is progressive, and believes in perfect 
system and order, and conducts the drug store on 
that principle. 


Greene Brothers, of Holly Springs, Miss., are mer 
chants on a very large scale. They handle a general 
line of all sorts of goods that can be found in what 
is known in the South as a general store. They fur 
nish quite a number of planters from year to year, 
and of course take their chances on the results of the 
crops for their pay. They are young men and owe 
their success to the very close attention they give to 
the business. Their store is not only one of the 
leading places of business in Holly Springs, but is 
one of the best in the State. I live in hope that the 
time is not far distant when just such places of busi 
ness can be found in every town in the South owned 
by colored men. 


Rev. I. H. Anderson, of Jackson, Tenn., is another 
evidence of Negro success. Mr. Anderson has been 

Among Colored People. $ii 

for years a minister in what is known as the C. M. 
E. Church, and for some years managed the publish 
ing house of that connection at Jackson, Tenn. He 
has retired from active work in the ministry and gone 
into business. Mr. Anderson has built a very fine 
brick block in Jackson, where he keeps a line of 
groceries, dry goods, boots and shoes ; in fact, a gen 
eral store. He has a large white trade. I am in 
formed that in addition to his store he owns a large 
amount of property. 

. . : . : J .3 


Mr. S. Fite, owner of Fite s Studio, at Owensboro, 
Ky., is in a position to render the race a great service. 
It is acknowledged that he is by far the best pho 
tographer in that city, and his patrons are not only 
the leading white people there, but they come from 
other towns to have work done. Mr. Fite had a hard 
struggle when he first located at Owensboro, because 
of the unfair means used by the white men engaged 
in the same line of work to defeat him. But he has 
more than won the fight, and stands at the head as 
an example of what push and pluck will do. 


Mr. and Mrs. Higgins, at Chattanooga, Tenn., are 
engaged in business in a way that will be helpful to 
the race. Mrs. Higgins is a manufacturer of human 
hair goods, in such things as switches, wigs, waves, 
bangs, and vest-chains. Her patrons are about all 
white, and their store is in the heart of the business 

512 Evidences of Progress 

part of the city, and is one of the neatest stores in 
that line I ever saw. Mr. Higgins is a practical watch 
maker, and has a splendid trade repairing and clean 
ing watches. 


J. W. Moore, at Paducah, Ky., is another successful 
business man. Mr. Moore is a native of Louisville, 
Ky. He was at one time a clerk in the Mileage 
Department of the C. & O. & S. W. R. R. office, and 
was also a letter-carrier for three years at Padu 
cah. He operates now a very large grocery store ; 
in fact, one of the best in the city. He has some 
thing to show for his labor, in the way of some 
eight houses, seven of which are rented. I found 
him interested in all that will help and advance the 



Jordan C. Jackson, the subject of this sketch, was 
born in Fayette County, Kentucky, February 25, 
1848. He is a remarkable example of what pluck 
and energy can do for a man without scholastic train 
ing. Mr. Jackson has been a prominent figure in the 
State for twenty years, and has attended every Re 
publican convention held in the State within that 

He was alternate delegate to the late Hon. W. C. 
Goodloe to the National Republican Convention, 
which met in Cincinnati in 1876, and delegate-at-large 
to the National Republican Convention which met at 
Minneapolis to nominate Benjamin Harrison the sec 
ond time as President of the United States an honor 

Among Colored People. 


which only one other man of the race has had con 
ferred upon him from Kentucky. Mr. Jackson was 
twice elected lay trustee of Wilberforce University, 
and is now, and has been for the past twelve years, 


trustee of Berea College, the most unique institution 
on the American continent. He stands ready with 
might and means to do his part in any and all move 
ments for the advancement of his race. Mr. Jackson 
has been United States storekeeper and gauger for a 

514 Evidences of Progress 

number ot years, and has always taken rank as a first- 
class officer. He is now a member of the under 
taking firm of Porter & Jackson, and has won for the 
firm and himself a place in the confidence of the 
people that can be had only by fair business transac 
tions and personal integrity. He was a most valued 
contributor to the Standard for a year, and was 
known to the many readers as " Observer," a title 
that befits him well, as all who have read his able 
articles will readily attest. Owing to his many busi 
ness cares, he has for a time retired from the literary 
field, and in losing him the Standard has lost one of 
its most highly prized writers. Writing under the 
nom de plume of Uncle Eph, he also furnished a 
number of most valuable articles for the American 
Citizen. He combines qualities that every man is 
not possessed of literary talent and business quali 
fication. Mr. Jackson is one of the most enthusiastic 
workers against the enactment of the separate-coach 
law of Kentucky, and was one of the first men ap 
pointed to wait on Governor Brown for the purpose 
of preventing the passage of the now obnoxious law. 
He is a member of the State Central Committee, and 
there is no man on the entire committee who is more 
in the struggle that we are now undergoing. He 
believes that if sufficient money is collected to test 
the constitutionality of the law, that it will be wiped 
from the statute-book of the Commonwealth. Mr. 
Jackson was elected temporary chairman of the sepa 
rate-coach convention held in Lexington, Ky., June 
22, 1892. 

Among Colored People. 



Rev. A. H. Miller, the subject of this brief sketch, 
was born a slave in St. Francis county, Arkansas, 
March 12, 1849. He has lived in Arkansas all his 
life, with the exception of a brief period just after 


the war, which was spent in St. Louis, Mo. After 
remaining in St. Louis about one year he returned to 
Arkansas, worked by the day, and saved enough 
money to give himself one session in Southland Col 
lege, near Helena, which constitutes the major por- 

516 Evidences of Progress 

tion of his school advantage. He was chosen by 
the people of his county to represent them in the 
Arkansas General Assembly, in 1874, and served his 
whole term honorably. It was witli the small amount 
of money he saved while a member of the State 
Legislature that he began his remarkable career as a 
financier. He is a man of economical habits, and 
gives close attention to his personal business. He 
has amassed a handsome little fortune, being re 
garded as one of the wealthiest negroes in East Ar 
kansas. Rev. Miller has travelled extensively, and 
is well known in the Baptist denomination. He is 
somewhat a philanthropist, and has the credit of 
being one of the first to make a personal gift to the 
National Baptist Publishing House. He has filled 
many important places in the work of his denomina 
tion. He is prominent as a local leader, and is at 
present a member of the Helena School Board. 
Mr. Miller owns and rents some fifty houses in 
Helena, and is building more for that purpose. 


Mr. Stansbury Boyce, of Jacksonville, Florida, 
has made a start in the right direction, and I hope 
that many colored men will follow in the lead he has 
taken. I have mentioned many men who have stores 
and are doing a successful business, but Mr. Boyce is 
the first one I have found who operates a regular 
department store on the plan of a city store of the 
same kind. Each department is in the hands of a 
colored girl, who has been trained by Mr. Boyce as 

Among- Colored People. 517 

a saleslady, and I am very confident that the girls in 
his store understand their work and know the quality 
of goods quite as well as white girls doing the same 
work. The store is patronized as much by white 
people as it is by colored, and Mr. Boyce said that 


in the " millinery department most of his trade came 
from the best class of white ladies." I hope those 
who read this short sketch will see what a great 
blessing stores like this would prove to the colored 
people if we had them all over the country, not only 

5 1 8 Evidences of Progress 

to make money for the owner, but for the purpose 
of giving employment to a large number of well- 
educated girls who can t find anything to do outside 
of teaching and domestic work. I found Mr. Boyce 
not only a successful merchant, but a very intelligent 
and polished gentleman. His wife has charge of the 
millinery department, and she thoroughly under 
stands her work. 


Isaac Johnson, Manufacturer and Dealer in Florida 
Curiosities, Jewelry, Novelties, Live and Stuffed Alli 
gators, Chameleons, Shells, Palmetto Fans, Fly 
Brushes and all kinds of Alligator Tooth Jewelry 
such is the wording of the billhead handed me by Mr. 
Johnson, the only colored man in the country who 
owns a store where all kinds of curiosities are made 
and sold. His store is in Jacksonville, Florida, and 
when walking down Hogan street your attention is 
frequently attracted to large crowds gathered on the 
left-hand side of the street. This is the great curio 
establishment sometimes known as the " Alligator 
Store," and is owned and operated by Mr. Isaac 

Mr. Johnson, when a boy, was employed on the 
very spot where he is now proprietor to assist around 
the store. He showed great ability, and as time 
went on this boy began to take hold of the work 
and manifested a deep interest in all curiosities. And 
from stuffing alligators he began to make very many 
pretty designs from different parts of this animal, 

Among Colored People. 519 

thus showing his ability in various directions, which 
was soon recognized by those who employed him. 

He not only displayed his ability, but he took 
special training, thus fitting himself for the work, 
which is one of an expert nature. Before very many 


years went by Mr. Johnson, by his honesty, thrift and 
diligence, not only acquired and mastered the trade, 
but was able when the opportunity presented itself 
to buy out the business, and to-day he is doing a 
large trade and is able to help others of his race. 

520 Evidences of Progress 


P. W. & E. E. Howard, of Jackson, Miss., are en 
gaged in the mercantile business on quite a large 
scale. They handle a general line of dry goods and 
groceries. I have mentioned several men who are 


engaged in the same line of business, in different 
parts of the country, and some who own larger 
stores, but when we take into consideration the age 
of these young men their effort becomes a thing of 
great interest to the public at large. Mr. E. E. 

Among Colored People. 521 

Howard, whose cut appears in connection with this 
sketch, is only about 21 years of age, while his 
brother, P. W. Howard, is only 24. These young 
men both attended Rust University, at Holly Springs, 
Miss., and there and at the public schools prepared 
themselves for their life s work. The money they 
have invested in their business is entirely their own 
earnings from boyhood they have been saving what 
they could earn with a view of some time going into 
some line of business. I have no doubt but what a 
large number of young men who have lived only to 
enjoy life will read this sketch with a degree of sad 
ness when they look over their past life and think 
how different things might have gone for them had 
they followed in the footsteps of such energetic and 
progressive young men as the Howard Brothers. 


E. E. Fluker, of Pine Bluff, Ark., is another of the 
successful merchants of the South. Mr. Fluker, 
like most men, began business on a small amount of 
money, and has had some heavy losses that were 
hard to stand and remain in business. He has a 
large store, and does both a wholesale and retail 
trade in dry goods, hats, caps, boots and shoes and 
groceries. Mr. Fluker handles cotton on a large 
scale, and thinks nothing of buying and selling 
twelve thousand bales per year. He furnishes dry 
goods and provisions to a large number of poor 
planters who can only pay their bills once a year, 
and that is when they sell their cotton. Mr. Fluker 

522 Evidences of Progress 

has also been active in society work and has been 
instrumental in getting large numbers of colored 
people into benevolent societies, where they could 
get help when sick and in need. He owns a fine 


brick block in Pine BlufT, where his business is con 
ducted, and in part of his building one of the city 
banks is operated. The room where the bank is is 
rented to white people, who carry on that business. 


R. J. Palmer, of Columbia, S. C, the subject of 
this short sketch, is one of the successful and leading 
business men of that city. Mr. Palmer is a merchant 
tailor by occupation. His patrons are numbered 
among the leading white citizens of Columbia, who 
give him their work because of the confidence they 

Among Colored People. 


have in him as an honest business man and an excel 
lent workman in his line. Mr. Palmer keeps on 
hand a full and complete stock of foreign and do 
mestic woolens and a good line of gents furnishing 
goods. He employs only the best of workmen, and 
he does all the cutting and fitting, and his business is 


carried on in a good brick building, which is owned 
by himself. He also owns a good home. He is an 
active and prominent member of the M. E. Church. 
Mr. Palmer is a native of South Carolina, and has all 
his life enjoyed the respect and confidence of the best 
peopl* of both races. 


Evidences of Progress 


Louis Kastor, of Natchez, Miss., is the only col 
ored man I have found in my travels engaged in the 
line of work he represents, at least on so large a scale 
as he carries on his business. He is a first-class 


harness-maker by trade and owns one of the largest 
and best-equipped stores in his line in the country. 
In addition to the harness he makes he keeps on 
hand a large stock of ready-made harness, bridles, 

Among Colored People. 525 

saddles, whips, rugs, in fact, a large and complete 
stock of all goods sold by men in his business. Mr. 
Kastor began first with $65.00, and is now doing a 
business of some $22,000 a year. He owns a fine 
property for a residence, and has the respect and con 
fidence of the best people in Natchez. In addition 
to his own residence Mr. Kastor owns three other 
houses, which he has rented. I found him a very 
intelligent man, and one who is very anxious to see 
the colored people advance in every department of 
life. He feels that they must be engaged in all lines 
of work and business in order that they may suc 


Mr. Sandy W. Trice was born in New Providence, 
Tenn., in 1866, He spent some years of his life in 
the employ of railroad companies, as porter on 
sleeping car. He finally decided to make an effort 
to get into business for himself, and in 1900, with a 
partner opened a small place, but at the end of one 
year he bought out the partner s interest. The busi 
ness was first started with a capital of about six 
hundred dollars ; he has on hand at this time a stock 
of goods worth over two thousand dollars, and doing 
a business of several thousand dollars per year. \ His 
patrons are among all classes of people, and much of 
his trade comes from white people. Mr. Trice keeps 
on hand a full line of men s furnishing goods ; also 
ladies goods. When he first started he thought he 
could let Mrs. Trice manage the store, and he would 

526 Evidences of Progress 

remain on the road in order that he might make more, 
but the business increased so rapidly that after one 
year he had to give up his work and take charge of 
the store, but his wife still helps in the business and 


Mr. Trice feels that he could not get along without 
her, and he gives her much credit for the great suc 
cess they have had. He has the only store of its 
kind in Chicago owned by a colored man. 

Among Colored People. 527 


Mr. E. H. Faulkner is in my mind a very interest 
ing character in race history. This short mention of 
him, accompanied with his cut, is another evidence 
that colored men are going into all lines of business. 
Mr. Faulkner has what is known as Tlie Afro- 
American news office, located at 3104 State street, 
Chicago, 111., where he keeps on hand each week 


the leading newpapers and magazines published by 
members of the race. He first started with two or 
three different papers each week, and of them he 
could only sell a few; but now his sales of papers and 
magazines run up into the thousands each year. 
Among the many papers and magazines sold by Mr. 
Faulkner we give a list of a few of them : 

Reformer, Richmond, Va. ; Planet, Richmond, Va.; 


Evidences of Progress 

Odd Felloivs Journal, Philadelphia, Pa.; Guardian^ 
Boston, Mass.; Atlanta Age, Atlanta, Ga. ; State 
Capital, Springfield, 111.; Colored American, Wash 
ington, D. C. ; New York Age, N. Y.; Gazette, 
Cleveland, Ohio ; Detroit Informer, Detroit, Mich* 


Eugene Burkins, inventor of the " Burkins Auto- 

Inventor of the Burkins Automatic Machine-Gun. 

matic Machine-Gun," was at one time a bootblack in 
the city of Chicago. He never had any education 

Among Colored People. 529 

outside of learning how to read and write. Nor had 
he ever been a soldier, or had any experience with 
guns of any description ; and for that reason his 
invention is all the more wonderful. He began first 
to make a careful study of the picture that appeared 
in the papers, showing the guns on the " Battleship 
Maine." Mr. Burkins saw in what way he could 
improve the machine-gun by increasing its rapid- 
firing capacity, and along that line he began to work 
His first model was mostly made with a pocket- 
knife. Some of the leading colored people helped 
him secure his patent. Mr. Madden, a wealthy 
man in Chicago, furnished over $3,000 to make a 
perfect model. Admiral Dewey said it was "by 
far the best machine-gun ever made." It shoots seven 
times more a minute than the Catling gun, and will 
doubtless take the place of other machine-guns. 
Several foreign countries have offered large sums for 
the right to manufacture it for their navies ; but Mr. 
Burkins and Mr. Madden, his partner, proposed to 
control the manufacturing interest in this country. 


Mr. Ceo. E. Jones, of Little Rock, Ark., is beyond 
doubt one of the most successful business men 
among the colored people. He began life a very 
poor boy, without friends or capital, and has by hard 
work and close economy placed himself among the 
most prominent business men of his city. Mr. Jones 
is engaged in the undertaking business, and can say 
what no other colored man engaged in that line of 

o o 

work in the South can say, and that is he has about 

530 Evidences @f Progress 

as much patronage among the white people as he has 
with his own race. Mr. Jones first started in busi 
ness as a merchant on a small amount of money, and 
finally worked into the undertaking business. He 
owns now in Little Rock quite a large amount of 


property, and among the different buildings there he 
has two large brick blocks, one on Main street, where 
he has his undertaking establishment, and one on 
West Ninth street, which is rented. In the Ninth 
street block Mr. Jones has in one room a fine drug 

Among Colored People. 


store, which he employs a young druggist to attend 
to. He owns a fine lot of horses and carnages used 
in his business as an undertaker. His residence is 
by far the best furnished home I ever saw owned by 
a colored man. Mrs. Jones, his wife, is a very re 
fined and cultured lady. 


G. W. Higgins was born in South Carolina, and 


lived for some time at Newberry, S. C. He began at 

532 Evidences of Progress 

an early age to acquire an education in order that he 
might be of some help to himself and race. Mr. 
Higgins attended Biddle University at Charlotte, N. 
C., where he took a course in theology. He was at 
one time principal of the public school at Old Fort, 
N. C., and while teaching there he established a 
Presbyterian Church, which is still in existence. 
After leaving the Presbyterian work he joined the 
A. M. E. Zion Connection, and was appointed pastor 
at Abington, Va., and afterwards at Johnson City, 
Tenn. There he became interested in the industrial 
advancement of the colored people, and set about to 
learn some trade, and secured work in a first-class 
steam laundry, and learned the business thoroughly, 
and afterwards operated a laundry of his own. Mr. 
Higgins came to Cincinnati, O., in 1893 and secured 
employment with the Oil and Grease Company of 
Chas. H. Moore & Co. After five years of faithful 
work for that firm he became an expert in the com 
pounding of the oils and greases made by the firm, 
and was offered a larger salary by Burchard & Co., 
of Cincinnati, who are refiners of lard oil. For this 
firm, Mr. Higgins has charge as foreman of the oil 
and grease department. He is much thought of by 
his employers. 


A. Means, of Memphis, Tenn., is a practical hatter, 
and is the only colored man I know of engaged in 
that line of work. He has a large trade and keeps 
on hand a select assortment of the latest styles in 

Among Colored People. 533 

hats and caps. Mr. Means does a large business in 
cleaning and repairing hats. 


J. E. Henderson, of Little Rock, Ark., is engaged 
in the jewelry business. Mr. Henderson is regarded 
as a good workman in his line, and for some years 
before he began business for himself he did the re 
pair work for one of the leading jewelry houses of 
Little Rock. He gets a great deal of his work now 
from the white people. I hope before many years to 
see a larger number of colored men engaged in the 
jewelry trade. 


The Southern Mercantile Company, Pine Bluff, 
Ark., is a company of excellent business men, who 
are demonstrating that colored men can manage a 
successful business enterprise. They handle a large 
stock of dry goods, groceries, boots and shoes and 
plantation supplies. They do both a wholesale and 
retail business. The firm has in it such men as 
Wiley Jones, Fred. Havis, who is president of the 
company, and Mr. M. R. Perry, as secretary and 
treasurer. Mr. Perry is a graduate from one of the 
best schools in the country and regarded as a splen 
did business man. 


L. Carter, of Greenville, Miss., was born of slave 
parents at Carthage, Tenn. He has been in Mis 
sissippi since 1866. Mr. Carter owns and operates 

534 Evidences of Progress 

the only large book store in the country owned by a 
colored man. He keeps a splendid stock of school 
books, blank books, stationery, periodicals and a 
good assortment of story books and toys. In speak 
ing of where he got the greater part of his support, 
he said that at least two-thirds of his patronage came 
from the white people, and among the best class of 
them. Mr. Carter owns good property in Greenville 
as a residence, and is regarded as one of the promi 
nent citizens. 


Davis & Robinson, of Jacksonville, Fla., are the 
leading commission merchants of that city. They do 
both a wholesale and retail business in oranges, 
fruits, strawberries, northern produce, turkeys, 
chickens, eggs, early vegetables. They handle 
melons in car-load lots and keep all kinds of game 
in season. They also supply the large hotels there 
with all they need in their line. Both of these men 
are respected and regarded as excellent business 
men by the leading people. 


Mrs. Ella Henderson, who is located at Natchez, 
Miss., has opened a very excellent millinery store, 
where she keeps a splendid stock of goods in that 
line of trade. As I have stated in other parts of 
this book, there are very few colored ladies engaged 
in the millinery business. This is to be regretted, 
for there is an opening for some one to do well in all 
towns where the colored population is large. Mrs. 

Among Colored People. 535 

Henderson has taken special training to thoroughly 
prepare herself for the successful management of her 
business. She started in a small way, and has twice 
since she opened her store had to enlarge the room 
in order to meet the demands of her trade. She 
buys her stock from the best houses in the country. 
The travelling salesmen who visit the town with 
millinery goods call on her and give her the same 
attention to secure her patronage as they do the 
white ladies in the same business. I hope that many 
colored ladies who may read this short sketch will 
be inspired to at least try and start some kind of 


Mr. H. T. Risher, of Jackson, Miss., who owns 
and operates a very large and successful bakery 
business, has taken a new departure in the line of 
business for colored people. I have only found two 
men engaged in that line of work. One was Mr. 
Jones, at Danville, Va., and Mr. Risher, of Jackson. 
His place of business is equipped with all the modern 
appliances for a first-class bake shop. Mr. Risher s 
trade extends to many of the towns in the State, 
where he supplies merchants who sell his bread. He 
has several delivery wagons that are used to supply 
his city patrons. Mr. Risher is regarded as a very 
excellent man, who is much interested in all that will 
advance the cause of his race in a business and edu 
cational way. He has been one of the leading 
spirits in building up Campbell College at Jackson, 

536 Evidences of Progress 

one of the A. M. E. schools. Mr. Risher owns 
splendid property and enjoys the respect of both 
white and colored people. 


F. B. Coffin, of Little Rock, Ark., is a druggist by 
profession. He operates a very fine drug store at 
Little Rock for Mr. Geo. E. Jones. Mr. Coffin is a 
graduate from Meharry Medical College, at Nash 
ville, Tenn. In addition to his work as a druggist 
he has written a book of poems, entitled " Coffin s 
Poems." The book has 248 pages, and contains 
some very interesting matter, which shows his ability 
as a writer. Part of his book is devoted to the ques 
tion of Lynch law, and he speaks out like a true and 
brave man against that awful curse to this country. 

MR. j. E. BUSH. 

J. E. Bush was born in Moscow, Tenn., in 1856. 
His parents moved to Arkansas during the rebellious 
unpleasantness of 1862. At an early age he mani 
fested the energy and self-reliance that has developed 
him into the useful prominence of a worthy and 
highly respected citizen. He earned his tuition at 
school by moulding brick. He may have made 
" bricks without straw," but his manliness has never 
allowed him to complain of the many hardships he 
has endured to overcome the difficulties in his ex 
perience or surmount the obstacles with which he 
has so often been brought into contact. Mr. Bush 
was educated in the schools of Little Rock, Ark 

Among Colored People. 537 

He has been successful in life and owns valuable 
property there. He has also held some important 
political positions, and was appointed in 1898 by 
President McKinley as Receiver of the United States 
Land Office at Little Rock. 

DR. G. W. BELL. 

Dr. G. W. Bell, of Pine Bluff, Ark., is a graduate 
of Lincoln University, and he took his medical train 
ing at " The University of Michigan." He has a 
very large practice. Dr. Bell has established, in con 
nection with his profession, a private sanitarium for 
the benefit of those who come to him from a dis 
tance for treatment. He has built a comfortable 
building for that purpose, and I think it is the only 
institution of the kind carried on by a colored doctor 
in the State. 


Mr. B. F. Jackson, of Boston, Mass., is an inventor 
of quite a number of very useful things ; among them 
is a matrix dryer used in all of the large newspaper 
offices, and a gas burner used with great success by 
candymakers. Mr. Jackson has in use now a trolley 
rope catcher, that is considered the best thing of its 
kind in use. He also invented a gasoline engine for 
automobiles that is in general use; in fact, he has an 
automobile that he made himself. Mr. Jackson 
hopes to organize a company of colored men who 
can invest money, and start a factory, where patents 
taken out by colored inventors can have their inven 
tions manufactured and put 011 the market. 

538 Evidences of Progress 

DR. T. M. DORAM, M. D. V. 

Dr. Dorain will doubtless be quite a bit of interest 
to the readers of this book, from the fact that he is 
the first and only negro graduate to receive a diploma 
from a veterinary college in the United States. He 

DR. T. M. DORAM, M. D. V. 

was born in Danville, Ky., where his parents own 
valuable farm land. His father was a carpenter, 
and when Dr. Doram was young he worked with 
him at the trade. After he had finished at the public 
school, in 1892, he entered Eckstein Norton Uni- 

Among Colored People. 539 

versity at Cane Spring, Ky. While there the build 
ing was destroyed by fire. Dr. Doram then found 
his knowledge of the carpenter s trade of great value 
to him and the school, in helping to rebuild the col 
lege building. In 1896 he entered the McKillip 
Veterinary College at Chicago, 111. At the close of 
the first year he was at the head of his class in ma- 
teria medica, and the second year he led his class 
in pharmacy, and during his last year he was made 
senior instructor of his class, an honor of which he 
may be justly proud. In 1 899, when he graduated, he 
came to Evanston, 111., where he enjoys a good 
practice, and he is called in his profession by the 
best people in that very wealthy and aristocratic 
community. I very much hope that a few at least 
of the young colored men who may read this sketch 
may be inspired to take up the profession of veter 
inary medicine and surgery, for I am confident that 
many could succeed in different parts of the country. 


In presenting a few words about Mr. J. W. Adams 
and his business I feel that I am doing the people 
at large a great favor to give them an opportunity 
to know something about this eminently successful 
colored business man. My attention was first called 
to Mr. Adams by Prof. Booker T. Washington while 
I was lecturing at Tuskegee. I changed my plans 
somewhat in order that I might visit Montgomery, 
Ala,, and see both the man and his place of busi 
ness. Mr. Adams was born in 1867. He began 


Evidences of Progress 

business for himself about 1899. But before that 
he picked up some knowledge of business by work 
ing for a large clothing house in Montgomery. He 
first went there as a porter, but in time they allowed 
him to sell goods. Mr. Adams always saved his 


money, and when he had about three hundred and 
fifty dollars he decided to make an effort for himself. 
He now operates a large store, where he sells dry 
goods, clothing, millinery, boots and shoes, hats, 
caps, trunks, notions, etc. Mr. Adams carries a stock 
of over twenty thousand dollars, and his store covers 

A) no Jig Colored People. $41 

over four thousand square feet ; but he first started 
in a room only 18 by 19 feet. His patrons are about 
evenly divided between white and colored people. 
He gives employment to a large number of clerks, 
all colored. In the millinery department I found two 
young ladies who had learned their trade at Tus- 
kegee. Many of the white ladies in Montgomery 
buy their hats at Mr. Adams store. I need not tell 
you that he is of great importance and help to the 
race, for we all know what a great inspiration such a 
man must be in stimulating a feeling among young 
men to at least try to build up some business in 


Mr. H. A. Loveless is also a resident of Mont 
gomery, Ala., and must be classed among the suc 
cessful business men of the race. He, like Mr. 
Adams, began business on a small scale, and by hard 
work and an untiring effort he has made a showing 
no man need to be ashamed of. Mr. Loveless 
operates a coal and wood yard, where he gives 
employment to a large force of men. He also owns 
teams and does general hauling, and has nine fine 
carriages that are kept on the street for the benefit 
of the general public. Then, in addition to what I 
have referred, Mr. Loveless has a very large un 
dertaker s establishment, which also gives quite a 
number of people employment. He owns fine 
town property, and is regarded by both white and 
colored people as a very excellent man. He takes 
an active part in church work, and is especially in- 

542 Evidences of Progress 

terested in every movement that will advance the 
colored people in the development of business in 
terest He along with other leading men of the race 
feel that industrial education, and a cfood business 



training for the young, will prove a great factor in 
the solution of what we call a " race problem." 


Proi. R. B. Hudson is a resident of Selma, Ala., 
where he is principal of the city school for colored 

Among Colored People. 543 

youths. The school is a very large one, and is re 
garded by such men as B. T. Washington, W. H. 
Councill and others as the best public school in the 
State. Mr. Hudson has been very active in educa- 


tional and religious work, and for Over fifteen years 
has been superintendent of a large Sunday-school, 
and president of the largest District Sunday-school 
Convention in the State. He is also secretary for 
the Baptist State Convention, and statistician for the 
Baptist denomination in the State. Prof. Hudson 

544 Evidences of Progress 

was for six years secretary of the State Teachers 
Association, and was then elevated to the presidency. 
So one can see that in a religious and educational 
work Mr. Hudson has been a very useful man, and 
I am glad to inform my readers that he has also 
done something in a business way, that is of great 
value to the race in starting a large coal and wood 
yard in Selma, where he gives employment to quite 
a force of men. There are six coal and wood 
yards in the city, and Prof. Hudson has the second 
in size. His business in that line brings him an in 
come of over ten thousand dollars per year, and his 
customers are made up of all classes, among them 
bankers, lawyers and leading merchants among the 
white people. Prof. Hudson is still young, and I am 
sure has a great future ahead of him. 


Dr. Burwell is also a resident of Selma, Ala., and 
a young man the people seem very fond of. He 
worked his way through school and graduated with 
high honors at Selma University, after which he en 
tered Leonard Medical College, at Raleigh, N. C, 
and by hard work finished the four-year course in 
three. Dr. Burwell located at Selma, and has built 
up a very extensive practice. He owns valuable 
property, and operates one of the largest drug stores 
in the South, and perhaps the largest owned by a 
colored man. The country people have great con 
fidence in him, not only as a physician, but as a splen 
did business man, and from far in the country people 

Among Colored People. 54$ 

come to get his opinion on some business matter. 
In our late war with Spain the doctor induced over 
thirty colored men to enlist, on the ground that they 
ought to show their loyalty to the American govern 
ment. I regret that I am unable to present a picture 
of the doctor. 


Mr. John M. Brown is to me a very interesting 
character. My attention was first called to him by a 
white man who sells the goods manufactured by Mr. 
Brown. The white man \vas a Southerner, but seemed 
quite proud of him. He is located in Macon, 
Ga., and operates a broom factory on quite a large 
scale, so much so that most of the time he has fifteen 
people employed. He makes only a high grade of 
brooms and sells them to the white merchants. Mr. 
Brown does not send out a white man to sell his 
goods, but goes himself and presents his claim for 
their patronage on the merits of hie manufactured 
article. I am glad to tell my readers that only on 
one or two occasions has his color been a hindrance 
to him in the State of Georgia, as far as the sale of 
his brooms are concerned. Just one other point of 
interest that will, I am sure, be appreciated, and that 
is, Mr. Brown has taught colored men the trade of 
broom making, and employs only members of the 


Few people are aware of the fact that Mr. Charles 
W. Chestnut, whose volumes of character sketches 
and short stories have made him famous, is a colored 

546 Evidences of Progress 

man. His home is in Cleveland, and to meet him 
on the street one would take him for a clerk in a 
store rather than an author. Until within the past 
couple of years Mr. Chestnut was a court steno 
grapher in Cleveland and employed several assistants. 
He has reported dozens of large conventions in this 
city, and he is known to thousands as a stenographer. 
Mr. Chestnut is of medium size and of very slight 
build. His hair is light and he has a small, light 
mustache. His hair has a slight tendency to kink, but 
this is hardly noticeable. His complexion is very 
fair, so much so that many Cleveland people believe 
him a white man. 


Provident Hospital and Training School, St. Louis, 
Mo., opened for the care of colored patients in this 
city on the 4th day of April, 1899, with a staff of 
nine colored physicians and a consulting staff of nine 

It has a Board of Managers composed of colored 
citizens of this city, it is a regular chartered institution, 
and has a capacity of fifteen beds, modern operating 
room, and three young colored women in training. 
Some of the most difficult operations known to surgery 
have been performed at the hospital during the past 
year. The hospital has been furnished entirely by 
the colored people of this city. 

This institution meets a long-felt want, as the 
colored people are not admitted to the white hospitals 
in St. Louis. Miss J. E. Valentine, a graduate of the 

Among Colored People. 

Freedmen s Hospital Training School, is head nurse. 
The course in the training school is two years. 

Dr. Samuel P. Stafford, a graduate of the Medical 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania, and 
lately one of the internes of Freedmen s Hospital 
and Douglass Hospital, is the physician in charge. 
The future of the hospital is full of hope and grow 
ing in usefulness. Dr. Curtis is President of the 
Board of Managers; W. E. Jackson, Secretary; C. H. 
Dodge, Treasurer. 

This data should have appeared in chapter twenty- 
five on Hospitals and Homes, but came too late. It, 
however, will be of interest to my readers. 


Mr. Warren King, of Cincinnati, Ohio, is making 
a most excellent impression among the better class 
of white people as to his qualifications as a splendid 
business man. Mr. King has taken charge of the 
restaurant in what is known as the Cumberland 
Flats. Only the very best people live in those Flats, 
and they must be persons of means to afford it. Mr. 
King boards all who live in those magnificent build 
ings. He has a great many friends, and is regarded 
by those who take meals in his restaurant as a most 
excellent manager. 


I have stated in several places in this book that 
colored people are here and there engaging in all 
kinds of business. It is with pleasure that I call at- 

548 Evidences of Progress 

tention to Mr. J. A. Braboy & Sons, of Kokomo, Ind. 
These gentlemen operate what is known as a "Temple 
of Music." They keep on hand a good assortment 
of high grade pianos and organs ; in fact, they 
handle only the best that is on the market. In ad 
dition to their stock of pianos and organs, they keep 
a general line of music and musical instruments. 
Mr. Braboy owns splendid property, and is respected 
by the leading people in Kokomo. 


Mr. Z. E. Walker, of Sumter, S. C, is one of the 
most successful merchants in that city. He operates 
what is known as a general store, where all kinds 
of goods are sold. He owns a great deal of very 
valuable property in town and one or two plantations 
in the country. He stands high in business, church 
and society. Mr. Walker began business with a 
very small amount of money, but is now looked 
upon as a very well-to-do man. 


Mr. W. G. Johnson, of Macon, Ga., has one of the 
best shoe stores in that city. His stock is not only 
large, but is in every way up to date. Mr. Johnson 
feels that if he buys the best goods made his people, 
and especially the better class of colored people, can 
not have that as an excuse for giving their patronage 
to the white merchants. Aside from his shoe store, he 
owns some very excellent property ; in fact, he owns 
the whole block in which his store is kept. He is 

Among Colored People. 549 

a young man, and I believe has a useful future before 


Mr. James A. Joyce, of Cleveland, Ohio, is em 
ployed by the King Iron Bridge Co. of that city. 
Mr. Joyce is the only colored man engaged as a 
bridge draftsman in the U. S. A. His work for that 
company is making designs for high grade bridge 
work. Mr. Joyce has on several occasions been sent 
out on large contracts to oversee the construction of 
some very difficult work in their line. I am sorry 
that I am unable to give a picture of Mr. Joyce in 
connection with this brief mention of what I regard 
as a very important character in race history. 


Mr. Fitzgerald is a resident of Durham, N. C., and 
is one of the largest brick manufacturers in the 
United States. He makes a specialty of fine and 
ornamental brick. Mr. Fitzgerald lives in one of the 
handsomest residences in Durham. He is also in 
terested in what is known as the Durham Real 
Estate, Mercantile and Manufacturing Company. 
It is not a " trust " or grasping monopoly ; on the 
contrary, it is a trust for the people, through which, 
on the most generous plan, they can with absolute 
safety and ease become stockholders, do business 
and become factors in the mercantile world. 

This corporation is formed under the laws of the 
State of North Carolina to promote manufacturing 
and mercantile interests, thus becoming a factor in 

550 Evidences of Progress 

the development of nature s resources as they exist 
in North Carolina, thereby opening up an avenue 
heretofore unknown to colored people. 

The shares are low, within the reach of all. For 
$IO.OO one can become a stockholder and will be 
entitled to an equal share of all profit, which divi 
dends will be declared and paid at such periods as 
will be designated by their by-laws. 

With ample capital, backed by such well known 
parties as R. B. Fitzgerald, P. H. Smith, D. A. Lane, 
and others, under its agreements consolidating large 
interests, it is able to provide homes and investments, 
large or small, at a great benefit to its patrons, and, 
with absolute safety and ease, enable one to be 
come the owner of the most precious thing on 
earth a home for his family. 


The hospital and training school located at Charles 
ton, S. C, was organized in 1897, for the purpose of 
training colored women as nurses. That such an 
institution was needed in that community is evi 
denced by the fact that their nurses are always in 
demand, and graduates find ready employment. 

Students have been admitted to the institution, not 
only from Charleston and vicinity, but from all parts 
of this State, and from some adjoining States. 

The course extends through two years, the first 
year being devoted to lectures and practical work in 
the hospital, and the second year to practical work 
in the hospital and to outside cases. 

Among Colored People. 551 

Thorough training is given in all branches of the 
nurse s profession, including the nursing of surgical 
cases. Tuition is free, and nurses are given board 
and lodging in the hospital building. Candidates for 
admission to the training school must be of good 
character, in good health, and have a common school 

Further information may be procured by address 
ing the Surgeon-in-Chief, Dr. A. C. McClennan, at 
the hospital, No. 135 Cannon St., Charleston, S. C. 

The general public is asked to give what aid they 
can for the support and development of this most 
worthy institution. If those who have means to 
give would take into consideration that by educating 
some young colored lady as a trained nurse they have 
helped one more of the race to leave somebody s cook 
kitchen, and enter a life where they can not only be 
self-sustaining, but their position would give both 
dignity and standing to the race. 

Dr. A. C. McClennan, who is in charge of the 
hospital, I found a very pleasant gentleman, and one 
who is kept busy with a large practice outside of the 
hospital work. This information came too late to 
be mentioned with other such institutions written up 
in my book. 


Dr. L. J. Harris is a native of Virginia and a son of 
Samuel Harris, of Williamsburg, the noted mer 
chant referred to on page 300 of this book. Dr. 
Harris is a graduate of Harvard, and has taken a 
special course of study in the treatment of the eye, 

552 Evidences of Progress 

ear, nose and throat, and has located in Boston, and 
gives all of his time to this special work. There have 
been a large number of colored doctors educated, 
and I think that, as a rule, they are succeeding in 
their profession as regular practitioners. But Dr. 
Harris is the first to establish himself as a specialist. 
We most certainly wish him well in this departure 
from a regular line of practice, and hope his success 
may inspire other young men to follow in his 


Mr. E. C. Berry, owner and proprietor of a $60 ooo 
hotel at Athens, Ohio, is a man that I feel the world 
ought to know. He was born at Oberlin, Ohio, in 
1855 ; hi s education was received at Albany, a ham 
let in Athens county. When fifteen years of age 
he went to Athens and was employed as a hodcarrier 
on the Hospital for the Insane, then in course of 
building. Mr. Berry was married in 1875, and for a 
time he boarded his wife at his own people s home. 
His first business venture was a lunch counter, which 
he started without any means, and was already $40.00 
in debt. After he had got fairly started his wife 
joined him, and in 1878 they opened a restaurant in 
a small building on the site of the present hotel, and 
Mr. Berry s peculiar talent for serving palatable viands 
made him the popular caterer of the town. His 
restaurant was often patronized by traveling men who 
would arrive too late to get a meal at the hotel, and 
because of the most excellent meals served at his 
restaurant those men would ask. Why do you not 

Among Colored People. 553 

open a hotel ? and at the same time would say, If you 
will, you can count on my being one of your patrons. 
So many of those who took meals at his restaurant 
said about the same thing to him that he felt en- 


couraged to make the effort. In 1892 Mr. Berry 
purchased the adjoining building and commenced 
the erection of a twenty-room hotel. From the very 
first the business paid ; the house was new, neat and 
clean, and always full of people, so much so that 


Evidences of Progress 

Mr. Berry soon found that his house was inadequate 
for the business. In 1894 he built two large sample 
rooms, over which he arranged four more sleeping 
rooms. But one year later was because of the in 
crease in his trade forced to again enlarge his 

E. c. BERRY S $60,000 HOTEL. 

house. Up to that time he had spent very near five 
thousand dollars in improvements. In 1899 Mr. 
Berry enlarged his house to its present capacity, 
which is forty-six sleeping rooms, a dining room with 
a seating capacity of seventy-five, a light, well-veq- 

Among Colored People. 555 

tilated room used exclusively for writing 20 by 40 
feet, one reading room 15 by 30 feet, four good, 
light sample rooms on ground floor, and the whole 
house is heated with three large hot-water heaters, 
with public bath-rooms on each floor, and several 
rooms with bath. The success that has come to 
Mr. Berry in the hotel business is due wholly to the 
fact that he is a natural-born caterer and a splendid 
manager. I have traveled for years in this and other 
countries, and I am free to say that the " Hotel 
Berry " is one of the best furnished houses I ever saw. 
Mr. Berry gives his personal attention to every de 
tail that will make those who are guests in his 
house comfortable. His trade comes only from the 
best people on the road. He employs two clerks, 
one white and one colored. Colored people who 
are refined and represent the same class of whites 
who stop there are never turned away. I was 
pleased to hear him say that much of his suc 
cess was due to the constant oversight his wife had 
of affairs in the inside management of the house. 
I only wish I could write an article that would 
paint a word-picture strong enough to make the 
American people see what a magnificent hotel Mr. 
Berry really keeps. Aside from his very busy life, 
he finds time to do a lot of church work, and is 
looked upon as the leading man in the colored 
Baptist church of Athens. 


Dumar Watkins is another member of the race 


Evidences of Progress 

who should be known by the American people at 
large. Mr. Watkins is holding a position and doing 
a line of work that has never been done by any colored 
man in connection with a white institution such as 


the one with which he is associated. My attention 
was called to him while lecturing at Princeton, N. J., 
by Rev. J. Q. Johnson. I am sure it will be as much 
a surprise to my readers, and I hope as much of a 
pleasure, as it was to me, when I learned that the 

Among Colored People. 557 

pathologist of Princeton University was a colored 
man in the person of Dumar Watkins. When we 
called upon him we found him at his work, prepar 
ing some pathological slides for microscopic use. 
He is much liked at the university, and is considered 
very proficient in his work. The picture I present 
here of Mr. Watkins is a splendid likeness of the 
man. I need not tell my readers that Princeton 
University is regarded as one of the greatest schools 
in the world, and it ought to very much increase 
the colored people s race pride to know that a mem 
ber of the race holds such a position there as Mr. 
Watkins occupies. 


Lewis H. Latimer, of New York city, is the only 
member of the race engaged in the line of work he 
represents. In 1880 Mr. Latimer entered the em 
ploy of the United States Electric Lighting Com 
pany as a draftsman and private secretary to Sir 
Hiram S. Maxim, of Maxim gun fame. In 1881 
Mr. Latimer was sent to England by the above- 
named company to establish the manufacture of the 
incandescent electric lamps in the factory of the 
Maxim, Weston Electric Light Company of Lon 
don. He returned in the latter part of 1882, and 
continued only a few months in the employment of 
the company who sent him abroad. For some time 
he served as draftsman and electrician in several 
minor companies. He was employed by the Edison 
Electric Light Company in 1886, and has remained 


Evidences of Progress 

with them practically ever since, although that com 
pany has been absorbed by the General Electric 
Lighting Company. Mr. Latimer is kept in what is 
known as the legal expert department, and is regarded 


as a very competent man in his profession. He 
stands almost alone in his work as a colored man. 
I have only known of about three members of the 
race who have made any effort along that line, but 
the other two never succeeded in making any head 
way, at least not enough to become known to any 

Among Colored People. 559 

extent. Now, one can easily see that the people 
who employ Mr. Latimer must hold him in high 
esteem and place in him the most implicit confi 
dence, or they would never have sent him to another 
country to represent their business. This mention 
of Mr. Latimer is another evidence that colored 
people are gradually but surely getting into all lines 
of business and professions, and I hope that in time 
we may call attention to other successful electri 
cians among the race. 


Mr. J. S. Atwood, of Ripley, Ohio, is a member 
of the race who has a great many friends and ad 
mirers among both white and colored people. At 
present Mr. Atwood is engaged in the livery busi 
ness on a very large scale. His horses and carriages 
are the best, and his trade comes from the leading 
people in the city. He not only owns the large 
building where his business is carried on, but he 
owns quite a number of others in the place. He 
was born a slave in Alabama, and is a brother of 
Mr. W. Q. Atwood, of Saginaw, Mich., who is also 
mentioned in this book. For years he has been 
active in the interest of his race, especially in 
defending their rights. He was one who urged 
Bishop Arnett to introduce the bill in the Ohio 
legislature that mixed the schools of the State, 
and in that way gave several thousand colored 
children an educational opportunity who had before 
that been kept out of school, as there were only 

5 6o 

Evidences of 

colored schools in towns where the colored popula 
tion was large. For sixteen years Mr. Atwood was a 
member of the board of councilmen of Ripley, Ohio. 
He has always been a strong and very influential 


Republican, but his general popularity as a leader 
and strong man was such that he was chosen by a 
Democratic governor to take the presidency of the 
Ohio Institution for the Education of the Blind, lo 
cated at Columbus, Ohio. He served as president of 

Among Colored People. 561 

this institution for five years, and while there brought 
about many reforms in the interest of the race. Be 
fore he went there colored people had never held po 
sitions of any kind at the institution ; in fact, colored 
children had been put off by themselves to both eat 
and sleep. Mr. Atwood soon put a stop to that sort 
of thing, and he also appointed several colored 
people to different positions about the institution, 
such as clerks and teachers. Some of the colored 
teachers appointed by him gave such general satis 
faction that they are still retained, atmough he has 
been away for years. At Ripley Mr. Atwood is 
looked upon as a very important citizen, and his 
color in no way stands in the way of his popularity 
and usefulness. 


George W. Franklin, Jr., was born in Rome, Ga., 
December II, 1865. He learned the blacksmith 
trade with his father, who is still living and engaged 
at his trade. Mr. Franklin saved his money from 
childhood, and by the time he was a man he had 
enough to start business with. His first effort in a 


business way was a hack line and livery stable ; in 
this he succeeded. Seeing the need of a colored 
undertaker in Rome, he began by making his own 
hearse, which was the first ever owned by a colored 
man in Rome. In time he wanted a larger field for 
his business, and moved to Chattanooga, Tenn., and 
opened an undertaker s establishment on a larger 
scale. In five years time he built up a business that 

5 6 2 

Evidences of Progress 

brought him several thousand dollars per year. He 
now owns three beautiful funeral cars and landau 
carriages, dead wagons and a beautiful lot of white 
horses. Mr. Franklin has over ten thousand dol- 


lars invested in his business and is out of debt. 
He is recognized by white undertakers to the ex 
tent that when either he or they have large funerals 
they will exchange carriages with each other. He 
buys only the best of everything used in his busi 
ness, and has bought a large tract of land for burial 

Among Colored People. 563 

purposes, which is known as East View Cemetery. 
I found him a very pleasant man. He is much 
interested in the race, and when Booker T. Wash 
ington called a meeting in 1900 of the colored 
business men of this country, which met in Boston, 
Mass., Mr. Franklin took an active part, and, in fact, 
gave an address there that was regarded as very able 
by the press of Boston. 



THE National Baptist Publishing Board, located at 
Nashville, Tenn., is, beyond doubt, the largest and 
by far the best equipped printing plant operated by 
colored people. This establishment was started for 
the purpose of giving some of the enormous amount 
of printing done for the colored people, in the way oi 
Sunday-school literature and regular church publi 
cations, into the hands of the race, in order that em 
ployment might be given to those who were already 
competent printers, and at the same time encourage 
others to learn the trade. Rev. R. H. Boyd, D. D., 
is the general secretary. He has shown himself a 
very active and efficient man in his place. The suc 
cess of this enterprise has far surpassed their most 
sanguine hopes. The board does all kinds of print 
ing, even book work of a high order. I think it no 
more than fair to them and the public that I give 
here a part of the secretary s yearly report for 1900 
and a part of 1901 : 

" The work of our Publishing Board has been con 
ducted this year on the same plan as the past four 
years, by a board of managers, a secretary, treasurer 
and general manager. The literary department has 
been conducted by an editor-in-chief, with an editorial 
staff. We are glad to say that every department of 

Among Colored People. 565 

this work has been conducted on strict business 
principles. Our board has held three meetings in 
the rooms of the publishing house, examining the 
machinery and plant thoroughly, and has appointed 
an auditor, who has gone carefully over all of the 
books and accounts and attached his certificate to 
each quarterly report rendered by the Publishing 
Board. We are glad to say that the work is no 
longer an experiment, but a reality. We have the 
best and most thoroughly equipped publishing plant 
in America owned and operated by negroes. In our 
judgment, seventy-five thousand dollars ($75,000) is 
a very low estimate for this plant, for if it were capi 
talized for one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) 
it would pay a reasonable dividend. This plant has 
only a small debt, and this is mostly on the real estate. 
It is strange that all of this has been paid for out of 
the profit arising from the business, and yet the Pub 
lishing Board has made large appropriations each 
year to missions. 

" Last year we called your attention to the fact 
that there had been so great an increase in the volume 
of business that we were compelled to make general 
improvements. We did not expect, however, at the 
time to make the improvements so extensive, but the 
great enthusiasm created by the delegates on return 
ing from the convention at Richmond aroused such 
interest everywhere, that the volume of business has 
far surpassed the most sanguine expectations of the 
most hopeful friend of the Publishing Board. 

" The improvements begun last year are fully com- 

566 Evidences of Progress 

pleted. We have also added a machine known as 
the arithmometer and two typewriters to our clerical 
department. We have added one roller backer ma 
chine and one book and pamphlet trimmer, together 


. . , ;:.; < 


with a great deal of bookbinders appliances to our 
bindery. We have added one more steam-engine 
and a full electric light plant to our power-house, 
three more printing presses to our press-room, a 

Among Colored People. 567 

full set of linotype machinery, together with a large 
supply of printing material to our composing-room. 

" The greatest need to-day of our publishing plant 
is more room. We occupy three brick buildings, 
one, two and three stories respectively. These are 
crowded to their utmost capacity, and yet the board 
has work of its own and uncompleted contracts which 
are more than ninety days behind. 

" This department is almost exclusively under the 
management of the secretary and general manager, 
who has conducted the business in such a way as to 
challenge the admiration and confidence of the com 
mercial world, bringing respect and honor to the de 
nomination and credit to himself. We are glad to 
say that his careful business management has brought 
almost unlimited credit to our publishing concern in 
commercial circles. 

" It would be well under this head to call the atten 
tion of the members of the convention to the profits 
or income arising from this business to the denomi 
nation. By referring to our financial statement, it 
will be seen that after meeting all expenses of publi 
cation the Publishing Board was able to pay cash for 
$6,000 worth of machinery, which will stand as a 
permanent fund, and has an uncollected account 
standing out in open accounts and negotiable notes 
to the amount of over $2,425.37, and still made an 
appropriation of over $8,000 to missions, thus show 
ing that the Publishing Board is not only self-sup- 

568 Evidences of Progress 

porting, but has paid a dividend to the denomination 
this year of $16,425.37. 

" Our Publishing Board is not only publishing 
pamphlets and Sunday-school magazines in their 
own name, but is really doing the work. All type 
setting, presswork and binding is done by our own 
people. They are also engaged in real bookbinding. 
This is furnishing employment to a large number of 
skilled mechanics who could not obtain like employ 
ment in any other institution." 

I am sure that the statements made by Secretary 
Boyd will be very encouraging to all who read them. 
One of the leading men in this great work is the Rev. 
E. C. Morris, D. D., who is president of the National 
Baptist Convention. He is a very progressive man, 
and has done much for the elevation of the colored 
people at large. From the fact that Rev. Morris has 
been president of the national convention for years 
shows the high esteem he is held in by the Baptist 



IN this chapter we introduce to our readers Lieu 
tenant Charles Young, who is the second colored 
graduate from West Point. He was for some four 
years Professor of Military Science and Tactics at 
Wilberforce, Ohio. Mr. Young, as can be seen from 
his picture, is a man of splendid military appearance, 
and is regarded by all who know him as a most excel 
lent young man. It is well known that in our Civil 
War the colored soldiers made a reputation for them 
selves as brave men. It has not, as yet, been much 
written about by those who have given a history of 
that war. But merit will win and become known in 
time. I reproduce here mention made of colored 
soldiers by General Guy V. Henry, U. S. A., himself 
a veteran soldier, who, in a recent report, speaking of 
colored American troops, says : " In garrison they are 
clean, self-respecting, and proud of their uniform ; in 
the field, patient and cheerful under hardships and 
privations, never growling or discontented, doing 
what is required of them without a murmur." 

I also give an article that appeared in the Pittsburg 
Times relating to the colored troops in our late war 
with Spain : 

"Amid all the praise that has been bestowed on 


Evidences of Progress 

our fighters on land and sea since hostilities began 
but little has been said of the colored troops, of whom 
there were several regiments in the thick of the fight 

ing around Santiago. 

When the 

Rough-Riders re- 



ceived their baptism of fire the country rang with 
their praises, but few paused to note that the colored 
troops fought side by side with them with equal 
bravery, and, in fact, rescued them from their perilous 

Evidences of Progress 57 l 

position. In the subsequent fighting at El Caney and 
at San Juan, before Santiago, they were second to 
none in the bravery of their fighting and in the in 
trepidity of their charges. They met the deadly rain 
of bullets as unflinchingly as the best of their white 
comrades, and, in proportion to their numbers, they 
furnished as numerous victims to the missiles of the 
enemy as any of the other commands. Under their 
dark skins was the same warlike and patriotic spirit 
that throbbed in the nerves of their paler fellow-sol 

" On that field they once more vindicated the wis 
dom that has given them citizenship, and showed that 
they are made of the stuff which constitutes the 
modern American and causes him to be respected 
and admired. No men ever fought for their country 
more bravely than did all the men who were engaged 
at Santiago, and among them all none exceeded the 
colored men in all the attributes of true soldiers and 
patriots. They were there, Americans of the Amer 
icans, battling for their country, and the difference in 
the color of their skin made no difference in the 
quality of their courage or service. It is to be hoped 
that when all come to thoroughly understand the 
quality of the negro as a soldier a little more consid 
eration may be paid to his rights as a citizen." 





Of the various enterprises launched within the last 
decade, none appear to me to have made more rapid 
progress than the Metropolitan Mercantile & Realty 
Company. Persons attempting to find the cause of 
the rapid growth of this great institution need only 
visit the Home Office of this company and interview 
its officers. To do so, one will certainly become 
convinced that the Company is headed by a set of 
men who have the ambition and zeal of youth, but at 
the same time the caution and foresight of men of 
long experience in the ways and tendencies of the 
business world. 

We know of no company that is more in accord 
with the spirit of the age; no company whose managers 
better interpret and better understand the principles 
of successful business enterprises than those of the 
Metropolitan Mercantile & Realty Company. The 
company was incorporated in 1900, and its perma 
nent headquarters established at 150 Nassau street, 
which is in the heart of the business section of the 
great city of New York ; being within a few blocks 
of the world-famed Wall street; and although this 
company seems to have caught the spirit of this 

Among Colored People. 573 

great financial centre, it lias not copied its daring 
speculative features. For while the Metropolitan 
Mercantile & Realty Company is entirely progressive, 
it is at the same time conservative ; as I am told that 
its capital is invested only in improved real estate. 

The company has agents and branch offices in ten 
different States, and through them it is always able to 
invest its money in the best real estate securities, 
and at the same time to assist worthy colored peo 
ple in getting homes. The company also deals 
in groceries, and I am told makes a handsome profit 
out of them, and for the last two years has paid a 
dividend to its stockholders of seven per cent. 
From the present outlook the dividends will in 
crease in the near future, as the business is growing 

The company began business with a capital stock 
of one hundred thousand dollars, and has since in 
creased the same to five hundred thousand dollars, 
and the par value to ten dollars ; and while the stock 
is sellingr at five dollars at the time of coiner to the 

o o o 

press with this edition, it will gradually increase until 
its market value reaches ten dollars. 

Of the different testimonials which the company 
has, showing what the leading men think of it, we 
print the one below from the Rev. W. H. Brooks, 
D. D., pastor of St. Mark s M. E. Church, New York 

The president of the company, Mr. P. Sheridan 
Ball, whose picture is herein contained, is a thorough, 
wide-awake, energetic and progressive young man, 


Evidences of Progress 

and possesses many qualities of the true leader of a 
great company. He is quick to see an opportunity, 
and equally quick to grasp it; he is untiring in the 
work and quite original. He graduated from a 


business college in New Jersey, and was for many 
years a partner in the Centennial Manufacturing 

Mr. John H. Atkins, the treasurer, and Mr. L. C. 
Collins, the secretary, may be treated collectively. 

Among Colored People. 575 

They were both Virginians formerly, and both gradu 
ated in 1893 from the Hampton Normal and In 
dustrial Institute, the school that furnishes to the 
world Dr. Booker T. Washington, and they both 


again graduated from the law department of the New 
York University in 1897, and are members of the 
New York bar. Their training, then, and their keen 
legal minds make them eminently fitted for the 
position which they hold. 

576 Evidences of Progress 

In addition to the Metropolitan Mercantile & 
Realty features, the company has an insurance de 
partment, the Metropolitan Mutual Benefit Associa 
tion. This department has a membership of over 


ten thousand, and pays larger claims than any other 
of its kind. It is established in many different cities 
and States, and has several thousand members in 
Charleston, South Carolina, alone. 

The company, while giving an advantage to all 

Among Colored People. 577 

who pay cash for their stock by allowing a discount 
of six per cent., at the same time caters to the small 
investor as well, and persons may purchase stock in 
blocks of five or more shares, and pay one dollar 
per share upon subscribing, and forty cents per share 
monthly until the amount subscribed for is paid. 
For the benefit of persons wanting more information 
about this company than the foregoing, we advise 
them to write the Home Office, 150 Nassau street, 
New York City, N..Y. 


Mrs. Williams was born in Brockport, N. Y., and 
received a collegiate education. She is petite in 
stature, with a complexion of clear light brown, and 
delicacy of feature. Her voice is singularly soft and 
sympathetic in tone. There is a pathetic quality in 
her public speaking that never fails to touch the 
hearts of her listeners. Her most popular lectures 
are: "What Will You Do With Our Women?" 
" Religion and the American Negro," " Prudence 
Crandall ; or, A Modern Canterbury Tale," " Oppor 
tunities of Western Women," "Opportunities and 
Responsibilities of American Colored Women." 

I have been anxious for several years to present a 
cut of Mrs. Williams, and mention of her very useful 
life for the elevation of her people. I regret very 
much that we have not hundreds more such brilliant 
women to take up just such work as she has done 
with such excellent success. I give here a few of 
the many press notices that have appeared in all or 
many of our leading papers. 


Evidences of Progress 

" Mrs. Williams takes the greatest interest in all 
things which pertain to the well-being of the colored 
people, and she never hesitates to write or speak in 
their behalf. As a lecturer she is in great demand. 


She has appeared several times in All Souls Church, 
this city; at Oak Park, Riverside, Hinsdale and in 
many cities and towns in Michigan, Wisconsin and 
Illinois during the last year." Cliic ago Evening Post. 

Among Colored People. 

" Mrs. Fannie Barrier Williams, Corresponding 
Secretary of the Illinois Women s Alliance, who was 
a member of the recent Woman s Congress at Wash 
ington, lectured in Providence, New York and Jersey 
City during the past week on Our Women. Mrs. 
Williams is the lady whose application for member 
ship in the Chicago Woman s Club raised such a 
rumpus in November of last year. She is a woman 
of more than usual intelligence, has a very pleasing 
address, and is an agreeable public speaker." New 
York Sun. 

To hear Mrs. Williams, says one who listened 
to her in Chicago, is to feel a new conviction of the 
possibilities of the race she represents, and a new 
sense of responsibility for the unjust conditions 
against which this race struggles. Mrs. Williams is 
one of whom Frederick Douglass speaks in terms of 
warmest admiration." Kalamazoo Daily News. 

Mrs. Williams is the wife of S. Laing Williams, of 
Chicago, who is a lawyer of great ability, and by 
push and constant application has worked up a 
splendid practice. He, like his wife, takes an active 
part in every movement that will advance the interest 
of the colored people. Mr. Williams is a prominent 
member of the National Negro Business League ; in 
fact, is one of the officers of the League. The or 
ganization was put on foot by Booker T. Washington, 
and has done great good for the race. 


We give in this sketch a cut of Miss Cora J. 

580 Evidences of Progress 

Hawkins, a Chicago lady who has a public sten 
ographic office in the Omaha Building, Chicago. So 
far as we know, Miss Hawkins is the only young 
colored woman managing an office of this kind on 


her own responsibility. Fitting herself for this kind 
of work in the High School at Milwaukee, Wis., 
Miss Hawkins used every means possible to make 
herself thoroughly proficient. After working for 
three years on a salary of $5.00 per week for the first 

Among Colored People. 581 

six months, and later at $8.00 per week, she gained 
a thorough and valuable business training; but, as 
there was no chance for further advancement with 
this firm, Miss Hawkins decided then that she would 
branch out for herself. By dint of perseverance and 
dogged determination, she at this time has succeeded 
in building up a good paying business. 

In my interview with Miss Hawkins she consented 
to this write-up, because she wished to have colored 
boys and girls see the advisability of getting at least 
a high school education, and then, if they have the 
slightest liking for a business education, to fit them 
selves for stenographers and bookkeepers. Miss 
Hawkins has had many opportunities of securing 
good positions for colored stenographers, but says 
that in all her acquaintance there are not six whom 
she could recommend as being thoroughly com 
petent. Some who are rapid typewriter operators 
are poor spellers and neglect their shorthand entirely, 
and others have attended some business college for 
six months and make no further attempt to perfect 
themselves, being apparently thoroughly satisfied 
with what little they could learn in that six months, 
and expecting to secure a good paying position when 
they were in reality mere beginners in the work, and 
had had no experience whatever. Miss Hawkins 
states that often when she was seeking a position she 
offered to work without any compensation in order 
to gain experience. It is her belief, and it is the belief 
of most broad-minded people, that there is plenty ol 
work for all colored men and women, boys and girls, 

582 Evidences of Progress 

who are thoroughly competent to fill the positions 
they seek, and who are not easily discouraged. 

Miss Hawkins has at times employed four or five 
assistants, but in nearly all cases they were (neces 
sarily) white girls. 

Not long ago a prominent business man offered to 
employ all colored help in his office if he could find 
enough who were competent both men and women. 
After having talked with this man, and arousing his 
sympathy and getting this offer of assistance to the 
race, Miss Hawkins was very much embarrassed to 
find that it was no easy matter; in fact, almost an 
impossibility, to find colored bookkeepers, shipping 
clerks, stenographers, etc., who (to use the man s own 
words) were honest, thoroughly trustworthy, well 
educated ; in short, persons who were capable, and 
would be perfectly loyal whether their employer was 
out of the city or in the office every day to see that 
their work was well done. 

There are opportunities for all colored persons 
who are prepared to grasp them. 


Miss Mattie J. Johnson is employed as a saleslady 
in Siegel, Cooper & Company s large store in the 
city of Chicago. She began work for them in 1893, 
and has been there ever since. Miss Johnson is in 
the grocery department, and is regarded by her em 
ployers as one of the most competent women in their 
store. She has many warm friends among the 
patrons of the establishment. We are glad that we 

Among Colored People. 


are able to present with this short mention of Miss 
Johnson a splendid picture of her, and while she is 
the first colored lady thus employed knowing that 
she was colored when they engaged her I am sure 


she will not be the last, and I hope that this mention 
of her may stimulate many young women to prepare 
themselves for some useful place, for there is no 
doubt in my mind but many positions will be open 
to colored people in the future that have been denied 

584 Evidences of Progress 

them in the past. Miss Johnson came from the 
South to Chicago. Many of her relatives are still in 
the South. 



Mr. F. D. Chenault is another member of the race 
whose life ought to be an inspiration to all who read 
this brief sketch of his business success. He was 
born in Kentucky, in 1868, and moved to Kansas, in 

Am o Jig Colored People. 585 

1880, where he learned the butcher s After 
four years of hard work he was competent to do all 
work in his trade and demand a good salary. Mr. 
Chenault came to Chicago in 1891, where he started 
in business for himself. Having only $28.00, he had 
to begin on a small scale, but we are glad to say that 
success has attended his effort from the first. He 
has now, at 2630 State street, a large and well fitted 
up meat market, where he sells all kinds of meats 
and poultry, also game in season. His business has 
grown from the $28.00 start to an income of some 
fifteen thousand dollars per year. Mr. Chenault 
says that his patrons are by no means all colored, 
but made up of all nationalities living in that section 
of the city. Now, the lesson that we hope to teach 
in presenting this data and cut of Mr. Chenault, is 
the help it may be to young men who may read it, 
for we believe that as he started and succeeded so 
could hundreds of others if the efforts adopted by 
him be applied by them. They need not all become 
butchers, but take up some one of the many lines of 
business open to men of brains and energy. 


Dr. Thomas W. Patrick ir, a native of Hayti, but 
was brought up in Trinidad. West Indies, where he 
secured his certificate of registration in pharmacy. 
He came to Boston, and for some time was with the 
E. L. Patch Co., the manufacturing chemists of Stone- 


ham, and afterwards studied at the College of Physi 
cians and Surgeons in that city. For some time he 

586 Evidences of Progress 

conducted a drug store in Blossom street, Boston, 
but for ten years or more has given his attention to 
teaching pharmacy, having established his school in 
1892, and as far as I can learn he is the only colored 
man who has ever established a school of pharmacy. 
Since 1892, when he started the work, he has had over 
four hundred students, and only two of them have 
been colored. I regret that I am unable to present a 
cut of Dr. Patrick with this sketch. 


Mr. Oscar M. Tibbs was born in Virginia, in 1861. 
He spent some years of his life as a sleeping-car por 
ter, but being of a mechanical turn of mind, also a 
musician of some ability, he turned his attention to 
the making of musical instruments. His first effort 
along that line was a guitar. When done he showed it 
to Mr. C. C. Williams, manager for John C. Haynes 
& Co.. of Boston, who are amon^ the largest 

r^ o 

manufacturers of musical instruments in the United 
States. Mr. Williams was so well pleased with the 
guitar that he offered Mr. Tibbs a place in the 
factory. He now makes mandolins, banjoes and 
violins. His work has been very satisfactory 
in every way. He made and presented a violin 
to Rev. Stevens daughter that he was offered one 
hundred dollars for, because of its most excellent 
tone. Mr. Tibbs is the only colored man I have ever 
heard of engaged in his line of work. 

Among Colored People. 587 


Mr. T. H. Crump is engaged in an enterprise that 
is a new departure for a colored man. He has 
started a lecture bureau, known as " The Metropoli 
tan Lyceum Bureau," and we are glad to say that he 
has made a success of his effort. He employs and 
secures engagements for both white and colored 
talent. He has on his list of attractions some of the 
best singers, readers and lecturers. Mr. Crump has 
his headquarters in Chicago, at 3844 Dearborn street. 
He is quite a singer, and is blessed with a wife who 
is also gifted in that direction. 


There is possibly no man in Chicago better or 
more favorably known in a business capacity than Mr. 
Alexander Stephens. In 1893 Mr. Stephens was a 
resident of Memphis, Tenn., where he commanded 
the respect and confidence of the business men, both 
white and colored, for his strict honesty and integrity. 

In Memphis Mr. Stephens stood high as a business 
man, and during the year 1893, when great numbers 
flocked to the World s Fair city, Mr. Stephens, in 
order to enlarge his business enterprises, followed in 
the wake of the great throng to Chicago, and to-day, 
through perseverance and business ability, he stands 
high up among progressive business men of the city. 

Mr. Stephens is a born restaurant man, and Mrs. 
Stephens, his estimable wife, knows as much about 
a kitchen as any chef, and is as thoroughly conver 
sant with the details of the business as is her hus- 

588 Evidences of Progress 

band, and the Stephens restaurants are known far 
and wide for their most excellent service. Mr. Alex 
ander Stephens began in a modest way with one 
small restaurant, and to-day he is the owner of three 


of the best in the city. Recently he purchased the 
" Waldorf," 3027 State street, which is a credit to the 
colored citizens of Chicago. Mr. Stephens is a race 
man. He is a member of the Negro Business Men s 
League of Chicago, a member of the Masonic Fra 
ternity, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, last, but not 
least, the True Reformers, and is in thorough sym 
pathy with all the progress of his race. 

Among Colored People. 



Dr. Henry Fitzbutler was born in Ontario, Canada, 
in 1837. After finishing the district school he de 
termined to prepare himself for college. He worked 


as a farm hand, taught school, and, by strict economy, 
paid his way at the Detroit Medical College, and 
then the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. To 
accomplish this he endured many hardships. He 
took contracts to cut roads through forests from one 

590 Evidences of Progress 

Canadian villiage to another, near Amherstburg, 
Ontario, working as a lumberman or surveyor, as 
necessity demanded. 

He was married to Sarah Helen McCurdy, in 1866, 
and was aided materially in subsequent work by the 
courage of his wife. After graduating from Ann 
Arbor he went to Louisville, Ky., in 1872, being the 
first regular physician of the colored race to practice 
in the State of Kentucky. 

The prejudice was such that a Negro was not per 
mitted to practice in any of the hospitals, or attend 
lectures in the medical schools. Owing to this 
prejudice, and to meet the demand for higher educa 
tion, he, with Drs. Conrad and Burney, obtained a 
charter for the establishment of a medical college for 
the instruction of people of all nationalities. 

Dr. Fitzbutler was dean of this school from 1888 
until his death, December 28, 1901, serving as an in 
structor in matcria me die a and surgery, and devoting 
energy, time and money to the equipment of this 
school, known as the Louisville National Medical 
College, and from which more than one hundred 
men and women now practicing throughout the 
United States have graduated. 

To meet the requirements of the times, that 
patients might receive better treatment and students 
have opportunity for observations, he started a hos 
pital, in 1895, which he maintained largely from his 
private purse. Of him it may truly be said : " He 
did the best he could for everybody." 

Dr. Mary Fitzbutler Waring, a daughter of the 

Among Colored People. 591 

late Dr. Henry Fitzbutler, is a graduate from her 
father s school, and is now engaged in the active 
practice of her profession in the city of Chicago, 111., 
and meeting with success. 



I HAVE now come to the most difficult part of 
this work. The conclusion to a book is rarely per 
fectly satisfactory to all readers, and I think rarely 
satisfactory to the author. I can only offer this 
apology: I did not at the beginning attempt a 
" literary " work. I have only aimed to set forth a 
few- facts, which are incontrovertible evidences of the 
progress made by colored people, and these facts 
I have stated in the simplest form of English so 
that every person who reads the book may under 
stand. I have indicated, I think, that the colored 
people have the same ambitions and aspirations 
which characterize all progressive races ; and that 
when they are given equal opportunity and a fair 
chance in the various industrial and professional 
walks of life, they measure up to the white man in 
point of excellence, proficiency and ultimate success. 

I have not exhausted my subject, for there are 
hundreds of men and women of the race not men 
tioned in this book, who are just as successful, just 
as remarkable in their careers as those mentioned. 
It would require a book many times the size of this 
one to give anything like a passing mention of these 
progressive, intelligent people. I have, as I stated 
in my preface, only pointed out a few of the evi- 

Evidences of Progress 593 

dences of progress. I have only given a few brief 

These glowing facts, thus presented to the world, 
are the results of my personal contact, association and 
experience of sixteen years among colored people, 
both North and South, and it is my earnest hope 
that I have succeeded in presenting to my readers 
food for thought on the Negro question in the 
United States. 

I have devoted a great deal of space to Wilber- 
force University, Livingstone College, Tuskegee 
Normal and Industrial Institute, Normal and other 
independent and State schools managed by colored 
people, because these institutions typify the ability 
of the colored man to govern and control enter 
prises for himself. 

I have not mentioned the political leaders of the 
race, such as Messrs. Douglass, Bruce, Lynch and 
others, simply because I am not giving a history of 
the race, and it has been more my purpose to deal 
with the educators and business men. 


Bishop B. W. Arnett, iv 
Prof. E. L. Scruggs, B. D., 43 
Prof. Joshua Levister, 46 
Prof. Gregory W. Hayes, A.M. ,50 
Rev. Geo. P. McKinney, 54 
Rev. C. L. Puree, A. B., D. D., 58 
Prof. N. W. Curtwright, A. B., 61 
Prof. O. L. Coleman, A. M., 63 
Prof. J. A. Booker, A..M., 65 
Rev. Calvin S. Brown, A. B., 67 
Prof. S. H. C. Owen, A. M., 69 
Rev. James S. Russell, 89 
Three Orphan Sisters, 94 
Rev. M. W. Dogan, A. M., ill 
Bishop D. A. Paine, D.D., LL.D., 


Rev. B. F. Lee, D. D., 122 
Rev. S. T. Mitchell, A.M., LL.D., 

Prof. A. St. George Richardson, 

B. A., 130 

Prof. J. R. Hawkins, A. M., 132 
Rev. Daniel H. Butler, 141 
Rev. J. C. Price, A. M., D. D., 


Rev. W. H. Goler, D. D., 148 
Rev. W. H. Franklin, A. M., 161 
Lucy C. Laney, 165 
Rev. C. S. Mebane, A. M., 169 
Rev. W. R. Coles, 172 
Rev. Henry D. Wood, 174 
Rev. J. A. Savage, D. D., 177 
Rev. D. J. Sanders, D. D., 180 
Rev. T. H. Amos, A. M., 182 
Rev. J. B. Swann, 185 
Prof. G. C. Shaw, 1 86 
Prof. B. T. Washington, A.M., 191 
Prof. W. H. Council, 216 
C. H. Parrish, A. B., A. M., 223 


Miss Mary V. Cook, A. B., A. M., 


Prof. Hattie A. Gibbs, 228 
Prof. W. B. Weaver, 230 
Mrs. Anna B. Weaver, 235 
Mrs. Dinah P. Pace, 240 
Prof. Jas. B. Dudley, A. M., 242 
Prof. Richard R. Wright, A. M., 

LL.D., 244 

Prof. S. G. Atkins, A. M., 245 
Mrs. Fanny L. Jackson Coppin, 


Prof. E. W. B. Curry, 262. 
Dr. R. F. Boyd, 266 
Prof. Richard Hill, 279 
Frederic S. Monroe, 281 
C. J. Becker, 283 
Hon. D. Augustus Straker, 285 
T. McCants Stewart, Esq., 292 
J. H. Lewis, 297 
W. Q. Atwood, 299 
Samuel Harris, 300 
William H. Davis, 302 
J. E. Reed, 305 
John S. Trower, 307 
E. I. Masterson, 309 
Charles A. Webb, 311 
Walter P. Hall, 317 
S. L. Parker, 319 
H. A. Tandy, 322 
Daniel Purdy, 324 
Dr. W. T. Dinwiddie, 326 
J. E. Dixon, 327 
Philip J. Allston, 330 
Dr. Jared Carey, 332 
Rev. W. W. Browne, 338 
J. H. Dickinson, 345 
T. Thomas Fortune, 350 
E. E. Cooper, 352 

Index to Portraits of People. 


Prof. W. S. Scarborough, LL.D., 

Rev. H. T. Johnson, D.D., Ph.D., 

35 6 

\Vm. H. Stewart, 358 
Rev. L. J. Coppin, D. D., 359 
W. H. Anderson, 361 
J. E. Bruce, 362 
Hon. J. C. Dancy, 366 
Miss Pauline E. Hopkins, 367 
W. H. Stowers, 369 
James Holmes Moody, 371 
Prof. H. T. Kealing, B. S., A. M., 


Richard Allen, 378 
Rev. C. T. Shaffer, M. D., D. D., 


N. F. Mossell, A. M., M. D., 396 
J. C. White, 398 
Daniel H. Williams, M. D., 400 
Rev. Stephen Smith, 407 
Edward T. Parker, 409 
Dr. Hallie Tanner Johnson, 411 
Mrs. Victoria E. Matthews, 414 
Mrs. Frances E. W. Harper, 416 
Mrs. N. F. Mossell and her 

daughters, 418 

T. M. Doram, M. D. V., 538 
J. W. Adams, 540 
H. A. Loveless, 542 
R. B. Hudson, 543 
E. C. Berry, 553 
Miss Alice Ruth Moore, 419 
Madam Flora Batson Bergen, 421 
Dr. John R. Francis, 429 
James Hugo Johnston, 462 

Benjamin F. Allen, 469 
Warren C. Coleman, 482 
Rev. W. F. Graham, 486 
Mr. John T. Taylor, 487 
John Mitchell, Jr., 494 
Mr. J. C. Farley, 495 
Miss E. B. Slaughter, 507 
Mr. R. F. White, 509 
Jordan C. Jackson, 513 
Rev. A. H. Miller, 515 
Mr. S. Boyce, 517 
Isaac Johnson, 519 
E. E. Howard, 520 
Mr. E. E. Fluker, 522 
Mr. R. J. Palmer, 523 
Mr. Louis Kastor, 524 
Sandy W. Trice, 526 

E. H. Faulkner, 527 
Eugene Burkins, 528 
Mr. Geo. E. Jones, 530 
Mr. G. W. Higgins, 531 
Lieutenant Charles Young, 539 
Dumar Watkins, 556 

L. H. Latimer, 558 

J. S. Atwood, 560 

G. W. Franklin, Jr., 562 

Rev. R. H. Boyd, D. D., 566 

P. Sheridan Ball, 574 

John H. Atkins, 575 

L. C. Collins, 576 

Mrs. Fannie B. Williams, 578 

Miss Cora J. Hawkins, 580 

Miss Mattie J. Johnson, 583 

F. D. Chenault, 584 
Alexander Stephens, 588 
Dr. Henry Fitzbutler, 589 


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