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BY K. G. PxiRKER, A. M. 


I I., breviora reiUi tit. 


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$B 307 171 

•v/!:lfth stereotvpe edition. 





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** Ordo et modus omnia breviora reddunt ** 






183 7, 

The School Committee of the city of Boston have 
authorized the introduction of tliis work into the publick 
schools of the city. 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 



This work has been very favourably received in England, having 
passed through three editions in London, within the space of one year. 
The English publisher has now stereotyped it. 

The following notice is extracted from the last London edition : — 
" A third edition of this little work having been called for within the 
present year (1834), is no small testimony of its utility, both as a 
guide to the Teacher, and an aid to the Pupil, in one of the most diffi- 
cult, though most important departments of education." 

Boston, Jubj^ 1835. 



Two great obstacles beset the pupil in his first attempts at compo- 
sition. The first is the difficulty of obtaining ideas, (or learning to 
think ;) the second is that of expressing them properly when obtain- 
ed. In this volume, the author has endeavoured to afford some as- 
sistance to the pupil in overcoming both these difficulties. It is not 
unfrequently the case that the scholar is discouraged in the very on- 
set, and the teacher, from the want of a regular and progressive sys-. 
tem, finds his labours unsuccessful, and his requisitions met with re- 
luctance, if not with opposition. The simplicity of the plan here 
proposed, requires no laboured explanation. The first exercise or les- 
son consists in giving the pupil a word, or a number of words, and 
instead of asking for a definition of them, requiring him to use them 
in a sentence or idea of his own* From this simple exercise he is 
led onward through a series of Lessons in easy and regular progres- 
sion, from the simplest principles to the most difficult practice. Af- 
ter the principle of each lesson is stated, (and, when necessary, ex- 
plained,) a ^' Model " is presented, which is designed to show the 
pupil how the exercise is to be performed. The Examples for 
Practice furnish him with the materials with which he is expected 
to perform his exercise. The teacher will find no difficulty in sup- 
plying the deficiency, if the Examples are not sufficiently numer- 
ous in some cases, or in omitting what may be superfluous in others. 
If, on the first inspection, any of the Lessons appear too diflEicult, the 
Author respectfull}'' requests the tests of trial and experience before 
they are condemned. They have been performed, and the Models 
of some of those apparently the most difficult, were written by pu- 
pils in the school of which he has the charge. 

* The pupil may be permitted to write simply or familiarly at first : 
but the teacher should in all cases require that the sentence be the 
unassisted production of the pupil himself. Although a decided 
preference is expressed for a written exercise, yet several of the 
early lessons may be read from the book, at the discretion of the 
teacher. For some suggestions on the mechanical execution of 
written exercises, and the mode of correcting thera, the teacher is 
referred to the close of the volume. 

n A(^Cy(f\c^y^^M 


The Author is encouraged to beheve that the plan will be favour- 
ably received, if it leads the pupil to thlnky or removes any of the dif- 
ficulties which lie in the way of those, who are just turning their at- 
tention to Composition. Justice requires the acknowledgement that 
some hints have been derived, and some extracts have been taken 
from Walker's Teacher's Assistant, Booth's Principles of English 
Composition, and Jardine's Outlines of a Philosophical Education; 
but the plan, and the general features of the work, are believed to 
be new. 

The book is designed as the Sequel to a Grammar which will short- 
ly be pubhshed, on a plan, in some respects, different from any now 
in use. It therefore presupposes some acquaintance with syntax ; 
although the practical exercises under most of the Lessons, can be 
performed with tolerable facility by those, who have but a slender 
knowledge of any part of Grammar. 
Boston, June, 1832. 


Within the short space of six months this work has passed through 
two editions, consisting of Four Thousand Copies. The publishers 
have now determined to stereotype it, and thus put it into a perma- 
nent form. The Author, desirous of rendering it more worthy the un- 
expected favour it l^s received, has made some additions which will 
supersede the necessiW of using any abridged treatise of Rhetorick in 
connexion with it. 

The Granmiar, which the Author has for some time had in prepara- 
tion, and which he designs as an introduction to this volume, will 
shortly be put to the press. A Sequel to this work is also intended j 
and, if the Author's aims are accomplished, the three volumes will be 
found useful auxiliaries to the pupil in acquiring correctness of 
thought and expression. 

Hayward Place, January, 1833. 


On the use of words. 

Write a sentence containing one or more of the follow- 
ing words: namely, contains, industrious, well, idle, neglect, 
reward, reprove, recognized, surprised, destitute, excel, 


The school room contains many pupils. 

Some are industrioits, and get their lessons well. 

Others are idle and neglect their studies. 

The teacher will reward the good, and reprove the negligent. 

I recognized my father in the procession. 

I was surprised by the return of my long lost brother. 

A poor man is destitute of many comforts. 

She excels all her classmates. 


The pupil will now write a sentence containing one or more of the 
following words, recollecting that his exercise will he more meritorious 
if he can employ several of the words in the same sentence. 

Present, exemplary, beautiful, tall, straight, erect, well, 
quickly, inadvertently, exalted, abandoned, animation, en- 
terprising/refused, admission, inspect, sagacity, fruitless, 
solicitation, disregarded, congratulate, acquire, delightful) 
^sentiment, necessarily, comprehensive, contain, expect, 
fatal, infirmities, obtain, possess, prospect) unforeseen, 
poisonous, baneful, influence, indulgence, forbear, gentle, 
docile, equally, clemency,) prompt, anticipate, alienated, 
stimulated, promiscuous, heterogeneous, mingle, entire, 
complete, astonished, homage, lucubrations, nomenclature, 
panegyrick, paltry, palpitate, patent, posterity, regret, refute, 
refresh, secret, secede, shortsighted, substantial, indefinite, 
auxiliary, surpass, surmount, protest^ surly, suppress, with- 
draw, approximate, fearlessly, coerce, atrocious, invasion, 
fertility, inundate, preserve, commiseration, uncouth, bar- 
barity, productions, invincible, repugnance, verdure, fleet- 
ing^ ridiculous, condemn, confine, discover, anxious, solic- 
itude, anticipate, commendable, evince, undoubtedly) ravei- 
ges, menace, insignificant, reprehensible, benefits conferred. 



Use of words in phrases. 

Write a sentence containing one of the following phrases ^ 
namely, verij good, exceedingly kind, tolerably well, at length, 
in the best manner, in succession. 


My pen is a verij good one. 

My teacher is exceedingly kind to me. 

George behaves tolerably icell. 

I have at length finished the first lesson in composition. 

I tried to perform it in the best manner. 

I did not use all the words in succession. 


1 In general. 

2. Indeed. 

3. In the most exemplary man- 

^4 The atrocious wickedness. 

5. The inhuman barbarity. 

6. The nefarious traffick. 

7. The indolent habits. 

8. The frightful ravages. 

9. Just and generous principles. 

10. ^Were mingled. 

11. Great advantage may be de- 
" rived. 

12. Menaced with a loud voice. 

13. invasion of oar rights. 

14. Fertility of invention. 
IS.'^atience and perseverance. 

16. Was inundated. 

17. The importance of. 

18. Arc of no great consequence. 

19. ,Pay particular attention to. 

20. fee very anxious. 

21. The acquisition of knowledge. 

22. The value of education. 

23. Can be useful to few persons 


24. Naturally tend. 

25. The beneficial influence. 

26. The baneful effects. 

27. The most important. 

28. A good character. 

29. JToung children are apt. 

30. The" duties of children at 

school are. 

31. By some thoughtless action 

or expression. 

32. Has not the slightest foun- 


33. In order to preserve our health 

it is necessary. 

34. We should always speak. 

35. Can neither be respected noi 


36. Deserves our commiseration. 

37. Is the first duty of children at 


38. The most insignificant and 


39. It is the duty of children. 

40. If we wish to excel. 

41. Are uncouth and disgusting. 

42. Is a description of the earth. 

43. Teaches us to speak properly 

and write correctly. 

44. Are the productions of warm 


45. Where the sun never rises. 

46. Are fleeting and changeable. 

47. Are ridiculous in the extreme. 

48. There is a great difference 

40. Condemned to die. 

50. Invincible repugnance. 

51. He found himself surround 


52. How vast are the resources. 

53. I would surely. 

54. I had rather. 


55. As far as the eye could reach. 64. Feel an anxious solicitude. 

56. Overgrov/n with verdure. 65. We anticipate with pleasure* 

57. Evinces remarkable sagacity. 66. The effects of intemperance. 

58. After feasting my eyes. 67. Juan easily discover. 

59. Commendable diligence. 68. .Shall readily find. 
60.1s undoubtedly true. 69. Can easily discern. 
61. Overspread with verdure. 70..'»Confine our attention. 

62. Undervalue the advantages 71. Js seldom unrewarded. 

63. Duly appreciate. 72. Is inexcusable. 


Use of words, continued. 

/ Supply the words that are omitted in the following sen- 
tences, and make sense of the sentences. 


1. His father was to his request. 

2. The boys applied themselves to their lessons with 

3. No one should he enjoys. 

4. Parents for the welfare of their chil- 

5. A faithful discharge of duty . 

Supplying the words omitted, the sentences may be read, 

1. His father was induced to grant his request. 

Or, His father was obliged, (or compelled) to deny his request. 

2. The boys applied themselves to their lessons with commendable 

3. No one should undervalue the advantages he enjoys. 

4. Parents feel an anxious solicitude for the welfare of their chil- 

5. A faithful discharge of duty is seldom unrewarded. 

N. B. The pupil is given to understand that any other words which 
would make good sense may be used. 


1 . We seldom forget the which are by our 


2. Mankind cannot without . 

3. Be kind and — to your companions — 

not nor . 

4. If you conduct yourself in a and manner, 

you will procure the and the of all who know you. 


5. When you have a difficult to perform you 

must not say you cannot it ; but exert all your — . 

and use your best ; for what man has done can again 

be by man. 

6. By carefully observing the proper discharge of your 

duties, you will gain the of your superiors; the 

and of your equals ; and the and of all 

who are your inferiors. All that know you, will and 

 you. Your example will be as a pattern 

of ' and behaviour. You will be and ^ 

in every period, station and circumstance in your life ; 
and your name will be when you are in your grave. 

7. Nothing can for the want of modesty; without 

it beauty is and wit . 

8. Ignorance and are the only things of which 

we need be ashamed. Avoid these, and you may 

what company you will. 

9. All men pursue and would be if 

they knew how. 

10. Many men mistake the for the of 

virtue ; and are not so much as the of good- 

11. It is required of all men that they live^ , , 

and in this world. 

12. The consciousness that the eye of — is always 

upon us should us to diligence in the 

of our duties, and make us remember the and 

the of our situation. 

13. No pleasures can be unless we are willing 

to the full for their enjoyment. 

14. If you to obtain the of others, you 

must not their interests or their fail- 
ings. Your own happiness cannot be augmented by 

the faults of others, neither can your be promoted 

by their . 

15. Virtue and will secure all the of 

this life. Religion will us under the of the 

world, and us for that which is . 

16. Geography teaches us* — — ■— ; it describes 

the ; and, in its connection with astronomy, ex- 
plains the difference of in the various parts of 

the world. 


17. It was a delightful in the month of - 

The sun rising above the , had gilded the tops of 

the — — . The birds fearing the heat had in the 

The cattle, having their thirst in the 

were browsing on the , and the peasant had - 

his labours in the field. All things seemed to — J — of a love- 
ly day. But suddenly the began to , the be- 
gan — r-to look dark, the darted through the sky, the 

rolled, and a noise, as if all the artillery of heaven 

was discharged at once, spread and on all 


18. Our eyes are dazzled by the of light. 

19. Children are and . When they are 

older they become : but when they have arrived at 

the state of manhood they lay aside the of youth, 

and apply themselves to the which belong to their 

in life. 

20. How many persons when they are young expect 
that life will afford them and ; but how fre- 
quently, alas, are they . The from which they 

expected to pleasure often proves their ruin. The 

from which they thought to derive the greatest sat- 
isfaction, often deceive them, or prove a source of bitter 

21. The only real and solid enjoyment of life is deriv- 
ed from . The only thing which we have real 

cause to dread is . 

22. A school room is a place where children assemble 

to — ^ — and . The duties of the teacher are to 

and his pupils; and the pupils themselves should 

be and , in order that they may be benefit- 
ted by his instructions. They should not'- nor — 

nor ; but listen to what is told them; and try 

to show by their and that they know how to 

estimate the privileges which they in being allow- 
ed school. 


Variety of Jlrraiigement. 

Sentences consisting of parts and members, and some- 
times very simple sentences, can be variously arranged, 
the sense remaining unaltered. The following sen- 


tences are to be written (or read) in as great a variety of ar- 
rangement as the pupil can invent. He may afterwards 
take the same words and express different ideas with them. 


On the fifth day of the month, which I always keep holy, I ascend- 
ed the high hills of Bagdad, in order to pass the rest of the day in 
meditation and prayer. 

Sajne sentence, with the members differently arranged. 
On the fifth day of the month, which I always keep holy, in oraer 
to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer, I ascended the 
high hills of Bagdad. 

Same again varied. 
I ascended the high hills of Bagdad, in order to pass the rest of the 
day in meditation and prayer, on the fifth day of the month, which I 
always keep holy. 

In order to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer, I 
ascended the high hills of Bagdad, on the fifth day of the month, 
w.hich I always keep holy. 


In order to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer, on 
tlie fifth day of the month, which 1 always keep holy, I ascended the 
high hills of Bagdad. 


I ascended the high hills of Bagdad, on the fifth day of the month, 
wliich I always keep holy, in order to pass the rest of the day in med- 
itation and prayer. 

N. B. It is recommended to Teachers to require the pupil to tell 
which arrangement of the sentence he thinks the best. 


1 . John was buried here. 

This simple sentence may be read in twenty-four different ways, 
six of which will be questions. 

2. The farmer Peter ardently loves the beautiful shep- 
herdess Mary. 

3. The highwayman by force (or forcibly) took a watch 
from a gentleman's servant on the turnpike-road. 

4. Such unusual moderation in the exercise. of supreme 
power, such singular and unheard of clemency, and such 
remarkable mildness, cannot possibly be passed over by 
me (or I cannot possibly pass over) in silence. 

N. B. The longest members of a sentence ought generally to be 
placed last. 


5. Some gentle spirit glides with glassy foot over yon 
melodious wave, still pervades the spot, keeps silence in the 
cave, or sighs in the gale; although thou, the Muse^' seat, 
art now their grave, and Apollo no more delights to dwell 
in his favourite grotto. 

6. I survey thee. Oh Parnassus, neither with the frenzy 
of a dreamer, nor the ravings of a madman; but as thou ap- 
pearest, in the wild pomp of thy mountain majesty. 

7. Who with rosy light filled thy countenance, sank thy 
sunless pillars in the earth, and made thee the father of 
perpetual streams. 

8. Bleached linen, the pride of the matron, the toil of 
many a winter night, the housewife's stores, whiter than 
snow, are laid up with fragrant herbs. 

9. Softened by prosperity, the rich pity the poor; disci- 
plined into order, the poor respect the rich. 

10. When April and May reign in sweet vicissitude, I, 
like Horace, perceive my whole system excited by the po- 
tent stimulus of sun-shine, and give care to the winds. 

1 1 . Early one summer morning before the family was 
stirring, an old clock, that, without giving its owner any 
cause of complaint, had stood for fifty years in a farmer's 
kitchen, suddenly stopped. 

12. Thy skies are as blue, thy groves are as sweet, thy 
fields are as verdant, thine olive is as ripe, thy crags are as 
wild, as they were in those early days when Minerva her- 
self graced the scene. 

13. A horseman, with an oath, rudely demanding a dram 
for his trouble, came galloping to the dc^or, while they were 
at their silent meal, and, with a loud voice, called out that 
with a letter he had been sent express to Gilbert Ainslie. 

14. By violent persecution, compelled to quit his native 
land, Rabbi Akiba wandered over barren wastes and dreary 
deserts. At last he came fatigued and almost exhausted, 
near a village. 

15. As the threatening clouds obscured the moon, and 
the post boy drove furiously through the road, suddenly I 
heard a lamentable sound. 

16. It appears that during the night a band of robbers 
had entered the village, plundered the houses, and killed 
the inhabitants. •"- • . 


17. From the result of my own personal observation, I 
am fully convinced that there has formerly been a popula- 
tion much more numerous than exists here at present. 

18. Leaving it entirely to the imagination to descend 
further into the depths of time beyond, we can trace these 
remains of Indian workmanship, back six hundred years, 
from the ages of the trees on them, and from other data. * 

19. In inverted order, as well as that in which they are 
arranged, the various kinds of exercises should be practised, 
from the highest to the lowest, to effect the purpose for 
which they were designed. 

20. To vindicate the rehgion of their God, to defend' 
the justice of their country, to save us from ruin, I call on 
this most learned, this right reverend bench. To main- 
tain your own dignity, and to reverence that of your an- 
cestors, I call upon the honour of your lordsiiips. I call 
upon the humanity and the spirit of my country, to vindi- 
cate the national character. 

21. In the treasury belonging to the Cathedral,- in this 
city, a dish, supposed to be made of emerald, has been pre- 
served for upwards of six hundred years. 

22. Contented and thankful, after having visited Lon- 
don, we leturned to our retired and peaceful habitations. 

23. When the Romans were pressed with a foreign en- 
emy, the women voluntarily contributed all their rings and 
jewels, to assist the government. 

24. • He had ploughed, sowed, and reaped his often 
scanty harvest with his own hands, assisted by three sons, 
^^ho, even in boyhood, were happy to work with their father 
in the fields. 

25. The little bleak farm, sad and affecting in its lone 
and extreme simplicity, smiled like the paradise of poverty, 
when the lark, lured thither by some green barley field, rose 
ringing over the solitude; and among the rushes and heath, 
the little brown moorland birds were singing their short 

26. At every step he advanced; his heart became moro 
and more elated, having with difficulty found his way to 
the street where his decent mansion had formerly stood. 

27. Looking eagerly around he proceeded with joy, but 
of the objects with which he had formerly been conversant, 
he observed but few. 


28. He hastened to .the palace, overwhelmed with an- 
guish, and casting himself at the feet of the Emperor, he 
cried, Great prince, I have survived my family and friends, 
and even in the midst of this populous city I find myself in 
a dreary solitude ; to that prison from which mistaken mer- 
cy has delivered me, graciously send me back. 



A very common error of pupils just commencing compo- 
sition, is the frequent and unnecessary use of the conjunc- 
tion and. The following examples will show, that the use 
of the present or perfect participle will correct this fault. 

MODEL, with the present participle. 

He descended from his throne, and ascended the scaiFoId, and said, 
** Live, incomparable pair." 

Better thus : Descending from his throne, and ascending the scaf- 
fold, he said, " Live, incomparable pair." 

Or thus : He descended from his throne, and ascending the scaf- 
fold, said, " Live, incomparable pair." 

Or thus : He descended from his t^hrone, and ascended the scaf- 
fold, saying, *' Live, incomparable pair." 

MODEL, icith the perfect participle. 

She was deprived of -all but her innocence, and lived in a retired 
cottage with her widowed mother, and was concealed moref by her 
modesty than by solitude. 

Better thus: Deprived of all but her innocence, and concealed 
more by her modesty than by solitude, she lived with her widowed 
mother in a retired cottage. 

Or thus : Deprived of all but her innocence, and living in a retir- 
ed cottage with her widowed mother, she was concealed more by 
her modesty than by solitude. 


1. The beauties of nature are before us, and invite us 
to contemplate the power, the wisdom, and the benevolence, 
of that great and good Being at whose word they sprang up, 
and presented themselves as proper objects of our admira- 
tion, and our gratitude. 

2. The elephant took the child up with his trunk, and 
placed it upon his back, and would never afterward obey 
any other master. 



3. ^ Egypt is a fertile country : and is watered by the rfver 
Nile, and is annually inundated by that river, and it re- 
ceives the fertilizing mud which is brought by the stream 
in its course, and derives a richness from the deposit which 
common culture could not bestow. 

4. He was called to the exercise of the supreme power 
at a very early age, and evinced a great knowledge of gov- 
ernment and laws, and was regarded by mankind with a 
respect which is seldom bestowed on one so young. 

5. Geography teaches the various divisions made by 
man or nature, on the earth, and the productions of every 
climate ; and is a very useful study to the merchant and the 
politician, and shows the former where commerce is most 
advantageously pursued, and the latter the natural obsta- 
cles to the progress of ambition. 

6. I have frequently paused in the wilderness, and con- 
templated the traces of a whirlwind, and wondered at the 
mighty force of that invisible power, which roots up the 
stupendous oak and lofty pine, and spreads ruin and desola- 
tion over the fair face of nature. 

7. The celestial vault, the verdure of the earth, and the 
clear silvery light which danced on the surface of the " 
stream, delighted my eyes, and restored joy to my heart, 
and gave animation to my spirits, and conveyed pleasures 
to my mind, which exceed the powers of expression. 

8. He raised his eyes, and turned to the prince and 
said, " Your highness will remember the fidelity with 
which my father has served you, and I suppose that you 
will pardon my presumption in thus appearing uninvited 
at your court, and I humbly crave permission to supplicate 
that protection, which it is so easy for you to afford, and so 
necessary to me that it should be bestowed. The enemies 
of our family are powerful, and are of noble blood, and are 
allied by peculiar ties to your highness, and may therefore 
be supposed to have higher claims to your favour. But 1 
know that generosity to be a characteristic of your high- 
ness, which will disregard the suggestions of interest, and 
defeat the nefarious j)lans of artful dependents, and afford 
succour to the persecuted peasant, rather than countenance 
injustice and oppression. 

9. I fixed my eyes on different objects, and I soon per- 
ceived that I had the power of losing and recovering them, 
and that I could at pleasure destroy and renew this beauti- 


ful part of my existence. This new and delightful sensa- 
tion agitated my frame, and gave a fresh addition to my 
self-love, and caused me to rejoice in the pleasures of exis- 
tence, and filled my heart with gratitude to my beneficent 

10. She was dressed in her gayest apparel, and wore 
her most costly jewels, and presented a spectacle of living 
brilliance which scarcely the sun himself could rival. 

11. The dry leaves rustled on the ground, and the 
chilling winds whistled by me, and gave me a foretaste of 
the gloomy desolation of winter. 

12. He took them into the garden pne fine summer 
morning, and showed them two young apple trees, and said, 
My children, I give you these trees. They will thrive by 
your care, and decline by your negligence, and reward 
you by their fruit in proportion to the labour you bestow 
upon them. Edward the youngest son attended to the ad- 
monitions of his father, and rose early every day to clear 
the tree from insects that would hurt it, and propped up the 
stem to prevent its taking a wrong bent, and had the satis- 
faction in a short time of seeing his tree almost bent to the 
ground with the weight of the rich and racy fruit. But 
Moses preferred to wile away his time, and went out to box 
with idle boys, while Edward was labouring in the orchard, 
and soon found his tree destroyed by his neglect. 

13. Columbus perceived that it would be of no avail to 
have recourse to any of his former expedients, and found 
it impossible to rekindle any zeal for the success of the 
expedition, and endeavoured to soothe passions, which he 
could no longer command, and gave way to a torrent too 
impetuous to be checked. 

14. They erected a crucifix, and prostrated themselves 
before it, and gave thanks to God for conducting their voy- 
age to such a happy issue. 

15. He knows that life has many trials, and believes 
that God has appointed this world as the preparative for 
another, and regards not with feelings of envy or jealousy, 
the more prosperous condition of others. 



Variety of expression^ continued. 

The active or objective verb may be changed into the 
passive ; and the passive verb may be changed into the ac- 
tive or objective, the sense remaining unaltered. 

MODEL, by the active or objective verb. 

All mankind must taste the bitter cup which destiny has mixed. 

By the passive. 

The bitter cup which destiny has mixed, ( or which has been mix- 
ed by destiny,) must be tasted by all mankind. 


1. The project was received with great applause by all 
the company, 

2. Most of the trades, professions, and ways of living 
among mankind, take their origin either from the love of 
pleasure, or the fear of want. 

3. Gentleness corrects whatever is offensive in our 

4. The places of those who refused to come, were soon 
filled with a multitude of delighted guests. 

5. You have pleaded your incessant occupation. Ex 
hibit then the result of your employment. 

6. Is the eye of Heaven to be dazzled by an exhibition 
of property, an ostentatious show of treasures.^ 

7. I need not ask thee if that hand when armed, has 
any Roman soldier mauled and knuckled. 

8. In visiting Alexandria, what most engages the at- 
tention of travellers is the pillar of Pompey, as it is called, 
situated at a quarter of a league from the southern gate. 

9. But the evening is the time to review not only our 
blessings but our actions. 

10. We receive such repeated intimations of decay in 
the world through which we are passing, decline and 
change, and loss follow decline and change, and loss, in 
such rapid succession, that we can almost catch the sound 
of universal wasting, and hear the sound of desolation going 
on around us. 


11. The rectitude of Dryden's mind was sufficiently 
shown, by the dismission of his poetical prejudices, and the 
rejection of unnatural thoughts and rugged numbers. 

12. The youth who had found the cavern, and had kept 
the secret to himself, loved this damsel. He told her the 
danger in time, and persuaded her to trust herself to him. 

13. When the subject is such that the very mention of 
it naturally awakens some passionate emotion; or when 
the unexpected presence of some person or object in a pop- 
ular assembly inflames the speaker, either of these will jus- 
tify an abrupt and vehement exordium. 

14. Theocritus and Virgil are the two great fathers of 
pastoral writing. For simplicity of sentiment, harmony of 
numbers, and richness of scenery, the former is highly dis- 
tinguished. The latter, on the contrary, preserves the pas- 
toral simplicity without any offensive rusticity. 

15. The relation of sleep to night, appears to have been 
expressly intended by our benevolent Creator. 

16. The favoured child of nature who combines in her- 
self these united perfections, may be justly considered the 
masterpiece of creation. 


Variety of expression, continued. 
To preserve the unity^ of a sentence, it is sometimes ne- 
cessary to employ the case absolute, instead of the verb and 


1. The li^ht infantry joined the main body of the detachment, 
and the Enghsh retreated precipitately towards Lexington. 

Better thus: The light infantry having Joined the main body of 
the detachment, the English retreated precipitately towards Lexing- 

2. The class recited their lessons, and the teacher dismissed 

Better thus: The class having recited their lessons, the teacher 
dismissed them. 


1. The battle was concluded, and the commander in 
chief ordered an estimate of his loss to be made. 

*See Lesson 35th. 


2. John was in the school room, and Charles entered 
and thus addressed him. 

3. The Monongahela and Alleghany rivers were swol- 
len by the continued rains; and the Ohio inundated the 
cities, towns and villages on its banks. 

4. The trees were cultivated with much care, and the 
fruit was rich and abundant. 

5. The love of praise is naturally implanted in our bo- 
soms, and it is a very difficult task to get above a desire of 
it, even for things that should be indifferent. 

6. The rain poured in torrents upon us, and we were 
obliged to take shelter in a forest. 

7. Offences and retaliations succeed each other in end- 
less strain, and human life will be rendered a state of per- 
petual hostilities without some degree of patience exercised 
under injuries. 

8. His mind was the prey of evil passions, and he was 
one of the most wretched of beings. 

9. The character of Florio was marked with haughti- 
ness and affectation, and he was an object of disgust to all 
his acquaintance. 

10. The evidence and the sentence were stated, and 
the president put the question whether a pardon should be 

1 1 . Few governments understand how politick it is to 
be merciful ; and severity and hard hearted opinions accord 
with the temper of the times. 

12. The Shenandoah comes up at the right, and the 
Potomack with its multiplied waters rends the mountain 
asunder, and rushes toward the sea. 

13. Nature dressed the scene in the richest colours and 
mOvSt graceful forms, and never could the eye enjoy a rich- 
er spectacle. 

14. I travelled through the county of Orange, and my 
eye was caught by a cluster of horses tied near a ruinous, 
old, wooden house in the forest, not far from the road 

lo. A general description of the country was given in 
a former letter, and I shall now entertain you with my ad- 



Variety of expression^ continued. 

The same idea can be expressed in various ways, either 
by different words, or by inflections* of the same word."!" 


Idleness is the cause of misery. 

Same idea expressed in different words. 

1. Idleness is the poison of happiness. 

2. Idleness is* an enemy to happiness. 

3. Indolence is the bane of enjoyment. 

4. Indolence is a foe to happiness. 

5. Indolence destroys all our pleasures, 

6. Want of occupation prevents tlie enjoyment of life. 

7. Laziness opposes every effort to secure the enjoyment of life. 

8. When we have nothing to do, time hangs heavily on our 

9. If we suffer the mind and body to be unemployed, our enjoy- 
ments as well as our labours, will be terminated. 

10. Inactivity of mind or body stagnates the spirits, and prevents 
their easy and natural flow. 

11. The rust of inactivity obscures the brightness of many a pass- 
ing hour. 

12. Indolent habits lay the foundation of future misery. 

When the school was dismissed, the children went home. 
Same idea differently expressed. 

1. The school having been dismissed the pupils proceeded to their 

2. The boys and girls proceeded home as soon as school was done. 

3. The scholars went home as soon as school was over. 

4. School being closed, the children departed to the places of their 

5. The business of school having been completed, the masters and 
misses joined their friends at home. 

* The word inflections is here used to signify a grammatical 
change, such as the change of a case in a noun, or of a tense in a 
verb, &c. 

t Lessons 5th, 6th, and 7th, exhibit the method of expressing the 
same idea by inflections of the same words. Besides the methods 
here explained, the following may be practised in some sentences : viz. 

1. By applying adjectives and adverbs instead of substantives. 

2. By using nouns instead of adjectives and adverbs. 

3. By reversing the correspondent parts of the sentence. 

4. By the negation of the contrary, instead of the assertion of the 
thing first proposed. 

-5. By the use of pronouns Instead of nouns. 



The pupil will express each of the following sentences in 
as many icays as he can invent. 

1. To die is the inevitable lot of all men. 

2. Death is the liberator of him whom freedom cannot 
release; the physician of him whom medicine cannot cure, 
and the comforter of him whom time cannot console. 

3. The best season for acquiring the spirit of devotion 
is in early life. It is then attained with the greatest facili- 
ty, and at that season there are peculiar motives for the 
cultivation of it. 

4. It will be a sacrifice superlatively acceptable to him, 
and not less advantageous to yourselves. 

5. Oh how canst thou renounce the boundless store of 
charms, that nature to her votary yields? 

6. Sweet was the sound, when oft at evening's close, 
the village murmur rose up yonder hill. 

7. Beware of desperate steps, — the darkest day will on 
to-morrow have passed away. 

8. Ha! Laughst thou, Lochiel, my vision to scorn; 
proud bird of the mountain, thy plume shall be torn. 

9. Blame not before you have examined the matter: 
understand first, and then rebuke. 

10. He that honoureth his father shall have long life: 
and he that is obedient unto the Lord shall be a comfort to 
his mother. 

1 1 . We should always speak the truth, for a lie is wick- 
ed as well as disgraceful. 

12. My son, help thy father in his age, and grieve him 
not as long as he liveth. 

13. Pope professed to have learned his poetry from 
Dryden, whom, whenever an opportunity presented, he 
praised through his whole life, with unvaried liberality; and 
perhaps his character may receive some illustration, if he 
be compared with his master. 

14. However virtue may be neglected for a time, men 
are so constituted as ultimately to acknowledge and respect 
genuine merit. 

* The teacher must be careful that the pupil makes use of his un- 
derstandiricr and discrimination, as well as his dictionary in the per- 
formance of this exercise. 




Variety of expression , continued, 


A periphrasis, or circumlocution, is the use of several 
words to express the sense of one. As, The glorious lumi- 
nai^ of daijy for, the sun — The shining orbs which deck the 
skies, for, th« stars, 


Plain expressions. 
The sun shines. 



Same in a periphrasis, 
Th(J human race. 
The source of hght spreads 

abroad his rays. 
The science which describes the 

earth and its inhabitants. 


Tlie jj^fM 'inay now express the following ivords and 
phrases W^periphrasis. 

by three sons, who, even 
in boyhood, were glad to 
work witli their father in 
the field. 

25. The water evaporates. 

26. The grass is green. 

27. Nature looks fair. 

28. Winter is a desolate season 
of the year. 

29. A contented man enjoys the 
greater portion of his life. 

30. Life is short. 

31. To confine our attention to 
the number of the slain, 
would give us a very in- 
adequate idea of the rav- 
ages of the sword. 

32. Obedience is due to our pa-" 

33. Epistolary as well as per- 
sonal intercourse, ac- 

• cording to the mode in 
which it is carried on, is 
one of the pleasaritest, or 
most irksome things in 
the world. 

34. Enthusiasm is apt to betray 
us into error. 






Wefnlust die. 

A school room. 

A meeting house. 
A king. 
A sailor. 
Washmgton is dead. . 
Syntax is the third part of 

The ocean is calm. 
The stars twinkle. 
Amergus was a gentleman 

of good estate. 
With his own hands he had 

cultivated his grounds, 
ssisted as they grew up 



35. His actions were highly unbe- 


36. The air is elastick. 

37. Astronomy is a delightful study. 

38. God is eternal, omniscient, 

and omnipresent. 

39. Candidates for office are fre- 

quently disappointed. 


Variety of expression, continued. 


A euphemism is a kind of periphrasis,^sed to avoid the 
harshness or impropriety of plain expressions. As he per' 
ished on the scaffold, for, he was hanged. 

Euphemisms are frequently made by a simple change of 
words without increasing their number, •ds he misrepre- 
sented, for, he told a lie. 


Same in a euphemism. 
He had indulged JM|felf in li- 
quor. ^^ 
She had unfortunately lost her 
senses ; or, She laboured under 
alienation of mind. 
She is a lazy girl. She is not noted for her industry. 

Plain expressions. 
He was drunk. 

She was crazy. 


The pupil ivill use euphemisms in the following sentences, 
instead of the ivords in Italick. 

1. I luite that man. 

2. He was jnad with me. 

3. My mother scolded at me. 

4. He was turned out of office. 

5. He cheats., and she lies. 

6. I believe that he stole that 


7. He was put into gaol. 

8. Charles is a coicard. 

9. Henry was a great rascal. 

10. John is a spendthrift. 

11. That man is a very stingy 


12. That woman has very sluttish 


13. This person is very proud. 

14. Mr. A. is a conceited fellow. 

15. George is a troublesome boy. 

16. ^\\e is Vi careless girl. 

17. His garments were dirty and 


18. He cannot digest his food. 

19. That poor man was put into 

the mad house. 

20. This fclloio must be put into 

the poor house. 

21 . Mr. T. has no money. 

22. She is a servant in my fami- 


23. John bought a book, and run 

in debt for it. 

24. She icorks very hard for her 


25. He eats very greedily, and 

titrns up his nose at every 




Analysis means the separation of the parts, of which a 
thing is composed. 

A compound sentence is composed of several simple sen- 
tences, joined together by conjunctions, pronouns, or other 
connecting words. 

To analyze a compound sentence, (or, the analysis of a 
compound sentence) means to separate the simple senten- 
ces and phrases of which it is composed; and it is perform- 
ed by omitting the connecting words, and supplying the 
words which were omitted in the connexion. 

Compound sentence. 

Modesty, a polite accomplishment, generally attendant 
on merit, is in the highest degree engaging, and wins the 
heart of aU^ with whom we are acquainted. 

Simple sentences of which the above is composed. 

1. Modesty is a polite accomplishment. 

2. Modesty is generally attendant on merit. 

3. Modesty is in the highest degree engaging. 

4. Modesty wins the heart of all with whom we are acquainted. 


The pupil may now analyze the following compound 

1. Nothing can atone for the want of modesty; without 
which beauty is ungraceful and wit detestable. 

2. The smooth stream, the serene atmosphere, the mild 
zephyr, are the proper emblems of a gentle temper, and a 
peaceful life. 

3. Among the sons of strife, all is loud and tempestu- 
ous, and consequently there is little happiness to be found 
in their society. 

4. If one hour were like another, if the passage of the 
sun did not show that the day is wasting, and if the change 
of seasons did not impress upon us the flight of the year, 
quantities of duration equal to days and years would glide 
away unobserved. 


5. The forests, the hills, the mounds, lift their heads 
in unalterable repose: and furnish the same sources of con- 
templation to us, that they did to those generations that 
have passed away. 

6. I have seen in different parts of the Atlantick coun- 
try, the breast works and other defences of earth, that were 
thrown up by our people during the war of the revolution. 

7. Pause for a while, ye travellers of earth, to contem- 
plate the universe in which you dwell, and the glory of him 
who created it. 

8. This uneasiness of his mind inclined him to lay hold 
on every new object, and give way to every sensation that 
might soothe or divert him. 

9. The air, the earth, and the water, teem with delight- 
ed existence. 

10. The lady Arabella Johnson, a daughter of the Earl 
of Lincoln, accompanied her husband in the embarkation; 
and in honour of her, the ship was called by her name. 
She died in a short time after her arrival, and lies buried 
near the neighbouring shore. No stone, or other memorial, 
indicates the exact place; but tradition has preserved it 
with a careful and holy reverence. "* 

11. Timid though she be, and so delicate that the 
winds of heaven may not too roughly visit her, yet the 
chamber of the sick, the pillow of the dying, the vigils of 
the dead, the altars of religion, never missed the presence 
of woman. 

12. She perished in this noble undertaking, of which 
she seemed the ministering angel, and her death spread 
universal gloom and sorrow through the colony 



Synthesis is the reverse of Analysis, and is here used 
to signify the union of several simple sentences, to form a 
compound sentence. 

In the composition of simple sentences, there must be 
an ellipsis, or omission of those words, which occur more 
than once in the simple sentences of which it is composed; 
and conjunctions, pronouns, or other connecting words, 
substituted for them 


The pupil must take particular care, that the pronouns^ verbs ^ S^c. 
he of the right number ^ person and gender. This caution is the more 
necessary, because young persons frequently make mistakes in these 

.4 recollection of the rules relating to the vnnr of a sentence, will 
be needed in this lesson ; particularly the first two : wimcly, that, 
** During the course of the sentence, the subject, or nominative case, 
should be changed as little as possible; "and that " Ideas which have 
so little connexion that they may well be divided into two or more senr 
tences, should never be crowded into one. " * 

Simple sentences to be united in a compound sentence. 
Man is a rational animal. 

Man is endowed with the highest capacity for happiness. 
Man sometimes mistakes his best interests. 
Man sometimes pursues trifles with all his energies. 
Man considers trifles as the principal object of desire in this fleet- 
ing world. 

Compound sentence composed of the preceding simple sentences, 
Man is a rational animal endowed with the highest capacity for 
happiness ; but he sometimes mistakes his best interests, and pursues 
trifles with all his energies, consiAering\ them as the principal object 
of desire in this fleeting world. 


The pupil vnll now unite the following simple sentences 
in a compound sentence. All the sentences belonging to one 
number, as expressed below, are to be joined in one com* 
pound sentence, if it can be done without violating the rules 
of unity. 

1. Death is the liberator of him whom freedom can- 
not release. 

Death is the physician of him whom medicine cannot 

Death is the comforter of him whom time cannot 

2. Some animals are cloven footed. 

Cloven footed is a term applied to those whose feet 
are split or divided. 

Cloven footed animals are enabled to walk more easily 
on uneven ground. 

• See Rules of Unity under Lesson 35th. 
ise c 


f See Lesson 5th, on the use of the participle to prevent the repe- 
tition of and. 


3. Lochiel was the chieftain of the \^arlike clan of 
the Camerons. 

Lochiel was one of the most prominent in respect to 
power among the Highland chieftains. 

Lochiel was one of the most prominent in respect to 
influence among the Highland chieftains. 

4. On his way he is met by a Seer. 

The Seer, according to the popular belief, had the gifl 
of prophecy. 

The Seer forewarns him of the disastrous event of his 

The Seer exhorts him to return home. 

The Seer exhorts him not to be involved in certain 

Certain destruction awaited the cause. 

Certain destruction afterwards fell upon it in the battle 
of Culloden. 

5. Fire was one of the four elements of the philoso- 

Air was one of the four elements of the philosophers. 
Earth was one of the four elements of the philosophers. 
Water was one of the four elements of the philosophers. 

6. Of all vices none is more criminal than lying. 
Of all vices none is more mean than lying. 

Of all vices none is more ridiculous than lying. 

7. Self conceit blasts the prospects of many a youth. 
Presumption blasts the prospects of many a youth. 
Obstinacy blasts the prospects of many a youth. 

8. The cow is a useful animal. 
The cow furnishes us with milk. 
Cheese and butter are obtained from milk. 
Cheese is an important article of food. 
Butter is an important article of food. 

9. The tailor lives on the other side of the street. 
The tailor made the garments. 

I wore the garments at the meeting. 
The meetmg was held on Thursday. 
This tailor is a very skilful workman. 

10. The statue of Washington is of marble. 

The statue stands in the state house. The state house 
is in Boston. 

Thie marble came from Italy. 


Italy is a country which affords the most beautiful 
specimens of marble. 

The statue was executed by Chantrey. 

Chantrey is one of the most celebrated sculptors of 
the age. 

Chantrey resides in London. 

11. The art of writing contributes much to the con- 
venience of mankind. 

The art of writmg contributes much to the necessity 
of mankind. 

The art of writing was not invented all at once. 

Mankind proceeded by degrees in the discovery of the 
art of writing. 

Pictures were the first step towards the art of writing. 

Hieroglyphicks was the second step towards the art 
of writing. 

An alphabet of syllables followed the use of hiero- 

At last Cadmus brought the Alphabet from Phenicia 
into Greece. 

The Alphabet had been used in Phenicia some time. 

A number of new letters were added* to the Alphabet 
during the Trojan war. 

At length the Alphabet became sufficiently compre- 
hensive to embrace all the sounds of the language. 



Primitive and Derivative, Simple and Compound Words, 

Write a list of the words which are derived from the 
following words in the examples for practice, whether 
they are simple, derivative or compound. 


From the word Argue, are derived Arguer, Argument, 
Argumental, Argumentation, Argumentative, Argued, 

* See Lesson 7th, on the use of the case absolute, to avoid the repe- 
tition oi and. 



Divide, Care, Improve, Profess, Succeed, Deduce, De- 
fend, Resolve, Calumny, Arm, Peace, Love, Laugh, Right, 
Good, Idol, Law, Author, Contract, Present, Attend, 
Moderate, Virtue, Use, Presume, Separate, Critick, False, 
Fire, Full, Frolick, Fortune, Multiply, Note, Conform, 
Hinder, Book, Apply, Append, Absolve, Abridge, Answer, 
Aspire, Pride, Blame, Bless, Caprice, Censure, Caution, 
Cite, Commune, Conceal, Correct, Reform, Defy, Define, 
Discover, Elect, Elevate, Fancy, Faction, Fault, Favour, 
Figure, Form, Fury, Grace, Harm, Humour, Imitate, 
Indulge, Moral, Mount, Open, Peace, Potent, Prefer, 
Presume, Proper, Pure, Reason, Motion, Rebel, Remark, 
Represent, Secret, Spirit, Subscribe, Suffice, Teach, 
Tolerate, Tradition, Tremble, Value, Vapour, Vivid, Wit. 



A word is the synonyme of another word when it 
means precisely the same thing. There are but few 
words which are synonymous in every sentence; but 
there are many which may be substituted in sentences^ 
without materially altering the meaning. 

The pupil may take each word in the examples for 
practice, and write a list of the words which have a 
similar meaning. 


Write a list of words which have a similar meaning 
with the word think. 

Reflect, Consider, Suppose, Ponder, Ruminate, Be- 
lieve, Suspect, Imagine, Presume, Conceive, Reckon, 
Account, Deem, Muse.^ 


Write the synonymes of the following words. 
Wish, Spot, Colour, Defend, Accuse, Detest, Surprise, 
Change, Anger, Company, Join, See, Erase, Purchase, 

* The pupil must understand that no one of the words enumerated 
in the model is an exact synonyme of the word think, but tliat they 
each sometimes convey a similar meaning. 


Alter, Lucid, Secrete, Consume, Define, Doom, Distant, 
Scrutiny, Warmth, Abandon, Serious, Integrity, Indolent, 
Acquaint, Inform, Invest, Mention, Perceive, Abundant, 
Sparkle, Temporary, Way, Employ, Constitute, Becom- 
ing, Attachment, Assail, Assert, Commonly, Shelter, 

Substitute a synonyme ivhich will express the same, or 
nearly the same idea, with the words in Italick in the foU 
lowing sentences. 


Fortune is changeable. 
Fortune is mutable. 
Fortune is variable. 
Fortune is inconstant 
Fortune is fickle. 
Fortune is versatile. 

1. I have no desire for wealth. 

2. Soldiers protect the city from the danger of capture. 

3. I bought this knife at a bookstore. 

4. She has expressed her ideas in a very lucid manner, 

5. He is a man of intellect. 

6. I design to show the difference in these words. 

7. The Nile annually deluges Egypt. 

8. The army has overran the country. 

9. Poverty is frequently a blessing in disguise. 

10. Wealth and want are both temptations. The for- 
mer cherishes pride, the latter produces discontent. 

11. The sun sheds abroad his golden rays, and fills the 
earth with his vivifying influence. 

12. I have no occasion for his services, and am, there- 
fore, umvilling to receive them. 



The ideas contained in the following poetical extracts 
may be written in the pupil's own language in prose. 


What is the blooming tincture of the skin, 
To peace of mind and harmony within? 
C 2 


Same transposed. 

Of what value is beauty, in comparison with a tranquil 
mind, and a quiet conscience. 


Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense in three words, — health, peace, and competence. 

Same idea expressed in prose. 

Health, peace, and competence comprise all the plea- 
sures which this world can afford. 


1. Honour and shame from no condition rise; 
Act well your part; there all the honour lies. 

2. Like birds whose beauties languish half concealed 
Till mounted on the wing, their glossy plumes, 
Expanded shine with azure, green and gold, 
How blessings brighten as they take their flight. 

3. 1 am monarch of all I survey. 
My right there is none to dispute; 
From the centre all round to the sea, 
1 am lord of the fowl and the brute. 

4. O, Solitude ! where are the charms. 
That sages have seen in thy face ? 
Better dwell in the midst of alarms, 
Than reign in this horrible place. 

5. Sweet was the sound when oft at evening's close 
Up yonder hill the village murmur rose. 

6. Here rests his head upon the lap of earth, 
A youth to fortune and to fame unknown. 
Fair science frown 'd not on his humble birth, 
And melancholy marked him for her own. 

7. Live, while you live, the epicure would say. 
And seize the pleasures of the present day. 
Live, while you live, the sacred preacher cries, 
And give to God each moment as it flies. 
Lord! in my view let both united be; 

I live in pleasure when I live to thee. 


8. Oh, for a lodge in some vast wilderness, 
Some boundless contiguity of shade, 
Where rumour of oppression and deceit, 
Of unsuccessful or successful war, 
Might never reach me more. 

9. The evening was glorious, and light through the trees 
Played the sunshine and rain drops, the birds and 

the breeze. 
The landscape, outstretching in loveliness, lay 
On the lap of the year, in the beauty of May. 



The pupil is to be required in this lesson to arrange 
or classify a subject assigned. Thus, if a chapter of 
Proverbs, for instance, be assigned him to classify, he 
will put all the verses together which belong to the same 
subject; such as similar characters, similar virtues, con- 
ditions of life, &c. The following Model exhibits a clas- 
sification of some of the verses of the 11th chapter of 
Proverbs. "* 


Verses relating to the righteous man. 

The integrity of the upright shall guide them. 

The righteousness of the perfect shall direct his way. 

The righteousness of the upright shall deliver them. 

The righteous is delivered out of trouble. 

When it goeth well with the righteous the city rejoiceth. 

By the blessing of the upright the city is exalted. 

To him that soweth righteousness shall be a sure reward. 

Righteousness tendetn to life; such as are upright in their way 
are the Lord's delight. 

The seed of the righteous shall be delivered. The desire of the 
righteous is only good. 

Tlie righteous shall flourish as a branch. 

The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life. 

Behold the righteous shall be recompensed in the earth. 

Righteousness delivereth from death. Through knowledge sla 
the just be delivered. 

• In estimating the merit of an exercise of this kind, that one should b« pref« rj 
which leave* the smallest number of Tcrses unclassified. 



1. The pupil may now classify the remaining verses of the same 
chapter, by selecting those which relate to The wicked or unjustj The 
wisCj The liberal, The illiberal^ &c. <fec. 

2. He may then take a sentence assigned by the Teacher, and 
classify the words in it by arranging them under the following 
heads : namely, 1st, Such as signify things ; 2d, Such as signify qual- 
ities; 3d, Such as signify circumstances; 4th, Such as signify rela- 
tions; 5th, Such as signify connexion; 6th, Such as signify actions, 
together with such other classes as he can disco-ver. 

3. Another exercise of the same kind, will be furnished by classi- 
fying the different animals, beasts, birds, fishes, insects, &c. which 
he has seen, or about which he has read. For instance, he may 
write a list of those animals with which he is acquainted that have 
four feet, called quadrupeds ; then of those which have but two, then 
of those which have none. 2dly, Those which have horns, that chew 
the cud, &c. 

4. He may then classify the books of a Library according to 
their subjects. 

5. The words of a language. 

6. The articles of furniture in a house, designating those which 
are designed for ornament, as well as for the various uses of cooking, 
comfort, convenience, &c. 

7. Tools used for cutting, 

8. Tools used for cultivating the earth, mentioning for what each 
is intended. 

9. The different sorts of vegetables. 

JVote to Teachers. 
The utility of this lesson may be questioned by some, on account 
of its apparent difficulty. As it is designed to lead the pupil to think, 
and on that account is not alien to the subject of composition, it is in- 
serted, in the hope that a fair trial will be made, before it is wholly 
neglected. No pupil can be taught to parse, without learning tc 



The papil may write in his own language a definition 
of the following words, according to the manner pointed 
out by ^he model. 

Explanation of the word Elastick. 

When a thing is of such a nature that on being bent, or compress- 
ed, it returns to its former state, it is said to be elastick. Thus a bow, 
India rubber, the air, are elastick substances. 



Justice is that virtue which induces us to give to every one his due. 
It requires us not only to render every article of property to its right 
owner, but also to esteem every one according to his merit, giving 
credit for talents and virtues wherever they may be possessed, and 
vvithliolding our approbation from every fault, how great soever the 
temptation that leads to it. 


Eternal, Infinite, Omnipotent, Omnipresent, Incarce- 
rate, Explanation, Demonstrated, Indivisible, Inevitable, 
Incomprehensible, Inspissated, Evaporate, Mercy, Virtue, 
Vice, Honesty, Grammar, Astronomy, Architecture, 
Analysis, Synthesis, Analogy, Comparison, Judgment, 
Reasoning, Description, To Transpose, To Disregard, 
Excellence, Activity, To Disobey, Tautology, Narration, 
Outline^ Amplify. 

The difference or distinction between two loords may some- 
times be shown by an analysis'^ of each. 

The difference heticeen the Capital and the Capitol of a country. 

The Capital is the chief city where the Legislature meet to enact 
laws, &c. 

The Capitol is the building in which they assemble 

The Capit^^l contains the Capitol. 

The different parts of the Capital are streets, lanes, squares, alleys, 
courts, houses, &c. 

The different parts of the Capitol are halls, rooms, closets, fireplaces, 
doors, windows, stairs, chimneys, cellar, &c. 

The Capital is generally several miles in length. 

The Capitol is seldom more than one or two hundred feet. 

The pupil may now show by an analysis^ the difference between 
the following words : 

1 . A bird and a beast. 8. Geography and Grammar. 

2. A fish and a bird. 9. A bed and a sofa. 

3. A reptile and a quadruped. 10. A field and a garden. 

4. A clock and a watch. 11. A horse and a cow. 

5. An adverb and an adjective. 12. A falsehood and a mistake. 

6. A verb and a noun. 13. A fish and a beast. 

7. A pen and a pencil. 14. Mercy and justice. 

*.The pupil should be directed to give an instance of the proper 
application of the word, afler he has explained its meaning, 
t See Lesson 11th. 




Analogy means a resemblance between two or more 
things in some circumstances, which in other respects are 
entirely different. Thus there is an analogy between a 
ship and a carriage; because a ship is designed to carinj 
us over the water, and a carriage to carry us over the land. 
But in their shape and construction they are entirely dif- 


There is a close analogy between the wings of a bird and the fins 
of a fish. The former enables the feathered tribe to move aloft in the 
air. The latter empowers the inhabitants of tlie deep to pursue their 
course through tlie water The one is provided with strong sinews 
to act on the air, the other with equal power to impress the wave ; 
while each is moved with equal facility in the element for which it is 


Youth and morning resemble each other in many particulars. 
Youth is the first part of life. Morning is tlie first part of the day. 
Vouth is the time when preparation is to be made for the business of 
life. In the morning the arrangements are made for the employment 
of the day. In youth our spirits are light, no cares perplex, no troubles 
annoy us. In the morning the prospect is fair, no clouds arise, no 
tempest threatens, no commotion among the elements impend:3. In 
youth we form plans which the later periods of life cannot execute ; 
and the morning, likewise is often productive of promises which nei- 
ther noon nor evening can perform. 


The pupil may noiv describe the analogy between the follow^ 
ing words. 

1 . The wings of a bird and the legs of an animal. 

2. The wheels of a carriage and the sails of a vessel. 

3. The art of painting and the art of writing. 

4. Snow and rain. 

5. Genius and the sun. 

6. Intoxication and insanity. 

7. Darkness and affliction. 

8. A watch and an animal. 

9. Prosperity and brightness. 

10. A tree and an animal. 

11. Food and education. 

12. The gills of a fish and the lungs of an animal. 

13. Adversity and darkness. 

14. Comfort and light. 




Tautology means the repetition of a word or idea in a 
sentence; and is a fault that should always he avoided. 

When the tautology is in a word, it may be corrected 
by substituting a word of similar meaning; but when it 
consists in the idea, it should be wholly omitted. 


He went to Liverpool in the packet and then went to London in 
his carriage. 

Same sentence with the tautology corrected. 

He went to Liverpool in the packet, and then proceeded to Lon- 
don in his carriage. 

The nefarious wickedness of his conduct was reprobated and con- 
demned by all. 

Tautology corrected. 

The wickedness of his conduct was condemned by all. 

The brilliant brightness of the sun dazzles our eyes, and over- 
powers them with light. 

Tautology corrected. 

The brightness of the sun dazzles our eyes. 

He led a blameless and an irreproachable life, and no one could 
censure his conduct. 

Tautology corrected. 
He led an irreproachable life. 


The pupil may now correct the tautology in the following 

1 . The sun shines by day, and the moon and stars shine 
by night. 

2. The circumstances which I told to John, he told to 
his brother, who told them to the General. 

The Colonel ordered the subordinate officers to or- 
der their troops to come to order. 

4. The first day was spent in forming rules of order, 
and the second day ivas spent in presenting resolutions. 

5. The birds were clad in their brightest plumage, and 
the trees icere clad in their richest verdure. 

6. Grammar teaches us to speak properly and write 
correctly, and Geography teaches us the various divisions 
of the earth. Grammar is divided into four parts, and 


geography divides the earth into a number of grand 

7. JN otwithstanding the rapidity with which time passes 
away, men pass their Hves in trifles and folUes; although 
reason and religion declare, that not a moment should jidss 
without bringing some thing to pass. 

8. It is lolly to endeavour to arm ourselves against 
those trials and difficulties which no arms can overcome. 

9. The brightness of the sun hnghtens every object on 
which it shines. The brightness of prosperity, shining on 
the anticipations of futurity, casts the shadoivs of adversity 
into the shade, and causes the prospects of the future to 
look bright. 

10. No learning that we have learned is generally so 
dearly bought, nor so valuable when it is bought, as that 
which we have learned in the school of experience. 

11. Utility should usually be the recommendation of 
every utensil which we use. 

12. Our expectations are frequently disappointed because 
we expect greater happiness from the future than experience 
authorizes us to expect. 

13. He u^ed to use many expressions not usually used, 
and which are not generally in use. 

14. The writing which mankind ^rs^ wrote vf?iS first writ- 
ten on tables of stone. 

15. The errors which were erroneously made have been 
corrected, but the teacher directed us to follow the directions 
of the rule. On referring to the rules we found that our 
corrections were incorrectly made. 


NARRATION, With an outUnc. 

A short story or tale being presented to the pupil, and 
an outline of the same given in different language, he is 
required to fill it up, in such a manner as to exhibit the 
same narration in a variety of expression. 


Foetus was condemned to die ; but was permitted to choose the 
manner in which the sentence should be executed. Arria his wife, 
exliortin^ him to quit life courageously, drew a dagger which she 
had concealed, and biddinjr him farewell, stabbed herself in the 
breast.. Then drawinof the deadly weapon from the wound, she 


presented it to her husband, saying, I feel no pain from what I have 
done. That which you will suffer in following my example is all 
that afflicts me. 

Outline of the above. 

Arria the wife Poetus understanding 

condemned to die, death he liked best, — to 

die courageously; farewell breast 

dagger presenting Poetus not at 

all painful; feel you must give yourself 

-^— example. 

Outline filled up. 

Arria the wife of Poetus understanding that her husband was con- 
demned to die, and that he was permitted to choose ichat death he 
liked best, icent and exhorted him to die courageously; and lidding 
kirn farewell, ^aije herself a stah in the breast with a dagger she had 
concealed under her garment. Then drawing it out of the icoundj and 
presenting it to Poetus, ^Ae said, " The wound I have given myself is 
not at all painful, / only feel for that which you must give yourself in 
following my example. 


1. The Romans and Albans being on the eve of a battle, an 
agreement was made between them, that three champions should be 
chosen on each side, by whom the victory should be determined. 
The Romans had three Horatii who were brothers ; and the Curiatii, 
three others, likewise brothers, were in the camp of the Albans. 
These brothers decided the battle. After fighting for some time, 
two of the Horatii were slain, and the third, pretending that he was 
afraid to encounter the three Curatii, fled. Having drawn them 
asunder, he turned and slew them one by one in single combat, 
and by tliese means decided the battle in favor of the Romans. 

OUTLINE of the above, to be filled up by the pupil. 

The Romans Albans agreed three 

champions in each camp three brothers, 

Horatii Romans, Curiatii Albans, 

two of the Romans were slain, the third Ro- 
man feigned fear, drew his adversaries 

asunder victory for the Romans. 

2. Decebalus, king of Dacia, had often deceived the Roman em- 
peror Trajan. The emperor of Rome finally took him prisoner and 
subdued his kingdom. After tlie death of Decebalus, Trajan educat- 
ed his son with the intention of restoring him to his father's throne 
in Dacia; but seeing him break into an orchard, he asked him at 
night where he had been. The boy replied, in school. Trajan was so 
offended with this falsehood, that neither the Dacians nor the Romans 
could induce him to fulfil his intentions ; for, said he, one who begins 
thus early to be a liar can never deserve to be a kinff. 




Trajan Decebalus, King of the Dacians,— — — 

took him and subdued his kingdom; educating 

his son restore him break into an orchard 

afternoon in school; offended 

Dacians and Romans do what he intend- 
ed, prevaricate so early deserve a crown. 

3. The King of Spain gave the Duke of Ossuna leave to release 
some galley slaves. The Duke as he went among the benches of 
slaves at the oar, asked a number of them for what crime they had 
been condemned. All endeavoured to convince him that they were 
unjustly condemned. One said that he was condemned by malice, 
another by bribery. There was one sturdy little fellow, however, 
that confessed that he had robbed a man of his purse on the highway, 
to keep his family from starving. The Duke hearing this, gave him 
several strokes on the back with a little stick he had in his hand, 
saying. You rogue, get you gone from the company of honest men. 
So the one that conlessed his fault was released, while the rest re- 
mained at their labors. 


Of Ossuna King slaves gal- 
ley. what their offences malice brib- 
ery sturdy fellow justly took a 

purse highway starving. the 

jDuke stick blows . Begone 

you have no business freed 

tug at the oar. 


NARRATION from detached sentences. 
The pupil is required to write a connected narrative 
from detached sentences. 


Story in detached sentences. 

Plancus was proscribed by the Triumvirs, and forced to abscond. 

His slaves were put to the torture, but refused to discover him. 

New torments were prepared to force them to discover him. 

Plancus made his appearance, and offered himself to death. 

This generosity of Plancus made the Triumvirs pardon him. 

They said, Plancus only was worthy of so good servants, and the 
servants only were worthy of so good a master. 

Same, in a connected narrative. 

Plancus, a Roman citizen, being proscribed by the Triumvirs, 
A.ntony, Lepidus, and Octavius, was forced to abscond. His slaves, 


though put to the torture, refused to discover him. New torments 
being prepared, — to prevent farther distress to servants that were so 
faithful to him, Plancus appeared, and offered his throat to the 
swords of the executioners. An example so noble of mutual affec- 
tion betwixt a master and his slaves, procured a pardon to Plancus ; 
and Rome declared, that Plancus only was worthy of so good ser- 
vants, and they only were worthy of so good a master. 


The pupil ivill noxo xorite a connected narrative from the 
following detached sentences. 


The city of the Falerii was besieged by Camillus, gen- 
eral of the Romans. 

A school master decoyed the children of the principal 
citizens into the Roman camp. 

He told Camillus that the possession of these children 
would soon make the citizens surrender to him. 

Camillus told him, the Romans loved courage, but 
hated treachery. 

He ordered the school master to have his hands bound, 
and to be whipped back into the city by the boys. 

The citizens were charmed with this generous behaviour 
of Camillus, and immediately submitted to the Romans. 

Calais revolted from the English, and was retaken by 
Edward IH. In revenge for their treachery, he order- 
ed them to choose six citizens to be put to death. 

While all were struck with horror at this sentence, 
Eustace de St. Pierre offered himself for one. 

Five more soon joined him; and they came with hal- 
ters about their necks to Edward. 

He ordered them to be executed; but his queen plead- 
ed so powerfully for them, that he pardoned them. 

The queen not only entertained them sumptuously in her 
own tent, but sent them back loaded with presents. 


Cneius Domitius, tribune of the Roman people, had 
great enmity against Marcus Scaurus, chief of the senate. 

He accused him publickly of several high crimes and 

A slave of Scaurus, through hope of reward, offered 
himself as a witness against his master. 


Domitius ordered him to be bound, and sent to his 

This generous action of Domitius was much admired 
by the people. 

Honours were heaped upon him without end. 

He was successively elected consul, censor, and chief 



The following particulars are generally embraced in 
narrations: viz. 

1. A description* of the place or scene of the actions 

2. The persons concerned in the narration. 

3. The time, postures, state of mind, associations or 
trains of thought, Scc. of the circumstances and individ- 
uals mentioned. 

In amplified or extended narrations, the pupil must he 
particularly careful that his sentences are clear,'\ and that 
the connectives are properly applied. In this Lesson a short 
narration is presented for the pupil to amplify, or enlarge. 
The model presents several degrees of amplification, and it 
is recommended to the teacher to r^equire similar degrees from 
the pupil. 

Short' narrative. 

Damon having been condemned to death by Dionysius, obtained 
permission to take leave of liis family, Pythias his friend pledging* his 
life for his return on the day of execution. He fiiithfully returned, 
and Dionysius was so pleased with their mutual attachment, that he 
not only pardoned them, but took tliem both into favor. 

Same story amplified. 
Damon and Pythias were intimate friends. Damon, being con- 
demned to death by Dionysius, the tyrant, demanded liberty to ffo 
home to set his affairs in order ; and his friend offered himself to be 
his surety, and to submit to death if Damon should not return. Eve- 
ry one was in expectation what would be the event, and every one be- 
gan to condemn Pythias for so rash an action: but he, confident of 
the integrity of his friend, waited the appointed time with alacrity. 
Damon, strict to his engagement, returned at the appointed time^ 
Dionysius, admirincr their mutual fidelity, pardoned Damon, and 
prayed to have the friendship of two such wortliy men. 

* Description is made the subject of a subsequent lesson, 
t See Clearness, Lesson 35th. 


Same story more amplified. 
Damon, being condemned to death by Dionysius, tyrant of Syra- 
cuse, obtained liberty to visit his wife and children ; leaving his 
friend Pythias as a pledge for his return, on condition, that if he fail- 
ed, Pythias should sutfer in his stead. Damon not appearing at the 
time appointed, the tyrant had the curiosity to visit PytJiias in prison. 
*' What a fool were you," said he, " to rely on Damons promise ! How 
could you imagine that he would sacrifice his life for you, or for any 
man ? " '^ My Lord," said Pythias, with a firm voice and noble aspect, 
*•' I would suffer a thousand deaths rather than my friend should fail 
in any article of honor : He cannot fail ; I am as confident of his 
virtue, as of my own existence. But I beseech the gods to preserve 
his life : Oppose him, ye winds ', disappoint his eagerness, and suffer 
him not to arrive till my death has saved a life of much greater con- 
sequence than mine, necessary to his lovely wife, to his little inno- 
cents, to his friends, to his country. O! let me not die the most cruel 
of deaths in that of my friend." Dionysius was confounded and 
awed with the magnanimity of these sentiments : He wished to 
speak : He hesitated : He looked down ; and retired in silence. The 
fatal day arrived. Pythias was brought forth ; and, with an air of 
satisfaction, walked to the place of execution. He ascended the 
scaffold and addressed the people: ''My prayers are lieard; the 
gods are propitious ; the winds have been contrary ; Damon could 
not conquer impossibilities ; he will be here tomorrow, and my blood 
shall ransom that of my friend." As he pronounced these words, a 
buzz arose, a distant voice was heard, the crowd caught the words, 
and ** Stop, stop the execution ! " was repeated by every person. A 
man came at full speed. In the same instant he was off his horse, 
on the scaffold, and in the arms of Pythias. '' You are safe," he 
cried ; " you are safe, you are safe, my friend ! The gods be praised, 
you are safe." Pale, cold, and half speechless, in the arms of his Da- 
mon, Pythias replied in broken accents : " Fatal haste — cruel impa- 
tience — what envious powers have wrought impossibilities against 
your friend ! But I will not be wholly disappointed : Since 1 cannot 
die to save you, I will die to accompany you." Dionysius heard 
and beheld with astonishment : his eyes were opened, his heart was 
touched, and he could no longer resist the power of virtue. He de- 
scended from liis throne, and ascended the scaffold. '' Live, live, ye 
incomparable pair ! ye have demonstrated the existence of virtue ; 
and consequently of a God who rewards it. Live happy, live renown- 
ed ; and as you have invited me by your example, form me by your 
precepts to participate worthily of a friendship so divine. 

The same story still more amplified. 
When Damon was sentenced by Dionysius of Syracuse to die on 
a certain day, he begged permission, in the interim, to retire to his 
own country to set the affairs of his disconsolate family in order. 
This the tyrant intended peremptorily to refuse, by granting it, as he 
conceived, on the impossible condition of his procuring some one to 
remain as hostage for his return, under equal forfeiture of life. Pythi- 
as heard the conditions, and did not wait for an appUcation upon the 
part of Damon ; he instantly offered himself as security for his friend: 
which being accepted, Damon was immediately set at liberty. The 
king and all the courtiers were astonished at this action ; and, there- 


fore, when the day of execution drew near, the tyrant had the curi- 
osity to visit Pythias in his confineinrnt. Some conversation took 
place on the subject of friendship, in which the tyrant dehvered it as 
his opinion, that self-interest was the sole mover of human actions : 
but as for virtue, friendship, benevolence, love of one's country, and 
the like, he looked upon them as terms invented by the wise to keep 
in awe and impose upon the weak. " My Lord," said Pythias, with 
a firm voice and noble aspect, " I would it were possible that I might 
suffer a thousand deaths, rather than my friend should fail in any 
article of his honor ! He cannot fail therein : I am as confident 
of his virtue as 1 am of my own existence. But I pray, I beseech 
the gods to preserve the life and integrity of my Damon together. 
Oppose him, ye winds ! prevent the eagerness and impatience of his 
honorable endeavors, and suffer him not to arrive, till by my death 
1 have redeemed a life a thousand times of more consequence, of 
more value than my own; more estimable to his lovely wife, to hia 
precious little innocents, to his friends, to his country. O leave me 
not to die the worst of deaths in that of my friend ! " Dionysius was 
awed and confounded by the dignity of these sentiments, and by the 
manner in which they were uttered : he felt his heart struck bv a 
slight sense of invading truth ; but it served rather to perplex than 
undeceive him. The mtal day arrived ; Pythias was brought forth, 
and walked amidst the guards with a serious but satisfied air, to the 
place of execution. Dionysius was already there ; he was exalted on 
a moving throne that was drawn by six white horses, and sat pensive 
and attentive to the prisoner. Pythias came ; he vaulted lightly on 
the scaffold, and beholding for a time the apparatus of his death, he 
turned with a placid countenance, and addressed the spectators : 
*^ My prayers are heard," he cried; " the gods are propitious; you 
know my friends, that the winds have been contrary till yesterday. 
Damon could not come ; he could not conquer impossibilities : he 
will be here tomorrow ; and the blood which is shed to day shall have 
ransomed the life of my friend. O ! could I erase from your bosoms 
every doubt, every mean suspicion of the honor of the man for whom 
I am about to suffer, I should go to my death even as 1 would 
to my wedding. Be it suflicient in the mean time, that my friend 
will be found noble ; tJiat his truth is unimpeachable ; that he will 
speedily prove it; that he is now on his way, hurrying on, accusing 
himself, the adverse elements, and fortune ; but I haste to prevent 
his speed: — Executioner, do your office." As he pronounced the 
last words, a buzz began to rise among the remotest of the people ; a 
distant voice was heard — the crowd caught the words, and " Stop, 
stop the execution ! " was repeated by the whole assembly. A man 
came at full speed ; the throng gave way to his approach : he was 
mounted on a steed tliat almost flew : in an instant he was off his 
horse, on the scaffold, and held Pythias straightly enibraced. " You 
are safe," he cried ; " you are safe, my friend, my dearest friend ! 
the gotls bo praised, you are safe ! I now have nothing but death to 
suffer, and am delivered from the anguish of those reproaches which 
I gave myself for having endangered a life so much dearer than my 
own." Pale, cold, and half specchlei*s, in the arms of his Damon, 
Pythias replied in broken accents — ''Fatal haste! — Cruel impa- 
tience ! — What envious powers have wrought im])ossibilities in your 
favour? But I will not be wholly disappointed. S'mce I cannot die 
tosave^ I will not survive you." Dionysius heard, beheld and coo- 


sidered all with astonishment. His heart was touched, he wept, and 
leaving his throne he ascended the scaffold. '* Live, live, ye incom- 
parable pair ! " he cried ; " ye have borne unquestionable testimony to 
tlie existence of virtue ; and that virtue equally evinces the existence 
of a God to reward it. Live happy, live renowned ! And O form me 
by your precepts, as ye have invited me by your example, to be worthy 
of the participation of so sacred a friendship. 

Note. The Examples for practice in the 20tA and 2\st Lessons^ 
toill serve likewise for this. 



Description may in most cases be considered as an 
amplified definition. The want of habits of observation, 
frequently renders it difficult for the pupil to give a correct 
description. He is often at a loss how to approach the 
subject, where to begin, and what particulars to enume- 
rate. Within the compass of a single lesson, it is not pos- 
sible to give such directions, as will apply to all the various 
subjects which are embraced in this kind of writing. But 
to afford some assistance to the beginner, the following 
hints are offered. It is not expected that he will take them 
in the order in which they stand ; much less that all of 
them should, in all cases, be embraced in the same exer- 
cise. If he is to describe a sensible object, he may notice 
the subjoined particulars, in any order consistent with a 
proper classification. 

1. The time when, and place where it exists, or was 

2. The purpose for which it is designed, its name, uses 
and conveniences. 

3. Its novelty or antiquity, general or particular ex- 

4. Its figure or form, and position, together with an 
analysis of its parts. 

5. Its resemblance to any other object. 

6. Its size, colour, beauty, or want of it. 

7. The persons or artists by whom it was made. 

8. Materials of which it was made and the manner in 
which it is constructed. 

9. Its effects on mankind by increasing or abridging 
their comfort, &c. 

10. The feelings or reflections which it excited. 
IL Its connexion with any other subject. 



Description of Pompey^s pillar. 

(1.*) In visitinff Alexandria, what most engages the attention of 
travellers is the pillar of Pompey, as it is commonly called ; situated 
at a quarter of a league from the southern gate. (8.) It is compos- 
ed of red granite, a hard kind of stone, variegated with black and white 
spots, and very common in Egypt and Arabia. (4.) The capital or 
uppermost part of the column is of the Corinthian order of architec- 
ture, the palm leaves composing the volutes not being indented, be- 
cause of the height for which they were destined, which would ren- 
der the indentation invisible to the spectator below. (8.) The shaft, 
or main body of the pillar, together with the upper part of the base or 
foundation is composed of one entire block of marble, ninety feet long, 
and nine in diameter. (4 & 8.) The base is a square of about fifteen 
feet on each side. This block of marble, sixty feet in circumference, 
rests on two layers of stone, bound together with lead. (G.) The 
whole column is one hundred and fourteen feet high. It is perfectly 
well polished, and only a little shivered on the eastern side. There 
was originally a statue on this pillar, one foot and ankle of which are 
still remaining. The statue nmst have been of gigantick size, to 
have appeared of a man's proportions at so great a height. To the 
eye below, the capital does not appear capable of holding more than 
one man upon it; but it has been found that it could contain no 
less than eight persons very conveniently. Nothing can equal the 
majesty of this monument. Seen from a distance it overtops the 
town, and serves as a signal for vessels. (10.) Approaching it near- 
er it produces an astonishment mingled with awe. One can never be 
tired with admiring the beauty of the capital, the length of the shaft, 
and the extraordinary simplicity of the pedestal. ('2.) The purpose 
for wiiich this splendid monument was designed, (1.) the time when it 
was raised, and (7,) the artist by whom it was planned and executed are 
all equally involved in obscurity. (3.) History throws no light which 
can penetrate Egyptian darkness ; nor can tradition aver any thing 
certain with regard to it. (2.) By some, it is thought to have been erect- 
ed in honour of Pompey ; who, flying from Ca3sar after the battle of 
Pharsalia, was basely assassinated, in this place. But the more probable 
opinion is, that it was raised in gratitude to tlie emperor Severus, who 
had conferred great favours on the inhabitants of Alexandria. (11.) 
The pillar of Pompey, or of Severus, call it by whicii name you will, 
is a standing monument of the perfection attained by the ancients in 
all the arts on whicli the science of architecture depends; and proves, 
beyond dispute, that in what respects soever the moderns may have 
surpassed the ancients, yet in grandeur of design, boldness in exe- 
cution, taste, richness and elegance of combination, they must yield 
the superiority. 

* The numbers in this model refer to the corresponding numberm 
on the last page; and show what particulars are embraced in the 



The pupil may now lorite a description of the following 


A ship. 


A plough. 


A carriage. 


A harrow. 


A school room. 


A fire engine, 


A steam boat. 


A paper mill. 


A watch. 


A grist mill. 


A clock. 


A wind mill. 


A bureau. 


A canal. 


A writing desk. 


A railroad. 


A dwelling house. 


A bridge. 


A meeting house. 


A telescope. 

The preceding directions and model refer principally to 
a limited number of sensible objects. If the pupil is to 
write a description of natural scenery, the following list of 
particulars will be more applicable. 

1. The climate, weather, surface, soil 

2. The state of cultivation, progress of vegetation, and 
its kind. 

3. The animated objects in the vicinity, together with 
the conveniences or inconveniences of their situation. 

4. The improvements made by human industry. 

0. The beauty, or deformity, discoverable in the uncul- 
tivated parts of the scene. 

6. The inhabitants in the vicinity, their occupations and 

7. The prospects around the scene, hill or valley, 
water stagnant or running, slow or rapid, &c. 

8. The sounds produced by natural objects; such as 
a waterfall, a brook, the wind passing through the trees: 
—or by animated nature, namely, the bleeting of sheep, 
the lowing of cattle, the singing of birds, and the noise 
proceeding from the workmen and their machinery; 
together with numbers one, four, ten and eleven of the 
preceding enumeration. 

In the description of persons, the following may be 

1. Person, tall, or short, fleshy or thin. 

2. Manner, strong or feeble, graceful or awkward, 
active and energetick, or indolent and wanting in energy 


3. Gait; behaviour; character, good, bad, or indif- 
ferent; disposition, amiable or irritable; habits, tempe- 
rate or otherwise; principles, fixed or unsteady. 

4. Profession or occupation; station in society; riches 
or poverty; birth, parentage, residence, age, education, 

5. Character of the mind, talents, memory, discrimi- 
nation, judgment, language, expressions, &c. 

Having attempted the various kinds of description 
mentioned above, the pupil may unite narration and de- 
scription in the same exercise, by presenting the history 

and character of the patriarch Joseph, of king 

David, of Solomon, of Job, of the 

Apostle Paul. 

The materials for these exercises he may glean from 
the sacred volume, but the language he employs should 
be his own. If he is sufficiently acquainted with geog- 
raphy, history, &c. he may be required to embrace in his 
performance, some account of the mode of life, &c. and in 
amplified history, represent his subject in fictitious scenes. 



Words that belong to one class of objects are frequent- 
ly applied to other classes. Thus the words moniing and 
evening properly belong to the day; but as they signify 
the first and last parts, they are also applied to other 
subjects. Thus, the phrase, the morning of life is often 
used for youth; and the evening of life^ for old age. This 
is what is called a figure of speech. 

Figures of speech always denote some departure from 
simplicity of expression; they represent in a forcible 
manner, the idea which we intend to express, and present 
it with the addition of some circumstance which renders 
the impression more strong and vivid. Thus when we 
say, " A good man enjoys comfort in the midst of adver- 
sity," we express an idea in the simplest manner possible. 
But as there is an analogy^^ between comfort and light, 
and between adversity and darkness, we may express the 
same idea in figurative language thus: '* To the upright 

* See Lesson 18th. 


there ariseth light in darknesf.^' Here a new circum- 
stance is introduced; two objects, resembling one anoth- 
er in some respects, are presented to the imagination; 
light is put in the place of comfort, and darkness is used 
to suggest the idea of adversity. 

Figures are* divided into two kinds or classes, figures 
of words, and figures of thought. 

Figures of words are called Tropes. 

Figures of thought are called Metaphors. 

The word Tro^, signifies a turning; and Metaphor, 

A Trope is the change or turning of a word from its 
original signification. 

Thus, in the sentence already adduced, *'To the up- 
right there ariseth light in darkness," the trope consists 
in '' light and darkness" being changed or turned from 
their usual meaning, and employed to signify '' comfort and 
adversity;" on account of some resemblance or analogy, 
which they are supposed to bear to those conditions of life. 

A Metaphor is a figure, in which the words are used 
in their original signification; but the idea which they 
convey is transferred from the subject to which it prop- 
erly belongs, to some other which it resembles. Thus, 
when we say of a man, '' He is the pillar of the state," we 
use the word pillar in its common acceptation; but the 
idea of support, which a pillar implies, is transferred 
from a building to the state; and our meaning is, that the 
man, by his wisdom or prudence, contributes as much to 
the safety and security of the nation, as a pillar by its 
strength and solidity, does to the stability of a building. 

Tropes and metaphors so closely resemble each other, 
that it is not always easy, nor is it important, to be able 
to distinguish the one from the other. 

In this lesson, figurative language is presented to the 
pupil, which he is to convert into plain. 


Fipirative language: A poor hind nursed in the lap of ignorance. 

Same idea in plain language : A poor hind who had never been 

Figurative : The sun looks on the waters, and causes them to glow, 
and take wings, and mount aloft in air. 

Plain: The sun shines upon the water, and causes it to grow 
warm, and ascend in vapour till it reaches the upper air. 

Figurative : The earth thirsts for rain. 

Plain. The earth is dry,— or wants water. 



The pupil may now change the following figurative eX" 
pressions into plain language, 

1. The sunset of life. 

2. The meridian of our days. 

3. The magick hues of the clouds are pencilled by 
the sun. 

4. The winds plough the lonely lake. 

5. The splendour of genius illumines every object on 
which it shines. 

6. A raging storm, and a deceitful disease, may both 
he encountered on life's troubled ocean. 

7. The rainbow strides the earth and air. 

8. Indolence is the bane of enjoyment. 

9. The queen of the spring, as she passed down the 

Left her robe on the trees, and her breath on the 

10. Daughters of telescopick ray, 

Pallas and Juno smaller spheres, . 

1 1 Science shall renovated beam, 

And gild Palermo's favoured ground. 

12. Each hill and dale, each deepening glen and wold, 
Defies the power that crushed thy temples gone. 

13. Dear are the wild and snowy hills, 
Where hale and ruddy freedom smiles. 

14. There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart, 
It does not feel for man. 

15. Lands intersected by a narrow frith 
Abhor each other. 

16. Let freedom circulate through every vein of all 
your empire. 

17. Hail to the morn, when first they stood 

On Bunker's height; 
And fearless stemmed the invading flood. 
And wrote our dearest rights in blood, 
And mowed in ranks the hireling brood, 

In desperate fight! 
O! 'twas a proud exulting day, 
For e'en our fallen fortunes lay 
In light. 


l^. Rising from thy hardy stock, 

Thy sons the tyrant's frown shall mock, 
And slavery's galling chain unlock, 

And free the oppressed. 
All who the wreath of freedom twine, 
Beneath the shadow of their vine 
Are blest. 


The previous lesson having introduced the pupil to 
figurative expressions, the object of this is, to lead him to 
form similar language himself. He will recollect that 
analogy or resemblanct* is its foundation; and when, there- 
fore, he is required to convert plain into figurative terms, 
he must endeavour to call to mind some other subject 
which resembles the one proposed for his exercise. In 
applying the terms, phrases and ideas relating to one sub- 
ject, to another that resembles it, or in other words, in the 
use of metaphors^ the following rules are to be observed. 

1. Metaphors should neither be too numerous, too gay, nor too 
elevated, but suited to the nature of the subject. 

2. They must be drawn from proper objects; avoiding all such 
as will raise in the mind disagreeable, mean, or low ideas. 

3. Every metaphor should be founded on a resemblance which is 
clear and striking ; not far fetched, nor difficult to be discovered. 

4. Metaphorical and plain language must not be jumbled togeth- 
er; that is, a sentence should never be constructed, so that part of it be understood literallv, and part metaphorically. 

5. Two different metaphors must not meet together on the same 

6. Metaphors should not be crowded together on the same object. 

7. Metaphors should not be too far pursued. 

It is a good rule likewise when we have written a metaphor, to 
make a picture of it, in order to see whether the parts agree ; and 
what kind of figure the wliole presents. Thus when Shakespeare 
says, " to take arms against a sea of troubles,'^ if we make a picture of 
this metaphor, we must represent a man clad in armour, going out 
to fight water! The impropriety of such mixed and inconsistent 
metaphors must be very apparent. 


Plain language : 
Our misfortunes soon end, and we are favoured with prosperity. 

Same idea in figurative language : 
The clouds of adversity soon pass away, and are succeeded by the 
Eunshine of prosperity. 

* See Lesson 18th, page 34th. 


Plain language : 

The waters falling from the rocks, made a pleasing noise which I 
distinctly heard. 

Figurative : 

I heard the voice of the waters as they merrily danced from rock to 

Plain : 
The water of the lake was without motion. 

Figurative : 
The waves were asleep on the bosom of the lake. 

Plaiji : 
The grass grows in the meadows in the spring, and summer soon 

Figurative : 

In the spring of the year, the meadows clothe themselves in their 
beautiful green robes to welcome the approach of summer. 

Plain : 
He could not be seen on account of the darkness of the night. 

Niffht had shrouded him in her dark mantle : or, He was hidden in 
the shadows of the night. 


The pupil will express the following sentences m Jigura^ 
live language. 

1. She was number one in her class, (head.^) 

2. He was the last in the division, (foot.) 

3. She was a person of very indolent Habits, (taken 

4. It rains, the clouds are black, it thunders and light- 
ens, (open a fountain, frowned, roared, set on fire.) 

5. He sunk in the water, (swallowed.) 

6. There are scenes in nature which are pleasant 
when we are sad, as well as when we are cheerful, 
(speaks, smiles, sympathises.) 

7. The number of people who are alive, is very small 
compared with those who have died, (tread, slumber.) 

8. The river flows through no country which is in- 
habited, and no sounds are made near it, except what are 
caused by the moving of its own waters. (Silence, — 
solitude, — hears no sound except voice.) 

*The word or words in brackets, attached to each sentence, are 
given as hints to the pupil, to enable him to form a figure. He need 
not be required to use them if he can perform the exercise without 


9. The hand of the clock moves round without noise. 
(Time, silent tread.) 

10. The wind moves rapidly, although it is seldom 
heard, (wings — song.) 

11. Thou must pass many years in this world, where 
wise m'^n may suffer difficulties and hardships, and foolish 
persons must find trouble, (sea, long voyage, shipwreck.) 

12. The wind causes the leaves to move, (dance.) 

13. Guilt is always wretched, and virtue is always 
rewarded sooner or later, (wedded, allied.) 

14. Perfect tciste knows how to unite nature with art, 
without destroying its simplicity in the connexion, (wed, 
sacrificing, alliance.) 

15. Virgil might almost be termed a plagiarist; but 
he has corrected the faults and added to the beauties of 
that, which he has taken from others, (adorn a theft, 
polish stolen diamonds.) 



An allegory is the representation of one thing by an- 
other anal^gous^^ to it. It may be considered as a series 
or chain of continued metaphors. 

The only material difference between allegory and 
metaphor, besides the one being short and the other pro- 
longed, is, that a metaphor always explains itself, by the 
words that are connected with it, in their proper mean- 
ing; whereas in allegory, something is intended more 
than the words in their literal signification imply. 

Apologues, parables, fables and riddles, may all be 
considered as allegories. 


The difficulty of writing composition without the assistance of 
thought and imagination is expressed in the following. 

As I was reclining one morning at the bottom of a beautiful gar- 
den, in an arbour overhung with honey suckle and jessamine of the 

* See Lesson 18th. 

t This Model is given just as it was presented by the pupil, and 
without correction ; it being thought more important to encourage the 
young by showing what others of the same age have done, than to 
present a faultless Model. 


most exquisite fragrance, I saw a most hideous monster standing before 
me. I tremblingly enquired his name and wish. He replied, in a 
voice of thunder, I am the Genius of composition, and am come to 
require the tribute that is due to me. For a few moments I stood 
amazed, not knowing how to reply. At length I was relieved by the 
approach of a beautiful nymph, who called herself Imagination; at 
whose appearance the hideous monster disappeared. The sweet and 
soothing voice of this beautiful nymph relieved my apprehensions; 
but when I awoke from my slumbers, I found it was but a dream. 


The pupil may write an allegory, showing the danger of 
ambition without talent. To assist him in the exercise, the 
following hints are offered. 

A snail despised the closeness of his shell, and sighed 
for more room. 

He one day found the empty shell of a lobster. 

He took possession, and was envied by all his kindred. 

He one day perished with cold in a corner of the shell. 

*As instances of allegory which may be studied and imita- 
fed, the following maybe mentioned: ** The Hill of Sci- 
ence;^' '* The Journey of a Day;^' ami an Eastern JVar- 
rative hy Haivksivorth, entitled '*JVb Ife pleasing to God, 
that is not useful to man.'^ The SOth Psalm, and JS'o. 55 
of the Spectator, furnish other beautiful allegories. The 
Pilgrim^ s Progress is, perhaps, the longest allego'ry ever 



Hyperbole, or exaggeration, consists in magnifying an 
object beyond its natural bounds. 

This figure occurs very frequently in common conver- 
sation; as when to represent the quickness of motion, 
we say *' as quick as lightning, ^^ or ^^ as swift as the irtnrf." 

Hyperbole should be sparingly used; but no rule can 
be given for its management, except that it must be under 
the guidance of judgment and good sense. 


The speech of Mr. Otis was so interestinjr and impressive, that the 
very walls listened to his arguments, and were moved by his elo- 

[By this hyperbole a forcible impression is given of the attention 
of every individual of the assembly, and the effect which the elo- 
qaence of the speaker had upon each individual.] 



The pupil may represent the following expressions in an 

1. The immense number of the stars. 

2. The brightness of a lighted room. 

3. The splendour of a dress ornamented with jewels. 

4. The affliction caused by the death of a distinguish- 
ed individual, 

5. The number of persons in a crowd. 

6. The loudness of a speaker's voice. 

7. The smallness of an individual, expressed by the 
object which might be a mansion for him. 

8. The size of a country expressed by the rising and 
setting of the sun. 

9. The thirst of an individual expressed by the quan- 
tity of liquid he consumes. 

10. The quantity of rain which falls in a shower. 

11. The sharpness of a man's sight. 

12. The stupidity of an animal. 



Prosopopoeia, or Personification, is that figure, by which 
life and action are attributed to inanimate objects. 

This figure may be considered as the foundation of a 
large proportion of figurative language. When we say 
that **//ie earth thirsts for rain," or " smiles with plenty," 
we represent the earth as a living creature thirsting and 

There are three degrees in this figure, namely, 

1. When some of the properties or qualities of living 
creatures are attributed to inanimate objects. As 

AfurioTis dart ; thirsty ground ; a deceitful disease ; the angry ocean. 

Here the personification consists in ascribing fury, thirst, deceit, 
and anger, which, in reality are felt by Hving creatures only, to the 
inanimate objects, a dart, a disease, and the ocean. 

2. When inanimate objects are represented as acting 
like those which have life. Thus: 

Lands intersected by a narrow frith abhor each other. 

* An attentive study of this figure will show that it is founded on 
Analogy. See Lesson 18th, page 34th. 

E 2 


The calm shade 

Shall bring a kindred calm, and the sweet breeze 
Tliat makes the green leaves dancCy shall waft a balm 
To thy sick heart. 

The cool wind 

That stirs the stream in play, shall come to thee 
Like one that loves thee, nor will let thee pass 
Ungreeted ; and shall give its light embrace. 

Here the words in Italick show in what the personification consists ; 
namely : in representing the lands abhorring, tiie shade bringing, the 
breeze wafting, the leaves dancing, the wind stirring a streamy and 
playing, coming and embracing. 

S. When they are represented as speaking to us; or 
listening to what we say. Thus: 

Hand and voice, 

Awake, awake ! and thou, my heart, awake ! 
Green fields and icy cliffs, all join my hymn! 
And thou ! Oh silent mountain, sole and bare. 

* * * "wake, Oh wake, and utter praise. 

Yet fair as thou art, thou shunnest to gUde, 
Beautiful stream ! by the village side ; 
But windest away from haunts of men, 
To silent valley and shaded glen. 
Here the hand, voice, heart, green fields, icy cliffs, the mountain and 
the streamy are represented as if they were listening to the speaker. 

MODEL of the first degree. 

The hungry waves. The joyous rain. The surly storm. 


Personify the following subjects in the first or lowest 


A brook. 




A waterfall. 




The wind. 




A tempest. 


An earthquake. 




The waves. 










The earth. 




The ocean. 




The sun. 












MODEL of the second degree. 

Plain expression. He drew his sword from its scabbard. 
Personification. At his command his sword leapt from the seabbarb, 


Personify the following, in the second degree. 

1. He is asleep, (sits on his eyelids.*) 

2. He is in love, (throw a chain, around.) 

3. The laws contain the declaration that the murder- 
er must die. (to hand a sword.) 

4. He who is pleased with natural scenery, can find 
instruction and entertainment in every object which he 
sees. (Nature speaks a language.) 

6. In a few days we shall depart from the light of 
the sun, and be buried in the earth. (Sun shall see, earth 

6. The sun cannot be seen through the clouds, (pierce 

7. The air is so soft, that we are induced to take a 
walk, (invites.) 

8. The moon shines on the brow of the mountain, 

9. The shadows caused by night, pass away, (nursed.) 

10. The hands of the clock were at nine, (points.) 

11. The fire has been extinguished. (Die.) 

12. The thunder among the crags appears first on one 
peak and then on another, (leaps.) 

MODEL of the third degree. 

Oh Switzerland ! my country t is to thee 

I strike my harp in agony ; — 

My country ! nurse of liberty, 

Home of the gallant, great, and free, 

My sullen harp I strike to thee. 

Oh grave ! where is thy victory ? 

Oh death ! where is thy sting ? 

Oh solitude, where are the charms, 

That sages have seen in thy face ? 

• The words or phrases within the brackets are offered aa hintfl to 
the Dupil. 



Personify thefolloiving subjects, 

1. The scenes of early life. 7. Industry. 

2. Intemperance. 8. Liberty. 

3. War. 9. Indolence 

4. Peace. 10. Poverty. 

5. Religion. 11. The sun. 

6. Adversity. 12. Night. 

No object which has not dignity in itself, should ever 
be personified in this degree 



Apostrophe is an address to a real person, but one who 
is either absent or dead, as if he were present and listen- 
ing to us. 


Oh, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee, Oh Absa- 
lom, my son. 

Soul of the just! companion of the dead ! 

Where is thy home, and whither art thou fled ? 
J{o examples for practice are ajixed to this lesson. The figure itself 
is so simple, that the pupil can readily apply it, withotU having had 
much practice in it. 



A simile, or comparison, is where the analogy * or re- 
semblance between two objects is expressed in form, and 
usually pursued more fully than the nature of a meta- 
phor admits. Thus when we say of a great man, *' He 
is the pillar of the state," it is a metaphor; but when 
we say of him, '* He upholds the state like a pillar," which 
supports the weight of an edifice, it then becomes a com- 

Comparisons are used for two principal purposes, name- 
ly, to explain a subject, or to render it pleasing. 

"* Seo Lesion 18th, page 34th. 


It is necessary in a comparison, that it serve to illus- 
trate the object, for the sake of which it is introduced, 
and give a stronger conception of it. 

In drawing comparisons, the following rules must be 

1. ( 'omparisons must not be drawn from objects, which 
have too near and obvious a resemblance of the object 
with which they are compared. 

2. They must not be founded on too faint and distant 

3. The object from which a comparison is drawn, 
ought nev3r to be an unknown object; nor one, of which 
few people can have a clear idea. 

4. Similes, or comparisons, should never be drawn 
from mean, or low objects. 


A troubled conscience is like the ocean when ruffled by a storm. 

Though my perishing ranks should be strewed in their gore, 
Like ocean weeds heaped on the surf beaten shore : 

An elevated genius, employed in little things, appears like the sun 
in his evening declination ; he remits his splendour, but retains his 
magnitude ; and pleases more, though he dazzles less. 

Charity, like the sun, brightens every object on which it shines. 
As from the wing no scar the sky retains, 
The parted wave no furrow from the keel. 
So dies in human hearts the thought of death. 


A comparison may now he ivritten from the following: 

1. Virtue is like . The more it is rubbed, the 

more brightly it shines. 

2. A man of honest intentions is like  where 
we can always see the bottom. 

3. A man of virtuous principles is like  

The winds blow, and the waves beat upon it, but it 

So amid the trials and troubles of life, though temptations 
assail and misfortunes threaten to overwhelm him, he 
stands unmoved, and defies the impotence of their as- 

4. Intemperance is like — which . 


5. Benevolence is like the of heaven, which, 

falling silently and unobserved, seeks not to attract 
attention, but to do good. It therefore runs not off in 
noisy streams, or in a swollen current, but penetrating 
through the of its object . 

6. Religion like presents a bright side, 

to every object, which is not wholly buried in earth. 

7. He who has no opinion of his own, is like 

which . The man of decision is as the • 

which . 



Antithesis is the reverse of comparison; for as the 
latter in general, signifies, or is founded on resemblance, 
the former implies contrast, opposition, distinction or 

Antithesis is frequently used where we wish to give a 
clearer impression of our meaning; — to show the truth 
or absurdity of an opinion; the excellence, or the infe- 
riority of a subject; or to exhibit in a more lucid manner, 
the difference, or distinction between two things. 


Antithesis of Geography and History. 

Geography describes llie countries situated on the earth, and the 
parts into wliich tliey are divided. History teaches us the manners 
and customs of the inhabitants of those countries. Tlie former 
relates to the habitations of mankind ; the latter, to the inhabitants 
themselves. The one, embraces a view of the physical, the other, 
describes the moral condition of the world. Geography may be 
considered as the more useful, but history tlie more mteresting 

Pride and Humility. 

No two feelings of the human mind, are more opposite than pride 
and humility, rride is founded on a high opinion of ourselves— 
humility, on the consciousness of the want of merit. Pride is the 
offspring of ignorance, — humility is the child of wisdom. Pride 
hardens the heart — humility soflens the temper and the disposition. 
Pride is deaf to the clamours of conscience, — humility listens with 
reverence to the monitor within ; and finally pride rejects the coun- 
sels of re^ason, the voice of experience, the dictates of religion ; while 
humility with a docile spirit, thankfully receives instruction from all 
who address her in the garb of truth. 


Prohability and Improbability of Milo's Guilt. 

Milo was unwilling to cause the death of Clodius, at a time, when 
all mankind would have approved the deed. Is it probable, then, he 
would embrace an occasion when he would be stigmatized as an as- 
sassin •* He dared not destroy his enemy even with the consent of 
the law, in a convenient place, on a fit occasion, and without incur- 
ring danger. Would he attempt it then in defiance of the law, in an 
inconvenient place, at an unfavourable time, and at the risk of his life. 

The definition of words is sometimes given in the form of an antith- 
esis, for an example of which, see Lesson 17th. 


The following subjects may be presented in Antithesis. 

1. Virtue and vice. 

2. Friendship and selfishness. 

3. Summer and winter. 

4. Industry and indolence 

5. Religion and infidelity. 

6. A country with a good government, and one in a 
state of anarchy or revolution. 

7. Peace and war. 

8. A contented and a restless disposition. 

9. Knowledge and ignorance. 

10. A temperate and an intemperate man. 

11. Gratitude and ingratitude. 

12. The contented and the ambitious. 



When we would affirm, or deny with great earnestness, expressing 
the firmest confidence of the truth of our opinion, and appealing to 
the hearers for the impossibility of the contrary, we frequently put 
our assertions in the form of a question or interrogation. 

MODEL of Interrogation. 

God is not man that he should lie, nor the son of man that he 
should repent. Hath he said it? and shall he not do it.? Hath he 
Bpoken ? and shall he not make it good ? 


Exclamation is a figure of a similar nature, used only in animated 
writings, to express surprise, anger, joy, grief, &c. 

MODEL of Exclamation. 
Good heaven ! What an eventful life was hers ! 



Vision, or sight, is the representation of something past or future, 
as if it were passing before our eyes. 

MODEL of Vision. 

The author of the following extract is speaking of the slave trade. 

I hear the sound of the hammer — I see the smoke of the furnaces 
where manacles and fetters are still forged for human limbs. 1 see 
the visages of those, who, by stealth and at midnight, labour in this 
work of iniquity, foul and dark, as may become the artificers of such 
instruments of misery and torture. 

It is unnecessary to present any " examples for practice'* in 
this lesson ; but the teacher may require the pupil to attempt one or 
more examples of each figure, without assistance. 


Climax,* called also ^^ gradation, ^^ or ^^amplification by 
steps, '^ is the gradual ascent of a subject from a less to a 
higher interest. 

Sometimes the word or expiession which ends the for- 
mer member of the period beguis the next, and so on through 
the sentence. 

Climax generally forms an artful exaggeration of the 
circumstances of some object or action, which we wish 
to place in a strong light. 


1. There is no enjoyment of property without government; no 
government without a magistrate ; no magistrate without obedience ; 
and no obedience where every one does as he pleases. 

2. What hope of liberty is there remaining, if what it is their 
pleasure, it is lawful for them to do; if what is lawful, they are able 
to do ; if what they are able to do, they dare do; if what they dare 
do, they really execute ; and if what they really execute, is no way 
offensive to you .'* 

'S. What a piece of work is man ! how noble in reason ! how 
infinite in faculties ! in form and motion how expressive and admi- 
rable ; in action how like an angel ! in apprehension how like a God : 

4. After we have practised good actions awhile, they become 
easy ; and when they are easy, we begin to take pleasure in them ; 
and when tliey please us, we do them frequently ; and by frequency 
of acts, a thing grows into a habit and confirmed habit, is a kind of 

* The word climax is from the Greek language, and signifies a 


second nature ; and so far as any thing is natural, so far it is neces- 
sary, and we can hardly do otherwise; nay, we do it many times 
when we do not think of it. 

5. The state of society in large cities necessarily produces luxu- 
ry; and luxury gives birth to avarice; while avarice begets boldness 
and boldness is the parent of depravity and crime. 

Manv beautiful instances of climax may be found in the sacred 
scriptures. See the following : 

Matthew chapter 10th, verse 40th. 

Romans ** 5th, " 3d. 

*' 10th, " 14th. 

1 Corinthians " 11th. " 3d. 

" '' 3d,' " 21st. 

J^otice should be taken of the number of steps, or particulars , in each 


The pupil is required to fill or supply the vacant places 
in the subjoined. The figures within the brackets denote the 
number of steps or particidars requisite to complete the fig^ 
ure as it is proposed ; but if he can finish it with a less num^ 
ber, he should be allowed to do so* 

1. Children owe regard to their equals; to 

their fellow pupils; to their superiors in age; 

to their parents, and fear, love and reverence 

to their God. (5.) 

2. Teachers expect obedience from their youngest 

pupils; from the middle classes; from 

the highest; and from all. (4.) 

3. Such conduct would have been wrong in a child; 
in a youth; to a man; but in a per- 
son of his knowledge, sense of propriety, duty, honour, 
principle, it is in the highest degree reprehensible, dis- 
graceful, nay, even wicked. (4.) 

4. Ignorance is to be regretted even in a child; de- 
plorable in ; shameful to — ; disgraceful 

to ; and despicable in . (5.) 

5. Time is valuable even in the dawn ofhfe; 

in the morning; at noon; when the 

sun is declining. How inestimable, then, its value to 
one whose sun is about to set ! What countless worlds 
would the sinner give, for but a moment to lengthen out 
the dim twilight that precedes the night of death. (5.) 

6. The conduct of children should be peaceful and 

contented at home; when abroad; in 

school; and at church. (4.) 


7. It is not commendable to wish for the property of 

others; it is improper to ; it is unjust to 

; it is an offence to ; it is a crime to 

; it is punishable with death to . 

What shall we say then of him, who in the darkness of 
the night, when mankind, in the confidence of security, 
have permitted their watchful senses to sleep, defies the 
obstacles of bars and bolts, breaks into a dwelling, plun- 
ders the property, murders the inhabitants, and sets fire 
to their habitation. 

8. He who wantonly takes the life of a fly ; 

. How then shall we describe the wickedness 

of a parent who , and , wantonly exposes her 

child to a lingering, cruel death? (6.) 

In filling up the preceding skeletons, the pupil will 
recollect that each successive member must rise in mean- 
ing so as to express something of a higher and more im- 
portant kind than that which precedes it. There is 
another figure in which the terms descend, as in the 

His offence deserved not the punishment of crucifix- 
ion; nay, not of death; nay, not of stripes; nay, not of 
imprisonment; — nay, not even of censure; nor yet even 
of disapprobation. 

See also Matthew, 5th chapter, verse 18th. 
This lesson finishes the subject of fiflfurative lancruage. The pupil 
should be apprised that the figures which are herein enumerated, are 
a few only of those which belong to the subject. A complete list of 
rhetorical figures includes several hundred different kinds ; " many of 
which, however, are but names for common expressions. Those 
which have been noticed in these lessons, are the principal ones that 
are embraced in common treatises. The author thinks it expedient, 
that the pupil should be made acquainted with figurative expressions, 
befiDre his introduction to themes and regular subjects. The previous 
lessons are designed to prepare him for exercises which require orig- 
inality, both of thought and expression. It is not a question here to 
be discussed, whether such preparation is necessary. The author 
can only say, that teachers, who have been able to interest their pu- 
pils in composition at an early age, and prepare them both to think 
and to write with clearness, elegance and precision, without the aid 
of some such introductory exercises, are happ}' in their success. To 
those who seek some " breve iter per excmpla,'' he addresses the linefl 
of Horace : 

''' Si quid novisti rectius istis, 

Candidus imperti; si non his utere mecum." 

* Holmes' Rhetorick enumerates a list of two hundred and fifiy» 


or, as they are quaintly translated : 

" If a better system's thine, 

" Impart it freely, or make use of mine." 
Whether the arrangement of the principles contained in the seve- 
ral lessons, is as strictly progressive as it might be, is a question sub- 
mitted with deference. Having enjoyed little conversance with the 
collected wisdom of others on this subjectj either in person or in 
print, diffidence of his own opinion forbids the author to recommend 
any adherence to the order in which they are presented. 



Paraphrase means an explanation, or interpretation. 
Maxims and proverbs frequently occur, which have 
something of the nature of figurative language. Many 
of them are included in a figure which by some writers 
is called Jlllusion. The object of this lesson is, to accus- 
tom the pupil to the use of such expressions, and enable 
him to explain them. 

" Look before you leap.'* 
Paraphrase^ or Explanation. 
This maxim imphes that we should not engage in any undertaking 
before we have seriously considered the consequences ; together with 
the probability of obtaining the object of our desire. We should also 
consider, whether the pleasures or the benefits which we promise our- 
selves, are worth the trouble they will occasion ; and whether we 
should not have reason to lament our participafion in the affair. 


The pupil may now paraphrase the following. 

1. Frequent droppings wear even stones. 

2. Make haste slowly. 

3. Haste is slow. 

4. Truth lies in a well. 

5. Let justice be done though the heavens fall. 

6. Happiness has many friends. 

7. Walls have ears. 

8. Hunger breaks through stone walls. 

9. He gives twice who gives soon. 

10. Whilst we live, let us live. 

11. Cast thy bread upon the waters, for thou shalt find 
it after many days. 




Before commencing the subject of simple themes, it 
will be proper to premise a few remarks on the choice 
of words and the structure of sentences; which have 
been reserved for this place, in order that the previous 
lessons may prepare the beginner for a proper under- 
standing and application of them. It cannot be doubted 
that the first step in composition must be to teach the 
beginner hoiv to ivrite '^ at all.^* The second to show 
him how to write well. 

The following rules must be permanently fixed in the 
learner- s mind. 

1. The words which are employed in a sentence 
should be such as exactly convey the meaning which the 
writer intends, and not more, nor less. 

2. All vulgar and low expressions should be avoided; 
and such words chosen, as the most correct usage has 
appropriated to the ideas which are to be expressed. 

Sentences should have the following properties: Clear- 
ness, Unity, Strength and Harmony. 


A sentence is clear, when the meaning is easily under- 
stood, and the expressions are such as to leave no doubt 
of what the writer intends. 

The following rules relate to clearness. 

1. The words should be such, as are easily under- 
stood, in the sense which the writer intends. 

2. The words and members of the sentence, which 
are most nearly related, should be placed as near to each 
other as possible; tbat their mutual relation may clearly 
appear. This rule requires particular attention to th*^ situ- 
ation of adverbs, pronouns, and other connecting words. 


The unity of a sentence implies that it contains one 
principal idea, and has one subject, or nominative, which 
is the governing word from the beginning to the end. 


1. During the course of the sentence, the subject, or 
nominative, should be changed as little as possible. 


S. Ideas which have but little connexion should be 
expressed in separate sentences, and not crowded into 

3. A parenthesis should not occur in the middle of a 

4. The sentence should be brought to a full and per- 
fect close. 


The strength of a sentence requires such an arrange- 
ment of the words and members, as will exhibit the sense 
to the best advantage; give every word its due weight 
and force, and thereby convey a clear, strong and full 
idea of the writer's meaning. 

Rules of Strength. 

1. Take from it all words which are not necessary 
for the full expression of the sense. 

2. Pay particular attention to the use of copulatives, 
relatives, and particles, employed for transition, and con- 

5. Place the principal word or words in a situation, 
where they will make the most striking impression. 

4. Make the members of the sentence go on rising 
in their importance, one above another, in the form of a 
climax. {See Lesson SSd.) 

5. Avoid ending the sentence with an adverb, prepo- 
sition, or any insignificant word. 

6. In the members of a sentence where two things 
are compared or contrasted, where either resemblance 
or opposition is to be expressed, some resemblance in 
the language or construction ought to be observed. (See 
Lessons 30th and 31 st.) 


The harmony of a sentence means its agreeableness 
to the ear, and requires such an attention to the sound 
of the words and members, as to avoid all harsh and dis- 
agreeable combinations, when others equally expressive 
can be selected. This property, however, should never 
be sought at the expense of either of the preceding. 

Rules of Harmony. 
1. Whatever is easy to the organs of speech, is gen- 
erally agreeable to the ear; therefore, such words should 
be preferred, and such an arrangement of the members 

F 2 


of the sentence adopted, as can be pronounced without 

i2. Long words and those which are composed of a 
due intermixture of long and short syllables, are more 
harmonious than short ones; or than those which are 
wholly composed of long or short syllables. 

3. The harmony or melody of the different periods 
should be varied; and a proper succession of long and 
short sentences kept up. 

4. The longest members of a period, and the fullest 
and most sonorous words, should generally be reserved 
for the conclusion of the sentence. 

5. The sound should, in all cases where it can be 
done, be adapted to the sense. 

6. The hissinju sound of the letter s should be avoided. 



The most important rules that can be given for con- 
ducting all kinds of themes are the same; so far at least, 
as the object of all is the attainment of clear notions, 
lucid arrangement, and perspicuous expression. 

The first difficulty which perplexes the beginner, is 
V)hat to say about his subject. He would naturally en- 
deavour to find some book, which treats of it; and, if 
he is so fortunate as to find one, would take from it what 
would serve his purpose. But he is here instructed that 
there is a nearer, and more fertile source which will furnish 
him with materials ; provided he seeks for them in a prop- 
er way. That nearer source is his own mind, working 
on the materials which it already possesses. The man- 
ner in which these ideas or materials may be obtained, 
will now be explained in the following 


1. Before taking up the pen to write, it will be well to 
think for some time on the subject; beginning by fix- 

*The author anticipates the objection of stiffness, which will 
probably bo raised by some, to the plan })ursuecl in this and in several 
other lessons. He desires, however, that it will be remembered, the 
book is desififned for bcfrhiners ; and that its object " is not so much 
to form the sfi/le, as to furnisli matter for writing." *' Ease is the 
completion of every operation of art, and therefore ought not to bo 
expected in the beginning." 


ing in the mind its exact meaning ; removing every thing 
that is doubtful or equivocal in its signification; and when 
difficulties of that kind occur, determining the true import 
of the word by its etymology or derivation; (see Lesson 
ISth, page 21th,) or, by the manner in which it is gener- 
ally used by good writers. 

2. Having determined the true meaning of that, which 
is the subject of the exercise, the next step to be taken is, 
to ascertain its necessary and accidental qualities. This 
may generally be done by an analysis. (See Lesson lUh, 
page 2Sd.) Having ascertained these qualities, they 
should be considered according to their order, or impor- 
tance, with a reference both to the general and the partic- 
ular effects of each. 

3. The qualities of the subj<K5t having been ascertained, 
together with their effects upon general or particular ob- 
jects, a comparison is easily drawn between it and some 
other object; (see Lesson SOth, page 56th,) and such com- 
parison will readily furnish hints for an antithesis. {See 
Lesson SI st, page 5Sth.) The antithesis will serve to 
present the subject in stronger light; and remove the 
ambiguity, which may exist with regard to any parts of the 

4. A consideration of what has been gained to the 
world by the influence or operation of the subject; or, 
what the world would have lost or wanted, had the subject 
no existence, will suggest further ideas which may with 
advantage be introduced into the exercise. 

5. These reflections will enable the writer to deter- 
mine with accuracy, whether the subject be good and 
commendable; or bad and deprecable; and from'^what its 
excellence, or inferiority respectively proceeds. 

6. If the writer have any acquaintance with history and , 
geography, he may consider, likewise, its connexion with 
the manners and customs of different nations, both of an- 
cient and modern times; its prevalence at any period, or in 
any particular portion of the world; and the station in so- 
ciety where it especially prevails. 

7. These considerations and reflections form what may 
be called the study of the subject; and should generally 


A SINGLE IDEA. Each and all of them by a fundamental 
principle of the mind, called association, will suggest other 
ideas, which will not come alone; and the difficulty of 


ascertaining what to say will probably be succeeded by 
the difficulty of d<!termining ivhat to omit. Here too he 
may be assisted by a recurrence to the rules of Unity; 
as they relate, not merely to a sentence, but to the whola 


Having studied the subject in the manner pointed out 
in the preceding remarks, the pupil may write in the 
following order, such ideas as he may have acquired. 

1. If the subject require explanation, define or ex- 
plain it more at large, either by a formal definition; 
{see Lesson 11 th, page S2d,) by a paraphrase; (see Lesson 
S5lh^ page 64ih,) or by a description; (see Lesson 2Sd, 
page 4Sd.) To avoid tautology (see Lesson Idth, page 
35th,) in the definition, make use of a periphrasis. (See 
Lesson dth, page 2\st.) 

2. Show what is the cause or origin of the subject; 
that is, what is the occasion of it, from what it proceeds, 
from what it is derived, (see Lesson I3th, page 21th,) and 
how it differs from what it is thought to resemble. (See 
Lesson \lth, page 32(i.) 

3. Show whether the subject be ancient or modern; 
that is, what it was in ancient times, and what it is at 

4. Show whether the subject relates to the whole 
world, or only to a particular part of it. 

(JSTumbers 4 and 5 recall to mind number 1 of description, 
page 4Sd, Lesson 2Sd.) 

5. Examine whether the subject be good or bad; 
show wherein its excellence or inferiority consists; and 
what are the advantages or disadvantages which arise 
from it. 

6. Present the subject in an antithesis, (see Lesson Slst, 
page 5Qth,) witli its opposite, or with something different 
from it; and show, from the antithesis, why the subject 
is to be sought, or avoided, and its opposite is to be de- 
sired or deprecated. 

* In those remarks, the author has borrowed some of the ideas and 
part of the lannruage in numl)ers one and two, from Jardine. The 
plan itself is partly taken from Walker, but is considerably enlarged, 
and, it is thouirht, improved by reference to the previous lessons oi 
principles contained in this book. 


7. The exercise may be concluded with any general 
observations suggested by the subject, and intimately 
connected with it; or it may be brought to a close with 
a comparison. {See Lesson SOt/i, page 56th.) 

These particulars may be thus briefly recapitulated: 

1. The definition. 

2. The cause. 

3. The antiquity, or novelty. 

4. The universality, or locality. 

5. The eflects, namely, the advantages or disadvan- 

6. The antithesis. 

7. The conclusion and comparison. 

The same remark may be made with regard to these 
suggestions, as has already been made in reference to 
the enumeration of the particulars under description, in 
Lesson 23d, page 43d, namely, that it is not neces- 
sary to embrace all of them in the same exercise ; nor in 
all cases to adhere to the same order in the arrangement. 
The pupil should be allowed to exercise his judgment as 
well as his invention, in this, as also in all other cases. 

On Education. 

Definition. The culture of the human mind (see Lesson 9tk, 

page 2lst) has ever been considered as one of the 
most important concerns of society. Hence educa- 
tion, which has for its object, the improvement of the 
intellectual powers, {see Lessons Sth and 14th, pages 
J9th and 28th,) is a subject which demands the seri- 
ous attention and the most liberal support of every 
individual in the community. 
Cause. A parent, who is sensible that his child is a ra- 

tional being, endowed with faculties susceptible of & 
high degree of cultivation, and is likewise conscioas 
that the happiness of the child would in a great de- 
gree be promoted by the improvement of those pow* 
ers, would naturally bestow much attention to the 

Antiquity. Accordingly we find, that from the earliest ages of 

the world, wherever the means of education have 
been enjoyed, few have neglected to avail themselves 
of its advantages. The Greeks and the Romans 
among whom were produced such prodigies of ex- 
cellence in every kind of writing, and in every de- 
partment of civil and military life, were remarkably 
attentive to the education of their children; insomuch 
that they began their education almost witti meir, 
birth. In Sparta children were taken from ttieif 



parents at a very early period of their a^e and eda- 
caled ai, the pubhc expense ; and a celebrated Roman 
writer advised those parents who destined their child- 
ren for public speakers, to choose nurses for them, 
who have a good pronunciation. 
Kovdty. At the present day we find no less attention paid to 

this momentous subject; although the modes of edu- 
cation adopted by the moderns, differ in many re- 
spects from those which were practised in ancient 
times. The strictness of discipline which prevailed 
among the Spartans, the Romans and the Greeks, 
has given place to a milder regimen ; but whether 
this very strictness, coupled as it was with method- 
ical instruction, had not a beneficial tendency, is a 
question which is not yet fully decided. 

Universality. But however the ancients and the moderns may 
differ in their modes of discipline and instruction, 
the subject of education itself has received from all 
nations, and in all ages, that attention which its 
importance demands. Even tlie savage takes care 
to instruct his child in hunting, fishing, and those 
branches of knowledge which are necessary for 

Locality, But in no country has greater attention been paid 

to the subject than in this. Here its importance is 
properly estimated : and on no subject has more ex- 
pense beet: lavished, and more talent employed, 
than ill tliR advancement and improvement of the 
cause of education. Our forefathers have incorpo- 
rated it in their civil institutions, and pledged their 
substance for its support. Hand in hand with re- 
ligion, it has received the smiles of the aged, the 
favor of the good, and the support and encourage- 
ment of the law. {See Lesson 2ith, page 46th.) 

Advantages. From the promotion of this important subject, the 
greatest benefits have been derived. The knowledge 
acquired by one portion of the world has been 
transmitted to another, without distinction of distance 
or diversity of age. The circle of human enjoyments 
has been enlarired, and a wide field has been opened 
where tne nignest happiness of which our nature is 
susceptible, may be enjoyed, independently of the 
common sorrows and misfortunes of life. The en- 
larged and enlightened views it gives of the world at 
large, justly entitle it to much attention; and go very 
far to sup[)ly tliose imperfections which every one in 
a state of nature, nmst necessarily feel. 

J9ntithesis. But nothing will show the advantages of education 

in a stronger light, than a contrast witii the disadvan- 
tages which arise from the want of it. A person who 
has been well educated, has the mind and body so 
cultivated and improved, that any natural defects are 
removed, and the beauties of both placed in so fine 
a light, that the^ strike us with double force ; while 
one who has enjoyed no such advantage has all hit 



0, natural imperfections remaining; and to these are 

added artificial ones, arising from bad habits. The 
former engages the attention of those with whom he 
converses, by the good sense he shows on every sub- 
ject, and the agreeable manner in which he shows it. 
The other disgusts every company which he enters, 
either by his total silence and stupidity, or by the ig- 
norance and impertinence of his observations. The 
one raises himself to the notice of his superiors, and 
advances himself to a higher rank in life. The other 
is obliged to act an inferior part among his equals in 
fortune, and is sometimes forced to seek shelter for his 
ignorance among the lowest orders of mankind. 

Conclusion: From these considerations, we must rank the cause 
of education among the vital interests of mankind. 

Comparison To extinguish it, would produce a darkness in the 
moral world, like that which the annihilation of the 
sun would cause in the material ; while every eftbrt 
that is made to advance and promote it, is like remov- 
ing a cloud from the sky, and giving free passage to 
the light " which freely lighteth all things." 


The following subjects are suggested for the exercises of 
the pupil; but any other may now be taken in connexion 
icith the remarks which have been premised. 



On Governn 
On War. 

Old age. 
On Books. 



8. On Travelling. 

9. On Poetry. 

10. On Painting. 

11. On Musick. 

12. On Commerce, 
^13. On Gaming. 

14. Philosophy. 

:ssoN XXXVII. 


A simple theme describes some subject generally ex- 
pressed in a single word, term, or phrase; and, as has 
been seen in the last lesson, embraces a view of its prop- 
erties, qualities and effects. A complex theme is a prop- 
osition, or assertion, which relates to a simple subject; 
an exhortation to practice some particular virtue, or ac- 
tion, or to avoid some particular vice, or deed; or, it is 
the proving of some truth. 

The directions relating to the study of the subject in 


simple themes, {see pages QGih, Glthy and 68</i,) are to be 
regarded in relation to complex subjects. In addition 
to these directions, the following special rules must be 
observed : 

1. No assertions must be made in the exercise, but 
such as are generally received and believed to be true ; 
unless they are accompanied with proper proof. This 
proof must be furnished either by the senses ; by con- 
sciousness ; by experience ; by undeniable truths, such as 
axioms and intuitive propositions ; by analogy ; (see Les- 
son 18//i, page 34th,) by facts already proved ; or, by the 
undeviating laws of nature. 

2. The meaning of the subject, the attribute, and the 
object, (see grammar, introduction to syntax) must be 
accurately determined, so that the proposition may be 
stated in the most intelligible manner. 

3. The arguments which are introduced must be so 
arranged, that those which precede shall throw light on 
those which are to follow, and form a connected chain 
of comparisons; by which, ultimately, the agreement or 
disagreement expressed in the propositions shall be made 

4. All objections which may be raised against the 
proposition must be candidly and explicitly stated and 

5. The proof may be concluded with a recapitulation, 
containing a brief review of the united strength of all 
the arguments which have been brought to confirm it. 

Tlie following directions may guide the beginner in writ- 
ing complex themes. 

1. Commence the exercise by defining or explaining 
the subject of the assertion. 

2. If it have any opposite, it may be defined and ex- 
plained, and the one compared with the other by an an- 

.3. Give some reasons drawn from the antithesis why 
what is asserted with regard to the subject, is not true in 
relation to its opposite. 

4. Additional reasons, drawn from the nature of the 
subject, such as its permanency, immutability, effects on 
society, on ourselves, &.c. may then be adduced. 

* It frequently has a good effect to state, and answer the objections 
to a proposition or truth first ; and then to adduce the arguments in 
favour of it, reserving the strongest for th** i-^^* 


5. Introduce some quotation from a respectable au- 
thor, to show that others think as we do on the subject. 

6. Give some example of the truth of the proposition 
drawn from history. 

7. Draw the conclusion wherein the truth of the pro- 
position is asserted as a necessary inference from what 
has been advanced. 

8. A simile, or comparison, may frequently be used 
at the close, by which an argument drawn from analogy 
may be given with good effect. 

These directions may be varied as occasion requires in 
the following manner : 

After the theme, or truth is laid down, the proof con- 
sisting of the following parts may proceed as follows:* 

1. The proposition, or narrative; where we show 
the meaning of the theme by amplifying, paraphrasing, 
(see Lesson S5th, page 64//^,) or explaining it more at 

2. The reason; where we prove the truth of the 
theme by some reason or argument. 

3. The confirmation ; where we show the unreason- 
ableness of the contrary opinion ; or if we cannot do that, 
we try to bring some other reason in support of it. 

4. The simile, or comparison; where we bring in 
something in nature or art, similar to what is affirmed in 
the theme for illustrating the truth of it. 

5. The example; where we bring instances from his- 
tory to corroborate the truth of our theme. 

6. The testimony or quotation; where we bring in 
proverbial sentences, or passages from good authors, to 
show that others think as we do. 

7. The conclusion; when we sum up the whole, and 
show the practical use of the theme, by concluding with 
some pertinent observations. 

With regard to these particulars, it may be observed 
that it is not necessary that all should enter into the plan 
of every exercise; nor is it expedient that they should in 
all cases be taken in the order here presented. The re- 
mark that was made under lessons 23d and 36th, is here 
repeated; namely that the judgment of the pupil, being 
a faculty as susceptible of improvement as any other, 

* This method is taken literally from Walker. 




must be exercised. As the examples for practice in this, 
and the previous lessons, will require a vigorous exertion 
of the intellectual powers, and more especially of the fac- 
ulty of invenlion, it may be advisable to give the pupil 
but one part of the subject at a time; requiring him to 
write a simple or complex theme by degrees, and making 
each particular in the preceding enumerations the sub- 
ject of a distinct exercise. He may then be required to 
write the whole connectedly; and thus, in the language 
of Dr. Johnson, Divide ^ — arid conquer, 


Virtue is its own reward. 

Proposition. Virtue may be defined to be, doin^ our duty to 
God and our neighbour, in opposition to all temp- 
tations to the contrary. This conduct is so conso- 
nant to the light of reason, so agreeable to our mor- 
al sentiments, and produces so much satisfaction 
and content of mind, that it may be said to carry its 
own reward along with it, even if unattendedf by 
that recompense which it generally meets in this 

Reason. The reason of this seems to lie in the very nature 

of things. The all wise and benevolent Author of 
nature has so framed the soul of man, that he cannot 
but approve of virtue : and has annexed to the prac- 
tice of it an inward satisfaction and happiness, that 
mankind may be encouraged to become virtuous. 

Confirmation. If it were not so, — if virtue were accompanied with 
no self satisfaction, no heart-felt joy, we should not 
only be discouraged from the practice of it, but should 
be tempted to think there was something very wrong 
in the laws of nature, and that rewards and punish- 
ments were not properly administered by Provi- 

Simile. But as in the works of nature and art, whatever is 

really beautiful, is generally useful : so in the mor- 
al world, whatever is virtuous or praiseworthy, is 
at the same time so beneficial to society, that it gen- 
erally meets with a suitable recompense. 

Example. How has the approbation of all subsequent ages 

rewarded the virtue of Scipio. That young warrior 
had taken a beautiful captive, with charms he 
was greatly enamoured ; but, finding that she was 
betrothed to a young nobleman of her own country, 
he, without hesitation, generously delivered her up 
to him. This one virtuous action of the noble Roman 
youth has rendered him more illustrious than all his 

Testimony. The loveliness of virtue has been the constant top- 

ick of all moralists both ancient and modern. Plato 



beautifully remarks, that if virtue were to assume 
a human form, the whole world would be in love 
with it. 
Conclusion. If, therefore, virtue is of itself so lovely ; if it is 

accompanied with the greatest earthly happiness, — 
a consciousness of acting rightly, — it may be said to 
be its own reward ; for, though it is not denied that 
virtue is frequently attended with crosses and mis- 
fortunes in this life, and that there is something of 
self denial in the very idea of it ; yet as the poet ex- 
presses it. 

The broadest mirth unfeeling folly wears, 


Less pleasing far than virtue's very tears. 


The following subjects are suggested for the practice Oj 
the pupil in complex themes. 

1. Delays are dangerous. 

2. Order is of universal importance. 

3. No art can be acquired without rules. 

4. Evil communications corrupt good manners. 

5. None are completely happy. 

6. Perseverance accomplishes all things. 

7. Patience removes mountains. 

8. Nip sin in the bud. 

9. Trust not to appearances. 

10. Make no more haste than good speed. 

11. Use pleasures moderately, and they will last the 

12. Avoid extremes. 

13. Too much familiarity commonjy breeds contempt. 

14. 'T is ill playing with edged tools. 

15. Well begun is half done. 

16. Necessity is the mother of invention. 

17. Real knowledge can be acquired only by slow de- 

18. Pride is the bane of happiness, 

19. Custom is second nature, 

20. Honesty is the best policy, 

21. A man is known by his company. 

22. Pride must have a fall. 

23. Learning is better than houses and lands. 

24. Time is money, 




After the pupil has had some practice in writing on 
regular subjects, according to the directions in the pre- 
ceding lessons, (35th, 36th, and 37th,) forsaking the ar^i- 
ficial arrangement of his composition, and being guided 
in his train of thought only by a few hints, thrown into 
the form of heads, he may be required to write from an 
"outline or skeleton, composed of these heads; as exem- 
plified in the following 

On the importance of a well spent youth. 


1. All desire to arrive at old a^e ; but few think of acquiring those 
virtues, which alone can make it happy. 

2. The life of man a building ; youth the foundation. 

3. All the later stages of life depend upon the good use made of 
the former. 

4. Age, therefore, requires a well spent youth to render it happy. 
The pupil loill observe, that in introducing these heads or s?ig-^es- 

tions, the expressions are altered (see Lesson 6th, page VMh,) and the 
ideas are amplified or paraphrased. {See Lesson 35f/t, page ()4<A.) 
In performing his own exercises, therefore, he will vary, amplify and 
paraphrase the heads accordingly. 


[The numbers in the following, refer to the preceding heads.] 

(1.) A desire to live long is the fervent wish of all the human 
species. Tlie eastern monarchs, who wanted to make all human 
happiness centre in themselves, were saluted with the flattering ex- 
clamation, Oh king live forever ! Thus all propose to themselves a 
long life, and hope their age will be attended with tranquillity and 
comfort ; but few consider that a happy old age depends entirely up- 
on the use we have made of our time, and the habits we have form- 
ed, when young. If we have been profligate, dissipated and insig- 
nificant in our earlier years, it is almost impossible we should have 
any importance with others, or satisfaction to ourselves in age. 

(2.) The life of man is a building. Youth is to lay the founda- 
tion of knowledge, habits and dispositions ; upon which, middle life 
and age must finish the structure ; and in moral as in material archi- 
tecture, no good edifice can be raised upon a faulty foundation. 

(3.) This will admit of furtlier illustration in every scene of life 
through which we piLss. The children who have not obtained such 
a knowledge of the first rudiments of learning in their infancy as 
they ought to have done, are held in contempt by boys or girls who 
have played less and learned more. The youth who mispends his time, 
and neglects his improvement at school, is despised at the higher 
seminaries of learning, by those who have been more industrious at 
school. The man of business and the man of leisure who have lost 


the golden opportunity of advancing themselves in knowledge while 
young, often find themselves degraded for the want of those acquire- 
ments which are the greatest ornaments of human life ; and when age 
has lost every occasion of advancing in knowledge and virtue, what 
happiness can be expected in it ? 

(4.) The infirmities of age want the reflections of a well spent youth 
to comfort and solace them. These reflections, and nothing but these, 
are, by the order of a wise Providence, capable of supporting us in the 
last stage of our pilgrimage. 

Thus, a mispent youth is sure to make either a miserable or a con- 
temptible old age. This has been happily expressed by the poet, 
where, speaking of those who ia youth give themselves up to the 
vanities of life, he says, 

See how the world its veterans rewards — 
A youth of folly ; an old age of cards. 


Tht pupil may now write a regular theme from the following out- 
lines. He will recollect that each head is to be paraphrased^ ampli- 
fitd^ and variously expressed, (See pages 19/A and Qith,) 

On the necessity of submission to Teachers, 

1. Submission to teachers and superiors necessary in all states 
of life exemplified in the cases of the young soldier, and the pa- 
tient, suflfering under disease. 

2. The ancient Lacedemonians thought submission to superior 
authority so necessary, that they required their magistrates to sub- 
mit to singular customs, in token of their obedience to the laws. 

3. It is a law of nature, that if we would gain any thing, we 
must give up something, 

4. It is a law of necessity, that part of our liberty must be 
given up for the preservation of the remainder. 

5. If we wish to gain health or knowledge, it must be by giving 
up our own opinion, and submitting to physicians and teachers. 

6. The bee, an excellent example of the utility of obedience 
to superiors. 

The pupil shoxdd be informed that bees are governed by one who is 
generally called the queen bee ; and that all who do not work are ex- 
pelled from the hive. 


On Diversions, 

1. It is a grest mistake to suppose that diversion should fonn 
the business of lif.^, the contrary to this being ti*ue. 

2. The original sense of the words relaxation, amusement and 
recreation, (see Lesson 13th, page 27th,) may convince us of this, 

3. When diversion becomes the business of life, it is no longer 

a Q 


4* The poor and the rich must be employed, or be unhappj. 

5. Labour of mind and body is equally necessary for the 
health of botli. 

6. The mind must be in a sound and healthy state, in order to 
enjoy any kind of diversion. 


071 Time, 

1. Our happiness in this world and the next, depends on a 
proper use of time. 

2. Youtli aj)t to be deceived in counting upon much future 

3. The longest life cannot afford to run in debt w^ith time, or 
burden lo-inorrow w^iih the business of to-day. 

4. Much can be accomplished by an orderly distribution of 

On Modesty. 

1. Modesty, a refined compliment to those we address. 

2. All are friends to the modest, and enemies to the presump- 
tuous man. 

3. Modesty, a proof of good sense. 

4. Modesty, the peculiar ornament of the female sex. 


On Flattery. 

1. Flattery proceeds from some bad design ; and is gratifying 
only to the pride of the person flattered. 

2. Flattery panicularly dangerous to youth, as it prevents 
their improvement. 

3. A flatterer is always to be suspected of some insidious in- 


On Dress. 

1. Dress, a picture of what ])asses in our minds. 

2. Dress, sometimes a test of good sense. 

3. Dress, a criterion of our taste in painting and statuary. 

4. Dress, (so far as it respects neatness and cleanliness,) of 
great unportance to the first impression we make upon otliers. 

On History. 

1. The most usefid of human knowledge deriired from history. 

2. History exhibits the different states of society, and the 
causes of thorn. 

3. History furnishes important lessons in morality. 

4. The history of a state and the history of an individual 
perfectly parallel. 



On Taste, 

1. Taste and fashion distinct and different things. 

2. The principles of fashion are nothing but whim and fancy; 
but those of taste, are beauty and proportion. 

3. Taste is born with us, as memory and other faculties of the 
mind are. 

4. The different degrees of taste we find in different persons, 
au*e more owing to cultivation than to nature. 

On Parental Affection. 

1. Parental affection implanted by Providence for the preser^ 
ration of the species. 

2. To God, therefore, the universal Parent, we are indebted 
for parental affection. 

3. Instances of the force of parental affection are innumerable. 

4. Parental affection shows the duty of filial affection. 

5. Ingratitude in a child toward a parent the most odious of 


On Good Manners, 

1. Grood manners the art of making people easy. 

2. Good manners arise from humility, good nature, and good 
sense ; and ill mannere from the opposite qualities. 

3. The former qualities tend to make people easy, and the 
latter, to make them uneasy. 

4. Good sense and integrity, if we are sure we possess them, 
will not make good manners unnecessaiy ; the former being but 
seldom called out to action, but the latter continually. 


On the importance of a good Character. 

1. Every man is deeply interested hi the character of those 
with whom he associates. 

2. When we wish to employ a physician, a lawyer, a trades- 
man or a servant, the first thing we regard is his character. 

3. Young people ought to be doubly careful of their charac- 
ter, as a false step in youth may sully their whole future life. 


On the folly of indulging the passion of Anger, 

1. The absurd excuse for angry people, a proof of the folly 
and crime of anger. 

2. Anger when indulged often causes people to do the most 
ridiculous things. 

3. Passionate people can restrain their anger before their 
superiors ; therefore they can always do it. 


4. The test of every man's good temper is his behaviour to 
his equals and inferiors. 


On Resignation under Affliction. 

1. Affliction common to every age, state and degree of man- 

2. To alleviate this affliction, we ought to reflect how^ much 
more miserable we might be than we really are. 

3. The chief source of consolation ought to be, that all our 
afflictions are known to God, and appointed by him. 

4. Afflictions are either punishments or trials. If the former, 
we ought to repent ; if the latter, to bear them with resignation. 


On the evils of Pride. 

1. Tranquillity and cheerfulness, where there is no guilt, is 
in the power of every one. 

2. If we are unhappy, and inquire what it is that makes us so, 
we shall generally find it is pride. 

3. Men, for their owti sakes, ought to avoid this vice, which 
naturally produces so many miseries. 


On Politeness and Good Breeding. 

1. The first requisite in the behaviour of a gentleman is, to 
act with gentleness ; as a forward, boisterous behaviour, is dia- 
metrically opposite to that character. 

2. Politeness, which signifies a state of being smooth or pol- 
ished, plainly indicates those manners which we attribute to a 

3. Good breeding intimates the necessity of early instruction. 

4. The true signification of the word politeness as shown by 
its etymology, or derivation, (see Lesson VSth, page 27ifiy) evinces 
the utility of a knowledge of the origin of words, in order to 
comprehend their meaning. 


On the advantages of cidtivating a disposition to be pleased, 

1. As viewing things on the bright side, begets cheerfulness, 
and on the dark side, n)elancl)oly ; our happiness depends much 
on the view we take of things. 

2. Th(3 same accidents in life are very different to the prudent 
and the imprudent. 

3. A disposition to be ])leased is delighted with those com- 
mon beauties of nature which are overlooked by others. 

4. As a discontented mind can view scarcely any object with 
pleasure, so a cheerful mind not only draws ha[)pines3 from 


agreeable objects, but turns even those that are disagreeable to 
some kind of advantage. 


A comparison between History and Biography. 

1. Both history and biography teach philosophy by example ; 
but the examj)le exhibited by biography is the more interesting. 

2. The single character of biography engages more of our 
attention than it would do if mixed with others equally conspic- 

3. We form, as it were, a friendship for a single character in 
biogi-aphy, and' our benevolent affections are the stronger for 
being fixed upon one. 

4. Universal benevolence sounds prettily ; but it is particular 
benevolence only, that proves our moral character. 

On JVovds, 

1. Most novels are either the flimsy productions of those who 
write for bread ; or the offspring of vanity in the idle and illite- 
rate ; or poor imitations of some few which are really good. 

2. Novels give us false views of life ; they palliate the vices 
and follies of mankind, and discredit the sober virtues. 

3. Novels vitiate the taste, as strong liquors vitiate the stom- 
ach, and hurt the constitution. 


On Contemplation. 

1. Rational contemplation both profitable and delightful. 

2. Contemplation of the heav^enly bodies raises our minds to 
adore the power and the glory of the Deity. 

3. A view of the earth with its various animals, excites us to 
admire his wisdom and benevolence. 

4. A sight of the beautiful and salutary vegetables shows hig 
goodness and condescension. 

5. It is absurd to lose the beauties of nature by always living 
in populous cities. 

On Generosity, 

1. Generosity is doing something more than we are obliged 
to do. 

2. We must do justice, to escape the censure of the laws ; but 
to be generous, we must do something more than the laws re- 

3. Christian morality is true generosity. 

4. Generosity produces generosity. 



On the correspondence between true politeness and Religion, 

1. It is commonly supposed that politeness and religion have 
no relation to each other. 

2. If we attend to the definition of each, we shall find them 
nearly allied. 

3. The rules of politeness express that benevolence artificially 
vv^hich the rules of religion require of us in reaUty. 

4. Polite persons, devoid of sincerity, are hypocrites in be- 

5. As hypocrites in religion ought not to lessen our regard 
for its ceremonies, so hypocrites in benevolence ought not to 
lessen our esteem for politeness. 


On the art of pleasing, 

1. A desire to please in conversation is laudable. 

2. If we desire to please others for their sakes w^e shall gen- 
erally succeed; — if for our own sake, we shall generally fail. 

3. Good sense must show us how we are to adapt our con- 
versation to our company. 

4. Justness of thinking, and propriety of expression, the basis 
of the art of pleasing in conversation. 


On Sympathy and Benevolence, 

1. Sympathy and benevolence constitute those finer feelings 
of the soul, which at once support and adorn human nature. 

2. What is it that guards our helpless infancy, and instructs 
our childhood, but sympathy ? 

3. What is it that performs all the kind offices of friendship 
in riper years, but sympathy ? 

4. What is it that consoles us in our last moments, and defends 
our character when dead, but sympathy ? 

5. A person without sympathy and living only for himself, is 
the basest and most odious of all characters. 

On the advantages of a good education, 

1. Education consists not only in literary knowledge, but also 
in the acquisition of such habits as form the character. 

2. The station of men in society, more dependent on educa- 
tion than on birth or fortune. 

3. Fortune may descend to us from others ; but education 
must be acquired liy oui-selves. 

4. . The ancients sui)posed that Alexander was more indebted 
to his tutor Aristotle, than to his father Philip. 

5. The supc^riority of one man to another, more owing to 
education than to nature. 


6. Education ought to inspire us with gratitude to our parents, 
and humility to those who have not had the advantage of it. 

7. How many of those wlio are now our inferiors, might have 
been superior to us had they enjoyed our advantages ! 

[Jin apt quotalion may here be introduced from Graifs Elegy in a 
country church yard.] 

Of the effects of learning on the countenance. 

1. A fine mind appearing in the countenance, superior to a 
fine set of features. 

2. However degenerate mankind may be, the best books are 
still virtuous. 

3. A taste for polite literature calculated to give a sweetness 
to the expression of the countenance. , 

4. The mind in some degree always visible in the face ; and 
therefore, those who wish to have a fine countenance ought to 
cultivate those virtues which are the real ornaments of the human 

On the Passions, 

1. The passions are implanted in us for the most useful 
purposes ; namely, activity and benevolence. 

2. No necessity of guarding against the absence of the pas- 
sions, but against their predominance. 

3. The government of the passions, the most important part 
of education. 

4. Religion the best guard and guide of the passions. 


On the difference between Fashion and Beauty, 

1. Fashion reconciles us to the greatest oddities and ex- 

2. If there be not a beauty in dress independent of fashion, it 
is absurd to call one fashion prettier than another. 

3. The power of custom is that which makes us always think 
the present fashion pretty ; and this power of custom is strength- 
ened by association. 

4. That the beauty of dress is independent of fashion, appears 
from the practice of painters, and the dresses of foreign nations. 

On Solitude. 

1. Solitude much admired by those who have never experi- 
enced it ; and seldom approved by those who have ; since many 
have been obliged to quit it, and return to the world. 

2. The reason why solitude is generally intolerable to those 
who have been in busy life, is, that habits are not easily changed. 


3* The mind must be employed actively or passively or be 

4. The generality of the gay world are used only to passive 
employment; of which solitude deprives them. 

5. The busy vs^orld, when deprived of their active employ- 
ments, generally find a vacancy, which they are unable to fill. 

6. If we wish to enjoy solitude, we must find employment in 
it, either for the body, or the mind, or both. 

On Genius. 

1. Genius is the power of invention. 

2. The common opinion, that people are bom to excel in 
some particular art, very probable. 

3. A passion or fondness for an art, not always a sign of a 
genius for it. 

4. Imitation, however excellent, does not arise to genius. 

5. A painter of genius does not draw an imitation, but an 
original likeness. 

6. A passion for an art an indication of a taste, but not of a 
genius for it. 

0)1 a love of order, 

1. A love of order, is a love of beauty, propriety, and harmony 
in the celestial, terrestrial, and moral worlds. 

2. A love of order appears in the regulation of our expenses, 
in the spending of our time, in the choice of our company, and 
in our very amusements. 

3. A love of order will appear in the most trifling concerns ; 
as the state of our books, our papers, our clothes, and every thing 
that belongs to us. 

On Affectation, 

1. Affectation is apparent hypocrisy. 

2. It has its origin in vanity. 

3. Aflfectation hurts the pride of others, either by endeavour- 
ing to impose upon them or excel them, and therefore makes them 
its enemy. 

4. Nothing more exposes affectation than contrasting it with 
its opposite. Affectation wears a disguise, is a double character, 
and creates suspicion. Simplicity is what it appears to be ; has 
a unity of character, and creates confidence. 

5. Affectation is a folly by which we gain nothing but con- 

6. An affected character aptly compared to a palace budt of 
ice. The sun melts the ice, — the light shows affectation in its 
true character. 

7. Affectation tarnishes the most shining qualities. 



On the evils of Obstinacy, 

1. Obstinacy assumes the semblance of a virtue. 

2. Obstinacy under the disguise of steadiness, the vice of 
every stage of Ufe. 

3. Truth alone can make obstinacy laudable. 

On delicacy of Passion. 

1. People of great delicacy of passion, are apt to be extremely 
overjoyed or mortified at the agreeable or disagreeable accidents 
of life. 

2. People of this class less happy than those that have less 

3. Occasions of pleasure much less frequent than those of 
pain ; and, therefore, people of a delicacy of feeling more subject 
to be unhappy. 

4. Happiness consists in the medium ; in that state of mind, 
in which the rest of the world can sympathize with us. 


Delicacy of Taste not so dangerous as delicacy of Passion. 

1. Delicacy of taste very similar to delicacy of passion. 

2. Delicacy of taste is charmed with the beauties of poetry, 
painting, and music, and as much disgusted with their imperfec- 

3. As delicacy of passion is attended with more pain than 
pleasure, because we cannot command the accidents of life ; so 
delicacy of taste is attended with more pleasure than pain, be- 
cause it can be more frequently indulged by the perusal of 
whatever pleases us. 

4. Delicacy of taste places much of our happiness in our 
own power. 



After the learner has acquired some degree of skill in 
thinking and writing, and has been taught by the models 
and other directions, to fill up the outlines, it will be a 
useful exercise for him to make the outlines or skeleton 
of a subject. This exercise, for the want of a better 
name, is here called methodising; and resembles that 
part of a regular discourse, which in common treatises 
on rhetorick is called, The division. The difficulty of the 
exercise should not prevent the pupil's attempting it; 


for, it will be recollected, no one can write well, who has 
no ability to present his subject in a methodical manner. 

As no two individuals would probably methodise a sub- 
ject in the same manner, the only directions that the 
teacher can give are, 

First. That particular attention must be paid to the 
UNITY of the subject; and no particular or head, be 
introduced, which is not strictly and intimately connected 
with it. 

Second. The heads or divisions, should be sufficiently 
comprehensive to embrace all that is important pertain- 
ing to it. 

After the subject has been methodised, the pupil may 
be required to fill up his outline on the principle of the 
preceding lesson. 

There are two methods by which the principle of this 
exercise may be performed; namely, one, by presenting 
merely the heads of an essay; as for instance, if the 
subject of Independence were given to be methodised, the 
skeleton may thus be presented. 


1. The meaning of independence. 

2. Its effects upon the character. 

3. Its effects upon society. 

4. The different kinds of independence. 

5. The difference between independence and obstinacy. 

Another method is presented in the following 


On Dependence. 

1. All created beings dependent. 

2. The influence of a sense of dependence, on religious duty, 

3. Different kinds of dependence. 

4. Pecuniary dependence the most humiliating of any. 

5- Pecuniary dependence naturally degrades the mind, and de- 
praves the heart. 

6. Young people ought to be particularly careful to avoid pecu- 
niary dependence. 


The pupil may now methodise some of the following 5u6* 
jects, in either manner described above. He will recollect 
that there are three important particulars U'hii:h gefierally 


require notice in simple subjects; namely, the nature — 
THE IMPORTANCE — and THE EFFECTS; and in compound 
subjects; the explanation, — the proof, — and the con- 

1. Benevolence. 

2. Filial affection. 

3. Purity of thought and manners. 

4. Clemency. 

5. Charity. 

6. Power of conscience. 

7. Custom. 

8. Courage. 

9. Cruelty. 

10. Poverty not disgraceful. 

11. Superficial attention to a great variety of pursuits, 
prejudicial to the advancement of knowledge. 

12. Contrivance proves design. 

13. Necessity of controlling the passions. 

14. The consequences of a perfect freedom of action, 
unrestrained by law or conscience. 

15. Local attachment. 

16. Magnificence of the universe. 

17. The art of printing. 

18. The probable state of the world at the present 
time had letters never been invented. 

19. The consequence of perseverance in errour. 

20. Innocence is the softest pillow. 

21. The ocean. 

22. The air. 

23. The power of association. 

24. The love of praise. 

25. The earth a scene of pleasure and improvement. 

26. Good society improves the rnind.^^ 



The principles of the preceding lessons having been 
practised with special reference to the effect intended to 
be produced by them, namely, to make the pupil in some 

* The teacher will find a more copious list of subjects, from which 
selections may be made, at the close of the following lesson. 


degree conscious of the resources of his own mind, he may 
now be taught to investigate a subject, assign causes, trace 
effects, and draw ini'erences. Inductive reasoning in- 
volves no principle which is not clearly intelligible, and 
easily practised at an early age. The facility of the 
process has already been tested in other branches of 
education; and its importance is so great, that no one 
can make a good writer without considerable attention 
to it. 

The manner in which it is to be applied in this lesson, 
will be better understood by an example than by any 
other explanation. 

Suppose then, that the teacher* proposes to the pupil 
as an object of investigation, to discover The state of 
Egypt, in respect to government, science and art, in the time 
of Moses; and the only datum, (or subject of certain know- 
ledge,) given him is this single fact^ that fine linen existed 
in Egypt at that period. 

JVow if this subject be given to the pupil, without any 
direction as to the manner of conducting the investiga- 
tion, it is not probable that he will be able to prosecute it. 
The teacher must begin by directing the attention of the 
learner to the manner in which linen is produced; — that it 
is an effect proceeding from some cause; — that fine linen, 
that is, fine compared with other fabricks at that time, 
must be formed of fine thread — That fine thread can be 
made of fine flax only — That fine flax must go through 
various acts of preparation, in which many workmen are 
employed, before the thread could be made into fine 

Again, — The pupil must be informed that the produc- 
tion of ^ne ^aa? requires an improved state of agriculture, 
and the raising of many other kinds of grain — wheat, 
barley; &c. to support the cultivators of flax, and the 
artists who form it into cloth. In no country can f nx be 
the sole article of cultivation. It may, then, certaiaiy be 
inferred that in the time of Moses, the art of agriculture, 
and the arts connected with it, had arrived at consider- 
able perfection. 

Returning again to the datum, fine linen can be woven 
only in a fine loom, which must be accommodated to the 
fine texture of the threads; .and a fine loom cannot be 

* These remarks are taken with slight alteration from Jardine» 


made without much skill in the arts of working wood 
and metal. The latter, is extracted with great labour 
from ores, dug from the bowels of the earth, and must 
undergo many difficult and laborious processes before 
it becomes malleable. — The former, also must undergo 
imich preparation before it can go into the hands of the 
carpe»ter; the loom itself is a complex machine, and 
proves great skill and progress of the mechanical arts in 
Egypt at the time of Moses. 

Again, the weaving of fine linen supposes that artists 
by imitation and example have acquired skill and dex- 
terity in that art; and such perfection cannot be expected 
in any country, till a division of labour, — the greatest 
instrument of improvement in all the arts, — be in some 
degree established. 

The skilful weaver must be wholly occupied in mak- 
ing fine linen; and, therefore, there must exist many 
other artists employed in providing food, clothes, and 
lodging, — the necessaries and conveniencies of life. 

Before the arts could have made such progress in any 
country, men must have acquired much knowledge of 
facts and events, by observation and experience; and 
have laid the foundation of general knowledge, by spec- 
ulating on means of improving the arts; on removing the 
obstacles which retard their progress, and in opening up 
prospects of higher degrees of perfection. 

Farther, without taking up time to follow the natural 
and connected progress of the arts from their rude to 
their more perfect state — this process of investigation 
may be concluded, with observing that there can be little 
progress either in art or science in any country, without 
the existence of a supreme controlling power, in some or 
other of its forms; by which, men are compelled to live 
in peace and tranquillity, and the different orders of so- 
ciety are prevented from encroaching on each other, by 
every individual being kept in his proper station. No 
arts or division of labour — no fine linen or fine workman- 
ship of any kind, can be found in those nations which 
live in continual warfare, either among themselves, or 
with their neighbours. Thus, by such a continued chain 
of regular and progressive deductions, proceeding from 
the datum with which it begun, and without information 
from any other quarter, we have sufficient reason to be- 
lieve, that at the time of Moses, Egypt was a great and 

H 2 


populous country; that the arts and sciences had made 
considerable progress, and that government and laws were 

By presenting such connected chains of reasoning to 
the mind of the pupil, he will readily perceive the con- 
nexion of the facts, and be prepared to apply a similar 
process to other subjects of investigation.^^ 


When Pompeii icas discovered, a barber's shop was found furnished 
with materials for dressing hair. From this circumstance, what may 
he i?fferred with regard to the attainments of this city, in the arts and 
sciences f 

Among savage nations we find no distinct trades or occupations. 
Each person prepares such articles only as are necessary for his own 
use : such as his tenement, his tools and his clothing ; without re- 
ceiving assistance from others. Therefore, if the old maxim, " Prac- 
tice makes perfect" be true, all work must be very rudely and in- 
completely finished, as each person would be a learner in every dif- 
ferent article he needed. The principal food of the savage consists 
of such fruit and vegetables as the earth produces spontaneously, 
in addition to what is easily obtained from the sea and the forest. 
His habitation is usually a mere hut, little better than those formed 
by sagacious animals. The skins of beasts taken in hunting, form 
the clothing of the savage. The females of such nations are almost 
universally treated as slaves, having the most severe portion of the 
labour assigned for their performance. 

What a different picture, did Pompeii present from the dwelling 
of a savage, when overwhelmed by the burning lava, and buried for 
BO many ages in oblivion ! A barber's shop, with implements for 
dressing hair, arijues an improved state of the arts. In the first place, 
the principal art learned by the ancients was war. Now their pas- 
sion for this must have subsided in some degree, and a pacifick 
disposition have pervaded the inhabitants of Pompeii, ere their at- 
tention would have been directed to improvement in any thing 
else. A wise legislator would likewise have been required to 
frame laws, and magistrates to administer justice, by enforcing 
them. Again, a state of undisturbed. peace nuist always continue 
some length of time, in order that the sciences may llourish ; 
as political commotions whenever they exist, usually occupy the 
first place in tlie minds of a nation. Distinct and separate tradea 
must have had existence in Pompeii ; otherwise there would have 
been no such thing as a barber's shop. Doubtless there were a 
ffreat variety of trades, as that of a barber is one of the least useful, 
in order to the erection of a shop, farmers would be needed to cul- 
tivate the earth, that those engaged in other occupations might 
be supported. Mines must have been discovered, and their uses 

*The author refers to the model in proof of the assertion, that tho 
principle of investigation, unfolded in this lesson, can be creditably 
performed by pupils at an early age. 


determined. Articles of iron must have been made by blacksmiths, 
afler the iron had been prej)ared by those whose business it was. 
Knives, and other cutting instruments would require a cutler, af- 
ter the steel had been prepared from iron by another class of per- 
sons. Again, afler the timber had been taken from the forest and 
in some measure prepared, a carpenter would be needed to build 
the house. To heat his curling irons, the barber must have a chim- 
ney, which would require a mason; and the mason must have bricks 
and mortar with which to erect it. The clay of which bricks are 
made nmst be moulded into the proper shape, and then burnt till 
sufficiently hard to be used. The mortar consists of lime, sand, and 
hair. The art of making glass must have been discovered, other- 
wise the barber's shop would have been rather too dark to dress 
hair with much taste.* Glass besides other materials, would re- 
quire a particular kind of sand, and pearl-Ash. Pearl-ash requires 
much labour in its extraction from ashes. A diamond must have been 
obtained to cut the glass, consequently precious stones must have 
been in use. Again, a glazier would have been needed to set the 
glass in window frames. For that purpose, he would have wanted 
putty. One of the materials of putty is linseed oil. This oil is ex- 
tracted from the seed of flax. Now it is not probable that flax was ' 
cultivated merely for its seed ; therefore, _ we may reasonably sup- 
pose, that it went through all the various operations requisite for ma- 
king it into cloth. The loom and wheel used in manufacturing cloth, 
must have required much skill and workmanship in the artist, and 
much genius in the inventor. And if cloth were made from flax, 
might it not also be made from other productions of the earth ? As 
mines were common, and men were engaged in so many different 
arts, it is not likely, that they remained without the convenience of 
coined money. The existence of a barber's shop also argues that 
balls and public amusements were common; otherwise, there would 
have been no occasion for a barber ; as most persons by spending a 
few moments, can dispose of their hair very decently. It also ar- 
gues that there were a class of persons, who, being possessed of 
wealth, could spend their time in pursuit of pleasure. If the various 
mechanical arts had arrived at such a degree of perfection, is it not 
probable that the commerce of Pompeii had become quite extensive. 
If so, vessels must have been employed to transport articles from 
place to place. For the management of vessels, something of nav- 
igation and astronomy must have been known. If paint was in use, 
and vessels were painted, as was doubtless the case, chemistry must 
have been understood in a degree. Pompeii, therefore, at the time 
of its overthrow, was nearly as far advanced in the arts and sciences 
of civilized life, as we now are. Yet they were in a state of heath- 
enish superstition, without any correct system of morals or religion; 
and compared with the United States of America, were a miserable 
people. This, then, should excite the gratitude of every inhabitant of 
our happy land. 

^'This model was written by a young lady, whose opportunities 
fbr correct information have not been co-extensive with her wishes to 
enjoy them. Slight inaccuracies, therefore, in the premises will, it 
is hoped, be pardoned. 



The pupil having been taught by the preceding observa" 
tions, in connexion with the model, to trace a cause and 
effect, may noiv investigate the following subjects. 

1. The remains of sea shells, and bones of marine 
animals have been found buried many feet below the 
surface of the ground, at a great distance from the sea, 
and on the top of high mountains. Does this circum- 
stance add confirmation to any fact stated in the book 
of Genesis? 

2. At the time Mexico was discovered, a number of 
large monuments, or pyramids, built of unburnt bricks, 
cemented with mortar, was discovered in different parts 
of the country. What conclusion can be drawn from 
these remains of Indian workmanship, respecting the 
civilization of Mexico at the time it was discovered.^ 

3. The north-western part of America is separated 
from the north-eastern part of Asia by a narrow strait, 
which, according to Indian tradition, was once fordable 
at low water. Will this circumstance throw any light 
on the manner in which America was peopled? 

4. What metal is most serviceable to mankind? 

5. How could the various wants and necessities of 
mankind be supplied, if gold and silver, which form the 
money of most nations, had never been discovered? 

6. How can the necessity of the different classes of 
society be shown? 

7. What art, manufacture or profession, is most ser- 
viceable to mankind? 

8. What manufacture was probably the first perform- 
ed by mankind? 

9. How was land cultivated before the discovery of 

10. Which is the more serviceable to mankind, the 
boats, ships and other vessels intended for the water, or 
those vehicles designed for the land? 

11. Of what articles of luxury or convenience should 
we now be destitute, if the mariner's compass had never 
been invented? 

12. What comforts or conveniences have been added 
to the sum of human enjoyment, by the discovery of the 
art of making glass? 



A list of subjects suggested 
flex, Essays, Descriptions, 

for Themes, simple and coin^ 
JVarrations, Sfc. 










On Attention. 


On Faith, private. 











> a 

Affection, parental. 





Ardour of mind. 










Attachment, local. 


















Good scholar. 

















Beauties of Nature. 










Bad scholar. 























































Control of the passions. 





Control of the temper. 











































Love of fame. 



























Early impressions. 





Early rising. 




































• 102. 




Faith, religious. 
Faith, publick. 



Order of uature 















On ObecTience. 144. 

Obstinacy. 145. 

Ocean. 146. 

Tride. 147. 

Purity of manners. 148. 

Purity of thoughts. 149. 
Power of conscience. l50. 

Power of resolution. 151. 

Poverty. 152. 

Principle. 153. 

Patience. 154. 

Prudence. 155. 

Perseverance. 156. 

Patriotism. 157. 

Politeness. 158. 

Prodigality. 159. 

Providence. 160. 

Punctuality. 161. 

Poetry. 162. 

Precocity. 163. 

Piety. 164. 

Pity. 165. 

Quarrelling. 166. 

Quietness. 167. 

Religion. 168. 

Rashness. 169. 

Resolution. 170. 

Reflection. 171. 

Revenge. 172. 

Regularity. 173. 

Rlietorick. 174. 

Reading. 175. 

Sincerity. 176. 

Sublimity. 177. 

Sickness. 178. 

Summer. 179. 

Spring. 180. 

Starry heavens. 181. 

On Sun. 

" Self-government. 
" System. 
'' Truth. 
'' Taste. 
** Treachery. 
'' Time. 
" Tyranny. 
" Talent. 
*' Temptation. 
" Unanimity. 
<' Uncharitable spirit. 
" Vanity. 
" Veracity. 
*' Vivacity. 
" Vice. 
" Virtue. 
" Wit. 

" Worldly mindedness. 
" Wealth. 
<< World. 
" Winter. 
^' Writing. 
" Youth. 
" Zeal. 
Female Virtues. 
Knowledge is power. 
Progress of errour. 
Government of the tongue. 
Government of the thoughts. 
Government of the temper. 
Government of the affec- 
Progress of knowledge. 
Attachment to early habits. 
The power of Association. 
The immortality of the soul. 
The uses of knowledge. 
The happiness of innocence. 

Beware of desperate steps — the darkest day — 

Live till to-morrow — will have passed away. 

Oft from apparent ill our blessings rise. 

Trifles captivate little minds. 

True happiness is of a retired nature. 

No man can learn all things. 

What most we wish, with ease we fancy near 

Happy tlie man who sees a God employed 

In all the good and ill that chequer life. 

Suspicion is a heavy armour, and 

With its own weight, impedes us more. 

Rise with the lark, and with the lark to bed. 

The breath of night's destructive to the hue 

Of every flvjwer that blows. 

Sweet is the breath of morn. 


192. Health is the vital principle of bliss, 
And exercise of health. 

193. How happy they who know their joys are true ! 

194. At every trifle scorn to take offence. 

135. See to what deeds ferocious discord drives. 

196. Trust not appearances. 

197. Levity of manners is prejudicial to every virtue. 

198. Who wins by force but half overcomes his foe. 

199. Our tempers must be governed or they will govern us. 

200. The planetary system. 

201. The power of custom. 

202. The use and abuse of worldly advantages. 

203. The power and the glory of the Creator, as displayed in the 

works of creation. 

204 The value of an unspotted reputation. 

205 The advantages derived by mankind from the invention of the 

mariner's compass — from the invention of the telescope — the 
steam engine — the art of printing. 

206. The power of gravity and its importance on the material world. 

207. The consequences of a faculty of locomotion uninfluenced by 


208. The importance of order. 

209. Every man the architect of his own fortune. 

210. A rolling stone gathers no moss. 

21 1. Never too old to learn. 

212. The earth a scene of pleasure and improvement. 

213. Diligence ensures success. 

214. Idleness destroys character. 

215. Abilities without exercise cannot ensure success. 

216. Life is short, and art is long. 

217. The power of habit. 

218. Power of conscience. 

219. Narration and description united in an account of a voyage to 

Calcutta,* — to South America, — Spain, — Portugal, — Eng- 
land, — Scotland, — Ireland, — France, &c. &c. 

220. A superficial attention to a great variety of pursuits, prejudicial. 

221. Contrivance proves design. 

222. Hope never dies. 

223. Tlie false contempt of an enemy naturally leads to insecurity. 

224. The danger which is despised arrives soonest. 

225. He alone is free, who relies on his own resources, in depen- 

dence on providence alone. 
226 The soul has no secret which the conduct does not reveal. 

227. The history and character of the Patriarchs Joseph, — Job, — 

Jacob, — Joshua, — the apostle Paul, <fec. 

228. The danger of disobedience. 

229. Female character. 

230. Female influence. 

231 History of a looking glass. 

232 History of a needle. 
233. History of a pin. 

* In descriptions of this kind, all that is necessary on* the part of 
the pupil is some knowledge of the country, the manners and cus- 
loms of the inhabitants, and the places passed in going to and from it 


234. History of a cent. 

235. History of a bible. 

236. History of a belle. 

237. History of a beau. 

238. History of a hat. 

239. Description of the city of Boston. 

240. Description of the city of New York. 

241. Description of the city of Philadelphia. 

242. Description of the city of Baltimore, &c. «fec. 

243. The journal of a day's occupation. 

244. The history of a school room. 

245. Journal of a voyage round the world. 

246. An account of the various religions of the world, with their 

rise and progress. 

247. Biography of Washington. 

248. Biography of Columbus. 

249. Biography of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

250. But dreadful is their doom whom doubt has driven 
To censure fate and pious hope forego. 

251. A mother- wit and wise without the schools. 

252. The quarrels of relatives are the most violent. 

253. Those gifts are ever the most acceptable which the giver has 

made precious. 

254. Remember to preserve an equal mind in arduous affairs, 

255. Too much care undermines the constitution. 

256. The earth opens equally for the prince and the peasant. 

257. The things which belong to others please us more, and that 

which is ours is more pleasing to others. 

258. The greatest genius has its weaknesses. 

259. Vice lives and thrives by concealment. 

260. No one lives for himself alone. 

261. Love and wisdom dwell apart. 

262. Modesty graces every other virtue. 

263. The necessity of relaxation. 

264. Avoid extremes. 

265. Example is better than precept. 

266. The pleasures of memory. 

267. Aristocracy. 

268. Popular clamour. 

269. He labours in vain who strives to please all. 

270. A visit to a school, public or private. 

271. Visit to an almshouse. 

272. Description of a family circle on Thanksgiving, Christmas, 

New Year's day, Fourth of July, and Election day. 

273. A birth day celebration. 

274. A marriage, baptism, funeral. 

275. A shipwreck, storm at sea, a fire, a hurricane, an earthquake. 

276. No citizen entirely useless. 

277. Contention benefits neither party. 

278. Intemperance the prime minister of death. 

279. Christianity the true philosophy. 

280. Unintelligible language is a lantern without a light. 

281 . Education should be adapted to the condition. 

282. Rank ^ives force to example. 

283. Elevation is exposure. 


264. Independence must have limits. 

285. The dreds is not the man. 

286. The workman is known by his work. 

287. Order and method render all things easier. 

288. The influence and importance of the female character. 

289. Is the expectation of reward or the fear of punishment the 

^eater incentive to exertion ? 

290. The value of time, and tlie uses to which it should be applied. 

291. The character of the Roman Emperor Nero, — of Caligula, — 

of Auo"ustus, — of Julius CaBsar, — of Numa Pompilius. 

292. The duties we owe to our parents and the consequences of a 

neglect of them. 

293. How blessings brighten as they take their flight. 

294. How dear are all the ties that bind our race in gentleness 


295. The advantages of early rising : and the arguments which 

may be adduced to prove it a duty. 

296. Misery is wed to guilt. 

297. A soul without reflection, like a pile 
Without inhabitant, to ruin runs. 

298. Still where rosy pleasure leads 
See a kindred grief pursue, 
Behind the steps that misery treads 
Approaching comforts view. 

299. ' T is Providence alone secures 

In every change, both mine and yours. 

300. Know then this truth, enough for man to know, 
Virtue alone is happiness below. 

301. Prayer ardent opens heaven. 

302. Whatever is, is right. 

The following terms connected with the subject of compo- 
sition SHOULD BE understood BY THE PUPIL. ThE MEANING 

Alliteration is the recurrence The following are remarkable 

of the same letter in several instances of Alliteration. 

words, or in several syllables of " The lordly lion leaves his lonely 

the same word : As Bug-bear lair." 

Sea-sick. The return of such <' Begot by Butchers but by Bishops 

sounds, if not too frequent is bred 

agreeable to the ear; (on the How high his honour holds his haugh- 

principle of the first rule of Har- ^ ^^ ' 

mony. See Page 65th) because, Alexandrine. 

the succeeding impression is Address. 

made with less effort than that Acrostick is a number of verses 

which precedes. so contrived that the initial (or 

Alliteration, as well as Rhyme, is first) letters of each line, read 

useful as an aid t^ the memory. from top to bottom, make up a 

Hence, proverbs have generally word, or a phrase ; generally a 

one or other of these auxiliaries. person's name, or a motto. 

Thus, " Birds of a feather — An Anagram is the transposition 

Flock together." of the letters of a word, or short 

" Fast bind — fast find." sentence, so as to form another 



word or phrase, with a different 
meaning. Thus, the letters 
which compose the word stone^ 
may be arranged into tones or 

Allusion * is a figure, by which, 
some word or phrase in a sen- 
tence, calls to mind, as if ac- 
cidentally, another similar, or 
analogous subject. Thus when 
Fergus: Mac-Ivor says to Wa- 
verly, *' You cannot be to them 
Vich Ian Vohr ; and these three 
magick words are the only Open 
/t Scsaml to their feelings and 
sympathies;" the words Open 
Sesaml remind the reader of the 
story of the Forty Thieves, and 
the magick sounds by which the 
entrance to their cavern was un- 



Analysis. See Page 23^. 

Allegory. See Page b\st. 

Anticlimax is the descent from 
great things to small ; and is al- 
lowable cnly in ludicrous com- 

Antithesis, Apostrophe, Anal- 
ogy. See pages iy8th biSth. ^Ath. 

Bathos, and Bombast. The for- 
mer consists in degrading a sub- 
ject naturally elevated, by low 
expressions ; the latter in ex- 
pressing a mean idea, in high 
sounding epithets. 


Ballad, is the name of a poetical 
account of some adventure, or 
transaction, written in easy and 
uniform verse ; so that it may be 
sung by those who have little ac- 
quaintance with musickv 





Clearness. See Page Q>Ath. 




Circumlocution. See Page 'Hist, 

Climax and Comparison. See 
Pages 60iA, and 56iA. 









DiDACTicK writing is that which 
is designed for the purpose of in- 

Elegy, a poem of a mournful kind. 

Enigma, or Riddle. 





Epistolary writing. 

Euphemism. See Page ^nd. 

Exaggeration. See Page 52nd. 


Exclamation. See Page 59th. 




Feet, (poetical.) 

Figurative. -See Page 49th. 






Hyperbole. See Page 52nd. 

Harmony. -See Page 64th. 





Interrogation. See Page 59th. 







* The student who would ste this figilre more fully explained is referred to a Treati»« 
upon Rhetorick hy Professor Newman of Bowdoin College, recently nuhlished in a third 
editioD. The Author of these Exercises regrets that he had not Ihe assistance of that vaJu- 
able treatise when he was preparing this volume. It was not until the pre«enl (third^ edi- 
tion was moxe than half thiough the stereotypers' handi that he saw the work of Prolew* 


Monologue. Rondeau. 

Machinery. Roundelay. 

Metaphor. See Page 47th. RoiWANCE. 

Novel. Sapphick. 

Narration. Satire. 

Ode. Sarcasm. 

Oration. Song. 

Ornament. Sonnet. 
Personification, or prosopo- Sketch. 

poEiA. See Page 53<Z. Spondee. 

Precision. Stanza. 

Panegvrick. Section. 

Parenthesis. Simile. See Page56th» 
Pehiphkasis, or paraphrase. See Syntax. 
Perspicuity. [Lesson 9Uij p. 21. Style. See Page 99th. 

Psalm. Strength. See Page 64th. 

P;ean. Synthesis. See Page 24th. 

Parable. See Page ^Ist. Synonyme. See Page2Sth. 

Parody. Tale. 

Pastoral. Tautology. See Page d^th. 

Poem. Trochee. 

Pun. Tragedy. 

Pathetick. Travestie. 

Paragraph. Unity. See Page 64th. 

Riddle, or enigma. Vision. See Page 59th. 


Style is the peculiar manner in which a man expresses his thoughts. 

The requisites of a good style are pcrsjncidty and ornament. 

By perspicuity is meant clearness to the mind, easiness to be un- 
derstood, and freedom from obscurity and ambiguity. 

Ornament in style consists in the use of figurative language, (see 
lesson 24th, «&c.) the adaptation of the sound to the sense, and the 
selection of such expressions as are harmonious and pleasing to the ear. 

In Dr. Blair's Treatise on Rhetorick, twelve kinds* of style are 
described, namely, The Concise, The Diffuse, The Nervous, 
The Feeble, The Dry, The Plain, The Neat, The Elegant, 
The Flovvkky, The Simple, The Affected, and The Vehement. 

The Concise Style is one in which the author compresses his 
ideas in the fewest possible words, and employs those only which are 
most expressive. 

The Diffuse Style is that in which the writer unfolds his thought 
fully, placing it in a variety of lights, and giving the reader every pog- 
sibie assistance for understanding it completely. 

The Nervous Style is that in which the writer gives a strong and 
full impression of his meaning, employing none but the most expres- 
sive words, and using those figures only which will render the picture 
he would set before us more lively and complete. 

* The first four kinds above mentioned, are founded on the degree of perspicuity, — the 
next five relate to the orimnicnt, — ;mil the last three refer to the ideas whicn the author 
intends to convey. An imitation of the various styles is recommended to all who wish to 
acquire ease in writing. Professor Newman's work on Khetorick presents an illustration 
of the various kinds of style which should be studied by all. His T^luable trea^e QQ 
Ilhctorick cannot be too highly recouimcnded, 


The Feeble Style is the reverse of the nervous — the author ap- 
pears to have but an indistinct view of the subject ; his ideas seena 
loose and wavering; unmeaning words and loose epitliets escape him j 
his expressions are vague and general ; his arrangement is indistinct 
and feeble, and our conception of his meaning will be faint. 

The Dry Style excludes all ornament of every kind, and, content 
with being understood, aims not to please the fancy or the ear. 

The Plain Style admits but little ornament. A writer of this kind 
rests almost entirely on his sense ; but, at the same time, studies to 
avoid disgusting us like a dry and harsh writer. 

The Neat Style is characterized by attention to the choice of 
words, and the graceful collection of them. It admits considerable 
ornament, but not of the highest or mcst sparkling kind. 

An Elegant Style pr)ssesses all the virtues of ornament without 
any of its excesses or defects. It implies a great degree of perspicuity 
and propriety ; purity in the choice of words, and care and dexterity 
in their harmonious and happy arrangement ; and while it inforii-s the 
understanding, it employs all the requisites to please the fancy and the 

The Flowery or Florid Style is marked by excess of ornament. 
Figurative language abounds, and the writer setms more intent upon 
beauty of expression, than solidity of thought. 

The Simple Style is where ihe thoughts appear to rise naturally 
from the subject ; the subject itself is considered with strict regard to 
the rules of unity, and is presented without much ornament or pomp 
of language. 

The Affected Style is the reverse of the simple. The writer 
uses words in forced and uncommon meanings. His thoughts are 
strained and unnatural. His ideas are clothed in pompous language ; 
and the ornaments by which they are decked are remarkable for sin- 
gularity rather than beauty. 

The Vehement Style is characterized by a peculiar ardour. It 
is a glowing style, the language of one whose imaginations and pas- 
sions are heated and strongly affected by his subject. It implies 
strength ; but is not inconsistent with simplicity. 

To acquire a good style, the following directions are given by Dr. 

1. Study clear ideas of the subject on which you are to write or 

2. Compose frequently, and with care. 

3. Make yourself acquainted with the style of the best authors. 

4. Avoid a servile imitation of any author whatever. 

5. Adapt your style to the subject, and to those to whom it is ad- 

6. Let not attention to style be so devoted, as to prevent a higher 
degree of attention to the thoughts. 

The following rules in relation to rhyme, should be familiar to 
those who wish to write or judge of verse. 

1. The two corresponding syllables of a rhyme must begin their 
consonance with the accented vowel, and preserve it through the r©* 
maining letters. 


Thus, text and vextj song and long echo with one another respect- 
ively, in the sounds ezt and ong. 

2. The sounds and not the letters, constitute the rhyme, Thus, 
reign and plain, through and hucj though different to the eye, form 
an unobjectionable rhyme. 

3. The letter, or letters in the syllable which precede the accent- 
ed vowel, must not be the same in each, otherwise the consonance 
would be disagreeable to the ear. 

Hence tend and the last syllable of contend, make a bad rhyme. 

[After the teacher has explained the different kinds of versification, 
it will be a useful exercise for the pupil to put words together in the 
form of verses, either in rhyme or otherwise, without regard to any- 
thing more than accent and quantity. This exercise, which properly 
belongs to prosody, will be more advantageously pursued, after the 
pupil has had some practice in composition, when perhaps he will be 
tempted to unite ideas with his words, and attempt to write his 
themes or compositions in verse. The teacher cannot be too partic- 
ular in explaining the difference between poetry, and rhyme or verse. 
Young persons are very apt to consider them as synonymous terms. 
The pupil should be led to understand that good poetry requires 
something more than smooth numbers and harmonious rhymes. As 
poetry is the offspring of the imagination, figurative language must 
form a large proportion of its dress.] 

The teacher will find the following exercise, called by the French 
Bouts Rimes, interesting to the pupil, and like all other inducements 
to thought, auxiliary to the subject of composition. 

*• One of^a party writes down the rhyming words for a short poem; 
which another undertakes to complete, by filling up the several verses, 
on a subject either chosen at pleasure, or prescribed as the case may 

The following stanza, in which the words in Italick are the rhym- 
ing words previously assigned will be sufficiently explanatory of the 


Down, down vain hope, to me no 

more % 

Can spring return, with blossoms 


Nor summer ripen Autumn's 


Which now lies withering on the 



The first requisites of an exercise are that the sentences be clearly 
and distinctly written, and the words correctly spelt. Attention then 
must be paid to the syntax, more especially to the use of relatives 
and other words, used for transition and connexion. 

The structure of the sentences then must be regarded, and the 
rules of clearness, unity, strength and harmony be observed. The 
style must be suited to the subject, — and lastly, nothing must be in- 
troduced at variance with truth, or with morals. 




It is generally allowed that epistolary writing if* not one of the 
highest, IS one of the most difficult branches of composition. An 
elegant letter, is much more rare than an elegant specimen of an^ 
other kind of writing. It is for this reason that the author has devi- 
ated from the usual order practised by respectable teachers who give 
epistolary writing the first place in the attention of the pupil. He 
has deemed it expedient to reserve the subject for the close of the 
volume, and for the practice of the pupil who has been previously 
exercised in other attempts. At this stage of his progress he may be 
profitably exercised in the writing of Letters. The teacher may now 
require him to write notes, billets, and letters addressed to a real or 
fictitious person, announcing some event, or on some formal subject. 
He will need some instructions in relation to the proper manner of 
dating, addressing,* folding and sealing! of a letter. The teacher can- 
not be too particular in this respect, for early habits of negligence or 
want of neatness, are with difficulty eradicated. 


The pupil may now write notes, billets and letters on 
the following subjects. 

1. A billet of invitation to dinner, — to tea, — to pass 
the evening, mentioning the time, place, &c. 

2. A note requesting a private interview on important 

3. A letter announcing the death of a friend, — a 
brother, — sister — father — mother, &c., and addressed to 
the same individuals respectively. 

4. A letter describing a ride in the stage coach, (men- 
tioning the passengers, &c., and their deportment,) to or 
from any town or city mentioned. 

* In addressing notes to several persons of the same name and fam- 
ily there seems to be a general misunderstanding whether the name 
or the title should be plural. When it is recollected that every title 
is expressed in an elliptical form, the question will be put to rest. 
Thus, when we say John the Apostle, we mean John irho was the 
Apostle. This view of the subject seems to determine the propriety 
of the address to 

The Misses Brown y 

The Messrs. Brown^ 
aifd not to 

The Miss BrownSy 

The Mr. Browns. 

t If a wafer is used in sealing, the pupil should be taught how to 
apply it with neatness and security. If it is applied in too moist a 
gtate it will soil the paper — if not sufficiently wet, it will not tecure 
the letter. 


5. A letter informing a friend of the misfortunes of 

6. A letter announcing a birth, marriage or engage- 
ment in the family. 

7. A note requesting the loan of a volume. 

8. A letter of thanks for some favour received. 

9. A letter to a parent absent in a distant country. 

10. A letter giving an account of an ordination, dedi- 
cation, concert, exhibition, or of some curiosity. 

11. A letter of friendship. 

12. An answer to any of the above. 


With regard to the mechanical execution of toritten exercises^ and the 
mode of correctnig them. 

1. No exercise should be received from a pupil, which is not fair- 
.y copied with all his skill ; for negligence in the mechanical execu- 
tion will induce the neglect of the more important qualities. 

2. The pupil should be required to leave the alternate pages of his 
paper blank ; either to make room for the corrections ; or, to make a 
clean transcript after the corrections have been made. The original 
and the corrected exercises will then face each other, and the writing^ 
over the theme a second time will imprint the corrections in the pu- 
pil's mind. 

3. When the subject of composition is assigned to pupils in clas- 
ses, it is recommended that a uniformity be required in the size and 
quality of the paper, — that the name (real or fictitious) of the writer, 
together with the date and number of the composition be placed 
conspicuously on the back of the exercise. The writing should be 
of a plain kind, so that no room being left for display or flourish, the 
principal attention of each pupil may be devoted to the language and 
sentiments of his performances. 

4. No abbreviations should be allowed ; and neglect of punctua- 
tion and errors in spelling should be particularly noticed. 

5. In correcting an exercise, the teacher should endeavour to give 
the pupil's thought a proper turn, rather than to change it for one 
more accurate ; for it is the pupil's idea which ought to be * taught 
how to shoot.' An idea thus humored, will thrive much better in the 
mind than one which is not a native of the soil. 

6. He should accommodate his corrections to the style of the pu- 
pil's own production. An aim at too great correctness may possibly 
cramp the genius too much, by rendering the pupil timid and difii- 
dent; or perhaps discourage him altogetner, by producing absolute 
despair of arriving at any degree of perfection. For this reason, the 
teacher should show the pupil where he has erred, either in the 
thought, the structure of the sentence, the syntax or the choice of 
words. Every alteration, as has already been observed, should differ 
as little as possible from what the pupil has written ; as giving an 
entire new cast to the thought and expression will lead him into an 
unknown path not easy to follow, and divert his mind from that orig- 
inal line of thinking wnich is natural to him. 


lAst of Books recommended for the perusal of the pupil. 

As this book may possibly fall into the hands of some 
who are desirous of cultivating their minds and improv- 
ing their taste, but have no teacher to direct or advise 
them in a course of reading, the following list has been 
prepared, embracing many works of standard merit, 
which ought to be familiar to all. 

They are presented in alphabetical order, the author 
being unwilling to dictate, or to assume the responsibility 
of recommending any particular course. He has sug- 
gested those only which have occurred at first thought^ 
and perhaps omitted many whose merits he is not back- 
ward to acknowledge, and which ought to be included. 
He can only add that the list is offered to the unlettered 
pupil to supply a deficiency which ought to have been 
supplied by abler hands. 

Astronomy, Phillips', Vose's, or Wilkins'. 

Aikenside's Pleasures of the Imagination. 

Boswell's Life of Johnson. 

Bennett's Letters to a Young Lady. 

Bishop Heber's Poems. 

Beattie on Truth. 

Beattie's Poems. 

Bryant's Poems. 

Belknap's History of New Hampshire. 

Blair's Rhetorick, (not abridged.) or Newman's Rhetorick. 

Cowper's Poems, (particularly the Task.) 

Campbell's Poems, (particularly the Pleasures of Hope.) 

Chapone's Letters. 

Dryden's Virgil. 

Edgeworth's Works, (especially on Popular Education.) 

Foster's Essays 

Fitzosborne's Letters. 

Flint's Valley of the Mississippi. 

Gay's Fables. 

Goldsmitli's Poems, (particularly the Deserted Village.) 

Gregory's Legacy to his Daughters. 

Gray's Poems, (particularly the Elegy in a country church yard.) 

Hojner's Iliad and Odyssey, (translated by Pope or Cowper.) 

Hemans' Poems. 

History of England, (Sir James Mcintosh's.) 

Hannah More's Practical Piety. 

Hamilton's Letters on Education. 

Hedge's Lo<rick. 

JelTorson's Notes on Virginia. 

Johnson's Ilass<?las. 

" Rambler. 

'' Lives of the Poets. 
Junius' Letters. 


Kaime's Elements of Criticism. 

Kelts' Elements of General Knowledge. 

Letters of Pope Ganganelli. 

Life of Mahomet. 

Milman's History of the Jews. 

Milton's Paradise Lost. 

" *' Regained. '" 

Mason on Self Knowledge. 
Marshall's Life of VVashmgton. 
Pope's Works, (particularly the Essay on Man, and the Essay on 

Paley's Moral Philosophy. 

" Evidences of Christianity. 

'* Natural Theology. 
Robertson's History of America. 

" " Charles Fifth. 

Rogers' Pleasures of Memory. 
Rollin's Ancient History. 
Shakspeare's Plays, (expurgated edition.) 
The Spectator. 
The Tattler. 
The Guardian. 
The Adventurer. 
The Idler. 
The Mirror. 

Tooke's Pantheon or Dillaway's Mythology. 
Tytler's (or some other) Universal History. 
The Young Christian, (by Abbot.) 
TrumbulFs History of Connecticut. 
Thomson's Seasons. 

Watts on the Improvement of the Mind. 
Williams' History of Vermont. 
Young's Night Thoughts. 
Zimmerman on Solitude. 

The following Books of reference should he owned hy the pupU, 

A General Atlas. 

Johnson's, Walker's or Webster's Dictionary- 

Lempriere's Classical Dictionary, (Boston acpurgated edition.) 

" Biography. 

Malcom's Bible Dictionary. 
Worcester's or Morse's Gazetteer. 



LESSON 1. On the use of words, 5 
" II. Use of words in phra- 
ses, 6 

LESS HI. Use of words in sen- 
tences, 7 

LESS. I V. Variety in the arrange- 
ment of the members of senten- 
ces, 9 

LESS. V. Variety of expression ; 
the repetition of and corrected by 
the partici[)le, 13 

LESS. VI. Variety of expre.«!sion, 
continued J — the change of the 
active for the passive, and the 
passive for tlie active verb, ... 16 

LESS. VII. Variety of expression, 
continued : —the preservation of 
the unity of a sentence by the use 
of the case absolute, 17 

LESS. VIII. Variety of expression, 
continued: — the same idea ex- 
pressed in various ways by differ- 
ent words, . . 19 

LESS. IX. Variety of expression, 
continued: — periplirasis, or cir- 
cumlocution, 21 

LESS. X. Variety of expression, 
continued : — Euphemism, or soft- 
ened expression, 22 

LESS. XI. Analysis of compound 
sentences, 23 

LESS. XII. Synthesis of simple 
sentences, . 24 

LESS. XIII. Derivation : — primi- 
tive and derivative, simple and 
compound words, 27 

LESS. XIV. Synonymes, . . 28 
" XV. Transposition, . 29 
" XVI. Arrangement, or clas- 
sification, 31 

LESS. XVII. Defmition, and dis- 
tinction, or difference, . . .32 

LESS. XVIII. Analogy, or resem- 
blance, .34 

LESS. X!X., .... 35 

LESS. XX. Narrntion, with an out- 
line, 36 

LESS. XXI. Narration from dn- 
tached sentences, 38 

LESS. XXII. Narration awplijied, 40 

t^ESS. XXIII. Description, ... 43 

LESSON XXrV. Figurative lan- 
guage converted into plain, . . 46 
LESS. XXV. Figuiative Language j 
metaphors; plain language convert- 
ed into ligurative, ... .49 

LESS. XXVI. Allegory, .... 61 
" XXVIf. Hyperbole, . . 52 
" XXVUI. Personification, 53 
" XXIX. Apostrophe, ... 56 
" XXX. Simile, or compari- 
son, 56 

LESS. XXXI. Antithesis, or con- 
trast, 58 

LESS. XXXII. Interrogation, ex- 
clamation and vision, 59 

LESS. XXXIII. Climax, ... 60 
" XXXIV. Paraphrase, or 
explanation, 63 

LESS. XXXV. Clearness, Unity, 
Strength and Harmony, .... 64 

LESS. XXXVI. Simple themes, . 66 

LESS. XXXVII. Complex themes, 71 
" XXXVIIL Easv Essays, . 76 
" XXXIX. Methodizing a sub- 
ject, 85 

LESS. XL. Investigation of a sub- 
ject, 87 

List of subjects suggested for themes, 
6ic 93 

Terms connected with composition, 97 

Alliteration, ib. 

Acrostick, . ib. 

Anagram, ib. 

Allusion, 98 

Anticlimax, ib. 

Bathos, ib. 

Kombast, ib. 

Ballad, ib. 

Didactick writing, ib. 

Style, various Kinds of Style, and 
directions for forming a good 
Style, 99 

Rules of Rhyme 100 

Criticism, 101 

Epistolary writing, 102 

Suggestions with regard to the me- 
chanical execution of written ex- 
ercises, and the mode of correcting 
them, 103 

List of Books suggested for the pe- 
rusal of the pupil, 104 


The following Recommendalions of this work have been selected 
from a large number of valuable notices from the most respectable 

From Mr. DUlaway^ Frindpcd of the Latin School, Boston, 

" Their clearness and simplicity strongly recommend them to the 
instructers in this important branch of education." 

Prom Mr. Andrews^ Principal of the Bowdoin School, Boston. 
" Parker's Progressive Exercises in English Composition will, in 
my opinion, aid tlie teacher, and encourage the pupil, in tliis important 
branch of education. 

From Mr. Walker, Principal of the Elliot School. 
Messrs. Lincoln & Edmands, Gentlemen, 

The work which you were pleased to send me a short time since, 
entitled, " Progressive Exercises in English Composition," I have 
read with much pleasure and profit. It is evidently the production of 
a thorough and practical teacher, and, in my opinion, it does the author 
much credit, ^y such a work, all the difficulties and discouragements 
which the pupil has to encounter in his first attempts to write, are in 
a great measure removed, and he is led on progressively in a methodi- 
cal and pbilosopliical manner, till he can express his ideas on any 
subject, which circumstances or occasion may require, not only with 
sufficient distinctness and accuracy, but even with elegance and pro- 
priety. An elementary treatise on composition, like the one before 
me, is certainly much wanted at the present day. i think this work 
will have an extensive circulation, and I hope the time is not distant, 
when this branch of education, hitherto much neglected, will receive 
that attention, which in some degree its importance demands. 

From Dr. Fox, Principal of the Boijlston School, Boston. 
** This little manual, by the simplicity of its arrangement, is calcu- 
lated to destroy the repugnance, and to remove tlie obstacles which 
exist in the minds of young scholars to performing the task of compo- 
sition. 1 think this work will be found a valuable auxiliary to facili- 
tate the progress of the scholar, and hghten the labour of the teacher. 

' From Mr. Field, Principal of the Hancock School, Boston. 
The plan of the work is excellent, and such a book was much 
needed. * * * * Every thing preparatory is placed in so clear and 
progressive a manner that it must greatly facilitate the learner in this 
important branch of education. 

From Mr. Oliver, Principal of the Salem Classical School, 
" 1 have introduced the work into this Institution and heartily re- 
commend it to the notice of the profession." 


From Walter R. Johnson, Esq. of Philadelphia. 
" Having often felt the necessity of reducing to its simple elements 
the art of composition, and having been compelled from the want of 
regular treatises to employ graduated exercises expressly prepared for 
the purpose, and similar in many respects to those contained in your 
treatise. I can speak with confidence of their utility, and do not 
hesitate to recommend them to the attention of teachers. 

From the JVatio/ial Gazette. 

" Progressive Exercises like these are indispensable for real ad- 

From Rev. Mr. Burroughs of Portsmouth, JV. H. 
** I wcs much gratified by the receipt of your book, entitled, Pro- 
gressive Exercises in English Composition ; and if possible still more 
so by its original, judicious, and excellent plan. It is a valuable and 
successful attempt to give instruction in relation to one of the most 
difficult though important departments of education, and I should 
conceive it would afford great pleasure, as well as benefit, to the minds 
of the young, 1 sincerely hope that it will be introduced into our 
schools, where such a work has been long wanted. The result of your 
valuable labour shows that you were amply competent to remedy such 
a want, and has rendered an eminent service to the cause of education." 

From Mr. Pike, late Preceptor of Framingham Academy. 
I have recently put a class of boys into Mr. Parker's '' Progressive 
Exercises in Composition." They are deeply interested, and find 
much pleasure, and 1 trust profit, in passing from lesson to lesson. 
I have never before seen boys so much interested in " Writing Com- 
position," usually esteemed one of the heaviest burdens imposed upon 

From Mr. Joseph Healy of Pawtucket. 
" 1 think it a very valuable auxiliary in the cause of education." 

From the American Annals of Education and Instruction. 
" We have seen no work which seems to us so useful as a guide to 
the teacher, and an aid to the pupil." 

From the Kt. Rev. G. W. Doane, Bishop of JVeio Jersey, formerly 
professor of Wictorick and Oratory in Washington College. 

'* Your little book on composition is excellent. It is the best help 
to that difficult exercise for the young that I have ever seen." 

From the Boston Evening Gazette. 
" Mr. Parker has certainly hit upon a most happy method of aiding 
the young student in one of the most useful, and, one of the most 
difficult parts of common school education, and we know of no recent 
school book, if it is generally used, that will be more serviceable to 
the rising generation, than the Progressive Exercises in English 

VB 36965 






systcr- vmibiiiii!? the Analytic and Syntheuc Meihods, in which the principles nt 
ArJ'li!. wC ar'» oxpliiaeJ and illustratocl in a perspimuius and t' niannor ; cou 
; ». .in ' l^o. p •icical '^y^tem-^ nf Mensuration, Gu;i;,Mng:, (n'nrn(*iry, BomI. Keeping, &,c., 
"»!..l iji 1 practical iifu; mutiou coiinecte I with Tr.ule uMiICutntnerce— fivn.iiug «, cotn 
pleie A'orcantile Arithmetic. Designed for ScIjooIs and Acadomifjs tLmu ''lou' th<s JJ'iit 
edStati •. By Benjamin Greenleaf, A. M. Preceptor of IJradford AcalHm-. x^e.vslerc 
ol'p^ p l.tion, with corrections and improverni-nts. 3c5" I'his work la lu^' approve i 
and .•„>'. I tended by teachers who liave used it. And its superior merits have ;il 
ready .iivr it an introduction into many of our best Schools and A< .n i' '• \ \\ 
En^a; ! States. 

Tl-T. CLASS BOOK OF ANATOMY, explanatoiy ..{' the iii-;t 

princii^ios of human organization, as the basis of physical oducatiot. Designed for 
Schools .ind the general reader. By Jerome V. C. Smith, M. D. formerly Professor of 
general Anatomy and Physiology in the Berk>4»ire Medical fnstitution, aiuf nithor ..f sca-- 
eral works — willi miinerous illustrations, and a full Gloss iry, or explanaMoii oi te'ihiuril 
terms. xN'evv stereotype edition, revised and enlarged. This wrrk has received the high- 
est ies'imoniala of approbation, from the mus. resp.-Ktable sourtes. 
From tin; Huo, Hubbard iVmsloin, Bo^ititn. 

BosTOt*, Nov. 7th, 1836. I h ive examinfd thf^ Class Book of An; • . P. ;,,;,.., 

with v'^ry great satisfaction. For comprehensiveness, precision, ;. • ; p iii-i)}iiiii' il ar- 
rangement, it is surpassed by no book of the kind which f hnveevor s.*' .i. 'J'lie sindy of 
Anatomy and Piiysiology, to some extent, is exceedingly inferost^ir.i; and useful as a 
braiiiih of common education •, and it ia to be desired that a '^li'mlu h; more exte isively 
adopted in .illour highm- schor>!s. To secur-j this end, there is ni> otluu b.)i)k h-fore the 
public so well prep^.red as the one under remark. It is ulso a convonient compr-nd to lie 
upon l.lie tableof the scienlitic anatomist and nlivsician, and u very valuJile laniily book 
for reference, aad for explatiaiion of terms which of an occu in re'adm,-. Jl. vVinslow. 

ALGER'S MTTRRAY'S GR AMMA^l. T^iiuyr Mi; v iv^ .. vj; ahritlg- 

ment cf his Grammar, with copious additions from nls larger w ^ri-w, r ic -.i.: the Syntax 
very c..;-uplete, to which questions for examination aro addud. i: • isra 1 Algt-r. Jr. 
As a cheap and com, ?n(iious elementary wirk for gen ral u>',t i? is probio! ihq best 
Gramriar extant. Though furnished at a cheap price, it i^ so ^oi r. is, mt in i.i^st cas" - 
to supercede the necessity of n larger work. Tliis work has be;^n introdncnl " ito oil ih 
public Schools in Bnton, and is in goiieral use throughout t(-:.'> ', ,; ',ed States- 

ALGER'S MURRAY'S EXERCISES. A ..-w aivi -realty impmv 

p,(] ster'^otype edition, in which ail the rules of Syntax are inserted, inii roferences b. 
ligure.s aro mjide to the rules an! observations by which false grammar li to be correcteil 
Adapted to Alger's Murray's Grammar. 

SLlCiUEL to Parkers Pi\)gres« re Exercises in EnglisL Compositioii 

by t'lf. same author. 1 vol T^mo. 
CLASSICAL READER, a Selection of Les.sous ia Pro,-' 

from the most esteemoJ English and Americnii '.vrlaTs. 'nt"- •• i" ' ;!ic 

clas,ses in public and private Setninaries. By 1. " . ! >'', , , i, 

orson^ of Boston. Tenth edition, stereotyped. 

^ t'hE BOSTON SCHOOL AT£.AS-cmnraein-:i tj,nn 
Geography. Containing 17 Maps an 1 Charts. Emhellisiied withinsiri 
ings. Eighth stereotype edition. <i):5°'^lf'i^* '-h thi? book was d- 'n) , 
classes ia schools, for which it is a;;inlrab!} ca.i'ulated, yet its Maps • . 
questions so full, and its su'umary uf ;]ie Scif^nc • so hapjii.'y execul 
i^jn of inany, it contains -lH that is ■■■• ce.ssary for he pupil iri our con); 


highly approved. New improved edition. More than M(),()()i) copies bav,' h, 

and it may justly be said, that probably no woik is bettor a 'apted »•» " •! >.l.s 

ingenoral, vvhere an extended description of tiie ^vorld is dcsir':. 

From Dr. Stauir/Uoii., laic Pri'.si/".!i.tiif(y)lunbi.d Cttl! 
The Geography, by D. Adams, A.M. as. fir as my Judgment exleiul.-,, i- uw^ <n \\ic I, .;. 
p'n-si etf.irts for impxrting prolit, popularity, anil pleasure to the science it teaches, 'i'l 
accentuation of di(ri''.uli. words in the first part, is as necessary and u-<eful as th" oullinr 
to b(5 cn;n.nittcd to memory in the second part, are select and judicious. In part thirv , ilr 
.• uthOr has avoided servility in copying from the works of otiicis, and. in a style lu- it an 
attraclivo, ins exiiibited the stut^ of nations an<l -wties, not as they preseiUed themielv- 
in the last or Ibrmer centuries, but as they now exist. The work dis^ ov.>rj n, ..vt-.n-i 
rtjading oftheanthor, and ;. felicity of talent in fixing on the facts \\^ 
lated to inform and odify. I wish tlie work an extensive circulation \ 


•1. designed for Schools throu^uut the Unite I States.