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3 1833 01066 8728 

rc^ 978.6 P94 pt. 1 

Progressive men of the state 
D-f Montana 





A people Who take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors, will never achieve anything 
worthy to be remembered with pride by remote generations. — Macaulay. 


A. W. B( )WEN & C( ). 

Knowkdsie of kindred and the genealogies of tlie ancient 
families deserveth the higlicst praise. — Lord Bacon. 



The liurry and struggle, the unrest and the hibors, the pleasures and depri- 
vations, the failures and successes of the founders of the State ot Montana are 
better told in the accounts of their activities given bj- themselves, than in many 
ponderous volumes of historical disquisitions. In centuries to come this volume, 
containing their tales of life in the new and yet unformed, but progressive Montana, 
will have a value we, of to-day, cannot fully realize. These men of activity, who 
have here given the simple annals of their lives, will, at no distant day, receive a 
nation's reverence as a race of heroes, the creators of civilization in a desert wilder- 
ness swarming with ferocious savages, and they will be held in honor as the found- 
ers of families, then equalling in prominence, ability and in wealth the most distin- 
guished of those established in the New World b_v the Cavaliers of Maryland, Vir- 
ginia and the Carolinas, the Qiiakers of Penns3dvania, the Knickerbockers of New 
York and New Jersey or the Pilgrims and Puritans of New England. 

It has been well said that the custodian of records concerning the useful men 
of preceding generations, and of their descendants, who places his knowledge in 
preservable and accessible form, performs a public service in rendering honor to 
whom honor is due, and this work the publishers have faithfully endeavored to 
do in the present volume. They desire to express their thanks to those citizens of the 
state whose progressive enterprise has made the publication of this work possible, 
and especially to tender their grateful acknowledgments of important services ren- 
dered them in its compilation by Hon. Cornelius Hedges, Hon. VV. Y. Pemberton, 
Hon. W. F. Sanders, Hon. Paris Gibson, Hon. F. P. Woody, Hon. E. W. Toole, 
Gov. J. K. Toole, Mrs. Laura E. Howey and others, and of the many courtesies 
extended by the Press of the entire state, and by numerous other people. One of the 
most valuable sources of our information, "a pioneer of pioneers," Hon. James 
Fergus, has now given his last information and passed on to the Silent Land. 

The many beautiful engravings scattered through this work add much to its 
value, and it is to be regretted that other of the prominent citizens of the state now 
living are not thus represented, but, not fully realizing tihe value, they have not 
co-operated with the publishers, often failing even to give us data for a sketch. Of 
many of the old-time worthies "there remains nor track nor trace." 

Trusting that the result of our arduous labors may meet a cordial greeting 
and be appreciated, we remain. 

The Publishers. 

Thtie is 110 haoic fotin hi fhe world Imt is at the bottom 
the life of a man.—Sm Walter Scott. 


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Abbott, W. N 3 

Acker, C 1446 

Adami, J 1447 

Adams, F, P 1626 

Adams, F. J 3 

Adams, H 1446 

Adams, J. C 552 

Adams, M. M 1449 

Adams, W. W 506 

Adkinson, F 4 

Aiken, E. D 506 

Akesson, J 1626 

Albritton, F. L, 1450 

Alderson, W. W 1309 

Alefleld, B 1450 

Alexander, S. P 508 

Alexander, T. T 977 

AUaeys, H. B 5 

Allen, G. A 503 

Allen, G. J 508 

Allen, U. G 1451 

Allen, W. A 5 

Allen, W. H 979 

Allen, W. R 1628 

Alt, A 1454 

Alton, R. D 509 

Amadeus, Mother 1451 

Aman, A 1452 

Ames, B 9 

Anderson, A 980 

Anderson, C. A 1453 

Anderson, C. M 1453 

Anderson, E. J 1314 

Anderson, O. 1627 

Anderson, R. D 1630 

Anderson. T 1453 

Anderson, T. W 1454 

Andrew, R 510 

Andrews, H. O. C 980 

Andrews, J. H 510 

Andrus, W. W 10 

Annear, B. F 981 

Annear, J. C 511 

Annln, J. B 1630 

Anthony, A. W 982 

Anway. S 1454 

Appolonio, J 981 

Archer, T. F 1750 

Armitage, J U 

Armstrong, B. W. S 1455 

Armstrong, F. K 7 

Arnett, F. G 1457 

Arnold, W. H 514 

Ashbaugh, J 1630 

Askew, I. D 1629 

Aspling, T. P 1455 

Athey, J. T 12 

Atkinson, F. P 13 

Atkinson, S. E 13 

Atkinson, W. M 14 

Auchard, R 1457 

Auld, J. C 14 

Austin, D 514 

Austin, J. H 982 

Austin. J. W 1458 

Avery, C. E 1631 

Axtell, B 15 

Axtel, J. S 145!> 

Axtell, P. B 15 

Aynsley, O. A 1633 

Babcock, A. L 56 

Babcock, G. H 983 

Bach, G. J 20 

Bach, T. C 515 

Backues, S. C :.. 1460 

Badger, B. W 1313 

Baggs, G. T 983 

Baggs, W. E 985 

Bailey, C. A 986 

Bailey, C. W 986 

Bailey, E 1631 

Bailey, G. H IS 

Bailey. J. C 517 

Bain, C. N 1460 

Bain, F 1462 

Bair, J. G 1461 

Bair, C. M 1461 

Baird, A. M 19 

Baker, G. W 987 

Baker, T. T 516 

Baker, W. 1 400 

Ballard, J. S 19 

Balliet, S. A 392 

Ballmier, H 987 

Balmforth. A 21 

Bank, A. L 21 

Bannatyne, A 1462 

Bannatyne, C 1462 

Banta, A. S 988 

Barber, O. B 517 

Barbour, G. H 23 

Barclay, J. R 990 

Barclay, W 990 

Baril, A 519 

Barken, J. H 523 

Barker, J. C. E 26 

Barnard, A. W 518 

Barnard, W. E 1632 

Barnes, E. L 989 

Barnes, P. A 991 

Barnes, G. W 23 

Barnes, H. H 1144 

Barnes, J. P 136 

Barnes, R. A 1634 

Barney, A 1635 

Barney. A. D 991 

Barret. A. H 160 

Barrett. T. F 28 

Barrett, J 525 

Barrett, M 27 

Barrett. W. S 1463 

Barrows. A. R 993 

Barry, J. J 624 

Barstow, C. H 1636 

Bartlett, W. F 525 

Barton. C. H 523 

Bass. D. C 994 

Batch, C. M 1465 

Bateman. D. W 29 

Batens. F 30 

Bates. W. S 524 

Bauer, J 1466 

Baxter. R. A 995 

Baxter, W. S 1468 

Beach. A. W 1466 

Beach. E 1316 

Beach. E. D 1430d 

Beachley, S: A 1468 

Beal, G. W 1467 

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Beall, W. J 526 

Beaton, J 529 

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Beatty, G 31 

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Beaudrv. V 1469 

Beck. J. B 1634 

Beck. .T. F 530 

Beck. I. 1469 

Beck. S. R 1637 

Beck. W 531 

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Beckhorn, G. W 36 

Beckstrom, C. A 996 

Beckwith. A 1637 

Beehrer. C. A 37 

Belcher. J. L 38 

Belden. C. M 41 

Belden, O. W 41 

Bell. C 1637 

Bell. C. E 39 

Bell, F 42 

Bell, R. A 320 

Bell, W. H 996 

Belleadux, X 1470 

Bellinger, H. C 533 

Benepe, F. L 43 

Benjamin, G 532 

Benner. H. B 996 

Bennett, A. J 534 

Bennett, W 45 

Bennetts, W. J 534 

Benson, F. G 50 

Bent, W 1471 

Berendes, F. C 997 

Berkin, J 1638 

Berky, G. A 1489 

Berthelote, J. T 1317 

Bessette, J. E 1489 

Bessette. S 998 

Bethke. W 1639 

Belts, J. H 998 

Betts, W. H 998 

Bevier, L. C 534 

Bickford, H. A 1001 

Bielenberg, N. J 1490 

Big Hole Battle 361 

Bignell, J. S 1491 

EiUups, J. C 1491 

Bimrose, F. H 43 

Bingham. Jesse 1492 

Birkenbuel. W 1592 

Bishop, J. F ^50 

Black, A 1003 

Black. A. H 539 

Black, C. W 1584 

Black, H. N 999 

Black. J. A 535 

Black. J. E 1639 

Black, J. H 1492 

Black. M. M 170 

Blackburn, C. A 1493 

Blackburn, G. E 538 

Blackford. J. M 52 

Blackford, W. M 47 

Blackford, F. W 539 

Blackraan, G. W 542 

Blackman, C. M 1493 

Blackwell, J 52 

Blaere, J 53i 

Blair, J. W 416 

Blake. H. N 232 

Blanchard. W. C 1001 

Blankcnbaker. V. F 547 

Blessing. S. V 873 

Blevins. W. T 1494 

Blum. G. L 1640 

Blumankamp, G. H 1497 

Blyth. J. W 1002 

Boardman, B. L 53 

Boardman, W. T 540 

Bogert, J. V 54 

Bogy, L. V 1495 

Bole". W. M 55 

Bond, J. J 1003 

Bonner. B. L 920 

Bonner, T. J 1641 

Boone. W. G 55 

Booth. J. B 1497 

Borho, L 1317 

Borthwick. W. J 543 

Bostwick. F 1498 

Botkin. A. C 1640 

Bottler, F 542 

Bourne. G. B 1004 

Bovard, C. L, 58 

Bowden. J 1004 

Bowes, F 1495 

Bowles, G. L 1643 

Bowles, W 1498 

Boyce, T 1641 

Boyd, C 1499 

Boyd, J 1005-1499 

Boyer, J. J 888 

Boyer, W. J 888 

Boyle, C. B 61 

Boyle, P 541 

Boyle, T. D 545 

Brackett, C. J 1642 

Bradley, G. W 999 

Bradley, J. H 1318 

Brady, C. A 59 

Brady, J 548 

Brady, T. E 560 

Brass, M 1006 

Bratton, W. J 1642 

Braun, W 1500 

Bray, A. F 60 

Bray, C. H 1501 

Bray, M 1005 

Brechbill. J 1502 

Breen, P 62 

Brenner, J. C 62 

Brewer, L. R 546 

Brewster, B. H 65 

Bricker, F. M 548 

Bridger, J 1318 

Briggs, L. S 550 

Brion. D 549 

Britt. J. T 1502 

Broadwater, C. A 67 

Broadwater, ii T 549 

Brondel, J. B SO 

Brook, C 1006 

Brook, J. W 533 

Brooke, B. C 70-71 

Brooke, E. A 1007 

Brooke, B. G 1009 

Brooks, T 1502 

Brosnan, T. W 568 

Brown, C 655 

Brown, F. D 1503 

Brown, 1 1646 

Brown, J 556 

Brown, J. A. J 1505 

Brown, J. H 1010 

Brown, J. W 1506 

Brown, M. M 1507 

Brown. S. J 1509 

Brown, W 551 

Brown, W. F 1011 

Brown, W. J 1644 

Browne, D. G 424 

Bruce, W 1510 

Bruckert, A 1320 

Bruckert, A., Jr 1321 

Bruckert, B. F 1321 

Bruckert. C. F 1321 

Bruckert, G. E 1321 

Bruckert, J 1321 

Bruckert. W. A 1321 

Erudy. C. A 1321 

Brundy, H 648 

Bruns, H 1319 

Brusgard. H 1645 

Bryant. T 556 

Buchanan, P. B 1511 

Buchholz, H 1508 

Buck, A lOU 

Buck, F. L 1430c 

Buck, H 1012 

Buck. P. S 1324 

Buckley, J. J 71 

Buckley, M 558 

Budas. A 1014 

Buford, S. R 368 

Buggy. T 555 

Bull, E. W 880 

Bull, F. W 881 


BuUard, M 

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Buol. A 

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Burket. W. B 

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Burns, A. F 

Burns. T. F 

Burrell, A 

Burtt. L. D 

Butcher. E. H.... 

Butler. C. D 

Butler. D 

Butler. E 

Butler, H 

Butler. N. H 

Butler, A 

Byrne, J 

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Cain. M 

Calderhead. J. H. 
Caldwell, W. A... 

CaKee, W 

Calkins, B. E 

Callantine, F 

Callaway, J. E... 
Callaway, L. L... 

Cameron. A 

Cameron, D 

Campana, R 

Campbell, A 

Campbell, A. J 

Campbell, D 

Campbell, J. B.... 

Cannon, C. W 

Cannon, H 

Cannon, T. H 

Cannon, J. A 

Cannon, L 

Caple, W. T 

Caplice, J 

Cardwell, E 

Cardwell, E 

Carleton, E. A..., 
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Carney, P 

Carolus, J 

Carpenter, B. P.. 
Carpenter, L. W. 

Carroll, J. V 

Carroll, W. E 

Carter, E. C 

Carter, G. W 

Carter, J. W 

Carter. T. H 

Carthrae, C. L 

Cartier, G. A 

Cascade Bank, The 

Cassidy, P 

Castner, J. K 

Caswell, L. O 

Catlin, J. B 

Catlin, J. K 

Catlin, J. S. B 

Catlin, W. E 

Catron. A. E 

Catron, G. D 

Catron, J. W 

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Chapman. H 

Chappie, J 

Charlton, C 

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Child. C. M 

Chisholm. O. P.... 
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Choisser, W 

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Chowen. H. O 

Chouquette. C 

Christensen, T 

Christian, E 

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Christy. G 

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Church, F 

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Cilandei-, J 

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Clark. C. B 

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Clark, M 

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Comfort. J. R. 
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Cook. S. B 

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Cornell, C 

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Corwin, W. S 

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Courtney. T. F... 

Cowan, A. J 

Cowan, D 

Cowan, G. F 

Cowan, J 

Cowan, S. N 

Cowan, W. S 

Cowen. D. O 

Cowglll, W 

Craig, O. J 

Grain, E. A 

Cralle, R. M 

Cram, H. L 

Cramer, M 

Craven, A. J 

Graver, T. B 

Crawford, E. E. 
Crawshaw, B. S. 

Cresap, W. T 

Crismas, W. J 

Crisp. W. M 

Crockett, R 

Croft, J. M 

Cromley, D. A. 
Gronk, W. L.,. 

Crosby, H 

■ Crossett, R. J.. 
Grossman, A. A 

Crowther, D 

Crolus, H 

Crowley, W. 'L.. 
Grum, G. H... 

Cruse, T 

Crutchfield, C. M. 

Culberson, D 

Gullen, W. E 

Gumming, A. E... 

Gumming, H 

Curtis, F. E 

Curtis, H, F 

Curtis, G. T 

Curtis, H. H 

Curtis, J. H 

Curtis, W 

Curtis, W. W 

Gushing, H 

Gushing, W. J.... 

Cyr. F 

Daacke. F. F. 
Dahler, C. L... 
Dailey. J. H... 

Dale, J. W 

Dale, W 

Dalgliesh, G 

Dallas, W 

Daly, M 

Dana, G. W 

Daniothy, J 

Davenport, W 
Davey, W. H... 

David. C. C 

David. I. F 

Davidson, A 

Davidson, A. J 

Davidson, J 

Davidson, J 

Davidson, T. C.... 
Davidson, T. J.... 

Davis. A 

Davis. A. J 

Davis. C. E 

Davis. D 

Davis, G. E 

Davis, H. B 

Davis, J 

Davis, J 

Davjs. J. W 

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Davis, P. T 

Davis, W 

Davis. W. H 

Dawes. R. E. L... 

Dawson, J 

Dawson, J. E 

Day, E. C 

Day. V 

Dean, R. P 

Dean, S 

Dean, T 

Dearing, G. W.... 
De Berge, J. A..,, 

Decker, G. H 

Decider, W 

Deegan, R 

De Lacy, W 

De Lacy, W. W. 

Delaney, A. W 

Dell, F 

Dell, W 

Demars, J 

Denbow, C ,... 

Dennis, E 

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Dessel, A 

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Deverill. S. K 

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Dinsmore, S 


L. B... 
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Doggett, J. D. 
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Dorr, C. O 

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Drabbs, H 

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Driscoll, D 

Driscoll, M 

Dutiield, H 

Duffleld, J 

DuKy, J. H 

Duggan, L 

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Dunbar, F. J... 
Duncan, A. L.. 
Duncan, B. S.. 

Duncan, H 

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Duncan, M. M. 
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Dungan, E, P.... 

Dunlap, E 

Dunsire, A 

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Dyer, W 

Early, H 

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Eastman, A 

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Eder, G. C 

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T. B. 

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Pra ks G 
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16 4 
Ij 9 
14 6 

Galahan, W. P 


Galen. H. P 

Gallagher, P 

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Gallwav. H. A 

Gamble. S 

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Gammon. J 

Ganong, E. A 

Gans. H 

(Sarepee. I; 

GiU.lner. E. M 

Gates. A. J 

Gates. L. A 

Gaiigler. H. E 

Gearing. T. D 

Geary. J. \V 

Geary. M 










.'.'.'.'. 1554 






.... 376 







;'■.'. 1556 


Grewell, B. L, 

Grifflths. W. S 

Grigg, T. A 

Grills. W 

Grimm. H 


Gruwell. C. <i 

Gunn. J. W 

Gunn. M S 








HefEerlin, C. S 

Hein, J. E 

Heine, T. G 

Heinze, F. A 

Heiskell, "p. ...'.'. '.V. '.'.'. '.'.'. 

Heitman. L 

Helmer, J 

Hempstead, J. T 

Hendorllder, V 

Henderson, C. ' R 

Heneault. G 

Hennessy. D. J 

Hennessy, D. W 

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Henry, F ?. 

Hensley, F. L.. .. 


. 647 
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Gussenhoven. J 

Gunstine. J. E 

Guth. H. P 

Guthrie, M. L 

Guy. R. J 

Hagan. T. F 

Hagen, J 

Hagen. W. D 

Hager. L. T 

Haire. C. S 

Halbert. T. L 

i;.-i!lMrt. W. L 

U'.i\.^. Ti. S 

lull, s! J. li '.['.['.'.'.'.'.'. 

Hall. A 

Hall. A. C 

Hall, C. H 

Hall. B. M 

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1 51 
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Hensley, J. A 

Hensley. J. E 

Hensley, W. A 

Hepner. H. S 

Herbert. A 

Herbert. G 

Herbolshimer. L 

Heren. S. P... 

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Herrin. H. J 

Heywood. A. P 

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Hickey. T. P 

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Higgins. G. C 

Higgins. J 

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Geiger. J. W 

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Gelsthorpe. \V. H..., 
Gerber. P. H 

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14 7 

Getts. P 

Getts. S. V 

Getty. R. W 

Gharrett. J. E 

Giacomella. G 

Giard. D. J 

Gibson. A 

Gibson. A. V 

Gibson. B. F 

Gib.son. J 

Gibson. N 

Gibson. P 

Gibson. T 

Gilbert. C. K 

Gilbert. F 

Gilbert H S 


.... 1558 
.... 1.559 
.... 641 
.... 1563 
.... 642 
.... 1351 
.... ll),S2 
.... 175 
.... 15.57 
.... 1.576 
.... 112 
.... 175 

.'.'.'. 6S3 

14 1 



S 6 

Hall. J 

Hall. J. S 

Hall. W 

Hall. T 

Hallahan, J 

Hamilton. I.. H 

Hamilton. P. J 

Hamilton. R. J 

Hamilton. R. S 

Hamilton. ^\•. R 






6 9 

liill. 10. (■ 

Hills. A. J.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Hilman. J. R 

Hindson. J. J 

Hinsdale. T. H 

Hirshberg. J 

Hirshberg. J 

Hoadlev. H. T 

Hoagland. C. C 

Hobbins. J 

Hobbs. J. G 

Hobbs S 

. 903 
. 1432 

. 221 
. 220 


1 hS 
1 bl 
14 2 

Hammond. G. L 

Hammond. J. S 

Hammond. M 

Hammond. R. E 

Hammond. T. K 

Hanbid^e. T. H 

Hand. ■■. 11 

Hand. T c 



::::: 1359 
::::: 1357 





1 3 

14 3 

Gill. A. D 

Gilleland. J 

Gilles. H 

Gillette. W. C 

Gillies. A. P 

Gillies D B 

.... 1560 

;::; i562 

.... 177 

.... 679 


. 1580 
. 907 
. 1685 
. 1579 


Handel. V. W 

Handel. (4. \V 

Hankinson. \V 

Hanley. P. F 

Hannan. R. T 

Hanson. H 

Hanson. H. H 

Hanson, S. C 

Harden, G. W 

Harding. P 

Harlan W B 

.'.'.'.'. 1682 

''.'.' 1572 
.... 197 

;::: 1359 



Gilmer. C 

Gladden. J. W 

Glass. E. J 

Glasscock, W. R 

Gleason. .1 

.... 678 
.... 1675 
.... 178 
.... 1565 
.... 179 


14 4 

Hodgkiss. W 

Horeklt. H 

Hofeldt. W. G 

Hoffman. C. W 

Hoffman. G. "W 

Hoffman. H. B 

Hoffman. J. H. M 

Hoffman. J. S 

Hoff'in. D 

. 909 
. 15S0 
. 1581 

1 4- 
1 4 

1 4o 

Gloyd. A. E 

Gnddard. O. F 

Godfrey. N 

Goetschius. J. P 

Ooeriz. G. D 

Gohn. G 

Goldberg. D 

Gooch. E. H 

Go<xIell. C. M 

Goodman, E. H 

Goodman, G. W 

Gordon, J 

Gordon, J. S 

Gordon, S 

Gordon. W 

Gorham. R. T 

.... 384 
. . . . 181 
.... 1350 
.... 678 
.... 1672 

'.'.'.'. 677 
. . . . 984 
.... 1603 
. . . . 187 
.... 1561 

:::: isi 

.... 1081 
.... 1082 
.... 1563 
.... 1565 
.... 1577 

. 643 


. 1582 

5 S 

Harlow, R. A 

Harney. E. \V 

Harney. T. A 

Harper. J. H 

Harrington. C 

Harrington. P 

Harrington. J 

Harris. D. R 

Harris. J 

.... 198 
.... 199 
.... 1680 
.... 667 
.... 199 
.... 665 
.... .899 
.... 201 
.... 1571 


■ ,i? 

lb 1 


Hokanson, C 

Holbrook, W 

Holland, D 

HoUecker. G. T> 

HoUensteiner, A 

Holliday, E. G 

Holliday. J. M 

Holliday, S. L 

Hollopeter, B. S 

Holloway. A. J 

Holloway. W. L 

Holmes, C 


. 226 
. 1369 

b 4 

1 41 



Harris. W. H 

Harrison. H. C 

Harrison. W. A 

Hart. W. H 

Harvey. W. W 

Hash. E. L. W 

Haskell. E. K 

Haskell. W. S 

Hastings. E. B 

Hathaway. J. H 

Hathhorn. J. R 

.... 1361 
'.'.'.'. 866 

:::; 900 

.... 666 

:::; eu 

.... 1572 
.... 200 
.... 663 

. 911 
. 660 
. 227 
. 228 
. 168S 


Goss. F. S 

Goss. J. R 

Gothner. L 

Gough. J 

C-Ki-M. 0. H 

Gnwir. T. J 

Gr;cter. A. F 

Graham. M. D 

Grass. C 

. . . . 1566 
.... 184 
.... 1670 
.... 1677 
.... 1673 
.... 185 
.... 186 
.... 1674 
. . . . 676 

Holmes, J. J 

Holmes. O. M 

Holt J M . ... 

. 659 

10 3 

Holier. A. M 

Hooper, J. E 


Hopkins. J. S 

Hopkinson, J. G 

Horsky, J 

Horsky, R 

Hoss. D. R 

Hough, G. G 

Houghton. H. H 

House of Good Shepherd 

Howey. L. E 

Howard, A. D 

10 3 

Hauck. L 

Hauf. J. E 

Hauser S T 

.... 1573 
.... 1361 



10 4 

Gray. A 

Gray. C. W 

Gray, J 

Gray, T. A 

Green. A 

. . . . 681 
.... 188 

Hawk, W. P. S 

Hawson, W. H. L. H 
Haviland. W. H 

.... 204 

.... 901 

.... 203 

.. 664 




I 658 



Haynes. E. C 

Hays. G. M 

Healey. M. J 

Healy, W. H. H 

Healy! W. M 

Heath. L. W 

.... 205 
.... 205 
.... 1000 
.... 1574 
.... 902 
.... 650 


1 1 

Green. J 

Green. J. A 

Greene. A. C 

Greenan. P 

Gregg. O. G. V 

Gregory. C. H 

Greig. D. M 

Greiner. C 

Greiner. J 

Greiser, G. P 

'■■■:: B 

.... 675 
.... 1567 
.... 1084 
. ... 1356 
. . . . 675 
.... 676 
.... 1678 

Howard. G. C 

Hov C E 


13 4 

Hovt. M. D 



Ii^'i^ps' Siip 

.. 1682 

Hubbart. W. F 



Hedges. W. A 

Heeb. H 

Hedrick, A 

.... 1362 
.... 992 
.... 903 

Hufline.'j. D 

Huffman. G 


Huggins, E 
Hugrhes, H. 
Hughes, J. 
Hughes, L. 
Hugill, A. 
Huling. S. 









Jacky, V... 


« ( 









Jakways. C 





Jay, O. 



















S R 

Johnson, C. 
Johnson, E 
Johnson, E. 
Johnson, E. 
Johnson, P. 
Johnson, G 
Johnson, G. 
Johnson H. 
Johnson, I.. 
Johnson. J. 
Johnson, J. : 
Johnson, P. 
Johnson, W 
Johnson, W 
Johnston, A 
.Tohnston. A 
.Johnston. J. 


3. B 


», J. P 

.. M. A 


r. E 

Keenan. J 


F. J 


A. B 


H. C 


J. M 




W. D 


C. R 


C. P 


J. J 


B. B 


C. M 





Kelly. J 697 

Kellv. W. M 1696 

Kemper. S. V 686 

Kenck. C. J 1101 

Kennedy, J. A 1599 

Kennedy, J 1372 

Kennedy. J. H 848 

Kennedy. J. J 1373 

Kennedy, J. M 698 

Kennedy. W. J 1101 

Kennedy. S. A .■ 699 

Kent. J. H 42 

Kent. T 960 

Kermode. W. R 700 

Kerr. J. W 1699 

Kerr. W. J 1698 

Kessler, N 1380 

Kester, W. F 1102 

Ketchin, R. A 700 

Keves, J. E 701 

Kilgallan, T. S 704 

Kimball, A. J 1598 

Kixnerly, A 1379 

Kimmerly, A. K 1368 

King, G. L, 702 

King. G. W 247 

King. J. W 250 

King. M. B 251 

King. T. W 1602 

King. W. P 1602 

Kingsbury, A. W 256 

Kinna. C. J 1137 

Kinna, J 1136 

Kinney, G. W 251 

Kipp. J 1701 

Kirk. J. N 252 

Kirkendall. H 253 

Kirkendall. T. B 254 



lidt. A. 


Klein. H 2.54 

Kline. H 1699 

Knop. H 703 

Kno wles, H 257 

Knowles. S. H 1103 

Knowles. W. E 702 

Kohrs. C 258 

Korell, P. W 1109 

Kropp. A 1701 

Kuhr. H 1604 

Kukolias. C 1109 

Kyle. A. T 1700 

La Breehe. C. D 1701 

Xabrie. J 1.382 

La Chappelle. C. E 1702 

La Ph.apelle. P. G 705 

Ladd. A. G : 705 

Ladd. C. D 944 

Lafrantz. J 1703 

Laherty. W 1110 

Laird. P 1383 

Laird, J 1383 

Laird. J 708 

Lalonde, A. A 706 

Lambert. E 703 

Lambert. G 1111 

Lamme. E. B 616 

Landon. A. P 704 

Lane, r. H 707 

Lane. J. S 1604 

Lane. M 708 

Lane. P. L. B 707 

Lange. E 1553 

Lansre. H. W 1605 

Langhorne, S. W 259 

Lannin, C 709 

Lapham, H. B 1304 

Largent, J 1605 

Lareent. J. L 1606 

Largey, P. A 264 

Larkin, W 1703 

Larson, E 

Larson! t'.'o'.'.. 
Latimer, J. R., 

Lavalle, P 

Lavell. T 

Lauterbach. M, 

Lavoie. J 

Lease. M. N 

Leavitt. E. D... 

Le Beau. P 

Le Noir. J. L... 
Ledbeater. M. 1 

Lee. J. T 

Leech. E. E 

Leech, D. C 

Leggat, J. A... 
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Leggat. R. D... 

Lehfeldt. J 

Lehsou. J. C... 
Leighton. I. A 

Leitel. J. S 

Leimbach, P.. 

Leitch. C 

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Leonard. C. R., 
I-eoiiard. N. R. 

Lepley. C 

Lepley. J 

Leslie. J. B 

Leslie. P. H 

Letourneau. P. 
Levengood. P.. 

Leverich, B 

Levy, S. I 

Lewis. C. L.... 
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Lewis. S 

Lewis. T 

Le Wright. E.... 

Le Wright. J 

Library, State. 
Lidolph, T. H.. 

Lillard. W 

Limpert, H. B. 
Limpert. H. P 
Lindley. J. M.. 
Lindsay, A.... 

Lindsay. J 

Lindsay. W.... 
Lindstrand. C. 
Line. L. M 

Liscom. G. 
Lisa. S. R. 
Lobb. J. G. 
Lockrav. C 
Locke, J. P 
Lockey. R. 

Logan. S. ] 
Logan, W. 
Logari. W. 
Lohman. A. 
Longley. T, 

Lossl. J. P. 

Luthir, M. H. 

Lutz. S 

Lutz. E. T.... 
Lvnch, C. A.. 
Lynch. J. H... 
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Lvons. J. H... 
Lytle, R. R... 

MacBillingslev, D. 
MacDonald, B.... 
MacDonald. D. N. 

MacDonald. P 

MacDonald. P 


MacDonald. N. A. 

Mack, D. S 

Mackav, D. C 

Mackei, A 

Maclay. E. G 

MacGmniss. J 

MacHaflie. W. J. 
-Vla.q-H,.. G. w 

AIcLamman. J. D.. 
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McCarty, J 

McCaulev, M. M... 

McClelland, J 

McClernan, J. B... 

McClain. J. P 

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McCone, G 

McConnell, N. W.. 
McConnell, O. W.. 

McConnel, R. J 

McConnell, R. J.... 

iMcCormack, M 

iVlcCormlck, J 

Mccormick, P 

McCormick, T 

McCourt, J 

McCracken, D. B... 

McCuaig, J. C 

McCallam, E. J... 
McCulloh, R. L... 
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McDonald, C. W... 

McDonald, D 

McDonald, H. J... 

McDonald. S 

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McDonnell. J, Ji),.. 

McDonnell. M 

McDonn.-ll. \\\ L.. 

McEhov. J. A 

McElwaln. \V. H.. 
McParland, W. T.. 

McGerl, T 

McGraw, J 

McGiffln, J 

McGinness, J 

McGregoi-, F 

McGuire, J. T 

McGuire, S. J 

Mclntire, H. G 

Mclntyre, J 

Mclntire, S. H 

Mclntyre, P. J 

Mclver, K. B 

Mclvoy, J 

Mclvoy, P 

McKaskle, W. C... 

McKay, A. J 

McKay, D. McH... 

McKay. J. G 

McKay, J. R 

McKenzie. A. R.... 
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McKenzie. T. J 

McKeown, W 

McKnight, G 

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McLean, C. W 

McLean, K 

R. F. 
c_-. H. 

McMillan, A. 


.... 1143 


McMillan, A. 




.... 1388 


.... 734 

McQueeney, J 


.... 735 


McRae, J 

.... 1147 

McRae, R.... 

.... 1710 

Macaulay. A. 


Mack. D. S... 

.... 735 

Jladdox. P.... 

.... 299 


Madison. M... 

.... 1147 

Maginnis. M. 

.... 300 

Mahana. C. E. 


Main. R. W... 

.... 1389 


Manchester, P 


.... 737 


Manley, J. B... 

Mann, E. P 

Manning, J. N. 
Mannix, T. B... 

Mannix, J 

MansHeld. J 

Mansfield, J. P. 
Mantle. L 

Marcotte, I 

Marcotte. L 

Mardis, I. W... 


Marks, J. R 

Marsh, B. F 

Marshall, I. M 

Marshall, T. C 

Martens, H. P 

Martens, J. P 

Martin, A. M 

Martin, E. B 

Martin, G. U 

Martin, G. S 

Martin, H. W 

Martin, J. C 

Martin, J. E 

Martin, J. P 

Martin, S 

M.-M'iineau, E 

Maryotl, J. L 

Mason, A 

Ma- on. J. K 

Matson. P 

Matson, W. H 

Mathcwson, J 

Matthews, T. L... 

Mathews, W 

Alafthew, W. S 

Mauldin, J 

Mauldin, W. T 

Maurer. G 

May, G 

Mayer, P 

Mayn, C 

Maynard, P. E 

Mayne, J. J 

Maxfleld, J. B 

Meagher, T. F 

Means. E. C 

Menard, J. I 

Mendel, C. P 

Mendenhall, C. B... 
Mendenhall, G. S... 
Mendenhall, J. E... 
Mendenhall, S. H. 

Medin, M 

Meiklejohn, D 

Meisenbach, E 

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Merrill. C. L 

Merry. J 

Metciilf. O 

MelEol. A 

M.Minier. J 

Mev.r. E 1162 

Meyer. W. F 311 

Meyersick, P. W 1163 

Michels. P 1166 

Middlemas. D. W 313 

Milbnrn, G. R 313 

Miles, A. W 753 

Miles, N. A 1164 

Millegan, J. W 1729 

Millegan, R. A 756 

Millegan, W. L 316 

Miller. C. B 314 

Miller, G. F 1733 

Miller, G. L 315 

Miller, H. J 754 

Miller. .T 1735 

Miller, J. H 755 

Miller. J. J 173ii 



Miller. P 

Mills. J 

Mills, J. H 

Mills, J. H 

Mills, T. E 

Mills, W. E 

Mills, W. P 

Milne, D. I. 

Milner, J. L.... 

Milot. H. A 

Minugh, L 

Miracle. F. D... 
Miskimen. J. H. 
Missigbrod. P. S 

Mitchell. S 

Mitchell. S. F... 
Mitchell, S. P... 


Mitchell, W. 

Mottitt. J 

Moltz. A. J 

Momtaerg. G 

Mr.nforton. H... 
Montana Soldiers 
Monroe, G. \V... 

Monroe, J 

Montgomery, W . 
Montgomery, W. 

Mccre. J. A 

Moore, J. B 

Moore, J. C 

Mcore, J. H 

Moore, J. M 

Meore J. T 


Morgan, W.. 

Morgan. Z. S. 

Morier, H..;.. 

Morris, A. P 

Morris, F. W 


Morris, H. W. 


Morris, J. L 

Morris, M.... 


Morris. M. C 

Morris, P. T. 

Morris. R. O. 


Morris, W. W 


Morrison. I '. . 


Morris..!,, K. 

Morrc.w. W. 


Morse, .1, 10 . . 


Mosher, S. W 


Moth.-.r .\.ii,-..l. 



Muchmoiv, a. 


Mueller, W... 

Mulroney, E. 


Muntzer, H.. 


Murphy, J.... 


Murphy. J. J. 

Mlirphv, J. T 


Murphy. J. T 


Murphy. W. 


Murray, J. P 

Murray. B. T 

Murray, T. J 



Mussigbrod, ] 


Myer.«. H. L.. 


Norman, T 


Normandien, P 


Pendergrass, T. H... 

::: -99 

Pennington, J 

... see 


Norris, E 

Norris, M 

Penwell, D 

. . . 1409 


Northy, T 


Penwell, L 

Norton, W. H 


Norville, T. J 


Peoples, P 

,:: 1761 


Nottingham, H. A.. 


Peplow, C. A 

X.'V.s. J 


Pepin, S 

... 1184 


Percell, T. B 

;\...i]..f;. L 


N.i.iii.s. L. A 


Perkins. B. P 

... 1764 

X. mills. W. B 


Perkins. (' 

... 1765 


Nye, F. J 


Perkins. C. B 


P.rkin.s. R. L 

... 1201 

My.-rs. W. V 1171 

Nagues, J 1402 

Napton, W 770 

Nedrow, J. C 771 

Nedrow, R. K 335 

Negus. W. S 772 

Neihart, J. L, 1178 

Neill, J. S. M 1403 

Neill, W. T 1174 

Nelson, P 772 

Nelson, J. W 1175 

Nelson, J. W 1177 

Nelson, M 340 

Nelson. W. G 1177 

Nevin. D 1178 

Nevin. O. B 1180 

Newby. E. C 1744 

Newkirk. G. W 773 

Newkirk. H. E 1181 

Newmire, R 1183 

Neumeyer, N 1744 

Newton, W. C 774 

Nickel. H 774 

Nicholson, M 1745 

Nicholas, W, D 775 

Nihill, P 1181 

Nilan, J. M 1749 

Nixon. J. H 777 

Nix. W. J 1747 

Noble, D. A 1749 

Noble, R. W 1182 

Noble, T 1399 

Noftsinger, J. E 777 

Nolan, F. J 1750 

Nolan, C. B 339 

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O'Leary. T 

Olgardt. C. F.... 

Olson, B. G 

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O'NeiU. J. P 

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O'Rourke. J 

Orgain. W. A.... 

Orr. W. C 

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Page. H. S... 
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Palmer. D. A. 



H. M 349 

Parker. A. E 1193 

Parker. C. U 1194 

Parker, F. J 7.S7 

Parker, M. H 351 

Parker, W. 1759 

Parkins. C. B 788 

Parr. C. M 788 

Parrott, B 789 

Parrolt. G 789 

Parrott. G. A 1195 

Parrott. \Y 7SS 

Parrott. W. "W 1409 

Passmore. C. S 790 

Passmore. 3. "W 791 

Pattee, D. D 792 

Patterson. J 795 

Patterson. D 794 

Patterson, D. H 795 

Patterson, J. C 1196 

Patterson, J. P 1759 

Patterson. J. L 354 

Patterson. J. L 796 

Patterson. H. M 797 

Patterson. W. H 356 

Paul. G. T 355 

Paulson, M 798 

Pauwelyn, C 512 

Paxton, J. E 1760 

Pease, G. D 357 

Pease. H. A 1198 

Pearson. G. W 367 

Pearson, C. H 1762 

Pearson, H. L 1763 

Peck, L. ■W 1199 

Peck, W. H 1761 

Pederson, O. B 1760 

Peers. J. M 1762 

Pelletier. F. J 799 

Pelzer, G. W 1763 


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Philbrick. F 

Philbrick. S. C 

Phillip's. B. D 

Phillips. I. L 

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Pierson, G. W 

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Pigott, W. T 

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Pilgeram, P. C 

Pilgeram, 'W 

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Platner. M. D 

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Poindexter. P. H 

Poindexter, T. 'W., Jr. 

Pool. G. E 

Pollinger, E. M 

Pomeroy. C. 'W 

Pontet, R 

Pnorman, W. H 

Popham.J. T 

Porter. A. H 

Porter, T. J 

Potts, B. F 

Potts. H. A 

Power, J. W 

Power, T. C 

Power. W. 1 1775 

Prather, C. D 1771 

Prather. T. T 1206 

Pratt, S. B 1414 

Prescott, I'. R 373 

Prescott. T.. F 809 

Preuitt, -^V. G 372 

Price, J. L 1207 

Price, J. M 1415 

Price, M. C 1425 

Price, P. M 1776 

Prickett, O. B 372 

Proctor, C. C 373 

Proctor. F. M 805 

Propser, D 374 

Prosser, P. A 1777 

Prosser, J. R 1778 

Prouett, A. J 1209 

Pruett. C. J 1209 

Pursell, T. 'W 1772 

Putnam, J. C... 1210 

Quaintance, A. C 1210 

Quaintic, J. B 806 

Quigley, J. R 1773 

Quinn. B 1520 

Quinn, J. J 810 

Quinn, R 1420 

Raas, J. M 1780 

Rader. C. T 1419 

Ragan. P. A 377 

Rahmig, C. P 812 

Rainville. R. B 889 

Ranft. 'W. Q 812 

Rapstad, J. L 1211 

Rasmussen, G 1775 

Raw, A 1214 

Raw, J 1213 

Raw, R 1214 

Ray, T. A 375- 


Ray, W 

Raymond. W. 
Raymond, \V. 
Reel, W. R... 

Reese, G 

Reese, J. J... 

Reese, T 

Redding. G. . 
RedinK, H. C. 




Rhode, J. C. . 

Rice. D 

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Richai-ds, T.... 
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Richardson. T. 
RichliP. .J. C... 



J. E. 

Riiiy. .M. '■-. 
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J. J. 




Rucker. \V. H 

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^iraw, \\. O i2>i-i 

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Swarbrick, J. B 1830 

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Sweeney, C 1265 

Sweeny, D. C 454 

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Swindlehurst. T. M 875 

Sv.itzer, A. W 876 

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Switzer, M. A 877 

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Symmes, W. D 454 

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Taylor. R. E 452 

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Tebay, J. F 1272 

Teeiers. 884 

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Tetrault. A 1837 

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Thomas, C. N 1838 

Thomas, E 884 

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Thompson, G. W 1435 

Thompson, J 1267 

Thompson. J. B 886 

Thompson, J. D 1270 

Thompson. J. J 1277 

Thompson, J. S 1264 

Tl-.ompson. L. A 887 

Thompson, R 126S 

Thompson, W 453 

Thompson, W. E 890 

Thormaehlen, P 892 

Thornber, D. R 1838 

Thornton, J. C. C 891 

Thornton, M 1274 

Thorpe. P 893 

Thrasher, I, W 1624 

Thresher, B. S 455 

Thurston. C. C 893 

Tice. T. D 895 

Tiernev. W. E 457 

Tilburn, E. 894 

Tillison, H 1272 

Tingley, J. J 929 

Tingley, R. S 929 


Tinsley, F. M 930 

Tinsley, J. H 930 

Tintinger. J. C 1270 

Tipton, J. C 1435 

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Todd, W. P 932 

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Tofte. J. J 1839 

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Toole, B. W 1840 

Toole, C. B 930 

Toole, E. W 280 

Toole, J. K 24 

Torkelson, J. L 1841 

Towner, W. S 1843 

Townsley, B 1274 

Tracy, W. M 1275 

Trafton, R. M 1352 

Trainor, F 1842 

Trask, G. W 1277 

Travis, A. E 1856 

Travis, G 1384 

Travis, J 458 

Travis, S. B 1858 

Travis. T 1344 

Treacy, W 458 

Treloar, S. H 459 

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Trerise, J. H 932 

Tresch, J 1276 

Trotter, W 933 

Trumbo, J. F 1278 

Truman, A 1376 

Tucker, R. E 1844 

Tucker, R. V 1843 

Turner, C 460 

Turner, C. C 1844 

Turner, H. C 934 

Turner, H. W 934 

Turner, J. C 1436 

Turner, W. P 1845 

Tuttle, D. S 520 

Tuttle, S. F 935 

Tuttle, H. J 1279 

Tuttle, M. L 1279 

Tyree. H 462 

Twohy, P. D 937 

Ulm, W 1392 

Underwood. H. T 1846 

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Urner. B 1437 

Utley, H 938 

Valiton, P 1283 

Van Alstine, C 1847 

Van Brocklln. E. J 938 

Van Buskirk, A 1848 

Van Camp, A 1848 

Van Clarenbeek. F 1849 

Vandenbroeck. V. J 463 

Vanderbilt, J 939 

Van Orsdel, W. W 1280 

Van Scoy, T 1282 

Van Wart, C. P 465 


Vance, J. J 1284 

Vaughn, G. K 943 

Vaughn, R 1438 

Veazey, I. P 465 

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Vielleaux, N 1850 

Vidal, C. E. K 1850 

Vineyard. G. C 1851 

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Viaux, A 940 

Vogel. R 941 

Voight. A. J 1853 

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Von Tobel, R 466 

Voss, J 1438 

Waddell. E. W 1864 

Waddell. T. J 1290 

Wade, J. W 1286 

Wade. S. M 467 

Wagner, X 1854 

Waite, J. D 467 

Walker, A. M 942 

Walker. C. B 1854 

Walker, C. F 1855 

Walker. E. S 46S 

Walker. J 1587 

Walker. J, S 943 

^\•alker, L. A 469 

Wa.lker. M. A 471 

Walker. T. M 945 

Warden, W. E 1S66 

Wallace, R. B 1401 

Wallace, R. C 470 

Wallace. W., Jr 1400 

Walrath. F. D 1857 

Walsh. T. J 1443 

Walton. J. W 471 

Wampler, R. B 474 

Ward. A 1857 

Ward. G. W 1291 

Ward. .1. W 1859 

Ward. T. C 945 

Wareman. S. H 1858 

Warner. D. G 946 

Warner. F 1861 

Warren. C. S 969 

Warren. F. R 1290 

Waterman, C. H 947 

Waterman. M 1439 

Watkins. G. . P 1860 

Watrous. E. D 1860 

Watson, J. 477 

Watson. W. H 1291 

Watters. C. S 1859 

Walters. G. 1 1292 

Watts, J. D 1295 

Way, S. F 949 

Weaver, A. D 1293 

Weaver, J. B 1294 

Weaver. J. G 950 

Weber. C 1862 

Weber. D. N 475 

Weber. E 479 

Webster, C. M 477 

Webster, F: C 476 

Webster, F. S 951 

Wedsworth, A 1408 

Weed, E. D 478 

Wegner. J. F 1280 

Weingart, B 955 

Weitman, J. L 479 

Wehr. F 1442 

Wells. H. J 1295 

Wells. L. B 953 

Wendel, J 480 

West. C 956 

Western Montana Bank. 1296 

Weston, J. R 1297 

Weston, J 959 

Wethey, A. H 954 

Wetzel, J. B 1416 

Wetzel, W. S 1862 

Wetzstein, A 962 

Weydert. P. C 1424 

Whalen, T 1298 

Whalen. W 1298 

Wharton, J. R 491 

Wheeler, D. C 1863 

Whetstone, W. G 956 

Whipps, W. C 1441 

White. A. .1 957 

White. B. C 1298 

White. B. F 96 

White, G. F 958 

White, J 961 

White, J. A 1863 

White, J. F 959 

White. S 963 

White. W. H 1299 

Whltefoot. R. M 1464 

Whitehill, W. H 1864 

Whiteside. F 1869 

Whitcomb, C ISIJS 

Whitcomb. E 492 

Whitley, C. W 491 

Whittord. O'D. B 1866 

Whitney, G. C 1866 

Whyte. F. W. C 1865 

Wibaux. P 482 

Wickham. G. J 1301 

Wickes. T. A 1300 

Wickes. G. T 484 

Widmer. J. A 1442 

Widmyer. J. R 485 

Wiedeman. G. J 486 

WiPderhold. J. A 963 

Wiegand, G. E 1302 

Wight, A 1867 

Wight. J. M 1303 

Wigmore. J. C 965 

Wilcomb, A. J 964 

Wiley, H. B 487 

Wilhart, J 1512 

Willett. D 1443 

Willett, H. F 1869 

Williams, C 1868 

Williams, C. E 965 

Williams. D. T 1870 

Williams, G. L 1444 

"Williams. H 968 

Williams, J. W 966 

Williams, R. H 971 

Williams, T. A 489 

Williams, W 1875 

Williamson, E 1868 

Wills, S. M 1870 

Willson, L. S 1S71 

Wilson, A. C 1873 

Wilson, E. T 490 

Wilson, F 1303-1874 

Wilson, G. H 1872 

Wilson, G. R 1288 

Wilson, P 487 

Wilson. W. C 1504 

Wininger. McC 1875 

Winslow. H. 1 1306 

Winslow. J. 1 1876 

Winter. C 971 

Winters. H 1877 

Winter. J. D 1876 

Winters. D. J 1609 

Wipt, C 1877 

Wirth. H. J 501 

Witt. H. J 1878 

Wolfe, H. E 1305 

Wolfe, N. A 1873 

Wolverton. W. W 970 

Wommelsdorf. E 1306 

Wood. G. R 1307 

Wood. W. F 1878 

Woodbury. L. S 493 

Woods. E. P 1307 

Woods. J. C 1600 

Woods. T. G 1592 

Woodson. J. A 1444 

Woodworth. G 967 

Woodworth. J. E 972 

Woody. F. H 1128 

Wooldridge. W. M 1874 

Woolman, J. P 494 

Word, R. L 498 

Word, S 495 

Word. W. F 498 

Worden. E. J 1472 

Wormser. A 499 

Wortman. L 973 

Worwood. W 502 

Wright. A. F 501 

Wright. C. E 503 

Wright. F. E 22 

Wright. W. M 1716 

Wylip. C, P 505 

Wvlie. W. W 974 

Wiierl. G 1879 

Yaeger. F. A 1308 

Yegen Bros 1879 

Toder. A. N 1879 

Yund. J. A 1310 

Young. J 1309 

Young. J, L 975 

Young. J. R 1880 

Young. S 1880 

Young. W. H 1881 

Young. W. S 1313 

Zook. J. 1 977 

Zortman. O. P 1881 


Adams, J. C 553 

Babcock, A. L. 57 

Baker, W. 1 401 

Balliet, S. A 393 

Barnes, H. H U44 

Barnes, J. P 137 

Barret, A. H 161 

Beattie, W. M 872 

Bell, R. A 321 

Blake, H. N 233 

Birkenbuel, W 1592 

Blessing, S. V 873 

Black, C. W 1584 

Blair, J. W 417 

Bonner, B. L 920 

Boyar, J. J 888 

Boyer, W. J 889 

Buford. S. R 369 

Bull, E. W 881 

Bull, F. W 881 

Bullard, M 193 

Burgess, H. C 928 

Burgess, S. J 75 

Brady, T. E 560 

Brondel, J. B 81 

Browne, D. G 425 

Brosnan, F. W 568 

Brundy, H 648 

Campbell, A. J 87 

Campbell, J. B 1096 

Campbell, Sarah A 1097 

Cannon, C. W 433 

Caplace, J 353 

Cardwell, E 305 

Carter, J. W 449 

Catlln, J. B 361 

Cave, A 129 

Chowen, H. C 744 

Clancy, W 784 

Clark, W. A U04 

Clarke, A. G 153 

Clarkson, R. H 1616 

Clowes, W. E 584 

Coburn, R 201 

Conrad, C. E 904 

Conrad, W. G 49 

Cook, C. W 576 

Cooper, W 441 

Cort, W. E 800 

Cowan, G. F 808 

Cruse, T 41 

Dahler. C. L 313 

Daly, M 17 

Davis, A. J 121 

DeLacy, W. W 409 

Dell, F 968 

Dinsmore, S 1360 

Dols, J. J 513 

Early Life in Montana.. 688 

BUing, H 65 

Bills, W. H. H 760 

Bnnis, W 225 

Erickson, N. M 345 

Evans, H. D 1,576 

Fallang, P. 824 

Fergus, J 9 

Fitzpatrick, J. F 896 

Fletcher, J. T. P 816 

Ford, R. S 145 

Ford, S 528 

Foster, H. W 840 

Galen, H. P 169 

Gans, H 377 

Gibson, N 1576 

Gibson, P 113 

Gloyd, A. E 385 

Gooch, E. H 984 

Goodell, C. M 1603 

Gorham. R. F 1576 

Graves, F. L 600 

Grigg, T. A 752 

Gruwell, C. 457 

Hamilton, L. H 768 

Hamilton, R. S 241 

Haskell, E. K 473 

Harris, J. S 465 

Harrison, H. C 864 

Hauser, 8. T 202 

Healy, M. J 1000 

Hedges, C 1 

Heeb, H 992 

Heiserman, G 1440 

Hill, R. C 1432 

Hoffman, C. W 249 

Hollensteiner, A 952 

Holter, A. M 217 

Huggins, E. R 976 

Hunt, T. B 329 

Isdell, N. J 776 

Kennedy, J. H 848 

Kent, T 960 

Kingsbury, A. W 257 

Kinna, J 1136 

Kleinschmidt, A 856 

Ladd, C. D 944 

Lapham, H. B 1304 

Lamme, B. B 616 

Largey, P. A 265 

Larson, J 1072 

Latimer, J. R 481 

Leslie, P. H 177 

Lehfeldt, J 1496 

Leland, J. W 1616 

Lewis, Frank 1123 

Lewright, J 1296 

Lewright, B 1296 

Lindsay, W 297 

Lisa, S. R 1056 

Lloyd, J. E 337 

Lohman, A. S 1064 

Lockey, R 936 

Lytle, R. R 1016 

McConnell, N. W 273 

McConnell, O. W 792 

McFarland, W. T 1456 

McLean, K 1040 

McMillan, A 1312 

Mantle, L 209 

Matthews, W. S 747 

Mendenhall, C. B 1152 

Metzel, A 73 

Milot, H. A 1024 

Montana State Capitol, 


Moore, J. M 1160 

Morgan. W 1088 

Morris, W. W 545 

Murphy, J 1448 

Murphy, J. T 105 

Mussigbrod, P. S 1168 

Norris, M 1608 

Nottingham, H. A 1080 

Noyes, J 488 

O'Hanlon, T 1032 

Orr, W. C 346 

Often, H 1048 

Palladino, L. B. B 632 

Parberry, W 1176 

Pemberton, W. T 89 

Pepin, S 1184 

Phillips. I. L 505 

Poindexter, P. H 496 

Power, J. W 289 

Power, T. C 912 

Quinn, B 1520 

Reese, J. E \212 

Reynolds, S. J 1200 

Roe, 1 1132 

Rodgers, W. B 391 

Richards, J. D 1208 

Russell, C. M 1320 

Sanders, W. F 32 

Sappington, H. H 1336 

Savage, J. A 1216 

Shaffer, E.J 411 

Selway, J 406 

Siegling, G. C. H. L 1853 

Shafer. D. L 1456 

Smith, F. E 1328 

Smith, J. M 1112 

Spencer, A 1224 

Steele, W. L 1248 

Stephens, F 1232 

Steward, J. M 1240 

Story, N 1256 

Tebay, J. F 1272 

Thrasher. I. W 1624 

Thompson, J. S 1264 

Toole, J. K 25 

Toole, E. W 281 

Trafton, R. M 1352 

Travis, G 1384 

Travis, J 1344 

Truman, A 1376 

Tuttle, D. S 520 

Ulm, W 1392 

Voight, A. J 1853 

Wallace, R. B 1401 

Wedsworth, A 1408 

Wegner, J. P 1280 

Wetzel, J. B 1416 

Weydert. P. C 1424 

Whitefoot, R. M 1464 

Whitford. G'D. B 537 

Wilhart, J 1512 

Williams. J. W 966 

Wilson, G. R 1288 

Wilson, W. C 1504 

Winters, D. J 1608 

Woods, J. C 1592 

Woods, Thos. G 1692 

Woodv. F. H 1128 

Worden, E. G 1472 

'^<^^'^^^r:<^ U^C^^yjZj', 





J prominent men whose Hves and characters 
are familiar to almost every householder in 
Montana, Judge Hedges stands out clear and sharp. 
The lives of some shine out as grand examples of 
prosperity and success achieved through the various 
channels of industry; by wonderful accomplish- 
ments in the realms of scientific research; in the 
forum, or through the medium of special qualities 
which leave an impress upon the tablets of memory 
that will live forever. In reviewing the life of Judge 
Hedges the latter thought seems particularly appro- 
priate. He is not the man who seeks to blazen his 
deeds for personal gratification, or from motives of 
ambition to perform some act that would mark him 
for a time as a central figure. On the contrary, he 
is recognized as a splendid type of that manhood 
which the infinite Creator made it possible for all 
men to be. To those who know him best, and for 
years have watched the growth and development of 
that inward greatness which is his and is felt when 
in his presence, though unseen, the beauty of his 
character is more thoroughly understood and the 
marvel is that nature seldom makes a man like him. 
Cornelius Hedges is a lineal descendant of Eng- 
lish ancestors on both sides of his house. Their 
first settlement in America was on Long Island, but 
thev early removed to New England and estab- 
lished themselves in Massachusetts. His father, 

Dennis Hedges, was a farmer in comfortable cir- 
cumstances and a native of Middletown, Conn., but 
subsequently moved to Westfield, Hampden county, 
Mass., where Cornelius was born, October 28, 1831. 
The mother of Cornelius was Alvina Noble, the 
daughter of a Revolutionary soldier, and was born 
in Westfield, Mass. After ten years' residence in 
Montana the Judge returned to his native state to 
attend the golden wedding of his parents. They 
have both passed into the great beyond, the father 
at the age of seventy-six and the mother seventy- 
four. Cornelius Hedges received his elementary 
education in the public schools, continued his 
studies in an academy in his native town, and later 
entered Yale College, from which he was graduated 
in 1852 with the degree of A. B., receiving that of 
A. M. two years later, the class embracing many 
young men who became distinguished in after 
years. During his freshman year he was obliged to 
omit one term on account of severe illness, resulting 
from drinking poisoned milk. He did not entirely 
recover from its effects until he crossed the plains 
a few years later, walking the enti'-e distance from 
Independence, Iowa, to Virginia City, Mont. Dur- 
ing his college days he was a inember of the Delta 
Kappa and Delta Kappa Epsilon societies. The 
year following his graduation he taught in an acad- 
emy at Easton, Conn., and then returned to his 
home in Westfield, where he began the study of law 


in the office of Hon. Edward B. Gillette. The fol- 
lowing year he entered the law department of 
Harvard College, and the same year was admitted 
to the bar on examination before the supreme court 
of Massachusetts. In 1856 he went to Independ- 
ence, Iowa, opened an office and began the practice 
of his profession. While there he secured an inter- 
est in the Independent Civilian, which he published 
and edited for several years. In 1864 he decided to 
go farther west and made the journey over the 
plains on foot to Virginia City and thence to Hel- 
ena, Mont., where he has since resided. In 1866 
he went to Iowa for his family, going down the 
Missouri and returning the following spring by 

The career of the Judge since his location in 
Montana has been an active one. He took a promi- 
nent part in the early development of the state, his 
activities extending to every sphere of usefulness 
wherein his abilities would redound to the general 
good. In 1865 he was appointed United States dis- 
trict attorney, and afterward elected probate 
judge of Lewis and Clarke county, serving five' 
years. In 1872, after the adoption of the territorial 
school law, he was appointed superintendent 
of public instruction, and served six years. 
For several years his trenchant pen was 
employed in editorial work on the Helena 
Herald, and served to strengthen the Repub- 
lican sentiment throughout the state, although 
the party was in the minority. He represented 
Lewis and Clarke county in the senate dur- 
ing the first session of the legislature of Montana, 
held in 1889, and served for four years. Among 
the benefactions' to the city of Helena which will 
ever remain as a mark of his thoughtfulness is the 
Helena Public Library, of which he was one of the 
founders in 1868, is now president of the board of 
directors and has been for nearly the whole period 
of its existence. 

In 1870 Judge Hedges was one of the Washburn 
party that visited the geyser region on the Yellow- 
stone, and it was he who made the suggestion that 
a national park should be made of that section so 
replete with evidence of the sublime grandeur of 
nature, the like of which can not be found in any 
part of the world. On that occasion he was con- 
stantly in the saddle for forty days. Judge Hedges 
has been connected for many years with the Mon- 
tana Historical Society. In his fraternal rela- 
tions the Judge became a member of the Masonic 
order in Iowa, in 1857, and his prominent work in 

Masonry is a record that is not only interesting, 
but somewhat unusual. From the organization of 
the Grand Lodge in iMontana in 1866, he has writ- 
ten its correspondence reports with but little inter- 
ruption ; also for the Grand Chapter and Grand 
Commandery since organization. The importance 
of this may be better understood by stating that 
these reports go all over the world — wherever a 
Masonic body exists. 

Prior to the Civil war the Judge was a Demo- 
crat, but that event made him a RepubHcan, 
stronger than ever and in full accord with the 
party on expansion in the Philippines and else- 
where. In the legislative session of 1899, Montana 
was noted for the long-drawn-out contest between 
the Clark and Daly factions. The name of Judge 
Hedges was announced, placing him in nomination 
for United States senator, and he received the 
hearty support of his own party. His son, Wyllys 
A., a member of the house, feeling that delicacy 
which springs from honorable impulses, refrained 
from voting; but after the earnest solicitation of 
his associates consented, and thus made the party 
vote unanimous. It will be remembered that there 
were four Republican representatives who did not 
vote for Mr. Clark, and Wyllys A Hedges was one 
of the four, and was re-elected to the house in 1900. 
Prior to becoming a resident of Montana the 
Judge was a member of the Congregational church, 
but for the want of such an organization in Helena 
he united with the Presbyterians, and is an elder in 
that body. On July 7, 1856, he was married to 
Edna Layette Smith, of Southington, Conn. They 
have been the parents of eight children, two boys 
and one girl died in early youth. Those living are : 
Wyllys Anderson, a sheep-grower in Fergus coun- 
ty ; Henry Highland, a stockman in Valley county ; 
Cornelius, Jr., living at home, is assistant secre- 
tary of the Grand Lodge of Masons ; Edna Cornelia 
is at home ; and Emma, now Mrs. John M. Wood- 
bridge, resides in Boston, Mass. 

In the career of Judge Hedges there is much be- 
neath the surface of his calm and dignified char- 
acter which can only be known by those who have 
been most intimate with him. The key to his life 
mav possibly be found as based upon Aristotle's 
definition of virtue — 

"Rule one's life by the highest principle of right." 
That he has been so governed can not be gain- 
said by any. He will leave no act to mar the sym- 
metry of a pure and honorable life to which it is to 
be hoped many years may yet be added. 


WILLIAM N. ABBOTT.— A native son of the 
west and a representative of one of the early 
pioneers of the Pacific coast, this successful 
business man of Fergus county was born in Doug- 
glas coimty, Ore., on the 17th of January, 1855, 
being the son of James A. and Ann M. Abbott, both 
of whom were natives of Indiana. Thence they were 
pioneers of Oregon in 1852, and later became resi- 
dents of Idaho. The father possessed marked indi- 
viduality and sterling character, and was prominent 
and influential in the northwest. He was engaged 
in flour milling in early manhood. After coming to 
Oregon he was first an agriculturist and later a 
merchant. As a Democrat he took active part in 
public affairs. He was for four years judge of pro- 
bate in Oregon, and a representative of Josephine 
county in the lower house of the first territorial leg- 
islature of Idaho. He and his wife were members 
of the Christian church. He died on the 7th of Jan- 
uary, 1872, thus closing a life of signal honor and 
usefulness. His wife survives him, living in Belle- 
vue, Idaho. Of their eleven children seven survive : 
Foley, William N., Laura A., Asahel S., Mary J., 
Edmund L. and Eugene D. 

William N. Abbott received his education in the 
public schools of Oregon, and after assisting his 
father until he had attained the age of eighteen 
years, turned his attention to prospecting and min- 
ing. At this attractive labor he continued for fif- 
teen years, being employed of others for a portion 
of the time. He met with fair success in mining, to 
which he gave the greater part of his time until 
1888. He then came to ^lontana and Fergus coun- 
ty, where he took up a homestead claim of 160 
acres. This was the nucleus of his .present ranch 
property, which lies three miles south of Utica and 
comprises 800 acres. A portion of the land is under 
effective cultivation, but the principal feature of his 
ranch is raising high grade cattle. In 1901 Mr. 
Abbott engaged in the meat, fruit and produce busi- 
ness in Utica, which he also successfully conducts. 
Mr. Abbott takes a public-spirited interest in the 
prosperity of his county and state, and exercises 
his franchise as a Democrat. . Fraternally he is iden- 
tified with the Woodmen of the World. 

On the 1st of April, 1885, Mr. Abbott was united 
in marriage to Miss Margaret Murphy, who was 
born in the Dominion of Canada, the daughter of 
Patrick and Sarah Murphy, the former of whom 
was born in 'Ireland and the latter in Canada. 
James Murphy passed his later years near Utica, 
Mont., where his death occurred on the 15th of 

January, 1889. His wife is now residing on the 
homestead, which adjoins that of Mr. Abbott. He 
was a Democrat, and both he and his wife were zeal- 
ous members of the Catholic church. Of their 
seven children four are now living : Margaret, Ella, 
James and Richard. Mr. and Mrs. Abbott have 
had three children, of whom Orville A. died in early 
infancy. Harry D. and Cecil M. remain at the pa- 
rental home. Mrs. Abbott is a communicant of the 
Catholic church, and is consistent and faithful in 
the performance of her religious duties, as in all 
of life's relations. 

DR. FRANCIS J. ADAMS, one of the leading 
physicians and surgeons of Great Falls, Mont., 
unlike the majority of the citizens of this 
commonwealth, came here from the \Vest in- 
stead of the East. He was born at Fort Crook, Cal., 
on December 16, 1859. John Adams, his father, 
was emphatically a military man. In 1842 he was 
appointed to West Point from Tennessee, and in 
this national academy he gained high honors. At 
the breaking out of the Mexican war he joined the 
Second United States Dragoons as second lieuten- 
ant and served with Gen. Scott through the cam- 
paigns preceding the fall of the city of Mexico. 
Following the memorable battle of Cherubusco for 
bravery he was promoted first lieutenant and after 
the battle of Monterey he was made captain. The 
eminent Col. W. S. Harney, who commanded his 
regiment, later became a major-general and gained 
military distinction in the Civil war. After the 
Mexican war, John Adams, as a member of the 
First United States Cavalry, served in New Mexico, 
Nevada and northern California against the In- 
dians, still holding the rank of captain, and later he 
was on the official staff of Gov. Ramsey of Minne- 
sota. In 1 861 Capt. Adams resigned his commis- 
sion in the United States army, returned to Ten- 
nessee and organized a regiment for the Confeder- 
ate service. He served with Joe Johnston through 
the Atlanta campaign, was commissioned brigadier 
general and was killed at the battle of Franklin, 
Tenn. He left four sons and two daughters, all 
now living. He was married at Fort Snelling, 
Minn., in 1854, to the daughter of Brig.-Gen. 
Charles McDougall. a hero of the Black Hawk 
and Seminole Indian wars. Later as a physician 
and surgeon he served through the war of the 


Rebellion as the chief surgeon of the Army of the 
Tennessee. He died at Fairfax, Va. 

Dr. Francis Joseph Adams, after attending 
Washington University at St. Louis, matriculated 
at Georgetown College in the District of Colum- 
bia, from which he was graduated in 1881. For 
several years after leaving college he was acting 
assistant surgeon in the regular army, stationed at 
Fort Hamilton, L. I., and Fort Adams, Newport. 
In 1883 he was transferred to Montana and, in 1887, 
was ordered to join an expedition against the Crow 
Indians, on the staff of Gen. Ruger, and remained 
in the service until the close of 1887, stationed at 
Fort Assinniboine. In that year he became an 
assistant instructor in a post-graduate school at 
St. Louis. This position he resigned in 1889 and 
came to Fort Benton, Mont. He was ac- 
quainted with Dr. Atkinson of that place, with 
whom he remained until 1890, when he was mar- 
ried with Miss Alice Conrad, daughter of Col. J. 
W. Conrad, of Virginia, and made his home at 
Great Falls. Here, in 1893, Dr. Adams assisted 
in the erection of the first hospital of the city. This 
was later sold to the Columbus hospital, and for 
several years thereafter he was surgeon of that in- 
stitution. In 1896 he organized a training school 
for nurses in connection with the hospital. This 
was the first to be incorporated in the state. 
In 1898 he was made surgeon, ranking as major, 
of the First Montana Volunteers, organized for 
service in the Spanish-American war, and accom- 
panied them to the Philippines, where he was on 
the staffs of Gens. Wheaton, Otis and Funston, 
and promoted to brigade surgeon. At the battle 
of Palo on March 25, 1898, he was slightly wound- 
ed in the leg, and for bravery in action in the Phil- 
ippines the Sons of the American Revolution pre- 
sented him with a handsome medal. He returned 
to the United States in October, 1899. Dr. Adams 
is a prominent member of the State and Northern 
Montana Medical Societies, The American Med- 
ical Association and the Society of Acting Assist- 
ant Surgeons, U. S. A. Politically he has been a 
lifelong Democrat, and was a delegate from Mon- 
tana to the Nashville exposition. Dr. Adams is a 
member of the Sons of the Revolution and of the 
Aztec Club of 1847, which is composed of officers 
and sons of officers who served in the Mexican 
war. A number of years since he took a post- 
graduate course in the New York Polytechnic 
School, and since 1899 has been in active profes- 
sional practice at Great Falls. 

C RANCIS ADKINSON.— One of the represen- 
1 tative barristers of Helena, his precedence at 
the bar having been gained by the studious ap- 
plication of his talents and discriminating knowl- 
edge of the law, coupled with a marked pragmatic 
ability, Francis Adkinson has also served in the 
important capacity of register of the land office in 
Helena, the duties of which position he discharged 
with ability. He was born in Switzerland county, 
Ind., November 14, 1839, the son of Samuel and 
Jane (McHenry) Adkinson, both natives of Penn- 
sylvania, as were also their ancestors for several 
generations, both belonging to old colonial fam- 
ilies. The great-grandfather of Francis, in the ag- 
natic line, was in active service during the Revolu- 
tion, while his son, Joseph Adkinson, became a resi- 
dent of Indiana as early as 1817, there engaging in 
farming until his death, in 1838. Samuel Adkinson 
was likewise a farmer in the Hoosier state, where 
he passed a long and useful life, his death occurring 
in 1873. 

Francis Adkinson attended the public and select 
schools in the vicinity of his Indiana home, and 
early in life he determined to prepare himself for 
the legal profession, and forthwith began reading 
law, devoting himself zealously to his studies and 
so acquiring knowledge of the science of jurispru- 
dence as to gain admission to the bar of Indiana in 
i860. He at once entered upon legal practice in his 
native county, and was thus engaged for three 
years, after which he went to Lawrenceburg, Ind., 
which continued to be his home and base of pro- 
fessional endeavor until 1883, and within which 
time he had served four years as judge of the court 
of common pleas for the Lawrenceburg district. 
His (Republican) party placed him in nomination 
for and elected him to the office of prosecuting at- 
torney of his county, and in this office he served two 
years. In January, 1882, Mr. Adkinson received 
from President Arthur the appointment of register 
of the United States land office at Helena, where 
he arrived in 1883, assuming and effectively dis- 
charging the duties of his office the two and one- 
half years, his incumbency terminating in No- 
vember, 1885. 

Judge Adkinson was so impressed with the at- 
tractions and advantages of Montana that he de- 
cided to remain here and Helena has since been his 
home and he controls a large and representative 
business as one of the leading members of the 
Montana bar. In his political proclivities the 
Judge has ever rendered the stanchest allegiance to 
the Republican party and its principles and was del- 


egate to the Republican national convention held in 
Chicago in 1880. 

In i860, in Indiana, was solemnized the marriage 
of Judge Adkinson to Miss Fannie A. Roberts, who, 
like himself, is a native of the Hoosier state. 

REV. HONORE B. ALLAEYS, now pastor oi 
the Catholic church of Bozeman, Mont., was 
born in Belgium near the city of Ypres, on 
July 4, 1857. His parents were Peter J. and Coleta 
R. (Morlion) Allaeys, natives of Belgium, who 
passed their lives in that country. Peter J. Al- 
laeys was a teacher and during all his mature life 
he followed the honorable profession of an edu- 
cator. He died in 1861 and was survived by his 
wife for many years, she dying in 1880. Six of 
their seven children are living, two in the United 
States. The Allaeys family can be traced back 
for several centuries, the majority of its genera- 
tions being farmers. Father Allaeys received his 
early education under the instruction of his father 
and then entered the Dixmude College and subse- 
quently the Rouselare College, eminent educa- 
tional institutions of West Flanders, remaining 
there six years. In 1878 he entered the celebrated 
Seminary of Bruges and diligently applied him- 
self for four years to his theological course, for it 
had been decided that he was to enter the priest- 
hood. Completing the course in 1882 he was then 
ordained and for eight years was in educational 
and religious work, bfeing a professor of the class- 
ics in the Mouscron College of West Flanders, and 
passing three years in parish work. 

In 1888 Father Allaeys came to the United 
States, where he was assigned to Frenchtown, 
Mont., remaining there five years. In 1893 he 
was assigned to Anaconda, where he passed five 
years more, first going to Great Falls in 1898. 
During a portion of this period he had charge of 
the church at Belt in Cascade county. He also 
organized the two missions of Kalispell and Col- 
umbia Falls. In all of these stations he showed 
great diligence, untiring energy and the devotion 
so characteristic of the Catholic clergy of Montana. 
In Great Falls he zealously and energetically com- 
menced the erection of a new church, combining 
in the successful accomplishment of the objects 
of his endeavors, not only the energetic zeal of a 
clergyman, but also the biisii;rss acumen and 

financial ability of a representative leader of mone- 
tary circles. The church there now has a mem- 
bership of 3,000, and it is undeniable that he ac- 
complished great beneficial results in his field of 
labor at Great Falls, as under his clerical super- 
vision the membership increased to over 300 fam- 
ilies, representing a total enrollment of some 3,000 
communicants. Possessing superior executive 
ability, as well as fine oratorical powers, he has, 
during his useful and eventful life in this young 
commonwealth, won universal esteem and confi- 
dence, regardless of creed or class. In August, 
1 90 1, he was transferred to Bozeman, where he is 
continuing his good work with the same success 
that has followed his exertions in all other places. 
To him has been entrusted a wide field of labor, 
and the conscientious devotion and unassuming, 
but winning kindness he manifests in his duties is 
worthy of and receives the highest commendation. 

W^ ILLIAM A. ALLEN, D. D. S.— An attempt 
to narrate, even in epitome, the incidents 
which have characterized the career of the 
honored Montana pioneer, Dr. W. A. Allen, would 
transcend the normal province of this work, yet it 
would be culpable neglect were there failure to ad- 
vert to their more saHent details, for he stands as 
one of the founders of Billings, as a leading stu- 
dent of natural history and as a writer oi 
authority on the flora and fauna of the state. He 
is a veteran hunter and such journals as the Turf, 
Field and Farm esteem him as a valuable corre- 
spondent. Born in Summerfield, Noble county, Ohio, 
on Sept. 2, 1848, he is a son of Robert T. and 
Rachel (Guiler) Allen, the former of whom was a 
son of John and Mary (Blundle) Allen. This John 
Allen was a son of Sir John Allen, of England, and 
a cousin of Ethan Allen, of Ticonderoga fame. 
He was early a seafaring man, but later engaged 
in farming. The mother of the Doctor was a 
daughter of William and Mary (Franklin) Guiler, 
the former of whom was born in Ireland, while the 
latter was a cousin of Benjamin Franklin, the 
printer, philosopher and diplomat. 

WilHam A. Allen has for many years been a 
loading dentist of Montana, with home office in 
Billings. When he was twelve years of age, in 
1866, he entered the normal school in his native 


town, where he continued his studies for a time, 
after which he gave attention to the blacl<smith 
trade until 1877, also working as a gunsmith, and 
showing marked mechanical talent. Early in 1877 
he set forth for Dakota and the Black Hills. At 
Speariish he joined a party of 250 persons and on 
the way they were attacked by Indians, and seven 
men and one woman were killed in the attack. 
The party eventually was diminished to 154 per- 
sons and fifty wagons, over which Dr. Allen was 
placed as captain, and it proceeded on its way to 
Bozeman, Mont. The Doctor had selected a party 
and gone in pursuit of the attacking Indians and 
overtook them in the night, and the next morning 
gave evidence of the death of eleven savages. While 
he was thus absent from the train, eight wagons 
had left it and started for Red Water crossing, 
where they were surrounded by the Indians and 
held in a perilous position until after the Doctor's 
party had returned to the train. With twenty 
men the Doctor hastened to relieve them, arriving 
about four o'clock in the morning. Quietly wait- 
ing until the savages charged on the train at day- 
break, they successfully repelled the attack and 
killed about a dozen Indians, the loss to the emi- 
grants being only one man killed and three wound- 
ed, one of the wounded being Dr. Allen. He later 
was wounded several times in Indian conflicts. 
On the return to the camp at Spearfish, Dr. Allen 
was made commander and he divided the train into 
four companies, headed by John Wustun, Hiram 
Bishoff, Capt. Patent and Capt. Houston, of Texas, 
the last having charge of the bull outfit. They 
went up Belle Fourche river, passing old Fort 
Reno, thence through Wyoming by the site of 
Buffalo and old Fort Kearney, thence up Goose 
creek, where one man was killed and two wounded 
by Indians. The party remained three days on 
the Custer battle-ground for a needed rest, and to 
give opportunity to examine the historic scene of 
the massacre, which occurred eleven months pre- 
viously. Some of the party remained in that lo- 
cality, while the others proceeded toward Wind 
river by Prior's pass and Sage creek to Stinking 
Water crossing, when another division occurred, 
some going to the Crow agency, while the others 
went on to Camp Brown and to Bozeman. Dr. 
Allen engaged in the blacksmith business in Boze- 
man, with Frank Harper, and later was 
blacksmith for the Bozeman & Miles City 
stage line, also acting as express messenger 
in the winter of 1877. He next was govern- 

ment blacksmith at Fort Custer, and in 1879 
he, in a skiff, went down Big Horn river to Fort 
Buford to meet his family, who came back -with 
him. He located on Canyon creek, engaged in 
stock raising and at his trade. In 1S82 he re- 
moved to Coulson, where he continued black- 
smithing for some months, when he removed to 
Billings, then a crude cluster of a few primitive 
cabins, and lie there erected the first house in the 
Yellowstone valley having a shingle roof. 

In order to perfect himself in dentistry, at which 
he had worked to some extent, Dr. Allen went 
to Chicago in 1884, where he took the full course 
at\the Chicago College of Dentistry, from which 
he was graduated. In 1896 he took a course in 
Haskell's Post-Graduate School of Dentistry, and 
he has since acquired a reputation as an expert 
dentist in both surgical and mechanical branches. 
In company with John L. Guiler Dr. Allen owns 
700 acres of valuable land on Clark's Fork, where 
they founded the town of Allendale, named in 
honor of Dr. Allen, and this they maintain by stip- 
ulation in the conveyances as a prohibition town. 
Here they have erected a roller process flour- 
ing mill operated by water power at a cost of fully 
$15,000. The Doctor is also largely interested in 
stock raising. Dr. Allen is an "old-timer," a man of 
honesty of purpose, who is charitable in his judg- 
ment of his fellow men and ever ready to aid those 
worthy of succor. In politics he supports the 
Prohibition party, in which he has been an active 
worker for years. In religion both he and his 
wife are Methodists. Robert T. Allen, a brother 
of the Doctor, has been engaged in the practice of 
law in Billings since 1882. In 1874, in Ohio, Dr. 
Allen was united in marriage to Miss Josephine 
Houston, daughter of John Houston, who died 
from disease contracted in the Union army of the 
Civil war. In 1887 Dr. Allen was married to Miss 
Mollie Finkelnburg, a daughter of Hon. A. Fin- 
kelnburg, of Fountain City, Wis. Her father rep- 
resented his county in both bodies of the Wiscon- 
sin legislature. Of the first marriage two children 
were born, William O. and Robert T., both of 
whom are associated with their father in the prac- 
tice of dentistry, and the only child of the second 
marriage is a daughter, Lelah. Dr. Allen is a 
typical westerner, enjoying the wild, free life of 
the early days and has had many thrilling adven- 
tures in his numerous hunting excursions, and has 
a record as an Indian fighter of distinction. He 
has in preparation a volume that will be of intense 


interest to every Montanian and of value to all 
other Americans,, from the light it throws upon the 
early life of the plains and its minute descriptions 
of the various animals then roaming over the vast 
expanse of mountain and plain. He is still in the 
dental practice in Billings and visits professionally 
the principal places of the state. 

J name of this member of Montana's judiciary 
will be readily recognized as one of the most 
eminent in the state. He is a leading and highly 
respected citizen of Bozeman, Gallatin county, and 
was born in Rockford, N. C, March 6,1849,3 son of 
Francis K. Armstrong, Sr., who was' born in Surry 
county, N. C., March 28, 1802, at that time a gentle- 
man of great wealth and prominence, owning a 
large hotel, plantation and much other property in 
the state, and distinguished in local politics, for sev- 
eral years being clerk of the district court, and hold- 
ing other offices of trust and importance. Financial 
reverses came, however, and with them a desire to 
seek rest and recuperation amid the more novel and 
exciting scenes of the far west. Accordingly, in 
the early fifties, he removed from North Carolina 
and located in St. Joseph, Mo., but later he went 
into Kansas and settled at Iowa Point, where he 
died in 1861, aged sixty years. He was a most 
excellent and honorable man, and was loved for his 
manly qualities of head and heart. The mother of 
our subject was Jerusha (Belt) Armstrong, also 
born in North Carolina, October 6, 1807, and died 
at Iowa Point, aged eighty-two years. She was the 
mother of seven children, five of whom are still 
living. Of these Francis K. Armstrong is the only 
one who adopted the profession of law. At the 
time of the decease of his father he was but twelve 
years old, but he realized something of the care of 
a home, for he immediately assumed the care of his 
mother. He also found time to attend the district 
school and finally the university at Highland, Kan. 
Mr. Armstrong then attended the law department 
of Columbia College, Mo., from which he graduated 
with high honors in 1875. Up to nineteen years of 
age he cared for his mother, worked on a farm and 
paid his own way through college. He began the 
practice of law at Troy, Kan., and later was asso- 
ciated with Albert Perry, the partnership continu- 
ing for two years. In January, 1879, ^^^- Arm- 

strong came to Bozeman, Mont., where he passed 
most of the year in looking over the ground. He 
then opened a law office and for a few months asso- 
ciated himself with Col. Ira Pierce. When that pro- 
fessional relation was dissolved by the death of Col. 
Pierce, he formed a copartnership with Judge 
Llewellyn Augustus Luce, further mention of whom 
appears in another portion of this volume. This 
was continued for a brief period, and he formed a 
partnership with Hon. Charles S. Hartman, which 
continued up to the time of the election of Judge 
Armstrong to the bench, in 1890. This responsible 
position he filled most acceptably up to the close of 
the nineteenth century, and he is now practically 
retired from the profession, having acquired a hand- 
some competence, aside from the high honors which 
he so richly deserves. 

The Judge was united in marriage on December 
2y, 1881, in Bozeman, to Miss Lora Lamme, a na- 
tive of St. Joseph Mo. To them were born three 
children, of whom one, Mabel, died at the age of 
six years. Two daughters, Lena and Edith, are liv- 
ing. Mrs. Armstrong's father, Achilles Lamme, 
was a very prominent citizen and early settler of 
Gallatin county, who came to Montana in 1864 or 
1865, and began practice as a physician. But in so 
new a country there was but little business for a 
doctor, and he soon turned his attention to mercan- 
tile pursuits, which he continued up to the time of 
his death. At that period he was the heaviest mer- 
chant in eastern Montana and prominently identified 
with the growth and development of the state. 
Although in the strictest sense a business man more 
than a politician, he served one term in the i\Ion- 
tana legislature. 

Judge Francis K. Armstrong has always taken an 
active interest in the political affairs of the day, 
locally and otherwise. Not that he sought office, but 
he found that he could not avoid the political duties 
that were forced upon him. All classes, from the 
humblest poor man to the wealthiest miner, stock- 
man or bondholder, knew him to be a man sans 
peuret sans reproche, of the strictest integrity, and 
of unassailable character. He accepted office for 
the best interests of his constituency and from the 
purest and most patriotic motives that could actuate 
a man. At a time when Montana consisted of but 
three judicial districts Judge Armstrong was prose- 
cuting attorney for one of them, with a deputy in 
each of the counties comprising the district. He 
also served as president of the territorial council, 
and while a member of the legislature he was 


speaker of the house. At the first state convention 
Judge Armstrong was nominated for the supreme 
bench, but was defeated, although he ran ahead of 
the ticket and was defeated by a small majority 
Gov. Toole at once appointed him judge of the 
Ninth judicial district, after which he was twice 
elected to the same position. Politically he has 
always worked and voted in the interest of the Dem- 
ocratic party. He has been a Democrat who voted 
the Democratic ticket, and has never utilized his 
political badge for dress parade purposes only. In 
the language of some of his warmest supporters, 
"every one knows where to find Francis K. Arm- 
strong." He is a man of commanding presence, 
kindly, yet dignified and courteous to all. Socially, 
financially and morally, he stands high among the 
leaders of Montana, and enjoys the esteem and 
friendship of a wide circle of business and personal 

HON. JAMES FERGUS.— While we can not, 
except in a relative sense, call anything in 
Montana old, or claim for it the sanctity of 
real antiquity, there has been crowded into the his- 
tory of the state and territory so much of heroic ef- 
fort and heroic achievement, so much that is daring 
and admirable, so much that is far-reaching and 
productive, that the annals of the section are as 
voluminous, and the mark of its triumph is as high 
as those of many places on which sits the majesty 
of centuries. Surely no race of men have ever any- 
where endured more, braved more or really accom- 
plished more, within the limits of human possibility, 
than the pioneers of this state, when the element of 
time is taken into the account even in a cursory 
way. And among the heroic figures of that noble 
class, no individual stands out more conspicuously 
or has a higher claim on our interest than that early 
pioneer of pioneers, the venerable James Fergus, 
a long time resident of the county which bears 
his honored name. 

Mr. Fergus is a native of Lanarkshire, Scotland, 
where he was born October 8, 1813. His father 
was a well-to-do farmer, owning some real estate — 
a rigid Presbyterian in faith and practice, his 
mother being more liberal in her spiritual views. 
Under this kind of home influence and with the 
advantage of the common schools as educators he 
passed the first nineteen years of his life, showing 
a constant disposition to do everything well that 

he undertook, and developing early a fondness for 
good books. Further than this, he received a thor- 
ough commercial education under the best instruct- 
ors. These characteristics of thoroughness, accur- 
acy and love of reading have distinguished him 
through life, becoming intensified as he grew 

At the age of nineteen, not seeing in his native 
land much chance for a young man to rise in the 
world, and longing for less restraint and more lib- 
erty and equality than he could find at home, im- 
pelled too, it may be, by the song of the siren that 
held out hopes of great reward for honest labor and 
frugality in the new country across the sea, he came 
to the United States by way of Canada, stopping 
three years in the latter country, and using the time 
to advantage in learning the trade of millwright. 
He passed his first summer in the United States 
working at his trade on a public work at Green 
Bay, Wis., passing from there to Milwaukee, Chi- 
cago, and on to Buffalo Grove, near Dixon's Ferry, 
where he spent the winter of 1836-7. While in Chi- 
cago he was offered 160 acres of land in what is 
now the heart of the city, at $8 an acre, partly on 

After this he worked at various places at his 
trade and in the foundry and machine business, the 
latter of which he was compelled to give up on ac- 
count of ill health, and thereafter was for some time 
a member of the firm of Wheelock & Fergus, early 
paper manufacturers at Moline, 111. 

In this connection it is well to note that in the 
city of Rock Island there stands a granite monu- 
ment erected to honor the memory of the pioneers 
of the great mechanical interests of that section of 
the state. And on one side of that great shaft 
prominently stands the name of James Fergus. 

About 1840 Mr. Fergus engaged in the construc- 
tion and operation of powder mills at Savannah, 111. 
In fact, during his mechanical life he constructed 
and improved all kinds of mills and machinery, 
never finding a mechanical problem that he could 
not readily solve nor a principle that he could not 
place into action. 

In 1854 he transferred his activities and energy 
to Minnesota, and after laying out the town of Lit- 
tle Falls in that state, and bridging the Mississippi 
at that point, thus adding greatly to the value of the 
town site, of which he owned five-twelfths, he be- 
came identified with Fergus Falls, of which he 
owned one-half. But as the enterprise did not 
prove as successful as he wished, he came further 


west, stopping in Colorado, until the report of gold 
discoveries in Montana, or Idaho as it was then, 
induced him to seek his fortune in the new field of 
promise. In 1862 he joined Capt. James L. Fisk's 
expedition, driving his own ox team from Little 
Falls, Minn., to Bannack, the first mining camp in 
Montana. He entered actively into mining opera- 
tions, and from his advent into the territory took 
a prominent place in its affairs and was looked up 
to as a safe counselor. He was the. first judge of 
the miners' court, the first recorder for Alder 
Gulch, or A'irginia City, and the first county com- 
missioner appointed in the territory, being ap- 
pointed for Madison county, in which Virginia City 
is situated. He afterward removed to Lewis and 
Clarke county, near Helena, where he enjoyed in a 
high degree the esteem and respect of his fellow 
men. He was elected and served two terms as com- 
missioner of this county, and represented the same 
constituency in the legislature one term. 

To Mr. Fergus must be given the credit of orig- 
inating the Yellowstone National Park. His per- 
sonal friend, Hon. Ignatius Donnelly, while serving 
as member of congress from Minnesota acted as 
agent for Montana in that body. To him ]\Ir. Fer- 
gus sent a letter suggesting the setting apart and es- 
tablishing a national park. Mr, Donnelly approved 
ot the idea and introduced the matter to congress. 
The bill creating the park was passed not long after 
on substantially the lines indicated by Mr. Fergus 
in his letter to Mr. Donnelly. 

Mr. Fergus had early engaged in the stock busi- 
ness, and realizing the necessity of controlling a 
wide range, about or nearly a quarter of a century 
ago, he located on Armell's creek in what was then 
Meagher, but is now Fergus county. Here has 
since been his home, in the center of a vast domain 
of land on which his flocks and herds have had wide 
ranges. He also has a patented mine — the Voltaire 
—in the Judith mountains, on which $20,000 has 
been expended. He represented Meager county 
in the first constitutional convention and aft- 
erward in the upper branch of the legis- 
lature. During this latter service he was 
influential in getting a new county set off 
from Meagher, which in compliment to him 
bears his name. The motion to call it Fergus re- 
ceived every vote in both branches of the legislature 
except his own. 

In political affiliation Mr. Fergus is a Republi- 
can, but in politics as in religious belief he is very 
liberal. Speaking after another who knows him 

well, it should be said that "his main characteristics 
are a natural aptitude for mechanical enterprises, 
a sturdy independence of thought, a strict integrity 
of purpose and a love for study and good books." 
He has the largest and best selected library belong- 
ing to any stock man in Montana, and as he has 
been an industrious reader of both American and 
foreign publications for many years, it follows that 
he is abreast with the day on all subjects of active 
thought. He was married !\Iarch 16. 1845, to Miss 
Pamelia Dillin, of ^loline. 111., where the marriage 
occurred. For nearly half a century she trod life's 
troubled way with him, and passed into eternal rest 
October 6, 1887. So far as there is credit in being 
a pioneer, Mrs. Fergus shared with her husband in 
that credit. This worthy couple had four children, 
namely, a son, Andrew, two daughters living at 
Helena, Mrs. R. S. Hamilton and Mrs. S. C. Gil- 
patrick, and one living in Washington county. Ore., 
Mrs. Frank H. Maury. 

At the organization of the Society of Montana 
Pioneers, Mr. Fergus was elected first president of 
the society, and upon taking the chair said: "I 
would rather occupy this position than be president 
of the LTnited States." At the annual meeting of 
this organization held at Missoula on October 3, 
1901, (eighteenth reunion) the "Sons and Daugh- 
ters of Montana Pioneers" presented Mr. Fergus 
with an elegant souvenir — a gold badge — in recog- 
nition and remembrance of his services as the first 
president of this society. And in writing of this 
organization and its first president. Captain James 
H. Mills said in the New Northzvest : "Mr. Fergus 
is a thoroughly honest man — the noblest work of 
God — in every sense of the word. His character is 
as sturdy as the mountains of his chosen home and 
his life as pure as the snows that tip their summits. 
May James Fergus be hailed in fellowship at many 
succeeding convocations of the pioneers." 

ELIJAH AMES is one of the representative 
farmers and stock growers of Beaverhead 
county, his finely improved ranch being lo- 
cated one and a half miles north of Grant, his post- 
office address. Mr. Ames is descended "from dis- 
tinguished old colonial stock, and the family has 
been prominently identified with the annals of New 
England for many generations. 

Elijah Ames is a native of the old Bay state, hav- 
ing been born in Marshfield, Mass., on October 26, 


1850, the fifth in order of birth of the nine children 
of Elijah and Sarah (Thomas) Ames, natives of 
Massachusetts, the father having there devoted his 
life to farming and to work at carpentering. Sarah 
(Thomas) Ames was also born in Marshfield, as 
was her father, he being a farmer by occupation, 
and it is a matter of record that he sold to Daniel 
Webster a house in which the great statesman 
made his home for some time and where he died. 
The great-grandfather of Mrs. Ames was Gen. 
Thomas of Revolutionary fame, and the house in 
which she was born and passed her youth was 
erected during the Revolutionary period. The 
Thomas family is descended in a direct line from 
John Alden, that notable character in the history 
of Plymouth colony, and the hero of Longfellow's 
beautiful poem. Mrs. Ames was of the seventh 
generation descended from this noble colonist. 

Elijah Ames, the immediate subject of this re- 
view, received a common-school education in his 
native state and was reared to the sturdy discipline 
of the New England farm. He there continued 
in agricultural pursuits until 1872, when he came 
to the west, locating in the vicinity of Cheyenne, 
Wyo., where he engaged in stock raising for ten 
years, at the expiration of which he came to Mon- 
tana and purchased his present ranch, most eli- 
gibly located in Beaverhead county and now com- 
prises 3,000 acres. Here he devotes his atten- 
tion to the raising of high grade beef cattle, run- 
ning an average of 3,000 head. He also secures 
large yields of hay from his ranch. He has been 
energetic and progressive in his methods, and his 
success stands in evidence of the advantages Mon- 
tana offers to men who have the energy to apply 
themselves vigorously. In 1900 Mr. Ames erected 
an attractive modern residence on his ranch, now 
one of the fine country homes of this section of the 
state, while all other improvements on the estate 
are of the best order. In politics Mr. Ames ob- 
serves the duties of citizenship by exercising his 
franchise in support of the Republican party, but 
has never sought nor desired official preferment. 

On Jan. 17, 1900, Mr. Ames was united in mar- 
riage to Miss J\Iay Sprague, a native of Marsh- 
field, Mass., and the daughter of Albert T. Sprague, 
a sea captain who sailed out of San Francisco for 
a number of years ; his father also having followed 
a seafaring life and was the first to carry the Amer- 
ican flag up the Black sea. The Sprague family 
was established in New England in the days of the 
Pilgrim fathers, and in the ancestral line were John 
Alden and Peregrine White. 

■\T7IMAN W. ANDRUS, M. D.— ■'Earn thy re- 
VV ward; the gods give naught to sloth," said 
the wise Epicharmus, and the truth of this 
saying has been verified in all the ages since his 
day. Dr. Andrus has won prestige through his 
own efforts, and is recognized as an able physician 
and a leading citizen of Allies City, where he is now 
holding the office of mayor. Dr. Andrus has been 
prominent in athletics, as a professional base ball 
player he acq^uired the money to defray the ex- 
penses of his collegiate technical course, and fitted 
him for his medical profession. Although des- 
cended from two old and influential families of 
New York, Dr. Andrus was born in Orono, Ont., 
Canada, on October 14, 1858. His father, Edson 
Andrus, was a native of New York, and there en- 
gaged in the sawmill and lumbering business. In 
1845 he removed to Ontario, Can., where he con- 
tinued the manufacture of lumber until his death. 
The Doctor's mother was Mary Ann Wiman, also 
of an old New York family. She is now living in 
Bowmanville, Ont. Of the three children in the 
family Dr. Andrus is the youngest and the only one 
of the family in Montana. 

Dr. Andrus received his early education in the 
public schools of Ontario, and he was engaged in 
teaching for four years, proving capable and suc- 
cessful. Fond of outdoor life and athletic sports, 
Dr. Andrus became specially skilled in the "Amer- 
ican national game," and in 1883 began playing 
professionally as a member of the Indianapolis 
team. In 1884 he played with St. Louis and Min- 
neapolis; in 1885 and 1886 with the Hamilton, 
Ont., team, in the International league. In 1887 
he was with the Portland, Me., team, the next year 
again with Hamilton, in 1889 and 1890 with Buf- 
falo, in 1891 with Manchester, N. H., and in 1892 
with Kansas City in the Western league. While 
thus engaged the Doctor was assigned to second 
base, shortstop or right field. During this period 
of labor he was saving his salary and accumulating 
the funds which he used in pursuing his studies in 
the medical department of Trinity College, at Tor- 
onto, Can., he attending school winters and play- 
ing ball during the regular base ball seasons. In 
1893 he was duly graduated from Trinity, receiv- 
ing the degree of 'SI. D. The same year of his 
graduation he came to ]\Iontana. and for eight 
months was associated in practice with Dr. Henry 
Chappel, of Billings. He then came to Miles 
City, in October, of the same year, and established 
a large and successful practice. He is recognized 
as a well-read and skillful physician and surgeon, 


who possesses the essential quahties and dispo- 
sition requisite for successful practice. Frater- 
nally Dr. Andrus rs a member of the lodge, chapter 
and commandery of the York Rite of Freemasonry ; 
of the Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent Protec- 
tive Order of Elks, the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, tjie Woodmen of the World, the 
Knights of the Maccabees and the American Order 
of Protection. In 1899 he was grand medical ex- 
aminer of the grand lodge of the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen of Montana, and socially he is 
identified with the Miles City Club. 

The Doctor has been an active factor in local af- 
fairs in the Republican party. In 1897 he 
was elected to represent the First ward on 
the board of aldermen of Miles City. He 
served one term, and in 1899 was elected mayor 
of the city, giving so efficient and economical an 
administration of municipal affairs as to be elected 
without opposition to a second term of office in 1901. 
He takes deep interest in the advancement and 
prosperity of his city, county and state, and his 
popularity demonstrates public opinion as to 
his character. He still indulges his love of outdoor 
sports, and usually makes a fishing trip to Canada 
each summer, thus renewing vigor for the ar- 
duous work of his profession. On the 20th of 
November, 1895, Dr. Andrus rnarried Miss Corma 
Ireland, who was born in Illinois and reared in 
Montana, the daughter of Allan Ireland, a former 
resident of Miles City, who is now dead. One 
child, Edson Andrus, born November 28, 1899, 
brightens their home. 

] OSHUA ARMITAGE.— Identified with a line 
J of industrial enterprise which has important 
bearing upon the material prosperity and the ad- 
vancement of any community, that of deal- 
ing in real estate, and recognized as one of the 
sterling pioneers of Montana, Mr. Armitage is a 
well known citizen of Butte. He is a native of 
"merrie old England," born in Yorkshire on August 
19, 1838, the son of Isaac and Ann Armitage, 
representatives of staunch old English lineage. 
Of their five children Joshua was the third in order 
of birth. Isaac Armitage for a number of years 
conducted blacksmithing and later he operated 
coal mines in Yorkshire. In 1841 he emigrated to 
the United States, passing one year in Pittsburg, 
Pa., and then going to Galena, 111., which was his 
home until his death, and his wife also died there. 

He also did much good work in the Primitive 
^Methodist church, in which he was a local 

Toshua Armitage was reared in Illinois, receiv- 
ing education from the public schools and learning 
blacksmithing from his father, and they were asso- 
ciated in the manufacturing of wagons. In i860, 
when his father determined to join the throng 
making its way across the plains to the supposed 
goldfields at Pike's Peak, Joshua, then a young 
man of twenty-two years, accompanied him to 
Colorado. They located at Mountain City, and 
engaged in the manufacturing and repairing of 
mining tools and implements. The father event- 
ually returned to Illinois, but from that early date 
the son has been identified with the west. He was 
successful as a mining blacksmith, continuing it 
until the summer of 1863, when he took a clerkship 
in a wholesale grocery at Denver, retaining this 
until fall, when he made the trip across the plains 
to Virginia City, Mont., and by this gained the 
title of being one of the pioneers of this state. He 
was accompanied by his family, and he engaged in 
the grocery and hardware business in Virginia 
City until the spring of 1867, when he went to the 
Salmon river mining district, and in the fall of 
1867 he located in Helena, where he conducted 
blacksmithing for three years. 

In 1864 he was a member of the noted vigilance 
committee of Virginia City, and upon coming to 
Helena he become chief of the vigilantes there and 
was in command of them in 1874 when the notor- 
ious desperadoes, Lecompte and Wilson, were hung 
for their many crimes. In 1870 Mr. Armitage was 
a stationary engineer in connection with deep dig- 

gings for placer-mining operations 

at Helena, and 

in the winter of 1870-71 he diversified his labors by 
teaching a singing school in Helena, then a mere 
mining camp. The following spring he was ap- 

pointed Indian agent at 

the Blackfoot agency, 

vnder the presidential administration of Gen. 
Grant, and served with signal efficiency until the 
fall of 1872, when he returned to Helena and was 
engaged in the grocery business until 1875. In 
1879116 became identified with the cattle mdustry 
near Fort Logan, Meagher county, but sold his 
interests in this fine in 1881 and returned to 
Helena. In 1882 he was engaged in mining at 
Wickes. Jefferson county, and in 1885 was chosen 
police magistrate in Helena, retaining this position 
until 1887, when he turned his attention to the real 


estate business which he conducted successfully in 
the same city until the spring of 1891, when he dis- 
posed of his business, then one of very consider- 
able magnitude. Mr. Armitage then devoted him- 
self to gospel temperance work until the fall of 
1892, when he located in Tacoma, Wash., for six 
months, when he went to his sons' ranch and 
assisted them in establishing a cattle business. 

In 1899 Mr. Armitage established a real estate 
business in Butte, associating himself with C. S. 
Jackson, as Jackson & Armitage. They have here 
built up a large business, their operations extending 
into all parts of the state, and upon their books 
are always represented most desirable investments. 
Their fair and honorable methods of business has 
gained for them a marked prestige, and their oper- 
ations are steadily increasing in importance. Mr. 
Armitage is interested in the Centennial Toledo 
mine, in Madison county, which promises to be a 
most valuable property. In politics he gives alle- 
giance to the Republican party, and it will be seen 
that he has always taken an active interest in 
insuring good government. He is an active church 
and temperance worker, and his zealous efforts 
have been fruitful of good results. He is a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian church, and is an elder of 
the church in Butte. In Ilhnois, in 1857, Mr. Ar- 
mitage was united in marriage with Miss Martha 
Argent, who was born in that state, the daughter 
o+' Daniel Argent, one of the pioneers of Illinois 
and an active participant in the Blackhawk war! 
Mrs. Armitage was a successful teacher before 
her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Armitage have had 
nine children, seven are living, and are well estab- 
Hshed in life and all save one are ranchers. Jesse 
A. is identified with mining in California. William 
A. and J. S. have cattle ranches in the Big Hole 
basin, Charles H., Rommel J. and George C. have 
cattle ranches on the Madison river. 

T OHX T. ATHEY, of Great Falls, Mont., ^s 
J clerk of the district court of the Eighth judicial 
district. Though born in Maryland on February 
14, 1843, since 1866 his life has been passed in the 
West and he has had a varied and active experience.. 
His parents, natives of Maryland, both died wh^u 
he was but three years old. His home following 
this sad event was for many years in Allegany 
county, Md., his birthplace, and here he attended 

the neighboring schools, and learned the trade of a 
tanner and currier, which he followed until the 
breaking out of the Civil war in 1861. He then 
enlisted in the Sixth West ^'irginia Infantry and 
served four years in some of the most arduous and 
exciting campaigns of the war, having re-enlisted 
in 1863 in the same company and regiment. His 
service was main!}- in West Virginia, where he was 
on detached service in the commissary department. 
He was mustered out as a second lieutenant. But 
his military service did not end with the Civil war. 
In 1866 he came to Fort Riley, Kan., and joined the 
Seventh United States Cavalry, in which he served 
four years fighting Indians in Texas and the Indian 
Territory, and later he was made commissary ser- 

In 1870 Mr. Athey began surveying in southern 
Kansas in the counties of Cowley and Sumner. He 
then entered the surveyor-general's office, at Fort 
Leavenworth, Kan., under C. W. Babcock, and re- 
mained there and in the chief engineer's office until 
1874. He was then appointed post trader at Fort 
Sully, Dak., continuing in this position until 
1877. He then removed to Sioux City, and was 
there two years, until 1879, when he joined the force 
under Tom Cummings, in the collector of customs' 
office at Fort Benton. The same year he went to 
Fort Walsh, Northwest Territory, with T. C. Power 
& Bro., to take charge of their business. The year 
1880 brought Mr. Athey into close relations with 
the late Col. C; A. Broadwater, for Col. Broadwater 
was then post trader at Fort Maginnis, and Mr. 
Athey was bookkeeper of the post until 1884. He 
then came to Sun river and took charge of a stock 
of goods for the Montana National Bank and in 
1890 he was at Armington, in Cascade county, for 
Col. Broadwater. 

In Arminaiton ]\Ir. Athey remained for six years 
in the faithful and efficient discharge of his duties 
and in 1896 he was elected clerk of the district court 
of the Eighth judicial district and was re-elected in 
1900. Mr. Athey was married in Kansas in 1872 to 
Miss Katy D. Clark, a native of Pennsjdvania. Two 
children are in their home, Harry R. and Lula B. 
Mi-. Athey is a Lincoln Republisan, having voted 
for the martyred president in 1864. He is promi- 
nently identified with the Great Falls lodge, chap- 
ter and commandery of the Masonic fraternity. 
This is the story of a busy life. It has been re- 
served for few men to fill so ample a space in the 
history of their country. It is a pleasure to note 
that at all times Mr. Athev has risen to the duties 



which have been his to perform and has overcome 
all obstacles. In both civil and military life he has 
satisfactorily accomplished the tasks assigned him. 
In Great Falls and throughout the state he numbers 
a host of warm personal friends. 

'Y HE CASCADE BANK, of Great Falls, Mont., 
1 was established April 24, 1889, incorporated 
iinder the laws of Montana, and among its corpora- 
tors were : S. E. Atkinson, Peter Larson, Jacob 
Switzer, Judge William Chumesaro, John J. Ellis 
and F. P. Atkinson. The original capital stock 
was $40,000, since increased to $75,000. The 
first officers were S. E. Atkinson, president ; F. P. 
Atkinson, cashier; W. W. Miller, assistant cashier ; 
Jacob Switzer, vice-president. Up to the present 
time these officers have been continued and, with 
the exception of Vice-President Switzer, they 
are now successfully operating the bank. 

In number of years of continuous business the 
Cascade Bank is today the oldest banking insti- 
tution in Cascade county. It was one of the few 
banks of Montana that successfully weathered the 
disastrous financial storm of 1S93 and 1894. The 
resources of the bank on January i, 1900, were as 
follows : 


Loans and discounts, $294,368.79; furniture and 
fixtures, $2,348.55; real estate, $6,033,18; county 
and city warrants, $30,027.58. Reserve — U. S. 
Bonds, $112,866.25; from other banks, $69,277.99; 
cash in vault, $53,142.65. Total, $568,064.99. 


Capital stock, $75,000.00; surplus, $15,000.00; 
undivided profits, less taxes and expenses, $9,- 
364.33 ;-demand deposits, $363,590.62 ; time depos- 
its, $105,110.04. Total, $568,064.99. 

The unqualified success of the Cascade Bank 
has been in the main largely due to the careful 
and judicious management of its officers. Each of 
them is thoroughly versed in his business and 
each of their financial careers has been such as to 
gain the confidence, not only of the local com- 
munity but of the business men throughout the 

Since 1878 S. E. Atkinson, president of the bank, 
has been identified with Montana banking institu- 
tions. He was born in the town of Carrollton, 

Ohio, on November 17, 1848, and traces his ances- 
tors in this country back to Stephen Atkinson, an 
Englishman, who emigrated to the colonies before 
the Revolution, and was a manufacturer of woolen 
goods in Maryland. His son, Isaac Atkinson, 
removed to Pennsylvania and thence to Ohio, 
where he was a pioneer settler of Carroll county. 
He too was a manufacKirer of woolen goods and 
served one term in the Ohio legislature. Isaac's 
son, Robert J. Atkinson, was born in western 
Pennsylvania. He became a prominent member 
of the Ohio bar, and served as third auditor of the 
U. S. treasury under the administration of Presi- 
dents Pierce, Buchanan and Lincoln. He married 
Miss Matilda Jackson, who bore him three sons 
and three daughters, all now living. His son, S. 
E. Atkinson, received his education in Ohio and at 
Columbian College, Washington, D. C, from 
which he was graduated in June, 1871. The same 
year he entered a law school, but the death of his 
father prevented him from completing the course 
oi study and the following six years he was em- 
ployed as assistant secretary of the Jefferson Fire 
Insurance Co., of Steubenville, Ohio. In 1878, on 
receipt of a telegram from his uncle. Gov. B. F. 
Potts (further mention of whom will be found in 
this volume), he came to Helena, Mont., and ac- 
cepted a position in the old First National Bank of 
that cit}'. Here he remained five years and upon 
the organization of the Montana National Bank 
of Helena he became its assistant cashier and for 
eight years ably discharged the duties of that posi- 
tion. In company with his brother, F. P. Atkin- 
son, he came to Great Falls in 1889. The organi- 
zation of the Cascade Bank soon followed, oi 
which he was chosen president and he is still serv- 
ing in that capacity. He continued his residence 
in Helena, however, until 1891. Since that period 
he has been a citizen of Great Falls and was hon- 
ored by Gov. J. K. Toole, who appointed him 
quartermaster general on his staff in ]\Iay, 1901. 

Mr. F. P. Atkinson, cashier of the Cascade Bank, 
is one of the best known banking men in Montana. 
L.ike his brother, he is a native of Ohio, born at 
Carrollton, on July 24, 1855. He completed his 
education at Columbian College, Washington, D. 
C, then passed some years in the oil regions of 
western Pennsylvania, operating in that section 
until 1887 when he came to Great Falls and took a 
position in the First National Bank and later be- 
came assistant cashier for two years. Since that 
period he has been with the Cascade Bank. Both 



of the brothers Atkinson are interested in sheep and 
mining in Cascade and adjoining counties, also in 
real estate in Great Falls. Their business opera- 
tions have brought them in contact with many 
leading men of Montana and by all who know them 
they are highly esteemed and deservedly honored. 

Falls has the largest flouring plant in the 
state. It was organized in 1892 with a 
capital stock of $100,000. The president is James 
A. Bell, of Minneapolis, Minn. ; vice-president, Wil- 
liam H. Dunwoody; secretary and treasurer, 
Charles J. Martin, of Minneapolis. The general 
manager of this extensive plant is William M. 
Atkinson, also of Minneapolis. In 1892 the mill 
was erected with a capacity of 300 barrels, which 
has since been increased to 400. In the manufac- 
ture of flour they use jMontana and Dakota wheat, 
the product finding a ready sale in Montana, Wash- 
ington and California. Air. Atkinson is a native of 
Chicago, 111. He was, however, reared and edu- 
cated in Minneapolis. In 1882 he entered the em- 
ployment of the Washburn-Crosby Milling Com- 
pany as office boy. Thence he followed, step by 
step, along the line of steady, promotion, until he 
arrived at the position of head salesman in 1892. 
He was then advanced to his present position of 
general manager of the Royal Milling Company. 
This compan}^ now employs fifteen men. It is erect- 
ing a two-story warehouse and with its collateral 
equipments the institution embraces an altogether 
superior plant, and the mill now supplies all the 
home trade. The company belongs to the National 
Millers' Association, and has branch warehouses at 
IJutte, Helena and Anaconda, and a large elevator 
and mill at Kalispell. The establishment is supplied 
with all modern improvements, rollers, bolters, etc. 
It can be pronounced one of the most successful 
business enterprises in Montana, and it is entirely 
just to say that this is owing very largely to the 
superior ability and sagacious business methods of 
Mr. Atkinson. 

JOSEPH C. AULD.— On the picturesque sea 
J coast of Maine lived John Auld, of lineage 
tracing back to many generations in Scotland, 
who was born in Boothby Harbor, which con- 

tinued his place of abode. There he grew to 
maturity, and took as wife Aliss Mary A. Holton, 
a native of the same maritime village. There they 
were living in 1856, when was born to them, on Sep- 
tember 16, a son, Joseph C. Auld. That 
son is now one of the worthy honored 
citizens of Helena. John Auld was a sea 
captain and later a lighthouse keeper on 
the Maine coast. The family was early established 
in the district of Maine, and records existing show 
that the great-grandfather of Joseph C. Auld did 
yeoman service in the Continental army of the 
Revolution. By reason of this Joseph C. Auld is 
entitled to and retains membership in the Sons cf 
the American Revolution. 

Joseph C. Auld passed his youth on the coast of 
Maine, receiving such educational advantages "as 
were afforded by the public schools. He early 
assumed personal responsibility, energy and am- 
bition being attributes of his nature. In 1872 he 
went to Boston and was connected with mercan- 
tile business until 1878, when he traveled to Iowa, 
where he was engaged in agriculture until 1881, 
when he came to Montana, settling at Glendive 
before the completion of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road to that place. He engaged in ranching and 
cattle raising for two years, then was' connected 
with the mercantile house of Douglas & Mead, 
of Glendive. In 1886 he was elected county 
treasurer of Dawson county, and was twice re- 
elected, serving six years in this responsible office. 
In 1887 he purchased a drug store in Glendive and 
continued the business while retaining the office 
of county treasurer. In 1892 Mr. Auld sold his 
store, and was identified with stock raising for four 

He was elected to represent his county in the 
Fourth general assembly of the legislature in 1895, 
and had the still more marked distinction of being 
elected to the state senate in 1886, a position which 
he resigned to accept a place on the U. S. mineral 
land commission, his jurisdiction being the Boze- 
man district. In 1897 he was transferred to the 
Helena district until the fall of 1900, when he 
resigned the office. Mr. Auld then engaged in 
and continues in the coal business in the capital 
city, where he also has his residence, and has built up 
a very satisfactory trade, and he is considered as 
one of the reliable and progressive business men 
of Helena. He still owns property in Bozeman, 
his former home. On August 20, 1885, Mr. Auld 
was united in marriage to Miss Lillian A. Chapin, 



who was born in Louisville, Ky., the daughter of 
J. L. Chapin, a native of the old Bay state, who 
served in a Massachusetts regiment during the 
Civil war. 

was born in Iowa, February 3, 1859, a daughter of 
Abram and Nancy (Lindville) Bolton, both natives 
of Mrginia. They have seven children, Willard, 
Iva, Grace. Elbert, Elma, Kathleen and Lloyd. 
Fraternally Mr. Axtell belongs to the Woodmen of 
the World. 

EDWARD AXTELL, an up-to-date stock- 
grower and rancher of Gallatin county, has 
by skill, industry and business ability demon- 
•strated nearly every form of the agricultural possi- 
bilities of Montana. In doing this he has brought, 
to bear superior intelligence, and his pronounced 
success is amply deserved and fully appreciated by 
his fellow citizens. In addition to his valuable 
ranch near Belgrade he owns a fine residence in 
Bozeman, and here the family dwells a portion of 
the year to afford the children the educational 
facilities of that city. Mr. Axtell was born at St. 
Catherine, Ontario, Can., on October 5, 1857, the 
son of William and Catherine (Phelan) Axtell. 
The father and paternal grandfather, Benjamin Ax- 
tell, were natives of Vermont, while his mother was 
born in Ireland. While a young man William Ax- 
tell removed from Vermont to Ontario, where he 
remained seven years, going thence to Illinois, 
where he passed ten years, and after a few years' 
residence in Iowa, came to Montana, in 1883, and 
located in Gallatin county. 

The school days Of Edward Axtell were passed 
in Iowa and Illinois, and he remained with his 
father's family until 1878, when he engaged in 
farming on his own account in Iowa for five years. 
He then removed to Montana, coming on the first 
railroad train that passed over the divide at Boze- 
man. Locating in Gallatin county, he first rented 
land, then secured a homestead, and now has a fine 
property of 700 acres, half of which is under irriga- 
tion, on which he harvests bounteous crops of 
wheat, oats, barley and hay. His stock includes 
large numbers of shorthorn cattle, Norman horses 
and Poland China hogs. He has one of'the finest 
farms in the county, with everything up-to-date, in- 
cluding a handsome residence and ample barns and 
ctitbouses. The result of his labors should be a 
stimulus to aspiring young farmers, for he arrived 
in Montana only a comparatively short time ago, 
possessed of little besides a sound physique and an 
abundance of push and energy, yet to-day he is one 
of the best types of the successful Gallatin valley 
farmer, possessing influence, a high integrity and 
being widely respected. On November 22, 1880, 
Mr. Axtell married with Miss Rosana Bolton, who 

FRANK B. AXTELL.— One of the able and 
popular young business men of Butte is Mr. 
Axtell, who was elected to represent Silver 
Bow county in the Seventh legislative assembly of 
Montana. He was born in Troy, Bradford county, 
Pa., on December 2, 1863, the son of Dr. Allen F. 
and Julia (Fitch) Axtell, natives respectively of 
Connecticut and Pennsylvania. Dr. Axtell was 
reared in Michigan, where he received his early 
education, thereafter completing a course of study 
in the medical institute of the college of Geneva, N. 
Y. In 1854 he engaged in the active practice of 
his profession at Troy, Pa., and continued here 
until his death. His wife died in 1897. Her grand- 
father came from France to America with Gen. 
Lafayette and rendered valiant service in the Amer- 
ican Revolution. 

Frank B. Axtell was the second in a family of 
eleven children, of whom ten are now living. After 
prosecuting his studies in the high school he 
learned telegraphy in Troy, and thereafter was iden- 
tified with railroading in various capacities in 
Pennsylvania for twelve years. He made several 
trips to the West, and in 1890 became local agent 
of the Great Northern Railroad at Basin, Jefferson 
county, Mont., retaining his incumbency until 
1894, when he entered the employ of the Basin & 
iJay State ;\Iining Company, taking charge of their 
outside work. In the fall of 1897 Mr. Axtell came 
to Butte, and was employed by the jNIontana Ore 
Purchasing Company, with whose interests he has 
since been identified, except when he was in service 
in the legislature. 

In his political adherency Mr. Axtell has ever 
been arrayed in support of the Republican party, 
\'et he has been in close sympathy with the cause of 
labor and has done much to promote its interests. 
Silver Bow county being essentially an industrial 
section, he was made the candidate of the Labor 
party for representative in the lower house of the 
legislature in upo and was elected by a gratifying 
majority. I'pon the assembling of the legislative 
body he was made chairman of the library commit- 
tee, was assigned to membership on the printing 



committee and in other ways became an active 
working member. He gave support to the sugar 
bounty bill, which passed both houses, but which 
was vetoed by the governor. His religious faith is 
that of the Presbyterian church, and fraternally he 
is identified with the Alodern Woodmen of 

HON. MARCUS DALY.— The strong, true 
men of a people are always public benefactors. 
Their usefulness in the immediate and specific la- 
bors they perform can be defined by metes and 
bounds. The good they do through the forces they 
put in motion, and through the inspiration of their 
presence anc^ example, is immeasurable by any 
finite gauge or standard of value. The death of any 
one of such men is a public calamity, because by 
it the country loses not only his active energy, but 
the stimulus and fecundating power of his personal 
influence. There is, however, some compensation 
for this loss in the memory of his services, the 
effect of his example and the continuing fruitful- 
ness of the activities he quickened into life. 

The late Marcus Daly, of Montana, was such a 
man. To epitomize his life and character within 
the limits which this work allows is impossible 
to mortal utterance. The stalwart proportions 
of his living presence are vividly realized by the 
void his death has made. But less than most 
men intellectually his equal does he need the voice 
of eulogy. The clearness of Ijis purposes, the 
soundness of his judgment, his ample sweep of 
vision, his tireless activity, his idomitable will, his 
mighty achievements, have impressed "the very 
age and body of the time," making his life a force 
which cannot die. If any ask of us the story of 
that life, we feel impelled to answer : "Here is Ana- 
conda — ^here is Butte — here is Montana; he was in 
large measure their architect and builder; they 
speak his record in enduring phrase — read that." 

In an obscure rural hamlet on the edge of Bally- 
jamesduff, in County Cavan, Ireland, his life began 
December 5, 1841, and passed through boyhood into 
youth without incident worthy of note. He was one 
of six children, and probably to the casual ob- 
server was not distinguished from the rest by any 
striking characteristics. His education was nec- 
essarily limited owing to the size and circumstances 
of the family, and at the age of fifteen, yearning for 
wider opportunity, or yielding to the spirit of ad- 

venture within him, or hearkening to the voice of 
great Nature calling her child to his proper field 
of labor, he resolutely braved the heaving ocean 
and set sail for the United States. He landed at 
New York and soon found work in a leather fac- 
tory in Brooklyn. The work was hard, but his 
fidelity brought him kind treatment, and by rigid 
economy he soon saved enough of his earnings 
to pay his passage to California. The Pacific 
coast metropolis was over-crowded with redund- 
ant population, and employment was not easy to 
get. Mr. Daly had no trade or other special prep- 
aration for specific work, but he was yare in almost 
any handicraft, and more than ordinary skillful 
in farm and garden work. He spent some time 
at these, and as a sort of all-round helper in placer 
mining camps, gradually drifting toward steady 
work in connection with quartz mining in Nevada. 
It was during these years of experimenting that he 
became acquainted with the late Senator Hearst, of 
California, at that time a persistent and hopeful 
prospector, but as yet without a secure foundation 
for his fortune. Their meeting and subsequent 
acquaintance and co-operation were full of advant- 
age to both. In 1876 Mr. Daly arrived at Butte 
as the representative of Walker Brothers, and 
bought for them the Alice mine, having an inter- 
est in the purchase himself. This new field of en- 
terprise gave scope and development to the most 
forceful traits of his character, which had hitherto 
lain dormant for want of opportunity, and brought 
them into full play. While directing affairs at the 
Alice mine with characteristic energy, the chance 
came his way to sell his interest in the property 
for $30,000, and he took it. He at once began 
organizing an association for the purchase of the 
Anaconda mine, which had attracted his attention 
as a promising silver yield squinting at copper. 
Here it was that his acquaintance with Mr. Hearst 
came into valuable and timely service. Messrs. 
Haggin and Tevis, members of a law firm in San 
Francisco, were active operators in mining prop- 
erties, and had an agreement with Mr. Hearst 
whereby he was to be on the lookout for good 
things in their line, and was to have a certain inter- 
est in everything taken by them on his recommen- 
dation. The proposition to buy the Anaconda for 
$30,000, with Mr. Daly holding one-fourth inter- 
est in the concern, was laid before these gentlemen, 
but they did not receive it cordially, having their 
hearts set on taking up a now forgotten property 
near Helena. Their expert reported favorably on 

'"'^%^^„~-_- .:^, 

(?i^^H^^ qQ) C^Ay 


this, and unfavorably on the Anaconda. Whereas, 
after repeated examination of both properties, Mr. 
Daly reported favorably on the Anaconda and un- 
favorably on the one across the range. His views 
finally prevailed and the quartette became the own- 
ers of the most celebrated copper mine in the 
world. The purchase of the St. Lawrence at a 
merely nominal price followed hard upon this, and 
numbers of other properties were soon added to 
the possessions of the infant organization which 
was destined to be, before long, renowned through- 
out the world as the Anaconda Copper Mining 
Company. The ownership was the essential fact. 
All that has come after is mere incident and detail. 
Having consummate faith in the properties acquired, 
and having taken hold of them with enthusiasm, 
it followed "as the night the day," that the great 
creator and builder laid all his enormous resources 
under tribute to their fullest and most profitable 
development. And the magnitude of his achieve- 
ment m ttiis respect is marvelous. At that time 
the great smelting works of the world were at dis- 
tant Swansea, Wales, to which the first Anaconda 
ores were shipped. These works were the product 
of centuries of development ; and in reaching them 
he was obliged to compete with the Lake Superior 
output — a much higher grade of ores with the ad- 
vantage of being 1,200 miles nearer the works. 
He competed with this output successfully, and he 
did more. Within a score of years he erected 
works within his own territory surpassing those at 
Swansea both in extent and equipment for scien- 
tific treatment ; and during all this time he was re- 
ducing the lowest grade of ores found anywhere, 
and while doing it was paying the highest rate of 
wages paid anywhere in the business. 

But this was not all. His gigantic enterprises 
inaugurated others throughout the state which swell 
her business totals enormously. The properties 
which furnish coal and lumber and other supplies 
for the smelting operations in Anaconda and else- 
where were in the main opened up through their 
energy. By the construction of the Butte, Ana- 
conda & Pacific line he revised railway traffic for 
western Montana, and saved both the busy mines 
at Butte and the busy smelters of Anaconda from 
destruction at a time of great financial depression. 
At his suggestion and through his initiative banks, 
railways, water-plants, electric light or irrigation 
systems, hotels, parks, hospitals and kindred insti- 
tutions, each one excelling in its class, became 
parts of the equipment of municipalities or coun- 
ties in the state. 

But life had not for him stern and serious 
aspects only. He viewed some of its outdoor 
sporting phases in a genial spirit, through kindly 
sympathizing eyes, and saw in them an avenue of 
great and good results. In this line, as in all oth- 
ers, his plans were large and his standards high. 
He acquired a great body of land— some 18,000 
acres — in the Bitter Root valley, and spent a fortune 
improving it and stocking it with the finest and fast- 
est horses. He made it famous as the greatest and 
most valuable horse ranch in the world, renowned 
wherever men love horses for the completeness 
and elegance of its appointments and the supreme 
excellence of its stud. Then he was as princely 
in his patronage of the turf as he was imperial in 
his mastery of mines. He loved horse racing for 
its own sake, and to carry that sport in America to 
its highest development was one of his ambitions. 
During his career as a turfman he won many fa- 
mous races, but these were not his glory on the 
turf. He raised the standard of its legitimate 
lines of enterprise, improved the atmosphere of 
the track, contributed to a higher sense of honor 
among its promoters, and stimulated the love of 
all that is best and noblest in the sport. Thus it 
was also with his agricultural operations at Bitter 
Root. He had one of the most notable landed es- 
tates in America. But far above all fiscal value 
was the impetus which his example gave to agri- 
cultural development in the Bitter Root valley 
and throughout western Montana, and the mar- 
velous fruits it has produced. 

In the midst of all his great schemes, his manifest 
pleasure in their success, and his pardonable pride 
in the fact that capital in abundance was ready to 
bank on his judgment, all unsuspected the shadow 
of the destroying angel was hovering over him. 
Large-brained, large-framed, and brawny-muscled, 
his vigorous health, freedom of motion, physical 
independence and manly presence were his joy 
and pride, and a part of that full endowment of 
mind and body which gave him commanding rank. 
But when the fatal shaft came he accepted his lot 
without repining. What to most others would 
have been a warning to permanently quit active 
work, was to him the occasion for increased exer- 
tion and mental energy; or at best a suggestion of 
needed rest to recuperate his forces for larger un- 
dertakings. He felt that his career was incomplete, 
his life-work was still unfinished, and the broken 
sword only made the combat closer. He fought 
death as an equal for every inch of time until worn 
out by hard conflict, he yielded at last to the con- 


queror of all. At the Hotel Netherlands, in New 
York city, a few minutes after seven o'clock on the 
morning of Monday, November 12, 1900, sur- 
rounded by his immediate family, his brother Pat- 
rick, the Rev. Father Lavelle, rector of St. Pat- 
rick's Cathedral, Drs. Shrady and Brown, and Will- 
iam Scallon, of Butte, he calmly abandoned the 
struggle and yielded up his spirit. 

Mr. Daly was married at Salt Lake City in 1872, 
to Miss Margaret Evans. They were the par- 
ents of four children, — Margaret, Mary, Hattie 
and Marcus Daly, all of whom are living at this 
writing (1901). Within the sacred precincts of do- 
mestic life the annalist may not ruthlessly intrude. 
Yet it is but just and will offend no propriety to 
say, that in the home relations Mr. Daly was 
blessed beyond most men — especially men of 
affairs. His devotion to his family was complete, 
and was rewarded by complete devotion in return. 
His private life was pure and upright. All his in- 
stincts were toward noble, clean and manly living. 
In this respect again his example was potential 
for good among all the thousands who knew and 
honored him. 

Marcus Daly was a very remarkable man. The 
magnitude of his conceptions and his force of 
character cannot be overestimated. His sweep of 
vision was mighty and his will-power was tre- 
mendous. He threw himself into all his undertak- 
ings with a fixedness of purpose and a disregard 
of obstacles which compelled success. His hfe 
contains great lessons to young men beginning a 
career of honorable ambition, — none more impres- 
sive than this : That in our favored land industry 
and talents will overcome all obstructions. It is 
difficult to recall any other American whose career 
proves this fact more clearly than his. He entered 
upon life's ordeal with nothing to rely on but his 
own active and resourceful mind and his indom- 
itable will. The position from which he started to 
achieve all his success was humble and unpromis- 
ing. His way was beset with difficulties and disap- 
pointments. Yet over all obstacles he triumphed 

Of political ambition, in the way of official sta- 
tion for himself, he seemed to be entirely devoid. 
But nothing gave him keener pleasure than to be 
the Warwick of a contest. And a man so promi- 
nent in affairs, so earnest in thought and so ag- 
gressive in endeavor, as he was, could not wholly 
escape the acerbities and malignities of public 
life; yet he was himself earnest in conviction 

rather than bitter in feeling, and stringent in judg- 
ment rather than illiberal in disposition. For he 
was great in generosity, as he was in all things else. 
In the matter of private charities he was princely — 
and ro)'al in his silence concerning them. If 
every one for whom he did a kindness were to 
throw a blossom on his grave he would, sleep be- 
neath a mighty pyramid of flowers. 

For twenty years at least he was Montana's fore- 
most and most commanding figure, contributing in 
what he himself accomplished and what he impelled 
others to do, more towards her growth and prog- 
ress than most if not all other men. Moreover, 
he was a loyal lover of the state, with undoubting 
faith in her future and unflagging zeal in her ser- 
vice. She is his enduring monument ; and in her 
people's heart of hearts his memory is enshrined. 

GEORGE H. BAILEY.— Among the younger 
members of the bar of Montana is numbered 
the subject of this review, who maintains his 
home and professional headquarters in the thriving 
little city of Red Lodge, Carbon county, Mont., and 
is known as an able and successful practitioner and 
the present city attorney. 

George Howard Bailey was born on the parental 
farmstead in Washington county, Ohio, February 
I, 1867, the son of George W. Bailey, likewise born 
in Ohio and a son of Seth Bailey, one of the 
pioneers of that state and a native of Massachu- 
setts, where the family was established in the 
early colonial epoch, the original American ances- 
tors having emigrated from the north of Ireland. 
The father of our subject has attained the vener- 
able age of eighty- four years (1901), a life long 
resident of Ohio. In his youth he entered Mari- 
etta College and graduating therefrom, matricu- 
lated in Lane Theological Seminary, at Cincin- 
nati, his intention being to prepare himself for the 
ministry. His health, however, became so seriously 
impaired as to compel him to abandon his plans, 
and he turned his attention to agricultural pur- 
suits, with which he has since been identified, being 
one of the honored and influential citizens of 
Washington county. He has ever shown an active 
interest in all that conserves the intellectual, moral 
and material well being of his native state. His 
wife, whose maiden name was Sarah J. Stapleton, 
was born in Washington county, Pa., as was her 
father, Joshua Stapleton. the founders of the family 



in America coming from the north of Ireland. The 
subject of this review is the only son, and the three 
sisters complete the family circle. 

George H. Bailey was educated m the public 
schools of his native state ; entered college, but 
owing to trouble with his e}'es he was compehed 
to lay aside his school work. He traveled south- 
ward, finally was enabled to follow the course 
which he had planned in preparing himself for the 
practice of law, matriculating in the law depart- 
ment of the University of Michigan, at Ann x\rbor, 
and graduating with the class of 1894 with the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Laws. He established himself 
in the practice of his profession at Parkersburg, 
W. Va., where he remained one year, came to 
Montana and located at Red Lodge, where he has 
since been successfully engaged in the practice 
of his chosen profession, retaining a representa- 
tive clientele. He is active and iniluential in local 
politics and a member of the Republican state cen- 
tral committee. He was the choice of his party 
for county attorney, but met defeat through nor- 
mal political agencies. He is held in the highest 
esteem by his professional confreres and others 
with whom he comes in contact in business or 
social lines. Fraternally he is identified with the 
Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, the Loyal 
ICnights and the Woodnien of the World, in the 
last of which he has held the highest preferment. 

On January i, 1898, Mr. Bailey was united in 
marriage to Miss Lissa F. Bailey, a native of Iowa, 
a daughter of Benjamin F. Bailey, who was born in 
Pennsylvania, but removed to Iowa where he de- 
A'Oted his attention to agriculture. Our subject 
and his wife have a winsome little daughter, Dor- 
othy B. Mrs. Bailey is a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, completing the literary course 
the same year that her husband was graduated 
in the law department. She is a lady of high intel- 
lectuality and gentle refinement, presiding with gra- 
cious dignity over the pleasant home, and is promi- 
nent in the social life of Red Lodge. 

A LEXANDER M. BAIRD.— This veteran sol- 
-^ dier and stockman was born in Scotland on 
February 4, 1845, and soon after his birth he 
was brought by his parents to the United States. 
His father, Charles Baird, was a brickmaker in 
Connecticut and New York until his death, which 

occurred in Brooklyn in 1895. The mother, whose 
maiden name was Martha Wilson, died at Thomp- 
sonville. Conn., in 185S. Mr. Baird was educated 
in the public schools of New York city and Thomp- 
sonville. Conn. In July, 1861, he enlisted in Com- 
pany E, Fifth Connecticut Infantry, and was in 
service until the close of the Civil war, re-enlisting 
as a veteran in December, 1864. After the battle 
of Gettysburg, in 1863, his regiment was trans- 
ferred from the Army of the Potomac to the 
Twelfth Army Corps, and sent with Sherman to 
the sea. After the surrender of Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston Mr. Baird went to Washington and from 
there on to his home. From 1865 to 1867 he was 
employed in Arne's factory at Hartford, then he 
enlisted in Troop F, First United States Cavalry, at 
Philadelphia, and came with it to the west. Dur- 
ing the next ten years he served in Oregon, Wash- 
ington, Nevada and Idaho, and in the wars with 
the Modocs, Piutes, Nez Perces, etc., without being 
wounded or on the sick list at any time. He rose 
to the rank of first sergeant and as such was mus- 
tered out of the service in February, 1878. 

From 1878 to 1882 Mr. 'Baird was engaged in 
merchandising in New York city. In May, that 
}ear, he came to Dawson county and located a 
homestead on Beaver creek, six miles from Wibaux, 
where he is surrounded by an immense area of 
grazing ground, and for twenty years has been en- 
gaged in raising and shipping sheep and horses. 
For the past few years he has put his stock out on 
shares, but has not lost interest in the business and 
has been active in looking after it. In politics Mr. 
Baird has always been a zealous Republican, and as 
such was elected county commissioner of Dawson 
county in 1896 and re-elected in 1900. Fraternally 
he is connected with the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows as a member of Wibaux Lodge No. 67. 

I Pine 

;S S. BALLARD.— In the far distant 
ine Tree state was born the subject of this 
review, now one of the sterling pioneers of Mon- 
tana, and numbered among the successful and rep- 
resentative farmers of Gallatin county. Mr. Bal- 
lard was born in Augusta, Me., on October 11, 
1847, being one of the six children of James S. and 
Mary (Mclntire) Ballard, both of whom were na- 
tives to the manor born, and representatives of 
prominent old New England families. Jonathan 
Ballard, the grandfather of our subject, was born in 


;\Iaine, his father having been one of the early pio- 
neers of that stale. James S. Ballard, Sn, died on 
the day that his youngest child, the subject of this 
sketch, was born, being forty-one years of age at 
the time. He had devoted his life to agricultural 
pursuits and was a man of spotless integrity of 
character. His widow survived him but five years, 
passing away at the age of forty-five, and thus our 
subject was orphaned when a mere child. 

James S. Ballard was reared and educated in his 
native state, where he i-emained until he had at- 
tained his legal majority. In 1868 he started west, 
was employed in a mercantile establishment in 
Iowa, and in April, 1869, he set out for Montana, 
coming as far as Ogden, Utah, by railroad and 
thence by the typical stage coach of the day to Vir- 
ginia City, where he arrived on the first dayof May. 
From there he soon removed to Highlands, Gallatin 
county, where he engaged in mining for two 
months, and then went to Helena and followed 
painting for three years. Subsequently he passed 
six years in Radersburg and vicinity, devoting his 
attention to mining, holding the position of foreman 
of the Little Giant mine, in which he owned an in- 
terest. He was quite successful in his efforts, and 
at the expiration of the period noted he came to 
Gallatin valley and purchased the ranch formerly 
owned by Judge Street. Here he turned his atten- 
tion to farming, which has since engrossed his at- 
tention, and in which he has been very successful, 
having a valuable and well improved ranch of 320 
acres, the greater portion being effectively irrigated 
through his control of a ditch two and one-half 
miles in length, carrying 300 inches of water. He 
raises large crops of wheat, oats, alfalfa and clover 
hay, but devotes considerable attention to the rais- 
ing of Hereford cattle and Norman horses, and has 
some exceptionally fine specimens of each, his 
average herd of cattle ranging from 100 to 150 
head. The ranch is most eligibly and picturesquely 
located at the base of Flathead foothills, about eight 
miles north of Belgrade, Mr. Ballard's postoffice 
address. He is one of Gallatin valley's suc- 
cessful and progressive men, and his estate gives 
evidence of his judgment, energy and scrupulous 
care. The ranch is equipped with excellent build- 
ings, including a comfortable and commodious resi- 
dence, and is known as one of the beautiful places 
in this garden spot of Montana. In his political 
proclivities Mr. Ballard is stanchly arrayed in sup- 
port of the Democratic party and its principles, and 
maintains a constant and lively interest in all that 

concerns the well-being of the community. He has 
served for a number of years as school trustee. 
Fraternally he is a Master JNIason. In 1899 Mr. 
Ballard made a visit to his old home in Maine, re- 
newing the acquaintanceships of youthful days and 
greatly enjoying the season of rest and recreation. 
On November 14, 1875, Mr. Ballard led to the 
hymeneal altar J^Iiss INIary Tribble, who was born 
in iNlissouri, a daughter of William and Lavina 
Tribble, and has been his devoted companion and 
helpmeet during the ensuing years. Their union 
has been blessed with nine children, namely : Wil- 
liam, who is now a resident of North Dakota ; Liz- 
zie is the wife of Henry Cloninger, of Gallatin val- 
ley, and Fred, George, Charles Grover, Roland, 
Annie Laurie and Edith and Eva (twins), all of 
whom are still at the parental home. 

I UDITH BASIN BANK.— No better index of 
J the financial and material prosperity of a com- 
munity can be found than in its banking insti- 
tutions, and in this respect it is gratifying to note 
in Fergus county the high standing of the Judith 
Basin Bank. It was organized in 1899, and duly 
incorporated under the laws of ^Montana, with a 
capital stock of $75,000. The official corps chosen 
at the establishing of the' bank is still retained. 
Herman Often, president ; David Hilger, vice-pres- 
ident ; George J. Bach, cashier, and W. B. Miner, 
assistant cashier. The officers are all resi- 
dents of Fergus county and are men of the highest 
standing. The bank opened for business on the 
1st of May, 1899, and its history, though of short 
duration, has been one of signal success. A gen- 
eral banking business is transacted, and the institu- 
tion has a list of correspondents which gives it the 
best of facilities in exchange. In addition to its 
officers the bank's directorate includes H. Hodg- 
son, N. j\I. McCauley, Matt Gunton, Louis Landt 
and John Laux, all of whom are prominently iden- 
tified with the industrial activities of the county. 
The bank is one of Fergus county's solid financial 

In the connection it is fitting that we 
enter a brief record of the cashier of the 
bank, George J. Bach, who was the princi- 
pal instrument in effecting its organization 
and who has administered its affairs with 
marked ability and discretion. Mr. Bach is a na- 
tive of New York City, where he was born on the 


7th of October, 1868, the son of Jacques and Eliz- 
abeth (JMeyer) Bach, both of whom were born in 
that state. Jacques Bach was for a number of 
years the proprietor of a hotel. He died in 1879, 
when his only child, the subject of this review, was 
but eleven years of age. The death of Mrs. Bach 
occurred in 1874, and thus George J. was doubly 
orphaned while still a child. His parents were of 
German lineage and were folk of sterling char- 

At the age of eleven years, George J. Bach be- 
came an inmate of the home of his aunt, whom nc 
accompanied to Helena, in the schools of which 
city he completed his education. He then entered 
the employ of Charles Lehman, with whom he held 
a clerkship for nearly two years in Helena, when 
he went to Cottonwood, Fergus county, as assist- 
ant in Mr. Lehman's store at that place, and even- 
tually he became manager of the business for five 
years. He then opened and took the manage- 
ment of Mr. Lehman's store at Lewistown for two 
years. Removing then to Utica, he engaged in 
general merchandising for himself, and conducted 
a successful enterprise for five years, when he 
disposed of it in 1899 to the T. C. Power Mer- 
cantile Company. 

Mr. Bach then returned to Lewistown and effected 
the organization of the Judith Basin Bank, of 
which he has been cashier from the first. In 1890 
Mr. Bach and George W. Cook purchased the 
Judith flouring mill, in Lewistown, and he still 
retains one-half interest in this plant, which is sup- 
plied with a thoroughly modern equipment. In 
politics Mr. Bach has never been active, though 
he has not failed to perform the duties of citizen- 
ship as a Republican, doing all in his power to con- 
serve good government in county and city affairs. 
Fraternally he is identified with the Masonic order 
and the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. He 
has been successful in business through his 
efforts and is held in high esteem. 

On the 4th of May, 1890, Mr. Bach was united 
in marriage to Miss Anne R. Corbin, who was 
born in the state of New York and the daughter of 
Edwin E. Corbin, now deceased. They have 
three children, A. Marie, Ralph E. and Jilargaret E. 

ALFRED BALMFORTH.— One of the pro- 
gressive and representative business men of 
Silver Bow county, who has attained promi- 
nence in the industrial world entirely through his 

own eiforts, is Alfred Balmforth, who has prac- 
tically depended upon his own resources from the 
age of thirteen. His home is in the attractive vil- 
lage of Centerville, but his business interests are 
mainly centered in Butte. He is a native of Belle- 
ville, III, where he was born September 14, 1857, the 
elder of the two children of his parents. His 
father, Charles Balmforth, was born in England, 
where he married Martha Lumm, who died in her 
native land, whither the family eventually returned. 
Charles Balmforth came to the United States with 
his wife about 1853, and engaged for a number of 
years in mercantile pursuits in Belleville, III, al- 
though in his native land he was a coal miner. He 
is now living in Salt Lake, Utah. 

Alfred Balmforth accompanied his parents on 
their return to England, where he received his 
early educational discipline, while, after returning 
to the United States he attended school at Steu- 
benville, Ohio, and at Salt Lake City, Utah. He left 
home at the age of thirteen and made his way to 
Idaho, where he found employment in the placer 
mines, receiving some assistance from Col. George 
L. Shoup, who was once governor of that state. 
In 1875 Mr. Balmforth returned to Utah, where he 
was identified with mining operations until 1881, 
when he came to Butte, Mont., where he mined 
for a time. He met with fair success in this enter- 
prise for a number of years, and in 1888 he en- 
tered the employ of Wheeler & Luxton who con- 
ducted a meat business, and latei he formed a 
partnership with Levi Cartier. They purchased 
the business of Wheeler & Luxton and conducted 
it for three years when Mr. Balmforth acquired his 
partner's interest, and has since conducted it, though 
he is not actively engaged in the work as in 
former years, his success having enabled him to 
greatly extend his field of financial and business 
operations. He is at present a stockholder in 
the Butte Butchering Company, the largest indus- 
try of the kind in this section of the state, and is 
also a stockholder in the Silver Bow Bank and a 
member of its directorate. He owns a fine fruit 
ranch in the Bitter Root valley, and is also the 
owner of valuable realty m Centreville, including 
his handsome residence. In politics Mr. Balm- 
forth gives allegiance to the Democratic party, but 
has never been the incumbent of public ofiice. 

Of the time-honored fraternity of Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons Mr. Balmforth is a prominent mem- 
ber, and is one of the most influential representa- 
tives of the order in the state. In 1879 ^^ be- 
came an entered apprentice in Argenta Lodge Xo. 


3, A. F. & A. J\I., at Salt Lake, from which he was 
later dimittcd to Butte Lodge Xo. 22, having pre- 
viously been raised to the master's degree. He 
has served as junior and senior warden of the blue 
lodge and also as worshipful master. His capitu- 
lar membership is in Deer Lodge Chapter No. 3, 
of which he has served as high priest ; the chivalric 
degrees were conferred upon him in jMontana 
Commandery No. 3, of which he was eminent com- 
mander in 1899. He is a member of the grand 
chapter of Montana, and is a past grand high 
priest. He has also gained the patent of nobility 
of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the 
Mystic Shrine in Algeria Temple, Helena. Air. 
Balmforth is a member of the Knights of Con- 
stantine, in Great Falls, and the Benevolent Pro- 
tective Order of Elks and the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen. On Dec. 2, 1880, in Salt Lake 
City, Mr. Balmforth married with Miss Mary 
Crockwell, who was born in Iowa, the daughter 
of Dr. J. D. M. Crockwell, a prominent physician 
of that state. Mr. and Mrs. Balmforth have one 
son, Alfred John, now a student in the School of 
Mines in Butte. 

BANK OF FERGUS COUNTY.— Of .the lines 
of industry which make the sum total of ma- 
terial wealth and prosperity of a community 
there is none more essential than that involved in its 
banking institutions. They facilitate business to 
such a degree that the withdrawal of their aid 
would almost completely block the wheels of com- 
merce, lapse to the crude condition of uncivilized 
countries. Banks are the custodians of the credit 
of a community, the conservators of its commerce, 
progress and prosperity, and in general advance- 
ment no factor is of greater significance. 

The Bank of Fergus County is the leading one 
of a large area and dates its inception back to 1887, 
when it was organized and incorporated under the 
laws of the state of Montana, with a capital stock 
of $50,000 and officers as follows: S. S. Hobson, 
president; T. C. Power, vice-president; James H. 
]\Ioe, cashier, and Frank E. Wright, assistant cash- 
ier. Mr. Hobson still retains the presidency. Hon. 
Thomas C. Power, the well-known banker and cap- 
italist of Helena, resigned his position as vice-pres- 
ident in 1899, and was succeeded by L. W. Eld- 
ridge. Mr. Moe died in 1895 and was succeeded 
by ;\Ir. Wright, who is still in ofifice. and at the 

same time Austin \\'. Warr was made assistant 
cashier. The capital stock has been increased on 
three different occasions, and in 1892 it was placed 
at the noteworthy figure of $200,000, while the 
financial condition of the bank is otherwise indi- 
cated in its surplus and undivided profits, which 
now aggregate over $100,000. In addition to the 
executive officers the directorate includes Messrs. 
Perry W. McAdow, Jacob Holzemer, L. H. Hamil- 
ton, W. D. Symmes and T. C. Power, all men of 
high financial standing. The deposits of the bank 
aggregate $500,000, and it is one of the most sub- 
stantial and important monetary concerns in the 

Frank E. Wright, the cashier, is a native of Inde- 
pendence, Iowa, where he was born on the 23d of 
December, 1857, the son of Edmund and 
Sarah E. (Walton) Wright, the former of 
whom was born in England and the latter 
in New. York. The father of Edmund 
Wright came to the United States in 1835, when a 
child, his parents settling in western New York, 
where he was reared and educated. He was a car- 
penter and builder and a successful one. In 1855 
he removed to Iowa, where he lived until 1861, 
when he returned to New York, locating in Penn 
Yan, where he and his wife have since made their 
home. They have five sons, William, a resi- 
dent of Elmira, N. Y. ; Frank E., the subject of this 
review, Charles E., Edmund and Arthur, all of 
Lewistown, Mont., and two daughters, Ella (Mrs. 
Henry Fish), of Rochester, N. Y. ; and Jessie M, 
now of Albany, N. Y. 

Frank E. Wright was a lad of four years when 
his parents returned to New York, and there he was 
reared to maturity, and educated. He began practi- 
cal business life as clerk in a mercantile establish- 
ment at Penn Yan, N. Y., where he remained until 
1880, when he came to Helena, Mont., where he 
entered the office of Massena Bullard, the distin- 
guished attorney, as a clerk. Here he remained 
until November, 1880, when he removed to Phillips- 
burg, and was employed until 1882 in the office of a 
mining company. In 1882 also Mr. Wright came to 
Fergus county and located at Utica, where he was 
engaged in merchandising until 1887. Upon the 
organization of Fergus county he was elected its 
first treasurer, in 1887, and this led to his removal 
to Lewistown. He held this important office for 
eight years, and during this time was also assistant 
cashier of the Bank of Fergus County, which was 
organized in the same year. He was later promoted 



to his present position as cashier of this important 
institution, to whose affairs he has given close at- 
tention. His ability has done much to promote its 
growth and conservative and successful operation. 
j\lr. Wright also has important mining and sheep 
properties in Judith Basin, and the North Moccasin 
mountains. He was the original owner of the 
Whisky Gulch mine and now owns a large 
interest in it. Mr. Wright gives loyal and 
unqualified allegiance to the Republican party, 
in whose cause he has served for some time as a 
member of the state central committee. Frater- 
nally he is a popular member of the Masonic order, 
in which he has passed the chivalric degrees, having 
been "constituted, created and dubbed" a Knight 
Templar in Black Eagle Commandery at Great 
Falls. He also affiliates with the Benevolent Pro- 
tective Order of Elks. 

At Penn Yan, N. Y., on the 30th of July, 1891, 
was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Wright to Miss 
^linnie Sloane, also a native of the Old Empire 
state, being the daughter of Maj. John Barnett 
Sloane, a prominent citizen of Penn Yan, who was 
killed at the battle of Petersburg in the Civil war. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wright have no children. 

pEORGE H., BARBOUR, M. D.— One of the 
V I representative members of the medical fra- 
ternity in Helena, one who holds high rank in 
his profession and whose ability and courtesy have 
won him the confidence and supporting patronage 
of a large class of citizens, is George H. Barbour, 
M. D., who was born in Falmouth, Ky., on April 
24, 1S61, the son of Dr. James and Emeline 
(Hauser) Barbour, natives of Ohio and Kentucky. 
His father, likewise a physician and surgeon, is a 
graduate of the Ohio Medical Callege at Cincin- 
nati, and is now in medical practice at Falmouth. 
Nathaniel Barbour, father of Dr. James Barbour, 
was a native of New Jersey and one of the early 
settlers of Cincinnati, where he was a merchant 
for many years and where his death occurred. Dr. 
James Barbour married Miss Emeline Hauser, a 
sister of Gov. S. T. Hauser, of Helena, to whom 
specific reference is made on other pages of this 

George H. Barbour received his literary educa- 
tion in Center College at Danville, Ky., where he 
was graduated in 1883, and under the careful and 
eft'ective preceptorage of his father he soon began 

reading medicine, thus continuing until 1884, when 
he matriculated in the paternal alma mater, the 
C'hio Medical College, where he was graduated in 
the class of 1885 — a circumstance indicative of the 
thoroughness of his preliminary study and investi- 
gation. Dr. Barber established himself in the 
practice of his profession in Helena in 1887, and 
here he has since continued, witnessing the growth 
and material advancement of the city and he has 
secured a practice of unmistakably representative 
character. He keeps abreast of the advances 
made in the sciences of medicine and surgery, is a 
close and indefatigable student, is in close touch 
with advanced thought in his profession, and he is 
a member of the state and county medical societies 
snd enjoys popularity in the professional and social 
circles of the city. He is also a member of the 
state medical examining board. In 1896 was cele- 
brated the marriage of Dr. Barbour and Miss Susie 
Raleigh, a native of Missouri, and they are the 
parents of twin sons, Raleigh W. and Philip. 

GEORGE W. BARNES.— Left an orphan by 
the death of his father when he was seven 
years old, and compelled to "rustle" at an 
early age, George W. Barnes, of Norris, in Madison 
county, has seen enough of hardship and privation 
in life to develop the endurance, self-reliance and 
readiness for any emergency that may come to the 
best elements of American citizenship, and have 
given him success and prosperity. He was born 
in Sandusky county, Ohio, January 19, 1836, a son 
of Sardis G. and Minerva (Jillett) Barnes, also na- 
tives of Ohio. After the death of his father, in 
1843, his mother, removed with her young family to 
Iowa, locating at Muscatine, where she remained 
until 1847, when she remarried and removed to 
Cheboygan, Mich., some time later changing her 
residence to Reedburg, Sauk county. Wis., where 
she spent the rest of her days. 

j\lr. Barnes remained with the family until 1854, 
and was then employed in the neighborhood of their 
home. In 1859 he started for Pike's Peak, but 
changed his mind and went to Jacksonville, Ore., 
instead, and remained there until 1862, engaged in 
mining with moderate success. He then joined the 
Idaho stampede, and made the trip without incident 
worthy of note, remaining in the new grounds until 
1 87 1, when he came to Montana, locating at Norris, 
where he took up land and engaged in stock raising. 


During the first excitement at Pony in 1876 he re- 
moved to that place and remained three years, meet- 
ing with good success and securing interests in sev- 
eral properties. These he sold at good prices, but 
was unable to get all of his money. He returned 
to his ranch and after some time there went back 
to Pony and put in three years running a mill for 
the late Henry Elling, at the same time conducting 
a profitable hotel business. He did well in both 
enterprises, and when he tired of the work, sold out 
and returned to his ranch once more, and has since 
lived and prospered there. 

Mr. Barnes has a fine body of 1,500 acres of land 
which he owns, and has besides a section leased for 
grazing purposes. His chief industry is raising 
superior herds of Hereford cattle, with the hay 
necessary for their sustenance. He is very success- 
ful at the business, his output being renowned in 
the markets and his ranch having a high standing 
throughout the cattle raising industry in this section 
of the country. A portion of his land is well irri- 
gated, and he has brought it to a high state of cul- 
tivation. He was married April 19,. 187 1, to Miss 
Annie Peterson, who came to America with her 
parents from Sweden when she was young. Her 
father, Jacob Peterson, was a prosperous farmer 
in Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes have one child, a 
son, George S. Barnes, who lives in Wisconsin. Mr. 
Barnes was elected county commissioner in 1888, 
and re-elected in 1890. He has been a school 
trustee for many years. His fine residence, excel- 
lent barns and other outbuildings, and the general 
character and appearance of his homestead, as well 
as the common consent of his neighbors and fel- 
low citizens, proclaim him a progressive, enterpris- 
ing business man, a public spirited citizen, an effi- 
cient public official, and a good friend and neighbor. 

HON, JOSEPH K. TO( )LE.— The final causes 
which shape the fortunes of individual men 
and the destinies of states are often the same. 
They are usually remote and obscure; their influ- 
ence wholly unexpected until declared by results. 
When they inspire men to the exercise of courage, 
self-denial, enterprise and industry, and call into 
play the higher moral elements — such causes lead to 
the planting of great states, great nations, great 
peoples. That nation is greatest which produces 
the greatest men, and its safety depends not so 
much upon methods and measures as upon that true 

manhood from whose deep sources all that is prec- 
ious and permanent in life must at last proceed. 
Such a result may not be consciously contemplated 
by the individuals instrumental in the production 
of a great state or nation. Pursuing each his per- 
sonal good by exalted means, this follows their 
work as a logical conclusion. They have wrought 
on the lines of greatest good. Among those who 
have been important factors in the public, profes- 
sional and civic history of Montana a place of dis- 
tinction must be accorded to its present governor, 
Joseph 'Kemp Toole, who has been called a second 
time to serve in the most exalted office in the gift 
of the people of the commonwealth, and who is 
known as one of the most eminent members of the 
bar of a state which has been from the first sig- 
nally favored in the personnel of its legists and jur- 

Joseph Kemp Toole is a native of Missouri, hav- 
ing been born in Savannah, Andrew count}-, on 
Mav 12, 1 85 1. His parents, Edwin and Lucinda 
(Porter) Toole, 'were born in Kentucky, the former 
in 1808 and the latter in 1812, the ancestors on 
either side having been among the early settlers in 
this country, while records extant show that Benja- 
min Porter, the grandfather of the governor in 
the cognatic line, was in active service in the Con- 
tinental army during the American revolution. Ed- 
win and Lucinda S. Toole became the parents of 
ten children, six of whom, four 'sons and two 
daughters, are living, and all are residents of Mon- 
tana. Joseph K. Toole was reared to maturity in 
his native state, having the advantages of a cul- 
tured and refined home and receiving his prelimin- 
ary educational discipline in the public schools, after 
which he entered the Western Military Institute, 
at Newcastle, Ky., where he graduated with high 
honors, after which he remained in Newcastle, 
where he began his work of technical preparation 
for his chosen vocation, by reading law in the office 
of Webb & Barber, distinguished members of the 
Kentucky bar, the latter having been a member of 
the court of appeals and having prepared a digest 
of its rulings. In 1869 Mr. Toole came to Mon- 
tana, locating in Helena, where he continued his 
study of the law in the ofiice of his brother, Edwin 
W. Toole, being admitted to the bar of the state in 
1870, after which he entered into a professional 
partnership with. his brother, under the name of 
Toole & Toole. This alliance continued for a num- 
ber of years, the firm retaining a representative cli- 
entage and being concerned in much of the impor- 





tant litigation in the courts until 1884, when the 
partnership was dissolved. 

Politically Governor Toole has always rendered 
a staunch allegiance to the principles and policies 
of the Democratic party, and has been one of its 
most eloquent and talented advocates. It is recog- 
nized throughout the state and by all political ele- 
ments, that his services in that direction have been 
invaluable. Several of his speeches are master- 
pieces of eloquence and stand unrivalled in logical 
deduction and masterly presentation of the points at 
issue between the parties. In 1872 he was elected 
district attorney for the Third judicial district, being 
chosen without opposition as his own successor at 
the election of 1874. In 1881 Governor Toole was 
chosen to represent Lewis and Clarke county in 
the Twelfth legislative assembly of the territoryand 
was accorded the highest honor of being chosen to 
the presidency of body. Of the first consitu- 
tional convention held in the territory of Montana, 
hi 1884, when were adopted the preliminary meas- 
ures looking to the admission of the territory into 
the sisterhood of states, he was a prominent and in- 
fluential member. He was elected to the Forty-ninth 
and Fiftieth congresses of the United Statej, declin- 
ing nomination for a third term. In 1889 he served 
with distinction in the constitutional convention 
which formulated the present admirable constitution 
of the commonwealth, and within the same year 
he was elected the first governor of the new state, 
being the only Democrat on the ticket to receive 
elective endorsement at the polls. He served one 
term, after which he resumed his legal practice in 
Helena, and thus continued employed until the exi- 
gencies of political expediency led to his being 
placed in nomination a second time for the guberna- 
torial office in the fall of 1900, when he was trium- 
phantly returned to the chief executive position 
in the government of the state, and is now in office. 

The congressional career of Governor Toole was 
eminently brilliant. While in the house he took a 
deep interest in the welfare of the whole country, 
but especially in the state of his adoption, which had 
so highly honored him. In securing the passage of 
the bill for the admission of Montana to statehood 
he displayed forensic ability of a high order. The 
speech was logical and exhaustive, covering all dis- 
puted points and throwing upon the question a 
flood of direct illumination concerning the resources 
of the territory in whose welfare he was so deeply 
interested and of whose possibilities he had full 
prescience. This effort, a most talented and felici- 

tous one, was freel\' commented upon and warmly 
commended. It is but consistent that in this con- 
nection there be made excerpts from this speech, 
since in it are denoted many of the salient points 
advanced and they show the eflfective diction and 
dialectic power of the author : 

"Mr. Speaker: In conclusion I want to go on 
record as a warm advocate of the section of this 
bill which provides for the admission of other ter- 
ritories whenever they shall have reached a popu- 
lation sufficient to entitle them to a representative 
in congress according to the present ratio of repre- 
sentation. New states add to the glory and dignity 
of the republic. Their admission ought to be pro- 
vided for here and now. Nothing ought longer to 
be left to implication. No condition of things 
ought to be permitted whereby this inestimable 
right shall be made to yield to policy or expediency 
in the future; the rights involved are too sacred 
to be made subservient to the will and pleasure of 
the petulant and prurient partisan. I have no fear 
of the character of their citizenship ; they are faith- 
ful and prompt in the discharge of every duty. No 
jurisdiction covering the same extent of territory 
and embracing the same number of people, can 
boast .of less crime and vice among its citizens. I 
speak with some means of information and with 
some feelin2^ on this question. More than half of 
my life has been spent among the kind of men who 
people these territories. I know their stern integ- 
rity and rugged honesty, their capacity for local 
self-government, and their deep devotion to the 
principles of our institutions. * * * '^^ * * 
Upon this important question I beg you to make 
no mistake. Do not dam up the river of progress. 
Do not obstruct the march of American manhood 
toward the destiny contemplated by the constitu- 
tion. Popular development and popular govern- 
ment have made us powerful and great among the 
nations of the earth, but we have not yet reached 
the zenith of our power and greatness. Let us re- 
member that delays are dangerous ; that now is the 
time and here the place to provide the way by 
which eight new stars may be added to the flag, and 
two millions of our countrymen in the territories 
shall be enfranchised ; and then rest assured that the 
wisdom and patriotism of our course will be vindi- 
cated by the deliberate judgment of mankind." 

Governor Toole was at one time a member of 
the State Arid Land Grant Commission, resigning 
as its president within his term, but still continuing 
to serve as a member for a time, ultimately resign- 



ing the position. He was vice-president from Mon- 
tana of the commission appointed to the Pan-Amer- 
ican congress that convened at Buffalo, N. Y., in 
1901, in connection with the exposition in that city. 
Fraternally he is identified with the INIasonic order, 
being a past master of Helena Lodge No. 3, A. F. 
& A. M. On May 6, 1890, Governor Toole was 
united in marriage to Miss Lilly Rosecrans, daugh- 
ter of Gen. William Starke Rosecrans, the hero of 
Chickamauga and man}- other important engage- 
ments of the Civil war and later minister to Mex- 
ico. His death occurred in California in 1899. Gov- 
ernor and !Mrs. Toole became the parents of three 
cliildren, Rosecrans, who died in California in 1898 
at the age of seven years; Edwin Warren, born 
July 5, 1893, ^^^ Joseph Porter, December 2, 
iSq6. In conclusion it may truthfully be 
said that one can scarcely pay too high a 
tribute to the character of Gov. Toole. Few 
men have a stronger hold upon the hearts of 
the people of Montana and this he has apart from 
and without regard to political partisanship or 
party bias. Modest in his demeanor, courteous and 
cultured in his personal intercourse with all, he has 
achieved the highest positions in the gift of the peo- 
ple by the most admirable qualities of character and 
by an ability which has been equal to every demand. 
Li the annals of Montana he will stand as one of 
her most distinguished citizens and able and upright 
public men. 

JOHN C. E. BARKER, one of the earliest and 
J best-known mining operators in the state, is a 
resident of Great Falls, Mont. He was born at 
Woodstock, New Brunswick, on October i, 1858. 
His parents were Robert and Jane (Colwell) 
Barker, both natives of New Brunswick, where 
Robert Barker conducted merchandising for many 
years. In 1879 ^''^ came to Montana, and with his 
wife makes his home with his son, David L. S. 
Barker, at Neihart. The paternal grandfather was 
a Loyalist and raised and equipped a company for 
service on the British side in the Revolution. Both 
himself and his wife attained great ages, he living 
to be ninety-two and his wife ninety-three years old. 
Until the age of nineteen the boyhood and youth- 
ful days of John C. E. Barker were passed 
in New Brunswick, and there he was 
educated in the public schools. In 1877, 
with his elder brother, Carter Barker, he came 
to Montana, first locating at Butte. Carter Barker 

is now superintendent of Los ;\Iurtos, Helila and 
other mining properties in JNIexico, having gone 
there in 1892. The brothers came to Montana via 
the Union Pacific Railway to Ogden, and here they 
hired a man with a mule team to convey them to 
Butte, the stage having been taken off the route on 
account of the threatening demonstrations of hos- 
tile Indians. They were compelled to sleep on the 
ground at night, alternately keeping guard, and the 
daylight hours were filled with watchfulness and 
anxiety. But this suspense was the common lot 
of all who took their lives in their handb and braved 
the dangers of this mountain wilderness. Once 
the Barkers and their party narrowly escaped a 
band of 400 Indians, who swept by them just as they 
had removed their clothing preparatory to swim- 
ming the Snake river. On November i, 1877, they 
arrived in Butte and located at Walkerville and 
worked for the Allied Company for seven months. 
They then began business for themselves, locating 
nearly fifty claims the first year, some of which 
proved to be exceedingly rich. In 1878 Mr. Barker 
and an uncle engaged in placer mining in Yankee 
Doodle gulch, where they continued working for 
two years. Mr. Barker then moved to Madison 
count}-, on Mill creek, and in 1882 he came to the 
present location of Neihart and purchased the 
Mountain Chief mine. In working this mine he 
secured the co-operation of some Boston parties 
and a smelter and a concentrator were built and de- 
velopment was rushed until 1891, when they leased 
the mine, having constructed a mile of shafts and 
tunnel. In 1890, with the Anderson Brothers, Islr. 
Barker purchased the mines on Snow creek subse- 
quently known as the Benton group. Their alti- 
tude is 9,000 feet, and they have over two and a half 
miles of underground work in gold and silver ore 
on which more than $1,000,000 have been expended. 
These were afterward merged in the Big Snowy 
Mining Company, and controlled by Great Falls 

i\Ir. Barker was also largely interested in the Big 
Seven Mining Company, adjoining that group. This 
company has a mile of tunnel work, with a shaft 
300 feet deep. They are also now working the Rip- 
ple mine, which is exceedingly rich in ore. Mr. 
Barker and his brother are interested in the Silver 
Belt Mining Company, whose mines are very rich 
in silver, gold and lead, and are now being worked 
to their full capacity. In IMeagher county Mr. Bar- 
ker was largely interested in locating the Copperop- 
olis claim in 1886, among these being the Copper 


Duke, Darling and Fraction. He also bought an 
interest in the Patented claims, the oldest mines 
in Montana, which were successfully operated in 
1867, the ore being shipped to England, where it 
was smelted. Copper was then worth thirt3'-nine 
cents a pound, and this ore ran nearly 50 per cent, 
pure copper. Some of the refuse ore was shipped 
and ran 23 per cent. These mines were de- 
stroyed by the Indians in 1870 and later reopened. 
In 1887 j\Ir. Barker sold his interests in these 
mines and in 1890 removed to Birch creek. Here 
he operated another mine in 1893, also properties 
on Duck creek and later in Broadwater county. In 
1893 with his brothers, he purchased a mine in the 
Lake of the Woods country, where the company 
opened a shaft and in that winter's work took out 
$18,000. They still own that mine, which runs 
free milling ore. In 1893 ^'^~- Barker was married 
to Miss Leonie Rime, of Indiana, whose parents 
were natives of France. Their children are Eulalie 
F. and Robert E. In politics Mr. Barker has never 
taken any active part except as a warm advocate 
of silver. Fraternally he is a Freer lason and is also 
a member of the Church of England. 

In mining circles Mr. Barker is re:rarded as one 
of the best judges of the development and character 
of mines in the west. He is familiar with the 
mineral geology and formation and knows the his- 
tory of nearly every mine in the state. He is also 
personally acquainted with the discoverers, the men 
who opened and those who have operated them. 
In 1898 his services were secured as an expert ex- 
aminer of mining properties in Mexico, and in the 
same capacity he has examined mines in Nevada 
and New Mexico, on some of these trips paying 
$30 a day for water for his teams. He has trav- 
eled extensively in all of the American and British 
Columbia mining districts, as well as in those of 
Mexico, and his name is a familiar one to all prorni- 
nent mining operators of Montana, for his whole 
life since coming to the state has been devoted to 
the advancement of the mining industry. His 
eminent abilities in this sphere are universally ac- 
knowledged, while his sound judgment, force of 
character and business sagacity have received a 
merited financial and social reward. He is a fine 
conversationalist, and his fund of reminiscence is 
inexhaustible. He vividly relates many exciting 
stories of the dangers, hair-breadth escapes and 
tragedies connected with the border life of the early 
days, when the pioneer settler might at any mo- 
ment be startled by the warwhoop of hostile Indians 
breaking in upon the seeming solitude. 

MARTIN BARRETT.— True soldiers of for- 
tune were the valiant pioneers who came 
to the great west and laid the foundations 
of now opulent and populous commonwealths, and 
among the names of those enrolled as pioneers of 
Montana special reference may be consistently 
made to that of Mr. Barrett. He was one of the 
early settlers in Colorado, joining the rush of gold 
seekers to that section when it was known as Jeffer- 
son territory. He is now one of the prosperous 
and influential citizens of Beaverhead county and 
is a representative and extensive farmer and stock 
grower. Mr. Barrett comes of stanch old Irish lin- 
eage and is a native of the Emerald Isle, born in 
County j\Iayo, February 2, 1840, the son of Thomas 
and Nancy (McDonald) Barrett, the former a 
farmer by occupation, whose death occurred when 
Martin was about seven years of age. His widow 
immigrated to America in 1847, the year after the 
death of her husband, accompanied by her nine 
children, of whom Martin was the sixth in order 
of birth. They located near the village of Hespler, 
at that time known as New Hope, in the Province 
of Ontario, Canada, and there our subject attended 
public schools, laying the foundation for that broad 
fund of information which has come to him from 
reading and application and through association 
with men of affairs in later years. He early began 
work on the farm, and when fifteen years of age 
entered upon an apprenticeship at the trade of tan- 
ner and currier, continuing to assist his widowed 
mother in the support of the family until he had 
attained the age of nineteen years, having devoted 
five years to acquiring his trade. He was a youth 
of ambitious spirit and was determined to make for 
himself a place in the world. Thus, in 1859, 
when he was nineteen years of age, we 
find the young man making his way to the 
west. He first located at St. Joseph, Mo., 
securing whatever work came to hand, and 
in i860 he drove an ox team in a freighting 
outfit from Atchison to Salt Lake City. He re- 
turned with the outfit and in the following year he 
drove with a one-horse wagon across the plains to 
Colorado, where he passed the summer, quartz min- 
ing in Gold-dust gulch. In 1862 he was employed 
m mines at Central City and Nevada City, and in 
the fall of that year returned to his home in Canada, 
where he passed the winter. In the spring of 1863 
Mr. Barrett returned to St. Joseph and formed a 
partnership with Joseph Shineberger. They se- 
cured an outfit and drove their mule team across 
the plains to Montana, the train of which they 


formed a part having no trouble with the Indians. 
Our subject and his partner arrived on Horse 
prairie, Beaverhead county, on July 7, 1863, and 
turned their attention to stock raising. Mr. Shine- 
berger went to Alder gulch, where he engaged in 
mining, while JNIr. Barrett assumed the manage- 
ment of the ranch. By mutual consent this partner- 
ship was dissolved in 1871, Mr. Barrett becoming 
the sole owner, which now comprises about 4,500 
acres, one of the most valuable estates in the coun- 
try. Here he is extensively engaged in the raising 
of high-grade shorthorn cattle, his favorite type, 
and he usually runs about 2,000 head of stock on 
his ranch. The ranch is equipped with the best 
of improvements and facilities, including a com- 
modious and attractive residence, modern in its ap- 
pointments, and shows on every hand the distinctive 
evidences of the refinement and culture of those 
who there make their home, the best of literature 
and fine specimens of art production showing that 
Mr. and Mrs. Barrett thoroughly appreciate the 
ideal phases of life, while the hospitality of the 
home is unequivocal and most gracious. In addi- 
tion to his stock interests Mr. Barrett secures large 
yields of hay from his ranch, much of the land 
being exceptionally fertile and prolific. He is one 
of the representative stockmen of the state, and is 
ever on the alert to forward the interests of this 
great industry, being at the present. time stock com- 
missioner for Beaverhead county, in which position 
he has rendered most effective and timely service. 

His political allegiance is given to tl>e Democratic 
party, as the candidate of which he was elected to 
represent his county in the territorial legislature, in 
1879. In 1885, at the time when the legislature 
was practically on the point of voting a subsidy 
for the Northern Pacific Railroad. Mr. Barrett was 
one of six men who left Helena and went to Fort 
Benton, where they found Hon. W. G. Conrad, who 
they induced to return at once to Helena, and 
through his influence the subsidy bill was defeated 
and a great burden averted from the territory, 
which was soon to assume the dignity of statehood. 
]\[r. Barrett has various capitalistic interests in the 
county and is one of the stockholders of the Dillon 
State Bank. His religious faith is that of the Ro- 
man Catholic church, of which Mrs. Barrett also is 
a communicant. They pass the winters either in Cal- 
ifornia or Montana, returning for the summer sea- 
son to their beautiful ranch home and to the invig- 
orating climate of Montana. The ranch is located 
sixteen miles west of the village of Red Rock, the 
postoffice address of our subject. 

On August 6, 1867, Mr. Barrett was united in 
marriage with Miss Alice E. Cook, who was born 
in East Townsend, Huron county, Ohio, the daugh- 
ter of Hiram and Mary (Vining) Cook, natives 
of the state of New York, whence they removed 
to Ohio about the year 1840. Seven years later 
they removed to Michigan, where they made their 
home until 1864, when they located in Missouri. 'In 
1868 they came to Montana, and located in Boulder, 
where they passed the remainder of their lives. Mrs. 
Barrett's great-grandfather, in the paternal lines, 
was a soldier of the war of the Revolution; her 
grandfather bore arms in the war of 181 2; and her 
father was captain of Company H, Twenty-fifth 
Michigan Volunteer Infantry, in the war of the 
Rebellion. j\lrs. Barrett came with her brother to 
Montana in 1867, and here her marriage to Mr. 
Barrett was solemnized. Thev have no children. 

q^HOMAS F. BARRETT.— One of the rep- 
1 resentative citizens of Beaverhead county, 
and one who has attained success through 
his identification with the stock growing and ag- 
ricultural industries of this section of the state, is 
Mr. Barrett, an enterprising and public-spirited 
gentleman who served with distinctive efficiency as 
a member of the board of county commissioners. 
Mr. Barrett is a native of the province of Ontario, 
Canada, having l^een born in the county of Water- 
loo, on September 23, 1854. His father, John Bar- 
rett, was born in County ;\Iayo, Ireland, whence he 
came to America at the age of fourteen years, lo- 
cating in Canada, where he remained until he had 
attained man's estate and engaged in farming for 
a number of years. As early as 1859 he made a 
trip to St. Joseph, Mo., but returned to Ontario and 
resumed his farming operations until 1867. In the 
fall of that year he again went to St. Joseph, re- 
mained until spring, and then removed to Kansas, 
locating in Doniphan county, where he has since de- 
voted his attention to agricultural pursuits. His 
wife, whose maiden name was Ellen McA'ey, was 
born in Kings county, Ireland, whence she came to 
America to join a brother located in Canada, and 
there her marriage to John Barrett was solemnized 
in the year 1850. They became the parents of eight 
children, all of whom are living, the subject of this 
sketch being the second in order of birth. 

Thomas F. Barrett was educated in the public 
schools of Canada and Kansas, in which latter lo- 
calitv he was reared to maturity. There he de- 


voted his attention to farm work for some time 
and later became identified with railroading. In 
1874 he came to Montana to visit his uncle, Martin 
Barrett, and was so impressed with the advantages 
aflforded for individual effort that he decided to lo- 
cate in Beaverhead county and engage in stock- 
raising and farming. He took up a tract of gov- 
ernment land, located fifteen miles west of the vil- 
lage of Red Rock, his nearest railroad and shipping 
point, and he has since added thereto until he now 
has a fine place of 1,100 acres, the same being thor- 
oughly well improved, having a commodious and 
attractive residence. He has given his attention 
to the raising of high-grade shorthorn cattle and the 
best type of draft horses of the Norman and Perch- 
eron strains, and secures good yields of hay from 
his ranch. 

Mr. Barrett is a stalwart supporter of the Demo- 
cratic party and has been an active worker in its 
local ranks. He is at all times public spirited and 
ready to lend his influence and aid in the furthering 
of all enterprises and projects which make for the 
advancement of the interests of his county and 
state. In 1896 he was elected commissioner of 
Beaverhead county, serving one term, having been 
chosen chairman of the board. During his term of 
office great improvements were made in the county 
poor farm and pest house, while special attention 
was given to improving the county roads. He is a 
member of the Jefferson Club, a politico-social or- 
ganization maintained at Dillon. 

Mr. Barrett has been twice married. In the 
spring of 1880 he wedded Miss Nancy Williams, 
who was born in Kansas, and they became the par- 
ents of four children, of whom three are living. 
namely, Elmer A., Chester M. and Nancy E. Mrs. 
Barrett was summoned into eternal rest in 1887, 
and on February 7, 1888, Mr. Barrett consum- 
mated a second marriage, being then united to Miss 
Maria Poirier, a native of France and the daughter 
of Constant Poirier, who was a soldier in the 
French army during the Franco-Prussian war. 
Mrs. Barrett was reared and educated in America, 
whither she was brought by her parents when a 
child of but three years. ^Mr. and ^Irs. Barrett 
have one daughter, Constance H. 

DAVID W. BATEMAN.— The offspring of a 
long established family of prominent and 
forceful men in the historv of Tennessee, whose 

members have filled with distinction almost every 
position of trust and consequence in the gift of the 
people of that state from time to time, but deprived 
by the Civil war of what might have been golden 
opportunities for scholarly training and political 
ascendancy in his youth, and thereby thrown on his 
own resources for whatever career he was to work 
out, David W. Bateman, the president of the Bate- 
man-Switzer Co., wholesale liquor dealers, of Great 
Falls, notwithstanding his untoward circumstances, 
has by his inherent qualities of grit, energy, fore- 
sight and sterling manhood, handsomely sustained 
his family name and redeemed the promise of his 
early life. He was born in Tennessee in September, 
1854. His parents were William L. and Florence 
( Witherspoon) Bateman, both of whom were born 
near Nashville. His father, a physician and sur- 
geon of wide repute and great skill, was a graduate 
of the Medical School of Louisville, Ky., and in 
1855 removed with his family to Hill county, Tex., 
During the Civil war he was surgeon of Gen. 
Throckmorton's brigade of the Confederate army, 
operating on the Texas frontier. He has retired 
from active practice and is living a quiet life at 
Morgan, Tex. The mother is dead. 

Mr. Bateman grew to manhood in Texas, and 
there received his education. In 1878 he, after 
traveling about for some time, located at Hutchin- 
son, Kan., for a short time and from there came to 
]\Iontana in 1881, settling at Three Forks in Madi- 
son county. At that place he conducted a branch 
store for Kleinschmidt Bros., of Helena, and later 
one for the same firm at Martinsdale. He then re- 
moved to Helena, where he remained in the employ 
of the same firm until 1884. At that time the Coeur 
d'Alene gold excitement broke out, and he joined 
the stampede thither, an argonautic expedition 
which was not rewarded with very brilliant suc- 
cess. He returned to Helena in the fall and before 
the end of the year removed to Marysville, where 
he remained until 1890. He then took up his resi- 
dence in Great Falls, and has since resided there. 
In that city he opened a wholesale liquor store, 
which he carried on with constantly increasing suc- 
cess for some years, and then formed a partnership 
with Mr. Switzer under the firm name and style of 
Bateman & Switzer. The business was conducted 
by this firm until 1898 when the Bateman-Switzer 
Co. was organized with a capital stock of $50,000, 
Mr. Bateman being made president and Mr. Swit- 
zer vice-president of the corporation. Under this 
new arrangement the business of the firm has 



shown gratifying progress and prosperity, secur- 
ing the patronage and commanding the confidence 
of an ever-augmenting body of customers, and 
widening its reputation for the quahty of its output 
and the methods of 'its management far beyond the 
boundaries of the state. 

in addition to this commercial enterprise, Mr. 
Bateman is largely interested in land properties 
and in an extensive irrigating plant in Valley coun- 
ty. Politically he is a Democrat, and received the 
nomination of his party for mayor of Great Falls 
a few years ago, but, although making a flattering 
vole, W'as unable to overcome the hostile majority 
and was defeated. In 1881, at Lincoln, Neb., he was 
united in marriage to Aliss Lucretia Brown, a na- 
tive of Ohio. In fraternal relations he is affiliated 
with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. ;\Ir. 
Bateman is always alive to the welfare of his home 
city and omits no efifort on his part to advance it, 
giving freely substantial as well as mental and 
moral support to every enterprise of merit. He is 
a selfmade man in every good sense of the term 
and well deserves the high position he has in the 
financial, social and political circles of the city. 
Every element of his success has been from within. 
He owes nothing to adventitious circumstances or 
the special favors of fortune. He is a fine example 
of business thrift and energy, combined with the 
highest integrity, the most progressive spirit and 
the courtliest manners, and is known as such 
throughout Montana and adjacent states. 

REV. FRANCIS BATENS.— The part which 
the missionaries of the Catholic church have 
played in the development of the great northwest 
and their self-abnegating labors among the be- 
nighted children of the plains and mountains can 
not be held in light regard. It is pleasant to know 
that the same self-sacrificing work is being carried 
on by the church in these later days, and with equal 
fidelity, as when civilization still maintained precar- 
ious foothold in the west. One of the able members 
of the Catholic priesthood in Montana is Father 
Batens, now pastor of St. Lawrence church, at 
Walkerville, Silver Bow county. Like the reverend 
bishop of the diocese. Father Batens is a native of 
Belgium, where he was born on December 11, 1868, 
the son of Isidore and Anastasia (Roonen) Batens. 
both of whom were born in the same country as 
their son. There the mother lived until her death 

in i8(j4. The father is still living there and is a 
farmer by occupation. 

Father Batens was one of the four children 
born to his parents, and was a student in private 
and public schools at St. Nicholas, in the province 
of East Flanders, Belgium, and studied the classics 
in the seminary there, matriculating in 1882 and be- 
ing graduated therefrom in the class of 1889. At 
the American College in Louvain, in the province of 
Brabant, he completed his theological course, and 
also there gave special attention to modern lan- 
guages. Father Batens speaks six different lan- 
guages, and utihzes four in his ministrations and 
labors in his present parish. He is a man of schol- 
arly predilections, but has shown his executive 
power and business ability in effective parochial 
work. He was ordained to the priesthood on June 
29, 1 89 1, and on the following September 19th 
started for the United States, having the city of 
Helena in view as his destination. Here he arrived 
on October 12 and thereafter retained headquarters 
in the capital city for two years, he having been 
assigned to outside mission work by Bishop Bron- 
del, and finding it expedient to report at the see city 
at irregular intervals. In 1893 Father Batens was 
made assistant pastor of St. Patrick's church in 
Butte, and retained this incumbency until March, 
1897, when he effected the, organization of the St. 
Lawrence parish and church at Walkerville, where 
he took up his permanent residence. Services were 
held in Hibernia Hall from April i until Christmas 
day of 1897, the erection of a church edifice having 
been instituted on September 25, while the sanctu- 
ary was completed in season for use at the beau- 
tiful services of Christmas-tide. This building 
cost $11,000 and all of this sum was raised before 
its completion, so that the parish was free from in- 
debtedness when it was dedicated. It was conse- 
crated by Bishop Brondel on January 16, 1898. 
The work thus accomplished through the zealous 
and faithful work of Father Batens and his devoted 
parishioners reflects the greatest credit upon both 
the earnest priest and his faithful people. 

For three months Father Batens was installed 
in a local boarding house, and then for a time occu- 
pied a primitive cottage of three rooms. His faith- 
ful flock soon determined to provide him with a 
suitable rectory, and in April, 1899, they held a 
fair, from which they netted $9,000, which was de- 
voted to the erection of the present attractive home 
of their priest. The parish school was originally 
maintained in a little three-room building, wdth 



most modest equipments, but in September, 1900, 
St. Joseph's school was erected, at a cost of $8,000, 
which provides adequate accommodations for 320 
pupils. The parish work has been one of signal 
earnestness and devotion from the first. The popu- 
lation of the town has been augmented and the 
people have been liberal and enthusiastic in forward- 
ing all branches of church work. The result must be 
alike gratifying to the bishop, the parish and to 
Father Batens, and the mutual affection and es- 
teem which characterizes the intercourse of the de- 
voted priest and his faithful people have made the 
labor, arduous and exacting, though it was one of 
pleasure and satisfaction. There is now 5,000 peo- 
ple in the parish, and the labors in the vineyard of 
the Master will see no abating in the days to come. 

GEORGE BEATTY is one of the pioneer 
ranchmen of Beaver creek, Broadwater county, 
who has achieved success after a long and ad- 
venturous life -in the far west. He was born in 
County Tyrone, Ireland, May 11, 1837, the son of 
John and Mary (Hunter) Beatty, the former a na- 
tive of County Tyrone, the latter of Formanagh, 
Ireland. His paternal ancestors were Scotch, and 
members of the family now reside in Glasgow. 
In 1847 John Beatty and family came to the United 
States, landing at New York in June. Here the 
parents resided until they died, the father in 1876, 
the mother in 1880. George Beatty has an affection 
of the heart, and his physician advised constant 
out-door exercise. So in 1856 he enlisted in Com- 
pany F, United States Dragoons, at New York and 
was sent to Fort Riley, Kan., and detailed for duty 
at Fort Leavenworth. In 1857, he with forty dra- 
goons served as escort to Gen. A. S. Johnston and 
Maj. John Porter on a journey to Utah. The troops 
averaged forty miles a day and on the march Mr. 
Beatty contracted mountain fever and for three 
days was delirious. Recovering on the fourth day, 
the result of powerful doses of blue mass adminis- 
tered by Maj. Porter, the march was continued to 
Fort Bridger. Here they were joined Dy another 
company of dragoons, and were ordered into camp 
at Henry's Fork, thirty miles south of the fort, for 
the winter. Two of their supply trains being burned 
by the R'lormons, they were put on daily rations 
of thirteen ounces of flour, a little poor and tough 
jerked beef, and not an ounce of salt. Companies 
F and I were sent to construct another building at 

Fort Bridger, and in the fall of 1858 they were as- 
signed to Fort Laramie, where he remained until 
honorably discharged with the rank of corporal. 

On March 3, 1861, :\Ir. Beatty was one of seven 
detailed to trail a band of horse thieves, two white 
men having run off a herd of forty horses and 
mules at Fort Laramie. The two details previously 
dispatched had found no trace of the missing prop- 
erty. The colonel ordered the men to go 100 miles 
toward Salt Lake, and if they found no signs of the 
thieves to return, but if any trace was discovered to 
run them to ground. The quartermaster sent a note 
to John A. Slade, agent of Holiday's overland mail 
service, asking him for any assistance they might 
require. Meeting Slade at Horse Shoe, he gave 
them notes to the station agent. At Box Elder 
they heard that the thieves had passed Red Butte 
ten days before, and there they picked up the trail 
and followed it to Sweet Water bridge, where they 
found one of "the horses in a squaw man's corral. 
The purported owner claimed that he had got the 
horse in a trade, and tracks were ramifying in all 
directions to throw the pursuers off the trail. Here 
several squaw men joined them and the trail was 
followed down the river. They found the thieves 
five miles below the bridge. The horses were graz- 
ing and one man was watching them. He started 
for the hills but was soon captured and the return 
trip begun. On consulting his sealed orders at 
Sweet Water bridge. Corporal Beatty found that 
they were to shoot or hang all the thieves they 
might capture, and in five minutes the men had him 
on a barrel with a rope around his neck. The barrel 
was kicked out from under him and he dangled in 
the air. The body was rolled up in a blanket and 
burned in an abandoned house. On their return 
they saw a man on a mule ahead of them. Corporal 
Beatty and two other men started in pursuit, and 
the others returned to camp. The man threw the 
party oft' the trail and escaped. 

At Red Butte station they found all the chiefs of 
the Arrapahoe Indians and i,ooo lodges in camp on 
the Platte river. One young chief named Friday, 
who had been educated at St. Louis, said that he 
would send out 500 young bucks and get the thief, 
and Corporal Beatty's force continued on their re- 
turn, but were overtaken by an express rider who 
said that the Indians had brought the thief into 
camp and tied him for the night but that he had es- 
caped before morning, probably assisted by the head 
chief, who had taken offense because the troop had 
not joined their feast the previous night. After re- 



ceiving Corporal Beatty's report his colonel said : "I 
wish you had got the other thief. Make out a pass 
for yourself for the remaining two weeks of your 
enlistment, and if your captain will sign it I will." 
Later two of Slade's men captured the thief, none 
other than Charlie Davenport, a notorious club- 
footed horse thief, and sent him to Horse Shoe 
where Slade chained him to a log, but the next 
morning both man and chain were gone. One of 
Slade's men helped him to escape, and Indians at 
the Laramie camp had aided in filing off the chain. 
Later Slade saw the man again, captured him, 
brought him to Laramie and they hanged him that 
night. His chief remark was : 

"I am sorry I did not shoot Beatty at Red Butte. 
I was back of a snow drift and could easily 
have done so." 

On receiving his discharge Mr. Beatty secured 
permission from the government to work on the re- 
serve and worked with the regiment farrier for two 
months, shoeing horses, setting tires, etc., for the 
numerous parties of immigrants. He then went to 
Walla Walla, Wash., and passed the winter. In 
the spring of 1862 he went to Florence, Idaho, but 
finding no mining prospects unclaimed, he contin- 
ued prospecting on Salmon river. Air. Beatty 
worked until October at Clear Water for small pay, 
and then in 1862 went to Bannack, Mont., where 
he prospected. The next spring hearing of a big 
strike at Three Forks, he and five others started 
thither. On their way they met a band of Crow 
Indians, who forced them to go to camp. The Indi- 
ans released them the next morning after some 
dickering, but they were followed and their horses 
surrounded and driven off. Three of the party fol- 
lowed the Indians and after an exchange of shots 
the horses were recaptured. At Bannack he joined 
the stampede to Tkree Forks. Here Crow Indians 
stole their horses. Al. Nichols, A. K. Stanton and 
Mr. Beatty crossed the Missouri, and three miles 
from where the Bozeman trail runs under the bluff, 
they came upon the Indians. Each man picked his 
mark and fired, but all missed. They raised their 
hands, stopped the horses and drove them back. 
That season he put in a crop at Three Forks, Joel 
Wilson furnishing the seed, and he had his garden 
planted on June 6. He then went to Virginia City, 
driving fifty miles in a little over half a day, and 
secured a sixteenth interest in a claim which he later 
sold for $150. He then bought a yoke of oxen and 
wagon for $150, borrowed $90 and bought another 
yoke of cattle and began hauling logs for building 

houses in Virginia City, earning fifteen dollars a 
day. Mr. Beatty worked in the placer mines at 
Alder Gulch and in the fall of 1863 hauled hay from 
Madison Valley to Virginia City, and here he first 
met Judge Pemberton. In the spring of 1864, with 
five yoke of cattle and a large wagon he engaged 
in freighting from Fort Benton, but business was 
dull, so he went to the mouth of Milk river. Here 
they were attacked by twenty-four Sioux, and in 
the fight which followed three men were killed. The 
Indians got away with every horse except the one 
ridden by Mr. Beatty. Having joined the Fur 
Company's train he went to Cow Isle and on to Fort 
Benton. While eating breakfast a man by the name 
of Fox came in and began to abuse the Yankees, a 
fight ensued and Mr. Beatty was shot through the 
hip and laid up two weeks. During his illness no 
one called as he was a "Union" man and unpopular. 
In the spring of 1865 Mr. Beatty and his late 
partner, C. A. Falen, commenced looking for a 
ranch, and in March located on his present beauti- 
ful and valuable property. Their nearest neighbors 
were twelve miles away. They followed farming 
profitably, but discovered that there was a reverse 
side to it from the prevalence of horse and cattle 
thieves. In 1880 he rented his ranch and passed the 
winter in New York. He resumed farming the 
next spring and has since successfully conducted 
it. On January i, 1868, Mr. Beatty married Miss 
Mary L. Waddell, a native of New York, who died 
in October; 1876, leaving three children, Mary 
Belle, Alice Letitia and Hamilton Wesley. The 
second wife is Maggie Meletia Beatty, born in 
Armstrong county, Pa. Mr. Beatty has long been 
school trustee and clerk, for four years he was vice- 
president of the Montana Pioneer Society for Jef- 
ferson county and in 1899 was president of the 
Broadwater County Pioneer Society. Fraternally 
he is a charter member of Morning Star Lodge No. 
5, A. F. & A. M., and a member of Union Chap- 
ter No. 180, R. A. M., of New York city. He 
is an active member and trustee and steward of the 
Methodist Episcopal church and prominent in tem- 
perance work. 

pOL. WILBUR F. SANDERS.— From a con- 
v_ servative standpoint, the archaeological stu- 
dent may profitably turn his studies to the life 
and labors of many men who have been the found- 
ers and builders of the newer commonwealths of 
the great republic. In the annals of Montana there 

^^^^'. v^^ 


is to be found no more distinct and positive charac- 
ter than Col. Sanders, whose services to the terri- 
tory and state have been of distinguished order, and 
whose prominence and power in pubhc and civic 
hfe have been distinctive from the early pioneer 
epoch until the present time. As a personality Col. 
Sanders is a most interesting subject for study and 
analysis. Like all positive characters, he has cor- 
ners that obtrude, and against which some persons 
occasionally knock their bones. None that know 
him can doubt that he feels deeply on the highest 
Imman themes, reverences justice and integrity, and 
judges himself and others inflexibly. In his nature 
are- combined idealism and realism — practical good 
sense and lofty conceptions of life and the responsi- 
bilities which canopy it. Those who know this 
character, and know the talents that have been 
placed in the keeping of the man, have not feared to 
call for the use of those talents in times of exigency 
?nd definite need. Col. Sanders has extraordinary 
equipment. Inherent mental ability and a fine 
power of selection enable him to gain it. With this 
equipment he has the rightful dower and power of 
the incentive of noblesse oblige. When his services 
have been demanded he has brought all his powers 
to bear, doing his best; and that best has been a 
cumulative quantity, ever faithful and steadfast. It 
is not our desire to enter into a prolix encomium 
of this symmetrical but many-sided character, but 
merely to enter the verdict pronounced upon the 
man by those who have known him long and well, 
and thus no statement can justly merit criticism. 
As a man, a pioneer of Montana, a lawyer and a 
public officer, it is a pleasure to incorporate in this 
volume a brief review of his life. 

\Vilbur F. Sanders is a native of the old Em- 
pire state, having been born in the town of Leon, 
Cattaraugus county, N. Y., on May 2, 1834, the son 
of Ira and Freedom (Edgerton) Sanders, natives 
respectively of Rhode Island and Connecticut. His 
father was a farmer by vocation, whose death oc- 
curred in the state of New York, as did that of his 
wife. The preliminary educational discipline of 
Wilbur F. Sanders was secured in the public schools 
of New York, where he eventually put his acquire- 
ments to practical test by engaging in pedagogic 
work. In 1854 he removed to Ohio, where he con- 
tinued to devote his attention to teaching for some 
time. He began reading law in the city of Akron 
and was admitted to the. bar in 1856. Thereafter 
he was engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession until the outbreak of the war of the Re- 

bellion, when his intense loyalty and patriotism 
quickened in responsive protest. In 1861 he re- 
cruited a company of infantry and a battery, and in 
October of that year he was commissioned first 
lieutenant and regimental adjutant of the Sixty- 
fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He was acting 
assistant adjutant-general on the stafif of Gen. 
James W. Forsyth, and in 1862 assisted -n the con- 
struction of the defenses along the railroads south 
of Nashville. His health finally became seriously- 
impaired and he was compelled to resign his mili- 
tary position in the month of August, 1862, and, 
primarily with a view to recuperating his energies, 
made the long and venturesome trip across the 
plains to Alontana, then an integral portion of the 
Territory of Idaho, his arrival in our present state 
dating back to September, 1863. 

Some of the early incidents and events of his ca- 
reer in Montana are thus forcibly described by A. 
K. McClure, in his work entitled "Three Thousand 
Miles Through the Rocky Mountains." 

"Colonel Wilbur F. Sanders was one of the first 
permanent settlers of Montana. He had previously 
served with marked gallantry in the L'nion army, 
until broken health compelled him to abandon a 
calling that enlisted his whole heart and was an in- 
viting theater for his manly courage. When Gov. 
Edgerton, his uncle, was appointed governor of the 
territory. Col. Sanders came with him, in search of 
health, adventure and fortune. He had already at- 
tained a high position at the Ohio bar for one of his 
years, and on his arrival he devoted himself to the 
practice of his profession. He was here before the 
courts were organized, and took a prominent part 
in introducirig forms of law and in winning for 
them that respect so often denied in new countries, 
but so essential to the order and safety of society. 
When he came, Plummer was in the zenith of his 
power, and the whole energy of the law was para- 
lyzed by desperate and corrupt officers charged with 
its execution. Crime was supreme and defiant. 
Murders were committed in open day, without fear 
of retribution, and robberies were almost of hourly 
occurrence. A reign of terror spread its dark pall' 
over the camps and settlements of Montana, and dared to demand the punishment of the crim- 
inals who publicly gloried in their evil deeds. In 
the fall of 1863 the forbearance of the better class 
of citizens was exhausted, and the resistance to 
crime took form in the organization of a vigilance 
committee. Tlie desperadoes were confederated by 
oaths and signs; they knew their men, and could 



command them at any point in the shortest possible 
period ready for action. But the very perils which 
beset the effort to redeem Montana from the thrall- 
dom of crime made strong men stronger ; and, with 
the highest resolve to do and dare for the right, 
George Ives, one of the desperado leaders, was ar- 
rested and arraigned before a court of the people. 
Several thousand spectators were present, all 
armed; but how many of them were ready to obey 
the secret signal of Plummer's band and murder the 
chief actors, no one friendly to order could judge. 
With their lives in their hands they' erected the new 
altar of justice, selected a jury of twenty-four true 
men to pass upon the guilt of the prisoner, and 
called for a prosecutor. It was the most perilous of 
all the positions in the court, and men naturally hes- 
itated. A young advocate, tall and slender in stat- 
ure, bvit with intelligence and determination written 
in every feature of his face, came forward, and, in 
the name of the people, charged that George Ives 
was a murderer and unfit to live. His bearing told 
more eloquently than could language, that either 
himself or the criminal must die ; and his clear voice 
rang out over the plain as he pleaded the cause of 
order with a fervor and ability that thrilled the audi- 
ence and paralyzed the majority who had come de- 
termined to save their companion by fresh murder 
if necessary. The jury rendered their verdict, de- 
claring the prisoner guilty. It was confidently ex- 
pected by his friends that the most the court would 
dare to do would be to pronounce the sentence of 
banishment; but they little knew the earnestness of 
the citizens. While the desperadoes were clamoring 
for the submission of the sentence to the audience 
the tall, gaunt form of the prosecutor appeared on 
a v.'agon, and, witli his eyes flashing his invincible 
will, he moved that George Ives be forthwith hung 
b\ the neck until he is dead ! Before the well or- 
ganized friends of the accused recovered from this 
bold and unexpected movement, the motion was car- 
ried ; and not until the sudden clicks of the guns of 
the guard were heard simultaneously with the order 
to 'fall back from the prisoner,' did they appreciate 
that their comrade was doomed to die. With match- 
less skill the advocate for the people has carried his 
case to judgment, and the murderers were appalled, 
as in less than an hour they saw Ives drop in the 
death-noose. The people, clad in the strong armor 
of justice, had triumphed in the very presence of 
the heroes of crime; and the execution of the stern 
judgment foreshadowed the fate of all the robber's 
band. Before another autumn chilled the mountain 

breezes, not one of them was among the living. The 
}'oung advocate who thus braved defiant crime in 
the very citadel of its power, and hurled back the 
fearful tide of disorder, was Col. Sanders ; and he 
is to-day beloved by every good citizen and hated by 
every wrong-doer for his sublime heroism in behalf 
of the right. He is still at the bar, and tries one side 
of every important case in his district. The traces 
of his early efforts against the lawless are still vis- 
ible in his peerless invective when it is warranted 
at the bar ; but he is known to be brave to a fault, 
as generous and noble as he is brave, and preten- 
ders do not seek notoriety by testing the qualities 
of his manhood. * * * With abiding faith in 
the ultimate triumph of correct principles, he will 
battle on until churches and schools and rail'"oads 
come to his aid and give victory to better civiliza- 
tion. When that triumph shall have been won, he 
will be the crowning victor, and wear its richest 

On September 17, 1863, Col. Sanders arrived in 
Bannack City, Mont., then a part of Idaho, and at 
that time a thriving mining camp. There he estab- 
lished himself in the practice of his profession, at a 
time when there was great need for the enforcement 
of law and order. From the initiation of his career 
in Montana it was marked with excitement and 
momentous occasions. "Fearless and intrepid, al- 
most to rashness, he soon cut for himself a position 
of prominence among his associates, and with his 
peculiar genius quickly adapted himself to the de- 
mands of western life. Keen in his perceptions, 
bitter in his sarcasm and fearless in his advocacy of 
every honorable cause that enlisted him, he would 
prosecute or defend, as the case might be, hurling 
his anathemas of scorn or exposing subtle sophis- 
tries with the same dauntless vigor that he dis- 
played when he stood upon the wagon in the full 
vision of a lawless and treacherous mob, on Decem- 
ber 21, 1863. Many have wondered why Col. San- 
ders escaped death at the hands of some beaten ad- 
versary or some member of the famous outlaw gang 
which, he so successfully prosecuted. An explana- 
tion may lay in Col. Sanders' ability to adapt him- 
self to any emergency. It has been said that men 
have left the court-room ashen with rage and lain 
in wait for the appearance of Sanders to kill him. 
Sanders would walk out unabashed; and, discern- 
ing at a glance the situation, would deliberately talk 
the man into good humor. This peculiar ability 
certainly entered largely into his marvelous career 
and mingled with it the courage of conviction, the 



eloquence of moral integrity and a keen sense of 
doing the right thing in the right place. That com- 
bination of fearless energy, quick perception, and 
daring, intrepid action, commanded a degree of re- 
spect and fear which carried him through those 
hazardous days of his early career. It need 
scarcely be said that Col. Sanders has ever main- 
tained the highest prestige as a member of the Mon- 
tana bar, of which he may well be considered a Nes- 
tor; and it should be noted that he has ever shown 
the deepest appreciation of the dignity of his profes- 
sion; the legitimate conservator of right and jus- 
tice. Eloquent and impressive in speech, employ- 
ing a diction of the choicest order — "a well of Eng- 
lish undefiled" — he never veils the salient points in 
mere verbiage, but shows a tremendous capacity in 
strenuous dialectics, an intuitive grasp of all pertin- 
ent points, and a wonderful felicity in the develop- 
ment of any subject which commands his thought. 
His many public utterances stand as examples of 
classical literary style, wide versatility of knowledge 
and masterful mentality ; while the dominating ele- 
ment of earnest conviction is never wanting. Up 
to the present time no public speaker in the state is 
more frequently in demand on occ.-vsions of notable 
importance. One of the sterling pioneers of the 
state and one who has known Col. Sanders as friend 
and intimate from practically the time of his advent 
in Montana recently stated that it had been his priv- 
ilege to hear Col. Sanders deliver here the memorial 
addresses concerning each of the three presidents 
of the United States whose lives were sacrificed 
through assassination — a statement certainly 
apropos of the sentence preceding this. Within the 
limits of this biography it will be impossible to enter 
into details concerning many inte»-esting events in 
the professional and civic career of this honored sub- 
ject, but it is eminently proper to offer a brief re- 
view of his exalted public services to the state. 

His first public service of note was that rendered 
in 1865, when he went to Washington in behalf of 
the miners of the territory, who sought release 
from the burden of imdue taxation. In 1872 the 
Colonel was elected a member of the territorial leg- 
islature, in which capacity he served consecutively 
until 1878. He was the Republican candidate for 
delegate to congress in 1864-67, 1880, and again in 
1886. In 1868 he was the ^Montana delegate to the 
Republican national convention, to the two succeed- 
ing conventions and that of 1884. In 1872 he de- 
clined the office of United States district attorney, 
preferring to continue the private practice of his 

profession. In 1889, in the joint session f)f the leg- 
islature of the new state, Col. Sanders was nomin- 
ated as the Republican candidate for United States 
senator and was elected as one of the first two sen- 
ators from the young commonwealth, serving until 
March, 1893, representing the state and its inter- 
ests with that marked ability which his character anji 
powers imply. From even this epitome it will be 
seen that Col. Sanders has been conspicuously iden- 
tified with the affairs of Montana from the time of 
his arrival in the territory, in 1863, and has honored 
the territory and state as a citizen and official of dis- 
tinctive trust and responsibility. The senatorial 
contests in Montana have been notable from the 
time of her admission to the Union, and a hard- 
fought battle has been waged on each occasion when 
a representative to the upper house of the Federal 
congress was to be chosen. In 1890 four candidates 
contested for the position, and after a long legal 
controversy, which was carried into the courts, a de- 
cision was rendered in favor of the Republican can- 
didates, who were duly seated by the senate. Again, 
in the dead-lock of 1893, Col. Sanders was a prom- 
inent contestant; in the first Republican caucus he 
was nominated, and received the thirty-three Re- 
publican votes of the joint assembly. On the last 
day he received one Democratic vote, but another 
caucus gave the nomination to Hon. Lee Mantle, 
of Butte, where it remained until the close of the' 
session. The Colonel has been one of the leading 
exponents of the cause of the Republican party in 
Montana, and here has shown the courage of his 
convictions as in all other spheres of thought and 
action. He opposed the free-silver heresy which di- 
vided the party in the state on the occasion of the 
last two general elections, and his forceful argu- 
ments and determined inflexibility were all but suf- 
ficient to overthrow the designs of the opposing 
faction, which represented the majority of the party 
in the state. For more than thirty years Col. San- 
ders has been president of the Montana Historical 
Society and has been president of the board of trus- 
tees of the Montana Wesleyan University since 
1889. He is a prominent member of the time-hon- 
ored fraternity of Ancient Free and .\ccepted INIa- 
sons, and was grand master of the Grand Lodge 
of the state in 1868. 

On October 27, 1858, Col. Sanders was united in 
marriage to ]\Iiss Harriet P. Fenn, a native of 
Ohio, and a daughter of Joseph and Nancy (Car- 
uthers) Fenn : and of this imion five children have 
been bom. three of v>hom survive, namely: James 



U. Sanders, Wilbur E. Sanders and Louis P. San- 
ders, all graduates of Philips Academy at Exeter, 
N. H. 

James U. Sanders, a graduate of the law school 
of Columbia University, is now engaged in the 
practice of his profession at Helena ; Wilbur E. San- 
ders, a graduate from the school of mines of Co- 
lumbia University, is a mining engineer at Butte ; 
and Louis P. Sanders, a graduate from Harvard 
University, is practicing law in the city of Butte, 

Standing under the clear light of a life and char- 
acter like that of Col. Wilbur F. Sanders, one can 
not but be moved to a feeling of respect and admir- 
ation : and Montana may well take pride in this ster- 
ling pioneer and honored citizen of Helena, where 
he has maintained his home since the year 1868. A 
friend of Col. Sanders of long standing writes this 
extract of the man : 

"I have known Col. Sanders quite intimately for 
more than thirty years, after he had already 
achieved a reputation of which any man might be 
proud for courage, independence, eloquence and re- 
sources, never surpassed by any early or late resi- 
dents. As a lawyer he was from the first the fore- 
most advocate at the bar and has easily maintained 
that position. Quick to seize upon the merits of 
a case, full of resources to meet any contingency 
and untiring perseverance in pursuing every advan- 
tage and overcoming every obstacle, courts and 
juries quickly recognized his commanding influence 
and success generally crowned his efforts. Had he 
pursued his profession more closely and for gain, 
he might easily have accumulated a fortune; but 
such was the strength of his political convictions, 
and so strong and alluring his taste for public af- 
fairs, that they diverted him from close attention 
to his profession to the sacrifice of personal interest. 
One of the earliest questions that engaged his time 
and attention was the organization of Montana as 
a separate territory. This took him to Washington, 
and there he was brought into close relation with 
all the public men of the nation, and enlarged and 
strengthened his convictions upon all the issues of 
the reconstruction period. 

"It is a matter of history that a large portion of 
the early settlers of Montana were from the border 
states — warm, outspoken sympathizers in the 'lost 
cause.' In the first campaign for delegate to con- 
gress, the first and almost only plank in the Demo- 
cratic platform was 'the immediate recognition of 
the Southern Confederacv' ; and instead of the 

'Stars and Stripes' they carried a white flag where- 
on 'Lilly' was inscribed as an emblem of peace at 
any price. Hardly any other man than Col. Sand- 
ers could have faced the opposition at that time. 
Our first delegate in congress had no influence in 
Washington, and Col. Sanders, while battling with 
secessionists at home had to overcome the preju- 
dices against us at the national capital. For this 
double and continuous fight no one was ever better 
equipped by nature and experience ; no veteran war 
horse was ever more eager and impatient for a 
desperate charge, and the title of 'Republican war 
horse of Montana' was never more fitly bestowed. 
Even after our admission as a state the same bitter 
contest continued and prejudiced the actions of the 
four le2:islatures, and after Col. Sanders was chosen 
L'nited States senator by the Republican members, 
the prolonged and bitter fight was continued in 
Washington and there ended his wise and sound 
victory. In the highest legislative body of the na- 
tion he stood as a peer of the ablest statesman, of 
whom all our people have reason to be proud. 
Throughout the 'thirty years' war' no friend or 
supporter of Col. Sanders had any more unfavor- 
able criticism than that he was too independent to be 
politic or popular. No access of personal gain could 
swerve his mental integrity. He would rather go 
down in temporary defeat than advocate what he 
believed false and wrong. Already the most con- 
spicuous person that has figured in the history of 
[Montana, his wide reading and ample store of ex- 
perience have equipped him to br as interesting a 
writer as he is a forceful speaker." 

GEORGE W. BECKHORN.— Coming to ]\Ion- 
tana with the earliest territorial pioneers, en- 
countering with fortitude the manifold hardships 
and with philosophy the fewer financial triumphs 
of the days of '63, Mr. Beckhorn has lived to reap 
substantial rewards of industry and to realize the 
truth of the familiar proverb, "All things come to 
him who waits," which is amply exemplified by his 
handsome home and surroundings in Gallatin coun- 
ty, near Belgrade. He was born in Chemung coun- 
ty, N. Y., on February 22, 1838, one of a family of 
five sons and five daughters. His parents were 
James G. and Abigail (Green) Beckhorn, and his 
paternal grandfather, James Beckhorn, also his 
great-grandfather were natives of Orange county, 
N. J. The maternal great-grandfather, James 
Green, was born in 1750, and was a continental sol- 



dier of the Revolution. The boyhood days of 
George W. Beckhorn were passed in the state of 
New York, where he received his education in pri- 
vate schools, public schools not having been estab- 
lished.. At the age of eighteen, iji 1856, he re- 
moved to Michigan and later to Minnesota, where 
he passed four years in various pursuits. In i860 
he joined the hegira to Pike's Peak, where he 
passed three years in mining. April 24, 1863, Mr. 
Beckhorn left Colorado for Montana, via Fort 
Bridger and Soda Springs. There were thirty-five 
people in the party, and they experienced no par- 
ticular trouble with hostile Indians, although this 
could not be said of other expeditions traveling 
before and after them. Arriving at Bannack on 
June 20, 1863, he engaged in prospecting and min- 
ing, and finally settled at Virginia City. Those were 
sensational days in Montana, and in this camp 
among the mountains Mr. Beckhorn witnessed the 
hanging, by vigilantes, of George Ives, Jack Galla- 
gher, Clubfoot George, Haze Lyons, Frank Parish 
and Boone Helm, all notorious "road agents" and 
desperadoes. In Virginia City he was fairly suc- 
cessful financially, but he removed to Boulder Val- 
ley and for three years engaged in the stock busi- 
ness. Coming then to Gallatin county he continued 
the same industry until 1884, when he selected a 
homestead on Reese creek, later purchasing addi- 
tional land until he now has a fine property of 700 
acres, a good portion being under irrigation. The 
principal crops raised are oats and wheat, and he 
has also an extensive herd of cattle and horses. 

pHARLES A. BEEHRER.— Among those who 
v^ became identified with the history of the great 
west in the early pioneer days, and the record of 
whose lives is replete with items of interest as 
touching the scenes and incidents of life on the 
frontier, is Mr. Beehrer, whose fine ranch property 
is located four and a half miles east of the village of 
Willis, Beaverhead county, and who merits consid- 
eration as one of the sterling pioneer citizens of 
.Montana and as a progressive and successful busi- 
ness man. 

Mr. Beehrer is a native of Germany, having been 
born on December 4, 1836, of stanch old German 
Christiana Hoechner. Charles A. Beehrer was 
prominent farmer and business man in Gennany, 
having there operated a brick-yard, lime-kiln and 
plaster of paris mill, and where he remained until 

his death, as did his wife, whose maiden name was 
Christina Hoechner. Charles A. Beehrer was 
reared and educated in the Fatherland, where he 
was apprenticed to learn the. cooper's trade, becom- 
ing a skilled artisan. After thus equipping him- 
self he determined to seek his fortunes in America, 
whither he immigrated in the year 1855, arriving in 
the port of New York city in June and soon after- 
ward making his way to Ann Arbor, Mich., where 
he remained about eight months. He then learned 
the brewing business at Kalamazoo, and traveled 
about the state for a time in order to perfect himself 
in all the details of this industry. In 1857 he went 
to St. Joseph, Mo., where he was employed in a 
brewery; subsequently he associated himself with 
another young man and took a contract for the 
building of beer vats, and remained in that city for 
one 3'ear. He then went to St. Louis, to Philadel- 
phia, back again to St. Louis, and finally to Kansas 
Cit_y, where he remained during the winter of 1859- 
60. In the spring he secured a mule team and out- 
fit and with others started for Denver, Colo., the 
gold excitement then being at its height. He reached 
his destination on the 5th of June and at once 
turned his attention to mining, securing some placer 
claims, realizing but little from its operations. He 
then went to Montgomery, Colo., where he took 
contracts for the erection of some large bams and 
five other buildings. He finally traded his con- 
tracts for a pair of boots and a revolver, and after 
the buildings had been completed he went up the 
gulch to a mine he had previously secured, and 
there remained until his stock of provisions was 
practically exhausted. He was determined to con- 
tinue work on the mine, and went to Denver to find 
employment unil he could secure another lot of pro- 
visions. He was not successful in finding a job, 
but met a man who wanted a partner in the butcher- 
ing business. Mr. Beehrer availed himself of the 
opportunity thus afforded, and the two established 
themselves in business and put into operation the 
first meat wagon ever run in what is now the city 
of Denver. The enterprise proved profitable, and 
our subject followed it for tliree months, when he 
sold his interest and opened a saloon in the same 
citv ; but his plan of closing the doors of the estab- 
lishment at ten o'clock each night was viewed as a 
strange innovation. In the spring of the following 
year, 1863, he disposed of this business and bought 
a small brewing outfit, which he loaded' onto wag- 
ons and started across the plains for Montana, ar- 
riving in Virginia City on the ist of July. The 



following day he turned out a small amount of beer, 
the first ever manufactured and sold in the state; 
and he recalls the fact that he carried the twenty- 
two gallon keg on his back to the saloon, having 
only twenty-five cents in his pocket at the time of 
making the delivery. But he was well repaid, re- 
ceiving $88 for the keg of beer. He continued to 
manufacture beer at Virginia City until October, 
1865, when he disposed of the plant and business 
and turned his attention to buying and selling cat- 
tle. In 1863 j\lr. Beehrer was a member of the 
\'igilance Committee at Virginia City, and on the 
night when George Ives was hung he went out with 
a party to secure horses for the purpose of pursuing 
and capturing other road agents at Deer Lodge; 
but they were too late, the bandits having made 
their escape when the party reached Deer Lodge. 
He thereafter was prominently concerned in the 
capture and execution of several of these notorious 
outlaws who were a menace to life and property, 
and it was through the efforts of such brave and 
earnest men that Montana was eventually freed 
from the grasp of a band of outlaws whose deeds 
were more despicable than the savages. In 1866 
]\Ir. Beehrer took up a ranch of 320 acres, and he 
was there residing at the time of the gold excite- 
ment at Reynolds City, now in Powell county, 
where he engaged in the mercantile business, hav- 
ing a large stock of goods. He also provided an 
ac(juaintance with funds to engage in the brewery 
business, but he proved to be dishonest and our sub- 
ject assumed control of the brewery and conducted 
the same until he was able to sell the property, when 
he returned to his ranch. In 1865 he went to 
Helena and erected the original plant of what is 
now the great Kessler brewery, selling out to Mr. 
Kessler in the fall of the same year. The two gen- 
tlemen were stanch and intimate friends for a long 
term of years. December 12, 1869, Mr. Beehrer 
started for California, and upon reaching Los An- 
geles purchased a band of horses which he drove 
through to Montana, being one hundred and twen- 
ty-six days on the road. In the spring of 1873 he 
took a band of beef steers to Cheyenne, Wyo , 
for shipment to Chicago, the second lot of cattle 
ever shipped from Montana to that city. He con- 
tinued to raise and ship cattle until 1876, when he 
returned to his old home in Germany for a visit, 
stopping i;i England, where he took unto himself 
a wife, the bride accompanying him on his return 
to Montana. They took up their residence on the 
present ranch, which is a valuable property, with 

the best of improvements, including an attractive 
residence of modern design and conveniences, the 
place comprised 780 acres and including the origi- 
nal claim taken up by the owner so many years 

In 1 88 1 ;\Ir. Beehrer assisted a friend in the erec- 
tion of a brewery in the city of Butte, but the ven- 
ture proved a failure under the management and 
our subject was constrained to assume control of 
the plant and business which he conducted until 
1885, when he disposed of the property, known as 
the Butte brewery, and returned to his ranch. Here 
he gives his attention principally to the raising of 
high grade horses, though he formerly was exten- 
sively engaged in the raising of shorthorn cattle. 
His political support is given to the RepubHcan 
party, but he has never been an aspirant for politi- 
cal office. He traveled about, buying and selling 
horses and cattle for a number of years, having 
held a government contract for supplying horses 
in 1880. 

In June, 1877, Mr. Beehrer was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Emily Clough, who was born in Eng- 
land but was studying music in Germany at the 
time she became acquainted with our subject. She 
returned to England, and there her marriage was 
solemnized, as has already been noted. Her father, 
Charles Clough, was a leading lawyer of Bradford, 
England. Mrs. Beehrer returned to England in 
1877 for the purpose of recuperating her health 
which had become much impaired, but returned to 
Montana in 1882 and now presides with gracious 
dignity over their attractive home, which is a cen- 
ter of refined hospitality. Mrs. Beehrer is an ac- 
complished musician and a lady of distinctive cul- 
ture. Our subject and his wife have no children. 

JL. BELCHER, M. D., was one of the first resi- 
dents of Townsend, Broadwater county, and is 
now its leading physician. He was born in Hunts- 
ville. Mo., on November 20, 1847, the son of James 
and Dilla (Wright) Belcher. The latter James 
Belcher was the son of Thomas and Elizabeth 
(Lee) Belcher and born on June 15, 1815, and his 
mother was the daughter of Richard Lee, a Virgin- 
ian, who removed to Kentucky at an early day. 
Thomas Belcher made his family home in Howard 
county. Mo., in 1825. The mother of Dr. Belcher 
was the daughter of Gideon Wright, of Randolph 
county, I\Io. Originally he came from North Caro- 

prwGREssij'E MEX OF moxtaxa: 


lina to Kentucky and later moved to Missouri. 
James Belcher was married in 1840 and had two 
sons and two daughters. Dr. J. L. Belcher received 
his earlier education in the public schools and this 
was ampl}- supplemented by a thorough collegiate 
course at i\It. Pleasant College at Huntsville, where 
his purely literary education was completed. He 
then matriculated at the St. Louis Medical College, 
of St. Louis, from which he was graduated as M. 
D. on March 12, 1871. 

He first engaged in the practice of his profession 
in his native town, where he remained until 1878. 
Coming then to Montana he located at Centerville, 
in j\Ieagher county, where he resided, enjoying a 
gratifying medical practice. When Townsend was 
founded, now the capital of Broadwater count}' 
(formed from portions of Meagher and Jefferson), 
Dr. Belcher was among the first to locate therein, 
establishing his home and office in Townsend. In 
those early days it was not uncommon for the Doc- 
tor to have calls from places fifty to seventy miles 
away. On April 11, 1872, Dr. Belcher was united 
in marriage to Miss Nannie Belle Rutherford, 
daughter of Archibald Rutherford, of Randolph 
county, i\Io. 

The political sympathies of the Doctor are with 
the Democratic party, in whose campaigns he takes 
a lively and patriotic interest. From 1892 to 1896 
he was public adminisrator of Meagher county. He 
was county physician of Broadwater county from 
1897 to 1898, and was again appointed in January, 
1901 ; elected coroner in 1898, he held the office two 
years, and he was appointed a member of the first 
state board of health by Gov. J. K. Toole, in March, 
1901. The Doctor has been a member of the 
I-Cnights of Pythias since 1882, has passed the 
chairs and is a past chancellor, while in his lodge of 
Odd Fellows he has also passed the chairs, and he 
has filled every office in the local body of the L'nited 
Workmen. He has been a member of the ]\Iedical 
Association of Montana since 1879, holding prom- 
nience therein. He is highly respected by his nu- 
merous accjuaintances and business associates and 
IS a man in whom the people of the county in 
which he resides have great confidence. 

CHARLES E. BELL.— A profession which has 
a distinctive influence upon the substantial up- 
building of any city or commonwealth is that of the 
skilled architect, and in Helena Bell & Kent stand 

representative in this line, their reputation coming 
as the result of their artistic ability, reinforced by 
specimens of their skill. Charles Emlen Bell, the 
senior inember, is a native of McLean county, 111., 
where he was born on March 31, 1858, the son of 
Chalkly and Mary (Emlen) Bell, natives of Penn- 
sylvania, whence they removed to Illinois in 1855. 
The father was a drover and stock raiser, and he 
died in McLean county, 111., where he was engaged 
in bu,siness many years, a man of influence and 
worth. His family was of old Pennsylvania 
Quaker origin. 

Charles E. Bell attended first the public schools, 
then he completed a three years' course in the West- 
town School, of Pennsylvania. Learning the car- 
penter's trade, for seven years he was engaged in 
this in Illinois, and then entered the office of his 
brother, Mifflin, a skilled architect, with whom he 
studied and worked for one year, gaining valuable 
experience and the practical training essential to" the 
success of an architect. Mr. Bell was thereafter for 
a time in Belleville, Kan., where he was appointed 
assistant inspector of public buildings at Council 
Bhifi^s, Iowa, the jurisdiction of this office including 
the local federal buildings, erected at a cost of 
$250,000. Mr. Bell retained this incumbency three 
years, when he opened an office as architect in that 
city, soon building up an excellent business and 
gaining an enviable reputation. He was engaged 
in this from 1884 to 1898, within which time he had 
been the architect and builder of many edifices of 
importance, including the court house at Harlan, 
Iowa : the Kellum School at Omaha, and business 
blocks in Council Bluffs. The buildings erected in 
his home city included several fine school buildings 
and others of a semi-public nature. He was the 
architect and builder of the high school building at 
Schuvler, Neb., and buildings at Harlan, and he 
was associated for a part of this time with ;\Ir. 
Kent, his present partner. 

In 1894 Mr. Bell and Mr. John H.Kent entered 
into a partnership as Bell & Kent, and this associa- 
tion has since continued to their mutual satisfaction 
and profit. The firm has had headquarters in 
Helena since March 10, 1898. That their work has 
been one of signal importance and gratifying ex- 
tent is evident from the fact that they have charge 
of the erection of some of the finest buildings in the 
state, the most conspicuous one being the new state 
capitol at Helena, erected at a cost of ?450,ooo. In 
securing the contract for this the firm was brought 
into competition with more than 130 architects. 



Bell & Kent's plans were adopted for the court 
house and jail at Anaconda, the expenditure there 
aggregating $100,000; also for a fine public school 
building at Columbus, Mont. ; the court house at 
Williston, N. D. ; court house at Kalispell, costing 
$54,000; the Hotel Havre, which cost $33,000; a 
number of business blocks in Glasgow, and many 
private residences. A conservative estimate of the 
entire cost of buildings erected under their direction 
since coming to Helena is given as over $250,000. 
This does not include the more important contracts 
— those for the capitol, court houses and other pub- 
lic buildings, churches, etc. The record is one of 
which the firm may well be proud. The gentlemen 
comprising the firm enjoy popularity in business 
and social circles, and are representative business 
men of Montana. Fraternally Mr. Bell is identi- 
fied with the Royal Arcanum, the Odd Fellows and 
the Knights of Pythias. 

THOMAS CRUSE.— In the annals of Mon- 
tana, from the early pioneer epoch, there has 
been perhaps identified with her history no 
more distinctly unique and individual character 
than Thomas Cruse. His life has been marked by 
consecutive toil and endeavor, by modesty and un- 
pretentiousness and crowned with success unusual 
to man. It has been a life of hard work, self- 
reliance and integrity, and its success has been 
worthily achieved. It has also been a life of kindli- 
ness and charity, and thus has borne its concomi- 
tant helpfulness. Thomas Cruse was born in 
County Cavan, Ireland, in March, 1836, of sterling 
Irish stock, possessed of that alert and vigorous 
mentality so characteristic of that race. His educa- 
tional privileges were limited in scope, being such 
as were aflforded by private schools in his native 
land. He early began to depend upon himself, and 
in 1856, at the age of twenty, he emigrated to Amer- 
ica. He remained in New York City imtil 1863, 
doing any work that came to hand, and then he 
boarded a steamer for California, made the voyage 
by the Isthmus of Panama, and after arriving in 
the Golden state, divided his time between that 
locality and Nevada and Idaho until iSfifS in pros- 
pecting and mining, working bravely and indefati- 
gably, and always successfully. 

In 1866 Mr. Cruse came to Alder Gulch, Mont., 
and engaged in placer mining. In the winter of 
1S66-7 he went to Salmon river, Idaho, on a stam- 

pede, returned to Montana iil the summer, arrived 
at Helena on the evening of July 4 and on the next 
day went to Trinity Gulch and engaged in mining 
and prospecting. In the winter of 1868 he went to 
Silver creek and continued prospecting and placer 
mining until he struck the Drum Lummond mine 
(named from a parish in his native county) in 1876. 
From the day of its discovery the mine proved rich 
and made money until he sold it to an English syn- 
dicate in 1882 for $1,500,000. Mr. Cruse is still 
interested in mining properties, the Old Blue Cloud, 
the North Star and others. In 1887 he founded the 
Thomas Cruse Savings Bank of Helena, the first 
savings institution organized in JNIontana. It was 
capitalized for $100,000 and has been successful 
from its inception, the people having confidence in 
the methods of the founder and in its financial solid- 
ity. It carries an immense deposit account in addi- 
tion to its large savings, and does a general bank- 
ing business, making a specialty of State, county, 
city and school bonds and warrants, and ranks as 
one of the strongest monetary institutions in the 
state. The official corps in 1901 is : Thomas 
Cruse, president : Frank H. Cruse, vice-president ; 
William J. Cooke, treasurer ; Frank J. Lange, assist- 
ant treasurer. 

]\Ir. Cruse is interested in sheep and cattle grow- 
ing, and is the owner of one of the largest stock 
outfits of the state. His dominating characteristics 
are absolute personal unpretentiousness, sterling 
integrity in all the relations of life and an intuitive 
and accurate discrimination and judgment.' In poli- 
tics he gives an unqualified support to the Demo- 
cratic party, but has had no desire for official prefer- 
ment. In religion he clings to the faith of his 
fathers, the Roman Catholic church, to whose sup- 
port he contributes with marked liberality. He has 
an appreciation of the responsibilities of wealth and 
is charitable and generous, but has the wisdom to 
use proper discrimination in his benevolences, which 
are invariably made without ostentation. In 1886 
was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Cruse to Miss 
JNfargaret Carter, a sister of Hon. Thomas H. Car- 
ter, ex-United States senator from Montana. She 
died in December of the same year, leaving an in- 
fant daughter, Mary. In his beautiful home in the 
capital city Mr. Cruse has installed his niece. Miss 
^lary Cruse, who there presides with grace and dig- 
nity, holding a prominent place in the social circles 
of the city. Miss Cruse is the daughter of William 
Cruse, late of San Francisco, Cal., and a brother 
of Thomas. She has shown a deep appreciation of 



the advantages afforded her by her uncle by making 
the home a center of gracious hospitality. Frank 
H. Cruse, rice-president of the savings bank, is a 
nephew of Thomas Cruse, and he, too, has gained 
distinctive preferment through the kindly considera- 
tion of his uncle. This is a brief synopsis of the 
activities of one of Montana's honored pioneers, and 
there is perhaps not another instance in the state 
where the mutations of human affairs are shown in 
higher relief, or where insistency of purpose and 
effort has gained a greater monetary reward. 

pHARLES M. BELDEN.— The enterprising 
V subject of this sketch is one of Montana's 
most extensive cattle raisers, and owns one of the 
most beautiful ranches in Fergus county. It con- 
sists of some 3,000 acres of land, of which about 
320 have been brought to an advanced state of cul- 
tivation and yield large crops of hay, grain and 
other agricultural products, and generously support 
extensive herds of superior cattle. 

Mr. Belden was born at Painesville, Ohio, July 
15, 1848. His parents were Samuel and Eliza Bel- 
den, natives of A'ermont, who emigrated to Ohio 
when they were young. The father was a carpen- 
ter, who worked at his trade with industry and 
zeal, and was successful in accumulating a compe- 
tence. Both parents were members of the Meth- 
odist church, and both have departed this life, the 
mother having died in 1852 and the father in 1872. 
Six children survive them, of whom Charles is the 

Mr. Belden must be classed as distinctively a 
self-made man. He had no opportunity to go to 
school after he was eleven years of. age, and was 
obliged to earn his own living, which he did by 
working for a gardener for twelve and a half cents 
a day. He drew this pay for two years and then 
hired out regularly as a farm hand until he was 
nineteen. In 1868 he came west, locating at Chey- 
enne, where he secured employment from the 
Union Pacific Railroad Company, hauling ties. Af- 
ter a ye'ar's time he freighted for three years, with 
headquarters at Sweetwater, Wyo. At the end of 
that time he had saved enough to go into business on 
his own account. Purchasing a sufficient number 
of good mules, he passed the next thirteen years in 
this occupation, with large profits, good health and 
considerable enjoyment. In 1884 he retired from 
freighting and bought the nucleus of his present 

large ranch, which is located one mile north of 
Utica, and has kept adding to it by purchase. 

Mr. Belden is a member of the order of Knights 
of Pythias. In politics he is a Democrat, always in- 
terested in the success of his party, but exhibiting 
no special activity in party affairs. He was mar- 
ried April 5, 1885, to Miss Etta C. Piatt, of North 
Madison, Ohio, daughter of Sydney and Julia 
Piatt, also natives of Ohio. Her father is a pros- 
perous farmer and an ardent Republican. Mr. and 
Mrs. Belden have three children, namely, Piatt C, 
Hazel J. and Harold P., who enliven their home 
with the sunshine of their presence and the life and 
grace which they add to its cordial hospitality. 

OLIA'ER W. BELDEN, the present incumbent 
of the office of county attorney of Fergus 
county, has given an able administration of the 
duties connected therewith, and there is propriety 
in according him recognition in this work. 

Oliver W. Belden is a native son of the west, 
born in Richardson county, Neb., on the 26th of 
September, 1873, the son of Hiram and Martha A. 
(Jennings) Belden, both of whom were born na- 
tives of Ohio. They removed to Nebraska in 1867, 
and there still maintain their home, the father de- 
voting his attention to agriculture. He is an hon- 
ored veteran of the Civil war, serving as a private 
in Company E, Fifteenth Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, in the Army of the Cumberland. Here he 
served for four years and four months until victory 
crowned the Union arms. He participated in the 
historic battles of Shiloh, Vicksburg, Chickamauga, 
Missionary Ridge and the Atlanta campaign, and 
was with Sherman in the march to the sea. He 
also took part in the grand review of the victorious 
armies in the Federal capital. He was wounded at 
Hatcher's Run, but not long incapacitated for duty. 
He was mustered out as first sergeant of his com- 
pany. In his family are four sons and three daugh- 
ters, Oliver W. being the only representative of the 
family in Montana. 

Oliver W'. Belden was reared on the homestead 
farm in Nebraska, and his early education was ac- 
quired in the public schools. In 1896 he matricu- 
lated in the State University at Lincoln, and in 1898 
was graduated from the law department, and was 
at the same time admitted to practice before the 
supreme court of Nebraska. The same year he 
came to Montana and soon located in Lewistown 



for the general practice of his profession. His 
novitiate was of brief duration. He soon gained a 
clientage and is considered one of the representa- 
tive young members of the bar of the state and one 
thoroughly devoted to his profession and its work. 
In 1900 he was elected to his present office as 
county attorney, and his course has won endorse- 
ment and commendation. In politics ]\Ir. Belden is 
a stanch supporter of the Republican party. He is 
active in the party cause in his county. 

On the 26th of September, 1901, Mr. Belden was 
united in marriage with Miss Susie Remington, 
daughter of Silas K. and Jeannette (Root) Rem- 
ington. She was born on August 4, 1879, in Michi- 
gan and educated in Helena public schools and is a 
graduate from the Balatka Conservatory of j\Iusic, 
of Chicago, 111. Her parents reside at Miles City. 

FRANK BELL, of Pony, one of the most pro- 
gressive, enterprising and far-seeing ranch- 
men of Madison county, came to Montana in 1874, 
arriving in the Madison valley with thirty-five cents 
in worldly wealth and the clothes on his back. He 
has taken intelligent advantage of the opportunities 
the country affords to thrift and industry, and is 
now well established financially and holds a high 
place in public regard. He was born in Franklin 
county, Ohio, on March 24, 1854. His parents 
were Henry and Laura (Bull) Bell, the former a 
native of Maryland and the latter of Ohio. The 
Bell family is an old one in Maryland, with a good 
record in the civil and military history of that 
state. The father of Mr. Bell settled in Ohio as a 
young man and after half a century of life there, 
winning a competence in property and the universal 
confidence and esteem of his fellows, among whom 
he conducted a prosperous business as a manufac- 
turer, merchant and farmer, he retired from active 
life and returned to his old home in Maryland, 
where he passed the rest of his days. 

Frank Bell passed his school days in Ohio, and 
went with his family to Maryland. In 1873 he re- 
turned to Ohio, and, after remaining about a year, 
he came to Montana, traveling by rail to Corinne, 
Utah, and staging it from there to Virginia City. 
He settled in the Madison valley and engaged in 
farming for three years, then removed to Upper 
Willow creek, buying the original Lake ranch, to 
which he has added by purchases until he has now 

a body of 2,100 acres of land, a large portion of 
which is under irrigation and produces excellent 
crops of grain and hay. In 1901 he had 225 acres 
in oats alone. His herd of cattle usually numbers 
from 400 to 500, and in addition he has about 150 
head of horses. Willow creek runs through his 
ranch and affords him facilities for irrigation. But 
not content with this, his natural enterprise has in- 
duced him to dam two lakes in the mountains to in- 
crease his irrigating facilities. He has a partner in 
each dam, and when the dams are in operation they 
will irrigate a large extent of land. Mr. Bell lets no 
opportunity go by him to improve his own prop- 
erty and elevate the standard of the community in 
every way. His farm is already a model of thrift, 
foresight and intelligent application of the best 
methods, and, with the improvements under way 
and in contemplation, will soon be one of the most 
desirable in the county. Mr. Bell was married De- 
cember 6, 1880, to Miss Katie M. Noble, a native of 
Ohio, daughter of Joshua Noble, who came to Mon- 
tana in 1879 and located on Willow creek. The 
Bells have three children, Alice, Clarence and 
Frankie. Mr. Bell is a man of great public spirit 
and is always concerned in whatever operates for 
the welfare of the community. He is recognized 
as a leading man in his section, and has influence in 
all public and local matters. For some years he has 
run a threshing outfit, principally for his own use, 
but not restricted to that. He has also an interest 
in 400 town lots in Pony, and a fine residence in 
Bozeman, with other property in that progressive 

] OHN H. KENT.— In the review of Charles E. 
J Bell we have given an epitomized record of the 
operations of the well-known firm of architects. 
Bell & Kent, of Helena, and it now devolves upon 
us to give recognition to Mr. John H. Kent, the 
junior member, who has contributed his quota 
toward the success of the firm. He was born Feb- 
ruary 3, 1852, in England, the son of Henry and 
Elizabeth (Hackett) Kent, both of whom belonged 
to long established English families and were life- 
long residents of the land of their birth. Mr. Kent 
received excellent educational advantages, conclud- 
ing his literary studies in Cambridge University, 
where he completed the course and was graduated 
with the class of 1873. 5"or some years previous 
to this event he was also giving careful at- 



tentioii to the science of architecture, and he had a 
four jears' apprenticeship under T. C. Hine, one of 
the foremost architects of England. 

Having become thoroughly well equipped by 
technical training for his chosen profession, Mr. 
Kent established himself as an architect at Chester- 
field, England, where he remained until 1881, when 
he located in Toronto, Canada, where he was in 
business for two years. He then located in Detroit, 
there associating himself for two years with E. E. 
Myers, widely known as an architect of public 
buildings. From Detroit he removed to Toledo, 
Ohio, and thence to Omaha, Neb., where he was a 
partner of F. ^M. Ellis until joining his present asso- 
ciate, Charles E. Bell. The two gentlemen have 
proved able coadjutors, and the capital city is fa- 
vored in their having located here. 

FRANK H. BIMROSE, D. D. S.— Frequently 
in commercial life a person may come into 
possession of a lucrative business through inher- 
it^ance or gift, but in the professional vocations ad- 
vancement is gained only through individual ability 
and effort, and in the important profession of dental 
surgery distinction is acquired only by close appli- 
cation, thorough mastery of the principles of the 
science and by a delicacy and accuracy of mechan- 
ical skill necessary in hardly any other calling. The 
possession and utilization of these essential attri- 
butes have made Dr. Bimrose, of Butte, one of the 
representative dental surgeons of the state. 

Frank Herbert Bimrose is a native son of merrie 
old England, having been born in picturesque Lan- 
cashire on April 30, 1874. His parents, Edward 
and Elizabeth (Biggs) Bimrose, were likewise rep- 
resentative of old English lineage, and they are now 
residents of Eureka, Utah, having emigrated to the 
United States when Dr. Herbert was a lad eight 
years old. The Doctor received such educational 
advantages in his early youth as were afforded by 
the public and high schools, and put his scholastic 
acquirements to a practical test by engaging in 
teaching for two years. In 1894 he entered the 
dental department of the Northwestern University, 
of Evanston, III, at Chicago, and there he was 
graduated in the class of 1898, with the degree of 
Doctor of Dental Surgery. Upon being thus thor- 
oughly fortified for his profession the Doctor located 
in the beautiful city of Kalamazoo, Mich., for one 
vear and was associated with Dr. F. C. Rood. 

Then he came to ]\Iontana, believing that this new 
and progressive state offered superior advantages 
to an ambitious young professional man. 

He has had no reason to regret his choice, for he 
located in Butte and has established a most satis- 
factory professional business, his careful and skill- 
ful work having given him a high reputation. His 
finely appointed offices are located in the Hennessy 
block. The mechanical equipments are of modern 
design, while all work is executed with scrupulous 
fidelity and the utmost skill. In politics he is inde- 
pendent in his attitude and fraternally he is identi- 
fied with Damon Lodge No. i. Knights of Pythias, 
and with the Butte Council, Royal Arcanuni, of 
which he is now vice-regent. The Doctor enjoys 
marked popularity and esteem in professional, fra- 
ternal and social circles and is recognized as an able 
and progressive business man, energetic and public- 

On April 27, 1895, Dr. Bimrose was united in 
marriage to Miss Marie Duffield, born- in Matta- 
mora. 111., the daughter of Milton and Martha 
(Whittlesey) Duffield, natives of Connecticut, the 
Whittleseys being an old colonial family, several 
representatives of which were valiant soldiers in 
the Revolution. 

FRANK L. BENEPE.— To the enlisting of 
men of notable enterprise and integrity in the 
furthering of her industrial activities is mainly due 
the precedence and prosperity which attends the 
great state of Alontana ; and among those repre- 
sentative business men is Mr. Benepe, at the head 
of industrial enterprises of great importance, and 
who is well known as a progressive and popular 
citizen of Bozeman, Gallatin county. He came to 
Montana with naught but energ)', self-reliance, hon- 
esty of purpose and a determination to attain suc- 
cess by worthy and legitimate means. He holds 
prestige as a sterling type of the self-made man. 
and has demonstrated the possibilities for individual 
accomplishment in the industrial and commercial 
Hfe of Montana. Mr. Benepe is a native of the old 
Buckeve state, having been born in Tuscarawas 
county, Ohio, on January 3, 1851, being the son of 
Seth \V. and Sarah H. (Howe) Benepe, the former 
of whom was born in Ohio, July, 1817; the latter in 
the same state in October, 1816. In 1851 they 
moved to Christian county, 111. The parents are 
now living in Kansas City, Kan. The paternal 


grandfather was a surgeon in the French army un- 
der Napoleon, and was called a Swiss, the place of 
his birth being near the line bet\yeen Switzerland 
and France. He came to America in an early day, 
remaining in Ohio until his death, and was known 
as a man of superior ability. 

Frank L. Benepe, the subject of this review, was 
reared on the homestead farm, and received such 
school advantages in his youth as were afforded in 
the district, but in later years he has eiTectively 
added thereto by close study and by a rare power 
of absorption through association with men and 
affairs in the practical sphere of business. He early 
assumed the duties of life, having earned his first 
dollar when but fourteen years of age. When 
twenty-four years old he engaged in farming, culti- 
vating a portion of the farm owned by his father, 
and in 1876 he engaged in bujing and shipping 
horses to the New Orleans market. On the discov- 
ery of gold in the Black Hills he started for that 
section. From Cheyenne, Wyo., he made his way 
into the Black Hills in the spring of 1877, and after 
prospecting for a short time, he went, in August, to 
the Little Big Horn country. He gradually moved 
westward, suffering all the hardships a trip under 
such conditions entailed in the early days, and 
finally reached the town of Bozeman, Mont., on the 
nth of September. He traversed the Custer battle- 
field the year after the memorable massacre of Gen. 
Custer and his brave men, and on the entire trip 
from the Black Hills to Bozeman he was accom- 
panied by I. J. Kountz, now president of one of the 
leading banking institutions in the city of Boze- 
man. On reaching Bozeman Mr. Benepe had en- 
tirely exhausted his financial resources, being "flat 
broke" — quite expressive, if not elegant. 

He walked on into the valley about three miles 
and secured work in the harvest field, but later 
secured a position to teach in a country school dur- 
ing the ensuing fall and winter. In the spring of 
1878 he rented a ranch, engaged in farming until 
fall, when he came to Bozeman and engaged in the 
setting up of farm machinery preparatory for field 
work. It was by mere accident that he turned his 
attention to this line of industry, wherein he has 
attained such notable success. Observing and at all 
times able to discern a good business opportunity, 
he became impressed with the idea that an excellent 
opening was offered for the establishing of an agri- 
cultural machine and implement business in Boze- 
man. He at once consulted ways and means, form- 
ulated definite plans,and on January 10, 1880. we find 

him associated with John B. Davidson in the open- 
ing of the first agricultural implement and grain 
warehouse in Bozeman, to which city Gallatin val- 
ley is tributary. This partnership continued until 
April 27, 1883, when he purchased Mr. Davidson's 
interest and established the enterprise upon his own 
responsibilities, conducting the same until 1890, 
when he effected the organization of the Bozeman 
Implement, Harness and Carriage Company, of 
which he is the head. The business was enlarged 
and conducted under the title noted for a period of 
two years, when the present firm of Benepe, Owen- 
house Company was incorporated, our subject becom- 
ing president of the concern at its inception and has 
since presided over its destinies in the same capac- 
ity. The effective methods introduced by our sub- 
ject, the system brought to bear in the conducting 
of details and the thorough executive and business 
ability of the interested principals, gained the confi- 
dence and patronage of the farmers throughout the 
tributary territory, and the business has so broad- 
ened in its scope that the establishment stands to- 
day as the most extensive supply depot and ware- 
house in its line that can be found in eastern Mon- 
tana, if not in the entire state. It is certain that the 
company annually handles more grain than any 
other firm or corporation within the limits of Mon- 
tana, this adjunct of the original business having 
grown to be of vast importance. In addition to this 
magnificent enterprise, so largely resultant through 
his progresive efforts and keen business discrimina- 
tion, Mr. Benepe owns and operates a large grain 
and stock ranch in Gallatin valley, and has a fine 
stock farm in the vicinity of Bozeman, both devoted 
to the raising and breeding of high-grade Hereford 
cattle. Through this latter enterprise he has done 
much to advance the stock interests in the state, and 
is specially advantageous to others engaged in the 
cattle industry in the great northwest. In his fra- 
ternal relations Mr. Benepe is identified with the 
time-honored order of Free and Accepted ]\Iasons, 
and while he takes a public-spirited interest in all 
that concerns the general progress and material 
prosperity of the county and state, has neither time 
nor inclination to actively identify himself with 
political affairs, believing that he discharges his 
duty in this line when he exercises his right of fran- 
chise. In national affairs he gives his support to 
the Republican party, but in local matters maintains 
an independent attitude. He has served as mayor 
of Bozeman for two years. One of the most beauti- 
ful homes in the citv of Bozeman is that owned bv 



Mr. Beiiepe, where the gracious and refined hospi- 
tality of himself and wife is always in evidence. 
They are prominent and popular in social life, and 
their immediate friends and acquaintances embrace 
the entire community. Mrs. Benepe is a member of 
the Presb3terian church. On December 19, 1882, 
I\Ir. Benepe was united in marriage to Miss Jan- 
nette Trent, who was born in Leavenworth, Kan., 
February 16, 1861, a daughter of Matthew and 
Frances (Doyle) Trent, natives of Louisville, Ky., 
who moved to Kansas in an early day. The former 
was born October 19, 1817, and the latter in 1825. 
They are the parents of five children, one of whom, 
Byron, died at the age of eighteen months ; the oth- 
ers, Frank L., Jr., Ellen E., Genevieve A. and Lu- 
cien, are devoted in their parental affections, and 
are worthy representatives of that manhood and 
womanhood which marks the American type as 
a standard that all others may follow. 

HON. WILLARD BENNETT.— In the ances- 
try of Hon. Willard Bennett, of Helena, the 
cavaliers of A'irginia and the Puritans of Connecti- 
cut were united, and he presents in his character 
and career the best features of both, being a courtly 
and cultivated gentleman and a keen, thrifty and 
ingenious business man. His father was Nicholas 
Bennett, a native of the Old Dominion, where his 
family had a long and honorable record; and his 
mother was Diana Sprague, descendant of an old 
and prosperous Connecticut family. They removed 
in childhood with their parents to Canada, where 
they were educated and married, and where the 
father died after a life of usefulness, leaving the 
mother, who still resides in that country. They had 
five sons and one daughter, all of whom made their 
residence in the United States. One of the sons, 
following the flag of his adopted country through 
the strife and turmoil of the Civil war, was killed 
at the battle of Antietam. The others are yet living, 
a credit to their parentage and helpful factors in the 
body of our people. Nelson's home is at Tacoma, 
Wash.; Sidney's at Fort Dodge, Iowa, and Albert's 
in New Mexico. 

Willard Bennett lived in Canada until he was 
'fourteen years old. Then, in 1S60, he removed to 
the United States and located at Medina, N. 
Y., where he remained eighteen months. Just then 
petroleum, the newest gift of Mother Earth to man, 
awakened the cupidity and quickened the energies 

of the dwellers on the Atlantic slope and the eastern 
portion of the Mississippi valley, and thousands 
flocked to the oil fields. Among them went Willard 
Bennett. He remained there two years, drilling oil 
wells with his brother. Nelson. In 1865 he went to 
Missouri and purchased land near Sedalia as an in- 
vestment. In 1867 he returned to Pennsylvania and 
soon afterwards to Canada. Subsequently he re- 
turned to the oil regions and' remained there until 
1881, when he emigrated to Montana, locating at 
Deer Lodge, where he and his brother Nelson en- 
gaged in merchandising. They conducted branch 
houses at Butte and Townsend, all under the firm 
name of Bennett Bros. For eleven years they pros- 
pered together; then, in 1892, Willard sold his share 
of the enterprise and purchased a controlling inter- 
est in the Royal gold mine in Granite county, which 
he operated successfully for four years. In 1894 
his attention was attracted to the profitable and 
rapidly increasing industry of stock raising, and he 
immediately started an extensive business in that 
line in Custer county, to which he has since added 
sheep breeding in Broadwater and other counties. 
He now (1901) owns over 10,000 sheep and a large 
number of horses of superior quality. In addition 
his mining interests are still large in various parts 
of the state. Mr. Bennett was married in 1873 to 
Miss Elizabeth Tomlinson, of Canada, where the 
ceremony was performed. They have three sons 
and one daughter, Milton, Anson and George N., 
the first being in partnership with his father, and 
Ethelene, wife of Albert J. Galen, of Helena. 

In lines of public enterprise J\Ir. Bennett has been 
energetic and progressive. He, in company with N. 
J. Bulenberg and William Coleman, built and still 
owns the first system of water works for Deer 
Lodge. He was also potential in organizing the 
first street railway company in Butte, a combination 
horse and steam line, for which he secured the fran- 
chise. And he is largely interested in the gas man- 
ufacturing plant at Billingham Bay, Wash., in com- 
pany with his brother Nelson. In politics he is a 
lifelong Republican. He has no ambition for the 
honors of official position, but as a good citizen, 
having the welfare of the community in which he 
lives at heart, in 1894 he did consent to represent 
his people in the state legislature for one term, in 
order to secure for them much-needed local legisla- 
tion. Fraternally he is a Free Mason, connected 
with two of its branches, the Blue Lodge and the 
Royal Arch Chapter. The story of Mr. Bennett's 
success in Montana is not one of the many, but one 



of the selected few. His opportunities have not 
been greater or more numerous, than those offered 
to thousands of others, but his sagacity and in- 
telHgence have enabled him to grasp and utilize 
his, while others have allowed theirs to go un- 
noticed. Moreover he has at the same time those 
other qualities which command the respect and es- 
teem of men — a high sense of honor, a proper re- 
gard for the rights of his fellows and a suavity and 
sinceritv of manner. 

ALDEN J. BENNETT.— The specitic and dis- 
tinctive province of this publication is to enter 
record concerning those who have been the found- 
ers and builders of the great state of Montana, and 
in view of this fact it is imperative that special ref- 
erence be made to Mr. Bennett, that honored pio- 
neer and influential citizen of both territory and 
state. He was born in Delaware county, N. Y., on 
June 25, 1847, the son of Phineas L. and Minerva 
(Hakes) Bennett. The original American progeni- 
tor in the agnatic line was Robert Bennett ( i ) , an 
emigrant from England to Rhode Island in 1630, 
and the lineage is traced through Robert (2), who 
died in Portsmouth, R. L, in 1722; Robert (3), who 
died in Tiverton, R. I., in 1746; John (4), who died 
at Dartmouth, Mass., in 1769; Alden (5), a sea 
captain, lost at sea in 1798; Isaac (6), who died in 
Harpersfield, N. Y., in 1812; Phineas L. (7), who 
died at York, Pa., in 1892, to Alden J. Bennett (8). 
On the father's side in the cognatic line, the ances- 
try traces to George and Anna (Becket) Soule, the 
former of whom landed from the ]\Iayflower in 
1620 and the latter from the Ann, three years later. 
The Soule family has ever been one of the most 
distinguished families of New England, numbers 
battling bravely as soldiers in every war from King 
Philip's war to the Spanish- American contest ; 
while in law, literature and commercial life they 
have been prominent. Isaac Bennett, great-grand- 
father of Alden J., was born in Duchess county, N. 
Y., June 22, 1780, and married Anna Losee, both 
being Friends. They removed at once after mar- 
riage to the primitive wilds of Delaware county, 
where they were of the earliest pioneers. The sec- 
ond of their five children was Phineas Lounsbury 
Bennett, born in Harpersfield, N. Y., February 15, 
1806, and who died in York, Pa. On December 23, 
1840, he married Minerva Hakes, a daughter of 
Judge Lyman Hakes, who presided on the district 

bench in Delaware county and also served in the 
war of 1812. ;\Irs. Bennett died at York, Pa., May 
7, 1899. Phineas L. and Minerva (Hakes) Ben- 
nett had four children, Frances M., Lyman Hakes, 
Alden J.and Isaac. Frances M. married Hon. Rodney 
Dennis and died at York, Pa., in March, 1901. Ly- 
man Hakes Bennett died in Wilkesbarre, Pa., in 
October, 1897, being then judge of the district 
court for Luzerne county. Isaac resides in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Alden Joseph Bennett received preliminary edu- 
cation in the public schools and later was graduated 
from Franklin Engineering School, at Franklin, N. 
Y., with the class of 1866. As an engineer he was 
identified with the Union Pacific Railroad from 
1868 until the completion of the road. He then 
went to White Pine, Nev., engaged in mining and 
milling until 1 870, and here had numerous experi- ■ 
ences incidental to frontier life. In 1870 he came to 
jMontana, located in Virginia City, taught school 
for a number of years and also was county superin- 
tendent of schools for Madison county. He was 
also engaged in ranching for three years, associated 
with his old friend and schoolmate, J. H. Harper, 
now of Butte, Mont. In 1876 Mr. Bennett became 
bookkeeper in the bank of Henry Filing, at Vir- , 
ginia City, a position which he filled for three 
years. In 1879 the banking firm of Raymond, Har- 
rington & Co. was organized and Mr. Bennett be- 
came one of the firm and its manager. In Novem- 
ber, 1889, the company was reorganized as Hall & 
Bennett, the other stockholders retiring, and the in- 
stitution being continued by Amos C. Hall and ]Mr. 
Bennett. The firm name is still retained, although 
Mr. Hall died in 1893. This is one of the solid, 
conservative banking houses of the state, and its af- 
fairs have been handled with signal discretion and 
ability by Mr. Bennett, who has been the chief exec- 
utive from the first. Mr. Hall's interests in the 
bank are still retained and the business is con- 
ducted under the title of the Hall & Bennett Bank- 
ing Company. Aside from his banking interests at 
Virginia City, Mr. Bennett is also connected with 
various 'extensive business enterprises, being presi- 
dent of the Bank of Twin Bridges ; president of the 
Alder Gulch Consolidated Mining Company, etc. 

j\Ir. Bennett has been prominently identified with 
party affairs in the city and county as a Republican.' 
He has served many terms as one of the aldermen . 
of Virginia City and was elected its mayor in 1888, 
since which time he has been incumbent of this posi- 
tion for six additional terms. He was county super- 



intendent of schools in 1882-3 and for ten years 
chairman of the Madison county central committee 
of his party, has held membership in the territorial 
and state central committees and was an alternate 
delegate to the Republican national convention held 
in Minneapolis in 1892. Mr. Bennett was the can- 
didate of his party for lieutenant-governor in 1900, 
but was defeated, as were the other candidates. 
Fraternally he is prominently identified with the 
order of Elks and the Odd Fellows, being past ex- 
alted ruler of the Virginia City lodge of the former 
and having "passed the chairs" in Virginia City 
Lodge No. 7, of the latter organization. He deliv- 
ered the oration at the Elks" memorial conclave at 
Helena in December, 1899, and at Butte in 1900, 
and is one of the most popular Elks in the state. He 
is also a member of the New York Society of the 
Sons of the Revolution. 

On November 21, 1878, in Virginia City, Mr. 
Bennett was married with Miss Mary Prout, daugh- 
ter of Rev. Henry Hedges Prout, a clergyman of 
the Protestant Episcopal church, as a missionary of 
which he was stationed in North Carolina, where 
Mrs. Bennett was born. The original American 
ancestor was an Englishman, Capt. Prout, who 
located in Boston in 1641. After the Civil war Rev. 
H. H. Prout lived in New York until 1872, when 
he became rector of the church in Virginia City, 
Mont. Mr. and Mrs. Bennett have three children, 
Minerva M., Henry P. and Lyman H. The daugh- 
ter is a graduate of Wells College and the elder son 
is assistant cashier of the Bank of Twin Bridges. 
Mrs. Bennett is a communicant of the Protestant 
Episcopal church, which the family attends. Of Mr. 
Bennett another publication has spoken as follows : 
"Since coming to Montana he has taken a deep in- 
terest in all public enterprises and rendered sub- 
stantial aid to every undertaking intended to benefit 
the town, the county, the state or the country at 
large, and his whole record as a citizen and business 
man has been such as to justly win him the high 
esteem of all who know him." 

WILLL\M M. BLACKFORD.— It has been 
well said that law is a jealous mistress, 
and demands of her votaries an undivided loyalty 
and singleness of purpose. This fact is exempli- 
fied in the career of every truly successful lawyer. 
The bar of Montana has ever maintained a high 
standing, and among its representative members in 

Fergus county is William 'SI. Blackford, senior 
member of the firm of Blackford & Blackford, of 
Lewi st own. 

Mr. Blackford was born in \\niile county, 111., 
on the 22d of October, i860, a son of James M. and 
Cecily (Spencer) Blackford, the former of whom 
was born in White county, 111., and the latter in 
England, whence she accompanied her parents on 
their removal to the United States in her childhood. 
James M. Blackford was a farmer in his native 
state, where he passed his entire life, his death oc- 
curring on the 17th of March, 1887. He was a son 
of Ishmael Blackford, likewise born in White coun- 
ty, 111., where he passed his life in agriculture. The 
family originally came from Virginia, where it was 
established in the colonial epoch, and in Illinois it 
was numbered among the very earliest settlers. 
James M. and Cecily Blackford were the parents 
of six sons and four daughters, all of whom are liv- 
ing. The mother is now residing in White county, 

William M. Blackford is indebted to the public 
schools for his preliminary schooling, and he con- 
tinued his literary studies in the National Normal 
University at Lebanon, Ohio, where he was gradu- 
ated as a member of the class of 1887. He had pre- 
viously devoted considerable time to the reading of 
law under effective preceptors. After leaving col- 
lege he went to Jacksonville, Ore., as principal of 
the grammar department in the public schools of 
that city, and retained this position nine months, 
from there going to Oakland, Cal., where he studied 
law until 1889, when he came to Butte, Mont., to 
take charge of the affairs of J. E. Carne, an attor- 
ney. In January, 1890, he was admitted to the bar 
of the state and was in practice at Butte until May, 
when he removed to Helena, and was associated 
with Judge Decius S. Wade, ex-chief justice of the 
supreme court of Montana, and also with Judge 
J. W. Kinsley. For one year he was clerk of the 
code commisson. In February, 1894, Mr. Black- 
ford removed to Lewistown, and has since been en- 
gaged there in the active and successful work of 
his profession. In July, 1899. his brother, James M. 
Blackford, joined him in the law firm of Blackford 
& Blackford. They are thoroughly equipped for 
their profession labors and occupy a noticeably 
convenient and well arranged suite of offices. 

In politics Mr. Blackford is a staunch supporter 
of the Democratic party, in which he has-been an 
active worker. He is prominent in the Masonic fra- 
ternitv and is now master of Lewistown Lodge No. 



37, A. F. & A. M., also being a member of Hiram 
Chapter No. 15, R. A. M.; and of Black Eagle 
Commandery No. 8, Knights Templar, at Great 

On the 4th of December, 1895, Mr. Blackford 
was united in marriage to Miss Anna Otten, a 
daughter of Herman Otten, president of the Judith 
Basin Bank, of Lewistown, and one of the promi- 
nent and influential citizens of Fergus county. Mr. 
and Mrs. Blackford have three children, Herman 
O., Cecily Elise and Anna M. 

American republic has in many ways reset 
the conditions of life and changed long established 
beliefs in numerous lines of thought and action. 
Until the gigantic enterprises which distinguished 
the development of her enormous northwestern ter- 
ritories were put into successful operation no one 
thought of looking for mercantile or business in- 
dustries of magnitude outside the mighty marts of 
commerce. America has taught the world that they 
can be conducted on an enormous scale in the very 
heart of an almost unbroken wilderness. One of 
the most impressive illustrations of this fact is fur- 
nished by the career and achievements of the Con- 
rad brothers, Hon. William G. and Charles E. 
Conrad. The business enterprises which these gen- 
tlemen have put into motion and conducted to em- 
phatic success are of such a character and magni- 
tude as to forcibly engage the attention and almost 
stagger belief, even here in the west, where men 
have their vision adapted to colossal proportions in 

Hon. W. G. Conrad, the scion of old colonial 
families, was born in Warren county, Va., August 
3, 1848. His father was Col. James W. Conrad, 
whose paternal American forebear, Joseph Conrad, 
emigrated from Germany and settled in the beautiful 
valley of the Shenandoah in very early days of the 
Old Dominion. The Colonel married Miss Maria • 
Ashby, also belonging to a Virginia family identi- 
fied with the history of the commonwealth from its 
earliest colonial period, her ancestor, John Ashby, 
a loyal subject of Charles I, being among the first 
Englishmen who landed on Virginia soil. Mrs. Con- 
rad's great-grandfather, also named John Ashby, 
was with Washington under Braddock at Fort Du- 
quesne, and her grandfather, Benjamin Ashby, was 
one of that great commander's confidential ofificers 

in the Revolutionary struggle. Col. James W. 
and Maria S. (Ashby) Conrad were parents of 
thirteen children, six of whom are now living. They 
owned a large Virginia plantation, and, besides be- 
ing a colonel in the state militia, the father was long 
a prominent judge. They removed to Montana in 
1874, and his life was peacefully ended at Great 
Falls in 1894 at the age of eighty-two years. 

Hon. William G. Conrad, their oldest son, was 
reared on the plantation and supplemented his dis- 
trict school education at the famous Washington 
Academy. When he was eighteen years old, with 
his brother, Charles E. Conrad, whose interesting 
life story appears on another page of this work, he 
came to Montana, traveling by rail to Cincinnati, 
thence down the Ohio to Cairo, up the Mississippi 
to St. Louis, and on the Missouri to Fort Benton, 
which was reached in safety after a three-months' 
journey of 4,000 miles by water through many 
privations and dangers. Mr. Conrad at once 
entered upon his remarkably successful western 
business career. He and his brother both found 
employment with I. G. Baker & Co. as clerks. At 
the end of four years they became partners in this 
firm, and, at the end of four more years, sole pro- 
prietors, by purchase, of the immense business, 
probably the largest mercantile enterprise in the 
entire northwest of the United States and Canada, 
and one of the most extensive ever con- 
ducted by private capital in the world. 
It comprised very extensive freighting opera- 
tions and numerous large mercantile es- 
tablishments in both our country and the 
Dominion. Enormous quantities of supplies were 
hauled from Fort Benton for both their own use and 
that of the Canadian government and this required 
the services of hundreds of men and thousands of 
mules and cattle. After the purchase W. G. Conrad 
took control of the Montana branch of the business 
and his brother of the Canadian. The latter included 
large stores at Lethbridge, Fort McLeod, Calgary, 
and Fort Walsh, and a bonded freighting line 
extending from eastern Canada to the northwest 
territory. The firm handled all kinds of military 
and Indian supplies, and furnished the Canadian 
government the money to pay their mounted po- 
lice and Indian annuities. In Montana their 
freight lines extended over nearly the whole terri- 
tory, supplying Helena, Missoula, Bozeman and 
many other places with their merchandise, and the 
government with supplies for both soldiers and 
Indians. They also owned and operated a number 





of steamboats on the Missouri and several Canadian 
streams. Frequently they handled over 20,000,000 
pounds of freight in a year, and they did this with- 
out apparent difficulty or extraordinary effort, so 
highly endowed by nature are they with executive 
ability, financial genius and capacity for large af- 
fairs. They continued this business from 1874 to 
1888, and then sold their merchantile interests in 
Canada to the Hudson Bay Company, the sale being 
consummated in London, and, before the end of the 
year, they also disposed of the freighting line. 

In the meantime they had become interested in 
the cattle business in Canada, and they still retain 
that interest, having it in two outfits — the Leth- 
bridge Cattle Company and the Benton & St. Louis 
Cattle Company, the former of which is confined to 
Canada while the latter conducts extensive opera- 
tions on both sides of the line. In addition to his 
cattle enterprises, Mr. Conrad engaged in banking, 
founding the First National Bank of Fort Benton, 
of which he was president during its existence. After 
some years of successful operation at Fort Benton 
this bank was removed to Great Falls and the name 
changed to the Northwestern National Bank, of 
which he and his brother were sole owners. In 
1894 they sold the Boston and Montana people one- 
fifth of this stock and, at their request, B. D. 
Hatcher was made cashier and acted as their repre- 
sentative. In December, i8g6. Hatcher bought 
the balance of the Conrad brothers' stock for the 
Boston and Montana people. Two months later the 
bank was closed, and the people of northern Mon- 
tana well know what then happened. It takes over 
twenty years to grow men and as many more to try 
them to see if they be men. When the wires flashed 
the news to W. G. Conrad, then at White Post, 
Va., the immediate message that came back was : 
"I want every depositor paid in full." In this tele- 
gram he also asked James T. Stanford to act as 
receiver. Mr. Conrad went to Washington, had 
Stanford appointed, and, not only the people of 
Montana, but all the bankers of the United States, 
know how well and quickly the depositors got their 
money. When asked why he did this Mr. Conrad 
said: "The people deposited their money on ac- 
count of my connection with this bank, and, al- 
though advised by the best lawyers of the state 
that I am not legally liable, I would rather not have 
a dollar than to see these people lose their money." 

Mr. Conrad is also president of the Conrad In- 
vestment Company, which owns large tracts of land, 
town sites, electric light and power plants and thous- 

ands of cattle and sheep. This is the largest 
financial factor of its kind in the entire northwest. 
In addition to these investments he is a large owner 
and the treasurer of the Conrad-Price Cattle Com- 
pany, one of the leading cattle firms in Montana and 
Canada. Besides these numerous enterprises, which 
would seem to be enough to occupy all his faculties 
and all of his time, he serves as treasurer of the 
Conrad-Harris Cattle Company and is heavily inter- 
ested in mines in Montana and other mining sec- 
tions of this continent. His operations in the sphere 
of finance are colossal in scope and far-reaching in 
variety; and yet they are so systematized that it is 
as easy for him to conduct them successfully and 
without friction as it would be for many a man to 
operate a corner grocery. Mr. Conrad is imperial in 
the range and sweep of his financial transactions, 
and holds a princely rank among the great finan- 
ciers of the country. To the end that his banking 
establishment, the Conrad Banking Company, may 
be suitably housed and accommodated, .he has re- 
cently completed a home for it in Great Falls, which 
is undoubtedly one of the finest buildings erected for 
this purpose in Montana, and it would do credit 
to any city. He has also recently erected another 
business block in that city which is in keeping with 
the general character of his achievements. 

In political affiliation Mr. Conrad is an uncom- 
promising Democrat, and a recognized leader of 
his party. During his residence in Choteau county 
he served as county commissioner, being elected to 
the office when he was barely of age, and he was 
returned to it at each succeeding election so long 
as he was a resident of the county. He also repre- 
sented north and east Montana as a member of the 
upper house in the territorial legislature of 1879 
and 1880, and filled a number of offices in Fort 
Benton and was its first mayor. In the memorable 
contest for the United States senatorship of 1899 
in the Montana legislature he was a candidate, 
and lacked only four votes of election, notwith- 
standing the immense amount of money expended 
for his successful competitor; and in 1901, although 
he was not a candidate, he received a very flatter- 
ing vote. In 1876 Mr. Conrad was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Fannie E. Bowen, of Virginia, 
a daughter of Hon. Paul L. Bowen, of that state. 
Four of their five children are living: Maria 
Josephine, Minnie Atkisson, George Harfield and 
Arthur Franklin. Their eldest son, William Lee, 
died in 1878 when he was one year old. Mr. Con- 
rad owns a beautiful residence in the picturesque 



Shenandoah valley in Virginia, which is consid- 
ered one of the finest and most imposing in the 
state. He also has a charming Montana home in 
Great Falls, where his numerous friends are roy- 
ally entertained. Mr. and Mrs. Conrad are active 
members of the Episcopal church, in which he has 
held the office of vestryman for years. In fra- 
ternal circles he is identified with the Masonic 
order. In church, in social and in business circles 
he is highly esteemed, and, best of all, he deserves 
every encomium that he has received. 

FRED G. BENSON, senior member of the ex- 
tensive firm of Benson, Carpenter & Co., deal- 
ers in agricultural implements, wagons and car- 
riages, is pre-eminently a western man, having 
been born in Utah. He is a son of Ezra T. and 
Elizabeth (Gollagher) Benson. Ezra T. Benson 
was a native of Massachusetts and married Miss 
Elizabeth Gollagher, who was born in Ohio. In 
1850 he settled in Tooele county, Utah, and en- 
gaged in farming, connecting this industry with the 
mercantile and milling business, and he also erected 
the first mill in Utah. He was a prominent member 
of the Mormon church and one of the twelve apos- 
tles. He was elected to the Utah legislature as a 
Democrat, and after a life of usefulness and credit, 
died in 1869. His widow now resides in Wellsville, 

Fred G. Benson was the eldest of seven children 
and was born in Utah on January 17, 1855. He re- 
ceived his education in Salt Lake City and in 
Logan, Utah, and in 1882 came to Helena, where, 
in 1886, he established his freight transfer line 
which now finds employment for ten men and twen- 
ty-three horses. In 1890 Mr. Benson, G. F. Car- 
penter and H. S. Benson formed the firm of Ben- 
son, Carpenter & Co., dealers in agricultural imple- 
ments, wagons, buggies and all kinds of carriages. 
It is one of the best known firms in the northwest, 
and they do a very large business extending all over 
Montana and into neighboring states. Politically 
Mr. Benson is an active Republican, and frater- 
nally he is a member of Excelsior Lodge No. 5, 
Odd Fellows ; Lincoln Lodge No. 57, United Work- 
men, and First Montana Camp No. 42, Woodmen 
of the World. In 1889 he was united in marriage 
with Miss Clara J., daughter of Oscar and Jane 
Rice, of Providence, Utah. They have one child. 

H. S. Benson, the junior partner of this firm, was 
born in Logan, Utah, and educated in its public 
schools. He came to Montana in 1882 and worked 
with his brother, Fred G. Benson, until 1892, when 
he was admitted to the firm. He married Miss 
Nannie Rice, daughter of Oscar and Jane Rice, and 
a sister of Mrs. Fred G. Benson. He is a member 
of the Odd Fellows and the United Workmen. 

JOHN F. BISHOP.— Those of the younger gen- 
J eration who wish to gain a definite idea of the 
gigantic and rapid strides which civilization has 
made in the great northwest within the past four 
decades need but refer to many of the pioneers who 
are yet with us and are not overburdened with 
3-ears. There are to-day many vigorous and ster- 
ling citizens in Montana who came to the state 
when it was on the very frontier. They were en- 
dowed with the adventurous spirit and indomitable 
energy of youth, and have remained to witness and 
be identified with the march of progress. Among 
the honored pioneers of Montana who attained suc- 
cess through his own well-directed eflforts and was 
identified with the strenuous life of the early days 
and the great industrial activitie.s in later years, is 
Mr. Bishop, who has practically retired from busi- 
ness, but maintains his home in Dillon, with whose 
interests he has been concerned for a long term of 
years. John Fernando Bishop is a native of the 
Empire state, having been born in Wyoming 
county, N. Y., on March 14, 1836, the fourth of 
the nine children born to Benjamin Blake Bishop 
and his wife, nee Lydia Wakefield. The former 
was born in the state of Vermont, whence he was 
brought, in 181 1, by his uncle to New York when 
but six years of age. There he was reared and 
educated, and there devoted his life to agricultural 
pursuits. His father was an active participant in 
the war of 1812. His mother was born in the state 
of New York, where her father was a pioneer 
farmer. John F. Bishop received a common-school 
education, attending the winter sessions and assist- 
ing in the work of the farni during the summers. 
He followed farming in New York until attaining 
his majority, when he set forth to make his own 
way in the world. Upon leaving home he made his 
way to Kilboume, Columbia county, Wis., and was 
employed at teaming in the lumber woods for one 
year. In 1858 he visited New York, but the follow- 
ing year returned to Wisconsin. In the fall of 1859 


lie, with five others, started down the Wisconsin 
river in a flatboat, Memphis being their destination. 
On reaching Hannibal, Mo., the freezing of the 
river compelled them to abandon further progress. 
Mr. Bishop remained there until the following 
spring, when he returned to Wisconsin, and shortly 
after went to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., where he 
hired out to drive a team to Pike's Peak, Colo., the 
outfit being a part of a large freighting train. Dur- 
ing the progress across the plains the cattle died and 
our subject was left in charge of the outfit while the 
employer went forward to buy other cattle. Mr. 
Bishop finally brought the outfit through to Colo- 
rado. Arriving at Nevada City on the 1st of No- 
vember, i860, he purchased a load of hay, which he 
disposed of in small amounts at good profit. He 
was employed in a quartz mill during the winter of 
i860, and the following spring made a trip to Atchi- 
son, Kan., for supplies, being employed as a team- 
ster. On the return trip they saw large herds of 
buffalo and antelope. In the early fall Mr. Bishop 
purchased ox teams and engaged in freighting, and 
in the summer of 1862 he was identified with placer 
mining in Nevada Gulch, Colo. Reports of the rich 
gold discoveries in Montana had reached the mining 
districts of Colorado, and the result was the cus- 
tomary hegira to the new field. In March, 1863, 
Mr. Bishop started for East Bannack by way of the 
Bridger cut-off and Soda Springs, along the old 
Cherokee trail. The train crossed every stream on 
the ice until it reached Snake river. They passed 
various stations of the pony express, where Indians 
had stolen the horses and riddled the buildings with 
bullets, leaving the dead bodies of their victims, 
reaching Bannack on the 20th of April. He recalls 
the fact that John Swing, who brought with him 120 
pairs of boots, disposed of them at a net profit of 
$1,200, while "Bob" Lusk realized an equal profit 
from 150 pounds of tobacco. In the same train was 
Dr. William L. Steele, one of the honored pioneers 
of the state, who is still a resident of Helena, and 
the present treasurer of Lewis and Clarke county ; 
also Adolph Graeter, now of Dillon. At Bannack 
Mr. Bishop disposed of his interest in the team and 
wagon, receiving $175, and then bought claim No. 
3, on Stapleton's bar, which he sold in the spring 
and went to Alder Gulch, the great mining district 
of the territory and the site of the present Virginia 
City, and during the summer was successfully en- 
gaged in mining in Bevin's Gulch, securing good re- 
turns. In the fall he went to Salt Lake City, where 
he purchased two yoke of oxen and a stock of gen- 

eral merchandise, with which he returned to Mon- 
tana. On the 1st of November he found himself 
snowbound at Brigham City, Utah, where he was 
compelled to remain until the ist of February, when 
he again started, reaching Virginia City on the ist 
of March. He disposed of his merchandise at a 
profit of $1,000, and in the following spring re- 
turned to Salt Lake City, where he again purchased 
an ox team and returned with a stock of flour, 
which he sold at the rate of $25 per hundred. Re- 
turning to Salt Lake City he was arrested on the 
charge of having stolen the oxen, but it transpired 
that the man of whom he bought the cattle had 
stolen them, and Mr. Bishop was compelled to turn 
them over to the rightful owner. In 1864 he made 
four trips to Salt Lake City and return, and recalls 
the fact that he was in Virginia City at the time 
when the notorious Kelly was hung and witnessed 
the execution. As a result of the four trips men- 
tioned he cleared $5,000. The winter of 1864-5 ^I^"- 
Bishop passed in Bannack, where he sold eighty 
fifty-pound sacks of flour for $26 each, two weeks 
later the same commodity commanded $100 per 
sack. He purchased in Salt Lake City a bushel of 
apples for $12, ate what he wanted while en route 
and sold the balance in Bannack for $15, some 
bringing fifty cents each. In the summer of 1865" 
Mr. Bishop went to Fort Benton and engaged in 
freighting between that point and Cow island, 
finally disposing of the business to I. G. Baker & 
Co., of Fort Benton. He then made a trip from Hel- 
ena to Salt Lake City, where he secured teams and 
brought through a stock of provisions. The follow- 
ing winter he passed on a ranch he had taken up on 
Beaverhead river, nine miles north of the present 
town of Dillon, and the following spring he en- 
gaged in freighting between Salt Lake City and 
Montana points, which he followed until the spring 
of 1867. when he returned to his ranch. In 1868 he 
went to Salt Lake to buy cattle for his ranch, but 
found prices so high he returned to Montana and 
bought the stock. In the spring of 1869 he associ- 
ated himself with R. A. Reynolds and proceeded to 
Oregon, and bought the first range sheep intro- 
duced in Montana. In 1870 they sold their wool 
clip to Col. C. A. Broadwater, who shipped the 
same to Corinne, Utah. Messrs. and Rey- 
nolds brought 1,400 head of sheep from Oregon, and 
thereafter continued to be extensively identified 
with the sheep industry of Montana until 1899, 
when Mr. Bishop disposed of his stock and ranch 
properties. He also raised high grade Durham 



and Hereford cattle and Norman horses, and has 
done much to improve the grade of stock raised 
in the state and to promote the interests of this 
important industry. His ranch, one of the finest 
properties of the sort in Beaverhead county, 
comprised 2,500 acres. Upon disposing of the 
same he bought a fine home in the city of Dillon, 
where he has other valuable holdings and where 
he is well and favorably known. In politics 
he is a Republican, and was one of the first to 
hold the office of justice of the peace in Beaverhead 
county. Fraternally he is a member of Dillon 
Lodge No. 30, A. F. & A. M., and of the chap- 
ter and comniandery ; he is also identified with the 
Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic 
Shrine, and of the Eastern Star. 

On September 14, 1874, Mr. Bishop was united 
in marriage to Miss Jennie Painter, a native of New 
York. They are the parents of three children : 
Mildred Elizabeth, born April 8, 1876, a graduate 
of Mills College, near Oakland, Cal., is now the 
wife of Leslie Thompson, of Twin Bridges; Mary 
P., born November 18, 1877, died November 8, 
1882; and Jennie Frank, born April 16, 1881, was 
graduated in the Dillon high school, class of 1893, 
and at present a student of the University of Wis- 
consin, at Madison. 

TAMES M. BLACKFORD.— Mr. Blackford is 
J the junior member of the firm of Blackford & 
Blackford, attorneys and counsellors at law in Lew- 
istown, and proves an able co-adjutor to his brother, 
whose sketch appears elsewhere. 

Mr. Blackford, who bears the full patronymic of 
his honored sire, was born in White county, 111., 
and in his native state was reared and educated, 
having completed a course of study in Hayward 
College, at Fairfield, after which he became a suc- 
cessful teacher in the public schools of Illinois for 
two years. He then inade a tour through a number 
of the southern states, and upon his return north 
he matriculated in the State University of Indiana, 
where he was graduated as a member of the class 
of 1895, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He 
resumed teaching and gained high standing in this 
field and was for two years the superintendent of 
the public schools of Norris City, in his native 
county, in Illinois. Resigning this position he re- 
turned to his alma mater, the State University of 
Indiana, and entered the law department, and com- 
pleted the prescribed course and was graduated in 
1898 with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He be- 

gan legal practice at Martinsville, Ind., where 
he was for one year associated with Eller E. Pryor. 
Fie then came to Lewistown, Mon., and entered into 
a professional alliance with his brother. He has 
gained a solid position in the esteem of the people 
of the county, while his ability has aided the success 
of the firm of which he is a member. 

Like his brother, he has been allied with the Dem- 
ocratic party, and while residing in Illinois held 
the position of secretary of the Democratic sena- 
torial committee of the Forty-fourth district. Mr. 
Blackford is identified with the Masonic order, and 
is secretary of Lewistown Lodge No. 37, A. F. 
& A. M. 

I OSEPH BLACKWELL, proprietor of one of 
J the best equipped ranches in Broadwater coun- 
ty, near Canyon Ferry, first came to Montana 
in 1863. He was born in Leicestershire, England, 
October 18, 1842, the son of Joseph and Sarah 
(Thropj illackwell. The father was a native of Not- 
tinghamshire, England, the legendary habitat of 
the redoubtable and historical Robin Hood. The 
mother was a native of London. They had four 
sons and two daughters. Joseph Blat:kwell, Sr., 
was for many years a commercial traveler in Eng- 
land and on the continent. In 1850 he came to the 
United States and located at Kenosha, Wis. Here 
he remaineu until 1859, where he was joined by his 
wife and other members of the family who had not 
accompanied him on his trip over. In Wisconsin 
he engaged in farming for four or five years, and 
subsequently opened a general store in Kenosha. 
In 1883 he removed to Montana, where he died. 

The early years of Joseph Blackwell, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, were passed in Kenosha, assist- 
ing on the farm and engaged in other pursuits 
adapted to youthful strength and capacity, and here 
he was educated in the public schools. The boy, 
having been reared in a lake port, naturally im- 
bibed a strong predilection for a sailor's life. It is 
not strange, therefore, that he should have shipped 
before the mast, and for three years followed the 
lakes as a sailor. He was an able seaman at the 
breaking out of the Civil war, and so early as 1861, 
at the age of seventeen years, he enlisted in the 
United States navy at Chicago. He was trans- 
ferred to New York, and quartered on Staten 
Island. Here he remained five months, and was 
sent to Port Royal, S. C, subsequently return- 
ing to New York with a squad of prisoners who 



had been captured at Fort Pulaski. Mr. Blackwell 
remained in New York but a few weeks, and then 
went to Newburn, S. C, as one of the fighting crew 
of the U. S. gunboat Sentinel. This craft was 
reall_v a New York barge that had been pressed into 
the government service. The crew was detached 
from the ship and placed in charge of howitzers, 
and they participated in the battle of Tranter's 
Creek, N. C, supporting infantry. Subsequent en- 
gagements were mostly confined to skirmishes in 
which they captured a large number of guerrillas, 
who were in the habit of shooting down the pickets 
on the Union lines. For two years Mr. Black- 
well continued in the service, and was then 
honorably discharged in New York, in March, 

In June, 1863, he left Racine, Wis., for Montana 
by way of St. Joseph, Mo., by ox train. They con- 
tintted via South Pass and Lander's Cut Off, 
Messrs. Skinner & Osborn, residents of St. Joseph, 
being the owners of the train. No trouble was ex- 
perienced from the wily savage, and at Lander's 
Cut Off they overtook Judge E. D. Edgerton and 
Col. W. F. Sanders, who continued in company 
with them until the entire party reached Bannack 
City, Mont., September 15, 1863. Here Mr. Black- 
well remained two months engaged in mining, and 
he then put in the following winter hunting in the 
Boulder and Gallatin valleys with good success. 

Li the following spring he went to Alder gulch, 
and was engaged during the summers of 1864 and 
1865 in placer mining with moderate success. In 
the winter he was on the Gallatin river, in company 
with his half brother, Philip Thorpe, who had come 
into Montana in the spring of 1863, returning that 
winter and bringing on his family. In the spring 
of 1866 Mr. Blackwell removed to White's gulch, 
and here he took up some government land, and en- 
gaged in ranching, and so continued until 1883 with 
profitable success. In that year he removed to Ava- 
lanche creek, took up a desert claim, and made it 
his headquarters. He now was in possession of 400 
acres of his own and an additional 400 acres leased 
from the state. He raises large quantities of hay, 
which is a profitable crop, and generally winters 200 
head of cattle. He has recently added to the many 
convenient appliances of his model ranch a gaso- 
line engine to do his pumping. The ranch is well 
supplied with commodious buildings for the proper 
care of stock. 

On September 8, 1874, Mr. Blackwell was mar- 
ried to Miss Marriette Rork, of Racine, Wis., 

where the ceremony was performed. She is the 
daughter of Daniel B. Rork, an early settler in that 
state. Her mother was Mrs. Annie (Newman) 
Rork, of New York. Mr. Rork was a heavy holder 
of real estate in Wisconsin. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Blackwell has been born one child, Lora May. Mr. 
Blackwell has always been warmly interested in 
public affairs. In 1894 he was elected county com- 
missioner, at the time being located in Meagher 
county. He is a prominent member of the Montana 
Pioneer Society and is recognized as a man of 
broad, progressive views, of excellent business 
judgment, and of the highest integrity. He has a 
large circle of acquaintances throughout the state 
by whom he is highly esteemed. 

EDWARD L. BOARDMAN.— The son of a 
journalist and publisher with a record of 
thirty years of creditable work, and himself appren- 
ticed to the business in his youth, Edward L. 
Boardman, secretary and manager of the Helena 
Evening Herald, may be said to have been bred to 
his profession. He was born at Hillsborough, 
Ohio, May 16, 1857, the only son of J. L. and 
Susan Boardman, the former a native of Ohio and 
the latter of Delaware. The father was a journal- 
ist and publisher in Ohio and had a potential voice 
in journalistic circles in the state. He followed his 
chosen vocation for nearly a third of a century, 
and now lives retired in Columbus. Mr. Boardman 
was educated in the public schools of his native 
town, and when he was fifteen began to learn the 
printer's trade and the business of journalism in 
the establishment of his father. In 1879 he was 
connected with the mechanical department of the 
New York Tribune, and later worked on various 
eastern, southern and western dailies as printer and 
reporter until 1889. He then came to Montana, 
and was employed in the mechanical department 
of different papers until 1892, when he assumed 
editorial control and management of the Red 
Lodge Picket. In June, 1893, he started the Sweet 
Grass Blade, at Big Timber, but on account of the 
panic was obliged to suspend publication within the 
year. In 1895 he became editor of the Billings Ga- 
zette, and remained in that position until July, 1897. 
He then established the Carbon County Sentinel, 
at Gebo, in the publication of which he was success- 
ful, but sold it in 1898; taking a lease on the Bill- 
ings Gazette, he published it successfully until 



April, 1900, when he disposed of the lease and or- 
ganized a stock company for the purchase of the 
Helena Evening Herald. He was made secretary 
and manager for the company, and at once began 
enlarging and improving the paper, modernizing it 
in every way and greatly increasing its influence 
and circulation. The Herald is the oldest daily 
paper in Montana, having been established in 1866. 
It has the Associated Press franchise for Helena, 
with the full leased wire service, an able corps of 
editors, reporters and compositors, and is a thor- 
oughly alive, up-to-date and enterprising journal. 
While it is essentially a reflex and guide of public 
sentiment, it is in its business methods, its aggres- 
siveness and its determination to meet the popular 
demand, an expression of Mr. Boardman's own 
personality and bears the impress, in every issue, 
of his strong mental and scholastic force. It is a 
straight Republican paper, advocating the true prin- 
ciples of the party without stint and without regard 
to the political ambition of any person or the tem- 
porary advantage of any faction. 

At Helena, in January, 1891, Mr. Boardman was 
united in marriage with Miss Julia Beaudette, a 
native of Chippewa Falls, Wis. They have four 
daughters : Genevieve, Esther, Marguerite and 
Juliet. A son named Edward died in infancy. 
Mr. Boardman is a staunch Republican in politics, 
has always been active in the councils of his party 
and has held every paper he has conducted true to 
the party's political principles. 

HON. J. V. BOGERT, ex-mayor of Bozeman, 
Gallatin county, Mont., and ex-receiver of the 
United States land office at that city, is one of the 
most highly respected citizens of his home commun- 
ity. He was born in New York City, of Holland- 
Huguenot ancestry. 

He is a son of John Banta and his first wife, 
Jane Vreeland (Haughwout) Bogert, of New 
York, who, in that metropolis of the Empire state, 
followed the hardware business until he removed to 
Montana, in 1873. He eventually opened a general 
merchandising store in Bozeman, and was engaged 
in this occupation until some time before his death, 
which occurred at Bozeman, October 24, 1895, at 
the age of eighty-two" years. The paternal grand- 
parents were Petrus ]\I. and Tyntie (Banta) Bo- 
gert, natives of New Jersey, who died respectfully 
in 1846 and 1881. 

The mother of our subject, Jane Vreeland 
(Haughwout) Bogert, was born in the city of New 
York, and there died on April 27, 1849. Her three 
children are yet living, J. V. Bogert and two sisters. 
These ladies are distinguished Daughters of the 
Revolution, and are amply provided with evidence 
of their ancestors having served in the colonial 
army during the Revolution, one of whom was a 
prisoner of war and suffered confinement in the old 
"sugar house" at New York. In 1851, his father 
married Elizabeth C. Bissell, of Litchfield, Conn., 
who died in Brookl3'n, N. Y., May 9, 1872, leaving 
one daughter, Katherine Bissell Bogert, who was 
married at Bozeman, Mont., July 29, 1874, to Lieut. 
Charles F. Roe, U. S. A., now a major general in 
the National Guard of the state of New York, their 
present residence being New York City. 

The maternal grandparents of J. V. Bogert were 
Peter A; Haughwout and Ann (Vreeland) Haugh- 
wout, natives of New York, both deceased, for many 
years residents of Staten Island, N. Y. 

Through early boyhood J. V. Bogert was edu- 
cated in the private schools of his native city and 
at boarding schools located amid the environments 
of New York. The result of this early and liberal 
mental training is a man of keen intelligence and 
superior education, with a highly cultivated mind 
and wide scholastic attainments. In 1872 Mr. Bo- 
gert came to Montana, and located at Bozeman. 
Here he was appointed the first receiver of the 
United States land office, which position he filled 
most efficiently for eight years. Following his 
terms of office in this position of great responsibil- 
ity, he was elected the first mayor of the city of 
Bozeman, and served four terms, in all eight years, 
a most flattering testimonial to his great worth, 
high integrity and popularity with the people of his 
home town. Mr. Bogert was first engaged in the 
mentioned mercantile business with his father, after 
which and during his service in the position of 
mayor of Bozeman he acted as attorney before 
the LTnited States land department, in which pro- 
fession he still successfully continues. 

Politically Mr. Bogert has affiliated with the Re- 
publican party since he first took an interest in the 
political issues before the people. He stands high 
in the councils of the party, and is an influential 
worker during the campaigns. His first vote was 
cast for Gen. U. S. Grant for president. Mr. Bo- 
gert is a polished, refined gentleman, unassuming 
and modest in demeanor, but as true as steel to his 
host of admiring friends. He is a great and dis- 



criminative reader, thoroughly informed upon all 
current events of the day, ever active and enter- 
prising, and among the first in any move for the 
benefit of his residential city. He is a man of af- 
fairs, a gentleman of high integrity, who has won 
the confidence of all. The various offices he has so 
creditably filled have all been positions of trust — 
trusts faithfully and safely administered, and has 
honestly earned the high reputation which he so de- 
servedly holds. 

WILLIAM M. BOLE.— Throughout the great 
west, as in other sections of the L'nion, the 
newspapers of localized character have exercised an 
important function in forwarding progress and in- 
suring material prosperity. The subject of this 
brief sketch has been prominently identified with 
journalistic work in this state and elsewhere, and 
is now editor of the Bozeman Chronicle, the leading- 
paper of Gallatin county, published by the Chron- 
icle Publishing Co. 

Mr. Bole was born in the village of South Rye- 
gate, Vt., on May 30, 1858, the son of Rev. John 
and Marion (Brown) Bole, the former a clergyman. 
of the Presbyterian church. In 1862 the parents of 
our subject removed to Glasgow, Scotland, and in 
that city and in Belfast, Ireland, Mr. Bole received 
his early educational discipline. In 1870 the family 
returned to Vermont, and ]Mr. Bole completed his 
educational training in the academy at Peacham. 
At the age of sixteen years he entered the office 
of the St. Johnsbury (Vt.) Caledonian, where he 
served an apprenticeship at the printer's trade, 
which he followed as a vocation for a number of 

In the city of Cambridge, Mass., August 20, 
1881, Mr. Bole was united in marriage to Miss 
Elizabeth S. Dow, and of this union one son has 
been born, William SjTnington Bole, a student 
in the State University, at Bozeman. The year of 
his marriage Mr. Bole went to St. Paul, Minn., 
where he purchased an interest in a newspaper and 
engaged in editorial work for about ten years. He 
accumulated a modest fortune through real estate 
transactions, but through over-confidence in a 
realty boom it was dissipated with equal celerity. 
In 1891 Mr. Bole came to Montana and located 
in the city of Great Falls, where for several years 
he was employed on the editorial staffs of the 
daily papers, and finally purchased the Daily Trib- 

une, in association with O. S. Warden. The for- 
tunes of the Tribune were at a low ebb when these 
gentlemen assumed control, but through their ef- 
fective management it was brought to a high stand- 
ard, and at the time of its sale, in 1900, no other 
paper in the state, with the exception of the Ana- 
conda Standard, was paying so large dividends. 
Messrs. Bole and Warden purchased the Tribune 
in 1895 for $5,000, and disposed of the property 
in 1900 for the sum of $40,000, Hon. W. A. Clark 
becoming the purchaser. In August, 1900, Mr. Bole 
removed with his family to Bozeman and assumed 
the editorial management of the Chronicle. He is 
still the controlling spirit of this prominent journal, 
which is recognized as a powerful factor in the 
political field and a true e.xponent of the interests 
of the wide territory reached through its extensive 
circulation. In politics Mr. Bole supports the Dem- 
ocratic party; fraternally he is identified with the 
Masonic order. 

UJ ILLIA]\I G. BOONE, one of the successful 
farmers and stockgrowers of Broadwater 
county, his postoffice address being Townsend, has 
had a varied career, having ever been industrious 
and enterprising, making the most of opportuni- 
ties which have presented. His is the distinction of 
being closely related to the great historical charac- 
ter, Daniel Boone. 

William G. Boone was born on November 5, 
1845, in Harrison county, Ind., the son of Gran- 
ville Boone, who was the son of Isaiah Boone, who 
in turn was the son of 'Squire BoOne, all being res- 
idents of Kentucky, where they were extensive 
planters, the latter being a brother of Daniel 
Boone, the famous Nimrod. 'Squire Boone was a 
native of Virginia, whence he removed to Ken- 
tucky, and later to Indiana among the earliest pio- 
neers and where his death occurred. His son, 
Isaiah, grandfather of W. G. Boone, some time af- 
ter the death of his father took up his abode at 
Mockport, Harrison county, Ind.. where he was a 

Granville Boone married Julia Arkenbright, like- 
wise born in Kentucky, and they had six sons and 
four daughters, W. G. Boone being the third. The 
parents removed to Lewis county. Mo., in 1850, ac- 
companied by Grandfather Isaiah Boone, who there 
died in i860, the father of William G. engaging in 
farming until his death in 1880. 



William G. Boone received his education in the 
public schools and early assisted in the farm work. 
In 1862 he enlisted in the army of northern Mis- 
souri for service in the Civil war, but owing to his 
extreme youth his father compelled him to with- 
draw, and he was sent to Iowa, where he attended 
school one year, after which he remained with rela- 
tives at Hawesville, Hancock county, Ky., for one 
year, thereafter residing in Missouri until the spring 
of 1867, when he went to Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
where -he was foreman on a farm for a year. In 
1868 Mr. Boone came westward to Cheyenne, Wyo., 
and for six months followed teaming between that 
place and Salt Lake City. In September, 1868, he 
took a contract to supply wood for the Northern 
Pacific, and was thus engaged until the next spring, 
when he freighted between Point Rocks, Wyo., 
and the Sweet Water mines in South Pass until the 
fall of 1871, when he took his teams to Missouri 
valley, Harrison county, Iowa. In February, 1872, he 
sold his stock and returned to his old home in Mis- 
souri, whence, in the fall, he started on the over- 
land trip to Jefferson, Tex., and there was engaged 
in railroad work until November, 1873, thereafter 
returning to Missouri and there farmed until April, 
1879, when he started for Montana, coming to Has- 
sel, Jefferson county, the place being then St. Louis. 

Here he engaged in mining until August, when 
he started for Missouri Valley, Mont., and was 'n 
the meat business for one year, and in 1881 engaged 
in merchandising in Centerville, continuing the en- 
terprise one year. In 1882 he was employed in 
railroad work on the Northern Pacific from Feb- 
ruary until October, passing the winter in Centre- 
ville, and eventually he associated himself with F. 
T. McCormack in building a livery stable in Town- 
send, where they conducted business until 1884, 
when, selling his interests, he engaged in teaming 
in Helena until November, 1894, spending the win- 
ter in the Missouri valley. He was teaming at Nei- 
hart from May until September, 1885, and then re- 
turned to the Missouri valley, where, in February, 
1886, he purchased his present ranch, which he has 
placed under effective cultivation, making excellent 
improvements, and engaging in stockraising very 
successfully. He is well known and highly es- 
teemed and politically he is a Democrat, while fra- 
ternally he is identified with the Odd Fellows, in 
which he has passed the chairs in his lodge, and of 
the United Workmen. On February 18, 1886, Mr. 
Boone was united in marriage with Miss Lucy 
McCormack, born in Randolph county. Mo., the 

daughter of Mason and Lucy McCormack, natives 
of Virginia. She had come to Montana in 1878, 
where brothers and sisters had earlier located. Mr. 
and Mrs. Boone have a daughter, Julia. 

HON. ALBERT L. BABCOCK.— One of the 
leading merchants and bankers of the thriving 
and progressive city of Billings, which his energy, 
foresight and business capacity have aided in build- 
ing, Albert L. Babcock presents in his career of 
business enterprise and public usefulness a fruitful 
theme for the pen of the biographer. He is a native 
of Albany, N. Y., where he was born on December 
22, 1 85 1, the son of William C. and Julia (Lawrence) 
Babcock, both natives also of the Empire state, 
and descended from families long prominent in its 
civil and military history. In 1856 they removed to 
what was then the far west, and located at Pon- 
tiac, 111., and near there engaged in successful 
farming for a number of years, the father finally 
retiring from active business, and soon after, on 
February 14, 1876, dying there. 

While living on the farm near this little interior 
•town and attending the district school during the 
winter months, Mr. Babcock was reared and edu- 
cated, until the age of fourteen years, when he 
began an apprenticeship in a country newspaper 
office and learned the printer's trade which he fol- 
lowed for a time. This trade not being altogether 
to his liking he finally abandoned it and sought em- 
ployment in a country store, beginning at the bot- 
tom and was soon promoted to salesman behind the 
counter. When twenty-one years of age he had 
saved a few hundred dollars which he combined with 
the savings of a young friend and with very limited 
capital, embarked in business in 1873, which he 
continued with success, though quite limited, until 
the spring of 1882, when, believing the opportun- 
ities for success more favorable in the undeveloped 
west, decided to locate at Billings, and opened a 
small hardware store and tinshop, the business of 
which grew from year to year until 1892 when it was 
converted into a stock company under the name 
of the A. L. Babcock Hardware Company, which 
has developed into one of the largest wholesale hard- 
ware houses in the middle west, their traveling sales- 
man making regular visits to the trade tributary to 
Billings. In 1895 Mr. Babcock erected the Yellow- 
stone Valley flouring mill with a daily capacity of 
150 barrels, the greater part of which is sold in 

, •^y H^-ry-Eiylor ic- Chto-gJ 



Montana. The A. L. Babcock Hardware Company 
and the Yellowstone valley mills, in all its depart- 
ments, give employment to a large number of men. 
In 1895 also, in company with others, he built the 
Billings opera house, and has been its manager ever 
since. In that year he also organized the Billings 
Telephone Company, and has been its president from 
its inception. Four years prior to the beginning 
of these enterprises he founded the Yellowstone 
National Bank, and served two years as its first 
vice-president, and in 1893 he was elected its presi- 
dent, an office which he has held continuously since 
that time. In addition to his principal commercial 
enterprise, known as the A. L. Babcock Hardware 
Company, of Billings, of which he is president, he 
is now conducting a branch store at the Crow 
agency, Montana, and is also president of the Bab- 
cock & Miles Hardware Company, at Two Dot, 
Meagher county. These are numerous and active 
enterprises, but all their multitude of interests and 
details receive close personal attention from Mr. 
Babcock, and their success demonstrates the versatile 
character of his business capacity and the wide range 
of his mental activities. 

Mr. Babcock is a zealous and ardent Republican, 
and has been active and prominent in the councils 
of his party. He has been chairman of its county 
central committee during a number of campaigns 
and has been its choice for representative posi- 
tions from time to time, having served as chairman 
of the board of commissioners of Yellowstone 
county from 1885 to 1889, and was elected to the 
state senate in 1889, and served in the lower house 
from 1892 to '94, and again in the senate from '94 
to '98. He was an influential member of the com- 
mittee on arid lands, and on other important com- 
mittees. He has served on the military staffs of 
Govs. White, Toole and Rickards with the 
rank of colonel. Fraternally he is identified with 
the Masonic order, including lodge, chapter, com- 
mandery and Mystic Shrine. In this order he has 
filled several local chairs in the various bodies, and 
was chosen grand commander of the grand com- 
mandery of Knights Templar of the state in 1894. 
He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, 
and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 
serving as the first exalted ruler of Billings Lodge. 
Mr. Babcock was married on September 12, 1877, 
to Miss Antoinette Packer, of Pontiac, 111. They 
have one son, Lewis C, a graduate of Shallock 
Military School of Minnesota, and of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, and although 3'oung in business. 

he has taken an active position in directing the 
business of the A. L. Babcock Hardware Company 
and is exhibiting promise of developing much of 
the versatility and mercantile and fiscal capacity of 

his father. 

pAPT. ALEXANDER F. BURNS, one of the 
v-^ five surviving members of the Montana terri- 
torial constitutional convention of 1889, is a resi- 
dent of Helena. He was born in Clay county. Mo., 
December 7, 1832. His parents were Jeremiah and 
Jane (Sampson) Burns, natives of Virginia and 
Kentucky. The father, a farmer, removed to How- 
ard county, Mo., in 1818, then to Clay county and 
later to Andrew county, where he died. Jeremiah's 
father was a Presbyterian minister and a chaplain 
in the Revolution. Captain Burns had four broth- 
ers and four sisters, and one sister resides in Mon- 
tana. Capt. Burns was reared and educated in Mis- 
souri, and in 1852 he removed to California and 
engaged in mining in the northeast portion of the 
then territory for three years. He made the out- 
ward trip across the plains, a perilous one in those 
days, and returned by the Panama route and New 
Orleans. In 1861 Capt. Burns enlisted in the First 
Missouri Confederate Cavalry, and was in service 
under Gen. Price until the close of the war. Dur- 
ing those eventful four years he participated in the 
battles of Blue Mills Landing, Lexington, Mo., Pea 
Ridge, Corinth (two engagements), luka. Cham- 
pion Hills, Vicksburg and the campaign in Georgia 
against Sherman, Altoona Pass, and was captured 
at Franklin, Tenn. During his active service he 
rose to the rank of captain and was twice wounded, 
in 1862 and in 1S64. After his capture he was a 
prisoner of war on Johnson's Island until the close 
of the war. 

On the return of peace Capt. Burns went to Ne- 
braska City, and in 1866 came to Helena, being 
among the earliest of the pioneers of Montana. 
Through 1867 and 1868 he prosecuted mining along 
Dry Gulch, near Helena, but in 1868 he engaged in 
farming down the valley, which he has successfully 
followed. Capt. Burns was united in marriage in 
Missouri to Miss Ann Kennison, a native of Vir- 
ginia, in 1856. They have seven children living, 
kdward B., Jeremiah D., William K., Albert A., 
Carrie A., now Mrs. Norton; Anna V. and Me- 
dora A. Capt. Burns was a Democrat until 1894, 
when he became a Populist. He was elected to the 


Montana constitutional convention of 1889, and 
served on the committee on railroads. In 1890 he 
was elected to the legislature and served in the 
lower house. Capt. Burns has ever been a broad- 
minded, public-spirited and progressive man. On 
coming to Montana he threw himself heart and soul 
into the work of building up this grand common- 
wealth, and few men have done more for that pur- 
pose. His political and business careers have been 
above reproach, and he enjoys the confidence of a 
large circle of acquaintances throughout the state. 
Socially, financially and politically, he has been 
eminently successful. 

REV. CHARLES L. BOVARD.— Through all 
ages of the world's history, and in every land, 
priests and ministers, the men who preside over the 
sacred altars, and have special charge of what their 
people regard as holy, have been held in the highest 
esteem and veneration. The priestly office in its 
very nature, because of its important functions and 
the lofty character of the interests which engage it, 
is above the people and invested with a sort of sa- 
cred awe, whether it have to do with the rites of a 
pagan mythology, the superstitions of the savage, 
or the living and vitalizing faith which springs 
from Divine revelation. jMoreover, its occupants are, 
with rare exceptions, men of such character, intel- 
ligence and zeal, that of themselves they would win 
and hold the respect and admiration of their fel- 

Rev. Charles Lincoln Bovard, pastor of St. 
Paul's Methodist Episcopal church of Helena, has 
this dual claim on the high regard of his flock and 
the community. Both by his calling and his manner 
of performing its important duties, he has secured 
an exalted place in the good opinion and affection- 
ate esteem of the people of Helena. His useful 
life began October 10, i860, at Alpha, Scott county, 
Ind. His parents, James and Sarah (Cougler) Bo- 
vard, natives of Ohio, removed to Indiana m early 
youth. In their family there were twelve children, 
of whom six sons are ordained ministers of the 
IMcthodist Episcopal church, and well educated for 
their vocation. The Bovard family has long been 
distinguished for strong religious conviction and 
judicious zeal for the advancement of their faith. 
They were among the devout and law abiding 
Huguenots who were driven from France by the re- 

ligious wars following the revocation of the edict 
of Nantes in the seventeenth century. They took 
refuge in the north of Ireland, and from there three 
brothers of the name came to the United States 
early in the last century and settled in Pennsylvania. 
James Bovard, father of Rev. Charles, was an in- 
dustrious and frugal farmer, but as the roof tree 
sheltered the inconvenient conjunction of a large 
family and a small income, it was necessary for each 
to bear his part in the work about the farm. Charles 
was ambitious to become something more than or, 
at least different from, a farmer, and to this end 
was studious and observant. As soon as his indus- 
try in study and mental aptitude had brought him 
the necessary scholastic training, he engaged in 
teaching in the public schools, thereby securing 
means to pay his way in college. His object was to 
fit himself for teaching in a more advanced capac- 
ity, and therefore, before completing the course at 
Hanover College, Ind., at which he had matricu- 
lated, he left that institution and entered the Nor- 
mal Collegiate Institute at Lexington, Ind., from 
which he was graduated in 1882. After his grad- 
uation he taught a year in his alma mater, and the 
next year was married and entered the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Rev. Mr. Bovard's first charge was at Holman, 
where he remained two years. He was then sta- 
tioned at North Vernon for three years, and from 
there went to Vevay, and remained two years. (All 
of these pastorates being in Indiana.) He was then 
appointed missionary to Tucson, Ariz., but after 
passing six months at this post of labor. Bishop 
Mallalieu made him superintendent of the New 
Mexico English mission, a position he held for a 
full term of six years, although at the time he was 
the youngest superintendent of missions in his 
church connection, being scarcely thirty years of 
age. From New Mexico he was transferred to 
LaPorte, Ind., and from there, after two years' ser- 
vice, to Helena, Mont., taking charge of the pastor- 
ate of St. Paul's church in 1892. 

In all the elements and attributes of his sacred 
profession Rev. Mr. Bovard is an honor to the 
Christian ministry and an inspiration to struggling 
humanity. As an advocate of his faith and in re- 
proof of wrong, he is fearless, frank and forcible. 
As a pulpit orator he is eloquent, logical and con- 
vincing. Although averse to controversy, when 
drawn into disputation he is keen, resourceful and 
aggressive. And as a pastor, his wealth of human 
sympathy, his knowledge of human character, his 



practical judgment, his richness of imagination and 
his devotion to his Master's cause, make him pre- 
eminently serviceable and successful. 

Rev. Mr. Bovard was united in marriage at Lex- 
ington, Ind., January 30, 1883, with Miss Clamenta 
Smith, who had been his schoolmate at the normal 
institute, and was graduated from the same school. 
She subsequently took a thorough course of instruc- 
tion in music at New Albany, Ind., conservatory. 
They have two sons, William Z., born April i, 
1886, and Carl V., born October 29, 1889. Frater- 
nally Mr. Bovard is connected with the Masonic 
fraternity and the Knights of Pythias. In addition 
to his ministerial and pastoral work, he is a fre- 
quent contributor to the various church periodicals 
of his denomination. 

porter of the Populist party and has been an active 
worker in the cause, being at the present time a 
member of the state central committee, and served 
as delegate to various state conventions. He is a 
man of fine presence, is genial and affable, and is 
popular and well known throughout the state. In 
his official capacity Mr. Byrne makes his home in 
the capital city. In the year 1888 was solemnized 
the marriage of Mr. Byrne to Miss Mary Patton, 
who was born in Madison county, Mont., the 
daughter of James and Hannah Patton, numbered 
among the pioneers of the state, her father having 
come to Alder gulch in 1863. Our subject and his 
wife have three children — Joseph, Mary and Anna. 

JOHN BYRNE. — Holding official precedence in 
connection with that industry which served to 
gain Montana recognition and led to the establish- 
ing of a prosperous commonwealth, Mr. Byrne, 
the present state superintendent of mines, stands 
prominent among Montana's able officials. Born in 
picturesque old Wicklow county, Ireland, on Au- 
gust I, 1865, the son of James and Margaret 
Byrne, natives of the same county and where they 
passed their entire lives, John Byrne is a fine repre- 
sentative of staunch old families of the Emerald 
Isle. His father was a railroad contractor, a man of 
strong intellectual powers and sterling character. 
He had four sons, all of whom came to the United 
States, while Montana claims three of the number 
as citizens. 

John Byrne, the immediate subject of this re- 
view, was reared and educated in his native land, 
whence he came to America in 1880, first locating in 
New York city. In 1882 he went to Leadville, 
Colo., where he was identified with silver mining 
for a period of two years, coming thence to Butte, 
Mont., where he was variously employed until 1897. 
He was for a time shift boss for the Anaconda 
Company, and later held position as foreman at 
Walkerville. The same year he received from 
Governor Smith appointment as state inspector of 
mines for Montana, and was re-appointed by Gov- 
ernor Toole on February 13, 1901, having thor- 
oughly proved his fitness for the office by able ad- 
ministration of its affairs. While a resident of Butte 
Mr. Byrne was for three years a member of its 
board of aldermen. In politics he is an ardent sup- 

DR. C. A. BRADY, one of the recognized lead- 
ing physicians and surgeons of Montana, is a 
resident of Great Falls. He was bom on May 31, 
1863, in county of Huntington, P. Q., Canada. He 
is a brother of Hon. T. E. Brady, who is men- 
tioned elsewhere in this work. Dr. Brady brings to 
the aid of his profession superior accomplishments 
in the way of educational acquirements. On leav- 
ing the public schools he entered the college of St. 
Theresa, from which he was graduated, and he was 
then matriculated at the Grand Seminary of Mon- 
treal, from which he was graduated with the class 
of 1886. He then entered Victoria College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons. From here he graduated in 
1890, standing third in a class of fifty-four. The 
same year he began medical practice at Churubusco, 
N. Y., remaining there until February, 1891, when 
he came to Barker, Mont., and was appointed sur- 
geon of the miners' union. 

Dr. Brady then located at Great Falls, where 
he has met with unqualified success. For three 
years Dr. Brady was connected with the city 
health office and he served for two years as cor- 
oner. He is a member of the North Montana 
Medical Association, also a member of the State 
Medical Society. He was county physician for 
four years, from 1894 to 1898. Dr. Brady holds a 
diploma from the \'ictoria Medical College en- 
dorsed by New York and also by Montana. 

In 1890 Dr. Brady was united in marriage to 
Miss Mary A. Ryan, of Montreal, Canada. They 
have three children, Laura M., Charles E. and 
William J. Since coming to Great Falls Dr. 
Brady has built up a most lucrative practice and 
made a host of warm personal friends. He is a 



man of great force of character and of broad, pro- 
gressive views. In the welfare of his home town 
he ever manifests a lively interest, and he is highly 
esteemed by its citizens. 

ABSALOM F. BRAY.— Ours is an utilitarian 
age, and the life of every successful business 
man bears a lesson which, as told in contemporary 
narration, is, perhaps, productive of the greatest 
good. In preparing this sketch of Mr. Bray, one 
of the eminently successful business men of the 
state, who is held in the highest estimation in his 
home city of Butte, we are entering a record which 
stands in justification of compilations of this na- 
ture. Absalom Francis Bray is a native of the 
County Cornwall, England, and he possesses the 
sturdy qualities of the Cornishmen, who are char- 
acterized by independence of thought and action, 
determinate industry and inflexible mtegrity. The 
family is an old-time Cornish one. ]\Ir. Bray was 
born on October 21, 1852, the eldest of the seven 
children of Hastings and Jane Bray. Both Hast- 
ings Bray and his wife passed their useful lives in 
Cornwall. They were devoted members of the 
Methodist church. Educated in the public schools, 
the first indiviuual effort (aside from such aid as 
he had rendered on -the homestead farm) made by 
Mr. Bray was when he was a lad of thirteen years, 
when he entered as a clerk a dry goods establish- 
ment in Truro, England. Here he gained a prac- 
tical and intimate knowledge of business methods. 
He continued to be identified with merchandising 
until he was twenty-four, when, in 1876, he 
came to the United States to attend the Centen- 
nial exposition. After satiating himself with sight 
seeing, and reducing his available financial re- 
sources to a minimum, he determined to remain 
in the United States, and went to Texas, where his 
first employment was at .railroad work, at $1.25 per 
day. Later he found employment as a contractor 
for the government, in the construction of levees 
in Mississippi. This enterprise enlisted his atten- 
tion for nine years. In 1884 his health became 
seriously impaired, and he was incapacitated for 
active business for a year, when he located in Butte, 
which is still his home and his business headquar- 
ters. i\Ir. Bray's illness necessarily entailed consid- 
erable financial loss, and on arriving at Butte his 
capital was less than $3,000. He opened a modest 
grocery on upper Alain street, where the Murray 

Bank is now located, and there continued opera- 
tions for a year, when he purchased the stock of 
groceries owned by Craddock & Co., and secured 
more eligible headquarters on Main street, oppo- 
site the postoffice. About a year later he pur- 
chased the stock and business of E. J. Maul & Co., 
and conducted his ever-increasing business for an- 
other year, when failing health compelled him to 
retire, and he disposed of his merchandising and 
passed a year in Oakland, Cal. The business ca- 
reer of Mr. Bray in Montana has been one of con- 
secutive advancement, and this is a pertinent fact, 
since it indicates the sterling integrity of the man, 
his unvarying courtesy and his marked business 
sagacity and executive ability. 

LTpon returning to Butte, in 1887, Mr. Bray pur- 
chased the grocery stock and business of Battin- 
ger & Co., and, under the name of the Butte Cash 
Grocery, opened an attractive and well-equipped 
establishment at the corner of Wyoming and Park 
streets, where he conducted a most successful re- 
tail business until 1896, when he enlarged its scope 
by adding a wholesale department, in which he has 
since continued. The business now extends into 
all sections of the state and is one of the niQSt im- 
portant commercial industries of Montana. The 
stock carried is ever select and comprehensive, thus 
insuring satisfaction to its patrons throughout its 
extended territory. The wholesale grocery busi- 
ness of Mr. Bray in Butte is among the first in the 
state, and tlie annual transactions of the house 
now reach an average of one miUion dollars. Such 
success in any line of legitimate enterprise shows 
business ability and brain in its inception and con- 
ducting, and places their possessor high among the 
financial powers of the day. 

In his political adherency Mr. Bray supports the 
Republican party. He was elected a member of 
the First legislature of the state, and was chosen as 
his own successor for the Second assembly, in 
which he had the distinction of serving as speaker 
pro tern. He was also chairman of the commit- 
tee on state institutions, the locations of which 
were fixed during the Second legislative assembly. 
In his fraternal relations Mr. Bray is identified with 
the Masonic order, in which he has taken the mas- 
ter's degree ; with the Knights of Pythias ; the A. 
O. U. W., the B. P. O. E., and the sons of St. 
George. On October 9, 1885, was solemnized the 
marriage of Mr. Bray to Miss Nelia Inez Cope- 
land, who was born in Illinois, the daughter of 
John W. Copeland. Of their seven children four 



are living, A. F. Bray, Jr., Nelia Inez, Frances and 
Dorothy. Mrs. Bray died on October 29, 1899. She 
is mourned by a large circle of friends to whom 
she had endeared herself, while the bereavement 
rests most heavily upon her own household. 

Vy ancestry of Dr. Cornelius Breckinridge Boyle, 
of Gebo, Mont., the pioneers of Virginia and the res- 
olute founders of New England are mingled with 
sturdy Irish stock of distinguished hneage. His 
grandfather, John Boyle, scion of a family long 
prominent and influential in County Antrim, Ire- 
land, immigrated to the United States about 1800, 
locating at Washington, D. C. In 1804 he was 
united in marriage with Miss Catherine Burke, the 
nuptials being solemnized at Baltimore, Md., by 
Archbishop Carroll. John Boyle became con- 
nected with the Navy Depai'tment, and served for 
more than thirty-five years in leading positions, 
most of the time as chief clerk, and partly as acting 
secretary. He died in Washington in 1849, at the 
age of seventy-two, leaving, with other children, a 
son. Dr. Cornelius Boyle, Vvho became eminent in 
the District of Columbia as one of its leading 
physicians and most substantial and influential cit- 
izens. In 1844 he was graduated from the medi- 
cal department of Columbian University, Washing- 
ton, D. C, and was actively and prominently en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession until 1861, 
when he enlisted in the Confederate army, rose 
rapidly and became provost marshal general of 
the Army of Northern Virginia with the rank of 
major, under Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, and 
after the death of that gallant soldier at Shiloh, 
under Gen. R. E. Lee, the Doctor being one of the 
few men in the service whom the great commander 
honored with an autograph letter of commenda- 
tion for skill and fidelity in the discharge of duty. 
This Dr. Boyle had a brother, Junius I. Boyle, a 
commodore in the United States navy and a mem- 
ber of the famous Perry expedition to Japan. He 
died in the United States hospital at Portsmouth, 
Va.. in 1871, having been retired a few years pre- 
vious for disability. At the close of the war Dr. 
Boyle went to Mexico and took charge of the busi- 
ness of an English colonization scheme under the 
auspices of the English banking house of Baron, 
Forbes & Co. Owing to the death of Mr. Bar- 
ron, the enterprise was abandoned, and the Doctor 

returned to Virginia. In 1871, havmg received 
amnesty from the government by special act of 
congress, he returned to Washington and con- 
tinued the practice of medicine until his death in 
1878. In 1852 he was married to Miss Frances 
Reynolds Greene, of Virginia, a daughter of Wil- 
liam Dabney Greene, of that state, and grand- 
daughter of Thomas Greene, of Rhode Island, 
whose forefather, James Greene, came to America 
from England in 1636 and settled in Massachusetts, 
but soon after left that province as a follower of 
Roger W'illiams, whom he helped found what is 
now the state of Rhode Island. From him were 
also descended bren. Nathaniel Greene and Gen. 
John Morley Greene, of Revolutionary fame. 

Dr. C. Breckinridge Boyle was born at Gordons- 
ville, Va., June 24, 1864. He received his schol- 
astic training in the public schools of Washing- 
ton, D. C, and on laying aside his textbooks ac- 
cepted employment on the United States geolog- 
ical survey, with headquarters at the national mu- 
seum in Washington, where he remained six years. 
In the meantime he engaged in the study of medi- 
cine at Columbian University and was graduated 
from that institution with the degree of M. D. in 
1891. He immediately began practice in Wash- 
mgton, D. C, being connected with the Children's 
Hospital and the Emergency Hospital. At the 
time of his resignation from the geological survey 
the Doctor was assistant paleontologist, and was 
author of Bulletin No. 102, on Fossil Shells, pub- 
Hshed in 1893. He went to Hot Springs, S. D., in 
1894, and remained there two years practicing his 
profession. He then accepted a position on the 
medical staff of the Homestake Mine Hospital 
at Lead, S. D., which he filled until August, 1898. 
In the fall of that year he came to Montana, lo- 
cating at Gebo, where he has since resided. He 
is official physician to the Clarke Fork Coal Min- 
ing Company at Gebo, and has a large practice in 
the surrounding country. 

On March 18, 1897, he was married to Miss Ce- 
cilia DuHamel, a daughter of Dr. W. J. C. Du- 
Hamel, a leading physician of Washington, D. C. 
Mrs. Boyle's father was a native of Baltimore, Md., 
and her mother was Miss Elizabeth Hill Kennedy 
of Alexandria, Va. The DuHamels were French 
Huguenots, who came to America early in the 
eighteenth century and were conspicuous in the 
history of the country through Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary times. The Hills and Seths, ancestors 
of Mrs. Boyle, made proud records for gallantry 



and fine soldierly qualities in the Revolution, and 
one of her maternal ancestors, Henry Hill, fitted 
out a company of troops at his own expense, and 
with it rendered valuable service throughout that 
struggle. Dr. Boyle is examining physician for a 
number of old line insurance companies and bene- 
ficial societies. He has high standing as a physi- 
cian and surgeon, and is universally esteemed as a 

PETER BREEN.— Coming into the world amid 
stirring times, Peter Breen was born in John- 
son county, Kan., on October 5, i860, just after 
the bloody struggle over slavery in the territories 
of Kansas and Nebraska, which were clamoring 
for admission into the Union. His father, Law- 
rence Breen, a native of Ireland, emigrated to 
America when he was twelve years old, and set- 
tled in Vermont and later in New York. From 
there he removed to Chicago before there was any 
railroad to that city and later was married in Wis- 
consin to Miss Kate Dillon, also of Irish birth. 
They took up their residence on a Kansas farm 
and were there during all of the contest there for 
supremacy between the slavery and anti-slavery 
forces. Later they removed to Illinois, and when 
the Civil war broke out the father enlisted as a 
Union soldier in Company E, Ninety-fifth Illinois 
Infantry, in which he served with commendable 
courage. Peter Breen was the second of eight 
children. He received a good common-school educa- 
tion in Illinois and Iowa, and when he was nine- 
teen left his father's home in Iowa, made his way 
to Colorado, and secured employment at railroad- 
ing. He was a locomotive fireman for awhile, 
and then engaged in driving a mule team in the 
mountains. After many months of this service, 
he went to Leadville, and worked at the smelting 
furnaces during the winter and prospected during 
the summer. In 1884 he went to Couer d'Alene, 
Idaho, at the height of its gold excitement, but 
finding the snow too deep for him to profitably 
work, equipped as he was, he went to Spokane for 
horses, with which he returned and went to pros- 
pecting. He lost all he had and went to Butte, 
arriving there June 20, 1884. He worked at the 
Old Belle smelter until fall when he went to Ana- 
conda and remained during the winter. The next 
spring he went to the Flathead valley and located 
several ranches, but soon sold them and returned 
to Anaconda, where, there and in Jefferson county, 

he worked at hauling wood and mining. He 
traveled around Great Falls and located at Wicks 
in the spring of 1888, working, in the smeher. 
From there he went to Elkhorn in 1890, and later 
to the Cleopatra mine near Butte. In August he 
located in Butte, pursuing various occupations 
until 1895. 

During all this time and throughout all his wan- 
derings he was studying law and looking forward 
to a professional career. After 1895" he gave his 
whole attention to this study and with such suc- 
cess that he was admitted to practice in Novem- 
ber, 1898. He immediately formed a partnership 
with G. L. Langford, but subsequently dissolved 
this and formed another with his present partner. 
Mr. Breen has been active and forceful in politics 
and began early to take a leaaing place in his 
party and to give his talents to the service of his 
people. He represented the Twenty-first district 
in the second constitutional convention of the 
state, and was elected as a Democrat to the First 
and Second state legislatures from Jefferson coun- 
ty. He is at present a PopuHst, and as such was 
elected in 1890 to the office of county attorney of 
Silver Bow county, the duties of which he is now 
(1901) discharging with ability and acceptability, 
being commended for his strict attention to its busi- 
ness and his fairness and skill, by political associates 
and opponents aHke. Mr. Breen was married 
March 3, 1897, to Miss Katie Griffin, a native of 
Independence, Iowa, whose father was one of the 
early settlers in that locality. In religious faith he 
is a Roman Catholic, and belongs to the Robert 
Emmett Literary Society, composed principally 
of men of that faith. He is also a member of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen. His prom- 
inence in his profession and his firm hold on the 
confidence and regard of the people are not acci- 
dental or the result of adventitious circumstances. 
He has gained every foot of his way by merit and 
persistent and honest labor. The very difficulty 
with which he secured his legal training has given 
him a more tenacious grasp of its details than if it 
had come to him easily, and the exigencies of his 
adventurous life have strengthened the fibre and 
multiplied the fertility of his sterling manner. 

JOHN C. BRENNER.— Fortunate is the man 
who has an ancestry of distinguished order and 
sterling worth ; and we of this intensely utilitarian 



twentieth century cannot hold in light esteem the 
record of noble lives and worthy deeds, and, as Ma- 
caulay has pertinently stated the fact, "A people 
that take no pride in the noble achievements of re- 
mote ancestors will never achieve anything worthy 
to be remembered with pride by remote descend- 
ants." The gentleman whose name initiates this 
review is a scion of staunch old Pennsylvania stock, 
and the name is one that has l:)een prominent in 
the annals of the old Keystone state, as has that of 
his mother's family, each successive generation 
having accomplished something which may well 
be "remembered with pride by remote descend- 
ants." It is not within the province of this work 
to enter into details as to genealogical records, 
but sufficient reference will be made to indicate the 
lesson and incentive which may be read "between 
the lines." Mr. Brenner, one of the representa- 
tive citizens and prominent stock growers of Beav- 
erhead county, is progressive in his methods and 
honored and esteemed by those who know him, and 
thus he is most ehgible for representation within 
the pages of this volume. 

John C. Brenner is a native son of the famous 
old "City of Brotherly Love," having been l)orn in 
Philadelphia on March 23, 1845. His father, 
John G. Brenner, was born in Lancaster county. 
Pa., and was reared and educated in his native 
state, where he passed his entire life, his death oc- 
curring in 1879. He was a man of fine intellectual 
powers, and one of the prominent citizens of his 
state. He was a stalwart Democrat in his politi- 
cal proclivities and was on the electoral tickets of 
his party each campaign from the candidacy of 
Jackson to and including that of Breckenridge for 
the office of president. He was an intimate per- 
sonal friend of President Buchanan, and also of 
Simon Cameron, the Pennsylvania statesman. Mr. 
Brenner was one of the organizers of the Pennsyl- 
vania Mutual Life Insurance Company, and was a 
member of its board of trustees until his death. 
He held the third poHcy issued by this company. 
He was a director of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company and of the Girard National Bank, of 
Philadelphia, and before the city of Spring Garden 
became an integral part of Philadelphia he was a 
member of its board of commissioners. He was 
one of the leading merchants of Philadelphia, 
where he was engaged in the hardware business up 
to the time when death put an end to his labors. 
His maternal grandfather was Brigadier-General 
Klotz, who commanded Pennsylvania troops in the 

war of the Revolution. The family has been of 
marked prominence in the Keystone state from 
the early colonial epoch until the present day. 

John C. Brenner, the immediate subject of this 
review, was the fifth in order of birth in a family of 
nine children, and received his educational discip- 
line in the schools of his native city. He there- 
after became identified with his father's hardware 
business, of which he had charge after the death 
of his honored sire. In 1883 he came to Mon- 
tana, locating in Beaverhead county, and here pur- 
chasing his present ranch, which now comprises 
5,000 acres and is one of the finest in the state, both 
in the matter of natural characteristics and in the 
improvements which have been made. Here he has 
been engaged in farming and stockraising upon an 
extensive scale, and is recognized as one of the 
leading operators in these important lines of indus- 
try in the state. His place is located twenty-five 
miles from Red Rock, and the family residence is 
one of the most attractive in this favored section. 
In poHtics Mr. Brenner gives his support to the 
Democratic party, and fraternally he is identified 
with the Masonic order. He is also a popu- 
lar member of the Silver Bow Club, in the 
city of Butte. 

On October 29, 1874, Mr. Brenner was united in 
marriage to Miss Isabel White, who was born in 
the vicinity of Pittsburg, Pa., the daughter of 
Henry White, many years engaged in the lumber- 
ing business at Williamsport, Pa., where his death 
occurred. He was prominent in both political and 
business life, having been the candidate of the Dem- 
ocratic party for member of congress in 1874. 
Mrs. Brenner's paternal grandfather. Col. Hugh 
White, is a part of Pennsylvania's record in the 
war of 1812. He was "captain of a company of 
foot in the First Battalion of associators in the 
county of Northumberland." He was colonel in the 
war of 1812, and was killed in 1822 by being thrown 
from a horse. An ancestor in the direct line was 
a captain in the Continental army during the war 
of the Revolution. Hon. Joseph B. Anthony, the 
maternal grandfather of Mrs. Brenner, was a grad- 
uate of Princeton University ; was admitted to the 
bar of Pennsylvania in 1818, and was elected to the 
state senate in 1830, serving until 1833. He was 
elected to congress and re-elected in 1835, carry- 
ing every precinct in his district. He was a stal- 
wart Democrat in his political faith. 

Mr. and Mrs. Brenner are the parents of three 
sons : Henry White, who was born May 30, 1879, 



was educated at St. Paul's School, at Concord, N. 
H. ; William Potts was born February 26, 1882; 
and Charles Potts was born August 31, 1884. 

HENRY ELLING.— There are names which 
are in themselves an inspiration and a history 
— themes which are their own eloquent interpreters 
beyond the power of speech or writing — and who 
is there that can add a word or a thought to the 
story when, in this section of the country, and espe- 
cially in Montana, one names the name and calls up 
the memory of Henry Elling ? Mr. Elling was born 
in Germany, December 9, 1842, the son of German 
parents, possessing a modest competence in worldly 
wealth, and a devout religious spirit that found 
expression in the prescribed formulas of the Luth- 
eran church. Death robbed him of both parents 
before he was fifteen years of age, and he then emi- 
grated with a younger brother to the United 
States, locating in Missouri, where an older brother 
had already secured a stable foothold. In the 
fatherland he received a fair education in his na- 
tive tongue, and in America he at once applied him- 
self with characteristic diligence to the study of 
English, working as a farm hand while learning the 
language, and later securing a position in a mer- 
cantile house at the munificent compensation of 
six dollars a month and his board for the first year, 
and something additional for each of the subse- 
quent years he remained with the firm. In 1861 he 
removed to Leavenworth, Kan., and a year later to 
Denver, Colo., where he was a clerk and salesman 
in a clothing house until 1864. In that year he 
determined to start business for himself, and 
brought a stock of goods by ox teams to Virginia 
City, I\Iont., and in October opened a store. In 
1865 Last Chance gulch, now Helena, burst forth 
as the newest Eldorado of this western world, and, 
securing a partner, Mr. Elling removed his busi- 
ness thither, and in a little log house with a saw- 
dust floor, they opened a store and sold their stock 
at almost fabulous prices and handsome profits. 
A short time after they were established at Helena, 
his partner went east with most of their money to 
pay bills and purchase more goods, and Mr. Elling 
began to deal in gold. The supply increased and 
prices went down so that he soon lost all his means 
and was obliged to close out his stock, after which 
he also went east. 

He paid the debts of the firm, bought a new 
stock of goods on time and started in business at 

Nebraska City, then the supply point for the 
freighting outfits to the west. For awnile he was 
successful there, but, when Omaha became the 
supply station, he had a large stock of goods and no 
demand for them — and, more than that, he was in 
debt for the goods and unable to meet his obliga- 
tions. But his creditors had confidence m his in- 
tegrity, and allowed him to take his goods any- 
where he deemed best. Accordingly he again lo- 
cated m Virginia City, Mont., where he was emi- 
nently successful from the beginning. He continued 
in trade until 1873, ^^^ then opened a banking 
house. He now was, at least, in the line for which 
he was particularly well qualified. Tor he had an 
instinctive sense in matters of finance that never 
let him go astray. Although at times his daring 
seemed akin to rashness, it was short vision in 
others that pronounced this judgment — he saw the 
end from the beginning. He trusted men freely, 
always doing a large credit business, yet his confi- 
dence was rarely betrayed or abused. He became 
the richest man in Madison county, owning mines 
and mills and miles of acres teeming with their ver- 
dant meadows, their golden harvests, their sheep 
and cattle on a thousand hills — items scarce worth 
mentioning save for the fact that his wealth was 
the product of his own capabilities properly used. 
He was also the leading business man, and the 
most potential factor in multiplying productive 
fiscal and corpmercial enterprises — and this is much 
to say in any man's favor. For, prate as we may of 
increasing armies and expanding navies for the 
national defense, the real armor of the twentieth 
century is a plethoric pocketbook; its strong fort- 
resses will be fire-proof vaults, well filled with 
notes, mortgages and title-deeds. Good agencies 
which produce these, good men who spread their 
benefits and direct the distribution, are real bene- 
factors of mankind, and will be so recognized in 
the age now dawning, wherein man, the creator and 
beautifier, shall be honored and feted, and man, the 
destroyer, discrowned. 

Through his banking operations Mr. Elling be- 
came actively interested in many financial and mer- 
cantile institutions, including three of the largest 
banks in Virginia City, one at Sheridan, and others 
at various places in the county. But this vast field 
was too small to give due scope and amplitude to 
his financial powers. He was necessary to the fiscal 
interests of the state, and he obeyed their call. In 
1894, just after a disastrous panic, he was asked by 
officers of the Commercial Exchange Bank at 



Bozeman to take a block of the proposed increase 
of its capital and become its president. He accepted 
the invitation and soon had the bank well estab- 
lished as a healthy member of the national system. 
Not long after he assisted in organizing the Carbon 
County Bank, at Red Lodge, and also became its 
president. This was followed by his election as a 
director of the State National Bank, of Miles City. 
He then took stock in the National Bank at Big 
Timber in Park county, and in January, 1898, be- 
came interested in the bank of Fergus county at 
Lewistown. In the same month he organized the 
Union Bank and Trust Company, of Helena, be- 
coming its president and leading spirit. In 1896 he 
joined the syndicate which purchased the Gallatin 
Light, Power and Railway Company, of Bozeman, 
th^t held the street railway and electric lighting 
franchises of the city. To the affairs of all these in- 
stitutions Mr. Elling gave personal attention and the 
benefit of his high standing in the financial and 
business world, and from his broad experience and 
keen, careful, superior judgment they all profited 
and prospered. 

Mr. Elling was a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity, connected with the Master Masons lodge, the 
Royal Arch chapter and * the commandery of 
Knights Templar. He also belonged to the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen and the Benevolent 
Protective Order of Elks. He was a Republican, 
but never sou2;ht or accepted a purely political 
office. His party often wished to honor him with 
nominations for prominent positions, but he 
firmly refused all of them. At one time he was 
obliged to positively decline the nomination for gov- 
ernor. His interest in the welfare of the commun- 
ity did once, however, induce him to become mayor 
of his home town, a position in which he rendered 
service of great and permanent value. He was 
married July 20, 1870, to Miss Mary B. Cooley, a 
native of Iowa, and daughter of W. A. Cooley, an 
esteemed citizen of Madison county who made his 
home there in 1868. Mr. and Mrs. Elling were 
parents of ten children, Helena K., now Mrs. Arey; 
Henrietta M., now Mrs. Gohn ; Mable, now Mrs. 
Hutt; Carlotta, Horace B., Karl and Harrison C, 
living, and Alice, Henry and Herman, deceased. 

It is as true a saying as it is old that "Death loves 
a shining mark." In the midst of his great plans 
and his many-sided usefulness, while yet not far 
past the noon of life, a fatal attack of pneumonia 
closed his earthly career on Wednesday, November 
14, 1900, after an illness of less than four days. 

The life of Henry Elling was a positive, far- 
reaching, fruitful potency for good. Its contempla- 
tion can never be void or valueless to thinking men. 
He not only wrought out great ends himself, but 
fired others with energy and zeal. His presence 
and example were pregnant with a vitality that sus- 
tained the old, inspired the young, and aided all. 
In business and social attributes he was centripetal, 
concentratmg and conserving like energies in other 
men, and holding all together in harmonious revolu- 
tion. His honor and his honesty went unassailed, 
his morals were above reproach, his charities were 
bountiful but unproclaimed, and his domestic 
traits were lovable unto the last degree. Withal, 
his life was quiet and serene. His way lay not 
along the points and pinnacles of great affairs 
where history holds her splendid march. He gave 
the faculties that might have swayed a realm to quiet 
usefulness and unpraised toil, teaching by precept 
and example the lesson of fidelity in daily duty, 
and, through that, good service to his kind. And 
so that life commands the admiration, not only of 
the many with whom devotion might naturally 
stand in place of criticism, but of those whose dis- 
tance from the man and resultant want of bias 
entitles them to render authoritative judgment. 
And when they tell us, as they do, those wiser, bet- 
ter brethren of ours in the east — and tell the world 
so they may make it history — that this, our west- 
ern civilization, is half barbarism, we may be 
pardoned if we answer: Behold its product and its 
representative ! "Of thorns men do not gather figs, 
nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes." Here 
is Henry Elling — show us his fellow ! 

EDWIN H. BREWSTER.— The only real suc- 
cess in human effort is to work in the right 
direction. One must elect his work, and then put 
all his force on it to secure results. Concentration 
is the secret of success. The one prudence in life is 
concentration, the one evil dissipation of energ\-. 
Rays of light, nearly powerless when scattered, burn 
brilliantly when brought to a focus. These truths 
are well exemplified in the active life of Edwin Har- 
ris Brewster, of Wibaux, one of the high grade 
stock-breeders of Montana, who has given up his 
energies to the accomplishment of a set purpose 
from which he allows nothing to divert him. He 
is a native of Chicago, III, where he was born June 
20. 1866. His scholastic training was acquired in 



the public schools and in a good commercial col- 
lege. When he was about sixteen years old he ob- 
tained employment with a cattle company in Ari- 
zona, where he acquired a comprehensive knowl- 
edge of one side of the business, and an ardent de- 
sire to fully master it and then carry it on for him- 
self. Accordingly, after three years' service in Ari- 
zona, he secured a position with the Berry-Boice 
Cattle Company of eastern Montana, and began an 
apprenticeship in range work. This continued until 
April, 1892, when he made a homestead entry of a 
quarter section of land on Beaver Creek, about a 
mile and a half north of Wibaux, in Dawson coun- 
ty, and two months later married Miss Elizabeth 
Salisbury, of Henderson, Minn., and settled down 
to ranch life "under his own vine and fig tree." He 
started in the cattle business in a small way, but 
soon began "breeding up" his range stock. His 
experiments in this line opened his eyes to its large 
possibilities for good to the community, and deter- 
mined him to pass from the domain of stock-rais- 
ing to that of stock-breeding. Imbued with this 
laudable ambition, a few years ago he purchased the 
Higgins herd of thoroughbred Herefords at 
Rancher, Mont., and abandoned range work for the 
more congenial field. His herd of pure-bred Here- 
fords now numbers no head of white- faced beau- 
ties, nearly all of which are "native here and to the 
manor born," therefore thoroughly acclimated, and 
certainly equal in breeding to any herd in the coun- 
try. Their oflfspring are sold to any proper pur- 
chaser, and a pedigree is furnished with each ani- 
mal, bearing the signature of the secretary of the 
American Hereford Breeders' Association, of 
which Mr. Brewster is a member, as he is also of 
the Montana Stock Growers' Association. At the 
head of this herd stands the renowned John Jacob 
Astor, bred by Charles Cross, of the Sunny Slope 
herd of Herefords at Emporia, Kan. He is well 
worthy of the name he bears in the richness of his 
lineage, his physical vigor, his dignified bearing 
and his powers of procreation. Rumor has been 
busy with the price paid by the nervy breeder for 
this great acquisition, and has not settled the matter. 
All that is known is that Mr. Brewster was oflFered 
and promptly declined $500 for his bargain a few 
days after the purchase. 

Mr. Brewster is a gentleman of enterprise and 
breadth of view and is inspired by a desire higher 
and wider than mere commercial considerations. 
It is his patriotic and generous, as well as sound 
business intention to aid, as far as he can, in im- 

proving the stock of the state for both ranchmen 
and feeders, and by his example and his efforts, 
awaken them to the fact that such improvement is 
necessary to enable them to keep pace with pro- 
gress elsewhere. It is nearly time, in his opinion, 
that the "scrub" steer should disappear from the 
ranches and stock markets of Montana, under the 
general order of nature — the survival of the fittest 
— and his endeavors in this direction are entitled to 
the highest commendation of all interested parties. 
Mr. Brewster's family consists of his wife and two 
charming little girls, whose home is a handsome 
cottage adorned with every evidence of good taste. 
His stock also lacks nothing that money can buy or 
skill fashion for its proper shelter, development and 
keep. In fraternal circles Mr. Brewster is an en- 
thusiastic Mason, having given to the order much 
time and valuable service, both in the ranks in its 
various branches and in exalted official stations. 
He is at this time deputy grand commander of the 
Knights Templar of the state. 

In his ancestry Mr. Brewster is as distinguished 
as in his creative and productive business enter- 
prises. He is of the ninth generation in direct de- 
scent from Elder William Brewster who came as a 
part of the precious importation brought to Ply- 
mouth Rock by the Mayflower in 1620. His father, 
James P. Brewster, is a leading business man of 
Chicago, a hatter by trade, but merchandising in 
the commodity rather than making it. He was in- 
strumental in organizing the Hat Finishers' 
Union, and was first identified with it as a clerk. 
He then, in partnership with one Hunniwell, pur- 
chased the union and continued with success the 
business it had conducted. In 1856 he sold out and, 
ufter traveling extensively in the west, in partner- 
ship with one Loomis, he opened a hat store under 
Warners' Hall on Randolph street, Chicago. He 
soon purchased the interest of his partner, and con- 
ducted business alone until the great Chicago fire. 
After the smoke of the conflagration had cleared 
away, he opened a store opposite Marshall Field's 
temporary business location on State street, near 
Twenty-second. From there he moved to West 
Madison street, and when the business district had 
been partially rebuilt, again removed to the South 
Side, locating on Clarke and Madison streets. In 
1 88 1 he became a member of the firm of Dunlap & 
Co., with a magnificent store in the Palmer House 
block, on State street. Though prosperity and ad- 
versity he always exhibited the same loftyself-confi- 
dence, resourcefulness and energy, always consider- 



ate of the rights and feelings of others, always atten- 
tive to every detail of his own affairs — permitting no 
leaks in his business which a close and constant vig- 
ilance could prevent, yet conducting it ever on a 
lofty plain of integrity, enterprise and progressive- 
ness, exemplifying in all its bearings the highest 
type of the American merchant. In January, 1902, 
he retired from active business at the age of seventy- 
six years. He was married in New York, in 1858, 
to Miss Laura R. Smith Cox, a daughter of John 
and Adaline (Harris) Cox, who were born and 
brought up within a block of each other in New 
York City. They were rocked in the same cradle 
and took their first and last lessons in school to- 
gether. John Cox was a son of Jamieson Cox, the 
famous New York fire chief in the terrible fire of 
1836, when many of the large buildings were blown 
up with powder to prevent the spread of the devas- 
tation. John Cox was then foreman of an engine 
company, and was buried in the ruins, but was res- 
cued without serious injury. 

Airs. Laura R. S. Brewster was a descendant of 
the early Knickerbocker stock,- and a family proud 
of its name and honor. She was finely educated, 
and after removing to Chicago, was identified with 
many movements of philanthropy. Especially was 
her work valuable during the Civil war in behalf 
of the Union soldiers. She was one of hve Chicago 
ladies to organize the Chicago Washington Hos- 
pital for wounded soldiers, where these heroic 
women did a noble work in alleviating human suf- 
fering. They were Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, Mrs. 
A. H. Hogue, Mrs. O. E. Hosmer, Mrs. O. D. Ran- 
ney and Mrs. J. P. Brewster. The last named was 
also instrumental in organizing the Sanitary Fair, 
held in Bryant's Hall, Chicago, the first of the kind 
in the United States. She was an incorporator of 
the Chicago Orphan Asylum, and till her death was 
an honorary member of its board of directors. Her 
last years were passed in the beautiful suburb of 
the city called Glencoe; and here she was very act- 
ive in beautifying and developing the place. 

Thus bearing from his birth the responsibility of 
an honored family name and history on both sides 
of his house, Mr. Brewster has not lowered its crest 
or lessened its luster. He has held up the best tra- 
ditions of his race in his successful business enter- 
prises, both by their character and their achieve- 
ments, and in his devotion to every social, educa- 
tional and moral force in the community, and every 
public affair which might tend to its advancement, 
has shown that his lineage is well sustained. 

v^ depths of his mature wisdom Carlyle wrote: 
"History is the essence of innumerable biogra- 
phies." Farther than this, what source of valid 
information may we have touching all phases of 
thought and accomplishment? "The true grandeur 
of nations is in those qualities which constitute ilv,> 
true greatness of the individual," said Sumner, and 
the final causes which shape the fortunes of indi- 
vidual men and the destinies of states are often the 
same. They are usually remote and obscure ; their 
influence wholly unsuspected until declared by re- 
sults. When they inspire men to the exercise 
of courage, self-denial, enterprise, industry and call 
into play the higher moral elements; when they 
lead men to risk all on conviction, faith — such 
causes lead to the planting of great states, great 
nations, great peoples. That nation is grandest 
which produces the greatest and most manly men, 
and the intrinsic safety depends not so much upon 
methods and measures as upon that true manhood 
from whose deep sources emanate all that is pre- 
cious and permanent in life. 

Rising above the masses there have been in all 
ages and in all localities men who, by their exalted 
character and intellectual powers, left a deep im- 
pression upon the institutions of their time; and in 
Montana it may be said, without exaggeration, there 
has been no man who moved upon a loftier plane 
of action or represented a truer nobility of char- 
acter and exalted purpose than Col. Charles Ar- 
thur Broadwater, the distinguished subject of this 
memoir. He was essentially a leader of men and 
a director of opinion, and his career was one of 
singular activity touching affairs of great scope 
and importance, and yet without one esoteric 
phase, its record being as an open scroll which will 
bear the closest scrutiny and disclose no shadow, 
no blot thereon. At all times and in all places he 
was known for his fidelity to purpose, his lofty prin- 
ciples and his strict adherence to the ethics which 
govern the highest type of human existence. These 
qualities, together with his great services in con- 
nection with the development and upbuilding of 
the state of ]\Iontana, won for him an exalted place 
in the esteem of his fellow men, and none is more 
worthy of consideration in any work purporting 
to enter record concerning those who have lived 
and labored to goodly ends within the confines of 
this great commonwealth. 

Col. Broadwater was born at St. Charles. Mo., 
on September 25, 1840, a son of Charles Henry 



and Anne Broadwater. Charles Henry Broad- 
water was a Virginia planter, and removed from 
his ancestral home in Fairfax county to Missouri, 
and purchased a large cotton plantation near St. 
Louis. In 1861 Charles A. Broadwater went to 
Colorado; but it was in Virginia City in 1863 that 
Col. Broadwater became known and identified 
with Montana and her subsequent history. Here 
he entered into the life of the then active mining 
camp as a freighter, handing a pack train belong- 
ing to the firm of King & Gillette, subsequently 
becoming associated with Capt. Nick Wall, who 
represented John J. Roe & Co., of St. Louis, Mo., 
the founders of the celebrated "Diamond R" trans- 
portation lines. Here it was that Col. Broadwater 
first exhibited these qualities which marked his suc- 
cess in subsequent undertakings. He was gen- 
eral superintendent of the "Diamond R" lines until 
the spring of 1869, when Mat Carroll, George 
Steele and E. G. McClay purchased the outfit in 
the name of E. G. McClay & Co., Col. Broadwater 
remaining as superintendent, then became a part- 
ner and continued as such until 1879. At this time 
the first railroads began to push their way into the 
territory, and Broadwater turned his attention to 
contracting. His previous connection with the 
"Diamond R" line had made for him many ac- 
quaintances among government officers, and with 
their influence he secured a number of contracts. 
Among the first was one for furnishing material 
for the construction of Fort Assiniboine, a con- 
tract that required a great deal of executive ability. 
The time given for its execution was limited to 
six months, but by close management the con- 
tract was successfully completed and a similar one 
secured for Fort Maginnis, whereby he cleared a 
great deal of money and became the leading part- 
tier in traderships at both posts. At the former 
he was associated with Robert L. McCulloch, since 
• cashier and vice-president of the Montana National 
Bank. At the latter point he was associated with 
ex-State Senator C. J. McNamara, with both of 
whom he was interested in various business ven- 
tures up to the time of his death. 

The transit from the superintendency of various 
trains of wagon transportation to that of a railroad 
was natural, and, for Col. Broadwater, very easily 
accomplished. Although lacking experience in 
the workings of a railroad he soon acquired a fa- 
miliarity with its complicated details and displayed 
marked ability in that direction ; and when J. J. 
Hill, of the Montana system, decided to push his 

operations to the coast, he selected Col. Broad- 
water as his manager and local representative in 
the state, and on the organization of the Montana 
Central branch. Col. Broaawater was made presi- 
dent of the company. These positions at the head 
of the railroad movements of the Great Northern 
system gave Col. Broadwater the opportunity and 
field for action which he desired. He was at the 
head and front of this great enterprise throughout 
its construction in the state of Montana, and in 
this stupendous undertaking was found equal to 
every emergency. It was work to his liking, and 
in the war of wits which taxed the management 
of an enterprise of this kind he found his true ele- 
ment, and the opposition of a powerful rival was 
confronted with the ready resources of a master 
mind. Contending with sharp, shrewd men, he 
became as sharp and as shrewd. His natural re- 
sources, prolific through previous years of traffic 
in this state, now stood him well in hand and he 
was never so much himself as when he had scored 
a point over opposing forces. Many incidents of the 
spirited contentions between the forces of the 
Northern Pacific interests and those presided over 
by Col. Broadwater could be cited ; but where the 
difficulties seemed thickest his talents shown most 
brilliant and elicited the admiration of his adver- 
saries as well as his friends. Under his supervi- 
sion as president of the Montana Central Railroad 
from Butte to Great Falls, via Helena, and the 
Rimini & Marysville and Neihart branches were 
constructed. But it was not in the building of 
these short lines that the greatest service was ren- 
dered to the state by Col. Broadwater. It was 
due to his untiring and assiduous efforts that Pres- 
ident Hill was induced to extend his road into He- 
lena and Butte, and long before that gentleman 
had decided to build over the present routes Col. 
Broadwater's active and earnest efforts resulted 
in having this route selected. In this undertak- 
ing, as well as almost all others which mark the 
career of this brilliant Hfe, we can see a liberality 
of effort which but displays the actual grandeur 
of his character. Not for himself were these tre- 
mendous undertakings pushed to completion, but 
for the constituency for whom he labored and that 
constituence was Montana and his chosen city, 
Helena. To no single man's effort within the 
state can be traced the results which are to be seen 
in the undertakings of Broadwater. The hotel 
and natatorium are probably the most brilliant 
and enduring conceptions of his Hfe, and in points 



of design and execution but demonstrate the liber- 
ality of his humanitarian efforts. Long before the 
beautiful city of Helena became a city, when it was 
but an uncouth mining village resting upon the 
sides of Last Chance gulch, was this edifice and the 
purposes of its construction first formulated in the 
mind of its promotor. The buildings and their 
surroundings are the most perfect in their appoint- 
ments of any resort in the northwest, and stand 
to-day the pride of Helena and pre-eminently the 
chief of Montana's many attractions. Its con- 
struction required a faith in the future of Helena 
which few possessed, and to many it seemed a rash 
and perilous venture. The plant with its equip- 
ment involved an expenditure of some $700,000, 
and, with the limited population of the state at 
the time of its conception, carried with its con- 
struction the necessity of operating the hotel for a 
number of years at great expense to the promoter. 
It was probably in view of the necessity of creating 
a source of revenue for this magnificent resort that 
the idea of establishing a military post at Helena 
first presented itself. Nor is it improbable that 
the previous connection which Col. Broadwater 
had with the government work at Assiniboine and 
Fort Maginnis first encouraged the promotion of 
the hotel and resort at Helena. It was in the 
final fulfillnient of this design that the Colonel un- 
dertook the great work which finally resulted in 
his death. The Montana National Bank was an- 
other institution which owed its inception to the 
busy brain which made it one of the soundest finan- 
cial institutions of the northwest. At its begin- 
ning, in 1883, it was a small concern, but under the 
fostering care of its able projector it grew into the 
powerful factor in the state's financial affairs which 
he left at the time of his death. 

Col. Broadwater's investments and business en- 
terprises extended in every direction. He was 
largely interested in other banks throughout the 
state, and at Great Falls and Neihart was a promi- 
nent stockholder in the First National Bank at each 
place and a heavy stockholder in the townsite of 
Great Falls. His mining and cattle interests are 
to be found all over the state, and his wealth at the 
time of his death was estimated at from a million to 
a million and a half of dollars. His death was 
probably as unexpected to himself as it was to his 
friends throughout the entire state, and his many 
enterprises were all in that unfinished condition 
which marked out the necessity of much future 
work and development. His death came at a crit- 

ical time in his own affairs and the affairs of the 
state, and in the urgent and dire need which the 
recent financial distress engendered through )ut the 
silver-producing districts his stalwart generalship 
was more than missed. 

The management of these vast properties has 
since fallen in the hands of Mr. Thomas A. Mar- 
low, a nephew of Col. Broadwater, and a young 
man of remarkable business qualifications. R. 
S. McCulloh was designated as executor, but re- 
signed after about two years of service. Mr. Mar- 
low was then appointed on request of the heirs, 
and developed in the administration of these af- 
fairs such marked business qualifications that he 
was elected president of the Montana National 
Bank at the time of its reopening after the panic of 
the summer of 1893. Mr. Marlow, ably assisted 
by Mr. Albert L. Smith, his efficient cashier, has 
taken the reins of this banking institution into his 
hands with the determination of sustaining the 
reputation which was so magnificently established 
by its able founder, and has proved himself an able 
official at the head of its affairs. 

The entire career of Col. Broadwater, from his 
first undertaking within the state up to the time 
of his death, shows a well formulated plan of life. 
Founded on the broad basis of humanitarianism, 
he was a most zealous advocate of the modern 
movements of international progress. Demo- 
cratic in principle, as well as in politics, he carried 
his convictions into every action of his life ; and 
when wealth smiled propitiously upon his efforts 
lie still retained his kindly interests and genial com- 
radeship for those with whom he had labored. Gov. 
J. K. Toole, in speaking of Col. Broadwater's death, 
says: 'T have never known a death to touch a 
whole community as deeply as has this. Every 
body seems to realize that a potent if not a domi- 
nant factor in social, commercial and political life is 
gone. No man in this state ever inaugurated 
and carried to a successful issue more great enter- 
prises than did Col. Broadwater. None knew 
the people better or had more of their confidence. 
He was a man of clear foresight, who knew himself 
and knew the way before him. He led the way 
in all he did : he was fruitful of resource, adroit in 
attack, masterful in defense, relentless in pursuit. 
His friends are counted in every profession, every 
avocation and walk in life. He was lenient with 
those in his debt and charitable to a high degree ; 
and accustomed to bestow favors in a manner 
so easy, so graceful, so natural, that it created 



a pleasing sense of gratitude without any special 
thought of obligation. He was of gentle mein ; 
but knew how to remember, how to resent and how 
to avenge. The city that he loved and in which he 
lived and wrought so much ought to record its 
lamentations in silent signs of universal mourning." 
Above all let it be said that he was a man, a 
prince among men. There are those who have ac- 
quired successes in life in the financial and political 
world, who may have reached to greater results, 
but few there are among the world's great men 
who occupied the place in the hearts of their con- 
stituencies that Col. Broadwater filled in his. His 
death was mourned by all who had ever known 
him, and the messages of condolence from the 
highest tribunal in the land echoed in unison with 
the cry from the hearts of the very children of his 
state in the same grateful, loyal, loving sorrow 
which bespoke that true homage from his humbler 
friends that was paid to his memory by the lowly as 
well as the great. His last sickness was the di- 
rect result of influenza, which laid hold upon him 
while in New York city. He was there prepara- 
tory to the senatorial fight for the Helena Post 
bill, in which he was much interested, and an 
active and zealous advocate ; and it was while mak- 
ing this fight that he brought on a relapse of the 
attack from which he Had partly recovered. The 
bill was passed, but Col. Broadwater had fought 
his last battle. He returned to Helena victorious 
in his efTorts, but broken in health and constitution. 
When the hotel Broadwater was reopened for the 
season almost the entire community turned out to 
see him. The Colonel remained upon the veranda 
during the evening, exchanging greetings of cheer 
and accepting congratulations upon the success of 
his efforts in Washington and the hopeful outlook 
for the satisfactory perfecting of his plans. This 
was his last appearance in public. A cool breeze 
had been blowing from up the valley, and he re- 
tired with a severe chill which developed into con- 
gestion of the lungs. The strain of the past month 
had been too much for him, and the excitement 
attendant upon the opening of his hotel had a bad 
effect. He gradually failed until Monday morn- 
ing following, when he breathed his last. His last 
struggle for life was aggravated to some extent by 
a weak action of the heart ; this, with the strain of 
his active work in Washington and the previous at- 
tack of influenza, comprised the combined forces 
which finally lirought him to his death. Its an- 
jiouncemcnt threw the entire state into the pro- 

foundest gloom. All business was for the time 
suspended and messages of condolence poured in 
from all over the world. President Harrison was 
among the first to send his words of sympathy 
from the executive mansion, and throughout the 
state adversary and friend alike paused to add to 
the universal sorrow their words of tender and 
reverential tribute. The business houses of He- 
lena, his chosen and beloved city, closed their 
doors ; and lowered flags and mourning buntings 
but lent to the cause their mute appeal to the mem- 
ory of the sacred dead. 

From a historical standpoint the life of Col. 
Broadwater enters to a far greater degree into the 
present conditions within the state than any other 
of the earlier factors. His fertility of conception 
may be credited as the original source of an im- 
measurable after-result whose potential must re- 
main as yet within the scroll of future years. His 
life portrayed a character of more than mere genius 
in a chosen profession ; in fact, he had no profes- 
sion. His capacity was too broad to limit to the 
boundaries of a single walk in life. It covered 
the entire breadth, from a pleasant spoken word to 
a child at play to the shrewd, tactful commander 
of an army ; the heights and depths perfectly bal- 
anced by a well-lighted plane of genial warmth 
where all could meet him in an atmosphere of per- 
fect ease. Unassuming in this self-poise he left 
the fields of literature and religious controversies 
to those better suited, and taught by his example 
of broad humanitarianism a lesson of greater im- 
port and stronger impact than could the written 
sermons of a volume or an era of dogmatic oratory. 
Always a man of close and profound thought, he 
was pre-eminently a man of action. 

BENJAMIN C. BROOKE, M. D.— Devoted to 
the noble and humane work which his profes- 
sion implied. Dr. Benjamin Coddington Brooke 
was ever faithful and indefatigable in his endeav- 
ors, and not only earned the due reward of his ef- 
forts in a temporal way, but also proved himself 
eminently worthy to exercise the important func- 
tions of his calling by his ability, his abiding sym- 
pathy and his earnest zeal in behalf of his fellow 
men. His understanding of the science of medi- 
cine was broad and comprehensive, and the pro- 
fession and the public accorded him distinguished 
place among the practitioners of Montana, while 



love and veneration were his in the city of Helena, 
where he lived and labored to goodly ends. Dr. 
Brooke was a native of West Virginia, born in 
Morgantown, Monongalia county, on April i, 1822, 
the son of Dr. Thomas Frederick and Mary (Cod- 
dington) Brooke, natives of Prince George's and 
Allegany counties, Md. The father was a prac- 
ticing physician of Prince George's county, whence 
he eventually removed to West Virginia, where 
his death occurred, his widow thereafter coming 
to Montana with her son. Dr. Brooke. The grand- 
father likewise was a physician, and was a native 
of Scotland whence he came to America and lo- 
cated in Maryland, where he passed the residue of 
his life, honored for his sterling character and high 
professional attainments. 

Dr. Benjamin C. Brooke received education in 
the schools of Virginia, in which state also he pre- 
pared himself for that profession honored and dig- 
nified by four dififerent generations of his name. He 
continued his technical studies in the Cincinnati 
Medical College, and later graduated in the cele- 
brated Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia. 
Dt. Brooke in 1854 began the practice of medicine 
in Kansas City, Mo., being one of the pioneer physi- 
cians of that section, while in 1858, at the time of 
the gold excitement at Pike's Peak, Colo., he went 
to Denver, where he located until the spring of 
1863, when he came to Montana and established 
himself at Virginia City, thus becoming one of the 
pioneers of Montana, where he lived to attain dis- 
tinguished honors as a physician and a man among 
men. In 1866 he removed to Helena, and here 
he continued in the active practice of his profession 
until his death, May 9, 1891. Of his long and 
faithful service the record is written in the grateful 
memories of those to whom he ministered. He 
was a man of marked business ability and was in- 
terested in various mining enterprises, as well as 
in farming and stock growing. To the matri- 
monial union of Dr. Brooke and Sarah Mackbee 
six children were born. Two sons and two daugh- 
ters are living, as is the widowed mother, now ven- 
erable in years. One son, Lee D., a graduate of 
the law department of the University of Virginia, 
is now engaged in the office of the Terminal Rail- 
way at St. Louis, Mo., while the other son, Dr. Ben 
C. Brooke, is the worthy successor of his father 
in medical practice in Montana's capital city, spe- 
cific reference being made to him on other pages 
of this work. The two daughters are Mrs. Dr. 
Rudolph Hoaskey and Miss Lalla M. Brooke. 

BEN C. BROOKE, M. D. — Among the 
younger representatives of the medical profes- 
sion in the capital city of Montana is Ben C. 
Brooke, M. D., who, to his skill as a physician and 
surgeon, has also the added distinction of being a 
native son of Helena, where he ha? given evidence 
in his case at least of the fallibility of the old adage 
that a "prophet is not without honor save in his own 
country," both in professional and social circles, his 
practice being of representative order. He was 
born in Helena on May 9, 1872, the son of Benja- 
min C. and Sarah (Mackbee) Brooke, to whom in- 
vidual reference is made elsewhere in this work. 

In his native city Dr. Brooke was reared to ma- 
turity, securing his literary education in the public 
schools and then turning his attention to the tech- 
nical work of preparation for his chosen profes- 
sion. He began reading medicine in the offices of 
Drs. Treacy & Carmichael, under whose effective 
preceptorship he advanced rapidly, and in March, 
1892, he matriculated in Bellevue Medical College, 
in New York city, graduating from this institu- 
tion of high standing in March, 1896. Thus thor- 
oughly fortified for a brilliant medical career Dr. 
Brooke returned to Helena, and forthwith opened 
an office and a practice as a physician and surgeon. 
He has ever kept abreast of the advances made in 
medical science and is known as a close student and 
as one who gives much time and thought to original 
investigation. In 1898 he took a post-graduate 
course in the New York Polyclinic to place himself 
in touch with the rapid advance of medical devel- 
opments. He is secretary of the Helena ^Medical 
Association and the Medical Association of Mon- 
tana and is a member of the Rocky Mountain Inter- 
state Medical Association. He takes interest in the 
work of each, and is also a close student of the best 
medical literature. He has been president of the 
board of health of Lewis and Clarke county for two 
years, and is now serving his second term as county 
coroner. He has been secretary of the State Medical 
Society for three terms, being the present incum- 
bent, and is highly esteemed by his professional con- 
freres in the county and state. Fraternally the 
Doctor is a member of the Woodmen of the World, 
and in politics he belongs to the Democratic party. 

JOHN J. BUCKLEY, :M. D.— One of the best 
J known and most thoroughly skilled physicians 
and surgeons of the northwest, is Dr. John J. Buck- 



ley, now incumbent of the office of chief surgeon 
of the western division of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad, who is distinctively one of the progres- 
sive citizens of Montana, his home being Missoula. 
He is a native of Delhi, Delaware county, N. Y., 
born on April 13, 1853. His parents were Dr. 
Horatio and Elizabeth (Case) Buckley, both of 
whom were born in New York. The father, one 
of the leading physicians and surgeons of the state, 
was a graduate of the University of the City of 
New York, and also read medicine under the di- 
rection of Dr. Mott, one of the eminent physicians 
of that day. 

Dr. John J. Buckley was the elder of the two 
children and received his preliminary educational 
training in the public schools of his native state, 
after which he attended Delaware Academy, at 
Delhi, N. Y., after which he began the reading of 
medicine under the effective prec'eptorship of his 
father. He then entered the medical department 
of Columbia, N. Y., College, in the city of New 
York, completing the prescribed course and gradu- 
ating as a member of the class of 1878. Dr. Buck- 
ley took up his abode in Missoula in 1887. Upon 
coming to Missoula he was made chief surgeon for 
the western division of the Northern Pacific, which 
has in Missoula a modern and finely equipped hos- 
pital. The upper story of the building is fitted up 
as a residence for the chief surgeon, and here Dr. 
Buckley has an attractive home. The Doctor is a 
member of the American Congress of Physicians 
and Surgeons, the International Association of 
Railway Surgeons, and he has been vice-president 
of the National Association of Railway Surgeons. 
He is also a member of the American Clinological 
Association, American Medical Association and the 
Montana State Medical Society. In politics the 
Doctor is a stalwart Republican, and he has held 
offices of public trust, having served as president 
of the state board of health and the board of edu- 
cation of Missoula. Fraternally the Doctor has 
advanced to the thirty-second degree of the Scot- 
tish Rite, his position in the Masonic order, his 
affiliations being still with the various bodies of the 
order in Fargo, N. D. 

ALEXANDER METZEL.— No class of the 
American people is entitled to more credit 
than the hardy pioneers, who, leaving comfort and 
comparative ease behind them, braved every danger 

of the untrodden wilderness, and reduced it to sub- 
jection and useful fruitfulness. Of this class was 
Alexander Metzel, of Puller Springs, Madison 
county, one of the Montana pioneers of 1863, and 
one of her most respected and substantial citizens, 
who could see satisfactory results arising from the 
work of his hands in the section of the great com- 
monwealth where his activities were exercised. Mr. 
Metzel was born in York, Pa., January 14, 1835, 
of ancestors German on his father's side and 
English on his mother's. His parents were Thomas 
A. and Hannah Matthews Metzel, both natives of 
York, who lived and died there, and were for many 
years owners and managers of the Metzel House, 
a hostelry celebrated for its substantial fare and 
excellent service. The father had six children by 
his first marriage and eight by his second. Only 
five of them are living. 

Alexander Metzel, one of the second family, was 
educated in York, and there learned the butcher's 
trade. In 1857, the year before his father's death, 
he emigrated to Iowa City, Iowa, and secured em- 
ployment at $15 a month until i860, when he 
crossed the plains to Pike's Peak. He engaged In 
butchering for several months in Denver, and then 
returned to Iowa City. From here he went to 
Rock Island, 111., and worked as a trimmer in a 
packing house. Again he returned to Iowa City, 
purchased teams and with them took his employ- 
er's family in 1861 to Denver, Col. He worked in 
that city until the following spring and then, re- 
turning to Iowa, was married at Indianola to Miss 
Anna E. Spicer, a native -of Pennsylvania. Soon 
after he again crossed the plains, with his bride 
for company, and he was again employed at Denver 
by his former employer. In 1863 he came to 
Montana, leaving his wife in Denver, and July 15, 
1864, opened a butcher shop at Nevada City, in 
Alder gulch. The country at that time had been 
brought into a state of law and order by the work 
of the Vigilantes, in which he had assisted with 
some spirit, and he went to Denver for his wife; 
but he concluded to go back to Nevada City. There 
he opened a butcher shop for the second time, and 
bought and dressed the first hog killed in the place. 
He paid seventy-five cents a pound for it and it 
weighed 300 pounds dressed. He made a con- 
siderable portion of it, mixed with beef from the 
four head of cattle which the cold winter had left 
him out of a herd of 200, into sausage, and sold the 
sausage at $1.00 a pound. 

Mr. INIetzel had owned a ranch in a pleasant 

^/^^^^y^s/e 4^/ 



location at Puller Springs, fifteen miles southwest 
of Virginia City, for some time, and in 1872 made 
this his home. This ranch contained 6,000 acres 
of land, and had all appliances necessary for a first- 
class stock farm, on which he raised large crops of 
oats, and cut from 600 to 800 tons of hay a }'ear. 
He was the first Montana stockman to bring 
thoroughbred Durham cattle into the state. His 
first importation of Durhams was from Kentucky 
in 1871, and from that year he did a large business 
in supplying farmers with this stock, and thereby 
contributed largely to the improvement of stock in 
his section of the state. He was also interested in 
raising superior breeds and strains of horses, 
among his products being the dam of Frank Quirk, 
2:i2i/2, the fastest horse ever bred in Montana. 
He raised in all many hundreds of fine draft and 
trotting horses, and thousands of excellent cattle. 
Mr. Metzel was not, however, wholly absorbed 
in his own pursuits. He exhibited a lively inter- 
est in public affairs, and, as an active Republican, 
performed his part towards securing good results 
from political forces. When Gen. Grant was 
president he appointed Air. Metzel postmaster of 
Puller Springs, a position which he held until he 
died. He was also a county commissioner for four 
years, and in 1883 was nominated for the Montana 
house of representatives by his party, and, although 
he tried several times to withdraw from 'the ticket, 
and did no electioneering, he was elected by a vote 
largely in excess of that of the other candidates. 
At the conclusion of his term he was unanimously 
renominated by acclamation, and during his tenure 
he secured valuable legislation for his constituents, 
one item of which was the erection of the State 
Orphan's Home at Twin Bridges, and another was 
useful laws concerning live stock. A unique, and 
as the results prove, a very useful enterprise, was 
the organization of a live stock company by giving 
each of his five sons 100 calves, each calf repre- 
senting a share of stock in the company, of which 
he retained the presidency, and an active participa- 
tion in its control. In 1897 the company was dis- 
solved and the stock sold. His sons are Frank S., 
born in Colorado ; Charles Montana, one of the first 
white boys born within the limits of the present 
state, now residing at Puller Springs; Thomas A., 
raising cattle in Centennial valley; William O.. re- 
siding on the home ranch; and Albert Lewis, now 
extensively engaged in raising thoroughbred cattle 
in the Centennial valley. A daughter, Clara May, 
died January 26, 1880. Mrs. Metzel, after sixteen 

years of married life, was called from earth on May 
9, 1878. Mr. Metzel's death occurred at Puller 
Springs on January 10, 1899. His estate was 
valued at $150,000, and was equally divided among 
the five sons. In addition to the offices already 
noted as held by Mr. Metzel, he was elected in 
1895 to the state senate for a term of four years, 
and bore himself in the higher body with the same 
conspicuous ability, conscientious attention to duty 
and serviceable regard for the interests of his con- 
stituents that had distinguished him in the lower 
house. He was well prepared for a leading part 
in public aflfairs, whether they concerned only his 
immediate section, or pertained to a large area. He 
was one of the exhibitors at the Trans-Mississippi 
Exposition at Omaha, Nebraska, and secured a 
diploma there for a superior specimen of jasper. 

OTARRATT J. BURGESS is one of the most 
O prosperous and successful dairymen in Mon- 
tana, is the scion of a family which for nine genera- 
tions has contributed its enterprise, intelligence 
and force of character to the welfare and develop- 
ment of America. He is himself the pioneer of the 
dairy business in his neighborhood, and the first 
man to introduce every modern appliance and im- 
provement. His parents were Sharks H. and 
Hannah (Starratt) Burgess, natives of Canada. 
The ancestors of his father were English ; those of 
his mother were of the north of Ireland. The 
Burgess family came from England to Nova Scotia 
in 1637. One branch, headed by Thomas Burgess, 
has had an unbroken course of substantial suc- 
cess in every Ime of life. In 1776 two brothers 
took the oath of allegiance to Nova Scotia, and 
both located there. Of one of them, Edward, is 
directly descended Starratt J. Burgess, whose fa- 
ther, Charles H. Burgess, was bom in Nova Scotia 
on August 19, 1827. He attained manhood on 
the frontier as a farmer's boy, but nature had en- 
dowed him for other occupation and, yielding to 
the voice of the muse, he became a professor of 
music. After some years spent in this line he re- 
tired from it to a fine homestead which he pur- 
chased, and lived the life of a quiet gentleman 
farmer and successful fruit grower. He married 
Miss Hannah Starratt in May, 1854. She was 
born in Annapolis county, N. S., on July 7, 1828, 
the daughter of John Starratt, of Irish parentage. 
The Starratts came to America as early as 1637, 



and soon assumed a position among the leading 
families of their neighborhood. All branches of 
the Burgess family were thrifty, industrious and 
self-reliant people. Mrs. Hannah Burgess died 
in August, 1898, at the age of seventy years, leav- 
ing eight children, of whom five are residents of 

Mr. Burgess remained under his parental roof 
until he was sixteen years old, performing such 
labor as the circumstances required and receiving 
such education as the times afforded. He then 
yielded to a longing for the sea and became a 
sailor. He shipped at first as a cook and later as 
an able seaman before the mast. For ten years 
he enjoyed this rollicking life of alternate hope and 
fear, adventure and triumph, and then tiring of it, 
settled down on land and began working at the 
carpenter trade, and continued at this employment 
for twenty-one years near the old homestead. In 
1877 he removed to Quincy, Mass., where he first 
engaged in dairying and market gardening. In 
iVpril, 1888, he came to Montana and renewed his 
occupation as a carpenter in company with his 
brother, Harry C. Burgess. He continued in this 
employment three years, but in July, 1891, he be- 
gan dairying as successor to C. H. Bradish, and is 
still engaged in it on an extensive dairy farm three 
miles east of Helena, where by industry, foresight, 
breadth of view and excellent judgment, he has 
built up a most profitable business, which is stead- 
ily increasing and is conducted on an elevated 
plane of progressiveness and strict integrity. He 
now (1901) daily milks more than fifty three-quar- 
ter blood Jersey cows on his own place,' and also 
uses the product of neighboring farms. He is the 
owner of the ranch on which he lives, and has made 
it a model of neatness, taste and high development, 
containing every modern device for his business, 
and the whole is kept with scrupulous care as to 
cleanliness and purity. In fact, from the begin- 
ning of his career his progress has been steady, 
constant and substantial. 

Mr. Burgess was united in marriage on March 

16, 1881, to Miss Mary Riech, of Quincy, Mass. 
She was born in Mechlenburg, Germany, March 

17, i860, a daughter of Jonn and Wilhelmina 
Riech, with whom she emigrated to Nova Scotia 
in 1866, and who are yet living. Mr. and Mrs. 
Burgess have five children, Caroline, Gertrude, 
Helen Ruth, Starratt J., Jr., and Mildred, who add 
life and light to their home, and assist in dispens- 
ing the graceful hospitality for which it is noted. 

Mrs. Burgess is a devout member of the Baptist 
church. Mr. Burgess is a type of the sterling, broad- 
minded and far-seeing men who have made the grati- 
fying history of Helena and its immediate vicinity. 
His ability, force of character and business acumen 
have given him a high place in the regard of his 
fellows and a strong hold on the confidence of the 
community. Politically he is independent of party 
control, voting as his judgment dictates, and seek- 
ing no preferment himself. ' He is a member of 
the Masonic order, up to and including the Knight 
Templar degree, and of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows. 

T UCIUS D. BURTT.— This honored pioneer 
J—/ of the west has had an eventful life, and his 
familiarity with the scenes and incidents of early 
days was gained through intimate and varied ex- 
periences, and it is pecuHarly proper that he be 
given representation in this work in order that 
perpetual record may be left concerning his life 
and accomplishments. Mr. Burtt is a native of 
Essex county, N. Y., where he was born on Octo- 
ber 13, 1827, coming of stanch old colonial lineage. 
His father, John Burtt, was a native of the old 
Green Mountain state, when, as a young man, he 
removed to the state of New York, and there 
passed the residue of his days after devoting his 
life to farming, lumbering and contracting. He 
served as a private in the war of 181 2. The maiden 
name of our subject's mother was Laura Stevens, 
who was born in New York state, her father hav- 
ing been there engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
He was a valiant soldier in the Continental army 
during the war of the Revolution, and participant 
in the battle of Ticonderoga. John and Laura 
Burtt became the parents of eleven children, and 
six of the number are yet living. Three of the 
brothers maintained the military reputation of 
the family by efifective service during the Civil 
war. In the common schools of his native county 
Lucius D. Burtt received a fair English education, 
supplemented by long and active association with 
men and affairs and by personal application. At 
the age of sixteen he left school and went to New 
York city, where he shipped on a vessel bound for 
the West Indies. He followed the sea for two 
years, and in 1849, at the time of the ever mem- 
orable gold excitement in California, he was one 
of the argonauts who proceeded thither by way of 



the Panama route. He disembarked in San Fran- 
cisco on February 15, 1850, proceeded to the min- 
ing districts and secured a claim which he worked 
successfully until 1852, taking out $1,600 in one 
day. He disposed of the claim that year, bought 
a number of pack mules and engaged in freighting 
into all the mining districts of the northwest, 
which he followed until 1866, packing goods and 
supplies into every state in the northwest and 
teaming in Arizona and Nevada. He knows all 
the Indian trails, even those extending into British 
Columbia and as far north as the Arctic regions. 
In 1867 Mr. Burtt made a trip to Mexico, and in 
the fall returned to California, purchasing a pack- 
mule train in Los Angeles and engaging in pack- 
ing through Arizona. In 1868 he sold his mules 
and business and purchased sheep, trailing the 
same through to Montana in the spring of 1875. 
In 1877 he returned to California, secured another 
large band of sheep, which he brought through to 
Montana, organized the Burtt, Cans & Klein 
Sheep Company, and has since been thus asso- 
ciated in the raising of sheep upon a very exten- 
sive scale, having ranches in Broadwater, Meagher 
and Cascade counties, and running about 43,000 
sheep. Mr. Burtt maintains his headquarters at 
Townsend, Broadwater county, where he is well 
known and held in high estimation as one of the 
sterling pioneers of the state and as a man whose 
life has been one of earnest and consecutive en- 

In politics Mr. Burtt takes but little interest, his 
business activities proving more attractive to him 
than the seeking of political office. He is alert and 
active, having the vitality engendered by the free 
and open life of the plains and mountains, and 
does not give in his personality the suggestion of 
the more than three score }'ears and ten which 
mark the span of his life. 

1 Falls, Mont., was organized on July i, 1886. 
The original officers were : President, C. A. 
Broadwater; vice-president, H. O. Cohowen; cash- 
ier, L. G. Phelps; assistant cashier, A. E. Dicker- The first meeting had been held on May 27, 
1886. In July the bank was opened for business 
in the building now occupied by a cigar store on 
Central avenue and Second street. Subsequently 
it was removed to where the Cascade Bank is now 

located, and in 1892, in company with the Town- 
site Company, the bank built its present building. 
Mr. Broadwater continued president until November 
17, 1887, when T. E. Collins was elected to suc- 
cectl him. The first directorate consisted of the 
original officers, S. E. Atkinson and Ebenezer 
Sharp, of Helena. In June, 1887, the number of 
directors was increased to nine,T. E. Collins, Mar- 
tin McGinnis and John Lepley being added. Mr. 
Collins acted as president until July, 1893, and on 
July 3, of that year, A. M. Scott was elected to the 
office. On July 17, 1893, G. T. Curtis was elected 
cashier and one of the directors. Marcus Daly 
was elected a director on January 8, 1895. Mr. 
Scott served as president until July i, 1895, and 
was succeeded by G. T. Curtis. H. H. Matteson 
was then chosen cashier and served until 1902. 
The original capital stock of the First National 
Bank was $50,000, since increased to $200,000. 
The bank carries deposits of $1,200,000. The sur- 
plus and individual deposits are $55,000. 

This was the first bank of any note to be organ- 
ized in Great Falls or Cascade county. G. T. 
Curtis, the present efficient ana energetic presi- 
dent, is a native of Minnesota, and a son of Gold T. 
and Mary A. (Anderson) Curtis, both natives of 
New York. Gold T. Curtis was a lawyer who prac- 
ticed in New York during his early manhood and 
removed to Minnesota in 1855, where he continued 
in successful legal practice and served in the consti- 
tutional convention which preceded the organiza- 
tion of the territory into a state. On the breaking 
out of the Civil war he organized Co. K, Fourth 
Minnesota \'olunteers, and was elected its captain. 
He did not live to witness the termination of the 
fierce struggle in which he so patriotically and 
enthusiastically engaged, for having served gal- 
lantly in some of the more important and decisive 
battles of the war, he died at St. Louis in 1863. 
His widow is still living. 

G. T. Curtis was reared and educated in Alinne- 
sota and New York city. Before coming to Mon- 
tana he was for two years and a half with the Chase 
National Bank of New York. After his arrival in 
Great Falls in 1889 he entered the First National 
Bank of Great Falls as a clerk. One year later, 
in 1890, he organized a bank at Sand Coulee, and in 
1 89 1 he founded the First National Bank of Nei- 
hart, which, in 1893, was converted into the State 
Bank of Neihart. In 1893 also Mr. Curtis severed 
his connection with this institution and accepted 
the position of cashier of the First National Bank 



of Great Falls, since which time he has resided in 
that city. He is also interested in banks at Stocket 
and Belt, both of them being private institutions. 
The financial and social career of Mr Curtis 
affords a most striking and valuable example to the 
ambitious young man of the day. By force of 
character, business sagacity and those sterling 
qualities which go so far to establish a man's 
influence in any community, he has won his way to 
the top. Not only in Great Falls but throughout 
the state he is well and favorably known. Early in 
life he laid the foundation of his character upon the 
rock of industrious probity and his enviable suc- 
cess has been deservedly won. Politically Mr. 
Curtis has been a lifelong Democrat, and frater- 
nally he is an Odd Fellow. In 1899 Mr. Curtis was 
married to Miss Lucile M. Monroe, a native of 
Michigan. They have one child. Gold T. Cur- 
tis, Jr. 

— The achievements of the citizen soldiery 
of the United States under every form of warfare, 
and in all the delicate situations appertaining to 
the service, have won unstinted praise from vet- 
eran warriors of other lands, and are worthy of 
every commendation that has been heaped upon 
them. On the list of our immortals in the military 
service Lieut. -Col. Edmond Butler occupies a 
justly high and honored place. He was born in 
Ireland March 19, 1827, immigrated to the LInited 
States when a young man, settled in Brooklyn, N. 
Y., and engaged in editorial work, being associated 
with Horace Greeley and later with Charles A. 
Dana. During the Civil war Mr. Dana secured him 
appointment as captain in the regular army of the 
United States, but not having had a military train- 
ing, he preferred to take the position of second lieu- 
tenant. He was first sent to Leavenworth, Kan., 
where he was appointed provost marshal and placed 
in charge of Confederate prisoners. He served in 
this capacity a year and a half, and was then sent 
to New Mexico to join his regiment. He was de- 
tailed to accompany Gen. Baird (afterward inspect- 
or-general) in inspection of Kansas and Missouri 
troops. In 1862 he was the mustering officer in 
consolidating:- and remustering Kansas volunteers, 
and performed his duties with so much tact and suc- 
cess that he was ofificially complimented by Gen. 
Hunter, the department commander, for settling 
without resort to force "difificult and delicate" mat- 

ters affecting Kansas troops. He was promoted to 
a captaincy in 1864, and in 1865 he commanded an 
expedition against the Navajo Indians in Canyon de 
Chelle, marching his troops 720 miles in twenty-two 
days and two hours, being two days of the time' 
without rations. He inflicted severe loss on the 
Indians, killing a number, taking twenty-seven pris- 
oners and auieting the tumult. In September of 
that year he received the formal surrender of 
Manoelito Grande, and sent more than 2,000 pris- 
oners to the reservation. In 1866 he was ordered to 
defend the Kansas Pacific Railroad at Fort Wal- 
lace, Kan. In June, 1868, he was in attendance on 
Gen. Sherman. In December of that year, with a 
small infantry force, he exhumed the bodies of the 
killed in the Forsythe affair, on the Arickaree fork, 
under fire from the main body of the Sioux, and 
extricated his small force from a perilous position. 
In 1869 he commanded the force detailed to guard 
the Smoky Hill stage route from Fort Wallace to 
Denver, and in 1870 volunteered with his company 
for the expedition against the Pawnees under Gen. 
Woods, and commanded the expedition after Gen. 
Woods was disabled by illness. In December, 1873, 
after serving as commander at Fort Wallace in 
1871, and being ordered to the plains in 1872, he 
was stricken down by camp fever and went to 
Europe on sick leave. On his return, in 1874, he 
served through the expedition against the Kiowas 
and Comanches under Gen. ]\liles. In the cam- 
paign agauist Sitting Bull he commanded the center 
at Cedar creek and in the subsequent pursuit. He 
was shot at by Gall while relieving an outpost. 
Upon receipt of the news of the Custer massacre he 
was ordered to the Yellowstone, and remained on 
the frontier and in the Bad Lands until he joined 
Gen. Miles in a series of campaigns against the con- 
federated Sioux and Cheyennes. In the hard- 
fought battle of Wolf mountain on January 8, 1877, 
when the thermometer registered 28 degrees below 
zero and the snow was two feet deep on the battle 
ground, Capt. Butler turned the tide of battle in 
favor of Gen. Miles's forces by leading a victorious 
charge agamst a force of Indians who were flanking 
the troops, and who occupied a strongly fortified po- 
sition on Steep bluff. He had two horses shot 
under him, but continued to lead the charge on foot, 
and after a desperate struggle routed the Indians 
and captured their position. For this gallant 
achieveme'.it he was recommended by Gen. Miles in 
his official leport for promotion to the brevet rank 
of major. And when at the close of the campaign 



he left the command, the General wrote to him : 
"In leaving the regiment be assured you have the 
thanks ami good will of its commanding officer for 
your hard service in the field and fortitude in 
action." No commendation he ever received, how- 
ever, touched him so deeply as a letter signed by 
every enlisted man in his company who was in the 
notable charge, thanking him for "the gallant man- 
ner in which he led the charge on the 8th of Janu- 
ary, in which they had the honor of participating, 
and for the kindness he had shown them in so many 
different ways." For this charge also he was 
awarded a medal of honor by congress. In 1885 he 
was promoted major and was assigned to various 
posts until his retirement from active service in 
1 89 1, when he was admitted to the bar of Montana. 
He was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel of the 
Seventeenth Infantry in 1891. He continued to 
practice law until December, 1894, when he made a 
trip to Europe, and while in Normandy was taken 
ill with appendicitis and died within twenty-four 
hours. His remains were brought back to the 
United States and buried at Omaha with military 
honors by the side of those of his wife, who had 
died some years before. His family consisted of six 
sons and Iwo daughters, the latter of whom died in 
infancy. His sons accompanied him in most of his 
changes of place, and were educated as opportunity 
was afforiled. 

EDMOND BUTLER, the oldest son of the 
Colonel, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 16, 
i860. After receiving an elementary education in 
the public schools, he entered the State University 
at Lawrence, Kan., and was there graduated in 
1883. The next fall he entered the law department 
of Yale, and after finishing the course in 1885, came 
to Miles City and began the practice of his profes- 
sion. In a short time he took up journalism in con- 
nection with his law practice, and purchasing the 
Stockgrowers' Journal, in company with H. G. Pot- 
ter, he continued in charge of its editorial depart- 
ment until January, 1898, when he sold his interest 
to Mr. Potter. In the spring of 1898 he removed to 
Gebo and there continued to practice law, buying a 
drug store as an additional source of activity and 
business. He was married in December, 1896, to 
Miss Effie M. Eversol, a native of Ohio. He was 
the first police magistrate of Miles City, and served 
in that capacity for eight j^ears. Fraternally he 's 
connected with the Knights of Pythias and the 
United Workmen. 

ALBERT BUTLER, fourth son of the family, 
is a physician in active and profitable practice at 
Red Lodge. He was graduated from Omaha Uni- 
versity and took a post-graduate course in the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons. At the beginning 
of the Spanish-American war he was appointed 
physician in the Marine Corps, and served at the 
hospital on Staten Island throughout the war. 

THOMAS BUTLER, another son, is engaged in 
keeping a hotel at Forsythe, Rosebud county. In the 
late war he was a sergeant in Troop I, Third Cav- 
alry, A'olunteers, and was stationed at Camp Chick- 
amauga. He is a popular gentleman in the com- 
nauiity where he lives, and is highly esteemed as a 

HORACE BUTLER is conducting a profitable 
livery business at Miles City, where he enjoys the 
confidence and esteem of the residents and of the 
traveling public. He is recognized as a leading 
tradesman in his line, fully up to date in his busi- 
ness and endowed with social qualities of a high 

CHARLES DANA BUTLER is in the advertis- 
ing business at Kansas City, Mo., and Harry Butler, 
after graduating from Georgetown College, D. C, 
studied law, but after a few years m the office cf 
the United States district attorney at Omaha, aban- 
doned the law for business pursuits, and located at 
St. Louis, Mo. 

rHARLES F. CAD Y.— This well known and 
'^ successful stockgrower of Park county identi- 
fied himself with Montana when it was still on the 
frontier of civilization, and can well recall, from 
personal association, the scenes and incidents 
which marked the pioneer period. He is thor- 
oughly loyal to the state, and one of its sterling cit- 
izens. Mr. Cady was born in Steuben county, 
N. Y., on the nth day of December, 1836, the son 
of Hollis and Orrilia (Grinolds) Cady, natives of 
Vermont and Connecticut, both families having 
been established in New England for many genera- 
tions, the paternal lineage being of English origin, 
and the maternal of Welsh. Hollis Cady removed 


with his parents to Steuben county, N. Y., where 
he devoted his attention to farming until his death 
and there reared his six sons and five daughters. 

Charles F. Cady was reared on the Steuben 
homestead, receiving the education given at the 
public schools. In 1854 he removed to Wisconsin 
and followed various pursuhs for nine years, after 
which, in 1863, he resided one year in Minnesota, 
after which he started for Montana, coming by 
Omaha and Council Bluiifs to Fort Bridger and 
overland to Virginia City. The train had a gov- 
ernment escort and was not molested by the 
Indians. Mr. Cady arrived in Virginia City in 
April, 1865, having passed the winter at Fort 
Bridger, whence he removed to White-tail Deer 
creek and there entered the employ of J. W. Pot- 
ter, at the stage station. In November he went to 
Confederate gulch, being engaged in teaming and 
other occupations during the winter, after which 
he passed about three months in New York gulch, 
and was again employed by Mr. Potter during the 
summer and thereafter returned to White-tail 
Deer creek, having charge of the stage station at 
Basin until the spring of 1868, when he proceeded 
to Fort Benton where he embarked on a Missouri 
river boat and voyaged to Sioux City, Iowa, from 
which point he proceeded to Minnesota, where he 
was engaged in farming for ten years. In 1878 
Mr. Cady removed to Bismarck, N. D., where he 
was engaged in freighting until the following year 
when he again came to Montana. 

In 1882 he took up his present ranch, first secur- 
ing a pre-emption claim and thereafter homestead 
and desert claims, making the acreage of his 
ranch about 500 acres. Prior to filing his original 
claim, he had been for some time engaged in 
railroad work. His ranch is situated 14 miles east 
of the city of Livingston, and he is extensively 
engaged in the raising of cattle, giving special 
attention to Herefords and wintering from one to 
three hundred head. In politics Mr. Cady gives his 
support to the Republican party and he has served 
for a number of years as school trustee. On 
December 23, 1861, Mr. Cady was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Orril Stiles, born in New York, one 
of the eleven .hildren of David and Clarina (Shaw) 
Stiles, natives of New York and Massachusetts. 
The Stiles family is of English and Scotch extrac- 
tion. Nine children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Cady: Burr, deceased; Ella, wife of James 
Milligan, a prosperous rancher near Livingston ; 
Charles, engaged in ranching in this vicinity ; Theo- 

dore, a resident of Livingston ; IMontia, who mar- 
ried Miss JNIarjorie Brophy ; Frank Leslie, Bert, 
Clara and Orril. 

MORRIS CAIN, a veteran soldier and the pio- 
neer of the thriving little town of Glendive, 
having built the first log house and the first black- 
smith shop erected within its present limits, Mr. 
Cain sees his hopes realized beyond his expectations, 
and the fruits of his enterprise growing and flour- 
ishing around him. Morris Cain is a native of 
Barkerville, Mass., where he was born April 30, 
1857. From Barkerville he removed with his par- 
ents to Worcester, in 1865, and remained at home, 
attending the public schools and assisting his father 
on the farm until 1875. In that year he enlisted in 
the Seventh United States Cavalry at Boston, and 
served on the western frontier for two years, being 
discharged at Sunday Creek July 4, 1877. He par- 
ticipated in the battle of Little Big Horn July 25 
and 26, 1876, in Maj. Reno's command, and was 
under heavy fire all the time. This was the mem- 
orable battle in which Custer and so many men were 
massacred. There were only about 250 men who 
survived in Mr. Cain's regiment. 

The next year he opened a blacksmith shop gt 
Bismarck, N. D., and soon after volunteered to 
carry the United States mails from that city to Fort 
Keogh, then a hazardous undertaking. In 1879 ^^ 
sold his business at Bismarck and worked at black- 
smithing in advance of the construction gang on 
the Northern Pacific Railroad until they reached 
Glendive, where he located in 1880. As has been 
noted, he built the first log house in the place, and in 
this conducted a grocery store for Quinn & Kelly, 
of St. Paul, for about a year. In February, 1881, 
he built the first blacksmith shop in Glendive, and 
also erected two buildings on Front street. For 
several years he was engaged in the blacksmith, liv- 
c-v and freighting business, and secured valuable 
property in the town, which was rapidly developing. 
1-Je continued blacksmithing until 1890, and then 
started a retail liquor business. 

In connection with his other enterprises Mr. 
Cain began raising horses in 1881, and has largely 
increased its magnitude, making a specialty of thor-. 
oughbreds. His location in this line is on the old 
Bennett ranch, on the Yellowstone, at the mouth of 
Clear creek, where he has 316 acres of land, ac- 
(luired bv deed, with five miles of ditch and a Clear 



creek water right with 1,000 inches of recorded 
water. He is farming all his land, and produces a 
great variety of crops, the soil being adapted to 
many products. In politics Mr. Cain is a stalwart 
Democrat, and as such was elected by the people the 
first deputy sheriff at Glendive when it was a part 
of Custer county. This was in 1880-81. His ser- 
vices were mvich appreciated by the citizens of the 
community, to whom they proved most valuable. 
He was married at Fort Keogh in 1881 to Miss 
May Roberts, a native of Maine, where she was 
born in April, 1864. They have five children, 
namely: William, aged eighteen; Leo, fifteen; 
Grover, twelve; Hartwell, ten, and Bryan, three. 
This thrifty business man, progressive farmer and 
useful, influential citizen has richly earned the good 
opinion and esteem of his fellow citizens, which he 
so abundantly enjoys. 

TAMES H. CALDERHEAD.— Holding high 
J official position as auditor of the common- 
wealth, it is particularly consistent that we have 
incorporated a sketch of the life of James H. Cald- 
erhead, one of the representative citizens of Helena 
and the state. He was born in Muskingum 
county, Ohio, near Zanesville, on August 28, 1848, 
the son of Ebenezer B. and Martha (Wallace) Cald- 
erhead, natives of Ohio and Pennsylvania. The 
paternal grandfather, Alexander Calderhead, was 
born in Scotland and was for many years a clergy- 
man of the United Presbyterian church. He emi- 
grated to the United States in 1801, locating in 
Jefferson county, Ohio, where his death occurred in 
1805. His three sons and one daughter are all 
deceased. Ebenezer B. Calderhead, his son, was 
likewise a minister of the United Presbyterian 
church, receiving his education in Franklin Col- 
lege at New Athens, Ohio, where he was graduated 
in the class of 1825, after which he completed his 
theological course at Allegheny, Pa. He was 
engaged in ministerial labors for many years 
in Ohio, ending his labors only with his death, 
which occurred at Marysville, Kan., in 1892. 
His devoted wife had preceded him to the better 
land, her death occurring in Bates county. Mo., 
in 1872. They had eight sons and three daughters, 
all except two of the sons are living. The eldest, 
William A., now represents the Fifth district of 
Kansas in congress. Another son, John, was in 

the Union army of the Civil war, being a member 
of the Ohio militia during his last year of service, 
and, sacrificing his life for his country, he died in 
a hospital at Annapolis, Md. 

James H. Calderhead attained maturity in Ohio, 
where he was educated in the public schools. He 
began his business career in the railway service as 
an agent and telegraph operator in Kansas, from 
which position he advanced step by step until he 
was traveling auditor for the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
road Co., proving a valuable official. He came to 
Montana in 1888, and was appointed chief clerk in 
the office of the auditor of the Montana Union 
Railroad. In 1894, on the occasion of the great 
strike of the American Railway Union, he was 
president of the Montana Union, and for his zeal- 
ous efforts in the cause he was tried for contempt 
of court and sentenced to confinement for thirty 
days in the county jail of Silver Bow county. His 
interest in the welfare of the laboring classes has 
been constant and animated, and his appreciation 
of the dignity of honest toil has made him a stal- 
wart advocate of the cause of the working man, 
in whatever field of endeavor. His appointment 
to the position of commissioner of agriculture, 
labor and industry for Montana, which was 
tendered by Governor Smith in 1896, was recog- 
nized as a merited tribute to his ability and met 
approval throughout the state. He gave an able 
administration of this office, leaving it to accept a 
still higher official place. In the general election 
m 1900 Mr. Calderhead's name appeared on the 
Fusion ticket as a candidate for auditor of state, 
and to this important office he was elected by a 
flattering majority, entering upon the discharge of 
its duties on January i, 1901. 

In politics Mr. Calderhead advocates the cause 
of the Populist party, in whose ranks he has been 
an indefatigable worker. While a resident of Kan- 
sas in 1886-7 lie served as a member of the lower 
house of legislature. His fraternal associations 
are with the Masonic order and the United Work- 
men, in each of which bodies he has held important 
official preferments. In 1875 ^^f- Calderhead was 
united in marriage to Miss Sarah Postlethwaite, 
who bore him one son, Ernest. Mrs. Calderhead 
died in 1883, and in 1884 he was married with Miss 
Margaret Ryan, a native of Canada. They have 
four children: Samuel. Mary D.. Nellie and Jay. 
The family home in Helena is a center of refined 
hospitality, and Mr. and Mrs. Calderhead are prom- 
inent in social circles. 



RT. REV. JOHN B. BRONDEL.— Ceaselessly 
to and fro flies the deft shuttle which weaves 
the web of human destiny, and into the vast mosaic 
fabric enter the individuality, the effort, the ac- 
complishment of each man, be his station one most 
lowly, or one of majesty, pomp and power. Within 
the textile folds may be traced the line of each, be 
it one that lends the beautiful sheen of honest 
worth and honest endeavor, or one that, dark and 
zigzag, finds its way through warp and woof, mar- 
ring the composite beauty by its blackened threads, 
ever in evidence of the shadowed and unprolific 
life. In the great aggregate each individuality is 
merged, yet the integrity of each is never lost, be 
the angle of its influence wide-spreading and grate- 
ful or narrow and baneful. He who essays 
biography finds much of profit and much of allur- 
ing fascination when he would follow out, in even 
a cursory way, the tracings of a life history. 
These efforts and their resulting transmission can 
not fail of value in an objective way, for in each 
case may the lesson of life be conned "line upon 
line, precept upon precept." 

The Right Rev. John B. Brondel, bishop of the 
diocese of Helena, has the distinction of having 
thus far been the only incumbent of this exalted 
office since the diocese was organized. The holy 
Roman Catholic church has ever been the avant 
courier of civilization, and its emissaries have dared 
all and endured all in forwarding the cause of the 
Divine Master upon earth, holding no obstacle as 
insuperable, no privation too severe, no temporal 
danger too great, to swerve them from their course 
in bringing the word of God unto all sorts and 
conditions of men. What has been accomplished 
throughout the great west within the epoch dating 
back to the early days when the dominion of the 
savage Indian was disputed only by the beasts of 
the field and mountain fastness, has passed more or 
less obscurely into the annals of history, but none 
will ever know the absolute self-abnegation, the 
arduous and unceasing toil and the deep humility 
of spirit which marked the efforts of the early 
missionaries of the church in the northwest, even 
as had been the case when civilization was striving 
to gain its foothold in the earlier settled sections of 
the Union. And still all this is but typical of one 
phase of the work of the church. The diocese of 
Helena has been signally favored since the date of 
the erection of the see in 1884, and it has been the 
fortune of Bishop Bondel to witness the progress 
of the church in the diocese from its inception. 

ever keeping pace with the onward march of the 
years as they have fallen into the abyss of time. 
Each year has shown an increase in population, 
churches and priests. He has guided the ship of 
church with a hand made steady by power from on 
high. With the power that made steady the hand 
on the tiller has come also the divine light to 
illume the way. The sea has been rough at times, 
turbulence has not been lacking, rocks and shoals 
have obtruded in the passage, but, aided by Him 
"who doeth all things well," the voyage has thus 
far been a prosperous one. 

John B. Brondel was born in the ancient and 
picturesque old city of Bruges, in the province of 
West Flanders, Belgium, — the quaint and thor- 
oughly Catholic city dating its foundation back 
to the ninth century. The date of his birth was 
February 23, 1842, and his parents were Charles 
Joseph and Isabella (Beequet) Brondel, who were 
natives of Belgium. The father was a chair 
manufacturer and both parents passed their lives 
in the city where they were bom, the father dying 
in 1868 and the mother in 1875. Of their children 
five sons and two daughters attained maturity, and 
all are now living, except the oldest son, who con- 
tinued his father's business and died in January, 
1901. The second son is a copper manufacturer 
who resides iri the city of his birth. The third son 
is a presiding director of female schools in 
Flanders, erected by the Sisters of St. Charles. 
The fourth son, now also a manufacturer of copper, 
originally purposed to enter the priesthood and had 
began his preparation therefor, but was forced to 
abandon his studies from failing health. The 
older sister is married and resides in Belgium, 
while the other sister is an attendant in an insane 
hospital near Brussels. 

Bishop Brondel received his initial educational 
discipline from the Xavierian Brothers, a community 
that had but recently been established in his native 
city. Later he devoted a full decade to the prose- 
cution of his Latin course in the College of St. 
Louis, in Bruges, and within this time he had fully 
determined his course in life, so far as personal 
volition and effort could direct. His decision was 
to enter the priesthood and to devote himself to 
the missions of North America. With this end in 
view he entered the American College at Louvain, 
Belgium, where he earnestly gave himself to the 
required study of philosophy and divinity. In the 
city of Mechlin, on December 17, 1864, he was 
raised to the priesthood by His Eminence Cardinal 



Stercks, and having been duly received by Right 
Rev. A. J\L Blanchet, of revered memory, for 
the diocese of Nesqually, Washington, he set forth 
for America and thence to the Pacific coast via 
the isthmus of Panama, reaching Vancouver on All 
Hallow's eve, 1866. After uniting here the duties 
of a professor with those of a missionary for some 
time, he was thereafter stationed for about ten 
years at Steilacoom, on Puget Sound. He was 
then for a time in Walla Walla, Wash., thence 
returned to his former post and within the time 
of his pastorate there erected churches at Olympia 
and Tacoma. While faithfully attending to his 
missionary duties on the Sound, he was elected 
bishop of Vancouver island, B. C, with residence 
at Victoria, receiving consecration at the hands of 
the Most Rev. Archbishop Seghers, on December 
14, 1879. On April 7, 1883, he was appointed 
administrator of Montana, this implying his tak- 
ing up his abode in that territory, while he still 
retained his title of bishop of Vancouver. The 
bishop reached his new field of labor early in the 
summer of the same year and inaugurated his 
apostolic work by first visiting the western sec- 
tion of the territory. 

He received the bulls of his appointment while 
at Butte, on July 2d, the Feast of the Visitation 
of our Blessed Lady, who "abit in Montana cum 
festinatione," these words having been quoted to 
Bishop Brondel by the archbishop of Oregon, Most 
Rev. Charles J. Seghers, who had urged him by 
letter to leave Vancouver island and hasten, in 
imitation of the Blessed Mother of God, to Mon- 
tana, the relevancy of the phrase being singularly 
marked. Allusion to the same words was later 
made by Cardinal Simeoni, prefect of the propa- 
ganda, at Rome, who, in referring to Bishop 
Brondel's appointment in Montana, remarked to 
Dr. Schulz, pro-rector of the American College; 
"Administrator Montanensis abit in Montana cum 
festinatione." The Bishop made his first visita- 
tion to the eastern part of his new field on August 
27, 1883, and shortly afterward chose Helena as his 
permanent residence, whereupon the Jesuit Fathers 
made over to him their church and premises, and 
whatever property was in their name on Catholic 
Hill. It has been consistently said that "while, 
by this timely and most commendable arrange- 
ment on their part, the Fathers facilitated and 
hastened the erection of the new bishopric, they 
were thus also instrumental in making Helena the 
episcopal see and giving the name as well to the 

new diocese." This honor was conferred on 
Helena by Leo XHI on March 7, 1884, the simul- 
taneous dates of the erection of the see and of the 
appointment of John B. Brondel as its first bishop, 
the church on the hill being adopted as the 
Cathedral of the Sacred Heart. 

The Bishop was received with distinguished 
honors by all classes, irrespective of religious af- 
filiation, and, with due appreciation of the favor 
bestowed on Montana, and the city of Helena in 
particular, a number of the Catholic citizens in gen- 
eral meeting assembled adopted unanimous resolu- 
tions and took steps toward a becoming manifesta- 
tion of their grateful feelings. Accordingly, on the 
occasion of the first diocesan synod, the Hon. T. H. 
Carter, in behalf of the Catholic community, pre- 
sented to Bishop Brondel the following address and 
testimonial : 

"Right Rev. J. B. Brondel, Bishop of Helena : 
Esteemed and Venerable Sir : As a committee se- 
lected by the Catholic congregation of Helena, we 
humbly assume the pleasant duty of bearing testi- 
mony to your Lordship of the great veneration and 
profound respect in which the members of the con- 
gregation hold your exalted spiritual position, and 
their sense of gratitude for the conspicuous favor 
shown them in the selection of Helena as your 
Lordship's episcopal see. In making this presenta- 
tion in behalf of the congregation, we desire to ex- 
press our thankfulness to God for the great blessing 
bestowed upon this territory in the creation of the 
diocese of Helena, and of our deep feelings of grati- 
tude to His Holiness, Pope Leo XIII, for his kind 
consideration and paternal solicitude for our spirit- 
ual welfare. We further and particularly desire, 
formally, to bid your Lordship welcome to Helena, 
and to express the cordial appreciation and affec- 
tionate regard the congregation entertains for your 
Lordship's distinguished attributes. We but voice 
the conviction of the entire people in saying that 
your pious example and dignified, prudent and wise 
course of action during your residence in Helena 
have elicited the profound respect of all the citizens 
of the community, to the signal benefit of the 
church, and that in the hearts of the members of 
this congregation your Lordship has secured abid- 
ing confidence, veneration and love. Actuated by 
a desire to give some substantial expression to this 
existing sentiment, we most respectfully tender your 
Lordship the enclosed certificate of deposit, and beg 
you to accept it as a donation from the cathedral 
congregation, accompanied, as it is, with their fer- 



vent prayers for your preservation and continuance 
in the enjoyment of good health." 

The diocese of Helena includes the entire state 
of Montana, and Bishop Brondel denies his minis- 
trations to no portion of his wide field, his visita- 
tions being made with regularity and his zeal being 
unflagging. The congregations in the more popu- 
lous localities gain the episcopal attention, and so 
also do those remote, including many Indian mis- 
sions within the confines of the state, in fact, the 
Bishop's interest in the welfare of his Indian charges 
is one of deepest order. In the latter part of 1900 
Bishop Brondel made a trip to the east, and was ab- 
sent several months, visiting a number of the princi- 
pal cities and delivering forceful and eloquent 
lectures in behalf of the Indian schools in the dio- 
cese, much good resulting from his philanthropic 
and timely efforts. 

Always a diligent and patient student, and appre- 
ciating knowledge both for its own sake as well as 
for the good use to which he invariably finds oc- 
casion to devote it. Bishop Brondel stands forth as 
a man of high intellectual attainments, his mind 
being stored with the ripe fruits of earnest enquiry 
and study. With a keen prescience of the springs 
of human action, a master in sacred science, a pro- 
found thinker, and a speaker and writer of elegance 
and force, he combines exaltation of soul with su- 
periority of intellect. He is distinctly individual, 
having marked force of character, in connection 
with dignity and distinguished personality. Re- 
ligion is with him a reality, not a mere sentiment. 
It implies obligation, and obligation fulfilled is duty 
done. He manifests a Christian patience in judg- 
ing his fellow men, showing a tolerance so remark- 
able and a gentleness of character so peculiarly his 
own that one has ever mistaken them for mere 
yielding or weakness. His executive ability is 
great, and through his interposition both the tem- 
poral and spiritual growth and prosperity of the 
diocese is assured. As a man and as a Christian 
bishop he is respected, admired and revered, and 
the loom of life will gain from his "ceaseless toil 
and endeavor" and his exalted character the mater- 
ial which will give perpetual value and beauty to 
the resulting fabric. 

BENJAMIN E. CALKINS.— This popular and 
progressive young business man of Butte and 
the present city treasurer, is a native of Troy, Pa., 

where he was born on Christmas day, 1862, the son 
of Newberry E. and Helen M. (Mitchell) Calkins, 
both of whom were Pennsylvanians. Mr. Calkins 
traces his lineage by family tradition to the pilgrims 
who came to America in the Mayflower. Newberry 
Calkins was a miller and continued his residence 
and trade in Pennsylvania until his death. At the 
outbreak of the Civil war he gave evidence of .his 
patriotic zeal by enlisting in the One Hundred and 
Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry. He was made 
captain of his company and served with dis- 
tinction until the expiration of his term. In 
his family were three children, Benjamin E. 
being the second in order of birth. Benjamin 
E. Calkins, after attending the public schools 
of Troy, went to Elmira, N. Y., where he was em- 
ployed for' two years as a clerk, after which he re- 
sided five years in Corning, N. Y., from which city 
he came to Butte, Mont., in 1884. Here he held a 
clerkship in a mercantile establishment for two 
years. In October, 1886, he opened a book and sta- 
tionery store, and with this line of enterprise he has 
ever since been identified. His establishment is one 
of the best equipped in the city, supplying the de- 
mands of a large and critical patronage. The busi- 
ness was soon expanded to include a wholesale de- 
partment. It largely outgrew the building origi- 
nally occupied and on February 10, 1901, Mr. Cal- 
kins removed his fine stock to his present commodi- 
ous and attractive location at No. 31-37 North Main 
street, where he has a stock that would do credit to 
a much larger city. 

In 1887 Mr. Calkins became identified with the 
National Guard of Montana as a member of Com- 
pany G, First Regiment. He was the adjutant at 
the outbreak of the Spanish-American war and 
joined his comrades in the service of the govern- 
ment. They went to Helena on April 28, 1898, and 
on May 6 were mustered into the service, Mr. Cal- 
kins as first lieutenant of his company. They ar- 
rived in Sari Francisco on May 28, and on July 17 
sailed for the Philippine Islands, arriving at Cavite 
on August 24. As the outlook did not promise 
active service, and as his business demanded his at- 
tention, Mr. Calkins remained in the Philippines 
only a few months, and on December 3 he left Ma- 
nila on his return voyage, and arrived in Butte on 
January 11, 1899. When active military operations 
commenced in the Philippines Mr. Calkins regretted 
that he had not remained with his regiment, but the 
inaction was irksome in 'the extreme and he took the 
course which seemed the most expedient. Mr. Cal- 



kins is prominently identified with the Masonic or- 
der and other fraternal organizations, in the first of 
which he has maintained a deep interest from the 
time of his initiation as an Entered Apprentice. He 
was raised to the degree of Master Mason in New 
York, and was dimitted to become a f rater of Butte 
Lodge No. 22, A. F. & A. M., of which he served 
as master in 1893. In the capitular body of the fra- 
ternity he is identified with Deer Lodge Chapter 
No. 3, R. A. M., of which he is now scribe, while he 
holds chivalric honors as a sir knight of Montana 
Commandery No. 3, K. T., of which he is a past 
commander. He has been made a noble of Algeria 
Temple of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Mystic 
Shrine in Helena. He also belongs to the Elks and 
to the Sons of America. 

Mr. Calkins has ever supported the Republican 
party, and has taken an active interest in local poli- 
tics. In 1887 he was elected one of the board of al- 
dermen of Butte to represent the Third ward; in 
1899 hs was elected city treasurer, and in the munic- 
ipal election of 1901 he was chosen as his own suc- 
cessor in this important office, securing a majority 
of 300 votes and receiving the distinction of being 
the only candidate elected on the Republican ticket. 
In the administration of the city's finances he has 
shown marked executive ability and thorough busi- 
ness methods, and his re-election was a mark of the 
public appreciation of his services. During his first 
term as treasurer the revenues of the city were in- 
creased by full $50,000, as, before this time, 
licenses had not been collected from banks and from 
various other sources prescribed by the ordinances 
of the city. The devotion to the city's interests 
shown by Treasurer Calkins has gained to him the 
indorsement of the citizens of Cutte without regard 
to political affiliations. On September 3, 1886, Mr. 
Calkins was united in marriage to Miss Mary Doty, 
who was born in New York, the daughter of Mar- 
tin V. Doty and wife, who are deceased. Treasurer 
Calkins and wife are prominent in the leading cir- 
cles of the best social life of the citv of their home. 

A17HITE CALFEE. — Many pleasant incidents 
VV are woven into the life record of this repre- 
sentative citizen and business man of Bozemaii, 
Gallatin county ; but to rehearse the story in detail 
would exceed the limits of this work. His expe- 
rience in the west extended over a long period of 
years. He comes of patrician stock, his great- 

grandfather and grandfather on the paternal side 
having accompanied Gen. LaFayette to America and 
served with distinction during the war of the Revo- 
lution. Both were killed by Indians after peace 
was made with England. 

Mr. Calfee was born in Greensburg, the county- 
seat of Green county, Ky., August 24, 1840, and 
when a child accompanied his parents on their re- 
moval to Arkansas, so that practically he has passed 
his entire life in the west. Henry Calfee, the father 
of our subject, was born at Bloomington, Ind., 
October 19, 1801, and when twenty-five years of 
age located in Greensburg, Ky., where he followed 
shoemaking and tinsmithing for a period of ten 
years. Later he removed to Washington county. 
Ark., following the same occupation until 1863, 
but during the Civil war he was shot and killed by 
bushwhackers. He was twice married, and our 
subject was the child of the second union, solem- 
nized at Greensburg, Ky., in 1836, when he wedded 
Miss Margaret E. Cannon. 

White Calfee, the immediate subject of this 
review, was educated in private schools at Fayette- 
ville. Ark., and in the Arkansas State College. In 
June, 1 861, at the age of twenty-one years, he 
enlisted in Company F, Second Regiment, Arkan- 
sas State Confederate troops ; commissioned 
ensign, serving until October of the same year, 
when he was mustered out and entered the regular 
service of the Confederacy. He was taken pris- 
oner at the battle of Prairie Grove, December 15, 
1862, and after two weeks' confinement at Fort 
Scott, Ark., he took the oath of allegiance to the 
Federal government. The story of his experience 
for several years thereafter reads like a romance. 
He was a saddler by trade, and upon release at 
Fort Scott he worked at his trade for the govern- 
ment for a period of two months. He then walked 
150 miles, to the home of his uncle, Henry Brock, 
of Eureka, Ivan., from which point he made his 
way to Fort Leavenworth, w'-'ere he was engaged 
in flatboating on the Missouri river for a few 
months, also shipping horses to Fort Scott for 
government use. He then accompanied a survey- 
ing party into Nebraska, returning to Fort Leav- 
enworth in the fall of the same year and was 
employed by the government as a teamster, carry- 
ing commissary stores to Denver, Colo., and New 
Mexico. In the spring of 1864 he went to Fort 
Sumner was arrested for treasonable utterances, 
decorated with ball and chain and sent to Fort 
L^nion. Two months later he was released and 



joined an expedition under Kit Carson, which 
made its way to the Canadian river, in New Mex- 
ico, and fought the Kiwa Indians in January, 1865. 
Returning to Fort Sumner in May he made a trip 
on horsebaclv to Denver, Colo., in company with 
Tom Johnson, who remained in Denver, while Mr. 
Calfee pushed on to Fort Halleck, where he joined 
a train, of emigrants bound for Oregon, Cali- 
fornia and Utah. On the long and weary trip 
across the plains the party had numerous encoun- 
ters with the Indians. Mr. Calfee left the train at 
Green river, Utah, and came to Bozeman, Mont., 
by way of Virginia City. He arrived in Bozeman 
July 13, 1865, where he was employed by the firm 
of Parham & Vaughn. About September i, with 
four others and a boy he was surrounded near the 
present site of Bozeman tunnel by a party of Sioux 
Indians, but rescued by some whites and Crow 
Indians. In the fight a comrade was in danger of 
being lassoed but rescued by the judicious use of 
his revolver. That year he located a squatter's 
claim of 160 acres three miles south of Bozeman, 
which he soon sold for $200. In 1867 he purchased 
a claim of equal area, paying $500 for it, on which 
he proved up and made his home until 1873, when 
he rented it to James L. Patterson and engaged 
in freighting. In 1878 he sold out to J. M. Rob- 
ertson and continued freighting until 1883. From 
1879 to 1883 he was also engaged in the agricul- 
tural implement and real estate business in Boze- 
man, which he continued throughout the Indian 
wars, having many serious encounters. In 1883 
Mr. Calfee contracted with the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company to furnish ties and other timber 
for construction purposes which required his atten- 
tion for a period of two years. In 1874 he pur- 
chased a ranch of 500 acres, on Middle creek, 
three miles south of Belgrade, which he operated 
until 1885, and farther expanded his operations by 
operating a sawmill at Pony, Madison county, and 
later at Cottonwood, Gallatin county, where he 
erected a mill with the best mechanical equipment. 
This he operated for fifteen years, selling his plant 
to W. J. Brown in June, 1900. Since then his time 
has been devoted to his various real estate and 
business interests. During 1875, when Mr. Calfee 
was engaged in freighting for the government, the 
Indians stole a number of his mules, valued at 
about $4,000. Claim for the amount was made, 
but was only allowed the sum of $615. 

In politics Mr. Calfee renders stanch allegiance 
to the Democratic party. Fraternally he is iden- 

tified with Gallatin Lodge No. 6, A. F. & A. M. ; 
Western Star Lodge No. 4, I. O. O. F. ; and Pyth- 
agoras Lodge No. 2, K. of P. 

Mr. Calfee was married in the year 1884, and has 
two sons. White H., born April 19, 1885, and 
AValter Bird, born May 22, 1887. Walter is at 
school in Bozeman, and White, Jr., is learning the 
printer's trade in the Chronicle office, Bozeman. 

In June, 1876, at the time of the Custer massacre, 
Mr. Calfee was with Gen. Terry's command that 
went to relieve Custer. Early on the morning 
of June 27, Mr. Calfee met Curley, the Indian 
scout that escaped from the Custer massacre, and 
was the first to hear the news from the Indian. 
June 28th, Mr. Calfee was one of the first to see 
Custer's body and was over the entire field while 
everything was just as the Indians had left it. Mr. 
Calfee counted 243 dead white men, and 16 dead 
Indians. He has an arrow taken from Capt. Cal- 
houn's body, and a beautiful gun scabbard which 
he secured from the battle field. 

v^ Holding an admitted precedence in the legal 
profession, and having a highly creditable military 
record, and one who has wielded wide influence as a 
man of affairs, the service of Col. James E. Calla- 
way to Montana has been of exalted character. It 
has identified him with this commonwealth in a 
leading way for more than a quarter of a century. 
ITe is the Nestor of the bar in Madison county. He 
was born July 7, 1834, in Trigg county, Ky. His 
father, Samuel T. Callaway, also a native of that 
state, was an active ph3'sician until his health broke 
down. He then became a clergyman of the Chris- 
tian church,' and in 1848 removed to Illinois, where 
he continued in the ministry until his death. He 
was early an old-line Whig, and later a Republican. 
He was a son of that Edmund Callaway who, as a 
boy, rendered distinguished service in the Conti- 
nental army and also took a conspicuous part in the 
war of 1812, and later commanded a troop of gal- 
lant Kentuckians at the battles of Tippecanoe and 
Raisin river. His name appears on the monument 
erected in honor of the pioneers of Kentucky, at 
Frankfort. An uncle. Col. Richard Callaway, was 
a partner of Daniel Boone, the renowned pioneer of 
Kentucky. His two daughters, Fannie and Betsey, 
were one day boating on the Kentucky river near 
Fort Boone with Boone's little daughter, Jemima, 



and all were captured by Indians. The capture was 
reported by little Margaret Hamilton (always called 
"Peggy"), who later was wife of William Means, 
and grandmother of Col. J. E. Callaway. Col. Rich- 
ard Callaway, with thirty men, pursued the Indians, 
whom they overtook four days later, and rescued 
the children. This Fannie Callaway was the first 
white girl married in Kentucky, her husband being 
a Henderson. Her sister Betsey married a son of 
Daniel Boone. Dr. Lamme, father of Edward 
Lamme, of Bozeman, was a grandson of Betsey. 
The Irwin brothers, of Deer Lodge, were also her 
grandsons. Daniel Boone and Col. Richard Calla- 
way were members of the first legislature of Ken- 
tucky. The maiden name of Col. James E. Calla- 
way's mother was Mary Hamilton Means, and her 
maternal grandfather was Col. James Hamilton, 
who commanded a Georgia regiment in the Revolu- 
tion, and was killed early in the war. He was born 
on the Island of Nevis in the West Indies, and came 
to Georgia about 1767. The Colonel's maternal 
grandmother, a daughter of Col. Hamilton, became 
a resident of Kentucky when she was four years old, 
and there she married William Means, a Virginian, 
who died in 1853, aged eighty-four years. He was 
the first sheriff of Christian county, Ky. His wife, 
"Peg^gy" Hamilton, lived to be very old. 

Col. James E. Callaway was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of Kentucky and Illinois, and Eureka 
(111.) College. At an early age he entered the law 
office of Richard Yates, war governor of Illinois, 
then living at Jacksonville, and under that eminent 
jurist he continued his reading until admitted to 
practice. After a short residence at Jacksonville he 
located at Tuscola, Douglas county. In April, 1861, 
the attack on Fort Sumter led him to tender his 
services in defense of the Union. A public meeting 
was held in Tuscola April 17, 1861, and within an 
hour a company was organized and Col. Callaway 
chosen captain, and two hours later Capt^ Callaway 
started to the state capital to tender its services to 
the government. At Springfield he found that his 
was the fifty-seventh company oft'ered to Gov. 
Yates after the six regiments of three-months 
troops were full and organized. The company was 
mustered into state service by U. S. Grant on May 
9, and into the United States service in June, 1861, 
as Company D, Twenty-first Illinois Volunteers. 
Their regiment was commanded by Col. U. S. 
Grant, it left Springfield July 4, 1861, was at- 
tached to the Army of the West, and never was in 
battle under Grant. Its first engagement was at 

Fredericktown, Mo., against Jeff Thompson. In 
September, 1862, Capt. Callaway was commissioned 
major. At Chickaniauga the colonel, J. W. Alex- 
ander, was killed, the lieutenant-colonel captured 
and the command devolved on Maj. Callaway. On 
the day before Col. Alexander's death the Eighty- 
first Indiana Regiment became badly demoralized. 
Gen. Jeff C. Davis, the division commander, rallied 
them after their second break, and sent Maj. Calla- 
way to take command of the Eighty-first Indiana 
in addition to his own regiment. This he did in 
this battle after Col. Alexander's death and in the 
siege of Chattanooga. The record of the Eighty- 
first Indiana was so excellent after he assumed com- 
mand that it received special mention from head- 
quarters, and the regiment later presented him with 
a beautifully mounted sword, which now graces his 
dining-room at his home at Virginia City. During 
the siege of Chattanooga Maj. Callaway, with these 
regiments and some cavalry and artillery, was sent 
nearly forty miles up the Sequatchie vallc}- on a for- 
aging expedition. He seized all the mills in the 
valley, ran them for a week, gathered and ground 
thousands of bushels of corn, loaded his 300 wagons 
with provisions, and returned without losing man or 
wagon, although closely pursued by Wheeler's cav- 
alry. After the battle of Stone river Gen. Rose- 
crans organized a light brigade in each division 
from officers and men distinguished for bravery and 
soldierly qualities. Their names were placed on a 
"roll of honor." Maj. Callaway's name was on the 
roll, and he was made commander of one of these 
brigades. Two months later the secretary of war 
ordered these brigades disorganized. After the bar- 
tie of Chickamauga the Eighty-first Indiana had 
so few men that it was not entitled to a colonel and 
had no field officer, and Gov. Morton offered Maj. 
Callaway its lieutenant-colonelcy, but he refused to 
leave his old command, and was made lieutenant- 
colonel of his own regiment in November, 1864. Of 
the 300 regiments of the Union army officially men- 
tioned as having rendered distinguished services, 
the Twenty-first Illinois "holds the rank" on the 
"Roll of Honor." It suffered heavier loss at Stone 
river than any other command in the Army of the 
Cumberland. After the surrender of all of the Con- 
federate armies the brave Callaway, with a colonel's 
commission, resigned "by reason of the close of the 
war," and was honorably discharged. The United 
States government, in recognition of arduous duties 
rendered and disabilities incurred in the line of 
duty, placed his name on its pension roll. 


Col. Callaway returned to Illinois, resumed his 
profession, served in the state legislature and won 
prestige at the bar, until March, 1871, when Presi- 
dent Grant appointed him secretary of Montana 
Territory. In this important office he served six 
years with credit to himself, benefit to the territory 
and the satisfaction of the people. He was a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention of 1884, and 
also of that of 1889, which formulated the state con- 
stitution. He was a member of the territorial legis- 
lature in 1885 and was the first Republican speaker 
of a Montana house of representatives. In 1878, 
during a vacancy, he was appointed by Judge Blake 
United States district attorney for the First judi- 
cial district and served as such in 1878-9. Col. Cal- 
laway located in Virginia City in 1871, and success- 
fully engaged in legal practice until 1898, when 
physical ailments so developed that his physicians 
ordered him "off duty." He is now (1901) resum- 
ing practice. He has always been a stalwart Re- 
publican and an active and able exponent of his 
principles. He belongs to lodge, chapter and com- 
mandery of the Masonic order and is past master i,i 
the lodge. He is a popular member of the G. A. R., 
a past department commander of the state organiza- 
tion. On January 16, 1866, Col. Callaway married 
with ]\Iiss Mary E. Link, a native of Illinois and 
daughter of an early pioneer. They have four chil- 
dren, Llewellyn, born December 15, 1868, a highly 
promising lawyer at Virginia City ; Ethel, born De- 
cember 26, 1872, died February 10, 1878; Edmund 
J., born December 31, 1880, now a student in the 
class of '02 at the law school in Lincoln, Neb. ; 
George R., born September 14, 1883, graduated 
from the Virginia City high school in June, 1901. 
Col. Callaway is very social, regards every man his 
equal who behaves himself, and although a radical 
Republican, never allows his political differences to 
interfere with his social relations, and it is his de- 
light that he has as many personal friends in the 
Democratic party as among his brother Republicans. 
The Colonel has many traits peculiar to his southern 
ancestry; quick to resent an insult and generous to 
friend and foe. In the constitutional convention of 
1889 he was known as its "Chesterfield," and in the 
convention of 1884 composed, among other distin- 
guished citizens, of such men as James H. Mills, 
Thomas C. Power, William H. Hunt and Andrew 
F. Burleigh, he was by unanimous vote in caucus 
elected the tactical and political leader of his party 
in that convention. As a parliamentarian Col. Cal- 
laway is recognized as peer of any in the land. But 

beyond and above all the qualities of genuine man- 
hood, he is a typical and thoroughbred American 

L> young lawyers of the state from whom the 
future seems to hold in store a career of profes- 
sional distinction and public renown, none is more 
promising than that of Llewellyn L. Callaway, of 
Madison county. From its very beginning his 
professional life has been one of steady growth. 
Mr. Callaway was born December 15, 1868, at Tus- 
cola, 111., the son of Col. James E. and Mary E. 
(Link) Callaway, of that city. Of the father ex- 
tended notice will be found on other pages of 
this volume. Llewellyn accompanied his parents 
from his native state in March, 1871, to jMontana, 
where he attended public and private schools until 
sixteen years old. At that age, in 1884, he entered 
Hamilton Preparatory School in Philadelphia, Pa., 
and was graduated from there in 1886, and the 
same fall matriculated as a freshman at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, but when vacation came went 
to work on his father's ranch until the fall of 1889 
for the purpose of earning money to further prose- 
cute his studies. In that fall he entered the law 
department of the University of Michigan and was 
graduated therefrom in 1891 with the first recom- 
mendation of the faculty. He was admitted to 
practice in the superior and supreme courts of 
Michigan in May of that year, and in the courts of 
IMontana in the following August. He located at 
White Sulphur Springs and formed a professional 
partnership with Max Waterman, but in 1894 
removed to his former home, Virginia City, and has 
since resided there and been actively engaged in the 
practice of law with a constantly expanding client- 
age and professional reputation. In September, 
1894, he was the nominee of his party for the office 
of county attorney, and was elected by a majority 
of 412 out of a vote of 1791, and was re-elected in 
1896 by a majority of 154 votes over the combined 
fusion forces. 

His official record is one of the strongest and 
best ever made in the commonwealth. It covered 
a busy time for the prosecutor. The criminal 
classes were active and defiant. He had a large 
number of important cases, and out of all there 
were only three failures to convict during his two 
terms. In 1900 he was elected mayor of Virginia 
City, and in February, 1901, was chosen to a second 



term, which he is now filHng with marked ability, 
fairness and general approval, exhibiting at the 
same time great zeal for the -interests of the 
municipality and consideration for the rights and 
feelings of individual citizens. ' Mr. Callaway is 
an unwavering Republican, and has given to the 
candidates and policies of his party some of the 
most efifective service in council and on the hust- 
ings they have had in his section of the state. He 
is state committeeman for Madison county, and 
chairman of the county central committee on his 
side. Fraternally he is identified with the Masonic 
order, the Elks and the Maccabees, in all of which 
he has held high offices, having been three times 
master of the Masonic lodge, exalted ruler of his 
Elks' lodge, and commander of his tent of Mac- 
cabees. He is now (1901) junior grand warden 
of the Grand Lodge of Masons of the state. His 
professional success, his political prominence and 
activity and his engaging social qualities have not, 
all combined, been sufficient to shut sentiment from 
Mr. Callaway's life or close his eyes to the tiowery 
yoke of Eros. He was united m marriage on 
December 12, 1894, with Ellen N. Badger, a native 
of Boone county. Mo., and daughter of Baker W. 
and Fannie L. (Woodson) Badger, the former a 
native of New Jersey and the latter of Missouri. 
Mr. and Mrs. Callaway have two children, Miriam, 
born July 6, 1896, and James L., born March 6, 

ALBERT J. CAMPBELL.— This distinguished 
gentleman possesses high intellectuality, and is 
an able lawyer, maintaining offices in Butte, and he 
has had the distinction of representing the com- 
monwealth of Montana in the congress of the 
United States, where he honored ^he state by his 
capable services. He was born in Pontiac, the 
county-seat of Oakland county, Mich., on Decem- 
ber 12, 1857, the second of the four children of Milo 
R. and Ruth A. (Perkins) Campbell. Both of his 
parents were born in Massachusetts, the respective 
families being established on New England soil 
in the colonial epoch, and representatives of each 
•i^ ere active participants in the American Revolu- 
tion. Milo R. Campbell has been a lifelong agri- 
calturist and also conducts a boot and shoe busi- 
ness in Pontiac, his home, whose wife died when 
Albert was a child. 

Albert J. Campbell, after completing a course in 
the high school, in 1875 matriculated in the Michi- 

gan State Agricultural College, at Lansing, which 
stands at the head of all similar institutions in the 
Union, and there took a special course of study. 
Thereafter he taught school for three winters, 
devoting the summer months to farm work, and in 
1879 began the technical preparation which ulti- 
mately fitted him for the vocation in which he has 
since shown such ability. He entered the law office 
of Colvin & Harrington, a prominent law firm of 
Pontiac, and under efifective direction continued his 
reading until he was admitted to practice in May, 
1 88 1. He was engaged in his profession in Mich- 
igan until 1889 when he came to Montana, located 
in Livingston, and there devoted himself to the 
practice of law until 1897, establishing a reputation 
as a careful and capable attorney and becoming 
prominent by his successful work in criminal cases. 
Desiring a broader field, Mr. Campbell came to 
Butte in 1897, and here he has a leading position 
in the legal brotherhood of the state. He has 
given particular attention to the corporation law 
for the last few years, receiving the clientage of 
many important companies whose interests he 
has signally promoted. 

In politics Mr. Campbell has given unequivocal 
allegiance to the Democratic party, and been an 
active worker in the ranks and in its councils. In 
Michigan he served in various official positions, 
was township clerk of West Bloomfield township, 
Oakland county, in 1879, county attorney of Lake 
county, and city attorney of Chase, in the same 
county. At Livingston, Mont., he served as city 
attorney, and in 1896 he was elected to represent 
Park county in the lower house of the state legis- 
lature. He was an active and working member, 
was chairman of the insurance committee and 
served on other important committees. In 1898 
Mr. Campbell was nominated and elected by the 
Democratic party to the distinguished office of rep- 
resentative in congress, receiving a satisfactory 
majority. During his service of two years in con- 
gress he served on the committee on mines and 
mining and also on that on emigration, and, as 
both of these were particularly pertinent to the wel- 
fare of Montana, he was enabled to wield his influ- 
ence to advance her interests. 

During the administration of Gov. Smith, Mr. 
Campbell was a member of his stafl?. Fraternally 
he is a member of the lodge, chapter and com- 
mandery in the order of Freemasonry, and a Noble 
of the Mystic Shrine. He is also a member of 
'the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, and is 


an ex-ruler of the Butte lodge. Mr. Campbell is 
interested in various Montana mining properties, 
is the owner of valuable realty in Butte and one of 
the stockholders in the First State Bank. At 
Hadley, Mich., on April 21, 1879, Mr. Campbell 
was united in marriage with Miss Ella G. Mann, 
born in Hadley, the daughter of Ernest Mann, 
a native of New Jersey, who removed to Michi- 
gan in an early day, locating in Hadley, where he 
engaged in farming and where he died in the fall 
of 1900. Mr. and Mrs. Campbell are parents of 
two children, Roy and Grace. 

T17ILLIAM Y. PEMBERTON— In no profes- 
VV sion is there a career more open to talent 
than in that of the law, and in no field of endeavor 
is there demanded a more careful preparation, a 
more thorough appreciation of the absolute ethics 
of life and of the underlying principles which form 
the basis of all human rights and privileges. Un- 
flagging application, intuitive wisdom and a deter- 
mination to fully utilize the means at hand, are the 
concomitants which insure personal success and 
prestige in this great profession, which stands as 
the stern conservator, and it is one in which suc- 
cess comes only as the result of natural capacity, 
unmistakable ability and inflexible integrity. 
Among those who have lent dignity and honor to 
the bench and bar of Montana is Judge William 
Young Pemberton, of Butte, who has the distinc- 
tion of having served with signal ability as chief 
justice of the supreme court of the state, and is 
recognized as one of the ablest jurists and legists 
of the northwest. 

William Y. Pemberton is a native of Nashville, 
Tenn., where he was born on June i, 1843, the son 
of William and Martha (Brooks) Pemberton, who 
were the parents of four sons, of whom Judge Pem- 
berton was the youngest and is the only survivor. 
The genealogy of the family is traced back to 
stanch English and Scotch extraction, the original 
American ancestors in the agnatic line having been 
among the early settlers in the Old Dominion, 
where the family was one of prominence and in- 
fluence. Judge Pemberton was reared in Missouri, 
where he was under the tutelage of his aunt, Mrs. 
Rebecca E. Williamson, with whom he remained 
until he had attained his legal majority. In the 
public schools he secured his rudimentary training, 
and matriculated at the Masonic College, in Lex- 

ington, Mo., where he continued his literary stud- 
ies, in the meanwhile formulating plans for prepar- 
ing himself for the legal profession. With this end 
in view he entered the Cumberland Law School, at 
Lebanon, Tenn., where he devoted himself assidu- 
ously to technical study, and was graduated with 
the class of 1861. 

In 1863 Judge Pemberton came to Montana, and 
became one of its pioneer lawyers. He located in 
Virginia City and there established himself in prac- 
tice. The early laws of the territory were vague 
and indefinite, and they were indifferently adminis- 
tered. Thus the interposition of a skilled and dis- 
criminating attorney was hailed with delight by 
those in favor of law and order. Judge Pemberton 
thus at once became a man of prominence and in- 
fluence, and his services were in demand in all 
parts of the territory where settlements had been 
made or mining camps established. In 1865 he re- 
moved to Helena, then a mere mining camp, strag- 
gling up Last Chance gulch. He was one of the 
earliest settlers in what is now the beautiful capital 
city of the state, though he did not long continue 
his residence there, for in 1868 he returned to Mis- 
souri, and then in Texas was engaged in profes- 
sional practice until 1880, when Montana again 
attracted him to her mountain precincts, and he 
located in Butte, which has since been his home. 
In 1 882 he was elected district attorney of the West 
Side district, which included the greater portion of 
the territory west of the mountains, and was re- 
elected to succeed himself in 1884. In March, 1891, 
he was appointed district judge of the district in- 
cluding Butte, and served upon its bench until 
January I, 1893, when he entered upon the duties of 
the highest judicial office in the state, becoming 
chief justice of the supreme court, an office to 
which he had been elected in the preceding Novem- 
ber. No man ever thus identified with Montana's 
highest tribunal came to the office with more emi- 
nent qualifications for it than did Judge Pemberton. 

Possessing a strong and distinct individuality and 
scholarly attainments, thoroughly read in the sci- 
ence of the law. familiar with minutiae and pre- 
cedents, and having an intuitively judicial mind, 
he brought to the supreme bench the attributes es- 
sential to the insuring of equity and justice in that 
tribunal, the final resort in the political economies 
of the commonwealth. His rulings on the supreme 
bench were signally able, fair and impartial, show- 
ing a keen discrimination in detecting the true 
points at issue and eliminating all that was irrele- 


/t* i^ , y^K^^^^^Ce— ^^^W'-^e^-^ 



vant, while his opinions were concise and clearly 
defined, couched in exact and effective language 
and showing the broad mental grasp and thorough 
legal knowledge of the chief justice. His term on 
the supreme bench expired in 1899, and the state 
will ever owe him a tribute of maximum respect 
and honor him as a wise judge and an upright man. 
After his retirement from the bench Judge Pem- 
berton resumed legal practice in Butte. His high 
prestige and well known ability necessarily insured 
him a leading clientage, his services being in de- 
mand by many important corporations, while he has 
continued to appear in connection with much of the 
prominent litigation in the various courts of the 
state. In his political allegiance Judge Pember- 
ton has ever given an unswerving support to the 
principles and policies of the Democratic party, and 
he has wielded marked influence in shaping the 
political affairs of the state. The party cause has 
been advanced through his efforts in an executive 
way and through private and public advocacy, his 
powers in dialectics being of exceptional order and 
often used in political campaigns. Fraternally the 
Judge is identified with the Masonic order, in which 
he has taken the capitular degrees. He has been 
prominently concerned in the development of the 
mining industries of the state, and has valuable 
holdings in this line. 

HENRY CANNON is one of the substantial 
and enterprising business men and financiers 
of the capital city, and enjoys the distinction of 
being a pioneer of the state and conspicuous as an 
active promoter of industrial activities that would 
develop her resources. A native of the Buckeye 
state, he was born in the beautiful city of Cleve- 
land, on January 17, 1835, ^ son of George and 
Margaret (White) Cannon, natives of Connecticut, 
who moved to Ohio and thence to Iowa as early as 
1836, both passing the remainder of their lives in 
the latter state, the death of each occurring in the 
city of Dubuque, in the year 1862. Two of their 
sons, Henry and Charles W., are now residents of 

Henry Cannon was reared and educated in Iowa, 
where he remained tmtil the death of his parents. 
In 1862 he set out for Pike's Peak, Colo., then at- 
tracting much attention. He engaged in merchan- 
dising at Central City, continuing the enterprise one 
year, and remaining in Colorado until 1863, when 

he returned to Dubuque, Iowa, in 1864, and started 
on Liie long and perilous trip to Montana. The 
journey was made by way of the North Platte and 
L,ander's cut-ofi', starting in May, being over four 
months en loute. At Deer creek they were attacked 
bv Indians, who took possession of the teams be- 
longing to the party. No effort to defend the train 
was made, and Mr. Cannon states that the mem- 
bers of the company put in good time that day 
fleeing from the savages, continuing their journey 
on foot until nightfall before stopping to rest and 
reconnoitering. The jaded travelers eventually 
arrived in Virginia City, this state, Sept. 11, 1864, 
and there our subject opened a general store, the 
place at the time being the scene of extensive min- 
ing operations. There he remained until 1865, 
and in the spring went to Helena, with whose inter- 
ests and growth he has since been prominently 
identified. His first venture was to open a retail 
mercantile estabHshment, and later, under the firm 
name of Cannon Bros., a wholesale business was 
established, the firm successfully continuing opera- 
tions in this line until 1879, when he disposed of 
his interest to his brother. Thereafter he was 
identified in real estate and live stock business 
until 1893, when he organized the Cannon Sheep & 
Cattle Company, of which he is president and gen- 
eral manager, the enterprise being one of the most 
extensive of the sort in the state. The company 
have 14,000 acres under fence, the same being lo- 
cated in Cascade county, where they have large 
bands of sheep and cattle, the business being one of 
wide scope and importance. Mr. Cannon is also 
interested in mining, and the success which has at- 
tended his efforts is the result of that abihty, dis- 
crimination and close application he gives to any 
undertaking worthy of pursuit. 

The career of Mr. Cannon is specially interesting 
and well worthy of emulation by the young men 
who seek the western frontier to win a name and a 
competence. Starting in the world with naught 
but the sturdy will and strong arms of young man- 
hood, he early saw the necessity of close applica- 
tion and determination with strict integrity of pur- 
pose to insure success in any enterprise. And this 
line has been inflexibly followed to a grand result. 
He belongs strictly to that class of early pioneers 
who had to endure the hardships and toils incident 
thereto as well as guard against the treacherous 
Indians and the outlaws who sought to wrest from 
the honest toiler his hard-earned accumulations. 
The days of the Vigilance Committee and the ne- 



cessary though distasteful duties they took upon 
themselves are still remembered. And while he 
believes in the full recognition of the law and its 
application to the wrongdoer, he, like the remain- 
ing few of those fitful days who knew the necessi- 
ties of the times and of the hour, feels no regret 
over any act of the Vigilantes. Now that all can 
calmly be reviewed, the consciousness of a duty 
well performed will be a worthy epitaph to those 
who made life worth living, and gave the initial 
impetus to our present glorious commonwealth. 

Mr. Cannon has never taken active part in poli- 
tics nor sought the honors and emoluments of 
public ofifice, but he gives evidence of his apprecia- 
tion of the duties of citizenship by zealous support 
to the Republican party. Fraternally he is num- 
bered among the veteran members of the Masonic 
order, having been identified therewith since 1865. 

On the 23d of July, 1885, Mr. Cannon was united 
in marriage to Miss Emma Stevenson, a native of 
Bridgeport, Conn. They have no children. The 
attractive home of Mr. and Mrs. Cannon is one of 
genuine and unpretentious hospitality, and is the 
scene of many pleasant social gatherings for their 
numerous friends. They are members of the 
Episcopal church. 

EVANS A. CARLETON is the ex-state super- 
intendent of public instruction of Montana, a 
prominent member of the Montana bar and a resi ■ 
dent of Helena. He was born in Franklin county. 
Maine, in 1858, the son of Thomas and Hannah 
(Parker) Carleton, both natives of the Pine Tree 
state. Thomas Carleton was a carpenter and 
farmer, and both parents passed their lives in 
Maine, .the mother dying in 1886 and the father in 
1887. Of their twelve children, five are now 
living, two in Massachusetts, two in Maine, and 
Evans A. in Montana. His Scotch-Irish grand- 
parents came to this country in Colonial days, 
and when the struggle for American independ- 
ence finally came and the New England colonists 
were called upon to declare either for King or 
independence, they were found heroically fighting 
for the latter. 

In picturesque New England and with robust, 
energetic New England people Evans A. Carleton 
passed his boyhood days. His early education was 
received in the public schools of Maine, and this was 
supplemented by a course at the Maine Wesleyan 

Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1881, in 
two courses and with high honors. Like so many of 
those who are obligea to work their way through 
college, Mr. Carleton was an industrious scholar 
and improved every opportunity for advancement 
in his studies. He taught during the vacations, 
and in other ways materially contributed to his sup- 
port while acquiring his education. After gradu- 
ating from the seminary he taught in the public 
schools of Maine until 1883, when he came to St. 
Paul, Minn., and subsequently passed some time 
in the then territory of Dakota, seeking for a fa- 
vorable location. Mr. Carleton came to Helena, 
Mont., in October, 1883. Here he found the pro- 
fession of teaching more lucrative than in the ex- 
treme east or middle west, and in the winter of 
1883-4 he was elected principal of one of the Hel- 
ena schools, and the following year he was made 
principal of the high school, in which position he 
served for some time. In 1889, the year of the ad- 
mission of Montana into the Union, Mr. Carleton 
was made the superintendent of city schools for 
Helena. Following this he returned to his old 
home in far-away Maine, and read law with his 
Ijrother, L. T. Carleton, and from his office in 1891 
he was admitted to practice. The succeeding 
spring he returned to Helena and, on motion, was 
admitted to the bar of ^lontana. His first office 
was with Mr. A. K. Barber, and then, for awhile, 
he was alone. For two years he was asociated 
in legal practice with Mr. A. P. Heywood. 

In 1897 Mr. Carleton was elected superintendent 
of public instruction for the state of Montana on 
the Fusion ticket. In 1882 Mr. Carleton was mar- 
ried to Miss Emma E. Gage, of Dover, N. H. On 
her mother's side Mrs. Carleton descended from 
the John Adams and John Quincy Adams family. 
They have two children, Frank E. and Marguerite. 
Politically Mr. Carleton has always affiliated with 
the Republican party and stands high in its coun- 
cils, and is an influential worker and a forcible and 
eloquent campaigner "on the stump." In the 
long-to-be-remembered fight which resulted in the 
location of the state capital at Helena he did yeo- 
man service and was an important factor. Fra- 
ternally he is a member of the Woodmen of the 
World, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and a 
Freemason. Mr. Carleton held one of the most re- 
sponsible official positions in the state. This is a 
fact which every parent of children of school age 
will readily recognize. To him was entrusted for 
four years the shaping of the destinies of all of 



Montana's public educational institutions, and upon 
a judicious administration of this high office de- 
pends the educational welfare of the child. As a 
lawyer he is in the enjoyment of a lucrative prac- 
tice and stands high in the profession. 

LEMUEL O. CASWELL.— The life history of 
this representative member of the Montana 
bar stands prominent among the business men and 
honored citizens of Carbon county, maintaining 
his home in the attractive little city of Red Lodge. 
Mr. Caswell has attained definite and worthy suc- 
cess, the result of his own unaided efforts. He is 
a native of the state of New Hampshire, having been 
born in Barnstead, Belknap county, on March 16, 
1859, the son of Oliver Caswell, who served in 
the United States navy a full quarter of a century, 
a portion of the time being identified with 
government surveying expeditions, and' also 
saw service during the war of the Rebellion. 
He was also employed for a time in the 
martine hospital at Charleston navy yard, 
near Boston, Mass. The mother of our subject 
died when he was but four years of age, and by 
reason of the fact that his father's duties rendered 
it impossible for him to maintain a fixed habitation, 
Lemuel O. was bound out in his childhood to a 
man named Henry Blinn, of Canterbury, N. H., in 
which place he had the educational advantages 
afiforded by the public schools. He received most 
kindly treatment at the hands of Mr. Blinn, who 
was a man of distinctive public spirit, maintaining a 
particularly deep interest in educational affairs. 
Mr. Caswell left his foster home at the age of nine- 
teen years, after which he passed one year at Bris- 
tol, N. H., and then removed to the west, locating 
at Hastings, Minn., where he maintained his home 
for about four years, several months being spent 
in Florida. He was identified with agricultural 
pursuits while in Minnesota, where he remained 
until 1883, the year of his advent in Montana. Mr. 
Caswell made Miles City his headquarters and was 
in the employ of Richards & Huntington and the 
H-half-H outfit until 1890. He then entered the 
employ of Hamilton & Daly, in the Bitter Root 
valley, and later put in a season in the Yellow- 
stone National Park. In November, 1890, he en- 
tered the Helena Business College, where he com- 
pleted a six months' course in the commercial de- 
partment, and a course in stenography. After 

leaving this school Mr. Caswell took a position in 
the law office of Judge James M. Clements, at 
Helena, with whom he read law for one year, re- 
moving then to Bozeman to accept a position with 
the law firm of Luce & Luce. A few months later 
he became a student and assistant in the office of 
Cockerill & Pierce, in the same city, and continued 
his studies until March, 1893, when he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. On the advice of Judge Hol- 
loway, of Bozeman, he went to the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor, where he completed a 
two years' course in the law department, graduat- 
ing with the class of 1895. Returning to Montana 
he located in Red Lodge, where he has been en- 
gaged in the active practice of his profession, re- 
taining a representative clientage and holding high 
prestige as a member of the bar of Carbon county. 
Mr. Caswell has also assumed a prominent position 
in connection with real estate enterprises and in- 
surance. Pie controls extensive realty interests, 
is agent for the Rocky Fork Town and Electric 
Company, the local representative for many non- 
resident capitalists and real estate holders, and 
about twenty of the leading fire insurance com- 
panies of the world, practically controUing the in- 
surance business in the county. In the fall of 1901 
he erected a two-story business block, constructed 
of stone and brick and of modern design and equip- 
ments, the same being centrally located and figur- 
ing as one of the most attractive business buildings 
in the city. The ground floor of this building 
is occupied as an office in connection with 
the Red Lodge State Bank, of which Mr. 
Caswell is the cashier. The building affords 
the best of facilities for his professional use 
and the conduct of his extensive real estate 
and insurance operations, as well as ideal 
quarters for banking business. In addition to this 
property Mr. Caswell owns a fine modern resi- 
dence, attractively located. In connection with 
his professional work Mr. Caswell served four 
years as justice of the peace and police magistrate, 
and in 1900 he was elected county attorney and is 
the present incumbent, discharging the duties with 
signal discrimination and ability. He is thor- 
oughly well read in his profession, being a strong 
advocate and a safe and conservative counsellor, 
while 'he has so directed his life in all its relations 
as to retain the confidence and maximum re- 
spect of those with whom he has been thrown in 
contact. He is a member of the State Bar Associ- 
ation, and is ever observant of the ethics which ob- 



tain in the profession. Fraternally he is identified 
with the Knights of Pythias, the Woodmen of the 
\\'orld and the Benevolent Protective Order of 
Elks. The political allegiance of Mr. Caswell is 
accorded to the Republican party, and takes a deep 
and active interest in matters of a public nature. 
On the 29th of June, 1895, ^^^- Caswell was 
united in marriage to Miss Ida Lindermann, the 
daughter of Christopher and Henrietta Linder- 
mann, of Ann Arbor, Mich., where she was born 
and received her education. Mr. and Mrs. Cas- 
well are the parents of two daughters — Marguer- 
ite and Eva. 

TAMES S. CLARK, one of the leading hay and 
J cattle dealers of Montana, is a resident of East 
Helena. He was born in Buchanan county, Iowa, 
on December 27, 1857. He is the eldest of two 
sons and four daughters born to Henry H. and 
Emily (Rose) Clark. They were natives of Mas- 
sachusetts and of English parentage. Henry H. 
Clark was born in Granville, Mass., and here he 
was married. In 1856 he moved west to Iowa, 
where for eight years he was a farmer. He then, 
in 1864, in company with Cornelius Hedges and 
Timothy Wilcox, came to Montana by the overland 
route and located at Alder gulch. He engaged 
in mining and in 1865-6 he came to Last Chance 
gulch, now Helena, where he mined for one year 
and then patented 160 acres of land in Prickly Pear 
valley. Subsequently he purchased eighty acres 
on which he made the first improvements. In 
1867 Mr. Clark's wife and children came to Mon- 
tana in company with the families of Messrs. Wilcox 
and Hedges, Clark meeting them at Sun river. The 
family resided on the farm until 1884, when Mr. 
Clark purchased an additional 160 acres of land, 
which became a part of East Hekna, and here he 
resided until his death on February 18, 1897, at the 
age of seventy-two years. Mrs. Clark is still a resi- 
dent of East Helena, surrounded by children and 
friends. Of the children there are James S. Clark 
and Mrs. F. H. Donaldson. Another daughter, Mrs. 
J. W. Dudley, lives at Fargo, N. D. 

James S. Clark grew to manhood in Lewis and 
Clarke county and received his education in the 
public schools, remaining under the parental roof 
until he was thirty-one years of age. He then pur- 
chased of his father the ranch upon which he had 
spent his boyhood days, and later for several years 
rented his father's farm at East Helena. He lo- 

cated a desert claim of 420 acres on May 21, 1891, 
and here he has since resided, making many valu- 
able improvements and conducting a successful 
ranching business. He is now in most favorable 
circumstances, the result of his industry, business 
judgment and force of character. Mr. Clark still 
owns his first purchase of 160 acres, now devoted 
10 the cultivation of hay, which he has found a 
most valuable crop. On this ranch he raises al- 
falfa and clover. He is now engaged largely in 
dairying, making a specialty of butter. 

Mr. Clark afiiliates with the Republican party, 
and cast his first vote for James A. Garfield. He 
has since voted with that party, save in local elec- 
tions when he votes for the man regardless of poli- 
tics. In 1898 he was elected school director of 
East Helena. Fraternally Mr. Clark is a mem- 
ber of the United Workmen and the Woodmen of 
the World. During his long residence in Mon- 
tana Mr. Clark has found both profit and prosperity. 
In a business and social way he has made many 
warm friends by whom he is held in the highest es- 
teem. In the municipal afifairs of his home city 
of East Helena he takes great interest and is recog- 
nized as a broad-minded and progressive citizen. 

On August 5, 1 891, he was united in marriage to 
Miss Henriette Wallace, of Prickly Pear valley. 
She was born at Ottumwa, Iowa, March 20, 1868, 
a daughter of Henry and Anna (Tanner) Wallace. 
1 hey located in Prickly Pear valley in 1885. They 
have three children, Ethel Irene, William H. and 
Mable Lidia Rose. 

■\A"ILLIAM E. CARROLL, of Butte, came 
VV honestly by the gift of eloquence which has 
distinguished him as an advocate at the bar and 
elsewhere, having inherited it from his father. Rev. 
Alanson Carroll, a noted Presbyterian preacher 
and evangelist, who was born in Ohio and is now 
living in Missouri. His mother was Mary (Murch) 
Carroll, a native of Vermont. They were married 
in 1851 and had five children, of whom William 
was the fourth. He was born at Independence, AIo., 
December 24, 1868, and was educated in the public 
and high schools of Kansas City. Fie pursued a 
special course of instruction in the law department 
of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and 
was graduated therefrom in 1890. He was ad- 
mitted to practice in the courts of Michigan the 
same year, and in 1891 located at Butte, Mont., 
entering at once on the diHgent practice of his pro- 



fession. While his practice is general and varied, 
he has yet made a specialty of corporation and pro- 
bate law, and has devoted the most of his time and 
energies to these two branches, in which he has 
achieved a gratifying success. 

Mr. Carroll is a Republican, giving time and at- 
tention to the demands of his party, but asking 
nothing for himself in return. He is an earnest 
and enthusiastic devotee at the altar of Freema- 
sonry, finding in its mystic symbolism food for in- 
tellectual entertainment and inspiration. He was 
initiated in Mount Moriah Lodge No. 24, at Butte 
in 1895, and has served the lodge as senior warden 
and as worshipful master for two successive terms. 
In the larger field of the craft he is a trustee of the 
Temple Association, having been elected to that 
position recently for the third term. In his pro- 
fession Mr. Carroll has been successful both in the 
standing among his brethren which he has won and 
in the substantial returns which have followed his 
efforts. He combines with the astuteness and ag- 
gressiveness of the lawyer, the courtesy and affa- 
bility of the gentleman, and has the breadth of view 
and scholarly attainment of the cultivated man of 
the world. Mr. Carroll was married in 1894 to 
Miss Annie Martin, a native of St. Clair, Pa. Her 
father is a veteran of the Civil war and is now liv- 
ing in Butte, where he is in the employ of the Par- 
rot Mining Co. Mr. and Mrs. Carroll have two 
children, a daughter, born December 9, 1896, and a 
son, born August 8, 1901. 

JOHN B. CLAYBERG.— All human achieve- 
ments, all human weal or woe, all things within 
the mental ken, are but mirrored back from the 
composite individuality of those who have lived. 
In entering a record of the career of one who has 
played well his part in life and who has left the im- 
press of his character upon the economic fabric of 
state or nation, does a work of this nature exercise 
its supreme function,, and as such a privilege is af- 
forded us in reviewing the life of John Bertrand 
Clayberg, one of the most distinguished represen- 
tatives of the bar of Montana. Mr. Clayberg was 
born near Cuba, Fulton county. 111., on October 8, 
1853, the son of George and EHzabeth (Baughman) 
Clayberg, the former of whom is of Saxon lineage, 
the latter of German. His paternal grandfather 
came from Saxony to the United States about 
1790, settling first in Pennsylvania and then in 
Ohio when his son George was about sixteen years 

of age. The latter removed from Ohio to Illinois 
in 1834, and there passed the residue of his useful 
and honorable life, his death occurring in 1889. 
His widow, now ninety years of age, is a resident 
of Cuba, 111. Of her children, four sons and one 
daughter, John B. Clayberg is the only one resid- 
ing in Montana. 

John B. Clayberg passed his boyhood upon the 
parental homestead farm, and he was afforded ex- 
cellent educational advantages. Prior to attain- 
ing his legal majority he had acquired a good aca- 
demic education, and made marked advancement 
in the study of Latin and mathematics. Of alert 
and vigorous mentaHty, he early manifested a dis- 
tinct predilection for the law. Accordingly he 
completed a full course in the law department of 
the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, graduating 
with the class of 1875. He also took an elective 
course in the literary department in such branches 
as would broaden his fund of accurate information. 
During the last year of his student Hfe he was given 
the privilege of aiding the- distinguished jurist. 
Judge T. M. Cooley, then at the head of the law 
department, in the compilation of his well known 
and authoritative works on taxation, torts and other 
technical subjects of the science of jurisprudence. 
That Mr. Clayberg was selected for this work is 
sufficient evidence of his early rank as a student. 
In 1875, having been admitted to the bar of Michi- 
gan, Mr. Clayberg went to Lansing, the capital cit}-, 
where he formed a partnership with the Hon. 
Samuel L. Kilbourne, which continued until 1877, 
when he located in Alpena, Mich., and was there 
associated with Robert J. Kelly until 18S2, and then 
with George Slater until he came to Helena in 18S4. 
At Helena he was soon associated with Hon. T. H. 
Carter, and, in 1889, Judge N. W. McConnell be- 
came their partner. Mr. Carter was elected to 
congress in 1889 and withdrew from the firm, 
which in 1892 became McConnell, Clayberg & 
Gunn, the new member being Milton S. Gunn. Mr. 
Clayberg retired from the firm in 1896, but within 
1897 became again associated in practice with Mr. 
Gunn in the law firm of Clayberg & Gunn, which 
alliance has since obtained. The practice of these 
firms extended into the federal and state courts, 
and in this Mr. Clayberg has taken an miportant 
part under the various partnership associations, 
having been connected with much of the notable 
litigation of the state and having gained precedence 
as one of the most able members of the bar of the 
state. To indicate his capability as an attorney 



and counselor we quote from a published sketch : 
"He is cogent, incisive and clear in utterance, 
and his reasoning is inspired by logic so forcible 
that his opponents rarely dislodge him ; and in the 
preparation of his cases he is thorough, mastering 
to the minutest detail every scintilla of evidence, 
in the arrangement of which it is said he displays 
the sagacity of a field marshal. As a counselor he 
is deliberate, pondering well the points as they 
touch parallels in his wide range of reading and 
practice, and, being somewhat conservative, 
reaches conclusions through a process of mental 
comparisons peculiar to trained thinkers. To his 
profession he is devoted, and is a close student in 
the literature of the law." 

While in politics Mr. Clayberg renders a stanch 
allegiance to the principles and policies of the Dem- 
ocratic party, he has been signally averse to ac- 
cepting public office. Thus he has held only one 
official preferment in the gift of his party, that of 
attorney-general of Montana in 1891. In 1891 
also the regents of his alma mater appointed him 
lecturer on mining law in that institution, his pecu- 
liar eligibility for the position being unmistakable, 
since he had been intimately concerned with the 
legal phases of this industry during his long resi- 
dence in Montana, and this office Mr. Clayberg still 
retains. His clientage has ever been of a high or- 
der and he has appeared as attorney and counselor 
in many of the great capitalistic struggles of the 
state. He was one of the leading attorneys in 
the litigation incident to the celebrated contesting 
of the will of the late Andrew J. Davis, of Butte, 
whose estate was one of the largest in the west, 
being here arrayed with such eminent lawyers as 
the late Robert G. Ingersoll and Nathaniel Myers, 
of New York. Fraternally Mr. Clayberg is identi- 
fied with the Masonic order and the Benevolent 
Protective Order of Elks, and in the former he 
maintains his membership in Michigan, where he 
received the degrees of the various bodies. On 
September 10, 1878, Mr. Clayberg was united in 
marriage to Miss Kate C. Edwards, daughter of 
C. Y. Edwards, one of the prominent pioneer citi- 
zens of Lansing, Mich. They have two sons, Ho- 
bart L. and Edmund E. 

many years one of the most prominent and 
successful attorneys in Helena, Mont. He was 
born at Geneseo, Livingston county, N. Y., on 

October 14, 1836. His education was received at 
the Geneseo Academy, supplemented Dy a course at 
college. In company with Gen. James Wood, Mr. 
Chadwick read law under the able direction of Gov. 
John Young and was admitted to practice at 
Rochester, N. Y., on September 7, 1857. It was in 
1859 ^nd in his twenty-third year that Mr. Chadwick 
first came west. He passed over two years in 
Iowa, and in 1861 went to the Pacific coast and 
located at Sacramento, Cal. Subsequently he was 
at Portland, Ore., and in 1863 he removed to San 
Francisco, where he practiced law and also ac- 
quired knowledge of quartz mining. From 1864 
until 1866 he was located at Virginia City, Nev., 
whence he removed to Salt Lake City, and in May, 
1866, he arrived in Helena where he resided in and 
created and enjoyed a most lucrative practice until 
his death on September 23, 1885. 

Shortly after coming to Helena Mr. Chadwick 
was admitted to the law firm of Cavanaugh, Chad- 
wick & Parrott. This firm continued until Mr. 
Cavanaugh's election to congress in 1867, and then 
Chadwick & Parrott continued the business until 
1868. Mr. Chadwick was associated with Judge 
Chumasero in legal practice from 1870 until 1885. 
In 1877 ^r- Chadwick was elected to the territorial 
legislature, served as chairman of the judiciary 
committee, assisted in revising the civil practice to 
conform to that of California, and in the adoption of 
an entirely new probate practice act. During this per- 
iod he was largely interested in mines in Montana, 
and was one of the principal owners of the Bald 
Butte mine, one of the best dividend payers in the 
state. On February 4, 1869, he was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Nonna D. Ewing, of Missouri, 
daughter of Judge R. C. Ewing. an eminent jurist 
of that state. 

Politically the 'affiliations of Mr. Chadwick were 
with the Democratic party, and he took a lively in- 
terest in its campaigns. That he exercised a wide 
influence in the councils of his party is undoubted. 
He was a man highly esteemed and he possessed 
the full confidence of the community in which he so 
long resided. At the Montana bar his superior 
legal ability was promptly recognized. Some of 
the most important causes ever tried in the terri- 
tory were confided to his care, and his unswerving 
devotion to his clients was a marked and honorable 
characteristic of the man. He achieved a legal 
reputation second to none in the northwest, but his 
kindlier qualities of mind and heart were also duly 
accorded the merit they so justly deserved. 



MILTON CAUBY.— One of the few remain- 
ing members of the celebrated constitutional 
convention of Montana which met in 1889 and gave 
the state her present excellent constitution, and 
also participated as a soldier during the terrible 
struggle of our Civil war, is Milton Cauby, an hon- 
ored resident of East Helena, now enjoying in the 
evening of his busy life the peaceful and gratifying 
reflections which follow a life of usefulness to man- 
kind and faithful service in time of need to 
his country. He was born in Cass county, 111., 
January i, 1838, the son of Daniel and Martha 
Cauby, natives of the states of Tennessee and 
Kentucky respectively, who removed to Illi- 
nois in 1828, and in 1856 to l-utnam county. Mo., 
where they died, the mother in March, 1872, and 
the father in October, 1879. The Cauby 's removed 
originally from Pennsylvania to Tennessee, the 
founder of the family havmg been our subject's 
grandfather, Joseph Cauby. 

Milton Cauby was one of eleven children and 
two sons are now living in Montana. Milton was 
reared in Illinois, remaining there and attending 
school until he was in his eighteenth year. He 
then taught in the public schools, and followed 
various occupations until January i, 1862, when he 
enlisted in the First Missouri Cavalry, and served 
three years and three months, principally in Mis- 
souri and the southwest, doing valiant duty in the 
engagement at Jeiiferson City against Price's army 
and many other encounters. After the war he was 
respectively clerk and recorder, probate judge and 
county commissioner of Putnam county. Mo., and 
remained in the state until 1884, when he came to 
Montana, settling first at Wickes, but four years 
later removing to East Helena, which has since 
been his home. In 1889 he was elected to the 
constitutional convention, and was conspicuous in 
the body for breadth of view and full and accurate 
knowledge of public affairs and fundamental princi- 
ples of law. He has been a life-long Republican 
in politics, fraternally he belongs to the Masons, 
the Odd Fellows and the Grand Army of the Re- 
public. He was married in Missouri in 1868 to Miss 
Sarah J. Foster, of Ohio. 

TAMES M. CLEMENTS.— Not all men order 
J their lives to their liking, nor yet are all men 
true to their ideals and intrinsic potentiality, thus it 
is always gratifying to take under review the career 

of one who has held himself well in hand and has 
essentially attained that degree of success to which 
his abilities and powers entitle him. In such man- 
ner may we refer to the life of Judge J. M. Clem- 
ents. Chauncy M. Depew once gave utterance 
to the striking metaphrase : "Some men are born 
great ; some achieve greatness and some are born 
in Ohio." The inference is not far to seek and 
under this category Judge Clements may lay claim 
to the distinction of having been born in the good 
old Buckeye state, the date of his nativity being 
October i, 1849. His parents, John R. and Me- 
Imda (Ramage) Clements, were both natives of 
Ohio, the father, a farmer, removed to Jasper 
county, Iowa, in 1855, and there passed the residue 
of his life, dying in November, 1888. His widow is 
still living at Newton, Iowa. Of their five sons 
and one daughter, Judge Clements was the only 
one to become a resident of Montana. James 
Clements, his paternal grandfather, emigrated from 
Pennsylvania to Ohio in an early day and there 
his death occurred in November, 1859. 

James M. Clements was reared to maturity in 
Iowa, receiving education and discipline in the 
public schools and beginning his individual career 
as a farmer also in Iowa. His ambition, however, 
prompted him to a wider field of endeavor, and in 
1870 he entered the law office of Ryan Brothers, 
leading attorneys of Newton, Iowa, where he pur- 
sued his technical reading for the profession which 
he has honored by his efforts and services. He 
also devoted attention to stenography, which later 
proved of much value to him. He was admitted to 
the bar of Iowa in 1873, having devoted himself to 
legal work and stenographic work in the mean- 
while. In April, 1873, he came to Montana, mak- 
ing the trip by the Missouri river to Fort Benton 
and thence to Helena. In this vicinity and at 
Unionville he followed mining until June, 1875, 
when by the Missouri river route he returned to 
Iowa. In that state he was engaged as a court 
reporter in the Sixth and Thirteenth districts until 
October, 1877, and in March, 1877, was there cele- 
brated his marriage to Miss Alta Cook, a native of 
Illinois, and of this union five children have been 
born, Rhea C, Floy, Burke, James M., Jr., and 
Van., all of whom are living. 

In October, 1877, Mr. Clements returned to 
Montana and accepted the position of court sten- 
ographer at Helena under Judge Wade, retaining 
this inciimbency until February, 1879, and he was 
the first to occupy this position in the territory. 

• 96 


Later he returned again to Iowa, and for four years 
served as court stenographer for the Sixth district. 
In 1883 he associated himself with S. C. Cook in 
the practice of law at Newton, Iowa, where he con- 
tinued until May, 1886, when he retraced his steps 
to Montana and to Helena, which has since been 
his home and base of professional endeavors. He 
was the Democratic candidate for probate judge of 
Lewis and Clarke county in 1886, was successful 
at the polls and filled the position with ability dur- 
ing 1887 and 1888. After the expiration of his 
term Judge Clements entered upon private legal 
practice in Helena, where he has a valuable clientage 
and holds high precedence at the bar and as a coun- 
selor. In politics Judge Clements gave his sup- 
port to the Democratic party until 1896, and since 
then he has been a zealous advocate of the People's 
party. He "stumped" the state in the interests of 
the Democratic party in 1888, took a prominent 
part in the contest which resulted in making Helena 
the capital of the state, and has at all times mani- 
fested a lively interest in the progress and material 
prosperity of this favored commonwealth. In 
1896 the Judge was the candidate of the People's 
party for judge of the supreme bench, meeting the 
defeat which attended the party. 

treads on the heels of every right effort," said 
Samuel Smiles, and amid all the theorizing as to 
the cause of what is somewhat indefinitely desig- 
nated as success, there can be no doubt that the 
aphorism above quoted has its origin in fact, sig- 
nifying that character is the real basis of success in 
any field of thought or of active endeavor. One of 
the sterling pioneer citizens of Montana, in speak- 
ing of ex-Gov. White, said: "His is a well 
rounded character, and he fully justifies the reputa- 
tion which is his : A man of inflexible integrity, of 
keenest business ability, of broad and liberal views 
and distinct individuality. He has been eminently 
successful in temporal affairs, the result of his own 
efforts ; he has served Montana in positions of high 
public trust and responsibility, and has served 
well, this being the result of his ability and unbend- 
ing rectitude ; he has ever commanded the confi- 
dence and esteem of the people, this being the re- 
sult of his intrinsic attributes of character." A 
better summing up could scarcely be given in as 
few words, and it is proper that a record concerning 

the career of this earnest and progressive citizen, 
the last governor of the territory of Montana and 
who contributed in large measure to the material 
progress and upbuilding of our great common- 
wealth, should here be given — the history of Mon- 
tana would be incomplete without it. 

Mr. White comes of stanch old English stock, 
and the family, in direct and collateral branches, 
has been identified with the annals of American 
history since the early colonial epoch, records ex- 
tant showing that certain of his direct ancestors 
sailed from England on the Mayflower, on her 
first voyage, landing at historic old Plymouth 
Rock, while P. White, the first child born in the 
Massachusetts colony after the landing of the Pil- 
grims, figures as one from whom Gov. White 
is a direct descendant. From a published review 
touching the family history we quote as follows : 
"They have been a temperate, industrious and God- 
fearing family, noted for their integrity of charac- 
ter and also for their longevity. In Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island they were for many years prom- 
inent and successful manufacturers of cotton goods, 
and for generations they took a prominent part in 
all that pertained to the well being of church and 
state, being mostly Baptists in their religious faith. 
Both grandfather William White and Gov. 
White's father, Benjamin White, were born in Ply- 
mouth, Mass. The latter married Miss Caroline 
Stockbridge, a native of Hanover, Mass. She also 
was a descendant of one of the old New England 
families." Benjamin White was a man of promi- 
nence and influence, and during his entire business 
life was engaged in the manufacture of cotton 
sheeting and candle wick, controlling a large trade 
and being a man of ability and spotless character. 
He died at the old home in New Bedford, Mass., in 
the ninetieth year of his age, and his widow lived 
to attain the age of eighty-nine, her death occurring 
at New Bedford in the year 1894. They became the 
parents of two sons : George M., who is now living 
at North Rochester, Mass., and Benjamin F., the 
immediate subject of this review. 

■ Benjamin F. White was born in New Bedford, 
Bristol county, Mass., on December 3, 1838, and 
completed his early educational discipline in Pearce 
Academy, at-Middleburg. His self-reliant and am- 
bitious spirit early showed its domination, and in 
1854, at the age of sixteen years, we find the future 
governor of Montana shipping as a sailor before 
the mast and making his first voyage on the clipper 
ship Kathay, from New York to Sidney, Aus- 



tralia. His second voyage, in 1856, was to San 
Francisco, Cal., and upon his arrival at the Golden 
Gate the attractions proved sufficient to cause him 
to abandon a seafaring life and locate there. In 
1857 he took charge of a large fruit farm in Napa 
county, Cal., where he remained until 1866, in the 
meantime devoting careful attention to the reading 
of law. The same year he went to Idaho, of which 
Montana was then an integral part, located in 
Malad City and was admitted to the bar of the ter- 
ritory in 1868. He there entered upon the practice 
of his profession, also held the office of clerk of 
the United States district court, and in 1868, on the 
anti-Mormon ticket, was elected clerk and recorder 
of Oneida county. During his residence in Malad 
City he was associated with others in the manufac- 
ture of salt, the product being secured from salt 
springs located in the mountains about 100 miles 
north of that point. The business became one of 
considerable importance and proved very remuner- 
ative until cheap transportation was afforded with 
the advent of the Northern Pacific Railroad. When 
they began operations salt commanded one dollar 
a pound in Montana, and for some time they util- 
ized about 300 ox teams in delivering their product 
in the various towns and mining camps throughout 
Idaho and Montana territory. Following the 
construction of the Utah Northern Railroad to 
Butte, in 1881, Mr. White became an interested 
principal in the firm of Sebree, Ferris & White, 
doing a general merchandising and supply business 
in all the towns along the line as it advanced. The 
same year the firm founded the first banking institu- 
tion in Dillon, Mr. White becoming cashier, and in 
1884 they merged the same into the First National 
Bank of Dillon, this being one of the first national 
banks in the territory, Mr. White holding the posi- 
tion of cashier until 1888, when he was elected to 
the presidency of the institution, which he has since 
retained. Under his administration the bank's af- 
fairs have been carefully handled, due conserva- 
tism being observed at all times ; his hand has 
steadily guided its destinies through times of finan- 
cial unrest and panic, ever keeping its condition at 
the maximum point of safety, thus retaining to it 
the confidence of its patrons and the general pub- 
lic. It is now, as it ever has been, considered one 
of the most solid and ably conducted monetary in- 
stitutions in the state. In the year 1880 Gov. 
White and his partner, Howard Sebree, purchased 
for a consideration of $12,500 the 400 acres of land 
on which the beautiful little city of Dillon now 

stands. They platted the town, and in September 
of that year had a sale of town lots from which they 
realized considerably more than the purchase price 
of the original tract. As has been said in another 
publication "They thus became the founders of the 
town, and since then have become its most promi- 
nent builders, having erected a large proportion of 
the best buildings. Truthfully may it be said that 
every brick in these substantial structures is an in- 
tegral portion of an enduring monument to Gov. 
White's busmess sagacity and enterprise." In 
short, it may be said that the subject of this sketch 
has a distinctive capacity for the successful 
management of affairs of wide scope and 
importance ; that he has the just confidence in 
his own powers which beget definite action 
and insures confidence. Not the iconoclast, 
but rather the builder is the man who is 
of value ; and while his personal success 
has been insured through his own efforts, his 
influence has constantly widened to include 
and insure success to many of his fellow 
men. The city of Dillon stands- as an ex- 
emplification of the utilization of his initi- 
ative and creative talent ; and yet, how greatly 
have others profited by every undertaking and en- 
terprise which he has here inaugurated. The dy- 
namic force of his strong individuality has not ex- 
pended its energies in supine inactivity, but has 
been a power for good in whatever channel he has 
directed its course. In politics Gov. White has ever 
accorded unmeasured allegiance to the Republican 
party, whose principles and policies he has ably 
and loyally advocated, for in nothing that engages 
his thought or enlists his co-operation is he ever 
found apathetic or half-hearted. When he took up 
his residence in Dillon "tire normal political com- 
plexion of Beaverhead showed the strong impreg- 
nation of Democracy, and all officers chosen in. the 
county had been of that political faith. In 1882 
he was the nominee of the Republicans for repre- 
sentative in the territorial council, and was elected 
by a majority of 300 votes, though pitted against 
the strongest man the Democrats could put forth. 
The change was one of a radical nature, and indi- 
cated the popular confidence and esteem in which 
Mr. White was held. He served during the session 
of 1882-3 and was an influential member of the ter- 
ritorial legislature, where his voice and power were 
ever exercised in the support of measures for the 
good of the territory and its people, while he never 
abated his loyalty to the cause of his party. Recog- 


nizing his unmistakable eligibility for the office 
and the valuable services he had rendered in the 
party ranks, in 1888 President Harrison nominated 
him for governor of the territory, the nomination 
being confirmed by congress on March 29, 1889. 
He held the gubernatorial office, administering its 
affairs with dignity, discrimination and ability, until 
his tenure of the same expired by reason of the 
admission of Montana to the sisterhood of states, 
an object for which he had been one of the most 
enthusiastic and insistent of workers, said admis- 
sion occurring in October, 1889. The governor 
was a member of the state canvassing board, in 
which capacity he gave efficient assistance in pre- 
venting the opposition from robbing the state of 
its franchise. He also was most prominently con- 
cerned in bringing about the incorporation of the 
city of Dillon, being elected its first mayor and 
thereafter serving in that capacity for several terms, 
while in all that concerns the legitimate advance- 
ment and material prosperity of his city his interest 
has continued deep and unflagging. He has accum- 
ulated a fortune through his timely and well-di- 
rected endeavors in various fields of usefulness, and 
his career is one on which rests no shadow of 
wrong or injustice. 

On February 14, 1879, Gov. White was united in 
married to Miss Elizabeth Davis, who was born in 
England, the daughter of Hon. Emrys J. Davis, 
a prominent and influential citizen of Idaho and a 
member of the legislature of that state, now de- 
ceased. Mr. and Mrs. White became the parents 
of four children, all of whom were born in Dillon : 
Carrie is with her parents at Dillon; Emrys is at- 
tending school at Faribault, Minn. ; Ralph is also 
at school at Faribault ; and Greta is at home. The 
Governor and the members of his family are com- 
municants of the Protestant Episcopal church, be- 
ing, prominent in the parish work of St. James 
church, of Dillon. 

DANIEL P. CLONINGER.— The beautiful 
Gallatin valley is one of the garden spots of 
Montana, and among the enterprising and highly 
esteemed farmers of this favored section is num- 
bered the gentleman whose name initiates this re- 
view. Mr. Cloninger is a native of Madison county, 
Mo., where he was born December 17, 1857, being 
one of ten children born to Lawson and Catherine 
(Rvan) Cloninger, natives of North Carolina, as 

was also the father of each. Lawson Cloninger re- 
moved to Missouri after his marriage and" there 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. He devoted 
some attention to teaching school during his earlier 
years in Madison county. He is a man of promi- 
nence in his section, having served as district judge 
and also as assessor of the county. He still main- 
tains his home in Madison county, being seventy- 
six years of age at the time of this writing. The 
mother of our subject also is living. 

Daniel P. Cloninger, our subject, received his 
early education in the public schools, growing up 
under the invigorating environments of the farm 
and under the influences of a cultured and refined 
home. He devoted his attention to farming in 
Missouri until 1891, when he sold his personal ef- 
fects, but retained his real estate interests and in 
that year came to Montana, first locating on the 
Coley ranch on West Gallatin river, where he re- 
mained three years. He then returned to Mis- 
souri, disposed of his real estate, and after a visit 
of several months returned to Montana, leasing the 
Menifee ranch on Middle creek, Gallatin county, 
which he operated for two years, and then pur- 
chased the Brady ranch, located in Cedar View, 
seven miles north of Belgrade, his postoffice ad- 
dress, which is his present home. Here he 
has 360 acres of arable and prolific land, 
a large proportion of which is under 
effective irrigation. He controls a water-right of 
300 inches, his principal crop being oats, the yield 
of which is large. Mr. Cloninger also gives con- 
siderable attention to diversified farming. Since 
locating upon his ranch Mr. Cloninger has made 
many improvements, is known as one of the enter- 
jirising and public-spirited citizens of the commun- 
ity, commanding the respect of all who know him. 
In politics he exercises his franchise in support 
of the principles of the Democratic party. He 
served as school director while a resident of Mis- 
souri, and has also been called to a similar position 
since taking up his abode in Gallatin county. 

On Christmas day, 1878, was solemnized the 
marriage of Mr. Cloninger to Miss Talitha A. Lue- 
allen, who was born in Madison county, Mo., the 
daughter of William C. and Sarah (Stevens) Lueal- 
len, natives respectively of Tennessee and Mis- 
souri. Mr. and Mrs. Cloninger were the parents 
of the following children : Henry L. married Miss 
Lizzie Ballard, and resides on a ranch three miles 
north of Belgrade ; William and Minnie are at the 
parental home ; Lawson is deceased ; John is at 



home; Ida Elizabeth is deceased, and Ernest is at 
the homestead. Our subject and his wife are 
devoted members and zealous workers in the 
Baptist church, and are held in the highest esteem 
in the community. 

■\yiLLIAM M. COCKRILL, of Great Falls, 
VV Mont., has the honor of having been the first 
clerk of the Fourth, now the Eighth judicial dis- 
trict of the state. He is now one of the leading at- 
tornej's of Great Falls, having been admitted to 
practice in 1889. One of the prominent pioneers 
and leading landholders of Barren county, Ky., was 
Joseph Cockrill, paternal grandfather of William 
M., and a Baptist. He had removed from Vir- 
ginia at an early day to Barren county, where he 
made his home, reared his family and passed the • 
residue of his life. He had four sons and two 
daughters. On the old homestead in Barren 
county Travis Cockrill, the father of William M., 
was born in 1822. In Columbia, Boone county, 
Mo., he was married to Miss Elizabeth Maupin, a 
native of that state. He brought his bride back 
to his old home in Glasgow, and for years there- 
after he was engaged in the practice of law and be- 
came eminent. He was clerk of the county court 
for many years and at the time of his death, on 
October 26, 1868, he was the candidate of the Dem- 
ocratic party for a prominent position. His widow 
still survives him, residing in Great Falls with her 
son, William M., who was the fifth-born of ten 
children, six of whom still survive. He was born 
on June 17, 1856, in Glasgow, Barren county, Ky. 
In private schools and at Bethel College WiUiam 
M. Cockrill was educated. Following his gradua- 
tion he was offered a position in the county clerk's 
office at Glasgow, which he accepted and here his 
leisure time was given to close application to the 
study of law, and in April, 1876, he was admitted to 
the bar. Subsequently he served as county 
attorney and also as master in chancery of the cir- 
cuit court of Barren county. 

The latter position he retained until 1888, when 
he came to the new city of Great Falls. By Judge 
Thomas C. Bach he was appointed clerk of the 
Fourth judicial district. This position he held un- 
der the territorial government until Montana was 
admitted as a state. He was then elected clerk of 
the Eighth judicial district, which embraces Cascade 
county, and in 1892 he was re-elected. In Great 

Falls he has made a number of judicious invest- 
ments as well as in the county of Cascade. Polit- 
ically Mr. Cockrill affiHates with the Democratic 
party, to which he has rendered valuable aid in its- 
campaigns. He is a member of the Odd Fellows 
and of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. 
Mr. Cockrill began the practice of law in Cascade 
county in 1897 with J. C. Huntoon, as Huntoon 
«& Cockrill. The firm existed until August, 1900, 
and in September of that year Mr. H. S. Green was 
taken into partnership, the firm name becoming 
Cockrill & Green. Mr. Green is a native of Bloom- 
ington county. 111. He has been in active practice 
of law since his admission to the bar in 1891. He 
is a rising young attorney and well known through- 
out Cascade county. 

HENRY A. CAYLEY, M. D.— This able and 
progressive young physician and surgeon of 
Butte, was born on January 18, 1868, in the seigniory 
and county of Beauharnois, Cana3a, the son of 
Lawrence and Virginia (Poirier) Cayley, the former 
of whom was born in Kilkenny, Ireland, and the 
latter in Canada. Lawrence Cayley, at the age of 
i;ve years, started with his parents on their emigra- 
tion to Canada, but they died from typhus fever 
while en route and were buried at sea. Their or- 
phaned boy was reared and educated in Canada 
and became a skilled civil engineer, devoting his 
attention to his profession untii his death as the 
result of an accident at the untimely age of thirty- 
one years. He was identified with canal contract- 
ing on lakes Champlain and St. Peter, and recog- 
nized as an exceptionally capable engineer. His 
wife survives him and resides in Montreal. 

Henry A. Cayley passed his childhood days in 
his native county, and after attending the paro- 
chial schools until he was ten years old, he was 
placed in the Montreal Jesuit College for seven 
years, completing a thorough course of study and 
graduating with the class of 1885. He immediately 
began the study of medicine, and was graduated 
on April 3, 1889, from the Montreal School of Med- 
icine and Surgery, with the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine, simultaneously receiving a diploma from 
Victoria College of Cobourg, Ontario. In August, 
1889, Dr. Cayley came to Montana and to Butte, 
where he has since been successfully engaged in 
medical practice, for which work he had so amply 
fortified himself. His practice has extended rami- 


fications and is of representative character; his un- 
doubted skill and kindly nature have gained for him 
public confidence and affection. The Doctor is a 
member of the Canadian Medical Institute and -was 
one of its founders, and he is the physician of the 
liutte Aerie of the fraternal order of Eagles. In 
politics he gives his allegiance to the Democratic 
party, and his religious faith is that of the Catho- 
lic church, in which he was reared. On August 24, 
1893, Dr. Cayley was united in marriage to Miss 
Mary Mueller, born in Tennessee, the daughter of 
Edward Mueller, formerly superintendent of the 
Colusa smelter at Meaderville, Mont., and who is 
now engaged in mining operations at Rochester 
in this state. 

conveniences necessary for comfort and the profit- 
able prosecution of the industries to which the 
ranch is devoted. Broad-minded, liberal, enter- 
prising and manly, Mr. Chestnut is highly spoken 
of by every one with whom he is acquainted. His 
outbuildings are substantial and commodious and he 
is the owner of a pack of thoroughbred stag 
hounds, showing his sportsman tastes. On March 
4, 1882, Mr. Chestnut married Miss Eliza Cowan, a 
native of Kentucky, daughter of Daisy Cowan, a 
cousin of John Cowan, a sketch of whom appears 
in this work. They have five children, Fannie, 
Frank, Ide, George and Bessie. 


\MUEL CHESTNUT.— Among the many 
beautiful ranch properties in famous Gallatin 
county, there are few that will compare with that of 
Mt. Chestnut. Aside from its fertility and gener- 
ous yield of heavy harvests, it possesses attractions 
in the line of fishing and hunting which augment 
its prominence. It is situated near West Gallatin 
river, a mile and a half from Central Park in Galla- 
tin county. Its highly esteemed proprietor, Sam- 
uel Chestnut, was born in Pulaski county, Ky., on 
October 16, 1859, the son of Benjamin and Bettie 
(Tomlinson) Chestnut, both natives of Laurel 
county, Ky. The paternal grandfather, Edmund 
Chestnut, was a Virginian. Benjamin Chestnut 
has always resided in Kentucky, engaged in farm- 
ing and is now living, a well-preservea man of sev- 
enty-six years. 

Samuel Chestnut, one of a family of eight sons 
and two daughters, remained until his early man- 
hood on the old Kentucky homestead and attended 
the public schools. In 1882 he left for Montana, 
taking the Northern Pacific to Dillon, and thence 
going by stage to Virginia City, and on to old Cen- 
tral Park, where he purchased the Hank Wright 
ranch, the nucleus of his present valuable property. 
To this he hag since added until he now has 480 
acres. His principal and a most profitable crop, 
is hay, although some acreage is devoted to cereals. 
The ranch is thoroughly irrigated and at times 
stocked with a herd of 400 cattle, principally short- 
horns. Mr. Chestnut also raises very fine horses, 
at present writing having five young animals of 
thoroughbred running stock. The family home is 
an elegant modern residence, surrounded with the 

pHARLES K. COLE, M. D.— Greater than in 
V-v almost any other line of work is the responsi- 
bility that rests upon the physician. A false pre- 
scription, an unskillful operation, may take from 
man that which he prizes above all else — life. The 
physician's power must be his own ; not by pur- 
chase, by gift or by influence can he gam it. If 
he would attain professional precedence it must 
come as the result of superior skill, knowledge and 
ability, and these qualifications are possessed in an 
eminent degree by Dr. Cole, one of the distin- 
guished representatives of his profession in Mon- 
tana and an honored citizen of Helena, where he 
has maintained his home for years. The Doctor 
has been prominent m public afifairs in the territory 
and state and has contributed in no small degree to 
the advancement of the commonwealth. Dr. Cole 
was born in Plainfield, Will county, 111., on April 5, 
1852, the son of Charles N. and Louisa v'. (Wood) 
Cole, both natives of Lewis county, N. Y. The 
former completed his education in the Lowville (N. 
Y.) Seminary, and after his graduation he was en- 
gaged in successful teaching for a number of years. 
Later he followed contracting and building in the 
Empire state until about 1850, when he removed 
to Will county. 111., which was his home until he 
came to the northwest, where he took up his resi- 
dence in Wyoming and here he was engaged in 
government work at Fort Fetterman at the time 
of his death in 1870. The paternal grandfather 
of Dr. Cole was Harvey N. Cole, who conducted 
agriculture in Lewis county, N. Y., where he was 
born and where he died in 1896 at a patriarchal 
age. The emigrant ancestors of the Cole family 
came from Holland to New York as early as 1678, 
thus founding one of the old Knickerbocker fami- 


lies. The Wood family, of which his brother was a 
member, was early established in Vermont, in 
whose annals the name figures conspicuously. Pro- 
fessor Ezra Brainard, president of the University 
of Vermont, at Burlington, has compiled a careful 
and exhaustive genealogy of the Wood family. 
Charles N. and Louisa V. Cole had two sons and 
three daughters, Charles K. being the eldest. His 
brother, Howard W., is now a resident of South 
America, and their mother is still living. 

After attending the public schools of his native 
county Dr. Charles K. Cole was matriculated in 
the Lincoln (111.) University, where he continued 
his studies and began the study of medicine in 
1874, under Dr. David Prince, of Jacksonville, 111. 
In 1875 he entered the Miami Medical College, at 
Cincinnati, where he was graduated with the class 
of 1879. He engaged in practice at Jacksonville, 
III, for a brief mterval, but the same year came to 
Montana, taking up his residence in Helena, which 
has since been his home. Here he entered upon 
medical practice; his thorough equipment as a phy- 
sician and surgeon soon gained him a pleasant 
reputation. From 1882 to 1884 he was associated 
in practice with Dr. Charles G. Brown, now of 
Spokane, Wash., and since that time he has con- 
tinued an individual practice, and he is recognized 
as one of the leading medical men of the northwest. 
He is identified with the state and county medical so- 
cieties, in each of which he has served two terms 
as president, and he was president of the state 
board of medical examiners for three terms. His 
interest in the advances made in medicine and sur- 
gery is unflagging, and he is a member of numer-* 
ous professional organizations, such as the Ameri- 
can Medical Society, the American Surgical 
Society (of which last he is the only mem- 
ber residing between St. Paul and the Pacific 
coast), the Rocky Mountain Inter-state Medical 
Association (covering seven of the northwestern 
states, of which he is now president), the Ameri- 
can Academy of Railway Surgeons (in which as 
its chief surgeon he represents the Montana Cen- 
tral Railroad), the American Gynecological Asso- 
ciation, the New York Medico-Legal Society 
(of which he is vice-president for Montana), and the 
Mississippi Valley Medical Association. In all of 
these bodies Dr. Cole maintains an active interest, 
and through them and assiduous study and per- 
sonal investigation, he keeps in close touch with 
the highest professional thought of the day. He 
has made timely and valuable contributions to lead- 

ing medical journals on pertinent subjects. One 
of his articles on "Emergency Surgery" has had a 
specially wide circulation and has proved of value 
alike to the profession and the laity. Dr. Cole has 
been county physician of Lewis and Clarke county 
and also a United States pension examiner. He 
takes a yearly course in the New York Post-Gradu- 
ate Medical College in connection with hospital 
work, and has attended the post-graduate school in 
Chicago, while in 1886 and in 1892 he made trips 
abroad, on each of which he passed a number of 
months in study in the principal colleges and hos- 
pitals of London, Berlin, Vienna and Paris. No 
physician in Montana is more thoroughly qualified 
for medical work, and his signal services dignify 
the profession of which he is so honored a member. 
Here we will give a somewhat unique incident. One 
night in 1880 Dr. Cole was "held up" while re- 
turning home from the bedside of a patient, and 
when he refused "to deliver" to the robber the lat- 
ter shot him through the left wrist. He returned 
the fire, sending a ball into the bowels of his as- 
sailant. The peculiar feature of the case is that 
Dr. Cole was soon called to operate on the man 
and saved his life, and that for several months 
thereafter he retained him in his employ as hostler. 
In politics Dr. Cole gives his allegiance to the 
Republican party, and served as a member and 
speaker of the territorial senate in 1888-9. The 
state medical bill was enacted while he was in 
the senate and he was one of the most potent 
factors in promoting its passage. He was a 
member of the original capitol commission, 
which inaugurated the erection of the new 
capitol building, and he has also been a mem- 
ber of the city council of Helena. He has valuable 
real estate holdings in Helena and is known as 
one of her most pubHc spirited citizens. Frater- 
nally the Doctor is identified with the Masonic 
order, the Odd Fellows (of which he is past grand 
of the grand lodge of the state), with the Knights 
of Phythias (of which he is past grand chancellor 
and supreme representative) and with the Benevo- 
lent Protective Order of Elks and the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. On June 22, 1881, 
Dr. Cole was united in marriage to Miss Harriet 
G. Gillette, of Jacksonville, 111., a daughter of Dr. 
Philip G. Gillette, who until recently was at the 
head of educational work for deaf mutes in 
America and who served for fort}- years as 
superintendent of the Illinois Institution for Deaf 


HUGH K. COLEMAN.— The offspring of good 
old Scotch-Irish ancestors, who settled in 
America early in its history, and who for genera- 
tions have been contributing to its growth, develop- 
ment and prosperity, Hugh K.Coleman, of Bozeman, 
exemplifies in his record and character the sterling 
virtues of his family and the best elements of thrifty 
American citizenship. He was born m Marion 
county, Ohio, on August 28, 1834, one of the four 
sons and one daughter in the family of Joseph H. 
Coleman, also a native of Ohio, and Fannie (Kerr) 
Coleman, of Pennsylvania. Hisi two grandfathers 
were Joab Coleman, of New Jersey, and Hugh Kerr, 
of Ireland, who emigrated to America at the age of 
seventeen, and later was married to Miss Margaret 
Riddle, a native of Scotland. The father, Joseph 
H. Coleman, when a young man purchased a good 
farm in Ohio and started a tannery, continuing in 
the active management of both until his death in 
1880. He was wide-awake and progressive, and 
a leading man of his section. For many years he 
was justice of the peace and at various times post- 
master. He had an elevated idea of citizenship 
and was deeply and intelligently identified with all 
plans for the education of the young, and gave 
every enterprise for the betterment of the com- 
munity his serviceable support. 

Hugh K. Coleman was educated in the district 
schools and after he left school was employed in 
his father's- shoe store. In the spring of 1865, 
he started for Montana to gratify a longing for the 
frontier and its adventurous life, traveling to St. 
Joe, Mo., by rail, thence to Bozeman by a mule 
team which he drove for Cover & McAdow, his 
load being machinery for the grist mill at Boze- 
man. The train had little difficulty with the In- 
dians, the only fight of consequence occurring at 
Cottonwood, where the train halted for rest and re- 
freshment. They arrived in Bozeman on August 
5, 1865, and Mr. Coleman remained there until 
fall when he staked a ranch on Sour-Dough creek, 
about five miles from the city, a property he after- 
wards sold and repurchased. Since then he has 
held it continuously and added to it until he now 
has a ranch of 320 acres. He was married on June 3, 
1858, to Miss Mary E. McElroy, a sister of Joseph 
A. McElroy, of Bozeman, of whom a sketch ap- 
pears on other pages of this work. Their only 
child, Harriet Bartlett Coleman, died at the age of 
four years. During the first few years of life on 
his ranch Mr. Coleman gave his attention to rais- 
ing grain, then made hay his specialty, and he has 

since produced large crops of excellent quality. 
He has also an attractive residence in Bozeman 
where he and Mrs. Coleman pass the winters. The 
country residence is beautifully located and highly 
improved and is one of the most desirable in the 
eastern section of the valley. Like his father, Mr. 
Coleman takes a deep interest in all public matters 
and has rendered valuable service as county com- 
missioner and as city councilman of Bozeman. 
He is looked upon as one of the wisest and most 
progressive citizens of the county, and is highly 
and universally esteemed. 

pOLUMBUS C. COLLINS.— While the citizen- 
L ship of the commonwealth of Montana repre- 
sents nearly every other state in the Union, as well 
as foreign countries, it is probable that no state has 
contributed as great a portion as the state of Mis- 
souri. Among her sterling pioneers, and one who 
has been conspicuously identified with her industrial 
and productive activities, is Columbus C. Collins, 
who was born in Platte county. Mo., March 19, 
1 841, being one of the twelve children born to 
James and Cordelia (Carpenter) Collins, natives of 
the city of Lexington, Ky., and representatives of 
staunch old southern stock, it being recorded that 
the paternal grandfather of our siibject, Robert Col- 
lins, was born in Virginia, as was also Jonathan Car- 
penter, the maternal grandfather, while the great- 
grandfather in the agnatic line was an active par- 
ticipant in the war of the Revolution, valiantly 
aiding the colonies in throwing off the British 
yoke. Robert Collins was a member of the com- 
mittee who received Gen. LaFayette on the occasion 
of his second visit to America. The father of our 
subject was numbered among the early pioneers of 
Missouri, to which state he removed when the 
Platte district was thrown open to settlement, and 
there devoted his attention to agricultural pursuits 
until 1863, when he passed to the great beyond 
in the fall of the succeeding year. 

Columbus C. Collins was reared and educated in 
Missouri, and grew to manhood under the sturdy 
discipline of farm life. In 1859 he joined the 
stampede to Pike's Peak, Colo., making the trip- 
with an ox team. He remained but a few months 
and then returned to ]\Iissouri, and was there 
residing at the time of the outbreak of the 
Civil war, when he enlisted in Company C of a 
regiment commanded by Col. Childs, the same 



having been recruited at Rochester, Andrew 
county. He was with the regiment during an en- 
gagement at Blue Mills, Clay county, Mo., and at 
Lexington, where Mulligan surrendered. Our sub- 
ject started to return with a recruiting party, but 
was taken prisoner and held in captivity at St. 
Joseph, Mo., where he was confined for five months. 
Finally he managed to escape, having plied his 
guards with liquor until they were sufficiently in- 
toxicated to neglect their duty, and he quietly 
stole away from the prison in May, 1862. He 
then made his way to Jackson county, Iowa, where 
he resided until 1866, engaged in farming. In 
that year Mr. Collins started for Montana, pro- 
ceeding by railroad as far as Omaha, where he was 
employed in a brick yard, and later joined the Crich- 
ton Company's party engaged in constructing the 
first transcontinental telegraph line, and remained 
with it until reaching Virginia City, Mont. The 
telegraph party was a large one, and though sev- 
eral skirmishes with the Indians occurred no se- 
rious difficulty was encountered. Mr. Collins en- 
gaged in mining in Virginia City, and there con- 
tinued operations until 1873, .meeting with fair 
success. In the year mentioned he came to Gal- 
latin valley, took up a tract of land, to which he 
has since added until he now has a fine estate of 
320 acres, the greater portion of which is under 
effective irrigation, rendering it possible to se- 
cure large annual yields of wheat, oats and hay, the 
principal products. The ranch is located within six 
miles of Belgrade, our subject's postoffice address. 
In politics he gives his support to the Democratic 
party, but has never aspired to political prefer- 
ment, although he has served with ability as school 
trustee, taking a lively interest in all that touches 
the welfare of the community. 

On January 6, 1871, Mr. Collins was united in 
marriage to Mrs. Levina Tribble, who was born in 
Platte county. Mo., the daughter of Solomon and 
Polly Yates, the former a native of the Old Do- 
minion. Mr. and Mrs. Collins have three children, 
namely : Cordelia, who is the wife of James Lewis, 
of Helena ; Annie, the wife of Thomas Bruington, 
of Gebo, Mont. ; and Frank, a successful young 
rancher on Dry Creek, Gallatin county. 

TAMES CONLON.— One of the sterling pio- 
J neers of Montana, one to whom the scenes and 
incidents of the early days were made familiar when 

he was a young man, and one who has witnessed 
the marvelous progress of territory and state, 
James Conlon surely merits attention. He was 
one of the early settlers near Lolo, in Missoula 
county, and there has a valuable and prolific ranch. 
He is a native of the Emerald Isle, born in June, 
1841, the son of Marcus and Mary (Connavan) 
Conlon, the former of whom died in Ireland, while 
his widow came to the United States in 1887 and 
died in Chicago in 1898, at which time she had 
attained the venerable age of ninety-two years. She 
was the mother of four sons and two daughters, all 
of whom, except one daughter and one son, re- 
side in this country. One son, Patrick, is now a 
resident of Butte. 

James Conlon remained in his native land until 
he had attained the age of sixteen, when, in 1857, 
he came to the United States, where he believed 
l_x'tter opportunities were afforded to make his 
own way in the world. In Chicago he secured a 
position as a newsboy on the Illinois Central 
Railroad, and Chicago was his headquarters until 
1864, when with his brother, Patrick, he started for 
Montana, by way of Fort Laramie and the Yellow- 
stone and Wind rivers, arriving in Virginia City in 
August, 1864. The journey was made with mule 
teams, and they had no trouble from the Indians, 
probably because the train was a large one, having 
105 teams. Mr. Conlon and his brother engaged 
in mining in Alder Gulch two months, and then 
James joined the stampede to British Columbia, 
where the Kootenai excitement was at its height. 
This trip was made in winter when the weather was 
very severe, while provisions were very limited in 
quantity and variety, it being necessary for the 
miners to have recourse to various kinds of grain 
for food, which were prepared for eating in most 
primitive fashions. After five months stay in that 
section, Mr. Conlon made his way to Portland, 
Ore., where he resided two years, then removing to 
Idaho City, Idaho, while in 1866 he returned to 
Montana, and for four years engaged in mining 
jiear Diamond City. 

In 1870 Mr. Conlon removed to the Cedar Creek 
district, and in 1871 settled on the land where he 
now makes his home, which is one and one-half 
miles south of Lolo, his postoffice address. He 
was the first permanent settler in this locality and 
here he now has a fine ranch of 540 acres, devoted 
to the raising of cattle, to fruit culture and to gen- 
eral ranching, and he has been very successful. In 
1877 he was engaged in hauling supplies to the 



troops under Gen. Howard, and on their way to 
Henry lake, in Madison county, the party had sev- 
eral spirited encounters with the Indians, who had 
stolen their stock. In one conflict three men were 
killed and several wounded. Mr. Conlon is a Demo- 
crat, but has never been an aspirant for public office, 
though for the past twelve years he has been a 
school trustee, and he takes an active interest in the 
well-being of the community. He and his family are 
communicants of the Catholic church in Missoula. 
In 1881, in Illinois, Mr. Conlon was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Teresa Garvey, who was born in Ire- 
land, whence she came to the United States in 
in 1856, with her parents, Thomas and Anna Gar- 
vey, the former of whom is deceased, while the 
mother is now a resident of Missoula. Mr. and 
Mrs. Conlon have four children, Anna M., Thomas 
P., Mary F. and James M. 

HON. JOHN T. MURPHY.— The men of 
force and capacity, who take strong hold of 
the rugged conditions of life and mold them into 
successful and useful careers, are entitled to all 
honor among their fellows, not only for the individ- 
ual triumphs they win, but for the fruitful poten- 
cies awakened and inspired by their examples. 
Among this class Hon. John T. Murphy, of Helena, 
holds high rank. His useful life began on Febru- 
ary 26, 1842, in Platte county. Mo., whither his 
parents, William S. and Amelia (Tyler) Murphy, 
had migrated from their native Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Murphy passed his school days on the farm of his 
father, assisting in its labors until he reached 
the age of seventeen, when the force of his charac- 
ter and his independence of disposition induced him 
to start out in the battle of life for himself. Accord- 
ingly, in 1859, ^""^ removed to Colorado, and there 
secured employment as a clerk. The next year he 
went to Nevada City in that state and engaged in 
general merchandising on his own account, contin- 
uing for a year and a half. He then sold out and 
began operations in the wagon transportation busi- 
ness, which he continued until 1864, when he came 
to Virginia City, Mont., with a wagon train of 
merchandise, carefully selected to meet the de- 
mands of the mining population, then almost the 
only dwellers in this part of the country. After dis- 
posing of this stock he went to Nebraska City, 
Neb., and in the following spring loaded a wagon 
train with merchandise and shipped goods by 

steamer on the Missouri river. He brought all this 
stock to Helena, Mont., and on Julj i, 1865, opened 
a store in that city. Trade was active, prices were 
good and his enterprise proved to be very profit- 
able. As his trade and capital increased he estab- 
lished branch stores in various places and carried 
on an extensive and successful mercantile business 
until 1890, when he sold his store in Helena. He 
also early engaged in the stock industry, and has 
expanded his operations in this line until he has 
become one of the leading stockmen of his section 
of the state, devoting his attention principally to 
cattle and sheep. In 1890 he became one of the or- 
ganizers of the Helena National Bank and was 
elected its president. He was also one of the or- 
ganizers and directors of the Montana Savings 
Bank. Upon the death of Col. C. A Broadwater, 
president of the Montana National Bank, the fit- 
ness of Mr. Murphy to manage the affairs of that 
great financial institution were so manifest that he 
was chosen to fill the vacancy, and during his tenure 
of the position rendered efficient and highly appre- 
ciated service. 

In 1871 Mr. Murphy was. united in marriage 
with Miss Elizabeth T. Morton, a native of Clay 
county. Mo., and the daughter of William Morton. 
They have four children, all natives of Montana: 
William M., Francis D., Addie M. and John T., Jr. 
On August 9, 1897, Mrs. Murphy passed over to 
the activities that know no weariness. In politics 
Mr. Murphy is a Democrat, but has never taken an 
active part in party affairs. He performs with fidel- 
ity the duties of citizenship involved \n the suffrage, 
but has no desire for the emoluments or honors of 
political office. His business and domestic affairs 
fill the measure of his ambitions, and to these he 
gives his undivided attention. His business record 
is highly honorable to him; and his success, which 
has been great, has been fully deserved, as is also 
the high position he holds in the confidence and 
esteem of his fellowmen. 


AMUEL H. CON ROW.— Clearly defined pur- 
pose and consecutive effort in the affairs of 
life will bring a fair measure if not great success ; 
and in following the career of one who has 
reached the goal of his ambition, the observer can 
often learn much of the incentive and inspiration 
which lies beneath. The qualities which have 
made Mr. Conrow one of the prominent and sue- 




cessful farmers and business men of Gallatin coun- 
ty have brought him the uniform esteem of his 
fellow men, his career having been one of well di- 
rected energy, strong determination and honor- 
able methods. 

Samuel Hilliard Conrow was born in Burlington 
county, N. J., on March 14, 1847, being the son of 
Mark and Keziah (Hilliard) Conrow. For the 
genealogical history of the family we refer the 
reader to the sketch of our subject's brother. Sen- 
ator John Conrow, of Park county, elsewhere in 
this volume. In the public schools of his native 
state Mr. Conrow received his educational discip- 
line, and there engaged in farming until 1873, 
when his health became impaired and he deter- 
mined to come to Montana, where his brother John 
had previously located. He made the journey 
by railroad as far as Corinne, Utah, and thence 
overland to Montana, being fully restored to health 
while enroute. He remained a short time with 
his brother at North Boulder, came to Gallatin 
valley and located on Reese creek, where he en- 
gaged in farming for three years, when he came to 
his present location, known as Valley View, taking 
up his residence in 1877. He has about 2,000 acres, 
in addition to 240 acres of bottom land located four 
miles north of Belgrade. A considerable portion 
of this property is worked under lease, and is well 
supplied with efifective irrigation facilities, insuring 
excellent crops. He raises spring and fall grains 
on the bench lands, about six hundred acres, and 
fine yields of Montana wheat unexcelled in qual- 
ity are secured, a line of production that is given 
precedence, the industry being conducted on an 
extensive scale. The beautiful homestead is most 
eligible and picturesquely situated, commanding 
a fine view of the valley, the village of Belgrade 
being plainly visible, twelve miles distant. Among 
the excellent improvements which Mr. Conrow has 
made is a commodious residence of attractive archi- 
tectural design, with excellent bu'ldings essential 
to the proper carrying on the work of the great 
farmstead. For a number of years the family has 
resided in Bozeman during the winter months, thus 
affording his children exceptional advantages in 
the public schools and State Agricultural College. 
Mr. Conrow and family are actively concerned 
in the social activities of Bozeman and Gallatin 
valley, and stand high in popular esteem . and 
friendship. In politics Mr. Conrow gives his sup- 
port to the Democratic party and the principles for 
which it stands. Fraternally he is identified with 

the Knights of Pythias and maintains a lively in- 
terest in its work. He is a gentleman of fine men- 
tal equipment and executive ability, and his success 
is the result of energies well applied. He is 
known as public spirited, and an active promoter 
of enterprises and undertakings which make for 
the progress and prosperity of the county and 

On Christmas day, 1867, Mr. Conrow was 
united in marriage to Miss Anna Caroline Gaskill, 
who was born in Burlington county, N. J., the 
daughter of Francis and Tomson (Poinsett) Gas- 
kill, and of this union fourteen children have been 
born, namely: Anna May, who became the wife of 
Wilford L. Brainard, died in 1892, leaving four 
children ; Lussetta is the wife of David Anderson, 
of Butte; Althea is the wife of George Miller, 
of Gallatin county ; Vincent married Miss Jenetta 
Lang, and is a successful rancher of this county ; 
and Valter, Carruth, Zena, Ada, Mabel, Frank, 
Lena, John H., Samuel D. and Dora, who still 
abide beneath the parental roof. 

RANSOME COOPER, one of the leading at-, 
torneys of Great Falls, and a leading and rep- 
resentative citizen of Cascade county, has been a 
resident of the city since 1890. Shortly after his 
arrival he associated himself in the practice of law 
with Judge Pigott, and the firm was continued until 
1894. Mr. Cooper was born in Shiawassee county, 
Mich., on May 12, 1856, Andrew H. Cooper, his 
father, removing from his native state, New York, to 
Michigan in the same year. He was a miller and 
farmer, and passed the remainder of his life and 
died in Michigan. The mother was Sarah (Mc- 
Gilvery) Cooper, also a native of New York. Of 
their six sons, three have located in Montana. 
Passing through the public schools at Howell, Ran- 
some Cooper was matriculated in the Michigan State 
University, at Ann Arbor, in 1874. He entered 
the literary department, and remained two years, 
and began teaching at Port Austin, Mich., in 1876, 
continuing this educational work three years. 

During that time he studied law with Hon. Hor- 
ace G. Snover, for two terms a congressman from 
Michigan, and with his law partner, Richard Win- 
sor. Mr. Cooper was admitted to practice from 
their office in 1879, and for the next ten years he 
continued in the practice of his profession at Reed 
City, Mich. He was during this time six years 



prosecuting attorney for Osceola county and at- 
torney for the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. 
In 1890 Mr. Cooper located in Great Falls, Mont. 
Since the dissolution of the partnership with Judge 
Pigott, as mentioned, he has been alone. In 1892 
Mr. Cooper received the nomination for attorney 
general from the Republican party, with which he 
holds fellowship, but declined to make the race. 
He is now in the enjoyment of an excellent law 
practice, and is affiliated with the Masonic fra- 
ternity. Mr. Cooper was married in Michigan, on 
December 31, 1878, to Miss Lillian Colgrove, a 
native of Pennsylvania. Their four children are 
Alatthew H., Ransome, Jr:, Irving and Edith Belle. 

GEORGE W. COOK.— In the business and 
public life of Fergus county and Lewistown no 
man holds a position of more prominence than 
this gentleman. His popularity is unmistakable, 
and he has been the incumbent of various posi- 
tions of marked pubHc trust and responsibility. 

Mr. Cook was born in Franklin county, N. Y., 
on the 30th of August, 1853, the son of Chauncey 
and Lucretia J. (Hobbs) Cook, natives respectively 
of Vermont and New York. The father located in 
New York in his early manhood, and there as a 
farmer passed the residue of his life. He was a 
son of Joseph Cook, a representative of one of the 
prominent old families of Vermont. He also passed 
the later years of his life in New York. Of the chil- 
dren of Chauncey Cook, three sons and two daugh- 
ters lived to attain years of maturity, the subject of 
this sketch being the only member of the family to 
locate in Montana. George W. Cook attained 
maturity under the wholesome and invigorating 
influences of the old homestead farm, and when 
fifteen became a student at the high school at 
Vergennes, Vt., and afterwards in Barre Academy, 
at Barre, Vt., where he completed the academical 
course. He then was successfully engaged in 
teaching in the public schools of Vermont for 
four years, and there continued to make his home 
until 1880, when he came to Montana, making the 
trip from Sioux City by boat up the Missouri 
river to Fort Benton. His first employment in 
Montana was on one of the extensive sheep 
ranches of the firm of Gans & Klein, of Helena, 
and later he was for two years a clerk in the store 
of Judge Gaddis, at Fort Logan. Mr. Cook then 
associated himself with William Parberry in the 

sheep business, on Dog creek, Fergus county, and 
there continued operations until 1893. In 1890, 
however, he took up his residence in Lewistown, 
his present home, having received the appointment 
as receiver of the United States land office there. 
He served as receiver for four years. In 1895 
Mr. Cook was elected treasurer of Fergus county, 
and his tenure of this office extended until 1899, 
his administration of the financial affairs gaining 
him uniform commendation, without reference to 
political lines. In 1898 the firm of Cook & 
Hilger was organized, and Mr. Cook has since been 
associated with Mr. David Hilger. They conduct 
a most successful business in Lewistown as real 
estate, live stock and insurance agents and bro- 
kers and land attorneys. In 1890, with George J.. 
Bach, Mr. Cook purchased the Judith Basin flour- 
ing mill, and owns one-half interest in it. In 1899 
he was a prime factor in the organization of the 
Citizens' Electric Company, and was its first presi- 
dent, serving one year. Mr. Cook at present is 
chief executive of the municipal government of 
Lewistown. He was elected mayor of the city in 
1900, and was elected his own successor in May, 

j\Ir. Cook has never been deflected from his alle- 
giance to the Republican party. He has been an 
active worker, has been prominent m both state 
central committee and that of his county, and 
has the distinction of being twice chairman of the 
county committee. Fraternally Mr. Cook is iden- 
tified with the Masonic order, in which he has 
passed the capitular degrees, and also with the 
Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and the 
Woodmen of the World. 

On the 27th of October, 1874, Mr. Cook was 
united in marriage to Miss Emma H. Orvis, who 
was born in Vermont, as were also her parents, 
Lorenzo and Mary Orvis. Mr. and Mrs. Cook 
have two sons and seven daughters: Lizzie, Lilian 
E., Chauncey L., Fannie S., William H., Mary L., 
Ruth P., Vernen and Carro C. 

A NDREW L. CORBLY, of Springhill, Gallatin 
iV county, one of Montana's earliest pioneers 
and now a distinguished citizen of progressive 
views and indomitable enterprise, is prominently 
and favorably known. One of a family of two sons 
and four daughters, he was bom in Wood county, 
W. \'a., on November 15, 1842. His father. Will- 



iam L. Corbly, was also a native of that state, as 
was his grandfather, Andrew L. Corbly, while his 
mother, Elizabeth (Ingham) Corbly, was born in 
Greenbriar county, W. Va. In 1849 when Mr. Cor- 
bly was seven years of age, William L. Corbly re- 
moved, with his family, to Iowa, where, with the ex- 
ception of trips to Montana and Oregon, he after- 
wards resided, engaged in farming. Upon the 
Iowa farm Andrew L. Corbly was reared and in 
the district schools received his education. Short- 
ly after attaining his majority, in 1864, he awakened 
to the possibilities of the slowly unfolding north- 
west and inspired with a worthy ambition to bet- 
ter his worldly prospects, or at least to examine 
the advantages of a mineral territory, he came 
to Montana. 

He was accompanied by his father and they made 
the journey from Omaha by North Platte river 
and Lander's cutoii'. Near Sherman they fell in 
with three Brown brothers, from Missouri, and the 
party came through without encountering serious 
difficulties. On July 17, 1864, the Corblys arrived 
at Virginia City, where they remained until Octo- 
ber 24, thence going to Silver Bow and thence to 
Missoula, where they outfitted for the winter. They 
had been engaged in unflattering prospecting and 
at Flint creek they were joined by three other men 
and continued prospecting with indifferent success. 
In March, 1865, Mr. Corbly returned to Vii^inia 
City, and for two months unsuccessfully prosecuted 
mining in that locality. He then went to Last 
Chance gulch, where he remained until October 8, 
1869, meeting with fair degree of success. Com- 
ing to the Gallatin valley the following summer he 
was exceedingly pleased with the country and here 
he secured the land upon which he now resides and 
which he has developed into one of the best and 
most productive farming properties in the county. 

The married life of Mr. Corbly dates from Decem- 
ber 4, 1808, when he was united to Miss Virmck 
Rudolph, of Nebraska, daughter of Philip Rudolph, 
a native of France. He came to Montana in 1864, 
and is now a farmer on land adjoining Mr. Cor- 
bly's. Three of the six children in the family, 
Clara I., Andrew L. and Charles Phillips, are de- 
ceased; WilHam A., Alice E. and Louis M. sur- 
vive. The home residence is in a beautiful loca- 
tion at the foothills of the mountains in the east 
end of the Gallatin valley, the entire farm being 
thoroughly irrigated, and here Mr. Corbly raises 
luxuriant crops, wheat, oats and apples being the 
chief productions. In his orchard there are 400 

fruit -bearing trees. His favorite stock are Clyde 
horses and shorthorn cattle. Corbly canyon is the 
source of water supply for irrigation and Corbly 
creek meanders through the farm. Mr. Corbly 
served in the territorial legislature of 1880, and has 
for several years been a member of the high school 
board of Gallatin county, taking an active interest 
in all educational matters. 

CRAIG CORNELL.— Recognized as one of the 
representative stockgrowers and business men 
of Beaverhead county, and honored as one of the 
sterling pioneers of the state, Mr. Cornell merits 
definite consideration in this work, which has to do 
with the progressive men of Montana. He is a 
native of the good old Hoosier state, having been 
born in Porter county, Ind., January 8, 1839. His 
father, Isaac Cornell, was born in Allegheny coun- 
ty. Pa., where he was reared and educated, re- 
moved thence to Ohio, and from that state to In- 
diana, about the year 1835, being one of the pio- 
neer farmers of Porter county and one of its influen- 
tial citizens. He was an active participant in the 
war of 18 1 2, and it is worthy of note that his son, the 
subject of this review, purchased a portion of his 
present estate with scrip which his father received 
from the government in payment for his services 
iji the war mentioned. The Cornell lamily has 
been identified with the annals of American history 
from the early colonial epoch, and the records show 
that the paternal grandfather of our subject did 
yeoman service as a soldier in the Continental ser- 
vice during the war of the Revolution. The orig- 
inal American ancestors came hither from Scot- 
land, with whose history the name has been prom- 
inently identified for many generations. The 
maiden name of our subject's mother was Priscilla 
Morgan, who was born in West Virginia, her father 
having been the owner of a plantation in Preston 
county, the founders of the family having come 
from Wales and established themselves in the Old 
Dominion at an early day. Her father removed to 
Wayne county, Ohio, becoming a pioneer of that 
state, and there was solemnized her marriage to 
Isaac Cornell. They became the parents of eleven 
children, the subject of this review being the tenth 
in order of birth and one of the four who yet sur- 
vive. The parents died in Indiana, where they had 
maintained their home for several years. 

Craig Cornell is indebted to the public schools 


of his native state for the educational advantages 
which were his in youth, and his was the lot of the 
average farmer lad of the place and period, as he 
assisted in the work of the farm during the summer 
months and conned his lessons in the district school 
during the winters. He remained on the old home- 
stead until April 17, 1864, and then set forth on a 
long and weary overland journey, the completion 
of which gave him title to being one of the pioneers 
of Montana. He proceeded from Indiana to 
Grinnell, Iowa, the terminus of the Rock Island 
railroad, where he secured his outfit which had 
been shipped from Chicago, for the trip across the 
plains. He left Grinnell the latter part of April, 
the equipment being four wagons drawn by teams 
of four mules each, with seventeen men in the 
party. On reaching the Platte river the company 
separated, one portion making the trip from that 
point by way of Bozeman pass, while Mr. Cornell's 
party came on via Lander's cutoff. They were not 
molested by the Indians, and our subject arrived 
in Bannack on the 20th of July. He worked in 
the mines and in cutting timber until 1866, when he 
located on a ranch, a portion of which is the present 
town site of the city of Dillon. Here he engaged 
in farming and stock raising until 1871, when he 
removed to his present ranch, situated one mile 
south of Dillon, the county seat of Beaverhead 
county. He now owns a tract of 1,420 acres, and 
holds leases of contiguous tracts, making the ag- 
gregate area of land under his control 3,120 acres. 
He gives special attention to the raising of sheep 
and Norman horses and is one of the progressive 
and enterprising ranchers of the county, and stands 
as one of the prosperous and influential citizens of 
this section of the state. His ranch is a model 
one, having the best of permanent improvements, 
including a fine brick residence of modern archi- 
tectural design and equipments, having been erect- 
ed by him in 1896. In politics Mr. Cornell is un- 
wavering in his allegiance to the Democratic party, 
though ne maintains a distinctive public-spirited 
attitude, ever ready to lend his aid and influence 
in support of all projects for the advancement of 
local interests, and has always refused to permit 
his name to be brought forward in connection with 
political office. Fraternally he is identified with 
the time-honored institution of Freemasonry, be- 
ing a member of Dillon Lodge No. 30, A. F. 
&' A. M. 

On November 16, 1871, Mr. Cornell was united 
in marriage to Miss Eliza Keller, who was born in 

Ohio, the daughter of John Keller, a native of 
Maryland, whence he removed to Ohio in 1846. 
Mr. and Mrs. Cornell became the parents of four 
children : Roscoe, a graduate of the Michigan 
School of Mines, at Houghton, is now a mining 
engineer ; Estella is the wife of George Murray, 
a successful rancher of Beaverhead county; Viola, 
who is at the parental home ; and Myron, who was 
born in 1885 and died in 1893. 

A 11 r ALTER S. CORWIN.— This early pioneer 
VV of the west, now resident at L'tica, in Fergus 
county, was born in Jackson county, Iowa, Octo- 
ber 25, 1836, a son of Bartholomew and Maria 
( Kilborn) Corwin, natives of New Jersey and 
Maine, who after long time residents in Canada 
emigrated to the United States in July, 1838, and 
located in Iowa, where the father followed farm- 
ing as an occupation. He was a Republican in 
politics and a Universalist in religion. The mother 
died in 1838, when her son Walter was but two 
years old. The father lived until 1899. Foui 
children survive them — Joseph, Walter S., Anna 
and Dennis. Walter spent his early days in his 
native county, working Ijetween terms of school to 
earn the money wherewith to purchase his books 
and alothing and pay for his board. This he did 
Until he was twelve years old, and then "hired put" 
to a farmer for $13 a month, continuing with him 
until 1856. At that time he removed to Kansas, 
rented a farm for himself, and two years in succes- 
sion secured the contract to furnish hay for the gov- 
ernment at Fort Riley. In 1859 h^ took up his resi- 
dence in Central City, Col., where he prospected and 
mined for two years with moderate success. In 1861 
the Civil war induced him to return to Kansas where 
he enlisted as a .private soldier in the Federal army 
and after service through the entire war he was 
honorably discharged with the rank of first ser- 
geant. He returned to Iowa for a few months 
and in the spring of 1886 made the overland trip 
with six ox teams to Montana, starting at Omaha, 
and landing at \'irginia City three months later. On 
the way the train had several encounters with hos- 
tile Indians who were then stealing all the horses 
and mules they could. Mr. Corwin arrived safely 
at Helena and from there went to Blackfoot, pros- 
pecting until the midsummer of 1867, with little 
success. Returning to Helena he purchased the 
interest of Marion Benevento, his father's partner 



in the "Garden Spot," a fertile piece of land in 
Grizzly gulch, and also engaged in burning lime, 
which he continued at good profits until 1870. His 
next venture was in prospecting at Rattlesnake 
gulch in the Green Horn vicinity, where he re- 
mained until 1871. ■ He then entered the employ- 
ment of E. H. Train, a photographer at Helena, 
to learn the business, at a salary of $100 a year and 
his board. After a year of apprenticeship he and 
Train prospected, and soon purchased the Little 
Sampson lead on Ten Mile gulch, now known as 
Rimini. They met with no success, and in 1874 re- 
turned to photographing, visiting during the sum- 
mer the Yellowstone National Park, at that time in 
its wild state. In the meantime ]\lr. Corwin had 
rented the garden, and after his return from the 
park he resumed market gardening operations there, 
also conducted lime-burning on an extensive scale 
in partnership with Joseph O'Neill. In the fall of 
1880 he sold the lime business to O'Neill, and 
the garden to the Bedrock Water Company, and, 
moving into the Judith valley, took up homestead, 
timber and pre-emption claims, all told 480 acres, 
and engaged in raising horses for fourteen years, 
when he disposed of both horses and ranch at a 
good profit, and opened up and developed the coal 
beds located ten miles northwest of Utica. This 
coal is of excellent quality, and the annual output 
is more than 700 tons, with an increasing demand 
and ready sale for all that can be mined. 

Mr. Corwin as a stanch Republican takes great 
interest in political affairs, though in local matters 
he is not a partisan. He is a Knight of Pythias.. 
He was married in 1885 to Miss Annie Edwards, a 
native of Scotland, the daughter of William and 
Elizabeth Edwards, who emigrated from that coun- 
try to America m 1888, locating in Judith Basin, 
Fergus county, Mont., where they engaged in 
ranching. Mr. and Mrs. Corwin's only child, a 
daughter named Elizabeth M., is now a young lady 
of fifteen years. Mrs. Corwin died May 29, 1889. 
She was a devout member of the Presbyterian 
church, to which Mr. Corwni also belongs. 

OSCAR J. CRAIG, A. M., Ph. D.— Crowning 
the system of education in our vigorous young 
state is the University of Montana, created by an 
act of the state legislature, approved on February 
17, 1893, the first section of the act providing that 
the university should be located in Missoula. The 

university opened its doors for students in 1895, 
and its work has advanced in a most gratifying 
way under the efificient administration of Professor 
Craig, who was chosen as its president and is rec- 
ognized as a distinct force m the field of pedagog- 
ics. Professor Craig was born on April 18, 1846, 
in Madison, Jefferson county, Ind., the son of Miles 
W. and Mary S. (Feather) Craig, the former born 
in Highland county, Ohio, and the latter in Berks 
county. Pa. The father, a farmer, removed from 
(Jhio to Indiana in 1826, becoming a pioneer of 
Jefferson county, where he passed a long and use- 
ful life. The paternal grandfather of Professor 
Craig was Walter Craig, a native of Wheeling, W. 
\a. As a surveyor in the employ of the federal 
government, he assisted in the original surveys of 
Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. He mar- 
ried Miss Mary Stuart, a representative of an old 
and influential Virginia family. Walter Craig was 
supposed to have been killed by Indians in Wis- 
consin, the exact nature of his fate being veiled in 
obscurity. The family is of Scotch-Irish extrac- 
tion, and the origmal American ancestors came 
hither prior to the Revolution. The maternal 
grandparents of President Craig were of English 
descent, the grandfather having been born 
in London. Miles W. Craig enlisted in the Sixth 
Indiana Infantry in 1861 and was drowned while 
embarking on the Ohio river at Madison. 

Oscar J. Craig, the sixth of the five sons and 
two daughters of his parents, attained mature life 
on the parental farmstead, receiving his early edu- 
cation in the public schools. In 1863 he enlisted 
in the First Indiana Heavy Artillery, being then 
but seventeen years of age, and his command was 
sent to the Department of the Gulf, where he partici- 
pated in the battles of Baton Rouge, Alexandria and 
Fort Balow, La., and was honorably discharged 
from service in 1865. Professor Craig then, in 1866, 
matriculated in Asbury University, at Greencastle, 
Ind., but before completing the prescribed course 
. engaged in teaching in Indiana and Illinois, event- 
ually returning to the university, where he gradu- 
ated in the class of 1881 with the degree of Bache- 
lor of Arts, his alma mater two years later confer- 
ring upon him the master's degree, while in 1887 the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy was given him 
by Wooster (Ohio) University. In 1880 Profes- 
sor Craig was elected superintendent of the city 
schools at Sullivan, Ind., and at the expiration of 
three years service he was elected principal of the 
academic department of Purdue University, in 


Indiana, retaining this incumbency four years, af- 
ter which he was advanced to the chair of history 
and poHtical science, which he held until 1895, when 
he was elected president of the newly-established 
University of Montana. 

Professor Craig arrived at Missoula in July, 1895, 
and the outlook was not flattering, for nothing had 
been done toward the erection of the university 
buildings, while -the work had scarcely been outlined. 
It was a herculean task to which he set himself, 
but his courage and confidence were ample. Vig- 
orous work and constant agitation of the needs of 
the university brought the desired results, and 
whatever the institution may come to be in the fu- 
ture, there will ever remain to the first president 
the most distinguished honors, for it was his to lay 
fast and solid its foundations. He gained the 
earnest co-operation of the official board, but his 
was the real labor, his the dominating influence. Un- 
der President Craig's administration and manage- 
ment the fine university buildings have been com- 
pleted and put into use, the requisite equipment has 
been installed, and upon him to a large extent has 
devolved the duty of selecting a faculty for the uni- 
versity, which opened its doors on September 11, 
1895. The president seeks no rest from his exact- 
ing labors, but is indefatigable in urging the 
claims of the university, leaving nothing undone 
that can possibly advance its worthy cause. At 
the opening of the university fifty students were 
enrolled, and the South Side school building of 
Missoula was used to provide the required ac- 
commodations, pending the erection of the build- 

In February, 1899, the university took possession 
of its own buildings, which are admirably fitted for 
the desired purposes, and are alike creditable to 
the state, the official board and the president. In 
the meantime the lands which had been donated 
for the site of the buildings by E. L. Bonner and 
Hon. Frank Higgins, had been fenced by the Mis- 
soula board of trade and a number of trees planted. 
On Arbor day, 1896, a large concourse, including 
secret and church societies, assembled and paid 
honor to the day and the institution by planting a 
large number of trees, which will lend perpetual 
grace to the campus. The legislature of 1897 
gave authority to bond the income of the lands set 
aside for the support of the university to provide 
permanent buildings, and bonds were issued to the 
amount of $100,000, at six per cent, interest, bear- 
ing date of July i, 1897. These bonds sold at a 

premium, and two substantial and attractive build- 
ings, University Hall and Science Hall, have been 
erected and equipped. They were completed on 
February 18, 1899, and were turned over to the 
university with appropriate ceremonies, in the pres- 
ence of the legislature, which was present in a 
body. The members of the building committee 
were John R. Lattimer, Alfred Cave, George C. 
Higgins, J. K. Woods and E. A. Winstanly, on 
whose removal from the state H. C. Stoddard was 
appointed. This committee completed the build- 
ings and improved the grounds, saving seventy- 
four dollars after paying all indebtedness. 

The university is now well-equipped for the suc- 
cess of its work, the members of the faculty having 
been chosen with careful discrimination, while the 
general administration remains with one who has 
clearly demonstrated his ability to cope with execu- 
tive problems. He has charge of the department 
of history and philosophy, but the demands upon 
his time are inexorable and exacting in the more 
purely executive capacity. President Craig is 
identified with the fraternal order of Freemasonry 
and also with one of the college fraternities. In 
Kansas, on August 25, 1875, Dr. Craig married 
with Miss Narcissa E. Gasaway, a native of Indi- 
ana, and they have three children, Mary A., a grad- 
uate of Purdue University and now librarian of the 
Montana University ; William O., a member of the 
class of 1902 in the university, and Vincent W. S., 
a member of the preparatory class of the university. 

JOHN COWAN, one of the best type of the rep- 
resentative citizens of Gallatin county, who 
is rapidly coming to the front as a successful ranch- 
man, is fully entitled to the respect and confidence 
which he receives. Originally the Cowans were 
Virginians, a prominent and aristocratic family, 
the paternal grandfather, Jackson Cowan, remov- 
ing from Virginia to Pulaski county, Ky., where his 
son, also Jackson Cowan, was born, and where 
he resided until his death. The wife of Jackson 
Cowan, Jr., the mother of John Cowan, was a Miss 
Penelope Saunders, also a native of Pulaski county. 
The father of John Cowan also passed his life in 
Kentucky, where he was a farmer. 

Born on December 22, 1851, the John Cowan, of 
Gallatin, remained with his parents until 1877, em- 
ployed on his father's and neighboring farms and 
attending the schools of his home. In 1877 he 


started on "a hazard of new fortunes" in the west. 
He came b)^ railway to Corinne, Utah, bringing a 
carload of mules and, outfitted for freighting, thus 
continued on to Bozeman, where he arrived on 
June 21, 1877. Remaining occupied with the 
freighting business until fall he then sold out and 
located a homestead in the Gallatin valley, to which 
he has added land until he now has 400 acres, thor- 
oughly irrigated by a practical system. The im- 
provements on this property are of the most sub- 
stantial character and include a handsome resi- 
dence and suitable buildings for the care of stock. 
On November 28, 1882, Mr. Cowan was married 
to Miss Nannie J. Lee, a native of Pulaski county, 
Ky., a daughter of F. B. Lee, now a prominent 
stockgrower on Shield's river, Mont. To them 
have been born seven interesting children, Edward, 
Penelope, Thomas, Robert, Mark C, Nora and 
Hazel. Mr. Cowan is now serving as school trus- 
tee with every evidence of satisfaction to those 
whose interests are involved. His fraternal affili- 
ations are with the Woodmen of the World, of 
which he is a highly esteemed and influential 

HON. HERBERT L. CRAM.— The multiplicity 
of duties and opportunities and the close ar- 
ticulation with governmental affairs which Ameri- 
can citizenship entails, gives every man an interest 
in public matters, and a knowledge of them accord- 
ing to his capacity and desire. Each has his finger 
on the public pulse, for each is, in his measure, a 
part of the governing power. Hence when duty 
calls one to public office he is ready for its functions 
without special preparation, because his entire pre- 
vious life has oeen a general preparation. Hon. 
Herbert L. Cram, representative for Lewis and 
Clarke county in the Montana legislature, is not a 
legislator by profession or by training, yet he has 
exhibited the elements of safe guardianship for the 
public interests and diUgent attention to the public 
needs, so far in his legislative term, and is filling 
his office capably, faithfully, and with an exalted 
sense of duty, as was to be inferred from his pre- 
vious record of business success and public useful- 
ness. Mr. Cram is a native of Gorham, Cumber- 
land county, Maine, where he was born November 
3, 1858, and where his ancestors had lived for sev- 
eral generations. His parents were Otis and 
Harriet (Emery) Cram, of old Massachusetts stock. 
The father was both a stonemason and a carpen- 

ter, but passed the greater portion of his life in the 
independent vocation of farming. He died in his 

native county in 1872, surviving by two years his 
faithful wife, who passed away in 1870. They had 
six sons and three daughters and three of the sons 
are now Montana residents in Lewis and Clarke 

Attending the public schools near the home of 
his nativity, and acquiring a practical knowledge of 
New England farming, Herbert L. Cram passed the 
first eighteen years of his life. In June, 1877, 
when he was less than nineteen years old, he came 
to Montana and located near Helena, where he has 
since followed ranching and given close and intel- 
ligent attention to public affairs m general and the 
best interests of his immediate section in particu- 
lar. His success in business has been steady, con- 
stant and ample, and his influence in the govern- 
ment of his community and in creating and direct- 
ing public sentiment has widened in scope and in- 
creased in power in direct proportion as the ex- 
cellence of his judgment, the breadth of his view, 
the loftiness of his aims and the mtegrity of his 
character have become known to his fellow citizens. 

Mr. Cram owns a very valuable ranch in Prickly 
Pear valley, near Helena, consisting of 180 acres, 
in addition to over 500 acres of leased lands, on 
which he raises abundant crops of hay and superior 
grades of stock, consisting of about 150 head of 
cattle and horses. The property is improved with 
a fine residence of modern type, fitted up with con- 
sideration for the comfort of its inmates, equipped 
with every convenience known to modern house- 
keeping and adorned with every evidence of good 
taste. The barns, sheds and other outbuildings 
are in keeping with the dwelling; and all the appli- 
ances for ranch work are of the best. In political 
affiliations Mr. Cram is an ardent, active and very 
useful Democrat, rendering excellent service to his 
party whether bearing the flag or following it — 
never surrendering its principles. It is this faith- 
ful, continual and helpful devotion to its welfare, 
with his generally acknowledged manliness and 
fitness for representative duties, that made him the 
choice of the party for a member of the lower 
house of the state legislature and secured his elec- 
tion. He was chairman of the committee on state 
institutions, and a member of those on appropria- 
tion and irrigation. In fraternal relations he is 
identified with the United Workmen and the Order 
of Elks. On January 11, 1883, Mr. Cram was mar- 
ried to Miss Ina M. Jones, a native of Montana 


and daughter of John Jones, one of the most es- 
teemed pioneers of Lewis and Clarke county, a 
more extended notice of whom will be found else- 
where in this work. Mrs. Cram's cordial and 
gracious manner and usefulness in every good 
work are as much esteemed on the social side of 
life as Mr. Cram's keen vision and business acu- 
men are on the -commercial. They have four 
children, Maud F., Cora B., Emma H. and Roy C, 
and their home is a center of genial and genuine 
hospitality. In the winter they reside in Helena 
to have the best educational advantages for the 
children. Mr. Cram is yet a comparatively young 
man and his past success, present prominence, 
manly vigor, well-directed energy and broad, strong 
hold on the confidence and esteem of his fellow- 
men bespeak for him more abundant financial tri- 
umphs, higher political honors and more extended 
public usefulness. 

HON. PARIS GIBSON, LL. D.— Public hon- 
ors of distinguished order have come to thfs 
distinguished gentleman, not the least being his 
election to represent Montana in the senate of the 
United States after the long and memorable con- 
test in the state legislature during its session of 
1 900- 1 90 1. But other prestige is his in connection 
with Montana history. He was the discoverer and 
practically the founder of the city of Great Falls. 
That he has had valuable and timely assistance is 
true, but the idea was born in his active brain, the 
design wrought out by him and the fruition 
achieved by his indefatigable energy and rare exec- 
utive power. To him the tests of time and experi- 
ence have been applied, and in many and widely 
dififering ways he is shown as one of the most 
prominent citizens of Montana. To say this is sim- 
ply to reaffirm that which is uniformly admitted. 

Paris Gibson was born at Brnwnfield, Oxford 
county. Me., on July i, 1830, the son of Abel and 
Ann (Howard) Gibson, the former of Scotch and 
the latter of English lineage. As a soldier in the 
English army during the colonial French war, Tim- 
othy Gibson, the grandfather of Paris, came from 
England to the colonies, while the maternal grand- 
father, Joseph Howard, was a valiant soldier in 
the Continental line during the war of the Revolu- 
tion, in which extant records show that he partic- 
ipated in the battle of Saratoga and was present 
at the surrender of Burgoyne. Abel Gibson was 

born in New Hampshire and was a farmer and lum- 
berman by occupation. He died in His sixty-second 
year, having reared a family of seven children, and 
was long survived by his widow, who was a native 
of Maine and lived to be nearly ninety. Of the 
children three daughters and Hon. Paris Gibson are 
the only survivors. 

Mr. Gibson had exceptional educational advan- 
tages and he was graduated from old Bowdoin Col- 
Itge at Brunswick, Me., a member of the class of 
185 1. Some of the leaders of diplomacy, law and 
other spheres of thought who now occupy high 
places in the nation were then students of Bowdoin. 
We will only mention of the many mighty names 
those of Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller and United 
States Senator ^A'illiam P. Frye. (In 1901 his alma 
mater conferred upon him the degree of LL. D.) 
Shortly after his graduation Mr. Gibson was elected 
a representative from Oxford county to the legisla- 
ture of Maine, but upon the death of his father he 
returned to the old homestead and conducted it for 
a number of years, acquiring there the practical 
knowledge of farming which he has used so often 
and- well in forwarding the interests of Montana. 
In 1858 Minneapolis, Minn., was an insignificant 
town of but a few hundred population, in fact the 
name was scarcely known, the place being popularly 
designated St. Anthony's Falls. But in that year 
Mr. Gibson located in that embryonic city, which 
was to be in the future the great flour emporium 
of the world. Here his sagacity and broad mental 
ken manifested themselves. In association with 
William G. Eastman he built the Cataract mill, 
the first flouring mill of that city, and subsequently 
he erected and operated the North Star woolen 
mills, which soon became noted for the superiority 
of their products. Then the panic of 1873 swept 
over the country, a besom of financial destruction 
to thousands. Business reverses fell heavily on 
Mr. Gibson, and in 1879 h^ came to Fort Benton, 
}*Iont.. not discouraged and ready in a newer field 
to put forth every effort for the legitimate recoup- 
ing of his prostrated fortunes. Associated with 
Henry McDonald Mr. Gibson that year interested 
himself in the sheep business, the two being con- 
cerned in driving one of the first bands into north- 
ern Montana. Nor has Mr. Gibson since neglected 
this important industry. To promote the interests 
(^f the flockmaster and to advance the sheepgrow- 
ing industry in Montana no man has done more 
than has Mr. Gibson. From an infant industry he 
has seen it grow to be one of magnificent scope and 

c^h^ 41^-1^ 



importance in the resources and productive activi- 
ties of the state. 

The great falls of the Missouri river first came 
under the observation of Senator Gibson in 1882. 
He immediately instituted a careful and extended 
examination of the resources of the surrounding 
country and became more and more impressed with 
the value and possibilities of the unlimited water- 
power, the inexhaustible measures of coal and the 
vast extent of agricultural and grazing lands of the 
surrounding portion of the state. He forthwith 
assumed the herculean task of converting these 
vast untouched virgin resources to the benefit of 
mankind, and also the additional labor of founding 
a city on the then unpeopled lands by these cata- 
racts of the Missouri. He laid his plans before 
the present railroad magnate, James J. Hill, in No- 
vember, 1884, and that executive genius readily 
consented to act as his coadjutor in the vast under- 
takings. To acquire townsite title and coal land 
was the work of two years. Thus, in a certain 
sense, the founding of-the city dates back to 1884, 
though more technically it cannot be said to have 
had its definite inception until 1887. Then it was 
that the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Rail- 
road, now a portion of the Great Northern system, 
was completed to that- point. Marvelous progress 
has been made by the city since that eventful pe- 
riod. Where at that time were only a few rude 
cabins and primitive business houses is now a mod- 
ern and attractive city of more than 15,000 popula- 
tion. With the exception of that of Niagara Falls 
it possesses the greatest water power in the United 
States. It has large smelters, refineries and flour- 
ing mills, a rapidly increasing population of desir- 
able citizens and the day is not far distant when 
Great Falls will be the leading industrial city of 
the northwest. 

Since the town had origin, since it emerged from 
nothingness to industrial life and restless activity, 
Mr. Gibson has been intimately connected with its 
affairs and he well merits the title so often and 
proudly conferred upon him by its people, that of 
"father of Great Falls." He has engaged in real 
estate business, stockgrowing and mining. Of 
the public park system of Great Falls, unequaled in 
the northwest between St. Paul and Portland, Mr. 
Gibson is the promoter, sustainer and supervisor. 
To the general development of the coal, iron and 
agricultural interests in the Great Falls region he 
has devoted time and attention. The record made 
bv Senator Gibson in his strenuous labors of 

founding a city is one that has won to him the es- 
teem and confidence of all patriotic citizens of the 
place, and his efforts have not lacked appreciation 
throughout the entire state, as the general welfare 
of the state and the whole northwest are greatly 
promoted by all such worthy and legitimate enter- 
prises. Individually and collectively the people of 
Montana speak of him in terms of highest com- 

Mr. Gibson has been connected with various fra- 
ternal organizations and is now an active member 
of the Elks. In religion he has ever been broad 
and liberal, a Universalist in belief. As there is no 
church of that faith in Great Falls he affiliates with 
the Unitarian Society. 

On August 18, 1858, Mr. Gibson was united in 
marriage with Miss Valeria G. Sweat, daughter of 
Dr. Jesse P. and Eliza W. Sweat, who was born in 
Brownfield, Oxford county, Me., on November 
30, 1839. Mrs. Gibson died at Great Falls, Mont., 
on August 19, 1900. The two sons of this union, 
Philip and Theodore, are residents of Great Falls. 

Politically Senator Gibson has ever given an un- 
faltering allegiance to the Democratic party, and in 
this field, as elsewhere, has been shown the power 
of his forceful individuality. He was a member of 
the constitutional convention which in 1889 framed 
the present constitution of the state, and he was 
elected to represent his district in the first state 
senate, where he wielded the influence implied in 
his mature judgment and prominent experience in 
connection with affairs of great scope and impor- 
tance. He has been inflexibly arrayed in support of 
the consolidation of all the state institutions of 
higher learning into one, the University of Mon- 
tana, and, though the measure introduced by him 
was defeated, he still believes, as do many other 
prominent men of the state, that the dissipation of 
the educational forces through several channels is 
unwise economy, and that it has been demonstrated 
in other states of the northwest. The dignified 
office of United States senator was conferred upon 
Mr. Gibson as the result of the balloting in the state 
legislative assembly of 1900-igoi, where it is a 
matter of record that a deadlock was maintained 
for many days, Mr. Gibson being elected on March 
8, 1 901, on the twenty-third ballot of that day and 
the sixty-sixth ballot of the session. This compli- 
ment was all the more pronounced when it is taken 
into consideration that he had not been an aspirant 
for the honor and that the forces rallied to his sup- 
port with marked enthusiasm and by his election 



ended one of the most memorable legislative con- 
tests in the history of the nation. In the hands of 
Senator Gibson the interests of the state are safely 
reposed so far as he is able to foster and protect 
them through the dignified office to which he has 
been called, and the distinction thus conferred upon 
him is one that is recognized as a just reward for 
his able and effective labors as one of the progres- 
sive and loyal citizens of Montana. 

ARTHUR J. CRAVEN.— A district in York- 
shire, England, of peculiar dialect and cus- 
toms, is known as Craven (originally Craigpen), so- 
called from the outcropping rockheads with which 
it abounds. Families are still resident there bear- 
ing the name and having a common ancestry with 
the American branches of the family whose fore- 
fathers came here during the early days of the col- 
onies. One of these branches settled in New Jer- 
sey and afterwards afforded to history names which 
are illustrious, particularly in the United States 
Navy. Another branch settled in Pennsylvania, 
the original American progenitor (or his son 
James) being a purchaser of land from William 
Penn, within seven miles of Penn's manor. Ar- 
thur J. Craven, of Helena, Mont., is descended 
from the Pennsylvania family. His mother's par- 
ents (her father a Wilson, her mother a Gaston) 
represented the best elements of the Scotch-Irish 
and the French Huguenot, and were also de- 
scended from families who came to America in the 
days of the colonies. Both his paternal and ma- 
ternal ancestors were valiant defenders of Ameri- 
can liberty in the Revolution and in the war of 
1812. Thomas Craven, his great-grandfather, was 
with Washington at Trenton, Princeton and Val- 
ley Forge, and, according to the records of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, died in Indiana 
county in 1832. John Gill Craven, the father of 
Arthur J., was born in Franklin county, Ind., April 
2, 1823. He was graduated from Miami Univer- 
sity, situated in the neighboring town of Oxford, 
Ohio, and completed a theological course in a sem- 
inary at Covington, Ky. He was a teacher and 
preacher, particularly active in the anti-slavery 
agitation in favor of the freedom of the slaves. 
Martha Wilson, the mother of Arthur J. Craven, 
was a woman of gentle refinement and beautiful 
character. She was born in Paint Creek town- 
ship, Ross county, Ohio, on June 8, 1827, and was 
educated at South Salem Academy. 

From this parentage Arthur J. Craven was born 
at Lancaster, Ind., on December 12, 1857, where 
his father had charge of an academy. When he 
was between three and four years of age the family 
moved to Minnesota, his father seeking improve- 
ment in health by a change of climate and resolv- 
ing to adopt more exclusively his chosen work in 
the ministry. And thus in Minnesota there com- 
menced the usual itineracy of the pioneer preacher, 
an experience full of hardship for himself and his 
family, fraught with all privations incident to the 
frontier, and with the dangers and alarms attendant 
on the Indian massacre in 1862. When ten years of 
age, after attending his first school at Mankato, his 
parents moved to Iowa. They settled first at 
Pella, where Arthur's education was resumed in the 
schools of that town, ostensibly public schools in 
those days, but dominated by the Hollanders, 
whose colonies had settled there and in the coun- 
try surrounding. From Pella the itineracy of the 
preacher led the family, which then numbered 
five boys and two girls, to a brush farm in Inde- 
pendence township, Jasper county, Iowa. Here 
the boys learned to rescue a family homestead 
from hazel brush and scrub oaks, attended school 
in the winter and enjoyed withal the many pleas- 
ures coupled with the rigorous discipline of coun- 
try life. In 1872, the parents seeking an oppor- 
tunity for the higher education of their children, 
traded the farm for an academy property with 
farm lands adjacent at Irving, a small village on 
the western line of Benton county, Iowa. This 
academy soon developed into a normal school for 
advanced pupils from the surrounding country, in 
which young Craven was thoroughly grounded in 
the common English branches of an education. 
When sixteen years of age he passed the examina- 
tion for a teacher's certificate and taught a public 
school in one of the country districts, receiving 
therefor twenty-five dollars a month. Becoming 
ambitious for a higher education and his parents 
being without means to send him away to school, 
he taught five terms in the country schools and 
bade a final farewell to his home life on departing 
for the State University at Iowa City, when he was 
nineteen years of age. Here, by dint of labor in 
vacations, teaching part of the time in connection 
with the prosecution of his college studies, editing 
the college paper, and with the aid of a loan from 
one of the members of the faculty, he succeeded 
in being graduated with his class, forty in number, 
from the classical course in the spring of 1882. In 


college he was eminent in literary work, taking the 
class prize in the junior year, and winning first 
place in the year following in a literary contest 
among the representatives from twelve of the vari- 
ous colleges of the state. Going then in 1882 as 
the state representative to Indianapolis, he entered 
the inter-state contest for oratory, meeting there 
the representatives of five other states and received 
second honors. 

The year following his graduation he was super- 
intendent of schools at West Branch, Iowa, and 
was thus able to pay his college debt and have a 
surplus left for preparing himself for admission to 
the bar. He read law in th.e office of Judge H. S. 
W'inslow in Newton, Jasper county, was admitted 
to practice on July 30, 1884, married Miss Emily 
Kerr, an estimable lady of Scotch ancestry, the sis- 
ter of his college chum, and sought a location in 
the west, coming direct to Helena, where he ar- 
rived on August 7, 1884, and after an mterval of 
one year passed in teaching, in order to obtain 
some law books, he engaged in the practice of law. 
Devoting himself to the earnest prosecution of his 
profession he has always enjoyed the fullest con- 
fidence of his numerous clients and friends, and 
ranks well with his associates at the bar. Seem- 
ingly desirous in the past to avoid digressions 
into active politics, he, nevertheless, has often re- 
sponded in the various campaigns to the demands 
upon him, and has always proven himself a force- 
ful, effective speaker, while on numerous public oc- 
casions, upon topics of patriotic, educational or 
general interest, he is accorded a place, by his audi- 
ences, among the best orators of the state. Gener- 
ous in his estimation of others, sincere in his devo- 
tion to principles, honest in his dealings, indepen- 
dent in thought, he is a type of citizenship which 
counts in the estimation of the elements which 
make for moral and civic progress. Among useful 
positions of trust held by him are these : Mem- 
ber of Helena school board for three years ; city at- 
torney of Helena ; member of the constitutional 
convention ; president of the Montana Society of 
Sons of the American Revolution ; member of 
fourth legislative assembly (in which he was chair- 
man of the judiciary committee) ; president of Hel- 
ena Athletic Association ; past master of Morning 
Star Lodge, A. F. & A. M.; master workman of 
Capitol Lodge No. 2, A. O. U. W. ; chairman com- 
mittee on laws of the Grand Lodge, A. O. U. W. ; 
member of board of First Unitarian Society of 
Helena ; member of the board of trustees of Mon- 

tana Historical Society (appointed by Governor 
Smith, re-appointed by Governor Toole). His 
home is cheered by three children, two boys, Les- 
lie and Wilson, and one girl, Margaret. 

^j^HEOPHILUS B. GRAVER.— Among the 
1 many gentlemen whose personal sketches with 
varying nationalities, early environments, individ- 
ual advantages and accompHshments of those rep- 
resented as founders and builders of the common- 
wealth of Montana, which appear in this volume, 
Mr. Graver stands well to the front. An honored 
veteran of the Civil war, the greatest the world has 
ever known, he is now one of the prominent farm- 
ers and stockgrowers of Beaverhead county, his 
well improved ranch being located twelve miles 
northwest of the village of Red Rock, his postoffice 

]\Ir. Graver is a native of Gloucester county, N. 
J., where he was born February 9, 1847, the eighth 
in order of birth of the sixteen children of Samuel 
P. and Elizabeth (Nelson) Graver, the former also 
born in New Jersey, his father, however, having 
been born in Hanover, Germany, coming to the 
United States about the opening of the nineteenth 
century and locating in New Jersey, where he de- 
voted the residue of his life to agricultural pursuits. 
Sanmel P. was a farmer in his native state, and in 
1852 removed to Indiana, where he remained until 
1855, and thence to Iowa, where he followed farm- 
ing until his death, which occurred in 1894. The 
mother of our subject was also born in New Jer- 
sey, as was her father, Samuel Nelson, who was of 
English lineage and an active participant in the war 
of 1812. Elizabeth (Nelson) Graver died in For- 
est Home, Iowa, in the year 1873. 

Theophilus B. Graver, our subject, was educated 
in the public schools of Indiana and Iowa, and was 
but fourteen years of age when the thundering of 
rebel guns against the walls of old Fort Sumter 
aroused his loyal and patriotic nature, and his youth- 
ful enthusiasm was kindled to definite action. He 
enlisted in Gompany E, Fourth Iowa Volunteer 
Gavalry, and was mustered at Grinnell, that state, 
in November, 1863. After a short interval de- 
voted to drilling and tactical work he joined the 
regiment at Glear Greek, Miss., in January, 1864, 
and the first battle in which it participated was that 
at Guntown. The Union forces were commanded 
by Gen. Sturgis, but were driven back to Memphis, 



Tenn. Gen. A. J. Smith then assumed command, 
and the next engagement in which the regiment 
took part was that at Tupelo, Miss., after which 
it returned to Memphis and later took part in the 
battle at Oxford, and thence sent across the Mis- 
sissippi river to head off Gen. Price. At Browns- 
ville, Ark., Price succeeded in getting his command, 
through, and the Fourth Iowa thereafter followed 
him through the White and Black river valleys in 
Arkansas and into Missouri. Thence the regiment 
proceeded to Cape Girardeau and on to St. Louis, 
after which it crossed the state and overtook Price 
at Independence, up to which time Gen. Alfred 
Pleasanton had been in command. At that point 
Gen. Curtis assumed command and the regiment 
was under him until the close of the Price cam- 
paign. A number of engagements took place be- 
tween Independence and Fort Scott, following 
Price through Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas and In- 
dian Territory. Mr. Graver participated in the 
charge near Pleasanton, Kan., in which Gen. Mar- 
maduke was taken prisoner, the troops engaged 
being Winslow's and Phillip's brigades of cavalry. 
The Fourth Iowa was at Webber's Falls, I. T.,when 
Lincoln was elected president for his second term. 
They returned to Springfield, Mo., and during the 
eight days' march to that point from Arkansas 
but one day's rations were issued. Arriving in 
St. Louis they were sent to Louisville, Ky., where 
they remained until February, 1865, and then 
ordered to Gravelly Spring, Ala., and assigned to 
Gen. James H. Wilson's cavalry corps, and partici- 
pated in the campaign through that state and Geor- 
gia. The regiment was engaged at Montevallo ; 
was in the hard fight near Ebenezer church on the 
first of April, and on the next day the command 
took the city of Selma. From that point they 
marched across Alabama by way of Mont- 
gomery, after having devoted a week to building 
a bridge across the river at Selma. On the i6th 
of April they had a severe engagement with the 
enemy at Columbus, Ga. At that time they had 
not learned of Lee's surrender and continued the 
march to Macon, Ga., where the good tidings 
reached them. The regiment remained in Georgia 
until August, when it was mustered out, our sub- 
ject receiving an honorable discharge on the 24th of 
that month at Davenport, Iowa. 

Having thus rendered valiant service to the re- 
public, Mr. Graver returned to his home and re- 
sumed his educational work. He attended school 
in Mount Pleasant and Grinnell, and thereafter com- 

pleted a course in the business college at Daven- 
port, where he was graduated in 1871. He then 
found employment in connection with a lumbering 
business at Grinnell, and was thus engaged for four 
years. In 1873 he engaged in the drug business at 
Grinnell and conducted this enterprise until 1878, 
when he sold out. In 1879 Mr. Graver came to 
Montana, locating at Noblesville, where he ran a 
quartz-mill during the winter of 1879-80, and in 
June removed to the city of Butte, and for two 
years was engaged in lumbering and as a grocery 
clerk. In the sprmg of 1882 he came to Beaver- 
head county, leasing a band of sheep, and has since 
been identified with the stock-growing industry in 
this section of the state. In December, 1886, he 
purchased a tract of land, the nucleus of his present 
ranch, which, with leased tracts, aggregates 3,000 
acres. He herds an average of 6,000 sheep, prin- 
cipally of the Rambouillet, or American Delaine, 
type ; he also raises cattle, and is a fancier of poul- 
try, to which line he has devoted no little attention. 
He has been very successful in his efforts and is 
known as one of the progressive ranch men of this 
section, whose integrity and honor in all the rela- 
tions of life have gained uniform respect and con- 

Politically Mr. Craver is identified with the Re- 
publican party, and in 1892 he was elected county 
commissioner, serving one year. He has also 
done effective service as justice of the peace and as 
a member of the board of school trustees. Fra- 
ternally he is a member of Steadman Post No. 8, 
G. A. R., at Dillon, in which he has been honored 
with the office of commander ; is also identified with 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen. His 
religious faith is that of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, which he has served as steward, trustee and 
superintendent of the Sunday school. 

On August 31, 1874, Mr. Craver was united in 
marriage to Miss Mary D. Noble, who was born in 
Iowa, whence she came to Montana the year prior 
to her marriage. Of the eight children of this 
union three are living: Flora E., Oleta E. and 
Thomas Arthur. The family stands high in the 
esteem of the community and are prominent in 
connection with its best social life. 

I j ENRY CROUS.— Among the prominent and 
1 I successful farmers and stockgrowers of Gal- 
latin valley is Mr. Croi.i'-,, a sterling pioneer of Mon- 



tana, and held in esteem b}' the entire community, 
his Hfe having been one of signal honor and use- 
iulness. Mr. Crous is a native of Marion coimty, 
Ohio, where he was born October 9, 1834, a son of 
William Crous, who emigrated from Germany, lo- 
cating in Ohio. He was a tailor by occupation, 
but after coming to America devoted his attention 
principally to agricultural pursuits. He eventual- 
ly removed to Illinois, where he passed the re- 
mainder of his Hfe. His wife bore the name of 
Mary Crous; they became the parents of six chil- 
dren, five of whom are now living. 

Henry Crous passed his early life in Ohio and 
Illinois, and his educational advantages were se- 
cured in the public schools. He early became in- 
ured to work on the homestead farm, and after at- 
taining maturity continued to devote his attention 
to that line of occupation until 1864, when he start- 
ed on the long journey which made him one of 
Montana's pioneers. En route the party found 
many newly-made graves, some being hardly a 
day old, thus designating the fatalities that had at- 
tended preceding emigrant trains. Incongruous 
as it may seem, Mr. Crous recalls that he saw one 
supposed grave, above which was placed a board 
on which were inscribed the names of those whose 
bodies were ostensibly interred beneath. It transr 
pired later, however, that the "grave" was the de- 
pository of two barrels of whisky. He arrived at 
Bannack on July 8, 1864, and there remained until 
March of the following year, having engaged in 
mining with but meagre success. He next moved to 
Virginia City, where he remained until the follow- 
ing September. During that month an election was 
held in the camp, and the day following Mr. Crous 
became a member of quite a large party that start- 
ed on the return trip to the east. They encount- 
ered no particular difficulty, though they passed 
the charred remains of several camps, and found 
a number of Indian bodies, indicating conflicts that 
had occurred between the red men and the emi- 
grants. Reaching Illinois Mr. Crous remained 
until the spring of 1866, when he once more made 
the trip to Montana, arriving in Virginia City in 
due course of time and thence proceeding to the 
Highland district, where he devoted some three 
months to prospecting. His next enterprise was 
that of teaming to Forts Benton and Peck, and was 
identified with the freighting business for a period 
of two years. In July, 1869, he came to Gallatin 
valley ; in the fall of the succeeding year he took 
up a tract of land with a view to establishing a 

home and engaging in farming, having devoted a 
fruitless summer to prospecting. The land which 
he entered in the early days is the nucleus of his 
present fine ranch, which embraces 560 acres, a 
large portion being under effective irrigation and 
yielding handsome crops of wheat, oats and other 
farm products. The permanent miprovemcnts on 
the place are excellent, including a substantial and 
commodious residence, beautifully located. The 
creek which runs across the farm is well protected 
and affords an adequate supply of water for irrigat- 
ing a considerable portion of the farm. Mr. Crous 
has two fine orchards on his place, principally apple 
and crab-apple trees ; but he has large herds of 
horses and high-grade cattle, so that his opera- 
tions are in every way analogous to those in other 
sections of the state, and aggregate greater re- 
turns than are possible in the eastern states. The 
ranch homestead is located near Spring Hill, his 
postoffice address. Mr. Crous gives his political 
support to the Democrat party, and in every way 
shows a deep interest in whatever appertains to 
the material prosperity and advancement of the 
community. He is thoroughly public-spirited and 
progressive and is recognized as one of the reliable 
and straightforward citizens of this favored sec- 
tion, which has been his home for more than a 
quarter of a century, and where he has proven that 
successful effort in agricultural pursuits is but the 
result of intelligent application and determination. 
On April 10, 1877, Mr. Crous was united in 
marriage to Miss Anna Millhouse, who was born 
in Illinois, the daughter of Frederick Millhouse, 
who has devoted his active life to blacksmith- 
ing and is now (1901) Hving in Illinois, at the patri- 
archial age of ninety-one years. Mr. and Mrs. 
Crous are the parents of eight children : Lizzie 
Cora, Fred William, Minnie Catherine, Orvis 
George, Walter Henry, Arthur Edward, Bertha 
Edith and Lester Earl. Mr. Crous is a member 
of the board of school trustees, and fraternally is 
identified with the Sons of Hermann. 

HON. WILLIAM E. CULLEN.— In no field 
of human endeavor is there- greater oppor- 
tunity for advancement than in that of the law — a 
profession whose votaries must, if successful, be 
endowed with native talent, sterUng rectitude of 
character and singleness of purpose ; while equally 
important concomitants are close study, careful 
application and broad general knowledge super- 



added to that of more specific and technical order. 
Among the distinguished legists who have lent 
dignity to the bar of Montana and who have taken 
a prominent part in shaping the political history of 
the territory and state is Hon. William E. Cullen, 
one of Montana's sterling pioneers and a member 
of the present firm of Cullen, Day & Cullen, of 
Helena. He is familiarly known as Judge Cullen, 
and though he now maintains his home in the city 
of Spokane, Wash., he still continues in active 
practice in Montana, and this resume will be of in- 
terest to his many friends here and of value as a 
memorial amid the annals of the state. 

William E. Cullen is a native of Richland county, 
Ohio, born in the city of Mansfield, on June 30, 
1837, his parents having been numbered among 
the pioneers of the Buckeye state. In the agnatic 
line Judge Cullen traces his lineage back to stanch 
Scottish extraction. The original American rep- 
resentative was the great-grandfather of the Judge, 
and he emigrated from the city of Edinburg to 
America in 1768. He was a man of fine intellec- 
tual attainments and scholarly habits, being a pro- 
fessor of Greek, and in such capacity becoming a 
member of the faculty of one of the early colleges 
in the State of Pennsylvania. He left a son John, 
whose son Thomas W. was the father of the im- 
mediate subject of this review. Thomas W. Cul- 
len was a manufacturer of woolen goods in Penn- 
sylvania, where was consummated his marriage to 
Miss Isabel Morrison in the year 1805. Remov- 
ing to Ohio in the year 1835, they passed the resi- 
due of their lives m that state, where the father 
died at the age of seventy-seven and the mother at 
the age of sixty. They were communicants of the 
Protestant Episcopal church, and ordered their 
lives upon the highest plane. They became the 
parents of si.x children, of whom William E. was 
the first born. 

William E. Cullen secured his preliminary educa- 
tion in the public schools of his native place, and 
completed his literary education by a three-years 
course in what is now known as Kenyon College, 
a celebrated Episcopal institution at Gambler, 
Ohio. After leaving school he removed to Min- 
nesota, where he was appointed superintendent of 
instruction for the Winnebago Indians, retaining 
this incumbency for a period of two years, within 
which time he had determined to prepare himself 
for the legal profession and had already given in- 
ception to his technical reading. In i860 he en- 
tered the office of Judge Charles E. Flandreau, at 

that time associate justice of the supreme court 
of Minnesota, and there continued his studies un- 
der most effective direction until 1862, when he 
was admitted to the bar. During the Indian up- 
rising in Minnesota in 1862, culminating in the 
massacre at New Ulm, Judge Cullen served as 
second lieutenant in the state troops and assisted 
in suppressing the Siou.x. He began the active 
practice of his profession at St. Peter, Nicollet 
county, Minn., where he associated himself with 
Maj. S. A. Buell, a brother of Gen. Don. C. Buell, 
and this professional alliance continued until 1866, 
when Mr. Cullen started on the overland journey 
to Montana. His method of transportation was that 
afforded by ox team, and as a member of the party 
which made the trip under Col. James Fisk, which 
reached Helena in August. 

Upon arriving in .what is now the beautiful capi- 
tal city of Montana Mr. Cullen forthwith opened 
an office and made ready for continuing the active 
work of his profession. Skilled lawyers were not 
numerous in the territory in those da3's and Mr.^ 
Cullen soon gained prestige and found his service 
in ready demand. The year after his arrival in 
the territory he was elected a member of its leg- 
islative assembly or council, at that time composed 
of only seven members, and was the first to con- 
vene subsequent to the annullment of the laws of 
1866. At later dates and on several occasions 
Mr. Cullen served as a member of the legislature 
of the territory and state, and his ability always re- 
dounded to the benefit of the people and the ad- 
vancement of public interests. Among those with 
whom Judge Cullen has been associated in practice 
was Judge H. P. A. Smith, previously banished 
from the territory by reason of his too ardent de- 
fense of road agents. He was a man of signal 
loyalty to any cause which he espoused, and his 
efforts in the connection noted brought down upon 
him the ire of the vigilance committee; but was 
eventually permitted to return to the territory, 
where he was held in high esteem at the time of his 
death, in 1870. In 1876 Judge Cullen entered into 
partnership with Col. W. F. Sanders, one of the 
most distinguished members of the bar of the 
state ; later he was associated with George F. Shel- 
ton, and still later with Gov. J. K. Toole ; and for 
many years was division counsel for the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company. The present firm of 
Cullen, Day & Cullen was formed in 1898, Judge 
Cullen being the senior member, while the other 
interested principals are Edward C. Day and Ern- 



est Cullen, the only son of our subject. Since 1901 
Judge Cullen has maintained an office in the city of 
Spokane, where he passes the major portion of his 
time, though his services are in frequent requisi- 
tion in connection with important litigation 
handled by the firm in the courts of Montana. 

In 1888 the Judge received from Gov. Leslie the 
appointment of attorney-general for the territory, 
an office which he filled for one year; while under 
the regime of Gov. Samuel T. Hauser he served 
as adjutant-general. In politics Judge Cullen has 
ever been a stalwart supporter of the Democratic 
party, and in 1884 he served as chairman of the ter- 
ritorial central committee. He has ever realized 
that the law is a jealous mistress, and his time has 
been given to the work of his profession rather 
than to affairs political. His law practice has been 
general and of a very important character, for 
large interests are seldom placed in imskilled 
hands. His ability is recognized l^y the public and 
the profession, and is the outcome of close study, 
thorough preparation of his cases, keen analysis 
of facts and a logical application of the law. Be- 
fore a jury or court he enters easily and naturally 
into the argument. There is no straining after 
effect, but a precision and clearness in statement, 
an acuteness and strength in argument which in- 
dicate a mind trained in the severest school of in- 
vestigation, and to which analytical reasoning is 
habitual. During his long and honorable career 
as law\er and citizen Judge Cullen has ever re- 
tained the respect and esteem of his protessional 
confreres and of the community at large and 
among those who have lent dignity to the bar of 
Montana none is more deserving of representation 
in this work. 

In 1878, in Helena, was solemnized the marriage 
of Judge Cullen and Miss Caroline V. Stokes, who 
was born in Illinois, her father, Clarence B. Stokes, 
having been a prominent attorney of New York. 
Of this union five children have been born, Violet, 
Ernest, Grace, Lilian and Mary. The son, who is 
associated with his father in practice, is a grad- 
uate of the literary department of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, later took 
a course at the Law School of Harvard University, 
and is a young man of signal force and ability. 

HENRY GUSHING.— Among the worthy pio- 
neers of the great northwest and representa- 
tive citizens of Dillon, there is none more highly 

honored than Henry Gushing, now retired from ac- 
tive business, enjoying that otium cum dignate, the 
just reward of a useful and well spent life. Mr. 
Gushing is a native of the county of Norfolk, Eng- 
land, where he was born on January 17, 1834, that 
county having been the birthplace of his father, 
James Gushing, who was a shoe manufacturer, and 
of his mother, Dina Foster, whose father was an 
extensive manufacturer of brick. In the family 
there were eight children, of whom the subject of 
this review was the youngest. Henry Gushing re- 
ceived his educational training in the public schools 
of Norfolk county, and then devoted five years to 
learning the shoemaking trade, in which he became 
a skilled artisan. In 1835 '''^ came to America, 
and' after remaining a short time in Philadel- 
phia started for the west, crossing the plains with 
the primitive equipment common to the early 
emigrants and arriving in Salt Lake City, Utah, 
in October, 1855. The party of which he was a 
member had some trouble with the Indians near 
the south pass of the Platte river, losing all their 
cattle. They made overture to the chief of the 
band to return the cattle, agreeing to give him 
certain provisions in exchange. The chief con- 
sented to return the lost property, and the com- 
modities given him in exchange comprised two 
bo.xes of crackers, one bo.x of pipes and six boxes 
of tobacco. Upon arriving in Salt Lake City Mr. 
Gushing established himself in the shoe business, 
in which he was there .engaged for a period of 
twenty years, but devoted some time to prospect- 
ing in the Black Hills in 1864. In 1881 Mr. Gush- 
ing came to Montana, locating in Dillon, where 
he engaged in business until 1900, when he retired. 
In politics he has ever given his support to the 
Republican party ; his religious faith is that of the 
Methodist Episcopal church ; fraternally he was a 
charter member of Dillon Lodge No. 15, I. O. O. 
F., in which he has filled all the official chairs, and 
of Dillon Lodge No. 7, A. O. U. W., in the organ- 
ization of which he was instrumental. 

In 1855, in the city of Liverpool, England, Mr. 
Gushing was united in marriage to Miss Sarah 
Hewett, who was born in Norfolk. They became the 
parents of eight children, all of whom were edu- 
cated in the northwest, where the parents have so 
long maintained their home. William J. Gushing, 
a representative member of the bar of Beaverhead 
county, is mentioned in the appending sketch ; Lo- 
renzo, the second son, went to the Philippines as 
a member of a Montana regiment; Frank is en- 


gaged in the shoe business in Dillon ; Edward is 
a barber in the same city; Harry is in Alaska, and 
Harriet is the wife of R. J. Moore. 

WILLIAM J. GUSHING.— In the preceding 
sketch we have briefly outlined the life his- 
tory of that honored pioneer, Henry Gushing, the 
father of the subject of this review. William J. 
Gushing is recognized as one of the representative 
young members of the bar of Beaverhead county, 
and it is but consistent that he be accorded definite 
consideration among those who have added to the 
prestige of the bar of Montana. Mr. Gushing was 
born in Salt Lake Gity, Utah, on October 25, 1876, 
and received his preliminary education in the public 
schools of Dillon, Mont., where his father took up 
his abode in 1881. Here he completed the prescribed 
course in the high school and was graduated as 
a member of the class of 1894. In the same year 
he entered the business college at Dillon, where he 
completed a thorough course and was graduated in 
1895. Ambitious to continue his educational work 
he matriculated in the Montana State Agricultural 
Gollege, at Bozeman, in 1895, and there devoted 
his attention to special studies until the following 
year when he entered the law department of the 
University of Denver and pursued his technical 
studies until 1898 and secured admission to the 
bar of Colorado. In December of the same year 
he was admitted to the bar of Montana and located 
in the city of Butte until the close of the year 1899. 
On January .2, 1900, Mr. Gushing opened an office 
in Dillon, and has since been established in the 
practice of his profession at this point, being thor- 
oughly devoted to the same, and gained a clientage 
of representative order. He makes a specialty of 
mining law, but is well informed on the general sci- 
ence of jurisprudence; is a close student, unremit- 
ting in his application and a young man who has 
shown much ability as an advocate and counsel. In 
politics he is an ardent Republican and has been an 
active worker in the party cause. He was the 
nominee of his party for courity attorney of 
Beaverhead county in the fall of 1900, but 
was defeated with the balance of the ticket. 
His religious faith is that of the Baptist 
church and fraternally is identified with the Im- 
proved Order of Red Men, being prophet of his 
lodge. Mr. Gushing finds diversion in hunting 
and fishing-, which constitute his chief recreation. 

He has done some prospecting. At the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American war Mr. Gushing became 
a member of Company E, First Colorado Infantry, 
and was made first sergeant; but when the com- 
mand was mustered into the United States ser- 
vice he was rejected on account of defective vision. 
Mr. Gushing is one of the popular young men of 
Dillon, and his advancement in his profession is 

A NDREW JACKSON DAVIS, deceased, who 
r\ was one of the most eminent financiers the 
northwest has ever known, was for many years 
a resident of Butte, Mont., in which city he con- 
trolled large interests and whose enterprises form 
an important portion of the history of the state. He 
was born in Wilbraham, Mass., April 25, 1819. In 
the opening years of the nineteenth century a young 
man emigrated from Wales to the United States, 
and settled at Wilbraham, where he resided until 
his death at the age of eighty years. This was Asa 
Davis, father of Andrew J. Davis and twelve other 
children. Andrew J. Davis had obtained a good 
common school education at the age of thirteen, 
and this was supplemented by an early business ex- 
perience in a dry goods house in the city of Boston. 
For several years he had looked upon the west as 
affording better opportunities for a young man than 
the more congested eastern states, and the young 
man adopted Horace Greeley's famous advice to 
"Go west, young man." At the age of 
sixteen he was in business for himself at 
Madison, Ind., and some years later he 
was trading on the Ohio and Mississippi 
rivers. Here he laid broad the foundations of the 
immense properties that he subsequently acquired. 
Probably the first "chain of stores" established in 
any state were located at various points in Iowa 
by him in 1839, ^^'^ ^^ successfully operated them 
for a number of years. During the Black Hawk 
war Mr. Davis was in Iowa, and purchased from 
the Indians 800 acres of land on the west side of the 
Des Moines river, which he developed as a farm. 
This he retained until his death, and its possession 
is still in the family. During that time he was still 
further diversifying his industries by operating in 
milling and distilling. In 1852 he leased this large 
farm, and crossed the plains to California, where 
for a time he engaged in not very successful min- 
ing. He then returned to Iowa, but soon made a 
second visit to the Golden state, and explored the 


country north of Puget Sound. From there he 
came directly to Montana, in the summer of 1863. 
Before this Mr. Davis had sent into the state a 
large stock of merchandise, which he sold to mer- 
chants of the territory. He also engaged in freight- 
ing and merchandising for a number of years, and 
later became owner of two grist mills at Gallatin. 
In the winter of 1866 he took a stock of goods from 
Virginia City to Helena, and sent another stock 
into the Gallatin valley. The ramifications of his 
business increased rapidly. He introduced the first 
flouring machinery into the Gallatin valley. This 
was for the Gallatin City flouring mill, which he 
erected. Since 1864 he had been loaning money 
on Montana properties, and in so doing had ac- 
quired such financial interests that he felt obliged 
to remain and participate in the hardships of the 
new and rugged territory. By the non-payment of 
money borrowed on them numerous valuable prop- 
erties fell into his hands, and thus his business was 
constantly extending. He purchased the wrecks of 
twenty-seven mills, converted them into other es- 
tablishments, and continued to reap golden har- 
vests. He made the first land entry in Silver Bow 
district, received the first patent issued there and 
in 1876 furnished $80,000 worth of machinery for 
this district. In 1870 he built an extensive foundry 
at Helena. In addition to these widely varying 
operations he acquired ownership in a number of 
quartz mines, among them the Lexington. This 
proved to be exceedingly rich in both silver and 
gold. These diverse, extensive and complicated 
interests were handled successftilly by the financial 
genius of Mr. Davis, who conducted all of them 
with marked ability, making a record for financial 
talent never exceeded in the northwest. As an ad- 
dition to his other multitudinous affairs, during 
this time he engaged extensively in cattle raising, 
he and his partner selling their property in that one 
line for $300,000. In 1881 Mr. Davis sold the Lex- 
ington mine to a foreign syndicate for $1,000,000 
in cash. He retained a fifteen per cent, interest in 
the new company, and also by an agreement caused 
the syndicate to expend $613,000 in improvements. 
In 1 88 1 also Mr. Davis organized the First Na- 
tional Bank of Butte. Before this he was a large 
stockholder in the First National Bank of Helena. 
In 1884 he became sole owner of the First National 
Bank of Butte, which he successfully operated until 
his death, March 11, 1890. During his latter years 
Mr. Davis acquired a number of mining claims. 
These he disposed of in 1887 to the Butte and 

Boston Mining Company for $750,000, he retain- 
ing one-half of the stock of the new company. 

Mr. Davis never married and his immense estate 
passed into the possession of his brother, John A. 
Davis. This sketch presents an outline of the ca- 
reer of one of the master minds of practical busi- 
ness. In many ways he was the greatest financier 
of the west. His cares and hardships were multi- 
fold, but his rewards were great. Some of his 
operations in Montana were Napoleonic in their 
breadth and amplitude. Doubtless he was the first 
millionaire of Butte. His career was one of contin- 
ual advancement from the time he, a youth of only 
sixteen years, embarked upon the sea of commerce 
at Madison, Ind. The business side of Mr. Davis 
was not the only side of his nature. His successful 
career was brightened by innumerable acts of gen- 
erosity and kindness. He was a ready and liberal 
contributor to a large number of charitable institu- 
tions throughout the country. By such deeds of 
kindness he brightened what might otherwise have 
been a lonely life. The results of his activities 
speak more effectively of his ability than can any 
words. He achieved triumphs such as have been 
won but by few men in America. He left behind a 
name second to none in the northwest for probity, 
force of character and business sagacity, and it 
will be long before his equal will arise in the 
spheres of his- multitudinous operations. 

TAMES H. DAILEY.— Among the alert and 
J progressive young men who have cast their lot 
with the vigorous young commonwealth of 
Montana is JNIr. Dailey, .now holding the respon- 
sible position of state boiler inspector, an office for 
which he is eminently qualified by intimate profes- 
sional knowledge of mechanics and his wide and 
varied practical experience. He is a native of the 
city of Galesburg, III, where he was born on Sep- 
tember 22, i860. His father, James Dailey, a 
blacksmith and engineer, was born in Pittsfield. 
Mass., whence he removed to Illinois about the 
year 1848, and then to Creston, Iowa, in 1873. 
He married Miss Anne Fields, likewise a native of 
Pittsfield, Mass., and they became the parents of 
five sons and one daughter, all of whom are living. 
Four of the sons became engineers, showing an 
inherent predilection for mechanics. James H. 
Dailey was educated in the public schools of Gales- 
burg, III., and Creston, Iowa, graduating from the 


high school in the latter city with the class of 1877. 
Having shown a natural aptitude for mechanics, 
his first practical work, however, gave slight scope 
for the utilizing of his talent. He started out to 
learn the printers' trade, but the "art preservative" 
demanded of him such close confinement that he 
abandoned the same and went into the boiler shops 
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 
where he learned boiler-making under the direction 
of R. Holloway, foreman of the shops. He became 
an expert in the line, but was eventually compelled 
to give up the work as his hearing was becoming- 
impaired. He was then given a position as engine 
fireman on the railroad, was thus employed 
for five years and then assigned to the position of 
engineer, being thus employed at the time of the 
memorable strike of 1888, in which he and his three 
brothers lost their positions. Later Mr. Dailey 
was sent from St. Paul by the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company to take charge of their boiler 
works at Creston, Iowa, where he remained until 
February, 1891, coming thence to Helena to ac- 
cept the position of engineer on a dummy engine 
then utilized in the operation of the street railway 
system in the capital city. He remained with the 
company until the electric system was installed, 
and was the last man to run an engine over the 
old steam-motor lines. He was then given the 
position as engineer at the power house, but at 
the expiration of five months resigned to accept 
position as engineer of the Bailey building. 

In February, 1897, Gov. Smith appointed him 
assistant boiler inspector of the state, and in this 
capacity he served through the four years of the 
gubernatorial term, traveling into all sections of 
the state and testing and inspecting all steam 
boilers utilized for any purpose. This position re- 
mained his until a richly merited promotion came 
to Mr. Dailey, on March i, 1901, when Gov. Toole 
appointed him to his present position as state 
boiler inspector in recognition of his ability and 
effective services in the minor position. The com- 
mission thus held will continue during the four 
years' administrative term of Gov. Toole. 

In politics Mr. Dailey renders stanch allegiance 
to the Democratic party; has been tendered va- 
rious offices, which he has invariably refused, hav- 
ing no desire to become a candidate for public pre- 
ferment. He is prominently identified with a num- 
ber of professional and social organizations, in each 
of which he enjoys marked popularity. He has 
been a member of the Brotherhood of Locomo- 

tive Firemen since 1883, being one of the oldest 
representatives of the order in the northwest, 
so far as years of identification are concerned. 
He has been master of Mt. Helena Lodge No. 423 
for a full decade, and for tw^elve years has been a 
delegate to the biennial national conventions 
held in various sections of the Union. Mr. Dailey 
is a member of Helena Lodge No. 193, B. P. O. E., 
the Knights of Pythias, the Woodmen of the 
World, and Helena Lodge No. 2, of the National 
Association of Stationary Engineers, of which he 
has been corresponding secretary for eight years ; 
and has been a trustee of the Red Cross Lodge of 
the Knights of Pythias for eight years. 

On April 22, 1883, Mr. Dailey was united in 
marriage to Miss Lizzie Corrigan, who was born 
and reared in Iowa City, Iowa, the daughter of 
Thomas Corrigan, a well known farmer of that 
state, having formerly been a contractor, in which 
connection he constructed the canal from Colum- 
bus to Baltimore, Md. Mr. and Mrs. Dailey are 
the parents of two children: Myrtle M., born in 
1893 ; and OUie, born in 1897. 

MAJ. W. DAVENPORT.— Again we are per- 
mitted to take under consideration the life 
history of one of Montana's honored pioneers, and 
one whose identification with her industrial life has 
been conspicuous and consecutive. Maj. William 
Davenport is to be recognized as one of the origin- 
ators of the sheep industry which now plays so im- 
portant a part in the material activities of the state, 
and in the development of the live stock business 
has taken a prominent and active part. Though he 
is practically living in retirement in the beautiful 
capital city of the state, he has interests which place 
him now among the most extensive sheep and cattle 
growers in Montana. Back to the Old Dominion 
runs the lineage of Major Davenport, for his grand- 
parents on either side were born in Virginia, 
whence they removed to Bourbon and Fayette coun- 
ties, Ky., becoming pioneers of that state and there 
maintaining their home until death. 

William Davenport was born in Bourbon county, 
Ky.. on January 17, 1823, and in 1823 his parents, 
Rice Bullock and Letitia (Musick^ Davenport, re- 
moved to Missouri. Both parents were born in 
Kentucky and in the same year, 1797. In Missouri 
Major Davenport grew to manhood, having such 
educational advantages as were afiforded in that pe- 



riod, and in 1849 he joined the throng of argonauts 
making their way to the new gold fields in Cali- 
fornia, and in that state he engaged in placer min- 
ing, but within the year following his arrival in the 
state he became interested in mercantile pursuits in 
Sacramento, with a branch store at Nevada City, 
but in 185 1 he returned to Liberty, Mo., where 
he was engaged in mercantile pursuits for a num- 
ber of years, and also engaged in farming for ten 
years. Disasters and vicissitudes incidental to the 
Civil war caused the loss of much of his property, 
and in 1864 he crossed the plains to Montana, 
arriving in Virginia City in September, and there 
devoting his attention to merchandising until 
March, 1865, when he removed to Helena. Here 
he first engaged in placer mining in Grizzly gulch, 
but in 1S66 the mines became exhausted and he then 
removed to Diamond City, where he took up a new 
line of business and duties. He assumed charge of 
the stage and express office and also engaged in 
merchandising, keeping his residence there until 
1871, when he returned to Helena and established 
his permanent residence. 

Major Davenport, in 1871, became associated 
with Thomas A. Ray and A. W. Kingsbury and as 
Davenport, Ray & Co. they turned their attention 
to the sheep industry, and in that j^ear also they 
bought the first band of stock sheep ever brought 
east of the Rocky Mountains, and they prepared to 
engage extensively in their new business. From 
this parent organization all the successive sheep 
companies in Montana have sprung. The first band 
of sheep came from near Walla Walla, Wash. In 
1874 Davenport. Rp.v t^- Co. leased 1,000 sheep to 
Frank Cooper, at a "lay" of one-half the wool ajid 
increase, and loaned him money with which to pay 
expenses. At the expiration of four years the com- 
pany received $14,500 as their share of profits and 
the 1,000 head of sheep which represented the num- 
ber originally leased. Mr. Cooper is still success- 
fully engaged in the same line of business and has 
accumulated a competence. Major Davenport is 
still one of the large sheep and cattle owners in 
iVIontana. He has contributed much to the devel- 
opment and upbuilding of the livestock industry 
in the state, throughout which he enjoys a wide ac- 
quaintanceship and among the residents of which 
he is highly esteemed. He is a heavy stockholder 
in the Choteau Land and Live Stock Co., was one 
of its organizers, while he is also one of the prin- 
cipal stockholders of the Big Sag Land and Live 
Stock Co., in whose organization he was an impor- 

tant factor; and he is president of the Davidson- 
Parker Land and Live Stock Co. Major Daven- 
port was originally a Democrat, but he transferred 
his allegiance to the Republican party, whose prin- 
ciples and policies have ever since received his sup- 
port. About 1867 he served by appointment for 
nine months in the office of the county commis- 
sioner of Meagher county, but he has never sought 
nor desired official preferment and the incumbency 
noted is the only one he has ever retained. Frater- 
nally he is identified with the Masonic order. In 
1853 was solemnized the marriag^e of ]\Iajor Daven- 
port and Miss Rachel Malone, at Liberty, Mo., she 
being a native of Shelby county, Ky., and of their 
seven children three now survive : Sally D., wife of 
A. J. Davidson; Donnell and Pearl. Major Daven- 
port possesses superior business ability, sound judg- 
ment and spotless integrity. His Montana career 
has been successful from practically his initial 
venture in the state. In the community in which he 
resides he has the confidence of all, and throughout 
the state his name is synonymous with fair dealing 
and inflexible honesty. He is a man of command- 
ing presence, bearing his years lightly and standing 
as a marked specimen of physical strength and 
vigor, though now nearing the age of four score 
years. His title of major was acquired in the Civil 
war, when he served for a short time as major of 
a Missouri regiment. 

ISAAC F. DAVID.— Although a native of Grant 
county. Wis., Isaac F. David came to live in 
Montana so early that he may be styled a product 
of the state. He was born February 22, 1871, a son 
of Christopher C. and Amanda David. (See his 
sketch on another page of this work.) 

Isaac F. David is essentially a self-made man. 
having received little education except what he got 
in the harsh school of experience. From the age 
of eleven to that of twenty-five he devoted his time 
to the care of his father's cattle : and from that age 
to 1893 he was a cattle or range rider. In 1898 he 
purchased a ranch of 160 acres in the neighborhood 
of his father's property, it being the well known 
Babcock ranch. To this he has added a home- 
stead claim of 160 acres and now controls 640 acres 
of productive land, having made extensive addi- 
tions by purchase. He recently conducted a meat, 
fruit and produce store, which he sold to W. N. 
Abbott. He is an Odd Fellow and a Knight of 


Pythias, and gives both orders active and service- 
able support. In politics he is a zealous and ar- 
dent Republican, giving his time freely to his party 
and occasionally accepting a place in official har- 
ness, among them being that of constable, in which 
office he served acceptably several terms. 

Mr. David was married July 19, 1898, to Miss 
Grace A. Davey, a Californian by birth and daugh- 
ter of John and Mary Davey, natives of England 
who settled in the Golden state in its early history. 
John Davey was a prominent Mason, and both he 
and his wife were active members of the Meth- 
odist church. He died in 1878, and his widow is 
making her home near Utica. Mrs. David is the 
only surviving child, and is herself the mother of 
one son, John C. David. She and her husband are 
members of the Methodist church, and both are 
well pleased with their present home in the great 
Treasure state. 

i^ EORGE E. DAVIS. — Among the representa- 
vJ tive citizens of Bozeman, where he holds the 
office of county commissioner of Gallatin county, 
and also that of city counsellor, is Mr. Davis, who 
has long been identified with the beautiful Gallatin 
valley. He was born in Aberdare, county Gla- 
morgan, Wales, on April 17, 1S52, the son of Evan 
and Margaret (Jones) Davis. Evan Davis was 
born in Llancarvan, in south Wales, and came with 
his family to the United States in 1856. They 
stopped for a time in Ohio, and then went to Union 
county, Ky., where the father engaged in coal min- 
ing until his death in 1876. His wife, in girlhood 
Margaret Jones, was born in Wales, and there her 
marriage was celebrated in 1837. She died in 
Belleville, III, in 1857, when her son George was 
but five years old. After her death George E. Davis 
was placed in charge of his sister Mar^-aret, the 
wife of James Smart, and he was reared in their 
home and educated in the public schools of Ohio, 
West Virginia and Montana. He accompanied Mr. 
and Mrs. Smart from Ohio to Ogden,Utah, in 1863, 
and in 1865 they removed to Malad valley, Idaho, 
and four years later took up their abode in Mon- 
tana, where Mr. Smart devoted his attention to 
farming and stock raising for nearly a decade. 

Mr. Davis was associated with hir, brother-in-law 
until he was twenty-six years old, when he came to 
the Gallatin valley and purchased a farm of 160 
acres at Spring Hill, twelve miles north of Boze- 

man, the ranch lying on Ross creek. In 1880 he 
made a homestead entry of an adjoining quarter 
section, and later purchased eighty acres, so that 
his present estate aggregates 400 acres. The land 
is all arable and of inexhaustible fertility, and raises 
magnificent crops of wheat, oats and barley. The 
ranch is under effective improvement and highly 
cultivated, being one of the most valuable places 
in this favored section. In 1893 Mr. Davis leased 
his Spring Hill farm, having taken by lease a farm 
of 240 acres, within a mile and a half of Bozeman. 
He made his home in Bozeman, and devoted his 
attention to the cultivation of this farm. In 1893 
he erected a handsome residence at 603 Mendenhall 
street, Bozeman, of modern architectural design 
and the latest equipments, and here he now main- 
tains his home, retaining supervision of his 
agricultural interests, bringing to bear the most 
progressive and effective methods. 

Mr. Davis, as a stalwart Republican, has served 
continuously in the city council of Bozeman since 
1895, with the exception of 1898. In 1900 he was 
elected a member of the board of county commis- 
sioners, and in this responsible office he is render- 
ing efficient service. He is known as one of the 
county's most public-spirited citizens, having execu- 
tive ability and business judgment. Mr. Davis is 
identified with Western Star Lodge No. 4, I. O. 
O. F. ; with Bozeman Lodge No. 5, A. O. U. W., 
and with Bridger Camp No. 62, Woodmen of the 
World. At Malad City, Idaho, on May 12, 1879, 
Mr. Davis wedded Miss Catherine Williams, born 
at Pomeroy, Qhio, in 1863, the daughter of John 
T. Williams, who removed to Malad City in 1877, 
and was an extensive stock grower. l\Ir. and Mrs. 
Davis have had seven children, the fourth being 
George, who died in Spring Hill on November 9, 
1889, at the age of six and one-half years. The 
surviving children are Evan V., Martha W., 
Margaret C, Cornelius, William J. and James 

q^HOMAS J. DAVIDSON, ex-sheriflf of Lewis 
1 and Clarke county, Mont., is one of the leading 
citizens of Helena. He was born in Franklin 
county, Mo., in March, 1856, and was reared and 
educated in Missouri, where he was a farmer until 
1882, when he came to Helena. Here he associ- 
ated himself with his brother, A. J. Davidson, in the 
sale of agricultural implements. In 1883 he re- 
moved to Fort Benton, but soon returned to Helena 



where he has since made his liome. In March, 
1893, Mr. Davidson was made deputy United 
States marshal under Marshal William A'lcDer- 
mott and served as such until his election as sheriff 
of Lewis and Clarke county, in 1896. Politically 
Mr. Davidson has been a lifelong Democrat, and is 
a prominent and influential worker in the interests 
of that party. Fraternally he is a member of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen and of the 
Knights of Pythias. In the course of his offi- 
cial duties it was the lot of Sheriff David- 
son to execute Joseph H. Allen, who was 
hanged on September 14, 1899, for the murder 
of J. S. Reynolds. In 1886 Sheriff Davidson was 
united in marriage to Miss Aurora Roy, also a na- 
tive of Missouri. They have two sons, Samuel R. 
and Harold A. Mr. Davidson is popularly known 
in the state and numbers a wide circle of friends 
in the community in which he resides. 

TT^ILLIAM H. DAVIS, treasurer of Gallatin 
VV county, Mont., is a resident of Bozeman, and 
a man highly esteemed by all. He was born in 
Pottawattamie county, Iowa, May 15, 1850, a son 
of William Davis, a native of Wales. In 1848 he 
came from Wales to the United States, locating 
in Pottawattamie county, where he engaged in the 
business of mining coal. Being convinced of the 
more favorable possibilities of the West in 1852 
he started with his family for Utah, but died en 
route. The mother, Elizabeth (Charles) Davis, 
was born in Wales, and on the death of her husband 
she proceeded to the place of her destination in 
Utah. Here she was again married, and settled 
permanently in Montana in 1863, but died in 
Oregon, June 29, 1886, at the age of seventy-five 
years. She was the mother of fifteen children, of 
whom seven are still living. The subject of this 
biography, William H. Davis, was reared on a farm 
and educated in the public schools. On the death 
of his father he was a mere babe, and early in life 
was compelled to shoulder responsibilities that 
would have weighed down a much older person. 
Right manfully did he come to the assistance of 
his bereaved mother, working a portion of the old 
homestead near Bozeman, a part of which he still 
owns with other valuable realty holdings, and this 
fine property he has accumulated with the assist- 
ance of his estimable wife, his noble sons and 
daughters. Practically he is a self-educated man, 

if there is one in Montana. Throughout the days 
of his early youth and manhood he was engaged 
strictly in agricultural pursuits, and enjoyed but 
scanty school privileges; but to such good use did 
he apply his talents that in 1898 he was nominated 
by the Democratic party for the office of county 
treasurer, was endorsed by the Independent party, 
and elected by a most flattering plurality. He is 
still satisfactorily filling the position. The first 
vote cast by Mr. Davis was for Grover Cleve- 
land, following the admission of Montana as a 

The marriage of Mr. Davis occurred October 12, 
1 87 1. He was then united to Miss Mary Githens, 
who was born near Chillicothe, Mo., October 13, 
1856, a daughter of John M, and Rebecca 
(Cooper) Githens. The father of Mrs. Davis was 
a native of Kentucky, and died in Gallatin county, 
October 14, 1878, at the age of sixty-five years. 
Her mother was a native of Ohio, and died Janu- 
ary 27, 1890, at about the same age as her husband. 
She was the mother of twelve children, six of whom 
are still living. The paternal grandparents of the 
wife of our subject were of the early "Daniel 
Boone" days. Her maternal grandparents were 
among the pioneers of Ohio. Mrs. Davis is a lady 
of great refinement and high intelligence, and is 
an important factor and earnest worker in the field 
of Christian Science, which has contributed so 
greatly to her general health. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Davis have been born four children, one of whom 
died when quite young. Of the living, John Walter 
was born October 2, 1872. He resides at home, and 
is in attendance at the College at Bozeman. Laura 
B., born in 1876, married Mr. Clyde Corbly, 
deputy treasurer of Gallatin county under his 
father-in-law. To Mr. Corbly great credit is due 
for the very efficient manner in which the financial 
affairs of the county are conducted. He is a bright 
and scholarly young man. William L., the young- 
est child of Mr. Davis, was born in 1879, is mar- 
ried and the father of one child. He is at present 
the general manager of his father's ranch in Gal- 
latin county, and is a practical agriculturalist. 
This promising family of children were all born on 
the old farm, near the city of Bozeman. Mr. 
Davis and his step-father raised the first wheat ever 
grown in the famous Gallatin valley. 

The prominence and honorable standing of Mr. 
Davis in the community is worthy of the highest 
tribute. He is a man who has honorably won his 
way to the confidence of all of his personal friends 



and business associates. He is a man of the highest 
integrity and the father of a most lovable and in- 
teresting family. 

DAVID DAVIS.— The subject of this memoir 
was numbered among the pioneers of Montana 
and his life was one of signal honor and useful- 
ness. No man in Gallatin county was held in 
higher esteem, for he was guided by the purest 
principles and was true in every relation of life. 
As to his genealogy we refer the reader to the life 
sketch of his brother, W. H. Davis, the present 
treasurer of Gallatin county. -Mr. Davis was born 
in Wales, August 19, 1843, ^"d accompanied his 
parents to America. He received a common school 
education in his youth, and early in life began to 
depend on his own resources. In 1864 Mr. Davis 
and his brothers made the long and weary trip 
across the plains to JNIontana, and in 1869 took up 
a tract of land in Gallatin county, the same being 
a portion of the present fine homestead which now 
comprises 234 acres, located four miles north of 
Belgrade. He was a member of the company that 
explored Yellowstone National Park in 1874. In 
connection with his ranching industry Mr. Davis 
brought to bear keen discrimination and business 
ability, being known as a progressive and enterpris- 
ing farmer. He served for a number of years as 
trustee of Farmers' Grange, Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, and ever maintained a deep interest in all 
that concerned the moral and material advance- 
ment of the community. He was for several years 
a school trustee, and also a trustee of the East 
Gallatin Methodist Episcopal church, giving his in- 
fluence and aid in promoting the work of the Mas- 
ter's vineyard, and having a deep appreciation of the 
responsibilities which environ human life. 

On December 23; 1875, Mr. Davis was united^in 
marriage to Miss Candace Wakefield, who was 
born in Louisiana, the daughter of George W, and 
Emily (Gillett) Wakefield, natives of Lawrence 
county, Ohio. Their marriage was solemnized in 
the old Buckeye state, and thence they removed to 
Louisiana, where they passed the residue of their 
lives. j\Ir. and Mrs, Davis were the parents of 
five children : Thomas Gardner, who married Miss 
Maud White, is a Gallatin valley farmer; Mary 
Elizabeth is the wife of Samuel Gee, a successful 
ranchman of this county ; David Wilbur married 
Celia White and lives with his mother on the old 

homestead ; Bertha E. is a student in the State 
University, at Bozeman ; and George Wesley Wake- 
field is at home. 

The death of Mr. Davis was very sudden and 
came as a shock to the entire community. He 
passed away on September 5, 1891, and the manner 
of his death is shown in the following extract from 
the Bozeman Avant-Courier of September 12, of 
that year: "The threshing machine was at work 
upon Mr. Davis' ranch, on the East Gallatin, on 
Saturday, and one of the feeders having his hand 
crippled, Henry Davis took his place. Being a little 
rusty at the business, his brother David remarked to 
him in a joking way that if he would get down 
from the platform he would show him how to feed 
a machine. It was no sooner said than done, and 
when Davis took hold of the first bundle that came 
to him, he spoke to one of his men near by, calling 
him by name as if he had something to say to him, 
and immediately fell backward from the platform 
to the ground. The man rushed to his side and 
asked, 'What is the matter, Davis?' Davis, gasp- 
ing, said, T don't know,' and was dead." Mr. Davis 
was a man of genial temperament and kindly nature 
and in consequence of his sterling character made 
friendships that were lasting. He was a gentle- 
man of much intellectuality, and his business abil- 
ity enabled him to accumulate a fine property. Mrs. 
Davis still makes her home on the ranch, the place 
being hallowed by memories and associations that 
can never be obliterated. 

LESTER DAVIS.— Among the native sons of 
Montana who are proving worthy of her fos- 
tering care and capable of taking advantage of the 
opportunities she offers for successful individual 
effort is Lester Davis, son of the present county 
treasurer of Gallatin county, and recognized as one 
of the alert, progressive and energetic young farm- 
ers of Gallatin valley. Mr. Davis was born on 
the homestead where he now resides, February 6, 
1878. The genealogy of the family is set forth in 
the sketch of his father, William H. Davis, on 
another page of this volume. 

Our subject passed his entire life in Gallatin 
county, growing up under the sturdy discipline of 
the farm and receiving his educational training in 
the public schools. In 1S98, when his father was 
elected to the office of county treasurer and took 
up his residence in Bozeman, Lester Davis leased 



the old homestead of 250 acres, located on East 
Gallatin river, three and one-half miles northeast 
of Belgrade, and his father's other ranch of 250 
acres, located two miles east of the home place. 
The land is of the most fertile and valuable in the 
valley, being well watered by East Gallatin river, 
which obviates the necessity of irrigation. The soil 
yields magnificent crops of hay, oats and wheat, 
seven tons of clover hay having been secured from 
a single acre. Mr. Davis has thoroughly familiar- 
ized himself with all the details of farm work, 
having been identified with it from childhood, and 
it is gratifying to note the ability he shows in the 
management of the farm and its incidental business 
details. In national politics he gives his allegiance 
to the Democratic party, but in lineal issues votes 
for the man most suited for the office. 

On November i, 1890, Mr. Davis was united in 
marriage to Miss Chesna Florence Hamilton, who 
was born in Gallatin county, the daughter of A. 
Taylor and Alicia Florence (Young) Hamilton, 
natives respe'ctively of Ohio and Iowa, her father 
being now one of the prominent ranch men of 
Gallatin county. Mr. and Mrs. Davis have a 
winsome little daughter, Loie Fay, who was born 
November 15, 1900. Mr. Davis and his wife are 
members of the Society of the Sons and Daughters 
of Montana Pioneers. 

RE. LEE DAWES.— The descendant of two 
families long distinguished in old Virginia, 
and himself having seen many phases of life under 
novel conditions in dififerent places, Robert E. Lee 
Dawes, of Central Park, Gallatin county, although 
a native of the Gallatin valley, where he was born 
on January 31, 1871, and where he now resides, 
may be almost considered an importation into the 
state. His father was Benjamin M. Dawes and 
his mother Mary Chrisman, both Virginians, 
whose ancestors for many generations had lived 
and died in the Old Dominion. The father removed 
in 1859 to Missouri, and after a four years' stay 
came to Montana with an ox-team, having no 
adventures worthy of note on the way. He reached 
the Gallatin valley in 1864 and engaged in freight- 
ing, continuing in this until 1879. In 1865 he 
sent for his family, who starled by boat up the 
Missouri, escaping many perils, but finally the 
steamer sunk in the river and the passengers and 
crew had to wait the coming of another. On this 

they proceeded without further mishap and joined 
Mr. Dawes in the Gallatin valley. Here, in 1879, 
he took up the land on which his son Robert E. L. 
Dawes is now living, having occupied and cultivated 
it since his father turned it over to him in 1900 
and went east to pass the remainder of his days 
among old friends, making his home in Frederick 
county, Va. 

Robert E. Lee Dawes not only passed his school 
days in the Gallatin valley, growing there to man- 
hood, but he has never lived elsewhere than on the 
homestead, and all his life is identified with its 
growth and development. He was united in mar- 
riage on November 23, 1897, with Miss Jennie 
Smith, a native of Pennsylvania, who came from 
that state to Montana in childhood with her par- 
ents, Alexander and Rebecca (Salisbury) Smith, 
settlers in the Gallatin valley in 1882. They have 
one son, Ernest. The home farm of Mr. Dawes 
is a typical product of the efforts of a man of his 
make-up. It shows the advantage of skill and in- 
telligence in farming, industry and good judgment 
in managing, taste and commendable pride in ar- 
rangement and ornamentation and marks him as 
one of Montana's progressive agriculturists. Oats 
in his principal crop, but he raises large yields of 
wheat and hay. The house is not merely a shelter 
from inclement weather, it is a cozy, comfortable 
home, supplied with modern conveniences and many 
artistic adornments. The same neatness and pro- 
priety is manifested in the construction and equip- 
ment of the outbuildings, which provide shelter 
for his flocks and herds and storage for his crops. 
Socially Mr. Dawes is recognized as a leading citi- 
zen and he has the good will of all his friends and 

JOHN E. DAWSON.— "Major" Dawson has 
J long been identified with important railroading 
interests and is at the present time general agent 
for the Great Northern Railroad Company in Mon- 
tana, maintaining his headquarters in Butte. He is 
a man of executive ability and unfailing courtesy, 
and his friends are in number as his acquaintances. 
Maj. Dawson also has been longer in consecutive 
service with the Great Northern than any other 
man in the employ of the company, while he is one 
of the oldest and best known railroad men in 
Montana. John E. Dawson is a native of Carroll 
county, Ireland, born on February 20, 1841, the son 
of Rev. George B. and Ellen (HilH Dawson, both 



of whom were born in that same county of the 
Emerald Isle. His father was a clergyman of the 
Church of England, a graduate of famous old 
Trinity College, of Dublin, and devoted his entire 
life to his high calling. He was an influential man 
in the church and possessed fine intellectual gifts. 
His father was likewise a clergyman of the same 
church. Rev. George B. and Ellen Dawson had 
eight daughters and four sons, and of the survivors 
two are residents of America, — John E., the 
"Major," and Charles E., who lives in Canada. 

John E. Dawson completed his educational dis- 
cipline in Brown College, at Kilkenny, from which 
celebrated school he was graduated in the class of 
1856, after which he joined a cousin in England, 
and became there identified with railroad work. In 
i860 he came to the United States, remaining for 
a time in New York city and thence proceeding to 
Niagara Falls, where he entered the employ of the 
Great Western railroad, in a clerical capacity, and 
continued with that company for twenty-three 
years, winning successive promotions by his able 
services and his fidelity to his duties. He was 
stationed in turn at London, Canada; Detroit, 
Mich., and Windsor, the little Canadian city just 
across the river from Detroit, and for twelve years 
he was superintendent of the main line between 
Detroit and Niagara Falls, holding this important 
office when the Great Western and Grand Trunk 
railroads were merged. In 1888 Maj. Dawson 
came to Montana and assumed the charge of the 
Montana Union railroad, whose lines extended 
from Garrison to Butte and Anaconda. In this 
capacity he superintended the changing of the road 
from narrow to standard gauge. Eighteen months 
later Maj. Dawson entered the service of the Great 
Northern company, this being before the lines of 
this system were brought into Butte, which was 
done in 1890, and from that time he has been the 
general agent of the road. 

In politics Major Dawson gives allegiance to the 
Democratic party, and for four years he served in 
the city council of Butte. His religious faith is 
that of the Protestant Episcopal church, and he is 
a communicant of St. John's church, in Butte. 
Fraternally he is identified with the Royal 
Arcanum, the National Union, the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks, the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen and the Order of Pendo, belong- 
ing to California Lodge in the last mentioned fra- 
ternity. On August 30, 1864, Maj. Dawson was 
united in marriage with Miss Jane Lougheed, who 

was born in Ireland, the daughter of Dr. Joseph and 
Frances (Maddox) Lougheed, who came to 
America when she was a child, locating in Prince 
Edward county where she was reared and educated. 
Maj. and Mrs. Dawson are the parents of two 
children — Joseph George and Daisy L. 

ALFRED CAVE.' — The Cave family was estab- 
lished in Virginia in the early colonial epoch, 
and thence its members have located in many sec- 
tions of the Union. Alfred Cave, one of the repre- 
sentative men of Missoula county, which he has 
served as treasurer, was born near Columbia, 
Boone county. Mo., on October 5, 1829, the son of 
Richard and Colma B. (Williams) Cave, natives of 
Woodford and Franklin counties, Ky., where the 
father was engaged in farming and in operating a 
flouring mill. They removed to Missouri in 1820, 
locating in Boone county, where the father followed 
farming until 1850, when, with his son Alfred, he 
started for California, making the long trip over 
the plains and up the Platte river to Salt Lake,. 
thence down the Humboldt to the Rough and 
Ready mining camp near Nevada City, Cal., where 
they remained the first winter, later engaging in 
mining operations for a few years, after which they 
conducted milling and stockraising. In 1859 
Richard Cave met his death from highwaymen in 
the northern part of the state. Within the year 
after this tragedy occurred the mother and the 
other children came west by the Isthmus of Panama 
to join Alfred. The mother resided in California 
until her death, in Humboldt county, in 1882. Al- 
fred and one of his brothers were the only members 
of the family to locate outside of the Golden state. 

In Iowa, whither his parents removed when he 
was six years old, Alfred received a common school 
education, also assisting in the work of the farm 
and growing vigorous through this sturdy discip- 
line. He remained in California until 1865, en- 
ga2:ed in merchandising and in freighting by pacl< 
trains between Humboldt bay and the north and 
south forks of Salmon river. In 1865 he came to 
Montana, remaining for a year in the Prickly Pear 
country, near Helena, and then going on to Bear 
gulch and Elk creek, again engaged in moving 
pack trains between Walla Walla and the Columbia 
river and Montana points, buying supplies and sell- 
ing them in the mining districts of Montana. In 
1870 he opened a general store on Cedar creek and 




later one on Nine Mile creek, conducting the enter- 
prise until 1879, when he located in Missoula, his 
present heme. In 1876 he was elected to represent 
Missoula county in the state legislature, serving one 
term, and in 1894 he was elected county treasurer, 
being chosen his own successor in 1896. For three 
years he held the office of public administrator, 
bringing to bear in the discharge of all of his duties 
a marked executive ability and an unswerving in- 
tegrity. He was also a valued member of the 
building committee of the Montana State Univer- 

In the declining years of a useful life Mr. Cave 
is living in that retirement so justly due him, one of 
the honored pioneers of the state. In 1863 he and 
his brother lost $10,000 worth of cattle through the 
depredations of the Humboldt Indians, while three 
of their men were killed in one day. Mr. Cave was 
one of the first men in the state to engage in the 
raising of fruit, giving a distinct impetus to the 
development of those marvelous resources that had 
hitherto passed almost unnoticed. In politics he 
has given a stanch support to the Democratic 
party, having done much to advance the cause. In 
Montana, in 1871, Mr. Cave was united in mar- 
riage to Mrs. Carrie Hackleman, nee Nicol, who has 
one son. Will Cave. 

EDWARD C. DAY.— Among those who have 
achieved a position of prominence at the 
Montana bar and have wielded a distinct influence 
upon public affairs, is Edward Cason Day, a mem- 
ber of the firm of Cullen, Day & Cullen, attorneys 
and counselors at law in Helena. Mr. Day is a 
native of the south, born in Harrison county, Ky., 
March 20, 1862, the son of Alfred and Mary F. 
(Cason) Day, both of whom were born in the same 
Kentucky county. The paternal grandfather of 
Mr. Day was Lewis Day, whose father likewise 
bore the name of Lewis, emigrated to Kentucky 
from Virginia in 1782, becoming the progenitor of 
the family in that state. Lewis Day, Jr., married 
a Miss Hawkins, who died of the cholera in the 
'forties. The maternal grandfather of Edward C. 
Day v.-as Edward Cason, a man prominently iden- 
tified with the early history of Kentucky, whither 
he removed from Virginia. Both families were of 
English origin, the emigrant ancestors coming to 
this country in the early part of the seventeenth 
century, and settling in the old Dominion, where 

was cradled so much of our national history. Al- 
fred Day, the father, has for many years been en- 
gaged in agriculture in Harrison county, Ky., 
where he still has his residence. Of his three 
children, two sons and a daughter, all except Ed- 
ward C, are living in Kentucky, where all were 
reared to years of maturity. 

Edward C. Day received his early educational 
discipline in the public schools of his native county, 
graduating from the high school at Cynthiana as a 
member of the class of 1878. He was thereafter af- 
forded exceptional advantages for the attaining of 
a higher education in famous old Washington 
and Lee University, located at Lexington, Va , 
where he was graduated in 1880, with the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts, taking the prize for the 
best oration in his class. A young man of self- 
reliance and definite purpose, during his school 
days he had decided on his lifework, and after leav- 
ing the university he began the reading of law un- 
der the effective direction of Judge Ward, later a 
justice of the supreme court of Kentucky, thus con- 
tinuing until 1882, when he was admitted to the bar 
of Harrison county, his alma mater conferring 
upon him the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1883. 
In 1884 Mr. Day was admitted to the bar of Ohio, 
upon examination before the supreme court, while 
in 1890 he became a member of the bar of Mon- 
tana, a state which he has honored by his ability 
and professional labors. Mr. Day began active 
legal practice in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he re- 
mained until 1887, gaining distinctive recognition 
even in that city of able lawyers. In 1887 he went 
to St. Paul, Minn., and associated himself with the 
West Publishing Co., having editorial charge of the 
publication of law reports, and was thus engaged 
until 1890. This work gained him reputation 
as an able writer and as one thoroughly versed in 
the science of jurisprudence and in the literature of 
the law. In 1890 Mr. Day came to Livingston, 
Mont., and formed a professional -alliance with 
Judge J. A. Savage, and was there engaged in the 
practice of law until 1896, when he came to the 
capital city, where, in January, 1897, the present 
firm of Cullen, Day & Cullen was organized. This 
soon took a foremost position among the law firms 
of the state, being concerned in important litigation 
and retaining a clientage of signally representative 
character. An able exponent of Democratic prin- 
ciples and poHcies, Mr. Day has been an active 
worker for them and is one of the party's most 
zealous advocates. In 1892 he was nominated for 



attorney-general of Montana, and he was chosen 
as a representative from Lewis and Clarke county 
in the sixth general assembly of the legislature of 
the state, serving as one of the valued workers of 
the house and bringing to bear a forceful and con- 
sistent power in its deliberations. 

The fraternal relations of Mr. Day are of distin- 
guished order. He is a prominent and popular 
member of the Masonic order, having served in the 
exalted office of grand master of the grand lodge 
of the state in 1897-8, and as grand commander of 
the grand commandery of Knights Templar in 
1898-9. He is also a past high priest of Living- 
ston Chapter No. 7, R. A. M. He has also 
"crossed the sands of the desert" and is a noble in 
the Ancient Arabic Order of the Mystic Shrine, 
and past potentate of Algeria Temple. He is also 
identified with the Benevolent Protective Order of 
Elks, of which he is past exalted ruler of the order 
in the state. He is a communicant of St. Peter's 
cliurch, Protestant Episcopal, in Helena, and a 
member of the board of managers of St. Peter's 
hospital. He holds membership in the Montana 
club, and is one of its board of directors. Mr. 
Day is an able advocate before court or jury, is in- 
cisive and clear in the matter of dialectics, presents 
his case with force and exactness, and as a coun- 
selor he is safe and duly conservative, and well 
merits the reputation he has gained as one of the 
able and honored legists of the state. 

REV. VICTOR DAY.— The Holy Roman 
Catholic church has ever retained in her far- 
reaching service and manifold works for the up- 
lifting of humanity the consecrated effort of the 
most zealous and self-abnegating devotees. No 
privations, no obstacles, no dangers have been suf- 
ficient to deter her emissaries from carrying the 
gospel of the Master to the utmost corners of the 
earth ; none have been so benighted as to have been 
denied from her succor and protecting grace ; the 
afflicted and distressed have not been refused her 
kindly ministrations under any conditions, and her 
noble missionaries have figured as the avant-cour- 
iers of progress and civilization. Naught but 
honor and reverence can be accorded to those who 
thus give their lives to the church and to humanity, 
and it is eminently consistent that due record be 
here made of the work of the church in Montana 
from the earlv davs when the Fathers first came 

among the Indians, gaining their confidence and 
ministering to their temporal and spiritual wants. 
Thus in this work may be found numerous refer- 
ences to those who here wrought noble works in 
the name of the Divine Master. The city of Helena 
is the diocesan see of this jurisdiction, and among 
those who have given effective ministrations at the 
Cathedral of the Sacred Hearts, signally faithful 
in diocesan and parochial work, and been a power 
for good in all the relations of life, is Father Day, .h 
brief record of whose career we here incorporate. 
Father Day, in the agnatic line, was originally a 
DeBrabandere, this patronymic having been aban- 
doned after his arrival in the L'nited States, the 
change being authorized by judicial order in the 
courts of Montana. He was born in Desselghem, 
Belgium, on March 29, 1866, the son of Henry and 
Febronie (Vanderzyppe) DeBrabandere, both of 
whom were born in Belgium. The father was a 
farmer by occupation and received his education 
in the schools and colleges of his native land, be- 
coming a man of prominence in his community, 
having served as alderman of the town of Dessel- 
ghem. The mother of our subject received her 
educational discipline in the college of the Ursuline 
sisters at Tournai. It may be noted at this junc- 
ture that Father Day is a cousin of the late Bishop 
DeBrabandere, of Bruges. Father Day pursued 
his preliminary studies in the public schools of his 
native town, and at the age of thirteen years he 
entered the College of Courtray, a church institu- 
tion, where he completed the French and classical 
courses, graduating at the expiration of seven and a 
half years and taking second honors in his class. 
The students of this college competed annually 
with the students of the state colleges in Latin, 
Greek and French composition, history, mathema- 
tics, etc., and in this line Father Day was selected 
as a competitor in three different contests, winning 
distinctive honors in each instance. .A.fter leaving 
college Father Day matriculated in the Seminary of 
Roulers, where he completed a year's course in 
philosophy, graduating from that institution. Fur- 
ther advantages were afforded him in the prosecu- 
tion of his education, for he next entered the Grand 
.Seminary at Bruges, the native city of Bishop 
P.rondel, of the Helena diocese. From this insti- 
tution Father Day graduated upon the completion 
of a five-years course, being ordained to the priest- 
hood at the end of the fourth year by Bishop Faict. 
.\bout four months after his graduation he was to 
be assigned to a professorship in a college, but his 



health had become so impairetl it was deemed ex- 
pedient for him to enter upon parochial work, and 
was placed as priest in charge of a parish in Molen- 
dorp, Belgium, where he remained during the ill- 
ness of the rector, until 1893, when he came to 
America, Helena being his destination. Here he 
was first assigned to work in the outlying missions ; 
but in June, 1894, he was appointed to succeed 
Father Palladino as priest in charge at the Cathe- 
dral of the Sacred Hearts, in which capacity he has 
since served. In 1889 Bishop Brondel made a 
visit to the "Eternal City," Rome, appointing Father 
Day administrator of the diocese during his ab- 
sence. He discharged the functions of his office 
with signal ability, both in a spiritual and executive 
way, and to the satisfaction of his bishop. In 
the year igoo Father Day returned to his native 
land for a visit, and before his return also visited 
Rome, Paris and the quaint old town of Oberam- 
mergau, where he witnessed the production of the 
Passion Play. Father Day is an earnest and inde- 
fatigable worker in his holy calling, is known and 
admired outside the pale of the church, and, genial 
and sympathetic in nature, is loved by those to 
whom he ministers. As a representative of an ec- 
clesiastical body which has had most to do with the 
early history of the Pacific and the great northwest, 
and with the insuring of progress in all divisions of 
this great territory, it is but fitting that he be ac- 
corded this tribute. 

THOMAS DEAN, of Broadwater county, who 
came in 1873 to Montana, is located on a most 
eligible ranch near the prosperous city of Town- 
send. He is a native of Shropshire, England, born 
on September 24, 1840, the son of Richard and 
Hannah (Brassington) Dean. The father, an en- 
graver, also followed merchandising. In 1849 the 
family came from England to Dane county, Wis. 
Here Richard Dean first tilled the soil and later 
was a merchant. In 1864 they removed to Ran- 
dolph county. Mo., where Mr. Dean died in 1880. 
The military record of Thomas Dean is one of 
patriotism and daring. On September, 1861, he 
enlisted in Company G, First Wisconsin Infantry, 
Col. Bloodgood, from Milwaukee. The regiment 
went to Louisville, Ky., where it joined the Army 
of the Cumberland. The first active fighting in 
which Mr. Dean participated was at Green River, 
Ky. He was at Shiloh, but was on detached ser- 

vice and was not in action. He was with his regi- 
ment at Chattanooga in a lively skirmish. On 
the return to Louisville, at Perryville, Mr. Dean 
bore part in a hot engagement. He was in the 
hard-fought battle of Stone River, where he was 
detailed as a guard to Louisville for captured pris- 
oners. On his return he was badly crippled in a 
railroad accident, and was mustered out at Mil- 
waukee, on October 8, 1864. Mr. Dean then en- 
gaged in farming for a number of years in Mis- 
souri, remaining in that state until 1873, when he 
came to Montana, locating in Meagher, now 
Broadwater county. Here he is profitably em- 
ployed in stockraising and general farming, pur- 
chasing his present ranch in 1886. During the 
Nez Perce war in 1877, Mr. Dean, with other 
ranchers of the county, erected a fort, which was 
their refuge on the appearance of Indians, which 
were then hostile and troublesome. 

In 1870 Mr. Dean was married with Miss Ma- 
tilda McCormack, of Randolph, Mo. She was the 
daughter of Mason and Lucy (Hare) McCormack, 
natives of Virginia. Mrs. Dean died in 1891, 
leaving one son, Guy, who married Miss Jennie 
Crane, of Davis county, Iowa. They have one 
child, Tillie. Mr. Dean is an active Republican 
worker and influential in the councils of that polit- 
ical element. He is a man of broad views, saga- 
cious judgment and of generous public spidt. In 
1880 he was elected to the state legislature and 
served two years. He was chairman of the board 
of school trustees in 1885, and county treasurer 
during 1897 and 1898. During his term as school 
trustee he built the first large school house in 
Townsend. Fraternally Mr. Dean is a Mason and 
a member of the United Workmen. 

GEORGE W. DEARING.— Coming to Mon- 
tana in his early youth and becoming one of 
the successful farmers and stockgrowers of Custer 
county, where he has maintained his residence for 
the past twenty years, George W. Dearing was 
born in Nashville, Tenn., on August 10, 1861, the 
younger of the two children of George and Eliza- 
beth (Wyatt) Dearing, both of whom were natives 
of Tennessee. His father passed his entire life in 
the state as a cabinetmaker, while his mother later 
became the wife of William Strong, who brought 
the family to the northwest a number of years ago, 
finally locating in Custer county, Mont., where he 


engaged in stockgrowing. They are still residents 
of that county. Mrs. Strong's grandfather was a 
soldier in the war of 1812 in a Tennessee regiment. 
George W. Bearing attended the public schools 
of his native state and accompanied the family to 
the west, and, in 1875, came to Wyoming, and was 
employed in the cattle business until 1877, when 
he came to Custer county, Mont., settHng in the 
vicinity of Miles City. In 1881 he purchased a 
ranch and here he has since given his attention to 
farming and stockraising. He also works the 
ranch of his stepfather in the same vicinity. Mr. 
Bearing has been indefatigable in his efforts, and 
his enterprise and energy have brought visible re- 
sults, gaining him recognition as one of the pop- 
ular ranch men of his section. He gives support 
to the Republican party, and he and his family are 
attendants of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Fraternally he is a popular member of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen and also belongs to 
Yellowstone Lodge No. 26, A. F. & A. M., at 
Miles City. On April 8, 1884, Mr. Bearing was 
united in marriage to Miss Minnie Rmehart, who 
was born in Ohio, and they are the parents of two 
children, — Alice, born in 1885, and George, born 
in 1886. They are young people of fine character- 
istics, and are at present preparing for the duties 
of life by attending the schools of Miles City. 

WILLIAM BECKER.— A large majority of 
the early settlers of Montana became perma- 
nent residents of the beautiful Gallatin valley, and 
among those noted for well-spent lives of honor 
and usefulness, who have passed away in the full- 
ness of years and secure in the esteem of his fel- 
low men, William Becker's name will be long re- 
membered. He was a native of the state of Il- 
linois, born April 15, 1823, a son of Moses and 
Christina Becker, natives of Wabash county, Ind. 
Mr. Becker was reared on the old homestead farm 
in Illinois, and had such educational advantages as 
were afforded by the primitive schools of that early 
period. He devoted his attention to agricultural 
pui suits until May 16, 1864, when he set forth with 
an ox team on the long journey which gave him 
title to being one of Montana's pioneers, coming 
by way of the North Platte river. At a point where 
he had stopped for dinner one day a 'second train 
of emigrants stopped for the night and were at- 
tacked by the Indians, a number being killed and 

many of the mules captured by the savages. At 
Rosebud the survivors overtook the train of which 
Mr. Becker was a member, and thus augmented 
the company was sufficiently large to insure im- 
munity from attack. Mr. Becker arrived in Virginia 
City September i, 1864, remaining about a fortnight, 
and started for Gallatin valley, his intention being to 
engage in farming. He and his family stopped 
for a short time on West Gallatin river, and there 
his son Abner was born, September 18, 1864, prob- 
ably the first white child born in Gallatin valley. 
Thence they moved to East Gallatin, located a 
tract of land upon which they lived one year, and 
then moved six miles further down the valley, where 
Mr. Becker had found better land. He there 
permanently located and engaged in farming until 
his death, which occurred August 11, 1900, having 
attained the age of seventy-seven years. Mrs. 
Becker still retains her residence on the old home- 
stead, now managed by her son William, the 
ranch being located ten miles north of Bozeman, 
their postoffice address. It is a valuable property, 
devoted to general farming and is under a high 
state of cultivation, with many most excellent 
and permanent improvements. In politics Mr. 
Becker gave his support to the Bemocratic 
party. He was a man of strong mentality and 
high integrity, charitable m his judgment of his fel- 
low men, whose high regard came to him in recog- 
nition of his sterling character. 

On February 19, 1854, was solemnized the mar- 
riage of Mr. Becker to Miss Clarissa Whitten, who 
was born in Kinderhook, 111., a daughter of Bridge 
Whitten, who died when she was a mere child. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Becker ten children were born, 
namely : Moses, a rancher on the East Gallatin ; 
Harrison, who is similarly engaged at Columbia 
Falls, Mont. ; Christina is the wife of John Milton, 
a farmer of Gallatin valley; Sarah is the wife of 
John Wise, of Columbia Falls; Abner, Perry and 
John are ranchers in Judith Basin ; Anna died when 
nine years of age ; and Clara and William are still at 

ROSS BEEGAN, deceased, a prominent Mon- 
tana pioneer, and once marshal of Helena, 
was for many years one of the leading citizens of 
the capital city. Possibly no man in the state has 
had a more eventful and adventurous life than 
he. Mr. Beegan was born at Albany, N. Y., on 
March 24, 1830, the son of John and Elizabeth (Ma- 



loney) Deegan, both of Albany. John Deegan, 
the father, a machinist, came to the United States 
from Ireland and was long an industrious and use- 
ful citizen of the Hudson river valley. 

Ross Deegan, at the age of sixteen years, attended 
Montreal College, but one year later ran away and 
enlisted as a soldier in the Mexican war. But peace 
being declared a few months after his enlistment, 
he was discharged from the army. He then joined a 
whaling expedition, becoming one of the crew of 
the ship L. C. Richmond, bound for distant parts of 
the Pacific ocean. Having been at sea about nine- 
ty days, he with three others deserted while the 
ship was off the coast of the island of Juan Fernan- 
dez. The island was then inhabitated only by 
criminals who had been deported there in banish- 
ment from Chili. Mr. Deegan and his comrades 
went toward the interior of the island to avoid 
capture, and for six terrible days they had for food 
only two biscuits a day. At last even these were 
exhausted and they were forced to come to the 
sea shore to obtain food, and, upon emerging from 
the dense underbrush, native dogs apprised the in- 
habitants of their presence and they were soon 
overpowered and returned to the ship, where for 
four days they were confined in irons. The cap- 
tain promised to discharge them at the first port 
made by the ship, but this he had no authority to 
do and he secretly advised them to again desert. 
This they did at Otaheite, one of the Society is- 
lands. Mr. Deegan then went to Vera Cruz, 
where he learned of the gold discoveries in Cali- 

He at once shipped for San Francisco, but on ar- 
riving there found all the ships dismantled and de- 
cided not to land. Fie joined another whaling 
expedition and was with a party that captured a 
whale oS Peru. He and three others remained 
by the captured whale over night, and when sunrise 
came they were out of sight of the ship, drifting 
alone on the wide waste of ocean, entirely without 
food or water. After three days of suffering their 
boat drifted ashore at Roberts' island. He then 
shipped for San Francisco on the John Howe, ar- 
riving there in 1850. While here Mr. Deegan en- 
gaged in gold mining and was exceedingly pros- 
perous accumulating $75,000. He then made a trip 
to Germany, France and Spain, and acquired a 
knowledge of the languages of these countries. On 
his return to the United States Mr. Deegan built 
the Grand Haven hotel, costing $50,000, at Grand 
Haven, Mich. At the breaking out of the Civil 

war he enlisted in the Third New York Infantry, 
at Albany, N. Y. During the war following 
Mr. Deegan served gallantly and patriotically, and 
proved himself among the bravest of the brave. He 
was in the first battle of the war at Big and Little 
Bethel, and was afterwards made first lieutenant "of 
the One Hundred and Second New York. At 
Fortress Monroe he was promoted to be captain. 
He was reported as dead after the battle of Port 
Hudson, La., and took part in many battles and skir- 
mishes and was wounded several times. Capt. 
Deegan was honorably discharged from the army 
at New Orleans in 1864. 

While serving as captain in 1862, he was united 
in marriage to Miss Roseman Street, daughter of 
Richard Street, a prominent merchant of Albany, 
N. Y., and owner of a handsome villa with exten- 
sive grounds on the Hudson river. She has a 
brother who is now second auditor in a United 
States department at Washington, D. C, and the 
Street families of New York and Philadelphia are 
of the same stock. In 1866 Mr. Ross Deegan be- 
came a resident of Helena, Mont., and for twelve 
years was engaged in the livery and feed business 
here, where his wife joined him three years later. 
In 1883 he was elected marsnal of Helena, in which 
responsible position he served for a number of 
years. To Mr. and Mrs. Deegan were born four 
children, one, Albert Paul, deceased, and Winifred, 
now married to ATr. M. H. Keith, a railroad man of 
New York city; Ross Edmond, a miner residing in 
Helena ; Ada, married to Frederick L. Link, form- 
erly a resident of South Africa, but now of Mon- 
tana. Mr. Ross Deegan died at Hel»na on Jan- 
uary 31, 1890. At that time he was then on the 
official staff of Gov. Joseph K. Toole, as lieutenant- 
colonel. As a territorial pioneer Mr. Deegan was 
one of the most prominent and popular in the 
northwest. His life was clean, upright and sans 
reproache in every characteristic. His early event- 
ful life culminated in success and prosperity. As 
one of the most prominent citizens of Helena he 
won the esteem and confidence of all, and his death 
was mourned by a wide circle of warm friends and 

WILLIAM DE LACY, one of the heaviest real 
estate dealers in Montana, is a highly es- 
teemed resident of Helena. He was born in Nor- 
folk, Va., February 6, 1841, son of Walter and 



Catherine (Moran) de Lacy, both being natives 
of Norfolk. The family is an ancient Norman 
one, members of which accompanied William 
the Conqueror to England and were re- 
corded on the roll of Battle Abbey. Walter de 
Lacy, the first governor of Ireland, was one of his 
distinguished forefathers. His mother's ancestors 
were among the earliest settlers of Norfolk, and 
Jaspar Moran was her father. 

Until he was nine years of age William de Lacy 
was educated at home, later he attended private 
schools in New Orleans under private tutors, and 
had then the advantages of Norfolk (Va.) Military 
Academy. Concluding his education he followed 
civil engineering until the outbreak of the Civil 
war. He was then a prominent factor in organ- 
izing the New Orleans "light-guards," which were 
mustered into the Confederate service in April, 
1861. He went out with this battalion (later con- 
solidated with the First Louisiana Regiment, nine 
companies from Louisiana and one from Ken- 
tucky) as first lieutenant. He was assigned to 
Gen. Huger's staff as engineer officer of the bri- 
gade, and was soon promoted to a captaincy in Col. 
Dunn's regiment of Mounted Rifles, Virginia 
troops. Later he was appointed captain of Com- 
pany A, Fifteenth Louisiana Infantry, and partic- 
ipated in the seven days' fight in front of Rich- 
mond, and in all subsequent battles from Louisiana 
to Virginia, including Rappahannock, Second Ma- 
nassas, Harper's Ferry and Sharpsburg. Capt. 
de Lacy was then ordered south by Judah P. Benja- 
min, secretary of war, to report to Gen. M. L. 
Smith, commanding at "Vicksburg. Here he was 
offered the command of the signal station, but de- 
clined it, as he desired service in the field and in the 
face of the enemy. He then returned to Louisi- 
ana and served on Gen. Morton's staff. Shortly 
afterwards he made application to the Confederate 
government for service as an engineering officer 
in the regular army, but, not succeedmg in secur- 
ing the position,. he started for Virginia, ran the 
Federal lines in a skiff and thus reached the front. 
Through Masonic influences he was enabled to re- 
turn to New Orleans, where he visited his family. 
Col. de Lacy then went to Mobile, from there to 
Richmond, and joined the army that invaded Penn- 
sylvania. Here he joined Gen. Pemberton, of 
Gen. Lee's staff, and organized a company of con- 
valescents which was merged with Lee's army. He 
joined the Third Company of Washington Artillery, 
of New Orleans, as a private, and served with it 

gallantly at Gettysburg. At Petersburg he was 
promoted from the ranks to a first lieutenancy by 
Gen. Lee, and assigned to duty in the First Regi- 
ment of Engineers. With them he served until 
the close of the war, and participated in the last 
skirmish at Appomattox. 

Following the stirring events in which Col. de 
Lacy had played such a conspicuous and so gallant 
a part, he went to Mexico, and was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel in the Mexican army in 1867, 
he having gone to that country soon after the sur- 
render of Gen. Lee. He returned to New Orleans 
after a few months and was engaged in real estate 
business in that city until 1873, when he went to 
Texas, thence to Las Vegas, N. M., where he 
opened a real estate and insurance office. In 1887 
he came to Montana and located at Helena, where 
he has since resided and built up a profitable 

On February 6, 1888, Col. de Lacy was united in 
marriage to Miss Kate Breidenbach, a native of 
Hawesville, Ky., whose father was a Virginian. 
Mr. and Mrs. de Lacy are members of the Uni- 
tarian church, and their family circle is graced by 
Iwo children. Fraternally he is a Mason, an Odd 
Fellow and a Knight of Pythias. He has held of- 
fices in all these orders and represented them in 
their grand lodges, in which he has held prominent 

The career of Col. de Lacy has demonstrated 
his great executive ability, and that he is versed in 
the profession of civil engineering and courageous 
and sagacious in danger. Since his arrival in Hel- 
ena he has won appreciative friends, and is highly 

pLARK B. DICKINSON.— As the incumbent 
Vj of the important office of director of the state 
reform school of Montana, at Miles City, Mr. Dick- 
inson is doing effective service in the direction of 
the affairs of this important institution. He is en- 
thusiastic in his work and shows executive ability 
in his efforts to advance the facilities of the school 
and to make its work effective. He descends from 
old colonial stock on both paternal and maternal 
sides. Members of both families were active par- 
ticipants in the wars of the Revolution and of 181 2. 
Mr. Dickinson was born at Stanards, Allegany 
county, N. Y., on the 13th of January, 1874, the 
youngest of the four children of Azariah and Hen- 
rietta (Covel) Dickinson, both of whom were born 



in the Empire state, where they maintained their 
Hfe-long residence, the father being engaged in 
farming at Stanards. 

Clark B. Dickinson was a student in the pubHc 
schools of Allegany county, the high school at 
Wellsville and Underhill's Business College, in 
Rochester, N. Y., and was there graduated with 
the class of 1894. He soon engaged in teaching 
in his native town, where he taught five years. In 
1898 he came to Montana, locating in Miles City 
and taking the position of instructor in the state re- 
form school, and here for two years taught the 
common school branches, including bookkeeping, 
algebra and English literature. So capable and 
faithful did he prove that, on May i, 1900, he was 
chosen director of the school, in which capacity he 
continues and has done good service. The insti- 
tution has been handicapped by lack of available 
funds, but its affairs have been conducted with ef- 
fiency, the work being principally limited to in- 
struction in common school branches and to such 
agricultural work as circumstances permitted. It is 
expected that soon instruction can be given in 
carpentry, blacksmithing and sloyd, so that the 
unfortunate inmates may be given manual train- 
ing to fit them for positions of practical usefulness. 

Mr. Dickinson has contributed a number of per- 
tinent articles to the press on the work of this in- 
stitution, its needs and its progress, and in regard 
. to general reformatory methods in schools of this 
character. In politics Mr. Dickinson is not an ac- 
tive participant, and his religious sympathy is with 
the Methodist Episcopal church, of which Mrs. 
Dickinson also is a member. On July 13, 1900, 
Mr. Dickinson was united in marriage to Miss 
Iphigenia Mills, who was born in Stanards, N. Y., 
the daughter of Chester D. Mills, who is engaged in 
farming and fruit growing. Mr. and Mrs. Dickinson 
have one son. Burton, born on the 14th of 
July, 1 90 1. 

WALLACE D. DICKINSON, one of the po- 
tent factors in the upbuilding of Great Falls 
during the past ten years of its marvellous growth, 
is one of the city's most popular and prominent 
representatives. Since his advent here he has had 
the management of the Boston & Great Falls Land 
Co., the Boston Electric Light & Power Co., antl 
the Great Falls Street Railway Co. To his energy 
and superior business sagacity is due a vast share 
of the municipal improvement of the city. Mr. 

Dickinson was born in Malone, N. Y., in 1852. 
His English ancestors settled in Vermont at an 
early date. W. G. Dickinson, his father, was born 
in Sheldon, Vt., and was for many years general 
agent of the Santa Fe Railroad Townsite Co., in 
Kansas and Colorado. Later he became general 
manager of the San Diego land and town com- 
pany. His mother was Miss Sarah King, also a 
native of Malone. All of their five children are 
living. W. G. Dickinson, the father, died in 1892. 
his widow survives him, residing in National 
City, Cal. 

Wallace D. Dickinson, their oldest child, received 
his early education in the public schools and in 
1 87 1 he was graduated with honors from the 
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, and a large portion 
of his life has been passed in railroading. In early 
life he engaged in civil engineering and for three 
years was connected with the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road. He first came to Montana in 1871, and was 
employed in the surveys of this division of that 
road. For three years subsequently he was in 
Duluth, Minn., with its freight department. The 
ten 5'ears following were passed in Topeka, Kan., 
most of the time in the employ of the Santa Fe 
Railroad, but for two years he had charge of a 
carpet and furniture store. He accompanied his 
father to San Diego in 1886 and became a partner 
and sales agent of the firm of C. E. Heath & Co., 
which conducted a very extensive business, having 
charge of nearly all the townsite sales. Mr. Dick- 
inson came to Great Falls in 1890. He found the 
street railway and electric light plants in a condi- 
tion that plainly indicated their primitive origin and 
infancy, and he heartily engaged in the business of 
properly developing them. From the first Mr. 
Dickinson has devoted his undivided attention to 
their improvement and the splendid results are 
now manifested. In 1880 he married Miss Marian 
Wood, a native of Galesburg, 111. Their children 
are Adelaide, May King and Arthur Wood. 

The Boston & Great Falls Land Co., the Boston 
& Great Falls Electric Light and Power Co., and 
the Great Falls Street Railway Co. were all organ- 
ized in 1890. The officers of these companies 
were: President, A. S. Bigelow, Boston; vice- 
president, Leonard Lewissohn, New York ; secre- 
tary and treasurer, Thomas Nelson, Boston. These 
gentlemen all served five years. On the death of 
Mr. Nelson he was succeeded as secretary and 
treasurer by G. L. Nelson, who served until 1900, 
when W. J. Ladd, of Boston, was elected. Mr. 



Bigelow still holds the presidency. In 1898 Mr. 
H. H. Stephens was chosen vice-president. The 
capital stock of the companies was : Electric 
Light & Power, $150,000; Street Railway, $200,- 
000 ; Land Company, $200,000. Li 1892 the capi- 
tal stock of the light and power company was in- 
creased to $225,000. The rest remain the same as 
at first. The company has ten miles of street rail- 
way. They laid out the Boston Heights addition 
to Great Falls in 1891 with 500 acres, of which 200 
are platted. Mr. Dickinson has had charge of the 
company's business since 1894. The street rail- 
way then went into the hands of a receiver and he 
was appointed and is still serving. He has added 
six miles of trackage to the line, two miles in 
1900, since he assumed charge. The road belongs 
to the National electric railway association, also to 
to the National electric light association. The 
successful business career of Mr. Dickinson places 
him among the leaders of those who have brought 
Montana to its present high position as a common- 

HON. JOHN PIPER BARNES, son of George 
W. and Martha (Thomas) Barnes, was born 
in Boone county. Mo., January 28, 1832. His 
father, George W. Barnes, born in Culpeper coun- 
ty, Va., removed with his parents to Kentucky 
when he was three years old. They were pioneers, 
settling there in 1797, and there the grandfather of 
John P. Barnes died in 1810 at the age of 103 years. 
He had six sons by his first marriage, all of whom 
served in the Revolution. There were five sons 
and four daughters by the second marriage, George 
W. being the youngest. All the sons of the second 
marriage served in the war of 1812 under Col. 
Johnson, in Gen. Harrison's army. George W. 
Barnes was the bugleman of the troop of mounted 
infantry, and an incident worthy of note in this 
connection is that at the battle of the Thames an 
order to blow a retreat was understood by him to 
mean blow a charge, which he sounded, the result 
being that the forces rushed forward to victory 
instead of backward to defeat. George W. Barnes 
settled in Missouri in 1820, studied medicine and 
was long in practice in Clay and Piatt counties. 
He married there Martha Thomas about 1826, and 
they had six children, Richard T., Sarah F., John 
P., Elizabeth R., Margaret J. and Mary. Richard 
T. died at Helena, Mont., in 1898, aged seventy 
years, and John P. is the only member of the family 

now resident in the state. The Doctor's wife died 
in 1852, and he accompanied the family of his son 
John to Montana in 1865, and died a year later at 
the age of seventy-two. 

John P. Barnes had the common school advan- 
tages of his day and location, supplemented by a 
short term at a high school, and acquired a prac- 
tical knowledge of business in his father's drug 
store. He engaged in merchandising, first as a 
clerk until 1852, then in trade for himself at Park- 
ville until the breaking out of the Civil war, when, 
throwing business to the winds, he followed his 
state in the cause of the south and enlisted as a 
lieutenant in Gen. Price's army. After serving 
one year, on account of a severe attack of typhoid 
fever he resigned his commission at Memphis, 
Tenn., when he was in command of his company. 
He was succeeded in the command by R. S. Kelly, 
well known to Montanians as United States 
marshal of this state under Cleveland. Mr. 
Barnes was ill and confined to his room 
at the time of the capture of the city, 
and witnessed much of the fighting from 
his window. On recovering his health sufficiently 
to travel, he secured a pass from Gen. Lew Wal- 
lace, the Union commander, and came up the river 
by steamboat to his old home. The Federal author- 
ities were then in control, and Mr. Barnes was 
placed under bonds and given no opportunity to 
leave that part of the country until 1864, when he 
came west in the employ of a man named Couch, 
having charge of a drove of cattle and some freight 
wagons, the Federal commander giving him a pass 
for this purpose. He arrived at Virginia City on 
September 12, 1864, the trip being accomplished 
in 120 days, said to be the best time ever made on 
the route. 

After prospecting for a few weeks, Mr. Barnes 
settled for a short time on a ranch in Jefferson val- 
ley, and on December 24, 1864, he came to the pres- 
ent site of Helena, took up a claim in Grizzly gulch 
and mined with fair success until the fall of 1865, 
when, on the arrival of his family from the east, 
he moved across to the New York mining district. 
He continued mining and milling in the New York, 
Eldorado and Helena districts for ten years, until 
1874, with varying success, in company with W. 
W. Arnold, who was his companion in his trip 
from the east. In 1867 and 1868, in company with 
A. G. Clarke and Alexander Kemp, he constructed 
the Eldorado ditch from Trout creek to Eldorado 
bar. This cost $103,000 and proved to be a losing 




proposition. They then engaged in the sawmill 
business near Helena and in the constniction of a 
mining flume on Clancey creek in Jefferson county. 
During a portion of this time, 1870 and 1871, Mr. 
Barnes resided in Helena and was in charge of a 
lumber yard. He then removed to the flume on 
Clancey creek and remained there until the fall of 
1874, when he purchased a ranch on the Spokane, 
and made it his home until 1882. Then he and 
Mr. Arnold sold their mining properties and 
divided their other possessions, Mr. Arnold retain- 
ing the ranch and Mr. Barnes taking the stock, 
which he removed to the Judith basin and located 
on a ranch near Philbrook, entering a homestead 
of 160 acres. He added 160 acres to this tract by 
purchase, and made it his home until he removed 
to his present residence in Lewistown in 1894. It 
is now the property of Alexander Raw. 

Always stanchly Democratic, Mr. Barnes has 
been an active force in the ranks of his party, and 
has been honored with important official trusts, 
which he has discharged with fidelity and advan- 
tage to the people whom he served. In 1867 he was 
appointed by Gov. Green Clay Smith one of 
the commissioners to organize Meagher county, 
including all the territory between the Missouri and 
Yellowstone rivers as far south as Flathead Pass. 
In the fall of 1868 he was chosen one of the first 
members of the legislature from this new county, 
and the ne.xt fall was elected to represent Choteau, 
Meagher and Gallatin counties in the upper house. 
Having removed to Jefferson county, in the fall of 
1871 he was elected the joint representative of 
Lewis and Clarke and Jeft'erson counties in the 
council, and in 1877 was nominated as a member of 
the same body for Lewis and Clarke county, but, 
giving no personal attention to the canvass, was 
defeated by A. M. Holter by the small majority of 
sixty votes. In 1886 he was one of the commis- 
sioners elected to organize Fergus county, and held 
the office for three years until the first election of 
state officers under the state constitution in 1889. 
On July I, 1894, Mr. Barnes took possession of the 
office of receiver of the United States land office 
at Lewistown, to which he had been commissioned 
on the preceding 24th day of May. He held this 
office for four years and discharged its duties with 
satisfaction to the people. When the city of Lewis- 
town was incorporated he was elected its first 
mayor, but refused to be a candidate for a second 
term. In 1850 he joined the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and consequently has been a member of th?t 

religious body for over half a century. He was 
made a Mason in Compass Lodge No. 63, at Park- 
ville, Mo., in January, 1858, and is now affiliated 
with Lewistown Lodge. 

In the fall of 1887 Mr. Barnes purchased a one- 
half interest in three mining claims in the North 
Moccasin mountains, and in 1888, with his son C. 
E. Barnes, he bought the other half interest from 
A. D. Harmon. Hef developed these and added 
others to them until they had a group of fifteen 
claims, known as the Barnes-King group of mines. 
Their mill, nominally of 100 tons capacity, had 
really a capacity of 300 tons, and they easily run 
through 100 tons in eight hours. The ore has an 
average value of $10 to the ton. The Barnes-King 
group was bonded to an Eastern syndicate in De- 
cember, 1901, for $1,000,000. 

Mr. Barnes was united in marriage February 23, 
1853, with Miss Rosetta L. Beeding, a daughter 
of Craven P. and Rosetta L. (Lackland) Beeding. 
She was a native of Hagerstown, Md., from whence 
her parents removed to Parkville, Mo., in 1844. 
Mr. and Mrs. Barnes have reared six children, 
Clarence E., John S., Martha E. (Mrs. Joseph 
Wunderlin), Anna M. (Mrs. R. L. Neville), 
Loretta (Mrs. M. L. Woodman), and Carlotta 
(Mrs. John L. Raw). Mrs. Barnes died in March, 
1899, aged sixty-five years. Mr. Barnes con- 
tracted a second marriage on May 8, 1901, being 
then united with Mrs. Jennie Larson, whose 
maiden name was Sheridan. She was born in 
Lindley, Steuben county, N. Y., in 1855. 

Mr. Barnes is one of the rare specimens of man- 
hood whose modesty has kept him from the full 
measure of honorable station to which he might 
probably have aspired. It has been said of him, 
by one who knows him well, and who is an excellent 
judge of character, that he might have had any 
office in the gift of his people if he had aspired to 
it. But while he has not pushed himself forward 
in official lines, he has held responsible positions 
with great ability, has dignified and adorned every 
walk of life in which he has been found, and has 
been an inspiration and example to good men of all 

HON. W. W. DIXON.— The qualities which 
command the largest measure of material 
success in human affairs arc a clearness of under- 
standing that brings into view from the beginning 
the definite end and the most available means of 



reaching it ; a force of will tireless in its persistency, 
and a quickness of decision that instantly utilizes 
the commanding points in any case. In the ratio 
in which they possess such qualities men are great 
and are the leaders of their fellows from the right- 
ful sovereignity innate in their individual nature. 
There may be oratorical power — depth of thought 
and grace of diction — in the conjunction. Sub- 
tlety in dialectics and copiousness of technical 
learning may not be wanting. If so, these are 
added powers. It is the men of action who move 
the world forward in its destined course — especial- 
ly in this intensely practical age. Hon. William 
W. Dixon, of Butte, is essentially a man of this 
kind — clear in perception, resolute in pursuit, 
quick and firm in decision. These qualities have 
given him force and leadership among men, and 
wrought out for him a record in public and profes- 
sional life creditable alike to himself and to the 
people in whose service it has been made. He 
was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., June 3, 1838, the son 
of George C. Dixon, who emigrated from Eng- 
land to the United States in his boyhood and set- 
tled in New York, where he became a lawyer and 
attained prominence in the profession. Here also 
he married Miss Henrietta Gourgas, a lady of 
Swiss parentage. With their two young children 
they later removed to Illinois, and subsequently to 
Iowa, where the father died at the age of sixty 
years. The mother had already passed away in her 
forty-eighth year. The daughter has also died, leav- 
ing William W. Dixon the only survivor of the 

;\Ir. Dixon was educated in the public schools, 
and read law under the direct instruction of his 
father, who was a most conscientious and exact- 
ing tutor, being careful above all things that the 
training of his pupil should be thorough and his 
knowledge of legal principles comprehensive and 
exact. His studies having run the prescribed 
course, he was admitted to the bar of Iowa in 1858. 
After practicing there a short time he removed to 
Tennessee and later to Arkansas. In 1862, desir- 
ing a still newer field, and shrinking from no per- 
sonal discomfort or danger to secure it, he made 
the long and perilous trip across the plains to Cali- 
fornia. He remained there but a brief period, 
however, and then went into Nevada. After pass- 
ing nearly four years there, in 1886 he located at 
Helena, Mont., and was one of the earliest settlers 
in the historic Last Chance gulch. Here he formed 
a law partnership with W. H. Clagett. They prac- 

ticed law successfully together for a number of 
years, achieving an eminence and a success unusual 
in the unsettled conditions of the pioneer period. 
From Helena Mr. Dixon removed to Deer Lodge, 
and in 1879 he went to the Black Hills, where he 
was in practice two years. In 1881 he located in 
Butte, where he has since continuously resided. He 
has built up a very large and profitable legal busi- 
ness, distinguished alike for the number and the 
character of its cHentage. His success at the bar 
is unqualified, but it is not accidental or due to 
fortuitous circumstances. It is based upon sub- 
stantial, manifest, oft-demonstrated, genuine merit. 
No lawyer in the state, and perhaps none out of it, 
surpasses Mr. Dixon in thorough knowledge of the 
common law or the code practice. That he is the 
leading attorney of a number of the largest mining 
companies in the west is proof positive of his pre- 
eminent position in the profession, for organized 
capital is ever keen-scented for what is best in any 
field wherewith its interests are connected. It needs 
scarcely to be added that Mr. Dixon is well quali- 
fied for the financial side of his business, and has 
not worshipped at the shrine of Themis without 
substantial results. 

It is a logical and inevitable sequence of his bent 
and his genius for large affairs, that Mr. Dixon 
should take an ardent interest in affairs political. 
His affiliation is and always has been with the Dem- 
ocratic party. Seeing in its principles, when 
properly applied, the utmost, and perhaps the only, 
real guarantee of popular government, he has given 
his energies without stint to perfect and maintain 
a successful organization on the lines of his con- 
victions. He has frequently borne his people's 
high commission, issued at the ballot box, to speak 
and do their will in legislative halls. He repre- 
sented Deer Lodge county in the territorial legis- 
lature, and was chairman of the judiciary commit- 
tee in the house in which he sat. In this position 
he was able to render great service to the com- 
monwealth. He was also a prominent and influ- 
ential member of the two notable constitutional 
conventions of Montana, and gave zealous and con- 
scientious attention and his best powers toward 
shaping the present constitution of the state. In 
1890 his universally recognized ability and eminent 
fitness made him the choice of the people as their 
representative in the Fifty-second congress of the 
United States. In the larger forum, as in every 
other, he bore an intellectual lance which no ad- 
versary ever despised or was over-eager to meas- 



ure, and filled the office with great credit to him- 
self and advantage to his constituents. In 1874 
Mr. Dixon married with Miss Ida N. Wilcox, a 
native of St. Louis, Mo. Four children have 
blessed their union, but the "insatiable archer" has 
claimed them all. One of the sons, William W. 
Dixon, Jr., was cut off in the ver)' opening of a 
promising young manhood and while making a 
brilliant record as a student in the law department 
of Georgetown University, D. C. Mrs. Dixon is 
a devout member of the Catholic church, and both 
she and Mr. Dixon are favorites in the leading- 
social circles in which they live. 

pHARLES G. DODGE.— Now a prominent, 
v^ a progressive and a representative resident of 
Helena, j\Iont., and descended from a long line of 
ancestors, Charles E. Dodge himself and his career 
are worthy of note. Earwaker's history of East 
Cheshire, England, says : 

"The Dodge family was connected with Offerton 
for many generations. The name was first spelled 
Dogge (the g's being pronounced soft) and some- 
times Doggeson. One of the earliest records of 
them is reference to a curious grant of arms, which 
was granted to Peter Dodge, of Stockport, so 
early as the 34th Edward I, 1306." 

One William Dodge was the first of his name to 
come to America. He settled in 1629 in that part 
now Beverly, but until 1868 lived in Salem, Mass. 
It is supposed that he returned to England, married 
and came to Salem the second time accompanied 
by liis brother Richard, as no trace of Richard can 
be found there until October 29, 1638, when he 
was received as an inhabitant. Previous to this he 
had lived on land belonging to his brother William. 
Novem.ber 12, 1638, he was granted ten acres of 
land, and on November 26, 1638, forty acres addi- 
tional. On December 3, 1641, the town granted 
him forty acres more. On May 5, 1644, he was re- 
ceived into the church at Salem. Twenty-three 
years later he was one of the founders of the First 
Church of Beverly, and one of the most liberal con- 
tributors. That he had a high appreciation of the 
vahie of education is apparent from the fact that 
in 1665, in a list of twenty-one subscribers to Har- 
vard College, the name of Richard Dodge ranks first. 
He dedicated a piece of ground to a burying ground, 
which is now known as the cemetery on Dodge 
Row, and on June 15, 1671, he died in Beverly. 

The Dodge family, for at least four generations, 
were farmers. Following the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century the_\' began to push out from their 
old homesteads, and are now found all along the 
way from New England to the Pacific. Some have 
occupied the highest ranks in the field of phi- 
lanthrop)- ; some have achieved military fame, 
many have acquired literary distinction, and they 
are found in the clergy, the medical and legal 
professions, and as professors in colleges, but 
rarely seekers after public office. 

Charles G. Dodge is a lineal descendant of Rich- 
ard, the emigrant, the line being Jonatlian (6), 
Grover (5), Nehemiah (4), Parker (3), Samuel 
(2) and Richard (i), and Grover Dodge, his pater- 
nal grandfather was born at New Boston, N. H., on 
September 2, 1780. He was a farmer boy, edu- 
cated in the common schools, and a captain in the 
militia. In April, 1819, at Hopkinton, N. H., he 
was united in marriage to Miss Lydia Brown, a 
native of France, born April 27, 1792. She died 
July 17, 1848. They had seven children. The sec- 
ond wife of Grover Dodge was Sarah Hoyt, of 
Warren, N. H. Jonathan Dodge, son of Grover, 
was born April 4, 1822, at Hopkinton, N. 
H. He graduated at Hopkinton Academy and 
served in the city council of Manchester, N. H., to 
which place he removed in 1863. He was long a 
manufacturer of cotton goods, and superintend- 
ent of the mills. He now resides at Concord, N. 
H., retired from business. On June 23, 1846, he 
was united in marriage to Jerusha, daughter of 
David and Sarah (Swain) Edgerly, of Sanborn, 
N. H. Their children are Lizzie M., wife of C. D. 
Boynton; Emma F., wife of C. F. Good; Charles 
G., and Nellie B. 

Charles G. Dodge was born at Manchester, N. H., 
on July II, 1862. He received his early education 
in the public schools and graduated from the Man- 
chester high school in 188 1. He then entered the 
Boston Dental College, where he obtained a thor- 
ough knowledge of his future profession by dili- 
gent study and intelligent experiment. Following 
his graduation from this institution he commenced 
dental practice in his native city. In 1891 he 
came to Montana and located at Helena. Here he 
has followed his profession with gratifjang suc- 
cess, and it can be said that he is today the lead- 
ing dentist in the city. Fraternally Dr. Dodge is 
a member of the Masonic lodge, chapter, council 
and commandery of Manchester, N. H., and of 
the mystic shrine, of Helena. He is also a mem- 



ber of Myrtle Lodge No. 2, K. of P., Helena, 
Woodmen of the World, Camp Garnet, Helena, 
and Lodge No. 193, Benevolent Protective Order 
of Elk.s. October 18, 1884, in Manchester, N. H., 
he was united in marriage to Miss Minnie E., 
daughter of J. C. Ricker, of Helena. Politically 
Dr. Dodge affiliates with the Republican party, 
although by no means is he an active partisan. 
Socially he is a member of the leading circles of 
Helena society. Throughout the state, as well as 
in Helena and its vicinity, he is recognized as one 
of the ablest members of his profession. He is 
popular with all with whom he is brought into 
association, and is esteemed for his intelligence, 
force of character and kindliness of heart. 

CHARLES O. DORR.— A scion of that old fam- 
ily of this name which has long been so con- 
spicuous in New England, and whose members 
have been found somewhere in the front of every 
advancing movement, Charles O. Dorr, a success- 
ful and prosperous miner of Pony, comes honestly 
by the qualities which mark him as a superior man, 
and have won for him the regard and esteem of all 
his neighbors and friends. He was born at Taun- 
ton, Mass.. September 29, 1842, a son of Alvin and 
Hannah (Howard) Dorr, the former a native of 
New Hampshire and the latter of Massachusetts. 
His grandfather, Asa Dorr, of New Hampshire, 
was an emigrant from England to America in 
Colonial days, and was soon well established in the 
good opinion of his fellow citizens of the old 
Granite state in which he settled. Mr. Dorr's 
father, then a young married man, in 1843 re- 
moved to Illinois, locating in Kane county, and 
making it his home until his death, which occurred 
in 1898 when he was ninety-four years old. He 
was a well-to-do farmer, and stood high in the 
community. Mr. Charles O. Dorr spent his school 
days in Illinois, and, with the patriotic feelings 
which have always distinguished his family, on 
August 20, 1861, enlisted as a member of Company 
A, Thirty-sixth Illinois Cavalry, under Colonel 
Grousel. He was mustered into service at Aurora, 
and his regiment was at once sent to Missouri. It 
received its first baptism of fire at the battle of 
Pea Ridge in Arkansas, and was subsequently en- 
gaged at luka, Corinth, Vicksburg and Jackson 
(Miss.), Morganza Bend and Vermillion (La.), and 
innumerable skirmishes. In all of these i\Ir. Dorr 

was conspicuous for gallantry and readiness in 
action, ever a patriotic soldier. 

Mr. Dorr, on October 5, 1865, was honorably dis- 
charged and mustered out at New Orleans as com- 
pany commissary sergeant, and at once returned 
to Illinois, but after a short time removed to Iowa, 
where he remained eighteen months. In the 
spring of 1867 he came to Montana, traveling up 
the Missouri to Fort Benson and from there over- 
land to Helena, putting in the following winter 
mining at Washington gulch in the Blackfoot coun- 
try. He remained there about a year and then went 
into Gallatin valley for a few months, and since 
then has made his home principally in the neigh- 
borhood of Pony, working for himself in quartz 
mining in Norwegian gulch, and doing some pros- 
pecting in Jefferson county. He has been success- 
ful, and now owns interests in a number of promis- 
ing quartz leads in Norwegian gulch, among them 
the property of which Mr. Finch has recently 
(1901) made a rich strike. Mr. Dorr is a member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic and the Yeomen 
of America. Although a modest and retiring gen- 
tleman, he has the good opinion of all classes where 
he is known, and is universally regarded as a man 
of integrity and unblemished reputation, useful in 
all public matters and keenly alive to the best in- 
terests of the county and state, and full of consid- 
erate and kindly feeling for his fellowmen. 

EMMET DUNLAP.— The prosperous and pro- 
gressive pioneer settler of Dawson county, 
Mont., whose name is the initiative of these para- 
graphs, has been a resident of the county in which 
he lives for twenty-two years. He was born in 
Seneca county, N. Y., April 19, 1830, and removed 
with his parents, when a small boy, to Wayne 
county, Mich., where he received his education at 
the public schools of the town of Northville. In 
1852 he came farther west, locating in Trinity 
county, Cal.. engaged in mining for some years, 
and went from there to the mining districts of 
eastern Oregon and Idaho for the same purpose. 
In all he spent about fourteen years in search of the 
hidden treasures, but without a gratifying success. 
After abandoning the mines he was for six or seven 
years farming in Michigan and Missouri. In 1872 
he removed to Minnesota, and carried the mails 
from Morris in that state to Fort Sisseton, Dak., 
for eight years. In 1880 he took a grading con- 


tract on the Northern Pacific Railroad, which kept 
him occupied for two years; and, in 1882, he settled 
at his present home on Dunlap creek, in the Yel- 
lowstone valley, about thirty-five miles from Glen- 
dive, where he has a beautiful ranch of 800 acres de- 
voted to stockraising-, he being one of the most ex- 
tensive producers of sheep, cattle arid horses in Daw- 
son county. He makes a specialty of thorough- 
bred Shropshire sheep, and has done much to im- 
prove the standard of the sheep in the county. 
His output has a high rank in the market, and he 
is recognized as one of the leading sheep pro- 

Mr. Dunlap is an unwavering Republican, giv- 
ing to his party a good share of his time and energy, 
and wielding a potential influence in its councils; 
and although averse to pubHc life, he was induced 
to accept the office of county commissioner 
for four years in the nineties, and during his incum- 
bency rendered valuable service to the people by 
his close attention to their business and his fair- 
ness, intelligence and breadth of view in reference 
to it. He was married at Tokua, Minn., in 1876 to 
Mrs. Jennie Atkinson, who was born in Canada in 
1845, ^"d died at the Dunlap creek home in 1888, 
leaving two children — Tokua, the first white 
child born in Big Stone county, Minn,, where Mr. 
Dunlap was living in 1878, and Lennie, born near 
Chillicothe, Mo., in 1871. Mr. Dunlap is recognized 
as a leading citizen in his neighborhood, and is 
looked up to by all classes of the people around him. 
His progressive methods in farming and ranching 
have been of great service in their effect upon the 
work and aspirations of his neighbors, and his con- 
tributions to the elevation of sentiment and the 
improvement of methods in reference to stock- 
breeding, farming and other matters pertaining to 
his line of industry, have been substantial and fruit- 

UflLLIAM S. DUNCAN.— Descendant of a 
family distinguished in every line of life in 
the annals of Scotland, and bearing a conspicuous 
part in the civil and military history of the United 
States, William S. Duncan has ancestors on both 
sides of the house who were gallant soldiers in the 
Revolution, the war of 1812 and the Mexican war; 
and he himself saw arduous service in the Confed- 
erate army during the Civil war. He was born in 
Jefferson City, Mo., on April 2, 1843, a son of 
J. M. and Mary E. (Sheeley) Duncan, both natives 

of Kentucky, belonging to families who had moved 
into that state from Virginia, their ancestors com- 
ing to America as early emigrants from Scotland and 
England. liis father settled in Callaway county, 
Mo., in 1825, and engaged in contracting and build- 
ing, also taking an active interest in local affairs. He 
died in that state in 1879, leaving two sons and one 

The older son, William, was educated in the dis- 
trict schools of Callaway county, and the Presby- 
terian College, which he left in 1861 at the age of 
eighteen to enlist as a soldier of the Confederacy 
under Capt. Daniel Mclntire, a classmate. He v, as 
six months a member of the state guard, and then 
enlisted in Company A, Second Missouri Volunteers, 
under Col. John Q. Burbridge. He first saw active 
service in battle at Carthage, Mo., July 5, 1861, 
and next at Wilson's Creek in August, where his 
company lost twenty-four of its forty-six men. He 
was in the battle of Lexington, and soon after was 
taken prisoner, and held in captivity until Sep- 
tember, 1862, being confined at Johnson Island. 
When he was exchanged he rejoined his regiment 
in Tennessee, but a few weeks later, owing to 
sickness, he was transferred to the department of 
Arkansas, and there served as clerk until he was re- 
stored to health in 1863. He then took part in the 
battles of Springfield and Hartville and a number 
of skirmishes, and was again taken prisoner, but was 
paroled on condition that he would go west and not 
return to the army. Accordingly, in the spring of 
1864 he journeyed overland to California, where he 
engaged in various pursuits until the latter part 
of 1866 when he returned to Missouri. 

Here, in February, 1867, he married Miss Helen 
Cave, of Danville, Mo., davtghter of Henry Cave, 
a native of Kentucky, of Virginia ancestry. Their 
children are Harry, engaged in mining at Butte; 
Montgomery M., a graduate of Independence Col- 
lege in Missouri, who was admitted to the bar 
in 1895, was elected county attorney in 1898 and 
re-elected in 1900; Stewart L., Argyle P., Paul S. 
and Cave, mining on Norwegian Creek in Madison 
county; and Orrick O., now attending school. 
Another son, Philip C, was killed by an explosion 
in the GagTion mine at Butte, and a daughter, 
Helen, is also dead. After his marriage Mr. Dun- 
can engaged in farming and stockraising in Mis- 
souri, until 1883, then he came to Montana and 
after passing the summer at Bozeman removed to 
Pony and engaged in mining, securing some good 
property on Norwegian Creek, which his sons are 


now woi-king. He has been a justice of the peace 
for a number of years; also a school trustee and 
road supervisor. Pony was incorporated in 1901, 
and Mr. Duncan is now serving as its first mayor. 
He is highly respected as a genial, cultivated 
and public-spirited gentleman. 

AiriLLIAM DYER.— In the stern, seagirted, 
VV rugged old county of Cornwall, England, 
industry thrives and sturdy manhood is engen- 
dered. Here the metallic ores are stored in great 
abundance, and their mines have been worked from 
remote antiquity. The sterling character of the 
manhood of the typical Cornishman has for years 
been acknowledged. So in referring to Mr. Dyer 
as a Cornishman we accord him a tribute of high 
honor, and it is sufficient that in America, whither 
he came as a young emigrant, dependent entirely 
upon his own resources, he has achieved a notable 
success in that line of industry which has given 
Cornwall its prestige. His forefathers had devoted 
themselves for generations to mining, but the op- 
portunities of the new world have enabled him to 
achieve the success the old world refused his an- 
cestors. William, Dyer was born in the town and 
the parish of St. Austell, Cornwall, England, on 
February 28, 1853, of old Cornish stock. His educa- 
tion was given by the public schools, and he early 
became identified with the Cornish mining industry, 
and he there gained that appreciation of the dig- 
nity of honest toil which has been but intensified in 
his American Hfe, now crowned with distinctive 
success and honor. Ambitious and self-reliant, the 
young Cornishman determined to emigrate to 
America and seek his fortune under more aus- 
picious conditions. Accordingly, in 1873, at the 
age of twenty, he came to the United States, and 
naturally sought employment in mining. He se- 
cured work in the iron mines of New Jersey, where 
he remained three years, when he determined to 
follow the advice of Horace Greeley : "Go west, 
young man, and grow up with the country." Of 
this period of his life we can perhaps best use the 
words of a previous writer : 

"He first stopped around Central City, Colo., 
and there engaged in mining, contracting and kin- 
dred occupations suited to his skill and experience. 
After two years in Colorado, Dyer pushed forward 
to the richer fields of Montana, arriving in Butte 
on ^larch 16, 1878. For a number of years he 

worked for wages around Butte as a miner in 
various capacities. His skill and experience en- 
abled him to command a good salary, and he was 
saving and careful of his earnings, which were 
judiciously invested in Butte city property, and its 
rapid advance in value proved the soundness of 
his judgment. While Mr. Dyer's skill and exper- 
ience as a miner enabled him to command high 
wages, he was still, under these conditions, to ' 
lose all prospects of becoming himself a mine 
owner ; so, as early as 1879, having made the ac- 
Cjuaintance of Michael Connors, a prospector in 
whose judgment he had confidence, he entered 
into the usual 'grub-stake' arrangement with him : 
Dyer furnished the means and Connors prospected 
on joint account. To show how much pluck and 
perseverance are necessary for success, even in the 
rich fields where they operated, it may be stated 
that this arrangement was steadily continued for 
seven years. In 1886 they discovered and located the 
now famous Ontario mine. Dyer's experience as 
an expert miner now served him to good purpose. 
A proposition was made by his partner, Connors, to 
give or take $60,000 for the half interest. It was a 
big price for a partially developed mine, but Dyer 
accepted this proposition and gave Connors his 
notes for the amount and shipped ore enough from 
this mine to meet his payments at maturity. 
The first car-load of ore netted $1,566 at the United 
States sampling works in Helena. Mr. Dyer 
continued to work the Ontario mine on individual 
account until 1893, realizing about $117,000 net 
profits up to that date. Having other mining prop- 
erties adjoining, he then concluded to incorporate a 
company to develop and work the whole property 
on a large scale with the best machinery. This 
resulted in the organization, January 3, 1893, of 
the Ontario Mining Co., with Mr. Dyer as presi- 
dent and principal stockholder. The company was' 
capitalized at $300,000, and is probably the only 
mining venture in Montana the stock of which 
commanded par from its organization, and before 
the company had taken out a pound of ore." 

Since 1895 Mr. Dyer has devoted- his attention 
to the supervision of his mining interests in Silver 
Bow county and his valuable real estate holdings 
in Butte. In September, 1884, after having been 
absent for more than a decade, Mr. Dyer made a 
visit to his old home in Cornwall, where he re- 
mained a year, and in 1895, his health having be- 
come impaired, he again visited the scenes of his 
childhood, the same self-reHant, genial and whole- 


souled individual who . was once a poor young- 
emigrant, but now a man of wealth and influence. 
His conditions had changed, but not his person- 
ality, for he is ever mindful of his early struggles 
and labors, is ever ready to grasp the hand of the 
honest working man. He is a man of broad mental 
grasp, a thorough executive and one who never 
fails to show interest in the public welfare. The 
Republican party, recognizing Mr. Dyer's mature 
judgment and marked business sagacity, nomi- 
nated him as their candidate for, and the people 
of Silver Bow county chose him as, a member of 
the convention which, in 1889, formulated the 
present admirable constitution of the state. Fra- 
ternally he holds membership in the Masonic and 
Odd Fellows orders and he is now (1901) prelate 
of Montana Commandery No. 3, Knights Templar, 
while he is a past grand of Fidelity Lodge No. 8, 
L O. O. F. His career has been marked by no 
exciting phases, but he has been true in all the 
relations of life, has labored indefatigably and has 
achieved success by worthy means. Twrning, in 
conclusion, to the domestic chapter in the life of 
Mr. Dyer, we find that when he started as an 
emigrant in 1873 he was accompanied by his wife, 
whom he had wooed and won only a short time pre- 
viously. He was married at Plymouth, where they 
embarked, to Miss Amelia Ann Skelly, a native 
of Cornwood county, Devonshire, England, and 
who continued his companion and helpmate until 
her death, on May 28, 1895. On January 17, 1899, 
Mr. Dyer was again married, the ceremony occur- 
ring in Mountain View church in Butte, where he 
was united with Miss Lida Pepple, who was born 
in Ohio, a descendant of one of its old families. 
They have one daughter, Marion Wilber. 

young members of the Montana bar is Mr. 
Duncan, who is now serving his second term as 
county attorney of Madison county, and who has 
attained popularity through his ability and his 
personal qualities. He was born in Fulton, Cal- 
laway county, Mo., on November 11, 1869. His 
father, William S. Duncan, was also born in Mis- 
souri, where he was graduated from Westminster 
college, at Fulton, in the class of 1861, after which 
he was a farmer until the outbreak of the Civil war, 
when he enlisted as a private for service in the 
Confederate army, under Gen. Price, and was in 

military life until 1864, when he went to California, 
where he passed two years and returned to his 
home in Missouri, where, in 1867, was solemnized 
his marriage to Miss Helen Cave, a native of that 
state, the daughter of Henry Cave, a Kentuckian 
and a lawyer of ability. He was a slaveholder and 
fairly well-to-do. 

Montgomery M. Duncan was second m a family 
of eight children. He attended the schools of Ful- 
ton until he came with the family to Montana in 
1883 and here he was in the public schools until 
1893, when he took a one year's course in Woodland 
college, at Independence, Mo. He then began read- 
ing law with Shelby & Ott, in Independence, and 
after two years of application was admitted to the 
bar of Missouri in March, 1895. He practiced in 
that state for one year, then returned to Montana, 
and was here granted admission to the bar on March 
18, 1896. He located a law office at Pony, Madison 
county, and soon secured a reputation for ability 
and skill. He took active interest in politics and 
was an earnest worker in the Democratic party, 
by which he was elected county attorney in 1898, 
and served with such efficiency as to gain popular 
endorsement. He was nominated to succeed him- 
self in 1900, and was again elected by a flattering 
majority of 483 votes, receiving the largest vote 
of any candidate in the county. His rehgious 
faith is Presbyterian, and fraternally he belongs 
to Madison Lodge No. 26, I. O. O. F., at Pony; 
Virginia City Lodge No. i, A. F. & A. M., and 
\'irginia City Lodge No. 590, Woodmen of the 
World. Mr. Duncan is a man of marked individu- 
ality, is thoroughly in love with his profession and 
enjoys a distinctive personal popularity. Of 
his six brothers, one, PhiHp C, was killed in the 
Gagnon mine, at Butte, in June, 1900; and the 
others are connected with mining enterprises at 
Pony, as is also their father. They own the Boxer 
and Pauline mines, and are successful in their oper- 
ations. Mr. Duncan is attorney for the Isdell 
Mercantile Company, of Pony. 

n EORGE EDINGER.— In the personnel of its 
vl officials Beaverhead county is signally fa- 
vored, and prominent among those who are render- 
ing efficient service in positions of trust and respon- 
sibility is Mr. Edinger, her present county treas- 

I\Ir. Edinger is a native of Indiana, having been 



born in Boongrove, Porter count}', September 29, 
1868. His father, Jacob Edinger, was born in Ger- 
many, immigrated to the United States about the 
year 1845 and located in New York. He removed to 
Ohio and thence to Indiana, where he engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, to which he has ever devoted 
his attention, and became a representative citizen of 
Porter county. It is there was solemnized his mar- 
riage to Miss Dora E. Dunn, also born in Ger- 
many, who accompanied her parents on their 
removal to America in 1848, the family locating in 
Indiana. Of the eight children of this union the 
subject of this review was the sixth in order of 

George Edinger was reared on the old home- 
stead and early became inured to the work inci- 
dent to its cultivation, while his educational privi- 
leges were such as were afforded in the public 
schools, which he attended- during the wmter 
months. He finally left home, going to Chicago, 
where he was employed in a commission house for 
two winters. In 1886 he made his way to Mon- 
tana, locating in Dillon, where one of his brothers 
had previously taken up his abode. He engaged 
in ranching until 1888, and then turned his atten- 
tion to the dairy business. Thereafter he held a 
clerkship in a grocery at Dillon, and in 1889 worked 
in the mines at Castle, Meagher county. In the fall 
of that year Mr. Edinger went to Alaska, but re- 
turned to Idaho and engaged in mining in the vicin- 
ity of Burke for a period of one year, after which 
he was employed at the Hunter mine. In the 
winter of 1891 he went to Butte and engaged in 
mining. In 1893 he returned to Dillon and was 
employed in the electric light plant until the spring 
of the following year, when he accepted a position 
with the Montana Mercantile Company, remaining 
until February, 1898. He once more made his 
way to the far north, going to Dawson, British 
Columbia, where he engaged in prospecting and 
mining for one season, returning to Montana and 
to his old home, his mother having died in Novem- 
ber, 1898. He returned to Montana in January, 
1899, again entering the employ of the Montana 
Mercantile Company, at Dillon, and was thus en- 
gaged until being elected county treasurer in 1900. 
To this important office he brought excellent 
business and executive ability, while his sturdy in- 
tegrity of character had gained for him the con- 
fidence and respect of the general public, hence his 
preferment met with flattering endorsement. This 
is evident when it is taken into consideration that 

he was elected in a county whose normal political 
complexion is strongly Republican, while he has 
ever been a stalwart supporter of the Democratic 
party. He received a majority of 125 votes. Fra- 
ternally Mr. Edinger is identified with the Wood- 
men of the World and the Royal Highlanders, 
while his genial personality has secured a wide 
circle of friends in the community. 

On September 3, 1896, Mr. Edinger was united 
in marriage to Miss Carrie Carter, who was born 
in Beaverhead county, the daughter of William B. 
Carter, one of the honored pioneers who located 
at Bannack in 1862, and was for many years promi- 
nently identified with the industrial activities of 
this section of Montana. Mrs. Edinger was reared 
and educated in her native county, completing a 
course of study in the high school at Dillon. Our 
subject and his wife have one son, William Carter 
Edinger, who was born October 8, 1900. 

HON. ROBERT S. FORD, president of the 
Great Falls National Bank, is one of the most 
prominent business men of northern Montana. A 
pioneer of 1864, as freighter, rancher, stockman and 
financier, he has steadily advanced in prosperity 
and importance in every position he has held. His 
successful life is an example of what energy, en- 
terprise, industry and perseverance, coupled with 
ability and capacity for affairs, will accomplish and 
has accomplished in this prosperous commonwealth 
of Montana. R. S. Ford came of a good ancestry 
and has had a strong physique and vitality to with- 
stand deprivations and hardships that would have 
crushed a weaker physical organization. Away 
back in the early settlement of Ohio, his grand- 
father, Robert Ford, was one of its pioneer 
farmers. He was of Irish and English lineage and 
the Ford family was domiciled in New York long 
before the Revolution. Robert Ford moved 
from Ohio to Kentucky in the first quar- 
ter of the nineteenth century, when his 
son John was a small child. The son was 
reared in rural surroundings as a tiller of 
the soil and learned carpentry. Here he met and 
married Miss Henrietta Simpson, whose family 
were early settlers of the state, conspicuous in its 
history and giving name to Simpson county, where 
they located and where she and her children were 
born. A happy life they lived for a few brief years, 
strict in their attendance on the services of the 




Baptist church, of which they were members, and 
faithful in their duty. But the husband died in his 
thirtieth year, leaving four children to lighten the 
widow's woe. In 1855 her brothers made their 
home in Missouri and she and her children accom- 
panied them. When came the Civil war she re- 
turned to Kentucky, where she died in 1873, 
aged fifty-three. 

Robert Simpson Ford, born in Simpson county, 
Ky., on January 14, 1842, was the son of John and 
Henrietta (Simpson) Ford. He cheerfully fol- 
lowed the fortunes of his mother until 1861, receiv- 
ing a good common school education in Westport, 
Mo. Possessing a rugged constitution and a desire 
for adventure, he did not accompany his mother on 
her return to Kentucky, but started for that land 
of promise, the distant but entrancing west, in his 
nineteenth year, engaging in freighting in 1861 
between Nebraska City and Julesburg and Fort 
Laramie, as an employe. Faithful and unremitting 
service brought its reward, in 1862 he was an as- 
sistant wagon master, in 1863 in charge of a wagon 
train, and in 1864 he came to Montana as captain 
of an ox train of merchandise. These were the rude 
days of the territory, now the civilized state. The 
Indian was often encountered in war paint and in 
numbers, while the hand of man had not smoothed 
the highways or bridged the streams. In Montana 
he continued as a freighter between Cow Island 
and Fort Benton, and many of his experiences would 
seem strangely wild and exciting to our business 
men of today. Hotels were unknown and many 
other conveniences now styled necessaries. But 
he pluckily kept to work, saving his earnings and 
sending money to his mother. In 1868 he visited 
her in Kentucky and the next spring returned to 
engage in the enterprise that has been the founda- 
■ion of his wealth. Going to Colorado he bought 
300 Texas cows, drove them to Montana, sold them 
at a handsome profit in Beaverhead valley, and re- 
turned to Denver and purchased 700 head of cattle, 
which, in 1 87 1, he drove to Sun River valley where 
he located and built a cabin within two miles of 
the site of Great Falls. Here he wintered his stock 
and sold them in the spring with good returns. 
His next importation from Colorado, a herd of 
1,200 cattle, was wintered at the same location, but 
in 1873 he moved further up the valley and, as the 
pioneer stockraiser of Sun River, established his 
home on the ranch he has so developed and im- 
proved. From that time he engaged extensively 
and lucratively in stockraising, devising new ways 

and methods to make the business a paying one, 
and his forethought and sagacity were well re- 
warded. He soon made profitable contracts with 
the United States government to supply beef to the 
garrison at Fort Shaw, and his wealth increased 
steadily, surely and rapidly. In 1878 he went to 
Kentucky, wedded there Miss Sue McClanahan, 
and brought her on a bridal trip to the attractive 
Sun River ranch. Of the five children that have 
brightgj^ed their home, but two survive, Lee McC. 
and Shirley S. 

A wise caution and a careful conservatism pre- 
vented the gains of Mr. Ford from passing out of 
his hands, although a bountiful generosity and a 
typical western hospitality have ever been pro- 
nounced characteristics of his nature. This con- 
servatism aligned him in politics with the Demo- 
cratic party, and, as his abilities and personality 
became known, he was called to places of distinctive 
trust. He represented Choteau county in the legis- 
lature that convened in January, 1876, with the 
ability and ease of an old legislator, and in 1876 the 
counties of Choteau and Meagher elected him to 
serve in the Montana senate of 1877, while he was 
chosen in 1880 to represent in the territorial council 
of the legislature of 1881 the district comprising 
the counties of Lewis and Clarke, Choteau, ]\Ieagher 
and Dawson. His legislative record shows good 
service for his constituents and a wise conservation 
of the interests of the commonwealth, while public 
spirit and legislative economy were hanuoniously 
blended in his acts and votes. In the less conspicu- 
ous but fully as responsible station of county com- 
missioner, Mr. Ford has done most excellent ser- 
vice, combining rare executive powers with so wise 
and truthful an administration as to produce not 
only public benefits, but hafmonious action of 
would-be divergent forces. 

His accumulated capital was being placed on 
loan, and, his genius for finance drawing him in 
that direction, in 1886 he sold the greater part of 
his stock and made a business of loaning money. 
He had large real estate interests in Great Falls and 
in 1 89 1 he removed thither, and became president 
of the Great Falls National Bank, which was or- 
ganized in that year by John T. Murphy, E. G. 
McClay and himself. From that time his energies 
have been given to conducting this important in- 
stitution, which has ably demonstrated his capacity 
for dealing with matters of "large pith and mo- 
ment," and he stands in the front ranks of 
the bankers and financial leaders of the 



REV. JAMES ENGLISH.— One of the de- 
voted and zealous workers of the Catholic 
church, one who has been a potent factor in the af- 
fairs of St. Patrick's church, of Butte, is Rev. 
James English. The Catholic church has from its 
beginning had an important influence upon the 
religious and civic life of Montana, and among 
its younger representatives Father English 
well merits consideration. He is a native of 
Ireland, born in County Limerick, on February 
9, 1872, third of the four children of Michael 
and Catherine (McKeogh) English, both of 
whom were born in Ireland, where the father 
devoted his life to agricultural pursuits and 
where his death and that of his wife also oc- 
curred. Father English, after educational discip- 
line in the national and parochial schools, matric- 
ulated in St. Patrick's College at Thurles, Tipper- 
ary, in 1891, and there he completed not only thor- 
ough classical and philosophical courses, but also 
his theological Course, being ordained to the priest- 
hood on June 18, 1899, by the Bishop of Cloyne. 
After a vacation of three months Father English 
came to the United States, arriving in Helena, 
Mont., in September, 1899. On October 2 he came 
to St. Patrick's church in Butte, where Bishop 
Brondel had assigned him to the office of assist- 
ant priest. He has been zealous and successful in 
his ministrations and in the work of the parish, 
and the appreciation of his labors has not been 
lacking. He is a young man of genial personality 
and high intellectual attainments and popular with 
all classes. 

ELMER E. ESSELSTYN.— One of the popu- 
lar and capable young officials of Carbon 
county is Mr. Esselstyn, clerk of the district court 
at Red Lodge. Ho is a native of Jefferson county. 
Wis., where he was born November 8, 1864, 
being the son of Roderick McL. and Ellen M. 
(Strong) Esselstyn, the former a native of 
New York and the latter of New Jersey. 
The grandfather of our subject was Jacob 
Esselstyn, who was born in Holland; his 
wife was a datighter of Roderick McLeod, who 
was born in Scotland. In 1852 the father of our 
subject removed to Wisconsin, locating in Jeffer- 
son county, where his marriage was solemnized 
a few years later. In his youth he had learned 
the trade of mason, but did not follow it after 
his removal to Wisconsin, but engaged in agricul- 

tural pursuits and conducted a music store at 
Aztalan. In 1861, at the outbreak of the Civil 
war, 'he manifested his loyalty to the Union by en- 
listing in Company F, Twenty-ninth Wisconsin 
Volunteer Infantry, under Capt. Davies, and pro- 
ceeded to the front with his regiment and partici- 
pated in many of the most notable battles of the 
war, including the engagements at Antietam and 
Vicksburg. He was wounded while in service, 
suffered much from the effect of his injuries, being 
practically an invalid until the time of his death, 
which occurred in 1879. He received an honor- 
able discharge from the service on September 13, 
1865, having served during the entire period of 
the war. 

Elmer E. Esselstyn, to whom this sketch is in- 
scribed, passed his school days in his native county 
and then went to Jackson, Minn., where he entered 
the employ of two maternal uncles who conducted 
a large general merchandise business under the 
firm name of Strong Bros. At the expiration of 
one year he removed to Minneapolis and held 
a clerkship in a general store for about two years. 
He then entered into partnership with Johnie Mur- 
phy, and opened a tea and fruit store in that city. 
By reason of ill health Mr. Murphy was compelled 
to go to California, whereupon our subject closed 
out the business and shortly afterward came to 
Montana, taking up his residence in Glendive in 
the month of October, 1885. Securing a clerical 
position in a general store, he held the same until 
tendered a position in the master mechanic's de- 
partment of the Northern Pacific Railroad, with 
headquarters at Glendive, and continued in the em- 
ploy of the company until the year 190D, having 
been promoted from time to time and retiring after 
fourteen years of consecutive service, within which 
time he was in the general office in the city of 
Helena for a period of eighteen months. 

In politics Mr. Esselstyn has ever given alle- 
giance to the Republican party and taken a deep in- 
terest in public affairs of a local nature. He 
served for a number of years as school trustee and 
was honored by being elected mayor of the city of 
Red Lodge in 1892, giving a most capable and 
businesslike administration of municipal affairs 
and retaining the office for a term of two years. 
In November, 1900, he was elected to his present 
position as clerk of the district court, where he 
shows qualifications which have gained him a rep- 
utation for executive ability and absolute fidelity 
to the demands of whatever duties he assumes. 



J'Vaternally he is identified with the Benevolent 
Protective Order of Elks, the Woodmen of the 
World, the Knights of the Maccabees and the 
Royal Highlanders, and is also first lieutenant of 
Company D, National Guard of Montana. His 
genial personality and his sterling characteristics 
have made him one of the popular young men of 
the county, and it may well be said that his circle 
of friends is large. 

On December 31, 1890, was solemnized the mar- 
riage of Mr. Esselstyn to Miss Laura C. Kagy, 
who was born in the state of Illinois, being the 
daughter of John M. Kagy, who is now one of the 
representative citizens of Bozeman, Mont. Mr. 
and Mrs. Esselstyn have a winsome little daughter 
Faie, who was born on October 15, 1892. 

SIMEON ESTES.— The men and women who 
came to Montana in the early days and laid the 
foundation of the present great commonwealth are 
deserving of distinguished place ; in truth, the his- 
tory of the state would be incomplete without def- 
inite recognition of their sacrifices and trials in 
overcoming the difficulties which at that time 
seemed unsurmountable. And it is to this class 
that Mr. Estes strictly belongs. He was born in 
Lewiston, Me., on February 10, 1834. His father, 
David Estes, likewise a native of the Pine Tree 
state, devoted his life to agricultural pursuits, 
owning a farm near Lewiston. His grandfather 
emigrated froln England in an early day, and his 
sons were numbered among the early settlers in 
the state. David Estes married Miss Mary A. 
Grant, a native of Maine, and of their ten children 
the subject of this review is the third m order of 
birth. Simeon Estes grew up under the strict 
teachings of his sturdy parents and such educa- 
tional advantages as were afforded in those days. 
He assisted in the work of the farm during the 
summer months, and in winter pursued his studies 
in the primitive public schools. After leaving 
school he learned the trade of painting, and in 
1855, on attaining his majority, he severed the 
home ties and went to Mobile, Ala., believing that 
he might there find better opportunities for per- 
sonal success. He secured a position as overseer 
for Maj. Walker, then engaged in the purchase of 
damaged cotton, which was carefully reassorted 
and baled. Mr. Estes remained there until June, 
1861, when he returned north, locating at St. 

Paul, Minn., where he worked at his trade until 
1863, when he started with the Fisk expedition for 
the great northwest. The company thus organ- 
ized by Capt. Fisk was a large one, and Mr. Estes 
drove what was known as the Hag wagon. They 
encountered no serious difficulties with the Indians 
while en route and arrived in Bannack on August 
2T,, 1863. On disbanding the party, Capt. Fisk 
presented Mr. Estes with four mules and a wagon, 
and left in his care a twelve-pound brass howitzer. 
Our subject opened a feed stable in Bannack, and 
was thus engaged when chosen to act as a mem- 
ber of the Vigilance Committee, through the ef- 
forts of which much was done to rid Montana of 
the desperadoes and outlaws who infested the ter- 
ritory. On New Year's night, 1864, while other 
members of the committee were in pursuit of Buck 
Stinson and Ned Ray, Mr. Estes, George Dart, 
George Van Horn, Conrad I'ray and William Roe 
were sent to capture the notorious Henry Plum- 
mer, whose career in Montana had been marked 
by many atrocities, but had succeeded in being 
chosen sheriff of Bannack at a time when he was 
the leader of the outlaws. He also held appoint- 
ment as United States marshal. Plummer was 
living with his sister-in-law, on Yankee Flat, and 
when Mr. Estes" party arriveci at the house Plum- 
mer came to the door. He was immediately cov- 
ered with the guns of the party and pulled out of 
the door by Smith Ball. He was in his shirt- 
sleeves at the time, and asked permission to return 
for his coat. Ball, who was spokesman for the 
party, refused to let Plummer go for his coat, 
which hung on the bedpost, while his revolvers 
were on the bed, and the sister-in-law brought him 
the coat. He was led across Yankee Flat, and on 
reaching the opposite side of the creek he seemed 
to realize his position and begged for mercy. His 
plea met with no favor ; his captors knew his rec- 
ord and how many deaths and robberies he was 
charged with. He was taken to the gallows 
which he had built for the execution of a mur- 
derer, the rope was placed about his neck and he 
soon expiated for his many crnnes. It was a very 
cold night, and the body was soon frozen stif?. 
Mr. Estes was also prominent in the capture of 
the Mexican desperado, Joe Pizanthia, for whom 
the Vigilance Committee had long been searching. 
He was finally discovered in a cabin, and Sheriff 
George Copley and his deputy. Smith Ball, went in 
after him. They covered him with their guns and 
ordered him to follow them out. After they had 



stepped outside he slammed the door and shot 
through the cracks, mortally wounding Copley and 
shooting Ball in the hip. Wr. Estes and George 
Dart of the Vigilance Committee then brought out 
the howitzer which Capt. Fisk had left in charge of 
the former, and three shells were fired into the 
cabin, one passing through and the other two ex- 
ploding inside. The Mexican was found on the 
cabin floor, having been struck in the head by a 
fragment of shell but still alive. He was taken 
out and hung by the enraged citizens and his body 
burned. In the early spring of 1864 Gov. Edger- 
ton engaged Mr. Estes to transport him and his 
wife from Bannack to Fort Benton. They made 
the journey with a four-mule team, and when 
within three miles of their destination were at- 
tacked by Indians. Seeing the party in the dis- 
tance Mr. Estes put his team into a run, but one 
of the leaders fell, the Indians being not more than 
three hundred yards distant. Stopping the team 
Mr. Estes instructed the party to barricade them- 
selves behind the wagon and prepare to fight, 
whereupon the Indians rode away. The preced- 
ing day the same war party had killed eleven men 
on the Marias river. 

In the summer of 1864 Mr. Estes located what 
is now known as the Shineberger ranch, and there 
continued to engage in farming and stockraising 
until 18C8, when he sold the property to Mr. Shine- 
berger and in 1871 purchased of Philip Lovell the 
Watson Station, being the stage station, post- 
oiifice, hotel and general store on the old stage 
line between Salt Lake City and Fort Benton. 
I^"or some time Mr. Estes had been missing small 
sums of money and various articles of merchandise 
from his store, the thefts being committed at night, 
and he suspected a certain man. There were then 
about 700 Bannack Indians camped near the store, 
and in order to detect the thief our subject in- 
structed his clerk to keep watch of the store on a 
certain night. Our subject went to bed about 
1 1 130 that night, but was soon aroused by his 
clerk, who said he had shot a man. Mr. Estes 
went into the store, and there found the dead 
maurauder to be an Indian. At daybreak he 
started for the Indian camp to see the chief, whose 
name was Tindoe. They had left the camp and 
were moving off, but Mr. Estes followed them and 
brought Tindoe back to the store. He had also 
sent word to a lieutenant who was stationed up 
the valley with about twenty soldiers. The set- 
tlers were much alarmed, believing the slaying of 

the Indian would cause an outbreak. When the 
chief arrived at the station Mr. Estes showed him 
the dead body, whereupon Tindoe laconically said : 
"Indian no good ; he Shoshone, no Bannack ;" and, 
giving the body a kick, he remarked, "He all same 
dog." Mr. Estes sent a horse, saddle, bridle and 
blanket to the father of the dead Indian and gave 
the chief a pair of thirty-dollar California blankets, 
which appeased any ill feeling that may have been 
aroused. The chief told our subject to bury the 
dead man, and the next year the Indians came and 
held a dance around the grave, again alarming 
the settlers, but no trouble occurred. 

Mr. Estes still continues his residence at the 
station, although it was abandoned as a stage post 
in 1880, when the railroad entered the state. He 
has a fine ranch of 450 acres, devoted to diversified 
farming and stockraising. He raises wheat, oats 
and hay, and has fine cattle and horses. Mr. 
Estes also has a fine apple orchard on his place, thus 
demonstrating that fruit can be successfully propa- 
gated in the valley. His home is located eight 
miles south of Dillon, his postofifice address. In 
politics Mr. Estes is one of the wheelhorses of the 
Democratic party, and has held various offic'es of 
trust and responsibility. He has been justice of 
the peace for twenty years, was a member of the 
territorial legislature in 1868, serving on many im- 
portant committees, and was postmaster at Wat- 
son Station for many years. 

In the spring of 1866 Mr. Estes was united in 
marriage to Mrs. Rebecca Jackson, nee Billings, 
who was born in Maine, whence she came to Coun- 
cil Bluffs, Iowa, where her marriage to Mr. Estes 
was solemnized. She accompanied her husband to 
Montana, coming by way of Lander's cutoff and 
Soda Springs; her death occurred in 1880. On the 
31st of March, 1881, Mr. Estes married Mrs. Har- 
riet (Wartham) Oliver, who was born ui Spring- 
field, 111., the daughter of Joseph and Rutitia 
(Scherer) Wartham, whom she accompanied on 
his removal to Utah when she was a child. She 
was the mother of two children by her first mar- 
riage : A. Albert and Mary Edna. Our subject 
and his wife have no children. 

^IMLLIAM S. ERWIN.— Recognized every- 
VV where in Gallatin county as one of its thor- 
oughly up-to-date business men, Mr. Erwin has 
successfully wrought flattering results in ranching 



and stock raising. His father, George W. Erwin, 
was one of the pioneers of Illinois, having removed 
there from New York in 1839, locating in Schuyler 
count)', which he made his future home. In the 
Mexican war he served gallantly under Gen. Win- 
field Scott in the United States army for two years, 
participating in many of the sanguinary battles of 
the war. With the declaration of peace he returned 
to Schuyler county. 111., where he continued the 
peaceful vocation of a farmer until his death in 
1894. His wife, the mother of William S. Erwin, 
Agnes (Corrie) Erwin, was a native of Schuyler 
county, and his paternal grandfather, Cornelius M. 
Erwin, was born in New York. 

William S. Erwin attended the public schools, 
supplementing the instruction there received by at- 
tendance at Chaddock College, at Quincy, 111., and 
by a complete business course at a commercial col- 
lege at Valparaiso, Ind. He found employment 
on his father's farm until 1886, when the attractions 
of the great west appealed to him and he came to 
the then territory of Montana and located in the 
Gallatin valley, Gallatin county. Here he found 
employment on farms and cattle ranches, and in 
1890 purchased railroad land on the West Gallatin 
river, five miles from Belgrade, where he now has 
an estate of 200 acres, with an additional one hun- 
dred acres farther up the valley. All of this 
is practically under an excellent system of irriga- 
tion. The crop from which he derives his largest 
revenue is barley. Mr. Erwin has a handsome 
residence and most substantial outbuildings, every- 
thing about his place indicating prosperity. His 
superior intelligence and unimpeachable integrity 
have won the highest confidence of his fellow cit- 
izens, and he is esteemed by a wide circle of ac- 
quaintances. The domestic life of Mr. Erwin 
dates from April 19, 1894, when he wedded Miss 
Maisie Kent, of Gallatin county, Mont., daughter of 
James Kent, a native of Pennsylvania. In 1864 
Mr. Kent came from the Keystone state and lo- 
cated in Gallatin county, where he passed from 
earth in 1886. Mr. and Mrs. Erwin have three 
interesting children, James Kent, May Agnes and 
Lewis George. Fraternally Mr. Erwin belongs to 
the Woodmen of the World, of which order he is 
a respected and influential member. 

JOHN M. EVANS, one of the leading members 
of the bar of Missoula county, is a representa- 
tive of one of the pioneer families of Montana, 
whither he was brought by 'his parents so young 

that practically he may be considered a native son 
of the state, though in fact he was born in Sedalia, 
Pettis county. Mo., on January 7, 1863. His par- 
ents, Philip E. and Mary B. (Powell) Evans, were 
born in Missouri and Virginia, in which latter state 
his original paternal American ancestors located in 
the early days, in the family being influential plan- 
ters and slaveholders, some of whom subsequently 
removed to Missouri. The Evans family is of Welch 
extraction. Philip E. Evans, a farmer and stock- 
raiser, removed from Missouri to Montana in 1864, 
making the overland journey with ox teams to Vir- 
ginia City. He engaged first in mining and later in 
farming and cattle raising near Deer Lodge, where 
his death occurred in 1889, and his widow is still 
residing. All of their five sons and five daugh- 
ters except one son, deceased, are residents of 

John M. Evans attended the public schools of the 
city of Deer Lodge, after which he matriculated in 
the law department of the University of Missouri, 
where he was graduated in the class of 1887, and 
admitted to the bar of Missouri. Mr. Evans en- 
tered upon legal practice in Butte, Mont., in the 
office of Judge Dewitt, with whom he was associ- 
ated one year, after which he formed a professional 
partnership with Judge F. C. Webster at Missoula, 
this alliance obtaining for one year, since which 
time he has conducted individual practice. He 
is known as a forceful and capable advocate, hav- 
ing a ready command of expedients and showing 
an intuitive grasp of the salient points in any case. 
He marshals his facts with military precision and 
presents a cause with cogency of argument, while 
he is well grounded in the science and literature 
of the law. 

Mr. Evans retains a representative clientage and 
is a worthy representative of the Montana bar. 
He has ever given an active support to the Demo- 
cratic party, taking a marked interest in the cause. 
He served as a member and chairman of the Dem- 
ocratic county central committee, and from 1889 
until 1894 he served as police judge of Missoula, in 
1894 he was appointed register of the United 
States land office at Missoula, in whicn office he 
served four years. He was nominated for county 
attorney in 1888, but was defeated by Judge Web- 
ster, his associate in practice. Fraternally he is 
identified with the Masonic order and the Knights 
of Pythias. On June 11, 1889, Mr. Evans wedded 
Miss Helen G. Hastings, who was born in CaH- 
fornia and their two children are Beverly P. and 
John M.. Jr. 



LO. EVANS, one of the representative j'oung 
members of the bar of Silver Bow county. 
has been a resident of Montana from boyhood and 
has attained reputation in his profession, being a 
member of the firm of Forbis & Evans, of Butte, 
whose precedence in litigation concerning the min- 
ing industry is unmistakable and whose judgment 
in regard to mining law is considered practically 
authoritative. Lewis Orvis Evans is a native of 
Utica, N. Y., where he was born on August 31, 
1 87 1, the son of Owen and Emily J. (Church) 
Evans, both of whom were born in the Empire 
state, the latter descending from one of its promi- 
nent old families. They had four children, of 
whom Lewis was the second. In 1883 Owen 
Evans removed to Montana, locating in Helena, 
where he was for many years engaged in business 
and is now living retired, he and his wife having an 
attractive home on Ninth avenue. 

L. O. Evans attended the public schools of Utica 
and continued his studies in Helena, being gradu- 
ated from the high school there in the class of 
1887, when he was fifteen years old. He at once 
matriculated in the celebrated seminary at Caze- 
novia, N. Y., where he studied for two years, when 
he returned to Helena and entered the law office 
of Word, Smith & Word, with whom he continued 
his technical reading until 1894, when he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He was in the active practice 
of law in Helena until 1896, when he entered the 
office of John F. Forbis, in Butte, for one year and 
was then admitted as a partner of Mr. Forbis, 
with the present firm title. This firm handles the 
legal business of the Boston & Montana, the Butte 
& Boston and several other of the largest mining 

The firm has handled some of the most impor- 
tant mining cases litigated in the Union, notably 
the Larkin case, which was a cause celebre, and 
the members are known as able exponents of minr 
ing law, strong advocates and safe counselors, 
while they are potential factors in all branches of 
law. In the litigation between the Butte & Bos- 
ton and the Boston & Montana Companies vs. 
the Montana Ore Purchasing Company, Forbis 
& Evans have conducted all the cases for the two 
companies first mentioned, and in many Mr. Evans 
has had entire charge. He personally has mining 
interests of valuable order and finds his chief recre- 
ation in outdoor sports and athletic exercises. 
In politics he gives his allegiance to the Republi- 
can party. 

ALBERT G. CLARKE.— Rising above the 
heads of the masses there have always been 
individuals distinguished beyond others, — men who 
by their forceful personality have commanded the 
respect of their fellows, and have shown those re- 
splendant virtues of a lordly race, — perseverance 
in purpose and a directing spirit which never fails 
to be obeyed. Among the men of the great west 
who have marked with deeds the progress of 
swift-rolling time, and whose names are kept green 
in the memory of those who had cognizance of their 
lives and accomplishment, Albert G. Clarke stands 
sharply out. He was conspicuously identified with 
the business interests of Helena and with the indus- 
trial life of Montana from its pioneer days, while 
his life was guided by the loftiest integrity and 
honor, and prolific in good works and kindly deeds. 
Albert Gallatin Clarke was born in Terre Haute, 
Ind., on April 7, 1822, of Scottish lineage, his 
original American ancestor emigrating from Scot- 
land to Connecticut among its earliest settlers. His 
father, Thomas H. Clarke, was born in New York 
in 1793, and was for many years a prominent mer- 
chant of Batavia. He was drafted in the war of 
181 2, but secured as a substitute Thurlow Weed, 
who later became so prominent a historical figure. 
In Terre Haute, Ind., was celebrated the marriage 
of Thomas H. Clarke to Miss Mary Dickson, born 
in Ohio, in 1800, of German and Irish ancestry, 
and in that Indiana town they reared their six 
children, of whom only one is now living. The 
mother died in 1858 and the father on April 19, 
1871. Albert G. Clarke received the education 
given by the public schools, and at the age of nine- 
teen started out to make his own way in the world, 
first going to Andrew county, Mo., where he was 
employed on a farm at $13 per month. He was 
industrious and economical and in 1849 his savings 
had accumulated sufficiently for him to open a small 
mercantile establishment at Savannah, which he 
conducted until 1858, when he went to St. Joseph, 
Mo., where he was similarly engaged until 1862, 
when he transported his stock with ox teams across 
the plains of Denver, Colo. In that little town he 
disposed of his goods at a fair profit, and the 
next year returned to St. Joseph. There, in 1864, 
he purchased a stock of hardware and crockery, 
and. loading it on ox wagons, set forth for 
Virginia City, Mont., where he arrived in due time 
and opened a store, which he conducted about a 
year and removed the stock to Helena, which was 
then assuming a position of some importance. 

^ ^ ^£c.yiy:^c;^^- 



Here he was for a number of years associated in 
merchandising with Thomas Conrad, and later J. 
C. Curtin was admitted to the firm, the members 
of which continued to be associated in business 
until the death of Mr. Clarke. Their friendship 
and harmonious business relations have been in- 
violate during all these long years, within which 
time their mercantile enterprise attained gigantic 
proportions. During the later years of his life Mr. 
Clarke was retired from active business duty. 

Mr. Clarke's business sagacity led him to real- 
ize that there was a great future for the stock- 
raising industry in Montana. As early as 1864 he 
brought 300 head of cattle across the plains, in- 
cluding a number of thoroughbred Durhams. He 
thereafter continued to be prominently interested 
in this branch of industrial activity, having at times 
as many as 6,000 head of cattle. He also accumu- 
lated much valuable realty, both in city and coun- 
try, and was largely concerned in the development 
of mining properties. His advice was held most 
valuable in business and financial circles, and his 
integrity was as an impregnable fortress. He was 
one of the organizers of the Montana National 
Bank, for a time its vice-president, and one of its 
stockholders until his death. Thoroughly a man 
of the people, Mr. Clarke was unwavering in his al- 
legiance to Democratic principles, but almost in- 
variably refused a political candidacy. One excep- 
tion was that for the office of county commissioner, 
to which he was elected and in which he served two 
years and resigned it, owing to the demands of his 
private mterests. He was for more than half a cen- 
tury identified with the Masonic fraternity, in 
which he had advanced to the Knights Templar 
degree and he held official preferment in each of the 
Masonic bodies with which he was connected, 
while he aided in the organization of a number of 
Montana lodges. For nearly three score years and 
until his death he was a devoted and consistent 
member of the JMethodist Episcopal church South, 
and carried his religion into every deed and action. 
He was for a number of years a trustee of the 
church in Helena, contributing liberally to its sup- 
port. On October 15, 1850, Mr. Clarke was mar- 
ried with Miss Ann Eliza Bums, who was born in 
Clay county, Mo., in 1825, the daughter of Jere- 
miah Burns, and of this union five children were 
born: Madora, wife of William B. Raleigh; of 
Helena ; Charles A., a prominent business man of 
the same city; Albert G., a leading member of the 
Helena bar, and William H., of Chicago. Mrs. 

Clarke died at Nebraska City, Neb., in 1865, while 
on the way to join her husband in Montana. In 
1872 Mr. Clarke was united to Mrs. Sarah Meek, 
whose death occurred three years later, and in 
1879 he married Mrs. Sarah C. Morgan, who died 
on December 9, 1896. 

It has been well said that "Few men in Helena 
have lived a purer or more useful life than Albert 
G. Clarke." Death claimed this noble spirit on 
December 23, 1899, in the fullness of his years in 
a community to whose material and moral advance- 
ment he had largely contributed, and in his passing 
away the city of his home sustained the loss of one 
of its most valuable pioneer citizens. 

JOHN H. FAIRFIELD, M. D., the oldest resi- 
J dent physician of Great Falls, Mont., is a native 
of Saco, Me., where he was born on August 17, 
1856. His parents were John W. and Mary 
(Hersy) Fairfield, both natives of the Pine Tree 
state. The father was a sea captain, saiUng on 
transatlantic voyages and between the United 
States and foreign ports. He died in Maine in 
i860. Not long after his death his widow and 
family removed to MinneapoHs, Minn. The pa- 
ternal grandfather, John Fairfield, was an English 
merchant, who came to the United States and 
passed his latter years in Maine, where he died. 
Dr. Fairfield was but six years old when his mother 
made the family home in Minnesota and he began 
the study of medicine in Minneapolis in 1876, and 
in 1877 he entered the medical department of the 
University of Pennsylvania, where, after three 
years of diligent study, he was graduated with the 
class of 1880, with the degree of M. D. He then 
entered the Philadelphia City Hospital as resident 
physician, remained one year, and returned to 
Minneapolis, where he continued to practice his 
profession for another year. 

In 1884 Dr. Fairfield came to the site of the fu- 
ture wide-awake and flourishing city of Great Falls. 
Then it was merely a townsite, but the few people 
there were full of hope and great expectations, 
and Dr. Fairfield established himself as the pioneer 
physician and surgeon of the city, and he has 
lived to witness a most satisfactory truition of 
those early anticipations, for his practice has in- 
creased in due proportion with the growth of the 
town. For a few months Dr. Fairfield resided in 
Fort Benton, but in March, 1885, he returned to 



Great Falls where he has remained ever since. 
Here he has built up a most lucrative practice and 
thoroughly established himself in the confidence 
of the community. He has also devoted consider- 
able attention to sheep grazing, having purchased 
his first band of sheep in 1884. In 1895 Dr. Fair- 
field was united in marriage to Miss Kathrine 
Arkell, a native of Canada. They have two chil- 
dren, Isabel and John W. Dr. Fairfield regards 
the political situation from a Republican view 
point. He is a patriotic, broad-minded and pro- 
gressive man, with a lively interest in the welfare of 
his home city. He has been honored by an elec- 
tion as mayor of the city of Great Falls, and was 
among the first aldermen to be elected. He is 
now health officer of the city. He is a member 
of the North Montana Medical Association and 
of the State Medical Society. As he is one of the 
oldest physicians in the state Dr. Fairfield is well 
and favorably known throughout Montana. By 
all with whom he has been associated he is highly 
esteemed for his professional ability, sound, prac- 
tical judgment and conscientious motives. 

JOHN H. FARMER (county surveyor of Lewis 
and Clarke county, and a resident of Helena) 
first came to Montana in 1886. He was born in 
Montgomeryshire, Wales, August 21, 1854. His 
parents were Thomas and Elizabeth (Jones) Farm- 
er, who died in Wales, their lifelong home. John 
H. Farmer passed his boyhood in England, and he 
received an excellent education in the Shrewsbury 
schools, which were founded under Edward the 
VI. Completing the full course, he was appren- 
ticed to Horton & Scott, civil engineers, of Bir- 
mingham, and served with them three years. In 
1879 he came to Canada, and entered the employ- 
ment of the Canadian Pacific Railway, where he 
was engaged in locating and constructing lines in 
the western portion of the Dominion until 1886, 
when he made his initial visit to Helena. He then 
entered the employment of the Montana Central 
Railroad, ran the first location of that line from 
Great Falls to Fort Benton, and later had charge 
of the long tunnel on that line. One year later he 
removed to Utah, and worked on a proposed rail- 
way from Ogden to Sioux City, Iowa, running the 
preliminary survey through Utah and Wyoming. 
At Salt Lake City he was chief clerk and draughts- 
man of the' Rio Grande Western, and had charge 

of the construction of a portion of the line. Re- 
turning to Helena he passed one year in the office 
of the surveyor-general of Montana and since then 
has been engaged in mining engineering. In 
June, 1889, Mr. Farmer was appointed county 
surveyor by the county commissioners of Lewis 
and Clarke county, to fill a vacancy. Politically 
Mr. Farmer is a stanch Republican, and he mani- 
fests a lively interest in the county, state and na- 
tional campaigns. During his long residence in 
both the territory and the state of Montana he 
has formed a wide circle of acquaintances by whom 
he is greatly esteemed. 

I OSEPH E. FARNHAiVL— As chairman of the 
J board of county commissioners of Custer coun- 
ty and as prominent in business and stockgrowing, 
a review of the life of Mr. Farnham is necessary 
to complete the record of the activities of that sec- 
tion of Montana. Joseph E. Farnham is a native 
of Concord, N. H., and was born on the 14th of 
June, 1853, the youngest of the six children of 
Hiram and Lucretia (Ramsdell) Farnham. The 
original American ancestors came from Wales to 
New Hampshire as early as 1725. Mr. Farnham 
attended the public schools and, securing a good 
English education, learned the carpenter's trade. 
He gave attention to this in his native state until 
1883, when, as bookkeeper of the Concord (N. H.^l 
Cattle Company, he came to Montana and located 
on a ranch on Tongue river, near Miles City. 
He was also and still is an interested principal in 
this company, which has ranches on Cottonwood 
creek and is conducting an extensive business in 
high-grade cattle. In 1886 Mr. Farnham located 
on a ranch on the Powder river and there resided 
until 1893, when he came to Miles City, which is 
still his home. Here he attended to the office 
work of several large cattle outfits, and, in April, 
1901, purchased the insurance, real estate and live 
stock business of C. A. Wiley, which he has since 
conducted with success. 

In Republican politics ^Ir. Farnham occupies 
a high position, and in the fall of 1896 his clear-cut 
methods of business and accuracy gamed him the 
nomination and then an election to the office of 
county commissioner of Custer county. He is 
now chairman of the board and has spared no ef- 
fort to advance the interests of the county. The 
board has constructed a new wagon bridge across 



Tongue river, erected a new superstructure on the 
bridge across Powder river, a steel bridge across 
Mizpah river and let the contract for a fine new 
bridge across the Yellowstone river. The three 
commissioners of Custer county were appointed 
by the legislature to adjust the boundaries of Cus- 
ter and Rosebud counties, the latter having been 
established in 1901. 

Mr. Farnham is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church and a trustee and treasurer of 
the church in Miles City and superintendent of its 
Sunday school. On the 19th of November, 1885, 
Mr. Farnham was united in marriage with Miss 
Minnie E. Parmenter, who was born in Vermont. 
They have three children — Lucretia, born Decem- 
ber 16, 1887; Guy E., born July 26, 1893; and 
Scott, born September 10, 1898. 

pHARLES FINCH.— Native of Tipton, Cedar 
V_' county, Iowa, where he was born August 5, 
1859, a son of Jacob and Maria (Oantier) Finch, 
the former a native of Ohio, and the latter of Cat- 
taraugus county, N. Y. Charles Finch has known 
much of western pioneer life. His grandfather, 
John Finch, removed from Virginia to Ohio, and 
later to Iowa, where he was a pioneer and where 
he left an estate which is now occupied by some of 
his heirs. In 1855 Jacob Finch started to Cali- 
fornia, but prairie fires having destroyed the grass, 
he was compelled to return to Iowa, where he re- 
mained until 1864, when he came overland to Mon- 
tana, making the trip with ox teams. The party 
met large numbers of Indians, but had no trouble 
from them. They came by the Bridgcr cut-off, 
arriving at Norwegian gulch on August 10, 1864. 
Here Mr. Finch engaged in prospecting. Many 
travelers and callers journeyed through the place, 
none ever passing his cabin without eating. After 
vainly working for a month to strike a pay streak, 
he removed to Virginia City and went to work in 
Alder gulch, remaining until the spring of 1866, 
mining with tair success. During the flour riot 
he went after two sacks he had stored at Nevada, 
and was obliged to defend them with his revolver 
from two parties of angry men who thought he 
was going to use them for speculation. In 1866 
he removed to Madison valley and engaged in 
ranci'ing (n Jicck creek, but soon removed to Ster- 
ling and a few months later located on Upper Wil- 

low creek, and took up the property now occupied 
by Henry Warner. He did not stay there long. 
His partner, Walters, a butcher, was accused of 
buying caitle which he knew to be stolen. A 
mob threatened them and killed Walters, which 
Mr. Finch always claimed was a gross injustice. 
After this occurrence Mr. Finch bought the placer 
bar in partnership with Dr. Stafford, on Nor- 
wegian creek, and worked it about four years with 
poor success. He then moved to Ferguson and soon 
after, on May 3, 1877, was killed by his horse fall- 
ing on him. He left a widow, four sons and a 
daughter. The widow's death occurred in October, 

Charles Finch remained with his father's family 
till his father died, engaged in prospecting, farm- 
ing, freighting, etc., having his headquarters on the 
homestead at Ferguson until 1889, when he en- 
gaged exclusively in prospecting at Butte, Golden 
Sunlight, Iron Rod, Silver Star, and other 
places, with varying success. In 1890 he located 
in Norwegian gulch, and has remained there since. 
He had only moderate success until 1900 when he 
struck a rich vein which he has since worked with 
good profits. It is a rich property, tha shaft is 
now down ninety feet, and the vein was from 
twelve to eighteen inches thiclc from two feet down. 
The ore runs as high as $350 a ton, the lowest 
yield being $10 a ton. Mr. Finch married May 2, 
1892, Amanda L. Thoms, a native of Chicago, and 
daughter of Lewis Thoms, of Germany, who emi- 
grated to America and made Chicago his home. 
In coming across the plains Mr. Finch saw thous- 
ands of Indians and has since seen thousands 
more, but never saw but one Indian in a murder- 
ous mood, and that was at Sterling in 1867. One 
had been living in the back room of the Hyde 
butcher shop, and refused to assist in the work 
about the place, and during his absence Smith, 
one of the firm, threw his blanket outside. When 
the Indian returned and found out who had done 
this, he seized a long knife and stabbed it through 
the fleshy part of Smith's arm, whereupon Smith 
seized a stove hook and beat the Indian over the 
head. The Indian was never seen after that night, 
but some years later his skull was found. Mr. 
Finch is a wide-awake, progressive citizen, in 
the prime of life, full of vigor and energy, and 
with apparently many years of usefulness before 
him. He has the high esteem and regard of all 
who know him, and loses nothing in public ap- 
proval as time passes. 



GEORGE W. FARR.— A worthy representa- 
tive of the American type and recognized as 
one of the able and successful members of the bar 
of Custer county, and maintaining his home in 
Miles City, is George W. Farr. He was born on 
the parental farmstead in Hamilton county. Neb., 
on the 6th day of July, 1875, the fourth of the five 
children of Elias and Alvira (Butler) Farr, the 
former of whom was born in New York and the 
latter in Vermont, both families having been repre- 
sented by stalwart patriots m the war of the Revo- 
lution. Mrs. Farr is now deceased and her hus- 
band lives in Montana. 

George W. Farr entered Hastings College, at 
Hastings, Neb., in 1890, and studied there one 
year, paying his expenses by his own efforts. He 
then was a student in a school maintained by the 
Methodist Episcopal church at Central City for 
one year, when he entered the Nebraska State Uni- 
versity, at Lincoln, and was graduated therefrom 
in the law department with the class of 1896, and 
was at the same time admitted to the bar of that 
state. In the fall of 1896 Mr. Farr came to Mon- 
tana and took up his location in Miles City, was 
admitted to the bar of the state and entered upon 
the active practice of law. His novitiate was of 
brief duration. He soon acquired professional 
standing and he has been concerned in much of the 
important litigation which has come before the 
courts in his county. He has shown marked 
power with criminal cases, and was retained in 
the defense in the Spotted Hawk case and other 
criminal causes of celebrated order. He has 
served as counsel for James B. Kempton in rail- 
road cases, defended and secured the acquittal of 
the Nichols boys, charged with assault, and 
has been retained in a number a of cattle-stealing 
cases which have attracted but very little public 

In politics Mr. Farr gives his allegiance to the 
Republican party. In rehgion he is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, and fraternally 
is identified with the Benevolent Protective Order 
of Elks, and the Woodmen of the World. In the 
Elks he has served as esteemed lecturing knight, 
and in the Woodmen as counsellor commander, 
holding this office two terms. On the 14th of 
September, 1898, Mr. Farr was united in marriage 
to Miss Claudia Seiver, who was born in Virginia, 
and they have two children — Elvira Claudia, who 
was born on the 1 6th of June, 1899, and Edgar 
Wilber, born August 22, 1900. 

EUGENE W. FISKE.— We of the twentieth 
century cannot afford to hold in light estima- 
tion the records which bear evidence of worthy 
lives and worthy deeds of remote ancestors, and 
he is fortunate who is able to trace his lineage 
through many generations and find in each a 
source of pride and satisfaction. The Fiske fam- 
ily is one of distinguished and ancient origin, the 
first mention in written record being in an ancient 
grant made by King John, May i, 1208, wherein 
he confirms a grant of land to Daniel Fisc and 
others in Digneveton Park, Laxfield, county of 
Suffolk, England. The family modernized its 
name about 1 199, and from public records it is 
found that Lord Symond Fiske, grandson of the 
above mentioned Daniel, was located in the manor 
of Stadhaugh, parish of Laxfield. He was born 
in 1399 and died in 1422, leaving a will. From 
this origin the various branches of the family have 
descended, and though the name has been of vary- 
ing orthography, there is but one family. Trac- 
ing the direct line of descent to the subject of this 
review, the records run from Lord Symond Fiske 
and his son William through five generations to 
Nathaniel, who was born in England, whence he 
emigrated in 1634, but died on the voyage. His 
widow and family, however, located in New Eng- 
land, and his son John settled in Watertown, Mass., 
where he died in 1691. The line then traces 
through his son, known as Dr. John Fiske, who 
located in Connecticut ; his son Benjamin was born 
in Milford, Conn., and removed to Rhode Island, 
where was born his son Job, in 171 1, the last men- 
tioned being the great-great-grandfather of Eugene 
W., of this sketch. The great-grandfather like- 
wise bore the name of Job, and was born in 1767, 
while his son Jeremiah, was the father of John 
Manchester Fiske, the father of our subject. The 
family was granted the right to use a coat of arms 
by charter of confirmation from the Herald's Col- 
lege, England, in 1633. The motto is: "Macte 
virtute sicitur ad astra." Records extant show 
that more than 300 representatives of the name 
served in the war of the Revolution, and more than 
500 in the Civil war. Among the distinguished 
representatives of the family in a collateral line was 
Hon. Stephen A. Douglas. 

Eugene W. Fiske, who is one of the leading 
contractors of the capital city of Montana, is a 
native of Boonville, N. Y., where he was born on 
March 8, 1851, the son of John M. and Eliza A. 
(Burgess) Fiske, natives of Boonville, and repre- 



sentative of pioneers of the Empire state. The 
father of our subject received his education in 
Boonville, and was there engaged in the manu- 
facture of carriages, sash, bHnds, doors, etc., for 
many years. He is now deceased. In his native 
town Eugene W. Fiske secured his educational 
discipline, attending the private high school there 
conducted by Sebastian Dufify, graduating as a 
member of the class of 1870. He then found em- 
ployment in the planing mill and factory con- 
ducted by his father, and in 1872 went to Minne- 
sota, joined the engineering corps of the Chicago 
& Northwestern Railroad, and was engaged in civil 
engineering for a period of four years. He then 
located in Minneapolis, where he held a position 
in a furniture factory, later taking charge of a 
flouring mill at Waseca, Minn., in the meantime 
taking a two-years course in bank bookkeeping. 
Eventually he engaged in the building business, 
working at the bench and acquiring a thorough 
knowledge of the details of the business. In 
1883 Mr. Fiske located at Athol, S. D., where 
he engaged in contracting and building until 
the summer of that year, when he became 
station and express agent for the Dakota Cen- 
tral Railroad, a branch of the Northwestern 
system, retaining this position until the following 
spring, when he returned to Waseca, where he ac- 
cepted the office of manager for an extensive lum- 
ber company, retaining the position until 1888, 
when he came to Montana, took up his permanent 
residence in Helena, and engaged in general con- 
tracting, to which he has since successfully devoted 
his attention and erected many important build- 
ings. He is recognized as a man of marked 
executive and business ability, and his careful and 
conscientious execution of every contract has 
gained him prestige as a high representative in 
his line. 

In his political adherency Mr. Fisk is identified 
with the Republican party ; his religious faith is 
that of the Protestant Episcopal church, being a 
communicant of St. Peter's church. Fraternally 
he holds membership in the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, being past captain in Patriarchs 
Militant of this order; the Knights of Pythias, in 
which he is a past chancellor ; and the Benevolent 
Protective Order of Elks ; the Lambs' Club and the 
jNIontana Club. 

On December 30, 1880, Mr. Fiske was united in 
marriage to Miss Kate I. Bailey, who was born in 
Wilton, Minn., the daughter of P. C. and Avis 

(Slocum) Bailey, both of whom were born in the 
state of New York. The father removed with his 
family to Faribault, ]\Iinn., in 1856, becoming one 
of the pioneers of the town, where he was engaged 
in the hardware business. His wife was a sister 
of Gen. Henry W. Slocum. Mr. and Mrs. Fiske 
are the parents of two sons and two daughters : 
Avis, a member of the class of 1902 in the Helena 
high school ; Kenneth, Gertrude and Birnwood, 
who are attending the public schools of the capital 

able and worthy representative of the medical 
profession of Montana we must speak of Dr. Fitz- 
gerald as one of the progressive young men who 
contribute to the advancement of the common- 
wealth through great activity in their respective 
fields of endeavor. Thomas Allen Fitzgerald was 
born near Toronto, Canada, on January 29, 1868, 
the son of James and Anna (Carson) Fitzgerald, 
natives of Canada and New York. The father 
was for many years a merchant, in Canada, but is 
now retired, with his residence in Toronto. His 
family is of Irish extraction, his grandpar- 
ents having been brought from Ireland to Canada 
in their childhood, being there reared to maturity 
and there passing their lives. James and Anna 
Fitzgerald were the parents of nine children, of 
whom the Doctor and his brother, Joseph H., are 
now residents of Montana. 

Dr. Fitzgerald received his literary education 
at Port Hope, Canada, and, taking up the study of 
medicine upon leaving school, in 1884 he matricu- 
lated in the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
in Toronto, where he completed a thorough and 
exacting course, graduating in the class of 1889, 
receiving the degree of M. D. from Trinity Univer- 
sity in 1888. He was thereafter engaged in med- 
ical practice in Canada for three years, after which, 
in March, 1892, he came to Missoula. Mont., where 
he has built up a large and representative prac- 
tice as a capable physician and a skillful surgeon. 
He is a close and unremitting student of the best 
literature pertaining to the twin branches of medi- 
cine and surgery, and is a member of the Mon- 
tana State Medical Society and of the Niagara 
Medical Society of Toronto. He is a man of ge- 
nial personality and is held in high regard in both 
professional and social circles. Fraternally he is 
identified with the Woodmen of the World and 



the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. On 
April i8, 1900, Dr. Fitzgerald was united in mar- 
riage to Aliss Mary E. Metzrodt, who was born in 
Cheyenne, Wyo., and who adds to his home the 
charm of her gracious refinement. 

DANIEL A. D. FLOWERREE, one of the men 
of mark in Montana as a stockman, who for 
many years was a prominent resident of Helena, is 
a native of Missouri, bora in Ralls county on May 
19, 1835, a son of Kimp and Mathilda (Caldwell) 
Flowerree. The father was a native of Virginia, 
and the mother of Kentucky and in their ancestry 
were united the Scotch thistle and the lilies of 
France. Mr. Kimp Flowerree removed to Mis- 
souri in 1833, and here for many years he was a 
planter, and in that state he died in 1881. His 
wife survived him six years, dying in 1887. Of 
their three sons and four daughters, ail now living, 
Daniel is the only one residing in Montana. His 
paternal grandfather was Walter Flowerree, who 
moved from Kentucky to Missouri in 1822, when 
the wildness and ruggedness of that state was akin 
to the condition of Montana in the pioneer days. 
Here he married a Miss Breckinridge, a member 
of that distinguished family of Kentucky which by 
its eminence has shed luster not only on that 
state but on the nation. 

Daniel A. D. Flowerree passed from boyhood's 
days to early manhood in his native state. Firm 
in the belief that the west offered superior advan- 
tages to an ambitious youth, in 1852 he went to 
CaHfornia and remained there until 1855, then he 
went to Nicaragua and in 1857 returned to Mis- 
souri. In 1864 Mr. Flowerree started for Mon- 
tana, came across the plains, then alive with buf- 
falo and Indians, many of the latter hostile and 
treacherous. The journey was made by stage 
coach via Salt Lake City, and on March 16 of that 
year he arrived at Virginia City. Here he passed 
some time in prospecting for auriferous deposits, 
more familiarly known to the gulch population 
of those days as "pay dirt." Later he engaged 
more profitably in other business pursuits 
in Virginia City, and in 1865 came to Helena, then 
"Last Chance gulch." Since that time Mr. 
Flowerree has been one of the most distinguished 
and successful business men of Helena and of 
Montana. He was among the first to realize the 
inexhaustible resources of Montana as a stock- 

growing state and one of the first to profit by this 
knowledge. To-day he is one of the largest stock 
owners and growers in the northwest. He or- 
ganized the Flowerree Cattle Company. This 
mammoth business is the outgrowth of his own 
early business ventures. He had brought a herd 
of sixty-five cows from Missouri in 1865 and in 
1870 and 1873 1,500 more from Texas, and from 
that time he has been almost exclusively in this 
business. In 1883 he brought a band of horses from 
Oregon and in 1879 imported a large herd of cattle 
from there. He built the first shingle-roofed house 
in Virginia City and Helena. The one in Virginia 
City was without doubt the first two-story house 
erected in Montana. At present Mr. Flowerree 's 
immense financial interests consist of large outfits 
of land and stock in Teton, Lewis and Clarke and 
Choteau counties. 

In 1858 Mr. Flowerree was united in marriage to 
Miss Elizabeth Wethers, of Missouri. They have 
four children, William K. ; Annie M., now Mrs. 
W. L. Velie ; Eudora, now Mrs. J. J. Gray, and 
Elizabeth, now Mrs. William Wallace, Jr., of Hel- 
ena. Mrs. Flowerree died in 1882. On Febru- 
ary 4, 1885, Mr. Flowerree married with Miss 
Elizabeth Cornelius, of Missouri. They have one 
son, Dan J. Flowerree. Mr. Flowerree affiliates 
with the Democratic part)', but from patriotic pur- 
poses entirely, as he has never sought personal 
advancement or office of any description through 
politics. And yet it is to such strong, earnest 
and upright men that the people might well 
turn for its leaders. There are none too many of 
them m the land. The story of Mr. Flowerree's 
successful career is in large part the history of 

I^ERENCE FLYNN has had a somewhat 
eventful career, but is known as one of the pro- 
gressive and representative farmers of Beaverhead 
county, his valuable ranch being located eight miles 
south of Dillon, his postoffice address. Mr. Flynn 
is a native son of the Emerald Isle, having been 
born in County Leitrim, Ireland, on March 20, 
1 847, the son of Patrick and Katherine (McTiarnan) 
Flynn, and the fifth in order of birth of their twelve 
children, six of -whom are now living. The parents 
passed their entire lives in Ireland, where the 
father of our subject was a farmer and trader. 

Terence Flynn had such educational advantages 
as were afforded by the public and parochial 



schools in his native county, and there he continued 
to assist in the work on the parental farm for a 
number of years. In 1872 he decided to try his 
fortunes in America, and upon his arrival in the 
United States he made his way to the city of New 
Haven, Conn., where he worked at the plumbing 
business and such other occupations as came to 
hand. In February -of that year he came west, 
locating in Salt Lake City, where he found employ- 
ment in a smelter. In March of the following year 
he became a member of a party of fifty-four men 
who chartered a sailing vessel and went to French 
Guiana, South America, having been attracted 
thither by the reports of the wonderful discov- 
eries of gold. The expedition proved fruitless in 
results, and Mr. Flynn returned to Salt Lake City, 
arriving in March, 1874. In the fall he went to 
South Mountain, Idaho, where he had charge of 
the erection of the first smelter in that locality, and 
in October came to Beaverhead county and pur- 
chased a portion of his present ranch, located on 
Blacktail creek, comprising 800 acres of exceed- 
ingly fertile land, well irrigated and all available 
for cultivation. Here he has given his attention 
to farming and stockraising, securing large yields 
of wheat, oats, alfalfa, etc., and has extensive horse 
and cattle interests, being one of the successful and 
energetic business men identified with these lines 
of industry in this favored section of the state. He 
is a Democrat in his political proclivities, and his 
religious faith is that of the Catholic church. 

On July 19, 1883, Mr. Flynn was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Mary Flynn, the families being of the 
same name but of no consanguinity, she having 
been born in Ireland, whence she came to the 
United States in 1880. They have three children: 
Ella, born April 22, 1884; Patrick, born August 19, 
i88s : and Hubert, born February 14, 1888. 

HON. JOHN F. FORBIS.— Althouoh in any 
sphere and in any surroundings his natural 
force of mind and character would have made him 
a leading man, it is not improbable that if he had 
been reared in the lap of luxury, and surrounded 
by the very flower of civilization and social cul- 
ture Hon. John F.Forbis, of Butte, would have been 
something very different from what he is. He 
might have been the polished gentleman and court- 
ly gallant, the ornament ind the inspiration of the 
social circle, the exemplar of all the bland and 

suave amenities of life ; perhaps the "scholar in 
politics," illuminating with a wealth of learning the 
dogmas of the doctrinaries ; perhaps the gifted 
author or discriminating critic, laying bare the daily 
comedy and tragedy of human life; possibly the 
merchant prince, with argosies afloat on every sea; 
or mayhap the eloquent expounder in some tech- 
nical or professional school. Nowhere would he 
have been only a splendid flaneur. But it is idle to 
speculate. Nature intended him for stern duties 
and produced him in an invironment bound to de- 
velop toughness of fibre and flexibility of function, 
self-reliance, resourcefulness, independence of 
thought and action — a broad and deep foundation 
of manliness, on which a superstructure embody- 
ing all the ornamental graces could fitly be erected. 
He was born in Platte county. Mo., February 11, 
1855, the descendant of Scotch and English ances- 
try, who were early settlers of New England, but 
who, long before the Revolution, sought the milder 
climate of North Carolina, and subsequently the 
freer air and wilder scope of the then untrodden 
wilds of Kentucky, where, amid its picturesque 
scenes and crude conditions, his father, Jonathan 
F. Forbis, first saw the light of day on January 27, 
1 81 6. Here he grew to manhood, batthng, as others 
did, with savage nature and more savage men ; here 
came to him also the great happiness of his Hfe 
in his marriage with Miss America Perrin. Al- 
though a native of Kentucky, into which state her 
parents had moved from Virginia, she was, like 
himself, descendant from a good old Enghsh an- 

In 1836, when he was yet a young man, Mr. and 
Mrs. Forbis sought in Missouri a home of their 
own. Here they engaged in agricultural pursuits, 
and were making good progress toward a comfort- 
able competency when began the first great higera 
from the Mississippi valley to Montana. Jonathan 
F. Forbis was among the earliest to catch the 
western enthusiasm, and, in 1864, gathering his 
household goods about him, he started across the 
plains for the distant promised land by means of ox 
teams, then the only method of overland transpor- 
tation. After a long and trying, but uneventful trip, 
they reached Virginia City, where for a year Mr. 
Forbis was laboriously engaged in mining. It 
was a time which tried men's souls. The com- 
monest necessaries of life were scarce and 
costly. Flour sold readily at $100 a sack, 
and other articles, with the exception of wild 
game, in proportion. Houses, furniture, imple- 



nients — all the appurtenances of domestic life — 
were of the crudest and most primitive forms. The 
rigors of the climate laid additional burdens on 
oacks already overtaxed. Yet our mother earth 
met the exigencies of the case by yielding her 
richest stores, and yielding up a generous abun- 
dance of her treasures. And this was well. For 
what would now be a princely per diem in the same 
territory was then barely sufificient to furnish a 
rugged and slender living. In 1865 Mr. Forbis 
removed his family to his farm near Helena, and 
they began anew the vocation of the old patriarchs. 
Mr. Forbis was a man of unusual sagacity, rare 
judgment and great force of character. He soon 
rose to prominence and commanding influence in 
public affairs. For many years he was one of the 
commissioners of Lewis and Clarke county, and for 
term after term held a membership in the terri- 
torial legislature. He dignified and adorned every 
relation of life until a stroke of apoplexy cut short 
his useful career on January 26, 1877. ^^ ^^^^ ^ 
family of seven children, Mrs. E. H. Irvine, Mrs. J. 
R. Russell and Mrs. M. B. Brownlee, of Butte; 
Mrs. W. L. Steele, of Helena ; John F. and James 
W., lawyers, and W. P., a mining operator, who 
died in 1899. 

We have dwelt at some length upon the ante- 
cedents of John F. Forbis, because in them lies the 
key to his high character and creditable career. 
Given the original qualities of a boy, and his rear- 
ing amid such surroundings, all that has followed 
was plainly deducible therefrom, unless prevented 
by death or some supreme calamity. He was the 
fifth child of the family, and only nine years old 
when the trip from Missouri to Virginia City was 
taken. Thus in childhood he was brought into 
close and intimate communion with nature — al- 
ways a fount of healthful inspiration to the recep- 
tive and responsive soul. He received his elemen- 
tary education in the public schools of Helena, and 
in his very early manhood began to read law in the 
office of Judge Hiram Knowles. Later he was 
appointed deputy clerk of the district court in Deer 
Lodge county. Upon admission to the bar, in 1877, 
he located in Butte and at once entered upon the 
practice of law, in which from 1881 to 1889 he was 
associated with his former preceptor, Judge 
Knowles. In 1889 he formed a partnership with his 
brother, James W. Forbis, which lasted until 1896, 
and was eminently successful, winning a large and 
profitable clientage and a high rank in the profes- 
sion. Thev were attornevs for the Butte & Boston 

and many other mining companies in this state 
and elsewhere, and for leading business men and 
banking firms in Butte and other cities. Mr. Forbis 
is now alone in his practice, and at the zenith of his 
influence and power. He is an acknowledged lead- 
er at the bar, both in the extent and accuracy of his 
legal learning and his versatility in the application 
of it. His voice is also potential in political affairs 
and in all matters of public interest. During the 
greater part of his mature life he was an ardent 
Democrat in politics and represented his county 
with distinction in the territorial legislature several 
times as the choice of that party. In 1894 he was, 
by appointment of that party also a member of the 
state board of education. In the cataclysm of 1896 
his vigorous independence landed him in the Re- 
pubHcan party. He at once took a high rank in its 
councils and pleased his new associates so well that 
they made him a delegate to their national convene 
tion in 1900. Among the fraternal orders, the 
only one in which he holds membership is that of 

Mr. Forbis was married February 22, 1888, to 
Miss Mina Daft, a native of Salt Lake City. They 
have three children — Majorie E., John F., Jr., and 
Robert. Socially Mr. Forbis is a captivating and 
entertaining companion, with a ready wit, a keen 
sense of humor and a vast fund of anecdotes and 

il honored pioneer of Montana, now incumbent 
of the important office of treasurer of the state, 
merits specific consideration in any work purport- 
ing to record the lives and deeds of those who have 
conferred honor and dignity upon the common- 
wealth, aided in its development and leaving upon 
it the impress of strong individuality. Mr. Barret 
is a native of Grayson county, Ky., born at Litch- 
field on January 25, 1834, the son of Augustus 
M. and Mary J. (Cunningham) Barret. The 
original American ancestor of the Barret family 
emigrated from Southhampton, England, to Vir- 
ginia in the early days and there passed the resi- 
due of his life as a clergyman of the Presbyterian 
church, and by reason of gallant services of his 
forbearers in the Revolution, Treasurer Barret 
now belongs to the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion. His son Francis, grandfather of Montana's 
state treasurer, was likewise a native of the Old 



Dominion, and was ordained as a Baptist minis- 
ter. He removed with his famil}- to Greensburg, 
Ky., where in 1832 both he and his wife fell vic- 
tims to the cholera. While with unselfish courage 
and rare self-abnegation they were devoting them- 
selves to caring for the afflicted, both were stricken 
and succumbed, dying within an hour of each 
other, leaving nine children, one being Augustus M. 
Barret. He was born in Green county, Ky., on 
May 8, 1804, and served for thirty years as cler.k 
of the circuit and county courts of Edmonson 
county, Ky., whence he removed, in 1852, to 
Missouri, locating at Sedalia, where for three years 
he was clerk of the district court, and where he 
died on September i, 1857. He was thrice mar- 
ried, first to Miss Mary M. Marshall, who bore 
him three children, one of whom survives. His 
second union was to the mother of Treasurer 
Barret, she being a native of Grayson county, Ky., 
the daughter of William Cunningham. Of this 
union three children were born, two sons and a 
daughter. The mother died in 1837, being sur- 
vived by her infant daughter only about a year. 
The eldest son, William L., a soldier in the Confed- 
erate army, met his death in the battle of Mansfield, 
or Pine Ridge. In 1839 Augustus M. Barret was a 
third time married, the bride being Miss Berroyal 
H. Rountree, who became the mother of three chil- 
dren, only one of whom survives, and her death oc- 
curred in 1885. 

State Treasurer Barret was reared to manhood 
in his native state, receiving such educational ad- 
vantages as were afforded by the private schools 
of the place and period. At the age of eleven he was 
apprenticed to a harnessmaker and worked three 
years at this trade, then, in 1849, l^^ went to Mar- 
shall, Tex., and was a clerk three years. In 1852 
he accepted a position as traveling salesman for a 
V holesale drug house, which he resigned in 1853 
and going to Shreveport, La., he remained there 
one year and then removed to Sedalia, Mo., in 
1858, where he became a dealer in men's furnishing 
goods, and during the legislative session of i860 
and '61 he acted as clerk of the lower house of the 
Missouri legislature. At the outbreak of the Civil 
war he disposed of his business and again accepted 
a clerkship until his health became impaired, when 
he sought a change of climate and occupation, and 
in 1865 crossed the plains to Montana by the way 
of Fort Kearney, Laramie plains, and Bridger's 
cutoiif and Soda Springs, transportation being ef- 
fected bv ox and mule teams. He was not molested 

by the Indians and eventually arrived in Alder 
gulch, where for two years he was engaged in placer 
mining. In March, 1866, Mr. Barret was appointed 
private secretary to Gen. Meagher, and also 
was assistant auditor of the territory under John 
Ming, and acted as clerk of Indian affairs. In 
March, 1867, he received the appointment of special 
Indian agent for the Jocko reservation near Mis- 
soula. From 1865 until 1877 he served as clerk of 
the lower house of the territorial legislature. In 
1868 he went to Radersburg, where he was in the 
grocery business three years, and in 1875 he opened 
a harness shop in Alder gulch, removing it to Pony 
in 1877 and the next year to Butte, where, in 1879, 
he entered into partnership with "Chris" Jacky, 
forming the firm of Barret & Jacky, in the same 
business, the firm also maintaining branches in 
Anaconda and Phillipsburg. This alliance contin- 
ued up to 1896, when Mr. Barret purchased the 
business, which he ran one year, then sold it. But 
in 1899 he became interested as a silent partner 
in business again at Dillon and Butte. Mr. Barret 
represented Jefferson county in the lower house of 
the territorial legislature in 1868-9, ^"d for eight 
years filled the office of justice of the peace of Deer 
Lodge, Madison and Jefferson counties. 

In every official position to which he has been 
chosen he has proved equal to the duties imposed, 
and his administration of affairs has at all times 
been so careful and discriminating as to gain en- 
dorsement from the people. Thus it was a merited 
preferment which came to him in the election of 
November, 1900, when he was chosen treasurer of 
the state, and it is needless to say that the finances 
of the commonwealth could not have been placed in 
more worthy hands. Mr. Barret has been a life- 
long adherent of the Democratic party, has kept 
himself well informed on the questions and issues 
of the day, and been a powerful factor in forward- 
ing the cause of his party in the state. He is to-day 
one of the veteran representatives of Democracy in 
Montana. In the !\Iasonic order Mr. Barret has oc- 
cupied a conspicuous position for many years. His 
initiation as an entered apprentice dates back nearly 
two score years, and the records show that he has 
held most exalted office in the gift of the members 
of the order. He has served as worshipful master 
of the blue lodge, high priest of the chapter, as 
grand high priest of the grand capitular body, as 
commander of Montana Commandery No. 3, and as 
grand commander of the Grand Commandery of 
Knights Templar of Montana. In the An- 

1 62 


cient and Accepted Scottish Rite he has ad- 
vanced to inspector-general of the thirty-third 
degree. In this great fraternity, as in all other re- 
lations of life, he is held in high regard, his friends 
being in number as his acquaintances. In Septem- 
ber, 1899, he was elected grand master of Mon- 
tana, having risen to that position step by step 
through the consecutive grades. 

On November 9, 1880, Mr. Barret was united in 
marriage to Miss Elizabeth A. Brooke. They wei-e 
married in Helena in the Episcopal church by Rev. 
Maylan N. Gilbert. She was born in what is now 
West Virginia, at Morgantown, Va., the daughter 
of Dr. Thomas F. Brooke, a representative of one 
of the prominent families of the Old Dominion. 
She is a sister of the late Dr. Benj. C. Brooke, of 
Helena, to whom specific reference is made on other 
pages of this work. Mr. and Mrs. Barret have an 
adopted daughter, Marie, who was bom in Ken- 
tucky. The family are worthy the precedence 
which is theirs in social life, exemplifying that in- 
nate refinement which dignifies and harmonizes the 
various associations of humanity. 

THOMAS FLYNN.— Among the sons of the 
Emerald Isle who have become factors in the 
industrial life of Montana is Mr. Flynn, one of the 
extensive and influential farmers and stockgrow- 
ers of Beaverhead county, his fine ranch property 
being located seven miles south of Dillon, the 
county seat. Mr. Flynn is a native of County 
Leitrim, Ireland, where he was born February 14, 
1854, being the eighth in order of birth of the 
twelve children of Patrick and Katherine (McTiar- 
nan) Flynn, both of whom passed their entire lives 
in the Emerald Isle. The father of our subject 
was a farmer and trader and a stanch repre- 
sentative of good old Irish stock, being a man of 
ability and inflexible integrity of character. Both 
he and his wife were devoted members of the 
Catholic church. 

Thomas Flynn was educated in the public and 
parochial schools of his native county, and there- 
after he assisted in the work of the parental farm- 
stead until the time of his emigration, his father 
having died when he was but fourteen years of 
age. Two of his brothers had preceded him to 
the United States and were engaged at mining in 
Montana in 1876. Coming to Montana in that year 
he entered the employ of Poindexter & Orr, ex- 

tensive stockgrowers and merchants of Beaver- 
head county. Five years later he bought a tract 
of land on Blacktail creek, the nucleus of his pres- 
ent fine property, embracing 2,600 acres, while 
he controls a tract of 1,700 acres under lease from 
the state, thus giving a total of 4,300 acres. In 
addition to raising large crops of wheat, oats and 
alfalfa, Mr. Flynn is extensively engaged in the 
production of highgrade shorthorn cattle. He 
has brought to bear in his operations excellent 
business and executive ability and an unflagging 
energy, and is ever alert and progressive, thus 
securing worthy success and the enjoyment of 
high standing in the community as a citizen and a 
business man. During the severe winter of 1889 
Mr. Flynn met with severe financial losses, a large 
portion of his live stock perishing, but the misfor- 
tune did not discourage him, and he has entirely 
recouped his losses. He is constantly making im- 
provements on his ranch by bringing more land 
under cultivation and feeding more stock; and 
stands as one of the substantial and prosperous 
ranchmen of the county. His political support is 
given to the Democratic party, while he and his 
estimable wife are members of the Catholic church. 
In the city of Butte, on November 22, 1855, Mr. 
Flynn was united in marriage to Miss Mary Ledan. 
who was born in Ireland and came to the United 
States when seventeen years of age in company with 
her brother, Michael, who died in Butte in 1883. 
Her parents were John and Mary (Flynn) Ledan. 
the former of whom is deceased and the latter still 
residing in Ireland. 

pLEMENS H. FORTMAN is one of the repre- 
w sentative business men of the capital city who 
has attained a large measure of success through 
his own efforts. Mr. Fortman is a native of the 
old Buckeye state, having been bom in the city of 
Cincinnati in 1861. His father, John Fortman, was 
born in Holland, where he was educated and 
whence he emigrated in 1857, locating in 
Cincinnati and there passed the remainder of 
his honorable and useful life. He was for a 
time employed in a foundry, but became a 
member of the police force of the Queen City, and 
served for the long term of twenty years, being 
retired only when he had reached the age limit. 
At the time of his retirement he was presented 
with a gold star and a goldheaded cane in recogni- 



tion of his long and faithful service. The mother 
of Mr. Fortman was born in Osnabruck, in the 
extreme eastern part of Holland, where she grew 
to maturity. By her marriage to Mr. Fortman she 
became the mother of eight children, seven of 
whom are living. 

Clemens H. Fortman, our subject, was educated 
in the parochial schools of Cincinnati, graduating 
in 1874. After leaving school he was employed for 
two years in a grocery, and for three years there- 
after was in the employ of Parker, Harrison 
& Co., manufacturers of spices. He then en- 
gaged in the grocery trade in Cincinnati, but in 
1887 failing health rendered a change of cliiTiate 
imperative, and he came to Montana, where he was 
first engaged with the Montana Lumber Company, 
of Helena, for one year; then employed in the 
local office of the Northern Pacific Express Com- 
pany. A change of agents brought about a change 
in the corps of subordinates, and thereafter Mr. 
Fortman was for nine years in the employ of that 
well known firm of Sanford & Evans, to whom 
specific reference is made elsewhere. On Septem- 
ber I, I goo, Mr. Fortman organized the C. H. 
Fortman Company, incorporated under the laws 
of the state, though he is the sole stockholder 
in the same. The function of the enterprise in- 
cludes dealing in grain, coal, wood, implements and 
wagons, and the ability and correct business meth- 
ods which Mr. Fortman brings to bear insures to 
the undertaking abundant success. 

In politics our subject gives loyal support to the 
Democratic party ; in religion he and his family are 
members of the Catholic church ; socially he is 
identified with the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, the Woodmen of the World, the Royal High- 
landers, and the Jefferson Club, being treasurer 
of the last mentioned. He is well known in the 
city, where he enjoys a distinctive popularity. In 
1898-9 he represented his ward as a member of the 
board of aldermen, filling the office most creditably. 
In 1884 Mr. Fortman was united in marriage to 
Miss Margaret Fallon, a native of Cincinnati, and 
the daughter of Patrick Fallon, who was born in 
Ireland, whence he came to America in his youth, 
locating in Cincinnati, where he is engaged in 
the market business in a wholesale' way. Mrs. 
Fortman's sister. Miss AHce Fallon, has attained 
an excellent reputation in the field of vocal music, 
having studied under Orgaini, the great Dresden 
teacher, and made a notable success in both con- 
cert and operatic work. Mr. and Mrs. Fortman 
are the parents of one child, Blanche Marie. 

BENOIL O. FOURNIER.— For nearly a quarter 
of a century Mr. Fournier has been a resi- 
dent of Montana, identified with its business and 
industrial life, and is today one of the influential 
and honored citizens of Beaverhead county, where 
he has extensive real estate and livestock inter- 
ests. He is also engaged in general merchandising 
at Jackson, and has valuable mining mterests in 
this section of the state. His life has been one of 
consecutive industry; his career in the west, while 
varied in character, has commanded the confidence 
and respect of his fellowmen by reason of his sterl- 
ing integrity of character. 

Mr. Fournier is a native of Verchires county. 
Province of Quebec, Canada, where he was born 
on May 8, 1847, being the eighth of the ten chil- 
dren of Antoine and Idelaide (Lambert) Fournier, 
natives of Canada, where they passed their entire 
lives, the original American ancestors having set- 
tled in Canada more than two centuries ago, while 
in the paternal line our subject is of distinguished 
French lineage. He received his early education 
in the parochial schools of his native county, sup- 
plemented l3y a thorough course of study in Be- 
loeil College, at Beloeil, where ne remained seven 
years. After leaving school he engaged in general 
merchandising at St. Liboire, Canada, until 1870, 
when he went to California and engaged in the 
hotel business at Aukland. He then went to San 
Francisco and engaged in the bakery business for a 
short interval. In 1871 Mr. Fournier located in 
Virginia City, Nev., and worked in the famous 
Comstock mine, remaining until 1877. He was 
unsettled for several months, but finally organized 
a party with a train of ten wagons and started for 
the Black Hills. At Laramie City he left the train 
and came to Montana by way of Tongue and 
Yellowstone rivers. Reaching Fort Custer he con- 
tracted in the fall of 1877 to supply brick and other 
material for the post, realizing five hundred dollars 
therefrom. He then removed to Bozeman and for 
three years engaged in ranching and freighting in 
Gallatin county and later was similarly engaged in 
Silver Bow county for two and one-half years, com- 
ing thence to the Big Hole basin, in Beaverhead 
county, where he engaged in prospecting for two 
years. In 1884 he discovered the hot springs near 
where the town of Jackson now stands, and im- 
mediately located a ranch in this locality, even- 
tually secunng a large tract of land. He latei dis- 
posed of a considerable portion of his land, but still 
retains 640 acres, and also the ownership of the 
springs, whose waters have shown valuable reme- 



dial qualities. He now conducts a general store in 
Jackson, having a large and well selected stock and 
controlling a trade which reaches throughout a 
wide territory tributary to the town. He is also ex- 
tensively engaged in the cattle busmess and in 
farming, and is also interested in gold and copper 
mines in the vicinity of Jackson. When he first 
came to the Big Hole basin elk and antelope often 
were found feeding among his herds of cattle, and 
he recalls that in 1886 a band of antelope came 
down to his ranch. Being on horseback at the time, 
he made an efTort to corral them, but they were too 
wary to be taken captive. In his religious faith 
Mr. Fournier is a member of the Catholic church, 
in which he was reared. 

On February 3, 1901, Mr. Fournier was united 
in marriage to Miss Antoinette Cartier, who was 
born in Canada, the daughter of Joseph Cartier, a 
representative of one of the old and prominent 
French families of the dominion. Our subject and 
his wife have a pleasant home in Jackson, and are 
held in the highest esteem in the community. 

THOMAS J. FOWLER, a representative far- 
mer and cattlegrower of Gallatin county, 
Mont., who was elected county sheriff in the fall 
of 1900, is now discharging the duties of his posi- 
tion with that ability and discretion which marks 
the thoughtful man of affairs, and assures 
the approval of the public. Mr. Fowler is a 
native son of the old Buckeye state, having been 
born in Noble county, Ohio, August 29, 1850, a 
son of Cherry Valley (born February 11, 1812) 
and Elizabeth (Bond) Fowler (born July 4, 181 5). 
Cherry Valley Fowler secured his somewhat un- 
usual cognomen from having been born on the site 
of Cherry v ailey massacre in New York. He ac- 
companied his parents on their removal to Ohio, 
where they were numbered among the earliest pio- 
neers, and where they passed the remainder of their 
lives, the father dying in 1899, at the venerable age 
of eighty-seven years. Elizabeth (Bond) Fowler, 
mother of Sheriff Fowler, was a native of Mary- 
land, and her death occurred in Ohio in August, 
1896, at the age of eighty-one. Cherry Valley and 
Elizabeth Fowler were the parents of fifteen chil- 
dren, twelve of whom grew to maturity and ten of 
whom are living. 

Thomas J. Fowler was reared on the parental 
homestead, early becoming inured to the sturdy 

discipline of the farm, and securing his education 
in the public schools. He remained in Ohio until 
1877, when he disposed of his farm and came to 
Montana. He recently purchased a fine ranch of 
160 acres in Gallatin county, located five miles 
southwest of Bozeman. He is making excellent 
improvements on the ranch, which will be devoted 
to farming and stockraising upon a large scale. 

In politics Mr. Fowler has ever given a stanch 
allegiance to the Republican party, and has been an 
active worker in its cause, his first presidential 
vote having been cast for Gen. Grant. In the fall 
of 1900 he was nominated Dy the Republicans for 
sheriff of Gallatin county, was duly elected and 
inducted into office. Fraternally ne is a member of 
the Order of Yeomen ; he and his family are mem- 
bers of the Christian church. On November 25, 
1880, i\Ir. Fowler was united in marriage to Miss 
Mahala C. McKinsey, who was born in Franklin 
county, Indiana, May 22, 1852, the daughter of 
George E. and Sarah (Wilson) McKinsey, natives 
of Indiana, of which state their parents were among 
the earliest pioneers. Mrs. Fowler's parents 
are now residents of Bozeman, Mont., Mr. 
McKinsey being one of the pioneers of Montana, 
having removed from Indiana to Omaha, Neb., in 
1854, and in 1863 to Montana where he engaged in 
farming and mining until his retirement from 
active business life. Mr. and Mrs. Fowler are the 
parents of six children, namely : Rosa, Grace, 
Bertie, Bessie, Alola and Ernest. 

JAMES D. FOX.— Numbered among the first 
permanent settlers in the Big Hole basin, Bea- 
verhead county, where he is extensively en- 
gaged in farming and stockraising, James D. Fox 
has definitely contributed to the industrial prog- 
ress of this section of the state. Janies Dwight 
Fox conies of stanch old New England stock, 
his ancestors in both the paternal and maternal 
lines having been identified therewith in early co- 
lonial days and for many generations concerned in 
the agricultural and business life of Massachusetts. 
Mr. Fox was born in Westfield, Mass., on April 
13, 1829, the second of the seven children of Lu- 
cius and Persis (Sackett) Fox, natives of the old 
Bay state. Lucius Fox was a farmer and powder 
manufacturer for a number of years and was prom- 
inently identified with the state militia. His father, 
Jonathan Fox, born in Massachusetts, was also a 



farmer. After securing his preliminary education 
in the common schools of Westfield he completed a 
course of study in the academy. On leaving school 
he engaged in farm work, and thus continued until 
he attained the age of seventeen years, when he 
went to Boston for the purpose of learning the 
trade of manufacturing philosophical instruments, 
devoting his attention to this line for one year, 
after which he entered the establishment of his 
uncle, and learned the trade of watchmaking. In 
1885 he went to New York city and secured work 
in an establishment in" Maiden lane, and there re- 
mained until the panic of 1857, when he returned to 
Boston and worked at his trade until the follow- 
ing year. His next move was to the South, lo- 
cating in Montgomery, Ala., where he was em- 
ployed for a short interval and then went to Cam- 
den and was there employed at his trade for a 
year. His next change was in removing to Linden, 
Ala., where he opened a jewelry business, which 
he conducted until the outbreak of the Civil war, 
when he enlisted in the Twenty-first Regiment of 
Ala1)ama Volunteer Infantry and served until the 
capture of Mobile, when he took passage to New 
York. At the close of the war he returned to Ala- 
bama and again engaged in the jewelry business 
at Linden. He sold his interests in the south in the 
year 1872 and returned to New York city to ac- 
cept a position as traveling salesman for manufac- 
turing jewelers, and for the Springfield Watch Com- 
pany, being thus engaged until 1878 when he came 
to Montana and for a short time was employed at 
his trade in Helena. He thence removed to Butte, 
and in the fall of the same year engaged in the 
watchmaking and jewelry business. In 1885-6 he 
also conducted a grocery business. In the latter 
year he disposed of his interests in Butte and came 
to Big Hole basin and located on his present ranch, 
where he has since given his attention to the rais- 
ing of fine cattle and horses, while he secures from 
his ranch large annual yields of hay. He now con- 
trols 3,260 acres of land, has a good residence and 
made excellent improvements on his place, one of 
the best in this locality. In politics Mr. Fox gives 
an unwavering allegiance to the Republican party, 
and in 1892 he was appointed and is now post- 
master at Fox, which was named in his honor. 

In the year 1865 Mr. Fox was united in marriage 
to Miss Olivia G. Thomas, who died in 1877, leav- 
ing three children: Walter P., who has a large 
ranch near that of his father, is married and has 
two children ; Eugene T. also owns a large ranch in 

the" same locality, is married and the father of one 
child ; and Emeline L. is the wife Chauncey R. 
Brown, a successful ranchman of the Big Hole 
basin, and has three children. On November 6, 
1880, Mr. Fox consummated a second marriage, 
being then united to Miss Sarah E. Thomas, who 
was born in Winthrop, Me., and the daughter of 
Lloyd and Elizabeth (Benson) Thomas, representa- 
-tives of old families of the Pine Tree state, where 
the Bensons were among the earliest settlers. Of 
this second marriage no chilrlren have been born. 

T AMES W. FREEMAN, city attorney of Great 
J Fall:. r\Iont., is one of the brilliant Aoung at- 
torneys of the state. He was born in Jones 
county, Wyo., on March 27, 1867. His parents are 
Richard and Mary (Aldrich) Freeman, both natives 
of Ohio. They removed to Iowa in the early 'fifties 
and engaged in farming. James W. Freeman re- 
ceived excellent educational advantages in Ohio, 
whither his parents removed when he was seven 
years of age, they settling in Medina county. He 
was graduated from the Wellington, Ohio, higli 
school, afterwards passing two years in the Univer- 
sity of Delaware, Ohio. Having taught school for 
two years he was matriculated in the law depart- 
ment of the Michigan University, in 1889, at Ann 
Arbor, graduating with honors in 1891, and in the 
same year he was admitted to practice before the 
supreme court of Ohio, and in that year also he be- 
gan the practice of his profession at Great Falls, 
Mont., and here he has remained since, meeting 
with constantly increasing success and being called 
to important official trusts. 

Mr. Freeman was county attorney for four years 
from January i, 1893, being re-elected in 1895. In 
May, 1900, he received the appointment as city at- 
torney, which position he held two years. In 1898 
he was elected one of the school board of Great 
Falls, and was chosen its chairman. 

Mr. Freeman is an active and enthusiastic Re- 
publican. In behalf of the principles of that party 
he has, with signal ability, stumped both Cascade 
county and the state in several exciting cam- 
paigns. Fraternally he is a ]\Iason, being a mem- 
ber of the lodge, chapter and commandery, while 
he is a noble of the Mystic Shrine. He is also a 
Knight of Pythias. On June 23, 1896, Mr. Free- 
man was united in marriage to Miss Mildred Betz, 
a native of Ohio. They have one son, Jean Paul. 



GEORGE D. FRENCH.— It is a pleasant duty 
to incorporate this memoir of an honored 
pioneer of Montana, and one whose Hfe was of 
signal usefulness. A man of strong character, 
George D. French was ever true in all the rela- 
tions of Hfe, and stood as a fine type of those sturdy 
frontiersmen who laid the foundations upon which 
has been reared the commonwealth of Montana. 

Mr. French was of sterling English lineage, 
and was himself a native of the "tight little isle," 
where he was born in the year 1832. It is a mat- 
ter of regret that no definite data is to be had as to 
his genealogy or the details of his early life, and 
this condition but emphasizes the value of a pub- 
lication of this nature when its pages are scanned 
by succeeding generations. It could not have been 
other than a source of great satisfaction to Mr. 
F'rench's family had a sketch of his life been pre- 
pared and published prior to his death, but under 
existing circumstances it is incumbent that as 
complete a memoir as possible be mcorporated. 
Mr. French secured a common school education 
in his native land, and there learned the trade of 
cabinetmaking. As a young man he immigrated 
to America, believing better opportunities were 
there presented for individual effort, located in 
Xew York city, and engaged in work at his trade. 
About the year 1848 he turned his steps west- 
ward, locating in Palmyra, Wis., where he en- 
gaged in the hotel business for a brief interval. 
Within the same year he started for the Pacific 
coast, having California in view as his destination, 
making the trip by way of Cape Horn. Upon 
reaching Central America he disembarked and 
there remained about a year, and then continued 
his voyage to California, arriving in 1850. His at- 
tention was given to mining for a period of two 
years, when he returned to New York, where his 
marriage was solemnized and whence he set forth 
with his bride on a wedding tour to England. 
They remained in England for a number of months, 
returned to New York, shortly after removed to 
Wisconsin, where Mr. French engaged in cabinet- 
making until 1863, when he disposed of his busi- 
;iess and started with his family on the long and 
perilous overland trip to California. With cattle 
and horse teams he transported an outfit for a 
modest brewery, but upon reaching Lander's cut- 
off the party learned of the discovery of gold at 
Bannack, Mont., then a portion of Idaho. His dri- 
vers refused to proceed to California, insisting upon 
going to Bannack. Mr. French was thus com- 

pelled to accede to their demands, and it was 
through this incident that he became numbered 
among the early pioneers of Montana. He ar- 
rived in Bannack September 23, 1863, and soon 
afterward opened a cabinet shop. In this connec- 
tion it is worthy of note that he was called upon 
to manufacture the coffins in which were buried 
Plummer, Ray and Stimson, the desperadoes hung 
by the vigilance committee ; also one for George 
Copley, who was shot by the Mexican road agents. 
In 1864 he purchased the Mannheim brewery, one 
of the first established in this section of the Union, 
which he conducted successfully for a number of 
years. An incident worthy of mention in this con- 
nection IS that this brewery was the one in which 
the venerated Bishop Tuttle, of the Protestant 
Episcopal church, was wont to hold services in 
the early days, on the occasion of his visit to Ban- 
nack. The congregations assembled on the second 
floor and while the bishop was delivering a sermon 
on one occasion the floor suddenly settled to a 
very appreciable degree, and the dignified prelate 
forthwith rushed through a rear door to make his 
escape. He soon returned, however, making the 
statement that "self-preservation is the first law of 
nature," and proceeded with his sermon. 

Mr. French continued to reside in the old city of 
Bannack until 1870, when he moved to Argenta, 
also located in Beaverhead county, and there 
opened a mercantile establishment, which he con- 
ducted until his death, which occurred in 1879. 
He was a man of unfaltering probity, honest and 
upright in all the relations of life, and to him 
was awarded a full measure of esteem and con- 
fidence, leaving to his children the priceless herit- 
age of a good name. Reference has already been 
made to his marriage, but it should be stated that 
the maiden name of his wife was Elizabeth Hughes, 
a native of Bath, England, where she was reared to 
maturity, receiving an academic education. She 
entered into eternal life in the year 1900. Mr. and 
Mrs. French were the parents of nine children, of 
whom only three are now living, two having been 
drowned at Bannack January 5, 1866, by falling 
from a bridge into Beaverhead river. Of the sur- 
viving children we incorporate brief records, as 
following : Margaret, who was born December 25, 
1855, is the wife of Alfred E. Graeter, engaged in 
mining in Argenta ; George W. French, Dorn Feb- 
ruary 10, 1859, ^^ Palmyra, Jefferson county. Wis., 
accompanied his parents on their removal to Mon- 
tana, where he has practically passed his entire life, 



and received his educational discipline in the public 
schools of the pioneer epoch. Though primitive in 
equipment, they were conducted by instructors of 
marked ability, and the training was well directed 
and effective in results. Mr. French left school at 
the age of seventeen years, became identified with 
the great mining industry, giving his attention to 
both placer and quartz mining, continuing in active 
operations until 1896, when he was elected county 
treasurer of Beaverhead county and made his 
abode in Dillon. He was chosen as his own suc- 
cessor in 1898, and thus was incumbent of this re- 
sponsible office for a period of four years, giving a 
most careful and discriminating administration of 
the financial affairs of the county and gaining un- 
qualified endorsement. At the expiration of his 
second term, in 1900, he was elected clerk of the dis- 
trict court. In politics, like his honored father, he i» 
a stanch adherent to the Democratic party. Fra- 
ternally he is identified with the time-honored 
order of Freemasons, being a member of Dillon 
Lodge No. 30, A. F. & A. M. Mr. French is one 
of the progressive and successful business men of 
Beaverhead county, and has so lived and directed 
his efforts as to retain the esteem and confidence of 
the community that have known him from child- 
hood. He is the owner of several mining proper- 
ties of unmistakable value, being located on French 
creek, both placer and quartz mines, the latter be- 
ing the Goldfinch, Dolphin and Goldquartz proper- 
ties, all of which are bonded and showing up ex- 
tremely well as the work of development pro- 
ceeds. Mr. French also has a valuable stock ranch 
of about two thousand acres, located on Rattle- 
snake creek, and devotes special attention to the 
raising of high grade shorthorn cattle. In this 
enterprise he is associated with his brother 
Anthony, who was born in Bannack in 1868, and 
now has charge of the ranching business. A por- 
tion of this ranch property is the old Hadley place, 
which was the first taken up in the county and 
which was headquarters for the road agents in the 
early days. 

T SIDORE D. FREUND, M. D.— Greater than 
1 in almost any other line of human endeavor is 
the responsibility that rests upon the physician. 
The issues of life and death are in his hands. The 
physician's power must be his own ; not by gift, by 
purchase or by influence can he gain it. If he 
would attain relative precedence it must come as 

the result of superior skill, knowledge and ability, 
and these qualifications are possessed in a marked 
degree by Dr. Freund, who is numbered among the 
representative medical practitioners of Butte. He 
is the son of Isidore and Catherine Freund, rep- 
resentatives of old German families of BerHn, 
where he was born on September 14, 1846. The 
father, who became an eminent surgeon in the 
German schools, emigrated to America in 1855, 
locating in New York, and later removed to Michi- 
gan, where he practiced medicine and surgery 
until his heath. 

Isidore D. Freund, a mere child at the time of 
his father's emigration, after attendance at the 
high school at Port Huron, Mich., matriculated in 
the famous University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, 
entering the literary department in 1865, where he 
completed a two years' course. He then entered 
the medical department, completed the prescribed 
course and was graduated with the degree of M. D. 
in 1872. Thus thoroughly prepared for his pro- 
fession. Dr. Freund located in the Marquette min- 
ing district of Michigan and entered upon a suc- 
cessful practice, being the official physician for 
various mining companies, and he also had charge 
of their hospital for that mining district. He was 
also surgeon to the different railroads of that sec- 
tion. Fle remained in the Lake Superior region 
from 1872 until 1893, when he came to Butte, 
Mont., and associated with Dr. T. J. Murry in the 
Murry and Freund Hospital, and he has also been 
very successful in general practice, both as a phy- 
sician and surgeon, controlling a large private 

While in practice in Michigan Dr. Freund took 
yearly post-graduate courses in New York city, 
and he has made frequent trips to the east for this 
purpose since residing in Butte. He has con- 
tributed valuable articles to medical journals, and 
has read scholarly papers before various medical 
societies. He has devoted special attention to sur- 
gery, and is known as a most skillful and discrimi- 
nating operator. Dr. Freund is a member of the 
state board of medical examiners, appointed to this 
office by Gov. Toole. He holds membership in the 
American Medical, and the Rocky Mountain Inter- 
State Medical, and the Montana State Medical 
associations and the Silver Bow County Medical 
Society, and has been president of the last. While 
in politics the Doctor is a stanch Democrat, he has 
never sought official preferment. Fraternally he 
holds membership in these Masonic bodies at 



Marquette, Mich., Marquette Lodge No. 125, F. 
& A. M., Marquet Chapter No. 108, R. A. M., 
and Lake Superior Commandery No. 30, Knights 
Templar. In 1863 Dr. Freund went to the front as 
a surgeon of the Seventh Michigan Cavalry, al- 
though but fifteen years of age, and served until 
the close of the war, his regiment being a part of 
the Army of Virginia. After the war was over his 
regiment was sent to the west to guard stage lines, 
and the Doctor accompanied his comrades. When 
the regiment was mustered out of service he re- 
turned to Michigan and resumed his studies in the 

At Port Huron, Mich., on October 7, 1870, Dr. 
Freund was united m marriage to Miss Jennie 
Spalding, a native of Michigan, the daughter of 
Jed. Spalding, an architect and builder. Of this 
union two sons have been born, Raynor Spalding 
and Jed. Burt, both medical graduates of the 
University of Michigan, and are now engaged in 
practice in Butte. 

HUGH F. GALEN.— One of the founders and 
makers of Montana, whose death occurred 
May 30, 1899, at Los Angeles, Cal., his remains 
being buried in the city of Helena, Mont., where for 
a long time he had lived, Hugh F- Galen is at rest 
after arduous labors, in peace after many contests, 
in the place where he enjoyed in full measure the 
sincere regard, the high esteem, the full confidence 
of the community. Mr. Galen was born at the little 
town of Castle Derg, County Tyrone, Ireland, 
March 17, 1826. He remained in his native land at- 
tending school and working his way along until he 
was nineteen years of age. In 1845 he emigrated 
to the United States, locating at Bangor, Me., 
where he engaged in the log and lumber business 
for a year, when he removed to New Orleans and 
was occupied in merchandising for another year. 
In the spring of 1847, even before the discovery of 
gold in California, the Pacific coast wore to his 
awakened fancy a winning smile, and he began 
freighting to its distant regions, making a number 
of trips to Nevada and California ; and later travel- 
ing by way of Salt Lake, Oregon and Washington, 
until he stopped near the site of the city of Seattle. 
There he sold his teams, built a saw mill, and en- 
gaged in lumbering and general trading until 1859, 
making in 1858 a short stay within the present lim- 
its of Montana during one of his trading trips, at 
which time he visited the town of Bannack. 

In 1859 he again passed through a portion of 
Montana on his way from Utah to Washington. 
He did not, however, linger long, but took up his 
residence and engaged in business at The Dalles, 
Ore. The next year he returned to California, and 
from San Francisco went to Dallas, Ore., where he 
remained until 1861, trading with the Indians and 
conducting a hotel. In May, 1863, he removed to 
Salmon City, Idaho, where he did trading and con- 
ducted a hotel until the spring of 1866. That year 
he came to Montana to stay, and located at Helena, 
or rather Last Chance gulch, as it was then called. 
He began freighting between the gulch. Fort Ben- 
ton, and from Salt Lake. Afterwards, in 1869, 
he added to his other profitable enterprises a stage 
route between Bozeman and Helena. This he con- 
linued until the completion of railroads in the ter- 
ritory in 1884 took away its best patronage. But 
while it was in operation he carried the L^nited 
States mails and troops, and conducted the whole 
business on a highly profitable basis. From 1884 
to the time of his death he employed his capital and 
his energies in a number of well-paying industrial 
enterprises, being at one time president of the Cap- 
ital City Lighting Company and a director of the 
Montana National Bank — always driving with his 
characteristic energy and clearness of vision some 
profitable mercantile or productive undertaking 
which gave employment to others, kept the wheels 
of commercial activity in motion, and helped to 
build up and improve the community. In addition 
to his interests in Helena he owned a number of 
valuable ranches in Jefferson, Madison and Lewis 
and Clarke counties, on which he raised large crops 
and vast flocks of sheep down to 1882. Then he 
sold his sheep, numbering more than 10,000, and 
substituted other stock, and had in 1894 400 head 
of cattle and 900 horses. 

Until the cataclysm of 1896 Mr. Galen was an 
unwavering Democrat in politics, and always mani- 
fested the liveliest interest in the success of his 
party, so far foregoing his own preferences and 
tastes in 1876 as to accept a seat in the territorial 
legislature as a representative from Jefferson 
county. But in general, he was averse to public life 
and official station. He was married in San Fran- 
cisco in i860 to Miss Matilda M. Gillogly, whose 
life began on the ocean. They had seven children : 
Charles H., Frank and Minnie, deceased, and James 
L., now living at Cape Nome; Albert J., a promi- 
nent and skilled lawyer of Helena: Matilda M., 
and Ellen L., the wife of former United States Sen- 
ator Thomas H. Carter. 

^iUd. Si 0^ 



RAYNOR S. FREUND, M. D.— Among the 
able young medical representatives of Butte, 
where he has gained a tangible support as the 
result of his signal devotion to his profession and 
his unmistakable ability as a physician and surgeon. 
Dr. Raynor S. Freund merits attention. He was 
born in the city of Port Huron, Mich., on March 
20, 1872, the son of I. D. and Jennie (Spalding) 
Freund, of whom specific mention is made on 
another page. Raynor Spalding Freund attended 
the public schools of Michigan and was graduated 
from the high school at Champion, Marquette 
county, in the class of 1890. He then entered the 
Hopkins School, a well known preparatory insti- 
tution of Boston, Mass., where he studied for two 
years, after which, in the fall of 1892, he entered 
the celebrated University of Michigan, at Ann 
Arbor, where he devoted three years to the scien- 
tific course, and four years to the technical teach- 
ings in its medical department, being graduated 
after an exacting .course on June 23, 1899, and 
simultaneously receiving the degree of Doctor of 

He then came to Butte and became associated 
with his distinguished father and Dr. T. J. Murry 
in hospital and general practice. This alliance con- 
tinued until April, 1901, and since then the Doctor 
has continued an independent practice, having a 
finely equipped office in the new postoffice block. 
He enjoys popularity in both professional and so- 
cial circles, and is identified with the Rocky Moun- 
tain Inter-State Medical Association, the Montana 
State Medical Association and the Silver Bow 
Medical Society. 

FRANKLIN F. FRIDLEY was one of the ear- 
liest settlers in Gallatin county, Mont., but for 
some years prior to his death a resident of Park 
county. His parents were Jacob and Nancy 
(Hite) Fridley, natives of Rockingham county, 
Va., where the former was born May 5, 1796, and 
the latter on June 12, 1798. The father of Jacob 
Fridley was born and reared in Switzerland. 
Franklin F. Fridley was born in Augusta county, 
Va., October 22, 1824. When he was four years 
old his parents removed to Ohio and fifteen years 
later to Iowa, where they both died, the mother 
in 1846 and the father in 1856. In 1849 Mr. Frid- 
ley made the long journey across the plains to 
California, arriving at Sacramento on August 22 

of that year, and finding the now prosperous cap- 
ital of the Golden state a staggering hamlet, 
containing but one wooden house. From there 
he went to the mines on Jackson Forks, and re- 
mained during the winter successfully engaged in 
mining. On December 15, 1850, he sailed from 
San Francisco on the ship Hercules around Cape 
Horn, and, after a four months' journey, reached 
his home on April 15, 1851. He bought a farm 
near Muscatine, Iowa, and engaged in farming 
until 1864, when he started for Montana, arriving 
at Emigrant gulch on August 27 of that year. 
The train with which he traveled was divided into 
four parts, and at a mass meeting held at Richards' 
bridge crossing the North Platte, Mr. Fridley was 
chosen captain of the first division of forty-four 
wagons, and he conducted it safely to its destina- 
tion. He remained at Emigrant gulch three 
weeks, then removed to Gallatin valley ; the next 
month, October, 1864, he built the third house in 
the town, the first one in Gallatin valley to have 
the luxury of a board floor, the site being now oc- 
cupied by the Nevitt block. Here he lived until 
1876, when he went to the states for the winter. 

In the fall of 1864 Mr. Fridley bought a claim 
adjoining the original townsite of Bozeman on the 
north, which now forms the Imes addition to the 
city. In 1874 he bought the present Fridley 
ranch on the Yellowstone, twenty-three miles 
above Livingston, on the National Park branch of 
the Northern Pacific Railroad, and on his return 
to Montana, in 1877, he settled on this ranch, right 
in the shadow of Emigrant peak, and devoted him- 
self with energy and public spirit to developing 
and building up the section. He laid the first 
platform at Emigrant an^d presented it to the 
Northern Pacific Railroad, thus securing a railroad 
station. He built the first bridge over the upper 
Yellowstone at his own expense, afterward selling 
it to the county. In tact every public interest 
was promoted and every good enterprise quickened 
and stimulated by the touch of his tireless energy, 
and his useful life was progressing peacefully and 
profitably, when, on August 18, 1892, he was 
thrown from his wagon and received injuries from 
which he died on the 8th of September. In life 
he was highly esteemed and in death he was uni- 
versally mourned. He was laid away to rest in 
Bozeman cemetery with every demonstration of 
popular regard and affection, and his memory is 
held in the most respectful reverence. 

In political affiliation Mr. Fridley was a Repub- 



lican, but never desired or sought public office. 
He was the first postmaster at Fridley, accepting 
the office as a convenience to the community. On 
January i6, 1852, he was united in marriage with 
Miss America J. Mounts, born near Albion, III, 
on October 26, 1829. She died September 22, 
1892, just two weeks after the death of her hus- 
band, and was buried by his side and that of her 
son, who had died some two years previously. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fridley were the parents of three 
children ; Benjamin F., Edwin L. and Rosa G. 
The oldest, Benjamin F., city marshal of Bozeman, 
died January 12, 1890, leaving a widow, Lyda A., 
and three children — Charles, Edna and Harry. 
Edwin L. is still a resident of Bozeman, prosperous 
in business and well esteemed in the community; 
Rosa G. is the wife of Madison M. Black, and they 
own and occupy the old Fridley homestead in Park 

MADISON M. BLACK.— This prominent 
ranchman, public spirited citizen and pro- 
gressive business man of Park county, is a son of 
the late Col. Leander M. Black, who, after a ca- 
reer of great usefulness in Montana, died at Hel- 
ena July 18, 1881. Col. Black was born in Laurel 
county, Ky., in 1830, and in 1854 was united in 
marriage with Mary A. McHargue, a daughter of 
Wilham McHargue. In 1858 he joined the stam- 
pede to Pike's peak, leaving his family with his 
wife's parents. He arrived at the site of Denver 
in the spring of 1859, and engaged in supplying 
the government with wood, hay and grain on con- 
tracts. He was filling contracts for suppHes to 
the Army of the Platte, when the Civil war broke 
out. By reason of his superior means of trans- 
portation the officers of the command allowed 
him almost unlimited discretion under his con- 
tracts. He had ox and mule teams crossing the 
plains from Missouri river points and back during 
the war, and so conducted his business as to win 
unstinted praise from the officers whose commands 
he served. During this period of seven years he 
was unable to get a communication to or from his 
family. But on Christmas day, 1864, he returned 
to the old plantation in Kentucky and was reunited 
with his family. On January i, 1865, they re- 
moved to St. Joseph, Mo., where they resided until 
July, 1871, when the Colonel brought them to Boze- 
man, Mont., where they made their home until 
after his death. In 1867 he was elected to the 

state senate of Colorado. In 1869 he loaded his 
teams and went to Virginia City. He was ap- 
pointed special agent for the Crow Indians, then 
located on the Yellowstone near the present city 
of Livingston, with authority to treat with them 
and if necessary build an agency and furnish them 
supplies. He accepted the appointment and es- 
tablished headquarters and a general store at Boze- 
man. He councilled with the chiefs, secured a 
treaty and built the first Crow agency m the ter- 
ritory. Game was then plentiful, as was proven 
one night when the Colonel was called by one of the 
sentinels to witness an unusual sight. All around 
the camp elks' eyes were gleaming in the darkness, 
indicating the presence of several hundred of them. 
After resigning this position he again devoted 
himself to contracting on a large scale, covering 
the whole of western Montana and adjacent terri- 
tory — wherever there were Indians. He also 
bought and platted forty acres of land south of the 
townsite of Bozeman, now known as Black's ad- 
dition. He owned much real estate in the city 
and still carried on his store. He bought the old 
Pick and Plow newspaper and converted it into the 
Avant Courier, which is still published. He also 
established the Bozeman Times, and was president 
and half owner of the First National Bank of Boze- 
man. He owned farms on the Yellowstone, and 
in Madison and Gallatin valleys. He had exten- 
sive mining interests in Butte, Cook City and 
Lewis and Clarke, Madison and Jefferson counties. 
He built the road through Boulder pass and estab- 
lished a stage line, shortening the time and dis- 
tance between Helena and Butte. He built a 
wagon road through Yankee Jim canyon on the 
upper Yellowstone to the National Park in 1873-4; 
had the contract for carrying the mails and ex- 
press between Bozeman and Helena in 1875-6; the 
first mail contract from Cantonment, now Miles 
City, to Fort Buford in 1877; and had a sutlership 
at the Cantonment and established trading posts 
on the Yellowstone at the mouth of the Big Horn 
and Baker's battle ground. In 1878 he removed 
to Butte and patented "The Black Placer," now in 
the heart of the city. He then saw the necessity 
for a shorter overland route to Butte and built the 
present county road through Elk Park, cutting off 
some forty or fifty miles of the distance to Helena, 
and put on the first stage route between the two 
cities. The Great Northern Railroad was after- 
ward built over the same pass. In 1880 he was 
nominated by the Republicans for the legislature 



as a joint member for Jefferson and Gallatin coun- 
ties, but was defeated. He was interested in 
the Mantle mine at Cataract, and also owned a 
two-fifths interest in the A. Isl. Holter lode at Elk- 
horn, both in Jefferson county, the latter having 
since paid over $1,500,000 in dividends. Col. 
Black was taken violently ill at the International 
hotel in Helena on July 16, 1881, died on the i8th 
and his remains were buried in that city. In an 
editorial tribute to his memory the Helena Inde- 
pendent said : 

"Few men were better known or more univer- 
sally esteemed throughout Montana than Leander 
M. Black. A few years ago he was regarded as 
one of the leading capitalists of Bozeman. Per- 
haps no man did more than he to attract attention 
to and build up ana enhance the material interests 
of Bozeman during the days of his prosperity. He 
devoted his means with a lavish hand to the pro- 
motion of any public enterprise that had in it a 
promise of good to the community with which he 
was identified. His liberauty, however, was not 
confined to the city in which he made his home. 
He possessed those broad and liberal views which 
made him aeiight to assist m furthering the wel- 
fare of the entire territory. He was eminently a 
public-spirited man, and one of the best citizens 
any community could have. He was a splendid 
type of the frank, energetic, warm-hearted West- 
ern man." 

Madison M. Black, his son, was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Rosa G. Fridley on August 31, 
1875, at Bozeman, where they made their home 
until 1897. They have two daughters : Nellie A., 
the wife of Harry C. Clark, of Seattle, Wash. ; and 
Edith L., wife of Dr. Charles E. Collamer, of Peoria, 
111. Mr. Black is an ardent Democrat and has 
rendered good service to his party in its various 
campaigns, and to the community in general as 
county clerk and recorder of Gallatin county, an 
office which he held from 1880 to 1885. He has 
always taken a deep and serviceable interest in all 
matters affecting the welfare of the community, 
and is highly esteemed for his enterprise, pub- 
lic spirit and general progressiveness, as well as 
for the sterling qualities of his character and his 
pleasing social accomplishments. 

MISS IDA FULLERTON.— The recognition 
accorded to women in the practical and of- 
ficial duties incidental to educational work in Mon- 

tana can not but be viewed with gratification. And 
it is larg'ely through their persistent efforts that 
the cause has been advanced to the honor of the 
commonwealth which has honored them. In this 
volume will be found mention of a number of ladies 
exercising the duties of superintendents' of schools 
in each of several counties, and their work is pro- 
ducing excellent results. Miss Fullerton, who is 
superintendent for Lewis and Clarke county, has 
developed exceptional executive ability and capac- 
ity for the hauling of manifold details, and through 
her efforts greater unification and more efficient 
work has been conserved in the public schools of 
the county. She claims the old Empire state as 
the place of her nativity, having been born near 
Brockport, Monroe county, N. Y. Her parents, 
Alexander and Ann (Baldwin) Fullerton, were 
likewise natives of New York, while her paternal 
grandfather was John Fullerton, of English line- 
age, the family having long been identified with 
the annals of American history. Alexander Ful- 
lerton was a farmer by occupation, and in politics 
was stanchly arrayed in support of the Republican 
party, being a man of marked intellectuality and 
sterhng character. The parents of our subject 
removed to Michigan when she was a child, and 
she was still young when deprived by death of 
her father's solicitous care and protection. The 
family located in Ypsilanti, and after attending the 
public schools Miss Fullerton continued her studies 
in the Michigan State Normal School, this cele- 
brated institution being located in the same city. 
She graduated as a member of the class of 1884; 
and having thus definitely prepared herself for 
pedagogic work, she went to Clinton, Mich., where 
she was a teacher in the high school for five years. 
In 1887 she came to Helena, and was placed in 
charge of the second primary department of the 
Hawthorne school. Two and a half years later 
she was advanced to the Central school and as- 
signed to the eighth grade. She taught in the 
high school until the fall of 1900, when she was 
made the nominee of the Republican party for the 
office of county superintendent, being elected by a 
satisfactory majority and one of the only two can- 
didates elected on the Republican ticket in the 
county, a circumstance clearly indicative of her 
personal popularity and eligibility for the place. 
Miss Fullerton assumed the duties of office on 
January 7, 1901, her term to continue for two 
years. In 1891 she attended the session of the 
National Educational Association held at Toronto, 


Canada. She at all times maintains a lively inter- 
est in her professional work. The duties of sup- 
erintendents are responsible and exacting, and 
Miss Fullerton has taken matters in hand with 
steady grasp and clear discrimination, fully justi- 
fying by her course the support accorded her at 
the polls. Her sister, Mrs. H. C. Carpenter, whose 
deceased husband was numbered among the pio- 
neers of Montana, is also one of the efficient teach- 
ers in the Helena schools, holding position as prin- 
cipal of the Emerson school, in the west division. 

rank of successful ranchers and stockmen in 
Montana, Judge William Gaddis is a native of 
Washington, D. C, where he was born September 
12, 1831. His parent were Adam and JuHa A. 
(Green) Gaddis, the former a native of Ireland 
and the latter of Baltimore. Md. The father came 
to the United' States in 1814, having been born in 
1791. He first located at Alexandria, Va., but 
subsequently removed to Washington, D. C, where 
for forty years he was employed by the govern- 
ment as foreman in the shops and navy yards. He 
died in Washington in 1868. His father was a 
Scotchman and removed from his native land to 
Ireland where he died. Judge Gaddis has three 
brothers and two sisters living in Washington, 
and it was there he passed his boyhood and re- 
ceived his education in excellent private schools. 
After leaving school he learned the trade of a 
blacksmith, but later engaged in the grocery and 
feed business, which he continued to conduct until 
1869. He then came to Montana and found em- 
ployment in the sutler's store, in company with 
Capt. Cutter as post trader at Fort Shaw. After 
a year passed in this connection he formed an en- 
gagement with Gen. J. S. Hamil as post trader at 
Camp Baker. The General died soon after going 
to that point and Mr. Gaddis remamed in the busi- 
ness until the post was abandoned in 1880. The 
name was changed to Fort Logan in 1877, in honor 
of Capt. Logan, who was killed at Big Hole (see 
his sketch elsewhere in this volume), and in t88i 
Judge Gaddis purchased it with 2,400 acres of 
land which he has since increased to 3,000 acres, 
of which he has made one of the best cattle ranches 
in the state. 

The old fort is a historic place of great interest. 
It was built in 1870, the site having been selected 

by the officers of the Thirteenth United States In- 
fantry. It was first garrisoned by that regiment, 
then by the Seventh, the Third and the Eighteenth 
in turn. The first commander was Capt. Hollister 
of the Thirteenth, and he was succeeded by Major 
Ilgis, who was followed by Capt. Freeman, and he 
in turn by Col. Gilbert, and he by Maj. Chipman, 
who was the last and was in charge when the post 
was abandoned. While no great tragedy was en- 
acted in or around the fort, there were several 
small engagements between its forces and the In- 
dians. One occurred in 1877 between the soldiers 
and a party of Indians returning from the battle at 
Big Hole, and in this fight one Indian was killed. 
They had murdered a sheep herder and run ofi 
some stock from a place about eight miles away. 
In an engagement a year later several In- 
dians were killed. Troops from the fort were also 
in the Sioux campaign of 1876, and were with Gib- 
bons at the Big Hole. In 1880, owing to the neces- 
sity for establishing a fort farther out on the fron- 
tier. Fort Logan was abandoned and Fort Maginnis 
was built. The old fort was sold to the highest 
bidder and Judge Gaddis became the purchaser. 
He also has a ranch in Meagher county on which 
he raises Norman and Clyde horses. 

In June, 1873. at Washington, D. C, Judge Gad- 
dis was united in marriage with Miss Margaret 
L. Young, of Washington, a daughter of John 'S\. 
and Eliza W. (Merritt) Young, who lived and died 
in that city. Mr. and Mrs. Gaddis became the par- 
ents of five children, of whom only two are living, 
Eliza Merritt and Charles G. Gaddis. Politically the 
Judge is a Democrat, but he has never taken active 
part in party struggles. He was appointed United 
States commissioner and postmaster at Fort 
Logan, and held the positions for a number of 
years. Fraternally he is a Freemason of high 
standing and long connection with the order, hav- 
ing joined it in 1 861. He is a Knight Templar and 
a noble of the Mvstic Shrine. 

TAMES B. FUREY.— A native of County Hunt- 
J ington. Province of Quebec, Canada, of Irish 
ancestry, a farmer's son, the fifth of twelve chil- 
dren, with bone and sinew well developed by honest 
toil on the farm, later working with the same earn- 
estness and zeal in the iron mines of New York, 
pursuing with varying fortunes a mercantile career 
and lead and silver mining in Idaho, serving the 



public as deputy sheriff and later as sheriff, James 
B. Furey of Butte, sheriff of Silver Bow county, 
Mont., has seen life in many interesting phases. 
He was born on July 6, 1854, the son of Charles 
Furey, a native of Ireland, who emigrated to Que- 
bec in 1815. His mother was Ann (Hughes) Furey, 
also a native of Ireland, who was brought to Can- 
ada in her childhood. Mr. Furey received a good 
common school education, and worked for his 
father on the farm until he was eighteen years old, 
when he went to New York and worked in iron 
mines. In 1878 he removed to Idaho, remained 
at Atlanta for a year and a half, and then went 
into the Wood river country, where for ten years 
he conducted successfully a mercantile business. 
Part of this time he was deputy sheriff of the 
county, under his brother, who was for four years 
the sheriff. Again he went to mining for lead and 
silver, and then made a year s visit to his native 
country, returning to the west in 1893 and locat- 
ing in Butte, where he has been mining and mer- 
chandising ever since. In November, 1900, he was 
elected sheriff on the Labor ticket, and is 
now (1901) actively discharging the duties of the 
office. He is a member of the Order of Elks and of 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen. In the 
latter he holds the rank of past master workman. 
He was also president of the Butte Miners' Union 
for four consecutive terms. Mr. Furey was mar- 
ried in 1887 to Miss Lydia May, who was born in 
Novia Scotia and removed to Nevada when she 
was five years old. He met her in Idaho, and they 
were married in that territory. He is a man of 
force of character and equipoise, seeing things 
clearly and acting upon them vigorously and in- 
telligently. His sterling qualities of manhood and 
his faithful performance of every duty have won 
him the good will and regard of all around him. 

urer of Cascade county and an ex-mayor of 
Great Falls, Mont., is one of the most active and 
progressive citizens of the young metropolis. Since 
his first location in this city, 1890, he has thrown 
himself heart and soul into the advancement of its 
interests. He was born in Wellsburg, W. Va., in 
1859. John Gelsthorpe, his father, born in Not- 
tinghamshire, England, in 1824, emigrated to this 
country in 1 85 1. Two years after his arrival in 
America he was united in marriage to Miss Mar- 

garet Rodgers, a native of West Virginia. He 
was long merchant and hotel keeper at Wellsburg, 
died in 1883. His wife is still living in the sixty- 
fifth year of her age. They had three sons, two 
of whom reside in Great Falls, and one at Goss 
City, Ind. Dr. Gelsthorpe was the second son, and 
in his native town he received a common school 
education, later utilizing two years at Bethany 
College. On the death of his father when he was 
sixteen years old, he was compelled to leave col- 
lege and direct his attention to the sterner activ- 
ities of life, but he subsequently found time to 
spend a few profitable months at Duff's (Pittsburg) 
Business College. Later he had charge of the cir- 
culation of the Pittsburg Dispatch for several years, 
and during that time he read medicine and after- 
wards entered the medical department of the West- 
ern University, now the Cleveland College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, where he was graduated 
in 1885. On reaching his majority he returned to 
his native town and was elected city clerk and 
served one term. 

Dr. Gelsthorpe came to Montana in 1883, locat- 
ing first at Glendive, where he practiced medicine 
for a year. He then returned to Cleveland and 
took a post-graduate course in medicine, follow- 
ing which he accepted an offer of the position of 
surgeon on the Northern Pacific Railroad for some 
400 miles of its line, with headquarters at Miles 
City. He remained with the company until 1887. 
He then accepted a position as surgeon with a 
mining company at Rimini, Mont., and in 1888 
received the appointment of surgeon of the Sand 
Coulee Coal Co., at Sand Coulee, near Great Falls. 
With this company he remained three years, prac- 
ticing his profession with gratifying success. At 
Sand Coulee Dr. Gelsthorpe formed the acquaint- 
ance of Col. Broadwater, then in charge of the 
mines. It was here, too, that the Doctor first be- 
came inspired with confidence in the future of 
Great Falls. He made several investments in 
real estate there, all of which proved profitable, 
and in 1890 he came to the city to live. 

Since that time he has been prominent in pro- 
fessional and political life. In 1893 he was elected 
mayor of the city and had the distinction of being 
the only man ever elected mayor on the straight 
Democratic ticket. In this important office he 
served from 1893 to 1895. In 1896 Dr. Gelsthorpe 
was first elected treasurer of Cascade county, and 
he was re-elected in 1898, receiving the largest 
number of votes cast for any candidate on the 



Democratic ticket. He is a member of the State 
Medical Society, of which he was first vice-presi- 
dent in 1895, and of the Northern Montana Medi- 
cal Association. In the latter society he has filled 
all the chairs. Dr. Gelsthorpe was married on 
March 3, 1887, to i\Iiss Nellie Naston, a native of 
Minnesota, who died in 1894. He was again mar- 
ried in Chicago in 1898, to Miss Cora Blodgett, 
who was principal of the south side schools of 
Great Falls for some time. The Doctor is a Mason, 
a member of the order of Elks, and of the United 
Workmen. Throughout his life Dr. Gelsthorpe 
has been a public-spirited and broad-minded man 
and has ever manifested a lively interest in political 
affairs. His mayoralty administration was emi- 
nently successful as was his treasuryship of the 
county. Among the citizens of Great Falls he 
numbers a host of warm personal friends and is 
well and favorably known throughout the state. 

HENRY S. GILBERT.— Among those who 
were intimately concerned in the stirring 
events of life on the frontier in the early days is Mr. 
Gilbert, who is not only one of the distinctive "old- 
timers" of Montana, but was, prior to locating here, 
a frontiersman of the far northwest. He is a native 
of the Keystone state, having been born in Berks 
county on December 31, 1833, the son of Henry 
and Lydia (Spang) Gilbert, both of whom were 
born in Pennsylvania, where the father operated a 
gristmill and a woolen factory. The great-grand- 
father, Mr. Gilbert, emigrated from England to 
America in 1750, and his son, grandfather of 
Henry S., born in Pennsylvania, was a soldier in 
the war of the Revolution. Mr. Spang, the ma- 
ternal grandfather of Mr. Gilbert, belonged to a 
prominent family of Berks county and his father 
was a soldier of the Revolution, in which it was 
his good fortune to save the life of Gen. Nippen- 
burg, whom he accompanied to Germany after the 
declaration of peace. Through the aid and influ- 
ence of Gen. Nippenburg Mr. Spang made invest- 
ments in Prussia which made him very wealthy. 
He never returned to the United States, and the 
American heirs inherited nothing of his property. 
' Henry S. Gilbert supplemented the discipline he 
received in private schools in the academy at 
Boyertown, Pa., and engaged in teaching for a 
time and then learned the saddler's trade. He pur- 
chased the business of his employer and continued 

it for two years, when, in 1854, he removed to La- 
fayette, ind., and worked at his trade in that state 
for six months, and then he continued westward 
to Lawrence, Kan., where he engaged in contract- 
ing and building, taking contracts from the New 
England Aid Society. He also took up govern- 
ment land near Manhattan, Kan., with the inten- 
tion of engaging in agriculture, but in 1855 re- 
moved to Missouri, where he followed his trade 
until September, when he started for the Rocky 
mountains. Upon reaching Fort Laramie, Wyo., 
he engaged until 1859 in trading with the Crow 
and Sioux Indians, and also furnished supplies to 
emigrants. In the spring of 1858 he was sent to 
overtake Gen. Johnson's command, then pushing 
forward against the Mormons, and to supply the 
soldiers with rations. Mr. Gilbert found it inex- 
pedient to do this, and stopped at South pass, 
where he established a trading post and general 
store and for two years traded with the Snake In- 
dians. Their chief, Washakie, who was half Flat- 
head and half Snake, was a great friend of Mr. Gil- 
bert and gave him many tokens of his esteem. In 
1859 M'^- Gilbert sold his store and established 
a trading post at the foot of the Rocky ridge, in 
Wyoming, where he built the first wooden house 
erected there. He traded with the Indians on Wind 
river until the fall of i860, when he removed to 
Fort Bridger, and soon after established a store for 
Indian trade at Millersville. 

On November 20, i860, Mr. Gilbert was married 
at Millersville, Utah, to Miss Margaret McMinn, 
of Salt Lake City. She was born in Nova Scotia, 
whence she accompanied her parents to Utah. 
They were converts of the church of Latter Day 
Saints, but none of their children embraced the 
Mormon faith. After his marriage Mr. Bridger 
located on a ranch south of Fort Bridger, and 
soon after he completed a dwelling on the place. 
In the spring of 1862 there was an uprising of the 
Ute Indians, and, as they stole the horses and 
stock of the settlers and menaced their safety, Mr. 
Gilbert was compelled to abandon the ranch and 
return with his wife and their child to Fort 
Bridger. There he entered the employ of the gov- 
ernment, putting in a bridge at Ham's Fork, and 
later became associated with Judge Carter in a 
contract to furnish hay for the military posts, and 
to supply beef to the troops, and he was thus en- 
gaged until the spring of 1863. On August 12th 
he started for Virginia City, Mont., where he ar- 
rived on September i, 1863, and engaged in min- 



ing. Prior to leaving Utah he had supplied the 
notorious Alf. Slade with wagon, oxen, etc., to 
bring freight to Montana and he continued to be 
the friend of Slade until his criminality was discov- 
ered and he was hanged by the vigilance committee. 
Mr. Gilbert purchased two placer claims in Alder 
gulch, but these proved unprofitable, and he then 
erected the brewery at Virginia City, which is 
now the oldest in the state. He has kept the 
equipment of the plant up to the highest standard, 
has made improvements and additions as de- 
manded, and brews a superior product, which finds 
a ready local sale and also commands a large trade 
in the territory around Virginia City. He is one of 
the alert and progressive business men of Madison 
county and is highly esteemed. In politics Mr. 
Gilbert is an ardent Democrat, and he has served 
in positions of pubHc trust. In 1880 he was elected 
county treasurer and held that responsible office 
for eleven years. He was assessor of Madison 
county in 1871, mayor of Virginia City for two 
terms and an alderman for six terms. Fraternally 
he is identified with Virginia City Lodge No. i, 
A. F. & A. M., of which he is past master. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Gilbert fifteen children have been born. 
All are living in Madison county, seven being mar- 
ried and established in homes of their ov>'n. 

THOMAS GIBSON is well and favorably 
known throughout Gallatin county, where he 
owns a valuable ranch near Central Park. Mr. Gib- 
son brought to its management ability, energy and 
industry of a high order and in the successful pros- 
ecution of any of Montana's industries these are 
necessary concomitants, and their application has 
invariably brought prosperity. Thomas Gibson 
was born in Pulaski county, Ky., on May 4, 1858, 
one of a family of four sons and five daughters. 
His parents, Andrew and Polly (Zachary) Gibson, 
and the paternal grandfather, Thomas Gibson, 
were residents of Kentucky, and in that state An- 
drew Gibson was a hfelong farmer. Until 1881 
his son Thomas remained under the: paternal roof, 
attended the public schools and materially contrib- 
uted to the labors of the farm. In that year he 
came directly to Gallatin county, Mont., and en- 
gaged in farming, later specially giving attention 
to sheep raising, which he continued for six or 
eight years. 

During this time he purchased the Doc Cowan 
ranch and about i8go changed from sheep to cat- 

tle raising, giving particular attention to short- 
horns and wintering as high as 300 head. His 
landed property comprises. 720 acres, much of it 
thoroughly irrigated and capable of producing 
abundant crops. The breeding of horses has also 
been a favorite pursuit of Mr. Gibson. He is par- 
ticularly partial to speedy driving stock, and is 
rather averse to any one passing him on the road. 
Mr. Gibson on July 9, 1889, married with Miss Fan- 
nie Wright, of Kentucky, a daughter of Joseph 
Wright. The father passed away on February 4, 
1 90 1, and the mother resides in Gallatin county 
with her children. To Mr. and Mrs. Gibson five 
children have been born, Katie Glen, Francis, 
Madge, Joseph and Mary Helen. The family of 
Mr. Gibson are comfortably housed in a fine resi- 
dence that is surrounded by substantial outbuildings 
of the better class and everything indicates pros- 
perity. Cowan creek, which traverses the farm, 
is the fountainhead for its admirable system of 

BENJ. F. GIBSON.— A native of Somerset, 
Pulaski county, Ky.. and born on December 
24, 1848, the son of Andrew and Polly (Zachary) 
Gibson, also natives of Kentucky and descendants 
of old Virginia families, having by inheritance and 
training the distinguishing characteristics of the 
chivalry of both the old commonwealths, Benja- 
min Franklin Gibson, of Central Park, Gallatin 
county, is a valuable addition to the population of 
his adopted state. His father was a prominent 
farmer and financier of Kentucky, where he re- 
mained until his death, in 1887. He was then and 
had been for a number of years president of the 
Somerset National Bank. He was also an exten- 
sive landholder of influence and had a high stand- 
ing in the community. Of his nine children Ben- 
jamin was the fifth. His early days were passed 
at the Kentucky home, working on the farm and 
attending school. 

In 1872 when he was twenty-three years old, 
B. F. Gibson yielded to a long-continued yearning 
for something different in life from what he had 
experienced, and traveled by rail to Corinne. Utah, 
thence by private conveyance to the Gallatin val- 
ley, Mont., where he worked at freighting for 
three or four }-ears, then invested in cattle and soon 
took up a homestead, where he now resides, later 
adding to his estate by purchasing railroad lands 
until he now has over 1,400 acres, of which all that 



is necessary is under irrigation. He has improved 
the place with a good residence, surrounded by 
beautiful shade trees and shrubbery, supplemented 
by a plentiful equipment of substantial and taste- 
fully arranged outbuildings. Here he lives the in- 
dependent life of a gentleman farmer, raising 
abundant crops of alfalfa and other grasses, and 
enough of the cereals to supply his own needs and 
a considerable quantity for an always ready mar- 
ket, giving special attention, however, to raising 
well-bred cattle and horses, shorthorns being his 
preference in cattle, of which he often has from 
500 to 700 head. In 1877 his brother Samuel 
joined him in the business, and they have since been 
associated in it as partners. Mr. Gibson married 
on December 12, 1893, Miss Kate Wright, a native 
of Kentucky. They have two daughters, Efifie and 
Adele, who add to the sunshine and charm of their 
happy home, wherein is graciously dispensed a 
genial hospitality. 

HON. PRESTON H. LESLIE, the last terri- 
torial governor of Alontana and ex-governor 
of Kentucky, is a highly respected resident of 
Helena. He was born in Wayne (now Clinton) 
county. Ky.. on March 2, 1819. His father 
Vachel H. Leslie, a native of Kentucky, was born 
in 1792, and married Sally Hopkins, of the same 
state, who was born in 1796. Her father was Den- 
nis Hopkins, born and reared in Georgia, but later 
a resident of Kentucky. To Gov. Leslie's par- 
ents were born ten children, all of whom attained 
maturity. The Scotch and Welch ancestors of this 
family were for many years residents of the south, 
and in the struggle for American independence 
patriotically served in the ranks of the "Old Con- 
tinentals, in ragged regimentals," as sung by the 
late Guy H. McMaster. They at first settled in 
North Carolina and Georgia, and later became pio- 
neers of Kentucky. The early education of Pres- 
ton H. Leslie was obtained in Kentucky under the 
old field school system. Later he had the advan- 
tages of attendance at an academy in Adair county, 
and began the study of law in 1838 under Gen. Rice 
Maxey, an attorney of note, a general of militia 
and the father of Hon. S. B. Maxey, of Texas. 
In 1840 Judge Leslie removed to Monroe county, 
as on October 10, 1840, he had been admitted to the 
bar at Albany, Clinton county, and there began 
legal practice. Meeting with satisfactory clientage 

he remained there until 1859. Later he resided in 
Glasgow, Barren county, until February 6, 1887, 
when he came to Montana. 

Gov. Leslie was an old-line Whig until 1854. 
He then joined the Democratic party, and has ever 
since been unwavering in his fidelity to the princi- 
ples of that political party. In 1842 he was elected 
county attorney of Monroe county, Ky., and he 
served as such until he was elected to represent the 
county in the legislature in 1844. In 1850 he was 
again elected to the same position, and in 1852 he 
was chosen to the state senate, to which dignified 
body he was again elected in 1867, and during this 
second term he served as president of the senate. 
And now and here occurred a singular thing. That 
year there were vacancies in both the offices of the 
governor and lieutenant-governor, and by virtue of 
Judge Leslie holding the office of president of the 
senate he became governor of the state, and his 
inauguration occurred on February 13, 1871. Hav- 
ing served in this high office with rare statesman- 
ship he was elected governor by the people, receiv- 
ing a majority of over 39,000, a most gratifying 
compliment to his ability, integrity and popularity. 
On September 5, 1871, he was again inaugurated, 
and he served four years longer, exemplifying the 
same qualities of head and heart that had so won 
the hearts of the people. Official duties over. 
Gov. Leslie returned to his law practice in Glas- 
gow. After ten years of quiet professional life, 
in July, 1881, he was appointed by the gov- 
ernor to fill a vacancy in the office of circuit jttdge, 
and in September, 1881, he was elected by the peo- 
ple to succeed himself in this office also. In Sep- 
tember, 1886, Judge Leslie was appointed governor 
of the territory of Montana by President Cleve- 
land, and on February 8, 1887, he took the oath of 
office, and served with great acceptability until 
April 13, 1889. On March i, 1894, Gov. Les- 
lie was appointed United States district attorne> 
for Montana, and held that office until March i. 
1898. Gov. Leslie has been for sixty-four years a 
member of the Baptist church, having joined Au- 
gust 2, 1838. He has frequently represented its 
local branches in state and national meetings, and 
has often been called to serve as chairman of their 
deliberative bodies. He is recognized as a man of 
great executive ability, profound legal attainments 
and as a sagacious and wise man of affairs, and he 
is universally beloved for his many tender traits 
of lovable Christian character. 

On November 11, 1841, Gov. Leslie was mar- 

Hon. P. H. Leslie 



ried to Miss Louisa Black, a native of Monroe 
county, Ky., who died on August 19, 1858. Of 
their seven children three are now living: Judge 
J. B. Leslie, of Great Falls ; Mrs. Sarah E. Winn, 
of Santiago, Cal., and Mrs. C. T. Cheek. One 
child of this marriage. Dr. Joseph H. Leslie, died 
on December 13, 1900, from exposure in the great 
Galveston flood. On November 17, 1859, Gov. 
Leslie married Mrs. Mary Kuykendall, a native 
of Boone county, Mo., who died on September 3, 
1900. They had three children: Mrs. Isabelle 
Shobe, of Helena ; Dr. R. M. Leslie, of Livingston, 
and Miss Emily T., who died on December 14, 

"\I"ARREN C. GILLETTE.— Ere 1902 becomes 
VV a link in the chain of the past, four decades 
will have passed since Mr. Gillette came to Mon- 
tana. He has been not an unimportant factor in 
the development of the localities in which. he has 
resided, and is one of the worthy pioneers of the 
state, recognized as a prosperous stockgrower on 
Dearborn river in the vicinity of Craig. The men- 
tal, moral, social and material advancement of the 
state has ever received his support, and he has 
served in positions of trust and responsibdity. Mr. 
Gillette was born in Orleans, Ontario county, N. 
Y., on March 10, 1832. His original American an- 
cestors were French Huguenots, who located in 
Connecticut. There was born in 1802 Orimel Gil- 
lette, father of our Montana pioneer, and his 
father, Caleb Gillette, was Hkewise a native of 
Connecticut. In early manhood Orimel Gillette 
removed to New York, where he married Miss 
Julia E. Ferris, born in that state. They settled 
in Oneida county, where the father for many years 
practiced medicine, living to the age of four score 
years, his wife passing away at the age of sixty. 
Of their two sons and three daughters, Warren C. 
was the eldest, and is the only survivor. He has 
never married, nor did his sister, Eliza P., who was 
his housekeeper and devoted companion until her 
death in 1897. 

Warren Caleb Gillette, after attending the pub- 
lic schools, pursued his studies in Oberlin College, 
Ohio, leaving that institution in 1850 and staying 
for a time in Columbus, after which he re- 
turned to New York and was a clerk in Oneida 
county until 1855, when he removed to Chicago 
and entered the employ of E. R. Kellogg & Co., 

wholesale hatters and furriers, continuing with this 
firm until 1859, when he engaged in the same line 
of business as a retailer at Galena, III, conducting 
the enterprise two years. In the summer of 1861 
Mr. Gillette once more returned east and was en- 
gaged in the manufacture of furs in New York 
city until the spring of 1862, when the discovery of 
gold in Montana led him hither. His intention 
was to make Salmon river his destination, and 
at St. Louis he embarked on the steamer "Shreve- 
port" and came up the Missouri, disembarking 
between the mouth of the Milk river and old Fort 
Union, as low water prevented further progress by 
boat. After remaining in camp about a week the 
party started overland to Fort Benton. Two days 
later they met a large band of Assinniboine and 
Crow Indians, and the younger ones were inclined 
to stop the party's journey up the river, while some 
of the older chiefs were in favor of the emigrants 
doing as they pleased. The Indians concluded to 
hold a council and determine the course to be pur- 
sued, which was held that night, but the emigrants 
had decided to return to their camp on Milk river, 
and in the morning turned their teams in that di- 
rection, whereupon the Indians informed them that 
they must go up the river, as the council had de- 
cided that they could do so, and they insisted that 
the white men ought not now turn back. So go- 
ing toward Fort Benton they arrived there in 
September, but soon went on to the old town of 
Montana City on Little Prickly Pear creek, where 
they went into camp, which they called Camp In- 
decision, because they here learned of the discov- 
ery of gold at Bannack, and waited here until they 
could send a delegation and learn the true state 
of affairs at Bannack and its attractions as a place 
of settlement. They, however, remained here until 
their belated supplies came to Fort Benton and 
they then transported them with mule and ox teams 
to Deer Lodge, once known as LaBarge City. 
Here M. Gillette pui chased a cabin of C. A. Broad- 
water, intending to occupy it as a store, but as 
Bannack was far more prosperous he proceeded 
to Bannack, where he arrived in December, 1862. 
He brought his stock of goods, an assortment of 
miners' supplies, from Fort Benton to Bannack 
in three trips, bringing the goods in on pack horses. 
On one of these trips the Indians stole all of his 
horses while he was encamped on Sun river 
not far from the site of Great Falls. He re- 
covered nearly one-half of the animals, and ob- 
tained enough more from the American Fur Co. 


to enable him to continue his trip to Bannack. A 
year later he transferred his stock to Alder gulch, 
where gold was discovered in 1863, and was in gen- 
eral trade in Virginia City until 1865, being associ- 
ated with James King. 

Upon the discovery of gold in Last Chance gulch 
they brought their stock to Helena, following the 
rush of miners thither. Here King & Gillette were 
ill the freighting and mercantile business from 1865 
until 1869, and were in partnership in mining oper- 
ations until 1877. These earher trips were at- 
tended with great danger from both Indians and 
road agents and Mr. Gillette had plenty of ex- 
citing experiences and narrow escapes. He was 
one of the early promoters of placer mining at 
Diamond City, and a service of great public bene- 
fit was rendered by King & Gillette in their her- 
culean task of opening the toll road of ten miles 
down Little Prickly Pear canyon. The toll road 
saved the travelers on the road between Helena 
and Fort Benton from crossing Medicine Rock and 
Lyon mountains, as it went down the canyon on 
the present route of the Montana Central Rail- 
road. This important work was of inestimable 
value to the miners and other settlers. The avail- 
able equipment for the construction of this road 
consisted of two plows, for which they paid $175 
each, and picks and shovels. The road was com- 
pleted in 1866 at a cost of $40,000 and this 
amount was obtained from tolls within two years. 
Later the travel declined, but the road was kept up 
until the expiration of the charter, in 1875. King 
& Gillette were among the largest operators in 
Confederate gulch, where they employed a large 
number of men in the construction of a bedrock 
flume, clearing up $10,000 in one season, but it 
eventually caused them a loss of $60,000. They 
closed their operations in 1877, and Mr. Gillette 
engaged in sheep raising, in which he has 
been engaged for nearly a quarter of a century, 
having now I2;000 acres of ranch land and raising 
sheep on a very extensive scale, his flock number- 
ing from 16,000 to 20,000 nead on the average. He 
gives preference to Merino sheep as best adapted 
to this climate. He has a fine ranch residence near 
Craig with modern improvements and facilities, 
and since the death of his sister he divides his time 
between this residence and Helena. The business 
is now conducted by the W. C. Gillette Co., Mr. 
Gillette having disposed of an interest in it and 
organized this company. Mr. Gillette is a stanch 
Republican, and he has taken a proper interest in 

the public affairs of both territory and state. He 
was twice elected to the lower house of the terri- 
torial legislature, and was a member of the coun- 
cil, or higher deliberate body, for one term, and 
also a member of the convention which framed the 
present constitution of the state. In public office 
he gave evidence of wise discrimination and mature 
judgment, and his influence in the councils of his 
party has been ever helpful. Mr. Gillette gains 
and retains friends and his unassuming but suc- 
cessful career in ^Montana has honored the state. 

ELVIN J. GLASS, section director United 
States weather bureau, at Helena, Mont., 
was born at Corvallis, Ore., November i, 1858, the 
son of James R. and Jemima R. (Ritchie) Glass. 
The father, a native of Illinois, and a blacksmith, 
went to Oregon in 1852. His wife joined him there 
a year later with her family, crossing the plains 
with wagons. Her ancestors were active patriots 
of the Revolution. The paternal emigrant ances- 
tor of Mr. Glass was his grandfather, John Glass, 
a native of the north of Ireland, and a graduate 
of Oxford University, England, and in America ne 
filled a professor's chair. 

Elvin J. Glass was partially educated in the public 
schools of Corvallis, Ore. This education was sup- 
plemented by a course at the agricultural college at 
Corvallis, from which in 1878 he was graduated 
with the degree of B. S. For three years he then 
engaged in teaching, and on January 22, 1882, he 
entered the Signal Corps, U. S. A. The weather 
bureau was then under the supervision of the war 
department, and he held the rank of sergeant. 
Subsequently the bureau was transferred to the 
department of agriculture. From his first con- 
nection with it Mr. Glass has been with the weather 
bureau without an interruption. For six months 
he was stationed at Fort Meyer, Va., then the 
school of instruction for the signal corps. He was 
then sent to Cincinnati for a year, thence to Un- 
compahgre, Colo., where he had charge of the tele- 
graph lines operated by the government. He was 
then detailed to Fort Totten, N. D., where he had 
supervision over the military telegraph line and 
the weather bureau for four years and six months. 
From there he was dispatched to Portland, Ore., 
and was in charge of that important station for 
three years. He next went to southern Oregon, 
was in charge of an office and station, and upon 


1 79 

its abandonment came east to Moorhead, Minn. 
Six months later he was promoted and detailed to 
Cairo, 111. 

In October, 1S91, he came to Helena, Mont., 
where he was placed in full charge of the weather 
bureau station ; organized the Montana section of 
the weather bureau and was appointed its section 
director. Since that time he has remained in Hel- 
ena, and under his supervision the station has de- 
veloped into one of the first class. Mr. Glass is 
a young man of marked ability and of broad, pro- 
gressive views. In Helena he has won the esteem 
of a large circle of acquaintances, and is universally 
popular. While in Portland, Ore., Mr. Glass was 
united in marriage to Miss Emma McDermott. 
She was born on a ship on the Mediterranean sea. 
Her father was buyer for a large mercantile house 
in London. Her family came to the United States 
when she was quite young; she was educated in 
Michigan, going to Oregon in 1885. They have no 

TOEL GLEASON.— The life of Mr. Gleason, of 
J Glendive, Dawson county, has been one of sturdy 
industry and application, and his sterling integrity 
and honor have gained for him the confidence and 
esteem of the public, while a signal token of this 
comes from a distinguished source, as incidental 
to his long identification with the great railroad in- 
dustry of the country, as will be duly noted. He 
was born in Erie county, N. Y., on the 6th of 
November, 1844. His father, Childs Gleason, was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1804, and his death oc- 
curred in St. Joseph county, Mich., in 1850, his 
life having been largely devoted to agriculture. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Emeline Leon- 
ard, was born in Massachusetts in 1820 and reared 
and educated in that state. When she was eighteen 
years of age the family removed to Michigan and 
later to Ohio, and she passed the closing years of 
her life in Montana, dying at Glendive, in 1893, at 
the venerable age of seventy-three. 

Joel Gleason is essentially a self-made man, his 
school education occupying only about one month's 
attendance at a public school when he was a 
child. A strong individuality, however, will make 
good the handicap of circumstances, and in connec- 
tion with the practical affairs of life, and through 
determined individual application, Mr. Gleason has 
gained a broad and exact fund of knowledge, and 
is today a man of intellectual strength and marked 

mental acumen. He came into mannood under the 
invigorating discipHne of the homestead farm in 
Michigan. In 1862 he commenced his long and 
notable career of railroading by securing a position 
as brakeman on the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railroad. One year later he became fire- 
man on the Michigan Central Railroad, in which 
capacity he remained four years, losing but eleven 
days time during that entire period, and that 
through accident. In 1867 he took charge of an 
engine, and thereafter for twenty-seven years he 
held the reins over the iron horse, always enjoying 
the confidence of the public and his employers. 
He was connected with the great system of the 
Michigan Central until 1878, when he was employ- 
ed by the Northern Pacific, and for ten years of 
activit), until 1888, he was in the advance work of 
construction, laying track westward from Mandan, 
N. D. Upon the completion of the Yellowstone 
division, Mr. Gleason was given the run from Glen- 
dive to Billings, "pulling" passenger engines Nos. 
I and 2. We must here make special mention of 
his courage and presence of mind under circum- 
stances that would have tried the mettle and nerve 
of the strongest man. On the 7th of September, 
1882, he prevented a terrible accident on his run 
with a special train containing a number of distin- 
guished passengers on their way to Yellowstone 
Park. At ten o'clock at night, while going at a 
high rate of speed, he discerned, only a few 
rods in front of his engine, an open swith lead- 
ing to the banks of the Big Horn river. Real- 
izing the immediate danger he quickly reversed 
the engine and managed to stop the train with 
all wheels on the track, when a few more seconds 
would have launched the engine, train and pas- 
sengers into the river below. As a token of the 
appreciation of his presence of mind, cool nerve 
and rapid action by the passengers Mr. Glea- 
son carries a beautiful watch. On its back is en- 
graved the names of the donors, who were John 
Pender,a member of the British parliament; Thomas 
F. Bayard, United States senator of Delaware; 
Abram S. Hewitt, a member of congress and ex- 
mayor of New York city: Henry H. Gorringe, a 
lieutenant in the United States navy; Melville E. 
Fuller, chief justice of the supreme court of the 
United States; E. R. Hughett and C. H. Patton. 
The watch was accompanied by a testimonial let- 
ter which is a free pass for Mr. Gleason to travel 
on any railroad in any part of the civilized world. 
These valuable gifts were presented through 



Henry Villard, the well-known railroad magnate^ 
and from him through Supt. Ainsley, to Mr. Glea- 
son at Glendive. 

Mr. Gleason has ever given a stanch allegiance to 
the Republican party, and in December, 1888, he 
left the employ of the Northern Pacific to enter 
upon the duties of the office of sheriff of Dawson 
county, having been elected to this position the pre- 
ceding month. He served one year when Montana 
was a territory and one year after it became a state. 
His administration gave such satisfaction that he 
was re-elected in 1890 and again in 1892, the entire 
term of his service occupying six years. For the 
past twenty years Mr. Gleason has been a regular 
delegate to the state Republican conventions in 
Montana, and he is a leader of the party in Daw- 
son county. Fraternally he is identified in Free- 
masonry with lodge, chapter and commandery, 
and has represented his lodge in all assemblies 
of the grand lodge for a number of years. At 
Three Rivers, Mich., on the 20th of September, 1873, 
Mr. Gleason was united in marriage with Miss 
Cora Millard, a native of that city and the daugh- 
ter of Elisha Millard, a pioneer and prominent citi- 
zen of that place, where he now resides, enjoying 
vigorous health, at the venerable age of eighty- 
eight years. Mr. and Mrs. Gleason have three 
children, Guy, Howard and Claire. 

Mr. Gleason has been largely engaged in the 
sheep and cattle business in Dawson county since 
1886, and he has charge of the stock yards at 
Glendive. In February, 1897, in company with 
Joseph Ray, Jr., Mr. Gleason opened a grocery 
store in Glendive. In June, 1899, the business was 
reorganized as the Glendive Commercial Company, 
a general merchandize business, in which Mr. Glea- 
son is the largest stockholder. 

I OHN S. CLICK, M. D.— In a work of this na- 
J ture it is an essential of consistency that a 
memoir be entered concerning one of the 
pioneer physicians and sterling citizens of Mon- 
tana, who here followed the work of his noble pro- 
fession until the close of his long and useful life, 
honored by all who knew him. Dr. Click was a 
native of the old Buckeye state, having been born 
at Somerset, Perry county, Ohio, on July 23, 1833, 
the son of Isaac and Mary (Sanders) Click. When 
he was two years of age his parents removed to 
and settled permanently on a farm at Lower San- 

dusky, now Fremont, Ohio, and grew up under the 
invigorating discipline of the farm, receiving ni 
his youth such educational advantages as were 
afforded in the public schools of that locality. He 
early showed a distinct predilection for the medical 
profession, and at the age of nineteen he left the 
homestead farm and took position in a dental 
office, soon becoming an expert in that profession. 
This, however, did not satisfy his ambition, and 
while at work as a dentist he devoted all of his 
leisure time to the reading of medical books and 
works on surgery under the direction of a local 
physician. In 1858 he removed to Kansas, where 
he continued his technical study, but later went 
to St. Louis, Mo., entering Dr. McDowell's medi- 
cal college, at that time one of the most celebrated 
in the west and maintaining a high standard. 
Dr. Click there thoroughly prepared himself for 
the work of his chosen profession and had estab- 
lished a high reputation as a physician and surgeon 
prior to 1862 when he removed to Denver, Colo. 
Dr. McDowell often called upon him to assist in 
delicate surgical operations, and often stated that 
he was one of the most accomplished and expert 
young surgeons he had ever known. In Colorado 
Dr. GHck was engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession, both in a private way and in connection 
with various military posts. In 1863 Dr. Click 
came to Montana, locating in Bannack, where he 
was engaged in practice about one year, and then 
removed to Virginia City, where he was associated 
with Dr. Benjamin Brooke for a short time. In 
the winter of 1864 he removed to Blackfoot City, 
in Ophir gulch. Deer Lodge county, where he re- 
mained until the fall of the following year, when 
he established himself at Helena, which continued 
to be his home until his death. He was ever a 
thorough student, and his professional conferes 
united in giving him honor as a particularly fine 
surgeon and a physician of ability, while he never 
lapsed in his observance of the true ethics of his 
profession. He secured a large and representa- 
tive practice, and his kindly and sympathetic na- 
ture endeared him to all who knew him, while his 
professional services were accorded as freely to 
those in poverty and distress as to those able to 
render him a large fee. He never refused his min- 
istrations to the poor and needy, and his noble 
heart ana unbounded charity gained him the affec- 
tion of the community in which he lived and la- 
bored for so many years. 

In politics he was a stalwart supporter of the 



Democratic party, but invariably refused to permit 
his name to be considered in connection with pub- 
lic office. He married a daughter of Judge Stew- 
art, andhis widow and three sons survive him, 
maintaining their home in Los Angeles, Cal. The 
Doctor had three brothers and one sister, of whom 
the only survivor is ex-Gov. G. W. Click, proprie- 
tor of the Shannon Hill Stock Farm, at Atchinson, 
Kan., to whom we are indebted for much of the 
data concerning the life of the Doctor. He was a 
great traveler and close observer, and a gentle- 
man of high intellectual attainments, and well 
merits high place on the roll of Montana's honored 
])ioneers and progressive men. 

HON. O. F. GODDARD.— A scion of an old 
Virginia family whose name was long promi- 
nent in both the civil and military annals of the Old 
Dominion, and whose progenitors were among 
the early emigrants from England, Hon. O. F. 
Goddard, one of the leading lawyers of Montana, 
resident at Billings, has demonstrated in his career 
of legal and public eminence the advantages of 
heredity coupled with native force, close and intel- 
ligent application. 

He was born in Davis county, Iowa, in 1853, 
the son of Richard T. and Elizabeth (Tannehill) 
Goddard, who were natives of Ohio, but removed 
to Iowa in 1842, where the father was a successful 
farmer, and where he died in 1892. Two branches 
of the Goddard family came to America in early 
days, one settling in New York and the other in 
Virginia. It is from the southern branch that Mr. 
Goddard is descended. He has three brothers and 
three sisters living. 

Mr. Goddard was educated in the public schools 
and Troy Academy in his native state, and at an 
early age began to teach school. While engaged 
in this occupation he began the study of law at 
Centreville, Iowa, under direction of his uncle, 
Judge Tannehill. He was admited to the bar in 
1880, and began the practice of his profession at 
Corydon, Iowa, remaining there three years. In 
March, 1883, he came to Montana, located at Bil- 
lings, and at once entered upon the vigorous pro- 
fessional career which has distinguished him since 
his advent into the state. In addition to his gen- 
eral practice, which is extensive and of high char- 
acter in its clientage, he is counsel for the Northern 
Pactific and the Burlington railroads. 

Politically Mr. Goddard has been a life long Re- 
publican, and a powerful aid in the campaigns of 
his party in Montana. He served as prosecuting 
attorney of Yellowstone county and assistant dis- 
trict attorney under Judge Blake during territorial 
days. In 1889 he was a member of the constitu- 
tional convention which gave the state her pres- 
ent constitution, and in that body displayed great 
legal and parliamentary ability. The next year he 
was elected to the state senate, where his already 
demonstrated statesmanship caused him to be made 
chairman of several important committees, one of 
which was the judiciary committee, upon which he 
served during both sessions of his term. In the 
session of 1893, by his ability as a parliamenta- 
rian he prevented the election of a Democratic 
United States senator on the last day of the ses- 
sion, and thus earned the applause of his party in 
all sections of the state. He was also chairman of 
the joint caucus of his party, and as such rendered 
it important service in both houses of the legis- 
lature. In fraternal circles Mr. Goddard is also 
prominent, being a valued member of all branches 
of the Masonic order from the blue lodge to and 
including the Shrine. 

He was married January 20, 1881. to Miss 
Alwilda Stephenson, a native of Ohio, but at the 
time of the marriage was living at Centreville, Iowa, 
where the marriage was consummated. She is the 
daughter of Dr. Stephenson, of that city. They have 
three children : Lora, Helen and Wilbur F. Mr. 
Goddard is still on the sunny side of life's divide; 
with all his faculties in full vigor, his laudable am- 
bition still unclouded, the esteem and confidence of 
his fellow men given him in full and unstinted 
measure, and his knowledge of law and of affairs, 
broad, ripe and readily available, there is promise of 
many years of great usefulness and honor before 

GEORGE COHN.— One of the sturdy pioneers 
of Montana, one who has witnessed the de- 
velopment of the frontier territory into a great and 
prosperous commonwealth, who is now one of the 
oldest citizens and business men of Virginia City, 
George Gohn deserves especial mention. He was 
born on March 28, 1834, in York county. Pa., the 
son of George Gohn, who was a teacher in his 
earlier years, and who later was a blacksmith, and 
who died on April 12, 1835. The paternal grand- 
father of our subject was a native of Virginia and 



a blacksmith. He married a IVIiss Deitz, wlio was 
born in Penns\lvania. The maiden name of Mr. 
Gohn's mother was Margaret Ruby, who was 
born in Pennsylvania, whither her father removed 
from Virginia, where the family was resident in the 
colonial epoch, representatives of it being partici- 
pators in the Revolution. 

George Gohn, the Montana pioneer, at the age 
of sixteen years devoted three years to learning the 
butcher's trade. In the employ of his uncle he ran 
market carts from Baltimore to western Pennsyl- 
vania, along the old Portage road, which had then 
become a portion of the Pennsylvania railroad 
system, the original portage road being a cog- 
road over the mountains. In 1856 Mr. Gohn came 
to Kansas by railroad as far as Cincinnati, and 
thence by steamer to St. Louis. On the site of 
Kansas City, Kans., he was located until April, 1859, 
when in company with three others he started with 
four yoke of oxen across the plains to Colorado 
by way of the old Sante Fe route, and arrived 
where Denver is now located on the 3rd of June. 
From Denver Mr. Gohn went to Golden City, and 
while in camp at Clear Creek saw Horace Greeley 
cross the river on the back of a mule. This was the 
first western trip of that distinguished statesman 
and journalist. George Gohn devoted a summer 
to mining and prospecting and in the fall of 1859 
returned to Denver and opened a meat market. 
The next summer he again prospected for gold, 
and in the fall opened a wholesale meat market at 
Central City for other parties, receiving seventy 
dollars a month and expenses for his services. 
He remained there until 1861, when he located at 
Nevada, Colo., and there opened a meat market 
for himself as this was a prosperous mining 
camp where large fortunes were made. In March, 
1863, Mr. Gohn, with five others, started for Mon- 
tana, the party chartering a coach, which conveyed 
them to Salt Lake City, where they outfitted for 
Montana, and came through with four yoke of oxen 
and a stock of provisions. One of the party was 
the notorious Charles Forbes, so well known as a 
desperate road agent. Mr. Gohn arrived in Ban- 
nack City on the nth of May, and there remained 
until June, when he came to Virginia City, arriv- 
ing on the 6th of that month. This was the year 
of the discovery of gold in Alder gulch, of which 
Virginia City was the leading camp. The first man 
Mr. Gohn met in Bannack was the Hon. Conrad 
Kohrs, whom he assisted to engage in butchering 
in Virginia City. In the winter of 1863 Mr. Gohn 

returned to Colorado for his wife, who returned 
with him to Montana the next spring. He then 
opened the butcher shop, which he still conducts. 
This is one of the pioneer business houses of the 
state and one of the very few consecutively con- 
ducted from the early days. His shop was known 
for years as the Bull's Head market, but is now 
called the Metropolitan. Mr. Gohn was a member 
of the historic vigilance committee and was ac- 
quainted with many of the road agents who were 
executed for their evil deeds. Among them 
was the notorious Jack Gallagher, whom Mr. 
Gohn met in Colorado. He once encountered 
Gallagher on the Beaverhead river while on the 
way to Bannack with $2,600 in gold dust. Gal- 
lagher asked where he was going. Mr. Gohn re- 
plied that he was going to Bannack in search of 
work. This answer led Gallagher to think that 
Mr. Gohn was in hard luck and had no money, 
and they camped peaceably together for the night. 
Mr. Gohn has always belonged to the Republi- 
can party, and has been called to fill offices of 
public trust and responsibility. He was assessor 
oi Madison county in 1871-2, was a county com- 
missioner from 1876 to 1880, served two terms as 
county treasurer, was a valued member of the city 
council and a school trustee for thirteen years, 
and was one of the board of trustees when the 
tine new school building was built. Fraternally 
Mr. Gohn is prommently identified with the Ma- 
sonic order, affiliating with Montana Lodge No. 
2, A. F. & A. M., the second organized in the ter- 
ritory, and with Mrginia City Chapter No. i, R. 
A. M., and with Virginia City Commandery No. 
I, of which he has served as eminent commander. He 
was master of his lodge two years, and he is also 
a member and was one of the organizers of the 
Order of the Eastern Star. Mr. Gohn is a man of 
marked business ability and is today one of the 
most honored citizens of Madison county. On 
November 19, 1861, Mr. Gohn was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Anna Zweifel, a native of Switzer- 
land, and who accompanied her parents to 
America when she was eleven years old. The fam- 
ily first located at Taunton, Mass., later removing 
to Kansas and to Colorado, where Mr. Gohn met 
and married his wife. Mr. and Mrs. Gohn have four 
children : Mary Frances, who makes her home with 
her parents, is the widow of G. H. Rew, and has 
three daughters ; George Edward married Mary 
Frances Vickers and has two children, resides 
in Virginia City, where he is in business with his 



father: I'hilip Henry, assistant cashier of the Elling 
State Bank, in \"irginia City, married Miss Hen- 
rietta M. Elling, daughter of Henry Elling, foun- 
der of the Elling Bank, and they have one 
daughter; Anna May, the younger daughter of 
Mr. Gohn, is the wife of Ira H. French, of \irginia 
City, and they have two sons. The family are 
prominent and popular in Virginia City. 

p H. GOODRICH.— The progressive men of 
vJ Montana who have taken hold of the com- 
mercial industries of the new commonwealth with 
strong and sinewy hands and compelled them to 
yield their due tribute to the comfort and happi- 
ness of man and the development of the com- 
munity, are entitled to great credit for their work, 
and cannot l^e too highly praised for the energy, 
endurance and breadth of view they have exhib- 
ited. In this number G. H. Goodrich is worthy of 
a high rank. His work in the commercial life of the 
state was vigorous, forceful and fruitful, and his 
social qualities endeared him to a large circle of 
admiring friends and acquaintances. He was born 
at Niagara Falls, N. Y., on November 29, 1858, 
the son of Gustavus E. and Maria C. (Hood) Good- 
rich, both natives of New York. The father was 
one of the builders of the Great Western Railway 
of Canada, now a part of the Grand Trunk. At 
a later day he had a responsible position with the 
Michigan Central Railroad. He was also, at one 
time, in the employ of the Illinois Central Railway. 
He is now living a retired life at Seattle, Wash. 

G. H. Goodrich was reared and educated in Chi- 
cago. After leaving school he was employed for 
five years as inspector for a large wholesale hard- 
ware company. In 1882 he came to Montana, lo- 
cating temporarily at Wolfe Point, where he was 
employed by T. C. Power & Bro. Later he was in 
charge of an outfit of this firm at old Fort Peck for 
nearly two years. Subsequently he passed several 
months in the Coeur d' Alene country, Idaho, en- 
gaged in mining. Removing to Fort Benton in 
1884 he had charge of a stage line for Power 
Brothers and also controlled their freight business 
and steamers on the Missouri river. In 1887 he 
made his home at Great Falls and opened a small 
lumber yard on the South Side. This was the 
nucleus of the great Goodrich Lumber Company 
which was organized in 1890 by G. H. Goodrich, E. 
G. Hanson, C. M. Shaw, Jane Byrne and R. E. 

Stone with a capital stock of $50,000. The first 
officers were G. H. Goodrich, president ; E. G. 
Hanson, secretary and treasurer, and C. M. Shaw, 

Their first office was on the South Side near the 
freight depot and Broadwater bay and in addition 
to their plant at Great Falls the company has oper- 
ated yards at Havre, Barker, Fort Benton, Sand 
Coulee, Chinook Belt and Collins. These were 
conducted for a number of years and proved prof- 
itable enterprises. The company handles annually 
from eight to ten million feet of lumber, doing a 
rushing business in every department of their line 
and conducting it all on an elevated scale of prob- 
ity, up-to-date methods and fair dealing. Recently 
Mr. Goodrich sold this business to the Great Falls 
Lumber Company, and removed to South Nor- 
walk. Conn., where he is engaged in business enter- 
prises conducted on the same lofty scale. He is 
still interested in real estate in various parts of 
Montana and in mines in the vicinity of Neihart. 
He is a Republican in politics, but takes no active 
part in party matters. Fraternally he is identified 
with the Order of Elks. He was married in 1893 
to Miss Minnie Rowan, of South Norwalk, Conn. 

AUSTIN C. GORMLEY is the present county 
attorney of Cascade county. Aside from this 
he enjoys at present the unique distinction of having 
been born in Montana. In the thirty-three years 
of his life he has seen his native state grow from a 
comparatively unexplored territory to a common- 
wealth of magnificent and increasing proportions. 
Although not yet arrived at the meridian of life 
Mr. Gormley can retrospectively glance back over 
the history of Montana and truthfully say, "All of 
which I saw and a part of which 1 was." He was 
born at Helena, on April 23, 1867. His parents 
were James and Julia (Cook) Gormley, natives re- 
spectively of New Jersey and Illinois, who came 
to Montana in 1864. James Gormley was a 
merchant at Alder gulch in 1864 and 1865 and 
removed to Helena in 1866, where he continued in 
trade for three years and removed to Virginia City, 
where his death occurred in 188 1. A few years 
before this he had sold his stock and had engaged 
in mining to a considerable extent. Previous to this 
period James and Julia Gormley had crossed the 
plains from Colorado with ox trains. There were 
born to them two sons and three daughters. The 



mother, Austin C. Gormley and two sisters are still 

Austin C. Gormley was reared in Virginia City, 
where he learned the printer's trade, and for some 
time worked at the case on the Madisonian. In 
1886 he went east and entered the high school at 
Ann Arbor, Mich., and also passed one year in the 
University of Michigan. He then joined the law 
class of the same eminent educational institution 
and was graduated therefrom with high honors in 
1891. He was admitted to the practice of law the 
same year, and afterwards passed another year at 
the university as quiz-master. He also represented 
the University of Michigan in the contests of the 
Northern Oratorical League, in which he was 
awarded first place. In 1892 Mr. Gormley returned 
to Montana, locating at White Sulphur Springs. 
Here he entered into a law partnership with N. B. 
Smith and the firm continued until June, 1897. 
From 1894 till 1897 he had served as county attorney 
at White Sulphur Springs. While serving as county 
attorney at White Sulphur Springs Mr. Gormley 
prosecuted the famous "Bill Gay," the case at- 
tracting as much attention as any other that has 
ever been tried in the state. This position he re- 
signed, removed to Great Falls in June, 1897, and 
associated himself in the practice of law with M. M. 
Lyter. The firm was continued until November, 
1898, when Mr. Gormley was elected county at- 
torney of Cascade county. He was re-elected in 
1900 and is now serving his second term. Mr. 
Gormley was married in 1898 to Miss Irene 
Spencer, a native of Helena and a daughter of 
Almon Spencer, who first came to Montana in 1865, 
and is now engaged in general merchandising at 
White Sulphur Springs. Mr. and Mrs. Gormley 
have one child, Margaret. Since arriving at his 
majority Mr. Gormley has affiliated with the 
Democratic party. In behalf of these principles 
he has energetically stumped the states of Michigan 
and Illinois, as well as his native state of Montana. 
Socially Mr. Gormley has, by his suavity of manner 
and speech, his intelligence and his upright bearing, 
gained an enviable reputation. Gifted with oratori- 
cal powers of a high order, he has won success on 
rostrum and in court, while, endowed with a gener- 
ous public spirit, he is doing his full share toward 
the advancement of the city's best interests. Popu- 
lar among his fellows, his success is but premoni- 
tory to higher stations for his occupancy, if his 
health and strength continues. He is a member of 
the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. 

T UDGE J. B. LESLIE, of the Eighth judicial dis- 
J trict of Montana, is a resident of Great Falls. 
He was born in Monroe county, Ky., on April 
12, 1853. He is a son of Ex-Gov. Leslie, further 
mention of whom appears on another page of this 
work. Judge Leslie attended the schools of Glas- 
gow, Ky., and in 1872 matriculated at Washing- 
ton and Lee University, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1875. He at once began the study of law, 
of which he has ever been a devoted and enthusias- 
tic student, in the office of his father at Glasgow, 
and was admitted to practice before the appellate 
court at Frankfort in 1876. He commenced prac- 
tice at Glasgow the same year and continued it suc- 
cessfully there until 1887, when he came to Great 
Falls, which city he has since made his home, and 
where he is loved and respected by a large circle of 
warm personal friends. He was associated in the 
practice of his profession with W. G. Downing 
from 1891 until he was elected to the bench in 1896, 
and to this dignified office he was re-elected in 
1900. Politically Judge Leslie has been a lifelong 
Democrat, although he has never taken an active 
part in the operations, councils or campaigns of the 
party. He was married in 1881 to Miss Helen 
Trabue, of Glasgow, Ky. They have three daugh- 
ters. Throughout the Eighth district Judge Leslie 
has given universal satisfaction as a judge, and has 
wen the esteem and confidence of all. As whatever 
of prominence he has attained was from the applica- 
tion of his own efforts, so by his integrity, his abil- 
ity, his industry he has established a character 
which adds luster to his renown. He is genial in 
his disposition and social in his tastes. His impar- 
tiality on the bench has merited the confidence of 
the bar and the respect of litigants. In the admin- 
istration of justice he is firm but not arrogant, deci- 
sive without being opinionated and conscientious in 
the discharge of every duty. 

TAMES R. GOSS, one of the best known and 
} ablest attorneys in the state, is a resident of 
Billings, ]\Iont. He was born near New York city 
on April 17, 1849, ^"d was reared and educated in 
Lorain county, Ohio. At the age of seventeen 
years, in 1866, he was matriculated at Oberlin 
College, Ohio, where he remained several years 
assiduously engaged in obtaining a valuable edu- 
cation. He commenced his law studies in 1873, 
and later entered the law department of the cele- 



brated University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. 
From this excellent law class Mr. Goss was gradu- 
ated in 1876, and having been admitted to the bar, 
he at once began practice in Jackson county, Mich., 
where he continued for six years and in 1881 re- 
moved to Bismarck, then Dakota; the state had not 
been divided, and here he passed one year in legal 

In 1882 Mr. Goss came to Billings, Mont., where 
he has since resided and in the active and successful 
practice of law. He has served as county attorney 
and probate judge of Yellowstone county, and been 
president of the school board for six years. He was 
a member of the building committee which super- 
vised the erection of the Parmly Billings memorial 
library, which was erected in 1900-1, and was ap- 
pointed one of the first trustees of the library. Mr. 
Goss married, in Michigan, Miss Florence Lord, 
a native of that state. They have one child, 
Marion, now a student at Oberlin College. 

Politically Mr. Goss has, since arriving at his 
majority, affiliated with the Republican party. In 
all the campaigns since his arrival in Montana he 
has taken a lively interest, and frequently stumped 
the state in behalf of the Republican ticket. He 
has been an active member of the Yellowstone Re- 
publican county central committee, and has 
wielded no little influence in party affairs. Fra- 
ternally Mr. Goss is a Freemason and an Odd- 
Fellow. Since the advent of Mr. Goss into 
Montana there have been advantages offered of 
which he has availed himself. There were also ob- 
stacles to overcome, and he went work 
and overcame them. To his perseverance, acknowl- 
edged legal ability and force of character he owes 
the financial and social success that he has achieved. 
Throughout the state he is well known and highly 
esteemed, and in his home city, among those who 
know him best, he numbers a wide circle of friends. 

THOMAS J. GOWIN is one of the prominent 
and influential farmers and stockgrowers of 
Gallatin valley, and is held in high esteem as one 
of the sterling pioneers of Montana. Thomas 
Jefferson Gowin is a native of Johnson county, Mo., 
where he was born December 30, 1839, one of nine 
children born to Thomas and Melinda (Marshall) 
Gowin, natives respectively of Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia. The parents removed from Kentucky, 
locating in Johnson county, Mo., where the father 

devoted his attention to farming and stockraising 
until his death, his wife also dying in that state 
May 7, 1899. 

Thomas J. Gowin was reared to the sturdy dis- 
cipline of farm life, receiving his educational train- 
ing in the public schools and remaining on the 
homestead until attaining the age of twenty years. 
In 1859 he joined the stampede to Pike's Peak, Colo., 
and devoted three months to prospecting, without 
favorable results, and then returned to Missouri. 
He retained a longing for frontier life, however, 
and in 1863 he started on the long and hazardous 
journey across the plains to Montana. He drove 
a bull team, and made the trip by way of Colorado, 
thence to Fort Halleck, Fort Bridger and Soda 
Springs, making Bannack their destination. Mr. 
Gowin remained in Bannack but a few days, going 
thence to Virgmia City, where he arrived August 
15, 1863, and devoted his attention to mining for 
about four months ; he then removed to Madison 
river valley and successfully engaged in ranching 
for two years. While residing in that section the 
notorious outlaw, Slade, afterward hanged by the 
vigilantes, was his neighbor for about six months, 
having headquarters about one-fourth of a mile up 
the valley. Slade was then engaged in freighting 
and was a good neighbor. In the spring of 1865 
Mr. Gowin removed to Prickly Pear valley and 
engaged in freighting until fall, after which he 
went down the Missouri river, about three miles 
below the mouth of Beaver creek, and there 
operated a ferry for one year. While conducting 
the ranching business on Madison river, in 1864, 
Mr. Gowin had a partner who took charge of the 
ranch while he engaged in freighting, making a 
trip to Cache valley, Utah, being absent about three 
months. Returning by way of Fort Benton he saw 
in Virginia City the somewhat anomalous offspring 
of an Indian and negro. In 1866 Mr. Gowin came 
to Gallatin valley, and engaged in the express 
business, his route being from Virginia City to 
Gallatin City and Bozeman, transportation being 
afforded for passengers, mail and freight, a charge 
of fifty cents each being made for the carrying of 
letters. He continued in this line of enterprise until 
1868, when he disposed of his business and re- 
moved to Sterling, Madison county, and for six 
months conducted a livery. He was variously en- 
gaged at Salt Lake City, Radersburg and on Willow 
creek, finally going to South Boulder valley and 
engaged in the cattle and dairying business for a 
year. He was in charge of the mail route from 

1 86 


Deer Lodge to Highland, through Butte and Silver 
Bow for a short time and then returned to Missouri. 
The following summer, again returning to 
Montana, accompanied by his wife, he brought 
through a band of Texas cattle, which he wintered 
on Willow creek, but a number died on account of 
the severe weather and an insufficient supply of 
fodder. He again engaged in ranching and stock- 
raising on South Boulder river, also on Norwegian 
creek, Madison county, and in Jefferson valley, re- 
moving thence to Gallatin valley, where he remained 
six years, having a good ranch and being very suc- 
cessful in his operations. Selling out his interests 
he removed to Kansas, that his children might en- 
joy better educational advantages, and remained 
seven years engaged in farming and stockraising. 
He returned with his family to the Gallatin valley 
in 1886, and effected the purchase of the Wills 
ranch, located nine miles north of Bozeman, his 
postoffice address. By the purchase of contiguous 
land Mr. Gowin has increased the area of the home- 
stead ranch to 240 acres, but owns another ranch of 
160 acres, located two miles north of the home 
place. The ranches are well watered through 
natural sources. Spring Hill creek running through 
the homestead and Ross creek through the upper 
ranch. No irrigation is required in the raising of 
grain, and recourse is had to it only for pasturage. 
The home is beautifully located, and the residence 
is one of the most attractive in the valley. Mr. 
Gowin has twelve acres balm of Gilead trees, the. 
first timber-culture claim patented in the state. 
The grove is a favorite resort for picnic parties and 
the annual meetings of the pioneer society of the 
county. In addition to the balm of Gilead trees, 
other varieties are to be found in this beautiful 
grove, including the wild plum, crab-apple, burr 
oak, etc. The family pass the winter months in 
Bozeman, with whose social life they are actively 
identified. In politics Mr. Gowin renders allegiance 
to the Republican party, and takes a lively interest 
in all that concerns the public welfare and the 
material prosperity of the county and state. He 
has served for eight years as a member of the 
board of school trustees. 

On May 7, 1870, Mr. Gowin was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Mary McGuire, who was born in 
Pettis county, Mo., the daughter of William F. 
and Carrie (Johnson) McGuire, to whom five 
children have been born : James M., deceased ; Rosie 
is the wife of George Stimpson, now engaged in 
ranching on East Gallatin river; Joseph Custer is 

mentioned on another page of this work; Nellie, 
deceased; and Bessie, who is attending school in 

AUGUSTUS F. GRAETER.— Nearly forty 
years have passed since the subject of this re- 
view acquired residence in Montana, then con- 
sidered the frontier, and it was his lot to endure the 
hardships and privations of the pioneer epoch, to 
become identified with many of the stirring incidents 
which marked those early days, and a recognized 
factor in the progress and material prosperity of 
the commonwealth through legitimate industrial 
enterprise and well directed business operations. 
He is today numbered among the representative 
citizens and honored pioneers of the thriving little 
city of Dillon, the county seat of Beaverhead county, 
and well entitled to consideration in this work as 
one of the founders and builders of our great state. 

Mr. Graeter is a native of the old Keystone state, 
Pennsylvania, having been born in AUentown, 
Lehigh county, July 29, 1834, the second in order 
of birth of the eight children of Augustus and 
Sarah (Hoffman) Graeter. Augustus Graeter was 
a native of Germany, where he was reared and 
educated, and whence he immigrated to the United 
States about the year 1820, locating at AUentown, 
Pa. He was editor and proprietor of a newspaper 
there, was married to Miss Hoffman, a native of 
AUentown and a representative of prominent old 
families of that state. The family removed to 
Warren, Ohio, when our subject was a child, and 
there the parents passed the remainder of their 

In the public schools of Ohio Augustus F. Graeter 
received his educational training, and on laying 
aside his text books became identified with agri- 
cultural pursuits until 1858, when he moved west 
as far as Florence, Neb., remaining until the spring 
of the following year. Securing a mule team and 
wagon he joined a company making the trip across 
the plains to Colorado by way of the Platte river 
route. He arrived in Denver the latter part of June, 
but went to the mines at Blackhawk, where he 
remained until the spring of 1862, meeting with 
fair success in his mining venture. He then started 
for the Salmon river country, in Idaho, where the 
gold excitement was then at its height. While en 
route the party saw many evidences of Indian 
depredations, but were not molested, though they 
anticipated trouble. They went by way of Lander's 


cutoff into Montana, and upon reaching Birch creek 
learned of the discovery of gold at Bannack and 
decided to make that point their destination. Mr. 
Graeter arrived at Bannack in the latter part of 
September, and secured work in the placer mines, 
only small diggings having been opened at that 
time. He continued to work in the mines during 
the fall and was compelled to send to Salt Lake City 
for his winter's provisions. He became associated 
with six other men in the construction of the Ban- 
nack ditch, furnishing the first adequate supply of 
water brought to the placer mines. The ditch was 
completed in the season of 1863, and he then began 
mining operations with vigor and earnestness, 
working claims in Buffalo and Humbug gulches. 
In 1864 he went to Virginia City and was engaged 
in mining in Alder gulch during one season, but 
in the summer of 1865 he prospected in the vicinity 
of the present capital city of the state and in the 
Blackfoot district. Mr. Graeter was a member of 
the vigilance committee and was in Virginia City 
at the time when Boone Helm and four other des- 
peradoes were hung. In the fall of 1865 he re- 
turned to Bannack, resumed mining operations, and 
also engaged in mercantile business, forming a 
partnership with A. J. Smith under the firm name 
of Smith & Graeter, which continued for a period 
of six years, when they closed out. Mr. Graeter 
still engaged in placer mining, but gave consider- 
able attention to ranching on Horse prairie, and his 
energetic efforts were attended with marked suc- 
cess. Recently he was interested in the operation 
of dredge boats in the streams near Bannack, the 
output of gold from that source being very satis- 
factory. He and his associates in the Gold Dredg- 
ing Company built the first dredge boat for this pur- 
pose ever constructed in the United States, and the 
same is still in operation, together with another, 
built later at Bannack. Mr. Graeter is a man of 
much business sagacity and indomitable energy, and 
his labors and hardships in the early days have not 
impaired his vigor in the least, few men in the state 
maintaining a more progressive attitude or more 
distinctively public spirit. His sterling integrity of 
character and his genial personality have made him 
popular in the various walks of life and he is well 
known among the old time residents and pioneers. 
Mr. Graeter is a member of the directorate of the 
State Bank of Dillon and has other important capi- 
talistic interests in the county. He has a fine resi- 
dence, where the family have maintained their 
home since 1895. In politics he has ever exercised 

his franchise in support of the principles and 
policies of the Democratic party, but his extensive 
mining and stockraising interests have placed such 
demands upon his time and attention that he has 
taken no active part in political affairs or desired 
official preferment. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, being identified with Bannack Lodge 
No. 16, A. F. & A. M., in which he has passed all 
the official chairs, being past master of the lodge. 

On July 29, 1858, in Nebraska, Mr. Graeter was 
united in marriage to Miss Emily M. Drury, a 
native of Vermont and a representative of promi- 
nent old families of New England. Of this union 
two children were born : Luther D., born in 
1862, is engaged in the grocery business at 
Dillon, and Blanche A., born in 1872, is the 
wife of C. E. Falk and resides in northern 
California. In 1880, while residing in Bannack, 
Mrs. Graeter was summoned into eternal rest, and 
on the 20th of September, 1881, Mr. Graeter was 
united in marriage to Miss Mary Taylor, who was 
born in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, 
the daughter of David and Eleanor (Sinton) 
Taylor, who became a resident of Montana in 1881. 
Mr. and Mrs. Graeter have three children : Arthur, 
Edth and Sarah, all of whom are attending the 
Dillon public schools. 

EH. GOODMAN, of Townsend, Broadwater 
county, Mont., one of the most prominent at- 
torneys of the state, has illustrated by his life work 
what pluck, energy and industry can accomplish. 
In his career many an ambitious young man, and 
many partially despondent older men. can see a 
worthy example. That he has made his way in life 
against great obstacles is but added proof of his in- 
domitable will and perseverance. Some of the 
hardest problems of life have been set before him 
and his present success shows how worthily he has 

The subject of this sketch was born at Meeme, 
Manitowoc county. Wis., September 14, 1854. He 
is the son of Thomas Goodman, of Scotch-Irish de- 
scent, although born in New York. There he was 
united in marriage to Miss Mary A. Roberts, a na- 
tive of Wales, Great Britain. From Wisconsin the 
family removed to Chicago in 1862. Here E. H. 
Goodman attended the public schools of that city 
for eight years. The family then removed to Wat- 
seka, 111., seventy-five miles from Chicago, where 


they still reside, consisting of motber, two brotliers 
and one sister. 

In 1872 Mr. Goodman removed to Cliicago, 
where he engaged in the brick business with his 
stepfather, remaining there three years. Then he 
returned to the farm and worked on the same in- 
dustriously in conjunction with other members of 
the family until 1879, when he sold out his interests 
and went to Valparaiso, Ind. Here for two years 
he attended the North Indiana Normal School, 
when, his funds running low, he engaged in the 
occupation of school teaching for a year. 

Returning to Valparaiso, he re-entered the Nor- 
mal School, where he remained the following two 
years, securing his degree of Bachelor of Laws 
in May, 1884. 

With the termination of his course at the Normal 
School Mr. Goodman went on to Emporia, Kan., 
where he formed a partnership with a party named 
Darling, and they opened a law office. At the out- 
set the young men found that it was not all that 
fancy had painted. They were poorly supplied with 
funds, business was not remunerative and the law 
partners soon reached a point where it was plain 
that something tangible must be accomplished in 
the way of obtaining money. A council of war 
resulted in the decision that Mr. Goodman should 
go out into the world and endeavor to make suffi- 
cient to tide them over the disheartening financial 
straits into which they had fallen. Meanwhile Mr. 
Darling was to remain at Emporia and attempt to 
hold the business together and keep the office open. 
But all was not easy sailing for our subject. He at 
first went bravely to work on a farm in order to 
secure funds with which to start him in the book 
business. Subsequently he secured an agency, can- 
vassed throughout central Kansas, but soon became 
again financially embarrassed, and then it was de- 
cided to sell out everything connected with tlie 
office except the library. They did so. and then 
both Mr. Goodman and Mr. Darling commenced 
teaching school, the former in Youngstown, Marion 
county, and the latter in McPherson countv. Kan. 
They taught one term and in June, 1885, they both 
removed to Townsend, Mont. Here they recom- 
menced school leaching, Mr. Goodman in Town- 
send and Mr. Darling in Missouri Valley. In 1886 
Mr. Darling recommenced the practice of law in 
Lewistown, Fergus county. He remained there 
two years, when the partnership which had been 
continued under so many adverse circumstance^, 
was dissolved, Mr. Darling removing to California. 

Our subject continued to teach school until the 
spring of 1888, when he, too, began the practice of 
law at Townsend. 

In 1889 Mr. Goodman was elected to the Mon- 
tana legislature and served in the first and second 
legislative assemblies. During these terms he was 
ever active and zealous in the formation of Broad- 
water county, and by the bill creating the county he 
was made county attorney, which position he held 
for two years. In 1898 he ran for county attorney, 
and was defeated, but was subsequently re-elected 
in the November election of 1900. Up to the time 
of the presidential campaign of 1896 he had been a 
Republican, but at this period he joined the Silver 
Republican party and on its dissolution he cast his 
lot with the Democrats, with whom he has since 
affiliated. When the town of Townsend was first 
organized, as town attorney he formulated the ordi- 
nances of the town. 

Mr. Goodman has been admitted to practice be- 
fore the superior courts of the states of Indiana, 
Kansas and Montana. He has been a member of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows since 1886, 
has passed through all the chairs and is now grand 
master of the Grand Lodge of the state. He is also 
a member of the Woodmen of the World, through 
all the chairs of which he has passed, and has repre- 
sented them in state camps. 

Married June, 1888, to Miss Eva. daughter of E. 
A. Allen, of Diamond City, Ind. One child, Mary 

T AMES GRAY, M. D.— This is an age of spec- 
J ializing in professional and business lines. The 
medical profession has peculiarly felt this ten- 
dency, which is the result of legitimate causes. 
Formerly the physician was assumed to be an 
omnium gatherum of all information pertaining to 
medicine and surgery and allied department. This 
time has passed when any one man may assume 
to "know it all." The successful practitioner real- 
izes that he may devote a life time of thought and 
investigation to one or more branches of his pro- 
fession and still be far removed from the ultimate 
in knowledge and power of accomplishment. Thus 
it comes to pass that some medical men, after be- 
ing in the ranks of the general profession for a time, 
concentrate their attention upon some one depart- 
ment of it, and to this fact is attributable many of 
the most important advances in medicine in recent 
years. Of no specialist can this be said with great- 



er truthfulness than of the oculist. He has not 
only made great advances in his own field, but 
has been instrumental in throwing light on many 
diseases in the domain of general medicine. The 
specialist and general practitioner are not in con- 
flict, but are mutually helpful in a common work. 
Of this class is Dr. Gray, who makes a specialty 
ol treatment of diseases of the eye, ear and throat. 
In this he is a recognized authority and has gained 
high reputation. 

i)r. Gray is a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, 
son of Alexander and Agnes Gray, both repre- 
sentatives of stanch old Scottish lineage. They em- 
igrated to Canada when James was a child and set- 
tled near Toronto. There the father died a num- 
ber of years ago, the mother of the Doctor being 
still a resident of Canada. Dr. Gray received his 
preliminary education in the public schools, and 
continued his studies for some time in Toronto 
University, and he also took a course in the To- 
ronto School of Science. He taught in the public 
schools of Canada for three or four years, and en- 
tered the medical department of McGill University 
at Montreal in 1879, and was therefrom graduated 
with the double degree of M. D. and C. M., and 
the highest honors in the class of 1883. Im- 
mediately after graduation, as the sequel of a coni- 
|)etitive examination, Dr. Gray secured an appoint- 
ment as one of the resident medical officers of the 
-Montreal general hospital, the largest hospital in 
Canada and well known in Europe and America 
for its modern equipment and clinical advantages. 
After holding this position for one year Dr. Gray 
was selected from a number of applicants to be 
the medical superintendent of that institution. In 
this responsible position he gained a wide exper- 
ience and here was laid that practical foundation 
which has so signally contributed to his success. 
Although urg^ed to continue in this office. Dr. Gray 
resigned the position at the expiration of about two 
years and established a private practice in Min- 
neapolis, Minn., where he soon built up a good 
general practice. In this he continued until 1891, 
when he withdrew in order to continue his studies 
in the direction of his present specialty. The suc- 
ceeding winter was passed in Dr. Knapp's excellent 
eye, ear and throat hospital in New York city, and 
then he continued his special study in Berlin, Vienna. 
Paris, London and Edinburgh. In London he held 
for nearly two years a position as assistant phy- 
sician in the Royal eye hospital at Moorfields, thus 
gaining unexcelled advantages, as this is the largest 

eye hospital in the world. Upon leaving 
Moorfields his qualifications and ability to prac- 
tice his speciaky were fully attested by the sur- 
geons with whom he had labored in clinical work. 
Early in 1896 Dr. Gray came to Helena, where 
he established himself as an oculist and aurist, 
and here he is now, devoting himself to the treat- 
ment of diseases of the eye, ear and throat. His 
advice and services are often sought by his profes- 
sional confreres, whose confidence and esteem he 
holds in a large measure. He is one of the leading 
specialists of the state and has a large clientele. 
He is a member of the Ophthalmological Society 
of Great Britain, admission to which is a guaranty 
of high professional and personal standing. He is 
also a member of the Montana State Medical Asso- 
ciation, and was formerly identified with the Mon- 
treal Medical Society and that of the state of Min- 
nesota. Dr. Gray has never taken an active part in 
politics. He takes a deep interest in educational 
affairs and in the wellbeing of the community, and 
is popular in both professional and social circles. 

lOSEPH A. GREEN, of Bozeman, Gallatin 
J county, has practically passed his entire life in 
Montana, has been closely identified with its 
farming, stockgrowing and mercantile pursuits, and 
shown himself to be a man of progressive type. Mr. 
Green is a native of Provo City, Utah, where he 
was born December 15, i860, a son of James and 
Margaret (Wellwood) Green, both of whom trace 
their lineage to English origin. The father was 
engaged in farming in Utah, and in 1864, when our 
subject was but four years of age, started with his 
family to Montana by means of ox teams, the means 
of transit common to the early pioneer period, 
bringing fifteen head of cattle as the basis of opera- 
tions in his new home. He located on a ranch near 
the present village of Willow Creek, Gallatin 
county, and engaged in farming and stockgrowing. 
In making the trip across the plains the party en- 
countered no trouble from the Indians, save in the 
way of horse stealing. 

In the somewhat primitive public school estab- 
lished in Willow Creek our subject gained such 
educational discipline as was possible, and assisted 
his father in his ranching operations until attaining 
his legal majority. He then took charge of a ranch 
in the Gallatin valley, conducting it successfully 
for four years. He thereafter engaged more ex- 



tensively in stockraising, with which Hue of industry- 
he had been famihar from his boyhood ; and on 
July 5, 1889, he engaged in the butchering business 
in Boulder, associating himself with H. G. Smith. 
At the expiration of one year he withdrew to as- 
sume the management of a general merchandise 
store established by his father in Willow Creek. 
There he continued until August 14, 1900, when he 
removed to Bozeman in order to afford his children 
better educational opportunities, where he still re- 
sides, and to his other business afifairs has added 
real estate and insurance. Mr. Green has ever 
maintained a lively interest in the educational af- 
fairs of the county, and rendered efficient service 
for many years as a member of the board of school 
trustees, serving as clerk. Fraternally he is a 
member of Boulder Lodge No. 19, K. of P., and of 
Willow Creek Lodge No. 45, A. O. U. W., having 
long served as recorder. His political support is 
given to the Republican party. 

On July 24, 1889, Mr. Green was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Maggie Robertson, who was born in 
Oregon, being the daughter of Rev. Joseph and 
Elizabeth (Dodson) Robertson, the former a 
clergyman of the Presbyterian church. Mr. and 
Mrs. Green are the parents of two winsome daugh- 
ters : Norma and Anna. 

c(|uipped Provence ranch, and have since been 
there successfully engaged in farming and stock- 
raising. On May 4, 1894, Air. Grimm was united 
in marriage to Miss Alice L. Dean, daughter of 
George Dean, of Shropshire, England. She was 
born in Jacksonville, Mo., on March 7, 1869. 
They had three children, Edna, deceased ; Frank 
Christian and Ernest Lippert. Mrs. Grimm died on 
October 11, 1900. Mr. Grimm has carved his way 
t(:> an ample prosperity in the grand opportunities 
Montana so bounteously provided. He is a man of 
strong and forceful character and the strictest 
probity. In politics a Republican, socially he is a 
member of the A. G. He is highly esteemed and 
numbers a large circle of friends in the community. 

HARMON GRIMM, one of the prominent and 
successful ranchmen of Broadwater county, 
Montana, whose postofifice address is Townsend, 
was born in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, on August 
2, 1856, the son of Christian and Annie (Latch) 
Grimm, both natives of Saxony, Germany. Chris- 
tian Grimm, a carpenter, came with his family to 
the United States in 1854, and settled in Cuyahoga 
county, where he at first engaged in_ carpenter 
work, and later purchased a farm which he con- 
ducted in connection with his trade. He now re- 
sides in Cleveland, Ohio, at the advanced age of 
seventy-nine years. 

Harmon Grimm, after a valuable attendance at 
the public schools of Ohio, engaged in various oc- 
cupations until 1878, the year of his coming to 
Helena, Mont. Here for some time after his ar- 
rival he worked at blacksmithing, and later re- 
moved to Missouri valley, where he first profitably 
rented land for some time and engaged in ranching. 
In 1882 he was joined by his brother, Charles 
Grimm, and two years later they purchased the finely 

MILTON S. GUNN is the junior member of the 
well known Helena law firm of Clayberg & 
Gunn. He was born in Allegan county, Mich., 
February 19, 1868. Although a young man he is 
one of brilliant promise and legal attainments. He 
is of English ancestry and his parents were Samuel 
S. and Cordelia (Traux) Gunn. The father was a 
native of Connecticut, a carpenter, who was one of 
that historic voterie that opened the wealth of Cali- 
fornia, a real "Forty-niner," for in 1849 he removed 
thither and there he remained six years. In 1856 he 
returned to the east and came to Michigan, where 
he resided until his death in 1881. He had three' 
sons, one of whom died several years ago and one 
is now in Florida. The other son, Milton S. Gunn, 
received his elementary education in the public 
schools of Allegan county and in 1887 entered the 
celebrated University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, 
from which he was graduated with honors in 1889. 
He was at once admitted to practice in Michigan, 
and the same year came to Montana, then the young- 
est of the sisterhood of states, having just been ad- 
mitted as one of the United States. He located at 
Helena, and for some time was employed on the 
Helena Journal. He then entered the law office of 
McConnell, Carter & Clayberg as clerk, and later 
was admitted to the firm, from which Senator Carter 
had retired, and the firm has been Clayberg & Gunn 
since January, 1900. Mr. Gunn has never been 
prominent in politics. 

In 1892 Mr. Gunn was united in marriage to Miss 
Lena Curtis, a native of Kansas. Her father was a 
Montana pioneer, coming into the territory in 1863. 
Mr. and Mrs. Gunn have two children, Milton C. 



and Maibelle. Fraternally he is a member of the 
Order of Elks. He is a man of progressive views, 
broad minded and liberal, of executive ability and 
highly esteemed. 

JOHN WILLIAM GUNN, M. D.— Although a 
native of Philadelphia, Pa., a city made famous 
in medical annals by Dr. Benjamin Rush nearly 
a century ago, Dr. John William Gunn, of Butte, 
is essentially a western product, for he came with 
his parents to Salt Lake City in i860 where they 
now live and are pleasantly occupied in gardening. 
He was born on March 17, 1856, a son of John and 
Caroline (Barham) Gunn, both natives of England, 
the former of Bishop-Stortford and the latter of 
London, where they were married. They emi- 
grated to America, landing in Philadelphia about 
1855, the senior Gunn being a manufacturer of 
stockings. In the interesting Mormon metropolis 
Dr. Gunn grew to manhood, received there his 
academic education at St. Mark's school, and in 
1872 entered a drug store as clerk, remaining there 
several years and acquiring by study and practice a 
thorough knowledge of pharmacy. In 1875 he 
located at Tybo, Nev., and was a clerk in a general 
store until 1882. In the meantune, however, he 
began the study of medicine under Dr. J. S. Ham- 
mond, now also of Butte, and continued 
his studies with him as long as he remained at 
Tybo. In 1882 Dr. Gunn entered Cooper Medical 
College at San Francisco, from which he was gradu- 
ated in November, 1884. The next year he re- 
turned to Nevada and practiced successively at 
Tybo, Belmont and Austin, remaining at Austin 
two years. In December, 1887, he followed Dr. 
Hammond to Butte and soon established himself 
in that thriving city in a general practice, which has 
steadily increased in volume and risen in char- 
acter until it is now one of the most extensive and 
lucrative in the county. 

Dr. Gunn's success is not due to accident or 
fortuitous circumstances. It is the legitimate re- 
sult of thorough preparation for his work, skill in 
its performance, courtesy to its beneficiaries and to 
all with whom he comes in contact, added to an 
intelligent and lively interest in all that concerns 
the good of his profession and the welfare of the 
community. He is a member of the State Medical 
Association of Montana, of which he was president 
for one term and secretary for three or four, 

and of the Silver Bow County Medical Associa- 
tion, of which he is now (1901) the president. 
From 1892 to 1894 he rendered valuable and appre- 
ciated service to the city of Butte as health officer. 
Dr. Gunn was married on September 5, 1877, to 
Miss Jessie Clayton, of Mariposa, Cal., a daughter 
of Prof. J. E. Clayton, the well known mining ex- 
pert, and Naomi (Wagner) Clayton, the former a 
native of Georgia and the latter of Alabama. Dr. 
and Mrs. Gunn are the parents of six children, of 
whom John W., Jr., Nelson T., Winfield H. and 
Lois C. are living, and Clayton and Jessie have died. 
Politically the Doctor is a Republican, but is not an 
active partisan. The fraternal orders have always 
had a pleasing interest for him and he has given 
them excellent service. He is a past grand in the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, a past master 
workman and past grand medical examiner in the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, a past com- 
mander in the Knights of the Maccabees, and past 
president and present secretary of the National 
Union. In addition he is medical examiner for the 
Maccabees and the Union and for a number of 
insurance companies. He is a sympathetic phy- 
sician, a congenial companion, a firm friend and an 
excellent citizen. 

THOMAS F. HAGAN.— The continuous infu- 
sion of young blood into the industrial life of 
Montana insures a consecutive advancement of her 
material interests and the proper development of her 
great resources, and among the successful and hon- 
ored young business men of Dawson county, noted 
for business acumen and sterling integrity of pur- 
pose, is Thomas F. Hagan, who was born at Erin, 
St. Croix county, Wis., on October 22, 1864, the 
son of John and Bridget (Ring) Hagan, the former 
of whom was born in Buffalo, N. Y., and the latter 
in Ireland in 1838, her death occurring at Edin, Wis., 
in 1871. When a young man Johr Hagan removed 
from New York to Erin, Wis., and from there, some 
years later, to New Richmond, in the same county, 
where he is now farming and stockgrowing, and 
the proprietor of Hagan's opera house. 

Thomas F. Hagan, after scholastic discipline in 
the public schools of Erin and New Richmond, 
completed a course in the commercial department of 
St. John's University, in Collegeville, Minn., be- 
ing graduated therefrom in 1884. Assisting his 
father in his business operations until June, 1886, 



he came to Glendive, Mont., in the employe of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad. He was fireman for 
eighteen months, and a brakeman for six years. He 
then took the local agency of the Pabst Brewing- 
Company, of Milwaukee, and has since represented 
the interests of this great concern in this section of 

At Erin, Wis., on September 12, 1893, Mr. 
Hagan was united in marriage to Miss Mary Gavin, 
who was born in Erin, the daughter of John and 
Catherine Gavin, the former now residing in Wis- 
consin and the latter being dead. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hagan have three children : Lionel, Paul and Mary. 
In 1896 Mr. Hagan turned his attention to the rais- 
ing and shipping of horses, in 1899 extending the 
enterprise to include cattle, and now conducts an 
extensive stock business. He makes large ship- 
ments and transacts annually operations of magni- 
tude in this line. Mr. Hagan is a stalwart supporter 
of the Democratic party and its principles and in 
1899 and IQOO he served acceptably in the office 
of justice of the peace. 

MASSENA BULLARD, who has won prestige 
as one of the able members of the bar of 
Montana, is a well known resident of the capital 
city, where he has long been established in the prac- 
tice of his profession, devoting special attention to 
real estate and corporation law, in which branch of 
jurisprudence he is a recognized authority. Mr. 
Bullard also has the distinction of bemg a scion 
of one of the pioneer families of the state, and may 
himself be considered a pioneer, since he came here 
a mere lad in the early territorial epoch. Mr. Bul- 
lard is a native of Missouri, born in Lafayette 
county, on October 7, 1850, the son of William L. 
^nd Annie F. (Burruss) Bullard, both of whom 
were born in Virginia, the former on July 26, 
1812, and the latter on March 26, 181 5, both de- 
scending from old Virginia families. The parents 
of Massena Bullard settled in Lafayette county, 
Mo., in 1838, where the father engaged in the 
manufacturing of agricultural implements, and es- 
tablished the first foundry in Kansas City, where 
the family resided until i860, when they removed 
to Buchanan county, and from that as headquarters 
he engaged in freighting between St. Joseph and 
the Black Llills. Accompanied by his wife and two 
sons, he made the then weary and perilous journey 
across the plains to Montana in 1864, their trans- 

portation having been afforded by ox teams. They 
reached Virginia City, Mont., in September, 1864, 
and the father engaged in freighting between that 
place and Salt Lake, but in the winter of 1864-5 
he lost all of his cattle, being snowed in on the 
Snake river and being unable to rescue them. After 
this loss he turned his attention to farming, though 
he still continued to be identified with freighting 
until his death, on December 24, 1868. Of his 
seven children only three are now living: William 
F., a resident of Great Falls, Mont.; Oscar M., 
who maintains his home in Missouri, and Mas- 

Massena Bullard attained maturity in the terri- 
tory of Montana, and in Montana he has since re- 
sided, advancing to prominence in the business and 
professional life of the commonwealth. He was 
but twelve years of age at the time of the family's 
removal to Montana, and yet upon the lad devolved 
the duty of driving an ox team across the plains. He 
received his preliminary education in the public 
schools of Helena, after which he began the study 
of law with the well known firm of Woolfolk & 
Toole, devoting himself so assiduously and with 
such marked receptivity to the work in hand that 
he was admitted to practice on August 16, 1871. 
He at once engaged in active legal labors in Helena, 
and while success in this arduous profession is 
never of spontaneous growth, the novitiate which 
Mr. Bullard served was not weary or prolonged, 
for his ability and inflexible integrity soon gained 
him recognition, and he has held for many years 
a select clientage, and has been prominently em- 
ployed in much important professional work in con- 
nection with his special branches, aside from a 
valuable general practice. Mr. Bullard served 
from 1883 until 1886 several years as city attorney 
of Helena, and in this office again from 1895 to 
1898, giving an excellent administration. His 
confreres honored themselves in electing him to the 
presidency of the Montana State Bar Association, 
and in that position he fully demonstrated his 
signal ability as a presiding officer. 

Mr. Bullard has been a true man in all the rela- 
tions of life, having a deep sense of personal re- 
sponsibility and ever aiming to do his part to 
advance the best interests of society. He has been 
specially prominent in temperance work, and has 
been an active worker as a member of the Order of 
Good Templars. He also takes a prominent part 
in promoting the cause of religion and was for a 
number of years secretary of the Montana Christian 



Association and president of the Montana Bible 
Society. He has ever maintained a charitable atti- 
tude and given due recognition to all agencies 
operating toward worthy ends. He is a member of 
and elder in the Christian church. He holds mem- 
bership in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
having served as grand master of the grand lodge 
of Montana, and also represented the state in the 
sovereign grand lodge for eight years. He is also 
a member of the Yeomen Lodge, of which he is past 
foreman, is past consul of the local lodge of 
Modern Woo