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Full text of "Progress in the development of the national parks"

BANCROFT 
LIBRARY 

0- 

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



,16 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 



PROGRESS 

IN THE 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS 



BY 
STEPHEN T. MATHER 

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1916 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Informing the people 

Increased travel against adverse conditions 

Astonishing increase in motor travel 5 

Motor revenues for park improvement 

Congress materially helped . 6 

Cooperation of the National Geographic Society 

Creation of the National Park Service 7 

Two new national parks 

National parks to pay their own way 

Wanted : Gateways to our national parks 9 

Yellowstone National Park 9 

What has been accomplished in Yellowstone 9 

Automobiles to supplant horses 10 

Rangers take the place of soldiers 11 

Glacier National Park 

A good season at Glacier 11 

New enterprises planned 

Desirable road development 

Adequate administration buildings needed 

Improved roads and new trails 14 

Plenty of trail horses hereafter 15 

Yosemite's great development 15 

Congressional appropriations 17 

Mount Rainier developed 19 

Crater Lake prospects 22 

Sequoia National Park 23 

" The Greater Sequoia " 23 

General Grant National Park 24 

Heavy travel to Rocky Mountain National Park 24 

The Hot Springs Reservation 25 

Mesa Verde National Park 26 

In general 27 

Appendices 28 

National parks at a glance 28 

Statistics 30 

National-park publications , 36 

Distributed by the Secretary of the Interior 36 

Sold by the Superintendent of Documents 36 

Pamphlets 36 

Panoramic views 38 

Maps sold by the U. S. Geological Survey 38 



ILLUSTEATION. 



Map showing location of National parks and monuments 20 

2 



PROGRESS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
NATIONAL PARKS. 



By STEPHEN T. MATHER. 



DEPARTMENT Or THE INTERIOR, 
Washington, D. C., November H, 1916. 

MY DEAR MR. SECRETARY: In assigning me, among other things, 
the duty of exercising administrative supervision of the national 
parks and general control of their development and operation as 
playgrounds for the American people, you expressed your firm be- 
lief that the scenery and natural features of scientific interest in 
these parks surpassed those of any other country ; and you cherished 
the hope that they should become the objectives of American tourist 
travel, not only for the duration of the great European war but 
after its conclusion and the restoration of peace. 

You requested me to make every effort to provide accommodations 
in the national parks for all classes of visitors, and to give as much 
attention to the needs of the tourist with a small income as to those 
of the wealthy visitor accustomed to luxury. You were particularly 
desirous that the creature comforts of all park visitors be provided 
and that every precaution be taken to make travel on all roads and 
trails safe. You recognized the necessity for encouraging travel 
to the parks and approved plans for making better known their 
beauty and grandeur. You regarded the national parks as a great 
economic asset which had theretofore been entirely overlooked by 
the Federal Government, and authorized me to begin their develop- 
ment on a broad-gauge scale. 

I take pleasure in advising you at this time that every phase of this 
assignment has received attention and that much has been accom- 
plished. The results that I have to report are gratifying, and demon- 
strate the wisdom of undertaking this comprehensive development. 
These results I will briefly outline, 

3 



4 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

INFORMING THE PEOPLE, 

i >i r, >i < ' I , ' ' i (> ?i <.) 1 1 (\ i 

Realizing that success depends ultimately upon public support, 
and knowing that the people were surprisingly ignorant of the 
extent, variety, magnificence, and economic value of their national 
parks, I early inaugurated an earnest campaign of public education 
under the management of Robert Sterling Yard. 

To this end the information circulars wer,e immediately rewritten, 
reorganized, and distributed under a new and effective plan. Last 
winter a descriptive booklet entitled " Glimpses of our National 
Parks " was written by Mr. Yard to meet special educational needs. 
The astonishing demand that immediately developed for this book 
assured me that the public was eager for the facts. 

I followed this in the early summer by the publication, with the 
financial cooperation of 17 western railroads, of Mr. Yard's "Na- 
tional Parks Portfolio," an elaborately illustrated volume written 
and designed for the purpose of differentiating the principal national 
parks and presenting an adequate pictorial representation of each. 
An edition of about 275,000 of these was distributed over specially 
compiled lists and reached appreciative hands. Forty-three thousand 
dollars were contributed by the railroads toward the cost of issuing 
these portfolios, and this sum represented only a small part of the 
contributing railroads' total expense in advertising the national parks 
reached by their respective lines. 

In addition to these important publications many hundreds of 
photographs were collected from many sources and distributed to 
magazines and newspapers desiring to publish them, and facts and 
figures regarding national parks were furnished freely to newspaper 
and magazine writers who sought them as a result of the rapidly 
growing public interest inspired by the department. All of this 
material was freely offered to all writers and periodicals without 
discrimination, and was followed by an extraordinary increase in the 
informative periodical literature on the subject. 

A result of this educational campaign of the department, rein- 
forced as it was by the voluntary activity of newspapers and maga- 
zines, was the stimulation of a country-wide interest in the parks, 
which brought a volume of requests for detailed information regard- 
ing them and a demand by individuals, associations, and schools for 
photographs, motion pictures, lantern slides, and lectures, which the 
department of course could not meet. The demand for the loan of 
motion-picture films and lantern slides particularly has become im- 
perious. It is increasing rapidly and some means should be provided 
for supplying the department with an adequate stock of this educa- 
tional material in order that the people may be taught the purposes 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 5 

and uses of their national parks in the manner for which they them- 
selves express so plain a preference. 

INCEEASED TKAVEL AGAINST ADVERSE CONDITIONS. 

Under the stimulus of this public interest it was expected, in the 
early days of the season just closed, that travel to the parks would be 
heavy, but it was not expected to equal that of the year before, which, 
with the lure of the western expositions, had been phenomenal. Re- 
ports from the parks, however, clearly indicate that the 1916 travel 
not only did not fall below that of last year, but actually exceeded it. 
Of course, the travel did not increase in every park, but in several 
parks. In Rocky Mountain National Park, for example, the increases 
were so large that they more than offset the decreases in other reser- 
vations. 

However, travel to all of the parks was far above the normal of the 
years before their development was undertaken. And we can not 
refrain from conjecturing how much heavier it would have been had 
not unforeseen conditions intervened to discourage and retard travel 
in all sections of the country. These conditions were the very late 
spring and the threatened railroad strike. There is no doubt that 
they adversely influenced railroad travel to the parks. 

ASTONISHING INCREASE IN MOTOR TRAVEL. 

The travel that was less seriously affected by these unfavorable 
weather and industrial conditions was the motor travel. It deserves 
special mention here. Last season 12,563 cars registered at the por- 
tals of the various parks, and this year's reports show that 19,848 
cars, carrying 78,916 tourists, passed through them and made tours 
of the parks. The number of tourists entering the parks in private 
cars is astonishing when one takes into consideration the fact that 
they have been opened to motor traffic only a very few years and 
that one of the larger parks has only been open a season and a half. 

This tremendous increase in automobile travel leads to one con- 
clusion only, and that is that in the early future travel in private 
machines will overtake the increasing railroad travel and constitute 
the greater portion of all park travel. This makes it incumbent upon 
the Federal Government to prepare for the great influx of auto- 
mobiles by constructing new roads and improving existing highways 
wherever improvement is necessary. 

At the present time there are only two parks, Yosemite and Yellow- 
stone, which have more than a very few miles of highway con- 
structed, and they have naturally enjoyed the largest patronage by 
motorists. Much remains to be done, however, in these reservations, 



6 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

and particularly in Yosemite, where roads within the park are not in 
any way comparable with the State highways of California. 

Much has been done, however, to encourage motor travel to these 
two parks. Automobile maps have been issued under the direction 
of the Superintendent of National Parks, Mr. R. B. Marshall, show- 
ing clearly all hotels, camps, and supply stations, as well as roads in 
the parks. These also give information as to the roads and distances 
between points outside of their boundaries. For instance, the map of 
Yellowstone Park indicates the highways leading to the various 
entrances of the park from the States of Idaho, Montana, and 
Wyoming. 

MOTOR REVENUES FOR PARK IMPROVEMENT. 

Another feature of motor travel deserving mention is the revenue 
that is derived from automobile fees for park purposes. This year 
$65,311 was received from automobile fees as against $42,589 in 1915, 
and $14,245 in 1914. Vigorous protests have been made against this 
direct tax on the motorist, but it must be maintained until larger 
appropriations are made for the construction and maintenance of 
roads suitable for motor traffic. Perhaps it should be continued in- 
definitely as a means of providing funds to repair the natural wear 
and tear on roads and bridges, the deterioration of which is un- 
usually severe where they are used extensively by motor cars. 

Whatever may be done in this connection, the fact remains that 
American motorists are intensely interested in the national parks, 
are visiting them in ever increasing numbers, and are contributing, 
by way of automobile fees large sums of money toward park improve- 
ment and administration. They have the right, then, to expect that 
the Federal Government will pursue a broad policy in the extension 
of road systems in the several parks, and that they shall enjoy all 
privileges not inconsistent with good administration of the parks' 
management and protection. 

Taking everything into consideration, no policy of national-park 
management has yielded more thoroughly gratifying results than 
that which guided the admission of motor- driven vehicles to the use 
of the roads of all of the parks. 

CONGRESS MATERIALLY HELPED. 

It is natural and fitting that the rapidly increasing interest in 
national parks on the part of the people should favorably affect the 
attitude of Congress toward them. Appropriations for their im- 
provement and protection for the current fiscal year were consider- 
ably larger than those of previous years, $511,300 for 1917 being 
appropriated as against $252,550 for the fiscal year 1916 and $283,590 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PAKKS. 7 

for 1915. For the first time also funds have been provided for the 
care and protection of the national monuments under the Interior 
Department, many of which have scenic as well as historical value. 
Twenty-one thousand five hundred dollars was appropriated for the 
fiscal year 1917. 

COOPERATION OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 

Recognition has also been given for the first time to the danger of 
destruction which has threatened most of the largest and noblest 
trees in the world, the Big Trees (Sequoia w ashing toniana) of 
Sequoia National Park. These Big Trees stand on land patented to 
citizens of California before the creation of park, and can be 
destroyed at any time by their owners. The sundry civil act of July 
1, 1916, which carries all national park appropriations for the cur- 
rent fiscal year, contains a provision making available the sum of 
$50,000 for the purchase of the private holdings on which these 
splendid trees are growing. Negotiations with the owners of these 
lands in the Giant Forest, which this section of the park is called, 
disclosed the inadequacy of this appropriation to effect their pur- 
chase. Seventy thousand dollars was demanded for all of these hold- 
ings and all other holdings of the same interests, and no tract could 
be purchased unless all of the properties were included in the 
transaction. 

The outlook for the perpetual preservation of the Giant Forest was 
growing dark when cooperation in the safeguarding of the forest was 
tendered by the National Geographic Society. On November 10 the 
board of managers of the society arranged to apply $20,000 of the 
funds of their organization to cover the difference between the pur- 
chase price of the forest land and the congressional appropriation; 
and by this generous action we are now able to extinguish the largest 
private ownership of the great trees of the park and insure their 
preservation for our generation and for posterity. The holdings 
purchased with this additional fund will be donated to the Federal 
Government. The members of the National Geographic Society may 
justly be proud of their participation in this national enterprise. 
Their contribution marks an important step in the progress of the 
science of geography, a science which has received such a tremendous 
stimulus through the activities of the society. 

CREATION OF THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE. 

The special legislation of greatest importance was the passage of 
the national park service bill, providing for the establishment of a 
bureau in Washington to administer as a properly coordinated sys- 
tem all of the national parks and the national monuments under the 



8 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

jurisdiction of the Interior Department. This substitutes efficiency 
for the former haphazard consideration of each separate park by a 
small force in the office of the chief clerk of the department, already 
burdened with numerous other important duties. 

This measure provides for the appointment of a director and as- 
sistant director as the executive officers of the bureau and a small 
corps of clerks, stenographers, etc., all charged with the perform- 
ance of duties relating solely to the administration and supervision 
of the national park system. It is an important step forward which 
renders possible the realization of the manifest destiny of our na- 
tional parks as one economic asset 

TWO NEW NATIONAL PARKS. 

Next in importance may be mentioned the creation of the new 
Lassen Volcanic National Park in California, and the Hawaii Na- 
tional Park which embraces the craters of the three great volcanoes, 
Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Haleakala, on the Hawaiian Islands. 

A bill providing the creation of Mount McKinley National Park 
in Alaska passed the Senate, and is now pending in the House of 
Representatives, and a bill providing for the extension of the bound- 
aries of the Rocky Mountain National Park to include a number of 
natural features possessing unusual scenic value passed the House 
of Representatives, and is now awaiting consideration in the Senate. 

Three other bills placed on the statute books by the Sixty-fourth 
Congress relate to Federal exclusive jurisdiction of Yellowstone, 
Mount Rainier, and Crater Lake National Parks. A defect in the 
act of May 7, 1894, relating to the punishment of misdemeanors in 
the Yellowstone National Park, was corrected. Exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of Mount Rainier and Crater Lake National Parks had pre- 
viously been ceded to the Federal Government, and by the act of 
June 30, 1916, and the act of August 21, 1916, respectively, the 
tendered jurisdiction of these parks was accepted and provision made 
for United States commissioners to punish violations of the Federal 
laws, rules, and regulations of the respective parks. 

These laws are important because they give the Government better 
control of the three parks involved and assure their better protection 
from depredations. Cession of jurisdiction over Yosemite, Sequoia, 
General Grant, and Lassen Volcanic Parks in California and Mesa 
Verde and Rocky Mountain National Parks in Colorado to the 
Federal Government is earnestly recommended, and steps should be 
taken to secure the passage of measures designed to accomplish this 
purpose by the Legislatures of California and Colorado. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 9 

NATIONAL PARKS TO PAY THEIR OWN WAY. 

It has been your desire that ultimately the revenues of the several 
parks might be sufficient to cover the costs of their administration 
and protection and that Congress should only be requested to appro- 
priate funds for their improvement. It appears that at least five 
parks now have a proven earning capacity sufficiently large to make 
their operation on this basis feasible and practicable. They are 
Yellowstone, Yosemite, Mount Rainier, Sequoia, and General Grant. 
Accordingly estimates have only been submitted to Congress for ap- 
propriations for improvements of these parks. 

The revenues of Eocky Mountain, Mesa Verde, Crater Lake, and 
the new Lassen Volcanic Parks are covered into the miscellaneous 
receipts of the Federal Treasury. Legislation providing for the 
use of the revenues of these parks in their improvement or for 
administrative purposes is earnestly recommended. 

WANTED: GATEWAYS TO OUR NATIONAL PARKS. 

Many of the parks should have gateways to mark their boundaries. 
These gateways should be simple, dignified, and in complete harmony 
with their environments. They should not be costly structures and 
should be erected if possible before next season. Gateways already 
constructed at the northern entrance to Yellowstone and the south- 
western entrance to Mount Rainier are most impressive, and it is 
with a thrill of pride in our great national playgrounds that the 
average visitor passes through these gates and beneath the Stars and 
Stripes waving over them. 

Proceeding to a review of the 1916 season in the several parks, 
Yellowstone National Park will first be considered. 

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED IN YELLOWSTONE. 

For the first time in the history of the park, tourists were carried 
to three of the gateways, each by a different railroad. The new 
entrance is the Cody or eastern entrance. It offers a full day's ride 
through remarkable natural scenery and past the great Shoshone 
Dam, second highest in the world. To accomplish this, the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad operated a special summer-train serv- 
ice to Cody, Wyo., and spent money in large sums in promoting this 
gateway. The service was largely experimental, but it was eminently 
satisfactory, and the Burlington route is to be congratulated on its 
successful enterprise. 
69006 16 2 



10 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PABKS. 

From the railroad terminus the Cody- Sylvan Pass Motor Co. 
transported tourists to the Lake Hotel in the park, where they "were 
transferred to horse-drawn stages operating on the park "circle." 

Still a fourth entrance, that on the south, is planned. It is my hope 
that it will be opened for regular tourist travel by next season. This 
gateway will afford an unsurpassed opportunity to view the Teton 
Mountains, Jackson Lake, and the other distinguished features of 
Jackson Hole. The railroad terminus nearest this entrance to the 
park is the town of Victor on the Oregon Short Line. When roads 
now building are completed, travel by private motor car through 
Jackson Hole and the southern entrance will be heavy indeed. 

Automobile travel in Yellowstone Park was very heavy during the 
season which has just closed; 3,445 automobiles, carrying 14,980 
tourists, entered and toured the park. The majority of these visitors 
patronized the hotels and camps, thus materially augmenting the 
revenues of these enterprises in a season when their income from 
regular sources was considerably reduced by special conditions. To 
accommodate those motorists who carried their own camp equipment, 
four large automobile shelter camps were established near the prin- 
cipal points of interest in the park. 

AUTOMOBILES TO SUPPLANT HORSES. 

Because the stage horses on the belt-line road were unaccustomed 
to automobiles it has been necessary to operate both horse-drawn 
and motor-driven vehicles on schedules that prevented the two types 
of traffic from meeting anywhere in the park. This was somewhat 
cumbersome and caused some inconvenience, but the schedule was a 
very reasonable one and was generally obeyed implicitly. The time 
has come now, however, when all transportation lines in the park 
must be motorized, and steps are to be taken at once to bring the 
change around. 

I have no doubt that the antiquated method of handling tourists 
in Yellowstone National Park was responsible in part for the great 
reduction in railroad travel there this season. Visitors have always 
been rushed through Yellowstone, with no encouragement whatever 
to spend vacation periods in the park. Neither have facilities for 
making long stays pleasant been provided, although splendid hotels, 
with every modern convenience, are operated each season. Golf 
links, tennis courts, swimming pools, and other equipment for out- 
door pastime and exercise should be provided by concessions, and 
the park should be extensively advertised as a place to spend the 
summer instead of five or six days of hurried sight-seeing under 
constant pressure to keep moving. Trail trips into out-of-the-way 
parts of the park should be developed. When tourists have the op- 
portunity to enjoy Yellowstone National Park under different con- 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 11 

ditions than now they will want to return year after year. There is 
no national park better suited by nature for spending leisurely va- 
cations. 

BANGERS TAKE THE PLACE OF SOLDIERS. 

On October 1 Fort Yellowstone, at Mammoth Hot Springs, was 
abandoned by the War Department and the troops which for many 
years have been guarding the park were withdrawn and sent back to 
their regiments. The Interior Department sanctioned the removal 
of this detachment upon the representation by the War Department 
that its members were needed in their own regiments. A corps of 
civilian rangers composed of especially selected noncommissioned 
officers and privates, discharged from the Army upon request of this 
department, was organized, and these men are now policing the park. 

The National Park Service could not have taken over the ad- 
ministration and protection of this park had it not been able to 
rely on its revenue fund to finance the transfer of guardianship. The 
revenues of the park for the 1916 season were approximately $60,000, 
of which slightly less than half were derived from automobile fees. 
Last year the total revenues were $44,713. These figures clearly in- 
dicate that only appropriations for improvements and new works 
will be necessary hereafter. 

Col. Lloyd M. Brett, the commandant at Fort Yellowstone, 
finished on September 30 six years of loyal and unselfish service as 
acting supervisor of the park. In this position he performed duties 
most important to the Nation at large, and he can not be too highly 
commended for the success of his administration. 

Road construction and improvement in Yellowstone Park will 
remain in charge of the Engineer Corps of the Army, but it is 
believed that the general supervision of these improvements should 
be exercised by the National Park Service. In view of the fact that 
the roads in the park are being built for the department, some 
voice should be had by us in planning these improvements. 

Before the opening of the 1917 season gateways should be erected 
at the Yellowstone or western entrance, Cody or eastern entrance, 
and Snake River or southern entrance. At the present time there 
is nothing better than a post or two containing a multitude of 
printed and typewritten notices to mark these points of ingress and 
egress to the largest and best-known park in the Nation. 

GLACIER NATIONAL PARK. 

A GOOD SEASON AT GLACIER. 

While there were a few less visitors to Glacier National Park dur- 
ing the season of 1916 than during that of 1915, the average time 
spent by the individual tourists in the park was considerably longer 



12 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PAEKS. 

than his average stay in previous years. Indeed the average period 
spent in touring this park this year was probably as long as the 
average stay of tourists in any other national park. 

It is also significant that numerous visitors were men and women 
who had spent one or more previous seasons within its boundaries. 
Several of them had spent in the park part of every summer since its 
creation, and I know of one or two parties who have made as many 
as 11 visits to this wonderful scenic reservation. 

Glacier, therefore, was a very popular park this past season, and 
its popularity was of the sort that endures and grows with the years. 
It is this sort of popularity that every park should enjoy. Others, 
Rocky Mountain, Mount Rainier, and Yosemite, particularly, enjoy a 
similar popularity, but it is not quite so genuine as Glacier's popu- 
larity seems to be. Of course, accommodations for the care of the 
tourist in Glacier Park have been the most potent factor in in- 
fluencing this growth of popular sentiment. 

Previous to this season hotel and camp accommodations were ade- 
quate in just two parks, Yellowstone and Glacier, and I have already 
explained that no effort has ever been made to encourage visitors to 
return year after year to Yellowstone. 

Glacier, then, at the beginning of this season had on the east side 
of the Continental Divide the splendid new Glacier Park Hotel and 
Many Glaciers Hotel, five inviting chalets, and several tepee camps, 
all owned and operated by the Glacier Park Hotel Co., under the 
efficient management of Mr. Howard A. Noble ; and on the west side 
of the divide there were two more chalets belonging to the east side 
system and Mr. John E. Lewis's hotel on Lake McDonald, ideally 
situated, unique in sylvan architecture, and first class in all its 
appointments. 

NEW ENTERPRISES PLANNED. 

The faith of the Glacier Park Hotel Co. and of Mr. Lewis in the 
genuineness of the popularity of the park and its consequent growth 
in tourist travel is convincingly illustrated by their plans for ex- 
tensive improvements in their properties and the construction of new 
hotels and chalet groups. I am informed by officers of the Glacier 
Park Hotel Co. that it contemplates the construction of a fine new 
hotel in the beautiful Red Eagle country, provided the Federal Gov- 
ernment will construct a road up the valley to make this hotel acces- 
sible. Such a road should be built in the near future. The hotel 
company also plans extensive improvements in its Going-to-the-Sun 
Chalet group on Lake St. Mary, and further additions to its Lake 
McDermott enterprises. 

On the other side of the park Mr. Lewis has already initiated con- 
struction work on a large addition to his Lake McDonald Hotel, and 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PAEKS. - 13 

has intimated that he may seek the privilege of erecting a camp or 
chalet group on Bowman Lake, one of the very large lakes in the 
northwestern part of the park. This section of extraordinary beauty 
is terra incognita to all but a relatively few venturesome visitors who 
have made extensive trail trips with their own camp equipment. 
Should Bowman Lake be provided with tourist accommodations it 
would become the fifth extensively developed lake of the park. The 
four already developed are Lakes St. Mary, McDermott, McDonald, 
and Two Medicine. 

DESIRABLE ROAD DEVELOPMENT. 

Another large lake that should have attention in the early future 
by the Federal Government and by business enterprise is Waterton 
Lake, which lies on the international boundary and in one of the most 
beautiful valleys of Glacier Park. This valley extends on through 
Waterton Lakes Park, Canada, which joins Glacier Park on the 
nprth. A road should be constructed up the McDonald Kiver Valley 
over Flattop and down the Waterton Valley to the lake. Ulti- 
mately such a road would give direct access to Banff and the Canadian 
Eockies, through marvelously beautiful sections of our own Ameri- 
can Rockies. There would be no difficult passes to negotiate in con- 
structing this road and grades would be very low. 

The first link in this road should be built at once on the east shore 
of Lake McDonald. This section of the highway would also con- 
stitute the first link in a road over the Continental Divide connect- 
ing the road systems of the two sides of the park. Both the Water- 
ton Lake road and the road across the divide are necessary exten- 
sions of the park highway system and ultimately must be built. 

In addition to being the first link in both roads, the Lake Mc- 
Donald highway would give access to the hotel at the head of the 
lake, and give the motorist the opportunity to avail himself of ac- 
commodations and supplies. Citizens of Kalispell, Missoula, Colum- 
bia Falls, and other Montana cities have spent many thousands of 
dollars in bringing their highway system up to the western boun- 
dary, and yet these citizens, as well as visitors from other States, 
can enter only 3 miles into the park to a point where there are 
neither hotel accommodations for themselves nor shelter for their 
cars. 

ADEQUATE ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS NEEDED. 

In connection with this proposed road and other developments on 
the west side of the park, there should be mentioned the immediate 
need of a new bridge over the Flathead River at Belton, and new 
administration buildings at a point readily accessible to all visitors 
to the park. The present bridge over the Flathead is unsafe, and 



14 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

last winter it narrowly escaped total destruction by high water. 
During the winter that is approaching it may be carried down the 
river. 

The headquarters of the park are now hidden in the woods on the 
southwest shore of Lake McDonald, and are wholly unknown to 
nine-tenths of the park visitors. There should also be mentioned 
the desirability of preserving the trees on the patented lands over 
which the Belton-Lake McDonald road is built. It is a beautiful 
highway, broad, straight, and well-constructed through a dense 
forest. If the trees that border it are destroyed the scenic value of 
the road will be gone. 

I made a proposition while in the park in September that will make 
possible the construction of the new bridge, the removal of the park 
headquarters to a desirable site near the south boundary, and the 
perpetual preservation of a strip of forest on both sides of the 
Belton-Lake McDonald road; and it was agreed to by the county 
officers and owners of patented land in the park with whom I dis- 
cussed it. Briefly the proposition was as follows : 

I will purchase a tract of 160 acres on the Flathead River, directly 
across the river from Belton, and donate it to the Federal Govern- 
ment for an administrative site. Mr. John E. Lewis, who is the 
owner of an adjoining tract of 160 acres, will donate this land and 
secure his partner's agreement to guarantee perpetual preservation of 
a strip of timber on both sides of the Belton-Lake McDonald road. 
Flathead County, Mont., will contribute $10,000 toward the construc- 
tion of the new bridge, and citizens of the county will subscribe at 
least $5,000 to the same end, all provided that Congress acts favorably 
on the following estimates, which I agreed to recommend that you 
submit for consideration: $50,000 for a road along the east shore 
of Lake McDonald ; $25,000 to complete the construction of the new 
bridge; and $10,000 for new administrative buildings and park 
entrance on the site to be donated by me. 

Your approval has also been given to this proposition, and if Con- 
gress appropriates the funds to make this development possible, it 
will be completed within a year from date of this writing. 

IMPROVED ROADS AND NEW TRAILS. 

The appropriation of $110,000 for the protection and improvement 
of Glacier Park which was contained in -the last sundry civil bill has 
enabled us to greatly improve the roads on the east side of the park, 
particularly the road in the Blackfeet Indian Reservation between 
Glacier Park Station and Divide Creek. Nearly $45,000 has been 
spent on this section during the past season. 

It has also made possible the construction of several new trails. 
Among these new trails are the Grinnell Glacier trail and the new 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 15 

trail between the Glacier Hotel and Avalanche Creek. The latter 
trail will be extended to Granite Park next spring and when com- 
pleted will be one of the most scenic trails in the park system. 
Shelter cabins of attractive design are also under construction at 
Triple Divide, Red Eagle Lake, Piegan Pass, and Iceberg Lake, and 
next season will welcome the hiker and other trail travelers when 
storms overtake them or when they find it desirable to break their 
trips for other purposes. 

An elaborate trail sign system is also being installed for the benefit 
of the hiker and independent tourist who chooses to ride over the 
trails without guide service. A trail map of the park is in contem- 
plation as a further aid to the lover of the trails. 

PLENTY OF TRAIL HORSES HEREAFTER. 

During the season of 1916 there was a shortage of horses for trail 
service and many complaints have been filed against the saddle-horse 
concessioner on this account. I have already stipulated a basis for 
the reorganization of this corporation which I am convinced will 
enable it to give saddle-horse service next season which will be 
entirely satisfactorj^. A new contract covering a 10-year concession 
will provide that 25 per cent of the net profits of the enterprise will 
constitute for the first three years of the term the consideration due 
the Government for the franchise granted, and that 50 per cent of 
the profits shall be the Government's share thereafter. 

This contract in a sense will make the department a partner in 
the saddle-horse enterprise, and I have already indicated the depart- 
ment's interest in its success from the business point of view as well 
as the point of view of public service to the park, by arranging with 
the Indian Office for the lease of Indian lands in the Blackf eet Reser- 
vation for horse pasturage, and for the purchase of hay and even 
horses from the Indians. Should these arrangements be consum- 
mated the tourist, the park-revenue fund, the Blackfeet Indians, and 
the saddle-horse concessioner will all derive a full measure of benefit 
from the successful operation of the enterprise. 

YOSEMITE'S GREAT DEVELOPMENT. 

A survey of the 1916 season in Yosemite National Park quickly 
and clearly defines three heads under which its development may be 
discussed. These are, first, new contracts covering large public- 
service concessions; second, increased Federal appropriations for 
improvement and protection of the park; third, removal of restric- 
tions on motor travel. 

For many years the department unsuccessfully endeavored to 
induce parties with capital to undertake the construction of new 



16 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

hotels in the park, particularly on the floor of the valley. No indi- 
vidual or corporation could be interested in the park, and its future 
at the opening of the exposition season was dark indeed. Then D. 
J. Desmond, of San Francisco, general commissary contractor op- 
erating in all sections of the State, a young man already successful 
in business, a man of vision and immense energy, had the situation 
in the Yosemite brought to his attention. He saw its opportunities, 
and applied for a comprehensive concession covering the operation 
of hotel, camps, transportation service, stores, garages, etc. 

This application was not granted to him at that time, but he was 
permitted to install and operate a new camp during the 1916 season 
with the understanding that if he rendered good service in his camp 
he would have a long-time concession. He built and operated the 
Yosemite Falls Camp and gave his guests service of a high order. 
He more than met the conditions. Accordingly the department en- 
tered into contracts with the Desmond Park Service Co., of which 
Mr. Desmond is president, covering the following : The erection of a 
hotel on the floor of the valley to cost not less than $150,000; and 
another hotel at Glacier Point to cost approximately $35,000 ; camps 
on the floor of the valley ; lodges at various points in the higher parts 
of the park and along the Tioga Road, which crosses the park at 
some distance from the rim of the gorge ; the installation and opera- 
tion of automobile transportation on all the roads of the park open 
to motor travel; the operation of trail transportation, and the con- 
struction and operation of stores, garages, etc. 

The privileges granted in these contracts by their terms are to be 
exercised for a period of 20 years, and the department in considera- 
tion of granting these concessions receives annually during the first 
two years of the life of the contract 25 per cent of the net profits of 
the enterprise, and thereafter 50 per cent of the net profit. The net 
profit of the company is determined by deducting from the gross 
income 6 per cent on money invested in the enterprise, depreciation 
of equipment, buildings, etc., and expenses of operation such as sala- 
ries, advertising, and insurance. It is provided, however, that, if 
this profit-sharing clause operates to the disadvantage of the depart- 
ment, it may elect at the end of two years to take 4 per cent of the 
gross income of the company instead of a share of the net profits. 

Under this contract the Desmond Park Service Co. erected, prior to 
the opening of the 1916 season, two camps on the floor of the valley, 
the Yosemite Falls Camp and the El Capitan Camp, and operated 
them during the season ; also the Glacier Point hotel camp, and three 
new lodges at Lake Tenaya, Tuolumne Meadows, and Lake Merced ; 
all of which proved popular because of the excellent accommodations 
and service rendered. New automobile stage service was established 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 17 

during the season on the Mariposa and Chinquapin roads south of 
the valley, and on the Tioga road and Big Oak Flat road, as well as 
on the floor of the valley itself. 

Furthermore, construction work on the new hotel at Glacier Point 
was undertaken and is now nearing completion. On the 4th of July 
ground was broken for the new hotel on the floor of the valley, and 
it is now in the course of erection. This building will be ready for 
the 1918 tourist season. 

This outline of what the Desmond Park Service Co. has already 
accomplished and has under way should leave no doubt in the mind of 
anyone that Yosemite National Park is well provided with excellent 
accommodations for its visitors and that more and finer accommo- 
dations and highest-class hotel service are still to come. 

Camp Curry, Camp Ahwahnee, and Camp Lost Arrow, long estab- 
lished in the Yosemite Valley, were operated this season under their 
managements of former years. 

CONGRESSIONAL APPROPRIATIONS. 

Congress made a more liberal appropriation for Yosemite National 
Park for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, than for any previous 
period. This appropriation made available $250,000 for protection 
and, improvement of the park. It was provided, however, that not 
more than $150,000 might be expended in the construction of a new 
hydroelectric power plant, and not more than $75,000 in regrading 
the El Portal road. There was nothing specifically appropriated for 
other roads in the park, but they were improved with revenue de- 
rived from concessions granted, automobile license fees, and from 
miscellaneous sources. 

The new hydroelectric power plant was an absolute necessity in 
view of the increasing demands for power, light, and heat for the 
park concessioners, and it was desirable that this demand be met by 
the Government because the sale of electric current meant a substan- 
tial revenue for the park. During the summer of 1913 the late Mr. 
Henry Floy, electrical engineer, of New York, and sometime in- 
spector of the Interior Department, made a careful study of this 
hydroelectric power project, and it was largely his able presentation 
of the results of his study of this project before the Committee on 
Appropriations that gained for it favorable consideration. The new 
plant is now in the course of construction. 

In general it may be said that power plants, water and sanitation 
systems, and telephone lines in national parks should be owned and 
controlled by the Government. Their construction by the Govern- 
ment relieves the concessioner from the necessity of investing in these 
69006 16 3 



18 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

highly essential works and makes it possible for him to turn his 
capital into the further development of his own enterprise. Fur- 
thermore, as public works under the control of the National Park 
Service, they can always be made to yield a revenue. 

Travel to Yosemite Park was very heavy this season. It approxi- 
mately equaled that of last season. The records indicate that 33,390 
visitors registered at the park checking station prior to October 12. 
Of those. 14,166 came in private machines. The average stay of tour- 
ists in the park was longer than the average period spent in the park 
in previous years. 

The increase in motor travel was remarkable, and a comparison of 
the number of machines entering the park this season with the num- 
ber registered during 1914 and 1915 constitutes the best index of 
the sound, substantial growth of the park's popularity that I can 
mention. The records indicate that in 1914, 673 cars entered the 
park; in 1915, 3,895; and in 1916, prior to October 12, 3,938. This 
season 14,166 tourists entered the park in private machines. It is gen- 
erally understood that automobile parties remain in the park a longer 
time than any other class of tourists. This is particularly true of 
those who visited the floor of the valley in their cars. 

I have indicated that the removal of restrictions on motor traffic is 
one of the important factors that has influenced park development 
during the season of 1916. Prior to this season no private machines 
were ever allowed to run on the floor of the valley, but the opening 
, this season of these roads was largely responsible for the great influx 
of private cars and the extraordinary length of time spent by motor- 
ists in the park. Next season it is expected that motor travel will be 
double that of this season. This is a conservative estimate. 

It is inevitable that for several years Yosemite Park will be just 
as popular with the motorists as Yellowstone, and yet the roads in 
this park are so inferior to those of Yellowstone that it is useless 
to compare them. Appropriations should be made at once to exten- 
sively improve the Tioga road and Big Oak Flat road, and to con- 
tinue the regrading of the El Portal road. These highways should be 
put in as good condition as the State highways with which they con- 
nect. The Wawona road should also be improved, but this is a toll 
road, and until private interest in the same is extinguished and it 
becomes a public highway its reconstruction can not be undertaken. 
The Wawona and Chinquapin toll roads are the only remaining 
roads in the national parks that are not under the control of the Na- 
tional Park Service. They constitute a constant source of administra- 
tive difficulty, and their private control is inconsistent with the best 
interests of the park. The additional cost of using this road, which 
the tourist traveling in his own conveyance has to bear, discourages 
travel via Fresno and Merced and other cities in their vicinity. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 19 

The automobile license fee collected at the various entrances of 
Yosemite National Park has been unpopular, and numerous com- 
munications have been received petitioning that it be abolished. 
This action, of course, can not be taken. During the season of 
1916 $19,600 was received from these license fees. This fund con- 
stitutes a very large part of the total revenues of the park. 

It should be stated in this connection that the revenues of the park 
were drawn upon heavily during the season to improve and main- 
tain the general road system for which no congressional appropria- 
tion was made. When the motorist comes to appreciate the fact 
that the roads in the park could not have been made accessible for 
him during the past season without the income derived from the au- 
tomobile tax, I believe he will no longer be hostile to this tax. 

Dignified gateways should be constructed at the several entrances, 
particularly at the points where the Wawona, El Portal, and Tioga 
roads enter the park boundaries. 

MOUNT RAINIEK DEVELOPED. 

In Mount Rainier National Park a comprehensive concession of 
the same character as that granted the Desmond Park Service 
Co. in Yosemite National Park was granted the Rainier National 
Park Co. It grants similar privileges of operating hotels, camps, 
transportation service, mercantile establishments, garages, etc., and 
the time for which these privileges may be exercised is a period of 
20 years. Here, again, the department will share the net profits of 
the enterprise. Twenty-five per cent will be the Government's share 
for the first five years, and 50 per cent thereafter. However, there 
is provision for a change to another basis of compensation in the 
event that the profit-sharing plan proves unsatisfactory. The alter- 
native basis has not been definitely stipulated, but will be agreed 
upon between the department and the company should a revision of 
the clause governing the compensation later prove advisable. Under 
the terms of this contract the Rainier National Park Co. has con- 
structed and operated during the season of 1916 a camp at the 
mouth of the Nisqually Glacier and late in the season opened an- 
other camp is Paradise Valley. It has under course of construction 
a first-class hotel-camp in Paradise Valley which will be opened 
for accommodation of tourists next season. The company also oper- 
ates a first-class automobile service between the cities of Tacoma and 
Seattle and various points in the park. 

As the road system in the park is extended the company will estab- 
lish new hotels and camps to meet the tourist demand, and will 
operate automobile service on all new park roads. The service 
rendered by this company during the 1916 season was eminently 
satisfactory. 



16 NATIONAL PARKS 'fflffi 



ONTAINJNG 

"lies or 
Acres 




ADM/M/STEPED BY DEPARTMENT Of THE: //V 



MOTIONAL MONUMENTS 




Vf9/OP t FRANKL/N K. LANE, SECRETARY 



22 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

Travel in Mount Rainier National Park during the season of 
1916 fell considerably below that of 1915, but this reduction in 
travel was due entirely to an extremely late season in the park. The 
fall of snow last winter was phenomenal, and continued cold weather 
during the spring prevented its melting. As a result Paradise Valley 
was not opened until the middle of August, and it was relatively late 
in the season before Narada Falls could be reached. The roads and 
bridges were also affected by the extraordinary fall of snow. 

With the new accommodations that are now available in the park 
for tourists and the improved transportation service to the reserva- 
tion, there will be a constant increase in the tourist travel. At 
the present time the only road entering the park is that which fol- 
lows the Nisqually River and terminates at Paradise Valley. It is 
a highly scenic highway, though a comparatively short one. In an 
automobile one may travel from the cities of Tacoma and Seattle 
to Paradise Valley and return in one day and in a few hours of this 
period cover every foot of road in Mount Rainier Park. 

It is desired that other sections of the park be opened up, and the 
northwest would seem to be the logical section to develop next. Ac- 
cordingly, a survey of a road up the Carbon River Valley has 
been made from the town of Fairfax. This road, if constructed, 
will make accessible the incomparable Spray and Moraine Parks, 
which lie on the north slope of the Mountain. Scenic areas that only 
a relatively few trail parties have visited will thus be opened up. 
If Congress authorizes the construction of this road, the Northern 
Pacific Railroad will make improvements at the town of Fairfax 
and make other arrangements to promote travel to this section. 

The Rainier National Park Co. will, of course, provide new and 
up-to-date hotel and camp accommodations for tourists. Further- 
more, it is understood that the State of Washington has in con- 
templation the continuation of the State highway system from the 
town of Orting to the point of the beginning of the new park high- 
way. The Carbon River Road would also constitute an important 
link in a highway around the west side of Mount Rainier to connect 
with the present road system. This future road, opening up the 
north and west sides of the mountain, would be a scenic highway 
unsurpassed in the world. New and ever-changing vistas of the 
great mountain would be presented to the traveler. 

, CKATEE LAKE PROSPECTS. 

Hotel accommodations in Crater Lake National Park have never 
been satisfactory, and this year there was no improvement in them 
over former years. The development of accommodations and trans- 
portation service in this park must be undertaken on the same broad 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 23 

scale that the new concessions in Yosemite and Mount Rainier are 
now being handled. When such accommodations and facilities are 
provided for the comfort and convenience of visitors, the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Co. can be expected to operate high-class train 
service to Kirk, on the east side of the park, thus making it possible 
for the tourist to enter the park by the west entrance and leave 
through Kirk in the Klamath direction, or the reverse. I hope to 
completely reorganize the Crater Lake concession within a few 
weeks and make conditions definitely attractive for 1917 travel. 

The War Department, under a $50,000 appropriation, has continued 
the construction of a scenic highway around the lake under the 
direction of Army engineers. The appropriations, however, for the 
administration of the park have been very small, and there is no 
authority for using revenues of the park for its administration and 
protection. It has therefore been impossible to build a very neces- 
sary water system, a small electric plant, and make other improve- 
ments of this character. The lack of water at the Crater Lake Lodge 
on the rim caused considerable inconvenience during the summer. 

THE SEQUOIA NATIONAL PARK. 

In Sequoia National Park the lack of roads and hotel accommoda- 
tions, while not discouraging tourist travel particularly, has mili- 
tated against the park's popularity. A new hotel or camp is a neces- 
sity and it is essential that a new administrative building be erected 
and an adequate water system be installed in the Giant Forest ; also 
that provision be made for the sanitation of the village in the Forest. 

As the Giant Forest is the scenic attraction of the park at the 
present time, and indeed the only accessible part, its improvement 
must have attention. The major portion of the trees in the Giant 
Forest grow on land held in private ownership but, as I have stated, 
Congress has appropriated $50,000 and the National Geographic 
Society has advanced $20,000 to complete their purchase and revest 
title to them in the United States. 

Funds were also appropriated by Congress for a new bridge over 
the Marble Fork of the Kaweah River near the Giant Forest. 

The new basis of compensation for privileges granted to the Mount 
Whitney Power & Electric Co. in the park has netted the revenue 
fund more than $7,000 during the past year. This fund is now just 
large enough to protect and administer the park. Appropriations for 
improvement only will be requested. 

" THE GREATER SEQUOIA." 

Senate bill 5913, introduced by Senator Phelan, of California, and 
House bill 13168, by Representative Kent, of the same State, provid- 



24 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

ing for enlarging Sequoia National Park to include the Kings and 
Kern Canyons and several miles of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, 
including Mount Whitney, are now pending in Congress and will be 
considered in the short session which convenes in December. The 
early enactment of this legislation can not be too strongly urged. 

The public land proposed to be added to Sequoia National Park 
by these measures will never be valuable for any other than park 
purposes. Cattle are grazed on the mountain meadows during part 
of the year, but the administration of these meadows as part of the 
park will not interfere with the exercise of grazing privileges for 
many years to come. Small tracts of land here and there will be 
fenced for pasturage of live stock used by tourists. 

Sequoia Park now has the giant sequoia trees as its one attraction, 
but if enlarged as proposed it will become a scenic park of as much 
distinction as that possessed by any other park in the system. Fur- 
thermore, it will become a game sanctuary of as much importance as 
the Yellowstone National Park. 

GENERAL GRANT NATIONAL PARK. 

General Grant National Park had a 50 per cent increase in the 
number of visitors this year. There has been a remarkable increase 
in travel to this park since 1914. In that season 3,735 visitors reg- 
istered in the park, last year the number jumped to 10,523, and this 
year to 15,360 ; 8.612 people entered this year in automobiles. 

The fees from automobiles so increased the revenues of this park 
that it may now be administered without appropriations by Congress. 
However, a Federal appropriation will be needed for an adequate 
water system, for a new ranger station, and for other improvements 
that are absolutely essential to its proper development. 

HEAVY TRAVEL TO ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK. 

Rocky Mountain National Park was visited this year by more peo- 
ple than any other large scenic park. The village of Estes Park 
just outside of its boundaries, and large resorts situated near the 
park, were taxed to their maximum capacity throughout the season. 
There was a scarcity of accommodations of all kinds. Automobile 
service appears to have been the only necessary service which was 
adequate to meet all demands, and it is understood that the transpor- 
tation company operating this service out of Denver, Boulder. Love- 
land, Longmont, Lyons, and other cities on numerous occasions was 
compelled to decline to carry passengers to the park because of insuf- 
ficient hotel and camp accommodations in Estes Park and in Rocky 
Mountain Park itself. I am reliably informed that, prior to the 
opening of the 1917 season, large additions to several of the larger 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PAKKS. 25 

hotels will have been constructed, and that these will be adequate for 
the anticipated heavy travel. This season's extraordinary increase 
was not foreseen and could hardly have been anticipated. 

Beyond the work of maintaining the trail system and telephone 
lines the department has been unable to undertake any improvement 
of this park. A clause in the organic act establishing this park in- 
hibits the appropriation of more than $10,000 annually for its admin- 
istration, protection, and improvement. This sum is just sufficient 
to administer and protect it. Before its improvement is undertaken, 
therefore, this inhibition on the amount which may be appropriated 
each year must be removed. Senate bill 6854, introduced by Senator 
Shafroth, of Colorado, is designed to accomplish this end, but it has 
not had the consideration of either House of Congress. The revenues 
of the park are turned into the miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury. 

Some years ago, the State of Colorado undertook the construction 
of a road across the Continental Divide from Estes Park to Grand 
Lake by way of Fall River and Milner Pass, but the road has never 
been completed. The State, however, is continuing to build a 
few miles of the highway each year. Until this road is completed 
by the State and other improvements are made by the Federal Gov- 
ernment visitors to this splendid scenic park will find it accessible 
only to persons accustomed to foot or horseback travel on the trails. 

House bill 10124, now pending in the Senate, provides for the 
addition to the Rocky Mountain National Park of a number of scenic 
tracts, including Twin Sisters, Deer Mountain, Gem Lake, and The 
Needles. Should this measure be enacted the east boundary of the 
park will be brought very close to the city limits of Estes Park. 

THE HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION. 

The season of 1916 brought an increase in travel to Hot Springs 
Reservation in the Ozarks of Arkansas, and, as might be expected, 
an increase also in the indigent sick who became at once a charge 
upon the community and upon charitable organizations of the city. 

Less than a year ago, I spent a week carefully studying condi- 
tions in Hot Springs. I found that the burden of caring for the 
afflicted poor that annually came into the city to bathe at the Gov- 
ernment free bathhouse was very heavy, and I can not too highly 
commend the efforts of the men and women who are constantly de- 
voting themselves to the alleviation of the suffering of these people 
and to providing them with sufficient nourishment to enable them to 
seek relief from their ills by bathing in these healing waters. 

In this connection I wish to call attention to the free clinics which 
public-spirited physicians are now conducting at the Government 



26 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

free bathhouse. Three of these clinics are now in operation. The 
doctors in charge not only devote considerable time to these clinics, 
but make free use of their laboratories for tests and diagnoses which 
entail, in many cases, considerable expense. The results of the 
operation of these clinics have been most gratifying and they clearly 
indicate that these waters, when used under experienced medical 
advice, have not only given relief in the majority of cases but have 
effected numerous complete cures. These results are the more re- 
markable when one considers the conditions under which the indigent 
must bathe on the reservation. The Government free bathhouse is 
small, old, and inadequate to furnish the service for which it was 
built. It is practically impossible to keep it sanitary, and notwith- 
standing all that is done to keep it clean it always looks insanitary. 

The National Park Service will soon station a physician at the 
reservation to supervise bathing at the free bathhouse, assist in the 
free clinics, keep its records, make laboratory tests, etc. 

There is an urgent necessity for a detailed study of the Hot 
Springs Reservation by a board to be composed of an architect, a 
civil engineer of experience in designing and installing drainage 
systems and constructing roads, and possibly a landscape engineer. 
This board should suggest an adequate landscape development and 
design a new free bathhouse. It should also plan a storm-sewer 
system to carry away flood waters for the protection of the city from 
the serious inundations which have caused considerable damage in 
the past. It is estimated that $10,000 will cover the cost of such a 
survey. The report of the proposed board would be a basis for 
congressional appropriation for the improvement of the reservation. 

An estimate for a storm-sewer system, in amount $237,840, and for 
other improvements, in amount $96,595, has been submitted to don- 
gress by the department in three consecutive years, but it has never 
received favorable action. All things considered, I believe that a 
complete study of all of the needs of the reservation should be made 
before appropriations are again requested for its broad-gauge 
development. 

During my visit to Hot Springs I talked with many who stated 
that they had been restored to health by the spring waters, and as a 
layman I was deeply impressed with apparent evidences of their 
curative value in several diseases. 

THE MESA VERDE NATIONAL PARK 

Mesa Verde National Park possesses historical and scientific features 
that should bring it a very large tourist patronage. There are no 
facilities for the care of many visitors at one time, however, .and 
neither has there been sufficient road improvement to make the im- 
portant cliff dwellings and the scenic sections of the park readily 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 27 

'accessible. Nevertheless, 1,385 people visited the park during the 
1916 season, an increase of more than 100 per cent over 1915. 

Here again we point to a park for which the funds appropriated 
by Congress are wholly inadequate. Liberal appropriations for a 
year or two would make the park available to tens of thousands. 

Further important discoveries of prehistoric structures and imple- 
ments were made in the park during the summer by Dr. J. Walter 
Fewkes, of the Smithsonian Institution. His explorations were 
financed by both the National Park Service and the Smithsonian 
Institution. Many curios and rare objects of historic interest recently 
uncovered are being carried away by tourists because the park has no 
place to house them and protect them. A museum should be con- 
structed in the park, and an effort made to recover some of the im- 
portant relics that have been carried away. If there is a building in 
which these objects may be placed for preservation, in all likelihood 
many valuable relics will be voluntarily returned to the park. 

There have been no important developments in the smaller parks, 
nor have I any recommendations to make with respect to their im- 
provement and management. 

IN GENERAL. 

On the whole, we should be well pleased, if not satisfied, with the 
year's accomplishment. While nothing new has been completed, we 
have made substantial beginnings in most important directions. 

Of first importance is the creation of the national park service, 
which makes all things possible. 

Of perhaps equal importance is the practical establishment on 
sound business lines of the principle of Government participation in 
concessioners' profits, which makes eventual financial independence 
for the national parks possible, and, with wise administration, 
probable. 

Also of very great importance is the creation of a spirit of hearty 
cooperation among concessioners, railroads, and park officials. There 
is much still lacking here, but the beginnings are inspiring. 

Finally, the sympathy and spirit of helpfulness shown by Congress 
in this public-spirited endeavor to realize a vast national destiny is 
tremendously encouraging. 

And the enthusiastic whole-hearted way in which the American 
people are rising to their opportunity is a genuine delight. 
Cordially, yours, 

STEPHEN T. MATHER, 
Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior. 

Hon. FRANKLIN K. LANE, 

Secretary of the Interior. 



28 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 



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DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 



STATISTICS. 

Visitors to parks, 1909 to 1916. 



Name of park. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


Hot Springs Reservation 
Yellowstone National Park... 
Casa Grande Ruin 


C 1 ) 
32,545 
f 1 ) 


120,000 
19, 575 
f 1 ) 


130,000 
23,054 
2 450 


135,000 
22,970 
2 450 


2135,000 
24,929 
2 450 


2125,000 
20,250 
2 500 


2115,000 
51, 895 
500 


118, 740 
35,849 
1 909 


Sequoia National Park 


854 


2,407 


3,114 


2,923 


3,823 


4,667 


7,647 


10,780 


Yosemite National Park 
General Grant National Park. 
Mount Rainier National Park 
Crater Lake National Park.. . 
Wind Cave National Park 
Platt National Park. 


13, 182 
798 
5,968 
4,171 
3,216 
25,000 


13,619 
1,178 
8,000 
5,000 
3,387 
2 25, 000 


12,530 
2,160 
10,306 
2 4,500 
"3,887 
30,000 


10,884 
2,240 
8,946 
5,235 
3,199 
231,000 


13,735 
2,756 
13,501 
6,253 
3,988 
2 35 000 


15, 145 
3,735 
15,038 
7,096 
3,592 
2 30 000 


33,452 
10,523 
35, 166 
11,371 

2,817 
2 20 000 


33,390 
15,360 
23,989 
12, 265 
9,000 
2 30 000 


Sullys Hill Park 


190 


190 


2200 


2200 


300 


500 


1 000 


2 1 500 


Mesa Verde National Park. . . 
Glacier National Park 


165 


250 


206 
2 4 000 


230 

6 257 


280 
12 138 


502 
14 168 


'663 
14 265 


1,385 
12 839 


Rocky Mountain National 
Park 














231,000 


2 51 000 


Hawaii National Park 
















(i) 


Lassen Volcanic National 
Park 
















(i) 




















Total 


86,089 


198,606 


224,407 


229,534 


252 153 


240 193 


335 299 


358 006 





















i No record. 2 Estimated. 

Automobile and motorcycle licenses issued, seasons of 191J/, 1915, and 1916. 





19 


14 


19 


15 


18 


16 




Automo- 
biles. 


Motor- 
cycles. 


Automo- 
biles. 


Motor- 
cycles. 


Automo- 
biles. 


Motor- 
cycles. 


Yellowstone 






958 




3,445 






158 




330 


11 


735 


4 


Yosemite 


673 




3,895 




3,938 




General Grant 


392 


12 


1,584 


40 


1,749 


39 


Mount Rainier 


1,594 


188 


3,238 


247 


3,795 


97 


Crater Lake 


1 107 


18 


2 015 


31 


2 600 


26 


Mesa Verde 


34 


4 


86 




184 


2 


Glacier 


267 


4 


457 


26 


902 


11 


Wind Cave 


(i) 


(i) 


(i) 


(i) 


2 2, 500 


(i) 
















Total 


4 225 


226 


12 563 


355 


19 848 


179 

















i No record kept or estimate made. 



2 Estimated. 



Receipts 1 collected from automobiles and motorcycles (single trip and season 

permits) during the 1916 park season. 

Amount 
collected. 

Yellowstone $25, 387. 50 

Sequoia 1, 600. 00 

Yosemite 19, 997. 00 

General Grant 960. 00 

Mount Rainier 13, 194. 00 

Crater Lake 4, 237. 00 

Mesa Verde 95. 50 

Glacier__ 312. 00 



Total ' 65, 783. 00 



1 Received to and including Nov. 14, 1916. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 



31 



National monuments administered by the National Park Service, Department 

of the Interior. 



Name. 


Location. 


Date of crea- 
tion. 


Area 
(acres). 


Description. 


Devils Tower 


Wyoming 
Arizona 


Sept. 24, 1906 
Dec. 8, 1906 

... do 


1,152 
1160 

160 

20,629 
295 

2,080 
10 
1 15, 840 

210 
12,740 

1160 
157 

160 
160 

13,883 
25,625 

360 
2,050 

80 
15,000 

681 


Remarkable natural rock tower, of volcanic 
origin, l,200feet in height. 
Prehistoric cliff-dwelling ruin of unusual size 
situated in a niche in face of a vertical cliff. 
Of scenic and ethnological interest. 
Enormous sandstone rock eroded in form of a 
castle, upon which inscriptions have been 
placed by early Spanish explorers. Con- 
tains cliff-dweller ruins. Of great historic, 
scenic, and ethnologic Interest. 
Contains numerous cliff-dweller ruins, includ- 
ing communal houses, in good condition, 
and but little excavated. 
Contains one of the most noted redwood 
groves in California, and was donated by 
Hon. William Kent, Member of Congress. 
Located 7 miles from San Francisco. 
Contains many spirelike rock formations, 600 
to 1,000 feet high, which are visible for many 
miles; also numerous caves, and other 
formations. 
Contains ruin of Franciscan mission dating 
from sixteenth century, until recent years 
in fair preservation, but now rapidly dis- 
integrating. 
Contains magnificent gorge, depth from 800 to 
2,000 feet, with precipitous walls and many 
waterfalls. Of great beauty and scenic 
interest. 
Cavern of considerable extent, located near 
Cody. 
Contains 3 natural bridges, among largest ex- 
amples of their kind. Largest bridge is 222 
feet high, 65 feet thick at top of arch; arch Is 
28 feet wide; span, 261 feet; height of span, 
157 feet. Other two are only slightly 
smaller. 
One of the most important of earliest Spanish 
mission ruins in the Southwest. Monu- 
ment also contains Pueblo ruins. 
Park of great natural beauty, and historic in- 
terest as scene of massacre of Russians by 
Indians. Contains 16 totem poles of best 
native workmanship. 
Unique natural bridge of great scientific in- 
terest and symmetry. Height 309 feet 
above water, and span is 278 feet, in shape 
of rainbow. 
Immense limestone cavern of great scientific 
interest, magnificently decorated with 
stalactite formations. Cavern now closed 
to public because of depredations by van- 
dals. 
Contains many lofty monoliths, and is won- 
derful example of erosion, and of great 
scenic beauty and interest. 
Contains abundance of petrified coniferous 
trees, one of which forms a small natural 
bridge . Is of great scientific interest . 
Contains numerous pueblo, or cliff-dweller 
nuns, in good preservation. 
Contains splendid collection of characteristic 
desert flora and numerous pictographs. 
Interesting rock formations. 
Contains deposits of fossil remains of prehis- 
toric animal life of great scientific interest. 
Mountainous area adjacent to Bar Harbor 
which includes 10 mountains and several 
lakes. Is very wild and rugged. Most 
romantic and beautiful mingling of moun- 
tain and ocean scenery on Atlantic Coast. 
Contains cinder cone of geologically recent 
formation. 


Montezuma Castle. 


New Mexico 


Chaco Canyon 
Muir Woods 


do 
California 

. . do 


Mar. 11,1907 
Jan. 9, 1908 

Jan. 16,1908 
Sept. 15, 1908 
July 31,1909 

Sept. 21, 1909 
Sept. 25, 1909 

Nov. 1,1909 
Mar. 23,1910 

May 30,1910 
May 16,1911 

May 24,1911 
July 31,1911 

Mar. 14,1912 
Jan. 31,1914 

Oct. 4,1915 
July 8,1916 

Aug. 9, 1916 


Pinnacles 




Arizona 


Mukuntuweap 


Utah 


Shoshone Cavern. . 
Natural bridges . . . 


Wyoming 
Utah 


Gran Quivira.. 


New Mexico . . 
Alaska 


Sitka 


Rainbow Bridge.. 


Utah.. . 


Lewis and Clark 
Cavern. 

Colorado 


Montana 

Colorado 
Arizona 


Petrified Forest... 
Navajo 


do 


Papago Saguaro. . . 

Dinosaur 
Sieur de Monts. . . . 

Capulin Mountain. 


do 

Utah 
Maine 

Now Mexico... 



i Estimated. 



32 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

National monuments administered by the Department of Agriculture. 



Name. 


Location. 


Date of crea- 
tion. 


Area 
(acres) 


Description. 


Gila Cliff Dwell- 
ings. 
Tonto 


New Mexico... 
Arizona 


Nov. 16,1907 
Dec. 19 1907 


160 
1 640 


Contains numerous cliff-dweller ruins of much 
interest and in good preservation. 
Do. 


Grand. Canyon . . . 


.... do 


Jan. 11, 1908 


1 806,400 


.Contains the most wonderful portion of the 


Jewel Cave 


South Dakota. 


Feb. 7, 1908 


i 1,280 


Grand Canyon of the Colorado. 
Contains a limestone cavern of much beauty 


Wheeler 


Colorado 


Dec. 7, 1908 


300 


and considerable extent, limits of which 
are as yet unknown. 
Of much interest from geological standpoint 


Oregon Caves 


Oregon 


July 12,1909 


480 


as example of eccentric erosion and extinct 
volcanic action. Of much scenic beauty. 
Extensive caves in limestone formation of 


Devil Postpile.... 
Mount Olympus.. 
Walnut Canyon 


California 
Washington... 
Arizona 


July 6, 1911 
Apr. 17,1912 
Nov. 30,1915 


800 
299,370 
960 


much beauty; magnitude not entirely as- 
certained. 
Spectacular mass of hexagonal basaltic col- 
umns, like an immense pile of posts. Said 
to rank with famous Giant's Causeway in 
Ireland. 
Contains many objects of great and unusual 
scientific interest, including many glaciers. 
Is summer range and breeding ground of 
the Olympic elk. 
Contains cliff dwellings of much scientific 


Bandelier 


New Mexico . 


Feb. 11,1916 


18,000 


and popular interest. 
Contains vast numbers of cliff-dweller ruins, 


Old Kasaan 


Alaska 


Oct. 25 1916 


38.3 


with artificial caves, stone sculpture, and 
other relics of prehistoric life. 
Abandoned Indian village in which there fire 










numerous remarkable totem poles and 
other objects of historical interest. 



i Estimated. 
National monuments administered by the War Department. 



Names. 


Location. 


Date of crea- 
tion. 


Area 
(acres). 


Description. 


Big Hole Battle 
Field. 

Cabrillo 


Montana 
California.. . 


June 23,1910 
Oct. 14, 1913 


5 
1 


Site of battle field on which battle was fought 
Aug. 9, 1877, between a small force of United 
States troops and a much larger force of Nez 
Perce Indians, resulting in rout for the 
Indians. 
Of historic interest because of discovery of the 










territory now partly embraced in the State 
of California by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, 
who at this point first sighted land on Sept. 
28, 1542. 



Statement of appropriations made for, and revenues received from, the various 
national parks, and expenditures made therefrom under supervision of the 
department, during the fiscal year 1907-1917, inclusive. 



Name of the national park. 


Appropriations. 


Revenues. 


Appro- 
priated. 


Ex- 
pended. 


Received. 


Ex-- 
pended. 


Hot Springs Reservation: 
1907 






$20,165.00 
28,090.00 
34,475.00 
36, 540. 00 
36,060.00 
182,518.00 
35,279.16 


$19, 938. 41 
21, 115. 56 
19,699.27 
28,401.97 
56,375.33 


1908... 






1909 






1910.. 






1911 


( $2,935.00 


$2,935.00 


1912 


::::::::::: 




3,267.96 
242,957.18 




1 





1 Proceeds from sale of Government lots (lot fund). 

2 Expenditure from lot fund. 



DEVELOPMENT OP THE NATIONAL PARKS. 



33 



Statement of appropriations made for, and revenues received from, the various 
national pai'ks, etc. Continued. 



Name of the national park. 


Appropriations. 


Revenues. 


Appro- 
priated. 


Ex- 
pended. 


Received. 


Ex- 
pended. 


Hot Springs Continued. 
1913 


(. . 
i... 




$40,711.00 


i $29, 438. 25 
234,581.57 
31,273.70 
36, 658. 62 
36,941.95 
40,261.14 






1914 


I'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 




< 1,287. 90 
38,380.00 
37,877.66 
37,926.32 












1916 






1917 






Yellowstone: 
1907 


$2,935.00 


$2,935.00 


429,310.04 


370,910.91 


7,500.00 
8,000.00 
58,000.00 
62,500.00 
8,000.00 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 


7,498.64 
7,999.40 
7,997.44 
1,962.53 
7,999.71 
8,499.96 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 
8,500.00 
8,491.41 


1,838.96 
4,699.65 
4,790.20 

5,110.05 
23,420.13 
16,476.38 
21,980.10 
15,439.23 
20,307.40 
46,628.49 


3,647.04 
4,228.37 
3,661.47 

3,359.80 
7,998.47 
8,103.41 
6,449.97 
13,843.24 
12,884.18 
26,350.96 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


Sequoia: 
1907 








93,500.00 


84,449.09 


160,690.59 


90,526.91 


10,000.00 
15,550.00 
15,550.00 
15,550.00 
15,550.00 
15,550.00 
15,550.00 
15,550.00 
15,550.00 
15,550.00 
/ 22, 300. 001 
(> 50,000.00/ 


9,919.82 
15,333.50 
15,373.96 
15,514.19 
15,543.34 
15.549.20 
15,549.52 
15,549.27 
15,549.65 
15,549.75 


159.50 
43.15 
46.57 
121.78 
255.65 
305. 16 
353.85 
4,094.21 
1,975.03 
5,169.86 




1908 


18.97 


1909 


1910 ... 




1911 


31.25 

48.25 
70.81 
83.94 
3,498.23 
4,740.75 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 - . ... 


1916 


1917 


Yosemite: 
1907 








222,250.00 


149,432.20 


12,524.76 


8,492.20 


5,750.00 
30,000.00 
30,000.00 
30,000.00 
62,000.00 
812,000.00 
50,000.00 
80,000.00 
125,000.00 
100,000.00 
75,000.00 
250 000 00 


5,705.24 
29,508.58 
29,969.86 
29,983.82 
62,000.00 
811,646.37 
49,999.68 
80,000.00 
124,798.49 
99,235.22 
74,992.54 


9,193.04 
14,390.06 
15,851.17 
21,373.18 
35,765.48 

23,855.77 
19,495.83 
23,406.14 
37,019.20 
49,878.42 


1,000.00 
7,131.37 
5,024.84 
34,486.09 
19,050.39 

35,970.68 
16,431.16 
9,903.58 
40,699.30 
52,961.53 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


General Grant: 
1907 










599,750.00 


597,839.80 


250,228.29 


222,658.94 


2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 


1,988.75 
1,914.76 
1,999.93 
1,999.90 
1,999.89 
1,998.60 
1,999.20 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
1,999.36 






1908 . . . . 1 


63.75 




1909 




1910 


50.00 
210.64 
173.54 
158.68 
429.64 
560.89 
1,795.50 




1911 . 


18.88 
.99 
503.01 
1.59 
355.68 
481.46 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 












22,000.00 


19,900.39 


3,442.64 


1,361.01 



1 Includes $1,272.71 expended in making survey and preparation of plans, etc., for sewer system, city of 
Hot Springs. 

2 Expenditure from lot fund. 

3 Contributed by city of Hot Springs on account sewer system; $14.20 returned to city. 

4 Includes 99 cents expended on account of survey sewer system. 

5 Administration and protection. 

6 Marking unmonumented portions of park boundaries. 

7 For purchase of private holdings. 

8 Appropriation, without year, for examination of water supply for city of San Francisco. 



34 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 



Statement of appropriations made for, and revenues received from, the various 
national parks, etc. Continued. 



Name of the national park. 


Appropriations. 


Revenues. 


Appro- 
priated. 


Ex- 
pended. 


Received. 


Ex- 
pended. 


Mount Rainier: 
1907 










i $2, 500. 00 
3,000.00 
3,000.00 
3,000.00 
3,000.00 
5,400.00 
20,000.00 
23,400.00 
51,000.00 
30,000.00 
30,000.00 


$2,407.91 
2,965.59 
2,961.61 
3,000.00 
2,998.90 
5,399.99 
19,989.70 
23,347.05 
50,907.79 
29,999.77 


$205. 22 
170.00 
1,104.79 
9,053.79 
7,748.48 
5,370.36 
7,301.62 
9,040.10 
12,893.29 
19,317.99 




1908 


SN. 9(5 
27.65 
2,763.86 
5,342.47 
9,363.33 
6,791.80 
6,039.42 
5,513.46 
15,026.08 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


Crater Lake: 
1907 








174,300.00 


143,978.31 


72,205.64 


50,877.03 


3,000.00 
7,315.00 
3,000.00 
3,000.00 
3,000.00 
3,000.00 
3,000.00 
7,540.00 
8,040.00 
8,000.00 
8,000.00 


2,989.75 
7,314.65 
2,999.21 
2,999.97 
2,999.77 
2,998.75 
2,978.41 
7,483.61 
7,884.59 
7,835.25 


10.00 


( 2 ) 


1908 


1909 


15.00 
11.00 
30.00 
323.00 
784.18 
793.00 
1,359.50 
2,402.04 




1910 




1911 




1912 




1913 




1914 




1915 


1916 




1917 




Wind Cave: 
1907 








56,895.00 


48, 483. 96 

4^398.08 
2,433.54 
2,335.37 
2,500.00 
2,413.60 
2,499.86 
132.50 
2,500.00 
2,496.97 
2,463.51 


5, 727. 72 




| == 


4,400.00 
2,500.00 
2,500.00 
2,500.00 
2,500.00 
2,500.00 
375.00 
2,500.00 
2,500.00 
2,500.00 
2,500.00 


1908 


200.00 
450.00 
523. 25 
340.00 
675.00 
528.26 
246.17 
2,342.90 
2,590.89 




1909 


220.80 
62.88 
562. 26 
278. 56 
1, 197. 39 
366.72 
606.16 
981.57 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


Platt: 
1907 








27, 275. 00 


24, 173. 43 


7,896.47 


4,276.34 


(3) 




178.00 
7,021.00 
272.00 
164.50 
422. 75 
165.50 
49.95 
U7,500.00 
282.81 
241.76 
301. 11 


7,082.25 
10,552.26 
15,764.27 
11,734.74 
779.06 
219. 84 
100.11 
* 10, 119. 06 
67.48 
178. 87 
44.35 


1908 






1909 






1910 






1911 


5,000.00 
10,000.00 
f 8,000.00 
V 17, 500. 00 
8,000.00 
8,000.00 
18,000.00 
8,000.00 


4,994.64 
9,999.34 
7,999.95 
< 10, 120. 73 
7,988.55 
8,000.00 
17,060.49 


1912 


1913 


1914 . 


1915 


1916 (deficiency, $10,000) 


1917 


Mesa Verde: 
1907-8 








82,500.00 


66, 163. 70 


26,599.38 


56,624.29 
( 5 ) 


7,500.00 
7,500.00 
7.500.00 
2,000.00 
20,000.00 
7,500.00 
15.000.00 


7,455.82 
7,348.33 
7,443.09 
947.75 
19,808.63 
7,351.54 
14.956.91 


1909 




1910 






1910-11 (for examination of coal lands in park) 
1911 






100.00 
898.92 
615.21 




1912 




1913... 





1 No appropriation made for Mount Rainier prior to 1907 fiscal year. 

2 Expenditure of revenues of Crater Lake and Mesa Verde Parks for park purposes therein not author- 
ized by existing statutes enacted by Congress. 

3 No appropriation for Platt Park prior to 1911 fiscal year. Land prior to creation of park included in 
Sulphur Springs Reservation. 

4 Construction sanitary sewer, like amount being contributed by the city of Sulphur, Okla.; $7,380.94 
returned to city. 

5 Expenditure of revenues of Crater Lake and Mesa Verde Parks for park purposes therein not authorized 
by existing statutes enacted by Congress. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 



35 



Statement of appropriations made for, and revenues received from, the various 
national parks, etc. Continued. 



Name of the national park. 


Appropriations. 


Revenues. 


Appro- 
priated. 


Ex- 
pended. 


Received. 


Ex- 
pended. 


Mesa Verde Continued. 
1914 


$10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10.000.00 
10,000.00 


$9,880.30 
19,786.05 
9,643.47 


$679.00 
637.42 
946.38 




1915 




1916 




1917 




Glacier: 
1911 








107,000.00 


94,621.89 

14,998.59 
69,117.94 
74,568.24 
99,999.49 
74,994.27 
74,963.78 


3,876.93 






15,000.00 
69, 200. 00 
75,000.00 
100,000.00 
75,000.00 
75,000.00 
110,000.00 


326. 88 
1,490.94 
4,677.14 
4.010.71 
4,218.51 
10,011.76- 




1912 




1913 


$428.84 
477.07 
9,735.44 
844 58 


1914 


1915 


1916 . . 


1917 


Rocky Mountain: 
1915 








519, 200. 00 


418,642.31 


24,735.94 


11,485.93 


3,000.00 
8,000.08 
10,000.00 


2,910.83 
7,941.56 




( 2 ) 


1916 


501.93 


1917 




Protection of national monument: 
1917 






21,000.00 


10.852.36 


501.93 






3,500.00 








Improvement of Mukuntuweap National Monument. 
Utah: 
1917 







15,000.00 








Improvement of Navajo National Monument, Arizona: 
1917 . . . 




3,000.00 

















1 $120.30 on contract account construction ranger cabin included in this amount and not yet paid. 

2 Expenditure of revenues from Rocky Mountain Park not authorized by existing statutes for park pur- 

therein. 



Appropriations for the various national parks, for the fiscal years 1907-1917. 

inclusive. 

1907 _ $42,650.00 

1908 68, 365. 00 

1909 74, 050. 00 

1910 73, 550. 00 

1911 151, 485. 00 

1912 173, 650. 00 

1913 244, 925. 00 

1914 302, 490. 00 

1915 283, 590. 00 

1916 252, 550. 00 

1917 _ 511,300.00 



Total 2,178,605.00 

Appropriations for the various national monuments, for the fiscal years 
1907-1917, inclusive. 

1907-1916. _ None. 

1917 . $21,500.00 



Total 21,500.00 



36 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

Total appropriations for the various national parks and national monuments, 
for the fiscal years 1907-1917, inclusive. 

National parks $2, 178, 605. 00 

National monuments 21,500.00 



Total 2,200,105.00 

NATIONAL PARK PUBLICATIONS. 
DISTRIBUTED BY THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR. 

The following circulars may be obtained free of charge from the 
Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C. : 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 40 pages. 

Contains descriptions of the most important features of the principal national parks 
and the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. 

The information circulars on the parks listed below contain data 
regarding hotels, camps, and principal points of interest, lists of 
books and magazine articles, sketch maps, and rules and regulations. 

Yellowstone. Mesa Verde. Glacier. 

Yosemite. Sequoia and General Wind Cave. 

Mount Rainier. Grant. Casa Grande Ruin. 

Crater Lake. Hot Springs. Rocky Mountain. 

Automobile road and guide maps of Yellowstone and Yosemite 
National Parks are issued for free distribution. 

SOLD BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS. 

Remittances for publications listed below should be by money 
order, payable to the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., or in cash. Checks and postage 
stamps can not be accepted. 

PAMPHLETS. 

Geological history of Yellowstone National Park, by Arnold Hague. 1912. 
24 pages, including 10 illustrations. 10 cents. 

Contains a general re'sume' of the geologic forces that have been active in the 
Yellowstone National Park. 

Geysers, by Walter Harvey Weed. 1912. 32 pages, including 23 illustrations. 
10 cents. . 

In this pamphlet is a description of the forces which have produced the geysers. 

Fossil forests of Yellowstone National Park, by F. H. Knowlton. 1914. 32 
pages, including 15 illustrations. 10 cents. 

Contains descriptions of the fossil forests of the Yellowstone National Park and an 
account of their origin. 

Fishes of the Yellowstone National Park, by W. C. Kendall (Bureau of Fish- 
eries Document 818). 1915. 28 pages, including 17 illustrations. 5 cents. 

Contains descriptions of the species and lists of streams where found. 

Origin of the scenic features of Glacier National Park, by M. It. Campbell. 
1914. 42 pages, including 25 illustrations. 15 cents. 

Contains a general account of the forces that have caused the development of the 
mountain ranges, the valleys, and lakes of Glacier National Park. 

Glaciers of Glacier National Park, by W. C. Alden. 1914. 48 pages, 
including 30 illustrations. 15 cents. 

Contains descriptions of the principal features of the larger glaciers in the park. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 37 

Some lakes of Glacier National Park, by M. J. Elrocl. 1912. 32 pages, in- 
cluding 19 illustrations. 10 cents. 

Contains a description of some of the principal lakes, with special reference to the 
possibility of stocking the lakes with fish. 

Glacier National Park A popular guide to its geology and scenery, by M. R. 
Campbell (Bulletin 600, U. S. Geological Survey). 1914. 54 pages, 13 plates, 
including map. 30 cents. 

Geological history of Crater Lake, by J. S. Diller. 1912. 32 pages, including 
28 illustrations. 10 cents. 

Contains an account of the formation of Crater Lake. 

Forests of Crater Lake National Park, by J. F. Pernot. 1916. 40 pages, in- 
cluding 26 illustrations. 20 cents. 

Contains descriptions of the forest cover and of the principal species. 

Features of the flora of Mount Rainier National Park, by J. B. Flett. 1916. 
48 pages, including 40 illustrations. 25 cents. 

Contains descriptions of the flowering trees and shrubs in the park. 

Forests of Mount Rainier National Park, by G. F. Allen. 1916. 32 pages, in- 
cluding 27 illustrations. 20 cents. 

Contains descriptions of the forest cover and of the principal species. 

Mount Rainier and its glaciers, by F. E. Matthes. 1914. 48 pages, including 
26 illustrations. 15 cents. 

Contains a general account of the glaciers of Mount Rainier, and of the development 
of the valleys and basins surrounding the peak. 

Sketch of Yosemite National Park and an account of the origin of Yosemite 
and Hetch Hetchy Valleys, by F. E. Matthes. 1912. 48 pages, including 24 
illustrations. 10 cents. 

Contains a description of the general features of the Sierra Nevada and the Yosemite 
National Park and an account of the origin of the Yosemite and Hetch Hetchy 
Valleys. 

Forests of Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant National Parks, by C. L. 
Hill. 1916. 40 pages, including 23 illustrations. 20 cents. 

Contains descriptions of the forest cover and of the principal species. 

The secret of the big trees Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant National 
Parks by Ellsworth Huntington. 1913. 24 pages, including 14 illustrations. 
5 cents. 

Contains an account of the climatic changes that are indicated by the thickness of 
the growth rings in the big trees, and gives a comparative statement of the 
climatic conditions in California and Asia during a period of 3,400 years. 

Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Spruce Tree House, by J. W. 
Fewkes ( Bull. 41, Bureau of American Ethnology ) . 1909. 58 pages, 21 plates, 
37 text figures. 40 cents. 

Contains a detailed account of the structure and of the objects found in it. 

Antiquities of Mesa Verde National Park: Cliff Palace, by J. W. Fewkes 
(Bull. 51, Bureau of American Ethnology). 1911. 82 pages, 35 plates, 4 text 
figures. 45 cents. 

Contains a detailed account of the structure and of the objects found in it. 

Excavation and Repair of Sun Temple, by J. W. Fewkes. 1916. 32 pages, 
including 18 illustrations. 15 cents. 

Contains an account of a new ruin discovered in 1915. 

Analyses of the waters of the Hot Springs of Arkansas, by J. K. Haywood, 
and geological sketch of Hot Springs, Ark., by Walter Harvey Webb. 56 pages. 
10 cents. 

Proceedings of the [First] National Park Conference held at Yellowstone 
National Park, September 11 and 12, 1911. 210 pages. 15 cents. 

Contains a discussion of national-parks problems by officers of the Government and 
other persons. 

Proceedings of the [Second] National Park Conference held at Yosemite 
National Park, October 14, 15, and 16, 1912. 146 pages. 15 cents. 

Consist mainly of a discussion regarding the advisability of admitting automobiles 
to the national parks. 



38 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 

Proceedings of the [Third] National Park Conference held at Berkeley, Cal., 
March 11, 12, and 13, 1915. 1915. 166 pages. 20 cents. 

Contains discussions of national-park problems by officers of the Government and 
others. 

PANORAMIC VIEWS. 

The panoramic views listed below are based on accurate surveys 
and give an excellent idea of the configuration of the surface as it 
would appear to a person flying over it. The meadows and valleys 
are printed in light green, the streams and lakes in light blue, the 
cliffs and ridges in combinations of color, and the roads in light 
brown. The lettering is printed in light brown and is easily read on 
close inspection, but merges into the other colors when the sheet is 
held at some distance. 

Panoramic view of Crater Lake National Park. 16$ x 18 inches, scale 1 mile 
to the inch. 25 cents. 

Panoramic view of Yosemite National Park. 18$ x 18 inches, scale 3 miles to 
the inch. 25 cents. 

Panoramic view of Glacier National Park. 18$ x 21 inches, scale 3 miles to 
the inch. 25 cents. 

Panoramic view of Mount Rainier National Park. 20 x 19 inches, scale 1 
mile to the inch. 25 cents. 

Panoramic view of Yellowstone National Park. 18 x 21 inches, scale 3 miles 
to the inch. 25 cents. 

Panoramic view of Mesa Verde National Park. 22$ x 19 inches, scale three- 
fourths mile to the inch. 25 cents. 

Panoramic view of Rocky Mountain National Park. 14 x 17$ inches, scale 
2 miles to the inch. 25 cents. 

MAPS SOLD BY THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The maps listed below may be purchased from the Director of the 
United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. Remittances 
should be by money order or in cash. Personal checks can not be 
accepted. A discount of 40 per cent is allowed on all orders for maps 
amounting to $3 net or more. 

Crater Lake National Park, Oreg. Limiting parallels, 42 48' and 43 04'. 
Limiting meridians, 122 and 122 16'. Size, 19 by 22 inches. Scale, 1 : 62,500. 
or about 1 mile to 1 inch. Contour interval, 50 feet. An illustrated description 
of the lake and the manner of its formation is given on the back of the sheet. 
Price, 10 cents. 

Glacier National Park, Mont. Limiting parallels, 48 14' 36" and 49. 
Limiting meridians, 113 10' and 114 30'. Size, 31 by 35 inches. Scale, 1 : 125,- 
000, or about 2 miles to 1 inch. Contour interval, 100 feet. Price, 25 cents. 

Mesa Verde National Park, Colo. Limiting parallels, 37 09' 18" and 
37 21'. Limiting meridians, 108 15' and 108 37' 30". Size, 31 by 46 inches. 
Scale, 1 : 31,250, or about one-half mile to 1 inch. Contour interval, 25 feet. 
Price, 20 cents. 

Mount Rainier National Park, Wash. Limiting parallels, 46 43' 43" and 
47 00'. Limiting meridians, 121 30' and 121 55'. Size, 22 by 23 inches. 
Scale, 1 : 62,500, or about 1 mile to 1 inch. Contour interval, 100 feet. Price, 
10 cents. 

Yellowstone National Park, Wyo.-Mont.-Idaho. Limiting parallels, 44 08' 
17" and 45 01' 55". Limiting meridians, 110 and 111 05' 53". Size, 32 by 
36 inches. Scale, 1 : 125,000, or about 2 miles to 1 inch. Contour interval, 100 
feet. Price, 25 cents. 

Yosemite National Park, Cal. The park limits established by acts of Congress 
are shown in colors. Limiting parallels, 37 30' and 38 15' 39". Limiting 
meridians, 119 and 120. Size, 29 by 31 inches. Scale, 1 : 125,000, or about 2 
miles to 1 inch. Contour interval, 100 feet. Price, 25 cents. Also issued folded 
between covers ; price, 40 cents. The Yosemite Valley is shown on a larger scale 
on the Yosemite Valley map. See below. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS. 39 

Some of the national parks and reservations are shown in whole or 
in part on the standard topographic maps, as indicated below. 

Casa Grande Ruins, Ariz. The northern part of this area is shown on the 
Sacaton map. Scale, 1 : 62,500, or about 1 mile to 1 inch. Contour interval, 50 
feet. Price, 10 cents. 

General Grant National Park, Cal. Shown on the Tehipite map. Scale, 
1 : 125,000, or about 2 miles to 1 inch. Contour interval, 100 feet. Price, 10 
cents. 

Hot Springs Reservation, Ark. Shown on the map of Hot Springs and 
vicinity. Scale, 1 : 62,500, or about 1 mile to 1 inch. Contour level, 20 feet. 
Price, 10 cents. 

Platt National Park, Okla. This park is at the town of Sulphur, Murray 
County, which is shown on the Stonewall map. Scale, 1 : 125,000, or about 2 
miles to 1 inch. Contour interval, 50 feet. Price, 10 cents. 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colo. The greater portion of this park is 
shown on the Longs Peak map. Scale, 1 : 125,000, or about 2 miles to 1 inch. 
Contour interval, 50 feet. Price, 10 cents. 

Sequoia National Park, Cal. Shown on the Kaweah and Tehipite maps. 
Scale, 1 : 125,000, or about 2 miles to 1 inch. Contour interval, 100 feet. Price 
of each map, 10 cents. 

Wind Cave National Park, S. Dak. Shown on the Harney Peak and Hermosa 
maps. Scale, 1 : 125,000, or about 2 miles to 1 inch. Contour interval, 100 feet. 
Price of each map, 10 cents. 

Yosemite Valley, Cal. Shown on the Yosemite Valley map. Limiting paral- 
lels, 37 42' and 37 47' 05". Limiting meridians, 119 30' and 119 43' 40". 
Scale, 1 : 24,000, or about 2$ inches to 1 mile. Contour interval, 50 feet. Price, 
10 cents. 

o