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THE BOOK WAS 
DRENCHED 



CO >- CO 

[=OU 164705 J 
~ 



FIG. i. 

EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Famine * 

Commencement of Plague * 

Influenza 

Native States omitted + 




- 1 2,000,000 



1 0,000,000 



8,0.00.000 



6.000,000 



4.0OO.OOO 



2,000.000 



1860 1870 1880 189O 1900 1910 192O 1930 



Helio adacographed at Photo.-Mcchl. and Litho. Dept Thomason College, Roorkee. 



FIG. 2. 
TOTAL NUMBER OF PUPILS UNDER INSTRUCTION IN INDIA. 

Famine * 

_* 



PUPILS. 



Influenza.* 
Native Stat< 


A 




38 omitted . 


- - - - - 4 


























































































































































































































































? 
































































































































































































































































































































































































































y 


s 


























A 


J'V 


^ 
























rl 


^. 




















S 


*2] 






r 











-3 


?Efl 


CE 


*T 


DF, 


**1 


'X 








/ 




















/ 
































y 






























1 




























> 


^ 




























y 


/ 


^ 


























/ 


/ 






























/ 
































/ 




























A/ 


ts 






























/ 































r* 




























' 





























10.000.000 



8,000.000 



8.000.000 



4.000,000 



2.000.000 



1860 1870 I860 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 



October, 1923. No. 



o 
oc 
o 



FIG. 3. 

EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION. 



From Public Funds. 
Total Expenditure.. 



J L 



fi 1 2.000,000 



6 10.000.000 



ft 8.000.000 



6.000,000 



4.000.000 



ft 2.000.000 



1880 



1890 1900 



1910 



1920 1930 



Helio ztncogmpbed at Photo.-Mechl. and Utho. Dept Thomaaon College, Roorkee. 



FIG 4. 
PUBLIC EXPENDITURE. 



1880 




C 8.000.000 



MUNICIPAL FUNDS 

~T~~r r 1 

1890 1900 



1910 



1920 



iow iUU 191U 192O 

x Fall due to rectification of expenditure according 
to which Government contribution* made to local 
bodies for education are included In expenditure 
from provincial funds. 



& 9.000.000 



fi 4,000.000 



2,000,000 



1930 



October, 1 923. No. 7 4 5 1 - 




PROGRESS 

* 
OF 

EDUCATION IN INDIA 

1917-1922 



BY 

J. A. RICHEY, C.I.E. 



EIGHTH QUINQUENNIAL REVIEW 
VOL. I. 



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CONTENTS. 



PAG* 



PREFAJ*. 




CHAPTER 


I.- 


CHAPTER 


II. 


CHAPTER 


Ill, 


CHAPTER 


IV. 


CHAPTER 


V, 


CHAPTER 


VI, 



-Introductory 

-Administration and Control .... 
-Universities and Arts Colleges .... 
-Secondary Education (Boys) ._ _, . 

-Primary Education (Boys) ^ . ... . 

-Education of Indian Girls and Women . 

CHAPTER VII. Professional Education : 

The Training of Teachers .... 

Legal Education 

Medical Education ..... 
Engineering Education ..... 
Agricultural Education .... 

Forestry 

Veterinary Science ..... 

^CHAPTER VIII. Industrial and Commercial Education : 
Technical ami* Industrial Schools 

Schools of Art 

Commercial Education 

CHAPTER IX. Education of Special Classes and Communities: 
Education of Chiefs and Higher Classes . 
European Education ..... 
Muharnmadan Education .... 
Education of Depressed Classes . 
Education of Aboriginal and Hill Tribes . 
Education of Criminal Tribes . 

Education of Children of .Labourers in Fac- 
tories and Tea Gardens .... 

Education and Training in the Government 

Ordnance Factories ..... 

Education of Defectives .... 

CHAPTER X. Education in the Army 

CHAPTER XI. Miscellaneous : 

Private Institutions .... 

Oriental Studies 

Reformatory Schools 

Text-Book Committees 

Conferences and Committees 



77 
102 
126 

141 
152 
154 
157 
1(52 
173 
174 

176 
183 
185 

181) 
191 
200 
205 
208 
211 

212 

214 
219 

222 

227 
230 

235 
238 



INDEX. 



PREFACE. 



This, the eighth quinquennial review on the pro- 
gress of education in India, covers the period from 
April the 1st, 191 7, to March the 31st, 1922. It must 
begin, like its predecessors, by offering an excuse for 
its late appearance. The materials on which it is 
based, returns and reports from universities and from 
the fifteen provinces and administrations of British 
India, were received at intervals during the spring 
arid summer of this year, the last but not least import- 
ant instalments only reaching Simla in July. In spite 
of such delays this review will issue no later in the 
year than its predecessors. 

The area with which it deals, 1,091,229 square 
miles, is practically the same as that dealt with in the 
last review, but the population of that area is shown 
by the census of 1921 to have increased from 244 
millions to 247 millions. In form and content the 
review differs in several particulars from previous 
reviews. The substitution of octavo size for foolscap 
is a change which will, it is hoped, commend itself to 
readers. Certain changes have been made in the dis- 
tribution of the subject matter between the different 
chapters. Other changes have been chiefly in the direc- 
tion of elimination and compression. For example, an 
admirable description of the general characteristics of 
Indian education was given by Sir Henry Sharp in the 
opening chapter of the last review; I have assumed that 
the reader is familiar with these characteristics. No 
illustrations have been included in this volume and the 
number of tables in the second volume has been 
curtailed. These omissions have been made not of 
choice but of necessity. Owing to the present financial 
position of the Government of India no additional staff 
has been employed as on previous occasions to assist 
in the preparation of the quinquennial review; on the 
contrary even the ordinary staff available has been 
drastically reduced. The task of compiling the 
numerous statements and tables contained in both' 
volumes has largely devolved upon Mr. F. E. Quraishi 



11 

of the Education Department whose assistance has been? 
most valuable. 

I have shown my obligation to the authors of the- 
various provincial reports by quoting freely and liter- 
ally from their works.* The officers responsible for: 
the major reports are : 

Madras . . . Mr. E. G. Grieve, M.A., M.L.O. 
(Bombay . . .Mr. F. B. P. Lory, M.A. 
Bengal . . * Mr. J. W. Holme, M.A\ 
.United Provinces . Mr. A. H. Mackenzie, M.A., B.Sc., 

M.L.O. , assisted by Mr. H. B. 

Wetherill, M.A. 

Punjab . . . Mr. G. Anderson, M.A., C.I.E. 
Burma . . . Sir Mark Hunter, Kt., M.A., 

D.Litt., assisted by Mr. J. P. 

Bulkeley, M.A. 
Bihar and Orissa . . Mr. G. E. Fawcus, M.A., C.I.E., 

O.B.E. 

Central Provinces . Mr. C. E. W. Jones, M.A., M.L.O. 
Assam. . . . Mr. J. R. Cunningham, M.A'., 

C.I.E. 

North-West Frontier Mr. J. H. Towle, M.A. 
Province. 

?? llu " " * ' ] Mr. L. T. Watkins, M.A. 
Ajmer-Merwara . ) ' 

I am also indebted to Dr. D. Clouston, D.Sc v> 
C.I.E., Officiating Agricultural Adviser to the Govern- 
ment of India, for the interesting section on agricul- 
tural education, to the Medical, Veterinary and 
Forestry Departments for the sections dealing with 
&ose subjects, and to the Military Training Directorate! 
D the General Staff Branch, Army Headquarters, for 
the chapter on education in the Army, which is a new 
feature in the present review. The all-India general 
tables included in Volume II of the review were com- 
piled as usual in the office of the Director of Statistics. 

J. A. EICHEY, 

Educational Commissioner 

with tlie Government of India. 
SIMLA, 

The 25th September 1923. 

* The quotations are indicated in footnotes by the names of th* 
Provinces and the pages of the reports. 



PROGRESS 



OF 



EDUCATION IN INDIA 



1917-1922. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

There is no lack of incident or variety in the history of 
Indian education during the last five years. Opening with a 
flood of enthusiasm, which would have Swept all children of 
school-going age into school, the period closed with an ebb 
of re-action and doubt which sought to empty the schools of 
even their voluntary attendance. The forces behind both 
these movements were political. The feeling that the chief 
obstacle to India's progress towards a complete nationhood is 
to be found in the illiteracy of her masses first found ex- 
pression in Mr. Gokhale's Primary Education Bill of 1911. 
It was brought to a head by the declaration of the Secretary 
of State in August 1917 that India's future lay in the pro- 
gressive development bv successive stages of complete self- 
government. Responsible Indian thought realised that the 
rate of progress from a bureaucratic to a democratic form of 
government must be largely dependent on the evolution of 
popular electorate capable of exercising the franchise and to, 
ultimately, on* the rate of expansion of literacy among the 
masses. Expansion under a voluntary system of education was 
proving a slow and uncertain business. The solution appeared 



2 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Compulsory to be the early introduction of compulsory education; and 
Education. $ Education Acts with this object in view were introduced in 
rapid succession in the seven major provinces of India between 
February 1918 and October 1920. The nature of these acts 
and the causes which have conspired to render them hitherto 
almost inoperative will be discussed in the chapter on primary 
education. It is possible that they would have proved more 
immediately effective had they limited their aims to the en- 
forcement on local bodies of the obligation to provide edu- 
cational facilities for all children of school-going age, that 
is to say, if compulsion had first been exercised on local 
bodies and not directly on the parents. But the feeling which 
prompted the promoters was sound; and even if the new acts 
may need amendment in the direction indicated, as the Gov- 
ernment of Bombay has already realised, they constitute a 
landmark in the history of Indian education. 

Economic 2. The introduction of these acts was followed *by a period 

distress. Q econoin i c distress and political unrest which India shared 
with the rest of the world. Under a voluntary system of 
education scarcity and high prices at once react upon school 
attendance, and the numbers were already falling in some 
parts of India when the schools were subjected to a direct 
political attack. " The long continuance of the war brought 
depression in its, train. The cost of education rose with the 
price of food and clothing and school materials. Money was 
scarce. Employment proved hard or impossible to get. The 
spirit of hope was discouraged, and as the line wavered, tlie 
politicians struck. This was due to no astuteness on their 
part. They were themselves the creatures of the complex 
which they exploited and, with those whom Ihey misled, are 
now equally its victims." 1 

N ^ 3. It is not- within the scope of an educational report to 

ationmove-" consider the political origins of the non-co-operation move- 
ment, ment. It did not at first make any direct attack upon the 
(a) Its begin- schools, though attendance at political meetings, enrolment 
limgB * a? volunteers and other similar activities served to distract the 
attention of students from their studies and to impede dis- 
cipline. It was only after the meeting of the Indian National 
Congress held in Nagpur in December 1920 that the campaign 
was launched which succeeded in crippling some schools beyond 
hope of recovery, in disorganising the work of others for six 
months or a year and in ruining the careers of many promis- 
ing scholars. At the Nagpur meeting resolutions were passed 
declaring a boycott of all schools recognised "by Government. 
This started a movement which spread in successive waves 
over the whole of India. In no province did it maintain its 

1 Assam, p. 36. 



INTRODUCTORY. 8 

maximum force for more than a few months, so that some 
provinces were already recovering from the shock while in 
others the disturbance was at its height. Its progress is 
marked by a rapid local decline in attendance at schools and 
colleges and by the occurrence of school strikes and other 
signs of indiscipline. 

4. Originally forming, as it did, part of a campaign which '6) Its 
aimed at paralysing the administration, it was purely destruct- 
ive in character. It was an appeal to the student community, 
to break away from the control of Government, and Govern- 
ment control is represented to students by the authorities who 
direct their studies. A large number of students who res- 
ponded to the appeal did so under the impression that they 
were thereby in some obscure way serving their coxintry. The 
power of the appeal was strengthened by a very genuine dis- 
content with a course of education which appeared to lead to 
nothing but the acquisition of a degree, an honour no longer 
worth the money spent in obtaining it. The political appeal 
was thus supported by the economic. Finally it must be 
remembered that the appeal was made to most inflammable 
material. " The drabness and joylessness of student life in 
Bengal has been a matter for frequent comment. The 
Calcutta University Commission Report has perhaps said the 
last word in describing the conditions of 1liis life. Poverty, 
the cram-drudgery of his studies, the dreary surroundings in 
which a student too often finds himself housed, make him 
f moody, depressed and absorbed in himself and his prospects. 
He needs therefore more than other students of the same age, 

recreation and diversion. Tt is not surprising therefore. 

if in moments of despondency, he falls a victim to uncontrol- 
lable excitement, sometimes of the most serious and violent 
nature.' Thus the appeal of the agitators, ostensibly to the 
noblest instincts of the student, his love of conn try und eager- 
ness for sacrifice, couched in terms that suggested glowing 
ideas of e national ' service, found its response in that natural 
craving for excitement in the adolescent, which in other coun- 
tries would have found vent in college ' rags,' in sport, in a 
hundred and one ways made impossible to the stiulenl in 
Bengal by his circumstances." 2 

" All classes of students have been affecte'd and among 
those who responded to pressure are those whom colleges could 
least afford to lose as well as those whose departure caused rio 
regret. There was something in the movement that appealed 
to most diverse types of mind. The call to * national ' service 
and self-sacrifice found a quirk response among the best, un- 



3 Bengal, pp. 94-95. 



4 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION US INDIA. 

intelligible to those who do not realize the emotional back- 
ground of student life and the absence of a strong sense of 
humour. While older men have been seeing visions the young 
men are dreaming dreams. Imagination has been fired and a 
spiritual ' uplift ' initiated. Something that had long been 
wanting in our college life had been supplied. To another 
class of temperament the situation presented possibilities of 
romance and adventure that irradiated a colourless existence. 
Picketing and processions were as irresistible to such minds 
as a bump-supper and a ' rag - to Oxford under-graduates. 
Others became for the first time conscious that they were 
wasting time over a kind of education not suited to their needs 
and leading them at its best to an office stool. It is greatly to 
the credit of the staff that these feelings, so natural in them- 
selves but affording such excellent material for unscrupulous 
agitators, found expression comparatively seldom in violent 
or offensive action, and that judgment was so often suspended 
and scope loft for reflection. Credit is also due to parents, 
as has specially been recorded in the Punjab report. Though 
other reports refer gloomily to the decay of parental authority 
it is clear that the losses would have been far greater had not 
many parents, in the feeth of local ridicule and opposition, 
brought great pressure to bear on their sons." 3 

5. It is of course impossible to say how many students were 
on attend- 60 Actually withdrawn from schools or colleges as a result of the 
non-co-operation movement, since a variety of other factors, 
chief among which was the high cost of living, also affected 
the attendance in the years following tKe war. The following 
statements give some indication of the losses: 



anoe 





A 
COL 


RTK , SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

EEOES. ! 


PJlIMARr 

SCHOOLS. 


! 








Total. 






Year. 






















g j Institutions. 


tr 



1 fc 

/i W 


g 
632,032 


*3 
5 


Scholars. 


5 j Institutions. 

CO 1 


S^iolars. 


Institutions. 


i 

6,103,521 


1919-20 


52,482 2,113 


6,595 


640,778 


1,281,810 


155,344 


1920-21 


160 


48,170 ' 2,184 


600,583 


6,739 


653,942 


8,923 


I 3 25i,525 


159,345 


6,327,973 


1921-22 


167 


1 
45,033 2,248 


594,910 


6,739 


644,614 


8,937 


1,2,9,524 


160,072 


6,110,451 



1 Indian Education in 1920-21, p. 4. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



Province. 


NATIONAL SCHOOIS 
AND COLLEGES IN, 
1921-22. 


APPROXIMATE EFFECT OK " NON- 
CO-OPERATION " ON CFRTAIN RK- 

COONISED INSTITUTIONS UP TO 
MARCH 1921. 


Institu- 
tions. 


Scholars. 


Scholars. 


Withdrawn 
from ins- 
titutions. 


KE MARKS. 

He turned. 


Madras . 


02* 


6,072* 


1,71,111 


820 


t | 


Bombay . 


139 


17,100 


42,416 


2,350 


239 j 


Bengal . 


190 


14,819 


1,03,107 


11,157 


No infor- 
mation. 


United Provinces 


137* 


8,476* , 


40,171 


2,G2C 789 ' 


Punjab . 


69 


8,046 ' 

i 


1,11,078 


i 
1,309 481 


Burma 


92 


16,218 


30,873 


I3,o:u : 747 i 


Bihar and Oinsa 


442 


17,330 


23,190 


1,826 t 


Central Provinces 


80* 


6,338* 


71,759 


1,821 i 454 ! 


Assam 


38 


1,908 ' 


12,1801: 


1,139 


336 


North- We^t Frontier 
Province 


4* 


120* 


41/312 j 


At* 




M inor Adni i n i st ra lions, 


10 


1,255 


4 .",508 


r71 


70 ^ 



* Opened till 31st July 1921. 

f There was a general tendency to return. 

t TiJIJaimary 1921. 

G. I have so far dealt with the destructive side of the (d) National 
movement. It was not, however, long before the parents of Institutions, 
the absenting scholars demanded some form of education to 
take the place of that which their sons had foregone. The year 
1921 saw the outcrop of a large number of " national "" ins- 
titutions, ranging from a Muhammadan University at Aligarli 
to the municipal primary schools at Surat. Some of these 
institutions were new, but many of them had been recognised 
schools and were " nationalised " by their managing com- 
mittees, sometimes at the instance of the scholars themselves. 
The Municipality of Surat, for example, " nationalised " all 
its schools. The Government of Bombay was forced ultimately 
to suspend the operations of this body and to appoint a com- 
mittee of management. A recent account scfys: " There are 
in the town about 8,000 or 9,000 school-going children, and the 
managing committee claims that the number of its pupils? has 



O PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

risen from 1,700 to about 4,000 children, with a daily average 
attendance of 3,000. The non-co-operationists put their figure 
at 7,500, with a daily attendance of 5,500. *****. 
On their own showing the non-co-operationisis have succeeded 
only in dividing the school-children of the city into rival 
camps on a merely political basis. The section brought under 
their own wing is detached from the state-aided schools with 
the amiable motive of teaching the children to rebel against 
constituted authority. Whether ihey are taught anything of 
value is a subject on" which no outside authority has any oppor- 
tunity to pronounce; and it would be utterly inconsistent with 
the theories underlying national education to bring the matter 
to the test of any Government or university examination."* 

() The mean- 7. The first step in the " nationalisation " of a school was 
*ke re P u diation of Government grants and recognition. But 
the act of " nationalisation " was also held to signify some 
alteration in the character of the school. It is no exaggeration 
to say that, provided that the new schools did not interfere 
with the work and the discipline of lexisting institutions, 
Directors and others interested in education would have wel- 
comed what purported to be the inauguration of a new edu- 
cational experiment. Any such hopes were doomed to 
disappointment. The new schools, if they showed any dis- 
tinctive features at all, showed none that were worthy ot 
imitation. The two elements of " national education," on 
which the acknowledged leader of the non-co-operation move- 
ment, Mahatma Gandhi, had laid great stress, were the \ise of 
the charkha or spinning wheel and the encouragement of the 
vernacular. Spinning wheels were at first provided in many 
of the national schools, but an elementary knowledge of child 
nature is sufficient to explain their early disuse. Apart from 
the supreme dullness of this particular form of manual exercise. 
it has no educative value at all comparable with lhat possessed 
by other forms of hand and eye training; its disappearance 
from the curriculum is no matter for regret. The economic 
value of the cJiarkha may be great, its educational value ia 
negligible. There is little evidence that the vernacular was 
any more extensively used in the national schools than it is 
under the present regulations in jecognised institutions. 
There is, on the other hand, clear evidence that many of the 
national schools gained a brief popularity by commencing tlie 
stucly of English at an earlier stage than is permitted by 
departmental regulations. In some of the institutions for 
older students, such for example as the National University 
at Aligarh, politics entered largely into the programme of 
studies. Apart /rom this, the curricula of the national institu- 

4 Times Educational Supplement, dated 16th June 1923. 



INTRODUCTORY. 7 

tions differed very little from those prescribed by the Education 
Department. The teachers were all products of the recognised 
system and were only qualified to teach what they had learnK 
Too often they were not even qualified to do this and the 
discipline of the new schools was notoriously lax. The best 
of the national schools have now sought and regained recog- 
nition and the number remaining must be a small fraction 
of those which are shown in the preceding table. 

8. It would be tedious to follow the development of the 
movement from province to province, but the following 
account from Bengal may be taken as typical of its course. 

9. As a result of the Kliilafat agitation in August and (/) InBengal. 
September 1920 a strike took place in October at the Calcutta 
Madrasah. The backwash of this strike was felt at the 
Chittagong Madrasah, but it seems that the Mussalmaii element 

in the movement, seeing the lack of support at the time from 
Hindu sources, realised the disastrous effect of such a sectional 
upheaval, and in consequence, shrank from going to extremes. 
After the students' conference at Nagpur a sudden demand 
arose from the students of many colleges in Calcutta that the 
institutions should be nationalised. The students of the 
Central and Bangahasi colleges led the way. Excitement 
and intimidation were rife in certain areas of Calcutta, and 
largely as a precautionary measure the colleges of Calcutta, 
with the exception of the Bengal Engineering College, the 
Medical College, the post-graduate classes and the Law 
College, were closed. " This closure* was criticised at the 
time as pusillanimous for it seemed clear that the demands 
as formulated were the demands of a small, very vocal, an<1 
highly organised minority, whirh, as in similar eircumstanret* 
universally, was for a time able to impose its will upon an 
unorganised majority. It is significant in this connection 
that Presidency College, surrounded as it was by hostile 
pickets and crowds and subjected to constant endeavour to 
sap its loyalty, stood firm. In the end and in consonance 
with the action of other Calcutta colleges, Presidency College 
was closed. As a result, the loyal elements were no longer 
subjected to constant indignity and insidious argument, and 
the dispersal of students, whether well or ill-affocted, to their 
homes brought them into contact with the moderating influence 
of age and experience. Further the hottest heads were givou 
ample leisure to realise that the golden age promised them as a 
result of ' national ' education was but a fanfiisy, since the 
network of 07mr&/m-spinning plus Urdu or Hindi teaching 
institutions refused to materialise, charm the agitator never so 
wisely." 5 

8 Bengal, p. 91. 



S PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

The picketing of colleges and schools was carried to such a 
length that the entrance to the examination hall was blocked 
against the ingress of the law candidates by rows of supine 
students. Only the most determined of examinees ventured 
to cross this barricade. 

10. Outside Calcutta the acuteness of the situation seemed 
to vary directly in proportion to the distance of an institution 
from the capital. Thus at Eajshahi the work was only tem- 
porarily suspended, while at Dacca the students, though 
subjected to great pressure, resisted stoutly and the college 
was never completely closed. The net loss of the colleges 
appears to have been over 27 per cent, of the students who 
normally would have been promoted from the first and third 
to the second and fourth year classes, respectively. A curious 
feature is that the admission to the science departments ol 
the colleges and post-graduate classes showed an increase in 
1921. " This seems to support the assertion frequently made 
that the desertion was due in part, not to aversion from the 
system as a Government or Government-aided system, but to 
a growing and frequently expressed idea that the purely 
literary side of education has been overdone and that, as many 
of the students stated the case, it is * science or nothing/ " 6 

11. The movement hardly affected the primary and middle 
schools at all but there was a fall of 23 per cent, approximately, 
i.e., of 45,000 students, in the attendance at high schools. 
" Girls' schools have as yet little significance in the life of the 
people, and this obscurity has been of service to them in saving 
them from sharing, except in very minor degrees, in the 
attacks made on those for boys."' 

12. There was a recrudescence of the movement in the 
winter of 1921-22 in the shape of a much more barefaced and 
cynical attempt to use the students and the school-boys as 
political tools. The activities of the non-co-operationists were 
directed towards a complete " hold-up " of normal city life 
on certain days. Their methods were the employment of 
so-called " volunteers " for the picketing of cloth and liquor 
shops and for the holding up of traffic, and the organisation 
of illegal processions for the purpose of courting arrest. As 
evidence that the movement, so far ap it concerned students, 
was entirely divorced from educational considerations, may be 
adduced the fact that in the cases of strikes in Calcutta 
colleges, there was no accompanying demand for nationalisa- 
tion; the reason given was generally that the strike was a 
protest against the action of Government or against the arrest 



Bengal, p. 92. 

7 United Provinces, p. J16. 



INTRODUCTORY. 9 

of some particular leader. While it is admitted that the 
movement may have given rise to a more constructively critical 
attitude towards the present system of education yet its evil 
disciplinary effects are patent. In the end " political agita- 
tion seems to have tailed off into teaching bad manners to 
school boys."* 

13. This episode in the history of Indian education is closed, (g) The lei 
It has not been without its valuable lessons to the educationist. 8ns 

It has brought to light evidence of a genuine dissatisfaction 
with the processes of education in India. It was due to the ment. 
politicians that the attack was directed against the system of 
educational administration, and because the system, though 
capable of improvement, is on the whole suited to the country 
the attack failed. But strength was added to the attack by 
underlying discontent with the character of the education 
provided under this system. For this discontent, it would 
appear, in the subsequent pages that there is some justification. 
" It is probable that the large bulk of the students suddenlv 
realised, to their intense pain and disappointment, that mucn 
of their education is ill-suited to their practical needs. While 
ihe professor was lecturing to them on the annals of the 
Holy Roman Empire, their thoughts were inevitably and 
irresistibly turned to the great liberal and national movements 
of the nineteenth century. In economics they desired to study, 
the application of general principles to the problems of theii* 
own country instead of to those of distant lands. Students, 
both at school and at college, began to wonder whether they 
were being trained for life and for service or for mere success 
in the examinations, for it was the ideals of service that were 
uppermost in tEeir minds." 9 

14. In short the educational organisation of India emerged 
triumphantly from the ordeal, but the crisis has left behind 
ihe conviction that our educational aims need re-statement. 
If the function of education is the adaptation of the future 
citizen to his environment, then the content of education must 
change in harmony with changes in that environment. The 
political and economic conditions of India have been under- 
going change and the national school movement can at least 
claim that it lent strength to the advocates of educational 
reform. 

15. One significant feature of the non-co-operation cam- WAil- 
paign was its disregard of provincial boundaries. Not only c j a cter of 
did its leaders claim for it an all-India character but their school* 1 



the national 
move- 
ment. 



8 Bengal, p. 96. 
Punjab, p. 18. 



10 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



appeal did in fuct evoke a similar response in the different pro- 
vinces which they visited. On the other hand, the organi- 
sation of the resistance to their attack was left to the phmn- 
cial educational authorities. This lack of co-operation in the 
defence was inevitable in view of the organisation of educa- 
tional administration in India, more particularly in view of tlie 
political situation at the time of the attack, for the non-co- 
operation movement coincided with the introduction of consti- 
tutional reforms in India. Under the new constitution the 
autonomy of the provinces in educational matters was estab- 
lished by statute. Education was declared, under the 
Government of India Act of 1919, to be a " provincial trans- 
ferred " subject, to be entrusted to the charge of ministers 
responsible to the provincial legislatures. The general 
significance of this change will be described in the following 
chapter. But there are certain aspects of "provincialisation" 
which call for mention in this introduction. 

Education in 16. The first, the variety which characterises the provincial 
TO^^oial U ha8 8 ^ s ^ ems ^ e ducation, has been dealt with in previous reviews, 
many com- The fact that it is possible to compile, with soide degree of 
mon features, accuracy, the numerous all-India tables which find place in 
the two volumes of this review shows that these variations 
are not as yet fundamental. It is true that primary" schools 
may, in one province contain seven classes, in another four, 
that no two provinces in India have adopted the same system 
of grant-in-aid, in short that education in every province has 
its own distinctive characteristics : yet the general uniformity 
of the provincial systems is more pronounced than their 
variety. The same problems concerning the use of the 
vernacular medium, the recognition of high' schools, the edu- 
cational responsibilities of local bodies, etc., are questions of 
moment to each Director of Public Instruction. 



It might 



more. 



17. It might be of advantage if in some non-essential 
witiTadvan- matters there were greater uniformity. Comparisons of the 
tag* hare educational activities of the different provinces would be more 
intelligible and reliable and the lessons of experience would 
be more easily transferable from one province to another if, 
for example, the nomenclature adopted for the different classes 
of schools and for the different school classes was the same 
in all provinces. Three provinces during the quinquennium 
have followed the recommendation of the Conference of Direc- 
tors held in 1917 and numbered their school classes in 
sequence from the lowest to the highest, but elsewhere a great 
deal of variety exists as will be apparent from the diagram 
facing page 77. This example is quoted merely, to illustrate 
the point that comparisons based solely on provincial ntutistie? 
are apt to be misleading. 



INTRODUCTORY. 11 

18. Three factors are likely to conduce to further differen- Provincial 
tiation, the transfer of education to the charge of provincial differences 
ministers, the multiplication of universities and the financial ^generall 
inequalities of the different provinces. It is as yet too soon to desirable, 
say how far the provincialisation of education will lead to the 
adoption of divergent policies. Hitherto the tendency has been 

for any popular measure introduced in one province, such as a 
primary education act or the abolition of the age-limit for 
matriculation, to be adopted or at least considered for adoption 
in other provinces. But it is inevitable and, in view of local 
circumstances, not undesirable that each province should 
develop its own educational policy. There are, however, Except in 
certain matters of importance in which local or provincial educational 
variation would be dangerous to the pause of education. No 8ta ndard8. 
one would desire to see any differences recognised in the value 
of the degrees conferred by different Indian universities. Th? 
importance of having some external criterion of the fitness of 
candidates for admission to the professions will be mentioned 
in the chapter on professional education. With the multi- 
plication of universities, some of them situated at no great 
distance from each other, a real danger arises lest the pressure 
of competition may result in the lowering of the standard 
of university examinations. Already it is reported from Bihar 
and Orissa that there is a tendency for students to migrate 
to Calcutta in the belief that the requirements of the Calcutta 
University are less exacting than those of the University of 
Patna. It would be most unfortunate if in India, as in th 
United States of America, a degree ceased to possess any 
intrinsic value and was dependent for recognition on the status 
and reputation of the particular university by which it had 
been conferred. Again it is natural that a province should 
prefer to recruit its officers from among the people of the 
province, but, if this principle is extended to university ap- 
pointments and academic distinction is subordinated to 
domiciliary qualifications, some deterioration in university 
standards must, especially in the smaller provinces, be tKe 
result. Any change'in the standard set by the university is 
reflected in the standard of education provided in the schools. 

19. These are contingencies which it is impossible to ignore. Financial 
But such provincial and local variations in systems and differences, 
standards are subject to control by local Governments and 
universities. It is otherwise with variations which are due 

to tKe inequalities of provincial finance. The provincialisation 
of education was accompanied by the grant of a large measure 
of fiscal autonomy to the provinces. The following table 
shows the financial position and expenditure on education of 
the provinces in 1921-22. 



12 



PROGRESS .OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



And their 
effect. 



Province. Population.* 

i 


Revenues. 


Kd * "i. 
expenditure. 


Percentage 
of education- 
1 al expeji- 
diture to re- 
venues. 




Us 


Us. 


Us. 


I 
Madras 42,318,985 


11,74,88,517 


1,42,51,598 


12-1 


Bombay , 19,358,379 


13,10,72,589 


1,71,25,286 


13-1 


Bengal ...... 46,695,536 


8,32,44,177 


1,18,76,621 


14-3 


United Provinces .... 45,375,787 


10,01,55,348 


1,51,41,029 


15-1 


Punjab 20,685,024 
Burma 13,212,192 


7,09,68,534 
9,17,71,221 


87,11,371 
57,68,683 


12-3 
6-3 


Bihar and Orissa .... 34,002,189 


4,42,62,036 


53,36,928 


12-1 


Central Provinces and Berar . , 13,912,760 


4,71,87,880 
1,81,53,434 


53,68,308 
23,13,822 


11-4 
12-7 


North-West Frontier Province . . 2,251,342 


62,86,291 


12,13,331 


19-3 


Minor Administrations . . . 1,679,227 


1,08,54,216 


12,54,193 


11-6 


TOTAL . 247,097,5i 


72,14,44,243 


8,8'*,61,170t 


12-2 



* Taken from general educational tables. 

t Taken from Finance and Revenue Accounts of the Government of India for 1921-22. The 
total expenditure given in the general educational tables is Us. 9,02,30.028. The discrepancy is 
due to the different f.ystern: of classification of expenditure. 

20. The foregoing table requires no comment. It affords 
an explanation of the fact that Bengal, in some ways the most 
educationally advanced province in India, pays its teachers 
less than any other province. It shows why carefully devised 
schemes for the expansion of education in the rural areas of 
Bihar and Orissa must he held in abeyance: indeed it is 
reasonable to infer that, unless the revenues in that province 
can be made more commensurate with the number of its 
inhabitants, the time must come when Bihar and Oiissa must 
be content with a system of education markedly inferior to 
that of a province such as Burma which with half its popula- 
tion has double its revenues. The financial inequalities of 
the provinces cannot But profoundly affect their educational 
policies. While Bombay with its large and growing revenues 
can contemplate the early and general introduction of com- 
pulsory primary education, it is out of the question for Bengal 
with its restricted and inelastic resources to consider anv 
such project. Since a well-organised system of education is 
one of the most potent factors in economic, social and political 
development tne ultimate effect of such provincial divergen- 
cies can hardly be over-estimated. But the present review 



INTRODUCTORY. 



13 



is concerned with the educational history of the past five Banger of 
years, not with a problematical future; and I have laid stress ^I* 161 * 1 * 8 *' 
on these provincial differences only in order to warn the reader about Indian 
that generalisations about the conditions and progress of edu- education, 
cation in India nmst be adopted with some reservation and 
that comparisons based on provincial statistics must take 
account of provincial differences in organisation, finance and 
nomenclature. 

21. An account was given in the last quinquennial review Effect of the 
of the effects of the war on Indian education. Though the J* n r c ntten * 
war had still almost two years to run when the present quin- 
quennium opened there is little to add to that account. The 
war did not appreciably affect school attendance. Except 
in isolated units such as the Bengali regiment and the Punjab 
University Signalling Section, recruits for the Indian Army 
were drawn chiefly from the rural and agricultural classes. 
Higher education in India did not suffer as in the principal 
countries which took part in the war. The following table 
borrowed from an American publication 10 is of interest. 

Attendance at colleges and universities. 



Countries . 


1914. 1 1915. 


]916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1910. 1920. 


United States . 
Prance 


42,037 


11,230 


12,660 


457,488 
14,121 


411,116 
19,381 


423,477 440,069 
29,891 45,117 


Germany . 


60,741 


53,789 


57,243 


64,978 


70,162 


87,065 83,506 


Great Britain 


., 


30,563 


29,722 


20.748 


32,445 


47,686 73,705 


India 


47,337 


50,688 


55,620 


58,639 


02,936 


63,830 05,916 



Not the least remarkable feature of the above table is the 
comparatively small loss sustained by 1he German universities. 
While the average loss in British colleges was 31*4 per cent, 
and in France 64-4 per cent., the figures for Germany 
(supplied from German official sources) never show a shortage 
of more than 10 per cent, while the average fall for the whole 
war is only 1*4 per cent. In India, while attendance at colleges 
was not directly affected by the war, there is some evidence 
that attendance at primary schools was actually stimulated. 
From the Punjab, for example, it is reported that those who 
returned from service overseas had learnt to appreciate the 
value of education. In 1918 on the occasion of the Silver The Silver 
Wedding of Their Majesties, Her Excellency Lady Chelmsford Wedding 
issued an appeal for a ftind to enable the children of those who Fand - 
had been killed or permanently disabled in the great war to 

10 Educational Review, Chicago University, April 1922. 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



proceed to higher education. The appeal met with a generous- 
response and over thirteen lakhs were subscribed, chiefly by 
the women of India to whom the appeal was addressed. The 
Burma contribution of Its. 1,34,697 was made by over a quarter 
of a million of women. More than a thousand scholars in 
middle schools, high schools and colleges now receive help 
from the Silver Wedding Fund. The Punjab Government 
had already instituted scholarships for the same class of 
children and after the inauguration of the Silver Wedding 
Fund they extended the benefits of their scheme to include the 
children of all who took active part in the great war. Owing 
to the large number of recruits which the province provided 
for the fighting forces the cost of these ^ scholarships now 
amounts to three lakhs a year. The Madras Government have 
also instituted similar scholarships. 

Economic 22. Of the indirect effect of the war on education due 

consequence* to its political reactions I have already written. Still more 
of the war. serious, because more lasting in their consequences, were its 
reactions on, the economic condition of India. The rise in 
prices affected education in two ways. It resulted directly 
in the withdrawal of a considerable number of scholars whose 
parents could no longer afford to keep them at school; to this 
cause, rather than to non-co-operation, may be assigned the 
fall in some provinces in the attendance at primary schools. 
But the effect on educational finance of the rise in prices was 
even more serious. It necessitated a general revision of the 
pay of the teaching staff which absorbed Ihe funds needed 
for educational expansion. This is reflected in the rise in the 
cost of schooling as shown in general tables II and IV from 
which the following figures have been taken. 

(i) Average annual cost per scholar in recognised institutions. 



Year. 


GENERAL EDUCATION. 


SPECIAL EDUCATION. 


TOTAL. 


Arts 
Colleges. 


Second- 
ary 
Schools. 


Primary 
Schools. 


Profes- 
sional 
Colleges. 


T i r ni n " Othcr 
Schools. I 8 " 1 18 ' 




Efl. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Bs. 


1 
Rs. Us. 


B*. 


1916-17 .... 


152 


28 


5 


318 


157 


38 


11 


1921-22 .... 
Increase per heail 


241 


40 


8 


436 


212 


77 


18 


+89 


+ 12 


+3 


+ 118 


+ 55 


+88 


+7 



INTRODUCTORY. 



15 



Of the increased cost the largest share was met by Gov- 
ernment. 

(ii) Total expenditure on education, by sources. 



Year. 

* 


EXPENDITURE *KOM 


TOTAL EXPEN- 
DITURE. 


Government 
Funds. 

Us. 
8,91,62,853 

9,02,30,028 


Board 
Funds . 


1 
j Fees. 


Other 
Sources. 


1016-17 . . 1 
1921-22 . 
Increase . 


Ite. 
2,23,17,618 

2,47,31,150 


i 
i its. 
3,18,71,138 

j 3,80,08,648 


RR. 
1,95,31,459 

3,07,83,143 


RB. 

11,28,83,068 

18,37,52,969 


+ 5,10,67,175 


+ 24,1 3,632 


I +61,37,510 


+ 1,12,51,684 


+7,08,09,901 



It must be remembered that in addition to the share of the 
increased cost of schooling which was met by Government, 
provincial revenues had also to bear the cost of increases in 
the pay of the inspecting staff, the expenditure on which rose 
from Its. 50 lakhs to Rs. 80 lakhs though the number of 
officers employed fell from 2,209 to 2,197. 

23. The year 1918-19 was marked by a terrible epi- Influenza 
demic of influenza which is estimated to have carried off five and famine ' 
millions of lives throughout India and which caused grave 
dislocation in the work of the schools and colleges. The same 

year also witnessed a widespread failure of crops which 
seriously affected school attendance. 

24. In spite of the various adverse factors, political and Statistical 
economic, there is considerable advance in education to record r 8 reM ' 
during the quinquennium. The following extracts from the 
general tables included in the second volume give a conspectus 

of the numerical advance: 

(i) Institutions and Scholars. 



Type of Institution. 


INSTITUTIONS. 


SCHOLARS. 


1917. 


1922. 


Increase 
or de- 
crease. 


1917. 


1922. 


Increase 
or de- 
crease. 


Arts Colleges 
Professional Colleges. . 


134 
Cl 


)07 
r.4 


+ 33 
-r.'J 


47,185 
11,504 


45,933 
13,062 


1,202 
+ 2,168 


Secondary Schools 


7,693 


8,987 


-1-1,294 


1,186,335 


1,239,524 


+ 63,189 


Primary Schools . 
Special Schools . 


142,203 
4,861 


160,070 
4,011 


-f 17,867 
850 


5,818,730 
143,604 


6,310,400 
132,706 


+ 491,670 
10,898 


Unrecognised institutions 
TOTAL . 


37,803 


34,807 


2,996 


644.638 


639,125 


5,613 


192,755 


208,106 


+ 15,351 


7,851,946 


8,381,350 


+ 529,404 



NOTE. If the unrecognised institutions are not taken into account, the 
increase in the number of public institutions amounts to 18,347 and that of 
their scholars to 534,917. 



16 



PROGRESS OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



(ii) Scholars according to stages of instruction. 



Stage.* 


1916-17. 


1921-22. 


Increase or 
decrease. 


College stage 


57,972 


! 

58,837 


+865 


High stage . 
Middle stage . ... 


216,160 
385 37 * 


218,606 
434 810 


+2,446 

+49 43$- 


Primary stage ..... 


404 00 


p 897 147 


+492 947 


Special Schools . . , 


143 604 


10 ,700 


10 Rfl> 


Unrecognised institutions . 


044,638 


639,125 


5,513 


TOTAL 


7,851,946 

i 


8,381,264* 


+529,318 



* Excludes 86 Scholars reading purely classical languages 



(iii) Scholars according to sex, race or creed. 







1916-17. 






1921-22. 




Community. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


i Females. 


Total. 


Europeans and Anglo- 
Indians. 


22,419 


20,126 


42,545 


22,987 


i 
21,651 


44,038 


Indian Christians . 


129,724 


80,589 


210,315 


162,293 


101,588 


263,831 


Hindus 


4,014,849 


664,111 


4,678,960 


4,154,863 


751,021 


4,905,884 


Muhammadans . 


1,540,508 


281,432 


1,821,940 


1,616,448 


849,228 


il,965,67 


Buddhists . 


429, 


110,654 


540,448 


405,332 


103,806 


509,138 


Parsis; 


10,678 


6,226 


16,904 


10,512 


6,558 


17,070- 


Other Communities 


93,045 


14,387 


107,432 


120,529 


16,244 


136,773 


Depressed classes 


380,510 


52,894 


433,404 


469,878 


68,376 


538,254 


TOTAL 


6,621,527 


1,230,419 


7,851,946 


6,962,842 


1,418,422 


8,381,264 



INTRODUCTORY. 



17 



(iv) Expenditure on Education according to objects. 



Objects of Ex- 
penditure. 


1916-17. 


1921-22. 


For Males. 


For 
Females. 


Total 


For 
Males. 


For 
Females. 


Total. 




Rs. 


Ha. 


Rs. 


Ba. 


Rs. 


.H*. 


Arts Colleges . 


69,23,617 


1,80,131 


71,03,748 


1,07,08,923 


3,33,415 


1,10,42,338 


Professional Col- 
leges. 
SecondarySchoolP 


35,52,734 
2,79,41,432 


46,684 
39,87,750 


85,99,418 
3,19,29,182 


57,59,995 
4,22,17,448 


2,17,519 
65,09,457 


59,77,514 
4,87,26,905 


Primary Schools 


2,51,57,789 


41,65,756 


2,93,13,545 


4,33,47,444 


75,60,663 


5,09,08,107 


Training Schools 


22,34,900 


6,28,910 


28,63,810 


46,62,852 


12,01,248 


58,64,100 


Other Special 
Schools. 
University 


41,89,537 


2,87,579 

^ 


44,77,116 
25,51,925 


73,51,009 


4,86,485 


78,37,494 
73,40,678 


Direction 




8,92,263 




13,99,110- 


Inspection 


>. 3,35,96,249 


49,64,587 


5,33,96,511 


79,36,408 


Scholarships . i 




21,65,718 




31,76,089 


Buildirurs, etc. . 




,37,08,740 




1,97,60,544 


Miscellaneous . 
TOTAL . 


> , , ( 


93,13,016 


\ 


1,37,83,782 


7,00,00,009 < 


)2,86,810 


11,28,83,068 


11,40,47,6711 1.63,08,787 
+ 5,33,96,511 


18,37,52,969 


+ 3,35,96,249 



of 



NOTE. The table shows an all round Increase amounting to Ks. 7.0S 00,901 durlnj? the 
quinquennium. 

25. The foregoing tables disclose one general characteristic Increase of 
of educational development during the quinquennium, an scholars, dis- 
increase in the number of scholars by no means commensurate ^ 
with the increase in the number of institutions. This 
phenomenon is common to university, secondary and 
primary education, hut it is due in each case to a different 
cause. " The number of universities has doubled because the(a) Univer- 
older universities had outgrown all reasonable limits. The sitie8 ? 
work of the universities o Calcutta and Allahabad has now 
been lightened by the opening of new universities serving 
outlying provinces and largo centres formerly inchided under 
their jurisdiction. A similar tendency towards the formation 
of smaller university units is evident in the Punjab and 
Madras. The change has therefore been in the direction of 
partition with a view to improved efficiency (vide para- 
graphs 76/). The increase in the number of secondary schools (b) Secondary 
is titular. Tn the Punjab and tho North-West Frontier Pro- Schools; 
viiice the ordinary five-class primary schools have been re- 
classified, the smaller schools remaining primary institutions 
with four classes only, the larger schools being converted into 
six-class lower middle (or secondary) schools, of which neoilv 



18 



raooiusss OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



(c) Primary 
Schools. 



University 
education : 
growjth of 
unitary teach- 
ing univer- 
sities. 



500 came into existence. The object of this change was to 
reduce within more reasonable limits the work of tne master 
in sole charge of a single-teacher primary school and at the 
same time to provide a natural form of development for the 
larger primary schools. But there has also been in some 
provinces, notably in Bengal, a more generous recognition 
accorded to secondary schools under private management. 
Many of these have indented on older institutions for the bulk 
of their scholars. For these two reasons the increase in the 
number of secondary institutions, shown in the foregoing 
tables, does not imply a corresponding increase in the facilities 
for secondary education. Where primary education is on a 
voluntary basis, expansion beyond a certain point means the 
establishment of schools in backward areas where only a 
meagre and fluctuating attendance can be expected. This 
point has been reached in some of the less advanced provinces 
of India, for example in the North- West Frontier Province, 
where the attendance at some of the schools recently opened 
has been very poor. It is perhaps too much to expect mis- 
sionary zeal of the ordinary village teacher sent to an un- 
promising centre of learning, for success in what he is apt to 
regard as a penal station may indefinitely delay hLs return to 
civilization. But here also a tendency to accord a too gene- 
rous recognition to venture schools has been noted. Where 
reliance is placed upon the aided school in preference to the 
board school, a redundancy of small schools is the probable 
result. The average size of a primary school ranges from 42 
(in the North- West Frontier Province) to 01 (in the United 
Provinces) in those provinces which rely on board chools, as 
contrasted with 28 (in Bihar and Orissa) to 40 (in Assam) in 
the provinces which rely on the aided system.* 

26. Considerations of space prohibit the inclusion in this 
introduction of any lengthy summary of the progress recorded 
in the following chapters, such as has been included in pre- 
vious reviews. Mention only will be attempted of those 
changjes which indicate .fresh lines of development or 
suggest lessons for future guidance. 

27. The future of university education has been profoundly 
affected by the publication of the report of the Calcutta 
University Commission. The unitary teaching university is 

k now an established fact. Eecent university legislation has 
shown that where the form of the affiliating university has 
been retained it has been retained of necessity and not of choice. 
There are siprns that the conception of university life as con- 
noting- something more than mere residence in an individual 

*V./?. Madras (grant-in-aid) with 41 and Bombay (Board schools) 62 
have been excluded as many of their primary schools contain middle classes. 



ItfTKODUCTORY. 

college, with its restricted opportunities for culture and re- 
search, is being increasingly realised. But India was studded 
with isolated colleges before the new idea took shape. Some 
of these will develop into universities ; for the others the Com- 
mission held out 110 future but reduction to the status of inter- 
mediate colleges. Only in a few instances is this recom- 
mendation likely to be carried into effect; and together with 
the multiplication of unitary universities a reorganisation of 
affiliating universities is also to be expected. The Allahabad 
and Madras universities have already led the way. This re- 
organisation will include, if these two precedents are followed, 
a reconstruction of the administrative machinery of the 
university, by which an elective majority will be introduced 
into an enlarged senate and a professional body will be set 
up to deal with purely academic mutters; it will also provide 
for co-operation between the colleges in teaching and for a 
larger assumption by the university itself of teaching func- 
tions. 

28. Some public distrust has been shown of the policy of Some 
multiplying universities. But this policy /Iocs not in % e ^ 
imply any change in the standard of university teaching, since 

the groat majority of university students have in the 
past been wholly dependent on their colleges for their edu- 
cation, and have in fact had no relations with the 
university except attendance at its examinations. Provided 
that the new universities maintain, in their courses and 
examinations, standards at least as high as those established 
by the older institutions, then the multiplication of new uni- 
versity centres must be wholly in the interests of higher 
education and research in India. In Canada with a popula- 
tion of 8,788,183 there were last year 2X universities with an 
attendance of 34,720 students, of whom 9,000 were women. 
In Australia which has a population of about 5-} millions, 
there are half a, dozen universities with a total enrolment of 
about 9,000 students. In South Africa, with a colonial popu- 
lation of one and a half millions, there are four universities 
with some 3,000 students. t 

29. In secondary education the most noteworthy develop- Secondary 
ments have been the more general introduction of the vern a- education, 
ciilar medium and the growing demand for vocational training, J^^ o 
The use of the vernacular as the medium of instruction has instruction, 
been supported both by publicists on sentimental or patriotic- 
grounds and by teachers on educational grounds, since it is 
natural that a child should receive his early instruction in his 
mother-tongue. When English education was first introduced 

into India it was never intended that it should replace 
the vernacular as the ordinary medium of instruction. On 
the contrary, as the Despatch* of 1854 says, it was expected 



20 1'ROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

that masters and professors who had, through English, access- 
to the latest improvements in knowledge should " impart to* 
their pupils through the medium of their mother-tongue the 
information which they have thus obtained. At the same- 
time/' say the Directors, " and as the importance of the verna- 
cular languages becomes more appreciated the vernacular 
literatures of India will be gradually enriched by translations 
of European books or by tlie original compositions of men. 
whose minds have been imbued with the spirit of European^ 
advancement, so that European knowledge may gradually- be* 
placed in this manner within the reach of all classes of the 
people." 11 It cannot be said that the hopes of the Court of 
Directors have been fulfilled. There is little incentive for 
Indian scholars of repute to translate European books of learn- 
ing into the vernacular, since only those who are well acquaint- 
ed with English are competent to appreciate ihem; their origi- 
nal compositions they naturally produce in that language- 
which will command the largest public. It is gratifying to 
find that an increasing number of Indian scientists obtain re- 
cognition of their work in the leading scientific journals of Eu- 
rope. Even in the lower stages of education the tendency has 
been to lay too much stress upon English because of its great 
practical use as a medium or lingua franca in a land with 
over one hundred and forty vernaculars. But the dearth of 
a vernacular literature due to the lack of a reading public is a 
serious handicap to the encouragement of literacy among the 
masses for after all only 2,289,188 men and 238,162 women 
of India are literate in English. 

(n) Difficulties HO. The problem of vocational education is not one which 
inmtroduc- fa e educationist alone is competent to solve. The insist- 
tUmaUtudies. en ^ demand for increased facilities for technical train- 
ing 1 is indicative rather of a desire for employment than 
of a desire for education. Such experiments as have been 
made with the introduction of vocational subjects into 
the genera] school curriculum have met with but in- 
different success owing, firstly, to the lack of subsequent 
opportunity for the scholars to use the training given 
and, secondly, to their disinclination to enter anything in the 
nature of a blind alley. It is interesting to note that the same 
objection to premature specialisation is found in America : 
" The average American parent ha,s little toleration for am 
plan or any course in education which closes the way for his 
boy or girl to the highest "attainment. This is true even 
though only the occasional student may care to demand the 
advanced opportunity. Many high school pupils fail to know 
even at the time of graduation, to say nothing of the beginning 

11 Selections from Educational Records, Part II, p. 36& 



INTRODUCTORY. 21 

of their course, whether or not they may decide to go on to- 
college." There is, however, much to he said fot a move- 
ment which would regard secondary education " as something 
to be adapted to the needs of young persons of ages 12 to 18 
years approximately rather than something whose contents and 
metlnds should be determined by the fact that its students 
are expected at entrance to have completed the prescribed 
routine of a certain number of grades and are expected at 
graduation to meet the arbitrary entrance requirements of 
higher institutions." 12 

31. To revert to the obstacles to vocational education, it 
\\oiud seem mitunil before introducing any practical subject 
into a school curriculum to ascertain whether there is any 
opening for the boys who undergo training to practise this 
vocation profitably; in fact some connection should first, be 
made between the school and the employers and some enquiry 
instituted into the nature of the occupations followed by ex- 
scholars who do riot proceed to the university. The need for 
these preliminary steps is too often overlooked. 

U2. The second obstacle, the reluctance of the scholars to Illustrated 
decide curly on their future career, niuy be illustrated f rom f * om history 
the history of recent attempts at agricultural education. tura1"duca 
Agriculture is the most important industry in India, and heretion. 
there is no question of the lack of subsequent opportunity. 
Agric.ultural colleges have always attracted a certain number 
of. students who hope to obtain employment in the Agricultural 
Department, that is to say woiild-oe Government servants and 
not would-be agriculturists. They have within the last few 
years succeeded in attracting an increasing number of the sons 
of well-to-do agriculturists to whom the potentialities of 
scientific agriculture have appealed. But the total number of 
students at agricultural colleges in India is only 9G7 and it 
can never represent more than a very small fraction of the 
rural population. Special agricultural middle schools have 
been opened in some provinces. These institutions have 
attracted few scholars and those not of the best quality. The 
son of a poor agriculturist who proceeds beyond the primary 
stage has 110 ambition to revert to his hereditary profes- 
sion. Agriculture without capital, agriculture as he has seen 
it carried on by his father, offers few attractions to an intelli- 
gent schoolboy. Consequently the most successful experiments 
in agricultural education appear to be those which include 
agricultural teaching in the ordinary curriculum of the rural 
school, thereby not debarring boys of real ability from pro- 
ceeding to higher education while ensuring that those who, 
through failure at examinations or lack of other openings, 
return to the land do so with a more skilled knowledge of their 

12 The School Review, Chicago University, April 1921. 



J'KOGttESS O* EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Co-operation 
and adult 
education. 



Primary 
education. 



<a) Progress 
in literacy. 



<fe) Value of 
proceeding 
oy plan. 



future occupation. For better opportunities to apply that 
knowledge they must look for the necessary capital and help 
to the co-operative society. The close 4 connection between rural 
education and rural co-operation has been pointed out by 
several writers.* One happy outcome of the co-or>erative 
movement in recent years has been the spread of adult edu- 
cation in villages. This interesting and valuable contribu- 
tion of co-operation to education is as yet in its initial stages 
but the promising start made in Bengal, Bombay and the 
Punjab encourages Hope of its future development. 

33. The quinquennium' does not disclose much change in 
the content of primary education. Nor, taking India as a 
whole, does it record any general advance in the battle with 
illiteracy. As ascertained at the Census of 1921, the number 
of literates in India was 22,623,651 (19,841,438 males 
and 2,782,213 females) or, in other words, 72 per inille (122 
in the case of men and 18 in that of women). These figures 
show a slight improvement since the Census of 1911 when the 
n umber of literates in India was computed to be only 59 per 
mille, i.e., 106 for men and 10 for women; but they are less 
than might be expected from tlie numbers under instruction. 
One lesson may perhaps be read from the provincial reports, 
the advantage of proceeding in accordance with a care- 
I'ully devised plan. Only the adoption of such a plan 
can ensure the equalisation of educational opportunity and 
guarantee that such provincial funds, as are available, 
are used to the best advantage. The Government of India 
resolution of 1913 on Indian educational policy recom- 
mended that advance should be by means of boai*d 
schools directly managed by local bodies, but financial neces- 
sity has prevented the general adoption of this system. In 
some provinces, as in the panch ayati union school system of 
Bengal, it has been partially adopted with considerable success. 
A plan of campaign has the notable advantage that it allows 
for a detailed estimate to be made of the cost of expansion 
so that this cosl may be apportioned in advance between pro- 
vincial and local funds. The method in which the cost should 
be apportioned has been much discussed. t-The payment of 
purely proportionate grants results in flagrant inequalities; for 
there is no correspondence between the income of a local body, 
actual or potential, and the number of children of school -going; 
age for -whose education it is responsible. \ 'The solution ot 
this problem depends ultimately on the decision of a much 
larger issue the relative responsibility of the provincial gov- 
ernment and the local area for the provision of primary edu- 

*"The Wealth and Welfare of the Punjab,'' by H. Calvert, B.Sc., 
I.C.S. " An Introduction to co-operation in India " (India of To-day Series, 
Vol. I), by C. F. Strickland, I.C.S. 



INTRODUCTOHY. 23 

cation a question which requires fuller consideration than 
it has received in the past. \ The working, or rather the neg- 
lect, of the recent education acts has made one thing clear if 
com^nlsort education is -to be introduced on any wide scale 
the initiative must come either directly or indirectly from 
Government., The advantages of its early introduction are 
undeniable. (Not only would it ensure full classes and regular 
attendance, but it would prevent the present lamentable 
wastage of scholars wjio leave school before reaching the stage 
of literacy. 1 Since this evil was particularly brought to the 
notice of local governments by the government of India in 
1918, considerable thought has been devoted to the problem 
but no effective remedy has been suggested except compulsion. 

34. Even were a compulsory system of education in force Relapse into 
in India there Would inevitably be a considerable lapse into illiteracy, 
illiteracy in rural areas. 

"The village boy when be leaves school in Bengal 
and takes his share in the cultivation of his father's 
land has very little inducement to keep up his knowledge 1 , 
even the most elementary knowledge of reading and 
writing. He reads no books or newspapers, and hardly 
ever even sees the written word. The family keeps no 
accounts, no shopkeeper's name is inscribed over the few shops 
to be found in rural ureas, no articles for sale are marked 
with the price, and there are no hoardings. Not even an 
advertisement catches his eye. The only written or printed 
papers which are to be found in a cultivator's house are the 
rent receipts given by his landlord, a document or two which 
has reference to his land written in legal phraseology in such 
a manner that it is the last thing a stumbling reader would 
wish to tackle, and perhaps some copies of evidence or a 
judgment in English in some case in which he has been an 
interested party. The newspapers published in the towns have 
a very small circulation in the lowns themselves and none 
outside, partly for the reason that the topics upon which they 
are exercised generally refer to party faction in which but 
a limited number of persons of the town itself are interested. 
They contain nothing of interest to the villager. In the cir- 
cumstances it is inevitable that there must be much lapse from 
literacy. 

" An attempt was made to discover the bearing of the 
census figures 0*1 the extent of lapse from literacy, but it proved 
abortive. The census figures do not in fact indicate that there 
is anv great lapse from literacy in Bengal. The result may be 
partly explained by the fact that a number of men employed as 
durwan* and peons and in other capacities in which they are 
kept waiting about for long periods without much to occupy 
them, do teach themselves to read after they have reached 
maturity. Such persons are the employees of persons who use 



PEOGEBSS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Female 
"dnoation 



Education of 
special com- 
munities. 



Professional 
and technical 
education. 



the art of letters, they realize the advantage of being able to 
read and write, appreciate the fact that they can only rise 
higher in the employment of their masters by acquiring some 
education and take steps to do so. In Eastern Bengal more- 
over a bearded Muhammadan school boy is not a very un- 
common sight, and a class in a vernacular school often includes 
one or two whose age is half as much again as the average 
for the class. But still the conclusion is inevitable that the 
return of literacy in adult ages is not accurate. The man 
who reached the census standard of 'literacy when he was 
at school will not admit that his knowledge has slipped from 
him, and perhaps, not having tried his hand for a very long 
time, is quite unconscious that this has happened. The enu- 
merator has no time to examine each person he enumerates, 
and adults would resent any attempt on His part to do so. 
He can road and write himself and very often he has known 
those whom he is to enumerate all his life. He remembers 
that so and so was at school in the same class as himself or his 
brothers and assumes that he has retained his knowledge as 
lie himself has retained it. The fact that the prescription of 
a standard of literacy for the first time at the Census of 
1911 made little difference in the proportion of literates over 
the age of 20 though it made some at earlier ages, points to 
the probability that the standard is not strictly applied to 
adults, and the conclusion is inevitable that the census statis- 
tics gravely exaggerate the number of adults who are lite- 
rate." 13 ' 

35. Although the statistics recorded of the education of 
Indian girls are in no way remarkable there is evidence from 
several provinces that the attitude of the public towards female 
education is changing. The Bombay Legislative Council in 
1921 opened the franchise to women. It is impossible that 
a body which has sanctioned such an advanced measure should 
be content with an attendance at school of only 2 per cent, of 
the female population of the Presidency. 

36. The problem of European education remained unset- 
tled at the close of the quinquennium, as did indeed many 
problems concerning the future of the Anglo-Indian communi- 
ty. On the other hand, there was a very satisfactory increase 
in the number of Muhammadan s receiving education, though 
this was in part accounted for by the establishment or recogni- 
tion of special Muhammadan schools in Sindh and the United 
Provinces. These schools serve in the first instance to attract 
Muhammadans to secular education, bufc if allowed to tempt 
the community from giving its children the better educa- 
tion provided in public schools they are a doubtful boon. 

37. The adoption of a policy which aims at the increasing 
employment of Indians in the higher branches of the public 

" Bengal Census Report, 1921, pp. 288-289. 



INTRODUCTORY. 25 

service has led to a demand for facilities for higher pro- 
fessional education in India. This demand, which is entirely 
reasonable, has been recently endorsed by the committee 
which sat, under the chairmanship of Lord Lytton, to con- 
sider the position of Indian students in England. Although 
the committee recognised that ambitious students would 
continue, as indeed they do in all countries, to go 
abroad after their college courses to obtain a wider experience, 
they recommended the development of the professional 
and technical colleges in India and a survey of the resources 
in India for practical training. A conference of principals 
of engineering colleges, which met in 1921, saw no reason 
why education in engineering up to the highest standard should 
not be provided in India. The obstacles in the way of such 
development, which have led, for example, to the postpone- 
ment of the projects for a school of mines at Dhanbad and 
for the extension of forestry training at Dehra Dun, are chiefly 
financial. Professional education is the most expensive of 
all 'forms of education. Indeed the successful training of 
specialists in some of the higher branches of technology, for 
which the demand is always limited, must be depencfent on 
some form of co-operation between the provinces. Already 
the smaller provinces rely on their larger and wealthier 
neighbours for the training of their students in medicine and 
engineering. If technological and professional tiaining is to 
b developed to the highest standard in India it can only be 
by means of such co-operation. 

38. The chief lesson of recent experiments in commercial Commercial 
and industrial education appears to be the supreme importance an ,d Indus- 
of the environment. The success of such institutions as the *j e uca " 
Sydenham College of Commerce and the artisan schools at 
ordnance factories shows what may be accomplished when 
employers of labour and educational authorities work together, 

and when opportunities for employment surround the scholar. 

39. The straitened finances of the central and local gov- Conclusion, 
ermnents of India at the present time preclude any hope of 
striking educational developments in the immediate future. 

The new provincial ministries of education, after successfully 
-combating the attack on their schools, are now taking stock 
of their educational position with a view to systematic ad- 
vance when the necessary funds are forthcoming. In such 
an advance, it is evident from the keen interest shown by 
the new Councils, they will have the support of public opinion. 
One lesson the history of the last five years has taught us f 
that if changes in the Indian educational system are needed 
they must be introduced gradually to suit the changing condi- 
tions of Indian life. There is no short cut to educational 
reform. 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Education 
under the 
Refoims. 
(a) Provin- 
oialisation. 



(6) Educa- 
tional res- 



Government. 



CHAPTER II. 

ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 

40. With the introduction of the constitutional reforms inx 
January 1921 Indian education became a " provincial trans- 
ferred " subject. By declaring education to be " provincial *' 
the Government of India Act did little more than state and 
define the existing position. Although the central Govern- 
ment had in the past convened educational conferences and 
issued circulars and resolutions on educational policy, yei 
provincial governments had been responsible not only for the 
administration of local institution^ but also for the develop- 
ment of their own educational systems. For example, on such 
questions as the control and finance of secondary education,, 
the provision of free primary education and even the introduc- 
tion of compulsory education, provincial governments had' 
been free to adopt, and had in fact adopted, different policies 
It was only when legislation was involved (and education in 
India is singularly unfettered by legislation) or when appoint- 
ments were to be * made to the Indian Educational Service or 
when schemes were proposed involving large expenditure, that 
a provincial government required the authority of the 
Government of India. The effect of the " provincialisation^' 
introduced by the Reforms lias been chiefly financial. While 
the finances of India were centralised it was possible for the 
Government of India to encourage advance on the lines which 
it favoured by grants for particular objects from its surplus 
revenues. With the provincial isation of financial control 
the influence so exercised by the Government of India has 
oeased. 

41. But the provincialisation of education has not deprived 
the Government of India of all its educational functions. It 
sti11 remains directly and financially responsible for education 
in certain minor Administrations such as Ajiner, Coorg and 
the North-West Frontier Province. These little provinces 
have a total population of about four millions and vary in 
educational importance from penal settlements like the Anda- 
mans to civilised centres such as Delhi. The Government of 
India further manages a few institutions of a special type such 
as Chiefs' Colleges. Three universities, the Benares Hindu 
"University, the Aligarh Muslim University and the Delhi 
University are " central " subjects under the Government of 
India and the Governor General is Hector or Visitor of six 
other universities in British India, in which capacity he 
possesses the right of visitation. His sanction is required 
for the recognition of the equivalence of degrees and of 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 27 

examinations qualifying for admission to the Dacca, 
Lucknow, .Rangoon," Delhi, Benares Hindu and Aligark 
Muslim universities. In addition all legislation for the in* 
corporation of new universities and (for a period of five years) 
for the Calcutta University is subject to legislation by the 
Central Legislature. This reservation is due in part to the 
importance of such legislation, in part to the fact that a 
university area may exceed the limits of the province in which 
the university is situated. The Calcutta University, for 
example, controls colleges and higher education in A,ssam 
as well as in Bengal, while the area under the Allahabad 
University includes the Central Provinces, Central India and 
Rajputana. 

42. In order to assist the Governor General in the exercise The Central 
of his functions as visitor and to give advice on questions of Advisory 
educational policy and practice referred to it either by the Board - 
Government of India or provincial governments, a Central 
Advisory Board of Education was established by the Govern- 
ment of India in 1921. The Educational Commissioner with 

the Government of India is chairman of the Board which 
includes two Vice-Chancellors of Indian universities, two 
principals of colleges under private management, four Direc- 
tors of Public Instruction and four non-officials interested, but 
not immediately engaged, in education. The members of the 
Board at the time of its first meeting in February 1921 were : 
the Educational Commissioner with the Government of India, 
Mr. P. J. Hartog, C.T.E., Vice-Chancellor of the Dacca 
University, The Fon'ble Sir Chimanlal Harilal Setalvad, Kt., 
Vice-Chancellor of the Bombay University, the Revd. E. M. 
Macphail, O.B.E., Principal, Christian College, Madras, 
Mr. \V. B. Patwardhan, Principal, Fergusson College, Poona, 
Mr. J. G. Covernton, C.T.E., Director of Public Instruction, 
Bombay, Mr. (now Sir) 0. F. de la Fosse, C.I.E., Director of 
Public Instruction, United Provinces, Mr. G. Anders. m, 
C.I.E., Director of Public Instruction, Punjab, Mr. A. I. 
Mayhow, C.I.E., Director of Public Instruction, Central 
Provinces. The Hon'blo Mr. Srinivasa Sastri Avargal, 
Member of the Council of State, tho Hon'ble Sir Surendraiiath 
Bauerjea, Minister for Local Self-Government, Bengal Presi- 
dency, the Hon'ble Mian Fnzl-i-TIussain, Minister for Educa- 
tion, Punjab, and Dr. Zia-ud-Din Ahmad, C.I.E., Principal, 
M. A. 0. 'College, Aligarh. 

43. The Board held four meetings during the period under 
review and considered and offered advice on a number of 
important questions including vocational education, the 
standardisation of examinations and the introduction of mental 
intelligence tests in India. The Bureau of Education, ofTh e j$ u 
which the Educational Commissioner is in charge, acted as of Education, 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Need for 
central 
advisory 
agencies. 



the secretariat of the Board. It also supplied information 
on educational subjects to a number of enquirers resident in. 
India and abroad and published a variety of reports and 
pamphlets,* including an annual narrative of the progress of 
education in India and two volumes of selections from the 
early records of education under British rule. 

44. It is probable that the need for such central agencies 
as the Central Advisory Board and the Bureau of Education, 
able to collate for the benefit of the provinces educational 
experience derived from the whole of India, will be more 
fully realised when the intense feeling of provincial 
independence, which was engendered by the reforms, has 
abated. The following passage from the Punjab report shows 
that this need is already felt: "One of the main objects 
of the Reforms was the substitution of the direct and personal 
control of the Minister (who is responsible to the Legislative 
Council) for the distant and official conirol hitherto exercised 
by the Government of India. The change has been beneficial, 
except in one respect. There is a growing danger of an 
exaggerated form of provincialism in education which, if not 
checked at the outset, may have disastrous i <*ults. No Indian 
province can live vnto itself. TJniversitic*. oF the modern 
type transcend provincial limits. Indian scholars, proceed- 
ing overseas, carry with them the reputation of India in. the 
world of learning. There is also a danger of a serious and 
extravagant overlapping between the several provinces, especi- 
ally in the region of higher education. There are also o 
number of vexed questions on which an all-India and not a 
provincial solution is sought. On all such questions a decision 
by a single province may gravely embarrass other provinces. 
The question also arises whether India is tending in the 
direction of the United Slates of America or of the Disunited 
Stales of Europe. The development (or not) of an Indian 
policy of education will have much to do with Ihe answer 
to this momentous question. There is thus a grave need for 
some c(ntral body which can discuss matters without inter- 
fering vfnduly with tlie autonomy of the provinces. To some 
extent this need has been met by the Central Advisory Board 
to the Government of India." 1 Similar views are expressed 
in the Assam report: k( With the transfer of educational 
control from the central to the local government, education in 
the province tended to lose the advantage which it drew from 
the submission of its larger schemes to an authority command- 
ing a wider outlook. Such benefits however as accrued from 
the relationship have been preserved for the provinces by the 
conatii.il tion of a central advisory board under the charge of 

* Soc list nt the end of the |re>ent volume. 
1 Pur.^ab, p. 1SX 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 2D 

the Educational Commissioner with the Government of India. 
The proceedings of the board have hitherto been stimnlating 
and helpful. They keep the department in touch with effort 
and success in other provinces and may serve to correct the 
natural tendency of a small province in isolation from its 
neighbours to pass from the provincial to the parochial and 
respond too readily to local impulses." 2 

45. The " transfer " of Indian education introduced a more(c) The 
significant change. Indian education has by the Govern- '" 
ment of India Act been entrusted in each province to the of 
charge of a Minister responsible to the provincial legislative 
council, of which he is himself an elected member. It is thus 
placed directly under popular control. No vsingle Minis- 
ter in any province hs been made responsible for all forms 
of education. European education in the first place wns 
excepted by the Government of India Act and loft in charge 
of a provincial "Member of Council", whoso tenure of office 
is not dependent on the support of the legislature. 
Again, certain forms of technical education have been trans- 
ferred to technical departments and fall under tho control 
of the ministers in charge of those departments; thus engi- 
neering education has been pin cod in several provinces under 
the Minister for Public Works. Even general. education has 
not in all provinces been loft intact: in tho United Provinces 
primary education has been placed under tlio Minister for 
Local Sol f-Govern ment. 

4f>. It is thus possible to find in n single province European Distribution 
education, secondary education, primary education and tech- of l&luca- 
nical education each in the charge of a different member of 
the local Government, whilo university education is more 
directly controlled by the Governor of the province in his 
capacity as Chancellor of the local University. Tho wisdom 
of such a division of control was criticised in anticipation by 
the Calcutta University Commission. Dealing with a 
suggestion that the Agricultural and Commercial Departments 
should continue to act independently until they had further 
developed and should then put their educational efforts under 
the Education Department they write: "One is inclined 
to ask whether the suggestion that, in the war against igno- 
rance, the advance of the agriculturists and the connnorcialists 
should take place independently of the rest, and there should 
be no headquarters organisation until they have obtained 
success is not i little like a suggestion in the military sphere 
that the artillery arid the cavalry should each fight independ- 
ently of the infantry, and that no general staff should be 
appointed until they were victorious. They never would be 

9 Assam, p. 16. 



30 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

victorious; because a general staff and a plan of campaign are 
the first indispensable requisites of success in the war against 
ignorance as in other forms of warfare." 3 

ThoLegis- 47. Although the administration of education in the pro- 

lative vinces is governed only by departmental codes and regulations 

Councils, and very litt j e ^ i e gi s i a ti onj ye t the provincial legislatures 
under the reforms exercise a very real control over educational 
policy. In the first place, education being a transferred sub- 
ject the education estimates are subject to the annual vote of 
the council. The occasion of the budget debate on these esti- 
mates is usually taken by members for an expression of their 
views on the educational policy of the government. These 
opinions are further expressed in the form of resolutions on 
educational questions, which, if passed by a majority in the 
council, possess the force of strong recommendations to gov- 
ernment to take particular action in certain matters. Marked 
interest has been shown by the new councils in education; 
and though the questions asked have generally been of local 
and personal interest, the resolutions have shown the import- 
ance which the new legislators attach to this subject. 
The new council in Bihar and Orissa, to give one in- 
stance, had during the first year of its existence discussed 
no less than seventeen resolutions on educational topics as the 
result of which committees have been appointed to consider 
the whole question of secondary and primary education in 
that province. Elsewhere resolutions were passed with tHe 
object of providing more funds for primary education, of 
furthering vocational and technical education, of reserving a 
proportion of the places in Government institutions for mem- 
bers of particular communities and of removing the age res- 
triction for matriculation. 

In the central legislature resolutions in favour of extend- 
ing the benefits of Rhodes scholarships to India and recom- 
mending the creation by the Government of India of addi- 
lional scholarships for foreign study have been passed. 

48. The transfer of education took place at a time not only 
of considerable financial stress but also of disturbance in the 
educational world. The first task of the new authorities was 
to defend tho educational system from the attacks of political 
malcontents. By the close of the period under review the 
time of trial had passed and it was possible for them to con- 
sider the development of provincial educational policies which, 
however, can only be fully realised when the financial horizon 
has lightened. 

* Calcutta University Commission Report, Vol. Ill, Chapter XXVIII, 
p. 243. 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 31 

49. The position of the Director of Public Instruction TlwTDircctor 
under the Reforms has so far* been altered that he is no longer under the 
responsible for the defence of the educational policy of Kcform3 - 
Government in the local council, of which he is not indeed 

in all cases a member. He remains as the administrative 
head of the department and technical adviser to the Minister. 
In the Punjab he has also been entrusted with the duties 
of Secretary for Education to Government; the considerable 
economy thus effected in the number of secretariat officers ami 
clerks has enabled the office of the Director to be strengthened 
by the appointment of expert officers dealing with different 
branches of education. A similar arrangement has recently 
been introduced in the Central Provinces. " The most direct 
and the most immediate effect of the Reforms has been the 
strengthening of the contact between the Department and 
public opinion. This has teen brought about, directly, by 
the responsibility of the Department to the Minister who i.*: 
himself responsible to the Legislative Council; and indirectly, 
by the knowledge within the Department that every request 
for a grant and every development of educational policy may, 
some time or other, be subjected to vigilant scrutiny by the 
Council." 4 

The Educational Services. 

50. For the administration of education the Department 
of Public Instruction is immediately responsible. The per- 
sonnel of the Department consists of members of the Indian 
Educational Service, the Provincial Educational Service and 
the subordinate services. The whole character of the Indian 

-Educational Service was altered in December 1910 as a result 
of the report of the Royal Commission on the Public Services. 
It was originally intended that the Indian Educational 
Service and the Provincial Educational Serviee should he equal 
in status., the former recruited in England by the SecrHnry 
of State and the latter recruited in India by local ^ Govern- 
ments. The pay of the former service was 011 a time-scale* 
risin; from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,000 per mensem with n few 
allowances for senior officers or attached to special posts. 
The constitution and pay of the Provincial Educational 
Service differred in different provinces, but it was ordinnrily 
a small service containing posts of various giades from Rs. 200 
to Rs. GOO. The difference in pay between the two services 
was intended to mark the difference in domicile of the 
European and Indian recruits. In the course of time the 
Indian Educational Service had come to be regarded as the 
superior service; so much so that a few persons of Indian 

* Punjab, p. 10. 



Re-distribu- 
tion of posts 
in the Indian 
and Provin- 
cial Educa- 
tional 
Services. 



o PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

domicile had actually been appointed to it. In the scheme ot 
re-organisation effected in 1919 this change in the relations 
of the two services was definitely recognised. The Indian 
Educational Service was constituted the senior educational 
service in India, and, in accordance with the accepted policy 
of increasing the association of Indians in the higher ranks 
of the administration, it was decided that new recruitment 
should be directed towards the equalisation of the number of 
Europeans and Indians in this service. In order to accelerate 
the attainment of this object a 33 per cent, increase in the 
number of posts in the Indian Educational Service was at 
once made by the transfer from the Provincial Educational 
Service of all those posts which, but for the fiction of the 
equality of the two services, would, by their nature, have 
been included in the senior service. The transfer of these 
posts was in the majority of cases accompanied by the transfer 
of their incumbents. Appointments to the Indian Educational 
Service are still made by the Secretary of State but recruit- 
ment is no longer confined to England. Nominations of Indian 
candidates are made by local Governments on the advice of 
Joenl selection committees and of European candidates by the 
Secretary of State after selection in England. The initiative 
in- either case rests with the local Government, which makes 
its recommendations either for local or for European recruit- 
ment, when it reports a vacancy in the service or asks sanction 
for the creation of a new post. ' But the final power of appoint- 
ment, is vested in the Secretary of Sta t te. The effect of these 
changes is shown in the statement on the next page. 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 



33 



ir 



* 



cc :o 



O O1 no *S T-I CO 

CO C3 * ?l .71 ^-< 



!i 

. ^ 



I 



^ C "?! ^S t" t" 

CO Cl -M -71 -H 



rH CO 



T1 CO 



Oi Cl t- OS 00 I- 

CO CO rl -( H r-t 



i I 



- 




S S 

3 



1 



PROGRESS OF KDUCATIOX IX INDIA. 



Revised 
scales of 
pay. Indian 
and Provin- 
cial Educa- 
tional 
Services. 



61. Tlio l,arge percentage of vacancies in the service calls- 
for some explanation. It is due in part to difficulties of 
recruitment but even more to the reluctance of local Govern- 
ments to fill vacancies in the service. It is unnecessary to 
explain the reasons which have made it difficult to obtain 
recruits in England to the Indian Educational Service; the 
same causes have affected recruitment to the other Imperial 
services. The reluctance of local Governments to fill vacan- 
cies in the service arises from motives of economy to under- 
stand which the financial effect of the reorganisation must be 
explained. 

52. When the Indian Educational Service was reorganised 
in 1919, Ihe opportunity was taken to revise the scale of pay 
of the service in the light of the changed economic conditions 
after the war and in view of the difficulty which had been 
experienced before the war in obtaining recruits in England. 
The new scale of pay is from Us. 400 to Us. 1,1250 per mensem 
with an overseas allowance rising from Rs. 150 to Us. 250 
per mensem for European recruits, and with two selection 
grades for a limited number of officers one from Its. 1,250 
to Us. 1,500,. and the other from Us. 1,500 to Rs. 1,750, 
small special allowances being attached to particular posts. 
Recruits over 25 years of age, selected for their special quali- 
fications and experience, are brought in on the rate of pay 
which thoy would have reached had tl.ey joined the service 
at the age of 25. At the same time the Provincial Educational 
Services, which are now named after (he provinces, the Bengal 
Educational Service, the Bombay "EdiUMtioiial Service and so 
forth, were placed on time-scales of pay ranging between 
Rs. 250 and Rs. 800. 

53. In order to carry out the now policy of " Indianisa- 
tion " a considerable number of the vacancies in the Indian 
Educational Service must now be filled by Indians. Faced in 
all cases with financial stringency, in several cases with budget 
deficits, local Governments have not unnaturally been un- 
willing to offer to Indian recruits the higher rates of pay 
attached to the Indian Educational Service when they hav 
found that the most competent men available ou the spot arc 
prepared to accept the pay of the provincial service. Thi* 
fact has been brought out in the repoits of more than one 
local " retrenchment committee.'' It must be remembered 
that even a graduate of an Indian university after professional 
training at a normal college is considered to be well paid 
if he enters a Government high school on a salary of Rs. JOf) 
per mensem. In the present state of education in India 
European qualifications, which term is held to include edu- 
cation at an English, American or continental university, add 



ADMINISTRATIONS' AND CONTROL. 35 

enormously to the market value of the Indian recruit; but 
the difference between the pay of the graduate teacher OD 
Es. 100 to Es. f300 per mensem* and the member of the Indian 
Educational Service, whether professor ov inspector, on Es. 400 
to Es. 1,250 per mensem appears even so to be disproportionate. 
The whole question of the superior services in India is to be 
considered by a Eoyal Commission this autumn. 

54. The pay of the subordinate services was also revised in 
all provinces in order to meet the increased cost of living. In dmato 

Bengal the graded system gave place to a time-scale in the ^ clu< r atlo 
xi- i x 11 'J i iv x * xi. i L Services. 

teaching and inspecting branches with eilect irom the Isf 

September 1921 and the rates of pay sanctioned vary from 
Es. t35 to Es. 450. It has also been decided to introduce a 
time-scale of pay for the ministerial and miscellaneous 
branches. In the United Provinces the pay of deputy and 
sub-deputy inspectors came twice under revision (in 1918 i.nd 
1921) and ranges from Es. 150 to Es. 250 and Es. 100 to 
Es. 140 respectively. A bonus of a month's pay was also 
granted on the occasion of the second revision. The revised 
rates of pay for the teaching staff tire shown in paragraph 141. 
The reorganisation scheme in Bihar and Orissa sanctioned 
from 1st April 1920, divided the service into six branches 
and two divisions, the pay of the upper division being 
Rs. 15015/2240, and the lower Es. 00 6/2 120 fo" 
men and Es. 100 5/2 140 for women. Members who were 
in either division of the service before it was reorganised 
have been given the option of remaining in the grades so long 
as they continue in that division; and at the same time the 
pay of the grades has been raised. Tins breaking up of the 
service has made for convenience and prevents the creation 
of posts in one branch of the service from affecting the pros- 
pects of members in another branch. A like consideration 
led io the separation of the Subordinate Educational Service 
in the Punjab into two branches, the one, which contains 
the English masterships in Government secondary schools and 
the junior inspecting posts, has grades of appointment ranging 
in value from Es. 55 to Es. 250 : the other, containing tho 
classical and vernacular teaehorships in secondary schools, 
ranges from Es. 55 to Es. 190. The reorganisation of tho 
Subordinate Educational Service in Assam on a time-scale 
basis with a minimum of Es. 60 and a maximum of Es. 350 
has not given satisfaction; and the question of further improv- 
ing the pay of the service has been the subject of a number of 
resolutions in the local legislative council. Want of funds 
is one of the main difficulties in granting higher terms. The 
pay of the lower subordinate educational service was also 
revised. Owing Io great economic distress in the Worth-West 



36 



I'ROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Frontier Province the scale of pay of the subordinate educa- 
tional service was revised no less than three times during the 
quinquennium under review. The minimum rate is now 
Us. 50 and the maximum is Us. 240. 



Ed 11 ca tio 71 al Ins ti tu t ions . 



Institutions 55. There is only a limited number of educational institu- 
Govommont ^inns Imf l er the direct management of Government. It in- 
(o) Profos- eludes the majority of the professional colleges, which teach 
sional medicine, agriculture, engineering, etc. These colleges are 

colleges. administered by the technical departments concerned, e.g., 
the Medical and Agricultural Departments, and the senior 
posts in the colleges are filled by members of the technical 
services. In view of the high cost of constructing, equipping 
and staffing such institutions, if the qualifications of the ex- 
students are to receive general recognition (if, for example, 
the degrees of the medical colleges are to be recognised by the 
British Medical Council), there is every likelihood that pro- 
fessional education will, for many years to come, remain 
almost entirely in Government hands. 

(6) Arts 56. There are a few Arts colleges and a fairly large num- 

Colleges and ] )er o f secondary schools directly under Government. These 
Schools'"^ colleges and schools are maintained either as model institu- 
tions, to set a standard for private institutions in the 
neighbourhood, or to meet the needs of backward localities 
where private initiative cannot be relied upon. There are 
centres in rural districts, for example the sub-divisional head- 
quarters in Assam, where there is a fairly large demand for 
secondary education but not a sufficient number of well-to-do 
residents to found a private school for the benefit of the coun- 
tryside. It is particularly in such centres, that the help of 
Government is needed. If it is not forthcoming, then the 
responsibility for meeting the demand for secondary educa- 
tion is forced upon local bodies, whose resources are not ade- 
quate to meet the claims of vernacular education, which is 
their proper charge. Primary education is provided by local 
bodies, either directly by means of Board schools or indirectly 
by grants to aided primary schools. The Government primary 
(c) Primary schools included in the following table are, with few excep- 
Sohools. tions, special schools attached to training institutions or schools 
in backward areas where local authorities have not yet been 
ronsti tuted, such as the hill tracts of Assam : 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 



Institutions classified according to management^ 1921-22. Management 

of Instita- 



Type of Institution. 


PUBLICLY -MANAGED 
INSTITUTIONS. 


PUIVATELY-MANA GUD 

INSTITUTIONS. 


Total 
Infttitu- 
tioiis. 


Govern- 
ment. 


Board. 


Aided. ' Unaided. 






Arts Colleges 


44 


3 ^97 23 


107 


Professional Colleges . 


47 


i 8 ' 9 


01 


Secondary Schools 


542 


2,392 4,711 1,342 


8,987 


Primary Schools 


1,789 


50,314 i 93,587 | 14,380 


100,070 


Training Schools 


433 


483 151 5 


1,072 


Special Schools . 
TOTAL 


107 


00 


2,114 , 598 


2,939 


3,022 


53,252 

U 
G 


I 
100,008 j 10,357 


173,299 
34,807 




nrecognised Schools . 
RAND TOTAL 


208,100 



57. The direct administration of educational institutions Direct 

by Government is strictly limited, and this limitation is in Government 
accordance with the accepted policy of the Government 
India which is thus justified in the resolution of 1913: " It 
is dictated not by any belief in the inherent superiority of 
private over State management but by preference for an estab- 
lished system and, above all, by the necessity of concentrating 
the direct energies of the State and bulk of its available 
resources upon the improvement and expansion of elementary 
education. The policy may be summarised as the encourage- 
ment of privately managed schools under suitable bodies main- 
tained in efficiency by government inspection, recognition and 
control and by the aid of government funds." 5 

58. Control over the standard of education provided in Control by 
colleges and secondary schools under private management is Govornm . ent 
exercised by local Governments and universities, usually act- ^onsVnder 
ing conjointly and sometimes through the agency of a joint private 
board. This control is effected by means of " recognition ", management, 
reinforced by grant-in-aid. 

8 Indian Educational Policy, 1913, p. 17. 



38 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IX INDIA. 



() By 

Recognition. 



59. The recognition of an institution by Government or a 
university Entitles it to present candidates for the examinations 
conducted by the recognising authority and ex-hypotbesi to 
compete for scholarships awarded on the results of these 
examinations, llecognition in short brings a school or college 
into the public system of education iu India; and except for 
a brief reference in paragraphs 460/ this volume deals only 
with recognised or " public " institutions. Statistics for 
unrecognised or " private " institutions are included 
in some of the tables but since these institutions are not open 
to public inspection and usually do not maintain daily 
registers the statistics are unreliable. 



Recognition 
by Univer- 
sities. 



Boards of 
Secondary 
Education. 



GO. The power of recognising or affiliating colleges is vest- 
ed in the universities though the formal approval of Govern- 
ment is required in every case. The recognition of high 
schools, which implies the permission to present pupils for 
matriculation, has in some provinces given rise to controversy 
between the university and the education department. In 
Bengal, for example, the views of the department and the 
university in this matter have been widely divergent. While 
the Education Department has been concerned with maintain- 
ing a certain standard of efficiency in the matter of buildings, 
staff and teaching i n secondary schools, the university has 
from various motives aimed rather at increasing the number 
of boys presented for matriculation (vide paragraph 153). 
The Calcutta University Commission, while in sympathy with 
the efforts of the Bengal Education Department to preserve 
the quality of secondary education, was influenced by the pre- 
valent feeling in Bengal to suggest, as a compromise between 
the conflicting claims of the department and the university, 
the creation of an independent board of secondary education, 
which should bo entrusted not only with the power of recogni- 
tion hut also with the management of government high schools 
and the distribution of grants-in-aid. In conformity with 
its recommendations such boards, without, however, the 
administrative powers suggested by the Commission, have been 
constituted at Dacca in Bengal and in. the United Pro- 
vinces. On these boards, the department, the university, the 
schools and the public are represented. In view of the 
close inter-dependence of the various vstages of education it is 
doubtful whether the multiplication of independent control- 
ling bodies is likely to conduce to greater educational efficiency. 
In most provinces the universities have been content to rely 
on the advice of the education department when according 
or withholding recognition. Where a school final examina- 
tion has been instituted and is conducted by the Education 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. oU 

Department the power of recognition naturally vests in the 
Department. 

61. Inspection is the essential preliminary to recognition. 
Colleges seeking new affiliation or extended affiliation in any 
particular subject are usually visited by a board of inspection 
appointed by the university. The only inspecting agency 
available to visit high schools is that of the Education Depart- 
ment. Thus the influence exercised by Government over 
secondary schools by means of inspection is, except where the 
university rejects the advice of the department, very great. 

62. But the standard of efficiency required for recognition (b) By 

is a minimum standard and it is rare that recognition O nceS Iiants ' in ' aid> 
accorded is withdrawn. A more potent influence for the 
betterment of secondary education is the system of grant-in- 
aid. Of the recognised secondary schools in India under 
private management 4,711 are in receipt of aid from public 
funds. The amount of grant given to each class of school 
varies in accordance with the financial circumstances of the 
province and the system adopted for assessment. This subject 
will be dealt with more fully in the chapter on secondary edu- 
cation and is treated at length in Occasional lieport No. 12 
issued by the Bureau of Education. The essential facts are 
that the majority of aided schools are dependent entirely 
upon grants-in-aid and fees for their maintenance, and that 
consequently a judicious use of grants enables Government to 
insist upon the employment of qualified teachers in aided 
schools, on the payment of adequate salaries, on the provision 
of proper accommodation and even on the maintenance of a 
certain standard of efficiency in the teaching. 

63. Local Governments therefore control education directly Inspectors, 
in the case of a small number of Government institutions and 
indirectly by menus of recognition and grant-in-aid in the case 

of other institutions. Tim chief agent employed by Govern- 
ment is the inspector. The importance of the duties of 
supervision and control earned out by the inspector has led 
to a popular misconception of this officer as one employed 
solely to enforce departmental regulations. " This is very 
far from the truth. In actual fact he often is, and he always 
should be, the counsellor and friend of school managers, local 
bodies and teachers. Instances could be quoted of disi riots 
and divisions where during the past quinquennium schools 
have been improved beyond recognition in methods ; organisa- 
tion and equipment through the individual stimulus of 
inspecting officers." 6 



United Provinces, p. 18. 



40 



I'KOGRESS Otf EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Inspecting staff (men), 1921-22. 



1 Deput y a 
1 or a i Ins 
Province. Inspectors ' -Assistant District r ** u "~ 
*"- i juapoctora. T,, ar>0 4.. 1 . a inspectors. 

| * AllSptrUl/Ora. ol 


pocial 
ipectors 
and TOTAL. 
ipervi- 




i 


Bora. 


Madras 


Iti 1 17 ; . . (a) 195 


225 453 


Bombay 


8 37 144 


I 189 


Bengal 


15 5 ! (b) 89 (c) 295 


404 


United Provinces . 15 10 ' 58 (d) 195 


4 282 




i 




Punjab 


.| 7 11 ; 30 (V) 64 


112 


Burma 


9 6 H;> GO 


I6tt 


Bihar and Orte 


i ! 

a . . f> .. 4 .J2 i75 ! 


0)23 ' 330 




* i ' 




Central provinces and 7 7 66 . . ' . . 3<2 


Rcrar. 








2 a -21 ; 4i 


07 


Norfch-Wi'bt 


fr'iouti'T 2 ' .. ^ fi 


13 


rro\mo<\ 


1 "* 




Coory . 


-i (/)! .- I 


.. 


Dolhi . 


.h ij" .- I (01 


! } +i 


M^iir 1 


.| 1 


i 


Bangalore. . 


! (/) i 


i 


li 


idi:i . 90 | u'J , 127 ! 1.285 ! 


2.V2 2,113 




i ' I 




(n) Su 


*-A*N" tint IIISIMI *.}is. 




(b) Ini'ltulii til Siil>-J)ivi-tiMii.tl In-4pprtoix 
(r) Imlndn 27 Assistant Snh-lniN etoix uiid In-.pectint,' Mi-i!vw. 


(<h KM 


i-l)' 1 tv In^jn ctoirt * 




(O lii 


iudii 1< Inspecting Man I vi tf. 




(/) 'llu 


r* is nc ln^p' % i lor tor both t'ooi^.tnd B.ui^-'luK'. 





j) Assistant J>i-.tnct Insju'rtors. 

(h) There is on- 1 Suivimti ndont ot Kdiicntiou ior J)elhi. 



Ajw f \lt-i Tart. 



64. Special mention must be made of tlie officers employed 
on the inspection ot girls' schools. The following statement 
shows their number: 

Inspecting staff (icomeri), 1921-22. 



Province. 


IHHPM- i AHHiHtttiit 
trosscs. j *% 


TOTAL. 





1 " ~ 





Madras ...... 


5 ! ^1 


2(1 


Uombay ...... 


4 


4 


Bcng.il ...... 


L> i 12 


34 


United Provinces .... 


12 


12 


Punjab ...... 


(> .' 


J 


Burma ...... 


1 


1 


Bihar and OrisHii .... 


"2 () 


8 


Central Provinces and Bcrar 


*-' 4 


.. f> 


Assam ...... 


1 I 


o 


North-West Frontier Province 


1 


1 


Delhi j 


1 


1 


India .) 


3G i -18 


84 



(a) Including one Lady Superintendent of Atu# (Mahammadan lady lea chers). 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 41 

Of these 18 are in the Indian Educational Service and 42 
in the Provincial Educational Service. The pay of the 
women's branch of the Indian Educational Service was revised 
in 1919. It is impossible in this case to insist on the re- 
cruitment of Indians to the senior service since Indian ladies 
are very rarely forthcoming for such employment. The work 
of an inspectress is beset with peculiar difficulties. The area 
under her charge is usually much larger than that entrusted 
to an inspector: the inconveniences of travel are enor- 
mously enhanced in the rase of a lady travelling by hersolf. 
Yet the teachers in girls' schools need constant help and en- 
couragement. " Theoretically it would bo a great advantage 
to have more district inspectresses but in practice it is almost 
impossible to secure women of the right typo, to provide suit- 
able conveyance, accommodation and protection." 7 For this 
reason with few exceptions the ladies employed on such 
work by the department an? Europeans, Anglo-Indian and 
Indian Christians; oven so their number is quite inadequate 
if thoy arc to fulfil one of their most important duties and act 
as missionaries in the cause of female educaiion. Tn practice, 
many girls' schools have to be visited by district inspectors 
an arrangement which docs not conduce to their popularity. 

G5. Subject to the general powers of supervision and re- Local Bodies, 
cognition exercised by the local Government, the administra- 
tion of many of iho educational institutions in every province 
is in tho hands of local bodies, i.e., municipalities and district 
(or rural) boards. The legislation governing the educational 
functions of local bodies was described in the last quinquennial 
review. To this legislation has been added during the last 
five years the primary education A els of which a description 
is given in paragraphs 190/. The main object of all these 
acts was to empower local bodies to introduce compulsory edu- 
cation. They have not, with the exception of the Madras Act, 
made any alteration in the system by which education is 
administered by local bodies. 

66. Tn Burma oijrht divisional educational boards were New Bodies, 
created in 1917. Thev will disappear in 1923. " On thfl(Mn 
whole the boards have served their purpose well but tho Burina9 
experiment might have been more successful had a greater 
measure of power been entrusted to the boards from the first, 
and had there existed a, better understanding on both sides of 
the distribution of responsibilities between the local education 
authorities on the one hand and the officers of the Government 
Education Department on the other." 8 By the Burma Rural 
Self -Government Act of 1921 district or joint school boards 

7 United Provinces, p. 17. 
9 Burma, p. 89. 



42 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



(b) In 
Madras. 



Local Bodies 
and Second- 
ary 
Education. 



are to be appointed by elected divstrict councils. These boards 
will be entrusted with the expenditure of " district school 
funds " which will consist of all sums contributed by local 
authorities, Government or private persons for education and 
of school fees. The Madras Elementary Education Act passed 
in 1920 constituted in each district a district educational 
council which is to be an independent ad hoc body and not a 
statutory committee of any of the existing local bodies. Each 
council contains a few ex-officio and nominated members, but 
the majority of its members are elected by the local authorities 
within the district. Its principal functions are: 

(a) to prepare schemes for the extension of elementary 

education ; 
(?>) to elicit and direct the co-operation of all agencies, 

whether public or private, in the opening of new 

schools ; 
(c] to regulate the recognition of elementary schools and 

to disburse grants-in-aid. 

Subject to the rules framed for their guidance, local bodies 
and private agencies continue to exercise full control over all 
elementary schools under their management. Provision is 
made for the levy, with the previous sanction of the Governor 
in Council, of an education tax, the proceeds of which will 
be entirely at the disposal of each local authority for 
use within the areas in which it is raised: a section of the Act- 
provides for at least an equivalent contribution being made 
from provincial funds to each local body which levies an 
education tax, in addition to the usual contributions now 
being made on behalf of elementary education. Finally pro- 
vision is made for the introduction of compulsion in suitable 
areas with the previous sanction of the local Government. 

G7. The first duty of local bodies is towards vernacular 
education and they are not supposed to undertake any finan- 
cial responsibility for " English " education until the claims 
of primary ndiiofition have been fully met. In practice a 
certain number of local bodies do maintain or aid secondary 
English schools. This extension of their functions has arisen 
more from accident than design. There is a natural tendency 
for a vernacular middle school, owing to pressure from the 
more well-to-do parents, to add English to its curriculum and 
to develop into a middle English school, and so in the course 
of time into a high school. It is not easy for Government to 
step in at any stage of this development and prohibit the local 
authority from raising the status of its school. The Punjab 
Government did in 1921 attempt to check this tendency by 
taking over the management of eleven high schools from local 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 43 

todies on the understanding that the local funds so saved 
should be devoted to primary education. In spite of the very 
decided recommendations of the Decentralisation Commission, 
which were endorsed by the Government of India in a circular 
letter of 1916, this question of the duties of local bodies in 
respect of secondary education is in some provinces not satis- 
factorily settled. It would be of greater importance were it 
not that the limitations of local finance do not permit local 
bodies to go so far in the direction of providing secondary 
schools as some of them would wish. 

68. But, as I have said, the chief concern of local bodies is Local Bodies 
elementary education. This they provide either directly and Primary 
through the medium of schools under their own management J uoa lon " 
or indirectly by grants-in-aid to schools under private manage- 
ment. The policies adopted by different provinces differ 

widely according as they rely on public or private manage- 
ment. This divergency dates back to the beginnings of verna- 
cular education in this country, when Madras, for example, 
adopted the system of grant-in-aid for financing primary edu- 
cation while the Punjab and the North- West Provinces (now 
the United Provinces) developed a system of Government or 
local board schools. The Government of India in its resolu- 
tion on Indian educational policy issued in 1013 recommended 
that the extension of primary education should be carried out 
through the medium of board schools. The board school is, 
as a rule, unquestionably more efficient than the aided school. 
It possesses stability and can draw on the funds of the board 
for its material requirements; the teacher is subject to direct 
control and can be transferred if he is unpopular or inefficient. 
On the other hand aided schools, the lower standard of 
efficiency being conceded, make smaller demands on public 
funds and may serve a useful purpose as pioneers in backward 
areas. Many of them are in the first instance religious insti- 
tutions. 

69. Although the administration of elementary education Programmes 
is in the hands of local bodies, the initiative for any concerted * cx P ansion - 
attack upon illiteracy must, largely for financial reasons, como 

from Government. The past quinquennium has been remark- 
able for the initiation by several local Governments of detailed 
programmes of educational expansion in rural areas. Of these 
an account will be given in the chapter on primary education. 
It is becoming increasingly evident that any effective advance 
can be achieved only if local Governments and local bodies 
co-operate to carry out definite schemes framed after due con- 
sideration of the educational needs of the province as a whole 
and the particular needs and resources of each district. " It 
is not favourable to economy that any local education authority 



44 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Financial 
Relations of 
Government 
to local 
Bodies. 



should conduct its business ' from hand to mouth ' and 
embark oil particular improvements without considering what 
they will lead to, what other improvements are required, and 
what should be the order of priority. The preparation of 
schemes embodying a policy for gradual execution will enable 
local authorities and their constituents to see what is in front 
of them and Government's consideration of specific proposals 
for giving effect to the authority's policy, when financial cir- 
cumstances permit (observing a due order of priority as be- 
tween different parts or items of the scheme), will be greatly 
facilitated." The foregoing passage which is quoted from 
ilio last report of the English Board of Education (with only 
Hie substitution of "Government" for the "Board of Edu- 
cation ") is as applicable to India as to England. 

** 

TO. The adoption of these provincial programmes of expan- 
sion has brought about certain changes in the fitiancial rela- 
tions of Government to local bodies. Hitherto in theory grants 
fi'om provincial revenues wore made proportionate to the pro- 
vision made by local bodies from their own resources. But 
when local Governments prepared schemes involving large 
and continuous expenditure spread over several years, they 
were at once brought face to face with the fact that, if advance 
were to be restricted by the pace at which boards could find 
additional funds for education, the rate of progress would be 
indefinitely retarded. They adopted different plans to over- 
come this difficulty. In the United Provinces all attempt at 
balancing provincial and local expenditure was temporarily 
abandoned and the local Government undertook to meet in 
three years the full cost of its scheme for the spread and im- 
provement of vernacular education. On Hie same principle 
the grants given in some provinces, e.g., Assam, for the im- 
provement of the pay of primary teachers were not made con- 
tingent on any pro rata increase in the expenditure from local 
funds. In the Punjab, the financial position of each board, 
its immediate and potential resources were taken into consi- 
deration and the cost of executing so much of the programme 
of expansion as could be carried out in five years was then 
divided between local and provincial revenues in such a way 
that no board should be liable to spend in any one year on 
education more than 25 per cent, of its net revenues. The 
responsibility assumed by Government under this scheme of 
distribution varied from 50 per cent, to 100 per cent, of the 
amount of the new expenditure required. A contract was then 
entered into between Government and each board under 'which 
both parties accepted liability for their own share of the esti- 
mated expenditure. In Bihar and Orissa this thorny question 
of the relative responsibilities of Government and local boards 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL. 45 

! or the finance of vernacular education has been referred for 
lecisioii to a special committee. The question was considered 
>y the Central Advisory Board of Education which made the 
following recommendations: 

" (1) That Government should by legislation, if necessary, 
take measures to ensure a minimum expenditure on 
elementary education in each local area; that 
this minimum and the portion thereof to be met 
respectively from provincial and local funds should 
be determined by Government after carefiil con- 
sideration of the financial and educational needs 
and circumstances of each area and the claims of 
local services other than education. 

N.B. It was recognised that in some areas, particularly in Madras, 
x substantial portion o this minimum expenditure not met by GOV- 
srnment would actually be met frdm private funds, but local bodies 
should ho hold responsible by Government for seeing that the portion 
not mot by Government was actually forthcoming from whatever source. 

(2) That additional expenditure 011 elementary education 

above this minimum by local bodies should be en- 
couraged by proportionate grants from Government 
and for the purpose of calculating this proportion 
the districts should be graded according to their 
needs and means. 

(3) That local bodies should be encouraged to develop the 

higher stages of elementary education and to retain 
pupils throughout the full course by higher rates of 
grants in respect of expenditure on these higher 
stages." 

71. For administrative purposes, such as the appointment The Deputy 
and transfer of board school teachers and the assessment of or ^ istrict 
grants to aided schools, the district board makes free use of executive a3 
the services of the deputy or district inspector. This official officer to 
of the Education Department has thus a dual and often a veryl cal bodies, 
difficult position to fill. He is responsible to the district board 
for the management and control of the schools under its charge 
and to the Education Department for the inspection of these 
schools, for their educational efficiency and for furthering to 
the best of his ability the general educational policy of Gov- 
ernment. The importance of his position has been recognised 
in some provinces, e.g., Bengal and the Punjab, by the promo- 
tion of this class of officer to the Provincial Educational 
Service. 

"Under the district inspector are the assistant dis- 
trict or sub-inspectors. Doubt is expressed by some Directors 
whether the present type of graduate assistant district inspec- 
tor, to whom the immediate supervision of the work of primary 

D2 



46 PftOGKESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

schools is entrusted, is quite the best type of man for the 
purpose. His long absence from the village primary school, 
supposing that he ever attended one, and the very different 
educational atmosphere with which he has been surrounded 
in high school and college make him too often an unsympathe- 
tic and unhelpful adviser to the humble and ill-educated vil- 
lage teacher. On the other hand the old type of sub-inspector 
lacked up-to-date knowledge of methods of instruction. Both 
Economy and the interests of 'educational efficiency suggest the 
employment of a different class of " helping teacher " with 
qualifications something between the old inspecting pandit 
who knew too little and the ambitious young graduate ;who 
knows too much. 

Aided 72. In spite of the increase in the number of Government 

Schools. secondary schools and board primary schools the bulk of the 

school-going population in India is si ill in attendance at 
institutions under private management. In the case of higher 
and secondary education this reliance on private initiative is, 
as has been explained, the accepted policy. In the case of 
primary education it is more often the result of financial neces- 
sity. The aided primary school, the accommodation for which 
must be found by the teacher, and the running charges of 
which are largely met from fees, is naturally a much cheaper 
article than the board school. So far as its resources permit, 
Government, either directly or through contributions to local 
bodies, attempts to maintain a certain standard of efficiency in 
schools of each class. It is faced pei^petually by the problem 
of deciding between the conflicting- claims of quality and quan- 
tity : that is to nay, it has to balance the advantages of raising 
grants to aided schools in order to improve their efficiency or 
of spending such additional funds as may be available on 
bringing new schools on the aided list. For it may safely be 
said that few unaided schools are so by choice. TTf public fin- 
ance permitted there are not many schools under private man- 
agement which would not gladly accept assistance from public 
funds. 

73. It is gratifying to find that during the quinquennium 
private contributions towards education have increased in 
value from "Rs. 1*05 lakhs to !Rs. 3-08 lakhs. There is, however, 
as pointed out in paragraph 137, a certain amount of waste in 
the present distribution of private effort; which results in an 
unnecessary multiplication of schools in certain centres to the 
neglect of those more educationally backward. Again few 
aided schools possess any permanent endowment. There is 
here a large scope for private generosity. Typical instances of 
such wise generosity are the benefactions of Sir Ganga Earn 
in Lahore and of the Rani Sahiba of Binga who made an 



ADMINISTKATION AND CONTROL. 47 

endowment of two lakhs of rupees for the improvement of the 
salaries of teachers in the Ilewett Kshatriya High School, 
Benares. 

74. Every college, whether managed by Government or by Committees, 
private agencies, must under the Act of 1904 have a governing 
body in order to qualify for affiliation. In practice the govern- 
ing bodies of Government colleges rarely function and the con- 
trol is left largely in the hands of the Principal. Committees 
whose functions are chiefly advisory are attached to Govern- 
ment schools in some provinces, for example Bengal, tlie 
United Provinces and the Central Provinces. These commit- 
tees were being reconstituted and their functions revised in the 
latter two provinces at the close of the quinquennium. Pro- 
prietary schools, which owe their existence to the generosity 
or, in the case of those which are run at a profit, to the self- 
interest of private individuals, are not found in any large 
number outside Bengal. Elsewhere aided secondary schools 
are usually founded by societies or associations, often deno- 
mination al, and are managed by committees representing the 
original founders. In the United Provinces the managing 
bodies of aided secondary schools are required to register 
themselves under the Societies Registration Act. This is a 
salutary provision ensuring the permanence of the school and 
some continuity in the management. Attempts to extend the 
use of educational committees have not proved very successful. 
In the Central Provinces for example 26 committees of local 
ladies were constituted to encourage female education. 
Though some very good work has been done by individual 
members the new committees have generally proved a failure. 
Very few educated women are available to serve on them and 
these have as a rule had no experience of committee work. 
"Rivalry between the members of the committee and the 
difficulty of preserving amicable relations between them and 
the staffs of the schools have also contributed to their 
failure." 9 In the United Provinces village school committees 
have been in existence for some years. Accounts of their 
value vary from district to district. The majority prove 
apathetic, some of them prove " harmful by unnecessary in- 
terference;" 10 but in the Agra district, where every effort ia 
being made to train and encourage them, some of the com- 
mittees are doing excellent work, 

Central Provinces, p. 63. 
"United Provinces, p. 20. 



48 







I 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

CHAPTER III. 

UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 



RADUATE 
D SCIENCE. 


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o 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 



49 



It will be seen that the number of universities in India 
lias increased during the last quinquennium from seven to 
fourteen. Of these twelve are in British India. 

75. The first university in India, that of Calcutta, was The insti- 
founded in 1857. Between 1857 and 1887 four new universi- 
lies at Bombay, Madras, Lahore and Allahabad were added, 
The Universities were reconstituted by the Indian Universities 
Act of 1904. These five universities were all of the affiliat- 
ing typeJ They consisted of groups of colleges, situated 
sometimes several hundred miles apart, bound to each other 
by a legally constituted central organisation, which deter- 
mined the qualifications for admission to the university, pres- 
cribed the courses of study, conducted the examinations pre- 
liminary to the award of degrees and, through the agency of 
the affiliating system and by occasional visits of inspection, 
exercised a mild fprm of supervision over the work of the 
affiliated colleges. ^There was nothing under this system to 
limit the number of Institutions affiliated to a university; and 
for thirty years, i.e., from 1887 to 1910, the growing demand 
for university education was met, not by the creation of new 
universities, but by enlarging the size of the constituent 
colleges and increasing their number. By 1917 this system 
of inflation had been carried so far that the composition of 
the original five universities stood as follows:-* 



Univ< ivitv. 


Colors. 


M 'dents. 


Calcutta ....... 


,jS 


28,018 


ijnmbav ....... 

** 


IT 


N.<KH 


Madras ..... 


,">:$ 


1U>10 


Punjab 


J4 


tl,5-.8 


Allahabad 


3:* 


7,807 



It had become obvious that further expansion on the 
same lines was no longer possible without a serious loss of 
efficiency, indeed that efficiency was already suffering from 
the excessive demands made on organisations not adapted for 
indefinite expansion. The universities had ceased to be living 
organisms since many of their ccaistituent members contri- 
buted nothing to the common life of the university of which 
they were a part and, so far from hjeing essential to its exist- 
ence, actually impaired its vitality/ They were in some cases 
little more than agglomerations oMeaching units, bound to the 



60 PJftOGKESS 03? EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

central, institution only by their need for some external exami- 
nation for their students which should command public con- 
fidence. } 

Need for | J6. The Government of India in their resolution of 1913 

**jjP recognised these facts. "It is necessary/' they said, "to 
univewftieiu restrict the area over which the affiliating universities have 
control by securing in the first instance a separate university] 
lor each of the leading provinces in India and secondly, to 
create new local teaching and residential universities within 
each of the provinces in harmony with the best modern opi- 
nion as to the right road to educational efficiency." The- 
development of tLe policy advocated by the Government of 
India on the ground of educational efficiency might have been 
long delayed had this motive not been reinforced by the 
strength of communal feeling and the growth of local and 
provincial patriotism. To the local patriotism of the peoples 
of Bihar, Oudh and Burma may primarily be ascribed the 
foundation of the Universities of Patna, Lucknow and Ran- 
goon. The Universities of Benares and Aligarh represent 
educational movements on the part of the Hindu and Muham- 
niadaii communities respectively. The University of Dacca 
is the product of both forces, being designed to meet the 
wishes of the people of Eastern Bengal for a local university 
centre and to encourage the higher education of Muharnma- 
dans, who fn.-m ihr majority of the population of Eastern 
Bengal. 

The Calcutta 77. The disintegration of the older universities had already 
commenced under the attacks of these local and communal 
forces, when the educational argument advanced by the Gov- 
ernment of India in favour of unitary teaching universities 
received most powerful support from the report of the Cal- 
cutta University Commission. The report of the Commission 
did more than strengthen the case of the advocates of univer- 
sity reform; it offered constructive proposals as to the lines 
to be followed in university reform. 

The Calcutta University, the oldest university in India, 
situated in the centre of a population which had taken very; 
kindly to higher education, had suffered more than any other 
from the evils of inflation. Before attempting to deal with 1 
these evils the Government of India wisely decided to call itf 
expert advice. A commission was appointed under the chair- 
manship of that distinguished educationist, Dr. (now Sir) 
Michael Sadler, Vice-Chancellor of Leeds University, having 
as members, Dr. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., D.Sc., M.I.M.M., 
Professor of Geology at the University of Glasgow; Mr. P. J. 
Hartog, C.I.E., M.A., B.Sc., L-es-Sc., Academic Eegistrar, 
University of London; Professor Ramsay Muir, M.A., Pro- 
fessor of Moderri History at the University of Manchester; 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 51 

the Hon'ble Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, Kt., O.S.I., D.L., 
Puisne Judge, High Court of Judicature at Fort William in 
Bengal; the Hon'ble Mr. W. W. Hornell, C.I.E., M.E.A.S., 
Director of Public Instruction, Bengal; and Dr. Zia-ud-Din 
Ahmad, C.I.E., D.Sc., Ph.D., Senior Tutor and Professor 
of Mathematics, Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, 
Aligarh. 

78. The Commission met in November 1917 in Calcutta and The recom- 
after hearing 93 witnesses and receiving written evidence from mendations 
412 people and further visiting a large number of institutions 

in Bengal and other parts of India presented its report in 
March 1919. The Commission in this monumental work, after 
reviewing the conditions of student life in Bengal. and describ- 
ing in detail the organisation and functions of the Calcutta 
University, recommended a complete reorganisation of the 
system of higher education in Bengal. They recommended ill 
the first place the immediate establishment of a new unitary 
teaching university at Dacca and the gradual development of 
other centres of collegiate education with a view to the estab- 
lishment of similar universities. They recommended a 
synthesis of the work of the various colleges situated in 
Calcutta, the co-ordination of the work of the outside colleges 
by means of a mo f us sal board, and a complete revision of the 
constitution of the Calcutta University with the special purpose 
of differentiating between the academic and purely administra- 
tive sides of its work. Finally, in order to raise the standard 
of university education in Bengal, they recommended the dele- 
gation of all work up to the intermediate standard, hitherto 
conducted by the University, to institutions of a new type, 
called intermediate colleges, which should provide both general 
and special education under the supervision of a board of 
secondary and intermediate education. To this body, which 
should contain representatives of Government, the University, 
the intermediate colleges and the high schools, they suggested 
that the administration and control of secondary education 
should be transferred from the university and the Education 
Department. 

79. When 4the report was published it was at once re- Considered 
cognised by the general public that, though the Commission by other 
were primarily concerned with the Calcutta University, many umversi ie * 
of their recommendations were equally applicable to the other 
Indian universities which had been reconstituted on iden- 
tical lines by the University Act of 1904. The Government 

of India issued a resolution in January 1920, summarising the 
report of the Commission and commending its findings to the 
consideration of local Governments. Committees were accord- 
ingly set up at all university centres to consider how far the 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

recommendations of the Commission might be suitably 
adapted to meet local needs. It is noteworthy that all uni- 
versity Acts passed since the publication of the report, 
whether for the incorporation of new universities or for the 
reconstitution of older universities, have embodied many 
features of the scheme recommended by the Commission for 
Calcutta. 

Action taken 80. In order to give effect to these recommendations the 
mission's 0111 Government of India drafted a bill for the reconstruction of 
reoommenda- the University of Calcutta. Questions of finance and ques- 
tions, tions of del nil delayed the introduction of the bill in the 
Imperial legislature. The position was altered by the consti- 
iiitionnl changes that took place in 1921. It was decided to 
transfer the control of the Calcutta University from the 
Government of India to the Government of Bengal and to 
leave aii3 T further initiative for the reform of the University 
to be taken by the local Government. An Act was passed in 
March 1921 substituting the Governor of Bengal for the 
Governor General as the Chancellor of the University. Ex- 
cept for this change and for the excision of the Dacca 
University area from the control of the Calcutta University, 
the report of the commissioners has had little effect on the 
eon di lion of the University which they were called in to 
advise. The Government of India did* indeed foresee this 
possibility, and in their resolution of January 1920 they ex- 
pressed fears lest " vested interests may suspect that they are 
threatened and the sentiments which have grown round the 
University, as it exists, may feel themselves touched." They 
believed, however, that there was in Bengal a strong and 
genuine aspiration for improved methods in the higher 
branches of instruction and they appealed for the assistance 
and co-operation of the educated classes in carrying out 
university reform. Although a resolution was passed in the 
Bengal Council in July 1921 advocating an increase in the 
elective element of the Senate, no general movement in favour 
of a more extensive adoption of the Commission's proposals 
was evident in Bengal during the period iinder review. 
NewUniver- 81. Schemes for the establishment of universities at Dacca, 
sityActs. pntna, Benares and Aligarh had been under consideration 
during the previous quinquennium. The Patna University 
followed as a natural corollary on the formation in 1912 of 
the new province of Bihar and Orissa. The original scheme 
for a unitary residential university, which had been drawn 
up by an influential committee under the chairmanship of the 
late "Sir Itobert Jfathan, had perforce been abandoned for 
financial reasons; and the university as it was finally incor- 
porated by the Act passed in September 1917 does not differ 
greatly in form from the older universities except in the pos- 



UNIVERSITIES AND ART* COLLEGER. 53 

session of ft wholetime paid Vice-Chancellor. (A fuller 
account of tlie constitution of this University will be found 
in the last Quinquennial Review). The Benares Hindu Uni- 
versity Act was passed in October 1915 ; it was followed by the 
Patna University Act in September 1917, the Dacca Univer- 
sity Act in March 1920, the Aligarh Muslim and Rangoon 
University Acts in September 1920, the Lucknow University 
Act in November 1920, the Allahabad University Act in 
December 1921 ami the Delhi University Act in March 1922. 

82. It has been said that the Dacca University owes its The Univer- 
birth to local and communal patriotism. The decision * 
announced in December 1911 to revise the partition of the pro- 
vinces of north-eastern India gave rise to grave apprehensions 

among the Mussulman community, who constituted the ma- 
jority in the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, that their 
educational progress would suffer by the coming change. In 
response to an expression of that apprehension made by a de- 
putation in January 1912 the Viceroy Lord Ilardinge pro- 
mised to found u now university that would bo open to all 
sections of the community and for {he benefit of all. The 
Government of India later announced their intention that the 
Dacca University should be a, model institution of a new kind 
a unitary residential university. The first plans for the 
new university were drawn up by a Committee presided 
over by Mr. (afterwards Sir) Robert Nathan. The execution 
of these plans was delayed for various causes, including the 
war, until the Calcutta University Commission had published 
their report in 1919. The commissioners urged that the uni- 
versity should be established without delay and the Dacca 
University Act was passed in 1920. 

83. The University has been fortunate in its material in- 
heritance. In addition to the old building of the Dacca Col- 
lege it has been given the greater portion of the buildings on 
the estate destined for the Government of Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. The estate consists of between five to six hundred 
acres of park land; the buildings include the old secre- 
tariat, which now houses the library, the arts classes and 
a residential hall for Muslim students, and a palatial Gov- 
ernment house, which is used for the meetings of the various 
university bodies. The University was further fortunate in 
securing the^ services of Mr. Philip Hartog, C.I.E., as its 
first Vice-Chancellor. Mr. Hartog had not only a distinguish- 
ed record as Academic Registrar of the London University 
for seventeen years, he had also served on the Calcutta Uni- 
versity Commission and was therefore intimately acquainted 
with the conditions of university education in Bengal and 
with the aims which the Commission had in view. 



54, 



PROGEESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



The new 
form o! 
university 
constitution. 



84. On the other hand, the new university was unfortunate 
in that its first years of existence coincided with a period of 
great financial stress in the province of Bengal. Whereas the 
Nathan Committee had estimated the recurring expenditure 
on the university at over thirteen lakhs annually, the Uni- 
versity has had to be content hitherto with five lakhs for its 
maintenance; but the Government of Bengal have in eight 
years made further capital contributions out of the large sum 
accumulated from the Government of India grants between 
1912 and 1920. 

85. The University of Dacca was the first to adopt the re- 
vised form of constitution recommended by the Calcutta Uni- 
versity Commission. Since this constitution with modifica- 
tions has been adopted in all subsequent university legis- 
lation, a short description of it is necessary. In place of 
the Senate and Syndicate of the older universities, whose 
constitution and functions were described in the last Quin- 
quennial Review, there are three main university bodies: 

(i) A large body, called the Court, on which are repre- 
sented the chief interests of the community, either by elec- 
tion or by nomination. The functions of the Court are to 
make statutes and to pass recommendations on the financial 
accounts and the animal report, submitted by the Executive 
Council. They also have power to cancel ordinances made by 
the Executive Council, if a majority of two-thirds decides on 
such cancellation. Thus, every important change made in 
the University is brought to the notice of the Court and can 
be discussed by them, while in matters of university legis- 
lation they have important powers not only of discussion but 
of check. 



Special 
features of 
the Dacca 
Aot 



(ii) The Executive Council, in whom the executive 
authority in regard to finance and university appointments 
and also all residual powers are v T eted. 

(Hi) The Academic Council, who are responsible for the 
control, general regulation and maintenance of standards of 
instruction, education and examination within the University, 
and for the initiation of all changes in academic matters and 
without whose consent no changes in such matters can be 
made. Tlxe Academic Council consists almost entirely of 
university teachers and is designed so as to secure the repre- 
sentation of the various departments of study undertaken by 
the University. 

86. Special provisions have been inserted in the Dacca Act 
in order to ensure the representation of the Muhammadan com- 
munity on the Court and the two Councils. The Governor of 
Bengal is Chancellor of the University cx-officio. He has the 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 00 

right ot appointing forty members of the Court, besides life- 
members, and of appointing four members of the Executive 
Council. Without his sanction no changes in the statutes can 
be made and he has the right of vetoing changes in ordinances. 

The Vice-Chancellor is a whole-time oflicer, and is the 
principal executive and academic officer of the University. 

This constitution seems admirably adapted to secure the 
due representation of all the interests concerned in the proper 
conduct of the university; but it is as yet too early to pass 
any judgment on its working. 

87. Despite the unfavourable financial conditions under Progress 
whicli it was started the University has made good progress. *? by 
The laboratory accommodation for physics and chemistry has university, 
been greatly increased ; and the laboratories have been re-equip- 
ped : the old library of the Dacca College has been modernised 

and is well supplied with periodical literature essential for up- 
to-date teaching ; a department of Islamic studies has been 
created and the staff in the other departments has been so 
enlarged as* to enable original work to be carried on; the 
department of economics has boon supplemented by ii depart- 
ment of commerce. T write elsewhere of the tutorial system. 

The number of students (exclusive of students of " teach- 
ing " who receive their instruction in the Dacca Training 
College, and of students of the Dacca Medical School, who 
study chemistry and physios at the University) is over 1,000, 
of whom about 23 per cent, are Muhammadans. 

88. The Benares Hindu University and the Aligarh Muslim u onare s 
University are communal institutions, the establishment of Hindu 
which had long been the subject of correspondence and con- ^^ Aligai 
versations between the representatives of the Hindu and Mus- universities, 
lini communities and the Government of India. The promo- 
ters had originally in view the osttibli shin out of affiliating uni- 
versities to which should be attached the communal colleges 

and schools situated in various parts of India. In the inter- 
ests of higher education the Government of India pressed for 
the substitution of unitary teaching universities. Their argu- 
ments were strongly reinforced by the report of the Calcutta 
University Commission. In the event two centres of Hindu 
and Muhammadan culture respectively have been founded, 
the one at the historic seat of Sanskrit learning, the other at 
a centre already made famous in the Muhammadan world by 
the institution founded by a distinguished patron of modern 
Muhammadan education, Sir Syed Ahmad. 

89. Of the incorporation of the Benares Hindu University 
an account was given in the last Review. During the past five 



6 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

years it has, under the enthusiastic direction of its Vice-Chan- 
cellor, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. carried out an exten*- 
sive building programme at a cost of seventy lakhs. Notable 
amongst its new buildings is the Engineering College, the 
equipment alona of which has cost ten lakhs. The University 
has received most generous support from Indian rulers and 
men of wealth. 

90. The Align rh Muslim University has the unique dis- 
tinction of a lady Chancellor in the person of that enlightened 
ruler Her Highness the Beguin.of Bhopal; while His Highness 
the Aga Khan is associated with the University as Pro-Chancel- 
lor. The University has taken over and extended the build- 
ings previously occupied by the Huhammadau Anglo-Oriental 
College, in its constitution and the functions assigned to 
the various university bodies it follows the Dacca model. The 
Academic Council, however, has the power to frame ordi- 
nances ou academic matters for direct submission to the 
Court. The local Government is represented in the Univer- 
sity by a Visiting Board consisting of the Governor, the 
members of the Executive Council, the Ministers, one member 
nominated by the Governor and one member nominated by the 
Minister in charge of Education. 

91. Both the Benares and Aligarh universities retain direct 
relations with the Government of India from whom they, 
receive grants and to whom their regulations are submitted, 
for sanction. They have been classed as " central " sub- 
jects under tho Government of India Act of 1911); and do, in 
fact, draw their students from all parts of India. 

Rangoon 92. The Eangoon University, which came into being at the 

Univewifcy. beginning of the quinquennium, is the realisation of a project 
mooted thirty years ago. Jt has two constituent colleges, 
University College and the Judson College. The staffs of 
both these institutions were strengthened before and after the 
establishment of the University by the addition of nine lec- 
tureships in the Indian Educational Service and eight in the 
Burma Educational Service to University College and of four 
lectureships to the Judson College. The University has been 
started witli high aims. " A national university should be 
closely in touch with national life. It therefore- undertakes 
the scientific research and teaching required by local indus- 
tries ; provides non-technical extra-mural teaching in the form 
of extension lectures and tutorial classes and reports by re- 
quest, after systematic enquiry, on matters of social and 
economic importance. Its students and graduates also sup- 
port settlements for the benefit of poor and depressed classes. 
There is no reason why the Eangoon University should not 
in time undertake all these Varied activities. Accordingly,. 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 57 

in addition to the Arts and Science departments in University 
College, departments in Teaching, Law, Engineering, Fores- 
try, Medicine and Fine Arts have been or, it is hoped, will 
shortly be established. The Senate has constituted boards of 
studies iii all these subjects and courses leading to degrees or 
diplomas therein are, or soon will be in working." 1 

93. The University was opened at a time of great political 
ferment in Burma, which had not been included in the scheme 
of reforms introduced into India proper. The agitators took 
advantage of some local criticisms of the University Act to 
declare a boycott of the University. The criticisms were 
chiefly directed at the form assigned to the University, i.e., 
a residential teaching university in place of the old type of 
affiliating university, and at the provision of an additional 
preparatory course in English for students matriculating but 
defective in this subject. Since there were no other arts 
colleges in Burma except the two incorporated in the Univer- 
sity and since the preparatory English course was designed to 
ensure that the students should understand the University 
lectures and so increase their chances of obtaining degrees, 
the political character of the agitation was soon apparent 
and the attendance at tKe constituent colleges was rapidly 
recovering at the close of the year 1922. 

94. The nucleus of the Lucknow University founded in Lucknow 
November 1920 was formed from the Canning College, the University. 
King George's Medical College, and the Isabella Thoburn 
College for Women. Faculties in commerce and law havo 

been added. The University is the product of the educational 
enthusiasm and energy of His Excellency Sir Harcourt Butter, 
Governor of the United Provinces, supported by the pro- 
vincial patriotism of the people of Oudh. Over thirteen 
lakhs of rupees have been contributed by the taluqdars and 
raises to form an endowment for the new university. Both 
in its constitution and in the organisation of its work the 
Lucknow University follows closely the model of the Dacca 
University. 

95. The recommendations of the Calcutta University Com- Allahabad 
mission were also followed in the provisions of the Act of University. 
1921, which reconstructed the Allahabad University. The 
constitution of the Allahabad University is very similar 

to that of Dacca and Lucknow with this important difference 
that in addition to the teaching and residential university 
at Allahabad there is an external side comprising a number 
of colleges situated in the United Provinces, the Central 
Provinces, Central India and Kajputana previously affiliated 
to and now associated with the Allahabad University. 

1 Burma, p. 22. 



68 



FKOGKESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Separation 
of the] 
intermediate 
classes 



96. One important part of the Commission's recommenda- 
tions has been accepted by the Government of the United Pro- 
vinces and Government of India and incorporated in the Acts 
establishing the Lucknow, Dacca and Aligarh Universities and 
reconstituting that of Allahabad, namely, the separation of 
the intermediate classes from the sphere of university work 
and the transfer of control over them from the university to 
a Board of Secondary and Intermediate Education, 
Surh a board was constituted for the Dacca University area 
by a notification of the Bengal Government in 1921. It con- 
tains twenty-two members of whom seven are elected by the 
University. The United Provinces Board was constituted 
by an Act passed in the same year. It consists of some fortj 
members of whom approximately one quarter represent the 
universities in the Province. An Intermediate Examination 
Board was also formed for the Aligarh University by an 
Ordinance in 1922. 

97. It is only natural that these changes should not have 
commended themselves to the outside colleges, except where, 
as at Agra, they may look forward fo the establishment of a 
local university. These associated colleges realise that their 
existence as constituent parts of the Allahabad University 
is threatened and that they are almost inevitably destined to 
be converted into intermediate institutions. Many of these 
colleges would be unable to maintain themselves without the 
fees realised from their intermediate students, but if they are 
to retain their association with the Allahabad University they 
must, under the terms of tlio new Act, confine themselves 
after a period of five years from the date of its enactment to 
the instruction of post-intermediate students. This feature 
of the reorganisation of the Allahabad University has conse- 
quently hastened the establishment of a university at Nagpur, 
which came into existence during the present year, ana has 
also set on foot movements for the establishment of univer- 
sities at Agra and in Rajputana. Meanwhile in the United 
Provinces the Lucknow Christian College has already been 
converted into an intermediate institution and intermediate 
classes have been added to eleven high schools. Of the 
success of the latter experiment it is too early to speak, but 
that the addition of intermediate classes to high schools is not 
unattended with difficulties is clear from a description of a 
similar experiment at the New College, Patna, which will be 
given later in this chapter. 

Delhi 98. The Delhi University Act was passed by the Indian 

University. Legislature in March 1922. The constitution of the University 
is similar to that of Lucknow. It is formed by the associa- 
tion of the St. Stephens' Mission College, the Hindu College 
*nd the "Ramjas College with a view to the introduction of 



UNIVERSITIES AND AKTS COLLEGES. 50 

common university teaching. Of this university, which was 
opened in May 1922, fuller mention will be made in the next 
Quinquennial lie view. The University came into being yt 
a time when the Imperial budget showed a serious deficit. It 
was therefore impossible to provide for a whole-time Vice- 
Chancellor, and tlie duties attached to this post were under- 
taken honorarily by l)r. H. S. Gour, M.L.A., who is assisted 
by a resident Rector. His Excellency the Viceroy himself 
became the Chancellor of the now university and the post of 
Pio-Cluuicellor was accepted by the Hon'ble Mian Sir Muham- 
mad Shan, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., Education Member of the 
Viceroy's Council, whose tenure of office has been marked by 
great developments in university education in India. 

99. The report of the Commission also had its effect on Madras 
centres so distant from Calcutta as Madras and Lahore. The University. 
.Senate of the Madras University at a meeting held in October 

1920 adopted the following resolution: 

" That the Senate is of opinion that the time has come 
AA hen the increasing demands for liberal education in this 
presidency should be met by the establishment of more uni- 
versities and by the redistribution of the territorial areas of 
the existing University so as to provide as far as practicable 
.at least one university for each principal linguistic area 
within the presidency; and that the establishment of a uni- 
versity for the Andhras should be taken in hand without 
further delay." 

So far, although the Madras University itself has been 
reconstructed during the present year, 110 new universities 
have been opened in either the Madras or the Bombay 
Presidencies. 

100. The question of university reconstruction evoked con- Punjab 
aider able discussion in the Punjab, but owing to a divergence University, 
of opinion as to the relative claims of the colleges and the 
university to control the advanced teaching no statutory change 

in the constitution was effected during the period under 
review. The question at issue in the Punjab is dis- 
cussed at some length in the Director's report. " At 
present/' he says, " the University exercises an excessive 
control over the courses and curricula but an inadequate con- 
trol over the teaching given in its name." 2 Just at the close 
-of the period an Academic Council was instituted which deals 
with all matters concerning university teaching, including 
inter-collegiate teaching, under the general authority of the 
Syndicate and Senate. 

101. The Osmania University is situated in the dominions Osmania 
of His Exalted Highness the Nizam and an account of it there- University, 
fore does not fall within the scope of this report. It is unique 

2 Punjab, p. 55. 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Mysore 
University, 

The Indian 
University 
for women. 



University 
teaching. 



(a) University 
lectures. 



in India in that it employs the Urdu language as the medium 
of instruction. The University employs a Bureau of 
Translators to provide the necessary text-hooks for the 
university courses. 

102. The Mysore University which was mentioned in the 
last Review is for the same reason excluded from iliis report. 

103. Professor Karve's Indian University for Women at 
Poona has grown and achieved a much firmer foundation. It 
has received several endowments and loans for the purchase of 
a site and erection of buildings. A conditional promise of 
fifteen lakhs has caused its name to he extended to the 
Shrimati Nathilmi Damodar Thackersey Indian Women's 
University. " Its objects remain the same, the provision, 
independently of (.jovernment aid or regulation, and through 
the medium of the vernacular, of a secondary and l T nivcrsitv 
education specially devised to suit Indian girls and women/' 3 

A Further reference to this ! ! niversily will be found in 
paragraph #55. 

104. The teaching of the affiliating universities in India is, 
owing lo their constitution, almost entirely carried on by the 
staIVs of their constituent colleges. They had, however, even 
before the advent of unitary teaching universities, inaugurat- 
ed several experiments hi university teaching to supplement 
the work of the colleges. These innovations took the form 
either: 

(ti) of special scries of lectures by eminent mm of learn- 
ing, invited to visit the university Irom India 01 abroad, or 

(/>) nt' university chairs in certain subjects in which tho 
university desires to specialise, or 

(/) in the most complete form, of honours schools or post- 
graduate classes directly conducted by the university. 

105. The delivery of courses of lectures by distinguished 
scholars has been a particular feature of the work of the 
Calcutta, Madras and .Punjab Universities. Professor Oliver 
Klton, M.A., .D.Jjitt., of the Liverpool University visited 
Lahore at the invitation of the Punjab University and subse- 
quently delivered a course of lectures at Madras. The Madras 
University also secured visits from Dr. W. A. Craigie, 
Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, and Professor J. S. 
Mackenzie of University College, South Wales. Othei distin- 
guished visitors to this country who delivered 'lectures at the 
invitation of the Punjab University wore M. A. Foucher, 
the eminent Arrluoologist, and Dr. E. L. Frida Fowler, 
D.LiH., of Paris, the former D{ whom also lectured on 
behalf of the University of Calcutta. Professor 0. V. Raman 
accepted invitations from the Madras and Punjab Univer- 
sities to describe his scientific researches, Sir P. C. "Bay visited 

Bombay report. 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 61 

the Madras and the Benares Hindu Universities and Sir 
Jagdish Hose the Jkuuhay University, for the same purpose. 
The Calcutta University arranged for li'ctures from a number 
of distinguished professors of other Indian universities includ- 
ing Dr. llushbrook Williams, Professor It. K. Mukerjee, and 
the late Mr. It. S. Trivedi. These \isits form an interesting 
illustration of the value of university co-operation. 

1U(). The example set hy the tlniversities of Cale.utla, (6) Univcrsit; 
Madras and Allahabad in the creation of university chairs has Chairs. 
been followed by other universities. At Allahabad the chair of 
Economics was held by Dr. Stanley Jevons. The University 
Department of Economics has been much engaged in research 
on currency problems and rural economics. The Chair of 
History was held by Dr. llushhrook Williams till his transfer 
to the Government of India in April 19*J1 when lie was succeed- 
ed by Dr. S. A. Khan. Valuable research work on various 
periods of Indian History has been accomplished and a 
library has been built up of which it is said that '* no other 
university library in India can boast of such continuous con- 
nected data for the study of Indian History." 1 A chair of 
geography wa- created in 1H10 but hitherto no suitable* incum- 
bent has been found for the posl. Tin* endowment of a chair 
of civics anil politics has been offered by the Government of 
the United Provinces. Meanwhile the chair of post-Vcdic 
studies was abolished on the death of the incumbent, Dr. Venis, 
in 1018. 

In Madras the chairs of comparative philology and of 
Indian economics ha\e beea vacant since the retirement in 
1<)1<> and 1!)2I of Dr. Mark (Collins and Dr. Gilbert Slater. 
The Department of Economics has, however, been strength- 
ened by the appointment of an a.ssi>iani professor and two 
leaders. The chair of Indian history and archaeology is 
held by Itao Sahib Dr. S. Krishnaswami Ayyangar. 

In Jlomhay a cluiir oi sociology was created for the term 
of three years in L!)l!) to which Professor Patrick Geddes, late 
of the St. Andrews' University, \\as appointed; an assistant 
professor was added in 11)21. The Department of Sociology 
has issued several publications and monographs on such sub- 
jects as the housing problem in Bombay. A Department o 
Economics was also opened in 1921, when Mr. K.. T. Shah was 
appointed professor with Mr. C. N. Vakil as his assistant. 
In both departments research is combined with the prepara- 
tion of students for post-graduate degrees. 

107. A more complete development in university teaching ( c ) Punjab 
is the system of honours schools introduced by the Punjab University 
University. The organisation of the teaching in these schools 
v a whole-time officer of the University entitled 



is controlled bv 



* United Provinces, p. 27. 



<52 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

4i the Dean of University Instruction." His functions are 
4o co-ordinate the work and aims of different honours 
schools, to advise the Vice-Chancellor and the Syndicate with 
regard to the said schools and to develop in general the teach- 
ing functions of the University with the co-operation of the 
colleges. Mr. A. C. Woolner, late Registrar of the Univer- 
sity, has been appointed to this post. Honours schools have 
been instituted in Arabic, Sanskrit, botany, zoology and 
mathematics and the University also conducts post-graduate 
instruction in economics. The University has a whole-time 
^hair of mathematics occupied by Professor C. V. H. 
Hao and a chair of economics occupied by Mr. W. H. 
Miles : it has also appointed professors in botany, and 
zoology from the staffs of the constituent colleges. " The 
aim of iiniversity teaching in the Honours schools is 
to give an improved type of instruction, with some personal 
contact between teacher and " pupil and lesser recourse 
to lectures and text books, to the abler minority among the 
students in the belief that this improved teaching, though 
in the first instance limited to a minority, will in the long 
run react on the spirit and methods of teaching throughout 
affiliated colleges of the University/' 5 

(d) CaL ufcta 108. The most comprehensive scheme of university teaching 
University adopted by an affiliating university in India is the post- 
depar g tm^t graduate department of the Calcutta University. At the 
beginning of the quinquennium all M.A. teaching, except in 
a few 7nofvssal colleges, was taken over by the University it- 
self. There can be no question that by means of its post- 
graduate classes the Calcutta University is performing one of 
the most valuable functions of a university, the promotion of 
research. But the organisation of the department has been 
criticised on the ground that the staff is excessive and that 
there is no discrimination exercised in the choice of the 
students, many of whom are engaged at the same time in 
working for a law degree. At the beginning of the academic 
session, 1916-17, there were 1,258 students in the university 
M. A. classes (excluding attendance at the Presidency, Dacca 
and Scottish Churches Colleges) for the teaching of whom a 
staff of 46 whole-time teachers and a few part-time lecturers 
was provided. In 1921-22 there were 1,284 students with a 
staff of 233 profesvsors, assistant professors and lecturers, in- 
cluding part-time teachers. The large 'increase in the 
proportion of staff to students is partly accounted for by the 
extension of science teaching. 4)f the 1,234 students 189 
were in the science classes with a staff of 54 as against 1,045 
in arts classes with a staff of 179. But in such subjects as 
anthropology (eight teachers, nine students) and experimental 

* Punjab University Report (Ma.). 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 3 

psychology (eight teachers, nine student*) there is a much 
greater disparity. " Previously to the great growth of purely 
university post-graduate teaching, the colleges, and especially 
the Presidency College, endeavoured to restrict the numbers of 
those who entered their SLA. and M.Sc. classes by demand- 
ing a certain degree of attainment, marked by honours or 
distinctions, in the post-graduate subject proposed. Apparent- 
ly in the university classes, there is no such small-meshed 
sieve before entrance; in practice a graduate, pass or honours, 
is admitted to the post-graduate course in any subject he 
chooses/' The increase in the staff is also due to the open- 




and comparative study of Indian Vernaculars was opened in 

1919, the first M.A. examination in the subject being held in 

1920. " Arrangements have been made for instruction in 
Bengali, Uriya, Hindi, Maithili and (Juxerati as principal 
vernaculars 'and in Bengali, Assamese, Uriya, Hindi, 
Mahrathi, Guzerati, Telugu, Tamil, Kanarese, Malayalam, 
Sinhalese, Maithili, Urdu, Prahut, Pali and Persian as sub- 
sidiary languages." 7 The University College of Science 
was founded out of the gifts of 14 and 10 lakhs of rupees 
made by Sir Tarak Nath Palit and Sir Rash Behari Ghose, 
respectively, in the last quinquennium. In the present quin- 
quennium a further legacy of some 5-J- lakhs was received from 
the estate of the late Kumar Guruprosad Singh of Khaira. 
Out of the interest of this sum the University has established 
five new chairs, in Indian fine arts, phonetics, physics, che- 
mistrv and agriculture. Another gift of 2\ lakhs, under the 
will of the late Sir Kash Bcliari Ghose, established a number 
of travelling research fellowships open to graduates of the 
"University. A further interesting development of university 
work has' been started by the beneficence of Mr. Prankristu 
Chatterjee, who in 1921 made over 100 bighas of land and an 
endowment of Es. 1,800 per annum to start a University 
Mining school. 

109. It will be noted that, prior to the establishment of (?) Colleges 
unitary teaching universities, the teaching functions assumed responsible 
by universities have all been confined to higher work with the 

more advanced or more brilliant students. The bulk of the 
university teaching has been, and still is in the case of affiliat- 
ing universities, in the hands of the colleges. It was suggest- 
ed to the Calcutta University Commission that the 
development of university teaching should continue on these 
lines, the university gradually assuming the responsibility 

' Bengal, p. 9. 

7 Calcutta University Report (Ma.). 



6 PHOGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

for all " honours " or post-graduate work leaving the " pass " 
students only to the care of the colleges. This suggestion 
was rejected by the Commission on the ground that, in the 
interests of the teachers and the taught, no sharp dividing- 
line should be drawn between the work of the " pass " and 
"honours" .students. The Commission preferred to recom- 
mend the gradual development at suitable centres of unitary 
teaching universities, such as have actually been started at 
Dacca, Liu-know, Aligarh and Jienures. In these universities 
the whole of the graduate and post-graduate teaching is con- 
ducted by the staff of the university and the colleges have 
assumed the character of halls of residence. A compromise 
has been necessary at such centres as liangoon and Delhi, 
where the hulk of the teaching is as yet conducted by the 
colleges, arrangements for co-operation being made by the 
university, and at Allahabad, where the reconstructed univer- 
sity has both a teaching and an affiliating side. 

110. India is a land of large distances and small towns. 
The number of centres, at which there is a sufficient stiident 
population to attend, and, what is even more important, a suffi- 
cient number of educated persons to administer a university 
is very limited. Although the growth of unitary teaching 
universities has been such a marked and such a satisfactory 
feature of the development of higher education during the 
past five years, there will always be in India a need for uni- 
versities of the affiliating type. 

Changes in HI- Before dealing with the work of the colleges I must 

conditions of make mention of certain changes in the conditions of admission 
admission to w hi ( .h may in time have a marked effect on the character of 
(a) Inter- " university education. Of the recommendation of the Calcutta 
mediate University Commission that entraifre to the university 

colleges. should be postponed to the intermediate stage, and of its 
acceptance at Dacca and in the United Provinces T have 
already written. This change entails either the addition of 
two intermediate classes to high schools or the creation of 
separate intermediate colleges. The former solution has been 
generally adopted in the United Provinces: the latter was the 
one favoured by the Calcutta University Commission, which 
laid much stress on the important functions which this new 
type of institution might discharge in the preparation of 
students for the university and in the provision of vocational 
training. Although the matriculation or school final 
examination has been retained as the qualification for ad- 
mission to universities outside the United Provinces and 
Dacca, there has been a movement elsewhere in the direction 
of starting intermediate colleges. In the Punjab, for ex- 
ample, intermediate colleges have been opened at eight 
centres. They do not as yet provide any vocational 

Sksvii-nnstc* C*f\-n .! /I ktQ f 1 rtll O f\$ OVIICtTICn tt Tul + Vl A IflnL" f\$ CkfPAnflVP 



UNIVERSITIES AND AltTS COLLEGES. 65 

demand have contributed to restrict tlieir activities. They 
should, however, serve a useful purpose in checking 1 the 
influx of first and second year students to Lahore and thus 
lightening the work of the degree colleges. An intermediate 
college of the type recommended by the Commission has been 
opened at Patna, comprising the two high classes of the 
collegiate school and the two intermediate classes of the 
Patna College. " When the institution was first established 
no attempt was made to amalgamate the two sections, the 
college classes being taught by college methods and the school 
classes by school methods. Even then, however, there were 
difficulties, for the staff and students of the college section 
regarded it as beneath their dignity to associate with school 
teachers and school boys, respectively. Subsequently, endea- 
vours have been made to fuse the whole institution into one, 
but further problems have now arisen. Thus the teachers 
who were recruited for college work and the students in the 
I. A. classes would object to a vacation shorter than a college 
-.vacation while there is no reason why the school section 
should enjoy longer Apical ions than at present. Again, some 
of the college teachers do not care to teach school classes, while 
if the teachers recruited for school work are required to teach 
college classes there is some risk that the standard of Instruc- 
tion in those classes may deteriorate. Further, the teachers 
of the college classes do not appear to have appreciated the 
fact that when the institution was fused it was intended that 
the whole should be taught by school methods, lectures and 
tutorial work in the college classes being abandoned, and 
some of the teachers have instead done little more than lecture, 
abandoning tlieir tutorial work and thus making things uorse 
than they were before . ' ' 8 

112. A second change of importance during the quinquen- (&) Abolition 
nium has been the abolition of the age limit for matriculation j|^ or 
by the universities of Bombay, Allahabad and Patna. Similar matriculation 
action is being contemplated by the Madras, JJenares and or school 

Punjab Universities. Previously admission to the examina- leavil ?g 
* i> i-i i / * cxamina 

tion was confined to boys of 15-J years or 10 years of age. tions> 

This restriction has now been abolished. It is too soon to 
judge of the effect of this change. So long as the secondary 
school course is one that an ordinary boy cannot cover in 
less than ten years it is not probable that many boys will be 
able to pass matriculation at an earlier age than 'fifteen. 

The statistics given in general table X show that of 44,469 
students attending colleges in India in 1921 only 129 were 
under sixteen years of age, and that of 60,797 boys in the 
matriculation classes of high schools all but 2,000 were over 
fifteen years old. The median age for the matriculation ciass 

* Bihar and Orissa, p. 42. 



66 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



(p) Introduc- 

vernacular 
medium for 
instruction, 



General 

fafthe ^ 11 

Colleges. 



is 16 and for the fii\st college year 17. The " matriculation "" 
or top class in an Indian high school is essentially an examina- 
tion class in which the energies of the teachers and the pupils 
are concentrated on the text-books and syllabus prescribed 
for the final examination. It does not offer the same oppor- 
tunities for widening the range of knowledge and broadening 
the general outlook that are afforded by the sixth form in an 
English secondary school, which make it well worth while 
for older boys to remain in school long after they possess the- 
minimum qualifications for admission to the university. 

113. A third change of importance is the proposed adoption- 
^.Y universities of the vernacular as the medium in some or 
a ^ ^ the subjects of their matriculation examination. The 
present position is as follows: 

The Seriate of the Patna University has passed a resolution 
to the effect that the medium, of examinations may be the 
vernaculars after 192'} and shall be the vernaculars after 192S, 
but the necessary change in the regulations has not yet been 
sanctioned by Government. The Senate of the Calcutta Uni- 
versity also proposes that for matriculation instruction and' 
examination in all subjects, except English, shall be conducted" 
in the vernacular. The Senate of the Punjab University has 
decided to give the option to the candidates in the matricula- 
tion and school-leaving certificate examination of answer- 
ing the questions in history and geography either in English 
or in Hindi, Urdu or Gurmukhi and the proposal is to be 
submitted to Government for sanction. As has already been 
stated elsewhere, the Ounwnia University imparts its teaching 
through tho medium of Urdu and a. Bureau has been formed 
in connection with it to prepare suitable text-books. 

114. It is impossible to determine the effect of the proposed 
changes. Their introduction is complicated by the multipli- 
city of the vernaculars in use in every province. "No one 
examiner, for example, will be able to correct history papers 
written in several vernaculars nor even to co-ordinate the 
results of marking by assistant examiners conversant with the 
different languages used by the candidates. The question 
is dealt with in Chapter XVIII of the report of the Calcutta 
University Commission. The Commissioners as a result of 
their investigations recommend that at the " high school " 
or matriculation examination " candidates should be permit- 
ted to answer either in the vernacular or in English, except 
in the subjects of English <>r mathematics in which English 
should be compulsory/' They do not, however, offer any 
suggestion for standardising the results. 

n t ]? OT an account of any developments in the colleges- 
attached to affiliating universities one must turn to the reports 
of the Directors of Public Instruction. University reports- 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 



are ordinarily confined to a record of changes in statutes and 
regulations and of the activities of the central university 
bodies : mention is rarely made of the changes made in the 
buildings, staff, or work of the colleges. This is an interest- 
ing illustration of the relationship of the affiliating univer- 
sities to their constituent members. 

116. At the close of the quinquennium there were 231 col- statistics 
leges of all kinds in British India with a total enrolment of of colle g e * 
59,595 students. Of these, 107 were arts colleges (including 15 
oriental colleges) with 45,933 students. The detailed figures 
relating to the English arts colleges, with which this section 
is mainly concerned, are given in the table below. The 
oriental colleges and colleges for professional and technical 
training are dealt with elsewhere. 

English Art* Colleges, W21-22. 



Province. 




Go\ em- 
inent. 


Board. 


Aided. 


Unaided. 


TOIAL. 


Madras . . . .-< 


Institutions . | 10 
Scholars . 1,908 


1 
53 


23 
6,200 





39 
8 227 


Bombay . . .< 


Institutions . 
Scholars 


4 

1 378 





ti 
13,431 




10 
4,829 


Bengal J 


Institutions . 
Scholars 


" 8 

3,102 


173 


13 
5,773 


14 

7,H'.)2 


oG 
10,942 


United Provinces . . J 


Institutions . 
Scholar* 


5 
001 





17 
3,332 


3 

1,173 


1*5 
5,198 


{i Institutions . 3 
! ! 
Scholars . , 716 


. 


7 
2,231 


5 

1,379 


15 

4,370 


r 


Institution* . ! 1 


p 


1 




2 


Burma . . .*{ 














I 


Scholar* 


380 





133 





515 
















Bihar & Orlssa . . . J 


institutions . 
Scholars 


5 

1,1 55 





889 


1 
31 


10 

2,075 


Central Provinces & Berar . J 


Institutions . 
Scholars 


3 
6 13 





1 
131 





4 

677 


Assam . . . .J 


Institutions . 
Scholars 


2 

732 











2 

752 


North-West Frontier Pro-/ 


Institutions . 








3 

I 


3 


vince. ^ 


Scholars 








193 





193 


Minor Administrations . J 


Institutions . 
Scholars 


1 
69 


'I 


5 
1,371 





6 
1,440 


{1921-22 J 


Institutions . 
Scholars 


42 

10,784 


2 

220 


85 
23,737 


23 

10,477 


152 
45,224 
















1916-17 / 


Institutions . 
Scholars 


30 
10,547 


4 
456 


69 
23,738 


22 
11,696 


125- 
46,437 



<JO PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Of the total number of students (45,224) 1,2G3 are women. 
The enrolment of women shows an increase of 50 per cent, 
which is gratifying, especially in view .of the fact that there 
has been a decrease of 1,213 students or 2-6 per cent, in the 
total number of arts students. This falling off in numbers 
may be ascribed partly to the non-co-operation and khilafat 
movements and partly to the general economic distress. But 
there is also some cause to think that a preference for pro- 
fessional training has been a powerful secondary influence in 
bringing about the decline referred to above. It is note- 
worthy that ihe number of students in professional colleges 
rose from 11,504 to 13,062. 

117. The classification of students according to race or 
creed is as follows : 



Race or creed of aits scholars. 



Community. 


1910-17. 


1921-22. 


Increase 
or 
Decrease. 


Europeans and Anglo-Indians . 


896 


976 


+ 80 


Indian Christians .... 


1,391 


1,817 


+ 426 


Hindus Brahmans 


15,922 


14,920 


1,002 


Non-Brahmans . 


21,403 


20,551 


852 


Muhammadans .... 


4,881 


5,371 


+ 490 


Buddhists 
Parsis .... 


515 
573 


274 
560 


241 
13 


Others 


856 


755 


101 










TOTAL 


46,437 


45,224 


1,213 



The above figures are instructive. It is interesting to 
find that the number of Muhammad an scholars shows a sub- 
stantial increase despite the adverse political movements that 
influenced the community during the period. The heavy 
drop in the number of Buddhist scholars is perhaps accounted 
for by the agitation which was set on foot at the inauguration 
of the Eangoon University (see paragraph 93). 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 69 

118. In spite of the restrictions imposed by the high cost of Buildings, 
materials, considerable building activity is reported during 

the quinquennium. The following are among the most not- 
able university and college buildings constructed or under 
construction during these years. At the Benares Hindu Uni- 
versity a new Arts and Science building and an Engineering 
College have been completed on a site presented by the 
Maharajah of Benares. The cost of the new buildings was 
defrayed from subscriptions. The total amount of such con- 
tributions to the Tuiversity, promised or realised, is L*J9 lakhs. 
The Bombay I niversity is making large extensions to the 
main university building;. In Lahore a new Law College and 
a chemical laboratory for the Punjal) University are under 
construction and a hostel for 200 students has been built for 
the Government College. 

119. The Ravenshaw College at Cuttack was moved to new 
buildings in July 1921, where, in addition to liberal teaching 
accommodation, quarters have been provided for 18 members 
of the staff and for 410 resident students at a cost exclusive 
of fittings of approximately eleven lakhs. A complete new set 
of buildings has been erected for the Tej Narayaii Jubilee 
College at Bhagalpore at a cost of eight lakhs towards which 
a munificent donation of Its. tt, 29,000 was contributed by the 
liajas Bahadur of Baiiaili. Buildings estimated to cost 
thirteen lakhs were commenced in 1918 for the King Edward 
College, Amraoti, and were nearly completed at the close of 
the quinquennium. 

120. The United Provinces report the election or extension 
of laboratories in many colleges to meet the increasing demand 
for science teaching. The Lucknow Christian College, 
for example, has spent three lakhs on the Badley science block. 
An appeal to the commercial community of Cawnpur resulted 
in promises of 4J lakhs towards the construction of a college 
and a gift of one lakh has been received from Lala Hardat 
Bai, while llai Bishamhor Nath Bahadur presented land on 
the banks of the Ganges of the same value. The foundation 
stone was laid by His Excellency Sir Harcourt Butler in 
March 1920. 

121. A more general use of the tutorial svstem is reported The tutorial 
from several provinces, but many aided colleges are under- system 
staffed for work of this kind. In the new teaching universities 
tutorial work is a distinguishing feature. In the Canning 

or Arts College of the Lurkilow University " students are 
encouraged to form their own groups so as to foster the spirit 
of companionship in work, and, at. intervals of a week or a 
fortnight, they meet with their tutor to discuss written work 
and talk over their subjects of study. In addition to the 
tutorial work each student is now assigned to a senior member 



70 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Indian 

students 

abroad. 



Methods of 
study. 



of the staff called a house tutor, who is to act as his guardiai* 
through all his course in the University. Not more than 25 
will be assigned to any one member of the staff/' 9 At Dacca- 
every student is attached to a teacher for general guidance. 
Honours students in addition are under the direct tutorial 
supervision of the head of the Department. "As an incen- 
tive to constant and uniform effort throughout a student's- 
career the tutorial record is, by ordinance, taken into account 
at the settlement of the examination results. A student not 
in residence at a Hall must be attached to one for tutorial 
purposes and for the social benefits which the system is 
specially devised to procure for him." 10 That these ' social* 
benefits * may, in some cases, outweigh the educational is sug- 
gested by the Principal of the Government College, Lahore, 
where " in jiiost eases the tutorial group has been allowed to 
degenerate into a composition class or it has merely served 
the purpose of a subsidiary debating society, having its annu- 
al photograph and feast, that tutor winning the greatest glory 
that could afford to feast his wards oftener than others." 11 ' 
The tutorial system has in it the seed of great good. It serves 
to bring every student into direct relationship with some mem- 
ber of the staff. At its worst it may develop into a sort of 
intensified coaching for an examination. At its best it -should 
be directed " to encourage originality and individual effort,, 
to ensure that each student shall be enabled to learn something 
of intellectual production as well as of reproduction." 12 

122. In spite of the opportunities for advanced study and 
research now afforded by Indian universities many Indian 
students still proceed to Europe 1 , Japan and America for 
further study at'ler graduation or e\en after passing the Inter- 
mediate examination. The majority of these desire to qualify 
for the liar or to study technical subjects, such as engineering; 
further mention of such students will be found in paragraph 
493. There were in 1922 one hundred and twenty-one 
Indian students in residence at British universities preparing 
for arts or science degrees. Such degrees are held to connote 
and do undoubtedly connote a higher standard of general edu- 
cation than an ordinary Indian degree. This superiority does 
not result from any deficiencies in the courses of study pre- 
scribed by the Indian universities for graduation. Apart from 
such natural advantages as a student may gain from travel 
and wider experience, the essential difference lies in the 
methods in which the courses are studied. Of the methods 
pursued in Indian colleges the Calcutta University Commis- 
sion record abundant evidence. The testimony received from 

United Provinces, p. 36. 
10 Bengal, p. 12. 
"Punjab, p. 59. 
"Bengal, p. 12. 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 71 

all parts of India was unanimous in declaring that teaching 
was entirely subordinated to examination. The experience of 
the Commission from their own visits to lecture rooms was that 
" except in a few striking instances the teaching was directed 
exclusively and narrowly to the examination syllabus." The 
teacher, it was reported to them, who attempts to widen the in- 
terests of hio pupils in a subject by introducing matter outside 
the examination syllabus is held of less repute than the one 
who confines himself to the dictation of suitable notes. These 
notes are memorised by the student, for the Indian student's Memoris 
power of memorisation is quite exceptional. One professor 
stated that the " students preparing for the M.Sc. examina- 
tion commit to memory the contents of two volumes of 
liichter's Organic Chemistry and Koscoo and Schorlemmer's 
standard works on Inorganic Chemistry." In the case of 
junior students this remarkable method of study is due in 
part to their incomplete knowledge of the medium of instruc- 
tion English but is chiefly adopted because il has been 
proved by experience to be the simplest method of passing 
examinations. One experienced examiner writes: "the 
best student, judged by examination results, is the best memo- 
riser. Every examination in. which I have taken part is proof 
positive of this statement. Individuality in treating ques- 
tions is a very rare thing. The examiner is more a recorder 
of mistakes in memory than a judge of mental calibre in the 
proper sense." 

123. It would be wrong to conclude that the conditions are The exami- 
everywhere so bad as those described in the preceding extracts, nation evil. 
But the dominance of the examination is universal. The 
.explanation for this is simple; a degree is an indispensable 
qualification for admission to the higher professions and to 
Government service; indeed, in recent years, owing to the large 
output of graduates it has become customary to require a 
degree as a qualification even- for clerical posts. Against this 
development Mr. Anderson protests in the following passage. 
"" The whole tone and ideals of collegiate education are degrad- 
ed by the idea, unfortunately prevalent, that it is an im- 
portant duty of an arts college to train men for clerkships. 
The greatest in the land have lectured students on festival 
occasions that they should learn for learning's sake and that 
the be-all and end-all of a college career should not be a 
Government appointment; yet the imposition of a degree 
-qualification for clerks would appear to be the negation of 
these excellent principles." 13 Of the demoralising effects of 
examinations on the character of the teaching I have written 
further in the following chapter. It is rare to find that a 
college career has inspired a student with a love of learning. 

13 Punjab, p. 37. 



72 FltOGKKSS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

The words of Spencer quoted by a Bengal headmaster are 
widely applicable in India to-day. " Examinations being 
once passed, books are laid aside; the greater part of what has 
been acquired drops out of recollection; what remains is mostly 
inert, the art of applying knowledge not having been culti- 
vated." 14 Poverty prevents many graduates from Imying books 
of their own, but all large centres are provided with libraries 
accessible to those who wish to read. Hut to the great 
majority of students books represent little more than vehicles 
for the conveyance of information. They have never appealed 
as a means for 1he enjoyment of leisure. 

There remains a nucleus of keen students whose distin- 
guished work at Indian university centres and abroad shows 
that it is not the capacity but the opportunity and the in- 
centive which are lacking to transform the character of uni- 
versity work. 

University 124. An interesting development in the corporate life of the 

Corps. universities has boi-n the institution of I'liiVfrsity Corps at- 

tached to the, Indian Defence Force. Such corps are now 
in existence at (lie following centres: Itomhay, Calcutta, 
Allahabad, Lahore, Madras. Rangoon, Bankipur and 15 enures. 
Some account of the, Calcutta (University Corps will prove 
illustrative: liaised originally in 1917, it was to have been 
disbanded after the termination of the War, but the success of 
the Corps was so great that the University was able to obtain 
sanction for its continuance. The corps now numbers SO non- 
commissioned oiiicers and 904 men selected from the students of 
affiliated colleges. It is commanded by a commandant, eight 
commissioned officers and sixteen Indian oflicers, all of whom 
are professors or university officials- Sixteen Tlritish in- 
structors are permanently attached to it for (raining. Over 
sixty per cent, of the members volunteered for service, if 
required, during the Afghan War. During the last postal 
strike over 100 members voluntarily gave up their holidays 
for a week, returned at their own expense, and did postmen's 
work in the hottest, part of the year, thus rendering valuable 
assistance to the civil authorities. 



14 Calcutta University Commission Report, Vol. II, p. 152. 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 



73 



Expenditure on unirer&ities by i)ron'nces in W21-22. Expenditure 

B on univer- 
sities. 





1 


SXPENDJT 


I'RB FROM 




TOTAL 


Province. 


(Jovl. 
Finn Is. 


Hoard 
Funds. 


Fres. 


Other 
Sources. 


KXTKNOI- 
TL'KE. 


I^Iddras 


Rs. 

sr> iso 


Its. 


KH. 


Rs. 

5 1 021) 


Hs. 


Bombay 


07.000 




3.4M12 




3,71,784 


Bengal 


K,W.I32 




12.0o,2l8 


3,87.r>40 


LVi, 17,890 


United Provinces 


0,81.073 




2,19,131 


22,:,1),1)S2 


31.03,786* 


Punjab 


2.S4.400 





3.22,S03 





0.07,203 


Burma 


1,73.771) 


.. 


1 7 ,.">"."> 


.. 


l,l)I,3r>4 


Bihar and Orissa 


04,1127 


.. 


1,08,702 


1,07,,VS1 


2.81,270 


Central Provinces & 
Berar. 
















Assam 













Norlli-Wost Frontier 
Province. 




7r> 


- 





75 


Minor Administrations 


S.H. 










2,81,2 


H021-22 
INDIA . < 
1/0/0-77 


a2.2H.i-,: 


7.") 


25,os,:uo 


2S,07,!MM 


70,04,578 



in Uu* 



an- nut iiirlii<lc<l 



(his s4.i(rntcii1>. 



. ,,, ,, 

KH. J,(i(i,7LO. 

,125. The hirge sums expended by Jiengal and the TJjiited 
Provinces are accounted for in the former cjise by tlie'opcuing 
of the. Diicca I'niversily and in Hie latter by the capital and 
other expenditure on the new universities of Jaicknow, .Benares 
and Aligarh. The Calcutta University received from Gov- 
ernmeut during the year grants amounting approximately to 
Us. 2,G4,000. It received during the quinquennium in grants 
from the Government of India and the Bengal Government no- 
less than Its. 11,78,083, the annual recurring allotment being 
Hs. 2,57,000 (of which Us. 1,28,000 is for the University and 
Its. 1,29,000 for colleges). The Central Government makes 
a grant of one lakh annually each to the Benares Hindu and 
the Aligarh Muslim Universities, and this is included in the 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



table above under Government expenditure in the United 
Provinces. A grant of Ks. 75,000 was included in the 1922 
estimates for the Delhi University. 

Expenditure 126. The foregoing statement does not include ordinary 
expenditure on arts colleges, which is shown in the table below. 

Expenditure on arts colleyes, 1921-22. 



on arts 
colleges. 



Province. 


EXPENDITURE FROM 


TOTAL 
EXPENDI- 
TURE. 


Govt. 
Funds. 


Board 
Funds. 


Fees. 


Other 
Sources. 


Madras 


Rs. 

5,58,296 


Rs. 

i 
5,505 


Rs. 
8,44,771 


Rs 
5,03,009 


Rs 
19,11,641 


Bombay 


5,21,023 


16,225 


4,52,379 


2,59,507 


12,49,134 


Bengal 


10,41,711 


200 


12,71,953 


3,37,571 


26,51,435 


United Provinces 


8,72,233 


20,396 


4,28,793 


7,10,125 


20,31,547 


Punjab 


4,19,983 


1.967 


3,90,505 


2,15,947 


10,28,402 


Burma 


2,43,973 





49,191 


90,251 


3,83,415 


Bihar & Orissa 


5,42,535 


.. 


1,49,281 


35,280 


7,27,096 


Central Provinces and 
Berar. 


2,52,750 





58,348 


29,943 


3,41,041 


Assam 


2,32,858 


.. 


41,300 





2,74,158 


N.-W. F. Province 


94,944 


.. 


12,740 


24,308 


1,31,992 


Minor Administrations 

H921-22 
INDIA .. < 
\1916-17 


1,46,360 


2,805 


80,709 


82,603 


3,12,477 


49,26,666 
27,18,764 


47,158 
71,525 


37,79,970 
32,59,969 


22,88,544 
10,53,490 


,10,42,338 
71 t 03 t 748 



Cost of 127. The average fee paid by a student of an arts college in 

Education in I nc ]i a is Rs. 82| per annum. This represents only one-third 

* jISS? of the cost of his college education. To his tuition fees 
and Aided 1 -i-iin n i i i -i n P 

College. must be added the cost 01 his books and in the case 01 a 

resident student his expenses for board and lodging. These 
expenses have increased considerably in recent years owing 
to the general rise in prices and rarely amount to less than 
Es. 15 per mensem while they are often much more. The 
average cost to Government of a student in an arts college 



UNIVERSITIES AND ARTS COLLEGES. 75 

((Government or aided) in India is Us. 107^: but there is 

a great difference between the cost of education at a Govern- 
ment and a private college. In the United Provinces, for 
example, the annual cost of educating 1 a boy in a state college 
is about Us. 652, in an aided college 11s. 370, and in an 
unaided college Rs. 356. The discrepancy is even more 
marked in other provinces, notably in Bengal, where the cor- 
responding figures are for state colleges Its. 375, for aided 
colleges Rs. 127 and for unaided colleges Rs. 89. The range 
of cost in private colleges in Bengal is enormous, from Rs. 57 
to Rs. 270. In this province the average student of a private 

-college graduates at a cost of under Rs. 400, most of which 
he provides himself in the shape of fees; the average student 

of a state college graduates at a cost of Rs. 1,500 over two- 
thirds of which is borne bv Government.* These figures 
suggest two pertinent questions which are discussed in the 
Bengal report. Is this very disproportionate expenditure of 
Government money justifiable by results? and is the system 

of choice sufficiently discriminating to ensure that the lucky 
individual who enters a Government college is deserving of 
.a special subsidy of Rs. 300 or Rs. 500 a year from Govern- 
ment? The competition for admission to Government colleges 
is always veiy keen and the greatest care is exercised in the 
selection of candidates. Students attending Government 
colleges should therefore be, and they undoubtedly are, among 
the best of those on the rolls of the university. But the justi- 
fication for the disproportionate expenditure on Government 
colleges must be sought neither in the intellectual pre- 
eminence of their students nor even in the imponderable 
influences on character and manners on which these insti- 
tutions pride themselves. There are many private colleges, 
which in the quality of the teaching they provide, in the condi- 
tions of the corporate life with which they surround their 
students and in the ideals which actuate their staff are no whit 
inferior to Government colleges. State colleges were founded 
as pioneers, they were retained as models and if the excessive 
expenditure on them needs justification it must be justified 
on the ground that they maintain a standard which reacts 
through the force of competition on private colleges. 

128. Government colleges are staffed by members of the The increase 
Indian, Provincial, and Subordinate Educational Services. Of ^ 
the increased expenditure from Government funds a consider- exf)en(ilture * 
able amount has been needed to meet the additional cost of 
the services after their re-organisation. Of the rest much 
has been spent on grants for raising the pay of teachers in 

* .The actual cost in a ( Jove ram ^nt Colloge is reall/ considerably higher as 
"the figures given take no account of th' m ficy s )ent on pensions to the staff or 
the maintenance of the buildings, etc. 

F 



76 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Scientific 
Research. 



Personalia. 



aided colleges. Grants to colleges are not governed, as a rule, 
by such strict regulations as grants to schools. They are 
assessed with reference to the particular needs of each 
institution. 

129. One of the most encouraging features of the past five 
years has been a large influx of contributions from private 
sources towards the cost of university education. It will be 
observed that the increase under this head is from Us. 4,71, -178 
to Us. 28,67,904. This sum includes of course large 
subscriptions made towards the initial cost of the Benares and 
Lucknow universities. There is still a tendency to earmark 
private benefactions for the award of medals or prizes on the 
results of university examinations. 

130. The position of the Research Institute founded at 
Calcutta by Sir J. C. Bose has been consolidated by an allot- 
ment to it from central revenues of a grant of Rs. 78,000 in 
1921-22, which has since been raised to Rs. 1 lakh a year. 
Among the research institulions established during the quin- 
quennium, the most remarkable is the Royal Institute of 
Science, Bombay. Its annual recurring expenditure amounted 
to Rs. 1,48,389" in 1921-22, while the total expenditure sanc- 
tioned by the Government of Bombay up to January, 1./23, 
stood at"Rs. 2(),22,43<>. The Institute, which is designed to 
conduct undergraduate touching side by side with post-graduate 
research in the Departments of Chemistry, Physios and 
Biology, has experienced some difficulty in securing affiliation 
with the University of Bombay. 

131. Among the notable figures who retired from univer- 
sity life during the quinquennium are the Revd. Dr. Sir James 
Ewing, M.A., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., C.I.E., some {(me head 
cf the Forman Christian College, Lahore, and for many years 
Vice-Chancel lor of the Punjab University; the Revd. Dr D. 
Mackichan, M.A., D.D., JLL.D., late Principal of the Wilson 
College, Bombay, and Vice-Chancellor of the Bombay Uni- 
versity; and Rai Bahadur Dr. Sir Sunder Lai, Kt., LL.D., 
C.I.F/., tlie first Vice-Chnneellor of the Benares Hndu 
University, who died on 13th February 1918. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 

CHAPTER IV. 

SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 
Schools and Scholars. 



77 



Statistics* 



Year. 


High Schools. 


Middle English 
Schools. 


Middle Vernacular 
Schools. 


All Secondary 
Schools. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Schools . 

2,514 
3,249 


Scholars. 


Schools. 


Scholars . 

1,107,181 
1,138,488 

1 +31,307 


1916-17 
1921-22 

Increase or 
Decrease 


1,584 
2,040 

+ 450 


547,569 
559,258 


2,006 
2,864 


328,766 
264,158 


. 230,846 
315,072 


7,004 
8,153 


+ 11,680 


42 


64,G08 


+733 


+ 84,226 


+ 1,149 



132. The foregoing statistics are to this extent misleading 
that, while on the one hand they do not include fourteen 
thousand scholars reading in the middle classes of vernacular 
schools in Bombay and Madras, where all vernacular schools 
are classed as primary, they do include no loss than 520,000 
scholars who are reading in the primary departments attached 
to secondary schools. The number of scholars in the secondary 
stage of instruction is thus only about 627,000. Secondary 
schools are regarded as integral units for purposes of inspec- 
tion, expenditure and stalling; they are dealt with as such in 
provincial reports and are so treated in this chapter. But it 
is well to boar in mind the presence of these half million 
primary scholars in high and middle schools when the cheap- 
ness of secondary education in India or the proportion of 
public funds spent ou primary and secondary education is 
called in question. 

Vernacular jniddle schools present peculiar problems of 
their own and will, as in previous reviews, form the subject 
ol a separate section. I have so far differed from my pre- 
decessors in that I have, for reasons therein explained, included 
the section on vernacular middle schools under the heading 
of secondary education. 

133. There has been an increase of 1,100 in the number of 
secondary schools in India during the quinquennium and of 
31,000 in the number of scholars attending them. A large 
part of this increase is found under the head of vernacular 
middle education in the Punjab and is due rather to a change 
in classification thail to an increase in the number of secondary 
schools and scholars. 

134. Secondary English schools, schools in which English 
forms a part of the regular curriculum, have increased from 

F3 



78 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



4,490 to 4,904 but the attendance at them has fallen from 
876,335 to 823,416. In this connection the figures given in 
supplemental table 21, showing the annual increase and 
decrease in schools and scholars, are instructive. They show, 
as might be expected, that the most serious fall ( 56,000 
scholars) occurred in 1920-21, the non-co-operation year, 
Madras, the Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province 
being the only provinces to weather the storm. The next year 
shows a further fall of 32,000, but Bombay and Burma have 
now recovered from the shock, while Madras for the first time 
shows the effect of it. The figures for Bengal with a constant 
decline in attendance from year to year are disheartening and 
it is little consolation to find that the number of schools re- 
cognised as high schools has increased by 180 or 25*8 per cent. 
while the number of scholars decreased by 27,440 or 12'5 per 
cent. 

Causes for 135* That the immediate cause for the fall in numbers 

l^i^v 11 during the last two years was the non-co-operation movement 
culfr 6rna i s unquestionable. But the effects of this attack on the secon- 
Schools. dary school system would not have been so serious had it not 
coincided with a period of great economic depression. " The 
year 1920-21 was the year of great non-co-operative activity 
in the student world, and though this activity persisted in 
1921-22, it did not as a rule take the form of a persuasion to 
boycott schools and colleges except temporarily and as i 
means of political protest. This would point to the fact that 
there is some deeper-lying motive, which, on examination 
of the economic state of Bengal for the last two years, 
reveals itself as poverty. The increase in the number of high 
schools connotes greater accessibility; the decrease in tne 
number of pupils, apart from purely political considerations, 
must imply either an inability to take advantage of that 
increased accessibility, or a growing distrust of the value of 
the article supplied. In the last review it was observed that 
* parents prefer to send their children to secondary rather than 
to primary schools.' If this were so in 1917, and if no basic 
change has occurred in the attitude of parents since then, it 
would %eem that it is lack of means, not lack of will, that has 
caused these disturbing decreases." 1 

" Owing to the higher cost of living parents are inclined, 
and, in some cases compelled, to abandon all thoughts of the 
social prestige which education brings and make their sons 
wage-earners at as early a date as possible. They are further 
induced to do so by the increase in the rate of wages for un- 
educated and unskilled workers of all grades." 2 The Inspector 



1 Bengal, p. 27. 

* United Provs., p. 48. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 79 

of Schools, Lucknow Division, is probably correct in presum- 
ing that " the present stagnation will cease when the cost 
of living is reduced and when industrial expansion affords 
greater opportunities to the well-educated boy/' 3 

136. The increase in the number of secondary English increase of 
schools is not altogether a healthy sign. It may mean, and in Anglo- Verna- 
some parts of India undoubtedly has meant, the lowering of ( n u l ar Scho l8 
the standard required for recognition by the universities, that necessarily 

is to say, it may connote not an increase in the facilities for a .healthy 

secondary education to meet an increased demand, but only a sii?n ' 

looser interpretation of what secondary education signifies. 

It may also mean a diffusion of effort with a consequent loss 

of efficiency, two small and inferior schools being maintained 

at a cost and with an attendance sufficient only to support a 

single good school. That the standard of secondary education 

has been lowered in Bengal is undeniable. " Recognition 

(by the University of Calcutta) has become cheap and shows 

a tendency to become cheaper still. An impression is gaining 

ground that it may be had for the asking, seeing that cases 

are very rare in which it has been refused .... Oftener 

than not, recommendations of inspecting officers of the 

department carry little or no weight, and recognition is given 

to even such schools as scarcely survive the exhilaration of 

obtaining it. Recognition in fact is considered to be the 

sum mum bonum in the career of a school, and all incentive to 

improvement disappears as soon as it is obtained; for the 

authorities of the school are pretty sure that, once granted, it 

will never be snatched away." 4 Mr. Cunningham quotes the 

case of a school recognised by the Syndicate in opposition to 

his recommendation which had a total salary bill of Rs. 110 

a month and no other claims to recognition. 

137. The suggestion that the increase in the number of. 
schools is not justified by the increased demand is borne out by 
the fact that the average attendance at a, high school in India 
has fatten from 312 to 217. Tho evils attendant on this 
unnecessary multiplication of schools a/re mentioned in several 
reports. ''' There are now in certain parts of the (Agra) Divi- 
sion, notably in Agra oity and district and perhaps in Aliparh, 
more English schools than the demand justifies. This leads 
to a struggle for existence which tends to weakening of dis- 
cipline and to a waster of the all too limited funds available 
for education." 5 Mr. Anderson draws attention to the un- 
equal distribution of secondary schools in the Punjab. " It 
is not uncommon," he says, " for private schools to be multi- 

8 United Provs., p. 48. 

4 Bengal, pp. 31-32. 

8 United Provinces, p. 47. 



80 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



plied in urban areas in a spirit of competition. Such schools 
arc often located a few yards from each other ; sometimes even 
in contiguous buildings. ... It is to be feared that the 
comparatively wealthy urban areas have profited by the pro- 
vision of facilities for advanced school education at the 
of the poorer rural tracts." 6 



le expense 



Eipenditire. 



Expenditure on secondary schools for boys. 



Year. 
1910-17 . 


EXPENDITURE FKOM 


TOTAI 
EXPKNDI- 
TUKK. 


Government 
Funds. 

Rs. 

55,96,459 


Board 
Funds. 


Fees. 


Other 
Sources. 


1U. 

20,90,222 


Rs. 
1,57,21,414 


Rs. 
39,33,337 


Us. 
2,79,41,432 


1921-22 . .' . 
Increase . 


1,39,54,026 


38,87,479 

___ 


1,77,34,627 
+ 20,13,213 


66,41,316 


4,22,17,448 


+83,57,567 


+11,97,257 


+ 27,07,979 


+ 1,42,76,016 



Share of 
increased coat 
borne by 
parents. 



138. These figures and the statistics given in the supple- 
mental tables 32 and 33 disclose the fact that while the average 
cost of educating a boy in a secondary English school has gone 
up 50 per cent., from Rs. 30'2 to Us. 45*9 per annum, the 
parent has not been called upon to meet his share of the 
increased cost of education. The average annual contribution 
made by a parent in India towards the cost of educating his 
son in a secondary school has only risen from Rs. 18*1 to 
Rs. 21*3 as contrasted with an increase in cost to Government 
from Rs. 6*1 per head to Rs. 14'7. The parent certainly has 
had to pay a good deal more for his boy's school books, owing 
to the rise in prices ; but even so there seems little douljt that, 
if the general rise in wages, illustrated in this report by the 
rise in the pay of the teaching profession, is taken into con- 
sideraton, secondary education is, on the whole, less expensive 
to the parent tlian it used to be. 

139. In Bihar and Orissa the necessity for levying a con- 
tribution on parents towards the increased cost of the teaching 
staff was recognised and fees were raised in^ 1921, the whole of 
the sum so realised being earmarked for raising the pay of the 
teachers in aided schools. Unfortunately owing to a fall in 
the number of pupils attending secondary schools the teachers 

Punjab, p. 62. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 81 

have hitherto only benefited slightly. In Bombay too the 
iee rates were raised in March 1922 on the ground that 4 ' the 
demand for a larger increase of primary education is so 
insistent that for a few years to come the net expenditure of 
Government on secondary and higher education cannot be 
allowed to rise much higher: " 7 and because private institu- 
tions had found it difficult to finance themselves without rais- 
ing their fees. In the United Provinces in 1917 scholars in 
Government schools paid Us. 25*3 a year and in aided schools 
Ks. 21: in 1922 they paid in Government schools Us. 2^-5 
and in aided schools Us. 24; thus parents have directly con- 
tributed practically nothing towards the increased cost of 
secondary education in this province. 

140. It may be suggested that instead of increasing fees 
larger demands might be made for subscriptions and donations. 
But " in the majority of cases a demand for subscriptions from 
private sources is unreasonable and where it has been insisted 
on, has resulted in false accounts and broken promises. The 
people of the headquarters stations have no organisation to 
levy a regular recurring tribute on the countryside which is 
responsible for the demand, and their own purses are ordinarily 
but thinly lined." 8 Those remarks are quoted from Assam 
but the second sentence at least is of general application. So 
is Mr, Cunningham's conclusion: "Against the proposal to 
raise the fee rates it may be urged that the middle classes are 
already hard pressed economically, and that the times are 
unfavourable. This is a consideration of influence and it has 
been given due weight. Were it just or practicable to find 
the funds by other means, such means would bo adopted. 
But no such means suggest themselves, and when the choice 
lies between the restriction of facilities on the one hand and 
a slight increase of cost on the other, there is no question as 
to the alternative which the people interested would select. " 9 

141. Of the expenditure from public funds the greater part The pay of 
has been devoted to enhancing the pay of the teachers either the staff. 
directly in Government, board, and municipal schools or in- 
directly, by means of grants, in aided schools. The revision 

of the pay of the educational services, including the teaching 
staff in Bihar and Orissa and the Punjab, has been mentioned 
in paragraph 54. In Bombay Government schools under- 
graduates now receive an incremental scale of pay from Us. 45 
per mensem to Us. 150; graduates commence on Its. 70 and 
rise to Us. 200 with a selection grade for 15 per cent, of the 



7 Bombay report. 

8 Assam, p. 39. 

9 Assam, p. 39. 



&2 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IJS INDIA. 

cadre up to Es. 250 per mensem and a few special posts 
of Es. 250 300. In the United Provinces a time-scale 
of pay for Government teachers was introduced in 1921, 
Under this scale trained graduates start with an initial pay 
of Us. 100 per mensem rising by Es. 10 to Es. 300, while 
trained under-graduates start from Es. 50 per mensem rising 
to Es. 150, 25 per cent, being permitted to go on to Es. 200. 
The pay of drawing masters, maulvis, pandits and language 
teachers has also been enhanced. Headmasters have been 
put in the Provincial Educational Service on a scale of Es. 250 
to Es. 075 per mensem with a selection grade for 20 per cent, 
of the cadre from Es. 700 to Es. 800. These rates of pay are 
probably higher than those in force in any other province, 
and it, is easy to understand that the " new terms have greatly 
stimulated, recruitment to the profession"; and that "appli- 
cation*) for admission into the training colleges have more than 
doubled." 10 

Provident 142. Grants from public funds to aided secondary schools- 

Funds. have increased from forty-one lakhs to seventy -two lakhs. 

Since the number of aided institutions has only increased by 
294 (to 4,092), most of the additional funds have been spent in 
the enhancement of existing grants and have been used for rais- 
ing the salaries of the teachers. Some of the new grants, for 
example hi the United Provinces and the Punjab, have been 
used for the establishment of provident funds. The scheme 
introduced in the United Provinces applies to all bond fide 
teachers under forty years of age in non-pensionable employ- 
ment in recognised schools. The teacher contributes 6^ per 
cent, of his salary if it is more than Es. 16 a month, and 
eight tuuias a mo'iith if it is less. Tho management pays a 
Rim equal to half the contribution of the teacher. The Gov- 
ernment pays a lump sum at the .time of retirement or death 
equal to one- third of the sum accumulated to the credit of the 
teacher. Tho rate of interest is that of the post office where 
contributions are received. The scheme is compulsory for all 
aided schools seeking recognition for the first time after July 
1921 and is a condition of any increase in aid to a school pre- 
viously recognised. In the Punjab each high school is en- 
couraged to start its own provident fund on lines approved by 
Government, which has drawn up a set of model rules for the 
purpose and makes liberal grants to approved funds. 

Gr*nts-ui-ai<1. 143. The average annual grant to an aided secondary 
school in India has risen from Es. 1,081 to Es. 1,761 per 
annum. The figures given in supplemental table show such 

10 United Provs., p. 54. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 



83 



diversity in the amount of the average grant paid in each 
province that I reproduce them here : 

Average annual grant to a secondary school for boys. 



Province. 



Madras 

Bombay .... 

Bengal .... 

United Provinces . 

Punjab .... 

Bunna .... 

Bihar and Orissa . 

Central Provinces and Bcrar . 

Assam .... 

North-West Frontier Province 

Minor Administrations . 

INDIA .... 



1916-17. 

Rs. 

1,305 
2,324 

591 
3,616 
3,270 

778 

886 
1,751 

697 
5,219 
3,493 

1,081 



1921-22. 



Rs. 
2,177 
3,594 

756 
6,698 
4,407 

1,195 
2,172 
957 
5,664 
3,922 

1,761 



144. New systems of grant-in-aid have been introduced in Revised 
Bengal and Burma. In Bengal the grant must not now Omnt-jn-aid 
oidinarily exceed in Hie case of high schools one-half the ^eiigal'and 
amount contributed from private sources and in the case Burma, 
of middle schools two-thirds. In Burma the general principle 
underlying the new rules is that Government and the manage- 
ment should contribute equal sums towards meeting the 
difference between income and expenditure. In most cases 
the only source of income of the management is the income 
from tuition fees at standard rates. A minimum scale of 
salaries has been laid down by the Burma Education Depart- 
ment. It is permissible for the department to make main- 
tenance grants in excess of the amount ordinarily payable 
and to afford special relief to schools to enable them to meet 
an emergency. Actually such extraordinary relief had to be 
given at the close of the quinquennium to many schools whose 
finances were seriously affected by political or semi-political 
disturbances. 



Si 



I'KOGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Systems of 
grant-in-aid* 



Buildings. 



General con- 
ditions. 



The un ; f or- 
mity of the 
Indian High 
School. 



145. The systems adopted in different provinces for the 
assessment and distribution of grants to aided schools vary 
substantially. Broadly speaking these systems 'fall into two 
categories : 

(a) Systems which limit the grant either to a proportion 
of the approved expenditure or by making it bear 
a fixed ratio to the sum provided by the managers 
from other sources, including fees. The deter- 
mining factor in this case is the amount of local 
support accorded to each school. 

(6) Systems which limit the grant with reference to a 
standard scale of expenditure laid down by Gov- 
ernment for each type of school as sufficient to 
maintain it in a state of efficiency. The grant under 
these systems is assessed by deducting from the cost 
of the standard scale the income from fees at 
fixed rates. The determining factor in this case 
is the standard of expenditure prescribed by Gov- 
ernment for each type of school. 

The whole question of grants-in-aid is one of great com- 
plexity. The regulations in force in different provinces 
together with some account of their origin and application 
are fully described in Occasional Report No. 12 issued this 
year by the Bureau of Education, to which any one interested 
in this question is invited to refer. 

146. Very little building activity is reported during the 
quinquennium. The difficulty during the earlier years of ob- 
taining rolled steel beams and other building material and the 
high cost of such material since the war have prevented ex- 
tensive operations. Government schools are, on the whole, 
well housed; in some cases very well housed. Aided institu- 
tions on the other hand are often located in congested and un- 
hygienic areas where no provision is possible for playing 
fields. Tn Assam, where school burning is not uncommon, 
the ambition of every privately managed school is to have a 
corrugated iron roof. 

147. The Indian high school, its aims, its defects and the 
remedies for them have been much discussed in recent years. 
It has been criticised because the standard of general education 
it provides is too low, because it provides only a general and 
not a vocational education, because the quality of the English 
teaching which it gives is so poor, because it devotes itself 
to the teaching of English and discourages the vernacular, 
and finally in general terms because it is not " national " in 
character. 

One characteristic of Indian high schools which has received 
insufficient notice is their striking uniformity. To a reviewer 
this is an advantage as it permits of generalisation, but it is 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 85 

in fact a very real defect. Tlie merits and demerits of good 
and bad high, schools vary in degree but not in kind. The 
organisation, methods of instruction, and the aim that in- 
spires the work of the staff, the daily routine, the methods of 
study and the ambitions of the scholars differ very little 
whether the institution is an Lslainia school on the Frontier 
or a Government high school in Madras. What is true of 
place is often only too true of time. Mr. Sanderson writes : 
" A first tour of the Lahore division, after an interval of 
five yeafs, revealed an amazing rigidity in the class-room. 
Take English for example. In a majority of schools the 
method of teaching and even the actual word's show no change 
in that time. If one visits a certain class at a certain time 
of the year, one finds the same sentences being taught in the 
same way with the same emphasis and with the same mis- 
pronunciation S' 11 

148. This lack of individuality is due in part to traditional The domina- 
methods of instruction which ill their turn are due to the tion ? ^1 
accepted aim of the secondary school. Too often the staff, exftmm 
the parents, the public and not infrequently the inspecting 
staff also gauge the merits of a high school by the percentage 
of successes which it obtains at the final examination. This 
attitude is not wholly unreasonable. So long as there is little 
individuality in the character of different schools there is little, 
except their success in examinations, to differentiate good 
schools from bad. Moreover it is precisely in order that his 
boy may pass the final examination that the ordinary parent 
sends his boy to a high school. Such success in itself possesses 
a recognised value in the Indian wage market. It also opens 
the door to the university; and a university career is the as- 
piration of nearly every high school boy. Consequently the 
whole atmosphere of the high school is one of preparation for 
the university. Nor would this afford much ground for cri- 
ticism if preparation for the university meant laying the 
foundation of a good education. The ordinary course of study 
at an English Public School is, with variations introduced to 
meet modern requirements, designed as a preparation for the 
university. The essential difference between the English and 
the Indian institutions appears to be that the life of a Public 
School is not dominated by the formal courses of study, much 
less darkened by the shadow of a coming examination. " It 
is the dread of this examination test that clouds the horizon of 
[Indian) boys during their whole school career. What should 
be the happiest period in life (and is so in other countries 
where more fortunate conditions prevail) becomes a time ^of 
drudgery and of overstrain. " 12 _ The Calcutta University 

11 Punjab, p. 68. 
ia Punjab, p. 69. 



86 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Commission writing on conditions in Bengal say: " Except 
in a few cases the schools think only of the matriculation. 
They make it, and it alone, their aim. They are driven to do 
so because the boys and their parents feel that in the present 
conditions of life in Bengal, success in passing this examina- 
tion is the one essential reason for going through the high 
school course. Thus the aim of the schools is more and more 
narrowly fixed upon an examination. The examination takes 
account only of a part of what a secondary school should teach. 
The schools are so badly staffed that they fail to make the best 
use even of the course of preparation for this test, and fail 
even more completely in providing the rest of the liberal edu- 
cation which a school ought to give. The rush to the schools 
overcrowds their classes and makes their teaching even more 
inadequate. But every year the pressure grows greater and 
the schools are forced by it more deeply into the rut of exami- 
nation routine. Thus an educational movement, which has in 
it many elements of generous purpose and great possibilities 
of public advantage, runs in a wrong channel and fails to ferti- 
lize the intellectual life of the country." 13 



149 ' But if the S al of ever y hi & 11 sch o1 stu <? ent is 
university there are but few who reach it. Leaving out of 

account the numberless scholars who never even complete the 
course, we find that of 56,000 candidates who appeared at the 
final examination in 1921-22 only 15,000 joined colleges. The 
following table is instructive: 

Matriculation and School Final or Leaving Certificate 
Examinations, 1921-22. 



Province. 


Number of 
candidates. 


Number of 
passes. 


Percentage 
of passes. 


Madras* 


15 


4 . 


26-7 


Bombay 


6,080 


3,058 


50-2 


Bengal f 


18,070 


14,200 


78-0 


United Provinces 


6,120 


2,054 


48-2 


Punjab 


7,195 


5,088 


70-7 


Burma 


050 


320 


49-2 


Bihar and Orissa 


3,825 


1,830 


48-0 


Central Provinces and Berar 


010 


420 


45-8 


Asfiam 


1,083 


804 


82-5 


North-West Frontier Province 


517 


310 


61-7 


Minor Administrations . 


025 


379 


60-6 


TOTAL 


45,114$ 


29,472 


65-3 



*For the Matriculation examination only. The figures for the Secondary School Leaving 
Certificate Examination (11,201 candidate:,) are not included since there is no declaration of 
pass or failure in this examination. 

fTncludes 46 candidates and 35 passes for the Islamic Matriculation. 

^Exclusive of about 11,000 candidates for the Madras S. L. C. Examination. 



13 Calcutta University Commission Report, Vol. I, Pt. I, pp. 197-198. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 87 

150. If we concede that in the present economic condition improvement! 
of India the utilitarian aim of secondary education must pre-^ 11 "^ 00 ^ 
vail over the cultural, it is of the first importance to make the txaimn<l 10U8t 
education given as useful as possible. The use of a secondary 
school is to prepare the best of its scholars for the university 
and the rest for the business of life. Entrance to the univer- 
sity is barred by an examination. The first step in the direc- 
tion of improvement is to see that this examination exercises 
a healthy influence on the work of the school and is at the 
same time a suitable test of fitness for university studies. In 
this respect the school final and school leaving certificate 
examinations possess many advantages over the old-fashioned 
matriculation. Such examinations are already in existence 
in Madras, Bombay, the United Provinces and the Central 
Provinces. A school leaving certificate examination was 
introduced in Bihar and Orissa in 1921. An important Hiharand 
feature of this examination is the institution of special courses Ori. 
designed to prepare students for commercial or clerical careers 
or for further instruction in special institutions. The ex- 
amination at the end of the course is divided into three parts, 
namely a scrutiny of the record of progress in school, a public 
examination, and, in the case of those candidates who fail 
in one subject only at the public examination, an examina- 
tion conducted in situ by the inspector, with such assistance 
as he may require, in order to obtain a final decision. Thus, 
while at the matriculation examination a student passes or 
fails on the written work done on one occasion, the new 
scheme, while giving due weight to a written examination, 
also takes into account the work done during the period spent 
in school. 14 An examination of this character should fulfil 
both functions of a good examination, exercise a healthy in- 
fluence on the work of the school and form a fit test of admis- 
sion to higher work. 

151. In the Punjab a new examination called the matri- The Punjab, 
culation and school leaving certificate examination was sub- 
stituted for matriculation. It has the merit of introducing a 
number of alternative and practical subjects, but unfortunate- 
ly " the methods of the examination are still much the same as 
before." 15 

152. In the United Provinces " the popularity of the school the United 
leaving certificate examination has grown with the public be- 

cause it, for a time, was the only approach to Government 
service; the department prefers it because it combines inspec- 
tion and a written test; the headmaster appreciates the op- 
portunity given to him to express his view on individuals 

14 Bihar and Orissa, p. 56. 

15 Punjab, p. 69. 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Bengal. 



Assam. 



Vocational 
subjects. 



and work; the divisional inspector knows that the oral and 
practical examinations are an extra check on schools; even 
*the assistant master benefits from it, if he is enthusiastic and 
skilled, since his good work receives recognition.*' 16 

153. In Bengal "the remarks concerning the deadening 
effect of the matriculation examination as the ultimate goal of 
secondary education, recorded in the last review, still hold 
good, and until the high school is relieved of that dead 
weight there can be little or no progress. The weight must 
be lightened, or. the school must be freed from the obligation 
to shoulder it." 17 It must not be inferred from the foregoing 
remarks that the standard of the Calcutta University matri- 
culation is too high. On the contrary the figures from Assam 
given in the last statement show that, low as it was, " in a year 
characterised by hartals and distraction the results are such as 
to point to a relaxation amounting almost to the abandonment 
of standards." 18 

With the Assam figures may be contrasted those for the 
Central Provinces where the boys sat for the matricula- 
tion of the Allahabad University. The number of candidates 
is much the same but the pnss percentage is 45-8 as contrasted 
with 82*5 in Assam. Lost it be argued that the better results 
in Assam are due to tho hotter quality of the teaching, the 
following statistics are given: 

Teachers in High Schools. 





Total 1 


TRAINED TEACHKRS. 


GBADUATES. 




No of i 






Province. 


Teachers. ! 

1 


Number. 


Percentage. 


! 

Nunitcr. Percentage. 


Assam 


070 i 


185 


27-6 ! 


213 


'32.5 


Contral Provinces and 


359 l 


239 


66-0 


260 


72-4 


Berar. 


i 




, 








j 


I 







154. For those boys whose formal education ends with the 
i high school the school final course offers a variety of optional 
subjects more diroctly preparatory to their future work in life. 
Although a certain number of candidates now take commer- 
cial subjects the remaining optionals do not appear to offer 
much attraction. There has been during the quinquennium 
a strong public demand for the introduction of more vocational 

"United Provinces, p. 73. 
"Bengal, p. 32. 
11 Assam, p. 51. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 89 

instruction in high schools. The most notable outcome of 
this demand has been the adoption by the Senate of the 
Calcutta University of the following additions to their Matri- 
culation Regulations, based upon a resolution passed by a con- 
ference of headmasters under the chairmanship of the Vice- 
Chancellor : 

"Schools are to be rendered responsible for the grant of a 
certificate of fitness of each candidate for at least one of the 
following subjects: 

(a) Agriculture and gardening. 
(6) Carpentry. 

(c) Smithy. 

(d) Typewriting. 

(e) Book-keeping. 
(/) Shorthand. 

(y) Spinning and weaving. 

(h) Tailoring and sewing. 

(i) Music. 

(j) Domestic economy. 

(ft) Telegraphy. 

(/) Motor engineering ami drawing." !<l 

155. As a comment on the^e regulalions and the arguments 
of their supporteis the following note of inspection on Suiiani- 
ganj high school is of peculiar interest: 

" I read with interest the committee's resolution that car- 
pentry and weaving should be taught in the school. I do not 
wish to interfere with the action they have already taken, viz., 
to appoint a carpentry master on Us. 25 a month; although I 
think it is absurd. The experiment is only for three months. 
At the end cf that time the committee will, I have no doubt, 
agree with me. They have been misled in this matter by an 
ancient catchword and the lead of the Vice-Chancellor's con- 
ference. 

" What I should like the Committee to realize is that our 
high schools are already vocational schools and it is mainly 
because they prepare pupils for a great market of respectable 
employment that they are so popular. If the Committee con- 
sider that the supply is outrunning the demand and have the 
courage of their convictions, their proper course would be to 
limit admissions and to open or move for the opening of new 
sehools to train for such oth^r markets as offer suitable employ- 

' Bwpl. p. 33. 



90 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

ment in measure sufficient to warrant the establishment of 
schools to supply them. It is plainly not sensible to adopt 
the device which has gained their approval, viz., to attemjp* 
to train their pupils for two or three vocations at the same 
time. Is not the attempt to train them for a single vocation 
hard enough? 

" Other points are these: 

(1) That the market for carpenters in Sunamganj is 
already well enough supplied. This should be evident if any 
evidence is required from the facts (a) that the committee are 
able to attract a skilled workman from the trade I assume 
that he is a skilled workman for Us. 25 a month, (6) that the 
local carpenters' caste, like the weavers' caste, has taken to 
cultivation. 

(2) That if the Bhadralog wish to compete with the Sutars 
and the Namasudras in a trade which these castes learn by 
grace, it is uneconomical, even if it be practicable, as it is 
not, to lead them into the market by the road - of English, 
Mathematics and Sanskrit. 

(3) That individual Bhadralog do not in fact wish their 
sons to be mistris. Each thinks that the sons of others, not 
his own sons, may be diverted from the competition for 
employment in the clerical and professional market. 

(4) That the old national schools taught carpentry but 
made no carpenters." 20 

Mr. Cunningham concludes : " What is wanted is not pri- 
marily education but employment. There is no royal road to 
increased opportunities of employment but the increased pro- 
duction of wealth." 21 

Practical ]5(J. This is not to say that there is no room for improve- 

thecurri- n in ^nt in the secondary school course. On the contrary 
improvements are constantly being introduced. The course 
has been widened, for example, by the introduction of such 
practical subjects as hygiene and manual training, consider- 
able progress in which is reported from the United Provinces, 
the Punjab and Madras, while seieace is much better taught 
than formerly. There is a growing tendency to include music 
in school courses. It is now an optional subject in secondary 
schools in Bombay, where it is also taught in training institu- 
tions and forms part of the primary curriculum. A committee 
was appointed by the Madras Government in 1920 to draw up 
a scheme for music teaching in Indian schools. Practical 
subjects such as wood-work and weaving have been introduced 

80 Assam, p. 50. 
31 Assam, p. 50. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (fiOYS). 91 

into the higher elementary (or middle) classes of some verna- 
cular schools m Madras. These subjects are taught with ail 
educational rather than a vocational aim. But if technical 
education as such cannot successfully be introduced into the 
high school, and the Carnegie Foundation has recently issued 
a damning criticism of the so-called vocational training in the 
United States ol 1 America, still there is no reason why the 
subjects, which a boy learns at school, should not bear a closer 
relation to his future life. " The present secondary curricu- 
lum is entirely cultural in aim. It does not, except in the 
ease of the best students, succeed in realising that aim. The 
subjects are studied and, where selection is possible, selected 
by students with a view to passing examinations and not be- 
cause they contain matter intrinsically valuable for their 

future work in life Can any alteration in our 

school courses make our f#-students thinking labourers 
instead of laborious thinkers?" 22 The defect of most experi- 
ments in vocational education in Indian high schools is that 
sufficient account is not taken of the future careers open to 
and actually adopted by the scholars. Without the advice of 
the headmaster, which is seldom forthcoming, the school-boy 
left to himself naturally chooses those subjects which pay best 
in the final examination. " A combination such as that of 
agriculture with shorthand, which was actually found in the 
course of a recent tour, cannot be justified on any ground." 23 

157. Another marked tendency has been towards the sub- The verna- 
ptitutioii of the vernacular for English as ihe medium of in- c" lar 
struction in secondary departments. Some provinces have ad- mc(lllim - 
vanccd further in ibis matter than others. The United Pro- 
vinces was the first to take the lead. " It is now six years 

since the English language ceased to be the medium of in- 
struction in the primary and middle classes of English schools. 
Opponents of the change had prophesied a lowering of Ihe 
standard of attainment in English, but so far as can be made 
out, English in schools is somewhat better than it was at Ihe 
beginning of the quinquennium, and with the intensification 
of teaching in the periods allotted to the English language, 
there should be further improvement." 21 

158. The Punjab also adopted the vernacular medium in 
their middle classes in 1917. It was held that the teaching of 
English is not advanced, it miy even be retarded, by a sloppy 
use of English as the medium. The substitution of the ver- 
nacular should save time which might be spent in a more 



22 Extract from a note by the writer for the Central Advisory Board 
of Education. 

23 Punjab, p. 72. 

24 United Provs., p. 61. 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



The position 
o! English. 



Simla con- 
ference of 
1917 on the 
teaching of 
English, 



methodical and practical study of the English language. It 
is as yet too early to judge 'the results of the experiment, 
although it is disquieting to record that at present a deteriora- 
tion in the knowledge of English is reported. An interesting 
Corollary of the adoption of the vernacular medium has been 
the setting up of sub-committees by the Punjab Text-book Com- 
mittee to standardise vernacular substitutes for English tech- 
nical terms and for the transliteration of geographical names. 
In Bombay the Education Department allows the use of the 
vernacular medium throughout the school course in all sub- 
jects save English. As a rule the schools adopt the English 
medium in the higher classes und with a recent decision by the 
University against the use of the vernacular medium at matri- 
culation this practice is likely to be continued. The Senate 
of the Calcutta University has adopted a resolution to the 
effect that " instruction and examination in all subjects (of 
the high school) other than English shall be conducted in the 
vernacular." 25 

159. This question is closely dependent upon the position 
occupied by English in the school course. It is little exag- 
geration to say that English is the only subject, the intrinsic 
value of which is recognised by parents and schoolboys. Other 
subjects may be interesting and must be studied in order to ob- 
tain promotion and to pass the final examination, but every 
high school boy realises that a knowledge of English is essen- 
tial if he is to get on in the world. This attitude on the 
part of parents and boys has resulted in assigning to English 
an excessive importance in the school curriculum. Its 
importance has not been lessened by the fact that University 
teachers, while they are content to receive pupils who have 
been badly grounded in other subjects, complain strongly and 
not unnaturally when students are admitted to college with an 
insufficient knowledge of the medium in which their teaching 
will^be conducted. The Rangoon University has instituted a 
special one year course in English for those matriculates who 
are otherwise qualified but are weak in this subject. 

160. The position of English as a foreign language and as 
a medium of instruction was discussed by a representative 
conference which met in Simla in 1917 under the chairman- 
ship of the then Education Member, Sir Sankaran Nair. The 
result of this conference was inconclusive. While it was 
generally conceded that the teaching of school subjects through 
a medium which was imperfectly understood led to cramming 
and the memorising of text-books, yet the use of the English 
medium was defended by some on the ground that it improv- 
ed the knowledge of English. This is not the place to enter 

98 Bengal, p. 32. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 93 

upon a discussion of a subject which has exercised education- 
ists in India since the first introduction of western learning 
into this country. The difficulty of using any one vernacular 
as a medium is raised in the report from Bihar and Orissa, 
where five vernaculars are recognised by the University. 

101. The Simla conference further discussed the stage at 
which instruction in English as a foreign language should be 
commenced. There were many advocates of the early intro- 
duction of English teaching on the ground that only so could 
a sufficient mastery of the language be obtained at matricula- 
tion, and also on the ground that the small child most easily 
picks up a foreign language. It was argued on the 
other side that the teaching of English in junior classes must 
be in the hands of low paid and consequently inefficient teach- 
ers, and that no child should start learning a foreign language 
until he has obtained a stock of ideas in his mother tongue. 
The advocates of the postponement of English were supported 
by those who on practical grounds pointed out that its in- 
troduction into the primary departments of >secondary schools 
placed a permanent handicap on the country boy who must 
pomplete his primary course in the local vernacular village 
school before he is of sufficient age to migrate to a town for 
higher or " English " education. Partly on these grounds 
the commencement of English has been postponed by one year 
in the Punjab, so that all boys, whether town or country 
dwellers, now start on a level at the completion of a four-year 
primary course. The various stages at which it is introduced 
in different provinces are shown in the diagram at the begin- 
ning of this chapter. 

162. Of the quality of English teaching there is little fresh English 
to record. While the advantages of the use of the direct teaching, 
method in the hands of a trained and keen teacher are unques- 
tionable, such teachers are in a small minority. In Madras, 
almost all inspectors report that the teaching in the lower 
Classes does not show the same improvement as the teaching 

in the higher: Mr. Yates, for example, says: "The real 
problem of English teaching is the renovation of methods and 
the alteration of aims in the work of the lower classes." 26 

163. What is true of the teaching of English is also true of General con- 
the teaching of other subjects. The following remarks f rom ditions of 
Assam are severe. "Our schools have improved much of late fceac mg> 
years. But they are not yet good schools, and some of them 

are very bad indeed. The majority of teachers are inexpert 
and uninterested, few have any zeal or natural aptitude 
for teaching; there is little or no discipline of instnic- 

Madras, p. 32. 

G2 



9'1 PHOGRESS OF EDUCATION IX INDIA. 

tion neither boys nor masters habitually prepare for tlieir 
day's work: the supervision of headmasters and assistant 
headmasters over the actual work of class teaching is lacking 
in authority, in persistence and in purpose. Generally speak- 
ing, there is a want of life in the school atmosphere.'' 27 
" The results of the average schoolmaster's limitations are 
patent at all stages of school-life. In the lower classes much 
excellent work is neutralised by lack of imagination and dis- 
crimination. The teacher fails to judge the mental age of his 
pupils, and to appreciate the characteristics peculiar to the 
individual and the period of development. a Hence develops a 
form of instruction that converts the vivacious imaginative 
child into the stolid, ' docile ' youth beloved of his master. Li 
the high classes the limitations are revealed in inabilitv to 
develop the critical faculty requisite to sound judgment . .* . 
All of which amounts to this, that the standard of work is low, 
because there is a low average standard of attainment and 
insufficient pride of profession among school masters."" 9 

Qualifications 1()4. For improvement in the quality of the work we must 



teachers *k * *' le influence of the training college, the inspector and 
the headmaster. In no feature of their secondary education 
systems do the provinces differ more than in their em- 
ployment of trained teachers in secondary schools. In Gov- 
ernment schools in the United Provinces two-thirds of the 
feachers are trained and the proportion of the trained to the 
untrained teachers in secondary schools under private manage- 
ment is about 1 to 8. 

In Bombay a percentage of 24*1 of the total number of 
teachers is shown as trained ; but every teacher who passes the 
secondary teachers' certificate examination is returned as 
'trained. Actually only a few of the teachers of English and 
those almost entirely employed in Government schools have 
received training of any kind. 

In the Punjab although the total number of teachers em- 
ployed in secondary schools has increased in five years from 
5,380 to 9,223 yet the percentage of trained teachers, 70 per 
cent, has been maintained by an increase from ft, 761 to 6,446. 
The maintenance of the proportion of trained teachers in the 
[Punjab, is all the more satisfactory in view of the very large 
increase in the number of secondary schools in that Province. 

In Madras of 7,184 teachers employed in secondary school? 
no less than 4,954 possess professional certificates, though the 
number of trained teachers of the collegiate grade is only 1? 
per cent. 



97 Assam, pp. 52-53. 
" United Provs., p. 61. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 1)5 

In the Central Provinces the increase in the percentage of 
trained teachers in high schools from 2G'5 to 67 "5 is remark- 
able. Of 190 teachers in Government schools in this province 
167 are graduates. 

In the North-West Frontier Province 3U3 out of 576 
teachers are trained and 93 are graduates. 

On the other hand in Bihar and Orissa only 146 out of a 
total of 1 ,774 teachers of English and Classics are trained 
though the percentage of trained vernacular teachers in 
secondary schools is 70. 

The case of Bengal is similar. The number of Anglo-ver- 
nacular teachers and teachers of classical languages in all 
secondary schools is 12,906, out of whom only 357 ar* trained 
though 3,392 are graduates. The percentage of trained verna- 
cular teachers is, however, about 48 (3,595 out of 7,498). 

165. It is a mistake to think that a graduate can teach 
satisfactorily without training. The elementary teaching of 
Knglibh and mathematics requires particular skill which is not 
inquired by the study of English literal live and higher mathe- 
matics in college, while such an important school subject as 
geography does not form purl of any degree course. 

Ititi. A radical change in the methods of inspection is needed Inspection. 
if the visit of an inspector is to be of educational value to the 
school. Even if inspectors were fully conversant and in sym- 
pathy with modern methods of teaching, they could effect 
little permanent improvement in the quality of the school work 
so long as their visits were confined to an inspection of school 
registers and an in xitu examination of the scholars' attain- 
ments. Something can be done, has been done in Assam, by 
letjuiring inspectors to concentrate each year on some parti- 
cular aspect of the school work, e.g., composition or geography. 
A plea for a different and more helpful type of inspection is 
convincingly advanced by Mr. Wyatt of the Central Training 
College, Lahore, in a veporl written by him aftpv a recent 
visit to the United States of America. 29 

107. More immediate influence 011 the work of the school The head- 
should be exevci*ed by the headmaster. It is he who should 
put life and vigour into the teaching, who should take steps to 
enlarge the horizon of the* boys' minds, who should make 
provision for their health and recreation. Such a head- 
master is the exception not the rule. "Each teacher is prone 
to frame his own syllabus and to instruct his class quite in- 
dependently- and with too little consideration of what has 
done in the class below or will be undertaken in the 



" Bureau of Education, Occasional Reports No. 11 Rural School 
Teachers in the United States of America. 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



The genera ' 
life of the 
schools. 



Reading. 



class above." 30 Where the headmaster does attempt to 
reform, his path is beset by disappointment and difficulty. 
The following is an extract from a petition signed by over :i 
hundred boarders protesting against the order of the head- 
master requiring formal preparation of home-work to be done 
under supervision in the class rooms of the school instead of 
in the noisy clamour of the dormitories: " It is difficult for 
us to keep sitting on the wooden benches ... it is so in- 
tensely hot that it is unbearable for writing works ... a lot 
of time is spent in bringing books, etc., from the boarding 
house . . . our attention in the boarding house is compara- 
tively loss distracted ... in the school rooms it is impossible 
to have perfect silence . . . however confirming to th^ 
students' wills the arrangement in the vSchool mav be and, 
however intelligent the student may be, they would in each 
case prefer to study at their hornet* . . . by this method of 
study . . . we are sure that the results of 19^3 would be worse 
than the year 1922. " u 

1G8. But "a school is fundamentally two things a place 
of authoritative instruction and a community in which may be 
learnt by way of practice and preparation many of the duties 
and activities of life/' 3 - There is unfortunately little to 
lecord of the general life of the school outside the class room. 
Much of this should in a healthy school atmosphere be devoted 
to recreation mental and physical. In point of fact the 
shadow of the examination is rarely lifted. No inconsider- 
able portion of their spare time is spent by teachers and boys 
in imparting and receiving private tuition. In some pro- 
vinces the practice of private tuition is inseparably connected 
with the low stipend paid to the teacher. Without giving 
private lessons out of school hours the teacher cannot live. 
The following quotation from the report of the Calcutta Uni- 
versity Commission is fortunately not of general applica- 
tion : "In the great majority of secondary schools there i? 
little class teaching which deserves praise. The result is that, 
long as they are, the hours spent in class do not give the boys 
the systematic instruction which they need; and, for fear of 
failure at the examinations, recourse*!* had to private coach- 
ing to make up for what the school does badlv and might do 
well/' 33 ' * 

169. I have already referred to the absence of general 
reading. The difficulty is enhanced in the high school stage 
by the lack of suitable books to read. There are no story books 
for children in most vernaculars. To read for pleasure in a 

80 Punjab, p. 70. 

81 Punjab, p. 70. 

3S Calcutta University Commission Report, Vol. I, p. 242. 
31 Calcutta University Commission Report. Vol. I, p. 236. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 97 

foreign tongue requires encouragement. There are books in 
English of sufficient simplicity for the senior students in a 
high school to read and the Indian schoolboy will, if en- 
couraged, read for pleasure. But that encouragement is 
lacking. It is hardly to be expected that teachers whose 
general reading is confined to newspapers can inspire a taste 
for reading in their pupils and parents are distrustful of any 
books which are not prescribed in the school course. 34 

170. Opportunities for school games are limited by the Games, 
scarcity of play-ground space. Even where play grounds are 
available the organisation which would make the best use of 
them in the interests of the largest number of pupils is often 
lacking. Games are played and played with skill and zest by 

a limited number of boys. Hockey in particular appeals to 
the Indian boy; who is often too an excellent gymnast. 

171. A happy development in recent years has been the Boy scouts, 
spread of tlie boy scout movement. The training of a boy 

scout, developing, as it does, initiative and practical ability 
in the individual, should prove of the greatest value to the 
Indian schoolboy. A great incentive to the movement was 
given by the visit to this country of the Chief Scout, Sir Robert 
Baden- Powell, in the winter of 1920-21. The movement has 
been allowed to develop oil unofficial lines. The Seva Samiti 
of tlie United Provinces has now sixty troops with 2,500 boy 
scouts on its rolls and the Boy Scout Association of Agra and 
Oudh has a hundred troops with about 2,000 scouts. In the 
Punjab there are now about 6,000 boy scouts and a large and 
successful rally took place on the occasion of the visit of His 
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales to Lahore. In the Cen- 
tral Provinces and Bombay special whole-time commissioners 
of scouts have been appointed by Government. There are now 
some 36 boy scout troops in the Central Provinces apart from 
the School Boy League of Honour. But the most systematic 
development of the movement is that carried out in the 
Bombay Presidency. Mr. A. C. Miller of the Indian Educa- 
tional Service was put on special duty to organise work in the 
Presidency in 1919. In England with the assistance of 
Mr. Chapman, originator of the League of Honour, he drew 
up a scheme which is now in full working. Mr. Miller and 
six Indian masters had a course of training in England in 
1921. A standing training camp for schoolmasters was 
opened in January 1922 at Lonavla, and by May 177 Scout- 
masters had been trained. An appeal for funds by His Ex- 
cellency Sir George Lloyd resulted in tho subscription of over 
Rs. 90,000. The training camp is attended by would-be 
scoutmasters from all over India. 

* Vide Bureau of Education, Pamphlet No. 8 Libraries in Indian 
High Schools, p. 7. 



98 



VROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Physical 
education. 



Hygiene. 



Medical 
Inspection. 



172. All reports unite in speaking of the value of this move- 
ment. One inspector writes : " Scouting seems to be the one 
outside interest that has really got hold of the boys and I 
know of cases of boys being saved from utter ruin by finding 
an outlet in scouting for their superfluous energies. Scout 
ideals penetrate among those who cannot join owing to the 
cost of outfit or the prejudice of their relations." 36 

17-J. In view of the limited amount of exercise taken by the 
average schoolboy and his devotion to study it is not a 
matter for surprise that his physique is low. To correct this 
defect increasing attention has been paid in recent years to 
physical education. Madras and the Punjab both note im- 
provements in their courses and more general interest in this 
subject. The Y. M. C. A. have in this matter given invalu- 
able assistance. 

174. Hygiene has been introduced into the curriculum of 
secondary schools in most provinces. But in this matter 
precept is better than practice. "Hygiene and temperance 
have for long figured on the programme of instruction (in 
vernacular schools in AssamV The instruction is less than 
half-hearted. The teachers are temperate enough to set an 
example of temperance, were it required, but in the matter 
of sanitation their precept suffers from ignorance and incre- 
dulity and is contradicted by their practice, which accords 
with the age-old conventions of the country." 36 

175. The problem of medical inspection is largely one of 
finance. Experiments have been tried in several provinces. 
Tn all Government schools and many aided schools in Bombay 
u terminal record is maintained of the weight, height, eye- 
sight and chest measurements of pupils and serious defects are 
brought to the notice of parents. Six medical inspeciors were 
appointed in May 1921, but were unfortunately retrenched a 
year later owing to financial stringency. The five medical 
inspectors in the Punjab returned to duty after the war. They 
have shown keenness and diligence in their work and have 
collected information and statistics of great value. Their 
small number permits of only an infrequent and somewhat 
cursory examination of the scholars in secondary classes and 
they aie entirely unable to follow up inspection by treatment. 
There is also a lack of co-ordination noted between the medi- 
cal inspector, the school authority and the parent. In the 
United Provinces allowances were made to assistant and sub- 
assistant surgeons for the medical inspection of pupils in re- 
cognised English and normal schools. The inspections are 



" United Provinces, p. 140. 
Awam, p. 49. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 99 

said to be perfunctory and to lead to nothing either in the 
way oi' treatment or of record. In Burma medical inspection 
is now supplemented in all Government and many aided 
secondary schools by the regular attendance and service of 
adequately remunerated school medical officers. 

Middle Schools. 

176. Middle schools are of two binds Middle English and Middle 
Middle Vernacular. The former are with few exceptions 
potential high schools. The Middle English School is 

a transition stage between a primary or middle vernacular 
school and a high school. It suffers from its position. It 
follows the same course of study as the middle department 
of a hig-li school and it aims at preparing its boys for matri- 
culation; but being without the high classes it loses its pupils 
before they reach that goal. It is often not a veiv effi- 
cient institution. "It is generally reported as affording easy 
promotion and thus attracting students who have come to a 
sttind-still in better schools. The staff is under-paid and 
migratory and the institution is uncertain of the continuance 
of departmental recognition." 37 

177. The middle vernacular school is classed in Bombay Middle 
and Madras as a primary school, apparently on the ground ^. 
that it uses the vernacular medium and does not as a rule pro- '"' 
vide teaching; in English. In other provinces the vernacular 
middle school has a character of its own, though its importance 
varies according to the interest and value attached to it by 
Government. With the introduction of the vernacular 
Jiiedium in the middle classes of * English' schools there is 
little save the absence of English teaching to differentiate 

the curriculum of the vernacular from that of the Anglo- 
vernacular middle school. Since it cannot be maintained that 
secondary education is synonymous with instruction in Eng- 
lish, I have classed the vernacular middle school where it 
undoubtedly belongs under the head of secondary education. 
The middle vernacular school is cheap because it does not 
uoed university men 011 its staff and yet it is often very 
efficient. Where it leads to definite avenues of employment 
in the lower ranks of the lievemie and Education Departments 
(as patwaries and village teachers) it is popular. This is the 
case in the Punjab, the United Provinces and the Central 
Provinces and to some extent in Assam and Bihar and Orissa, 
all of which provinces report an increase in the number of 
schools of this class and in the attendance at them. It is not 



"United Provinces, p. 44. 



LOO PEOGSESS OF EDUCATION IX INDIA. 

true of Bengal where admission to a training school for 
primary teachers is open to candidates possessing only primary- 
qualifications. 

Optional 178. In this province in particular, where the number of 

wnacuUr verna cular middle schools shows a steady decline, and to a 
schools. lesser degree in other provinces, the chief obstacle to the- 
popularity of the vernacular middle school is the lack of Eng- 
lish teaching and the consequent difficulty experienced by its 
etf-pupils in proceeding to a higher education. Arrangements 
are made in high schools in the United Provinces and the Pun- 
jab and have been tried in Bihar and Orissa for a special Eng- 
lish class to supply this deficiency in pupils joining after com- 
pleting the vernacular middle course. But the period of their 
preparation for the university is necessarily longer than that of 
boys who have read in English schools. The problem is how- 
to cater for the needs of those who wish to proceed to a high 
school without destroying the value of the vernacular middle 
course as a preparation for village life. The solution appears 
to lie in the addition to these schools of optional English 
classes. This solution has been tried in the United Provinces 
and the Punjab. It has met with but indifferent success, 
chiefly owing to the objection on the part of good English 
teachers to serve under vernacular headmasters and to live in 
remote villages where there is no society or opportunity for 
giving their children a high school education. So the teach- 
ing in these optional classes has hitherto been of a poor 
quality. It is to be hoped that these difficulties will be over- 
come in time. 

Middle school 179. The Vernacular Middle School growing as it does out 
building. o f ^ e village primary school often finds itself handicapped in 
the matter of accommodation. The Government of the* 
United Provinces drew up a scheme in 1920 for the erection 
of 127 new buildings for suclT schools and the extension of 5T 
old buildings and for the erection of 183 new hostels and the 
extension of 110. The cost was estimated at nearly twenty- 
eight lakhs of which Government promised to find twenty-five. 
Progress was at first retarded by the rise in wages and prices. 

Agriculture 180. A very definite step has been taken in the Punjab to- 

rn Middle vvavJs fitting the vernacular middle school to its environment 
ec oo s. ^ j^g introduction in the middle department of the teaching 
of practical agriculture. This innovation was recommended 
by a committee on agricultural teaching which met in 1918. 
The reasons which led to the recommendation will be discus- 
sed and the experiment described in the section on agricultural 
education. It is already in full working order in twenty 
schools and has been introduced on a temporary basis in eleven 
others. At the close of the quinquennium a" similar scheme- 



SECONDARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 101 

was adopted in Bombay. If experiments of this kind prove 
successful and if the difficulties in the way of the introduction 
of optional English classes are overcome there may emerge a 
single type of middle school providing a good general and 
practical education in the vernacular suitable to the needs of 
the country boy and providing at the same time facilities for 
the study of English for the few who are in a position to go 
further with their studies. The evolution of such a type of 
school would go far to solve two of the most pressing of 
Indian educational problems, the retention of the educated 
youth on the land and the equalisation of educational oppor- 
tunity between the town and country. 



102 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IS INDIA. 



Statistics 



Distribution 
of increase 
in numbers. 



Causes of 
decrease. 
^a) Burma. 



CHAPTEll V. 

PRIMARY EDUCATION (Boys). 

Schools and Scholars. 





Primary 


PUPILS 


IN PRIMARY STAGE. 


Year. 


Schools for 










Boys. 


In Primary 
Schools for 


In Secondary 
Schools for 


Total. 






Boys. 


Boys. 




1916-17 


124,081 


5,188,411 


504,418 


5,092,829 


1921-22 


137,437 


5,543,437 


491,119 


0,034,550 


Increase or Decrease . 


+ 13,350 


+ 355, 020 

1 


13,299 


+ 341,727 



181. The statement shows iin increase of over 13,000 in the 
total number of primary schools for boys, and of nearly 342,000 
in the number of pupils in the primary stage. But this increase 
has been very unevenly distributed. While Madras, Bom- 
bay, the United Provinces and (lie Punjab ^hmv a marked 
advance there has been, for the first time for many years, an 
actual falling off in attendance in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, 
Central Provinces, Assam and Burma. 

182. The remarkable decrease in the number of schools and 
scholars in Burma ( 2,414 and 49,788) was due partly to 
financial necessity, partly to deliberate concentration with a 
view to efficiency. The system of primary education in Burma 
is peculiar in that reliance is placed entirely upon private 
initiative, the majority of schools in the Province being con- 
ducted by Buddhist monks. Out of 4,374 recognised primary 
schools in the Province no less than 4,360 are aided institu- 
tions. Up to the year 1915 new schools were freely registered, 
that is to say, admitted to the aided list. In 1917 Divi- 
sional Boards were made responsible for vernacular education 
and found themselves saddled with a large number of 
inefficient schools and discontented school-masters but with 
no money to support them. The advice of departmental 
officers with few exceptions was always in favour of reduced 
registration of schools and payment of better salaries to all 
competent teachers. " When Divisional Boards adopted the 
policy of concentration a far larger number of monastic than 
of lay schools was found to be inefficient and was dis-regis- 
tered. Consequently the proportion of monastic schools to 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 103 

otliers in the Province fell during the quinquennium from 
65 per cent, to 48 per cent." 1 It must, however, be remem- 
bered that the withdrawal of aid or recognition from these 
institutions does not mean that they were actually closed. It 
only implies Iliat the standard required for recognition and aid 
was raised and it is encouraging to learn that a large number 
of dis-registered monastic schools can once more usefully 
participate in the public system of education as soon as funds 
are available. 

183. The decline in Bengal is entirely in the number of (6) Bengali 
pupils attending the primary departments of secondary schools 

which has fallen by 57,000. This decrease is presumably due 
to the general causes affecting the attendance in secondary 
schools of which mention has been made under the head of 
secondary education. Progress has nevertheless been made 
with the pa'nchayati union scheme, the object of which is the 
improvement rather than the expansion of education. 533 
board schools have been, opened or substituted for aided schools 
during the quinquennium. 

184. In the other provinces where attendance has fallen ( C ) other 
epidemic diseases such as plague, influenza, malaria and provinces* 
cholera, adverse economic conditions, periods of scarcity and 

the general rise in the cost of living are among the" chief 
causes to which the decline is assigned. The non-cooperation 
movement also affected the attendance in some districts of the 
Central Provinces and Assam and in the northern division 
of the "Bombay Presidency but here the loss was counter- 
balanced by an inc. reuse in the central and southern divisions. 



185. The increase in numbers in Madras and Bombay i 
due to natural expansion. In the United Provinces and the increase. 
Punjab it is the direct result of the adoption by the local W^ 1 
Governments of definite programmes for the expansion of <2) P Adoption 
primary education in rural areas. The adoption of such by local Go?. 
programmes was advocated bv the Government of India in a ornmentsof 
circular, which they addressed to local Governments in rur! * 
September 1918. In this letter the Government of India areas. 
explained that in the new situation caused by the introduction 
of the constitutional reforms and the consequent complete 
separation of Imperial and Provincial finance, it would no 
longer be possible for the Central Government to assist pro- 
vinces, as it had done in the past, with special grants for the 
spread of education. The Government of India took the 
opportunity of emphasising the peculiar importance of pri- 
mary education at the present time and suggested the pre- 
paration of detailed schemes of educational advance. " The 

1 Burma, pp. 4-5. 



104 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



tSchcmes of 
expansion, 
(a) United 
Provinces. 



(b) Punjab. 



proposed extensions of the franchise/' they said, " will fur- 
nish in themselves a special incentive to an early expansion 
of elementary education." 2 

186. In the United Provinces the educational scheme 
evolved from the proposals of the Piggott Committee had not 
proved entirely successful, and the local Government decided 
in 1918 to launch a fresh scheme with the object of rapidly 
increasing the enrolment of primary pupils in the Province. 
District boards were asked in April 1918 to prepare pro- 
grammes to cover a period of five years. They were assured of 
ample financial help for the main project and for such subsi- 
diary projects as the immediate training of all available 
teachers, the augmentation of salaries and the extension 
of equal opportunities to communities that were educa- 
tionally backward. The variety of method evidenced in 
<he proposals put forward and the obvious uncertainty evinced 
by some boards as to the needs of their districts induced 
Government to reconsider the duration of the experiment and 
it was decided that, in tlie first instance, it should cover a 
period of three years. The quinquennium shows an increase 
of 4,950 in the number of schools, and of 138,442 in the 
number of scholars. The rate of progress, though on the 
whole satisfactory, has been very uneven. Next to Meerut, 
for example, which shows an increase of 62 per cent, in the 
number of scholars, lies the district of Bijnaur which shows a 
decline. There appear to be no geographical, political or 
economic reasons for these inequalities. The total increase 
would have been larger but for a falling off in the enrolment 
in 33 districts during the last year. This set-back is attrib- 
uted partly to general causes such as sickness and high prices, 
and partly to a natural deflation as the enthusiasm of the 
authorities waned and the inspecting officers found time to 
check the registers more closely. That such a check is 
necessary is proved by an experiment carried out by the 
Inspector of Schools, Fyzabad. The reports on a hundred 
schools in the Division were checked with th/s following 
results : 

The total enrolment claimed was . . 8,303 

The average attendance was . . . 5,516 

The clay's attendance was . . . 4,903 

It is unfortunately only too probable that similar experi- 
ments conducted elsewhere in India would lead to similar 
results. 

187. In the Punjab a detailed scheme for the expansion of 
vernacular education in rural areas was introduced in April 
1918. Maps were prepared by the district inspectors under 

2 Govt. of India Circular No. 750-Edn., dated 2nd September 1918. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 105 

instructions from the Education Department showing the 
existing schools and all centres in the Province where an aver- 
age attendance of 50 pupils might be expected in a primary 
school, allowing ordinarily a distance of two miles to intervene 
between any two schools. The maps showed that an additional 
4,358 schools would be required. It was expected that the 
goal would be reached in a period of fifteen years. These 
maps, after revision by the Education Department, were sent 
to district boards who were asked to indicate the schools which 
could be opened with success during the next five years. The 
ocal Government then entered into a contract with each dis- 
rict board to share the expenses of completing its five year 
>rogramme. The method in which the expenses were shared 
las been described in paragraph 70. In actual practice the 
listrict boards have not adhered rigidly to these contracts. 
Jome boards have nearly completed in four years a pro- 
gramme which was intended to occupy fifteen while others are 
itill behindhand with their programme for the first three 
rears. Nevertheless, the result has been a very definite and 
lot too uneven extension of the facilities for primary educa- 
tion in rural areas. Marked progress, for example, has been 
made in the hitherto backward districts of Rawalpindi and 
Mult an. The quinquennium shows an increase of 700 pri- 
mary schools and of 25,000 scholars attending them, and of 
rO,000 boys in the primary stage in all schools. 

188. Programmes of expansion were also prepared in the (c) Bombay, 
provinces of Bihar and Orissa and Bombay, but their execution 

vas postponed for financial reasons. The Bombay scheme sub- 
mitted by the Director in 1919 proposed the addition of 1,500 
primary__scliools--eyery _year jwith. Jiie jobject of providing ~a 
^cEooLJH every village of 200 i nhabi tants . Soivie mention was 
made in tKeTasf "QuinquehniarSeview of the scheme prepared 
by the Government of Bihar and Orissa. Its effect would have (d) Bihar an 
been to increase the total number of vernacular schools in Orissa. 
rural areas from 17,346 to 23,017, and the number of teachers 
in such schools from 20,879 to 46,181 while the number of 
trained teachers would have risen from 6,345 to 21,258. The 
ultimate increase of cost was estimated at Us. 23^ lakhs per 
annum. Spread over a period of ten years the annual increase 
would have been less than 2} lakhs. * The introduction of the 
scheme has been postponed while the question of the distribu- 
tion of cost between Government and local bodies is being 
considered by an educational committee. It is a matter for 
#reat regret that this important and carefully prepared scheme 
lias been kept so long in abeyance. 

189. The foregoing schemes have for their object the expan- Limits of 
ion of education on a voluntary basis. But there are not voluntary 



106 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



education 
system. 



Compulsory 

education. 

Primary 

Education 

Acts. 



wanting signs that the time is fast approaching, has in fact 
been reached in many areas, (when reliance on a purely volun- 
tary system will prove ineffectual and uneconomic/ It has- 
been noted that the results of the increased expenditure on 
primary education in the United Provinces have, in many dis- 
tricts, proved disappointing. " Benares at the end of last 
quinquennium headed the percentages of scholars to popula- 
tion, but expansion in thi* district under a voluntary 
system would seem to have reached its limit, since it has a 
decrease for the last three year*."" In backward areas such 
as the North-West Frontier Province the more recently 
started schools are very poorly attended. The same is true 
of some districts in the Punjab" On the otlier hand, in some 
well M'hooled areas, such as the Delhi Province, the opening 
of a new school may simply mean the attraction of a certain 
number of scholars from an existing institution. Enquiries 
conducted in Kastern Bengal many years ago, and in more 
recent years by Mr. E. Biss in "Western Bengal, show that in 
that province the chief need of primary education is concen- 
tration with a view to greater efficiency. An increase during 
thrt quinquennium of over 3,000 primary schools has been 
accompanied by an increase of only 5,000 scholars. 

190. The passage therefore of Primary Education Acts by 
seven provincial legislatures authorising the introduction of 
compulsory education by local option has not been inoppor- 
tune, even though little progress in this direction can be re- 
corded during the quinquennium. Bombay led the way in 
this matter with a private Bill introduced by the Hon'ble 
Mr. V. J. Patel which was passed into law in February 1918. 
The other private Bills which followed are those of Bihar and 
Orissa introduced by the Hon'ble Mr. S. K._ Sahay and passed 
in February 1919; of Bengal, introduced by the Hon'ble 
Mr. S. N. Ray and passed in May 1919, and of the United 
Provinces, introduced by the IFon'ble Rai An and Sarup Baha- 
dur and passed in June 1919. Of the Government measures, 
the Punjab Act was passed in April 1919, ihe Central Pro- 
vinces Act in May 1919 and the Madras Act in October 1920. 
The City of Bombay Primary Education Act of 1920 extends 
generally the provisions of the 1918 Act to the Bombay Cor- 
poration enabling it to introduce free and compulsory educa- 
tion ward by ward. Not content with this the Bombay Gov- 
ernment set up in July 1921 a committee of two officials and 
eight non-officials to consider further the question of compul- 
sory education. The committee reported and legislation was 
undertaken on the basis of its recommendations after the period 
under review. 



' United Provs , p. 81. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 107 

191. The Bombay and the United Provinces Acts apply Outline of 
only to municipalities, the Bengal Primary Education Act WJ Edu 
applies, in th? first instance, to.jminicipalities, but is capable catlonAots - 
of extension, to rural areas. The other Acts are applicable to 
f^JpcaLareaa. Boys only are included within the scope of 
the Punjab, Bihar and Orissa and Bengal Acts while the Cen- 
tral Provinces Act is capable of extension to girls, and the 
remaining Acts are applicable to both sexes. All the Acts 
are drafted on very similar lines. If a local body, at a special 
meeting convened for the purpose, decides by a two-thirds 
majority in favour of the introduction of compulsion in any 
part of the area under its control, it may then submit to Gov- 
ernment a scheme to give effect to its decision. The scheme 
must appear in other ways to be practicable and in particular 
to be within the means of the local body to carry out with 
reasonable financial assistance from Government. In Bom- 
bay the local Government guarantees half the cost of the 
project; in other provinces the amount of the government 
grant is left to be determined in each case after consideration 
of the cost of the scheme and the resources of the local body. 
The scheme, if approved by Government, can be introduced 
after due notice has been given. Ordinarily the age limits 
of compulsion are from six to ten though provision is made 
for prolonging the period. Provision is made in the Acts 
.for the exemption of particular classes and communities and 
for special exemptions from attendance in cases of bodily 
defect, illness and special need or when the only school within 
walking distance is one to which a parent may object on 
religious grounds. Walking distance is generally defined as 
one mile from the child's home. The employment of 
children, who should be at school, is strictly forbidden and 
a small fine is imposed for non-compliance with an attendance 
order. Such in brief are the ordinary provisions of the 
various provincial Education Acts. 

192. The Bengal Act differs from the other Acts in that it The Bengal 
vests powers in the local Government to require municipalities 
to submit returns showing the total number of children aged 
six to ten residing in municipal limits, the number actually 
attending primary schools, and the provision made for ele- 
mentary education, i.e., Ihe schools in existence, their accom- 
modation, staff anil equipment. Municipalities in Bengal 
have in consequence been asked to prepare a programme for 
providing education for all children aged six to eleven likely 
to attend schools voluntarily, and also one for all boys aged six 
ito ten, together with an estimate of the cost of each of these 
programmes and a statement of the methods by which the cost 
can be met. Returns were not complete at the close of the 
quinquennium. 



108 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



The Madras 
Act. 

Action by 
local bodies. 



Practical 
difficulties in 
the way of 
introducing 
compulsion. 



193. The Madras Act is more comprehensive in character. 
An account of it has already been given in paragraph 66. 

194. It cannot be said that local bodies have shown any ala- 
crity in availing themselves of the opportunity afforded them 
by these Acts. In Bengal, Madras, the United Provinces and 
the Central Provinces no local body; in Bombay five munici- 
palities (Bandra, Surat, Bakore, Byadgi and Satara); in the 
Punjab two municipalities (Multan and Lahore) and in Bihar 
and Orissa one (Ranchi) had introduced compulsory education 
before the 1st of April 1922. Little is reported of the success- 
of these eight experiments. The percentage of boys of com- 
pulsory age at school has ri^en with the introduction of 
compulsion in Multan from 2T to 54 and in Lahore from 50 to- 
62. Since no provision has been made at either place for the 
education of the children belonging to the depressed classes 
and no proceedings have yet been taken against any defaulting 
parent, it is improbable that a much higher percentage of 
attendance can be expected in the near future. 

195. Compulsion has been introduced under the Act of 
1920 in a number of wards in the city of Bombay. There has 
been a fifty per cent, increase in the number of schools and 
school children and in the number of trained teachers and a 
proportional increase in the general and medical inspec- 
torate; a novel feature has been the appointment of lady 
superintendents. The total expenditure on education in the 
municipality has increased 350 per cent. 

196. What causes can be assigned for the Acts remaining so 
ineffectual? The poverty of local bodies is the cause usually 
assigned : this is probably the least effective cause. Under 
all Primary Education Acts, with the exception of that of the 
Central Provinces where such provision was not needed, local 
bodies are empowered to raise additional funds in order to 
meet the cost of introducing compulsion. It is true that if 
any local body availed itself of this right such a step would 
add considerably to the unpopularity of the new measure, but 
there are other more immediate practical difficulties in the 
way, some of which are peculiar to India. It is not easy, for 
example, to make a census of'the boys, much less of the girls, 
of compulsory age* when the age of a small child, as in this 
country, is a matter of some uncertainty. When the census 
has been made tlie problem of accommodation, always one of 
difficulty, is further complicated by the necessity for making 
separate provision for boys of low castes and in some cases 
for different communities. 

197. In other countries the first step towards compulsion 
has usually been the enforcement of an obligation on local 
authorities to provide accommodation for all children of school- 
going age. In England, for example, the law of 1870 which 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 109 

made the provision of accommodation obligatory preceded^ by 
six years the introduction of universal compulsory education. 
In India this preliminary stage has for various reasons been 
omitted. 

198. Still, more rapid advance might have been made had Reluctance, 
it not been for the very natural reluctance of municipal com- * i^*odSce 
missioiiers to introduce a coercive measure. ^ There is a feeling coe roion. 
which has found shape in a recent resolution in the Central 
Provinces and which has resulted in the passing of a new 
Education Act in Bombay, that the initiative in the matter 

of compulsion can most easily come from Government. This 
was recognised by the Government of the United Pro- 
vinces in 1921. It then asked the municipal boards to 
report : 

(1) whether they proposed to take any steps to introduce 

compulsory education; 

(2) to what extent they proposed to introduce it; 

(3) what financial assistance they required from Gov- 

ernment for the purpose. 

" The local Government promised, if sufficient funds were 
available and granted by the Legislative Council, to give 
assistance to the extent of frds of the extra cost involved, 
including the cost of remitting fees and also to meet the 
total cost of bringing the minimum pay of municipal teachers 
up to the minimum rates prescribed for district boards, pro- 
vided that the total contribution made by Government to any 
municipality on account of primary education should not 
exceed 60 per cent, of the total cost of the same." 4 In March 
1922 answers were being received from thirty-two munici- 
palities that had expressed their willingness to introduce 
compulsory education. 

199. It would be a mistake, however, to infer that the limits Measures 
of expansion on a voluntary basis have been reached even in undertaken 
municipal areas. The fact is that a very large percentage ffnTtobSr' 
of the boys receiving elementary education in towns are not pr ovo volun- 
attending primary schools but the preparatory departments tary school* 
of secondary schools. It is only parents of the poorest class 

who send their boys to municipal primary schools. The needs 
of this class have been neglected in the past. It is satisfactory 
to find that they are now receiving more consideration. 
Mention has already been made of the investigations instituted 
by the Government of Bengal into the educational situation 
in mofussal municipalities. There are only eight municipal 
primary schools in the whole of Bengal. At the close of the 
quinquennium a special grant of three lakhs was made to the 

* United Pro vs., pp. 77-78. 

H2 



110 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Expenditure. 



Oalcutta Corporation for education and a committee is now 
sitting to consider the best means of employing it. That it 
was much needed is evident from the fact that the annual 
expenditure of the Calcutta Corporation on education 
amounted to only Rs. 64,000 per annum. The Bombay 
Corporation on the other hand increased its educational ex- 
penditure from about six lakhs to nearly sixteen lakhs during 
the quinquennium. It now maintains or aids 387 primary 
schools (257 for boys and 130 for girls). 

The Government of Bihar and Orissa in 1917 promised 
grants on certain conditions to nmnicipalities, in order to 
enable thpm to reorganise the facilities for primary education 
within their areas; no less than seventeen municipalities have 
availed themselves of this offer. 

Expenditure on Primary Schools for Boys. 



i cost 
of (i) a pri- 



scholar. 





] 


EXPENDITURE 


PBOM 





Total 


Year. 


Govt. 
funds. 


Board 
funds. 


Fees. 


Other 
sources. 


expenditure. 


1916-17 
1921-22 


Ks. 
56,65,218 

2,33,98,645 


Rs. 
1,22,72,286 

1,14,68,604 


Rs. 

45,65,223 

46,31,758 


Rs. 
26,55,062 

38,48,437 


Rs. 
2,51,57,789 

4,33,47,444 


Increase or 
Decrease. 


+ 1,77,33,427 


8,03,682 


+ 66,535 


+ 11,93,375 


+ 1,81,89,655 



200. In view of the comparatively small increase in the 
number of schools and scholars the increase of expenditure on 
primary education during the quinquennium is remarkable. 
Of the increase from Government funds thirty lakhs were 
provided by the Government of India as an Imperial grant in 
1918. 

201. The average annual expenditure on a primary school 
has risen from Us. 203 to Es. 315 and the cost of educating a 
P U P^ * n a primary school has risen by 64 per cent.* 

At first sight these figures would seem to show that the 
quality of the education provided in primary schools, so far 
as quality can be measured by cost, has been immensely 

* When consulting supplemental tables 45 and 47, from which these 
figures have been taken, one must bear in mind that Middle vernacular 
schools are classed as primary in Bombay which accounts in part for the 
fact that the cost of a primary school in Bombay, Rs. 1,122, is practically 
double of that in any other province and nearly ten times the cost of a 
primary school in Bengal. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (fiOYS). Ill 

improved. But it must be remembered that prices and wages 
have advanced in every occupation, the teacher who was pro- 
curable for Es. 14 per mensem before the war now required 
Rs. 20 per mensem in order to maintain himself and his family. 
Consequently the cost of educating a boy in a primary school, 
which had advanced by slow stages from three annas to five 
annas in forty years, has suddenly during the last five years 
risen by over three annas. 

202. Nevertheless the rise in cost does undoubtedly repre- Improvement 

sent in most provinces a real Improvement in the conditions oi: lr j J he |W 
., . -i. J o -r ft TT-jiT-fc p of teachers 

the teaching proiession. In the United Provinces, tor to meet in- i* 

example, of the new provision of forty lakhs for primary creased coat 1 
education 110 less than 22 lakhs have been devoted to raising " f A?' 
the pay of the teachers. According to the latest scales intro- ^nitcd Pro- 
duced in April 1921 untrained assistants receive as a minimum vinces. 
Ks. 12 per mensem, trained assistants Rs. 15 to- Us. 20, and 
headmasters Rs. 20 rising to Rs. 30. 

203. In Madras board schools the minimum pay of trained (t>) In Madras, 
teachers lias been raised to Rs. 12 and of untrained teachers 

to Rs. 10, with a proviso that untrained teachers should not 
be employed, unless the presidents of district boards and chair- 
men of municipalities are satisfied after consulting the local 
inspectors that trained teachers are not available. At the 
same time capitation grants have been abolished in aided 
elementary schools and the rates of fee grants have been 
revised, now ranging from a minimum of Rs. 48 per annum 
for an untrained teacher with the lowest qualifications to a 
maximum of Rs. 180 per annum for the most highly qualified 
teacher. 

In Assam the average' rate of pay of a primary teacher (c) In Assam, 
has been advanced by over 40 per rent., from Rs. 10-6 per 
mensem to Rs. 14-9. This was effected by means of two 
special Government grants. The first of Rs. 44,000 enabled 
local bodies to make a general increase of seven per cent, in 
the pay of their teachers. At the same time the capitation 
system by which the pay of teachers was regulated according 
to the number of pupils in the upper classes of their schools 
was abolished. It was a relic of the " results grant " system 
and among other objections to it, it provided an irresistible 
temptation to many teachers to falsify their registers and 
thus " imported into the village school system an atmosphere 
of suspicion and dishonesty." 6 The second grant of two 
lakhs, voted by ihe Council in 1921, provided for an 
increase in the minimum rate of pay of trained- teachers 
from Rs. 8 to Rs. 12 and a general advance of twenty 

Assam, p. 59. 



112 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

(d) In Central per cent. In the Central Provinces special Govern- 
Provinces. ment grants amounting in all to Us. 6*54 lakhs were devoted 
to this purpose. " At the close of the quinquennium the 
minimum salaries of vernacular school teachers were Us. 20 for 
trained and Rs. 15 for untrained teachers in village schools 
with an additional Rs. 3 in dear districts. In town schools 
the minimum salaries were Es. 22 for trained and Es. 17 for 
untrained teachers with an additional Es. 3 in dear districts." 6 
<e) In Punjab In the Punjab the average monthly salary of a qualified 
andN.-W. primary school teacher lias increased from Es. 15 to Es. 26 
" ' and in the North- West Frontier Province from Es. 20-3 to 

(/) In Bihar Es. 27-3. In Bihar and Orissa the great majority of the 
* Orissa. primary schools are aided institutions in which the average 
fee receipts amount to about Es. 3 per mensem. In addition 
to this the teacher receives a grant, the average monthly value 
of which has risen from Es. 7-2 to Es. 8-8. But many 
teachers receive less; in fact out of 28,000 teachers in aided 
schools 7,250 do not receive in grants more than Es. 3 per 
<0) In Bengal, mensem. In Bengal various estimates have been made of the 
cost of increasing the pay of primary school teachers. As 
the basis of these estimates salaries of Es. 8, Es. 16 and 
even higher rates have been adopted. In these estimates, 
however, it appears to have been assumed that no differentia- 
tion should be made between the pay of trained and untrained 
teachers, that no teachers are superfluous and that the gradual 
introduction of improved rates is impracticable. Consequently 
the estimates appear formidable and no advance is reported 
during the quinquennium. 

(A) In Burma, 204. In Burma tlie position is peculiar owing to the major- 
ity of schools being monastic. Hitherto a monk who teaches 
the departmental curriculum does not receive a teacher's wages 
but only a results' grant or a small honorarium. " In too 
many cases," says Sir Mark Hunter, " the acceptance of 
recognition has meant the withdrawal of local support on the 
false argument that a monk who receives help (however small) 
from Government for his school no longer requires that of 
the charitable. " 7 The question of substituting monthly 
salaries payable either to the monk or to the kyaung is now 
under consideration as also the insistence on a minimum scale 
of salaries to all lay teachers. 

Expenditure 205. Some part, though not a large part, of the new expen- 

on buildings. diture hag also feeen devoted to buildings. Of the need for 

buildings for primary schools I will write later. Granted the 

need, it must Tbe recognised that while education is expanding 

at its present rate it is quite impossible for the building pro- 

Central Prove., p. 38. 
7 Burma, p. 37. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 113 

.gramme to keep pace with the increase in the number of 
schools. For many years to coine most of the primary schools 
in India must be housed in rented premises. Even in Madras, 
which probably leads the way in this matter, only 44 per cent, 
of the schools are housed in buildings of their own ; and ground 
was lost during the quinquennium, an increase of 4,700 in 
the number of schools being accompanied by an increase of 
only 1,485 in the number of buildings. In the United Pro- 
vinces and the Punjab building operations have been con- 
ducted on a large scale, no less than Us. 2&,84,943 having 
been spent in this way in the former province and special 
grants amounting in all to 11 J lakhs having been made for the 
same purpose in the Punjab. 

District board agency is usually employed for the construc- 
tion of buildings: but in Bombay some success has attended 
the experiment of entrusting the construction to the villagers. 
Forty-three schools were so constructed during the quinquen- 
nium at an average cost of Rs. 18 per pupil. 

206. There exists a certain amount of prejudice against the The need for 
expenditure of money on primary school buildings. Some busings, 
theorists go so far as to suggest trees as a suitable substitute 

for roofs, but the sun, the dust and the rain of India do not 
lend much encouragement to this view ; nor would it commend 
itself to parents. Others less extreme would use borrowed 
verandahs and rooms or at the utmost rented premises. But 
it is a fact well known to every inspecting officer that the 
possession of a decent building of its own adds much to the 
popularity of a village school and to the possibilities of 
efficient teaching.] The following remarks are of universal 
application: ''Borrowed buildings are unsatisfactory; they 
are generally unsuitable for school purposes and they are often 
used by the owners as well, whereby school work is greatly 
disturbed. There is a growing unwillingness now-a-days to 
lend buildings, which is probably due to a general decrease 
in building operations on account of the increased cost of 
labour, and, for the same reason, owners expect boards to do 
repairs." 8 

207. We may then assume that so far as possible every Type of 

Srimary school should be provided with a building of its own. building, 
f what precise type the building should be is a more difficult 
question. There are great difficulties in the way of construct- 
ing schools according to type plans. " The chief consideration 
is as a rule the carry of the local rafter, which is usually 
from 12 to 14 feet. Thus ideal dimensions have to be sacri- 
ficed." 9 Bengal reports that "contractors are often not 

1 United Prove., p. 88. 
United Pro vs., p. 89. 



114 FBOGBESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

willing to take up the construction of a building for Us. 1,000* 
while building materials are dear and instances are not rare 
in which they have thrown up the work after beginning." 10 
Pucca buildings mean a larger initial expense. On the other 
hand less substantial buildings need constant repairs. 

Repairs to 208. " The unkeep of the boards' buildings is becoming a 

school build- very serious consideration. The Chairman of the Benares 

Ing8 ' board says : ' In 50 per cent, of the schools I found urgent 

repairs required and in most cases of an extensive nature such 

as the replacement of roofs and even walls. The requirements- 

of education in this respect have quite outrun the boards' 

ability to fulfil and the question can only be solved by special 

grants from Government or a large increase in general income/ 

" This is but one of many such complaints. Labour is 
scarce and expensive and contractors as a result cannot take 
up small repairs. Teachers in some parts show unwillingness 
to supervise for reasons that may be guessed from the request 
put forward at a union meeting that they should be relieved 
of ' a work that did not come within their duties ' or be 
allowed tho usual commission, for its performance." 11 

Fees and free 209. The^ Primary Education Acts, to which reference has 
education. ] 3een ma de7"generally provide that, subject to the sanction of 
the local Government, education where compulsory shall be 
free. During the period under review, primary education was 
made free in thirteen municipalities in "the Bombay Presi- 
dency. In Delhi fees have been remitted in the primary classes 
of municipal board schools and also in some private schools. 
Vernacular middle education has been made free in the North- 
West Frontier Province where primary education was already 
free. In Assam primary education has long been free. 
In the Punjab children of all Indian soldiers who were 
in active service during the Great War are now being educated 
free by means of a series of scholarships sufficient in amount 
to cover their tuition fees and the cost of 'school books and, in 
some cases, to pay the cost of boarding also. In Madras the 
children and dependents of soldiers who served in the war 
are admitted to schools under public management at half rates 
and are also provided with small scholarships to cover the cost 
of school material. 

General 210. I have already mentioned the improvements which- 

conditions, have been made in the pay of elementary teachers. Of many 
fo pay V of ment provinces it may be said that the " pay now enjoyed by primary 
primary teachers raises them beyond the fear of want and there is- 
teachers. apparently no difficulty in getting recruits ' for the prof es- 

10 Bengal, p. 39. 

11 United Provinces, pp. 88-89. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (fiOYS). 115 

sion." 12 The low pay of primary teachers in the past has been 

a frequent cause of comment, and there are still parts of India 

where it is far too low to attract competent recruits. But a word 

of warning is needed for those zealous reformers who would 

spend all available funds in raising the teachers' pay and hope 

thereby steadily to improve the quality of primary education. 

There comes a point at which, if the pay is made sufficiently 

attractive, the wrong type ot young man considers it worth 

while to turn, if only for a time, to teaching. The best type Best type o! 

of village teacher is the intelligent village boy who has worked village 

his way through the primary and middle classes with the 

definite aim of joining a normal school and becoming a village 

schoolmaster. As Khan Sahib Maqbul Shah of the Punjab 

writes "It is only those who are themselves agriculturists 

born and bred in the villages who can enter into the thoughts 

and feelings of village people and understand their needs and 

difficulties. The official class lias been recruited chiefly from 

the commercial classes; and the tyranny and arrogance of 

official underlings has become a byword. It is therefore a 

matter of supreme importance that the village schoolmaster 

at any rate should be a man of the village. Village people are 

simple, illiterate and ignorant; and the schoolmaster should 

be their guide, philosopher and friend." 13 IThere is a real 

danger, if the pay attached to the post of village teacher is 

indefinitely increased, of attracting the out-of-work matri- 

culate or ' failed ' matriculate, possibly a townsman, certainly 

one who has been unsuccessful in his life's aim and who 

enters the blind alley of the village teacher's life as a last 

resort. \ Our secondary schools have already only too large 

a number of discontented failures on their staffs : to introduce 

this element into primary schools under the mistaken idea that 

the higher the qualifications the better the teacher would do 

serious harm to primary education. 

211. At the same time any improvement in the technical Improvement 

qualifications of primary school teachers cannot but be bene- ll i P^entage 
2-i i -j j.- P j. , r* i J.T L j.i p of trained 

ncial, and it is satisfactory to tind that the percentage ot teachers. 

trained teachers is steadily rising. In Madras, for example, 
it rose during the last five years from 33 to 89, in the United 
Provinces from 45 to 57 and in the whole of India from 30 
to 39. With the greater inducements offered by the better 
rates of pay and with the extension of facilities for training 
it is reasonable to hope that this improvement may be 
maintained. 

212. The quality of the teaching in a primary school Importance 
depends partly on the capacity of the teacher, partly on the ofe 



village 

" United Provinces, p. 86. teacher. 

18 Punjab, p. 95. 



116 



PROGBESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Lack of 
women 
teachers to 
train young 
children. 



The dis- 
heartening 
task of the 
solitary 
teacher. 



conditions under which he has to work and partly on the 
nature of the task that is assigned to him. Criticisms such a 3 
the following of the village teacher show a lack of sympathy 
with his difficulties : " The Inspector of Schools, Multau 
Division, quotes a deputy commissioner as having said that 
' the average normal pass teacher commands nobody's respect, 
neither that of parents nor of boys. 'His chief object is to 
absent him self from his work as often as he can and be as 
impunctual as possible^ The new type of teacher has little or 
no enthusiasm for his work; and his influence for good is 
negligible.' The Inspector considers this an exaggerated 
picture, though he feels tliat it contains an element of 
truth." 14 

The importance of tlie personality of the teacher in conduc- 
ing to the success of the school can hardly be over-estimated. 
" The teacher is the product of the past. JFor years he has 
been despised, first because as a teacher he took pay at all 
for his services, and again because having taken it he took 
so little. The first thing he has to achieve under the new 
conditions is respectability. Wherever there is a teacher 
who is respected there is a flourishing school. The Chairman 
of Budaon district says x that the personal element in the 
leaching staff is far and away the most important part in the 
success or failure of a school. If there were only more 
teachers filled with enthusiasm the condition of our primary 
schools would be very different. 531 * 

213. One of the chiof defects of the elementary teacher in 
India is his sex. Universal experience has shown that the best 
teacher for young children is a woman. It is rare that a 
man shows any real aptitude for teaching an infant class. 
No amount of normal school training will make up for this 
natural deficiency. But if the trained teacher has little 
success with beginners what sympathetic understanding or ex- 
pository skill can be expected of the junior untrained assistant 
or senior pupil to whom tlie infant class is often entrusted? 

214. The most skilful teacher of either sex would be* dis- 
heartened if placed in sole charge of a village primary school.! 
It is something to the good that the difficulties with which the 
village teacher has to contend are now appreciated and that 
the efforts made to help him are now directed along proper 
lines. (For long the only recognised remedies for the weak- 
nesses of our primary schools were an improvement in the 
pay of the teachers, an increase in the number of trained 
teachers and a simplification of the school curriculum^ These 
measures are all helpful but they do not touch the real 



14 Punjab, p. 2L 
"United Provs., p. 90. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 117 

seat of the evil.^ The inefficiency of the ordinary village 
school is due primarily to the short duration of school-life 
.and the irregularity of the attendance and secondarily to 
the excessive number of classes assigned to a single teacher. \ 
"Ordinarily the village schoolmaster, ill-found in vitality and 
learning and depressed by poverty, is in sole charge of a 
school of five classes or sections which he has to instruct in 
all the subjects of a varied course. There is no fixed date 
of admission. Pupils come in month by month according to 
caprice or the influence of their horoscopes. The lowest class, 
a class in which numbers are high, is a collection of little 
groups each at a different stage of advancement. And there 
are four classes above this. 

215. ' ^Again with an attendance of 70 per cent, on the aver- Irregular 
,age, which sinks lower during seasons of flood and fever, the ^^" 
teacher is faced by a different selection of his pupils every day. tuality. P 
TInpunctuality acids to liis difficulties.) In the case of rural 
habits, the absence of clocks and the defect of discipline, 
*mpunctuality is the rule, the arrival of pupils being spread 

over a period of an hour to an hour and a half or even two 
hours." 16 i 

216. "Only a small percentage of the boys who enter a short dura- 
primary school complete the course. 9 * 17 The great majority of tion of 
pupils in primary schools do not remain long enough at scnool sch o1 " fe - 
to gain any permanent advantage from their education and a 
considerable number of those who complete their course are 

found after a few years to be unable to read or write. Again, 
the little benefit which might be obtained from instruction in 
ike infant classes is lost in many cases by irregular attend- 
ance/. One chairman complains 18 that he has found three 
teachers wasting their time with 20 boys out of an enrolment 
of 90, and a false registration of 30. \ The question is of such 
fundamental importance that in 1918 the Government of 
India commended its consideration to local Governments 
suggesting certain remedies to reduce the evil, such as the 
introduction of more efficient teachers, a reduction in the 
numerical strength of the primary school classes in order to 
enable the teacher to give more individual attention to hia 
pupils and changes in the curriculum designed to induce 
[parents to leave their children longer at school. Of the short 
duration of school life much was written in the last Quin- 
quennial Review and subsequent reports throw no further 
light on the question. Of the lapse into illiteracy I have 
written in paragraph 34. The only effective method of 
checking irregular attendance and wastage is compulsory 
-education, which is no longer a wholly impossible ideal. 

16 Assam, p. 61. 

17 Burma, p. 83. 

18 United Provinces, p. 83. 



118 



PttOGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Remedies 



oomp 
()R 
in number 
of classes. 



(6) Provision 
of Assistant 
teachers. 



217. Compulsion would also solve the teacher-class ques- 
tion. Some relief can be afforded by a reduction in the number 

sion. ^ classes in a primary school. Such relief has been afforded 
notion in the Punjab, where the number of classes has been reduced 
from five to four, so that more attention can now be devoted 
by the teacher to each class. [Incidentally it is interesting 
to note that Germany has now adopted a uniform four-year 
elementary school, the ' Grundschule ', as the basis of her 
educational system.] This process of reduction, however, 
cannot be carried too far. The feeder preparatory schools,, 
founded under the Piggott vsystem in the United Provinces, 
did not function as such and it has been fpund necessary to 
revert to full primary schools. 

218. The average attendance at a primary school in India 
(see supplemental table 40) is 40, but this average has been 
raised by the inclusion of vernacular middle schools in Bom- 
bay, and the daily attendance at the great majority of village 
schools is considerably less. It is impossible, however 
desirable, to appoint a second teacher in every small school, 
though this is laid down as the ideal to aim at in the United 
Provinces and Bihar and Orissa. Ordinarily a second teacher 
is employed when the enrolment exceeds thirty. Since it *& 
unquestionable that a school of fifty children with two teachers 
is more than twice as efficient as a school of twenty-five with 
one teacher, the problem is to raise the enrolment of every 
primary school till it is entitled to the services of, at least, 
two teachers. " It is difficult for a teacher working in iso- 
lation to resist the insidious temptations of apathy and 
slackness. A school without a headmaster must lack order 
liness and energy. 'V 9 v Under a voluntary system an increased 
enrolment can only be obtained by patient endeavour on the 
part of teachers and inspecting officers. . The danger of expect- 
ing too rapid progress is illustrated by the figures of enrol- 
ment in the Fyzabad primary school, which have been quoted. 
For the teacher of the aided school there is no pecuniary 
inducement to secure the help of an assistant. Indeed, one 
inspector in Bihar and Orissa mentions that he has often seen 
" 40 or 50 boys attending the school, but only 30 actually on 
the roll, the object being to prevent the appointment of a 
second teacher and so secure all the fees for one man." 20 



Cost to 
parent of 
primary 
education. 



219. It is often asked why compulsion or earnest endeavour 
on the part of the teacher should be needed to induce village 
parents to send their children to school. The cost is apparently 
negligible since the average annual fee for each pupil is 
only 13 annas 7 pies and the advantage to a boy to be able to- 
read and write should be obvious. But, in the first place r 



19 Punjab, p. 95. 

20 Bihar and Orissa, p. 75. 




PRIMARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 

the cost is not quite so small as would appear from the fee 
rates; school books and material must be bought. In pre- 
war days I worked out the cost per head of providing free 
books, slates, etc., to all the boys in a four class primary 
school ; the result of the calculation was about Us. 3 a year 
for each pupil, and in this case the teacher would have been 
responsible for the custody and preservation of the material. 
The life of a school book in the hands of a small village boy 
is brief. Even in Assam where primary education is free 
" estimates of the whole cost, including clothing and 
umbrellas, rise from Rs. 25 to Us. 50, and even if these latter 
estimates are excessive yet being halved they still offer a 
formidable barrier." 21 

220. (Again supposing that times are good and the cost is ^ 
no deterrent it is not safe to say either that, if a boy is sent to m 
school, he will, within a reasonable time, learn to read and 
write, or that ? ~if he did so, the advantage would be obvious to 
his parents. .* 

The figures in General Table X show that of a total 
attendance at schools and colleges in India of 7,594,000 no 
less than 4,898,000 are reading in the infant and first classes 
(which in some provinces are synonymous). (The foundations 
appear excessive for the superstructure, but they are laid 
in part on a shifting sand of casual attendance, in part on a 
stagnant morass of neglected ignorance.' Even after allowance 
is made for negligent or improper registration, for the use 
of the infant classes as a creche to keep small children out of 
mischief and for natural wastage owing to premature with- 
drawals, ttare is no doubt that the smaller children receive 
but indifferent attention, and that many bond fide and willing 
scholars spend an unnecessarily long time in acquiring the 
rudiments,.! I onoe found a small schoolboy of average intelli- 
gence wearing on his single garment a commemorative medal, 
which he had received in school two years before; he had not 
yet mastered the alphabet. The subordinate inspecting staff of 
the Education Department wage a constant war on what they 
term ' undue stagnation \ but in the ordinary conditions of a 
singlfe teacher primary school stagnation is, to a large extent, 
inevitable. >- [It is estimated that in Bombay about 38 per 
cent, of'tne pupils in the infant class stagnate there and that 
of the pupils admitted to that class only some 18 per cent, 
actually pass the 4th standard.] 

221. Inevitable also under a voluntary system is casual Casual 
attendance. " The excuses presented by the schoolmaster f or attendance 
low attendance are valid enough, in moderation. In the rainy JJJ epide? 

mica and 

81 As&am, p. 64. 



120 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



numerous 
festivals. 



Cause of 
small attend- 
ance of sons 
of agricul- 
turists. 



Experiments 
to attract the 
agriculturists. 
(a) Half -time 
schools. 



season communication is interrupted and the actual (Jays of 
downpour may be counted as ' dies non.' During the month 
that follows malaria is prevalent and throughout the cold 
weather it is sporadic and spasmodic. Influenza and plague 
may be epidemic in any year and usually cease about the time, 
in -the early hot season, when cholera is due. Then there- 
are Hhe days of preparation for fast and feast and the 
days of recovery from them, the harvests long drawn 
out and the marriage festivals in carefully planned succession. 
A skilful scholar could, with the help of a complacent teacher, 
almost fill out his year. Yet the cogency of these excuses is 
invalidated by actual attendance in the last year of a middle 
school course, when urgent private affairs are found to give 
way to the demands of the vernacular final examination." 23 

222. (It is often stated that the agriculturist needs the help 
of his boys in farm work, and cannot for this reason afford to 
send them to school. This can hardly be true of children 
under eight years of age whose presence at home must be less 
of a help than a hindrance./ It is also true to a very limited 
extent of older boys of primary school age. During the year 
1920-21 enquiries were made in 49 villages of Bihar and' 
Orissa containing 9,491 boys between the ages of 5 and 16. 
Of these boys 2,467 were at school and 7,024 were not. Of 
the boys not at school, 46-03 per cent, were stated to be kept 
away by poverty, 33-78 per cent, because they were required 
to earn a living, 17-58 per rent, owing to unwillingness or 
indifference on the part of their parents, and 2-61 per cent, 
owing to the absence of further educational facilities locally. 
The percentage required to earn a living would undoubtedly 
have been very much lower had the maximum age been 
reduced to eleven, the maximum fixed under compulsory 
education acts. 

223. 'To attract this class of absentee two experiments have 
been made, the holding of half-time schools and the granting 
of holidays at harvest times srnd at other seasons when agri- 
cultural work is heavy. The half-time system met with a 
certain success for a time in the Allahabad district, but this 
success is now attributed to the personal influence of its 
originator. "With his transfer to another station it has fallen 
into desuetude. Attempts elsewhere have met with even less 
success. The Chairman of the District Board, Pilibhit, says 
'*' Parents expressed their opinion of the value of the half- 
time system by simply withdrawing their boys. 3 ' 23 Belief in 
this experiment dies hard, and it is still being tried in the 
United Provinces and the Central Provinces. The Inspector 



23 United Provs., pp. 83-84. 
"United Provs., p. 93. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (lK)YS). 121 

of Schools, Berar, reports that " the scheme however is un- 
popular with the teachers, the parents and the children, and 
it is yet too early to gauge the result of the experiment as a 
means of economising staffs and funds or of increasing the 
number of pupils." 24 

224. Of the harvest holidays the Inspector, Fyzabad, re- (6) 
ports " Harvest holidays have been given in Bahraich and Holidays. 
Sultanpur up to the present year; in other districts they have 

been discontinued because of their unpopularity. The Deputy 
Inspector of Fyzabad says that the boys and teachers do not 
work so much as is supposed in the fields. In Sultanpur the 
return to the June holidays is solicited. I imagine that 
the presence of the children at marriage ceremonies is more 
imperative than their presence in the harvest fields." 25 

225. Another method advocated for removing the agricul- ( c ) The 
turist's prejudice against school is the ruralisation of the school ruralisation 

curriculum. For example, attempts have been made to awaken of . the ' vllla e 
. , I'.T. iii T TO i j. school courser 

interest in the school garden. In Bombay a course in nature 

study and school gardening is now followed in schools which 
have the necessary facilities. In the Central Provinces an 
officer of the Agricultural Department was lent to the Educa- 
tion Department for the special purpose of advising it on the 
adaptation of village schools to rural needs. '[ The immediate 
aim was to connect the school gardens more closely with the 
instruction given in the village schools, and to make work 
in these gardens a means of keeping pupils in touch with 
agricultural surroundings. " 2G * Attempts have also been 
made to give definite instruction in practical agriculture in 
village schools in the Central Provinces. School gardens 
have received considerable attention in the United Provinces. 
Occasional success is reported, but " there is little doubt that 
the boards generally speaking are indifferent to school garden- 
ing. ^ Teachers as a class are not interested in the growing 
of flowers, vegetable or crops, and have little or no knowledge 
of how to use the school garden for lesvsons in nature study. 
They are always ready to justify their indifference by a variety 
of excuses such as lack of water, insecurity of the plots from 
raids by goats, cattle and other animals, and so on." 27 In 
Madras a committee appointed by the Government to deal 
with rural education reported in 1919 and recommended the 
inclusion of compulsory nature study in the scheme of 
studies for the elementary school. Special text books on the 
subject were prepared. The inclusion of practical agricul- 
tural teaching in primary schools was definitely rejected by 

14 Central Provs., p. 34. 
"United Provs., p. 95. 
a * Central Provs., p. 36. 
87 United Provinces, p. 91. 



122 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



What the 
agriculturist 



The attrac- 
tion of 
English in 
Primary 
Schools. 



the Punjab Committee on agricultural education in the light 
of experience both in this and other countries. 

226. There is much to be said on educational grounds for 
the adaptation of school text books to the environment. " At 
present the boy in Bombay City and the boy who had never 
'' been outside his native village read the same books, work 
the same examples in Arithmetic and so on." 28 But it is a 
mistake to suppose that any steps to ruralise the curriculum 
will appeal to the rural parent. I have when inspecting 
leceived complaints from villagers that the school readers 
dealt with the doings of dogs and crows and such common 
things instead of containing instruction in religion and morals. 
The introduction of practical subjects in the primary course, 
even if the teachers had the ability or the leisure to teach 
them, would certainly not meet with the parents' approval. 
The following remarks from a report on village education in 
India made by a commission appointed by the National 
Missionary Council are very pertinent: " The child is taken 
away after a year or two, the ostensible reason is that he must 
bring grist to the mill, but if a parent were convinced that 
education was something worth having he would, in many 
oases, find means of overcoming the economic difficulties. 
Regarding this, however, there is a good deal of misunder- 
standing. It is often assumed that the education given in a 
village school is despised because it is not practical enough. 
In many cases, however, the parent's objection is just the 
opposite. He has no desire to have his son taught agricul- 
ture, partly because he thinks he knows far more about that 
than the teacher, but still more because his ambition is that 
his boy should become a teacher or clerk." "The solution 
which is so frequently put forward of popularising schools by 
adapting rural education to rural needs has little or no mean- 
ing in the absence of an agreement as to rural needs between 
the rustic and the reformer. The reformer has in mind the 
introduction of utilitarian studies such as agriculture into the 
village school course. The rustic sends his child to school to 
learn to read and write. He has no doubt of the fact that 
the village guru knows less of agriculture than he does himself 
and that what the boy needs in the* matter of agricultural 
knowledge he can learn by doing in the fields. It is a view 
altogether sensible; and some sympathy may be felt for the 
parents in one backward area who went so far as to beat the 
guru for setting their boys to work in the school garden." 29 
227. A subject which is far more likely ^to attract pupils to 
primary schools is English. The teaching of English in 
primary classes is permitted in Madras, Bengal, Bihar and 

28 Bombay report. 
Assam, pp. 64-65. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (BOYS). 12S 

Orissa, and* in the higher or secondary classes in Bombay. 
The English teaching in most primary schools cannot be of a 
high quality. The stage at which it should be introduced 
is discussed in paragraphs 161 and 491. In Burma, where the 
teaching of English has been a special feature of primary 
education, English reading and writing have been excluded 
from the two lower classes on purely educational grounds 
(i.e., desirability of systematic oral work in the earlier stages 
of learning a foreign language; objections to learning two 
scripts simultaneously; the desirability of learning to read 
and write the vernacular as thoroughly and as early as 
pos&ible; etc.). 

228. The probleni of primary education in urban areac* is Conclusion. 
largely social and economic. The great majority of town bt.ys 
of the better class already attend school. If 'boys of lower 
classes and castes are to be encouraged to come to school large 
sums must be spent on school accommodation, and this expen- 
diture must be met by the well-to-do or better class citizens. 
If they are prepared to meet it, there is room still for grout 
educational expansion in towns oven without resort to com- 
pulsion . 

229. 
cent, 

opening schools to \vhich parents will not send their 
The only cure for the indifference of agriculturists to 
education is, as pointed out by Mr. Anderson, vigorous propa- 
ganda accompanied by marked improvement in the efficiency 
of the village school. In any case, a voluntary system must 
be extravagant and ineffective, llr. Anderson, while admit- 
ting that the poverty of many of the parents, the impossibility 
of employing women as teachers in boys* schools and raste 
differences present great obstacles, yet makes a vigorous plea 
for the gradual introduction of compulsory education in rural 
areas. I close with two words of encouragement from Bengal 
and Assam the inure welcome in that these provinces would 
seem to have small cause for optimism. " At present it is 
piobahlo thai with all the attendant evils, \\hich have been 
pointed out ad nauseam for the last twenty years, the system, 
even with its misdirected effort and its overlapping and 
rivalries of neighbouring schools, does give to a certain pro- 
portion of the population a certain degree of literacy at an 
extraordinarily cheap rate. The total cost of educating a 
boy for five years in a primary school is Us. 20. What is 
given in return may not be the best of its kind, but considering 
its price, the marvel is that it should be so good." 30 " There 
is no school, however stubborn in its illiteracy, which does not 

"Bengal, p. 40. 



229. It is otherwise in rural areas to which ninety per 
t, of the population belong. There is little to be said for 



121- 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



United 
Provinces. 



Punjab. 



Bombay. 



convey some message of hope. The most backward are the 
outposts of progress." 31 

Adult Education. 

230. The question of adult education began to engage 
public attention towards the close of the period under review, 
interest in it being stimulated by discussions on the franchise. 
It is probable that the present quinquennium will have a 
considerable advance to record. During thte last this much 
can be said that in some provinces the question received 
serious consideration and that a few organised experiments 
were made. 

231. In the United Provinces the local Government in 192 J 
offered a subsidy to six municipalities for the development of 
a system of night schools for adults. Bareilly now reports 
reasonable success, twelve schools with 475 pupils, and Lucknow 
has had four schools. Benares and Agra confessed to failure. 
Except in the Bareilly district night schools have not succeeded 
in rural areas in the United Provinces. 

232. In the Punjab, on the other hand, over a hundred 
night schools have been opened mostly in rural areas and 
mostly under the auspices of the Co-operative Credit Societies. 
" One of these societies has gone so far as to resolve that any 
member who remains illiterate at the end of two years will 
be turned out of the society. Another society has made 
education compulsory for the sons of its members/' 32 In all 
there are 1,783 students attending these schools. The average 
attendance is high and progress is said to be good. The age 
of members is usually from 18 to 60 years. In more than 
one school father and son read together. Reading and writing 
are taught. The teacher is sometimes the local school teacher, 
sometimes a literate cultivator. A small honorarium is con- 
tributed by the local Credit Society or from tuition fees. In 
some cases grants have been sanctioned by district boards. 
There would be more schools were good teachers more readily 
available. The need for suitable primers for adults is noted. 

233. Bombay reports a similar development. There are 37 
schools maintained from funds placed by the late Sir V. D. 
Thackersey, at the disposal of the Central Co-operative In- 
stitute, Bombay. The schools are controlled by the Education 
Department and have special inspectors to look after them. 
These Bombay night schools are circulating schools stationed 
at each centre for two years. Each class is open for two 
hours daily, except on Sundays and public holidays. Generally 
the local board buildings are used and the local board teacher. 

81 Assam, p. 64. 
3 Punjab, p. 97. 



PRIMARY EDUCATION (liOYs). 125 

To claim a school- an attendance of at least 20 pupils between 
the ages of 10 and 40 must be guaranteed, who are members 
of a co-operative society or children of such members. The 
course includes grounding in the three R's and elementary 
knowledge of co-operative accountancy. There are examina- 
tions at the end of each year and rewards are given to success- 
ful candidates. It is hoped to develop village libraries in 
connection with these schools. 

234. In the Central Provinces the number of pupils in Central 
night schools rose from 500 to 1,400. 800 of these attend seven Provinces, 
schools financed by the Manager of the Empress Mills and 

run by the Y. M. C. A. for the benefit of the employees in 
the Mills and members of the depressed classes. 

235. In Bengal there are 1,500 schools classed as night Bengal, 
schools but they are ordinary primary schools held outside the 
usual, school hours. There are in addition 100 continuation 
schools with three thousand pupils which are intended to carry 

on the education of those who have passed the primary stand- 
ard. There are also forty schools for adults run by co- 
operative societies. 

236. The number of night schools in the Madras Presidency Madras, 
rose from 707 to 2,456, with a corresponding increase in en- 
rolment from 17,606 to 58,233. " Steps were taken to prevent 

the recognition of schools as night schools which contained 
only children and which might well be considered as ordinary 
elementary schools. Work in night schools continues to be 
largely experimental, and amongst the problems engaging the 
attention of the department are the effective supervision of 
managements, the frnminp of suitable curricula, the question 
of seasonal schools, for example for agricultural labourers, 
and the prevention of over-lapping witli day elementary 
schools." 33 

" Madras, p. 35. 



126 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION" IX INDIA. 



Statistics. 



Obstacles 
to women's 
education. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EDUCATION OF INDIAN GIRLS AND WOMEN. 
Institutions for females. 



t, 


Year. 


Arts 
Colleges. 


High 
Schools. 


Middle 
Schools. 


Primary 
Schools. 


Special 
Schools 
and 
Colleges. 


TOTAL. 

19,124 


r 


1910-17 


8 


81 


446 


18,077 


512 


Institutions J 
for Girls, j 

r 


1021-22 


12 


120 


548 


22,579 


258 


23,517 


Increase 
or decrease 


+ 4 


-{-39 


+102 


+ 4,502 


254 


+4,393 


1916-17 


493 


15,571 


69,837 


1,033,574 


16,535 


1,130,010 


female Scho- 
lars in Girls* 1 
and Boys* | 
Schools. 


1921-22 


831 


26,239 


85,247 


1,195,967 


10,880 


1,319,214 


Increase 
or doeronso 


-1-388 


-1-10,608 


+ 15,410 


4 102,393 


5,655 


+183,204 



.B. 'Iho statistics of European schools ami scholars are not. included in this table. 

2M7. Although there has been an increase of nearly two 
hundred thousand in the number of girls attending school, 
yet the total attendance of one million three hundred thousand 
is a mere fraction of the millions of women in India who 
remain illiterate. A circular addressed by the Government 
of India to local Governments in 1919 pointed out that only 
0*9 of the Hindu female population and 1*1 of the Muham- 
madan was under instruction, while among Europeans and 
Anglo-Indians, Indian Christians and Parsis the percentages 
were 2o, 8*3 and 14* G, respectively. The circular reviewed 
the situation and suggested lines of development. 

238. It is difficult to exaggerate the obstacles to the pro- 
gress of women's education in India. All the influences, which 
operate against the spread of education amongst boys 
the conservatism and prejudice of the people, the remoteness 
of the advantages accruing from education, the indifferent 
quality of the education offered and its cost all gain added 
strength in opposing the education of girls. 1 

Conservatism and prejudice are reinforced by the purdah 
system and the custom of early marriage which, even when 
a parent is so far emancipated as to send his daughter to school, 
result in her withdrawal before she reaches the stage of 
literacy. If the advantages to his son of a school education 



1 Assam, p. 83. 



EDUCATION OF INDIAN GIltLS AND WOMEN. 1 7 

ure not obvious to the Indian agriculturist, still less reason 
is there in his eyes for the education of his daughter. The 
village primary school for boys may have its weak points but 
it is a model of efficiency when compared with the average 
primary school for girls. Finally, the cost of providing girls 1 
schools adds one more to the financial problems of local govern- 
ments and local bodies, who already find their resources in- 
adequate to meet the claims of the other sex for education. 

239. Of these adverse factors much has been written in the 
past and it would be a disheartening task to elaborate their 
importance. It will be more pro ii table to turn to the other 
side of the picture and to describe in this review the various 
measures that have been taken in recent years to overcome or 
weaken their force. 

240. An attempt to evade the prejudice of the Indian Efforts to 
parent against sending his girl to school by bringing the **' " 10 

school to the home may be dismissed in a few words. The l>1 V r ! ( c !, lc / c / ,v 
, T T* 7 . i i j. i i> i i 'Ui^irm ( a ) 

zenana system has been most widely tried in Bengal and schools ; 

Assam. 13 ut "there seems to be a consensus of opinion that /<*imna 
the results of zenana education are not proportionate to the |( ' (lllcaUon - 
expenditure of public funds. The system makes little pro- 
gress, very largely because the house-to-houso visits, favoured 
by the women themselves and their relatives, are not con- 
ducive to economy of effort. Again, the standard reached 
by the pupils is very low which is natural when it is realised 
that few of the teachers can teach beyond the lower primary 
standard." 3 It has met with some small success in Sylhet 
hut it " deserves little or no consideration as a claimant upon 
public funds. It may be left to private agencies to develop 
the experiment or to leave it alone." 3 

241. Before attempting to combat the more indefinite^,) Co-cduca 
opposition of conservatism and prejudice it is necessary to tion ; gi 
remove any genuine causes of mistrust. Except in some O f sc ' hooi8 ' 
the larger centres in Bombay and in a few special areas, such 

as the hill districts of Assam, there is a not unreasonable dis- 
like for co-education. In the Punjab it can hardly be said to 
have obtained a foot-hold. In the United Provinces girls over 
ten are not admitted to boys' schools. In Bengal there ie 
still a system by which girls " in the remoter districts unpro- 
vided with a girls* school come to the boys' school, or the 
Pandit of the boys' school holds, or is supposed to hold, separate 
classes before or after ordinary school hours, receiving in 
either case extra remuneration/' 4 Even in Burma, where co- 
education has been the traditional system in non-monastic 
schools and where monastic schools have recently been 



3 Bengal, p. 66. 
fl Assam, p. 87. 

4 Bengal, p. 66. 



128 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



receiving an increasing number of girl pupils, there is " a 
natural and growing distaste of co-education." 5 Hitherto 
Burmese opinion approved of it only because girls have left 
school when very young and it has consequently proved an 
obstacle to an adequate school life for girls. 

Obviously, the first stop to overcome opposition is^to in- 
crease the number of girls' schools and so do away with the 
need for co-education. The figures given at the head of this 
chapter show that considerable progress has been made in this 
direction. 

(c) The path 242. But the provision of the school is not in itself suffi- 
to school; cient; there is in towns the difficult question of transit from 
conveyances, home to school. Special attendants are required to convoy the 
girls 7 o school and home again after the day's work. In con- 
nection with the larger schools conveyances are maintained to 
transport the girls backwards and forwards. In Bihar and 
Orissa " parents throughout the province and especially in 
towns do not care to let their children walk to school and 
usually expect the necessary conveyances to be provided free 
of charge, or at any rate at a very small cost, by the school 
authorities. Inspectresses complain that many parents object 
to paying even a small conveyance fee of Re. 1 and 
that those possessing conveyances of their own make 
use of the school bus, for which they have only a 
small fee to pay. The co-operation of the richer parents 
in this matter would be a great help; the number of 
conveyances which a school can provide is not unlimited and 
at the Bankipore girls' school, for instance, want of room in 
the conveyances is keeping down the roll number; if parents, 
who ran afford to do so, would make their own arrangements 
many poorer children would be able to come to school." 6 

{d) Girls' 243. The removal of these obstacles to attendance will have 

education in little effect so long as, in the words of one deputy inspector, 
Pf " ^ ema l e education is carried on in response to a demand that 
does not exist." 7 Such a demand can only be created by 
vigorous propaganda. But the agencies for propaganda are 
few and their operation limited. Encouragement by a local 
official may have a pronounced effect on the attendance of 
girls in a particular area, but only too often with the transfer 
of the official this effect wears off. The male inspecting staff 
of the Education Department is very fully occupied with its 
own duties in connection with boys' schools. The female 
inspecting staff is quite inadequate for the ordinary duties of 
inspection. Of this I have written elsewhere (paragraph 64y. 
Small though their number is the influence of inspectresses 

5 Burma, p. 59. 

8 Bihar and Orissa, p. 105. 

1 Indian Education in 1919-20, p. 17. 



EDUCATION OF INDIAN GIRLS AND WOMEN. 



129 



and assistant inspectresses, not only in attracting girls ^o 
existing schools but also in creating a demand for new schools, 
is a most important factor in the spread of education amongst 
women. In this work they have received particular assistance 
from missionary bodies, both European (including American) 
and Indian. For example, in recent years, valuable work 
has been done in some provinces by associations such as the 
Seva Sadan Society, the Arya Samaj, the Dev Samaj and the 
Khalsti Diwan. The following statement shows the work of 
English and American Missions for women. 

Institutions for females maintained by Missions, 1921-22. Christian 
77 '' Missions 

' for women* 











Special 







Arts 
Colleges. 


Secondary 
Schools. 


Primary 
Schools. 


Schools 
and 


TOTAL. 










Colleges. 




Institutions . 


10 


303 


1,200 


131 


1,644 


Scholars . 


660 


40,724 


85,194 


4,809 


1,31,387 



xV .B.- The statistics of certain mission institutions for European girls are 
included in this table. 

244. As a result largely of the efforts of these various 
agencies it is reported that " Indian public opinion is slowly 
changing from its former attitude of positive dislike to the 
education of women and is progressing through apathy to 
cordial co-operation." 8 " Even in villages and outlying dis- 
tricts the former indifference or even antagonistic attitude 
towards the improvement of the intelligence and status of 
women is passing away." 9 "Even social barriers of age and 
early marriage are being relaxed to enable girls to receive 
primary and secondary education." 10 

245. There is the greater cause for gratification in this Education 
development because the utilitarian motive, which admittedly or marna e * 
influences most parents to send their boys to school, has very 

small force in supporting education for girls. In the higher 
walks of life education has some value in the marriage market. 
<( Educated men desire educated wives for their sons and pre- 
sumably educate their daughters with the same object in view, 
but they generally withdraw them from school on any mani- 
festation of a desire to adopt a profession or to push education 
to any length which might interfere with or delay marriage. M1T 
" Even those parents who are not averse to their daughter* 

8 Bengal, p. 60. 

9 Punjab, p. 128. 

10 Bombay report. 

11 Central Provinces, p. 61. 



130 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IK INDIA. 

being literate consider that the primary course is sufficient 
and that after its completion girls are too old to be away from 
their homes." 12 " The demand for female education among 
higher caste Hindus and even among Muhammadans has been 
on the increase from year to year. People do not educate 
their daughters in order to qualify them for employment. 
They send their girls to school in order to enable tnempelves 
to marry them bettor and occasionally on easier terms. But 
as soon as a suitable bridegroom is available the girl is at 
once placed in the seclusion of the purdah." 1 * In Bombay it 
is slated that " with the progress of education the limit of 
age for marriage has increased, specially among girls belong- 
ing to the high caste Hindus." 14 

Education 246. The advantages of education as an aid to successful 

for employ, marriage cannot influence the parents of the poorer classes, 
mont. They are 011 the other hand less averse to the employment of 

their daughters in independent occupations. The number of 
girls being trained a,s teachers for primary schools has in- 
creased from 2,757 to 4,391. " The girls themselves are eager 
to go to school and anxious to become teachers." 15 There is 
also a small number of successful industrial schools for girls. 
In Madras and the Punjab, for example, there are schools in 
which girls are taught embroidery and lure making while 
spinning has recently come into favour. In. Bombay there 
are mission institutes at Karachi and Sukkur doing good work, 
and five aided industrial institutes run by philanthropic 
Indian gentlemen for widows and deserted wives. The 
women receive stipends of Us. 8 or Rs. 10 per mensem; the 
schools aim at meeting much of their expenses by the sale of 
their work. There have also been instituted in some provin- 
ces small scholarships for the daughters of dais (mid-wives) 
in order to attract them to school in the hope that when they 
are old enough to enter their hereditary profession they may 
also be sufficiently educated and intelligent to receive some 
professional instruction . 

247. But the number of girls who enter school with a view 
to such vocational and technical training is very small. The 
majority of the girls who attend school are probably sent in the 
first instance, just as many small boys are sent, in order to keep 
them out of mischief at home. This presumption is supported 
by the statistics given in General tables V and V-A which 
show that no less than 88 per cent, of the girls at school are 
in the lower primary stage, and of these 40 per cent, or half 
a million (out of a total attendance of a million and a half) 
are returned as 'not reading printed books.' 

18 United Provinces, p. 120. 

13 Assam, p. 87. 

14 Bombay report. 
" Punjab, p. 129. 



EDUCATION OF INDIAN GI11LS AND WOMEN. 1S1 

248. The number of parents who are ready to see the cul- Education 



tural advantages of a general education is undoubtedly on t 

increase, but as in the case of boys' education the majority 11 

still question the value of the subjects taught. If, they argue, 

the destiny of every girl in this country is marriage, then 

the function of the school should be to prepare girls directly 

for domestic duties. Make the education in girls' schools of 

practical value and more girls would come to school and more 

would stay longer at school. One local body in Assam went 

so far as to suggest that schools should not bother about lite- p r j mary 

racy but should confine themselves to instruction in domestic school curri- 

economy. The school of thought typified by this local board cula. 

exercises a wide influence. It is unnecessary to point out 

its limitations. Even if the disadvantages of illiterate 

parenthood, which it ignores, are left out of account, the 

practical difficulties in the way of introducing a 'domestic 1 

curriculum in girls' primary schools are insurmountable. 

The ordinary country parent has little use for lessons in 

agriculture given to boys by the village school master; what 

value would he or she attach to lessons in cookery and the 

care of the home given by a girl fresh from a normal school 

or by the village pandit? The introduction of such a curri- 

culum would certainly not attract pupils to school. " Girls 

have so few years of school, public opinion is so uncertain as 

to what their education should include, and teachers with 

a wide range of capacity are so few that it is for consideration 

whether schools should not within generous limits be permit- 

ted to decide their own curricula with reference to local 

opinion and the capacity of the teachers available, subject 

always to the one condition that the chief subject shall be the 

girl's own language, literature and traditions." 16 An ex- 

ample of the influence of local opinion is the importance 

attached in the Punjab to religious instruction : local bodies 

have been encouraged to start denominational schools for girls, 

One practical subject needlework is taught in nearly all 

girls' schools. In Bengal where many of the schools are in 

charge of men a system of peripatetic instructors has been 

introduced which is working very well. 

249. It is when the middle stage is reached and the employ-kiddie 
ment of specialist teachers is possible that the question of de- ^hool curri- 
vising a suitable curriculum for girls' schools assumes cula * 
practical importance. It has given rise to a great deal of 
controversy. " Opinions invited by a notification in the 
Assam Gazette elicited a list of no fewer than forty-two sub% 
jects which ought to be included in the curriculum, including 
botany, eugenics, cooking, physiology, nursing, midwifery, 
mushtiyoga (the science of simples), music, scientific bee-keep- 

10 Bengal, p. 66. 



182 rnoGRESs OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

ing and the rearing of silk- worms/' 17 In the United Pro- 
vinces the department framed in 1918-19 an alternative curri- 
culum for middle schools, designed to meet the needs of girla 
who do not wish to proceed to the high stage. "It is found 
High school more suitable than the old curriculum and the emphasis laid 
curricula. O n domestic science finds favour with girls and parents/' 18 In 
high schools " the curriculum for girls who read up to the 
Matriculation or School-leaving examinations is identical with 
that for boys >save that sewing is compulsory up to class V, 
and domestic science an alternative subject afterwards/' 1 * 
In Madras, the Punjab and elsewhere whore a school leaving 
certificate examination is in existence subjects such as physio- 
logy, hygiene and domestic economy are included as optional 
subjects for girls. The position is less happy where the end 
of the high school course is the matriculation. In the Cen- 
tral Provinces " little, if anything, has been done towards the 
originally contemplated bifurcation of studies that is, the 
institution of u purely domestic side to the high school 
education for such girls as do not contemplate matricula- 
Experiment tion." 20 Cost and difficulties of staffing have stood in the 
science Bourse wa ^' * n ^ en 8 a ^ "the quinquennium has seen the failure of 
in Bengal. an experiment made after much anxious thought and careful 
preparation. The matriculation examination has long condi- 
tioned the curriculum and methods of secondary schools, even 
those for girls. It is unnecessary to labour here the peculiarly 
inappropriate nature of such a course, but some idea of its 
futility may be gathered from the fact that in an average 
year of the quinquennium 1912-17 there were some 2,700 
girls in high schools ; these girls were* all being taught accord- 
ing to a curriculum laid down for an examination which in 
1916, 65 girls passed, of whom only half proceeded to a higher 
university examination. To remove this anomaly, Miss 
Brock endeavoured to concentrate in one or two schools all 
preparation for the matriculation examination, thus leaving 
other schools to give a more fitting education to their girls 
which should include hygiene, nursing, needle-work, cookery 
and domestic science. The missionary authorities keenly 
appreciated the value of the suggested change and joined 
forces to teach the new curriculum; in each case the experi- 
ment was a failure, deplorable indeed, but unavoidable so 
long as public opinion demands the matriculation examina- 
tion as a sacrosanct test of the excellence of a high school 
education. The schools have reverted to their original status 
as defined by the matriculation course. Thus a well-planned, 
well-proportioned commonsense scheme has failed because it 

17 Assam, p. 89. 

18 United Provs., p. 119. 

19 United Provs., p. 120. 

20 Central Provs., p. 61. 



EDUCATION OF INDIAN GIRLS AND WOMEN. 

was not in accordance with present opinion." 21 In the last 
Review an Indian Inspectress from Bengal was quoted as 
saying that " the people of Bengal seem to appreciate the 
matriculation certificate more than any useful practical course 
of studies and the girls set their hearts on passing the 
matriculation . ' ' 22 

250. I have dealt so far with two of the obstacles to the 
progress of women's education prejudice and the obscurity 
of the advantages to be derived from education. I have now 
to deal with the third obstacle, the very indifferent quality of 
the education offered, and to show the steps that are being 
taken to raise the standard of teaching in girls' schools. 

251. The first step is to improve the quality of the teachers The need for 
in primary schools. "No sensible parent will send his gM ^hers 

to school if the teacher is incompetent, but the stipends now 
given, uiisupplemented as they are by the fees which boys' 
schools produce, are often insufficient to attract competent 
men and still less can they be expected to attract qualified 
women." 23 The prejudice against permitting women to enter 
the teaching, or indeed any, profession has hitherto restricted 
the number of women teachers so that an inordinate number 
of girls' primary schools are conducted by men. Young men 
for obvious reasons are not often employed but cases are 
reported where " all the girls' schools in the interior have, for 
want of mistresses, to be given over to junior unwilling male 
teachers who simply kill time in order to obey orders and as 
soon as any loophole is found for them they pick it up and 
run away." 2 * Most of the men employed in girls' schools are 
old pandits arid maul vis, often transferred after superannua- 
tion from boys' schools. Discipline and organisation may be 
better in their hands but it is useless to expect them to show 
much enterprise or life in their work. If the quality of the 
teaching in girls' primary schools is to be improved it must Especially 
be through the agency of women teachers, intelligent enough wo en 
to accept advice from the inspec tress and, if possible, trained 
for the teaching profession. As yet so poor is the quality of 
the material that the chairman of one district board condemns 
all the schools in charge of women as without hope, but is more 
sanguine about a girls' school that is in charge of an old 
pandit. There are innumerable difficulties in the way of em- 
ploying women in village schools. " Apart from the paucity 
of trained teachers there are other deterring considerations. 
The educated woman is in any case lonely, and if she is in 
purdah away from her family,' the loneliness must be beyond 
description ; yet if she is out of purdah, she often loses the 

31 Bengal, p. 63. 

22 Sixth Quinquennial Review, p. 179. 

23 Bihar and Orissa, p. 107. 

24 Indian Education in 1917-18, p. 16. 



134 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Difficult 
position of 
lonely woman 
teacher in 
village. 



Increase in 
numbers of 
trained 
teachers. 



Secondary 
schools. 



respect that is necessary to win scholars." 25 This is a universal 
complaint. " In Kyaukse the establishment of an elementary 
training class for girls two years ago has caused a remarkable 
increase in the number of girls at school but injudicious 
appointments 'of young girls away from their homes have in 
the same district produced a series of disasters calculated to 
bring female education into disrepute with respectable 
villagers." 26 It is indeed a matter for wonder that, in spite of 
the difficulties of the position and the unkind scandal which 
the lonely teacher has to face, candidates are still forthcoming 
in iiif leasing numbers for village teucherships. In the United 
Provinces the number of women teachers has increased from 
2,125 to 2,720 and the number of trained teachers has risen by 
no less than^Gl per cent. In the Punjab the number of Gov- 
ernment training schools for women has risen from one with 
eighty pupils at the beginning of the quinquennium to eight 
with .120 pupils. This great increase in the output of trained 
women teachers must in time tell upon the quality of the 
teaching. 

252. Of secondary schools the accounts arc much more 
encouraging. An inspectress in Bengal writes: 

" The middle schools are most important for few Hindu or 
Muhammadan girls study beyond this stage. They now form 
a distinct class of schools of a superior type, and in almost all 
of them there are trained and qualified headmistresses, and 
the majority of the teachers are trained. Very sound educa- 
tion is being given in these institutions, and they are highly 
appreciated by the people." 27 

The following are extracts from the report, of a Bombay 
Inspectress : 

(t In English the direct method (with variations) is used in 
90 per cent, of the schools and is popular. The head mistress 
of one of the largest Hindu Girls' Schools told me that the 
girls from Standards I to IV invariably complained to her 
if the teachers spoke Marathi to^ them during the English 
period; it is, I think, a distinct gain when the pupils have 
come to realise that they are studying a living language. I 
regret to say the ubiquitous tlarzi has not yet been banished 
from every school, but he is slowly being replaced by women 
teachers. The chief drawback in employing a flarzi is that 
he is afraid that if he teaches the pupils too much his services 
will be dispensed with, so he does as much as possible himself, 
with tiie result that cutting out a garment remains an un- 
solved mystery to the pupil. Drawing is taught in almost all 



" United Provs., p. 
aa Burma, p. 59. 
27 Bengal, p. 64. 



122. 



EDUCATION OF INDIAN GIRLS AND WOMEN. 185 

instances by professionally trained teachers. A special effort 
has been made in some schools to correlate this subject with 
embroidery and pupils are encouraged to make or adopt designs 
for their own purposes." 28 

Similar favourable accounts are received from other pro- 
vinces. The schools are not affected by the overcrowding and 
the competition which depreciate the quality of the work in 
secondary schools for boys. 

253. Although the number of girls who proceed beyond the 
primary stage is still lamentably small, 30,000 in all India 
out of a possible school-going population of fifteen millions, 
still it shows an increase of thirty per cent, over the attendance 
in 1917. 

254. When the university stage is reached the assimilation Colleges for 
of the courses for boys and girls becomes complete. . The Iliaijin 
colleges for girls in India arc few, but they are well staffed women ' 
and the instruction given in them is of a high standard. 

Before dealing with the problem of cost as a deterrent to the 
spread of female education some mention may be made of the 
more important of thorn. The Bethune College, Calcutta, 
founded in 1849, the first Government institution for girls in 
India, shows an inrrea.se in numbers from 78 to 114. The 
Principal says "the busses are crammed; tho hostel is cram- 
med; the lecture* rooms arc crammed." 29 The Diocesan 
College, which has had to hire two new outside hostels, is 
handicapped for lack of funds. On the other hand the Isabella 
Thoburn College, Lucknow, is splendidly supported by the 
American Presbyterian and Methodist Episropal missions, 
with whose help it is proposed to rebuild it at, a cost of six 
lakhs on a new site. Its enrolment is small and consists 
almost entirely of Indian Christians drawi firnn all parts of 
India. In Madras a large residential blork for staff and 
students was built in the Women's Christian College, and 
extensive additions were mado to Queen Mary's Collie to- 
wards the cost of which the Maharajah of Jeypore contributed 
one lakh of rupees. There are 35 students at the Kinnird 
College, Lahore, and a new Government College for women has 
been opened in this city. The new college includes two high 
classes as well as two intermediate clashes purl i<* rtms an in- 
stitution of the type recommended by the Calcutta University 
Commission. Provision for science teaching is being arrang- 
ed, particularly for those girls who desire to proceed to the 
Lady Hardinge Medical College at Delhi, of which an account 
is given later. 

aH Bombay report. 
30 Bengal, p. 62. 



.136 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Cnivewity 255. The Shrimati N. D. Tliackersay University for 

for Women. \y omen at Poona in the Bombay Presidency, to which refer- 
ence has already been made in paragraph 103, maintains a 
college containing some 30 women. Instruction throughout is 
in the vernacular. The college course extends over three 
years and is roughly equivalent to the Intermediate standard 
in some subjects. For admission to the college courses the 
candidates are required to pass an entrance examination, the 
standard of which is somewhat lower than that of the school- 
leaving examination for the purpose of matriculation held by 
the Joint Examination Board, Bombay. Sanskrit isthe only 
classical language taught, and comparative religion is one of 
the optional subjects for degree examinations. The college, 
since its foundation in 1915, has turned out in all 15 
graduates. The "University also recognises a normal school 
for the training of mistresses. It is stated that- the main 
underlying principle of the University from its very incep- 
tion has been to maintain independence in points of framing 
courses of study and holding examinations. The promoters 
of the movement realise the importance of Government recog- 
nition, but they are not willing 1o seek it at the expense of 
their independence. 

Committees. 25(). Ladies' committees are sometimes formed in connec- 
tion with girls' schools. They are generally said to be a 
failure and the ladies have not shown any keen desire to take 
an active part in the management of schools. There are some 
exceptions. In the Punjab the Guru Nunak School at 
Ainritsar is managed entirely by ladies so far as the domestic 
affairs of the school are concerned. The Punjab Association 
has a committee of ladies and the lady president pays regular 
visits to the schools. The Hindu Widows' Home at Lahore has 
several ladies on its committee of management. It is reported 
from the Central Provinces that the ladies' committees in 
Yeotmal continue to do good work and that the mixed com- 
mittee of the Akola middle vernacular school deserves special 
mention for its sound and helpful suggestions in many trying 
circumstances and its unflagging interest in the school. It 
is to be hoped that interest will be gradually aroused anumg 
Indian ladies and that they will be able to devote more of 
frheir spare time to social work of this kind. The chief 
difficulty in the successful working of ladies' committees is that 
very few educated women are available to serve on them and 
even those who do have had no experience of committee work. 

257. A fine example of private munificence has been afford- 
ed by Sir Ganga Bam, C.I.E., C.V.O., who, with awist- 
ance from Government, has constructed a stately building for 
an Industrial Widows' Home in Lahore and provided an en- 
dowment for its maintenance. "Those of tne widows who 



Hindu 
Widows 
Home, 
Lahore. 



EDUCATION OF INDIAN GIRLS AND WOMEN. 



137 



have acquired a satisfactory measure of general education are 
trained as teachers and use as a practising school the adjoining 
institution, Lady Maclagan School, which also owes its exist- 
ence to the same philanthropist. Others of the widows are 
trained in industrial work. The number of widows in resi- 
dence exceeds 30, and a bright and useful future is before this 
institution." 30 

258. Remarkable success has attended the efforts of the Seva Sadan 
Seva Sadan Society at Poona. Its activities are manifold. Society, 

It has vernacular and English classes, work-room classes, 
music classes, a college for the training of primary teachers, 
first aid and home nursing classes, and classes for the training 
of nurses and midwives with hostels attached to them. It has 
over one thousand women and girls in its Poona branch in the 
various departments of whom 190 live in the four hostels. A 
large number of those who attend the classes are married 
women of the working class who come in for two or thiee 
hours daily in the morning or evening. The institution has 
branches in Bombay and Satara. Its aim is to " foster among 
women ideas of social usefulness and national service suited 
to the requirements of the country." 31 Credit for the won- 
derful success which it has achieved must largely be ascribed 
to the Secretary, Mr. ft. K. Devadhar, of the Servants of 
India Society. The institution has no counterpart in any 
other part of India. 

259. Finally there is the question of cost. The following Expenditure, 
two tables show the advance made during the past five years. 

It should however be borne in mind that the expenditure given 
below does not include the sums spent on inspection, scholar- 
ships, buildings and other miscellaneous objects for which 
separate statistics for female education are not available. 

(1) Expenditure on institutions for females, by sources. 



Year. 


EXPENDITURE FKOM 


TOTAL 
EXPENDI- 
TURE. 


Govt. 
Funds. 


Board 
Funds. 


Foes. 


Other 
Sources. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


1916-17 


26,19,678 


19,82,810 


5,33,431 


18,87,019 


70,22,938 


1921-22 
Increase 


63,51,849 


29,81,277 


8,97,729 


29,02,704 


1,31,33,559 


37,32,171 


9,98,467 


3,64,298 


10,15,685 


61,10,621 



40 Punjab, p. 130. 
ai Bombay report. 



PROGRESS OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

(2) Expenditure on different classes of institutions for female*. 



Progress. 



Year. 


EXPENDITURE ON 


TOTAL 
EXPENDI- 
TURE. 


Arts 
Colleges. 


Secondary 
Schools. 


Primary 
Schools. 


Special 
Schools and 
Colleges. 


1916-17 . 


1,38,347 


20,45,397 


40,04,742 


8,34,452 


70,22,938 


1921-22 

Increase . . 


2,85,399 


37,84,532 


73,06,401 


17,57,227 


1,31,33,559 


1,47,052 


17,39,135 


33,01,659 


9,22,775 


61,10,621 



N.R. The statistics for European Schools are excluded from these tables. 

260. Expenditure on the education of girls lias almost 
doubled. Though an increase is shown under all heads, the 
most significant is that under the head of local funds. But 
for a change in accounting in accordance with which Govern- 
ment grunts to local bodies, which were formerly classified 
under local funds, are now shown as expenditure from Gov- 
ernment funds, it would he seen that the expenditure by local 
bodies from their own resources has increased by over 100 
per cent. Tins is partly duo, as in the case of boys' schools, 
to the. inevitable rise in teachers' wages. The average annual 
cost of educating a jjirl in a high school has increased from 
Es. 95 to Its. 110 and in a primary school from Us. 7 to Its. 10. 
The education of a.n Indian girl costs the public more than 
that of a boy, because (n) primary education is nearly always, 
and secondary education often, free, (&) there are fewer pupils 
per teacher than in boys' schools, (c) women teachers are 
actually paid higher wages than men teachers, the exact con- 
trary of tho practice hi other countries. But even when allow- 
ance is made for these factors, the unprecedented increase in 
local expenditure on girls' schools can only be explained by a 
very real movement on the part of the public, acting through 
its representatives, in favour of the education of women. 

2G1. The advance made during the quinquennium has not 
been * an advance to trumpets,' 32 but it has been a very real 
advance. There are many signs that public opinion is begin- 
ning to realise the weakness of an educational system in 
which half of the population is allowed to remain illiterate. 
For years to come progress must be slow. " It would be per- 
fectly easy to multiply schools in which little girls would 
amuse themselves in preparatory classes, and from which they 

" Assam, p. 84. 



EDUCATION OF INDIAN G1KLS AND WOMEN. 139 

would drift away gradually during the lower primary stage. 
The statistical result would be impressive, but the educational 
effect would be nil and public money would be indefensibly 
wasted." 33 One of the chief needs of the present day is so to 
improve the quality of the work in primary schools that more 
girls may be enabled and encouraged to proceed to a higher 
stage of education, eventually to return as teachers to the 
help of their fellow-country-women. This improvement 
must be accompanied by persistent but well -considered efforts 
to overcome the obstructions offered by conservatism and pre- 
judice. In this work the help of the educated women of 
India would be invaluable, but the ro-operatioii is needed of 
all who believe that the education of women is essential to 
national advancement. 

33 United Provs. Govt. letter No. 829, dated 19th May 1916, on female 
'education. 



140 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



CHAPTER VII. 

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 

Scape. 262. Both this and the following chapter deal with voca- 

tional education in India. The present chapter describes the 
training given for the liberal professions, the next chapter 
training for industry and commerce. (In previous reports 
such vocational training has been described in chapters en- 
titled " professional education," " technical and industrial 
education " and " the training of teachers "). 

Control. 263. Admission to the professions in India is controlled 

neither by the State as in France, where all university ex- 
aminations are conducted by Government, nor as in England 
by professional bodies such as the British Medical Council. 
In India control is in practice delegated to the universities. 
A graduate in law, for example, is, subject to certain limita- 
tions, entitled to practise within the jurisdiction of those high 
courts which recognise the degrees of the university from which 
he graduated. There is, however, no uniformity in the re- 
quirements of different universities for their law degrees and 
Indian law colleges vary from well-found and well-housed 
institutions with strong staffs to classes* conducted for a few 
hours a week by part-time lecturers in borrowed premises. 

264. The advantages of having some external criterion of 
the fitness of candidates for professional careers are forcibly 
illustrated in the section on niodic.il education. Till recent 
years the British Medical Council had accepted as registrable 
qualifications the M.B.B.S. degrees awarded by Indian uni- 
versities. Enquiry has made them attach certain conditions 
to their recognition of these degrees. The report of the 
officer who inspected the colleges on behalf of the British 
Medical Council shows that even where the regulations of the 
university satisfied the requirements of the Council they were 
not always enforced. Another instance of variation in pro- 
fessional standards occurs in the section on engineering. 
Although for purposes of admission to the Indian Service of 
Engineers the qualifications of the graduates of the Poona 
Engineering College are treated as equivalent to those of 
students from Sibpur, Guindy and Roorkee actually students 
arc admitted to the Poona College a year earlier in their 
educational career and graduate after a shorter course. 

Management. 265. It has been explained in the chapter on administration 
that professional colleges are, with few exceptions, Govern- 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 141 

ment institutions. The senior members of their staffs are 
drasrn from the Imperial technical services, the junior mem- 
bers from the provincial or subordinate technical services. 
The first function of the professional colleges is to provide 
the Indian staff for the technical departments, e.g., the agri- 
cultural, the medical and the educational departments. Now 
that the supply of qualified men exceeds the number that can 
be absorbed in the public services, the colleges train men for 
the private practice of their professions. The cost of equip- 
ping and staffing such institutions is so great that it is always 
likely to remain a charge upon government revenues. Law 
colleges alone are an exception. They are in most cases 
managed by the universities. 



(I) THE TRAINING OF TEACJIERS. 

266. In a review on education preparation for the teaching Classifica- 
profession claims the first mention. The subject falls tions ' 
naturally under three heads: 

(i) The training of elementary teachers, 
(ii) The training of secondary teachers, and 
(Hi) The training of teachers of special subjects. 

In addition some mention must be made of the training of 
women teachers for girls' schools and of teachers for European 
schools. 



(a) Elementary teachers. 

207. The importance of training elementary teachers was General 
early recognised in India, and every province makes a large 
provision for this purpose. But any generalisations about the 
number of trained elementary tcfirhers in India and the 
percentage which they bear to the total number of teachers 
are misleading. The different provinces vary widely in the 
qualifications required of the candidates for training, the 
character of the institutions in which the training is given 
and the length of the training courses. The term f trained 
teacher ' consequently has a very uncertain significance. 

268. The rapid increase in the number of primary schools 
during the last ten years (from 123,578 to 160,072) has made 
acute the problem of maintaining an adequate supply of train- 
ed teachers. It is satisfactory to find that most provinces have 
not hesitated to face this problem and have actually succeeded 
in keeping pace with the demand by increasing the facilities 
for training. If we leave out of account for a moment 

K2 



1W 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Statistics. 



Bengal. 



varying significance of the term ' trained teacher ' the present 
position is as follows: 

Training schools for masters. 



Province. 


Institutions. 


Scholars. 


Female 
Scholars 
included 
in previous 
column. 


Madras ...... 


130 
23 


7,258 
2,083 


58 
14 




108 


2,516 




United Provinces .... 


440 


3,793 


^ 


Punjab ...... 


18 


1,472 


. 


Burma ...... 


52 


963 


155 


Bihar and Orissa .... 


127 


2,703 





Central Provinces and Berar 


12 


1,421 


~ 


Assam 


8 


353 


.. 


North -West Frontier Province . 


4 


96 


~ 


Minor Administrations 


4 


116 


12 


( 1921-22 
India ... < 
C 1916-17 


926 
690 


22,774 
15,980 


239 
106 



The difficulty of keeping pace with the demand has natur- 
ally been greatest in provinces where the supply has always 
been inadequate to meet the loss by wastage and in provinces 
where the need for improving the system of training has been 
no less urgent than the need for expansion. 

269. In Bengal, the percentage of trained teachers in 
primary schools has risen from 15*7 to 22*0. In this province 
reliance has been placed in the past on guru-training and 
muallim-training schools, the former training teachers for 
primary schools and the latter for maktabs. " By holding 
out the bribe of a stipend, and perhaps by the use of some 
thinly- veiled compulsion, there are gathered into the guru- 
training schools a number of teachers whose knowledge of the 
subjects they teach is little above that of the unfortunate 
taught. Here they attempt, in one year or in two, to go 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 143 

tnrougn the whole upper primary or middle vernacular course 
with a top-dressing of the Art and Theory of Teaching super- 
added. There are no foundations on which to build, so that 
it is not surprising, to quote the Inspector, Dacca Division, 
that ' the actual work done by the trained teachers in primary 
schools is cruelly disappointing/ M1 It is in fact a misnomer 
to class the ordinary product of the guru-training school under 
the head of " trained." To undergo training implies the 
acquisition of professional and technical skill. " Training" as 
interpreted in relation to primary education in Bengal is 
merely a despairing- attempt to supply by special means some 
part of what is wanting in the teachers' general equipment. " 2 
Progress has, however, been made with the system of concen- 
tration described in the last Quinquennial Review. While the 
number of guru-training schools and muallim schools has been 
reduced from 118 to 102, there are now 22 training schools of 
an improved type in existence. These new schools have class- 
rooms arid hostels for 40 students and cost about Rs. 50,000 
each to build. They have a complete course of training for 
one year and a staff of one teacher in the Subordinate Service 
on aboii*. Rs. 100 per mensem and two in the Vernacular 
Service. The number of students under training in Bengal 
has remained nearly constant at about 2,500; and in view of 
the description given of the guru-training schools it is clear 
that for some time to come expenditure must be devoted rather 
to improving the quality of the training given than to enlarg- 
ing the output. 

270. In Bihar and Orissa, where reliance has also been Bihar and 
placed upon guru-training schools, an attempt has been made Orissa. 
to improve the quality of the teachers trained by demanding 
higher initial qualifications of the candidates. In 1918 orders 
were issued that preference should be given to those possessing 
" middle pass" qualifications. Middle passed students have 
a one-year course of training while those with lower qualifica- 
tions have a two years' course. Uiifortuately the supply of 
candidates with middle qualifications has not proved equal 
to the demand and the admission of students requiring a two 
years' course will result in slowing down the output of trained 
teachers besides lowering its quality. It was calculated in 
1917 that the annual output of trained teachers required for 
primary schools was 2,108. There are now 119 schools each 
capable of holding 20 students. The supply therefore should 
be sufficient for the demand if there were a sufficient supply 
of one-year students and if there were no extraordinary 
wastage. The wastage among trained teachers is, however, 

1 Bengal, p. 45. 
a Bengal, p. 45. 



144 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Madras. 



Bombay. 



The United 
Provinces. 



very great. Although. 6,453 teachers were trained during 
the quinquennium the total increase in trained teachers in 
employ has only been 3,943. This indicates that the profes- 
sion is not properly paid and that other walks of life are 
proving more attractive. The head teachers of the training 
schools were included in the Vernacular Service in 1917 and 
the staff of each school increased to four. The question of 
concentrating the schools and improving the quality of the 
staff is under consideration. 

271. In Madras there are 58 Government training schools 
for elementary teachers and 20 aided training schools. The 
schools are divided into two departments higher elementary 
and lower elementary: some of them contain only the latter. 
The qualifications for admission to the higher department are 
equivalent to a pass in the vernacular middle examination 
and to the lower department the completion of the upper pri- 
mary course. Both in the higher and lower elementary de- 
partments the course is one of two years. During the quin- 
quennium the admission of lower elementary teachers to train- 
ing schools has been discouraged, exceptions being made in 
the case of teachers from backward and depressed classes. At 
the same time the number of teachers under training has in- 
creased from 3,940 to 6,484. 

272. In Bombay the training of teachers for primary 
schools (the more advanced of which correspond to vernacular 
middle schools elsewhere) is conducted in vernacular training 
colleges and training schools. The former teach a full three 
years' course; the latter a one or two years' course. For 
financial reasons it has been necessary to increase the output 
of first year students from training colleges and to restrict the 
number of third year students. For admission to a training 
college or school a candidate must have passed the vernacular 
final examination. An inferior type of institution, the Dis- 
trict Normal class, was abolished in 1918. Twenty training 
schools were opened during the quinquennium but six of these 
have since been closed. The schools have been hitherto staffed 
by secondary teachers and a number of unnecessary subjects 
such as Sanskrit and Algebra were included in the curriculum. 
These subjects have now been eliminated, and it is proposed 
to recruit the staff from men who have served in the inspecting 
line. There were 2,069 men under training in 1922. 

273. In the United Provinces primary teachers are trained 
in classes attached to middle schools, each class containing 
some eight students. Admission is limited to candidates who 
have passed the vernacular middle examination ; the course is 
of one year's duration. A special instructor is attached to the 
school to hold charge of the training class. The number of 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 14)5 

classes lias increased during the quinquennium from 267 to 433 
and of students from 1,809 to 3,203. There are obvious 
disadvantages in relying on small training classes under ill- 
paid instructors which can only be inspected by the district 
inspecting staff many of whom have had no training them- 
selves. The Cawnpore Board is experimenting with a large 
central training class. 

274. In the Punjab the training of primary teachers is TUo Punjab, 
carried out in normal schools for admission to which a candi- 
date must have passed the vernacular middle examination. 

The course is of one year's duration. The number of normal 
schools has increased from eleven to fifteen. A few training 
classes still exist as a temporary makeshift but their work has 
been largely taken over by normal schools. One important 
change in organisation was made in 1920 when six of these 
normal schools were combined with local Government high 
schools in order that full use might be made of the staff and 
buildings of both institutions. The output of trained primary 
teachers has increased from 784 In 1,105. 

275. In the Central Provinces elementary Jfceachers are The Central 
trained in large normal schools each of which, with the excep- Provinces, 
tion of the Urdu Normal School, is designed to hold 150 
students. In order to cope with the increased demand for 
teachers the number of normal schools was increased from 

seven to twelve. The number of teachers under training rose 
from 609 to 1,421. 

276. In Burma the work of preparing teachers for primary Burma, 
schools appears to be passing gradually from the vernacular 
normal schools to the elementary training classes. These 
classes were originally " intended to afford a year's practical 
training to candidates from backward areas who had passed 

the fourth vernacular standard." 3 Such candidates are 
awarded a "B" certificate of train ing. The, classes now 
admit also candidates who h.ave passed standard VII and 
these after a two years' eourse of training are awarded an 
" A " certificate, as it is hoped ultimately to dispense with 
the " B " certificate. The instructors employed in .these 
training classes are the product of the vernacular normal 
schools and the average attendance at a training class is 15. 
The number of training classes rose from 19 to 58 and the 
number of students under training from 245 to 845 (including 
299 girls). The classes are maintained by District Boards but 
examined and inspected by Divisional Inspectors or Assistant 
Inspectors. 

' Bui ma, p. 43. 



146 IROGUESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

(6) Secondary Teachers. 

Secondary 277. For employment in middle schools and in the middle 

teachers departments of secondary schools a higher type of vernacular 
erna r. teacher is required. The training of such teachers is provided 
in some provinces, e.g., in Bengal, Assam, the United Pro- 
vinces and the Central Provinces, in special normal schools, 
in other provinces, e.g., Madras, Bombay, the Punjab and the 
North-West Frontier Province, by special continuation 
courses in the training schools for elementary teachers. The 
qualification for admission to training as a secondary verna- 
cular teacher is never lower than the middle standard and in 
some ruses the candidates are also required -to have obtained 
previously an elementary teacher's certificate. In the United 
Provinces the staffs of the normal schools have been much 
strengthened and their head masters are now members of the 
Provincial Educational Service. The number of these schools 
is also being increased and it is hoped that they may in time 
provide head masters for 25 per cent, of the primary schools 
in the province. In the Punjab the large increase in the 
number of lower middle schools has necessitated the opening 
of classes for senior vernacular teachers at several of the nor- 
mal schools. In Bombay the corresponding type of teacher 
is the third year trained teacher of the vernacular normal 
college. 

Senior vernacular teachers or teachers who have obtained 
a secondary training school certificate are, as a rule, among 
the most efficient of the teaching staff. There are, however, 
exceptions. The work done by the six training schools in 
Bengii] is said to Have deteriorated because the course is too 
low and the output from the middle schools is now of an in- 
ferior quality. "Formerly the hope of obtaining a junior 
position in a Government school was some inducement to 
young men of moderate qualifications to join these schools. 
This hope having been destroyed by recent reorganisations, 
staffing Government schools only with graduates, deterioration 
of quality has been very marked." 4 

Secondary ^78. T nere * s no feature in which the provincial educa- 

teaohers tional systems differ more widely than in the importance* 

Anglo-verna- which' they attach to the training of secondary English teach- 

ou ar * ers. In some provinces, for example the Punjab, it is an 

established tradition that the teacher in a high school 

whether graduate or undergraduate should have undergone 

a course of training; in other provinces, such as Assam, there 

is no institution at all for the training of English teachers. 

In Bengal and Bombay a trained teacher of English is a 

rarity. 

4 Bengal, p. 43. 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 147 

279. There are in all 13 training colleges in India situated 
at Calcutta, Dacca, Patna, Allahabad, Benares, Lucknow, 
Agra, Lahore, Peshawar, Jubbulpore, Saidapet, llajahinundry 
(Madras) and Bombay. Of those the colleges at Benares, 
Agra and Rajahmuiidry have been opened during the quin- 
quennium. Admission to these colleges (excepting those 
at Peshawar, Lucknow and Agra which train undergraduates 
only), is ordinarily confined to graduates, and the course of 
training is usually for one year leading to a degree in teaching* 
awarded by the local university. 

280. In addition there are training classes for junior 
English teachers either under Government or private manage- 
ment. Sometimes these classes form part of the training 
college. For example, at Jubbulpore, where the Training 
College was reorganised in 1919, 40 graduates are trained for 
high departments and 100 undergraduates for work in middle 
departments. Admission to such classes is generally granted 
to candidates who have passed the Matriculation examination 
and the students who gain certificates are employed in the 
lower classes of Anglo-vernacular schools. Tn Burma where 
English is introduced at an early stage the seven Anglo- 
vernacular normal schools were training 50 women for the 
kindergarten certificate. The Jubbulpore Training College 
has also a lady lecturer in kindergarten subjects on the staff. 

(c) Training of special teachers. 

281. Very little provision is made at present for the train- Develop- 
ing of teachers of special subjects. Such training presents m ente. 
peculiar difficulties as the instructor in addition to a know- 
ledge of his subject must have also some knowledge of educa- 
tional method. Teachers of manual training are trained at 
Saidapet and ten other manual training centres have been 
attached to training schools in Madras. Courses of instruction 

in manual training were held for teachers in the Punjab by 
the Inspector of Manual Training. In this province there is 
also a training class for drawing masters attached to the Mayo 
School of Arts and a training class for teachers of agriculture 
at the Lyallpur Agricultural College. A recent experiment 
in the Punjab has been the opening of a class for classical 
teachers at the Central Training College; the experiment has 
proved unexpectedly popular with pandits and maulvis, many 
of whom, though experienced, had had no opportunity of 
learning class methods and educational practice. There were 
in the fourth year of its existence GO teachers in attendance. 
The opening of a similar class at the Patna College is con* 
templated. Courses for teachers in agriculture have been held 
at the Loni School, Bombay. 



148 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

(d) Women teachers. 



282. There has been a very welcome increase in the num- 
ber of institutions training teachers for girls' schools and in 
the number of students under training. The following table 
gives the position at the end of the quinquennium : 

Training institutions for mistresses. 



Province. 


INSTITUTIONS. 


SCHOLARS. 


Colleges 


Schools. 


In 
Colleges. 


In 
Schools. 


Madras ..... 


1 


31 


11 


1,565 


Bombay ..... 


.. 


20 


.. 


932 


Bengal ..... 


1 


13 


13 


217 


United Provinces 


.. 


31 




223 


Punjab ..... 


1 


12 


33 


382 


Burma ..... 




18 




338 


Bihar and Oriusa 


.. 


8 




143 


Central Provinces and Berar 









194 


Assam ..... 


.. 


2 


.. 


34 


North- West Frontier Province . 




1 




30 


Minor Administrations 

r 1921-22 

India . . . J 
( 1916-17 





4 





99 


3 
3 


146 
111 


57 
49 


4,157 
2,651 



Develop- 
ments. 



283. Many of the institutions for the training of women 
are conducted by missions, for example both the normal 
schools in Assam and four out of the six normal schools in the 
Central Provinces. In Madras, a new secondary training 
school was opened at Cannanore; the Government Hobart 
Training School for Muhammadan women and the Govern- 
ment Training School, Eajahmundry, were raised to the 
secondary grade, while a Montessori training class was opened 
in the Training School at Triplicane. The number of training 
classes in Bengal for elementary teachers rose from 9 to 12 
and the number of pupils completing the course from 71 to 136. 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 

The supply is quite unequal to the demand. The training of 
teachers for secondary schools is still entrusted to the Lore to 
House Training Class and the Diocesan College. In Bihar 
arid Orissa the number of women under training remains 
stationary. The class at Muzaffarpore was badly hit by the 
non-co-operation movement. The Badshah Nawab llazvi 
Training College was moved into new buildings which are 
being improved and enlarged. In this province an experi- 
ment in training the wives and other relatives of village 
teachers shows encouraging success. The United Provinces 
report a decline in the number of pupils under training, but 
the opening of additional classes is contemplated. In the 
Punjab the Government have adopted the policy of taking over 
the local training classes and converting them into normal 
schools such as those maintained for men. Of these the best 
is the Lahore Normal School, now in new premises, with 106 
pupils and a staff which contains three lady graduates, two 
of whom possess the B. T. degree, and a kindergarten specia- 
list. The junior English teachers are trained at the Kinnaird 
College. 

' c ) C'w/j.sex. 

284. The courses of study in elementary training schools j n Elemen- 
are chiefly determined by the qualifications of the students, tary Schools, 
Where the student himself possesses little, if any, more 
general education than the pupils whom he proposes to teach 

little can be attempted during the course of training but to 
extend his general knowledge. Where on the other hand 
a middle passed candidate is undergoing training for a post 
in a primary school it is possible to devote his year of training 
almost entirely to educational theory and practice, that is to 
say to technical training in the art of teaching. 

285. In the training colleges for Anglo- vernacular teachers Tn Colleges, 
the courses of study are prescribed by the university which 
awards the degree in teaching. The staff of the training 
college is usually represented on. the university Board of 
Studies and a satisfactory amount of practical work is in- 
cluded in the courses. 

286. New features have been introduced into the curricula New featurei 
of both secondary and elementary training institutions. At 

the Patna College all the students went through a course as 
boy scouts in the hope that some at least of them would carry 
on this work in their future schools. In Madras too, good 
progress has boen made with the training of scout masters. 
At Agra excursions, primarily in connection with the nature 
study course, formed an important part of the work of the 
Training College. In the Punjab changes have been intro- 
duced into the normal school curriculum in the direction of 



150 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Practising 
ohools. 



Stipends. 



eliminating subjects such as manual training and formal 
drawing which the master of a primary school will never be 
called upon to teach. In the Central Provinces the normal 
school course was completely revised and now includes in some 
schools Indian music. 

287. Special practising or demonstration schools are often 
attached to training institutions. There is, however, great 
difficulty in affording real practical training suitable for a 
village teacher at a normal school, since the school is usually 
located at, a centre where the primary schools are all large 
with each class in charge of a separate teacher. These are 
not the conditions with which the village primary teacher 
will afterwards be faced. This difficulty has been boldly 
met in Assam where each of the normal schools at Jorhat and 
Silchar has been provided with three practising schools in 
its compound : 

(a) A one-teacher school containing five or four classes. 

(6) A two-tearher primary school. 

(c) A three-teacher middle vernacular school. 

The schools are intended to be the laboratories of the institu- 
tion to which they are attached. " For the present it must 
be our business to put ourselves in the teacher's place, to face 
his difficulties of ignorance and conservatism, of poor pay, 
indifferent health, poor quarters, poor equipment, of the 
school, instead of the individual or the class, as the unit, of 
large numbers and many classes, of admissions at all times 
of the year, and of unpunctual and irregular attendance in 
a timeless countryside." 5 " The vernacular student as a rule is 
young and has no outlook beyond that of the middle school 
in the rural town in which he received his earlier 1 raining. 
He is therefore lacking in initiative and experience and is 
disposed to follow the letter rather than the spirit of what he 
is taught in the normal school. Nevertheless physical train- 
ing and games are taken up with avidity and success in some 
institutions; gardening is a profitable occupation in others; 
and the principles of co-operation are practically illustrated 
in nearly all." 6 In the Normal School run by the American 
Presbyterian Mission at Moga under the Revd. W. J. McKee 
the students are taught practical agriculture on a farm of 
fifty acres and are trained in simple village handicrafts in 
addition to the practice of teaching. 

(/) Expenditure. 

288. Teachers in ecmploy who are deputed for training 
usually receive an allowance equivalent to the pay of their 

5 Assam, p. 80. 
Puniab, p. 105. 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 



151 



posts. The rates of stipends to new recruits have had to be 
considerably enhanced during the quinquennium to meet the 
increased cost of living, and range as high as Us. 15 for a 
primary teacher in Bombay and Us. 40 for a secondary teacher 
in the Central Provinces. This increase together with the 
improvements in the pay of the staff have raised the cost for 
each student under training as shown in the following 
table: 



Training Schools. 






Cost per 




AVERAGE ANNUAL COST PER SCHOLAR IN 


Province*. 












1916-17 


1921-22 




Rs. As. 


Ps. 


Rs. 


As. 


Ps. 


Madras ..... 


158 <> 


9 


191 


4 


8 


Bombay ..... 


188 O 





297 


7 


5 


Bengal ..... 


151 o 


7 


192 


(\ 


10 


United Provinces 


133 8 


1 


246 


13 


10 


Punjab ..... 


154 8 


1 


182 


2 


2 


Burma ..... 


284 


11 


169 


12 


1 


Bihar and Orissa 


127 11 


3 


149 


11 


5 


Central Provinces and Berar 


151 1 





245 


13 


9 


Assam ..... 

* 


102 IS 


(> 


189 


12 


3 


North -West Frontier Province 


251 <> 


4 


341 


1 


5 


India . . . . 


150 14 





212 


2 


5 



289. Even the increased allowances have not attracted sum- General, 
cient students. There will never be sufficient (a) until the 
number of institutions preparing candidates for admission 
(i.e., vernacular middle schools) is adequate: any increase in 
the number of primary schools must be accompanied by a 
proportionate increase in the number of vernacular middle 
schools which supply candidates for training; (fc) until the 
general conditions of the teaching profession are sufficiently 
attractive ; and (c) until special privileges in the form of 
enhanced pay are given to trained teachers. The importance 
of training for a primary teacher being universally recognised, 
a higher rate of stipend or ^rant is ordinarily given to the 
trained primary teacher. This is not the case with secondary 



PHOGBESS OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

teachers. Where the number of trained teachers on the staff 
makes a marked difference in the amount of grant earned by 
a secondary school or where, as in the North- West Frontier 
Province, the award of a grant is conditional on the employ- 
ment of a certain proportion of trained teachers, then there is 
no dearth of candidates for training. Indeed the supply of 
trained secondary teachers in the Punjab actually exceeds for 
the moment the demand. 

(g) European teachers. 

Institutions. 290. There are 10 training classes for mistresses of Euro- 
pean schools. Amongst these the most important are the Dow 
Hill Training School for Girls at Kurseong with 17 students 
and St. Bede's Training College at Simla with 33 students. 
The Bombay Government instituted a kindergarten certificate 
for European mistresses for which candidates from St. Mnry's 
Training College, Poona, the Convent Normal Class, Clare 
Road (Bombay) and St. Denys' Training Class, Murree, 
appear. 

There is only one institution in India for the training of 
masters for European Schools the Chelmsford Training 
College, Sanawar. College work was upset during the quin- 
quennium by the departure of the master- in -charge and eleven 
of the students on active service. The charge of the training 
class devolved upon the Revd. G. D. Barne, Principal of the 
Lawrence Royal Military School, and the assistant master. 
At ^ the close of the quinquennium there were J5 students in 
residence, seven from the United Provinces, two each from 
Madras, the Central Provinces, and Bengal, and one from 
the Punjab. Lord Chelmsford laid the foundation stone of 
the new buildings for the college in 1920. They have notyet 
been completed. 

The number of European schools in any one province is 
so small that it does not justify the opening of a training 
institution, such as those provided for Indian masters. Only 
by co-operation between the provinces will the maintenance 
of an institution like the Chelmsford Training College be 
possible in the future. 

(IT) LEGAL EDUCATION. 

General 291. The qualifications required for the different grades of 

the legal profession have not been altered during the period 
under review. The higher ranks of the profession consist of 
barristers, who have qualified in the United Kingdom, and 
advocates and pleaders (vakils) who have obtained a law degree 
at an Indian law college. Certain privileges are reserved for 
barristers. They have generally the right of pre-audience, 
and in the Calcutta and Bombay High Courts the right of 
practising on the original side is reserved for them. The 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 



153 



latter restriction does not, however, apply to the Madras 
High Court, and the Calcutta High Court has abolished the 
distinctions of precedence between barristers and vakils on the 
appellate side. There is a considerable volume of opinion 
opposed to the preferential treatment at present accorded to 
barristers. It found expression in one of the first resolutions 
moved in the newly constituted Legislative Assembly in Feb- 
ruary 1921 and in subsequent resolutions. The aim of these 
resolutions has been the constitution of a self-contained and 
unified Indian Bar. The Government of India propose to 
appoint a Committee to examine the whole question. 

292. Iji order to qualify for practice as a vakil a student Courses, 
must first possess a degree in Arts or Science and subsequently 
obtain a Law degree after a two or three years' course of study 
in a law college. The degrees are awarded by the universities 
to which the colleges are attached. The Calcutta "University 
Commission pointed out that the Indian student stands in a 
position of peculiar embarrassment by reason of the unusual 
complexity of the law he is called upon to master. He must 
not only be familiar with the indigenous systems of Hindu and 
Muslim law; but must acquaint himself with the chief con- 
tributions of ever-active legislatures, Imperial as well as pro- 
vincial, to the statute book ; he must have some insight into 
the principles of English equity and common law; he must 
possess a thorough grasp of the leading principles of Roman 
law and modern jurisprudence; and finally he cannot keep 
himself entirely ignorant of the fundamental principles of 
procedure. They thought that such a, course could not be 
completed in less than three years, though they did not for 
practical reasons advocate such an extension of the period of 
study. 

293. Although the profession, of law is admittedly over- Statistics* 
crowded the number of candidates for the profession has 
steadily increased. Suggestions and even attempts have been 
made in different provinces to restrict the number admitted 
to practice but with no success. 

Bachelor of Law Examinations. 



Year. 


No. of 
institu- 
tion? 
bending 
candi- 
dates. 


No. of 
eandi- . 
dates. 


Number 
passed. 


J?ACE OR CRLED OF PASSK1) CANDJJVAIFS. 


Europeans 
and Anglo- 
Indians. 


Indian 
Ciiristians. 


Hindu?. 


Mahamma- 
dans. 


ta 

1 

1 

PQ 


.a 

I 




o 
ft 

O 

17 
54 


1916-17 

1921-22 
Increase in 
1921-22 . 


17 
2t 


2,729 
3,519 


1,712 
1,935 


7 


10 
29 


1,500 
1,621 
+ 121 


165 
195 


14 


14 
15 


+ 4 


+ 790 


+223 


+ 7 


+13 


+ 30 


+ 14 


+ 1 


+ 73 



154 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Develop- 
ments. 



Statistics. 



294. The increase in the number of candidates is the result 
of the opening of additional law faculties at four of the 
newly constituted universities. The universities have not 
been disinclined to respond to the demand for the opening of 
law classes because the fees from such classes more than cover 
the cost of their maintenance. At Madras, for example, 
where the Law College has a high reputation, the fees corcri- 
butcd to the university chest, after the cost of the law classes 
had been met, half a lakh of rupees in 1922. Even in Nagpur 
uhere the number of students has fallen from JttO to 107 the 
classes continue to be a source of income. This is partly 
due to the economical way in which the classes are run with a 
staff of three part-time lecturers for two hours on three days 
a week in the Morris College. There has, however, been a 
welcome tendency in recent years to increase the efficiency 
of law colleges by the inclusion on their staffs of a certain 
number of whole-time lecturers and by providing them with 
special hostels and buildings. 

(Ill) MEDICAL EDUCATION. 

295. The growing popularity of the medical profession is 
shown in the following table: 

Medical Examinations for Degrees or Diplomas. 







1016-17 






1921-2 


2. 


Degrees or Diplomas. 


Xumber of 
institutions 
sending 
candidate^. 


Number of 
candidate*. 


X umbel 
passed. 


Xumber of 
institutions 
sending 
candidates. 


Number of 
candidates. 


Number 
passed. 


Doctor of Medicine or Surgery 




5 


.> 


1 


7 


5 


Doctor of Hygiene 


1 


1 


1 


.. 




.. 


Master of Surgery 


1 


1 


.. 


1 


3 


.. 


Bachelor of Medicine orSnrgeiy . 


ti 


442 


283 


SJ 


835 


400 


Bachelor ot Hygiene 


1 


1 




1 


6 


1 


Final Membershi]) 


1 


4 


1 


1 


35 


10 


Bachelor of Sanitary Science . 


1 


'2 


.. 


1 


7 


5 


Diploma in Public Health 


.. 


.. 


.. 


1 


10 


7 


Licentiate of Medicine and 
















4 


70 


46 


3 


73 


43 
















TOTAL . 


13 


326 


.U.J 


17 


908 


477 



Control. 



296. The " Begulation of medical and other professional 
qualifications and standards, subject to legislation by the 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 155 

Indian Legislature " has been retained as a central subject 
under the Devolution Rules. 

297. In 1921, the General Medical Council of the United Recogmtioa 
Kingdom announced that Indian medical qualifications would d^reesTb 
cease to be accepted as registrable in the United Kingdom the^Generol 
unless the training in midwifery in Indian universities Medical 
reached the standard required by the Council from all recog- Council, 
nised institutions. Dr. (now Sir) Norman Walker, Kt., 

M.I)., F.R.C.P., LL.D., Chairman of the Examination and 
Business Committees of the General Medical Council, was 
nominated to discuss ways and means to enable medical col- 
leges in India to comply with the regulations l$id down by the 
General Medical Council. Dr. Norman Walker visited the 
Indian medical colleges in conjunction with Lieutenant- 
Colonel R. A. Needham, C.I.E., D.S.O., M.D., I.M.S., 
during the winter 1921-22. On the report submitted, the 
^General Medical Council recognised the M. B., B. S., degree 
of the Madras University unconditionally; and granted 
provisional recognition till June 1923 in the case of the M.B., 
B.S. degree of other Universities subject to a satisfactory 
report from an official inspector. 

In 1921, the General Medical Council of the United 
Kingdom decided to postpone a decision on the question of 
the recognition of tlie fellowship and Membership of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Bombay, until the 
question of adequate midwifery training in the universities 
should be settled. 

298. It has not yet been found possible to introduce a Con- All-India 
solidated Medical Act for All-India. Medical Aot- 

299. Pupils for the assistant surgeon branch of the Indian Apwistanb 
Medical Department uro nnu admitted by nomination to the Surgeons, 
medical colleges at Madras and Calcutta where they undergo 

a five y t*:.rs' course of instruction i ( > obtain a medical (nulli- 
fication from an authorised examining body in Madras or 
Calcutta, entitling holders to registration under the provisions 
of the Indian Medical Degrees Act, 11)10, before tliey are 
gazetted into the Department. 

300. The King George's Medical College has surrendered Develop- 
its affiliation to the Allahabad University and is now an incor- 
porated college of tho unitary teaching University of 
Lucknow, and the professorial staff of the College is appointed 

by the University. The Cannichnel Medical College, 
Belgatchia, Calcutta, has now been affiliated to the Calcutta 
University up to the final M.B. standard. 

In 1921, a "State Medical Faculty" was constituted in 
the Punjab for the purpose of examining and granting 



156 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

licenses to practitioners of the sub-assistant surgeon class. 
The Medical School from Lahore has been transferred to 
Amritsar and both this school and the school at Agra have 
been placed in charge of whole- time principals. The employ- 
ment of whole-time principals for the Temple Medical 
School, Patna, and for the Jfagpur Medical School has 
been sanctioned but such appointments have not yet been 
made. A scheme for the conversion of the Temple Medical 
School, Patna, into a medical college for Bihar has been 
sanctioned and work commenced. The classes of instruction 
at the X-Kay Institute, Dehra Dun, are once ajjain in 
full working order; and the maximum number admitted to 
each of the two classes held in the year has been increased 
from 20 to 40. The School of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta, 
has now beon opened and provides two courses of instruction 
annually; one course of six months at the conclusion of 
which an examination is held for the Diploma in Tropical 
Medicine; and another course of three months' duration after 
which a certificate is granted. The Calcutta Institute of 
Hygiene has also been started. On completion of the course, 
which lasts from nine to twelve months, students are entitled 
to admission to the examination for the Diploma of Public 
Health of the Calcutta University. The course of training 
is so arranged that post-graduate students have the oppor- 
tunity of attending certain of the special classes and 
demonstrations included in the course laid down for the 
Diploma in Tropical Medicine. 

Lady Hard- 3Q1. The Lady Hardinge College for Women, the only 
Medical institution of its kind in India, was opened by Lord Hardinge 
College, in February 1916 as a memorial to its founder, Lady 
Dalhi. Hardinge. The hospital attached to it was opened by Lady 

Chelmsford in March 1917. The main object of the institu- 
tion is to provide complete courses of instruction to Indian 
women who wish to qualify for a university degree in medi- 
cine or to receive a full training as nurses or compounders. 
An additional object is the provision of medical, surgical and 
obstetric treatment for women, having a due regard to purdah 
and caste customs. The College and Hospital buildings, 
together with hostels for medical students and nurses, resi- 
dences for the staff and playing fields, are grouped in one 
large compound half way between the new capital and 
the old city of Delhi. The college buildings consist 
of three blocks. The central group contains a large con- 
vocation hall, library, museum, offices and professors' and 
students' common rooms. On either side of this are the two 
science blocks comprising well equipped laboratories and 
lecture rooms. The hospital, when in full working order, 
will contain 200 beds. At present the average number of 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 157 

in-patients is well over 120. The Medical College is affiliated 
to the Punjab University, and the students are prepared to 
sit for the University examinations for the M. B. 3 B. S. 
(Lahore) degree. This entail? a seven years' course, com- 
prising two years of science, after which the F.Sc. 
examination is taken, and five years of medical subjects. 
Accommodation is provided for 100 medical students, of whom 
the Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims live in separate hostels. In 
the session 1921-1922, eighty-three students were in residence, 
and by the autumn of 192*3, when the most senior year will 
graduate, all places are expected to be filled. Of these 83 
students, 25 are Hindus, 20 Indian Christians, 12 Sikhs, 14 
Anglo-Indians, 3 Muslims, and the rest Portuguese, Euro- 
peans or Jews. The students come from all parts of India. 
Of the 83 students, 20 are from the Punjab, 12 from the 
[Jnited Provinces, 9 from the Central Provinces, 5 from Sindh, 
t each from Madras and Burma, 4 from Delhi, 3 each from 
Bombay, the Deccan and the North- West Frontier Province. 
Jl students are taking the science course and the rest the 
nedical course. A new building, the Lady Reading Hostel, 
_ias subsequently been opened by His Excetlency the Viceroy, 
The institution is maintained partly from the interest on the 
original donations, partly by subscriptions and partly by grants 
from central revenues. The results of the first public ex- 
aminations, at which the students have appeared, show that 
the work of the college is of a high order. 



(IV) ENGINEERING EDUCATION. 

302. Under this head are comprised a number of institu- Scope J 
tions, departments and classes ranking from colleges of engin- 
eering, which prepare students for degrees and for the higher 
ranks of the profession, down to classes and courses for arti- 
sans and apprentices in railway workshops. Many of these 
humbler forms of educational activity are described under 
the head of " technical education " though they seem to have 
some right to inclusion in the present section, because they 
actually form part of the work of some of the engineering 
colleges. Classes for artisans, for example, are found at both 
the vSibpur and Poona Engineering Colleges. 

303. There are five colleges of engineering in India, four Statistics, 
under Government management si tun tod at Sib pur (Calcutta), 
Roorkee, Poona and Guindy (Madras) and one under private 
management at Benares. The present enrolment ami 
diture are shown below. 

T.2 



158 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Colleges of Engineering. 



Name of College. 


Scholars. 


Expenditure. 






Rs. 


1. Bengal Engineering College, Sibpur 


356 


3,25,965 


2. Thomason Civil Engineering College, Roorkee 


237 


4,58,645 


3. College of Engineering, Poona . 


104 


1,63,207 


4. College of Engineering, Guindy . 


449 


2,31,509 


5. Engineering College, Benares 


207 


17, 465 


TOTAL 


1,443 


11,86,791 



Recruitment 
for Engineer. 
ng services. 



;{04. The recommendations of the Public Works Beorgani- 
sa tion Committee on the education of engineers were quoted 
^ ^ e j^ Quinquennial Review. In order to appreciate the 
effect of their proposals it is necessary to realise that the 
training given in the engineering colleges and engineering 
schools in India had been specifically directed towards the 
supply of recruits to the different ranks of the Public Works 
Department. The upper ranks of the Department were filled 
by members of the Imperial and Provincial Engineering Ser- 
vices, services equal in slat us, though not in emoluments, 
the former recruited in the United Kingdom, the latter 
from the graduates of the engineering colleges in India. The 
inferior appointments in the department were filled by two 
classes of recruits Upper Subordinates and Lower Sub- 
ordinates. Under the scheme of reorganisation since adopted 
the Department consists first of nil all-India Service culled 
tlie Indian Service of Engineers, secondly of Provincial 
Services named after the provinces in which the appoint- 
ments are held, e.g., the Madras Engineering Service, the 
Bengal Engineering Service, etc., and thirdly of th,e Sub- 
ordinate Services. Recruitment to the Indian Service of 
Engineers is made either in the United Kingdom or in India, 
the emoluments of both classes of recruits being the same 
except for an overseas pay for those of non-Indian domicile 
and a technical allowance for those recruited in Europe, 
whether Europeans or Indians. The Provincial Engineering 
Services are recruited from the graduates of the engineering 
colleges. The training of subordinates is conducted either in 
engineering schools such as those at Nagpur and Easul or in 
classes attached to the colleges. The general effect of these 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 159 

changes is to establish a professional class of trained engineers 
who m&y or may not choose to enter the Indian Service i-f 
Engineers or the Provincial Engineering Services and at ihe 
same time to provide a class of men suitable to take less 
responsible engineering appointments, who may, for example, 
find employment under local boards. 

305. The age and qualifications for admission to the en- Admission 

ffineering colleges and the length and character of the college an ^ courses 
^ ^ ^.j n n .e T> i i ij Conference 

courses were considered at a conference 01 Principals held in of 

July 1921. The conference was impressed with the desirabil- 
ity of providing in India opportunities for the study of en- 
gineering in all its branches up to as high a standard as that 
taught elsewhere, in short of establishing in India a fully 
qualified engineering profession. They believed, and the 
report of the Public Works lleorganisation Committee con- 
firmed their belief, that the engineei'ing- colleges in India were 
capable, if proper! v staffed and equipped, of providing such 
an education. They recommended that the minimum edu- 
cational qualifications for admission to an engineering college 
should be the intermediate examination of an Indian univer- 
sity or any examination which might be instituted of a similar 
standard, including in. all cases a pass in Kajjlisli, mat he- 
matics, physics and chemistry; to this should be added an 
admission test in drawing. There should be no limit of age for 
admission to the colleges and such age limits as at present exist 
should be abolished. The college, course should be of four 
years' duration leading up to a degree in engineering award- 
ed by the university to which the college was affiliated. The 
Public Works Committee had recommended that practical 
training should form part of the preliminary course for a 
dt srrec bnl (!" cm iVronce poif.'cd on( fluf fin"-: -.wss im( Ilio 
case in the British Isles or elsewhere and they did not con- 
sider that a university was the best constituted body to 
judge the results of a student's practical training. They 
rccomin ended that a college diploma should be awarded 
on the results of a further year of practical training, and that 
the possession of this diploma should be an essential qualifi- 
cation for admission in the Indian 'Service of Engineers or 
Provincial Engineering Services. These proposals are now 
under consideration by local Governments. 

The recommendations, so far as they concern the admis- 
sion to the colleges and the length of the degree courses, are 
now in force except at the Poona Engineering College. Ad- 
mission to this college is obtainable by students after one 
year's attendance at an Arts College and the degree in en- 
eineerinff is awarded after a three years' course: actually the 
competition for admission is so great that the raising of the 
standard to the intermediate will not affect the attendance. 



160 



FJIOGHESS OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Develop- 
ments. 



Mechanical 
Engineering. 



Engineering 
schools. 



306. Various steps .have been taken in recent years to im- 
prove the colleges. The Madras Engineering College has now 
been moved to new buildings at Guindy which have been 
erected at a cost of no less tliaii twenty lakhs. The College 
had not, however, been fully equipped at the close of the 
quinquennium. The posts of Principal and Professor of 
Mathematics were included in the Indian Educational Service 
and two new posts in that Service for a professorship of Tech- 
nical Chemistry and an additional professorship of Civil En- 
gineering were sanctioned. The staff of the Roorkee College 
was reorganised in January 1922 by the addition of three 
assistant professorships and by a general improvement in the 
rates of pay. The Sibpur Engineering College has been re- 
christened the Bengal Engineering College. A new Assembly 
Hall has been completed. The system of appointing practis- 
ing engineers as visiting teachers of special subjects such as 
water-supply and drainage has met with considerable success. 
Extensive alterations and improvements have been made at 
the Poona College. The College committee was reconstituted 
in 1921 with an unofficial majority and an elected chairman. 
There were at the end of the quinquennium 194 students of 
whom 27 were studying mechanical engineering. 

307. The Government engineering colleges make provi- 
sion for instruction in mechanical engineering, but the En- 
gineering College of the Benares Hindu University specialises 
in this branch. The College is fairly staffed and equipped 
and had 207 students in 1921-22. Admission is at the inter- 
mediate stage. The Punjab which relies on the Thomason 
College, Roorkce, for its supply of civil engineers for the 
senior services, proposes to open a college of mechanical 
engineering at Moghulpura (Lahore). At this place are 
situated the workshops of the North Western Baihvay which 
will be available for the practical training of the college 
students. 

308. Next in importance are the Government Engineering 
schools vsitnated at Vizagapatam, Trichinopoly, Dacca, Patira, 
Luck now, Na^pur, "Rnsul rpimiab) and Insein (Burma). 
These institutions prepare candidates of the Upper Subor- 
dinate and Lower Subordinate type. The qualification for 
admission to an engineering school is usually the matricula- 
tion, but the length of the course varies in different pro- 
vinces from two to three or even five yeais. The Ahsan- 
ullah School of Engineering, Dacca, was moved to new 
premises when the University was opened and its further 
development is under con si deration. New building and 
hostels are under construction at Kasul. A committee ap- 
pointed in 1921 to consider the future of the Government En- 
gineering School, Insein, recommended that its status should 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 161 

be raised and that it should be transferred to Rangoon whert 
it would be in touch with the University, where, too, it would 
be able to open evening classes for which there is a consi- 
derable local demand. The Bihar School of Engineering 
at Patna will also shortly be reorganised and raised to the 
status of a college affiliated to the Patiia University. The 
Government Engineering School, Nagpur, contains, besides a 
civil engineering department, a department of mechanical 
engineering including motor mechanics. Boards have been 
constituted in connection with both departments the object of 
which is to keep the school in touch with employers of labour. 

309. At present no facilities exist for the advanced study Mining 

of mining engineering in India. The establishment of an Engineering^ 
Imperial School of Mines at Dhaiibad in Bihar has been sanc- 
tioned and the construction of the building has commenced. 
Meanwhile under the auspices of the Mining Education Ad- 
visory Board courses leading up to the award of the colliery; 
manager's certificate are conducted by the Bengal Engineer- 
ing College and at several centres, e.g., Jharria and Sijua in 
the coal-fields. 

310. Surveying is taught only in connection with the Survey, 
supply <K subordinate officials, amins, patwaris and kanungoes 

in the departments of Revenue and Land Records. Usually 
the schools are opened on a temporary basis in localities where 
a supply of such officials is needed. The popularity of those 
schools depends largely on the prospects of securing service 
under Government. Thus Burma records a great increase in 
popularity while Bihar and Orissa reports the closing of some 
schools. The Mahamati Survey School, Comilla, with 50 
students is the most important in Bengal. Its building was 
struck by lightning and burnt down, and it is at present 
housed in temporary premises. 

311. The Jamshedpur Technical Institute was opened in Metallurgy. 
November 1921 by the Tata Iron and Steel Company. The 

local Government has contributed a lakh of rupees towards its 
initial cost nnd a maintenance grant towards the recurring ex- 
penses. "Applicants for admission must have passed the In- 
termediate examination in Science and be physically fit to 
withstand hard work. Each student receives Rs. GO a month 
during his course of training and afterwards may be required 
to serve the Company for a period of five years on an initial 
salary of Rs. 200 a month. Increments will l>e in accord a *PO 
with ability and results shown. An academic course in the 
metallurgy of iron and steel extending over three years and 
equal to the standard of an English University is given. At 



162 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



the same time the students have an invaluable opportunity oi 
getting first hand knowledge of the practical side of the subject 
because they work alternate weeks throughout their course at 
various tasks in the Tata Iron and Steel Works. The whole 
scheme is on lines somewhat different to any hitherto tried 
and in some ways is in advance of that in vogue in the Metal- 
lurgical School of the University of Sheffield. It has been 
well thought out and the prospects before any youth for- 
tunate enough to obtain admission to the Institute are in- 
deed bright. The management of the Institute and its funds 
is in the hands of a governing body consisting* of five mem- 
bers, one being the Director of Industries." 7 



General. 



Statistics. 



(V) AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

312. Although considerable thoiight had been devoted to 
the problem of agricultural education since the foundation of 
the Agricultural Department in 1906 and large sums had 
been' expended on the construction arid equipment of agri- 
cultural colleges, the results were for the first ten years dis- 
appointing. The reasons for this were considered at confer- 
ences held in 1916 and 1917. The general conclusions of these 
conferences are recorded in the last Review. They were to 
the effect that , 

(a) provinces should be left to work out their own colle- 

g-inte courses with reference fo local conditions and also to 
decide the question of the affiliation of agricultural colleges to 
local 



(6) the diploma course qualifying men for subordinate 
appointments, for estate management and for private farm- 
ing should bo separated from the degree or superior course; 

(c] agricultural middle schools on the model of that in- 
stituted at Loni (Bombay) should be opened in other pro- 
vinces. 

All three recommendations have to a certain extent been 
carried out, though the Board of Agriculture held at Pusa in 
1922 has thought fit to modify the last recommendation. 

313. Out of the five existing agricultural colleges three 
are already affiliated to universities and the remaining two 
will also be incorporated with the loeal universities in the near 
future. The diploma or certificate course has been separated 
from the degree course wherever it is held. Agricultural 
middle schools have been started in Madras, Bombay, Bengal, 
the United Provinces, Bihar and Orissa and the Central Pro- 
vinces. Statistics regarding them are Driven below. 

7 Bihar and Orissa, p. 95. 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 

Agricultural Schools. 



163 



Province. 


Institutions. 


Scholars. 


Madras ........ 
Bombay ........ 


1* 
5 


38 
134 


Bengal ........ 


o 


50 


United Provinces ...... 


J 


33 


Bihar and Orissa ...... 


] 


79 


Central Provinces ...... 


>> 


34 



TOTAL 


]2 


374 



* One more school was op3ned immediately after the quinquennium with 
six p.i>>ils on tho rolls. 

314. For higher education, in addition to the Agricultural Higher 
Research Institute, Pusa, there are Agricultural Colleges at Institutions. 
Poona, Lyallpur, Cawnpore, Coimbatore and Nagpur, and 

it is proposed to open shortly provincial institutions at Dacca 
and Mandalay to serve the needs of Bengal and Burma. 

315. Higher education in agriculture and its allied sciences Pusa Insti- 
is still provided at the Pusa Agricultural Research Institute tute. 
where post-graduate courses are given. During the quin- 
quennium, thirty-six students underwent courses in different 
branches. 

A scheme for the expansion of the Institute to provide 
training on a larger scale both for direct recruitment and for 
promotion to the Imperial Service has been under considera- 
tion by the Government of India. While excellent facilities 
texist at the Institute for a complete training in Chemistry, 
Botany, Bacteriology, Entomology and Mycology, tho train- 
ing in the general branch has, owing to the width of the 
subject, all along presented considerable difficulties and no 
completely satisfactory course is at present to be had inside 
the country. 

The qualifications accepted from candidates for this branch' 
of the Service recruited abroad are 

(a) A degree or diploma of a recognized University or 

Agricultural College. 
(6) A year's experience in practical agriculture. 



164? PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Post-graduate 310. India at present possesses five well equipped agri- 
Studies. cultural colleges teaching up to a standard similar to recogniz- 
ed agricultural institutions abroad, but facilities for obtain- 
ing a correspondingly good post-graduate experience are non- 
existent for a variety of reasons, chiefly the backwardness of 
agriculture and the small size of the holdings in the country. 
At a conference held at Pusa in February, 1922, it was decid- 
ed that the only satisfactory alternative to going abroad for 
this experience wns the institution inside the country itself of 
courses in special branches of practical agriculture suited to 
graduates or diplomates from the Indian agricultural 
colleges. Animal husbandry and agronomy, agricultural 
engineering and plant industry were suggested as suitable 
branches of the main subject for instruction for post-graduate 
students and it was recommended that a six months' course 
in two of these subjects should be considered in addition to 
the full diploma or degree course at a provincial college as 
a qualification for the general branch of the Indian Agricul- 
tural Service. 

It is the intention of the Government of India to estab- 
lish courses of the type recommended by the Pusa Conference 
when funds permit. They consider however that at present 
it will not be possible to combine animal husbandry and 
agronomy and have decided that the special course in this 
"branch should be animal husbandry and dairying. Since 
the close of the quinquennium under review it has been decid- 
ed to transfer three of the military dairy farms to the Agri- 
cultural Department. This will provide the latter with near- 
ly all the equipment necessary. 

The Government of India have decided to make a start 
with this course at Bangalore from the 1st November 19$). 
The question oi ; the training of specialists, such as chemists, 
botanists, etc., presents little difficulty as facilities are al- 
ready in existence. 

Provincial 317. The Agricultural College at Poona which is affiliated 



Colleges, to tl ie University of Bombay has steadily increased in popular- 
Poona. * 



s } nce th e revision of the course in* 1916, the number of 
students inking the <.rrudunte course having increased from 
115 in 1916 to over 200 in 1921. The new syllabus is general- 
ly admitted to be an improvement on the old one and the 
teaching better. Consequently, the students who leave the 
College now are considered better trained than was formerly 
the case. It is, reported that an increasing number of gra- 
duates now prefer to go back to the land and manage their 
own farms. The University has instituted a degree of Mas- 
ter of Agriculture. 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. * 105 

318. The oilier College with a University course is that at Lyallpur. 
Lyallpur which was affiliated to the Punjab University in 

1917. There are now two distinct courses: 

(1) The Degree Course which is subject to University 

rules and regulations, and 

(2) The Certificate Course. 

The Decree Course takes four years and is divided into 
two parts, i.e., two years for the first examination in agri- 
culture corresponding to the F.Sc. examination, and two 
years for the B.So. in Agriculture. The certificate course 
lasts two years. The tuition and subjects in the first year 
are the same as for the degree course. In the second year 
very little science is taught and the course is mainly in agri- 
culture with some applied science. Since the affiliation of 
the College to the University the standard of the candidates 
for admisvsion has continued to improve. A steady increase 
in the number of applications for admission to the College 
3 n arks Hs popularity, but owing to shortage of accommoda- 
tion the number of admissions has been restricted to below 60 
eveiy year. The total number of students on the roll was 
19S in 1921-22. A gratifying feature is that the number of 
agriculturists turned out by the College is steadily increasing. 

Regulations for starting an M.Sc, research course have 
been passed by the University, but a beginning will not be 
possible until the stafi has been strengthened. 

319. The Agricultural College at Cawiipore continued to Cawnpore. 
give two separate courses of instruction the higher or 
diploma course of four years and the lower or vernacular 
course of two years. The diploma course is steadily increas- 
ing in popularity among the sons of Taluqdars and big land- 
lords, and several of them are joining witli the object of 
taking up agriculture as a profession. The vernacular course 

also continues to draw a satisfactory class of students, and 
such boys of the landowning community as are not qualified 
educationally for the diploma course are getting themselves 
admitted for this course. There were 103 students on the 
roll during 1921-22 for both of these main courses. Two 
important developments during the quinquennium under re- 
view are the acquisition of an area of 380 acres for running as 
an estate in connection with the College to represent the 
capitalistic aspect of agriculture from the point of view of the 
large landholder and the establishment of an up-to-date dairy 
which should form a valuable adjunct both for teaching and 
demonstration . 

Steps are being taken for the affiliation of the College to, 
and its incorporation with, the Allahabad University as re- 
commended by a Committee appointed to consider the subject. 



160 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



It is however proposed to make provision for the continuation 
of the diploma course, the demand for which comes from a 
class which is not generally qualified for admission to a Uni- 
versity. 

Coimbatoro. 339. Two courses of instruction, the certificate course for 
two years and, in continuation, the diploma course for a 
further period of 20 months were continued at the Agricul- 
tural College at Coiinbatore till 1920 when, owing to the 
necessity for attracting a better class of students, the two 
courses were entirely separated, the "Certificate Course" 
remaining similar to the old short course and lasting two 
years and the " Diploma Course " lasting for three years and 
giving instruction in the applied sciences as well as in agri- 
culture. Admissions to the Diploma Course are restricted to 
students who have passed the Intermediate examination of 
the Madras University and 20 scholarships of the value of 
Us. 25 each per month have been instituted by Government 
to attract better qualified students to the course. The separa- 
tion of the courses and the raising of the standard of qualifica- 
tion for admission to the Diploma Course have however seri- 
ously affected recruitment, although the college has recently 
been affiliated to the Madras University and the diploma course 
will now lead to the University degree of B.Sc. (Ag.). The 
number of applications for admission to the certificate course 
dropped from 395 in 1919-20 to 95 in 1921-22. There was 
also a marked drop in the intellectual standard of the appli- 
cants. , The unpopularity of the course shows that its attrac- 
tions for the aspirant to Government service are gone as it 
now lends only to tho lower division of the subordinate Agri- 
cultural Service and that there is still practically no demand 
for agricultural education for its own sake. 

For the degree course 93 applications were received in 
1921-22. Out of these 19 were selected, but most of them 
were from a class of people whose leanings were intellectual 
rather than agricultural. In order therefore to get a right 
tvpe of candidate for the course the -Government are moving 
the University to declare the certificate course with the addi- 
tion of English a qualification for appearing for the 
B.Sc. (Ag.)." 

Nagpur. 321. The Agricultural College at Nagpur continued till 

1921 to give the students two courses of instruction one of 
two years and the other of four years. All students used to 
start* together whether they were meant for the four years' 
course or only to complete the shorter one. At the end of 
the first year there was splitting off of the boys who were not 
likely to reach the longer course, but the examination at the 
end of the second year finally decided the selection for the 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 167 

longer course. In 1921-22 however the two-year or certificate 
course was definitely separated from the 3^-year or diploma 
course, and only candidates of the Matriculation standard are 
now allowed to take the latter course. A revised syllabus of 
studies has been drawn up for the diploma examination, which, 
while maintaining a sufficiently high standard on the practical 
sidq, should render affiliation with a University easy. The 
number of students on the roll at the end of 1921-22 was 52, 
but increased to 77 in the session which began in June, 1922. 

322. The Agricultural College at Sabour in Bihar and Sabour. 
Orissa continued to deal with a two-year certificate course, 

but as most of the students who took admission came from 
Bengal and Assam and as there was a very poor demand for 
agricultural education among the people of the province, it 
was decided to close the College in 1923, on the recommenda- 
tion of a Committee appointed by the local Government to 
consider the future of the Institution. No students are 
accordingly now admitted. 

323. A proposal has been sanctioned for the establishment Proposed 
of an Agricultural Institute at Dacca for giving a thorough J^^ c * Instl> ' 
practical training in agriculture to young men who have 
already been through a course in pure science. The course 

will consist almost entirely of practical instruction besides 
lectures on plant breeding, farm accounts and surveying. 
There will also be a dairy and the syllabus will provide for 
instruction in the feeding and management of cattle. The 
construction work is however held up owing to want of funds. 

324. In Burma, proposals for the establishment of an agri- Maudalay. 
cultural college at Maudalay were sanctioned during the 
quinquennium and the foundation stone was laid on 27th 
August 1921, by Sir Reginald Craddock. It is hoped that 

the college will be complete in 1924. 

325. Although it is a fact that there is an appreciable Rural Edu- 
demand in India for agricultural education apart from what cation. Agri- 
is being given at the Agricultural Colleges, yet it has not ^" l( i ( l j[* 
been decided how far the Agricultural Department is to add Schools. 

to its responsibilities by undertaking any system of education 
other than that being given in these colleges. The subject 
was discussed at considerable length by the Poona Bosird of 
Agriculture in 1917 which recommended that while rural edu- 
cation was primarily the business of the education department, 
in view of the possibility of a demand for a purely agricul- 
tural education arising through a general advance of the 
people themselves, a limited number (one or two in each 
vernacular tract) of agricultural schools based on the Loni 
(Poona) Model should be opened as an experimental measure. 



168 PROGRESS OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Accordingly, Agricultural Middle Schools have been opened 
in some provinces but in others agriculture has been added to 
the curriculum of ordinary middle schools. THese different 
systems of agricultural education are experimental and the 
experience so far gained seems to show that Agricultural 
Middle Schools of the Loni type are expensive and there is no 
likelihood of their number being increased to any considerable 
extent in the near future. The subject was discussed at the 
Board of Agriculture held at Pusa in 1922 in the light of 
experience gained in different provinces. The Board did not 
think that this type of agricultural middle school was 
universally applicable and were of opinion that the differed 
provinces will probably require to develop on quite different 
lines according to local conditions. They therefore passed 
the following resolution: 

" That while maintaining the position taken at the Board 
of Agriculture in 1917, the Board is of opinion that the 
Agricultural Middle Schools there suggested do not, by any 
means, exhaust the methods of agricultural education which 
can be suitably applied, and invites local Governments to 
consider carefully the schemes which are being developed in 
the Punjab and elsewhere, and would urge experiment as to 
the methods most suitable for the very varying conditions in 
different parts of the country." 

The position therefore at present is that experiments are 
being made with different types of agricultural schools suited 
to local conditions and needs. The future probably lies with 
the Punjab scheme (described below), which leaves to the 
Education Department to provide some agricultural training 
alongside a general educational training, the Agricultural 
Department only assisting in the way of training suitable 
teanhers. 

Progress in 326. Five Agricultural Schools with 134 students are at 

provinces. work in Bombay, out of which four are believed to be success- 
ful although there are differences of opinion as to how they 
should be developed in order to obtain the maximum advan- 
tage. The schools aim at taking boys of 13 to 14 years of age 
who have passed the fourth vernacular standard and continu- 
ing their general education for two years adding to it instruc- 
tion in Agriculture. With a view to provide for regular 
inspection of these schools the appointment of an Inspector 
of Agricultural Schools has been created. 

A scheme has also been adopted for the experimental 
organization of a number (not exceeding 20) of primary 
schools with a pronounced rural outlook and teaching with a 
definitely agricultural complexion. The teachers for fhese 
schools in the Marathi areas are being trained at the Loni 
school. 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 169 

32T. There are two agricultural middle schools in Madras, 
the one at Taliparamba and the other at Anakapalle. Special 
text books for these schools and also for the use of teachers in 
the elementary schools of the Coimbatore district have been 
prepared. 

328. In Bengal, two agricultural middle schools were 
started at Dacca and Chinsurah with the object of providing 
general instruction to the sons of cultivators and of teaching 
them up-to-date methods of practical agriculture; in other 
words, to provide an education for the sons of cultivators with- 
out diverting them from their traditional occupation. The 
boys to be admitted were to have completed the sixth standard 
or passed the upper primary scholarship examination. All 
candidates 1'or admission were required to declare that they 
intended to continue cultivation after leaving school. No 
difficulty has been met with in obtaining plenty of pupils at 
Dacca, but at Chinsurah recruitment has been difficult. The 
two years' course at Dacca has now been completed, and the 
Government of Bengal has come to the conclusion that the 
course is unsuitable. Very few pupils are returning to the 
land or finding suitable employment. These two schools have 
therefore been converted into secondary agricultural schools 
for giving a higher form of training to the sons of peasant 
proprietors or those who have a direct interest in the land. 
The curricuhim is so designed as to train the students to farm 
their own lands or become demonstrators in the department 
-or teachers in elementary agricultural schools, a number of 
which are to be started as an experimental measure. 

329. In the United Provinces an Agricultural school has 
been started at Bulandshahr in 1921 with 33 students. The 
school aims at giving a thoroughly practical course for the 
sons of small zemindars or substantial tenants who will return 
to work their own holdings. It thus repeats, in essentials, - 
the certificate course of the college with the difference that the 
appeal is purely local. When the college is affiliated to the 
university, it is proposed to transfer the certificate co\irse to 
several such schools in different typical tracts. 

330. In the Central Provinces, two agricultural schools 
were started 3 years ago at Chundkhuri and Pa war kh era, but 
as experience has shown that there is no local demand for the 
kind of semi -vocational training 1 given in those schools, it i,-* 
proposed to experiment in the direction of giving a course of 
agricultural instruction in the ordinary vernacular middle 
schools of the Education Department. 

331. In the Punjab, ordinary vernacular middle schools 
are utilized for imparting a practical training in agriculture 
to school boys in rural areas. This departure from the system 



170 PROGEESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

of Agricultural Middle Schools was recommended by a Pro- 
vincial Committee on the ground that only the less ambitious 
and less intelligent country boys would be likely to attend a 
special vocational school at so early a stage in their educa- 
tional career, for a pupil entering an agricultural middle 
school must give up all hopes of higher education. The com- 
mittee felt that as many sons of agriculturists as possible 
should have some technical training in their hereditary calling 
to which they would revert if at any time their higher educa- 
tion were interrupted. 

332. The special features of the Punjab scheme are that 
(a) a farm is attached to the school with an area and equip- 
ment sufficient for practical training on a reasonably large 
scale, and that (6) the training is given not by one 1 of the 
ordinary school teachers but by a teacher specially selected for 
the work and trained for a year at the Agricultural College 
at Lyallpur. The scheme has achieved an immediate popu- 
larity, and arrangements for the teaching of practical agri- 
culture are already either in progress or nearing completion 
in about 50 institutions, or a quarter of the total number of 
vernacular middle schools in the province. 

Details of the scheme are as follows : 

(a) The responsibilities of Government in the provision of 
land, buildings*, equipment and bullocks are 
estimated at Ks. 3,500 for each farm. Owing to 
the general rise in prices it lias been found in 
practice that this estimate Las been slightly 
exceeded. It has also been found in practice 
more economical to hire the land than to acquire it. 

(6) The recurring charges are mainly on account of the 
pay of the teacher aud the feed of bullocks. It 
lias been found, however, that a five-acre farm can 
be made practically self-supporting, whereas a farm 
of three acres, which was the limit originally laid 
down, cannot cover expenses. 

(c) The course of studies is confined io the middle classes, 

and comprises instruction in the class room, supple- 
mented and illustrated by practical work in all 
agricultural processes on the land. The usual 
amount of time devoted to this subject isr six 
periods per week per class, so that for a course 
comprising the four classes the teacher is engaged 
in actual instruction either in or out of doors for 
twenty-four periods a week. 

(d) The supply of teachers is by selection. District In- 

spectors are asked to select senior vernacular trained 
teachers of the agricultural class and possessing^ 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 171 

special aptitude for the work for a course of train- 
ing in the Lyallpur Agricultural College. The 
teachers' class in this college was started in July, 
1919. Sixty teachers have so far taken the course 
and seventeen are now under training. The 
scheme of studies is essentially practical, and aims 
at giving a sound training in the elements of 
agriculture with some knowledge of allied sciences. 
Experimental and observational methods of 
teaching the subject are practised by the teachers 
under training, under the supervision of their 
instructors, on the boys of the rural schools in the 
neighbourhood of Lyallpur. 

333. Land has been acquired for the proposed agricultural 
school at Pyinmana in Burma, and the American Baptist 
Mission, which is to be in charge of it, hopes to begin teach- 
ing in 1923. 

334. Twenty-three students were under training at the 
Hebbal school in Mysore which conducts a three-year course 
in English. The demand for admission has gone down partly 
on account of the fact that the prospects of Government 
employment have become considerably less owing to the finan- 
cial stringency. The other school at Chikkanhalli, which has 
been conducted as a grant-in-aid institution for the last seven 
years, with a vernacular course extending over 12 months, 
has been handed over to the department by the original donor. 
Tinder the new arrangements it will be possible to improve 
the course and extend the usefulness of the school. 

335. There were 250 applications for admission into the 
agricultural middle school opened during the year 1921-22 at 
Alwaye in Travancore which has accommodation for only 32 
students. 

336. Courses of instruction of shorter duration in practical Short 
agriculture continued to be given on the college farms or other courses in 
farms of the Department. In the Punjab a six months' Govem- 
course in vernacular has been provided at Lyallpur college and ment farms 
is taken advantage of by sons of farmers and employees of 

the Co-operative Department. There is also a rural economy 
class at the same college which lasts for a month and a 
teachers' class which lasts for one year. 

At the Poona College also there is a short course in agri- 
culture intended for farmers' sons who know English but who 
are not qualified to take the University course in agriculture. 
It lasts for one year. 

In Madras there are half-time schools for juveniles and 
night schools for adult agricultural labourers on the farms at 



172 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Coimbatore, Palur and Anakapalle. These are reported to be 
doing fairly well, but the results are said to be incommensurate 
with the expenditure. 

Short practical courses in general agriculture have been 
started on two farms in the Central Provinces. On the 
Nagpur Farm a 3 months' training in the driving of Motor 
tractors and the handling of tractor implements was given 
during 1921-22 to about 20 men. 

In Assam, apprentices for employment as demonstrators 
are trained on the different favms of the province. The train- 
ing lasts for 2 years and the students get systematic instruc- 
tion in elementary facts connected with agriculture and 
simple training in insect pests and their control. 

Similar facilities have also been provided at Mandalay in 
Burma for the training of Junior Agricultural Assistants 
required by the local Department. 

Libraries. 337. The fourth edition of the Pusa Library Catalogue 

was issued during the period under review. The Institute 
Library is now one of the most up-to-date libraries in the 
East on agriculture and allied sciences and is freely taken 
advantage of by scientific workers in India. 

Some of the Provincial Colleges also have got libraries 
reputed to be the best of their kind in India. 

Text Book*. 338. The following text books have been published during 
the quinquennium: 

(1) The Agricultural Problems in India by Rai Bahadur 

Gangaram, O.I.E., M.V.O. 

(2) A Hand Book of Nature study and Simple Agricul- 

tural teaching for the primary schools of Burma 
by E. Thompstone, B.Sc., Deputy Director of 
Agriculture, Burma. 

(3) Plant Types for college students by Father Ethelbert 

Blatter, S.J., Professor of Botany, St. Xavier's 
College, Bombay. 

(4) Fungi and Diseases in Plants by Dr. E. J. Butler, 

M.B., F.L.S., Imperial Mycologist, Pusa. 

(5) Text Book of Punjab Agriculture by W. Roberts, 

B.Sc., and 0. T. Faulkner, B. A. 

(6) A Hand Book of some South Indian Grasses by Rai 

Bahadur K. Rangachari, M.A., L.T., Government 
Lecturing Botanist, Agricultural College, Coim- 
batore. 

(7) A Manual of Elementary Botany for India by Rai 

Bahadur K. Rangachari, M.A., L.T., Government 
Lecturing Botanist, Agricultural College, Coim- 
batore. 



FHOFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 173 

(8) The Bases of Agricultural Practice and Economics in 

the United Provinces by Dr. H. M. Leake, M.A., 
Director of Agriculture, United Provinces. 

(9) Lessons on Indian Agricluture by Dr. D. Clouston, 

M.A., C.I.E., Director of Agriculture, Central 
Provinces. 

(10) The Story of Rai Sahib Kuluram Kurmi of Pethgaon, 
by Dr. D. Clouston, M. A., C.I.E., Director of 
Agriculture, Central Provinces. 

In addition, several bulletins of common interest and 
educational value have been issued by the Departments of 
Agriculture in various provinces. 

(VI) FORESTRY. 

339. The Forest Research Institute and College, Dehra 
Dun, has twofold activities, firstly research and secondly the 
training) of students of the Provincial Forest Service and 
Ranger classes. The question of training probationers for 
the Imperial Forest Service at Dehra Dun is under considera- 
tion. 

340. During the period under review it was decided to Rangers, 
decentralise the training of Rangers, the idea being to have 
three Colleges, one at Dehra Dun under the United Provinces 
Government for students from that Province, the Punjab 
(including ?fortli-\Vest Frontier Province), Bengal, Assam 

and the Northern and Central India States, another at Dhar- 
war for students from the Bombay 1 'residency and adjacent 
Indian States, and the third at Coinibatore for students from 
the Madras Presidency, Bihar and Orissa and the Central 
Provinces. Owing to the inability of the United Provinces 
'Government to provide the instructional staff and take over 
the College at Dehra Dun the proposed transfer has been 
postponed until the 31st March, 1927. Local Governments and 
Administrations and Indian Slates, etc., are now charged 
Rs. 1,750 per annum for each Provincial Forest Service 
student and Rs. 1,500 per annum for each Ranger student. 
'The Bombay Government were unable to proceed with the 
Dharwar scheme and at the request of the local Government, 
the Government of India agreed to train at Dehra Dun for 5 
years with effect from the 1st April 1922 up to a maximum of 
40 ranger students annually from Bombay. Subsequently the 
Madras Government found that they were unable to maintain 
the Coimbatore College on the small number of students from 
the sphere allotted to that College, and suggested that some 
arrangement should be arrived at which would ensure that the 
Dehra Dun College and the Coimbatore College should not 
compete with each other but should co-operate in imparting 



PEOGEESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

the special form of education to which they are devoted, and 
sanction was accorded to the local Government's proposal that 
l)ehra Dun shall train rangers for the Punjab, North-West 
Frontier Province, the United Provinces, Bengal and Assam,, 
while the sphere of the Coimbatore 'College will be Bombay, 
Central India, Bihar and Orissa, Orissa Feudatory States, 
Central India States, and the States of Hyderabad, Mysore,. 
Travancore and Cochin. These revised arrangements which 
will come into force as soon as it is found practicable will be 
experimental for five years. Hangers for Burma are trained 
at the Forest School, Tharrawaddy. 

Lower Subor- 341. The training of Lower Subordinates of the forest 
dinates. service is provided in the various provinces. 

o42. No progress was made in the drawing up of Manuals- 
for the use of students owing to shortage of staff. Mr. R. S. 
Hole, C.I.E., lately Forest Botanist, who was engaged in the 
revision of the Botany Manual, has unfortunately been com- 
pelled to proceed on leave owing to ill health. The question 
of having a Manual of Forest Engineering is being 
considered. 

(VII) A'ETERIXAKY SCIENCE. 

Scope of the^ 34.3. The work of the Veterinary Department has expanded 
Department's Readily, though, owing to financial stringency, several of the 
sanctioned posts in the cadre of the Indian. Veterinary Service, 
including some at veterinary colleges, have had to be kept 
vacant. The number of officials recruited in the country, viz., 
Deputy Superintendents, Inspectors and Veterinary Assis- 
tants, rose from 1,210 in 1916-17 to 1,478 in 1921-22 but the 
latter figure is still below the sanctioned strength which was 
1,G47 officers iu 1DUJ-17. 

Colleges and 344. Education continues to be provided in the four Vete- 
linary Colleges at Lahore, Parel (Bombay), Belgachia (Cal- 
cutta), Vepery (Madras) and at the Burma Veterinary School 
at Inseiii anjd a small branch school at Taunggyi in the 
Southern Shan States. The new four years' English course, 
leading up to the Diploma of Licentiate in Veterinary Prac- 
tice, Punjab, was introduced at the Lahore Veterinary Col- 
lege in October 1921. Concurrently with this event there has 
been a great diminution in the admission of students for the 
first of the new four-year courses but this is very largely 
attributed to the absence of military students and students 
from other provinces and States consequent on the general 
reduction in military establishments and the financial strin- 
gency respectively. "The Madras College has been strength- 
ened by the addition to its staff of a third officer of the 



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION. 175 

Imperial Veterinary Service. A new laboratory and exten- 
sions to the College have been constructed. With a view to 
attracting a better quality of candidate for the college the 
rate of stipends granted to students has been increased from 
Es. 10 to Us. 15. 

345. The total number of students attending the four col- 
leges at the close of the year 1921-22 is 475 against 545 at the 
close of the year 1916-17. The expenditure has increased 
from Its. 3,92,090 to Us. 6,40,939. The number of those who 
succesvsfully graduated roso from 541 in the previous quin- 
quennium to 677 in the quinquennium under review. 

346. The most important feature of the period is the insti- 
tution at the Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory, Muktesar, 
of a two-year trial course for officers of the Provincial Vete- 
rinary Service in order to enable them to qualify for promo- 
tion to the Indian Veterinary Service. Six men are now 
undergoing this training. The general scheme for a regular 
post-graduate training at the Muktesar Institute for officers 
of this class is now under consideration. 

347. In 1921 the first batch of five State scholars was sent 
to England to obtain the diploma of the Royal College of 
Veterinary Surgeons and thereby to render themselves eligible 
for appointment 1o the Indian Veterinary Service. These 
scholars are due to return to India in 1925. In view of the 
financial difficulties it has not been found possible to depute 
any inore scholars to the United Kingdom during the year 
1922. 



178 



PROGRESS OF EDUCA'TIOX IN INDIA. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 
(I) Technical and Industrial Schools. 

General, 348. The question whether technological training should or 

should not form part of the functions of an Indian university 
was discussed very fully by the Calcutta University Commis- 
sion. Among the witnesses examined by them there was a 
considerable number who advocated the segregation of techno- 
logy from the sphere of the university on the ground that the 
university training would tend to be too academic and not 
sufficiently practical. The Commission, however, reached the 
conclusion that *' the training of men for responsible positions 
in scientific industry is a service which the universities along 
with other institutions may with advantage render to the 
community. Moreover the inclusion of practical scientific 
studies in the curriculum of the institutions which are recog- 
nised as giving the highest forms of training for various 
careers has a beneficial effect upon the educational outlook of 
the whole people; it may be a corrective to a too exclusively 
bookish tradition in the secondary schools." 1 The Commis- 
sion, however, uttered a warning against the assumption by 
any university of technological training without adequate 
equipment or a fully qualified staff. The cost of the latter has 
hitherto precluded any* large development in this direction, 
though courses in applied or industrial chemistry have now 
been adopted at several universities. 

Training 349. The majority of Indian students who desire higher 

abroad. technological training still #o abroad. Up to the year 1921 ten 
scholarships were awarded annually by the Government of 
India, one for each major province, to enable students to 
proceed to England for training in industries. With the 
introduction of the Reforms these scholarships were, in com- 
mon with the administration and finance of education, pro- 
vincialised. Some of the provinces propose to increase the 
number of their scholars, but the Lytton Committee on Indian 
Students in England, which sat in 1921, were impressed with 
the difficulties in the way of providing facilities for practical 
training for Indian students in the United Kingdom. These 
difficulties were referred to in the last review. The Lytton 
Committee recommend that the opportunities for such train- 
ing in India should be more fully explored. 

Higher 350. Meanwhile for research into the application of science 

Technological to industry there is one institution, the Indian Institute of 
Institutes, Science at Bangalore founded by the late Sir J. Tata, to which 

1 Calcutta University Commission Report, Vol. V, Chapter XL VI 1 1, 
p. 192. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 



177 



has been added during the quinquennium the Cawnpove 
Technological Institute. The practical side of the research 
work conducted at the Indian Institute has been developed iu 
recent years. There are now 83 students engaged on such 
research. The Cawnpore Technological Institute was estab- 
lished in January 1920. It was decided on the recommenda- 
tion of a representative committee that the Institute should 
provide training for: 

(i) research chemists in general applied chemistry, 

(ii) technical chemists in oil extraction and refining, 

(Hi) technical leather chemists, and 

(iv) technical chemists for bleaching, dyeing and finish- 
ing textiles. 
The course is one of three years. 

351. Another important institution of a lower status is the 
Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute, Bombay. The Institute 
gives courses in mechanical and electrical* engineering, 
textile manufacture, technical chemistry and plumbing 
and sanitary engineering. The competition for admission is 
very great and there are now 314 students 011 the roll in spite 
of the fact that fees have been raised to Us. 50 a year (or 
Us. 25 per term). The scope of the work has been extended 
recently to include lead burning and oxy-acetylene welding, 
the expression of oils and fats on a small scale and the testing 
and analysis of cloth and yarns. 

352. Finally there are 276 technical and industrial schools statistics 
in India, 199 for men and 77 for women, attended by 14,082 of Technical 
pupils, of whom 11,400 approximately are men and 2,700 

rvo Ji r*r /-i i -L i oy i 

women. (Ji these 57 are Government schools, o7 are managed 
by boards and 182 are under private management, all but 
twenty of them receiving aid from public funds. The follow- 
ing statement shows the cost of these schools in 1921-22. 

Expenditure on Technical and Industrial schools, 1921-22. 





EXPENDITURE FROM 


Other 
Sources. 


TOTAL 

EXPENDI- 
TURE. 


! Govern- 
ment 
Funds. 


Board 
Funds. 

Rs. 

1,85,193 


Fees. 

Rs. ! 
84,921 


Schools for males 


Rs. 
. 12,89,440 


Rs. 
10,59,297 


Rs. 

26,18,85) 


Schools for females 
TOTAL 


60,166 


6,900 


4,074 


1,32,400 


2,03,540 


. j 13,49,606 

1 


1,92,093 


88,995 


11,91,697 


28,22,391 



N.B. The Schools of Art are not included in this table. 



178 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Need for a 353. These schools are mostly craft schools. Their success 

enrironment Depends on *^e ex tent to which they meet a real local demand. 
The need for an industrial background in the area served by 
un industrial school is not fully appreciated by many who 
advocato technical education. These are they who "etand 
fast in the faith that commerce and industry must flourish if 
commerce and industry are taught in schools and that em- 
ployment musfc follow on the economic blossoming. In 
reports, in council and in conference we have sought for many 
years to lay this ghost. Commerce and industries do not 
start at the bidding of academies. Experience has demon- 
strated this in the East and in the West. Technical instruc- 
tion in local institutions for markets which do not locally exist 
must be expensive and theoretical and futile." 2 

K. E. M 354. A striking illustration of the truth of the foregoing re- 

School, marks is furnished by the brief history of the King Edward 

Akyab. Memorial Technical School, Akyab, Founded in 1913 by 

public subscriptions, its expensive buildings were completed 
before serious thought was given to subjects for instruction, 
instructors or pupils. It was maintained by public subscrip- 
tions (which eventually fell to thirty rupees a month), the 
Akyab District Fund and Provincial funds. Ii> provided 
classes in carpentry, tin-smithing, cane-work and book-keep- 
ing, attracted boys by stipends of Us. 15 monthly and was 
managed by a local board of directors till July 1921 when 
they handed it over to the Catholic Mission. Brother Arnold, 
who had been directing industrial education in America, was 
sent to take charge of it, but at the end of the year 1921-22 
the Mission closed the school. Brother Arnold reports as 
follows: " Of all the boys in my charge none had any am- 
bition to study and they were too lazy to work. There has 
never been one boy of a respectable family in Arakan to 
attend the school. The boys are all poor, mostly taken off 
the street and came here only to earn a little spending money. 
You cannot make a good school with bad material. The 
school during its entire existence to my knowledge has never 
turned out one boy of any practical use. I do not know of 
any school in the world that has devoted such sums of money 
for the benefit of people who have responded so little. An 
industrial education for a boy in Arakan is useless because 
there are no industries. An industrial school must be founded 
on the industries of a country." 3 The Moulmein Trades 
School was an even more costly test oJ the local demand for 
industrial education but a less effective one because classes 
were never actually opened. The valuable buildings are now 
being used for the Government High School. 

* Assam, pp. 72-73. 

* Burma* p. 48. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMEECIAL EDUCATION. 179 

355. Another class of technical school which has not proved Punjab 
successful is the primary industrial schools of the funjab. 
These schools were intended to provide for the children of 
artisans some training in their hereditary occupations com- 
bined with a minimum of general education, in short to take 

the place of premature apprenticeship. It is reported that 
the technical education they provide is insufficient to secure 
their pupils paid apprenticeships on leaving while the general 
education which they give is naturally of a low standard. 

356. On the other hand the middle industrial schools of the (i>) Middle. 
Punjab, although they showed little change either in number 

or attendance, have attained a certain degree of popularity 
owing to the practical nature of their courses. The most 
popular subject is carpentry. The courses of study have been 
transformed. Literary education is not now attempted, six 
of the eight daily hours of work being given to practical craft 
and the remaining two to subsidiary subjects such as scale- 
drawing. Mr. Heath, the Inspector, remarks " Whatever 
may be said against stopping general education after the 
primary stage in these schools, there is one fact which stands 
out to any observer. This is the very great advance in the 
quality and the finish of the work, and that notwithstanding 
many handicaps and the absence of almost every modern aid 
to good work." 4 

357. Still more successful is the Bailway Technical School () Railway 
at Lahore. Originally founded with the intention of supplying Technical 
literate apprentices to the workshops of the North Western 
Railway, this has now become one of its least important func- 
tions. It gives an elementary training in carpentry, iron 

work, mechanical drawing, etc. Those ol its students who 
do not wish to proceed for an advanced course in the Mayo 
School of Arts easily find employment and consequently it 
maintains a steadily increasing recruitment. 

358. Schools of a similar type are found in Madras. During Madras 
the year 1921-22 there were 38 aided industrial schools in 

that province, many of them situated in out-of-the-way places. 
" These assisted schools provide a reasonably efficient form of 
trade instruction at an extremely low cost to Government/' 5 
Most important of the industrial schools in Madras is the 
Perambur Trades S'chool which furnishes an interesting in- 
stance of the value of co-operation between the Department 
of Industries and a large works organisation. The railway 
authorities provide the building and equipment and arrange 

4 Punjab, p. 124. 
* Madras, p. 50. 



180 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Bengal 
Schools. 



Central 
Provinces. 



Bombay 
Schools. 



to send their apprentices in working hours, while the Madras- 
Trades School furnishes the trained staff. 

In the Madras Presidency " there is not yet a real indus- 
trial atmosphere or an industrial class. Much of the labour 
used in industry is drawn from agriculture and ready at any 
time to return to agriculture and the ordinary industrial 
worker, though performing his own job to the best of his 
ability, takes little interest in other processes or in the works 
as a whole. Institutions like the Madras Trades .School tend, 
to an appreciable extent, to create an industrial atmosphere 
and to stimulate a livelier interest in the mind of the worker 
in his work and allied occupations." 6 These remarks admit of 
a general application. 

359. Technical schools in Bengal, such as the Kalimpong 
industrial school, teaching tailoring and gardening, and the 
Comilla Elliot Artisan School, teaching carpentry and black- 
smithing, also show an improved attendance. A site for the 
Calcutta Technical School has been purchased at a cost of about 
8^ lakhs of rupees. It will enable a greatly improved training 
to be provided for apprentices and others employed in engin- 
eering work in or near Calcutta, besides forming the nucleus 
of a technological institute affording facilities for higher tech- 
nical training in various subjects. Another step in the same 
direction is the opening of a school at the Kanchrapara work- 
shops of the Eastern Bengal Eailway where educated Indians 
may take a full course of apprenticeship combined with techni- 
cal instruction of a higher kind. There is a Board of Control 
of Apprenticeship Training whose advice is invariably sought 
in such developments. The railway workshops at Lillooah 
and Kharagpur likewise provide training facilities for appren- 
tices. 

360. The Central Provinces report the opening of three new 
schools of crafts at Jubbulpore (Robertson Industrial School) 
in 1918, at Chandametta in August 1920 attached to Messrs. 
Shaw Wallace & Co.'s collieries and workshop, and at Akola. 
It is proposed to open two more such schools at Itarsi and 
Raipur when funds become available. The schools train car- 
penters, black-smiths, fitters, turners, etc. 

361. The R. C. Technical Institute at Ahmedabad was 
founded by the late Sir Chinubhai Madhavlal and taken over 
by Government in 1917. It is attended by 78 pupils. The 
subjects taught are spinning, weaving and mechanical 
engineering. It possesses equipment of a very complete 
character and is an institution of great potential value to the 
mill industry of Ahmedabad, for which it is designed to train 
youths as foremen and overseers. 

Madras, p. 47. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 181 

362. In Bihar and Orissa, the Jamshedpur Technical B. and Ot 
Institute was started by the Tata Iron and Steel Company in School* 
1921. Its object is to train and supply skilled Indians for the 
various' departments of the Company. A fuller account is 

given in paragraph 431. A scheme for the establishment of 
the proposed Tirhut Technical Institute at Muz^ffarpur is under 
consideration. The Institute will have mechanical engineer- 
ing classes for apprentices and industrial classes for artisans. 

363. *rhe industrial schools in Assam are doing well. The Assam 
establishment of a School of Handieiafts at Sylhet was sane- School9fc 
tioned during the period under review. The Public Works 
Department are responsible for the administration of such 

part of the Williamson funds in Assam as is devoted to the 
training of artisans. The period of apprenticeship is usually 
of three years. There were at the end of the quinquennium 
sixteen such apprentices of whom fourteen are practising in 
railway workshops. 

364. The aforementioned institutions each provide element- Special 
ary technical training in a variety of trades or handicrafts. o I1 ? U8 ^ iaI 
For the more important industries of India there are special * ^ . 
schools. Such, for example, are the Government Weaving 
Institutes at Serampur and Benares, and the Saunders Weav- 
ing Institute at Amparapura (Burma). The attendance at the 
Bengal 'institution which lias hostels for the four principal com- 
munities rose from 78 to 187 and the cost of maintenance from 1 

Rs. 6,000 to Us. 15,000. Dyeing classes have now been added. 
A system of Government loans to ex-students for the purchase 
of improved plant has been instituted and is proving success- 
ful, the loans being repaid with fair regularity. Attached to 
this Institute are six peripatetic centres giving short practical 
courses in weaving. Through the agency of these centres over 
five thousand fly-shuttle sleys have been brought into use. 
At the Benares Institute the technical course extends over 
three years and follows the syllabus of the Citv and Guilds 
Institute, London. The Institute has also a short artisan 
course and supervises the work of peripatetic weaving schools. 
There are, in addition, in the United Provinces some district 
weaving schools maintained partly by Government, partly by 
local bodies. 

The School of Dyeing and Printing, Cawnpore, has attain- 
ed, to a considerable reputation and is one of the centres for 
the City and Guilds examinations. The examiners in their 
report for 1920 state that " two candidates at the Government 
School of Dyeing and Printing, Cawnpore, obtained higher 
marks than any candidate in tlio United Kingdom.'* 7 

'United Provinces, p. 112. 



182 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA, 



" The Saunders Weaving Institute has been a success since 
its institution about ten years ago because it was set up in a 
locality where hand-loom weaving was the traditional industry, 
and because, especially by popularising the flying shuttle, it 
has 'enabled hand-loom to complete with power-loom pro- 
ducts." 8 

Wood and 365. Amongst schools of carpentry may be mentioned the 

Leather Government Wood-working Institute at Bareilly and the 
wor ' Allahabad Carpentry School which includes classes or train- 

ing teachers and for British troops. 

For leather workers two successful schools are maintained 
at Cawnpur and Madras. The former has proved so popular 
that another similar school has now been established at Meerut. 
The Leather Trades Institute at Madras attracts students from 
all parts of India. Of the 68 students four were from Delhi, 
eight from the Punjab, four from Kashmir, two from the 
United Provinces and several from Indian States. 

Control. 366. With the transfer of education in 1921 the control of 

industrial schools was in most provinces entrusted to the De- 
partment of Industries. The distribution of work between 
the Education and Industries Departments varies in the differ- 
ent provinces. In Bombay, to quote one example, the control 
of industrial schools is in the hands of the Director of Indus- 
tries while that of technical schools is enti listed to the Edu- 
cation Department, working through a Committee of Direc- 
tion. This Committee consists of seven members including 
the Directors of Industries and Public Instruction and the 
Principal of the Poona College of Engineering. The Committee 
recognises technical schools, recommends grants to he paid by 
Government, regulates the courses and standards of education 
and arranges for their periodical inspection and examination. 
It is reported that the certificates awarded by the Committee 
are held of considerable value as qualifications for securing 
employment in industrial firms, railway companies, etc. The 
position in most provinces is that some forms of technical 
training are controlled by the Department of Industries, some 
by the Public Works Department, some by the universities, 
while with the development of vocational courses in secondary 
schools and intermediate colleges an increasing amount of 
such training will be provided in institutions under the control 
of the Education Department. " The urgent need of the hour 
is to co-ordinate the work which is controlled by such a variety 
of authorities and to evolve some definite policy based on the 
acceptance of a few general principles. 559 

* Burma, p. 48. 

Punjab, p. 126. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 

(77) Schools of Art, 1921-22. 



183 



Statistic*. 



Schools. 


Pupils. 


EXPENDITURE FROM i 


TOTAL 

EXPENDI- 
TURE. 


Govern- 
ment and 
Board 
Funds. 


Fees. 

* 


Other 
Sources. 


The School of Arts,Madras 


1 


234 


Rs. 
74,730 


Ha. 
13 


Rs. 
7,956 


Rs. 

82,699 


Sir J. J. School of Art, 
Bombay . 


1 


343 


1,20,751 


5,594 


2,187 


1,28,532 


Schools of Art, Bengal . 


4 


424 


48,929 


6,327 


8,888 


64,144 


The School of Arts and 
Crafts, Lucknow 


1 


100 


52,310 


J,332 


6,866 


60,508 


The Mayo School of Arts, 
Lahore 

INDIA 


1 


225 


80,796 


1,471 





82,267 


8 


1,3&2 


3,77,516 


14,737 


25,897 


4,18,160 



367. There are five Government Schools of Art, situated at 
Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Lucknow and Lahore : there are 
also two small aided schools and one unaided school in Bengal. 
The name given to these schools is somewhat misleading. 
Although they all include departments of art in the narrowest 
sense of the word, i.e., of drawing and painting, their acti- 
vities are chiefly devoted to the encouragement of Indian 
industrial art and its application under modern economic 
conditions. A very full and interesting account of these acti- 
vities was given in the last quinquennial review. These in- 
stitutions are, if any such generalisation is permissible, essen- 
tially schools of applied design. In this work they have 
been eminently successful. " There is no denying the fact," 
says the .Director of Industries in the United Provinces, 
" that the School of Arts and Crafts has been responsible for 
the dissemination of thousands of improved designs/' 10 In the 
past the art schools were much criticised for a want of vitality 
and definite objective. There was a mistaken idea that by 
the mere copying and reproducing of beautiful objects of 
traditional Indian art, the art could be re-vitalised and the 
demand for such objects revived, quite irrespective of the 
question whether such objects met the natural requirements 
of the people or were valued merely for their good workman- 

"Uaitod Province!, p. 110. " 



384 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

ship and as objects of curiosity. Tke pattern books of the 
past did much to foster this idea. As a record they arc 
excellent as also was the old Art Journal, but as a means oi 
developing and guiding Indian art upon lines suited to the 
demands of the country they were both useless. 

^' ^e sc ^^ s are developing each on its own lines 
influenced largely by the local environment. The Calcutta 
School has been instrumental in creating a school of Indian 
painting the reputation of which now extends beyond the 
confines of India. The Lahore School is essentially a school 
of arts and crafts, for the Punjabi is by nature a skilled crafts- 
man but owing to his inland position he has been little 
influenced by the development of designs to meet modern 
requirements, hence his creative work has tended to 
become stereotyped and without vitality. Of the in- 
fluence on art of environment the Principal of the 
Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy School of Art, Bombay, writes 
an interesting memorandum from which the opening 
paragraph is quoted: " In considering the growth and 
progress of art in Bombay during the past five years one 
cannot but be struck by the fact of the unusual possibilities 
offered by the city in this connection. Its situation is beauti- 
ful and inspiring; its bazaars te'em with varied colour; its 
crowded streets are thronged with probably the most classical 
figures in the world; its wealth is more than sufficient to 
sustain a civic patronage of the Fine Arts equal to that of 
Mediaeval Florence and its population are on the whole of a 
frank and open-minded character naturally inclined to pro- 
gress and to the assimilation of ideas. The city is renowned, 
if not for the subtlety of its intellectual achievements, at any 
,rate for its abounding vitality, its dislike of sham, and its 
bold hold upon realities. The cause of these stirring qualities 
is doubtless deep-rooted in geographical, historical, and 
physiological conditions into which it would be a digression 
to enter here, but which have collectively persuaded many 
knowledgeable observers that the omens in Bombay are favour- 
able and perhaps uniquely so, to a revival of the Fine Arts 
in India. "" Special attention has been paid in the Bombay 
School since the appointment of the new Principal, Captain 
Solomon, in 1920, to the art of mural decoration. This work 
received generous encouragement from His Excellency Sir 
George Lloyd. The mural paintings on the walls of the Art 
School executed by the staff and students have excited mu^h 
public interest and attracted thousands of visitors. It is 
possible to foresee a great future for this revival of one of the 
most ancient forms of Indian art. 

11 Bombay report. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 



185 



369. How wide a range of subjects is undertaken by these Subject* of 
schools may be illustrated from the following figures of the Btud y 
Bombay School. Of the 343 students 141 are in the Reay 
Workshops studying various handicrafts, such as pottery, 
wood-work, brass-work, etc., 35 learn drawing, 65 painting, 24 
modelling, 19 attend the course for drawing teachers and 59 
attend the architectural course. The Public Works Depart- 
ment Reorganisation Committee was so much struck by the 
potentialities of the last course that they recommended its 
development into a complete course for the training of archi- 
tects. Financial stringency has so far prevented the adoption 
of this recommendation. 

370. The Mayo School of Arts, Lahore, also opened during 
the quinquennium a class for architectural draftsmen under the 
supervision of the Government Architect. The school was pro- 
Tided in 1921 with an excellent hostel to which a study room, 
workshop and playing fields are attached. The class for draw- 
ng masters for secondary schools meets a practical need. and 
its ex-students are much in demand in the Punjab and in the 
leighbouring provinces. 

371. There appears to have been some danger of this side of 
he school work being over-emphasised in the School of Arts and 
Drafts, Lucknow, for Mr. A. C. Chatterjee reviewing the posi- 
tion said " with regard to the status of the school the first 
principle is that it is not to be a seminary for drawing masters, 
the second principle is that it shall be primarily a seminary 
of design and the third principle is that work must be manual 
and not done by machinery." 12 This passage summarises the 
conclusions of an expert committee which examined the work- 
ing of the school and defined its functions. A similar com- 
mittee was appointed towards the close of the quinquennium 
to re-organise the work of the Madras School of Art. Its pro- 
posals are now being considered by the Madras Government. 



(///) Commercial Education. 
(a\ Colleges and Schools of Commerce. 



Statistics! 





i 




INSTITUTIONS. 


SCHOLARS. 




1917. 


1922. 


1917. 


1922. 


Colleges 


3 


5 


416 


421 


Schools 


67 


134 


3,311 


7,090 


TOT-VL 


70 


139 


3,727 


7,511 



11 United Provinces, p. 110. 



186 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

(6) Expenditure on Colleges and Schools of Commerce. 



Expenditure. * 


COLLEGES. 


SCHOOLS. 


1917. 


1922. 


1917. 


1922. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


From Government Funds . 


40,015 


60,581 


37,479 


69,747 


Board Funds . 


.. 


.. 


1,507 


4,108 


Fees .... 


46, U5 


35,932 


82,935 


1,69,869 


Other Sources 


6,196 


2,555 


16,729 


76,096 


TOTAL 


92,356 


99,068 


1,38,650 


3,18,820 



Decrees and 
diplomas. 



372. The foregoing table shows a remarkable increase in the 
number of institutions providing training for commerce and 
in the number of students under training. The numbers are 
even more striking when contrasted with the figures of ten 
years ago which showed 28 schools of commerce with some 
1,500 pupils. It must, however, be admitted that the majority 
of these commercial institutions consist of little more than 
classes in shorthand, typewriting and accountancy attended 
by clerks out of business hours and conducted by the Young 
Mien's Christian Association or as commercial enterprises. 
Still the public demand for the provision of some higher form 
of commercial education has strengthened during the quin- 
quennium. In some places it has anticipated the economic 
demand, having originated rather from a desire for employ- 
ment and from a mistaken assumption that the supply of men 
trained in commerce will create commercial openings than 
from any active demand on the part of the commercial com- 
munity. The products of some of the recently opened com- 
mercial institutions have found at times difficulty in obtaining 
suitable employment. 

373. Degrees in Commerce (B. Com.) are awarded by the 
universities of Bombay, Lucknow and Mysore and diplomas in 
Commerce by the universities of Allahabad and the Punjab. 
Elsewhere commercial students who complete their courses 
(many of them leave after acquiring some skill in typewriting 
to obtain immediate employment) sit either for examinations 
conducted by official boards as in Madras and Bengal or fo. 
those of the London Chamber of Commerce. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 187 

374. The most important commercial institution in India is Sydenham 
the Sydenham College of Commerce, Bombay. Its aim is College of 
to furnish young men embarking on a business career with 06 ' 
a university education of such a kind as will assist them 

to rise to responsible and important positions, and at the 
same time to promote the study of social conditions by 
means of specialised courses in economic science. It teaches 
a four years' course leading to the B. Com. degree of the 
Bombay University. The number of students admissible is 
restricted by the staff and accommodation available ; the enrol- 
ment is between 240 and 250 but the number of applications 
for admission in one year exceeded five hundred. The College 
has already established its reputation and its graduates are 
able to command higher salaries for their services than the 
ordinary graduates in Arts. " Practically all the students 
who graduate from this College find suitable openings at 
salaries varying from Rs. 100 to Us. 200 per mensem soon 
after their results are declared and some of them within a few 
years are able to earn as much as Rs. 400 to Rs. 500 per 
mensem." 13 In view of tHe demand for admission it is satis- 
factory to learn that the Bombay Government are making 
arrangements to allot enlarged premises to the College. It 
is hoped also to open a course in Actuarial science and another 
in Railway transport. 

375. Next in importance is the Institute of Commerce, institute of 
Madras, which is intended to train men to qualify as auditors Commerce, 
under the Indian Life Assurance, Provident Assurance and Maciras eto * 
Companies Acts. It is also intended to prepare men for respon- 
sible positions in commercial undertakings. The Institute at 
present occupies rooms in the Law College but a site has been 
selected for a permanent building. Both at Bombay and 
Madras the Provincial Government is assisted in the manage- 
ment of the college and institute by a council containing re- 
presentatives of the commercial community. Other institu- 
tions which deserve mention are the Government Commercial 
Institute, Calcutta, the School of Commerce, Calicut, and the 
Institute of Commerce, Lahore. The majority of the students 
trained in these schools secure employment in clerical posts 

in Government or private service. 

376. The Accountancy Diploma Board of Bombay eonsti- Accountancy 
tuted at the instance of the Government of India held its first Diploma 
examination in 1918. It now holds examinations simultane- Board, 
ously at Bombay, Madras, Calcutta and Allahabad. Of 223 
candidates who appeared during the quinquennium only 48 

passed and of these only 27 satisfied the Board in the matter 
of practical training in accounts. The successful candidates 

18 Bombay report. 



188 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Teaching of 
commercial 
subjects in 
ordinary 
schools. 



secured diplomas qualifying them to practise as auditors under 
the Indian Companies Act. 

377. Some commercial subjects usually confined in practice 
to shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping and commercial geo- 
graphy are included among the alternative courses leading 
up to School-Leaving Certificates. These subjects are taken 
during the last two years of the high school course by some 
of the students who do not propose to proceed to the university, 
for a pass in these subjects does not qualify for matriculation. 
This experiment in vocational education would be more suc- 
cessful if the boys did not labour under the disadvantage of 
an imperfect knowledge of colloquial English, which detracts 
considerably from theirproficiency in such subjects as short- 
hand. The Calcutta University Commission recommended 
the inclusion of commercial departments in the intermediate 
colleges which they wished to see established and, whether such 
colleges come into being or not, it is probably at the inter- 
mediate stage that vocational education of this kind should 
prove most successful. 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 189 

CHAPTER IX. 

EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 

(?) Education oj Chiefs and Higher Classes. 

378. For the education of tlie sons and relatives of the institutions. 
chiefs and princes of India, whose families rule over one-third 
of the continent, five Chiefs' Colleges are maintained. These 
colleges are : 

Number 

of 
pupils. 

Mayo College, Ajmer, Cor llajpulana Chiefs. . *J9 

Daly College, Indore, for Central India Chiefs . .51 

Aitchison College. Lahore, for Punjab Chiefs . . . J>5 

Rajknmar College, Eajkot, for Kuthiawar Chiefs . 53 

Rajktiiiiar College, Rnipur, for Central Provinces and Bihar J4- 
and Orissa Chiefs. 

302 

The college at Raipur, which had previously possessed a 
somewhat non-descript status, was admitted to the full rank 
of a Chiefs' College in 1921. 

379. In point of buildings, staff, and organisation these Their 
institutions approach much more nearly to the English Public general 
Schools than to the ordinary Indian high schools. The build- character - 
ings, which have been erected mainly from contributions 
given by Indian princes, are from an artistic point of view 
among the most notable educational buildings in India, though 
from a scholastic point of view it must be admitted that they 
are in some respects defective, for example in the accommoda- 
tion for science teaching. They are situated in beautiful 
grounds, which provide ample space not only for the ordinary 
school games but also for polo. The hostels allow a separate 
room for each pupil or for any two pupils of the same family. 

The staff of each college includes at least two European 
masters of the type usually employed in English public 
schools in addition to a strong body of Indian masters. 
The classes are* consequently small and murh individual 
attention can be devoted to the scholars. 

380. The colleges prepare for a special diploma examina- Course* 
tion, corresponding approximately to the matriculation in 
standard, conducted by the Government of India : in the case 
of the Mayo College older pupils also prepare for a further or 
post-diploma examination, which is at least equivalent to the 

N2 



190 



PBOGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Effects of the 
War. 



Finance. 



Other insti-" 
hitions. 



degree examination of an Indian university. It is perhaps 
misleading to describe the colleges as preparing for these ex- 
aminations, for the position and outlook of the students, the 
quality of the teaching and the traditions of the colleges pre- 
vent the unnatural domination of the examination over the 
work of the masters and boys, which is so unsatisfactory a 
feature of the ordinary high school. The institutions are 
entirely residential and a great feature is made of the out of 
school life of the pupils. The results are evident not only in 
the excellence of the students at games but also in the quality 
of their manners. 

381. The colleges suffered severely from the war, as the 
majority of the European members of the staff joined the 
Indian Army Reserve of Officers and served in various 
campaigns. The Daly College, Indore, in particular, was 
affected, for it was decided in 1918 to take advantage of an 
offer made by its Council and use the college as a preparatory 
school for Indian officers. Of the scholars of the Daly 
College some went to the Mayo College, Ajmer, and some 
returned to tHeir homes. The college was re-opened after 
the war and is now recovering its numbers. 

382. The colleges further suffered after the war from the 
prevailing financial stringency. It was necessary to raise 
the pay of the staff, both European and Indian. The Govern- 
ment of India was not in a position to increase its grants to 
the colleges. Indeed it has in some cases reduced them. 
The additional expenditure had to be met from fees and 
subscriptions. The fees have beeir raised at all the colleges, 
but even now they form but a small proportion of the 
expenses of a boy attending a Chiefs' college. The highest 
fees, for example, for ordinary pupils are charged at the 
Aitchison College, Lahore, Us. 75 a month; but it actually 
costs a boy from Its. 2,000 to Us. 3,000 a year to live at this 
college and this is not an exceptional figure. 

383. Among provincial institutions for the education of 
higher classes are a school for the sons of Shan chiefs in Upper 
Burma, the Colvin Taluqdar's School at Lucknow for the sons 
of the landed gentry of Oudh, and the Queen Mary's College 
at Lahore for the education of girls of good family. Of tlie 
Colvin School it is said that the pupils had in the past little 
incentive to work " but present developments have opened 4 
dignified careers in politics, in the army and the civil services, 
while the evolution of new social and economic conditions 
demands the attention of landlords to the management of 
their own estates." 1 Queen Mary's College has prospered, 
under Miss Walford and now has an attendance of 89 girls. 

1 United Provs., p. 132. 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNiriES. 191 

The Court of Wards' School at Newington, Madras, was 
closed in 1919 after the murder of the principal, Mr. de la Hey. 
Hastings House School, Calcutta, was also closed for lack of 
support. 

(ii) European Education. 

384. European schools in India, although included in the Distinction 
general system of public instruction, form a class by them-^ fcween 
selves. They owe their origin partly to the need of the i^^* 11 an 
European community domiciled in India for schools in which Schools, 
the teaching is conducted throughout in English, partly to 

the desire of the community to maintain a distinctively Euro- 
pean character in the instruction and training given 1o their 
children. These schools, though controlled by provincial 
governments, have many common tics. They are governed 
by a single all-India code of regulations ; provincial govern- 
ments are at liberty to modify this code to suit local condi- 
tions and have in fact introduced a number of local modifica- 
tions, but in their essential features European schools are 
not subject (o the provincial variations which affect Indian 
schools. Most of them prepare their pupils for a single 
series of public examinations the Cambridge Locals: many 
of them, the hill schools in particular, draw their pupils from 
different, sometimes remote, parts of India. 

385. The distinctive character of European education has 
been recognised in the rules framed under the Government of 
India Act, which provide that European education shall be a 
" reserved " subject under the control of a Member of Council 
and not a " transferred " subject under a Minister responsible 
to the elected legislature. 

38G. Although Government maintains a few schools of a Manogomoni 
special character chiefly designed for the education of the 
children of British soldiers who are serving or have served in 
this country, the majority of the European schools in India are 
under private, usually denominational, management. In the 
Bombay Presidency, for example, there are in all 87 institu- 
tions of which 82 are aided : of these 45 are managed by 
Roman Catholic Missions, 16 belong to the Church of England, 
5 are managed by other Protestant Missions, one is a Jewish 
school and the remainder, including ten railway schools, 
are undenominational. Of the undenominational European 
schools in India the majority are managed or aided by the 
railways. The East Indian Railway, for example, besides 
supporting one hill school (Oak Grove at Mussoorie) main- 
tains twenty-one schools and aids seven other local schools 
for Europeans in the plains. (The same Eailway maintains 
or aids ninety-two schools for their Indian employees.) 



192 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Statistic*). 



387. Although European schools are alike in their general 
organisation, they are, like Indian schools, classified into high, 
middle and primary; but the difference in their case between 
the grades is one of degree and not of kind. A primary 
school which contains a small number of senior pupils who 
have passed the primary stage (and there are many such 
schools catering for the needs of small isolated European 
communities in the plains) is for statistical purposes classi- 
fied as a middle school. This accounts for the fact that of 
385 schools for the general education of Europeans 283 are 
classed as secondary, although of the 42,000 children in attend- 
ance nearly 30,000 are in the primary stage. In the same 
way the four arts colleges for Europeans are in fact nothing 
more than high soliools to which post-matriculation classes 
have been added. This explanation, is needed for the proper 
understanding of the following tables: 

(a) European Scftools iritlt tfcholurs, 1021-22. 



j <*> School, 


Middle 
Schools . 


Primary , Special 
Schools. ; Schools. 


llurct - 
o raised 
Schools. 


i TOT AT,. 


Institu 3 




<n I 


"a" "HT 




a 




*~ 




tious. g ^ 2 




? i 






2 




% 




** H r 


o 
A 


+= i S 







'*" ' 








1 J! 8 ~ 




M \ */3 


i 1 ; a \ 





= 





j- 


o 


For males ' 2 ' 188 5 

i 


12, KM. 


52 5.r. 


1 4d: 2.S12 17 

! ' 


900 


1 


-0 


IS. I 


2l?,()48 


Foi females 4 ;.!58 ' 88 


13,081 


78 7,(i(5')J :< 2.320 35 


618 






201 


24,572 








. 


f" i j" 





" - 


_ ^ 


_ __ 


TOTAL . S4G 153 


25,247 


130 l:U2- 




1,517 


1 


20 


HJ 


4t.,020* 


i 


1 



* Of these 51, 782 sue l^iuopeans and the n-st. Ivloim to othei 



(6) Kuro/)ean scholars according to stages of instruction, 

1921-22. 











" "'""" ( 


Scholars. 


CoKegiafce 
Staj?e. 


Higli 
Stage. 


M.rtdle 

Stage. 


Prlin.'iry 


Special 
School. 


nwl ! To'lAIj. 
School*, i 













- - j !_. 


Males . 


355 


l,77G 


4.SHU 


14.S97 


1,020 


4<> i 22,087 


Female 


r,:, 


1,270 


4.390 


1 1.51 


907 


2i | 21,651 


TOTAL 


550 


3,055 


0,295 


.7 


1,927 


44,638f 



f This includes 2,856 Kuiopean scholars leading in institutions for Indians. 

388. In 1916-17, there were 7 colleges, 150 high, 142 
middle, 97 primary, 48 special and 2 unrecognised schools, 
with a total enrolment of 42,621, of whom 39,530 wer$ 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 

Europeans. (The details will be found in the supplemental 
tables in Vol. II.) rr 

The decrease in the total number of secondary schools is 
due to the adoption of a policy of concentration, which will 
be described later. 

389. European education presents a number of interesting 
problems some of which were discussed at a conference held 
in Simla in 1912; an account of this conference was given 
in the last quinquennial review. Many of these problems 
are still unsettled, while others have arisen since the intro- 
duction of the constitutional reforms. Before considering 
them I subjoin a table showing the expenditure on European Expenditure, 
education and the sources from which it is derived. 

Expenditure on recognised institutions for Europeans. 





E X PKN D ITUR E FH OM 








TOTAL 


Year. 




" 






KXI'KNDT- 




(.Government 


Hoard 


1 1 


Other 


FTKK. 




Funds. 


Funds. 


J'fl'H. 


Sou rev*. 






R*. 


Ks. 


Rs. 


Us. 


Rs. 




i 








11)21.22 . 


40,70.<M)8 


2i,(>r>3 


49,00,770 


3<i,73,S3r> 


1,32,73,22(> 


11)16-17 . 


3G,4l>.8J$;j 


27,908 


S3,41JS3 


20,87.2] 4 


90,03,188 



390. The outstanding* feature of the above table is the very Fees, 
high proportion of the cost (about G5 per cent.) which is met 
from fees and from private sources The corresponding* 
figures for Tiulian education are as follows and show that 
only 35 per cont. of the total expenditure is met from fees, 
etc.' 

Expenditure on recognised institutions for Indians. 



FHOM 



Year. 




TOTAL 
EXPENDI- 
TURE. 


Government 
Funds. 

Rs. 


Board 
Funds. 


Fees. 


Other 
Sources. 

Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


1921-22 . 


8,55,59,000 


2,47,09,497 


3,31,01,878 


2,71,09,308 


17,04,79,743 


1916-17 . 


3,55,15,970 


2,22,89,710 


2,8r>,29.9r>5 

i 


1,69,44,245 


10,32,79,880 



194 PROGEESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

Fees. 391. It is satisfactory to note that, when the cost of 

European education rose in company with the general rise in 
prices after the war, the greater part of the additional expendi- 
ture was met by the community itself in the shape of increased 
fees. While the cost to Government of each European 
scholar rose from Es. 81 to Its. 103 the average fee paid for 
each scholar rose from Us. 80 to Rs. 108. In Bombay and 
in the Punjab the appreciation of the fee rates is phenomenal; 
in Bombay the cost to Government of each scholar fell from 
Rs. 101 to Rs. 100 while the average fee rose from Rs. 68 
to Rs. 124; in the Punjab, Government expenditure fell from 
Rs. 195 to Rs. 190 per scholar, while the average fee paid 
rose from Rs. 113 to Rs. 241. The fee charges are of course 
greatest in hill schools, where they amount to about Rs. 40 
or Rs. 50 a month. For example, in the St. Paul's School at 
Darjeeling.the fee for boarders is from Rs. 75 to Rs. 80 
aiid for day boys from Rs. 30 to Rs. 40; in the Bishop Cotton 
School, Simla, the fee for boarders is Rs. 50, and for day boys 
Rs. 16. 

A partial explanation of the comparatively large fees 
charged in European schools is to be found in a difference in 
the hostel systems of Indian and European schools. A 
boarder at an Indian school pays at the most a small charge 
for his accommodation and makes his own arrangements for 
his food; a European boarder pays an inclusive fee to the 
school which, in accordance with the ordinary English prac- 
tice, provides him with both board and lodging, sometimes 
also with clothing. About half of ike amount included 
under the head of fees in the table for European schools 
represents boarding charges. 

Hill Schools. 392. It will be deduced from this fact that many of the 
European scholars are boarders. This is the case. European 
schools fall roughly into three categories. There are first the 
hill schools situated at centres such as Simla, Murree, 
Mussoorie, Darjeeling and in the Nilgiris. Every European 
parent will, in the interests of his children's health, send 
them for education to a temperate climate if he can afford 
to do so; the more well-to-do send their children to England; 
the majority have to be content with sending them to schools 
in the hills. Consequently many of the hill schools are 
very crowded and some of them have long waiting lists. 
The schools have done their best to expand to meet the 
demand. During the past five years the Dow Hill and 
Victoria schools at Kurseong have adopted extensive build- 
ing alterations, including new dormitory buildings estimated 
to cost over five lakhs, towards which Sir Percy Newson made 
a munificent donation of two lakhs. At Simla, the Auckland 
School for Girls has provided itself with a fine new building 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AKD COMMUNITIES. 195 

and the Ayrcliff High School has purchased new premises. 
The Boys' "School at Ghoragali has been completely rebuilt. 
The S. P. G. Mission is opening two large boarding schools 
at Ranehi, one for boys and one for girls, the buildings of 
which are estimated to cost 3J lakhs. 

" In 1921 the Lahore Diocesan Board of Education adopt- 
ed a comprehensive policy, not yet carried to completion, 
of transferring all but primary schools to the hills. In 
pursuance of this policy the boys were sent from Lahore to 
the Lawrence School at Ghoragali; all the girls to St. Denys' 
School at Murree." 3 

Another striking illustration of the preference of 
European parents for hill schools is the action taken by Ihe 
Bombay Educational Society, which has acquired a fine site 
at Deolali and proposes to move to that spot the large board- 
ing schools which it at present maintains in Bombay. " The 
whole scheme involving the transfer of 500 boys and girls 
from the fever-stricken atmosphere of Byculla to the upland 
breezes of the plateau is fraught with enormous advantages 
to the domiciled community." 3 

393. Towards the close of the quinquennium the Secretary 
of State sanctioned the provincialisation of the Lawrence 
Memorial School, Ootacamund. This school is designed pri- 
marily for the orphans and children of British Officers and 
soldiers who are serving or have served in India. It is under a 
managing committee composed largely of military officers. 
Tinder the new arrangement the Government of Madras will 
assume full financial control and responsibility for the in^fi- 
tutioii in return for certain grants which tlie Government of 
India have agreed (o make for its support. 

394. Even if the accommodation at the hill schools were not Concentration 
limited, there must still remain a demand for European day of schools^ 
schools in large centres of population in the plains. Some m the P lams> 
of these schools such as La Martiniere schools at Calcutta 

and Lucknow and the Dove ton schools at Madras have estab- 
lished fine traditions. But the need for concentration of 
effort with a view to the economy of resources is everywhere 
felt. Iii Madras the question is pressing, but hitherto 
sectarian and social differences have stood in the way of a 
solution. These obstacles have fortunately been overcome in 
Bombay, where the amalgamation of the Indo-British with 
the Bombay Educational Society's schools was effected in 
1921 and subsequently the authorities of the Cathedral 
schools, the Bombay Scottish Educational Society and the 
Bombay Educational Society have decided to pool their assets 

1 Punjab, p. 134. 
3 Bombay report. 



196 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION 1ST INDIA. 

and work with a combined staff. " The religious difficulty- 
has been solved by allowing each religious body freedom to 
give religious instruction to the pupils on Presbyterian or 
Anglican lines according to the parent's wishes." 4 

395. A third class of European schools are those situated at 
small centres on the plains, such as railway junctions, where 
there may be a group of European subordinate officials with 
their families. In this case too concentration is possible and 
has in some cases been achieved. The North Western Rail- 
way, for example, has adopted this policy. " Hitherto there 
has been a certain number of small schools in remote places 
generally maintained or assisted by the Railway authorities; 
and these can neither be staffed nor maintained in such a way 
that discipline and teaching would ordinarily be satisfactory. 
Many of these have been closed; and the Railway has pro- 
vided a liberal system of scholarships by which its employees 
can sond their children to schools in the hills. " 5 

Admiuion of 39G. In order to obtain admission into a European school it 
non- i g no t necessary that a child shall be born of parents wholly or 

uropeans. even partially European. The term ' European ' as used for 
educational purposes has a wide extension. Amongst the 
qiias /-Europeans, for example, are the Armenians, who are 
admitted freely to European schools on the strength of a 
charter granted by the East India Company according the 
community equal rights and privileges with the English in 
perpet.uo. Besides admitting those whose claims to be re- 
garded as Europeans are doubtful, European schools have 
always been open to a certain number of non-Europeans. 
The maximum number of non-Europeans admissible to any 
school was originally fixed by the European School ('ode at 
15 per cent, of the enrolment. A school with a higher per- 
centage of non-Europeans on its rolls ceased to be classed 
as a European school. Fn accordance with the powers vested 
in local governments to modify the provisions of the rode 
this percentage has been relaxed in some provinces, for ex- 
ample in Bombay, where it has now been raised to 20 per 
cent, or in the ease of a few exceptional schools to 33 per 
cent. The object of the original provision in the code was 
to permit the admission to European schools of the children 
of those well-to-do Indians, who desired to provide their sons 
with an education more approximating to that of an English 
secondary school than that obtainable in an Indian high school. 
The concession has been valued and a general relaxation of the 
percentage up to 25 per cent, has been advocated. If, as 
some urge without sufficient consideration, there is no restrie- 

4 Bombay report. 

5 Punjab, p. 134. 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 197 

tion placed upon the admission of non-Europeans into European 
schools there is a risk that in time the schools may lose their 
European character. In this event they would neither satisfy 
the needs of the community in whose interests they were 
founded (and in some cases endowed), nor would they con- 
tinue to attract the class of Indian pupils who now attend 
them. On the other hand, there is an increasing number of 
non-European families whose habits are such that their chil- 
dren are more at home in European schools. In some parts 
of India " the attempt to subdivide our educational system 
into two sub-systems Indian and European bused on purely 
racial distinctions has largely broken down ; there is a 
steadily increasing pressure for the admission of non-Europeans 
which many think it desirable to encourage, regarding habits 
of life rather than difference of race as the proper basis of 
organisation." 6 Actually the question is of academic rather 
than of practical interest. It is very rare for European 
schools to contain the full percentage of non-European 
children admissible. Caste and custom prevent much advan- 
tage being taken of the boarding schools: few Indian parents 
are prepared io pay the high fees charged for tuition in 
European schools: "still fewer have children qualified to 
receive instruction from the lowest stage through the English 
medium. There are moreover many Indian parents who doubt 
whether such complete anglicisation is the best preparation 
to fit an Indian boy for his future environment. 

397.. Every phase of Indian education has its exam i nation r lho 
problem and European education is no exception to the rule. Cambridge 
The subject was discussed in the last Quinquennial Review. * <' ca * 
The point then and still at issue was the relative merits of 
provincial examinations conducted by departments of educa- 
tion and the Cambridge Local examinations. The latter 
have been adopted as standard examinations in most provin- 
ces The chief merit claimed for them is the general recogni- 
tion accorded to them throughout the world. This argument 
has received negative support from the disrepute into which 
for various causes some departmental examinations had 
fallen. It would have more force if any appreciable number 
of children reading in European high schools intended fo 
leave India for further study. Educationally there is very 
little to be said in favour of the substitution of the Cambridge 
Locals for departmental examinations. The Cambridge ex- 
aminations are not merely external, omitting all practical 
tests or reference to the school records, they are positively 
alien to those children to whom India is, through birth or 
adoption, home. They cannot of course make India the 

6 Bengal, p. 71. 



198 PHOGKESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

starting point in such subjects as history and geography; 
they ignore Indian money, weights and measures and those 
Indian vernaculars which they accept as optional subjects are 
treated as dead languages. 

Departmental 393. The unsuitability of the Cambridge examinations was 
Examination*. rea i ised by t]ie Association of European Headmasters who 
proposed that the Government of India should conduct an all- 
India examination for European schools. There is much 
that is attractive in this proposal. Unfortunately the pro- 
vincialisation of education under the Reforms did not easily 
permit of its acceptance. Meanwhile, steps have been taken 
to improve the departmental examinations. For example, in 
the Central Provinces with the object of making the examina- 
tions less external a board has been formed, consisting of the 
Director of Public Instruction, two non-official members 
representing the Protestant and Roman Catholic schools, the 
Inspector of European schools and the Inspectress. The 
Board appoints examiners, moderates question papers and 
decides results in which not only the marks obtained in the 
written examination but also the conduct and record of school 
work of the pupils are taken into consideration. 

399. With the development of school-leaving certificate ex- 
aminations in which provision is made for such optional 
subjects us English history, French and Latin for boys and 
domestic, economy for girls, the time may not be far distant 
when the need for a separate examination for European schools 
will be less obvious. The change is likely to be hastened by 
the increasing tendency of Anglo-Indian youths to proceed to 
Indian universities. 

Collegiate 400. Even at the Conference of 1912 it. was realised that 

education. j^e community was behindhand in the matter of collegiate and 
professional education. The temptation offered by the high 
rates of pay obtainable by a lad who has passed the Senior 
Cambridge examination has in the past lured most Anglo- 
Indian boys straight from school to work. The introduction 
of representative forms of government and the adoption of 
a policy of Indianisation in the public services revealed the 
fact that, in spite of the considerable annual output iroin 
European high schools, the number of Anglo-Indians qualified 
for admission to the superior services or capable of representing 
the community in public life was woefully small. A pro- 
posal to found a separate university or college for the domi- 
ciled community, which found favour in 1912, met with no 
support from any authoritative quarter. Even if there had 
been means to found and endow such an institution it would 
only have served to accentuate the distinction between the 
education of Exiropeans and Indians in this country. The 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 199 

orientation of European education has beeif prof oundly affect- 
ed by recent political developments. The leaders of the com- 
munity increasingly realise that the future of the Anglo- 
Indian youth lies in India and that if Anglo-Indians are to 
compete" on equal terms with other Indian communities they 
must avail themselves of the opportunities for higher educa- 
tion afforded by Indian universities. The recognition of this 
fact has led to the foundation in Lahore of a hostel named 
after the Revd. Oswald Young-husband, to whose labours it 
was due, for the Anglo-Indians attending the Punjab Univer- 
sity. Its effect should be "to bring the community into 
closer and therefore happier relations with Indian students.'* 7 

As the Calcutta University Commission point out, " it 
is desirable that, intending as they do, to earn their livelihood 
in India, these younger members of the European domiciled 
community should be brought into association, during the years 
of their University and Technological training, with the 
young Indians with whom afterwards they will be brought 
into association in business or in other ways." 

401. Although so few European boys proceed to a degree or Set-col 
enter the liberal professions, the great majority of European attendance, 
children attend school for some years. The suggestion made 

by the Conference of 1912 that education should be compul- 
sory for European children in India was rejected on the 
ground that it was unnecessary. In Madras, to cite a single 
instance, of a total Anglo-Indian population of 23,481 at the 
last census no less than 8,889 or 37*8 per cent, were attending 
school. In spite of a fall of 10 per cent, in the Anglo-Indian 
population in Madras during the last five years there has 
been a rise of eight per cent, in the number of Anglo-Indian 
pupils. 

402. The curricula both for boys and girls have been Curricula, 
modified in the Punjab and in Madras by the introduction of 
practical subjects such as domestic economy and manual 
training. Unfortunately neither the accommodation available 

in hill schools nor the funds at the disposal of school managers 
allow for any general provision for science teaching. In 
other subjects the standard of work is reported to have im- 
proved. The advance may be ascribed to an improvement in 
the quality of staff in which the percentage of trained teachers ?tftff * 
rose from' 49 to nearly 55 out of 8,700. In order to attract 
teachers and to meet the increased cost of living the pay of 
the European school staff has been considerably enhanced. 



'Punjab, p. X35. 



200 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IX INDIA. 



The United Provinces scale introduced in 1921 may be taken 
as typical : 



and the wr. 



Numbers. 



Assistant 
masters. 


Assistant 
mistresses. 


R*. 


Us. 


15010250 


100-5150 


175 10275 


110 -5- -160 


22510326 


170 - --245 



ness. 



High school trained 
Intermediate 
H.A. . 



403. European schools are now recovering from the effects of 
Tar. " In the boys' schools many masters offered them- 
selves for service and there was difficulty in replacing them. 
In some instances it was possible to get disabled military 
officers ; more often the teaching, as in England, was given 
to women. Otherwise the men who remained had to bear the 

burden of extra work There is one beneficial result 

of the War. By service and sacrifice old boys and masters 
have created lasting traditions, that will wake responses in 
the hearts and lives of generations of scholars/' 8 

(Hi) Muhammadan Education. 

404. Approximately one-fourth of the inhabitants of British 
India profess the Muhammadan religion. Of these sixty 
million Muhammadans about two millions are in school. The 
following statement shows that the increase in the number 
of Muhammadan scholars has just kept pace with the growth 
of the Muhammadan population in British India. 

Malta mniadan Scholar* and Population. 



Year, 


No. of 
Muhamma- 
dan scholars. 


Percentage of 
Muhamma- 
dan popula- 
tion to total 
population. 


Percentage of 
Muhamma- 
dan scholars 
to Muhamma- 
dan popula- 
tion. 


Percentage of 
Muhamma- 
dan scholars 
to total 
scholars. 


1921-22 


1,900.442 


24-1 


3-3 


23-5 












1916-17 


l,t4.304 


23-r> 


3-2 


23-2 



Causes for 405. The community has still much lee-way to make up 

backward- before it reaches the educational level of the Hindus. There is 
no difficulty in assigning reasons for its backwardness. To the 

United Prove., p. 128. 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSKS AND COMMUNITIES. 201 

Muhammadan parent religious education is of far more im- 
portance than, secular; indeed, to many old-fashioned Muham- 
madans, more especially to the miillas, secular education is 
regarded rather as a hindrance than a help to religious 
instruction. (In Burma the force of their opposition is still 
strongly felt.) Even those Muhammadan boys who do attend 
vsecular schools have first to undergo religious education. 
Hence inuny start their secular education late. Moreover, 
the influence of the antique methods of instruction practised 
in the Koran schools affects their secular studies. (One of the 
first lessons that the small ex-student of the tnaktab must 
learn is to read without swaying the body to and fro.) This 
influence has been corrected, to some extent, by the opening 
of Islamta schools, staffed by qualified teachers, which provide 
both secular and religious instruction. 

A second cause for the backwardness of the community i.s 
to be found in the fact that the bulk of the Muhammadan 
population belongs to the agricultural classes. This is 
specially the case in Eastern Bengal and the North West of 
India. In these regions the spread of education amongst 
Muhammadans is often synonymous with the spread of educa- 
tion in rural areas. 

406. Again, when Urdu is not the local vernacular the The langu 
problem of Muhammadan education is complicated by the problem, 
desire of the Muhammadan parents to have Urdu taught to 

their children in school. This difficulty is not felt in the 
United Provinces, in the Punjab and in the North-West 
Frontier Province, where Urdu is one of the recognised media 
of instruction in the ordinary primary school. But in the 
Bombay Presidency proper the problem of leaching two 
vernacular languages in the primary stage has required care- 
ful consideration. At the request of the community the 
Bombay Government introduced two special sorts of Urdu 
standards for Primary schools in 1918; in the one the medium 
of instruction is Urdu, the local vernacular being taught as a 
second language; in the other, the medium is the local verna- 
cular and Urdu is a second language. Of 840 Urdu primary 
schools in the Presidency proper 505 have adopted the former 
system and 335 the latter. In Burma one deputy inspector 
reports that the future of Urdu " is not all dark, symptoms 
of its progress seem looming on the horizon. Urdu which 
was quite Greek to the people here some five years back has 
now become a lingua franca in the Mandalay bazar. It is 
hoped that in a very short time it will be a home language 
among the Muhammadans here." 9 

407. The special difficulties attending the early e'ducation of 
young Muhammadans are reflected in the percentages of 

' Burma, p. 71. 



202 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



scholars of different communities who reach the higher stages 
of education. 

Percentages of scholars in the different stages of instruction,* 



Scholars in 


1916-17. 


1921-22. 


Muhamma- 
dans. 


All other 
communities. 


Muhamina- 
dans. 


All other 
communities.- 


College stage 


0-3 


0-9 


04 


0-8 


High stage 


1-8 


3-0 


1-5 


3-0 


Middle stage 


3-5 


5-3 


3-7 


5-C 


Primary stag 


78-1 


82-6 


81-8 


82-5 


Special schools . 


3-6 


1-3 


2-1 


1-4 


Unrecognised schools . 
TOTAL 


12-7 


6-9 


10-5 


6-7 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 



Signs of 408. In the long run the increased attendance in the 

progress. primary stages must affect the number in secondary schools, 

more especially since the community is now alive to the need 

for higher education. 

Of the Rawalpindi Division of the Punjab, for example, 
which shows a phenomenal increase of 65*2 per cent, in the 
attendance of Muhammadans at school, the Inspector writes:' 
" The Great War had a stimulating effect on the people; the 
military scholarships have brought a number of boys, almost 
all Muhammadans, to school; and, more important ihan these 
as an impetus to education, are the new prospects in military- 
service offered to people of military classes, who in this divi- 
sion are mostly Muhammadans. These prospects they cannot 
profit by unless they have English education, and it is for 
this reason that even in the remotest corners of the division, 
in places where the people were regarded as almost outside 
the pale of humanity, they are now clamouring for Anglo- 
vernacular schools." 10 

Special en- 409. An account of the various measures which have been 

oouragement. ^ a j :en ^ encourage Muhammadan education was given in the 

last Quinquennial Eeview. Chief among these are the ap- 

1- Punjab, p. 13fi[ " 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 208 

pdintment of special Muhammadan Inspectors, tlie employ- 
ment of Muhaminadan teachers, the establishment in places of 
special Muhainmadan schools and the reservation of scholar- 
ships for Muhammadan children. During the past five years 
further development has been made on the same lines. In 
Bihar and Orissa, the number of special inspecting officers Bihar and 
for Muhammadans was increased by eight district or sub- Orissa. 
inspectors and by seven inspecting maulvis. In addition 
a Superintendent of Islamic Studies was appointed; whose 
duty will lie mainly in the improvement of the mad- 
rasaas but who will advise also on genernl questions affecting 
the education of Muhammadans. In this province the number 
of training schools for Muhammadan teachers was increased 
from 12 to 15, though it is difficult to obtain qualified candi- 
dates for training. Six peripatetic teachers are also provided 
for the education of Muhammadan women and twenty-six 
atus who teach Muhammadan girls collected for the purpose 
at convenient centres. In Madras, too, three additional Madras. 
Muhammadan inspecting officers were appointed besides one 
for Muhammadan women. In Bengal, a scheme for the estab- Bengal, 
lishment of Islamic Matriculation and Intermediate Examin- 
ations was sanctioned by the Government in 1918. They 
were at first departmental examinations, but their control has 
now been transferred to the newly-constituted Intermediate 
and Secondary Education Board, Dacca. In Bombay Bombay, 
in addition to the Muhammadans employed on the 
ordinary inspecting staff there are four special deputy 
inspectors for Muhammadan education, one for each division 
of the Presidency proper, and three special deputy inspectors 
foriMulla schools in Sind with twelve assistants. It is difficult 
to secure men with the required qualifications. Of thirty- 
seven Muhammadans employed in inspection, and secondary 
schools only twelve are graduates. Special Urdu classes have 
been attached to vernacular training colleges in this Presi- 
dency; there are now six such classes and it is proposed to 
convert them into separate institutions. In Burma four train- Burma, 
ing classes for Urdu masters were opened which are " the 
best hope at present for the improvement and permanence of 
the schools they serve." 11 

410. Among the new measures taken by Government to Madras* 
encourage Muhammadan education during the quinquennium 
is the opening by the Government of Madras of a Muham- 
madan college in the Madrassa building and of three Muham- 
madan high schools, and the duplication of classes in certain 
high schools in order that the Muhammadan pupils may 
receive their instruction through the medium of TJrdu. 

11 Burma, p. 17 



204 



PROGBES3 OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



United 
Provinces. 



Sind. 



411. A comprehensive scheme was initiated by the Govern- 
ment of the United Provinces in 1916. Though the ordinary 
schools are open to all classes, it was felt that they were not 
always acceptable to MuLammadan parents and a rule has 
therefore been framed to the effect that district boards should 
open special Islamia primary schools in any village where a 
sufficient number of Muhammadan parents come forward to 
guarantee the attendance of at least twenty boys. District 
Boards are required to provide properly qualified Muham- 
madan teachers for these schools in which the ordinary cur- 
riculum is taught wholly in Urdu. Since k some Muhammadan 
parents are averse to sending their boys to secular schools 
measures were taken at the same time for the encouragement 
of maktabs. A special curriculum of the secular subjects to be 
taught in them was drawn up. A maktab committee was 
appointed in each district for the supervision and encourage- 
ment of this class of schools and a central in ale tab committee 
for the whole province. Eor the proper supervision of Mu- 
hammadan education a special Muhammadan inspector was 
appointed for the province and special deputy inspectors, one 
for each division. The scheme has been in force for about 
five years and its advantages and its weaknesses are now 
apparent. " The Muhammadan community have been grati- 
fied by having separate schools and have patronised them 
freely, but at the sacrifice of a sounder secular education that 
could have been found in the ordinary district board 
schools/' 12 The number of Muhammadan pupils in the ordi- 
nary board schools has declined during the last two years by 
eight thousand. On the other hand, the number of scholars 
in the Lslamia schools has increased from 3,000 to 21,000 and 
in aided maktabs from 9,000 to 23,000. As a result five per 
cent, of the Muhammadan male population of the "United 
Provinces is being educated as against 3-73 of the Hindus. 

412. The following figures show how the Mulla school 
system in Sind has expanded during the quinquennium 15 : 



Year, 


No. of 
pchoc.ls. 


NO. OF PUPILS. 


No. of de- 
puty edu- 
cational 
inspectors. 


Xo. of 
Assistants. 


Grant. 


Boy-;. 


OirK 















Us. 


1917-18 . 


580 


11,388 


tU'!7 


1 


3 


44,012 


1918-19 . 


827 


15,775 


6,461 





11 


78,509 


1919-20 . 


1,318 


25,378 


10,322 


3 


12 


1,60,994 


1920-21 . 


1,430 


28,740 


8,080 


3 


12 


1,90,978 


1921-22 . 


1,010 


20,121 


8,799 


3 


12 


1,34,328 



"United Prove., p. 130. 
13 Bombay report. 



JDUCATIOJM OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND tOMMUNITIES. 305 

The drop in the number of schools in the last year of the 
quinquennium is due to the adoption of a deliberate policy of 
concentration on the more efficient schools. It is admitted 
that hitherto the midla schools have not proved verv effective 
in coping with the problem of illiteracy. But there are signs 
of improvement. " I regard ", says the Inspector in Sind, " as 
the most hopeful sign for the ultimate success of these schools 
the readiness with which the Mullas have themselves sub- 
mitted to training. Four classes are ordinarily held in 
different parts of Smd for three months each during the year 
and about a hundred Mullas are trained every year. that 
these men, many of them grey-beards, should consent to sit 
on a bench and be taught like school boys is, I consider, a 
very remarkable thing." 14 It is to be hoped that the standard 
of instruction will rise. It is not in the interests of the 
Muhammadan community that they should bo encouraged to 
attend special denominational institutions, if the standard of 
education therein provided is so low that the ex-pupils find 
themselves at a disadvantage when compared with the ex- 
pupils of the Loral Board schools in after life. 

413. The most backward section of the Muhammadan popu- The Frontier 

lation^of India is naturally to be found in the tribal areas and 

agencies on the north-west frontier of India. Even here, in 

spite of an Afghan war, a Mahsud campaign and the usual 

frontier disturbances, some headway has been made with edu- 

cation in recent years. There are now thirty-one primary 

schools with an attendance of 1,166 pupils and two secondary 

schools attended by 340 pupils in agencies or trans-border 

tracts. In the Malakand Agency, for example, where secular 

education was quite unknown a few years ago, there is now 

a secondary school with 120 pupils and eight primary schools 

with 268 pupils. The Islamia College situated at the mouth 

of the Khyber Pass continues to draw students from various 

frontier tribes. It included on its rolls at the close of the 

quinquennium, two Sayeds and three Mahstids from Wana, 

one Waziri from the Tochi* two Turis from Kurram, eight 

Afridis and three Shinwaris from the Khyber Pass, seven 

Akhunzadas from Lower Swat, five Swatis from Upper Swat 

and eight Ohitralis (including four members of the ruling 

family). The civilising power of education is put to a severe 

test when it is applied to such material and the conti nuance 

of a blood feud during vacations is not unknown. 



(iv) Education of Depressed 

414. It is not easy to explain what is meant by the Meaning of 
depressed classes/ The term bears a different significance in term. 

14 Bombay report. 



o2 



206 



PEOGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Segregation. 



different provinces, even in different parts of the same province. 
Consequently no general statistics that would bear scrutiny 
can be supplied of the educational progress among the de- 
pressed classes. From the point of view of the educationist 
a child may be said to belong to a depressed class 
if his or her presence in the common school is re- 
sented by respectable parents. It is in fact this 
prejudice, even more than their own disinclination for 
schooling, which has kept the depressed classes educationally 
backward. Sometimes even when low caste children are ad- 
mitted into ordinary schools they are segregated from the 
other children arid made to sit on special benches. In the 
Multan Division, for example, * boys of low castes such as 
chant ars, musalis, and sans is occasionally attend ordinary 
schools, but they are generally seated apart from the Children 
of higher castes.' 15 Such segregation, however much to be 
deprecated, cannot seriously affect the children's education, 
but there can be little advantage, except possibly in prestige, 
gained by an Adi-Dravida child who on admission to 
school is seated outside the school building. It has been 
found necessary to prohibit this practice in Madras. In the 
Central Provinces also a committee, which was set up by 
Government in 1921 to consider amongst other things the 
education of the depressed classes, has found it necessary to 
recommend equality of treatment for all castes admitted inside 
the school. 



Low- caste 
schools. 



Increasing 
attendance 
at ordinary 
schools. 



415. To avoid difficulties arising from prejudice a certain 
number of low-caste schools are to be found in most parts of 
India. These schools are not particularly efficient. There is 
a natural difficulty in obtaining teachers for them as high- 
caste masters do not wish to serve in sucli schools and so lar 
the depressed classes have been able to produce few teachers. 
It is a most hopeful sign of the times that all provincial 
reports record a tendency to discard special schools, an in- 
crease in the number of low-class boys attending ordinary 
schools and, what is even more surprising, a larger attendance 
of high-caste boys at the so-called low-caste schools. Local 
Governments have consistently made it their aim to abolish 
all distinctions of caste and creed in the public elementary 
(a) Madras, schools. The Madras Government, for example, has by suc- 
cessive orders issued in 1919, 1920 and 1922 emphasised the 
necessity for the free admission of boys of the depressed 
classes to schools under public management. It is now only 
where such schools or mission schools have no accommodation- 
for more scholars and where in addition there is a large de- 
pressed community that the opening of a special school is- 



"Punjab, p. 143 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 207 

sanctioned. Another obstacle to the admission of low-caste 
children to schools under public ^management in Madras is 
being gradually overcome. In 1921-22 nearly one hundred 
and fifty schools situated in temples and rented buildings the 
owners of which objected to the admission of Adi-Dravidas 
have been removed to premises accessible to all castes. In the 
Central Provinces the same policy has always been followed. 
" Consistently with the policy of the equal right of all castes to Provmce8 - 
education, and lest the opening of special schools should be 
held to justify the exclusion of depressed classes pupils from 
the ordinary schools in the same locality, Government has never 
encouraged the opening of specially designated schools for 
depressed classes in localities in which facilities exist for edu- 
cation in ordinary schools. On the other hand, in localities 
where the majority of the pupils are drawn from the depressed 
classes, forty- two vernacular schools ostensibly intended for 
these classes exist." 16 " In the Amballa Division of the 
Punjab there are only 15 low-caste schools against 30 five years ( c ) 
ago, and the attendance at these schools has fallen from 703 
to 410. On the other hand the attendance of low-caste children 
at ordinary schools in the Division has risen by 482 to 772. " 17 
In the Lahore Division although 47 schools are returned as low- 
caste schools they actually contain 431 low-caste and 1,733 
high-caste children. In the United Provinces " the marked pa 
increase of attendance of low-caste boys in the mixed schools is 
significant of a lessening prejudice among their school fellows, 
:md resentment at ostracism is shown by a growing objection 
to the present nomenclature of the special schools/' 18 

416. Whether, if all such obstacles to attendance were over- Causes of 
come, there would be any large increase in the number of low- ir 
caste boys attending school is uncertain. On this point the evi- 

fiance is con Dieting. In the Fyzabad Division of the "United 
Provinces, for instance, the chairmen and the inspectors agree 
that the rise in wages has retarded progress. The zamindars, 
too, are reported to be averse to elevating these classes, and 
they themselves are unambitious, and so it seems that what 
progress has been made is due to the Government, to its local 
officials and to certain middle class enthusiasts. On the other 
hand, the chairman of the Etawah Board reports that " once 
the leading members of these communities were sympatheti- 
cally approached, I found there was a tremendous craving 
for education.*' 10 

417. There is no doubt that these communities depend 
more than any other on the earnings of their children to 

16 Central Provs., p. 82. 

17 Punjab, p. 143. 

19 United Provs., p. 153. 
59 United Provs., p. 134. 



208 % PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

supplement the family budget. In Madras it is necessary; 
to offer inducements to the* parents of Adi-Dravida children 
to persuade them to send their children to school, since, they 
prefer to send them out to earn and, if to school at all, to 
night schools. From Tiyhut it is reported that in Saran 
special measures have been adopted for the education of Doms, 
quarterly payments being made to the parents of those who 
attend school. The rate of these payments varies from Us. 4 
to Us. 48 per quarter according to the class in which the boy 
is reading. In this province Bihar and Orissa small capi- 
tation allowances are sometimes given to ieaeheis of primary 
schools for teaching children of the depressed classes. 

The Namasudra community in Bengal is ' ' raising its status 
rapidly, and, arguing mainly from its consistent educational 
advance, is constantly making out a case for being regarded 
as other than back ward. " 20 

418. The prejudice against the admission of low-caste 
children into public schools is felt more strongly in towns- 
than in rural areas. If compulsory education is to be in- 
troduced effective!}" in towns, it is clear that for some time to 
come municipal committees must be prepared to undertake the 
cost of providing separate schools for children belonging to the 
depressed classes. 

(v) Education of Aboriginal and Hill Tribes. 

419. Unlike the depressed classes who are found in con- 
siderable numbers in all parts of India, the aboriginal and hill 
tribes are confined to certain areas, into which indeed thpy 
were driven in early times by more civilised invaders. Their 
education presents peculiar difficulties. They are addicted,, 
almost without exception, to pastoral or agricultural pursuits. 
They have no ambition to enter clerical employment or 
Government service, nor have they, like the depressed classes, 
any feeling of inferiority to their neighbours, which might 
create in Iheni a spirit of discontent with their lot. On the 
contrary, they are often a very contented folk. Of the Eastern 
Tharus of the United Provinces an inspector writes: "I am 
not sure that these people are ready for literacy; they seem 
to be quite happy and proud of their forest environment, and 
in many respects they are far superior to their neighbours 
particularly as regards hygiene. There is no scope for the 
literate inside the jungle belt and the Tharu cannot live m 
the open plains. " Another very serious difficulty is the great 
variety -of the languages spoken by these hill folk and their 
complete lack of any literature. Many of the languages have 

2W Bengal, p. 84 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 209 

only been reduced to script, and thereby standardised, by mis- 
sionaries in recent jrears. In the Naff a Hills "it is almost TheNagas. 
possible to botanise in languages probably in all the world 
the area most prolific in this kind. Here we have schools 
for Angamis, and schools for Aos, schools for Lhotas and 
schools for Semas, and there il a whole range of tribes or 
peoples practically untaught because their language is uii- 
teachable. Tribal traditions exclude the possibility of settl- 
ing one Naga language for the whole area. The tribes dwell 
aloof from one another in linguistic isolation. 

" To teacL these little peoples in their own languages is 
to restrict them to the opportunities of enlightenment which 
their languages afford. Even in the case 01 the largest and 
the most advanced of the hill races the preparation of text- 
books is a very serious obstacle. In all cases the elaboration 
of a literature is an impossibility." 21 

420. It must not be thought that the fact that a tribe is des- 
cribed as aboriginal necessarily implies that its standard of 
civilisation is below that of its neighbours. Although this Khaais. 
is often the ruse yet some of these trtnes have made innrli 
advance in civilisation in recent years. Such, for instance, 
are the Khasis oi the Assam hills. The Khasis are, as a tribe, 
ammists (worshipping a $nako), but they have taken readily 
to Christianity. Education in the, Assam hills is chiefly in 
the hands of Christian Missions. Amongst the Khasis there 
are now 390 schools run by the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist 
Mission, 10 by lloman Catholic Missions and 70 by Khasi 
Christians. The number of pupils has increased during th 
quinquennium from 11,220 to 13,772. Co-education is uni- 
versal; for the Khasis follow the matriarchal system. 
Education is free except in a few rice-collection schools. 



421 . In the Garo Hills the policy in recent years has been 
to transfer mission schools to Government management. Of the 
155 schools 101 are now under Government. The Director is 
doubtful of the wisdom of this policy- The number of scholars 
has fallen from 4,252 to 3,920 and the standard of instruction 
in the schools appears to be very low. Their own deputy 
inspector remarks: " I have very little to say on the progress. 
While in other places the progress has busily been engaged at 
and it is moving about like other planets in the firmament it has 
been quite stationary here just like the sun." 22 

422. In the neighbouring- province of Bengal there are a T h* Sonthafc 
number of schools for aboriginal classes in the Chittagong Hill 
Tracts as well as two boards of Sonthal education in the dis- 
tricts of Midnapore and Bankura. Schools for Sonthals have 



tl Assam, p. 101. 
aa Assam, p. 99. 



210 



PJIOGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Aboriginals 
of (a) Bihar 
and Orissa. 



(6) The 
Madras 
Presidency. 



(c) The 
Bombay 
Presidency. 



also been opened in the Dinajpur district. The bulk of thi* 
community resides in* the province of Bihar and Orissa, the 
( rovernment of which has ado'pted a number of special measures 
to provide for the education of aborigines. It maintains a 
special staff of two deputy inspectors and thirteen sub-inspec- 
tors for the inspection of aboriginal classes. It reserves three 
jural guru-training-schools for aborigines and aids five mission 
training schools. It reserves a number of scholarships for 
pupils of this class and allows their admission to Government 
schools at reduced rates. There are 58,900 aborigines attend- 
ing school in Bihar and Orissa (including 8,000 girls), of whom 
't6 have actually reached the university stage. 

423. In Madras there are a number of special schools for 
such communities as the Cheuchus, Lambadis, Irulas, and a 
training school for Khonds and Panos has been opened at 
Udayagiri. The progress of education among the Todas in the 
Nilgiri Hills has had its vicissitudes, but Government and 
private donors have provided scholarships to enable Tex la boys 
to read in the Municipal High School at Oolacamund. 

424. Fair progress is reported from Bombay in the educa- 
tion of Bhils, Kolis and similar aboriginal tribes. The number 
that reach the higher stages is stall very small ; not one hundred 
out of twelve thousand pupils were, in the secondary stage in 
1922. Still the number of teachers recruited from these tribes 
is increasing. ( Treat efforts have been made in recent years to 
promote education among the Kaliparaj, an aboriginal tribe 
living in the half forest tracts of Surat. At first trained 
teachers were sent to their villages, but finding the surround- 
ings uncongenial they directed their energies to getting their 
schools closed. A central school was then started as an ex- 
periment to educate Kaliparaj boys to become teachers for 
their own community. The success of Hie school lius been 
phenomenal. On three different occasions a boy from this 
school has stood first among 500 competitors, mostly of advanc- 
ed Guzerati communities, at the entrance examination of the 
Ahmedabad Training College. There are now 70 ex-students 
of this school teaching in village schools of their community. 
In this direction the school has nearly fulfilled its function; 
and the question of developing agricultural and technical 
training here and at the Diwa Central School for Bhila 
and Kolis in Broach is under consideration. 

Much good has been accomplished in the Bombay Presi- 
dency in recent yqars by the Depressed ('lasses Mission Society 
which is carrying on work on the same lines as that conducted 
by Christian missions for many years. The Society has its 
headquarters at Poona with branches at Bombay and Hubli, 
and has received support from many members of higher 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 

(vi) Education of Criminal Tribes. 

425. Still lower in*the scale of civilisation are the criminal 
tribes. The hereditary occupation of these people is thieving, 
in particular cattle-lifting and house-breaking. They are 
for obvious reasons usually nomadic. Under the Criminal 
Tribes Act Government is empowered to settle any notified 
criminal tribe in u definite locality, where endeavours can be 
made to convert the settlers and the children into good citi- 
zens by enabling them to earn an honest living and providing 
the children with education and moral instruction. There Settlements 
are ten such settlements in the Madras Presidency of which in Madras, 
seven are managed by private societies and three by Govern- 
ment. Each settlement has its own school at which attendance 
is compulsory. There were altogether 1,443 scholars in these 
schools at the close of the quinquennium, of whom 53 were 
adults % The Madras Government have also established two 
industrial schools under the management of the Salvation 
Army one at Bangalore for boys and one at Nellore for girls- 
In addition to general knowledge the boys are taught garden- 
ing, silk-worm rearing and silk reeling and the girjs domestic 
duties, needlework and lace-making. 

42(5. In Hie Punjab a criminal tribes department was Schools in the 
established in 1917. It had during ihe first year five schools Punjab, 
attended by L } 71 pupils. The number has increased. There are 
now twenty schools for boys with 730 pupils and thirteen for 
girls with 431 pupils. There are in addition 116 boys attend- 
ing industrial schools and 1,855 attending ordinary primary 
schools in the districts. The officer in charge considers ihat 
the children of criminal tribes are usually " more impression- 
able and above the average in intelligence." It is perhaps 
not surprising to hear that " they pick up things more quickly 
than ordinary children and retain them." Education is now 
compulsory for boys from criminal tribes in settlements be- 
tween the ages of six and twelve or up to the primary standard. 
Boys of this class are exempt from fees. Several youths of 
the Mina criminal tribe have passed Ihe normal school exa- 
mination and are working as teachers in -chools for their 
community. 

427. In the Bombay Presidency there are thirty-six schools schools in 
for children belonging to criminal tribes with an attendance of Bombay. 
1,477 : but there are in addition four thousand children of this 
class attending ordinary or mission schools. There has been 
great difficulty in obtaining good teachers for the special 
school^; consequently, though education is. compulsory in 
criminal settlements, there has been a good deal of stagnation 
in the lower classes. This difficulty is being gradually over- 
come. The large settlements at Rholapur and Hubli and the 



212 



PROGRESS OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Madras. 



In Bengal. 



Tea garden 
schools. 



smaller settlements at Baramati and Gokak are under tne 
management of missions, which have provided for education 
on a generous scale, with whole-time lady superintendents. 
A similar appointment has now been made for Government 
settlements. 

(mi) Education of Children of Labourers in Factories and 

Tea Gardens. 

428. There is a marked increase in the number of schools 
for the children employed and the dependents of the 
labourers in private factories. This points to an awakening 
on the part of the employers to a sense of their duties towards 
their employees. For example, in Madras alone, the 
number of *uch schools has increased from five to twenty-six 
with a final enrolment of nearly 3,000 pupils. The largest 
and best of these schools are those attached to the Buckingham 
and Carnatic Mills. Messrs. Orr & Sons, Scientific Instru- 
ment makers, have established a work school to improve the 
education of the young boys employed by them. Practical 
classes are taught by the European Works Manager and the 
literary classes by a trained Indian teacher. Government 
meets half the cOvst of this experiment. This example has been 
followed by Messrs. Addison & Co., who have established u 
set of classes for the apprentices employed in their printing 
press. 

429. In Bengal, the number of pupils in the three schools 
for children employed in factories has risen by 150 per cent, 
from 1,000 in 1916-17 to 2,500 in 1921-22. The schools are 
in a very flourishing condition. 

Among schools for the children of tho,-e engaged in special 
industries may be mention^ the schools for the children of 
fishermen in Dacca where in addiiion to instruction in the 
three R's boat-repairing and net-making are taught. 

430. The largest class of schools of this character is that 
provided for the children of tea-garden coolies in the hill dis- 
tricts of Bengal and Assam. The number of tea-garden schools 
fell during the past five years from 136 to 94 in Bengal and 
from 149 to 81 in Assam. "These figures speak for them- 
selves. Managers are not actively hostile. The majority are 
benevolently detached. Were there a demand, they might 
encourage it, but in most gardens there is no demand. The 
advantage of the existing schools is not obvious to those con- 
cerned. The labour force, recruited from the backward areas 
of many provinces, speaking ha'lf a hundred languages of 
their own and for common use in the garden and bazar tlie 
macaronic dialect of the garden which they serve, do not want 
schools to teach them literary Bengali or Assamese. Indeed 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 

they do not want schools at all, and when there is no pressure 
or compulsion outside the tea-garden there i ; s nothing- to b3 
said in favour of pressure or compulsion in the lines. 1 ' 23 
Nevertheless it is possible that the trouble recently experi- 
enced in the tea-gardens might have been less if the coolies 
had not been steeped in ignorance and so listened too readily 
to the appeals of the agitators. The decline in the Bengal 
schools is also attributed to the general depression in the tea 
market and the prevailing distress which compelled many 
children to forsake school and work as whole-time labourers. 

In ordov to illustrate what may be accomplished by 
employers who recognise their responsibilities and the value 
of education for their operatives, t givo at greater length ;m 
He-count of two educnfiomil experiments, the one in a factory 
under private management, the other in a group of Gov- 
ernment factories. 

431. From a recent Bureau publication is taken this des- AI jamahed. 
cription of the educational work carried on by the Tata Iron ir (Bihar 
and Steel Company at Jamshedpur (a town in the Singhbhuni nnt Onssa )- 
district of Bihar and Orissa). The area now in possession^ of 
this Company covers about 25 square miles with a population 
of about 71,000, excluding a considerable number of coolies who 
come to the town daily for their work but live in the neigh- 
bouring villages. The first school started in this town was the 
Mrs. Perin Memorial School, opened as a middle school in 
1915 in memory of the wife of the consulting engineer to the 
Company. Since that date the school has developed into a 
high school working up to class XI, and is regarded as com- 
petent to present candidates for the school-leaving certificate 
examination. The number of pupils on the roll is 127. Tins 
number seems small for so large a town, but apparently many 
of the boys in Jamshedpur obtain employment in the works 
when they are young and also the proportion of persons living 
with tlieir families at Jamshedpur is probably lo.wer than else- 
where. There is also a girls' school teaching up to the upper 
primary stage with 88 pupils on the roll and six teachers. Tt 
contains Hindi and Bengali sections. The Mrs. Perin Memo- 
rial Technical School meets in the evening for teaching draw- 
ing, mathematics, mensuration, and mechanics to apprentice* 
in "the Steel Works. The school is attended by fifty students. 
The commercial school, designed for the instruction of clerks in 
shorthand and typewriting, is attended by fifty students. 
The English school, designed for the instruction of tho^e 
children, whose parents wish them to be taught through the 
medium of English, is under the supervision of an An^lo- 
Indian lady. It is attended by eleven pupils in various 

" Assam, p. 63. 



TROGBBSS OF EDUCATION 'iN INDIA. 



Education in 
Government 
Ordnance 
Factories. 



Range of 
technical 
training. 



stages of primary education. The latter three schools have 
no buildings of their own, but are housed in the Mrs. Perin 
Memorial and girls' schools. There are two primary schools 
managed directly by the Company attended by 231 scholars. 
The English teacher is common to both schools and teachers in 
each school for three clays in the week. In addition to the 
above schools there are nine upper primary schools with which 
the Company has less direct connection. They have in all 
768 pupils with 27 teachers. Some of these schools were 
started by the Servants of India Society, which however gave 
up work in Janisliedpur at the time of the strike. These 
schools are now placed under the Welfare Department of the 
Company. The general administration of the schools is in the 
hands of an influential committee including employees of the 
Company and two Indian ladies. Government gives gr&ata 
towards the recurring expenses. 

(rm) Education find Irainintj in the Government Ordnance 

Factories. 

432. The following account of the education of youths 
employed arid the children of employees in Ordnance Factories 
has been supplied by Major-General Kenyon, Director General 
of Ordnance in India. It has been incorporated without 
change : 

The Government Ordnance Factories are at present eight 
in number; the Metal and Steel Factory and Rifle Factory at 
Ishapore near Barrackpore to the north of Calcutta; Ammuni- 
tion Factories at Dum-Dum, near Calcutta, and al Kirkee 
near Pooiui; Gun Carriage Factory, Jubbulpore ; Harness and 
Saddlery Factory, Cawnpore; Cordite Factory, Aruvankadu 
near Coouoor, Nilgiris, South India. The Ammunition 
Factory at Dum-Dum is about to be closed and will not be 
referred to again. 

Besides the men and boys employed in the factories (a 
rough approximation being 1,500 to 2,000 in each factory in 
peace time) there are workmen's lines or villages belonging 
to the factories in which a number of the employes and their 
families live and the policy is to offer educational facilities 
for these. At Ishapore about 1,200 families are housed; at 
Jubbulpore about 900; at Cordite Factory, 300; afc Kirkee, 
100. 

433. These factories c*rer a wide range of industries or 
trades and in them, therefore, Government have an ex- 
cellent series of establishments in which it is possible to orga- 
nize good technical training of a thoroughly practical nature 
coupled with theoretical instruction. The lads learn to work 
under factory conditions, which they cannot do in a technical 
college. It is hoped that very shortly such a system will be 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 215 

definitely approved and the present extemporized appren- 
ticeship training be improved and put on a permanent basis. 

As to what can be taught in the factories, the following < 
observations give some idea. All factories are run electrically 
with their own generators, which are driven either by steam 
power, internal combustion engines t or water power. At the 
Metal and Steel Factory, there are acid and basic open hearth 
steel furnaces, steel bar and rod rolling mills; brass making, 
rolling and drawing; foundry and ami thy work; forging plant, 
etc. In the Rifle Factory probably the finest repetition inter- 
changeable work done in India is carried out. At the Gun 
and Shell Factory, varied machine work (breach mechanisms, 
fuze, shells) of a high standard of accuracy, is carried on. 
At Jubbulpore, general engineering work of a varied nature 
and of a high quality is done. At Kirkee, there is a good 
deal of varied engineering work besides explosives* work. At 
Cawnpore, good leather from Indian hides is produced in the 
tannery and curriery and harness, saddlery and leather work 
of many sorts is carried on. At Cordite Factory, nitric and 
sulphuric acid are made as well as gun cotton, nitre-glycerine 
and cordite; a good training in chemical engineering can be 
obtained there. The finest gauge making and tool making 
are done in most of the above factories, and drawing office 
instruction i< nlso given. 

434. The educational scheme, which the factories are endea- Momentary 
vouring to follow is to provide primary and Anglo-vernacula r education, 
education for the children living in the lines and as much 
compulsion as possible is brought to bear on these children to 

make them attend and a similar. policy is followed with boys 
employed in the factories. As regards the latter, the normal 
procedure now followed is to make regular school attendance 
a condition, when a new boy is taken on, and for existing boys 
a condition, when an increment of pay is given; in such cases 
also, a small deduction of about 8 annas a month is made from 
the boy's pay and used towards the maintenance of the school. 
To avoid harshness especially on boys, who come from a dis- 
tance and would have difficulty in attending the factory 
school, compulsion has not been suddenly or universally 
applied, but is being gradually extended. 

435. Besides financing the schools by contributions from th 
bays as explained above, at Jubbulpore and Cawnpore, a 
monthly grant is made from Factory funcfs, whilst at 
Jubbulpore and Ishapore the provincial governments make 
grants. In eveiy case, stress is laid on English, as if the boys 
eventually go into the Factory, a knowledge of English is 
very useful in enabling them to gltfid notices, drawings, ins- 
tructions, etc., and to go on to theniore advanced instruction^ 
which is given to " Boy artisans " and " Apprentices. " 



216 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

436. At the Rifle Factory, Ishapore, with the concurrence 
and co-operation, of the Bengal education authorities, a some- 
what original curriculum has been drawn up to give such 
elementary education as will be specially useful for artisans ; 
the time spent on the vernacular has been reduced and as 
much time as possible given to English, arithmetic and draw- 
ing. This is rather in "the nature of an experiment in the 
training of boys intended for an engineering career. 

At Ishapore, a small beginning is also being made to 
prevent lapse back into illiteracy, which is, however, probably 
more common in purely country areas where a boy never sees 
anything, even notices or advertisements, to read. This 
attempt is taking the form of getting the Factory Co-opera- 
tive Society, which is a flourishing concern, to stock a few 
cheap books and it is hoped in co-operation with the schools 
to get a sale for these; this, if successful, should also help 
children to learn to read, as many a child, when he has once 
begun to read, wi]l rapidly improve if he can have cheap story 
books to read by himself. As the effort is to teach English 
as much as possible, the large choice of elementary and nicely 
illustrated children's books published in English can be made 
use of for this purpose. Suitable vernacular books of this 
sort are far less obtainable. 

437. At Kirkee, there is a group of schools run by the 
Alegaonkar Brothers in the neighbourhood of the Factory and 
factory boys are encouraged and to some extent coerced into 
attending these schools. Boys whose pay has been fixed on the 
understanding that they attend school get their pay cut if 
their attendance is unsatisfactory, lleports are received from 
the schools to enable this point to be watched. The boys' 
contributions to these schools for the year amount to about 
Ks. 1,500 in the year. 

One of the Messrs. Alegaonkar's schools is situated in the 
Factory Workmen's Lines, so that the children in the Lines 
can -o there easily. Two quarters in the Lines have been 
given up for this purpose. 

438. At Cordite Factory, an evening school has been run for 
some three years by the clerical staff of the Factory on purely 
voluntary lines. It is very creditable to the clerical staff 
that they have initiated and persevered in this work. There 
are about 85 on the rolls, mostly boys, though there are some 
of the men of the Factory. The classes are held immediately 
after the Factory closes, in premises in the Factory; the ins- 
truction is principally in English and Tamil. It is very 
pleasing to find this pra^cal idea of service to their unedu- 
cated fellow countrymenus evinced by the factory clerks. 
The approximate numbers in the factory schools are 120 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 217 

at Ishapore; 25 Cossipore; 115 Cawnpore; 95 Jubbulpore; 
278 Kirkee ; 85 Cordite Factory. 

439. Boy artisans are boys who are in training to become 
skilled artisans. For their practical training they are attached 
to skilled workmen, whilst for instruction in English and for 
theoretical training they are sent into the schools connected 
with the factories. To take the Rifle Factory, as an example, 
there are at present 30 boy artisans, who are normally recruit- 
ed after leaving school and are usually the sons of factory 
workmen ; their age at recruitment is from 14 to 16 ; they are 
compelled to attend a night school in the Factory school and 
those under 15 attend the day school from 3 to 4 P.M. on work- 
ing days (i.e., in working hours). The work includes English, 
Elementary Mathematics and Drawing, all of which will be 
directly useful for them in the Factory. 

Similar arrangements are in operation at Cossipore, Cawn- 
pore and Jubbulpore, theoretical instruction up to 10 or 12 
hours a week being given in class rooms in the Factory pre- 
mises during working hours. There are 76 boy artisans 
under training at Jubbulpore, 58 at Cossipore, 89 at 
Cawnpore. 

440. The most advanced form of training and education Apprentice 
that the Ordnance Factories attempt is that of apprentices, training. 

Somewhat different methods are followed at each of the 
factories according to local facilities for theoretical instruc- 
tion, housing, recruits obtainable, etc. 

Apprentices generally begin on Us. 40 a month, increas- 
ing in subsequent years. A deduction is made if they are 
housed as is the case occasionally. They have to keep factory 
hours and to observe factory discipline. They are given 10 
to 12 hours theoretical instruction in working hours per week 
and are encouraged to do more. For their practical work, 
they go through a definite prescribed course of so many hours 
or days in*feach part of the factory. The whole course usually 
lasts five years. An apprentice must have received a good edu- 
cation before he is accepted ; no definite educational standard 
has yet been laid down as the scheme is new and to some 
extent experimental and each factory had to establish its own 
connection and ascertain what class of youth they could 
obtain. Experience is showing that there is plenty of demand 
from parents and the lads themselves for this training. There 
can be no two opinions as to the importance of this sort of 
training for the progress of the country. It has worked out 
so far that at Ishapore the apprentices are nearly all Hindus 
and the standard for admission is Intermediate Arts or 
Science, though .some B.A's and B.Sc's have been taken. At 
Cossipore also the apprentices are nearly all Hindus; at 



218 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Theoretical 
instruction 
for appren- 
tices. 



Jubbulpoiv and Kirkee they are principally, though not 
entirely, European or Anglo-Indian; at Cordite Factory, 14 
are European or Anglo-Indian and 18 are Indian; at Cawn- 
pore, 3 are European or Anglo-Indian, 9 are Indian. In 
every cae there are considerable waiting lists and applica- 
tions coine from all over the country. At a recent competi- 
tive examination at Jubbulpore, there were 43 candidates for 
14 vacancies and ot those rejected 10 were matriculates. The 
educational standard aimed at is that of I. A. or I.Sc. or 
corresponding qualification from European schools. An age 
limit has not been definitely fixed till it is seen how supply 
and demand balance, but nineteen is looked upon as a 
desirable maximum. 

441. Different methods have had to be adopted to give the 
necessary theoretical instruction, according to what local 
facilities are available. The Rifle Factory staff have shown 
an excellent spirit of unselfish service in undertaking this 
theoretical instruction in addition to their other factory duties ; 
in this way more advanced instruction in mathematics and 
science is being given, without any outside help or remunera- 
tion, than had originally been thought possible. The original 
idea of apprenticeship had aimed at most at producing lads 
who might eventually become foremen. At Ishapore, owing 
to the unexpectedly high class of lad or young man which lias 
come forward and to the high standard of instruction that 
has been given by the staff it seems to be possible that the Fac- 
tory may turn out men fit later on to be appointed to the officer 
grades of the factories staff after probationary periods in 
the lower ranks. 

442. The Cossipore apprentices get their theoretical instruc- 
tion by attending the Calcutta Technical School; at Jubbul- 
pore, the co-operation of the Robertson College has been secured 
and the lads attend classes specially arranged for them there. 
At Cawnpore, the factory staff give special lectures on tanning 
and curriery work and the apprentices take courses from the 
International Correspondence School. These courses are also 
undertaken (compulsorily in every case) by the apprentice* 
at Kirkee and Cordite Factory. * As said above 10 to- 12 
hours a week in working hours are allotted to this theoretical 
work. 

In every factory, the apprentices are encouraged and 
helped to go in for games and sports and some very success- 
ful teams have been turned out by them. 

443. There is evidence that the bad old idea in India that 
manual labour and factory work were degrading and beneath 
the dignity of lads of good families is slowly breaking down. 
The factory staff have had to face this difficulty and a good 



EDUCATION OP SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 219 

'deal of persuasion and humouring have had to be used, but 
progress seems to have been made. By starting a lad in the 
Iiard grimy work of the smithy it is soon seen if his heart is 
in the work. 

444. The lads have to sign an agreement before being taken After 

on and are given a certificate on completion of the course show- e nploymsnt. 
ing what they have done. On completion of their course, 
they are free to leave the Ordnance Factories and to seek 
employment elsewhere if they like. On the other hand, if 
they wish to stay on, employment would be offered them in 
the Ordnance Factories. If a lad was very efficient and if a 
vacancy occurred he might be taken on first, on completing 
liis apprenticeship in a supervisory capacity, on perhaps 
Rs. 150 a month; otherwise he would probably start on 
Hs. 100 or 120, perfecting his training in some particular 
branch of work; in temporary supervisory billets .he might 
a-ise toward Rs. 200 a month; the lowest permanent posts are 
those of chargemeii, who commence on Rs. 200 rising even- 
tually to Rs. 350 with contributory provident fund; above 
the chargemen come assistant foremen (Rs. 375 to 490) and 
foremen (Rs. 500 to G50). There is no bar to an apprentice 
rising to these positions, provided he is qualified by technical 
knowledge, efficiency and character. 

The scheme for apprentice training in the Ordnance Fac- 
tories aims at training 120 at the Metal and Steel Factory, 
the Rifle Factory and Gun and Shell Factory, Cossipore, 
combined; 50 at Jubbulpore; 40 at Cawnpore; 40 at Kirkee; 
and 40 at Cordite 1 Factory. Approximately two-thirds of 
these numbers have already been reached. European, Ano'lo- 
Indians and Indians are all accepted, and the training is such 
that they should eventually be able to rise to the rank of 
foreman, though the apprentices are free to leave the 
Ordnance Factories and seek employment elsewhere if they 
prefer to do so. 

(ix) Education of Defectives. 

445. Considering the limited funds at the disposal of pro- Lmnted 
vincial governments and local bodies for the provision of educa- activity, 
tion for the whole, there is no reason to wonder that little 
attempt has been made to provide education for the defective. 

The traditions of the country assign the care of the poor and 
helpless to their relatives and neither public nor private philan- 
thropy has hitherto been called upon to maintain those large 
institutions for the destitute and the disabled which form 
such a feature of western civilisation. Consequently, although 
the last census returns show that the number of blind and deaf- 



220 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Statistics 



mute children between the ages of five and fifteen in British? 
India is at least 73,000, there are in all India only eleven 
schools for the blind and thirteen schools for deaf-mutes. It 
is doubtful, even if there had been any demand for an increase 
in their number, whether public opinion would have favoured 
the diversion of funds to this purpose. The advantages of 
teaching a blind child to read or a deaf-mute to speak are too^ 
remote to make any effective appeal in a society Which still 
measures education largely by its economic value. But the 
fact that the attendance at these institutions is only 1,183 
shows that for some time to come they are capable of meeting 
any natural increase in demand. The institutions are distri- 
buted as follows : 

Statistics of Blind and Deaf and Dumb schools, 1921-22. 



Education fnr 
employment. 









NO. OF PUPILS. 






Schools 


Schools 






Province. 


for deaf- 


for the 








It KM ARKS. 




mutes . 


blind. 


Deaf- 
mutes. 


Blind. 


Total. 




Madras . 


4 


2 


(No in 


formation). 


330 




Bombay 


4 


^j 


01 


89 


18<> 


Thevo are 












a few more 


Bengal . 





1 


(No information). 


42 


institutions 












for wliirh 


United Provinces . 


1 




40 


40 


no statis 


1 










tics mi 




1 




28 


2S 


a\ uilablc. 


Burma ... 1 


3 


19 


80 


90 




Bihar and Orissa . 


.. 


1 


.. 


60 


GO 




Central Provinces & 


1 




11 




11 




13trar. 












TOTAL . ' 13 


11 


121 


297 


1,18'i 





Figures defective for want of complete information. 

446. These schools all provide some practical training suit- 
jf or defectives, such as basket-making, mat-weaving and 
music for the blind and tailoring and carpentry for the deaf- 
mutes. It is reported from Bombay that many of the blind 
become musicians and find a ready patronage in private houses. 
Blind musicians are also employed as instructors in girls' 
schools. Some blind Muhammadans memorise the Koran and 
are employed as Koran instructors in maktabs or Muazzins in 
mosques. But the number of defectives who so earn a liveli- 
hood is very small ; many, it has been said, are maintained by 
their families; many, on the other hand, maintain themselves 
by their infirmity. " The blind can, as a rule, earn more 
by mendicancy than by following a craft, and it is further 
vsaid that those who have once tasted the joys of the road 
are loath to settle down to a life of humdrum toil." 24 

a4 Bombay report. 



EDUCATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES AND COMMUNITIES. 2'21 

447. In Bengal, a school for deficient children was opened other 
by Miss De Laplace at Kurseong in 1918. This school is pro- schools. 
bably the first of its kind in India and trains children who 
through mental or physical defects cannot derive much benefit 
from the instruction given, in ordinary schools. Instruction 

is imparted by means of special apparatus, exercises and disci- 
pline suited to the nature of each individual case and it i& 
reported that remarkable results have been achieved. The 
Bengal Government made a capital grant of Rs. 30,000 for 
the purchase of a site and also give a small monthly grant- 
in-aid. 

The special school attached to the Leper Asylum at 
Purulia in Bihar and Orissa had 111 boys and 135 girls on 
its rolls at the end of the period under review. 

448. The Bombay Government in 1920 appointed a coin- The Bombay 
mittee to consider the education of defectives and as a icsult of committee, 
its recommendations offered liberal assistance up to two-thirds 

of the cost of maintenance to private and public- bodies willing 
to start schools for these unfortunates ; but so far the response 
has been small. A few individuals and societies, such as 
Professor Advani of Hyderabad arid the Indian Association 
of Workers for the Blind, Mysore, keep alive some public 
interest in this subject but the time for any general advance 
is not yet come. 



222 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



CHAPTER X. 

EDUCATION IN THE ARMY. 

General aims. 449. The Army in India undertakes the responsibility of 
the education of certain sections of the community. Its acti- 
vities are directed into various channels with certain definite 
objects, which may be summarised as follows: 

(i) The education of the soldier, British and Indian, in 
order to 

(a) develop his training faculties; 

(6) improve him as a subject for military training and 
as a citizen of the Empire; 

(c) enhance the prospects of remunerative employment on 
his return to civil life. 

(li) The fulfilment of the obligations of the State to the 
rhildren of soldiers serving and ex-service (British and 
Indian). 

(Hi) The provision, as far as possible, of training for the 
children of soldiers, who have died in the service of their 
country. 

(iv) The creation of a body of Indian gentlemen educated 
according to English public school traditions, which should 
provide suitable candidates for admission to the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst. 

The schemes and institutions designed for the carrying 
out of these objects are in various stages of development. In 
some cases they are the modification or improvement of some 
older existing' institution and, in others, new organisations 
have been necessary to meet new requirements. 

450. The scheme for the education of the British soldier in 
India is the one adopted for the whole British Army with 
suitable modifications. The principle, which is the basis for 
this scheme, is that enunciated in the Manual of Educational 
Training " Educational training is an integral part of the 
normal training of a soldier " and, under this principle, 
officers and non-commissioned officers are as responsible for 
the education of the rank and file as for actual military 
training. 

451. To assist Commanding Officers a corps of education 
experts consisting of officers, warrant officers and sergeants, 
and known as the Army Educational Corps has been formed. 
The personnel of this Corps are attached to the various forma- 
tions and units, a due proportion being allotted to the Indian 
establishment of British troops. On account of the retrench- 



The British 
oldier. 



EDUCATION IN THE ARMY. 223 

ment advocated by the Geddes Committee and further, in 
India, by the Inchcape Committee, the Corps has been so 
greatly reduced that the original conception of its work has 
had to be considerably modified. 

452. The constant changes necessitated have been a great 
handicap to steady progress, but the position is now stabilized 
and a definite routine established. Stages in educational pro- 

fress are marked by examinations through which the success- 
ill candidates become the possessors of the 3rd, 2nd, 1st 
Class and Special Army Certificates of Education, respectively. 
All men must be in possession of the 2nd Class Certificate to 
be eligible for Proficiency Pay, and for promotion to warrant 
rank the 1st Class Certificate is necessary. The Special 
Certificate, the standard of which is approximately that of 
the Matriculation of the Home universities, forms a link with 
civil education, and is obtained by the man, who wishes to 
continue his education after leaving the Army, or to engage 
in some occupation in which a considerable degree of literacy 
is required. The teaching up to the standard of the 2nd 
Class Certificate is actually done by the officers and non- 
commissioned officers of the units. The higher training is 
given by a warrant officer or sergeant of the Army Educa- 
tional Corps, attached to each unit, who also advises and 
assists in the more technical branches of the preliminary 
work. 

453. In order that regimental officers and non-commission- 
ed officers should be fitted for this branch of their duties a 
School of Education has been founded at Wellington with a 
staff of 9 instructors, where, during a course lasting 13 weeks, 
those attending are imbued with accepted education princi- 
ples; afforded opportunities of refreshing their knowledge of 
certain class subjects; taught the elements of agricultural 
science, and given instruction and practice in the art of 
lecturing. All officers are compelled to attend one of these 
courses before promotion to Captain. 

454. An important branch of educational training is yet vocational 
in its infancy, but already much has been done in districts training, 
where facilities exist. This is the preparation of the British 
soldier for his return to civil life. Vocational training is the 

means to this end. Since for the purpose no additional funds 
are available, no training centre exists similar to the Houn- 
slow and Catterick Vocational Training Centres at Home, bub 
in large towns, like Calcutta, the assistance of local firms has 
been enlisted and men who are due for transfer to the Home 
establishment in the approaching Trooping Season are allowed 
to spend the last 3-6 months of their service with a selected 
firm learning a new trade, or refreshing their knowledge of 



224 



I'KOGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



The Indian 
soldier. 



British 

LOldiers' 

children. 



one in which they were previously engaged. The great assist- 
ance afforded by the various firms to this important branch 
of work for the economic welfare of the Empire is an encourag- 
ing factor. 

455. The education of the Indian sepoy presents greater 
difficulties owing to : 

(a) the extreme illiteracy of the average Indian recruit; 
(6) the scarcity of instructors. 

The old type of teacher was found to be generally unsuit- 
able to carry out the new educational ideals and endeavour H 
have been made to create a new body of educationalists of the 
right type. The Indian Army School of Education has been 
established at Belgaum with aims similar to those of the 
British Army School of Education at Wellington. Candidates 
for training at this school are selected from (a) the ranks of 
the better educated serving soldiers, (6) existing civilian 
schoolmasters, and (c) demobilised and pensioned Indian 
officers and soldiers. These are under instruction for 2 or 3 
terms of 13 weeks each by a staff of 5 British officers and 10 
Indian officers and at the end of their course are recommended 
by the Commandant for a siiitable rank in the Indian Army 
Educational Corps and posted to units. Up to date 322 of 
various ranks have been trained and posted particularly to 
training battalions. 

The Indian Army Educational Corps is composed entirely 
of Indian personnel. 

The minimum standard for military efficiency in the case 
of the Indian soldier comprises 

(a) ability to take part in a simple conversation in Urdu 
the lingua franca of the Indian Army on mili- 
tary topics; 

(fe) Literacy in Urdu in the Roman character. 

In addition, the following subjects form part of the curri- 
yuluin in Indian units : 

Map reading, geography, physical education, Indian and 
regimental history and Indian citizenship. Certain suggested 
standards have been laid down which men should attain pro- 
gressively throughout their service, but Commanding Officers 
are allowed considerable latitude in their application. 

456. The educational needs of the children of British sol- 
diers are met largely by t!he various regimental schools. No 
great changes have taken place in this direction, but an 
endeavour has been made to improve the qualification of the 
teachers and, as far as the present financial stringency will 
allow, to improve and supplement the obsolete furniture, 



EDUCATION IN THE ARMY. 225 

apparatus, books, etc. The education given in many of these 
schools compares favourably with that obtainable in the best 
primary schools at Home. These schools do not complete 
the provision made to fulfil the obligations of Government to 
afford adequate education for the children of the British 
soldier. The Lawrence Military School at Saiiawar, men- 
tioned in the last Quinquennial Review, provides accommoda- 
tion for about 500 boys and girls, including a number of 
orphans, and educates them from the kindergarten, stage to the 
standard required for the High School examination. In addi- 
tion, the girls acquire the elements of domestic science, 
the boys do a certain amoui\t of manual training; and com- 
mercial subjects are taught to both. Soldiers' orphans are 
admitted to the school free and the fees for other children 
are adjusted according to the rank and income of the parents. 

457. It has been realized for some time that some provi- Indian 
sioii for the education of the children of the Indian soldier is 
urgently required. Sons of the martial classes have been 
found to be extremely backward educationally and the diffi- 
culty of compelling their attendance at school, during the 
absence of the father with his regiment, has also been realised. 

A scheme has therefore been completed, which it is hoped 
will accomplish for the Indian soldier's child what is being 
so successfully carried out for the British soldier's child at 
Saiiawar. It lias been decided to establish, for this purpose, 
in those areas which contain the majority of the military 
classes, a number of schools to be named the King George's 
Royal Military Schools and which will serve as a memorial 
to those Indians who fell in the Great War. " The Patriotic 
Fund " of about Its. 11 lakhs lias, by the express wish of His 
Majesty the King-Emperor, been appropriated for initial ex- 
penses and this will admit of the immediate erection and 
equipment of three schools. During his recent visit, His 
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales laid the foundation 
stones of two of these at Jullundur and Aurangabad Serai 
respectively, and it is expected that these two will be ready 
for opening early in 1924. The building of the third at 
Bareilly, United* Provinces, is, for the present, postponed. 
The aim of each school will be to afford education of the 
Anglo-vernacular middle standard to approximately 200 child- 
ren. Orphans and sons of disabled soldiers will be admitted 
to the schools free of all costs and the fees of other children 
will he proportionate to the parents' means. 

458. In addition to this scheme the foundation stone has 
been laid at New Delhi by His Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales of the Kitchener 'College. This institution is for the 
purpose of providing a high school education for the sons of 
Indian officers, and will accommodate 400 students. A sum 



226 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

of Us. 3 lakhs subscribed by Ruling Chiefs as a memorial to* 
the late Lord Kitchener has been contributed towards the 
Us. 33 lakhs required for the initial cost of building, but 
owing to the lack of further funds, it is regretted that the- 
actual erection of the College cannot be proceeded with at 
present. 

w!! 459 ' The lastj bllt not least of tlie ob J ects of * ke educa - 
Indian Mi tional activities of the army in India, is being realized at the 
tary College, institution known as The Prince of Wales Royal Indian 
Military College at Dehra Dun. The foundation stone was- 
laid by His Royal Highness in February 1922, and the Col- 
lege was opened with 40 students shortly afterwards, a num- 
ber which has now increased to 70 the limit prescribed by 
the present accommodation. The Commandant, who is an. 
officer of the Indian Army, has a staff of 13 masters and 
instructors, who are supplied partly by the Indian Educational 
Service ; the Army Educational Corps ; the Indian Army, and- 
partly by civilian masters recruited in England. It includes 
vernacular teachers and a maulvi, a garanthi and a shastri for 
religious instruction. The staff and cadets are accommodated' 
in the buildings of the Old Indian Cadet Corps. The aim of 
the institution is to provide education on the lines of an- 
English public school for the sons of Indian gentlemen, both 
civil and military, up to the standard required for passing: 
the Entrance examination of the Royal Military College, 
Sandhurst, and the excellent results so far produced are shown 
by the fact that of the six candidates nominated for the Royal 5 
Military College in May 1923 the first two were educated at* 
the School. 



MISCELLANEOUS . 



227 



CHAPTER XI. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1 . Priva te Inst it u t w n * . 

460. The foregoing chapters of the report have dealt only statistic*. 
with public or recognised institutions, that is to say, insti- 
tutions which conform to certain standards and comply with 
certain regulations laid down by Government or by the univer- 
sities. There are, however, in India over 34,000 unrecognised 
institutions, containing over six hundred thousand pupils. 

Private Institutions. 



ADVANCED 
Arabic or Persian 

Sanskrit . 

Other Oriental Classics 



ELEMENTARY 



Koran Schools 



Vernacular Schools 



Other Schools 



?s of Institutions. 


1916-17. | 1921-22. 


f Schools 
" ( Pupils 


1,250 
33,435 


818 
27,379 


f" Schools 
' (. Pupils 


1,061 
17,914 


720 
13,940 


( Schools 
( Pupils 


698 
9,269 


64 
954 


C Schools 
TOTAL . } 
( Pupils 

LRY 


3,009 
60,618 


1,602 
42,279 


i 


f Schools 


7,950 


7,047 


(. Pupils 


165,939 


145,987 


f Schools 


24,510 


23,671 


1 Pupils 


343,901 


325,267 


C Schools 


2,334 


2,487 


(. Pupils 

C Schools 
TOTAL . } 
(. Pupils 


74,180 


125,593* 


34,794 
584,020 


33,205 
596,846 


f Schools 
LN T D TOTAL . 5 
( Pupils 


37,803 
644,638 


34,807 
639,125 



228 



PROGBESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Religious 
"Schools. 



In Burma. 



In Sind. 



461. A large number of the institutions included in the 
above table are relics of the old indigenous systems of learning 
in this country. They vary in importance from such institu- 
tions as the Darul-Ulum at Deoband (United Provinces) and 
the Guruliul at Hardwar to mulla schools in which the Koran 
is taught by rote, pat&liulas kepi by old Hindu pandits and 
landemahajani schools teaching the Indian system of book- 
keeping to children of the bania class. Even of Ihe schools 
classed in the foregoing table as vernacular schools it is pro- 
bable that the majority fall under one or other of these heads. 

462. Many private schools are wholly or primarily religious 
in character and give no instruction in the three R's. With 
the addition of secular subjects to their courses they tend to 
become absorbed in the ranks of recognised schools. If they 
still remain outside the public school system, it is not as a rule 
from any dislike on the part of the managers to the acceptance 
of recognition or aid from public revenues. On the contrary, 
the Inspector of Sanskrit Patshalas in the United Provinces 
says that " the matter of recognition engages too much atten- 
tion in private institutions; some managers attempt to gain 
recognition in spite of inefficient teaching, by enticing good 
boys from other schools; some engage pandits of good attain- 
ments temporarily." 1 But the public resources for education 
being limited they cannot justifiably be spent on subsidising 
institutions which do not directly contribute to the reduction 
of illiteracy. 

4(53 Burma supplies by for the largest number of schools of 
this class. There were, in 1922, 17,520* unrecognised monastic 
schools in Burma with 18'], 208 pupils. At times systematic 
attempts have been made to introduce secular instruction 
'into religious institutions and to improve their efficiency In 
order to bring them into the public school vsystem. One such 
experiment with the mulla schools in Sindh has been 
described in paragraph 412. It is a curious fact that one of 
the chief stumbling blocks to the recognition of mulla and 
monastic schools is the ignorance and even dislike of arith- 
metic shown by religious teachers. A well-intentioned device 
for popularising this subject in private monastic schools in 
Burma, the Mulagananthincha examination, was after seven 
years' trial found to cost more than it was worth and 



Venture 
Schools. 



was on 



the advice of the Divisional Boards abandoned. 

464. Next in numercial importance are the private venture 
schools. These are primary schools started by individuals, 
often very ill-educated, to gain a living. Many of them are 
closed after providing a brief and precarious livelihood for 



1 United Provinces/ p. 137. 



MISCELLANEOUS . 229 

their originators. Others which show by their attendance a 
reasonable prospect of permanence and which are conducted 
with a certain amount of efficiency obtain recognition and, if 
funds permit, grants from local bodies. 

465. The steady annual decrease in the-number of private "National f 
schools of all classes, save one, is due to tlieir gradual absorp- Sehoola. 
tion in this way into the public school system. The one 
exception to which I refer is the class entitled " other element- 
ary schools/' The table shows a considerable increase under 

this head; because it includes the "national" schools 
which were founded as a result of the non-co-operation move- 
ment. Of these schools little can be written because little 
i? known : an account of tlieir origin has been given in the 
first chapter of this Eeview. One inspector writes of them 
(( These unrecognised schools are a serious menace to the well- 
being of the rising generation. All kinds of tactics are 
employed to attract boys from other schools and no spirit of 
authority is inculcated. Departmental recognition is neither 
asked for nor cared for, there being no restrictions to the 
admission of their products to recognised schools/' 2 The 
following remarks from Burma admit of more general appli- 
cation : " The future of National schools is naturally a 
subject of anxiety not only to Government but also to their 
present supporters. Both sides are probably looking forward 
to the possibility of reapproachment. Government realises the 
duty of co-operating if possible with all voluntary educational 
agencies and of encouraging all honest attempts to reproduce 
and develop the true g-eiiius of the Burmese people. The 
national school managers on the other hand, when political 
soreness heals and when they take the educational side of 
their work more seriously, may be expected to feel the need of 
Tunts-iu-aid, for there is no doubt that, in spite of monthly 
subscriptions and collections at political meetings and pagoda 
feasts, they are sadly hampered for want of money/' 3 

466. Finally, there are a few institutions of special cha- p ar ti cu i a r 
racter which, while maintaining a self-imposed high standard Schools, 
of efficiency, have not sought recognition, since they are un- 
willing to admit of any restrictions on their free development 

along original lines. Such for example are the Guruknl at 
Hardwar where are reproduced the monastic traditions of 
ancient Hindu education, the university for women at Poona 
which has been described in paragraphs 103 and 255 and 
the Santiniketan at Bolpur. This last-named institution owes 
its foundation and inspiration to the genius of Dr. Rabindra- 

9 Punjab, pp. 61-62. 
s Burma, p. 82. 



230 PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 

nath Tagore. Of it the Calcutta University Commission 
reported as follows 4 : 

"It is a boarding school for boys; pituated on a rolling 
upland in open country, and combining, in its course of 
training and methods of discipline, Indian tradition with 
ideas from the West. With regard to the general work of 
the school it must suffice to say that it is no small privilege 
for boys to receive lessons in their vernacular from one of the 
most accomplished and celebrated writers of the age. No 
one who has seen the poet, sitting bare-headed in a long robe 
in the open verandah of a low-roofed house the wide 
hedgeless fields stretching to the distant horizon beyond 
with a class of little boys, each on his carpet, in a circle 
before him on the ground, can ever forget the impression, or 
be insensible to the service which Sir Ilabiiidranath Tagore 
renders to his country by offering to the younger generation 
the best ihat he has to give." " At Bolpur he gives the 
central place to studies which can best be pursued in the 
mother tongue ; makes full educational use of music * * * 
and of dramatic representation * * *, of imagination in 
narrative and of manual work; of social service among less 
fortunate neighbours and of responsible self-government in 
the life of the school community itself." 

//. Oriental Studies. 

467. The study of the classics forms a part of the ordinary 
course of general education in Indian secondary schools and 
colleges; in fart by nine universities a student is required to 
pass in a classical language for matriculation. The classical 
instruction provided in schools and colleges for general 
education is conducted on modern lines, modified in tne case 
of schools by the very restricted knowledge of modern 
methods and modern study possessed by the maulvis and 
pandits employed as teachers. An account of an attempt to- 
improve these methods has been given in paragraph 281. 

Higher 468. Apart from the classical education given in the ordi- 

Inatitutions nary schools and colleges there are in India a large number of 
institutions specifically devoted to the study of Arabic, Persian 
and Sanskrit. Foremost among these are the Calcutta 
Madrassa, the Sanskrit Colleges of Calcutta and Benares and 
the Oriental College of the Punjab University at Lahore. 
One new Government Sanskrit College was opened during the 
quinquennium at Sylhet, and the Government of Bihar and 
Orissa took over the management of the Sanskrit College, 
Puri, and of the Madrassa Islamia Shamsul Huda at Banki- 

4 Calcutta University Commission Report, Vol. I, Chapter 
pp. 226 227. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



281 



pore, which has been liberally endowed by M. Nurul Huda, 
C.I.E. The present position is shown in the table below: 



Province. 


ORIENTAL COLLEGES. 


ADVANCED PBIVATE 
INSTITUTIONS 
TEACHING CLASSICS. 


Scholars 
in Arts 
Colleges 
reading 




Colleges. 1 Scholars. 


Institu- 
tions. 


Scholars. 


Classics. 


Madras . 


12 


238 


284 


7,791 


890 


Bombay . 


. . 


. . 


88 


2,737 


3,307 


Bengal . 






75 


3,932 


9,187 


United Provinces . 


i 


324 


629 


16,290 


1,873 


Punjab . 


i 


132 


131 


2,802 


1,988 


Burma . 




61 


868 


102 


Bihar and Orissa . 




199 


4,643 


1,204 


Central Provinces an i 




; 






Berar . . ! 


1 20 


512 


248 


-Assam 


i 


15 ' 32 963 


483 


North-West Frontier ' 


1 




Province 




23 


775 


127 


JMinor Administrations 




40 U(50 


089 




i 




r 1921-22 


15 


709 


1,602 


42,279 


20,158 


India . 5 




, 




( 1910-17 





098 ; 3,009 ; 00,618 


24,806 



469. In these higher institutions of classical learning the Tols and 
traditional methods of study are tempered in varying degrees 
by modern methods of research. These methods are less in 
evidence in the tols, maktabs and madrassas which constitute 
the bulk of the "oriental" institutions. There are sixteen 
hundred such attended* by over forty thousand scholars. 
Madrassas and tols are particularly numerous in eastern 
India and the problem of their future presents considerable 
difficulty. There are two aspects of this problem. "The 
first aspect is that in which the situation presents itself to the 
more conservative or the more orthodox amongst the educated 
Hindu and Muhauimaclan population. They desire that the 
old learning which is passing away or at least suffering from 
lack of interest and encouragement should be fostered by 
Government in the towns and in the countryside so that 
society may have enlightened ministers everywhere at hand 
to strengthen and instruct the people in their faith and to 
correct such tendencies as there may be towards infidelity 
to the ancient canons of life and conduct. The other stand- 
point is that of the few who are in close touch with the more 
modern civilization. They may be drawn by sentiment 
towards the 61 d institutions and may even give them some 
support; but they feel that the day of tols and madrassas is 
past, and that the tempering of modern life and learning with 



232 



I'ROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Bombay. 
Oama and 
Bhandarkar 
Institutes. 



Bihar and 
Orissa. 



Calcutta 
Sanskrit 
Asaooiation. 



the ancient wisdom can be best achieved, so far as it can be 
achieved by educational means, by bringing the old and the 
new together in the higher institutions of learning with a 
view to interaction and the survival of the best in both." 5 

470. In Bombay, the Cama Oriental Institute and the 
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute deserve special 
mention in connection with the advancement of oriental studies 
and research. Both institutions are doing useful wort. A 
fellowship has been endowed at the Cama Institute for the 
preparation of treatises on Iranian civilisation and literature, 
for the collection of manuscripts, etc., and certain prizes are 
also offered for special essays. The Bhandarkar Institute 
possesses a unique collection of manuscripts, including those 
of the Government Manuscripts Library, formerly deposited 
at the Deccan College. The manuscripts are lent out to 
scholars. Various publications have been undertaken by the 
Institute, including those of the Bombay Sanskrit and 
Prakrit Series which have been handed over to it by the 
Bombay Government. Classes in French and German were 
also opened but they have been discontinued for want of 
accommodation. The Institute publishes a research journal 
called the " Annals of the Bhandarkar Institute." A con- 
ference of orientalists from all over India was held at the 
Institute in November 1919 for the first time. " The confer- 
ence was a splendid success. It gave to the world of scholars 
an idea of individual efforts in the field of oriental research 
and helped to start an exchange of ideas between the scholars 
carrying on isolated efforts in different directions/* 6 The 
institute receives certain maintenance grants from Govern- 
ment. 

471. The Government of Bihar and Orissa have devoted 
much attention to the question of oriental education. A Sup- 
erintendent of Sanskrit Studies was appointed in 1918 and the 
post has since been included in the Indian Educational Ser- 
vice. The Superintendent's duties include inspection, with 
the help of two assistants, of the Sanskrit teaching throughout 
the province and also the management of the Sanskrit 
examinations. A Superintendent of Islamic Studies was also 
appointed in 1922 and the institution of a Board of Islamic 
Education is under consideration. 

472. Most of the tols and madrassas prepare for certain 
oriental title or diploma examinations conducted in some pro- 
vinces by Government, in others by the universities or by 
special boards. Such a board, for example, is the Council of 
the Calcutta Sanskrit Association, which was established in 
1918. The main body of the Association, which is called the 
convocation, consists of a maximum of 500 members whose 

8 Assam, p. 66. 
e Bombav reoort. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



233 



suggestions relating to the. encouragement of Sanskrit learn- 
ing, when reported upon by the Council, are submitted to 
Government for consideration. The Council consists cf 
fifteen ordinary members, two being elected by the pandits 
of East and West Bengal, the remainder nominated by 
Government, together with five additional members, who are 
scholars trained in Western methods- also nominated by 
Government. The Association conducts examinations and 
grants titles. As a result the.tol is gradually coining within 
what might almost be called departmental standards, though 
there still remain many of the old type in which the 
Adhyapaka himself confers the titles. 

473. The reports of other Directors contain little reference Decline hi 
to old-time classical schools. There is no doubt that economic number* 
pressure has done much to reduce the attendance at institu- 
tions of this type. Government may, in deference to public 
opinion, help to keep alive many of those institutions, which 
can no longer maintain themselves by private support; but 
Government cannot find opportunities for the employment of 
their e.r-students. Macaulay in his famous minute, written m 
1835, quotes a petition from the e,r-students of the Sanskrit 
College in which the petitioners represent that, after having 
been maintained and educated by Government for ten or 
twelve years, they find themselves turned on the world without 
(< means for a decent living." The products of the old type 
of classical education imparted in tols, maktabs and madrassas. 
find themselves at the present day in a very similar position. 



III. Reformatory Schools. 
Total strength and expenditure of Reformatories in India. 



Statistics, 







1921-22. 


1916-17. 


Province. 


School 
(Place). 




Averago 
cost per 
boy. 




Boys. 


Expendi- 
ture. 


Boys. , Expendi- 


Average 
cost per 
boy. 








Us. 


BS. 




Ks. 


Bs. 


Madras . 


1 


262 


32,121 128-5 


248 


25,857 


104-3 




(Chingleput) 




J 








Bombay 


1 


172 


19,021 108-1 


01 


1 


o 




(Yeravda) 














United Pro- 
















vinces 


1 


242 


70,473 


323-3 


179 


20,447 


111-7 




(Chunar) 














Punjab . 


1 


121 


39,176 


334-8 


112 


26,996 


223-1 




(Delhi) 














Burma 




117 


16,887 


145-6 


91 


21,922 


248-6 




(Thazi) 














Bihar and 
















Orissa 


1 


350 


1,16,018 


292-2 


459 


1,19,060 


256-6 




(Hazaribagh) 














India . 


*6 


1,264 


2,93,696 


230-5 


tU80 


12,14,288 


181-6 



*In addition, there are Reformatory Schools at Jubbulpore (C. P.) and at Mattmara and Byoulla 
(Bombay), the returns of which are not included in the General \ Educational Tablet for 1921-22. 
There is also a Juvenile Jail at Dhnrwar (Bombay). 

t Excluding the Jubbulpore School (with 48 boys and an expenditure of BB. 15.840 In 1916-17) 



234 



PROGKESS OF EDUCATION IX INDIA. 



OeneraL 



Hazaribagh. 



Indian Jails 
Committee. 



Delhi and 
Yeravda. 



474. Except for a slight rise in the cost per pupil in resi- 
dence, due to inevitable increases' in the salaries of the staff, 
there is very little to note in the history of reformatory schools 
during the last five years. These schools provide, in addition to 
general education, training in various industries, so that the 
boys can earn an honest livelihood on leaving. Cane-work, 
carpentry, boot-making and pottery are among the trades 
usually taught. 

475. The largest school, that at Hazaribagh, is used by the 
Governments of Bengal and Assam for juvenile offenders as 
well as by that of the province in which it is situated ; the 
two former governments now contribute to the cost of the 
institution a sum calculated on the number of boys whom 
they send for admission. Tho staff has been completely re- 
organised. Among other changes the old guards, 45 in num- 
ber, have been replaced by a staff of wardens and literate 
liousefathers. " This change was made partly because it 
was found that men of the class from which the guards were 
recruited did the boj>s more harm than good, partly to render 
the school less like a jail and partly to provide a staff of men 
suitable to look after the boys outside schools." 7 

476. This jail-like aspect of the Indian reformatory schools 
is severely commented on by the Indian Jails Committee, which 
visited them in 1919. The Committee considered that the 
number of boys collected in these institutions is, in nearly 
every case, much too large for a single superintendent, who is 
unable to give attention to individual cases; they noted also 
the absence of all female care. The Committee was struck 
by the prevailing gloom and lack of spirit among the boys. 
This is, however, not universal. The DOVS of the Delhi and 
Yeravda schools appear to enjoy a more interesting life. To 
quote from the report of the Superintendent of the latter insti- 
tution ; " the boys are allowed as much freedom as is consistent 
with the maintenance of school discipline. They get all the 
holidays which are granted to the secondary schools of the 
Presidency : the&e holidays are fully enjoyed as they are 
usually spent in rest, games or walks to interesting places in 
the neighbourhood. * * * * School games, viz., cricket, 
football, atya-patya, khokho, gymnastic exercises and drill are 
played regularly every flay strictly in accordance with the rules 
of the respective games. * * * A river being not far from 
the school, boys are taken in small batches to swim there 
generally on Sundays." 8 

477. The Jails Committee recommend that these schools 
should be made as like ordinary schools as possible. They 
suggest buildings on the cottage system in the country with a 
matron in attendance at each school. 



7 Bihar agd Orissa, p. 
Bombay report. 



128. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



235 



478. By the Madras Children's Act which was passed in Madras 
1920 the term " reformatory " school has been replaced by the Children's 
term " certified " school. The generaj. trend of the provisions Act ' 

of this Act is in the direction of bringing the institutions certi- 
fied under it more into line with ordinary schools. The 
immediate effect of the Act will be the certification of the 
Chingleput School as a senior school for juvenile offenders 
from Madras City. It will continue to be a reformatory 
school for offenders from the mufassal. The health of the 
scholars at Chingleput suffered severely in 1919 and elaborate 
steps have been taken to improve the condition of I he 
premises. 

479. The Bengal Children's Act, which was passed in Bengal 
January 1922, is applicable to both boys and girls and Chadren't 
provides that youthful offenders may be sent to a Reformatory 

or Industrial school, and that neglected and destitute children 
may be sent to Industrial schools. The Act will be carried 
out by the Judicial Department with assistance from the 
Education Department in those clauses that relate to schools. 

480. Eecords are kept of the after-careers of the or-pupils After-careers, 
of reformatory schools for two or three years after their release. 

In Bihar and Orissa two specinl deputy inspectors were em- 
ployed for the purpose of keeping in touch with these boys. 
The distances that they had to cover, since the boys come 
from Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Orissa, were too great and 
the work is now performed by ordinary sub-inspectors who 
receive an allowance for it. 

481. The statistics given in the following table show the After-careers 
after-careers of boys released from the Chingleput, Yeravda, c g 
Matunga and FTazaribagh schools : 

After-careers of discharged boys. 



Period. 

191217 
101722 


CAREERS OF BOYS DISCHARGED DURING THE PERIOD. 


TOTAL. 

1,245 
1,234 


Employed. 


Un- 
employed. 


Re- 
convicted. 


Placed 
under 
Police 
surveil- 
lance. 


Dead. Untraccd. 


810 
770 


41 
138 


151 
136 


58 
14 


25 ' 160 
16 160 



2V. Text-Book Committees. 

482. A difficult problem of educational administration ia Factions of 
the selection of books for use in recognised schools. In view of * 
the very large number of scholars attending secondary and J 



IBOGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Objects of 
their work. 



primary schools any work that has been officially approved for 
use as a text-book becomes a source of considerable profit to* 
the author and publishers. Consequently the output of school* 
books in some provinces is very large. Lists of approved 
books are published from time to time by each provincial' 
department of education. ID order to assist the Director 
in the selection of books for inclusion in the approved list 
there is, in every province, a text-book committee, composed* 
partly of officials and partly of non-officials. The committee? 
are generally resolved into sub-committees dealing with differ- 
ent classes of publications or with works in different verna- 
culars. A description of the operations of these bodies was 
given in the last review. Some idea of the extent of their 
work may be gained from the following figures for three- 
provinces : 

Books dealt with between 1917 and 1922. 



Province. 


Considered. 


Approved. 


Rejected. 


Still pending. 


Bengal 


2,668 


945 


896 


827 


Bihar and Oriasa 


4,435 


1,643 


1,982 


810 


United Provinces 


2,200 


852 


1,302 


46 


i 


i 





Even in a small province like the North- West Frontier Pro- 
^ inee the Director receives over five hundred books from 
publishers every year for consideration. 

483. The work of text-book committees came in for a cer- 
tain amount of criticism at the close of the last quinquennium 
and local governments were addressed by the Government of 
India on the subject. Many of the criticisms were based on 
the incorrect assumption that it is the function of a text-book 
committee to encourage authorship. The reasons on the other 
hand which should guide a text-book committee to approve 
of a book are, firstly, that it is one of the best books 
for the educational purpose for which it is designed and, 
secondly, that its cost is reasonable and within the means of 
the class of boy for whom it is to be prescribed. It was at one 
time customary to approve of one particular book only in 
eiK-h subject in each class. It is now generally recognised 
that apart from the disadvantage of creating monopolies it 
is desirable to allow the teachers some latitude in their choice 
of books. At the same time too wide a range of choice cannot 
be allowed or the standard will be lowered and boys migrat- 
ing from one school to another may find themselves obliged 
to buy new sets of books. The Assam list aims at providing- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 2tt7 

an option of at least three suitable books 'in each class in each 
subject. Lists of hooks suitable for library and prize books are 
also published in most provinces. 

484. Sometimes it is necessary for Education Departments Preparation 
directly to encourage or even subsidize authorship. Such * 'special 
cases arise when a work of a particular nature, e.g., a text- Text ' Book9 
book in a small vernacular, is needed, the sale of which is not 

likely to be profitable. In these cases the Education Depart- 
ment or the text-book committee either advertise their 
requirements or more often select some suitable person to 
prepare the book in return for a remuneration. An officer in 
the employ of Government selected for such work receives au 
honorarium and is not permitted to retain an interest in the 
sale of the publication. 

485. An interesting departure by the Punjab Text-Book standard- 
Committee has been noticed in paragraph 158. Lists of terms isatio ? of 
used in physics, mathematics, geography, physiology, hygiene, t^ m " lca 
education and agriculture have been prepared in English- 
Urdu and also in English-Pun jabee: when they have passed 

the scrutiny of linguistic experts they will be standardised 
for use in approved text-books. 

486. Text-book committees perform a very valuable edu- u afc O f un . 
cational function, and the services of their members, which are authorised 
in all cases given gratuitously, must be gratefully acknow- l _ ooks ancl 
ledged. The committees are not, however, in a position to see e ^' 
that the books which they reject are kept out of the schools. 

Since they only consider books submitted to them in print, it is 
natural to suppose that the publishers of a rejected book will 
do their best to dispose of its first edition. Though inspect- 
ing officers wage persistent war on the use of unauthorised 
books, it is an evil for which no satisfactory remedy has yet 
been found. More serious still is the use of keys and cram 
books which from their very nature never come before text- 
book committees for scrutiny. Tin fortunately the methods c,f 
instruction and examination in many secondary schools 
encourage the use of such aids to memory. They will only 
disappear when it is no longer found worth while io produce 
them. 

487. It is a matter for much regret that very little verna- g c h ol 
cular literature suitable for school libraries is produced in Literature. 
India. In some provinces rewards are offered by Government 

for such books. The result of these offers is disappointing. 
Such little original matter, as is forthcoming, is usually either 
poetical or of a religious nature. When an attempt is made 
to cater for the needs of school libraries it frequently takes 
the form of the translation of some biography. A few verna- 
cular magazines for schools are published but these can only 
appeal to the older scholars. Most of the larger colleges and 



3S8 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Central 
Advisory 
Board of 
Education 



a certaiit number of high schools also publish their own maga- 
zines. There are several magazines of good standing for the 
use of teachers and of those interested in education, but one 
of the best, the ' Indian Education ' of Bombay, was dis- 
continued for financial reasons in 1921. 

Recommen- 488. The question of the functions and constitutions .of 
dationa of the text-book committees was considered by the Central Ad- 
visory Board of Education at its seventh meeting held at 
Lahore during February 1923. Although the meeting took 
place long after the close of the quinquennium, a brief account 
of its recommendations will not be out of place. The general 
discussion centred round three main points : (i) the selection 
of text-books, (ii) library and prize books and (Hi) the best 
agency for the production and publication of text-books. The 
main conclusions arrived at by the Board on these points are 
summarised below : 

(i) The choice of text-books should be governed only by 
their educational value and suitability of price. 

(n) The number of approved text-books should be re- 
stricted to a definite figure in each subject so as to 
avoid unnecessary multiplication. The number 
need not necessarily be the same for each subject. 

(Hi) It is undesirable and unnecessary to prescribe parti- 
cular text-books for government and aided schools, 
if the number of approved text-books is limited as 
proposed. 

(iv) The time and labour spent in examining and report- 
ing on books intended for prizes and libraries is 
not commensurate with the advantages derived. 

(i;) Official agency should only be employed for the 
production of text-books which are not of a re- 
munerative nature. In the case of books produced 
through semi-official agency, e.g., by competition, 
no monopoly for a term of years should be given. 



Central 

Advisory 

Board. 



I 7 . (Conferences and Committees. 

489. Of the Central Advisory Board of Education, which 
was constituted in 1921 some account has been given in the 
second chapter of this Review. The following are .some of the 
subjects discussed at the four meetings of the Board held before 
March 1922: Equivalence of examinations, problem of 
compulsory primary education, mental intelligence tests, the 
introduction of vocational studies in the general school 
curriculum, European and Anglo-Indian education, education- 
al statistics, the education of the blind and deaf-mute in 
India. 



MISCELLANEOUS . 289 

Oae very tangible result of the labours of the Board is a 
complete revision of the statistical tables for education in 
India. The new tables will be used for the first time thU 
year. 

490. In July 1917 the Government of India convened at 

Simla a conference of the secretaries of the provincial advisory f Advisory 
committees for Indian students. The constitution and scope Committees, 
of work of these committees was fully discussed. (Since this 
conference the IJytton Committee on Indian students has sat 
and recommended that the work HOW curried out by the 

frovineial advisory committees should be undertaken by the 
ndian universities.) 

491. In August of the same year a conference was convened Conference 
at Simla of Provincial representatives, both official and non- 11 } 1 ? 
official, to considei the teaching of English in secondary O f English, 
schools. The main object of the Conference was to see how 

far modifications in the existing system of secondary educa- 
tion might be effected so that pupils might (ft) obtain u bettor 
giasp of the subjects \\hicli they wer.e taught, and (ft) complete 
their secondary course with a more competent knowledge of 
English. The Conference was opened by His Excellency 
Lord Chelmsford. Although it provided a valuable oppor- 
tunity to a number of persons interested in education for an 
exchange of views, no agreement was reached on any of the 
important points submitted to the members for consideration. 
It was indeed evident that many of the members had arrived 
with a strong prejudice in favour of the particular system in 
vogue in their own province, and had never seriously consi- 
dered whether it was or was not susceptible of improvement. 
The problem of the stage at which English teaching should be 
commenced rmnot be decided solely on educational grounds. 
Until English teachers are plentiful and cheap the introduc- 
tion of English at an early stage in the secondary school 
course must 'handicap the village boy, who completes his 
course in a vernacular school before he is old enough for 
transfer to a secondary school. 

492. In January 1918 an all-India Conference of Librarians Conference of 
(the first of its kind) was summoned by the Government of Librarians. 
India and met in Lahore. Most Local Governments and uni- 
versities, various departments of the Government of Indis?. 

the Science Congress and the Mysore and Baroda State** 
nominated representatives. Among the questions discussed 
W ore: The making of a census of libraries; the kind of 
assistance which libraries may render to each other and to the 
reading public with a view to making their resources more 
accessible; the making of subject indexes and catalogues ; flu* 
training of librarians and the appointment and pay of trained 
librarians; the preservation of paper in India in order 



240 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



Committee 
on Indian 
Students in 
England. 



Provincial 
Committees. 



that the permanence of hooks, periodicals and records may be 
ensured . 

493. In the years following the war the Indian students' 
problem in England became acute. A large number of 
students who had been prevented by the submarine menace 
from travelling to England left for that country to complete 
their studies. They found the universities full and had much 
difficulty in obtaining admission. The Secretary of State 
appointed in 1921 a committee, with Lord Lytton as Chair- 
man and containing Indian representatives, to examine 
< omprehensively the whole question of Indian students in the 
United Kingdom. The terms of reference included (?') the 
constitution and working of the advisory committees in India, 
fit) the extent to which the Secretary of State's control should 
he exercised in this matter, and (m) the reorganisation of 
the work to be undertaken in Great Britain, more especially 
with a view to providing for the practical training of students. 
The Committee commenced work in the United Kingdom : n 
May 1921. They visited various industrial centres and made 
arrangements to leave England for India in October 1921 J>ut 
the visit had to be abandoned since the Legislative Asyaprnbiy 
refused to vote the necessary funds. The CommiVtee published 
its report in 1922 in which they recommend : 

(a) The development of education in India as the only 

permanent solution of the problem under contem- 

plation; 
(M that the Indian Students Department, as at present 

constituted, should be abolished, as also the hostel 

at 21, Cromwell Road; 

(c) that grants-in-aid should be made to private organi- 

sations in Great Britain for the provision of 
hostels, etc., which should be left entirely to such 
private enterprise; 

(d) the establishment of a Bureau attached to each 

Indian university which should supply students 
desiring to go abroad with all necessary inform- 
ation, and should also supply foreign universities 
with information about students. 

The Committee made a number of minor recommendations 
dealing with such Questions as the admission of Indian 
students into the University Officers' Training Corps in 
England. Their recommendations are now being considered 
by local Governments. 

494. Among provincial conferences which deserve mention 
j g an en q u i rv { n fo t^ e education of the domiciled community 
held in Bengal in July 1918. The Committee concerned 
itself largely with the improvement of the pay of the teachers. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 241 

It also suggested the creation of a technical education board 
:and a central technical institute in Calcutta. A conference 
of representatives of Anglo-vernacular education was opened 
in Burma in March .1921. As a result of its resolutions the 
curriculum of Anglo-vernacular schools in the Province is 
being approximated to that of European schools and a new 
drawing curriculum has been introduced. Mention has been 
made of the two committees appointed in Bihar and Orissa to 
consider primary, secondary and vocational education. In 
March 1921 the Governor in Council of the Central Provinces 
appointed a committee to consider and report on the employ- 
ment of the depressed classes in the public services and the 
extension of industrial and technical education among them. 
In the same province a committee was also set up to consider 
the working of the compulsory education act. In the Punjab 
two important conferences were held one on the relations 
of provincial and district board educational finance and the 
second on agricultural education. The recommendations of 
both the conferences were accepted by the local Government 
and are described in paragraphs 70, 180, 187. 225 and 331 of 
this Review. The Government of Bombay appointed in 1921 
a committee, representing important employers of labour, to 
investigate the problems and draw up a scheme of technical 
and industrial education in the presidency. The terms of re- 
ference to the committee were very comprehensive, including 
an enquiry into the facilities for preparation for executive or 
subordinate positions in business concerns, the training of girls 
and women for industrial careers, the diffusion of a knowledge 
of business methods, and of the use of machinery, the 
establishment of new institutions and the modification of 
existing ones, etc. As a result of this enquiry the committee 
submitted two reports, one a majority report signed by ten 
members, the other a minority report signed by six members 
including the chairman, Sir M. Visveshvaraya, K.O.I.E. 



INDEX 



TO 



VOL. I. 



INDEX. 

The references are to paragraphs in Volume 1. For statistical in 
formation see Volume 11 of the Review. 



Aboriginals : 419/. 
Accommodation 

school, 62, 179, 196/, 228. 

for inspectresses, 64. 

See also Buildings. 
Accountancy Diploma Board : 376. 
Act 

Aligarh Muslim University , 81. 

Allahabad University, 81, 95, 97. 

Benares Hindu University , 81. 

Bengal Children's, 479. 

Bengal Primary I'Muoation , 192. 

Burma Rural Self -Government , 66. 

Calcutta University -, 80. 

City of Bombay Primary Education , 190. 

Criminal Tribes . 425. 

Dacca University- , 81, 82, 86. 

Delhi University, 81, 98. 

Government of India-, 15, 40, 45, 91, 385. 

Indian Companies'--, 376. 

Indian Medical Degrees , 299. 

Intermediate Kducation (U. P.) , 96. 

Luckmnv University , 81. 

.Madras Children'*- , 478. 

Madras Elementary Kducatiou , 65, 66. 

Medical, all-India , 298. 

Patria University , 81. 

Rangoon University , 81, 93. 

Societies Registration , 74. 

Universities (1904), 74, 75, 79. 
Acts 

Children's , 478, 479. 

Primary Kdiu-ation , 1, 33, 65, 190/, 209. 

Universities , 79, 81, 96. 
Addison <fc Co., Messrs. : 428. 
Adhyapaka : 472. 
Adi-Dravidas : education of , 414, 415, 417. 



11 INDEX. 

Admission 

to agricultural colleges, 318/. 
of apprentices, 440, 444. 
to engineering colleges, 305, 307 
to Government colleges, 127. 
of Indians to European schools, 396. 
of low caste children, 414, 415, 418. 
to medical colleges, 299. 
to professions, 18, 123, 263, 292. 

to training institutions, 177, 267, 270/, 277, 279, 280. 
to universities, 75, 108, 111, 150, 255. 
Adult education : 230/, 336. 

See also Night and Kvening schools. 
Advani, Prof. : 448. 
Advisory Board 

of Education, Central, 42, 44, 70, 488, 489. 
of Mining Education, 309. 
Advisory Committees for students : 490. 
"Affiliated colleges: 75, 95, 109, 115, 313. 
Affiliation : 61, 74, 75/, 88, 130, 312. 
Afghan War: 124, 413. 

After-careers of reformatory pupils; 480, 481. 
Aga Khan, H. H. the : 90. 
Age 

for admission to engineering colleges, 305. 
for apprentices, 440. 
for compulsory education, 191. 
of entrance to universities, 112. 
for matriculation, 18, 112. 
school-going , 1, 33, 306. 
Agra : university at , 97. 
Agricultural education 

colleges, 32, 312, 313, 314/. 
schools, 32, 180, 312, 313, 325/. 

Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa : 314, 315. 
Agricultural Services : 315. 
Agriculture : teaching of 

in middle schools, 180, 325, 331. 
in primary schools, 225, 326. 
Agriculturists 

education of sons of , 222/, 328. 
indifference towards education , 32, 229, 238. 
Ahmad 

Sir Syed , 88. 
Dr. Zia-ud-Din , 42, 77. 
Ahmedabacl: R. C. Technical Institute, 361. 
Ahsanulla School of Engineering, Dacca : 308. 
Aided schools : 25, 56, 62, 68, 72, 139, 141/, 146, 182, 386, 



INDEX. Ill 

Aitchison College, Lahore : 378, 382. 

Akyab : K. E. M. School, , 354. 

Alegaonkar Brothers, Messrs. : 437. 

Aligarh Muslim University : 76, 88, 90, 91, 125. 

Allahabad University: 75, 95, 112. 

Allowances: special, for education of depressed classes, 417. 

America, United States of : 18, 30, 44, 122, 156, 166. 

American Baptist Mission: 333. 

American Presbyterian Mission, Moga: 287. 

Amritsar Medical School : 300. 

Anand Samp, llai Bahadur : 190. 

Anderson, Mr. U. : 42, 123, 137, 229. 

Andhras : University for , 99. 

Anglo- Vernacular Schools : *? Secondary schools. 

Anthropology: 108. 

Apprenticeship : 336, 355, 359, 362, 363, 431, 435, 440/. 

Arabic: study of, 107, 467/. 

Archaeology : 106. 

Architecture : instruction in , 369. 

Armenians: 396. 

Army education : 449/. 

Arnold, Brother : on technical education, 354. 

Artisan training: 302, 355, 359, 362, 435, 436, 439. 

Art, schools of: 367/. 

Arts, Fine: 92, 368. 

Arts Colleges 

buildings, 118/. 

control, 56. 

cost of education in , 22, 127. 

expenditure on , 24, 126. 

fees in , 127. 

management of , 56, 74, 116. 

staffs of , 128. 

statistics of , 116. 

teaching in , 109, 254. 
Arya Samaj : 243. 
Associated colleges: 95, 97. 

Association 

of European Headmasters, 398. 

Punjab, 256. 

Sanskrit , 472. 
Asylum for Lepers: 447. 
Attendance 

in colleges, 24. 

in European schools, 387, 401. 

in girls' schools, 237, 247. 

in Muhammadan schools, 404, 407, 412. 



IV INDEX. 

Attendance contd. 

in primary schools, 24, 181, 184, lil4, 215, 218, 221. 22-2. 

in secondary schools, 24, 132, 137. 
Atus: 409. 

Auckland School for girls, Simla : 392. 
Ayrciift High School: 392. 
Ayyangar, Dr. S. K. : 106. 



Backward and depressed classes 

education of , 414/, 419/, 425/. 

special measures for , 186, 415, 417, 422/, 426/. 
Baden-Powell, Sir R. : visit of , 171. 
Badshah Nawab Bazvi Training College, Patna : 283. 
Banaili, Rajas Bahadur of: 119. 
Banerjea, Sir Surendranath : 42. 
Barnes, Revd. G. D. : 290. 
Belgaum : Army School of Education at, 455. 
Benares 

Engineering College, 89. 

Hindu University, 76, 88, 89, 91, 112, 125. 

Weaving Institute, 364. 
Bengal 

Children's Act, 479. 

Engineer inn; College, 306. 

Primary Education Act, 192. 
Bethune College, Calcutta : 254. 
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute: 470. 
Bhopal : H. H. the Begum of, 90. 
Bihar School of Engineering, Patna : 308. 
Bill- 
Calcutta University , 80. 

Gokhale's Primary Education , 1. 
Binga, Rani Snhiha of : 73. 
Bishambar Nath, Hai Bahadur : 120. 
Bias, Mr. E. : on primary education, 189. 
Blatter, Father Ethelbert : 338. 
Blind : schools for the, 44 5/. 
Board 

Accountancy Diploma , 376. 

of Agriculture, 312, 325. 

of Control of apprentice training, 359. 

of Education, Central Advisory , 42, 44, 70, 488, 489. 

of Education, England, 69. 

of Education, Diocesan ; Lahore, 392. 

Examining , 398. 



INDEX. 

Board contd. 

of Islamic Education, 47] . 

of Secondary and Intermediate Education, 60, 78, 96, 409. 

Visiting , 90. 
T*oard of Schools: 25, 06, 68. 
Boards, Local 

district and municipal , 65/, 186, 187, 206, 232, 411. 

See also Local bodies. 
Bolpur : Santiniketan, 466. 
Bombay 

Corporation and education, I9o, 199. 

Educational Society, 392, 394. 

Primary Education Act, 190, 191. 

University, 75, 112. 
Bose, Sir J. C. : 105, 130. 

Boycott of educational institutions': 3/, 93, 136. 
Boy Scouts : 171 , 172. 
British Medical Council : 55, 263, 264. 
British soldiers 

education of , 450/. 

education of children of , 386, 393, 456. 
Brock, Miss : scheme of courses by, 249. 
Buckingham and Carnutir Mills : 428. 

Buddhists: education of, 117. See also Monastic schools. 
Buildings 

college, 118/, 379. 

European school , 392. 

primary school , 205/. 

repairs to , 206, 208. 

secondary school , 146, 179. 

type plans for , 207. 

university , 89, 90, 118. 
Bulletins on agriculture : 3*38. 

Bureau of Education : of Government of India, 43, 44, 62, 
Bureau of Translators : of Osmania University, 101, 113. 
Burma Rural Self -Government Act : 66. 
Butler, Dr. E. J. : 338. 
Butler, Sir Harcourt : 94, 120. 



Calcutta 

Corporation and education, 199. 

Institute of Hygiene, 300. 

Madrassa, 468. 

Technical School, 3o9, 442. 

University, 18, 75, 77, 78, 108, 113, 125, 136> 163, 



VI INDEX. 

Calcutta contd. 

University Commission, 4, 27, 46, 60, 77, 83, 85, 88, 109, 168, 292, 
348, 377, 400, 466. 

recommendations of , 78, 95, 96, 111, 114. 
resolution on , 79, 80. 
Cama Oriental Institute : 470. 
Cambridge Local Examinations: 384, 397. 
Cannanore Training School : 283. 
Canning College: 94. 

Capitation allowances : for depressed classes, 417. 
Capitation grants : abolition of, 203. 
Carmichael Medical College, Belgachia: 300. 

Carnegie Foundation Report : criticism of vocational training in, 156. 
Carpentry schools : 366. See also Wood work. 
Caste system: effect on education, 414, 415. 
Catholic Mission : 354. 
Dawn pore 

Agricultural College, , 319. 
School of Dyeing and Printing, , 364. 
Technological institute, , 350. 
Census of 1921 : 33, 34, 445. 
Census of children of school-going age : 196. 
Central Advisory Board of Education : 42, 44, 70, 488, 489. 
Central Co-operative Institute, Bombay: 233. 
Central Training College, Lahore: 2R1. 
Cesses for education : 66, 196. 
Chairs, University: 104, 106. 
Chamber of Commerce, London : 373. 
Chandaiuetta Industrial School : 360. 
Chapman, Mr. : 171. 
" Charkha '' in education : 7. 
Ohatterjee, Mr. Pran Krista : 108. 
Ohelmsford, Lady: 21, 301. 
Dhelmsford Training College, Sanawar : 290. 
Chiefs- 
colleges for , 378/. 
control of colleges for , 41. " 
Children of school-age : employment of, 191. 
Children's Acts 
Bengal, 479. 
Madras, 478. 
Cholera: 184, 221. 
Civics : study of, 106. 
City and Guilds* Institute, London : 364. 
Classes, school 

nomenclature of , 17. 

sizes of , 379. 

reduction in primary , 25, 216. 217. 



INDEX. Vll 

Classics: study of, 467/. 

Clerkships: 123, 150, 

Climate : effect on attendance, 221. 

Clouston, Dr. D. : 338. 

Coaching, private: 168. 

Codes, educational : for European schools, 384, 396. 

Co-education : 241, 420. 

Coimbatore 

Agricultural College, 320. 

Forest College, 340. 
Colleges, classes of 

agricultural , 32, 312, 313, 314/. 

arts, 56, 74, 109, 116, 126, 127, K>8. 

commercial , 38, 372/. 

engineering , 303. 

European , 387, 400. 

forest, 339/. 

girls' , 254. * 

law, 294. 

medical , 300, 301. 

oriental, 468. 

training , 279. 

veterinary , 344/. 
Colleges, general 

affiliated, 75, 95, 109, 115, 313. 

associated, 95, 97. 

buildings, 118/, 379. 

cost of education at , 22, 127. 

expenditure on , 24, 126, 303. 

inspection of , 61, 75. 

intermediate, 78, 97, 111, 254. 

management and control , 55, 56,, 74, 116, 266. 

relations to universities , 75, 115. 

touching nt , 109, 254. 
Collins, Dr. Mark: 106. 
Colvin Taluqolars' School, Lucknow : 383. 
Commerce : instruction in, 38, 372. 

Commercial subjects, teaching of : in ordinary schools, 150, &7. 
Comilhi Elliot Artisan School: 359. 
Com mission 

Calcutta University, 4, 27, 46, 60, 77, 78, 83, 85, 8, 95, 96, 109, 
111, 114, 168, 292, 348, 377, 400, 466. 

Decentralization , 67. 

Public Services , 50. 

Committee 

Bihar and Orissa; on primary and secondary education, 188, 494. 
Bombay; on defectives* education, 448. 
Bombay; on technical education, 494. 



Vlll INDEX. 

Committee cont d . 

Burma; on Anglo-vernacular education, 494. 

Burma; on engineering education, 308. 

Calcutta; on domiciled community, 494. 

Central Provinces; on depressed classes, 414. 

Geddes , 451. 

Inchcape , 451. 

Indian Jails , 476, 477. 

Lytton; on Indian students in United Kingdom, 37. 349, 490, 493. 

Madras; on rural education, 225. 

Nathan, 81, 84. 

Public Works Department Reorganization , 304, 305. 

Punjab; on agricultural education, 180, 225, 331, 494. 

Punjab; on district boards 1 education and finance. 70. 187, 494. 

Retrenchment , 53. 

See also Conference(s). 

Committees 

for girls' schools, 74, 256. 

for primary schools, 74. 

for secondary schools, 74. 

for technical schools, 366. 

Universities; on Calcutta University Commission Report, 79. 
Communal representation : in universities, 86. 
Communities 

in colleges, 117. 

of scholars, 24. 

stages of instruction of . 387, 407. 
Comparisons with foreign countries: 21. 
Compulsory education 

Acts, 1, 33, 65, 190/, 209. 

advantriges of , 216/. 

in criminal tribes' settlements, 426, 427. 

for Europeans, 401. 

introduction of , 20, 33, 65, 191, 194/, 229, 418. 
Conscience clause : in compulsory education acts, 191. 
Concentration of schools : 137, 182, 270, 394, 395. 
Conference(s) 

on agricultural education, 312, 316. 

on Anglo-vernacular education, 494. 

of Directors of Public Instruction, 17. 

on education of domiciled community, 389, 400, 401. 

on engineering education, 37, 305. 

of Librarians, 492. 

of Orientalists, 470. 

of secretaries of advisory committees for students, 490. 

on teaching of English, 160/, 491. 

See also Committees. 



INDEX. IX 

Constitution : of universities, 85, 90, 95, 104. 
Continuation classes and schools : 235. 
Control 

of education, 40/, 366. 

parental; decay of, 4. 
Convent Normal class, Bombay: 290. 
Conveyances 

for girls' schools, 242. 

for inspectresses, 64. 

between colleges, 107, 109. 

and education, 32. 
Co-operation contd. 

between Government and local bodies, 69. 

between universities, 105. 
Co-operative Credit Societies: 232, 233. 
Corporate life in colleges : 124, 127. 
Corps 

Army Educational , 451, 452, 455. 

University, 21, 124. 

University Officers' Training , 493. 
Cost 

of arts college students, 22, 127. 

of European scholars, 391. 

of forestry students, 340. 

of girls' schools and scholars, 259, 260. 

of living; effects of, 135, 184, 402. 

to parents, 138/, 219. 

of primary schools und scholars, 22, 201. 

of secondary schools and scholars, 22, 138. 

of students in training, 22, 288. 
Courses 

in agricultural institutions. ,'116, 317/, 332, 336. 

in chiefs' colleges, 380. 

commercial , 374/. 

in engineering colleges, 305. 

in European schools, 402. 

in girls' schools, 246, 248/. 

in law, 292. 

in medicine, 299/. 

for night schools, 236. 

in primary schools, 225/. 

realisation of , 180, 225, 226. 

in schools of art, 369. 

in secondary schools, 150, 154, 156, 174, 176/, 180. 

special; for matriculates, 93, 159. 

technical and practical , 150, 154, 156, 355, 356, 357, 433. 

in training institutions, 284/. 

in universities, 75, 93, 100, 106. 



X IKBEX. 

Courses contd. 

in veterinary science, 344. 

vocational , 164. 

Court of Wards School, Newingtoii : closing of, 383. 
Covernton, Mr. J. G. : 42. 
Craigie, Dr. W. A. : 105. 
Craft schools : 353. 
Cramming: 4, 122, 360, 486. 
Criminal tribes 

Act, 425. 

education of , 425/. 
Cu?mins;ham, Mr. J. R. : 140, 155. 



Dacca 

Agricultural In-titule. 323. 

Kn gin coring school, 308. 

Medical school, 87. 

Training college, 87. 

University, 78, 81, 82/. 
'Dais : training of. 246. 
Daly College, Tndore : 378, 381. 
Deaf and dumb : schools for, 445/. 
Decentralisation Commission : 67. 
Defectives : education of, 445/. 
Degrees 

British Universities , 122. 

commercial , 373. 

recognition of , 263, 264, 297. 

standardisation of , 18. 
Dehra Dun 

Forest Research Institute, 339/. 

Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College, 459. 

X-Ray Institute, 300. - 
De la Fosse, Sir C. F. : 42. 
De l/aplace, Miss : 447. 
Delhi 

Kitchener College, 458. 

Lady Hardinge Medical College, 254, 301. 

Reformatory school, 476. 

University, 98 V 

Deobaiid : D^r-ul-ulum at, 461. 
Departmental examinations : 397, 398. 
Depressed classes : 92, 41 4/. 
Depressed Classes Mission Society : 424. 
Despatch of 1854: 29. 
Devadhar, Mr. G. K. : 258. 



INDEX. XI 



Dev Samaj : 243. 

Dhanbad : School of Mines at, 37, 309. 
Diocesan Board of Education, Lahore : 392. 
Diocesan College: 254, 283. 
Directors of Publio Instruction 
conference of , 17. 
position under the Reforms, 49. 
Discipline: 3, 137, 251, 440, 466, 476. 
District Boards 

educational functions of , 16, 33, 56, 6o/, 191/. 

finance of , 33, 70, 187, 260. 

See also Local bodies. 
Division of educational control : 46, 60. 
Diwa Central School : 424. 

Domestic science : teaching of, 248, 249, 425, 456. 
Domiciled Community 

committee on education of , 494. 

conference on education of , 389, 400, 401. 

education of , 384/. 

See also Europeans. 
Doms: education of, 417. 
Donations and Endowments 

by Eai Bishambhar Nath, 120. 

by Sir Ganga Ram, 73, 257. 

by Kumar Guruprosad Singh of Khaira, 108. 

by Lala Hardat Rai, 120. 

by Maharaja of Jeypore, 254. 

by Sir Percy Newson, 392. 

by Mr. Pran Krista Chatterjee, 108. 

by Rajas Bahadur of Banaili, 119. 

by Rani Sahiba of Binga, 73. 

by Sir Rash Bohari Ghose, 108. 

by Ruling Chiefs, 379, 458. 

by Taluqdars of Oudh, 94. 

by Sir Taraknath Palit, 108. 

by Sir V. Thackersey, 103, 233. 
Doveton schools : 394. 

Dow Hill Training School for Girls, Kurseong :290, 392. 
Drawing Masters 

pay of , 141. 

training of , 281, 369. 
Duration of school life : 214, 216. 



Eastern Bengal Railway : 359. 
East India Company : 396. 
East Indian Railway : 386. 



Jill INDEX. 

Economic conditions 

effects of , 2, 22, 136, 160. 
See also Cost of living. 

Economics: study of: 106. 

Educational Commissioner with the Government of India : 42, 44. 

Educational Services: 60/. 

Educational Society, Bombay: 392, 394. 

Educational Surveys : 186, 187, 192. 

Elton, Prof. Oliver : 106. 

Employment 

of children of school-age, 191. 

education of boys for , 160, 156. 

education of girls for , 246. 

of Europeans, 400. 

of defectives, 446. 

of graduates, 123, 141, 277, 279, 280. 

of Muhammadans, 409. 

of trained apprentices, 444. 
Empress Mills: night schools, 234. 
Endowments : see Donations. 
Engineering 

colleges, 303, 306. 

Conferences and Committees, 37, 305, 308. 

education in , 37, 45, 122, 302/. 

schools, 308. 

services, 264, 304. 

English- 
conference on teaching of , 160/, 491. 

.n factory schools, 435. 

importance of , 159. 

as medium of instruction, 167/, 384, 396, 431. 

method of teaching , 162, 165, 252. 

optional in vernacular schools, 178, 180. 

>n primary schools, 161, 227. 

in secondary schools, 134, 147, 157, 158. 
Epidemics: effect on attendance, 184. 221. 
Europe: 44, 122. 
Europeans 

education of , 36, 45, 384/. 

See also Admission, Courses, Cost, Domiciled community, Expendi- 
ture, Fees, Hostels, Management, University. 

Evening school : 438. 

Ewing, Rev. Dr. J. C. R. : 131. 

Examinations 

Cambridge Local , 384, 397. 

Chiefs' colleges , 380. 

City and Guild 'g , 364. 



I2TOEX. XIII 

Examinations contd. 

departmental, 397, 398. 

dominance of , 122/, 148/, 380. 

effect on teaching, 122/, 148, 150, 153, 249. 

European schools' , 397/. 

external , 75, 397. 

in law, 293. 

matriculation , 60, 93, 111, 112, 149/. 

medical , 295. 

" Mulagaiianthincha " , 463. 

Oriental , 472. 

school final or leaving certificate , 60, 11], 149/, 399. 

standard of , 153. 

university , 123. 

Examining Board for European schools : 398. 
Expansion, schemes of 

primary education, 20, 69/, 185/. 

secondary education, 136/. 
Expenditure 

on buildings, 89, 118/, 179, 205/, 392. 

on colleges, 24, 126, 303. 

on education., 19, 22, 24. 

on Enropoan education, 389/. 

on girls' education, 24, 259. 

ly local bodies, 70, 260. 

from private sources, 73, 118, 129. 

on primary education, 24, 200. 

on scholarships, 24. 

on secondary education, 138. 

on technical and industrial schools, 352. 

on veterinary colleges, 345. 

on universities, 24, 125, 129. 
Extension lectures : 92. 
External examinations : 75, 397. 
Extra-Mural teaching : 92. 



Factories, Government Ordnance: education in, 432/. 

Factory children : education of, 428/. 

Factory Co-operative Society, 436. 

Faculties of universities : 87, 92, 94. 

Famine: 23, 184. 

Faulkner, Mr. O. T. : 338. 

Fazl-i-Husain, Mian: 42. 

Fees 

for aboriginals, 422. 

m arts colleges, 127. 



XI r INDEX, 

Fees contd. 

in Chiefs' colleges, 382. 

for conveyances in girls' schools, 242. 

in European schools, 390, 391. 

in primary schools, 209, 219. 

remission of , 209, 426. 

in secondary schools, 138/. 

for soldiers' children, 209, 456, 457. 

in technical schools, 351. 

See also Free education. 
Female education : see Girls. 
Festivals: 221. 
Finance 

of local bodies, 33, 70, 196, 260, 445. 

under Reforms, 19, 40, 185, 349.. 

stringency of, 39, 48, 84, 87, 98, 175, 188, 344. 369, 381 
Fine arts: 92, 368. 
First aid : 258. 

Fishermen : education of, 429. 
Forest Rangers : training of, 340. 

Forest Research Institute and College, Dehra Dun : 339/. 
Forest services : 339/. 
Forestry : education in, 339/. 
Foreign countries: comparisons with, 21. 
Fouc'her. M. A. : I0o. 
Fowler, Dr. E. L. Frida : 10o. 
Franchise 

education and , 1, 185. 
for women, 35. 

Free edmoation : 209, 219, 420, 426, 456, 457. 
French : teaching of, 470. 
Frontier tribes : education of, 413. 



Games, school: 170, 287, 442, 476. 

Ganga Rain, Sir: 73, 257, 338. 

Gandhi, Mahatma : 7. 

Gardening: 287, 425. 

Garos : education of, 421. 

Geddes Committee: 451. 

Geddes, Prof. Patrick: 106. 

General Medical Council of United Kingdom: 297. 

Geography : study of, 106, 165. 

German : teaching of, 470. 

Ghoragali : Lawrence School, 392. 

Ghosh. Sir Rash Behari : 108. 



INDEX. XT 

Girls- 
iii boys' schools, 241, 420. 

in colleges, 254. 

compulsory education for , 191. 

conveyances for , 242. 

education of, 35, 103, 237/. 

industrial education of , 257, 352, 494. 

lack of education among , 237/. 

medical education of , 301. 

primary education of , 248. 

professional education of , 246, 247. 

secondary education of , 249, 252. 

teachers for , 246, 251, 255, 257, 280, 282f. 

university education of , 103, 254, 255. 
Gokhale's Primary Education Bill: 1. 
Gour, Dr. H. S. : 98. 
Governing bodies of colleges: 74. 
Government College, Lahore: 118, 121. 
Government of India 

Act, 15, 40, 45, 91, 385. 

circular on female education, 237. 
"educational functions of , 41. 

resolutions : see Resolutions. 

Governments, provincial: education under, 15/, 4<>, 44, 40, 18 ? 340, 398. 
Graduates 

employment of , 123, 141, 277, 279, 280. 

pay as teachers, 141. 

training of, as teachers, 165. 
Grants-in-aid 

to colleges, 128. 

control by means of , 58, 60, 62. 

to factory schools, 435, 

imperial" , 185. 

to local bodies^JO, 72, 186, 191, 198, 199, 231. 

to monastic schools, 204. 

to primary schools, 68, 202/. 

to private bodies, 493. 

Report by Bureau of Education on , 62, 145. 

to secondary schools, 67, 143/. 

systems, 16, 33, 62, 143/. 

to universities, 84, 91, 125. 
Gregory, Dr. J. W. : 77. 
Gurukul, Hardwar: 461, 466. 
Guruprosad Singh of Khaira, Kumar : 108. 
Guru Nanak school, Amritsar : 256. 
Guru training schools 

in Bengal, 269. 

in Bihar and Orissa, 270, 422. 



XVI INDEX. 



Half-time system : 223, 336. 

Hardat Rai, Lala : 120. 

Hardinge, Lord : 82. 

Hartog, Mr. P. J. : 42, 77, 83. 

Harvest holidays : 221, 224. 

Hartals (strikes) : due to " non-co-operation," 163. 

Hastings House School : closing of, 383. 

Hazaribagh : Reformatory School, 475. 

Headmasters 

influence of , 167. 

pay of , 141. 

High or Chief Courts: 263, 291. 
High Schools 

comparison with English Public schools, 148. 

uniformity of , 147. 

teachers in , 153. 
Hill schools for Europeans : 392. 
Hill tribes : education of, 419/. 
Hindu College, Delhi : 98. 

Hindu University, Benares: 76, 88, 89, 91, 112, 125. 
History: study of, 106, 108. 
Hobart Training School, Government : 283. 
Hole, Mr. R. S. : 342. 

Home classes : see Zenana education, Peripatetic instructors. 
Holidays 

abandonment of , 124. 

festivals , 221. 

harvest, 221, 224. 
Honours schools : 104, 107. 
Hornell, Mr. W. W. : 77. 
Hostels 

college ~ ; 118, 379. 

European , 391, 400. 

girls' , 258, 301. 

for students in training, 269. 
Hunter, Sir Mark : 204. 
Hygiene: 156, 174, 249. 

Calcutta Institute of , 300. 



Illiteracy : measures against, 232, 412, 436. 
Imperial grants: discontinuance of, 185. 
Inchcape Committee: 451. 



INDEX. XV 11 

Indian Army Reserve of Officers, 381. 

Indian Association of Workers for the Blind : 448. 

Jndian Defence Force : 124. 

Indian Educational Service : 50. 

Indian Inspectresses : paucity of, 64. 

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore : 350. 

Indian Jails Committee : 476, 477. 

Indian Medical Degrees Act: 299. 

Indian National Congress: 3. 

Indian Soldiers and their children: education of, 455, 457. 

Indian students 

abroad , 122, 349, 493. 

admission to European schools, 396. 

Lytton Committee on , 37, 349, 490, 493. 
Indianisation of services : 37, 50, 53, 400. 
Indigenous schools : 461 . 
Tndo-British Society: 394. 
Industrial education 

control of , 366. 

environments for , 353, 354, 358. 

expenditure on , 352. 

of girls, 257, 352, 494. 

in reformatories, 474. 
Industrial schools 

primary , 355. 

secondary , 356. 

statistics, 352. 

Industrial and technical research : 350. 
Influenza: 23, 184, 221. 
Insein : Engineering school, 308. 
Inspecting staff 

duties of , 63. 

pay of , 22. 

statistics, 63, 64. 
Inspection 

of agricultural schools, 326. 

of colleges, 61, 75. 

cost of , 22. 

of girls 1 schools, 64. 

medical , 175. 

methods of , 166. 

organization of , 63. 

of primary schools, 71. 

of secondary schools, 61, 166. 
Inspector(s) 

district, duties of , 71. 

Muhammadan , 409, 411. 

of Sanskrit Pathshalas, 462. 



XVlll INDEX. 

Inspec tresses : 64, 243. 

Intermediate Colleges : 78, 97, 111, 254. 

Intermediate Education: Boards of Secondary and, GO, 78, 96, 409. 

International Correspondence School: 442. 

Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow : 94, 254. 

Islamia College, Peshawar: 413. 

Tslamia Schools: 405, 411. 

Islamic Matriculation and Intermediate Examinations : 409. 

Islamic studies 

Department of , 87. 

Superintendent of , 409, 471. 
Itinerant teachers : 248, 409. 



Jails Committee, Indian : 476, 477. 
Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy School of Art : 368. 
Jamshedpur 

education in , 431. 

Technical Institute, 311, 362. 
Japan: 122. 

Jevons, Dr. Stanley : 106. 
Jeypore : H. H. Maharaja of, 254. 
Jewish school: 386. 
Journals 

Art, 367. 

college and school, 487. 

oriental, 470. 

Jubbulpore : Training College, 280. 
Judson College: 92. 
Juvenile offenders : see Children's Acts. 



Kalimpong [ndus trial School : 359. 

Kaliparaj : education of, 424. 

Kanchrapara Workshops, 359. 

'Karve, Prof. : university for women, 103. 

Kenyon, Maj.-Genl. : 432. 

Keys: use of, 486. 

Khalsa Diwan : 243. 

iKhan, Dr. S. A. : 106. 

Kharagpur Workshops: 359. 

Khasis: education of, 420. 

Khilafat movement: 9, 116. 

Khyber Pass : 413. 

Kindergarten: 280, 283, 456. 



INDEX. MX 



King Edward College, Amraoti : 119. 

King Edward Memorial Technical School, Akyab: 354. 

King George's Medical College: 94, 300. 

King George's Royal Military Schools : 457. 

Kinnaird College, Lahore : 254, 283. 

Kitchener College, Delhi : 458. 

Koran Schools : 405. 

Kyaungs : 204. ftee also Monastic schools!. 



Labourers, children of : education of, 

Lady Chelmsford : 21, 301. 

Lady Hardinge Medical College, Belli i . 254, 301. 

Lady Rending Hostel: 301. 

Lady Superintendents: 195, 427, 431. 

Ladies' Committees: 74, 256. 

Lahore 

Government College, 118, 121. 

Hindu Widows' Homo, 256, 257. 

Kinnaird College, 254, 283. 

Mayo School of Arts, 281, 357, 370. 

Normal School, 283. 

Queen Mary's College, 383. 

University. See Punjab University. 
La Martiniere Schools : 394. 
Language problems in Indian education : 40(5, 419. 430. 

Kef also Medium of instruction. 
Language teachers: pay of, 141. 
Law colleges and classes : 294. 
Lawrence Memorial School, Ootacnmiind : 393. 
Lawrence Military School, Sanawar : 290. 456. 
Leake, Dr. H. M. : 338. 
League of Honour, School Boy: 171. 
Leather Schools : 365. 
Leaving Certificates, School : 149. 
Lectures 

extension, 92. 

university, 104, 105. 
Legal education : 291/. 
Legal practitioners : status of, 291. 
Legislation, educational 

lack of , 40. 

for local bodies, 65, 70. 
Legislative Assembly : on barristers, 291. 
Legislative Councils : education in, 39, 47, 49. 
Leper Asylum, Purulia : 447. 
Librarians, conference of: 492. 



XX INDEX. 

- Libraries : 87, 106, 123, 233, 337, 470. 
Life menders : in university constitutions, 86. 
Lillooah Workshops: 359. 
Literacy : 29, 33, 34, 220, 229, 232, 237, 238. 

See also Duration of school life. 

Literature, Vernacular: dearth of, 20, 29, 169, 436, 487. 
Lloyd, Sir George : 171, 368. 
Local bodies 

contributions to, 70, 72, 186, 191, 198, 199, 231. 

duties of , 56, 65/. 

education under , 16, 33, 56, 65, 191. 

educational staff of , 71. 

expenditure by, 70, 260. 

financial relations with Government, 33, 70, 188. 

inspection under , 71. 

new (Burma and Madras), 66. 

powers of , 65/. 

primary education under , 3tt, 56. 66, 68. 

secondary education under , 56, *67. 
Loni School: 281, 325. 
ILoreto House : 283. 
Low caste children 

schools for , 41 5/. 

See also Depressed classes. 
Lower subordinates: 304, 308, ;*41. 
Lucknow 

Canning College, 94. 

Christian College, 97, 120. 

Colvin Taluqdars' School, 383. 

Engineering School, 308. 

King George's Medical College, 94, 300. 

University, 76, 94. 

school of arts and crafts, 371. 
Lyallpur: Agricultural College, 281, 318, 332. 
Lytton Committee: on Indian students in England, 37, .'149, 4JK), 493. 



M 

Macaulay's Minute: 473. 
Mackenzie, Prof. J. S. : 105. 
Mackichan, Dr. D. : 131. 
Macphail, Revd. E. M. : 42. 
Madhavlal, Sir Chinubhai : 361. 
Madras 

Children's Act, 478. 

Elementary Education Act, 65, 66. 

Engineering College, 306. 



INDEX. XXI 



Madras contd. 

Institute of Commerce, 375. 

Leather Trades Institute, 365. 

University, 75, 99, 112. 
Madrassas: 409, 468, 469. 
Magazines : college and school, 487. 
Mahajani schools : 461. 
Mahamati Survey School, Commilla : 310. 
Maktabs: 269, 405, 411. 
Malaria: 184, 221. 

Malaviya, Pandit Madan Mohan : 89. 
Management : 55/. 

of arts colleges, 56, 74. 

of commercial schools, 375. 

of European schools, 386. 

policy regarding , 57. 

of primary schools, 74. 

of professional colleges, 55, 265. 

of secondary schools, 56, 74. 

of technical schools, 352. 
Mandalay : Agricultural College, 324. 
Manual training: 156, 281, 286, 456. 
Manual (s) 

of educational training for the Army, 450. 

of forestry, 342. 
Manuscripts: collection of, 470. 
Maqhul Shah, Khan Sahib: 210. 
3M arriage 

earl} , 238. 

education for , 245. 
Mathematics : teaching of, 107, 165. 
Matriculates : additional course for, 93, 159. 
Matriculation examination 

age for , 112. 

general, 60, 111, 249. 

statistics, 149. 
Maulvis: 251, 281. 

pay of , 141. 
Mayhew, Mr. A. I. : 42. 
Mayo College, Ajmer : 378, 380, 381. 
Mayo School of Arts, Lahore: 281, 357, 370. 
McKee, Bevd. W. J. : 287. 
Mechanical engineering : instruction in, 307. 
Medical Acts : 298, 299. 
Medical colleges and schools: 300, 301. 
Medical Council, General: 297. 
Medical Courses: 299/. 
Medical education : control of, 296. 



XXII INDEX. 

Medical examinations : 295. 
Medical Faculty, State: 300. 
Medical inspection: 175. 
Medical registration : 299. 

Medium of instruction : 16, 29, 101, 103, 113, 157, 177, 255. 
Memorisation: 122, 160, 486. 
Metallurgy: instruction in, 311. 

Methods of teaching: 122, 148/, 162, 163, 168, 252. 
Mian Sir Muhammad Shan, 98. 
Middle schools 
English, 176. 
Vernacular. 132, 177. 
Midwifery : trailing in, 246, 258, 297. 
Miles, Mr. W. H. : 107. 

Military colleges and schools: sec Army education. 
Miller, Mr. A. C. : 171. 
Mining: instruction in, 308, 309. 

Ministers of education, provincial: 15, 18, 44, 45, 49. 
Missions 

Christian. 243, 254, 283, 287, 386, 420. 
National Missionary Council, 226. 
non-Christian, 243, 424. 
Mofussal Board for colleges : 78. 
Mof ussul colleges : 108. 
Moghalpura : engineering college, 307. 
Monastic schools: 182, 204, 241, 463. 

S^c oho Kyaungs. 
Montessori training : 283. 
Mookerjee, Sir Asutosh : 77. 

Moral and religious instructions: 226, 248. '*94. 405, 459. 
Morris College, 'Nagpur : 294. 
Moulniein Trades School : 354. 
MualUtn training schools : 269. 
Muazzins: 446. 
(M uh amma d a n s 

education of , 36, 76, 117, 404/. 
population, 404. 
Muir. Prof. Ramsay : 77. 
Mnkerjee, Prof. R. K. : 105. 

Muktesar : Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory, 346. 
" Mulagananthincha, " examination : 463. 
Mulla schools: 412, 461, 463. 
Multiplication of Universities : 18, 28, 99. 
Municipalities 

Bombay Corporation, 195, 199. 
Calcutta Corporation, 199. 
education imder , 191/, 231. 
See also Local bodies. 



INDEX. XXiil 

Mural paintings: 368. 

Music : teaching of, 156, 258, 286, 446, 466. 
Muslim University, Aligarh : 76, 88, 90, 91, 125. 
Mysore University : 102. 

N 

Nagas : education of, 419, 
[Nagpur 

Agricultural College, 321. 

Engineering School, 304, 308. 

Medical School, 300. 

Morris College, 294. 

University, 97. 
Na^ir, Sir Sankaran : 160. 
Namasudras : 155, 417. 
Nathan, Sir Bohert : 81, 82. 
National Missionary Council: 226. 
National service : 4. 
^National schools : 5, 6, 7, 465. 
Nature study : 225, 286. 
Needham, Lt.-Col. B. A. : 297. 
New College, Patna : 97, 111. 
Newington: Court of Wards' School, 883. 
Newspapers for villagers : lack of, 34. 
Newson, Sir Percy: 392. 
Night schools: 231/, 336, 417. 

See also Adult education. 
Nizani, H. E. H. the: 101. 
Nomads: 425. 

Nomenclature for school classes: 17. 
" Non-co-operation " movement: effect on education, 3/, 116, 135, 184, 

465. 

Normal schools : see Training schools and classes. 
North- Western Railway Workshops and schools : 307, 357, 395. 
Nurses: training of, 246, 258. 
Nur-ul-Huda, M. : 468. 



Oak Grove School, Mussoorie: 386. 
Ootacamund : Lawrence Memorial School, 393. 
Optional English : in vernacular schools, 178, 180. 
Organisation, educational : 14, 15, 16/. 
Oriental colleges: 468. 
Oriental Institute 

Bhandarkar, 470. 

Cama, 470. 



XXIV INDEX. 

Oriental studies : 467 /. 
Oriental titles: 472. 
Orientalists : conference of, 470. 
Orr & Sons, Messrs. : 428. 
O&mania University : 101, 113. 



Painting, Indian : Revival of, 367, 368. 
Palit, Sir Tarak Nath: 108. 
Panchayati Union School System : 33, 183. 
Pandits: 241, 251, 281. 

inspecting, 71. 

pay of , 141. 

Parental authority : decay of, 4. 
Parents : cost of education borne by, 138/, 219. 
Patel, Mr. V. J. : 190. 

" Patriotic Fund " for military schools: 457. 
Patshalas: 461. 

See also Tols. 
Patna 

Engineering school at , 308. 

Training college, 281, 286. 

University, 18, 76, 81, 112, 113. 
Pattern Books of Art : 367. 
Patwardhan: Mr. W. B., 42. 
Patwariesf IV 7, 310. 
Pay 

of headmasters, 141, 202. 

of inspecting staff, 22, 54. 

of services, 50, 52, 54. 

of teachers; in aided colleges, 128. 

of teachers ; in European schools, 402. 

of teachers; in girls' schools, 260. 

of teachers; in primary schools, 202/, 210. 

of teachers; in secondary schools, 54, 139, 141. 
Perambur Trades School : 358. * 

Per in Memorial School, Mrs. : 431. 
Peripatetic centres for weaving instruction : 364. 
Peripatetic instructors for women f 248, 409. 
Persian, study of: 467. 
Philology, comparative : study of, 106. 
Physical education : 173, 287. 

Picketing : in connection with " non-co-operation," 4, 
Piggott Committee: scheme of, 186, 217. 
Plague: 184, 221. 
Playgrounds : scarcity of, 170. 



INDEX. XXV 

Policy(ies) 

educational , 33, 40, 49, 68, 69. 
regarding European education, 46, 385, 392. 
regarding management of schools, 57, 72, 421. 

Politics, study of : 106. 
Poona Agricultural College : 317. 
Poona Engineering College : 305. 
Population 

under instruction, 237. 

statistics, 19. 

Postal work: .by University corps, 124. 
Post-graduate work: 100, 104, 106, 108, 130, 316. 
Post-Vedic studies : 106. 
Practical subjects: instruction in, 31, 150/, 154, 156, 225, 226, 2*19, 

287, 433, 446. 

Practising schools : 287. 

Primary classes: reduction in number, 25, 216, 217. 

Primary education 

Acts, 1, 33, 65. 

compulsory, 1, 20, 33, 65. 

control of, 45, 68. 

expansion of, 25, 33, 69/, 185/. 

free , 209, 219. 

of girls, 248. 

surveys, 186, 187, 192. 

urban , 228. 

Primary schools 

attendance at-, 24, 181, 184, 214, 215, 218, 221, 222. 

average enrolment in , 218. 

buildings, 205/. 

cost of , 201. 

courses in , 225/. 

defects of , 214/. 

expenditure on , 200. 

fees in , 209, 219. 

grants for , 68, 202/. 

management of , 56. 

numbers, 181/. 

teachers in , 218. 

" venture/' 25, 464. 

Primary stages : Pupils in. 

Prince of Wales, H. R. H. : visit of, 171, 457. 

Prince of Wales' Royal Indian Military College, Dehra Dun : 459. 

Private bodies : 494. 

Private institutions : 59, 460/. 

Private management: institutions under; control of, 57/. 

Private tuition by teachers: 168. 



XXVI INDEX. 

Professional education: 37, 116, 

control of , 45, 55, 263, 265, 296, 
Professional qualifications: standardisation of, 264. 
Programme of expansion: Primary education, 60/, 185/. 
Proprietary schools: 74. 
Provident funds for teachers : 142. 
Provincial Committees: see Committees. 
Provincial Educational Services: 60/. 
Provincialisation : 

of education, 15/, 40, 44. 

of Lawrence Memorial School, Ootacamund, 393. 
Publications : of the Bureau of Education, 43. 62. 
Public institutions : definition of, 59, 460. 
Public schools, English : 148, 379. 
Public Services Commission: 50. 

Public Works Department Reorganisation Committee: 304, 305, 369. 
Punjab Association : 256. 
Punjab University, Lahore: 75, 112, 113. 
Purdah Ladies, education of : see Zenana education. 
Purdah system: 238, 245, 251. 
Pusa Agricultural Research Institute : 314, 315. 



Q 

Qualifications 

for agricultural services, 315, 316. 

for apprenticeship, 440. 

for legal* prof ession, 291. 

of students under training, 177, 267, 270/, 277, 279, 280. 

of teachers, 153, 163, 164, 211, 251, 252. 
Quarters for staff : 64, 119. 
Queen Mary's College 

Lahore, 383. 

Madras, 254. 



Railway schools 

for Europeans, 386, 95. 

technical, 357. 

workshops, 358, 359. 
Rnjkumar College 

Raipur, 378. 

Rajkot, 378. 

Rujputana: proposed university in, 97. 
Raman, Professor C. V. : 105. 



INDEX. 

Ramjas College, Delhi : 98. 
Rangachari, Rai Bahadur K. : 338. 
Hangers, Forest : training of, 340. 
Rangoon University: 76, 92/, 117. 
Rao, Professor O. V. H. : 107. 
Basul Engineering School : 304, 308. 
Ravenshaw College, Cuttack : 119. 
Ray, Sir P. O. : 105. 
Ray, Mr. S. N. : 190. 
Reay Workshops: 369. 
Recognition 

of degrees, 263, 264, 297. 

friction between department and university, 60, 136. 

of schools, 16, 68, 59, 136, 182, 236, 462, 465. 

Recruitment 

for agricultural services, 315. 

for educational services, 61. 

for engineering services, 304. 

for forest services, 340. 

for medical services, 299. 

for veterinary services, 343, 346. 
Reformatory schools : 474/. 

Reforms : education under the, 15, 19, 40, 49, 185, 349, 398. 
Religion, comparative : study of, 255. 
Religious and moral instruction : 226, 248, 394, 405, 459. 
Religious Schools: 68, 462, 463. 
Repairs to school buildings: 208. 
Research 

industrial and technical : 850. 

Institute, Dose's, 130. 

Oriental , 470. 

at universities, 106, 108, 130. 

Resolution of 1920 : on Calcutta University Commission, 79, SIX 

Resolution of 1913 : on educational policy, 33, 57, 68, 76. 

Retrenchment Committees : 53. 

Revenue and educational expenditure of provinces: 19. 

Hhodes scholarships : 47. 

Roberts, Mr. W. : 338. 

Robertson College: 442. 

Hobertson Industrial School, Jubbulpore : 360. 

lloyal College of Veterinary Surgeons : 347. 

Royal Commission on Public Services : 50, 53. 

Royal Indian Military College : 459. 

Rpyal Institute of Science, Bombay : 130. 

Royal Military College, Sandhurst : 449, 459. 

Royal Military Schools: 457. 

Rural education: Committee on, 225. 



XXY111 INDEX. 

Realisation of school courses : 180, 225, 226, 326, 381. 
Rural schools : 185, 187, 188, 206, 325. 

teachers of , 177, 210, 212, 214, 251, 287. 
Rural Self-Government Act, Burma: 66. 
Rushbrook Williams, Dr. : 105, 106. 



8 

Sabour Agricultural College : 322. 

Sadler, Dr. Sir Michael : 77. 

Sahay, Mr. S. K. : 190. 

St. Bede's Training College, Simla : $$0. 

St. Deny's School and Training Class, Murree : 290, 392. 

St. Stephen's College, Delhi : 98. 

Salaries : see Pay. 

Salvation Army : 425. 

Sanderson, Mr. R. : 147. 

Sandhurst: Royal Military College at, 449, 459. 

Sanskrit 

Association, 472. 

colleges, 468. 

teaching of , 88, 107, 255. 

tols, 469. 

Santiniketan, Bolpur : 466. 
Sastri : Mr. Srinivasa : 42. 
Saunders' Weaving Institute, Amarnpura : ftfi4. 
Scholarships 

for backward classes, 422, 42fl. 

in colleges, 320. 

for Europeans, 395. 

for girls, 246. 

for Muhammadans, 409. 

Rhodes, 47. 

State technological , 349. 

in training institutions, 288. 
School Boy League of Honour : 171. 
School Final Examination : 60, 111 , 149/. 
School Leaving Certificates: 149/, 399. 
School Life 

duration of , 214, 216. 

general conditions of , 168. 
Science teaching : 108, 130, 402. 
Scouts, Boy: 171, 172. 
Scout Masters : training of, 286. 
Scottish Educational Society : 394. 
Seasonal Schools : 236. 
Secondary and Intermediate Education Boards: 60, 78, 96, 409. 



INDEX. 

Secondary Education 

aims of , 150. 

control of , 56, 60. 

defects of , 147/. 

expansion of , 136 f. 

of girls, 249, 252. 

grants for , 141/. 

management of , 06, 74. 

organisation of , 132. 

stages of -, 132. 
Secondary Schools 

attendance at , 132, 137. 

buildings, 146. 

courses in , 150, 164, 156, 174, 176/, 180. 

expenditure on , 138. 

fees in, 138, 139. 

numbers, 25, 132. 

pay of teachers in , 141, 142. 
Secretary of State : 1, 50, 393, 493. 
Serampore Weaving Institute: 364. 
Servants of India Society : 258, 431. 
Services 

Agricultural , 315. 

Educational , 50/. 

Engineering , 264, 304. 

Forest , 339/. 

Indianisation of , 37, 50, 53, 400. 

Medical , 299. 

Recruitment for , 51, 299, 304, 315, 340, ;M3, 346. 

Veterinary, 343, 346, 347. 

Setalvad: Sir Chimanlal Harihil, 42. 

Seva Sadan Society, Poona : 243, 258. 

Seva Samiti Boy Scouts : 171. 

Shan, Mian Sir Muhammad : 98. 

Shah, Mr. K. T. : 106. 

Shamsul Hud a Madrassa Islam ia : 468. 

Shan Chiefs: education of sons of, 3KJ. 

Shaw, Wallace & Co. : 360. 

Sibpur Engineering College: sec, Bengtil Engineering College. 

Silver Wedding Fund : 21. 

Sir Jamsetji Jeejeebhoy School of Art: 3(58. 

Size of classes : 379. 

Slater, Dr. Gilbert : 106. 

Sociology, study of : 106. 

Soldiers : education of, 450/, 455/. 

Soldiers, British: education of children of, 380, 393, 456. 

Solomon, Captain : 368. 

Senthals : education of, 422. 



XXX INDEX. 

South Africa : 28. 
Staff sr- 

for aboriginals, 422, 424. 

of arts colleges, 128. 

of chiefs' colleges, 379, 382. 

of criminal tribes' schools, 427. 

of European schools, 402. 

of Muhammadan institutions, 405, 409, 412. 

of private institutions, 461/. 

of training institutions, 277. 

See also Teachers. 

Stages of instruction : 24, 387, 407, 422, 424, 452. 
Stagnation of pupils in lower classes : 220. 
State Medical Faculty : 300. 
State scholarship : 349. 

Statistical Tables of education : revision of, 489. 
Statistics of education : 24. 
Stipends: 246, 288, 344, 35*. 
Strikes : 3, 124. 
Students, Indian 

abroad, 122, 349. 

Lytton Committee on , 37, 349, 490, 49,'j. 
Student's life : 4, 380. 

Study, general : lack of, among students, 169. 
Subordinate Educational Services : 54. 
Subscriptions: 118, 129, 140. 
Sundar Lai, Dr. Sir : 131. 
Surveying: education in, 310. 
Surveys of Primary education: ISO, 187, 1W2. 
Syed Ahmad, Sir : 88. 

Sydenham College of Commerce : 'J8, 374. 
Sylhet : School of Handicrafts, 363. 



Tagore, Dr. llabimlranath : 466. 
Taluqdars 

education of , 319. 

donations Jby , 94. 

Ta*a Iron and* Steel Company: 311, 362, 431. 
Tata: Sir J., 350. 

Tax, education: see Cesses for education. 
Teachers 

qualifications; in agricultural schools, 332. 

qualifications; in girls' schools, 251, 252. 

qualifications; in primary schools, 211, 269. 

qualifications; in secondary schools, 153, 163, ItVl. 

salaries, 54. 128, 139, 141, 142, 202/, 210, 260, 402. 



INDEX. 

Teachers contd. 

strength; in European schools, 403. 

strength; in primary schools, 218. 

training of; for European schools, '290. 

training of general, 266/. 

training of; for girls 1 schools, 246, 251, 255, 257, 280, 282/. 

training of; for Muhammadan schools, 412. 

special, 281, 286, 326, 424. 

visiting, 306. 

See also Staffs. 
Teaching 

in college, 109, 254, 380. 

methods of , 122, 148/, 162, 163, 1C8, 249, 252. 

in oriental institutions, 469. 

in primary schools, 212, 251. 

in- secondary schools, 147/, 163. 

in universities, 98, 100, 104/, 109. 

universities, 27, 76, 77, 82, 88, 104, 109, 110. 

Tea garden schools : 430. 

Technical education 

general, 37, 122, 156, 34ft/, 433. 

apprenticeship, 336, 355, 359. 3<V2, :WM, 131, 43fi. 

committees for , 366, 494 

control of, 45, 348, 6(i 

expenditure on , 352. 

fees for , 351 . 

scholarships for , 349. 

Technical scholars : 349. 

Technical schools : 348/. 

Technical terms: translation of, 15H, 1S5. 

Technological education : 348. 

Technological institutes: 350. 

Te.j Narayan Jubilee Collego, Bhagalpoiv 1 10. 

Temple Medical School, Patnn : 300. 

Text Book Committees : 4tf!?/. 

Text-books 

for adults, 232." 

in agriculture, 226, 3:Vl 

in forestry, 342. 

for hill tribes, 419. 

in nature study, 225. 

special, 484. 

unauthorised, 486. 

in Urdu, 101, 113. 

Thackersey, Shrimati Nathibai Pamorlar : 103. 

Thackersey, Sir V. P. : 233. 

Thomason Civil Engineering College, TCoorkee: 306, 307. 



XII11 INDEX. 

Thompstone, Mr. : 338. 

Tirhut Technical Institute : 362. 

Titles, Oriental: 472. 

Todas: 423. 

Tols, Sanskrit : 469. 

Trades schools: 353/. 

Trained teachers 

employment of , 62. 

pay of , 141, 202/, 289, 402. 

paucity of , 283. 

statistics of , 153, 164, 211, 251, 269, 274, 402. 
Training classes and schools : 268/, 280. 
Training colleges: 279. 
Training institutions 

admission to , 177, 267, 270/, 277, 279, 280. 

English, 278. 

staff of , 277. 

vernacular, 277. 
Training of teachers 

courses, 284/. 

elementary, 267/. 

for European schools, 290. 

for girls' school, 246, 261. 25/5, 257, 2WI, 22/. 

Muhammad an, 412. 

Provincial systems, 269/. 

secondary, 277/. 

in special subjects, 281 , 2fl, 32tt. 

stipends, 288. 

Transfer of educational control to the public: 15, 18, 40, 44, 45, 48. 
Translation of technical terms: 158, 485. 
Translators, Bureau of: Osmanin University, 1M> H# 
Tribes- 
Criminal, 425/. 

Frontier, 413. 

Hill, 41 9/. 

Trichinopoly Engineering School : 308. 
Triplicane Training School: 283. 
Trivedi, Mr. E. S. : 105. 
Tutorial work: 92, 111, 121. 
Type plans for school buildings : 207. 
Tropical Medicine, School of: 300. 



Unauthorised books : use of, 486. 

Unitary teaching universities: 27, 76, 77, 82, 88, 104, 109, 110, 121, 

United Kingdom: 122, 291, 297, 304, 364, 493. 



INDEX. XXX111 

United States of America : 18, 30, 44, 122, 166. 
Universities: 26, 76/. 

Acts, 79, 81, 96. 

affiliating, 27, 75, 76,, 88, 96, 104, 108, 109, 110. 

buildings, 89, 90, 118. 

chairs at , 104, 106. 

constitution of , 86, 90, 96, 104. 

control of , 41, 46, 80. 

control of colleges and schools by , 41, 58, 60, 76, 76. 

control of professional education by , 263, 348, 366. 

courses, 75, 93, 100, 106/. 

entrance to, 75, 108, 111, 150, 255. 

examinations, 113, 123. 

expenditure on , 24, 125, 129. 

grants to , 84, 91, 125. 

multiplication of , 18, 28, 99. 

relations to colleges, 75, 115. 

research at , 106, 108, 130. 

teaching in , 98, 100, 104/, 109. 

unitary teaching, 72, 76, 77, 82, an, 104, 109, 110, 121. 

visitation of , 41, 90. 
University 

buildings, 89, 90, 118. 

chairs, 104, 106. 

college, 92. 

college of science, 108. 

corps, 21, 124. 

Commission, Calcutta, 4, 27, 46, 00, 77, H3, 86, 88. 100, 168, 292, 
348, 377, 400, 466. 

Commission, Calciitta : recommendation of, 78, 05, Of), 111, 114. 

committees, 79. 

constitution, 85, 90, 95, 104. 

for Europeans, 400. 

lectures, 104, 106. 

legislation: 27, 41. 

teaching, 98, 100, 104/, 109. 

for women, 103, 255. 
Unrecognised institutions : 460/. 
Upper subordinates : 304, 308. 
Urdu - 

as medium of instruction, 101, 113, 406, 410, 411. 

teaching of: in Army schools, 455. 

teaching of; in Muhammadan schools, 406, 409. 



Vacancies in educational services : 51 , 
Vakil, Mr. C. N. : 100,