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Full text of "The progress of the republic, embracing a full and comprehensive review of the progress, present condition ... and industrial resources of the American confederacy .."

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I. M. SINGER & CO 



PRINCIPAL OFFICE— 323 BROADWAY, N. Y. 



i:>kaIjKks IX 

SILK TWIST, 

MACHINE NEEDLES, 

Of various kinds, i\u< 
all avtiolcs cnnnootri 
with 

Stitdiing flaxMiics. 




«[iv;n\cb O^fficfs. 

47 Hanover St., Boston. 

32 Westminster Street, 
Providence. 

97 Chapel St.,N. Haven. 
;' 274 Broad Street. New- 
ark, N. J. 

387 Broadway, Albany. 

142 Chesnut St., Phila. 

105 Baltimore St., BaJto. 

Gloversville, New York. 

Chicago. 

8 E. Fourth Street, Cin- 
cinnati. 

65 N. Fourth Street, St. 
Louis. 

81 St. Charles Street, N. 
Orleans. 

20 Dauphin St., Mobile. 



szNa£R's sEWiisra machines. 



The object ^©5€3Sc§5£S^e5w' 

:::r:'.|iiBRARY of congress 

do not breal? 
stood and us 
coarse or fin 
whicli can 1: 
and abroad. 







[ niiicliiues lias been, and is 
lies are perfect in their con- 
ig and durable, so tluit they 
llicy can l)e readily nnder- 
ible to every kind of worlx, 
ber, and b3'- these qualities, 
e favor of the public at home 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

Or any nso whatever, they are greatly superior to any Sewing Machines ever constructed. An 
erroneous idea has been extensively |)ut forth by iuter< ted parties, tliat the Sewing Machine 
for private families should be A-ail and delicate, quite different fron\ lliat used by the artisan. 
This notion, though clearly absurd, has led thousands of families to buy Sewing machines 
which, though pretty to look at, liave turned out to be worthless. A great merit of our ma- 
chines is their reUahiUtii. It is a settled iact all over the Avorld. that they will perform what 
the}'' are recommended to do. The dear jnofit of a good operator, using one of our improved 
machines, is 

The machines are well packed for transportation, and plain printed instructions for using 
them, in any language desired, are furnished to the purchaser. All persons desiring full in- 
fofmation in regard to sewing machines, can obtain it by addressing us through the post of- 
fice, and requesting a copy of I. I\r. SINGER k OO'S GAZETTE, a paper devoted exclusively 
to this subject, which will be sent gratis. 

N. B. New Machines, of the latest and best stylos, exchanged for old Sewing Machines, on 
the usual liberal terms. 

I. M. SINGER & CO. 

PRINCIPAL OFFICE-323 BROADWAY, N. Y. 




The present senior ]);ivtnev in the hnu liavmgbeen in this biisi- ! 
ness more than TWEXTV-ETGHT Years, first, under t\^e style of ' 

CURRIKTl .fc aiLBERT 

Afterwards T. CJ JliBERT, and for nbout twentv-two years j^ast, 

T. GILBERT & CO. 

.Vnd having Manufactured Upwards of 

SIX THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED PIANO-FORTES, 

i Which can be found in all parts of the Countr3-, they refer to these 
as their testimonials, confident Ihat their report will be worth more | 
than gold or s^l^•er Medals, or any of the usual puffing forms of \ 
advertisements. ! 



< < > » ► 



THEY ARE THE SOLE OWNERS OF 

for Massachusetts, of which it is sufficient to say they have ajoplied 
upwards of Two Thousand Three Hundred, with an increasing 
demand, and. unbounded success. 



l|^=^Orders from any part of the country^, or world, sent direct 
to the manufactory in Boston, with cash or satisfactory reference, 
will be promptly attended to, and as faithfully executed as if the 
parties were present, or employed an agent to select, and on as rea- 
sonable terms. 

•*^ T. GILBERT & CO. 

WM. H. JAMESON. 

Manufactory and Ware Rooms— At 484 WASHINGTON STREET, BOSTON. 
And New York Ware Rooms— 419 BROADWAY, Corner of Canal Street. 



♦A 




MANCHESTER, N. H. 

Npl^PTo^ilf •** ^'•f.'" ^^"?Pf ^' a corporation established under the laws of 
New Hampshire, with a capital of three hundred thousand dollars for the pur 
pose of Manufacturing all kinds and qualities of ' ^ 



-A. 3>J 33 




ARE NOW READY TO EXECUTE ORDERS, 



They have erected the most spacious and convenient buildin<.s and m-ovided 
themselves with Machinery of the most approved construction? incTudin^g the 

PATENT PRINTING MACHINES 

OF WM. M. SHAW, FOEMERLY OF NEWARK, X. J. 

This Conipany, being the only concern in the country which manufactures its 

own paper for hangings, will be able to insure a uniform quality do ken Z 

the high standard ot excellence which they have adopted insurino- therebTsat^ 

sfaction to those who may wish to patronize -them. PaVties wishin^^o order wi 1 

be promptly furnished with all the grades of PAPER HANGINGS 

Iraveling agents will present sample cards for examination if <lo.irod TI„^ 
Company have also taken the spacious store, 

B o S T o osr. 

Where they will always keep a selected assortment of their own and fon-io,, .tvl... 
of Paper Decorations for the Retail Trade f- ■ 

Ovdevs directed to the Blodgett Paj^er Compmu/, Jhnrhrs^^^^^ 
Mass., will receive prompt attention. ^ -^. //., o> jyosfon, 

WM. M. SHAW, Agent. 



133 







Fjntered according to tlie Act of Con- 
•^rcss in the ve;ir eighteen liundred and 
fifry-six, in \he Clei-k's Office of tlie 
District Court of Eastern Virginia. 



J 



i -w5s^^ 




?^i^ 



THE 



PROGRESS OF THE REPUBLIC, 



xc :v2 xx xt. .A. o X :v < 



A FULL AND COMPREFIENSIVE REVIEW OF THE PROGRESS, PRESENT 

CONDITION, COMMERCIAL, RAILROAD, MANUFACTURING 

AND INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES OF 



THE AMERICAN CONFEDERACY, 



SnPERBLY ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS, VIEWS OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES 
AND LARGE TOWNS, COAT OF ARMS OF EACH STATE, ETC. 

Hon. Jf b.^'a. I^NNEDY, 

LATE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE UNITED STATES CENSUS. 



GEOGRAPinCAL AND HISTORICAL 

DESCRIPTION OF EACH STATE AND TERRITORY 

FROM THE EARLIEST PERIODS, 

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE CHIEF PLACES IN THE UNITED iSLlTES UF AMERICA, 
By RICHARD SWAINSON llSHER, 31. JJ. 

AUTHOR OF THE STATISTICAL aAZETTKER OF THfi UNITED STATEm, EDITOR OF COLTON'S GREAT AMERICAN 

ATLAS, ETC. ETC. 



WASHINGTON: 

PUBLISHED BY WM. M. MORRISON & CO. 

No. 440 PENNSYLVANIA AVKNUE, 

SOLD ONLY BY APPOINTED AGENTS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES, 

AND SUPPLIED AT $2 PEE COPY. 






HALLET, DAVIS & CO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF GRAND, PARLOR GRAND,AND SQUARE 



intft Patent Suspension Brtage, 

In consequence 
of the many valu- 
a b 1 e improvem- 
ments which we 
have introduced 
into our Piano 
Fortes, and as an 
evidence of their 
suiDeriority, our 
business has in- 
creased four fold 
within the last 
four years. 




and Composition Hearings. 

We received the 
first premium for the 
Best Grand Piano 
Forte exhibited at the 
late F A I R of the 
Franklin Institute at 
Philadelphia, Penna. 
and at the State Fair 
at Syracuse, N. Y. — 
Also at the Mechan- 
ic's Fair in Boston, 
Mass. in competition 
with the celebrated 
maker Jonas Chick- 
ering, who was Pres- 
ident of the Associa- 
tion. See extract of 
Report. 



"The Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association award this 
Diploma with a silver medal to HALLET, DAVIS & CO. for the 
Best Graild Piano Forte contributed to the Exhibition of 1853." 
[Signed] "JONAS CHICKERING, President." 

Who also had one of his Best Grands on exhibition and in com- 
petition with us. The Committee, Professors Geo. J. Webb, H. 
K. Oliver, John Lange, &c. say of this Grand, "In tone powerful, 
round, full and well balanced, a capital instrument, and best of its 
class on Exhibition." We have also received Premiums for the su- 
periority of our S(lUare Pianos, at the following Fairs : Worcester, 
Mass. in 1848 and 1849; Boston, Mass. 1848 Silver Medal, also in 
1851 two Medals; New York city 1853 Silver Medal; Philadela 1854 
Silver Medal; Ilarttord, Ct. 1854 Gold Medal; St. John's, N. B.; also, 
at the Penna. State Fair at Harrisburg, Sept. 1855, Silver Medal. ' 

We have not space to give the many published reports of the 
great advantage resulting from the improvements introduced, but 
those in want of a §ijpeirIoir "(iQ^ilnilflient can order direct from us with 
Perfect Safety, as ^S^*^^;??^^^^^^^^^'^:^""^^^:;:^ 
our Pianos are /n^ - > jp^ ^^ \iVL\e the written 

made with full ^^^^^^^mm^^^^ lo^ZljLntvtt 

warrant'd to stand ^^§^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ustave Satter, fr Vienna 

in any climate, kW^^^W"'^^^^^^^^^^^'^- ^f°^' «°^ <>' ^^ • 

•^ ' , w w V# ^^^JSr W I'Owell Mason. 

give perlect satis- m l--a».>*^ ^^ ■ "^i m-. Gottsohaik, 

faction, or the pur- i^^^*^'^^ ^ w 

chase money refunded, flLc,— -^ 

Warerooms-409 WASHINGTON, near Boylston St., BOSTON, MSS. 



Maurice Strakoscli, and 
Many Others. 



m^iiimutmiimmmm 



P<rt> 



56 



AfiTERTISEMENT. 



A FEW years posterior to the foundation of the constitutional government 
of the United States, a census of the population thereof was taken under 
the authority of Congress in accordance with a provision of the fundamental 
law ; and subsequently at the end of each period of ten years, similar and 
successively more and more minute censuses have been instituted. These 
enumerations have also embraced inquiries into the social and industrial 
status of the country, and its resources and wealth for the time being, with 
such collaterate inquiries as were deemed important to the determination 
of the economic and political relations of the States constituting the Union. 

The first national census was taken in 1790, and the seventh and latest 
census in the year 1850. Intermediate to these decennial enumerations, 
the States individually have likewise made numerous statistical inquiries, 
which are still being continued at periods varying from two to ten years. 

These show the progress of the United States from the first years of their 
aggregate existence, and, in connection with the annual returns published 
by the State and general government, are the ground-work of the statistical 
portion of the present work. 

The "Pkogkess of the United States," however, is not confined alone to a 
statistical analysis of the development of the country. In its pages will be 
found a complete description of its geography, both in relation to the States 
severally, and also to the Union. The general history of the rise of the 
colonies, their struggles in the cause of liberty, their transformation into 
independent governments, and their onward progress are also summed up, 
and their present relative condition and position in the Union fully illus- 
trated. The subjects more particularly noticed are the mining, agriculture, 
commerce, and general industry of the States, their institutions of learning 
and education, their religious and moral institutions, and, in fact, all the 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



great interests which make and distinguish their social, industrial, and 
political existence. Such are the yarious subjects treated upon ; and cer- 
tainly none can be more interesting — none more useful to the inquiring 
citizen. "Without entering into minute and controverted details, which 
would extend his work to many volumes, the author has endeavored to 
exhibit clearly and truthfully the history of events, their results, and the 
high destiny that awaits the future of a country already distinguished 
among nations for its enlightened civilization, and the successful achieve- 
ment of a position second to that of no other nation of ancient or modern 
times. 

The whole work has been arranged in al^hdbetical order, so as to be of 
easy reference, and is divided into three general divisions : 

1st. The descriptions, statistics, etc., of the United States. 

2d. The descriptions, statistics, etc., of the States and Territories, 

3d. The descriptions, statistics, etc., of principal cities, towns, etc., and 
these are followed by several general tables relative to railroads, canals, 
telegraphs, light-houses, etc., etc. This arrangement avoids the necessity 
of a general Index to the subjects treated upon. 



DUJVCAN, SHERMAN & CO. 






mmti or pine mt mtzm etsEETSt 

NEW-YORK, 

Issue Circular Letters of Credit for Travellers, available in all the 

PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE W R L D. 

ALSO 

Mercantile Credits for Europe, &c., on Messrs. George Peabody & Co., of London; 
and for India, China, &c., on Geo. Peabody & Co., or on the Oriental Bank 
Corporation of London, having 

BRANCHES AND AGENCIES AT 

Canton, Shanghai, Calcutta, 

Hong Kong, Bombay, Madras, 

Singapore. 

CSEDITS FOE ATJSTEALIA ON THE BANK OF NEW SOUTH WALES OF LONDON. 

BRANCHES AND AGENCIES AT 

MAITLAND AND NEWCASTLE, Hunter River, i 

BRISBANE AND IPSWICH, Moreton Bay. 

TICTORIA BRANCHES. 

Melbourne, Geelong, Kyneton. 

CASTLEMAINE, Mount Alexander 

I5AI..ARAT. 
SANDHURST AGENCY, Bendigo. 

OVENS IGENCY. 
ALSO, DRAFTS ON SAN FRANCISCO. 



A LIST OF SIXTY ARTICLES 




OF 



HERRICK AIKEN, 

FRANKLIN, N. H. 



SPECIMENS AND MODELS ARE DEPOSITED IN THE PATENT OFFICE, WASHING- 
TON, D. C, ELEVEN OF WHICH AKE PATENTED 



No. 1. Leather Splitting Machine, for the use of saddlers, harness makers, shoe makers, 
belt makers, and other works of leather. This was the first machine put into the market for 
the above named object. 

No. 2. The same as No. 1, with slides attached, to cut a wide or narrow bevel on strips of 
leather for welts for the soles of boots and shoes ; the narrow bevel for sewed work, and the 
wide bevel for pegged work. 

No. 3. Leather Splitting Machine, with cylinder gauge, for making scarfs, ©r laps, or any 
even thickness. 

No. 4. Gauge, to attach to the cylinder of No. 3, for splitting straps of different widths, 
making the strap thin on each edge, and thick in the centre ; also, to make a bevel on one 
edge of the strap. 

No. 5. Samples of Scarfs or Laps; also, different shapes made by the gauge. 

No. 6. Leather Splitting Machine, Avith roller gauge. 

No. T. Saddlers' and Harness Makers' Edging Tools, to round the corners of straps of leather, 
(three sizes,) first introduced into the market by Mr. Aiken. The market has since been filled 
with inferior imitations, by those who have unjustly seized upon ihe improvement. 

No. 8. Leather Cutting Spring Gauge, with handle. 

No. 9. Leather Cutting Spring Gauge, without handle. 

Nos. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 11, 18 and 19, are Saw Sets, all different in construction, 
and all inferior to No. 1, which is patented. The different specimens were invented for the 
purpose of saving others the trouble of trying to evade the patent by making inferior kinds. 

Nos. 20 and 21. Awl Handles and Sockets, with set screw on the side. A few were made 
a number of years ago, and soon abandoned as a poor kind. The same thing has of late been 
imposed upon the public as a new article. 

Nos. 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26, are Awl Handles, with different kinds of sockets, for holding 
various kinds of awls and tools for the use of all kinds of mechanics who work in wood ; also, 
for the use of shoe makers, and other classes generally'. 

No. 27. Wrench and Case. One end contains the awls and tools, the other a wrench to 
remove the socket for changing tools. 

No. 28. A card of Twenty Tools and Brad Awls, fitted to the socket, and can be changed 
at pleasure. 

No. 29. Cotton Sampler. 

No. 30. Marking Tool. 

No. 31. Circular File. 

No. 32. Machine for cutting Screws with circular dies, to be used in a common lathe» 

Nos. 33, 34 and 35, are Dies to change for different screws. 

No. 36. Samples of Screws. 

No. 37. Bitt-Stock. 

Nos. 38, 39, 40 and 41, are different kinds of Sockets to fit the BittrStock. 

Nos. 42, 43, 44 and 45 are samples for different patterns for Hames. 

No. 46. Part of a Trace, to fit the Hames. 

No. 47. Mill Saw Set. 
Round Pilars. 
New kind of Tool. 
Threads made from wood. 
52 and 53, different specimens of Spiral Brushes. 

Mo. 54. Model of a Ditching Plow. 

Kps. 55, 56, 57 and 58. Models for differently constructed wrought iron Car Wheels. 

Nos. 59 and 60. Models for Tools for making wrought iron Car Wheels. 

]059 



No. 48. 
No. 49, 
No. 50. 
Nos. 51, 



GENERAL INDEX AND LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



THE DESCRIPTIVE MATTER BEING ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY, KENDER3 THE WHOLE 

CONTENTS EASY OF ACCESS. THE FOLIOS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE DESCRIPTIVE 

PAGES ARE REFERRED TO. 



Coat of Arms of the United States A 

The Capital at Washington A 

Title Page A 

Preface B 

General Contents and List of lllusiraiions B 

Judex to Cards and Advertisements B 

Smitlisonian Institute 

State Arms of Alabama 39 

State Anns of Arkansas 51 

S. W. Corner of State and Kandulpli sts., Chicago. .214 

Steamboat Landing at Cincinnati 38 

State Arms of Calilornia 51 

City of Pittsburg 54 

District of Columbia 60 

Slate Arms of Connecticut 62 

CityefSt Louis, from the Illinois side 63 

Baltimore, troui Federal Hill 66 

City of Norfolk 6B 

State Arms of Uel.iware . . 70 

The Public Landing at Louisville 72 

Harbor of Cleveland, Ohio 73 

State Arms of Florida 76 

City of St. Charles, on the Missouri 75 

View on the Hudson River Kail Road 78 

State Arms of Georgia 80 

City of New York 81 

City of Natchitoches 82 

Sandusky, Ohio 84 

Outlet of Niagara River 86 

State Anns of Illinois 87 

Capital of Wisconsin 88 

City of Loui>ville 91 

View ot Fourth si., St. Louis 93 

State Arms of Indiana ^4 

City of Richmond, Va S'6 

TUt> Greenwoo'J Steam Fire Engine, Cincinnati... 99 
N. W. Corner of Fifth and Walnut sts., Cincinnati. 101 

H^ Ha Falls, Minnesota 102 

State Arms of Iowa 104 

University of St. Louis 103 

President's House 106 

State Arms of Kentucky 108 

City of New Orleans—-- 109 

Cotton Landing on the Alabama 119 

State Anns of Louisiana 114 

Iowa and Illinois — Ruck Island 120 

Town of Kickapoo, K. T 125 

State Arms of Maine 126 

City of Savannah, Geo 127 

City of Boston 137 

State Arms of Maryland 133 

View on Main st., Columbus, Oliio 136 

Naval Monument at Washington '42 

State Arms of Massachusetts 144 

View of the City of Detroit 149 

City of St. Joseph, Mo 147 

Muscatine, Iowa 150 



City of New York, from Hoboken 

State Arms of Michigan 152 

View of Albany, N. Y 159 

University ot Wisconsin 154 

Public Landing at Van Buren 156 

State Arms of Minnesota 160 

State Arms ol Mississippi 162 

City of Vicksburg 163 

State Arms of Missouii 167 

View on Pearl st., Cincinnati 168 

Jefterson City and State House, Mo 172 

Spring Hill, on the Merrimac, Mo 179 

New Couit House, St. Lonis 176 

State Arms of New Hampshire 177 

New State House, Nashville 181 

City of Lexington, Ky 182 

City of St. Paul 183 

City of Apaiacliicola ng 

State Arms of New Jersey |84 

City of Evansvilie 187 

View of Charleston, S. C 1S9 

State Arms of New Mexico 190 

House of Representatives 191 

N. E. Corner of Founh and Vine sts., Cincinnati.. 1 95 

State Anns of New York 194 

N. E. Corner of Third and Walnut sts., Cincinnati. 199 

City ol Cincinnati 204 

State Anns ol North Carolina aio 

ViHw on Canal s-t., New Orleans 211 

The Great Clay Monument at Lexington 215 

The Medical College at St. Louis 216 

View on Columbia st , Cincinnati 218 

City of Chicago 219 

State Arms of Ohio 221 

Alton, and Mouth of the Missouri 223 

University ol Louisiana 225 

State Arms of Oregon 281 

Birds-Eye View ot St. Louis 235 

Canal st., New Orleans, in 1846 215 

Canal St., New Orleans, 1856 v!l5 

State Arms of Pennsylvania 237 

Main st., Marshall, Texas 249 

City of Philadelphia 

The Great Bridge across the Mississippi 103 

State Arms of Rhode Island 255 

S. W. Corner of Fourth and Main sts., Cincinnati. 253 

State Anns of Soutli Carolina 255 

Stale Arms of Tennessee 263 

State Arms of Texas ...269 

Slate Anns of Utah 276 

State Arms of Vermont 278 

StJtle Arms of Virginia 285 

State Arms of Washington 296 

State Arms of Wisconsin 298 

Birds-Eye View of Washington City 304 

View on Columbia tt., Cincinnati... 218 



INDEX TO THE CARDS AND ADVERTISEMENTS 

Of some of the most enterprising and extensive Merchants, Manufactories and Professional Firms of the 
different large Cities of the Union. The folio on the descriptive reading matter is referred to, and not tlie one 
on the advertising page. Those marked A are in front of the title, and those marked B are near it. A lar;;e 
number of subscribers will not find their advertisements in this Edition, as they were receivod too late to be 
stereotyped, and all such will be in the New Edition, which will soon be issued, with a lar^je amount of valu- 
able addition, and some new Illustrations ('.\pri ssly made for th^ Work. The Engravings arc placed in front 
of the advertising pages, per agreement, with the exception of a few, which we were unable to have ready 
lor this Edition. Uurnext will be arranged so as to be much more convenient for reference, Sic. 



Asrlcultural Implement*, Seed Trees, «fcc. 



VVm. M. Plant & Co., 
George Burnet, Jr., 
B. F. Avery, 
John Lariiue, 
Hovey &. Co., 



St. Louis, 
St. Louis, 
Louisrille, 
St. Leuis, 
Boston, 



McCormick's Reaping Machine, Chicago, 
Butfalo Agricultural Works, Buffalo, 



90 
104 
112 
120 
139 
2:i2 
S208 



New York, 
Philadelphia, 
New York, 
Memphis, 



Agents, Purchasing, <Sic. 

John W. Carringlon. New York, 66 

Alcohol, <Slic. 

Cyru^ Edson &. Co., Albany, 160 
Agent, Bounty liand, Stock Exchange, iStc. 

Calvin VV. Smith, New York, 70 

Kirk &. Cheever, Cincinnati, 199 

J. L. Hickman &. Co., Ciiiciniiati, 199 

N. P. Iglehart &, Co., Chicago, 21J 

Agent, General Commission. 

A. L. Ackerman, New York, 79 

F. VV. Huilt, Cincinnati, 253 

Ageuta 'Wanted. 

Robert Sears, New York, 138 

Dr. William Daily, LouisTille, 163 

Auctioneers. 

Bangs, Brother & Co., New York, 

J. L. Hickman & Co., Cincinnati, 

Leavitt, Uelisser &. Co., New York, 

Anthony J. B:eekcr & Co., 
M. Thorn IS &. Son, 
Albert H. Nicolay, 
Joseph Barbiere, Jr., 

Artificial Stone. 

The Amer. Artificial Stone Co., New York, 
Artificial Leg. 

New York, 
Attorneys. 

Cincinnati, 
New York, 

Architects. 

Walter & Wilson, Cincinnati, 

Hamilton &. Kaiikin, Cincinnati, 

Asphaltlc Cement, Cellar Bottoms. 

A. R. Moens, New York, 

Bell and Brass Foundry. 

Troy Bell Foundry, Jones &. Hitchcock. 
A. Fulton, Pitt>buig, 

William Kager, Louisville, 

li. Biggs & Co., Louisville, 

Billiard Tables. 

D. D. Winant, New York, 

Boots and Shoes. 

Ambrose W. NelT &. Co., Cincinnati, 

Brown &. Brickett, Fislierville,N. H 

Weed & Converse, Troy, 

Booksellers and Publishers. 

D. Appleton &. Co., New York, 

Philii)S, Sampson &, Co., Boston, 

John P. Jewett & Co., Boston, 



A. A. Marks, 



A. S. Sullivan, 
Sylvester Lay, 



85 

248 



168 
210 



218 
214 



197 
208 
206 
198 



136 



168 

138 
156 

122 
135 
134 



J. M. Falrchild k Co., 
Henry VV. Law, 
("harie." S<cribiier, 
Ivison & Phinney, 
Slieldin, Blakemau 8c Co., 
Fowler &. Wells, 
Applegate &. Co., 
Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 
Bangs, Brother &. Co., 
Robert Sears, 
Leavitt Oelisser, 
M. VV. Dodd, 
George Koutledge, 
C. S. Williams, 
A. S. Barnes &. Co., 
Mason Brothers, 

Banks and 

Bank of North America, 
Bank of New York, 
American Kxcliange Bank, 
Bank of Commnrce, 
Duncan, Sherman & Co., 
Prime, Ward & Co., 
Brown, Broih' rs &. Co., 
S. H. Kerfoot & Co., 
Cfflccr and Brnther, 
G. C. Whitney & .Son, 
Giliuore St Brotherton, 
C. E. Nouise & Co., 
Taylor Brothers, 
White & Slorm, 
Charles A. Merford, 
Albert H. Nicolay, 
John W. Clark, 
Paddock &. Co., 
N. P. Iglehart & Co., 

Bank Jiote Reporters. 

U. S. Bank Mirror, Cincinnati, 

Blank Books, iScc 

F. R. Slocum, New York, 

Bridge Builders. 

Stone, Boomer & Bouton, Chicago, 

Brushes. 

David McMurray, Jr., New York, 

Woodwdid, Pinckney Si Clark, New York, 
Cornelius Lock wood, New York, 

Bags and Bagging. 

Noyes &. Whittlesey, New York, 

Burial Cases. 

Fisk Patent, Raymond &. Co., New York, 

Coach and Saddlery Hardware. 

Nathaniel Wright & Co., Albany, 

Stotesbury & Ayres, Philadelphia, 

Commission Merchants. 

Bruninicl & Royslers, New York, 

Patterson &. Price, New York, 

John U. Pearson &. Co., Boston, 

Kinsey, llmde Si Co., Cincinnati, 

Cloaks and Slantillas. 

Lewis St Wilson, Cincinnati, 

Chairs and Cane Seats. 

Charles Robinson & Co., Rochester, 

Bird 8i Burrows, Cincinnati, 



New York, 


69 


New York, 


70 


New York, 


71 


New York, 


76 


New York, 


76 


New York, 


84 


<;iiiciiinati, 


94 


New York, 


132 


New York, 


133 


New York, 


138 


New York, 


157 


New York, 


237 


New York, 


184 


Cincinnati, 


199 


New York, 


181 


New York, 


181 


nkcrs. 




New York, 




New York, 




New York, 




New York, 




New York, 


B 


New York, 




New Y'ork, 




Chicago, 


238 


Chicago, 


212 


Chicago, 


220 


Cincinnati, 


199 


Cincinnati, 


199 


New York, 


68 


New York, 


63 


New York, 


65 


New York, 


77 


Cincinnati, 


168 


Cincinnati, 


168 


Chicago, 


213 



168 



103 

76 

77 
151 



180 



161 
198 



174 
181 
179 

ai8 



194 
97 



IN D LX. 



Clotliiiig. 

Jrim^s WildH & Co., Now Tork, 

Dc G oi.ts, t»iik H;iil, N.w Vork, 

Tiivlur, Dickson, Graves & Co., New \ork, 
OakHall, Hoj-ton, 

N"-ill & S ringer, Chicasn, 

Allred Munrof & Co., New York, 

Cnrdlnl aii<t Glii. 

R. E. Messenger St Co., New York, 

Corks. 

Sparkmaii & Tru«low, New York, 

Cliiua and GlasswHrc. 

G.»y Si. Co., St. Louis, 



Carriages. 



Mott & Co., 
Miner St Slevfns, 



New York, 
New York, 



Collegra and Schools. 

Cincinnati, 
Nivr Orleans, 
r'avaiii'ali. 



Law Scliool, 

Dolliar's Comiiiercial Coll. ge 

(Iglcthoipe .Mifilical ( oHpge, 

Univi r.-iiy ol l,oiiisiaiia, 

UniVHrsi y of .VIar> laiul, 

MttinphK MedHarcile;;*', 

Mount Wishiiij^toii Col. Iii.-tifute,New York, 

BartlHtl's Coniinercial College, Cincinnati, 

Jones's Coranif rcial Coll^ije, ~ ' 

Gundrv',- Mercantile College, 

American Medical College, 

Ohio Collese of Dental Siigery, 

Smi nil's Mercantile College, 

Raoon's Mercantile C'llege, 

N.K gland remale ,M. d. ('olle^i 

Cin. Col. 01 Vledii ine St siiiriiery. 

Bell'- C'uriuiercial Coll- ge, Chicaso, 

Brxani & Stratloii, Cleveland, 

Baltimore Dental College, Uailimire, 

Card, Clolhins- nnd l>I.~<cliine Cards. 



New 1 irleans, 
B tiiini"re. 



St. Louis, 

Cincinnaii, 

Cincinnati, 

Cinciiinuti, 

Cincinnati, 

Cincinnati, 

Bu-ion, 



Howe St Go.iiihue, 
Sinitli St Dickinson, 
Aniariali Storrs, 



Lowell, 

■Manchester, 

Boston, 



Carpfts. 



\V. P. Tenney & Co., Boston, 

John H. Pray, Sons St Co., Bnsioii, 

Peterson St Humphrey, New York, 

Oogtirrreutype, Ambrolype &c. 

M. B. Brady New York, 

Uiibyns St Harrington, N> w Orleans, 

Theodore Harris, Loui-ville, 

Webster's Gallery, Louisville, 

Hesler's, Chio:(go, 

Monroe, Alleghany City, 

Dagnevreott pe Stock. 

Holms, Booth St Hayden, New York, 



Scoville Manufacturing Co., 



New York, 



Drugs, Chrmicals. &c. 

See Medicines. 

Stebbins, Morgan St Allen, New Y'ork, 

Hegeman, ('lark St Co., New York, 

Liiidenberger St Co., Loui ville. 

Reed. Cutter St Co., Kostoii, 

<.;iiarles T. Carney, Bo^ton, 

Tliomns .n St I'.oolh, BrnU-eport, 

Scliietf- Im, Brother.- St Co., New York, 

A. McClure St Co., Alhany, 

Bockee, Iniiis St Co., Chicago, 

McKesson St Rolibins, New York, 

H. J. Baker St Brother, New York, 

Frederick Br< wn, Fhiia elpliia. 

Dentist's Stock. 

Dederiek, Pears St Co., New York, 



Dp Johi. Allen. 

Jones, White St McCnrdys, 



New York, 
Philaiielphia, 



D<e St'cffrt, Acids. <<ic. 

Wi'liam Patrida St Son, New York, 

William B. Rider, Providence, 



77 
17- 

6:i 
147 
212 
187 



237 
I 1 



236 
210 
215 
2-3 
2o3 
'64 
80 
*-6 
92 
100 
107 
llibi 
115 
118 
145 

1.10 

25 

190 

249 



198 
128 
J 46 



136 
149 
189 



192 
239 
23 
1(9 
233 
38 



148 
167 



6-i 

80 
114 
137 
136 
143 
148 
160 
247 
184 
208 
211 



63 

78 
173 



e3 
131 



Dentists. 

Dr. John Allen, New York, 

Orv Go ds. Silk, Ribbons, &c. 



Caleb Cope St Co., 
Ali-xaiid' r I'. Stewart St Co., 
J. Beck St Co., 
C. W. St i.T. Moore i Co., 
Ki) y, J iitiesiiii & Co., 

nderso . McLa e St Co., 
weor- Tiiriibull St Co., 
Day St Mailaek, 
French Wynne & Co., 
S. W. Haseltine St Co., 
Girvin, Bell St Co., 
Siac\ St Thomas, 
Bowen, McNam e St Co., 
Morris L. Hailowell St Co., 



Philadelphia, 
New York, 
Nev York, 
N.w Y-rk, 
.-t L.aiis 
Loui ville, 
Boston 
Cincinnati, 
Cincinnati, 
Cincinnati, 
Louisville, 
Chieago, 
New York, 
Ptiiladelphia, 



Distillers. 

McCrrady, Motr St Brundage, New York, 
• Jyrus, Ed.soii St Co., Albany, 

Dyring E}s<abilshni«-nt. 

Barrett, Nephews St I'o., New Yo-k, 

Kugr«vin;i;s Ficturt-s 

GoiipilSt' , New York, 

Eiigravers on Wo<>d. 



William Roberts, 
Wagner St F azier, 
I h'Odore Jones, 
J. . Kershaw, 
Chilli St Co.. 
Wilhani Ilnwiaiid, 
Lnvie, linuerie &, Bruin, 
J. W. Orr, 



New York, 
Cincinnati, 
Cinciiiiiati, 
St. Loni>, 
C caL'o, 
New Y k, 
CinCMiiiatl, 
New Yotk, 



Kngrnvers, Se I, cbc. 

C. H Hall, Ciecienati, 

I'. Evajis, Jr., (.'ineiiin li, 

Willain Brown, Alhimv, 

W. J. v\ hue, Chicasio, 

Charles J. Stevens, New < >rleans 



y. H. Bradford, 



Adams & Co., 



F. W. Lasat St Son, 
C. G. Guiither St Sons 



li^iigrnving. Printing. 

Boston, 

BxpreMtj Conve> tint'es. 

New York, 



New Y-rk, 
New York, 



F<irnlst>lng Goods 

John M. Davis, Jones St Co., New York, 
George M. Giaves, Cincinnati, 

Pot-warding and C"mnii8si"n >fercli 

John Hushnell, N. A'b .nv, 

J. H. Shield- St Co., N. Albany, 

Rahhitt, Go-d St Co., Cincinnat:, 

Kinsey, Hinde St Co., Cincinnati 

Fnrniture. 

Doe, Hazelton & Co., Boston, 

Johnson, Meader & Co., Cincinnati, 

S. J. John, Cincinnati, 

Aar.n Shaw, Cincinnaii, 

Fire KngineH 

Lavvson St Pearce, Lo i ville. 

Fnrin Ii«n(la< 

Illinois Central Rail Road i.^o., 
Gr-icer" 

Piilan, Ila'fi'l.' St Brown, Cin innaii, 

J. M. Joliii-to' St (>> . New Orl ans, 

John H. p. arson St Co., Boston, 

Gold and <il%-er Lenf. 

Plant St Ho .per, New Y rk. 

Gold nn'i Sliver Kt finers. 

Dederick, Sears & Co., New Yo k, 



78 



113 
137 

'68 
168 
168 
2l'6 
211 



82 
160 



193 
97 
110 
150 
!71 

2.^,3 

le8 



1-7 
117 
160 
212 
213 



70 
152 



195 

nts. 

109 
109 
38 
2 8 



142 
218 

196 
229 



2 I' 
243 
179 










HBSH^ii 


INDEX. \ 


Gas FixInrcH 




Iron Merchants. 




Jdlin Cox & Co., Nrw York, 


69 


Fuller, Lord St Co., New York, 


67 


< Walwortli, Hubbard & Co., Cl'icaio, 


I4.i 


I'i'rsoii 8t Co., New York, 


68 


Marvlaiid Portable Gas <.'o., UaliiiiKjre, 


205 


Corbcii 8t Co., N.-W Voik, 


73 


' 




John Huslin.ll, N^vv .Alb.ny, 
Chninberlin St Co , (."im-innati. 


109 


Guns, Pistols, &c. 




228 


VV. J. Syins &. Brother, New York, 


71 


Insurance Coinpnnirs. 


, 


Glass. 




Manhattan Life liiuranc- Co., New Yoik, 


67 


i H. J. Baker & Brntlipr, New York, 


i2i8 


N. K. .Mutual Life insnr. Co., Ho^toll, 


138 


1 A. & D. H. Chambers, I'iltsburg, 


207 


Liv. and Lon Ion Lite Ins. Co., New Yoik, 


166 1 






Atlantic .Mnliial lii.-nraneeCo , Pliila(lel|.hia, 


167 


Hotels. 




Mercantile MuiU»l Ins. Co., Pliilad^ Iphia, 


170 


Townsley Hotel, St. Louis, 


93 


Manufacturer's Insurance Co., I'liilad'lplna, 


170 


Am'Tipan .1 use, I?o-toii, 


] !4 


Knickerbocker Lite Ins. Co., New Ynrk, 


237 


St. Clair Hotel, I'ltisburg, 


192 


United ;<tatBS Liie Iiisur. Co , Philadelphia, 


180 ; 


Housekeeper's Furnl^Uliig Goods. 




Iron Knlling, wi'lded Iron Piprs. ctec. 


&c. 


Robert Davis, New Y -rk, 
Wiii.lle & Co., New York, 
J. ii C. Uerriaii, New York, 


62 
71 
79 


E. Jacobs St Co., (iiicii i ali, 
Walworth Hubbard & Co., Chicago, 
(Ui-hiiig, Marsh &. Bunt, Providence, 
Pruyn St Lansing, Albany, 


94 
145 
152 

154 1 


Hose and Belt. 




Iron ivorks. 


1 


JefTerv Sevmour, (Jiiici'jiiati, 
J. H.'Clieever, N-w York, 
P. Stark &. Co., Manchester, N. H 


38 

18.'. 


.Atlantic Iron Work.s, Bridgep't, Ct. lJ6,14.i | 


, 179 


Architectural Iron Works, PhiLddpliia, 


170 




Ev.'rsoii, Preston &, Co., Pittsburg, 


244 


Hair Dyes, Restoratives, *c. 




Pool St Hunt, Baltimore, 


244 


C. F. Haskells, New York, 


73 


Institutions. 




llallaids, Vcw York, 


73 


Hydropathic and Hygienic, New York, 


246 


Priit. Wood, N. y. &-ii. Louis, 


lOt) 


Ink. 




Li(iiiiil .VLiriow, Uostoii, 


136 


Thaddeus Davids & Co., New York, 


72 


Hnrd %vare. 




Geo. W. Eddy, Watcrinrd, N Y., 64 | 


Moore, Henszey & Co., Philadelphia, 


200 


James J. butler, Cincinnati, 


227 


Stotesliuy & Ayres, FhilaiLlpliia, 


198 


Jolin J. Liglubody, New York, 


nil 


Priestley '&. Heiii, New Oiltr.ins, 


214 


Inventors. 




SaiiiUfl Locke, N.-w (jrleans. 


217 


Cyrus A. Sweet, Boston, 


137 


Peler Ni fl"&. r^oiis, Cinti'inali, 


16e 


llerrick Aiken, Franklin, N. H. 


B 


Child, I'ralt & Co.', St. Louis, 


89 






1 R. H. Cr.-shaiii & Bro., J<;tier nnviUe, 


111 


Ijlthographers. 




I Charles Faiker, Meiideii, Conn., 


i;n 


SaronySiCo.. New York, 


83 


Edward Carter, 'l'""y, 


l;>ii 


Middletnn, Wallace &, Co., Ciiici:i!iati, 


2.8 


Nath'l Wright & Co., A. ■ , 


161 
206 


L.eatlier Bands, Belling, &c. 




A. McHride, Louisville, 




Hunter, Coburn & Ednieston, Ciucinnati, 


240 


Edward Page, Lawrence, 


128 






Josiah (;.iti 8, Lov\ell, 


145 


Hat», Caps, Sic. 




Colcord St Foster, Lawrence, 


153 


\ Hays, Craig & Co., Lnmsvillp, 


HO 


Lamps. 




j Hum & ilo,.kiii.s, Ciucliiiiati, 


ll'i 


Newell, W'iliard &, Co., Boston, 


141 


j S. C. Erwiii tl Co., Cmciniiali, 


253 


Linen Goods. 




Hatters' Goods. 




Beiij. Jacob.-,. 320 W ..■.liiiigton st., Boston, 


149 


' John J. Halsey, New York, 


184 


Miiciiine Ueltlug, tSlic. 




j Harp Makers. 




.\. Y. Belting and Packing Co., New York, 


185 


1 J. F. Brown, New York, 


172 


Nichols, sUerman &. Co., Newark, 




R. & T. Lewis, New York, 


185 


Valuable Medicines. 




Iron Buildings. 




Mu-itan:; Lint, (J.W.Weitbrook, New York, 


69 


John A. Gondell, Philadelphia, 


170 


Cod L 'r't )il, Hcgcm'n, Clark & ( d. New York, 


8U 






Dr. Ea^tcrl>\ Iodine and .Sar^ap. St. Louis, 


88 


iron Foundry, Uocoinolivc Kncliies, 


Ma. 


Pain Kilkr, J. N Harris St. Co., Cineiniuiti, 


97 


clitniry,and Uuller works. 




Lmdenbert'er ifc (-"o., Louisvi.le, 


1 4 


( 




Burnett's Cod Livcr < >il. JJosion, 


126 


1 Manchester Loconiot. Works, .Vlanche^ter, N. H 


,177 


Kns»ia Salve, Redding Si Co., Boston, 


131 


Geo. VV. Edd), WatertorU, i\. Y. 


64 


Ur. J. A. VVo.id, Boston, 


144 


1 Merideii Machine Co., Meriden, Conn., 


14J 


I'liompson's Eye Water, liriiliicport. 


145 


Pool St Hunt, Baltiin>re, 


244 


Dr. Rowands, Phihnhdphia, 


201 


Kiiigslands Si Furguson, St. Louis, 


91 


Ur. B. Krandreth, New Yo<k, 


191 


Mct;ord.- &, Beck, St. Louis, 


91 


Mes>enger's London Cordial, Ni'w York, 


21(1 


.Miles (Jreeiiwood, Cincinnati, 


94 


K. K. R., Railway & Co., New York, 


178 


Uevn.ild-, lvit« and Tatuin, Cincinnati. 


96 






A. B. &. E. Latta, Cincmnatij 


99 


Manufacturers' Supplies. 




B. F. Avfry, Louisville, 


112 


Frederick Miller, Providence, 


187 


Wright Si Uridgeford, Louisville, 
Law.-on St Pearce, Louisville, 


116 






u:i 


Machinery, .Hills, Si*-. 




Amoskcag Hte. Co., Maucliester,N. H 


, 127 


n. A. Woodbury Si Co., Rochester, 


193 i 


Woodruff St Brach, Hartlord, 


J 46 


Yiiu'u Anierica iVIiil, T. J. Dobiiis, New Orleans, 


239 


John Punshon St Co., Albanv, 


154 


Gcor^re Page St Co., Kaliiniore, 


230 


W. T. Mnutrie, Albany. 


154 


Willis P. lUjlmaii, New Orle.ins, 


103 


Starbuck Bio hers, Troy, 


155 


A. L. Ackerniin, New York, 


79 


Concord Iron Foundry, Concord, N. H.. 


179 


M. Greenwood St Co., Cincinnati, 


94 


Schenectady Loeoniot. Works, Schenectady, 


160 


Thos. B. VViiig 8i Co., Cincinnati, 


96 


ii,i-. F. .Vlann, Fuitoii Works, Troy, 


161 


U. Cochran & Co., Cincinnati, 


9b 


J. B. Smith, LotiiBville, 


168 


T. W. Ba.Tter & Co., removed to 




harles Rced"r, Baltimore, 




West Water St., between kan- 




G«i>rge PaB'- &. Co , Buliimore, 


230 


dalf and Madison sts., Chicago, 


105 



INDEX. 



B. J. Cole, 

L. & A. H. Brown, 
Charles Hanlet & Co., 
MHrideii Marliine Co., 
Samuel Flang St Co., 
Atlantic Iron Works, 
Woodruff & Beach, 

C. VV. Urown, 
George Ga'.'e, 
Scot' & Hedges, 
Fulion, Perkins & Co., 
Lee & Leavitt, 



LakeVil.jN. H., 
Fisherv'f , N. H., 
Meredith Bridge, 
Meriden, Conn., 
Worcester, 
Bridiii port, 
Hartford, 
Boston, 
Waterford, 
Cinciiiiati, 
Chicago, 
Cincinnati, 



128 
138 

in 

Ui 
142 
143 
146 
152 
157 
204 
242 
245 



12r. 
2.')6 
18:t 
219 
162 
215 



Melotlcons. 

Carhart, Needham Si Co., New York, 

R. G. GreeHe, Chic 'go, 

Horacp Waters, New York, 

Bead & Watkins, Chicago, 

Child & Bisliop, Cleveland, 

Geo. A. Prince &. Co., Butialo, 

Altriuracturlng Coinpnnies. 

Amoskcai [Wg. Co., Mam he-ter, N. H., 127 

Bog.-rs Urothers Mfg. Co., Harttord, 129 

Providence Forge and Nutt Co., Providence, 13(1 

New England Nutt Co., Providonee, 1.10 

Providence Tool Co., P oTidcnce, 13U 

Cl).;rli s Parker, Meriden, Conn., 131 

UlstcrCtinent Mlg. Co., New Vork, 143 

Fr derick Millar, Providence, 187 

Matliematlcal Instruments. 

Park & Ellis, Troy, 

Marble Works. 

Charles T^ule, Cincinnati, 

Sisson & Baird, Baltimore, 

A. Gaddess, Baltimore, 

Metallic Roofing. 

Mathews, Caldwell & Co., Cincinnati, 2!8 

Newspapers, Periodicals, and Printers. 



161 



169 
55 
39 



Wrightson & Co , 
Cincinnati Price Current, 
Railroad Record, 
Water Cure Journal, 
Life Illustrated, 



Cincinnati, 
Cincinnati, 
Cincinnati, 
New York, 
New York, 



Ainer. Plireno'ogical Journal, New York, 
Memphis £agle and Enquirer, Memphis, 
N. Orleans Daily Crescent, New Orleans, 
Daily Columbian, Cincinnati, 

Cincinnati Gazelle Co., CiDcii<nati, 

Loaisville Price Current, Louisville, 



Nurseries. 



Ellwanger &. Barry, 
A. Frost & Co., 



Rochester, 
Rochester, 



127 

2 8 

2-.i7 

84 

84 

84 

173 

24 

248 

195 

B 



194 

194 



Nails and Spikes. 

The Parker Mills, New York, 62 

Fuller, Lord & Co., New York, 67 

Troy Iron Nail Factory, Troy, 156 

IVaval Stores, Ship Chtonrllery, &c. 

McCready, Mott & Brunage, New York, 82 

Charles Roo.se. New Albany, 109 

George P. Tewksbury, Boston, 137 

Oculist and Aurist. 

Dr. Henderson. New York, 

Omnibus. 



Eaton, Gilbert & Co., 



T. G. & A. L. Rowe, 
Litchfield & Co., 
F. S.. Pease, 



Oil. 



Troy, 



New York, 
New York, 
Builalo, 



175 
156 



Organ Builders. 

A. Andrews & Son, Utica, 

Paper Hangings, &e» 

Pratt & Hardenbeigb, New York, 

Blodgett Paper Co., Boston, 



174 
180 
211 



190 



Printer's Material. 

John G. Lightbody, New York 

Geo. W Eidy, Waterford' N. 

Edward 0. Jenkins, New Vork, 

James Conner & Sons, New York, 

Cyrus A. Sweet, Boston, 

H. H. & J. S. Brown, Fishervllle,N, 

C. T White Sc Co., N^wYork, 

American Stereotype Foundry, Boston, 

Franklin Type Foundry, Cincinnati, 

Pharmacy, Homoeopathic. 

John T. S. Smith, New York, 

Paper warehouse. 

Carson & Hard, New York, 

J L. Ro=s, Cincin ati, 

Blodgett Paper Co , Boston, 

Piano Forte Manufacturers. 

T. Gilbert & Co., 
Hallett, Davis & Co., 
William Knabe & Co., 
John R. Dunham &. Co., 
Brown & All«n, 
Hoardnian, Gray & Co., 
Lighte, Newton & Braiiburgs, 
Giorce Hews, 
William Gaelile & Co., 
J. H. Hidley, 
R. G. Greene, 
Horace Waters, 
Reed &. Wntkins, 
Smith &. Nixon, 



227 

Y., 64 

85 
76 

]:n 

H. l.-iS 
1.50 

248 



65 



65 

218 

A 



A 

B 

),47 

174 

149 

, 159 

70 

126 

54 

154 

235 

183 

219 

195 



Boston, 

Boston, 

Baltimore, 

New York, 

Boston, 

Albanv, 

New York, 

Boston, 

B liimore, 

Albany, 

Chicago, 

New York, 

Chicago, 

Cincinnati, 

Photographers. 

Clement R. Edwards. Louisville, 124, 231 

Professors. 

Valentine Mott, M. U., LL. D., New York, 68 

G. W. Miltenberger, M. D., Baltimore, 2 4 

R. T. Trail, M. D., New Yoik, 68 

Painters and Decorators. 

J. Stanley D'Orsay, New York, 39 
Paints, Colors, &c. 

Reynolds, Devoe & Co., New York, 69 

Woodward, Pinckney St Clark, New York, 77 

Henry Waldron, New York, 15' 

D. F. Tiemann & Co., New York, 212 

T. Weddle & Song, Rochester, 185 

J. Schoonmaker, Pittsburg, 2u7 

Plumbers. 

Alex. McKenzie, New York, 71 

W. & B. Douglas, Middletown, 146 

Pens. 

Princes Fount. Pen, T.G.Stearns, New York, 82 

Cutter, I'ower & Co., Bostoi>, 139 

Railroad Findings, &c. 

Union Car Works, Chicago, 103 

Bridges St Brother, New York. 74 
Charles Ranlet &. Co., Meredith Bridge, 141 

Amariah Storrs, Boston, 146 

W. F. Burden, Troy, J56 

Eaton, Gilbert St Co., Troy, -156 

Slienectadv Locomotive Works, Schenectady, 160 

H. Stanley St Co., 'I'roy, 192 

Rubber Goods. 

Bart St Hickeoi, St. Louis, 93 
Rnllroa<ts and Steamboat Routes. 

Ohio and Mississippi R, R., St. Louis, ]03 

Boston and N. Y. Inland Koute, 12i 

Boston, (.'oneord and Monin-al R. R. Co., 141 

(,'incMinati and Louisville Line, 38 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 46 

Savannah and Charleston, 243 

Ropes, Blocks. <bc. 

Charles Roose, New Albany, 1(9 

Rat, Insect and Vermin Exterminator. 

Henry R. Costar, New York, 173 

E. Lyon, New York, 178 



INDEX 



Soap and Candle ivorks. 

Allan Hay &. Co., N,nv Vork, 

i'roctor &. GaiiiblK, Cinciiinati, 

Stone. 

Empire StoiiP Co., St. Louif, 

B. H. Ure^iliaiii Ji Bro., Jfrrorsonville, 

Sewing Mactiinea. 

Grnver, B»ker & Co., Si. Louis, 

I.. P. Bt-ers, Nuw York, 

Wheeler & Wilson, Nfvv Vnrk, 

I. M Sjpigei «Sc Co., New York, 

L Philip Seers, New York, 

S. H. Peck, New Orleans, 

Staves, Stoves. <&c. 

Wri'.'hf <fe Rririeel.ird, LoiiisTille, 

W & J T'dwell, P- rry & N -rfn. Albany, 
Henderson, Perry & Kneeland, Albany, 



Clianiherliri & Co., 



Cincinnati, 



Safes. 



C. Urban, Cincinnati, 

S. C. Herring &. Co., New York. 

Steari..'; & Marv n, N' w Y^rk, 

>:nb Tl M. Pr<trick, New York, 
Holmes, Valenun it Rutlir, New York, 

IVathaniel Oin^tabie, st. Loui<, 

R. H. Greslnini & Bro., Jeffersonville, 

H II, Mod.ls&Co., Ci-cinoati, 

Ciii^lims;, Marsh & Biirtt, Providen ce, 

Wm MeFarlaiid &. Co., Baliiiuore, 

Wilder's Patent, New York, 

Snnir and Tobncco. 

Peter Lorellard, New York, 

Sash, Doors. i!tc. 

J. N. Breeden &. Co., Louisville, 

Silver Plated ware. 

Wendle & Co., New York, 

Roger- Broth, rs, H;irt'ord. 

Gorbain &. Co., Providence, 

Silversmith 

Gorliani & Co., Providence, 

Stttlonervr Paper, Sic 

Ames, Herr'k. Barnes <fc Rlioad, New York, 
Gray, Cook & Merriit, New York, 

Thaddeus Davida & Co., New York 

Francis & Loiitrell, New York) 

C Iter, Tower & Co., Boston, 

G. F. Bradley &. Co., Cincinnati, 



T. Metcair & Co., 
Dr. Mattson, 



Syringes. 



Boston, 
Boston, 



Savrs. 



Henshaw & Clemson, 
Welch &, Griffith, 
Gage, Porier & Co., 
Pruvii &. Lansing, 
J. Flint, 



183 
241 



91 
111 



103 

2-26 

234 

A 

2:)0 

224 



1'6 
1.=.5 
I.W 
228 



165 

l.il 

6S 

6K 

79 

89 

HI 

119 

159 

221 

18U 



198 



71 
129 
lyo 



190 



177 

SJ 

72 

~:i 

139 

253 



196 
139 



Boston, 140 

Boston, )44 

Fisherrille, N. H., l.)3 
Albany, l'=4 

Rochester, 193 



Sheet Brass, Copper, Silver. &c. 

Holmes, Booth & Haydeiis, New York, 148 

Straw Goods, Bonnets, Sic. 

S. W. Haseltiue &. Oo., Cincinnati, 168 



Tobacco. 

C. IW. Connolly, 
G. W. Hi.lnian & Co., 
^. Faima' &, Co., 
Bruinm 1 & lioysters. 



Niw York, 
New York, 
CiMCiiinat), 
New York, 
Teas. 



Beebe & Brother, 
J. Nevison, 



Troy. 
Waterfbrd, 
Pitt biirH, 
Providence, 



New York, 
6t Louis, 
Tin aud Japan tvare. 

Geo. D. Winchell, Cincinnati, 

Type and Stereotype Foundry. 

James Connor & Sons, New York, 

Edwar. O. Jenkin , New York, 

Charles T. White & Co., New York, 

American Stereotype Foandry, Boston, 

Tools, Planers, Butts, Hinges, «&c. 

Providence Tool Co., J'rovidence, 

New Kngland IJiittCo , Providence, 

Provid. Korne and Nutt Works, I'rovide 

Edward f.'arter, 

G- orae Gage, 

rioline> ,t (!o., 

N. E. Screw & Co., 

I'riisars. Ciandages, Sic. 

^t, Louis, 
Boston, 
Boston, 
il.td Ipbia, 
Trimmings. 
T C. fc U. D. Foote, New York, 

J. M. Pickering & Son, ('iiiciiinaii, 

Universities. 
St. Louis University, St. (..ouis. 

Upholstery. 
Doe, Hazleion &. Co., Boston, 

AVines aiKl Ulquors. 

B. M. & E. A. Whitluck & Co., New York, 6 
Turnl. &. Haven, Chicago, 

W itches. Jewelry, Sp'-ctaoles, &c. 

New York, 



Sherinin's, 
L>r. J. W. Plolps, 
Dr. J. • Hieever, 
B. C. Everett, 



Ball, Black & Co., 

ifTiiiy Si. Co., 
I). Giliniur, 
George C. .Allen, 
Robert Rait, 
D. A. Bradley, 
Samuel T Crosby. 
Fellows & Co., 
D. P. Houston & Co., 
W. MeGrew & Son, 
S. T. Carley, 



New York, 

New York, 

New York, 

New York, 

Cincinnati, 

Boston, 

New York. 

Ji ff-r-o.iTllle, I. 

Cincinnati, 

Cincinnati, 



W illow and wooden -ivare. Sic, 

Robert Davis, New York, 

John Grav, New York, 

Cornelius Lockwood, N' w York, 

H. Coulter, Pbiladtlphia, 

Watch Case JManuracturer. 

Thomas Bond, New York, 

"Water Cure Establishment. 

Dr. R. T. Trail, New York, 

T. T. Seelye, M. D., Cleveland, 

Window Shades, Sic. 

E. R. Kernan, Pittsburg, 



67 
80 
209 
174 

71 
93 



76 

85 

150 

153 



130 
130 
130 
1.56 

1.57 
207 
218 



93 
140 

43 
173 

184 
95 

103 

142 



I, 63 
211 



36 
75 
177 

85 
95 
140 
148 
,162 
253 
253 



62 

82 

150 

214 



246 

202 



LOUISVILLE PRICES CURRENT A.\D COMMERCIAL REVIEW, 

Published every Friday, from the Merchants' Exchange, 5th Street, near Main St. 
X.OXJIS-VI3L.IL.E, IC-^. 

8DBSCRIPTIOK8 AND ADVERTISEMENTS RESPECTFULLY SOLICITED, 

One Copy per annum e 3 qo 

Twenty Copies per annum .', '..'..'.'.. .'.'.*.*.'..'.'.*.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'."!.'.'! 40 00 

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Bbn Cabsedat and L. Woodbue-s" Fiske, Editors. 



A STATISTICAL ACCOUNT 

or THE 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The United States, a confederacy of sovereign States, and the most influential republic of the 
world, occupies the middle portion of North America. This confederation, consisting originally of 
thirteen States, but now of thirty-one States, the federal district, and several territorial append- 
ages, lies between the parallels of 24° and 49° north latitude, and the meridians of 10°ea3t and 48° 
west from Washington, or 67° and 125° from Greenwich, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean, and from the British colonies on the north, to the republic of Mexico and the great Gulf on 
the south. The whole extent of this boundary is now definitely settled by treaty.* The greatest 
width of this country, from east to west, is 2,900 miles, and the greatest depth, from north to south, 
1,730 miles. Its area may be estimated at 3,260,000 square miles, including California, Texas, etc. , 
recently acquired. It has a frontier of about 10,000 miles, of which 4,400 is sea-coast, and 1,500 
lake-coast. 

The territory of the United States is traversed by two principal chains of mountains, the AUe- 
ghanies on the east side, and the Rocky Mountains on the west. These divide the country into 
three distinct regions : the Atlantic slope, the valley of the Mississippi, and the declivity from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. 

The Allegh^nies are less a chain of mountains than a long plateau, crested with several chains 
oi mountains or hills, separated from each other by wide and elevated valleys. East of the Hudson 
the mountains are chiefly granitic, with rounded summits, often covered at their tops with bogs and 
turf, and distributed in irregular groups without any marked direction. Some peaks of the Green 
Mountains, in Vermont, and the White Mountains, in New Hampshire, rise to the height of 5,000 
to 6,400 feet above the sea. After passing the Hudson, the structure of the mountains seems to 
change. In Pennsylvania and Virginia they assume the form of long parallel ridges, varying in 
height from 2,500 to 4,000 feet and occupying a breadth of one hundred miles. In North Carolina, 
the highest culmination is 6,476 feet ; but in the northern part of Georgia and Alabama, where 
they terminate, they again lose the form of continuous chains, and break into groups of isolated 
mountains, touching at their base, some of which attain a considerable elevation. 

The Rocky Mountains are on a much grander scale than the AUeghanies. Their base is 300 
miles in breadth, and their loftiest summits, covered with everlasting snow, rise to the height of 10 
to 14,000 feet. These vast chains may be considered as a continuation of the Cordilleras of Mexico. 
They are distant from the Pacific Ocean from 5 to 600 miles, but between them and the coast several 
minor ranges intersect the country, of which the Maritime Range is the most conspicuous. 

The immense valley included between these two ranges of mountains is intersected by the Mis- 
sissippi River, which runs, from north to south, all through the United States. The country west 
of the Mississippi, with little exception, is yet a wilderness, inhabited by roving bands of Indians, 
and beyond the limits of the organized States the whites have scarcely a settlement; but the 
country east of that river is thickly populated, and in the highest state of cultivation. The most 
remarkable feature in the ftice of the country is the low plain, from 50 to 100 miles wide, which 
extends along the Atlantic coast. Beyond this plain the land rises toward the interior till it ter- 
minates in the AUeghanies. The rest of the country east of the Mississippi is agreeably diversified 

♦ The tre.ities relative to these boundaries are, 1. Treaty of Paris, 1783. 2. Treaty of London, 1794. .3. Louisiana Treaty, 
1803. 4. Treaty of Ghent. 18U. 5. Convention of London, 1818 and 1828. 6. Florida Treaty, 1819. 7. Treaty with Mex- 
ico. 1828. 8. Treaty with Russia, 1324. 9. Ashburton Treaty, 1842. 10. Texas Annexatioa Resolutions, 1S45. 11. Oregon 
Treaty, 1846. 12. Treaty of Guadalupe, 1848. 

5 
" ' - I . ^ ' . - • . ■ - = 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



with hills and valleys, plains and mountains. The soil of the low country, except on the banks of 
creeks and fivers, is sandy, and comparatively unproductive ; but the remainder has a strong, fertile 
soil, capable of supporting a dense population. The Pacific section is a highly varied country, 
abounding in wild and majestic scenery, and traversed by magnificent rivers. Much, however, of 
its interior is desert, and will probably never be inhabited by civilized man. The great California 
desert, indeed, is one of the dreariest regions of the world, the solitude being relieved only by a 
few oases in the neighborhood of streams, or on the borders of its numerous lakes ; on these alone 
is there even an aboriginal population. 

The shores of the United States are washed by three seas : the Atlantic Ocean, on the east, the 
Gulf of Mexico, on the south, and the Pacific Ocean, on the west. The principal bays and sounds 
on the Atlantic border are Passamaquoddy Bay, which lies between the State of Maine and the 
British province of New Brunswick ; Massachusetts Bay, between Cape Ann and Cape Cod ; Long 
Island Sound, between Long Island and the coast of Connecticut; Delaware Bay, which seta up 
between Cape May and Cape Henlopen, separating the Slates of New Jersey and Delaware ; Chesa- 
peake Bay, which communicates with the ocean between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, extending 
in a northern direction for 200 miles, throifgh the States of Virginia and Maryland; Albemarle 
Sound, and Pamlico Sound, on the coast of North Carolina. There are no large bays or sounds on 
the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. On the Pacific coast, however, there are several excellent bays, 
but the principal and only one necessary to mention is the Bay of San Francisco, in the State of 
California. It is one of the finest bays in the world, and capable of containing the navies of all the 
European powers at one time. 

With the exception of Michigan and Champlain, none of the great lakes of North America lie 
wholly within the territory of the United States ; the rest are on the northern boundary, where they 
form a connected chain, extending through a distance of more than 1,200 miles. The first in the 
chain is Lake Superior, the largest body of fresh water on the globe. Few persons are really aware 
of the magnitude of these great lakes ; they are truly inland seas, and navigation is as dangerous, 
and subjected to all the vicissitudes which are connected with the navigation of the Baltic, the 
Black Sea, or the Mediterranean. The following is a tabular statement of the extent of these fresh- 
water seas, with the mean depth of their waters, and their elevation above the sea. 



Namei. Mean Lanjtli. Mean Breadth, Area, Mean Ueplb. 

Lake Superior 400 miles 80 miles 32,000 sq. m 900 feul 



Michigan 320 

Huron 240 

Green Bay 100 

Erie 240 

Ontario 180 

St. Clair 20 



22,400 
20,400 
2,000 
9,600 
6.300 
360 



1.000 
1,000 
1,000 

84 
500 

20 



Eley. nbinre the Sea, 

596 feel. 

, 578 " 

, 5TS " 

678 " 

565 " 

232 " 

670 " 



Lake Champlain, lying between Vermont and New York, is 128 miles long, and from 1 to 16 miles 
wide, and discharges its waters through the Sorel into the St. Lawrence. It is computed that the 
lakes contain above 14,000 cubic miles of water — a quantity more than five-sevenths of all the fresh 
water on the earth. The extent of country drained by the lakes, from the north-western angle 
of Superior to the St. Lawrence, including also the area of the lakes themselves, is estimated at 
335,515 square miles. 

The principal rivers of the United States may be divided into four classes. First, the Mississippi 
and its wide-spread branches, which drain the waters of the whole country included between the 
Alleghany and Rocky Mountains ; second, the rivers east of the Alleghany Mountains, which, 
rising from their eastern declivity, water the Atlantic plain, and hence flow into the ocean ; third, 
the system of rivers flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, which may be subdivided into those flowing 
from the southern slope of the Alleghanies, and those having their source in the north-western 
highlands of Texas ; and, fourth, those streams on the west of the Rocky Mountains, which flow 
into the P.acific Ocean. 

The Mississippi rises west of Lake Superior, in latitude 47° 47' north, amid lakes and swamps, 
dreary and desolate beyond description; and after a south-east course of about 500 miles, reaches 
the Falls of the St. Anthony, where it descends perpendicularly 16 feet, and where are numerous 
rapids. From these falls it pursues at first a south-easterly, and then a southerly direction ; and, 
after forming the boundary between Iowa, Missouri, and Arkansas, on the west, and Wisconsin, 
Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, on the east, passes through Louisiana, and discharges 
itself through a delta of many mouths into the Gulf of Mexico. It is nearly 3,200 miles in length, 
and is navigable, with few obstructions, to the Falls of St. Anthony. 

Its principal tributaries from the east are — 1. The Wisconsin, which joins it between the paral- 
lels of 42° and 43° north latitude ; — 2. The Illinois, a navigable river, which joins it near latitude 
6 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



88° 40' north ; — 3. The Ohio, which is itself formed by the junction of the Alleghany and Monon- 
giihelii rivers at Pittsburg. It flows in a south-westerly direction for 945 miles, separating the 
north-western States from Virginia and Kentucky, and falls into the Mississippi in 37° north lati- 
tude. The chief tributaries of the Ohio are the Wabash, the Cumberland, and tlie Tennessee, 
which last is formed of several streams from the western parts of Virginia and the Carolinas, which 
unite a little west of Knoxville, in the State of Tennessee, and runs at first south-west into Alabama, 
where it turns and runs north-west, through Tennessee into Kentucky, and joins the Ohio 10 miles 
below the mouth of the Cumberland; and — 4. The Yazoo, which rises in the northern part of the 
State of Mississippi, and, running south-west, joins the Mississippi 100 miles above Natchez. 

The tributaries from the west are — 1. The Minnesota, or St. Peter's, which joins it about nine 
miles below the Falls of St, Anthony, after a south-east course of several hundred miles ; — 2. The 
Des Moines, which joins it near the parallel of 40° north latitude, after a south-easterly course of 
more than 800 miles ; — 3. The Missouri, which is formed by three branches, called Jefferson's, 
Madison's, and Gallatin's rivers, all of which rise and unite in the Rocky Mountains. The whole 
length, from the highest point of Jefferson's River, to the confluence with the Mississippi, is, by 
actual course, about 2,500 miles, and to the Gulf of Mexico nearly 4,000 miles ; during the whole 
of which distance there is no cataract or considerable impediment to the navigation, except at Great 
Falls, which are above 2,000 miles from the Mississippi. At these falls the river descends, in the 
distance of 18 miles, 3G2 feet. The principal tributaries of the Missouri are the Yellow Stone, which 
rises in the Rocky Mountains, and joins it after a north-easterly course of 600 miles ; the Nebraska, 
or Platte, whicli rises also in those mountains, and, after an easterly course of 800 miles, joins the 
Missouri in latitude 41° north ; and the Kansas, which joins it near latitude 39° north, after an 
easterly course of more than 600 miles ; — 4. The Arkansas, which rises in the Rocky Mountains, 
and pursuing a south-easterly course, forms, for some distance, the boundary between the Indian 
Territory and Texas; after which its course lies principally in the State of Arkansas, till it joins 
the Mississippi in 34° north latitude. Its length is more than 1,300 miles; — 5. The Red River, 
which also rises in the Rocky Mountains, below Sante Fe, and, after a south-easterly course of 
more than 1,000 miles, falls into the Mississippi in latitude 31° north. 

The principal rivers east of the AUeghanies are — 1. The Connecticut, which rises in the highlands 
separating the United States from Canada, and running southerly, divides New Hampshire from 
Vermont, and passing through Massachusetts and Connecticut, falls into Long Island Sound. It is 
navigable for sloops for fifty miles to Hartford, and by means of canals and other improvements, 
has been rendered passable for boats 250 miles farther; — 2. The Hudson, which rises west of Lake 
Champlain, and pursuing a southerly course of more than 300 miles, falls into the Bay of New 
York, after receiving numerous affluents. It is navigable for ships to Hudson, 130 miles, and for 
sloops and steamboats to Troy, 40 miles farther. It is connected with Lakes Champlain, Erie, and 
Ontario by means of canals from Albany, and with the Delaware by a canal from Rondout; — 
8. The Delaware, which rises in New York, and flowing southerly, separates Pennsylvania from New 
York and New Jersey, and falls into Delaware Bay, after a course of 300 miles. It is navigable for 
ships of the line 40 miles, to Philadelphia, and for sloops 35 miles farther, to the head of the tide 
at Trenton Falls ; — 4. The Susquehanna, which also rises in New York, and, pursuing a southerly 
zig-zag course through Pennsylvania, falls into the head of Chesapeake Bay, near the north-east 
corner of Maryland. During the last 50 miles the navigation is obstructed by an almost continued 
series of rapids; — 5. The Potomac, which rises in the AUeghanies, and, after forming, during its 
whole course, the boundary between Maryland and Virginia, falls into Chesapeake Bay. It is 
navigable for ships of the largest dimensions to Washington, the federal capital, about 200 miles 
from the ocean; but in the upper part of its course tliere are numerous obstacles, many of which, 
however, have been overcome by canals ; — 6. James River, which rises in the mountains, and falls 
into the southern part of Chesapeake Bay ; and — 7. The Savannah, which forms the dividing line 
between South Carolina and Georgia, and falls into the Atlantic in latitude 32° north. It is navi- 
gable for large vessels to Savannah, 17 miles ; and for boats to Augusta, 130 miles farther. 

The principal rivers which rise south of the AUeghanies, and fall into tlie Gulf of Mexico, are — 

1. The Appalachicola, which discharges itself into Apalachee Bay, in Florida. It is formed by the 
union of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, the former of which rises in the northern part of 
Georgia, and flowing south, receives the Flint at the south-west extremity of the State. During the 
latter part of its course, the Chattahoochee forms the boundary between Georgia and Alabama; — 

2. The Mobile, which discharges itself into Mobile Bay. It is formed by two large rivers, the Ala- 
bama and Tombigbee, which unite near latitude 31° north, after having pursued each a separate 
course of many hundred miles. There is another system of rivers flowing into the Gulf from the 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



highlands of northern Texas, consisting of the Sabine, Trinity, Brazos, etc., which need only be 
mentioned here, as the geography of Texas will be minutely described elsewhere. 

The rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, consist of — l.The Columbia, which 
rises near latitude 55° north, and running south-west, falls into the ocean in latitude 46° 15', after 
a course of 1 ,500 miles. Its principal tributaries are Clark's River, Lewis' River, and the Multno- 
mah or Willamette, all of which join it on its left bank. This river was discovered in 1792, and 
settlements were made in the neighborhood by Americans in 1810. The mouth of the river is ob- 
structed by flats, but vessels of 300 tons can ascend to the distance of 125 miles, and large sloops 
farther; — 2. The Sacramento and San Joaquin, emptying into the Bay of San Franci.sco; — 3. The 
Buenaventura, rising in the coast range of the California Mountains, empties into Monterey Bay; 
— 4. The Colorado, and IJiver Gila (which separates Mexico from the United States), flow from the 
mountains near Santa Fe, and would, if not received by the Gulf of California, empty into the 
Pacific ; they belong, however, to the same system of rivers. 



The government of the United States is a federal democratic republic. It is based on the consti- 
tution of 1787, and amendments thereto. 

The electors of the most numerous branch of the several State Legislatures are qualified electors 
in the States respectively for all elective ofiicers of the general government. 

All legislative powers are vested in Congress, which consists of a Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

The " House of Representatives" is composed of members chosen every second year by the people 
of the several States, and in number in accordance with the population of each, and in order to 
ascertain the number each State is entitled to, a census is takep every ten years, excluding from 
the enumeration for this object two-thirds of the slaves, and all Indians not taxed. Each State is 
entitled to at least one representative. Vacancies are filled by intermediate elections. The House 
chooses its speaker and other officers. No person under twenty-five years of age, who has been 
less than seven years a citizen of the United States, and who is not a resident of the State electing 
him, is qualified for representative. 

The constitution provided for a specific number of representatives from eacli State to compose the 
House until the ascertainment of the population under the census of 1700; but since then legisla- 
tion has decennially fixed the number to be elected. From the 3d March, 1798, the apportionment 
wns one representative to every 83,000 of the representative population ; after 1803, one to every 
33,000 also ; after 1813, one to every 35,000 ; after 1828, one to every 40,000 ; after 1833, one to every 
47,000; after 1843, one to every 70,680; and after 3d March, 1853, 233 representatives to be di- 
vided pro rata to the several States. The following table shows the number of representatives to 
which each State has been entitled since the establishment of the government: 

Slates. 17f7. I7'fl. 1803. I«13. IS:3, Xf,tX. IS'tS 1853. 

Missis.'iippi — .. — .. — .. — .. 1.. 2.. 4.. 6 

Loiiisiatin — .. — .. — .. — .. 8.. 3.. 4.. 4 

Tenii-ssi-e _.._.. .s . . 6.. 9 . . 13 . . 11 . . 10 

K.-iituekv — .. 2.. C .. 10 .. 12 .. 13 .. 10 .. 10 

Ohio _.._.._.. 6 . . 14 . . 19 . . 21 . . 21 

Indianii — .. — .. — .. — .. 8.. T..10..U 

Illinois. — .. — .. — .. — .. 1.. 8.. 7.. 9 

Missouri — .. — .. — .. — .. 1.. 2.. 5.. 7 

A rkansus — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 1.. 2 

Micliiiran — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 8.. 4 

Florida — .. — .. — .. — .. — ..—.. 1.. 1 

Ti^\:i8 — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 2.. 2 

Iowa — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 2.. 9, 

Wisi'onsiri — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 3.. 3 

California — .. — .. — .. — .. — ..— .. 2.. 3 



."tates. 1787. \'.'r\. 1803. IR13. 1823. 1833. 1843. 18.=)3. 

Maine — .. — .. — .. — .. 7.. 8.. 7.. 6 

New llampsliire 8 . . 4 . . 5 . . 6 . . C . . 5 . . 4 . . 3 
Massarhii8Kl9.. . 8 . . 14 . . 17 . . 20 . . 13 . . 12 . . 10 . . 11 
lihode Island . . 1 . . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . . 2 . . - 2 

(Vinnectiout 5.. 7.. 7.. 7.. 6.. 6.. 4.. 4 

Vermont — .. 2.. 4.. 6.. .5.. 5.. 4.. 3 

New York 6 . . 10 . . 17 . . 27 . . 34 . . 40 . . 84 . . 83 

New .Tersi>y 4 . . .') . . tj . . 6 . . 6 . . 6 . . 5 . . 5 

Pennsvlviiuia.. . R . . 13 . . IS . . 23 . . 26 . . 2S . . 24 . . 25 

Delaware 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . 2 . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . 1 

Maryland 6.. 8.. 9.. 9.. 9.. 8.. 6.. 6 

Virginia 10 . . 19 . . 22 . . 23 . . 22 . . 21 . . 15 . . 13 

Norlh Carolina.. 5 . . 10 . . 12 . . 13 . . 13 . . 13 . . 9 . . 8 
South Carolina.. 5.. 6.. 8.. 9.. n . 9.. 7.. 6 

Ocnrsria 8.. 2.. 4.. 6.. 7.. 9.. 8.. 8 

Alabama — .. — ..—•.. — .. 8.. 5.. 7.. 7 

In addition to these representatives from States, the House admits a delegate from each organized 
Territorj', who has the riaht to debate on subjects in which his Territory is interested, but can not 
vote. California has two members by a special act. 

The " Senate" consists of two members from each State, elected by the Legislatures thereof 
respectively for six years. One-third the whole body is renewed biennially, and if vacancies hap- 
pen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive 
of such State makes a temporary appointment until the next meeting of the Legislature, which 
fills such vacancy. Senators must be at least thirty years old, must have been citizens of the United 
States for nine years, and be residents of the State by which chosen. Each senator has one vote. 
The Vice-president of the United States is ex officio President of the Senate, but a president pro tem- 
pore is elected by and from among the Senators, who, in the absence of the president, acts in his stead. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The constitutional government went into operation on the 4th March, 1789, but a quorum of the 
first Congress, which met at the city of New York, was not formed until the 6th April, nor was the 
first president of the United States inaugurated before the 30th April. The following is a complete 
list of sessions of Congress held up to the present time : 



Con- 
gross. 

Ist-^ 



2dj 
3d I 
4th I 

5th -j 
6th I 
7th I 
Sthj 
9th I 
10th-! 

11th- 
12th 
13th- 
Uth 



Session, 

1st 

2<l 

.3d 

1st 

2(1 

Ist 

2d 

Ist 

2d 

1st 

2(1 

Sd 

1st 

2d 

1st 

2d 

Ist 

2d 

1st 

2d 

1st 

2d 



Conimenced. Terniinat(»(l. -r» ' .■ 

lJur:ilit)n. 

. G April, 1789 29 Sept, 17S9 176 

. 4 .Tan., 179(.) 12 Au^., 1790 221 

. 6 Dec, 1790 3 Mar., 1791 SS 

.24 Oct., 1791 SMay, 1792 19S 

. 5 Nov., 1792 2 Mar., 1793 US 

. 2 Dec, 1793 9June, 179-t 190 

. 3 Nov., 1794 3 Mar., 1795 121 

. 7 Dec, 1795 IJiine, 1796 178 

. 5 " 1796 3 Mar., 1797 89 

.15 May, 1797 10 July, 1797 57 

.13 Nov., 1797 16 " 1798 246 

. 3 Dec, 179S 3 Mar., 1799 91 

.2 " 1799 14Miiv, 1800 165 

.17 Nov., 1800 3 Mar., ISOl 107 

. 7 Dec, 1801 3Mav, 1802 148 

. 6 " 1802 3 Man, 1803 88 

.17 Oct., 1803 27 " 1S04 168 

. 5 Nov., 1804 3 " 1805 119 

, 2 Dec, 1805 21 April, 1806 141 

. 1 " 1806 3 Mar., 1807 93 

26 Oct., 1807 25 April, ISOS 183 

, 7 Nov., 1808 3 Mar., 1809 117 



;ist 22 May, 1809 28 June, 1809. 

2d 27 Nov., 1809 1 May, 1810. 

' 3d 8 Dec, 1810 8 Mar., 1811. 

4Nov., 1811 6July, 1812. 

1812 3 Mar., 1813. 

1813 2 Aug., 1S13. 



Ist 

2d 2 

1st 24 May, 

2d 6 Dec. 1813 18 April, 1814 134 

3(1 19 Sept, 1814 3 Mar., 1815 165 

1st 4 Dec, 1815 30 April, 1816 149 

.2d 2 " 1816 3 Mar., 1817 92 

,,^,, (Ist 1 " 1817 30April,1818 151 

^""'l 2d 16 Nov., ISIS 3 Mar., 1819 lOS 

1R,. jlst 6 Dec, 1819 15 May, 1820 162 

^""'j 2d 13 Nov., 1820 3 Mar., 1821 Ill 



17th i 1st 3 Dec, 

^''"i 2d 2 " 




inced. Term milted. jT'*?'' "'" 

1821 S May, 1822 . . ."'.'.157 

1822 3 Man, 1823 92 

1823 27 Mav, 1824 179 

1824 3 Man, 1825 88 

1825 : 22 Mav, 1826 1 69 

1826 3Man, 1827 90 

1827 26 May, 1828 176 

1828 8 Man, 1829 93 

1829 31 May. 18-30 176 

1S30 3 Man, 1S31 83 

1831 14 July, 1832 223 

18-32 3 Man, 1833 9] 

lS-33 30 June, 1S34 211 

1834 8 Man, 1835 93 

l>-!35 4 July, 1836 211 

1836 8 Man, 1837 89 

1837 16 Oct, 1837 43 

18.37 9.Tuly, 1838 218 

1838 3 Man, 1839 91 

1839 21 July, 1S40 238 

1840 3 Man, 18ll 87 

1841 13 Sept, 1841 106 

1841 81 Au?., 1842 263 

1842 3 Man, 1843 88 

1843 17 June, 1844 196 

1844 3 Man, 1815 91 

1845 10 Aua:., 1846 253 

1846 8Mar., 1847 87 

1S47 14 Aui:., 1S4S 252 

1848 3 Man, 1849 89 

1849 .30 Sept, 1850 3ol 

1850 3 Man, 1351 91 

1851 31 Aug, 18.52 274 

18.52 3 Man, 18.53 83 

1853 1S54 _ 

1854 3 Man, 1855 89 



Besides its ordinary legislative capacity, the Senate is vested with certain judicial functions, and 
its members constitute a High Court of Impeachment. No person can be convicted by this court 
unless on the finding of a majority of Senators, nor does judgment extend further than to removal 
from office and disqualification. Representatives have the sole power of impeachment. 

The Executive Power is vested in a President, who is elected by an Electoral College, chosen by 
popular vote, or by the Legislature of the State, the number of electors being equal to the number 
of Senators and Representatives from the States to Congress. His term of office is four years, but 
he is eligible for re-election indefinitely. The electors forming the college are themselves chosen 
in the manner prescribed by the laws of the several States. A majority of the aggregate number 
of votes given is necessary to the election of President and Vice-president, and if none of the can- 
didates has such a majority, then the election of President is determined by the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and that of the Vice-president by the Senate, from among the three candidates having 
the highest number of electoral votes, and in doing so, the vote is taken by States, the representa- 
tives of each State having only one vote, which must, of coarse, be determined by a majority of 
their number. No person can be President or Vice-president who is not a native-born citizen, of 
the age of thirty-five years, and who has been a resident of flie United States for fourteen years. 
The President is commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and of the militia when in the service 
of the Union. With the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senate, he has the power to make treaties, 
appoint civil and military officers, levy war, conclude peace, and do all that rightly belongs to the 
executive power. He has a veto on all laws passed by Congress, but so qualified, that notwithstand- 
ing his disapproval, any bill becomes a law on its being afterward approved of by two-thirds of 
both houses of Congress. The President has a salary of .^'25, 000 per annum, and "the white 
house" at Washington for a residence during his official term. The Vice-president is ex-officio 
President of the Senate; and in case of the death, resignation, or other disability of the President, 
the powers and duties of that office devolve upon him for the remainder of the term for which the 
President had been elected. This provision of the constitution, for the first time since the founda- 
tion of the government, came into operation in 1841, on the demise of the late lamented General 
Harrison, who died 4th April, just one month after his inauguration, when John Tyler, the Vice- 
president, succeeded. Vice-president Fillmore also succeeded President Taylor under this provi- 

9 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 



4th March 


1T93, " 


" 


179T 


u 


179T " 
1801 " 


" 


1801 


" 


1805 


" 


1805 " 


" 


1809 


) " 


1809 " 


" 


1813 


) " 


1S13 " 


" 


1817 




1817 " 


" 


1n21 


" 


1821 " 


" 


1825 


" 


1825 " 


" 


1829 


" 


1829 " 


" 


1833 


" 


1833 " 


" 


1S37 


" 


1S37 " 


" 


1841 


" 


1841 " 


41h April, 


1841 



sion. In case of the 'disability of the Vice-president, the President of the Senate pro tempore 
takes his place. The offices of President and Vice-president haye been occupied by the following 
gentlemen since the adoption of the constitution : 

Pn-siiients. ¥1(6 president*. Terma of Office. 

1. George Washington John Adams 30th April, 1 7S9, to 4lh March, 1798 

2. Do. do Do. do "" 

8. John Adams Tliomas Jcfftraon 

4. Thomas Jf fiTerson Aaron Uiirr 

5. Do. (I( George Chilton 

6. James Madi.son Do. do. (d. 20th Apr., 1S12) 

7. Do. do EIbr.Gerrv(d. 23d November, 1814) 

8. James Monroe Daniel D. Tompkins 

9. Do. do Do. do 

10. John Quincy Adams John C. Calhoun 

11. Aiwirew JaoUsoii Do. do 

12. Do. do Martin Van Huron 

18. Martin Van Bnren Richard M. Johnson 

. , J William HiMiry Harrison John Tvler 

•'*• I John Tvli-r (on the death of General llarris.liO 4th April, 1841 '■ 4th March, 1845 

15. James K. Polk Geor;:.' M. Dallas 4lh March, 1845 " " 1849 

,„ j Zai-hary Tavlor Millard Fillmore " 1849 " 9th July, 1850 

■"'• ( .Millard P'illmoro (on the death of General Tavlor) 9th July, 1850 " 4th March, 1853 

17. Franklin Pierce Wm. Iluius King (d. 13 Ap., 1853). 4th March, 1853 " " 1857 

The administrative business of the nation is conducted by several officers, with the title of secre- 
taries, etc., who form what is termed the " Cabinet." These are the Secretary of State, the Secre- 
tary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Postmaster-general, 
the Secretary of the Interior, and the Attorney-general — the last being the ofhcial law authority 
for advisement in administrative affairs. Each of these presides over a separate Department. 

The " Department of State" was created by an act of Congress of the 15th of September, 1789; 
by a previous act of tlie 27th of July, 1789, it was denominated the Department of Foreign Affairs. 
It embraced, until the establishment of the Department of the Interior in 1849, what in some other 
governments are styled the Department of Foreign Atfuirs and Home Department ; but the duties 
now being divided, it confines its operations almost entirely to foreign matters, and hence its original 
title might with propriety and convenience be restored. 

The Secretary of State conducts all treaties between the United States and foreign powers, and 
corresponds officially with the public ministers of the government at foreign courts, and with min- 
isters of foreign powers, resident in the United States. He is intrusted with the publication of all 
treaties with foreign powers, preserves the originals of all treaties and of the public correspondence 
growing out of international intercourse ; grants passports to American citizens visiting foreign 
states, etc. He has charge of the Great Seal of the United States, but can not affix it to any com- 
mission until signed by the President, nor to any instrument without authority of the President. 

Secretaries of State — Salary S6,000 per Annum. 



Thomas Jefferson, Vn. . . 2B Sept., 1TS9 
Edmund Randolph, 17/.. 2 Jan., 1T94 
Timothy Pickerins;, r<f.. 4 Feb., 1795 

John Marshall, ('« 13 May, 1800 

James Madison. Va 5 Mar., 18(il 

Robert Smith, Mtl 6 •' 1809 

James Monroe, Va 25 Nov., 1 811 

J. Q. Adams, Mass 5 Mar., 1817 



ITenrv Clav, A'lj 8 Mar., 1825 

M. Van Buren, jV.r..... 6 " 1829 

Ed. P. Livinuslon, La.. . 1831 

Louis M-Lane, Del 7 Mar., 1833 

John Forsyth. Ga 1834 

D. Webster, ManK 5 Mar., 1841 

II. S. Legarfe, S.C. 9 May, ls43 

A. P. Upshur, Va 24 June, 1843 



John Nelson, 3fd. 29 Feb., 1844 

J. C. Calhoun, S. C. 6 Mar., 1844 

J. Buchanan, /'(/ 5 " 1846 

,J.^\. (•\:\\ti>n. Dfil 6 " 1849 

1). Welister, Jfdss 20 July, 1850 

Edward Everett 1852 

William L. Marcy,iV. Y. 5 Mar., 1853 



This department has subject to it the Diplomatic Bureau, and the Consular Bureau. The United 
States are represented by Ministers Plenipotentiary at the Courts of Great Britain, France, Rus- 
sia, Prussia, Spain, Mexico, Central America, Brazil, and Chili ; by Commissioners at the court of 
Pekin, China, and at the Sandwich Islands; by a Minister Resident at the Sublime Porte, and to 
the Swiss Confederation, and at other courts by Charges des Affaires ; and United States' Consuls 
are stationed at all the important commercial ports in the world. Foreign Ministers accredited to 
the government of the United States are, Envoj'S Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary 
from Great Britain, Russia, the Argentine Republic, France, Spain, Chili, New Grenada, Brazil, 
Mexico, and Peru; Ministers Resident from Portugal, Prussia, and Belgium; and Charges des 
Affairs from Denmark, Austria, Holland, Sweden, Naples, Sardinia, Venezuela, and Nicaragua. 
Foreign Consuls from all commercial nations reside in the several Collection Districts of the Union. 

The " Department of the Interior" was established by an act of Congress of the 30th of March, 
1849. The Secretary of the Interior is intrusted with the supervision and management of all 
matters connected with the public domain, Indian affairs, pensions, patents, public buildings, the 
census, the penitentiary of the District of Columbia, the expenditures of the Federal Judiciary, 
etc. Each of these interests is managed in a separate bureau or office, the immediate head of which 
is styled Commissioner, Superintendent, or Warden, as the case may be. 
10 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Secretaries of the Interior — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 

Thomas H. Ewing, Ohio 6 Mar., 1849 I T. M.T. M-Kennon (dec.) 8 Aug., 1850 I Robert M'CleUand, Mich.. 5 Mar., 1853 
Jame8A.Pearce(,decrU)20 July, 1850 | Alex. H. H. Stuart, Fa... lu Sept., 1S50 | 

The " Department of the Treasury" was created by an act of Congress of the 2d of September, 
1789. The Secretary of the Treasury superintends all the fiscal concerns of the government, and 
upon his own responsibility recommends to Congress measures for improving the condition of the 
revenue. All public accounts are finally settled at this department ; and for this purpose it is 
divided into the ofiice of the Secretary, who has the general superintendence, the offices of the two 
Controllers, the offices of the Six Auditors, the office of the Commissioner of Customs, the Treas- 
urer's office, the Registrar's office, the Solicitor's office, and the office of the Coast Survey. Assist- 
tant Treasurers' offices are also established at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston, New 
Orleans, and St. Louis. 

Secretaries of the Treasury — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 



Alex. Hamilton, A^ K. ..12 Sept., 1789 

Oliver Wolcott, Ct. 4 Feb., 17y5 

Bamuel Dexter, Mas>t 31 .Jan., 18U2 

Albert Gallatin, Pa 26 Jan., 1802 

George W. Cauipbell, Ot. 9 Feb., 1814 

Alex. J. Dallas, Ta 6 Oct., 1814 

Wm. H. Crawford, Ga.. 5 Mar., 1817 



Richard Eush, P« 7 Mar., 1825 i Walter Forward. Pa IS Sept., IS 

Samuel D. Ingham, Pa.. 6 " 1S29 J. 0. Spencer, N. Y..... 3 Mar., It 



Louis M'Laue, X"*?; 1831 

William J. Duane, Pa. . . Ib8.3 

Roger B. Taney, Md. . . . 18^3 

Levi Woodbury, N. H... 7 Mar., 1833 
Thomas Ewing, 0/tto 5 " 1841 



1S41 
, 1«43 

George M. Bibb, Ky 15 June, 1844 

R. J. Walker, Minn 5 Mar., 1845 

W. M. Meredith, Pa 6 •> 1849 

Thos. Ci>rwin, Ohio 2o July, 1850 

James Guthrie, Ky 5 Mar., 1853 



The " Department of War" was created by an act of Congress of the 7th of August, 1789, and at 
first embraced not only military, but also naval affairs. The Secretary of War superintends every 
branch of military affairs, and has under his immediate direction the Adjutant-general's office, the 
Quartermaster-general's Bureau, the Paymaster's Bureau, the Subsistence Bureau, the Medical 
Bureau, the Engineer Bureau, the Topographical Bureau, the Ordnance Bureau, etc. ; and the 
department has the superintendence of the erection of fortifications, of making public surveys, and 
other important services. 

Secretaries of War — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 



Henry Knox, Mass 12 Sept., 1789 

Tim. Pickering, Pa 2 Jan., 1795 

James M-Henry, Md 27 " 1706 

Saml. Dexter, Mans 13 May, 1800 

Roger GriswoUl, Ct 3 Feb., 1801 

Henry Dearborn, J/iiss. . 5 Mar., 1^01 
William Eustis " ..7 " 1809 

John Armstrong, iV; y... 13 Jan., 1813 

James Monroe, Va 27 Sept., 1814 

Wm. H. Crawford. Ga. . . % Mar., 1815 



Isaac Shelley, Ky 5 Mar., 1817 

J. C. Calhoun, S. 0. 16 Dec, 1817 

James Barbour, Va 7 Mar., 1825 

Peter B. Porter, N.Y..... 26 May, 18:^8 

J. H. Katon, Temi 9 Mar., 1829 

Lewis Cass, Mich 1831 

Joel R. Poinsett, S. C. .. 1 " lN37 

John Bell, 7dw« 5 " 1841 

John M'Lean, Ohio 13 Sept., 1841 

J. C. Spencer, N. Y. .... 12 Oct., 1841 



James W. Porter, Pa. . . 8 Mar., 1843 

William Wilkins,P« 15 Feb., 1844 

Wm. L. Marcy, K Y..... 5 Mar., 1.S45 
Geo. W. Crawford, (t«.. 6 " 1849 
Edm. Bates (declined) ..20 July, 1850 
Charles M. Conrad. La... 8 Aug., 1850 
Jefl'ersou Davis, Mi^iS.. . . 5 Mar., 1S53 



The "Department of the Navy" was created by an act of Congress of the 30th of April, 1798. 
The Secretary of the jYavy issues all orders to the naval forces and superintends naval affairs gen- 
erally. Attached to the Department are — a Bureau of Docks and Navy Yards, a Bureau of 
Ordnance and Hydrography, a Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repairs, a Bureau of 
Provisions and Clothing, a Bureau of Medical and Surgical Instruments, etc. ; and the National 
Observatory at Washington is under the control of the Navy Department. The ministerial duties 
of these several Bureaux were formerly exercised by a Board of Navy Commissioners. 



Secretaries of the Navy — Salary $6,000 j)er Annum. 



George Cabot, Mass 3 May, 1798 

Benjamin Stoddard, 3/t?. 21 " 1798 

Robert Smith. 3jrd 26 Jan., 1802 

J. Crtiwningshield. Mass. 2 Mar., ISno 
Paul Hamilton, & C ... 7 " 1809 

William Jones, P<( 12 Jan., 1813 

B.W. Crownings'd, j;/a.«.s.l9 Dec. 1814 
Smith Thompson, A^. Y..SO Nov., 1818 



S. L. Southard, JV.J. .... 9 Dec, 1823 

John Branch, A^. C. 9 Mar., 1829 

Levi Woodbury, Jf. //... 1831 

Mahlon Dickerson, y. J. 1834 

J. K. P.iulding, N. Y. 80 June, 18:)8 

G. P. Badger, N. <l 5 Mar., 1841 

Abel P. Up.xhur, Va 13 Sept.. 1841 

David Henshaw, J/a««...24 July, 1843 



T. W. Gilmer, Va 15 

Jfihn Y. Mason, Va 14 

Geiirge Banc.TofU Mass. .10 

John Y. Mason. Fif 

William B. Preston, Va.. 6 
Wm. A. Graham, A^. C .20 
J. C. Dobbin, K C. 5 



Feb., 1S44 
Mar., 1844 
" 1S45 ! 
1846 
Mar., 1849 
July, 1850 
Mar., 1853 



The " Department of the Post-office" was established under the authority of the Old Congress. 
The Postmaster-general has the chief direction of all postal arrangements with foreign states, as 
well as within the federal limits. The general business is managed by three Assistant Postmas- 
ters-general, who preside respectively over the Contract office, the Appointment office, and the 
Inspection, etc., offices. 

Postmasters- general — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 



Samuel Osgood. J/as«...26 Sept., 1789 
Timothy Pickering, Pa.. 7 Nov., 1791 
Joseph Habersham, fi'rt.. 2 Jan., 1795 
Gideon Granger, ...... 17 Mar., 1802 

Reuben J. Meigs, Wwo.. " 1814 
John WLe&ii, Ohio 9 Dec, 1823 



William J. Barry, Ky... 9 Mar., 1829 

Amos Kendall, Ky 1 May, 1835 

John M. Niles, Ct 25 " 1840 

Francis Granger, A'! y... 6 Mar., 1841 
Charles A.Wickliffe, A'y.13 Sept., 1841 
Cave Johnson, Tenn. ... 5 Mar., 1845 



fas 



Jacob Collamer, Vt. 6 Mar., 1849 

Nathan K. Hall, A^ T... 20 June, 1850 
James Campbell, Tenn.. 5 Mar., 1853 



11 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The " Attorneys-general," who are considered as forming a part of the Cabinet, and who are the 
constitutional advisers and defendants of the government, are generally men of the greatest acquire- 
ments in their profession. The gentlemen who have held this office are enumerated in the annex- 
ed list : 

Attorneys- general — Salary $4,000 per Annum. 

Edmund Randolph, Fff.. 26 Sept., 1789 
"William Bra.lfcird, /'a...27 Jan., 179-1 

Charlos Leo, Va. 10 Dec, 1795 

Levi Lincoln, Mukh 5 Mar., 1801 

Robert Smilh, JW 2 " ISllo 

John Brcckenri.lcc A'v..28 Dee., 1806 
C-esar A. Uodm-v. Dfi...i\ .Tan.. 1807 
■William Pinokney, J/(Z..ll Dec, 1^11 
Kichard Kush, Pa 10 Feb., ISU 



William Wirt, Md 16 Dec, 1817 

.Tohn M'Ph. Berrien, Ga. 9 Mar., 1829 

Roger B. Taney, Md 1831 

Benj. V. Butler, A'; Y.... .25 Dec, 1835 

Felix Grimdy, Tenn 1 Sept., 18:« 

Henry D. Gilpin, Pa 11 Jan., 1840 

John J. Crittenden, Ay.. 5 Mar., 1841 
Hugh S. Legarfe. S. C... .13 Sept., 1841 
John Nelson, Md 1 July, 1843 



John Y. Mason, Ya 5 Mar., 1845 

Nathan ClilTurd ]S47 

Isaac Touoey, Ct 1S48 

Reverdy Johnson, Md... 6 Mar., 1849 

J. J. Crittenden, Ky 20 July, 1850 

Caleb Gushing, Mass.... 5 Mar., 1S53 



The judicial powers of the United States are vested in a Supreme Court, and in such other infe- 
rior courts as Congress may from time to time establish. The present judicial establishment con- 
sists of a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and District Courts. 

The " Supreme Court," the highest judicial tribunal of the Union, is composed of a Chief- Justice 
and eight Associate Justices, the Attorney-general, a Reporter, and Clerk. This court is held in 
Washington, and has one session annually, commencing on the first Monday in December. 

The Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction in all controversies of a civil nature where a State 
is a party, except between a State and its citizens, and except, also, between a State and citizens 
of other States or aliens — in which latter case it has original but not exclusive jurisdiction. It 
has exclusively all such jurisdiction of suits and proceedings against ambassadors or other public 
ministers, or their domestics or domestic servants, as a court of law can have or exercise consist- 
ently witli the law of nations; and original, but not exclusive jurisdiction of all suits brought by 
ambassadors or other public ministers, in which a consul or a vice-consul is a party. It has 
appellate jurisdiction from final decrees and judgments of the circuit courts in cases where the 
matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of 2,000 dollars, and from final 
decrees and judgments of the highest courts of the several States in certain cases. It has power to 
issue writs of prohibition to the District Courts, when proceeding as Courts of Admiralty and 
maritime jurisdiction ; and writs of mandamus in cases warranted by the principles and usages of 
law to any courts appointed or persons holding office under the authority of the United States. 
The trial of issues in fact in the Supreme Court in all actions at law against citizens of the United 
States is by jury, 

A final judgment or decree in any suit, in the highest court of law or equity of a State in which 
a decision in the suit could be had, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute 
of, or any authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is ag.ainst their validity ; 
or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under any 
State, on the ground of their being repugnant to the constitution, treaties, or laws of the United 
States, and the decision is in favor of their validity ; or where is drawn in question the construction 
of any clause of the constitution, or of a treaty or statute of, or commission held under the United 
States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege, or exemption, specially set up or 
claimed by either party, under such clause of the constitution, treaty, statute, or commission, 
may be re-examined, and reversed or affirmed, in the Supreme Court of the United States, upon a 
writ of error, the citation being signed by the Chief Justice, or Judge, or Chancellor of the court 
rendering or passing the judgment or decree complained of, or by a Justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, in ihe same manner, and under the same regulations, and the writ has the 
same effect, as if the judgment or decree complained of had been rendered or passed in a Circuit 
Court ; and the proceeding upon the reversal is also the same, except that the Supreme Court, in- 
stead of remanding the cause for a final decision, may, at their discretion, if the cause shall have 
been once remanded before, proceed to a final decision of the same, and award execution. But no 
other error can be assigned or regarded as a ground of reversal in any such case, than such as 
appears on the face of the record, and immediately respect the before-mentioned questions of valid- 
ity or construction of the said constitution, treaties, statutes, commissions, or authorities, in 
dispute. 

Chief-.Tusliccs of the Suprejne Court — Salary ^5,000 per Annum. 

John Jay.iV: Y. 26 Sept., 1789 I Oliver Kllsworth, Ct 4 Mar., 1796 Roger B. Taney, Jfrf 28 Dec, 1885 

John Rutledgc, />. C... 1 Julv, 1795 John .Tay, N. Y. 19 Dec, 1800 

WUliam Gushing, jt/a-s-s.. 27 Jan., 1796 | John Marshall, Va 27 Jan., ISOl 

The " Circuit Courts" are held by a Justice of the Supreme Court assigned to the Circuit and by 
the Judge of the District in which the Court sits conjointly. The United States is divided into 
12 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 



nine judicial Circuits, in each of which a Court ia held twice a year, 
follows : 



The Circuits are as 



VI. North Carolina, South Carolina, and G-eorgia. 
VII. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, 
VIII. Kentuclcy, Tennessee, and Missouri. 
IX. Mississippi and Arkansas. 



I. Maine, N. Hampshire, Massachusetts, and E. Island. 
It. Vermont, Connecticut, and New York, 

III. New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

IV. Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. 
V. Alabama, Louisiana, and Kentucky, 

The States of Florida, Texas, Iowa, Wisconsin and California have not yet been attached to any 
circuit ; but the District Courts have the power of Circuit Courts. There is a local Circuit Court 
held in the District of Columbia by three judges specially appointed for that purpose. The Chief- 
Justice of that court sits also as District Judge of that District. 

The Circuit Courts of the United States have original cognizance, concurrent with the courts of 
the several States, of all suits of a civil nature, at common law, or in equity, where the matter in 
dispute exceeds, exclusive of costs, the sum or value of 500 dollars, and the United States are 
plaintiffs or petitioners, or an alien is a party, or the suit is between a citizen of the State where 
the suit is brought and a citizen of another State. They have exclusive cognizance of all crimes 
and offenses cognizable under the authority of the United States (except where the laws of the 
United States otherwise direct), and concurrent jurisdiction with the District Courts of the crimes 
and offenses cognizable therein. But no person can be arrested in one district for trial in another, 
in any civil action, before a Circuit or District Court. No civil suit can be brought, before either 
of said courts, against an inhabitant of the United States, by any original process, in any other 
district than that whereof he is an inhabitant, or in which he shall be found at the time of serving 
the writ ; and no District or Circuit Court has cognizance of any suit to recover the contents of 
any promissory note, or other chose in action, in favor of an assignee, unless a suit might have 
been prosecuted in such court to recover the said contents, if no assignment had been made, ex- 
cept in cases of foreign bills of exchange. 

The Circuit Courts have appellate jurisdiction from final decrees and judgments of the District 
Courts, in all cases where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of fifty dollars. They 
also have jurisdiction of certain cases, which may be removed into them before trial from the State 
courts. But no District Judge (sitting in the Circuit Court) can give a vote in any case of appeal, 
or error, from his own decision, but may assign the reasons of such his decision. The trial of 
issues in fact in the Circuit Courts, in all suits, except those of equity and of admiralty and mar- 
itime jurisdiction, is by jury. 

The " District Courts" are held respectively by a district judge alone. Each State is one district 
for the purposes of holding District or Circuit Courts therein, with the exception of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and California, each 
of which is divided into two districts, and of Alabama, Tennessee, and Iowa, each of which are 
divided into three districts. There are besides these, Territorial Courts, which are temporary, and 
lose that character whenever a Territory becomes a State. 

Each court has a clerk, a public attorney or prosecutor, and a marshal — all of which are ap- 
pointed by the President of the United States, with the exception of the clerks, who are appointed 
by the courts severally. 

The District Courts of the United States, have, exclusively of the courts of the several States, 
cognizance of all crimes and offenses that are cognizable under the authority of the United States, 
committed within their respective districts, or upon the high seas, where no other punishment than 
whipping, not exceeding thirty stripes, a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or a term of im- 
prisonment not exceeding six months, is to be inflicted, and also have exclusive original cognizance 
of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, including all seizures under the laws of 
impost, navigation, or trade, of the United States, where the seizures are made on waters which 
are navigable from the sea by vessels of ten or more tons' burthen, within their respective dis- 
tricts, as well as upon the high seas, saving to suitors, in all cases, the right of a common-law 
remedy, where the common law is competent to give it ; and also have exclusive original cognizance 
of all seizures on land, or other waters than as aforesaid, made, and of all suits for penalties and 
forfeitures incurred, under the laws of the United States. And they also have cognizance, concur- 
rent with the courts of the several States, or their circuit courts, as the case may be, of all causes 
where an alien sues for a tort only in violation of the law of nations, or a treaty of the United States. 
They also have cognizance, concurrent as last mentioned, of all suits at common law, where the 
United States sue, and the matter in dispute amounts, exclusive of costs, to the sum or value of 
one hundred dollars. They also have jurisdiction, exclusively of the courts of the several States, 
of all suits against consuls or vice-consuls, except for offenses above the description aforesaid. 

13 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 


The trial of issues in fact, in the District Courts, in all causes, except civil causes of admiralty and 


maritime jurisdiction, is by jury. 


An act of the 18th of December, 1812, requires the district and territorial judges of the United 


States to reside within the districts and territories, respectively, for which they are appointed; 


and makes it unlawful for any judge, appointed under the authority of the United States, to exer- 


cise the profession or employment of counsel or attorney, or to be engaged in the practice of the 


law. And any person oflFending against the injunction or prohibition of this act. shall be deemed 


guilty of misdemeanor. 


Appeals are allowed from the District to the Circuit Courts in cases where the matter in dispute. 


exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum in value of $50, and from the Circuit Courts to the Supreme 


Court in cases where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of $2,000; and in some cases 


where the inconvenience of attending a court by a justice of the f upreme Court is very great, the 


District Courts are invested with Circuit Court powers. | 


The appointment of all judges of the United States is made by the President, by and with the 


advice of the Senate ; and the judges hold their several offices during good behavior, and can be 


] removed only on impeachment. Their compensation is fixed by law, and can not be diminished 


during their period of office. 


GENERAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES. 


I. STATISTICS OF POPULATION, ETC., ETC. 


1. Statement of the Extent, Population, Industry, and Wealth of each State and of the 


United States, on the 1st June, 1850. 

i 


States and Territories. 


Area in 
Sqn.re 
Miles. 


Population. 


Populat'n 

to >nuare 

Miles. 


Manufar 
turing Ks 
tabh^li'ts 


Farms in 
Cultiva- 
tion. 


Census 
Valuation. 


White 
Persons. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Free. 

2,293 
608 


342,^92 
47,100 




5(1,722 
52,19S 


426,486 
162.189 


771.671 
2(19.897 


15.2 
4.0 


1,022 
271 


41,964 

17,758 


$228.2(i4..333 
39.841.025 


Arkansas 


California 


lSS,i»Sl 


272,31(6 


83,201 


— 


3(iS,507 







— 


22.161,872 


CiiUirabia District . 


6(1 


38,027 


9,973 


8,687 


51,687 


S61.4 


427 


264 


■14.018,874 


Connecticut 


4,fi74 


863,099 


7,693 


— 


370,792 


79.3 


3.913 


22,445 


155.707,980 


Delaware 


2,1:30 


71,169 


18,073 


2.290 


91.532 


43.6 


513 


6.063 


21,062.556 




59,208 
5'<.00(i 
55.405 
33,s()9 
1S7.171 


47.211 
521,572 
846,035 
977.628 


924 
2.931 
5.435 

10,7SS 


39,309 
381,682 


87,444 
906.1 s5 
8.51.470 
988,416 


1.4 
15.6 
16.3 
29.2 


121 
1,4(17 
3.090 
4..326 


4.304 
51.759 
76.2(18 
93,896 


22.n62.270 
3.54,425,714 

156.205,0(16 1 
202,650,264 j 








liKlian Ter 




5(1,914 
37.Gs(i 


191.879 
761,417 


335 
10,007 


210,981 


192,214 

982.405 


3.7 

26.0 


482 
3.471 


14,805 
74,777 


23 714.6.38 
301,628,456 


Kentucky 




46,431 

30,000 

9,356 


255,491 
581.813 
417,943 


17,462 

1..3.56 

74,723 


244,609 
90,368 


517.762 
583,169 
583,034 


11.0 
19.4 
62.3 


1.021 
8,6S2 
8,863 


13,422 

46,76(1 
21,860 


233,998.764 
122.7T7..571 
219,217.364 




Maryland 


Massachusetts 


7,S(»0 


9s5,45() 


9,0(>4 


— 


994.514 


126.1 


9.637 


34,23.1 


573.342,286 




56,243 
83,000 


395.(;97 
6,(i3s 


2,557 
39 


— 


897.6.54 
6.077 


7.0 
.0 


1.979 
5 


34,089 
157 


59.787,255 


Minnesota Ter. ... 


Mississippi 


47.1.56 


295,71h 


930 


309,878 


606.526 


12.8 


866 


.33,960 


228.951.130 




67.3S0 
136.700 


592,004 


2.618 


87.422 


682,044 


10.1 


3,030 


54,458 


137,247,707 


Nebr.-iska Ter 


New Hampshire .. 


9.2.S(I 


317.456 


520 


— 


317.976 


84.2 


8.301 


29 229 


103.652.8.35 


New .Tersey 


8.320 


465.513 


23,820 


222 


4S0..555 


60.0 


4,374 


23,905 


200.00(1.0(10 


New Mexico Ter... 


210,744 


61.530 


17 


— 


61„547 


.2 





— 


5,174,471 i 


New York 


46.000 


3,04S,325 


49,069 


— 


3.097.394 


67.6 


23.823 


17(1.621 


1.08(1.209.216 


Norlh Carolina 


45,000 


553,02s 


27,463 


2SS.54S 


869,039 


19.3 


2,523 


56,916 


226,800,472 


North-West Ter. . . 


587,.564 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Ohio 


89,964 


1,955,108 


25,319 


— 


1,98(1.427 


49.5 


10,550 


14.3,887 


504,726.120 


Oregon Ter 


341.463 


13.( 88 


206 


— 


13294 


.0 


51 


1.164 


5.06:3,474 


Pennsylvania 


46,000 


2,25s,463 


53.323 


— 


2..3n,7s6 


50.2 


22,036 


127.577 


722.486.120 


Rhode Island 


1.360 


143,875 


3.670 


— 


147,515 


108.0 


1,144 


5.3S5 


80.508,794 


South Carolina 


24.500 


274,567 


8,956 


884,984 


668.507 


27.2 


1,473 


29.969 


288,257.694 


Tennessee 


45.601.1 


756,753 


6,4(11 


239,460 


1,002.614 


21.9 


2.7^9 


72.710 


201,246,6^6 


Texas 


237,321 


154,((34 


397 


58.161 


212,.592 


.8 


307 


12.19S 


52,740,473 


Utah Ter 


1S7,923 
10,212 


11, .330 
813,402 


24 

718 


26 


11.3S0 
314,120 


.0 
30.0 


16 

1,=35 


926 

29,6s7 


986,083 

92.205,049 


Vermont 


' Virj!;inia 


61.352 


8U4,b00 


54,333 


472,528 


1,421,661 


23.1 


4,4:i3 


77,013 


4:30,7111,082 


'^yashington Ter. . . 




















"Wisconsin 


53.924 


304,758 


633 


— 


305.391 5.6 


1.273 


20,177 


42.056.595 


" __ _ ^ II 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



2. Progressive Movement of Population. 



Colored Peraons. 



Census 



White 



Slave. 

1T90 3.1T2.464 59.466 697,897.... 

ISOO 4,804.4S9 1(18,395 893.057.... 

1810 5.862.004 186,446 1,191.364.... 

1820 7.866,569 233.524 1.538,098 

1830 10,53-2,<I60 319.599 2.009,043. . . . 

1840 14,189,705 386,292 2,487,356. 



Total Pop. White. 

.. S.929,R2T — ... 

.. 5,305.941 85.7... 

.. 7.239,814 36.2... 

.. 9,63'*,191 34.2... 

..12,866.020 3:3.9... 

..17,069,453 34.7... 



!Col. 






Total. 



1850 19,630,738 428,661 3.204,089 23,203,488 38.3. . . 

3. Origin of the Free Population of 1850. 
A. — Native Population. 



82.2 27.9 85.00 

92.2 33.4 36.45 

25.2 29.1 33.12 

36.8 30.6 33.48 

20.8 23.8 32.67 

10.9 28.3 86.28 



Place of Origin. Pop. 

Miiine 5S4,.310 

New Hampshire.... 371,469 

Vermont 377,741 



Place of Origin Pop. 

Dist. of Columbia.. 32,236 

Virzinia 1.260.982 

North Carolina 839,325 

Massachusetts S94..sl8 I South Carolina 44S,639 

Khode Island 145,941 j Georgia 525,620 

Connectiput 447.544 i Florida 25.297 

New York 2,698,414 Alabama 320.930 

NewJersev 518,810 Mississippi 172,473 

Pennsylvania 2,266.7'-'7 I Louisiana 160,2;)3 

Delaware 104,316 I Texas 51,641 

Maryland 52s,393 | Arkansas 74,122 



Place ol Origin. Pop. 

Tenne8.see 826,690 

Kentucky 8.59.407 

Ohio 1,514,885 

Michigan 153,ti57 

Indiana 633,117 

Illinois 389,5(17 

Missouri 315,428 

Iowa 56,738 

Wisconsin 66.790 



Eneland 278.675 

Ireland 961.719 

Scotland 70,550 

Wales 29.863 

Germany 573,225 

France 54,069 

Spain 3,113 

Portugal 1,274 

Belgium 1,313 



Holland 9,843 

Turkey 106 

Italy 8,645 

Austria 946 

Switzerland 18,358 

Russia 1,414 

Norwav 12,678 

DenmaVk 1,838 





6,698 


Minnesota 

Population, 

Sweden 

Prussia 


. 1,334 

. S.559 

. 10,549 

34 




86 




758 




377 


Africa 

British America... 


551 
. 147,711 



Place of Origin. Pop. 

Oregon 3,175 

Utah 1,381 

New Mexico 58,421 

Natives of the Ter- 
ritories, but resid- 
ing in other parts 
of the Union 949 



Total 17,737,578 



Mexico 18,817 

Central America ... 

South America 

West Indies 

Sandwich Islands . . 
Other countries 



141 
1,543 
5,772 

588 
8,214 



Total 2,210,839 



C— Origin Unknown. Total 39,154. 

4. Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Insane, and Idiotic, 1850. 

-4.— Absolute Number of each Class. 

ColoreJ Per3»ns. 



Wliite Persons. 



Free. 



Kem. 



Male. 

Deaf and Dumb 5,027 4,058 78. 

Blind 4.519 3,478 239. 

Insane 7,697 7,459 144. 

Idiotic 8,-*276 5,954 234. 

£. — Ratio of each Class to the aggregate Population. 

Colored Per:?on3. 
Wliite Persona. * — 



Fern. 
, 65. 
, 255. 

. 177. 
. 202. 



Male. 
276. 
. 562. 
, 117. 
. 585. 



Aggregate of 
Fem. e»cli Cla.ss, 

. 213 9,717 

. 649 9,702 

. 174 15,768 

. 455 15,706 



Total Ratio of Ratio 



Sla 



Deaf and Dumb... 9,(i91. 

Blind 7,997. 

Insane 15.156. 

IdioUc 14,230. 



2,151.. 
2,445.. 
1,290. . 
1,374.. 



0.04. 
0.04. 
0.07. 
0.07. 



143. . 
494., 
321 . , 
436. 



One to p. c. 

. 3,032... 0.03.. 
. 877... 0.11.. 
. 1,350... 0.01.. 
. 994... 0.10.. 



Number. 
. 489... 
.1,211... 
. 291 .. . 
. 1,040... 



One to 



r c 



6,552... 0.01.. 

2,645... 0.03.. 

11,010... — .. 

3,080... 0.05.. 



Number. 



p, e. 



9,723.. 2,385.. 0.04 

9.702.. 2,390.. 0.04 

15,768.. 1,470.. 0.06 

15,706.. 1,476.. 0.06 



Total, 



46,474 



420 0.22 1,3 



311 0.32 8,031 1,057 0.09 60,899 455 0.21 



5. Pauperism, 1850. 

Number of paupers who received support within the year ending June 1st, 1850 — native 66,484, • 
and foreign 68,538— total 134,972. 

Number of paupers who were receiving support on the 1st June, 1850 — native 13,473, and 
foreign 18,437— total 50,353. 

Total cost of pauper support within the year specified — $2,954,806. 

The following exhibit shows the number and cost of paupers to each of the States, within the 
year 1850 : 

states. Paupers. Cost. 

Maine .... 5.503.. $151,664 

N. Hamp.. 3,600.. 157 ,.351 

Verm 8.654.. 120,462 

Mas.s 15,777.. 892,715 

Kh. Island 2,560.. 45.8.37 

Conn 2.337.. 95.624 

N.York .. 59,855.. 817,-336 

N.Jersey. 2.392.. 93,110 

6. Criminal Sialistics. 

Whole number of persons convicted of crime within the year ending June 1, 1850 — native 18,000, 

and foreign 14,000— total 27 ,000. 

Whole number in prison on the 1st June of the same year— native 4,300, and foreign 2,460 — 

total 6,700. 

15 



States. Paupers. 


Cost. 


states. 


Paupers. 


Cost 


States. Paupers. 


Cost. 


Penn 11,551. 


$232,133 


Alabama.. 


363.. 


$17,559 


Michigan. 1,190.. 


$27,556 


Delaware . 697. 


17,730 


Miss 


260.. 


18.132 


Indiana .. 1,182.. 


57,560 


Maryland . 4,494. 


71.668 


La 


423.. 


89,8ii6 


Illinois ... 797.. 


45,213 


Virginia .. 5.118. 
N.Carolina 1,931. 


151,722 


Texas 


7.. 


433 


Missouri.. 2,977.. 


53.243 


60,085 


Arkansas . 


105.. 


6.S38 


Iowa 135.. 


5,358 


S.Carolina 1,642. 


48,337 


Tennessee 


1,005.. 


30,980 


Wisconsin. 666. . 


14,743 


Georgia .. 1,036 


27,82(1 


Kentucky. 


1,126.. 


57.543 






Florida... 76. 


937 


Ohio 


2,513.. 


95,250 







UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



II.— STATISTICS OP KELIGION. 
1. Statistics of Churches. 



states. 


No. ef 

Ch'8. 


Arcnmtno- 

d;iti(>n. 


ValuporCh. 
Property. 


States. 


No. of 
Cli's, 


Acfonimo- 

<],.tion. 


Value of Ch. 
Property. 


Maine 


851 

602 

564 

1,4.30 

221 

719 

4,084 

807 

3,509 

180 

909 

2,836 

1,678 

1,1 ('8 

1,723 

152 

1,2.35 


304,477 
2:33,892 
226.444 
682,908 
98.736 
305.249 

l,896.-.'29 
344.9.33 

1,566.413 
.55.741 
390.265 
834,691 
55s,204 
453,930 
612,892 
41,170 
388.605 


$1,712,152 
1,401,586 
1.213.126 

10,205,284 
1,252.900 
3,554.894 i 

21.132,707 
8,.540,436 

11,551, ^sr, 

.34(1.345 

3.947,s>4 

2,849,176 

889,393 

2.140,346 

1,269,159 

165,400 

1,132,076 


Mississippi 


910 

278 

164 

185 

1.939 

1,S1S 

3.890 

862 

1,947 

1,167 

773 

148 

244 

23 

36,011 


275,?7;i 

104.0S(I 

54.495 

39.930 

606.695 

672.0.33 

1,447.6.!2 

11.8.S92 

689..3-30 

479.078 

241.139 

37,759 

78.4.55 

9.600 


754.1>42 


New Hampshire 

Vermont 




l,7v>,470 


Texas 


200.5:35 


Massachusetts 




89,315 




Tt-nnessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 


l,2ii8,S76 




2.260,098 




5,76.5,149 


New Jersey 




723.200 






1.512.485 


Delaware 


Illinois 


1,476.:^A5 


Maryland 


Mis^•ouri 


1,558.590 


Virffinia 




177,400 


North Carolina 


Wisconsin 


350,600 
258,:300 


Georgia 

Florida 


Total 




18,849,896 


86,416,639 


Alabama 








. Statist 


cs of Religious Denominations. 








DenointnatJons. 


No. of 

Churches 


Accnnimoda- 
tions. 


Value of 
Property. 


Denominations. 


No. of 

Churclies, 


Accommoda- 
tions. 


Value i.r 
Property, 


Baptist 


8,791 
812 

1,674 
324 

1,422 

361 

714 

327 

31 

1,203 

110 

12.467 


3,130,878 
296,050 
795.177 
181,986 
625,213 
108,605 
282,823 
15(5,9:32 

16,575 
531,100 

29,900 
4,209,333 


$10,931..3S2 

84,5,810 

7.973,962 

4,096,730 

11,261,970 

252,255 

1.709.867 

965,880 

371,600 

2,867.886 

94,245 

14,636,671 




831 

4,5^4 

1,112 

15 

52 

619 

2*3 

494 

325 


?112.1S4 

2,040,316 

620.9.iO 

5.070 

35,075 

2I3,.5.52 

137,367 

205,462 

115,:347 


$443,347 






14,369.8>9 






8,973.8:33 






108,100 




Tunker...." 


46,025 


Free 




6»0.(i(;5 


Friends 


Unitarian 


8,268.122 






1,767.1115 






741, 9S0 




Total 






36,011 


13,849,896 


86,416,639 


Methodist 







N. B. The above tables do not include the church statistics of the District of Columbia and the Territories. 

III.— AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 

1. A Statement shoicing the numher of Acres of improved and unimproved Land, in Farms, the 

cash value thereof and the average cash value per Acre, in each State and Territory 



States and Territories. 



M.aine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaw.ire 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

'Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

California 

Minnesota Territory . 
Oregon do. 

Utah do. 

New Mexico do. 



Acres of im- 
proved land. 



2.0:39,596 
2.251.488 
2.601,409 
2,1.3:3.4:36 

356.487 

1,768.178 

12.41 iS.968 

1,767,991 

8,628.619 

580.862 
2,797.905 
16.267 
10,360.1.35 
5,4,53.977 
4,072.651 
6,378.479 

349.049 
4.4:35,614 
3,444.358 
1,590,025 

639,107 

781,531 
.5.175,173 
11,36S.270 
9,851,493 
1,929,110 
5,046.543 
5,039,545 
2,938,425 

824.6S2 

1,045.499 

62.;324 

5.035 

1.32.857 
16,333 

166,201 



Acres of 

proveit la 

farm 



2.515,797 

1,140,926 

1,524,413 

1,222,576 

197,451 

615,701 

6,710.120 

984.9.55 

6,294,728 

375,282 

1,836,445 

11,187 

1.5,792.176 

1.5..T4;i,010 

12.145,049 

16,442.900 

1,236.240 

7,702,067 

7,046,061 

3,939.018 

14,4.54.669 

1,816.6^4 

13,808,849 

10.972,478 

8,146.000 

2.454,7>0 

7,746,879 

6.997,867 

6.794,245 

1.911,:3S2 

1,931.1.59 

8,831, .57 1 

23.846 

299.951 

.30.516 

124.870 



4.555.393 

8.392,414 

4,125,822 

3:356,012 

553.938 

2.383,879 

19,119,088 

2,752,946 

14,923.347 

956,144 

4,634,:350 

27.454 

26,1.52.311 

20,996.9s7 

16.217.700 

22,821,379 

1,585.289 

12.1:37.681 

10.490,419 

5,529.043 

15.09:3,776 

2..598,215 

18.984,022 

22.340,748 

17.997,493 

4.383..^9o 

12,793.422 

12.0:37,412 

9.7:32.670 

2.7:36(164 

2.976.658 

8,893..S95 

28,881 

4:32,808 

46.849 

290,571 



Cash vat. of land 
impioved and 



Aggregate 118,457,622 I 184,621.348 803,078,970 

-^ — ————— 



$.54,861,748 

55.245.997 

63.367,227 

109.076,:347 

17,070,802 

72,7'?6.4-.'2 

554,.546,042 

120,237.511 

407,876,099 

18,880,031 

87.178.545 

1.7:30,460 

216,4(11.441 

67.801.766 

82,4:!1.6s4 

95.7.53.445 

6.32:3,109 

64.323.224 

54,738 634 

75,814,:398 

16,:398.747 

15.265,245 

97.851.212 

154 :3:30.262 

858,7,58.603 

51.872,446 

1-36,385.173 

96.1:33 290 

63,225.543 

16.6.^7,567 

28,528,563 

3,874,041 

161,9 ;8 

2.'-49.170 

311.7:9 

1,653.952 



$12 04 
16 28 
15 36 
82 50 
80 82 
80 50 
29 00 
43 67 
27 .33 
19 75 
18 81 
63 03 

8 27 

3 23 
5 08 

4 19 
3 99 

5 30 
5 22 

13 71 
1 09 
5 SS 

5 16 

6 91 
19 93 
11 8:3 
10 66 

7 99 
6 50 
6 09 

9 58 
99 

5 61 

6 58 
6 65 
5 69 



3,270,7:l3.(:f'3 'av. 10 79 



r, 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



2. Statement of the Food Crops for the Year ending \st June, 1850. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermoni 

Massachusetts .. 
Illiode Island . . . 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania ... 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Dls. nf Columbia. 

Virffinia 

North Carolina.. 
South Carolina . . 

Georgria 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arl<ansas 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Iowa 

"Wisconsin 

Culifiirnia 

Minn. Territory. 
Oregon Territory 
Utah Territory.. 
New Mex. Ter. . 

Aggregate 



296.2.59 
1S5,65S 
535,055 
31.211 

41,76: 

13,121,495 

1.601.19(1 

15,367,691 

482,51 1 

4,494.6811 

17.371 

11,2-32.616 

2,1.3(\102 

1,066,277 

1,08S,534 

1,02 

294,044 

137.991) 

417 

41,689 

199.639 

1,619.381 

2,140,822 

14.487.351 

4,925,889 

6,214.45S 

9,414,575 

2.9^1.652 

1.530,5sl 

4,286,131 

17,328 

1,401 

211,493 

107.702 

196,516 



lOO.f 



102,916 

183.117 

176,233 

481,021 

26.409 

600.893 

4,148.1v2 

1,2.55.578 

4,805,160 

8.066 

226,014 

5 509 

458.930 

229.563 

43,790 

53,7,50 

1,15.' 

17,261 

9,606 

47.= 

3.108 

8,047 

89,163 

415,073 

425,71s 

106.871 

78.792 

83.364 

44,268 

19.916 

81,253 

125 
106 
210 



1,750,056 

1,573.670 

2,032,396 

2,345,490 

539,201 

1.9.S5,043 

17,858,400 

8.759.704 

19,835,214 

3,145.542 

11.104.631 

65,230 

35.254,819 

27,941,051 

16,271,454 

30,080,099 

1 .996,809 

28.754.04,8 

22,446,552 

10.266.373 

5,926,611 

8,893,930 

52,276,223 

58,675,591 

59,078,695 

5,641,420 

52.064.-363 

57,646,984 

36,214,537 

8,656,799 

1,988.979 

12,236 

16,725 

2.918 

9,899 

365,411 



2,181,037 

973.381 

2,307,734 

1,165,146 

215,232 

1.2.58.738 

26.552,814 

3,378,068 

21,53S;.156 

604,518 

2,242.151 

8,134 

10,179,045 

4,052.078 

2,322.156 

3,820.044 

66.586 

2,965.697 

1,603.28s 

89.637 

178.883 

656.183 

T,703.086 

8,201,311 

13,472.742 

2,866,056 

5,6.55.014 

10,087,241 

5,278.079 

1.524,345 

3,414,672 

30,582 

65,146 

10,900 

5 



151,731 

70,256 

42,150 

112,385 

18,875 

19,099 

3,585,1159 

6,492 

165,584 

56 

745 

75 

25.437 

2,735 

4,583 

11,.501 

3,958 
229 

4,776 

177 

2,737 

95.:W:3 

354,-35: 

75,249 

45,483 

110.795 

9,631 

25.093 

209.692 

9,712 

1,216 

1,799 
5 



104.523 

65265 

209,819 

105,895 

1.245 

229,297 

3,183.955 

878,9.34 

2,19-3,692 

8,615 

103,671 

37S 

214,898 

16,704 

283 

25(1 

55 

348 

1,121 

3 

59 

175 

19,427 

16,(197 

638,064 

472.917 

149,740 

184,504 

23.641 

52,516 

79,878 

515 

332 

100 



..503.890 14,188,3391592,326,612 146.567,870 5,167,016 8,956.016 215,312 710 9,219.975 65,796,793 88,259,196 



pounds. 



17.154 

5,465,868 

159,930,613 

"8,950,691 

1,075,090 

2,311,252 

2.719.&56 

4,425,.349 

87.916 

63,179 

258,854 

5,688 



TOO 
500 



205.541 

70,856 

104.649 

43.709 

6,846 

19,000 

741,636 

14,174 

55.231 

4,120 

12.816 

7,754 

521,581 

,584.252 

,026,900 

,142,011 

135,3,59 

892.701 

,072,757 

161,732 

179,-332 

285,738 

360.321 

2(12,574 

6(1,108 

74,254 

35,773 

82.814 

46,017 

4,775 

20.6-'- 

2.292 

10.002 

6,566 

289 

15,688 



busl.els 



3,436.040 

4,304,919 

4,951.014 

3.5S5.3S4 

651.029 

2.689.725 

15,398,362 

3.207.2:!6 

5.980.732 

240,542 

764.93:i 

28.292 

1,316,933 

620,31s 

136,404 

227.379 

7.82s 

246.001 

261.482 

95.682 

93.548 

103.S.32 

1,067,844 

1.492.48 

5.057.709 

2.359.807 

2,0s3.:^:-lT 

2,514.861 

939.006 

276,121 

1,402.071 

9,292 

21.145 

91,326 

43,968 



SO 

5,623 

508.015 

52.172 

65.413 

208,993 

3,407 

1,013,671 

5,(195.709 

4,337.469 

6 'J86,428 

757,226 

5,175,204 

4,741.795 

1,428,453 

1,323,170 

788.149 

2,777.716 

998,184 

187,991 

1,177 

201.711 

157.433 

835,5(15 

6,243 

879 

1,000 

2.)0 

60 



3. Statement of Live-Slock in the several States, for the year ending 1st June, 1850. 



states and Territories. 



Other cattle. I Sheep. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Debiware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Flori.la 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

California 

Minnesota Territory . . 

Oregon Territory 

Utah Territory 

New Mexico Territory 

Aggregate 



41, 

84, 
61, 
42. 
6, 
26, 

447, 
63, 

350, 
13, 
75, 

272, 
1-1-^1 
97, 

151 : 

lo: 

128. 
115. 

89. 

75. 

60, 
27(1. 
315 
468. 

58, 
314, 
267. 
225, 

38, 

30 

21 



721 
233 

,067 
,216 
,16S 
,879 
,014 
9.55 
.398 
,852 
,684 
824 
,403 
,693 
,1T1 
,331 
,848 
,001 
,460 
,514 
,419 
,197 
,636 
,682 
,397 
,5('6 
,299 
,653 
.299 
,.536 
,179 
,719 
860 
,046 
,429 
,079 



55 
19 

218 
34 
1 

49 

963 

4,089 

2,259 

791 

5,644 

57 

21.480 

25.259 

37.483 

57,379 

5,002 

59,895 

54„547 

44,849 

12,364 

11,559 

75.303 

65,609 

3,4A3 

70 

6,599 

10573 

41,667 

764 

156 

1,666 

14 

420 

325 

8,654 



133,556 

94,277 

146.128 

130,099 

28.693 

85.461 

931,324 

118,7-36 

53' 1,224 

19,248 

86,859 

813 

317.619 

221,799 

193,244 

834.223 

72,876 

227,791 

214.231 

105.576 

214,758 

9-3,151 

250,456 

247,475 

544,409 

99.676 

284.554 

294,671 

230,169 

46,704 

64,339 

4.280 

607 

9,427 

4.861 

10.635 



83,893 
59,027 
48,577 
46,611 

8.189 

46983 

178,909 

12,070 

61,.527 

9,797 
84,135 
104 
89,513 
37,309 
20.507 
73.2S6 

5.794 
66:961 
83,435 
54,968 
49,932 
34,239 
86.255 
62,074 
65,381 
55.350 
40.221 
76,156 
112,168 
21,892 
42,8 il 

4,780 
655 

8,1 '4 

5.266 
12.257 



125.890 
114.606 
154,143 

83,284 
9,375 

80,226 
767.406 

80,455 
562,195 

24,166 

98,595 
123 
669,137 
4-34,402 
563,985 
690.019 
1,82,415 
433,263 
436.254 
414,798 
636,8»5 
166 -320 
414.0.51 
442.763 
749,067 
119,471 
3s9,S91 
541.209 
440,173 

60.025 

76,293 

253,599 

740 

24,188 
2,489 

10,085 



559.229 



6,392,044 1,699,241 



451.577 

334,7.56 

1,014,122 

188,651 

44.296 

174,181 

8,453,241 

160,488 

1,822,-357 

27.503 

177,902 

150 

1,310.004 

595.249 

285,551 

560.435 

23.311 

371.880 

804.929 

110.333 

99.098 

91,256 

811.591 

1,102.121 

3,943.920 

746.4-35 

1,122.493 

894.04:3 

762.511 

149.960 

124.892 

17,574 

80 

15,382 

3.262 

377,271 



54,598 

63,487 

66,296 

81,119 

19,5(9 

76.472 

1,018,252 

250,370 

1,040,366 

56.261 

352.911 

1,635 

1.830.743 

1.812,813 

1,06.5,503 

2,168,617 

209,453 

1.904,540 

1,582,7.34 

597.301 

633514 

836,727 

3,104,800 

2,861.168 

1,964.770 

205.^47 

2.253,776 

1.915910 

1.7(i2.6-.'5 

3-'3.247 

159.276 

2,776 

734 

30,235 

914 

7.314 



$9,705,726 

8,871.9(11 

12.643.223 

9,647,710 

1.5-32,637 

7.467,490 

73,570,499 

10,670,291 

41, .500,0,53 

1.849.281 

7,907.634 

71.643 

33.656,659 

17,717,64T 

1.5.060,015 

25.728,416 

2.880,058 

21,69(t.ll2 

19,403,662 

11.1.52,275 

lo,26:,s80 

6.617.969 

29.978,016 

29,591.387 

44,121.741 

8.00s,7.34 

22,478.555 

24,209,258 

19,S92.580 

8,6^9.275 

4,807,3,35 

8,351.058 

92,859 

1,876.139 

546968 

1,404,629 



10,268,856 21,721.81-1 .3'i,-316.60S 5 13,960.420 



iT 



B 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 





11^ 


$513,59!) 

393.455 

267.710 

205.3,33 

2fi.495 

192,252 

1,230.333 

112 781 

749.132 

38.121 

111.828 

2.075 

2.156,312 

2,086.-522 

909.525 

1,838.968 

75.582 

1,934.120 

1,164.020 

139.232 

2.55.719 

638,217 

3,137.810 

2,458,128 

1,712,196 

340.947 

1,631,039 

1,1.55,902 

1,674.705 

221.292 

43.624 

7,000 

1.392 
6,033 




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18 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



5. Statement of the Products of Animals for the year ending \st June, 1850. 



States and 


VV(.iil, 


Butter, 


Cheese, 


Value ofani 


States and 


Wool, 


Butter, 


Cheese, 


Value of ani- 


Territories. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


malsslaught. 


Terrritories. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


mals slaught. 


Maine 


1,364,034 


9,243,811 


2,434,454 


$1,646,773 


Louisiana 


109,897 


683,069 


1,957 


1,458,990 


N. Hampshire 


1,108,476 


6.977,056 


3.196563 


1,552,873 


Texas 


131,374 


2,326,5.56 


94,619 


1,106,032 


Vermont 


3,400,717 


12.137,98U 


8,720,834 


1,861.336 


Ariiansas 


182,595 


1.854,239 


30,088 


1,162,913 


Maasachusetts 


855.136 


8,071,370 


7,088 142 


2,500,924 


Tennessee . . - 


1,364,378 


8,139,.585 


177.681 


6,401,765 


Rhode Island. 


129,692 


995.670 


316,508 


667,48(! 


Kentucky 


2.297,403 


9,887,523 


213.954 


6,462,598 


Connecticut .. 


497,454 


5,498,119 


5,363,277 


2.202,266 


Ohio 


10,196,371 


34,449.379 


20,819,542 


7,439.243 


New York 


10,071.301 


79,766,094 


49,741.413 


13.573.983 


Michigan 


2,043 283 


7,065,878 


1,011.492 


1,328,327 


New Jersey. . . 


375,396 


9,487,210 


365,756 


2,638.552 


Indiana 


2,610,287 


12,881,535 


624,564 


6,567,935 


Pennsylvania. 


4,481,570 


39,878,418 


2,505,034 


8,219,484 


Illinois 


2,150,113 


12.526.543 


1,278.225 


4,972,286 


Delaware 


57,768 


1,055,308 


3,187 


373,665 


Missouri 


1,627,164 


7,834,359 


203 572 


3,367,106 


Maryland 


480,226 


3,806.160 


3.975 


1,954,800 


Iowa 


373,898 


2,171,188 


209,840 


821,164 


Diet. ofColum. 


525 


14.872 


1,500 


9.038 


Wisconsin . . . 


253,963 


3,633.750 


400,283 


920,178 


Virginia 


2,860,765 


11,089.359 


436,298 


7,503,006 


CHlifornia 


5,520 


705 


150 


100,173 


N. Carolina. .. 


970,738 


4,146 290 


95,921 


5.767,8.56 


Minn. Ter 


85 


1,100 


— 


2,840 


S. Carolina 


487,2.33 


2 981.8.50 


4,970 


1,302.637 


Oregon Terr.. 


29,686 


211,464 


36.980 


164,530 


Georgia 


990,019 


4.640,5.59 


46,976 


6,339,762 


UtahTerritrjry 


9,222 


83,309 


30,998 


67.985 


Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi . . 


23.247 

657,118 
559,619 


371,498 
4,008.811 
4,346,234 


18,015 
31,412 
21,191 


514,685 
4.823.485 
3,636,582 


NewMex.Ter. 


32,901 


111 


5,848 


82,125 


Ag:sregate. . 


52,789,174 


313.266,962 


105.535,219 


109,485,757 



6. Absolute and Relative Movement of Stock, Products, etc., 1840 and 1850. 



Stook, products, etc. 

Horses 

Asses and mules 

Milch cows 

Working oxen 

Other cattle 

Sheep 

Swine 

Wool 

Wheat 

Eye 

Indian corn 

Oats 

Barley 

Buckwheat , 

Eiee 

Tobacco 

Cotton 

Sugar — cane 

" maple 

Hemp — dew-rotted . . . 

" water-rotted . . 

Flax 

Hay 

Hops 

Potatoes — Irish 

" sweet 

Wine 

Silk cocoons 

Value of home-made 

manufactures 



: pounds . 
I bushels . 



4,335,669 head 

- 14,971,586 " 

19.311,374 " 

26.301.29:? 

35.802.1141 

84,823,272 1 

18,645..'56T " 

87T531,8T5 " 

123071.341 " 

4.1 61 ..504 " 

7.291.743 " 

80,841.422 pounds 

219,163.319 " 

790,479,275 " 

-155,110,809 " 



: pounds , 
bushels . 



95,252 tons 



10.248.10,9 
1,238,502 

•108,298,060 

124.7.34 
61,552 

■ 29,023,880 



pounds 

bushels •! 

gallons 

pounds 

dollars ■} 



18,n0. 

4,335,35,S head* 
5.59,229 " * 
6,392.044 « 
1.699,241 « 
10,268,856 " 
21.721.814 " 

so.-iie.eos " 

52,789.174 

100,508,899 

14.188 6-39 

592,326,612 " 

146,507,879 " 

5,167.016 " 

8.956.916 « 

215.312,710 pounds , 

199.752.646 " 

987.449.600 " 

84.249,886 " 

247,5Sl.ii00 " 

33.294 1 

1.799 

7.71.5.961 

13,S3'i,579 i 

8.406,029 

65.796,798 

88,259,196 

221,240 

10,843 i 



: tons 

pounds . 
tons 

pounds , 
1 bushels , 



gallons 
pounds 

27,481,899 doUars , 



Decennial Movement. 

558,918 head or 12.9 per cent 



incr. 3,888,555 



or 22.6 '* 



tncr. 
incr. 
incr. 
incr. 
deer, 
incr. 
incr. 
incr. 
incr. 
incr. 
dci'r. 
incr. 



2,410.440 " or 12.4 

4,015.315 " or 1,5.3 

16.9'<7.06O pounds or 47.4 

15.680.627 bushels or 18.5 



4,456.928 

214,794.7.37 

23,496,.588 

1,00.5,512 

1.66.5,173 



or 28.9 

or .56.9 

or 19.9 

or 24.1 

or 22.8 



134.471,288 pounds or 166.3 
19,410,673 " or 8.9 
196,970,325 " or 24.9 



incr. 126,720,077 



or 81.6 



deer. 56,301 tons or 58.1 " 



^nor. 
incr, 

d£cr. 

incr, 
deer. 

deer. 



8.590,471 " or 35.8 
2,257.527 pounds or 182.2 

4,242,071 bushels or 3.9 

96.506 gallons or 77.3 
50,709 pounds or 82.3 

1,541,981 dollars or 6.8 



IV. STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 
1. General Statistics. 



The entire capital invested in the various manufactures in the United States on the 
1st June, 1850 — not including any establishments producing less than the annual 

value of 0500— amounted in round numbers to 0530,000,000 

Value of raw material , fuel , etc. , used during the preceding year $550,000,000 

Number of persons employed " " 1,050,000 

Aggregate cost of labor " " 0240,000,000 

Value of articles consumed " " 01,020,300,000 

The total capital invested in manufactures in 1840, was 0267,726,579, and hence the manufac- 
turing capital of the Union has duplicated in the succeeding decade. 

* In the census of 1850, all horses, asses, and mules in cities are omitted, and those only or mainly employed in agri- 
culture enumerated. 

19 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



2. Statistics of the Principal Manufactures. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Mas8Hcliu?ett8 

Kliode Island 

Connnt-ticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Ti^niiessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michif,'an 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

California 

District of Columbia 

Total 



COTTON GOODS. 



12 

44 

9 

213 

158 

128 

86 

21 

208 

12 

24 

27 

28 

18 

35 

12 
2 



1,094 



$3,329,700 

10,950.500 

20-',5U0 

28,455,630 

6,675.1)00 

4,219.100 

4.176,920 

1,483.500 

4,528.925 

460.100 

2.236.000 

1,908,900 

1,058,800 

8.57.200 

1,736,156 

80,000 

651,900 

38,000 



16.500 
669,600 
239,000 
297,000 

43,000 

102,000 



85,000 
74, .501. 031 



11,573,110 

4,839,429 

114.415 

11.289,309 

3.484,579 

2.500,06 

1,98.".,973 

666.645 

3,152,530 

312,068 

1,165.579 

828,375 

531,903 

295,971 

900,419 

30,000 

237,081 

21,500 



8,975 
297,500 
180,907 
237,060 

28,220 

86,446 



3,739 $2, 

12,122 

241 

28,730 

10,875 

6.186 

6,320 

1,712 

7,663 

838 

3,02 

2,963 

1,619 

1,019 

2 272 

' 9.5 

715 

36 



31 

891 
402 
401 

95 

15, 



144 



596,356 
,830,619 
196,100 
,712,461 
,447,120 
257 522 
1591^989 
,109,.524 
.322.262 
5,38,439 
:,120,504 
,486,384 
831,342 
748.. 338 
!,135,044 

49,9i;o 
382,2(;0 

30,500 



16637 
510,624 
273,439 
394,700 

44,200 

142,900 



100,000 



"WOOLEN GOODS. 



36 
61 

119 
45 

149 

249 
41 

380 

8 

38 

121 
1 



130 
15 
33 
16 
1 
1 
9 

1 



$467,600 

2,437,700 

886,300 

9,089 34i 

1.013,000 

3,773.950 

4,4.59.370 

494,274 

3,005,064 

148,500 

244,000 

3i»2,640 

18,000 

68,000 



8,000 

10,900 

249,820 

870,220 

94,000 

171.545 

154..500 

20,000 

10,000 

31,225 

700 



1,55928,118,650 



.$495,940 

1,267,329 

830,684 

8,071,671 

1,403,900 

3.325,709 

3,838,292 

548,367 

3,282,718 

204.172 

165,568 

488,899 

13,950 

30,39; 



10,000 

1,675 

205,287 

578423 

43,40; 

120,486 

115,367 

16,000 

3,500 

32,630 

1,630 



25,755,988 



624 
212- 
1,393 
11,130 
1,758 
5,488 
6,674 

898 
5,72(. 

14(. 

362 

668 
30 



17 
318 
1,201 
129 
246 
178 



$ 753,300 

2,127.745 

1,579,161 

12.770,565 

2,381,825 

6,465,216 

7,030,604 

1 ,164,446 

5,321,866 

251,010 

295,140 

841,013 

23,750 

88,750 



15,000 

6,310 

318,819 

1,111,027 

90,242 

205.802 

206,572 

56,000 

13,000 

87,992 

2,400 



43,207,555 



MAXT AND SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. 



Maine 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . 
Khode Island . . 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Maryland 

Viriiinia 

North Carolina. 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Alabama 

LouisiaTia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Missouri 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

New Mexico Ter.. . 
Utah Territory . . . 
Dist. of Columbia 

Total 

20 



Quantities and kinds of grain, etc., 



Bnsliels of Bushels of 
barley 



$17,000 

7,001 

457,.500 

17.00(1 

15.. 501 1 

!,.58.").90n 

4119,6 

1,719.960 

247, 10( 

100,9i: 

21.931 

3,47.': 

7,150 

500 

8,.500 

168,895 

66.125 

298.900 

1 262,974 

334,9.50 

3(13,400 

139.425 

19.500 

98.700 

7.300 

3.00(1 

12,00U 



2,500 
80,000 
12,500 

,062,2.50 

103,700 

550,105 

76,900 

20,000 



10,000 

65,6.50 

3,000 

124.440 

330,950 

118,150 

98,000 

32,030 

91.020 

1,000 
5,000 



Bushels of.t^ushels 
rye. of oats. 



hels Hhds.of 
of apples, mola 



19,400 

20,000 

1,647,266 

2.54,000 

1,483„5.55 

166,100 

2.50,700 

64,(i50 

18,100 

20,150 



551,3.50 

2.58,400 

309,200 

3,588,140 

1,417,990 

703.,500i 

212,300l 

5l,150| 

29,9'lOi 

2,000| 



26,600 



20, 
990, 

58, 
517, 

54. 

62, 
4, 



6,707 

24,790 
460 
450 



!,.500 1,500 



30,520 — 

5,480 — 

24,900' _ 
281,750 19..500 

48,700 1,000 

48,700 2,200 

19,150 - 

7,200' - 

9,200 - 

12,900, - 



— 2,000 

— 55,130 

— I 10 
60,940 24,500 

409,700, - 
51,2001 10 



8 334.2.54 3.787.19.511,067,671 2.143,927 .56.517 526.840 61,675 1,294 .5.487 1,177.924 42,1.33,9556 500,500 



hopa. 



1 
29 
6 
2 

581 

42 

263 



10 
18 

31 

178 
18 



5 

2 

131 

9 

20 

1,380 

197 

911 

126 

123 

75 

33 

15 



274 

159 

179 

1,033 

287 

274 

98 

19 

98 

21 

3 



Quantities of liquor produced. 



Barrels of 
ale, etc 



Gallons 
whi»ky 
high wi. 



800 

i,800 

1,900 

130 
700 9,231 
,7.50, 1,250 
,581| 6..548 



,380: 
,500! 



850 



■;87 
87:t, 

1.53, 
43 
60. 



1,491 



13; 1, 
943n,8...5, 
005 4,639, 
925 2,315 



320, 



31,320 



300 
:.350 



690, 
16(1, 
127, 
42 



Gallons of 
rum. 



220,000 
3,786,000 

1,200 

,488,800 

1,500 



3,000 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Stalistics of the Principal Manufactures — (continued). 





PIG IRON. 


CAST IRON. 


"WROUGHT IRON. 


STATES. 


O D. 


T3 

>• 

a 

Q. 

u 




= c 

> 


2-- 


-a 

s 
.1 

O 




si 

> 


55 


1 

a. 
o 


11 
> 1 


i 

> 


Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Mass.ichusetta .. 
Ehode Island . . 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. . . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina . 
South Carolina . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 


1 

1 

3 
6 

13 

IS 
10 
ISO 

18 
29 
2 

3 

3 

23 
21 
35 
1 
2 
2 
5 

1 


$214,000 

2.000 

62.500 

469,000 

225,600 

605,000 

967,0(10 

8,570,425 

1,420,000 
513,800 
25,000 

26,000 

11,000 

1,021.400 
924,700 
1,503,000 
15,000 
72,000 
65,000 
619,000 

15,000 


$14,9.39 

4,900 

40.175 

185,741 

289,225 

321.027 

332,707 

3,732,427 

560,725 
158,307 
27,900 

25,840 

6,770 

254.900 
260,152 
630,037 
14,000 
24,400 
15.500 
97,367 

8,250 


$36,616 

6,000 

68,000 

295,123 

415,600 

597,920 

560,544 

6,071,513 

1,056,400 

521,924 

12,500 

57,300 

22,500 

676,100 
604,037 
1,255,85(1 
21,000 
58.000 
70,200 
314,600 

27,000 


25 
26 
26 
68 
20 
60 

323 
45 

320 
13 
16 
54 
5 
6 
4 

10 

8 
8 
2 

16 
20 
183 
63 
14 
29 
6 
3 
15 
1 
2 


$150,100 
232,700 
290,720 

1,499,050 
428,800 
580,800 

4,622,482 
593,250 

3,422,924 
373,500 
359,100 
471,160 
11,500 
185.700 
35,000 

216,625 

100,000 

255,000 

16,000 

139,500 

502,200 

2,063,650 

195,450 

82,900 

260,400 

187.000 

5,500 

116,850 

5,000 

14,000 


$112,570 

177,060 

160,603 

1,057,904 

258,267 

851.369 

2,393,768 

301,048 

2,372,467 

153,852 

259.190 

297,014 

8,341 

29,128 

11,950 

102,085 
50,370 

75.300 
8,400 

90,035 

295,533 

1,199,790 

91,865 

66,918 

172.330 

133,114 

2.524 

86,930 

8,530 

18,100 


$265,000 

371,710 

460,831 

2,23.5,635 

728,705 

981,400 

5,921,980 

686,4.30 

5,354.881 

267,462 

685,000 

674,416 

12,867 

87,683 

46,200 

271,126 

117,400 

312,500 

55,000 

264,325 

744,316 

3,069,350 

279,697 

149,!30 

441,185 

336,495 

8.500 

216,195 

29.740 

41,696 


2 
S 
6 
1 

18 
60 
53 
131 
2 
17 
39 
19 

8 

1 

42 

4 

11 

8 

2 


$4,000 

62.700 

610,.300 

208,000 

529.500 

1,131,300 

1,016,843 

7,620,066 

15.000 

780,650 

791,211 

103,000 

9,200 

2,500 

755,050 
176,000 
620,800 

17,000 

42,100 


$5,600 

66,194 
221,194 
111,750 
358,780 
838,314 
320,950 
5,488,391 

19,500 
439,511 
591,448 

28,114 

5,986 
3,000 

385,616 
180,800 
604,493 

4,425 

24,509 


$10,400 
163,986 
428,320 
222.400 
667,560 

1,423.968 
629,273 

8,902,907 
55,090 
771,431 

1,264 995 
66,980 

15,334 

7,500 

670,618 

299,700 

1,076,192 

11,760 


Michigan 

Indiana 


Missouri 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

California 

D. of Columbia 


68,700 


Total 


377 


17,346,425 7,005,289 


12,748,777 


1,391 


17,416,361 


10,346,355 


25,108,155 


422 


14,495,220 


9,698,10916,747,074 



V. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.— RAILED AD 8 , ETC. 

In no other particular can the prosperity of a country be more strikingly manifested than by the 
perfection of its roads and other means of internal communication. The system of railroads, ca- 
nals, plank-roads, post-routes, river navigation, and telegraphs possessed by the United States, 
presents an indication of its advancement in power and civilization more wonderful than any other 
feature of its progress. In truth, the country in this respect occupies the first place among the 
nations of the world. 

The primary design of nearly all the great lines of railway in the United States has been to con- 
nect the sea-coast with the distant interior ; to effect which object it was necessary to cross the 
Alleghanies, which intersect every line of travel diverging to the West from the great commercial 
cities of the sea-board. 

The following are some of the vast enterprises which have been undertaken to accomplish this 
great purpose, which have either been finished or are in such a state of progress as leaves no doubt 
of their being brought to a successful issue within a few years : 

First. The railroads connecting Portland, the commercial capital of Maine, with the British 
provinces, and through their public works, the St. Lawrence River and the lakes, with the West- 
ern States of the Union. 

Second. The railroads from Boston westward, connecting at Albany with the roads of Central 
New York, and, by the more northern route, traversing New Hampshire and Vermont, continuing 
toward the West by the Ogdensburg Railroad, and bringing Montreal, the chief commercial city 
of Upper Canada, into communication with the capital of New England. 

Third. The New Yoi'k and Erie Railroad, extending from New York city to L.ake Erie, and 
intended to form a part of a continuous line from the Hudson to the Mississippi — a project likely 
to be effected within the ensuing ten years. 

Fourth. The Pennsylvania Central Railroad, from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, with numerous 
diverging branches, to points north and south of the general direction. This great route will 
reach St. Louis by a nearly due west course through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. The Pennsyl- 
vania section will be completed about the end of 1853. 

21 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Fifth. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, one of the most magnificent works of the day, 
passes from Baltimore, through Maryland and Virginia, to Wheeling, on the Ohio. At the latter 
point it will form a connection with the system of roads traversing the West and North-west. 

Sixth. The roads proposed to be constructed under authority of Virginia, and already com- 
menced, intended to establish communication between tide-water and the interior, and south- 
western parts of that State, and to continue the same through Tennessee to the Mississippi. 

Seventh. The several lines of railroad from Charleston and Savannah, penetrating South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, concentrating in north-eastern Alabama, and reaching the level region of the 
Mississippi by the valley of the Tennessee River. These roads, by their veestern continuation, 
will intersect lines running to every important point between the mountains and the Mississippi 
River. 

Eighth. The Mobile and Ohio Railroad, from the Mexican gulf to the mouth of the Ohio, and 
the Illinois Central Railroad to the lakes, a distance in a straight line of about 1,100 miles. 

It will be seen at a glance that the leading idea in all these vast enterprises was to overcome the 
barrier presented by this chain of mountains, to a direct and unrestricted intercourse between the 
sea-board and the West, and to supply the want of those natural channels of commerce, navigable 
rivers, extending into the section we desire to reach. The enormous aggregate of expense of the 
numerous works specified above, undertaken with this one object, and their importance as public 
improvements, may be estimated from the following brief notice of the New York and Erie Rail- 
road, which occupies the third place in our preceding enumeration : The longest continuous line 
of railroad in the world, and that in the construction of which the greatest natural obstacles have 
been overcome, is that which extends from the Hudson River, through the southern counties of 
New York, to Lake Erie. Its length is 469 miles, and it has branches of an additional length of 
68 miles. Nearly its whole course is through a region of mountains. The bridges by which it ia 
carried over the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers, and other streams, and the viaducts upon 
which it crosses the valleys that intercept its route, are among the noblest monuments of power 
and skill to be found in our country. The most of these works are of heavy masonry ; but one of 
them is a wooden bridge, 187 feet in height, with on6 arch, the span of which is 275 feet. One of 
the viaducts is 1,200 feet long, and 110 feet high. The aggregate cost of this important work was 
$23,580,000, and the expense of construction was $42,333 per mile. 

The following table presents, in a convenient form, some of the principal facts connected with 
railroads in the United States on the 1st January, 1852 and 1853. 



1853. 



Staten, etc. 



Miles of rail- 
road com- 
pleted. 

Maine 315... 

New Hampshire . . 489. . . 

Vermont 8S0... 

Ma-ssachusctts 1,089. . . 

RlKxle Isljmd 50... 

Connectieut 547... 

Nuw Yorlv 1.826. . . 

Kew. Jersey 226... 

Pennsylvania 1,146 774 

Delaware 45 11 

Maryland S76 125 

Virginia.... 478 818 1,296 



Milea ofrail- 
road in course 
of construction. 

... 127 

... 47 

... 59 

... 67 

... 82 

... 261 

.. 745 

,.. Ill 



Total. 

. 442 
. 5.S6 
. 4.39 
.1,156 
. 82 
. 80S 
.2,.571 
. 3.37 
.1,920 
. 56 
. 501 



North Carol I n.n.... 249 385. 

Soul h Carolina..,. 840 298. 

Georffia 754 229. 

Florida — 

Alabama 121 

Mississippi 93 

Louisiana 63 

Texjis — 

Tennessee 112 

Kentucky 93 

Ohio 828 

Miohigran 427 

IiKliiina 600 

Illinois 176 1,409 . . 

Misscjnri — 515. . 

Wisconsin 20. 



6:U 
63S 
983 



. 190 
. 273 

." 32, 

. 74S, 
. 414 
.1,892 



.... 811 
.... 366 
.... 63 

32 

860 

.... 507 
....2,720 
.... 427 

915 1,.515 

....1.535 
.... 515 
.... 441 



421. 



10,843 



10,893 



21,741 



states. 



No. 



of miles in 
rogress. 

Ill 

42 



Total. 

. 505 
. 542 
. 427 
.1,206 



Maine 394 

New Hampshire. . 500 

Vermont 427 

Massachusetts 1,140 

Uhode Island 50 

Connecticut 627 

New York 2,128 

New Jersey 254 

Pennsylvania 1,244 

Delaware 16 

Maryland 521 

Virfiinia 624 

North Carolina . . . 249 

South Carolina 599 

Georgia 857 

Florida 23 

Alabama 236 

Mississippi 95 

Louisiana 63 

Texas 32 

Tennessee 185 

Kentucky 94 

Ohio 1.385 1 

Iniliana 755 

Michigan 427 

Illinois 296 1 

Missouri — 

Wisconsin 50 



Total 13,266 12,681 25,947 



66 

32 82 

198 825 

924 3,047 

85 839 

903 2,147 

11 27 

— 521 

610 1,284 

248 497 

296 895 

691 1,548 

— 23 

728 
875 
200 




Measures are in progress for establishing railroads in California, with the object of connecting 
San Francisco with some of the principal towns of the State ; and no doubt, ere the lapse of many 
years, that important division of the Union will be in possession of as large a proportion of these 
facilities for travel and business as her population and resources require. 
22 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA. 



From the brief sketch of American railroads should not be excluded some mention of several 
projects which are not only closely connected with the interests of the United States, but possess 
something of national importance. The first of these, in point of vastness of design, 'is the enter- 
prise of building a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The routes proposed 
in this great work are almost as numerous as the persons who claim the merit of havino- first su<r- 
gested and brought forward the scheme of thus completing the chain of railroad connection between 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the Union. No scientific survey of any route west of the fron- 
tier of Missouri has been made, but it is not probable that any could be found that would bring 
the line of travel between the Mississippi and the ocean within the limit of 1,600 miles. 

The natural obstacles to bo overcome are the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, the 
deserts between the Missouri and the former chain, and those of the great basin, the flying sands, 
and the want of timber. Further explorations may lead to the discovery of means to overcome 
tliese difficulties. Should the cost not exceed the average of Western roads, it would form no ob- 
jection to the enterprise, since it would be only about $32,000,000, or only twenty-five per cent, 
more than has been expended upon the Erie Railroad— less than fifty per cent, greater than the 
aggregate expenditure upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and not two-thirds of that incurred 
by the State of Massachusetts on her railroads. The only question, then, affecting the probabil- 
ity of the construction of the Pacific Railroad is that of practicability. 

This can only be determined by thorough surveys of some or all of the routes proposed, from 
the valley of the Rio Grande, the Arkansas, the Missouri, and the Upper Mississippi. If this 
road were completed, and the route continued westward by steamship to Calcutta, it would reduce 
the time required for the circuit of the globe, by the American overland route, to 93 days, as 
follows : from New York to San Francisco, 4 days ; to Hong-Kong, 25 days ; to Calcutta, 6 days ; 
to Bombay, 13 days ; to England, 35 days ; to New York, 10 days. Total, 93 days. 

Another project for connecting, by the means of cheap and rapid conveyance, the two coasts of 
our confederacy, which deserves, as it has received, very great attention, is the proposition to 
build a railroad across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in Mexico. Its feasibility is established. 
The length of the road, according to the report of the surveyors, will be 166 miles from sea to 
sea ; but only about 80 miles from the head of navigable water on either side. 

^The cost of the road, with all the necessary equipments, station-houses, etc., is estimated at 
$7,848,000. The time expected to be required for its construction is three years. With this 
connecting link of communication completed, the voyage from New Orleans to San Francisco will 
be performed in eight or nine days. 

For the purpose of comparison, the subjoined statement has been prepared, showing the number 
of miles of railroads, with their costs, according to the most generally received authorities in all 
the countries of Europe in which those improvements have been introduced : 



COUNTRIES. 


Miles. 


Afcgregate cost. 


Cost p. miJe 


Great Britain and Ireland 


6,890 

5,832 

1,018 

5.32 

2ii() 
ITO 


$1,218,000,000 
325.875,000 
238,905,000 

46.288,000 
15,000,000 
15,000,000 


$177,000 


German States, including Prussia and Austria 


France 




Belgium 


254,000 


Russia 




Italy '.'.".'.'.'.'.'.".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.".'.'.;;■.;.;! ■.!;!'.;; 


75,000 
88,000 




14,142 


1,859,068,000 


181,300 



By these statistics it is made to appear that the average cost of European railroads was #131,800 
per mile. The average cost of American railroads completed previous to the commencement of the 
present year was $34,307 per mile. The excess of expenditure, therefore, in the construction of 
European roads over those in the United States, is $95,993 per mile, or about 280 per cent. ; but 
it may be remarked that the average cost of construction in the United States of all the roads' does 
not exceed $27,300 per mile ; so that the actual excess is $103,000 per mile. 

The foregoing statements develop the striking fact that the United States possess an extent of 
railroad nearly equal to that of the rest of the world combined ; and, at our present rate of pro- 
gression, we are likely, in a few years, far to exceed it. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 



VI. — COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 



1. Slatistical View of the Commerce of the United Slates, exhibiting the Value of Exports to 
and Imports from each Foreign Country, and the Tonnage of American and Foreign Vessels 
arriving from and departing to each foreign country, during the year ending June 30, 1850. 





COMMERCE. 


NAVIGATION. 


COUNTRIES. 


VALUE OF EXPOHTS. 


Value of im- 

JieirtS. 


A-MEKICAN TONNAGE. 


rOKEIGN TONNAGB. 




Bnnipstic 
produce. 


Foreisn pro- 
duce. 


Total. 


Entered 

the 
U. .States. 


Cleared 
from the 
U. Sti.les. 


Entered 

the 
U. State?. 


Cleared 
from the 
U States. 




$666.4-35 

70.645 

668,580 

98,176 

165.874 

867,140 

4,320,780 

2.188.101 

180.5:33 

804.3:35 

97.014 

2,108.:357 

(U,6s0.959 

3.021.740 

1.025,031 

186.307 

75.329 

502.613 

14:3,219 

171.984 

502.776 

3.612.802 

4,611,451 

8,116,840 

16.9:34.791 

1.015.486 

269.377 

2.517 

43.405 

12,575 

605.6.59 

8,256..362 

20.524 

16.817 

4,5:30.256 

616,002 

172.978 

130,874 

14,421 

47.04:3 

1,507.166 

50.577 

170,704 

45.6(>4 

1,179.893 

204.397 

1,211,007 

1,498,791 

57.225 

970,019 

678,462 

2,723.767 

718.:331 

60.024 

1,297.1:3:3 
258,939 

1,485,961 

67.9.34 
22,256 

815.463 

730,9:32 

169.025 

24,414 


$198.,506 

27.991 

51,610 

1,166 

20,7ii6 
114 818 
885,742 

416„564 

262,952 

50,083 

5.425 

875.41 >3 
4,210.271 

18:3,679 
42.693 
60,482 
89.051 

156,846 

16,5.51 
22.603 
17,8.644 

1,289,370 

501,374 

1.724.915 

1.58.1.55 
18.291 

1,382 
2,200 

28.558 

96.855 

5,065 

1.450 

460.041 

93.591 

5,230 

6.527 

2.152 

2,167 

239.904 

13,024 

86.136 

23,468 

312,111 
5:5..344 

1.39.181 
514.0.36 
12.907 
285,600 
8-10,008 

473 .347 
340:311 
1,.518 
125,.588 
16,7.89 
119,256 

50,442 

13.-521 
28,334 
20,837 
10,511 


$864,941 

98.636 

7211.190 

99.342 

186..580 

981.958 

5.206,522 

2.604.665 
44:3.485 
421,018 
102.4.39 

2 54:3.760 
68,897.2.30 

3,2115.419 

1,067,724 
2-16.7S9 
114.:3S0 
659.4i)9 
14:3,219 

188,5-35 

525,439 

3.791.446 

5,930,821 

3,018 214 

18,659,706 

1,173.641 

287,608 

2.517 

44,787 

14,775 

6:34,217 

8,.35.3.217 

25.589 

18.267 

4,990,297 

909,65:3 

178.214 

143,401 

16.573 

49.210 

1.807.070 

■ 03.601 

256.900 

69,132 

1,492,004 
257,741 
1..3.50.1S8 
2.012.827 
70.192 
1,2.56.219 
1,018.470 

8.197.114 

l,(i(U,642 

61,.">42 

1,422.721 

275.728 

1,605.217 

67,934 
72,698 

828 7.84 
759.266 
189.862 
84.925 


$1,511. ,572 

27,469 

1,0:32.117 

2.193 

.527 

267,459 

8,787,874 

1,686.967 

444.404 

5-30.146 

71.043 

2,4t)4,9.'>4 

72118.971 

2,746.670 

293.783 

44.209 

11 ;3,54 

2,865.(116 

72,206 

178.690 

14.591 

1.126,968 

4,285,470 

1,-358,992 

497 

25,835.170 

1,702,8.55 

75,684 

12,551 
10,005 

380,181 

1,702.214 

85,223 

1.336,806 

10.292.:398 

2.067.806 

339.763 

114,729 

16,323 

2,105,077 

822,629 

205 

467,601 

801,023 

1.544.771 

2,1:35,366 

261.459 

591.992 

1,920,247 

9,324.429 
2,053,877 

1.796.877 

170,753 

6,593,462 

9.417 
80.6.59 

402.599 
524.722 

4.618 

64,474 

26 


12,877 

240 

8,:591 

449 

;396 

12.940 

23.:331 

2.751 

17.S84 

8.689 

22.964 

3 892 

23.1133 

489 839 

18.906 

10.0-J2 

2,:?:34 

168 

23.537 

773 

4:386 

2,7:38 

69.302 

889,755 
122 

55.405 
1,223 
106,307 
8.560 
2,859 
618 
1,224 

359 
17..5:38 
12.827 
2.173 
10.259 
249.:307 
41.708 
2.708 
1..586 
1.050 

81.417 

1.8:33 

6,701 

803 

4:398 

6,<t76 

44,090 

22.585 

3.549 

104.176 

11.530 

846 

62,905 

13,930 

90 

14.510 

5.110 

21.909 

993 

"945 
8.531 
1.101 
.331 
9.267 
89,005 


5,048 

049 
2.4>4 

502 
19..375 
21,1.56 

14968 

4,070 

9,V!83 

4,932 

21.428 

440.582 

15.759 

10.014 

7.6.50 

2.665 

29.389 

1.912 

841 

4.225 

11.642 

93.883 

919,515 

4.137 

2.157 

75,293 

917 

114,589 

14,158 

11.227 

905 

1,:334 

13.706 

9,867 

647 

8,105 

254.018 

80.744 

2,976 

4,1.32 

91 tS 

1,886 

3.326 

7,791 
2.537 

5,968 

2,689 

47,981 

20,518 

3,290 

101,7.53 

8,509 

887 

58,113 

16,107 

867 

41,279 

10,:332 

17,830 

1,11:39 

3,843 

1,:365 

6,213 
8,492 
2,642 
299 
31,62:3 
33,787 


2,121 

23,5.54 

45 

592 

950 

65,0(34 

3,978 

11,967 

3,248 

123 

5,756 

421,530 

5.5.(126 

77,507 

290 

236 

615 

9M 

49.230 

447,372 

1,61(5 

17,434 

833,420 

82,637 
10,215 
4,627 

98 
266 

4,779 

22,894 

1,215 

1,176 

83,030 

8,074 

5,018 

3:36 

1,717 

9,511 

7,399 
7,871 

2,205 

429 

6,289 

86,' 139 
6.53 
5,295 
2,708 
1,280 
9,:i63 

1:3,081 
1,185 

18,369 
1,808 
7,445 

2.536 

384 
1.891 

828 
4,195 

458 


8,990 




1,887 


Sweflen and Norway 


9,822 
382 




8.2-;2 




2.690 




08,016 




200 


Holland 


22,753 




3,:320 


Dutch West Indies 


161 




364 




4,068 


England 


269,1(78 


Scotland 


17,276 
22,972 


Gibraltar 


806 


Malta 


456 




2,138 













1,9.33 


British Guiana 


2,537 
89,071 


Canada 

Ni'wf'oundland 


456.527 
12.420 




8.793 


Briti.sh Amt-rican Colonies 

Other British [lossessiona 


521,112 

428 

17.616 


France on the Mediterranean . . . 


8,676 
211 


Miquelon and French Fisheries . 


1,00s 
93 




762 


French possessions in Alrica 


ISO 
10.588 


Spain on the Mediterranean 

TenerifTe and other Canaries 

Manilla and Philippine Islands. . 
Cuba 


84.297 
1.376 
2.,592 

29,703 


Other Spanish "West Indies 


3,108 
7,.5:31 




1,379 




101 




611 


Italy 




Sicily 


1,6:33 




6,300 




960 






Trieste and other Austrian ports. 


6,839 


Havti 


8,127 




80,104 




1,722 




6,237 




2.097 




370 


Brazil 


3,569 




9,260 




1,107 


Chili 


25,383 


Peni 


7,:340 


China 


8,106 






West Indies generally 


349 


South America generally 

Europe generally 


549 


Asia generally 







631 


South Sea Islands 


1.477 


Equador 


1,185 




11,970 


All other places 


866 






Total 


130.946,912 


14,951.808 


151.898.720 


178,1.38..318 


2.573.016 


2,632,783 


1,775,623 


1,728.214 



24 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



2, Statement of the Commerce of each State, from July 1, 1849, to June 30, 1850. 





VALUE OF EXPORTS. 


VALUE OF IMPORTS. 


STATES. 


DOMESTIC PEODtJCE. 


FOEEIGN PRODtrCB. 


Total of 

American & 

f(»reign 

produce. 










In American 

vesselei. 


In Foreign 
vessels. 


Total. 


In Ameri 
can 

vessels. 


In Foreign 
vessels. 


Total. 


vessels. 


vessels. 


Total. 


Maine 


|1,185,99S 


$400,820 


.$1,536,818 


$14,564 


$5,530 


$20,094 


$1,556,912 


$609.1.55 


$247,256 


$856,411 


N. Hamp 


2.835 


5,887 


8.722 


— 


205 


205 


8.927 


19,962 


29.117 


49.079 


Vermont 


404.74S 


— 


404.74S 


26157 


— 


26.157 


43.906 


463.092 


— 


463 092 


Massachus'ls. 


7.0(iii.l(W 


1,253,370 


8,253 473 


1,898497 


529,793 


2,428.290 


10,680,763 


22,106,011 


8,268.673 


80.374.684 


Rhode Island 


2ii5.9fiS 


33« 


206.299 


9.966 


— 


9,966 


215 265 


251,708 


6.595 


258.303 


Connecticut.. 


241.262 





241.262 


668 


— 


668 


241,930 


311.927 


60,463 


372.890 


New Tork. . . 


88,934,4u9 


7,568.391 


41,502,81)0 


7,086,687 


4,123,802 


11,209,989 


52,712.789 


88,147,721 


22,975.S0.3illl,123.524 


New Jersey . 


— 


1.6.00 


1.6.55 




— 


— 


1.655 


— 


1.494 


1.494 


Pennsylvania 


3,428,150 


621,314 


4,049,464 


363,225 


88,917 


452,142 


4,501,606 


10,795,462 


1,270,692 


12,066,154 


Delaware . . . 





— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Maryland . . . 


4,657,185 


1,932.296 


6.589,481 


250,861 


127,011 


877,872 


6,967.353 


5,529,682 


594,519 


6,124,201 


Dist.of Col... 


72.175 


8,213 


80,888 


200 


— 


200 


80.588 


59.219 


600 


59.819 


Virginia 


2,36,0,241 


1,047,917 


8,413,158 


2,488 


— 


2,4SS 


3.415.646 


172.878 


258,721 


426 599 


N.Carolina.. 


259.616 


156.88.0 


416.501 


— 


— 





416.501 


179.249 


144,44:3 


323.692 


S. Carolina . . 


6,467,201 


4.979.691 


11.446.892 


400 


508 


908 


11.447,800 


1,813.658 


620.127 


1,983,785 


Georgia 


2.622,1.52 


4929,791 


7.551.943 


— 


— 


— 


7,551,948 


806.SS8 


330 081 


686.964 


Florida 


1,113.978 


1.493.990 


2.607,968 


15,656 


— 


15,656 


2.623.624 


30.241 


65,468 


95.709 


Alabaraa 


4.601,515 


5,94;3,:M;3 


10 .544.858 


— 


— 


— 


10,.W4.SoS 


10.3,1.34 


757,228 


865,862 


Louisiana . . . 


20,927,751 


16,770,526 


37,698,277 


828.980 


78,148 


407,078 


38,105,350 


8,107,929 


2,652,570 


10,760,499 


Mississippi.. . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


Tennessee. .. 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


27.966 


— 


27.966 


Missouri 














. . 


— 


— 


859.643 


— 


8.59.643 


Ohio 


117,989 


99,543 


217,532 


— 


100 


100 


217,632 


898.999 


183.505 


5S2..5(I4 


Kentucky . .. 


— 














— 


— 


190.987 


— 


190,987 


Michigan 


57,2.32 


74.813 


132.045 








— 


132.045 


144.102 





144.102 


Illinois 


1,232 


16,4437 


17.649 


— 





— 


17,699 


7.783 


7.922 


15.705 


Texas 





24,958 


24,958 











24.958 


14,052 


10,998 


25,650 


California . . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Oregon 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Total.... 


89,616,742 


47,3-30,170 


1.36,946,912 


9,998,299 


4958,509 


14.951,808151,898.720' 


189,657,043 


38,481,275 


178,138,810 



3. Statement of the Navigation of each State. 



STATES. 


TONNAGE ENTERED UNITED STATES. 


TONNAGE CLEARED FROM U. STATES. 




American. 


Foreign. 


Total. , 


American. 


Foreign. 


Total. 




No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons, 


No, 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 




258 
9 

330 
1,-345 

100 

109 
4,1-37 

"352 

"295 

7 

69 

140 

163 

47 

56 

40 

524 

778 

"97 

IS 

3 

140 


53.309 
8.572 
86.828 
889 508 
17..847 
22.5S0 
1,502,290 

100,009 

70,427 

1260 

12.190 

19.185 

52,711 

11.888 

7,518 

11.914 

175,969 

21,628 

7,254 

6,690 

494 

47,950 


1.040 

101 

174 

2,732 

19 

79 

8,832 

17 

185 

143 
2 

88 

38 

142 

71 

39 

112 

374 

186 

894 

4 

13 

855 


89,877 

7.472 

12,607 

271.941 

2.075 

11.572 

775.430 

1.601 

82,361 

29,161 

154 

18.775 

9.115 

44.205 

45.134 

10.462 

84.106 

174,884 

18.243 

49.709 

648 

8.177 

82,914 


1,293 
110 

504 
4,077 

119 

18S 

7,969 

17 

537 

438 

9 

157 

188 
305 
118 
95 
152 
898 

814 

491 
22 
16 

495 


14:3,186 

11.044 

99,435 

611,449 

19,922 

34.152 

2,277,720 

1.601 

132,370 

99.588 
1.4141 
80,965 
2S..300i 
96916' 
57.017J 
17.980 
96.020, 
850,853 

89,871 

56,963 

7.888 

3.6711 

180,864 


585 

5 

322 

1,149 

94 

87 

3,610 

1 

809 

859 

S 
187 
212 
205 
58 
60 
76 
493 

137 

112 
4 
3 

308 


111,123 

682 

81,073 

272.278 

16.770 

17.515 

1,411,557 

150 

81,276 

89,296 

1.520 
42 091 
80.739 
72,222 
21,089 
10.022 
32.268 
211,800 

15,485 

7.982 

1,04:3 

591 

104,266 


1.040 

102 

20 

2,757 

16 

69 

8,693 

10 

170 

162 

2 

98 

62 

170 

83 

42 

106 

850 

~181 

390 

5 

12 

320 


91.014 

7,.531 

1.783 

274.674 

1.705 

9.802 

737,539 

9S1 

80,842 

37,523 
200 
23,367 
11,493 
52.880 
51.524 
12.1-34 
80.717 
158,187 

18,322 

46,719 

998 

8.017 

75,862 


1,6.31 
107 
842 

3,906 
110 
156 

7,303 

11 

479 

521 
10 
285 
274 
375 
141 
102 
182 
843 

268 

502 

9 

15 

623 


202.1.37 


New Hampshire.. 


8.213 
82.856 


Massachusetts. 

Rhode Island .... 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

T). of Colambia... 


546,952 

18.475 

27.317 

2,149.096 

1.131 

111,618 

126,819 

1.720 

65,458 


Norlh Carolina.. .. 
South Carolina 


42.2-32 

125,052 

72.563 


Florida 


22.156 




112 985 


Louisiana 

Mississippi 

Tennessee 


869,937 


Ohio 


33,80T 


Kentucky 

Michigan 


54.701 
2,041 


Texas -. 


3.603 


California 


180,128 




1 




Total 


8.412 


2.673.016: 


10.100 


1,775,6231 


18.512 4.34S.6.39' 


8.379 


2.6:52,788 


9.816 


1.728.214 


18.195 


4,861,002 



25 



c 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



4. Statemeal exhibiting a condensed view of the Tonnage of the several Districts of the 
United States on the 30th of June, 1850. 





Registered 


Knr..Iled and 
licensed 
toniiuoe. 


Total tonnage 
of eaih 
distrirt 




Registered 1 


Enr.illed a.ni 


Total toniMge 


DI8TK1CTS. 


UUIIUHK. 


DISTPvICTS. 




tf)nnnt:e. 


distriot 




1 uns im.l '..itl.H. 


Tons nnd IJ.MIis. 


Passamaq'y Me. 


10.530 73 


9,454 73 


19,985 51 


Vienna M'yl'd 





15.478 01 


15,478 01 


Muchias ... " 


2.267 65 


19.(i5li 67 


21..318 37 


Snow Hill... " 





9,511 .51 


9,5-11 51 


Fr'man's B. " 


1.643 21 


3(1.525 27 


32 168 48 


St. Mary's... " 





2,184 91 


2,184 91 


Pcnobsoot.. " 


5.713 4(1 


31.237 38 


86.950 78 


Town Creek " 





2,226 81 


2.226 81 


Beinist " 


13,S69 79 


31,7->5 48 


45.595 32 


Annapoli-s . . " 





2,:323 17 


2,:323 17 


IJaniTDr " 


9.3f.2 31 


15,9 6 49 


25,268 80 


Georgetown D.ofC. 


2,796 19 


14,214 42 


17,010 61 


"Wald.>boro'. '• 


3S,-1S3 13 


57.S47 25 


96.3.30 38 


Alexandria . Virg. 


2,887 81 


5,8.50 a9 


8,7:37 80 


Wiseasset .. " 


6.024 41 


12 217 08 


18.241 49 


Norfolk " 


10,542 10 


13,592 79 


24,1:34 89 


Bath 


76.6 i8 65 


27,1 17 25 


103 625 90 


Petersburg.. " 


94S 76 


1,759 27 


2,708 08 


Portland ... " 


6il,3i 4 43 


2(;.197 86 


86 502 31 


Itichmond .. " 


8,160 80 


5,297 40 


8,458 25 


Sai'o " 


1,57(J 00 


1,1.53 3(1 


2,723 30 


Yorktown . . " 





4,806 70 


4,806 70 


Kcnrii'bunk " 


9,101 34 


2.247 82 


11.349 21 


Tappahan'k . " 


503 26 


5,:320 93 


5,824 24 


York " 


— 


1.361 45 


1361 45 


Acconiacc'.H. " 


— 


4,082 75 


4,082 75 


Porismoutli.N. H. 


14,978 92 


8.117 41 


23 096 38 


Kast Kiver . . " 





4,868 61 


4,868 61 


Burlington . Verm. 


— 


4,530 32 


4 5311 32 


Yeoco(nico.. " 





3,2S3 90 


8,283 90 


Newburyp't. Mass. 


16.213 57 


7,048 29 


23,2(il 86 


CherrvsUine. " 





1.2:32 08 


1,2:32 OS 


Ipswich.... " 


— 


578 39 


578 39 


Wheeling .. " 





5,933 70 


5,933 70 


Gloucester . " 


2,873 OS 


19.6nl 00 


22,474 08 


Wilmington. N.Car. 


9,123 51 


6,074 76 


15,198 32 


Salem " 


20.316 74 


8.599 34 


28.916 13 


Newbern.... " 


1,518 32 


3,689 25 


5,207 57 


Beverly " 


— 


3 173 04 


3,173 04 


Washington. *' 


1,097 61 


4,605 49 


5,703 15 


Marblehead. " 


1,349 11 


5,493 31 


6.842 42 


Edenton .... " 


127 07 


1,018 09 


1,145 16 


Boston " 


270,510 09 


5l).177 17 


32' (,687 26 


Camden .... " 


1,269 11 


1((,678 88 


11,948 04 


Plymouth . . '• 


3.966 SS 


6 7.55 31 


10.722 24 


Beaufort " 


613 69 


1,645 79 


2,259 58 


Fall Itiver. . " 


2.2.-)l OS 


10.S.5.i 76 


13.101 8-t 


PIvmouth ... " 


1,183 88 


1,144 54 


2,:328 47 


N. Bedford. « 


119.026 4h 


8.933 69 


127 960 09 


Ocracoke .... " 





1,428 15 


1,458 15 


Bariisial)le . " 


5.52 1 32 


85.'ilS1 67 


91,11.(2 04 


Charleston .. S.Car. 


15,377 48 


17,915 10 


33,292 53 


Edgarlown. " 


6.464 26 


2.145 28 


7.609 54 


Georgetown. " 


1,749 19 


1,030 31 


2,779 50 


Nantucket . " 


25,^37 8(1 


3.174 S3 


29.012 68 


Beaufort " 











Providence. E. I. 


9.177 14 


7 5:34 64 


16,711 78 


Savannah... Geor. 


10,4:37 16 


9,293 67 


19,730 88 


Bristol 


11.247 12 


1.951 27 


13 198 39 


Suiibury .... " 











Newport ... " 


5,644 33 


4,934 21 


10.578 54 


Brunswick . . " 





533 81 


583 81 


Middletown. CJonn. 


95 55 


12.(133 7-2 


12 129 32 


Ilardwick .. . " 











N. London . " 


23.364 23 


17.120 62 


40.484 85 


St. Mary's ... " 


491 48 


933 87 


1,425 40 


Stonirigtoii.. " 


13.1S8 47 


6.724 03 


19.912 50 


P' nsacola . . . Flor. 


1,221 11 


572 63 


1,793 74 


N. Havt-n.. " 


4,994 65 


10.736 70 


15.731 40 


St. Augustine " 








Fairfield ... " 


S68 35 


13.960 27 


24.828 62 


St. Mark's... " 





353 07 


853 07 


Champlain . N. Y. 


— 


2,745 74 


2.745 74 


St. .John's .. . " 





309 72 


3fi9 72 


Sackelt's IPr. " 


— 


8.123 57 


8.123 57 


.\palaehieola " 





2,05(» 36 


2,050 36 


Oswefjo .... " 


— 


22,404 78 


22,404 78 


Key West... " 


4,415 46 


2.:3.50 09 


6,7()5 55 


Niagara " 


— 


732 73 


732 73 


Mobile Ala. 


7,403 67 


16,753 88 


24,157 60 


Genesee " 


— 


1,036 74 


1,036 74 


Pearl Eiver.. Miss. 





1,367 34 


1,367 34 


Oswegatchie " 


— 


1,985 34 


1,985 34 


Vicksburg... " 





460 28 


460 23 


Buffalo Or.. " 


— 


39.679 00 


39.679 00 


New Orleans. La. 


83,668 55 


165,040 49 


248,709 09 


Sag Harbor. " 


10,953 68 


4,211 69 


15,165 42 


Teclie " 





1,3S0 71 


1,:380 71 


Greenport.. " 


4.236 29 


4,319 46 


8555 75 


Nashville ... Tenn. 


— 


8,776 05 


3,776 ((5 


New York.. " 


441,336 76 


394230 SO 


835,867 61 


Louisville . . . Ky. 





14,S20 19 


14,820 19 


C. Vincent.. " 


— 


2,496 92 


2.496 92 


St. Louis Miss. 





28,907 47 


28,907 47 


Cold Spring. " 


2,376 40 


1,478 911 


3,855 35 


Chicago HI. 





21,242 17 


21,242 17 


PerlhAmboy N.J. 


133 69 


21.950 82 


22.084 56 


Cuyahoga.. . Ohio 





85,315 84 


35,315 84 


Bri<lgetown. " 


— 


14 472 21 


14.472 24 


Sandusky ... " 


— 


7,32s 49 


7,:328 49 


Burlington.. " 


— 


7,578 67 


7,578 t;7 


Cincinnati... " 





17,1<8 80 


17,188 .80 


Camd.n " 


— 


9,569 32 


9,569 32 


Miami " 





2.629 20 


2,629 20 


Newark " 


77 58 


6.5.51 05 


6,62S 63 


Detroit Mich. 





36,893 89 


36,893 89 


L. Kgg Har. " 


— 


6,182 75 


6,182 75 


Michilim'kinac " 





1,250 55 


1,250 55 


G. Egg Har. " 


— 


14,084 14 


14,084 14 


Galveston . . Tex. 


415 92 


2,892 88 


8,308 65 


Philadelphia Penn. 


&1,205 10 


142.292 72 


206.497 82 


Saluria " 




588 52 


588 62 


Presque Isle " 


— 


7.870 31 


7,S70 31 


Astoria Oreg. 


1,063 43 


_ 


1,063 43 


Pittsburg ... " 


— 


44 571 30 


44,571 30 


San Francisco Calif. 


15,285 12 


2,306 65 


17,.591 77 


Wilmington. Del. 


1,651 68 


7,808 70 


9.46(i 43 


Point Isabel. Tex. 


401 35 


274 28 


675 63 




90,669 82 


7.259 14 
58.349 51 
12.343 46 


7.2,59 14 

149.019 38 

12,343 46 


Total 








Baltimore. . . M'yl'd 


1,585,711 22 


1,949,748 01 


3,535,454 23 


Oxford " 







5. The general Statement of Tonnage Accounts from June 30, 1849, to June 30, 1850 





Kegi.ster'd 
tonnage. 


Aggregate 
tonnage. 


1 


Regi-terd 
tonnage. 


Aggregate 


1850. 
To amount of tonnage sold to foreigners 

in the year ending 30lh June, 1850 

To amount of tonnage condemned as un- 


13,467 

4,666 
23,724 

1,585,711 


13,467 

6,753 
84,748 

8,585,454 
50,175 


JiiJie ZOth, 1849. 

By balance of tonnage, per statement, 

rendered for the year ending 30th 

June, 1849 


1,453,941 

157,612 
81,016 


3,334,015 




June Both, 1850. 

By amount of tonnage built, registered, 

enrolled, and licensed in the year 1850 

By this amount, being an increase of the 


To amount of tonnage lost at sea in the 
year ending 80th June, 1850 




SOt/i June. 
To balance, as appears by general state- 


272,218 
81,016 


ment of tonnage (marked A) 


By this amount, being an increase of the 
licensed toimage under 20 tons 




To this difference in the enrolled ton- 
nage, which is presumed arises from 
transfer to the account of registered. . . 


8,349 


1,627,570 


3,640,599 




1,627,570 


3,640,5991 





26 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



6. A comparative View of the registered and enrolled Tonnage of the United States, showing 
the Tonnage employed in the Whale Fishery ; also, the j^roportion of the enrolled and licensed 
Tonnage emj^loyed in the Coasting Trade, Cod Fishery, Mackerel Fishery, and Whale Fish- 
ery, from 1815 to 1850, inclusive. 



Registered ton- 
nage. 



rolled and li- 
sed tonnage. 



Total tonnage. 



Primortion of the enndled and lit 



Coasting trade 



Mack'! fi.ilj'y. 



1815.... 


8.^4.294 74 


513.833 04 


1816.... 


8(10.759 63 


571,458 85 


1817.... 


8119.724 70 


590,186 66 


1818.... 


606.088 64 


619,095 51 


1«19.... 


612,930 44 


647,821 17 


1820.... 


619,047 58 


661,118 66 


1821.... 


619,896 40 


679.062 30 


1822.... 


628.150 41 


696.548 71 


1828.... 


639.920 76 


690,644 87 


1824.... 


669.972 60 


719.190 37 


1825.... 


70(1,787 OS 


722,323 69 


1826.... 


737,978 15 


790,210 68 


182T.... 


747,170 44 


878.437 34 


1828.... 


812,619 34 


928,772 52 


1829.... 


650.142 88 


610,654 8S 


18.30.... 


576,675 38 


615,311 10 


1831.... 


620,451 92 


647.394 32 


1S.32.... 


686,9s9 77 


752,460 39 


1833.... 


750,126 72 


856,123 22 


1S34.... 


857.438 42 


901,468 67 


18:55.... 


885,821 60 


939,118 49 


1836.... 


897,774 61 


984,328 14 


1837 .... 


810,447 29 


1,0^6,238 40 


1838.... 


822.591 (■6 


1.173.047 89 


1S;B9.... 


834.244 54 


1,262.234 27 


1840.... 


899,764 74 


l,2s0,9H9 85 


1841 .... 


845,S()3 42 


1,184,940 90 


1842.... 


975,358 74 


1,117,031 9i( 


1843.... 


1.0(19.305 01 


1,149.297 92 


1844.... 


1,068.764 91 


1,211.330 11 


1845.... 


1,095,172 44 


l,321,8-'9 57 


1846.... 


1.131,286 49 


1.431.798 32 


1847.... 


1.241.312 92 


1.597,732 80 


1848.... 


1,360,SS6 85 


1,793,155 00 


1849.... 


1 438.941 53 


1,895 073 71 


1850.... 


l.^s.'.jn 22 


1.949.743 01 



1,368.127 78 
1,372.218 53 
1,399.912 41 
1.225,154 20 
1,260,751 61 
1,280.166 24 
1,298.9.08 79 
1,. 32 1,699 17 
l,33(i,565 68 
1,389,163 02 
1,423,110 77 
1.534,189 83 
1,020.607 78 
1,741,.391 87 
1,260,797 81 
1,191,776 4:5 
1,267,846 29 
1.4;39,450 21 
1,606,149 94 
l,75s.907 14 
l,'-24,940 14 
1,882.102 65 
1,896,685 69 
1,99.5,639 81 
2,(196,478 81 
2,180,764 16 
2,130,744 37 
2.090.390 69 
2,158,601 93 
2.280,095 07 
2.417,(:02 06 
2.562,084 81 
2.839,045 77 
3.154.041 85 
3.334,015 29 
8.535,454 23 



4.874 41 

16,134 77 

31,700 40 

35.391 44 

26,070 S3 

45.449 42 

39.918 13 

,33.165 70 

35,379 24 

41,757 32 

45,653 21 

54,621 08 

57.284 38 

88,911 82 

82.315 79 

72 868 84 

101.1.58 1 

108,060 14 

97.640 00 

144,680 50 

127,241 81 

119,629 89 

131.845 25 

136,926 64 

157,405 17 

151.612 74 

152 374 89 

168.293 63 

190,695 65 

186,980 16 

193.858 72 

192,176 90 

180,186 29 

146.016 71 



435.066 87 

479.979 14 

481.457 92 

503.140 37 

523 556 20 

539,080 46 

559,435 57 

578 080 02 

566,408 88 

589.2.33 01 

587,273 07 

666.420 44 

732.937 65 

758.922 12 

508.858 10 

516.978 18 

539.723 74 

649.627 40 

744,198 60 

783.618 65 

792.301 20 

873,023 21 

956,980 60 

1.041,105 18 

1.1.53.551 811 

1,176.694 46 

1,107.067 88 

1,045,7.53 39 

1.076.1.55 59 

1,109.614 44 

1.190.898 27 

1.289.870 89 

1.452.623 35 

1.620,988 16 

1.730,410 84 

1,755.796 42 



26.570 83 
87,869 30 
58,990 26 
58.551 72 
65,044 92 
60,842 55 
51,851 49 
58.405 35 
67,621 14 
68,419 00 
70.626 02 
63,761 42 
74.048 81 
74,947 74 
101,796 78 
61,554 57 
60.977 SI 
54.027 70 
62.720 7(1 
56.403 70 
72,374 IS 
63.307 37 
80.551 89 
T0.064 00 
72.258 68 
76,035 65 
66,551 84 
54,804 02 
61,224 25 
85,224 77 
69.8J5 66 
72,516 17 
70,177 52 
82.651 82 
42.970 19 
85,646 30l 



85,978 88 
46,210 80 
47.427 72 
48,725 43 
61,082 11 
64.443 11 
64.424 25 
46.810 90 
56.649 16 
85,983 87 
28,269 19 
11, .321 13 
16.096 S3 
11,775 70 
16,170 66 
21.413 16 
86.463 16| 
81.4.51 1.3| 
43..5.=.8 78| 
73,853 78 
58,111 94I 



1,229 92 

1,168 00 

349 92 

614 63 

686 35 

1,053 66 

1,924 40 

8,183 50 

585 37 

180 OS 

226 83 
328 94 
ISO 34 

792 87 
481 82 
377 47 
473 39 
364 16 

1,573 26 

1,894 86 

5,229 55 

439 69 



877 31 
142 83 

320 14 
2(16 92 
439 58 

432 75 



7. A. Statement of the Number of Vessels built in the several States, and the Aggregate Ton- 
nage of each for the year ending 30th June, 1850. 



CLA68 OP VESSELS. 



Ships. 



Brigs, 



Sloop!) 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Ehoile Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland . ., 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

Soutii Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Missouri 

Illinois 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Texas 

Oregon 

Total 



127 



115 

2 

46 
5 
27 
50 
85 
39 
12 
125 

27 
23 

2 
2 
3 

16 



3 
3 
9 

112 

17 

107 

3 



326 
10 
1 

121 
14 
47 

224 
57 

185 
16 

150 

8 

34 

33 

5 
2 
3 



91,211 73 


6,914 32 


77 41 


85,836 14 


3,587 15 


4.819 79 


68.-342 73 


6.201 68 


21.409 93 


1.848 82 


15,964 80 


288 17 


3.584 09 


2,651 59 


683 82 


79 75 


113 66 


1,.592 33 


6.460 69 


1.353 82 


1.691 21 


5.214 62 


2,001 63 


105 54 


122 43 



247 



117 



547 



290 



159 



1,860 



272,218 54 

"aT 



LJ 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



8. Statement showing the Number and Class of Vessels built, and the Tonnage thereof, in the 
several States and Territories of the United Slates from 1815 to 1850 inclusive. 



CLASS OF TE8SKLS. 



Ships 



Brigs. 



L 



1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
lS-25 
1826 
1827 
1823 
1829 
18:30 
1831, 
1832 
18=33. 

mu. 

1885. 
18S6. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
184=3. 
1S44. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1S4S. 
1849. 
ISoO. 



136 

76 

34 

53 

53 

21 

43 

64 

55 

56 

56 

71 

58 

73 

44 

25 

72 

132 

144 

98 

25 

93 

67 

66 

83 

97 

114 

116 

53 

73 

124 

100 

151 

254 

198 

247 



224 

122 

86 

85 

82 

60 

89 

131 

127 

156 

197 

187 

1.33 

108 

68 

56 

95 

143 

169 

94 

50 

65 

73 

79 

89 

109 

101 

91 

34 

47 

87 

164 

163 

174 

148 

117 



6S0 
781 
659 
423 
473 
801 
248 
260 
200 
377 
5:38 
482 
464 
474 
485 
403 
416 
568 
625 
406 
302 
444 
507 
5iil 
4S9 
378 
810 
273 
138 
204 
322 
576 
6S9 
701 
623 
547 



274 
424 
394 
332 
242 
152 
127 
168 
165 
166 
168 
227 
241 
196 
145 
116 
94 
122 
1S5 
ISO 
100 
164 
168 
153 
122 
224 
157 
404 
173 
279 
843 
855 
892 
547 
370 
290 



15 

26 

85 

45 

38 

83 

43 

37 

34 

100 

65 

68 

30 

124 

1.85 

90 

125 

64 

78 

137 

79 

16:3 

163 

225 

198 

175 

208 

159 



1.314 

1,403 

1,073 

898 

850 

534 

507 

623 

622 

781 

994 

1,012 

9:34 

884 

785 

637 

711 

1.065 

1,188 

937 

507 

890 

949 

898 

a58 

873 

782 

1,021 

482 

766 

l,o:3S 

1.420 

1,598 

1.851 

1,.>17 

1.360 



154,624 39 

131.668 04 

S6.:393 3T 

82.421 20 

79.817 86 

47.784 01 

55.a56 01 

75.346 93 

75.0(17 57 

90 939 00 

114.997 25 

126 4.38 85 

104..343 67 

98 375 58 

77,098 65 

58.094 24 

85.962 68 

144.5:39 16 

161.626 36 
llS.:3:3i) 37 

46 2:33 52 

118.627 49 
122.987 22 
H 3.1:35 44 
120.08'? 34 
llS,.3ii9 23 
l]8.-5ii3 71 
120.0^3 64 

63.617 77 
103.,5:37 29 
146.018 02 
18S,208 93 
24:3,732 67 
318.075 54 
256.577 47 
272.218 54 



VII. 



STATEMENT OF THE DUTIES, REVENUES, AND PUBLIC EXPENDITURES DURING THE 
YEARS ENDING SOrn JUNE, 1849 AND 1850. 



From customs $2S,.34fi,738 82 

From sales of public lands. 1,688,959 55 
From miscellaneous sources 1,0:38.649 13 



Total receipts $:31 ,074,:347 50 

Avails of stocks, treasury 

notes, etc., i!»sued 128,588,750 00 

Bal:ince in treasury 1st Julv, 

1848 & 1849 .'. 153..t;34 60 



IS.'iO. 

$89,668,686 42 
1, 859,^^94 25 
1,S47,21S 83 



$4:3,375,798 90 

$4,045,950 00 

2.189.964 28 



Total mean^ $59,816,632 10 $49,606,713 18 



EXPENDITURES. 

ls4;l. 

CiNlllist $2 SiW.OiS 83 

Foreiffn intercourse 7,972,S32 01 

Miscellanpous 3,179,192 66 

Interior department — 

War department 17.290,936 63 

Navv department 9.809,818 20 

Pubiie debt 16,453,272 39 



Total expenditures $57,631,667 82 $43.0i'2.16S 69 



Balances 1st July '49 & '50 $2,184,964 23 




$6,604,544 49 



VIII. STATEMENT OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SOth NOVEMBER, 1850. 



DENO.MI.SATION OF DEBT. 



Principal and interest of old funded and unfunded debt. Treasury notes of 1812 

and Yiizon scrip 

Debt of the cities of the District of Columbia, assumed per act :iOlh May, 1S.36 
Outstanding treasury not<>s issued previous to 22d July, 1:346, payable or fundable 
Outstandine treasury notes issued underact 2i')th .Iiine, l'^46, payal)le or funilable 
Outstandiiis treasury notes issued under act 2>th Jan. 1847, payable or fundable 

Slock issued for treasi\rv notes 1837-184:3, under act 2Stli Jan. 1847 

Loan of 15th .Vpril, 1842 

" .3.1 March. Ti4:3 

" 22d Julv, 1S46 

" 28ih .Tan., 1817 

" 31 si M.irch, 1 S48 

Mexican indemnity stock 



On presentation 
$00,000 per annum 
On presentation 
On presentation 
On presentatim 
1st Januarv. 1S6S 
31st Dec. is62 
1st Julv, 18.53 
12lh Nov.. 1856 
1st Jan., 1868 
1st Julv. ].>;6S 
9th Aug., 1851 



$n9..5S5 98 

900.(1(10 00 

1:39.011 64 

25.8.'>0 00 

44.70II 00 

154.3.>8 00 

8.198,686 03 

6.46S.231 85 

4,999149 46 

27.135,123 00 

15,740.000 00 

303.573 92 



Total debt per statement Ist December, 1850 $64,228,2:38 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 




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29 



1 


UNITED 


STATES OF AMERICA. 






X. STATISTICS OF COINAGE, 












1. Deposits for Coinage, at the 
Mint of the United Slates and its 
Branches, in the Year 1850. 


2. Coinage of the Mint of the United 
Stales and its Branches, in the 
Year 1850. 




GOLD. 

Coins of U. S., old stand. 


$9,996 

1,303.740 

36.938,314 

113,110 


$38,365,160 
1,939,041 


Denominations. Pieces. Value. 


Deiiuminatiuns. 


Fiecea. 


Value. 




GOLD. ( 


xold & Copper 
Coins 

SILVER. 

iollars 

lalf Dollars., 
[uar. Dollars . 

Jimes 

lalf Dimes . . 

Total 


7,268,420 

47,500 

2,6S;i,0o0 

602,800 

2,441,500 

1,645,000 


182,026,200 

47,500 

1,841,500 

150,700 

244,150 

82,250 




United States Bullion. . 

Foreign Bullion 

Total of Gold 

SILVER. 

United Slates Bullion. . 

Foreign Bullion 

Foreign Coins 

Total of Silver 

Total 


Eagles 

Half Eagles., 
yuar. Eagles 
Dollars 

Total Gold . . 

COPPEB. 

Cents 

Half Centa . . 

Total Copper 


i,3ii.zbi 5-.2tj,rzD.rzo 00 

348.951; 3,489,6)0 00 
172,032 860,160 OO 
858,219 895,542 5o I 
511,301 511,301 00 1 




$209,253 

143,192 

1,526,696 




2,701,764.181,981,733 50 1 
1 
4,426,844 44,268 44 
39,812 199 56 








$40,304,201 


14,588,220 


$33,892,301 








4,566,6561 $44,467 50 




3. Coinage of the Mint of the United States, from 1792, including the Coinage of the Branch 
Mints, from the Commencement of their Operations, in 1838. 




Years. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Copper. 


WHOLE COINAGE. 




wo. „1 f.ece,.,. 


..i„e. 




1793-95 


$71,485 00 
102,727 50 
108,422 50 
205.610 00 
213.285 00 
817,760 00 
422,570 00 
423.310 00 
258.377 50 
258,642 50 
170.367 50 
824,505 00 
437,495 00 
284,665 00 
169,375 00 
501.435 00 
497.900 00 
290,435 00 
477.140 00 
77,270 00 
3,175 00 

242,940 00 

258,615 00 

1,319,030 00 

189,325 00 

88,980 00 

72,425 00 

93,200 00 

156,385 00 

92,245 00 

131,565 00 

140.145 00 

295,717 50 

643,lii5 00 

714,270 <W 

798,435 00 

978,550 00 

3,954,270 00 

2.1s6,175 00 

4,135,700 00 

l,14>,3i.5 00 

1,809,595 00 

1,355,8-5 00 

1,675,302 50 

1,091,597 50 

1,S34,170 50 

8,108,797 50 

2.230 00 

3,756,447 50 

4.034,177 00 

20,221,385 00 

3,77,'"v>12 50 

9,007,761 50 

31,981.733 50 


$370,683 80 

79,077 50 

12,591 45 

330.291 00 

423,515 00 

224,296 00 

74,758 00 

58.343 00 

87,118 00 

100,340 50 

149.388 50 

471.319 00 

597.448 75 

684.300 00 

707.376 00 

638,773 50 

6(tS,340 00 

814,029 50 

620,951 50 

561.687 50 

17.308 00 

28,575 75 

607,783 50 

1,070,454 50 

1,140,000 00 

501,680 TO 

825,762 45 

805,806 50 

S95.550 00 

1,752,477 00 

1,564,583 00 

2,002.090 00 

2.869,200 00 

1.576,600 00 

1.994,578 00 

2,495,400 00 

8.175,600 00 

2 579,1100 00 

2.7.^>9,000 00 

3.415.002 00 

3.443.003 00 
3,606,100 00 
2.096,010 00 
2,333.243 00 
2,189,296 00 
1.726.703 00 
1.132,750 00 
2.332.750 00 
3,834.750 00 
2.2.36550 00 
1.S73.2O0 00 
2,568,580 00 
2,374.450 00 
2,040.050 00 
2,114,950 00 
1,866,100 00 


$11,373 00 

10,824 40 

9.510 34 

9,797 00 

9.106 68 

29.279 40 

13,628 37 

84.422 S3 

25,203 03 

12.844 94 

13.483 48 
5,260 00 
9,6.62 21 

13,090 00 
8,001 53 

15,660 00 
2,495 95 

10,755 00 
4,180 00 
3,578 80 

28,209 82 

89.484 00 
31,670 00 
26,710 00 
44,075 50 

8.S90 00 
20,728 39 

12.620 00 
14,926 00 
16.344 25 
23,557 32 
25,636 24 
16.5.80 00 
17,115 00 
33,603 60 
23,620 00 
28,160 00 
19,151 00 
39,4-9 00 
23,100 00 
56.583 00 
53,702 00 
31,2-6 61 
24.627 00 
15,973 67 
23,83;5 90 
24.283 20 
23,987 52 
88,948 04 
41,203 00 
61,836 69 
64,1.67 99 
41.984 32 
44,467 50 


1,8.34.420 
1,219.370 
1,095,165 
1,368,241 
1,365.681 
3,337,972 
1,571.390 
8.615869 


$45:j,541 80 
192,129 40 
125.524 29 
545.698 00 
645906 63 
571.335 40 




1796 




1797 




1798 




1799 




1800 




1801 

1802 




510,956 37 
516.075 83 




1803 


2.780 8.3U 




370,698 53 

371.-27 94 

333,239 48 

801,084 00 

1,044,596 96 

982,055 00 

884,752 53 

1,155.868 50 

1,108,740 95 

1,115.219 50 

1,102,275 50 

642,635 80 

20.4-3 00 

56,7-5 57 

647,207 50 

1,345,064 50 

1,425,325 00 

1.864.786 20 

1,018.977 45 

915.5119 89 

967,975 00 

1. 858.297 00 

1,7-35.894 00 

2,110.679 25 

3,024,:342 32 

1,741. ,881 24 

2,306.875 50 

8,155.620 00 

8,923.473 60 

8,401.1 55 00 

3.765.710 00 

7,3-8 423 00 

5.668,667 00 

7,764.900 00 

3,299 898 00 

4.2(16.540 00 

3.570.467 61 

8.4-'6,6-32 50 

2,240.321 17 

4.190.754 40 

11.967.830 70 

7.6.S7.767 52 

5.668,595 54 

6.638.9()5 00 

22.6.67.671 69 

5,879.720 49 

11.164.695 82 

88,892,3(11 00 




1804 


2.046.83! 






1805 


2,260,361 

1,815.409 

2.731,345 

2,936.888 

2,861,834 

8,056,418 

1,649,570 

2,761,646 

1.756,:!31 

1,833,859 

69,-67 

2,888,135 

5,163,967 

5,637,084 

5,074,723 

6,492,509 

8,139,249 

8,813,788 

2.166.485 

4,7s0.8'.t4 

5.17s,760 

5,774,434 

9,097,845 

6.1fi6,8.>3 

7.674,.601 

8.357.191 

11.792.284 

9.128.387 

10.3oT.790 

11,637,643 

15.996 342 

13.719.333 

13.010.721 

15,780,311 

11,811.594 

10.558,240 

8.811.968 

11,743.153 

4,640..6S2 

9.061.S34 

1.806.196 

10.133.515 

15,392.344 

12.619.790 

12.606.669 

14.5-8,220 




1806 




1807 




1808 




18(9 




1810 




1811 




1812 




1813 




1814 




1815 




1816 




IblT 




1818 




1819 




1820 




1821 

1822 

1823 




1824 




1825 




Ih26 




1827 




1828 




1S29 




1830 




1831 

1832 

18;« 




1834 




18i5 




1S36 




1-37 

1838 

1839 

1840 




1841 




1842 




1843 




1844 




1845 




1846 




1847 




1848 




1849 




1850 






$117,33 






Total 


l),935 00 


$77,447,564 90 


$1,296,21 102 


370,530,129 


$195,074,710 92 




80 





















UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The progress of the United States has been as rapid as astonishing. The exhibits of the fore- 
going tables incontrovertibly attest the fact in every department of industry and economy. The 
mind, indeed, becomes bewildered in contemplating the subject. The States composing the Amer- 
ican Union on the ratification of its independence were thirteen in number, viz. : Massachusetts, 
New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. These States, the whole in- 
habited territory of which, with the exception of a few small settlements, was confined to the 
region extending between the Alleghany Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean, were those which 
existed at the period, they became an acknowledged separate and independent federal sovereign 
power. The thirteen stripes of the national standard continue to represent this number — the 
stars have increased to thirty-one, in accordance with the increase of additional sovereignties. 
The land area of these thirteen original States comprehended a superficies of 825,400 square miles. 
The United States as existing at the present time cover an area of about 8,260,000 square miles. 
The population at the first census in 1790 and that of 1850, compares as follows : 

Increase in no years. 
Classes. Census Census ' ' 

1790. 18.iO. Ak.olute. Percent. 

White persons 8,172,464 19,630,733 16,468,274 518.78 

^ Colored " —free 59,466 428,661 369,195 620.85 

" " —slave 697,897 3,204,089 2,.'>06,192 859.10 

" » —total 757,363 3,632,750 2.875.387 379.65 

Total population 8,929,827 23,263,488 19,333,661 491.97 

— with such expansion of territory and augmentation of population may not the republican citizen 
indulge a feeling of satisfaction and gratitude. It presents the true test of the condition of a 
people, and the soundness and beneficence of the institutions under which such extraordinary 
results have accrued. 

The first accession of territory to the old Union was Louisiana, a territory extending from the 
British possessions in the north to the Gulf of Mexico (Texas excepted) on the south, and from 
the Mississippi on the east to the Rocky Mountains on the west. The area within these limits is 
about 1,200,000 square miles. This vast territory is now occupied by the States of Louisiana, 
Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa, the Indian and Nebraska Territories, Minnesota Territory, and the 
extensive territory yet unsettled, extending westward of Iowa and Minnesota and north of the 
43d parallel. Louisiana was purchased from the French in the year 1803. By the terms of the 
cession of this country, the United States also acquired the French claim to the territory west of 
the mountains. 

Florida was purchased from Spain in 1819. It contains an area of 59,300 square miles, and is 
now one of the organized States of the Union. The act of cession secured to the United States 
not only the actual territory of Florida, but also the Spanish claim to all the territory between 
the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains north of 42° latitude north. That portion of Florida 
now comprised in the States of Alabama and Mississippi was taken possession of by the United 
States as early as 1811. 

Texas was admitted into the Union in 1845, and added to the federal limits an area of 237,300 
square miles. 

The line of demarkation between the British possessions and the United States west of the Rocky 
Mountains, which had remained in doubt for many years, was settled in 1846; and a positive pos- 
session of a country extending over a space of 341,500 square miles was thus secured to the 
Union. The right of the United States to this territory dates from 1792, and was based on the 
discovery of the Columbia River by an American citizen (and had been strengthened by the cession 
of the French and Spanish claims) ; but until the period above named it could not be said to form 
an integral part of the federal territory. This acquisition is now divided into the Territories of 
Oregon and Washington. 

California Alta and New Mexico became parts of the Union by the terms of the treaty of Gua- 
dalupe Hidalgo, in 1848. The area of these Territories extends over about 596,500 square miles, 
and is now occupied by the State of California and the Territories of Utah and New Mexico. 

Are the present limits of the Union the ultimatum of its expansion, or if not, where is to be the 
line of our nationality .' Some there are whose ambitious views embrace the whole of North America 
and the Antilles in the American federation ; others do not confine themselves to so limited an ac- 
quisition, but already, with prophetic eye, see the star-spangled banner floating over tlie whole 
western hemisphere, and embracing in its ample folds the isles of the Pacific, and claiming sov- 
ereignty over the oceans on both its sides ; and again others foresee in the Union a palladium which 
82 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



shall cover the earth and gather all nations into one great brotherhood. The future will unveil 
wonderful events. " Manifest destiny," indeed, points to an unlimited extension of tlie Union. 
Already the popular mind is made up on the propriety or policy of annexing Mexico, Cuba, and 
the Canadas, which in the course of time and favoring events will most certainly become States of, 
or States under the protection of, the United States. As the greater body attracts the lesser, so 
the more liberal government attracts a more despotic ; and thus on a principle of nature the 
amalgamation will be consummated. But if the old world is too distant for annexation, there is 
some satisfaction in knowing that its people are willing to mingle their destiny with ours within 
our own territories, which are large enough to harbor and provide for the whole human family. 
The swelling tide of immigration to our shores bears witness to the superior attraction of our in- 
stitutions to the millions on whom the iron heel of despotism presses hardest. " Excelsior !" 

A few historical facts connected with the formation of the original Union, and the admission of 
new States, will not be out of place in this connection. On Monday, the 5th September, 1774, 
there was assembled at Carpenters' Hall, in the City of Philadelphia, a number of men who had 
been chosen and appointed by the several Colonies in North America, to hold a Congress for the 
purpose of discussing certain grievances imputed against the mother country. This Congress re- 
solved on the next day that each colony shotild have one vote only. On Tuesday, the 2d July, 
1776, the Congress resolved, " That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be. Free and 
Independent States," etc., etc. ; and on Thursday, the 4th July, the whole Declaration of Indepen- 
dence having been agreed upon, it was publicly read to the people. Shortly after, on the 9th Sep- 
tember, it was resolved that the words " United Colonies" should be no longer used, and that the 
" United States" should thenceforward be the style and title of the Union. On Saturday, the 15th 
November, 1777, " Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union of the United States of Amer- 
ica" were agreed to by the State delegates, subject to the ratification of the State legislatures 
severally. Eight of the States ratified these articles on the 9th July^ 1778 ; one on the 21st July ; 
one on the 24th July, and one on the 26th November of the same year ; one on the 22d February, 
1779, and the last one on the 1st March, 1781. Here was a bond of union between thirteen inde- 
pendent States, whose delegates in Congress legislated for the general welfare, and executed cer- 
tain powers, so far as they were permitted by the articles aforesaid. On the 4th Mai-ch, 1789, 
the present Constitution, which had been adopted by a convention and ratified by the requisite 
number of States, went into operation, and thus a more perfect union for the general good was 
formed. The dates at which the State legislatures severally ratified this instrument are given in 
the annexed table : 



Original States, Date of Ratification. 

Delaware 7th December, 17S7 

rennsylvania 12th " 1787 

New Jersey ISth « 1787 

Georgia 2d January, 1788 

Connecticut 9th " 1788 

Massacliuaetls 2d February, 1788 

Maryland 28th April, 1783 



Original States. Date of Ratification. 

South Carolina 23d May, 1783 

New Hampshire 21st June, 1788 

Virginia 26th " 1783 

New York 26th July, 1783 

North Carolina 21st March, 1789 

and 

Ehode Island 29th May, 1790 



The privilege of becoming members of the Union by ratifying the Constitution was confined to 
those States that were parties to the confederation by which the Constitution had been framed. 
The Constitution had been adopted by the convention on the 17th day of September, 1787. It re- 
quired that nine States should ratify it before its provisions could go into effect. Congress, on the 
13th September, 1788, determined that as a sufficient number of States had ratified it— eleven hav- 
ing done so— that it should become operative on the first Wednesday (the 4th) March, 1789. North 
Carolina and Rhode Island had not yet given it sanction ; but as soon as they acceded to its pro- 
visions, they were admitted to a participation of its blessings. 

The usual practice observed on the admission of new States is first to form a certain part of the 
country into a sort of colonial appendage, with a governor and other executive and judicial officers 
appointed by the President. When the population of such organized Territory becomes equal to 
the ratio which entitles a State to one member in the United States House of Representatives, the 
people are authorized to petition Congress for leave to frame a State Constitution, and this done, 
the admission of the State is only a matter of form. The ratio on which a Territory is entitled 
to claim admission is altered after each general census. At first it was about 40,000 ; but as 233 
is now the maximum number of members allowed for the lower branch of the federal legislature, 
and as the population is about 23,800,000, the ratio is not far from 96,000. The petition is sel- 
dom questioned, except, perhaps, at times when sectional feelings prevail, and even then the usages 
of the country eventually enforce its demands. The only interference by Congress being as re- 

C as 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Bpects boundaries, and that any constitution that may be framed by the new State shall be repub- 
lican in its form and not discordant with that of the United States. All the Western and Southern 
States have been admitted on these principles ; but in the case of Texas and California other prin- 
ciples have been necessarily adopted. 

Eighteen new States have been admitted into the Union since the confederation of the original 
thirteen colonies, as follows : 

1. Vermo7it, which formed a part of the territory of New York and New Hampshire, was admit- 
ted on the 4th March, 1791. 

2. Kentucky, which was formerly a part of Virginia, was admitted on the 1st June, 1792. 

3. Tennessee, formed from the territory ceded to the United States by North Carolina, and 
which afterward was known as the " Territory south of the Ohio River," was admitted on the Ist 
June, 1796. 

4. Ohio, the first State formed from the " Territory north-west of the Ohio River"— a territory 
which had been ceded to the United States by Virginia and other claimants, and which was erected 
into a government as early as 1787, was admitted on the 29th November, 1802. 

5. Louisia7ia, a part of the vast territory of the same name, purchased of France by the United 
States in 1803, and subsequently known as the Territory of Orleans, was admitted on the 8th 
April, 1812. 

6. Indiana, the second State formed to the north-west of the Ohio, was admitted within its 
present limits on the 11th December, 1816. 

7. Alississippi, which was formed from the territory ceded to the United States by South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, was admitted on tlie 10th December, 1817. 

8. Illinois, the third of the North-western States, was admitted on the 3d December, 1818. 

9. Alabama, the second State formed from the South Carolina and Georgia cessions, was admit- 
ted on the 14th December, 1819. 

10. Maine, origin.ally a province of Massachusetts, but having been permitted to frame a State 
government by that State, was admitted on the 15th March, 1820. 

11. Missouri, the second State formed from the French purchase, was admitted on the 10th 
August, 1821. 

12. Arkansas, the third State formed from the Louisiana cession, was admitted on the 15th 
June, 1836. 

13. Michigan, the fourth State formed from the Territory north-west of the Ohio River, was 
admitted on the 26th June, 1837. 

14. Florida, which has the same limits as when ceded by Spain, was admitted on the 3d March, 
1845. 

15. Texas, which had been an independent Republic for the ten preceding years, was admitted 
by a joint resolution of both Houses of Congress on the 29th December, 1845. 

16. Iowa, the fourth State formed from the Territory of Louisiana, was admitted on the 28th 
December, 1846. 

17. Wisconsin, the fifth State formed from the Territory north-west of the Ohio River, was ad- 
mitted on the 29th May, 1848. 

And 18. California, having been governed as a State for upward of a year, was admitted on 
the 9th December, 1850; and though the last, it is by no means the least important of the mem- 
bers of the great confederacy. 

Besides these thirty-one States which send representatives to Congress, in number according to 
their population, there are several local and dependent goverments, which are styled " Territories 
of the United States." Such are the Territories of Oregon, Washington, Utah, New Mexico, and 
Minnesota. The Territory of Nebraska is not yet organized, nor has the vast territory set apart 
for the Indians any aggregate existence, but each nation, within its own limits, is governed by ita 
own laws. 

1. Oregon was erected into a Territory on the 14th August, 1848 ; 

2. Minnesota, on the 3d March, 1849 ; 

3. Utah, and 

4. JVew Mexico, on the 9th September, 1850; and 

6 Washington, originally a part of Oregon, was formed into a separate Territory at the session 
of 1852-68. 

The only Territory now remaining without local government is that portion of the United 
States embraced in the Nebraska country, and the vast domain extending beyond Minnesota and 
Iowa westward to the Rocky Mountains and north of the 43d parallel of north latitude. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The District of Columbia, or Federal District, is under the immediate government of Congress, 
and is not represented in that body. 

The statistics of population of the old colonies were obscure and uncertain at the commencement 
of the Revolution ; but the population at that time could not have been far from 3,000,000, more 
or less. Since the peace a census has been taken at decennial periods. 

In 1790 the number of inhabitants in the States amounted to 3,929,827, of which number 
3,172,464 were white persons, 59,466 free colored persons, and 697,897 slaves. 

In 1800 the population had increased to 5,305,941, of which number 4,304,489 were whites, 
108,395 free colored, and 893,057 slaves. 

In 1810 the population amounted to 7,239,814, viz. : 5,862,004 whites, 186,446 free colored, and 
1,191,364 slaves. 

In 1820 the whole number amounted to 9,638,191, viz. : 7,866.569 whites, 233,524 free colored, 
and 1,538,098 slaves. 

In 1830 the population had increased to 12,866,020, of which 10,532,060 were whites, 819,599 
free colored, and 2,009,043 slaves. In the aggregate of this census are included 5,318 seamen in 
the United States service. 

In 1840 the census returned 17,069,453 inhabitants, viz. : 14,189,705 whites, 386,292 free color- 
ed, and 2,487,356 slaves. Included in the aggregate are 6,100 seamen in the United States service. 

The census of 1850 gave the whole population at 23,263,488, of which number 19,630,738 were 
white persons, 428,661 free colored, and 3,204,089 slaves. 

The per centum increase of the several classes, from one decennial period to another, was as 
exhibited herewith : 



Clasees. 


17911. 1 SOO. 


1800-10. 


1810-20. 


1820-30. 


1B3040. 


18405 


White persons 

Colored *' —free 


35.7 .... 

82.2 .... 


36.2 


.... 84.2 . . . . 


.... 33.9 .... 
.... 36.8 .... 


.... 84.7 .... 

.... 20.8 .... 


.... 88.3 


.... 72.2 .... 


. . . . 25.2 . . . . 


. . . . 10.9 


" " — slave . . . 


27.9 .... 


. . . . 33.4 . . . . 


.... 29.1 .... 


.... 30.6 .... 


.... 23.8 .... 


. . . . 28.8 


" " —total.... 


S2.2 .... 


... 37.6 .... 


.... 28.6 .... 


.... 31.4 .... 


. . . . 23.4 . . . . 


.... 26.4 


Total population 


35.0 .... 


.... 36.4 .... 


.... 33.1 .... 


....83.4 .... 


.... 32.6 ... 


. . . . 36.3 



The above sums are independent of the Indian population, the enumerations of which have ever 
been uncertain, but what at the present time may probably amount to about half a million. 

Sixty years since, says the census report of December, 1851, the proportion between the whites 
and blacks, bond and free, was 4.18 to 1. In 1850 it was 5.4 to 1, and the ratio in favor of the 
former race is increasing. Had the blacks increased as fast as the whites during these sixty years, 
their number, on the 1st June, would have been 4,686,410 ; so that, in comparison with the whites, 
they have lost in this period 1,053,660. 

This disparity is much more than accounted for by European emigration to the United States. 
Dr. Chickering, in an essay upon emigration, published at Boston, in 1848 — distinguished for great 
elaborateness of research — estimates the gain of the white population from this source at 3,922,152 
No reliable record was kept of the number of immigrants into the United States until 1820. when, 
by the law of March, 1819, the collectors were required to make quarterly returns of foreign pas- 
sengers arriving in their districts. For the first ten years, the returns under the law afford 
materials for only an approximation to a true state of the facts involved in this inquiry. 

Dr. Chickering assumes, as a result of his investigations, that of 6,431,088 inhabitants of the 
United States in 1820, 1,430,906 were foreigners, arriving subsequent to 1790, or the descendants 
of such. According to Dr. Seybert, an earlier writer upon statistics, the number of foreign pas- 
sengers from 1790 to 1810, was, as nearly as could be ascertained, 120,000 ; and from the estimates 
of Dr. Seybert, and other evidence, Hon. George Tucker, author of a valuable work on the Census 
of 1840, supposes the number, from 1810 to 1820, to have been 114,000. These estimates make for 
the thirty years preceding 1820, 234,000. 

If we reckon the increase of these emigrants at the average rate of the whole body of the white 

population during these three decades, they and their descendants, in 1820, would amount to about 

360,000. From 1820 to 1830, there arrived, according to the returns of the custom-houses, 135,986 

foreign passengers, and from 1830 to 1840, 579,370, making for the twenty years, 715,356. During 

this period, a large number of emigrants from England, Scotland, and Ireland came into the United 

States through Canada. Dr. Chickering estimates the number of such from 1820 to 1830 at 67,993 , 

and from 1830 to 1840 at 199,130 — for the twenty years together, 267,123. During the same time 

a considerable number are supposed to have landed at New York with the purpose of pursuing 

their route to Canada ; but it is probable that the number of these was balanced by the omissions 

in the official returng. 

«5 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



From 1840 to 1850, the arrivals of foreign passengers in the ports of the United States hayo 
been as follows : 



lSlO-41 88,504 

1842 101,107 

1843 75,159 

1844 74,607 



1845 102,415 I 1849 290,610 

1S46* 202,157 1850t 173,011 

1347 234,756 



1&48 226,524 I Total 1,569,850 



Within the last ten years there has probably been comparatively little immigration of foreigners 
into the United States over the Canada frontier ; the disposition to take the route by Quebec hav- 
ing yielded to the increased facilities for direct passenger transportation to the cities of the Union ; 
■what there has been, may, perhaps, be considered as equaled by the number of foreigners passing 
into Canada, after landing at New York, many having been drawn thither by the opportunities 
of employment afforded by the public works of the province. As the heaviest portion of this 
great influx of immigration took place in the latter half of the decade, it will probably be fair to 
estimate the natural increase during the term at twelve per cent., being about one-third of that 
of the white population of the country at its commencement. 

Investigations instituted since the date of this report lead to the conclusion that the immigration 
through Canada virtually ceased with the ten years ending in 1840, and that during the decennial 
term from 1840 to 1850, at least 48,000 foreign immigrants passed from the United States into 
Canada in excess of the number which passed from that province into the States of the Union. 
This correction does not materially alter the table of immigration up to 1840, but slightly reduces 
the aggregate for the sixty years. 

Taking for granted the substantial correctness of the above estimates, and the accuracy of the 
returns during the last ten years, the following statement will show the accessions to our popula- 
tion from immigration from 1790 to 1850 : 

Number of foreigners arriving from 1790 to ISIO 120,000 

Natural increase, reckoned in periods of ten years 47,560 

Number of foreigners arriving from 1810 to 1820 114,000 

Increase of the above to 1820 19,000 

Increa.se from 1810 to 1S20 of those arriving previous to 1810 53,450 

Total uutubtr of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in 1S20 859,010 

Number of immigrants arriving ft-om 1820 to 1830 203,979 

Increase of the above 85.723 

Increase from 1820 to 1880 of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in the country in 1820 1-34.180 

Total number of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in the United States in 1880 732.847 

Number of immigrants arriving from 1830 to 1S40 762,369 

Increase of tlie above 129,602 

Increase from 18.30 to 1840 of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in the United States in 1880 254,445 

Total number of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in the United States in 1840 1,879,263 

Numl)er of immigrants arriving from 1840 to 1850 1.521,850 

Increase of the above at twelve per cent 183,942 

Increase from 1840 to 1850 of immigrants and descendants of immigr.ants in the United States in 1840 719,361 

Total number of immigrants into the United States since 1790, living in 1850, together with descendants of im- 
migrants , 4,804,416 

Should the population increase in the average ratio (say 83J per cent, decennially) it has main- 
tained for the past sixty years, the United States will contain in 18ti0, 31,018,000 ; 1870, 41,358,000 ; 
in 1880, 55,144,000; in 1890, 73,525,000; in 1900, 98,034,000; in 1910, 130,712,000; in 1920, 
174,293,000; in 1930, 232,391,000; in 1940, 809,855,000 : and in 1950, 413,139.000. Thus in one 
hundred years hence the United States may equal in its population that of China — a nation, the 
age of which reaciies beyond the dawn of history. 

That the mission of the United States is one of a high destiny, who can doubt. Its progress in 
the past and its prospects for the future arc alike incomparable, for no other nation of the world 
has been so blessed with increase, nor has any ever adopted so mild, j'et potent influences to guard 
its welfare. Of the past, present, and future of our country, Mr Everett, one of America's great- 
est statesmen, thus speaks : " We live at an era as eventful, in my judgment, as that of '76, 
though in a different way. We have no foreign yoke to throw oflP, but in the discharge of the duty 
devolved upon us by Providence, we have to carry the republican independence which our fathers 
achieved, with all the organized institutions of an enlightened community, institutions of religion, 

• Tills return includps (Irtppn moiitlrs. from .Inly 1. l«4.i, to notli September, I!M6, 

t Tlie r<'|i<>rt lr..ni tlie State nepartment for tliis yenr gives :!1 i.3:n a.t llie total mimlier of pnssengers nrriring in tlie UniteJ States, but i)( 
lieoe, SdM'i were citizens uf the AtlHiilic States proi'eeiliug to Ciilirornia l.y sea. anil .n,.'3M nalivea ol tlie ci-untr.v returnnig Ironi visits abroad. 
A. deducti>>n of 106,870 19 made IVuni the baliim e lur tbat purtiun of the year IVom June 1 to September 30. 

86 



GEOGRAPHICAL 


INDEX OF STATES, 


ETC. 






States 


Area 


Population in 1850 




Total. 


Pop. 






Territories. 


sq. miles. 


Whites. 


Free Colored, 


Slaves. 


Bq. m. 


6. 




I. New England States: 
















Maine 


3n,ono 


581,813 .. 


. i,a56 . . . 





... 583.169 


19.4 


120 




New Hampshire . . . 


9.280 


317,456 . . 


520 .. . 


— 


... 317,976 


84.2 


177 




Vermont 


10,212 


313.402 . 


718... 


— 


... 314.120 


30.1 


278 




Massacliiisctls 


7.8(10 


985,450 . . 


. 9,064 . . . 


— 


. . . 994.514 


126.1 


144 




Khode Island 


1,360 


143.875 . . 


. 8,670... 


— 


. . . 147,.545 


108.0 


249 




Connecticut 


4.674 


863,099 . . 


. 7,693 . . . 


— 


... 870,792 


79.3 


62 




Total 


63,326 


2,705,095 . . 


.. 23,021 ... 


- 


... 2,728,116 


48.1 






II. Middle Atlantic States : 
















New York 


46,000 


3,048.325 .. 


.. 49,069 ... 





... 8,097,894 


67.6 


1 194 




New Jersey 


8.330 


465.513 . . 


. . 2.3.820 . . . 


222 


. . . 489.555 


6ii.0 


184 




Pennsylvania 


46.000 


2,258,463 . . 


. 53.323 . . . 


— 


... 2,311.786 


50.2 


235 






2,120 

9,856 


71,169 .. 
417,943 . . 


.. 18.073 ... 
.. 74.723 ... 


2,290 
. 90,368 


91.5.32 
. . . 583,034 


43.6 

62.3 


70 
1 133 




Maryland 




Total 


111,796 


6,261,413 . . 


.. 219,008 ... 


. 92,880 


... 6,573,301 


67.3 






III. District of Columbia 60 


88,027 . . 


.. 9,973... 


8,687 


51,687 


861.4 


I 60 




IV. Southern Atlantic States: 
















Virginia 


61..362 


S94.S00 . . 


. 54,333 . . . 


472,528 


... 1,421,661 


23.1 


285 




North Carolina 


45.000 


5.5.3.1128 .. 


. 27,463 . . . 


288.548 


869,039 


19.3 


210 




South Cunlina 


24.500 


274,567 .. 


. 8.956 . . . 


384.984 


... 668.507 


27.3 


255 






58,000 

59,268 


521. .572 .. 
47.211 .. 


. 2,931 ... 
924 . . . 


381.682 
39,309 . 


... 906.185 
87.444 . 


... ... 15.7 

1.4 


80 
75 




Florida 




H, Total 


248,120 


2,291,178 . . 


. 94,607 . . . 


1,567,051 


... 3,952,836 


15.9 






V. Central Slave States, etc. : 


















50,722 

47,1.56 


426,4'56 .. 
29.5.7 IS ... 


. 2,293 . . . 
930 . . . 


842.892 . 

8119.878 . 


. . . 771.671 
. . . 6ii6..526 . 


1.5.2 

12.8 


39 1 
162 




Mississippi 






45,600 

37.680 


756,753 . . 
761,417 .. 


. 6.401 .... 
. 10,007 .... 


239.460 . 
210.981 . 


. . . 1,002.614 . 
... 9^2.405 . 


21.9 

26.0 


263 

108 




Kentucky 




Louisiana 


46.431 


25,5.491 ... 


. 17,462 .... 


244.809 . 


... 517.762. 


11.1 


116 




Texas 


237.321 


154,C34 ... 


897 ... . 


58,161 . 


. .. 212.592. 


0.9 


269 




Arkansas 


52,198 


162,189 ... 


608 ... . 


47.100 . 


. . . 209.897 . 


4.0 


46 






67,380 

187,171 

771,659 


592,004 . . . 


. 2,618 . . . . 


87,422 . 


. . . 682,044 . 
. . . 4,985,511 . 


10.1 

8.6* 


108 
102 




Indian Ter 

Total 




3,404,092 . . . 


. 40,716 .... 


1,540,703 . 




VL Central Free States, etc. : 
















Ohio 


39,964 


1,9.55,108 . . . 
977.628 . . . 
395.097 . . . 
846.0.S5 ... 
804,758 . . . 
191,879 ... 
6.038 . . . 


. 25,319 . . . . 





... 1,980,427 . 


49.5 


221 






83.809 

56.243 

55.405 

53,924 

50,914 

S3.<mo 


. 10,788 . . . . 
. 2,557 . . . . 
. 5.435 . . . . 

533 .... 

835 . . . . 
39 . . . . 


- ■ 


. . . 988.416 . 
... 397.654. 
... 851.470. 
... 805.391 . 
... 192.214. 
6.077. 


29.2 

7.0 

1.5.3 

.5.6 

3.7 

0.1 


94 

152 
87 
298 
103 
1.59 




















Minnesota Ter 




North-West Ter 


587.564 


— 


— . . . . 


— 


— 


— 


220 




Nebraska Ter. 

Total.... 


l:!«.700 

1,097,523 


4,676,543 ... 


— .... 


— 


.. 4,721,049 . 


21.5* 


176 




. 45,106 .... 


- . 




VII. Pacific States, etc. 


















California 


18S.9S1 

210.744 


91,632 ... 
61. .530 . . . 


965.... 
17.... 


— . 


92.597t 
61.547. 


05 

0.2 


51 

190 




New Mi!xic() Ter 




TTlah Ter 


187,92.'? 


11,330 ... 


. 24 ... . 


26 . 


11,380. 


0.1 


276 




Ongon Ter \ 

Washington Ter. . j 

Total 

Grand Total .... 


341,463 

929,111 

3,221.595 '. . 


13,088 . . . 

177,580 . . . 
19,.553,928 . . . 


200.... 


— . 


13,294 . 

. . 178.818 . 


0.1 

0.1 

1.4 


(231 




. 1.212.... 
. 433.643 . . . . 


26 . 




3,204.347 . 


... 23,191,673 . 




1 

• In calculating tliese ratio 


, till- area of tlie uninlialilted and Indian territory is oni 


tied. 










f Tliis is the United States Census ascertainment. 


The census tak 


;n by the State a 


uthorities in 


832 .allows a popu 


ation ol 21j4,43S. 






1 38 



















SUCCESSORS TO MARQUAND & C( 

savHn AND ptATHo-waaEt t 

247 BROADWAY, SIGN OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE, SOT 

IlKNRY BALL. WM. BLACK. EBENEZER MONROE. 




QFACTURERS AND IMPORTERS OF 

OSt WATCHESt aEWEUYt ^C. 

OF MUREAY STREET, OPPOSITE THE CITY HALL, 




CINCINNATI AND LOUISVILLE LINE. 

LEAVE EACH PLACE DAILY AT 11 O'CLOCK, A. M. 
FAKE $2.50, WHICH INCLUDES MEALS AND STATE KOOMS. 

THE MAGNIFICENT LOW PRESSURE STEAMER 
AND TnE UNRIVALED STEAMER 

TELEG-I^.A.FIi 3STO. S. 

These Boata are of the largest class afloat on the Vestem Waters, and are furnished ■with every thing for the 
comfort and safety of passengers. 

LOUISVILLE AND ST. LOUIS LINE. 

Leave Louisville Daily at 11 A. M. Leave St. Louis Daily at 5 P. M. 

EABE $8, "WHICH INCLUDES MEALS AND STATE BOOMS. 

THE FINE, FAST AND COMMODIOUS BTEAMEK3 

ALVIN ADAMS, FASHION No. 2, SOUTHERNER, 

MOSES McLELLAN, NORTHERNER, SUPERIOR. 

Fare from Cincinn.nti 1o St. Louis $10. For through tickets apply on board the Boats or to TIIOS. SHER- 
LOCK, Cincinnati; C. BASHAM, Je., Louisville; DWYKK & McCOKD, St. Louis. 

BABBITT, GOOD & CO. 

Mljaltsalc ^xmxs, ^fiximxVm^ anb Commissian gltrcljants, 

DEALERS IN HEMP, GRASS SEEDS AND PRODUCE GENERALLY, 
18 and 19 PUBLIC LANDING, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



TJ I^ rS. O Ej ' S 



kg f ig|t l^mbrotjge #alkrg, 



POST OFFICE BUILDING, WATER STREET, 
ALLEGHENY CITY, PA. 

JS^" My facilities for taking Pictures are not equaled by any in the city. Hav- 
ing rooms built expressly for the purpose, I am now prepared to take pictures, 
either old or new styles, in all kinds of weather. Rooms open from 8 o'clock, A. 
M., until 6 o'clock, P. M. R M U N R O E 

JEFFERY SEYMOUH, 

■II Mi ilH IMDFACTMB, 

No. 65 Walnut Street, between Second and Pearl Streets, 

ci3srcinsrasr-A.Ti, 013:10. 

ENGINE, STEAMBOAT, FACTORY and GARDEN HOSE 

MADE OF THE BEST MATERIALS, BOTH COPPER AND IRON RIVETED. 
Also, Belts or Bands, for Machinery, Round and Elevator Belts, &c., made of 
Patent Stretched Leather, Water Proof Cemented. 
^^" Orders from our own citizens, and the country generally, thankfully re- 
ceived and promptly attended to. 






^%^ 
r^^^ 



Tn 



Water Proof Fresco. 

We wjuld call the attPtition of pooiPtirs who are about buililinir or repairin? fhoir churches, 8tc, to excel 
lent ii'.iprDvcinenls in a !!)■ tliod for painting vvalN in Fresco. This nmde ot decoralion lias lieen extensivily 
useii Oy the inventor, in some of ilie finest structures in Aineiica, and lias given the utmost saiisliiclion iii 
ev»ry instance. It is far snperior to water color, the old nieiliod of decoraiio.i. It is tree from oil, lead, spir- 
its, wax, &c , which are known, hy their nature, to 'urii yellow. It is entire ly water prooi, so if hy accident 
the root or sides ol the huilding should leak, (all large buildiiiHs do,) it will pr 'teci the paintirg Ironi stains or 
discoloration, until such times as the leak can be repaired. This is an important iiem, lor it is a wii; knoirn 
fact, that nine tenths of the churches decorated in this country, are del'accu in less than a year alter comple- 
tion, in consequence of leaky roo''-'. 

There is no one who has visited churches, where Fresco decorations have been used, but has seen the evil 
effect of water colors In our method, we will vvanaiit the decoration free from leaks, stains, &e., as long as 
tlie walls of the building stand. Water color, which some socielie- ii^e on account of its cheapness, we would 
not warrant five minutes in a rain storm. Our work can be cleaned vvi h a scrubbing brush and water. In the 
most thorough manner, without producing the least particle <if discoloration to the work. I ti.e saiee test is 
applied to water colors, it wruld iitl. riy destioy it. Wc have had an experience of many years as an architec 
tural and Fresco painter, and we do by tar the most extensive business in the United States. Our work has 
been iiseu in some of the finest structures in America, and has been the admiraiion of thousands. Moldiies, 
ornaments, cornices, and perspectives are paiiited for less than one hall thn same w u'd enst in plaster, and 
possessing far more beauty and ilnrjibility. We will send plan to re-pon^ib'e persons, to all put- oi the conn 
try. We will also furnish niaiis for ihe remodeling of churches on the most improved metl oil in finishii g and 
ventilating. We will warrant all edifices placed in our hands for decoration, to give the ntmost sali-faelion in 
harmony and effect. Societies who are contemidHtini; the use of Fresco decoiations, shou d ap()ly t" us he!ore 
tlie fining or plaster is applied, as from our knoivl'dg'' of this art, we can cause the plaster to take such shapes 
iit trifling expense as would cost thousands of dnilars to execute in plaster. 

We can refer to i|ie pa^tir ai'd trustees of severcl M. E Churches in the city or country, who have pro- 
nounced our work superior, in every re.-pect. to anything ol the kind in the country. 

For lurther particulars, referenees, &c., address 

J. STANLY D'OKSAY, Church Decorator, and 
Inventor of Water Proof Fresco, 556 Broadway, New York. 

i=»i3:o:Brg-i:^ 

m 




Corner Sharp and German Streets, Baltimore, 

Persons owning Family Lots in public Cemeteries or private Burial Grounds, are rcBpectfully invited to cal' 
before purchasii.ff elsewlnre, and exaiiii'ie the stock of Monuments, Tombs, Head ."^tonis, &c., of the best 
AiU'-rican and Italian Marble, now finished and ready tor sale at the above establishinenl The assortment 
which is lar/e, embraces original designs, and of cho-ce selections from the most appropriate and beautiful 
artistic siriictiires io modern use. Visitors irom the South .ind West are assured thai they can be as well 
served in any of tin: above articles, at rates wliicli defy competition. Those who may be willing to entrust me 
with their written orders, mav rely upon prompt and f.iithful attention ; workmen sent to pi. ice up work when 
requested by purchesers. Also, 

MARBLE STATUES, GARDEN VASES, FOUNTAINS, 

And other Ornaments, appropriate for Gardens, Dwellings or Grave Lots, constantly on hand 

ALEXANDER GADDESS, Proprietor, 

Steam Marble Works. 



THE STATE OE ALABAMA. 



Alabama is bounded on the north by Tennessee, on the east by Georgia and Florida, on the south by Florida and the 
Gulf of Mexico, and on the west by Mississippi, and extends generally between latitudes 31° and 35° north, and lonsji- 
tudes S50 10' and 88° 31' west from Greenwich, or 8° OS' and 11° 29' from Washington; a narrow strip, however. extenJa 
south beyond the main body of the State between Florida and Mississippi, reaching theGulf of Mexico, which it strikes in 
about 30° 10'. Its length from north to south, excluding the strip of land above mentioned, is 22S miles, and its breadth 
varies from 146 miles on the north line to 210 on the south line; and the area of the State is 50.722 square miles. 

The north-eastern part of Alabama, being traversed by several ridges of the Alleghanies, which terminate in this Slate, 
is decidedly mountainous, but presents nowhere any considerable elevations. South of this moimtiun region the surface 
has a general declivity toward the Gulf of Mexico, first descending gradually from mountains to high hills, and then 
sinking to a vast plain, scarcely broken except by gentle swells; and the more southern portion is a dead level, but little 
'ibove the water surface of the ocean. The southern half of the State consists of extensive prairies and pine-barrens, 
.nterspersed with alluvial river bottoms of great fertility; and the lands of the centre and north are generally covered 
with a good if not a very rich and productive soil. In the valley of the Tennessee, which occupies so large an area in 
the northern part of the State, alluvion is the prevailing formation ; and the rich bottom-lands of this region are extensive, 
and form one of the best agricultural districts within the limits of the State. 

"With the exception of the Tennessee, which takes a circular sweep through Northern Alabama, but receives no con 
siderable tributary on its southern side, all the rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico; nearly the whole surface, indeed, is 
drained into one single channel, the Mobile River, which by several large arms gathers up the waters of the whole south- 
ern slope, except those of a comparatively small tract in the south-east. The Chattahoochee, although a large stream, and 
washing the eastern border for more th.in a hundred miles, receives only a few inconsiderable streams from this State; 
and the Choctawhatchee, Conecuh, and Perdido are, in point of size, secondary rivers. The Mobile, the great river of 
Alabama, is formed by the junction of two large rivers, the Alabama and Tombigbee, 50 miles above Mobile Bay. A 
few miles below i;s junction it gives out a large branch, called the Tensaw, which receives also an arm from the Alabama, 
and reaches Mobile Bay at Blakely. The Tombigbee, or Western Branch of the Mobile, is formed by the confluence of 
two large streams, the Tombigbee Proper from Mississippi, and the Black Warrior from Northern Alabama. It admits 
vessels drawing Ave or six feet of water to St. Stephens, 93 miles from the bay, and steamboats to Tuscaloosa, on the 
Black Warrior, 285 miles, and to Columbus, on the Tombigbee Proper, in Mississippi, about 300 miles. The length of 
this river, by its tortuous channel, is about 450 miles, and it is boatable almost to its sources. The Alabama, or Eastern 
Branch, is navigable for vessels of six feet draft to Claiborne, 60 miles above its junction with the Tombigbee; 150 miles 
farther, to the mouth of the Cahawba, it has four or five feet of water, and to the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa, 
of which it is formed, it has in the shallowest parts three feet of water. Steamboats ascend it to Montgomery, 300 miles 
by the course of the river, and even to Wetumpka, on the Coosa, several miles above. The Coosa and Tallapoosa both 
have their rise in Georgia. The navigation of all these rivers, however, is interrupted during the season of low water in 
the summer months, and at best affords only a precarious means of transport for merchandise. 

The sea-coast of Alabama extends only from the Perdido to the western line of the State, a distance of some 60 miles, 
but it contains Mobile Bay, one of the largest and deepest basins on the Gulf, and the great outlet of the navigable 
waters of the State. This fine sheet of water is about 30 miles long, and from three to 18 miles broad, and the main 
entrance has 15 feet of water at low tide, but vessels of more than eight or nine feet draft can not approach nearer than 
10 or 11 miles from Mobile city, except at high water. Smaller vessels may go hence to New Orleans by an inland chan- 
nel through Pascagoula Sound, a long, narrow lagoon, lying between a range of low .sand-islands and the mainland. 
Perdido Bay, on the south-eastern edge of the State, is of little consequence to commerce, and is, moreover, difficult of 
access, on account of the sand-bars and islands which block its entrance to the sea. 

Alabama has great mineral resources. The whole central region is underlaid with vast beds of iron ore, or occupied 
by coal measures of great thickness and extent. The coal found here is of a highly bituminous character, and well 
adapted for steamboats and factories, and being in juxtaposition with the iron ores, will greatly facilitate the progress of 
mining industry. The country in this region is also well wooded, fertile, and easily attained from all directions, and in 
the succession of events must eventually become of great importance to the whole South. Bloomeries and rolling mills, 
with other establishments for manufiicturing iron, have already been erected, and the products of these have become 
both extensive and valuable. The principal seats of these operations are on the Cahawba and Coosa rivers. Besides 
coal and iron, Alabama yields lead ore, manganese, several descriptions of ochres, limestone, and marbles, and in the 
north-eastern section gold in considerable quantities has been collected. Lead ore, or galena, is found in the limestone 
formation, chiefly in Benton County : it is a pure sulphuret and granular, closely attached to the rock, and passes it in 
irregular bunches. The carbonate is also found, and in its neighborhood there are veins of calx spar and sulphate of 
barytes. Manganese occurs also in the limestone region, and has been used in the n>anufacture of chloride of lime. The 
ochres occur chiefly near Bucksville, and the red ochre found here is sufficiently rich to be used as an ore of iron. The 
marbles found in this State occur most plentifully on the Cahawba, and many of the beds aff'ord specimens of greet 
beauty: some are gray, with red veins; others are red and yellow, and specimens with greenish veins are not uncom- 
mon. There is also a buff-colored marble, filled with organic remains, and beds of white crjstalline marble, clouded 
with red, occur. Black marble is also abundant. The compactness and thickness of these formations are such as to 
elicit a favorable opinion of their value, and cause them to be looked upon with great interest in connection with the 

89 



THE STATE OF ALABAMA. 



industrial resources of the State. The resources of Alabama, however, have never been thoroughly examined ; but 
there can be little doubt, taking the present knowledge of its mineral deposits as an index, that the researches now being 
instituted, will result in furtlier and more valuable disclosures of a vast wealth of mineral within its borders, and be the 
means of placing the State in the first rank of mineral-producing districts. 

The soil, climate, and vegetation of Alabama vary with the position and elevation of its several parts. In the north, 
■where mountain is the prevailing feature, the soil is but moderately fertile, but in the intervales there is much that can not 
be excelled. The climate is here moderate, and tlic vegetation hardy : it is the region of the cereals, and a fine grazing 
country. The central parts of this State, less elevated and undulating, are well watered, and in the river-bottoms the 
land is extremely rich and productive. The valley of the Alabama is one of the most fertile regions of the Union. In 
the south the climate is very warm, the soils rich, but with great exceptions, and the principal growths of a tropical 
character. The sugar-cane has been found to succeed well in the extreme southern strip between Florida and Mississippi, 
and indigo was formerly raised in considerable quantities; rice, also, grows well in the alluvial bottoms near the Gulf; 
but cotton, which thrives throughout the State, is the great agricultural staple. The natural growths and animals are in 
no way different from tliose of the neighboring States on the Gulf of Mexico. The most common of animals is the deer, 
and the country abounds in turkeys, partridges, geese, ducks, and various other species of smaller game ; and fish in 
abundance may be taken in the rivers and bays. 

Alabama is divided into 52 counties, the general statistics of which, and the capitals of each, in 1S50, were as follows : 



NoETnKBN Alabama — ^18 counties. 



Counties. Dwell. 

Benton 2,1S8. 

Blount 1,12T. 

Cherokee 2,0.39. 

DeKalb 1,251. 

Fayette 1,403. 

Franklin 1,955. 

Hancock 251. 

Jackson 2,000. 

Jefferson 1,140. 



Pop. 
,17,163. 
. 7,S67. 
.18,834. 
. 8,245. 
. 9,681. 
.19,610. 
. 1,542. 
.14,088. 
. 8,9S9. 



.1,227 
. 753 
.1,126 
. 616 
.1,065 
. 913 
. 144 
. 856 
• 752 



^^""f- Capitals. 

.31. .Jacksonville 

. 9 . . Blountsville 

.15.. Centre 

. 8.. Lebanon 
..24.. Fayette 
..28..Paissellville 

. L.HancockC. H. 

. 4..Bellefonte 
.. 4..Elyton 



Counties. Dwell. 

Lauderdale 1,868.. 

Lawrence 1,469.. 

Limestone 1,429.. 

Madison 2,046. 

Marion 1,108., 

Marshall 1,.301 . 

Morgan 1,103., 

St. Clair 944. 

Walker 799. 



Pop. 

17,172. 

15,253. 
16,483. 
26,427. 
7,833. 
. 8,846. 
10,125. 
. 6,829. 
. 5,124. 



.1,180.. 82.. Florence 
. 930..24..Moulton 
. 649.. 28.. Athens 
.1,080.. 92.. UuntsvUle 
. 573.. 5..Pikeville 
. 586. .12..Warrenton 
. 584..13.,Somerville 
. 573.. — ..AshviUe 
. 909.. 11.. Jasper 



SouTHKEN Alabama— 34 counties. 



Autauga 1,114. 

Baldwin 397. 

Barbour 2,306. 

Bibb 1,153. 

Butler 1,210. 

Chambers 2,138. 

Choctaw 760. 

Clarke 873. 

Coffee 893 

Conecuh 847. 

Coosa 1,725. 

Covington 503. 

Dale 928. 

Dallas 1,375. 

Green 1,730. 

Henry 1,142. 

Lowndes 1,854. 



Pop. 
.15,028. 
. 4,414. 
.22,632. 
, 9,969. 
.10,836. 
.23,960. 
. 8,737. 
. 9,786. 
. 5,940. 
. 9,322. 
.14,543. 
. 3,645. 
. 6,346. 
.29,737. 
.31,441. 
. 9,019. 
.21,915. 



Farrna Manuf. 
intuit. Estali. 

. 711.. 61.. 
. 121.. 88.. 
.1,325.. 39.. 
, 654. .13.. 
. 553.. 14. 
.1,842.-56. 
. 445.. — . 
. 456.. 16. 
. 604.. 9. 
. 498. .12. 
.1,130.. 13. 
. 188.. 6. 
. 697.. — . 
. 749.. 32. 
.1,310.. 71. 
. 671.. — . 
. 874.. 2. 



Capitals. 

Kingston 

Blakely 

Clayton 

Centreville 

Greenville 

Chambers 

Butler 

Clarkesvillo 

Wellborn 

Sparta 

Eockford 

Andalusia 

Newton 

Cahawba 

Kutaw 

Abbeville 

Hayncsville 



Counties, 

Macon 

Marengo .... 

Mobile 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Perry 

Pickens 

Pike 

Randolph . . . 

Eussell 

Shelby 

Sumter 

Talladega . . . 
Tallapoosa . . 
Tuscaloosa... 

Wilcox 

Washington . 



Dwell. 

1,849. 

1,353. 

3,027. 

1,005. 

1,881. 
, 1,332. 
, 1,896. 

1,973. 
. 1.904. 

1.411. 
. 1,170. 
, 1,342. 
. 1,861 
. 2,037. 
. 1,914. 
. 988, 
. 258 



Pop. 

. 26,898 

.27,881. 

.27,600. 

.12,013. 

.29,795. 

.22,285. 

.21,512. 

.15,920. 

.11,581. 

.19,548. 

. 9.536. 

.22.250. 

.18,624. 

.15.584. 

.18,056. 

.17.352. 

. 2,718. 



Fai 



Ma 



,lt. K.-t 
.1,208.. 19. 
. 818.. 4. 
. 249.. 61. 
. 692.. 23. 
. 962.. 6. 
.1,006.. 21. 
.1.4-38.. 84. 
.1,533.. 5. 
. 969.. 23. 
.1,049.. 4. 
. 693.. 9 
. 668. .12 
998.. 21 
.1,270.. IS 
.1,115.. 82 
. 666.. 6 
,. 141..— 



"l[' Capitals. 

.Tuskegee 
.Linden 
.Mobile 
. Claiborne 

. MONTGOMEBY 

. .Marion 
. . CarroUton 
..Troy 
..WeedoTvee 
. . Crawford 
..Columbiana 
. .Livingston 
. . Talladega 
. .Dadeville 
. .Tuscaloosa 
. . Camden 
..Old Washington 



The whole number of dwellings in the State was, at the above date, 73,070 ; of families, 78,786 ; and of inhabitants, 
771 671; viz., whites 426,507— males 219,728, and females 206,779 ; fr. col. 2,272— males 1,047, and females 1,225, and si. 342,892. 
Of the' whole population there were, deaf and dnmh—^h. 157, fr. col. 1, si. 28— total 186; llind—vth. 164, fr. col. 3, 
el. 141— total 308; insane— vih. 208, fr. col. 2, si. 35— total 245; and idioUc^v/h. 363, fr. col. 0, si. 142— tolal 405. The 




Ga. 58,997, Flor. 1,060, Alabama 237,542, Miss. 2,852, La. 628, Tex. 55, Ark. 91, Tenn. 22,541, Ky. 2,994, Ohio 276, Mich. 
13 Ind 93, III. 114, Mo. 158, la. 7, Wis. 3 ; and the foreign population was composed of persons from— England 941, 
Ireland 8,639,' Scotland 584, Wales 67, Germany 1,068, France 503, Spain 16.3, Portugal 39, Belgium 4, Holland 1, 
Turkey 1,'ltaly 90, Austria 33, Switzerland 113, Kussia 10, Denmark 18, Norway 3, Sweden 51, Prussia 45, Greece 7, 
Africa 18^ British America 49, Mexico 39, Central America 3, South America 2, West Indies 28, Sandwich Islands 3, and 

other countries, 116. , t, .v 

The following table wUl show the decennial progress of the population since the first census of the State, taken by the 

United States authorities : 

Colored Persons. Decenni al Increate. 

r> TTTl ..« ^ . » Total / * * 

yeTs' rTrlons. ^^ Slave. Total. Population. Ku.nerical. Percent. 

1820 85,451 671 41,879 42,450 127,901. 



1830 ...190,406 1,572 117,549 118,121 809,527 181,626. 

184o" .. .8.35,185 2,039 253.5.32 2.55,.571 590.756 281,229. 

I860 426,507.,.. .....2,272 842,892 845,164 771,671 180,915. 

40 



.142.0 
. 90.S 
. 30.6 



THE STATE OF ALABAMA, 



I 143,147 head i 128,001 head i 44,749 head, or 31.3 per cent. 

5 ( 59,895 " f ' '^ 



The general statistics of the resources, products, manufactures, wealth, and institutions of the State, according to the 
census of 1850, and other official documents referring to the same period, are as exhibited in the following summary : 

Occupied Lands, etc — Farm lands, improved 4,435,614 acres, and unimproved 7,702,067 acres. Cash value of farraa 
$64,8'23,224. The whole number of farms under cultivation on the 1st June, was 41,964— in Northern Alabama 14,216, 
and in Southern Alabama 27,748. Value of farming implements and machinery, $5,125,663. 

Live-Sioel:— Hones, 128,001 ; asses and mules, 59,895 ; mileh cows, 227,791 ; working oxen, 66,961 ; other cattle, 433,263 ; 
sheep, 871,880 ; and swine, 1,904,540. The live-stock of 1840, compared with the live-stock of 1850, exhibits the 
following results: 

Description. 1840, 1850. 

Horses 

Asses and mules 

Milch cows \ / 227,791 " j 

Working oxen V 668,018 « -j 66,961 " V 57,997 " or 8.9 " 

Other cattle ) ' 483,263 " ) 

Sheep 163,243 " 371,880 " 208,537 " orl27.9 " 

Swine 1,423,873 " 1,904,540 « 430,667 " or 33.8 « 

—in 1850, the value of live-stock was estimated at $21,690,112. 

PfoducU of Animals. — Wool, 657,118 pounds; butter, 4,008,811 pounds; cheese, 31,412 pounds; and the value of 
animals slaughtered during the year had been $4,823,485. The wool crop, represented in the census of 1840, 
amounted to 220,353 pounds, and hence the increase of the crop in 1850 was 436,765 pounds, or in the ratio of 198.2 per 
centum. In 1840, the average clip per fleece was 21.6 ounces, and in 1850, 28.3 ounces — making an increase per fleece 
amounting to 6.7 ounces, or 12.4 per centum — a fact which is suflaciently Indicative of the surprising success of sheep- 
farming in the extreme Southern States. A similar increase is apparent in Mississippi and Louisiana. 

Grain t>o;j«.— Wheat, 294,044 bushels; rye, 16,261 bushels; Indian com, 22,446,552 bushels; oats, 1,503,288 bjshels; 
barley, 8,958 bushels ; and buckwheat, 348 bushels. These crops compared with those of 1840, give the following results : 

Crops. 1840. 1850. Movement. 

Wheat 828,052 bushels 294,044 bushels deer. 534,008 bushels, or 64.4 per cent. 

Eye 51,008 " 16,261 " deer. 34,747 " or 68.1 " 

Indian corn 20,947,004 « 22,446,552 " mcr. 2,499,548 " or 11.9 " 

Oats 1,406,353 " 1,503,288 " incr. 96,935 « or 6.9 " 

Barley 7,692 " 3,958 " deer. 3,734 " or 48.5 " 

Buckwheat 58 " 348 " incr. 290 " or500.0 " 



Other Food (?ro/).s.— Pace, 2,811,252 pounds; peas and beans, 892,701 bushels; and potatoes— Irish 246,001 bushels, 
and sweet 5,475,204 bushels. The rice crop of 1840 was only 149,019 pounds. The potato crop of the same year 
amounted to l,708,-356 bushels. 

Mi^eellaneotm Crops. — Tobacco, 164.990 pounds ; ginned cotton, 564,429 bales of 400 pounds ; hay, 32,685 tons ; clover- 
seed, 138 bushels ; other grass seed, 547 bushels; hops, 276 pounds; flax, 3,921 pounds; flax-seed, 69 bushels; silk 
cocoons, 167 pounds; sugar — maple 643 pounds, and cane 8,242,000 pounds; molasses, 83.42S gallons; beeswax and 
honey, 897,021 pounds ; wine, 220 gallons, etc. The principal of these, compared with the crops returned in the census 
of 1840 exhibit the following movement : 

Crops. 1840. 1850. Movement. 

Tobacco 27-3,302 pounds 164,990 pounds .... dear. 108,312 pounds, or 39.6 per cent 

Cotton 117,138,823 " 225,771,600 " .... *««•. 108,532,777 " or 92.6 " 

Hay 12,718 tons 82,685 tons .... incr. 19,967 tons or 156.9 " 

Sugar-maple J. ^^^^ ^ ^ ( 643 pounds . . . . i ^ 8,232,500 pounds, or - « 

" cane » ^ ( 8,242,000 " ....) 

Wine 177 gallons 220 gallons incr. 43 gallons, or 24.3 " 

— the value of orchard products in 1850 was .$15,408, and of market-garden products .$84,821. 

Homtr-made manufactures for the year ending 1st June, 1850, were produced to the value of $1,934,120. The same 
description of goods returned in the census of 1840 were valued at $1,656,119. 

Manufactures. — Aggregate capital invested on 1st June, 1850, $0,000,000 ; value of all raw material, fuel, etc., consumed 
in the year then ending, $0,000,000 ; average number of hands employed 00,000 — male 0,000, and female 0,000 ; monthly 
cost of labor $000,000— male 000,000, and female $00,000; value of manufactures produced in the year, $4,464,000. The 
whole number of manufacturing establishments in operation on the Ist June, 1850, and producing to the annual value of 
$500, was 1,022— in the Northern District 341, and in the Southern District 681, and these were distributed to the counties 
as shown in the general table. Of the whole number 12 were cotton factories; 14 iron works — 3 making pig iron, 10 
making castings, and one making wrought iron ; and 149 were tanneries. The total capital invested in manufactures, in 
1840, amounted to $2,180,064. 

The condition of the iron manufacture is exhibited in the annexed summary: 

SpecificatJona. I'ig Iron. Cast Iron. Wrought Iron. Total. 

Capital invested ,.... dollars.... 11,000 216,625 2,500 230,125 

Oreused tons 1,833 — — 1,838 

Pig iron used " — 2,348 120...., 2,468 

Coke and charcoal used husliels.. . .145,000 31,300 80,000 206,300 

Value of r.aw material, etc dollars.... 6,770 102,085 3,000 111,855 

Hands employed member 40 212 14 266 

Monthly cost of labor dollars.... 700 77,447 3,360 81.507 

Iron produced to7is 522 1,915 100 2,537 

Value of year's products dollars. . . . 22,500 271,126 7,500 301,126 

—in 1S40, Alabama had in operation 1 furnace, producing annually 30 tons, and 5 forges producing 75 tons, and the total 
capital invested in the manufacture was $9,500. 

41 



THE STATE OF ALABAMA. 



Capital invested in cotton manufactures, $651,900 ; value of all raw material, etc., consumed, $237,081 ; cotton con- 
sumed, 5,208 bales; hands employed, 715— males 340, and females 369; average monthly cost of labor, $6,909 — male 
$4,053, and female $2,946; products of tlie year— sheeting, etc., 3,081,000 yards, and yarn T90,0iK) pounds; entire value 
of products $382,200. The total capital invested in the cotton manufacture, in 1840, atnountcii to $35,575. 

Capital invested in Umncrien $200,570; value of raw material, etc., used, $158,247; hands employed 462 — ^males 457, 
and females 5; average monthly cost of labor $7,745 — male $7,700, and female $45; sides of leather tanned during the 
year 158,066, and skins tanned 13,922; value of annual products $335,911. According to the census of 1840, there were 
in the State, 142 tanneries ; sides of sole leather produced 30,705, and sides of upper leather 42,777 ; hands employed, 
800; capital invested $147,463. 

In the manufacture of spirituous liquors, a capital of $500 was invested ; 2 hands employed ; 25 hogsheads of molasses 
used, and 3,000 gallons of rum produced. In 1840 there were in the State, 188 distilleries producing annually 127,230 
gall<ins spirits ; and 7 breweries, producing 200 g.allons ale, etc. ; hands employed 220, capital invested $-34,212. 

The manufactures, others than the above speeified, consist chiefly of such as are found in all agricultural countries ; 
but at some of the large towns there are machine shops, and a variety of other manufactures. 

Foreign i^ommercfi and navigation. — Mobile is the only port of Alabama open to the foreign trade. For the year 
eniling 30th June, 1850, the commercial movement was as follows : value of exports (all domestic produce) $10,514,858 — 
in American vessels $4,001,515, and in foreign vessels $5,943,343; and value of imports $865,362— in American vessels 
$108,134, and in foreign vessels $757,228. The shippmg employed in the carrying trade was as follows : 

Kntered. Cleared. Total, 



Nationnlity of / ' v . ' . 

pliipping. Vessels. Tons. Crews. Vessels. Ton.s. Crews. 

American 40 11,914 444 76 82,268 974. 

Foreign 112 84,106 4,057 106 80,717 3,896. 



Vessels. Tons. Crews. 

..116 44,182 1,413 

..218 164,823 7,953 



Total. 



.152 96,U20 4,501 1S2 112,985 4,S70 334 209,005. 



9,871 



The shipping owned in the State at the date referred to, amounted to 24,157 tons, of which shipping amounting to 
7,403 tons was registered— 1,405 tons " permanent," and 5,998 tons " temporary ;" to 16,003 tons was enrolled and Ucensed 
' permanent," and 751 tons was " licensed under 20 tons." Of the aggregate 12,028 tons were navigated by steam-power, 
and chiefly employed on the rivers. During the year, tlirec schooners (113 tons) were built. The following table will 
exhibit the movement of foreign commerce in this State, from ISIS to 1850 inclusive : 



Years 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1828 
1824 
1*'>5 
1826 



Kxpoits. 



Imports. 



$90,S,')7 $ 

50,906 

96,636 

108,960 

209,743 36,421 

200,387 125,770 

460,727 91,604 

692,635 113,411 

, . 1,527,112 179,554 

1S27 1,376,364 201,909 

1828 1,182,559 171,909 



Years. Exports. Imports. 

1829 $1,693,958 $233,720 

1830 2,294,954 144,823 

1831 2,413,894 224,435 

18.32 2,736,387 107,787 

1838 2,527,961 265,918 

1834 5,670,797 895,361 

1835 7,574,692 525,955 

1S36 11,184,166 651,618 

1837 9,671,401 609,885 

1838 9,668,244 524,548 

1839 



Yc.irs. Exports. Imports. 

1840 $12,854,694 $574,651 

1841 10,981,271 530,819 

1842 9,965,675 353,871 

1843 11.157,460 860,655 

1844 9,907,654 442,818 

1845 10,538,228 473,491 

1846 5,260,317 259,607 

1S47 9,054.580 890,161 

1848 11,927,749 419,396 

1849 12,823,725 657,147 

1850 10,544,858 865,365! 



Internal Trade and Communication.— TYie greater part of Alabama as yet depends on wagons over common earth 
roads, for the transportation of its productions and supplies; and those places distant from the rivers and railroads are 
consequently almost isolated from the commercial world. The river navigation, however, is extensive, in its various 
courses measuring at least 2,000 miles. The great body of the products of the State fltid their way to Mobile, the commer- 
cial emporium ; some are shipped by the Chattahoocliee, ior Apulachicola, and some — but in a smaller degree — by Ten- 
nes-see River, lo the Oliio, whence tliey are conveyed to New Orleans by the Mississippi, or by way of the Illinois f'anai 
and the great lakes to a norlhern market. The cotton crop, passing in these various channels, may be estimated at one 
seventh the whole by the Chatt.-ilioochee, one sixteenth by the Tennessee, and the renuiinder by the system of rivers 
centering at Mobile Bay. The progress of the State in building railroads is as yet limited ; the great line fram Mobile to 
the Ohio Kiver is completed within Alabama, and is progressing in Mississippi; the Tuscumbia and Decatur llailroad, 
now merged into the Charleston and Memphis railroad, crosses the State in the north ; the Alabama and Tennessee 
River Railroad, 209 miles long, extends from Selma to Guntersville; the M<intgomery .ind West Point Railroad is 86 
miles long, and there are several other important lines chartered, and some in progress ; these have been of comparatively 
small benefit as yet. but wlien opened for commerce, and their exterior connections built, the elTect they wdl have in 
sliniulaiing production and consumption will be felt in every direction— the latent mineral wealth of the State will be 
disentombed, the fine cotton lands on the rivers will be entered and cultivated, mechanic tnides will be demanded every- 
where, and the whole country will experience a beneficial change in its material welfiire. Besides these avenues of 
commerce, Alabama has two canals, the "Muscle Shoal Canal," and the "IluntaviUe Canal;" the former 351 miles long 
from Florence, along the north bank of the Tennessee, and designed to overcome the obstruction caused by the shoals; 
and the latter extending from Triaiia on the Tennessee, 16 miles, to Himtsville. 

Bank.'<.—\n January^ 1S50, there was one bank in the State— the Bank of the State of Alabama— with branches at 
the j.rincipal points. Its aggregate condition, as published in the General Hank returns by the Federal Oovernment, 
is exhibited in the following figures: ^*«f*s— loans and discounts, $2,116„'i91 ; stocks, $71,018; real estate, $152,601; 
other investments, $1 ,'229,201; duo by other banks, $928,209; notes of other banks, $10,029, and specie, $1,307,892; and 
ijrti!;i;'(7/V.s— capitiil, $1,500,000; circulation, $2,558,868; deposits, $1,216,319; due other banks, $20,740; and other 
habilities, $39.%124. 

Gover7iment.—y\w. Constitution provides that every white male citizen of the United States, twenty-one years of age, 
a resilient of the State one year, and in the county, city, or town three months next preceding, may vote for the election 
of all constitutional olHcers. 
42 



THE STATE OF ALABAMA. 



The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is chosen by a plurality of votes for two years; he must be at least 
thirty years of age, a citizen of the United States, and have resided in the State four years. 

The General Assembly consists of a Senate and House of Representatives : the Senate of 33 members, elect-^d for four 
years, one half biennially, and the House of 100 members, elected for two years. The qualifications extend only to 
age and residence. The Assembly meets in Montgomery on the second Monday in November, every second year, 
commencing 1S27. 

The Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, with a Chief Justice, and two associate Justices, a Eeporter, Attorney 
General, and Clerk ; a Court of Chancery, with separate chancellors for the three districts of the State ; Circuit Courts, 
each with a Judge, Solicitor, etc. ; County, or Probate Courts, etc. The judges of the Supreme and Chancery Courts are 
elected by joint vote of both Houses of the Legislature for six years. The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction only, 
and holds its sessions at the capital, annually, on the first Monday of January and June, for the hearing and determining 
points of law taken by appeal or writ of error from the Chancery, Circuit, and Probate Courts. The volumes of reported 
decisions are 3T in number. For chancery legislation the State is divided into 3 Divisions and 87 Districts, in each of 
which at least one court is held annually. Circuit courts have jurisdiction in all civil and criminal cases in the State, and 
hold two sessions (spring and fall) in each county annually. The State is divided Into nine Circuits. In Mobile County, 
criminal jurisdiction has been transferred to the Special City court of Mobile, which holds three terms each year, and has 
concurrent jurisdiction with the Circuit Courts, except in real actions. The judges of probate are also clerks of the court 
and registers of deeds for their respective counties. Circuit judges, the judge of the City court of Mobile, and judges of 
Probate, are elected by the people for six years. 

Alabama, under the law regulating the distribution of Representatives to Congress, has a delegation of seven 
members. 

Finances. — On the 31st December, 1850, the foreign debt of the State amounted to $6,693,888 98, and the domestic debt 
to $1,845,220 99— total debt $8,539,109 9T. The animal liabUilies of the State are— interest on debt $418,627 70, and the 
estimated current expenses of the government $97,678 — total $516,305 70. The immediate means of the treasury on the 
1st Nov., 1849, were— balance from former dates $588,792 44, taxes for 1850 $487,987 48, and interest on $1,100,000 U. S. 
6 per cent, stock owned by the State $66,000^total $1,092,779 92, from which deduct annual disbursements, and the 
balance will be $596,474 22, of which $488,016 is the amount of notes of the State bank in the treasury. The real balance 
then is $178,458 22, which sum is moreover liable for $60,000, appropriated for the rebuilding of the State House, burnt 
in December, 1849. The State has resources besides the United States Stock, and the treasury balance above alluded 
to, amounting to $1,766,907 64, its interest in the State bank, etc., all which may be applied to the discharge of the 
public debt. 

The militia force of the State, according to the returns of 1850, consisted of an aggregate of 58,048 men of all arms, of 
which number 2,387 were commissioned officers, and 55,661 non-commissioned oflBcers, musicians, artificers, and privates. 
Of the commissioned officers 32 were general officers, 170 general staflf-officers, 760 field-officers, etc., and 1,425 company 
officers. Every white male citizen, between IS and 45 years of age, unless disabled or excused by law, is subject to 
military duty. 

Provision was made by the Legislature of 1851 and 1852, for establishing a State institution called the Alabama Insane 
Hospital, the selection of the site of which was intrusted to the Governor. The same Legislature also appropriated $5,000 
for organizing and sustaining an Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

JSducation. — The means of education in Alabama are ample; nor have the people been unmindful of its importance. 
Throughout the State are schools for the poor, and in all the cities and towns, academies and schools of a higher class are 
numerous. As a State formed from the territorial lands of the Union, it enjoys the benefit of the Congressional grant of 
school lands, which are becoming every day more valuable ; and with increased means the several beneficiary schools 
become more efficient. Besides its schools and academies, however, there are several colleges of a high grade, at the 
head of which stands the University of Alaljama, an institution second to none in the South. The following is a list of the 
most important of these institutions, with their statistics to 1850 : 

Colleges, etc. Location. Founded. Professors. Alamni. Students. Vols, in libr. 

University of Alabama Tuscaloosa 1831 9 197 91 7.123 

La Grange College (Meth.) La Grange 1830 6 Ill 70 3.700 

Spring Hill College (K. C.) Spring Hill laSO 12 — TO 4,000 

Howard College (liapt.) Miirion 1841 5 17 70 2,050 

Howard Theol. luft, (Bapt.) Marion 1843 2 — 10 1,000 

Law Dept. Univ. of Ala Tuscaloosa — 1 — — — 

— all of which are in a flourishing condition both as respects their systems and the patronage they receive from 
the citizens. 

Public Librarien.— One State library 3.000 volumes; 1 social— 1,454 volumes; 4 college— 13.000 volumes : 2 students'— 
2,623 volumes; 30 public school— 1,000 volumes. Total— 87 libraries, 18,077 volumes.— Jiepo/'t of Libr. of Smitlisonian 
Inatitutimi, 1851. 

Periodical Press. — The whole number of periodicals and newspapers published in Alabama on the 1st June, 1850, wag 
60, of which the political principles of 16 were whig, of 22 democratic, and of 6 neutral and independent— total political 
papers 44; and there were 2 devoted to literature, 1 to religious subjects, and the attributes of 13 were not specified. 
Of the whole number 6 were issued daily, 4 tri-weekly, 1 semi-weekly, 48 weekly, and 1 semi-monthly. The aggregate 

circulation of the dailies was 9,177 copies at each issue; of the tri-weeklies, 550 copies, of the semi -weekly, copies; 

of the weeklies, 24,120 copies; and of the semi-monthly, 750 copies— making in the aggregate about four million and a 
quarter copies annually. The counties, etc., in which published are as follows: Barbour, 3 weekly; Benton, Butler, 
Choctaw, and Clitrokee, each 1 weekly; Coosa, 1 weekly and 1 tri-weekly; Clarke and Chambers, each 1 weekly; 
Dallas and Franklin, each 2 weekly; Greene, 3 weekly; Henry, Jackson, Lawrence, Lowndes, Limestone, and 
Lauderdale, each 1 weekly; Montgomery, 3 daily, 3 tri-weekly, and 3 weekly; Madison, 3 weekly; Marshall, 

1 weekly; Macon, 2 weekly and 1 semi-montbly ; Miirengo, 2 weekly; Mobile, 3 daily, 1 semi-weekly, and 

2 weekly • Morgan, 1 weekly ; Perry, Pickens, Sumpter, and Talladega, each 2 weekly ; and Tuscaloosa, 3 weekly. 

43 



THE STATE OF ALABAMA. 



Religious Denominations.— The statistics of the several religious denominations in Alabama are as exhibited in the 
annexed table : 



Dennmina- No. of Ctiurch Value of 

tioiis. Churches, aciom. Property. 

Baptist 505. .158,880. .|22T,297 

Christian 13.. 3,550.. 6,166 

Congregational. — . . — .. — 

Dutch Eef. — .. — .. — 

Episcopal 16.. 6,220.. 76,300 

Free 5.. I,b00.. 2,300 

Friends — . . — . . — 



Denomlna No. of Church Value of 

tii»ij8. Churched, aocom. Properly. 

German Ref — . . — . . $ — 

Jewish — .. — .. — 

Lutheran 1 . . 200 . . 250 

Mfnnonite — .. — .. — 

Methodist 531 . .150,675 . .276,939 

Moravian — .. — .. — 

Presbyterian . . .150 . . 58,705 . .222,775 



Dennmina- "Kf 
ti..n9. Chu 

Eoman Catholic. 
Swedcnborgian.. 

Tunker 

Union 

Unitarian 

Universalist 

Minor Sects 



5 . . 5,200 



4 . . 1,125 , 
1 . . 1,000 , 
1 . . 250 . 
3 . . 1,000 . 



Vahie of 
Property, 

.$300,000 



1,650 

6,000 

400 

12,000 



—making an aggregate of 1,235 churches, with accommodation for 388,605 persons, and valued as property at |1.132,076. 
Alabama is a Protestant Episcopal Diocese of the same name, and with West Florida constitutes the Eoman Catholic 
Diocese of Mobile. 

fitvpfiri.im and Crimf.—^ho\c number of paupers who received support within the year ending 1st June,lS50, 363 — 
352 natives, and 11 foreigners; and whole number of paupers at date aliove spocided 315—306 natives, and 9 foreigners. 
Annual cost of support .$17,.')59. The whole, number of convicts in the Alabama Penitentiary at Wetumpka, 1st Oct., 1851, 
■Wits 156, of which number 153 were white persons — 149 males, and 4 females ; and 3 were free persons of color. Offenses 
against the person 55, and against property 101. Ages— under 20 years, 15 ; from 20 to 80, 69 ; from 30 to 40, 35 ; from 
40 to 50, 20 ; from 50 to 00, 12 ; over 60, 2 ; unknown 2. 

Jlistorical Sk^ch.—T\iQ thrilling and romantic, yet terribly fatal adventures of De Soto, introduced the European for 
the first time to the wilds of Alabama. After a long and disastrous march through Florida and Alabama, the cavalcade 
of this heroic chieftain arrived by the waters of the beautiful Coosa. The province of this name extended over 300 miles, 
and embraced the present counties of Cherokee, Benton, Talladega, and Coosa. From Coos.i, the expedition advanced 
toward Tallapoosa, and eventually to the town of Tallassee. Crossing the Tallapoosa, they were received by the chief 
of the country with apparent hospitality. The expedition reached soon after the banks of the Alabama. At Maubilia 
the savages precipitated themselves on the strangers in one of the most terrible battles recorded in the annals of 
history. In this battle, which lasted nine hours, 82 Spaniards were slain, and 45 horses perished, an irreparable loss in 
tlwir condition. All their equip.ige and supplies were consumed in the flames of the burning town. The Mobilians 
were almost annihilated, 11,000 having been destroyed, among whom was probably the chief Tuscaloosa. 

De Soto had been expecting the vessels of Maldonado to arrive at Pensacola, and learned at Maubilia that they had 
actually arrived. Notwithstanding this, and a knowledge of a conspiracy in his camp, he came to the desperate resolu- 
tion to turn his back on the shipping and plunge again into the forests of the north. Crossing the Warrior, and inter- 
rupted by daily savage attacks, the expedition reached the Tombigbee. Quarrels growing out of the cruel oppressions of 
the Spaniards soon led to a general outbreak and an engagement, scarcely less sanguinary than that of Maubilia. The 
8ut)sequent fate of De Soto may be briefly told. After the battle, which was on the Yazoo Eiver, he crossed the Missis- 
sippi, spent a year in Arkansas, and returning to the great river, death ended his fortunes. He sleeps beneath its waters, 
which had never before been disturbed by civilized man, but which have sineo ministered to the wants of millions and 
millions of a race more hardy, energetic, and adventurous than even the Spaniard himself. 

At the time of De Soto, Alabama was inhabited by the Coosas, Tallassees, Mobill.ans, and Choctaws. Being nearly 
destroyed by his invasion, their places were filled by the Muscogees and Alabamas, who were of Mexican origin, and 
were driven out of that country by Cortez. Wandering a long time in the wililcrness, the Muscogees reached at last^ 
and settled upon, the banks of the Ohio, almost to the Wabash. They had previously mot and vanquished the Alabamas, 
driving them to the Y.nzoo, whence they again drove them to the Alabama, near the confluence of the Coosa and Talla- 
poosa. Further pressed by the warlike Muscogees, the unfortun.ate Alabamas were dispersed a third time and sought 
an asylum among the Choctaws and other tribes, while the Muscogees overspread Georgia to the banks of the Savannah. 
Eeceiving at last into their tribe the relies of the Alabamas, the Tookahatches, the Tuskegees (who were allowed to 
occupy the forks of the Coosa and Tallapoosa), the Ozeallies, the Uchees, and fugitives of the Natchez, after the terrible 
massacre of the French, the Muscogee confederacy increased in strength and power, until it became the most formidable 
in the country, receiving the name of " Creek" from the number of beautiful streams meandering through its limits. 

Various relics of the aborigines .still exist in Alabama. The mounds found in this State are by some attributed to a 
period anterior to the Indians; but it is known that the Natchez constructed such as late as 1730. In Alabama they are 
found upon the Tennessee, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Alabama, Cahaba, Warrior, and Tombigbee rivers, and upon being 
opened are found to contain bones, stone ornaments, pottery, and sometimes gold and silver ornaments, layers of char- 
coal, ashes, etc. The ditches which have been discovered at Cahaba, at the falls of Little River, and at Talladega Springs 
are attributed to Indian origin, an<l are thought to have been built for the purposes of defense. At Little River are four 
or five caves, which have Ijeen called "De Soto's Rock Houses," from the fact of their exhibiting the marks of intelli- 
gent occupation. Their walls have been smoothed by the hands of man. The cuttings upon rocks in various parts of 
the State are also attributed to the Indians, who used the pieces for the fabrication of pipes, mortars, bowls, etc. These 
cuttings are especially noticeable near the Tallapoosa River, and at Elyton, in Jefferson County. 

We now come to the period when the French began to occujiy Alabama. Bienville, the governor of Louisiana, sailed 
up the Bay of Mobile, and at the mouth of Dog River commenced to build a lort, etc. This was in 1702, and seventeen 
years before the founding of New Orleans. The site of Mobile, however, was removed, nine years later, to the mouth 
of Mobile River, its present position. Besides the numerous Indian wars of the colonists and their contests with the 
Spaniards, their appears to be little in the history of the French period to attract notice. The traders from Carolina and 
Virginia had also caused great annoyance. To stop their expeditious, Bienville located a fort upon the Alabama at Tus- 
kegee. In 1721 three French war ships loaded with African slaves arrived at Mobile. Ultimately the disasters of the 
colonists forced tlie al>anilonment of both Mobile and Biloxi. 

At the conclusion of the long and bloody wars of Europe, and with the adoption of the pacification of Paris in 1763, 
France had divested herself ot her whole North American interests. The western bank of the Mississippi from its source 
to its mouth, but including the island of New Orleans on the other bank, passed into the hands of Spain; while Great 
Britain succeeded to Canada, all the territories east of the Mississippi as fiir south as the Bayou Iberville and the whole of 



THE STATE OF ALABAMA. 



Florida. The whole of Alabama and Mississippi, and that portion of Louisiana north of a line drawn through the Bayoa 
Iberville, the Amite, Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain to the sea and cast of the Mississippi River, became thus a 
British possession, known until 1781 as West Florida, and the province of Illinois. Alabama was divided on the parallel 
of 320 2S' between West Florida and Illinois in nearly equal divisions; and Montgomery and Wetumpka, which are but 
fifteen miles apart, were in different jurisdictions. The Florida portion only was then in European occupation, having 
Pensacola as its seat of government. 

George Johnson, the first English governor, organized the government, garrisoned the fort at Mobile, and that of Toulouse 
up the Coosa. The government was purely military. Its earliest history was marked by great sufferings among the 
English inhabitants of Mobile who died in great numbers from habits of intemperance, exposure, and a contagious disease 
Introduced by one of the regiments. The exports of Mobile in 1772 were indigo, raw hides, corn, cattle, tallow, rice, 
pitch, bear's oil, tar, tobacco, timber, shingles, cured fish, etc. Cotton was cultivated in small quantities. 

The charter of Georgia granted to that colony the right to all lands lying westward to the Mississippi, and that State 
considering its title perfect to all the lands within these limits, proceeded to grant them to companies for the purpose of 
settlement. There were two sets of these grants known as the ''Tazoo grants," both of which have acquired a celebrity 
in history. By the first, 5,000,000 acres in Mississippi were granted to the South Carolina Yazoo Company, and 7,000,000 
to the Virginia Tazoo Company, and 3,500,000 acres in Alabama to the Tennessee Company — the first paying $60,000, the 
the second .$93,000, and the last $46,000. The United States authorities opposed these grants, and this combined with 
the opposition of the Indians prevented their immediate settlement; and the several companies having failed to meet 
the instalments upon their purchases, the grants were eventually rescinded by Georgia herself. Several years afterward 
other and more considerable grants were made by Georgia. For the sum of $250,000 the Georgia company received a 
tract embracing parts of many of the present wealthiest counties of Alabama and Mississippi — 18 in Alabama and 21 in 
Mississippi ; for $150,000 the Georgia Mississippi Company received a tract embracing parts or the whole of two or three 
of the present counties of Alabama and 31 counties of Mississippi ; for $.35,000 the Upper Mississippi Company received 
that part of Mississippi now embraced in the counties of De Soto, Marshall, Tippah, Tishemingo, and part of Tunica; 
and for $60,000 the Tennessee Company received a tract in North Alabama, embracing most of the present counties of 
Lauderdale, Limestone, Madison, Jackson, De Kalb, Cherokee, Marshall, Morgan, Lawrence, Franklin, Marion, Walker 
and Blount. This second Yazoo sale was followed by a storm throughout the country. It was denounced in the mes- 
sage of General Washington, and Congress instructed the attorney-general to investigate the titles of Georgia to the 
territory; but the legislature of that State being convened again, and all the adherents and supporters of the grants 
having been defeated before the people upon the allegation of bril)ery and corruption on the terms of the sales, they 
were declared nuU and void, and even the papers upon which they were written were committed to the flames, and con- 
sumed by fire drawn direct, as it were, from heaven, through a sun-glass. 

At this period Alabama was almost entirely in the occupation of the natives. There was a garrison of Spanish troops 
at Mobile and also at St. Stephens, on the Tombigbee, with trading posts upon the Oconee, and on other points in the 
south and west. The whole country beyond the present limits of Georgia was now purchased by the United States, and 
the Mississippi Territory established, with Winthrop Sargent as its first governor. This territory extended from the 
Chattahoochee to the Mississippi, and from 31° to 32° 28' north lat. Fort Stoddard was erected near the confluence of 
the Alabama and Tombigbee, and the county of Washington laid out, embracing a space out of which twenty counties 
in Alabama and twelve in Mississippi have been subsequently carved. Claiborne succeeded as governor. 

Louisiana having been ceded by Spain to France and re-ceded to the United States, a great controversy arose as to 
whether it included the country south of 31° and between the Mississippi and Pearl Kiver, known as the Baton Rouge 
Bkirict, and that south of the same parallel, between the Pearl and the Perdido, known as the Mobile District. The 
Spaniards claimed these as West Florida, and only gave them up after long struggles and negotiations. In 1811 the 
United States seized upon these districts, and thus secured to the present States of Alabama and Mississippi and the 
eastern portion of Louisiana outlets on the Gulf of Mexico. After this event there followed a series of terrible and 
bloody Indian wars upon the soil of Alabama, and the war with England, in which General Jackson figured so glo- 
riously, might add a bright page to the history of this State. The British having been defeated at New Orleans repaired 
to Fort Boyer, near Mobile Point. Twenty-five vessels anchored within a distance of five miles, thirteen ships ap- 
proached within three miles, and 5,000 men landed and encamped. The Americans capitulated to a force of twenty 
times their own. This was the last act of the war, as the news of the treaty of peace had reached the Territory. 

Alabama began now its career of rapid progress. Settlers flocked to the Tombigbee, over which and the Black War- 
rior (acquired from the Chickasaws) the jurisdiction of the Mississippi Territorj' was extended. In 1816 a cession was 
received from the Indians of all the territory from the head waters of the Coosa westward to Cotton Gin Point, and to a 
line running from thence to Caney Creek, on the Tennessee. The Americans contiimed to press into the territory. The 
following year the limits of the present State of Mississippi were defined and the territorial government of Alabama 
established. The seat of government was fixed at St. Stephen's. William W. Bibb was appointed governor, and the 
first legislature was convened in 1818. " The flood-gates of Virginia, the two Carolinas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and 
Georgia were now hoisted, and the mighty streams of emigration poured through them, spreading oyer the whole ter- 
ritory of Alabama. The axe resounded from side to side and from corner to corner. The stately and magnificent forests 
fell. Log cabins sprang as if by magic into sight. Never before nor since has a country been so rapidly peopled." — 
Pickett. The time had now come when, from the rapid increase of population, Alabama might take her place among 
the States of the confederation. By the act of Congress of the 2d March, 1819, it was admitted into the Union as a 
sovereign State, and at the present time occupies an enviable position among its neighbors in reference alike to its 
resources, industry, and general wealth. 

Succession of Governors. — Territorial Governoks: William W. Bibb, 1817; and CoNSTiTtrTiONAi, Goteknors: 
William W. Bibb, 1819 ; Israel Pickens, 1821 ; Israel Pickens. 1823 ; John Murphy, 1825 ; John Murphy, 1827 ; Gabriel 
Moore, 1829 ; John Gale, 1831 ; John Gale, 1S33 ; Clement C. Clay, 1835 ; Arthur P. Bagby, 1837 ; Arthur P. Bagby, 1839 ; 
Benjamin Fitzpatrick, 1841 ; Benjamin Fitzpatrick, 1843; Joshua L. Martin, 1845; Keuben Chapman, 1847; Henry W. 
Collier, 1849; Henry W. Collier, 1851. 

MoKxeouxsY. on the Alabama Kiver, is the political capital of the State, 

45 



THE STATE OF ARKANSAS. 



Arkansas is bounded on the north by Missouri, on the east by Tennessee and Mississippi, on thu south by Louisiana, 
and on the west by the Indian Territory and Texas ; and extends generally between the latitudes 33° and 86° 30' north, 
and the longitudes 89° 30' and 94° 30' west from Greenwich, or 12° 28' and 17° 2s' west from Washington. Its length 
from north to south is 242 mile.s, and its breadth from east to west varies from 170 miles on the south line to 258 miles on 
the 36th parallel, where it is widest. The area of the State is 52,198 square miles. 

The surface of Arkansas presents great variations in its configuration. Along the Mississippi River, which demarks its 
boundary on the east, and for 30 to 50 miles itdand, the country is low and widely interspersed with lakes and swamps, 
and, with inconsiderable exceptions, is annually overflowed by tlie floods of the Mississippi, Arkansas, and SI. Francis. 

In regard to the country west of the Mississippi, says Col. Long, it is proper to observe, that the broad valley of the 
Lower Mississippi, which is terminated to the north by the hilly country, connected with a continuous rocky bar, or reef, 
traversing the beds both of the Mississippi and the Ohio, about 12 miles above their junction, and denominated the Grand 
Chain of those rivers respectively, and which stretches southward, interrupted by a single hill, or ridge, elevated more 
than a few feet above the reach of the highest floods; that this entire valley region, once probably an arm or estuarj' of 
the ocean, and inhabited by the monsters of the deep, but long since reclaimed by the immense alluvion precipitated 
over the Grand Chain, in cataracts incomparably more grand and stupendous than th.it of Niagara, and borne thither 
on the backs of countless floods, is one continued and almost boundless flat, broken only by a multiplicity of water- 
courses, lagoons, and bajous, some of them trilmtary to the Mississippi, and others supplied from it, and exhit)its an 
aspect variegated rather than embellished by the inequalities just mentioned, tugelher with countless swamps, slashes 
stagnant pools, etc. Across this valley there arc as yet no passes by land secure from frequent and protracted interrup- 
tions, occasioned by overflows from the rivers by which it is traversed, nor Is there any encouraging prospect that roads 
can be hereafter constructed to any tolerable advantage, except in a very few instances. 

The country through which the St. Francis Kiver passes is one continuous swamp. The surface presents, in ordinary 
times, an alternating appearance of lakes, bayous, cypress Ian<l8, and marshy ground ; the lakes free from any growth of 
timber, except of cypress, growing in the water close to the banks, ami the bayous, also free from timber, but frequently 
lying in broad and deep valleys, wooded not less thickly than the high ground, and containing comparatively little 
undergrowth. The valleys are in many cases inundated to the depth of 15 or 20 feel, or even more. The pimds are 
mostly filled with very large cypress trees, growing in the water, where its depth does not exceed 3 or 4 feet, except in 
time of overflow. The marshy ground is filled with trees of immense size, principally gum and sycamore, in the lower 
places, and white oak and hickory in those that are a little higher and dryer, having occasionally brakes of cane very 
thickly set, and frequently rising to the height of 20 and 30 feet, and of proportionate diameter. 

Farther west the surface rises, and toward the centre of the State becomes moderately hilly, and farther west still it 
rises into the Ozark Moimtains. There are numerous and extensive prairies interspersed throughout, but much of the 
land is well wooded, and in many places it is covered with a heavy forest. 

Of the highlands that have been called the Ozark or Masserne Mountains, our knowledge is very imperfect. They 
consist of several low ridges, irregular in their direction, and seldom rising to an elevation of more than 1.500 or 2,000 
feet. They appear to be composed chiefly of secondary rocks, limestone, clay slates, and sandstones, traversed in many 
places by dykes of greenstone, granite, and sienite. Those portions of this region which have been examined are 
found to be rich in metallic minerals, of which iron and lead, copper and zinc exist in great profusion. Coal and salt 
also abound ; and there are valuable thermal and sulphurous springs. The Hot Springs of the Washita are remarkable 
for their high temper.ature, but are not powerfully impregnated with any mineral substances; they burst forth in great 
numbers and volume in a small valley lying between two lofty ridges of sandstone, and varj in temperature from 105° 
to 151 Fdhf. There are said to l>o mor« than seventy of these springs, several rising from the bed of a small stream 
wliich flows through the valley, and others issuing from the bounding ridges, at various heights. The W^ashita oilstones, 
or novaculites, so much esteemed, are foun<l in this region. 

The climate of Arkansas is temperate, but subject to sudden and frequent variations; and the whole country is ex- 
posed to Cic effect of the cold north wimis which render the central portions of the United States so cheerless in the 
winter season. The same winds traverse southward to the eijuator, and are known in the Gulf of Mexico as the "north- 
ers," the terror of seamen navigating that sea. Yet in the spring, summer, and fall the seasons are highly propitious to 
agriculture, and here cotton, Indian corn, and, in fact, all the great staples of the country find the climate highly con- 
genial. The soils vary from the most sterile to the most fertile, and on the margins of all the rivers the productiveness 
is unbounded. On most of these the soil is a rich alluvion deposited from the washings of the floods, deep and wide, 
coverin;:; millions of acres. Back from the rivers the soil becomes more and more sterile, and in many parts it is unfit for 
culture, either from scarcity of water or from metallic impregnation. The principal growths are pines, cypresses, syca- 
mores, and oaks, according to the formation, and on the prairies, which are extensive, is that rank grass for which this 
description of land is so famous. On the whole, Arkansas has many advantages for agriculture, and it has many dis- 
advantages. Where the latter exist, however, they are fully compensated for l>y the abundance of its minerals. It is 
also well stocked with wild animals, as the buffalo, deer, elk, beaver, otter, rabbit, raccoon, wild cat, catamount, wolf, 
bear, etc., which are valuable for their skins, and there is also a plentiful supply of wild turkeys, geese, quails, and other 
species of birds. 
4G 



T HJE 






CV- 





\ 



BETWEEN THE EAST AND THE WEST ! 



B-^ TKCE 




This great Railroa.1 is located nearly npon tl,c line forniorly traveled by tS. 
.Vitn.nallload. running between the Cities of Wn.hinoton •.,.; tV u ^ 

the Comn^ercial Cities c^f the Ohio and Missislni V 1 "v TtK ""'''' ""•' 

tions unite it .nth the Ci.es of" Philadelphia, r^^ Yo^l^^^a t^^^^::^ 
Canal, and by bea, afifordtng the amplest focilities fi,r travel and tradel^Jl^n 

ALL POINTS EAST AND ALL POINTS WEST. 

Its arrangements have now become so for perfected as to present at once the 
attractions of unsurpassed 

Speed, Directness, Regularity, Comfort and Safety! 

ALL OF MillCH ARE CROWNED WITH THE UNAPPROACHABLE BEAUTY AND GRVN- 

DEUR OF ITS SCENERY. 
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which forms the grand central linh In thi ■ 

p'Ltg N:;/west " "" "°""^ '" "" «■•"" ''''''■ '^« s-'t»--' -^ .1,0 ':i 

THROTOH TICKETS AND BAGGAGE CHECKS may be had at all ,h, 
Eastern and Western Cities "^ ^" "^^' 

FOR PiRTIfdLlflS SEE mm?mM ,1\D ffl^DBILLS. 



Eutaw Street, between Baltimore and Fayette Streets, 

OPPOSITE THi: KUTAW UOUSK. 




SOUTH SIDE BALTIMORE STREZT, B EIWEEN LIGHT AND CuARLEo 



WM. KNABE & GO'S PIANO FORTES. 



FIRST 

I» li E Ivor I TJ ]S<I 

AND HIGHEST HONORS 

Awarded at the 
Anntial Fair of the 

MARYLAND INSTITUTE 

MCH:r-D ' 

Nov. 1855, & Nov, 1856. 




1 
(senior partner or the 

LATE FIRM Or KNABE, 
0£HLE & CO.) 

Continues the Manufac 
ture and sale of 



OI^-A^UNTID -A.3SrnD SQXJ.A.K.E 



W^EAW® 



^ ^ IP * 




UNDER THE NAME OF 

AT THE OLD STAND, 

Nos. 1, 3, 5 and 7 NORTH EUTAW STREET, 

OPPOSITE THE EUTAW HOUSE. 

NEW SALES ROOM-207 Baltimore Street, Between Light and Charles. 



informf thi nuwl!" fhi??""^ Kl^'T^t ''.'"^^"'^ ^^ *^^ ^^*« S™' ^^^ undersigned respectfully 
partnTrsiip was dlssorvPd'''h« I ' '^^^^h of one of his partners, Mr. Henry Gamble, by which the 
h«/o^^ tu ^iissolved, he has purchased the entire large stock of unfinished Pianos Inm 
businl at'tL^oirstlraf.¥' belonging to tl.e late firlt. He wilMheretrt co^^ne'Sl 
repSon of thf late firm but r^^^^ TI^ endeavor not only to sustain the well established 
ijutauou oi ine late nrm, but to excel all former eflforts in nerfectine- thp Pianr. rnrto 

we Lv. f '?J" '^' ^^"^ established warehouses and factoryCEutai near Sammore street 
more Seet' be'tween'^r,?.''''^ of customers, opened a m^agnificent Sales Room 2 7 S ' 
Somh FnfAJ^ot f^ ^.^* ^""^ Charles, and have also started a very large new factory on 
mosl'exp^r^Wrwcirtr" '^^ "^"^ ''''''' "'"^ ^^ ""'' now empfoyed^ n^^ref 7the 
deposhSSlS^Fafr'n/^f T ^j^^^l^PO^ ^ ^^^ and improved scale, the first of which was 

Stheunusuafcom^^^^^^^ 

ton New York and^S ^.rf tk''"" ^'^°?f- ^^^^i^ited by some of the best makers in Bos- 

awarderbytheInstL^Pat^ri;t^p'-'Tot/'^°°' '"'"^^^^' "'^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^'^^hest honors 
the best makers. "^' ' ^^''' ^^^^' °^'" *^^ competition of eighteen Pianos from 

biUon S&monl *fe^"whe"e the'A>«Tp '^* -'^ afterwards confirmed at the Industrial Exhi- 

By the facilirs col"Ae?rt[lLlwo"sUbrhrn7s'L'fre ^M'^^ ^°<^ ''''• . 

satisfaction all orders with which he may be fav^ed ' '^'''' promptness and 

ad^pa^renl^^^^^^^^^^^ 

InsTu-SnT^^^^^^^ 

qualities requisite for a good Piano 'ereiore oe luiiy warranted by him, possessing all the 

WILLIAM KNABE & CO. 



GEORGE D. WINGHELL, 

NORTH WEST CORNER OP 

Race and Colnmbia Sts. 

CINCINNATI, 

MANUFACTUEEK OF 

jf jOl IE* jA. jsr jsr 7si 

AND 

JS5 T -A. :Di/£ I> 









m 



m 



"WATE 



.A. Xi s o k: E E i^ s 

T I N M E N'S 

FOR SALE AT 

MANUFACTURERS' PRICES. 



THE STATE OF ARKANSAS. 



The State is traversed or washed by several of the largest rivers in America. The Mississippi bathes its eastern front for 
more than 350 miles by its windinsjs, but affords no sites suitable for large towns in the present condition of the country. 
The Arkansas, one of the largest tributaries of the Mississippi, traverses the whole breadth of the State through its centre 
by a very tortuous course of about 1,530 miles, and is navigable during the greater part of the year far above its western 
limits. The Eed Eiver flows through the south-western corner, which is thus rendered accessible to steamboats. All the 
other rivers, some of which are of great magnitude, empty themselves into these three, affording navigal)le facilities to 
almost every quarter of the State. The St. Francis is a large and full river, rising in the eastern highlands of Missouri. 
Its channel, however, is much obstructed by niimerous rafts or jams of fallen trees, and above and below the northern 
boundary its waters are dispersed in such a manner as to render the navigation intricate and difficult. The "Spread," 
as it is caJled by the inhabitants, extends for the space of about 50 miles, with a width in some parts of 20 miles, and is 
attributed to the earthquake of ISll, at which time a large tract of country sunk considerably below the furmer level, 
and the waters of the rivers were dissipated in numerous lakes and branches. The White River has its sources in the 
south-westerly part of the Stale, and passes into Missouri, whence it soon returns, reaching the Mississippi in a general 
south-easterly course. Its length is not less than 600 miles ; and although at present it is choked up in many places by 
accumulations of drift-wood, steamboats ascend it as far as Balerville, 260 miles, and on the removal of these obstructions 
will be able to ascend it 200 miles farther. The White Eiver receives several large tributaries from Missouri, of which 
the Big Black, a navigable stream, is the principal; the Cache and Little Et-d Eiver have their courses wholly within 
this Slate. The Arkansas receives no considerable tributary. The Washita, a noble river running through a fertile and 
beautiful region, drains nearly the whole southern part of the State ; rising near the western border, it flows nearly 
parallel with the White Eiver and the Arkansas, flrst east, and then south-east, and is navigable upward of 350 niilea 
from its mouth. The Little Missouri, the Saline, the Bayou Bartholomew, the Bayou BceuflT, and the Bayou Ma^on, are 
its principal tributaries. 

Arkansas is divided into 51 counties, the general statistics of which and the capitals of each in 1850, were as follows: 



Counties. Dwell. 

Arkansas 328 . , 

Ashley 269 .. 

Benton 573 .- 

Bradley 440 . 



Calhoun . 



Carroll 696 . . 

Cliicot 226.. 

Clark 537.. 

Cojiway 595 . , 

Crawford 1,247 .. 

Oritten<i«a 860 .. 

I>aHa8 740.. 

Desha 350 .. 

Drew 430 . . 

Franklin 617 . . 

Fulton 288 . . 

Greene 436 .. 

Hempstead 855 . . 

Hot Springs 579 . . 

Independence .. 1,159 .. 

Izard 496 . . 

Jackson 447 . . 

Jefferson 595 . . 

Johnson 777 . . 

L;ifiiy<-tte 349 .. 

Lawrence 800 . . 

Madison 843 . . 



3,245 . . 153 . . Arkansas Post 

2,058 . . 173 . . Hamburg 
3,710 . . 295 . . 5 Bentonville 

3,829 .. 303e. 1 Warren 
;ted since 1850) Hampton 

4,614 .. 541 .. 1 Carrollton 

5,115 . . 142 . . Columbia 

3!995 . . 362 . . 2 Arkadelphia 

8,583 . . 3S7 . . 8 Lewisburg 

7,960 . . 499 . . 10 Van Buren 

2,648 . . 192 . . Marion 

6,877 . . 899 . . 9 Princeton 

2,900.. 118.. 2 Napoleon 

8,275 .. 277 .. 9 Monticello 

3.929 .. 454 .. 3 Ozark 

1,819 . . 222 . . Salem 

2,593 .. 345 . . Gainesville 

7,672 . . 550 . . 8 Washington 

3,609 . . 820 . . 10 Hot Springs 

7,7(17 .. 694 .. 10 Batesville 

8.213 .. 332 .. 7 Athens 

3,086 . . 282 . . 4 Klizubeth 

5.S34..817.. 9PineBIuir 

5,227 . . 526 . . 24 Clarkesville 

5.220 . . 177 . . 2 Lf wi-ville 

5,274 .. 601 .. OSiiMthsville 

4,823 .. 660 .. 12 Hunlsville 



r.u 



Counties. Dwell. Pop. 

Marion 361 . . 2,302 

Missis.sippi 234.. 2,368 

Monroe 310 . . 2.049 

Montgomery 319.. 1,958 

Newton 288 . . 1,758 

Perry 154 . . 978 

Phillips 809 . . 6,985 

Pike 306 .. 1,861 

Poinsett 350 . . 2,308 

Polk 139 .. 1,2(33 

Pope 695 .. 4,710 

Prairie 828 . . 2,097 

Pulaski 808 . . 5.653 

Randolph 538 . . 3,275 . . 896 . . 

St. Francis 643 . . 4,479 . . 348 . . 

Saline 621.. 8,901.. 405.. 

Scott 614 . . 8.083 . . 365 . . 

Searcy 822 . . 1,979 . . 246 . . 

Sebastian (erected since 1 850) 

Sevier 500.. 4,240.. 326.. 

Union 964 . . 10.298 . . 679 . . 



Van Buren 448 . . 

Washington .... 1,430 .. 

Washita 1,122 .. 

White 455 .. 

Yell 473.. 



2.864 
9,849 
9.591 
2,619 
3,341 



tab." ^»P'''«'- 

2 Yellville 

2 Osceola 

Lawrenceville 

6 Montgomery 

Jasper 
. 2 Perryville 
. 13 Helena 
. 2 Murt'reesboro' 
. Bolivar 
. 1 Dallas 
. 16 Dover 
. Brownsville 

. 14 LlTTLK EocK 
. 2 P<'Cahontas 
. Mt. Vernon 
. 16 Benton 
. 10 Winfield 
. Letjanon 
Greenwood 
4 Paraclifla 
El Dorado 
Clinlon 
. 850 . . 27 Fayetteville 
. 697 . . 1 Camden 
. 3(i7 . . 2 Searcy 
. 330 .. 20 Danville 



255 .. 

170 .. 

183 .. 
. 215 .. 

230 .. 

752 .. 

409 , 

207 . 
, 264 , 
, 155 
, 584 
, 165 

306 . 



380 



Tke whole number of dwellings in the State at the above date was 28,252, of families 23.416. and of inhabitants 209.639, 
viz. : whites 162,068— males 85,699, and females 76.369 ; fr. col. 589— males 818, and females 271, and si. 46 982. Of the 
whole p.-.pulalicm there were deaf and dumb — wh. S3, fr. col. 0, si. 6 — total 89 ; blhul — wli. 75, fr. col. 1, si. 5— total .SI ; 
insaiie—vrh. 60, fr. col. 0, si. 8 — total 63; and idiotic — wh. 91, fr. cmI. 2, si. 9— total 102. The nmnl>er of free persons 
boru in the United Slates was 160,315. the numl)er of foreign l>irtli 1,628, and of birth unknown 824. The iiitU/ve popu- 
lation originated as follows: M.aine 80, N. Hamp. 49, Venn. 82, Mass 174, E. I. 36, Conn. 121, N. Y. 53T, N. Jer. 117, 
Penn. 702, Del. 51, Md. 1,326. Dist. of Col. 49, Virg. 4,737, N. Car. 8.772, S. C.'ir. 4,5,S7, Ga. 6.367, Flor. 38, Ala. 11.'250, 
Miss. 4.463. La. l,o;i6. TfX. 386. Arkanmn 68.206, Tenn. 38,8t)7, Ky. 7,423, Ohio 1,051, Mich. 17, IikI. 2,128, III. 3 276, Mo. 
5,828, 1.1. lo6. Wise. 13. Calif. 6, Territories 9; .and \.\\q foreign population was composed of persons IrofM — England 196, 
Ireland 514, Scotland 71, Wales 11, Germany 516, France 77, Spain 3, Portug;il 3, Belgium 2, HolUind 2, Italy 15. .\usiria 
0, Switzerland 12, Eussia 6, Denmark 7, Norway 1, Sweden 1, Prussia 24, Sardinia 0, Greece 0, China 0. .Asia 0, Africa 1, 
British America 41. Mexico, 68, Central America 0, South America 0, West Indies 7, Sandwich Islands 0, and other 
countries 50. The following table will show the decennial progress of the population since the flrst census ol the Slate 
taken by the United States authorities : 

ColoreJ Person.". Derenniiil Iiicrca.'ie. 

0enf?U3 Wliite , ■ > Tot.il / ' , 

Years, Persons. Free Slave. Total. Hop, Nunier. Percent. 

... 12.579 77 1,617 1.694 14.273 — — 



1S20. 
1830. 
1840. 
1850. 



4.717 8.I.33S 



16.115 



.. 112.9 



25,671 141 4.576 . . 

77.174 4ft) 19.935 20.400 97.574 67,186 221,1 

162,063 589 46,9S2 47,571 209,689 112,065 '. . 114.8 

47 



THE 8TATE OF ARKANSAS. 



Arkansas is almost wholly occupied in agricultural pursuits ; its manufactures are merely in their inception, nor hag it 
the advantages of a seaward commerce. Nevertheless it has increased in population and material wealth within the 
de(?ade preceding 1S50, at a rate suri)assed only by lowa and Wisconsin among its sister States. The following statistics 
exhibit its condition at the latter date: 

Occupied Ltnuf«, e^c— Improved lands 781,531 acres, and unimproved lands 1,S16,6S4 acres— together valued at 
$15,265,24o. Value of farming implements and machinery $1,001,290. Farms in cultivation 17.753. 

Live-Stvck. — Horses, 60,197 ; asses and mules, 11,559; milch cows, 93,151 ; working oxen, 34,239; other cattle, 1 65,820 ; 
sheep, 91,250 ; and swine, 830,727. These numbers, compared with the live-stock of 1S40, give the following results: 

Livestock. 18<0. 1850. Increaee. 

Horses I ^i .-,„ ,..„., i 60,197 head i 

Asses and Mules . 

Milch Cows ) ( 93,151 



) ( 60,197 head ) 

f 51,472 head \ ^^^^i^ « ) 20,2S4 head, or S9.3 per cent 

Milch Cows ) ( 93,151 " j 

\V..rking Oxen |- 183,786 " -134,239 " V108,924 " or 55.0 " 

OtherCattle ' 1 165,320 •' ) 

Bheep..... 42.151 " 91,256 " 49,105 « or 116.5 " 

Swine 393,053 " 836,727 " 443,069 " or 112.8 " 

—in 1850 the total value of live-stock is set down at $6,647,909. 

Products of Ammals.—yV oo\, 182,595 pounds; butter, 1,854,239 pounds; and cheese, 30,088 pounds. In the year 
1840 the wool crop amounted to 64,943 pounds, and hence the increase of that of 1850 is 181.2 per centum. The clip of 
1840 averaged 24.6 ounces per fleece, and that of 1850, 32.0 ounces — increase, 7.4 ounces to the fleece, or 30.1 per centum. 
The value of animals slaughtered during the year preceding 1st June, 1850, $1,162,913. 

GriUn C/'op.?.— "Wheat, 199,639 bushels; rye, 8,047 busheis; Indian corn, 8,893,939 bushels; oats, 656,183 bushels; 
barley, 177 bushels; and buckwheat, 175 bushels. Comparison of the crops returned in the censuses of 1840 and 1850, 
gives the following results : 

CrupB. 1840. 18S0. Movement. 

Wheat 105,378 bushels 199,639 bushels incr. 93,761 bushels, or 88.5 per cent 

Eye 6,219 " 8,047 " hicr. 1,823 " or 129.4 " 

Indian com 4.846,632 " 8,893,939 " itici: 4,047,307 " or 83.5 " 

Oats 189,553 " 656,183 " incr. 466,630 " or 246.2 " 

Barley 760 •' 177 " deer. 583 " or 76.7 " 

Buckwheat 88 " 175 " iiicr. 87 " or 99.3 " 

Otfier Food Crojis. — Eice, 63,179 pounds; peas and beans, 285,738 bushels ; potatoes— Irish, 193,332 bushels, and sweet, 
788,149 bushels. The rice crop returned in the census of 1840, was 5,454 pounds, and the potato crop of that period 
amounted to 298,608 bushels ; and hence the increase in the crops of 1850 appears to be — rice 57,725 pounds, or 1,058.3 
per centum, and— potatoes 668,373 bushels, or 234.4 per centum. 

Staple and Miscdkineous Crops. — Tobacco, 21)5,930 pounds ; ginned cotton, 65,346 bales of 400 pounds ; hay, 3,977 tons ; 
clover-seed, 90 bushels, and other grass-seed, 436 bushels ; hops, 157 pounds ; liemp — water-rotted, 15 tons ; flax, 12,291 
pounds; flax-seed, 321 bushels; silk cocoons, 38 pounds; maple-sugar, 9,330 pounds ; molasses, 18 gallons ; beeswax and 
honey, 192,338 pounds; wine, 35 gallons, etc. Value of orchard products $40,141, and of market-garden products $17,150. 
The most important of the above crops compare with the like crops returned in 1840 as follows: 

Crops. 1840. ISfiO. IMovenient, 

Tobacco 148,439 pounds 218,936 pounds incr. 70.497 pounds, or 47.9 per cent 

Cotton 6,028.642 " 26,138,409 " i?icr. 24,109,758 " or 899.7 " 

Hay 508 tons 3,977 tons incr. 3.391 tons or 579.8 " 

^^^■•"P i l,039i " -I ^^ " idecr.* 2,035,709 " or 93.1 ' 

Flax J t 12,291 pounds S 

Silk cocoons 95 pounds 38 '• deer. 57 " or 60.0 " 

Home^nade Manufactures produced in the year ending 1st June, 1350, were valued at $633,217. The same description 
of goods returned in the census of 1840 wero valued at $4S9,750. 

Manufacture.t. — Capital invested in manufactures on the 1st day of June, 1850, $338,154; value of all raw material, 
fuel, etc., consumed in the year then ending, $280,899 ; average number i>f hands employed 0,000 — males 0,000, and 
females 000; monthly cost of labor $00,000— male $00,000, and female $0,000; Talua of products for the year $668,815. 
The whole number of manufacturing establishments, producing to the value of $500 and upward annually, was at the 
date specified 271, of which 3 were cotton factories (aggregate capital $16,500), an<l the remainder of various character, 
but chiefly such as are immediately necesisary to the wants of an agricultural country, as saw mills, distilleries, carriage 
factories, blacksmith shops, wheelwright shops, tanneries, etc. ; of the latter there were 51 (92 according to the tax list), 
with an aggregate capital of $42,100. The distribution of manufactures in Arkansas is very unequal: of (he cimnties 15 
have no manufactures, 17 have less than live establishments, 7 have five and less than ten, 7 have ten and less than filUen, 
2 have fifteen and less than twenty, and 3 have twenty and upward. The distribution are noted in the general tal>le. 

Commerce, Internal Coinniimication, etc. — Arkansas lias no direct intercourse with foreign countries. Its export 
staples, cotton, hemp and flax, corn, pork, beef, etc., are carried to New Orleans for shipment, and the great bulk of its 
supplies, dry-goods, groceries, etc., are drawn from the same quarter. On all the great rivers steaml)oats jily regularly, 
an<l in suffi'-ient numbers for the present wants of the population. A large share of the produce of the country is also 
brought down in flat and keel boats, and other primitive ways. Few of the roads are good, being chiefly earth tracks, 
almost impassable in wet weather. No railroad exists throughout the St.ite; but there are several projected, arul the 
spirit of enterprise on the subject, appears to have become vitalized. The several conventions at New Orleans and 
Memphis have favorably reported on the prospects, and according to appearances, no long time can elapse belbre one or 
more of the great projects recommended are realized. The initial point of the system projected is Helena on the Miasia- 

.„ " See "Oil oa tbis matter of hemp iiDd flax, under the liead of the " State of Ohio.* 



THE STATE OF ARKANSAS. 



sippi, where connection will be made with the roads eastward to the Atlantic ports. From this point a direct line will be 
built to Little Rock, the capital, with one extension from that place to the Red River to meet the Texas roads pointing 
east, an4 another extension by way of Van Buren and Fort Smith to be ultimately carried into the Indian Territory, this 
latter being a part and parcel of the Great Southern Pacific Railroad. From these trunk lines branches will be built, 
tapping the principal valleys, and giving to each section of the State facilities of direct railroad communication with the 
Mississippi River and New Orleans, the natural outlet of Arkansas products. A railroad is also projected from the main 
trunk, west of White River, northward through the fine agricultural and mineral regions of Northern Arkansas and 
Southern Missouri. 

Banks. — " No bank or banking institution shall be hereafter (1S47) incorporated or established in this State." None 
are now in operation, and the old "State Bank" has for some time been in liquidation. 

Government. — In accordance with the State Constitution, adopted 4th January, 1930, every free white male citizen of 
the United States, 21 years oUI, and a citizen of Arkansas for six months next before the election, may vote iu the district 
or county in which he resides. 

The Legislature consists of a Senate of 25 members, and a House of Representatives of 75 members. Senators must be 
at least 30 years of age, inhabitants of the State for one year before the election, and of the district at the time, and are 
ohosen for four years. Representatives must be at least 25 years of age, resident in their counties, and are chosen for 
two years. The Legislature meets at the capital biennially. 

The governor is elected by a plurality of votes; he must be 80 years of age, a native-born citizen of the United States, 
and have resided in the State four years, and is chosen for four years (but is not eligible more than eight in any twelve 
yegrrs). His veto to any bill passed is negatived by a subsequent majority vote of each house. In case of his disability 
or death, first, the President of the Senate, and after him the Speaker of the Representatives, becomes governor to the 
end of the term. The Secretary of the State, auditor, and treasurer, are elected by joint vote of the two houses. 

The judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, which has a chief and two associate justices, an attorney, clerk, and reporter ; 
six circuit courts, each with a judge and attorney, and county courts, etc. The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction 
only, except in particular cases pointed out by the Constitution. It holds two terms annually, in April and October, at 
the seat of government. The justices are elected by the General Assembly, by joint ballot, for eight years. Circuit courts 
have original jurisdiction over all criminal cases not expressly provided for otherwise by law, and exclusive original 
jurisdiction of all crimes amounting to felony at common law ; and original jurisdiction of all civil cases which are not 
cognizable before justices of the peace ; and in all matters of contract where the sum in controversy is over $100. Two 
terms are held annually in each circuit. The judges and prosecuting attorneys are elected by the people, the former for 
four years, and the latter for two years. The justices of the peace in each county form a county court, and have exclusive 
jurisdiction in civil cases below .$100. The justices are elected in towns for two years. 

Arkansas, under the law regulating the distribution of Representatives to Congress, has a delegation of two members. 

Finances, State Debt, etc. — The specie receipts into the treasury from all sources from October 1st, 184S, to September 
80th, 1850, amounted to .$89,988, which with $12,682 in the treasury at the former date makes the total specie resources 
for the biennial period $102,670. Specie expenditures for the same period $44,054. Balance in the treasury 1st October, 
1850, $58,616. Of this balance there was due— to the 500,000 acres fund $41,524, to the seminary fund $14;351, to the 
school fund .$63, and to counties $589. Balance of specie applicable to the redemption of Treasurer's Warrants $2,289, 
Amount of Treasurer's Warrants outstanding on the 1st October, 1850, $16,862. Amount of funds to the credit of the 
State in the Bank of the State of Arkansas at the above date $74,726, and Arkansas bank paper in the treasury $2,001. 
The taxable property* in the State in 1849 and 1850 was as follows : 



Specifications. Number. 

Polls 26,727 

Acres of land 4,987,919 

Land and implements 

Town and city lots 

Slaves over 5 and under 60 years. . . 

Saw-mills 

Tan-yard 

Distilleries 

Household furniture 

Pleasure carriages 

Horses and mares over 2 years old.. 
Mules " " 

The whole revenue for the biennial period ending 30th September, 1850, amounted to $.329,615, and the whole amount 
received from all sources $495,195. Total paid out $4.3.3,975. Balance of various accounts in treasury, 1st October, 1850, 
$61,2\9 76. The value of the taxable property and the amount of taxes levied in a series of years has been as follows : 






..15,762,190 


9.841 . . 


.. 1,289.580 


32.399 . . 


. .13,455.976 


144. 


98,1.30 


92 . 


28,130 


88. 


2,680 


— . 


.. 39,660 


298.. 


36,566 


45,916 . . 


.. 1,716.780 


7,230 . . 


. . 358,809 



Specifications. Number. 

Jacks and jennies over two years old 333 . . 
Neat cattle " " 149,888 . . 

Merchandise 

Money at Interest, beyond that for which in- 
terest is paid 

Capital in steamboats, ferries, and toll-bridges. 

Watches and jewelry 

Capital invested In manufactures 



Value. 
$34,580 
954,766 
905,384 

157,751 
23,433 
51,788 
19,682 



Total value of taxable property $34,995,8S3 

Total tax 93,540 



Year. Property. Taxes, 

1839. . .$23.283,691. . .$30,446 
1840... 22.011,433... 31,095 
1841... 24,119,122... 31,956 



Year. 


Property. 


Taxes. 


1842. 


.$22,.302,990. 


.$30,402 


1843. 


. 21,090,267. 


. 31,040 


1844. 


. 19,940,848. 


. 26,752 



Tear. Property. Taxes. 

1845 .. . $20,765,514 . . . $30,154 
1846... 21,159,857... 28,860 
1847t.. 27,178,875... 70,498 



Year. Property. Taxes. 

1848t. .$28,904.596. . .$75,174 
lS49t.. 3.3,406.612... 87,986 
1850t.. 34,995,885... 93,540 



The public debt bonds unredeemed 1st October, 1850, are thus stated : 

For the State Bank. Principal. Payable. Interest. Aggreg;ate. 

39 five per cent, bonds $39,000 Ist Jan. 1887 $17,062 $56,062 

936 six per cent, bonds 936,000 " 1868 519,480 1,465,480 



Total $975,000 

— on which the annual accruing interest is $2,803 12, and $87,323 80— total I 



$536,542 $1,511,542 



0,181 92. 



^ This tax list will serve to show Iiow extremely inaccurate are the census returns of 1S50. The census, for instance, returns the land 
at2,598,2tn acres, instead of $4,9K7,919 acres. The State returns are undoubtedly cnrrect, as any inaccuracies would be attacked by tbos* 
taxes to pay* t Under new Revenue law. 

D 49 



n farms 
having 



THE STATE OF ARKANSAS. 



SclwoU and Education. — Although Arkaiisiis has had advantages to foster education equal to any others of the new 
States, hfr improvident legislators have not improved iliem. There arc but few common schools in the State. In each 
township the IGtli section is given by Congress for the support of schools, and the revenue arising from leases of salt 
springs, and from estrays sold, forms part of the school fund. There are academies and high schools in Little Rock, 
FayelteviUe, "Washington, Camdtn, and some other places. There is no State College, although Congress granted to the 
St;it<? seventy-two sections of laud for the purpose of founding an institution of learning ; this, by a law of the Legislature 
of 1S49, and iu utter defiance of the intentions of Congress, was distributed among the counties. The only effort to 
eslalilish a college has been made by the Koman Catholics. In 1S50 the Legislature granted them a charter for the 
College of St. Andrews, near Firt Smith, in Crawford County. The college has a president and five professors, and its 
course of studies embraces all the branches taught in the best insiuulions. The Ecclesiastical Seminary is located on the 
collige grounds, and is considered one of the finest edifices in the Union. St. Mary's Academy, for young ladies, at Little 
Rock, is also a ('alholic institution. 

J'uIjUu LibrarieK. — One State library ; one social library— 1,000 volumes, etc. 

Periodical Piens.—lH all the Slate there are but 14 periodicals — 13 are issued weekly, and one monthly. The aggre- 
gate circulation of the weekly papers is only 7,250 copies, or 377,000 copies annually. Of the whole number of papers, 
three are Whig in politics, and five Democratic, the remaining six being devoted to literature, religion, and various 
f)thi'r subjects. Many single counties in New York and Ohio contribute more to literature than the whole of this State. 
There are published in Crawford County, 2 w. ; in Hempstead, 1 w. ; in Independence, 2 w. ; in Johnson and Jefferson, 
each 1 w. ; in Pulaski, 2 w. ; in Philli[)ps, 2 w. and 1 m. ; in Union and Washita, each 1 weekly. 

lieliffinuH Denomi)iuUons. — The statistics of the several religious deaominations in Arkansas according to the census 



of 1850 are as follows 




















DennrnulK- N<) (if 


CIr.irch 


V 


Imp of 


T)i-niimiiia- No. nf 


Cl.urrh 


Value of 


Denomina- No. of 


CliurcU 


Value of 


ti.,ii, Cliutcliei. 


«cc<.in. 


Pr 


M.ert.v. 


Ii..n8. Cliurche 


3. acci.m. 


Property. 


lions. Clninhes 


accom. 


Prolierty 


Baptist T3 .. 


8,075 . 


. $19,790 


German Ref. . . . — 


. — . 


. $- 


Roman Catholic. 6. 


1,400 . 


. $6,650 


Christian — . 


— . 




— 


Jewish — . 


. — . 


— 


Swedenborgian. — . 


— . 


— 


Congregational.. — . . 
Dutch Reformed. — . . 















Tunker — . 







_ 




_ 


Mennonite — 


. _ 


_ 


Union 5 . 


. 1,800. 


. 1,000 


Episcopal 2 .. 


830. 




4,250 


Methodist 73 . 


.14,250 . 


. 27,070 


Unitarian — . 


— . 


— 


Free 1 . . 


200. 




200 


Moravian — 


. — . 


— 


Universalist .... — . 


. — . 


— 


Friends — . . 


— . 




— 


Presbyterian.... 25. 


. 7,200 . 


. 28,275 


Minor Sects — . 


. — . 


— 



— making a total of 185 churches, having accommodation for 39,930 persons, and valued as property at $89,815. 
Arkansas is a Miss.onary Diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and is comprised in the Roman Catholic Diocese 
of Little Rock. 

Paupensim and Crime. — The whole number of paupers who received support or relief within the year ending 
Ist June, 1350, was 105, of which number 97 were native born, ami 8 foreigners; and the whole number of paupers re- 
ceiving support at that date was 67, all native born. Total cost of support .$6,888. The State Prison at Little Rock was 
consumed by fire 28th March, 1850. At that date it had 32 inmates, all men, and chiefly convicted of larceny and 
counterfeiting. 

Historical Sketch. — Arkansas, originally a portion of the Louisiana purchase, and more recently in connection with 
Missouri, a part of the territory of the latter name became a separate Territory on the admission of Missouri into the 
Union in 1S20. In 1830 it was admitted within its present limits as an independent State. In 1^00 the whole territory 
contained only 1,052 inhabitants, chiefly settled near the mouth of the Arkansas River, and consisting of Frenchmen, whose 
progenitors settled Arkansas Port, the oldest white settlement of the country. The early history of the State will be found 
intermingled with that of Louisiana and Missouri. 

" Arkansas, with all that nature has done for her, is far behind her neighbors in improvements, population, and general 
prosperity. It is a source of humiliation to make these acknowledgments ; but the truth should be told, though the 
kearvens falV Such was the language of the Committee on Arkansas Railroads at the New Orleans Convention in 
1851, and such must be the response of every intelligent resident of the State. "With her increase of population and 
reviving prosperity, however, it Is to be hoped that so magnificent a State, one so richly endowed and so blessed with a 
propitious climate and soil, will take heed and redeem itself from the just opprobrium of the enlightened among them- 
selves, and of the world that is observant of its progress. 

Sncce^'nion of tfo^wjio/w.— Territobial GovEKNons: James Miller, 1819; George Izard, 1825; John Pope, 1829; 
"William 8. Fulton, 1885; and — Constitutional Governors: James S. Conway, 1S36; Archibald Tell, 1840; Samuel 
Adams (acting), 1844 ; Thomas S. Drew, 1844 ; Thomas 8. Drew, 1848 ; John Selden Roane, 14th March, 1849 ; Eliae 8. 
Conway, 1852. 

Little Rock, on the south side of the Arkansas, is the seat of government. It is 800 miles from the mouth of that 
river, and astronomically situate in lut. 34<5 40' N., and long. 92° 12' "W. from Greenwich. 
50 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, 



Caltfounia occupies all that portion of California Alta* westward of the following line, to wit — beginning at the 
intersection of 42° north latitude, and 120° longitude west from Greenwich, or 42° 58' from Washington ; thence south 
in a direct course to 39° north latitude; thence south-east to whore the Rio Colorado intersects the parallel of 35° north 
latitude, and thence down the mid channel of that river to the boundary between the United States and Mexico. Within 
these limits the surface measures 18S.9S1 square miles, or 120,947,840 acres. 

This grand division of California (the only part, indeed, to which the name properly applies) is traversed from north 
to south by two principal ranges of mountains, called respectively Sierra Nevada, which divides the region from the 
great basin, and the CoaKt Range, running almost parallel to, and at a short distance from, the Pacific coast. The main 
feature of this region is the long, low, broad valley of the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers — the two valleys forming 
one — 500 miles long and 50 miles broad. Lateral ranges, parallel with the Sierra, make the structure of the country, 
and break it into a surface of valleys and mountains — the valleys a few hundreds, and the mountains 2,000 to 4,000 feet 
above the sea. These form greater masses and become more elevated in the north, where some peaks, as the Shastfi, 
enter the regions of perpetual snows. The great valley is discriminated only by the names of the rivers that traverse it. 
It is a single geographical formation, lying between the two ranges, and stretching across the head of the Bay of San 
Francisco, with which a delta of 25 miles connects it. The two rivers rise at opposite ends of this long valley, receive 
numerous affluents — many of them bold rivers, becoming themselves navigable rivers — flow toward each other, meet 
half way, and enter the bay together in the region of tide water ; making a continuous water line from one end to tho 
other. The resources of this valley, mineral and agricultural, are immense, and perhaps no part of the world affords 
greater facilities for easy development. Gold and quicksilver are the most valuable of its mineral products. The soil 
and climate, though varying much with locality, are generally well suited for agriculture. Westward of the rivers, the 
soil is chiefly dry and unproductive; but on the east side the country is well watered and luxuriantly fertile, being inter- 
sected by numerous fine streams, forming large and beautiful bottoms of rich land, wooded principally with white oaks. 
The foot hills of the Sierra, which limit the valley, make a woodland country, diversified with undulating grounds and 
pretty vales. Near the Tulare lakes, and on the margins of the Sacramento and San .Joaquin rivers, the surface is com- 
posed of level plains, gradually changing into undulating, and rolling toward the mountains. The region west of the 
Coast Eange to the Pacific — the only portion inhabited before the discovery of gold — has long been the seat of numerous 
missions; and around these, generally situated in the most lovely vales, agriculture has converted the country into a 
perfect garden. All the cereals of temperate regions are cultivated, and the olive and grape thrive luxuriantly. Wheat 
is the first product of the north. The moisture of the coast seems particularly suited to the cultivation of roots, and to 
vegetables used for culinary purposes, which, in fact, grow to an extraordinary size. Few localities, indeed, can produce 
in such perfection so great a variety of grains and fruits. 

The coasts of California are generally precipitous and rugged ; and in relation to their extent present few good harbors. 
The bays of San Diego, Monterey, and San Francisco are the finest, and their capacities extensive. San Francisco 
Bay is one of the most important in the world, not merely as a harbor, but also and mainly from the accessory advant- 
ages which belong to it — fertile and picturesque dependent country, general mildness of climate, connection with the 
great central valley, etc. When these advantages are taken into account, with its geographical position on the line of 
communication with Asia, its importance rises superior to all contingencies. Its latitudinal position is that of Lisbon* 
its climate that of It.ily ; bold shores and mountains give it grandeur ; the extent and resources of its dependent coimtry 
are the cynosure of the world. The bay is separated from the sea by low mountain ranges, and only a narrow gate, 
about a mile wide, affords an entrance. It is land-locked in every sense of the word, and protected on all sides frona 
the weather. Passing through this narrow entrance, the bay opens to the right and left, extending in each direction 
about 85 miles, having a total length of 70 and a coast of 275 miles. It is divided by projecting points and straits into 
three separate compartments, of which the northern two are called San Pablo and Suisson bays. The surface is much 
broken by numerous islands — some mere rocks, and others grass-covered, rising to the height of 300 to 800 feet. Directly 
fronting the entrance, mountains, a few miles from the shore, rise about 2,000 feet above the water, crowned by forests 
of lofty cypress, which are visible from the sea, and make a conspicuous landmark for vessels entering the baj'. Behind, 
the rugged peak of Ml, Diavolo, 3,770 feet high, overlooks the surrounding country of the bay and the San -Joaquin. 

The shore presents a varieil character of rugged and broken hills, rolling and undulating land, and rich alluvial tracts, 
backed by fertile and wooded ranges, suitable for towns, villages, and farms, with which it is beginning to be over- 

* C«1ifornia Alta in its full extent, as acquired of Mexico, lies between 32" anil 42" N. lat.. and in6° and 124" W. long., and is bounded N. by 
Oregon. E. b.v the <re.«t of Hie R(H!ky Mouiit.Tiiis, S. by tbe Rio Gila and California Baja, and W. by the Pacific Ocean, on wbicli it has a front 
of 500 m. The area included wiiiin the^e limits is 448,691 eq. m. This extensive territory ia now divided into the State of Caliluruia, Utah 
Territory, and (in part) the Territory of New Mexico, 

51 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



spread. Such is the bay and proximate country and shore of San Francisco. It is not a mere indentation of the opast, 
but a little sea to itself, connected with the ocean by a defensible gate. The head of the bay is about 40 mile« uistunt 
from the sea, and there commences its connection with the noble valley of the San Joaquin and Sacramento. 

The climate of California is so remarkable in its periodical changes, and for the long continuance of the wet and dry 
seasons, dividing as they do the year into about two equal parts, which have a most peculiar influence on the labor ap- 
plied to agriculture and the products of the soil, and, in fact, connect themselves so inseparably with all the interests of 
the country, that it is deemed proper briefly to mention the causes which produce thwe changes, and which, it will be 
seen, must exercise an important and controlling influence on the commercial prosperity and resource* of the country. 
It is a well-established theory, that the currents of the air under which the earth pasaos in i** diurnal revolutions, follow 
the line of the sun's greatest attraction. These currents of air are drawn toward thw line from great distances on each 
side of it, and, as the earth revolves from west to east, they blow from north-east and couth-etst, meeting, and, of course, 
causing a calm on the line. Thus, when the sun is directly, in common parlance, over the equator, in the month 
of March, these currents of air blow from some dist^mce north of the Tropic of Cancer and south of the Tropic of 
Capricorn in an ol>lique direction toward this line of the sun's greatest attraction, and form what are known as the north- 
east and south-east trade-winds. As the earth in its path round the sun gradually brings the line of attraction north in 
summer, these currents of air are carried with it; so that about the middle of May the current from the north-east has 
extended as far as the 3Sth or 39th degree of north latitude, and by the 20th June, the period of the sun's greatest 
northern inclination, to the northern portions of California and the southern section of Oregon. These north-east winds, 
in their progress across the continent toward the Pacific Ocean, pass over the snow-capped ridges of the Rocky Mount- 
ains and the Sierra Nevada, and are, of course, deprived of all the moisture which can be extracted from them by the 
low temperature of those regions of eternal snow: and consequently no moisture can be precipitated from (hem, in 
the form of dew or rain, in a higher teniperatute than that to which they have been subjected. They therefore pass 
over the hills and plains of California, where the temperature is very high in summer, in a very dry slate ; and, so 
far from being charged with moisture, they absorb, like a sponge, all that the atmosphere and surface of the earth can 
yield, until both become apparently perfectly dry. This process commences when the line of the sun's greatest attrac- 
tion comes north in summer, bringing with it these vast atmospheric movements, which on their approacti produce the 
dry season in California, which, governed by these laws, continues until some time after the sun repasses the equator in 
September; when, about the middle of November, the climate being relieved from these north-east currents of air, the 
south-west winds set in from the ocean, charged with moisture; the rains commence, and continue to fall — not constantly, 
as some persons have represented, but with sufficient frequency to designate the period of their continuance — from about 
the middle of November until the middle of May, in the latitude of San Francisco — as the icet season. It follows, as a 
matter of course, that the rf/'y season commences first and continues longest in the southern portions of the State, and 
that the climate of the northern part is influenced in a much less degree by the eauses heretofore mentioned than 
any other section of the country. Consequently, we find, that as low down as latitude 39'^, rains are sufficiently frequent 
In summer to render irrigation quite unnecessary to the perfect maturity of any crop which is suited to the soil and 
climate. There is an extensive ocean-current of cold water which comes from the northern regions of the Pacific, or, 
perhaps, from the Arctic, and flows along the coast of California. It comes charged with, and emits in its progress, cold 
air, which appears in the form of fog when it comes in contact with a higher temperature on the American coast — as 
the gulf stream of the Atlantic exhales vapor when it meets in any part of its progress a lower temperature. This cur- 
rent has not been surveyed, and, therefore, its source, temperature, velocity, width, and course, have not been accurately 
ascertained. It is believed by Lieutenant Maury, on what he considers sufficient evidence — and no higher authority can 
be cited — that this current comes fTom the coasts of China and .Tapan, flows northwariUy to the peninsula of Kamts- 
chatka, and, making a circuit to the eastward, strikes the American coast In about latitude 41° or 4'20, it passes thence 
southwardly, and finally loses itself in the tropics. Below latitude 39°, and west of the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, 
the forests of California are limited to some scattering groves of oak in the valleys and along the borders of the streams, 
and of red-wood on the ridges and on the gorges of the hills — sometimes extending into the plains. Some of the hills 
are covered with dwarf shrubs, which may be used as fuel. With these exceptions, the whiilc State presents a surface 
without trees or shrubberj'. It is covered, however, with various species of grass, and, for many miles from the coast, 
with wild oats, which in the valleys grow most luxuriantly. These grasses and oats mature and ripen early in the dry 
season, and soon cease to protect the soil from the scorching rays of the sun. As the summer advances, the moisture in 
the atmosphere and the earth, to a considerable depth, soon becomes exhausted, and the radiation of heat from the 
extensive naked plains and hill-sides is very great. The cold, dry currents of air from the north-east, after passing the 
Kocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, descend to the Pacific, and absorb the moisture of the atmosphere to a great 
distance from the land. The cold air from the mountains and that wliieh accompanies the great ocean-current from 
the north-west thus become united, and vast banks of fog are generated, which, when driven by the wind, have a pene- 
trating or cutting effect on the human skin, much more uncomfortable than would be felt in the humid atmosphere of 
the Atlantic at a much lower temperature. As the sun rises from day to day, week after week, and month after month, 
in unclouded brightness during the dry season, and pours down its broken rays on the dry, unprotected surface of the 
country, the heat becomes so much greater inland than it is on the ocean, that an under-current of cold air, bringing the 
fog with it, rushes over the coast range of hills, and through their numerous passes, toward the interior. Every day, as 
the heat inland attains a sufficient temperature, the cold, dry wind frdm the ocean commences to blow. This is usually 
from 11 to 1 o'clock ; and, as the day advances, the wind increases and continues to blow till late at night. When the 
vacuum is filled, or the equilibrium of the atmosphere restored, the wind ceases; a perfect calm prevails until about the 
same hour the following day, when the same process commences and progresses as before. And these phenomena are 
of daily occurrence, with few exceptions, throughout the dry season. These cold winds anil fogs render the climate at 
San Francisco, and all along the coast of California, except the extreme southern portion of it, probably more uncom- 
fortable to those not accustomed to it in summer than in winter. A few miles inland, where the heat of the sun modlfii's 
and softens the wind from the ocean, the climate is moderate and delightful. The heat, in the middle of the day, is 
not so great as to retard labor or render exercise in the open air uncomtortable. The nights are cool and pleasant. 
This description of climate prevails in all the valleys along the coast range, and extends throughout the country, north 
and south, as far eastward as the valley of the Sacramento and San .Joaquin. In this vast plain, the sea-breeze loses 
its Influence, and the degree of heat in the middle of the d.ay, during the summer months, is much greater than is known 
on the Atlantic coast in the same latitudes. It is dry, however, and probably not more oppressive. On the foot-hills of 
52 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



the Sierra Nevada, and especially in the deep ravines of the streams, the thermometer frequently ranges from 110° to 
115° in the shade, during three or four hours of the day, say from 11 to 3 o'clock. In the evening, as the sun declines, 
the radiation of heat ceases. The cool, dry atmosphere from the mountains spreads over the whole country, and renders 
the nights cool and invigorating. 

The valleys which are situated parallel to the coast range, and those which extend eastwardly in all directions among 
the hills toward the great plain of the Sacramento, are of surpassing fertility. They have a deep, black, alluvial soil, 
which has the appearance of having been deposited when they were covered with water. This idea is strengthened by 
the fact, that the rising grounds on the borders of these valleys, and many hills of moderate elevation, have a soil pre- 
cisely like that of the adjoining plains. This soil is so porous that it remains perfectly unbroken by gullies, notwithstand- 
ing the great quantity of water which falls in it annually during the wet season. The laud in the northern part of the 
State, on the Trinity and other rivers, and on the borders of Clear Lake, as far as it has been examined, is said to be re- 
markably fertile. The great valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin has evidently been at some remote period the 
bed of a lake; and those rivers which drain it present the appearance of having cut their channels through the alluvial 
deposit after it had been formed. In fact, it is not possible that they could have been instrumental in forming the plain 
through which they pass. Their head-waters come from the extreme ends of the valley, north and south ; and were it 
not for the supply of water received from the streams which flow into them from the Sierra Nevada, their beds would be 
almost, if not quite dry in the summer months. The soU is very rich, and, with a proper system of drainage and embank- 
ment, would undoubtedly be capable of producing any crop, except sugar-cane, now cultivated in the Atlantic States of 
the Union. There are many beautiful valleys and rich hill-sides among the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, which, when 
the profits of labor in mining shall be reduced so as to cause its application to agriculture, will probably support a largo 
population. There is said to be a rich belt of well-timbered and watered country extending the whole length of the 
gold region between it and the Sierra Nevada, some twenty miles in width. There is no information sufficiently accu- 
rate respecting the eastern slope of the great snowy range, to enable us to form any opinion of its general character or 
soil. Some of its valleys have been visited by miners, who represent them as equal to any portion of the country to the 
westward of it. The great valley of the Colorado, situated between the Sierra Madre and the Sierra Nevada, is but 
little known. It is inhabited by numerous tribes of savages, who manifest the most decided hostility toward the whites, 
and have hitherto prevented any explorations of their country, and do not permit emigrants to pass through it. There- 
fore parties from Santa Fe, on their way to California, are compelled to make a circuit of near a thousand miles north- 
ward to the Salt Lake, or about the same distance southward by the route of the Gila. Although this valley is little known, 
there are indications that it is fertile and valuable. The name of the river " Colorado" is descriptive of its waters; they 
are as deeply colored as those of the Missouri or Ked Eiver, while those of the Gila, which we know flows through 
barren lands, are clear. It would seem impossible for a large river to collect sediment enough in a sandy, barren soil, 
to color its waters so deeply as to give it a name among those who first discovered and have since visited its shores. 
The probability, therefore, is, that this river flows through an alluvial valley of great fertility, which has never been 
explored. This conjecture is strengthened by the fact that the Indians who inhabit it are hostile, and oppose, as far as 
they can, all persons who attempt to enter or explore it. This has been their uniform course of conduct respecting all 
portions of the continent which have been fertile, abounding in game and the spontaneous productions of the earth. As 
this valley is situated in the direct route from Santa F^ to California, its thorough exploration becomes a matter of very 
great importance, especially as it is highly probable that the elevated regions to the north of it, covered with snow during 
most of the year, will force the line of the great national railway to the Pacific through some portion of it. The soil 
situated west of the Sierra Nevada, and embracing the plain of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, covers an area, as nearly 
as can be estimated, of between fifty and sixty thousand square mUes, and would, under a proper system of cultivatiou, 
be capable of supporting a population equal to that of Ohio or New York at the present time. 

As already stated, the forests of California south of latitude 89°, and west of the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, are limited 
to detatched, scattering groves of oak in the valleys, and of red-wood on the ridges and on the gorges of the hills. It 
can be of no practical use to speculate on the causes which have denuded so large an extent of country, further than to 
ascertain whether the soil is or is not favorable to the growth of forest trees. When the dry season sets in, the entire 
surface is covered with a luxuriant growth of grass and oats, which, as the summer advances, becomes perfectly dry. The 
remains of all dead trees and shrubs also become dry. These materials, therefore, are very combustible, and usually 
take fire in the latter part of summer and beginning of autumn, which commonly passes over the whole country, destroy- 
ing in its course the young shrubs and trees. In fact, it seems to be the same process which has destroyed or prevented 
the growth of forest trees on the prairies of the Western States, and not any quality in the soil unfriendly to their growth. 
The absence of timber and the continuance of the dry season are apt to be regarded by farmers, on first going into the 
country, as irremediable defects, and as presenting obstacles almost insurmountable to the successful progress of 
agriculture. A little experience will modify these opinions. It is soon ascertained that the soil will produce abundantly 
without manure; that flocks and herds sustain themselves through the winter without being fed at the farm-yard, and 
consequently no labor is necessary to provide forage for them; that ditches are easily dug, which present very good 
barriers for the protection of crops until live fences can be planted and have time to grow. Forest trees may be planted 
with little labor, and in very few years attain a sufficient size for building and fencing purposes. Time may be usefully 
employed in sowing various grain and root crops during the wet or winter season. There is no weather cold enough to 
destroy root crops, and therefore it is not necessary to gather them. They can be used or sold from the field where they 
grow. The labor, therefore, required in most of the old States to fell the forests, clear the land of rubbish, and prepare it 
for seed, may here be applied to other objects. AlMhese things, together with the perfect securiti/ of all crops in 
Juirvejst-time from injury by wet iceat/ier, are probably sufficient to meet any expense which may be incurred in irriga- 
tion, or caused for a time by a scanty supply of timber. In the northern part of the State, above latitude 39°, and on the 
hills which rise from the great plain of the Sacramento and San Joaquin to the foot of the Sierra Nevada, the forests of 
limber are beautiful and extensive, and would, if brought into use, be sufficiently productive to supply the wants of the 
southern and western portions of the State. 

The extent and value of the public lands suitable for agricultural purposes in California can not be ascertained with 
any degree of accuracy until some very important preliminary questions shall have been settled. It is not known 
whether the Jesuits, who founded the missions, or their successors, the Franciscans, ever did, or do now, hold any title 
from the Spanish crown to the lands which they occupied. Nor has any investigation been made to ascertain how far 
those titles, if they ever existed, have been invalidated by the acta of the priests or the decrees of the Mexican goveni- 

53 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 



ment. A superficial view of the matter would be very apt to lead U.' the sappositioa that the Jesuits, so celebrated for 
wisdom and foresight, would not fail to secure that which, at that time, would probably have been obtained by merely 
asking for it — a royal decree, granting to them all the lands they might require in tliat remote couutrj' for ecclesiastical 
purposes. There have been some intimations to that efl'ect, but nothing is distinctly known. These missions embrace 
within their limits some of the most valuable lands in the State, and it is very important that it should be ascerlained 
whether they belong to the government or may be justly claimed by individuals. Moft of the land fit for cultivation 
Bouth of latitude 39°, and west of the valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, is claimed under what purport to be 
grants from the Mexican government. On most of these grants the minerals and metals are reserved to the government ; 
conditions were coupled witli many of them which have not been complied with ; in others, the boundaries described 
embrace two or three times as much land as the grant conveys. The Mexican law required all grants made by the 
provincial government, with few exceptions, to be confirmed by the supreme government. The great distance which 
separate them, and the unfrequent or difficult means of communication, made a compliance with the law so expensive 
and tardy that it came to be almost disregarded. There.were other causes which led to this neglect. Previous to the 
treaty with Mexico and the immigration of American citizens to that country, land was not regarded as of much value, 
except for grazing purposes. There was room enough for all. Therefore, the claimants or proprietors did not molest 
one another, or inquire into the validity of titles. These extensive grants are described by natural boundaries, such :is 
mountains, bays, and promontories, which, in many instances, might allow of a variation of several miles iu the 
establishment of a comer with chain and compasR. By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States purchased 
all the rights and interests of Mexico to and in California. This purchase not only embraced all the lands which had 
not been granted by Mexico, but all the reserved minerals and metals, and also reversionarj' rights which might accrue 
to Mexico from a want of compliance on the part of the grantees with the conditions of their grants, or a want o/pet/ec- 
tion in the grants. The lands in the northern part of the State, above 39°, have not been explored or granted. They 
are supposed to embrace an area of about twenty millions of acres, a large portion of which is doubtless valua&le for its 
timber and soil. Comparatively few grants have been obtained in the great vaUey of the Sacramento and San Joaqum. 
This vast tract, therefore, containing, as is estimated, from twelve to fifteen millions of acres, belongs mostly to the 
government. South of this valley and west of the Colorado, within the limits of California, as indicated in her constitu- 
tion, there are said to bo extensive tracts of valuable unappropriated land ; and, on investigation, it will probably appear 
that there are many of them in detached bodies which have not been granted. 

The gold region of California is between 400 and 500 miles long, and from 40 to 50 miles broad, following the line 
of the Sierra Nevada. Further discoveries may, and probably will, increase the area. It embraces within its limits 
tliose extensive ranges of hills which rise on the eastern border of the plain of the Sacramento and Sao .Joaquin 
and, extending eastwardly from 50 to 60 miles, they attain an elevation of about 4,000 feet, and terminate at the base 
of the main ridge of the Sierra Nevada. There are numerous streams which have their sources in the springs of the 
Sierra, and receive the water from its melting snows, and that wliich falls in rain during the wet season. These 
streams form rivers, which have cut their channels through the ranges of foot-hills westwardty to the plain, and disem- 
bogue into the Sacramento and San Joaquin. These rivers are from 10 to 15, and probably some of them 20 miles 
apart. The principal formation, or substratum, in these hills, is talcoso slate ; the superstratum, sometimes penetrating 
to a great depth, is quartz; this, however, does not cover the entire face of the country, but extends in large bodies 
in various directions — is found in masses and small fragments on the surface, and seen along the ravines, and in the 
mountains overhanging the rivers, and in the hill-sides in its original beds. It crops out in the valleys and on the 
tops of the hills, and forms a striking feature of the entire country over which it extends. From innumerable evi- 
dences and indications, it has come to be the universally-admitted opinion, among the miners and intelligent men 
who have examined this region, that the gold, whether in detadied particle-i and pieces, or in veins, teas erected in 
combinatiomc-ith the quartz. Gold is not found on the surface of tlie country, presenting the ai>pearancc of having 
been thrown up and scattered in aU directions by volcanic action. It is only found in j)articular localities, and attended 
by peculiar circumstances and indications. It is found in the bars and shoals of the rivers, in ravines, and in what 
are called the " dry diggings." The rivers, in forming their channels, or breaking their way through the hills, have 
come in contact with the quartz containing the gold veins, and by ci>nslant attrition cut the gold into fine flakes and 
dust; and it is found among the sand and gravel of their beds at those places where the swiftness of the current 
reduces it, in the dry season, to the narrowest possible limits, and where a wide margin is consequently left on each 
Bide, over which the water rushes, during the wet season, with great force. As the velocity of some streams is gn^ater 
than that of others, so is the gold found iu fine or coarse particles, apparently corresponding to the degree of attrition 
to which it has been exposed. The water from the hilLs and upper valleys, in finding its way to the rivers, hiis cut 
deep ravines, and, wherever it has come in contact with the quartz, has dissolved or crumbled it in pieces. In the 
dry season, these channels are mostly without water, and gold is found in the beds and margins of many of them iu 
large quantities, but in a much coarser state than in the ri<'ers, owing, undoubtedly, to the moderate flow aii<l tempo- 
rary continuance of the current, which has rethiced it to smooth shapes, not unlike pebbles, but has not had sufficient 
force to cut it into flakes or dust. The dry diggings are places where quartz containing gold has cropped out, and been 
disintegrated, crumbled to fragtnents, pebbles, and dust by the action of water and the atmosphere. The gold has l>een 
left as it was made, in all imaginable shapes — in pieces of all sizes, from one grain to several pounds in weight. The 
evidences that it was created in combination with quartz, are too numerous and striking to admit of doubt or cavil ; t/iei/ 
arefound in combination in large quantitifs. 

A very large proportion of the pieces of gold found in these situations have more or less quartz adhering to them. In 
many specimens, they are so combined they cannot be .separated without reducing the whole mass to powder, and sub- 
jecting it to the action of quick.silver. This gold, not having been exposed to the attrition of a .strong current of water 
retains in a great degree it« original conformation. These diggings, in some places, spread over valleys of considerable 
extent, which have the appearance of an alluviim, formed by washings from the adjoining hills, of decomposed quartz 
and slate earth and vegetable matter. In addition to these facts, it is beyond doubt true that several vein-mines have 
been discovered in the quartz, fVom which numerous specimens have been taken, showing the minute connection 
between the gold and the rock, and indicating a value hitherto unknown in gold mining. These veins do not present 
the appearance of places where gold m;iy have been lodged by gome violent cniption. It is combined with the quartz 
in all imaginable forms and degrees of richm^ss. The rivers present very striking, and it would seem, conclusive 
evidence respecting the quantity of gold remaining undiscovered iu the quartz veins. It is not probable that the gold 
64 




GAEHLE & CO. 



N. E. Corner of Eutaw and Fayette Streets, 

113 A IL 'H' n ffi ® m li 9 

Would respectfully call the attention of purchasers to their Stock of 
Granb and Square Pianos; also to their improved 

Cross-String Pianos, 

Which combine not only great power and volume, but also a rich- 
ness of tone unsurpassable by any other maker. Having been con- 
nected for the last 15 years with the manufacture of Pianos, and 
superintended their construction at the late establishment of Knabe 
& Gashle, whose Pianos are so widely celebrated, we deem it unneces- 
sary to say more. All Pianos of our Manufactory are furnished with 
full iron frames, which, combined with the best seasoned materials 
and superior workmanship, give them the best strength and durability 
adapted to every climate. 

All our Pianos are warranted for five years, and a jirivilege of ex- 
change granted within six months from day of sale. Particular at' 
tention paid to the selection of Pianos on distant orders. Terms and 
prices moderate. 

N. E. CORNER OF EUTAW AND FAYETTE STREETS, 

Not opposite the Eutaw House — the firm of Knabe & Ga3hle, opposite 
the Eutaw House, is dissolved since June 16th, 1855. 



SISSON & BAIED'S 

CORNER NORTH & MONUMENT STS. 

NEAR SUSQUEHANNA RAIL ROAD DEPOT, 



I 3VvII> O H. T E I^ S OJE' 



mmm Mmmmr, m^mt wm^ m. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Cabinet makers and others furnislied with 



Made from every Variety of Marble, for 

fS^RIfMI^ iMP)^!^® raPif^^'i^.lS i^/, p;^'^''4\@f^ i^^^MW^ 
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Permanent Washstands made entirely of Marble, for hot and cold 
water, kept constantly on hand. Also Slabs for Pluinbcrs, counter- 
sunk or jilain, at the lowest prices. 

Marble cutters supplied on the most reasonable terms with all kinds 
of Foreign or American Marbles, either in slabs or blocks. 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



in the dry diggings and that in the rivers — the former in lumps, the latter in dust — were created by differen*. processes. 
That which is found in the rivers has undoubtedly been cut or worn from the veins in the rock, with which their currents 
have come in contact. All of them appear to be equally rich. This is shown by the fact that a laboring man may 
collect nearly as much in one river as he can in another They intersect and cut through the gold region, running 
from east to west, at irregular distances of fifteen to twenty, and perhaps some of them lliirt) miles apart. Hence it 
appears that the gold veins are equally rich in all parts of that most remarkable secliou of country. Were it wanting, 
tliere are further proofs of this in the ravines and dry diggings, which uniformly confirm what nature so plainly shows 
m the rivers. 

The quicksilver mines of California are believed to be numerous, extensive, and valuable. Hitherto this metal, so 
useful in the arts and mining, has been chiefly derived from Spain and Mexico, and its production been a moiuip<i|y. 
The best known mine in California is that near San Jose, which is claimed by Mr. Forbes, of Tepic, in Mexico. The 
cinnabar ore which produce the mineral lies near the surface, is easily procured, and the niine is believed to have been 
remarkably productive. Discoveries of other like mines are reported in other parts of the State, but little is publicly 
knowTi respecting them, the belief being, however, that quicksilver will be eventually found in sufficient quantities for 
all purposes of extijnsive mining operations, if not for export. It is, undoubtedly, a fortunate eircumslanco, that nature, 
in bestowing on this State such vast metallic wealth, has thus provided, almost in its immediate neighborhood, inex- 
haustible stores of the only agent by which gold can be successfully sei>arated from its matrices. It is also believed that 
California is rich in silver, copper, iron, and coal. A silver mine has been discovered a short distance from Monterey, 
which affords a very rich ore, and has been productive in comparison to the labor bestowed in operating it. In the 
neighborhood of San Francisco bituminous coal is abundant, and the indications noted In many other sections leave no 
doubt of the great extent of coal formation in the State. With regard to other metals, lime and circumstanres are 
required to develop our knowledge of them; but there can be but one opinion on the subject, that California is, in one 
part or other of its territory, bounteously supplied with all the more useful as well as the precious metals. 

California offers a very interesting and but partially explored field of research to the botanist. Almost every variety 
of vegetation, from the luxuriant productions of the tropics, to the stinted and scanty growth of the frozen regions, may 
be found in this country. The labors of Douglas and others have made known to the world many of the most valuable 
and remarkable species. Of these it is possible here to mention only a few. Of the pine and oak, there are several noble 
and useful varieties in different parts of the country. Ono of those, /ii/i>«t Dou(/lasU, first described by Douglas, is probably 
the grandest of the whole vegetable kingdom. It is found on the mountains alKiut the Bay of San Francisco, and in 
some other sections of California, generally on elevated localities. Specimens of this tree occur of the height of 240 feet, 
the base of whose trunks have a circumference of nearly GO foot. The trunk is quite destitute of branches, until above 
more than half the altitude, when they grow outward and upward in such a manner as to give the top the form of an 
inverted pyramid. From the enda of the branches hang the cones or seed-vessels, from 12 to 15 inches in length, and 
egg-shaped. The seeds are as large as a gowi sized bean, and furnish a common article of food to the Imlians, who 
collect large quantities of them in tho autumn, and pound them into a kind of cake, which is baked on heated stones. 
The wood is very flne-grained, and contains a great quantity of resin. The pintt-i Sai/inii., p. LamberUana, p. nohilis, 
and p. reainosa, are also fine species, though less in size than their gigantic relative. The former is, however, a large 
tree, being often found 110 feet high, and tVom 10 to 12 in diameter. Among the elevated pl.iins of Upper California it 
grows quite plentifully, as also on the low hills, near the coast, where it attains a larger size. The natives frequently 
build their fires against these trees to save the trouble of collecting fuel ; by this means, also, a sweet g\im is made to 
exiule from the trunk, which serves them for sugar. The white oak grows on the low and level parts of the country. It 
is not generally a large tree, being from 40 to .50 feet high, and from 2 to 3 feet in diameter at tlie base. The top is 
extremely thick and leafy, forming an almost impenetrable mass of boughs. It is in some places very abundant. The 
qtiercrts navalis occupies the prairies, river banks, and lower hills, and is 4 or 5 feet in diameter, with branches of 
corresponding dimensions, extending horizontally from the trunk. The live oak (q. virens) grows only on the highlands. 
It is from 2 to 5 feet in thickness, and from 60 to 70 in height. The maple, the ash, the beech, the chestnut, in several 
varieties, compose large portions of the forests. It is impossible to give a full description of the flowering shrubs and 
plants of California, so great is their variety and beauty. A species of raspberry {fibes specioswii) is one of the most 
elegant flowering shrubs of the country. It is exceedingly abundant in some localities, and, with its long crimson 
stamens, and its deep green leaves, presents an appearance truly lovely. The flowers bloom early in spring. 
In many places are found several species of mimulus, one of which is from 3 to 4 feet in height, and is a very 
showy plant. This country also has numerous species of phlox arul heuchern, and innumerable quantities of epilo- 
Miirn, <E7iotliera, or primrose, penttitti'mon, papaver, or poppy, delphinium, and salvia. A species of lily also grows 
here, the roots of which ar* eaten by the natives. The Scilla escul^ntii grows along the whole coast; this is called by 
the natives " quama-sh,'" and the root forms a very common article of food. To prepare this for eating, a hole is made in 
the ground, and a number of stones placed in it, on which a flre is kindled and kept burning until they are made hot, 
when the fire is extinguished, and the roots, wrajjped in straw, leaves, and moss, are placed upon them. They are well 
roasted in a few hours, and are then taken off and hung up to dry. This root is also sometimes pounded and made into 
cakes, which are preserved for future use ; the taste is sweet, and rather agreeable, but if eaten too freely they are apt to 
produce diarrhea. This plant is most abimdant on the banks of rivers and on lowlands by the margins of forests, in 
which localities are also found several species ofpi/rola, capHtbliimi and lupiiiAim, which sometimes cover an immense 
extent of land. The arbictus is also abundant in similar situations. The large species (a. procera), is a fine shrub 
frequently attaining a growth which entitles it to be called a tree. The a. uva urs-i is found in almost every part of the 
colder sections of the country, and its berries are frequently eaten by the natives, and even by travelers. A very usefiil 
plant to the natives is the Mmiias tenax, the fibres of which are stronger than any hemp. Cords made of this are used 
by the Indians for the purpose of snaring deer and other animals, and one the thickness of tho little finger is so strong as 
not to be broken by the largest elk. The go-iseberry grows in California, and bears plentifiilly. The sand-hills and 
moors are covered with a great variety of syngenesious plants, and on the more fertile and humid soil grows a gaudy- 
flowered currant-bush, and a pretty species of honeysuckle. Perhaps the most remarkable shrub here is the t/edra, a 
poisonous plant, which, however, affects some particular constitutions only. By cont.act with the skin, it produces 
tumors and violent inflammation. It is a slender shrub, preferring cool and shady places, and bearing a trefoil 
crenated leaf. Two roots — the jilants of which are very beautiful — are used by tlio natives for soap; the.ie are called 
cmtolo and saniate. On the rocky coast of Monterey are immense collections of sea- weed, /(MJii.v pi/rijb/-ni.t. which 

55 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



are suid to hare gathered there in such abundance as lo have saved several ressels from splitting on the rocks, when 
driven on them by the tempest. 

The animal kingdom in California is made up of most of the zoological varieties found ea.<»t of the Eocky Mountains, 
and of some few species peculiar to the region itself. The black bear {iirsxis Americanns) is an inhabitant of many 
districts, and in its habits ami appearance differs little from its congener of the north ; the barren-ground bear (urs^ie 
arctus) is of a lighter color, but in every other respect similar to the black bear; the grizzly bear {urHus/ennD) is also o 
denizen, and is the most f<;rmi(lable wild anim.al of the country. The Polar bear (tintiu) maritimtif) is sometimes seen 
on the northern coast, but is e\idently a stranger, borne down on floating ice from the higher latitudes. The raccoon 
{prootjon lotor), the American badger (meles salracloira), the glutton or wolverine (r/itlo luavus), the common weasel 
(iniifiMa vulgaris), the ermine (»t. erminea), the mink, martin, and skunk, are found in various parts, and are valuable 
for their furs. In many parts wolves are very numerous. The species mostly seen are the common ■woXt {lupiis AinerU 
cinmn), the gray wolf (I. {/rijieii-i), the dusky wolf (^Z. niihilis), the black wolf {I. ater), and the prairie wolf (cauis lutrans). 
Foxes are common, and of these two species exist, the red fox {canU fulvu«) and the gray fox (c. cinereo-argent<itini). 
Of the cat tribe there are several species, as the cougar or puma (/«/(« oorwolor), the northern lynx (/. cancnteniiis), the 
banded lynx (f. fascinUi), and the red \yn\ {f. ruj'a). These inhabit mostly tlie dense forests and thickly-wooded sides 
of the mountains, preying on deer and other animals. In the Sacramento and Sail Joaquin rivers, as well as on many 
parts of the coast, the common hair seal {phoca vitellina) is abundant, and follows the track of the salmon. The beaver 
(eaxtorjihor) and the musk rat {fiber zehethicius) are also common, especially at the confluence of the Sacramento with 
the Bay. The quality of the far of these latter animals, however, is inferior to that obtained more to the north. The 
moose (cervus alce«) is found in all the woody and mountain regions, and near the coast, and the elk (ct^rvtm canaden- 
su) roams through the valleys in immense herds. There are many other species of deer found in various parts, as the 
black-tailed deer (c. inaorotU), the long-tailed or jumping deer (c. leueurun), etc. ; and the prong-horned antelope (a. 
furcifer) is found in considerable numbers. The mountain sheep, or argali {<mis numtumi), inhabits the loftiest and 
coldest mountains ; in its general appearance it resembles the large domestic sheep, but has horns out of all proportion 
to its body, and is covered with a coarse short hair, of a dingy brown color, which can scarcely be called wool. The 
nison (Jjos Americanns) is seldom seen, but is not altogether unknown to the hunter. Tho sea otter {Intra mo.tnna) is 
abundant along the coast, and at the mouths of rivers, and the land otter {I. BraMliensiH) is found in many parts of the 
country. Of rats, mice, marmots, hares, rabbits, and squirrels, there are numerous species in all parts of the country. 

Among the feathered tribes of California, the first worthy of notice is the great vulture {narcoramphos Cali/ornianuK), 
second only to the huge condor of South America, and closely allied to it in many respects. It is met with along the 
whole coast ; it is solitary in its habits, rapacious, of enormous size, and singular in conformation and appearance, and 
seems to hold the same position in tho scenery of this country as its European congener, the lammergeyer, in that of the 
Alps. It builds in the highest trees of the mountain forests, and only approaches the valleys in search of its carrion food. 
When full grown, it measures about 4 feet S inches from beak to end of the tail, and from 9 to ID feet from tip to tip of its 
wings. Its color Is brownish black, the bill and legs yellow, and its quills are much esteemed by the hunter for making 
tubes for his pipe. The turkey buzzard {cathartea aura) is also found here, but is not common, but the black vulture 
{cathartes atratus) is found in every part. The golden eagle {aquila chrysotus), the bald eagle {aquUa leiicocephala), 
the osprey or flsh-hawk {aquila halloa), the black hawk or peregrine falcon {falco peregrinus), the jer-falcon {J'alco 
inland ious), and several others of kindred species, but of lesser note, are found here, as the sparrow-hawk, the pigeon- 
hawk, and the gos-hawk— the latter identical with the European species so celebrated in the royal sport of falconry. 
Owls of various species are found throughout the country ; and among the birds common to the temperate region of the 
continent may be mentioned the shrike, the robin, the cat-bird, the thrush, the lark, the red-wing, the cross-bill, the raven, 
the magpie, the jay, the wood-pecker in numerous varieties and species. In some parts of the south the humming-bird 
is ([uite numerous, and swallows of every description — barn, cliff, and bank swallows — are as common as in any other 
section of the Uniou. There is probably no other country which produces so many varieties of grouse, or in so great 
numbers. The bays, inlets, and rivers are alive with water-fowl, and the low lands near the outlets of some of the streams 
in the Pacific coast actually swarm with geese, ducks, widgeons, teal, cranes, curlews, snipes, and various other waders 
and swimmers. The swan {(yygnus buccinator) is the largest swimming bird of the country, and seems to differ nothing 
from the same species elsewhere. The white pelican {p. onocrotalun) is Ibund on the coast, and large numbers frequent 
the bays and harbors. Off the coast, too, may be seen the mighty albatross ; specimens of enormous size are sometimes 
seen, measuring 4 feet in length and 10 or 12 across the wings. 

The waters of California are replete with fish of every size and variety. Tho seas swarm densely, and the bays and 
rivers are alive with their peculiar denizens. The California Gulf produces great numbers of edible shell-flsh. The 
oyster, the pearl-shell, the muscle, several species of haliotis, all afford either food or articles of trade and ornament to 
the inhabitants. In California fish are generally little sought after, the productions of the earth being so numerous 
and plentiflil ; but in the colder regions of the north they afford the common, and sometimes the sole subsistence of the 
natives. In the Columbia, as well as in the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers, and in almost every water-course 
having its outlet in the sea, the number of {salnio) salmon are almost incredible. On some of these rivers from two to 
three thousand are sometimes taken in a single day. The Indians sometimes capture them with a kind of wicker basket 
similar to that used by the fishermen on the Atlantic coast for taking lobsters. This is done in the spring, when the fish 
are on Uieir passage up the stream. They are also taken with the spear, which consists of a sharp piece of bone fastened 
to the end of a shaft of wood 12 or 15 feet in length, and which the Indians use with great dexterity, frequently securing 
salmon of from 20 to 30 pounds in weight. The fish are dried or salted, and preserved for future use. They are also 
sometimes taken with only a small scoop net, fastened to the end of a pole. Douglas speaks of an individual measured 
by him which was 3 feet 5 inches long, and 10 inches broad, weighing 35 pounds. This size is not exaggerated 
specimens nearly or quite as large having often been seen. Some of the streams also abound with very fine 
salmon-trout, and with a small trout nearly resembling the one which affords so nmch sport to the anglers of the 
older States. The sturgeon {accipenser tran.imontanus) sometimes attains great size in the large rivers, being 
from 8 to 10 feet in length, and weighing nearly hOO pounds. In general, however, this fish is of much smaller dimen- 
sions. It is principally found not far from the mouths of the rivers. In the Bay of Monterey is a species of mackerel 
{soomher colias) in great plenty, and easily taken. Here, as well as in most other yiarts of the coast, also swim schools 
of a small fish resembling, if not identical with, the sardine of Italy, familiar to epicures. These are sometimes seen in 
such immense numbers tliat the surface of the water for a great distance around resembles a living mass, being kept in 
56 



r 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



constant commotion by their flns. Porpoises are very numerous In almost every bay on the whole coast, and in foul 
weather may always be seen playing their pranks on the waves, while far in the offing appears the spouting of the hu^e 
whale. The halibut, pilchard, slvate, turbot, bonito, and many other species, are found in various parts of tlie sea-coast. 
The shell-tish are numerous and valuable, particularly in the gulf. Of these may be mentioned, oysters, which are often 
of large size and excellent flavor ; muscles, several species of haliotis, patella, cardium, and turbo, besides the pearl 
oyster {mya margaritifera), the product of which, as an article of commerce, is well known. The pearls produced by 
these shell-fish are in this country of very fine water, though rather irregular in figure. 

The estimates and ascertainments by census, of the population, resources, and productions of California have hitherto 
been very incomplete, and in reference to the population returned by the federal census of 1S50, it can scarcely be con- 
sidered as an approximation. The estimate made by General Douglass, of the State Senate, in the fall of the year 1S50, 
is perhaps more nearly accurate, and is given below for what it is worth. The population by the census of 1S50 is that 
returned to the Legislature by the census agent. The returns of 1852 are those of a census instituted by the State author- 
ities, and those which will be adopted by the U. S. census department in the oflScial exhibit of the condition of the State. 
The following are the population returns referred to : 



Names of Census Douglass' Census 

Counties. 1850. Estimate. 18fiS. 

San Louis Obispo 1,336 500 984 

Santa Barbara 1,185 2,500 2,131 

Santa Clara 3,502 5,000 6,664 

Santa Cruz 674 1,000 1,219 

Shaste 378 ...(with Trinity).... 4,050 

Sierra (from Tuba) 4,855 

Siskiyou (from Trinity, Shasta, & Klamath) 2,240 

Solano 580 1,600 2,835 

Sonoma 561 1,600 2,337 

Sutter 8,030 8,000 1,207 

Trinity 659 10,200 1,764 

Tuolumne no returns 20,000 17,657 

Tulare (from Mariposa) 8,575 

Yolo 1,003 1,000 1,307 

Tuba 19,032 22,000 22,005 



Total 117,538 180,000 264,435 



Names of Census Douslass' Census 

Counties. ISfiO. Estimate, 18.=)2. 

Butte 4,686 14,000 8,572 

Calaveras 16,884 16,000 20,192 

Colusi 115 ...(with Trinity)... 612 

Contra Costa 722 600 2,745 

El Dorado 20,985 22,000 estim. 40,000 

Klamath (from Trinity) 530 

Los Angeles no returns. . . 6,000 7,8-31 

Marin 323 500 1,036 

Mariposa 4,400 4,500 8,969 

Mendocino 56 400 416 

Monterey 1,872 2,000 2,728 

Napa 414 1,600 2,116 

Nevada (from Tuba) 21,365 

Placer (from El Dorado) 10,784 

S.tcramento 11,000 12,000 12,589 

San Diego no returns... 2,000 2,932 

Ban Joaquin 4,000 5,000 5,029 

San Francisco 21,000 25,000 36,151 

— Ilumbolt County, from Trinity, and San Bernardino County, from Los Angeles, are counties erected since 1852. 

The following summary of Uie census of the State in 1852, is abstracted from the report of W. Van Voorhies, Secretary 
of State, to the governor, and dated 25th January, 1853 : " Immediately after the adjournment of the last Legislature 
active measures were commenced, which have been prosecuted up to the present time, for the purpose of making a 
correct and complete exhibit of the population and resources of the State. This object, however, has been but imper- 
fectly accomplished, in consequence, in some degree, of the intrinsic diflBculties of so complicated and extensive an 
undertaking in a new atid comparatively unknown country, but mainly owing to the mixed, unsettled, and fluctuating 
character of our population, the difficulty of thoroughly exploring the mountain counties, the hostile tribes of Indians 
infesting some sections, and the mistaken supposition on the part of many that the business of the census agent was in 
some way connected with taxation. Believing that the occasion of taking this census afforded an opportunity which 
might not be again soon enjoyed, of procuring interesting geographical, geological, mineralogical, and other information 
pertaining to the natural curiosities and features of the State, I embraced it, and instructed each of the census agents to 
collect whatever of notable objects might come within their observation. These instructions not having been received 
by some of them until they were far advanced in their labor, were only carried out in a portion of the counties. A 
number of the counties, however, are represented in this particular and much useful and interesting intelligence collected 
on these subjects. Even from the imperfect showing which is thereby made, it will be seen that our State contains 
within her borders almost every variety of minerals and many most inviting fields of investigation to the natural 
philosopher, the antiquary, and the statesman. 

" A large number of the most important counties having failed to furnish any information on these subjects, we are left 
to conclude that much of the most usefbl and interesting matter in this branch remains yet to be developed. 

" Population. — It will be observed that the county of El Dorado has not been as yet returned, either as respects 
population or productions. This is admitted to be one of the most populous and productive counties of the State. The 
vote cast in this county at the late general election was, as appears from the returns on file In this office, 11,252 ; and 
judging from the relation generally obtaining in this State between the vote and population, it should contain 40,000 
inhabitants. This county cast a vote of 2,S44 greater than any other county in the State. The county of San Francisco, 
with a population of 36,151, easts 8,408 votes. The county of Tuba, with a population of 20,005, casts a vote of 4,276. 
The county of Nevada, with a population of 21,365, casts a vote of 5,474. The county of Calaveras, with a population 
of 20,192, easts a vote of 5,132. The county of El Dorado, therefore, which cast a vote of 11,252, I set down as containing 
a population of 40,000 ; which is, in fact, an under estimate, preserving the parallel exhibited in other counties between 
the number of votes and inhabitants. Estimating the population of El Dorado at 40,000, makes the entire population 
of the State 264,485. This appears from the actual returns of the census, with the exception of El Dorado County, and 
the data upon which I have based the estimate of that county are given above. There can be no doubt, however, that in 
consequence ol the difficulties previously mentioned, not more than five-sixths of the whole population of the State has 
been taken. The reports of all the census agents who have made returns, set forth the fact of their inability to obtain 
the whole population of their respective counties ; adding then one-sixth to the population returned and that estimated 
for EI Dorado County, gives the population of the State at 308,507, which is believed to be about correct. Our entire 
popular vote at the late general election was 76,890, according to the election returns on file in this office, estimating the 
nopulanon ai four times the amount of the popular vote, which is below the ratio usually obtaining throughout this State, 
and far btilow that obtainiuir in other States of the Union- places our population at 307,560. This exhibit shows an 

57 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



increase in the course of two years, taking the actual returus of the census, of 99,4.35, au annual increase of 49,717, and 
an increase nf Sit per cent, per annum; of the increase per cent, per annum, the United States, according to the lata 
census, was 3i, showing a difference of increase between the State of California and the other States of the Union of 
26^ per cent, per annum. Taking, however, the estimated and more probable census of the State, namely, 308,507, and 
it gives an annual positive increa.se of 71,753, an increase of 43 per cent, per annum, and a difference of increase per 
cent, between California and other Slates of 39J. 



'* This population is composed as follows : 

White inhabitants, male 151,115 

" " female 29,741 

Citizens over 21 years of age 93,344 

Kegroes, male 1,637 

" female 253 

" over 21 years of age 1,259 

Mulattoes, male 424 

" female 98 

" over 21 years of age 4<i7 

Indians (domesticated), male 19,675 

" " female 12,864 



Indians over 21 years of age 15,866 

Foreign residents, male 50,631 

" " female 4,360 

" over 21 years of age 89,444 

TOTAL. 

Whites 180,850 

Citizens over 21 years of age 93,344 

Negroes 1,890 

Mulattoes '. 522 

Indians (domesticated) 32,539 

Foreign residents 54,991 

" In this estimate the county of El Dorado is not included, which will probably add to the whites 30,000 ; to the citizens 
of the United States over 21 years of age 12,000 ; to the negroes 200 ; to the mulattoes 50 ; to the Indians 1,000 ; and to 
the foreign residents 5,000 — making a final t(jtal of whites, 210,858 ; citizens over 21 years of age, 105,344 ; negroes, 2,090 ; 
mulattoes, 572 ; Indians (<lomesticatcd). 33..^39 ; foreign residents, 59,991. 

"The oounlies of Nevada, Placer, and Tuba have reported 9,809 Chinese. The other counties have embraced them 
without discrimination under the gener.il head of foreign residents, the number is believed to approximate 25,000. 

"P/oductimi^ and dipitnl. — Under this head, I regret to state, that not only the county of El Dorado, entire, but that 
Of Calaveras, also, in part, two of the most wealthy and productive of the State, have to be omitted, not having as yet 
been returned. 

" A few of the counties have reported on the subjects of horticulture, manufactures, mUling, farming, and farming 
utensils, separately, while the others have combined them under the general head of ' capital employed for other purposes.' 

"The following items are not included under the general head above mentioned : 

Capital employed in stock, farming, and gardening $1,857,502 00 

" " fruits and orchards 366,910 00 

" " improvements and real estate 6,348.346 00 

" " farming utensils 125,940 00 

" " milling 240,850 00 

—making the total capital employed for purposes other than those specified under general heads $49,800,981. Estimate 
of El Dorado and Calaveras counties, 10,000,000— making $59,800,981. 

" The articles of sheep, hogs, and poultry, although not specifically required by law, have been reported upon from 
twenty counties, and are as follows : sheep, 82,867, at $12 each— $994.404 ; hogs, 38,976, at $10 each— 389,760 ; poultry, 
96,230, at $2 each— 192,460 ; total value, $1,576,624. 

" For the number of horses, mules, cows, beef cattle, work oxen, bushels of barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, com, acres 
of land in cultivation, quartz-mills, capital invested in quartz mining, capital invested in Placer mining, capital invested 
in other mining, and capital employed for other purposes, reference la made to the statistics of different counties respectively. 

" The following is the estimated value of the live-stock and agricultural products. These prices are given at an aver- 
age much below the market value : 



Live-stock, 

Horses at $30 $1,948,190 00 

Mules at 50 828 900 00 

Cows at 60 5.216,950 00 

Beef cattle., at 25 7,884,800 00 

Work oxen, at 50 1,453,250 00 



$17,327,090 00 



Agricultural Products. 

Bfirley at $1 40 per bushel $3,163,227 00 

Oats at 1 00 " 100,497 00 

Wheat at 2 40 " 652,23100 

Potatoes at 1 50 " 2,089,755 00 

Com at 2 50 " 156,330 00 



$6,162,040 04 



The counties of Sonoma, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, Sacramento, Napa, Mendocino, Los Angeles, and Contra 

Costa have reported 5.5.a3,6.55 pounds onions, valued at $186 000 

The counties of Yolo, Sierra, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and Monterey have reported 2,359,250 

cabbages, valued at gO 777 

The counties of Sonoma. Santa Barliara, Santa Clara, and Monterey have reported 80,271 bush, of beans, value 72,492 

The county of Santa Barbara has reported 1,370 barrels olives, v.ilued at 27,400 

The counties of Santa Barbara and Santa Clara have reported 26,811 grape vines, valued at 26,811 

The counties of Yolo, Sonoma, Sierra, S.ieramento, and Mendocino have reported 490,990 lbs, turnips, valued . . 14,927 

The county of Sacramento has reported 1,0.39,800 pounds tomatoes, valued at 82,408 

The counties of Santa Clara and Sacramento have reported 1,107,.'500 pounds of carrots, valued at 33,225 

The county of Sacramento has reported 3.58 acres of melons, valued at 17,900 

The county of Sacramento has reported 400.000 pumpkins, valued at 46,000 

The county of Santa Clara has reported .508,000 bricks, valued at 10,1 60 

The county of Marin has reported 1,500,001) bricks per month, valued at (per annum) 860,000 

The counties of Santa Barbara and Los Angeles have reported 73,462 gallons wine, value 146,924 

And 73,056 gallons brandy 109,584 

The counties of Santa Cruz and Nevada have reported capital invested in manufactures ... 6800 

53 



THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



"Showing total capital and productions of the State as follows: 

Total capital employed for purposes other than I Horticulture, manufactures, etc $1 150 000 

(hose specified under general heads, includ- Quartz mining 5 871405 



P'acer " 4,174.419 

Other « 3,851,623 

Estimate for El Dorado minmg 2,500,000 



ing estimates for El Dorado and Calaveras. . $59,800,000 

Live-atock 18,903,714 

Agricultural products 6,162,040 

Land in cultivation 1,107,480 

Estimate for El Dorado and Calaveras 5,000,000 $108,520 681 

" In the above estimate it will be observed that the value of no land except that In actual cultivation is included. 

" With these facts now before us, it may not be uninteresting or devoid of utility to take a comparative view of oui 
position in reference to the other States of the Union. 

" nbraes.—ln these we are in advance of fifteen of the States. Mules. — In these we are in advance of twenty-six of 
the States. Milch Caws.— In these we are in advance of twelve of the States. Work Oxen.— In these we are in advance 
of eight of the States. Sheep. — In these, although having returns from only twenty counties, we are in advance of four 
States. Sioirie.—ln these, although only twenty counties have reported, we are in advance of three States. Value of 
Live-stock. — In this we surpass twenty-two of the States. Barley.— In this we are only equaled by one State, Now York. 
We raise more than one-half as much of this article as is produced in the whole Union besides. Potatoes. — In this 
again we stand next to New York, and raise one-flfth the quantity produced by the balance of the Union. Wheat. — In 
this we surpass ten of the States. Oats. — In this we cultivate more than three-fourths of our sister States. Indian Corn. 
—We produce less of this than any State of the Union. Beans.— In this we surpass nine of the States, notwithstanding 
only five counties have reported the quantity produced. Hay.— In this, though not returned from more than one-half 
counties, we exceed nine of the States. Fruits.— In these we excel all the States in variety, and one-half in quantity 
produced. Mining.— In this branch of industry we stand not only without a parallel, but without a competitor. Agri- 
culture. — ^This important branch has been comparatively but little attended to in this State, and consequently in the value 
of cultivated land we are surpassed by all the States of the Union. The fact, however, that we excel most of them in 
the productions of the soil, shows the fertility and productiveness of our lands in a most favorable light. Trade.— Yolo, 
Trinity, Sutter, Santa Cruz, San Diego, Sacramento, and Nevada counties have reported merchandise to the amount 
of $4,000,000. The remainder of the counties have included this item, with others, under the general head of 'Capital' 
employed for other purposes— in these, too, we surpass more than one-half the States. Minerals.— The many interesting 
geological developments made by the census, place our State far in advance of all her sisters in the variety and import- 
ance of these great handmaids of science and civilization. Many matters of interest are touched upon in the reports of 
the different agents, which, on account of their isolated character, could not be arranged under general heads and class- 
ified. I have, therefore, endeavored to supply this defect by reference to them in this manner. It is needless to say 
the estimates submitted in this report are not claimed to be entirely accurate, but suflBciently so for practicable purposes. 
They will be found, I think, to present no exaggerated representation of our resources." 

Yallejo is the capital of the State ; the Legislature of 1853, however, sat at Benicia. 

S9 



THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



The District of Columbia, the seat of the Government of the United States, originally occupied a square of ten miles, 
on both sides of Potomac Iliver, and comprised portions of Virginia and Maryland, ceded to the United States for the 
use of the federal government. In 1S46, however, that portion of the territory south of tlie river was retroceded to 
Virginia," and hence the present territory lies altogether on its north bank, and contains only 60 square miles. 

The Maryland act of cession was passed on the 23d December, 17S8, and that of Virginia on the 8d December, 1789. 
Subsequent acta were passed by these States confirming the location. 

This District was established in pursuance of the Constitution of 1789 (Sec. vin — IT), which declares that Congress 
shall "exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square), as may 
by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Go^■ernment of the United States ;" 
and further. In pursuance of an Act of Congress, approved 16th July, 1790, which declared "that a district of territory, 
not exceeding ten miles square, to be located as hereafter directed, on the river Potomac, at some space between the 
mouths of the Eastern Branch and Conecocheague, be, and the same is hereby accepted for the permanent seat of the 
Government of the United States; and that the President be authorized to appoint three Commissioners to survey, an! 
by proper metes and bounds define and limit, a district of territory under the limitations above mentioned." 

By a proclamation of the President, dated 30lh March, 1791, the following were defined as the boundaries of the 
territory: "Beginning at Jones' Point, being the upper cape of Hunting Creok, in Virginia, and at an angle of 45 
degrees west of the north, and running in a direct line ten miles for the first line; then beginning again at the same 
Jones' Point, and running another direct line, at a right angle with the first, across the Potomac, ten miles, for the second 
line ; then from the terminations of the said first and second lines, running two other direct lines of ten miles each, the 
one crossing the Eastern Branch and the other the Potomac, and meeting each other in a point." 

The District of Columbia, as now demarked, contains only one county, that of Washington ; and in this are comprised 
the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and what are denominated the country parts. The statistical couditiou of 
this county, etc., in 1850, as exhibited in the census of that year, is as follows : 

Ciiil Divisidns. Dwellings. Families. Population. Farms. Mnnuf, 

Washington City, 1st Ward 940 991 5,543 — 10 

" 2d " 1,057 1,068 6,934 — 72 

" 3d « 982 982 5.908 5 116 

" 4th " 1,216 1,216 8,780 — 101 

" 6th « T16 769 4,137 4 21 

" 6th " 645 661 3,714 20 17 

" 7th " TS9 892 4,985 — 18 

Total 6,345 6,679 40,001 29 356 

Georgetown, N. W. part 461 482 3,329 6 9 

" otherparts 713 733 5,017 3 50 

Total 1,174 1,215 8,366 9 59 

Country— E. of Turnpike 222 222 1,956 130 — 

« — W. " 176 176 1,364 96 12 

Total 898 398 3,.320 226 12 

Grand Total 7,917 8,292 31,887 264 427 

The following exhibits the caste and sexes of the population in the several civil divisions : 

White PiTstins. Free Colored. Slare. 



Washington, 1st Ward 1,609.... 1,S93.... 2,502.... 746.. ..1,044.. ..1,790.. .. 

" 2d " 2,432.... 2,599.... 5,0,31.... 603.... 938.... 1,541.. .. 

" 3d " 2,345.... 2,401.... 4,746.... 353.... 528.... 881.... 

" 4th " 8.491.... 3,409.... 6.900.... 547.... 788. ...1,835.. .. 

« 6th « 1,202.... 1,458.... 2,720.... 491.... 668.. ..1,159.. .. 

" 6th " 1,664.... 1,746.... 3,410.... 73.... 69.... 142.... 

" 7th " 1,775.... 1,731.... 3,506.... 549.... 676.. ..1,225.. .. 



IHale. 


Female. 


Total. 


As'te 
Popiila. 


90.. 


.. 161.. 


.. 251.. 


.. 5,543 


107.. 


.. 255.. 


.. 862.. 


.. 6.934 


S3.. 


.. 198.. 


.. 281.. 


.. 5,flOS 


201.. 


.. 344.. 


.. 545.. 


.. S,7S0 


90.. 


.. 163.. 


. 258.. 


.. 4,137 


62.. 


.. 100.. 


. 162.. 


.. 3,174 


100.. 


.. 154.. 


. 254.. 


.. 4,985 



Total 14,578. . . .15,237. . . .29,815. . . .8,362. . . .4,711 . . . .8,073. . . . 733. . . .1,380. . . .2,113. . . .40,001 

Georgetown, N. W. part 1,255.. .. 1,864. ... 2,5S9.. .. 189.... 252.... 432.... 119.... 209.... 328.... 3.349 

other parU.... 1,679.... 1,813.... 3,592.... 487.... 641. .. .1,128... . 123.... 274.... 897.... 6,017 

Total 2^.... S^f?.... 6,081.... 667.... 893. .. .1,060. .. . 242.... 483.... 795.... 8,366 

Conntrj'-K. of Turnpike ... . 582.... 596.... 1,178.... 121.... 111.... 232.... 294.... 252.... 546.... 1.956 

" W. " .... 484.... 469.... 953.... 60.... 48.... 108.... 153.... 150.... 303.... 1,364 

Total To66. ...To65.... '2^131. ...Tsi.... 159.... 340.... 447.... 402 ... 849.... SMO 

Grand Total... 18,548.... 19,479.... 88^.... 4,210.... 5,763.... 9,978.... 1,422.... 2,265.... 3,687.... 51,687 
60 




ifistorjj, ^eeor$ii)g ii|e Jbei^fs of ii)e liniloi). 





THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



Of the whole free population, 42,956 were natives, 4,967 foreigners, and 7T of origin unljnown. The native population 
originated as follows: Me. 87, N. Ilamp. S4, Verm. 43, Mass. 331, E. I. 23, Conn. 135, N. T. 817, N. Jer. 163, Penn. 1 164 
Del. 99, DUtHct of ColumUa 24,967. Md. 9.245, Virg. 4.950, N. Car. 100, S. Car. 100, Ga. 67, Flor. 26, Ala! 45, Miss'. 55* 
La. 58, Te.x. 7, Ark. 4, Tenn. 58, Ky. 90, Ohio 123, Mich. 28, Ind. 29, III. 24, Mo. 28, la. 1, Wise. 2, Calif. 0, and Territories 
3; and the foreign population was made up of persons from— England 682, Ireland 2,373, Scotland 142, Wales 29 Ger- 
many 1,404, France SO, Spain 20. Portugal 6, Belgium 14, Holland 4, Italy 74, Austria 3, Switzerland 36, Russia 2,' Den- 
mark 6, Sweden 5, Prussia 11, China 1, Asia 4, Africa 2, British America 32, Mexico 9, South America, 5, West Indies 
15, and other countries 17. 

Number of persons in the District suffering from physical Infirmities was. In 1S50, as follows: deaf and dwmt)—\i\i. 16, 
it. col. 4, and si. 1— total 21 ; l/lind—yvh. 14, fr. col. 8, and si. 1— total 23; insane— wh. 13, fr. col. 8, and si. 1— total 22* 
and idiotic — wh. 7, fr. col. 4 — total 11. 

The progressive movement of the population has been as follows : 

Date of -Wliite T„ta, 

Census. Persons. Free C<.1. Slare. Popula. 

1800 10,066 783 3,244 14,093 

ISIO 16.079 2,849 5,395 ^4,023 

1820 22.614 4,043 6,077 33,039 

1830 27,563 6,153 6,119 38.S34 

1840 80,657 8,361 4,694 43,712 

1850 88,027 9,973 3,687 51,687 

or if the County of Alexandria be included in the returns for 1S50— and such, for comparison with former returns, will 
be necessary— the figures are as follows : white persons 45,240, free colored persons 11,386, and slaves 5,069— total 61,695. 

The employments of the District embrace almost every branch of national industry. Its manufactures and commerce 
are extensive, and its agriculture, though confined chiefly to the production of city-market products, is m a highly 
flourishing condition. In relation to these subjects, the census of 1850 supplies the following returns: 

Occupied Lands, ete.— Improved lands 16,267 acres, and unimproved lands, 11,187 acres, valued at $1,730,640 
Number of farms, 264. Value of farming implements and machinery, .$40,320. 

Live-Stock.— Morses, 824 ; asses and mules, 57 ; milch cows, 813 ; working oxen, 104 ; other cattle, 123 ; sheep, 150 ; and 
swine, 1,635 — valued in the aggregate at $71,643. 

Agricultural ProductAi.—'^'\ie-Ai,\'l,Z10\)\i&he\s\ rye, 5,509; Indian com, 65,230; oats, 8,134; barley, 75; buckwheat 
378; peas and beans, 7,754; Irish potatoes, 28,292; sweet potatoes, 3,497 bushels; tobacco, 7,800 pounds; hay, 2.279 tons, 
clover seed. 3 bushels; hops, 15 pounds; wine, 803 gallons; value of the products of orchards, !|!14.843; and of market- 
gardens, $67,222; beeswax and honey, 550; wool, 525 pounds; butter, 14,872 pounds; cheese, 1,500 poonds; and the 
value of animals slaughtered, $9,038. Value of home-made manufactures, $2,075. 

Manufactures.— A^^re^aio capital invested, $1,000,000; value of all raw material, fuel, etc., consumed. $1,000,000; 
average number of hands employed 1,000— males 51)0, and females 500 ; average monthly cost of male labor. $10,000, and 
of female labor, $5,000; annual value of products, $1,000,000. The whole number of manufacturing establishments, pro- 
ducing to the value of $500 and upward annually, was 427, and of these one was engaged in the manufacture of cotton 
goods, one in that of woolen goods, and two in making castings of iron— the remainder being distributed to a variety of 
handicrafts. 

Commerce, Internal Comni'unication, etc.— The foreign commerce of the District is limited. In the year ending 80th 
June, 1S50, the exports an<l imports were as follows : Exports— domestic produce— in American vessels, $72,175 : in 
foreign vessels, $8,213; total domestic produce, $80,888; foreign produce— in American vessels, $200: total exports, 
$80,588. Imports- in American vessels, $59,219 ; in foreign vessels, 600 : total, 59,819— balance in favor of exports, $20,769. 
The number of vessels entered during the year was nine, of an aggregate burden of 1,414 tons ; and the number 
cleared, ten vessels, of 1,720 tons. Of the vessels entered, two, and 154 tons were foreign, and of those cleared, two, and 
200 tons— the remainder being American. Georgetown is the only port. Alexandria, formerly a district city, has eight 
times the amount of foreign commerce, owing probably to its being the eastern terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal. The tonnage owned within the District is 17,010 tons, of which 2,796 is registered, and the remainder enrolled 
and licensed, and employed in the coasting trade and on the canal. The steam marine measures 1,949 tons. During the 
year 1849-50, there were built 8 sloops and canal boats of 288 tons burden. 

The district is connected with the interior by numerous fine turnpikes, and by railroads diverging from the neighbor- 
hood on both sides of the Potomac, and also through that river and its several branches. The Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal passes through Georgetown, and extends to a western terminus at Cumberland, to which point and along the 
whole line of its route an active commerce with the District is carried on. The railroads of the District are the Washing- 
ton Branch R. R., connecting it with Baltimore, and the West and South ; and diverging from Alexandria, which is 
virtually a part of the metropolis, are the Orange and Alexandria R. R. (which connects at Gordonsville, its S. terminus, 
with the Virginia Central E. R.) ; and the Manassas Gap E. E., which extends into the heart of elevated valleys beyond 
the first ridge of the AUeghanies. These avenues open to the national capital a respectable sphere of commerce, and 
when completed will be the means of greatly enlarging the trade and general interests of the place. 

Government, etc. — The government of the District is vested solely in Congress. It has no representation, nor any 
voice in the election of federal oflicers. The only fundamental laws, beyond the Constitution of the United States, to 
which its governors are subject are those which were in force in Maryland at the period of the cession of the jurisdiction 
of that State in 1788. 

Washington and Geokgetown are the cities of the District : these are described under their proper captions. 

62 



=J 



THE STATE OF COINECTICUT. 



CoNNEcnorT, lying between Massachusetts and Long Island Sound, and extending from Ehodo Island to New York, 
is 90 miles in length from E. to W., and in width, from N. to S., from 6U to 70 miles. It is siluatoil between 41° and 42^ 
02' latitudes N., and between 71° 40' and 73° 43' longitudes "W. from Greenwich, or 8° 19' and 5° 22' E. from "Washington. 
The contents of its superficies is estimated at 4,674 square miles. 

The aspect of the country is greatly diversified by hills and valleys. The hills are generally of a moderate size, and 
occur in quick succession, presenting to the traveler a beautiful and constantly varying scenery. All the principal ranges 
are continuations of the mountains of the Slates lying northward. The Housatonic range enters the State in the north- 
west, and extends in a southerly direction along the Housatonic River to the coast; this is rather a succession of groups 
and eminences than a continuous range. The Green Mountain range, coming from Vermont and Massachusetts, passes 
through the State from N. to S., and terminates at AVest Rock, a bluff 40 feet high, 2 miles N. W. of New Haven. Be- 
tween this and the Connecticut River is the Mount Tom range, which, coming from Massachusetts, also traverses this 
State, and terminates at East Rock, 370 feet high, a little to the north-cast of New Haven. The Blue Hills in Southing- 
ton, a part of this range, have an elevation of 1,000 feet, and are said to be the highest land within the State. On the E. 
side of the Connecticut is a fourth range, which crosses the river at Chatham and terminates at East Haven. 

The principal valleys of the State are the Housatonic on the E., the Connecticut in the centre, and the Quinnebaug in 
the E. The Valley of the Connecticut varies in breadtb from 10 to 16 miles, and extends northward from Middletown, 
having in this State a length of about 30 miles. This is a rich agricultural district. The valleys of the Quinnebaug and 
Housatonic have also fertile soil, and produce fine crops. The scenery of the valleys is magnificent, and the landscapes 
varied and romantic. Many of the surrounding hills are cultivated like gardens to the very summit, while others are 
bald, or only support a few stunted trees and shrubs. The Farminglon Valley extends from New Haven N. through 
the State between the Green Mountains and the Mount Tom range, and is from three to five miles wide. In the hilly 
parts of the Stale the soils are of moderate fertility, and are generally acknowledged to be better fitted for grazing than 
Beed-farming. 

Few of tlie streams are of much use to navigation, except in thfir lower courses. The principal is the Connecticut, 
which, coming from the N., and pursuing a pretty direct southward course to Middletown, then suddenly turns to the 
Bouth-east, and so flows on to the Sound. There is a bar at its mouth, but vessels drawing ten feet of water can go up to 
Middletown, and those drawing only eight feet to Hartford, 50 miles from the Sound. The navigation of the upper course 
of this river has been improved by means of locks and canals, which secure boat navigation to the mouth of Well's River, 
in Vermont. The River Tunxis, or Farraington, is the principal tributary of the Connecticut in this State; it rises in the 
eastern slope of the Green Mountains, in Massachusetts, and runs to the S. as far as Farmington, where it aburptly 
changes its direction to the N., until, breaking through the trap range, here called the Talcott Mountains, it again flows 
southwardly, and joins the Connecticut opposite to East Windsor. The Housatonic rises in the western part of Massa- 
chusetts, and enters this State near Oie north-west corner, after which it runs in a southerly and south-easterly course to 
the Sound; the first part of its course is broken by cataracts, and its entrance is barred against large vessels; it has, how- 
ever, a sloop navigation for a distance of 12 miles. The Thames, formed by tiie junction of the Quinnebaug, the She- 
tucket, and the Yantic at Norwich, empties itself into the Souml at New Lon<lon, after a navigable course of 14 miles. 
All these streams, and numerous smaller ones, are applicable as a motive power, and, besides turning almost all the ma- 
chinery of the State, are highly favoraljle to the fertility of the lands through which they pass. Scarcely is there a 
single square mile in all the country but lias one or more sparkling, never-failing rills to refresh the soil and make it 
productive. 

The whole coast of the State lies upon Long Island Sound, which is an extensive gulf or channel, being 140 miles in 
length and 25 miles wide in its broadest part. It is somewhat narrow at its Atlantic or eastern entrance, but expands in 
the middle; toward the west it gradually contracts, till it joins the harbor of New York by a narrow and crooked strait, 
called the East River. It admits of a tree navigation throughout its whole extent for the largest ships ; but in the western 
strait there was formerly a dangerous whirlpool, at a spot called Hell Gate, where the current is contracted by the rocky 
shores, and at certain seasons of the tide tlie navigation was most hazardous. The obstructions, however, were removed 
by submarine blastings in 1852. The northern shore of the Sound is deeply penetrated by numerous bays and creeks, 
affording excellent harbors. The harbor of New London is the best in the State— it is spacious, deep, and not liable to 
be frozen over in winter. New Haven harbor has not so great a depth. Stonington harbor is well protecteil by a break- 
water, and the harbor of Bridgejtort has similar iniprovemcuts. These harbors form so many starting-points of travel 
or Internal trade to the New England States and Canada. 

Connecticut produces many valuable minerals. Iron ore of excellent quality, and in great abundance, is found in 
various parts. Ttie copper-mines of Bristol and Plymouth are regarded by many as the most profitable now worker! in 
the United SUites, not excepting the mines of Lake Superior. The most distinguished scientific man of the State, Professor 
Silliman, has expressed the confident opinion that they extend from Bristol, in a southerly direction, toward Hampden, 
for a distjince of more than 30 miles, and that, if thoroughly worked, would be sufficient to give profitable employment to 
80,000 miners. Already they furnish a large amount of ore. The Plymouth mines are equally rich. The vein here runs 
from east to west, with a vertical dip, cutting the gedogiial formation of the mountain at right angles, and forming what 
is termed a rake vein. The working of this mine is only now being commenced, but there is every indication that the 
code contained in the vein will yield a copper ore of as good quality and in as large a quantity as the mine now wrought 
62 



Benj. M. & Edw'd A. Whitlock & Co. 

13 BEEKMASr STREET, 

CORNER OF NASSAU, 
First street above the Astor House, on the opposite side of, and 4 doors east of the Park, 

NEA\^ YORK. 

Importers of Cognac Brandies 

From Otard, Dupny & Co.^ Hennessey, Finet, Castillon & Co. 

And other houses of the highest reputation, and SOLE PEOPRIETORS of the celebrated Brandies, 
of their Native Proof and Flavor, 







o 

PL, 



^^.^^^"^^i^ 




C H ATE AU-BERN ARD. 



MAGNA CHARTA, &c., &c. 



SCHIEDAM AND OLD HOLLAND GINS, JAMAICA AND WEST INDIA RUMS, 

IRISH AND SCOTCH MALT WHISKEY, OLD BOURBON AND 

MONONGAHELA, MADEIRA PORT AND SHERRY 

WINES, CHOICE FAMILY CLARETS, HOCK 

AND GERMAN WINES. 

From the oldest established houses in Europe — all of which have been ordered and selected with 

a view to their Purity and Medicinal use. 

ALES AND PORTER, 

Direct from the Brewers in England and Scotland. 

Itnported for our own Trade from the best Shippers in Havana. 

T O 33 -A. <0 CJ O • 

Agents for the first description of Virginia Manufactured Tobacco. Many styles made to 
order, and which are highly esteemed in the South and West. Also a large stock of Me- 
dium and Low Grades. 



Pretnium Chanipaigne, Cremant. 






R. M. k E. A. W. <fe Co. are the exclusive owners of this AVine, and are in receipt of shipments 
by regular packets, and bog those who may not have given it a trial to do so, under their guarantee 
that it will be found superior in delicacy of flavor and quality to any Wine at present impoitod. 



BENJ. M. WHITLOCK, 
EDW. A. WHITLOCK, 
FRED. K. HAVEKSTICK, 
OLIVER W. DODGE. . 
HENRY CAMMEYER. 



1 



;- B. M. & E. A. WHITLOCK & CO. 



ill iir i'l Bc] tms ^m '^^ii 




f 11 IPAMll MUM 

EDGAR SPRAGUE, Agent, 



MANUFACTURERS OP 



mi 



NEW YORK. 
STEBBINS, MORGAN & ALLEN, 

IMPORTERS AND JOBBERS OF 

OflFer to the trade a well selected stock of goods in their line. The qualities can 

be relied upon by 

The Physician, the Family, or the Manufacturer, 

And the terms cannot fail of giving satisfaction. 

®|e §xmt imprittm tat Suplpng Ijr^ Mants at ^auulu^txs ! 



GENKRAIi DEAIiER IN 

PUTEB, mif mum & pumisheb tim wake, 

BASKETS, BIRD CAGES, CUTLERY AND MATS, 

W®®®!!^? ASS"© WniLIL]®W WAIEHg) 

PORCELAIN AND FANCY GOODS, 
And all articles appertaining to a House Furnishing and General Variety Store. Five large sales rooms, 

644 and 646 Broadway, North East corner of Bleeker St. 

^iiXILIL [Pi&glllE SiE® {I)B@(D[E&?[l®[i3§. 

PRATT & HAHDENBERGH, 

No. 360 Broadway, between Leonard and Franklin Streets, 
N E \\r YORK. 

WHOH-ES-A-ZiE DEI'.A.I^TnVEElNra?. 

p. & H. manufacture extensively all varieties of Paper Hangings, Borders, Curtains, Sec, suited to the wants 
of any section of the country, and are constantly producing new and original designs, to which they invite the 
attention of Country Merchant and the Trade. In their 

HET.A.IL ID E I> -A. I?, T 3VE E 3Sr T 

They have, in addition to their own production, all the desirable styles of the most eminent manufacturers in 
Europe, and they are determined to merit the reputation they now have of exhibiting to the public each season 
the laraest and best assortment of Plain and Decorative Paper Hangings ever offered by any one house in the 
United Stales. Faithful and accomplished workmen sent to any part of the country to execute orders intrusted 
to them. 



131 



«!HP 



«W^ 



■S^^'^ 



"vimn^E: cfo SToniLj:, 



50 "W^LL STREET, ISTEAV" YORK. 



» «»» I 



Bought and sold at the Board of Brokers on commission. Business Paper and 

Loans negotiated. Collections of Notes and Drafts made throughout the 

United States and Canadas. Sight Exchange bought and sold. 



DEDERICK SEARS & CO. 

GOLfl Aril) MJLvEE JaEMrlm^, 

^ssajtrs anb Slelttrs of |tfotltrs* nub gtntisls* Stodi, 

18 nyL-A-inDEIN" Hi^A^KTE, ISTE^V^ ■^OI^KI- 



JS^ A. supply constantly on hand, rolled to any width and gauge. Also, Fine 
Gold and Silver. 

[ESX-A^BLISHEID IIsT 1798.] 

WM. PARTRIDGE & SON, 

Importers, Sealers and Manufacturers of 

DYE-STUFFS, DYE-¥OODS, ACIDS, &c. 



J '■ 



Indigo. 

Bengal, 
Guatemala, 
Paste, 
Chemic. 

Dye StulTa. 
Lac Dye, 
Cochineal, 
Madder, 
Garancine, 
Munjeet, 
Cudbear, 
Orcliille, 
Safflo-.ver, 
Persian Berrie*, 
Turkey " 
Pruss. of Potash, 
Red " 

Chlorate " 
Bichromate " 
Cream of Tartar, 
Salts of « 
Argols, 
Nut Galls, 
Sal Ammoniac, 
liitharce, 
Copper Uust, 
Antimony, 



Turmeric, 

Sumac, 

Alum, 

Copperas, 

Verdigris, 

VVoad, 

Weld, 

Su»ar of Lead, 

Nitrate of Lead, 

Blue Vitriol, 

Prussian Blue, 

Pure Till, 

Aiinaito, 

Cutch, . , 

Terra .laponica, 

Divi Divi, 

Acer Kubrum, 

Valonia, 

Red Orpiment. 

Dye Woods. 

Bazil Wood, 
Red Saunders, 
Hype^r Nic, 
Peach Wood, 
Hache " 
Cam " 
Bar « 



Green Ebony, 

Nic Wood, 

L<igwood, 

Fustic, 

Sapan Wood, 

Cluercitron Bark, 

Ext. Safflower, 
" Logwood, 
" Hyper Nic. 
" Qiiercitrou, 

Barbary Root, 

Acids. 

Oil Vitriol, 
Muriatic, 
Aqua Forti», 
Nitric Acid, 
Muriate of Tin, 
Nitrate " 

MurioSulph." 
Oxymuriate " 
Chrystals <« 
Pyroligiieous Acid, 
Tartaric " 

Oxalic " ♦ 

(■itric " 

Nitrate of Iron, 
Iron Liquor, 



Red Liquor. 

Sundries. 

Wbitine, 

Aqua Ammonia, 

Irish Mosa, 

Glue, 

Gum Powder, 

Gum Arabic, 

Gum Senegal, 

British Gum, 

Gum Senegal pow. 

Fullers' Earth, 

Brimstone, 

Bleaohiug Salts, 

Sal Soda, 

Soda Asli, 

Sal yEratus, 

Potashes, 

Pearlashes, 

Manganese, 

Teazles, 

Pipe Clay, 

Thernioinetcrg, 

Hydrometers, 

Vat Nets, 

Wringing Cloth, 

Borax. 



OFFICE OF THE GRAVESEND DYE-WOOD MILLS. 



THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



!!* 



at Bristol has ever pro.luced. Cop|HT also occurs at Granby, where it is found at the junction of the green-stone and 
new red sand-stone formations. Fine marbles, of different characters, are abundant ; and free-stone, extensive quarries 
of which exist in the mountain regions, furnishes an excellent building material. Zinc, cobalt, and manganese also 
ooour. and plumbago and some other metals of minor importance have been discovered at various times and places. The 
mineryl waters of Staff.)rd have long been celebrated for their medicinal properties. 

The soils of Connecticut are generally good, but in some parts better suited to grazing than corn-growing. The Valley 
of ihe Connecticut has a strong and fertile argillaceous loam, varying in different sections from a hard, stiff clay to a 
light, sandy loam, according to the prevalence of argillaceous or silicious carlh. In the eastern part of the State the 
Iirevailing soil is warm, strong, fertile, and excellent for grasses. The north-western part is in some places cold and 
sterile, but is generally a good grazing country. In the western part of the State are many fertile districts. The climate 
and vegetation correspond nearly with those of Massachusetts, the climate differing only in being a little more temperate, 
and the season of growth in being earlier and somewhat more prolonged. The peach perfecU its fruits in the southern 
portion of the State. 

Connecticut is divided into S counties and 148 townships, and contains 6 cities, 12 boroughs, and Innumerable villages. 
The general statistics of the counties, with the capitals of each, in 1850, were as follows : 



Counliee, Dwelt 

Fairfield 



Pod raruis manui. 

10,S1T..59,7T5.. 3,155.. 482. . -J 



Hartford ....11,318.. 69,966.. 3,850. .734. . 
Litchfield... 8,721. .45,253. . 3,621. .487.. 
Middlesex... 5,882. .30,680.. 2,018.. 303.. 



Capitals, 

Danbury 

Fairfield 

Haktfobd 

Litchfield 

Middletown 



Counties. Dwell. Pop. j*'';™ Manut. capitals. 

New Haven. 10,204. .62,126. . 2,794. .521. . New Haven 

New London 8,386. .51,821. . 2,619. .765. . -j ^^^ London 

I Norwich 

Tolland 3,741.. 20,091.. 1,948.. 241.. Tolland 

Windham... 5,494.. 31,079. .24,445. .880.. Brooklyn 



Whole number of dwellings in the State, 64,013 ; of families, 78,448 ; and of inhabitants, 370,791 ; viz., whites 363,305— 
males 180,001, and females 183,804; fr. col. 7,486— males 3,749, and females 3,737. Of the whole population there were, 
deaf and rfwrnJ- wh. 385, fr. col. 4— total 389 ; Uind—vih. 177, and fr. col. 15— total 192 ; insane— wh. 449, and fr. col. 13 
—total 462; and idiotic — wh. 296, and fr. col. 4 — total 800. The number of persons born in the United States was 332,536, 
the number of foreign birth 37,462, and of birth unknown 794. The native population originated as follows: Maine 
670, N. Hamp. 795, Verm. 1,508, Mass. 11,866, R. I. 6,890, Connecticut 292,658, N. York 14,416, N. Jer. 1,174, Penn. 1,055, 
Del. 58, Md. 265, Dist. of Col. 50, Virg. 228, N. Car. 95, S. Car. 116, Ga. 217, Flor. 46, Ala. 74, Miss. 23, La. 64, Tex. 20, 
Ark. — , Tenn. 13, Ky. 41, Ohio 400, Mich. 89, Ind. 47, 111. 80, Mo. 28, la. 18, Wise. 22, Calif. 11, Territories 3; and the 
foreign population was composed of persons from — England 5,091, Ireland 26,689, Scotland 1,91 6, Wales 11, Germany 1,671, 
France 321, Spain 12, Portugal 74, Belgium 2, Holland 19, Turkey 2, Italy 16, Austria 20, Switzerland 55, Russia 5, 
Denmark 16, Norway 1, Sweden 18, Prussia 42, Greece 1, China 5, Asia 16, Africa 72, British America 959, Mexico 4, 
Central America 21, South America 35, West Indies 192, Sandwich Islands 45, and other countries, 57. 

The following table will show the decennial progress of the population* since the first census of the State, taken by the 
United States authorities : 

Colored Persona. Decennial Inoreaee. 

Census White < " , Total < ' , 

Years. Persons. Free. Slave. Total. Population. Numerical. Per cent. 

1790 282,581 2,801 2,759 5,560 238,141 — — 

1800 244,721 5,380 951 6,281 251,002 12,861 5.4 

1810 255,279 6,453 310 6,763 262,042 11,040 4.4 

1820 267,161 7,944 9T 8,041 275,202 13,160 5.0 

1880 289,603 8,047 25 8,072 297,675 22,473 8.1 

1840 301,856 8,105 17 8.122 309,978 12,803 4.1 

1850 363,805 7,486 — 7,486 370,791 60,813 19.6 

The general statistics of the wealth, products, industry, and institutions of the State according to the census of 1850, and 
other official documents referring to the same period, sum up as follows : 

Occupied Lands, etc. — Improved lands, 1,768,178 acres, and unimproved lands, 615,701 — valued in cash at $72,726,422. 
Value of farming implements and machinery $1,892,541. The whole number of farms under cultivation on the 1st June 
1850, was 22,445. 

Live-Stock, etc. — Horses, 26,879 ; asses and mules, 49 ; milch cows, 85,461 ; working-oxen, 46,988 ; ther cattle, 80,226 
sheep, 174,181 ; swine, 76,472. The live-stock of 1840, and of 1850, compare as follows : 

Live-stock. 1840. 18S0. 



Horses l34,650head i 26,879 head 



Asses and mules. 

Milch cows \ 

Working oxen V 238,650 

Other cattle ' 

Sheep 403,462 

Swine 131,961 



49 

85,461 

! 46,988 

' 80,226 

174,181 

76,472 



Decrease. 
8,722 head, 



or 25.1 per cent. 



25,975 



" 229,281 

" 55,489 



or 10.9 " 



or 56.8 
or 42.1 



—total value of live-stock In 1850, $7,467,490. 

ProdiKta of A7umals.— Woo], 497,454 pounds ; butter, 6,468,119 pounds ; and cheese, 5,863,277 pounds. The wool 
crop, of the year represented in the census of 1840 amounted to 889,870 pounds, and hence the decrease at the end of 
the subsequent decade, was 392,416 pounds, or 44.1 per centum. The clip per fleece in 1840, was 85.28 ounces, and iu 
1850, 45.69 ounces — increase per fleece 10.41 ovmces, or 29.6 per centum. The value of animals slaughtered in the year 
ending 1st June, 1850, was $2,202,266. 

Grain Crop*.— Wheat, 41,762 bushels; rye, 600,893 bushels; Indian com, 1,935,048 bushels; oats, 1,258,788 bushels; 



* The first reliable census of Connecticut was taken in 1756, and exhibits the then population at 130,611; 
197,866; and in 1782 it was found to have increassd to an aggregate of 209,lfiO. 



1 mi, 18 years afterward, it wa» 



THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



barley, 19,099 bushels ; and buckwheat, 229,297 bushels. The crops for the years represented in the census of 1840 and 
1850, compare as follows : 

Crops. 18^0. 

"Wheat 87,009 bi 

Eye 737,424 



18M. 




Movement. 




41,762 bushels.... 


deer. 45,247 bushels 


, or 52.0 per cent 


600,893 


" 


.... rf^cr. 136,531 " 


or 18.5 « 


1,935,043 


" 


iner. 434,602 " 


or 28.9 « 


1,258,738 


" 


.... deer. 194,524 " 


or 13.4 " 


19,099 


" 


deer. 14,660 " 


or 4.3.4 " 


229,297 


" 


.... deer. 73,746 " 


or 24.3 " 



Indian com 1,500.441 

Oats 1,453,262 

Barley 3.3,759 

Buckwheat 308,043 

Other Food Cropn.—Veas and beans, 19,090 bushels; and potatoes— Irish 2,689,725 bushels, and sweet SO bushels. 
The potato crop in 18-39 amounted to 3,414,238 bushels. Showing that the potato crop has decreased in the decade 
724,4-33 busht'ls, or in the ratio of 21.2 per centum. 

Misc^Umieom (7;o/^?.— Tobacco, 1,267.624 pounds; hay, 516,131 tons; clover-seed, 13,841 bushels; and other grass- 
seed, 16.608 bushels; hops, 554 pounds ; flax, 17,928 pounds; flax-seed, 703 bushels; silk cocoons, 308 pounds; maple- 
sugar, 50,796 pounds; molasst-s, 665 gallons; beeswax and honey, 93,-304 pounds; wine, 4,269 gallons, etc. Value of 
orchard products $175,118, and of market-garden products $196,874. A comparison of the crops of 1840 and 1850 results 
as follows : 

Crops. 1840. 18.50. Mnvement. 

Tobacco 471,657 pounds 1,267,624 pounds irvcr. 795.967 pounds, or per cent 

Hay 126,704 tons 516,131 tons tncr. 389,427 tons or " 

Hops 4 573 pounds 5.54 pounds ... . ... deer. 4,019 pounds, or " 

Flax 88,764 " 17,928 " deer. 65,836 " or " 

"W'ine 2,666 gallons 4,269 gallons incr. 1,603 gallons, or " 

nome-^xade manufacturer were produced in the year ending 1st June, 1850, to the value of $192,252. The same 
description of goods returned in the census of 1840 were valued at $226,162. 

Mannfactures.—'^o\sK capital invested in manufactures, $23 589,-397; value of raw material, fuel, etc., consumed in the 
year, $23,589,397 ; average hands employed 000,000— males 00,000, and females 00,n00 ; monthly cost of labor $000,000— 
male $000,000, and female $00,000; value of products for the year, $45,110,102. The whole number of manufacturing 
establishments producing annually $500 and upward on the 1st June, 1S50, wa.'< 3,913. Of which number 128 were cotton 
factories; 149 woolen factories; 91 iron works; viz., 13 making pig iron, 60 making castings, and 18 making wrought 
iron; 115 tanneries, etc. The capital invested in manufactures, in 1840, amounted to $13,669,139. 

The cotton manufactures in 1850, employed a capital of $4,219,100 ; consumed 39,483 bales of cotton, 2,866 tons coal, etc, 
valued at $2,500,i'62; employed 6,186 hands— males 2,708, and females 3,478, at a monthly cost of $92,7-39— to males 
$51,679, and to females $41,060, and produced in the year 51,780,700 yards of sheeting, etc., au<l 950,000 pounds of yaru, 
in all valued at $4,257,522. In 1S40, there were 114 factories in the State, and the capital, including that employed in 
6 dyeing establishments, was $3,152,000. 

In woolen factories the capital invested was $3,773,950. Wool used in the year 9,414,100 pounds, and coal consumed 
7,912 tons— valued together at $3,325,709; number of hands employed 5,488— males 2,907, and females 2,581 ; monthly 
cost of labor $103,.357— male $70,141, and female $33,216; products of the year— 9,408,777 yards of cloth, valued at 
$6,465,216. In 1840, the State contained 119 woolen factories. 

The statistics of the iron manufacture are exhibited in the annexed figures : 

Specifications. I'ig Iron, Cast Iron, Wrought Iron. Total. 

Capital invested dollars.... 225,600 580,800 629,500 1,885,900 

Ore used tons 35,450 — — 35,450 

Pig metal " — 11,396 7,081 18,477 

Oldmetal " — 337 — 337 

Blooms " — — 1,644 1,644 

Mineralcoal " — 7,592 5,062 12,654 

Coke and charcoal bushels 2,870,000 30,600 783,600 3,6>!4.200 

Value of all raw material dollars.... 289,225 851,369 858,780 999.374 

Hands employed, males number.... 148 942 874 1,464 

" females " — 7 — 7 

Monthly cost of labor, male dollars. . . . 8,967 25,458 11,814 20,234 

'• female " .... — 56 — 56 

Iron manufactured torn 13,420 11,210 6.825 80.9.55 

Value of other manufactures dollars 20,000 70,000 5,0u0 95.000 

Value of entire products " .... 415,600 981,400 667,560 2.064,560 

— in 1S40, there were in the State 28 furnaces, producing 6,495 tons cast iron, and 44 bloomeries, forges, and rolling-mills 
producing 16,938 tons bar iron; hands employed 895; capital $577,300. 

The capital invested in tanneries in 1850, was $360,500; value of raw material $453,854; hands employed 407; 
monthly cost of labor $10,027; skins tanned 67,110, and sides of leather tanned 244,910; value of products for Ihe year 
$731,000. In 1840, the number of tanneries was 197; men employed 1,859; products— 83,081 sides sole leather, and 
126,867 sides upper leather; capital $494,477. 

In the manufacture of malt and spirituous liquors, the capital employed in 1850, was $15,500; quantities and kinds 
of grain, etc., consumed — corn 20,000 bushels, rye 20,000 bushels, molasses 10 hogsheads, and hops 2 tons ; hands em 
ployed 20; quantities of liquors produced— whisky and high wines 130,000 gallons, and rum 1.200 gallons. In 1850 
there were in the State 70 distilleries, producing 215,892 gallons spirits; hands employed 42; capital invested .$50,380. 

The manufactures of Connecticut other th.-in the above specified are very extensive, and more varied in their character 
(ban perhaps in any other State. They embrace machinery, cutlery (a very large manufacture), firearms (also exten- 
sive), gunpowder, paper, boots and shoes, India-rubber articles, and an indescribable number of manufactures of small 
64 
- -• ' ■ . -.., . ... . -, — 



WATERFORD, NEW-YORK. 



IRON FOUNDRY AND MACHINE WORKS. 

Double Plate Chill'd Car Wheels and Machine Castings, Car Wheels and Axles fitted com- 
plete with Jaws and Boxes. All kinds of Machinery made to order. 

Also, Manufacturer and Wholesale Dealer in 

Cooking and Parlor Stoves of a Variety of Patterns, 
Office & Sales Room, 279 River Street, Troy, N. Y. 



WATERPORD, SARATOGA CO., N. Y. 

Manufacturer of every Variety of 



•Mso, Chemical Refined Ltannp Black. 



WATERFORD, NEW-YORK. 

Manufacturers of every Variety of 

mm ini liiEe^iiTTs, 

Also, Manufacturers of 

nnnt mm mma mau, 

Together with 

ECCENTRIC AND CONCENTRIC SCREW CHUCKS. 

GEOnaE W. EDDY, HENRY C. EDDY. 



MORS, EDDY & SHEPAED, 

Manufacturers of 



And all other Varieties of Flour, 



DE^. rL- S Ij O CJ XJ IVE, 

Mannfactorer and Wholesale Dealer in 

Blank ^aah, Cutk Ptmomikms, Jiaries, 

MEMORA.NDUMS, PASS BOOKS, 

Writing Books, Steel Pens, Pen Holders, &c. 



All kinds of Paper on hand or furnished to order. Blank Books of all descriptions made to 
order. The above are made of good materials. 



J5 XKE X >QC< XX "" Sb 





JOHN T. S. SMITH, 

Nos. 484 BROADWAY AND 105 FOURTH AVENUE, 



TAYLOR, DICKSON, GRAVES & CO. 

[late bates, TAYLOR 4 CO.] 
MANUFACTURERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

Xj. €> "X" XX X XV <3- 



AT,FRBD TAYLOR, 
ANDREW DICKSON, 



ISTE^VS^ YORK. 



, H. A. 0RAVE8, 
' JI. B. 8ANF0ED. 



GEORGE W. CARSON. MELVIN HARD. 

44 Beekman St., between William and Gold, New York, 



3yiUA.3SrXJFA.CTTJR,ER,S OF 



CHARLES A. MORFORD, 



COR,. OE IDE^S?- J^ISTJD GE-EElST^AT'ICIi SXS. 
Basement Mercliants' Exchange Bank. 

NEW YORK. 

139 



THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



articles of geueral utility. Two of the three great pen manufactories of the coiititry are in this State, one, the oldest, at 
Birmingham, and another at Waterbury. Manufactures, indeed, within Connedicut are rapidly usurping the position it 
formerly occupied in regard to its agricultural interests: while the stock and products of the one decrease, the interests 
of the other appreciate. 

Commerce and Navigation. — The direct foreign commerce of Connecticut, although the State enjoys many peculiar 
facilities for engaging in such, is comparatively small, and chiefly carried on with Ihe British Provinces and the West 
Indies. For the year ending 30th June, 1850, the exports were valueil at $241,930, of which sum $66S was the value of 
re-exports; and the imports for the same period were valued at $^72,390. The shipping employed in carrying tho 
merchandise above represented was as follows : 

KnterpJ. CIparpil. Total. 



Nationality of < 

6lii|.ping. Vessels 

American 109 . 

Foreign 79. 

Total ISS. 

New Haven 89 . 

Fairfield 60. 

New London 26 . 



Tons. Crews. 

.22,550 1,867. 

.11.572 530. 



.34,153 1,897 156 2T.81T... 

.16,177 695 72 13,400... 

. 6,895 372 56 6,322... 

. 7,876 600 18 4,943... 



Stonington 10 2,894 213. 

Middletown 3 310 17. 



.17,515 1,058. 

. 9,802 458. 

.1,516. 
. 591. 
. 349. 
. 380. 
. 191. 
. 5. 



Vessels. Ton,s. Crewa. 

.196 40,095 2.425 

.148 21.374 983 



2,591. 
61. 



.844 61,469 _3,413 

.161 29,577 1,2S6 

.116 13,217 721 

. 44 12,819 980 

. 19 5,4S5 404 

. 4 371 22 



The following table will exhibit the movements of foreign commerce in this State from 1791 to 1850 

Kxpoits. linporta. 



Years. 

1791 ... 

1792 . . . 

1793 ... 

1794 ... 

1795 . . . 

1796 ... 

1797 . . . 

1798 . . . 

1799 . . . 

1800 . . . 

1801 . . . 

1802 . . . 

1803 . . . 

1804 ... 

1805 . . . 

1806 . . . 

1807 . . . 

1808 ... 

1809 ... 

1810 . . . 



$710,353 . 
879,753 . 
770,255 , 
812,765 , 
819,465 . 
1,452,793 , 
814,506 , 
763,128 , 
1,143,813 , 
1,114,743 
1,446.216 
1,606,809 
1,284,571 
1,516,110 
1,443,727 
1,715,828 
1,624,727 
413,691 
666.518 
768,643 



Years. Exports. Imports. 

1811 $1,032,354 $ 

1812 780,805 

1813 974,303 

1814 1,043.136 

1815 383.185 

1816 598.806 

1817 604,139 

1818 577,564 

1819 438,534 

1820 421,931 

1821 376.187 312,090 

1822 485,312 507.094 

1823 482,061 456,463 

1824 575,852 581,510 

1825 689,270 707,478 

1826 708,893 736,194 

1S27 590.275 630.004 

1S23 521.545 485,174 

1829 457,97(J 809,588 

1880 889,511 269,583 



Years. Exports. 

1831 $482,888 . . 



Imports. 

$405,066 

1832 480,466 437,715 

1833 427,603 352,014 

1834 422,416 385,720 

1835 512,970 439,502 

1836 488,199 468.168 

1887 532,590 818,849 

1888 513,610 343,331 

1839 583,226 446,191 

1840 518,210 277,072 

1841 509,-348 295,989 

1,842 332,392 835,707 

1843 307,223 230,841 

1,844 800,016 82-3.299 

1845 969,055 372,075 

1846 775,912 413,478 

1847 599.492 275,828 

1848 501,064 229,310 

1849 264,000 234,748 

1850 241,980 372,390 

Tonnage and 3!iip-huilding.—The amount of shipping owned in Connecticut on 30th June, 1850, was 118.085 tons, 
viz.: registered "permanent" 41.555 tons, and "temporary" 956 tons; enrolled and licensed "permanent" 67,778 tons, 
and '' temporary" 410 tons ; and licensed " under 20 tons," in the coasting trade 1,179. and in the cod fishery 1,208 tons. 
Of rtie registered tonnage 11,4*3 tons were employed in the whale fisheries, and 31,028 tons in foreign trade; and the 
proportion of the enrolle^l and licensed tonnage employed was thus— in coasting, 61.862 tons ; in the cod fishery 4,249 tons, 
and in the mackerel fishery 1,577 tons. The whale fishery is carrie<i only chiefly from Stonington and New London. The 
steam mtirine of the State consists of 8.455 tons of shipping, all employed in the coasting trade, and distributed to the 
several di.stricU in the following proportions— New London, 3,879 tons; New Haven, 2,563 tons; Middletown, 1,941 tons; 
and Stonington, 67 tons. The shipping built during the year specified consisted of— 3 ships, 7 brigs, 27 schooners, 9 sloops, 
and 1 steamer — in all 4,819 tons. 

Internal Communication. — The lines of travel and transportation in Connecticut extend— east and west directly 
through the length of ihe State, having their termini at New York and at Boston, and— north and south, stretching from 
the ports on Long Island Sound, across the country into Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and 
ultimately to the Western States, and also into Canada. The connections thus formed extend several thousands of miles, 
and afford easy and expeditious routes of communication between tho interior and sea-board. There are two lines of 
railroad running in a direction east and west— the line composed of the New York and New Haven E. R., and the New 
Haven and New London R, R., which, in connection with the Stonington R. R., and also with the Norwich and 
Worcester R. R., forms the southern route between the two commercial centres, Boston and New York ; and the Hartford, 
Providence, and Fishkill R. 11., which will form a direct line through the middle section of the State, from Providence, 
R. I., to Fishkill on the Hudson River, opposite the east terminus of the Erie R. R. The lines running north from the 
Sound ports are— the Norwich and Worcester R. R. ; the New London, Willimantic, and Palmer R. E. : the New Haven, 
Hartford, and Springfield R. R. ; the New Haven and Northampton R. R. (on the old canal route) ; the Naugatuck R. R. ; 
the Housatonic R. R. , and the Danbury and Norwalk R. R. There are also several additional railroads in progress or 
projected ; one of which, and the most important, is that designed to effect an air line route between New York and 
Bosion. The common and turnpike roads of the State are proverbially good and well kept. The only canal of any 
length the State ever possessed, the Farmington Canal, has been filled in, and now forms the bed of the New Haven 
and Northampton E. R. 

Bankx. etc—in April. 1850, there were in the State 41 banks and 2 branch banks, the condition of which at th:it date 
was as follows: ZiaWZi^ieii-capital, $9,907,508 ; circulation, $5,253,884 ; deposits, $2,357,939; due other banks, $463,763; 



THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



dividends unpaid, $37,372; surplus fund, $763,654; earnings since dividend, 304,396; and other liabilities, $38,961 ; and 
Assets— \oans and discounts, $15,607,315 ; real estate, $3S9,9s3 ; other investments, $396,035; due by other banks and 
brokers, $1,637,411 ; notes of ihe hanks. $215,349: specie funds, $103,614; specie, $640,622, and expenses since dividend, 
$51,S7S. Total of balance sheet, $19,122,207. Connecticut had also 15 savings' banks, in which $4,746,692 was deposited 
by 32.966 imlividual depositors: the sums deposited in 1S49-50 amounted to $1,051,300, and the sums withdrawn to 
$719,S9S. The aggregate expense of managing these institutions was $10,S37 ; and the dividends made on sums deposited 
raiige<i from 5 to 7A per cenlum. The securities on which the credits are based are loans on real and personal estate and 
stocks, and investments in bank stocks and bonds, etc. The Insur.ince Companies in the State comprised — 8 general 
stock companies, with an aggregate of capitals amounting to $1,400,000; 11 mutual general companies — capitals, 
$1,487,025; 6 life mutual companies— capitals, $1,400,000; 2 health companies— capitals, $203,175; and 1 life and health 
company— capital, $100,000. 

Gm^ernm-ent.— The charter granted in 16G2, by Charles II., formed the basis of the government until ISIS, when the 
present ccmstitution was formed. 

Every white male citizen of the United Slates, 21 years of age, who has gained a settlement in the State, has resided 
six months in his town, is possessed of a freehold of $7 a year in value, or has done military duty for one year, or has 
been excus'ul lh«-refrom, or h.-is paid a State tax within the year, and who has a good moral character, may vote at all 
elections on taking the oath. Every voter is eligible to any office, unless it be expressly excepted. The general election 
is held <m the first Monday of April annually. 

The Legi.Hlature, slylud the General Assembly, consists of a Senate and House of Keprescntatives. The Senate is not 
to consist of less than IS nor more than 28 members — senators are chosen by districts of equal population, and by a plurality 
of votes, ami in case any two candidates have an equal and highest vote, then the House of Representatives shall elect 
one of them. IJepresentalives are chosen by towns, and in the same manner as senators; but in case of no candidate 
receiving a highest vote, the Senate chooses one as member from the two candidates having the highest. The Legislature 
meets alternately at Hartford and New Haven, on the first Mimday in May, yearly. 

The Governor exercises the chief executive power. He must be at least 80 years of age and have been elected by a 
majority of votes, and in case there be no choice by the people, one of the two candidates having the highest vote is 
chosen by the General Assembly on joint ballot. The Governor has power to grant reprieves, except in cases of 
impeachment, but not pardons; an<l he may veto a bill, but a majority of both houses may pass it again, and it becomes 
law nevertheless. A Lieutenant-Governor (^fior-officio President of Senate), Secretary of Slate, Treasurer, and Comptroller 
are chosen in the same manner as the Governor. All these officers are elected annually. 

The Judiciary of the State consists of a Supreme Court, a Superior Court, County Courts, etc. The Supreme Conrt 
consists of a chief and four associate justices, and meets annually in each county. The Superior Court is helil by one judge 
of the Superior Court semi-annually in each county. County Courts are held three times each year in the several counties 
by a judge elected annually by the Legislature. Appeal lies from the County Courts to the Superior Court. Clerks of 
the County Courts are likewise clerks of the Superior Court and Supreme Court in their counties respectively. In all 
cases of libel, truth may be given in evidence. Sheriffs are chosen by the Assembly, and hold office for three years. 

Federal Representation.— ConneQ,WQ.\xi, under the law relative to the distribution of representatives, has four members 
tn Congress. 

Finances, etc. — Puring the year ending 1st April, 1S50. the total receipts into the public treasury amounted to $122,347^ 
and the expenditures to $118,392. leaving a balance of $3,955. The chief sources of income were, from taxes, $73,557 ; 
from dividen<ls on bank stock, $37,053, etc. The principal expenses were, the expenses of legislation, $25,986; salaries, 
$14,150; contingent expenses of government, $15,399; judicial expenses. .$49,002, etc. Connecticut has no absolute debt. 
The contingent debt amounted to $58,212. The value of property belonging to the State otherwise than the School Fund, 
amounts to $406,000. 

Religion.^ Denominations.— T\iQ statistics of the several religious denominations in accordance with the census of 
1850, were as follows : 



Den..niina- No. f.f Church Vuli.e of 

tions. Chur^.■h^8. accom. Property. 

Baptist 113.. 44,384 . . $406,034 

Christian 4.. 950.. 5,500 

Congregational 252. .127,320. .1,657,185 

Dutch Ref — .. — .. — 

Episcopal 100. . 44,350. . 773,875 

Free 1.. 325.. 800 

Friends 5.. 1,025.. 7,150 



Denotnlna- No. of Church Value of | Denoniina- No. of Church Value of 



P<Tty. 

Roman Catholic. 12 . . 9,015 . .$ 97,500 
Swedenborgian . . — . . — . . — 

Tunker — .. — .. — 

Union 4.. 1,850.. 28,400 

Unitarian 5 . . 1.750 . . 4,200 

Universalist 22 . . 8,905 . . 90.200 

Minor Sects 6 . . 1,250 . . 6,000 



Churclies. accom. Property. 

German Ref — . . — . . $ — 

Jewish — .. — .. — 

Lutheran — .. — .. — 

Mennonite — .. — .. — 

Methodist 178 . . 56,625 . .351,550 

Moravian — .. — .. — 

Presbyterian ... 17 . . 7.500 . . 88,700 
—making a total of 719 churches, with accommodation for 305,249 persons, and valued as properly at $3,554,894. 
Connecticut forms a diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and with Rhode Island constitutes the Roman Catholic 
Diocese of Hartford. 

Fducaiional Stat'ixtics.— The number of common school societies in the State on the 1st April, 1850, was 217; of 
school districts, 1,649, and of children between 4 and 16 years of age, 92,055. The value of the School Fund, 2d Sept., 
as appears from the biennial exhibit, was $2,076,602 75 ; and the amount of dividend tor 1850 was $137,449 61, or $1 50 
for every eimmerated child. The returns do not give the number of teachers, or their wages, or the time during which 
schools are open, but only the information above indicated. The Legislature, at the session of 1849, appropriated 
$10,000 for the establishment of a State Normal School, which is under the control of eight trustees, appointed by the 
General Assembly, one from each county. The collegiate establishments of the Stale are: Yale College. Trinity College, 
the Weslcyan University, and the Theological Institute. Yale College is one of the oldest, most richly endowed, and 
most extensively useful institutions of learning in the United States. It was founded in 1701 by the gentleman whose 
name it perr.etuates. In 1850 it had in the academical department 432 students, of which 93 were of the senior class, 
91 of the junior class, 122 of the sophomore class, and 126 of the freshmen class— total, 432 ; and the number of students 
in theology was 3S, in law 26, in medicine 3-!, and in philosophy and the arts 2i— total in professions and the arts, 128. 
Grand total. .55.5. From 1702 to 13.50, the numl)er of graduates had been 5,932, of which 2,962 were living; and of the 
total. 1,562 h:id been ministers of the gospel, of whom 724 were living in 1850. The libr.ary of Yale College contains 
49,000 volumes. Trinity College, an Episcopal institution, is located at Hartford. It was founded in 1824, and in 1860 
C6 




^'^^ 



T7 H o s - :i3 o nxr 

MANUFACTURKR OF 




No. 4 LIBERTY PLACE, NEW YORK. 
CARRINGTON, 78 Broadway, 

Personal Orders, small or large, and for articles of every description, promptly and carefully 

attended to. 

CDOisaiis/Lissxoisr cn^ft-Pia-E, i^i"ve i>ei?, cehstt. 

_^^ Orders exceeding $20 in amount, or from places beyond reach of the daily expresses, 
should be accompanied by a remittance. Address, 

JOHN MV. CARRINGTON, 

78 Broadway, N. Y. 

Referencks. — Messrs. David Hoadley, President Panama Railroad Co., New York; Asa Worthinpton, New 
Yorit; VV. B. Dinsmore, do.; Alvin Adann, Boston; E. S. Sanford, Pliiliidelphia; S. M. Shoemaker, Ballimore; 
A. J. Falls, Washington; VV. T. J. O. Woodward, Charleston, S. C.; J. M. West, Petersburg, Va.; James Gard- 
ner, Editor, &c., Augusta, Ga.; H. B. Plant, Augusta, Ga.; Ch. H. Parmelee, Albany, Ga.; Lewis A. Middle- 
ton, Mobile; Edwin M. Taylor, Staunton, Va.; Dr. Wni. A. Carrington, of Charlotte, Va., now of New York; 
J. B. Ezell, Columbia, S. C; C. H. Bulkley, Atlanta, Ga.; Alsop & Co., Valparaiso, Lima and San Francisco; 
Robt. VV. Scott, Frankfort, Ky.; Hening & WoodrutT, St. Louis; Dr. John M. Riely, New Albany, la.; John S. 
Potwin, Zanesville, Ohio; Prof. I. W. Andrews, Marietta, Ohio; J. C. Calhoun, Jamestown, New York; Dr. H. 
L. Leaf, Philadelphia; Rev. Dr. F. L. Hawks, New York; S. A. Jones, Louisville, Ky., and to the agents and 
offices generally of the American, Adams, Harnden, National, United States and Kingsley Expresses, and of 
those of Wells, Fargo & Co., Freeman & Co., and Pacific Express Co. 



IDEFI-A^nsrCE ^J^X^J^J^/Lj^lsrJD-E:R S-A.EES. 

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S.3 



ROBERT M. PATRICK, 

No. 192 PEARL STREET, NEW YORK, 

Sole manufacturer in the United States of the above celebrated Safes, and the Patent Powder Proof Defiance 
Lock and Patent Cross Bar, the best Safes and Locks combined in the world. Each Safe is provided with the 
Patent Powder Channel, making them both Fire and Burglar Proof, beyond a douht. 
Depot No. 192 Pearl, one door below Maiden Lane. Manufactory No. 60, 62, 64, 66 Cannon St., New York. 



FULLER, LORD & CO. 



No. 139 GREENWICH STREET, NEW YORK, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

BOONTON CUT NAILS, 

RA.IL ROA.D SPIKES, &c. 




PETER LORELLARD, 

[successor to peter & GEO. LORELLARD,] 
OFFERS FOR SALE ALL KINDS OF 












For particulars, a full price current can be obtained by applying as above. This estab- 
lishment is one of the oldest of the kind in the United States. 

The Manhattan Life Insurance Co. 



Gash Capital and Accumulative^ $400,000. 

< *>» » 

This Company affords to the assured all the advantage of the Mutual System, joined with 
the security of the Joint Stock Company. 

N. D. MORGAN, President. 

• C. Y. WEMPLE, Secretary. 

viKGiWiA mmwkttmm tobacco agemcv, 

[Established 183G.] 

The subscriber has now on hand a full assortment of Manufactured Tobacco. Twist, in tierces and kegs, 
suitable for the London and Australian markets. 

The most celebrated brands of pounds, half pounds, 5s, as, 10s, 16b, 18s, 20s, 22s, 32s, or Nail Rod and La- 
dies' Twist, in packages suitable for the Canada and Home Trade, in part of the following brands : 

Grant & "Williams, James Thomas, Jr., El Dorado, Unique, Jewel of Ophir, A. G. Saun- 
ders, S. S. Saunders, Harper, Jesse Hare, Jones & Hudson, McEnery & McCulloch, Square & 
Compass, A. Thomas & Sons' Grape, Osborne & Bragg, G. W. Gilliam's Wine Sap, J. R. 
Palmone & Sons, Mills & Hatcher, Jones & Hudson, Wash. B. Ross, B. & M. Armstead, Wm. 
Anderson, Briton's Emblem, Boyster's Pomona, Royster's Perfect Love, Royster's Invincible, 
C. P. & J A. Word, Young & Burwell, Irvin, Virginia, Jackson, Madison, M. A. Butler, In- 
dian Queen, Wm. Crumpton, Crumpton & Payne. 

El Dorado, Nectar Leaf, Ultimatum Virgin, Esmeralda, W. H. Luckc, Cross, Wm. Ligon, Lyle & Davidson, 
W. H. Hare, R. A. Mayo, G. Sherwood, C. Wortham, Wm. G. Farmer, Charles M's, Brooks, Williams & Co. 
Melville, W. A. Gilman, Crutchfield, J. H. Trotter & Co., Ward, Greyhound, Delano, Humboldt, Alma, Price 
& Harwood, Goodrow, Doggett, Han's Climax, Martin & Co., Gentry & Royster. For sale on liberal terms by 

C. M. CONNOLLY, 45 Water Street. 

N. B.— Orders from country buyers attended to promptly and faithfully. 

116 



THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



had 9 professors, 66 students, and a library of 9,000 volumes. Its alumni counted at the latter date 257, of which 117 had 
taken holy orders. The Wesleyan University at Middletown was founded in 1S31, anil in 1S50 hud 8 professors, 125 
students, and a library of 11,123 volumes. Since its commencement it had graduated 327 students, and of these, 126 had 
gone into the ministry. At Hartford is the Theological Institution of Connecticut, an establishment under the Congrega- 
tional churches, founded in 1S34. It had, in 1850, 3 instructors, 17 students, and a library of 5,000 volumes. Its alumni 
counted 151. There are, besides the above, a large number of academies, and other descriptions of private schools, 
which, for efHciency and cheapness, have few equals. There is also at Hartford the Connecticut Historical Society, which 
publishes its transactions at stated periods. 

CharitaTjIe IiifitUutiuni:— Connecticut, at an earlier period, and on a more extensive scale than any other of the 
States, commenced and completed institutions the object of which was the relief of those whom nature or accident had 
deprived of the use of senses or mental faculties. The principal of these institutions are the Retreat for the Insane, 
and the American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, both at Hartford; and to these may be added the State Prison at 
Wethersfield, conducted on paternal and correctional, rather than vindictive, principles. The Ketreat for the Insane was 
opened in 1S24 ; on the Ist April, 1849, it contained 133 patients, and in 1849-50, 135 were admitted, making 268 in all ; and 
during the same year 125 were discharged, leaving in the Retreat 143. Of the patients discharged 64 were recovered, 24 
improved, 7 not improved, and 30 died. The whole number of admissions, from the opening oY the institution, had been 
2,038. The terms of admission are $39 a quarter for patients belcmging to the State, and $45 50 for patients from other 
States. The American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb was the first institution of the kind founded in the United States, 
and has been well endowed by individual. State, and Federal bounties. The number of students for the year ending 1st 
May, 1850, was 210, and of these 20 were supported by friends, 32 by the State of Maine, 23 by New Hampshire, 19 by 
Vermont, 75 by Massachusetts, 7 by Rhode Island, 26 by Connecticut, and 8 by South Carolina. The annual cost is 
$100, but in sickness extra necessaries are charged for; applicants for admission must be between 8 and 25 years of age, 
of good natural intellect, capable of forming and joining letters legibly and correctly, and of good moral character. 

Periodical Press. — The whole number of periodicals and newspapers published in Connecticut, in 1850, was 51, of 
which 30 were political, and 21 literary, religious, scientific, etc. Of the political papers, 20 were whig and 10 democratic 
in their teachings. Of the total, 8 were daily papers, 4 tri-weekly, 83 weekly, and 6 at other periods. The circulation of 
the daily papers amounted at each aggregate issue to 12,300 copies; of the tri-weeklies, to 1,600 copies; of the weeklies, 
to 34,810 copies ; and of all others, to 2,400 copies. The best known of the Connecticut periodicals arc — the " American 
Journal of Science," the "New Englander" (literary), the ''Church Review" (religious), and the "Yale Literary Maga- 
zine" (literary); all of which are published from the New Haven press. The "Journal of Science" is under the editorial 
supervision of the celebrated Dr. Silliman, and has long stood at the head of scientific periodicals in America. 

Pauperism ami Crime. — The whole number of paupers supported in the year ending 1st June, 1S50, was 2,337, of 
which number 1.872 were natives, and 465 foreigners ; and the whole number of paupers receiving support at the date 
specified was 1,744, viz. : 1,463 natives, 281 foreigners. Cost of supporting paupers in the year $95,624. The number of 
convicts in the Stale Prison on the 3l8t March, 1850, was 175, of which 163 were males and 12 females. During the year 
then ending, 61 convicts had been received and 43 discharged. The average number in confinement during the year 
was about 160. The male prisoners are employed in making cabinet-ware, cutlery, and shoes; and the females in wash- 
ing, cooking, making and mending clothing, and binding boots and shoes. A small library has been purchased for the 
use of the prisoners, and it is a duty of the chaplain to give educational as well as religious instruction to the prisoners. 
The institution is self-supporting, and the receipts for the past year show a balance in favor of the prison. A reform 
school for juvenile offenders has also been lately established, and is supported by the legislature and individuals con- 
jointly. 

Historical Sketc1i.—'T\\e territory now constituting the State of Connecticut was granted by the Plymouth Company 
in 1630 to the Earl of Warwick, and in the following year he assigned his rights to Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brook, and 
others. Among the assignees were many distinguished Puritans and active friends of liberty. So little was yet known 
of tlie geography of the country, that the grant was made to extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea, and it 
was upon this clause of her charter that Connecticut long afterward founded her claims to lands in Pennsylvania and 
Ohio. 

About the same date, on the invitation of an Indian chief, Winslow, the governor of Plymouth, visited his tribe on the 
Connecticut River, and selecled a place near the mouth of the little river in Windsor for the establishment of a trading house. 
The Dutch at New York, apprised of this project, determined to anticipate them, and immediately dispatched a party, who 
erected a fort at Hartford. In September, 1633, a company from Plymouth arrived at the place previously selected, and 
in October raised their first house, fortifying it with palisades. The Dutch, considering them as intruders, attempted to 
drive them away, but finding them in too strong a force, abandoned the design. In 1635, other parties arriving from 
Massachusetts, settled at Wethersfield and Windsor, but many of them returned after suffering great hardships. In the 
same year the assignees above mentioned, desirous of commencing a settlement, sent over as their agent John Winthrop, 
son of the governor of Massachusetts, with instructions to build a fort at the mouth of the river and commodious houses 
for the emigrants. Hearing at Boston that the Dutch were preparing to take possession of the same place, he repaired 
thither immediately, began his fort, and mounted his cannon. A few days after the Dutch arrived, but were not permitted 
to land. The next spring, the Rev. Thomas Hooker, of Cambridge, the "light of the Western churches," and about in« 
others, established themselves at Hartford, on lands purchased of the Indians. In 1637 many of the settlemejits were 
ravaged by the savages, and their inhabitants carried off and slaughtered. 

Hitherto the settlements had acknowledged the authority of Massachusetts. In January, 1639, the freemen having 
convened at Hartford, adopted a constitution for themselves. At this time the colony consisted only of three towns — 
Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield, each of which was empowered to send four members to the General Court. In 
the same year George Fenwick, one of the patentees, came over with his family, and settled at the mouth of the river. 
In honor of Lord Say and Seal and Lord Brook he called the place Say-Brook. Others afterward joined him, and fur 
several years they were governed by their own magistrates and laws. In 1644, Fenwick, for $7,000 assigned all the 
rights conferred by the patent of the Plymouth Company to the General Court of Connecticut, and henceafter this set- 
tlement became a part of the colony. The claim of Plymouth Colony, founded upon their having first made an estab- 
lishment at Windsor, had been previously purchased. 

In the mean time another colony had been planted within the limits of the Connecticut patent. In 1637 two large ship? 
arrived at Boston, having on board Mr. Davenport and others. Being possessed of great wealth, the Court of Mass* 
67 



THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



chusetts, desirous of retaining them in the colony, offered them any place they might select for a plantation. Wishing 
however, to institute a civil and religious community, conforming in all things to their peculiar principles, Ihey removed 
next year to Quinnipiac, which they called New Haven. Soon after their arrival, at the close of a day of fasting and 
prayer, they subscribed what they termed a " Plantation Covenant," solemnly binding themselves, '• until otherwise or- 
dered, to be governed in all things of a civil as well as religious concern, by the rules which the Scriptures held forth to 
them. They purchased lands of the natives, and laid out their town in squares, designing it for a great and elegant city. 
In 1639 a more eflBcient constitution was framed, but the same foundation was retained. As new towns sprung up, 
however, this instrument was modifled, and the institutions and laws became gradually assimilated to those of Con- 
necticut. 

The Dutch of New York, claiming the territory as far as the Connecticut Elver, involved the colonists in constant and 
vexatious disputes, and the fear of attack from that quarter was one of the reasons which, in 1643, induced the colonies 
of New England to form a confederation for their mutual defense. 

The criminal code of Connecticut (commonly known in modern times as the Blue Laws) was completed in the year 
1642. 

In 1650 a treaty of amity and partition was concluded at Hartford between the English and Dutch, the latter relin- 
quishing their claims to the territory, exct-pt the lands which they actually occupied. Soon after the two nations were 
at war, but their American colonies had agreed to remain at peace. Notwithstanding this agreement, the Dutch governor 
was detected in concerting with the Indians a plot for the total extirpation of the English. Connecticut and New Haven 
were alarmed. They applied to Massachusetts for aid, but in spite of the confederation that colony refused to take up 
arms in their defense. Exasperated at such conduct, and fearing the worst from their enemies, they represented their 
danger to Cromwell and implored his assistance, who, with his usual promptness, sent a fleet for their protection and for 
the conquest of the Dutch; but peace in Europe saved the Dutch from subjugation and the colonies fi-om dread of 
massacre. 

On the restoration of Charles II., Connecticut applied for a royal charter, which was granted, and the constitution 
which the people themselves had adopted was confirmed. The charter comprehended New Haven; but it was not 
before 1665 that that colony reluctantly assented to the union. 

When Charles II., in 1664, granted the New Netherlands to the Duke of York, regardless of its charter, the territory 
of Connecticut was included in the same patent, an<l in 1775, Major Andros, the duke's governor, arrived with an armed 
force at Saybrook to take possession of the fort at that place; but his object was frustrated by the address and opposition 
of the colonial militia, and he obliged to return to New York. 

According to a report made to the Board of Trade and Plantations in 16S0, it appears that the colony then con- 
tained 26 towns, that the militia consisted of 2,507 men; that the annual exports amounted to $44,000; that the whole 
number of trading vessels was 27, and the tonnage 1,050 tons. The population is supposed to have numbered about 
12,000. 

In 16S6, James II., desirous to annul all the colonial charters, summoned the several colonies to appear and show 
cause why they should not surrender them. Andros advised Connecticut, to insure the good-will of his majesty, to re- 
sign her charter voluntarily, but the people estimated too highly its privileges to surrender it until necessity compelled 
them. Sir Edmond, therefore, repaired with a body of troops to Hartford, where the Assembly was in session, and de- 
manded it of them. After a prolonged debate until evening, the charter was produced and laid upon the table, a large 
number of persons being present. Suddenly the candles were extinguished. With counterfeited haste they were again 
relighted, but the charter could nowhere be found. In the dark it had been privately carried off by a Captain Wads- 
worth, and concealed in a hollow tree. Sir Edmond, however, assumed the government, and ruled with absolute sway. 
When James was driven from the throne and the governor deposed, Connecticut resumed her former government 
The Assembly voted a flattering address to King William, and, in consequence, the suit instituted for annulling the charter 
was discontinued. But not long afterward they were again called upon to defend their liberties. In 1692 Fletcher 
was appointed governor of New York, and was authorized to take command of the militia of Connecticut. This power 
having been given by the charter to the governor of the colony, he determined not to relinquish it. Next year, when 
the General Court was in session, Kktcher repaired to Hartford, and required that the militia should be placed under 
his command ; but the same Captain Wadsworth who had preserved the charter, also by his address in this case pre- 
served the honor of the colony. The governor finding great opposition deemed it unwise to contend against such a 
people, and returned to New York without effecting his purpose. A representation of the opposing claims being made 
to the king, he decided that the governor of Connecticut should retain command of the militia, but that in time of war 
a certain number should be placed under the command of Fletcher. 

In 1700 Yale College was founded at Saybrook. 

Though harassed by repeated attempts upon her civil rights, Connecticut, like the other colonies, was compelled to 
engage in the contests which the mother country maintained with France. In 1709 great exertions were made to assist 
an enterprise undertaken for the reduction of Canada. The armament expected from England, however, did not arrive, 
and the expedition was thus defeated at the oiiLset. In the succeeding year another levy was made, troops were sent 
out from England, but the attempt failed through the blunders of the English commanders. In 1745 Connecticut con- 
tributed liberally in men and money to the campaign which resulted in the capture of Louisburg. and in the succeeding 
war, which terminated in the reduction of Queliec, her exertions were out of proportion to her population and strength. 
At one time 6,000 Connecticut troops, equipped by the colony, were in actual service, and the expenses incurred between 
1756-62 amounted to £400,000 sterling more than the Parliament allowed her. 

A short period of repose succeeding, Connecticut participated in the prosperity enjoyed by the colonies in general, 
and made rapid advances in population and wealth. On the breaking out of the Revolution, Connecticut was one of the 
most foremost in defense of liberty. Committees of correspondence acted in concert with Massachusetts, and the militia 
of the colony furnished a considerable force for the relief of Boston. During the war. Connecticut suffered little from 
the actual presence of the enemy ; a few towns, indeed, were destroyed in 1777 and 1779, but in both cases the invaders 
were severely handled by the militia. 

Shortly l)efore the conclusion of the war, a dispute which had arisen between Connecticut and Pennsylvania, respect- 
ing the right to lands lying on the Susquehanna west of New York, was terminated by the decision in favor of Penn- 
sylvania, made by a board of commi8si(mers appointed by Congress. 

After the peace of 17S3, no event of historical importance occurred in this State for many years, and so liberal was the 
68 



TAYLOR BROTHERS, 



w 



m.: 



76 "WAIiZi STREET, COH. OF PEARIi, NEW ITORK. 

i^»» • 

In addition to our regular business as Bankerb and Money Brokers, we are largely engaged 
in the buying and selling of 

Parties sending to this market -will find our rates very favorable. 

For the convenience of persons wishing to remit to the Old Country, we issue Siffht Drafts 
(at $5 per £) in sums from £l upwards, payable at the 

UNION BANK OF LONDON, BELFAST BANKING COMPANY, IRELAND ; 

NATIONAL BANK OF SCOTLAND. 
These drafts form a most desirable remittance, being good in every part of ENaLAUD, Ireland, 
Scotland and Wales. 

VAIENTINE MOTI, M.D., 11. D. 

IN THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, 



24 & 26 BROADWAY, AND 77 & 79 NEW ST., NEW YORK, 

Keep a large assortment of all kinds of Iron, Steel, &c., used by Railroads and Machinists. 

R. T. TRULL, M. D., Proprietor. 

P. H. HAYES, M.D., MRS. L. H. H. ANDERSON, M.D., Associatb Physicians. 

At this Institution all kinds of diseases are treated on strictly Hygienic principles. Especial 
attention is paid to the management of Female Diseases. The Electro Chemical Baths are 
employed as efficient adjuvants in the treatment of various Rheumatic, Paralytic, Neuralgic 
and Nervous Affections. 

School Department. — A department of the establishment is devoted to the education of Wa- 
ter Cure Physicians and Health Reform Lecturers. 

The year is divided into two terms of six months each, commencing 1st May and 1st Nov. 

^^^ Dr. T. has competent assistants for general practice in city and country. 

STEARNS & MARVIN'S SALAMANDER SAFES, 

This thoroughly fire-proof article of our manufacture, has been in use throughout the country for thirteen 
years, and has been severely tested in upwards of two liundred accidental fires, and has invariably maintained 
its tire-proof qualities. Numerous certificates from all parts of the United States can be seen at the depot; 
also, tested safes with (he books and papers which have passed through the hottest fires. They are now se- 
cured by the celebrated PATENT " LA RELLE " LOCK, wtiich is both thief and powder proof, with asmall 
key, wliich can be carried in the vest pocket. 

They are finished in a superior manner, with or without inside iron vaults, and can be fitted with such inte- 
rior arrangements as may be desired by the purchaser. 

Our Plate Chests are specially adapted for Private Families, Public Houses, Churches, Lodges and Societies, 
to preserve Plate, Jewelry and other valuables from burglars. 

We invite the attention of all Merchants, Bankers, Professional Men, Hotel Proprietors, Public Officers, 
Manufacturers, and others in need of the above, to our extensive stock of Sales. 

STEARNS & IMCARVIir, 

Depots, 40 Murray Street, New York ; 57 Gravier Street, Nevr Orleans. 

THOMPSON & OUDESLUYS, Agents, Baltimore. 



[LATE a. & I. COX,] 

No. 349 B PI O -A. 13 "W^ -A. -^T , KI E 'W^ "X-OI^IS:, 

IMPORTERS OF AND DEALERS IN 

FRENCH^ ENGLISH AND AMERICAN 



Rich Mantel Clocks, Candelabras, Bronzes, Porcelain Flower Vases, Parian Marble Figures, 
Sheffield, Birmingham and American Plated Wares, Table Cutlery, Japannery, &c. 
Also, Manufacturers of Silver Ware in all its branches, in the first style of the art. 



3F» j«k. X IV "r ^ « 

RAYNOLDS, DEVOE & CO. 

IsTO- 106 -A.3Sr3D 108 FTTLTOZST STI^EEX, 

IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

Paints, Colors, Yarnishes, Ac. 

Have constantly on hand a perfect assortment of Genuine Goods in their line, free from Adul- 
teration, -which they offer on the most liberal terms. 



J. M. FAIRCHILD & CO. 

109 H^-A-SSJ^TJ STI?,EET, l^q■E"^7^7■ "^OI^K:. 



Country Mercliants, Teachers and Book Agents supplied with School and Mis- 
cellaneous Books. Blank Books and Stationery, in large or small quantities, at 
the lowest prices. 

Orders by mail correctly and promptly executed, with the endeavor to supply 
every article which the market will afford. 

Catalogues sent to any address, free of postage. 

MEXICAN MUSTANG LINIMENT, 

rOI?, THE CTJIiE or 

Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Files, Caked Breast, Sore Nipples, Spinal Irritations, Burns and Scalds, 

Ulcers, Gout, Stiff Joints, Bruises, Cuts, Chafes, Galls, Spavin, Ring Bone, 

Sweeney, Sores of any kind, Scratches, Hard Lumps or Tumors, and 

all kinds of Pains or Inflammation in men or animals. 

This preparation has become so extensively and so thoroughly known to the public in all 

parts of the Union, that we need scarcely say more than that it gives satisfaction to all who 

use it. Medical men, who have used it in their practice, speak of it lu the highest terms. It 

is used in Hospitals in St. Louis, New Orleans and New York. The Government ot liquador 

have lecently ordered a large supply for the Military Hospitals of that Republic. It is also 

extensively used in California, Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and most of the West India Is - 

ands, Brazil and the Cape of Good Hope. Its merits sustain it wherever it is tried. Let all 

the sufl'ering try it, and they will never be without it. Principal office, 

343 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, 

G. W. WESTBROOK, Sole Proprietor. 



THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



charter the inliahitants had received from Charles II., that it was continued, while most of the other States established 
new cunstitutions. 

Connecticut ratified the federal constitution on the 9th January, 17S8. In the subsequent division of parties, a great 
majority of the inhabitants espoused the cause of the federalists, and to this side they adhered with constancy during 
the whole administrations of tlie first three presidents, the representatives in Congress from Connecticut uniformly op- 
posing the leading measures of the republican party. The war which was declared against England in 1S12, although 
commenced upon similar principles to that of the Revolution, was opposed in Congress by her delegates, and received 
no voluntary support from the people. The hostility of Connecticut to the system of the then dominant party in the 
general government was displayed in various acts of minor importance, until the meeting of the Convention at Ilartfnrd, 
in the winter of IS14-1.5. seemed to draw the affairs of the Union in that quarter to a crisis. The real views of the party 
leaders by whom this assembly was projected have been the subject of controversy. Charity would incline us to the 
belief that nothing mure than legal opposition was intended and that their projects were attained by its results. After 
proposing certain alterations in the federal constitution, and remonstrating against the measures of the general govern- 
ment, the convention adjourned. 

This opposition of the New England governments, however, had the effect of saving them from the horrors of the 
■war, and the only attack made on Connecticut was by a British force on Stonington, in August, 1814. On the conclusion 
of the war the relations of the State with the general government were restored to their former footing, and soon after- 
ward a revolution took place in its internal politics. The federal party, for the first time since the existence of party 
distinctions, found itself in a minority, and the offices of the State passed into the hands of their political opponents. 

Another event of importance was the formation of a new constitution in 1S18, the result of recent occurrences, the 
chief provisions of which are given on a former page. Since this period the progress of the State has been onward and 
prosperous, and the public spirit of its inhabitants has of late years made a rapid development of its wonderAiI capa- 
cities for commerce and manufactures. 

Succession of Governors. — Governors of CoNNROTiotrT Colony: John Haynes, 1639 ; Edward Hopkins, 1640 ; John 
Haynes. 1641; Edward Hopkins, 1642; John Haynes, 164-3; Edward Hopkins, 1644; John Haynes, 1645; Edward Hop- 
kins, 1646; John Haynes, 164T; Edward Hopkins, 1648; John Haynes, 1649: Edward Hopkins. 1650; John Haynes, 
1661; Edward Hopkins. 1652; John Haynes, 1653 ; Edward Hopkins, 1654; Thomas Wells, 1655 ; John Webster, 1656 ; 
John Winthrop. 1657 ; Thomas Wells, 165S ; and John Winthrop, 1659. Governors op New Havbn Colony : Theoph- 
ilus Eaton, 1639 ; Francis Newman, 1658 ; and William Leet, 1661. Governors of the United Colonies : John 
Winthrop, 1665; William Leet, 1676; Robert Treat, 16S0; ;SV/' Rlmond Andro.% 1687; Robert Treat, 1689; John Win- 
throp, 1696 ; Gurdon Saltonstall, 1707 ; Joseph Talcot. 1724 ; Jonathan Law, 1741 ; Roger Wolcott, 1751 ; Thomas Filch, 
1754; William Pitkin, 1766; Jonathan Trumbull, 1769; and State Governors: Jonathan Trumbull, 1776; Matthew 
Griswold, 1784 ; Samuel Huntington, 1785 ; Oliver Wolcott, 1796 ; Jonathan Trumbull, 1798 ; John Treadwell, 1S09 ; 
Roger Griswold, 1811 ; John Cotton Smith, 1813; Oliver Wolcott, 1S17 ; Gideon Tomlinson, 1827; John S. Peters, 1831 ; 
Henry W. Edwards, 1833; Samuel Augustus Foot, 1834; Henry W. Edwards, 1835; William W. Ellsworth, 1838; 
Chauncey F. Cleveland, 1842 ; Roger 8. Baldwin, 1844 ; Isaac Toucey, 1846 ; Clark Bissell, 1847 ; Joseph Trumbull^ 
1849 ; and Thomas H. Seymour, 1850. 

Habtford and New Havbit are alternate capitals of the State. 

89 



THE STATE OF DELA¥ARE. 



Delaware, next to Rhode Island, the smallest State of the Union, and, in point of population, much inferior to that 
Slate, lies between 38° 28' and 89° 47' latitudes N., and between 74° 56' and 75° 46' longitudes W. of Greenwich, or 
1° 22' and 2° 06' E. of Washington. It is bounded on the N. by Pennsylvania (from which the arc of a circle drawn with 
a radius of 12 miles from Newcastle as a centre, divides it), on the K. by Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, and on 
the S. and W. by Maryland, occupying the north-eastern portion of the peninsula between the bays Chesapeake and 
Delaware. The N. and W. and S. boundaries were originally determined by Mason and Dixon, under whose name the 
lines are still known. The lengUi of the State N. and 8. is about 92 miles, and its width varies from 36 miles in the S. 
to less than 10 in the N., the area being 2,120 square miles. 

Nearly the whole of Delaware lies on the Atlantic plain. The northern part, however, to Christiana creek, belongs to 
the primary tract, and is hilly and somewhat rugged; but there are no hills exceeding 500 feet in height above the 
ocean. South of the creek above named, the surface is an almost perfect level, the general slope being toward the 
Delaware and the ocean. In the south-west the direction of the slope is toward Chesapeake Bay. A table-land, or low 
Bandy ridge, nowhere more than 60 or 70 feet in height, near its western boundary, passes through the State, and forms 
the watershed of the peninsula. This table-land abounds with swan)ps. in which most of the rivers and streams have 
their sources, some flowing west into the Chesapeake, and others east into the Delaware. At the southern extremity 
of the State is the Cypress Swamp, a morass 12 miles in length and 6 miles in width, including an area of 50,000 acres 
of land, the whole of which is a high and level basin, very wet, though undoubtedly the highest land between the sea 
and the bay. This swamp contains a great variety of trees and plants, and is infested by wild animals and reptiles. In 
the northern parts of the Stale, along the Delaware Kiver and Bay, and for 8 or 10 miles inland, the soils are generally 
rich clays, in which the most useful agricultural staples can be easily reared ; from thence to the swamps the soil is light 
and sandy, and of an inferior quality; and the central and southern parts have also a sandy soil, which gradually 
becomes more unproductive as the south is approached. Bog-iron ore is found in the swampy tracts in the Houth, and 
has long been used for economical purposes; shell marl, highly valuable in agriculture, occurs, aud in the north is found 
kaolin or porcelain clay, which has supplied the Philadelphia Works with that valuable earth. 

The climate of the Slate is getierally mild, and highly favorable to agricultural pursuits. The northern portion has a 
salubrious atmosphere, but where the land is swampy, endemic sicknesses prevail to a considerable extent. The natural 
productions are similar to those of the middle region of the Atlantic States. Some large timber grows in the north, 
and throughout the State, in localities, woods of various kinds are found, and much has been exported at different 
periods. 

All the rivers of Delaware are small, generally rising within the State, and flowing into the Delaware ; the Brandywine, 
however, comes in from Pennsylvania, and the head waters of the Choptank and Nanlicoke, which pass into Maryland, 
are within its limits. The streams are generally wide in proportion to their length, and navigable by small craft several 
miles from their mouths. The Brandywine (Brandewyne or Brandy liiver of the Dutch) is, in the upper part of its 
course, a valuable mill stream, but at Wilmington it receives Christiana creek, and becomes navigable for large ships. 
Small vessels also go up the latler branch to Christiana Bridge. The Appoquinnimink Eiver, Duck Creek, Jones' Creek, 
Mother or Murder Kill, Mispilion or Mospihon Creek, Broad Kill, Indian Creek, etc., are the other principal streams. 

The eastern shore is washed by Delaware Bay ; in all its length it has no good harbors, but generally presents long 
sandy beaches to the waves. To remedy this inconvenience, the General Government has constructed the Delaware 
Breakwater, opposite the village of Lewestown, and above Cape Ilenlopen ; it consists of two piers, one of which is 
designed to form a shelter from the fury of the waves, which roll in here with great violence, and the other to afford 
protection from the masses of floating ice brought down by the ebb tide. The breakwater proper is 2,743 feet long at the 
bottom, or 2,080 feet above high water, 75 feet wide at low water mark, and raised 15 feet above low, or 3 feet above high 
water mark. The ice-breaker is 1,710 feet in length at bottom, and 1,378 at top, of the same breadth as the breakwater, 
but only 9 feet in height. The whole work has cost nearly $3,000,000. Uehoboth Bay, and the estuary called Indian 
liiver, are the only arms of the sea exten<ling inland; these, about 9 miles south of Cape Ilenlopen, are spacious but 
shallow basins, not admitting vessels of more than 6 feet draft. Cape False is the headland forming the south side of 
their common inlet from the ocean. 

Delaware is divided into three counties and twenty-flve hundreds. The general statistics of the counties and the 
capitals of each in 1850 were as follows : 

ropnlation. 

Cduntiea. Area in No. of No. of , ' > No. of Manuf. Capitals, 

Aires. Hundreds. Dwell. Wliites. Free C.il. Slaves. Total. Farms. Estab. 

Kent 392,660.... 6.... 8,873 .... 16,119 .... 6,350.... 347 .... 22,816 .... 1,655 .... 121 .... Dovee 

Newcastle... 271,490.... 9.... 7,098 .... 34,822 ... . 7,563.... 894 .... 42,784 .... 1,662 .... 281 .. i ^'''™"S'oii 

( Newcastle 
Sussex 636,100 .... 10 ... . 4,319 .... 20,348 .... 4,039 .... 1,548 .... 25,985 .... 2,746 .... Ill ... . Georgetown 

Total 1,800,250 .... 25 ... . 15,290 .... 71,289 .... 17,957 .... 2,289 .... 91,535 .... 6,063 .... 513 

The whole number of dwellings in the State was, at the above date, 15,290, of families 15,439, and of inhabitants 
91,535, viz. : whites 71,2S9— males 85,771, and females 85,518 ; fr. col. 17,957— males 8,9»9, and females 8,963 ; »1. 2,38D. 
TO 

~~~rT"77" "- • ' " '' ■■ "" ' -" ' 



SIO B I^ O -A. ID -W .A. ^2- , IST E "^AT "2" O li 12: . 

School Books, Homoeopathic Books and Cases, Popular Works on Science and Art, Historical 

and Miscellaneous Books. 

JAMES D. SPARKMAN. JAMES L. TROSLOW. 

IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OP 



9 
Also, Manufacturers of Whiting, Paris White, &c. 

ATTENDS ALSO TO THE PROSECUTION OP OTHER CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT, 

No. 65 Chatham, opposite Chambers Street, New York. 

Xj^A.Krr> "i;Ar.A.i?.R„A.3srTS botjokct -a^ostid solid. 

F. ^v\r. L ^ s A. T & so:n^. 

[EST-A.BXjISIiEr> 1S23-] 

RUSSIAN, AMERICAN AND HUDSON'S BAY GO'S 

'F^ XJ H. 



A full and complete assortment of manufactured Furs and Skins, of every description, on 
hand and to order. All goods warranted as represented. 

Late of 19 John Street. 520 Broadway, opposite St Nicholas Hotel. 



LIGHTE, NEWTON & BRADBURY'S 

PIANO - FORTE ' MANUFACTORY, 

421 Broome Street, a few doors from Broadway, New York. 



The subscribers invite attention to their Piano- Fortes constructed with the Patent Jirch Wrest Plank, the 
greatest improvement ever introduced into this popular instrument. We invite our friends and patrons, and all 
wi-ihing a superior instrument, to call and examine our stock and elegant warerooms, No. 421 liROOME St. 

Our lacilities for manufacturing are now such that we shall be able, more readily than heretofore, to supply 
the increasing demand for our unrivaled instruments. We are manufacturing tuenii/ Piano Fortes per week, 
which is more than any other firm is doing in this city; and for our unprecedented success, and the flatterinff 
testimonials which we are constantly in receipt of, from the most eminent musical talent in the country, as to 
the superiority of our instruments, and the awarding of the First Premium hy the juries of the World's Fair and 
the Fair of the American Institute, in 1853, we are encouraged to renewed exertions, not only to maintain the 
reputation already acquired, but by adding improvement to improvement, to bring the general character of the 
Piano Forte to a degree of perfection co-equal with the advance of musicil taste and science. 

The richness and purity of tone of our Pianos, combined as they are with unprecedented power and strength, 
render them peculiarly adapted, not only for the parlor, but for the use of Public Schools, Seminaries and Musi- 
cal koeieties. We have already supplied about one hundred Public Schools and Seminaries, which have given 
the highest satisfaction. Very many of our most renowned musicians have, from time to time, examined and 
testified to the superiority of ourPianos, and recommended them to their friends; among whom are Lowell Ma- 
son and Thomas Hastings, of world-wide celebrity ; H. C. Timm, President Philharmonic Society, New York ; 
Theodore Eisfeid, Conductor of Philharmonic Society, New York, and Member of the Crystal Palace and Fair 
of the Ametican institute Jury on Musical Instruments, for 1853 and 1854 ; George J. Webb and Nathan Rich- 
ardson, Boston; William Mason, Geo. F. Bristow, Geo. H. Curtis, Geo. F. Root, Jurors in the Fair of tlie Amer- 
ican Institute, 1853 ; J. Leati, U. C. Hill, F. H. Nash, Edward Howe, Jr., &c. 

1^^ All orders punctually attended to. 

"^ 115 



WM. J. BKEBE. 




149 Sc 151 FI^OnSTT STPIEET, ISTE^"?^ -STOPIK:. 

X\rilNr 13 31. 3E3 dfe CJ O - 

geahrs anir |(mprttrs of SHfer ^lattir Solnrt, Cutltrj, 

Tea Trays, Planisliod Tin Ware, Ship and Steamer's Cabin Outfitting, Bathing Apparatus, &c 
56 MAIDEN LANE, AND 25 AND 27 LIBERTY STREET, 

ALEX. Mckenzie, 

341 Fourth St., between Broadway and Lafayette Place, 

Keeps constantly on hand a large assortment of Pumps, Hydranlic Rams, "Water Closets, 
Bathing Tubs, and all kinds of Plumbers' Materials. 
Good and experienced workmen sent to all parts of the country at the same rate of wages 
as charged in the city. Particular attention paid to the fitting up of country residences. 



W. j7^YMS^& BROTHER, 

(late DLUNT &. STJIS,) 

Importers of English and German Guns of every quality and Gun Materials of every description, for manufac- 
turers and sportsmen. Manufacturers of Shot Guns, Ritles, Kitie and Shot Guns, Rfvolving and Single 
Barreled Pistols, of great variety, supplied in large quantities, and Gun Locks and Double Triggers. 
Muskets, Carbines and Military Equipments, always on hand. Wholesale dealers are invited to examine, 

ORiaiNA^L ^m:eric^n avoiiks, 

SUITABLE FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIBRARIES, PUBLISHED BY 

CHARLES SCRIBNEH, 

377 AND 379 BROADWAY, NE'W YORK. 

Any of these Books will be sent by mail, post-paid, for the price remitted to the Publisher : 

Washington and his Generals, by J. T. Head 
ley; 2 vols., 12mo., $2.50 



Napoleon and his Marshals, by J. T. Headley; 

2 vols., 12ino., $2.50. 
Headley's (J. T.) complete works, 15 vols., 

$1-8.00. 
Reveries op a Bachelor, by Ik Marvel ; 1 vol. 

12mo., $1.25. 
Dream Life, by Ik Marvel; 1 vol., 12mo., 

$1.25. 
Marvel's (Ik) complete works, 8 vols., $9,50. 
Pencilings by the Way, by N. P. Willis; 1 

vol., $1.25. 



Willis's (N. P.) complete works, 11 vols., 
$13. V5. 

Cyclopedia of American Literature, a com- 
plete history of our Literature from the ear- 
liest period to the present day — being the 
lives (with portraits) of all our authors, se- 
lections from their writings, an history of 
all our Colleges, Public Libraries, &c. &c., 
with 500 engravings, by E. A. & G. L. 
Duyckinck ; 2 vols., royal octavo, $7.00. 

Homes for the People ; or, the Villa, the Man- 
sion and the Cottage; by G. Wheeler, 1 vol., 
12mo., 100 engravings, $1.50. 



A descriptive Catalogue of ray Publications will be sent to any address on api)lication. 
A liberal discount made to Booksellers, Agents, Clergymen, and to any one ordering a num- 
ber of Books. Special discount made to Libraries. 



THE STATE OF DELAWARE. 



Of the whole population there were, deaf and dumli—-vi\\. 54, fr. col. 2 — total 56 ; Uind — wli. 27, fr. col. 19— total 46 • 
insane — wh. 57, fr. col. t3— total 70 ; and idiotic — wh. 78, fr. col. 19, si. 4— total 101. The number of free persons b rn 
in the United States was 83,968, the number of foreign birth 5,211, and of birth iinlinown 63; the native population 
oripnated as follows— Maine 24, N. Hamp. 31. Verm. 12, Mass. 113, K. I. 204, Conn. 50, N. Y. 21S, N. ,Ter. 1,186, Penn. 
5.067, Delaware 72,351, Md. 4.360, Dist. of Col. 28, Virg. 139, N. Car. 18, S. Car. 13, Ga. 14, Flor. 4, Ala. 4, Miss. 6, La. 4, 
Tex. 1, Ark. 0, Tenn. 4, Ky. 16, Ohio 54, Mich. 12, Ind. 19, 111. 5, Mo. 8, Wise. 1, Territories 2 ; and i\\(; foreign population 
was composed of persons from— England 952, Ireland 3,513, Scotland 155, Wales 17, Germany 243, France 73, Spain 1, 
Portugal 0, Belgium 1, Holland 5, Turkey 0, Italy 0, Austria 0, Switzerland 22. Russia 1, Denmark 1, Norway 0, Sweden 
2, Prussia 23, Africa 10, British America 21, Mexico 8, South America 3, West Indies 25, and other countries 25. 

The following table will show the decennial progress of the population since the first census of the State taken by the 
United States authorities : 

Colored Persons, Decennial Incre.lse. 

Census White t * , Total * * ^ 

years. Persons. Free. Slave. Total. Pop. Kumerical. Percent. 

1790 46.310 3,899 8,887 12,786 59.096 — — 



) ) 13,852 head | 

{■ 14,421 head -J .^g^ „ j- incr. 222 head, or 1.54 per cent 



1800 49,852 8.268 6,153 14,421 64,273 5,177 8.7 

1810 55,361 13,136 4.177 17.313 72,674 8,401 13.0 

1820 55.282 12,958 4,509 17,467 72,749 75 0.1 

1830 57,601 15,855 3,292 19,147 76.748 3,999 5.5 

1840 58,561 16,919 2.605 19,524 78,085 1,337 l.T 

1850 71,289 17,957 2,289 20,246 91,585 18,450 17.2 

Agriculture is the principal occupation of the people; but in the north, where there is abundance of water-power, 
manufactures have long been in existence, and are in a very flourishing condition. Commerce and trade are also com- 
paratively extensive, and the whale fisheries have been prosecuted with success from Wilmington. The statistics of the 
industry, wealth, and institutions of Delaware, according to the returns of the census of 1S50, and other official docu- 
ments referring to the same period, are as follows : 

Occupied Lands, etc. — Farm lands, improved 580,862 acres, and unimproved 375,282 acres — valued togethe-r at 
$18,880,031. Whole number of farms under cultivation 6,00.3. Value of farming implements and machinery $510,279. 

Zice-iS'toci-.— Horses, 13,852 ; asses and mules, 791 ; milch cows, 19,248 ; working oxen, 9,797 ; other cattle, 24,166 ; 
sheep, 27,503 ; and swine, 56,261. The returns of 1840 compared with those of 1850 establish the following results: 

Live-stock. 1840. 1850. 

Horses I . , ,„. , , ) 13,852 head. 

Asses and Mules . 

Milch Cows I I 19,248 " \ 

Working Oxen [• 53,883 " -j 9,797 " .Adeer, 672 « or 1.24 » 

Other Cattle ' ( 24,166 •' ) 

Sheep 39,247 " 27,503 " (fecn 12,744 " or 32.49 " 

Swine 74,223 " 56,261 " deor.17,%7 " or 24.20 " 

— the value of all live-stock in the State on the 1st June, 1S50, amounted to $1,849,281. 

Products of Animals. — Wool, 57,768 pounds ; butter, 1,055,308 pounds ; and cheese, 8,187 pounds. The wool crop 
represented in the census of 1840 was 64,404 pounds, and hence the decrease in 1850 amounted to 6,636 pounds, or 10.31 
per centum. The clip per fleece in 1840 was 26.3 ounces, and in 1850, 36.6 ounces— increase, 7.3 ounces or 27.7 per 
centum. The value of animals slaughtered in the year ending 1st June, 1850, was $373,665. 

Grain Crops. — Wheat, 482,511 bushels; rye, 8,066 bushels; Indian corn, 3,145,542 bushels; oats, 604,513 bushels; 
barley, 56 bushels ; and buckwheat, 8,615 bushels. The crops of 1840 and 1850 compare as follows : 

C.-ops. 1840. 18.50. Movement. 

Wheat 315,165 bushels 482,511 bushels incr. 167.846 bushels, or 53.09 per cent. 

Kye 38.546 " 8,066 " deer. 25,480 " or 75.97 " 

Indian com 2,099,359 " 3,145,542 " wcr. 1,046,183 " or 49.83 " 

Oats 927,405 " 604,518 " deer. 322.887 " or 34.81 " 

Barley 5.260 " 56 " deer. 5.204 " or 98.93 " 

Buckwheat 11,299 " 8,615 « ...:.. ....dear. 2,634 " or 23.75 " 

Other Food Crops. — Peas and beans, 4,120 bushels ; and potatoes-r-Irish, 240,542 bushels, and sweet, 65.443 bushels. 
The potato crop of 1840 amounted to 200,712 bushels, being less than that of 1850, 105,273 bushels, or 52.44 per centum. 

Miscellaneous Crops. — Hay, 80,159 tons ; clover-seed, 2,525 bushels ; other grass-seed, 1,403 bushels ; hops, 348 pounds ; 
flax, 11,174 pounds ; flax-seed, 904 bushels ; moliisses, 50 gallons ; beeswax and honey, 41,248 pounds ; wine, 145 gallons, 
etc. Value of orchard products $46,574, and of market-garden products $12,714. The crops of 1840 and 1850 were as 
follows : 

Crops. 1840. IWO. Movement. 

Hay 22,483 tons 80,159 tons .... incr. 7,676 tons or 34.14 per cent 

Hops 746 pounds 348 pounds deer. 493 pounds, or 66.75 " 

Hemp I 52iton3 \ . ~ *"°^ . \deer.U,S26 " or 89.41 " 

Flax..; ) « 11,174 pounds ;...) 

Wine 322 gallons 145 gallons deer. 177 gallons, or 54.93 " 

The census of 1840 enumerates the following products— tobacco, 272 pounds ; cotton, 384 pounds, and silk cocoons, 
1,458} pounds. No returns of the like products are noted in the census of 1850. With regard to hemp and flax, the 
remarks of the superintendent appended to the details of the miscellaneous crops of Virginia will also apply to 
Delaware. 

Home-made Manufact/ures were produced in the census year 1850, to the value of $38,121. The same description of 
manufactures returned in 1840 were valued at $62,116. 

Manvfaetures.—ToiaX capital invested in manufactures on Ist of June. 1850, $2,978,945; total value of raw material, 

Tl 



THE STATE OF DELA^VARE. 



fncl, etc., consumed during the year then emting, $2,S64,60T; number of hands employed -males and 

females average monthly cost of iHbor $ —male $ and female $ annunl value of products 

$4,649,296. "Whole niim'jer of manufiicturing establishments producing to the annual vahie of ,$500 and upward, and 
in operation at date 513, of which 12 were cotton factories, 8 wo<ileu fac-tories, 15 iron works (13 making castings and 2 
■wrought iron), 16 tanneries, etc. The total manufacturing capital returned in 1840 amounted to $1,589,215. 

Capital invested in the cotton manufactures, $400,100 ; raw material, etc., consumed — cotton 4,730 bales, and coal 1,920 
tons, together valued at $31'2.068; number of hands employed 838 — 413 males, and 425 females; average monthly cost 
of labor $11.362— male $6,326, and female $4,926; products of the year— sheeting, etc., 3,521,636 y.irds, and yam 5;i3,(i00 
pounds, valued togelher at $538,439. The statistics of this manufacture in 1840 was — factories, 11 ; capital, $330,500 ; 
hands. 5C0 ; value of products, $332,272. 

Capital invested in the u-oolen manufacture, $148,500; consumption of material, etc.— wool 893,000 pounds, and coal 
45 Ions, valued at $204,172 ; average number of hands employed 140 — males 122, and femjiles IS ; monthly cost of labor 

12.605 male $2,293, and female $312 ; dolh manulactured 152,000 yards, valued at $251,010. In 184ii there were in the 

State 3 fulling mills and 2 woolen factories, employing a capital of $107,000, and 83 hands, and producing to the annual 
value of $104,1100. 

The iron manufacture of Delaware embraces only two of the great branches — no pig iron being made in the State. 
In the manufacture of "castings" a capital of $373,500 is employed ; 4,440 tons of pig iron and 4.967 tons mineral coal 
consumed ; value of raw material, fuel, etc., $153,S52 ; hands employed 250, at average monthly wages equal to .$23 36 
per hiind; castings made 3,630 tons; value of other products $55,000 ; value of entire products $207,462. The capital 
employed in making " wrought iron" amounts to $15.000 ; consumption of raw material — pig iron 510 tons, blooms 60 
tons, coke and charcoal 228.000 bushels, in all valued at $19,500 ; hands employed 50, at monthly wages averagmg $24 19 
per hand ; wrought iron produced 5.")0 tons, valued at $55,000. In 1S40, 2 furnaces produced 17 tons cast iron, and 5 
bloomeries, forges, and rolling mills produced 449 tons bar iron— fuel consumed 971 tons; hands 28; capital $36,200. 

Capital invested in tanneries, $99,350; value of raw hides and skins used, .$99,620 ; hands employed 108, at a monthly 
cost of $2,533 ; sides of leather tanned 62,100, and skins tanned 12,950, together valued at $163,742. In 1840 there were 
18 tanneries, employing 66 hands, and a capital of $89,300; annual products — 20,648 sides of sole leather and 22,075 
sides of upper leather. 

The manufactures otherwise than the above are extensive, and embrace machinery, railroad carriages, etc. Delaware 
also produces flour to a large extent, the mills on the Brandywine and other streams being among the most noted of the 
Union. 

Commerce, Kavigation, etc. — Delaware has a very inconsiderable direct foreign commerce; but indirectly, through 
the neighboring ports, its export and import trade is commensurate with its productive powers. For the year ending 
30th June, 1S50, no returns of this branch of industry are made in the Treasury Reports. The following table exhibits 
the value of the foreign commerce of the Slate for a series of years, commencing with 1791 : 



Years. Exports. 

1791 $119,879 , 

1792 133,972 

1793 93 559 

1794 207,9^5 , 

1795 158.041 , 

1796 201,142 

1797 98,929 , 

1798 183,727 , 

1799 297.065 

1800 418.695 

1801 662.042 

1802 440.5114 

1803 428.153 

1804 697,396 

1805 858.3S3 

1806 500,106 

1807 229.275 

1808 108,7.35 

1809 133,036 , 

1810 120,342 



Imports. 



Years. Exports, Imports. 

1811 $88,632 $ 

1812 29,744 

1813 133,432 

1814 14.914 

1815 105,102 

1816 56,217 

1817 44,854 

1818 81.525 

1819 29 828 

1820 89,493 

1821 85,445 80,997 

1822 168.492 216.909 

1823 53.837 60,124 

1824 18,964 12,080 

18-25 31,656 18.693 



1826 

1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 



35,195 10,009 

9,406 6,993 

29,396 15,260 

7,195 24,179 

52,258 26,574 



Years, Exports. Imports. 

1831 $34.514 $21.6.56 

1832 16,242 23.6.53 

1833 45 911 9,048 

1834 51,945 1*5.493 

1835 88,826 10,611 

1836 74,981 107,063 

1837 40,333 66.841 

18.38 86,8J4 1348 

1889 8,680 none 

1840 37.001 802 

1841 38.585 3.276 

1842 5.3.655 S,53T 

1843 93,6^2 4.6'55 

1844 .... 126.177 8,003 

1845 1.38,195 2.274 

1S46 146.222 11.215 

184T 235,459 12,722 

1848 83.053 490 

1849 38,229 1,400 

1850 none none 



The statistics of the shipping tonnage owned in the State at the end of the official year 1850, are exhibited in the fol- 
lowing returns : 



■Wilmington 681 

Newcastle — 



Temporary, 
. . . 971 . . . 



jrmanenl. 

7,289 . . 
7,124 . . 



Temporary, (unjer 20 tons). 

. . . 207 318 ... . 

... — 185 .... 



Total. 



681 



971 



14,413 207 448 16,720 



Of the enrolled and licensed shipping, 2,774 tons were navigated by steam-power — 1,429 tons belonc tig to "Wilmington 
and 1,.345 to Newcastle. Vessels built at Wilmington in the official year— 12 schooners, 8 sloops ana canal boats, and 
1 steamer — total, 16 vessels, of an aggregate burden of 1,849 tons. 

Internal Communication. — Except in the north, where the State is crossed by a canal and two railroads, the lines of 
travel are over ordinary turnpike and M'Adam roads. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is an important work, 
connecting those bays by a channel navig.ible for sea-going vessels; it extends from Delaware City, 40 miles below 
Philadelphia, to Back Creek, a n.ivigable branch of KIk River, in Maryland, 13J miles, and is 6G feet wide at the top and 
10 feet deep, and it has two tide and two lift locks. The deep cut in this canal is 4 miles in length, through a hill 90 feet 
73 



THADDEUS DAVIDS & CO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 




SEALING WAX, WAFERS, MUCILAGE, &c. 



THADDEUS DAVIDS 
B. POMEKOT, JU 



IN ALL THEIR VARIETIES FOR THE TRADE ONLY 






r MANUFACTORY ES- 
\ TABLISHED 1825. 



Will remove Feb'y 1, 1857, to 137 and 129 William, between Jolin and Fulton Sts. 

AVasliingtou Block. 



Having been practical manufacturers of the above articles since 1825, our atten- 
tion has been sedulously directed to the production of goods of the greatest possible 
excellence, consequently our articles have borne the highest reputation of any in 
the country, and we have acquired such a degree of experience in their manufac- 
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T 



Superior to any in the market, either of home or foreign manufacture. We con- 
fidently claim for our Inks superiority to all others yet made, in the most important 
particulars, viz : Fluidity, Legibility and Permanence for all time. We beg leave 
to state there is no especial secret in the manufacturing of good 



:]bjlm.a.c:} 



inxri^. 



Our process is well known to Chemists ; it involves an absolute necessity of using 
the best materials and a knowledge of preparing the same, without which, no ink 
yet made and tested by time, can be permanent, even for a life time. 

A manuscript, written in 1836 by the Mechanics' Institute, with ours and two 
other well known and popular inks, expressly to test their relative degrees of per- 
manence, has been constantly exposed in a frame in our office, (part of the time 
without a glass.) and, as it appears now, our Ink is darker than when first written; 
the others are much faded. A further exposure of twenty or thirty years will 
probably show our Ink distinct and legible, while the others will be entirely oblit- 
erated. 

We further ask the attention of Merchants, Banks, State and County Record 
Offices, and all who require an Ink that shall be legible for future generations, to 
an examination of Dr. Chilton's recent severe test of the permanency of ours in 
connection with several other prominent Inks, engraved fac-similes of which can 
be seen at our office. 

THADDEUS DAVIDS & CO. 

May 1, 1856. 

N. B. — The First Premiums (15 silver medals and 29 diplomas) have been 
awarded to us by the various Fairs held in this country during the last thirty years. 



sa&sjK mm^, ]i>Mm Awn mAmmmiia 

FRANCIS & LOUTRELL, 

I^o. 'Z'Z 3VI «. X ca. o XX XjA.xxe, ISTG-ypvr TTox-liC. 

Merchants, Banks, Bankers, Insurance, Railroad and Express Companies, Factories, Steamers 
and others supplied at the lowest price with all articles in our line. 
Our Factory and Frinling Office being in complete order, enable us to execute with prompt- 
ness all orders for Account Books, Engraving, Lithographic or Type Printing. Diaries and 
Dailj' Journals published annually. Croton Ink, best Black Writing Ink, Expense Books, 
Hotel Registers, Time Books, Notes, Drafts and every variety of Fancy and Staple Stationery, 
Writing Paper, Envelopes, &c. 

Copy your letters by the use of Francis' Manifold Letter Writer. The letter is written and 
copied at the same time. Prices from $1 to $5. 

FRANCIS & LOTJTRILL, Stationers, Printers and Eook Binders, 

77 Itlaitlen Lane, New York. 



JOHN ▲. COBBETT. 



ANDW. JOHNSTON. 



Iron, Stnl, Petals m)i glanufiuturtrs' ^fiiAiitgs, 

S5 CLIFF STTtEET, nSTEVir "STOIiK:. 

Pig Bar nnd Sheet Iron, Cast and Spring Steel, Copper, Speller, Tin, Lead, Antimony, Solders, Babbitt 
Metal's, VVroualit and Cast Iron Tubing, Lead Pipe, Fire Brick, Leather and Rubber Belting, Crucibles, Foun- 
dry Facings, &c. 

THE SOVEREIGN REMEDY FOR 

GRAY HAIR, BALDNESS AND DISEASED SCALP, 

C. F. HASKELL. ss 3sr.A.ss.A.xj ST., nsTEAAT- -^o:r:£z. 

PiTTsriELD, November 6, 1855. 

Mr. Haskei.l — Sir : I am desirous of obtaining some of your " Restittdor " for my own use and for sale by 
us. Please send us two dozen by express, and we will forward the amount by return mail. 

We have seen a remarkable case of restoration — a man of 60 years, whose head was bald and white as snow — 
by the use of a few (two or three) botUes. Has now a handsome head of auburn hair, long and fine, the bald 
spot entirely covered. Rcspectiully, 

Reference— Clxfliu, Mfllen & Co. MOREY &. HAND. 

New York, September 11, 1855. 
Mr. C. P. Haskell — Sir: We have used your " Coloris Capilli ReStitutor" ourselves, and witnessed its 
effects when it has been used by others, and take pleasure in saying that we know of no other article for resto- 
ring llie original color and producing a new growth of hair like it. We prefer ii to any otlier article for the toilet. 
ALriERT WELLS, Gramercy Park Hotel, S. B. OLMSTKAD, 11 Warren Street, 

SAMUEL BAILEY, Howard Hotel, B. F. FORD, 74 Pine Street. 



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BALLARD'S 



Received the Premium at the World's Fair. 

PRINCIPAL DEPOT, 500 BROADWAY. 



498 az 500 BIiO^A-3DW-A.-3r, 

NEW YORK. 
138 



THE STAtIj of DELAWARE. 



high. The work was completed in 1829, at a cost of $2,250,000. A very considerable portion of its cost was furnished 
by the General Government in donations of laud. The work bears a similar relation to the commerce of the country 
with the Delaware and Itarilan Canal, and makes up a part of the same system of internal water navigation. It is also 
the channel of a large trade between Chesapeake Bay and Philadelphia and New V<irk. The Newcastle and French- 
town U. E. extends also across the peninsula, between the Delaware and the Chesapeake, 1(5^ miles, and, in conneclion 
with steamboats at each terminus, forms a convenient line of transi)<>rtalion between Philadelphia and Baltimore. This 
road, however, is at present of less importance than formerly, as it originally formed p:\rt of the route of travel East and 
West, which has nnw been superseded by the more northerly linr. The Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore 
R. E. crosses Delaware farther north, and is the nearest laud line between those cities, and the usual route taken by trav- 
elers between the Northern and Southern States. A railroad also unites Wilmington and Newcastle. These are all 
the compleled works of internal improvements within the State, but there are others projected and in progress, the object 
of which is principally to form a direct line from New York to Norfolk, in Virginia, and incidentally to afford accom- 
modation to the agriculturalists of the southern sections. A ship canal is also projected across the neck of the peninsula, 
and will be immediately placed under construction. 

Banks^ etc. — On the 1st day of January, 1851, there were in Delaware six banks and three branch banks. The 
aggregate condition of these at that date was as follows : liahiliUes—cai>\lal. $1,293,185 ; circulation, $833,960 ; deposits, 
$592,705; other liabilities, $170,873 ; and fl.s««?.s— loans and discounts. $2,284,813 ; stocks, $52,983 ; real estate, $117,941 ; 
other investments, $2,000 ; other assets, $281,145; specie funds, $51,022, and specie, $159,778. 

Ooveniment. — The present constitution of Delaware gives the right of voting to all free white male citizens 21 years 
old, and who have resided in the State one year, and in the county in which they offer to vote one month next before an 
election. 

The Legislature, styled the General Assembly, consists of a Senate and House of Eepresentatives. Senators, three from 
each county, must be at least 27 years old, possessed of 200 acres of freehold land in the county, or of an estate therein 
worth $1,000, citizens and inhabitants of the State for three years, and for the last year of the county, and must be 
chosen in counties for the term of four years. Eepresentatives must be at least 24 years old, and have the same qualifi- 
cations as senators, except as regards the property qualifications, and must be chosen for two years. The Legislature 
meets at Dover on the first Monday in January, biennially. 

The Governor (elected for four years by a plurality of votes) must be at least 80 years old, a citizen of the State for 
twelve years next before the first meeting of the Legislature after his election, and an inhabitant for the last six years. 
The President of thj Senate, the Speaker of the Eepresentatives, and the Secretary of State are successively alternates 
to fill the office shonld it become vacant by death or disability of the Governor; but in case the office be filled by the 
Secretary of State, the General Assembly, at lis next session, chooses a Governor ad interim. If the Governor elect die, 
decline, etc., ihe Governor in office continues until a new election is had. The Secretary of State is appointed by the 
Governor. The general elections are held on the second Tuesday of November. 

The Judiciary consists of a Superior Court, Court of Chancery, Orphans' Court, etc. There are five judges in the 
State, one of whom is Chancellor and President of the Orphans' Court, and of the other four, one is Chief Justice of the 
State, and three associate justices, one resident in each county. The Chief Justice and two of the associates form the 
Superior Court and Court of General Session, and all the judges, except the Chancellor, form the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer. The Court of Errors and Appeals is composed of three or more of the judges. The Orphans' Court consists 
of the Chancellor and the associate judge of the county. Judges are appointed and hold office during good behavior. 
The Eegister's Court is held by the Ecgister, with appeal to the Superior Court, and all proceedings are in writing. 

The Constitution provides that no act of incorporation shall be passed without a two-third vote, unless it be the renewal 
of an existing incorporation ; and all acts are to contain a power of revocation by the Legislature. No act hereafter 
passed shall be in force longer than twenty years without a re-enactment of the Legislature. No person belonging to the 
military, naval, or marine service of the United States can gain such a residence as will entitle him to vote by being 
stationed at any military or naval post in the State. 

Finances, etc. — The government of Delaware is one of the least expensive in the Union. In 1850 the whole income 
amounted to only $31,863 S3, and the expenditure to a sum $5,071 41 less than the income. The sources -of income 
were— bank tax, $3,963 61 ; railroad tax, $2.5ii0 ; interest on loans, $6,147 62 ; bank dividends, $15,305 ; retailers' licenses, 
etc., $4,352 SO; fines, etc.. $549 81, and sundries, $45 49. The expenditures were— executive, $3,383 38; legislature, 
$2,010 97 ; judiciary, $5,500 ; school fund, $15,947 62, and balance, $5,071 41. The resources of the State are amply 
sufficient to meet all expenses of the government without recourse to personal or property tax. The invested capital of 
the State (including school moneys) amounts to $414,725 S3, and the permanent annual income is as follows: dividends 
and interest on loans, $20,052 64; taxes on corporations, $5,725; retailers' and tavern licenses, $4,852 80; fines aud 
forfeitures, .$549 81, and sundries, $1,073 75. The State is free from debt of any description. 

Federal Representation.— XieXavi&xe, In accordance with the act of Congress 23d May, 1850, is entitled to one repre- 
sentative in the national Legislature. 

Educational Statistics. — The number of free schools in the State in 1850 was 209, and of scholars attending them 
13,2SS, divided as follows: Newcastle County, 72 schools and 4,969 scholars; Kent County, 55 schools and 3,876 scholars, 
and Sussex County, 82 schools and 4.443 scholars. The total amount paid for tuition was $38,461 70, viz. : in Newcastle, 
$17,293 72 ; in Kent, $10,964 72, and in Sussex, $10,203 20 ; and there was a sum charged for contingencies amounting 
to $5,747 68, making the annual cost, $44,209 38. The sources whence these moneys were derived are stated thus — from 
School Fund, $27,5u7 33, and from contribution and tax, $17,089 56. Besides these there are between 84 and 40 
academies and grammar schools in the State. Delaware College, at Newark, was founded in 18-33, and in 1850 had a 
president, 5 professors, and 30 students ; its alumni at that period numbered 78, of which 42 were in the ministry, and 
ita library contained 7.000 volumes. St. Mary's College, at Wilmington, is under the sway of the Eoman Catholics, and 
is, perhaps, the best literary institution of the State ; in 1850 it had a president and 3 professors, and 107 students. 

Periodical Press. — The whole number of newspapers published in Delaware in 1850 was 11, and of these 2 were 
issued Iri-weekly, 1 semi-weekly, and 8 weekly (of the weekly, however, 8 are editions of the tri-weeklies and the semi- 
weekly newspapers). The total circulation of each edition of the tri-weeklies was 1,900, of the semi-weekly 1,000, and 
of the weeklies 4,600 copies— in the aggregate equal to 12,800 copies weekly, or 639.600 copies annually. 

Public Libraries. — One Slate library — 4,000 volumes; 1 social — 4,000 volumes; 1 college — 2,500 volumes; 2 students' 
6,200 volumes. Total 5 libraries, and 16,700 volumes. — Repoii of Librarian Sinit/i^onian Institution, 1S51. 

73 



THE STATE OF DELAWARE. 



HeligioiM Dentrmin(iti(i}ui.—T\vi statistics of the several religious denominations of the State according to the census 
of 1850, exhibit the following figures: 



De.i.m-.ina- No .if 


Chur.h 


Value of 


Denomina- No. o 


f Church 


\'alue of 


tions Churches 


mo<.in. 


Properlj-. 


l.oua. Church. 


8. acconi. 


Properly. 


Baptist 12 . 


2,975 . 


. $16,800 


German Ref. . . — 


.. — . 


. $- 


Christian — . 


— . 


— 


Jewish — 


.. — . 





Congregational.. — . 


— . 


— 


Luthf ran — 


.. — . 


— 


Dutch Iteformed. — . 


— . 


— 


Mennonite — 


.. — . 


— 


Episcopal 21 . 


7,650 . 


. 78,900 


Methodist 106 


.29,301 . 


. 127,845 


Free — . 


— . 


— 


Moravian — 


.. — . 


— 


Friends 9 . . 


3,636 . 


24,900 


Presbyterian 26 


.10,100 . 


. 75,500 



Denomina- No. of Church 

tioriB. Churches, accom. 

Roman Catholic. 3.. 1,630. 

Swedenborgian. — .. — , 

Tuiiker — .. — 

Union 1 .. 200 , 

Unitarian — . . — . 

Universalist — . . — . 

Minor Sects 2 .. 250 . 



Value of 
Property 

. $15,000 



1,000 



400 



— making a total of 180 churches, with accommodation for 55.741 persons, and valued as property at $340,345. 
Delaware constitutes a Protestant Episcopal Diocese of the same name, and is included in the Roman Catholic Dioceso 
of Philadelphia. 

Paupei-Um and Cfime. — Whole number of paupers who received support within the year ending 1st June, 1850, 697— 
569 natives, and 12S foreigners; and of these 273 — 240 natives and 33 foreigner.'*, were on the lists at that date. Cost of 
support during the year .$17,730. For the year ending May, 1848, the whole number of convicts was 47, of which 16— 
6 whiles and 10 blacks, were convicted of felonies, and 31 — 27 whites and 4 blacks, of misdemeanors. Convictions in 
Newcastle County 21, in Kent 13. and in Sussex 13; and in addition to those of Newcastle County, 2 blacks were 
convicted o' felony, and 6 blacks and 2 whites of misdemeanors at the Mayor's Court of the city of Wilmington. These 
added would make the total in the Slate 6 whites and 12 blacks convicted of felonies, and 33 whites and 6 blacks of 
misdemeanors. 

Historical Sketch. — Lord De la War, Governor of Virginia, appears to have been the first to enter the bay which 
thence took his name. This was in 1610. The Dutch, from whom the names of its capes are derived, frequented it 
soon after, and had a post at Hcerenkill, but the precise date of their arrival is uncertain. The bay was by them called 
Nieuw Port May, or Gcedyn's Bay, and Uie River Zuyd Rivler, or South River. The Swedish W. I. Company, chartered 
in 1G35 by O.xenstiern, sent out in 1037 a ship with a body of colonists under Peter Menewe or Minuils. In the following 
year Minuits seated himself on the Maniques, now Brandywine River, and there built Fort Christina. The Dutch, 
however, had never relinquished their claim in this region, and in 1651 they built Fort Casslmir on the site of New- 
castle. The subsequent settlements of the Swedes were mostly within the present limits of Pennsylvania, where New 
Gottenburg (Nya-Goetheborg), the capital of New Sweden (Nya-Sveriga), was founded on the island of Tinicum. In 
1655 a small force from New Amsterdam reduced the Swedish settlements, which were incorporated with New Nether- 
lands, and with that colony taken possession of by the English in 1664. The settlements on the Delaware, although this 
region fell within the chartered limits of Maryland, were attached to the province of New York until 1681, when they were 
purchased of the Duke of York by William Penn, who annexed them to Pennsylvania under the name of the Territories, 
or the Three Ij>xcer Comities on tlie Delaware. They continued subordinate to that province, though with a distinct 
legislature, from 1701 until 1776, when Delaware declared itself an independent State, and a constitution was framed by 
the inhabitants thereof. By this constitution the executive power was vested in a President and Privy Coimcil, elected 
by the Legislature. In 1792 a new constitution was framed, which was modified in 1802, in 1831, and in 1838; and it is 
now again proposed to alter the fundamental law. The principal provisions of the present constitution are given else- 
where. Delaware has hitherto been one of the least progressive of the American States, but within the last decade its 
population, material wealth, and general interests have been developed in a very respectable ratio. 

;Si(ccftss/on o/(?orcrno/'s.—GovEitNORS OF New Sweden: Peter Menewe or Minuits, 1637; Peter Tlolloendare, 1640 ; 
John Printz, 1642 ; John Papegoia, 1652; and John Claudii Rising, 1654:— //wft 1655 «o 1776 /><?^rtMiare tea-* wnrfer i/i« 
Governors of the New Net/ierlandx, New York, and Pennsylvania: — Presidents of the Council: John M'Kenley, 
1777; Ca?sar Rodney, 1778; John Dickinson, 1782; John Cooke (acting), 1783; Nicholas Vandyke. 1783; Thomas 
Collins, 1786; John Davis (acting), 1789; Joshua Clayton, 1789; and— Constithtional Governors: Joshua Clayton, 
1793; Gunning Bedford. 1796; Daniel Rogers (acting), 1797; Richard Bassett, 1798; James Sykes (acting). 1801; David 
Hall, 1802; Nathaniel Mitchell, 1805; George Truett, 1808; Joseph Haslett, 1811 ; Daniel Rodney, 1814; John Clarke, 
1817; Jacob Stout (acting), 1820; John Collins, 1821; Caleb Rodney (acting), 1S22 ; Joseph Haslett, 1823; Samuel Paynter, 
1824; Charles Polk, 1827; David Hazzanl, 1830: Caleb P. Bennett. 1833; Cornelius P. Comegys, 1837; William B. 
Cooper, 1840 ; Thomas Stockton (died 2d March, 1846), 1844 ; Joseph MauU (acting— died in office), 1846 ; William Temple 
(acting), 1846; William Sharp, 1S46; William H. Boss, 1851. 

Dover is the political capital of the State. 
74 



WM. G. BOARDilAN. 



JAMES A. GRAY. 



SIBERIA OTT. 



BOARDMAN, GRAY & CO. 

DOLCE CAMPANA ATTACHMENT AND COKRUGATED SOUNDING BOARD 




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will be shown visiters, whether their calls are for business or pleasure. 

133 



^ 




THE STATE OF FLORIDA 



Floeeda, the most southerly of the Atlantic States, consists of a long, narrow strip on the northern shore of the Gulf 
of Mexico, extending from the Atlantic coast to the Eiver Perdido, and of a vast peninsula, 320 miles in length, and 
about 150 miles broad, separating the Gulf of Mexico from the Atlantic Ocean. It lies generally between latitudes 25° 
and 31^ north, and between longitudes 80° and 87° 45' west from Greenwich, or 2° 58' and 10° 43' west from Washing- 
ton, and comprises within its limits an area estimated at 53,786 square miles. 

The southern portion of Florida, from about 28° N. latitude, is an extensive marsh, which, during the rainy season, 
between June and October, eflectually prevents an overland passage from one shore to the other. North of this tract to 
Georgia, the surface of the country is generally a dead level, but in some parts it is undulating, and even presents some 
eminences worthy the name of hills. The face of the country, west of the neck of the peninsula, is somewhat more 
uneven, but it contains no considerable elevations. 

The Great Southern Marsh contains numerous tracts of pine land, prairies, and hummocks, and the more northerly 
part of the peninsula consists chiefly of fine forests, interspersed with hummocks, prairies, and marshes. The soil is gen- 
erally sandy, except in the hummocks, in which it is clay, mixed with sand. These hummocks are scattered throughout 
the country, and vary in extent from a few acres to thousands, but forming in the aggregate only a small portion of the 
whole surface. They are covered with a growth of red, live, and water oak, dog-wood, magnolia and pine, and afford, 
when cleared, excellent arable land. The prairies, or savannahs, as they are here called, are sometimes pretty extensive, 
stretching for several miles in length and breadth, and forming natural pastures. The barrens are overgrown with pine 
forests, with little underwood, and though the soil is generally indifferent, it is sometimes productive. The swamps or 
morasses, which form so conspicuous a feature in the country, are either formed by the inundations of the rivers, which, 
overflowing the high-wooded ridge that forms their banks, cover the lowlands in the rear with water, or they are pro- 
duced by the drainage of the surrounding country ; the latter, or pine-barren swamps, are overgrown with pine, cypress, 
and cypress knees; and the former, or river swamps, are covered with a heavy growth of various timber. 

The rivers of Florida are numerous, and they afford valuable navigable channels. The St. John's rises in the Great 
Southern Marsh, and reaches the ocean after a northerly course of nearly 300 miles, in lat. 30° 20' north; for nearly 100 
miles from its mouth it forms a wide, sluggish sheet of water, more resembling a lagoon than a river, and it is navigable 
to Lake George, a little higher up, for vessels drawing 8 feet of water. Indian River is a long lagoon, having much the 
same character, and communicating with the ocean by Indian Eiver Outlet. Charlotte and Amaxura are the principal 
rivers on the western side of the peninsula, the whole of which, south of the St. John's and Suwanee, contains only small 
streams. The Suwanee is formed by the junction of the Withlacoochee and Little St. John's from Georgia, and reaches 
the Gulf at Vacasasa Bay ; its bar has only 6 feet water at high tide. The Ocklockonee also rises in Georgia, and flows 
into Appalachicola Bay. The Appalachicola, formed on the frontier of Florida by the junction of the Chattahoochee and 
Flint rivers, falls into the bay of the same name, after a course of 75 miles, and is navigable for steamboats throughout 
its whole length. The Choctawatchee, rising in Alabama, flows into the bay of its name, and the Escambia into Pensacola 
Bay. The St. Mary's forms in part the northern boundary, and is a flne navigable stream. 

Florida has a sea-coast of more than 1,000 miles in length, but so much of it is rendered inaccessible by soundings, that 
it has few good harbors. West of Cape San Bias the shore is bold, but east of that point it begins to shallow. From 
Appalachee Bay to Tampa Bay the whole coast sends off shallow banks, and from Wacasasa Bay to the Amaxura there 
are but six or seven feet of water six miles from shore; to the south of Carlos Bay the shores are bolder. On the eastern 
side there is no harbor south of San Augustine, and scarcely an inlet breaks the coast ft-om that point to Cape Florida. 

South from the mainland, a chain of small rocky islands, named cai/os or keys, extends to the westward, ending in a 
cluster of rocks and saud-banks, called the Tortugas, or Dry Tortugas. South of the bank upon which these keys rise, 
and separated from them by a navigable channel, is a long, narrow coral reef, known as the Florida Eeef. The most 
important of these keys is Key West, a nautical corruption or free translation of Cayo Uueso (Bone Key), also called 
Thompson's Island. Long the haunt of smugglers and pirates, it is now a naval station of the first importance, and the 
seat of bands of wreckers, whose business is to assist vessels in distress ; and a special court is here established to adjust 
salvages. The marine disasters occurring in this vicinity are frequent ; the number of vessels which put into the port 
of Key West in distress, in 1850, and which had been ashore on the reef, was thirty, valued with their cargoes at $929,000, 
and on these the salvage and charges amounted to $200,860. This key is about six miles in length by two in breadth, with 
a large, well-sheltered, and commodious harbor, which admits the largest vessels. The salt ponds, on the key, hare of late 
years yielded considerable quantities of salt, and are very valuable to those engaged in the manufacture. The Tortugas 
derive their name from the immense number of turtles that visit them and the adjacent keys and mainland for the 
purpose of depositing their eggs. The turtles here are of several kinds, and form an article of considerable trafiSc. 

The whole of the peninsula is of diluvial formation. The substratum of the eastern part is clay mixed ^/ith sand, but 
that of the western is a kind of rotten limestone, which in many places is undermined by subterranean streams, forming 
numerous cavities in the ground, called " sinks." These sinks are inverted conical hollows, varying m size from a few 
yards to several acres, at the bottom of which running water often appears. The central district is the most productive ; 
but even of this district a large j»ortion is composed of poor pine-barrens, yet in the midst of these are found gentle 
eminences of fertile land, supporting a vigorous growth of oaks and hickories, while numerous rivulets of pure water flow 
through the country, or expand Into beautiful lakes. Farther west the land is more generally poor. Thus it appears 
that but a comparatively small portion of Florida can be said to be available for cultivation, yet the warmth and humidity 
of the cUmate compensate in a great measure for the stubborn nature of the soil, and give it a vegetation of great variety 

aud luxuriance. 

75 



THE STATE OF FLORIDA. 



The productions, natural and agricultural, of Florida, are chiefly those which require a tropical 8un to mature their 
fruits. It is not, however, merely in tropical products that Florida possesses advantages over every other State of the 
Union: It is now established beyond a doubt that the Sea Jdand, or long staple cottt)n (the production of which was 
formerly conllned to a few small islands in South Carolina and Georgia) will grow luxuriantly even in the very centre of the 
peninsula. A fine quality of this staple has also been produced on the Buwanec, and in the very centre of the Alachua, as 
well as on the eastern coast. This important fact is no doubt attributable to the almost insular position of the State. The 
soils are also adapted to the successful cultivation of the colTee plant, also cocoa, the sugar-cane, cottons generally, Cuba 
and other tobaccoes, rice, indigo, arrow-root. Sisal hemp. New Zealand flax, etc., and the climate is suitable for the 
cochineal insect and silk-wonn ; corn, potatoes, turnips, and, in short, most of the vegetables known to the North or 
South, flnd in one or otiier locality congenial soils. The fruits produced are too numerous to recount, and of the most 
delicate descriptions: oranges, lemons, limes, pine-apples, olives, grapes, etc., flourish luxuriantly, and if properly 
attended to, would soon become valuable export staples. As matters stand at the present time, indeed, Florida supplies 
much of the tropical fruit found in the markets of our northern cities. It has every delicacy of vegetable culture, and at 
all seasons of the year ; beets, onions, egg-plants, carrots, lettuce, celery, cauliflowers, etc., are produced with the most 
indifferent culture; and water-melons, cantclopcs, pumpkins, cucumbers, and every thing that grows upon vines are 
in abundance and in great perfection. Tlie driest seasons are relieved by heavy dews, and the sun that would bake the 
earth in other States, and wither the vegetation, is here so tempered by tlio prevailing moisture as to force the develop- 
ment of vegetable life to the utmost, and envelop the earth in perennial verdure. 

The climate of Florida has been spoken of, and justly, as one of llic fluest ; and, aside from the miasms that arise from 
theswamps, as ono of the most salubrious in the world. In the south the temperature scarcely changes the year round, 
and summer is only distinguished by the copiousness of its sliowcrs. No more delightful residence for invalids can be 
found than Key West, where the dilTerence of tlio mean temperature of summer and winter is not more than 11° Fahr. 
And what is said of Key West will equally apply to other portions of Southern Florida : Miami, on Key Biscayne Bay, 
has a climate at once placid and constant, and presents to the Invalid of the North a desirable retreat from the rude 
blasts peculiar to that region ; and were suitable accommodations prepared for their reception at the points indicated, num- 
bers of those who now annually go to Cuba and the other AVest India Islands, wouUl bo induced to stop short on their 
voyage, and try the advantages of so delightful a home climate. The average mean temperature of the State generally is 
about 70°, and in no place does the difference between summer and winter exceed 25°. The mean average quantity of 
rain during the year is 83 inches. 

The grassy prairies of this country afford excellent pasturage, and have long been feeding grounds of the southern 
grazier ; immense herds of cattle are constantly roaming over these, requiring no care from their owners, nor housing on 
account of the colds of winter ; and in most parts of the State hogs thrive well and fatten without any other support than 
that which they derive from the abundant roots and mast of the country. And there is certainly no portion of tlie United 
States where game and fish arc so abundant as in Florida. The fact that a largo body of Indians supported themselves 
well for the space of seven years, while hunted themselves by an army of 6,000 men, is some evidence in proof of this 
assertion. It was common before the war for a good hunter to kill seven or eight deer of a day, and multitudes of these 
animals were slaughtered merely for their skins. The country abounds also in wild turkeys, partridges, geese, ducks, 
curlews, and various other species of smaller game. The whole coast is productive of the finest flsh, an<i the oysters 
especially are of excellent flavor. Sheep-head, grouper, red-lish, mullet, green turtle, etc., are to bo found in inexhaustible 
abundance at almost every point, both on the eastern and western coasts; and the numerous lakes, rivers, and creeks 
of the interior teem with fresh-water flsh, and tlio most delicious species of soa-shcUcd turUe, etc. On many parts of the 
coast sponges are found, and in this product the trade is constantly increasing. 

Florida oontjiins 2S counties, the general statistics of which, and the capitals of each in 1S50, were as follows : 



Counties. Dwell. Pop. 

Alachua 274 ... 2,524 

Benton 113 ... 920 . 

Calhoun 165 ... 1,377 

Columbia 596 

Dade 23 , 

Duval 451 , 



cult. 



lOscambia 
Franklin 
Gadsden , 
Hamilton 
Hillsboro' 

Holmes 267 

Jackson 560 

Jefferson 620 



563 , 
201 , 
684 , 
801 , 
258 



. 4,808 . . 
159 . . 

4,530 .. 

4,351 .. 

1,561 .. 

8,7S8 .. 

2,469 . . 
. 2,877 . . 
, 1,644 .. 
. 6,039 .. 
, 7,718 .. 



. 238 
. 82 
. 08 
. 475 
. 6 
. 167 
. 34 
. 
. 482 . . 
. 205 . . 
. 120 .. 
. 108 
. 287 
. 377 



Manuf. 
Kstab. 

.. .. 

.. .. 

.. 1 .. 



. 2 .. 

. 5 .. 

. 9 .. 

. .. 

. .. 

. 0.. 

9 .. 

.. .. 

.. .. 

. 7 .. 



Capitals, 


Counties. 


Dwell 


. Newnanville 


Leon 


737 


. Melendez 


Levy .... 


64 


. St. Joseph 


Madison . . 


498 


. Alligator 


Marion . . 


894 


. Miami 


Monroe . . 


420 


. J.acksonviUe 


Nassau ... 


188 


. Pensacola 


Orange . . . 


55 


. Appalachicola 


Putnam . . 


.103 


. Quincy 


St. John 


821 


. Jasper 


St. Lucie . 


22 


. Tampa 


Santa Kosa 


526 


. Ccrro Gordo 


Wakulla . 


227 


. Mariana 


Walton . . 


185 


. Monticello 


Wash'gtor 


273 



Pop. 
11,442 . . 
405 . . 
. 5,490 .. 
, 8,338 .. 
, 2,643 . . 

2,104.. 
. 466 . . 
. 6S7 .. 
, 2,525 .. 
. 139.. 
. 2,883 . . 
, 1,955 . . 
. 1,879 .. 
, 1,950 . . 



Farms 
in cult. 
. 356 . . 
. .. 
. 262 . . 
. 829 . 
. 6 . 
. 137 . 
. 19 . 
. 20 . 
. 34 ., 
. . 
. 91 ., 
. 100 . , 
. 161 . , 
. 155 . 



Capitals. 

. Tallaiiassbk 
. Wakasasa 

, . Madison 

. . Ocola 

. . Key West 

. . Nassau C. II. 

. . Mellonville 

. . IMlatka 

. . Sau Augustine 

. Milton 
. Newport 
. Uchee Anna 
4 . . . Holmes Valley 



15 . 

. 
, 4 . 
. 

11 
. 11 
. 
. 

7 
. . 
, 28 .. 
, 5 .. 

.. 



The whole number of dwellings in the St.ito was, at the above date, 9,022, of families 9.107, and of inhabitants 87,401, 
viz. : whites, 47,167— males, 25,674, and females, 21,493 ; free colored, 925— males, 420, and females, 505, and slaves, 80,309. 
Of the whole population, tho following classes and numbers of persons were blind, deaf and dumb, insane or idiotic: 
deaf and dumh—wh. 12, fr. col. 0, si. 10— total 22; blind— \s\\. 12, fr. col. 2, si. 12— totJil 26; inmne—yi\\. 6, fr. col. 0, 
si. 2— total 8 ; idioUo—yi\\. 29, fr. col. 1, si. 7— total 37. The number of free persons born in the United Slates, was 
45,820; of those born in foreign countries, 2,757; and of those whose country was unknown, 58 : ne native population 
originated from— Maine 140, N, Hamp. 61, Verm. 55, Mass. 235, K. I. 66, Conn. 179, N.York 614, N. Jer. 83, I'enn. 
240, Del. 9, Md. 194, Dist. of Col. 33, Virg. 64.3, N. Car, 3,537, S. Car. 4,470, Geo. 11,316, Florida 20,563, Ala. 2,310, Miss. 
92, La. 140, Tex. 8, Ark. 5, Tenn. 112. Ky. 87, Oh. 53, Mich. 7, Ind. 14, 111. 8, Mo, 7, la. 0, Wise. 3, Calif. 0, .ind the Terri- 
tories ; and the ,forei\in population was composed of natives of— England 300, Ireland 878, Scotland 182, Wales 11, 
Germany 807, France 67, Spain 70, Portug.il 17, Belgium 4, Holland 8. Italy 40, Austria 8, Switzerland 7, Kussia 2, Nor- 
way 17, Sweden 23, Dennnirk 21, Prussia 17 Asia 3, AtJ-ica 28, British America 97, Mexico 5, South America 8 West 
Indies 599, other countries 37. 
76 




CJ o r^ isr :e3 

Nos.29, 31 and 33 BEEKMAN STREET, NEW YORK. 

TO I>I?-IlSrXEIiS JitJlSTlD I>TJB3LISHEI*S. 

The undersigned beg to inform tlie Trade that they have issued their new quarto Specimen Book of Printing 
Types, Bordering, &c., and tiiat it is now ready for delivery to their old patrons, and to all who patronize their 
Foundry. In it will he found a new series of Faces, from Pearl to Pica, surpassing, if possible, their celebrated 
Series of Scotch Cut Faces. The Fancy Type Department exhibits an unsurpassable variety of beautiful styles, 
selected from France, Germany and England. The Scripts and Borderings are now for the first time presented 
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ries of German Faces, both for Newspapers and Job Printing, of a very superior style, is now completed and 
ready for sale. Every article necessary to a perfect Printing Establishment furnished to order. The metal 
from which the Type is made will be found peculiarly adapted to the severe usage of Machme Press Printing. 

They beg to return thanks for past favors, and to solicit a continuance. Their well known liberal manner of 
doing business, for Die past thirty years, is a guarantee to new patrons of their disposition and ability not to 
allow themselves to be surpassed for fair dealing, whether orders are by letter or otherwise. 

JAMES CONNER & SONS. 

IVISON & PHINNEY, 

ilBlttlK AM FHlHIi 

No. 321 BROAD-WAY, NEW YORK, 

OF THE AMEPiICAN EDUCATIONAL SERIES OF SCHOOL AND COLLEGE TEXT BOOKS. 

^^ A full Descriptive Catalogue of our School and other Publications sent, 
postpaid, on application to us. 

i¥i¥ii¥7¥ii¥i¥i7¥ii¥¥iil 

NO CONNECTION WITH ANY OTHER HOUSE. 
Brushes of all kinds at Wholesale and Betail, cheaper than at any other House in the V. States 

[ESTABLISHED 1825.] 

DAVID McMURRAY, Jr. 

^roprirfor of i\t %mtmm Bitm §ni$f] Panufecteing Ca. 

-WAREHOUSE 252 FEARI. STREET, NEVT YORK. 

Always on hand a large assortment of my Patent Wire Bound Paint Brushes and Tampico 
Scrubbing Brushes. Factory 205 Eiver Street, Troy, JH. Y. Letters directed to the Factory or 
Warehouse ■will meet with prompt attention. 

SHELDON, BLAKEMAN & CO. 

PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS & STATIONERS, 

S., B. & Co. are the Publishers of the celebrated NORMAL SCHOOL SERIES OF TEXT BOOKS, con- 
sisting of some of the most important and thoroughly tested School Books now in use, viz : 



A SERIES OF SCHOOL ARITHMETICS, by Prof. 
J. F. Stoddard, A. M., Principal of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

A SERIES OF SCHOOL READERS, by J. Russell 
Webb 

HAZKN's" SERIES OF SPELLERS AND DEFIN- 
ERS, by Prof. J.R. Looms, of the Leivisburg Uni- 
versity. 



COLTON AND FITCHE'S SERIES OF GEOG- 
RAPHIES. 

GOODRICH'S GEOGRAPHIES AND HISTORIES. 

PHELPS' PHILOSOPHIES AND CHEMISTRIES, 
for beginners. 

ELEMENTS OF PHySIOLOGY, by Prof. J. R. 
LooMis, of the Lcvvisburg University. 

ELEMENTS OF GEOLOGY, by Prof. J. R. LooMis. 



S., B. & Co. are, besides, very largely engaged as Publishers of Miscellaneous Books, are special Agents for 
the publications of J. P. Jewett & Co., Gould Si Lincoln and other Publishing Houses in this country, and of 
Messrs. Collins St Co., of Glasgow. 



JAMES "WILDE, Jr. & CO 

Manufacturers and WholeBale Dealers in 




27 Park Place and 24 Murray Street^ 



JAMES WILDE 
THOMAS WARRIN 
r. S. KIRTLAND 
JOHN 8. WILDE 
JOSEPH WILDE 



, JR. 1 
RIN, 
ID, I- 



CORNER OF CHURCH STREET, 



NEW YORK 



WOODWARD, PmCKNEY & CLARK, 

118 FULTON STREET, NEW YORK, 

a^mm, (ffn§lislj 3>\ttt i' Jfrtnclj ilass, 51|}tt JtA %m,^t. 

Manufacturers of Extra and Ground Paint Brushes. 

ENGLISH and AMERICAN COLORS, dry and ground in Oil, imported expressly for the 
Trade, which we offer on the most favorable terms. 
^^©* All goods warranted as represented. Orders by mail promptly attended to. 

ALBERT H. NICOLA Y, 
eOc LJI3 X X U 1\ Xa JuXi ciXii XJ X) eiXJL 1 XSo JuXVj 

No. 4 BROAD STREET, NEXT TO WAIiL, NEW YORK. 



Regular semi-wcckly Auction Sales of Stocks and Bonds every Monday and Thursday, at 
12J o'clock, at the Merchants' Exchange. Also, special sales of the same on any other days 
when required. Sales also made of Real Estate, Ships, Steamboats, <j-c. First class Stocks, 
Bonds and Real Estate at private sale, and Loans negotiated. 

Interest allowed on all moneys deposited on trust, and securities bought and sold at the 
board of Brokers, strictly on commission. 

NOYES & WHITTLESEY, 

so "W.A.TEI^ STI^EEO?, 3SrE-A.Ti OLID SLIF, KTETT^ 'S'OIllK, 
HAVE CONSTANTLY ON HAND AND MANUFACTURE TO ORDER 

Bags for Flour, Grain, Salt, Buckwheat, Hams, &c. 

"Would also call the attention of Country Merchants to their assortment of SEAMLESS and 
FARMERS' BAGS, and of MILLERS' BAGS, designed and printed to order, expressly for 
their use. Our facilities are such that we can supply from 10,000 to 20,000 bags per day. 

Also, importers and dealers in GUNNY BAGS AND BAGGING, and various kinds of 
Thread and Twine, both Linen and Cotton, of which we are receiving continual supplies. 



THE STATE OF FLORIDA. 



And the following table will exhibit the decennial progress of the population : 

Colored Persons. 



Census. AVIiite 

Year. Persons, 

1830 1S,3S5 



Free. Slave. 

. . 844 . . . . 15,501 

1840 27,94.3 SIT ... . 25,717 



1850 47,167 



925 



Total. 

. 16,345 . . 
. 26,5:'.4 . . 
39,.309 .... 40,234 . . 



Tiitai 
Population. 

. 34,730 . . 
, . 64,477 . . 
. 87,401 . . 



Becpnni 


al Increase. 


Numerical. 


Percent 


19,747 . . 
32,924 . . 


56.8 

60.4 



The industry of Florida is devoted almost wholly to agriculture ami commerce, the manufactures of the State as yet 
being of small account, and consisting of such branches only as those the position of the inhabitants immediately demands. 
None of the great national manufactures have yet been introduced, and hence manufactured goods of almost every 
description are imported from the Northern States and exchanged for the indigenous agricultural staples of the soil— an 
exchange creating a large commercial movement between the different sections of the Union, and in the interior of the 
State itself. The statistics of the wealth and industry of the State, according to the census of 1850, etc., are as follows: 

Occupied Lands, etc — Improved lands, 849,049 acres, and unimproved lands, 1,236,240 acres— valued in cash at 
$6,323,109. Whole number of farms under cultivation, 4,304. Value of farming implements and machinery, $658,795. 

Live-Stock.— RoKea, 10,848 ; asses and mules, 5,002 ; milch cows, 72,870 ; working oxen, 5,794 ; other cattle, 182,415 ; 
sheep, 23.311 ; and swine, 209,453 — valued in the aggregate at $2,880,058. (In 1840 there were 12,043 horses, mules, etc. ; 
118,080 neat-cattle of aU kinds ; 7,193 sheep, and 92,630 hogs.) 

Grain Crops. — Wheat, 1,027 bushels ; rye, 1,152 bushels ; Indian com, 1,996,869 bushels ; oats, 66,586 bushels ; barley, 
bushels; and buckwheat, 55 bushels. (The crops of 1339^0 were— wheat, 412 bushels; barley, 30 bushels; oats 
13,829 bushels ; rye, 305 bushels ; buckwheat, bushels ; and Indian corn, 893,974 bushels.) 

Other Crops. — Kice, 1,075,090 pounds ; tobacco, 998,614 pounds ; ginned cotton, 45,131 bales of 400 pounds ; peas and 
beans, 135,359 bushels ; Irish potatoes, 7,828 bushels ; sweet potatoes, 757,226 bushels ; hay, 2,510 tons ; clover-seed, ; 
and other grass-seed, 2 bushels ; hops, 14 pounds ; flax, 50 pounds ; maple sugar, pounds ; cane sugar, 2,752 hogsheads 
of 1,000 pounds ; molasses, 352,393 gallons ; wine, 10 gallons, etc. The value of orchard products was $1,200, and of 
market-garden products, $3,721. The annexed table will exhibit the staple crops of 1840 and 1350 comparatively : 

Staples. 1840. 1850. Increase. 

Cane Sugar 275,317 pounds 2,752,000 pounds 2,476,683 pounds, or 899.57 per c ent. 

Ginned Cotton 12,110,533 " 13,052,400 " 5,941,867 " or 49.06 " 

Tobacco 75,274 " 993,614 " 923,340 " or 226.64 « 

Pace 431,420 " 1,075,090 " 643,670 " or 149.19 " 

Products of Animals.— ^oo], 23,247 (in 1840, 7,285) pounds; butter, 371,493 pounds ; cheese, 18,015 pounds; and the 
vahie of animals slaughtered during the year had been $514,685. Silk cocoons were produced to the amount of 6 (in 
1840, 124}) pounds, and beeswax and honey, to that of 18,971 pounds. 

Home-made manufactures for the year ending 30th Jtme, 1850, were valued at $75,582. (In 1840, $20,205). 

Manufactures. — Aggregate capital invested, $547,060 ; value of raw material, fuel, etc., used and consumed, $220,611 ; 
average number of hands employed, —males and females, ; average monthly cost of labor — male,$ 

and female, $ annual value of products, $668,335. The whole number of manufacturing establishments, producing 

to the annual value of $500 and upward, was one hundred and twenty -one. 

Commerce.— F\or\iia., in the year ending 30th June, 1350, exported to foreign countries to the value of $2,623,624, of 
■which amount $2,607,963 represented domestic produce, and $15,656 foreign merchandise re-exported. The proportion 
of the total value of domestic produce carried in foreign bottoms, was $1,493,999— the remainder in national vessels. The 
foreign imports for the same year amounted in value to $95,709, of which $30,241 was carried in American, and $65,463 
in foreign vessels. The greatest portion of the exports are cleared from Appalachicola, which is also the outlet of Eastern 
Alabama, and South-western Georgia, whence produce is brought down the river in steamboats. The shipping entered 
at all the ports of the State amounted to 17,980 tons, of which was foreign 10,462 tons ; and the shipping cleared, to 
22,156, of which was foreign 12,134 tons. The tonnage owned in the several collection districts of the State, was as follows : 



Registered. 



Enrolled and Licensed. 



Perm't. 



Collection Districts. 

Pensacola . . . 

St. Augustine — 

St Mark's — ^ 

St. John's — 

Appalachicola — 

Key West 3,017 1,: 

Total 



Temp'ry. 

. 1,221 . 



Perm't. 
495 .. 



Temporary. 



, 282 
810 , 
2,050 
1,546 . 



546 



Licensed Total 

under 20 tons. Tonnage. 

... 77 1,793 .. 



Navigated 
by Steam. 



71 



259 



353 — 

810 79 

2,050 2,050 

6,766 56 



1849-50 

. T9 



79 



. 8,017 2,619 4,633 546 407 11,272 2,135 . 

The coasting trade of Florida is immensely larger than its direct foreign trade, and employs a large tonnage both 
of steam and sail vessels. Of the cotton exported in 1351, 70,547 bales were sent direct to foreign ports, and 111,532 coast- 
wise, and so with other staples— which facts illustrate the course of Florida commerce. The statistics of the foreign 
commerce of the State for a series of years, exhibit the following movements : 



Tears. Imports. 

1821 $13,270 

1822 6,877 

1823 4,808 

1824 6,936 

1825 3,218 

1826 16,590 

1827 .... 
1823 .... 

1829 .... 

1830 .... 



Exports. 
$ 

1,777 
1,510 

216 
2,865 

200 



257,994 57,486 

168,293 60,321 

153,642 56,086 

82,689 7,570 



Years. Imjiorts. Exports. 

1831 $115,710 $30,495 

1832 306,845 65,716 

1838 85,386 64,805 

1334 135,798 228,825 

1S35 93,173 61,710 

1836 121,745 71,662 

1837 805,514 90,084 

1838 168,690 122,532 

1339 279,283 384,806 

1840 190,728 1,858,850 



Years. Imports. Exports. 

1341 $145,181 $86,629 

1342 176,930 33,884 

1843 158,682 760,688 

1844 155,695 1,011,416 

1845 107,868 1,514,745 

1846 140,584 176,448 

1347 143,298 1,810,538 

1843 64,267 1,896,683 

1849 63,211 2,518,027 

1850 95,709 2,628,624 

11 



THE STATE OF FLORIDA. 



Internal Communication. — Florida, beyond those provided by nature, has but few means of internal communication. 
In the south there are several military roads to depend on ; and in the north, where greater progress has been made in the 
settlement of the country, there are some short railroads, and more progress has been made in opening inter-communi- 
cation t>y ordinary roads. There are, however, several public works of great importance to the prosperity of the State 
projected ; one of which, the Ship Canal, or railroad across the neck of the peninsula, will be of vital importance to the 
commerce of the Gulf of Mexico; and the railroads from Savannah and Brunswick to Appalachicola, will also be the 
means of opening u|) Ihe southern parts of Georgia to the Ploridian Gulf porta. There is also a raiUroad projected from 
some point on tlie St. Mary's Kiverto Pensacola. 

G(ycernment.~-'X\w, constitution of Florida provides that all free white male citizens, twenty-one years of age, who shall 
have resided in the State two years, and in the county six months next preceding, shall be eligible to vote at elections. 

The Legislature, styled the General Assembly, consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. Representatives and 
Senators are elected lor terms of two years. Representation is apportioned every ten years according to population, 
Ihree-tiflhs of the slaves being counted in the representative numbers. The general election takes place on the first 
Monday of October, and the Assembly meets biennially on the third Monday in November. 

The governor is elected by a plurality of votes for four years, and is ineligible for the four years next after. He must 
be at least Uiirty years of age, and have been ten years a citizen of the United States, or an inhabitant of Florida at the 
adoption of the constitution, and a resident thereof for five years next before the election. The governor has a qualified 
lotio on all legislative acts. In case of the disability or death of the governor,,;?/'*^, the President of the Senate, and 
secotid, the Speaker of the House of Representatives act in his stead for such part of the term as may be unexpired. 

No officer in a banking company, while he serves In a bank, or for twelve months afterward, shall be eligible for the 
office of governor, senator, or representative ; nor shall a duelist or second in a duel hold any otflce under the State. 
The Secretary of Slate is elected by the Legislature for four years. 

The Judiciary consists of a Supreme 0)urt, Circuit Courts, and several courts of minor jurisdiction. The Supreme 
Court has appellate jurisdiction only, and is composed of a chief justice and two associate justices. It holds four sessions 
annually — one at Tallahassee, on the first Monday of January ; one at Jacksonville, on the third Monday of February ; 
one at Tampa, on the first Monday of March ; and one at Mariana, on the third Monday of March. When one or two 
of the judges are disqualified from sitting in any cause, the vacancy is filled by a corresponding number of circuit judges. 
For the purpose of holding Circuit Courts, the State is divided into four circuits, viz., the Western, the Middle, the East- 
em, and the Southern, to each of which there is one judge. The Circuit Courts have original common-law jurisdiction iu 
all matters, civil and criminal, and also original equity jurisdiction, until a separate Chancery Court is established by the 
Legislature. The judges are now elected by concurrent votes of the two houses of the General Assembly. An act was 
passed, however, in 1S50-51, giving the election to the people, and limiting their term to six years ; but this act has to be 
sanctioned by another Legislature before becoming law. 

Respecting banking, the constitution provides that " no bank charter shall be for more than thirty years, nor shall it ever 
be extended or renewed. The capital of a bank shall not exceed $100,000, nor shall a dividend be made exceeding 16 
per cent, a year. Stockholders shall be individually liable for the debts of the bank, and no notes shall be issued for less 
than $5." And, in relation to corporations, it further provides, that " no act of incorporation shall be passed or altered except 
by the assent of two-thirds of each house, and by giving three months' notice." "The credit of the State shall not be 
pledged in aid of any corporation whatsoever." 

With regard to slavery, the same instrument says : " No law shall be passed to emancipate slaves, or to prohibit the 
immigration of persons bringing slaves with them ; but free colored persons may be prevented from entering flie State." 

For an amendment of the constitution, two-thirds of each house must assent ; the proposed alteration must then be 
published six months before the succeeding election, and then be again approved by a two-thirds vote in the succeeding 
General Assembly. 

Florida, under the law-distributing congressional representation, has only one representative in Congress. 

Finances, etc.— The assessed value of all real and personal property in the State in 1S50, was $2'2,TS4,887 ; the value 
truly estimated, .$32,802,270. Florida has no public debt. The balance in the treasury for the year ending 1st Nov., 1847, 
was $3,755 10 ; and the receipts for the year ending 1st Nov., 1S4S, amounted to $56,832 72— making the resources for that 
year $60,5S7 82. The aggregate expcn.litures during the year were $59,259 72, leaving in the treasury, for future dis- 
bursement, $1,32S 10. The average ordinary expenses of the government, however, is only about $45,000 per annum. 

Iklucation.— Florida, is as yet but ill i)rovided with schools; it has no institutions in which a liberal education can be 
obtained, nor are the existing public schools or academies efficient in their organization. The State has ample means for 
the support of public schools from the proceeds of the lands designated by Congress for that purpose, and the State con- 
stitution makes it imperative on the Legislature to organize and provide for a system of public education. The peculiar 
circumstances of the people, and the sparsity of the population, however, will, for a long time to come, present obstacles 
to the operation of any system devised, and more than apologize for any deficiencies that may be observed in the educa- 
tional condition of the inhabitants. These matters must be left to time and favoring circumstances. 

Religimis Denominatiom.—T\i& statistics of the religious denominations of Florida, according to the census of 1850 
are as follows : 



Denomina- No. of 


Church 


Value of 


Denomina- No. of 


Church 


V.ilue of 


Denomina- No. of 


Cliurch 


Value of 


lionB. Cliurches. 


Bcconl. 


Properly. 


tions. Churclies 




Property. 


tions. Churclies 


accom. 


Prnpertv 


Baptist 45 .. 


10,400 . . 


. $25,640 


Germ'n Ref. — . . 





. $- 


Rom. Cath. 5 . . 


1,850 . . 


. $13,600 


Christian ... — . . 


— .. 


— 


Jewish — .. 







Tunker — .. 


.. 





Congregat'l. — . . 


— .. 


— 


Lutheran . . — . . 








Union — .. 


_ .. 





Dutch Ref. . — . . 


— .. 


— 


Mennonite . — . . 


— 





Unitarian.. — .. 





■ 


Episcopal .. 10 .. 


3,810 . . 


. 87,800 


Methodist .. 75.. 


18,010 . . 


, 55,260 


Universalist — . . 


_ .. 


— 


Free 1.. 


400.. 


400 


Moravian... — .. 


— .. 


— 


Minor Sects 3 . . 


1,000.. 


1,200 


Friends — . . 


— .. 


— 


Presbyteri'n 14 . . 


5,700.. 


. $31,500 


Total.... 152.. 


41,170 . . 


. $165,400 



Florida is a diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church; and it constitutes parts of the Roman Catholic dioceses 
of Savannah and Mobile— in the diocese of Savannah is included all of the State east of the Appalachicola, and in 
that of Mobile all west of that river. 

Periodical Press,— There are 11 newspapers published in the State, of which 10 are issued weekly, and 1 semi-weekly 

78 





DR. J. ALLEN, 

isr E W^ YORK, 

LATE PROFESSOR IN THE OHIO COLLEGE OF DENTAL SURGERY, 

Invites attention to his improved method of constructing artificial dentures, which combine 

the following advantages : 

First. — There are no seams or crevices for the lodgment of food, to vitiate the saliva or in- 
fect the breath, as not even the slightest moisture can get between the teeth and plate. 

Second. — An Artificial Gum, which is as firm and indestructible as the teeth, is fused, at a 
high heat, between and around their base, which unites them firmly to each other, and to the 
plate upon which they are set. The gum imparts to the teeth that peculiar expression and 
life-like appearance which characterizes the natural organs. 

Third. — Great strength is obtained by thus uniting the Teeth, Gum and Plate, and no ordi- 
nary force in masticating can break them from their base. 

Fourth. — The natural form and expression of the mouth and face can be restored iu cases where 
they have become sunken. This is done by means of additional attachments to the frame- 
work supporting the teeth. These attachments are so formed as to bring out the sunken portio7is 
and sustain them in their proper position. They are covered with the above named gum com- 
pound, and become component parts of the denture, and when rightly formed, cannot be de- 
tected by the closest observer. This method of restoring the cheeks to their original fullness, 
and also the natural form and expression of the mouth and lips, has been well tested, having 
been made a special feature in the author's practice for several years past. A variety of pho- 
tographic and daguerreotype likenesses, which have been taken of persons without this im- 
provement and with it, can be seen at this office, showing- the great change in appearance 
which is produced in the countenance of individuals now Avearing dentures constructed upon 
this principle, which the public are invited to call and examine, together with other specimens 
of his improved style of work, not requiring the above attachments. 

Fifth. — A clear and distinct articulation of speech is restored. This important change is 
effected by having the inside of the teeth and gum of a natural form. To this form the tongue 
is readily adapted. This perfect adaptation of the tongue to the denture prevents the hissing 
or mufBed sounds in speaking or singing, so often observed in persons wearing artificial teeth. 

Sixth. — The plates usually employed for this work are platina, the purity of which prevents 
even the slightest tarnish or unpleasant taste in the mouth. In short, this system embraces 
many new and important features, which are readily appreciated by those wearing artificial 
dentures upon this principle. With reference to the utility of this method, numerous testimo- 
nials can be given from eminent dentists in the various cities of the Union, and persons wear- 
ing the work in this and other cities. 

J. ALLEN, 

No. 30 Bond Street, Ne-w York. 

P. S. — Persons desiring further information in reference to the above, will be furnished with 
pamphlets, free of postage, by sending a note with address to J. Allen. 



118 



SCHENCK MACHINERY DEPOT 



lilMI, 



,111 ABlSf 



A. L. AOKERMAN, Proprietor, 

No. 163 GREENWICH STREET, NEW YORK. 

(!Iwbi/5 & Dick^^ latent lie-§au)ing JHacliiiifS; 



5 



mm\ 



[ 



HAHRIS & SON'S SMUT AND SCOURING MACHINES, 

STEAM ENGINES, COMPLETE; MACHINE TOOLS, MORTLSING AND TENONING 
MACHINES, SAWS, BELTING, MACltlNEUY, OIL, &c. 



C. BE 



IAN, 



Tfl' 






CUTLERY, SILVER PLATED WARE, 

JAPANMRY, GERMAN SILVER & BRITANNIA ¥ARE, 

COMPOSITION, ENAMELED AND IRON HOLLOW WARE, 

BAT til N a APPARATUS, 

Tin, Wood and Willow Wares, 

ilRUSIIES, MATS, BASKETS, REFRIGERATORS, SPORTING TACKLE, &o. 
No. 601 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

HOLMES & BUTLER'S PUffifsIX SIFES FICTORIOUS 

At the Great Test of Safes at the Crystal Palace, December 2, 1853. 



1 Ml lit 

-^VARRANTED ENTIRELY FREE FROM DAMPNESS. 



Bsla n 




These celebrated Safes have been publicly tested at the American Institute State Fair, Crys- 
tal Palace and other Exhibitions, and from each and all have obtained the highest premiums 
"for uD(iualitied excellence as proof against Fire, &c." 

They have been in use for many years, and have never, -when subject to the test, whether by 
accidental fire or otherwise, failed to i)reserve their contents, and they are therefore believed 
to be the only Safes now before the public that are exactly what they are rejjresented to be, that 
is perfectly Fire and Burglar Proof, and yet at the same time entirely free from dampness. 

For sale by the Manufacturers and Patentees, at their warerooms,' 

90 and 92 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK, AND 173 LAKE ST., CHICAGO. 

HOLMES, VALENTINE & BUTLER. 

H., V. & B. are also the Patentees and sole Manufacturers of the renowned Rotary Door 
Lock, which has only to be seen to be appreciated. 

119 



THE STATE OF FLORIDA. 



and of these 5 are whig in politics, 3 democratic, 1 neutral, and two, the politics of which are not stated in the census. 
The semi-weekly paper has an average circulation of 200 at each issue, or 20,800 copies annually ; and the 10 weekly 
papers an aggregate circulation of 5,550, or 288,000 copies annually, making the 309,400 copies the total annual issue. The 
papers having the largest circulations are, the " Commercial Advertiser" of Appalachicola, which is 1,500 copies weekly • 
the '• Sentinel," and " Floridian and Journal" of Tallahassee — the first having a weekly circulation of 1,800, and the latter 
of 800, and the "iTorida Kepublican," which issues 700 weekly ; none of the others circulate more than 400 copies of 
each issue. 

IliHiorical Sketch. — The adventures of Narvaez, and the romantic wanderings of Ponce de Leon and De Soto, tho 
buccaneering of the English, the wars waged with Oglethorpe by tho Spaniards, and more recently, tho long and 
bloody Indian wars, have given to Florida a greater historical interest than attaches to any other portion of the Union. But 
as one of the youngest sisters of our confederacy, but comparatively little is known of its geography, resources, and pro- 
ductions. Peninsulated from almost all intercourse with other Stat«s, it lies out of tho great thoroughfare of travel; and 
while tho commerce of the Great West sweeps around its shores, they are looked upon as so many dangerous reefs and 
rocks, threatening destruction to the mariner. In the foregoing sketch the aim has been to give an idea of the present 
actual state and condition of the country. Its history is briefly as follows: 

Florida was discovered in 1496 by Cabot, and was visited by Tonce de Leon in 1512, who came in search of the spring 
of perpetual youth and beauty, and fabled mines of gold, the fame of which had filled all Europe. In 1502 we find the 
French and Spaniards contesting their respective rights to the soil. San Augustine was settled in 1564, it being by forty 
years the oldest setUemenl in the United States. Pensacola was settled in 1596. 

The archives of the country during the Spanish rule having been carried away, it is difficult to judge to what extent the 
country was settled previous to its cession to Great Britain, llemains of ancient settlements exist between theSuwanee and 
Chattahoochee rivers ; the traces of old fortifications, roads, etc., are very distinct, and gun-barrels, pottery, ship-spikes, 
etc., are found ; but the public opinion of the country is rather inclined to attribute these to the buccaneers, and the quan- 
tity of ship-spikes, etc., found, seem to render the opinion highly probable. It is presumable, therefore, from the known 
inertness of the Spanish character, and the slight progress made by them in the settlement of new countries, that their 
settlements in Florida were of very little extent; and, with the exception of establishing a few missions, they never 
ventured far from tho coast, and paid but little attention to the cultivation of the soil. 

The cession to Great Britain was made in 1763: most of the Spaniards left the country, and it soon began to prosper 
under the energetic impulse communicated by the Anglo-Saxon race. Efforts at settlement on a large scale were imme- 
diately undertaken, the government favoring the enterprise by granting large tracts to settlers. Doctor Turnbull brought 
1,500 families from the islands and shores of the Mediterranean, and located tliem at New Smyrna; and Lord EoUe, 
Governor Moultrie, Lord Beresford, and others established settlements ; and on the breaking out of the lievolution, large 
numbers of royalists came into the country from Georgia and Carolina. In 1780 the exports of Florida reached 40,000 
barrels of naval stores ; and at this time one of the principal articles of culture was indigo, which in tho markets of London 
brought a higher price than that from any other country. The British possession of the country continued for but twenty 
years, but during that period more was cfifected in settling and improving the country than in the two hundred years 
of Spanish occupation. 

But, unfortunately for Florida, in 1783 the province was retro-ceded to Spain, and the English population, which iu 
1778, in East Florida alone, numbered over 13,000, principally left the country and went into the adjoining States. From 
this period to its cession to the United Slates in 1821 — a period of nearly forty years — it languislied and struggled along 
with difficulty; cultivation was neglected, the English settlements having been allowed to go to ruin; and at no time 
during this period wus tlie population in both the Floridas estimated at over 10,000, a large portion of whom lived in 
towns, or were hangers-on of government. The Spanish population, to a considerable extent, left the country upon its 
cession, and immigration began to flow in rapidly ; but the unsurveyed state of the country, the uncertainty of land-titles, 
etc., militated against its settlement; and the fierce and turbulent Indian race, who had made it a battle-ground for over 
two hundred and fifty years, and who had never been conquered, and had no egress from their peninsular home, occu- 
pied the best lands, rendering it impossible to obtain them. But yet in spite of all these obstacles, a considerable 
population planted themselves in the country. 

The territory was now beginning to reap the fruits of its American occupation, when in 1885 the desolating Seminole 
war broke out and continued for seven years, rendering all habitation out of the limits of the occupied parts insecure, and 
destroying all the improvements which had been undertaken. In 1842 tliis war terminated, and the Indians, after a 
struggle of nearly three hundred years, were forced to yield, and were nearly all transferred beyond the Mississippi. Thus 
the population of Florida had, ujj to 1842, undergone four entire revolutions, and after having been settled by the European 
race for two hundred and eighty years, was forced to begin anew the settlement of the country. Since this period, how- 
ever, it lias progressed with reasonable rapidity, and in 1845 it was admitted into the Union as an independent State. 
The few Indians now remaining, although they have given some temporary trouble to the inhabitants, have lately 
made up their minds to abandon their homes, and will, before long, be domiciled with their brethren in the country 
beyond the limits of tho white settlements, set apart for them by the beneficence of the Government, where alone they cau 
be protected from utter annihilation. 

Tallahabsee is the poUtical capital of the State. 

79 



TIE STATE OE GEORGIA. 



Georgia is bounded on the north by Tennessee and North Carolina ; on the north-east by South Carolina, from which 
Savannah Eiver divides it ; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean ; on the south by Florida, and on the west by Alabama — 
the Chattahoochee Eiver being the western boundary for more than half its length. It extends generally between lati- 
tudes 30° 22' and .35° N., and longitudes S0° 4S and 84° 41' W. from Greenwich, or 3° 46' and 7° 39' W. from Washington. 
Its greatest length from north to south is 322 miles, and its greatest width from the east point of Tybee Island, at the 
mouth of Savannah Kiver, to Florence, on Chattahoochee Eiver, 224 miles ; but from this point it gradually narrows 
northward, and on the parallel of 34° 40' does not measure more than 126 miles. The whole area of the State is 53,000 
square miles. 

No State in the Union presents a richer field for the geologist than Georgia. With a territory embracing the southern 
extremity of the great Atlantic chains of mountains, extending across them to the north-west into the valley of the 
Mississippi, running to the south-west into the cretaceous slope of the Gulf of Mexico, and occupying along their east- 
ern base a wide belt of territory, it contains most of the important geological formations. Commencing at the Atlantic 
Ocean and spreading out from 100 to 150 miles to the west, an extensive plain of a tertiary furmatmi rises from the 
level of the sea, and gradually swells up to the height of about 500 feet, at a line passing near the head of navigation of 
the rivers Savannah, Ogecchee, Oconee, and Ocmulgee, where it meets a priinary formation. Between the Ocmulgee 
and Flint rivers it leaves the primary formation to the right, and resta on the cretaceous from a point nearly midway 
between Macon and Knoxville, by a line running in a south-west direction to another point between Pataula Creek and 
Fort Gaines, on the Chattahoochee Eiver. Bounded by the last mentioned line to the south-east, and by the southern 
edge of the primary, as indicated by the heads of navigation in the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers, the cretaceaui 
formation extends from Alabama into Georgia, forming an acute triangle. The primary, or non-fossiliferous, bounded 
on the east by the tertiary and cretaceous formations as descril^ed above, crosses the State from north-east to south-west, 
with a width of 160 miles at the northern limit and of 100 miles at the .southern. The Blue Eidge range of mountains 
passes near its western edge and forms the most elevated land of the State, varying in height from 1,200 to 4,000 feet 
From this crest there is a gradual descent to the east by a series of parallel and undulating ridges, until the tertiary plain 
is reached. On the west the descent is much more precipitous. The western boundary of the primary is not very 
accurately established, but is believed to be not far from a line running nearly north and south through the centre of 
Gilmer County, and continued in the same direction to near Canton, in Cass County, and thence to the western base of 
the AUatoona Mountain, on the Etowah Eiver, where it turns to the south-west, and passing near Van Wert, in Paulding 
County, and along the northern base of the Dugdown Mountain to the Alabama line. The north-western part of the 
State, bounded to the east and south by the western limit of the primary, consists of a transition, or older fossiliferoua 
formation, except the extreme north-west corner, where the carboniferous occurs. 

The coast is lined by a succession of low islands, intersected by numerous navigable channels, which afford good inland 
navigation all along the shore. They are generally separated from each other by wide bays or sounds, wliich bear 
their names and receive the waters of this section- The principal islands are Cabbage Island, Ossaba Island, St 
Catharine's Island, Sapello Island, St. Simon's Island, Jykill Island, Cumberland Island, etc. These are covered with 
rich plantations, and produce, as before stated, the long staple cotton called, from the place of its growth, sea-island 
cotton. 

Along the southern line of the State, between the head branches of the Suwannee and the St. Mary's rivers, there is 
an extensive swamp, or series of swamps, covered with a thick growth of bay-trees, vines, and underwood, and in the 
wet season presenting tlie appearance of a wide lake containing islands of rich highland. Tliis swamp extends over the 
border into Florida, and bears the Indian name of "Okefinoke." Several streams are lost in its morasses, and others, 
head waters of rivers flowing to the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, take their rise from within its limits. 

The great mineral region of Georgia is found in the primary and metamorphic formations of the spurs of the 
Alleghany Mountains. Through the northern portion of the State these pursue their course toward the south-west with 
similar features of parallelism and straightness peculiar to them further north ; but their more broken character, the 
greater rugge<lness of their outline, and the impetuous nature of their streams, testify to different geological formations 
than the stratified shales and sandstones of which they are composed in Pennsylvania. It is in these out-licrs of the main 
ridge that the metamorphic slates and quartz rock are found, which are productive in gold ores ; and frequently in near 
proximity to these are deposits of hematite iron ores of extraordinary extent. In the gneiss, also, are found veins of 
magnetic iron ore of great purity, as at Cane Creek, near Dahlonega. Specular ores, too, like those of the Iron 
Mountain in Missouri, are found in the vicinity of some of the hematite beds ; and localities of the same ore are of frequent 
occurrence down the course of Chattahoochee Eiver. Another range of them, of much greater consequence, is found 
in the AUatoona hills, along the Etowah Eiver. Here the broad, shallow stream, obstructed in its course, falls over 
ledges of rock, producing good water power. On each side are seen, projecting from the hills, ledges of rough silicious 
rock, in strata of various degrees of thickness, dipping to the south of east Beds of limestone are associated with these 
rocks, and veins of sulphate of barytes, of great extent. On the south-eastern slope of this range of hills, talcose and 
mica slates, hornblende slate, green stone, and quartz veins containing gold, more abound. Through deep cuttings in 
these rocks, in one place 90 feet deep, the Western and Atlantic Eailroad passes. To the west and north-west an exten- 
sive limestone country commences, about four miles from the river. Nearly the whole of Cass County is formed of this 
rock, anil it spreads out into Floyd and Murray counties. Iron ores are found on both sides of the Etowah Eiver. To 
the south-west they extend into Paulding County, and in the other direction through Cherokee County to its north-west 
comer; and so far as explored their range is about 40 miles, and their course about north-east and south-west. These 
ores, in their appearance and qualitv, resemble the best ores found in the Ilousatonic Valley. Numerous furnaces have 
80 




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Q. W. HILLMAN. J. S. HILLMAN. 

G. "W. HILLMAN & CO. 

fllliill iliiiilifilii filMi 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

50 FRONT STREET, NEW YORK, 

Have on hand and are constantly receiving from some of the most desirable factories in 

Virginia, 

iffl i\ EI iS iF ia Ig T ® !B 1 EI ir®©£i@(B® 

Of the different styles and varieties, which we offer on liberal terms. 



A PRIVATE man SCHOOL, 
On Washington Square, No. 218 Fourth Street, New York. 

Established by the Proprietors (Messrs. CLARK & FANNING,) in 1843, for 
the accommodation of two hundred and fifty day and boarding pupils. 

Although this Institute receives no aid from the State, the attractiveness of its location on 
one of the largest Parks of the city, the singular commodiousness of its internal construction 
and arrangements, the enterprise of its Principals and the excellent scholars they produce, 
have given their school a wide celebrity. The total number of Professors and Teachers of 
Classics, Mathematics, Foreign Languages, Natural Science, Commercial Education, Arts of 
Design and Belles-Lettres, is fifteen, being three departments — Junior, Middle and Senior. 

Pupils are received from seven years of age and conducted through the entire range of 
Academical Study. 

.^9* The above Institute is one of the most flourishing of our country. Its well known 
reputation and the popularity of the Principals are sufficient guarantees that a finished educa- 
tion will be given at the Mount "Washington. — Editor. 

HEG-EMAN, CLARK & CO. 

[LATE KUSHTON, CLARK Si CO.] 

"W'liOLES-A.LB -A-lJTr) HET-A-IXj 



JuliXXa X u cDLl* iJ UXi u utrXd X uy 



165. 273, 511 ANE> 756 BROADWAY, 

Have constantly on hand a large assortment of Drugs, Chemicals, Perfumery, 
&c., of best quality and at lowest market prices. 

THE GENUINE COD LIVER OIL 

Of Hegeman, Clark & Co., (late Kushton, Clark & Co.,) has stood the test of 
eight years' experience, and is acknowledged the best and purest article made. 
See that the eagle and mortar are on the label, and our signature over the cork, 
without which it is not genuine. 

HEGEMAN, CLARK & CO. 

165, 273, 511 and 756 Broadway. 
"WUoIesale Depot 169 Broad^iray. 

lao 




J. BECK & CO. 

AND 

■zoo st73.<X "ZOQ DBro«,<a.-vc-a,3rj, 

NEW YORK, 

JMPORTEKS, JOiiEKS AI8B RETASLEKS W 

FOREIGN, FANCY, STAPLE AND DOMESTIC 





For eighteen years the Messrs. Beck have operated with world-wide notoriety in 
their present locality, which is one of the most central in the city ; they have also 
recently opened at 786 and 788 Broadway, a branch establishment for the conve- 
nience of their up-town customers. At both these establishments they deal exten- 
sively in the first class fabrics from every part of the Globe. Here meet the eye 
the finest products of European manufacture — the Silks of China, and the Cash- 
meres and Shaids of Oriental production ; Cloaks and Mantillas, Laces ami Em- 
hroiderics, Linen and Cotton Goods, from the most celebrated manufactories of both 
hemispheres. Housekeeping articles of the dry goods department, both useful and 
ornamental, are here oifered for sale on the most reasonable terms, of every grade 
and quality, and every variety of price. Damash TaUe Cloths, from one dollar 
to seventy-five dollars each, gratify the taste of the opulent; and those of inferior 
quality and lower price attract the attention of all. In Gloves and Hosiery, and 
articles of Haberdashei-y, tliesc establishments maintain the most complete and ex- 
tensive assortment for Ladies, Gentlemen and Children. 

No other establishment in this city exhibits to its customers so extensive and 
choice a variety of Cloaks and Mantillas as that of J. Beck & Co. They are com- 
posed of all the fabrics suited to their garments, embracing the most approved and 
fashionable patterns. In the article of Lace Dresses their prices range from twelve 
hundred dollars downwards, and Lace Collars from fifty cents to fifty dollars. They 
have Lace Scarfs and Shaicls as high as six hundred dollars ; printed Delaines 
and Cashmeres at one shilling per yard and upwards. Brocade and Flounced Silk 
Dresses are frequently sold at this house for one hundred and fifty dollars each, 
and their Shawls range along the scale of prices from fifteen hundred mills to fif- 
teen hundred dollars. They have Laces less than three inches in width at fifty 
dollars per yard, and from that price down to two cents. Such is an outline of the 
variety of goods in these establishments, adapted to the means and wants of all 
classes of society; the result of indefatigable perseverance and real enterprise. 
What wonder, therefore, that such places of business, situated in the heart of the 
metropolis and conducted on strictly honorable j)rinciplcs, should be daily filled to 
overflowing with the elite and the fashionable of this great city. 

In addition to their retail business at the lower store, Nos. 855 and 357 Broad- 
way, which is conducted on the first and second floors, there are the third and 
fourth floors for their wholesale, where there is always a large assortment of goods, 
which they sell to merchants from every section of the Union. — Publishers. 



THE STATE OF GEOllGIA, 



been established in this region and are now in successful operation ; the vast water-power, the abundance of timber the 
cheapness of living, and the beaut}' of the climate being highly favorable characteristics of the region. 

Georgia embraces every variety of soil, climate, and productions. While southern and middle Georgia are parched 
with heat, the more nortlierly climate among the mountains is moderate and even cold. The sky is of a deep blue nor 
does a more lovely heaven smile upon Italy than that which favors this country. The cordon of islets which border the 
sea-coast has a light, sandy soil, but produces the finest staple, known to the world as sea-island cotton. In the south 
are the tide and swamp lands, producing immense crops of rice. The soil of this region varies as it is situated on 
the sea-shore or upon the large and small rivers. On tlie Savannah these lands are cultivated 20 miles from the 
brackish marsh up the river, and are the finest in the State ; and nixt to these are the lands on the Alataniaha Elver 

which in width are equal to those on the Savannah. They do not extend from the marshes up more than 16 miles 

beyond, the freshets render them valueless, except for timber. Next come the tide lands of the Ogoechee, extending 10 miles 
up from the marshes, which produce rice, but are not well adapted to cotton. The tide lands of the Great SantUla are 
not as broad as the others, but are productive and fertile 20 miles up from the marshes, yielding good crops of rice 
and cotton, and are not so liable to inundation as those of other large streams. The inland swamps produce abundantly. 
Black-seed cotton is produced on the oak lands adjoining the inland swamps, though these lands are said to be of inferior 
quality. About 60 or 70 miles from the coast begin the pine lands, which are valuable chiefly for the immense quantity 
of timber annually yielded. Tar, pilch, and turpentine are also largely manufactured in this section. The mi<ldle 
region of the State contains land of a red, loamy soil, producing tobacco, cotton, and all the grains. It was ojice very 
productive, but owing to the exhausting system of cultivation adopted by the planters, it has become in many parts 
much impoverished, and large gullies and red barren hill sides often meet the eye in places where once abundant crops 
were produced. The i)lantcrs, however, have become awake to the folly of a system so injurious to their best interests, 
and hill-side ditching, manuring, and a judicious rotation of crops, together with occasional rest to the land, is gradually 
restoring the soil. The institution of agricultural societies has also of late years stimulated emulation in this direction, and 
many of the great planters have set a good example to their neighbors by adopting the improvements which science has 
proved necessary to insure success in agricultural operations. The lands in the south-western part of the State, between 
the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, are in general fertile wlien first cleared, but are not very durable. Being of a light, 
sandy soil they produce fine crops of cotton and sometimes sugar cane for a few years, and then become exhausted, 
when resort must be had to fertilizers. These lands, however, are cheaper in proportion to their fertility than any others 
in Georgia. In the north part of the State — that part known as Cherokee Georgia — the valleys are exceedingly rich, 
producing wheat, corn, potatoes, etc., and in some places cotton is extensively raised ; but the crop is not so certain as in 
the lower regions. This, indeed, is peculiarly a grain country, while the mountains yield the more valuable minerals, 
and arc exceedingly attractive as grazing lands. The land here is more costly than in any other part of the State, rang- 
ing from $10 to $30 per acre; while in the south-west lands of equal fertility cost not more than one-third those sums — 
the diflerencc being due to the greater durability of the nortliern soils. But Cherokee Georgia is not the place to raise 
cotton ; it is to be the granary and work-shop of the State, and its fields will produce corn to feed the operatives who 
are to direct its wator-power in manufacturing the cotton which the south produces, and in digging out from the bowels 
of the earth the minerals which are to regulate its inland commerce. 

Upward of fifty streams in the State of Georgia are enumerated as desen'ing and having the designation of rivers. 
A very cursory glance at the map will show that her water resources are immense. The streams of this state alone 
which pour the volume of their waters from the mountain springs into the bosom of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of 
Mexico, would supply sufficient power, in the eligible sites, to manufacture all the cotton grown in tlie world, or to grind 
all the grain grown within the limits of the Union. The navigable rivers are the Savannah, the Alatamaha, the Oconee, 
the Ocraulgec, the St. Mary's, the Ogcechce, the Flint, the Chattahoochee, the Coosa, and various others. These bear 
down to the seaboard the productions of the interior, and are thronged by steamboats, sloops, and flat boats, laden with 
the material of a commerce valued at thirty-five to forty million of dollars a year. If Georgia has not the best of harbors, 
she has a large number, equal to all the requirements of the coasting trade. Savannah, Darien, Brunswick, and St. 
Mary's have harbor accommodations for a large class of shipping, and arc the centres of a considerable foreign trade. 
The great river of the State is the Savannah, which rises by two principal branches in North Carolina, near the sources 
of the Tennessee and Iliwassce on the one side, and the Chattahoochee on the other, and after a course of about 800 
miles, falls over the last chain of rock-hills into the great plain at Augusta, to which place, 250 miles from its mouth, it is 
navigable for steamers of light draft, and for large ships to Savannah, there being IS or 19 feet water on the bar at low 
tide. Its principal tributaries are Brier Creek and Broad Eiver. The Chattahoochee, rising near the southern branch 
of the Savannah, pursues at first a south-westerly course, but afterward turns to the south, and receiving Flint Eiver on 
the Florida line, enters that State under the name of Appalachicola. It is navigable to the falls at Columbus, 300 miles 
from its mouth, for a great part of the year, and its whole length is about 500 miles. Flint Eiver, above named, rises in 
the hilly country south of the Chattahoochee, and has a total length of 300 miles, of which 75 miles to the falls is open 
to navigation. The Oostanaula and Etowah, rising in the mountains of the north, unite their streams at Home, in 
Floyd County, whence they pass directly west into Alabama, under the name of Coosa. The Alatamaha is formed by the 
junction of the Oconee and the Ocmulgee, which rise in the hilly region south of the Chattahoochee, and flow for about 
250 miles nearly parallel to each other, where the latter bends round to the east, and unites its waters with those of the 
former— there are 12 to 13 feet water on the bar of the Alatamaha at ebb-tide, and steamboats ascend the Ocmulgee to 
Macon, and the Oconee to Milledgeville, although there are some obstructions to their navigation. The Ogeechee has a 
course of about 200 miles, of which 40 miles are navigated by small vessels. The Santilla, or St. Ilia, has a winding 
course, chiefly through a low, swamp region, but is partially navigable for river craft. The St. Mary's Eiver rises in a 
low ridge, near Okefinoke Swamp, and reaches the sea in Cumberland Sound ; it has 13 feet of water on the bar at low 
tide, and sometimes as much as 23 feet in times of flood. The AUapaha and Withlacoochee, principal constituents of 
Suwannee Eiver of Florida, and the Ockloekonee Eiver, are considerable streams in the south part of the State, which 
empty into the Gulf of Mexico. 

Mr. Stephens, one of Georgia's representatives in Congress, in a^speech before that body, exhibited the physical, 
industrial, and moral condition of his State in the following glowing terms: "Georgia is the youngest of the old thirteen 
States that formed the Union. At that time she was the weakest of that fraternal band." ***** "Boston, New- 
York, and Eichmond were nearly as old as Georgia now is, when Oglethorpe first landed at Savannah. But notwith- 
standing all this, I will not shrink from the comparison, let it be instituted when or where it may. Georgia has her beds 
F SI 



XHE STATE OF GEORGIA. 



of coal and iron ; her lime, gypsum, and marl ; her quarries of granite and marble. She has inexhaustible trea-sures of 
minerals, incliuling gold, the most precious of metals. She has a soil and climate suitable for the growth and culture of 
every proiluct known to husbandry and iigriculturc. A better country for wheat and corn, and all the cereal plants, to 
say nothing of cotton and tobacco, is not to be found in an equal space on this continent. There, too, grow the orange, 
the olive, the vine, and the fig, with forests of oak and pine sufficient to build and mast the navies of the world. She 
has mountains for grazing, rivers for connnerce, and waterfalls for machinery of all kinds without number. Nor have 
these great natural advantages and resources been neglected. Young as she is, she is now the first cotton-growing State 
in the Union. She has, I believe. Ihirty-six cotton factories in operation, and a great many more hastening to comple- 
tion — one of them h:is, or soon will have, ten thousand spindle-s, with two hundred looms, capable of turning out eight 
thousand yards of cloth per day. Her yarns are already finding their way to the markets of the North and foreign 
countries; and the day is not distant when she will take the lead in the manufacture as well as the production of this 
great staple. She has also her flour nulls and paper mills — her forges, foundries, and furnaces, in full operation. Her 
exports exceed yearly $;3."),OOU,(X)0 — equal to if not greater than those of all New England together. She has six hundred 
anil fifty miles of railroad in operation, at a cost of $l.'i,0OO,0O0, and two hundred miles more in the course of construc- 
tion. I5y her energy and enterprise she has scaled the mountain barriers, and opened the way for the steam-car from 
the southern Atlantic ports to the waters of the great valley of the "West. But this is not all: she has four chartered 
universities — nay, five, for she has one devoted exclusively to the education of her daughters. She was the first State, I 
believe, to establish a female college, which is now in a flourishing c<indition, and one of the brighest ornaments of her 
character. She h.as four hundred young men pursuing a collegiate course — a greater number, I believe, than any State 
in tlie Union, in proportion to her white population. Go, then, and take your statistics if you wish — you will find not 
only all those things to be so; but I tell you also what you will not find, you will not find any body in that State begging 
bread or asking alms — you will find but few paupers — you will not find forty thousand beings, pinched with cold and 
hunger, demanding the right to labor, as I saw it stated to be the case not long since in the City of New York. And 
when you have got all the information you want, come and institute the comparison if you wish, with any State you 
please ; make your own selection ; I shall not shrink from it, nor will the people of that State shrink from it. Other 
gentlemen from the South can speak for their own States — I speak only for mine. And in her name, and in her behalf, 
as one of her respresentatives upon this floor, I accept the gauntlet in advance, and I have no fears of the result of a 
comparison of her statistics, socially, morally, politically, with any other state of equal population in this confederacy." 
4= ii< * * « * » That country has the greatest elements of prosperity where the same amount of human labor or 
exertion will procure the greatest amount of human comforts, and that people are the most prosperous, whether few or 
many, who, possessing tJiose elements, control them by their energy, and industry, and economy for the accumulation 
of wealth. In these particulars the people of Georgia are inferior to none in this or any other country. They have 
abundant reason to be content with their lot." ******" The six hundred and filly miles of railroad now in 
operation, to which I have alluded, were built by Georgia capital. One hundred and thirty-six miles, from Atlanta to 
Chattanooga, on the Tennessee River, which is one of the greatest monuments of the enterprise of the ago, was built by 
the State. But her public debt is only a little over $1,800,000, while that of the State of New York is over $20,000,000, 
besides $14,000,000 owed by the city alone; and the debt of Pennsylvania is .$40,000,000. The bonds of the State of 
Georgia are held mostly by her own people. You do not see them hawked about in Northern or foreign markets at a 
depreciation. But they, as well as the stocks and securities of the private companies, are held mostly by her own citizens, 
and are comman<ling premiums at home." 
Georgia is divided into 94 counties, the general statistics of which, and the capital of each in 1S50, was as follows: 

' Capitals 
. Carnesville 
. EUejay 
. Brunswick 
. Calhoun 
, Greensboro' 
. Lawrenceville 
5 . . Clarkesville 
. Gainesville 
. Sparta 
. Hamilton 
. Franklin 
, M'Donough 
. Perry 
, Irwinville 
. Jefferson 
. Monticello 
. Louisville 
, Clinton 
. Dublin 
, StarkeviUe 
. ninesville 
. Lincolnton 
. Troupville 
. Dahlonega 
, Lanier 
. Danielsville 
, Tazewell 
. Darien 
. Greenville 
, Forsyth 
. . Mount Vernon 



Counties. 


nwelL 


P„p. 


Fiirms 
inrult. 


Manu 
Kstab 


'■ Capitals. 


Counties. 


Dwell. 


Pop. 


Farms 
in .lilt. 


Manu 
KstaL 


Appling.. 


410 . 


2,949 . 


313 . 


. . 


Holmesville 


Franklin . . 


. 1,546 . 


. 11, ,513 . 


. 1,305 . 


. 4. 


Baker .... 


755 . 


8,120 . 


444. 


.12. 


. Newton 


Gilmer ... 


. 1,396 . 


. 8,440 . 


. 577. 


. 5. 


Baldwin . . 


64T. 


8,148 . 


240. 


. 3. 


MlLLEDQEVILLE 


Glinn 


. 145. 


. 4,933. 


. 92. 


. 8. 


Bibb 


1,2.34 . 


12,699 . 


308. 


.82 . 


. Macon 


Gordon . . . 


. 861 . 


. 5,984. 


. 419 . 


. 0. 


Bryan 


. 212 . 


. 3,424. 


. 209 . 


. . 


. Eden 


Greene . . . 


. 854. 


. 18,068 . 


. 512 . 


.47. 


Bullock... 


. 477 . 


4,300 . 


412 . 


. 3. 


. Statesboro' 


Gwinnett . 


. 1,610 . 


. 11,257 . 


1,036 . 


.26. 


Burke 


. 1,017 . 


. 16,100 . 


. 712. 


.41 . 


. WajTiesboro' 


H.abersham 1,338 . 


. 8,895. 


. 732. 


. 5. 


Butts 


. 642 . 


. 6,4^^8 . 


. 891 . 


.14. 


. Jackson 


Hall 


. 1,300 . 


. 8.713 . 


. 697. 


. 0. 


Camden . . 


. 400 . 


. 0,819 . 


. 2-35 . 


. 5 . 


. Jefferson 


Hancock.. 


. 761 . 


. 11,573 . 


. 444. 


. 20. 


Campbell . 


. 920. 


. 7,232 . 


. 694. 


.18. 


. Campbcllton 


Harris 


. 1,175 . 


. 14,721 . 


. 873. 


.78. 


Carroll . . . 


1,879 . 


. 9,.357 . 


. 782. 


.16. 


. Carroll ton 


Heard 


. 724 . 


. 6.923 . 


. 512. 


. 5. 


Cass 


1,712 . 


. 13,300 . 


. 601 . 


. 8. 


. Oassville 


Henry . . . 


. 1,680 . 


. 14,726 . 


. 1,003 . 


. 3. 


Chatham . 


1,915 . 


. 23,901 . 


. 182 . 


.13. 


. Savaimah 


Houston .. 


. 1,138 . 


. 16,450 . 


. 750. 


.23. 


Chattooga. 


. S69 . 


. 6,815 . 


. 419 . 


. 10 . 


. Summcrville 


Irwin 


. 448. 


. 8,834. 


. 414. 


. 0. 


Cherokee . 


. 1,970 . 


. 12,800 . 


. 1,000 . 


. 5. 


. Canton 


Jackson . . 


. 1,200 . 


. 9,768. 


. 547. 


. 6 . 


Clark 


. 1,024 . 


. 11,119 . 


. 400 . 


.55. 


. Athens 


Jasper 


. 812 . 


. 11,486 . 


. 538. 


. 12. 


Cobb 


. 1,919 . 


. 13,843 . 


. 931 . 


.10. 


. Marietta 


Jefferson . . 


. 765. 


. 9,181 . 


. 638. 


.48. 


Columbia . 


. 751 . 


. 11,901 . 


. 489 . 


. 7. 


. Appling 


Jones .... 


. 789. 


. 10,224 . 


. 405. 


.15. 


Coweta . . . 


. 1,382 . 


. 13,0.35 . 


. 911 . 


.52. 


. Newnan 


Laurens .. . 


. 634. 


. 6,442 . 


. 823. 


. 6. 


Crawford . 


. 754. 


. 8,984. 


. 444 . 


. 5. 


. Knoxville 


Lee 


. 550 . 


. 6,659 . 


. 887. 


. 7. 


Dade 


. 421 . 


. 2,630 . 


. 235. 


. 4 . 


. Trenton 


Liberty . . . 


. 860. 


. 7,926. 


. 244. 


. 4. 


Decatur ... 


. 898. 


. 8,262 . 


. 441 . 


. 2. 


. Bainbridgo 


Lincoln ... 


. 378. 


. 5,998 . 


. 273. 


.13. 


De Kalb . . 


. 1,792 . 


. 14,828 . 


. 1,019 . 


.45 . 


. Decatur 


Lowndes . . 


. 932 . 


. 8,351 . 


. 649. 


. 2. 


Dooly 


. 962 . 


. 8,361 . 


. 663 . 


. 8. 


. Drayton 


Lumpkin . 


. 1,881 . 


. 8,954. 


. 598. 


. 0. 


Kariy 


. 656. 


. 7,246 . 


. 867 . 


.11 . 


. Blakely 


Macon 


. 079. 


. 7,052. 


. 419. 


. 0. 


Kffingham 


. 355 . 


. 8,864 . 


. 308. 


. . 


. Springfield 


Madison.. 


. 692 . 


. 5,003. 


. 404. 


. 8. 


Elbert . . . . 


.1,177. 


. 12,959 . 


. 804. 


.20. 


. Elbertoa, 


Marion . . . 


. 1,101 . 


. 10,280 . 


. 563. 


. 4. 


Emanuel . 


. 605 . 


. 4,577 . 


. 511 . 


. . 


. Swainsboro' 


M'Intosh.. 


. 283 . 


. 6,028 . 


. 117. 


.10. 


Fayette . . . 


. 1,196 . 


. 8,709 . 


. 818. 


. 6. 


. Fayettevillo 


Merri wether 1,428 . 


. 16,476 . 


. 824. 


. 0. 


Floyd .... 


. 866 . 


. 8,205 . 


. 897 


.15. 


. Eomo 


Monroe. . . 


. 1,194 . 


. 16,985 . 


. 746. 


. 2. 


Forsyth .. . 
52 


. 1,384 . 


. 6,850 . 


. 765. 


. S. 


. Gumming 


Montgomery 236 . 


. 2,154 . 


. 168. 


. 0. 



1^ 



C. W. & J. T. MOOEE & CO. 

IMPORTERS AND JOBBERS OF 



i fkmi t mhfm 



Nos. 26 & 28 PARK PLACE, and 
21 & 23 BARCLAY STREET, 

i&:[ ^ w A ^ ^0? M:3 o 



CHAUNCEY W. INIOORE, 
WAI. M. ROBBINS. 



LEVERETT C. STOWELL, 



JOHN T. MOORE, 
EMMOR K. HAIGHT. 



(Late TAGGART & GBAY.) 

V Jl-'O DEALER IN 




Nos. 15 PULTON & 202 FRONT STREETS, 
NEW- YOKK. 

"Where he has constantly on hand, and offers for Sale, 

Painted Pails, Brooms, Brushes, Mats, Twines, Cordage, 

CEDAR TUBS, PAILS, PIGGINS, COOLERS, CHURNS, 
WUXOir CRADI.ES, TVAGOXS, CHAIRS & BASKETS. 

McCREadYTmo^^ 

151 JfTJlinEJV Ij^IJVE, 

Corner of Fron^ Street, ^lW«l@El,a 

DISTILLERS OF 

80 & 95 per cent. ALCOHOL & N. E. RUM, 

ALSO MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 
The following articles of the best quality, and offered at the lowest market prices: 

Spirits Turpentine, Tar, Pitch, Sosin, Soft and Hard Turpentine, Bright Varnish, Coal Tar, and 

Naval Stores of every Description. 

IHOMAS"BETTS ■ J»iSTiLLEa. S. JENNY, Jr. 

m 

PATENTED JANUARY 23d, 1855. 

Wo. 211 Broadiray, Corner of Chambers St., IVevr-York. 

T. G. STEARNS, General Agent. 

An incorrodible and durable Ink Reservoir, made of Protean, tinder Goodyear's Patent, filled with 
ease and rapidity, supplying the Pen from three to ten hours with constant writing, and saving about 
one-third the time. Just the thing for Entry Clorks, Merchants, Travelers, Schools, Banks, Canvas- 
sers, Ministers, and a most valuable aid to all writers: Prices $3.00, $4.00, and $5.00. Liberal terms 
to the Trade. To persons wishing a single pen, will send by mail free of postage, with full directions, 
on receipt of money. 

N. B. — A valuable improvement has been made to this well conceived article. 



GRAY, COOK & MERRITT, 

FOR 

WINDSOR AND CLIFTON MILLS PAPEES, 

18 MEEKJff^lJV STREET, 

> NEAR NASSAU, 



TV. C. GRAY, 
B. F. COOK, 
GEO. MERRITT. 



^^vv i;^ ^ 



v^C^^ AND ^^ 

(^ s^ 's;? *^?5? 'j^oa ^5^ ^1-. -.,, ., ^ ..^ 
© & ^^ is^ &1 ^S w ^:^ ^^^ ^i^ 

The subscriber, for eii»hteon years past in business in Wall Street, in selling all descriptions of Fine 
Gold and Silver Watches, Diamonds, Jewelry and Silver Ware, at AVholesale and Retail, at much 
less than usual prices. Goods sent by mail or express to all parts of the United States and Canada 
free of charge. 

Importer of WATCHES & JEWELRY, Wholesale and Retail, 
Wo. 11 TVall Street, second floor, 

(Near Broadway) NEW'YORK. 



STA.TE]Sr ISLA-ISTD 
OFFICE, No. 3 JOHN STREET, 

[2 DOORS FROM BROADWAY] 

The undersigned, proprietors of this Establishment, have for a long time (the senior partner of the firm, 
Nathan Barrett, for 37 years,), been prosecuting their business at Staten Island. They nave spared no effort 
or expense, especially in the last few years, to excel in all the branches of their art, and have been successful 
in attaining a high degree of improvement, as well as in the machinery and apparatus for dressing different 
styles of goods, as in practical artistic skill. In dyeing and finishing Ladies' .Silk, Satin and Merino Dresses, 
great improvements have been made. In a large proportion of cases, these articles are made, in color and fin- 
ish, very nearly equal in appearance to new goods. Crape Shawls, Cloaks, Mantillas, Velvet Garments, &c., 
are also very successfully treated. Faded and stained goods restored or re-dyed. 

Lace and Muslin Curtains, Carpets, Rugs and Table Covers Cleansed and Re-finished, Damask 
and Moreen Curtains beautifully Dyed Also, Ribbons, Hosiery, Gloves, &c. 

Orders Executed with Care and Despatch. 

GOODS RECEIVED AND RETURNED BY EXPRESS. 

This Ticket to be presented ■when the Goods are called for. Goods kept subject to the 
claim of the owner, twelve months. 

BARRETT, NEPHEWS & CO., 

3 John-st., two doors from Broadway, N. Y. 



THE STATE OF GEORGIA. 



Counties. 


Dwell. 


Pop. 


Morgan .. 


. 621 


. 10,744 . 


Murray .. . . 


. 2,047 . 


. 14,433 . 


Muscogee . 


. 1,884 . 


. 18.578 . 


Newton... 


. 1,3T4 . 


. 13,296 . 


Oglethorpe 


. 819. 


. 12,259 . 


Paulding . 


. 1,059 . 


. 7,039 . 


Pike 


1,4T4 . 


. 14,305 . 


Pulaslii... 


701 . 


. 6,627 . 


Putnam . . 


. 609 . 


. 10,794 . 


Eabun 


3S5 . 


. 2,448. 


Randolph. 


1,408 . 


. 12,S68 . 


Richmond. 


.1,556. 


. 16,246 . 


Scriven . . . 


567. 


. 6,847 . 


Stewart. . . 


1,432. 


. 16,027 . 


Sumter . . . 


1,109 . 


. 10,322 . 


Talbot .... 


1,324 . 


. 16,534 . 



Farms 


Mamif. 


in cult. 


Kstab. 


336 


.31 .. 


1,034 


.25.. 


5S1 


.30.. 


812 


. 23 . . 


555 


.13.. 


422 


.10.. 


807 


.21.. 


371 


. 2.. 


Sol 


.82.. 


282 . 


. .. 


9.30 


.38.. 


272 


.56.. 


498. 


. .. 


990. 


.36.. 


768. 


.34.. 


928 


.46.. 



Capitals. 

Madison 

Spring Place 

Columbus 

Covington 

Lexington 

Van Wert 

Zebulon 

Hawkinsville 

Eatonton 

Clayton 

Cuthbert 

Augusta 

Jacksonboro' 

Lumpkin 

Amerieus 

Talbotton 



Counties. Dwell. 

Taliaferro.. 408 
Tatnall .... 4-34 

Telfair 340 

Thomas.... S38 

Troup 1,295 

Twiggs .... 696 

Union 1,141 

Upson 795 

"Walker.... 1,867 
Walton.... 1,191 , 

Ware 561 

Warren .... 1,135 , 
Washington 1,077 
Wayne .... 1S2 
Wilkes.... 709. 
Wilkinson .. 9S3 



Pop. 


in cult. 


Kstab 


Capitals. 


. 5,146 . 


294 . 


. 16 . 


. Crawfordsville 


. 3,227 . 


327 . 


. 10. 


. Iteidsville 


. 3,026. 


2S0. 


. 0. 


. Jacksonville 


. 10,103 . 


5:34. 


. 6. 


. Thomasville 


. 16,879 . 


7S9. 


. 8. 


. Lagrange 


. 8.179 . 


367. 


. 0. 


. Marion 


. 7,2-34. 


911 . 


. 3 . 


. Blairsville 


. 9,424. 


436. 


.19. 


. Thorn aston 


. 13,109 . 


600 . 


. 1 . 


. Lafayette 


. 10,821 . . 


864. 


.56. 


. Monroe 


. 3,8S8 . 


3.39. 


. 0. 


. Waresboro' 


. 12,425 . . 


605 . 


.42. 


. Warren ton 


. 11,766 . 


632. 


. 6. 


. Sandersville 


. 1,499.. 


172. 


. . 


. Wav-nesviUe 


. 12,107 . . 


468 . 


. 9. 


Washington 


. 8,212.. 


645. 


. 5. 


. Irwinton 



The whole number of dwellings in the State, at the above date, was 91.011, of families 91,471, and of inhabitants 
905,999, viz., whites 521,438— males 266,096, and females 255,342 ; free colored 2,880— males 1,368, and females, 1,512 ; and 
slaves 381,681. Of the whole population, there were: deaf and dumb — wh. 211, fr. col. 0, si. 41 ; h/ind—-wh. 224, fr. col. 
5, si. 80 ; insane — wh. 281, fr. col. 2, si. 23; and idiotic — wh. 470, fr. col. 3, si. 9S. The number of free persons born in 
the United States was 517,995 ; the number of foreign birth was 5.907, and of birth unknown, 597 ; the native population 
originated as follows: Maine 178, New Hampshire 122, Vermont ISO, Massachusetts 594, Ehode Island 188, Connecticut 
712, New York 1,20-8, New Jersey 3-31, Pennsylvania 642, Delaware 117, Maryland 703, District of Columbia 72, Virginia 
7,331, North Carolina 37,522, South Carolina 52,154, Georgia 402,552, Florida 1,103, Alabama 31,154, Mississippi 184, Loui- 
siana 42, Texas 28, Arkansas 25, Tennessee 8,211, Kentucky 458, Ohio 46, Michigan 3, Indiana 50, Illinois 41, Missouri 
60, Iowa 1, Wisconsin 2, California 0, and the Territories ; and the foreign population was composed of persons from — 
England 679, Ireland 3,202, Scotland 367, AValcs 13, Germany 947, France 177, Spain 13, Portugal 5, Belgium 41, Holland 
11, Turkey 1, Italy 33, Austria 8, Switzerland 38, Russia 8, Denmark 24, Norway 6, Sweden 11, Prussia 25, Greece 1, A.sia 
2, Africa 18, British America 108, Mexico 8, South America 8, West Indies 95, and other countries 58. 

The following table wUl exhibit the decennial progress of the population since the first census of the State, taken by the 
United States authorities : 

Coloreil Persons. 
Census. White , ' , Total 



Year. Persons. Free. Slave. 

1790 52,886 398 ... . 29,264 . . 

1800 101,678 1,019 .... 59,404 . . 

1810 145,414 1,801 .... 105,218 .. 

1820 189,564 1,767 .... 149,656 . . 

1830 296,806 2,486 .... 217,581 . . 

1840 407,695 2,753 .... 280,944 . . 

1850 521,488 2,880 .... 881,681 . . 



Total. Population, 

29,662 .... 82,548 , 
60.423 .... 162,101 
107,019 .... 252,4.33 
151,423 .... 340,987 
220,017 .... 516,823 
288,697 .... 691,392 
884,561 .... 905,999 



Decennial I 


ncrease. 


Numerical. 


I'er cent. 


79.553 .... 


. 96.4 


90.332 .... 


.. 5.5.7 


88.554 .... 


.. 85.1 


175.8-36 .... 


. . 51.6 


174.569 .... 


. . 33.8 


214.607 .... 


. 31.1 



The statistics of the industry and wealth of Georgia, as furnished by the census of 1850, and other oflScial returns 
referring to that year, are as follows : 

Occupied Land», etc. — Improved lands, 6,378,479 acres, and unimproved lands, 16,442,900 acres — valued in cash at 
$95,753,445. Number of farms under cultivation, 51,759. Value of farming implements and machinery, :f 5,894,150. 

Live-Stack.— lloKes, 151,881; asses and mules, 57,389; milch cows, 384,223; working oxen, 73,286; other cattle, 
690,016; sheep, 560,435; and swine, 2,168,617— valued in the aggregate at .1525,728,416. (In 1840 there were 157,540 
horses, mules, etc. ; 884,414 neat cattle of all kinds ; 267,107 sheep, and 1,457,755 swine.) 

Grain (7/-0/M.— Wheat, 1,088.5-34 bushels : rye, 53,750 bushels ; Indian corn, 30,080,090 bushels ; oats, 3,820,044 bushels ; 
barley, 11.501 bushels; and buckwheat, 250 bushels. (The crops of 1839-40 were— wheat, 1,801,830 bushels; barley, 
12,979 bushels ; oata, 1,610,030 bushels ; rye, 60,693 bushels ; buckwheat, 141 bushels ; and Indian corn, 20,905,122 bushels.) 

Other Cropii.—?ace, 38,950,691 pounds; tobacco, 428.934 pounds ; ginned cotton, 300,901 bales of 400 pounds; peas and 
beans, 1 ,142,011 bushels ; potatoes— Irish, 227,879, and sweet, 6,986,428 bushels ; hay, 23,449 tons ; clover-seed, 1.82, and 
other grass-seed, 428 bushels ; hops, 261 pounds ; hemp— dew-rotted, 0, and water-rotted, tons ; flax, 5,387 pounds ; flax- 
seed, 622 bushels; maple sugar, 50 pounds; cane sugar, 1,644 hogsheads of 1,000 pounds; molasses, 216,150 gallons; 
wine, 796 gallons, etc. The value of orchard products was $92,776, and of market-garden products, $76,500. The 
annexed table compares the crops of the great staples in 1840 and 1850: 



Staples. 1840. ISno. 

Cane Sugar 329,744 pounds 1,644,000 pounds 

Ginned Cotton 163,892,396 " ....120,-360,400 " 

Tobacco 162,894 " .... 423,934 " 

Rice 12,384,732 " .... 38,950,691 " 



Movement. 

incr. 1,314,256 pounds, or 398.57 per cent 
rfecr. 4.3,0-31,996 " or 26.34 « 
, incr. 261,040 " or 160.25 " 
iwcr. 26,565,959 " or 214.51 " 



Products of Anitnals.—Vfool, 990,019 pounds (in 1840, 371,303); butter, 4,640,559 pounds, and cheese, 46,976 pounds ; 
and the value of animals slaughtered in the year had been $6,339,762. Silk cocoons were produced to the amount of 813 
pounds (in 1840, 2,992^) ; and beeswax and honey, to that of 732,514 pounds. 

Home^nade manufactures for the year ending 30th June, 1850, were valued at $1,838,968 (in 1840, $1,467,680). 

Manufactures. — Aggregate capital invested, $8,378,257; value of raw material, fuel, etc., consumed, $5,127,546; ave- 
rage number of hands employed, — males, and females, average monthly cost of labor — male, $ 
and female, $00,000; annual value of products, $6,704,138. The whole number of manufacturing establishments, pro- 
ducing to the value of $500 and upward in 1850, was 1,407, and of these .35 were cotton factories, 8 woolen factories, 140 
tanneries, and 10 iron establishments, of which 4 manufactured c.nsting, 3 pig-iron, and 3 wrought iron. 



THE STATE OF GEORGIA. 



The cotton manufactures employ a capital of $1,736,156 ; the cotton consumed in the year ending 30th June, 1S50, was 
20,230 bales, and the value of all raw material, fuel, etc., was .$900,419 ; average hands employed — males ST3, and females 
1,399 ; monthly cost of labor — male, $12,725, antl female, $10,352 ; value of entire products, $2,135,044, the products of the 
year having been 7,209,292 yards of sheeting, and 4,198,351 pounds of yarn. 

The u-oolen manufactures have a capital invested amounting to $68,000, and consume annually 153,816 pounds 
of wool ; value of all raw material, $30,392 ; hands employed— males 40, and females 3S ; monthly cost of labor— male 
$1,099, and female, $536; cloth manufactured, 340,060 yards; value of the entire products, $88,750. 

The tanneries employ a capital of $262,855, and use annually 81,484 hides, and 21,705 skins, valued at $185,604; hands 
employed, 402 ; monthly wages, or cost of labor, $7,107 ; skins tanned, 21,705, and sides of leather tanned, 162,963— 
valued together at $301,586. 

The various iron manufactures are in accordance with the following statistics : 

Hands. Montlily Wa^es. 

Specified Capital Value of , ■- n / ^ . Tons Entire Value 

Manufactures. InveBteil. Raw IMaterial. Male. Fem. Male. Female. Produced, of Products. 

Pig Iron $26,000 $25,840 135 3 $17.44 $5.00 900 $57,300 

Cast Iron'.!! 35,000 11,950 39 27.43 0.00 415 46,200 

Wrought Iron 9,200 5,986 26 1 11.85 5.00 90 15,384 

The total capital invested in the iron manufacture is thus $70,200: the value of raw material, fuel, etc., consumed, 
$43,776 ; total cost of labor, $44 651 ; and the total value of products, $118,884. 

The branches of industry, others than those above enumerated, and forming the bulk of the manufactures of the State, 
consist chiefly of mills of various descriptions, as saw and flouring mills, paper mills, boot and shoe shops, wheelwright 
shops, agricultural-implement manufactories, etc., etc., which, taken together, and in connection with the national 
manufactures in which this State is engaged, constitute a very respectable manufacturing interest, and place Georgia iu 
a proud position— first among its compeers of the Southern States. 

Foreign Commerce. — Not more than a sixth of the commercial staples of Georgia are exjiorted directly, or in shipping 
belonging to the State. The great bulk of its products are carried coastwise, and chiefly in northern vessels to northern 
ports, and thence trans-shipped to the foreign port ; and even of the one-sixth, constituting the material of its direct 
foreign commerce, more than Ihree-flfths is exported in vessels of foreign nations ; besides, a largi; moiety of the products 
of "Western Georgia is shipped at Appalachieola, in Florida. The exports to foreign countries, in the year ending 30th 
June 1850, were valued at $7,551,943, of wliich $4,929,791 represents the value of merchandise carried in foreign bottoms ; 
and the direct imports were valued at $030,964, of which .$330,081 was the value of goods carried in foreign bottoms. The 
whole of the exports were of domestic origin. The total entries were 118 (57,017 tons), of which 71 (45,134 tons) were 
foreign; and the total clearances were 141 (72,563 tons), of which 83 (51,524 tons) were foreign. The whole of this com- 
merce was done in the district of which Savannah is the port of entry. The amount of shipping owned in the State at 
the above-named period was 21,090 tons, distributed among the several collection districts as follows: 



Enrolled and Licensed. 



Collection , 

Districts. Perm't. 

Savannah 4,159 

Sunbury — 

Brunswick — 

Hardwick — 

St. Mary's — 



6,278 



491 





, 




Total 




Perm't. 


Temp'ry. 


(und« 


r 20 tons.) 


Tonnage. 


hy Steam. 


8,524 . . 


665 . . 




105 


. . . 19,731 . . . . 


.... 6,479 


524 .. 


..'.'.. - . 




10 


... 534 ... . 


.... - 


692 . . 


242 







. . . 1,425 . . . . 






All the registered tonnage is employed in the foreign trade, and all the enrolled and licensed in the coasting trade : the 
vessels navigated by steam are of the latter classes. The number of vessels built in the year was 5 — 2 schooners and 3 

steamers with a total burden of 684 tons. The statistics of the foreign commerce of Georgia for a series of years exhibit 

the following movements : 



ifai 

1792 . . . 


. . 459,106 


1793 . . . 


. . 520,955 


1794... 


. . 263,832 


1795... 


. . 695,9S6 


1796 . . . 


.. 950,158 


1797 . . . 


. . 644,307 


1798 . . . 


.. 961.848 


1799... 


. . 1,396,759 


ISOO... 


.. 2,174,268 


1801 . . . 


.. 1,755,939 


1802 . . . 


. . 1,854,951 


1803 . . . 


.. 2,.370,S75 


1804 . . . 


. . 2,077,592 


1805 . . . 


.. 2,894,846 


1806... 


82,764 


1807... 


.. 3,744,845 


1808 . . . 


24,626 


1809 . . . 


.. 1,082,108 


1810... 


.. 2,238,686 



Years. Exports. Imports. 

1811 $2,668,866 $— 

1812 1,066,703 — 

1813 1,094,595 — 

1814 2,183,121 — 

1815 4,172,319 — 

1816 7,511.929 — 

1817 8,790,662 — 

1818 11,1.32,096 — 

1S19 6,310,434 — 

1820 6,594,623 — 

1821 6,014,310 1,002,684 

1822 5,484,869 989,591 

1823 4,293,666 670,705 

1824 4,623,982 551.888 

1825 4,222,833 343,356 

■1 826 4,368,504 880,993 

1827 4,261,555 312,609 

1828 8,104,425 808,669 

1829 4,981 ,376 880,293 

1830 5,836,626 282,436 



Years. Exports. Imports. 

1S31 $3,959,813 $399,940 

1S.32 5,515,883 253,417 

1833 6,270,040 318,990 

1834 7,567,337 546,802 

1S35 8,89l),674 393.049 

1836 ...... 10,722,200 573,222 

1837 8,935,041 774,349 

1838 8.803,839 776.063 

1839 5,970,441 418,9o7 

1 840 6,862,959 491,423 

1841 8,696 513 449,007 

1842 4,300,257 841.764 

1S43 4,522,401 207,482 

1844 4,2S3,8f i5 305,6.34 

1,815 4,557,435 206.301 

1846 2,708,003 205,495 

1847 5,712,149 207,180 

1848 3,670,415 217,114 

1849 6,857,806 871,024 

1850 7,551,943 636,964 



Interval Comninnication. — ^Tho rivers of Georgia furnish in the aggregate a long line of navigable channels, which 
give the greater part of the interior a ready access by steamboat or battcaux to the Gulf and Atlantic seaboards. The 
names, length, etc., of the principal of these are given elsewhere. Georgia has also furnished itself with extensive and 
84 



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OFPICE iz EXHIBITION E<X)>IS, 
m BEOADWAT. XETV-IORK. 



ITTTiBCT 1 1 l-ri -likagSfeOM 

:o sen 

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R. W. HICH^IRDH, S^trtiary. 

T R TJ S T Z E S . 





. *^>t.*>4 5*; kM 1 
riteSMtei 

1-. i:.,;.-_.. „:.._. .-.„.^.,.- . '-^^:^aB««aaBtkoprtKi^«r*»s&- 

Nrcds. are payable in Londoa. Tk«v" :-£ S& A cnwaMM «f Ike 1^^^ 

ip)xvjite<l to examme tke Stale m«o«ik5 '.bes iM ribe UiaiaHj ahnaM be ar 

to the nedempiian of tke sterin^ lM«ds> 1' ^^^ radenfAiMefi 

it bev-omes dae. "nte <kief twrn e a of ir. - 

at expLiBiiij are Ike ptf of tte tefis 
•Mnlj; ^boai >l5jM<; tte owtort o 
aba«t 9Ci,MNk, and wi^t.tMiBi nil i expeB><^ i 

u« additional to tihesB. Hie assessed Tstiii^ oi ujcaij^ |HVf»cfif ia ia<r Ssuc ia '. " 
Tedfm! Btprmemlmlitm, — Georgia, in aeoirvlaBee wiA Ike pmeeM law rqgcl- 
rQited States House of B^tKseiitttiTes. oecspies «^pU seals ia tkat bodT> 

85 




J 



THE STATE OF GEORGIA. 



Religious Statistics. — The census of 1850 returns the several religious denominations, in reference to the churches, 



church accommodation, and church property of each, as follows : 



No. i.f ClmnU 



tlons. CImrclie, 

Baptist 821 . 

Christian.. . . 5 . 
Congregat'l . 1 . 
Dutch lief... — . 
Episcopal. .. lit . 

Free 5 

Friends 2 , 

German lief — , 



310,063 
1,710 .. 
250 . . 

8,9T5 . . 

. 1,5S0 .. 

500 . . 



$390,Sul 
12,050 
2,T00 

109,910 

2,650 

400 



De 



No 



Clii 



Jewish — , 

Lutheran. ... 8 
Mennonite . . — 
Methodist. ..735 
Moravian. .. 1 , 
rresl)yterian 92 
K. Catholic. . 8 
Swedenbo'n. — , 



2,825 

283,143 

75 

89,996 

4,250 



Property. 
$- 

34,550 

893,743 

25 

218,805 

79,500 



Denomina- No. o 
tiLMis. Cliurcl.i 

Tunker .... — . 

Union 16 . 

Unitarian... — . 
Universalist. 3 
Minor Sects. 7 



7,250 . 

900 
1,375 



Value ol 

Property 



21,100 



1,000 
1,625 



Total.... 1,723 .. 612,892.. $1,269,159 



Georgia is a diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church ; and with all Florida east of Appalachicola Bay, forms the 
Koman Catholic diocese of Savannah. 

JSducation.—The State of Georgia in 1S50 had 23 colleges or universities, 237 academies and high schools, and 822 
common or primary schools. The chief collegiate institutions were, the University at Athens, founded in 1785, and in 
1850 had 8 professors, C46 alumni, of which C5 were in the ministry, and 155 students, and a library of 13,600 volumes; 
Oglethorpe College, founded 1836, and located at Medway, had 6 professors, 83 alumni (13 ministers), 85 students, and a 
library of 4,500 volumes ; Emory College, founded 1837 at Oxford, and belonging to the Methodists, had 5 professors, 138 
alumni (10 ministers), 115 students, and 1,700 volumes; Mercer University, founded 1S3S at Penfield, had 7 professors, 
32 alumni (10 ministers), 71 students, and 3,400 volumes; and Wesleyan Female College at Macon, founded 1839, had 
8 professors, 156 alumni, and 198 students. The academies had 400 teachers and 14,296 students, and the common or 
primary schools 2,008 teachers and 24,000 schools. 

Pauperism and Crime. — The whole number of persons who received support from the public funds within the year 
ending 1st June, 1S50, was 1,030, of whom 978 were native born and 58 foreigners ; and the number of paupers at that 
date was 854— S25 natives and 29 foreigners. Annual cost of support, $27,820. The whole number of persons convicted 
of crime in the year ending as above was 31, of whom 28 were natives and 3 foreign born; and the whole number in 
prison at that date was 92. The State Penitentiary is located at Milledgoville. 

Historical Sketch.— Georgia, was the last settled of the old States ; the Charter under which the colony was founded 
was granted in 1732 by George II. — in honor of whom it received its name — to the Trustees for the Establishing the 
Colony of Georgia. The double purpose of making the settlement was to relieve the distresses of the poor at home, and to 
secure the frontiers of the Carolinas from the Indians and Spaniards. In 1733 General Oglethorpe, one of tlie trustees, con- 
dueied the first colonists to the Savannah, and several bodies of Germans and Highlanders were soon afler brought over. 
The lands were held on a military tenure. The country was repeatedly traversed by the Spaniards from Florida, who 
considered the occupation of the English as an encroachment upon their domain. In 1752 the proprietary government 
was abolished, and Georgia became a royal colony. The original limits of the State included the territory now divided 
iuto the two thriving States of Alabama and Mississippi. I 

At the commencement of the Kevolutionary War, Georgia was only in the infancy of her strength, and had just begun 
to enjoy peace and the advantages of a better system of government. The inhabitants knew the operation of the royal 
government only by its favorable contrast with that of the Trustees. Notwithstanding, the people did not hesitate to take 
part with their northern bretlireu. During the war that ensued, Georgia was overrun by the British troops, and tha 
principal inhabitants were compelled to abandon their possessions and fly into the neighboring States. In proportion to 
their numbers, the exertions and losses of her citizens were as great as in any of the States. ' 

After the war Georgia suffered on her frontiers from the incursions of the Creek Indians, whose hostility had been too 
often provoked by the whites. In 1790 a treaty w.as concluded with this nation, by which the boundaries of Georgia 
were established. In 1802 the Creeks ceded to the United States a large tract of country, which has since been ceded by 
the United States to Georgia, and forms the south-west comer of the State. Georgia possessed — as included within her 
limits— a claim to an immense body of Western land, of which in 1795 the Legislature sold a large portion, said to have 
contained 22,000,000 acres, to a company, by which il was again sold to individuals. In the succeeding year the Legisla- 
ture declared the sale unconstitutional, and on the ground that it was obtained through bribery, they declared it to bo 
void, and ordered all the records to be burned. In 1802 Georgia ceded to the United States all the lands west of tho 
Chattahoochee Kiver, and of a certain line including the contested hands; and in 1814 Congress passed an act by which 
a compromise was made with the purchasers, who received a certain amount of public stock. The history of Georgia 
since this period records no territorial or government changes; but it is full of instruction, recording the gradual progress 
of a people in the arts, agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, from a small beginning to an elevation attained by few 
other members of the Confederation, in tho escutcheon of which this State is one of the brightest stars. 

Succession of Governors. — 1. Undee tue Crown op Geeat Britain : James E. Oglethorpe, 1732 ; William Stephens 
{acting), 1743 ; Henry Parker {acting), 1751 ; John Reynolds, 1754 ; Henry Ellis, 1757 ; James Wright, 1760, and James 
Habersliam {acting), 1771 ; — 2. Duking the Kevoldtion : William Cawin, 1775: Archibald Bullock. 1776, and Button 
Gwinnett, 1777 ; — 3. Under the Constitution : John A. Treuilen, 1777 ; John Houston, 1778 ; John Werriatt {acting), 
1778 ; George Walton, 1779; Richard Howley, 1780; Stephen Heard, 1781 ; Nathan Brownson, 1781 ; John Martin, 1782; 
Lyman Hall, 1783 ; John Houston, 1784 ; Samuel Elbert, 1785 ; Edward Telfair. 1786 ; George Mathews, 17S7 ; George 
Ilandley, 1788 ; George Walton, 1789 ; Edward Telfair, 1790 ; George Mathews, 1793 ; Jared Irwin, 1796 ; James J.ickson, 
1798; David Emanual {acting), 1801 ; Josiah Tatnall, 1801 ; John Milledge, 1802; Jared Irwin, 1806; David B. Mitchell, 
1809; Peter Early, 1S13; David B. Mitchell, 1815; William Kabun, 1817 ; Mathew Talhol {acting), 1S\9 ; John Clarke, 
1819 ; George M. Troup, 1823 ; John Forsyth, 1827 ; George K. Gilmer, 1829 ; Wil-son Lumpkin, 1831 ; WiUiam Schley, 
1S35 ; George R. Gilmer, 1887 ; Charles J. M'Donald, 1839 ; George W. Crawford, 1843 ; George W. Towns, 1847 ; HoweU 
Cobb, 1851. 
Milleogbvillk is the political capital of the State. 
8G 





-Time, 



in?' Payments- i*^" Commencin.' . $50.00 

^Boar.hngaml Lo,\.lug, ^ ^^^ «.">.nO to $6.00 ™ 



The ^S*''^''""""^''^^^^*'' Away. 

hy fort.v nine gentlemen of .'h?:.*''*"^'' '^^^ si^e'I 
'he important fact v"z. ^' "'^- ^^ establishes 

» 'craS^Co'f,-eS:t'n'ci'„;Ttr'^A'h °^ ^-"««'« ^°m- 
sti-uctor of comierc^a mof ' ^"'' "''^^ »" a'^'e in- 
at that time, and thaTheTthT;-"' '""'^ expencnce 
oal Education, as no in,, t.ff'^ °"^'''" "f Commer- 
ever been organized before nT '"" ^'"'^ ^^''^ 
one attempted to do anything of'^n'^T""'^'- =*"'' "» 
years afterward. '*"J"^n'Dg of the kind for eight 

The sutecribers. having atUnlldX"-- ^P"' '2- 18^«. 
Jf . Bartlett in the art of fii^^i '■'"^ instructions of R 
take great pleasure in giving their?.'"^^ '''' '^""^'^ '^'''■•'' 
ficatiuas as a teacher. ^ ^ """"^ testimony to his quali: 

rate^ pnrclic'^rk^nT^LJ,".,'-^,^'"!. "^^ ^-.-^-red aecu- 
q'lalitie^ him for irapardL ;„« "•'■'■ '''^'''^ eminently 

rroved the mode of Ronli- • ", ''"' cnnsideraWv im- 
»«"■"■ invest him ,vith an ?d nHP'"? f">-merly in us* wh"h 
age of the mercant^ile comm , ?tv WeT """V'^'' f'^^'™"- 
he.uat.on m expressing m,r be ief fhlf i^l'- therefore, no 
deportment and .accurate know eLe of ,/ ^'' Sent\emo.n\v 
be able to render Siitisfaction to % "^ ""^ system, he wifl 

J* ft r..,.V-.^.*^'-OR. LlXTOX RoGKRS. 
J- T. MoRGAV 
JOHV LlN-DSAr". 

' • D. Spiles. 

•J M. GORMLT 



COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 



^- C. Rkynolds. 

•lA^IKS .-^LEXAXDKR 

f"^'^- BKRRYnir.1,, ■ 
•'- C. Rkyn-oi.ds, 
■Robert VVhitside 



James Irvix, 
JoHM Little. 

J- P. ESTEP, 
A. CtlLLUH, 
Jos. (JRANT, 
•H. NORLE. 

J. Cbozier. 



"'^^"'^:^i:r(6S^^ ""■ ''■ «--"ett's Com. 
ommend the Ins itut nn , ,1 '^ '""■''' cordially rec- 
to our friends a '"speri:'i?"""='»"" ^^f«"^'-"^ 
»ny similar school in the co" f;"'^;'"I^'''-'°'ent to 
the only Institution of which i •''■,, In fact, this is 
ert?e where a man can nroC.J '''''' '''"^ '^""o>vl. 
e^igeof Commercial Calcuwf ^ complete knowl 
man can be regarded as ^vo'h'v"'"'"'"' "'*"«'' "o 
position as a Bookkeeper and / "' """ ••««Pectable 

Phe Book presented l!^ a. ^'-"ountant. 
to^'.ether with the Knovled.e'h ^^''^''' '° "'« P"P-"'^S 
eation of all kinds of A. """"'^ of its appli- 
Calculations, we "d asTo'n ''*' '''"^' Financial 
ness m,an than the'cost nf fh .V"'"'''' '" ^^n^ '^"^i- 
this Institution. °^ ^^^ thorough course in 

Bookkeeper on\eame^r''B!«to„a. 

Bookkceperat4n|l^;;^^,^'L,. 

Bookkeeper Banki„g'H^.'';y^^;^V,,^^ 

Bookkeeper Midd^^n I -Z-;;^-^^^; 

BookkeeperforS.>l'^iralr»5l-rn'^I„; 
Bookkeeper for Me.ine&J"^„i:^^;^,; 

BookkeeperAaams^-Co..fEr.rSt^e°ind' 
Bookkeeper for Watson & Cla^^k.^to^ui^vi^^e^Ky' 



weeyt? VX ""■ "''"'t of rooi 

ueeks~You can commence any daj;.^ 




-^ 



@M 



(J7r^ 




CQQ) 



^€i 




_^\ 



CQQD 



^ 










170 and 172 MAIN STREET, 



Is the Largest in the West, and they pledge themselves to dupli- 
cate invoices made with First Class Houses in the Atlantic Cities; 
Cost of Transportation only added. 



Visiting ST. LOUIS are invited to examine their 



THE STATE OF ILLIIOIS. 



Illinois lies between latitudes 37° 00' and 42° 80' N., and between longitudes ST° 49' and 91° 2S' "W. from Greenwich, 
or lOO 47' and 14° 26' W. from Washington. It is bounded N. by Wisconsin; N. E. by Lake Michigan; E. by Indiana— 
the Wabasli Eiver forming the boundary in half its length ; S. by the Ohio River, which separates Illinois from Ken- 
tucky, and W. by the Mississippi Eiver, which flows between this State and the states of Wisconsin and Iowa.* The 
extreme length of Illinois, on the meridian of Cairo City, is 37S miles, and its greatest breadth, which occurs on the 
parallel of Danville, is 212 miles ; but the average length and breadth are much less. The periphery of the State mejisures 
1,160 miles, the whole of which, with the exception of 805 miles, is formed by navigable waters ; and its superficial land 
area is estimated at 55,405 square miles. 

As a physical section Illinois occupies the lower part of that inclined plane of which Lake Michigan and both its 
shores are the higher sections, and which is extended into and embraces the much greater part of Indiana. Down this 
plane, in a very nearly south-western direction, flow the Wabash and its confluents, the K;iskaskia, the Illinois and its 
confluents, and the Kock and Wisconsin rivers. The lowest section of the plane is also the extreme southern angle of 
Illinois, at the mouth of the Ohio River, about 340 feet above tide-water in the Gulf of Mexico. Though the State of 
Illinois does contain some low hilly sections, as a whole, it may be regarded as a gently Inclining plane in the direction 
of its rivers, as already indicated. Without including minute parts, the extreme arable elevation may be safely stated at 
800 feet above tide-water, and the mean height at 550 feet. 

In some former period, observes Mr. Schoolcraft, there has been an obstruction in the channel of the Mississippi, at or 
near Grand Tower, producing a stagnation of the current at an elevation of about 130 feet above the present ordiuury 
water-mark. This appears evident from the general elevation and direction of the hills, which for several hundred miles 
above are separated by a valley from 20 to 25 miles wide, that deeply embosoms the current of the Mississippi. 

Wherever these hills exhibit rocky and abrupt fronts, a series of water-lines are distinctly visible, and preserve a re- 
markable parallelism, uniformly presenting their greatest depression toward the sources of the river; and, at Grand 
Tower, these water-lines are elevated about one hundred feet above the summit of the stratum, in which petrifactions of 
the madrepora and various fossil organic remains are deposited. Here the rocks of dark-colored limestone, which per- 
vade the country to a great extent, by their projections toward each other, indicate that they have, at a remote period, 
been disunited, if not by some convulsion of nature, by the incessant action of the water upon a secondary formation, and 
that a passage has been effected through them, giving vent to the stagnant waters on the prairie lands above, and open- 
ing for the Mississippi its present channel. 

Next to Louisiana and Delaware, Dlinois is the most level State in the Union. A small tract in the southern part of the 
State is hilly, and the northern portion is also somewhat broken. There are, likewise, considerable elevations along the 
Illinois Eiver, and the bluffs of The Mississippi in some places might pass almost for mountains. But by far the greater 
portion of the State is either distributed in vast plains, or in barrens, that are gently rolling like the waves of the sea after 
a storm. 

The largest prairie in Illinois is denominated the Grand Prairie. Under this general name is embraced the country 
lying between the waters falling into the Mississippi, and those which enter the Wabash rivers. It does not consist of 
one vast tract, but is made up of continuous tracts with points of timber projecting inward, and long arms of prairie ex- 
tending between. The southern points of the Grand Prairie are formed in Jackson County, and extend in a north-eastern 
course, varying in width from one to twelve miles through Perry, Washington, Jefferson, Marion, Fayette, Effingham, 
Cf)le8, Champaign, and Iroquois counties, where it becomes connected with the prairies that project eastward from the 
Illinois River. A large arm lies in Marion County, between the waters of Crooked Creek and the east fork of the Kas- 
kaskia River, where the Vineennes road passes through. This part alone is frequently called the Grand Prairie. 

Much the largest part of the Grand Prairie is gently undulating, rich, and fertile land ; but of the southern portion, con- 
siderable tracts are flat, and of rather inferior soil. No insurmountable obstacle exists to its future population. No por- 
tion of it is more than six or eight miles distant from timber ; and coal in abundance is found in most parts. Those who 
have witnessed the changes produced upon a prairie surface within twenty or thirty years, consider these extensive 
prairies as offering no serious impediment to the future growth of the State. 

Dr. Beck, in his Gazetteer of Missouri, published in 1823, describes the uplands of St. Louis County as generally prairie ; 
but almost all of that tract of country thus described is now covered with a young growth of fine thrifty timber, and it 
would be difficult to find an acre of prairie in the county. This important change has been produced by keeping the 
flres oat of the prairies. 

The first improvements are usually made on that part of the prairie which adjoins the timber; and thus we may see, at 
the commencement, a range of farms circumscribing the entire prairie. The burning of the prairies is then stopped 
through the whole distance of the circuit in the neighborhood of these farms, to prevent injury to the fences and other 
improvements. This is done by plowing two or three furrows all round the settlement. In a short time the timber 
springs up spontaneously on all the parts not burned, and the groves and forests commence a gradual encroachment 

* The Act of CniiRress admitting this State into the Union prescribes the boiindariea as follows : Beginning at the mouth of the Wabaah River, 
tfaeuce up the middle of the main channel thereof to the point where a line drawn due north of Vincennea last crosses that stream, thence due 
worth to the north-west corner of the State ot Indiana, thence east with the boundary line of the same State to the middle of Lake Michigan, 
thence due north along the middle of said lake to north latitude 40" 30', thence west to the middle of the Mississippi River, thence down the middle 
of the main channel thereof to the mouth of the Ohio River, thence up the latter streaai alon,; its northern or right shore to the place of beginning. 

8T 



THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



on the adjacent prairies; by-and-by you will see another tier of farms springing up on the outside of the first, and 
farther out on the prairie; and thus farm succeeds farm, as the timber grows up, until the entire prairie is occupied. 

Illinois possesses immense advantages for internal navigation. Its north-eastern corner for fitly miles is washed by 
the waters of Lake Michigan, which open a communication with the whole lake-country of the North. The Mississippi 
Kiver forms its western border, and the Ohio and Wabash rivers demark its southern and eastern limits, together forming 
a natural water highway of unexampled extent. The rivers which have their courses within the limits of the State are 
Kock, Illinois, Kaskaskia, and Big Mud<ly, allluents of the Mississippi ; the Kmbarras and Little Wabash, tributaries of 
the Wabash, and the Saline and Cash rivers, which empty into the Ohio. The IllinoU is much the largest of these ; it U 
formed by the union of the Kankakee and Des Plaines, and in its course of 500 miles toward the Mississippi receives Fox 
and Spoon rivers, Crooked Creek, and several other streams from the north, and the Vermillion, Mackinaw, Sangamon, 
and others from the south. The current of the Illinois is in general gentle, with a wide, deep bed — in some places opening 
Into broad and lake-like expanses. Rock River rises in Wisconsin, and has a course of 300 miles ; it is navigable for 
some distance, but in its upper course is impeded by several rapids. The Kankaiskia rises in the eastern part of the 
State and pursues a direction nearly parallel to that of the Illinois and Eock rivers, and after a course of 300 miles 
reaches the Mississij)pi in latitude 3S0 north. The Big Muddy is also a considerable stream. The rivers flowing to the 
Ohio and Wabash are generally of less volume than the smaller class of rivers flowing toward the Mississippi, but several 
are navigable, and all contribute much to the wealth of the country by the abundance of water-power they supply for 
mechanical purposes. 

The northern portion of Illinois is inexhaustibly rich in minerals, while coal, secondary limestone, and sandstone are 
found in almost every part. Iron ore is also widely distributed. The minerals most common to the north-western 
section are lead and copper. The lead diggings extend over a vast tract and into the adjoining States, and are, doubt- 
less, the most productive of any hitherto known. Silver has also been found in this region intermixed with galena. The 
coal of Illinois is bituminous, and is spread over a large extent of country ; it is found in the ravines and blufls of the 
Mississippi, and large veins were struck in excavating the canal below Ottawa. The great coal region, however, extends 
from central Iowa to northern Kentucky, across the State. Building stones of almost every description are quarried. 
Sulphur and chalybeate springs exist in several parts of the State, and there are salt springs in Gallatin, Jackson, Ver- 
million, and other counties. Immense boulders of granite are frequently seen upon the surface. 

The soils of Illinois, though of such various character, are all highly fertile and productive. In the bottoms, or alluvial 
borders of the rivers, the sf)il is chiefly formed from the deposits of the waters during flood. In some cases the mold so 
formed is twenty-flve feet and upward in depth, and of inexhaustible fertility. One-sixth of the alluvial land, however, 
is unfit for present cultivation, although it is productive in timber. A tract called the "American Bottom," extending 
along the Mississippi for 90 miles and about 5 miles in average width, is of this formation. About the French towns it 
has been cultivated, and produced Indian corn every year, without manuring, for a century and a half. The prairie 
lands, although not so productive, are yet not inferior tor many agricultural purposes, and are preferred, where wood is 
to be had, on account of their superior salubrity. The barrens, or oak openings, have frequently a thin soil. In the 
north there are tracts somewhat stony, yet in every other part the plough may pass over millions of acres without meeting 
so much as a pebble to impede; its course. 

The cultivated products of the soil embrace all the grains, roots, and fruits of the temperate zone, and in Illinois these 
attain a fine perfection ; garden vegetables of all kinds succeed well, and as a grain-growing country no portion of the Great 
West is more noted for its admirable adaptation ; root crops are equally successful, and these, with Indian corn, are indis- 
pensable to the farmer and to the live-stock, which in a great measure is the staple of export. Immense quantities of beef 
are sent from Illinois both to the South and East. Of corn the product frequently nets scventy-flve bushels to the acre, and 
in some instances has exceeded one hundred bushels. The sugar-beet, ruta baga, and cabbages are raised with great ease, 
and attain a magnificent development, and in the southern parts of the State sweet potatoes are largely grown. There 
is also considerable tobacco grown in Illinois, for which the climate and soil are eminently auspicious. Hemp and flax 
are staple productions, and with regard to these, though less attention has of late been paid to them than formerly, it may 
be said that they are perhaps as prorttable crops as any that the farmer can cultivate. The castor-oil bean is also exten- 
sively produced, and promises to become a valuable staple. Of domestic fruits, the apple and peach are those chiefly 
cultivated ; pears are plentiful in some settlements, and quinces are everywhere cultivated. Most of these fruits attain 
large dimensions, and are of a fine flavor. In most parts of the State, grape-vines, indigenous to the country, are 
abundant, yielding grapes that might be advantageously made into wine. Foreign vines are also extensively culti- 
vated. The wild vine is found in every variety of soil, intcrwovpn in every thicket in the prairies and barrens, and 
climbing to the tops of the very highest trees of the intervales. The French, in early times, made so much wine as to 
allow of its exportation to France, and but for the protection against the introduction of Illinois wines in 17T4, the vine- 
yards of the mother country would have been seriously aflected in their prosperity by the threatened competition. 

In general Illinois is well supplied with timber, and were it equally distributed through the State, there would be no 
part wanting. The kinds of timber most abumlant are oaks of various species, black and white walnut, ash of several 
kinds, elm, sugar maple, honey locust, hackberry, linden, hickory, cotton wood, pecaun, mulberry, buckeye, sycamore, 
wild cherry, box elder, sassafras, and persimmon. In the southern and eastern parts of the State, yellow poplar and 
beech are the peculiar growths, and near the Ohio are clumps of yellow pine and cedar. The under growths are red- 
bud, pawpaw, sumac, plum, crab-apple, grape-vines, dog-wood, spice-bush, green-brier, hazel, etc. The alluvial soil of 
the rivers produces cotton-wood and sycamore timber of amazing size. Many valuable medicinal plants are found in 
every part of the State. 

The wild animals found in Illinois are similar to those existing in other parts of the Great West, but many species 
have become extinct. Of wolves the species still found are the gray wolf {canis litpnx), the black wolf {canis li/caon), 
and the common prairie wolf {cania Uitntnti). Tlie latter is most common, and is found in considerable numbers. 
Panthers and wild cats are less frequently seen, but occasionally do mischief. The buffalo no longer roams on tho 
prairies, and the deer and bear have retreated from the settlements. Foxes, raccoons, opossums, gophars, and squirrels, 
however, are numerous, as are muskrats, otters, and occasonally beavers about the rivers and lakes; but all these are 
being destroyed rapidly, and in a few years the trapper and hunter will have to move westward for sfiort and prey. 
Ducks, geese, swans, and many other aquatic birds visit the waters in spring time, and the small lakes and sloughs are 
often literally covered with the prairie fowl, and partridges are also abundant. The bee is found in the trees of every 
forest, and few States can boast of such variety and abundance of fish as are here " in the rivers and lakes. 



The Great Medicine for Purifying the Blood! 




MSAFMILM. 



This preparation combines in a highly concentrated state the Iodine (or the Iodide 
of Potassium,) the Fluid Extract of Sarsaparilla, (the Honduras Root,) the Yel- 
low Dock, and Stillingia, together with other valuable extracts, which renders the 
compound the most effectual curatia'e in the world, for all diseases arising from 
an impure state of the Blood, or habit of the system, viz: 

Scrofula, or King^s Evil, Cancers, Tumors, Eruptions of the Shin, Erysipelas, 
C hronic Sore Eyes, Ring Worm on Tetter, Scald Head, Old Sores- and Ul- 
cers, Fever Sores, Enlarged Glands, Leprosy, While Swellings. Scrof- 
ulous or Tuberculous Consumption, Boils, Pimples on the Face, 

And all diseases arising from the use of Mercury or Calomel. 

Dr. Easterly's Iodine and Sarsaparilla searches out the very Roots of the Disease, destroys the germ 
by purifying the Blood, changing morbid secretions, and driving out all the impure and diseased fluids 
of the body, thus removing the cause and rendering the cure certain and permanent. 

Dr. Easterly's Iodine and Sarsaparilla will cure Indigestion or Dyspepsia in its worst form. No 
one has ever used it for such complaints without benefit. 

The Iodine and Sarsaparilla will cure Chronic or Inflammatory Rheumatism, no matter how long 
standing or how bad. It has cured cases of more than thirty years' standing, after every other means 
had failed. All that is asked for it is a fair trial. 

Dr. Easterly's Iodine and Sarsaparilla is the best remedy ever invented for the cure of Syphilitic or 
Venereal Diseases. It has and will cure the worst cases, no matter how long it may have existed, it 
will annihilate and expel the virus and restore the system to a perfect state of health and purity. For 
Ulcers in the Mouth and Throat, Enlargement of the Glands, Goitre or Tumors in the Throat, Nodes, 
Pain in the Bones and Joints, it is the only safe and sure remedy. 

In all diseases of the Kidneys, Bladder or Urinary Organs, for Dropsy, Gravel and Liver Com- 
plaint, Dr. Easterly's Iodine and Sarsaparilla stands pre eminent as the greatest and best remedy ever 
invented. It has cured more cases ol such complaints than any other known remedy. 

The Iodine and Sarsaparilla is the best remedy known for Nervous Diseases, such as Neuralgia, 
Nervous Headache, Loss of Memory, General Prostration, Vertigo, Pain in the Nerves of the Face, and 
the various trains of nervous affection to which Females are liable in alow or debilitated state of he .1th. 

Dr. Easterly's Iodine and Sarsaparilla is a sovereign and speedy cure for Female Complaints, such 
as Incipient Consumption, Barrenness, Leucorrhoea or Whites, Obstructed or Difiicult Menstruation, 
Incontinence of Urine or involuntary discharge thereof, produced either by irregularity or accident. — 
No Female should neglect to take it who is approaching that critical period of life — the Cessation of 
the Menses. In such cases it cannot be too highly recommended. 

Ladies who admire a clear, white skin, and a rosy cheek, should abandon the use of cosmetics, 
paints, washes, and coloring materials of every kind, and use Dr. Easterly's Iodine and Sarsaparilla. 
It is the best cosmetic known. It beautifies the skin by removing every particle of morbid and dis- 
eased matter from the blood, and by changing the secretions of the body, and giving the yellow, dark 
countenance the bloom and freshness of youth. 

No medicine has ever met with so rapid a sale, and given such universal satisfaction to all, as Dr. 
Easterly's Iodine and Sarsaparilla. Physicians both in the city and country, have become satisfied of 
its superior merit, and are recommending it to their patients. Cures have been eff'ected beyond belief, 
and Country Merchants and Druggists who formerly purchased by the dozen now buy by the gross. — 
It is six time stronger, cheaper, and better than any other Sarsaparilla preparation in use. 

Price $1 per bottle, or six bottles for $5. A liberal discount made to dealers who buy to sell again. 
For sale at Dr. Easterly's Family Medicine Store, corner of Third and Chesnut streets, St. Louis. 

Also' for sale by the principal Druggists and Dealers in Medicines throughout the Western and South- 
ern States. 

THE GREAT WESTERN REMEDY FOR AGUE AND FEVER,— Dr. Easterly's Fever and Ague 
Killer, Is a speedy and thorough cure for Ague and Fever, Chills and Fever, Dumb Ague, Intermit- 
tent and Remittent Fevers, and every form of Fever incident to the West. Among all the celebrated 
Remedies for the cure of Ague and Fever first and foremost in rank stands Dr. Easterly's Fever and 
Ac\ie Killer. This popular remedy has now been before the public four years, and during that time 
nearly One Hundred Thousand Bottles have been sold, which has only served to establish its pre-emi- 
nent merit in all parts of the West, as the greatestand best remedy everdi.^covered for this dread disease! 
In no case has it failed to cure in a few hours after taken. No person was known to have the second 
Chill or Fever after using it. This medicine has been thoroughly tested and found an infallible reme- 
dy for Ague and Fever in all its forms. Dr. Easterly's Fever and Ague Killer is a Western Remedy, 
and will cure the worst cases of Ague and Fever, no matter of how long standing or how bad. 

Price $1 per Bottle, or 6 Bottles for $5. A liberal discount made to wholesale dealers. Prepared and sold by 
Dr. Easterlv. corner of Third and Chestnut Streets, St. Louis. Mo. — Sole Proprietor. For sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Medicines generally throughout the Western States. 

No 73 



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GUNS, RIFLES, PISTOLS, &c., &c. 
wVos. 139 ^' 141 Jflain St., cor, \l ashinston ^tvenue, 



FIRST PREMIUM SAFES 

/--V>0 WARRANTED O^nT"^ 
MANUFACTURED BY 

NATHANIEL CONSTABLE, 

JVo. 91 Second Street, between T*ine and JLocust Streets, 



FOR SALE BY 

CHILD, PRATT & 00„ Ag'ts, 



E. G. PRATT, 
No. 61 



O. W. CHILD, E. W. FOX, S. C. MANSUR, St. Louis. 

ALONZO CHILD, New York. 



THE STATE Oh' ILLINOIS. 



Illinois is divided into 99 counties, the general statistics of which and the capitals of each in 1S50 were as follows: 



Counties. DwelL 

Adams 4,459 ., 

Alexander. .. 455 . 

Bond 1,0T6 . . 

Boone 1,352 .. 

Brown 1,353 ., 

Bureau 1,4(54 .. 

Calhoun .... 600 . . 

Carroll 814 . . 

Cass 1,169 .. 

Champaign . 4S0 . . 
Christian . . . 555 . . 

Clarke 1,621 .. 

Clay 715.. 

Clinton 94T .. 

Coles 1,571 .. 

Cook 7,674.. 

Crawford ... 1,192 .. 
Cumberland 634 . . 
DeKalb.... 1,303.. 
DeWitt SSI.. 



Du Page . 


. 1,56S . 


Edgar .... 


. 1,702 . 


Edwards . 


. 695. 


Effingham 


. 712 . 


Fayette .. 


. 1.4:31 . 


Franklin . 


. 971. 


Fulton . . . . 


. 8,811 . 


Gallatin . . 


. 1,000 . 


Greene 


. 2,024 . 


Grundy . . . 


. 54-3. 


Hamilton.. 


. 1,058 . 


Hancock .. 


. 2,5S5 . 


Hardin .... 


. 485. 


Henderson 


. 805. 


Henry 


. 772. 


Iroquois . . . 


. 718. 


Jackson . . . 


. 1,038 . 


Jasper 


. 588.. 


Jefferson . . 


. 1,363 . . 


Jersey 


. 1,222 . . 


Jo Daviess. 


. 3,431 . . 


Johnson. .. 


. 718.. 


Kane 


2,828.. 


Kendall . . . 


. 1,258 . . 


Knox 


.2.193 .. 


Lake 


2,455 . . 


La Salle... 


. 8,074 . . 


Lawrence . 


.1,057.. 


Lee 


. 905.. 


Livingston. 


. 261.. 



Pop. 

26,508 , 
. 2,4S4 , 

6.144. 

7,6'^6 . 
, 7,19S , 

8,841 . 

8.231 . 

4,5S6 . 

7,253 . 

2,649 . 

8,202 . 

9,532 . 

4.289 . 
5,189 . 
9,385 . 

48.385 . 
7,135 . 
3,720 . 
7,540 . 
5,002 . 

9.290 . , 



inrult. 

. 2,294 . 
. 202 . 
. 666. 
. S97 . 
. SIS . 
. 741 . 
, 205 . 
. 482 . 
, 606. 
. 273. 
. 434. 
, 636. 

287. 

62S . 

996., 
1,857 . . 

642 .. 

826 . . 

812 . . 

482.. 

960.. 



10,692 . . 1,175 , 



3,524 , 
3,799 , 

8,075 , 

6,681 . 

22,508 , 

5,448, 



329 . 
391 . 
826. 
677. 
1,942 . 
, 670. 



12,429 . . 1,155 , 



3,023 . 

6,362 . 
, 14,652 . 
, 2,887 . 
. 4,612. 

3,807 . 
, 4,149. 
, 5,862. 

8,220 . 

8,109 . , 

7,354. 
18,604 . , 

4,113 . , 
16,702 . , 

7,730 . 
18,279 . , 
14,226 . . 
17,815., 

6,121 ., 

5,292 . , 

1,552 . . 



. 327 . 

417. 
, 1,167 . 
, 326. 
. 420. 
, 281 . 
, 387. 
, 604. 

283. 

470. 

645. 
1,370 . 

301 . 
1,015 . 

659. 

619. 
1,595 . 
1,336 . 

656. 

478 . 

185. 



E,t;,l.. Capitals. 

. 118 .. Quincy 
. 8 . . Thebes 
. 17 . . Greenville 
. 17 . . Bclvidere 
73 .. M"t Sterling 
20 . . Princeton 
.. Hardin 

Mount Carroll 
. Beardstown 
. Urbana 
. Taylorville 
. Marshall 
. Louisville 
. Carlyle 
. Charleston 
227 . . Chicago 
. . Eobinson 
Greenup 
Sycamore 
Clinton 
Napcrville 
Paris 
Albion 
. . Ewington 
4 . . Vandalia 
Benton 
Lewiston 
Sliawneetown 
CarroUton 
Morris 
M'Leansboro' 

43 . . Carthage 

. . Elizabethtown 
Oquawka 
Cambridge 
Middleport 
Murphrysboro 
Newton 
Mount Vernon 

44 . . JerseyvUIe 
279 . . Galena 

4 . . Vienna 
49 . . Geneva 
. . Oswego 
100 . . Kno,\ville 
48 . . Waukegan 
Ottawa 
Lawrenceville 
Dixon 
Pontiac 



17.. 
26.. 

.. 
12.. 
14.. 

6.. 

8 .. 





0. 

4., 
IS., 
18.. 
38.. 

7.. 



0., 

104.. 

17.. 

27.. 

7., 

0.. 



Counties. Dwell. 

Logan 835 . . 

M-Donough. 1,262 .. 

M-IIenry 2,650 .. 

M'Lcan 1,851 . . 

Macon 693 . . 

Macoupin .. 2,037 .. 
Madison.... 8,490 .. 

Marion 1,1.32 .. 

Marshall.... 910.. 

Massac 704 . . 

Mason 1,041 . . 

Menard l,ti35 . . 

Mercer 892 . . 

Monroe 1.421 .. 

Montgomery 1,U51 . . 6,276 . . 
Morgan .... 2,661 . . 16,064 . . 

Moultrie 554 

Ogle 1,678 

Peoria 3,036 

Perry 967 

Pike 3,152 



Pop. 

5,123 , 

7,616 
14 979 , 
I'M 63 

3,9-:>8 , 
12,355 . 
20,.136 , 

6,720 . . 

5,180 . . 

4,092 . . 

5.921 . . 

6,349 . . 

5,246 . . 

7,679 . . 



in .-iilt 

476. 

843. 

1,950 . 

916. 

487 . 

1,183 . 

1,867 . 

827. 

464. 

885. 

727. 

706 . 

517. 

874. 

811 ., 

. 1,574 . , 

3,234 . . 304 . 

10,020 .. 1,05S ., 

17,547 . . 1,191 . , 



Manuf 



. 14. 

. 19. 

. 17. 

. 3 . 

. 17. 

. 24. 
. 182 . 

. 9. 

. 11 . 

. 11 . 



157.. 
747.. 
418 .. 
636.. 



2,046 . 
, 704, 



46, 

26. 

12. 

0. 



Piatt 

Pope 

Pulaski . . 

Putnam . , 

Randolph, 

Richland , 

Rock Island 1,246 . 

St. Clair.... 8,727 .. 

Saline 961 .. 

Sangamon . 8,173 . . 
Schuyler . . . 1,783 . . 

Scott 1,-300 .. 

Shelby 1,411 .. 

Stark 594 . . 

Stephenson. 1,950 .. 
TazeweU ... 1,991 .. 

Union 1,289 .. 

Vermillion.. 1,9S5 .. 
Wabash .... 808 . . 
Warren .... 1,401 .. 
Washington. 1,288 . . 

Wayne 1,209 . . 

White 1,537.. 

Whitesides.. 923.. 

Will 2,796 .. 

Williamson. 1,195 .. 
Winnebago. 1,979 .. 
Woodford . . 747 . . 



6,278 . , 
18,819 .. 

1,606 . . 

3,975 . . 

2,265 . . 

8,924 . . 
11,079 . . 

4,012 . . 

6,937 . . 
20,181 . . 

5,588 . . 
19,228 . . 
10,573 . . 

7,914.. 

7,807 . . 

3,710.. 



63S .. 
1,882 . . 

163.. 

504.. 

266 .. 

317.. 
1,100 . . 

204.. 

585.. 
1,961 . . 

678.. 
1,578 . . 

624 . . 

712 . . 

884.. 

343 .. 



11,666 . . 1,179 

12,052 . . 1,110 

7,615 . 

11,492 . 



4,690 . 

8,176 . 

6.953 . 

6,825 . 

8,925 . 

6,361 . , 
16,703 .. 

7,216.. 
11,773.. 

4,416.. 



810.. 
1,269 . , 

533.. 

956.. 

829 .. 

492.. 
1,101 .. 

404.. 
1,200 . . 

752 . . 

919.. 

506.. 



Capitals. 

Postville 
Macomb 
Dorr 

Bloomington 
Decatur 
Carlinville 
Edwardsville 
Salem 
Lacon 

Metrop'lis City 
3 . . Bath 

88 . . Petersburgh 
. . Millersburg 

33 . . Harrisonville 
17 . . Hillsboro' 

89 . . Jacksonville 
11 .. Sullivan 

30 . . Oregon City 
134 . . Peoria 

Pinckneyvillo 
. Piltsfield 
. Monticello 
. Goiconda 
. N. Caledonia 
. Hennepin 
. Chester 
3 . Olney 
11 . . Rock Island 
Belleville 
Raleigh 
Springfield 
Rushville 
Winchester 
Shelbyville 
Toulon 

75 . . Freeport 

76 . . Fremont 
21 .. Jonesboro' 
15 .. Danville 

9 . . Mount Carmel 
42 . . Monmouth 
9 . . Nashville 

Fairfield 

Carmi 

Sterling 

Joliet 

Marion 

Rockford 

Metamora 



7.. 
37.. 

2 

12.. 
18, 
26 
86, 



6.. 
22.. 
24.. 
94.. 
10.. 
62.. 
14.. 



The whole number of dwellings in the State was, at the above date, 146,544 ; of families, 149,153 ; and of Inhabitants, 
851,470, viz.: whites, 846,104— males 445,644, and females 400,460; free colored, 5,366— males 2,756, and females 2,610. 
Of the whole population, there were, deaf and dmnb—-wh. 473, fr. col. 2— total 475; blind— y«h. 253, fr. col. 4— total 257; 
i)uane—v/h. 246, fr. col. 8— total 249 ; and idiotic— \\h. 363, fr. col. 3— total 371. The number of free persons born in the 
United States was 736,931; the number of foreign birth, 110,593, and of birth unknown, 3,947; the natim population 
originated as follows: Maine 3.693, N. Hamp. 4,288, Verm. 1,3S1, Mass. 9,2.30, R. 1. 1,051, Conn. 6,899, N. York 67,180, N. 
Jer. 6,848, Penn. 37,979, Del. 1,397. Md. 6,898, Dist. of Col. 226, Virg. 24,697, N. Car. 13,851, S. Car. 4,162, Ga. 1,341, Flor. 
23, Ala. 1,335, Miss. 490, La. 4S0, Tex. 63, Ark. 727, Tenn. 32,303, Ky. 49,608, Ohio 64,219, Mich. 2,158, Ind. 30,953, lUinoia 
843,618, Mo. 7,288, la. 1,511, Wise. 1,095, Calif. 3, Territories 10. And the Joreign population was composed of persons 
from— England 18,628, Ireland 27,736, Scotland 4.661, Wales 572, Germany 38,160, France 3,396, Spain 70, Portugal 42, 
Belgium 33, Holland 220, Italy 4;?, Austria 65, Switzerland 1,635, Russia 27, Denmark 9^3, Norway 2,415, Sweden 1,128, 
Prussia 286, British America 10,699, Mexico 30, West Indies 75, Sandwich Islands 9, and other countries 525. 

The following table will exhibit the decennial progress of the population since the first census of the State taken by the 
United States authorities : 

Colored Persons. 

Census. Wliite , i , Total 

Persons. Free. Slave. Total. Population. 

11,501 613 168 781 . 12,282, 

53,783 506 917 1,423 55,211 



1810 
1820 
1830 
1840 
1850 



155,061 1,637 747 2,384 157,445 . . . 

472,254 8,589 331 3.929 476,183 . . . 

846,104 5,366 — 6,366 851,470 . . . 



Decennial Increase. 


Numerical. 


Per cent 


42,929 .. 


... 849.5 


102,234 .. 


... 135.2 


318,738 . . 


. . . 202.4 


375,237 . . 


... 7a8 



89 



THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



The statistics of the wealth and industry of Illinois, as furnished by the general census of 1S50 and other official returns 
referring to that year, are as folUiws: 

Occupied LiuhIk, et<: — IiiiprDVcil lands, 5,fi:>9,545 acres, and unimproved lands, C,997,SG7 acres — together valued iu 
cash at $90,133,290. Number of farms under cultivation, 76,2uS. Value of farming implements and machinery, 
$6,405,561. 

Live Stock. — Horses, 267,Gf)3; asses and mules, 10,573; milch cows, 294,671; working oxen, 76,156; other cattle, 
541,209 ; sheep, 894,04:3 ; swine, 1,915,910— valued in the aggregate at .$24,209,253. In 1S40 there were in the State 199,235 
horses, mules, etc. ; 626,274 neat cattle; 396,672 sheep, and 1,495,2.'>4 swine. 

Grain, Crop*'.— 'Wheat, 9,414,575 bushels ; rye, 83,364 bushels ; Indian corn, 57,646,9S4 bushels ; oats, 10.087,241 bushels ; 
barley, 110,795 bushels; and bucliwheat, 184,504 bushels. The crops of 1839-40 consisted of— wheat, 3,335,393 bushels; 
barley, 82,251 bushels; oats, 4,98S,00S bushels; rye, 88,197 bushels ; buckwheat, 57,884 bushels ; and Indian corn, 22,634,211 
bushels. 

Ot/icr Cropa. — Rice, pounds ; tobacco, 841,394 pounds ; ginned cotton, 1 bale of 400 pounds ; peas and beans, 82,814 
bushels; potatoes — Irish, 2,514,SG1, and sweet. 157.4;>3busliels; hay, 601,952 tons ; clover-seed, 3,427, and other grass-seeds, 
14,380 bushels; hops, 3,551 jxanids; hemp — dow-rotted, 142, and water-rotted, 141 tons; flax, 160,003 pounds; flax-seed, 
10,785 bushels ; sugar — maple, 24"^,904 pounds, and cane, hogsheads of 1,000 pounds; molasses, 8,354 gallons; wine, 
2,997 gallons, etc. The value of orchard products was $446,089, and of market-garden products, $127,494. The following 
table compares some of the principal staples at the two periods, 1840 and 1850 : 

Staples. lS-10. isan. Movement 

Tobacco 564,326 pounds 841 ,394 pounds incr. 277,063 pounds, or 4909 per cent. 

Hemp 1 ( 283 tons i 

Flax } ^•976i tons ] jgo,063 pounds } '^*«'-- 3.632,817 " or 82-06 « 

Uay 164,933 " 601,952 tons iner. 437,020 tons or264-96 « 

Products of Animals.— 'Wool, 2,150,118 (in 1839^0, 650,007) pounds ; butter, 12,526,543 pounds ; and cheese, 1,278,225 
pounds. Value of animals slaughtered in the year 1849-50, $4,972,286. Silk cocoons were produced to the amount of 
47 (in 1839-40, 1,150) pounds; and beeswax and honey, to that of 869,444 pounds. 

I/or»e-inade Manufacturer for the year ending 80th June, 1S50, were valued at $1,155,902. In 1839-40, the value is set 
down at $993,567. 

Manufactures. — ^Aggregate capital invested, $6,128,282; value of raw materials, fuel, etc., consumed, $8,986,142; 
average number of hands, — males, and females, average monthly cost of labor — male, and 

female, $ annual value of products, $16,671,273. The whole number of m.inufacturing establishments producing 

to the value of $500 and upward in 1850, was 3,099, and of these— were cotton factories, 16 woolen factories, 96 tanneries, 
and 81 iron manufactories, of which 29 made castings, 2 pig iron, and wrought iron. 

The woolen manufactures employ a capital of $154,500 ; and consume annually 396,964 pounds of wool ; value of all 
raw material, fuel, etc., consumed, $115,367 ; hands employed — males 124, and females 54 ; monthly cost of labor — miile, 
$2,728, and female, $076 ; cloth manufactured, 306,995 yards, and yarn, 137,000 poimds ; value of entire products, 
$206,572. 

The t-anneries have a capital of $188,373 ; value of hides and skins used, $129,907 ; male hands employed, 240 ; monthly 
cost of labor, .$5,145 ; sides of leather tanned, 101,650, and of skins, 21,575 ; value of products, $244,028. 

The iron manufactures, under the three separate heads as given in the census, are exhibited as follows — in the manu- 
facture ot pig iron the capital invested amounts to $65,000; ore consumed, 5,500 tons, and coke and charcoal, 170,000 
bushels; value of all raw material. $15,600; hands employed, 150; monthly cost of labor $;3,310; pig iron produced, 2,700 
tons; value of entire products, $70,200 ; — and in the manufacture of cast iron, $260,400 is invested ; material consumed 
— pig iron 4.818 tons, old metal 50 tons, mineral coal 1,412 tons, and coke and charcoal 12,500 bushels— valued in the ag- 
gregate at $172,330 ; hands employed, 332, at average monthly wages $28 50 ; castings made, 4,160 tons ; and other pro- 
ducts to the value of $89,250 ; total value of products, $441,185. According to the census no wrovg/it iron is manufac- 
tured in the State. The total capital invested in the manufacture of iron is thus $325,400 ; the value of raw material, 
fuel, etc., consumed, $187,880 ; the annual cost of labor, $153,264 ; and the value of products, $511,385. 

The manufactures, otherwise than those enumerated, consist chiefly of the various trades and mechanic arts which 
usually exist in agricultural States, as saw, grist, oil, flour, and other mills; wheelwright shops; agricultural implement 
factories, etc., etc., which, taken together and in connection with the staple manufactures above detailed, exhibit a very 
respectable condition of the country in relation to this branch of industry. 

Foreign Commerce. — The direct foreign commerce of Illinois is chiefly with the British provinces. The exports, all of 
domestic origin, for the year ending 30th June, 1850, were valued at $17,669 ; and the imports at $15,705. Of the exports 
only $1,232, and of the imports $7,783, were the values of goo<ls carried in American bottoms. This represents the com- 
merce of the collection district, of which Chicago is the port of entry, the ports on the Mississippi being in the district of 
New Orleans. The total entries were 22 (7,838 tons), of which 4 (648 tons) were foreign ; and the total clearances were 9 
(2,041 tons), of which 5 (998 tons) were foreign. The shipping owned in the district of Chicago on the 80th June, 1830, 
amounted to 21,242 tons, all "permanent register," and engaged in the coasting trade, and of this 649 tons w.as navi- 
gated by steam. The total number of vessels built in the district during the year as above was 13 (1,091 tons), of which 2 
were brigs, 7 schooners, 3 sloops, and 1 steamer. The statistics of the foreign commerce for several years exhibit the fol- 
lowing— «r/;f>rAv in 1847 $52,100, in 1848 $41,835, in 1849 $88,417, and in 1850 $17,669; and imports in 1847 $266, in 1848 
$4,365, in 1849 $9,766, and in 1850 $15,705. 

Internal and Coasting Trade.— The means of internal communication in Illinois, except in one or two favored local- 
ities, are as yet very limited. Some of her interior rivers are navigable, and a cordon of navigable water almost insulates 
the State ; but until access to these be facilitated by railroads, their use to commerce must be comparatively small. Never- 
theless, there are few ports that equal Chicago in its commerce, and Alton on the Mississippi is fast rising into importance, 
nor is Galena to be left unnamed in the list of commercial places. At these ports, as well as those on the Illinois River and 
Canal, a vast amount of business is transacted— that of Chicago with the East, and that of Galena, Alton, etc., chiefly with 
the South. The interests of the two sections are partially blended by the canal which opens the lakes to the South 
and West, and will be completely united, when the vast system of railroads in course of construction is brought into 
action. The length of railroad now in operation within the State is 1287 miles ; the length in progress is 822 miles ; and 
90 




u 



.\M.. 



G. KINGSLAND. 



LE ROY KINGSLAND 



D. K. FURGUSON. 



KINGSLANDS & FURGUSON, 




ST. LOUIS, mOu 



Hlmuiktmrs of |!age's patent ^portable Sab Ulills, 

CHILD'S PATENT DOUBLE SAW MILLS & HORSE POWERS; 
COX & ROBERTS' PATENT THRESHER & CLEANER; 

ENDLESS CHAIN OR RAIL ROAD HORSE POWERS; 

CORN AND COB CRUSHERS; 
Com Shellers, Plows, Bark •JfEills, Jflill •rfSachinery. 

JS^^Castings of every description, made to order at short notice."^^ 



R. C. MG CORD. C. W. MC CORD. N. BECK. 

I^ ^ /iv Ml 11^ f] ii Ml ^ ih 111 PJ] i%\ f^ 



ENGINE AND MACHINE SHOP, 

CORNER OF MYRTLE STREET AND LEVEE, 

Nos. 37 and 38 Levee, No. 2 Myrtle Street, and No. 6 Main Street, 

Manufacturers of Steam Engines, Boilers, Saw and Grist Mill Machinery, Tobacco Screws, Presses, Lard 
Screws and Cylinders, Hydraulic Presses, Brass Castings, Builders' Castings, Blacksmithing, and all kinds of 
Waterwheels made to order. Particular attention paid to repairing all kinds of Itlachinery. 



ST- ILiOTJIS, 3VEISSOXJ3FLI. 



Manufacturers and Venders of all Varieties of 



JOSIAH DEPfT, President. 



JOSEPH H. SHIETS, Secretary. 



THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



the length projected and surveyed about 600 miles. The principal points from and to which the several lines extend 
are — Chicago, where at least eleven lines centre ; Alton, which is the terminus of three liues ; Galena, which is connected 
with Chicago on the east, and Cairo on the south ; Cairo, where the great central railroad connects with the Mobile and 
Ohio railr<)ad ; Eock Island, the west terminus of the Chicago and liock Island Kailroad ; and on the Indiana line, Vin- 
cennes, Terre Haute, etc., from which latter places tlie principal east and west lines pass, uniting the system of Illinois 
with those of Indiana, Ohio, etc. All the lines referred to will be completed within the next three years, and by that time 
Illinois will have fairly entered upon that great commercial destiny that awaits her career. The proportion of completed 
railroads to superficies in this Slate in January, 1854. was as 1 mile of road to every 43 square miles, and to the popula- 
tion as 1 mile of road to every 6fi2 persons. 

Banks, etc. — The condition of the Slate bank of Illinois on the 1st January, 1851, was as follows: assets — debts of all 
kinds due, $706,S90 57 ; real estate at cost, $747,575 05 ; Illinois State bonds, .$17,501 54, and interest, $20,240 48 ; Illinois 
State scrip, $14,555 20, and coupons, $4,750 36 ; sundry stocks, $9,674 99 ; due by other banks and bankers, $18,858 93 ; 
broken bank notes, $12,801; specie, .$36,666 85; total, $1,675,554 94; and liahilities other than to stockholders — bonds 
of the bank outstanding, $184,000; interest on same to date, $49,.560; due to other banks and individuals, $1,652 89; and 
notes and certificates outstanding, $218,978 01; total, $445,190 90. All other banks in operation at the present time, 16 
or 17 in number, are organized under the Free Banking Law of the State, and the notes are considered to be well 
secured, having government bonds and stocks as their basis. 

Go-vernment. — The first constitution of Illinois is dated 26th August, 1818. The constitution on which the government 
is based at the present time was adopted in convention 81st August, 1847, and accepted by the people 7th March, 1848. It 
provides that every white male citizen, 21 years old, resident in the State for one year, may vote for all elective offices. 

The legislature is termed the General Assembly, and consists of a Senate and House of Representatives; the Senate 
composed of 25 members, elected for four ye^rs, one-half every two years ; and the House of Kepresentatives composed 
of 75 members, elected for two years. Menjbers of both houses must be citizens of the United States — senators must be 30 
years old, and have been resident in the State for 5 years ; and representatives must be 25, and have resided in the State 3 
years. These numbers may be increased wlien tlie population amounts to 1,000,000, but the number of representatives 
must never exceed 100. Pay of members $2 a day for 42 days, and $1 a day afterward. In forming senatorial or repre- 
sentative districts, the number of icldte inhabitants is only to be regarded. 

The Governor is elected quadrennially by a plurality of votes. He must be 35 years old, a citizen of the United States 
and a resident of the State for the 10 years next preceding. The Governor must reside at the seat of government, and is 
not eligible for re-election at a consecutive term. A majority of the members elected to both houses may nullify the Gover- 
nor's veto on any act of the legislature. The Lieutenant-Governor is rtxjuired to have the same quaUfications as the 
Governor ; and in case of the death or disability of the chief executive, the Lieutenant-Governor acts in his stead, and he 
is also ex-officio President of the Senate. 

The judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and County Courts. The State is divided into three grand 
judicial divisions, each of which elects a judge for nine years, who must be 85 years of age, a citizen of the United 
States, and resident in the State five years ; and the three judges compose the Supreme Court, the jurisdiction of which is 
original in cases relating to the revenue, cases of mandamus and habeas corpus, and in some impeachments — in all other 
cases appellate. One of the judges is elected every three years. This court holds one session in each division annually ; 
the terms are : 1st division, at Mount Vernon, on the second Monday in November ; 2d division, at Springfield, on the third 
Monday in December, and 3d division, at Ottawa, on the first Monday in February. There are fifteen judicial circuits, each 
of which elects a judge for six years, who must be SO years of age, and otherwise qualified as are judges of the Supreme 
Court. Judges are not eligible to any other office during their term, nor for one year after. Cook County has a District 
Court of Common Pleas. Each county elects a judge for four years, who holds a county court for the transaction of 
county and probate business, with limited civil and criminal jurisdiction. 

Among the provisions of tlie Constitution are the following: no State bank can be created nor revived ; acts creating 
banks must be submitted to the people and receive a majority of votes in their favor to become law; stockholders are 
individually liable to the amount of their shares ; corporations not for banking purposes may be established under 
general laws ; slavery and lotteries are prohibited ; duelling is a disqualification for office ; colored persons, free or slave, 
are not permitted to come into the State. 

To alter the Constitution, the amendments must be passed by a two-thirds vote of the whole number of members 
elected to both houses, published and referred to the next legislature, and if passed again by a majority, then they must 
be submitted to the people, whose approval by a majority vote makes them law. 

The calling of a convention to amend the Constitution, if recommended by a two-thirds vote of the legislature, is 
submitteil to the people, and if a majority of votes are in its favor, the convention shall bo called by the succeeding 
legislature. Amendments can be proposed to but one article of the Constitution at one session. 

The niiUtia of Illinois, according to the Army Kegister for 1851, consists of 170,359 men of all arms, of which 4,618 
are commissioned officers, and 165,741 non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates. Of the commissioned officers 
30 are general officers, 99 general staff officers, 1,297 field officers, and 3,192 company officers. 

The principal State benevolent institution is the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb at Springfield. This institution 
was opened in January, 1846. The number of pupils in January, 1849, was 60, of whom 26 were females; and 10 
were from Missouri and 1 from Iowa — the remainder from Illinois. The annual session commences the first Thursday 
in October. 

Finances, Public Delit, etc. — ^The receipts into the treasury for the two years ending 30th November, 1850, were 
$402,179 27, of which $394,103 53 was derived from taxes, and $8,075 74 from all other sources ; and the expenditures for 
the same period amounted to $326,126 27, of which $137,196 16 was ordinary expenses of the government, $78,436 90 
special appropriations and expenditures, $4,618 98 interest on funds due deaf and dumb asylum, $105,698 OS issued to 
school commissioners, and $176 15 interest paid on old warrants. The receipts for the two years exceeded the disburse- 
ments $76,053. The amount of interest fund tax received for the same period was $296,326 89, and the amount of 
interest paid was $263,034 50. The whole amount of real and personal estate subject to taxation in 1849 was $105,432,752, 
upon which the State tax was $612,428, but which netted only $578,763 31. In 1850 the value of taxable property amount- 
ed to $n4,7S2,(>15 (true or estimated valuation according to the census $156,595,006). The aggregate of the public 
debt on the 1st January, 1851, was $16,627,509 91; of this $8,784,481 48 was state debt proper, and $7,843,023 43 the 
canal debt. These two debts are explained as follows : 

91 



THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



STATE DEBT. 

Principal debt funded under act of 1847 $5,590,565 36 

Interest on same to same date 1,020,278 IS 

Arrears of interest funded 1,945,485 27 

Unfunded internal improvement 

bonds $180,000 00 

Other kinds of indebtedness 144,080 00 

Interest on last two amounts 173,261 40 

Wiggins loan, princ'l and interest 142,000 00 
Liquidation bonds 150,000 00 789,941 40 



$9,340,270 21 
From which deduct interest paid from mill 
and a half tax, bonds surrendered, and sale 
of lands, etc 561,788 73 



$8,784,481 48 



CANAL DEBT. 

Principal debt, exclusive of $1,000,000 loan.. $7,079,117 03 
Balance due on caual loan of $1,000,000 l,u33,U00 00 



$8,112,117 08 
From which deduct : 

Interest paid from mill and a 

half tax $255,818 51 

Bonds and scrip redeemed and 
interest 13,270 14 269,083 65 



Total canal debt $7,843,028 43 

AGGREGATE DEBT. 

State debt proper $8,784,481 43 

Canal debt 7,843,028 4B 



Total debt $10,027,509 91 



Federal Iieprese7itation.—llUno\s, in accordance with the law regulating the distribution of members to the United 
States House of Pepresentatives, occupies tiiiis seats in that body. 

Hducatimi. — Illinois has large funds devoted to school purposes. On the 29th December, 1S50, the permanent funds 
applicable to the support of common schools amounted to $790,120 66 ; and the university fund amounted to $90,889 63, and 
the seminary fund to $58,788 72 — together making a total of $989,798 90. The wliole of this sum has been borrowed by the 
State, which pays six per cent, interest on the amount. The interest on the common school fund is $47,407 23, which is 
divided among the several counties in proportion to the number of white children under 21 years of age. In 06 counties 
that made returns for the year 1S.50, there were 2,041 organized districts and school-houses, of which 1,370 were log- 
houses, 925 frame, 139 brick, and 37 stone, and of the whole number 100 contained more than one room. There were 
school libraries in 108 districts. The total amount of public moneys paid out for teachers' wages during the year was 
$14S,8T1 09; amount, other than public moneys, $81,841 20 — total cost of teaching, exclusive of buildings, repairs, etc., 
$230,712 29. The principal colleges in the State are, Illinois College, at Jacksonville, founded in 1829, and in 1S50 it 
had 7 professors, 93 alumni, 34 students, and a library of 3,000 volumes ; Shurtleff College, at Upper Alton (Baptist), 
founded in 1835, and in 1S50 it had 6 professors, 8 alumni, and 13 students, with a library of 1,600 volumes; M'Kendreo 
College, at Lebanon (Methodist), founded in 1835, and in 1850 it had 4 professors, 33 alumni, 57 students, and a library of 
1,700 volumes ; Knox College, at Galesburg, founded in 1837, and in 1850 it had 5 professors, 10 alumni, 5S students, and 
a library of 3,000 volumes. Shurtleff College has connected with it a theological seminary ; and at Chicago is located the 
Push Medical School, founded 1842, and in 1850 it had 6 professors, 70 students, and 10 graduates. 

Publio Libraries. — One State Library of 4,000 volumes, 2 social libraries of 2,821 volumes, 4 college libraries of 8,120 
volumes, 2 student's libraries of 025 volumes, 2 academic libraries of 2,000 volumes, and 10 public school libraries of 2,350 
volumes — total 27 libraries, and 19,916 volumes. 

Periodical Press, etc. — The whole number of newspapers and Other periodicals published within the State Is 119, of 
which 78 are political, viz. : 39 whig and 36 democratic, and 43 are devoted to literature, science, religion, etc. ; and 10 
are published daily, 4 tri-weekly, 94 weekly, and 11 at other periods. The daily papers have an aggregate average 
circulation of 3,580 copies, the tri-weekly of 1,650 copies, the weekly of 69,472 copies, and those published at other periods 
of 14,625 copies. Of the eleven periodicals published at other periods, as above, 2 are semi-monthlies, 7 monthlies, 1 
quarterly, and one is issued eight times a year. 

Beligioics Denominations. — The statistics of the several religious denominations in 1850 are exhibited in the following 
table : 



Denomina- No. of 
ticna. Clmrclies. 

Baptist 265 .. 



Christian 

Congregat'l. . 
Dutch Pef. . . 
Episcopal . . . 

Free 

Friends 



91,620 , 

80,754 
15,576 , 

875 , 
14,000 

750 , 
1,550 



Value of 
Property. 

$204,095 

42,950 

89,250 

2,700 

78,350 

6,400 

2,340 



Denomina- 
tions. CI 

German Pef, 

Jewish 

Lutheran 

Mcnnonite.. . — 
Methodist . . .889 

Moravian 2 

Presbyterian.198 



Clmrcli 
acconi. 

ISO 



Value of 
Property. 



40 



16,440 . . 40,120 



176,474 
400 . 
81,529 



827,290 

850 

395,130 



Denomina- No. of Clmrcli Value of 

tions. Churches, aicom. Property. 

P. Catholic. . 53 . . 29,000 . . $220,400 

Swedenbor'n. 1 . . 140 . . 800 

Tunker 4.. 1,225.. 2,250 

Union 31.. 8,875.. 82,050 

Unitarian ... 6 . . 1,500 . . 9,000 

Universalist . 4.. 1,300.. 11,500 

Minor Sects.. 17 .. 6,890.. 11,050 
The State con- 



Making a total of 1,167 churches, having accommodation for 636,478 persons, and valued at $1,476,835. 
stitutes the Protestant Episcopal diocese of Illinois and the Poman Catholic diocese of Chicago. 

Pauperism. — The whole number of paupers who received support within the year ending June 1st, 1850, was 797, of 
which number 3S6 were native born and 411 foreign ; and at the date specified the number of paupers on the list was 
434, of which 279 were native and 155 foreign born. The cost of supporting these had been during the year $45,213. 

Historical Sketch. — The name which now pertains exclusively to this State was, during a great part of the last century, 
bestowed upon all that vast country which lies north-west of the Ohio, and was derived from the Piver Illinois, which in 
the indigenous language signifies the River of Men. The first settlements were made by the French, ami were the con- 
sequence of the enterprise of La Salle in search of the Mississippi. This traveler set out from Canada in 1070, and passing 
across the lakes to Michigan, descended the Illinois Piver. After examining the country, with which he was greatly 
pleased, he returned to Canada, leaving Chev. de Tonte in command of a small fort he had built and named Crevccoeur. 
While in Canada he procured a number of volunteers to unite in the scheme of forming a settlement on the Mississippi in 
the Illinois country. They reached their destination in 1673, and founded the villages of Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and several 
others of less note; here La Salle left his colony, while he descended the Mississippi to its mouth. Soon after this settle- 
ment, many enterprising persons explored the country in search of mineral we.ilth, and after the establishment of a colony 
at the mouth of the Mississippi, Iberville, the French governor, in company with others, undertook a similar expedition. 
At the beginning of the eighteenth century the settlements in Illinote are represented to have been in a flourishing 
condition. Kaskaskia had become a considerable town before any great progress had been made in the settlements on 
92 



Cnnnnprrkl Cnllfp, 

8. E. Cor. of Washington Avenue & Third Street, 

Incorporated by the General Assembly, January 24, 1849, 

With full authority "To grant Diplomas, aAvard Degrees, confer 
Honors, and exercise all and singular the privileges common to 
Commercial Colleges authorized bj law, in other States." — [Char- 
ter, Section 2. 



A full course of instruction in this Institution, embraces Double 
Entry, Book-Keeping, Commercial Calculations, Commercial Law, 
and Penmanship. 

Gentlemen can enter for the course separately, and at any time, 
as instruction is imparted individually, and not in classes, and each 
department is independent, and under control of its respective Pro- 
fessor, who alone is responsible for the progress ot his pupils. 

^|^g=^ Young Gentlemen wishing to prepare themselves for bus- 
iness pursuits, are respectfully invited to call during business hours, 
and examine the mode of imparting instruction, the progress of 
the pupils, and the superior facilities extended to those desirous of 
qualifying themselves for the practical duties of the counting-house. 
Personal references given to above two hundred and fifty (250) 
practical accountants, now in charge of books in this city, all of 
whom have completed their business education in this Institu lion. 

N. B. — For circulars, containing information in regard to terms, 
the course of instruction, and all business connected with the above, 
call at the South-East corner of Washington Avenue and Third-st., 
or address, 

JONATHAN JONES, 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 




SHERMANS MANUFACTORY OF 

Trusses and Bandages of Every Description, 

87 Koiiith St.. St. Louis. 

NEW YORK ANU GREAT WESTERN 
TE-A. "W" -A. R E H O TJ S E , 

No. 85 North Fourth St., St. Louis, East Side, be- 
tween Olive and Locust. 

a. K KVISOIV, Proprietor. 



TO"WNSLEY'S HOTEL, 

FourtU Street, between L.aeiist and Olive, 

ST. LO XJ I S. 
CALVIN TOWNSLEY, Proprietor. 
108 



c la: I nsr -A. ii .a. l l , 

GAY & CO. 

Plain and Decorated China, Gla-is and Qiieensw.ire. 
Chandeliers, Lamps, CirajidohSjTahle Cutlery, &c. 

Eemoved to 1C3 N. Fourth St., Lee Buildings, 

ST. LOXJIS. 



BART & HICKCOX, 

Wholesale and Rdail Dealers in 
COODYEAR'S INDIA RUBBER GOODS, 

Ilose, Steam Packinc and Machine Heltinc, at Factory 
Prices. Also, Rich Fancy Goods, Uinlirellas, 
etc., in great variety. Order--- from Deal- 
ers promptly attended to. 
No. 83 Norlli Fourth Str«et, St. Lonig, 
^nd No. 20 East Fourth St., Cincinnati. 



THE STATE OF ILLINOIS, 



the Lower Mississippi; and one who calculated the future by what the present exhibited would have seen little reason to 
foretell tlie rapid growth of Louisiana and the decline of lUimiis, whieli afterward occurred. The descriptions given 
of Ilhnois Ijy French writers were of the most captivating kind — ils beauliful scenery, its fertile prairies, its supix>sed (now 
realized) mineral wealth, were painted in glowing colors, and a new paradise was opened to Frenchmen on the banks 
of the Illinois; and to add to the attractions of the country, a monastery of Jesuits was established at Kaskaskia; the 
settlers, however, soon degenerated, and assimilated by degrees their manners to ihose of the Indians among whom they 
resided. Of these savages, their number and varieties, at the epoch of the first settlements, and soil, are not well ascer- 
taineil. From the beginning to the middle of the ISth century, we hear little of ihe settlers ; as the colonies of France 
and England extended, disputes arose respecting the boundaries, which had never been sufficiently define<l. The French, 
anticipating a struggle for the preservation of their American possessions as early as 1749, strengthened themselves by 
fortifications on the lakes, on the Ohio, the Wabash, and Illinois, and in other parts of the Valley of the Mississippi, to 
which they laid claim. The British, on the other hand, claimed the country on the Ohio and the neighboring streams 
by virtue of the charters they had granted. The Ohio Company, which was formed soon after, produced hostilities 
between the two nations. At the close of the war, which gave to Britain the province of Canada, the whole of the French 
claim to the Illinois country was also ceded to Great Britain. During its continuance as a British dependency, nothing 
of importance seems to have occurred. Few or no additions were made to the settlements at Kaskaskia and the other 
French ports, the inhabitants of which were but little removed in scale of civilization above the Indians. At the peace 
of 17S3, the Illinois country fell to the United States, and the whole territory, north-west of the Ohio Eiver, was claimed 
by Virginia and other States as included in their charters. At the instance of Congress, a lilwral cession of these claims 
was made to the General Government, and by the ordinance of 17S1 a territorial government was established over the 
whole region. Ohio was made a separate territory in 1799, and in 1S02 was admitted into the Union as a State, while the 
remainder of the territory retained its territorial attributes under the name of Indiana. In 1S09 this territory was again 
divided, the eastern portion retaining the name of Indiana, and the western taking that of Illinois. Indiana was admitted 
as a State in 1S16, and Illinois, within its present limits, in ISIS, since which period the progress of the country in popu- 
lation, general industry and wealth, has been still onward, anil at the present day it has grander works of internal 
improvement than many of the States that at the era of the Revolution were flourishing and populous communities. 

Succession c>f Governors. — Territorial: Ninian Edwards, 1809 ; and — Under the Constitution: Shadrach Bond, 
1S18; Edward Coles, 1S22; Ninian Edwards, 1S2G ; John Reynolds, 1830; Joseph Duncan, 1S34; Thomas Carlin, 183S; 
Thomas Ford, 1842; Augustus C. French, 1846; Joel A. Matteson. 

Springfield is the political capital of the State, and has been such since 1840. Kaskaskia and Vandalia were suo- 
ceseively the metropolitan cities. 

93 



THE STATE OF INDIANA. 



Indiana* lies in the form of a parallelogram between Ohio and Illinois, and extends from Michigan, on the north, to 
the Ohio lliver, on tlie south. Geographically, it is situated between the latitudes 37° 51' and 41° 4(3' north, and betweea 
tlu; longitudes S5° 49' 30" and 8S° 2' 30" west from Greenwich, or 8° 47' 30" and 11° 0' 30" from Washington. Its ex- 
treme length from nortli to south is 276 miles, and its greatest widtli 176 miles ; but its average length is only about 
242 miles, and iLs average breadth not more than 153 miles; and within these limits the are^ of its superficies is 33,809 
square miles. 

The o-eneral features of Indiana are those which pertain to all countries where mountain, in the strict sense of t.e 
word, is wanting ; for if we except the river-hills and the accumulations of sand on the southern shore of Lake Miehigap 
no portion of the country has any continuous or definite elevation which even a fiorid imagination could dignify by sufcb 
a term, and all of mountain that really appears is a few isolated " linobs," which serve only to diversify the seene/y 
Nearly two-thirds of the State is level, or at roost, undulating, and a most singular feature of the country is the abaTuco 
of any watershed or dividing ridge, such as almost every geographical region presents, from which the watei's flow i' 
different directions ; still, however, the country has continuous slopes of great extent, and the difference in elevation of the 
highest land and the Oliio Kiver at the Falls is nearly 600 feet, and a considerable difference is observed (about 70 feet) 
between the levels on tlie Ohio, at the Falls, and at the mouth of the Waliash, the latter being the lowest. 

The river-hills, of which previous mention has been made, extend at various distances from, and parallel to, the courses 
of the Ohio and other streams, and inclose what are termed the bottom-lands, which are chiefly covered with a rich 
alluvial soil, and thiclcly set with forests. These hills, along the Ohio Kiver, are generally as high as the highest levels 
of the interior, often of a rugged and broken aspect, and wliere torn through by the tributaries of the Ohio, present much 
imposing scenery. Behind these a table-land spreads out and forms what with propriety may be termed the interior 
of the country ; and now every thing is changed. Instead of tlie bottoms, with tlieir mighty forests, the most various 
landscape appears ; here are extensive groves of oak, ash, and other trees — there vast prairies, sea-like in iheir dimen- 
sions, and with untroubled surlaoe; here the land undulates or rolls, as if formed into billows, by the dalliance of soft 
winds, and occasionally hills, rising from 100 to 300 feet high, remind us of a tempest-tossed sea, when the waves accu- 
mulate in their might. There is such a marked difference between the several parts of the country, however, tliat no 
general description could embrace its topography, and hence it is necessary to detail its principal characteristics and its 
divisions as indicated by nature. 1. The Ohio Valley, including that of tlie White Water, contains some 5,000 square 
miles. This is a limestone region ; it was originally clothed with heavy forests ; and the soil in the bottoms, hill-tops, and 
sides is very rich. The hiUs are abrupt and broken, and the numerous tributaries of the Ohio lliver break through Ihem 
in every direction. Many of these streams in dry weather show only the marks where the torrents have disappeared 
almost as soon as the storms which occasioned them. Of this division of the State, about two-tliirds is good farming 
land, and the residue either too hilly or the soil too poor for profitable culture. The poorest part is in the flats at the 
heads of the streams. 2. The White River Valley extends from the Wabash centrally through the State to the Ohio line, 
and covers about 9,000 square miles of surface. It is almost uniformly level and heavily timbered, except in the western 
parts, where there are some prairies and barrens, and ranges of low rugged hills. The whole valley is destitute of rock, 
and the soils are of the richest kind, with little that is unprofitable. Most of the streams are clear and never-failing, and 
water-power is generally abundant. 3. The Wabash Valley is the largest division, and embraces an area of upward 
of 12,000 square miles. It interlocks with the valley of the White River, and the eastern portion resembles it. It is equally 
fertile, but more broken. The middle part of the valley has abundant water-power, but ifi the upper and lower parts it is 
less plentiful. From the river-hills, on the Ohio, to the Wabash, the surface is an inclined plane, and it is not a little 
curious to find streams, the head waters of which are near the borders of the Ohio Valley, traversing toward the Wabash, a 
river so much fartlier distant from their sources. 4. The north part of the State, watered by the St. .Joseph's and the 
Kankakee, is much similar in its general character to the Wabash country, but is, perhaps, more swampy, and near the 
lake the country has extensive sand-hills, which are covered only with stunted and shriveled pines and burr-oaks. 

Indiana has numerous fine rivers, but for navigable purposes few of them except the Ohio, Wabash, White, etc., are 
at all eligible ; most of them, however, afford valuable water-power. The Ohio, tlie final reservoir of the principal water- 
courses of the State, borders the whole country on the south, from the mouth of the Miami to tliat of the Wabash, a 
distance, by the river's course, of 3S0 miles. Between these two points few streams of any volume empty into it, and none 
cxeeed 30 or 40 yards in width at their mouths. Laughery, Indian Kentucky, Silver, Indian, Blue, Anderson, Big Pigeon, 
Little Pigeon, etc., are the principal. The White Water joins the Miami six miles above its entrance into the Ohio. The 
Wabash, which rises in Ohio, runs first north, then north-west, then west, then south-west, then south, and again south- 
west, making the whole distance to its junction with the Ohio, upward of 600 miles, of which more than one half is 
navigable. Its principal tributaries are : from the south and cast, the Salamonie, Mississinewa, Wild Cat, Sugar or 
Rock, Raccoon, White, and Patoka rivers; and from the west and north. Little Wabash and Embarras rivers in Illinois, 
Vermillion in both States, and in Indiana altogether, Tippecanoe, Eel, and Little rivers. Wliite River, the most importanl 
of these, empties into the Wabash, 100 miles above its mouth ; the West Fork, its longest branch, rises in Randolph 
County, near the Ohio line, and runs in a .south-west direction, receiving in its course Eel River, Fall Creek, etc. ; and the 
East Fork, the principal tributaries of which are Salt Creek, the Muscatatuck, Sand Creek, Clifty, Flat Rock, and 

• Tlie definite bdundariea of the State, according to tlie ordinance of Congress, dated 10th April, 1816, are as follows : " Bounded on the cast by 
the meridian line wliich forms the western boundary of the State of Ohio, being a norlli line from tlie month of the Miami ; on the south by the 
river Oiiio, from the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth of the river Wabash ; on the west by a line drawn along the middle of the Wabash 
from its mouth to a jioiiit where a due north line, drawn Irorn the town of Vinceunes, would last touch the northwestern shore of the said river, 
and from theme by a due north line until the same shall intersect an east and west line drawn through a point ten miles north of the southern 
extreme of Lake Michigan ; on the nurth by the said east and west line," etc., to beginning. 
94 



!:3MV[5JJi^it!i 



JMk 



MILES GREENW^OOD, 

North-East Corner of Canal and Walnut Streets, 

CINCINNATI. 

Manufiicturer of Steam Engines, Iron House Fronts and Gutters, Lard, Potash and Soap, 
Kettles, Mill Irons, Butt^Hinges and Axle Pulley, Iron Bath Tubs and Waters Sinks, Screws 
of all kinds, Hydraulic Presses, Lard and Tobacco do., Dog and Sad Irons. 

J^^ Castings of every description to order. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ste:a.:im: ^ni3 g^s jpii^e. 

Steam Valves, Steam and Gas Cocks, Steam and Gas Fittings, both malleable and brass. IMPROVED 
TUBULAR HKATEKS, for Boiler Feed, Steam and Water Pipes, V\ rniisht and Car^t Iron; Oil I'lips hud. 
Valves, lor Steam Engine C>lin<lHrs. Journals, &l'. Locoiiioiivt Brass Work, olall descriptions. Apparatus lor 
warming Hotels, Factories, Du'ellinus, Pnlilic Bnlldiims, Work Shops, Sdiool Houses, Gr<en Houses, Sac , &c. 



M. GREENWOOD. 



CHAS. R. FOLGER. 



N. GATES. 



M. GREENWOOD & CO. 

iiiiwyiii.,"ilLSmE ijiinj., m 



396 "Walnut Street, Cincinnati. 



-j-j^ 



Kjifj^ 



JAMES APPLEGATE. 



SAMUEL FLICKINGER. 



A. H. POUNSFORD. 



JOHN B. RYAN. 



APPLEGATE & CO 



leti^ife^ii^?, e^mit^t^Bjii^^ ^ti^tceii^^ 

AND 

BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURERS, 

No. 43 Main Street, Cincinnati. 

We have a large and well assorted stock of Books in all departments of Literature, including all new books 
published. Our stock of STATIOiVARY AND SCHOOL BOOKS embraces every variety used in the West. 
Our terms will be found liberal. 




E. J ACO BS & CO. 

MANUFACTURERS OF ALL KINDS OF 



GEO. D. FRY 



Iron Railin?^ and JasI Work, Bank Locks and Vaults, Burglar- Proof Chests, etc. 

NO. 131 WEST COLUMBIA STREET, BET. RACE AND ELM, CINCINNATI, O. I 

JI^" A new atid improved article of Patent Wrought Iron Railing made to order. I 



J2 



D. A. BMDLEY, 

N. W. COR. FOURTH AND MAIN STREETS, 



OI3Xrd3Kr3Nr-A.Tl, 



.V 



-^ 



^ 



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•^ 



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AND IMPOKTER OF FINE 

^^ ¥, 1^, 








XV .A. 



Watch Makers' Tools and Materials. 



Gold and Silver Spectacles, Spectacle Glasses of every description, and all 
goods appertaining to the trade. Watch Movements Cased in all styles. 
Hair and all kinds of fine Jewelry made to order and at short notice. 
^^~- Clocks, "Watches and Jewelry, repaired by experienced workmen, and 



warranted. 



THE STATE OF INDIANA. 



Sugar creeks, rises in Itipley County, an<l nas a western course to its junction with tlie West Forlc — tlie two form- 
ing White liiver proper — about fifty miles from its entrance into tlie Wabash. The St. Joseph's and St. Mary's form 
the Mauraee, which passes to Ohio and Lake Erie. Another St. Joseph's and its tributaries, the Elkhart, etc., pass 
thnnigh the northern tier of counties, and ultimately fall into Lake Michigan. The Kankakee, the principal branch of the 
Illinois Uiver, rises near South Bend, and runs sluggishly through the north-western counties for 100 miles, and in its 
course receives Yellow Kivcr, a str^-am about 50 miles long ; extensive marshes everywhere boimd its course. Deep and 
Calumic rivers lie near and south of Lake Michigan, and in some places are only separated from it by banks of sand. 
The Iroquois or Pickamink rises south of the Kankakee, and runs nearly parallel to it fc^r 50 miles, and joins it in Illinois. 

Besides Lake Michigan, on the northern border, there are numerous other but small lakes in different parts of the 
State, principally to the north of the Wabash River. Several of them have no outlets ; they are generally clear, however, 
and have sandy shores and bottoms. They seldom exceed a few acres In extent, though some at the head of Tippecanoe 
lUver and Turkey Creek, and near La Porte, cover several hundred acres. Mexancukkee Lake, a beautiful sheet of 
water in Marshall County, is three miles long and half as broad; and Beaver Lake, six mUes long and three miles wide, 
covers 10,000 acres. AU these lakes abound in fish, and form In the surrounding scene objects which attract the gaze 
of the traveler. 

The concluding chapter of the Report of D. X>. Owen on the Geology of Indiana, thus sums up the results of his recon- 
noissance on that topic : " Three geological formations exist in Indiana. 1st, a bituminous coal formation, occupying that 
portion of the State west of the second principal meridian ; 2il, a limestone formation (similar to the mountain limestone 
of European geologists), prevailing in the counties east of that meridian ; 3d, a diluvium, consisting of deposits of clay, 
sand, gravel, and boulders, overlj iug, and in many places covering up, the two other formations to a greater or less depth, 
particularly in the northern part of the State. Now, as in this country no perfect seams of bituminous coal are found 
associated with calcareous deposits, similar to those of ^liddle and Eastern Indiana, the geologist can confidently predict 
that it is a waste of time and labor to search fur coal in any part of the State east of this second meridian — for instance, as 
has been done in the neighborhood of the black bituminous aluminous slate, stretching north in a narrow banil, com- 
mencing at New Albany, in Floyd County, and extending through part of Clarke, Scott, Jennings, Bartholomew, 
Decatur, and probably beneath the diluvium in a northerly direction toward Elkhart. If we were to speculate, from 
geological observations, on the future condition of Indiana, we should say that the western counties are destined to 
become one day the chief manufacturing counties; since, with a few exceptions, all large manufacturing towns and 
districts are situated on the coal formation. The freestones of this formation being soft and fissile, owing to the existence 
of mica disseminated in layers through their substance, and to the ferruginous cement which unites their particles, being 
liable to undergo alterations by the action of the atmosphere upon it, a careful selection by the builder is always neces- 
sary. In several places, particularly toward the base of the formation, or near its eastern boundary, as at Attica, Williams- 
port, on Pine Creek, and near the French Lick, with a little care, freestone, white and fine grained, and excellently suited 
for architectural purposes, may be readily obtained. In character and geographical position it resembles the oelebiated 
Scotch freestone, of which the new town of Edinburgh, and a portion of the town of Glasgow are built. At New Harmony 
there is a quarry of freestone, yielding rock that has stood the test of twenty years, yet it is by no means equal to the strata 
above alluded to in our eastern counties. A freestone of a very fine grain and white color is quarried at the French Lick, 
west of Paoli; it is manufactured into whetstones, that answer admu-ably for putting a fine edge on tools, and for polish- 
ing; they are exported to all parts of the United States. Good grindstones arc also manufactured from a similar stratum 
of these freestones, of a coarser grain. The eastern boundary or base of the coal formation is the most likely place to 
afford salt water; for we find the most productive salt wells throughout the Western country occupying in the inferior 
members of the coal formation. Thus, should symptoms of salt water make their appearance in the counties of Perry, 
Spencer, Dubois, Martin, Daviess, Greene, Owen, Clay, Putnam, Montgomery, or Tippecanoe, the encouragement to 
make a search would bo greater than if found elsewhere in the State. Salt, however, is not, strictly speaking, 
constant in its geological position. In Europe it usually occurs in the new red sandstone, a formation higher and of more 
recent origin than the bituminous coal formation ; while on the llolston, a tributary of the Tennessee River, there is a fine 
salt deposit, surrounded by gypsum or plaster of Paris, lying on the grauwacke formation. Two or three salt wells have 
been sunk in the knobs east of Bloomington, through the silicious beds belonging to the sub-carboniferous group. The 
salt is of excellent quality ; but the water has hitherto proved too weak to afford a fair profit. The boring after salt is, in 
truth, at all times attended with considerable uncertainty. Quantities of argillaceous iron ore — from which in Great 
Britain 600,000 tons of iron are annually obtained — occur in some of the clay slates of the bituminous coal formation 
of Indiana. Some of the clay slates answer well for fire-brick ; that now excavated near Troy is to be manufactured into 
fire-brick for sale — an important article of conmierce in a country where steam-engines are so extensively used, and 
in<lispensable where furnace operations are carried on to any extent. Some of our clays in the coal formation answer 
well for the manufacturing of stone-ware and gray pottery-ware : such wares are now manufactured from them at Troy. 
Since I first called the attention of the proprietors to the deposit of the hydrated brown oxide of iron, near the Falls 
of Eel River, examinations have been made by digging in four or five different places ; ore has been struck in all of them ; 
many tons have been thrown up, and the prospects are so encouraging that the proprietors of the Falls are now 
endeavoring to form a company, to erect a furnace, and commence, on an extensive scale, smelting the ore. Sandstone 
being the predominating rock in the coal formation, and the greatest part of the soil of those western counties being 
formed from its disintegration, we find it generally of a sandy character. The dip and position of the various beds 
belonging to coal measures are generally constant, unless where, from the protrusions of basalt or greenstone, those 
volcanic disturbances, called by the miners '/rtwiis,' ' troubles,'' or ' di/kes,' have disturbed the regularity of position. If, 
then, the general dip and order of succession of the strata can be ascertained, and these should appear to be free from 
faults or material undulation, a pretty correct estimate might be formed of the deptli of the various seams of coal and 
other strata in difl'erent parts of the coal-fields of Indiana. Most of the limestones in the oolitic series— that is, those 
oocurring in the counties of Crawford, Orange, Lawrence, Monroe, Owen, and Putnam— make good building materials. 
The encrinital limestones in Harrison, Washington, Jackson, Bartholomew, and Morgan counties, are also very suitable 
for that purpose; but the silicious strata, or sand rocks, in these counties, are generally soft and crumbling, and by no 
means durable. The only use that the black bituminous aluminous slate, occurring in the sub-carboniferous group, can 
be put to, is for the manufacture of alum. The sub-carboniferous group afl"ords a water-lime, which appears to be a 
compound chiefly of limestone and clay, with some bituminous matter. It is associated with the black bituminous 
aluminous slate above mentioned. Some of the limestone in its neighborhood— for instance, those rocks which are 

95 



THE STATE OF INDIANA, 



excavated at tho top of the hill behind Madison — (y>ntain green earlh, and some are impregnated with bitumen and 
sulphuret of iron. In making a siMoction of building materials in such strata, care should be taken not to use any such 
unless their durability has been well tested, for they are generally liable to decay. The fossiliferous limestones of East 
Indiana, namely, those found in Jefferson, Switzerland, Dearborn, liipley, Franklin, Fayette, and Union counties, are 
durable rocks, and some of them make beautiful marbles. The sulj-carbonifcrous formation of Indiana is identical 
with the formation occurring in MidiUc Tennessee, in which the enormous deposits of tlie hydrated brown oxide of iron, 
constituting so much of the mineral wealth of that State, arc found. The deposits of this kind of ore in Indiana, how- 
ever, although found in the same formation, are not associated with exactly the same strata. In Tennessee they are in 
the silicious strata, just above the encrinital limestone: those at present discovereti in Indiana are either resting on the 
oolitic series of limestone, or near the bituminous aluminous slate. The soil in Crawford, Lawrence, Orange, Monroe, 
Owen, and Putnam counties, being formed chiefly from the oolitic limestones, has a calcareous character, and is admira- 
bly adapted for tlie growtli of grasses. Clay will be found to predominate in the soil of the counties of Floyd, Clark, 
Scott, Jennings, and p.irts of Bartholomew, Decatur, Shelby, Johnson, Marion, and Hancock, because the soil of these 
counties is underlayed by clay slates. Ilenee we find the beech-tree, which delights in a clayey soil, there growing 
luxuriantly. The soil of Jefferson, Switzerland, Dearborn, Ilipley, Franklin, Fayette, Union, and parta of Decatur and 
Rush, being formed upon alternating strata of clay and limestone, must partake chiefly of these two earths. This soil is 
also well adapted to tlie growth of grasses. The soil of the north-western counties appears to be a siliceo-calcareous 
sand, resting upon a clay bottom; tliis I conceive to be the reason wliy it is so much more productive than its external 
appearance promises. These i>oints, however, I intend more fully to verify by analysis so soon as I can get samples 
of all the various soils. As yet, my opinion has oeen formed chiefly from ocular observation, and reasoning from gen- 
eral principles. The water in the north-western counties is strongly impregnated with carbonic acid ; this, acting as a 
solvent upon limestone and the protoxide of iron, dissolves them whenever it meets them in its passage to the surface. 
And thus we find these waters, often highly charged with these two ingredienti, forming calcareous and chalybeate 
springs. As they lose very soon, by exposure to the air, the excess of carbonic acid, which acts as a solvent of these 
ingre<lients — and as iron is brought also by the same exposure to air to a higher degree of oxidation, and therefore to a 
more insoluble form— these two causes acting together, soon produce deposits of calcareous tufas and bog-iron ore, so 
frequently found in that country. The quantity of bog-iron ore is therefore continually on tho increase. The greater part 
of Indiana must have been, at some period of the earth's history, covered by an ocean, for most of the fossils in the 
limestones are of a marine origin. None of the 7)rccious metals will ever be found in Indiana, unless in minute portions 
in boulders, or in small quantities in combination with other metals, because the primitive and grauwacke formations, in 
which alone productive mines of gold :^nd silver ore occur, do not exist in Indiana. It is true that, in some rare insUmces, 
silver is found as a sulphuret and as red silver ore in such formations as exist in the Western country; but I have seen 
no symptoms of any such in our State. The same may be said of bismuth, tin ore, and native arsenic. The only metals 
which we need look for are iron, lead, antimony, manganese, zinc^, cobalt, and possibly some varieties of copper and 
arsenic ores. It is not likely that anthracite coal will ever be found in Indiana, because that mineral is usually found 
in the primitive and grauwacke formations. Several detached pieces of native copper have been found in the State, one 
weighing five pounds ; but, from the nature of the ore, its occurring in washed gravels, and only in isolated pieces, I liave 
reason to believe that they do not originate in the State. I may add, that the Kupferschiefer of the German miners 
yields, at the mines of Mansfield, in Thuringia, an abundant supply of ofipper ore. This copper slate, as found at the 
bottom of the new red sandstone formation, which overlies the bituminous coal formation, and copper ores, have been 
found in the carboniferous and mountain limestone ; there is, therefore, a possibility of discovering workable copper ore 
ill the formations of Indiana. The fertility of the soil of Indi.ana is universally admitted, yet few are aware that it arises 
mainly from its geological position. It is well known to geologists that th.at soil is the most productive which has been 
derived from the destruction of the greatest variety of diffen^nt rocks ; for thus only is produced the due mixture of gravel, 
sand, clay, and limestone, necessary to form a good medium for the retention and transmission of nutritive fluids, be they 
liquid or aeriform, to the roots of plants. Now, Indiana is situated near the middle of the Great Valley of north-western 
America, and far distant from the primitive range of mountains; and her soil is accordingly formcvl from the destruction 
of a vast variety of rocks, both crystalline and sedimentary, which have been minutely divided and intimately blended 
together by th(! action of air and water. It has all the elements, therefore, of extraoriliiiary fertility." 

The forests of Indiana contain all the trees natur.al to the soil and climate of the whole central region of the United 
States; oaks and beech-trees, however, preponderate; they are found in almost every portion of the State, and probably 
count two-thirds of the whole number of its fiSrest trees. Next in order are the sugar-tree, hickory, ash, walnut, poplar, 
elm, sycamore, cherry, hackbcrry, linden, coffee-tree, honey locust, and white maple, which are as widely diffused as the 
oak .and beech. The black locust is abundant near the Ohio River, but is not fc)und in the interior; the chestnut is 
only found in the neighborhood of the upper course of the east fork of White lliver; the pine is only found on the 
"knobs" near the Ohio, .and on the sand-hills ne.ar Lake Michigan, while the tamarack is found only in the swamps 
of the Kankakee. The cypress, catalpa, and pecan, arc chiefly found in the counties on both sid^^8 of the White Hiver, 
below the junction of the forks ; and CMDtton-wood is rare, except on the bottoms of the southern streams. Of the smaller 
trees and undergrowtlis, the principal are the dogwood, pawpaw, spear, plum, and thorn, and (he persimmon and crab- 
apple. Many of the forest trees attain magnificent dimensions, .ami in numerous instances Ihe oak, sycamore, walnut, and 
poplar have been found, measuring from five to seven feet in diamet.r, and more than 120 and 13'i feet in height. The 
indigenous fruit trees found in Indiana comi)rise the wild plum, hawthorn, i)ersimmon. pawpaw, wild cherry, mulberry, 
crab-apple, etc. These are found intermingling with forest trees, or bordering the prairies and barrens. Cranberries arc 
abundant in the north, and wild grapes of excellent flavor grow spontjmefuisly, giving assurance that the corresponding 
domestic fruits can be cultivated with success. Walnuts, hickory nuts, an<l hazel nuts, are abundant, and generally oak 
and l>eeeh mast is found in such quantities as to ccmtribute 1 irgely both to feeding and fattening Jiogs. 

The native zoological distinctions of Indiana have, in a great measure, been effact<l by the jjrogress of settlement. 
The buffalo and elk, once the monarchs of the plains, have entirely <Iisappearcd from the scene; and the bear, wild cat, 
panther, etc., are now selflom encountered. Wolves, however, are still numerous; and still more numerous the deer, 
oppossum, raccoon, and squirrel. Besides these, the fox, porcupine, pole-cat, ground-hog, rabbit, mink, musk-rat. wea- 
sel, gopher, etc., are found in particular localities. But the wild animals of the forest and prairie are f;ist ilisappearing. 
and in the older settlements theih former haunts are usurp™! by the more useful of their kind — the ox, the horse, the 
sheep, and the hog, animals constituting the basis of the wealth of the inhabitants. 
06 



J. EEYNOLDS. 



THOS. KITE. 



SAII. C. TATUM. 




llillllllilll[llllll||lllll|II|l'i|IJI|lll|lll|lllltlllllll|l|imUI!lllllllllIi||li|IIM^^ 

REYNOLDS, KITE & TATUM, 

Corner of John and Water Streets, 

CINCINNATI. 

We are prepared to furnish Iron and Brass Castings, Flour and Saw Mills, Blast Furnaces 
and Hot Blasts. WILSON'S PATENT STEAM TANK, for rending tallow, lard or greases 
VON KAUM'S PERCUSSION AND REACTION WATER WHEEL, particularly adapted to 
Western waters. 

MANUFACTURERS OF ALL THE .MATERIALS FOR 

GOLD'S PITEST AUTOMiTIC STEIM IPPIRITUS 

FOR WARMING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND PRIVATE HOUSES. 

FACTORIES HEATED WITH THEIR ESCAPE STEAM. 

THOS. B. WING & CO. 

GENERAL AGENTS AND LESSEES OF 

GOLD'S PATENT AUTOMATIC 

FOR HEATING DWELLINGS, CHURCHES, STORES, &c. 

Thos. B. Wing is the Proprietor of Carpenter's celebrated plan of 
setting steam boilers for the Western and Southern States. 
Office No. 101 Walnut Street, or care of 

REYNOLDS, KITE & TATUM, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

103 



BIRD & BURROWS, 

No. 20 East 3d Street, Cincinnati, Ohio, 

SOLICIT ORDERS FOR 

While we are prepared to sell at the lowest rates, we can refer to the principal dealers 
• in the South and West, as to the quality and style of our work. 



^MM P10SS3 im EEIPPS3 ¥1: HOtJf EHM SHi^Sl, 



No. 7 College Building, WALNUT STREET, 

PROPRIETORS OF 

Perry Davis' Vegetable Pain Killer, 

FOR ALL THE WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES. ALSO AGENTS FOR 

Dr. S. A. WEAVER'S Cdebrated Canker and Salt Rheum Syrup, Cerate, and Canker Cure, 

Never failing remedies for Humors and all diseases arising from impure blood. 
ALSO, AGENTS FOR 

All Orders from the Trade, filled with Dispatch, at Proprietor's Prices. 



EXECUTED IN AN ARTISTIC AND SUPERIOR STYLE, BY 

WILLIAM W. WAGGONER, 

No. 120 Main Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



-FOR- 



'9 



B©©ks, 



ly (Sards ©f Basladss, Proframmes, <^o. 

BEAUTIFTLLT DESIGNED AND SmOOTIILY ENGRATED. 



SCEISTES _^ISrD FiaXJUES 



From a one-sheet to a mammoth size, with coler blocks ,for Minstrels, Circuses, 
Menageries, &c., &c., freely drawn and effectively engraved, either on 
Pine or Mahogany Wood, and upon short notice. 

©rbcrs from akonb SoliritA m\)i llromptln |pisptt^tir. 

ADDRESS AS ABOVE. 



THE STATE OF INDIANA. 



Indiana is divided into 91 counties, the general statistics of whicU and the capitals of each in 1S50 were as follows : 



Counties. Dwell. 

Adams 1,002. 

Allen 3,C'J7. 

Bartholomew .2,149. 

Benton 180. 

Blacldord 514. 

Boone 1,914. 

Brown 790. 

Carroll 1,909. 

Cass 1,863. 

Clark 2,757. 

Clay 1.326. 

Clinton 2,001. 

Crawford 1,027. 

Daviess 1,803. 

Dearborn 3,549. 

Decatur 2,662. 

DeKalb 1,421. 

Delaware 1,874. 

Dubois 1,146. 

Elkhart 2,254. 

Fayette 1,818. 

Floyd 2,448. 

Fountain 2,251. 

Franklin 3,286. 

Fulton 1,085. 

Gibson 1,833. 

Grant 1,884. 

Greene 2,089. 

Hamilton 2,159. 

Hancock 1,685. 

Harrison 2,645. 

Hendricks 2,390. 

Henry 3,064. 

Howard 1,190. 

Huntington . . .1,356. 

Jackson 1,956. 

Jasper .592. 

Jay 1,179. 

Jetl'erson 4,092. 

Jennings 2,064. 

Johnson 2,067. 

Knox 1,969. 

Kosciusko . . . .1,783. 
La Grange.... 1,479. 

Lake 715. 

La Porte 2,124, 



Pop. 

. 5,797. 
,16.919. 
.12,428. 

1,144. 

2 860. 
.11,631. 
. 4,846. 
.11,015. 
.11,021. 
.15 828. 
. 7,944. 
.11,869. 
. 6,524. 
.10,352. 
.20,166. 
.15107. 
. 8,2.51. 
.10,843. 
, 6,321. 
.12,690. 
.10,217. 
.14,875. 
.13,253. 
.17,968. 
. 5,982. 
.10,771. 
.11,092. 
.12,313. 
.12,684. 
. 9,698. 
.15,286. 
.14,083. 
.17,605. 
. 6,657. 
. 7,850. 
.11,047. 
. 3,.540. 
. 7,047. 
.23,916. 
.12,096. 
.12,101. 
.11,084. 
.10,243. 
. 8,387. 
. 3,991. 
.12,145. 



. 574. 
.1,300. 
.1,249. 
. 149. 
. 30G. 
.1.393. 
. 5.35. 
.1,129. 
.1,134. 
.1,048. 
. 829. 
.1,411. 
. 540. 
.1221. 
.1,520. 
.1,377. 
. 831. 
.1,084. 
. 794. 
.1.226. 
. 956. 
. 428. 
.1,357. 
.1,739. 
. 777. 
.1,220. 
. 900. 
.1 227. 
.1.261. 
.1,176. 
.1,650. 
.1,444. 
.1,666. 
. 746. 
. 782. 
.1,173. 
. 343. 
. 876. 
.1,396. 
.1,208. 
.1,153. 
. 961. 
.1,127. 
.1.062. 
. 423. 
.1,116. 



. 11.. Decatur 
.127.. Fort Way no 
. 49. .Columbus 
. 0.. Oxford . 
6.. Hartford 
. 28.. Lebanon 
. 5.. Nashville 
, 79.. Delphi 
.108. .Logansport 
. 88..Charlestown 
. 10.. Bowling Green 
. 21.. Frankfort 
. 33. .Leven worth 
. 11.. Washington 
. 72..Lavvrenccburg 
. 39..Groonsbui'g 
. 16.. Auburn 
. 34. .Muncietown 
. 9.. Jasper 
. 70.. Goshen 
.116..Connersvine 
.106.. Now Albany 
.103.. Covington 
.121..Brookville 
. 13..Uochester 
. 23.. Princeton 
. 52.. Marion 
. 39..BloomHeld 
. 16. .Noblesville 
. 36.. Greenfield 
. 19..Corydon 
.110.. Danville 

124.. Newcastle 
. 26..Kokomo 
. 32.. Huntington 
. 18. .Brownstown 
. 4. .Rensselaer 
. 9.. Portland 
.138.. Madison 
. 78.. Vernon 
. 25.. Franklin 
. 37..Vincenne9 
. 21.. Warsaw 
. 64. .La Grange 
. 5.. Crown Point 

.122.. La Porte 



Lawrence 
Madison . 
Marion . . 



Dwell. Pop. 

.2.012. .12,097. .1,031. . 19. .Bedford 



. .2,159. .12,375. .1,494. . 67. .Anderson 
..3,984.. 24,013.. 1,581.. 179.. LndianapoliS 

Marshall 928.. 5,348.. 570.. 10. .Plymouth 

Martin 1,025.. .").941.. 633.. 18. .Dover Hill 

Miami 1,944. .11.304. .1,184. . 48.. Peru 

Monroe 1,892. .11,286. .1,2.30. . 46. .Bloomington 

Montgi.'nery. .2,971. .18,084. .1,880. . 8-7. .Crawfordsvilla 

Morgan 2,401. .14.570. .1,392. . 14. .Martinsville 

NobFe 1,395.. 7,946.. 772.. 16.. Albion 

Ohio 946.. 5,308.. 386.. 34. .Rising Sun 

Orange 1,841 . . 10,809 .. 1,118 . . 8 . . Paoli 

Owen 2,000.. 12,106.. 1,142.. 26.. Spencer 

Parke 2,468.. 14,968. .1,390. . 63. .Rockville 

Perry 1,231.. 7,268.. 540.. 14. .Rome 

Pike 1,261.. 7,720.. 909.. 2. .Petersburg 

Porter 885.. 5,2.34.. 467.. 13. .Valparaiso 

I'osey 2,260. .12,549. .1,270. . 26. .Mount Veraon 

Pulaski 454.. 2,595.. 286.. O..Winnamac 

Putnam 3,088. .18,615. .1,696. . 42. .Green Castle 

Randolph 2,513. .14,725. .1,477. . 12. .Winchester 

Ripley 2,667 . . 14,820 . . 1,495 . . 49 . . Versailles 

Rush 2,824. .16,445. .1,809. . 59. .Rushville 

Scott 1,040.. 5,885.. 719.. 14. .Lexington 

Shelby 2,721. .15,502. .1,620. . 59. .Shelbyvilla 

Spencer 1,485. . 8,616. . 988. . 28. .Rockport 

Stark 100.. 557.. 53.. O..Knox 

Steuben 1,109.. 6,104.. 586.. 28.. Angola 

St. Joseph ....1,885.. 10,954.. 847.. 45. .South Bend 

Sullivan 1.675.. 10,141. .1,215. . 31. .Sullivan 

Switzerland . .2,254. .12,932. .1,270. . 79. .Vevay 
Tippecanoe .. .3,227. .19,377. .1,377. .204. .Lafayette 

Tipton 627.. 3,532.. 339.. 1.. Tipton 

Union 1,220 .. 6,944 . . 606 . . 35 . . Liberty 

Vanderburgh .2,059. .11,414.. 743.. 76. .Evansville 
Vermillion.... 1,509.. 8,661.. 733.. 46. .Newport 

Vigo 2,645. .15,289. .1,113. .130. .Terre Haute 

Wabash 2,079. .12,138. .1,068. . 57. . Wabash 

Warren 1,273.. 7,387.. 782.. 18.. Williamsport 

Warrick 1,513.. 8,811.. 994.. 22. .Booneville 

Washington . .2,897. .17,040. .1,718.. 83. .Salem 

Wayne 4,515. .25,320. .1,934. .213. .CentreviUe 

Wells 1,02L. 6,152.. 640.. 14..Bluffton 

White 821.. 4,761.. 458.. 10..Monticello 

Whitley 913.. 5,190.. 522.. 8.. Columbia 



The whole number of dwellings in the State was, at the above date, 170,173 ; of families 171,564, and of inhabitants 
9SS,416, viz. : whites 977,60.5— males 506,400, and females 471.205 ; free col. 10,788— males 5,472, and females 5,316. Of the 
whole population, there were deaf and dumb—wh. 514, fr. col. 4— total 518 ; hlhid—\vh. 340, fr. col. 9— total 849 ; insane— 
wh. 509, fr. col. 10— total 579 ; and idiotic— ^y\\. 906, fr. col. IS— total 919. The number of free persons born in the United 
States was 931,392, the number of foreign birth 54,426, and of birth unknown 2,593; the native population originated as 
follows : Maine 976, N. Ilamp. SS6, Verra. 3,183, Mass. 2,678, R. L 438, Conn. 2,4S5, N. York 24,310, N. Jer. 7,837, Penn. 
44,245, Del. 2,737, Md. 10,177, Dist. of Col. 227, Virg. 41,819, N. Car. .53,175, S. Car. 4,069, Ga. 761, Flor. 21, Ala. 395, Miss. 
2S7, La. .3-21, Te.v. 44, Ark. 151, Tenn. 12,734, Ky. 68,651, Ohio 120,193, Mich. 1,817, Indiana 541,079, 111. 4,173, Mo. 1,006, 
la. 407, Wise. 99, Calif. 0, Territories 11 ; and the, foreign population was composed of persons from— England 5,550, Ire- 
land 12,787, Scotland 1.341, Wales 169, Germany 28,534, France 2,279, Spain 3, Portugal 0, Belgium SO, Holland 43, Italy 
6, Austria 17, Switzerland 724, Russia 6, Denmark 10, Norway IS, Sweden 16, Prussia 740, Asia 4, Africa 4, Brit. America 
1,878, Mexico 31, Cent. America 0, S. America 4, West Indies 12, and other countries 108. 

The following table will show the decennial progress of the population since the first census of the State taken by the 
United States authorities : 

Colored Persons. Decenniiil Increase. 
Census White , « — , Total , ■ , 



Years. Per.sons. 

1800 4.577... 

ISIO 23,S90 . . . 

1320 145,758 . . . 

1830 339,899 . . . 

1S40 673.698 . . . 



Free. 
163 . 
893 

1,2-30 
8,029 
7,165 . 



1S50 



977,605 10,311 



Slave. Total. Populntion. 

.185 298 4,875.. 

. 237 630 24.520 .. 

.190 1,420 147,173 . . 

. 3 8,632 843,081 . . 

. 3 7,163 085,866 . . 

. — 10,811 9S3,416 . . 

G 



Numerical. Percent. 



. . 19,645 402.9 

. . 122,658 500.3 

. . 195,353 183.1 

. . 342,885 99.9 

. . 802,550 44.1 

97 



THE ttTATE OF INDIANA. 



The statistical returns of the industry and wealth of lu'liaua, as furnished by the census of 1S50, and other official 
documents referring to tliat period, are as follows: 

Ownpieil L(ni(/.-i, etc. — Improved lands 5.040,543 acres, and unimproved lands 7,T-1G,S79 acres — valued in cash at 
$]3D,:3Sr).lT3. Number of farms under cullivation 93,896. Value of farmini; implenienls and machinery :JG,704,444. 

JjM-Stvci:-~lh>rst.-s, 314,'299 ; asses and mules, 0.5:^9 ; mili-h cows, 2^4,554 ; working oxen, 40.2'21 ; other calUe 3S9,S91 ; 
.sheep, 1,122,493; swine, 2,263,T76— U)tal value of live-stock, !};22.47s,5o5. In 1S4IJ there were in the Slate 241,036 horses, 
mules, etc., 619,930 neat cattle of all descriptions, G75,9S2 sheep, 1.625,6.16 swine, etc. 

Grain Cfops.— Wheat, 6,214,40S bushels; rye, 78,792 bushels; Indian corn, 52,9u4,363 bu.shels ; oats, 5.6.^5.014 bushels; 
barley, 45,483 bushels ; buckwheat, 149,740 bushels. The crops of 1839^0 were— wheat, 4,il49,375 bushels ; barley, 28,015 
bushels; oats, 5,981,605 bushels; rye, 129,621 bushels; buckwheat, 49,019 bushels, and Indian corn, 2S,15o,SS7 bushels. 

Other Crops. — Tobacco, 1,044,620 pounds; ginned cotton, 14 bales of 4^10 pounds each; peas and beans, 35,773 bushels; 
potatoes— Irish, 2,083,337, and sweet, 201,711 bushels; hay, 403,230 tons; elover-seed, 18,329 bushels; other grass-seed, 
11,951 bushels; hops, 92,796 pounds; hemp— dew-rotted, 341, and water-rotted, 1,071 tons; flax, 584,469 pounds ; flax- 
seed, 36,888 bushels ; maple sugar, 2,921,642 pounds ; molasses, 180,325 gallons ; wine, 14,055 gallons, etc. The value of 
orchard products was $324,940, and of market-garden products $72,864. In comparing the principal crops of 1S40 and 
1850, the following results are sliown : 

1 850. 

1,044,628 pounds . 
341 tons \ 
1,071 tons |- . 
584.469 pounds J 
14,055 gallons 



.Staples. 18«. 

Tobacco 1,820,306 pounds . . 

Hemp — dew-rotted j l .. 

" —water-rotted V 8,605^^ tons ■< . . 

Fla.\ ) I .. 

Wine 10,265 gallons .. 



deer. 



Movement. 

775,686 pounds, or 42.61 per cent. 



deer. 15,528,971 pounds, or 80.56 



3,790 gallons, or 36.92 



Product's of An imal.9.— Woo], 2,610,287 (in 1840, 1,237,919) pounds; butter, 12,881.535 pounds, and cheese, 024,564 
pounds; and the value of animals slaughtered in the year had been $6,567,935. Silk cocoons were produced to the 
amount of 3S7 (in 1840, 379) pounds; and beeswax and honey to that of 935,329 pounds. 

Iliimc-made Manufactures for the year ending 30th June, 1850, were produced to the value of $l,6-31,0-39. 

Manufactures — Aggregate capital ijivested, $7,917,818 ; value of raw miiterial, fuel, etc., consumed, $9,347,920 ; average 
number of hands employed, — males, and females, average monthly cost of labor, $ — male, 

$ and female, $ — total value of products for the ye.ar, $18,747,068 The whole number of manufacturing 

establishments in the State in 1850, producing to the value of $5no and upward, was 4,326, and of these 2 were cotton 
feetories, 33 woolen factories, 358 tanneries, and 19 iron manufactories, viz. : 14 for castings, 2 for pig iron, and 3 for 
wrought iron. 

The cotton manufactures employ a capital of $43,000 ; the cotton consumed during the year ending 1st June, 1850, was 
675 bales ; and the value of all raw material, fuel, etc., Mas $28,220 ; average hands— males, 38, and ti?males, 57 ; monthly 
cost of labor — male. $495, and female, $386; entire value of products, among which were 300,000 pounds yarn, $44,200. 

The woolen manufactures had a capital of $171,545, wool consumed, 413,-350 pounds, and value of all raw material, 
fuel, etc., $120,486 : hands — males, 189, and females, 57 ; monthly cost of labor — male, $4,122, and female, $680; products 
of the year, 235,500 yards of cloth and 104,000 pounds of yarn— valued at $205,802. 

In titiineries the ctipital employed, $514,897 ; value of raw material, $405,838 ; Iiands — male, 836, and female, 2 ; 
monthly cost of labor— male, $15,199, and female, $14; products— skins, 57,070, and sides of leather, 283,093 — valued at 
$714,813. 

The condition of the iron manufactures is exhibited in the annexed tabular form : 



Capital invested dollars 

Iron ore tons 

Pig iron " 

Old metal " 

Coal, mineral " 

Coke and charcoal bushels. . 

Value of raw material, etc dollars . . . 

Iiands — male number.. 

" — female " 

Monthly cost of labor — male dollars. .. 

" " — female " 

Iron made tons 



Pis Iron. Ca.stingR. VVrouglit Iroik Total. 

72,000 82,900 17,000 171.900 

5,200 — 3,150 8,350 

— 1,968 50 2,018 

— 5 — 5 

— 132 — 133 

310,000 29,000 85,000 424,000 

24,400 66,918 4,425 



88 



143 



2,290 8,681 



1.850 



1,757 



22 
2 , 

604 

8 

175 



Value of entire products dollars. . . . 58,000 149,430 11,760 



95,743 

253 

2 

6,575 

S 

8.782 

219,190 

Indiana has also a large number of flour, gri.st, oil, saw, and other mills, ashcries, etc., and the numerous trades 
an<l handicrafts, which constitute the aggregate of its manufacturing industry. Among its princip.nl manufacturing 
places m.ty be named Madison, Indianapolis, New Albany, Cannelton, etc. — the last destined to become, at no distant 
day, the seat of a vast industry. 

Inland Comnmnication. — Indiana has no direct foreign commerce, but it has a vast domestic and inter-state tr.ide by 
means of its navigable waters and magnificent systems of canals and railroads, and besides it is well supplied with pl.ink, 
M'Adam, and other roads, which facilitate travel and transportation. The State has (January, 1S53), within its borders 
454 miles of canal and 1420 miles of railroad completed. The canals are, the Wabash and Krie Canal, extending from 
Evansville, on the Ohio, to Toledo, on Lake Erie, 467 miles, of which 379 miles are in Indiana ; and the White Water 
Canal, extending from L.iwreneeburg, on the Ohio, r«a Cambridge, on the National Eoad, to Ilagerslown, 77 miles. 
The principal railro.ads of the State centre at Indianapolis, radiating in all directions, and forming links in the great 
national system which is rapidly springing into existence. There is also a large number of railroads in course of con- 
struction, the mo.st important of which are, the Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad, the Lawrenceburg .and Upper Missis- 
sippi Eailroad, the ujiper jiortions of the New Albany and Salem Railroad, and the Fort AVayne and Southern Railroad. 
These will be opened witliiji a year or two, and there are others already projected that mui^t bo built within a very short 
space of time. 

98 



R. COCHR 





MANUFACTUEEES OF THE 



^ 



sr 




mill 



Of suitable sizes for Merchant and Country Mills, as well as Plantation use. They are 
also superbly adapted for attaching to Saw Mills. We also manufacture 

iSlWiffi mWMM Hill ^W@IKiii 

Of all sizes, both old and new quarry, warranted equal to any imported into, or manufactured 
in the United Stales. We manufacture and have for sale 




4Jm W «r^ 

And other Smut Machines^ & dealers in Genuine old Dutch Anchor 

MILL IRONS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

AND Mllili GEARING IN GENERAIi. 

I No. 44 West Front Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



? 1 



18 



THE STEAM FIRE EITGmE 

On the opposite pajre, is a view of A. B. Latta's patent, of Cincinnati, and is the only sue- j 
cessful Engine tljat Las been made in tlie U. B. This machine is noAV in use in several cities. | 
Cincinnati has seven, all of them built b}- A. B. Latta of Cincinnati. They have proved them- i 
selves beyond all doubt the most reliable apparatus for extinrcuishing fires, besides being vastly j 
cheaper than any other mode now known. Since the introduction of these machines (exclu- 
sive of hand engines) the expenses of the fire department of Cincinnati have been reduced !f 50,- [ 
000 jier annum; besides comparatively few men to govern, there will only be required about 
100 men to protect the city from fires. 

The machine in the plate is a second class Engine, drawn by two horses — four of these and 
three of 1st class are the two sizes Cincinnati has in use. The first class machines are much 
larger and are drawn by four horses ; they are capable of discharging 11000 barrels of water per 
hour ; the second class have capacity for discharging 1200 bbls. These machines draw their 
own water where circumstances will permit, rather than take it from hydrants or plugs. This 
is considered best, as a better supply of water can be had in this way. The mode of operating 
these machines is peculiar to themselves. They stand in the house built to suit them, with 
the horses always harnessed, ready to be hitcheil in case of an alarm of fire. The fire is api)lied 
to the kindling's already under the boiler and is burning while the horses are being attached, 
which occupies from one lo two minutes. The fireman and engineer, mounted in their ])laces 
on the machine, are hurried in full speed to the scene of the disaster. One end of the Suction 
Hose is always attached to the pump, so that all that is required to be done is to take it off its 
bearings, bend it round, dip it into the cistern or water, wherever it may be, and screw on 
the leading hose, which is led off to the fire, and there discharges through pipes or nozzles 
similar to other engines. These Hose are generally India Rubber, which proves to be the best: 
they are made by the Boston Belting Co.. Mass. They are sometimes spread 1000 or 1500 feet 
from the Engine to the fire, notwithstanding the excess of pressure necessary to force the wa- 
ter so far on account of friction, and are strong enough to bear it. 

It will be seen by this that it is not necessary to have so many places to get water as is now 
common in cities where hydrants or plugs are used ; every other section is snflicient for Steam 
Engines. These cisterns, "as they are called in Cincinnati, cost $120 each. The cost of opera- 
ting one of these Engines is about the same as a hand company. One steam company is con- 
sidered equal to five or six hand companies under the same circumstances. This steam machine 
will Mork, whether placed in a level position or otherwise, it matters not. It will be seen 
that it runs on three wheels, which renders it easy to pass over rough or uneven streets with- 
out straining the machinery. It is composed of wrought iron nearl)' throughout, except 
the cylinders and pumps — the former is cast iron and the latler is brass. Another feature in 
these machines is, they are capable of being brought into requisition in so short a time; it 
only requires five or six minutes fioni the time the fire is lighted under the boiler until the 
Engines commence working. It seldom occurs that we have to wait on steam ; it is generally 
ready before we are for it. The first class engines require ten men and six horses, foiir of 
which are attached to the Engine and two to the Hose carriages. The second class machine 
requires two stout horses to tlie Engine and one to the Hose carriage. It is sometimes neces- 
sary, where the grades are heavy, to attach an extra horse to the second class — seven men is 
the crew for them. 

As regards the distance these machines will throw water — the first class Engine will throw 
2(33 feet horizontally through a Ij inch nozzle; this I think is the furthest tlirow ever made 
Avith one of this class ; tliey will throw two streams through ]] nozzles about 200 feet ; the}'' 
have thrown four streams through J nozzles 120 feet higli ; the other distances are horizontal, 
given above. The second class Engine will throw 1^- inch stream 200 feet horizontally ; two 
streams, 1 incli nozzles, lOO feet ; the Hose used is 3 inches in diameter. 

It is almost impossible to give a description of these machines that would enable one to have 
a correct opinion of the advantage derived from the use of them. They are labor-saving ma- 
chines, and work steadily without disorder. The^- can be relied on with certainty at all times. 
There isiinother matter which must not be overlooked — the increase of protection. It is help- 
ing the insurance companies, and the insurers also. If little losses occur, the company can 
afford to reduce their prices, so that every man will insure. Here is an advantage to both 
parties ; the more perfect the protection, the cheaper insurance can be afforded. There ne\er 
will bean end of fires so long as we build of combustible materials, and this will always con- 
tinue to some extent; so the only way is to make the protection as perfect as possible, and 
certainly doing the work by steam is far preferable to hand labor, as much so as the locomo- 
tive is to the wheelbarrow. We would call the attention of every city to the effect produced 
by these machines in Cincinnati, and see if it would not be to their advantage to use steam. 
It is admitted that Cincinnati is ahead of all other cities in her Fire Department. We state 
it as a fiict, after three years' experience in building these machines, and we have built ten of 
them, all of which have been successful, not a single failure has occurred in the ones built by 

A. B. & E. LATTA, 

.^S?~ Any orders will meet with prompt attention. 

VZ7 



THE STATE OF INDIANA. 



Baiilca, etc. — Tliero are in Indiana 1 banli and 13 branch banks, the same being the State Bank of Indiana, at 
ndiunajjolis, and its several branches at Bedford, Evansville, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Lafayette, Lawrcnccburg, 
Uadison, Michigan City, New Albany, Eichmond, South Bend, Terre Haute, and Vinccnnes. The aggregate condition 
A the.se uistituli 3ns in November, 1S50, was as follows — Uahilities : capital, $2,062,958 ; circulation, $3,422,455 ; deposits, 
^630,335 ; due other banks, $112,175 ; and assets — loans and discounts, $4,395,099 ; real estate, $304,233 ; other investments, 
^0S,4S5 ; due by other banks, $S15,0G2 ; notes of other banks, $224,S42 ; specie, $1,197,8S0. The constitutional provisions 
•expecting banking in this State are: tliat no banks shall be established except under a general law, and the stockholders 
iliall be individually responsible for the debts of the corporation, in addition to their stock, to an amount equal thereto, 
md every bank must close banking operations within twenty years from its organization and promptly close its business, 
['here are, besides the above-named banks, several others organized under the general banking law, but these have 
)nly lately been established, and have not yet published any returns. Their circulating notes are secured by pledge 
)f public stocks. 

Government, etc. — The first constitution of Indiana is dated 29th June, 1S16; the constitution on which the present 
state government is based was done in convention 10th Febniary, 1851 ; ratified by the people 4th August, and went 
nto operation 1st November of the same year. It provides as follows: 

Every white male citizen of the United States, 21 years oM, resident in the State six months next preceding an election, 
ind every white male of foreign birth, 21 years old, resident in the United States one year, and in the State six months 
lext preceding an election, who shall have duly declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, may 
■ote. No negro or mulatto can vote. All elections by the people are by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly 
:iva voce. All general elections are held on the secon<l Tuesday in October. 

The General Assemhly consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The senate, not exceeding 50 members, 
md representatives, 100 members, are chosen in their respective districts — the former fur four years (.half every two years), 
ind the latter for two years. Thoy must be citizens of the United States, residents of the Stale for the two years next 
)reeeding their election, and for one year of the district from which they are chosen. The sessions of the General 
Usembly are biennial, commencing on the Thursday next after the first Monday of January ; and no session can be 
yrolonged beyond sixty-OTie days, and no special session beyond forty days, liepresentation is apportioned according to 
I census of all white males over 21 years of age, taken every six years. " In all cases where a general law is applicable, 
;eneral and not special laws shall be passed." 

The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor are chosen for four years by a plurality of voles; they must be severally 30 
ears of age, and residents of the United Stales and of the State for the five years next preceding their election. The 
;ubernatorial term commenec* on the second Monday of January. The Lieutenant-Governor is er-offieio President of 
he Senate ; and in case of the removal or death of the Governor, he first, and after him such person as the General As- 
embly may appoint, shall act as Governor. The Governor is not eligible more than four years in any period of eight 
'ears. The Governor has power to grant pardons for all offenses, except in eases of treason and impeachment ; and he 
nay veto a bill, but, if afterward passed by a majority of those elected to each house of the General Assembly, it becomes 
I law nevertheless. 

The administrative officers of the government are a Secretary of State, a State Auditor, and a State Treasurer, elected 
liennially by the people, and no one is eligible to either of these offloes more than four out of any six years. 

The officers elected by the people in each county are a Clerk of the Circuit Court, an Auditor, a Eeeorder, a Treasurer, 
I Sheriff, a Coroner, and a Surveyor — the three first for four years and the others for two years, and none arc eligible for 
riore than two out of any thre« consecutive terms. All county officers must be residents for one ye'ar of the placee from 
vhich they are chosen ; and they and all town officers must reside in their precincts. 

The Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, Circuit Court, and Courts of Common Pleas, for the counties of Tippecanoe 
nd Marion. These consist of not less than three nor more than five justices, "hosen from districts by the people at large, 
or six years. At present it has three, of whom one is chief judge. A clerk of this court is chosen by the people for four 
ears. The Supreme Court has appellate and such original jurisdiction as the General Assembly may confer. The State 
5 divided into thirteen circuits, and each Circuit Court has a judge elected by the people of the circuit for six years, and 
le must reside therein. A prosecuting attorney is also eleK^ted for each circuit for two years. The Courts of Common 
'leas for Tippecanoe and Marion counties aro Special Courts, and have each one judge. Justices of peace are elected by 
he people of each township for four years. The Constitution provides, in this connection, for the establishment of tri- 
lunals of conciliation, the decisions of which are obligatory on those voluntarily submitting thereto; for commissioners to 
evise and simplify practice, and to codify the laws; that any voter of good moral character may be admitted to practice 
aw in all the o<iurts of the State ; that the Assembly may modify or abolish the Grand Jury system ; that no person shall 
)e an incompetent witness inconsequence of his opinions on matters of religion ; that in all criminal cases the juries may 
letermine the law and the facts; that no man's property shall be taken without just compensation is first awarded and 
endered. 

Kespecling colored people, it is provided that no negro or mulatto shall come into or settle in the State ; all contracts 
nade with such shall be Void, and all persons employing them shall be punished by a fine of $10 to $500, and the proceeds 
)f such fines shall be appropriated for the colonization of those negroes and mulattoes, and their desceudanis, in the State, 
it the adoption of the Constitution, and who aro willing to emigrate. 

Amendments to the Constitution are to be passed on by a m.njority of one Legislature, and referred to the next; and if 
Jassed by a like majority, then the amendments proposed are submitted to the people for ratification or rejection. 

The militia of Indiana has not been reported to the U. S. authorities since 1S32, since which period the population of 
he State has nearly trebled. At that time it consisted of 53,913 men of all grades and arms, and at present probably 
numbers 150,000 men. 

Indiana has several benevolent institutions, among which the principal are the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, the 
[nslitution for the Blind, and the Hospital for the Insane at Indianapolis. At the Asylum all the Deaf and Dumb of the 
state, between the ages of 10 and 30, are entitled to education without charge for board or tuition ; and at the Institute 
Ihe same privileges are granted, but except In extraordinary eases, applicants over 21 years of age are not admissable. 
fhe Hospital for the Insane, in the year ending 30th October, 1S50, admitted 58 (31 males and 27 females); 54 were dis- 
charged (26 males and 28 females) ; and at the end of the year SO (40 males and 40 females) were left under treatment. 
Phis last institution was opened for the reception of patients (part of the buildings only being erected) in December, 
1S4S. From that lime to 30th October, 1849, there were 104 admitted, of whom 20 recovered, 4 improved, and 4 died, 

99 



THE STATE OF INDIANA 



leaving 76 in the hospital, which, added to the 5S admitted in 1S49-50, makes a total of 162 since the opening of the 

institution. 

Fhmncfs, Dehtx, etc.— The balance in the Treasury on the 31st October amounted to $425,941 19, and the receipts for 
the fiscal year 1S5:) were *1.4:3-2.44i 78— total revenue $1.S61.3>3 97 ; and the expenditures for the same period amounted t^ 
$1,513,534 (14, leaving a l)al:tnce for future draft of $.347,849 93. The chief sources of income are— permanent revenue, 
$■160,63!) ; state prison. .$11,145; common school fund, .$55,863 ; university fund, $9,479; bank Uix, $l,9s4; salme tax, 
$4,999 ; Waljasli and Krie Canal (by irustees), $857,149, etc. And the principal erj)en<Utures were on account of— Legis- 
lature, $31,(iin; Kxecutive, .$5,s78; Judiciary, $19,706; public i)rinling, $11,522 ; state prison, $3,606 ; treasury notes 
cancelled, $144,575; interest on treasury notes, .$.")9,4-'8 ; interest on public debt, $1SS,095; Wabash and Erie Canal (by 
trustee*), $824,988; deaf and dumb, $27,979; blind, $11,781; insane, $32,501; university funil, $14,332; saline fund, 
$7,765; bank tax fund, $3,624, etc. 

Trior to 1817 the State owed on her foreign debt— principal $11,048,000, and interest $3,326,640— total $14,374,040. In 
accordance with the acts of the Legislature of 19th January, 1846, and 27tli January, 1817, proposals were made to the 
bond holders that they should complete the Wabash and Erie Canal, and take tlie Slate's interest in it for one half this 
debt, and the State would issue new certificates for the other half, upon which she would pay interest at the rate of 4 per 
cent, per annum, until January, 1853, and after that time 5 per cent., and issue certificates for one half the arrears of interest, 
upon whidi she would pay interest at the rate of 2} per cent, per annum after January, 185.3. In tliis 2J per cent, stock is 
also included 1 per cent, per annum ujjon the principal, which gives the holder of the old bond, when surrendered, 5 per 
cent, per annum upon the new 5 per cent, stock, from the dividend day next preceding his surrender of the old bon<ls. 
On Uie 5lh Au"ust, 1S50, there had been surrendered of the old bonds, and new certificates taken of principal $9,503,000, 
leaving' tlien outstanding of her old bonds of principal, $1,736,727 50. The liabilities of the State and Canal, at the date 
last meiitioni'd, may be thus stated : 

State Debt.—Sliilii'a half principal of lionds surrendered, $4,781,500 ; State's half interest on bonds with 1 per cent of 
principal with half of coupons added, $1,736,727 50— total foreign debt, $6,518,227 50. To which add domestic debt, 
$257,29.^. Aggregate debt, $0,775,522 50. 

Stat^ and Canal Stock.— The amount of the several stocks issued under the act for liquidating the public debt, up to 
5th August, 1850, is as follows : 5 per cent. State stock, $4,781,500 ; 2^ per cent. State stock, $1,736,727 50 ; 5 per cent, pre- 
ferred Canal stock, $4,079,500 ; 5 per cent, deferred Canal s-tock, $702,000 ; 2i per cent, special preferred Canal stock, 
$1,216,250; 2^ percent, special deferred Canal stock, $207,400— total stock issued to 5th August, 1850, $12,723,377 50, 
of which amount deduct for 2^ per cent. State stock redeemed, $2o,000, and the total outstanding is reduced to 
$12,703,377 50. The State is paying interest only on the 5 per cent. Stale stock, at the rate of 4 piT cent. ; after 1853 the 
rate will be 5 per cent. ; and after 1853 also the 2i per cent. State stock will draw interest at that rate. The remaining 
stocks are thrown upon the Canal, and their redemption, principal and interest, depends upon the receipts from the 
Canal, in accordance with the provisions of the acts heretofore referred to. 

In 1839-40 the State issued $1,5110,000 trea.sury notes to pay off her internal improvement liabilities, but these having 
been made receivable for all State dues, have now been almost all returned to the treasury. The State also i.ssued bonds 
for the State Bank capital, and treasury notes to pay the bank a debt which the State owed it. But these treasury notes 
•were based upcm a sinking fund belonging to the State, and held by the bank, which institution attends to the bonds 
issued for its capital, and also to the redemption of the notes based upon the sinking fund. The means held by the bank 
are considered ample for these purposes. 

Tin; assessed value of personal and real estate in Indiana in 1850 was $152,870,399, but the true or estimated value 
amounted to no less a sum than $202,650,264. 

Federal Jiepresentation.— Indiana, in accordance with the law apportioning federal representation, sends eleven 
representatives to Congress. 

Jieligiaus Denominations.— The statistics of the several religious denominations in 1850 were as follows : 



Deiioinina. No. of 


Clmroh 


Value of 


Oenoniina- No. of 


Cluirch 


VMliieof 


tioiis. Cluirclies. 


acccim. 


Prn,,.-,t.v. 


tiDiis. Cliurclies. 


accom. 


I'loperty. 


Baptist 412 .. 


136,333 . 


. $211,585 


Jewish — .. 


— .. 


$- 


Christian.... 182 .. 


64,266 . 


. 68,640 


Lutheran .... 60 . . 


18,000 . 


36,825 


Congregat'l. . 2 . . 


1,400 . 


8,000 


Mennonite . . — . 


— . 


— 


Dutch Itef . . 4 . . 


1.025 . 


1,050 


Methodist ...715 . 


2.56,372 . 


482,460 


P^piscopal .. 2t .. 


T,300 . 


. 74,000 


Moravian 53 . 


17,400 . 


20,800 


Free 10 .. 


2,750 . 


5.700 


Presbyterian 207 . 


103.432 . 


. 824,170 


Friends 85 . 


43,015 . 


. 59,5.J5 


R. Catholic . . 63 . 


25,115 . 


. 107,725 


German lief. 2 . 


450 . 


3,500 


Swedenbo'n . — . 


— . 


— 



Den 



No. 



Chi 



•Cliu 



Tunker 5.. 

Union 5 . . 

Unitarian ... 1 . . 
Universalist.. 15 . . 
Minor Sects . 12 . . 



3,000 . . 
1,250 .. 
2.50 .. 
5,0.")0 .. 
2,822 .. 



Value n( 
I'ropeily. 

$3,100 

2,350 

600 

17,800 
4,025 



Total.... 1,9 17 689,230 $1,512,485 



Indl.ana eonstitutes a diocese of the Protestant Episcopal church, and also the Poman Catholic.diocese of Vincennes. 

Education. — Indiana h.is endowed her common schools and colleges more liberally than any others of the New States. 
The constitution provides that ■' the common school fund shall consist of the congrission.'d township fund, and the lands 
belonging thereto, of the surplus revenue, saline, and bank tax funds, the fund to be derived from llie sale of county 
seminaries, and money ami property heretofore held for such seminaries, all flues, forfeitures, and escheats, and lands not 
otherwise specially granted, including the net proceeds of the sales of the swamp lands granted to the State by the Act 
of Congress of September 28th, 18.50. The principal of the fund may be increased, but shall never be diminished, and 
its income shall be dei oted solely to the su))port of common schools." The v.alue of these several fun<ls and incomes is 
stated by Governor Wright in his Message of December 2, 1851, to be $4,604,279 ; and in addition to thi.s sum. the school 
fund will be constantly augmented by the receipt of fines and forfeitures, and the profits of the sinking fund. The .schools 
of the State are under the supervision of a Superintendent of Public Instruction, who is elected by the people, and holds 
office for two years. From the ri'port of this officer, it appears that there were in 1«51 about 400,000 between the ages of 5 
and 21 years. The number of common schools was 5,899, .and the number of children attending school was 22.5..31S. 

Indiana has also a large number of high schools and academies; and among her oollegiate establishments the follow- 
ing are the mo,st conspicuous: the Indiana State University, .at Bloomington, founded in 1816; Hanover College, founded 
in 1829; W.abash College, founded in 1834, and Indi.ana Ashbury University, at Green Castle, founded in 1837. At Han- 
over is also the Indiana Theological Seminary (Presbyterian), a department of Ilauover College. The Universities have 
100 



^BMj^m^^^^ 



N. W. Corner Fifth and Walnut Streets, Cincinnati 




THE STATE OF INDIANA. 



each ii law department ; and there are medical schools at La Porte and Indianapolis — at the first place the Indiana 
Medical Oollege, and at the latttr, the Indiana Central Medic^il College, both higlily-flourishing institutions. 

Libraries. — One St:ite library (7,000 volumes); four social lilirarios (10,700); six college libraries (17,300); four 
students' lil)raries (4,S90) ; one public school library (200) — total, sixteen libraries and 40,000 volumes. 

Periodical Press. — The public press consists of 121 periodical publications, of wliich 79 are political — 43 whig, and 36 
democratic — anil 42 are devoted to literature, science, religion, etc. Of the whole number, 9 are published daily, 2 tri- 
weekly, 109 weekly, and 1 monthly. The average circulation of the dailies, at each issue, is 8,984 ; of the tri-weeklies, 
1,500 ; of the weeklies, 49,734 ; and of the monthly, about 2,000 copies. 

Pauperism and Crime. — The whole number of paupers who received support from the public funds within the year 
ending June 1st, 1S50, was 1,1S2, of which 800 were natives, and 322 foreigners ; and the whole number of paupers at 
the date referred to was 583, of whicli number 446 were natives, and V6~ foreigners— costs to the public for the year $57,560. 
The whole number of convicts in the State Prison on the 30th November, 1850, was 142, and the number received during 
the following official year was 103, and dnring the same period there were discharged — by expiration of sentence, 21 ; by 
escape, 8 ; by pardon, 16 ; by order of court, 1 ; by death, 7 — total 53 ; and hence lliere were in prison on the 30th Kovem- 
ber, 1n51, 192 convicts, of which 8 were committed for life, 1 for 36 years, and 96 for less than 2 years; and 151 are com- 
mitted fur offenses against property, and 39 for offenses against the person. The State Prison is situate at Jeffersonville. 

Historical Sketch. — Indiana originally constituted a part of" New France," and subsequently of the "Territory North- 
West of the Ohio lliver." The exact period of its first settlement is not ascertained. It appears, however, that about 
1690 the French Indians visited the site of Vincennes, at that time occupied by the Indian village of Appecaughko, and 
in 1702 a party of the same nation descended the Wabash,* and established several posts on its banks, and among 
others Vincennes. The tribes inhabiting the country at that time, either from intestine feuds, or inability, made little op- 
position to the new-comers. The colonists at Vincennes, insulated, as it were, from the rest of mankind, and buried in the 
midst of the wilderness, gradually approximated the manners and customs of the Indians by whom they were sur- 
rounded, and formeii marriages with their women, joined in their hunting parties, and subsisted more by the chase tlian 
by the proceeds of their agriculture. Of their simi)le annals they have left no records, for until 1763, when the country 
was ceded to England, we hear nothing of them. By the treaty of cession, the settlers were confirmed in their posses- 
sions; but immigration did not reaeli the country till some time afterward. During the Eevolutionary War they displayed 
their hereditary animosity to the English, and seized the first opportunity to join with the people ; and in 1778 a Spanish 
resident gave such information respecting the strength and position of the British forces stationed at Vincennes, that b7 
his directions General Clarke easily obtained possession, which, however, he did not long retain. By the treaty of 1783, 
the country was included in the United States, and again the settlers were confirmed in their possessions. In 17SS an 
Indian war broke out, which caused great distress among them, but they did not suffer to the same extent as the Ameri- 
cans, against whom vengeance was directetl without mercy; but by the attack of General Wilkinson in 1791 at the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe, and by the subsequent victories of General Wayne, a dangerous confederacy was broken up, and the 
tribes obliged to submit, when the district began to enjoy that repose of which it had for many years been deprived. By 
the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, the United States obtained several eligible parcels of land, for which, as a compensation, 
they paid the Indians sums of money and sundry goods. Other cessions were made at sul)soquent periods ; but notwith- 
stiuiding these, a part of the Indians still remained hostile, and, excited and exasperated by the eloquence of Tecnmseb, 
a leader of the Shawnees, and one of the most extraonlinary men that ever appeared among them, several of the tribes 
united in resistance to the increasing power of the whites; and depredation had been committed to such an extent that 
in 1811 the government determined to exert its power. A force of regulars and militia was concentrated at Vincennes, 
and placed under the command of William Henry Harrison, then Governor. On the 6th November of the same year, 
the Governor appeared before Prophctstown, or Tippecanoe, on the Wabash, and demanded restitution of the property 
the Indians had carried off. After a conference, it was agreed that hostilities should not commence until next morning, 
that an amicable arrangement might be made, but in violation of this armistice, the Americans were attacked before 
daybreak by a large body of savages. Governor Harrison, however, knowing the character of the enemy, had so dis- 
posed his troops as to be able immediately to arrange them in order of battle ; and therefore, though taken by surprise, 
the Amerie-ans received their insidious enemy in a state of preparation. The combat, though short, was unusually 
severe ; the Indians fought with desperate courage, but the precision of action on the part of the troops was such that 
the fate of the battle was soon decided, and the Indians driven in all directions, leaving forty of their number on the 
field, while their whole loss was not less than one hundred an<l fifty ; nor was the American loss less in proportion. After 
the action, Governor Harrison having burned the town, and laid waste the surrounding settlements, returned to Vincen- 
nes, and not long afterward the tribes sued for peace. The war with England in 1812 gave a fresh impetus to Indian 
hostility. Seduced into the service of England, the Indians, after cammitting great cruelties and excesses, received full 
retribution from the Americans; their villages were destroyed, and their whole country laid waste. During the latter 
part of the war with England, Indiana enjoyed comparative repose, and after the conclusion of peace in 1815, the Indians 
ceased to molest or trouble the settlers. They are now wholly removed from the State. Until 1801 the territory now 
included in Indiana remained a portion of the Territory North- West of the Ohio ; in that year it was erected into a 
separate territorial government, and at that time included all the territory West and Nortli of the Ohio boundary. In 
December, 1815, the territorial legislature petitioned Congress for admission into the Union, and the privilege of forming 
a State Constitution. A bill for these purposes passed Congress in April, 1816 ; a State Constitution (dated 29th June, 1816) 
was framed by a convention of delegates called for that special purpose ; and the same having been acceptable to the 
federal legislature, Indiana was, in accordance with the law before mentioned, admitted in the December following, and 
became an independent member of that Union of which she is now so bright an ornament. The constitution formed at 
this period has since been revised, and in 1851 it was set aside by the adoption of a new constitutiou more consonant with 
the altered condition of the affairs and policy of the country. 

Succession of Governors. — Undeu thk Terkitorial GovERNjrENT: William Henry Harrison; and — Under tdk 
Constitution: Jonathan Jennings, 1816; William Hendricks, 1822; James B. Eay, 1825; Noah Noble, 1831; David 
Wallace, 1S37; Samuel Bigger, 1840; James Whitoorab, 1843 ; Joseph A. Wright, 1849. 

Indianapolis, near the centre of the State, is the political capital ; Corydon was capital until 10th January, 1825. 

101 



THE INDIAN TERRITORY. 



The iN-niAX Tehritort Is an extensive country bordering on Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas, and situate generally 
between latitudes 3-)° 40' iind 393 30' north, and l)etween longitudes 94^ and 100° west from Greenwich, or 17° and 23^ 
west frtim Washington. It is about 420 miles from norlh lo south, and about 350 miles from east to west; but within Ihis 
compass is included ordy the Imlian Territory proper, or that extending from the Kansas to the Eed River, and from 
the west lines of Missouri ami Arkansas to the old line of Texas. Beyond these limits the allotment of territory has been 
gradually going on, and the Indian settlements now range as far norlh as the Missouri River, across the proposed limits 
of Nebraska, and are stated in the census of ls.50 to contain in the aggregate an area of 187,171 square miles. 

This Territory was set apart by Congress for the permanent residence of the Indian tribes trans|)orted from the settled 
States, and here they are secured a residence from the encroachments of the white races. They live under governments 
of their own, and many of the tribes have made great advances in civilization. The number of Indians resident in the 
Territory is computed at about 120,000, four-filths of which number have been transported from the countries oast of the 
Mississippi. The most numerous tribes are the Cherokees, the Creeks, the Pawnees, the Choctaws, the Osages, and the 
Seminoles. The other tribes are numerically small. 

Those tribes which have made most jirogress in civilization are the Choctau's, who have a written constitution and laws, 
their legislative, executive, and judicial officers, their schools, churches, and all the ordinary appliances of civilized 
societies; the Creeks, who, though not so far progressed in intelligence and industry, yet have made good advance, and 
have also a written coustilution, recognizing a chief and council of the nation, and the Cherokee^, who are, perhaps, on 
the whole, more civilized than either of the above. The other transported tribes are also improving under the efforts of 
the missitmary and schoilmaster. They occupy various determined sections of the Territory, and are not allowed to 
interfere with each other's governments. They have each their own laws, and are consiilered as so many distinct nations. 
The indigenous tribes have not, as a general thing, advanced in the same degree as their brethren from the East. Some 
tribes, however, are settling into habits of industry. The barbarism of the Indian, indeed, is passing away, and the 
symbols of civilization are becoming every day more apparent. Of late years considerable quanlilies of cotton, peltry, 
and other staples of the Territory have been brought down to New Orleans, and there is every prospect of this branch 
of commerce becoTjing permanent and extensive. The Indians have also a competent knowledge of many useful 
manufactures, tuch as the manufacture of domestic cloths, agricultural implements, wagons, etc., and as. builders are 
equal to the most ingenious among their white brethren. In fact, they now manufacture almost every thing necessary 
to their comfort. 

A proposition is on foot, advocated by the Indians themselves, to petition Congress for the removal of all the Indian 
tribes within the United States to the lands at the base of the Rocky Mountains, and there secure to them a permanent 
residence; and also to constitute them a State of the Union, with Senators and Representatives in Congress This eleva- 
tion will doubtless be effected at no distant period, but at present few persons acquainted with the Indian character 
under its present circumstances, will be found to advocate such a proceeding. The next generation will be fitted 
by education and civilized habits to take part in the affairs of a confederauon of which they may have become a 
member. 

102 




!MV-/jVCEK'.SO 
HA-HA FALLS. 

A drive of about 15 minutes beyond the grave-yard of the Fort Snelling, on the Western banlv of the 
Mississippi, brings the visitor to a view that makes a life- time impression. A small rivulet, the outlet 
of Lakes Harriet and Calhoun, here gently glides over the lofty bluff, into an amphitheatre, forming 
one of the most graceful waterfalls in the country. Niagara symbolizes the sublime, Saint Anthony 
the picturesque, but this is the embodiment of the beautiful. The fall is about sixty feet, presenting 
a parabolic curve, which drops without the least deviation from the regular curve, and meets 
with no interruption from the neighboring rocks, until it has reached its lower level, when the stream 
goes curling along, in laughing childish glee at the graceful feat it has performed in leaping over 
the precipice. "The spray which this cascade emits is very considerable, and when the rays of the sun 
shine upon it produces a beautiful iris. Upon the surrounding vegetation the effect of the spray is 
distinct ; it vivifies all the plants, imparts to them an intense green color, and gives rise to a stouter 
growth. On the neighboring rock the effect is as characteristic, though of a distinctive nature. The 
spray striking against the rock, which is of a loose structure, has undermined it in a curved manner, 
so as to produce an excavation similar in form to a Saxon arch, between the surface of the rock and 
the sheet of water, and under this one can pass with no inconvenience except from the spray. 

"It is such a fall as the hand of opulence daily attempts to produce in the midst of those gardens 
upon which treasures have been lavished for the purpose of imitating nature — with this difference, how- 
ever, that these falls possess an easy grace, which generally distinguishes the works of man from those 
of nature." 

They are designated by the Dakota name Ha-ha. The "h" has a strong guttural sound, and the 
word is applied to waterfalls, because of the curling of the waters. The Dakota verb Thaha primarily 
means "to curl," but the secondary signification is "to laugh," because of the curling motion of the 
muscles of the mouth in laughter. The noise of waterfalls is called by the Dakotas Ihaha, because of 
its resemblance to laughter. 

No 77 



14 



FOUNDED IN 1829. 



CHARTERED IN 1832. 



This Institution is situated in a pleasant and airy part of the city of ST. LOUIS. It is the oldest estab- 
lishment of the kind in the State, and has enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity from its beginning, receiving 
an extensive patronage from the Western and Southern States, and from the \Vcst Indies and Mexico. Its 
buildings have been enlarged, and its plan of studies extended, so as to adapt the course of study to all classes 
of the community, and it now otters advantages not surpassed by any institution in the West. Its present 
success is unprecedented. The Mississippi and its tributaries, and a system of railroads diverging from the 
city in all directions, offer every facility of communication. 

The Institution opens its annual session on the last Monday of August, and closes about the 5th of July. 

TERMS, PER SESSION, OF TEN AND A HALF MONTHS : 

Matriculation Fee, on entrance, $10 1 Bed and Bedding, . $8 

Board and Tuition in all the branches taught,.. ISO Physician's Fee, 5 

Washing and Mending of Articles washed, ao | Stationery, consisting of paper, ink, pens & pencils, 5 

Music, Drawing, Fencing, Drawing and the use of the Philosophical Apparatus form extra charges. Stu- 
dents spending the annual vacation at the University pay $20. 

JOHN S. VERDIN", S. J. President, 

SEWING MACHINES. 

■ H l» 

^ GROVER & BAKER, 

Call and examine their Machines, especially designed for 
as well as for all kinds of manufacturing. 




405 Broadway, New York, 

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Gloversville, New York, 
Augusta, Georgia. 

Columbus, Georgia, 



OFFICES: 
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161 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 
166 Baltimore Street, Baltimore, 
Nashville, Tennessee, 

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Truth can harm nobody, and therefore it is no injustice to others to say that experience has decided that 
these machines are superior to all others. 

REASONS.— 1st. They are much more simple and durable, and less liable to get out of repair than any 
other machines. 

2nd. They can be used by any person of common capacity, in all kinds of work in cloth and leather, 
with any kind of thread, and at much greater speed than other Sewing Machines. 

3rd. 'I'he stitch is not only more beautiful but mucli stronger and less liable to rip than any other. 

4th. The thread is taken directly from two stationary snools of any desired size, and thus the amount of 
trouble and annoyance arising from the winding shuttle boobins is saved. 

5th. The seam is as elastic as the most elastic fabric, and will not break under any strain. 

PRICES. 

Grover and Baker Premium Machines.. $75 to $105 | Latest Improved Shuttle Machines $75 to $85 



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^^5©* The Cheapest, Quickest, Most Direct-and Comfortable Eoute now open.-^ 



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a 



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WJAl 



L^ 



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.A.my .a.XjIj xx:z3V33S os^ 



O O Xj E: IK/T Jh^ 1ST ' 
PATENT UNDULATORY 

Cant ani) if (our 




AND EACH BURR IN ONE SOLID BLOOX. 



City of Jefferson, Suburb of New Orleans, 

WARE ROM AND D^POT, No. 38 NATCHEZ STREET, 

3Sr E ^^7^7" O I^ Xj E .A. 1<T S. 



These celebrated Mills have no rival for good and fast grinding in this or any 
other country on the globe. 

WILLIS P. COLEMAN, 

Manufacturer and Proprietor. 

The following table will show the prices of the various size Mills, and the ca- 
pacity of each. 

SIZE. PRICE. CAPACITY FOR GRINDING. 

14 inch Burr $100 2^ to 6 Bushels to the hour. 

16 inch Burr 115 3 to 7 Bushels to the hour. 

18 inch Burr 125 7 to 10 Bushels to tiie hour. 

24 inch Burr 200 12 to 16 Bushels to the hour. 

28 inch Burr 250 20 to 30 Bushels to the hour. 

30 inch Burr 300 30 to 40 Bushels to ihe hour. 

39 inch Burr 500 50 to 75 Bushels to the hour. 

The above Mills leave the manufactory complete in every particular, and ready 
for grinding when attached to appropriate power and run according to instruc- 
tions. All orders from any part of the United States accompanied by cash or 
draft promptly attended to. 

^^^ Will have in the next Edition a superior view of this celebrated Mill with all the 
modern improvements attached. 



THE STATE OF IO¥A. 



Iowa, the fourth of those reagnifleent States carved out of that vast territory acquired of France inlSOS, is situate gener- 
ally between the latitudes 40° 35' and 43° 30' north, and between longitudes 90° IS' and 96° 53' west of Greenwich, or 
13° 16' and 19° 51' west of Washington; and is bounded north by Minnesota Territory, east by the Mississippi Eiver 
which separates it from Wisconsin and Illinois, south by the Stale of Missouri, and west by Missouri Eiver and its tribu- 
tary the Tchankasndata or Big Sioux Kiver, which divides it from the old North-West Territory.* Its width from north 
to south is 19G miles, and its greatest length from east to west 307 miles; included within which limits is an area of 50,914 
square miles. 

Situate nearly midway between the two great oceans ; bounded on both sides by the great rivers of the continent, and 
watered by innumerable smaller streams ; possessing a fertile soil, inexhaustible mineral resources, a healthful climate, a 
free constitution, and a hardy and industrious population, the State of Iowa has commence<l its career with prospects of 
far more than ordinary brilliancy. In extent of boundary, it is one of the largest in the Union, and it may safely bo 
prophesied, that with these great advantages, it is destined at no distant day to rank among the first in point of wealth 
and political importance, as it already exceeds its compeers in rapidity of growth. 

The general face of the country is that of a high, rolling prairie watered by magnificent streams, and on the river 
courses skirted with woodland. An idea prevails at the East that the prairies are uniformly level. This is by no means 
the case. Sometimes, indeed, they spread out in boundless plains; but the high or upland prairies, which are much the 
most beautiful, as well as the best adapted to cultivation, present a series of graceful undulations not unlike the swell of 
the sea, from which they derive the appellation "roUing." — Sargent, 184S. 

The chief rivers of the State are : the Mississippi, which winds along its eastern border for nearly 450 miles, and the 
Missouri, which bounds it on the west from the mouth of Big Sioux Kiver to the parallel of 40° 35' N. lat., a distance of 
more than 300 miles, both furnishing an almost unprecedented extent of external navigation, and their banks affording 
many eligible sites for commercial cities. Besides these magnificent streams, Iowa has many large interior naVigablc 
rivers, the most prominent of which are the Des Moines, extending through and dividing the State into two nearly equal 
sections. Skunk Eiver, the Iowa, from which the State has its name, Wapsipinicon Elver, tlie Makoqueta, the Turkey 
Eiver, the Upper Iowa Eiver, and others flowing into the Mississippi, and numerous fine streams affluents of the Mis- 
souri. The Des Moines passes diagonally from north-west to south-east, and reaches the Mississippi at the foot of the 
lower rapids in the south-east corner of the State— the whole distance from the point where it strikes the northern bound- 
ary line of Iowa to its confluence ))eing over 4t)0 miles. It is this river— represented as being one of the most beautiful 
of all the noble rivers of the groat West— that the State has undertaken, with the aid of a grant of lands made by Con- 
gress, to render navigable for steamboats of a medium class up to Fort i)es Moines, a distance of over 200 miles from its 
mouth. It passes through the great coal fields and through a country scarcely equaled for its agricultural capacities. The 
stream is said to be peculiarly adapted to improvement in accordance with the plan proposed — a succession of substantial 
locks and dams creating slack-water— from the fact of its having rock bottom and high banks, which are not subject to 
overflow. The Iowa, Skunk, etc., are ri\ers secondary in magnitude to the Des Moines, but they are of inestimable local 
value, being navigable into the interior for distances varying from 20 to 60 miles, and by their numerous aflBuenl streams, 
furnishing to the settler hydraulic power sufficient for all the varied wants of a large manufacturing State. Most of these 
rivers pass over lime or sand-rock beds, and are generally skirted with fine timber. Limestone, indeed, is distributed 
abundantly over a great portion of the State. 

lov/a is numbered as one of the great mineral producmg States of the Union. Its lead mines m the north-east, and 
of which Dubuque is the centre, have been worked for a long period, and have been very pro<luctivo in proportion to the 
number engaged in mining. The lead mines of Iowa are continuous of those of Illinois and Wisconsin. A review of the 
resources and capabilities of this country, says Doctor Owen, induces me to say, with confidence, that 10,000 laborers and 
miners could find profitable employment within its confines. The lead mines alone afford as much of that metal as the 
whole of Europe, excepting Great Britain, and their capabilities are unbounded. Zinc occurs in fissures, along with the 
lead ; it is chiefly in the form of electric calamine, and is found in cellular masses; in some ''diggings" this mineral is 
found in a state of carbonate, and in others as a sulphuret. Iron ore is abundantly distributed, but as yet no large 
amount has been converted into metal. In reference to the coal deposits, the geologist above quoted remarks, that 
between Johnson and Iowa counties an uplift of carboniferous sandstone is encountered which is probably near the 
eastern limits of the Des Moines coal-field. The Iowa Eiver meanders near the east margin of this deposit, but tho 
seams presented on the river bluff are of inferior quality. Itisvpicard of two hundred miles in the directiMi of ths 
valley of the Des 3/oinea across the great coal-jield ; westwardly it extends from the Des Moines Eiver, nearly 

* The constitutional boundaries of Iowa are as follows : " Beginning in tlie middle of tlie main channel of the Mississippi River at a point due 
east of the middle of the mouth of the main channel of the Pes Moines River; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said Des Moines 
River to a point on said river where the northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established by the constitution ol that State, adopted 
June 12th, 18-20, crosses the said middle of the mam channel of the said Des Moines River; thence westwardly along the said northern boundary 
line of the Stiite of Missouri, as establislied at the time aforesaid, until an extension of said line intersects the middle of the main channel of 
the Missouri River; thence up the middle of the main channel ol the said .Missouri River, to a point opposite the middle of the main channel of the 
Big Sioux River, until it is intersected by the parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes north latitude ; thence east, along said parallel of 
forty three degrees and thirty minutes, until said parallel intersects the middle oi the maiu channel of the Mississippi River ; thence down the 
middle of the maiu channel of said Mississippi River t- the place of beginning " 

103 



THE tSTATE OF IOWA, 



across the State. The entire area of tl)is field in Iowa alone can not be less than 20,000 square miles — in all, em- 
bracing a country equal in extent to more than one lialf the State of Indiana, lie estimates the beds of coal at 100 
feet in thickness ; and lying near the surface, they must be capable of being worked easily, and at small expense. Cop- 
per is also found in this State. 

But Iowa mainly owes its prosperity to its agricultural resources. Its fine prairies are easily converted to cultivation, 
and its natural pastures afford peculiar facilities for the rearing of cattle ami sheei)-farming ; wool-growing, indeed, has 
become one of the staple employments of the settlers, and the raising of hogs for market has become no less a i)rofitable 
occupation. The sheep and hog are here fed with little or no trouble, the natural productions of the earth affording a 
plentiful subsistence. For all agricultural purposes, indeed, Iowa is perhaps as tine a region as ever the sun cherished 
by its beams. It is demonstrated by actual survey that no State in the Union has a less quantity of inferior land. The 
timber lands are less extensive than the prairies, but tlie growths are so distributed as to negative any objection that 
miuht be interposed on this account. Compared to the lifetime of labor it lakes to open a farm in the woods, the facility 
w itli which one can be established on the prairie is most striking and gratifying to the settler; and as sutlicitnt timber 
for all ordinary purposes is always within reasonable distance, the comparative absence of forests is not so important as 
it otherwise would be, and artificial groves of that useful and ornamental tree, the locust, can be easily and quickly 
raised. Nothing can exceed the beauty of a prairie cottage, surrounded by its grove of locust, and, wherever met with, 
it marks the abode of taste and comfort. In riding over the State, however, the chief characteristic observed is its 
evenness— the monotony of its very beauty and fertility becomes tiresome. 

In point of salubrity, Iowa is not surpassed by any of the new States. It is not exempt from the diseases incidental to 
rich and uncultivated regions, but from tlie openness of the country it is less liable to the scourge of malaria tlian ordina- 
ry. Take it altogether, it is a most attractive country for the immigrant. The salubrity of the climate, however, depends 
much on locality. The thermometer does not range so widely here as in similar latitudes cast of the AUeghanies ; it is 
exemj)!, too, from those easterly winds so searching and baneful in their effects on the iiulinonic invalid. Along the 
low bottom-lands of the rivers, which are occasionally subject to inundation, there will be liability and i)redisposition to 
bilious affections, fevers, etc.; but upon the uplands and rolling prairies the air is buoyant and free from all banelid 
influences. I'eriodio breezes blow over these elevated portions of the country as regularly and refreshing as from the 
ocean between the tropics, tempering the extremes incidental to the latitude. 

Iowa is divided into 49 counties, the general statistics of which and the capitals of each iu 1S50 were as follows: 



Counties. Dwell. 

Allamakee lji2... 

Appanoose ... 5:21... 

Benton 121 .. . 

Black Hawk.. 2G... 

Boone 119... 

Buchanan 74... 

Cedar 686... 

Clark 14... 

Clayton 728... 

Clinton 499... 

Dallas 156... 

Davis 1,180... 

Decatur 145... 

Delaware .... 338... 
Des Moines 
Dubuque .. 



Pop. 

777. . 
3,131.. 

672.. 

135.. 

735.. 

517.. 

3,941.. 

79.. 

3,873.. 

2 822., 

854.. 
7,264., 

965., 

1,759., 

1,919... 12,987.. 

1.952... 10,841., 



F.it 



Maimf. 



Fayette 153.. 

Fremont 222.. 

Ilenry 1,.545.. 

Iowa 143.. 

Jackson 1,277. . 

Jasper 214.. 

Jetlersou 1,649.. 

Johnson 799... 

J ones 559 . . . 



. 825.. 
. 1,244., 
. 8,707., 
822., 
. 7,210. 
. 1,280. 
. 9,904. 

4,472. 

3,007., 



,. .... Capitals, 
cult. Lstab. ' 

2,,. 0.. .Postville 
2...Centreville 
0... Vinton 
1... — 
0.. .Booneville 
1. . .Indepcnd'nce 
4.. .Tipton 
0... 0... — 
200...12.,.Garnavillo 
306... 10... De Witt 

0... O...Adell 
613...11...Bloomfield 
46... 0.. .Nine Eagles 
., 3... Delhi 
..23... Burlington 
.46.. ^Dubuque 
. 0...\Vest Union 
. 0... Sidney 
. 947... 26... Mt. Pleasant 

70.. . i.. .Marengo 
. 703... 10... Andrew 
. 150... 0.. .Newton 
.1,067... 54... Fairlield 
. 377... 19... Iowa City 
. 223... 3...Anamosa 



153... 
67... 
9... 
0... 
45... 
358,.. 



141. 
383. 
755.. 
8.. 
105.. 



Counties. Dwell. Pop. 

Keokuk 820... 4,822., 

Lee ..3,252... 18,860.. 



Fan 



•Maiiuf. 



Linn 991... 5,444.. 

Louisa 842... 4,9.39.. 

Lucas 92 . . . 471 . . 

Madison 180... 1,179.. 

Mahaska 981... 5,989.. 

Marion 930... 5,482.. 

Marshall 62... 338.. 

Monroe 515... 2,,"84.. 

Muscatine 999... 5,731.. 

Page 94,,, 551.. 

Polk 7.56... 4,515.. 

Potto wattomeel,475. . . 7,828. . 

Poweshiek 102... 615.. 

.^cott 991... 5,986.. 

Tama 1... 8.. 

I'aylor 38... 204.. 

Van Buren.... 2,069... 12,270.. 

Wapello 1,416... 8,471.. 

Warren 152... 961.. 

Washington.. 8.i6... 4,9.37.. 

Wayne 57... 340.. 

Winneshiek . . 100 .. . 546 . . 



._ _ult, Kstab. ^»Pi>'->l8. 

. 326.. .12.. .Lancaster 
.1,350. . .78. ,, Fort Madison 
. 526... 23... Marion 
. 388... 18... Wapello 
. 32... 0... Chariton P't. 
. 53... O...Winterset 
. 480...18...Oskaloosa 
. 342..,24,.,Knoxville 



34., , 0... Marietta 
3.37... O...A!bia 
460. . .19. , .Muscatine 

61... 0... Nodaway 
321... 9... F. Des Moines 

82... 5.. .Kanesville 

71... 0. . .Montezuma 
384., .19... Davenport 
0... 0... — 

27,,, 0.,.Taylor C. II, 
998. . .23. . . Keosauqaa 
828... 7.,,Ottumvva 



47,, 

428., 

0,,, 

0,, 



0, , .liidianola 
1, , , Washington 
0.,, Cambria 
0, , .Winneshiek 



Since the census of 1850 was taken, Pottowattomeo county has been divided into the following named counties : Adair, 
Adams, Audubon, Bancroft, Bremer, Bucna Vista, Buncombe, Butler, Carroll, Cass, Cerro Gordo, Cliernkee, Cliicka.saw, 
Clay, Crawford, Dickinson, Emmett, Floyd, Fox, Frtinklin, Greene, Grundy, Guthrie, Hancock, Hardin, Harrison, How- 
ard, Humboldt, Ida, Kossuth, Manona, Mills, Mitchell, Montgomery, O'Brien, Occola, I'alo Alto, riymoulh, Focalion- 
tas, Risley, Sac, Shelby, Sioux, Union, Wahkou, Winnebago, Worth, Wright, and Tell. 

The whole number of dwellings in the State was, at the above date, S'2.962, of families 33,51T, and of inhabitants 192.214, 
viz.: whites 191,879— males 100,885, and females 90,994, free colored 335— males IGS, and females IG". Of the whole 
population, there were deaf and diimb—v/h. 51, fr. col. 0— total 51 ; hliiid—wh. 4T, fr. col. 0— total 4T; ii)S(i>ie--v,h. 40, 
fr. col. 0— total 40; and idiotic— yyh. 93, fr. col. 0— total 93. The number of free persons born in the United States was 
1TO,6-.'0, the number of foreign birth 21,232, and of births unknown 362 ; the native population originated as follows : Me. 
713, N. Hamp. 580, Verm. 1,645, Mass. 1,251, E. I. 256, Conn. 1,090, N. Y. 8,134, N. Jer. 1,199, Penn. 14,744, Del. 539, Md. 
1,SSS, Dist. of Col. 70, Virg. T,SG1, N. Car. 2,5S9, S. Car. 6TC, G.a. 119, Flor. 51, AKi. 150, Misss. 188, La. 1.33, Tex. 10, Ark. 
163, Tenn. 4,274, Ky. 8,994, Oh. 30,713, Mich. 521, Ind. 19,925, 111. T,24T, Mo. 3,S0T, Iowa 50,3S0, Wise. C92, Calif. 3, Terri- 
tories 135 ; and the foreign population was composed of persons from — England 3,7S5, Ireland 4,SSS, Scotland 712, Wales 
352, Germany 7,152, France 382, Spain 1, Portugal S, Belgium 4, Holland 1,108, Italy 1, Austria 13, Switzerland 175, Russia 
41, Denmark 19, Norway 30, Sweden 331, Prussia 88, Greece 1, Asia 2, British America 1,756, Mexico 16, Cent. America 
0, South America 1 West Indies 14, and other countries 124. 
104 



LANDRETH'S 



AND 



JVo, 18 SOUTH Jfl^IJV STMJEJET, 

Between Market and Walnut, 

ST. H-OXJIS, ]VtISSOXJ3FLI. 



CONSTANTLY ON HAND 



AND OTHER 




INCLUDING 



Sl@?eF, Tm@t!ji|j ©j^oliaiFd irass, BIi@ if ass, leMp, 

CANARY, OSAGE ORANGE, MILLETT, 
RED TOP, HERD GRASS, APPLE, PEAR, &C. 

Also, Farm and Garden Implements and Machinery in great variety. 

Corn Shellers, Ploughs, Fan Mills, Root Cutters, Cultivators and 

HORSE HOES; STRAW AND STALK CUTTERS; 
Shovels, Spades, Forks, Horse and Hand Rakes, Grain Cradles, 

SI?? ^11, mmm, mm, mm mm, 

BOII.EKS, OIDER MILLS, CHUUDSTS, 

And every implement usually required on the Farm or Garden. 

The Garden Seeds sold by the Subscriber are, (with slight exception) the produce of 
grounds cultivated under his strict personal inspection, and he is therefore enabled to war- 
rant their proving precisely as represented. 

Having established extensive Steam "Works at Bristol, Pa., for the manufacture of Im- 
plements and Machinery, he is prepared to furnish every article of a superior quality, and 
an ample warranty will accompany every Implement made at his works. 

The Warehouse, NO. 18 SOUTH MAIN STREET, ST. LOUIS, is now fully stocked' 
with all kinds of Seeds and Implements — and the attention of all interested is solicited. 

Descriptive Catalogues furnished gratis. 

DAVID LANDRETH. 

GEORGE BURNET, JR., 

Agent for St. Louis House. 



IMPKOVED 

PATENTED, JANUARY 15, 1856. 



T. W. BAXTER & CO. 

PATENTEES & MANUFACTUHERS FOB 

ILLINOIS, IOWA, 

WISCONSIN, MINNESOTA, 

NORTHERN MICHIGAN, KANSAS, &c. &c. 

Corner of JVest *ldatns and Canal Streets^ 




ALSO DEALERS IN 

ntn^ ZU% Mitt STONHSt 

GENUINE DUTCH ANKEE BOLTING CLOTHS, 

CAST IRON PROOF STAFFS, 

MILL SPINDLES, ELEVATING SCREWS, PICKS, 

and Jflill Furnishings Generally, 

For other Territories the following parties may be addressed: 

J. F. MnuniAM &, Co., Sandusky, Ohio, for the States of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. 

Isaac G. Williams, Galveston, Texas — for Texas. 

Charles W. Bkown, 67 Haverhill Street, Boston, Mass., tor any part not named above. 

No 40 _ _ . .--_ — --- ,^ _ 



THE STATE OF IOWA. 



The following table will show the decennial progress of the population since the first census taken by the United 
States authorities : 

Ci>I(>r*^.I :'.Tsons. Decennial Increase. 

Census. White ,. ^ Tcital , • ^^__^ 

Year. Persons. Free. Slavf. T.ital. Populalion. Numerical. Percent. 

1840 42.924 172 16 ISS 43.112 — — 

1S50 191,879 335 — 335 192,214 .... 149,102* 845.8 

The statistics of the industry and wealth of Iowa, as ascertained by the census of 1850, and in accordance with other 
public documents referring to the same period, were as follows : 

Occtipied Lmids, etc. — Improved lands, 824,682 acres, and unimproved lands, 1,911,332 acres — valued in cash at 
$16,657,567 ; number of farms under cultivation, 14,805 ; value of farming implements and machinery, $1,172,869. 

Xii-e-iS'tof^.— Horses, 38,536 ; asses and mules, 754; milch cows, 45,704; working o.xen, 21,892 ; other cattle, 69,025; 
sheep, 149,960 ; and swine, 323,247— valued in the aggregate at $3,689,275. In 1S40 there were — horses, mules, etc., 
10,794 ; neat cattle, 38,549 ; sheep, 15,354 ; and swine, 104,899. 

Grain Cwjos.— Wheat, l,.530,58l bushels ; rye, 19,916 bushels; Indian corn, 8,656,799 bushels; oats, 1,524,345 bushels; 
barley, 25,093 bushels ; and buckwheat, 52,516 bushels. The crops of 1839-40 consisted of wheat, 154,693 bushels ; barley, 
728 bushels; oats, 216,385 bushels; rye, 3,792 bushels; buckwheat, 6,212 bushels; and Indian corn, 1,406.241 bushels. 

Other Crops. — Itice, 500 pounds ; tobacco, 6,041 pounds ; peas and beans, 4,775 bushels ; potatoes— Irish, 276,120, and 
sweet, 6,243 bushels ; hay, 89,055 tons ; clover-seed, 342, and other grass seed, 2,096 bushels ; hops, 8,242 pounds ; hemp 
— dew-rotted, 0, and water-rotted, tons ; fla.x, 62,553 ikhuuIs ; flax-seed, 1.959 bushels ; maple sugar, 78,407 pounds ; 
molasses, 3,162 gallons; wine, 420 gallons, etc. The value of orchard products was $8,434, and of market-garden 
products, $8,848. 

Products of An'imals.— Woo], 373,893 (in 1340,23,0-39) pounds; butter, 2,171.188 pounds; and cheese, 209,840 pounds; 
and the value of animals slaughtered during (he year hail been $821,164. Silk cocoons were produced to the amount 
of 246 pounds; and beeswax and honey, to that of 321,711 i)oiiiids. 
J/<jme-made munitfactun's f )r the year ending )st -lune, 1S50, were valued at $221,292 (in 1840, at $25,966). 
Manufactures. — Aggregate capital invested, $6.''5a,410 ; value of raw material, fuel, etc., consumed, $2,093,844 ; average 
hands employed, ^males , ami females ; averag? monthly cost of la'.wir — male $ , and female 

$ ; annual value of produrts. $3,393,542. The whole number of maniinicturliiir establishments producing to the value 

of $500 aiul upward, in 1850, was 482 ; and ofthe.se, 1 was a woolen factory, 14 were tanneries, and 3 were for the manu- 
facture of cast iron. The balance of the manufactures and handicrafts, making up the sum of the establishments, consist 
of such as minister to the immediate wants of agricultural communities. 

The xvoolen manufacture employed a capital of $10,000; wool consumed, 14,500 pounds; value of all raw material, 
$•3,500; hands employed, 7; monthly cost of labor, $73; entire annual value of products, $18,000; cloth produced, 
14,000 yards. 

The tanneries employed a capital of $20,350; value of raw material consumed, $10,745 ; average hands, 28; monthly 
cost of labor, $543; number of skins tanned, 850, and of sides tanned, 10,680; value of products, $24,520. 

In the manufacture of cast iron, $5,.500 is invested ; pig iron, 31 tons, and coke and charcoal, 200 bushels — valued at 
$2,524 — consumed ; average hands, 17 ; monthly cost of labor, $550 ; castings made, Tl tons ; value of entire products, $8,500. 
These summaries of the different national manufactures are relatively small ; but they are a germ which the immense 
water-power of the country and the spirit of the people will soon foster into interests of magnitude and importance. 

Commerce and Internal Communication. — Iowa has no direct trade with foreign countries, but its trade with the 
Atlantic and Gulf ports is comparatively extensive, its exports consisting principally of the products of agriculture and 
the mines, and its imports of the manufactures of Europe and the Eastern States, groceries, wine, etc. The shipping 
ports are Keokuk, Fort Madison, Burlington, Muscatine City, Davenport, Lyons, BeUevue, Dubuque, etc., at all which 
places a busy trade is carried on with the interior. The annual value of the commerce of Keokuk, at the mouth of Dea 
Moines Elver, though a city numbering less than seven years' existence, amounts to between five and six million dollars, 
and at the other ports the value of the import and export trade is little less in value. Keokuk is the entrep6t and dep6t of 
the whole valley of the Des Moines — a region in which more than half the population and agricultural wealth of the State 
is concentrated ; and when the contemplated improvements in the navigation of the river are completed, it must of neces- 
sity become one of the most important of Western commercial cities. The exports from Dubuque consist chiefly of lead. 
Keokuk, Davenport, Lyons, and Dubuque will shortly be connected with the interior by railroads, and hence their 
commerce will be indefinitely enlarged, and the interests of the whole State be developed by the increased facilities these 
highways will afford to transportation. Most of the railroads will centre at Iowa City, from which point a grand trunk 
railroad will be carried westward to Council Bluffs, on the Missouri, and thence, in the progress of events, to the Pacific 
Ocean. None of these roads are completed ; but, perhaps, as a means of developing the wealth of the interior, these lines 
are of inferior importance to the grand project of opening the channel of the Des Moines to steam navigation, as before 
alluded to: it will thus become the channel through which the greater part of the commerce of the country will pass, and 
along its banks will rise up cities and towns, equal in magnitude and wealth, to those on the Illinois or the Hudson — in 
fact, it will become as important to lovva as those rivers are to the States through which they have their courses. Through 
Iowa will also pass a link of the great chain of North and South railroads, connecting St. Louis with the extreme settle- 
ments of Minnesota, etc. That portion of this chain within Missouri is already provided for, and will have the aid of the 
State to build it, and the same policy in relation to State aid will probably be pursued in Iowa. 

Banking. — The constitution provides that "no corporation with banking privileges shall be created; and all persons 
or associations shall be prohibited by law from banking or creating paper to circulate as money." There is, however, a 
bank at Dubuque, called the Miners' Bank. 



i of this State was taken in the latter part of the year 18.*j2 : the population of the counties was as follows: Allamalcee 2,000, Appanoose 
4,2-13, Benton 1,237, Black Hawk 315, Boone l,0-2-l, Bremer .'J09, Buchanan l.OiZl, Butler 73, Cedar 4,971, Clark 549, Clayton 6,318, Clinton 3,822, 
Dallas 1,216, Davis 7,5.i3, Decatur 1,184, Delaware 2,61S, Des Moines 12,S2.5, Dubuque 12,-500, Fayette 2,065, Fremont 2,044. Guthrie 300, Henry 
9,6*), Iowa 1,323, Jackson 8,231, Jasper 1,974, Jeffersoi; 10,22.5, Johnson fi,7S8, Jones 4,201, Keokuk 5,306, Lee 20,360, Linn 6,S90, Louisa 6,470 
Lucas 1,016, Madison 1,832, Mahaska 7,479. Marion 6,289, Marshall 710, Mills l,4b3, Monroe 3,431, Muscatine 6,812, Page 636, Polk 5,939, Pot 
towattomee 5,0'i7, Poweshiek 915, Ringgold 250, Kisley 123, Scott 8,628, Story 214, Tama 262, Taylor 479, Union 79, Van Buren 13,763, Wapello 
8,888, Warren 1,488, Washington 5,881, Wayne 79-1, Winneshiek l,523,Yell 260. 

105 



THE STATE OF IOWA. 



Government. — The constitution, the basis of tho present government of Iowa, was adopted 3d August, lSi6. Its prin- 
cipal provisions are as follows : 

Every white male citizen of the United States, twenty-one years of age, insane and infamous persons excepted, having 
resided in the State six mouths and in the county in which he claims to vole thirty days, is allowed the right of suffrage. 
The general election is held biennially on first Monday iu August 

The Legislature is styled the G<-ncral Assembly, and consists of a Senate of 30 members, and a House of Eepresenta- 
tives of 69 members. The number of representatives is not to exceed 72, and senators not less than a third, nor more 
than a half of that number. Senators are chosen for lour years, one half every two years, and must be 25 years of age ; 
and representatives are chosen for two years — both senators and representatives must have been resident in the State at 
least one year next before the election. Tho governor's veto to any act of the Legislature is nullified by a subsequent 
two-thirds vote of both houses in favor of the rejected law. No member of either house is eligible to any ofBce created or 
the emoluments of which have been increased during his term of service. No person holding any lucrative office under 
tho State or United States, is eligible to a seat in the House of Ilepresentatives. No law shall embrace more than one 
object, and that shall be expressed in its title. No divorce shall be granted by the Legislature. A census of the State 
is taken every two years, and after each enumeration members are apportioned among the several counties according to 
the number of white inhabitants in each. The Legislature meets at Iowa City biennially on the first Monday of De- 
cember. 

The governor is chosen for four years by a plurality of votes ; he must be at least 30 years of age, and have resided in 
the State two years next preceding. In case of disability of the governor, his place is occupied by the Secretary of State, 
and after him by the President of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Kepresentatives. The chief administrative 
officers arc a Secretary of State, a State Auditor, and a State Treasurer, chosen by the peojile each for two years. 

The Judiciary Qow^Xsii of a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and courts of local jurisdiction. The Supreme Court con- 
sists of a chief and two associate justices, elected by joint vote of the General Assembly for six years, and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. Any two of the judges form a quorum. The court holds a session each year in each 
of the five Supreme Court districts into which the State is divided. This court has appellate jurisdiction only in all 
chancery cases, and corrects errors at law under restrictions provided by the Legislature. The Supreme Court has a re- 
porter. For tlie purpose of holding District Court.s, the State is divided into six districts. The judges of this court arc 
elected by the voters of their district for five years, and until their successors are elected and qualified ; a prosecuting 
attorney and clerk of the District Court are elected each for two years by the voters of each county. Each county also 
elects a judge of probate, etc. Justices of the peace have jurisdiction in civil cases where the amount in controversy docs 
not exceed .$100, and by consent of parties when it is below $500. 

Among the special provisions of the constitution are the following: No State debt shall be created exceeding $100,000 
except in case of war or insurrection, unless authorized by a special law which shall provide for the payment of the in- 
terest and of the principal within 20 years, which law shall be irrepealable, and before going into effect must be submit- 
ted to the people at a general election, having been published in at least one newspaper in each judicial district for 
three months preceding, and be approved by a majority of the voters. Corporations other than for banking purposes 
may be organized under general laws with certain resolutions. The State shall never become a stockholder in any 
corporation. 

Finances, PuUio Debt, etc.— On the SOth November, 1S50, the funded debt of the State amounted to $79,442, on which 
the annual interest was $5,304; to this should be added auditor's warrants unpaid, ,$10,771— total debt, $90,313. The 
expenditures for the two years ending at the above period amounted to $7.5,410, namely — expenses of legislature, .$7,45S; 
executive, $11,200; judiciary, $18,979; public buildings at Iowa Citj', $3,200; interest, $11,092; and public printing, 
$8,02S. The revenue is derived from taxes upon real an<l personal projierty, which, according to the assessors' returns 
for 1S50, was valued at $22,623,834, being $4,114,567 more than in 1849. The levy for State purposes was 2} mills on the 
doll.ar — the tax for 1S49 was .$47,296, and for 1850 $56,558. The following are the various objects of taxation in 1S50 — 
polls, 332,2>9 ; land, 3,752,168 acres— $13,277,483 ; town lots, etc., $3,040,546 ; capital employed in merchandise, $837,237 ; 
mills, manufactories, distilleries, carding machines, and tan yards, with stock, etc., $432,238 ; liorses over two years old, 
88,585— $1,400,475; mules and asses over a year old, 305— $15,591 ; neat cattle over two years old, 99,406— $1,106,055; 
sheep over six months old, 140,599— $155,765 ; hogs six months old, 200,452— $202,897 ; pleasure carriages, 3,922^ 
$151,904; watches, 3,577 — $4.3,702 ; piano fortes, 55 — $8,1.35; capital, stocks, and profits in any incorporated or unincor- 
porated company, $13,107 ; boats and vessels, $15,089; all other personal property over $100 — $207,.554; gold and silver 
coin and bank notes in actual possession, $238,371 ; claims for money or other consideration, $470,858 ; annuities, $981 ; 
notes, mortgages, etc., $105,956 ; miscellaneous property, $90,^09- total, $22,623,.334. 

Federal Iiepre.sentation. — Iowa, in conformity with the law regulating the apportionment of members to the United 
States House of Representatives, occupies two seats in that body. 

Jieligions Denominations. — The statistics of the several religious denominations in 1850 were as follows : 



Denomina- No nf 


Church 


Vahie of 


Denomina No o( 


Cliurch 


Vnlueof 


Denomina- No. of 


Cl 


<irrh 


Value of 


tions Churclies, 


accom. 


Prciperty. 


tions. Chon-hes 


accorn. 


Froperty. 


tionB CImrclies 


at 


com. 


I'roperty. 


Baptist 16 .. 


3,497 . 


$19,550 


Jewish — . 


— . 


$- 


Tunker — . 




— . 


$- 


Christian 8 . . 


2,125 . 


6,300 


Lutheran 4 . 


. 1,000 . 


6,950 


Union 2 . 




450 . 


7,100 


Congregafl. . . 14 . . 


4,725 . 


21,550 


Mennonite . ,. — • . 


— . 


— 


Unitarian — . 




— . 


— 


Dutch Kef ... — . . 


— . 


— 


Methodist.... 50 . 


. 12,197 . 


43,450 


Universalist.. 1 . 




200 . 


1,600 


Episcopal 4 .. 


670 . 


5,000 


Moravian 2 . 


. 500 . 


2,200 


Minor Sects . . — . 




— . 


_ 


Free 






Presbyterian 24 . 
K. Catholic... 17 , 


. 6,055 . 
. 3,990 . 


2S,:350 
2.S,250 










Friends 5 .. 


1,5.50 . 


6,300 


Total.... 148 


3i 


,759 


$177,400 


German Eef.. 1 .. 


200 . 


SOO 


Swedenbor'g — , 


— . 


— 











The total number of churches in the State is 143, in which is provided accommodation for 37,759 persons, and the valoo 
of church property is $177,400. Iowa constitutes a diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Churcfi, and is included in the 
Eoman (Catholic diocese of Dubuque. 

Education. — A superintendent of puhlio instruction is chosen by the people for three years. All lands grante<i by 
Congress to this State, all escheated estates, and such per centagc as may be granted by Congress on the sale of the Pubi^ 
lie Lands in Iowa, constitute a perpetual fund, the interest of which, and the rents of the unsold lands, are applicable to 
106 



SOMETHING FOR THE MILLION!! 



Eastern Depot, 
BROADWAY. 



-^ HAIR 



AVestern Depot, 
MARKET ST. 



is the only Preparation which will in all cases 
TO ITS 

O DEL X G^ X IN- .ia. Xj OOXjOXt- 

Prevent the Hair from falling off, — produce New Hair upon 
Bald Heads, and Eradicate all Eruptions upon the Scalp — leaving 
the Hair and Scalp in a healthy condition. Giving the Hair a 
fresh and Glossy appearance. As a cleansing and dressing com- 
pound, it stands unrivalled. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

His medicines are imiversally admitted by the American press to be far superior to all others for 
'causing the hair on the head of the aged, that has been silvered for many years, to grow forth with as 
much vigor and luxuriance as when blessed with the advantages of youth. There can be no doubt 
that it is one of the greatest discoveries in the medical world. It restores permanently gray hair to 
its original color, and makes it assume a beautiful silky texture, which has been very desirable in all 
ages of the world. — Cincinnati Daily Sun, April 27, 185'1. 

What is it For — This Wood's Hair Restorative? — Is a question asked daily by hundreds. We 
answer, without hesitation or fear of contradiction, that it is the only article known which will do all 
it promises for the human hair. It will renew its growth — it will stop its falling — it will restore its 
natural color ! It is not a Hair Dye, but a speedy and efficacious Restorative. — Baltimore Sun. 

Those who have used Professor Wood's Hair Restorative are sufficiently cognizant of its excellent 
qualities, but others may not be aware that it is no ordinary article. It was discovered by Professor | 
Wood, an able chemist and Professor of that Science, while experimenting to find a remedy for the 
falling out of his own hair. Its wonderful efFectsin his own case and that of some private friends, and 
their urgent requests, induced him to ofieritto the public. — Baltimore Binpatch. 

We have tried it ourself, and can testify to its utility as a preserver of that beautiful ornament, the 
Hair. Of its modus operandi we know nothing, and doubt whether any one else does ; but of its effects 
we do know. We believe it to be an important item to old bachelors and widowers, whose hairless 
pates are in the way of wedlock. Try it, gentlemen. — Louisville Times. 

We advise those of our friends, in a state of single blessedness, who would win the idol of their 
hearts, and enjoy that domestic felicity known only to those in married life, to restore the hair on their 
bald pates, change their gray locks to their original color, make them glossy as silk, by using Prof. 
Wood's Hair Restorative. It is now the standard remedy for all diseases of the hair and skin. — 
Louisville Journal. 

It is not a "Hair Dye;" but upon its application, as directed, the effect is produced on the skin, 
which brings out the original native colored hair, without stiffness, and gives it a glossy and natural 
appearance. We have seen persons who have used it, and they are much pleased with it. Examine 
the advertisement. — Missouri Mspuhlican. 

While preparations of this nature were entrusted to quacks, and ignorant manufacturers of perfumes 
and cosmetics, much and irreparable mischief was inflicted on many a credulous and deluded sufferer. 
But when scientific men like Professor Wood, bring the lights of physiology and chemistry to bear 
upon the treatment of such specialties, the result is the complete success which the certificates of 
thousands of relieved sufferers bear testimony to. See his advertisement. — Detroit Oath, Vindicator. 

^ Can be had at all Popular Drug Stores throughout the World. 



15 



AilEilOAl^ ilEilOAL @iLLEii 



WALMT STREET, between Fourth and Fifth Streets, 

CIJVCIJVJV^TT, OHIO. 




Incorporated in 1854 — Whole Number of Matriculants, 275. 

REV. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, President. 



CYRUS DAVENPORT, Vice President. 



GEORGE D. FRY, Secretary. 



This College holds two sessions annually. The Winter Session opens on the last Mon- 
day of October, and continues sixteen weeks. It is preceded by a preliminary course of 
two weeks. Tiie Spring Term opens on tlie Monday immedi.ately succeeding the close of 
the Winter Term, and continues fourteen weeks. Ample opportunities for clinical instruc- 
tion are afforded to the students of this institution at the Commercial Hospital. 

All students are required to engage in dissections at least one session before graduation 
and to present to the Dean a certificate of the length of time they have devoted to the study 
of Medicine. The requisites for graduation are a good moral character, three years of 
Medical study, and two full courses of Medical Lectures, one of which must be in this 
Institution. 

Graduates of all other respectable Medical Schools are admitted to the Lectures of this 
upon payment of the Matriculation Fee. Much additional information may thus be ob- 
tained by gentlemen who have graduated at other institutions. The members of tlie Fac- 
ulty are liberal and progressive, and will cultivate a spirit of courtesy to those differing 
from them in the details of medical pi-actice. 

For further information address 

T. J. WRIGHT, M. D., Dean, 

No. 8 George Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



THE STATE OF IOWA. 



the support of common schools. It is the duty of the Legislature to provide a school in each school district for at least 
three months in each year ; and all moneys received from exemption from military duty and for fines imposed by the 
courts, are appropriated to such schools, or for the establishment of school libraries. The moneys arising from the sale 
or lease of public lands granted for the support of a University remain a perpetual fund to maintain such an institution. 
The school fund amounts to about .$200,000. 

libraries.— One State library, containing 2,500 volumes ; and 4 public school libraries, containing 160 volumes— total 5 
libraries, and 2,660 volumes. 

Public Press.— The public press of Iowa consists of 32 periodicals and newspapers, of which 24 are devoted to politics 
(12 whig and 12 democratic), and S to literature, religion, science, etc. One of these is published tri-weekly, and circu- 
lates 1,200 copies at each issue ; 28 are weekly issues, with an aggregate circulation of 18,390 copies, and there are issued 
at other periods— 1 semi-monthly, and 2 monthly, circulating 4,050 copies. The tri-weekly and 3 weekly papers are pub- 
lished at Burlington, 4 weeklies at Dubuque, 2 weeklies and 1 monthly at Mount Pleasant, 1 weekly at Andrew, 2 at 
Fairfield, 2 at Iowa City, 2 at Fort Madison, 1 at Keokuk, 1 at Wapello, 1 at Oskaloosa, 2 at Muscatine, 2 at Fort Des 
Moines, 2 at Davenport, 1 at Keosauqua, 2 at Ottumwa, 1 semi-monthly at Kancsville, and 1 monthly at Tipton. 

Indian Cessiom.—XJnlU. as late as the year 1S32, the whole territory north of the Stat« of Missouri was in undisputed 
possession of the Indians. By a treaty made in 1S30, the Sacs and Foxes, who were then the principal tribes, had ceded 
to the United States the best of their lands east of the Mississippi River. Their unwillingness to leave the ceded terri- 
tory, in compliance with the treaty, led to the " Black Hawk War," which resulted in the total defeat of the Indians at 
the Battle of the Bad Axe, in Wisconsin, on the 2d of August, 1S32. In the September following, partly as an indemnity 
for the expenses of the war, and partly to secure the future safety and tranquillity of the invaded frontier, a slip of country 
on the west of the Mississippi, extending nearly 300 miles north of Missouri, and about 50 miles in width (now commonly 
called the Mack Ilatck purchase), was ceded to the United States, and in June, 1S33, the settlement of Iowa by the 
white man was commenced. 

Further purchases were made successively in the years 1836 and 1837 ; and in 1842, by a treaty concluded by Governor 
Chambers, an immense tract of land, containing some 15,000,000 acres, was purchased of the Sac« and Foxes for the 
sum of $1,000,000. This tract, known as the " new purchase," now contains some of the finest counties in the State, 
though a large part of it was occupied by the Indians until October in 1845. 

The Pottowattomies, who inhabited the south-western comer of the State, and the Winnebagoes, who occupied the 
" neutral ground," a strip of country on the northern borders, have been peaceal)Iy removed within the past few years, and 
the Indian title thus became extinct in the whole country lying within the established limits of the State of Iowa. — Sargent, 

Historical Sketch. — Iowa was originally a part of the French province of Louisiana, which was purchased by the 
United States in 1803. The first white settlements were made in 1686, at Dubuque, by Frenchmen, who built a fort at 
that point and commenced a trade with the Indians, which was the sole dependence of the place for more than a century 
and a half. It is here that the great lead mines of the State were first discovered, but at a later period. The territory 
now comprised within the State was a part of the Missouri Territory ft-om 1804 to 1821, but after that was placed suc- 
cessively under the jurisdiction of Michigan and Wisconsin territories. In June, 1838, it was erected into the separate 
Territorial Government of Iowa ; under which was also included all that portion of the present Territory of Minnesota 
west of the Mississippi Eiver, and on the 3d December, 1846, it was admitted into the Union as an independent State. 

Suceession of Governors.— T-ER^iTomAi. Governors: Robert Lucas, 1838; John Chambers, 1841; James Clarke, 
1846 ; and— Governors under the Constitittion : Ansel Briggs, 1&46 ; Stephen Hempstead, 1850. 

Iowa City, on the left bank of Iowa Eiver, is the political capital of the State ; previous to May, 1839, Burlington, on 
the Mississippi, was the seat of government. 

107 



THE STATE OF KEITTJCKY. 



Kentucky ia separated ftom Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois by the Ohio River, which demarlvs its north boundary ; and 
from Missouri by the Mississippi Kiver, its western boundary. The east boundary is formed chiefly by Big Sandy Kiver 
and the Cumberland Mountains, which separate it from Virginia, and on the south the boundary is co-terminus with the 
north boundary of Tennessee. The State lies generally between tlie latitudes 36° 30' and 39° 12' N., and between the 
longitudes 82° 02' and 89° 40' W. from Greenwich, or 5° 00' and l'2'^3i' W, from Washington, lis greatest lengtli on the 
parallel of Cairo, in Illinois, is 36S miles, and its greatest width on the meridian of North Bend, in Ohio, is 16S miles ; but 
the Irregularity of its outline in some parts narrows its width to 40 miles, as on the east line of Graves County, and its 
length varies as much as 100 miles from a maximum. The estimated land area of the State is 37,CS0 square miles. 

The face of the country may be generally described as level or moderately uneven. The levels, however, are not lilce a 
carpet, but are interspersed with small risings and declivities, which make a scene of varying interest. In the south-east 
the Cumberland Mountains, which form tlie boundary toward Virginia, except fr^pi this character ; but even here no 
great elevations are attained, yet they give to that portion of the country a rugged and mountainous aspect, and their 
numerous spurs or otTshoots, projecting quite into the middle of the State, render the surface of tlie whole eastern division 
somewhat broken and hilly. Farther westward the country becomes undulating, abounding in bold features, although 
the hills are much less abrupt than in the east, and gradually sink down with more rounded forms an<l gentler acclivi- 
ties, until merged into the almost level plains of the Cumberland, Tennessee, and Mississippi rivers. Along the Ohio, and 
extending from 10 to 20 miles in different places from it, are the Ohio Hills, parallel with that beautiful stream. These 
hills are often high, generally gracefully rounded and conical, with narrow vales and bottoms around their bases, anti give 
to the country through which they extend a rough appearance ; they are covered with lofty forests, and have often a good 
Boil on their sides and summits; and the alluvial bottoms between them and the Ohio, and along the streams which fall 
into tliat river, are of the richest description. 

In the geology of Kentucky the blue limestone occupies a conspicuous place ; it forms the surface rock in a large part 
of the State, and is used for building purposes. Among the cliffs of the Kentucky Eiver is found an excellent marble, 
capable of a fine polish. The cliff limestone is the base of the Ohio Falls at Louisville ; the slate or shale is very common, 
bituminous, and supports combustion, and contains iron pyrites and ores, giving rise to mineral springs. The sand or 
freestone extends from Danville to Louisville, etc., and is used in the arts, and even for grindstones. The cavernous 
limestone, as its name imports, gives rise to many eaves, the most famous of which is the Mammoth Cave.* The 
limestone region, indeed, abounds in caverns, sinks, and subterranean water-courses. Several of the caves are of ex- 
traordinary dimensions, but tlie one above mentioned is the most spacious and best known. The sinks or sink-holes 
are cavities or depressions on the surface of the ground, resembling those of Florida, already described, but of infe- 
rior extent; they are commonly in the shape of inverted cones, 60 or 70 feet in depth, and from 60 to 300 feet in circum- 
ference at the top. Their sides and bottoms are generally covered with willows and aquatic productions, and tlie ear can 
often distinguish the sound of waters flowing under them. It is believed that these sinks arc perforations in the bed 
of limestone below the soil, which have causeil the earth to sink. Sometimes the ground has been opened, and disclosed 
a subterranean stream of water at the bottom of these cavities. The conglomerate or pudding-stone consists of quartz 
pebbles, rounded and united with fine sand by a kind of natural cement : it underlies the coal formation. Tlie coal-beds 

* It is situated midway between Louisville and Nashville, and is a fashionable place of resort The cave is approached through a romantic 
shade. At the entrance is a rush of cold air; a descent of 30 feet, by stone steps, and an advance of IM teet inward, brings the visitor to flie door, 
in a solid stone wall, wliicli blocks up the entrance of the cave. A narrow passage leads to the great vestibule, or antechamber, an oval hall, 200 
by ISO feet, and 50 feet high. Two passages, of one hundred feet width, open into it, and the whole is supported without a single column. Tliis 
chamber was used by the races of yore as a cemetery, judging from the bones of gigantic size which are discovered. A hundred feet above your 
liead you catch a fitful glimpse of a dark gray ceiling, rolling dimly away like a cloud ; and heavy buttresses, apparently bending under the superin- 
cumbent weight, project their enormous masses from the shadowy wall The scene is vast, solemn, and awful. In the silence that pervades, you 
can distinctly hear the throbbings of your heart. In Audubon Avenue. leading from the hall, is a deep well of pure spring water, surnmnded by 
Btalagmite columns from tl:e floor to the roof The Link But Room, contains a pit 280 feet deep, and is the resort of myriads of bats. The Grand 
Gallety is a vast tunnel, many miles long a.id 69 feet high, and as wide. At the end of the first quarter of a mile are the Kentucky Cliffs, and the 
Church, 100 feet in diamater and K! feet high. A natural pulpit and organ loft are not wanting. '• In this temple religious services have frequently 
been performed " Tlie Gothic Avenue, reached by a flight of stairs, is 40 feet wide, 15 feet high, and 3 miles long. Mummies have been dacovered 
here, which have been the subject of curious study to science; there are also stalagmites and stalactites, Louisa's Dower and Vulcan's Furnace. 
On X\ieviMsi^(\.he Register Rooms are inscribed thousands of names. " The Gu(Aic C/mpt/, when illuminated with lamps, inspires the beholder 
with feelings of solemnity and awe." At the foot of the DeviCs Arm chair is a small basin of sulphur water. Then there is the Breastwork, tl.o 
Elephant's Head, Lover's Leap, Gatewood's Dining Table, and the Cooling Tub, a basin 6 feet wide and 3 feet deep, of the purest water, Napo. 
Icon's J)ome, etc. The Ball Room contains an orchestra 15 feet high ; near by is a row of cabins for consumptive patients— the atmosphere being 
always temperate and pure. The i'^ar CV.nmdtr presents an optical illusion. " In looking up the spectator seems to see the firmament itself, 
studded with stars, and afar off a comet with a bright tail." The Temple is an immense vault, covering an area of two acres, ami covered by a 
single dome of solid rock, 120 feet high. It rivals the celebrated vault in the Grotto of Antiparos, which is said to be the largest in the world. In 
the middle of the dome there is a large mound of rocks rising on one side nearly to the top, very steep, and forming wh.at is called the Mountain. 
The River Hall descends like the slope of a mountain; the ceiling stretches away before you, vast and grand as the firmament at midnight A 
short distance on the left is a steep precipice, over which you can look down, by the aid of torches, upon a broad, black sheet of water, 80 feet 
below, called the Dead Sea. This is an awfolly impressive pl.ace, the sights and sounds of which do not easily pass from memory. The Mammoth 
Cave is said to be explored to Uie distance of ten miles without reaching its termination, while the aggregate width of all the branches is over 
forty miles ! Next to Niagara, it is the wonder of nature in the Western World, or, perhaps, throughout all her domains. 

108 ' 



OF 




(Located in Cincinnati, Ohio.) 




The regular course of Lectures commences in this Institution on the first Monday of 
November and closes last of February. 

F^CTJIL.TY: 

JAMES TAYLOR, M. D., D. D. S., Professor of the Institutes of Dental Science. 
C. B. CHAPMAN, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 
J. B. SMITH, M. D., Professor of Pathology and Therapeutics. 
JONATHAN TAFT, D. D. S., Professor of Operative Dentistry. 
H. R. SMITH, M, D., D. D. S., Professor of Mechanical Dentistry. 
GEORGE WATT, M. D., D. D. S., Professor of Chemistry and Metallurgy. 
The Infirmary is kept open during the entire year. Candidates for graduation must have attended 
two full courses of Lectures, the last in this School. Certificates of four years practice, or one full 
course in any respectable Dental or Regular Medical College will be received as equivalent to the 
first course. 

TICKETS FOR THE ENTIRE COURSE, - - $100 00 

MATRICULATION TICKET, 5 00 

DIPLOMA FEE, 25 00 



GEORGE WATT, Dean. 



wmmmw 



m 



^'M 






IN EVERY STYLE AND OF EVERY SIZE. 

No. 479 MAIN STREET, Louisville, Kentucky. 

CHARL.es ROOSE5 

DEALER IN 

STATE STREET, Obetween Main Street and the River,) 

mmw ^m^mw^ wmmiAm&m 



(Successor to Flumer & Buslmell,) 

Jf0rkr!tyin0 ma €mmmm '^txc\mi, 

AND DEALER IN 

lEON, NAILS, SPIKES, COEDAGE, 

PAINTS, OILS, «&C, 
JV, If*. Corner of IV!^Z,Z, and n\lTJEK SITHXIETS, 

JAMES H. SHIELDS. JOHN F. CASEY. 

JAS. H. SHIELDS & CO., 



k IS' 



IBM 

Sole Agents of the Kanawha Salt Company. 
STATE STREET, (between Main Street and the River,) 
„ 3 :n:es-%7S7' -A.Xj:Bua.Kr-y, xjstt^. 



THE STATE OF KENTUCKY 



of Kentucky are continuous of those of the Illinois and Ohio ; they cover 10,000 or 12,000 square miles, and are very 
accessible, but hitherto the quantity of coal mined has not been to any great amount— not more than five or six million 
bushels a year. Iron is equally abundant in the State, and it, too, is comparatively neglected, but from its deposits being 
mainly on or near navigable streams, it must inevitably become a source of future wealth to the country. An estimate 
of the quantity embraced has been fixed at 33,000,000 tons. Small quantities of lead are also traced in Kentucky, and 
silver ore has lately been discovered near the Cumberland Falls. Salt springs abound in the sandstone formation and 
have become very productive. Saltpetre-earth, or nitrate of lime, gypsum, or plaster of Paris, are found in the eaves. 
Mineral springs are numerous, embracing sulphur, saline, chalybeaie, etc. The salt springs received the name of " licks" 
from the early settlers, on account of their being the favorite resorts of the wild animals, which were fond of licking tho 
efflorescences so abundant around them. The name is also applied to the sulphureted fountains which occur in various 
places. 

The most productive soil of Kentucky is that of the blue limestone formation ; and in the neighborhood of Lexington 
and toward the Ohio, the country based on that rock is said to be the garden of the State. The line demarking this 
region passes from the Ohio round the heads of Licking and Kentucky rivers, Dick's Kiver, and down Great Green 
Eiver to the Ohio ; and in this great compass of above 100 miles square is found one of the most fertile and extraordinary 
countries on which the sun has ever shone. The soil is of a loose, deep, and black mold, without sand — on first-rato 
lands, from two to three feet deep, and exceedingly luxuriant in all its productions. It is well watered by fine springs and 
streams, and its beautiful climate and the salubrity of the country are unequaled, the winter, even, being seldom so inclement 
as to render the housing of cattle necessary. In a state of nature, nearly the whole surface of this region was covered with 
a dense forest of majestic trees, and a close undergrowth of gigantic reeds, forming what in the country are called cane- 
brakes. In the southern part, however, on the head waters of Green Eiver and its tributaries, is an extensive tract, thinly 
wooded, and covered in summer with high grass growing amid scattered and stunted oaks : struck with the contrast this re- 
gion presented to the luxuriant forests of the neighboring districts, the first settlers gave the country the unpromising name 
of " barrens." As a general thing, the terra is by no means appropriate. There are, indeed, portions of the barrens, 
which are known as the knobs, that are too sterile and rugged to admit of cultivation ; but the soil is generally productive, 
although not of the first quality, and is well suited for grazing. There are also tracts in the mountain regions and portions 
of land on the Ohio Hills too much broken for general agriculture; but as a whole, Kentucky has as great a proportion 
of the best soils as any other of her sister States, and from the splendor of its climate, has many advantages possessed by 
few other regions. 

The country in general may be considered as well timbered, producing large trees of many kinds, and to be exceeded 
by no country in variety. Perhaps among its forest growths none is more valuable to the settler than the sugar-tree, 
which grows in all parts, and furnishes every family with a plenty of excellent sugar ; and the honey-locust, so curiously 
surrounded by large thorny spikes, bears long pods in the form of peas, having a sweet flavor, and from which domestic 
beer is made. The coffee-tree, greatly resembling the black oak, grows large, and also bears a pod in which is inclosed 
coffee. The pawpaw bears a fine fruit like a cucumber in shape and size, and of a sweet taste. The cane, on which 
cattle feed and grow fat, in general grows from three to twelve feet high, is of a hard substance, with joints at eight or 
ten inches distance along the stalk, from which proceed leaves resembling the willow. There are many cane-brakes, so 
thick and tall that it is difficult to pass through them. Where no cane grows there is an abundance of wild rye, clover, 
and buffalo-grass covering vast tracts, and affording excellent pasture for cattle ; and the fields are covered with wild 
herbage not common to other countries. Here is seen the finest crown imperial in the world, the cardinal flower, so 
much extolled for its scarlet color ; and all the year, except the short winter months, the plains and valleys are adorned 
with a variety of flowers of the most admirable beauty. Here is also found the tulip-bearing laurel-tree, or magnolia, 
which is very fragrant, and continues to blossom and seed for several months together. 

Among the agricultural staples of Kentucky, hemp and flax are the most conspicuous. Tobacco is also extensively 
grown; and the Indian com and wheat of this State are large crops and excellent in quality. The first-named — hemp, 
flax, and tobacco — are, however, the great staples. The hemp crop of Kentucky is five-eighths of the whole yield of the 
United States — that of dew-rotted hemp is two-thirds, and that of water-rotted hemp is seven-twelfths of the whole of tho 
respective descriptions ; four-sevenths of the crop of flux is grown in Kentucky ; and the tobacco crop yields more than 
a fourth of the aggregate of that production. Its wheat crop is surpassed in quantity by only ten States ; its Indian corn 
crop is surpassed only by that of Ohio ; only two States ha«e larger crops of oats ; only six produce more wool ; only four a 
larger abundance of market-garden products ; only seven more butter ; only two more beeswax and honey ; and only one 
exceeds it in its home-made manufactures. The cash value of its farms makes it fourth in the list of States in point 
of agricultural wealth, and only three other States possess a greater wealth in live-stock, and one other equals it in the 
latter respect. And yet, with all this vast amount of wealth and production, not cme-half of its surface was under cultiva- 
tion in 1S49-50, to which period the above returns refer. 

Nature has been most bountiful to this State in its noble rivers and useful streams. Beside the great peripheral waters, 
the Ohio, Mississippi, etc., several large and important water-courses traverse the interior, and, with the single exception 
of the Upper Cumberland, these flow in a uniform direction from south-east to north-west; and while the Ohio is the 
recipient of all the great rivers of the State, the Mississippi only receives a few inconsiderable streams of trifling use as 
avenues of commerce. The Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, and Cumberland rise in the same region in the mountains of the 
south-east The Kentucky is a rapid stream, running, like the other rivers of the State, in a deep channel with a rocky 
bed and generally perpendicular banks ; it flows through a rich and highly cultivated country, and in high stages of tho 
water is navigable for steamboats to Frankfort, 60 miles, and for flat boats about 100 miles further. The Licking, which 
also flows through a rich region of country, enters the Ohio, opposite Cincinnati, and affords boat navigation for about SO 
miles. Salt River rises in the centre of the State ; it has a great volume of water in proportion to the length ot its course, 
and is navigable for boats for 100 miles. It receives from the south a large tributary, called the Boiling Fork. Green 
River, likewise, rises in the centre of the State, and takes a westerly course, until having received the Big Barren Elver 
from the south, it turns to the north-west ; it has a gentle current, with great depth of water. Steamboats go up to 
Bowling Green, on the Big Barren, ISO miles, and flat boats ascend nearly to the heads of the river. The Cumberland 
has its sources and its mouth in Kentucky, but the greater part of its course is in Tennessee. Eising on the western 
decUvity of the Cumberland Mountains, it passes into the latter, and returning north, enters the Ohio in the former State. 
Its course is about 600 miles long, and steamboats go up to Nashville, Tenn., 200 miles, and in high stages of water even 
to Burkesville, in Kentucky. The Tennessee, being separated from the Cumberland by the mountains of that name, has 

109 



THE STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



no portion of its head waters in Kentucky, but it enters the- State about 70 miles above its mouth, and admits steamboats to 
Florence, in Ala., a distance of about 300 miles. The navigation of several of these rivers has been improved by locks, 
etc., and in some the obstructions are overcome by canals and railroads. 

Kentucky is divided into 100 counties, the general statistics of which and the capitals of each, according to the ofiScial 
returns referriag to the year 1S50, were as follows: 



Counties. 



Dwell. 



Adair 1,513. 

AUen 1,249. 

Anderson 883. 

Ballard 775. 

Barren 2,667. 

Bath 1,595. 

Boone 1,615 

Bourbon 1,S4S. 

Boyle 927. 

Bracken 1,4.37. 

Breathitt 6'25. 

Breckenridge ..1,452, 

Bullitt 970 

Butler 897. 

CaldweU 1,746. 

Callaway 1,191. 

CampbeU 2,319, 

Carroll 706 . 

Carter 944. 

Casey I,0ii5. 

Christian 1,905. 

Clark 1,364. 

Clay 7s2. 

Clinton 774. 

Crittenden 97S. 

Cumberland.. . . 942. 

Daviess 1,631. 

Edmonson 651 . 

Estill 934. 

Fayette 2,089. 

Fleming 1,983. 

Floyd 862. 

Franklin 1,453. 

Fulton 586. 

Gallatin 747. 

Garrard l,2!-5. 

Grant 1,031. 

Graves 1,694. 

Grayson 1,065. 

Green 1,105. 

Greenup 1,529. 

Hancock 551 . 

Hardin 2,005. 

Harlan 687. 

Harrison 1,753. 

Hart 1,212. 

Henderson 1,337. 

Henry 1,43S. 

Hickman 656. 

Hopkins 1,738. 



Pop. 


Farms 
in cult. 


. 9,898. 


.1,010. 


.. 8,742. 


. 740. 


. 6,260. 


. 420. 


. 5,496. 


. 483. 


..20,240. 


.1,813. 


..12,115. 


.1,018. 


..11,185 


. 982. 


..14,406. 


. 734. 


. 9,116. 


. 443. 


. 8,903. 


. 728. 


. 8,785. 


. 433. 


..10,593. 


. 8S9. 


.. 6,774. 


. 562. 


.. 5,755. 


. 629. 


.13,048. 


. 8S9. 


. 8,096. 


. 933. 


..13,127. 


. 730. 


. 5,526. 


. 376. 


. 6,241. 


. 654. 


. 6,556. 


. 75S. 


.19,580. 


.1,190. 


.12,683. 


. 792. 


. 5,421. 


. 511. 


. 4,889. 


. 499. 


. 6,351. 


. 662. 


. 7,005. 


. 607. 


.12,353. 


.1,057. 


. 4,088. 


. 507. 


. 5,9S5. 


. 604. 


.22,735. 


. 799. 


.13,914. 


1,211. 


. 5,714. 


365. 


.12,462. 


850.. 


. 4,44 G. 


361.. 


. 5,137. 


414. 


.10,237. 


666. 


. 6,531. 


. 730. 


.11,397. 


1,279.. 


. 6,837. 


824.. 


. 9.060. 


. 791. 


. 9,654. 


453.. 


. 3.853. 


319. 


.14,525. 


1,406. 


. 4,268. 


535.. 


.13,064. 


1,130. 


. 9,093. 


829. 


.12,171. 


1,037.. 


.11,442. 


1,029. 


. 4.791. 


546.. 


.12,441. 


1,354.. 



Kstab. CapiUlls. 

. 19.. Columbia 
. 7..Scottsville 
. 37..Lawrenceburg 
. 7. .Blandville 
. 33.. Glasgow 
. 23..0wingsville 
. 16.. Burlington 
. 34.. Paris 
. 53.. Danville 
. 21..Brookville 
. 15.. Jackson 
. 18. .Hardinsburg 
. 14. .Shepherdsville 
. 8 . . Morgantowu 
. 85..Eddyville 
. 7..Wadesboro' 
. 12.. Newport 
. 17..Carrollton 
. 7.. Grayson 
. 11 . . Liberty 
. 77. .Hopkinsville 
. 17.. Winchester 
. 11.. Manchester 
. 3.. Albany 
. 13.. Marion 
. IL.Burkesville. 
. 18. .Owensboro' 
. 4.. Brownsville 
. 2.. Irvine 
.150.. Lexington 
. 96. .Flemingsburg 
. 4..Prestonburgh 

. 62..FKANKFOKT 

. 9.. Hickman 

11.. Warsaw 

21 . . Lancaster 
. 15. .Williamstown 
. 35..Mayfleld 

14. .Litchfield 

20. .Greensburgh 
. 20.. Greenup 

15..Hawesville 
. 50. . Elizabethtown 
0.. Harlan 

54. .Cynthiana 
. 12. .Munfordsville 
. 44.. Henderson 

75. .New Castle 
. 9 . . Columbus 

10. .Madisonville 



Counties. 



Dwell. 



Jefferson 7,690. 

Jessamine 1,093 . 

Johnson 608. 

Kenton 2,854. 

Knox 1,060. 

Laurel 671 . 

LaEue 845. 

Lawrence 989 . 

Letcher 416. 

Lewis 1,223. 

Lincoln 1,145. 

Livingston 915. 

Logan 1,917. 

M'Cracken 835. 

Madison 1,847. 

Marion 1,428. 

Marshall 865. 

Mason 2,423. 

Mead 947. 

Mercer 1,762. 

Monroe 1,190. 

Montgomery. . .1,103. 

Morgan 1,201. 

Muhlenburgh.. 1,451. 

Nelson 1,613. 

Nicholas 1,497. 

Ohio 1,425. 

Oldham 856. 

Owen 1,623. 

Owsley 588 . 

Pendleton 1,057. 

Perry 471 . 

Pike 905. 

Pulaski 2,263. 

Pvock Castle.... 746. 

Kussell 840. 

Scott 1,566. 

Shelby 1,803. 

Simpson 963. 

Spencer 810. 

Taylor 971. 

Todd 1,316. 

Tr^g 1,281. 

Trimble 865. 

Union 1,140. 

Warren 1,798. 

Washington.. . .1,517. 

Wayne 1,359. 

Whitley 1,214. 

Woodford 1,053. 



Pop. 

.59,831. 
.10,249. 
. 3,873. 
.17,038. 
. 7,050. 
. 4,145. 
. 5,859. 
. 6,231. 
. 2,512. 
. 7,202. 
.10,093. 
. 6,578. 
.16,581. 
. 6,067. 
.15,727. 
.11,765. 
. 5,269. 
.18,344. 
. 7,393. 
.14,067. 
. 7,756. 
. 9,903., 
. 7,620. 
. 9,809.. 
.14,789. 
.10,-361. 
. 9,749., 
. 7,629. 
.10,444. 
. 3.774. 
. 6,774. 
. 2,192., 
. 5,365.. 
.14,195.. 
. 4,697., 
. 5,349.. 
.14.946.. 
.17,095., 
. 7,733.. 
. 6,842.. 
. 7,250. 
.12,268. 
.10,129. 
. 5,963. 
. 9,012., 
.15,123., 
.12,194., 
. 8,692. 
. 7,447.. 
.12,423.. 



Farms 

inrult. 

. 877. 

. 651. 
. 504. 
. 656. 
. 657. 
. 284. 
, 420. 
. 655. 
. 843. 
, 651. 
. 614. 
, 485. 
,1,130., 

348., 
1,185.. 
, 963., 

415., 

8S8., 
, 489., 
, 881., 

746.. 

856.. 

615.. 

921.. 

844.. 

711.. 
1,122.. 

414.. 

917.. 

481.. 

606.. 

396.. 

448.. 
1,628.. 

441.. 

665.. 

758.. 
1,202.. 

6S6.. 

578.. 

648.. 

930.. 

843.. 

469.. 

681.. 
1,145.. 

867.. 

929.. 

930.. 

580.. 



.614.. Louisville 
. 67. .Nicholasville 
. 5..Paintsville 
.109 . . Independence 
. 6. .Barboursville 
. 0.. London 
. 12..LaEueC. H. 
. 10.. Louisa 
. . . Whitesburgh 
. 21..Clarksburgh 

67. .Stanford 
. 13.. Salem 
. 40 . . Russellville 
. 37..Paducah 
. 39.. Richmond 
. 47 . . Lebanon 
. 7.. Benton 
.211. .Washington 
. 7. .Brandenburg 
. 87 . . Harrodsburg 
. 9. .Tompkinsville 
, 32 Mount Sterling 
. 0.. West Liberty 
. 16. .Greenville 
. 52. .Bardstown 
. 33.. Carlisle 
. 24.. Hartford 
. 8..Westport 
. 16..0wenton 
. 25.. Boone ville 
. 7.. Falmouth 
. 0.. Perry 

5..Piketon 
. 14.. Somerset 
. 3 . . Mount Vernon 
, 13.. Jamestown 
, 59.. Georgetown 
.1-32.. Shelby villo 
. 37.. Franklin 
. 18.. Taylors ville 
. 22 . . Carapbellsville 
. 28..EIkton 
. 37.. Cadiz 
. 19.. Bed ford 
. 7..Morganfield 
. 38.. Bowling Green 
. 21.. Springfield 
. 17. .Monticello 

0.. Whitley 
98.. Versailles. 



The whole number of dwellings in the State was. at the above date, 1,30,709 ; of families, 132,920 ; and of inhabitants, 
982,405; viz., whiles 701,6S8— males 392,840, and females 368,848; free colored 9.736— males 4,771, females 4.965, and 
slaves 210,981. Of the whole population there were, deaf and dumb—vih. 485, fr. col. 4, si. 50— total 5-39; hlind—v/h. 
421, fr. col. 19, si. 90— toUil 530; •ire.san,'- wh. 4SS, fr. col. 3, si. 16— total 507, and idiatic—vih. 749, fr. col. 20, si. SO— total 
849. The number of free persons born in the United States was 740,881, the number of foreign birth 29,189, and of birth 
unknown 1,354; the native population originated as follows: Maine, 227; New Hampshire, 225; Vermont, 277; 
Massachusetts, 665 ; Phode Island, 226 ; Connecticut, 448 ; New York, 2,881 ; New Jersey, 1.249 ; Pennsylvania, 7,491 ; 
Delaware, 507 ; Maryland, 6,470 ; District of Columbia, 176 ; Virginia, 54,694; North Carolina, 14,279; South Carolina, 
3,164; Georgia, 892; Florida, 30; Alabama, 792; Mississippi, 657; Lonieiana, 671; Te.xas, 71; Arkansas, 271; Ten- 
nessee, 23,623; Kentuckij, 601,764; Ohio, 9,9S5 ; Michigan, 59; Indiana, 5,S93; Illinois, 1.649; Missouri, 1,467; Iowa, 
59; Wisconsin, 11; Territories 3; and i\\<i foreign population was composed of persons from— England, 2,805; Ire- 
land, 9,466; Scotland, 6S3; Wales, 171; Germany, 13.607; Fr.anco, 1,116; Spain, 21; Portugal, 5; Belgium, 27; Hol- 
land, 33; Italy, 143; Austria, 12; Switzerland, 279; Russia, 7(i ; Denmark, 7; Norway, 18; Sweden, 20; Prussi.i, 198 ; 
Sardinia,!; Greece, 1 ; Asia, 3; Africa, 4; British America, 275; Mexico, 42; Central America, 1; South America, 2; 
West Indies, 41 ; and other countries, 133. 
110 




FAC SIMILE OF CASE EXHIBITED AT THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 

EXHIBITION OP INDUSTEY OF ALL NATIONS, 

CRYSTAI. PAI.ACE, NETV YORK. 



< • « • > 



AWARD OF PKEMIUMS, JAN. 3, 1854. 



< » • » > 






^r-V f'[ l-(5-' 



9 "^ 
LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY, 

FOR THE BEST SPEICMENS OF 



FINISHED AND XJNFINISHED, 

SUPERIOR LUSTRE, 
Fine Workmanship, and displaying great taste in Trimmings. Their 
competitors, the most eminent Hatters of Paris, London, 
New York and Philadelphia. 



IQ 



ROBERT n. GRESHAM. CHARLES D. GRESHAM. 

R. H. GEESHAM & BRO. 

S. W. Cor. Spring & Chesnut Streets, 

JEFFERSONVILLE, INDIANA. 



WHOLESALE A^D RETAIL DEALERS 
AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS IN 

Hardware, Cutlery, Mechanics' Tools, 

Nails, Iron, Steel, Guns and Pistols, Cooking Stoves, Parlor Stoves, 
and Heating Stoves, every variety of pattern, shape and size, for 
coal or wood. Grates, Castings, Tin Plate, and a general assort- 
ment of Stock for Tin Plate Workers. 

Jfianufacturcrs of 

WMUn^ OIL STORES 

of all kinds, Arkansas fine Oil Stones, (for Jewelers and other fine 
work) Scythe Stones, Rubbers for Shoe Makers, Orange Oil Stones, 
Grind Stones of all Grades and Sizes, from the fuiest for Razors to 
the common coarse Grind Stones. 

TIN, SHEET !BON ^ COPPER WARE, 

Metal Roofs and other work made to order of the best materials, and at lowest prices. 
To the above named Ware, Oil Stones, and Grind Stones, (of our own manufacture,) 
we would invite the special attention of dealers throughout the nation. 

Manny's Reaping Machines, Plows, Thrashing Machines, Horse Powers, Straw Cut- 
ters, Cultivators, Corn Crushers, Fanning Mills, and a large assortment of Farming 
Implements and other Goods at Manufacturers' Prices. 



9 

Fancy and Plain, for burning Fluid, Gas, Phosgene, Oil or Lard; also, Lard Oil, 
Phosgene, Fluid, Gas and Ethereal Oil for burning in Lamps. 

FORCE PUMPS. 

Barker's Patent and other kinds, common iron Pumps, Garden Engines & Chain Pumps. 

Window Glass, Fire Proof Safes, 

Lanterns of all kinds, "Water Coolers, Japanned and Pressed Tin "Ware, Brittania 
Ware, Plated Ware, and a large variety of other Goods, to which we would respect- 
fully invite the attention of Merchants, Mechanics, Farmers and all others who want 
goods in our line. 

No charge for delivering our Goods at the Wharf or Railroad Depot. 

R. H. GRESHAM & BRO 



THE STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



The following table will show the decennial progress of the population since the first census of the State taken by the 
United States authorities : 

^„„„.. vnite Colored Persons. Decennial Increase. 



I I .... 40,9.36 tons | 

>• 9,992i tons <.... 14,756 " L... «racr. 110,382,640 " "492-17 « 

) I .... T,T93,123 pounds ) 



year. Persons. Free. Slave. Tolal. Populalion. Numerical. l-er cent 

1790 61,183 114 11,830 11,944 T3,077 — _ 

1800 179,871 741 40,343 41,084 220,955 147,878 ....'.'.' 202.3 

1810 324,237 1,713 80,561 82,274 406,511 185,556 84.0 

1S20 484,644 2,941 126,782 129,673 564,317 157,806 3S.S 

1S80 517,867 4,917 165,213 170,130 687,917 123,600 21.9 

1840 590,253 7,317 182,258 189,575 779,828 919,111 13.3 

1S50 761,688 9,736 210,981 220,717 982,405 202,577 25.9 

The statistics of the wealth, industry, productions, and institutions of the State, according to the census of 1850, and 
other official returns referring to the same period of time, are as follows : 

Occupied Lands, efc— Improved lands, 11,368,270 acres, and unimproved lands, 10,972,478 acres— valued in cash at 
$154,330,262 ; whole number of farms under cultivation, 74,777 ; value of farming implements and machinery, .$5,169,037. 

Live Stock.— Horses, 315,682 ; asses and mules, 05,609 ; milch cows, 247,475 ; working oxen, 62,074 ; other cattle 
442,763 ; sheep, 1,102,121 ; and swine, 2,861,163— valued in the aggregate at .1129,591,887. In 1840 there were in the State 
395,853 horses, mules, etc. ; 787,098 neat cattle of all kinds ; 1,008,240 sheep ; and 2,310,533 hogs. 

&rain C>ops.— Wheat, 2,140,822 bushels ; rye, 415,073 bushels ; Indian corn, 58,675,591 bushels ; oats, 8,201,311 bushels ; 
barley, 95,343 bushels; and buckwheat, 16,097 bushels. In 1840 the crops were as follows— wheat, 4,803,152 bushels; 
barley, 17,491 bushels; oats, 7,155,974 bushels; rye, 1,321,373 bushels; buckwheat, 8,169 bushels; Indian corn, 39,847,120 
bushels. 

Other Crops.— Rice, 5,688 (in 1840, 16,376) pounds ; tobacco, 55,501,196 pounds ; ginned cotton, 758 bales of 400 pounds ; 
peas and beans, 202,574 bushels ; potatoes— Irish, 1,492,487 bushels, and sweet, 998,184 bushels ; hay, 113,655 tons ; clover- 
seed, 8,230, and other grass-seed, 21,451 bushels ; hops, 5,304 pounds ; hemp — dew-rotted, 40,936, and water-rotted, 14,756 
ton«; flax, 7,793,123 pounds ; flax-seed, 75,579 bushels; maple sugar, 437,345 pounds ; cane-sugar, 234 hogsheads of 1,000 
pounds ; molasses, 40,047 gallons ; wine, 8,093 gallons, etc. The value of orchard products was $106,160, and of market- 
garden products, $293,120. The annexed form will exhibit the staple crops of 1840 and 1850 comparatively : 

Staples. 1840. 1850. Movement, 

Tobacco 53,486,909 pounds 55,501,196 pounds incr. 2,064,287 pounds, or 3-86 per cent 

Hemp — dew-rotted ) ( 40,936 tons 

" water-rotted 

Flax 

Eice 16,376 pounds 5,688 " deer. 10,688 " " 65-26 " 

Ginned cotton 691,456 " .... 303,200 " ....deer. 388,256 " " 56-15 " 

Products of Animals.— Woo\, 2,297,403 (in 1840, 1,786,847) pounds ; butter, 9,877,868 pounds ; cheese, 213,784 pounds ; 
and the value of animals slaughtered during the year had been $6,459,818. Silk cocoons were produced to the amount 
of 1,301 (in 1840, 737) pounds; and beeswax and honey to that of 1,166,939 pounds. 

ITome-made Mamtfactures for the year ending 1st June, 1850, were produced to the value of $2,456,838. In 1840 the 
same class of goods were valued at $2,622,462. 

Manufactures.— Aggregaie capital invested, $14,236,964; value of raw material, fuel, etc., used and consumed, 
$12,458,786 ; average number of hands employed, —males and females average monthly cost of labor 

— male $ and female $ total value of products during the year, $23,278,801. The whole number of man- 

ufacturing establishments producing to the annual value of $500 and upward was 3,471 ; and of these 8 were cotton 
factories, 25 woolen factories, 275 tanneries, and 45 iron works — 20 for the manufacture of castings, 21 for pig iron, and 4 
for wrought iron. 

The cotton manufacture employs a capital amounting to $239,000 ; value of all raw material, fuel, etc., consumed, 
$180,907; average hands employed — males 181, and females 221 ; entire wages per month to — males $2,707, and females 
$2,070 ; value of entire products during the year, $273,439. The annual quantity of cotton consumed was 3,760 bales, 
and the products consisted of 1,003,000 yards of sheeting, etc., and 725,000 pounds of yarn. Mineral coal used, 720 tons. 

The icoole^i manufactures employ a capital of $249,820 ; value of raw material consumed, $205,287 ; average hands 
employed — males 256, and females 62; monthly cost of labor — male $3,919, and female $689 ; value of annual products, 
$318,819. The quantity of wool consumed was 673,900 pounds, and there were produced in the year 878,034 yards of cloth. 

The capital invested in the tanneries amounts to $763,455 ; the value of raw material used was, in 1849-50, $537,147 ; the 
average number of hands employed — males 877, and females 2 : at a monthly cost of labor — male $14,417, and female $9; 
skins tanned, 69,380 ; and sides tanned, 392,400- together valued at $985,267. 

The iron interest is in accordance with the following schedule referring to the year 1849-50 : 

Specifications. Pig Iron. Cast Iron. Wrought Iron. 7'*^tal. 

Capital invested dollars.... 924,700 502,200 176,000 ..,602,900 

Ore used tons 7-2,010 — — 72,010 

Pigironused " — 9,731 2,000..., 11,731 

Bloomsused " — — 1,600 1,600 

Mineral coal used " — 2,649 — 2,649 

Coke and charcoal used bushels . . . 4,576,269 482,750 280,000 6,289,019 

Value of aU raw material, fuel, etc. . dollars .... 260,152 295,533 180,800 736,485 

Hands employed — males number.. 1,845 558 183 2,586 

" " females " .. 10 20 — 30 

Monthly cost of labor— male dollars.... 87,355 13,889 5,867 57,111 

" " female " .... 47 S3 — 130 

Iron produced tons 24,245 5,888 3,070 83,203 

Value of other products dollars 10,000 — — 10,000 

" entire products " .... 604,037 744,316 299,700 1,648,053 

111 



THE STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



The Industrial establishments of Kentucky, comprised in the aggregate numtter, as before given, and not specially re- 
ferred to, consist of the handicrafts usually found in agricultural countries, and several which may be considered peculiar 
to tliis State, as tobacco factories, rope-walks, bagging factories, etc., in which the great staples of the country are worked 
up and made ready for the market. 

Foreign Commence. — The internal position of Kentucky almost precludes it from a direct intercourse with foreign 
countries — its natural port is Kew Orleans, in tlic direction of which all its great rivers point, and from tliat port chietly 
are its products and staples shipped, although a considerable quantity finds its way to the Atlantic ports via the Illinois 
Kiver and Canal to Chicago, and thence l)y the great lakes to Dunkirk and BuflTalo, and from those points to New York, 
etc., by railroad, canal, and river. Its exports in some measure are also sent via the Ohio Kiver and Pittsburg. But if 
Kentucky does not export its merchandise directly, the official returns for a number of years have noticed direct exports, 
of which the following are the values— 1S37, $17,7^2 ; 1S3S, $8,932 ; 1S39, $0 ; 1S40, $2,241 ; 1S41, $0; 1842, $17,306; 1S4.3, 
$8,145 ; 1844, $25,627 ; 1845, $17,469 ; 1846, $32,958 ; 1&47, $26,956 ; 1848, $25,971 ; 1849, $79,738 ; and 1850, $190,987. The 
shipping owned in the collection district of Louisville in 1850 amounted to 14,820 tons — the whole navigated by steam 
power, and employed in river navigation. Thirty-four steamboats were built in the State during the year ending 30th 
June, 1850, and tliesc had an aggregate burden of 6,461 tons. 

JnUrnul Communication. — Kentucky is bountifully supplied with navigable waters, and in all its great rivers import- 
ant improvements have been made by locks, dams, and canals. The principal of these are the works on the Kentucky, 
Green, Licking, and Big Sandy Kivers; and the Portland and Louisville Canal, overcoming the falls of the Ohio at 
Louisville, properly belongs to this Slate. This work, although less than three miles in length, is one of the most important 
improvements in the West; it is 50 feet wide at the top, and admits the passage of the largest river steamers. The fall 
between the two points at which it joins the river is 22} feet, which is overcome by four locks. Almost the whole line is 
excavated out of solid limestone, .<ind was completed in 1833 at a cost of about $1,200,000. The cost of the improvements 
on the four interior rivers above mentioned amounted to $2,133,580. Kentucky has also an excellent .system of turn- 
pikes, and recently has commenced to build plank-roads. With regard to railroads, as yet about 130 miles only have 
been completed ; but there are several vitally important works of this description in a state of forwardness, and which 
will be completed within the next two years. Of these tlie principal are the Kentucky portion of the Mobile and Ohio 
E. E., the Nashville and Henderson li. K., the Louisville and Nashville R. II., the Covington and Lexington R. R., the 
Maysville and Lexington K. li., and several others pointing to the south and south-east, to the Gulf of Mexico and the 
ports of the Atlantic; and the Maysville and Big Sandy R. R., which will connect with the lines terminating at Rich- 
mond, Petersburg, and Norfolk in Virginia. Upward of 600 miles of these projected lines are now (January, 1853) in 
process of construction, and a considerable length of the whole contemplated has been surveyed and partially located. 
The several railroads named (and others, no doubt, there are), when in full steam, will have a mighty effect on the inter- 
ests of the State, even as local channels of trade; but when their importance to the North and South, being links in tlic 
great chains in those directions, is considered, their very existence becomes the lever of all connection between the two 
divisions of the Union. In this point of view, Kentucky to the West of the mountains, and New Jersey to the East, are 
on a par, both essential to the building up of a national system of roads to connect the extremes of the country. The 
influence of these roads, even in the prospective, is well illustrated in the rapid advance in the value of property. In 
1845 the assessment roll amounted to $228,488,161 ; in 1S50 it amounted to $299,-331,465; and in 1851 it had increased to 
$317,082,604 ; or in the latter year, whicli w as one of great projects in matters of internal improvement, the increase 
amounted lo $17,751,139, or about 6 per cent. Such facts as these are lessons applicable to every State and to every indi- 
vidual who has at heart the advancement of his country in wealth and prosperity. 

Banks, etc. — In January, 1S51, Kentucky had 5 banks and 21 branch banks; the Bank of Kentucky (Louisville), has 
branches at Bowling Green, Dansville, Frankfort, Greenburg, Ilopkinsville, Lexington, and Maysville; the Farmer^'' 
Bank of Kentucky (Frankfort) has branches at Covington, Henderson, Maysville, Mount Sterling, Princeton, and Somer- 
set ; the Northern Bank of Kentucky (Lexington), has branches at Covington, Louisville, Paris, and Richmond ; the South- 
ern Blink of Kentucky (Russellville), has branches at Hickman, Owensboro, and Smithland ; and the Bank of Louis-ville 
has branches at Paducah and Flemingsliurgh. There are also other banks at Paducah, Covington, and Newport. At the 
date above referred to the aggregate statistics of all the banks and branches then existing, were as follows: Liabilities — 
capital $7,536,927, circulation $7,613,075, deposits $2,32.3,607, and due other banks $1,256,589; and rt.wefc— loans and dis- 
counts $12,506,305, stocks $694,962, real estate $419,070, other investments $440,127, due by other banks $2,451,155, notes 
of other banks $550,879, and specie $2,791,351. 

Government, etc. — The present constitution of Kentucky was adopted in convention on the 11th June, 1S50, and was 
subsequently ratified by the people by a vote of 71,563 in favor to 20,302 against it. The first State constitution was framed 
in 1790, and a second in 1799. 

Every free white male citizen, 21 years of age, resident in tlie State two years, or in the county, town, or city one year 
next preceding the election, has the right of suffrage, but he shall have been for 60 days a resident of the precinct in 
which he offers his vote. The general election is held on the 1st Monday of August. All votes are given viva voc^e. 

The Legislature consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. Senators, thirty-eight in number, are chosen iu 
single districts, one-half the number biennially, and at the time of election must be citizens of the United States, thirty 
years of age, and resident in the State six years, and in the district one year next preceding the election; .and representa- 
tives, one hundred in number, are clioscn from single districts for two years, and must be twenty-four years of age, and 
resident of the State for two years — the last year of the district. Representation depends on the number of qualified 
voters. In 1857, and every eight years thereafter, a census is to be taken, and representation aitportioned accordingly. 
The sessions of the Legislature are biennial, commencing 1st November (odd years). No session is to continue more than 
sixty days, unless prolongation is agreed upon by two-thirds of all the members elected to both branches of the Legisla- 
ture. Teachers of religion, and persons holding offices of profit under the State or the United States, are ineligible ; and 
members during their term, and for a year thereafter, can not be appointed or elected, except by the people, to any civil 
office of profit in the State created, or the pay attached to which is increased during such term ; nor are collectors of the 
public moneys eligible, unless six months before the election their accounts are closed and settled. The Legislature can 
not grant divorces, or change of names, or sales of estates of persons under legal disabilities, nor change the venue in any 
criminal or penal prosecution by special legislation, but by general laws shall confer such powers upon the courts. 

The governor and lieutenant-governor are chosen quadrennially by a plurality of votes; they must be thirty-five years 
of age, citizens of the United States, and inhabitants of the State for the six years next preceding the election. The gov- 

119 



BENJ. F. AVERY'S 




CORNER OF MAIN AND FIFTEENTH STREETS, 

LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY. 

< « « » > 

' I am prepared to make to order all descriptions of light Castings, neatly, and at satisfactory prices. 
My Foundry is intended for doing light work. I will also make to order, Corn Shellers, Straw Cut- 
ters, &c. 

I am making, in my factory, the Cast Iron Plow, exclusively. My patterns now number over 
thirty diflFerent sizes, embracing Right and Left hand and Sub Soil Plows. They have all been made 
by Thos. Wiard, Esq.; the patentee of the Livingston County Plow, whose skill as a mechanic, and 
especially as a plow pattern maker, cannot be surpassed. His first eflFort in this direction, caused the 
wonderful improvement in plows that has been going on in the State of New York for the last fifteen 
years. In my own plows, "Avery's Louisville," my great object has been, so to shape the mold-boards 
that they will easily scour and keep bright in the very adhesive and light soils of the West and South. 
This I have fully accomplished in all my Short Plows, which approach somewhat the forms of the 
"Rounder" Steel mold plows. They have been widely tested for more than three years, and in all soils 
have scoured well. This important truth, that the "shape" of the mold-board, "not the cast iron of 
which it is made" prevents the plow from scouring, has been most triumphantly demonstrated by these 
plows. I have a great variety of forms, presenting diS"erent angles to the furrow slice, both in eleva- 
ting and inverting the soil. Many of my latest patterns have the front cutting angles small, which as 
they extend back, gradually assume the broad, bold angles of my shorter patterns. The plows of 
this series have thus far given universal satisfaction. They scour well, and perhaps will do so in all 
soils; whilst they are better adapted to deep, thorough work, than the short plows. I have three 
sizes of Sub-Soil plows. My largest size, No. 2, has been made with reference to doing deep work. — 
It is probably higher in the standard or helve, than any Sub-soil from other manufactories. 

As a most substantial evidence of the popularity of my plows', I refer to my regularly increasing 
sales, especially in those localities where I have been soiling the longest. In Memphis and its vicin- 
ity, last year, when business generally was paralyzed by greatscarcity of money, I sold about two thou- 
sand plows. For the last three years my sales have increased annually over one thousand, and this 

season I am prepared to turn out seven thousand. As my foundry is almost exclusively for making 
plow eastings, I am using such metals as are best adapted to that work. Whilst the castings are very 
tough and strong, they are yet suflSciently hard to form, on the Points and Edges, a strip as hard as 
hardened steel, and susceptible of a polish as high. By referring to the subjoined list of retail cash 
prices of some of my plows, their cost, as compared with the steel plows, may be nearly ascertained. 

One cast iron mold-board plow will last as long as two steel ones ; whilst the yearly cost of running it, 
will be found to be about one half that of the steel plow. The cast point or share can be put upon the 
plow, by any plow boy, in ten minutes, which will renew all the cutting front, and give to the mold- 
board and plow, its shape as at first made. This fact alone is of more value to the planter and farmer, 
than the entire cost of the best steel plow they can buy. 

I am making large quantities of large, solid bent handles, which I will sell at $10 per hundred. 
These are madeupon a beautifully simple and eflFective machine, by which oneday laborercanbendattbe 
rate of 50 per hour, using the escape steam of the engine for softening them. This machine I have 
recently patented; which, with the right to use it, I will sell to all who may desire to bend plow handles 
well and satisfactorily. An oak tree that will split into a thousand handles, can be bent by this 
machine with the loss of scarcely a single handle. 

I would aso state that I have recently obtained letters patent for valuable improvements on my Louis- 
ville Plow. 

Retail cash prices, at my factory, of some of my plows, including one extra point for each. 



SHOUT PLOWS. 



No. 13 $3 50— Points 15c. each, 

" 8 3 75 " — " ' 

" 7 4 00 



1 15c. each, ) 
20c. " } 
25c. " ) 



Single horse. 



^5 00— Points 30c. each, ) 

5 OU " 30c. each, > Two horse. 

6 00 " 35c. each, ) 



No. 11 $4 OO- 

" 14 4 00 

" ]6 4 50 

'• 18 5 50 

No. 64 



MEDIUM 

-Points 25c. each, f 



25c. 
30c. 



Single horse. 



" Two horse. 



No. 12... 
• " 12 B. 
t " 15... 

ANGLES. 

No. 19 i These three patterns are now bemg made — 
" 20 >They correspond very nearly to Nos. 14, 16, 
" 21 )and Id— having the lock or joint instead of 
being cast solid. 



IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 



^"^MMU^AM 



?^^^E#S 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



E¥ 



Tiey have constantly on hand a large stock of nearly every variety of 

ikfm MB fm^i mm 

Required for the Trade of the South and West. 



They Import direct irom the Manufacturers in Europe 

ENGLISH AND SCOTCH GINGHAMS, 

SWISS MUSLINS, 
IRISH LINEN, TABLE DRAPERY & THREAD. 



Also a Large Variety oi 



m m 






wmw 



All of which they will sell as low as the same quality 

of Goods can be procured for in any market in the United States 

—for Cash or approved Notes. 

No. 452 Main Street, 

IjOTJIS"VIIjT.,.EI, 



THE STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



ernor is not eligible for two consecutive terms: he enters upon office the fifth Tuesday after the general election, and 
continues in office until his successor has taken the oath of office. He grants pardons, etc., and may veto a bill, but a 
majority of all the members elect of both houses negatives his objections, and the bill becomes law. The lieutenant- 
governor is eayofficio President of the Senate, with the right to debate ami note,, and when there is a tie to throw a 
casting vote ; and if the office of governor become vacant he, and after him the Speaker of the Senate, shall act as gov- 
ernor if the vacancy occur after the first two years of the gubernatorial term — if before, the people fill the vacancy. 

The administrative officers of the government are — a Secretary of State, appointed by the governor ; and the people 
elect a State Treasurer for two years, and an Auditor of Public Accounts, a Kegister of the Land Office, an Attorney- 
general, and other inferior officers for four years. 

The Jiodieiary consists of a Court of Appeals, Circuit Courts, and County Courts. At Louisville there is a separate 
Chancery Court. The Court of Appeals has appellate jurisdiction only ; the judges are elected for eight years by the 
people in districts, one every two years, and the judge having the shortest period to serve is chief justice. The judges 
must have been eight years practicing lawyers, and must be resident citizens, etc. Any three of the judges may consti 
tute a court for the transaction of business. Circuit courts are established in each county, and for the election of judges 
of these courts the State is divided into twelve judicial circuits, each of which elects a judge to serve for six years. There 
is also a County Court in each county, consisting of a presiding judge and two associates, elected for four years, any two 
of whom may transact business. There are also in each county two justices of the peace, to hold office for four years. 
Attorneys for the Commonwealth, clerks of courts, surveyors, coroners, jailers, and assessors are elected in their several 
circuits, districts, or counties, and their terms of office are the same as that of the presiding judge of the circuits, districts, 
etc. Each county elects a sheriff for two years, and each justice's district a constable. 

" A commission to revise and arrange the statute law of the State, and another to prepare a code of practice, civil and 
criminal, shall be appointed by the Assembly at its first session." 

Regarding slavery, the constitution provides that no laws shall be passed for the emancipation of slaves without the 
consent of their owners, or without paying the owners, prior to emancipation, a full equivalent, and providing for their 
removal from the State. Owners of slaves may emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors. Immigrants to the State 
may bring their slaves with them, but slaves are not allowed to be introduced as merchandise, nor under any circum- 
stances slaves imported into the Union since Januarj' 1st, 17S9. Masters must treat their slaves humanely, or the slaves 
shall be sold. Slaves shall not have the right of an inquest by the Grand Jury, but shall not be deprived of an impartial 
trial by a petit jury. Free negroes or mulattoes coming into or refusing to leave the State, are deemed guilty of felony, and 
may be sent to the Penitentiary. 

To amend the constitution, a majority of the members elect of each house must, within the first twenty days of a 
regular session, vote to lay the matter before the people, and at the next general election a majority of those entitled to 
vote for representatives, must vote therefor ; the Assembly, at its next regular session, must pass a vote to lay the matter 
again before the people, and the majority of all the votes, as before, must be given therefor, and then at its next session, 
the Assembly shall appoint an election for members to compose the convention, which shall consist of as many members 
as there may be in the House of Representatives, and no more — such convention to meet within three months after elec- 
tion for the re-adopting, amending, or changing the constitution. 

The Stat^ militia of Kentucky, according to a return of 1S51, consists of 81,340 men of all arms, of which 4,805 are 
commissioned officers, and 77,035 non-commissioned officers, musicians, artificers, and privates. Of the commissioned 
officers 43 are general officers, 145 general staff officers, 1,658 field officers, and 3,459 company officers. According to the 
constitution, all free white, able-bodied male persons in the State, between 18 and 45 years of age, except such as are by 
law exempt, compose the militia of the State, and elect their own officers. 

The principal Shite in-ititutions are — the Lunatic Asylum, at Lexington, which, on the 1st January, 1S50, had 366 in- 
mates ; the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, at Danville, which had at the same date 48 pupils ; and the Institution for the Blind, 
at Louisville, which had 38 pupils. A second Lunatic Asylum, at Hopkinsville, is nearly completed. 

Finances, Public Debt, etc. — The ordinary receipts nito the treasury for the year ending 10th October, 1851, amounted 
to $738,245 52, and the ordinary expenditures for the same year to $733,653 40— excess of income (including balance 
from 1850), $4,592 12. The value of taxable property in 1S51 was $317,082,604— increase since 1850, $17,751,139. The 
rate of taxation is 17 cents on every $100 worth of property (10 cents for the ordinary expenses, 5 cents for the sinking 
fund, and 2 cents for the school fund). The objects of taxation are — general : land, 19,845,672 acres, valued at 
$146,477,116; town lots, 34,357— $35,742,374 ; slaves, 196,188— $68,656,217 ; horses, 332,998— $12,658,510 ; mules, 49,694— 
$2,264,009 ; jennies, 2,476— $174,953 ; stores, 8,718— $9,362,457 ; surplus cash, bonds, etc., $39,092,992 ; and speeifc : car- 
riages and barouches, 3,468 — tax $1 each ; buggies, 4,679 — tax 50 cents each ; pianos, 1,833 — tax $1 each ; gold spectacles, 
1,422 — tax 50 cents each ; gold watches, 0,943 — tax $1 each ; silver lever watches, 3,058 — tax 50 cents each ; studs, jacks, 
and bulls, 2,357 — taxed $5,636. Total white males over 21 years old who pay a poll tax for count!/ purposes, 157,410. 

The public debt has been chiefly contracted for the purposes of internal improvement. In 1829 so economically had 
the government been administered, that there was a surplus in the treasury of some $200,000. This was distributed 
among the counties, and applied to internal improvements ; and stimulated by the resulting benefits and the " new impulse" 
■which had seized upon the adjoining states, Kentucky, in 1835, borrowed $1,000,000, to be expended also on turnpike 
roads, of which the country was then woefully deficient ; other sums were subsequently boiTowed, to be applied in the 
same way, for turnpikes, for railroads, and for locking, and damming, and creating slackwater navigation in the Kentucky, 
Green, and Licking rivers. For these purposes, also, a large share of the school fund was appropriated, for which the 
State now pays interest. The entire debt on the 1st January, 1852, was $5,726,307 80, composed as follows : debt to 
individuals, $4,247,537 40; to Southern Bank of Kentucky for stock, $150,000; to what is known as the Craddock Fund. 
$2,000 ; and to Board of Education, $1, 326,770 40. To pay the interest and principal of this debt, the State has a sinking 
fund, the receipts into which, in 1851, were $531,044 54, and the expenditures were $506,445 06 — excess of receipts, 
$24,589 48. The sources of income to this fund are— a tax from banks and dividends on stocks in the same, premiums 
on State bonds, dividends on stocks in turnpike-roads, dividends for slackwater improvements, of 5 cents on $100 worth of 
property listed for taxation, tax on brokers and insurance companies, excess of ordinary revenue at the end of each 
fiscal year over $5,000. The interest on the State debt has been punctually paid and some portion of the principal- 
Kentucky stocks are always held at a large premium in the markets. 

Federal Bepresentatio7i.~Ke:nlncky, in accordance with the ratio of apportionment adopted by the act of 23d May, 
1850. sends 10 representatives to the national legislature. 

H 113 



THE STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



Iklucation.—The school fund in December, 1851, amounted to $1,400,270, consisting of State and bank stock, and 
besides tliis the 2 per cent, tax, before named, is devoted to school purpopcsi. The common schools are under a superin- 
tendent of public instruction, elected by the people for four years. According to his exhibit at the above date 99 counties 
and 5 cities and towns had made reports; the number of children reported as attending tlie district schools was 1S6,111, 
and the average attendance was lifi-^i. Money distributed to the reporting counties, cities, and towns $111,666 60, the 
same having been paid from the interest on the permanent fund and 2 per cent. tax. These statistics embrace only the 
schools connected with the State system ; the number of children in the State between the ages of 5 and 16 years was 
205,755, many of whom are doubtlessly attending the numerous private schools and academies which exist in every part 
of the State. The principal collegiate institutions in the State are — Transylvania University, at Lexington, founded 179S 
— in lS5l) it had 7 professors, 610 alumni, and 40 students, and its library contained 14,000 volumes; St. Joseph's College, 
at Bardstown, founded 1S29 (Catholic)— in 1850 it had 15 professors, 196 alumni, 155 students, and a library of 5,000 vol- 
umes; the Center College, at Danville, founded 1820— in 1850 it had T professors, 363 alumni, and 152 students, and 5,500 
volumes in its library; Augusta College (Methodist), at Augusta, founded 1825— in 1850 it had 4 professors, 60 alumni, 
51 students, and a library of 2,500 volumes ; Georgetown College (Baptist), at Georgetown, founded 1840 — in 1850 it had 

7 professors, 80 alumni, and 66 students, and a library of 6,.500 volumes; Bacon College, at Harrodsburg, founded 1836 

in 1850 it had 5 professors and 75 students, and its library contained 1,200 volumes ; Western Military Institute, at Dren- 
non Springs, founded 1847— in 1850 it had 10 professors and 150 students, and a library of 1,000 volumes; and Shelby 
College, at Shelbyville— in 1850 it had 4 professors and 93 students, and a library of 4,000 volumes ; the Western Baptist 
Theological Institution, at Covington, was founded in 1840, and in 1S50 had 4 professors and 18 students, and a library 
, of 2,000 volumes. There is a law school attached to the University at Lexington, and another to that of Louisville — both 
have 3 professors, and the former had in 1860 75 students and the latter 52 students. Medical schools are also attached 
to these universities— that attached to Transylvania University was founded 1818, and in 1850 had 7 professors, 214 
students, and 1,-351 graduates, and that to Louisville University, founded 1837, 7 professors, 376 students, and 53 graduates. 
The law and medical schools of the University of Louisville are its most flourishing and important dcp.irtments. 

Puhlio Libranes. — One State library, 9,000 volumes ; one social library, 3,500 volumes ; ten college libraries, 37,150 
volumes; ten students' libraries, 7,190 volumes; three academic and professional libraries, 4,000 volumes; one library of 
scientific and historical society, 1,500 volumes ; one public school library, 1,100 volumes ; total, 27 libraries, 63,440 volumes 

Penodical Prens. — The whole number of periodicals published in Kentucky in 1S50 was 64, of which 27 were news- 
papers devoted to whig and 12 devoted to democratic principles, the remainder being devoted to neutral politics, 
literature, religion, etc. Of the total number, 9 are published daily, and circulate at each issue an aggregate of 28,163 
copies; 5 tri-weekly (1,3.56 copies); 4 semi-weeklies (4,000 copies): 41 weekly (21,412 copies); 1 semi-monthly (5,000 
copies); and 7 monthly (5,150 copies). The monthly publications are— the "Methodist Monthly," at Frankfort; tlie 
" Baptist Keview," the " Ciceronian Magazine," the " Examiner," and the " Medical JoTirnal," at Louisville ; the 
" Gazette," at Covington, and the " Delphian Oracle," at Georgetown College. The principal daily newspapers are — 
the "Democrat," " Journal," " Advertiser," " Courier," "Journal of Commerce," published at Louisville. Daily papers 
also published at Covington, Lexington, and Frankfort. 

Jleligious IJenominationn. — The statistics of the several religious denominations in 1850 were as follows : 

Denoniina- No. ol Church 
tiorie. Churches, accom. 

Jewish 1 .. COO .. 

Lutheran... 5 .. 2,850 .. 

Methodist.. 522 .. 167,860 .. 

Tresbyter'n. 222 . . ' 99,006 . . 

K. Catholic. 48 .. 24,240 .. 

Making a total of 1,818 churches, having accommodation for 672,033 persons, and church property valued in cash at 
$2,259,998 ; or 1 church, accommodating 370 persons, to every 540 inhabitai;ts, and valued as property at $1,243. Ken- 
tucky is a diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and also constitutes the Roman Catholic diocese of Louisville. 

Pauperism and Crime. — The whole number of paupers who received support within the year ending 1st June, 1S50, 
■was 1,126, of which number 971 were native born, and 155 foreigners ; and the whole number on the pauper list at that 
date was 777, of which 690 were natives and 87 foreigners. Cost of support for the year, $57,543. The whole number 
of convicts in the Penitentiary, on the 1st Dec, 1S50, was 159-16 more than at the same period of the year 1849. 

Historical Sketch.— U was not until the middle of the eighteenth century that the white man's foot-print was traced 
in Kentucky. The region was one great hunting-ground and battle-field for the savages of the North and South. Among 
the earliest American explorers were Bobne and Knox, and these, after incredible perils, returned to Virginia and Caro- 
lina, spreading everywhere the fame of the backwoods. Then came Bullitt, llarrod, and Henderson. The foundation 
of Boonesboro' was laid by Daniel himself, who had brought to the banks of the Kentucky the first white women — his 
wife and daughter. Kenton, Calloway, and Logan arrived next. Kentucky was now made a county of Virginia, and in 
1777 the first court was held at Harrodsburg. 

A review of the political history of Kentucky presents but few prominent landmarks. The war of the Revolution 
closed, bnt left the Kentuckian in constant danger of Indian outrage. The citizens assembled at Danville, which became 
afterward famous for conventions west of the mountains, and soon came to the conclusion that the government at Kich- 
mond was too far distant to be relied upon for the means of defending the scanty settlements from the savage. Two 
other conventions at Danville recommended a peaceable and con.stitutional separation from Virginia. The third con- 
vention sent a petition to Richmond, and in 17SG an act was passed complying with the desires of Kentucky ; but from 
several causes the separation was not completed, chiefly from a disinclination of the people to bind themselves to the old 
confederation, and for some time after this period the Kentuckian sought to obtain an independent nationality. A fourth 
convention at Danville only served to inflame more and more the minds of the people against the Central Government, 
and a report having become current that Mr. Jay had ceded the navigation of the Mississippi River to Spain, the utmost 
ill-feelmg was the consequence. A flfth convention met, and on petition, a delegate to Congress was allowed by Vir- 
ginia ; but the Constitution having been adopted, Congress turned over to the new government all action upon the claims 
of Kentucky. The whole State was again in ferment at this delay, and at this early period the refusal of Congress was 
attributed by able minds to the jealousy of New England of any increase of Southern power, and this jealousy was 
expected to continue under the new government. 



Denomina- 


No. of 


Church 


Value of 


tions. C 


lurches. 


acconi. 


Property. 


Baptist 


789 . 


290,460 . 


. $571,655 


Christian.. 


112 . 


48,040 . 


. 165,725 


Congregal'l 


— .. 


— 


— 


Episcopal.. 


17 .. 


7,050 . 


. 112,1.50 


Free 


32 .. 


8,777 . 


. 13,000 



V«lue of 


Denomina- No- of 


Church 


Value ot 


Property. 


tjons. Churches. 


accom. 


Property. 


$13,000 


Tunker .... 1 . . 


200 . 


$200 


21,300 


Union 81 . . 


11,600 . . 


18,000 


462,955 


Unitarian.. 1 . . 


700 . 


15,000 


492,303 


Universalist 6 . . 


2,000 . 


10,650 


336,910 


Minor Sects 31 . . 


8,650 . 


27,150 



Four Story JSt€ilding J\*o, 510, J\*orth Side JflaiH <St., 

Between Third and Fourth Streets, 

LOUISVILLE, KY. 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 







nm 






Piiikiii @las5, irujgi^fe' §te2 Pan; 

MANUFACTURED 



SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, FINE LIQUORS, TEAS, &G. &C. 

Including all Articles 
usually kept by "Wholesale Drug Houses in tlie "West and South. 



We offer to the Trade a heavy stock of all Goods in our line, 
purchased for Cash, from Importers and Manufacturers, on the 
most favorable terms. "We solicit an examination oi our Stock 
and prices, with the assurance, that we are determined to offer to 
Cash dealers, or to prompt and responsible men on the usual cred- 
it, such inducements, as will make it their interest to entrust us 
with their orders. Orders by letter shall have the same attention 
as if given in person. 

HS^^All kinds ot Country Produce taken in Exchange for 
Goods or in payment of debt. 



17 



THE STATE OP KENTUCKY. 



Taking advantage of this state of things in the West, Spain proposed clandestinely through her minister peculiar com- 
mercial favors and facilities to Kentucky if she would erect herself into an independent government. These propositions 
had the effect of disturbing the pul>lic mind, and the risk of a severance p-om the Union was imminent. But a sixth and 
seventh convention were held at Danville ; and though party politics ran high in the debates, constitutional measures at 
length prevailed, and an address to Congress was moved and voted. Two more conventions were subsequently held, and 
the question was determined by Kentucky becoming a separate territory in 1790, and its admission into the Union on 
the 1st June, 1T92. 

Indian wars continued frequent on the frontiers, and complaints of the inefficiency of the federal powers were again 
heard. The whisky tax also became oppressive, and the American policy toward the French Kepublic was denounced 
in every cabin. Enthusiasm was at its height, and the agents of the mad minister Genet were received in triumph 
throughout the West. It was even proposed to raise troops in Kentucky to make a descent on New Orleans. Democratic 
clubs were extending everywhere, and even the governor did not scruple to write to the Secretary of State, " I shall feel 
but little inclination in restraining or preventing my fellow-citizens, etc., to gratify or remove the fears of a minister of a 
prince who openly withholds from us an invaluable right, and who secretly instigates against us a savage and cruel 
enemy." The old idea of independence was again mooted, but the storm passed over. 

In the ten or twelve years which succeeded, and which included tlie period of negotiation for the navigation of the 
Mississippi, and then for the purchase of Louisiana, Kentucky was again destined to be agitated to her very centre. The 
treaty of 1795 with Spain gave to the United States the right of deposit at New Orleans, and the freedom of the river. 
Pending the negotiations, the Governor of Louisiana had approached some leading Kentuckians, with the view of a 
different treaty, but action on these premises was stayed by federal interference, and the faithlessness of the Spaniard was 
soon made evident. Seven years now passed in comparative quiet and prosperity, when the whole nation was excited by 
the intelligence that the Spaniards had violated the treaty by a denial of the right secured by the treaty of 1795, and it 
became known that even Louisiana itself had been retroceded to France. 

The purchase of Louisiana by the United States would forever have composed the turbulent elements of the West but 
for the appearance there, at that period, of a man whose genius was of the most profound character, whose popularity 
had been wide, but whose career and ambition had been prematurely areested. Aaron Burr was prepared for any great 
and desperate enterprise, and the West seemed to promise the widest field for his abilities. What the designs of Burr 
really were, has never, perhaps, been fully divulged. The probability is, they have been exaggerated ; nor can any 
faith be placed in Eaton's story about the assassination of the President, the corruption of the navy, and the violent over- 
throw of Congress. Thirty years after this, when on his deathbed. Burr solemnly denied these treasonable designs. The 
policy, if not the ambition or virtue, of Burr was opposed to such a course. The material that he could rely on was en- 
tirely in the West ; and within the bounds of a not very clearly ascertained national policy or duty at that period, an army 
of adventurers might be found to precipitate themselves upon the Spanish colonies of the South-west, and entirely revo- 
lutionize them. The success of the citizen Genet, a few years before, evinced this, but now the times were even riper, as 
the Spanish troops, in the first heart-burnings of Spain after the cession to Bonaparte, had been ordered to our frontier, 
and an American army, under Gen. Wilkinson, was ready to check their advance. War with Spain was daily expected. 

This Southern empire, or republic, which loomed up so magnificently in the mind of Burr, was not intended to dispossess 
Spain only ; a part — it is diCBcult to say how much— of the territory lately purchased by our own government, was to be 
included, certainly New Orleans. The result of these transactions, however, belong to general history, and hence, in this 
connection, may be passed over in silence. Suffice it to say, that Burr was tried for treason, but though acquitted, 
the stain of the imputation cast on his patriotism has never been effaced ; and to our own times, and in every school, his 
treascm and its consequences are held before the youth of our land as a warning to their ambition. The lesson thus 
taught, however, seems to have little effect, else the extension of the area of freedom would still be more limited than it 
is found to be ; in fact, the dream of Burr has become a real existence ; and what he coveted — Louisiana, Texas, New 
Mexico, and California — are parts and parcels of the Union. Burr's great fault, then, appears to be, that he was in ad- 
vance of the times in which he lived. 

Kentucky took an active part in the war of 1S12. When the United States proclaimed against Great Britain, the war 
was hailed with acclamation, and supported with zeal by the inhabitants. When the news of the surrender of General 
Hull reached the State, it excited no feelings but those of a warmer enthusiasm in the cause. The whole quota of the 
State, consisting of upward of 5,000 men, was composed of volunteers, and was called into active service. In addition 
to these a force of mounted volunteers was raised, and at one time upward of 7,000 Kentuckians are said to have been 
in the field. So universal was the desire to share in the dangers and glories of the war, that the executive authority was 
obliged to interpose, to limit the numbers. During this period the chair of the State government was filled by Isaac 
Shelby, a hero of the Revolutionary War, who, at an advanced age, manifested the same enterprise and bravery that had 
gained him an honorable distinction in the battle of King's Mountain. At the battle of Frenchtown, and the barbarous 
massacre that followed it, many of the best citizens of Kentucky were destroyed ; and the impetuous, but ill-regulated, 
courage of her militia at the unfortimate attempt to relieve Fort Meigs, proved fatal to a largo body of her troops. 

Since the termination of this war by the treaty of 1815, the history of Kentucky is undisturbed by any stirring events. 
Its progress has been rapid, and the development of the country in agriculture and other national industries has occupied 
the minds of the people in preference to warfare and strife. True, the war with Mexico was engaged in by many of its 
best citizens, but the scene of action was too far distant to affect the fortunes of the State. This happy termination of the 
feuds and fights of the first periods of its history, has resulted in Kentucky becoming one of the wealthiest and most 
prosperous States of the Union, and in many respects she stands conspicuous as an example of wisdom and patriotism 
for the instruction of future political communities. 

Succession of Governors.— l&aa.Q. Shelby, 1792 ; James Garrard, 1796 ; Christopher Greenup, 1804 ; Charles Scott, 1308 ; 
Isaac Shelby, 1812 ; George Madison, 1816 ; Gabriel Seaughter (acting), 1816 ; John Adair, 1820 ; Joseph Desha, 1824 ; 
Thomas Metcalfe, 1828 ; John Breathitt, 1832 ; James T. Morehead (acting), 18-34 ; James Clark, 1836 ; C. A. Wickliffe 
(actmg), 1839; PvObert P. Letcher, 1840; William Owsley, 1844; John J. Crittenden, 1848; John L. Helm (acting), 1849; 
Lazarus W. PoweU, 1851. 
FjiANKFOET, on the Kentucky Eiver, is the political capital of the State, 

115 



THE STATE OE L0UI8IAIA. 



LoTTisiANA occupies all the territory of the purchase of 1803 below the 33d parallel, and that portion of Spanish Florida 
west of Pearl Klver, and below the 81st parallel, Its front stretching along the Gulf of Mexico for nearly 300 miles. It lies 
generally between the latitudes 29° and 33° N., and between longitudes 88° 40' and 94° 23' W. ; and is bounded north 
by Arkansas and Mississippi ; east by Mississippi, from which it is divided by the river of the same name, and Pearl Eiver ; 
south by the Gulf of Mexico; and west by Texas, the Sabine Eiver being its boundary in this direction more than two- 
thirds the distance. The area of the land surface of the State is computed at 46,431 square miles. 

The surface of Louisiana is low and generally level, with some hilly ranges of little elevation in the western part, and 
uumerous basins or depressions of the soil. The great delta of the Mississippi, included within the Atchafalaya and the 
Iberville, and amounting to one-fourth part the area of the State, is seldom elevated more than ten feet above the sea, and 
is annually inundated by the spring floods. A great part of the delta is composed of sea marsh, which also forms the 
whole southern coast to the Sabine, and which, through its whole extent, is subject to inundations by the high tides. To 
the north of this marsh, spreads out the vast level of the prairies, which is but slightly elevated above the former district 
The western margin of the Mississippi is also a low country, intersected by numerous small rivers, and liable to inunda- 
tion. To the west and north of these is an extensive region comprising one-half of the State, considerably broken, but no- 
where exceeding 200 feet in elevation. The section north of the Iberville and Lake Pontchartrain and east of the Missia- 
sippi is of a similar description with the north-western region, and, like that, is principally covered with pine. 

The State presents but a limited geological field. It is divided into the leading grades or divisions of tertiary, diluvial, 
and alluvial. The tertiary, occupying about two-flfths of the State, lies north of a waving line, commencing on the Sabino 
near the mouth of the Neches, crossing Ked Eiver 20 miles north of Alexandria, and the Washita 10 miles north of Harris- 
burg. Its beds contain coal (aluminous brown coal), salt, iron, ochre, gypsum, and marls. The coal is inferior to that 
of Pittsburg, and could not compete with it in the market, but is worth developing for use in those portions of the State 
where the better coal would not bear the expense of transportation. It abounds in Sabine, Natchitoches, Caddo, and De 
Soto, and all the parishes thence east to the Washita. Salt springs are common in Natchitoches and Eapides, and have 
been wrought in earlier times. A saline bed, it is thought, underlies the tertiary series generally. Iron is found in great 
quantities in all the tertiary parishes, and is well worth the attention of those who would develop the State's resources. 
Ochre, gypsum, and marls, too, are found — the first in the native form, and the others co-extensive with the tertiary beds. 
The gypsum is very fine, equal to any known to commerce, and the marls very rich in the regions where they will be most 
needed. 

About onc-flfth of the whole surface is periodically overflowed by the waters of the Mississippi, and a great portion of 
these inundated lands is rendered unfit for cultivation in its present state. This immense alluvial tract embraces soil of 
various descriptions, which may be arranged into four classes — the first, which is thought to be equal to two-thirds of the 
whole, w covered with heavy timber, and an almost impenetrable undergrowth of cane and other shrubbery. This portion 
is quickly drainctl as the river retires into its natural channels, and has a soil of the greatest fertility. The second class 
coa^ists of cypress swamps : these are basins or depressions of the surface, from which there is no natural outlet, and 
which, being flUed with water by the floods, remain covered with it until carried off by evaporation or absorption ; these, 
by draining, might become excellent rice lands. The third class embraces the sea marsh, a belt of land partially covered 
by common tides, and subject to inundation from the high waters of the Gulf during the equinoctial gales ; it is generally 
without timber, and ita soil is partially clayey, and, in part, as black as ink, cracking by the heat of the sun into fissures 
wide enough to admit a man's arm. And the fourth class consists of small bodies of prairie land dispersed in different 
parts of the alluvial territory. These spots are elevated and without timber, but of great fertility. The pine lands have 
usually a poor soil, but the interval lands on the rivers, or bottoms, as they are universally called in the West, are always 
rich. On the Eed Eiver the soil contains a portion of salt, and is of a dark-red color, from its containing the oxide of iron. 
A great portion of the prairies is second-rate land, and some of them are sterile. The richest tract in the State is a nar- 
row belt, called the coast, lying along the Mississippi on both sides, and extending from 150 miles above to 140 miles below 
New Orleans ; it is from 1 to 2 miles wide, and lies below the level of the water in the river in ordinary times of flood, and 
is only defended from drowning by a dyke or lev6e 6 or 8 feet in height, and sutBciently broad for a highway. The whole 
of this tract is under cultivation, and produces valuable crops of sugar. 

The prairies, or unwooded plains, occupy the interior section between the Teche and Sabine ; the water-courses are here 
lined with trees, and occasionally little groves or clumps, called, from their isolated appearance in these grassy expanses, 
" islands," are met with. Northward of the prairies is an extensive tract, before alluded to as the tertiary region, reaching 
to the northern boundary, and approaching the Washita on the east, the surface of which is much broken into hills, though 
of moderate height. It consists mostly of pine barrens covered with a vast forest of pitch pine, interspersed with oaks, 
elms, cypress, honey-locust, etc., in low spots and on the margins of the streams. The tract east of the Mississippi and 
north of the Iberville and the connected lakes, closely resembles that last described in its surface and finest growths. It is, 
in fact, a part of the same upland plain whoso margin on the western side is separated from the river-bed by the low, inun- 
dated lands, but on the east comes up to the channel of the river, in many phices forming those prominent bluBs on which 
stand Baton Eouge, St. Francisville, Fort Adams, Natchez, and Vicksburg. 

The Mississippi, after having formed the boundary of the State for about 450 miles, enters its limits 350 miles from the 
sea, by the course of the river channel. Throughout this distance of 800 milea, its western bank is low, and flooded in 
116 



DAVID WEIGHT. 



JAMES BRIDGEFORD. 



WRIGHT & BEIDGEFORD, 

(Successors to D. & J. "Wright & Co.) 




OXJIS^rilL.IL.E! 



'Ill 



i^ 



% 



ft ifij }]i I 



COPPER, ra AND SHEET IROI MANUFACTORY. 



DEALERS IN" 



Tin Plate, Block-Tin, Copper, Zinc, Wire, &c. 
TINNERS' TOOLS AND MACHINES, 

n^l^ST SMn£ SIXTH STREET, 



Between Main and Water, 

LOUISVILLE, KY. 



©. F« HALL, 



m 



mwz mmnn 

No. 14 W. Front Street, 

CIJVCIJ\V\\1TT, O. 




MARK A. HUNT. 



BEN. E. HOPKINS. 



HUNT & HOPKINS, 

MANUFACTURERS, 
WHOLESALE & RETAIL DEALERS IN 

lAUIES' CRESS rUttS. 

139 Jflain Street^ W^est Side, below Foisrlli, 





No.42 



#^^S^ra^g|^ 



CQ ii^gk-^lbci- q^a Sole ?)Tqr)i!fqcfnUl', (2) 

187 WALNUT STEEET, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
ENGRAVERS AND AGENTS FURNISHED WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 



THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



high stages of the water. At the point where it enters the State, it throws off its first outlet, the Atchafalaya, and her' 
may be said to commence the delta of the river. The Atchafalaya, here called the Chafalio, receives the waters of the 
Mississippi only in flood, and the navigation is obstructed by collections of timber, often covered with mud and weeds 
which choke up its channel. The Teche and Courtableau are its principal tributaries. The Bayou Plaquemine, the next 
considerable outlet of the Mississippi, discharges the waters of ihat river into the Atchafalaya during the floods, and is the 
channel of trade between the country on the Atchafalaya and New Orleans. Lower down is the La Fourche outlet, which 
has high banks along its upper course, and admits vessels of 4 or 5 feet draft nearly to its head. On the left bank the 
Bayou Manchac, a little below Baton Rouge, or the last highland passed in descending the Mississippi, is the first and princi- 
pal outlet ; after receiving the Eiver Amite from Mississippi, it takes the name of Iberville Eiver. It may here be remarked 
that the term '■ bayou," applied to arms of rivers in Louisiana, is generally confined to those that have no proper current, 
but are sometimes stagnant, and flow sometimes in one direction, and sometimes in another, according to the high or low 
stage of Ihe waters — it appears to be a corruption of boyau, used in the sense of the corresponding English sea-term " gut." 
The Red River is the most important and, indeed, with the exception of two or three magnificent streams on the eastern 
side above Baton Rouge, the only tributary of the Mississippi within this State ; for the surrounding country being lower 
than the river banks, its waters can not gain access to the bed. The Red River rises in the Rocky Mountains, and flowing 
eastwardly along the north border of Texas, and into Arkansas, turns to the south, and passes into Louisiana. Soon after 
entering this State, its bed is choked up by an immense accumulation of fallen timber, called the " Raft," and the water 
is dispersed into numerous channels, and spread over wide expanses. The Raft extended formerly over a distance of 100 
miles, but its length has been materially diminished, and, in fact, its complete removal is considered certain. Below 
Nachitoches the river divides into several arms, which again unite above Alexandria, and its waters reach the Mississippi 
just above the first outlet, after a course of 2,000 miles, of which 1,500 miles is open to steam na\igation. The Black 
River, its princi()al tributary, is formed by the junction of the Tensas, Washita, Catahoula or Little River, all considerable 
streams, and navigable by steamboats; but most of the country along their courses is overflowed. The Bayou du Bon 
Dieu is also a large ana navigable river, which enters it above the Black. There are numerous lakes in this section of 
the State, formed chiefly by (he overflowings of the rivers, which fill the low basins back of their banks. In the south are 
the Vermillion, Mermenteau, and Calcasieu, which, rising in a tract of pine hills to the south of the Red River, and flowing 
through the great pastoral jihiins of the west, reach the low marshy strip to the Mexican Gulf, and spread into shallow 
lagoons. The Sabine, which partakes of the character of the last described rivers, is, however, a considerable stream, 
rising farther to the north in Texas, and is a navigable river beyond the Louisiana boundary, but its mouth is obstructed 
by a bar. From the north-eastern pine region, the Pearl, Tangipaod, Chefuncta, and Iberville, large navigable rivers, flow 
into the lakes and passes which separate that region from the fluviatile district. The Iberville, formed by the junction of 
the Amite from the north, and the Manchac from the west, enters the head of Lake Maurepas, which is from 10 to 12 feet 
deep, and connected with Lake Pontchartrain by the Pass Manchac. Lake Pontchartrain is about 40 miles long, and 24 
miles wide, with an average depth of 10 fathoms, but is shallow near the shores. Vessels drawing S feet of water can, 
liowever, go up to Madisonville and to the mouth of Bayou St. John, in the rear of New Orleans; and not more than that 
draft can be carried through the passes or channels called the Eigolets and Chef Menteur, through which it communi- 
cates with Lake Borgne. This last is, properly speaking, no lake, but the termination of Pascagoula Sound ; it approaches 
to within 15 miles of New Orleans, and boats can go up the bayoux that empty into it to within a short distance of the city. 
It is of about the same average depth with Lake Pontchartrain, but somewhat deeper along the shores. 

Louisiana is remarkably destitute of good harbors. Vessels drawing 8 feet of water can go up to Madisonville on Lake 
Pontchartrain, but the other inlets on the coast are shallow. There is, however, a good roadstead on the west side of 
Chandeleur Islands, called the Road of Naso, in which the heavy vessels of the English fleet lay during the expedition 
against New Orleans. Numerous sheets of water, improperly called lakes, lie along the coast. Of Lake Borgne mention 
has already been made. Barataria, Vermillion, C6te Blanche, Atchafalaya, and Simballier Bays, are shallow tide basins. 
In the interior, lakes L'Allemands and Chetimaehes are large bodies of waters. 

The agricultural staples of Louisiana, in common with the whole zone bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, are cotton and 
sugar; rice, maize, or Indian corn, and tobacco, are also cultivated, but have been neglected for the flrst named articles; 
and indigo, which was formerly a staple, has been abandoned. The prairie lands of the west afford valuable pastures ; 
and here are found large herds of cattle and horses. In the north-western part of the State, between the Mississippi and 
Pearl Rivers, much lumber is cut for exportation, and much tar, pitch, and turpentine is prepared. The cotton plant is 
cultivated chiefly on the Red River and in the north-eastern parts of the State ; but there is no parish iu which it is not 
produced in a greater or less quantity. Sugar is planted as far north as the head of the delta, and it has been raised with 
success in the parish of Rapides. It was formerly asserted that it would not thrive farther north than the 30th parallel. 
Those interested in the productions of the south and south-west will find elaborate essays on each staple cultivated la 
those regions in De Bow's work, " The Indristrial Resource% etc., of the Southern and Western States," published in 
1852, in .3 volumes, a work which every statesman and commercial man ought to place within his immediate reach, and 
frequently consult. It is a perfect encyclopedia of national economics. 

Louisiana is divided into two Districts ; the Eastern District has 21 parishes, and the "Western District 26 parishes 
the general statistics of which, and the capitals of each in 1850, were as follows : 



EASTERN LOUISIANA. 



Ma 



Parishes. Dwell. Pop. ^''l"[l vgtl^k'' Capitals. 

Ascension 755. 10,752.. 157.. 0.. Donaldson ville 

Assumption 926.. 10,538.. 520.. 0.. Assumption 

E.Baton Rouge. 1,044.. 11,977. .287. . 0.. Baton Rouge 
East Feliciana.. 712.. 13,.59S. .361.. 49.. .Jackson 

Iberville 6.3S.. 12,214.. 219.. 10.. Iberville 

Jefferson 3,825.. 25,091.. SI.. 54.. La Fayette 

La Fourche 938.. 9,533. 2-35.. 4. .Thibodeauville 

Livingston 480.. 8.-3S5..219.. 36.. Springfield 

Orleans 15,621 . .119,461. . 51 . .521. .New Orleans 

Plaquemines 615.. 7,390.. 205.. .. Fort Jackson 

Point Coupee... 760.. 11,.339..24S.. 0.. Point Coupee 



cult. Estab. 

St. Bernard 283 . . 3,802 . . 34 . . . . Terre Aux Boeufs 

St. Charles 191.. 5,120.. 70.. 3.. St. Charles C. H. 

St. Helena 390.. 4,561. .273.. 9 . . Greensburg 

St. James .591 . .11,098. .145. . 6. .Bringiers 

St. John Baptist . . 530 . . 7,317 . . 162 . . 14 . . Bonnet Carre 

St Tammany.... 786.. 6,364.. 90.. 33. .Covington 

Terre Bonne 550.. 7,724.. 224.. 4..Houma 

Washington 406 . . 3,408 . . 260 . . . . Franklinton 

W. Baton Rouge. 392.. 6.270. .138.. 10. .Baton Rouge CH. 

W. Feliciana 599. .13,245. .234. .147. .St Francisville. 



IIT 



THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



Parishes. Dwell. 

Avoyelles 792.. 

Bienville 571.. 

Bossier 478.. 

Caddo 742.. 

Calcasieu 648.. 

CaldweU 300.. 

CarroU 582.. 

Catahoula .... 655 . . 

Claiborne 842.. 

Concordia ... 219.. 

DeSoto 685.. 

Franklin 346.. 

Jackaon 622.. 



Pop. 

.9,826. 
.5,539. 
.6,962. 
.8,884. 
.3,914. 
.2,815. 
.8,789. 
.6,982. 
.7,471. 
.7,758. 
.8,019. 
.3,251. 
.5,566., 



Farmn. 
in iMilt. 

..893., 
..271., 
..833., 
..305. 
..239., 
..185., 
..238.. 
..358., 
..554.. 
..148.. 
..427.. 
..283.. 
..290.. 



WESTEKN 

Mnnuf. „ 
Ksl.b. <^''P"=^'- 

. 5 Marksville 

. 2 Mount Lebanon 

. Belleview 

. O....Shrevcport 

. Marion 

. 1.... Columbia 

.10 L. Providence 

. 3 Harrisonburg 

. 8 Homer 

..Vidalia 

..Mansfield 

. . "Winnsborough 

..Vernon 



0. 



0. 



Parishes. Dwells. 

La Fayette. .. . 630.. 

Madison 448.. 

Morehause. . . . 872.. 
Nachitoches . .1,4.32 . . 

Eapides 1,032.. 

Sabine 632.. 

St Landry.... 2,421.. 
St. Martin's... 940.. 

St. Mary's 746.. 

Tensas 244.. 

Union 942.. 

Vermillion.... 406.. 
"Wachita 442., 



Pop. 

. 6,720. 
. 8,773. 
. 3,913. 
.14,201. 
.16,561. 
. 4,515. 
.22,253. 
.11,107. 
. 8,808. 
. 9,040. 
. 8,203. 
. 8,409. 
. 5,008. 



Farms, 
in rult. 

,..441.. 
,..218.. 
,..260.. 
...842.. 
...187.. 
...522.. 
...775.. 
...420.. 
...198.. 
...165.. 
...717.. 
...193.. 
...242.. 



E«,lb. Capital.. 

. . . . Vermillionvillo 
.24.. .Richmond 
. 4.. .Bastrop 
. 9.. .Nachitoches 
.11.. .Alexandria 
. 5... Manny 
.18.. .Opelousas 
. 0. . .St. Martinsville 
. 0... Franklin 
. 6.. .St Joseph's 
. 1.. . Farmers vQlo 
. 0... La Fayette 
. 4. . .Monroe 



The whole number of dwellings in the State was, at the above date, 49,101 ; of families 54,112, and of inhabitants 
511,974, viz. : whites 255,416— males 141,059, and females 114,357 ; free col. 17,537— males 7,598, and females 9,9.39, and 
slaves 239,021 Of the whole population, there were deaf and dumb—yih. 89, fr. col. 5, si. 34— total 128 ; blind— ^\\. 67, fr. 
col. 25, si. 126— total 218; i7M««e— wh. 150, fr. col. 15, si. 43— total 203; and idiotic— fih. 104, fr. col. 13, si. 86— toUl 173. 
The number of free persons born in the United States was 205,921 ; the number of foreign birth 66,413, and of birth un- 
known 620. The native population originated as follows : Maine 816, N. Ilamp. 247, Verm. 283, Mass. 1,620, R. L 239, 
Conn. 469, N. York 5,510, N. Jer. 498, Penn. 2,493, Del. 117, Ind. 1,440, Dist of Col. 156, Virg. 3,216, N. Car. 2,923, 8. 
Car. 45S3, Ga. 5,917, Flor. 372, Ala. 7,346, Miss. 10,913, Louisiajia 145,474, Tex. 864, Ark. 803, Tenn. 8,-352, Ky. 2,968, 
Ohio, 1,473, Mich. 68, Ind. 414, 111. 401, Mo. 909, la. 28, Wise. 7, Calif. 1, Territories 1 ; and the foreign population was 
composed of persons from— England 8,550, Ireland 24,266, Scotland 1,196, Wales 48, Germany 17,507, France 11,552, 
Spain 1,417, Portugal 157, Belgium 115, Holland 112, Turkey 4S, Italy 915, Austria 156, Switzerland 723, Russia 65, 
Denraar k288, Norway 64, Sweden 249, Prussia 380, Sardinia 9, Greece 23, China 33, Asia 17, Africa 90, Brit America 499, 
Mexico 405, Cent. America 3, 8. America 15, West Indies 1,337, Sandwich Islands 1, and other countries 1,173. 

The following table will show the decennial progress of the population since the first census of the State taken by the 
United States authorities : 

Colored Persons. Decennial Increase. 

White , ' , Total , ' ^ 

J'ersons. Free. Slave. Total. Population. Numerical. Per cent. 



Census 

Tears. 

1810.. 

1820.. 

1830.. 

1840.. 

1850.. 



. 84,311 7,585 84,660 42,245 76,556 — — 

, 73,383 10,960 69,064 170,024 153,407 76,851 100.4 

. 89,231 16,710 109,538 126,298 215,529 62,122 40.5 

.153,457 25,502 168,452 193,954 852,411 186,882 63.5 

.255,416 17,537 289,021 256,558 511,974 159,563 45.2 



The statistical returns of the industry and wealth of Louisiana, as furnished by the seventh census of the United States, 
taken in 1850, and other official documents refering to the same period, are as follows : 

Occupied Laiuh, etc. — Improved lands, 1,590,025 acres, and unimproved lands, 3,939,018 acres — valued in cash at 
$75,814,398 ; number of farms under cultivation, 13,422 — in western division, 9,209. and in eastern division, 4,213. Value 
of farming implements and machinery, $11,570,938. 

Livestock.— UoTscs, 89,514 ; asses and mules, 44,849 ; milch cows, 105,576 ; working oxen, 54,968 ; other cattle, 414.798 ; 
sheep, 110,3.33 ; swine, 597,301. The returns under tiiis head in 1840 sum up thus — horses, mules, etc., 99,888 ; neat cattle 
of all descriptions, 331,248; sheep, 98,072; and swine, 323,220. 

Grain Crops. — Wheat, 417 bushels; rye, 475 bushels; Indian com, 10,220,373 bushels; oats, 89,637 bushels; barley, 
bushels ; and buckwheat, 8 bushels. The crops of 1839-40 were— wheat, 60 bushels ; barley, bushels ; oats, 107,353 
bushels ; rye, 1,812 bushels ; buckwheat, bushels ; Indian corn, 5,952,912 bushels. 

OtJier Staple Crops.— Vdce, 4,425,349 (in 1340, 3,604,534) pounds; tobacco, 26,878 (in 1840,119,824) pounds; ginned 
cotton, 178,787 bales of 400 pounds each, or 71,494,800 (in 1340, 152,555,308) pounds ; sugar — maple, 255 pounds, and caae, 
226,001 (in 1840, 119,947}) hogsheads of 1,000 pounds; and molasses, 10,981,177 gallons. 

Miscellaneoiis Crops. — Peas and beans, 161,732 bushels; potatoes — Irish, 95,632, and sweet, 1,428,453 bushels; hay, 
25,752 tons ; clover-seed, 2 bushels, and other grass-seeds, 97 bushels ; hops, 125 pounds ; hemp — dew-rotted, tons, and 
water-rotted, tons; flax, pounds; flax-seed, bushels; wine, 15 gallons, etc. The value of orchard products for 
the year was, $22,859, and of market-garden products, $148,329. 

Products of Animals.— yioo\, 109,897 (in 1840, 49,283) pounds; butter, 683,069 pounds; cheese, 1,957 pounds; and 
value of animals slaughtered during the year had been $1,453,990. Silk cocoons were produced to the amount of 29 (in 
1840, 317) pounds; and beeswax and honey, to that of 96,701 pounds. 

ll(yme-mad« manufactures for the year ending 1st June, 1850, were produced to the value of $139,232. 

The comparison of the principal crops in 1840 and 1350 results as follows: 



Staples. 18-10. 

Indian Com 5,952,912 bushels 

Rice 8,604,534 pounds 

Tobacco 119,824 " 

Ginned Cotton 1!52,555,.368 " 

Cane Sugar 11 9,947,720 " 



Movement. 

4,273,461 bushels, or 71-79 per cent.' 

820,815 pounds, or 22-78 " 

92,946 " or 77-57 " 

81,060,568 " or 53 14 « 

" or 88-42 « 



10,226,873 bushels .... incr. 

4,425,349 pounds incr. 

26,873 " deer. 

71,494,300 « .... deer. 
226,001,000 " .... incr. 106,053,280 

It is thus apparent that all the great crops, except that of cotton, have materially increased ; but the falling off iu the 
cotton crop is mo.e apjiarent than real, the greater part of it having been destroyed by the extraordinary and destructive 
floods, which swept o^er whole plantations in the fall of 1349, to which year the census returns of 1850 refer. It is a well- 
known fact, however, that the culture of sugar in Louisiana is employing the labor formerly devoted to cotton, and this 
change of crops is annually progressing. 
118 




]e -(Sl o o D^ " s 

trraittilt dalUgi^s, 




"N. W. Corner Sixth and Walnut Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Corner of Pinekney and Miilin Streets, Madison, Wisconsin. 

The best Schools for obtaining a Practical Knowledge of BOOK KEEPING, &c., the Instructors being PRAC- 
TICAL ACCOUNTANTS, 

The Course of Instruction given in these Institutions is Thorough and Comprehensive, consisting of BOOK- 
KEEPING BY DOUBLE ENTRY ; embracing every department of Trade and Mercantile Accounts, viz:— 
Wholesale, Retail, Commission, Exchange, Banking, Railroad, Steamboat, Individual, Partnership, Joint 
Stock, and <^ompound Companv Business. 

COMMERCIAL CALCULATIONS, comprising calculations in Per Centage, Exchange, Arbitration of Ex- 
change, Equation of Payments, Averaging, Custom House Transactions, &c., ^c, according to the most approved 
methods. 

PENMANSHIP. — A good business hand-writing is guaranteed to every one who completes a full course of 
instruction. 

COMM ERCI AL CORRESPONDENCE, embracing the general particulars of letter writing as connected with 
the different branches of Trade, including the forms of Invoices, Account Currents, Orders, Drafts, Promissory 
Notes, Bills of Exchange, &c. 

LECTURES— On Commercial Law, Science of Accounts, Customs of Merchants, Laws of Trade, §-0., by emi- 
nent Lecturers and Business Men. 

Young men desiring to acquire a thorough Commercial Education, will find it greatly to their advantage to 
attend one of these scliools. 

TERMS — For a full course of instruction, $40. For further particulars please 
call on or address the undersigned, 

R. S. BACON, Principal. 



18 



. The unvarying dryness of this.article -^\^^J^^ZV^llT^!fsl iVe"n\Tt1et;X'cTo's^7Th?s ^^ 
iously suffere'd by the dampness mseparable^ ^^^.^^^^ ^^,,1^^, are matenaUy uijured 

(TtreTea'wTs?en'el:-7in^Sa^^ ^^^- ^^^^ ^^^"^^"^ *° ^f!; ^ " 




HALL, DODDS & CO., 

Jflanufacmrers, 49 €olmnMa ,§t., mtrJ 27 Mm Street. 

To Bankers and others wishing to obtain an article affording per- 
fect security against the depredations of Burghars, &c. 

combination of Iron and hardened ^ «« ' '^^ *; ^^^ f^^^^ifc Insuranco & Trust Co., ( il^oro & Broth- 
skillful mechanics to open ^t- ^ « -"^'^ ^^ t'o ^ and several other Banking Houses in the City, who 
erton, Commercial Bank, lugaisue <v vjj „ :,, ^ n r 

have them in use. =, t^aNK LOCK Manufacturers in the United States. Counting 

nZ::-:^ SrD.:r»a -c'rarscSuo" '"a.l wokk „.a. «t .h. .h.,i.s. ...0. „d ... 

best possible style. „ „ 

^mt ^mm m mi m% mm to mm^i 

Also, BaRk Vaalt Qoofs atti.Fromo^ 



THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



MantifacUires.—Pi^gtegaiet capital invested, $5,304,924; value of raw material, fuel, etc., consumed $2,4S5 073- 

average number of hands employed, — males, and females, average monthly cost of labor 

male $ and female $ total value of products for the year ending 1st June, 1850, $7,043,814. The whole 

number of manufacturing establishments in the State producing to the value of $500 and upward annually, at the above 
date was 1,021 — in western district 121, and in eastern district 900 ; and of these, 8 were manufactiu-ing castings of iron 
and there were 15 tanneries, the remainder consisting of mills, and other establishments usual in a Southern agricultural 
State. 

The iron manufacture employed a capital of $255,000 ; pig iron consumed, 1,660 tons ; mineral coal consumed, 8,205 
toEs ; value of all raw material used, $75,300 ; hands employed, 347 ; average monthly wages, $85 60 ; castings made, 1,570 
tons ; value of entire products, $312,500. 

The tanneries employed a capital of $33,800 ; value of raw material used, $26,440 ; average number of hands employed, 
54 — males 51, and females, 3 ; monthly cost of labor— male, $930, and female, $22 ; number of skins tanned, 2,850, and of 
Bides, 21,000 ; value of skins and hides when tanned, $55,025. 

The distribution of the manufactures is very unequal, and many of the parishes are entirely without them : of the 900 
establishments in the eastern district, 521 are in Orleans parish, 147 in West Feliciana, 54 in Jefferson, 49 in East 
reliciana, 36 in Livingston, 33 in St. Tammany, 14 in St. John Baptist, 10 each in West Baton Eouge and Iberville, 9 in 
St. Helena, 6 in St. James, 4 each in La Fourche and Terre Bonne, and 3 in St. Charles— Ascension, Assumption, East 
Baton Kouge, Plaquemines, Point Coupee, St. Bernard, and Washington, returning no manufactures ; and of the 121 in 
the western district 24 are in Madison, 18 in St. Laundry, 11 in Rapides, 10 in Carroll, 9 each in De Soto and 
N.ochitoches, 6 each in Tensas and Jackson, 5 each in Avoyelles and Sabine, 4 each in Morehause and Wachita, 3 each 
in Catahoula and Claiborne, 2 in Bienville, and one each in Caldwell and Union — Bossier Caddo, Calcasieu, Concordia, 
Franklin, Lafayette, St. Martin, St. Mary, and Vermillion returning none. 

Comm«rc<?.— In the aggregate of exports and imports, Louisiana is second only to New York, but in the amount of its 
imports both Massachusetts and Pennsylvania exceed it. The total value of its exports to foreign countries in the year 
ending 30th Juno, 1850, was $38,105,350, of which $37,698,277 was the value of domestic produce exported, and $407,073 
the value of re-exported foreign produce. The value of domestic produce carried in American bottoms was $20,927,751, 
and in foreign bottoms $16,770,526 ; and the value of foreign re-exports carried in American bottoms, was $328,930, and 
in foreign bottoms $78,143. The total value of imports was $10,760,499, of which the value brought iu American bottoms 
was $8,107,929, and in foreign bottoms $2,652,570. The shipping employed in this trade was as follows : 



BnrpprNG esteeed. 

Nationality, Number. Tons. Men. 

American 524 175,969 6,620 

Foreign 874 174,884 6,442 



Total. 



.898. 



.350,853 13,062 



SmPPING CLEARED. 
Nationality. Number. Toug. Meu. 

American 493 211,800 7,575 

Foreign 850 158,137 5,780 



Total. 



.843 869,937 ,13,355 



The whole of this commerce and navigation belongs to the district of which New Orleans is the port of entry, except 
two American ships of 904 tons and 14 men, which are entered in the district of Teche. 

The aggregate of the shipping OTNTied in Louisiana amounted at the date specified to 250,090 tons, of which the whole, 
except 1,381 tons enrolled and licensed shipping owned in the district of Teche, belonged to the district of New Orleans. 
Of the aggregate, 83,068 tons were registered, 160,632 tons were enrolled and licensed, and 5,789 tons were licensed (under 
20 tons.) Of the registered shipping, 6,889 tons, and of the two latter classes 144,724 tons were navigated by steam ; and 
during the year 24 vessels, viz., 1 ship, 16 schooners, 3 sloops, and 4 steamers, of an aggregate burden of 1,592 tons, 
were built in the State. 

The statistics of the foreign trade of the Stato for a series of years, exhibit the following movement : 



Tears. Exports. 

1804 $1,600,362 

1805 8,371,545 

1806 8,887,323 

1807 4,.320,555 

1808 1,261,101 

1809 541,924 

1810 1,890,953 

1811 2,650,050 

1812 1,060,471 

1813 1,045,158 

1814 887,191 

1815 5,102,610 

1816 5,602,948 

1817 9,024,812 

1818 12,924,309 

1819 9,768,753 



Imports. 



Years. Exports. 

1820 $7,596,157 

1821 7,272,172 

1822 7,978,645 

1823 7,779,072 

1824 7,928,820 

1825 12,582,924 

1826 10,284,380 

1827 11,723,997 

1828 11,947,400 

1829 12,386,060 

1830 15,483,692 

1831 16,761,989 

1832 16,580,930 

1833 18,941,373 

1834 23,759,607 . 

1835 36,270,823 , 



Imports. 



8,379,717 
3,817,238 
4,288,125 
4,539,769 
4,290,034 
4,167,521 
4,531,645 
6,217,831 
6,857,209 
7,599,083 
9,766,693 
8,871,653 
9,590,505 
13,781,809 
17,519,814 



Years. Exports, 

18-36 87,179,828 

1837 35,838,697 

1S38 81,502,248 

1839 38,184,167 

1840 84,236,936 

1841 34,387,483 

1842 28,404,149 

1848 27,390,424 

1844 30,498,807 

1845 27,157,465 

1846 81,275,704 

1847 47,051,633 

1848 40,971,361 

1849 37,611,667 

1S50 38,105,350 



Imports. 
..$15,117,649 
... 14,020,012 
, . . 9,496,808 
.. 12,864,942 
.. 10,673,190 
.. 10,256,350 
. . 8,083,590 
. . 8,170,015 
. . 7,826,789 
. . 7,864,397 
. 7,223,090 
. . 9,222,969 
. . 9,380,489 
.. 10,050,697 
.. 10,760,499 



Coasting and River Trade.— The coasting trade of Louisiana is equally valuable with its foreign trade, and its trade 
with the interior is perhaps fully equal to both the foreign and coastwise trade together. These, however, will be fully 
examined under the head of " New Orleans," and hence, in this connection, the aggregates alone need be exhibited, Tho 
arrivals and clearances in the coasting trade for the year ending 30th June, 1851, were as follows: 



Movements. ,, '»* Quarter. 

Vessels. Tons. 

Entrances 205 98,608 

Clearances 199 57,442 

Value of exports coastwise. . . $2,859,567 



2d Quarter. 
Vessels, Tons. 

803 124,585 

275 76,789 



$6,177,128 



3cl Quarter. 
Vessels. Tons. 

865 125,032 

424 131,362 



$11,707,598 



305 123,190 

329 97,579 



$6,484,634 



Total. 
Vessels, Tons, 

1,178 466,415 

1,227 358,173 



$27,228,912 



THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



Ports bbls. 

New York .72,584.. 

Boston 88,925.. 

Philadelphia 413.. 
Baltimore... — .. 
Charleston.. 6,175.. 



Backs, baleH, bhiis. 

.160,728... 52,398.. 10,087.., 
. 32,461... 82,510... 1,594.. 
. 9,47T... 14,867... 1,118.. 
. — ... 2,511... 745... 
, 23,978... — ... — ... 



hbd9. 
13,595.. 
733.. 
10,264. . 

8,670.. 

8,517.. 



bbls. 
655.. 
27., 
867.. 
237.. 
660., 



.509. 



9.. 



bbl9. 

.22,646 
. 2,172 
. 7,735 
. 2,862 
. 7,031 



.118... 24,578 



The following will show the quantity and destination of some of the principal staples of export in the year above quoted • 

Pork. n.iron. Lard. Beef. \Vlii?ky. 

bbls. bhtls. kegs. bbls. bbls, 

.55,849. . 9,856. . .209,825. . . .3,055. . .1,881. . 
. 77,806 . . 6,530 . . . 224,333 . . . 13,435 ... 2,242 . . 
. 5,538.. 2,763... 41,045.,. 421... 268.. 
.13,421.. 1,84:3... 32,585... 955... 1,542.. 
. 1,003.. 2,872... 2,769... 119. .11,514.. 
Other ports 150,960... 22,890.. 19,972... 40,046... 3,785.. 30,383. ..150,125... 1... 291. ..12,363.. 6,198. 

The total quantities of the above specified articles exported to foreign and domestic ports, were as follows: 

583,418. .192,737. .46,241. . .738,956. . .42,415. .67,392. . .5:35,382. .997,453. .54,501. . .44,147. .8,644. . .6.36 . . 67,024 

The receipts from the interior by the Mississippi Hiver in the same year (1850-51) were valued at $106,924,083, and 
comprised sill the various staples for which the several regions of production are noted, alike mineral, vegetable, and ani- 
mal ; and there is, besides the river trade, an immense traffic on the new canal. The total number of flatrboats arriving 
at New Orleans during the year was 941, of which 218 were from Ohio, 53 from Kentucky, 298 from Indiana, 12 from Vir- 
ginia, 222 from Pennsylvania, 19 from Illinois, 104 from Tennessee, and 10 from Mississippi; and the whole number ol 
steamboat arrivals was 2,918. 

Internal ImjjrovemenU. — Hitherto Louisiana has depended with confidence on the great natural facilities for inland 
communication the State enjoys by means of the magnificent river and its dependencies which traverse its surface ; but 
when it was discovered that the North had, by means of the Illinois Canal, constructed an artificial outlet for this great 
river into the lakes, this dream of security vanished, and the people interested in the commerce of the Gulf ports at once 
beset themselves to remedy the impending destruction of a commerce unequaled in extent by but one other section of the 
Union. The magnificent lines of railroads from the "father of waters" to the Atlantic Ocean, were also diverting a vast 
amount of the legitimate trade which naturally concentrated at New Orleans. And all these changes in the avenues of 
trade had been allowed to proceed, and with the exception of a few local railroads, Louisiana had not even extended her 
arms to arrest their influences. Awakened to a sense of duty, however, by the results of these now works — decreased 
receipts of produce, and decreased returning merchandise — no time was lost in premises, but the whole south-west met in 
convention at New Orleans, and unanimously resolved to cope with the leviathans which were sapping the foundations of 
their commercial prosperity. The principal remedies proposed were the extension of the railroad from New Orleans and 
the Gulf ports to the north and north-east, and seek a new market in the west by building lines into Texas, Arkansas, etc. 
The first would countervail the northern improvements, which had superseded the old river-course of trade, and by offering 
a more direct and rapid channel to the sea, recover the preference tlie deposit at New Orleans had formerly enjoyed. 
The improvement of the channel of the Mississippi below New Orleans, was also recommended, and will doubtlessly be 
undertaken by the general government at no distant period. The results of the convention have been an active enforce- 
ment of its recommendations, and numerous lines of railroad are being laid out and constnicted in the directions indicated, 
the most important of which are the New Orleans, Jackson, and Northern E. II., and the railroads from the Mississippi 
toward Texas, from Lake Providence, via Shreveport, Marshall, etc., from Natchez, via Shreveport, etc., and from New 
Orleans, via Opelousas, Iluntsville, etc. Kailroads are also being built in almost every direction, to connect with the lines 
of other States, or afford facilities to the gulf ports generally ; and at no distant day, it may be foreseen, Louisiana will be 
on a par with, or have outstripped many of her now successful competitors. 

Bajika, etc. — In December, 1850, the bank returns of Louisiana showed that there were at that period 5 banks, and 20 
branch banks in tlie State, the aggregate condition of which was as follows: Ziuhilities— capital $12,870,890, circulation 
$5,059,229, deposits $8,464,389, and due other banks $1,334,232 ; and a,s««te— loans and discounts $19,309,108, real estate 
$2,255,109, other Investments $2,042,149, due by other banks $2,225,890, specie funds $1,200,000, and specie $5,716,001. 
The whole number of banks are located at New Orleans, the country banks being their branches. 

Government. — The present constitution, which superseded the first constitution of the State, formed in 1812, was ratified 
by the people on the 5th November, 1845. 

Every free white male person 21 years of age, two years a citizen of the United States, or resident in the State for two 
consecutive years next preceding the election, and the last thereof in the parish in which he proposes to vote, is allowed 
the 7"ight of suffrage. Absence from the State for more than 90 consecutive days, unless his house or place of business be 
occupied by his family or servants, interrupts the residence of the absentee. 

he Legidature consists of a House of Representatives and a Senate ; representatives not less than 70, nor more than 
100 in number (now 97), and 16 senators, being half the whole number of senators, are chosen every second year, on the 
first Monday in November, and convene at the capital every second year, on the third Monday in January. Eepresentar 
lives must be free white males, 21 years of age, citizens of the United States, and residents of the State for the three years 
and residents of the parish for one year next preceding their election. A census will bo taken in 1855, and every ten 
years thereafter, -which will form the basis of apportionment; but every parish is entitled to at least one representative. 
Senators are chosen for four years. A senator must be 27 years of age, ten years a citizen of the United States, four years 
a resident of the State, and one year of the district he represents. Deducting the population of New Orleans from that of 
the State, the remainder, divided by 28, is the senatorial ratio for the districts. No session of the legislature shall last 
more than GO days, and no act passed after being 60 days in session is valid. Members may address cither house in the 
French or English languages, and the proceedings are published in both languages. Any one who fights a duel, acts as 
second, or sends or accepts a challenge, shall neither hold an office, nor enjoy the right of suffrage in tlie State. 

The Gmernor is chosen by a plurality of votes, and holds ofiBce for four years. He must be 35 years of age, and a citi- 
zen of the United States, and resident in the State for 15 years next preceding his election. The Lieutenant-governor is 
tlocted for the same term, in the same manner, and must be similarly qualified. The governor is ineligible for the four 
years succeeding his term. He may veto a bill, but two-thirds of both houses may pass it again, and it thus becomes law. 
The lieutenant-governor is ex-officio president of the Senate. 

The principal administrative oflicers are the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Surveyor-general, Adjutant and In- 
Bpoctor-goneral, Auditor of Accounts, etc. The Treasurer is chosen biennially by joint ballot of the legislature. 

The Judiciary consists of the Supreme Court and District Courts. The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and 
throe associate Justices, appointed by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Senate, for the term of eight 
years. The Court sits in New Orleans from the first Monday in November to the end of June inclusive. The Supreme 
120 



AND 



m 




% 



No. 4 N. Main Street, St. Louis, Mo. 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in all kinds of 

Mil, HiWil i illill 



T, $mm, rasiiT mi 

,^ *5^ ^^ m 'm^ 1^3 "^ ^^ ^. ^r. 

■^ M ^^ r^ ^£^ &m ^ t^ S^a 

^iWITH A GENERAL ASSORTMENT OF 
Warranted the best that can be procured in the United States or Europe. 



Also, Sole Agent in St. Louis for the sale ot 



Patented November 20th, 1855. 

Simple in construction and very light, only weighing five pounds, and suitable for 
planting in any kind of soil. 



mt %&mw stwf 1 



I^iESTTTiT-iEIESaxr 



BOSTON and NEW YORK. 




Tlirouffli in 8 hours without Change of Cars!. 



Leave 



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" 4.30 
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Boston .... 

Worcester 
" Springfield 
" Hartford 
" New Haven 
Keach New York 

New York 
New Haven 
Hartford 
Springfield 
Worcester 
Keach Boston 

Passengers Dine and Sup at Springfield. 

N. B. — These hours may be varied slightly for difierent seasons, 
but substantially the same accommodations will be afforded through- 
out the year. 



7.15 
8.45 

10.30 

12. 



a 
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P. 

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PHESIDENTS.' 
THOMAS HOPKINSON, Boston. C. F. POND, Hartford.' 
C. W. CHAPIN, Springfield. J. K. BUCKLEY, N. York. 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 
G. TWICHELL, Boston, Boston and Worcester Rail Road. 
H. GRAY, Springfield, Western Rail Road. 
E. M. REED, Hartford, New Hampshire & Springfield R. Road. 
J. H. HOYT, New York, N. York and New Hampshire R. Road. 



THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



Court has appellate jurisdiction only when more than $300 is iu dispute, when the legality of any tax is in question, on all 
fines and penalties imposed by municipal corporations, and in criminal cases on points of law where death, hard labor, or 
a fine of more than $300 is imposed. The Court may issue writs of habeas corpus in all eases where they have appellate 
jurisdiction. If the Judges are equally divided, the judgment appealed from stands affirmed. The Court has a reporter 
and clerks in New Orleans, Opelousas, Alexandria, and Monroe. The State is divided into seventeen districts. One 
district judge is appointed for each district, except for the district of New Orleans and Lafayette, where as many are 
appointed as are necessary. District judges must be citizens of the United States, above thirty years old, resident of the 
State for five years, and have practiced law therein five years. District Courts have jurisdiction when more than $50 is at 
stake, and in all criminal cases. 

The State has an Attorney-general, and in each district there is a District Attorney, appointed for two years. All civil 
cflScers, except the governor and the judges, are removable on an address of a majority of both houses of the legislature. 

Amendments of the constitution must first be approved by three-fifths of both houses, then published in the news- 
papers throughout the State three months before the next general election, then approved by a majority of both houses 
in the next succeeding legislature, then published again as before, then submitted to the people, and if ratified by a 
majority of voters, the amendments shall form a part of the constitution.* 

The militia of Louisiana consists of 43,823 men of all arms, of which number 1,892 are commissioned officers, and 
42,431 non-commissioned officers, musicians, artificers, and privates. Of the commissioned officers 10 are general officers, 
55 general staff officers, 159 field officers, and 1,168 company officers. Every free white male person between the ages of 
IS and 45 is liable to militia duty, unless exempt by law. 

The most noted of the benevolent institutions of the State is the Charity Hospital at New Orleans, the benefits of which 
have been experienced by thousands who have been taken sick in that malarious city, and as many thousands have 
blessed the nursing hand of the kind sisters whose vocation it may have been to attend to their wants. In 1849 the 
number of admissions to this famous hospital was 15,558, of which 1,782 were natives of the United States, and 13,634 
were foreigners, and 71 were blacks and 12,216 white males, and 3,342 white females. The number of deaths was 2,745, 
of which 2,369 were males and 876 females, and 1,122 died of Asiatic cholera, 515 of yellow fever, 224 of typhus fever 
and 56 of other fevers. The number of patients remaining in the hospital on the 1st January, 1850, was 719. The in- 
come of the hospital for the year was $89,951 30, and the expenditures $92,993 43, averaging $4 26 for each patient. 
Such an institution as this is an oasis in the wilderness of humanity. 

Finances, DeUs, «<p.— The financial statement is made up biennially. The total receipts into the treasury for the 
year 1850 were $1,008,175 91, and for the year 1851 $836,247 44— total $1,844,428 35 ; and the expenditures for 1850 were 
$951,545, and for 1851 $852,787 54— total $1,804,832 54, leaving a balance of $40,090 81 for future appropriation. 

In 1845 the liabilities of the State on account of the property banks amounted to $14,321,596 ; this has since been 
reduced $3,744,596, leaving the liabilities of the State in 1850 $10,577,000. The State debt proper amounted at the latter 
period to $915,566. The State holds property not now productive valued at $2,416,938. 

The constitutional provisions respecting legislative finance were made very stringent in the new fundamental law. 
The constitution provides that the credit of the State shall not be lent to any person or corporation whatever but new 
bonds may be issued to replace outstanding bonds. No State debt shall be contracted for more than $100,000, except in 
case of war, invasion, or insurrection, unless authorized by law for some distinctly_specifled object or work, which law 
shall impose taxes to pay the current interest during the whole term of the debt, and also to pay the debt itself at maturity, 
and this law shall be irrepealable till the debt and interest are fully discharged, and shall not go into force till a^ain 
enacted by the next legislature after its first passage. The State shall not subscribe to the stock of any company or cor- 
poration. No corporate company shall be hereafter created, renewed, or extended with banking or discounting 
privileges. After 1890 the charters of all corporations may be revoked, and no charter shall now be granted, except for 
municipal or political purposes for more than 25 years. 

The assessed value of all real and personal property in Louisiana, on the 1st June, 1850, was $220,165,172 ; but the truo 
or estimate valuation of the same amounted, according to the returns of the federal census, to $233,998,764. 

Federal Representation. — Louisiana, according to the law of 23d May, 1850, apportioning federal representation, is 
entitled to send four representatives to Congress. 

Religious Denominations. — The statistics of the several religious denominations in 1850, as ascertained by the census 
of that year, were as follows : 



Denomlna- No. of 


ClnircU 


Value of 


Dennmina- No. of 


Church 


Value of 


Denomina- No. of 




Value ol 


tions. Chu relies. 


auciim. 


Property. 


turns. CUurches. 


accom. 


Property. 


tions. Churches 


accom. 


Property. 


Baptist 72 . 


. 15,358 . 


. $80,470 


Germ'nEef. 1 .. 


500 . 


$4,000 


R. Catholic . 55 . . 


37,240 . 


. $1,045,650 


Christian .... 2 . 


. 1,500 


. 61,000 


Jewish 1 .. 


600 . 


20,000 


Swedenb'g . — . . 


— . 


— 


Congregat'l . . — . 


— . 


— 


Lutheran . . — . . 


_ 


_ 


Tunker — .. 








Dutch Kef. . . — . 


— . 


— 


Mennonite . — . . 


_ 





Union 6 . . 


1,350 . 


8,220 


Episcopal 12 . 


. 4,410 


. 57,900 


Methodist.. 106 .. 


30,260 . 


236,500 


Unitarian . . — . . 


— . 


— 


Free 3 . 


. 675 . 


. 10,430 


Moravian. . — . . 


— . 





Universalist 1 .. 


1,000 . 


100,000 


Friends — . 


— . 


. — 


Presbyter'n. 17 . . 


9,510 . 


149,300 


Minor Sects 2 . . 


1,650 . 


59,000 



Making the aggregate number of churches 26S, valued as property at $1,782,470, and capable of accommodating 104,053 
persons. Louisiana forms a diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church; and the arch-diocese, or province of New Or- 
leans in the Roman Catholic Church, which has for its suffragan sees, Mobile, Natchez, Galveston, and Little Rock. 

Education. — The constitulion provides that " there shall be a superintendent of education, to hold office for two years. 
Free public schools shall be established throughout the State ; the proceeds of lands granted for the purpose, and of lands 
escheated to the State, shall be held as a permanent fund, on which six per cent, interest shall be paid by the State for the 
support of these schools." The school fund, 1st January, 1850, amounted to $40,272 63, on which $19,105 84 of interest 
had accrued up to that date ; and besides the proceeds of the school fund, the yearly sum of $250,000 is appropriated for 



* A convention was lield at Baton Rouge in July, iS53. to revise the constitution, and the revised constitution wotild be submitted to tlie people 
for ratification on the 2d November of the same year. If ratified, the general elections were to take place on the fourth Monday of December, 
and the first Legislature would meet on the third Monday of January, 18.^3. The revised constitution provides for annual sessions of the Legis- 
lature, an elective judiciary, and removes some of the restrictions against the State's contracting debta, and permits the establishment o( 
ccrpora tions. 

121 



THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



the snpport of the free schools of the State, .and is derived from a mill tax on property, and a poll tax of one dollar on each 
white male inhabitant. The whole number of school districts in the State on the 30th September, 1S49, was 521 ; number 
of sohouls in operation, 704 ; number of children between 6 and 16 years of age, 53,716 ; average attendance for the year, 
22,927; and 20,262 children did not attend school. The average period of taition was G months and 13 days. Amount 
expended for teachers' salaries, $195,3S9 ; expended for building, renting, and purchasing school-houses, $134,689. There 
are also in almost every parish numerous private, classical, and other high 8chof)ls. The principal collegiate institutions 
in the State are — the University of Louisiana at New Orleans, founded in 1S49, and established with 7 professors ; it has 
also a medical department, which in 1850 liad 7 professors and 18S students ; the Centenary College (Methodist), at 
Jackson, founded 1839 — in 1S50 it had 7 professors, 40 alumni, 94 students, and a library of 5,000 volumes ; the St. 
Charles College (Roman Catholic), at Grand Cotcau, founded 1S3S — in 1850 it had 21 professors and 103 students, with a 
valuable library of about 4,000 volumes ; Baton Eouge College, founded 1838 — in 1850 it had 4 professors and 45 students ; 
Franklin College, at Opelousas, founded 1839 — in 1850 it had 4 professors and 70 students ; and several others, among 
which are the Catholic Colleges at Baton Kouge and New Orleans, both of which are flourishing institutions. 

Libraries.— One State library, 7,000 volumes ; 1 social library, 10,000 volumes ; 4 college libraries, 13,000 volumes — 
being a total of 6 libraries and 30,000 volumes. The census makes no returns of students' libraries, the libraries of acade- 
mies and professional schools, the libraries of scientific and historical societies, nor of school libraries, although there aro 
numbers of each description in the State. 

Periodical Press. — The whole number of periodicals and newspapers published in the State on the 1st June, 1S50, was 
60, of which 17 were whig and 17 were democratic— the remaining 26 being neutral in polities or devoted to literature, 
science, religion, etc. Of the whole number 11 were issued daily, circulating 31,780 copies; 2 trl-weekly, 1,900 copies; 6 
semi-weekly, 3,300 copies ; 40 weekly, 32,017 copies ; and 1 monthly, 12,200. Among the publications in New Orleans are 
many of the best conducted and most talented papers of the Union ; and no other city can boast of such a magazine 
of statistical information as De Bow's Review. 

I'aiiperi.'iin and Crime. — The whole number of paupers that received support within the year ending June 1st, 1850, 
was 423, of which 133 were native born, and 290 foreign ; and the whole numl)cr of paupers at the above date was 106, of 
which 76 native born, and .30 foreign ; annual cost of support, $39,806. The State I'enitentiary is at Baton Rouge. The 
number of convicts remaining in confinement, 1st October, 1848, was 152, and the number received during the year fol- 
lowing was 105 — male, 257 ; 52 discharged, 2 pardoned, 7 died, and 2 escaped — in all 63, leaving, 1st October, 1849, 194. 
The receipts for the year were $49,283 74; and the expenditures, $42,628 69— making a net gain from convict labor 
equal to $6,655 05 

Historical Sketch.— The legends of De Soto, Marquette, and La Salle, shall not arrest our attention. These wild and 
daring passages belong rather to the romancer than to the historian. Louis XIV. seized upon the proposal of Iberville, 
and addressed himself in earnest to a new and vast country, which dazzled his ambition. Iberville, and Bienville, his 
brother, founded a colony of Frenchmen on the shores of Louisiana in 1699. This is the earliest era la the history 
of Louisiana. 

In 1712 the King of France granted a charter to M. Crozat, which covered the whole province. The aims of both 
parties were commercial, and included the whole of the Mississippi and its tributary bays, lakes, rivers, and bordering 
territories. M. Crozat was endowed for twenty years with exclusive privileges of trade in these countries — to work 
mines for gold and precious stones, with a large share of the results. The laws, edicts, and ordinances of the realm, and 
the customs of Paris were extended over Louisiana. The privileges allowed to Crozat were ample; but so vain are the 
eilculations of men when employed upon novel enterprises, they satisfied not one of his greedy desires after wealth in the 
"WestcTn World. The grant was surrendered, after five years, into the hands of the king, with the bitter complaint that 
from the imbecility of the colony, the strength of the Indians, the presence of the British, and the sterility of the soil, it had 
proved of no kind of value whatever to him, but rather a ruinous expense. 

There settled in Paris about this time a man from Scotland by the name of John Law ; he was a restless projector, a 
daring financier, and full of enterprise. This extraordinary man soon succeeded in gaining an influence over the Duke of 
Orleans, then regent, obtained a charter for a bank of $1,200,000, substituted paper for specie, and set the whole French 
nation mad with magnificent schemes of creating wealth, as it were, by the wand of a magician. The Chancellor 
D'Aguesseau opposed this daring scheme with infinite peril to himself. To the Royal Bank of Law was attached a great 
commercial company, in which were to be concentred all the rights, privileges, and possessions of all the trading compa- 
nies then chartered in France. To this company was granted the great territory of Louisiana as it was surrendered up 
by Crozat. All France was in commotion — every man, woman, and child became a financier ; the boot-black and collier 
of to-day were the grandees of to-morrow, and their splendid equipages dazzled the bewildered populace. The Royal 
Bank stock went up to six hundred times its par value, and dividends were rendered at 200 per cent. The exhaustless 
mines near the Mississippi would reimburse any investment, it was said ; but in three years John Law was a bankrupt, the 
government Itself was prostrated, the deluded votaries of stock-jobbing were undone, the magnificent Western Company 
— the Mississippi Scheme — became a by-word ; the banking bubble, when infiated to the skies, had burst ! The charter 
of the company was granted for twenty-five years ; it was to have exclusive privileges of trade, and of the purchase 
of beaver skins for export.ition. To it belonged by prescription the right to make all Indian wars and treaties, work 
all mines, grant lands, construct fortifications, nominate governors, and appoint inferior judges. Its vessels and crews to 
be of the French nation, and the descendants of the colonists to be counted natural born subjects of France, etc. There 
are difierent accounts of the condition of Louisiana during the time it remained under the Western Company, who 
enjoyed the privileges granted to Law. By some it is represented to have been in a deplorable condition ; while others 
assert that these were the best years which Louisiana knew under the dominion of France, the white population having 
increased from 700 to 5,000, and the black from 20 to 2,000 ; " a vast ntmnibcr of handsome cottages lined both sides of the 
river .it the German co.ast; the culture of rice, indigo, and tobacco, and a regular administration of justice were provided 
for." The Western Company, in despair of finding the gold they had anticipated in Louisiana, from mineral researches 
turned their attention to agriculture. To promote their aims, large grants were made to powerfid and wealthy individu- 
als: to Law they granted a plot of twelve miles square. These grantees were to introduce settlers, but they succeeded to 
an extent far less than was anticipated, while sanguinary Indian wars desoIat<>d the colony. The company, in utter 
hopelessness, threw up their charter in April, 1732, which the king accepted, and declared the commerce of Louisiana 
thenceforward free. 
The French colonial government was now initiated. The commissioner, Salmon, took possession for the king. Tlie 
123 





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THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



new government established consisted of a Superior Council, of the Governor-general of New Prance, the Governor and 
Commissary of Louisiana, the King's Lieutenant, and the Town Mayor of New Orleans, six councilors, an attorney, and a 
clerk. A war brolje out between Great Britain and France in 1760, the influence of which was felt throughout all America. 
In this war our own TVashington began his career of glory. Canada fell into the hands of the English, and rather than 
submit to the consequences, large numbers of its inhabitants sought a home in southern climes, fixing themselves on the 
Acadian coast of Louisiana, or taking their course westward of the river, formed the settlements of Attakapas, Opelousas, 
and Avoyelles. 

France looked to Spain in her emergencies, and the Due de Choiseul, the minister, entered into a family compact with 
the Spanish king on the loth August, 1760, and on the 3d Nov., 1762, a secret treaty between the two governments ceded 
the territory of Louisiana west of the Mississippi, with New Orleans, to Spain. The bad system of government under 
which Louisiana had long suffered, was attended with the consequences which were to be expected from it, and the 
sovereignty of the finest country of the world, says Marbois, a country which might have become another France, was 
of no use to the parent State, but was even a charge to her. After the experience of several years, the government, 
wearied with a possession which its faults and ignorance had made burdensome, felt disposed to abandon ft. In 1763 
Great Britain, France, and Spain entered upon the Treaty of Paris, and terminated their difficulties. France abandoned 
to Great Britain all her northern possessions, the whole of Louisiana east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans, and 
the navigation of that river was made free to the subjects of either nation. Thus did France, by her cessions to Britain 
and Spain, divest herself of every foot of territory she held in North America. The private treaty of cession to Spain 
was long held secret, and it was not till 1764 that D'Abadie was ordered by Louis XV. to announce the fact to the colony. 
D'Abadie was broken-hearted at the intelligence, and died before he could communicate it. The duty devolved upon his 
successor, Aubry. A day of lamentation and sorrow had dawned upon the Louisianians, and they heard their fate with settled 
gloom. A general meeting of the leading inhabitants was hastily assembled in New Orleans, and entreaties werossent up 
to the throne that this painful treaty might not be made to go into effect. The king declared the treaty to be irrevocable. 

Don Ant. de UOoa arrived in Louisiana in 1766, appointed, as he professed, by Charles of Spaia to take possession of the 
province. His powers being demanded by the colonists, were not shown, and hence he was notified to depart, which he 
did in a few days, amid the universal rejoicing of the people. Scarcely, however, had the colony breathing time, before 
it was announced that a Spanish frigate was upon the coast, and notwithstanding the threats of the populace, Don Alex. 
O'lteiUy, commander of the Spanish forces, landed and sent up a message to Governor Aubry, informing him that he 
was prepared to take possession of the country, and that any show of resistance would be signally punished. The in- 
habitants returned a declaration to the Spaniard, declaring their intention to abandon the colony, and requested two years 
delay to effect the arrangement. O'Eeilly consented with apparent cheerfulness and with the warmest professions of 
regard. He soon after landed at the city and took formal possession in the name of the king. But this display of 
clemency was but the precursor of the worst excesses of tyranny. Some of the first citizens were arrested and thrown 
into prison, declared guilty of treason, and tried under the statute of Alphonzo, making it death to incite insurrection 
against the king. Sentence and execution followed. " Posterity," says the historian Martin, " will doom this act to public 
execration," and posterity, we may add, has already branded it as one of the blackest which it is the shame of history 
to record. What was the precise character of the powers conferred upon O'Eeilly has never yet been satisfactorily de- 
termined. The King of France, in writing to D'Abadie at the period of the cession, conceded that the laws, forms, and 
usages of the colony would be preserved, but this does not appear to have been inserted in the treaty of cession. O'Eeilly, 
as soon as he was at ease in his government, made a proclamation to the people, declaring himself empowered to 
establish that form of government, dependence, and subordination which should accord with the good of his master's 
service and the happiness of his subjects in the colony. The laws of Spain were now gradually extended over Louisiana, 
and in the end but little trace of French legislation remained. The transition, however, was not sudden, and little 
inconvenience resulted from it. When the American Eevolution had progressed, and Spain, in an endeavor to mediate 
between the contestants had failed, the Catholic king prepared himself for war. Galvez, governor of Louisiana, threw 
himself upon the British garrison at Baton Eougo, and captured it. An American minister was sent to Madrid to nego- 
tiate a favorable treaty for his countrymen, and to obtain for them, if possible, the free navigation of the Mississippi to 
the sea. The treaties between Great Britain, France, and Spain, and the Unite-d States concluded in 17S3, opened 
the navigation of the river, ceded the Floridas to Spain, and bounded the possessions of the two countries by a line 
eastward of the 31st parallel on the Mississippi to the Appalaohicola Eiver, througli the middle of that river to its junction 
with the Flint, from the Flint to the head of St. Mary's River, and down the St. Mary's to the Atlantic. These treaties 
were soon followed by embarrassing disputes, in which the Spaniards laid claim to a large tract of country and an exclu- 
sive right to the navigation of that portion of the Mississippi which passed through their territories, against both which 
claims the United States protested. 

It may be remarked that very little, if any, intercourse was tolerated by the Spaniards through the Mississippi, with the 
people of the United States. Any attempt to navigate the river, or to introduce merchandise into New Orleans by boats 
was resisted and the property seized. About the year .1787, General Wilkinson, a revolutionary officer, conceived the 
design of making a settlement of American families in Louisiana, for which he expected to receive some commercial 
favors from the Spaniards. He descended the river to New Orleans with a small adventure of tobacco, flour, etc., and 
by an artifice, so worked upon the fears of Miro, the governor, that he was disposed to listen to the proposals of opening 
a traffic with the people of the W'estern States. Miro flattered himself that the result would be a division of the States of 
the Union, and that those westward of the AUeghanies would attach themselves to the Interests of Spain. In 1788 the 
navigation of the Mississippi was conceded to the young West, on condition of its forming an empire distinct from that 
of the Atlantic States. That the people of the West entertained the project can not be denied, but on second thoughts 
returned loyally to their country, and on the admission of Kentucky into the Union, the whole scheme of separation fell 
through. 

In 1790 it was again attempted to procure from Spain the navigation of the Mississippi for the United States, also the 
island on which New Orleans is situate, and the Floridas. The propositions were not assented to, but five years after the 
American plenipotentiaries signed, at San Lorenzo, a treaty stipulation for the freedom of the river to their countrymen, 
and a freedom to use for ten years the City of New Orleans as a depQt for their merchandise. 

Spain had no sooner signed the treaty than she began to regret her liberality. Her alliance with France and the 
position of the United States, determined her by all means to hold on to the territory of Upper Louisiana, which she 
had agreed to cede. In vain the United States sent its officers to take possession of the ports and settlements— in vain 

123 



THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



tlie settlers protested against the delay. A magnificent scheme had been planned and was in progress, the design of 
which was to prevent Louisiana forever from falling into the hands of the American government. The Baron do 
Carondolet endeavored to sound General Willdnson on the subject, and to bring him over to the plan by flatteries and 
by the most liberal ofl"ers. "WilliiMSon, however, dismissed the messenger with an expression of views little favorable to 
the project that had been opencil to him. The blame or innocence of the general on these premises is a canvassed subject, 
and need not be further mentioned in this connection. Nor need we here mention his connection with Burr on a future 
occasion, further than to state tliat whatever plans of aggrandizement either might have enterta'med were never brought 
to fruition, and are subjects now only interesting to the historical antiquary. 

The face of European afliiirs in May, 179S, influenced the American people to put on their armor. Washington was 
again appointed to the head of the army, and difficulties with regard to Louisiana, and consequent losses to the govern- 
ment, forced upon all minds the absolute necessity for the acquisition of New Orleans, whatever might be the hazard. 
Louisiana, indeed, occupied an unenviable position at this time. She had been abandoned by France, and the French 
people had regarded the cession with regret and indignation, so much so, indeed, that on the brealiing out of hostilities 
with the Spaniards, Mons. Genet, the young and rash minister from France, employed himself, immediately after his 
arrival, in devising and carrying out a comprehensive scheme for the invasion of Louisiana with troops and arras procured 

in the United States. How his course was denounced at Washington — how he appealed from the President to the people 

and though his conduct was disowned by his own government, how that same government demanded the restoration of 
Louisiana to the French llepublic, are matters of general history. In other respects was the position of Louisiana remark- 
able. The United States had long been regarding with jealousy the existence of a territory in the hands of a foreign 
power, capable of influencing the destiny of the great central valley. A plot had been laid, too, by an American citizen, 
Blount, then governor of Tennessee, the object of which was to throw down upon Louisiana, during the wars between 
England and Spain, in 1797, through the medium of the western waters, large numbers of British troops from Canada. 
The plot was discovered, Blount degraded by the Senate, and the English Government exonerated from the charge of any 
knowledge of the proceedings. The eyes of Spain were not closed to the diflficulties of her position. Bonaparte had by 
this time assumed the reins of government, and he cherished the idea of bringing back to the parent country a province 
he conceived had been unnaturally severed from her. Ilis sophisms soon prevailed over Spain; he represented " that 
Louisiana, restored to France, would be a bulwark for Mexico, and a security for the tranquillity of the Gulf" On the 1st 
October, ISOO, was concluded the celebr.ited treaty of San Ildefonso, and Louisiana again became a French colony. 
Bonaparte took immediate steps to enter upon his new possession. Gen. Victor was appointed Commissioner for accept- 
ing the transfer, and proclamations announcing the changed circumstances of the colony were issued. The Louisiauians 
prepared an address in reply, in which they declared that the proclamations had filled the people with joy, and that they 
already felt the happiness of their reunion with their ancient nationality. Every thing, indeed, seemed favorable for the 
re-establishment of the French goverimient in tlie province— and all was rojoicing and congratulation, when a vessel 
arrived at the levee from Bordeaux, and the news soon spread that the Corsican had sold their country and themselves to 
the neighboring republic. The treaty of Paris, signed 13th April, 1S03, had ceded Louisiana and all its appurtenances for- 
ever to the United States ; and the United States had agreed to pay 60,000,000 francs to discharge certain claims of their 
citizens on France. The difticulties which immediately followed the acquisition were perplexing; and even in the United 
States many there were who viewed the treaty as unconstitutional ; bnt, like all diflTiculties, these came to an end, and the 
American flag waved over the city of New Orleans on the 20th December — the same day having witnessed the descent 
of the Spanish ensign and the elevation of the tri-color, the latter only having been raised to be re-placed by the stars and 
stripes. 

The first act of Governor Claiborne, on taking the chair of authority, was to organize a judiciary, which he did by es- 
tablishing a Court of Pleas, consisting of seven justices. The Act of Congress, 20th March, 1S04, establislied a territorial 
government, Louisiana was divided into two sections, of which that now constituting the State of the same name was to 
be known as the Territory of Orleans. The Act provided for a governor, appointed for three years, a secretary for four 
years, a legislative council of thirteen freeholders, a judiciary, according to the regulations of the l<-gislntive council, but to 
be appointed by the President. The period that elapsed between the Act of 180-1 and the one of 2d March, 1S05, which 
set up another territorial government, was one of dissatisfaction to the people. They complained that the governor was 
unacquainted with the language, their laws, and their interests, and that he favored only his own countrymen, etc. On tliese 
subjects the citizens memorialized Congress. The council as established in the meanwhile passed several .acts bearing 
upon Uie proper organization ot the territory, dividing it into 12 parishes or counties, witli inferior courts in each, institute 
ing modes of procedure, defining crimes, etc., chartering the city, and establishing (on paper) a university. The efi'ect 
of the dissatisfaction before alluded to produced the territorial act of 1805, by which Congress set up a government iu 
Louisiana similar to that of the Mississippi Territory, and provided for its admission into the Union when it. should have 
60,000 inhabitants. This act gave to the people the election of a legislature, and to the legislature tlio election of a legis- 
lative council or Upper House. The first acts of the new government were the adoption of the " code Noir," or black code, 
for the government of the slaves, and the appointment of a commission to prepare a civil code based upon the former 
laws of the country. The latter was completed in 1808, and embraced, besides the compilation of the old codes, many of 
the provisions of the " code Napoleon." 

Having settled these points, Louisiana was prepared to meet the position of things which was forced upon her in 
relation to Spain, and in the anxieties which aro!¥i in relation to boundaries, and the opposing claims of the two nations, 
it is likely that hostilities would have occurred, had not the intimation of a vast scheme on foot for the separation of the 
western country from the Union, at the head of which was Aaron Burr, influenced Gen. Wilkinson and the Americans 
to compromise matters with the Spaniards, and concentrate every thing to meet the threatened danger. The reports 
which reached Louisiana each day in relation to this plot were alarming ; military preparations were being urged on all 
Bides, and Burr himself, after a reward ofiered for his arrest, was taken at Fort Stodilard, and conveyed to Kichmond. 

The conflicting claims of the United States and Spain, to the strip of territory east of the Mississippi Hi ver, and south of 
the 31st parallel to the Perdido River, were brought to something like a crisis in ISIO, by the seizure of the Spanish 
post at Baton Kouge, the holding a convention at St. Francisville, declaring their independence, and setting up a 
constitution, and, by a proclamation of the President, taking possession of the territory. The event was peaceable, and 
the parishes of Fi>liciana, East Baton Kouge, St. Helena, St. Tammany, Biloxi, and I'ascagoula were soon after established. 

On the llth February, ISll, an act of Congress was passed to enable the inhabitants of Louisiana to form a constitution 
and State government, if the same should be the desu-e of the people, signified by the calling of a convention. This body 
124 



Tbeodore Harris. 



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THE STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



l>eiug called, assembled at New Orleans, and unanimously signed a constitution based upon that of Kentucky, on the 22d 
January, 1S12. This constitution was superseded by that of ISiS, and another constitution, or a revision of the latter, is 
now about to be voted on by the people. 

The share that Louisiana took in the war of 1812, though signalized in history, is so familiar as to require only a short 
notice. Wilkinson took possession of the country west of the Perdido, then in the occupation of Spain. The English 
colonel, Nichols, arrived at Pensacola, and made proclamation to all Englishmen, Spaniards, and Frenchmen to join his 
standard, and resist the encroachments of the United States. To the people of Kentucky this oDBcer proposed similar 
terms ; and to the privateer La Fitte and his followers at Barrataria, he was most prodigal in his offers. The overtures, 
says Marbois, were repelled with indignation, and the men who saw no degradation in enriching themselves by plunder, 
had a horror of treason. The course of General Jackson, in relation to the Spaniards and English at Pensacola, is 
familiar to all. 

An attack on New Orleans being now inevitable, the most extraordinary preparations were made to raise forces, and 
provide fortifications and armaments to meet the Impending danger. The city was all excitement. " The people were 
preparing for battle, as if for a parly of pleasure," says a historian; "the streets resounded with martial airs, several corps 
of militia were constantly exercising, every bosom glowed with the feelings of national honor." The west was pouring 
down upon the city— martial law was proclaimed. The battle of New Orleans, of Sth January, 1S15, was fought and won 
to the high honor of the American people ; and the lasting laurels of the great man who commanded, and who, whatever 
his faults, is becoming every day more and more honored in the memory of his grateful and admiring countrymen. 

The history of Louisiana, since she has become a State, has yet to be written. The uninterrupted prevalence of peace 
in our country takes away from this chapter those lively features which characterize anterior periods. The records of 
revolution, of changing dynxsties, of deeds of arms, and high renown, are not presented here, and perhaps to the general 
reader the whole is a hopeless blank. But to those seeking higher views of individual good and national destiny, the 
onward march of the arts of peace, the extraordinary development of industrial resources, the unmatched augmentation 
of population and wealth, the erection of an opulent State, with laws, government, and order, la a former French and 
Spanish province, are events worthy of the highest efforts of the historian, replete with interest, and deserving of careful 
study. 

Succ^swn of Governors. — ^Terkptoeiai, Goveknok : William C. C. Claiborne, 1804; and — CoNSTrnrrioNAL Goveekoks : 
William C. C. Claiborne, 1812; James Villere, 1816; Thomas B. Eobertson, 1820; 11. S. Thibodeaux (acting); Henry 
Johnson, 1824 ; Peter Derbigny, 1828 ; A. Bauvois (acting), 1829 ; Jaques Dupre (acting), 18-30 ; Andre B. Roman, 1S30 ; 
Edward D. White, 18:34; Andre B. Eoman, 1S3S; Alexander Mouton, 1841 ; Isaac Johnson, 1845; Joseph Walker, 1850. 

Baton Kouge, on the east bank of the Mississippi, has been the scat of government since the constitution of 1845 went 
into effect, untU which time New Orleans was the State capital. 

125 



THE STATE OF MAIIE. 



Maine, occupying: a little less than one half the surface of New England, is of a long, irreg;ular shape, extending between 
latitudes -tP and 47° SlK X., and between longitudes 66° 52', and 71° 06' W. from Greenwich, or 5° 56' and 10° 10* E. from 
AVashington. The boundaries of Maine* as established by the treaty of Washington, 1842, are the result of a controversy 
with Great Britain of a quarter of a century's standing, and one which came near involving the two countries in a war. 
By the treaty, the St. Croix, and a line running due north from a monument at its source to St. John's Elver form the 
boundary on the east On the north tlie line follows the SL John's and St. Francis rivers to Lake Pohenagamook. On 
the north-west it follows the highlands from that lake in a south-west direction to the north-east corner of New Hampshire, 
which State forms the greatest length of its west boundary. The Atlantic lies on the south. "Within these limits the esti- 
mated area contains 30,000 square miles. 

There are said to be as many islands on the coasts, and in the bays of Maine, as there are days in the year. Most of 
these are small, but many are of considerable size, fertile, and inhabited. The bays and inlets are proportionally numer- 
ous, and afford a series of excellent harbors. The length of the coast in a straight line from Kittery Point to Quoddy 
Head is about 225 miles, but following its windings, nearly 1,000 miles. The Isles of Shoals are seven in number,t and 
lie alx)ut eight miles south-easterly from the mouth of the Piscataqua Elver. Four of them belong to Maine, and the three 
others to New Hampshire. These islands are little more than masses of rock, but at one time had 500 or 600 inhabitants, 
attracted thilher by the superior advantages they afforded for the pursuit of the fisheries, and they became celebrated for 
their dried fish, known by the name of Isles of Shoal dun-flsh, which were prepared by drying them slowly and carefully 
on the rocks. Their population in 1S50 was 132. Casco Bay, a spacious basin between Cape Elizabeth and Cape Small 
Point, contains a great number of fine islands, among which Great Gebrag and Sebaseodegan Islands are the largest. 
The shores of the bay afford several excellent harbors. Seguin Island, further east, is a no^ied landmark at the mouth 
of the river Kennebec. Parker's Island, on which is Georgetown, the island of Cape Kewagen, and Jeremisquam, are 
large bodies of land bctweeen the Kennebec and Damariscotta rivers, south of which are the Damariscove islands, a 
group of small but inhabited islets. Farther from the shore are Monhegan, St George's, Matinic, and Matinicus islands. 
Monhegan was fjrmcrly famous for its fisheries. The Fox Island, Long Island, and Deer Island, are the principal islands 
in Penobscot Bay, which extends from White Head, on the west, to He au Haul on the east, and runs up about 35 miles 
inland. But the largest island on the coast is Mount Desert, containing about 60,000 acres. Several of its heights are 
conspicuous objects far off at sea, and some of them attain an elevation of from 1,500 to 1,800 feet. Farther east is Petit 
Menan, often corrupted to Titmenan, and at the entrance of Passamaquoddy Bay is Grand Menan, belonging to New 
Bnmswick, to which province, also, Campobello and Deer Island, in that bay, are politically attached. Moose Islands 
belong to Maine. 

The surface of the interior country beyond the coast region, which is somewhat flat and sandy, is, in general, pleasantly 
varied with hiUs and valleys. There is no connected ridge of mountains in the State, but the north-western part contains 
numerous detached elevations, which may be considered as "outliers" of the White Mountains, and from this section all 
the principal rivers descend in different directions. The Bald Mountain, to the west of Moosehead Lake, Katahdin 
Mountain, between the east and west branches of Penobscot Eiver, Saddleback, Mt Abraham, and Mt Bigelow, be- 
tween the Androscoggin and the Kennebec, and the Sugar Loaf Mountains at the head of the west branch of the 
Walloostook are thought to be the loftiest points. The highest point of land in the State is Mt Katahdin, which rises 
6,385 feet above the sea level. 

It is estimated that one tenth part of the State is covered with water; and every portion is abundantly supplied with 
streams and rivulets which, for the most part, flow from or through lakes, and are copiously supplied from those reser- 
voirs throughout the year. The rivers of Maine are characterized by numerous falls, which, while they impede the 
navigation of large craft, do not interrupt the descent of logs and rafts, and furnish excellent mill-seats. Along the coasts 
the tide-waters often penetrate far inland, filling natural channels, which take the name of rivers, but which are, in 
truth, arms of the sea. The whole of the northern part is drained by the constituents of St John Eiver — the St 
Francis, and Madawaska from the north, and the Walloostook, Allagash, and Aroostook from the south. The great 
river of the southern section is the Penobscot, which collects its tribute of waters from the whole breadth of the State. Its 
western branch rises near the heads of the Chaudiere, and flows east, receiving in its course several streams from the 
vicinity of the sources of the Allagash and Walloostook, and passing through Chesuncook and Pemadumcook lakes 



' The foHowing are the astronomical positions of several important points on the line of the new boundary survey, 



T.at. N. 



Fish River, moutli of. 47 15 13 

Fort FairBeid, (upper blockhouse) 46 46 07 

Fort Fairfield, (lower blockhouse) — 

Fort Kent (bhickUouse) 4T 1ft 00 

Hancock Barracks (flagstaff) 4t> 07 39 . 

HeadofL. Black llapids (St. John River) 47 03 30 

Head of Connecticut Uiver -...- 45 14 58 

youlton (hotel) 46 07 i28 

f The " Iftlcs of Shoals" are seven in number, viz., Hog, Sr 



Long. W, 
B. M. B. 

. 68 35 26 



... 67 49 42 

... 6S 3.) 25 

... 67 49 00 

... 69 03 34 

... 71 12 67 

... 67 49 25 

utty Nose, Star, Duck, White, Malaga, and LonHonner Islands. Tlie three 
tute the town of Goasport, A'. Hamp., and the four latter the town of Isles of Shoals, Me. They were originally called Smith's Islands, 
discovered by the celebrated John Smith in 1614. The present population is 132— in N. Hamp. 103, and in Maine 29. 
126 



Lat. N. Long. W. 



Pinelslandof Seven Islands (St John River)... 46 46 63 , 

Pohenagamook Liike (monument at outlet) 47 27 33 

Pohenagamook Lake (head of ) 47 31 39 

Saddleback Mountain 45 20 66 . 

St. Croix River (monument nt source) 45 56 37 , 

St. Francis R. (Hammond's Barn near m'th of) 47 10 57 
Tascbereau's House 45 48 37 , 



.. 69 35 65 
.. 69 13 19 
.. 69 17 31 
.. Tl 01 13 
.. 67 47 00 
.. 63 53 69 
.. 70 24 10 

first consti- 
having been 



PATENT AMERICAN ACTION 







NEW DIAGONAL and other Scales, with important improve- 
ments, have been drawn during the past year, ranging from six 
to seven and a quarter octaves. 

Nine Medals and fifteen Diplomas have been awarded the man- 
ufacturer for the superiority of these instruments, and recommen- 
dations from the following eminent Musicians: Gottschalk, Mason, 
Bergmann, Helmsmuller, Shultze and many others. 

No. 379 Washington Street, Boston, Mass- 

Superior Family Syringes. 

Physicians and Families frequently wish to know where they can procure a good, reliable Syringe, and to I 
such we would say, that the following are justly regarded as tlve very best in the market, and worthy in every I 
wayof the confidence of the public. I 

DR. MATTISON'S POCKET INJECTING- INSTRUMENT. 

This is a small sized metallic pump Syringe, diflering entirely from other pump Syringes in being construct- 
ed so that the piston may be worked with one hand, leaving the other hand free to hold or direct the Injecting 
Tube. 

The Pocket Syringe has been patented, and has been sold by thousands since its first introduction. 
DR. MATTISON'S IMPROVED FAMILY SYRINGE. 

This is a pint Syringe, possessing very great power, and on that account is a particular favorite with many 
families. It may be used without an assistant. 

DR. MATTISON'S PATENT ELASTIC INJECTING INSTRUMENT. 

This Syringe is just entering the market, and is receiving the unqualified approbation of the public. It is in 
the form of a pump, but is without a piston. It requires but one hand to work it ; may be used without an as- 
sistant ; and is admirably adapted to all the purposes of a male and female Syringe. It is also extremely light 
and portable, and may be easily carried in the pocket. 

MANUAL OF DIRECTIONS.— This work is an illustrated volume of nearly 200 pages. It contains direc- 
tions for the employment of Injections in varices diseases, with remarks upon the nature and treatment of Hab- 
itualConstipation ; preceded by a treatise on the Intestinal Canal, its structure, functions, etc., with a descrip- 
tion of the Digestive Process. A copy accompanies each instrument. 

For Sale Wholesale and Retail by THEODORE METCALF & CO., 39 Tremont Street, Boston, and by all of 
the principal Druggists in the country. 

BURNETT'S PURE COD LIVER OIL. 

Prepared by THEODORE METCALF & CO., 39 Tremont Street, Boston. Has for years been known as the 
bestarticle in the market For sale 'VVJiolesale & Retail as above. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 






^ 



BOTH COMMON AND PATENT, 



No. 14 



OP ALL KINDS AND SIZES, 

Cor, of Water Street & South Avenue, 

(NEAR STANLEY HOUSE,) 



20 



AMOSKEAG MFG. COMPANY. 

lacMne Shop & Locomotive Department, 

Manufacture annually GO Locomotives, and have the facilities 
for producing during the same period, Machinery for a Mill of 
20,000 Spindles, besides. Turbine Wheels ranging from 20 to 300 
Horse-Power. 

There is consumed at these Works every year 2,000 tons of 
Pig Iron, 1,000 tons Bar Iron and Steel, 150 tons Copper, 75 tons 
Brass and Malleable Castings, 300 tons Boiler Iron, 1,200 tons 
Coal, 5,000 bushels Charcoal, 4,000 Gallons Oil, 1,200 cords Wood. 



THE 



# 



, ^ANup^crt.^^^ 



'O 




MANCHESTER, N. H. 

MANUFACTURE 

Of every description, and of the most approved Patterns, at 
short notice. Also, 

Stationary Steam Engines, 

Boilers, Cotton ami Woolen Macliinery, Tools, Turbine Wheels, 
Mill Work and Castings of every Description. 

C. W. BALDWIN, Agent, 
WM. AMORY, Treasurer. [Manchester, N. H. 

65 State Street, Boston, Mass. 



THE STATE OF MAINE. 



aboutSOO still in the State ; they live principally on the islands of the Penobscot Eiver, which they own, and enjoy a consid- 
erable annuity secured to them by the j»overnineiiL There is also an Indian seltlement on the western side of Passaraa- 
quoddy Bay. The present inhabitants are chiefly of British descent, and the greater portion of them the imraediato 
descendants of the original colonisla of New England. There are, however, large numbers of emigrants from other 
European countries, but the proportion of those classes is by no means so great as in most of the other States. Tho 
colored races form but a small moiety of the people. 
Maine is divided into 13 counties, the gt^neral statistics of which and the capitals of each, in 1S50, were as follows : 



Counties. Dwell. Pop. f^"Jll y.^"',l^; Capitali. 

Pe nobscot 1 0,3T4 . . 63,089 .. 3,98.3 . . 40T . . Bangor 

PiseaLaquis 2,5S9.. 14,735.. 1,7T9.. CI. .Dover 

Somerset 5,91T. .35,581. .3,813. .155. .Norridgewoek 

Waldo T,6.31. .47,230. .4,415. .34T.. Belfast 

"Washington .... 5,835. .38,810. .1,875. .310. .Machias 
York 10,564. .60,101. .5,004. .352. .Alfred 



Counties. Dwell. Pop. f"'^'"' "'""'"• Capitals. 

^ in cult, tstab. * 

Aroostook 2,088.. 12.535.. 1,223.. 59..IIouItoa 

Cumberland 12,762 . . 79,549 . . 5,352 . . W4 . . Portland 

Franklin 3,4>57. .20,027. .2,.521..l:J5. Farmington 

Hancock 5,5.')0. 34,372. .2,271. .205. .Ellsworth 

Kennebec 10,102. .62,521. .5,256. .3U1 ..Auguhtx 

Lincoln 12,176. .74,875. .4,975. .526. .Wiscasset 

Oxford 6,712. .39,663. .4,238. .150. .Paris 

The whole number of dwellings in the State was, at the above date, 95,797; of families, 103,787; and of inhabitants, 
583,088; viz., whites 581,703— males 296,6:35, .ind females 285,128; free colored 1,325— males 7(1.5, and females 620. Of 
the wliole population there were, deaf and du7nh—\\h. 229, fr. col. 1— total 230; Uind—wh. 201, fr. col. 0— total 201; 
inmne—v/h. 533, fr. col. 3— total 536, and idiotla—y/h. 555, fr. col. 3— total 558. The number of free jjersons born in tho 
United States was r>o\,V>9, the number of foreign birth 31,456, and of birth unknown ^'ii; native population originated as 
follows: Minne 517,117, N. Hamp. 13,509, Verm. 1,177, Mass. 16,535, li. I. 41(1, Conn. 460, N. Y. 973, N. J. 134, Penn. 201, 
Del. 36, Md. 113, Dist. of Col. 2S, Virg. 94, N. Car. 27, S. Car. 31, Oa. 24, Flor. 24, Ala. 6, Miss. 16, La. 21, Tex. 9, Ark. 6, 
Tenn. 6, Ky. 14, Oh. 68, Mich. 19, Ind. 5, 111. 38, Mo. 11, la. 1, Wise. 10, Cilif. 2, Territories 4. And the foreign 
population was composed of persons, from— England 1,949, Ireland 13,871, Scotland 532, Wales 60, Germany 290, 
France 143, Spain 18, Portugal 58, Belgium 2, Holland 12, Turkey 4, Italy 20, Austria 3, Switzcriand 11, Russia 2, Den- 
mark 47, Norway 12, Sweden 55, Prussia 27, China .3, Asia 5, Africa 5, British America 14,181, Me.xico 2, Central 
America 0, South America .31, West Indies 61, Sandwich Islands 1, and other countries, 51. 

The following table will show the decennial progress of the population since the first census of the State taken by tho 
United States authorities : 

Colored Persons. Decennial Increase. 
Census Wliita , ' , Total , « , 



Year. Persons. Free. Slave. Total. Population. Numerical. Percent. 

1790 96,002 533 — 533 90,540 — — 

1800 1.50,901 81S — 813 151,719 55,179 57.1 

1810.' 227,7-36 969 — 969 228,705 76,986 50.7 

1820 297,340 996 — 995 298,335 69,630 30.4 

1830 398,263 1,190 2 1,192 399,455 101,120 33.9 

1840 500,438 1,355 — 1,355 501,793 102,-338 25.6 

1850 681,763 1,325 — 1,-325 583,083 81,295 16.2 

The statistical returns of the wealth and industry of Maine, as furnished by the census of 1st June, 1850, and other 
official docunii>nLs referring to that period, are as follows : 

Occupied Linids, etc. — Improved lands 2,039,596 acres, and unimproved lands 2,515,797 acres — valued in cash at 
$54,861,748. Number of farms under cultivation, 46,760; value of farming iinplements and machinery, $2,284,554. 

Live-stock. — Horses, 41,721 ; asses and mules, 55; milch cows, 133,550 ; working o.xen, 83,893; other cattle, 125,890; 
sheep, 451,577 ; and swine, 54,598 — total value of live-stock, $9,705,726. In 1840, there were in the State — horses, mules, 
etc., 59,208 ; neat ciittlc of all descriptions, 327,255 ; sheep, 649,264 ; swine, 117,386, etc. 

tfmm C/-(;;;s.— Wheat, 296,259 bushels; rye, 102,916 bushels; Indian corn, 1,750,056 bushels ; oats, 2,191,037 bushels; 
barley, 151,731 bushels ; and buckwheat, 104,523 bushels. The same crops in 1840 amounted to — wheat, 848,166 bushels; 
rj'e, 137,941 bushels; Indian corn, 950,528 bushels; oats, 1,076,409 bushels; barley, 355,101 bushels; and buckwheat, 
51,513 bushels. Thus, while the wheat and barley crops have diminished about flve-eighths, all the other crops have 
increased, and most of them have doubled in quantity. 

Other Food Crops. — Peas and beans, 205,541 bushels ; Irish potatoes, 8,436,040 bushels. In 1840, the production of the 
potato crop amounted to 10,392,280 bushels, or nearly three times that of 1850. 

Miscellanemis Crops. — Hay, 755,889 (in 1840, 691,-358) tons ; clover-seed, 9,097 bushels ; other grass-seed, 9,214 bushels ; 
hops, 40,120 (in 1840, 30,940) pounds; fl.ax, 17,081 pounds; flax-seed, 580 bushels; maple sugar, 93,542 pounds; mola.sses, 
3,167 gallons; beeswax and honey, 189,618 pounds; silk cocoons, 252 (in 1840, 211) pounds ; wine, 724 gallons. The 
value of orchard products was $342,865, and of market-garden products, $122,387. 

Products of Animals.— ^oo\, 1,364,0-34 (in 1840, 1,405,551) pounds ; butter, 9,243,811 pounds ; cheese, 2,4-34,454 pounds ; 
and the value of animals slaughtered during the year was $1,646,773. 

Home-made Manufactures for the year ending 1st June, 1850, were produced to the value of $513,599. 

Manufactures. — Aggregate capital invested, $14,700,452; value of raw material, fuel, etc., consumed, $13,555,806; 
average number of hands employed, — males, and females, monthly cost of labor, $ — males 

$ and females $ ^tolal value of products for the year, $24,664,135. The whole number of manufiicturing estab- 

lishments in the State, in 1850, producing to the value of $500 and upward, was 3,682 ; and of these, 12 were cotton factories 
GO woolen factories, 213 tanneries, and 26 establishments for the manufacture of iron — 26 for castings, and 1 for pig iron. 

Tho cotton manufactures employ a capital of .$3,329,700 ; value of all raw material consumed, $1,573,110; monthly 
cost of labor — male $22,895, and female $35,973 ; value of entire products, $2,590,-356. In this department of n)anufacturps 
81,531 bales of cotton were used, and 2,921 tons of coal consumed ; and tho niunber of hands employed — males 780, and 
females 2,959. The products for the year were 32,852,.')56 yards of sheeting, etc. 

The woolen manufaeiurcs employ a capital of $467,000; and use 1,438,434 i)ounds of wool, ^tilucd at $495,940; number 
of hands— males 310, and females 314; monthly cost of labor— male $0,998, and female $3,697; value of entire products, 
$753,300, and quantity of products, 1,023,020 yarda of cloth, and 1,200 pounds yarn. 
S 128 



EDWARD B. HOWE. JASON GOODHUE. 

HOWE & GOODHUE, 

(Successors to White & Puffer,) 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

Set in India Rubber Fabric or Leather. Also, 

STRIPPING- CARDS OF VARIOUS SIZES. 
•IflarUet Street, Ijowell, tJfKass, 

Refers to John Avery, Esq., Agent for Hamilton Co., Lowell ; Charles L. Tilden, Esq., Agent for Tremont Co., Lowell; Linus Child, Esq.. 
Ageut for Boott Co., Lowell ; Joseph AVhite, Ksq.. Agent for Massachusetts Co., Lowell ; Hamuel Fay. Esq., Agent for Lowell Co., Lowell; 
Messrs Knight & Maynard, Assabet. Moss.; Royal Southwiok, Esq., Agent for M'ilton Co., Muss.; Daniel Holden, Esq., Ageut for New Eng- 
land Worsted Co., Saxouville, Mass.; Messrs. Park, Painter & Co., Pittsburgh, Penn. 



DE3 I> "V^ .^a^ H. I> IE* .A. C3^ 3E3 , 

MANUFACTURER OP STRETCHED, CEMENTED AND STITCHED 

OAK; TANNED LEATHER BELTING, 

BELT AND TOP-ROLLER CEMENT, 

COTTON SPINNING BANDING, POWER LOOM HARNESSES, 

AND COVERS COTTON & WORSTED TOP-ROLLERS & IRON PULLEYS; 
DEALER IN BELT RIVETS AND BURRS, 

BELT, PICKER, LACE & SOLE LEATHER, 

ROLLER SKINS, ROLLER CLOTH, HARNESS, TWINE, PEGGS, &c. 
J^Tcar the Rail-Road Station, Turnpike Street, JLawrence, 

REFERENCES. 



Gen. H. K. Oliver, Agent Atlantic Mills, Lawrence I Col. Gordon MoKiiy, Agent L. M. Shop, Lawrence, 

C.S. Storrow. Treas, Essex Company. " I Hon. Emery Washburn, Worcester. 

Wm. C. Chapin, Agent PaoiBc Mills, " | Isaac Hinckley, Esq., Agent Mcr. Man'g Co., Lowell. 



mmw^m % mE®mEm^M@mm 



i 

MANUFACTURERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

COTTON AND WOOLEN MACHINE CARDS, 

t.T.?,Tk?nson. ] Jfl^JVCHE STEK, JV, It, 

•^g^Diamond Point Card for Leaders, Feed Rolls, &c., made to order. Also, extra quality of 
Hand Strippers constantly on hand. 



REFERENCES— David Gillis, Esq., Agent Amoskeag New Mills; Phinehas Adams, Esq., Agent Stark Mills; 
Waterman Smith, Esq., Agent Manchester Mills ; O. W. Bayley, Esq., Agent Manchester Locomotive Works ; 
E. A. Straw, Esq., Ag't Land and Water Power Company; C. W. Baldwin, Esq., Ag't Amoskeag Machine Shop. 



Lake Village Car and Machine Shop. 




Circular §0arir, Sljinglc, Clagkarir & r)t|jtr Slills, 

ALSO ALL KINDS OF 

SBiaftlug aad Mill W@Fk, 

Lake Vill, N. H., 1856. B. J, COIjE, Proprietor. 



No. 34 



THE 

ROGERS BROTHERS 

HARTFORD, CONN. 

OFFICE FOR EXHIBITION OF SAMPLES AT 

'No. 17 Maiden Lane, New-York. 



^3 




Claim to be unequalled in Variety, Style and Quality of Plated 
Goods of their Manufacture. In their assortment may be found 
Tea, Coffee, Dessert, Table, Salt, Mustard, Egg and Bar Sj^oons — 
Dessert, Medium, Table, Oyster, Pickle and Beef Forks — Sugar 
Shovels, Tongs and Lifters — Butter, Fisli, Pie, Cake, Crumb and 
Ice Cream Knives — Asparagus and Ice Tongs — Cream, Gravy, Oys- 
ter and Soup Ladles, &c., &c. Plated on fine Albata which is hard- 
er and nearly as white as Silver. 

All the choice varieties of Tea Sets, Urns, Kettles, Pitchers, 
Communion Ware, Cake Baskets, Card Baskets, Fruit Stands, Salt 
Cellars, Sugar Baskets, Mustard Cups, Butter Coolers, Spoon Cups, 
Children's Cups, Molasses Cups and Plates, Goblets, Decanter 
Stands, Soup Tureens, Dish Covers, Waiters and Castors, plated 
on fine white Metal. 

Waiters from 6 to 3G inches finely engraved ; Cake Baskets plain 
and chased ; Vegetable Dishes, Soup Tureens, &c., plated on fine 
German Silver. 

Our customers may feel confident that all our goods which have 
our mark on, thus: "Rogers Bros., A 1," or "Rogers Bros. Manu- 
facturing Co." are the best of their kinds which are manufactured 
by any one. 



THE STATE OF MAINE. 



In tanneries, the invested capital is $732,747; value of hides and skins, $S92,;343; hands employed— males, 787, and 
females 3; monthly cost of labor— male $17,229, and female $2S; skins tanned 31,350, and sides of leather tanned 
632,G6S; value of products, $1,62(),G36. 

In the manufacture oi pig iron, Wie capital invested is $214,000; value of all raw material, fuel, etc., $14,939 ; hands 
employed— males, 71 ; monthly cost of labor, $1,502 ; pig iron made, 1,4S4 tons ; value of products, $30,016. The material 
consumed consisted of 2,907 tons ore, and 213,970 bushels coke and charcoal. 

In the manufacture of iron, caatings, the invested capital is $150,100 ; value of raw material, fuel, etc., $112,570 ; 
number of hands employed — males 243, and females 1 ; average wayi'S per month— to males $29, and to females $5 ; 
entu-e value of products— 3,691 tons castings— $265,000. The material and fuel consumed consisted of pig iron, 3,591 tons ; 
old metal, 245 tons; mineral coal, 1,319 tons; and ooke and charcoal, 14,000 bushels. 

Besides the above, Maine has other considerable interests — numerous mills, and various mechanical establishments, 
etc., -which, in the aggregate, make up a long list of industrial pursuits, for the profitable prosecution of which the fine 
streams of the country afford special facilities. 

Commerce, Navigation, etc. — The total value of merchandise exported to foreign countries, from Maine, during the 
year ending 80th January, 1850, was $1,556,912, of which $1,536,818 was the value of domestic produce and manufac- 
tures, and $20,094 that of foreign goods re-exported. The value of domestic merchandise, exported in American vessels, 
was $1,135,998, and in foreign vessels $400,820 ; and the value of foreign merchandise, re-exported'in American vessels, 
was $14,564, and in foreign vessels $5,530. The total value of imports for the same year was $856,411, of which $609,155 
was the value of goods carried in American vessels, and $247,256 in foreign vessels. The following table exhibits the 
statistics of shipping employed in the foreign trade : 



SmPPINQ ENTEKED. 
Nationality. Vessels. Tonnage. Crews. 

American 253 53,309 2,084 

Foreign 1,040 89,S7T 6,083 



Total 1,293 



143,186 



T,167 



SHIPPING CLEAEED. 
Nationality. Vessels, Tonnage. Crews. 

American 585 111,123 4,543 

Foreign. 1,046 91,014 5,131 



Total, 



.1,631 



202,137 



9,674 



The tonnage cleared from Passamaquoddy district was 63,367 tons ; from Machias, 5,145 tons ; from Penobscot, 8,441 
tons; from Waldoboro', 2,546 tons; from "VViscasset, 4,509 tons; from Belfast, 11,950 tons ; from Bath, 19,382 tons ; from 
Bangor, 12,810 tons ; from Portland, 77,645 tons ; from Kennebuck, 1,343 tons ; and from Saco, 496 tons ; and the tonnage 
entered at Passamaquoddy was 53,453 tons ; at Machias, 389 tons ; at Penobscot, 4,140 tons ; at Waldoboro', 492 tons ; at 
Wiscasset, 1,025 tons; at Belfast, 820 tons; at Bath, 10,094 tons; at Bangor, 3,365 tons; at Portland, 64,195 tons, and at 
Saco, 213 tons. The shipping owned in the State, on the 30th of June, 1850, amounted to 501,421 tons ; registered- 
permanent, 193,955 tons, and temporary, 41,524 tons; enrolled and licensed-permanent, 259,845 tons, and temporary 
499 tons ; licensed (under 20 tons)— employed in coasting 904 tons, and in the cod fisheries 4,094 tons. Of the registered 
shipping 321 tons, and of the enrolled and licensed shipping 5,259 tons, were navigated by steam. The proportion of the 
enrolled and licensed shipping employed— in coasting was 209,079 tons, in the cod fisheries 37,218 tons, and in the mackerel 
fisheries 12,046 tons. 

The statistics of the commerce of Maine for a series of years exhibit the following movements : 

Year. Exports. Imports. Year. Exports. Imports. Year. Exports. Imports. 

1820 $1,108,031 .... $ — 1831 $805,573 .... $941,407 1842 $1,050,523 .... $606,864 

1821 1,040,848 .... 930,294 1832 981,443 .... 1,12.3,326 1843 682,891 .... 250,260 

1822 1.036,642 .... 94.3,775 1833 1,019,831 .... 1,380,308 1844 1,176,185 .... 570,824 

1823 895,501 .... 891,644 1834. 815,277 .... 1,060,121 1845 1,255,105 .... 855,645 

1824 900,195 .... 768,44:3 1835 1,059,367 .... 883,389 1846 1,328,368 .... 787,092 

1S25 1,031,127 .... 1,169,940 1836 850,986 .... 930,086 1847 1,634.203 .... 574,056 

1826 1,052,575 .... 1,245,235 1837 955,952 .... 801,404 1848 1,957,395 .... 795,565 

1827 1,070,134 .... 1,.333,390 1S3S 935,632 .... 899,142 1S49 1,236,681 .... 721,409 

1S2S 1,019,517 .... 1,246,809 1839 895,485 .... 982,724 i860 1,656,912 .... 856,411 

1S29 737,882 .... 747,781 1S40 1,018,269 .... 628,762 1S51 1,551,438 .... 1,176,590 

1830 670,522 .... 572,666 1841 1,091,565 .... 700,961 1852 — .... — 

Internal Commtmication.—The bays and estuaries of Maine, many of which, however, penetrate to a considerable 
distance inland, are the only natural ways for internal intercourse enjoyed by the State. The great interior back from the 
sea-board district is beyond their reach, and the chief rivers, except as far as they can be made to float down the timber 
and rafts of the vast forests which abound at their upper courses, are almost useless to navigation. The State, then, has 
had to depend on artificial channels for travel and transportation ; and from necessity, these are extensive and systematic. 
But the position of Maine to the British provinces has di;manded of it something more than roads to the interior, and 
hence we find its system, completed and projected, extending into Canada on the one hand, and into New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia on the other ; while lines of railroad are in operation from the south-east part of the State to Boston, 
connecting with the general system of the Union, and furnishing a link in the great chain extending from Halifax, the 
northern terminus of European steam navigation, to the ports of the Gulf of Mexico. The Atlantic and St. Lawrence 
Eailroad, one of the greatest enterprises of the age, gives to Montreal and Quebec an outlet on the Atlantic, and avoids 
the tedious navigation do^vn the St. Lawrence Elver. The European and North American Railroad will greatly facilitate 
and shorten the period of travel between Europe and the Union. The first of these is already complete, and the latter 
has so far progressed as to insure its completion within the next four or five years. With the exception of one or two 
short lines, the railroads as yet complete are found in the south-cast part of the State, between the Kennebec Eiver 
and the line of New Hampshire. The total length of completed railroad in the State, on the 1st January, 1853, was 417 
miles. The State has also constnicted the Cumberland and Oxford Canal, connecting Portland with Sebago Pond, twenty 
and a half miles long. It has 25 locks, and by another lock, in Saco Eiver, it is extended through Brandy and Long Ponds, 
making its whole length 50 miles. 

£a7iks. — ^The bank returns for October, 1850, reported 32 banks. The following statement exhibits their condition at 
that period: liabilities— caintal $8,248,000, circulation $2,051,208, deposits $1,22.5,671, due other banks $48,030, and oUier 

I 129 



THE STATE OF MAINE. 



liabiliiies .f3S,2S5 ; and asseUs— loans and discounts $5,830,380, real estate $111,805, due by other banks $778,955, notes 
of other banks $187,4:35, and specie $i75,5S9. The banks are subject to tlie control of Bank Commissioners appointed 
by the Governor. 

Government, rfc— The constitution of Maine went into pperation in 1820, on the separation of the State from Massa- 
chusetts. It confers tlie right of mtffrage on every wliitc male citizen (except paupers, persons under guardianship, and 
Indians not taxed) 21 years of age, and for three months next preceding any election a resident, and such citizen may 
vote iu the town where a residence is so established. The general election is held annually on the second Monday in Sep- 
tember. 

The LegiRlature is composed of a House of Representatives and a Senate ; representatives not less than 100, nor more 
than 200 in number (now 151), and elected annually, must be 21 years of age, five years citizens of the United States, one 
year residents of the State, and tliree montlis next preceding the election inhabitants of the town they may represent. A 
town having 1,500 inhabitants, is entitled to one representative; having 3,750, tioo ; having 6,775, three; having 10,500, 
four; having \bfiW,jive ; having 20,250, ^ix; and having 26,250, seven ; and no town can ever be entitled to more than 
seven representatives. Senators not less than 20 nor more than 81 in number (now 81), must be 25 years of age, and 
otherwise their term of office and qualifications same as for representatives. Vacancies in the Senate shall be filled by 
joint vote of the senators and the representatives, from tliose wlio had the highest number of votes in eacli district at tlie 
popular election. The Senate tries all impeachments, and a two-thirds vote is necessary to conviction ; but judgment in such 
cases only extends to removal from and <lisqualificatioti for office, the party being still lialile to indictment No senator or 
representative shall, during his term, be appointed to any civil office of profit that may have been created, or its emolu- 
ments imriaseil during such term; and no member of Congress, or person holding office under the Uniteil States, post- 
officers excepted, can hold a seat in either house. The legislature convenes on the second Wednesday in January 
annually. 

The Governor is chosen by a plurality of votes, and holds office for one year. He must be 30 years of age, a natural 
bom citizen of the United States, and for live years, and at the time of his election, .and during his term, a resident of the 
State. If no person has a majority of votes, the House of Kcpresentalivcs, from those having the four highest numbers, 
if there be so many, shall elect two, and return their names U) the Senate, one of whom the Senate shall elect and declare 
governor. No jierson holding office under the United States, this State, or any other power, shall be governor. If the 
office become vacant, the president of the Senate, and after him the speaker of the Eepresentatives, shall act as governor, 
A two-third vote of both houses in favor of a bill vetoed by the governor, nullifies his objection, and it becomes law never- 
theless. The gubernatorial term commences on the second Wednesday of May. 

The Executive Council, consisting of seven councilors, not more than one from any senatorial district, is chosen annually 
by joint ballot of the senators and representatives. They must be citizens of the United States, and residents of the Slate ; 
and their proper office is to advise tho governor in the executive part of the government. 

The principal administrative officers are the Secretary of State and the State Treasurer. They are chosen annually in 
the same manner as the executive councU. The Treasurer is not eligible more than five years successively. 

The constitutional organization of the judiciary was essentially altered by an act of the Legislature of 1852. The dis- 
trict courts, which took the place of the old courts of Common Pleas were, abolished, and all their jurisdiction transferred 
to the supreme judicial court, to which three additional justices were authorized by the above act. The State is now 
divided into three judicial districts— western, middle, and eastern, and for the purpose of hearing and determining ques- 
tions of law and equity, instead of being as heretofore held in the several counties, the terms are annually held for these 
districts; at Portland for the western district, at Augusta for the middle district, and at Bangor for the eastern district 
The other classes of eases are fried as formerly in the several counties where they are commenced. There is a probate 
court in each county, with a judge and register; and each county has a clerk of the judicial court Municipal and police 
courts are esUiblished at Portland, Bath, Bangor, Augusta, Gardiner, Belfast, Calais, Uockland, and Brunswick. All Stat* 
judges are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the council, and hold office for seven years, unless 
sooner removed for cause. 

Among the general provisions of the constitution, are the following : Quakers, Shakers, justices of the Supreme Court 
and ministers of the gospel, shall be exempt from military duty. Suitable provision shall be made by towns to support 
and maintain public schools. No grant shall be made by the legislature to any literary institution, unless it has control 
over its charter. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office or trust In all libel cases, the truth 
may be given in evidence, and the jury shall determine both the law and the facts. 

Amendments to the constitution must receive a two-thirds vote of both houses, and be submitted to the people at the 
next general election ; and if a majority is in favor of the amendment, it shall become a part of the constitution. 

The militia of Maine, according to the returns of 1S51, consists of 02,533 men of all arms and grades, of which 188 are 
commissioned officers, and 62,350 non-commissioned officers, musicians, artificers, and privates. Of the commissioned 
officers, 12 are general officers, IS general staff officers, 21 field oflicers, and 129 company officers. All persons between 13 
and 45 years of age, not exempt by law, are liable to do military duty. 

Maine has several hen-evolent institutions, among which the Insane Hospital at Augusta stands pre-eminent. On the 
4th of December, 1850, the two wings and most of the main building were destroyed by fire ; tho books, librar and 
papers of the institution were saved, but 27 of the inmates and one of tlie assistants perished in tho flames. The 
nortli wing was made habitable by the 1st of January, 1851, and has since been occupied. The returns for the year 
ending 31st March, 1850, exhibited the condition of the hospital at that time as f illows: number of patients iu hos -ital at 
the commencement of the past year, 127 ; and received during the year, 126 — total 253, of which number 142 were males, 
and 111 females. Discharged during the year: recovered — males 88, and females 28; improvol — males 10, and females 
10 ; unimproved— males 8, and females 8 ; and died— males 8, and females 7 ; making a total of 117. Of the 126 admitted, 
64 were married — males 35, and females 29; 50 were single — 28 males, and 22 females; and 12 were widows; and of 
tho number, 97 had been diseased less than one year, and 29 more than a year. In ordinary eases, the expenses, in- 
cluding board, washing, medical atten<iance, etc., do not exceed, for males, $250, and for females, $225 per week. In 1850 
a commission was appointed to establish a Iteforra School, and construct apiiropriate buildings therefor. 

Finaiuvs, I)eht, rfc— According to the annual report of the State Treasurer, the amount of receipts for the year ending 

30th April, 1S50, was $525,683 20, which, with a balance remaining from the last past year of $79,033 26, made the total 

resources of the Trea-sury $6(14,720 52. The expenditures for the same period amounted to $478,802 45, leaving a surplus 

of $125,924 07 for future appropriation. The principal objects of expenditure were — pay of Legislature, $41,090 ; exccu- 

130 



NEW ENGLAND BUTT COMPAN 
No. 25 Pearl Street, Providence, R. I. 

HENRY P. KNIGHT, Agent. 

Branch Warehouse, No. 188 Pearl Street, N. Y. 



CAST IRON BUTT HINGES 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION AND OF THE BEST QUALITY, ALSO, 

Superior l,auMdry and Sad Irons, Planed and Polished Tailors' 

Irons, Sell-Shutting Oate IIin;^es and Catcbes, ^Voolnian's 

Patent Self-Closing Door and date Ilin;?es, 

BARN DOOR ROLLS AND RAIL SLIDING DOORWAY, FOOT SCRAPERS, 
ANVILS, TEA SCALES, BED KEYS, ^VEIGHTS, DUMB BELLS, WAG- 
ON BOXES, SAD IRON STANDS, BRACKETS, CARD RECEIVERS, 
MIRROR FRAMES, GRINDSTONE CRANKS & ROLLS, &c. &c. 

Superior Castings made to Order. 



PROVIDENCE FORGE & NUT COMPANY. 

< ^ • » » — — 

Manufacturers of 

Nuts & Washers, Chain Links, Stirrnps, levers, Hoolis & Thim- 
bles, Match or Sister Hooks, Clinch Rings, Marline Spikes, 
Connecting Shackles & other articles of Ship Chandlery. 

FLAT & LONa JOINT 



BLIND & SHUTTER HINGES & BLIND FASTENINGS. 

ORDERS FOR EVERY DESCRIPTION OP 

Promptly Executed. 
S. A. NIGNTINGALE, Agent, | S. A. WATESMAN, Treasurer. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



i 






ESTABLISHED 
A. D. 1845. 



PROVEDEI^CE, R. I. 



J. B. ANTHONY, 
Agent. 



I Nuts, Washers, Chain Links, Chains, Stirrup^ and Levers, Plane 
I Irons, Soft-Moulding, Rabbet, Cornice, Tooth, Howel and Pan- 
j nel Irons — Match Irons and Bits, Plow Bits, &c. Hooks and 
I Thimbles, Match or Sister Hooks, Clinch Rings, Connecting 
I Shackles, Ship Scrapers and Marline Spikes, Plate Hinges, fast 

and loose joint — Draught Plates and Bunter Heads, Tinned Can 

Rings and Bridge Bolts. 

THEY ARE PREPARED TO EXECUTE ORDERS FOR ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

COLD PUi^CH!PiC AND JOB WORK. 

New York Warehouse, No, 22 Cliif Street, D. H. WAY, Agent. 



21 



WILLIAM B. RIDER, 

CONTINUES TO CUT AND GRIND 




^T HIS ISTEAV MIILL. 

No. 156 Eddy Street, 

(OPPOSITE PHENIX IRON FOUNDRY,) 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Cut and Ground Logwood, Fustic, Hypernic, Redwood and Sappan Woods 
always for sale as above. 

S^'^- B. Fresh Ground Land Plaster for sale.,^^y 




Manufacturer of American Hardware. 

' COFFEE MILLS OF VARIOUS KINDS, 

House Trimmings, Patent Blind Hinges with Fastenings, 

Plated Forks and Spoons of all kinds. 

ALSO, A GENERAL ASSORTMENT OF 

PLATED TEA A^'D TABLE WARE^ 

All kinds of BKITTAWIA and AL,B ATA SPOOIVS, 

HAMMER'S BARN DOOR ROLLS & HANGERS, 

PLATFORM Si COUNTER SCALES, 

VICES, COPYING PRESSES, CANDLESTICKS, SAW RODS, 
GATE HINGES, WROUGHTISON BASTING SPOONS, 

Kettle Ears, Grindstone Fixtures, &c. &c. 

i?^"Also Owner and Ma ufacturer of the best Pow- 
er Loom ever invented for knitting all kinds of ribbed 
work. 



THE GREAT RUSSIAN REMEDY. 

PRO BONO PUBLICO. 

.^^" "Every mother should have a box in the 
house handy in case of accidents to the children." 

licddiiig's Kussla Salve. 

It is a Boston remedy of thirty years' standing, and is 
recommended by physicians. It is a sure and speedy euro 
for Burns, Piles, Boils, Corns, Felons, Chilblains, and Old 
Sores of every kind; for Fever Sores, Ulcers, Itch, Scald 
Head, Nettle Rash, Bunions, Sore Nipples, (recommended by 
nurses,) Whitlows, Sties, Festers, Flea Bites, Spider Stings, ! 
Frozen Limbs, Salt Rheum, Scurvy, Soro and Cracked Lips, 

Sore Nose, AVarts, and Flesh Wounds, it is a most valuable ! 

remedy and cure, which can bo testified to by thousands who have used it in the city of Boston and vi- 
cinity for the last thirty years. In no instance will this Salve do any injury, or interfere with a physic- 
ian's proscriptions. It is made from the purest materials, froma recipe brought from Russia — of article? i 
growing in that country — and the proprietors have letters from all classes, clergymen, ]ihysicians, sea \ 
captains, nurses, and others who have use I it themselves, and recommended it to others. Redding's Rus- ■ 
sia Salve is put in large tin boxes, stamped on the cover with a picture of a horse and a disabled soldier, ; 
which picture is also engraved on the wrapper. Price 2j Cents a Box. Sold at all the stores in town or j 
country, or may bo ordered of any wholesale Druggist. i 

:E=t:E3X>X>I2>JC3r cfis CJO., Proprietors, ! 

No. 10 8 STATK STREET. IJOSTO.V. | 




THE STATE OF MAINE. 



live expenses, $5,00T 93 ; salaries, $25,163 02 ; clerks, $2,800 ; roll of accounts, $13,04i 20 ; printing, etc., $2,500 ; cost of 
criminal prosecutions, $23,578 66; officers of the State prison, $4,756 25; Insane Hospital, $1,519 50; deaf, dumb, and 
blind, $9,750 09; school fund. No. 16, $24,435 56; Teachers' Institute, $2,600 ; Board of Education, $785 ; Penobscot In- 
dians' fund, $4,187 33; agricultural products of Indians, $219 SO; Indian annuities, $1,500; State roads and bridges, 
$1,800; militia pensions, $2,123; Maine Eeports, $1,560; Eastman's Digest of the same, $1,875; agricul'ural societies, 
$2,202 90; county taxes, $24,479 92; furniture and repairs, $1,100; contingent fund of Treasurer, $1,000 ; State prison, 
$3,300 ; public debt paid, $124,250 ; interest on debt, $61,574 29 ; temporary loan, $82,350, etc. ; and the chief sources of 
income were— direct taxes, $190,976 60; land office, $132,340 95; permanent school fund, $2,009 30; school fund, No. 
IT, $27,230 21; county taxes, $14,508 14; interest on United States loan, $8,100; premium on United States stock sold, 
$7,725 ; interest, $3,678 03 ; bank dividends, $700 ; duties on commissions, $2,170, etc. The resources of the State are esti- 
mated at $819,267 39, among which are enumerated, besides cash on hand and the proceeds of the annual taxes, 100 
shares in the Augusta Bank, $10,000, and United States six per cent, stock due 1856, $20,000. The whole amount of the 
public debt at the date above referred to was $854,750, which pays an annual interest of about $55,000. 

Federal Representation.— }i.a.me, according to the provisions of the Act of 23d May, 1850, apportioning representation, 
is entitled to send 6 representatives to the United States Congress. 

Jteligious Denominations. — According to the census returns of the United States, taken in 1850, the statistics of the 
several religious denominations in this State were as follows : 



Denomina- No. of 


Church 


Value of 


Denomina- No. of 


Church 


Value of 


Denomina- No. of 


Church 


Value of 


lions. Churches. 


ncconl. 


Propertj'. 


tions. Churches. 


accom. 


Properly. 


tioiis. Churches, 


accom. 


Property. 


Baptist 283 . . 


93,079 . 


. $426,787 


German Ref. — . . 


— . 


. $ - 


R. Catholic. 11 .. 


6,650 . 


$20,700 


Christian ... 9 . . 


8,580 . 


. 13,800 


Jewish — . . 


— . 


— 


Swedenbo'n 2 .. 


640 . 


8,000 


Congregafl.. 165 . . 


67,153 . 


. 526,270 


Lutheran ... — . . 


— . 


— 


Tunker — . . 


— . 


— 


Dutch Kef. . - . . 


— . 


— 


Mennonito. . — .. 


— . 


— 


Union 83 . . 


26,087 . 


108,670 


Episcopal . . 8 . . 


3,937 . 


. 52,600 


Methodist .. 171 .. 


65,111 . 


. 259,695 


Unitarian. . . 15 . . 


10,144 . 


103,000 


Free 19 .. 


6,742 . 


. 25,700 


Moravian ... — . . 


— . 


— 


Universalist. 53 . . 


19,893 . 


120,150 


Friends 24 . . 


7,225 . 


. 14,580 


Presbyter'n.. 7 .. 


4,034 . 


. 32,000 


Minor Sects .. 1 . . 


150 . 


200 



— making a total of 851 churches, with accommodation for 304,475 persons, and valued as property at $1,712,152. Maine 
constitutes a diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and a part of the Roman Catholic diocese of Boston. 

Education. — The Board of Education has been abolished, and an Act has been passed, authorizing, instead thereof, the 
appointment by the governor of a school commissioner for each county, to hold office for one year from 1st May, and it is 
made the duty of each commissioner to spend 50 days at least in his county during the winter term of the schools, in 
visiting and examining the scholars, etc. 

In 1828 twenty townships of public land were reserved as a basis for a school fund — the proceeds of the land already 
sold are $104,363 63, which constitute the permanent school fund of the State ; and in 1850. twenty-four half townships 
were added to this fund. The banks pay one-half of one per cent, of their capital stock semi-annually for school use. 
This tax in 1850 amounted to $27,230 27. Of the school fund thus constituted, $33,492 10 was aijportioned among the 
towns, and the towns receiving their share are obliged to raise an amount of school money equal to 40 cents for each in- 
habitant In 3,948 districts and 279 part districts, which made returns for 1850, there were 2,706 male and 3,921 femalo 
teachers; average monthly wages — male $16 66, and female $5 92; average length of schools in weeks, 18.8 ; schools sus- 
pended by incompetency of teachers, 152 ; number of good school-houses, 1,596 ; number of poor school-houses, 2,012 ; 
number of school-houses built the past year, 120 ; whole number of scholars, 230,274 ; whole attendance in winter, 151,360 ; 
average attendance, 91,519. The whole amount of school money raised by tax was $264,351 17, which was $41,010 81 
more than required by law. The sum of $29,921 46 was expended for private schools. There were school libraries in 9 
towns. The whole number of chartered academies in the State in 1850 was 92, of which 64 sustain schools during a 
greater or less part of the year. Teachers' institutes have been in successful operation for several years ; 1,732 teachers 
attended them in 1850 — 801 males, and 931 females ; and tlie session of each institute lasted ten days. 

The two great colleges of Maine are Bowdoin and "Waterville colleges. Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, was founded 
in 1802, and in 1850 had 14 professors, 1,062 alumni, of whom 187 had entered the ministry, 129 students, and a library of 
27,500 volumes ; and Waterville College, of Waterville, under Baptist jurisdiction, was founded in 1820, and in 1850 had 
5 professors, 207 alumni, of whom 82 had entered the ministry, 88 students, and a library of 15,500 volumes. There is a 
Theological Seminary at Bangor, under Congregational auspices. It was founded in 1816, and in 1850 had 3 professors, 
37 students, 202 graduates, and 7,000 volumes in its library. The Maine Medical School, at Brunswick, was foundetl in 
1820, and in 1850 had 5 professors, 51 students, and 0>4 graduates. These institutions are liberally endowed, and have 
all the appliances, apparatus, etc., necessary to illustrate the various subjects taught. 

Public Libraries. — One State library — 9,000 volumes ; two social libraries — 6,370 volumes ; two college hbraries — ^16,800 
volumes ; six students' libraries — 13,134 volumes ; two academical and professional libraries — 10,800 volumes ; one scientifle 
and historical library — 300 volumes ; seventeen public school libraries — 152 volumes — total 31 libraries and 56,856 volumes. 
There is a great discrepancy between the account of the college libraries given by the census as above and that published 
in the annual catalogues of the respective institutions. 

Periodical Press. — The whole number of periodicals in Maine, according to the ascertainments of the census of 1850 
was 55, of which 15 were whig in politics, 15 democratic, and 25 neutral or devoted to literature, science, religion, etc. ; 
and of the whole number 4 were published daily, 3 tri-weekly, 4 semi-weekly, 43 weekly, and one semi-monthly. The 
aggregate circulation of each issue of the dailies was 6,100; of the tri-weeklies, 370; of the semi-weeklies, l,-350; of the 
weeklies, 53,567 ; and of the semi-monthly, 2,500. Of the dailies 2 were published in Portland, and 2 at Bangor ; of the 
tri-weeklies, 2 at Portland, and 1 at Bath ; of the semi- weeklies, 1 at Gardiner, 1 at Bath, 1 at Thomaston, and 1 at 
Biddeford ; of the weeklies, 9 at Portland, 1 at Farmington, 4 at Augusta, 1 at Ilallowell, 2 at Waterville, 4 at Bath, 1 at 
Newcastle, 1 at Lewiston, 1 at Rockland, 2 at Paris, 2 at Norway, 1 at Dover, 4 at Bangor, 2 at Skowhegan, 3 at Calais, 2 at 
Belfast, 2 at Saeo, and 1 at Limerick ; and the semi-monthly, the " Scholar's Leaf," at Portland. The " Maine Farmer," 
an agricultural paper, published at Augusta, circulates 5,300 copies at each issue, and has the highest circulation of any 
periodical in the State. The " Transcript," a literary issue, published at Portland, circulates 4,608 copies, and has the 
second highest circulation. 

Pauperism and Crime. — The whole number of paupers who received support within the year ending 1st June, 1850, 
was 5,503, of which 4,553 were natives, and 950 foreign born ; and the whole number of paupers on the list at the above 

131 



THE STATE OF MAINE. 



date was 3,535, of which 3,209 were natives, and 32G foreign born ; annual cost of support, $151,GG4. The State prison l' 
located at Thomaston. The wliole number of convicts in this institution 30th April, ls49, was 97, and the number received 
in the year next following was 31— total 98. Discharged by expiration of sentence 17, by pardon 5, and by death 1 ; and 
on the 30th April, 1850, 75 remained incarcerated. Of those convicted in lS-19-50, 4 were for arson, 5 for burglary, 2 for 
forgery, 49 for larceny, 5 for murder, and 1 for pa.ssing counterfeit coin. The whole number of convicts received into the 
prison since 2d July, 1824, up to the end of the official year 1S50, was 981. 

Hifttorieal Sketch. — The first settlements of Maine were for a long period interrupted by savage incursion. Though 
visited at an early period, no permanent colonies were established until the commencement of the seventeenth cenlury. 
In 1G04 the French settled on the Kennebec, and in 1607 Sir John Gilbert arrived at tlio mouth of the s;ime river with 100 
colonists, but having passed the winter in great suffering, the party returned to England, representing the country as a 
" cold, barren, and mountainous desert." Tlie unfortunate result of this enterprise discouraged any furtlier attempts on 
the jiart of the Englisii for some years. The French, however, had established themselves on different parts of the coast, 
and the Dutch also had a settlement at a place called Newcastle. After the formation of the Plymouth Company a more 
regular system of colonization was attempted, but no effectual settlement by the English was made before 1635. In that 
year the country was parceled into shares, but none of the holders, except Sir Ferdinand Gorges, who received a grant of 
the lands between the Piscataqua and Kennebec, obtained their patents. His charter, granted in 1639, gave him despotic 
power over the district, and the laws he promulgated on talking possession were aristocratic and feudal in their character, 
and little suited to the English emigrant of the time. The population of the province seems accordingly to have increased 
but slowly. The first general council was held at Saco in 1040. The government was administered in the name of Gorges 
until 1617, when, on his death being announced, the people took the administration of affairs into their own hands, and 
elected a governor from among themselves until 1652, in which year the province was incorporated with Massachusetts, and 
80 remained until Charles II. restored it to the heirs of Gorges. The government of Massachusetts, however, shortly after- 
ward purdiased the whole country for £1,200 sterling, and thenceafter it was governed as part of her territory, and was 
included in the new charter of Massachusetts in 1691. At that time the present State of Maine was divided into two 
parts — the country between the Piscataqua and Kennebec, which contained the principal settlements, and was exclusively 
called Maine, and that between tlie Kennebec and the St. Croix, which was known by the ancient French name of Aeadie. 
The province was not supposed to extend back from the sea farther than 120 miles, and the territory beyond that distance 
was considered as crown lands. The whole country, from the Piscataqua to the St. CroLx, was now granted to 
Massachusetts. 

From its first settlement to the middle of the eighteenth century the inhabitants suffered grievously from Indian warfare. 
The savages opposed step by step the progress of the colony. In 1675 almost all the settlements were destroyed, and from 
1692 to 1703 the province was a uniform scene of rapine. In 1720 the harassing conflict was renewed, and the settlers 
suffered severely until 1726, when a treaty was concluded which secured peace for several years. So late as 1744 and 
1748 many of the inhabitants were killed or carried off from the towns. Since 1749, however, when another treaty was 
made, tranquillity has prevailed, and at the present time few Indians remain within the State. 

From the period of the union with Massachusetts to the final separation in 1820, the history of Maine has been merged 
in that of Massachusetts. We hear little of the former during the Itevolutionary War. In the war of 1S12-15 a portion of 
the district was compelled to submit to the British arms, and remained under their control until the return of peace. 
No attempt was made to dislodge the enemy. 

The separation of the district from the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, and its erection into an independent State, were 
frequently attempted, but without success. In October, 1785, a convention met at Portlaml for the purpose of considering 
the subject. In the succeeding year the question was submitted to the people of Maine, to be decided in town meetings, 
when it was found that a majority of the freemen were against the measure. The subject was renewed in 18U2, when 
again a majority appeared adverse to a separation. In 1819, numerous petitions having been presented to the Legislature, 
an act was passed for ascertaining the will of the people, in conformity to which a vote was taken in all the towns. A 
large majority now voted in favor of the separation, and in consequence of the desires of the inhabitants thus expressed, a 
convention was called under the authorization of the Legislature of Massachusetts. A constitution was adopted which 
received the approbation of the people, and on the 15th March, 1820, the District of Maine became an independent State 
and a member of the United Slates. 

Succession of Gavernors.—^Viniam King, 1820; Albion K. Paris, 1821 ; E. Lincoln, 1S26 ; Jonathan G. Ilunton, 1830; 
Bamuel E. SmithflS31; Robert P. Dunlap, 1834; Edward Kent, 1838; John Fairfield, 1S39; Edward Kent, 1841; John 
Pairfield, 1842 ; Edward Kavanagh (acting), 184;3 ; Hugh J. Anderson, 1844 ; John W. Dana, 1847 ; John Uubbard, 1851. 

Augusta, on the Kennebec Itiver, is the political capital and seat of the State Government. 
132 



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