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Professor of the English Language in Hiram College; 

Consulting Editor and Author of the Guide to Pronunciation, 

Webster s New International Dictionary, Second Edition 



Professor of English in the University of Michigan; 
Editor of the Middle English Dictionary ; General Editor, 
Webster's New International Dictionary, Second Edition 




Copyright, 1949 







A II rishls reserved 




Myra Pow Kenyon 


Myra Powers Knott 

This publication was in large part made possible by funds granted by Carnegie 
Corporation of New York. That Corporation is not, however, the author, owner, 
publisher, or proprietor of this publication, and is not to be understood as approving 
by virtue of its grant any of the statements made or views expressed herein. 


More than ten years ago several scholars especially interested in Ameri- 
can English suggested to one of the present editors the making of a phonetic 
pronouncing dictionary of the speech of the United States that might serve, 
both in the United States and elsewhere, the purposes served for Southern 
British English by Professor Daniel Jones's English Pronouncing Dictionary. 
About six years ago the editors became associated in this work. 

Although as a pioneer in the field great credit must go to Professor Jones, 
who has placed all later lexicographers under inescapable obligation to him, 
our task is much different from his. He records the pronunciation of a 
limited and nearly homogeneous class of people in England in a type of 
speech identical with that of the editor himself. Our problem has been to 
record without prejudice or preference several different types of speech used 
by large bodies of educated and cultivated Americans in widely separated 
areas and with markedly different backgrounds of tradition and culture. 
Here let it be emphasized once for all that we have no prejudice whatever 
either for or against any of these varieties of American speech. 

As the book is completed, we are keenly aware that only a beginning has 
been made, subject to later supplementation by other students of the field. 
On the whole, Southern speech has in the past received least attention. If 
we have failed to do it the full justice that was our intention, our failure 
must be laid in part to conflicting testimony, but mainly to the fact that 
this field has still largely to be investigated. 

It was originally intended to include Canadian speech as one of the main 
regional divisions. A number of questionnaires were sent to Canada, and 
some correspondents took pains to send us excellent material (see acknowl- 
edgments below). The material was not, however, extensive enough to 
warrant full record of Canadian pronunciation, so that we have had to 
content ourselves with occasional references thereto. See mention of some 
Canadian variants (§118). 

The scope of this work is limited. It is not'intended as a source book for 
the study of American dialects. That work is being done by the Linguistic 
Atlas of the United States and Canada. ItJsjmr-ainxio^record cmljr what is 
rather_va^fily: called slandard speech (see further. Introduction, §§1-2, 
57-58, 76, 90). It is not our purpose even to try to exhaust that field. Almost 
certainly we have omitted many "good" pronunciations. Many of these 
are provided for in the Introduction by the lists of variants not fully re- 
corded in the vocabulary (§§90 ff.). Recent studies and records of American 
speech have made it clear that there exists far greater variety than was 
formerly supposed in the speech of Americans of unquestioned cultivation 

(v) . 

vi Preface 

and importance. Considering the actual facts of contemporary American 
pronunciation, the editors feel that on the whole they have been conserva- 
tive in the variety recorded. 

The vocabulary is intended to include the great body of common words 
in use in America. Besides, it includes a great many somewhat unusual 
words, inserted for a variety of reasons. Especial attention has been given 
to American proper names, though an exhaustive treatment of these is far 
\ beyond the scope of this work. The editors have had in mind the needs of 
college and university students, and have therefore included many names 
of history and literature likely to be encountered by them, as well as a 
large number of notes on various aspects of the English language. While 
foreign names are, strictly, outside the scope of a dictionary of American 
English, it is impossible to avoid including many often heard and used by 
Americans. The field of British place and personal names, tempting to one 
interested in pronunciation, has been little entered. A few of general in- 
terest must be included, and a considerable number of names of places in 
England whose pronunciation was verified locally by one of the editors 
have been inserted. Many of these names are of historical and traditional 
interest to Americans, and a great number have been transferred to Amer- 

_A g in_all trustworthy d jctioaagiesj t he - edi t ors h ave-endeavored to base 
the pronunciatiQrLS--an-a€-tual G^iltivated usage. No other standard has, in 
point of fact, ever finally settled pronunciation. This book can be taken as 
a safe guide to pronunciation only insofar as we have succeeded in doing 
this. According to this standard, no words are, as often said, "almost 
universally mispronounced," for that is self-contradictory. For an editor 
the temptation is often strong to prefer what he thinks "ought to be" the 
right pronunciation; but it has to be resisted. For example, on etymological 
grounds the word dahlia "ought to be" 'dalja; by traditional Anglicizing 
habits of English it should be Melja (as it is in England and often in Canada) ; 
as a fact, in America it is prevailingly ^daelja. In this case the variants are 
current enough to allow free choice; but in many cases the theoretically 
"right" pronunciation of a word is not even current. 

In a work of this sort it is unavoidable to adopt certain devices to save 
space. These are explained in the Introduction (§§59 ff.). If the reader is 
now and then annoyed by these, he is asked to reflect that this makes possi- 
ble the inclusion of far more material than would otherwise be possible, and 
on the whole makes this material easier for the reader to find. 

A question naturally arises as to the relation of this work to the other 
dictionaries published by G. & C. Merriam Company. This book is pub- 
lished on a different basis from their other publications. For this book they 
act only as publishers and distributors, without editorial supervision. The 
Merriam Company is in no way responsible for any statements made in this 
book. That responsibility rests solely on the two authors. 



Preface vii 

The purpose of this dictionary is quite new in America. F irst, it dea ls ^ 
solely wi th pr onunciation; Even the entries are determined to a consider- 
able extent by that purpose; for example, certain proper names of persons 
or places are selected, not for their intrinsic importance, but for some in- 
terest or problem in their pronunciation. 

But the chief difference between this and the other Merriam dictionaries 
is that this is a dictiomiyLJiLcoliQquiaLEnglish, of the evejyday uncon- 
scious speechjoiLoiltivaied^xeople — of those in every community who carry 
onTthe affairs and set the social and educational standards of those com- 
munities. Webster's New International Dictionary, Second Edition (In- 
troduction, p. xii) thus defines its purpose in regard to pronunciation: 

"In this edition, the style adopted for representation is that of formal 
platform speech— and this must be clearly remembered by consultants 
of the pronunciations here given. The omission of less precise pronuncia- 
tions of familiar words does not, of course, indicate either that those pro- 
nunciations do not exist or that the editors of the dictionary refuse to 
recognize them. They do exist, and very naturally so when the occasion 
suits. . . . The recording of all such colloquial pronunciations of every 
separate word is not, however, possible m such a Dictionary as the New 
International. . . .^ TlTPj^roniinriaiixmA-cxmiainpH in thigJjjrtjrvnaTy are not 
t heore tical. They,repr£sent_a£tual_spe££h — the speech of cultivated users 
of English, speaking formally with a view to being completely understood 
by their hearers." 

On the other hand, the pronunciation which the present editors intend \., 
to represent in this book is what has been called "easy English," "the \ 
speech of well-bred ease" — not slovenly or careless speech, nor, on the 
other hand, formal platform speech. Of course the great majority of English 
words are pronounced alike in colloquial and in formal speech, and much 
the largest part of the vocabulary will be found to have the same pro- 
nunciations in both books, and a large part of the differences will be the 
differences between colloquial and formal pronunciation. (For fuller dis- 
cussion of the term colloquial, see Introduction, §§1-2.) 

The New International does not attempt to represent the pronunciation 
of words as they occur in connected speech. The editors state, "It would be '\ 
impossible, even were it desirable, to attempt to record the pronunciation 
of 'running speech,' that is, of words as elements in connected spoken dis- 
course. ..." The present book does not attempt to do this completely, 
could not, in fact, but in many instances does show modified pronuncia- 
tions brought about by the phonetic effect of words on one another. Still 
more often the pronunciation of words as here indicated has been influ- 
enced, not so much by preceding or following sounds, as by rhythm, tempo, 
intonation, sense stress, etc. This will account for a goodly number of dif- 
ferences between the two books. 

Another difference of aim lies in the scope of the two works. The New 

viii ■ Preface 

International avowedly includes the pronunciation "of all parts of the 
English-speaking world" (p. xii), and puts little emphasis on regional differ- 
ences within America. This book only occasionally and incidentally repre- 
sents British or other non-American pronunciation of English, and repre- 
sen ts as fu lly_as_piacticable the_main regional_differe nces in Americ a . 

In some cases there are differences of accentuation that do not represent 
real inconsistencies. In the Guide to Pronunciation in the New International 
(p. xxxvi, col. 1) it is pointed out that a great many English words have 
no fixed accentuation, and that the accent shown in the vocabulary is 
merely one possible accentuation among others that may be equally cor- 
rect. In this book, in some instances, the accentuation may depend on the 
colloquial character of the pronunciation. In some cases, too, differences 
of accentuation are due merely to a difference of practical policy. For in- 
stance, the New International, like many dictionaries, usually places no 
accent mark on a final third syllable though it may have secondary stress; 
thus the word calabash has only the first syllable marked, whereas in this 
book the mark of secondary accent is regularly placed on such words 
('kielajbaej). This represents no difference of accentuation in the two books. 
^ but merely a difference of practice, both methods being quite defensible. 
N? The editors_ believe that jtMs. b ook is - a nafiira] rnmp lprpfTit fp Wpf)<:fpr\ 

New International Dictionary, Second Edition. The New Internation al f ully 
recogriizes the validity and importance of colloquial English speech. In its 
Guide to Pronunciation, §8, it states: "The most important of these dif- 
ferent styles [of spoken English] is what may be called the cultivated col- 
loquial, which has aptly been termed the style of well-bred ease. This is the 
most used of the standard styles, it is acceptable to every class of society, 
whether used by them or not. ..." The New International provides for 
colloquial pronunciation by means of certain flexible symbols. Thus the 
Webster symbol a ('italic short a') "is used to suggest a variable sound. . . 
tending. . ., especially in familiar speech, to the neutral vowel [9]" (Guide, 
§91). The symbol e ('italic short e') serves a similar purpose: "In the great 
majority of everyday words, unaccented e before n or /, and in many words 
in other unaccented position, as in quiet, propriety, is obscured to the neutral 
vowel [a] in colloquial speech" (Guide, §127). Thus our book gives chief 
emphasis to colloquial speech, while the New International, though fully 
recognizing it, treats it only as one among many features of the English 

The New International has also given a table of the International Pho- 
netic Alphabet for English with full illustration of its use: see especially 
Guide, pp. xxii-xxv, and thereafter throughout the Guide. The G. & C. 
Merriam Co. would therefore seem to be in a logical position to publish a 
dictionary of colloquial American speech in the symbols of the Inter- 
national Phonetic Alphabet. In the upshot, we believe that the actual dif- 

Preface ix 

ferences in pronunciation between the Merriam-Webster dictionaries and 
this one are comparatively few. 

The eager and extensive co-operation which the editors have received in 
the prosecution of this work has gone far beyond our expectation, and has 
placed us under great obligation to all who have shown interest and given 
help. J^irstof all we wish to express our thanks to the Carnegie Corporation 
for a grant-in-aid through the University of Wisconsin to one of the editors, 
and to that University for inviting him to spend the year 1940-41 in resi- 
dence to prosecute the work; to the Carnegie Corporation, on recommenda- 
tion of the American Council of Learned Societies, for extending the grant- 
in-aid to supply this editor with an instructor at Hiram College in 1941-42 
to enable him to give more time to the dictionary; to Dr. Margaret Water- 
man for competently fulfilling this appointment; and to Hiram College 
for granting him leave of absence in 1940-41. 

We are under very particular obligations to Professor Miles L. Hanley, 
of the University of Wisconsin, for his hearty encouragement of the dic- 
tionary from its beginning, for placing at our disposal his great collection 
of rimes and spellings at the University of Wisconsin, and for many valuable 
suggestions; and to Mrs. Louise Hanley for much help in the utilization of 
the above-mentioned collections, and for many items of expert editorial 

We have profited greatly from the material thus far published by the 
Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada, and in addition we wish 
to thank the Directors for placing at our disposal a considerable amount of 
unpublished material from the collections covering parts of the Central 
West and of the South. 

We thankfully acknowledge our great indebtedness, in common with all 
students of the English language, to the great Oxford English Dictionary. 

Intimately associated as the editors have been with Webster's New 
International Dictionary, Second Edition, it is inevitable that we should 
be influenced by its standards and indebted to its materials in many ways. 
We gladly acknowledge the deepest obligations to it. 

We are indebted to many individuals who have supplied us with details 
of information in their respective fields; them. Professors Myles 
Dillon (Celtic), William Ellery Leonard (English), J. Homer Herriott 
(Spanish), Joseph L. Russo (Italian), Alexander A. Vasiliev (Russian), 
R-M. S. Heffner (German and Phonetics), Einar Haugen (Scandinavian), 
Casimir Zdanowicz (French), Dr. Karl G. Bottke (French and Italian), 
Mr. Charles E. Condray (Southern speech), — all at the University of 
Wisconsin; to Mr. Edward Artin, G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass. 
(Eastern speech). Professor J. D. M. Ford, Harvard University (Italian), 
Professor Bernard Bloch, Brown University (Eastern speech), Dr. George 
L. Trager, Yale University (Linguistics), Dr. Ruth E. Mulhauser, Hiram 

X Preface 

College (Romance Languages), Professor R. H. Stetson, Oberlin College 

To scholars and other competent observers in various parts of the United 
States and Canada we are under special obligation for material which they 
have collected on the speech of their regions, with valuable comment and in 
many instances with phonograph records: to Professors Katherine Wheat- 
ley, University of Texas; William A. Read, Louisiana State University; 
George P. Wilson, Woman's College, University of North Carolina; C. K. 
Thomas, Cornell University; C. M. Wise, Louisiana State University; Lee 
S. Hultzen, University of California at Los Angeles; W. Norwood Brigance, 
Wabash College; Mr. John Kepke, New York City; Mr. L. Sprague de 
Camp, New York City; Dr. Raven I. McDavid, Jr., South Carolina; Dr. 
Martin Joos, University of Toronto, Can. 

We also wish to thank a number of scholars and teachers who responded 
to our request for advice on the editing (published in American Speech, xi, 
Oct. 1936, pp. 227-31), replying either in the columns of that journal or by 
private correspondence. Their suggestions were all carefully considered, 
and many of them were adopted. 

To Mr. Donald A. Bird, Mr. Philip M. Davies, and Mrs. Wayne Caygill 
of the University of Wisconsin we are indebted for valuable assistance in 
preparing the manuscript. 

In addition to those mentioned above, the editors also have to express 
lasting obligations to many more scholars, teachers, and others, who 
made transcriptions of their own and others' speech, and often supplied 
supplementary notes; in several instances also they sent phonograph 
records. To those whose names follow and a few that we had no means of 
identifying we extend our sincere thanks. Titles are omitted; and since it 
could not be significant without detailed explanation, address and locality 
are omitted. Suffice it to say that the informants were well distributed over 
the United States. Those from Canada are so marked. 

Virgil A. Anderson, Phyllis B. Arlt, A. M. Barnes, L. L. Barrett, A. C. 
Baugh, J. F. Bender, C. L. Bennet (Can.), E. B. Birney (Can.), Morton W. 
Bloomtield (Can.), Hilda Brannon, Alexander Brede, Jr., Christine Broome, 
William F. Bryan, Donald C. Bryant, C. H. Carruthers (Can.), Philip H. 
Churchman, Roy B. Clark, T. F. Cummings, Edwin B. Davis, J. de Angulo, 
L. R. Dingus, Sarah Dodson, Julia Duncan, Norman E. Eliason, Bert 
Emsley, E. E. Ericson, Paul H. Flint, Frances A. Foster, Elizabeth F. 
Gardner, James Geddes, Jr., Erma M. Gill, W. Cabell Greet, Louis A. 
Guerriero, Harold F. Harding, Harry W. Hastings, Grace E. Ingledue, 
Annie S. Irvine, Cary F. Jacob, Joseph Jones, W. Powell Jones, Claude E. 
Kantner, Clifford Anne King, C. A. Knudson, C. A. Lloyd, C. M. Lot- 
speich, William F. Luebke, Klonda Lynn, T. O. Mabbott, John C. Mc- 
Closkey, Cassa L. McDonald, James B. McMillan, Kemp Malone, Ed- 
ward W. Mammen, Albert H. Marckwardt, E. K. Maxfield, R. J. Menner, 

Preface xi 

Alice W. Mills, George Neely, T. Earl Pardoe, Gordon E. Peterson, Holland 
Peterson (Can.), Louise Pound, E. G. Proudman, Robert L. Ramsay, 
W. Charles Redding, Loren D. Reid, Stuart Robertson, J. C. Ruppenthal, 
I. Willis Russell, C. Richard Sanders, Edwin F. Shewmake, Loretta Skelly, 
Gordon W. Smith, Paul L. Stayner, J. M. Steadman, Jr., W. J. Stevens 
(Can.), Everett F. Strong, Morris Swadesh, C. H. Thomas, Argus Tresid- 
der, E. H. Tuttle, W. Freeman Twaddell, Charles H. Voelker, Chad Walsh, 
Lois P. Ware, Raymond Weeks, Walter H. Wilke, Rudolph Willard, A. M. 
Withers, Robert Withington. 

The typesetting and electrotyping of this book were done by the George 
Banta Publishing Company, of Menasha, Wisconsin. To all members of its 
staff who were concerned in any way with its making, the editors express 
their grateful appreciation. 

The editors feel that the making of the dictionary has been a co-operative 
enterprise, and if it has value, this is in large measure due to expert help 
from many voluntary contributors; for its defects the editors hold them- 
selves solely responsible. 

Vachel Lindsay Room, Hiram College John S. Kenyon 

September, 1943 Thomas A, Knott 

(Reprinted by permission from Kenyon's American Pronunciation, 8th ed.) 

LL=Lips. Pt = Tongue Point. Bl = Tongue Blade. Tr = Teethridge. HP = Hard Palate. 
V = Velum (soft palate): black: lowered, or open; dotted: raised, or closed. U = Uvula. 
Ph = Pharynx. VC = Vocal Cords. 





(Reproduced, with slight changes, from Kenyon's American Pronunciation, 
8th edition, by permission.) 

Hf = High-front 
L'hf = Lower high-front 
H''mf= Higher mid-front 
L^'mf = Lower mid -front 
Lf = Low-front 

The left of the figure represents the front of the mouth 
He = High-central 

Mc = Mid-central 

Lea = Low-central advanced 

Hbr = High-back round 
L''hbr= Lower high-back round 
Mbr = Mid-back round 
H''lbr = Higher low-back round 
Lbr = Low-back round 
Lb = Low-back 




§1. It is the purpose of this dictionary to show the pronunciation of cultivated colloquial 
English in the United States. The meaning of the word colloquial is sometimes misunderstood. 
A common misunderstanding is that in dictionaries the label Colloq. attached to a word or 
pronunciation brands it as inferior, and therefore to be avoided. 

Webster^s New International Dictionary, Second Edition, thus defines colloquial: "Pertaining 
to, or used in, conversation, esp. common and familiar conversation; conversational; hence, 
unstudied; informal; as, colloquial phrases or pronunciations; specif., of a word or a sense or use 
of a word or expression, acceptable and appropriate in ordinary conversational context, as in 
intimate speech among cultivated people, in familiar letters, in informal speeches or writings, 
but not in formal written discourse {flabbergast; go slow; harum-scarum). Colloquial speech 
may be as correct as formal speech. 'Every educated person speaks his mother tongue in at least 
two ways, and the difference between the dignified and the colloquial style is considerable.' 
— G. L. Kittredge." It should be noted that the illustrative words do not refer to pronuncia- 
tion but to diction, though the definition includes pronunciation. 

The definition in the Oxford Dictionary is concise and also adequate. Though it does not 
mention pronunciation, "etc." may safel}^ be taken to include it: "Of words, phrases, etc.: 
Belonging to common speech; characteristic of or proper to ordinary conversation, as dis- 
tinguished from formal or elevated language. (The usual sense.)" 

Definitions of colloquial that only concern choice of words and give as examples only oaths 
or slang are perhaps in part responsible for some of the popular misunderstanding of the term. 

A less frequent, but still not uncommon error is the confusion of colloquial with local, the 
assumption that a colloquialism is a localism, and so to be avoided. 

Another not uncommon confusion is to regard colloquial English as the opposite of standard 
English {standard being confused with formal or literary). There is standard colloquial English 
and standard formal or Hterary English, as there is nonstandard colloquial and nonstandard 
formal English. As regards pronunciation, one kind of nonstandard formal Enghsh is the arti- 
ficial type in which vowels that are normally unaccented are pronounced with their accented 
sounds, in which articles {a, an, tlie), prepositions {to, from, of), and other normally unstressed 
particles are pronounced with their emphatic forms instead, in which the tempo and intonation 
are not those of traditional living speech, in which abnormal accentuation and loudness are 
practiced, together with similar distortions that detract from unostentatious sincerity. 

The accepted meaning of colloquial is to be found in the work of such linguistic scholars 
as Professor Henry Cecil Wyld, of Oxford, whose History of Modern Colloquial English deals 
with the unstudied speech and familiar correspondence of the cultivated classes, and reminds 
us of the importance both to literature and to general culture of this central core of the EngHsh 
language. Says Professor Wyld, "This style of Uterary prose is aUve and expressive chiefly 
insofar as it is rooted in that of colloquial utterance. . . . The style of Literature is rooted in 
the life and conversation of the age."^ Similarly, the American scholar and poet William Ellery 

1 History oj Modern Colloquial English, London 1925, pp. 157, 188. 


xvi The Phonetic Alphabet 

Leonard: "In general every good colloquialism is possible in good prose (or verse), for quite 
rightly good prose (or verse) is becoming more and more a skillful adaptation of the vigorous, 
_i;pmpact, racy idiom of the best spoken speech."^ 
' ^y / §2. Colloquial pronunciation is here treated as the conversational and familiar utterance 
\ foi cultivated speakers when speaking in the normal contacts of life and concerned with what 
1 Vthey are saying, not how they are saying it. There are, of course, different styles of colloquial, 
/ fl-om that of the everyday contacts of family life to the somewhat less familiar contacts of 
\ social and business or professional life. The variant pronunciations of the same word fre- 
quently shown will often reflect the different styles of the colloquial. In all cases of words 
that are not formal per se, unstudied everyday speech is the basis. It is of course true that the 
majority of words in general use are the same for colloquial as for formal language, and are 
pronounced alike in both styles. 

The editors are aware that the attempt to represent in fairly accurate symbols the every- 
day speech of the cultivated is likely now and then to cause surprise and to tempt criticism. 
The average observer has not been trained to observe speech on the wing, ana is too apt to 
be influenced by unconscious habitual association with spelling forms. No experience is com- 
moner with trained observers than to hear certain pronunciations in the very statements in 
which the critic is denying them. 

It must also be remembered that not all words are of a colloquial nature. Words not in 
colloquial use have, properly speaking, no colloquial pronunciation. Thus the word exorcise 
does not often occur in conversation. Its pronunciation is therefore what it would be in formal 
context, with the -or- fully sounded. If it should become a popular word, it would sound just 
like exercise. So the word adhibit, not being colloquial, receives the full sound of the first vowel 
as in add, while in the more popular word advise the first vowel is normally obscured. 


§3. Pronunciation in this dictionary is indicated by the alphabet of the International 
Phonetic Association (IPA). These symbols and the pronunciations represented by them in- 
variably appear in boldface type. More than half of these are the ordinary letters of the English 
alphabet or familiar variations of them. v 

Each symbol stands for or ly one speech sound, and each speech sound has only one symbol 
to represent it. In accord with the practice of many British and American users of this alphabet 
the accented sounds a, 3, s' are considered to be separate speech sounds from the unaccented 
sounds a and ^. Diphthongs are regarded as single sounds and their symbols (ai, au, oi, etc.) 
as single symbols. The same is true of tj, d3. 

In using the phonetic alphabet the reader must be careful to give only the one designated 
sound to those letters which in ordinary spelling represent more than one sound. Thus the 
symbol g has only the sound in get get, never that in gem dsem; s has only tlie sound in gas 
gaes, never that in iiise waiz or that in vision Visan. The dotted i has only the sound in machine 
malfin, never that in shin fin; ordinary e always has the sound in gate get, never that in tnet 
met. Below is the list of symbols with key words. The notes after the table give fuller informa- 
tion and additional symbols. The accent mark (') always precedes the syllable accented. 

' American Speech, viii, 3, Oct. 1933, p. 57. 

The Phonetic Alphabet 







Spoken Form 



Spoken Form 


















'fySa^ accented syllable 




only, r'5 sounded 






'faSa accented syllable 



baO as heard in the East, 

only, r'^ silent 


ae (sang) 



'fytSa' unaccented syllable 

and a (ah) 

only, r's sounded 






'fsSa unaccented syllable 
only, t's silent 



WDtJ between o 

3 (jaw) 

1 (ah) and 


'kAstam unaccented syl- 
a'bAv table 








'kAstam accented sylla- 





a'bAv ble 
























Spoken Form 



Spoken Form 






















keep 'em 










































































xviii The Phonetic Alphabet 


§4. The mark ' above the line and before a syllable indicates that that syllable has the 
principal accent, as in action 'aek/an. The corresponding mark ^ below the line and before a 
syllable indicates that that syllable has an accentuation somewhat weaker than the main one, 
as in acrobat 'aekrajbaet, Aberdeeti jaeba^'din, shoemaker '/u/meka'. For discussion of accent, 
see §§48-54. 


§5. The colon (:) after a vowel or a consonant symbol indicates that its sound is prolonged. 
Thus the form sae:nd beside saet means that the ss sound in sand is longer than in sat; and the 
form d33is : means that in one pronunciation of the plural joists (with omitted t) the s is longer 
than it is in rejoice ri'dsois. In the vocabulary the length sign is used only occasionally or in 
certain classes of words. See fuller discussion of length at §55. 


§6. I. The symbol i is used for accented or unaccented syllables. Though the accented 
and unaccented vowels in pity 'piti, sitting 'sitig, visit Vizit, etc., are sometimes different in 
quality, the differences are here ignored, since they vary with different speakers and with the 
different sounds that precede or follow. This accords with common practice in transcription. 

When final, the unaccented vowel in pity 'piti and similar words varies with different speak- 
ers in .I'Vmerica from a sound like the i in bit bit, or like the first i in 'piti, to a sound that ap- 
proaches the i in bee bi. See the ending -y in the vocabulary. 

§7. e. The vowel in rate ret and other words with "long a" is very often (but by no means 
always) a diphthong (gliding from one vowel to another in the same syllable) ei, ei, ee, or the 
like. On linguistic principles the one sj'mbol e properly stands for all varieties of the sound 
(whether diphthong or not). The variants never distinguish words otherwise alike. 

§8. E. The symbol e is used not only for words like yet J£t, send send, but also for one type 
of pronunciation of the vowel sound in there 'Ser, swear swtr, air er, as pronounced by Taa.ny. 
When thus followed by r, the e sound is usually a little more like the ae in sang saeg than is 
the E in yet J£t, send send. Many speakers pronounce ae in such words in both America and 
England. Both pronunciations are given in the vocabulary {there tier, tiaer). 

§9. ae. This ligature is a unit symbol (not two letters) standing for a single simple vowel 
sound. It was the letter used in Anglo-Saxon times for the same sound in Old English as in 
present English sat (OE sast). Originally combined from the Latin letters a and e (since its 
sound la}^ between the two Latin sounds), its present value in the IP A alphabet is the same as 
in its oldest use in Enghsh. 

§10. a. This vowel sound, not in general use in America as a whole, is about midway be- 
tween the vowel of sang saeg and the vowel of ah a, father 'fatfa^. It is often heard in New 
England and New York City in such words as ask ask, chaff tjaf, bath ba6 (which are also 
there pronounced aesk, tj'aef, baeO or ask, tJaf, baO). It commonly begins the diphtliongs in 
while and how. The vowel a is an important sound in French, Spanish, and other foreign 
languages, and is common in cultivated Northern British, Scottish, Anglo-Irish, and Canadian. 
The symbol a must always be carefully distinguished from a. For the use of a in Eastern 
American, see §§102 f. 

The Phonetic Alphabet xix 

§11. a. This is the "broad a" sound in ah a, far lax, father 'fatJaf in most of America. It is 
also used by the majority. of Americans in "short o" words such as top tap, got gat, fodder 'fada^. 
in which some speakers pronounce d. 

§12. D. The symbol d represents a vowel not in universal American use. It is the historical 
"short o" now generally used in England in words like top top, got got, fodder 'foda, by many 
Easterners and Southerners, and in certain kinds of words by many speakers in all parts of the 
country. It is a sound about midway between a in ah and 3 in wall. It may be approximated 
by trying to sound a in ah while (without moving the tongue) rounding the lips for o in wall. 
As with a, so with o, there is no key word that will convey to all Americans its exact sound. 
The key word watch, here used, frequently is spoken with d in all parts of America, but it is 
also often pronounced wat/, with a as in ah, and wat/, with a as in wall. 

§13. o. Like e, the symbol o represents either a simple vowel or a diphthong (ou, ou, ov, 
etc.). For the same reason stated at e (§7 above) the symbol o is used for both the simple 
vowel and the diphthong. For b see -ow in the vocabulary. 

§14. u, u. The small capital u {full ful) and the Io^^"er-case u (tooth tu9) are to be carefullj- 
distinguished from each other. 

§15. y. The symbol y represents the accented form of the so-called "r-colored" vowel used 
in the first syllable oi further 'fytia' by those who do not "drop their r's." In current spelling 
it is spelt with a vowel letter followed by the letter r {word, fur, term, firm, earn). But in 
sound this vowel y is not followed by r; it is a vowel made wliile the tongue is at the same 
time holding the position for r. Such vowels are common in many types of English. The con- 
sonantal r sound that formerly followed the vowel (hence the present spelling) long ago merged 
with the preceding vowel and disappeared as a separate sound, though its effect is still heard 
in the r-coloring of the vowel. The simple proof of the nature of the present sound is that the 
vowel cannot be pronounced separately from the r without producing a quite different sound, 
whereas this can easily be done with, say, the a and r of /arm. 

§16. 3. The symbol 3 represents the corresponding vowel in the word furtJwr of those who 
"drop their r's," the tongue for this vowel 3 being in the same general central position in the 
mouth as for 3^, but without the simultaneous adjustment of the tongue for the r-coloring 
(usually the elevation of the tip). For those accustomed to pronounce y a fairly good 3 can 
be made by trying to pronounce 3^ in bird with the point of the tongue placed against the backs 
of the lower teeth, and with the jaw a trifle more closed than for the vowel a in sun. This 3 
is often followed by r, as in furry 'fs-ri, from fur is. While the majority of Ameri- 
cans pronounce fur fy, and furry 'fs^i, most British and many eastern and southern 
Americans pronounce fur is, and ftirry 'f3'ri. But in words Uke hurry, which is not derived 
from a simple form hur z.?, furry is ixovafur, three American pronunciations are common, — 'hy -i, 
'hs-ri, 'hA-ri, the last being least frequent and tending to become 'hs-ri or 'hy-n. 

§17. a'. The symbol 9- is the unaccented r-colored vowel, like 3" inseparable from its r 
quality, as pronounced by those who do not "drop their r's." The two symbols y and a' are 
formed from the IP A symbols 3 and a (as used, e.g., in the word Herbert 'hsbat in Ida C. 
Ward's Phonetics of English, Cambridge, Engd. 1939, p. 108), by attaching the hook of retro- 
flexion (r-coloring) used by the IPA on the consonants s, z, t, d, etc. {Le Maitre Fhonetique, 
Jan.-Mar. 1942, inside front cover). This makes easy the comparison of such words as Herbert 

XX The Phonetic Alphabet 

as pronounced by those who "drop their r's" ('hsbat) and by those who sound them ('hs^ba^t), 
showing at a glance the phonetic relation between such words in the two types of speech 
{further 'fsSa — 'fa^Sa*, perverse paVss — pa'Vss, bird bad — byd, over 'ova — 'ova^), all four sounds 
3, y, a, » being vowels, none of them here followed by r. 

§18. a. The s3Tnbol a represents the "neutral vowel," or "schwa" Jwa, heard in the im- 
accented syllable of custom 'kAStam, or, as just shown above, in that oi further from those who 
"drop their r's" ('f sSa) . With many such speakers the a of 'f atSa is not exactly like the a of 'kAS- 
tam, but is commonly regarded as the same speech sound. 

§19. A. This represents the accented vowel of custom 'kAstam, above a'bAv, undone An'dAn. 
In An'dAnthe first syllable is not quite without accent, but has sufficient accent (though not 
marked) to make it audibly more prominent than the un- of unless (spoken colloquially) 
an'ks. Compare unlace Angles with unless an'ks, or undone An'dAn with and done in the phrase 
over and done with 'ova' an'dAn witJ, or untilled with until in This land was untitled until now 
An'tild an 'til nau. The prefix un- is commonly pronounced An- with more or less subordinate 
accent. See un- in the vocabulary. 

§20. ai, au. For regional varieties of these diphthongs see Variants §§105-108. 

§21. ju. This is a rising diphthong — the Jast part being stressed more than the first. It 
begins with the glide consonant j (as in yet J£t) and ends with the vowel u (as in tooth tu9). 
ju would not be separately Usted as a vowel symbol, being a consonant plus vowel, except for 
comparison with the diphthong lu (see below), with which it often alternates, for ju is of the 
same nature as other combinations of consonantal j plus a vowel (as in ye ji, yea je, yaw ja, yet 
jet, etc.) or of consonantal w plus a vowel {we wi, way we, woe wo, etc.). 

§22. lu. This is either a falling diphthong (first element stressed, as in the diphthongs ai, 
au, 3i), or a level-stress diphthong, both elements being about equall}' prominent. If the last 
element becomes more prominent, then lu becomes ju, as it did historically in such words as 
use juz. The form lu is heard from many speakers in such words as fuse fiuz, where others 
pronounce ju (fjuz). For the occurrence of lu in America, see Variants §109. 

lu is a modified form of lu, occurring chiefly as an alternative to u or ju that has been re- 
duced from u or ju by lack of stress {superb su'pyb, siu'pyb, sju'pyb) or before r {curious 
'kjurias, 'kiurias). The phonetic surroundings lead without effort to the modified lu and ju. 

§23. g. It should be noted that this sound is a simple, single sound, which cannot be di- 
vided. It is made by contact of the tongue back with the velum, as the simple sound n is made 
by contact of the tongue point with the upper teethridge. The usual spelhng with two letters 
{ng) has sometimes led to an impression that o is a combination sound. It is also spelt with n 
only {angry 'aeg-gri, ink igk). When speakers "drop their g's" (as in runnin' for running), 
they drop no sound, but they replace the tongue-back nasal g ('rAmg) with the tongue-point 
nasal n ('rAnin). 

§24. m, n, 1. These are called syllabic consonants because they form syllables without any 
vowel whatever, either alone {stop 'em 'stap-m, button 'bAt-n, saddle 'saed-l) or with other con- 
sonants {opened 'op-md, buttoned 'bAt-nd, saddled 'saed-ld). These and such forms as keep 'em 
'kipm, Eden 'idit^, cradle 'kredl have no vowel in the unaccented syllable because, for ip, 
the lips continue closed throughout pip, and, for ip and |, the tongue point remains in contact 
with the teethridge throughout t^ and dj. Between some other consonants, as sip {lessen 

The Phonetic Alphabet xxi 

'ksn), zn {reason 'rizn), pi {apple 'aepl) the transition to the second consonant is so quick, or 
the opening of the speech organs is so slight, that no vowel intervenes. 

All of the foregoing forms can also be uttered with the schwa vowel a plus a nonsyllabic 
consonant ('kipara, 'idan, 'bAtan, 'kredal, ^ksan, 'rizan, 'aepal), but in some of these and many 
others the pronunciation with a is either not accepted in good use, or is a mark of formal, 
noncolloquial pronunciation. On this point see further. Variants §114. 

The remaining nasal consonant g can also be syllabic, as in the colloquial / can go ^aikg'go. 
Here the tongue back remains in contact with the velum throughout the k and the g. The 
syllabic marker is sometimes placed over the symbol g, but is here not deemed necessary, since 
syllabic g is not frequent, and g is never syllabic in the same position in which it is nonsyllabic. 
It is always syllabic after a consonant (^aikg'go, 'baegg'baegidg, 'mekg) and never syllabic 
after a vowel (sig, 'baegig, 'mekig). 

As 'aspl and 'aepal show the alternation between a syllabic consonant ( 1 ) and schwa plus the 
same consonant (al), so syllabic consonants may alternate with nonsyllabic consonants, but 
here sometimes with a difference of meaning: help 'em eat 'hElpm 'it (3 syllables) — helpmeet 
'helpjinit (2 syls.) ; ordinance 'ardnans (3 syls.) — ordnance 'ardnans (2 syls.) ; double it 'dAb} rt 
(3 syls.) — doublet 'dAblit (2 syls.). Such alternation is often shown in the vocabulary in con- 
nection with the ending -ing; thus blazoning is pronounced either 'blez-n-ig or 'blez-nig; 
handling is either 'haen-dlig or 'haen-dj-ig. The one deemed most usual in colloquial speech 
is given first; but often there is little choice, the form depending on style of speech. 

§25. hw. Linguists are disagreed whether hw should be regarded as a single speech sound 
or as two — h followed by w. When regarded as a single phoneme it is often transcribed with 
inverted w (av) . Here the symbol hw is used for the sound spelt wh in words like while hwail. 
For variation in pronunciation of words spelt with wh see Variants §113. 

§26. r. In this book the S3Tnbol r is used for the consonant, as in rate ret, cradle 'kredj, 
where it is parallel in phonetic structure to w in wait wet, twain twen, and to j in Yale je!, 
cue kju, that is, a glide consonant or semivowel before a vowel in the same syllable. In addition, 
the symbol r is here used for the sound in very 'veri, far far, gorge gardg, which some regard as 
a nonsyllabic vowel forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel. This is sometimes ex- 
pressed by the vowel symbol a- ('ve^i, faa', gaa^ds), which is defensible on laboratory evidence. 
But the ends of simplicity seem better served to confine the use of a^ to representing the syl- 
labic vowel, so that whenever ^ occurs in this book it always represents a syllable, either alone, 
as in better 'bet-a^, or with a consonant, as in perceive pa^'siv. Thus the word floiuer, which is 
pronounced either with two syllables or with one, can be transcribed with two ('flaua^) or with 
one (flaur). In the speech of those who "drop their r's" the two-syllable pronunciation is 
shown by separating the syllables with a centered period ('flau-a) and the one-syllable pro- 
nunciation without it (f laua) . Here the accent mark also implies more than one syllable, but 
would not help to distinguish three-syllable cornflower ES 'kaan^flau-a from two-syllable 
cornflour 'kaan^flaua, or three-syllable flower cup 'flau-a^kAp from two-syWable flour cup 
'flaua^kAp. In current speech (and often in poetry) all such words as flower, flour, higher, hire 
have either two syllables or one. In this dictionary, as a rule, the number of syllables indicated 
follows the conventional spelling form. 

The symbol r is also used between a and a vowel in such a position as in flattery 'flstari. 

xxii The Phonetic Alphabet 

which might (less conveniently) be regarded as flatter 'flaeta^ plus -y -i, or by those who "drop 
their ^'s" as 'flaeta plus -ri. The slight difference in sound between 'flaeta^i and 'flaetaTi de- 
pends on where the last syllable begins, and is here disregarded. 

In a few cases ^ is used to represent the speech of those who "drop their r's," as in overact 
jova^'aekt, where all speakers would normally sound the r before a vowel. 

Besides the usual American sounds of r, the symbol r mdicates certain different sounds in 
some varieties of English and in foreign languages; as (1) the tongue-point trill (vibra- 
tion against the upper teethridge) in Scottish, Anglo-Irish, Italian, Spanish, and some- 
times German and French; (2) the uvular trill (vibration of the uvula against the back of the 
tongue) found in French and German; and (3) the uvular fricative, or "scrape," found in 
French and German. These varieties of r have special IPA symbols not needed in this book, 
where they are all represented by r. 


In addition to the symbols given above, a number of symbols are used to express less com- 
mon English sounds and the sounds of foreign languages recorded in the dictionarJ^ The de- 
scriptions of the foreign sounds are only approximate, and are intended for those not familiar 
with the foreign sounds. The symbols not here described, when used to express foreign pro- 
nunciations, have approximately the same sounds as in English words. 

§27. X. This stands for the consonant in German ich ix, ach ax, Scottish loch Idx, Spanish 
junto 'xunto, an "open" k sound made by forcing voiceless breath through a loose contact 
of the back of the tongue with the soft palate (velum) at the same point where a firm contact 
would stop the breath and make the k sound. A separate symbol (5) is sometimes used to ex- 
press the more forward variety of the sound heard in ich. But, as Bloomfield has shown, one 
symbol is suflicient for both varieties. 

§28. g. This is the fricative g sound (we here use the older and better IPA symbol), pro- 
nounced like X except with voiced breath (vocal cords vibrating), and related to the English 
stop g just as X is related to stop k. 

§29. 4. The so-called Welsh fricative /, expressed in current Welsh spelling by //, is a kind 
of I sound made by forcible expulsion of voiceless breath at one side of the tongue near the back 
teeth, the tongue being in contact near the teethridge in front and at the other side. In Angli- 
cized pronunciation of Welsh names 4 is sometimes replaced byEngUshfl (i^/weWew iox Llewelyn, 
Floyd for Lloyd) or by English 6l (elaen'b£ris for Llanheris). 

§30. 1. This is ordinary English 1 except that it is voiceless. Its chief use is in the French pro- 
nunciation of such words as debacle de'ba:kl, where the 1 is final after a voiceless consonant. 
It is almost inaudible to an English ear, and is sometimes actually lost in French conversa- 
tion. (Voiceless m (m) occurs in a word or two; cf twiph.) 

§31. r. Voiceless r is used in some French words when final after a voiceless consonant 
{J of re 3b'fr). Like 1, it is sometimes lost in French speech. 

§32. i. This is the palatal lateral, or palatal / (not the same as palatalized /, occasionalh- 
represented by Ij in the vocabulary). It may be approximated by keeping the tongue pressed 
against the backs of the lower teeth while trying to sound 1. In the vocabularj'- X is used chiefl}- 
in Spanish and Italian words. 

The Phonetic Alphabet xxiii 

^33. ji. This is palatal n (different from palatalized n, expressed in the vocabulary, when 
needed, by nj). Like A., it can be approximated by keeping the tongue pressed against the backs 
of the lower teeth while trying to sound n. In the vocabulary ji is used chiefly in French, 
Spanish, and Italian words. 

§34. JA. Inverted w, see hw. 

§35. ''. The glottal stop. Not a distinctive speech sound in English (it never distinguishes 
words otherwise alike). It often occurs before a vowel in English in clear, emphatic utter- 
ance. It is formed by closing the glottis as in holding the breath with open mouth. The glottal 
stop followed by its explosive release is heard in coughing. 

§36. p. This is the voiced bilabial fricative. It sounds, and is made, somewhat like v, but 
in P the upper lip replaces the upper teeth, the voiced breath passing out with friction between 
the slightly separated lips, instead of (as in v) between the lower lip and the upper teeth. In the 
vocabulary ^ occurs chiefly in Spanish words (Habana a'^ana). 

§37. >!>. This, the "candle-blowing" sound, is the voiceless counterpart of (J, and bears the 
same relation to f that ^ does to v. For an example, see whew in the vocabulary. 

§38. q. This sound is used only in French words. It is nearly equivalent to j pronounced 
with rounded lips, being the glide, or semivowel, corresponding to the front rounded vowel y 
(§42 below). It is made by a quick glide (with rounded lips) from the position for y to a follow- 
ing vowel, just as the glide semivowel j is made by a quick glide (with unrounded lips) from the 
position of i to a following vowel, or as the glide w is made by a quick glide from the position 
for u to a following vowel. An example of q is seen in French finance nqa:s. 

§39. i. This represents a vowel sound about midway between (front) i and (back) u. It is 
common in Welsh {Llandudno 4-an'didno). 

§40. i. This represents a vowel made with the tongue retracted somewhat from the lower 
high-front position for ordinary i {hid) . It is regularly heard as the first element of the common 
American diphthong la, in this book written lu {fuse f luz) . The sound i is also common in the 
endings -ed {stated), -es {glasses) if they are not pronounced either -id, -iz, or -ad, -az. See the 
ending -ed in the vocabulary. This symbol is not often used in the vocabulary. 

§41. tt. This is commonly heard as the final element of the ^American diphthong m {fuse 
fiHz). It represents a vowel resembling u but with the tongue advanced from the position for 
u. Like I, the symbol « is not regularly used in the vocabulary, the diphthong la being regu- 
larly written lu, and the advanced h not being distinguished from u. The advanced sound de- 
noted by » is also heard by itself in the speech of many who do not use ih, but who distin- 
guish, for example, brewed brad from brood brud. See Variants ju, lu, a, §109. 

§42. y. This is the high-front rounded vowel of German hiibsch hyp/, kiihi ky:n, or of 
French lime lyn, dur dy:r. It may be approximated by trying to pronounce i {bid) or i {bee) 
with Ups rounded as for a {too). 

§43. 0. This is the mid-front rounded vowel of German schon /oin or French peu p0. It 
may be approximated by trying to sound e {rate) with Ups rounded as for o {go) . 

§44. oe. This is the low-front or lower mid-front rounded vowel of German kmnen 
^oensn or French heiire ce:r, and may be approximated by trying to pronounce 8 or ae of 
there tJer, tJaer with lips rounded as for d {wall). 

§45. Q This is the symbol for an o sound intermediate between o {go) and a {wall). Cf. §98. 

xxiv Stress, Accent, Sense Stress 

§46. b'. This is a kind of a sound with the tongue pushed farther forward than in -wall. It 
may be approximated by sounding a {sun) with hps rounded as for o {wall). It is nearly the 
sound of French "short o" in cotte kb't, this symbol being regularly used in the vocabulary to 
denote this French vowel. The symbol b' is also used to denote the so-called "New England 
short 0," shown in the vocabulary for certain words that usually have the vowel o {go), but 
which, according to Grandgent, are also pronounced with b by many cultivated speakers in 
New England. 

§47. The French nasalized vowels x., a, o, 6e are, respectively, the vowel sounds ae, a, o, oe 
pronounced with the nasal passage open to the throat, the velum being lowered as when 
breathing through nose and mouth together. In works on French phonetics, for reasons inci- 
dent to practical transcription, « is usually written e, and o written 3, but they are described 
as & and o sounds, and are here so represented. 


§48. Stress is the general term for prominence of a sound or syllable, whether that promi- 
nence is produced by force of utterance, by pitch, by duration of sound, or (as usuall}') b}' 
some combination of these elements. Accent is the specific term for the prominence of one 
syllable over others in a plurisyllable (word of more than one syllable), as practice 'praektis, 
remain ri'men, element 'ebniant. Monosyllables therefore have no accent in this sense. 

§49. Sense stress, or sentence stress, is the prominence of certain words among others in a 
group that makes sense — phrase, clause, or sentence; as The farmer dis^ posed of Ms ^holdings. 
Here the marked words have more sense stress than the urmiarked the, of, his. The same marks 
can show sense stress of monosyllables {TJie htian has ^gone to his ^house). The sense stress of 
plurisyllables always falls on their accented syllables. 

In the vocabulary every word of more than one syllable has a primary accent mark in the 
pronunciation {clothing 'kloSig, amiss a'mis, variant Veriant, preceding pri'sidig, inflected 
in'flektid). Some words have two, when two syllables are nearly or quite equal {redheaded 

§50. Syllables more prominent than one or more others in a word, but less prominent than the 
strongest one in the word, have some degree of subordinate accent, which may or may not be 
indicated by the secondary accent mark (i ), as hesitate 'hez3jtet, hesitation jliEza'tejan. Since 
subordinate accent varies from nearly the weakest to nearly the strongest in words where it 
can occur, and varies moreover with innumerable styles of speech, no dictionary can accurately 
mark all instances. Hence the use of secondary accent marks here is largely conventional. 
Secondary accent is usually marked in words with a clear rhythmical alternation of accents 
{satisfy 'saetiSifai, satisfaction jsaetis'faekjan), or when it is adjacent to the chief accent in 
compound words whose parts are also well known as separate words {horseplay 'harsjple), and 
wherever needed to make the whole accentuation clearer {Winchester ^win^tjEsta^; cf also 
Gambia and Gambier in the vocabulary). Cf §19. 

§51. In the vocabulary certain monosyllables that have var>'ing sense stress are marked 
with primary and secondary accents beside forms without accent, to show how they would be 
stressed in connected speech. Thus his in its stressed forms is marked 'hiz, jhiz, as they might 

Stress, Accent, Sense Stress xxv 

occur in This is his jSis iz 'hiz or His friend was gone jhiz 'frend waz 'g3n, by the side of its un- 
stressed form, as in / met his father ai 'met iz 'fatJa^. 

§52. In words where a syllabic 1 or n is followed by an accented syllable beginning with a 
vowel (ventilation jventl'e/an, ventilate Vent|jet, ordination jordn'efan, ordinary brdrijEri), the 
accent mark is placed after the 1 or n, for if placed before (jvent'le/an, prd'nefan), this would 
imply that 1 or n is accented, which is impossible in English. Stetson's laboratory findings 
indicate that part of the 1 or n may be carried over to the following syllable, but without being so 
markedly doubled or lengthened as it would be in a little late 'litl'let or a sndden need 'sAdn'nid. 
Hence the accentuation must be shown as jventl'ejan, prdn'ejan, but with the understanding 
that the syllable division may be within the 1 or n, which is, nevertheless, not so long as 11 or 
nn. The problem may be evaded in such words by ignoring the 1 or n and transcribing jventi- 
'lefan, jVEnta'lefan, jordi'ne/an, prda'ne/an, but to assume that such pronunciations are more 
usual in cultivated colloquial speech is merely to shut our eyes to the facts. (Syllabic m or g 
seldom if ever occurs in such situations.) 

§53. Shifting accent is often seen in such compound adjectives as high-strung 'hai'strAg, 
thus marked with the normal accentuation of the word when spoken alone or when used predi- 
catively as in He's rather high-strung. When this is immediately followed by a strong stress 
{high-strung nerves), the second accent is reduced {^high- ^strung ^nerves). For fuller discussion, 
see Webster^s New International, pp. xxxv f., §66. The rhythmic factor involved sometimes 
brings about permanent changes of accent. Certain adjectives (as cold-blooded) occurring often 
in the attributive position {^ cold-, blooded ^man) may become generalized with the accent of 
the attributive use, so that some speakers always say ^cold-, blooded Qcold- flooded ^man, He's 
^cold- flooded) , where others would say ^cold- filooded ^man, but He's ^cold-^blooded. For the 
method of showing this in the vocabulary see §54(2). Other words than compound adjectives 
are subject to the same shift when followed by a strong accent, as Shaw^nee but ^Shaw^nee 
Hribes. Many examples of these shifts are given in the vocabulary. 

Another type of shift in accent is brought about by emphasis. When such adverbs as 
^absofutely, ^neces^sarily, hrdi,narily are made emphatic, they are likely to be accented 
,absoHutely, ,neces^sarily, ,ordVnarily. Most adverbs of this type show this tendency in Ameri- 
can English, and in some cases this accentuation has become generalized; i.e., many speakers 
say firdi^narily, ^neces^sarily under all circumstances, even when these are not emphatic. The 
shifted accentuation is usually shown in the vocabulary thus: "esp. if emphatic jueces'sarily," 
which means that this accentuation may occur at any time, and is especially apt to occur 
under emphasis. 

Shifting or variable secondary accent often occurs in such words as afiodehnician, finastig- 
hnatic, ^impecca^bility , ^impenetra^bility, ,incompre^hensible, {incorpo^reity, inJerVority, where in 
longer words the secondary accent precedes the primary. Here, in actual speech, such alterna- 
tive accentuations as afiode^mician or flcade^mician, flmpenetra^bility or im,penetra^bility, 
injerihrity or ,inferihrity are very common, and do not represent more and less desirable 
pronunciations, but chiefly show the effect of varying sense stress, emphasis, speech rhythm 
semantic distinctions, and other constantly varying factors of connected speech, so that in 
many such instances the question which accentuation is preferable is irrelevant. See also §57. 

§54. In the vocabulary, accent marks are sometimes used on words in ordinary spelHng 

xxvi Length of Vowels 

(lightface roman type) when it is desired to show only the accentuation, after a pronuncia- 
tion already given. This occurs chiefly in two ways: — 

(1) As at the entry heartsore, where, after the pronunciation and accent in phonetic sym- 
bols, there is added "ace/ + 'heart 'sore," which means, "Besides the accentuation just given, 
the following different accentuation is also current." 

(2) As at the entry cloven-footed, a form in ordinary spelling with accent marks is added in 
parentheses to show a different accentuation from that already given, especially a shifted 
accentuation (§53). Thus the basic accentuation is shown in the pronunciation 'klovan'futid, 
but in the attributive construction the accent on -'futid is reduced before a following stressed 
syllable, and this is shown by the phrase in parentheses ('cloven-^footed 'ox). Less usually the 
same device is used to illustrate or confirm the accentuation just given. Thus after the entry 
and pronunciation week-end, adj, Vik'End, the first example in parentheses by its speech 
rhythm confirms the accentuation just given ('week-'end /party), and the second example 
illustrates the shift in accent due to a different speech rhythm ('week-^end 'trip). The reader 
can usually confirm the instances of level-stress accentuation by putting the entry word into a 
phrase with predicate construction, as The ox is ^cloven-footed. 

Since it is impossible in the vocabulary to give such examples of variant accentuation at 
every entry where it would be appropriate, it is to be understood from the occasional examples 
given that it can occur in all similar cases. 

In all cases where accent marks are used with lightface roman type, only accentuation, 
and no other feature of pronunciation, is referred to. 


§55. As a rule the length of English vowels is not indicated in the vocabulary. In few 
cases in American English as a whole is time length, or duration, of vowels significant — that 
is, used to distinguish from each other words otherwise alike. Instances are found here and 
there, some speakers distinguishing Jtalve hae:v from have haev by a longer ae, or vary V8:n from 
very veri by a longer e. 

In the E and S, however, some speakers distinguish certain classes of words by vowel length; 
e.g., cart ka:t from cot kat by a longer a, and this is therefore a convenient way of marking 
words in which r has been dropped after a or a with a resultant lengthening of the vowel 
sound, as farm farm; ES farm, E + fa:m. The length sign is sometimes omitted in longer words 
of this kind when a or a is noticeably shorter, as in impartiality jimpar'/aebti; ES jimpa'/aebti. 

Since the other vowels before a silent r in ES are followed by a (ia, la, £3, aea, aa, oa, ua, ua), 
there the length mark is not needed; as fear fir; ES fia(r, and the length colon is therefore only 
used with a and a. On the use of aa in such words see Variants §96. 

When the length sign is used, it invariably indicates time length, or duration, not vowel 
quality, or tamber, and therefore has nothing to do with such distinctions as between so- 
called "short z" (i) and "long i" (ai), or between "short ii," (a) and "long «" (ju or lu), or 
between "short a" (ae) and "long a" (e), etc. 

In cases Hke Aachen 'akan, 'axan {Ger 'a:xan), in which the vowel a is marked long in the 

Order of Variant Pronunciations xxvii 

foreign pronunciation (where length is significant) but left unmarked in the English, this does 
not necessarily mean that the English vowel is shorter than the foreign one, but merely that 
its length is of no importance, and hence is not indicated. 


§56. In reading the pronunciations the consultant should give particular attention to single 
and double consonants. In ordinary spelling, doubled letters in English words commonly repre- 
sent only single sounds {happy 'haepi, manner 'maena', goodness 'gudnis) . Only in compounds 
{coaUail) or when suffixes are added {thinness) are the sounds really doubled ('kot^tel, 'einnis), 
and not always then {laterally 'laetarali). Strict heed must be paid to the rule — one symbol, 
one sound; two symbols, two sounds. See §3, 2d paragraph. 

In some foreign pronunciations added to compare with the English (esp. Italian) this must 
be watched; thus in English, Monticello has but one 1 sound (jmanta'sslo), but in Italian it has 
two (jmonti't/eMo) . In Italian when t/, ds, ts, dz are doubled, tj" becomes ttf {Puccini Eng pu- 
'tjini, but It put't/iini), d^ becomes dds {Maggiore Eng ma'dsori, but It mad'd3o:re), ts be- 
comes Its {Tetrazzini Eng jtetra'zini, but It ^tetrat'tsiini), dz becomes ddz {mezzo Eng 'niEdzo, 
but It 'meddzo). 


§57. For words that are in general colloquial use it is intended to give first what is believed 
to be the most usual colloquial pronunciation. But it must be emphasized that not too much 
importance should be given to the order. For it is our purpose to give (unless otherwise indi- 
cated) only pronunciations that are in general cultivated use — to give none that need be 
avoided as incorrect or substandard. In a very large number of instances the different pro- 
nunciations of a word are of approximately equal frequency and validity, and 3'et they can be 
printed only in successive order. In numerous cases it is impossible to maintain on any solid 
grounds that one pronunciation given is "better" than another, as, for example, that one pro- 
nunciation of swamp is better than the others given; that ker for care is either better or worse 
than kaer; that 'kagkwest is better or worse than 'kankwest, bg than lag or Ing, Ueva^ than 
'liv3', and so on. Often, too, the variants given represent only differences of colloquial style, 
depending on occasion, speed, degree of informality, etc., and having no bearing on the ques- 
tion of correctness. 

§58. Where statistics indicate relative frequency, this has been recorded; but fuUer collec- 
tions might change the order. Statistics at present available are often based on the assumption 
that all words of a given phonetic or historical class (as the "ask" words) will be pronounced 
consistently. But that is not always true. A proof of this is found in the records of the Lin- 
guistic Atlas of New England, which show that some words that might be expected to have the 
vowel sound a or a (where British prevailingly has a) are seldom heard with a or a (as answer), 
while others of the same group often or prevailingly have a or d"{a.s calf, half, aunt). 



§59. Each entry, or article, in the vocabulary begins with a head word in lightface roman 
type, followed without punctuation by the pronunciation in boldface.' The simplest form of 
entry is 

bequest bi'kwEst 
with no derivatives and no variant pronunciations. If the word with the same spelling and 
pronunciation is also found as a proper name (whether or not it is the same word), it is usually 
thus indicated : — 

clarion, C- 'klaerian 
which means that clarion and Clarion are pronounced alike. The proper name may be entered 

Cologne, c- ka'lon 
which means that Cologne and cologne are pronounced ahke. 

If the entry has a current variant spelling, that is entered in its alphabetical order, unless 
it would be very near, or has a bearing on the pronunciation, in which case it is given at the 
same entry. Words alternatively spelt -tre are, however, always found with those in -ter 

In the large group of words like travel{l)ed, the optional second / is disregarded. 


§60. If a word is not found in alphabetical order, it is to be looked for under some obvi- 
ously related head word. Thus many adverbs will be found with the corresponding adjectives; 

holy 'holi Iholily 'hobh, -lili 
This method permits the inclusion of far more words than would otherwise be possible. 

§61. If a word has variant pronunciations not dependent on locality, they are separated by 
commas : — 

every 'evri, 'evari 
defect di'ftkt, 'dif£kt 
§62. Commonly, to show such variants only the part that varies is repeated. In repre- 
senting such fragments of spelling or pronunciation the hyphen shows which part of the word 
is intended. Thus de- is the first part, -min- a middle part, and -a7it a final part. For ex- 

logwood 'bgjwud, 'lag-, 'log- 
By adding the omitted part (here shown in parentheses) to each fragment we get 'lag(jwud), 
'lDg((Wud) as the 2d and 3d variants. 

midday 'mid^de, -'de 
By adding the omitted part, with its accent, to the fragment, we get ('mid)'de for the 2d 

Lofthouse 'bftas, 'loft-, -^haus ' 

3 In the vocabulary all spelling forms (except catchwords) are printed in light roman type, all pronunciations in 
boldface, and explanatory matter in italic (except the regional labels E, S, N, etc.). In the solid print of the Intro- 
duction, italic has to be used for spelling forms (as in general usage); but there also, when spelling forms with 
their pronunciations are set off by themselves, these follow the typography of the vocabulary. 

Directions for Use xxix 

Adding the omitted part to each fragment, we get 'lDft(3s), ('bft)ihaus, ('lDft)^haus as the 

2d, 3d, and 4th variants. 

Naomi 'neajmai, ne'omai, -mi, -ma 

Adding the omitted parts in turn to the two fragments, we get ('ne3)mi, ('ne3)m3, (ne'o)mi, 
(ne'o)m3, six variants in all. 

Nazareth 'naezaraO, -riB, 'naezr- 
Adding the omitted parts, we get, besides the first full pronunciation, ('naez3)ne, 'naezr(36), 


§63. When more than one spelling appears at the same entry with the same pronunciation, 
these spellings are not necessarily of the same word or part of speech, especially in proper 
names. Likewise a single entry may represent two or more words spelt and sounded alike. Thus 
the word angle includes all the words — nouns, verbs, etc., with their different meanings but all 
with the same pronunciation. When derivative or inflectional endings are added, they are 
to be fitted only to the appropriate meanings or parts of speech, but this does not affect the 
pronunciation, and usually need not concern the reader. Thus under angle the form angled 
can be the adjective formed from the noun {unde-angled) or the past or past participle of the 
verb {it angled off), and the form angling can be the adjective {an angling path), the participle 
{h-e is angling with flies), or the noun {the angling was good). At the &ntiy instance the ending 
-es may be that of the plural of the noun or the 3 sg of the verb. At intelligence the entry may 
be noun or verb, the ending -es the plural or 3 sg, the ending -ed may be that of the past par- 
ticiple or of the "apparent participle," the adjective formed from the noun. The entry slew 
may be a noun, a verb in the present tense, or the past of the verb slay. 


§64. Only when it concerns the pronunciation are these labels added, or in a few cases where 
there might be doubt whether the various uses of the word had the same pronunciation. 


§65. Instead of labels for parts of speech, frequently definitions are appended. These are 
never full, and are used only to identify the word. Definitions are in quotation marks. Ex- 
planatory identification that does not define is without quotation marks. 


§66. Geographical labels are often appended to place names to indicate the location, or to 
personal names to indicate residence or nationality. The Hnguistic abbreviations Fr, Sp, Ger, 
etc., refer to the pronunciation; thus 

Lodi US 'lodai; Italy Uodi (7^ 'b:dl) 
means that the various Lodi's in the US are pronounced 'lodai; that Lodi in Italy is pro- 
nounced in American EngHsh 'lodi; and that the ItaKan pronunciation is 'bidi. 

When the linguistic labels It, Fr, etc., precede the first pronunciation, this means that 
only the foreign pronunciation is given; as, 

voyageur Fr vwaja'soerr 

XXX Directions for Use 


§67. The following examples show the uses of the vertical bar: — 
press pr£S [presses V^esiz [pressed prest 
Here the bar, in its simplest use, is followed in each case by a new spelling form in roman t}-pi 
with corresponding pronunciation in boldface. 

finish 'finij [-es -iz |-ed -t 
Here, after the first bar, follows a spelHng fragment (-es) with its corresponding pronunciatio 
fragment (-iz). The simple rule for combining is. Add the spelling fragment (-es) to the fir; 
spelling form (finish-es) and the pronunciation fragment (-iz) to the first pronunciation fon 
('fmi/-iz); and so after the next bar (finish-ed 'fini/-t). Add to the head forms before the fir; 
bar, and add roman to roman, boldface to boldface. 

It is important to add each fragment (speUing to spelling, and pronunciation to pronuncic 
tion) to the forms before the first bar. The sole exception to this is the adverb ending -hi 
-bli when the first entry does not end in -hie -bl. In that case -hly -bb are fitted to the in 
mediately preceding forms in -hie -bl. See -hly in the vocabulary'. 

Hyphenated words are never thus divided after a bar, but are separately entered as hea 
words, to avoid confusing the compounding hyphen with that which separates the fragments 

§68. When the first word in a vocabulary entry is a monosyllable, no accent mark is use 
(with the exception noted in §51), as set set. But when one or more syllables are added afte 
the bar (|) thus, set set \-back -;baek \-ting -ig, then primary accent must be assumed on th 
plurisyllables, and the entries must be read thus: set set \sethack 'set^baek \setting 'sEtig. 

§69. There is no significance in the fact that sometimes full forms of the derivatives ar 
given, as in the first example, and sometimes fragments, as in the second. The editors hav 
not sought mere mechanical uniformity, owing to considerations of time, of space, and c 
other disturbing factors. They have sought only to make each article clear in itself. The oc 
casional full forms may help to make the abbreviated ones clearer. 

§70. It should be noted that a pronunciation fragment need not correspond letter for lette 
with its spelling fragment : — 

inflate in'flet [-d -id 
Here, adding spelling -d to spelling inflate gives infl.ated, and adding pronunciation -id t 
pronunciation in'flet gives in'fletid. See next example also. 

Often, for greater clearness, more than a minimum fragment of pronunciation is given : — 
flatten 'flaetn |-ed -d |-ing 'flaetnig, -tnig 
This is to show iha.t flattening is pronounced either 'flaet-n-ig (3 syls.) or 'flaet-nig (2 syls.' 
Likewise the frequent adverb ending -ically is thus shown : — 

symmetric si'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 
Here the last two pronunciations are si'metrik-l-i, si'mstrik-li, the last being made a littl 
clearer by -ikli than by -h alone, though -Ii would be strictly correct. 

Some added letters may be silent, as in bar bar \-red -d, where -re- are silent; or letters silen 
in the first entry may represent sounds in the addition, as rogue rog \-ry -an, where the silen 
e of rogue represents a in roguery 'rogari. 

Directions for Use xxxi 

§71. Observe cases like 

abut a'bAt |-ted -id 

where addition of -ted doubles the letter / (abutted) but not the sound t (a'bAtid); or like 

total 'toti |-ed -d |-ly -i 
where addition of -ly doubles the letter / (totally) but not the sound I ('totji). 

Thus when the final letter of the spelling entry is the same as the first letter of the spelhng 
fragment (total [-ly), it is to be doubled (i.e., the fragment is added regularly). So, too, when 
the first pronunciation ends with the same sound that begins the pronunciation fragment, 
this sound also is to be doubled; as, 

foreign 'farm, 'far-, 'for-, -an |-ness -nis 
This is to be expanded into 'farinnis, 'farinnis, 'forinnis, 'farannis, 'farannis, 'foranms, in 
all cases with double n. Whenever space allows, such doubled sounds are shown by doubled 
symbols; as, 

thin 8in [thinned 6ind J-ness 'Oinnis 
The few exceptions to this rule for doubling are such as to give no trouble. The most usual 
one consists of words ending in -th; as, 

truth true [-'s -6s |-ths -?fz, -Os 
in which the expanded forms are obviously not truGOs and truGtJz or truGGs, but truGs and 
trutSz or truGs, since the combinations GGs and G?iz do not occur in English. 


§72. There are, however, a great many words in which the fragments cannot be added di- 
rectly to the head words: — 

suspicion sa'spijan |-cious -Jas 
Here, in order to make the proper junction of the spelling fragment, we must take in some 
letter near the end of the head word to begin the fragment. This we call "cutting back." Thus 
we cut off the spelling -don and replace it with -cious (suspi-cious) ; and likewise cut off from 
the head pronunciation the corresponding sounds -Jan, and replace them with -/as (sa'spi-Jas). 
Cutting back and direct addition are often used in the same word : — 

prude prud |-dish -if 
Since -isli cannot be added to pnide, we take in the d and add -dish (pru-dish) ; then, since to 
add the pronunciation -dij to prud would wrongly give 'pruddij, we simply add -ij" directly 
toprud('prudij). Similarly, in 

negative 'negativ [-d -d [-vism -jizam 
where -d and -d are added directly, -vism has to be cut back (negati-vism), and -jzam (not 
-jvizam) is directly added to 'negativ ('negativjzam). 

A "cutback" must always take in more than the final letter of the entry form, for other- 
wise it would be taken as a direct addition with doubling of the final letter or sound (see the 
exception above at truth, at the end of §71). 

§73. In adding sufl&xes certain famiHar changes are made, as of -y to -i; as, 
quarry 'kwari [-ied -d, i.e., quarried 'kwarid 
or of/ to v; as in 

housewife 'haus^waif |-ves -vz, i.e., housewives 'haus^waivz 
where -ves and -vz are not directly added, but replace -fe and f . 

xxxii Directions for Use 


§74. When the past tense and the past participle of strong ("irregular") verbs are given, 
the past regularly follows the first bar, and the past participle the second bar, usually without 
labels : — 

drive draiv |drove drov [driven 'drivan 
sing sig |sang saeg or sung saq [sung SAg 
When such verbs end in sibilants, the 3 sg pres precedes the past and pptc: — • 

choose t/uz |-s -iz | chose tjbz | chosen 'tjbzn 
If the past and pptc are alike, they are given but once: — 

shine /am | shone /on 
stand staend [stood stud 
fight fait [fought f3t 
§75. The bar, not followed by a spelling form, is sometimes used at the end of an article to 
separate an added item from the immediately preceding one, and to imply its application to 
the whole article : — 

road rod [-ed -id; [iV£«.gJ+rb"d 


§76. For indicating American regional pronunciations the well-known division into three 
regions is followed, the East (E), the South (S), and, for want of a better term, the North 
(N). Geographically the East includes New York City (NYC) and environs, and New England 
east of the Connecticut River. The South includes Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and parts of 
Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Oklahoma. The North includes the rest of the US. 

In the use of the terms E, S, N, certain modifications must be kept in mind. The speech of 
the S differs markedly in the more northerly parts from that in the more southerly ones, and 
(partly coinciding with this) in the more inland regions from that in the coastal ones. Certain 
features labeled S are therefore not equally applicable to all of the S. 

Owing to movements of population, and probably also to the schools, innumerable indi- 
viduals and often considerable groups in the S speak a tj^pe virtuall}^ identical with that of 
the N. The same is true in the E, especially NYC. In NEngd also, and in the southeastern 
coastal regions, are certain "speech islands" having a similar type, perhaps preserved, by 
isolation, from a time when it was more general. Allowance must also be made for mixed types 
of speech in all the border areas between the main regions. The irregular use of the r sound is 
especially noticeable in the border areas. 

It is not the function of this dictionary to deal with these more irregular and exceptional 
features, — to make a dialect map of the country. That work is being done by the L.A. Our 
concern is only with the main types of cultivated American English — sometliing of a fiction, 
if you will, as all "standard" speech is. 

It should be noted that the pronunciations assigned to particular regions are regarded onl}' as 
the ones prevailing there. It is unsafe to denj^ the existence of any pronunciation in any region. 
Thus, when it is indicated that in the S the word glory is pronounced 'glori, while in the E and 
N it is either 'glori or 'gbn, it is not meant that 'gbri does not exist in the S, but that ac- 

Directions for Use xxxiti 

cording to the evidence we have, 'gbn is not sufficiently frequent in the S to be recorded as a 
characteristic S pronunciation. The same may be said of the £ sound in such words as air, 
there, etc. Evidence does not show that the vowel £ in such words is widespread in the S. 
The same principle is to be applied to all regional pronunciations. 

§77. Linguistically the most generally observed characteristic of the three regions is the 
treatment of the /■ sound, the E and the S being in the main alike in this respect in contrast 
with the N. The S is separated from the E by a number of features, such as the character of the 
au and ai diphthongs, the prevalence of "flat a" (ae) in certain groups of words, the "long e" 
sound before r, the tendency to diphthongize many vowels, and many features of intonation 
and tempo — none of them equally distributed over the S — features that enable the ordinary 
observer to distinguish a Southerner from an Easterner, but not all of them conveniently or 
profitably recorded in a work with the scope and purpose of this. 


§78. In the vocabulary, the Eastern (E) and Southern (S) pronunciations are separated 
from the Northern (N) by semicolons. The pronunciations in entries that contain no regional 
labels (E, ES, S, N, EN, etc.) are valid for all the US, as delicious di'hjas. When an entry 
contains a regional label, the unlabeled pronunciations are valid everywhere in the US except 
in the regions designated; thus 

glory 'glori, 'gbn; S 'glori 
means that the first two pronunciations are both valid everywhere except in the S; there only 
'glori prevails; or, stated otherwise, 'glori and 'gbn are characteristic of the E and the N; only 
'glori is so of the S. 

perform pa^'fann; ES pa'faam 
This means that in the US except the E and the S the pronunciation is pa^'farm; in the E and 
the S it is pa 'f 33m. 

aircraft 'er^kraeft, 'aer-; E 'ea-, '^ea-, -jkraft, -jkraft; S 'aea^kraeft 
Combining regularly, for the N, besides 'Er^kraeft, we get 'aefjkrasft; for the E, 'sajkrieft, 
'ae3|kraeft, 'eajkraft, 'aeajkraft, 'eajkraft, 'aea^kraft; for the S, 'aeajkraeft. 

Very often two regions (usually E and S) have one or more variants in common. They are 
then usually separated only by commas : — 

scarce skers, skaers; E sk£3s, ES skaess 
This means that in the N scarce is pronounced skers or skaers ; in the E it is pronounced skeas, 
and in both E and S it is pronounced skaeas; or, stated otherwise, in the E it is pronounced 
sktas or skaeas, while in the S only skaeas prevails. See also board, ear, premonitory (§80). 


§79. Only the forms that agree in accent are to be combined: — 

Carew ka'ru, -'riu, 'keru, 'ke-, -riu, -ri 
For the first accentuation, besides ka'ru we have (ka)'riu; for the second accentuation, 
besides 'keru and 'ke(ru) we have ('k£)riu, ('ke)riu, ('kE)ri, ('ke)n. 

empyreal Em'pinal, jEmpa'rial, -pai- 
Here the first form cannot be combined with -pai- because this is not accented, as is the corre- 

xxxiv Directions for Use 

sponding -'pi-. Hence only the second form can combine with -pai-, thus: (i£in)pai('ri3l), 
the unaccented -pai- replacing the unaccented -pa-. 

bifurcate v 'barfa'jket, bai'fs^ket; ES 'barfa-, -'faket, -'fyket 
Here the Eastern and Southern fragment 'baifa- can combine only with the omitted part 
found in 'barfa^^ket, with the same accent, thus: 'baifaC/ket). The last two fragments must be 
combined with the omitted part of bai'fyket, having the same accent, thus: (bai)'f3ket, 
(bai)'fyket. (For regional pronunciations see §§76-78.) 

discourse n 'diskors, di'skors, -3rs; ES -oas, E + -aas 
Here the fragment -ars, which does not include the accent mark, will fit both of the first two 
forms without disturbing their accents, thus: ('disk)3rs, (di'sk)3rs; and likewise the Eastern 
and Southern fragments: ES ('disk)o9s, (di'sk)o3S, Eastern also ('disk)33s, (di'sk)D3s. 


§80. The sign (+) is invariably to be read "also." It means that in addition to pronuncia- 
tions already given, other designated pronunciations are to be heard from cultivated speakers. 
This sign does not imply that these additional pronunciations have inferior standing, or neces- 
sarily are less frequent, though we have not placed it before pronunciations known to be 
markedly in the majority. The following examples indicate the use of the plus sign: — 

hot hat ; ES + hot 
This means that the word spelt hot is, in all regions of the US, pronounced hat; but that there 
are also many cultivated speakers in the East and the South who usually pronounce it hot. 

fast faest; E+ fast, fast 
This means that the woxAfast in all parts of the US is pronounced faest; but that there are also 
many cultivated speakers in the East who usually pronounce it fast or fast. 

board bord, bard; ES hoad, E + baad 
This means that hoard is pronounced bord or bard in the North, but in the East and the South 
it is pronounced boad, and in the East, in addition to boad, it is also pronounced baad. 

ear ir; ES ia(r, S+ £a(r 
This means that ear is pronounced ir in the North, but in the East and the South it is pro- 
nounced ia(r, and in the South, in addition to ia(r, it is also pronounced £a(r. 
premonitory pri'mana^ton, -jtari; S -itori, ES + -'mnn- 
Where, as here, the pronunciation after + is a fragment, it is to be taken as a pronunciation 
additional to that of the corresponding parts of the preceding forms. In this example. Eastern 
has, besides the pronunciations pri'manajtori and -itari, which it shares with the North, also 
pri'monaitori and -jtari; while Southern has, besides pri'manaitori (but not -itari), also 

It is believed that any other uses of the sign +, if it is merely read "also," will be clear to 
the reader as they occur. It should be noted that a pronunciation with + prefixed is never 
the sole pronunciation of the word. 


§81. In fitting fragments to forms before the first bar, the regional fragments are to be 
fitted to the corresponding regional forms before the first bar; as, 

woodwork Vud,wyk; ES 'wud^wsk, -^wa^k; |-er -■at-; ES -a(r 

Directions for Use xxxv 

Expanding the fragments after the bar, we get 

woodworker Vud^wyka^; ES Vud^wskair, 'wudjW3'k9(r 

in which the unlabeled N fragment -9- is fitted to the first unlabeled (N) pronunciation, and 
the ES fragment -3(r is fitted to the first two ES pronunciations. 
For the meaning of (r see §82. 

LINKING r— THE MEANING OF -3(r, -a:(r, -3(r 

§82. When pronunciations are thus indicated, — fur £3(1, far fa:(r, bitter 'bit3(r, Iiere hi3(r, 
there tJe3(r, tJaeaCr, war W33(r, more mo3(r, poor pu3(r, — this means that (in the E and S) r is not 
sounded and these words are pronounced is, fa:, 'bita, hid, 'Sea, (Jaea, waa, moa, pua unless a 
vowel sound follows, either in the same word (by addition of an ending, as furry 'fsri, bitterest 
'bitanst) or in a word that follows without pause {the fur is wet tJa far iz wet, far away far a Ve, 
bitter end 'bitar end). The effect of pause on linking r is seen in the following utterance of a dis- 
tinguished American: over, and over, and over again 'ova, an 'ova, and 'ovar a 'gen. 

When -a(r follows a vowel in the same syllable, as in here hia(r, there SaeaCr, more moa(r, 
and a vowel sound is added, then r either replaces a {lierein hir'in, here it is hir it iz, therein 
tJaer'in, tJiere it goes Saer it goz, moreover mor'ova, more ice mor ais, poorest 'purist, poor and 
needy pur an 'nidi), or, less usually, the r is added to a (hiar'in, hiar it iz, moar'ova, 'puarist, 
etc.). This alternative is to be understood in all similar cases. 

In such words as adjure a'dsur, a'dsiur; ES -a(r, the -a(r is to be understood as replacing 
the final r of the N pronunciation. 

Some speakers, especially in the S, fail to pronounce linking r before an initial vowel of the 
following word (wore ice moa ais, wlien the war ends hwen Sa waa endz). Omission of r before 
a vowel within a word ('ve-i for 'veri) is regarded as substandard. 

§83. In vocabulary entries, when pronunciation fragments are added, the use of (r must be 
observed. The rule is simple : If the added fragment begins with a vowel sound, the r is sounded 
in the E and S; if it begins with a consonant sound, the r is not heard in the E and S: — 

labor 'leba^; ES 'leba(r; |-ed -d |-ing -brig, -barirj 
Here ES 'leba(r means 'lebar or 'leba according as a vowel sound immediately follows or not. 
When -ed -d is added, being a consonant sound (e silent), we are to understand ES 'lebad 
beside N 'leba^d ; but when -ing -ig is added, with its vowel sound, then the r is sounded and 
the ES and the N pronunciations are alike 'lebrirj or 'lebarig. 

§84. For the pronunciation of the N in words like labor 'leba^, when a vowel sound is added 
{laboring 'lebarig), then -ar replaces -a^, since there is no significant difference between 'leba^-ig 
and 'leba-rig. When, as often, laboring is contracted, then vowel a^ becomes consonant r 
('lebrig). Likewise in the entry /amer 'faeria^; ES 'faeri-a(r; \-y -i, the pronunciation of the 
derivative farriery becomes 'faerian, which is also right for the E and S, because a vowel fol- 
lows -a(r and therefore r is retained. 


§85. Though not recorded in the vocabulary, intrusive r is appropriately described here. 
Following the regular habits of his speech a cultivated Easterner or Southerner might normally 
pronounce straighter and straighter 'stretar an 'streta, sounding final r before the vowel and 
dropping it at the end. Following the same habits, he might pronounce strata on strata 'stretar 

xxxvi Directions for Use 

Dn 'streta, likewise sounding r before the vowel and not at the end. Both procedures are un- 
conscious and phonetically natural. 

When the final r is spelt (slraiglder) and pronounced before a vowel it is called Linking r; 
when it is not spelt but is pronounced before a vowel, it is called Intrusive r. The frequency 
of intrusive r among cultivated Easterners, Southerners, and British is no longer a matter of 
doubt except to the uninformed. It is perhaps less frequent in the S than in the E. Words 
ending in the sound -a ( Victoria, sofa, idea) are more apt to show it than are those ending in 
other vowels. Its use is perhaps less consistent than that of linking r. The same educated 
Southerner said tSis 'maeta iz 'difrant who said a 'greta San 'dsonar iz hia. 


§86. To save space and relieve the reader from the distraction of needless information, 
words having certain suffixes with regular pronunciation are often omitted from the vocabu- 
lary; as those with -doi7t (heathendom), -Jwod (motherhood), -ish (darkish), -ment (announcement). 
See §89. 

§87. The -(e)s plural of regular nouns, the third person singular present indicative of verbs, 
and the possessive case ending of nouns are regularly omitted from the vocabulary, except for 
words ending in a sibilant sound (s, z,/, 3, t/, ds), where they are regularly given. If the plural 
and the possessive sound alike, only one is given. If they differ, both are given (see house). 
The possessive plural of regular nouns, formed by adding the apostrophe (') but no sound, is 

Certain nouns ending in a s or z sound closely preceded by a s or z sound vary in current 
usage in forming the possessive. Unfortunately some printing shops follow their own rules in 
this, and do not always agree with others or with general usage. Current literary usage in this 
is set forth in Webster's New International Dictionary, Second Edition, at the word possessive, 
and the present work follows this, with a very few exceptions where usage is divided. 

The following rules, fully illustrated, will enable the reader to form the regular plural of 
nouns, the possessive case, and the third singular of verbs, in all cases where these are not 
recorded in the vocabulary. 

§88. Pronunciation of the Plural and Possessive Singular of Nouns 
and the Third Singular Present of Verbs 

Rule I. Add the sound s when the stem of the noun or verb ends in any of the voiceless conso- 
nant sounds p, t, k, f, 6. Examples follow: 

1. Plural of nouns. 

caps kaep-s, gates get-s, oaks ok-s, clijfs klif-s, growths gro6-s. Words like leaf lif — 
leaves livz, oath 06 — oaths oSz will be found in the vocabulary. 

2. Possessives in -'s follow the same rule. 

Philip's 'filap-s, Kate's ket-s, Isaac's 'aizak-s, Joseph's 'dsozaf-s, Edith's 'idi0-s. 

3. Third singular present indicatives follow tlie same rule. 
keeps kip-s, gets get-s, looks luk-s, chafes tfei-s, froths fraO-s. 

Rule II. Add the sound z when the stem of the noun or verb ends in any of the voiced conso- 
nant sounds b, d, g, v, tJ, m, n, 0, 1, or in any vowel sound (all vowel sounds are voiced) : 

Directions for Use xxxvii 

1 . Plural of nouns. 

robes rob-z, beds btd-z, rogues rog-z, stoves stov-z, lathes leS-z, rims rim-z, bones 
bon-z, things Oig-z, balls bal-z; (vowels) seas si-z, citi-es 'siti-z, days de-z, mas ma-z, 
laws b-z, hoes ho-z, values Vaelju-z, s fives Su-z, furs fy-z, fs-z, bars bar-z (§26), ba:-z, 
papers 'pepa'-z, sofas 'sofa-z, ties tai-z, cows kau-z, /oy-5 t3i-z, C2fe-5 kju-z, kiu-z. 

2. Possessives in -'s follow the same rule. 

Rob's rab-z, Adelaide's 'aedljed-z, Meg's meg-z, Olive's ^aliv-z, Blythe's blaitS-z, Tom's 
tam-z, John's dsan-z, Harding's 'hardig-z. Will's wil-z; (vowels) Lee's li-z, Betty's 
^b£ti-z, Ray's re-z, ma's ma-z, Esau's 'isD-z, Joe's d3o-z, Andrew's 'aendru-z. Burr's 
by-z, b3-z, Wilbur's 'wilba'-z, Sarah's 'sera-z, Nye's nai-z, Howe's hau-z, Roy's rai-z, 
Hugh's hju-z, biu-z. 

3. Third singular present indicatives follow the same rule. 

rubs rAb-z, hides haid-z, lags laeg-z, saves sev-z, breathes briS-z, comes kAm-z, runs 
rAn-z, sings siij-z, feels fil-z; (vowels) sees si-z, piti-es 'piti-z, stays ste-z, thaws 63-z, 
go-es go-z, woo-es wu-z, stirs sty-z, sts-z, scatters 'skaeta^-z, subpoenas sa'pina-z, tri-es 
trai-z, allows a'lau-z, employs im'pbi-Zj hews hju-z, hiu-z. 

(Rules I & II also apply to the pronunciation of -'s, the unstressed form of is, has.) 
Rule III. Plurals, possessives in -'s, and third singulars of words ending in the remaining sounds, 
— the sibilants s, /, t/, z, 3, ds, — are regularly given in the vocabulary. These add the 
syllable -iz or -az (for variation in the vowel, see -ed in the vocabulary) : faces 'fes-iz, 
Nash's ^naef-iz, catch-es 'kaet/-iz, noses 'noz-iz, rouges 'rus-iz, George's 'dsards-iz. 


§89. Following is a list of word elements, chiefly initial or final, many of which have variant 
pronunciations. These elements are treated in the vocabulary in alphabetical order. 

Where they are not found attached to head words in the vocabulary (as pridefiil, cf pride), 
the reader can add them with their pronunciations. If they are found in the vocabulary with 
their head words, variant pronunciations not listed at the full word can be found by con- 
sulting the separate element in the vocabulary, as, e.g., at goodness (see -ness) or at mate 
(see -ed). 

-able -edly -hood 

-age -edness i-, -i- 

-ally see -ically em- see en- -ia 

-ana en- -ial see -ia 

-ate -er -ian see -ia 

-ative -es -ible see -able 

be- -ese -ically 

-bly -ess -ie see -y 

-d see -ed -est ' -iel see -ia 

de- -et -ien see -ia 

-dom ex- il- see in- 

e- -ey see -y im- see in- 

-ed -ful ' in- 






-io, -ion, -ious see -ia 






-ism . 






-ius see -ia 













-s see - 







§90. Certain classes of variant pronunciations found in cultivated American speech are de- 
scribed here in order to avoid excessive complication of the vocabulary entries. These variants 
are only those in wide use by cultivated speakers, and do not include those confined to local 
dialect or substandard speech. 


§91. Medial unaccented short i i not followed b}^ a vowel may become -a- in nearly all words 
{editor 'edita', 'tdota^). When final i becomes medial by the addition of a suffix, this change 
from I to 3 must often be assumed, as in fragmentary 'fraegm3njteri \-ly -li = 'fraegman^terili 
or -jtErali. See also i-, -i- in the vocabulan,'. 


§92. When the vowel sound i (variously spelt) is immediately followed by another vowel 
sound {radiate, oceanic, Ephraim, periodic, radio, medium, immediate), the i sound tends toward 
i, and thus might properly be shown as in VedijCt, jo/i'aenik, 'if riam, jpiri'adik, 'redijO, 'midiam, 
I'midiit. But this w'ould greatly complicate the vocabulary, especially when derivatives vary 
from the head word, as in study 'stAdi \-ing 'stAdiig, and even so would not fully show the 
extent of the variation of the i. This variation is therefore not shown in the vocabulary. In 
reading a transcription like I'midiit the variation w'ill be made automatically. 


§93. In most of America o appears to be rather unstable. In most positions except before r 
final or r plus a consonant {icar, horse), o varies with many speakers to o or a. A similar varia- 
tion is reported from Canada. In words in which the sound occurs before 1 plus a consonant 
{walnut, Waldo, salt), which in Brit have either o or d, the variants a and d are verj- common 
in America. 

In New England o is an extremely common substitute for a, man}^ speakers having onh" 
one phoneme (usually of d quality) in such words as cot and caught or collar and caller. In spite 
of these widespread variants, our collections appear to justify the somewhat regular recording 
of the standard historical 3 souna in the appropriate words. 

Variants xxxix 


§94. In words like carry 'kaeri, marry 'maen, charity 'tjaerati, comparison kam'paerasn, 
having historical "short a" (as) before r plus a vowel, a widespread pronunciation with e 
('ken, 'men, 'tjErati, kam'perasn) is heard in the North and Canada, especially from the 
younger generations. Many of these speakers pronounce marry, merry, and Mary all alike 
— 'men. This variant appears to be rare in the South, and for New England the L.A. shows 
only a very small percentage with £. 


§95. In words like dreary, weary, formerly having the vowel sound i before the r, while the 
general tendency is to lower the i to i, some speakers use the higher i, and many use an inter- 
mediate vowel somewhat nearer to i than is the i of bit. When the r is final or followed by a 
consonant (year, beard), the i sound is less apt to occur. 


§96. In words like form farm; ES faam, both pronunciations faam and f3:m are used in the 
East and the South. In the vocabulary only 33 is given. This is done, however, with the im- 
plication that in such words the vowel varies between 33 and o:, so that for speakers who do 
not usually pronounce 33 in such words the symbol 33 must be taken also to suggest 3:. 
In longer words 33 is more likely to be reduced to 3, especially if unaccented. This reduction 
is shown in such a word as formality far'maelati; ES f3'mael3ti. No sharp line can be drawn. 
The same speaker may say f33m in one breath and f3:m or fsm in the next, according to style 
of speech. 


§97. In words like farm fann; ES fa:m, or far far; ES fa:(r, an 3 ghde is less commonly heard 
after the a (fasm, fa3(r) than after 3 in words like form (ham). With some speakers in the East 
and South, however, this is consciously present, so that there is a definite distinction between 
father 'fa'S3(r and farther 'fa3'83(r, even when the words are of equal length. As with 33(r, the 
pronunciation a3(r is commoner in the shorter words than in longer ones. Thus a speaker may 
say lasds for large, but 'la:d33(r for larger. This glide 3 after a being much less frequent than 
after o, it is not shown in the vocabulary. 


§98. Besides the two types bord and b3rd, regularly shown in the vocabulary, a pronuncia- 
tion of board is heard from some speakers, especially in the North, with a vowel sound about 
midway between o and 3 (phonetic symbol Q, a lowered o or a raised 3). Such speakers also 
pronounce the same vowel Q in words like horse, forvi (pronounced by others h3rs, f3rni), so 
that in their speech hoarse is Uke horse, boarder is like border, etc. Thus these speakers pro- 
nounce all such words uniformly with q, while other speakers that do not distinguish hoarse 
from horse, etc., pronounce them uniformly with 3.^ 

* See Kenyon, American Pronunciation, 8th ed. §§366-372. 

xl Variants 


§99. In words like bird, further the first pronunciation for Eastern and Southern is bsd, 
'f3'3a(r. In both the E and the S, however, a very large number of speakers pronounce y in- 
stead of 3, saying byd, 'fySaCr (not 'fsSa nor 'fySa-), with r-coloring in the accented vowel. It 
is to be noted that this pronunciation is heard from those who otherwise "drop their r's," 
and it is confined to the stressed vowel. In this type of pronunciation the 9 in JurtJier remains 
3 as with those who say 'f s'Sa. Thus such speakers would pronounce The furtlier part is better 
tia 'fySa pa:t iz 'beta. 

This fact has long been known for Southern speech, but it has also recently been demon- 
strated for New England by the workers on the L.A., and the same combination of 3^ with 
otherwise "r-less" pronunciation is heard in New York City. These facts have been fully veri- 
fied by the present editors. Hence, in the vocabulary such words as fiirtliennore are regularly 
represented for ES as 'f33^Jmo^^r, 'fySajinoaCr. 


§100. With many speakers in various parts of the South, and in New York City, a former 
r sound after 3, except when final (fur) or followed only by an inflectional ending (furs), is 
changed into something like i, so that a word like bird is pronounced b3id.^ 

Whether the NYC 3i in bird (popularly but wrongly represented as boid) is historicall}'' 
connected with the Southern sound is unknown. But the NYC sound, commonly regarded 
as local dialect, is used by many educated speakers there, who recognize the sound in their 
own speech; and in the South it is also used by people of unquestioned cultivation. 


§101. In the East, especially New England, the sound a when spelt with a (father, bar, calm) 
varies with many speakers toward the sound a. A similar sound, but less prevalent, has been 
reported from near WilHamsburg, Va. Since this variant is highly characteristic of New 
England, it is usually recorded, either in the vocabulary or in a page heading over the ap- 
propriate words. But it is not invariably recorded with less common words, and is then to be 
assumed as a possible variant. 


§102. In the class of words spelt with a that is followed by a voiceless fricative s, f, or 6 
(ask, chaff, bath) or by a nasal plus a consonant (example, demand), in which British usu- 
ally has a. Eastern pronunciation (less commonly Eastern Virginian, see next section) varies 
between ae, a, and a. The findings of the L.A. and the present editors' collections clearly in- 
dicate that, with a few exceptions (cf lialf, calf, laugh, aunt), the sound ae in these words in 
New England and New York City is at least as frequent as a, and usually more frequent than 
a. In the vocabulary this variation is regularly shown by use of the plus sign, meaning "also," 
as at the word/a^/ faest; E + fast, fast. For other uses of the plus sign see §80. 

5 See Kemp Malone, Studies for William A. Read, University, La., 19-10, p. 137. The same fact has also been ob- 
served by others. 

Variants xli 


§103. The words referred to in the preceding section (ask, last, craft, path, chance, etc.), 
in the vicinity of Richmond and Williamsburg, Va., are often pronounced with a, less fre- 
quently with a. This pronunciation appears to be somewhat less common now than formerly. 
The historical and cultural im.portance of this region precludes regarding this merely as a 
locahsm. Yet to list this pronunciation of those words as a regular variant for Southern pro- 
nunciation as a whole would give a disproportionate impression, as weU as complicate the 
vocabulary entries. It is therefore to be understood at those entries of such words containing 
the item "E + -a-, -a-" that in eastern Virginia such words are also sometimes pronounced 
with a, less often with a. 


§104. In parts of the South the a sound as in father 'fatJaCr is retracted or raised in the di- 
rection of 3 (all) without wholly reaching o, but resembling the intermediate d (§12). The 
same variant is becoming common in New York City. As a result, we sometimes find the roles 
of a and o apparently reversed, a being pronounced d and o being pronounced a. Thus a native 
of NYC pronounced margm 'mD:d3in and Arthur 'd:63, while in the same breath he pronounced 
Conning Tower 'kanig^taua. 


§105. For the vowel sound in out, ground, one symbol au is used in the vocabulary. This is 
an inclusive symbol, here serving for all varieties of this diphthong in cultivated American 
speech. Outside of the South the principal varieties are au and au. In au the first element often 
varies slightly toward 3. au and au are so nearly alike that most hearers do not notice the 
difference. These two show no important geographical distribution, and often vary from 
speaker to speaker. A common variant, very general, is a for au before r {our aur, ar). 

§106. In the South are several varieties. These never distinguish words otherwise alike, 
but there are geographical and sometimes social distinctions. The most striking of these are 
found in Virginia and bordering North CaroHna. In Virginia, mainly east of the Blue Ridge, 
a diphthong approximately su (often written au but with stressed first element) is used before 
voiceless consonants {out sut, house hsus), whUe aeu is used before voiced sounds and finally 
{ground graeund, houses 'haeuziz, cow kaeu). 3U varies somewhat, especially to au or ou. 
aeu varies to au or au. Besides, the influence of analogy often breaks down the distinction 
before voiceless and voiced sounds, giving, e.g., house hsus — houses 'hauziz, or haeus — 'haeuziz. 

In the western and southwestern parts of Virginia the tendency is to use aeu in all positions, 
with variation to au or au.® 

Perhaps owing in part to the influence of eastern Virginia, similar varieties are occasionally 
found in other parts of the South, but appear not to prevail there. The commonest varieties 
for the South as a whole are aeu and au, with intermediate shades. The form aeu often be- 
comes aea {down daeun, daean). 

» E. F. Shewraake, "Laws of Pronunciation in Eastern Virginia," Mod. Lang. Notes, xi, 8 (Dec. 1925), pp. 
489-492. See also American Speech, xvni, 1 (Feb. 1943), pp. 33-38. 

Guy S. Lowmaa, "The Treatment of au in Virginia," Proc. oj the Second International Congress of Phonetic Sci- 
ences, Cambridge, 1936, pp, 122-12S. 

Argus Tresldder, "Notes on Virginia Speech," American Speech, xvi, 2 (April 1941), pp, Ua^lie, 

Unpublished laaterialin the i.^. was also consulted. 

xiii Variants 

In parts of Canada (Ontario, Nova Scotia, and probably elsewhere) a distinction is found 
similar to that of eastern Virginia, the singular of house being haus or hous and the plural 
^hauziz or 'hauziz. 


§107. As with au, so only one symbol ai is used in the vocabulary for the "long i" soimd 
{white hwait, rise raiz). Outside of the South the principal varieties are ai (with a often varying 
sHghtly toward 3) and ai. The comments on the relation of au to au apply to that of ai to ai. 

§108. In the South the varieties partly behave like those of au. In Virginia east of the Blue 
Ridge many speakers use a sound approximately ai (varying toward 31) before voiceless con- 
sonants {white hwAit, wife wAif) but ai before voiced consonants and finally {rise raiz, wives 
waivz, high hai). In some other parts of the South (as in the Carohnas) a similar distinction 
is found. 

Another distinction, found, e.g., in Virginia and the Carolinas and probably elsewhere, 
is the use of ai or ai before voiceless consonants {wife waif, WAif), but simple a or a: before 
voiced and finally {wives wavz, wa:vz, why hwa, hwa:, mighty tired 'mAiti ta:d). The simple a, 
less frequently a, for ai is fairly common in many parts of the South (Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Texas, etc.). As with au, analogy (as wife — wives) tends to break down the 
distinction WAif — waivz or waif — wavz, yielding such pairs as waif — waivz or waf — wavzJ 
For the South as a whole ai may safely be taken as the prevailing sound. 

As with au, so with ai a distinction similar to that in Virginia between wife WAif and wives 
waivz is also found in Ontario and eastern Canada, probably reflecting a situation foimd 
in several Scottish dialects. 


§109. In words containing "long i^" there is variation between the sounds ju, lu, and u too 
complicated to be fully described here.* Some misunderstanding has existed as to the prev- 
alence of the diphthong lu in cultivated American English. Apparently many suppose that 
words like duty, 7iew have but two pronunciations — either djuti or duti, nju or nu; or that 
words like accuse have but one — a'kjiiz. Grandgent, however, long ago demonstrated the 
frequency of lu in America' in collections that showed lu in 35 to 60 per cent of the speakers 
tested, according to the class of words used. Other American observers have confirmed his 
findings. Grandgent also accurately described the diphthong as i with tongue drawn back 
somewhat (symbol i) followed by u with tongue pushed forward (symbol a), and either having 
more stress on i than on a or having about equal stress on both elements, and with the a 
usually longer than the i. 

The same speaker often varies between lu and ju, for lu easily shades into ju as the i re- 
ceives less stress and thus becomes more like consonantal j. It was thus that modern ju de- 
veloped from Early Modern lu in all words that now have ju, and many .Ajnericans have re- 
tained the older lu (except initially) along with other features of Early Modern English. 

^ See Shewmake and Tresidder, as cited above, footnote 6. 

8 See Kenyon, American Pronunciation, 8th ed., §§341-350. 

9 Mod. Lana. Notes, vi, 8 (1891), pp. 466-467, 

Variants xliii 

In one variant of this diphthong the first element has the tongue drawn back as far as to the 
position for an advanced u (h), so that the diphthong merges into a monophthongal a. Both 
lu and this u are used by many Americans to distinguish words from similar words that have 
u; as brewed bnud, br«d, distinct from brood brud, or lute hut, l«t, distinct from loot lut. 

Present knowledge of the distribution and prevalence of ju, lu, and u in the words con- 
cerned does not always permit of an accurate order of frequency in the vocabulary. Such 
order as has been verified is there shown. For example, it appears certain that words like 
assume are prevailingly pronounced with u. But in the main all that is attempted is to give 
the three (or two) current sounds (duty 'djuti, 'diuti, 'duti; blue blu, bliu; accuse a'kjuz, a'kiuz) 
without insistence on order of frequency, all the pronunciations being in cultivated Ameri- 
can use. 

In the vocabulary the symbol lu is always to be taken to mean m. See §§40, 41. 




§110. In familiar speech unaccented ti as in calctdate is most commonly -ja- ('kaelkjajet) 
unless another vowel follows {evacuate iVaekjujet). It often varies between -ja- and -ju- ac- 
cording to style of speech. 

In colloquial pronunciation of words like congratulate, educate, unaccented -tu- and -du- 
most commonly are -t/a- (kan'graetjajet, -'graet/u-) and -dsa- ('edsajket, 'edsu-), unless a 
vowel follows {eventuate I'vEntJu^et, graduate 'graedsu^et). In dissyllables the unaccented 
ending -ture is usually -tj*, ES -tj3(r, in common words {nature 'netja'; ES 'netJaCr), and -dure 
is usually -A'^^, ES -d33(r {verdure 'vydsa^, -d5ur; ES -dsaCr, -d3U3(r). See Webster^ s New 
International Dictionary, Second Edition, Guide to Pronunciation, §249, seventh paragraph. 
In words of three or more syllables not accented on the penult the unaccented ending -ture is 
commonly -tJV or -t/ur according to style or to familiarity of the word {miniature 'minitja^, 
'nuniatja^, 'miniajt/ur). If -ture has a light accent then it is -jt/ur {literature 'litara^t/ur). 
Initial unaccented "long w" is ju- or ju- according to style {unite ju'nait, ju'nait). 


§111. In parts of the South the sound of e before m, n, or g {stem, men, length) is replaced by, 
or tends in the direction of, i (stim, mm, bokO). This pronunciation is not equally distributed 
over the South and apparently is not equally acceptable in all types of Southern speech. Its 
omission from the vocabulary is not intended to imply disapproval of it. 


§112. When the letter n ends the syllable before a k or a g sound, it usually represents the 
sound g if the next syllable is final and wholly unaccented, as in congress 'kaggras. Concord 
'kagka^d (compare the pronunciation 'kankard, where the final syllable has an unmarked 
subordinate accent). In other situations there is much wavering between n and g that has no 
bearing on acceptability and is therefore often not shown in the vocabulary. 

For the substitution of n for g in -ing words, see -ing in the vocabulary. 

xliv Variants 


§113. In words spelt with wh (whale hwel, when hw£n, wheel hwil, etc.) many speakers omit 
the h element and pronounce plain w, thus making homophones of whale, wail wel; when, wen 
wen; wheel, weal wil; etc. This is clearly not the prevaihng pronunciation for America as a 
whole, but it appears to be somewhat on the increase, perhaps owing to the influence of South- 
ern British speech. In the vocabulary only hw is given for such words. See also wh- in the 

SYLLABIC 1, n, m, VARYING WITH al, an, am 

§114. In a great many words there is frequent variation between a syllabic consonant and 
3 plus a nonsyllabic consonant. In the vocabulary, as a rule, only the one deemed to be col- 
loquially most usual is given. Examples of such variation are: apple 'aepl, 'aepal; happen 
'haepan, 'haepn, 'haepm (when -pm results from assimilation of -pn, -pam never occurs) ; trouble 
'trAbl, 'trAbal; buckle 'bAkl, 'bAkal; struggle 'strAgl, 'strAgal; castle \sesl,^kses3\; drizzle Mnzl, 
'drizal; prism 'prizam, 'prizm (see -ism in the vocabulary) ; wa.?ow 'mesn, 'mesan; prison 'pnzn, 
'prizan ; bacon 'bekan, 'bekn, 'bekg (see §24, 3d par.) ; wagon 'waegan, 'waegn, 'waegg ; monopoly 
ma'nap!i,ma'napab;o6e/w^ 'abl^isk, 'aba^hsk (for the accent see §52); assassinate a'sjesn^etf 

But in many words, while it is phonetically possible to pronounce either form, one of the 
forms is decidedly prevalent and the other either rare or un-Enghsh. Thus cotton 'katn, hidden 
'bidn, little 'litl, cradle 'kredl, and such words as didn't 'didnt, oughtn't btnt, couldn't 'kudnt, 
wouldn't 'wudnt in standard speech are not pronounced 'katan, 'hidan, 'lital, 'kredal, 'didant, 
btant, 'kudant, 'wudant. An alternative pronunciation with -al, -an, -am is much less usual 
when the syllabic consonant is final and follows a consonant made with the same position of 
the tongue point or of the lips (-tn, -dn, -tl, -dj, -nl). Syllabic m is less frequent and is heard 
chiefly after the homorganic p (open 'opm, keep 'evi 'kipm) or b (album 'aelbm, rob 'em 'rabm). 

m is not syllabic after t (bottom 'batam) or d (Adam 'aedam), though the a may be verj- quick. 
Nasals are not syllabic after nasals (common 'kaman, venom Venam, cannon 'kaenan, minimum 
'minamam) or after 1 (stolen 'stolan or stoln with nonsyllabic n, column 'kalam). n is not usually 
syllabic after nd (London 'Undan), but is often so after nt (mountahi 'mauntn). Consonants 
are not syllabic after vowels. 

In medial position alternation is frequent even after homorganic consonants (fatally 'fetli, 
'fetali; Adelaide 'aedljcd, 'aedaled; scrutiny 'skrutni, 'skrutani; ordinal 'ardnal, brdanal). 

In some cases the difference distinguishes words otherwise aUke. Thus in Eastern and 
Southern, 'saetn means "satin," while 'saetan means "Saturn"; 'bitn means "bitten," while 
'bitan means "bittern"; 'paetn means "paten" or "patten," while 'p^etan means "pattern"; 
'faamli means "formally," while 'faamali means "formerly." 


§115. Certain consonant sounds are inserted or omitted very generally in American EngUsh 
which are not regularly shown as variants in the vocabulary. Thus a t sound is often inserted 
between n and the s sound (sense sens, sents, like cents sents), between n and J (mansion 
Waenjan, 'maent-Jan, intention in'tenjan, in 'tent -/an, cf luncheon 'Untjan), between n and d 

Spelling Pronunciation ' xlv 

{ninth nainO, naintO, tenth tend, tentG), between 1 and 6 {health helG, heltO), between 1 and s 
{false fals, folts, Vikt faults), between I and/ {Welsh weIJ, welt/, cf Welch); and a p sound be- 
tween m and f {comfort 'kAmfa^t, 'kAmpfa^t, camphor 'kaemfa', 'kaempfa^, cf campfire). 

Omissions : d is often omitted between n and z {lends lendz, lenz, like lens) or between 1 and z 
{fields flldz, filz, hke feels). The first element of tj is often omitted after n {bench bent J, benj, 
luncheon 'lAntJan, 'Un/an) or after 1 {filch filtj, filj, cf Walsh, Welsh), and the first element of ds 
is often omitted after n {revenge riVends, nVens), less frequently after 1 {bulge bAlds, bAls). 


§116. When the ending s is added to words in -st {nests, beasts, rests) the t sound is very 
often omitted, and the two s sounds combine into one long s (symbol s:). Thus nests, beasts, 
rests are often pronounced nes:, bis:, res:. 


§117. For personal and place names the variant pronunciations given in the vocabulary 
often refer to different persons or places. Whenever the information was available, the vari- 
ants have been referred to particular persons or places, but to do so in all cases is beyond the 
scope of this work. 


§118. In its most noticeable feature — the treatment of the r sound — most Canadian speech 
resembles the speech of the North in the US. The Midwesterner who visits Ontario or southern 
Quebec feels at home in the matter of speech. Direct British influence is, however, noticeable 
in details of both pronunciation and vocabulary. The pronunciations 'aitSa^ and 'nai'Sa' are 
\ rather more frequent than in the East in the US. For rather and can't 'ratJa^ and kant are often 
heard. For dictionary (and similar words) 'dikjanri is heard beside 'dikjaiijeri. For laboratory 
la'baratri is heard beside 'laebrajtori. For terrible 'teribl is heard beside 'terabl. sa'dsest for 
suggest, and 'friedsail for fragile, are frequent. Scottish influence is apparent in Canada, es- 
pecially in the use of the intermediate a for ae in "flat a" words {hat, man, etc.), in Nova Scotia 
and Alberta, and probably elsewhere. For the au diphthong, ou (§106) and u are heard, prob- 
ably also reflecting Scottish influence. 


§119. Pronunciations resulting from the effect of an initial sound of a following word {did 
you 'didsu, goes shopping gos Ifapirj, sand pile 'saen^pail), or of a final sound of a preceding 
word {bag and baggage 'baegtj'baegids, good enough jgudn'Af), are only occasionally recorded in 
the vocabulary. 


§120. The term SpeUing Pronunciation is used to designate a pronunciation which replaces 
that handed on by word of mouth in the spoken language and conforms in some respect more 
closely to the spelKng, which is in some degree unphonetic — fails to correspond with the estab- 
Ushed pronunciation. Such pronunciations originate, as the Oxford Dictioftary puts it, by taking 
a "shot" at the word from the spelling. Every such pronunciation is at first an error (departs 

xlvi Dissimilation — Anglicizing 

from established usage); but innumerable pronunciations of this origin have come to be so 
general that they are now in unquestioned good standing. For examples see Bentham, Wal- 
tham, Horsham; and for fuller treatment see Kenyon, Ajnerican Fronunciatiott, 8th ed., 


§121. A phonetic tendency known as Dissimilation is seen in English words in which an r 
sound in one syllable is lost if there is another r sound in the word. Thus in those regions where 
r is usually sounded in all positions the commonest colloquial pronunciation of surprise is 
sa'praiz. Here the presence of the second r has led to the loss of the first (that is, in this case, 
the change of a' to a by loss of its r-coloring) . This tendency was pointed out for American 
English by Hempl {Dialect Notes, I, vi, 1893). Sometimes instead of being lost the r is changed 
to 1, as it was in Salisbury (formerly Sarisherie, cf Saritm), or in Salop Shropshire,' from SIop- 
pesberie, earher Shrobbesberie 'Shrewsbury.' 

Another example of r loss is 'gAvana*, the prevaiHng pronunciation of governor in the North. 
That this is due to the other ;- sound and not to slovenly pronunciation is sho\Mi by the fact 
that the same speakers who say 'gAvana^ do not omit the r sound in governess, goverti, governing, 
governance, government, which have no second r. 

i?-dissimilation does not often occur in regions where r is pronounced only before a vowel, 
though it might occur there in such a word as preparatory if pronounced pa'pferajtori, and it 
may have operated in some words before a second r was dropped by the regular loss of r in the 
'r-less' regions. The loss of the first r in ES governor 'gAvanaCr is not due to r-dissimilation, for 
similar loss is regular in ES governess 'gAvanis, govern 'gAvan, which have no other r; and sur- 
prise in ES is sa'praiz for the same reason that survive in ES is sa'vaiv. 
. Other examples of dissimilation are: Bourchier (cf Bouclwr), Canterbury, cafercornered, 
caterpillar, elderberry, February, Marylebone, northerner, southerner, Northrup, Otterburn, 
paraphernalia, particular (the schoolmastered pronunciation par'tikjala^ is perhaps a reaction 
against this), Fendergast, reservoir, reverbatory, St. Bernard, thermometer, Watcrbury. 

The pronunciations sa'praiz and 'gAvana' are "correct" forms, not because they are phoneti- 
cally normal, but solely because they are in wide use b}' cultivated speakers. The same dis- 
similation is also seen in some pronunciations not so prevalent as to be generally acceptable; 
as Arthur, corner, interpret, perform, performance, proportion, secretary, Shrc-wsbury, Sicarth- 


§122. A pronouncing dictionary of English must deal with the pronunciation of foreign 
words that have become more or less a part of the English language. With wlioU}' foreign 
words it has, strictl)^ speaking, nothing to do. However, a few foreign words or phrases and 
some foreign names have been entered which are somewhat in use in America but which have 
as yet no settled English pronunciation. These are given with their foreign pronunciation 
only, and are so labeled. 

For the much larger body of foreign words that have become more or less Anglicized in use, 
meaning, and pronunciation, the editors follow the same guide as for fully English words — 

Anglicizing xlvii 

they try to ascertain and report cultivated usage. But it is just this area of the language in 
which usage is most unsettled and uncertain, and where dictionary editors must bring to bear 
certain linguistic principles to supplement the uncertain evidence of usage. Some of these 
principles and considerations are : — ■ 

(1) The EngUsh language has shown great vigor and stabiUty in assimilation of foreign 
material — in making it native. Until comparatively recent times foreign words fully adopted 
into EngUsh use have been adjusted to EngUsh laws of sound and accent. In Great Britain 
especially this is still usual. By radio one often hears foreign words pronounced in the English 
way by the best-educated leaders of that country; as, for example, the pronunciation 'n£ezi for 
Nazi. Whether or not this ever becomes a settled pronunciation, it shows the tendency; and 
many similar cases could be cited, which are in keeping with English tradition, and are by no 
means blunders." 

(2) The question often arises, Why not pronounce foreign words, especially names, with 
their foreign sounds? The answer, too Uttle understood, is simple: except for the fractional 
percentage who speak the foreign language like a native, it is impossible, as the history of 
sound changes in past borrowings clearly shows. Very few English sounds are exactly like the 
foreign ones or those spelt with corresponding letters. This is deceptive to those not expert 
in foreign language. Examples abound. Many apparently suppose, for example, that they are 
pronouncing Monticello as Italian when they call it jmanti'tjelo. In fact, they are giving ap- 
proximately the Italian sound to three out of the ten sounds (m, tj, e), and omitting one. An 
attempt, sometimes heard, to pronounce envelope in the French way by saying 'anvajop re- 
sults in giving approximately the French sound to the v and the p. The 1 and all the vowels 
are quite different, and the n is not in the French word. The pronunciation of the fully Ameri- 
canized name Valparaiso as jvalpa'raizo is not a very successful attempt at the Spanish 
jbalpara'iso. The American ga'ras has two consonants of the French gaVa:5 (g, 3, the r's 
being different) and one of its vowels — in the wrong syllable. The underlying fact is, that the 
speaker not fully conversant with a foreign language in attempting to imitate the foreign 
pronunciation substitutes his own nearest sounds for the foreign sounds, with a result unac- 
ceptable to the native speaker of the foreign language. 

Often, too, the attempt to use foreign pronunciations misses the mark. Thus the word valet 
is not from Modern French but from Old French, and has been English (with a t sound) for 
some 400 years. Neither of the hybrid pronunciations vae'le or Vaele comes very near to the 
French vaUe. The case of Calais is similar. For several centuries an EngUsh name (for 200 
years an EngUsh town), it was, and is, pronounced 'kaelis in the EngUsh way (like palace 
'paelis from OF palais), as in Shakespeare (spelt Callis, Callice) and later EngUsh poets (riming 
with malice, Alice). The present frequently heard kae'le, %aeli are as far from Modern French 
ka'lE or ka'le as vte'le or Vaeli is from French va'le. 

The attempt to show knowledge of a foreign language by similar rough or even ludicrous 
attempts at the foreign pronunciation often shows ignorance instead. Such inaccurate hybrid 
pronunciations are, however, often taken up by many otherwise well-informed speakers, and 
so get established in good use, in the same way that hundreds of other linguistic errors and 
blunders have attained to good standing (witness Dr. Johnson's recommendation of ache for 

10 See Brander Matthews's defense of this tradition in Society Jor Pure English Tract No. V. 

xlviii Miscellaneous Suggestions 

ake); and a dictionary based on usage must recognize them. Consequently many hybrid pro- 
nunciations of foreign derivatives are here given, for, however inaccurate, usage has estab- 
lished them. 

(3) Wherever there is room for doubt as to actual usage, however, our policy has been to 
lean toward the long-established English tradition of full Anglicizing. Certain foreign sounds 
will, if the words become general, inevitably shift to native English sounds — as French a is 
sure to become either English ae or a. In most cases the actual foreign pronunciation is added 
in parentheses, so that the user of the dictionary can adopt the foreign pronunciation if he 
chooses. And for those who prefer to follow the English tradition the appended foreign pro- 
nunciation may serve to show the inaccuracy of some of the attempted imitations. 


§123. Latin words not usually being American colloquial EngUsh, as a rule only the orthodox 
English Latin pronunciation is given. The so-called Roman pronunciation is very inconsistent 
in actual practice. Some form of it is sometimes added if it has become widely current in actual 
use (cf cum laiide). 


§124. L The Key to pronunciation found at the bottom of every pair of open pages in 
the vocabulary contains the common English sounds. Each illustrative word in 
boldface type shows the sound of both vowel and consonant symbols. For fuller 
information about the phonetic alphabet and its use in this book, see Introduc- 
tion, §§3-47. 

2. The basis of pronunciation in this dictionary is Cultivated Colloquial English — 
conversational style, not formal public address or public reading. For discussion 
of colloquial EngUsh, see Introduction, §§1-2. 

3. A Colloquialism is not a Localism or Slang. See Introduction, §§1-2, with the 
definition of Colloquial there quoted from Webster s New International Diction- 
ary, Second Edition. 

4. For acceptable pronunciations not regularly Usted in the vocabulary', see Intro- 
duction, Variants, §§90-119. 

5. Certain classes of words have Shifting or Variable Accent. For information on 
this and on accent and stress in general, see Introduction, §§48-54. 

6. For treatment of Regional Variations, see Introduction, §§76-85. 

7. For the pronunciation of Foreign Words, see §122 on .Anglicizing. 

8. Too much importance should not be attached to the Order in which the variant 
pronunciations are given in the vocabulary. Several factors govern this order. 
See Introduction, §§57-58. 

9. It is idle to insist on the "correct" pronunciation of words not )-et established in 
general oral use. The correct pronunciation will be whatever usage filially settles 
on, regardless of whether it agrees with etymolog}', spelling, or analog}'. 

10. "The pronunciation is the actual living form or forms of a word, that is, the word 

Miscellaneous Suggestions xlix 

itself, of which the current spelling is only a symbolization — generally, indeed, 
only the traditionally-preserved symbolization of an earlier form." — Oxford 
English Dictionary. 

11. "While we are entitled to display a certain fastidious precision in our saying of 
words that only the educated use, we deserve not praise but censure if we decline 
to accept the popular pronunciation of popular words." — H. W. Fowler, Dic- 
tionary of Modern English Usage. 

12. "I do not believe in the feasibility of imposing one particular form of pronuncia- 
tion on the English-speaking world." — Daniel Jones, An English Pronouncing 
Dictionary, 4th ed. 


Abbreviated names of English counties are listed 

in the vocabulary 




Canada, -dian 


abbreviation, -ated 




accent, -nation 



ace. to 

according to 










China, -nese 


Africa, -can 










colloquial, -ly 









Am Sp 

American Spanish (with PI) 

cotis., conss. 

consonant, -nants 






Anglicize, -d 








Arabic, Arabian 








Argentine, -na 










dialect, -al, -ally 








Eastern, East 




Egypt, -ptian 


British Broadcasting 


emphatic, -phasis 



Eastern and Northern 






Belgium, Belgian 






erroneous, -ly 




Eastern and Southern 






botany, botanist 






feminine, female 






Canada, -dian 



c (before 




circa, about 



c, cc (after 


frequent, -ly 


century, -ries 




Central America, -can 






geograph}', -phic, -ically 









geometry, -trical 

Mod E 

Modern English 



M. of Ven. 

Merchant of Venice 



mt., mts. 

mountain, -s 


grammar, -matical 






mythology, -logical 




Northern, North 


historical, -ly 










New Brunswick, Can. 


Iceland, -ic 


North Carohna 




New England 








New Hampshire 






infrequent, -ly 


New Jersey 




New Mexico 








New York 




New York City 




New Zealand 


Isle of Wight 





occasional, -ly 




Old English 




Oxford English Dictionary 



= Oxford Dictionary 


Linguistic Atlas of 

the US OF 

Old French 

and Canada 








Long Island 




local, -ly 


Oxford, -shire 
















Persia, -n 


Middle English 


person (grammar) 




















Philippine Islands 








poetic, -al, poetry 
















past participle 




















pronunciation, pronounce, 







participle, -cipial 




relative pronoun 




religion, -ious 


United States 


Rhode Island 
















Southern, South 



SArner, SA 

South America, -can 




South CaroHna 


vowel, -s 


Scottish, Scotch 






Western, West 








Webster^ s New Internatio7ial 



Dictionary, Second Edi- 


South Dakota 





Washington (state) 




West Indies 








West Pacific 


spelling, spelt 


West Virginia 

sp. pr., sp. pron. 

spelling pronunciation 



In the vocabulary, entries and other spelhng forms (except catchwords) are in light roman 
type, pronunciations and all sounds are in boldface, and explanatory matter is in italic (except 
the regional labels E, S, N, W). 

Occasionally, earher spellings of an entry word, with dates of their occurrence in records, 
are shown as evidence of pronunciation or of other significant facts in the history of the word. 
Cf. the entries Bicester, kiln. 



An asterisk (*) marks words already recorded in the main vocabulary. 
The plus sign (+) is to be read "also." 

adieux 2d pi of adieu* s^djuz, s^diuz, a'duz 

{Fr a'djo) 
Aguilar Col 'aegwijar; ES -ila:(r, E+-ila:(r 
Ahsahka Id a'saka 

Alamosa Col jaela'mosa, Zoc. +-'mus3, -si 
Algonquian*, -quin*+-nk- 
Amish 'anu/, 'smif 

Athol* NY 'eeal \A- Springs 'eGal, 'aeGal' 
Attu Alas isl. 'aetu 

bateaux pi of bateau* bae'toz (Fr ba'to) 
Baugh hs—frotn Bach, cf Reidenbach, Utah* 
Benld III loc. ba'nel, older b^n'£Id^ from Ben 

L. Dorsey — cf Gnadenhutten*, Ypres*, 

Yreka*, Yvonne*, in which also the name of 

a letter replaces its usual sound. 
Biloxi Miss ba'laksi, -'kk-; ES+-'lDk- 
Blackstone* cf variant spelling Blaxton 
Blanchester 'blaerijt/ESta', -t/is-; ES -t3(r 
Bogalusa La jboga'Iusa 
Bogoslof Isl. Alas 'boggSjlaf, -Jof, -jbf 
Bois Blanc Isl. Mich 'babjo'ailand; ES+ 

Boise* /i+'baizi 

Bollinger Mo 'babndsa^; ES -d33(r, 'bol- 
Bonar*, Horatius 'bana^; ES 'ban3(r, 'bon- 
Bon Homme SD ban'ham; ES+bDn'hDm 
Borger Tex 'barga^; ES 'baagaCr 
Boscawen* NH loc. 'baskwain, 'bos- 
Boston* +'b3St3n, 'bostan {§114) 
Botolph* loc.+h^hxA ^strit 
Bouckville NY 'baukvil 
Bouquet NY bo'ket, ba'ket 
Broadalbin NY brodblbin, -'aelbin 
Broome* N Y co. now more often brum 
Bruneau Id 'bruno 

Buchman 'bukman, 'bAk- {Ger 'buixmon) 
Buchraanism*, -ite* + 'bukman- 
Burleigh ND 'ba-h; ES 'bsh, 'byh 


Cache Utah kae/ |-'s -iz 

Cadiz* spell Sp city Cadiz; pron.+lis^Aiz 

Cahaba Ala riv. ka'haba, ka'hoba 

Cahoon surname ka'hun — see Calhoon below 

Calhoon = Calhoun* — cf Colquhoun* 

Canaseraga NY jkaenasaVoga 

Canastota NY ^kaena'stota 

Caneadea NY ^kaena'dia ('Canea^dea 'Road) 

Canisteo NY jkaeno'stio 

Canyon de Chelly Ariz 'kaenjanda'/e 

Cape Girardeau Mo 'kepdsa'rardo, -da; ES 

-'ra:do, E+-'ra:do 
Capulin NMex mt. ka'pjuhn, ka'piuhn 
Celoron* iVF+'sda^ron, 'selaran 
Cerf surname syf ; ES ssf, sa^f 
charm var. sp. of chirm* 'din of birds' 
Chateaugay NY '/«t3,ge, '/aetagi 
Chehalis Wash tji'hehs |-'s -iz 
Cheney Am vils., surname 'tfini 
Cheningo iVF /a 'nrggo 
Chesuncook Me t/i'sAnkuk 
Chichester* NY 't/aiit/tsta-; ES -ta(r 
chile con carne, Ai 't/ilikan'karni, -kan'k-; 

ES -'ka:ni, -kon'k-, E + -'ka:ni 
Chittenango NY ytjitn'teogo, t/it'nsogo 
Churchill* +-jhil — c/ Northampton* 
Cleburne Ala, Ark, Tex 'kliba^n; ES 'kliban 
climatic klai'maetik [al -j |-ally -ji, -ikh 
Cochise Ariz ko'tjis |-'s -iz 
Coconino Ariz /koka'nino 
Coeur D'Alene Id jkardl'en; ES jkaad- 
cognizable*+kag'naiz3bl, kog- 
Columbiana ka^lAmbi'sena 
Combahee^C jkamba'hi; ES+jkom-; ('Com- 

ba^hee 'River) 
Conewango NY jkana'waggo, -wog-; ES + 


Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret jyet jet |sang saeg langry 'aeg-gri 
|bath bae8; E ba0 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gardj |go go 
Ifull ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstia |custom 'kAstam jwhile hwail jhow hau |toy tai 
I using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij | vision 'visan |Eden 'idii [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 

Copyright, 1949, by G. & C. Merriam Co. 




Corinth* NY, Vt, ^oc.+kaVmO, krinO 
Costilla Col kas'tia, kos-, -'tija (Am Sp 

coxcombic* at ES read: +hiy\is^knmik 
Coxsackie NY kuk'saki, kak-, -'saeki; ES + 

cross bun 'kras'bAn, 'kros- ('hot ^cross 'bun) 
Crummel, -mmles 'krAml(z) — from Cromwell 
Cunard* accent +as in 'Gurnard 'Line 
Cuprum Id 'kjupram, 'kiu-, 'ku-. 
Dahlia* NY vil. 'delia, 'delja; see p. vi 
Darien* Ga 'denan 
Depauville NY di'povil, di'povil 
De Ruyter NY di'iaita^; ES di'rait3(r 
Desha Ark da'/e 

dilettantes pi ^dila't^entiz ]-ti -'taanti 
diphosgene* + - 'f azd3in ; ES + - 'f dz- 
Domremy-la-Pucelle* + Domrem}'- dore'mi- 
Dorcheat La riv. 'dart/it; ES 'daat/it 
Dravosburg Pa dra'vosbyg; ES -bsg, -byg 
Dumas* Ark 'dumss, 'dju-, 'diu- 
Dunsanj'* Brit + dAn^sxni 
Duplin NC 'djuphn, 'diu-, 'du- 
Duryea Pa dur'je, 'durje; ES dua'je, 'duaje 
Ecorse Mich 'ikors; ES 'ikoas |-'s -iz 
Edgecombe NC, -comb Me, Wash 'edskam 
Edina Minn I'daina, i'dains 
Elberta el'bs^ta; ES el'bsta, el'byta 
elegiast I'lidjijaest, a'lidsijaest 
Eoanthropus* put }o^ssn6r9p3s first 
Ephrata Pa 'sfrata, Wasli I'freta 
Ephratah Bible 'efrata, NY I'freta 
Esarey, Logan 'ezari 
Etowah Ala, Tenn '£t3jwa, -iWn, -wa 
Eulalie Poe's poem jub'Ii (Fr ola'li) 
existentialism jEgzis'tEn/aljizam, ^eksis- 
Falconer* iV F + 'f aelkana^ ; ES 'faelkanaCr 
Faust* N Y village fast 
Fayette fe'et, fe'J£t ('Fay^ette 'City) 
Fernandina Fla ^fa^nan'dina; ES lisn-, ^fyn- 
Finisterre* add: (Sp jfinis'terre) 
Folsom Cal, NMex 'folsam, surname -o-, -a- 
Forsyth* NY loc. 'farsaiO; ES 'faasaiG 
Franconia NH fraeg'konia 
Fremont* NY loc. 'fremant, -mont 
frow 'free' fro |frow 'woman' frau 
Galway* N Y loc. 'gaelwe 
Gansevoort* NY 'gaenzva^t, -vurt; ES -vat, 


Ghent* NY, Minn g-, Ky ds-, WVa ds-, g- 
Godeffroy NY 'gadfri, 'gnd-, cf Godfrey* 
Gogebic Mich go'gibik 
Gouverneur* AT+zgAva'nur, ;guva-, §121, 

Zoc.+-'n3'; ES -'nua(r, -'n3(r, -'ny- 
Gouverneur Morris /gAvar'nir, ;gAva-, §121; 

ES /gAva'nia(r; ('Gouver,neur '^Morris) 
Gravenstein apple 'graevan/Stain, -jStin 
greengage 'grin'geds ('green^gage 'plum) 
Grosvenor 'grovna', NY bay loc. 'gravna-; ES 

-na(r, 'grDvna(r 
haberdasher* sometimes 'haeba^dae/a^ (§121) 
Hahn surname han, ban — cf Baugh, Utah* 
Hallowell 'hieb^wel, -wal. Me loc. 'hnl- 
Hampstead* + 'ha;msted, 'hamstid 
Hapsburg* see also Habsburg* 
Haralson Ga 'haeralsn 

Healdsburg Cal 'hildzbyg, -Iz-; ES -3-, -3^- 
Healdton Okla 'hildtan, 'hiltan 
Hempstead NY 'hempsted, 'htmst-, -stid 
Henlopen Del cape hen'lopan 
Henrico Va hen'raiko 

Hermosa Cal ha^'mosa, by-; ES ha-, hs-, by- 
Hialeah Fla ^baia'lia 
Hindman Ky 'bainman, 'baindman 
Holbrook Ariz, Mass 'bolbruk 
Honeoj'e NY 'bAiupi 
Hoosic* + 'buzik 
Houma La 'buma 
Huerfano Col 'werfajno, 'wy-; ES 'wea-, 

'w3-, 'wy-; /oc. + 'arfajno 
Hyndman Id mt. 'hainman, 'baindman 
Indianola la. Miss iindia'nola 
Ingraham* + 'iggram, 'ingrain 
Ischua NY 'i/ua, /oc + 'i/a^we — c/ Nashua* 
Ishpeming Mich 'i/pijinig 
Itawamba Miss ,ita'wainba, -'womba 
luka Miss ai'juka 

Jacquard* acct+as in 'Jac^quard 'loom 
Java* NY 'dseva 
Junana* + d3ul'jaena, dsiul- 
Kalevala* + 'kabjvala 
Kalispcll Mont ^kaela'spsl, 'kaela^spel 
Kegonsa Wis lake ki'gansa; ES+-'gDnsa 
Kinderhook NY 'kinda^^buk; ES 'kinda^huk 
Kineo Me mt. 'kini,o 
Kissimmee Fla ki'simi 
Koshkonong Wis 'kaJTiajnag; ES + 'koJka- 

Kossuth* la ka'suG, ka-, ku- 

Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret Ij'et jet Isang sasg |angry '«g'gri 
jbath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge garcJs |go go 



Kotzebue Alas 'katsajbju, -jbiu; ES + 'knt- 

La Crosse Wis la'kros, -'krns |-'s -iz 

La Garita Cal Jaga'rita 

La Habra Cal b'habra 

Lampasas Tex laem'paesas 1-sas' -sas 

Lassellsville NY 'laaslzjVil — c/ Lascelles* 

Latah Id 'let3, le'ta— c/ Utah* 

Lavaca Tex b'vaeka 

Ledyard* + 'lEd33'd; ES 'kdsad 

Leelanau Mich 'lila^na 

Lenox var. sp. of Lennox* 'lenaks |-'s -iz 

leukemia, -kae- lu'kimia, Iiu- |-mic -mik 

Ligonier* acct+, esp. attrib., 'Ligo^nier 

literatus sg of literati* JitaVetas 

Livengood Alas vil., surname 'laivan^gud 

Lonaconing Md Jona'koniij 

Loogootee Ind la'goti 

Loup Nebr lup 

Lj'coming* Pa co. loc.+-^kova-, -'kAm-; NY 

vil. lai'komig 
McDermott mak'dymst; ES -'dsmat, -'ds'- 
McDiarmid mak'dynud; ES -'dsmid, -'dy- 
Mahopac NY 'meo^pjEk, 'meajpaek 
Mannering surname 'niaenarig = Man waring*, 

Mainwaring*, Maynwaring* 
Matteawan* NY+, esp. attrib., ^Mattea^wan 
Mazomanie Wis jmeza'meni, ^mezo- 
Mebane NC 'mtebin 
Montgomery* +m3nt'gAmri, -'gAman 
Montour* accent + as in 'Mon^tour 'Falls 
Morenci Mich moVensi 
Morris, Gouverneur, see Gouverneur Morris 
Munising Mich 'mjunasig, 'miunasig 
Muscatatuck Ind riv. mAs'kaet3;tAk 
Mycenae* NY loc. ma'sins — cf ma'zura 
Nauvoo* accent + as in 'Nau^voo 'streets 
Navarino NY jnaeva'raino 
Neligh Nebr 'nih 
Neodesha Kan ^niada'/e 
Nescopeck Pa 'neska^pEk 
Neshoba Miss ni'/oba 
Nevada* O loc. naVeda, ni- 
Newbem* Tenn + -h3^n; ES -bsn, -byn 
Newfane NY, Vt 'nju^fen, 'mu-, 'nu-; Vt loc. 

+ jNew'fane, also spelt New Fane 
Nisei 'nise, ni'se 

Nootka*+'nutka, 'nutka, 'nutka — c/ Utah* 
Nueces Tex nju'esis, niu-, nu- 
Nunda III, NY, loc. nAn'de 

Obion Tenn o'baian 

Oceana* WVa josi'aena 

Ocheltree Kan 'okl,tri, 'okjtri 

Ochiltree Tex 'akl.tri, 'akjtri; ES + 'ok-; Scotl 

'okjjtri, -tn (Sc 'oxd-, 'oxj-) 
Okanagan Can joka'nagan 
Okanogan Wash joka'nagan, -'nngan 
Okemah Okla o'kima, o'kima 
Oktibbeha Miss ak'tibijha; ES+nk- 
Olathe Kan o'leOi, a'leGi, -Ga 
Olean NY 'olijaen, joli'aen 
Olneyville RI 'oni,vil — cf OIney* 
Olustee Ala, Fla, Okla o'lAsti, a'Usti 
Onawa la 'anawa; ES + 'nnawa 
Onaway Mich 'anajwe; ES + 'nnajwe 
Onondaga* NY /oc. + jana'd3ga 
Onoville NY 'anajViI; ES + 'nnajViI 
Opelika Ala jOpaUaika, jopi'laika 
Oregonian pra'gonian, jor-, ,m- 
Oriskany NY a'nskani, o'riskam 
Orleans* US, accent +as in 'Orleans 'Co. 
Osakis Minn o'sekis j-'s -iz 
Oskaloosa la ^aska'lusa; ES + iDska'lusa 
Ossining* iVF +'asnig; ES+'osnig 
Otsego NY at'sigo; ES+ot'sigo 
Ottumwa la a'tAmwa, a'tAmwa; ES + 

Outagamie Wis jauta'gaemi 
Ovid* Mich, NY, occas. pers. name 'ovid 
Owj'hee Id a'waihi, o'waihl 
Palestine* Tex loc. 'paelasjtin 
Palomar Cal jpaela'mar; ES -'ma:(r, E + 
-'ina:(r; accent+as in 'Palo^mar 'Mountain 
Passaconaway NH ^pfesa'kanaiWe; ES + 

Pehlevi 'Pahlavi' 'pela^vi |Pehlvi 'pelvi 
Pend Oreille Id, Wash jpanda're, ipen- 
phosgene* + 'f azdsin ; ES + 'f ozdsin 
Picabo Id loc. 'pika^bu, elsewher e+^pikaihu 
pileated 'paik^etid, 'pili^etid 
Piqua* O+'pikwe — cf Pickaway* 
Pithecanthropus* ptit second pron. first 
Poestenkill NY 'pusn^kil, 'postn^kil 
princess* 5n7+prin'ses, but 'prinsis when at- 
trib., as in 'Princess 'Mary 
Pulaski* Z/^+pa'laeski, pju-, pm- 
Pushmataha Okla jpufma'taha, -'taha 
Puyallup Wash pju'aelap, piu'aelap 
Rahway NJ 'rawe 
Ramapo NY vil., NY, NJ riv. 'raemajpo 

|full ful Itooth tuG Ifurther 'fytJa*; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Rangeley Me Vendsli 
Rantoul /// raen'tul ('Ran^toul 'schools) 
Raton* Col ra'tun, rae-; NMex ra'ton, ra- 
Reidenbach surname 'raidri/bD — cf Baugh 
Rensselaer* NY + ^tznsViT; ES -'i3(r; accent 

■\-as in 'Rensscjlaer 'boy 
Robson* surname + 'robsn 
Sabinal Tex jsaeba'nael ('Sabijnal 'bank) 
Sacandaga NY jsaekan'daga 
Sagadahoc* Me, put acct ,Sagada'hoc first 
Salida Col sa'laida {Sp sa'liSa) 
Salina Kan sa'Iaina 
Salinas Cal sa'linas |-'s -iz 
Saluda NC, SC, Va, Ind sa'luda 
San Bernardino* CaZ + -jbyn3'dino, §121 
Santanoni N Y jsaenta'noni ('Santajnoni 'Mt.) 
Sapulpa Okla sa'pAlpa 
sarsaparilla* + jsaespa'rila, jsaesapa- 
Saugerties NY 'sDga^tiz, -^tiz; ES 'saga- 
Sauquoit NY sa'kwait 
Schaefer, -ffer 'Jefa^; ES '/ef3(r 
Schaghticoke NY 'skaeti^kuk, 'Jati-, -jkok 
Schenevus NY ska'nivas |-'s -iz 
Schrader 'Jreda^; ES 'JredaCr 
Schroeder '/reda^, 'Jroda^; ES -d9(r; (Ger 

Schuylkill* SE Pa /oc. + 'skukl 
sermonic sy'manik; ES S3-, sy-, -'monik 
Shafer 'Jefa^; ES 'Jef3(r 
Shaffer 'Jefa^, '/afa-; ES -f3(r 
shafts 'tinlls' fsevz, Jaefts; E+/a-, fa-; see 

Shelbina Mo Jel'baina 
shindig* occen/ + '/injdig 
slaver ^ slave dealer' 'sleva'; ES 'slev3(r 
slaver 'drool' 'sl«v3^; ES 'sla^v^(r; |-ed -d j-ing 

'slaevario, 'slaevrig 
soot* cf boot but, foot f ut, flood fUd 
submersible sab'mysabl; ES -'mss-, -'mys- 
Suckow surname 'suko 
Suffolk* + 'sAf3k 
Sylacauga Ala jSila'koga 
Tahoe Cal 'taho, 'teho 
Talcott, Tallcott 'talkat, 'taelkat 
Talladega Ala jtaela'diga 
Tallulah La ta'lub 

Taughannock Falls NY ta'gaenak, ta'gaenak 
Tazewell III, Va 'taezwel, 'tezwel, -wal 
Tehuacana Tex ti'wakana, -'wnk- 
Tidioute Pa 'tidijut, jtidi'ut 
Tionesta Pa jtaia'nesta 
Totowa NJ 'totawa 

Tucumcari NMex 'tukam/keri, -;kaeri; S -ae- 

Tuolumne Cal 'twalamni, 'twDlamni 

Tuscola Mich, III tAs'kola 

Tyrone* Pa, acct + as in 'tai^ron 'strits 

Uhrichsville 'junks, vil 

Umatilla Or eg juma'tila 

Unadilla iVF Juna'dila, ^oc. + iAn3'dil3; acct-^ 

as in 'Una/dilla 'Forks 
Upshire Engd 'Ap/ir, -JV; ES -J'i3(r, -Jafr 
Upshur surname, WVa co. 'Apja^; ES 'Ap/3(r 
Uvalde Tex ju'vaeldi 

Valois 'vaelwa, -wd {Fr va'lwa), NY va'bis 
Vandalia Am places vaen'delja 
Venango Pa, Nehr va'naeggo 
Venezuela* + jV8nzu'il3, jvenazu'Ila 
Vergennes Vt, III va^'dsEnz; ES va-; |-'s -iz 
vernacular* +va'naekjal3' {§121) 
Vevay Swtz Co. Ind 'vivi, older vi've {§6) 
Vevey Switzerland va've {Fr va've) 
Vienna* sojne Am places +\ai^en3 
Vigo Ind 'vaigo, 'vigo 
Vinita Okla va'nita 
Waban Mass 'waban 
Wabasha Minn 'wabaj/a, 'woba-, 'waba- 
Wadena Minn wa'dina, wo'dina 
Waha Id 'waha — cf Omaha*, Utah*, Baugh 
Walthall Miss 'walt.hal— c/ Waltham* 
Wamego Kan wa'migo, wn-, wa- 
Wappingers iV I" 'wapindsa^z, 'wop-; ES -dsaz 
Wasatch 'wasaetj", wa'saetj ('Wa^satch '!Mts.) 
Washingtonian jwa/ig 'toman, jwa/-, iWo/- 
Washtenaw Mich '\vaXta,na, 'wdJ-, 'waj- 
Watauga NC, Tenn wa'taga, wo'taga, \va- 
Watervliet NY 'wata^jvlit, 'wa-, 'wd-, -vl,It; 

ES -ta-; acci+jWater'vliet 
Watseka III wat'sika, wot'sika 
Waubesa Wis lake wa'bisa 
Waunakee Wis ,wana'ki ('Wauna,kee 'mail) 
Waupaca Wis wa'paska 
Waupun Wis wa'pAn ('Wau^pun 'schools) 
Wauseon 'wasiyon, -/Dn, jwasi'an, -'on 
Weehawken NJ wi'hakan 
Weiser Id 'wiza^; ES 'wiza(r 
Wetumka Okla wi'tAmka |-mpka Ala wi- 

WigtowTishire* put 'wigtaniJir//-^/ 
Winder Ga 'wainda^; ES 'wainda(r 
Winnetka III wi'netka 
Wolcott* iVF/oc. 'walkat 
woollen variant spelling of woolen* 
Zeigler /// 'zigla^; ES 'zigla^r 
Ziebach SD 'zi'bak, -'ba, -'ba — cf Baugh 





A, a letter e \pl A's, As, poss A's ez 

abbreviation ajbrivi'e/an 

a indef. art. a, emph. or hesitating e — The use 

ABC 'e'bi'si lABC's, ABCs 'e'bi'siz ('A.B'C 

of e, the stressed form of a, in places where 


the tmstressed a belongs, often gives an arti- 

abdicate 'aebda^ket |-cated -^ketid 

ficial effect to public address. 

abdication jaebda'ke/an 

a, a- unstressed form of on a (a begging, a-foot. 

Abdiel 'aebdial, -diel, -dj- 


abdomen 'asbdaman, aeb'doman, ab- 

Aachen 'akan, 'oxan (Ger 'arxan) 

abdominal aeb'daman], ab-; ES+-'dDm-; 

Aaron 'eran, 'aeran, 'eran; S 'aeran, 'eran 


abaca ,aba'ka 

abduce aeb'djus, -'dius, -'dus |-s -iz \-d -t 

aback a'baek 

abduct aeb'dAkt, ab- \-ed -id |-ction -k/an 

abacus 'aebakas |-es -iz |-ci -jsai 

abeam a'bim 

abaft a 'baef t ; E + a 'baft, a 'baft 

abecedarian jebisi'derian, -'der- 

abalone, A- (aeba'loni 

A Becket, -ett a'bekit 

Abana 'aebana 

abed a 'bed 

abandon n a'baendan (Fr aba'do) 

Abednego a'bednijgo 

abandon v a'baendan |-ed -d 

Abel 'ebl 

abase a'bes |-s -iz |-d -t j-dly -idli 

Abelard 'sebl^ord; ES 'aebl,a:d; (Fr abe'larr) 

abash a'baef |-es -iz j-ed -t |-edly -idli 

Aberdeen jaeba^'din; ES jaeba'din; ('Aber^deen 

abatable a'betabl 

'Angus) |-shire -fir, -JV; ES -/ia(r, -J"a(r 

abate a 'bet | abated a 'betid 

Abergavenny Eng town jaeba^ga'veni, family 

abatis 'aebatis, a'baetis |-es -iz |-ed -t 

jaeba^'geni, Shak. Aburgany jaeba^'geni; ES 

abattoir jaeba'twar, -'twar; ES -'twa:(r. 


-'twaa(r; (Fr aba'twa:r) 

aberrance aeb'erans |-ancy -ansi |-ant -ant 

abbacy 'aebasi 

aberration /aeba're/an 

Abbana 'aebana 

Aberystwyth ,aeb3^'istwi6 

abbe 'aebe, ae'be (Fr a^be) 

abet a'bet |-ted -id |-ter, -tor -a^; ES -a(r 

abbess 'aebis, 'aebes |abbesses 'aebisiz 

abeyance a'beans j-ant -ant 

Abbeville US 'aebi^vil; S+-vl; France ab'vil 

abhor ab'har, aeb-; ES -'haa(r; |-red -d 

abbey 'aebi | Abbey ville, Abby- 'aebi^vil 

abhorrence ab'harans, aeb-, -'hot-, -'hor- 

abbot 'aebat 

|-ent -ant 

Abbotsford 'aebatsfa^d; ES 'aebatsfad 

Abhorson ab'harsn; ES -'haasn 

abbreviate a'brivi,et l-ated -,etid 

abidance a'baidns 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 
|full ful I tooth tu6 [further 'fytla^; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAstam | while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



abide a'baid \past abode a'bod or abided 

Abou ben Adhem 'aebubEn'aedam, 'abuben- 

a'baidid \pptc abode a'bod or abided 


d'baidid, rarely abidden a'bidn 

abound a'baund |-ed -id 

Abigail 'aebajgel, 'aebagl 

about a'baut 

Abijah a'baidsa 

about-face n a'baut^fes |-s -iz 

Abilene US 'aebajin, Syria jaeba'lini 

about-face v a,bact'fes |-s -iz |-d -t 

ability a'bilati 

about-ship v a^baut'/ip |-ped -t 

Abimelech a'bimSjkk 

above a'bAV 

Abinadab a^bina^daeb 

aboveboard a'bAv^bord, -^bard; ES -;boad. 

Abingdon 'aebigdan |-gton -tan 


ab initio 'asbi'niJijO 

aboveground a'bAv^graund 

abject aeb'dsekt, 'aebdsekt ('abj'ect 'look) 

abrade a 'bred, aeb'red |-d -id 

abjection aeb'dsekjan 

Abraham 'ebrajham, 'ebri-, -ham 

abjuration jaebdsu'rc/an 

Abram 'ehram 

abjure ab'dgur, aeb-, -'dsiur; ES -'dsuaCr, 

abrasion a'bresan, aeb'r- |-sive -siv, -ziv 

-'d3iu3(r; |-d -d 

abreaction ,aebri'aBk/an 

ablation aeb'le/an 

abreast a'brtst 

ablative 'aeblativ, 'aebhtiv 

abridge a'brids |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idh 

ablaut 'ablaut, 'aeblaut {Ger 'aplaut) 

abroad a 'brad 

ablaze a'blez 

abrogable 'aebragabl 

able 'ebl [-ler 'ebla^; ES -l3(r; 1-lest 'eblist 

abrogate 'aebrajget, -ro- | -gated -igetid 

-able unstressed ending -abl — often omitted 

abrogation jjebra'ge/an, -ro- 

from the vocab. when the pron. can be found 

abrupt a'brApt, aeb'r Apt 

by adding -abl to the head pron. The corre- 

Absalom 'aebsalam 

sponding adverb ending /s -ably -abh. For 

abscess 'aeb^ses, -sis |-es -iz |-ed -t 

the addition of -bly -bh when the head word 

abscissa aeb'sisa |-s -z j-sae -si 

does not end in -able, see the suffix -bly. 

abscission asb'sisan, aeb'si/an 

able-bodied 'ebl'badid; ES+-'bDd-; ('able- 

abscond aeb'skand, ah-; ES-H-'skond; |-ed 

-bodied 'man) 


ablution aeb'lujan, ab-, -'liu/an 

absence 'aebsns [absences 'aebsnsiz [-sent 

ably 'ebb 


abnegate 'aebnijget |-gated -igetid 

absent v asb'sent, ab- |-ed -id 

abnegation jaebni'ge/on 

absentee jaebsn'ti ('absen^tee 'land^lord) 

Abner 'aebna^; ES 'aebnaCr 

absent-minded 'aebsnt'maindid 

abnormal aeb'narml, ab-; ES -'naaml; |-ly -i 

absinthe, -th 'aebsinO, aeb'smO 

abnormality jaebnar'tnaelati; ES -na'maelati 

absolute 'aebsajut, -,hut, -sljut |-ly -h, 

abnormity seb'narmati; ES -'naamati 

empli. + ^abso'lutely, 'abso'lutely 

aboard a 'bord, a'b3rd;ES a'boad, E+a'baad 

absolution jaebsa'luj"an, -'hu/an, -sl'jujan 

abode a'bod 

absolutism 'aebsalutjizam, -hut-, -sjjut- 

abolish a 'bob/; ES+a'bol-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 

absolutist 'aBbsa;lutist, -^hut-, -sjj'utist 

abolition jaeba'b/an |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 

absolve aeb'salv, ab-, -'sdIv, -'z- |-d -d 

abominable a'bamnabl, -man-; ES+a'bom-; 

absorb ab'sarb, aeb-, -'z-; ES -aab; |-ed -d 

1-bly -bh 

|-edly -idh 

abominate a'bamajnet; ES+a'bom-; |-d -id 

absorbefacient abiSarba'fe/ant, aeb-, -jZ-; ES 

aboriginal jaeba'ridsanl |-ly -i ]-ne -^ni 


abort a'bart; ES a'baat; |-ed -id 

absorbent ab'sarbant, aeb-, -'z-; ES -aab- 

aborticide a'barta^said; ES a'baata- 

absorption ab'sarpjan, aeb-; ES -'saap-; 

abortifacient ajbarta'te/ant; ES a^baata- 

|-tive -tiv 

abortion a'barjan; ES a'baa/an 

abstain ab'sten, aeb- |-ed -d 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee hi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langr^^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wot/, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



abstemious aeb'stimias, ab-, -mjas 

abstention aeb'stenjan, ab- 

absterge aeb'styds, ab-; ES -'stsds, -'styds; 

|-s -iz |-d -d I -gent -ant 
abstersion aeb'sty/an; ES -'sts/-, -'st3\f- 
abstinence 'aebstanans |-s -iz 
abstract adj aeb'straekt ('abiStract 'thought) 
abstract n 'aebstraekt 
abstract v aeb'straekt, ab-; 'abridge,' 'trace 

title' 'aebstraekt |-ed -id 
abstractedly aeb'straektidh 
abstraction aeb'straekjan, ab- |-tive -tiv 
abstriction aeb'strik/an 
abstruse aeb'strus, ab-, -'strius 
absurd ab'syd, aeb-, -'z-; ES -sd, -s'd; |-ity 

Abukir jfebu'kir, ^a-, a'buka^; ES -'kia(r, 

abulia a'bjuha, a'biul-, ^aebju'lia 
abundance a'bAndans [abundant a'bAndant 
Abury 'ebari = Avebury 
abuse ft a'bjus, a'bius |-s -iz 
abuse v a'bjuz, a'biuz |-s -iz |-d -d 
abusive a'bjusiv, a'biusiv 
abut a'bAt j-ted -id ]-ment -mant |-tal -1 
Abydos a'baidas, -das; ES+-dDs; [-'s -iz 
abysm a'bizam [abysmal a'bizml |-ally 

abyss a'bis |-es -iz [-al -1 
Abyssinia jseba'sinia, -'sinja |-n -n 
acacia a'ke/a 
academe jseka'dim 

academic ^aeka'demik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
academician ajkaeda'mi/an, /jekada- 
academicism jaeka'demajSizam 
academy a'kaedami 

Acadia a'kedia, -dja |-n -n — see also Cajun 
acanthus a'kaenOas |-es -iz |-thi -6ai 
a cappella 'a ka'pela (// jakkap'pella) 
acariasis ^aeka'raiasis 
acarid 'aekarid 
acatalectic ejkaetl'ektik, a-, ae-, jckaetl-, 

acaudal e'kadl, a-, ae- 
Accad 'aekaed = Akkad 
Accadia a'kedia, a'ka-, -dja |-dian -dian, 

accede aek'sid, ak- [-ceded -'sidid 
accelerable aek'selarabl, ak- 

accelerando aekjsela'raendo, ak- (It at^t/ele- 

accelerant aek'selarant, ak- 
accelerate aek'selajret, ak- [-rated -^retid 
acceleration aekjsela're/an, ak-, ^aeksela- 
accelerative aek'selajretiv, ak- [-tor -ta^; ES 

accent n 'aeksent, less freq. 'aeksnt 
accent v 'aeksent, aek'sent, ak- [-ed -id 
accentual aek's£nt/ual, ak- [-ly -i 
accentuate aek'sentju/ct, ak- |-ated -^etid 
accentuation aek^SEnt/u'e/an, ak-, ^aeksent/u- 
accept ak'sept, ik-, aek- |-ed -id [-able -abj 

[-bly -bli 
acceptability akjsepta'bilati, ik-, ak-, 

acceptance ak'stptans, ik-, aek- |-s -iz 
acceptation ^aeksEp'teJan 
access 'aekses [-es -iz 
accessary aek'sesari, ak- |-ries -riz 
accessibility aekjsesa'bilati, ak-, ^aeksesa- 
accessible aek'sEsabl, ak- j-bly -bli 
accession aek'se/an, ak- |-ed -d 
accessorial ^aeksa'sorial, -'sar-; S -'sor- 
accessory aek'sesari, ak- 
accidence 'aeksadans [-dent -dant 
accidental ^aeksa'dentl [-ly -i 
acclaim a'klem [acclaimed a'klemd 
acclamation ^aekla 'me/an 
acclimate a'klaimit, 'aekla^met [-d -id 
acclimation ^aekla 'me/an 
acclimatization ajklaimata'ze/an, -ai'z- 
acclimatize a'klaimajtaiz |-s -iz [-d -d 
acclivity a'klivati 
accolade ,aeka'led, -'lad j-d -id 
Accomac 'aeka^maek 
accommodate a'kamajdet; ES-h-'kom-; [-d 

accommodation ajkama'dejan; ES-i--,kDm- 
accompaniment a'kAmpanimant, a'kAmpni- 
accompanist a'kAmpanist, a'kAmpnist 
accompany a'kAmpani [-nyist -mist 
accomplice a'kamplis; ES-i--'kDin-; j-s -iz 
accompHsh a'kamph/; ES^-'kom-; |-es -iz 

[-ed -t 
accord a'kard; ES a'kaad; |-ed -id 
accordance a'kardns; ES a'kaad-; |-dant 

accordion a'kardian; ES a'kaadian 

[full ful jtooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fmz jdish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



accost a'kost, a'kost |-ed -id 

ache ek | ached ekt — Before 1700 the verb was 

accouchement a'ku/ma, -mant {Fr akuj'ma) 

spelt ake, and the noun was pronounced etj. 

accoucheur jaekulfs^; ES ;aeku'/3(r, -'Jy; (Fr 

pi 'etjiz. 


Achean a'kian 

accoucheuse ^aeku'/sz |-s -iz {Fr akujoiz) 

Acheron 'aekajtan, -ran; ES+-jrt)n 

account a'kaunt |accounted o'kauntid 

achieve a'tjiv |-d -d |-ment -mant 

accountabiUty ajkaunta'bilati 

Achilles a'kiliz |-es' -iz 

accountable a'kauntabl |-bly -bli 

Achitophel a'kita^fel 

accountancy a'kauntansi |-tant -tant 

achromatic ,aekra'maetik, -ro- ('achro,matic 

accouter, -tre a'kuta^; ES 3'kut3(r; l-(e)d -d 


accredit a'kredit [-ed -id 

achromic e'kromik, a-, ae- 

accrete a'krit, ae'krit j-d -id 

acid 'aesid [acidic a'sidik, ae'sidik 

accretion a'kri/an, ae'kri/an 

acidify a'sida^fai, ae- |-fied -,faid 

accrual a'krual, a'kriual, ae- 

acidimeter jaesi'dimata^j ES -ta(r 

accrue a'kru, a'kriu, ae- |-d -d 

acidity a'sidati, ae- 

accumbency a'kAmbansi |-bent -bant 

acidosis ,aesi'dosis 

accumulate 3'kjumJ3,let, a'kium- |-d -id 

acidulate a'sidsa^let, ae- [-d -id |-lous -las 

|-tive -IV |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 

aciform 'aesi,farm; ES -;faam 

accumulation ajkjumja'le/an, 3jkium- 

acknowledge ak'nalids, aek-, ik-, -ad5; ES+ 

accuracy 'aekjarasi 

-'nol-; l-d -d 

accurate 'aekjarit 

aclinic e'klinik, a-, ae- 

accursed a'kysid, -st; ES a'kss-, a'kys-; 

acme 'aekm^, 'aekmi 

|-sedly -sidli 

acne 'aekni, 'aekni 

accurst afest; ES a'ksst, a'kyst 

acolyte 'akajlait 

accusal a'kjuzl, s^kiuzl 

Acoma 'aka;ma, -ma 

accusation jaekja'ze/an, ^aekju- 

acorn 'eka-n, 'ekam; ES 'ekan, 'ekaan ; — The 

accusative a'kjuzativ, a'kiuz- 

second pron. arises from false etymology. 

accusatorial ajkjuza'torial, a^kiuz-, -'tar-; 

acotyledon ,ekatl'idn, a,kat-, ae^kat-; ES+ 

S -'tor- 

-Dt-; j-ous -'idnas, -'ednas 

accusatory a'kjuzajtori, a'kiuz-, -jtari; S 

acoustic a'kustik, a'kaustik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 



accuse a'kjuz, a'kiuz |-s -iz |-d -d 

acoustician ^aekus'ti/an, -kaus-, a^kus-. 

accustom a'kAStam |-ed -d 


ace es ]aces 'esiz 

acquaint a'kwent |-ed -id 

acentric e'sentrik, a-, ae- 

acquaintance a'kwentans |-s -iz 

acephalous e'sefalas, a-, ae- 

acquiesce ,aekwi'es |-s -iz |-d -t |-nce -ns |-nt 

acerbate v 'aesa^^bet; ES 'aesa-; |-d -id 


acerbate adj a'sybit; ES a'ssb-, a'syb- 

acquire a'kwair; ES a'kwaia(r; |-d -d |-rable 

acerbity a'sybati; ES a'ssb-, a'syb- 


acetamide jaesa'taemaid, a'setajinaid, -mid 

acquisition ^aekwa'zi/an 

|-mid -mid 

acquit a'kwit ]-ted -id |-tal -1 |-tance -ns 

acetanilide jaesa'taenl^aid, -lid |-lid -hd 

acre 'eka^; ES 'eka(r 

acetate 'aesa^tet |-tated -^tetid 

acreage 'ekarids, 'ekrids |-s -iz 

acetic a'sitik, a'setik 

acre-foot 'eka^'fut; ES 'eka-; |-feet -'fit 

acetify a'seta^fai |-fied -ifa,id 

acre-inch 'eka^'mt/ |-es -iz 

acetone 'aesa, ton 

acrid 'aekrid |-ine -jln, -in |-in -in 

acetyl 'aesa^til |-ene a's£tl;in 

acridity ae'kridati, a- 

Achaea a'kki |Achaia a'kea, a'kaia |-n -n 

acrimonious ,aekra'monias, -njas 

Achates a'ketiz |-tes' -tiz 

acrimony 'aekra,moni 

Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang sjeg [angrj^ 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watf, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 


ad interim 

acrobat 'aekra^baet 

add aed [added 'aedid 

acrobatic jaekra'baetik [-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 

Addams 'aedamz |Addams's ^aedamziz 

acrogen 'aekradsan, -dsin 

addend 'aedend, a'dend 

acromegalic ;aekroini'gaelik |-megaly -'niEgah 

addendum a'dendam, ae- |-da -da 

acrophobia jsekra'fobia 

adder 'aeda^; ES Wa(r 

acropolis a'krapahs; ES+-'krDp-; |-lises 

addible 'aedabl 

-lisiz \Gk pi -leis -jles 

addict n 'aedikt 

across a'krDS, a'kros 

addict TJ a'dikt |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 

acrostic a'krastik, a'kros- 

Addis Ababa 'aedis'ababa, 'adis- 

act aekt | acted 'ijektid 

Addison 'aedasn 

Actaeon aek'tian 

additament a'ditamant 

actinic aek'tinik |-ally -Ii, -ikh 

addition a'di/an, ae- |-al -1 |-ally -li 

actinism 'aektmjizam 

additive 'aedativ 

actinium ^ek'tiniam 

addle 'aedl |-d -d |-ling 'aedhg, 'aedho 

action 'aek/an |-able -abl, -/nabl |-bly -bli 

addlebrain 'aedj^bren 

Actium 'sektiam, 'aekjiam 

addlebrained 'aedl'brend ('addle-brained 'boy) 

activate 'aekt3,vet |-vated -^vetid 

addleheaded 'aedl'hgdid 

activation jaekta've/an 

addlepated 'aedl'petid 

active 'aektiv |-vism -jizam |-vist -ist 

address n a'dres, 'fedres |-es -iz 

activity aek'tivati 

address v a'dres |-es -iz |-ed -t 

actor 'aekta-; ES 'aekta^r 

addressee adres'i, ^aedres'i 

actress 'aektris |-es -iz 

adduce a'djus, a'dius, a'dus [-s -iz |-d -t 

actual 'aekt/ual, -t/ul 

adducible, -ceable a'djusabl, a'dius-, a'dus- 

actuality jaekt/u'aelati 

adduct a'dAkt |-ed -id 

actually 'aektjuali, -tjuh, -t/ah 

adduction a'dAkJan |-tive -tiv |-tor -ta^; ES 

actuarial jaskt/u'enal, -'er- 


actuary 'aekt/u^eri 

Adel e'del 

actuate 'aekt/ujCt ]-ated -jCtid 

Adela 'aedla 

acuity a'kjuati, a'kmati 

Adelaide 'aedj^ed 

acumen a'kjumm, a 'km-, -man 

Adelbert 'aedlba't, a'dflbat, college a'delba^t; 

acute a'kjut, a'kiut 

ES -bat 

acyclic e'saikkk, e'sik- 

Adelina jaedl'aina, -'Ina 

A.D. 'e'di, 'aeno'damajnai; ES+-'dDm- 

Adeline 'jedljain, -jin 

ad aed 

Adelphi a'delfi, -fai 

Ada(h) leda 

Aden 'edn, 'adn 

adage 'aedidj |-s -iz 

adenoid 'aednpid |-ism -jizam 

adagio a'dadso, a'dadsijO {It a^daidso) 

adenoidal ^aedn'aidl 

Adair a'der, a'daer; E s'deaCr, ES a'daeaCr 

adept n 'aedept, a'd£pt 

Adaline 'aedl^ain, -jin 

adept adj a'dept 

Adam 'aedam |Adams 'aedamz |Adams's 

adequacy 'aedakwasi |-quate -kwit 


adhere ad'hir, aed-; ES -'hia(r, S+-'h£a(r; 

adamant 'aedajinaent 

|-nce -ans |-nt -ant 

adamantine jaeda'maentin, -tin, -tain 

adhesion ad'hisan, aed- |-sive -siv 

x\damic, Louis 'lui'aedamik, 'luis-, 'liui(s)- 

adhibit aed'hibit |-ed -id 

adapt a'daept |-ed -id 

ad hoc 'aed'hak; ES+-'hDk 

adaptability a^dsepta'bilati 

ad hominem 'aed'hamainem; ES+-'hDm- 

adaptable a'daeptabl 

adieu a'dju, a'diu, a'du 

adaptation ^aedap'te/an, ^aedaep- 

ad infinitum 'aedjinfa'naitam 

adaptive a'daeptiv 

ad interim 'aed'intarim 

|full ful jtooth tu6 [further 'fytia^; ES 'fsSa [custom [kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



adipose 'aedajpos 

ad nauseam 'ad'na/i^aem, often -'naz-. 

adiposity jseda'pasati; ES+-'pras- 


Adirondack jfledaVondaek; ES+-'rDn- 

ado a'du 

adit 'aedit 

adobe a'dobi 

adjacency a'dsesnsi |-cent -snt 

adolescence /aedl'esns |-cy -i [-cent -snt 

adjectival jaedsik'taivl, 'aedsiktivj |-ly - 


Adolf, -Iph '«dalf, 'sednlf, 'ed- 

adjective 'aedsiktiv |-ly -li 

Adolphus a'dalfas, a'dnl- |-'s -iz 

adjoin a'dsain |-ed -d |-edly -idli, a'dsamdli 

Adonais ^aeda'ne-is |-'s -iz 

adjourn a'ds^n; ES a'dssn, 3'd3yn; |- 

ed -d 

Adonijah ^aeda'tiaidsa 

adjudge a'dgAds |-s -iz |-d -d 

Adonis a'donis |-'s -iz 

adjudicate 3'd3udijket, a'dsm- |-d -id 

adopt a'dapt; ES+a'dnpt; |-ed -id 

adjudication ajdsudi'ke/an, Sidsiu- 

adoptability a,dapta'bilati; ES+ajdnp- 

adjunct 'aedsAgkt 

adoptable a'daptabl; ES+a'dop- 

adjuration jaedsu'rejan 

adoption a'dapjan; ES+a'dop-; |-tive -tiv 

adjure a'dsur, a'dsiur; ES -3(r; |-d -d 

adorable a'dorab}, a'dar-; S a'dor-; |-bly 

adjust a'dsAst |-ed -id |-able -abj 




adoration ^aedaVe/an 

adjutancy 'aedjatansi |-tant -tant 

adore a'dor, a'dar; ES a'doa(r, E+aMaa(r; 

Adler 'adla^, '«d-; ES -la(r 


ad-lib V aed'lib |-bed -d 

adorn a'dam; ES a'daan; |-ed -d 

ad libitum 'aed'hbitam 

adown a'daun 

administer ad'minast*, aed-; ES -ta(r 


adrenal aed'rinl |-in aedVenlin 

-d |-ing -tang, -trio 

Adrian 'edrian [Adriana jcdri'aena, -'ana 

administrable ad'minastrabl, aed- 

Adrianople ycdrian'opl 

administrate ad'mina^stret, aed- |-d -id 


Adriatic jedri'aetik 


adrift a 'drift 

administration adjinina'strej'an, aed-, 


adroit a'drait 


adsorb aed'sarb; ES -'saab; |-ed -d 

administrator ad'minajstreta', aed-; ES 


adsorption aed'sarp/an; ES -'saap/an 

administratress adjinina'stretris, ^aedmina- 

adulate 'aedsa^let |-d -id |-tion jaedsa'le/an 

|-es -iz 

adulatory 'aadsala^tori, -jtari; S -^tori 

administratrix adjimna'stretriks, ^aedmina- 

Adullam a'dAlam |-ite -jait 

|-es -IZ 1-trices -tri^siz 

adult a'dAlt, 'aedAlt ('a,dult 'school) 

admirable 'aedmarabl |-bly -bli 

adulterant a'dAltarant, -trant 

admiral 'aedmaral |-ty -ti 

adulterate adj a'dAltarit, -^ret 

admiration jaedmaVeJan 

adulterate v a'dAlta,ret -d -id 

admire ad'mair; ES -'maia(r; |-d -d 


adulteration a^dAlta're/an 

-idh, -dh 

adulterer a'dAltara^; ES -tara(r; j-tery -tan, 

admissibility adjinisa'bilati, aed- 


admissible ad'misabl, aed- |-bly -bli 

adulteress a'dAltans, -tris |-es -iz 

admission adW/an, aed- 

adulterine a'dAltarin, -jtain 

admit ad'mit, aed- |-ted -id |-tance -ns 

adulterous a'dAltaras, -tras 

admix aed'miks, ad- |-es -iz |-ed -t 

adumbrate aed'Ambret, 'aedam^bret |-d -id 

admixture aed'mikst/a', ad-; ES -t/a(r 

adumbration j£edam'bre/an, jaedAm- 

admonish ad'manij, aed-; ES+-'mDn- 

; |-es 

adust a'dAst 

-iz |-ed -t 

ad valorem jaedva'loram, -'bram, -Em; S 

admonition jaedma'ni/an 


admonitory ad'manajtori, aed-, -/tan; S 

advance ad'vaens; E+-'vans, -'vans; |-s -iz 

-jtori, ES+-'niDn- 


Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg [angry 'teg'gri 
|bath baeG; E bad (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dja |gorge gards |go go 


aes triplex 

advantage adVantidj; E+-Van-, -' 


Aegisthus i'dsisGas |-'s -iz 

|-s -iz |-d -d 

Aegospotami, -mos jigas'patajinai, -mas; ES 

advantageous jaedvan'tedsas, -vaen- 

+ -'pot- 

advent, A- 'aedvent |-ism -jzam |-ist -ist 

Alfred '«lfrid, 'ielfrad, 'jelfa-d; ES 


adventitious jaedven'tijas, jaedvan- 

-frad, -fad 

adventive aed'ventiv 

yElfric 'jElfrik 

adventure adVEntJa'; ES -tXa(r; |-d -d 


Aemilia i'miba |-lius -has |-lius's -hasiz 

-VEnt/ani), -Vent/rig |-rous -t/aras, - 


Aeneas I'nias, i- |-'s -iz 

adventurer adVEnt/ara'; ES -t/araCr 

Aeneid I'niid, i-, -ad 

adventuresome adVent/a^sam; ES - 


Aeolia i'oba |-n -n 


Aeolis 'ialis |-'s -iz |-t -t |-m -Jizam 

adventuress adVentJans, -tjris |-es -iz 

Aeolus 'ialas, Vt mt. loc. i'olas |-'s -iz 

adverb 'aedvyb; ES 'aedvsb, -vyb 

aeon 'ian, 'ian; ES+'ion 

adverbial adVybial, aed-, -bjal; ES - 


aerate 'ea^ret |-d -id |-tion jca're/an 

-Vyb-; |-ly -i 

aerial 'airy' e'irial, 'erial, 'aerial; S 


adversary 'aedva^jSeri; ES 'aedva- 

'aer-; radio 'erial, 'erial |-ly -i 

adversative ad'vysativ, aed-; ES - 


aerie 'en, 'aeri, 'in; S 'aeri, 'in 


aeriform e'irajfarm, 'era-, 'aera-; ES 


ad verse adVys, aed-, 'aedvys; ES -3S, 


jfaam, 'aera-, E + 'tra- 

('winds adVerse, 'ad/verse 'winds) 

aerify e'lra^fai, 'era-, 'aera-; S e'ira-, 


adversity adVysati; ES -'v3S-, -Vs's- 

|-fied -jfaid 

advert adVs^t, aed-; ES -'v3t, -Va^t; |-ed 


aerobic jca'robik, e'robik |-ally -li 

advertence ad'vytns, asd-; ES -Vat-, - 


aerodrome 'Erajdrom, 'aera-; S 'aera- 

|-cy -I |-tent -tnt 

aerodynamics ^erodai'naemiks, jaero-, , 


advertise, -ize 'aedva^jtaiz, jaedva^'taiz 

; ES 

S jaero-, ^earo- 

-va-; |-s -iz |-d -d 

aerology ^ea'raladsi; ES+-'rDl- 

advertisement, -tize- ^aedva^'taizmant 


aeromechanic jEromi'kaenik, ^aero-, jcaro-; S 

'yytiz-, -tis-; ES jaedva-, -'vst-, -'vyt- 

jaero-, jcaro- 

advertising, -tiz- n 'aedva^^taizig; ES 'aedva- 

aerometer jea'ramata'; ES -'ramata(r. 


advice adVais |-s -iz 

aeronaut 'trajnat, 'aera-; S 'aera- 

advisability adjvaiza'bilati 

aeronautic ^era'natik, ^aera-; S ^aera- 

advisable adVaizabl j-bly -bh 

aeroplane 'eraiplen, 'aera-; S 'aera- 

advise adVaiz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idh 

aerostat 'era^staet, 'aera-; S 'aera- 

advisement ad'vaizmant 

aerostatic jcra'staetik, ^aera-; S ^aera- 

adviser, -sor adVaiza^; ES -Vaiza(r; 


aerostation jero'ste/an, ^aero-; S ^aero- 


aery 'airy' 'en, 'aeri; S 'aeri 

advocacy 'aedvakasi 

aery 'nest' 'tri, 'aeri, 'in; S 'aeri, 'in 

advocate n 'aedvakit -jket 

Aeschines 'eskajniz |-'s -iz 

advocate v 'aedvajket |-d -id 

Aeschylus 'eskalas |-'s -iz 

advowson adVauzn 

Aesculapius ^Eskja'lepias |-'s -iz 


adz, adze aedz |-(e)s -iz |-(e)d -d 


adzuki aed'zuki 

Aesop 'isap, 'isap; ES + 'isnp 

Aeacus 'iakas |-'s -rz 

aesthesia es'Oisa, -31a [-thesis -'Gisis 

Aedes e'idiz |-des' -diz 

aesthete 'esOiI 

aedile 'idail 

aesthetic Es'GEtik |-al -I |-ally -li, -ikh 

Aegean i'dsian |-geon -Msian 

aestheticism Es'GEta^sizam |-thetics -'Getiks 

Aegeus myth, 'idsjus, -dsus |-'s -iz 

aestival 'estavj, Es'taivl 

Aegina iMsaina 

aestivate 'estajvet |-d -id |-tion jEsta'vt 


aegis 'idsis |-es -iz 

aes triplex, A- T- 'iz'traipkks 

|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fs'tJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while bwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



aestuary '^st/uJEn 

affy a'fai |affied a'faid 

aetheling 'aeGalir), 'aetfaliQ {OE 'aeS-) 

afghan, A- '«fgan, -gaen 

/Ethelstan 'aeGal^staen, 'aeSal-, -stan (OE 

Afghanistan aef 'gaena,staen, ;aefgaena'staen 


afield a'fild 

Aethiop 'iOijap; ES+-jDp 

afire a 'fair; ES a'faia(r 

Aethiopia jiOi'opia [-n -n 

aflame a 'flam 

Aethiopic jiOi'apik, -'opik; ES+-'Dpik 

afloat a'flot 

aetiology jiti'abdsi; ES+-'d1- 

aflutter a'flAta-; ES a'fUtaCr 

Aetna 'etna 

afoot a'fut 

afar a'far; ES 3'fa:(r, E+3'fa:(r 

afore a'for, a'far; ES a'foafr, E+a'faafr 

affability jaefa'bibti 

afore-mentioned a'for'menjand, a'far-; ES 

affable 'aefabl |-bly -bh 

see afore; (a'fore-jmentioned 'act) 

affair a'fer, a'faer; E 3'f£3(r, ES 3'faB3(r 

aforesaid a'for^sed, a'far-; ES see afore 

affect a'fekt |-ed -id 

aforethought a'tor^Oat, a'far-; ES see afore 

affectation jaefik'te/an, yaefEk- 

aforetime a'forjtaim, a'far-; ES see afore 

affection a'fek/an |-ed -d |-ate -it 

a fortiori 'cjfor/i'orai, -jfar/i'ar-; ES 

affective a'ftktiv, ae'f- 

-jfoa/i'orai, E+-jf3a/i'arai 

afferent 'aefarant 

afoul a'faul 

alliance a'faians |-s -iz ]-d -t |-ant -ant 

afraid a'fred; S+a'fred 

affidavit ^aefa'devit 

afreet 'aefrit 

afi&liate n, adj a'filiit, -,et 

afresh a'frej" 

afi&liate v a'fihjet |-d -id 

Afric 'aefrik |-a -a |-an -an 

affiliation ajfili'e/an 

Afrikaans ^aefri'kanz, -'kans 

affinity a'finati 

Afrikander jsefri'kaenda^; ES -da(r 

affirm a'fym; ES a'fsm, a'fym; |-ed -d 

Afro- American 'a;froa'm£rakan 

affirmable a'fymabl; ES a'fsm-, afem-; |-b]y 

aft aeft; E-^aft, aft 


after 'aefta^; ES 'aefta(r, E -h'af-, 'af- 

affirmation jsefa^'mejan; ES ^aefa- 

afterbirth 'aefta-^bye; ES 'aefta^bsO, 'aefta^bye, 

affirmative a'fymotiv; ES a'fsm-, a'fsrn- 

E + 'af-, 'af- 

affirmatory a'fymajtori, -jIdfi; ES a'fsma- 

afterbrain 'jefta^jbren; ES see after 

/tori, a'fym-, E+-jt3ri 

afterdamp 'aefta-jdaemp; ES see after 

affix n 'aefiks |-es -iz 

afterdeck 'aefta^jdek; ES see after 

affix V a'fiks [-es -iz |-ed -t 

after-dinner adj 'asfta^'dina^; ES 'aefta'dina(r, 

afflatus o'fletas 

E+'af-, 'af-; ('after-^dinner 'mints) 

afflict a'fhkt |-ed -id . 

aftereffect 'aeftarajfekt; E -i- 'af-, 'af- 

affliction a'flikjan |-tive -tiv 

afterglow 'aefta^jglo; ES sec after 

affluence 'aefluans, -fliu- |-ent -ant 

afterimage 'aBft3^;imid3; E + 'af-, 'af-; |-s -iz 

afflux 'aefUks |-es -iz 

afterlife 'aefta^^laif ; ES sec after 

afford a'ford, a'fard; ES a'foad, E+a'faad; 

aftermath 'aefta^imaeG; ES see after; |-ths 

|-ed -id 


afforest a'farist, a'far-, a'for- |-ed -id 

aftermost 'aefta^jinost, -mast; ES see after 

affranchise a'fraent/aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

afternoon ^aefta^'nun; ES see after; ('after^noon 

affranchisement a^fraentjizmant 


affray a'fre |-ed -d 

aftertaste 'aefta^^test; ES see after 

affricate n 'aefrikit 

afterthought 'aefta^^eat; ES see after 

affricate v 'aefrijket |-d -id 

afterward 'aefta^w^d; ES 'aeftawad, E + 'af-, 

affricative a'frikativ 

'af-; |-s -z — A dissimilated pron. 'aeftawa-d 

affright a 'f rait |-ed -id 

is often heard {§121). 

affront a'frAnt |-ed -id 

Agag 'egasg 

Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang sa;r| langr}?^ 'aeij-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



again a 'gen, less freq. or poet, a 'gen 

Agincourt 'aedsm,kort, -^kart; ES -jkoat, E-i- 

against a'genst, less freq. or poet, a'genst 


Agamemnon jaega'memnan, -nan; ES+- 


agio 'aedso, 'aedsiiO {It 'a:dso) 

agape a'gep, a'gaep 

agiotage 'aedsatids, 'aedsia- 

agar 'egar, 'ega', 'agar; ES -ga:(r, -g3(r 

agitate 'aedsa,tet |-d -id |-tor -a'; ES -a(r 

agar-agar 'egar'egar; ES 'egar'ega:(r 

agitation jsedsa'te/an 

agaric 'aegarik, a'gaerik 

Aglaia a'glea 

Agassiz 'aegasi |Agassiz's 'aegasiz 

aglet 'aeglit 

agate w 'aegit, 'aagat 

agley a'glai = agly 'asquint^ 

agate adv a 'get 

aglow a'glo 

Agatha 'aegaOa 

agly a'glai = agley — in Burns rimed with 

agave, A- a'gevi 

joy, then pronounced dsai 

Agawam 'aeg3,w3m, -jwam, -jwnm 

agnat 'aegnaet | agnate 'aegnet 

agaze a'gez 

Agnes 'aegnis, -nas |-'s -iz 

age eds iages 'edsiz \past &° pptc aged e 


Agnew 'aegnju, -niu, -nu 

-age unstressed ending -ids, -ads. I 

I the 

agnostic aeg'nastik; ES + -'nDS-; |-ism 

vocab. when only -ids is given, it is 

to he 


understood that many speakers pronounce 

Agnus Dei 'aegnas'diai 


ago a'go 

aged 'old' 'edsid, 'of the age of edsd 

agog a 'gag, a'gog 

agelong 'eds'bg, -'Ing; S+-'lao; ('age 


agonize 'aega^naiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


agony 'aegani |-ied -d 

agency 'edsansi [agent 'edsant 

agora 'aegara |-s -z |-rae -^ri 

agenda pi a'dsenda \sg agendum a'dsendam 

agoraphobia jaegara'fobia 

ageratum ^aedsa 'retain 

agouti a'guti 

Ageratum a'dseratam, jaedsa'retam 

agrarian a'grerian, a'grer- |-ism -^izam 

agglomerate adj, n a'glamarit, -iret; 


agree a'gri |-d -d |-able -abl |-bly -bh 


agreeability ajgria'bilati 

agglomerate v a'glama/ret; ES+-'glDm- 

; l-d 

Agricola a'grikala 


agricultural jaegri'kAltJaral [-ly -i |-ist -ist 

agglomeration ajglama'rejan; ES-i--;glDm- 

agriculture 'aegrijkAltJa'; ES -t/aCr 

agglutinate adj a'ghitnit, -'gliu-, -^et 

agriculturist /aegri'kAltJarist 

agglutinate v a'glutrijct, -'gliu- j-d -id 


agrimony 'aegrajinoni 


Agrippa a'gripa 

agglutination ajglutn'ejan, -;glm- 

agrology a'graladsi; ES+-'grDl- 

aggrandize 'aegran^daiz, a'graen- |-s -iz 


agronomic jaegra'namik; ES + -'nDm-; |-al -I 

aggrandizement a'graendizmant 

agronomy a'granami; ES-h-'grnn-; [-mist 

aggravate 'aegrajvet |-d -id |-tion jaegra'vejan 


aggregate «, adj 'aegrigit, -^get 

aground a'graund 

aggregate v 'aegri^get |-d -id |-tive -iv 

ague 'egju |-d -d |aguing 'egjuig 

aggregation i^gri'gejan 

Aguecheek 'egju^t/ik 

aggregatory 'aegrigaitori, -,tari; S -^tori 

aguinaldo, A- iUgi'naldo {Sp ^agi'naldo) 

aggress a'gres |-es -iz |-ed -t 

ah a 

aggression a'gre/an |-sive -siv 

aha a'ha, a'ha, 'a'ha 

aggressor a'gresa^; ES a'grEsa(r 

Ahab 'ehseb 

aggrieve a'griv j-d -d |-dly -idli 

Ahasuerus ajhaezju'iras, a^haesu- |-'s -iz 

aghast a'gaest; E+a'gast, a'gast 

Ahaz 'ehaez -'s -iz 

agile 'aedsal, 'aedsil |-ly -dsilli, -dsili 

ahead a 'bed 

agility a'dsilati 

ahem a 'hem, 'in^m''m^m £rc. 

Ifull ful [tooth tuG [further 'fs^'Sa^; ES 'fstJa 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 

[custom 'kAstani [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Aherne a'hyn; ES a'hsn, a'hyn 

aisle ail [aisled aild j-less 'aillis 

Ahithophel, Ahito- a'hita^fel 

Aisne en {Fr £:n) 

Ahmed 'amid, 'amed 

aitch et/ [aitches 'et/iz [-bone -jbon 

ahorse a'hars; ES a'haas 

Aix eks [-'s -iz {Fr Eks) 

ahorseback a'harsjbaek; ES a'hoas- 

Aix-la-Chapelle 'ekslaJae'pEl {Fr Eksla/a'pEl) 

Ahoskie a'haski; ES+a'hos- 

ajar a'dsar; ES a'dsaifr, E-t-a'd3a:(r 

ahoy a'hoi 

Ajax 'edsaeks |-'s -iz 

ahungered a'hAijga'd; ES -gad 

Akbar 'aekbar; ES -ba:(r, E+-ba:(r 

Ai 'eai 

ake Ho ache^ ek [-d -t 

aid ed | aided 'edid 

A Kempis a'ksmpis [-'s -iz 

Aida a 'Ida 

Akenside 'ekin^said, 'ekan- 

aide ed 

akimbo a'kimbo 

aide-de-camp 'edda'kaemp, 'edda'ka {Fr 

akin a 'kin 


Akkad 'aekaed 

aides-de-camp 'edzda'kaemp, 'edzda'ka {Fr 

Akkadian a'kedian, a'kad- 


Akron 'aekran [-ite -^ait 

aiglet 'egbt 

a la 'ala, 'ala {Fr ala) 

aigrette 'egret, e'gret 

Alabama ;aela'baema j-n -n j-mian -mian 

Aiken 'ekin, -an 

alabamine jaela'baemui, -in 

ail el 1 ailed eld |-ment -mant 

alabaster 'aela^baesta^; ES -ta(r, E-i--,bas-, 

ailanthus, A- e'laenOas -es -iz 


Aileen 'elin, 'ai-, e'lin, ai- 

a la carte ^ala'kart; ES -'ka:t, E-f--'ka:t; 

aileron 'elajtan; ES-h-irDii 

{Fr ala'kart) 

Ailsa 'elsa, Sc 'elsa 

alack a'laek 

aim em [aimed emd 

alacrity a'laekrati 

ain't ent 

Aladdin a'laedin, a'laedn 

Ainu 'ainu 

Alamannic jiela'maemk 

air Er, aer; E E3(r, ES aBa(r 

alameda ^aela'meda 

air-cool 'er^kul, 'aer-; ES see air; |-ed -d 

Alanieda ^aela'mida, -'meda {Sp jala'meSa) 

air-cooled adj 'sr'kuld, 'aer-; ES see air; 

alamo '^la^mo, 'al- {Sp 'alajmo) 

('air-jcooled 'motor) 

Alamo 'aela^mo 

aircraft 'etjkraeft, 'aer-; E 'ea-, 'aea-, -^kraft. 

alamode jola'mod, ^aela- {Fr ala'mad) 

-jkraft; S 'aea^kraeft 

Aland 'aland, 'a- 

airdrome 'Er^drom, 'ar-; ES see air 

Alarbus a'larbas; ES a'la:b-; [-'s -iz 

air-dry 'Er^drai, 'aer-; ES see air; |-ied -d 

Alaric 'aelarik 

Airedale 'er^del, 'aer-; ES see air 

alarm a'larm; ES a'larm, E+a'la:m 

airfield 'er/fild, 'aer-; ES see air 

alarum a'laeram, a'kram; S a'laeram 

airfoil 'Er^fail, 'aer-; ES see air 

alary 'elan, 'ael- 

airily 'erali, 'aer-, -ili; S 'aer- 

alas a'laes; E-f-a'las, a 'las 

airplane 'Er^plen, 'aer-; ES see air 

Alaska a'laeska -n -n 

airport 'Ef/port, 'aer-, -jpart; E 'Eajpoat, 

Alastor a'laesta^, -tar; ES -ta(r, -t3a(r 

'aea-, -^paat; S 'aeajpoat 

alate 'elet [alated 'eletid 

airproof 'sr'pruf, 'aer-; ES see air 

alb aelb 

airship 'Er^Jip, 'aer-; ES see air 

Alban 'alban 

airsick 'er^sik, 'aer-; ES see air 

alban chem. 'aelban 

airt Ert, ajrt, ert; E Eat, ES aeat, eat 

Albania ael'benia, -nja [-n -n 

airtight 'sr'tait, 'aer-; ES see air 

Albans 'albanz [-'s -iz 

airway 'Er^we, 'aer-; ES see air 

Albany 'albani 

airy 'Eri, 'aeri; S 'aen 

albatross 'aelba^tras, -jtros [-es -iz 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet JEt jsang saeg |angr\' 'aeg'gn 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj", wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




albeit orbiit 

Albemarle ^aelbajmarl; ES -jma:!, E+ 

Albert 'aelba^t; ES 'aelbat 
Alberta ael'byta; ES -'bsta, -'byta 
Albigenses jaelbi'dsensiz 
albinism Wlbajnizam 
albino ael'baino |-binoism -jizam 
Albion 'aelbtan, -bjan 
Albright blbrait 
Albro blbro, cf Aldborough 
album 'aelbam, -bm 
albumen jel'bjuman, -'bium- 
albumin aerbjumin, -'bium- |-ate -it, -^et 
albuminoid ael'bjumijnDid, -'bium- |-nose 

-jnos I -nous -nas 
Albuquerque 'aelba^kyki, jaelba'kyki, -bju-; 

ES -3-, -y- 
alburnum ael'bynain; ES -'ban-, -'byn- 
Alcaeus aersias |-'s -iz 
Alcaic ael'ke-ik 
alcaide ael'ked {Sp al'kaiSe) 
alcalde ael'kaeldi {Sp al'kalde) 
Alcatraz 'aelkajtraez, jselks'traez {Am Sp 

alcazar, A- aerkaeza^; ES -z3(r; {Sp al'kaOar) 
Alcestis ael'sEstis |-'s -iz 
alchemist 'felkamist |-my -nu 
Alcibiades jaelsa'baiajdiz |-'s -iz 
Alcides ael'saidiz |-des' -diz 
Alcinoiis ael'sinuas |-'s -iz 
Alcmene aelkWini 
Alcoa ael'koa 

alcohol 'aelkajhol, -yhol, -jhal |-ism -jizam 
alcohohc jaelks^hahk, -'hnl-, -'hal- |-ally 

-li, -ikh 
alcoholicity jaelkdbarisati, -hoi-, -hal- 
Alcoran jaelko'ran, -'ran 
Alcott bikat 
alcove 'aelkov 
Alcuin 'alkwin 
Alcyone aersaiajiii 
Alda 'alda 

Aldan Pa bldan, Russia al'dan 
Aldborough bld^byo, 'al^b-, -a; ES -jbsr-, 

-jbAr-, -jby-; Brit bldbara, bib-, -bra 
Aldebaran sel'dEbaran 
aldehyde 'aeldajhaid 
Alden bldin, -dan 

alder blda^; ES blda(r 

alderman blda^man; ES blda-; [-men -man 

aldermanic plda^'maenik; ES plda- 

Alderney blda^m; ES bldani 

Aldershot blda^ Jat; ES blda Jat, -Jot 

Aldine bldain, bldin 

Aldington bldigtan 

Aldrich bldrit/ |-'s -iz 

ale el 

aleatory 'eliajtori, -jtari; S -/ton 

alee a'li 

alehouse 'el^haus |-ses -ziz 

Alemannic jaela'maenik 

alembic a'lembik 

Alenfon a'lensan, -san, -son {Fr ala'so) 

Aleppo a'lepo 

alert a'l^t; ES a'bt, a'lyt; [ed -id 

Alethea ^aela'Gia, aUiOia 

Aleut 'aeh/Ut 

Aleutian a'lu/an, a'liu- 

alewife 'el^waif |-wives -jWaivz 

Aleyn 'aelin, -an 

Alexander jaebg'zaenda^, jtlig-; ES -'zaenda(r; 

|-dra -dra |-dria -dria |-drian -drian |-drine 

Alexas a'leksas |-xas' -ksas 
alexin aUeksin 
Alexis a'kksis |-xis' -ksis 
alfalfa, A- ael'faelfa 
Alfonso ael'fanzo, -so; ES+-'fDn- 
Alford blfa^d; ES blfad 
Alfred 'aeUrid, -frad, -fa^d; ES -frid, -frad, 

Alfreda ael'frida ('Al^freda 'Burroughs) 
Alfredian ael'fridian 
alfresco ael'fresko 
Alfric 'aeUrik 
alga 'aelga | algae 'aeldsi 
algebra 'aeldsabra 

algebraic jaeldsa'bre-ik j-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 
algebraist 'aeldsajbre-ist 
Algeciras ^aeldsi'siras |-'s -iz {Sp jalxe'Giras) 
Alger 'aeld33'; ES 'aeldgaCr 
Algeria ael'dsiria j-n -n 
Algerine iaeldja'tin 
Algernon 'aeldsa^nan; ES 'aeldsa- 
algid 'aeldsid 
Algiers ael'dsirz; ES -'dsiaz, S+-'d3Eaz; 

|full ful Itooth tue [further 'fytSa-; ES 'fstJa [custom jkAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 




Algol 'aelgal, -gol 

all- American bb'tnerakan 

Algoma ael'goma 

Allan 'aebn 

Algona ael'gona 

Allardice 'aela^jdais; ES 'asb-; |-'s -iz 

Algonkian seVgagkion, -'gng- 

all-around 'ab'raund ('all-a, round 'skill) 

Algonquian ael'gagkian, -kwian, -'gog- 

allay a'le |-ed -d 

Algonquin ael'gagkin, -kwin, -'goo- 

Allegan 'aebgan 

algorism '^elgajrizam |algorithm 'aelgajriiJam 

Allegany Md, NY 'aeb^geni 

Alhambra ael'haembra 

allegation jaeb'ge/an 

alias 'elias |-es -iz 

allege a'kds |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idli 

Ali Baba 'aeh'baba, 'ali'baba 

Alleghany NC, Va 'aeb^geni 

alibi 'aebjbai |-ed -d 

Allegheny Pa city, riv., college 'aeb^geni 

Alice 'aelis |-'s -iz 

allegiance a'lidsans |-s -iz 

Alicia a'lijia 

allegoric ,xWgorik, -'gar-, -'gor- j-al -I 

alien 'eljan, 'eban 

|-ally -li, -ikli 

Aliena Shak. ^eli'ina 

allegorist 'aebjgorist, -igor-, 'aebgarist; S 

alienability jcljana'bibti, jclian- 

-;gor-, -gar- 

alienable 'eljanabl, 'elian- 

allegoristic ^aebga'ristik 

alienate 'eljanyct, 'elian- |-d -id 

allegorize 'aebga^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

alienation jcljan'ejan, /chon- 

allegory 'aeb/gon, -jgari; S -;gori 

alienism 'eljaiijizam, 'ehan- |-ist -ist 

allegretto ,a2la'greto {It jalle'gretto) 

alight adv a'lait 

allegro a'legro, a'kgro (// al'le:gro) 

alight V a'lait |-ed -id or alit a 'lit 

Alleine 'aelin, -an 

align 3 'lam |-ed -d 

allelomorph a'lib;marf, -'kl-; ES -,maaf 

alike a'laik 

alleluia ,aela'luja, -'liuja 

aliment n 'aebmant 

allemande jaeb'maend (Fr al'maid) 

aliment v 'ael3jm2nt |-ed -id 

Allen 'aelin, -an 

alimental ^aela'niEntl |-ly -i 

Allenby 'felinbi, -an- 

alimentary jaeb'mEntari, -'mEntri 

Allentown 'aelin^taun, -an- 

ahmentation jaebniEn'te/an 

allergic a'lydjik; ES -'bds-, -'lyds- 

alimony 'aebjinoni 

allergy 'aela^dsi; ES 'aebdsi 

ahne a 'lam |-d -d 

Allerton 'aela^tan; ES 'aelatan 

Aline a'lin 

alleviate a'livijCt |-d -id |-tion ajlivi'ej"an 

aliquant 'aebkwant Iquot -kwat 

alley 'aeli |-ed -d 

Aliquippa ^seb'kwipa 

Alleyn 'aelm, -an 

Alison 'aebsn 

Allhallows pl'hasloz, -laz 

alit past b' pptc of alight a 'lit 

alliance, A- a'laians |-s -iz |-d -t 

alive a'laiv 

aUied a'laid ('aljlied 'armies) 

alizarin a'lizarm j-rine -rin -jfin 

Allies 'aelaiz, a'laiz 

alkahest 'aelka^hEst 

alligator 'aebjgeta'; ES -jgeta(r 

alkalescence jaelks'lEsns |-cy -i |-nt -nt 

Allingham 'aeligam 

alkali 'aelkajai 

Allison 'aebsn 

alkalify 'aelkab^fai, ael'kaeb- |-fied -^faid 

alliterate a'lita,ret |-d -id |-tive -iv 

alkaline 'aelka^lain, -lin 

alliteration ajbta'rejan, ^aebta- 

alkalinity jaelka'linati 

allocable 'aebkabl 

alkalize 'ajlkajaiz -s -iz |-d -d 

allocate 'aeb^ket, 'aelo- |-d -id 

alkaloid 'aelkajaid |-al ^aelka'bidj 

allocation ,aela'keXan, ,aelo- 

Alkoran ^a^lkc'ran, -'rasn 

allocution jaeb'kju/an, jaelo-, -'kiu- 


allomorph 'aeb/inarf; ES -^maaf 

Allah 'aeb, 'ab 

allomorphic jaeb'marfik; ES -'maaf- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr>' 'ieg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |vvatch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw d5a |gorge gards |go go 




allopath 'aebjpjEG |-tlis -Os 

Alne an 

allopathic ^aeb'paeOik 

Alnmouth 'aelnjmauG, -maO, /oc. + 'elmaG, 

allopathist a'lapaGist; ES+-Udp-; j-thy -Gi 


allot a'lat; ES+a'lot; 1-ted -id 

Alnwick 'aenik, loc. 'anik 

alio trope 'ael3;trop 

aloe 'aelo |-s -z 

allotropic jsela'trapik; ES+-'trDp-; |-al -1 

aloft a'bft, a 'loft 

l-ally -h, -ikh 

aloha a'loa, a'loha 

allotropy a'latrapi; ES+a'lot- 

alone a 'Ion 

allover n bliOva^; ES -jOV3(r 

along a'bg, a'lng; S+a'lag 

allover adj bl'ova^; ES -'ov3(r; (an bl'ova^ 

alongshore a'bgy/or, a'lng-, -j/ar; E -jXoa(r, 


-;X3a(r; S -/Xoa(r, a'lag- 

allow a'lau |-ed -d 1-edly -idli 

alongside a'bg'said, a'log-; S+a'lag-; 

allowable a'lauabl |-bly -bli 

(a'long'side it, a'longjside a 'barge) 

allowance a'lauans |-s -iz 

Alonso, -zo a'lanzo; ES+a'lon- 

Alio way 'aela^we 

aloof a'luf 

alloy n 'aebi, a'bi 

aloud a'laud 

alloy V a'bi |-ed -d 

alow a'lo 

all-round bl'raund ('all-around 'help) 

Aloysius jselo'isias, -'i/as |-'s -iz 

allspice 'al/Spais j-s -iz 

alp aelp 

Allston 'alstan 

alpaca ael'paeka 

allude a'lud, a'liud |-d -id 

Alpena ael'pina 

allure a'lur, a'liur; ES a'luafr, 3'liu3(r; 

alpenhorn 'aelpin^harn, -pan-; ES -^haan 


alpenstock 'aelpin^stak, -pan-; ES+-jStDk 

allusion a'lusan, a'liusan, ae- 

alpha, A- 'aelfa 

allusive a'lusiv, a'liusiv 

alphabet 'aelfa jbet 

alluvial a'luvial, a'liuv-, -vjal 

alphabetic ^aelfa'betik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

alluvion a'luvian, a'liuv- |-vium -viam ]-via 

alphabetize 'aelfaba^taiz -s -iz |-d -d 


Alphaeus, -phe- Bib. ael'fias, 'aelf- |-'s -iz 

ally n 'aelai, a'lai 

Alpheus mod. name 'aelfias, viyth. ael'fias 

ally V a'lai [allied a 'laid 

Alphonse ael'fanz, -'fonz, -'fanz |-'s -iz {Fr 

almagest 'aelmajdjest 


Alma US 'aelxna, Russia 'alma 

Alphonso ael'fanzo, -so; ES+-'fDn- 

Alma Mater 'aelma'meta', 'alma'mata^; ES 

Alpine 'aelpain, -pin 

-ta(r; — The hybrid 'aelma'mata^ is fre- 

Alps aelps 

quently heard. 

already al'redi 

almanac 'almajiiaek, 'almanik 

alright al'rait 

Alma-Tadema 'aelma'taedima 

Alsace ael'ses, 'aelsaes |-'s -iz {Fr al'zas) 

almighty, A- al'maiti ('al^mighty 'truth) 

Alsace-Lorraine 'ael^seslc'ren, -Id-, 'aeljsaes- 

Almon 'aelman 

Alsatia ael'se/ia, -/a |-tian -/an 

almond 'amand, 'aemand — 'aemand, now less 

alsike 'aelsaik, 'al- 

freq., is preserved by some old families. In 

also 'also 

NEngd 'aelmand is freq. 

Altai ael'tai, ael'te-ai [Altaic ael'te-ik 

almoner 'aelmana"^, 'amana'; ES -na(r 

Altair ael'ta-ir; ES -ia(r 

almonry 'aelmanri, 'amanri 

Altamaha pltama'ha 

almost al'most, 'aljinost ('done, al'most; 

altar 'alta^; ES 'alta(r; |-ed -d 

'aljmost 'done) 

altarpiece 'alta^^pis; ES 'alta-; [-s -iz 

alms amz | -giving -jgivig [-house -^haus 

altazimuth aelt'aezamaG 

almuce 'aelmjus, -mius |-s -iz 

alter 'alta^; ES 'alta(r; |-ed -d [-ing 'altarig. 

Aln aeln, loc.+eX, 'alan, ]^\ 


[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fa'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




alterant bltarant 

Amabel 'aema^bEl 

alteration plta're/an |-rative bltajretiv 

Amadis 'aemadis |-'s -iz 

altercate blta^^ket, 'ael-; ES -ta- 

Amador 'aema^dor, -jdar; ES -^doaCr, E+ 

altercation plta^'ke/an, ^ael-; ES -ta- 

-jdaaCr; {Sp iama'tSar) 

alter ego 'aelta^'igo, -'£go 

amain a 'men 

alternant al'tynant, ael-; ES -'t3n-, -'tyn- 

Amalek 'aemajek |-ite 'aemala^kait 

alternate n, adj blta^nit, 'ael-; ES -ta-; |-ly-Ii, 

amalgam a'maelgam 

flcc/+ al 'ternate (ly ) 

amalgamate adj a'malgamit, -^met 

alternate v blta^^net, 'ael- ; ES -ta- ; |-d -id 

amalgamate v a'maelga^met l-d -id 

alternation plta^'nejan, ^ael-; ES -ta- 

amalgamation a^maelga'me/an 

alternative al'tynativ, ael-; ES -'tsn-, -'tyn- 

Amanda a'maenda 

alternator blta'jneta^, 'ael-; ES -ta^netaCr 

amanita, A- ,aema'naita, -'nita 

Altgeld 'altgeld {Ger 'altgelt) 

amanuensis a^maenju'ensis |-sis' -sis \pl -nses 

Althaea ael'Oia 


althea, A- ael'eia 

amaranth 'aemajraenO [-ths -6s 

althorn 'aelt^harn; ES -jhaan 

amaranthine jaema'raenOin 

although, altho ar'So 

Amarillo ;aema'rilo 

altimeter ael'timata^, 'aeltajinita^; ES -ta(r 

amaryllis, A- jaema'rilis |-lises -lisiz 

altissimo ael'tisa^mo {It al'tissi^mo) 

Amasa 'aemasa 

altitude 'aelta^tjud, -jtiud, -jtud 

amass a'maes |-es -iz [-ed -t 

altitudinal jaelta'tjudnl, -'tiud-, -'tud- 

amateur n 'aema^t/ur, -jtiur, -jtur, -t/a^, 

Altman 'altman 

-ta', jaema'ty; ES 'aemayt/uaCr, -jtiua(r. 

alto 'aelto 

-jtua(r, -tXa(r, -ta(r, ^aema'taCr, -'ty; {Fr 

alto-cumulus jaelto'kjumjalas, -'kium- j-es 

ama'toe:r) — see note below 

-iz |-li -Jai 

amateur adj 'aema^tjur, -jtiur, -jtor, -tja'. 

altogether plta'getJa^; ES -'gEtfoir 

-ta^; ES 'aemajtXua(r, -jtiua(r, -jtua(r. 

Alton 'altn 

-tjacr, -ta(r; {Fr ama'toe:r) — Otiier prons. 

Altoona ael'tuna 

were reported. The 1st, most freq., accords 

alto-relievo 'aeltOTi'livo {It -rilievo 'alto-ri- 

best with tite habits of English. TJte 2d, 3d, 


4th, 6° 5th are normal variations of the 1st. 

alto-stratus 'aelto'stretas |-es -iz |-ti -tai 

amateurish jaema'tyij", -'tjuri/, -'tiur-, -'tur-; 

altruism 'aeltru,izani |-ist -ist 


altruistic jjcltru'istik |-ally -li, -ikli 

amative 'aemativ 

Altus 'aeltas |-'s -iz 

amatory 'aemajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 

aludel 'aeljujdel 

amaze a'mez |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idk 

alum 'aelam |-ed -d 

Amaziah jaema'zaia 

alumina a'lumina, a'liu- 

Amazon, a- 'aema^zan, -zn; ES+-jZDn 

aluminium jaelja'miniam 

Amazonian, a- jaema'zonian 

aluminum a'lummam, a'liu- |-nous -nas 

ambage 'aembids |-s -iz or as L ambages 

alumna a'lAmna |alumnae a'Umni 


alumnus a'Umnas [-'s -iz |-ni -nai 

ambassador aem'baesada^, am-; ES -da(r 

Alva 'aelva 

ambassadorial aem^baesa'dorial, am-, -'dar-; 

alveolar ael'viala^; ES -'vlala(r 

S -'dor- 

alveolus ael'vialas |-li -Jai 

ambassadress aem'baesadris, am- |-es -iz 

alway 'alwe 

amber 'aemba^; ES 'aemba(r; |-ed -d 

always 'alwiz, 'alwez, 'alwaz; S 'alwez, -wiz 

ambergris 'aemba^jgris, -gris; ES 'aemba- 

alyssum, A- a'lisam 

ambidexter jaemba'deksta-; ES -'deksta(r; 

am stressed 'aem, ^aem; tmstr. am, m 

|-trous -tras 

A.M., a.m. 'e'em 

ambidexterity jSembadeks'tErati 

Key: See in full §§3-^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg langn*' 'aeo'gri 
|bath bae6; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dja [gorge gards |go go 




ambient 'aembiant 

Amesbury 'emzjberi, -ban 

ambiguity jsembi'gjuati, -'giuati 

amethyst 'aemaOist 

ambiguous aem'bigjuas 

Amfortas Ger am'fartas 

ambition aem'bi/an |-tious -/as 

Amherst 'aema^st; ES '^emast 

ambivalence aem^bivalans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 

amiability ^emia'bilati 

amble 'aembi |-d -d |-ling ^^embhg, 'jemblig 

amiable 'emiabl |-bly -bli 

ambler, A- 'aembla^; ES 'aembl3(r 

amic 'aemik 

Ambleside ^aembl^said 

amicability jaemika'bilati 

Ambridge 'aembrids |-'s -iz 

amicable 'aemikab} |-bly -bh 

Ambrose 'aembroz j-'s -iz 

amice 'aemis |-s -iz 

ambrosia aem'brosia, -33 |-1 -1 |-Uy -li |-n -n 

amid prep a 'mid 

Ambrosian aem'brozian, -san 

amide chem. 'aemaid, 'aemid |-mid -mid 

ambrotype 'aembra^taip, -bro- 

amidine 'aemi^din, -dm |-din -dm 

ambry 'aembri 

amido a'mido, 'aemijdo 

ambsace ^emzjes, ^aemz- |-s -iz 

amidships a'midjips 

ambulance 'aembjabns |-s -iz |-d -t |-nt -nt 

amidst a 'midst 

ambulate 'aembjajet |-d -id 

Amiens Shak. 'aemianz, Dublin street 'emjanz. 

ambulation jaembja'le/an 

Fr city 'aemianz |-'s -iz {Fr a'mja) 

ambulatory ^aembjabjton, -/tori; S -jtori 

amine a'min |amin 'aemin 

ambuscade jaembas'ked |-d -id 

amino a'mino 

ambush 'aembu/ 1-es -iz |-ed -t 

amir a'mir; ES a'mia(r 

ameba a'miba |-s -z |-bae -bi |-n -n 

amiss a 'mis 

amebean jaemi^bian 

Amite a'mit 

amebic a'mibik [ameboid a'mibaid 

amitosis ^iema'tosis 

ameer a'mir; ES a'miaCr 

amity 'aemati [Amityville 'femati^vil 

Amelia a'miija 

ammeter 'aem/mita', 'ae^mita^; ES -jmita(r 

ameliorate a'miljajret |-d -id 

ammine 'aemin 

amelioration a/iniljaVe/an 

ammino 'aemi^no 

amen 'e'men; worship 'e'raen, 'a-; singing 

Ammon 'aeman 

'a 'men 

ammonia a'monja, -nia [-niac a'moni/aek 

Amen Egyp god 'aman 

ammoniacal ^aema'naiakl 

amenable a'minabl, a 'men- |-bly -bk 

ammoniate a'moni/Ct |-d -id 

Amen Comer 'e^men'Rarna'; ES -'kaana(r 

ammonite 'aemajnait 

amend a 'mend |-ed -id |-s a'mendz, a'menz 

Ammonite 'aeman^ait 

amenity a'menati 

ammonium a'moniam 

ament 'catkin' 'aemant, 'emant 

ammunition /aemja'ni/an 

ament 'moron' 'emant 

amnesia aem'nisia, -3a 

amentia e'men/ia, a'menjia 

amnesty 'aem^nesti, 'aemnasti 

amerce a'mys; ES a'mss, a'mys; j-s -iz 1-d -t 

amoeba a'mlba |-s -z |-bae -bl |-n -n 

America a'meraka, a'menka |-n -n |-nism 

amoebaean ^aemi'bian 


amoebic a'mibik [amoeboid a'mibaid 

Americana a/mera'kena, -'kaena, -'kana 

amok a'mAk, a'mak, a'mnk 

Americanize a'merakan^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

among a'mAg |-st -st, -kst 

Americus a'menkas |-'s -iz 

amoral e'maral, e'maral, e'mnral 

Americus Vespucius a'menkas ves'pju/as. 

Amorite 'aemajtait 


amorous 'aemaras 

Amerigo Vespucci a'merijgo ves'put/i {It 

amorphism a'marfizam; ES a'maaf- 

, jame'ri:go ves'puttji) 

amorphous a'marfas; ES a'maafas 

Amerind 'aema^rind |-ian jaema'rindian 

amort a 'mart; ES a'maat 

Ifull ful [tooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




amortization jaema-ta'ze/an, ajinart-, -ai'z-; 

amylolysis jaemi'labsis; ES-i--UdI- 

ES iflema-, a^maat- 

amylose 'aemi^bs |amylum 'aemibm 

amortize 'aema^^taiz, a'mortaiz; ES 'aema-. 

Amyot 'emiat (Fr a'mjo) 

a'moa-; |-s -iz |-d -d 

Amzi 'aemzai 

Amory 'emari 

an unstressed an, n ; rarely stressed 'aen, 


Amos 'emas |-'s -iz 

ana 'ena, 'ana 

Amoskeag jaemas'kEg 

-ana -'ena, -'aena, -'ana 

amount o'maunt |-ed -id 

Anabaptist /asna'baeptist 

amour a'mur, ae-; ES -'mu3(r 

anabasis, A- a'naebasis |-bases -bajsiz 

amour-propre Fr amur'prbpr 

anabolism a'naebljizam 

Amoy a'mai 

anachronism a'naekrajnizam 

amperage aem'pirids, 'aenijpirids |-s -iz 

anachronistic a^naekra'nistik |-al -1 


Ampere aem'pir, 'asmpcr; ES -Vi3(r. -pE3(r; 

-b, -ikb 

(/^r a'p£:r) 

anachronous a'naekranas 

ampere 'aempir, sem^pir; ES -pi3(r, -V^Cr 

anaclinal jsena'klainl 

ampersand ^semp^s,xnd, jaempa's'aBnd; ES 

anacUtic j^ena'kbtik 


anacoluthia /aenaka'lu6ia, -'bu6- 

amphetamine aem^fetajinin, -mm 

anacoluthic jaenaka'luOik, -'bu9- |-ally -b. 

amphibian aem'fibian |-bious -bias 


amphibrach 'aemfijbraek 

anacoluthon jSenaka'luOan, -'bu6-, -on, 


amphictyon ajm'fiktian |-y -i 

anaconda, A- ^aena'kanda; ES+-'kDn- 

amphictyonic aem^fikti'anik; ES+-'Dn- 

Anacortes ^aena'kartiz, -tez, -tas; ES - 


Amphion asm'faian 

I-'S -IZ 

amphitheater, -tre ^semiafiht^, -fii3-; ES 

Anacostia ^aena'kastia, -'kos-, -'kas- 


Anacreon a'n«krian, -^an; ES+-jDn 

amphora 'aemfara |-s -z |-rae -^ri 

Anacreontic a^naekn'ontik; ES + -'Dntik 

ample 'aempl |-r -pla^; ES -pl3(r; |-st -plist 

anacrusis ^aena'krusis, -'kriu- j -cruses 


amplification jacmpbfa'keXan 

Anadarko jaena'dorko; ES -'da:ko 


amplifier 'asmpbjfaia^; ES -,fai'3(r 


amplify 'sempla^fai |-fied -;faid 

anadem 'ajnajdem 

amphtude 'aempbjtjud, -jtiud, -^tud 

anadromous a'naedramas 

amply 'iempli 

anaemia a'nimia |-mic -nuk 

ampulla aem'pAla, -'pub |-s -z |-lae -li 

anaerobe aett'ea^rob 

amputate 'aempjajtet, 'aempju- |-d -id 

anaerobic aenjea'robik, jaenE'robik 

amputation jaempja'tejan, -pju- 

anaesthesia jaenas'Oisa, -31a 

Amritsar Ain'ritsa^; ES -'ritsa(r 

anaesthetic jaenas'Oetik |-ally -b, -ikb 

Amsterdam US 'aemsta^jdaem, Nelh+ ,xmst2^- 

anaesthetist a'nesOatist 

Maem; ES -sta-; {Dii jamstar'dam) 

anaesthetize a'nesGa^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

Amstutz 'aemstAts [-es -iz {Ger 'am/tuts) 

anaglyph 'aena^gbf 

amuck a'mAk 

anagoge jaena'godsi j-gogy 'aenajgodgi 

amulet 'aemjalit 

anagogic ^aena'gadsik; ES-i--'gDd3-; 

1-al -! 

Amundsen 'amansn, 'amundsn 

l-ally -b, -ikb 

Amur a'mur; ES a'mua(r 

anagram 'aenajgraem 

amuse a'mjuz, a'miuz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly 

anagrammatic jaenagra'maetik |-al -j 



-h. -ikb 

amusive a'mjuziv, a'miuziv 

Anaheim 'asnajbaim 

Amy 'emi 

Anak 'enaek |-s -s |-im 'ana^kim 


amygdalin a'migdakn |-line -bn, -^lain 


amyl 'aemil [-ase -i^les |-ene -ijin 

anal 'enl |-ly -i 

Key: See in full §§3~17. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saerj |angr}' 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw d^o [gorge gards |go go 




analects 'aenajkkts [analecta ^aens'lekta 
analgesia jaen^erdsizia, -sia |-sic -zik, -sik 
analogic (Senl'adsik; ES+-'Dd3-; |-al -1 

|-ally -li, -ikli 
analogist d'naelsdsist 
analogize a'naebjdsaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
analogous a'naelagas 
analogue 'aenlpg, -^ag, -jOg 
analogy a'naebdsi 
analphabetic jaenaelfa'betik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

analysable 'aenl^aizabl 
analyse 'aenljaiz |-s -iz [-d -d 
analysis a'naelasis |-yses -a^siz 
analyst 'aenlist 

analytic ^aenl'itik |-al -j |-ally -ji, -ikli 
analytics ^aenl'itiks 
analyzable 'aenl^aizabl 
analyze 'aenl^aiz j-s -iz |-d -d 
Anam d'naem 
Ananias jaena'naias |-'s -iz 
anapaest, -pest 'aena^pEst 
anapaestic, -pes- jaen3'p£stik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, 

anaphora a'naefara |-1 -1 
anaphoric ^aena'farik, -'far-, -'for- |-al -1 
anaphylaxis ^aenafa'laeksis 
anaplasty ^xn3,plsesti |-tic ^aena'pl^stik 
anarch 'aenark; ES 'aena:k, E+-a:k 
anarchic aen'arkik; ES -'a:k-, E+-'a:k-; |-al 

-1 l-ally -h, -ikb 
anarchism 'aena^jkizam; ES 'aena- 
anarchist 'aena'kist; ES 'aenakist; |-chy -ki 
anarchistic ^aena^'kistik; ES ^aena- 
anastigmatic ^aenastig'maetik, ^aenaestig-, 

anastomosis jaenasta'mosis, ajnaesta- |-moses 

anastrophe a'naestrafi 
anathema s'naeOsma 
anathematize a'naeOsmSjtaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Anatolia jaena'toha |-n -n 
anatomic jaena'tamik; ES+-'tDm-; |-al -1 

l-ally -h, -ikh 
anatomist a'naetamist [-my -mi 
anatomize a^naetSjinaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Anaxagoras jaenaeks'aegaras |-'s -iz 
ancestor 'aensEsta^; ES -S£st3(r 
ancestral aen'sEstral [-ly -i [-try 'ansEstri 

ancestress 'aensEstns |-es -iz 

Anchises aen'kaisiz, aerj- |-ses' -siz 

anchor 'aegka'; ES 'aegkacr; |-ed -d |-ing 
'aegkarig, 'aegkrig 

anchorage 'aegkaridg, -krid3 |-s -iz 

anchoress 'aegkans, -kris j-es -iz 

anchoret 'aegkarit, -£t 

anchorite 'aegka^rait 

anchovy 'aenjt/ovi, 'aentjavi, aen'tjovi 

anchusa aen't/uza, -'t/iuza (L aeg'kjuza, 

ancien regime Fr fisjse-re'sim 

ancient 'en/ant 

ancillary 'aensajEn, Brit aen'silari 

ancress 'aegkris |-es -iz= anchoress 

and usually unstressed: before vowels and. End, 
nd ('sno and 'ais, 'bed nd 'arm); before 
consonants and often before voioels an ('maen 
an 'bist), En, n ('rad n 'gAn, 'fes n 'aiz), 
n ('bAta^ n 'egz) ; after p or b often m ('kAp m 
'sasa^, 'rAb m 'pahj); after k or g often g 
('djaek g 'dsil, 'baeg g 'baegids); stressed 
or in pause: before vowels 'aend, ^asnd, or 
before consonants 'aen, ^aen. The forms with 
-d occ2ir in ordinary speech before vowels 
('frl and 'izi) or 1, r, w, bw, j ('yh and 'let), 
but those without -d are also common there 
('stap an 'it), and are regtdar before other 
consonants ('go an 'si, 'trai an 'du it). 

Andalusia ^aenda'lusa, -'hu-, -/a |-n -n 

Andaman 'aendaman 

andante aen'daenti, an'danti {It an'dante) 

Andean aen'dian, 'aendian 

Andersen 'aenda^sn; ES 'aendasn; j-son -sn 

Andes 'aendiz |-des' -diz 

andiron 'aend^aia^n, -^airn; ES -yai-an, -^aian 

Andorra aen'dara, -'dara, -'dnra 

Andover 'aendova^; ES -dova(r; Mass loc.+ 

Andrade aen'dradi 

Andre 'aendri, 'andre 

Andrea del Sarto 'andriadEl'sarto; ES 
-'sa:to; (It an'dr£:adel'sarto) 

Andreas 'aendrias |-'s -iz 

Andrew 'aendru, 'aendriu |-s -z |-s's -ziz 

Androcles 'aendrajkliz |-'s -iz 

Androclus 'aendraklas |-'s -iz 

androgen 'aendradjan, -dsin |-ic ^aendra- 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAStam |while hwail |how hau |toj^ tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish d^f |vision 'visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kred} |keep 'em 'kipm 




androgynous aen'dradsanas ; ES+-'drDd3- 

angiosperm 'aendsiOjSpym; ES -^spam. 

Andromache aen'dramski; ES+-'drDm- 


Andromeda aen'dramida; ES+-'drDm- 

angle 'aeggl |-d -d |-ling 'aegglig, 'aegg}ig 

Andronicus ^aendra'naikas, S/mk. aen'drani- 

angler 'aeggla^; ES 'aeggla(r 

kas; ES+-'drDn-; |-'s -iz 

Angles 'aegglz 

Andros 'aendras, -dras; ES+-drDs; |-'s -iz 

Anglesey, -sea 'aegglsi 

Androscoggin jjendrs'skagin, -'skog- 

angleworm 'aeggljwym; ES -^wam, -^wym 

anear a'mr; ES a'niaCr, S+3'nje3(r, a'njiaCr, 

Anglia 'aegglia 


Anglican 'aeggkkan 

anecdotal jiemk'dotl ('aneCydotal 'speech) 

Anglicism 'aeggbiSizam |-cist -sist 

anecdote 'aemk^dot |-d -id [-tage -ids 

Anglicize 'aeggla^saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

anecdotic jsenik'datik; ES+-'dDt-; |-al -1 

Anglify 'aeggla^fai |-fied -^faid 

|-ally -li, -ikh 

Anglin 'aegglin 

anele a 'nil |-d -d 

Anglist 'aegglist j-ics aeg'glistiks 

anelectric jaeni'lektrik 

Anglo-American 'aeggloa'merakan 

anemia a'nimia |-mic -mik 

Anglo-Catholic 'aegglo'kaeealik, -'kaeOlik 

anemometer jaena'mamata'; ES -'mam3t3(r. 

Anglo-CathoLicism 'aeggloka'OalajSizam; ES 


+ -'GdI- 

anemometric jaenama'metrik |-al -| |-ally -|i, 

Anglo-Egyptian 'aegglo'i'dsip/an 


Anglo-French 'aegglo'frent/ 

anemone, A- d'nemajni 

Anglo-Indian 'aegglo'indian, -djan 

anent a'nEnt 

Anglo-Irish 'aegglo'airij 

aneroid 'aenajfoid 

Anglo-Japanese 'aegglojdsaepa'niz 

anesthesia jaenas'Oisa, -31a 

Anglomania jaeggla'menia, -glo- |-niac -ni^aek 

anesthetic jsenas'Oetik |-ally -li, -ikh 

Anglo-Norman 'aegglo'narman; ES -'naaman 

anesthetist a'nesOatist 

AnglophUe 'aeggla^fail, -glo- 

anesthetize a'nesGajtaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

Anglophobe 'aeggla,fob, -glo- 

aneurysm, -rism 'aenjajrizam 

Anglophobia jaeggla'fobia, -glo- 

anew a'nju, a'niu, a'nu 

Anglo-Saxon 'aegglo'saeksn j-dom -dam |-ism 

anfractuous aen'fraektjuas 


angary 'aeggari 

Angola aeg'gola, aen- 

angel, A- 'endsal 

Angora aeg'gora, aen-, -'gara, 'aeggara; S 

Angela 'aendsala 

-'gora, -gara 

angelic aen'dsElik |-al -1 j-ally -|i, -ikli 

angostura jaeggas'tjcra, -'tiura, -'tura 

Angelica aen'dselika 

angry 'aeggri |-grily -grak, -gnh 

Angelina jaendsa'lina, -'lama 

angstrom 'aegstram 

Angell 'endsal 

anguish 'feggwi/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 

Angelo 'aendsajo 

angular 'aeggjala^; ES 'aeggjala(r 

Angelus 'aendsalas [-es -iz 

angularity iaeggja'laerati 

anger 'aegga'; ES 'aegga(r; |-ed -d ]-ing 

angulate adj 'aeggjaht, -Jet 

'aeggarig, 'aeggrig 

angulate v 'aeggjajet \-d -id 

angerly 'aegga^li; ES 'aeggali 

Angus 'aggas |-'s -iz 

Angers 'aendsa^z, 'aegga'z; ES -az; |-'s -iz 

angustura ^aeggas'tjura, -'tiura, -'tura 

(Fr a'se) 

anhungered an'hAgga^d; ES -'hAggad 

Angevin 'aendjavin 

anhydride aen'haidraid, -drid |-drid -drid 

Anglers Shak. 'aendsirz; ES 'aendsiaz; ]-'s 

anhydrous aen'haidras 


anil 'aenil 

angina aen'dsaina, in medicine often 'aendsina 

anile 'aenail, 'enail 

angina pectoris aen'dsaina'pEktaris 

aniline 'aen{,m, -in |-in -m 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) jrate ret |yet jet |sang saeg | angry 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gardj [go go 



Anson ia 

anility a'nibti 

Anne Arundel 'aen-a'rAndl 

animadversion jaen3maedV3<^33n, -VyJ- 

; ES 

annelid 'aenhd 

-'V3-, -Vy- 

annex n 'aen£ks|-es -iz |-ation jaentks'ejan 

animadvert ^aenamaed'vs't; ES -Vst, - 


annex v a 'neks |-es -iz |-ed -t 

|-ed -id 

Annie 'aeni 

animal 'aenami |-ly -i 

annihilate a'naiajet |-d -id |-lable -labl 

animalcula pi jaena'maelkjala 

annihilation ajiiaia'le/an 

animalculae pi jaena'maelkjajli 

anniversary jaenaVysari, -sri; ES -'v3S-, 

animalcule jaena'maelkjul, -kiul 


animalculism jaena'maelkjajlizam 

anno Domini 'aeno'damajnai; ES+-'dDni- 

animalculum jaena'maelkjabm |-la -la 


annotate 'aenojtet |-d -id |-tion jaeno'te/an 


annotator 'aeno^teta^; ES -/teta(r 

animalism 'aenaml/izam 

announce a'nauns |-s -iz \-d -t 

animality jaens'maelsti 

annoy a'nai j-ed -d |-ance -ans |-ances 

animate ajy 'aenamit 


animate v 'aena^met |-d -id [-tion jaena'me/an 

annual 'aenjual, 'aenjul |-ly -i 

animism 'aena/inizam | animistic jaena'mistik 

annuitant a'nuatant, a'niu-, a'nju- |-ity -ati 

animosity jaena'masati; ES+-'mDS- 

annul a'nAl j-led -d 

animus 'aenamas 

annular 'aenjala^; ES -la(r 

anion ^aen^aian 

annulet 'aenjalit 

anise 'aenis 

annulus 'aenjalas |-es -iz |-li -^lai 

aniseed, anisseed 'aenijsid, ^aeniSjsid 

annum 'aenam 

anisometric jaenaisa'mgtrik, aen^aisa- 

annunciate a'nAn/ijet, -si- |-d -id 

anisotropic ^aenaisa'trapik, aeiijaisa-; 


annunciation, A- ajiiAnsi'eJan, -Ji- 

-'trnp-; |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

annunciator a^nAnJiiCtSi', -si-; ES -jeta(r 

Anita a'nita 

Annunzio, d' da'nunzijO {It dan'nuntsjo) 

Anjou 'aendsu (Fr a'su) 

anociassociation ajnosiajsosi'e/an, -;SoJi- 

Ankara 'aegkara, ^agkara 

anociation ajnosi'e/an, a^noXi- 

ankh aegk 

anode 'aenod |-dic aen'adik; ES+-'cdik 

ankle 'aegkl |ankled 'aegkld 

anodize 'aenojdaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

anklebone 'iegkl^bon, -'bon 

anodyne 'aenajdain, 'aeno- 

anklet 'asgkbt 

anoint a'namt |-ed -id 

ankus 'aegkas, Vgka/ 1-es -iz 

Anoka a'noka 

ankylose 'aegkajos |-s -iz |-d -t 

anolyte 'aena^lait 

ankylosis ^aegka^losis 

anomalism a'namljizam; ES+-'nDm- 

anlace 'aenlis, -las |-s -iz 

anomalistic ajnaml'istik; ES+-jnDm-; |-al -J 

Ann aen 

l-ally -h, -ikh 

anna, A- 'aena 

anomaly a'namali; ES+-'nDm-; |-lous -las 

Annabel, -Ue 'aenajbel 

anort a 'nan, a'nnn 

Annabella ^aena^bela 

anonym, -e 'aenajnim |-nymity jaena'nimati 

annals 'aenlz | annalist 'aenlist 

anonymous a'nanamas; ES+a'nnn- 

Annam a^naem 

anopheles. A- a'nafajliz; ES+-'nDf- 

Annamese jaena'miz 

another a'nAtJa-; ES a'nAtSa(r 

Annapolis a'naeplis, -plis, -as j-'s -iz 

Anschluss Ger 'an/lus 

Ann Arbor aen'orba^; ES -'a:ba(r. 


Anselm 'aensglm 


anserine 'gooselike' 'aensajrain, -rin 

annates 'aenits, 'aenets jannat 'aenaet 

anserine chem. 'aensajtin, -rin 

Anne aen 

Anson 'aensn 

anneal a 'nil j-ed -d 

Ansonia aen'sonia 

[full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstSa |custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipm 




Anstruther 'aenstrA'Sa'; ES -tJ3(r 

answer 'aensa^; ES 'aens3(r, E+'an-, 'an-; 

|-ed -d |-ing -sarii), -sno 
answerable 'aensarobj, -sra- |-bly -bli; E see 

ant aent 

antacid aent'aesid 
Antaeus aen'tias |-'s -iz 
antagonism aen'taegajnizam |-nist -nist 
antagonistic aenjtaega'nistik, jaentaega- \-al -1 

1-ally -h, -ikh 
antagonize aen'taega^naiz |-s -iz \-d -d 
antalkali aent'aelkajlai 
antarctic aent'arktik, noto rare -'artik; ES 

-'a:-, E+-'a:-; ('antjarctic 'circle) 
Antarctica aentWktika; ES -'a:k-, E+-'a:k- 
Antares aen'teriz, -'taer-; S.-'taer-; |-es' -iz 
ante 'aenti 

anteater 'aent^ita^; ES -jit3(r 
ante bellum 'aenti'belam 
antecede ^aenta'sid |-d -id 
antecedence jaenta'sidns |-cy -i |-dent -dnt 
antecessor jaenta'sesa^; ES -'sES3(r 
antechamber 'aentijtjemba'; ES -jtjembacr 
antedate 'aenti^det, jaenti'det [-d -id 
antediluvian ^aentidi'luvian, -'huv- 
antelope 'aentljop 

ante meridiem 'aentimaVidijEm, -'ndiam 
antenna apn'tsna |-s -z |-nae -ni 
Antenor aen'tina^, -nor; ES -n3(r, -n33(r 
antepenult jaenti'pinAlt, -pi'nAlt 
antepenultimate jaentipi'nAltamit 
anterior aen'tiria'; ES -'tiri-3(r 
anteriority jSentiri'Drati, -'ar-, -'nr- 
anteroom 'aenti^rum, -jvm 
anthelion aent'hiksn, aen'Oihan |-s -z j-lia 

-li3 — The 2d is not a spelling pron. Gk 

has 6. 
anthelmintic jaenGEl'mmtik 
anthem 'aenOam — a sp. pron. (OE antefn, ME 

antem, 16c anthem with Latinized sp. 

anther 'aenOa^; ES 'aen63(r 
anthill 'aent,hil 
anthologize aen'Oala^dsaiz; ES+-'eDl-; |-s 

-IZ l-d -d 
anthology aen'Oaladgi; ES+-'0d1- 
Anthony 'aenOani, 'aentani, 'aentni 
anthozoan jaenOa'zoan 

anthracene 'aenOra^sin 

anthracite 'aen6r3,sait 

anthracnose aen'Oraeknos 

anthrax 'aenGraeks |-es -iz 

anthropocentric ^aenBrapo'sentnk 

anthropogenesis jaenGrapo 'dssnasis 

anthropogenetic jaenGrajpodsa'iiEtik 

anthropography jaenGra'pagrafij -'p^g- 

anthropoid 'aenGra^paid 

anthropological ^aenGrapaUadsikl; ES+ 

-Uods-; |-ly -i, -ikli 
anthropology ^aenGra'paladsi; ES+-'pd1-; 

1-gist -dsist 
anthropometric ^aenGrapo'mEtnk j-al -1 j-ally 

-h, -ikh 
anthropometry jaenGra'pamatri; ES+ -'pom- 
anthropomorphic jaenGrapo'marfik; ES 

-'maaf-; |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli |-phism 

anthropomorphosis jaenOrapo'marfasis; ES 

anthropomorphous ^aenGrapo'inarfas; ES 

anthroponomy ^aenGra'panami; ES + -'pDn- 
anthropophagi yaenGra'pafa^dsai; ES+-'pDf-; 

1-gite -jdsait |-gous -gas 
anti 71 'aentai, 'aenti \-s -z 
antiadministration jaentiadjinina'stre/an 
antiaircraft jaenti'erjkraft, -'aer-; E -'ea-, 

-'aea-, -jkraft, -jkraft; S -'aeajkraeft 
antibiosis ^aentibai'osis |-otic -'atik; ES+ 

antibody 'aentiybadi; ES+-jbDdi 
antic 'aentik |-ked -t 
anticatalyst jaenti'kastlist 
anticathode ^aenti'kaeGod 
antichlor 'aenti^klor, -^kbr; ES -jkloa(r, E+ 

antichrist 'aenti^kraist 
anticipant aen'tisapant 
anticipate aen'tisa,pet |-d -id j-tive -rv 
anticipation aen^tisa'pejan, ^aentisa- 
anticipatory aen'tisapajtori, -/tan; S -jtori 
anticlastic jaenti'klaestik 
anticlerical jaenti'klerikl 
anticlimax jienti 'klaimaeks |-es -iz j-ed -t 
anticline 'aentijklam |-clinal jaenti'klainl 
Anticosti jaenta'kasti, -'kas-, -'kos- 
anticj'clone ^aenti'saiklon 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg jangrv^ 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gardj [go go 




anticyclonic jaentisai'klanik; ES+-'klDn-; 

antirust ^aenti'rAst 

|-ally -li, -ikli 

antisaloon jaentisa'lun 

antidotal 'aenti^dotl, jaenti'dotl j-ly -'dotk 

antiscorbutic jaentiskar'bjutik, -'biu-; ES 

antidote 'tenti^dot |-d -id 


Antietana aen'titam 

anti-Semitic jaentisa'mitik |-ally -k, -ikli 

antifat jaenti'faet ('anti^fat 'treatment) 

anti-Semitism jaenti'sEmajtizam 

Antifederalist ^aenti'fsdaralist, -'fsdral- 

antisepsis ^aenta 'sepsis 

antifreeze ^aenti'friz |-s -iz 

antiseptic ^aenta'septik |-ally -ji, -ikh 

antigen 'aentadsan -d3in 

antisepticize jaenta'septa^saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

Antigone sen'tig3jni 

antiserum jaenti'siram 

Antigonus aen'tiganas |-'s -iz 

antislavery jaenta'slevri, -'slevari 

Antigua aen'tiga, aen'tigwa 

antisocial jaenti'so/al 

anti-imperialism jaenti-im'pirialjizam |-ist- ist 

antistrophe aen'tistrafi, -f\ 

anti-imperialistic ;aenti-im;piri3l'istik 

antistrophic ^aenti'strafik, -'strof-; ES-i- 

antiknock jsenti'nak; ES+-'nDk 

-'strof-; |-ally -Ii, -ikli 

antilabor jaenti'leba^; ES -'leb3(r 

antitank ^aenti'taegk ('antijtank 'gun) 

Antilles sen'tiliz 

antithesis aen'tiOasis |-theses -ea^siz 

antilogarithm ^aenti'bgajri'Sam, -'lag-, -'lag- 

antithetic jaenti'Oetik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 

an tilynching ^aenti'IintXii] 

antitoxic ^ienti'taksik; ES-h-'tok-; |-xin 

antimacassar jaentima'kaesa^; ES -'kaES3(r 


antimask, -sque 'ienti^maesk; E+-jmask, 

antitrades 'aenti^tredz 


antitrust ^aenti'trAst 

antimonsoon ysentiman'sun; ES+-mDn- 

antitype 'aenta/taip 

antimony 'aenta^moni 

antitypic ^aenti'tipik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 

antimonyl 'aentimajnil 

Antium 'aentiam, -Jiam 

antinomian, A- jaenti'nomian 

antivivisection jaenti,viva'sEkXan j-ist -ist 

antinomy aen'tmami 

antiwar jaenti'war; ES -'waa(r 

Antioch 'aenti^ak; ES+-jDk 

antler 'aentla^; ES 'aentla(r; |-ed -d 

Antiochus aen'taiakas |-'s -iz 

Antoinette jaentwa'net {Fr atwa'nEt) 

antipathetic aenjtipa'Oetik ^a^ntipa- |-al -1 

Antonia aen'tonia 

1-ally -li, -ikli 

Antoninus jaenta'nainas |-'s -iz 

antipathy agn'tipaOi 

Antonio aen'tonijO, -njo 

antiperiodic j^entijpiri'adik; ES-h-'od- 

Antonius aen'tonias |-'s -iz 

antiphlogistic ^aentiflo'dsistik 

antonomasia ^aentano'inesa, -51a 

Antipholus aen'tifalas j-'s -iz 

Antony 'aentam, 'aentni 

antiphon 'aenta^fan, -fan; ES+-jfDn 

antonym 'aentajnim 

antiphonal aen'tifanl |-ly -i | -phony -fani 

antonymous aen'tanamas; ES-i--'t»n- 

antiphonary aen'tifajnen 

antre 'aenta^; ES 'aenta(r 

antipodal aen'tipadl 

Antrim 'aentrim 

antipode 'aenti^pod \pl antipodes aen'tipa^diz 

antrum 'aentram 

antipodean aen^tipa'dian, ^aentipa- 

Antwerp 'aentwyp; ES -wsp, -wyp 

antipope 'aenti^pop 

anus 'enas |-es -iz j-ni -nai 

antiputrid jaenti'pjutrid, -'piu- 

anvil 'lenvil |-ed -d 

antiquarian jaenti'kwerian, -'kwer- 

anxiety aeg'zaiati, aeog'z- 

antiquary 'aenti^kweri 

anxious 'aegk/as, 'aeg/as 

antiquate 'aenta^kwet |-d -id 

any 'ehi, unstressed occas. am, ni ('gatni 

antique aen'tik ('an^tique 'table) 


antiquity aen'tikwati 

anybody 'EiUjbadi, -^bAdi, -badi; ES+ 

antirrhinum, A- iaenti'rainam 


[full ful Itooth tuO [further 'fySa^; ES 'fa'Sa |custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

anyhow 'enijhau 

anyone '£nijWAn, -wan (jeniwan'els) 

anything 'enijOiij 

anyway 'eni^we |-s -z 

anyTvhere 'EiUjhwer, -jhwter; E -jhwe3(r, ES 

anywhere else 'enijhwer'Els, -^hwaer-, 

anywise 'eni^waiz 

Anzac 'aenzaek 

A one, A 1 'e'wAn 

Aonian e'onian 

aorist 'earist 

aoristic ^eaVistik l-ally -ji, -ikli 

aorta ebrta; ES ebata 

apace a'pes 

apache 'gangster'' aVf>X> a'paej I-s -iz {Fr 

Apache Indian a'paetji 
Apalachee, -chi jaepa'lietji, -tji 
Apalachicola jaepajaetji'kola 
apanage 'aepanidj |-s -iz j-d -d 
apart a'part; ES a'pait, E+a'pa^t 
apartment a'partmant; ES a'pait-, E+ 

apartmental apart 'mentl; ES 3pa:t-, E+ 

apathetic jaepa'Oetik |-al -1 j-ally -|i, -ikli 
apathy 'aepaOi 
ape ep |aped ept 
apeak a'pik 

Apemantus ^aepi'maentas |-'s -iz 
Apennines 'aepa^nainz 
aperient a'pirisnt 
aperiodic ^epiri'adik; ES+-'Dd-; |-ally -li, 

aperitif Fr aperi'tif 
aperitive a'psrativ 

aperture 'aepa'tja^; ES 'aepatJaCr; |-d -d 
apery 'epari 
apetalous e'pstlas 

apex 'epeks |-es -iz |apices 'aepi^siz, 'e- j-ed -t 
aphaeresis a'ferasis, ae- 
aphasia a'fesa, -313 
aphelion ae'fihan, a- |-s -z |-lia -ha 
apheresis a'ferasis, ae- 
aphesis 'aefasis 
aphid 'efid, 'aefid 

aphis, A- 'efis, 'aefis |-es -iz [aphides 'asfi^diz 

aphorism 'aefajnzam |-ist -rist 

aphoristic ^aefaVistik |-al -I |-ally -li, -ikh 

aphorize 'aefajtaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

aphrodisiac jaefra'dizi^aek 

Aphrodite ^aefra'daiti 

API 'e;pi'ai, asbsja'sjo fane'tik setemasja- 

'nal, c/ 1 P A 
apian 'epian 
apiarian ,epi'Erian, -W- 
apiarist 'epiarist 
apiary 'epi;8ri 
apical 'aepikl, 'e- 1-ly -i 
apices 'aepi^siz, 'e- 
apicultural jepi'kAltJaral 
apiculture 'epi^kAltJa^; ES -tj"a(r 
apiece a 'pis 
Apis 'epis 
apish 'epi/ 
aplenty aVlenti 

aplomb a'plctni, a'pbm {Fr a'plo) 
apocalypse, A- a'pakajips |-s -iz 
apocalyptic ajpaka'liptik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

apocopate adj a'pakapit, -;pet 
apocopate v a'paka^pet |-d -id 
apocopation ajpaka'pe/an 
apocope a'pakapi, -^pi 
apocrypha, A- a'pakrafa ]-l -1 |-lly -li 
apodeictic, -deik- ^aepa'daiktik |-al -1 1-allv 

-li, -ikli 
apodictic ,aepaMiktik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikh 
apodosis a'padasis |-doses -da,siz 
apogee 'aspa^dsi 

ApoUinaris a/pala'n£ris, -'naeris, -'nens 
Apollo a'palo 
ApoUodorus a/pala'doras, -'dor-; S -'dor-; 

I-'S -IZ 

Apollonius jaepaUonias |-'s -iz 

Apollos a'pcilas |-'s -iz 

Apollyon a'paljsn 

apologetic a^pala'dsstik 1-al -1 j-alh' -Ii, 

apologia jsepalodsia 
apologist a'paladsist \-gy -dsi 
apologize a'pala^dsaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
apologue 'aepajag, -}ag, -ilng 
apophthegm 'aepa^Oem 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'pi** (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeo'^" 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) jah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spell o are often pronounced with r> in E and S 

apophthegmatic ^aepaOEg'maetik |-al -1 


appendectomy jfepan'dektami 

-li, -ikh 

appendices a'penda^siz 

apoplectic jaepa'plsktik |-al -1 |-aUy -li, 


appendicitis a^penda'saitis 

apoplexed 'aepajplekst | apoplexy 'aepa^pleksi 

appendix a'pendiks |-es -iz [-dices -da^siz 

aport 3 'port, a 'part; ES a'poat, E+a'poat 

apperceive ^aepa^'siv; ES jaepa-; |-d -d 

aposiopesis jaepa^saia'pisis 

apperception jaepa^'sEp/an; ES jaepa-; j-tive 

apostasy a'pastasi 


apostate a'pastet, -tit 

appertain ^aepa^'ten; ES jflepa-; |-ed -d 

apostatize a'pasta^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

appetence 'aepatans |-cy -i |-tent -tant 

a posteriori 'epas^tin'orai, -br-; S -W- 

appetite 'aepajtait -titive -jtaitiv 

apostle a'pasl 

appetize 'aepa^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

apostolate a'pastlit, -^et 

appetizer 'aepajtaiza'; ES -;taiza(r 

apostolic jsepas'talik |-al -\ |-ally -h, -ik 


Appian 'aepian 

apostrophe a'pastrafi 

applaud a'pbd j-ed -id |-able -abl |-bly -bli 

apostrophize a'pastra^faiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

applause a'pbz |-s -iz 

apothecary a'paGajkeri 

apple 'aepl |-d -d |-ling 'aeplig, 'aephg 

apothegm 'aepajOem 

applejack 'aepl,d3aek 

apothegmatic ^aepaeEg'maetik |-al -1 


apple pie 'aepl'pai ('apple-^pie 'order) 

-li, -ikh 

applesauce 'aepjjsas 

apotheosis 3jpa6i'osis, ^aepa'Gbsis 

Appleton 'aepltan 

Appalachia jspa'laet/ia 

appUable a'plaiabl |-bly -bli 

Appalachian jaepa'laet/ian, -'let/-, -tjan 

appliance a'plaians |-s -iz |-ant -ant 

Appalachians jaepa'laetjanz, -'let/-, -lanz 

applicabihty ^aepbka'bilati 

appall, -al a 'pal |-ed, -led -d 

applicable 'aeplikabl, a'phk- |-bly -bb 

appanage 'aepanids |-s -iz |-d -d 

applicant 'aeplakant 

Appanoose ^aepa'nus |-'s -iz 

application ^aepla'ke/an 

apparatus ^tepaVetas, -Vaetas \pl -tuses 


applicative 'aepla^ketiv |-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 

\L pi -ratus -'retas 

applicatory 'aeplakajtori, -/tan; S -jtori 

apparel a'paeral |-ed -d 

applied a'plaid |appliedly a'plai-idb 

apparent a'paerant, a'per-; S a'paer- 

applique jaepli'ke (Fr apli'ke) 

apparition jaepaVi/an 

apply a'plai [applied a'plaid 

apparitor a'paerata^; ES -ta(r 

appoint a 'paint |-ed -id |-ive -iv 

appeal a'pil |-ed -d |-able -abl 

appointee apain'ti, jspain'ti, a'painti 

appealability ajpila'bilati 

appointor a'pamta^, apain'tar; ES -ta(r. 

appear a'pir; ES a'pia(r, S+a'psaCr. a'pj£a(r; 


l-ed -d 

Appomattox ^aepa'maetaks |-'s -iz |-toc -tak 

appearance a'pirans; S+a'per-, a' 


apportion a'por/an, a'par-; ES a'poajan, E+ 

|-S -IZ 

a'paa-; |-ed -d |-ing -Janig, -/nig 

appeasable a'pizabl |-bly -bh 

appose a'poz, ae- |-s -iz |-d -d |-sable -abl 

appease a'piz |-s -iz |-d -d 

apposite 'aepazit 

appellant a'pelant 

apposition ^aepa'zi/an 

appellate a'p£ht |-tive -iv, -lativ 

appositive a'pazativ 

appellation jaepa'lejan 

appraise a'prez |-s -iz |-d -d |-sal -1 

appellee jaepa'li 

appreciable a'priXiabl, -/abl j-bly -bh 

appellor a'pelar, jaepa'br; ES -aa(r 

appreciate a'priji^et |-d -id 

append a'pend |-ed -id |-age -ids 


appreciation ajpriji'ejan |-tive a'prijijctiv 


appreciatory a'prijiajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 

appendant a 'pendant 

apprehend jaepri'hend |-ed -id 

[fuU ful |tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are ojten pronounced, in E with a (farm) 

apprehensible jajpri'hEnsabl |-bly -bit 

Aquarius a'kwErias, a'kwer- |-'s -iz 

apprehension ja^pri'hEnJan |-sive -siv 

aquatic a'kwaetik, a'kwat-, a'kwot- 

apprentice a'prentis -s -iz |-d -t |-ship -jjip 

aquatint 'askwajtint 

appressed a'pr^st, ae- 

aqua vitae 'aekwa 'vaiti 

apprise, -ze Wme' a'praiz j-s -iz j-d -d 

aqueduct 'aekwi^dAkt 

apprize, -se 'appraise' a'praiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

aqueous 'ekwias, 'aek- 

approach a'protj |-es -iz |-ed -t 

Aquidneck a'kwidnek 

approachability ajprotja'bilati 

Aquila 'aekwila |-lae -}\--Bible+3^k-wi]9, pcrh. 

approachable a'prot/abj 

by association with Priscilla {Rom. 16:3). 

approbate 'aepra^bet |-d -id |-tion jaspra'bejan 

aquiline 'aekwa Jam, -lin 

approbatory a'probajtori, -jtori; S -jton 

Aquinas a'kwainas |-'s -iz 

appropriable a'propriabl 

Aquitaine jsekwi'ten [-tania -la 

appropriate adj a'propriit 

ar ar; ES a:(r 

appropriate v a'propn^et [-d -id |-tive -iv 

Arab 'aerab, now lessfrcq. 'eraeb 

appropriation ajpropri'ejan 

Arabella jaera'bela 

approve a'pruv |-d -d |-dly -idli |-val -1 

arabesque ,aera'bEsk 

approximate adj a'praksamit; ES+a'proks- 

Arabia a'rebia, -bja |-n -n 

approximate v oVraksajinet; ES+a'prnks-; 

Arabic, a- 'aerabik 

1-d -id 

arabis, A- 'aerabis |-es -iz 

approximation ajpraksa'me/an; ES+ 

arable 'aerabl 


Araby 'srabi 

appurtenance a'ps'tnans; ES a 'pat-, a'pyt-; 

Arachne a'raekni 

|-s -IZ |-ant -ant 

arachnid a'raeknid j-noid -naid 

apricot 'eprijkat, 'aep-; ES+-jkDt 

Aragon 'aera^gan, -gan; ES+-jgDn; {Sp 

April 'epral, 'epril 


a priori 'eprai'orai, -br-; S -'orai 

Aral 'eral, 'aeral, 'eral; S 'aeral, 'eral 

apriority ^eprai'srati, -'ar-, -'nr- 

Aram 'eram, 'Etam, '«ram; S 'eram, 'aeram 

apron ^epran, 'epa^n; ES 'epran, 'epan; |-ed 

Aramaean, -mean iaera'mian ]-maic -'me-ik 

-d — The older pron. 'epa^n, 'epan is by no 

Aransas a'raensas |-sas' -sas 

means rare, and appears from the L.A. to be 

Arapaho, -hoe a'raepajho 

very common in NEngd. 

Ararat 'aera^raet 

apropos ^aepra'po 

arbalest, -list 'arbalist; ES 'a:b- 

apse aeps lapses 'aepsiz 

arbiter 'arbita^; ES 'a:bita(r 

apsis 'ajpsis |apsides 'aepsi^diz 

arbitrable 'arbatrabl; ES 'a:b- 

apt apt 

arbitrage 'arbitration' 'orbatrids; ES 'a:b-; 

apterous 'aeptaras 

1-S -IZ 

apteryx 'aepta^nks |-es -iz 

arbitrage commerce 'arbatrids, jorba'tras: 

aptitude 'aipta,tjud, -^tiud, -jtud 

ES 'a:b-, ,a:b-; |-s -iz j-d -d 

Apuleius ^aepju'lias |-'s -iz 

arbitral 'arbatral; ES 'a:b- 

Apulia a'pjulia, a'piuha 

arbitrament ar'bitramant; ES a'bit- 

aqua 'aekwa, 'e- |-s -z |aquae -wi 

arbitrarily 'arba;trerali; ES 'a:b-; csp. if 

aqua fortis 'aekwa 'fartis, 'e-; ES -'faatis 

emph. jarbi'trarily 

aqualon 'aekwajan; ES+-jlDn 

arbitrary 'arbajttEri; ES 'a:b- 

aquamarine jaekwamaVin 

arbitrate 'arbajtret; ES 'a:b-; |-d -id 

aquaplane 'aekwa ^plen 

arbitration jarba'tre/an; ES lO-.h- 

aqua regia 'aekwa 'ridsia, 'e- 

arbitrator 'arba,trety; ES 'a:bajtreta(r 

aquarium a'kwsnam, a'kwer- |-s -z |-ria 

arbitress 'arbatris; ES 'a:b-; j-es -iz 


Arblay, d' 'darble; ES 'darble 

Key: See in full §§3—i7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg iangry 'feg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baB (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw d^y [gorge gards |go go 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
arbor, A- 'arba^; ES 'a:b3(r; |-ed -d 
arboraceous jOrbaVeJos; ES ^arba- 
arboreal ar'borial, -'bar-; ES a'borial, E+ 

arborescent ^arba'tEsnt; ES ja:ba-; |-nce 

arboretum jarba'ritam; ES ja:ba- 
arboriculture 'arbari^kAltJa'; ES 'a:bari- 

arborvitae, arbor vitae 'arba^'vaiti; ES 

Arbuckle 'arbAkl; ES 'a:b- 
Arbuthnot ar'bAOnat, 'arbaGjnat; ES a:-, 

'a:-, -jHDt 

arbutus ar'bjutas, -'biu-; ES a:-; [es -iz 
arc ark; ES a:k; |arced, arcked arkt; ES a:kt 
Arc, Jeanne d' Fr 3a:n'dark 
arcade ar'ked; ES a:'ked; |-d -id 
Arcadia ar'kedia; ES a'ked-; |-n -n 
Arcady 'arkadi; ES 'ark- 
arcanum ar'kenam; ES a: 'ken-; |-na -na 
arced arkt; ES a:kt 
arch art/; ES a:t/; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
Archaean ar'kian; ES a:'kian 
archaeological jarkia'lad3ikl;ES ^aikia'lads-, 

-'lods-; |-ly -i, -ikli 
archaeology ^arki'aladsi; ES ^aiki'al-, -'d1-; 

I -gist -dsist 
archaeopteryx, A- ^arki'aptariks; ES 

,a:ki'ap-, -'op-; |-es -iz 
Archaeornis ^arki'arnis; ES ^aiki'aanis 
archaic ar'ke-ik; ES a:-; |-al -1 |-alty -ji, 

archaism 'arki,izam, 'arke-; ES 'a:k- 
archaistic ^arki'istik, jarke-; ES ^aik- 
archaize 'arki^aiz, 'arke-; ES 'a:k-; j-s -iz 

archangel, A- 'ark'endsal, -jcndsal; ES 'a:k- 
archangelic jarkaen'dgElik; ES ;a:k-; |-al -1 
archbishop 'artj'bijap; ES 'a:tj-; ('Arch- 

jbishop 'Laud) 
archbishopric jartj'bi/aprik ; ES ^art/- 
Archbald 'artjbald; ES 'aitj"-; |-bold -bold 
archdeacon 'art/'dikan, -^dikan; ES 'aitj- 
archdiocese 'artj'daia^sis, -sis; ES 'art/-; 

|-S -IZ 

archducal jartj'djukl, -'diu-, -'du-; ES 

archduchess 'art/'dAtJis, -jdAtJis; ES 'a:t/-; 

|-es -iz 
archduchy 'art/'dAtJi; ES 'artj- 
archduke 'artj'djuk, -'diuk, -'duk, -^d-; ES 

Archean ar'kian; ES a:'kian 
arched art/t; ES aitjt 
archenemy 'artj'enami, -jEnami; ES 'a:t/- 
archeological jorkia'ladsikl; ES jaikia'lads-, 

-'lods-; |-ly -i, -ikli 
archeology ^arki'aladsi; ES ^aiki'al-, -'nl-; 

I -gist -dgist 
Archeozoic jorkia'zo-ik; ES ^aikia- 
archer, A- 'art/a' ; ES 'a:tXa(r; |-y -i 
archetype 'arka^taip; ES 'a:ka- 
archfiend 'art/'find, -jfind; ES 'aitj- 
Archibald 'art/a >ald; ES 'aitj- 
Archidamus ^arki'demas; ES ^aiki-; |-'s -iz 
archidiaconal ,arkidai'aekanl; ES ^arki- 
archiepiscopacy ^arkia'piskapasi; ES ^aiki-; 

I -pal -pi 
Archimedean ^arki'midian, -mi'dian; ES 

Archimedes jarka'midiz; ES ja:k-; |-des' 

archipelagic jarkipa'laedjik; ES ^aiki- 
archipelago jarka'pela^go; ES ^aika- 
architect 'arka^tEkt; ES 'a:ka- 
architectonic jarkitek'tanik;ES ^aikitEk'tan-, 

architectural jarka'tekt/aral; ES ^arka-; 

l-ly -I 
architecture 'arkajtektJV; ES 'a:kajt£kt/a(r 
architrave 'arka^trev; ES 'a:ka-; |-d -d 
archival ar'kaivl; ES a:'kaivl 
archive 'arkaiv; ES 'a:k-; |-s -z |-d -d 
archivist 'arkavist; ES 'a:k- 
archivolt 'arkajvolt; ES 'a:ka- 
archon 'arkan, -kan; ES 'a:kan, -kon, -kan 
archpriest 'artj'prist; ES 'art/-; j-hood -hud 

i-ship -Sip 
archway 'artj^we; ES 'a:t/- 
arcing 'arkig; ES 'arkig 
Arcite 'arsait, ar'sait; ES 'a:s-, a:'s- 
arcked arkt; ES a:kt; |-cking -kig 
Areola ar'kola; ES a:'k- 
arctic 'arktik, now rare 'artik; ES 'a:-; 

|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fytj*; ES 'faSa |custom 'kAStam |while hwail |how hau [toy tai 
)using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fmz |dish dij |vision 'visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kredj |keep 'em ^kipm 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

Arcturus ark'tjuras, -%ur-, -'tur-; ES a:k-; 

|-'s -iz 
arcuate 'arkjuit, -jCt; ES 'a:k-; |-d -^etid 
Arden 'ardn; ES 'a:dn 
ardent 'ardnt; ES 'a:d-; |-ncy -nsi 
Ardmore Wdmor, -mar; ES 'a:dmo3(r, 

ardor Wda^; ES 'a:d3(r 
arduous 'ardsuas; ES 'aids- 
are measure £r, aer, ar; E £3(r, ES ae3(r, a:(r 
are v stressed 'ar, ;ar; ES 'a:(r, /a:(r; unstr. 

a'; ES 3(r; |'re -r; ES -3(r; see we're, 

you're, they're 
area 'eria, 'eria [-way -jwe 
arena a'rina 
aren't arnt; ES a:nt 

Areopagite jaeri'apajdsait, -jgait; ES+-'dp- 
Areopagitic jaerijDpa'dsitik; ES+-;Dp-; 

|-a -3 
Areopagus ^aeri'apagas; ES+-'dp-; |-'s -iz 
Ares 'eriz, 'eHz, 'aeriz; S 'eriz, 'ariz; |-res' 

Arethusa jaeri'Ojuza, -'Oiu-, -'Ou- 
argal 'argol' 'argl; ES 'a:g} 
argal 'ergo' 'argl; ES 'a:gj — In Shak.'s day 

argal wa^ pron. 'aergj aw<^ ergo 'aerga. 
argali 'argali; ES 'aigali 
argent Wdsant; ES 'ardsant 
argental ar'dsEntl; ES ai'dsentl; |-teous 

-tias I -tic -tik 
argentiferous ^ardsan'tifaras; ES jOidsan- 
Argentina ^ardsan'tina; ES ^aidsan- 
Argentine 'ardsaiiytm, -jtam; ES 'aids- 
argentine 'ardgantin, -jtain; ES 'aids- 
Argentinian jardsan'timan; ES jaids- 
argentite 'ardsan;tait; ES 'a:ds- 
argentous ar'dsentas; ES ai'dsen- 
argil 'ardsil; ES 'aidsil 
Argive 'ardsaiv; ES 'aidsaiv 
Argo 'argo; ES 'a:go 
argol 'argl; ES 'atgj 
argon 'argan; ES 'a:gan, -gon 
Argonaut 'argajnat; ES 'a:ga- 
Argonautic jarga'natik; ES ^aiga- 
Argonne 'argan; ES 'a:gan, -gnn (Fr ar'gbn) 
Argos 'argas, -gas; ES 'a:gas, -gns, -gas; 

|-'s -IZ 

argosy 'argasi; ES 'a:gasi 

argot 'argo, 'argat; ES 'a:g- 
argue 'argju; ES 'a:g-; \-d -d 
argument 'argjamant; ES 'a:g- 
argumental jargja'aientl; ES ]a:g- 
argumentation jargjamEn'te/an; ES ,a:g- 
argumentative ,argja'm8ntativ; ES ;a:g- 
Argus 'argas; ES 'a:g-; |-'s -iz 
Argus-eyed 'argas^aid; ES 'a:g- 
Argyll, -gyle ar'gail; ES a:'g-; |-shire -Jir, 

-JV; ES -Si3(r, -J'a(r 
Argyrol 'ardsa/ral, -/ral; ES 'aids-, -^rol 
aria 'aria, 'eria, 'aeria; S 'aria, 'aena 
Ariadne jaeri'aedni 

Arian 'Erian, 'aerian, 'enan; S 'aerian, 'er- 
arid 'aerid |-ity a'ridati, ae- 
Ariel 'erial, 'erial, 'aerial; S 'erial, 'ar- 
Aries 'eriz, 'eriz, 'aeriz, -ri^iz; S 'er-, 'aer-; 

|-es' -iz \gen Arietis a'raiatis 
aright a 'rait 

Ariosto jaeri'asto, -'ds-, -'os- {It jari'asto) 
arise a'raiz |-s -iz | arose a'roz | arisen a'nzn 
Aristides ^aera'staidiz |-des' -diz 
aristocracy jsera'stakrasi; ES+-'stT)k- 
aristocrat a'rista^kraet, 'aerista- 
aristocratic ajnsta'kraetik, ^aerista- |-al -j 

l-ally -h, -ikli 
Aristophanes jaera'stafa^niz; ES+-'stDf- 
Aristotelian jaerista'tilian, a^rista-, -Ijan 
Aristotle 'aerajstatl; ES+-;StDtl 
arithmetic n a'ri0majtik 
arithmetic adj ^aeriO'metik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

arithmetician ajriGma'tiJan, jaeriOma- 
Arius 'srias, 'aer-, 'er-, a'raias; S 'aer-, 'er-, 

a'raias; |-'s -iz 
Arizona jaera'zona |-nan -nan |-nian -man 
ark ark; ES a:k; j-ed -t 
Arkansan ar'kaenzan; ES a:'k«n- 
Arkansas state 'arkan^sa, o.f. ar'kaenzas; riv. 

'arkan;Sa, /oc.-f- ar'kaenzas, -z; city in Ark 

'arkan^sa, /oc. -i-ar'kaenzas, -z; city in Kan 

'arkan;Sa, loc. ar'kaenzas, -z; ES 'aikan^sa, 

a:'kaenzas, S-i-'aikin^sa; \poss 'Arkan^sas's 

-jsaz |Ar'kansas' -zas 
Arkansawyer 'arkanjsaja'; ES 'a:kanjsaja(r 
Arkwright 'ark^rait; ES 'a:k- 
Arlen 'arlin, -an; ES 'ad- 
Arlington 'arligtan; ES 'a:l- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet jet |sang saeg jangrj' 'aeo'gri 
|bath baeO; E bad (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E mith a (fa:m) 

Arliss 'arhs; ES 'a:l-; j-'s -iz 

Arragon 'aerajgan, -gan; ES+-igDn; 


arm arm; ES a:m; |-ed -d 


armada, A- ar'mada, -Weda; ES ar'm- 

arraign a'ren |-ed -d 

armadillo ^arma'dilo; ES ^aima- 

arrange a 'rends |-s -iz |-d -d 

Armageddon jarm3^g£dn; ES ^arma- 

arrant 'aerant 

armament Wmamant; ES 'arma- 

arras, A- 'aeras |-es -iz {Fr a'rars) 

armature 'ormatJV, -jt/ur; ES 'armat/acr. 

array a 're |-ed -d 


arrear a'rir; ES a'ria(r, S+a'rea(r; |-s - 


armchair Wmjt/Er, -jt/aer; E ^a:mjt/E3(r, 

arrearage a'ririds |-s -iz 

ES -jt/aBa(r; ace/ + 'arm 'chair 

arrest a'rest |-ed -id 

Armenia ar'minia; ES a'min-; j-n -n 

Arrighi a'rigi, a- {It ar'rirgi) 

armful 'arm^ful; ES 'a:m-; |-s -z 

arris 'aeris |-es -iz 

armhole 'arnijhol; ES 'arm- 

arrive a'raiv |-d -d |-val -1 

Arminian ar'minian; ES a'min- 

arrogance 'aeragans |-cy -i |-gant -gant 

Arminius ar'minias; ES a'min-; |-'s -iz 

arrogate 'aerajget, 'aero- |-d -id 

armipotent ar'mipatant; ES a'mip-; [-ence 

arrow 'aero, 'aera |-ed -d |-ing 'aerawig 


arrowhead 'aerOjliEd, 'aera- 

armistice Wmastis; ES 'arm-; |-s -iz 

arrowroot 'aero^rut, 'aera-, -^rut 

Armitage 'armstids; ES 'a:m-; |-'s -iz 

arrowy 'aerawi 

armlet 'armlit; ES 'arm- 

arroyo a'raio 

armor 'orma'; ES 'a:m3(r; |-ed -d 

arsenal 'arsnal, 'arsnal; ES 'arsnal, 'ari 


armor-bearer 'arma^jbera', -^baera'; E 'arma- 

arsenate n 'arsn^et, -it; ES 'arsn- 

jber3(r, ES -jbaer3(r 

arsenate v 'arsn^et; ES 'arsn-; |-d -id 

armor-clad 'arma^jklaed; ES 'a: ma- 

arsenic n, v 'arsnik, 'arsmk; ES 


armorer 'armara^; ES 'a:mara(r 

|-ked -t 

armorial or'morial, -'mar-; ES a'monal, 

arsenic adj ar'senik; ES ar'senik; j-al 



arsenide 'arsn^aid, -id; ES 'arsn- 

Armoric ar'marik, -^mxir-, -'mor-; ES a:'m-; 

arsenious ar'sinias; ES a'sin- 

|-a -a |-an -an 

arsenite 'arsn^ait; ES 'arsn- 

armory 'armari; ES 'a:mari 

arsine ar'sin; ES a'sin 

armpit 'ofmjpit; ES 'arm- 

arsis 'arsis; ES 'arsis; |arses -siz 

arms armz; ES armz 

arson 'arsn; ES 'arsn 

Armstrong 'armstrag, -strog; ES 'arm- 

arsphenamine jarsftna'min, -'aemin; ES ^ars- 

army 'armi; ES 'armi; |-mied -mid 

art n art; ES art; |-y -i 

arnica 'arnika; ES 'arn- 

art V 2 pers: stressed 'art, ^art; ES 'art 

, iort; 

Arno 'arno; ES 'arno 

unstr. art, a't; ES at, at 

Arnold 'amid; ES 'amid 

Artaxerxes ^arta'zyksiz; ES ^arta'zak-. 


aroint a'raint 

'zyk-; |xes' -ksiz 

aroma a'roma 

artefact 'arti^faekt; ES 'arti- 

Aroostook a'rustuk, /oc.+-tik 

Artemidorus ^artami'doras, -'dar-; 


arose a'roz 

^artami'dor-, E+-'dar-; |-'s -iz 

around a'raund 

Artemis 'artamis; ES 'art-; |-'s -iz 

arouse a'rauz |-s -iz [-d -d |-sal -1 

Artemus 'artamas; ES 'art-; |-'s -iz 

ARP, A.R.P. ''pi; ES 'e^ar'pi 

arterial or'tirial; ES a'tir- 

arpeggio ar'pedsijO, -djo; ES a'p- 

arteriosclerosis ar'tirijoskli'rosis; ES a 


arquebus 'arkwibas; ES 'ark-; |-es -iz 

artery 'artari; ES 'artari 

arquebusier jorkwibas'ir; ES ja;kwibas'ia(r 

artesian ar'tisan; ES ar't-; ('ar^tesian 


arrack 'aerak 

Artesius ar'tisas; ES ar't-; |-'s -iz 

[full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fytS*; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipni 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (farm) 

Arteveld 'art3jV8lt; ES 'arta- 

asbestos, -us aes'bestas, aez- 

artful 'artfal; ES 'art-; |-ly -i 

Asbury 'aez^beri, -ban 

Arthabaska ^arOa'baeska; ES ^arOa- 

Ascalon sword d° Pal vil. 'aeskajan, - 


arthritic ar'Gritik; ES a:'eritik; |-al -1 


arthritis ar'Oraitis; ES a:'6r-; |-tes -tiz 

Ascanius a'skenias, ae- |-'s -iz 

arthropod 'arGra^pad; ES 'a:6rajpad, -^pod 

ascend a'send |-ed -id 

Arthur 'arOa^; ES 'a:ea(r; — In the occas. pron. 

ascendance, -ence a'sendans |-cy -i |-nt - 


'aGa^ the first r is lost by dissimilation 

ascension, A- a'sEn/an 


ascent a 'sent 

Arthurian ar'Gjurian, -'Giur-, -'Gur-; ES a'G- 

ascertain ^aesa^'ten; ES ^aesa-; |-ed -d 

artichoke 'artijtjok; ES 'a:ti- 

ascetic a'setik |-al -1 ]-ally -li, -ikh 

article 'artikl; ES 'a:ti-; |-d -d |-ling -khg, 

asceticism a'sEta^sizam 


Asch, Sholem yolam'aej" {Yiddish '/okm 


articular arHikjala^; ES a'tikjala(r 

Ascham, a- 'aeskam 

articulate adj ar'tikjalit; ES a'tik- 

Asclepias ^s'klipias |-pius -pias |-'s -iz 

articulate v ar'tikja,let; ES a'tik-; |-d -id 

ascot, A- 'aeskat 

articulation ar^tikjaUeJan, ^artikja-; ES 

ascribe a'skraib |-d -d 

a^tik-, jortik- 

Ascue 'aeskju, -kiu 

Artie 'arti; ES 'a:ti 

Ascutney a'skAtni, loc. often 'skAtni 

artifact 'arti.faekt; ES 'a:ti- 

asepsis a'sepsis, e-, ae- 

artifice 'artafis; ES 'a:ta-; |-s -iz 

aseptic a'septik, e-, ae- j-ally -li, -ikli 

artificer ar'tifasa^; ES a'tifasa(r 

asexual e'ssk/ual, a-, ae- |-ly -i 

artificial jarta'fi/al; ES ja:ta-; |-ly -i 

Asgard 'aesgard, 'aez-; ES -ga:d 

artificiahty jartajfiji'aelati, -fi'Jaelati; ES 

ash. A- aej |-es -iz |-ed -t 


ashamed a'/emd |-medly -midli 

artillery ar'tilari; ES a'til-; |-rist -rist 

Ashanti a'/aenti 

artisan 'artazn; ES 'a:tazn; |-ship -jjip 

Ashburn 'aefba'n; ES 'aeXban 

artist 'artist; ES 'a:tist; |-ry -ri 

Ashburnham Mass 'aeJTja^njhaem ; ES -b 


artiste ar'tist; ES ar'tist; {Fr ar'tist) 

Engd 'ae/jbynam; ES -^bsn-, -;byn- 

artistic ar'tistik; ES a:'tis-; |-al -1 |-ally -li. 

Ashburton 'ae/ba^tn; ES 'ae/batn 


Ashby-de-la-Zouch 'aeJbijdEla'zuJ, -dala 


artless 'artlis; ES 'aztlis 


Artois ar'twa, -'two; ES a:'t-; {Fr ar'twa) 

Ashdod '«Jdad; ES+-dDd 

arty 'arti; ES 'a:ti 

Ashdown 'aej^daun 

Arundel Engd, Can Wandj, Siis loc. 'arndl 

ashes 'ae/iz | ashen 'ae/an 

(Arndle 1788); Md a'rAndl {see Anne 

Asheville 'ae/vil; S+-vl 


Ashkelon 'ae/ka^lan, -jlon, -Ian 

Arveragus ar'veragas; ES a'ver-; |-'s -iz 

ashlar, -ler 'aejla^; ES 'ajlair 

Arviragus ar'viragas; ES a'vir-; |-'s -iz 

Ashmole 'ae/mol |-an aej'molian 

Aryan 'erian, 'aer-, 'ar-, -rjan; S 'aer-, 'er-. 

Ashokan a'/okan 


ashore a'/or, a'/ar; ES a'/oa(r, E+a'jDa(r 

arytenoid jaeri'tinaid, a'ritnpid 

Ashtabula iae/ta'bjula, -'biula 

as Rom weight aes | asses 'aesiz 

Ashtoreth 'ae/tariG, -jtsG \pl -taroth - 


as adv, etc: unstressed az, z, s; rarely stressed 


'aez, ^aez 

Ashuelot 'aejwi;lat; ES+-jDt; /oc. + jaeju'ilat, 

Asa 'esa 

jae/a'wilat, aej'wilat 

asafetida, -foet- jsesa'fetida, aes'fEtida 

Asia 'e5a, 'eja |-n -n — 'e5a prevails in 


Asaph 'aesaf, 'esaf, 'estef 

'eja in Engd. 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jtt |sang saeg |angr>' 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baQ (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gardj |go go 




Asiatic jcsi'aetik, jcj- [-al -1 |-ally -h. 


assail a'sel |-ed -d |-ant -ant 

aside a 'said 

Assam, ae'saem, 'aesaem 

asinine 'aesnjain |-ninity jaesa'ninati 

assassin a'saesin |-ate -sn^et |-ated -sn^etid 

ask 'neivi' aesk 

assassination a^saesn'e/an 

ask V ask; E ask, aesk, ask; |-ed -skt. 


assault a'salt |-ed -id 

askance a'skaens | askant a'skaent 

assay n a'se, 'aese 

Askelon sword 'aeskajan, -jlon, -Ian 

assay v a'se |-ed -d 

askew a'skju, a'skiu 

assegai 'aesa^gai 

Askew 'aeskju, -km 

assemblage a'semblids [-s -iz 

aslant a 'slaent ; E + a 'slant, a 'slant 

assemble a'sembl |-d -d l-Hng a'sEoiblii), 

asleep a 'slip 


aslope a 'slop 

assembly a'sembli |-man -man, -^maen l-men 

Asmodeus ^aezmo'dias, jaes- |-'s -iz 

-man, -^men 

asp aesp 

assent a'sent [-ed -id 

asparagus a'spaeragas 

assentation jaesen'te/an 

Aspasia aes'pe3ia, -Jia 

assenter, -or a'senta^; ES a's£nta(r 

aspect 'aespskt — in Shak. ae'sptkt 

Asser 'aesa^; ES '£esa(r 

aspen 'aespin, -pan 

assert a'syt; ES a'sst, a's^t; |-ed -id 

asperges, A- a'spydsiz; ES a'sps-, a'spy- 

assertion a'sy/an; ES a'ssj-, a'ssj"-; |-tive 

aspergillum, A- jaespa^'dsilam; ES ^aespa-; j-s 

-tiv |-tory -tan 

-z |-la -la 

assess a'ses |-es -iz |-ed -t |-or -a^; ES -a(r 

asperity aes'perati, a'sp£r- 

assessorial jaesa'sorial, -'sar-; S -'sor- 

asperse a'spys; ES a'spss, a'spys; 

|-s -IZ 

asset 'aeset |-s -s 


asseverate a'sEva,ret |-d -id 

aspersion a'sp^san, -J"an; ES a'sps-, a 


asseveration a^SEva'te/an 

aspersorium jasspa^'soriam, -'sar-; ES 


assibilate a'sibl^et |-d -id 

'sor-, E+-'s3r-; |-s -z |-ria -ria 

assibilation ajSibl'e/an 

asphalt 'aesfalt, -faelt |-ed -id 

assiduity jaesa'djuati, -'dm-, -'du- 

asphaltic aes'fDltik, -'faeltik 

assiduous a'sidsuas 

asplialtum aes'fajltam 

assign a 'sain |-ed -d 

asphodel 'aesfajdel 

assignability a^saina'bilati 

asphyxia aes'fiksia [-iate -i^et |-iated -i^etid 

assignable a'sainabl |-bly -bli 

asphyxiation aesjfiksi'ejan jaesfiksi- 

assignat 'aesig^naet {Fr asi'jia) 

aspic 'aespik 

assignation jaesig'nejan 

aspidistra, A- ^aespi'distra 

assignee asai'ni, ^aesa'ni, ^aesai- 

Aspinwall 'aespin^wal 

assigner a'saina^; ES -na(r 

aspirant a'spairant, 'aesparant 

assignor asai'nar, ^aesa'nar; ES -'naa(r 

aspirate n, adj 'aesparit, 'aesprit 

assimilability ajSimla'bilati 

aspirate v 'aespa^ret |-d -id |-tion ^aespa 


assimilable a'simlabl 

aspirator 'aespajteta^; ES -jreta(r 

assimilate n a'simht, -^et 

aspiratory a'spaira^tori, -/tan; S -jtori 

assimilate v a'siml^et |-d -id |-tive -iv 

aspire a'spair; ES a'spaia(r; |-d -d 

assimilation ajSiml'eJan 

aspirin 'aesparin, -prin 

assimilatory a'simlajtori, -jtari; S -jton 

asquint a'skwint 

Assiniboia a^sina'baia 

Asquith 'aeskwiG 

Assiniboine a'sina^bain 

ass 'donkey' aes, 'blockhead' aes, as [-es 


Assisi a'sizi {It as'si:zi) 

assafetida, -foet- ^aesa'fetida, aes'fet- 

assist a'sist |-ed -id |-ance -ans |-ant -ant 

assagai 'aesajgai 

assize a'saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

assai a'sa-i 

associable a'sojiabl, -Jabl 

]full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




associate n, adj a'sojiit, -^et 

astride a'straid 

associate v 3'soJ"i,et |-d -id |-tive -iv 

astringe a'strmds |-s -iz |-d -d 

association ajsosi'efan, 3iSo/i — It is doubt- 

astringency a'strindsansi j-gent -dsant 

fid which of tliese prons. prevails. 

astrolabe 'aestrajleb 

assoil a'soil |-ed -d 

astrologer a'stroladsa^; ES a'strcdad3a(r, 

assonance 'aesanans |-s -iz [-d -t ]-nant 

-'strol-; |-gy -A^i |-gist -dsist 


astrologic jaestra'ladsik; ES+-'lDd3-; |-al -j 

assort a'sart; ES a'soat; |-ed -id 

l-ally -li, -ikb 

assuage a 's weds |-s -iz |-d -d 

astronomer a'stranama^^; ES a'stranama(r. 

assuasive a'swesiv 

-'stron-; |-my -mi 

assume a'sum, a'sium, a'sjum |-d -d 

astronomic jaestra'namik; ES+-'nDm-; |-al 

assumpsit a'sAinpsit 

-1 l-aUy -li, -ikh 

assumption, A- a'sAmp/an |-tive -tiv 

Astrophel 'aestra^fel 

assurance a'/urans |-s -iz 

astrophotographic 'aestra ^f ota 'grtef ik 

assure a'/ur; ES a'Jua(r; |-d -d |-dly -idli 

astrophotography jaestrafo'tagrafi, -'tng- 

assurgency a'sydsansi; ES a'ssds-, a's^ds-; 

astrophysical maestro 'fizikl |-icist -isist 

|-ent -ant 

astro phj'sics maestro 'fiziks 

Assyria a'siria |-n -n 

astrosphere 'aestraiSfar;ES-jsfia(r,S+-;sfEa(r 

Assyriology ajSiri'aladsi;- ES+-'d1-; [ 


astrut a'strAt 


astute a'stjut, -'stmt, -'slut 

Astarte aes'tarti; ES -'ta:ti, E+-'ta:ti 

Astyanax a'staia^naeks |-'s -iz 

astatic e'staetik, a-, ae- |-ally -li, -ikh 

Asuncion Am Sp asun'sjon 

Astell 'aestl 

asunder a'sAnda'; ES a'sAnda(r 

aster, A- 'aesta^; ES 'aesta(r 

asylum a'sailam |-s -z |-la -la 

asterisk 'aesta^risk 

asymmetric ^esi'metrik, ,x- |-al -1 |-ally -h. 

asterism 'aesta^rizain 


astern a'styn; ES a'stsn, a'styn 

asymmetry e'simitri, se- 

asteroid 'aestajraid |-al jaestaVaidl 

asymptote 'aesim^tot, 'aesimp- 

asthenia aes'Oinia, jaesGa'naia 

asymptotic ^aesim'tatik, -simp-; ES+-'tDt-; 

asthma 'aezma, 'aesma 

l-al -I i-ally -h, -ikh 

asthmatic aez'maetik, aes- |-al -1 [-ally 


asynchronous e'sigkranas, ae-, -'sm- 


asyndeton a'smdatan, -jtan; ES+-itDn 

astigmatic ^aestig'tnaetik |-al -1 |-ally 


at stressed 'fet, ^aet; unstr. at, it 


Atalanta jaetl'aenta 

astigmatism a 'stigma ;tizam 

at all 'to any degree' a'tal, at'al — In at'al the t 

astir a'sts'; ES a'st3(r, a'sty 

is 7iot aspirated and is usually voiced. This 

astonish a'stam/; ES+-'stDn-; |-es 


is also tlte pron. wlten at all is an ordinary 

|-ed -t 

prepositional phrase, as in It stops at some 

astony a'stani; ES+-'stDn-; |-nied -nid 

stations, but not at all. Cf It stops at no 

Astor 'aesta^; ES 'aesta(r 

small stations at all (a'tal). 

Astoria aes'toria, -'tana; S -Horia 

atamasco jaeta'maesko 

astound a'staund |-ed -id 

atar 'aeta^; ES 'aeta(r 

astrachan. A- 'aestrakan 

Atascosa ^aeta'skosa 

astraddle a'str.-«dl 

atavic a'taevik |atavism 'aetajVizam 

astragal 'aestragl 

atavistic jaeta'vistik |-ally -h, -ikh 

astrakhan 'aestrakan 

ataxia a'taeksia [ataxy a'taeksi 

Astrakhan ^aestra'kaen 

Atchafalaya a,t/aefa'laia, jtjaefa-, ae^tjaefa- 

astral 'aestral |-ly -i 

Atchison 'aet/isn 

astray a'stre 

Ate, ate myth, 'eti, 'eti 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee hi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret lyet ]zi |sang saeg langrs- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 




ate past of eat et — The past tense £t, occas. 

Atkins 'aetkinz |-'s -iz |-kinson 'aetkinsn 

in cultivated S, is spelt ate in Engd, hut 

Atlanta at'laenta, aet- 

properly belongs to the old past spelling 

atlantean, A- ^aetlaen'tian 

form eat (c/ threat, sweat), as does also the 

atlantes pi of atlas at'lasntiz, aet- 

old past pron. it (c/meat, seat). See eat. 

Atlantic at'laentik 

-ate unstressed ending -it, -at — In the vocab. 

Atlantis at'laentis |-'s -iz 

%uhen only the pron. -it is given, it is to be 

atlas, A- 'aetlas |-es -iz | atlantes at'laentiz. 

understood that many speakers pronounce 


-at, as in gamut ^gaemat. When more or less 

atman. A- 'otman 

stressed {with or without accent mark), -ate 

Atmore 'aetmor, -mar; ES -moa(r, E+ 

is pronounced -et, as in permeate 'ps'inijet, 


mandate 'maendet, oblate 'ablet. 

atmosphere 'aetmas^fir; ES -ifia(r, 5+ 

atelier 'aetlje {Fr ata'lje) 


Athabasca, -ka jaeOa'baeska |-n -n 

atmospheric jaetmas'ferik |-al -1 |-ally -h. 

athanasia ^aeGa'nesia 


Athanasian jSeea'nesan 

atoll 'aetal, -tnl, a'tal, -'tnl 

Athanasius jaeGa'neJias, -/as |-'s -iz 

atom 'aetam |-ism -^izam |-y -i 

athanasy a'Saenasi 

atomic a'tamik, ae-; ES+-'tDm-; |-al -I |-ally 

Athapascan jaeOa'paeskan 

-h, -ikh 

atheism 'eOijizam [atheist 'eGiist 

atomicity jaeta'misati 

atheistic ^eOi'istik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 

atomization jaetama'zejan, -ai'z- 

atheHng 'aeealiij, 'aetSaliij (0£ 'aeS-) 

atomize 'aetanijaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

Athelstan 'aeGal^staen, 'aetJal-, -stan (OE 'aeS-) 

atonal e'tonl, ae- |-ly -i |-ity ^eto'iiaelati 

Athena a'Gina | Athene a'Gini 

atone a 'ton |-d -d 

athenaeum, A-, -neum jaeGa'niam 

atonic a'tanik, e-, ae-; ES+-'tDn- 

Athenian a'Ginian 

atonicity ^aeta'nisati, jC-, -to'n- 

Athens 'aeGinz, -anz |-'s -iz jiVF + 'eG- 

atony '«tani 

Atherton 'aeGa^tan; ES 'aeGatan 

atop a 'tap; ES+a'top 

athirst a'Gyst; ES a'Gast, a'Gyst 

atrabilious jaetra'biljas 

athlete 'aeGlit 

Atreus 'etrus, -trius, 'etri-as |-'s -iz 

athletic aeG'letik |-s -s |-ally -li, -ikh 

atrip a 'trip 

Athlone aeG'lon 

atrium 'etriam |-s -z |-ria -ria 

Athol Mass 'aeGal, -6d1, -Gal 

atrocious a'tro/as 

AthoU, -ole Scotl 'aeGal 

atrocity a'trasati; ES+-'trDS- 

at home, at-home at'hom — The pron. a'tom. 

atrophy 'aetrafi |-phied -fid 

freq. in Engd, is rare in US. 

atropine 'aetra;pin, -pin |-pin -pin 

Athos 'aeGas, 'e-, -Gns 

Atropos 'astra^pas; ES+-iPDs; |-'s -iz 

athwart a'Gwart; ES a'Gwaat; |-ship -/ip 

attach a'taetj |-es -iz |-ed -t 

atilt a'tilt 

attache ^aeta'/e, a'tae/e {Fr ata'/e) 

atingle a'tiggl 

attack a'taek |-ed -t 

-ative ending -]etiv, -ativ, as in cumulative. 

attain a 'ten |-ed -d 

operative, etc. When tJie main accent is on 

attainable a'tenabl |-bility a^tena'bilati ' 

the second syllable before -ative, there is 

attainder a'tenda^; ES a'tenda(r 

usually a secondary accent on the -a- of 

attaint a 'tent |-ed -id 

-ative (in'i-tija-tive I'mJ-ije-tiv); but in 

attainture a'tentja'; ES a'tentJaCr 

familiar words some speakers often pro- 

Attala Miss 'aetla |Attalla Ala a'taela 

nounce -ative without accent (-ativ), as 

attar 'aet*; ES 'aetacr 

I'ni/iativ, WJten only -^etiv is given, -ativ 

attemper a'tempa^; ES -pa(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

is to be understood as a possible variant. 

a'temparig, a'temprig 

|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fytJa'; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 



au revoir 

attempt a'tempt |-ed -id 

attend a'tend (-ed -id |-ance -ans |-ant 

attent 3't2nt 

attention 3't€nX3n |-tive -tiv 
attenuate adj a'tenjuit 
attenuate v a'tenjujct ]-d -id 
attenuation ajtenju'e/an 
Atterbury 'aeta^jberi, -ban; ES 'aeta- 
attest a'test |-ed -id |-ation jaetes'tejan 
attic 'aetik 

Attic 'aetik |-a -a |-ism 'aetijSizam 
Attila 'aetja 

attire a'tair; ES a'taia(r; |-d -d 
attitude 'aeta,tjud, -^tiud, -^tud 
attitudinize jaeta'tjudn^aiz, -'tiud-, -'tud- |-s 

-iz |-d -d 
Atlee 'aeth, 'aetli 
Attleboro 'aetjjbyo, -a; ES -^bsr-, -jbAr-, 

attorn a'tyn; ES a'tsn, a'tyn; |-ed -d 
attorney a'tyni; ES a'tsni, a'ts^ni 
attract a'traskt |-ed -id 
attractability a;traekta'bilati 
attraction a'traekjan |-tive -tiv 
attribute n 'aetra^bjut, -^biut 
attribute v a'tribjut |-d -bjatid |-tive -bjativ 
attribution jaetra'bju/an, -'biu- 
at trite adj a 'trait |-d -id 
attrition a'tri/an, ae- 
attune a'tjun, a'tiun, a'tun |-d -d 
atwain a'twen 

Atwater 'aet^wata^, -jwata', -jwota", ES -ta(r 
atypic e'tipik, ae- |-al -1 |-ally - ji, -ikli 
au Fr o 

Aubrey, -bry 'abri 
auburn, A- 'aba^n; ES 'aban 
Auckland bkland 
auction 'ak/an |-ed -d 
auctioneer pk/an'ir; ES -'ia(r, S+-'Ea(r 
audacious a'dejas |-dacity a'daesati 
audibility pda'bilati 
audible bdabl |-bly -bk 
audience 'adians, -djans |-s -iz |-ent -diant 
audile 'adil 

audio 'adijO |audiogram 'adiajgraem 
audiometer pdi'amata^; ES -'amata(r, -'nm- 
audiphone. A- bda^fon 
audit 'adit |-ed -id |-or -a^; ES -a(r 

audition a'di/an |-ed -d |-ing -Janig, -Jnig 

auditorium pda'toriam, -'tar-; S -'tor- 
auditory 'adajtori, -jtari; S -jton 

Audley 'adh 

Audrey 'adri 

Audubon 'ada^ban; ES+'^bon 

Auer 'au*; ES 'au-aCr 

au fait o'fe {Fr o'fe) 

Aufidius a'fidias |-'s -iz 

auf Wiedersehen Ger auf 'vi:darjze:an 

Augeas a'dsias |-'s -iz |-gean -'dsian 

augend 'ad3End 

auger 'aga^; ES 'aga(r 

aught at 

Auglaize a'glez |-'s -iz 

augment n 'agment 

augment v ag'ment |-ed -id |-ative -ativ 

augmenter ag'tnenta^; ES -'m£nta(r 

au gratin o'gratn, o'graetn, -tin {Fr ogra'ta) 

Augsburg 'agzbyg; ES -bsg, -byg; {Ger 

augur 'aga^; ES 'aga(r; |-ed -d |-ing -gang, 

augury 'agjari 

august a'gAst ('au^gust 'office) 

August 'agast 

Augusta a'gAsta, a'gAs- |-tan -tan 

Augustine saint 'agas^tin, a'gAstin, a-; isl. 
Alas 'agastin 

Augustinian pgas'timan 

Augustus a'gAstas, a'gAs- |-'s -iz 

au jus Fr o'sy 

auk ak |-let -bt 

auld aid 

Aulis 'abs |-'s -iz 

Ault alt 

Aumerle a'myl; ES a'msl, a'myl 

au naturel Fr onaty'rel 

aunt fent; E ant, ant, aent — Sporadic in- 
stances of ant, ant occur in tlie N and S. 

aura 'ara |-s -z j-rae -ri 

aural 'aral |-ly -i 

Aurangzeb 'atAg'zeb 

aureate adj 'ariit, -^et 

aureate v 'ari^et |-d -id 

Aurelia a 'r ilia, -Ija |-n -n 

Aurelius a'rihas |-'s -iz 

aureole 'ari,ol |-d -d 

au revoir jora'var; ES -'vaa(r; {Fr ora'vwatr) 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [j^et jet |sang saeg jangry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far |\vatch watj", wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




auric brik 

auricle brikl 

auricular o'rikjala^; ES -l3(r 

auriculate adj a'rikjalit |-lated -Jetid 

auriferous o'rifaras 

Auriga a'raiga \gen Aurigae a'raidsi 

Aurignacian prig'ne/an 

aurist 'arist 

aurochs braks; ES+-Dks 

aurora, A- a'rora, 9-, -'rara; S -Vera; |-s -z 

|-rae -ri 
aurora australis o'rora 3s'trelis, a-, -'rora; S 

aurora borealis aVora jbon'aelis, a-, -'rara 

jbari-, -'elis; S -'rora /bori- 
auroral D'roral, a-, -'roral; S -Voral; |-ly -i 
aurorean a'rorian, a-, -'rar-; S -Vor- 
Aurorian o'rorian, -'rar-; S -Vor- 
aurum bram |aurous bras 
Aurungzeb, -ebe brAg'zeb, -'zib 
Ausable, Au Sable o'sebl ('Au^sable 'Chasm) 
auscultate bskal^tet |-d -id 
auscultation pskal'tejan 
Auslander bsjlaenda^, 'aus-; ES -jlaenda(r 
Ausonia a 'soma |-n -n 
auspex bspeks \pl auspices bspi^siz 
auspice bspis |-s -iz 
auspicial a'spijal |-cious -/as 
Austen bstin, -tan 
Auster bsta^; ES bsta(r 
austere a'stir; ES 3's{ia(r, S+a'st8a(r 
austerity a'sterati 
Auster litz bsta^Jits; ES bsta-; |-'s -iz {Gcr 

Austin bstin, -tan 
austral bstral 

Australasia pstral'esa, -/a |-n -n 
Australia a'strelja |-n -n 
Austrasia a'stresa, -/a |-n -n 
Austria bstria ]-n -n 
Austria-Hungary bstria 'hAggari 
Austro-Hungarian bstrohAg'gerian, -'ger- 
Austronesian pstro'nisan, -/an 
autarch btark; ES -ta:k, E+-ta:k; |-y -i 
autarchic a'tarkik; ES a'ta:k-, E+a'tark-; 

l-al -I 
autarky btarki; ES -ta:ki, E+-ta:ki; |-kist 

authentic a'Oentik [-al -1 |-ally -li |-icly -ikh 

authenticate a'6£ntijket |-d -id 
authentication ajOEnti'keXan, pOenti- 
authenticity pOan'tisati, -Gen- 
author bGa^; ES bGa(r; |-ess -is | -esses -isiz 
authoritarian ajOara'terian, ajGar-, ajGor-, 

-'ter- |-ism -^izam 
authoritative a'Gara;tetiv, a 'Gar-, a'Gnr- 
authority a'Garati, a 'Gar-, a'Gor- 
authorization pGara'ze/an, -ai'z- 
authorize 'aGa^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
autism 'atizam |-ist -ist |-tistic a'tistik 
auto 'ato 
autobiographic iata^baia'graefik |-al -1 |-ally 

-h, -ikh 
autobiography ptabai'agrafi, -bi-, -'og- 
autochthon a'takGan; ES-h-'tok-; |-s -z 

|-es -iiz 
autochthonous a'takGanas; ES+-'tDk- 
autoclave 'ata^klev |-d -d 
autocracy a'takrasi; ES-h-'tok- 
autocrat 'ata^kraet 

autocratic pta'kraetik |-al -I |-ally -|i, -ikli 
auto-da-fe ptoda'fe \pl autos- ptoz- 
autogenous a'tadsanas; ES-^-'tods- 
autogiro, A- pto'dsairo 
autograph 'atajgraef ; E-i--jgraf, -^graf 
autographic pta'graefik |-al -I |-ally -ji, 

autography a'tagrafi, -'tog- 
autogyro, A- pto'dsairo 
autohypnosis ptohip'nosis 
autoinfection pto'in'fekjan 
autointoxication pto-injtaksa'kejan; ES+ 

Autolycus a'talakas; ES-h-'tol-; j-'s -iz 
automat 'ata^maet 
automata a'tamata; ES-i- -'torn- 
automatic pta'maetik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
automatism a'tamajtizam; ES-h-'tom- 
automaton a'tama^tan, -tan; ES-f-a'toma- 

jton, -tan; |-s -z |-ta -ta 
automobile adj pta 'mobil 
automobile n 'atamajbil, pta'mobil, ptama- 

automotive pta'motiv 
autonomic pta'namik; ES4--'noin-; ]-al -1 

l-ally -h, -ikh 
autonomist a'tanamist; ES+-'ton-; |-mous 

-mas I -my -mi 

|fuU ful Itooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa 
|using 'juzirj [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif [vision 

[custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




autopsy btapsi, 'otapsi; ES+ -top- 

avoid a'vaid [-ed -id [-ance -ns 

autos-da-fe pi ptozda'fe 

avoirdupois jaeva'-da'paiz; ES ^aeva- 

autosuggestion ptasag'dsestjan, -sa'dses- 

Avon 'evan, 'aevan, Warmckshire 'evan, 

autumn btam |-al o'tAmni |-ally o'tAmnji 

ScoU 'evan, an 

Auvergne o'vyn; ES oVsn, o'vyn; {Fr 

Avon Lake, Avon Park 'evan, -on 

o'v£rji, 3-) 

avoset 'aevajSEt 

aux Fr o 

avouch a'vautj |-es -iz |-ed -t 

auxiliary Dg'ziljari, -'zibri, -'zibiCri 

avow a'vau |-ed -d |-al -al |-edly -idli 

avail a'vel |-ed -d 

avuncular a'vAgkjala-; ES -jala(r; |-late -lit 

availability a^veb'bilati 

await a 'wet |-ed -id 

available aVelabl |-bly -bh 

awake a'wek \past awoke a'wok or awaked 

avalanche 'aevljaentj; E+-jantX, -iOntJ; |-s 

a'wekt \pptc awaked a'wekt or awoke 

-iz |-d -t 


Avalon, -Uon 'aBvl,an, -^on {Fr ava'lo) 

awaken a'wekan |-ed -d |-ing -kamg, -knig 

avarice 'aevaris, 'aevris |-cious jaeva'rijas 

award a'ward; ES a'waad; |-ed -id 

avast a'vaest; E+aVast, a Vast 

aware a'wer, a'war; E a'wEa(r, ES a'waea(r 

avatar jaeva'tar; ES -'ta:(r, E+-'ta:(r 

awash a'waj, a'wa/, a 'wo/ 

avaunt a'vant, aVont, a'vant 

away a 'we 

ave, A- 'evi, 'ave 

awe a |-d -d 

Avebury, Abury 'eban, Vv^beri, -ban 

aweary a'wiri, a'win; S+a'weri 

Ave Maria 'avimaVia 

awedness 'adnis 

Ave Maria Lane Land 'evimajraia'len 

aweful 'aful |-ly -i 

Ave Mary 'evi'meri, -'meiri, -'men, -Wan 

aweigh a 'we 

avenge a 'vends |-s -iz j-d -d 

aweless 'alis |awelessness 'alisnis 

avens 'aevinz, -anz |-es -iz 

awesome 'asam 

Aventine 'aevan^tam, -tin 

awful 'impressive' 'aful |-ly -i 

aventurine, -in a'ventjarin 

awful 'great,' 'ugly' hi] \-\y 'af li, 'afli 

avenue 'aevaiHu, -{aiu, -fl\\x 

awheel a'hwil 

aver 'assert' a'vy; ES aV3(r, a'vy; |-red -d 

awhile a 'h wail 

aver 'horse' 'eva^; ES 'eva(r 

awkward 'akwa^d; ES 'akwad 

average 'aevrids, 'aevaridj |-s -iz |-d -d 

awl al 

Avernus a'vynas; ES a'vs-, a'vy-; |-'s -iz 

awless 'alls lawlessness 'alisnis 

averse aVys; ES a'vss, aV^s 

awlless 'allis 

aversion aV^san, -Jan; ES aVs-, a'vy- 

awn an |-ed -d 

avert aVyt; ES a'vst, aVyt; |-ed -id 

awning 'anig 

Avery 'evari, 'evri 

awoke a'wok [awoken arch, a'wokan 

Aves pi of Avis 'eviz 

awork a'wyk; ES a'wsk, a'wyk 

Avesta a 'vesta 

awry a'rai 

avian 'evian 

ax, axe aeks [axes 'aeksiz |axed «kst 

aviary 'evi^eri 

axes pi of axis 'aeksiz 

aviate 'evijet, 'aev- |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 

axial 'aeksial |-Iy -i 

aviation jevi'e/an, ^aevi- 

axil 'aeksil jaxile 'aeksil, -ail 

aviculture 'evijkAltJa^; ES -jkAlt/aCr 

axilla aek'sila |-s -z |-lae -li 

avid 'aevid | avidity a'vidati 

axillary 'aeksajleri 

Avignon a'vinja, a'vinjan {Fr avi'jio) 

axiom '^eksiam 

Avoca a'voka 

axiomatic ^aeksia'maetik |-al -1 |-ally -Ji, 

avocado jQva'kado, jaeva- 


avocation jaeva'ke/an, jsevo- 

axis 'aeksis |axes 'aeksiz 

avocet 'aevajset 

axle 'aeksl |-d -d 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij^et jet |sang saeg [angrj^ 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba8 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 




axletree 'aeksljtri, -tri 

Axminster 'aeksjininsto; ES -jminst3(r 

axolotl 'aeksajatl; ES+-jlDtl 

ay intj 'alas!' e 

ay, aye 'always' e — ay is the better spelling 

ayah ^aja 

Aydelotte 'edl^at; ES+'^nt 

Ayden 'edn 

aye, ay 'yes' ai — aye is the better spelling 

Ayer er, jer; E £3(r, ES ae3(r 

Aylesbury 'elz,beri, -ban 

Aylmer 'elma^; ES 'elm3(r 

Ayr ET, aer; E e3(r, ES ae3(r 

Ayres erz, aerz; E eaz, ES aeaz; |-'s -iz 

Ayrshire 'erjir, W-, -JV; E 'eaJiaCr, -fait, 

ES 'aea- 
Ayscough, -cue 'aeskju, 'es-, -kiu 
Ayton, Aytoun 'etn 
Azalea a'zeha |azalea a^zelja 

Azazel a^zezal, 'aezsjzel 

Azerbaijan jaza^bai'dsan, ^aeza'-; ES -za- 

azimuth 'aezamaO |-al jaezs'mAOal 

azine 'aezin, -in |-in -in 

Azof 'azaf, -znf 

azoic a'zo'ik 

azole 'aezol, a'zol 

Azores a'zorz, 'ezorz, -orz; ES -oaz, E+ 


azorite 'aeza^rait 

azote 'aezot, a'zot 

azoth 'sEzaG, -d6 

Azov 'azaf, -znf, 'ezav, 'ezov 

Azrael 'aezrial 

Aztec 'aeztek |-an -an 

azure 'aesa^, 'esa^; ES -33(r; |-d -d 

azurine 'ae53rin, -^ain 

azurite 'ae33jrait 

Azusa aWsd 


B, b letter bl \pl B's, Bs, pass B's biz 

Bacheller 'baet/ala^, 'b^tjla-; ES -la(r 

baa bae:, ba:, ba: \3 sg baaes, pi n baas -z 

bachelor 'baetjala^, 'bjetjla ; ES -la(r 

|-ed -d |-ing -ig 

Bachman 'baekman, 'bak- {Ger 'baxman) 

Baal 'beal, bel 

bacillary 'baesljEri, 'baesij- 

babbitt, B- 'baebit |-ed -id 

bacillus ba'silas |-U -lai 

babble 'baebl |-d -d |-ling 'baeblii}, -blig 

back baek |-ed -t |-ache -^ek 

babe beb 

backbite 'baekjbait |-bit -jbit |-bitten -/bitn 

Babel 'bebl, 'baebl 

backbone 'baek'bon, -jbon |-d -d 

Bab el Mandeb 'baebjel'maendeb, 'babjEl- 

backfire n 'baek^fair; ES -jfaia(r 


backfire v 'baekjfair, -'fair; ES -aia(r; i-d -d 

baboo, babu 'babu 

backgammon 'baek^gaeman, jbaek'gaeman 

baboon bae 'bun, ba'bun 

background 'baekjgraund 

baby 'bebi |-bied -bid 

backhand 'baek'haend, -^haend l-ed -id 

Babylon 'baeblan 

('backihand(ed) 'stroke) 

Babylonia jbaebl'onia, -nja ]-n -n 

backlash 'baekjlae/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 

baccalaureate jbaeka'briit 

backlog 'biekibg, -ilag, -Jng 

baccarat, -ra ^baeka'ta, 'baeka^ra {Fr baka'ra) 

backset 'baekjS£t 

Bacchae 'baeki 

backslide 'baek^slaid, 'baek'slaid [slid -jslid. 

bacchanal 'baekanl, -^nael 

-'slid l-slidden -jslidn, -'slidn 

Bacchanalia, b- jbaeka'neka, -Ija [-n -n 

backspace 'baek^spes |-s -iz |-d -t 

bacchant 'baekant |-s -s |-es ba'kaentiz, bae- 

backspin 'baekjspin 

bacchante ba'kaenti, -'kaent, bae-, 'baekant 

backstage adv 'baek'steds, adj 'baekjSteds 

Bacchic, b- 'baekik |-al -1 

backstay 'baek^ste |-ed -d 

Bacchus 'baekas j-'s -iz 

backstroke 'baek^strok 

Bach bak, box {Ger bax) 

backswept 'baek^swept 

|fuU ful |tooth tu9 [further 'fs^tJa^; ES 'fstia [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzio [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




backward 'biekwa^d; ES -wad; |-s -z 

Bagworthy Lorna Doone 'baedsan 

backwash 'baekjwaj, -jwo/, -iWoJ |- 

es -IZ 

bah ba, ba, bae |-ed -d 

l-ed -t 

Bahai ba'ha-i |-haism -'ha-izam 

backwater 'baek^wata', -^wata', -jWDta^; ES 

Bahama ba'hema, loc. and Brit ba'hama 


|-s -z 

backwoods 'baek'wudz, 'baek^wudz 


Bahia ba'hia {Pg ba'ia) 

-men -man 

Baikal bai'kal 

bacon, B- 'bekan, 'beko 

bail bel |-ed -d |-ee 'bel'i 

Baconian be'konian, ba-, -njan 

bailey, B- 'beli |-liff -lif 

bacteria baek'tiria |-1 -1 \sg -ium -m 

bailiwick 'bela^wik 

bactericide baek'tira^said 

Baillie 'beb 

bacterin 'baektarin 

bailsman 'belzman |-men -man 

bacteriological 'baekjtiria'Iadsikl, baekj 


Bainbridge 'benbnds |-'s -iz 


Baird berd, baerd; E bead, ES baead 

bacteriologist 'baekjtiri'aladsist, baek,tiri-; 

bairn bern, baern, bern; E bean, ES baean. 

ES+-'d1-; |-gy -d5i 


bacteriolysis 'baekjtiri'alasis, baek^tiri- 


bait bet |baited 'betid 


baize bez |baizes 'beziz |-d -d 

bacteriophage baek'tiria^fedj |-s -iz 

bake bek | baked bekt 

Bactria 'baektria |-n -n 

bakehouse 'bekjhaus |-houses -jhauziz 

bad baed 

Bakehte, b- 'beka^lait, 'beklait 

bade past of bid baed 

baker, B- 'beka^; ES 'beka(r; j-kerv -kan. 

Baden US 'bedn, Germany 'badn 




baking-powder 'bekig^paudaf, 'bekg-; ES 

Baden-Powell 'bedn'poal 


badge baeds |-s -iz |-d -d 

baksheesh, -shish 'baekji/ 

badger, B- 'baedsa^; ES 'baedsaCr; ]- 

ed -d 

Baku ba'ku 

|-ing 'baedsarig, 'baedsrig 

Balaam 'belam 

Badgworthy 'baed3ari = Bagwortliy 

Balaclava, -klava jbaela'klava 

badinage 'baednids, jbaedi'naj {Fr badi'nais) 

balalaika jbaela'laika 

badminton, B- 'baedmintan 

balance 'baclans |-s -iz \-A -t 

Badon 'bedn 

Balanga bajagga {Sp ba'lagga) 

Baeda 'bida, cf Bede 

balata 'baelata 

Baedeker 'bedika^, -da-; ES -ka(r; 


Balboa bael'boa 


balboa coin bal'boa 

baff hxi l-ed -t (Sc baf) 

balbriggan, B- ba;l'brigan 

Baffin 'baefin 

balcony 'baelkani | balconied 'bselkanid 

baffle 'bief j |-d -d 1-Iing -'bicfho, -fbg 

bald bald 

ba£fy 'bafi (Sc 'bafi) 

baldachin 'baeldakin, 'bal- 

bag baeg |-ged -d |-man, -men -man 

Balder, -dr 'balda-; ES 'balda(r 

bagasse ba'gaes (Fr ba'gas) 

balderdash 'balda^jdaej; ES 'balda- 

bagatelle ,baega'tel 

baldhead 'bald.hed 

Bagdad 'baegdsed, bag'dad ('Baghdad 'rail- 

bald-headed 'bald'hedid ('bald -,headed 'man) 


baldpate 'baldjpet j-pated -'petid 

Bagehot 'baedjat 

baldric 'baldrik, 'badrik |-ked -t 

bagful 'baeg/ful |-s -z 

Baldwin 'baldwin, -dm 

baggage 'baegids |-s -iz 

bale, B- bel ibaled beld 

Bagot 'baegat 

Bale bal 

bagpipe 'baeg,paip 

Balearic ,baeli'aerik, ba'link 

Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret Ij^et jet |sang saeg |angr\- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw d^o Igorge gards |go go 




baleen ba'lin 

Balzac 'baelzaek {Fr. bal'zak) 

balefire 'beljair; ES 'bel]fai3(r 

bambino baem'bino, bam- j-ni -ni (// 

baleful 'belfal 1-ly -i 


baler 'bela^; ES 'bel3(r 

bamboo baem'bu ('bam^boo 'pole) 

Balfour 'baelfur; ES 'baelfuaCr 

bamboozle baem'buzl j-ed -d |-ling -zlig. 

Baliol 'beljal, 'belial 


balk bak |balked bokt |balky 'baki 

ban baen [banned baend 

Balkan 'bDlkan 

banal 'benl, ba'nael, -'nal, 'baenl {Fr ba'nal) 

BaLkanize 'balkanjaiz |-s -iz ]-d -d 

banality ba'naebti, be-, bae- 

ball bol 1 balled bald 

banana ba'naena 

ballad 'baelad | balladry 'baebdn 

Banbury 'basnjben, 'baem-, -ban, -bri 

ballade ba'lad, bse'lad {Fr ba'lad) 

Bancroft 'baenkraft, 'baeg-, -krnft 

ball-and-socket 'babn'sakit; ES+-'sDk- 

band baend [banded 'baendid 

Ballantrae jbaebn'tre, 'baebntri 

bandage 'baendid3 |-s -iz |-d -d 

Ballard 'b^la^d; ES 'b^lad 

bandanna baen'daena 

ballast 'baebst | ballasted 'baebstid 

bandbox 'baend^baks, 'baen-; ES-t--jbDks; 

ballerina jbaeb'rins |-s -z (// ,bal!eVi:na) 

|-es -IZ 

ballet 'baele, 'baeb, bae'le {Fr ba'k) 

bandeau baen'do, 'baendo 

Ballinger 'baehndsa^; ES -d33(r 

Bandelier jbaendl'ir; ES -'ia(r, S-i--'£a(r 

Balliol 'beljal, 'bekal 

Bandello baen'delo {It ban'dello) 

ballistic bae'kstik, bs- ]-s -s 

banderole 'baendajrol 

ballonet jbaeb'net 

bandicoot 'baendi^kut 

balloon ba'lun, bl'un |-ed -d 

bandit 'baendit [-ry -ri [-ditti baen'diti 

ballot 'baebt [balloted 'baebtid 

bandmaster 'baend ^maesta', 'baen-; ES 

Ballou ba'lu, bae'lu 

-jmaesta(r, E-t--/mas-, -^mas- 

ballproof 'bal'pruf ('balliproof 'armor) 

bandog 'baen,dag, -idng 

ballroom 'bal^rum, -jium 

bandoleer ^baenda'lir; ES -'lia(r, S-F-'lea(r 

ballyhoo 'baeh^hu, jbaeh'hu |-ed -d 

bandore baen'dor, 'baendor, -ar; ES -oa(r. 

Ballymena jbaeh'mina 


balm bam |balmed bamd |balmy 'bami; |E-h 

bandsman 'baendzman, 'baenz- j-men -man 


bandstand 'baend^staend, 'baen- 

Balmoral bael'maral, -'mar3l, -'moral 

bandy 'baendi [bandied 'baendid 

balneal 'baelnial 

bandy-legged 'baendi 'kgid, -'kgd, 'baendi- 

balneology jbaelni'abdsi; ES-h-'nl- 

(kgid, -jkgd 

baloney ba'lom, bj'ora 

bane ben [-d -d |-ful -fal [-fully -fall 

balsa 'balsa, 'balsa 

Banff baemf [-shire -Jir, -JV; ES -Xia(r, 

balsam 'balsam |-ed -d 


balsamic bal'saemik, bael'saemik |-al -1 [-ally 

bang baeg [banged baegd 

-h, -ikh 

bang 'bhang' baeg 

baltered 'balta^d; ES -tad; c/ blood-boltered 

Bangkok 'baegkak, baeg'kak; ES-h-nk 

Balthazar bael'Gaeza'; ES -'Gaeza(r; Shak. 

bangle 'baeggl [-d -d [bangling 'baeggkg. 

jbaelea'zar, -ta'zar; ES -'za:(r 


Baltic 'baltik 

Bangor Me 'baeggar, -ga', Wales, Ircl 'baegga'; 

Baltimore 'balta,mor, -imar; ES -jmoa(r. 

ES -gaa(r, -ga(r 

E+-jmaa(r; loc. 'baltama^, -ma(r 

banish 'baem/ [-es -iz |-ed -t 

Baluchistan bajutji'staen, -'stan, ba'lutji- 

banister 'baenista^; ES -ta(r; [-ed -d 

jStaen, -^stan, -uki- 

banjo 'baendso [-ed -d 

baluster 'baebsta^; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d 

banjorine ^baendsa'rin 

balustrade jbaeb'stred |-straded -'stredid 

bank baegk [banked baegkt 

[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fa'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

bankrupt 'baegkrApt, -rapt |-ed -id j-ptcy 

-ptsi, -psi 
Bankside 'baegk,said 
banner 'baena^; ES 'baenafr 
banneret knight 'baenarit, -^rzt 
banneret, -ette banner /baenaVet 
bannock 'bsenak 
Bannockburn 'baenakjbs-n, ^baenak'byn ; ES 

-an, -yn 
banns, bans baenz 
banquet 'baegkwit, 'baen- |-ed -id 
banquette baeg'kst 
Banquo 'baegkwo, 'baen-, -ko 
banshee, -shie 'baenji, baen'Ji 
Banta 'baenta, publisher 'banta 
Bantam, b- 'baentam 
banter 'baenta^; ES 'baentacr; |-ed -d |-ing 

-tang, -trig 
Banting 'baentig 

bantingize 'baentig^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Bantu 'baen'tu, 'ban- ('Ban^tu 'language) 
banyan 'baenjan, 'bfenjaen 
banzai 'ban'za-i, 'ban'zai 
baobab 'beo,baeb, 'baojbaeb 
baptism 'baeptizam 
baptismal baep'tizml j-ly -i 
Baptist 'baeptist 

Baptista Minola baep'tista'minala 
baptistery 'baeptistri, -tan | baptistry -tri 
baptize bsep'taiz |-s -iz j-d -d 
bar bar; ES ba:(r; [-red -d 
Barabas Marlowe 'baerabas |-'s -iz 
Barabbas Bible ba'raebas, in Shak. 'baerabas 

|-'S -IZ 

Baraboo 'berajbu, 'baer-; S 'baer- 

Baraca ba'raeka 

Barak 'berak, 'baerak, 'beraek 

barb barb; ES ba:b; |-ed -d, -id 

Barbados, -oes bar'bedoz, 'barba,doz; ES 

ba:-, 'barb- 
Barbara 'barbara, -bra; ES 'barb- 
barbarian bar'berian, -'baer-, -'ber-, -jan; 

ES ba- 
barbaric bar'baenk; ES ba:-; |-ally -li, -ikh 
barbarism 'barbajrizam; ES 'barbajrizam 
barbarity bar 'baer ati; ES ba- 
barbarous 'barbaras, -bras; ES 'ba:b- 
Barbary 'barbari; ES 'batbari 

barbecue 'barbi,kju, -/kiu; ES 'ba:-; |-d -d 

barbel 'barbl; ES 'ba:bl 

barber, B- 'barba^; ES 'ba:ba(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-bang, -brig 
barberry 'bar^beri, -ban; ES 'ba:- 
Barberton 'barba^tan; ES 'ba:batan 
barbette bar'bet; ES ba:'b8t 
barbican, B- 'barbikan; ES 'ba:- 
Barbour 'barba-; ES 'ba:ba(r 
Barca 'barka; ES 'ba:-; \pl Eng-ca.?, -kaz, Sp 

-cas -kas. It -che -ke 
barcarole, -rolle 'barkajrol; ES 'ba:kajrol 
Barcelona jbarsl'ona; ES jba:-; {Sp jbarBe- 

Barclay 'barkli, -le; ES 'ba:k- 
bard bard; ES ba:d; |-ic -ik 
Bardolph 'bardalf, -dolf ; ES 'bar- 
bare ber, baer; E b£a(r, ES baea(r; |-d -d 
bareback 'bsr^baek, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 

barefaced 'ber 'f est, 'bier-; E 'bea-, ES 'baea-; 

|-cedly -sidk, -sth ('bare^faced 'lie) 
barefoot 'berjfut, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 'baea-; 

|-ed -id 
barehead 'ber^hEd, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 'baea- 
bareheaded 'ber'hedid, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 

baresark 'ber^sark, 'baer-; E 'b£ajsa:k, ES 

bargain 'bargin; ES 'ba:gin; |-ed -d 
barge bard5; ES ba:d3; |-s -iz |-d -d 
bargeman 'bardsman; ES 'ba:d3-; |-men 

Barham, Richard 'bseram 
baric 'baerik 

Baring-Gould 'berig'guld, 'baerig-; S 'b£er- 
barite 'berait, 'baerait, 'berait; S 'baer-, 'ber- 
baritone 'baerajton 

barium 'beriam, 'baer-, 'ber-; S 'baer-, 'ber- 
bark bark; ES ba:k; j-ed -t 
barkeeper 'bar^kipa^; ES 'ba:ikipa(r 
barkentine 'barkan,tin; ES 'bark- 
Barker, b- 'barka^; ES 'ba:ka(r 
barley 'barli; ES 'ba:li; |-corn -jkarn; ES 

barm barm; ES barm 
barmaid 'bar^med; ES 'bar,med 
Barmecide 'barma,said; ES 'barm- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langrj^ 'aeg-gri 
|batli baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |ja\v dsa |gorge gards |go go 

bar mizvah 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with £ ('ken, §94) 

bar mizvah, mitz- 'bar'mitsva; ES 'ba:- 

Barrie 'baeri 

barn barn; ES ba:n; [ed -d 

barrier 'baeria'; ES 'baeri- a(r 

Barnabas 'barnabas; ES 'bama-; j-'s -iz 

Barrington 'baerigtan 

Barnaby 'barnabi; ES 'bainabi 

barrister 'baerista^; ES 'baeristafr 

barnacle 'barnakj, 'barm-; ES 'ba:n-; |- 


barroom 'bar^rum, -jtum; ES 'bai^r- 

Barnard 'barna^d; ES 'barnad 

barrow, B- 'baero, -ra 

Barnardine 'barna^jdin; ES 'barna- 

Barry 'baeri 

barn door 'barn'dor, -'dar; ES 'ba:nMo3(r, 

Barrymore 'baerajinor, -iinar; ES -imoa(r, E+ 

E+-'d33(r; ('barn-jdoor 'fowl) 


Barnegat ibariu'gaet; ES jba:m-; ('Barne 


Bartas, du djubar'tas, dm-, du-; ES -ba:'tas; 


{Fr dybar'ta:s) |-'s -iz 

Barnet(t) 'barnit; ES 'barnit; ace/ + Bar 'nett 

bartender 'bar^tend*; ES 'ba:it£nda(r 

Barnstable Mass 'barnstabl; ES 'ba:n- 

barter 'barta^; ES 'ba:ta(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

Barnstaple Dev 'barnstapl; ES 'ba:n-; 


-tang, -trig 

-stabl {spelt -pie 1086, -ble 1421) 

Bartholomew bar'8alajmju, -jiniu; ES 

barnstorm 'barn^starin; ES 'barn^stoam; 

ba'eal-, -'GdI- 

l-ed -d 

Bartimeus jbarta'mias; ES jba:ta-; |-'s -iz 

Barnum 'barnam; ES 'bainam 

bartizan 'bartazn, jbarta'zaen; ES 'ba:ta-. 

barnyard 'barnjard; ES 'bam^jard 


barogram 'baer3,graem 

Bartlett 'bartht, -lat; ES 'ba:t- 

barograph 'baerajgraef; E+-jgraf, -/graf 

Baruch Bible 'berak, 'baerak, 'berak, -ruk; 

barographic jbaera'graefik 

S 'baer-, 'ber- 

barometer b3'ram3t3^;ES ba'ramataCr, -'rom- 

Baruch Bernard ba'ruk 

barometric jbaera'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -li. 


barytone 'baerajton 

baron, B- 'baeran |-age -ids |-ages -idsiz 

basal 'besl |-ly -i 

baroness 'baeranis |-es -iz 

basalt ba'salt, 'baesalt 

baronet 'baeranit, -^net l-ed -id |-age 


basaltic ba'saltik, bae- 

|-ages -idsiz |-cy -si 

bascule 'baeskjul, 'baeskiul 

barong ba'rag, ba'rag, -'rDO 

base bes | bases 'besiz | based best 

barony 'baerani |-nial ba'ronial 

baseball 'bes'bal, 'besjbal 

baroque ba'rok {Fr ba'rb'k) 

baseboard 'besjbord, -jbard; ES -jboad, E+ 

baroscope 'baera^skop 


barouche ba'ruj, bae- |-s -iz 

baseborn 'bes'barn; ES -'baan; ('base-born 

barque bark; ES ba:k 


barrack 'baerak |-ed -t 

Basel 'bazl — see Basle 

barracuda jbaera'kuda 

basement 'besmant 

barrage 'act of barriitg,' 'bar' 'bands |-s ■ 


bases pi of base 'besiz 

barrage mil. ba'ras |-s -iz |-d -d 

bases pi of basis 'besiz 

barrator 'baerata^; ES 'baerata(r; |-try -tri 

bash bae/ jbashes 'baejiz |bashed bae/t 

Barre, Isaac 'baeri, hence next 

Bashan 'be/aen, 'be/an 

Barre Mass, Vt 'baeri 

bashaw ba'/a 

barrel 'baeral, 'baeri, 'baeril |-ed -d 

bashful 'b«Xfal jbashfuUy 'baejfak 

barren 'baeran j-ness 'baerannis 

bashi-bazouk 'baejiba'zuk 

barret, Barrett 'baent 

basic 'besik |-ally -li, -ikli 

barette ba'ret 

basicity be'sisati 

barricade n ,baera'ked, 'baera^ked 

basil, B- 'baezl, -zil 

barricade v jbaera'ked |-d -id 

basilica ba'sihka, ba'zihka 

Ifull ful |tooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'jiizig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




basilisk 'baesajisk 'baza^lisk 

baton bae'tan, 'baetn, bae'ta; ES-i--'tDn; {Fr 

basin 'besn jbasined 'besnd 

ba'to) j 

basinet 'baesanit 

Baton Rouge 'baetn'ru3 |-'s -iz 

Basingstoke 'bezig,stok 

batrachian ba'trekian 

basis 'besis |bases 'besiz 

batsman 'baetsman |-men 'b^etsman 

bask baesk; E+bask, bask; |-ed -t 

batswing 'baets,wig 

basket 'basskit; E+'baskit, 'baskit 

battalion ba'taeljan, bae'taeljan 

basketball 'baeskitjbal; E+'bas-, 'bas- 

batten 'baetn |-ed -d |-ing 'baetnii), 'baetnig 

basketful 'baeskitjful; E+'bas-, 'bas-; |-s -z 

batter 'b^ta^; ES 'baeta(r; -ed -d 

basketry 'baeskitn; E+'bas-, 'bas- 

battery 'baetari, 'baetn 

Basle bal 

battle 'baetl |-d -d |-ling 'baetlig, 'baethg 

Basque baesk 

Battle Creek 'baetl'krik, -'krik 

Basra 'bAsra 

battledore 'baetljdor, -/dar; ES -,doa(r, E-t- 

bas-relief jba-n'lJf, ^baes-, 'ba-ri/Iif, 'baes- 


basa fish baes |basses 'baesiz 

battlement n 'b^tjmant 

bass music bes |basses 'besiz 

battlement v 'baetljmEnt |-mented -jmentid 

Bassanio ba'sanijO, ba'sanjo — trisyllabic in 

battleplane 'baetj,plen 


battleship 'baetjj/ip 

basset, B- 'baesit 

battue bae'tu, bae'tiu, bae'tju {Fr ba'ty) 

Bassianus jbaesi'enas |-'s -iz 

batty 'baeti 

bassinet jbaesa'net, 'baes3jnet 

bauble 'babl 

basso 'baeso 

Baucis 'basis | Baucis' 'basis 

bassoon bae'sun, ba'sun, -'zun 

baudekin 'badakin 

basso-relievo 'baeso- ri'livo {It -rilievo 'basso- 

Bausch and Lomb 'ba/an'lam, -'Inm-, -'lam 


bauxite 'baksait, 'bozait 

basswood 'baes^wud 

Bavaria ba'veria, ba'veria |-n -n 

bast baest 

bawcock 'bajkak; ES-i-'ba^kok 

bastard 'baesta^d; ES 'baestad 

bawd bad [bawdry 'badri |bawdy 'badi 

baste best |basted 'bestid basting 'bestig 

bawl bal | bawled bald 

bastille baes'til {Fr bas'ti:j) 

ba}^ be | bayed bed 

bastinado jbaesta'nedo 

bayard, B- 'bea^d. Am statesmen 'baia^d; ES 

bastion 'baestjan, 'baestian 


Basutoland ba'sutOjlaend 

Bayeux be'ju {Fr ba'jo) 

bat baet |batted 'baetid 

bayonet 'beanit |bayoneted 'beanitid, -,n£tid 

Bataan ba'tan, ba-, bae- 

Bayonne US be'on, be'jon; France, Fr 

Batavia bo'tevia, -'tevja 


batch baetj | batches 'baetjiz | batched baetjt 

bayou 'baiu, 'baiju 

bate bet | bated 'betid 

Bayreuth bai'rait, 'bairait {Ger bai'rayt) 

bateau bae'to 

bazaar ba'zar; ES ba'za:(r, E-i--'za:(r 

bath, B- baeO; E-^baO, baG; |-ths -(5z |-th's -Gs 

B.C. 'bi'si 

bathe beS |bathed bctSd | bathing 'beSig 

bdellium 'deliam 

bathetic bo'Oetik 

be V stressed 'bi, jbi; unsir. bi 

bathhouse 'baeO,haus; E-i-'baO-, 'baO- 

be- unstressed prefi.x bi-, ba- • — Usually only 

bathos 'beOas; ES + -Ods 

one pron. is given in the vocab. Where ba- 

bathroom 'baeejrHm, -jrum; E-t-'baO-, 'baO- 

is give?i, usually bi- would represent a some- 

Bathsheba baeO'Jiba, 'baeOjiba 

what more careful style; where bi- is given, 

Bathurst 'baeOa^st; ES 'bseOast 

ba- may often be substituted bef. conss., esp. 

batik 'batik, bae'tik, bo-, 'bajtik 

in a more familiar style. When followed by 

batiste bae'tist, ba- {Fr ba'tist) 

1, bl- is a common variant (believe bl'iv). 

Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dga |gorge gards |go go 




The bi- type with many speakers has the 

beau geste Fr bo'sest 

usual tendency toward bi-. 

beau ideal 'boai'dial, -'dil, -'dial 

beach bit/ [-es -iz 1-ed -t 

Beauheu Engd 'bjuh, 'biuh 

beachcomber 'bitjjkoma^ ; ES -jkom3(r 

Beaumarchais ^bomar'/e; ES -mar'/e; {Fr 

beacon 'bikan |-ed -d j-ing 'bikanig, -knig 


Beaconsfield in Bucks 'b£k3nz/fild 

beau monde bo'mand, -'mond {Fr bo'mo:d) 

Beaconsfield Lord 'bikanzjfild 

Beaumont 'bomant, -mont 

bead bid | beaded 'bidid 

Beauregard 'bora^gard; ES -/ga:d, E+-jga:d 

beadle 'bidi |-dom -dam |-ry -n 

beauteous 'bjutias, 'biu- 

beadroll 'bid^rol 

beautiful 'bjutafal, 'biu- |-ly -fah, -fh 

beadsman 'bidzman |-men -man 

beautify 'bjutajfai, 'biu- |-fied -jfaid 

beadwork 'bid^wyk; ES -jwsk, -^wyk 

beauty 'bjuti, 'biuti 

beagle, B- 'bigl 

Beauvais bo've {Fr bo've) 

beak bik |-ed -t 

beaux boz 

beaked adj bikt, 'bikid 

beaux-arts Fr bo'za:r 

beaker 'bika-; ES 'bika(r 

Beaven 'bevan 

beam bim |-ed -d 

beaver, B- 'biva^; ES 'biva(r 

beam-ends 'bim'gndz, -^endz, -nz 

becalm bi'kam; E + -'kam; |-ed -d 

bean bin |-ed -d 

became bi'kem 

beano 'bino 

because bi'kaz, ba-, -'koz, -'kAz 

beanstalk 'bin^stak 

bechance bi't/aens; E-h-'t/ans, -'t/ans; |-s 

bear n ber, baer; E be'aCr, ES baea(r 

-IZ |-d -t 

bear v ber, baer; E bea(r, ES baea(r; [bore 

becharm bi't/arm; ES -'tXa:m, E4--'tJa:m; 

bor, bar; ES boa(r, E+baa(r; | borne born. 

I-ed -d 

barn; ES boan, E+baan 

Bechuana jbetju'ana, jbekju- j-land -jlaend 

beard bird; ES brad, S+bead; |-ed -id 

beck bek |-ed -t 

Beard bird, berd, baerd; ES biad, bead. 

becket, B- 'bekit 


beckon 'bekan |-ed -d |-ing 'bekanig, -knig 

bearer 'bera', 'baera^; E 'b£ra(r, ES 'baerafr 

becloud bi'klaud |-ed -id 

bearskin 'ber^skin, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 'baea- 

become bi'kAm |became bi'kem [become 

beast bist |beasted 'bistid |-ly -li 


beat bit \past beat bit \pptc beaten 'bitn or 

Becquerel bek'rsl ('Becqueirel 'rays) 

beat bit 

bed bed |bedded 'bedid 

beatific ,bia'tifik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikb 

bedabble bi'daebl |-d -d |-ling -'dasbhg. 

beatification bi,aetafa'ke/an 


beatify bi'aeta^fai -fied -^faid 

bedaub bi'dab |-ed -d 

beatitude biWaitjud, -^tiud, -jtud 

bedazzle bi'daezl |-d -d |-ling -'dajzhg, -zbg 

Beatrice fem. name 'biatris, in Dante 'biatris 

bedbug 'bedjbAg 

{It jbea'tri:tXe) |-'s -iz 

bedchamber 'bed^tXemba'; ES -itjemba(r 

Beatrix 'biatriks |-'s -iz 

bedclothes 'bed^kloz, -jkloSz 

Beattie, -tty 'biti, 'beti 

bedcover 'bed^kAva^; ES -ikAva(r 

beau bo |-s, -x -z i-ed -d 

bedding 'bedig 

Beaucaire bo'ker, -'kaer; E -'kEa(r, ES 

Beddoes 'bedoz |-'s -iz 


Bede bid. Latinized Baeda 'bida 

Beauchamp Eng name 'bit/am (Fr bo '/a) 

bedeck bi'dek |-ed -t 

Beauclerc, -rk 'bo^kkr, -jklaer, -jklark; E 

Bedel, -11 'bidj, ba'del 

-jklea(r, ES -jklaea(r, -^klark 

bedesman 'bidzman j-men -man 

Beaufort 'bofa^t, SC 'bjufa^t, 'biu-, NC 'bo-; 

bedevil bi'devl |-ed -d j-ing -'devbg, -vjig 

ES -fat 

bedew bi'dju, -'diu, -'du |-ed -d 

IfuU ful |tooth tu6 Ifurther 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi3an (Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




bedfellow 'bEdjfelo, -a 

Bedford 'bedfa^d; ES 'bedfad; [-shire -Jir, 

-S^; ES -Ji3(r, -X3(r 
bedight bi^dait 
bedim bi'dim |-med -d 
Bedivere 'beda^vir; ES -jVi3(r 
bedizen bi'dizn, -'daizn |-ed -d |-ing -znig, 

-znig — bi'daizn is chiefly Brit. 
bedlam, B- 'bedlam [-ite -jHit 
Bedloe 'bedlo 
bedmate 'bed^met 
Bedouin 'beduin 
bedpan 'bed^paen 
bedplate 'bed^plet 
bedraggle bi'draeg} \-d -d j-ling -Mraeglig, 


bedrid 'bed^rid [bedridden 'bEd^ridn 

bedrock 'bed'rak, -jtak; ES+-Dk 

bedroll 'bedjiol 

bedroom 'bedjrum, -jum, -ram 

bedroom door 'bedjrum'dor, 'bedram-, -'dDt; 
ES -'doa(r, E+-'d3a(r 

Beds short for Bedfordshire btdz 

bedside 'bed^said 

bedsore 'b£djSor, -/sar; ES -;Soa(r, E+ 

bedspread 'bedjSprEd 

bedspring 'bed, sprig 

bedstaff 'bediStaef; E+-,staf, -jStaf; |-staves 

bedstead 'bed^sted, -stid 

bedstraw 'bed^stra 

bedtime 'bed^taim 

bedward 'bedwa^d; ES 'bedwad 

bee bi 

beech 'bjtj |-es -iz |-en -an 

beechnut 'bitjnat, -,nAt 

beef 71 bif |-'s -s | beeves bivz or beefs bifs 

beef V bif | beefs bifs ] beefed bift 

beefeater 'bif,it3^; ES -iita(r 

beefsteak 'bif,stek 

beehive 'bi^haiv 

beeline 'bi'lain ('bee,line 'flight) 

Beelzebub bi'elzijbAb 

been bin, ben — bin occurs chiefly as a Briti- 
cism, esp. in Canada, ben is most apt to 
occur when unstressed. 

beer, B- bir; ES bia(r, S+bea(r 

Beersheba bir'Jiba, 'birjiba; ES bia-, 'bia- 

beeswax 'biz,w£eks |-es -iz |-ed -t 

beeswing 'biz, wig |-ed -d 

beet bit 

Beethoven 'betovan, 'bet-hovan; Lond square 

'bit'hovan {Ger 'be:t'ho:van) 
beetle 'bitl |-d -d |-ling 'bitlig, 'bitjig 
beetle-browed 'bitl'braud ('beetle-jbrowed 

beetlehead 'bit),hed |-ed 'bitl'hedid 
beetroot 'bit,rut, -;rut 
beeves bivz 

befall bi'fal |-fell -'fel |-fallen -'falan, -In 
befit bi'fit l-ted -id 
befog bi'fag, -'fag, -'fog |-ged -d 
befool bi'ful |-ed -d 
before bi'for, ba-, -'far; ES -'foa(r, E+ 

-'faa(r; |-hand -jhaend |-time -,taim 
befoul bi'faul |-ed -d 
befriend bi'frend |-ed -id 
befuddle bi'f Adl 1-d -d j-ling -'fAdbg, -dlig 
beg beg [begged begd 
begad bi'gaed 
began bi'gaen 
begat bi'gaet 
beget bi'get j-got -'gat, arch, -gat -'gaet 

|-gotten -'gatn or -got -'gat; |ES +-'gDt(n) 
beggar 'baga^; ES 'bega(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-gang, -grig |-ly -li |-y -i 
begin bi'gin 1-gan -'gaen |-gun -'gAn 1-ning 

begird bi'gyd \past -girt -'gyt or -girded 

-'gydid \pptc -girt -'gyt; | ES -3-, -y- 
begohm 'beg,om 

begone bi'gan, -'gon, miicli less frcq. -'gan 
begonia, B- bi'gonja, -ma 
begot bi'gat; ES+-'gDt; j-ten -n 
begrime bi'graim |-d -d 
begrudge bi'grAds |-s -iz |-d -d 
beguile bi'gail |-d -d 
begum n 'bigam 
begum V bi'gAm |-med -d 
begun bi'gAn 

behalf bi'haf ; E -'haf, -'haf, -'haf 
behave bi'hev |-d -d 

behavior bi'hevja^; ES -'hevja(r; 1-ism -,izam 
behavioristic bi,hevja'ristik j-alh- -li, -ikli 
behead bi'hed |-ed -id 
beheld bi'held 
behemoth bi'himaG, 'biamaO 

Key; See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret lyet jet |sang saeg |angp.' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) jah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




behest bi'hest 

Bellamy 'belami 

behind bi'haind |-hand bi'haind,haend 

bellboy 'bel,b3i 

behold bi'hold |-held -'held \arch. 


belle, B- bel 

-holden -'holdan 

Bellefontaine bel'fauntn, -an-, -on-, -tin 

behoof bi'huf |-s -s 

Bellerophon ba'lerafan, -^fan, -,tr>n 

behoove bi'huv |-d -d 

Bellerus ba'liras, -'liras |-'s -iz 

behove bi'hov |-d -d 

belles-lettres bel'letra, -t^; ES -tra, -ta(r; 

Behring 'birig, 'berii), 'berig 

{Fr bel'letr) 

beige bes |-s -iz {Fr b£:3) 

belletrist bel'letrist |-ic ^belle'tristik 

being 'biig 

belUcose 'bebjkos 

Beirut 'berut, be'rut 

bellicosity jbeb'kasati; ES+-'kDS- 

bejewel bi'dsual, -'dsmal |-ed -d 

belligerence ba'lidsarans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 

bel bel 

BelHngham US 'bebgjhaem, Engd 'belindsam 

Bel god bel, ahbr. name bel 

Bellini be'lini (It bel'lirni) 

Bela, Belah 'bib 

bellmouthed 'belimau'Sd, -Ot 

belabor bi'leba'; ES -'leb3(r; |-ed -d 



-'lebarig, -'lebrig 

Bellona ba'lona, be- 

Belarius ba'lerias, -'iaer-, -'ler- j-'s -iz 

bellow 'belo, 'beb |-ed -d |-ing 'bebwig 

belate bi'let \-d -id 

bellows 'beloz, -az, -as \double pi bellowses 

belaud bi'bd |-ed -id 


belay bi'le |-ed -d 

Bellows Falls 'beloz'blz, 'bebz- |-'s -iz 

belch, B- beltj" j-es -iz |-ed -t 

bellwether 'beljweSa^; ES -jwe?f3(r 

beldam 'beldam |-dame -dam, -dem 

belly 'bell |bellied 'belid 

beleaguer bi'liga^; ES -'lig3(r; |-ed -d 


Belmont 'belmant, -mnnt 

-'ligarig, -'ligrig 

Beloit ba'bit 

Belfast US 'belfaest, Irel 'belfast, bel'faest; 

belong ba'bg, -'log; S+-'Iag; [ed -d 

E+-ast, -ast 

belove bi'bv |-d -d 

belfry 'belfri | -fried -fnd 

beloved adj bi'bvid, -'kvd 

Belgian 'beldsian, -dsan j-gium -ds 


below ba'lo 


Belshazzar bel'/aeza'; ES -'Xaez3(r 

Belgic 'beldjik 

belt belt [belted 'beltid 

Belgrade bel'gred, 'belgred 

Beluchistan bajutji'staen, -'stan, ba'lutji- 

Belgravia bel'grevia 

jstaen, -jstan, -uki- 

Belial 'bilial, -Ijal 

belvedere, B- jbelva'dir; ES -'di3(r 

beUe bi'lai |-d -d 

belying ptc of belie bi'laiig 

belief ba'''lif 

bemaul bi'mal |-ed -d 

believe ba'liv, bl'Iv, bi'liv |-d -d 

bemazed bi'mezd 

belike bi'Iaik 

bemean bi'min 1-ed -d 

Belinda ba'linda 

bemire bi'mair; ES -'mai3(r; |-d -d 

BeHsarius jbeb'serias, -'ser- |-'s -iz 

Bemis 'bimis j-'s -iz 

Behsha beacon ba'li/a'bikan 

bemoan bi'mon |-ed -d 

behttle bi'htl |-d -d j-hng -'litlig, -tlig 

bemock bi'mak, -'mok, -'mak |-ed -t 

belive bi'laiv 

bemuddle bi'mAdl |-d -d |-ling -'mAdlig, 

Behze be'liz 


Belknap 'belnaep, bel'nsep 

bemuse bi'mjuz, -'miuz j-s -iz j-d -d |-dly 

bell, B- bel |belled held 


belladonna ^bela'dana; ES+-'dDn3 

Ben ben 

Bellaire ba'ler, be-, -'laer; E -'le3(r, 


bename bi'nem |-d -d \pptc -d -d or -nempt 


-'nempt or -nempted -'nemptid 

Ifull ful [tooth tu8 [further 'fytSa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Benares ba'nanz |-'s -iz 

Bentham 'bEnGam, 'bsntam — 'beneam is a 

Ben Avon Pa ben'aevan, Scotl -'evan, ben'an 

sp. pron. 

bench bent/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 

benthos 'benOas; ES+-6ds 

bend bend |bent bent, arch, bended 'bendid 

Benton 'bentan 

beneath bi'niO, -'ni(5 

benumb bi'nAm |-ed -d |-edness -'nAmdnis, 

benedicite, B- jbena'disati, Chaiic. jbendis'te 


Benedick 'bena^dik 

Ben Venue jbenva'nu, -'niu, -'nju 

benedict, B- 'bena^dikt 

Benvolio ben'vokjO, -Ijo 

benedictine liquor jbena'diktin 

Ben Vorlich, Voir- benVarlik; ES -'vaa-; {Sc 

Benedictine monk jbena'diktin, -tin 


benediction ibEna'dikJan 

benzaldehyde ben'zaeldajhaid 

Benedictus jbeni'diktas |-es -iz 

benzene, -zine 'benzin, ben'zin 

benefaction /bena'faekj'an 

benzoate ben'zo-it, -et 

benefactor 'benajfaekta^, jbena'faekta^; 


benzoic ben'zo-ik 


benzoin 'benzo-in, ben'zo- 

benefactress 'bEna^faektris, jbena'faektris 1-es 

benzol 'benzol, -zal, -zdI ]-zole -zol 


Beowulf 'bea,wulf 

benefic ba'nefik 

bepaint bi'pent |-ed -id 

benefice 'benafis ]-s -iz, -jfisiz |-d -t 

bequeath bi'kwitS |-ed -d [-al -al 

beneficence ba'nefasns |-cent -snt 

bequest bi'kwest 

beneficial jbena'fi/al |-ly -i 

berate bi'ret | -rated -'retid 

beneficiary jbena'fijari, -'fi/ijEri 

Berber 'byba^; ES 'bsbafr, 'byba(r 

benefit 'benafit |-ted -id, -^fitid 

Berbera 'bybara; ES 'bs-, 'by- 

Benes 'bEneJ |-'s -iz 

berceuse Fr b£r's0:z 

Benet 'benit 

Berea ba'ria |-n -n 

Benet bE'ne 

bereave ba'riv |-d -d or -reft -'reft 

benevolence ba'nevabns, -vlans |-s -iz 


Berengaria jberio'geria, -'ger- 


Berenice jbera'naisi 

Benewah 'benajwa, -^wd 

Beresford 'berizfa^d, -ris-; ES -fad 

Bengal ben 'gal, beg- ('Ben^gal 'tiger) 

beret ba're, 'bent {Fr be 're) 

Bengalese jbengs'liz, ibeo- 

berg byg; ES bsg, byg 

Bengali ben'gah, beij- 

Bergen NJ 'bygan, NY 'bydsin, Nono, 

Bengasi, -ghazi ben'gazi, beij- 

Neth 'bygan, 'bergan; ES 'bs-, 'by-, 'bea- 

Benicia bg'ni/a 

Bergerac 'bydsa^raek; ES 'ba-, 'by-; {Fr 

benighted bi'naitid 


benign bi'nain 

Bergson 'bygsn, 'berg-; ES 'bsg-, 'byg-. 

benignancy bi'nignansi |-nant -nant [-gnity 

'beag-; {Fr berg'san, berk-) |-ism -jizam 


berhyme, -rime bi'raim \-d -d 

benison 'bsnazn, -sn 

beribboned bi'nband 

Benjamin 'bendsaman 

beriberi 'beri'beri 

Ben Lomond ben'Iomand 

Bering 'bing, 'ber- 'ber- 

Ben More ben'mor, -'mar; ES -'moa(r 


beringed bi'rigd 


Berkeley US 'bykb, Engd 'barkh; ES 'bsk-, 

Bennett 'bsnit 


Ben Nevis ben'nevis, -'nivis |-'s -iz 

Berkhamsted, -mpstead 'bykam,sted, loc.+ 

Bennington 'benigtan 

'bark-; ES 'bsk-, 'byk-, ^ha:k-;—The 

Benoni bs'nonai, be- 

Brit pron. is 'bskamstid, Zoc. -t- 'ba:k- ; the 

Benson 'bensn 

corresponding Am is as given above. 

bent bent 

Berkley 'bykb; ES 'bskh, 'byk- 

Key: See in full §§3~t7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg | angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) ]ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw d3a |gorge gards |go go 




Berks in Engd short for Berkshire 'barks; 

ES 'ba:ks; Pa byks; ES bsks, byks 
Berkshire US 'byk/ir, -Ja*, Engd 'bark/ir, 

-JV; ES 'bsk/iacr, 'byk/i3(r, 'ba:k-, -/3(r 
berUn by'hn, ba^'lin, 'byhn; ES bs'lin, by-, 

ba-, 'bshn, 'bs'- 
BerHn US 'bylin; ES 'bslin, 'by-; Germany 

by'lm, ba^'hn; ES bs'hn, by-, ba-; (Ger 

ber'litn) ('BerjHn 'wool) 
BerHoz 'berkjoz; ES 'b£3lijOz; {Fr ber'ijb'rz, 

berm, -e bym; ES bsm, bym 
Bermuda ba^'mjuda, -'miuda; ES ba-; |-dian 

Bern, -e US byn, Sivtz byn, bern; ES bsn, 

byn, bean; {Fr, Ger bern) 
Bernard 'byna-d, 'bynard, ba^'nard; ES 

'bsnad, 'bynad, -na:d, ba'na:d, E+-a:d; 

{Fr ber'narr) 
Bernardo ba^'nardo; ES ba'na:do, E+-'na:- 
Berners 'byna^z; ES 'bsnaz, 'bynaz 
Bernhardt 'bynhart; ES 'bsnhart, 'bynha:t; 

{Fr b£r'na:r) 
Bemice 'bynis, ba^'nis; ES 'bsnis, 'by-, 

ba'nis; |-'s -iz 
Bernicia ba^'nijia; ES ba'nif- 
bernicle 'barnikl; ES 'ba:n-; = barnacle 
Berowne bi'run 
berretta ba'reta 
berrigan 'btrigan 
berry 'ben | berried 'bend 
berserk 'bysyk; ES 'bassk, 'bysyk; |-er -a^; 

ES -a(r 
berth by6; ES bsO, byO; |-ths -Gs 
Bertha, b- 'byOa; ES 'bsGa, 'byOa 
Bertillon system. 'bytl/On, -jDh; ES 'bat-, 

'byt-; {Fr berti'jo) 
Bertram 'by tram; ES 'bstram, 'byt- 
Bertrand 'bytrand; ES 'bat-, 'byt-; {Fr 

bertrandite 'bytrand^ait; ES 'bst-, 'byt- 
beruffled bi'rAfld 
Berwick US 'bywik; ES 'bswik, 'by-; Scoil 

Berwickshire 'berikjjir, -JV; ES -iXia(r, -J'a(r 
Berwyn 'by win; ES 'bawin, 'by- 
beryl 'beral, -il 
beryllium ba'riliam 
Besant, Annie 'beznt. Sir Walter ba'zaent 

besant 'btznt, ba'zaent 

beseech bi'sitj |-es -iz |-sought -'sat 

beseem bi'sim |-ed -d 

beseen bi'sin 

beset bi'set 

beshrew bi'/ru, -'/riu, arch, bi'/ro |-ed-d 

beside bi'said |-s -z 

besiege bi'sids |-s -iz |-d -d 

besmear bi'smir; ES -'smia(r, S+-'smea(r; 

l-ed -d 
besmirch bi'smytj; ES -'smstj, -'smyt/; |-es 

-IZ |-ed -t 
besom 'bizam |-ed -d 
besot bi'sat; ES+-'sDt; [-ted -id 
besought bi'sat 
bespake bi'spek 
bespangle bi'spaeggl |-ed -d |-ling -glig, 

bespatter bi'spaeta^; ES -'spaeta(r; |-ed -d 
bespeak bi'spik |-spoke -'spok j-spoken 

bespouse bi'spauz |-s -iz |-d -d 
bespread bi'sprEd 
besprent bi'spr£nt 
besprinkle bi'sprigkl j-d -d |-ling -klig, 

Bess bes [Bess's 'besiz j-ie -i 
Bessarabia jbesa'rebia |-n -n 
Bessemer 'besama^; ES 'btsamaCr 
best best |bested 'bestid 
best-dressed 'best'drest ('best-jdressed 'man) 
bestead, -sted adj bi'sted 
bestead v bi'sted \past -steaded -'stedid 

\pptc -stead -'sted 
bestial 'best/al, -tial |-ly -i 
bestiality jbestji'aelati, /besti- 
bestiary 'besti^eri 

bestir bi'sty; ES -'st3(r, -'sty; |-red -d 
best-known 'best'non 
best-liked 'best'laikt ('best-Jiked 'play) 
bestow bi'sto |-ed -d |-al -al 
bestraddle bi'straedl \-d -d |-ling -dhg, -dlig 
bestrew bi'stru, -'striu |-ed -d |-ed -d or 

-n -n 
bestride bi'straid [-strode -'strod [-stridden 

bestrow bi'stro [-ed -d |-ed -d or n -n 
bet bet \past 6" pptc bet bet or betted 'betid 
beta Gk letter 'beta, 'bita 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Beta, b- 'beef 'bita 

betaine 'bitijin 

betake bi'tek |-took -Huk ]-taken -'tekan 

betel 'bitl 

Betelgeuse, -geux ^bitl^dsuz, 'betljdssz |-'s -iz 

bete noire 'bet'nwar; ES -'nwa:(r; {Fr 

Bethany 'beeani 
bethel, B- 'beOal 
Bethesda ba'Oezda 
bethink bi'Oigk [-thought -'ODt 
Bethlehem 'bEGham, 'bEeh^hEm 
Bethnal 'bEOnal 
bethought bi'Oat 
Bethphage 'beGfadsi, -jdsl 
Bethsaida bEO'seada 
Bethune surnames, US places ba'Ojun, -'Oiun, 

-'Oun, 'bitn 
Bethune ba'Bjun, -'Oiun, -'6un {Fr be'tyn) 
betide bi'taid |-d -id or arch, -tid -'tid 
betimes bi'taimz 
betoken bi'tokan j-ed -d |-ing -'tokanig, 

betook bi'tuk 

betray bi'tre |-ed -d |-al -al 
betroth bi'traG, -'trnG, -'trotJ |-ed -Ot, -tJd 

l-al -al 
Betsy 'bEtsi 

better 'beta^; ES 'bEta(r; j-ed -d 
bettor 'bEta'; ES 'bEta(r 
Bettws-y-Coed 'bfitazi'ko-id, -si- 
Betty 'bEti 
between ba'twin 
betwixt ba'twikst 
Beulah 'bjula, ^biula 
Bevan 'bEvan 

bevel 'bEvl |-ed -d |-ing 'bEvlig, 'bEvlig 
Beven 'bEvan 

beverage 'bEvrids, 'bEvarids |-s -iz 
Beveridge 'bEvrids, 'bEvarids j-'s -iz 
Beverley, -ly 'bEva^h; ES 'bEvah 
Bevier bi'vir; ES -'via(r 
Bevis 'blvis, 'bEvis |-'s- iz 
bevy 'bEvi 
bewail bi'wel |-ed -d 
beware bi'wEr, -Vaer; E -VEa(r, ES -'waea(r; 

beweep bi'wip |-wept -Vept 
Bewick 'bjuik, 'biuik 

bewilder bi'wilda^; ES -Vilda(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-'wildrig, -'wildarig 
bewitch bi'witj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
bewray biVe |-ed -d 
Bexar Tex, loc. baer, baea(r {Sp 'bExar) 
bey be 

beyond bi'jand, bi'and, -'jnnd, -'nnd 
Beyrouth 'berut, be'rut 
Beza 'biza 

bezant, bezz- 'bEznt, ba'zasnt 
bezel, -il 'bEzl |-ed -d 
bezique ba'zik 
bezonian ba'zonian 
bhang baeg 

Bianca bi'aegka {It 'bjagka) 
biannual bai'aenjual | 1\^ -i 
Biarritz 'bia,rits {Fr bjaVits) 
bias 'baias |-es -iz |-ed -t 
bib bib jbibbed bibd 
bibber 'biba^; ES 'biba(r 
bibcock 'bibjkak; ES+'^kok 
bibelot 'biblo {Fr bi'blo) 
Bible 'baibl 

BibHcal 'bibhkl |-ly -i, -ikli 
Biblicism 'bibh/Sizam |-cist -sist 
bibliographer jbibh'agrafa^, -'og-; ES -fa(r; 

l-phy -fi 
bibliographic jbiblia'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

bibliolater jbibh'alata^; ES -'alatacr, -'dI-; 

I -try -tri 
bibhomania jbibba^menia, -nja |-iac -i^aek 
bibliophil 'bibha^fil |-phile -^fail 
bibulosity jbibja'lasati; ES+-'1ds- 
bibulous 'bibjalas 
bicameral bai'kiemaral 
bicarbonate bai'karbanit, -inet; ES -'ka:b-, 

bicaudal bai'kadl |-date -det 
bice bais 
bicentenary bai'sEnta^nEri, jbaisen'tenari; 

Brit -'tin-, -Heh- 
bicentennial jbaiSEn'tEiual j-ly -i 
biceps 'baiSEps ]-es -iz 
Bicester 'bista^; ES 'bista(r; (Bister 1634) 
bichlorid bai'klorid, -'klar-; S -'klor-; |-ide 

-aid, -id 
bichromate n bai'kromit, -met 
bichromate v bai'kromet l-d -id 

Key: See in full §§3~t7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg [angr}- 'aeg-gn 
|bath ba;G; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge g3rd3 |go go 




bicker 'bika^; ES 'bik3(r;l-ed -d |-ing 'bikarig, 

bigot, B- 'bigat |-ed -id |-ry -ri 


bigwig 'bigjwig |-ged -d 1-gery -an, -ri 

Bickerstaff 'bika^^staef; ES 'bika-, E+-jStaf, 

bijou 'bisu, bi'su 


bike baik 

Bicknell 'biknal 

bilabial bai'lebial 

bicolor ^baijkAla'; ES -jkAl3(r; |-ed -d 

bilabiate bai'lebi^et, -but 

biconcave bai'kankev, -'kag-, jbaikan'kev; 

Bilaspur bi'laespur, -'las-; ES -pua(r 


bilateral bai'lsetaral |-ly -i 

biconvex bai'kanveks, jbaikanVeks; ES+ 

Bilbao bil'bao 


bilberry 'bil^beri, -ban 

bicron 'baikran, 'bik-; ES+-krDn 

bilbo 'bilbo 

bicuspid bai'kAspid |-ate -,et 

Bildad 'bild«d 

bicycle 'bai^sikl, 'baisikl |-d -d 1-ling -klig. 

bile bail 


bilge bilds |-s -iz |-d -d 

bicyclic 'of bicycles' bai'sikhk, 'baisik- 

bihary 'bili,£ri 

bicyclic Hwo-cycled' bai'saikhk, -'sik- 

bihnear bai'lima^; ES -'lini-aCr 

bicyclist 'b. rider' 'bai^siklist, -siklist 

bilingual bai'liggwal |-ism -^izam 1-ly -i 

bid 'ask' bid \past bade, bad baed or bid bid 

biHous 'biljas 

\ppic bidden 'bidn or bid bid 

biliteral bai'htaral |-ism -jizam 

bid 'offer' bid \past b- pptc bid bid 

bilk bilk Ibilked bilkt 

biddable ibidabl |-bly -bh 

biU bil IbiUed bild |-able -abl 

Biddefordlfe 'bidafa^d; ES 'bidafad 

billboard 'biljbord, -^bard; ES -iboad, E+ 

biddy 'bidi 


bide baid \past bode bod or bided 'baidid 

Billerica Mass 'bibrika 

\pptc bided 'baidid 

Billericay Engd jbila'riki 

Bideford Engd 'bidafa^d; ES 'bidafad 

billet 'bilit i-ed -id 

bidentate bai'dentet 

billet-doux 'bili'du \pl -doux -'duz {Fr 

Biela 'bib 


biennial bai'Enial |-ly -i 

biUfold 'billfold 

bier bir; ES bi3(r, S+bE3(r 

billhead 'bil^hed 

biff bif Ibiffed bift 

billiard 'bilja^d; ES 'biljad; |-s -z 

bifid 'baifid 

billingsgate, B- 'biligz^get, -git 

biflex 'baifleks 

billion 'biljan |-aire ibiljan'sr, -'aer; E -'£a(r. 

bifocal adj bai'fokl ('bijfocal 'lenses) 

ES -'aea(r; |-th -6 |-ths -Gs 

bifocal n 'baifokl, bai'fokl j-s -z 

billow 'bilo, 'bila [-ed -d |-ing 'bilawig |-y 

bifurcate adj 'baifa^^ket, bai'fykit; ES 'baifa-. 


-'fskit, -'fykit 

billposter 'bil^posta^; ES -jposta(r 

bifurcate v 'baifa^^ket, bai'fyket; ES 'baifa-. 

billsticker 'bil^stika^; ES -jstika(r 

-'fsket, -'fyket; |-d -id 

bUly, B- 'bih 

bifurcation jbaifa^'ke/an; ES jbaifa- 

bilobate bai'lobet |-d -id 

big big 

bimanual bai'mtenjual 1-ly -i 

bigamist 'bigamist |-mous -mas [-my -mi 

bimensal bai'mEnsl 

Bigelow 'biga jo, 'biglo 

bimester bai'mesta^; ES -'m£sta(r 

bighead 'big^htd |-ed 'big'hedid 

bimetallic jbaima'taebk 

bighorn 'big^harn; ES -jhaan 

bimetallism bai'm£tljizam |-ist -ist 

Big Horn riv. 'big'harn; ES -'haan; (The 

bimonthly bai'mAnOli 

'Big 'Horn, 'Big ^Horn 'River) 

bin bin |binned bind 

bight bait |bighted 'baitid 

binary 'bainari |-nate -net 

Biglow 'biglo 

binaural bin'aral 

[full ful |tooth tu9 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
lusing 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




bind baind |bound baund \arch pptc bounden 

birdbath 'byd^baee; ES 'bsd-, 'byd- 

, E+ 


-jbae, -jbaO; |-ths -3z 

binder 'bamda^; ES 'baind3(r; |-y -dan, 

birdhouse 'byd,haus; ES 'bsd-, 'byd- 

; l-ses 



bine bam 

birdlime 'byd^laim; ES 'bsd-, 'byd- 

Binet bi'ne, bi- (Fr bi'nE) 

birdseed 'byd^sid; ES 'bsd-, 'bs'd- 

Bingen 'bigan 

bird's-eye 'bs^dz^ai; ES 'bsdz-, 'bydz- 

Bingham 'bigsm |-ton -ton 

biretta ba'reta 

Bingley 'bigh 

Birkenhead 'bykan^hed; ES 'bsk-, ' 


bingo 'biogo 

loc. (Birken'head 

binnacle, binocle 'binakj 

birl byl; ES bsl, byl; |-ed -d 

binocular bai'nakjala^, bi-; ES -'nakjabir. 

Birmingham US 'bymiOihaem, -gam. 



'bymigam; ES 'bsm-, 'bym- 

binomial bai'nomial |-ly -i 

Biron 'bairan, in Shak. bi'run spelt Berowne 

Binyon 'binjan 

birr by; ES b3(r, by; |-ed -d 

biochemic jbaio'kEmik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 

Birrell 'biral 

biochemistry jbaio'kgmistn 

birth bye; ES bsO, byO; |-ths -Os 1-day -^de 

biogenesis jbaio'dsenasis 

birthmark 'byO^mark; ES 'bsOimark, 


biogenetic jbaiodsa'netik |-al -I |-ally -ji, 

jmark, E4--iniark 


birthplace 'byO^ples; ES 'bsG-, 'byO-; 

|-S -IZ 

biogeography jbaiodgi'agrafi, -'og- 

birthright 'byO^rait; ES 'bsO-, 'byO- 

biographer bai'agrafa', bi-, -'og-; ES -f3(r 

bis bis 

biographic jbaia'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li. 

Biscay 'biski, -ke 


biscuit 'biskit 

biography bai'agrafi, bi-, -'og- 

bisect n 'baisskt 

biologic jbaia'ladsik; ES+-'lDd3-; |-al -j 

bisect V bai'sekt |-ed -id | ction -kjan 

|-ally -k, -ikli 

bishop, B- 'bijap |-ric -rik 

biology bai'al3d3i; ES+-'d1-; |-gist -dsist 

Bismarck 'bizmark; ES -mark, E-i-- 


biometric jbaia'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikli 

{Ger 'bis-) 

biometry bai'amatri; ES+-'Din- 

bismuth 'bizmaO |-al -al 

Bion 'baian 

bismuthic biz'mjuGik, -'miu-, -'mA6ik 

Biondello jbian'dElo 

bison baisn, -zn 

biophysics jbaio'fiziks j-cal-kj 

Bispham 'bispam 

biotic bai'atik; ES+-'Dt-; |-al.-I 

bisque bisk 

biotite 'bai3jtait 

bister, -tre 'bista^; ES 'bista(r 

biparous 'biparas 

bisulphate bai'sAlfet 

bipartisan bai'partazn; ES -'part-, E+-'pa:t-; 

bisulphid bai'sAlfid j-ide -aid, -id 

l-ship - Jip 

bisulphite bai'sAlfait 

bipartite bai'partait; ES -'pait-, E+ -'part- 

bisymmetric jbaisi'metrik |-al -1 1-ally -li. 

biped 'baiped |-al -I, 'bipadi 


bipetalous bai'petjas 

bisymmetry bai'simitri 

bipinnate bai'pinet 

bit bit Ibitted 'bitid 

biplane 'bai,plen 

bitch bitj" Ibitches 'bitjiz |-ed -t 

bipolar bai'pola^; ES -'pola(r 

bite bait |bit bit |bitten 'bitn 

bipolarity ^baipo'laerati 

bitstock 'bitjStak, -jStnk 

biquadratic jbaikwad'raetik, -kwnd- 

bitt bit Ibitted 'bitid 

birch bytj; ES bstj, bytj; |-es -iz |ed -t |-en 

bitten 'bitn 


bitter 'bita-, ES 'bita(r; |-s -z 

bird byd; ES bsd, byd; |-ed -id |-ie -i 

bittern 'bita^n; ES 'bitan 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr>' '«g'gri 
|bath bae9; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 

bittern ut 



bitternut 'bita^nat, -^nAt; ES 'bita- 

Blackmore 'blaekmor, -mor; ES -ino3(r, E+ 

bitterroot 'bita^^rut, -^rut; ES 'bita- 


bittersweet 'bita^^swlt, -'swit; ES 'bita- 

blacksmith 'blaeksmiG |-ths -8s |-ing -jsmiGig 

bitumen bi'tjuman, -'tiu-, -'tu-, 'bit/uman 

Blackstone 'blaekjston, -stan 

bituminous bi'tjumanas, bai-, -'tiu-, -'tu- 

black-throated 'blaek'erotid ('black-jthroated 

bivalence baiVebns, 'bivabns j-cy -i |-nt 



Blackwells 'blaek^welz, -walz 

bivalve 'baiiVaelv |-d -d 

bladder 'blaeda^; ES 'blaeda(r; |-ed -d j-ing 

bivouac 'bivu^aek, 'bivwaek j-ked -t 

'blaedarig, -driij 

biweekly bai'wikh 

blade bled |bladed 'bledid 

biyearly bai'jirb; ES -'jiab, S+-'J£3h 

blah bla 

bizarre bi'zar; ES -'za:(r, E+-'za:(r 

blain blen [blained blend 

Bizet bi'ze {Fr bi'ze) 

Blaine blen 

Bjornson 'bjynsn; ES 'bjsn-, 'bjyn-; {Norw 

Blake blek 


blamable 'blemabl |-bly -bli 

blab bl«b Iblabbed blabd 

blame blem |-ed -d |able -abl ]-bly -bli 

black blaek ,| blacked blaekt 

blameful 'blemfal |-ly -i 

blackamoor 'blaeka^mur; ES -^muaCr 

blameless 'blemlis 

black-and-blue 'blaekan'blu, 'blaekg'blu. 

blameworthy 'blem^ws^Si; ES -jW3?5i, -jWySi 


Blanc, Mont mant'blaegk, mont- {Fr mo'bla) 

blackball 'bl^k^bal |-ed -d 

blanch blaent/; E+blantJ, blantj"; |-es -iz 

black-berried 'bl^k'bsrid ('black-jberried 

l-ed -t 


Blanch(e) blaent/; E+blant/, blantj"; |-'s 

blackberry 'bliEkjb£ri, -ban |-ried -d 


blackbird 'blaek.byd; ES -.bad, 

blancmange bb'mans, -mands 

blackboard 'blaek.bord, -jb3rd; ES -jboad. 

Blanco 'blaegko 


bland blaend 

Blackburn 'blaekba-n; ES 'blaekban 

blandish 'blaendij |-es -iz |-ed -t 

blackcap 'blaek.kaep 

blank blaegk | blanked blaegkt 

blackcock 'blaekjkak; ES+-ikDk 

blankbook 'blaegk^buk, -'buk 

blackdamp 'blaek,daemp 

blanket 'blaegkit |-ed -id 

blacken 'blaekan |-ed -d |-ing 'bltekami). 

blare bier, blaer; E bk3(r, ES blae9(r; |-d -d 


blarney, B- 'blarni; ES 'blarni, E+'bla:ni 

black-eyed 'blaek'aid ('black-^eyed 'Susan) 

blase bla'ze, 'blaze {Fr bla'ze) 

Blackfeet ' 

blaspheme blaes'fim |-d -d 

blackfellow 'blak^fElo, -.fela 

blasphemous 'blaesfimas |-my -mi, older 

blackfish 'bl«k,fij 


Blackfoot 'blaekjfut |-feet 

blast blaest; E+blast, blast; |-ed -id 

Blackfriars 'blaek jfraia'Z, -'fraia^z; ES -jfrai-az. 

blastoderm 'blaesta^dym; ES -jdam, -.dym 


blastula 'blaestjub 

blackguard 'blaega^d, 'blaegard; ES 'blaegad. 

blat blaet |blatted 'blaetid 

-ga:d, E+-ga:d; |-ed -id |-ry -ri 

blatancy 'bletnsi | blatant 'bletnt 

blackhead 'blaek .bed 

blather 'blaetSa^; ES 'blaetJaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

Blackheath 'blaek^hiO, -'hie 

'blaetJrig, 'blaeSarig 

blackjack 'blaekjdsaek |-ed -t 

blatherskite 'blaeSa^.skait; ES 'bbetSa- 

Black Jack 'blaek'dsaek 

blaze blez |blazes 'bleziz | blazed blezd 

blackleg 'blaek .leg 

blazon 'blezn |-ed -d |-ing 'bleznig, -znig 

blacklist 'blaekjist |-ed -id 

blazonry 'bleznri 

blackmail 'blaekjmel j-ed -d 

bleach blitj Ibleaches 'blitjiz l-ed -t 

|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fa^tJa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy toi 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idi^ [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipip 




blieachers 'bllt/a^z; ES 'blit/az 

blockhouse 'blak^haus; ES+'blok-; |-ses 

bleachery 'blitjan 


bleak blik 

Bloemfontein 'blumfan^ten, -fan-, -fon- 

blear blir; ES bli3(r, S+bk3(r; |-ed -d 

blond, -e bland, blond 

blearedness 'blindms; S+'bkr- 

Blondel trouvere blan'del, blon-; Brit nanu 

bleat blit | bleated 'blitid 


bleb bkb |-bed -d 

blood bUd [blooded 'bUdid |-ily -Ii, -ib 

bleed blid |bled bkd 

blood-boltered 'blAdjbolta^d, -jbolta^d; ES 

blemish 'blemij |-es -iz |-ed -t 

-tad; c/baltered 

blench blentj |blenches 'bkntjiz |-ed -t 

bloodcurdling 'blAd^kydbg ; ES -jksd-, -^kyd- 

blend bknd |blended 'blendid or blent bknt 

bloodguilty 'blAd^gilti 

blende bknd 

bloodhound 'bUdjhaund |-ed -id 

Blenheim 'bknara (Ger Blindheim 'bhnt- 

bloodletting 'blAd^ktig 


blood-red 'bUd'red ( 'blood- /ed 'wine) 

Blennerhassett ^bkna^'haesit; ES jbkna- 

bloodroot 'bUd^rut, -^rut 

blenny 'bkm 

bloodshed 'blAdjX£d 

blent bknt 

bloodshot 'bUdj/at; ES+-jjDt 

bless bks |blesses 'bksiz [blessed, blest 

bloodstain 'bUd^sten j-ed -d 


bloodsucker 'bUdjSAka'; ES -jSAk3(r 

blessed adj 'bksid |-ly -k |-ness -nis 

bloodthirsty 'blAdjO^sti; ES -.Gssti, -,eysti 

blessing 'bksig 

bloom blum | bloomed blumd |-age -ids 

blest bkst 

bloomers 'bluma^z; ES 'blumaz 

blether 'bktSa^; ES 'bk<J3(r 

bloomery 'blumari 

blew blu, bhu 

Bloomfield 'blum^fild 

blight bkit Iblighted 'bkitid 

Bloomington 'blumigtsn 

blighty, B- ^blaiti 

Bloomsbury 'blumz^bEri, -bari 

blimp bhmp 

blossom, B- 'blasam; ES+'blosam; j-ed -d 

blind blaind | blinded ^blamdid 

blot blat; ES+blot; |-ted -id 

blindfold 'blaind^fold, 'blain- |-ed -id 

blotch blat/; ES+blotJ; j-es -iz 1-ed -t 

blindman's buff 'blaind^maenz'bAf, 'blain- 

blotter 'blata-; ES 'blat3(r, 'blot- 

blindness 'blaindnis, 'blainnis 

blotto 'blato; ES+'bloto 

blindworm 'bkind^wym; ES -,w3m, -jwym 

Blount blaunt, bUnt 

blink bligk | blinked bliijkt 

blouse blaus, blauz |-s -iz |-d -t, -d 

bliss bhs |bhsses 'bhsiz |-ful -fal |-fully 

blow of wind bio |blew blu, bbu |blown blon 


or slang blowed bled 

blister 'bbsta-; ES 'bhst3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

blow '■blossom'' bio |blew blu, bhu [blown 

'bbstariij, 'bbstrii) 


blithe blaiS |-some -sam 

blowfly 'blo.flai 

BUthedale 'bkiS^del 

blowgun 'blojgAn 

bhtz bbts |-es -iz |-ed -t 

blowhole 'blojhol 

Blitzkrieg 'bhtSjkrig (Ger -jkrirk) 

blown blon 

blizzard 'bhza^d; ES 'bkzad 

blowoff 'blopf, -jof 

bloat blot Ibloated 'blotid 

blowout 'blo^aut 

blob blab; ES+bkb; |-bed -d 

blowpipe 'blojpaip 

bloc blak; ES+blok 

blowtorch 'blojtartj; ES -itaatj; |-es -iz 

Bloch blak; ES+blok 

blowup 'blojAp 

block blak; ES+blok; |-ed -t 

blowzed blauzd [blowzy 'blauzi 

blockade bla'ked; ES+blo-; |-d -id 

blubber 'bUba^; ES 'bUbair; |-ed -d [-ing 

blockhead 'blak .bed; ES+'blok- 

'bUbrig, 'bUbarig [-y -bri, -ban 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angrj^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) [jaw dsD [gorge gards [go go 




blucher 'blut/a^, 'bluka^; ES -3(r 

Blucher 'blutJV, 'bluka^; ES -3(r; {Ger 

bludgeon 'blAdjan |-ed -d 
blue blu, bhu |-d -d 
Bluebeard 'bluebird, ^bhu-; ES -^biad, S+ 

bluebell 'blu.bel, 'bhu- 
blueberry 'blu^beri, 'bhu-, -ban 
bluebird 'blu^byd, 'bhu-; ES -^bsd, -^byd 
blue-black 'blu'blaek, 'bhu- ('blue-^black 

blue-blooded 'blu'bUdid, 'bhu- 
bluebonnet 'blu^banit, 'bhu-; ES+-jbDnit 
bluebottle 'blu^batl, 'bhu-; ES+'^botl 
bluecoat 'blu^kot, 'bhu- 
blue-eyed 'blu'aid, 'bhu- ('blue-^eyed 'boy) 
bluefish 'blujfij", 'bhu- |-'s -iz 
bluegill 'blujgil, 'bhu- 

bluegrass 'blujgraes, 'bhu-; E+-jgras, -jgras 
blueing 'bluig, 'bhuig |-ish -i/ 
bluejacket 'blu^dsaekit, 'bhu- 
blue-jay 'blu^dse, 'bhu- 
blue-pencil 'blu'pensl, 'bhu- |-ed -d 
blueprint 'blueprint, 'bhu- |-ed -id 
Blue Ridge 'blu'rids, 'bhu- ('Blue ^Ridge 

blues bluz, bhuz 
blue-sky law 'blu'skaija, 'bhu- 
bluestocking 'blu^stakii), 'bhu-; ES+-jStDk- 
bluet 'bluit, 'bhuit 
bluff bkf I bluffed bUft 
bluing 'bluig, 'bhuig |-ish -i/ 
blunder 'bUnda-; ES -d3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'blAndrig, 'blAndarig 
blunderbuss 'bUnda^jbAs; ES 'bUnda-; |-es 


blunge bUndj [blunges 'bUndsiz ]-d -d 

blunt, B- bknt [blunted 'bUntid 

blur bly; ES bl3(r, bly; |-red -d 

blurb bls-b; ES bbb, blyb; |-ed -d 

blurry 'biyi; ES 'blsri, 'blyi 

blurt bls^t; ES bbt, blyt; |-ed -id 

blush bUJ [blushes 'bU/iz [blushed bU/t 

bluster 'blAsta^; ES 'bUstafr; [-ed -d |-ing 

'blAstarig, 'blustng j-y -tan, -tri 
-bly -bh, ending of advs corresponding to adjs 
in -able -abl. In the vocab. this is regularly 
added to such adjs in -able as have corre- 

sponding advs, to show tlie change from 
syllabic 1 in -abl to nonsyllabic 1 in -abh 
(dependable di'pendabj |-bly (di'penda)- 

Wlten I -bly -bh immediately follows 
[-able -abl, if the head word does not end in 
-able (pardon 'pardn |-ed -d j-able -abl 
I bly -bh), in this case exceptionally the 
ending -bh is to be referred, not as usual to 
the head word, bid to the immediately pre- 
ceding form, atid pronounced -abh, thus 
(cf pardon in tlte vocab.): pardon 'pardn 
|-ed -d j-able ('par)dnabl, ('par)dnabl [-bly 
('pardna)bh, ('pardna)bh. In such cases, 
also, the form in -bly -(a)bli includes any 
variant prons. of the form in -able, as in this 
example. The same statements apply to words 
in -ible -abl with added [-bly -bh. 

Blyth blaitJ, blai [Blythe blaiS 

B'nai B'rith ba'ne-ba'rie, -'brie 

boa 'boa 

Boadicea jboadi'sia 

Boanerges jboa'nydsiz; ES -'ns-, -'ny-; 
[-ges' -dsiz 

boar bor, bar; ES boa(r, E+b3a(r 

board bord, bard; ES bead, E-t-baad; [-ed 

boarder 'borda^, 'bar-; ES 'boada(r, E-i- 

boardinghouse 'bordig^haus, 'bard-; ES 
'boad-, E+'baad-; [-ses -ziz 

boardwalk 'bord^wak, 'bard-; ES 'bead-, E-i- 

boarhound 'bor^haund, 'bar-; ES 'boa-, E+ 

Boas, Franz ^hoas, Frederick S. 'boaez [-'s -iz 

boast host [boasted 'bostid 

boat bot [boated 'botid; \NEngd+h'6t {§46) 

boatful 'botjful [-s -z 

boatman, -men 'botman 

boatswain, bosun 'bosn, occas. 'bot^swen 

Boaz Bible 'boaez [-'s -iz 

bob bab; ES+bob; [-bed -d 

bobbin 'babin; ES+'bobin; [-ed -d 

bobbinet jbaba'net; ES+jbob- 

bobby 'babi; ES+'bnbi 

bobcat 'babjkaet; ES-h 'bob- 
bobolink 'babl/igk; ES+ 'bob- 
bobsled 'babjskd; ES+'bob-; [-ed -id 

[full ful [tooth tu9 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in ivhich the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced unth n in E and S 

bobsleigh 'bab^sle |-ed -d 

bold-facedly 'bold'fesidh, -'festh 

bobstay 'bab^ste 

bole bol boled bold 

bobtail 'babjtel 

bolero bo'kro, -'lero 

bobtailed 'bab'teld ('bobjtailed 


Boleyn 'bulin=Bullen (in Shak. Anne 

bobwhite 'bab'hwait 


Boccaccio bo'katJijO {It bok'kattjo) 

bolide 'bolaid, -lid 

Boche, b- baj, baf, bqf j-s -iz 

Bolingbroke 'babg^bruk, 'bul-, 'bol All 

bock bak 

except 'buliOibruk are spelling profiuncia- 

bode past of bide bod 

tions. The origi^ial was Bul- and the last 

bode V bod boded 'bodid 

part is the word brook. 

bodice 'badis |-s -iz 

bolivar 'balava'; ES 'balavaCr 

bodied 'badid 

Bolivar US 'balava^; ES 'bal3V3(r 

bodiless 'badihs, 'badjis 

Bolivar SAmer bo'livar; ES -va:(r; (Sp 

bodily 'badh, -dik 


bodkin 'badkin 

Bolivia, b- ba'livia |-n -n (Sp bo'IiPja) 

Bodleian bad'lian, ^badlian 

boll bol 1 boiled bold 

Bodley 'badh 

bollard 'bala^d;ES'balad 

Bodmin 'badmin 

bollworm 'boljwym; ES -;W3m, -jwym 

body 'badi [-died -d | -guard 

j-gard; ES 

bolly 'boll 

-,ga:d, E + -jga:d 

bolo 'bolo |-ed -d 

Boeotia bi'o/ia, -Ja |-tian -/an, -/lan 

Bologna city ba'lonja (// bo'lojijia) 

Boer bor, b3r, bur; ES bo3(r 

, buafr, E+ 

Bologna sausage ba'lona, -'lonja, -'loni 


bolometer bo'lamata^; ES -'lamat3(r 

Boethius bo'iOias or jBoetius bo'l/ias ]-'s -iz 

boloney ba'loni, bl'oni 

Boeuf Bayou 'bef'baiu, -^baiju 

Bolshevik, b- 'baljajvik, 'bol- |-vism -^vizani 

bog bag, bag, bog j-ged -d 

-vist -vist 

bogey 'bogi 

bolster 'bolsta^; ES 'bolsta(r; |-ed -d 

boggle 'bagj, 'bogj |-d -d |-ling 

■glig, -gho 

bolt bolt Ibolted 'boltid; \NEngd+h'6\t 

bogie 'bogi 


Bogota US ba'gota, SAnier ^ 

boga'ta, -'ta 

bolthead 'bolt^hed 

(Sp jbogo'ta) 

Bolton 'boltn 

bogtrotter 'bag^trata' ; 'bag-. 

'bog-; ES 

boltrope 'bolt^rop 


bolus 'bolas |-es -iz 

bogus 'bogss |-es -iz 

bomb bam; less freq. bAm [-ed -d 

bogy 'bogi 

bombard n 'bombard; ES 'bamba:d, E-i- 

bohea bo 'hi 


Bohemia bo'hinua, -mja \-n -n |- 

nism -n.izam 

bombard v bam'bard; ES bam'ba:d, E-i- 

Bohn bon 

-'ba:d; |-ed -id 

Bohr bor, bar; ES bo3(r, E + ba3( 


bombardier ^bamba^'dir; ES ^bamba'diaCr, 

boil bail boiled baild 


Boise 'baisi 

bombasine jbamba'zin, 'bambajzin 

boisterous 'baistaras, -tras 

bombast 'bambaest 

Bok bak 

bombastic bam'baestik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

Bokhara bo'kara 

Bombay bam'be ('Bonijbay 'duck) 

bola 'bola |bolas 'bobs |-ses -siz 

bombazine jbamba'zin, 'bambajzin 

bold bold 

bomber 'bama-; ES 'bama(r 

boldface 'bold^fes 

bomibproof 'bam'pruf ('bomb-proof 'shelter) 

bold-faced 'bold 'f est ('bold- .faced 'lie) 

bombshell 'bam^Xel, 'bAmj/el 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langn,^ 'asg-gri 
|bath baeG; E bae (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Those words helmv in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

Bon bon 

booklore 'buk^lor, -Jar; ES -Joa(r, E-i- 

Bona 'bona 


bona fide 'bona'faidi 

bookmaker 'buk^meka^; ES -jmeka(r 

bonanza bo'naenza 

Bookman 'bukman 

Bonaparte 'bonajpart; ES -,pa:t, E+-, 


bookman 'bukman, -^maen |-men -man. 

|-tist -ist 


Bonar 'bona'; ES 'bon3(r 

bookmark 'buk^mark; ES -jma:k, E+ 

bonbon 'ban^ban {Fr bo'bo) 


bond band | bonded 'bandid j-age -ids 

bookplate 'bukjplet 

bondholder 'bandjholda^ ; ES -,hold3(r 

bookrack 'buk^raek 

bondmaid 'band^med |-man -man |- 


bookseller 'bukjsela'; ES -jSEla(r 


bookstall 'bukjstal 

bondsman, -men 'bandzman, 'banz- 

bookworm 'buk^wym; ES -jwsm, -jwym 

bondwoman 'band^wuman, -jwum- |- 


boom bum | boomed bumd 

-jWimin, -an 

boomerang 'bumajiaeij, 'bumjraei) 

bone bon |-d -d ]-r -3^; ES -a(r; \NEiigd+ 

boon bun |booned bund 

ban (§46) 

boondoggle 'bun^dagl, -idngl |-d -d |-ling 

bone-dry 'bon'drai ('bone-jdry 'wood) 

-glig, -gho 

boneset 'bon^sEt |-ter -a^; ES -a(r 

Boone bun 

bonfire 'ban^fair; ES -ifaia(r; ]-d -d 

Boonesboro 'bunz^byo, -a; ES -ihsr-, -;bAr-, 

Bonheur ba'ns', ba-; ES -'n3(r, -'ny; 




boor bur; ES bua(r; |-ish -ij 

bonhomie, -mmie jbana'mi, 'banajmi 


boost bust 1 boosted 'bustid 

bona 'mi) 

boot but 1 booted 'butid | -black -jblaek 

Boniface 'bana^fes |-'s -iz 

bootee bu'ti 

bonito ba'nito 

Bootes bo'otiz \gen -tis -tis 

bon mot Fr bo 'mo \Eng pi bons mots bo'moz. 

booth bu6, buS |-ths -tJz |-'s -Os, -3z 

Fr -'mo 

Booth buO, bu?i |-th's -Os, -3z 

Bonn ban 

Boothbay 'buG^be 

bonne Fr ban 

bootjack 'butjdssek 

bonnet 'bamt |-ed -id 

bootleg 'butjkg |-ged -d |-ger -9-; ES -a(r 

bonny 'bam 

bootstrap 'butjStraep 

bonspiel 'banspil, -spal 

booty 'buti 

bon ton Fr bo 'to 

booze buz |boozes 'buziz |boozed buzd [-zy -i 

bonus 'bonas |-es-iz |-ed -t 

bopeep, B- bo'pip 

bon vivant Fr bovi'va 

Borachio bo'rat/ijo, -ki^o 

bon voyage Fr bovwa'jais 

boracic bo'raesik 

bony 'bom; iV£«g(^-i-'bani (§46) 

borage 'byids, 'bands, 'bands, 'bonds; 

boo bu Ibooed bud 

ES+'bsr-, 'bAr- 

boob bub Iboobery 'bubari |booby 'bubi 

Borah 'bora, 'bara; S 'bora 

boodle 'budl |-d -d |-ling 'budhg, 'budlig 

borate n 'boret, 'bar-, -rit; S 'bor- 

boohoo n 'bu^hu 

borate v 'boret, 'bar-; S 'boret; \-d -id 

boohoo intj, v jbu'hu |-ed -d 

borax 'boraks, 'bar-; S 'boraks 

book buk Ibooked bukt |-ish -ij 

Bordeaux bar 'do; ES baa'do 

bookbinder 'buk^bainda^; ES -ibainda(r 


Borden 'bardn; ES 'baadn; |-town -^taun 

-dan, -dri 

border 'barda^; ES 'baada(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

bookcase 'bukjkes |-s -iz 

-dang, -dng, |-land -Jaend 

bookkeeper 'buk^kipa^; ES -,kipa(r 

bore bor, bar; ES boa(r, E-f-baa(r; |-d -d 

|full ful [tooth tu6 Ifurther 'fs^Sa^; ES 'fsSa |custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
jusing 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'krcdl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

boreal 'borial, 'bor-; S 'bonal 

botch bat/ |-es -iz |-ed -t |-edly -idb 

borealis ,bori'aelis, jbori-, -'elis; S jbori- 

bote bot 

Boreas 'borias, 'bar-; S 'bor-; |-'s -iz 

Botetourt 'bata^t^t; ES -,t3t, -^tyt 

boredom 'bordom, 'bar-; ES 'boa-, E+ 'baa- 

botfly 'bat;flai 

borer 'bora', 'bara^; ES 'bora(r, E+'bara(r 

both boe; N E7tgd+h'6(A (§46) 

boresome 'borsam, 'bar-; ES 'boasam, E+ 

bother 'baSa^; ES 'baSafr; |-ed -d |-ing 


'batJarig, 'baSrig |-some -sam |-ation 

Borghese bar'gezi; ES baa-; (// bor'ge:se) 


Borgia 'bardsa, -djia; ES 'baa- 

Bothnia 'baOnia 

Borglum, Gutzon 'gAtsn'barglam; ES -'baag- 

Bothwell 'baOwEl, 'batJ-, -wal 

boric 'bonk, 'bar-; S 'bonk 

Botolph 'batalf, Boston street loc. ba'tolf 

Boris 'boris, 'bar-; S 'bons; |-'s -iz 

bott bat 

born barn; ES baan 

BotticeUi >ati't/eli (Tt ^botti't/Elli) 

borne born, barn; ES boan, E+baan 

bottle 'batl |-d -d |-ling 'batjig. 'batlig 

Borneo 'bornijO, 'bar-; ES 'boan-, 'baan- 

bottom, B- 'batam |-ed -d |-less -bs 

Borodino jbara'dino, ibar-, ^bor- 

Bottome ba'toni= Bottom, bottom 

boron 'boron, 'bar-; S 'boran 

bottomry 'batamri |-ried -d 

borough 'byo, 'bs^a; ES 'bsr-, 'bAr-, 'by- 

botuhsm 'bat/a jlizam 

borrow, B- 'baro, -a, 'bar-, 'bor-; |-ed -d |-ing 

Botulph 'batalf 


Botzaris bo'tsaris |-'s -iz 

bort bart ; ES baat 

Boucher 'bautJV; ES 'bautja(r 

borzoi 'barzai; ES 'baa- 

Boucicault 'busi^kalt (Fr busi'ko) 

boscage 'baskids |-s -iz 

boucle bu'kle 

Boscawen NH 'baskawan, 'baskwin, Brit 

boudoir bu'dwar, -'dwar; ES -'dwa:(r. 

ftame bas'ko-an, -'ka-an 


Boscobel 'baskajbel 

bough bau |boughed baud 

bosh baX |boshes 'ba/iz | boshed haft 

bought bat |boughten 'batn 

bosk bask |-age -ids |-ages -idsiz |-y -i 

Boughton various persons 'botn, 'batn, 'bautn 

bo's'n 'bosn = boatswain 

bouillabaisse jbulja'bes {Fr buja'bes) 

Bosnia 'baznia |-n -n 

bouillon 'buljan, -jon, bul'jan, -'jon (Fr 

bosom 'buzam, 'buzam j-ed -d 


Bosphorus 'bosfaras |-porus -paras |-'s -iz 

boulder, B- 'bolda-; ES 'bolda(r; |-ed -d 

boss ti 'knob', 'chief bas, bos |-es -iz |-ed -t 

boulevard 'bulajvard, 'bul-; ES -jva:d, E+ 

boss V 'emboss', 'order' bas, bos |-es -iz |-ed -t 

-jvard; (Fr bul'va:r) 

boss 'cow' bas, bos 

Boulle, Boule bul 

bossy 'officious' 'basi, 'bnsi 

Boulogne bu'lon, ba-, -'lain {Fr bu'laji) 

bossy 'cow' 'basi, 'bosi 

Boult bolt 

Boston, b- 'bastn, 'bostn — a prevails in 

boun arch, baun, Sc bun |-(e)d -d 


bounce bauns |bounces 'baunsiz |bounced 

Bostonian bas 'toman, bos- 


bosun 'bosn = boatswain 

bound past &° pptc of bind baund 

Boswell 'bazwel, 'boz-, -wal |-ian baz'welian 

bound n, adj, v baund |-ed -id |-ary -an, -ri 

Bosworth 'bazwa^O, 'boz-, 'baz-; ES -waO 

bounden 'baundan 

bot 'bott' bat 

bounteous 'bauntias 

bot 'bote' bot 

bountiful 'bauntafal |-ly -i, -fli 

botanic bo'taemk |-al -] [-ally -h, -ikli 

bounty 'baunti |bountied 'bauntid 

botanist 'batnist | botany 'batni 

bouquet _^ci'c'e?'5 bo'ke, bu'ke {Fr bu'ke) 

botanize 'batn^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

bouquet 'aroma' bu'ke {Fr bu'ke) 

Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet jsang saeij |angry 'asg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) Ijaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Bourbon 'burban; ES 'buab-; |-ism -jizam 

\Ky CO. loc. 'byban; ES 'bab-, 'byb- 
bourbon whiskey 'burban, 'byb-; ES 'buab-, 

'bsb-, 'byb- 
Bourchier Eng name 'bautja^ {cf §121); ES 

'bautfaCr; Lord Berners 'burtfia^; ES 

bourdon 'burdn, 'bordn, 'bardn; ES 'buadn, 

'boadn, E+'boadn 
bourg burg; ES buag; {Fr burr) 
bourgeois 'middle-class^ bur'swa, 'burswa; 

ES bu3-, 'bu3-; {Fr bur'swa) 
bourgeois type ba^'dsais, by-; ES ba-, bs-, ba^- 
bourgeoise, pi -ses bur'swaz; ES bua-; {Fr 

bourgeoisie, ibur3wn'zi; ES ^bua-; {Fr 

bourgeon 'byd33n; ES 'bsds-, 'byds-; |-ed -d 
bourn, -e 'limit,* 'brook* born, born, burn; 

ES boan, buan, E+boan 
Bournemouth 'bornmaO, 'barn-, 'burn-; ES 

'bean-, 'buan-, E+'baan- 
bourse burs; ES buas; |-s -iz 
bouse tiaut. baus, bauz |-s -iz [-d -t, -d 
bouse, -ze 'drink' buz, bauz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sy, 

boustrophedon jbustra'fidn |-ic bu^strafa- 

'danik; ES+-jStrDfa'dDnik 
bout baut 
boutonniere ^butn'jer; ES -'jeaCr; {Fr 

Bovary jbova'ri {Fr bova'ri) |-rism, -rysm 

bovine 'bovain 

bow n, v'provi' 'nod* bau [bowed baud 
bow n, V 'weapon,* 'curve* 'violin how* bo 

[bowed bod 
Bowdich, Bowditch 'bauditj |-'s -iz 
Bowdler 'baudla^; ES 'baudla(r 
Bowdlerize 'baudla^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Bowdoin 'bodn 

bowel 'baual, baul |-s -z |-ed -d 
bower 'arbor,' cards 'baua', baur; ES 'bau'a(r, 

baua(r; j-ed -d |-ing 'bauarig, 'bauriol -y -i 
bower 'fiddler' 'boa^; ES 'bo'a(r 
bowie 'bo'i, 'bu-i 

bowknot 'bo^nat, 'bo'nat; ES+-/nDt, -'not 
bowl bol |-s -z I bowled bold 
bowlder 'bolda^; ES 'bolda(r 

bowleg 'boikg 

bow-legged 'bo'legid, -'kgd ('bow-Jegged 

Bowles bolz I-'s -iz 
bowline naut. 'bolin, -jlain 
bowling green, B- G- 'bohij'grin 
bowman, B- 'archer' 'boman |-men -man 
bowman 'front oarsman' bauman |-men -man 
Bowmanville 'boman,vil 
bown(e) baun, Sc bun |-(e)d -d 
Bowness bo'nes |-'s -iz 
bowse 'drink' buz, bauz \-s -iz | d -d |-sy -zi 
bowshot 'bo //at; ES+-;jDt 
bowsprit 'baujsprit, 'bo- 
bowstring 'bojStrio |-ed -d or -strung -/StrAg 
bowyer 'boja^; ES 'boja(r 
bowze 'drink' buz, bauz |-s -iz |-d -d |-zy -zi 
box baks; ES+boks; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
boxer, B- 'baksa^; ES 'baksa(r, 'boks- 
boxful 'baksjful; ES+'bnks-; |-s -z 
boxwood 'baksjwud; ES+'boks- 
boy bai |-hood -hud 
boycott 'baijkot, -jkot; |-ed -id 
Boyesen 'baiasn 
Boyet bai'et {Fr bwa'jt) 
Boyle bail 
Boyne bam 

boys-and-girls 'baizn'gylz; ES -'galz, -'gylz 
Boz baz, boz — pron. boz by Dickens for 'Mose'. 
Bozzaris bo'zaeris |-'s -iz 
Brabant bra'baent, 'brabant {Fr bra'ba), 

Shak. 'Brabant 
Brabantio bra'baen/o, -'banjo, -/ijO 
brabble 'braebl |-d -d |-ling 'braeblig, -blig 
brace bres | braces 'bresiz | braced brest 
bracelet 'bresbt |-ed -id 
brach braetj |-es -iz 
brachial 'brekial, 'braek- 
brachiopod 'braekiajpad, 'brek-; ES-f--jpDd 
brachycephalic jbraekisa'faelik |-lism -'sefa- 

bracing 'bresig 
bracken 'braekan |-ed -d 
Brackenbury 'braekan^ben, -ban 
Brackenridge 'braekanrids |-'s -iz 
bracket 'braekit |-ed -id 
brackish 'braekij 
bract braekt |-ed -id |-eal -lal 
brad braed |bradded 'braedid |-awl -,al 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Braddock 'braedak 
Bradford 'braedfa^d; ES 'brasdfad 
Bradshaw 'braed/o 

Bradwardine 'braedwa^din, -,ain; ES -wad- 
brae bre 

brag braeg | bragged braegd 
Bragg braeg 

braggadocio jbrjega'doJijO 
braggart 'braega^t; ES 'braegat 
Brake bra {Dan 'bra-e) 
Brahma Hindu god 'brama, fowl 'brama, 

Brahman 'braman |-s -z |-ism -jizam 
Brahmanic bra'maenik |-al -1 
Brahmaputra jbrama'putra 
Brahmin 'bramin l-ism -jizam 
Brahminic bra'minik |-al -1 
Brahms bramz {Ger bra:ms) |-'s -iz 
braid bred | braided 'bredid 
brail brel |brailed breld 
Braille brel |brailled breld {Fr bra:j) 
brain bren [brained brend 
brainpan 'bren^paen 
brainsick 'bren^sik 

Braintree 'brentri, -^tri, in Engd /oc. + 'bran- 
braise brez I braises 'breziz [braised brezd 
Braithwaite 'breOwet, in Engd loc.+ ^hreOit — 

cf. Breathitt 
brake arch, past of break brek 
brake n, v brek jbraked brekt |-age -ids 
brakeman, -men 'brekman 
brakesman, -men 'breksman 
bramble 'braembl |-d -d l-hng -bho |b]y -bli 
bran, B- braen 

brancard 'braegka'd; ES 'braegkad 
branch braentj; E+branfJ, brant/; |-es -iz 

l-ed -t 
brand braend [branded 'braendid 
Brandeis 'braendais |-'s -iz 
Brandenburg 'braendan^byg; ES -jbsg, -ibyg; 

{Ger 'brandan^burk) 
brand ied 'br«ndid 
brandish 'braendi/ |-es -iz [-ed -t 
brand-new 'braen 'nju, 'braend-, -'niu, -'nu 
Brandon 'braendan 
brandtail 'brienjtel 
brandy 'braendi jbrandied 'braendid 
Brandy wine 'braendi, wain 
Brangwaine 'braegwen 

bran-new 'braen'nju, -'niu, -'nu 

brant brtent 

brantail 'brien,tel 

brash brae/ 

brasier 'bresa^; ES 'bresaCr 

brass braes; E-f-bras, bras; |-es -iz |-ed -t 

brassard 'braesard; ES 'braesa:d, E-i--a:d 

brassart 'braesa't; ES 'briesat 

brassie, -y, -ey 'braesi; E-f-'brasi, 'brasi 

brassiere bra'zir, ^braesi'tr; ES -'zia(r, -'tacr 

brass-smith 'braes,smi6; E+'bras-, 'bras-; 

|-ths -Gs 
brassware 'braes, w£r, -,waer; E -,w£a(r, 

-,waea(r, 'bras-, 'bras-; S 'braes ,waea(r 
brasswork 'braes, wyk; ES -,w3k, -,wyk, E-i- 

'bras-, 'bras- 
brassy 'braesi; E-t-'brasi, 'brasi 
brat braet |-hng -lig |-tish -i/ 
Brathwaite 'breOwet 
Bratislava 'brati,slava, ,brati'slava 
brattice 'braetis |-s -iz |-d -t 
Brattleboro 'braetljbyo, -,bya; ES -,b3r-, 

-,bAr-, -,b3^- 
Brauwer 'braua^; ES 'brau-a(r 
bravado bra'vado, -'vedo |-ed -d 
brave brev | braved brevd |-ry -an, -ri 
bravo ^well done!' 'bravo 
bravo ^villain'' 'bravo, 'brevo 
bravura bra'vjura, -'viura {It bra'vuira) 
braw Sc bra, bra 
brawl bral [brawled braid 
brawn bran |brawned brand |-edness -idnis 
bray bre [brayed bred 
braze brez [brazes 'breziz [brazed brezd 
brazen 'brezn |-ed -d [ing 'breznig, -znig 
brazenfaced 'brezn 'f est [-ly -'fesidh ('brazen- 

,faced 'lie) 
brazenness 'breznnis 
brazier 'brassworker' 'bresa^, 'breziy; ES 

'bre3a(r, -zi-aCr 
brazier /or hot coals 'bresa^; ES 'bresaCr 
Brazil, b- bra'zil, ba^'zil [ian -jan 
brazihn 'braezjin 

Brazos, -zos' 'brazes, 'brezas, -zds 
Brea 'bria 

breach brit/ [breaches 'brit/iz [-ed -t 
bread hvEd j breaded 'bredid 
Breadalbane bred'alban 
bread-and-butter 'brEdn'bAt*; ES -'bAta(r 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret jyet jet jsang saeg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wot/, wot/ (§12) [jaw d^o [gorge gards [go go 




breadfruit 'bredjfrut, -^friut 

breed brid |bred bred 

breadstuff 'bred^stAf 

breeks briks 

breadth brede, brete |-ths -Os 

Breese 'briz |-'s -iz 

breadwinner 'brEd^wina^; ES -jWin3(r 

breeze briz [breezes 'briziz | breezed brizd 

break brek [past broke brok or arch, brake 

Bremen US 'briman, Germany 'breman. 

brek \pptc broken 'brokan or arch, or slang 

'breman (Ger 'bre:man) 

broke brok; |A^£wg(^+br3k(3n) 

Bremerton 'brema^tan; ES 'brEmatan 

breakable 'brekabl |-bly -bk 

Brenner 'brEna^; ES 'br£na(r 

breakage 'brekids |-s -iz 

Brereton 'brirtn; ES 'briatn, S-f'brEa- 

breakbone 'brek,bon 

Br'er Rabbit bra^'raebit; ES bra'raebit 

breakdown 'brekjdaun 

Breslau 'brEsb {Ger 'brEslau) 

breakfast 'brekfast |-ed -id 

Brest brESt 

breakneck 'brek,nek 

Brest Litovsk 'brestli'tafsk, -'tofsk 

Breakspeare 'brek^spir; ES -iSpi3(r, S+ 

brethren, B- 'brE?irin, -ran 


Breton 'brstn (Fr bra'to) 

breakup 'brek^Ap 

breve briv 

breakwater 'brek^wata^, -jwata^, -jWDta^; ES 

brevet bra 'vet, 'brEvit |-ed -id |-cy -'vEtsi 


breviary 'brivi,£ri, 'brEVi- 

bream brim | breamed brimd 

brevier bra'vir; ES -'via(r, S+-'v£a(r 

breast brEst [breasted 'brestid |-band -jbaend 

brevity 'brevati 

breastbone 'brest'bon, -jbon 

brew bru, briu |-ed -d |-ery -an, -ri 

Breasted 'brestid 

brewer, B- 'brua^, 'briua^; ES -a(r 

breastpin 'brEstjpin, 'bres- 

Brewster 'brusta^, 'briu-; ES -sta(r 

breastplate 'brestjplet, 'brts- 

Brian 'braian 

breastsummer 'brEstjSAma', 'brEsama^; ES 

Briand 'briand (Fr bri'a) 

-jSAm3(r, -S3m3(r 

briar 'braia^; ES 'brai-a(r 

breastwork 'brEst/wyk; ES -jwak, -jwyk 

Briarean brai'Erian, -'er- |-reus -rias [-reus's 

breath brEO |-ths -Os |-less -bs |-y -i 


breathe briS | breathed briSd 

briarroot 'braia^/rut, -irut; ES 'brai-a- 

breathed adj ^having (such) b.,' 'voiceless' 

bribe braib | bribed braibd |-ry -an, -ri 


bric-a-brac 'brika^braek ]-kery -an, -ri 

Breathitt 'btEOit, cf Braithwaite 

brick brik | bricked brikt 

breccia 'brEtJia, 'brEjia {li 'brettja) 

brickbat 'brik,baet |-ted -id 

Breckenridge, Breckinridge 'brEkanridj |-'s 

brickkiln 'bnkjkil, -jkiln — c/kiln 


bricklayer 'brikjea^; ES -jle-a(r 

Brecknock 'breknak, -nak, -nok | -shire -iJir, 

brickie 'bnkj 

-Ja-; ES -Jia(r, -Ja(r 

brick-red 'brik'rEd ('brick-jred 'paint) 

Brecon 'brskan 

brickwork 'brik^wyk; ES -jwsk, -jws^k 

bred pasl &° pptc of breed brsd 

brickyard 'brikjard; ES -ja:d, E+-ja:d 

brede tt arch, brid 

bridal 'braidl |-ly-i 

breech britj, britj" |-es -iz 1-ed -t 

bride braid |brided 'braidid 

breechblock 'brit/.blak, 'brit/-; ES+-,blDk 

bride-ale, brideale 'braid,el 

breechcloth 'britJikbO, 'britJ"-, -.klDO |-ths 

bridechamber 'braid^t/emba^; ES -jt/emba(r 

-3z, -es 

bridegroom 'braidjgrum, -jgrum 

breeches garment 'brit/iz 

bridesmaid 'braidz^med 

breeching 'brit/ii), 'britjio — Those familiar 

bridesman 'braidzman, -jinaen |-men -man 

■with harness call it 'britjiij. 

bridewell, B- 'braidwEl, -wal 

breechloader 'britj'loda^, 'brit/-; ES -'loda(r 

bridge brids [bridges 'bridsiz |-d -d 

breech-pin 'brit/,pin, 'brit/- 

bridgehead 'brids^hEd 

|full ful |tooth tuO [further 'fytia^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzio [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipip 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

Bridgeport 'brid3jport, -ipart; ES -]po3t, E+ 

brisk brisk [brisked bnskt [-en -an [-ened 



Bridges 'bridsiz [Bridges' 'bridsiz 

brisket 'briskit 

bridget, B- 'bridsit 

bristle 'brisl |-d -d [-ling 'bnsbg, -slig 

Bridgewater, -dgw- 'brids^wDty, -jwata^. 

bristly 'brisli, 'brisb 

-jWDta^; ES -taii;— formerly -Walter 

Bristol 'bnstj (Bristow in 1142) 

bridgework 'brids^wyk; ES -^wak, -jW^k 

Bristow US 'bristo 

Bridgman 'bndsman 

Britain 'britn, 'britan [-tish -tij 

bridle 'braidl |-d -d |-ling ^braidlig, -dlig 

Britannia bri'tania, -nja |-ic -ik ]-ica -ika 

bridleless 'braidlhs 

Briticism 'bntajSizam 

Brie bri 

Briton 'britn, 'britan , 

brief brif | briefed brift 

Brittain 'britn, 'britan 

brier 'braia^; ES 'brai'3(r; |-ed -d 

Brittany 'bntni 

brierroot 'braia^^rut, -jtut; ES 'brai'3- 

brittle 'britl jbrittlely 'bntlli, 'britli |-r -tjy. 

brieve briv 

-tla-; ES -a(r; |-st -tjist, -tbst 

brig brig 

Britton 'britn, 'britan 

brigade bri'ged [-gaded -'gedid 

Brno 'byno; ES 'bsno, 'bs^no 

brigadier jbriga'dir; ES -'di3(r, S+-'de3(r 

broach brotj [broaches 'brot/iz [-ed -t 

brigand 'brigand |-ed -id |-age -ids 

broad brDd [-ax, -axe -jaeks [-axes -^aeksiz 

brigandine 'brigsn^din, -jdain 

broadbill 'bradjbil 

brigantine 'briganjtin, -jtain 

broadbrim, B- 'brad j brim 

Brigham 'brigam 

broad-brimmed 'brad'brimd ('broad-jbrimmed 

bright, B- brait 


brighten 'braitn [ed -d |-ing 'braitnig, -tnig 

broadcast 'brad^kaest; E+-jkast, -,kast; 

brighteyes, B- 'brait^aiz 

\past b' pptc -cast, radio +-Cdii,\.ed -id 

Brighton 'braitn 

broadcloth 'bradjklaO, -jkloO [-ths -Gs 

Bright's disease 'braitsdi^ziz 

broaden 'bradn |-ed -d |-ing 'bradnig, -dnig 

brill bnl 

broad-gauge 'brad^geds [-s -iz 

brilliance 'briljans |-cy -i |-iant -jant 

broad-gauged 'brad'gedsd ('broad-jgauged 

brilliantine n 'brilJ3n,tin, v jbriljan'tin |-d -d 


brim brim | brimmed brimd 

broadleaf, B- 'bradjif 

brimful, -11 'brim'ful ('hearts 'brim'ful, 

broad-minded 'brad'maindid 

'brimjful 'eye) 

Broad Ripple 'brad^ripl 

brimmer 'brima'; ES 'brim3(r; |-ed -d 

broadside n, v 'brad, said [-d -id 

brimstone 'brinijSton 

broadside adv 'brad'said, -,said 

brinded 'brindid 

broadsword 'brad^sord, -,sard; ES -,soad, E+ 

Brindisi 'brindazi (It 'brindizi) 


brindle 'brindl | brindled 'brindld 

Broadview 'brad^vju, -,viu, -'v- 

brine brain | brined braind 

Broadway 'brad^we 

bring brig [brought brat 

Brobdignag erron. for next 

bringing-up 'brigigAp 

Brobdingnag 'brabdig,naeg [-ian ,brabdig- 

brink brigk 


briny 'braim 

brocade bro'ked [-caded -'kedid 

brio 'brio 

brocatel, -lie ^braka'tel 

brioche 'brio/, 'briaj, -dJ (Fr bri'af) 

broccoU 'brakah, 'brakh {It 'brakkoli) 

briquette, -quet bri'ket |-(e)d -id 

brochure bro'/jur, -'Jiur, -'/ur; ES -ua(r; {Fr 

Brisbane 'brizben, -ban 


Briseis brai'siis |-'s -iz 

brock brak 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet jsang saeg [angr}- 'aeg-gri 
(bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

Brockport 'brak^port, -ipart; ES -ipoat, E+ 

broomcorn 'brumikarn, 'brum-; ES -^kaan 


Broome NY county hrum 

Brockton 'braktan 

broomrape 'brum^rep, 'brum- 

brocoli 'brakab, 'brakb 

broomstick 'brum^stik, 'brum- 

Brodhead 'bradjhEd, 'brad- 

broth brae, broO |-ths -Os 

brogan 'brogan 

brothel 'braOal, 'broeal, -(Sal 

brogue brog |brogued brogd 

brother 'brAtJa^; ES -tJa(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

broider 'braida^; ES -daCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'brA^ang, 'brA^rig 

'broidarig, 'broidrig 

brotherhood 'brAtJa'jhud; ES 'brAcSa- 

broil brail | broiled braild 

brother-in-law 'brA'SarmJa, 'brAtJ^njla; ES 

brokage 'brokids 

'brASarmJa, 'brAcSanJa 

broke brok; NEngd+hrSk {§46) 

brotherly 'brA^a^h; ES 'brAtSali 

broken 'brokan; iVJS«g(/+ 'brokan {§46); 

brothers-in-law 'brAtJa^zinJa, 'brAcSa'znJa; ES 

|-ness -kaimis 

'brAcSazin^a, 'brAtJazn^Ia 

broken-down 'brokan'daun 

brougham 'bruam, brum, 'bream 

brokenhearted 'brokan'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, 

Brougham brum, 'bruam 


brought brat 

broken-winded 'brokan'windid 

Broun, Heywood 'brun 

broker 'broka^; ES 'brokaCr 

brow brau |browed braud 

brokerage 'brokarids, 'brokrids 

Broward 'braua'd; ES 'brau-ad 

bromal 'bromael 

browbeat 'brau^bit \past -beat -jbit \pptc 

bromate ^bromet | -mated -metid 

-beaten -jbitn 

Brom Bones 'bram'bonz |-'s -iz 

Brower braua^; ES 'brau-aCr 

Bromfield 'bram,fild 

brown braun |-ed -d |-ness 'braunms 

bromic 'bromik 

Brown(e) braun 

bromide 'bromaid, -mid [bromid 'bromid 

Brownell 'braunel, brau'ntl 

bromine 'bromin, -mm [bromin 'bromin 

brown-eyed 'braun'aid ('brown-jeyed 'Susan) 

Bromley 'brAmb, 'bram- 

Brownian 'braunian 

Bromwich 'brAmidj, 'bram-, -wit/ |-'s -iz 

brownie 'braum 

bronchi pi 'bragkai 

Browning 'braumg 

bronchia pi 'bragkia 

brownstone 'brauiijSton 

bronchial 'bragkial |-ly -i 

Brownsville 'braunzvil; S+-vl 

bronchitis bran'kaitis, brag- |-chitic -'kitik 

browntail 'braun^tel 

broncho see bronco 

brown-tailed 'braun'teld ( 'brown- j tailed 

bronchoscope 'bragkajskop 


bronchus 'bragkas | bronchi 'bragkai 

browse brauz |browses 'brauziz |-d -d 

bronco 'bragko |-buster -jbAsta'; ES -ta(r 

Bruce brus, brius |-'s -iz 

Bronson 'brAnsn, 'bransn 

bruckle 'brAkl 

Bronte 'branti 

Bruges 'brudsiz, bru3 {Fr hry.^) [Bruges' 

Brontosaurus, b- jbranta'saras j-'s -iz 

'brudsiz iBruges's 'brujiz 

Bronx bragks |-'s -iz |-ville -vil 

Brugmann 'brugman {Ger 'brugman) 

bronze branz bronzes 'branziz [-d -d 

bruin 'brum, 'briuin 

brooch brot/, brut J |-es -iz |-ed -t 

bruise bruz, briuz |-s -iz |-d -d 

brood brud [brooded 'brudid 

bruit brut, briut |-ed -id 

brook bruk | brooked brukt |-let -lit 

brumal 'bruml, 'briumi 

Brooke bruk 

brume brum, brium 

Brookline 'bruklain [-lyn -lin 

brummagem, B- 'brAmadsam 

broom brum, brum |-ed -d 

Brummell 'brAml 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Buenos Aires 

Brunanburh 'brunan^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg; 

Bucephalus bju'sefalas, biu- |-'s -iz 

{OE 'brunan^burx) 

Buchan 'bAkan {Sc 'bAxan) 

Brundisium brAn'diziam 

Buchanan bju'kaenan, biu-, ba- 

Brunelleschi jbrunj'Eski {It jbrunel'kski) 

Bucharest jbjuka'rest, ^biu-, ^bu acct -^ 

brunet, -tte bru'net, briu- 


Brunhild 'brunhild {Ger 'bruinhilt) 

Buchmanism 'bAkman^izam |-ite -jait 

Brunhilde brun'hilda {Ger bruin'hilda) 

Buchtel 'buktl {Ger 'buxtal) 

Bruno 'bruno, 'briuno 

buck, B- bAk bucked bAkt 

Brunswick 'brAnzwik, -zik 

buckaroo 'bAka^ru, jbAka'ru 

brunt brAnt |brunted 'brAntid 

buckayro bAk'ero 

brush, B- brAj |brushes 'brA/iz |-ed -t 

buckboard 'bAk^bord, -jbard; ES -jboad, E+ 

brushbush 'brAj^buf |-es -iz 


brushland 'brAjJaend 

bucket 'bAkit |-ed -id |-ful -,ful ]-fuls -^fulz 

brushwood 'brAj,wud 

buckeye 'bAk,ai |-d -d 

brusque brAsk, br.usk {Fr brysk) 

Buckhannon bAk'haenan 

Brussells 'brAslz |-ls' -Iz 

Buckingham US 'bAkig,haeni, F^ni^d 'bAkigam 

Brussells sprouts 'brAsl'sprauts, 'brAslz's- 

Buckinghamshire 'bAkioauij/ir, -j^; ES 

Brut brut, briut 

-Jiafr, -/a(r 

brutal 'brutl, 'briutl |-ly -i 

buckle, B- 'bAkl l-d -d |-ling 'bAkliQ, -kho 

brutality bru'taebti, briu- 

buckler /ram buckle 'bAkla^, 'bAkja^; ES -a(r 

brutalization jbrutja'zejan, ,briutl-, -ai'z- 

buckler 'shield' 'bAkla^; ES 'bAkla(r 

brutalize 'brutjiaiz, 'briutl- |-s -iz |-d -d 

Bucknell Pa coll. 'bAknel, bAk'nel; Eng places 

brute brut, briut |-tify -Sjfai |-tified -a^faid 


brutish 'brutij, 'briutij 

bucko 'bAko 

Brutus 'brutas, 'briutas -'s -iz 

buckra 'bAkra 

Bruyere bru'jer; ES -'je3(r; {Fr bry'je:r) 

buckram 'bAkram |-ed -d 

Bryan 'braian |-ism -jizam 

Bucks Pa 6" short for Buckinghamshire bAks 

Bryant 'braiant 

bucksaw 'bAk^sa 

Bryce brais |-'s -iz 

buckshot 'bAkJat; ES+-jDt 

Brynhild 'brinhild {Scand 'bryn-) 

buckskin 'bAkjskin |-ned -d 

Brynmawr, -maur Wales brin'mar; ES 

buckthorn 'bAk^Barn; ES -jGaan 

-'m33(r; {S. Welsh brin'maur) 

bucktooth 'bAkjtuO | -teeth -jtiO 

Bryn Mawr Pa brin'mar, loc. -'mar; ES 

buckwheat 'bAkjhwit 

-'ni33(r, -'ma:(r 

bucolic, B- bju'kalik, biu-; ES-h-'knl- 

bryology brai'aladsi; ES+-'d1- 

Bucovina jbuka'vina 

bryony 'braiam 

Bucyrus bju'sairas, biu- |-'s -iz 

bryophyte 'braia.fait 

bud bAd budded 'bAdid 

Brython 'briGan |Brythonic bri'Oanik; ES+ 

Budapest jbjuda'pEst, jbiuda-, jbuda- 


Buddha 'buda |-ddhism -dizam |-ddhist -dist 

bubble 'bAbl l-d -d l-ling 'bAbbrj, 'bAbho 

Buddhistic bud'istik |-al -1 

bubble and squeak 'bAblan'skwik 

buddy 'bAdi 

bubbler 'bAbla-, 'bAbla-; ES -3(r; |-bly -bh. 

budge bAds |budges 'bAdsiz [budged bAd3d 


budget 'bAdsit j-ed -id |-ary 'bAdsijteri 

bubo 'bjubo, 'biubo 

Budle 'bjudj, 'biudl 

bubonalgia jbjuban'aeldsia, jbiu- 

Buell 'bjual, 'biual 

bubonic bju'banik, biu-; ES+-'bDnik 

Buena Vista US 'bjuna 'vista, 'biu-; CA 

buccal 'bAkl |-ly -i 

'bwena'vista {Sp 'bwena'(5ista) 

buccaneer jbAka'nir; ES -'ni3(r, S+-'nE3(r; 

Buenos Aires 'bonas'sriz, -'aeriz, -'eriz, 

l-ed -d 

'bwenas'airiz {Sp 'bwenas 'aires) — In the 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet jsang saeg |angry 'asg-gri 
|bath b«6; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




19th c. a common Anglicized form in both 

bulldoze 'buljdoz |-s -iz |-d -d 

Engd b' America was 'bonas'srz, -'aerz; 

Bullen 'bulin = Boleyn 

E -'£3z, ES -'aeaz — see §122. 

bullet 'buht |-ed -id 

buff bAf 1 buffed bAft 

buUethead 'buhtjhed 

buffalo, B- 'bAfjjO |-ed -d 

bulletheaded 'bulit'tedid ('bulletjheaded 

buffer 'bAfa^; ES 'bAf3(r; |-ed -d 


buffet 'stroke,^ 'strike' 'bAfit |-ed -id 

bulletin 'bulatn, -tin 

buffet '■sideboard' bA'fe, ba-, bu-, Brit 'bAfit 

bulletproof v 'bulit^pruf |-ed -t 

buffet 'restaurant' bu'fe, 'bufe {Fr hy^iz) 

bulletproof adj 'bulit'pruf ('bullet-proof 'hat) 

bufflehead 'bAfl^hed 

bullfight 'bul;fait 

buffo 'bufo {It 'buffo) 

bullfinch, B- 'buljfintj |-es -iz 

Buffon 'bAfan (Fr by'fo) 

bullfrog 'buljfrag, -ifrag, -ifrog; S -^frag. 

buffoon bA'fun |-ed -d |-eiy -an, -ri 

-,frag, -jfrog 

Bufo 'bjufo, 'biu- 

bullhead 'bul^hed 

Buford 'bjufa^d, 'biu-; ES -fad 

buUheaded 'bul'hedid ('bulljheaded 'obsti- 

Bug riv. bug, bAg 


bug bAg bugged bAgd 

bullion 'buljan 

bugaboo 'bAgajbu 

BuUitt 'buht 

bugbane 'bAg^ben 

Bulloch 'bulak 

bugbear 'bAg;ber, -jbaer; E -jbEa(r, ES 

bullock, B- 'bulak 


BuUokar 'bula^kar; ES -jka:(r 

buggy 'bAgi |-gies -z 

Bull Run 'bul'rAn 

bugle 'bjugl, 'biu- id -d |-ling -glio. -gbo 

bull's-eye 'bulz^ai 

bugloss 'bjuglas, 'biu-, -gins, -gbs |-es -iz 

bully 'bull Ibullied 'buhd 

Buhl US bjul, biul, bul 

bulrush 'buljrAj |-es -iz 

Buhl Fr cabinetmaker bul 

bulwark 'bulwark; ES -wak; |-ed -t 

buhl bul |-work -^wyk; ES -jwsk, -jwyk 

Bulwer 'bulwa^; ES 'bulwair 

buhrstone 'by^ston; ES 'bs-, 'by- 

Bulwer-Lytton 'bulwa^'litn; ES 'bulwa- 

Buick 'bjuik, 'biuik 

bum bAm i bummed bAind 

build bild 1 built bilt or arch, builded -id 

bumblebee 'bAmbl,bi 

built-in 'bilt'in ('built-jin 'cupboard) 

bumblepuppy 'bAmbl^pApi 

Bukarest, Bukha- jbjukaVest, ^biu-, jbu 

bumboat 'bAm,bot 

OCC/+ 'Buka^rest 

bump bAmp | bumped bAmpt |-er -a-; ES -a(r 

Bukhara bu'kara 

bumpkin 'bAmpkin 

Bukovina jbuka'vina 

bumptious 'bAmpJas 

bulb bAlb i bulbed bAlbd 

bun bAn 

bulbose 'bAlbos [bulbous 'bAlbas 

bunch bAotJ [bunches 'bAnt/iz |-ed -t 

bulbul 'bulbul 

bunco 'bAgko |-ed -d 

Buliinch 'buljfintj |-'s -iz 

buncombe, B- 'bAokam 

Bulgar 'bAlga^, 'bul-, -gar; ES -ga(r, -ga:(r 

bund bAnd | bunded 'bAndid 

Bulgaria bAl'geria, bul-, -'ger- |-n -n 

Bund bund {Ger bunt) 

bulge bAlds; S+bulds; |-s -iz |-d -d 

bundle 'bAndl |-d -d |-ling 'bAndlig, -dlig 

bulk bAlk, esp. S bulk |-ed -t |-y -i 

bung bAg [bunged bAgd 

bulkhead 'bAlk.hed, esp. S 'bulk- 

bungalow 'bAggaJo 


Bungay 'bAggi 

bulla 'bula, 'bAla |-lae -i 

bunghole 'bAgjhoI 

buUace 'buhs, -as |-s -iz 

bungle 'bAggl |-d -d [-hng 'bAgglig, -glig 

BuUcalf 'bul,k£ef ; E -,kaf, -,kaf, -,k«f 

bunion 'bAujan, -jin 

bulldog 'buljdag, -jdog 

bunk bAgk [bunked bAgkt 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fa^Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'id;a [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipni 




bunko 'bAgko |-ed -d 

bunkum 'bAgkam 

bunny 'bAni 

Bunsen 'bAnsn (Ger 'bunzan) 

bunt bAnt | bunted 'bAntid | bunting 'bAntig 

buntline 'bAnthn, -lain 

Bunyan 'bAnjan, -jin 

Buonaparte 'bonajport; ES -jpa:t, E+-jpa:t; 

(Fr bqana'part, bwan-) 
buoy bai, 'bu-i |-ed -d 
buoyancy 'baiansi, 'bujan- |-ant -ant 
buprestid bja'prestid, biu- 
bur by; ES bsCr, by; |-red -d 
Burbage 'bybids; ES 'bs-, 'by-; l-'s -iz 
Burbank, b- 'bybaegk; ES 'bs-, 'by-; |-ed -t 
burberry 'by, ben, -ban; ES 'bs-, 'by- 
burble 'bybl; ES 'bsbl. 'bybl; |-d -d |-ling 

-bbo, -bjig 
burbot 'bybat; ES 'bsbat, 'bybat 
burden 'bydn; ES 'bsdn, 'bydn; |-ed -d 

]-ing -dnig, -dnig |-some -sam 
Burdett(e) ba^'det; ES ba- 
Burdett-Couts 'bydet'kuts, ba^'det-; ES 'bs-, 

'by-, ba- |-'s -iz 
burdock 'by^dak; ES 'bs-, 'by-, -^dok 
bureau 'bjuro, -ra, 'biu- 
bureaucracy bju'rakrasi, biu-; ES+-'rDk- 
bureaucrat 'bjura,kraet, 'biu- 
burette, -ret bju'ret, biu- 
burg byg; ES bag, byg; |-age -ids 
burgeon bydsan; ES 'bsds-, 'byds-; |-ed -d 
Burger Ger 'byrgar 
burgess, B- 'bydsis; ES 'bsds-, 'byds-; 

|-es -iz 
Burgettstown 'bydsitSjtaun; ES 'bsds-, 

burgh byg; ES bsg, byg; {Sc 'bAro, -a) 
Burgh, de di'byg; ES di'bsg, di'byg 
burgher, B- 'byga*; ES 'bsgafr, 'byga(r 
Burghley, -leigh 'byli; ES 'bsh, 'byli 
burglar 'bygla^; ES 'b3gla(r, 'bygla(r; |-y -i 
burglarize 'bygla^raiz; ES 'bsg-, 'byg-; |-s 

-IZ |-d -d 
burgle 'bygj; ES 'bsgl, 'bygl; [-d -d |-ling 

-ghg, -ghg 
burgomaster 'by ga ,maest3^ ; ES 'b3ga,m«sta (r, 

'byga-, E+-jmas-, -,mas- 
burgonet 'byga^ntt; ES 'bsg-, 'byg- 
burgoo, -gout 'bygu, by'gu; ES -s-, -y- 

BurgojTie ba^'gain; ES ba'gain 

burgrave 'bygrev; ES 'bs-, 'by- 

Burgundian ba^'gAndian; ES ba'gAn- 

Burgundy 'bygandi; ES 'bsgan-, 'bygan- 

burial 'berial 

burin 'bjurin, 'biu- 

burke, B- byk; ES bsk, byk; |-d -t 

burl byl; ES bsl, byl; |-ed -d 

burlap 'bylaep; ES 'bs-, 'by-; |-ped -t 

Burleson 'bylisn; ES 'bsl-, 'byl- 

burlesque ba^'ksk, by'ksk; ES ba'ksk, bs- 

by-; |-d -t ('bur,lesque 'play) 
Burley, b- 'byli; ES 'bsh, 'byk 
Burlingame 'bylig,gem, -igam; ES 'bsl-, 

'byl-; The 1st is a sp. pron. Same 'ii'ord as 

Burlingham 'bylig,haem, -igam; ES 'bs-, 

Burlington 'bybgtan; ES 'bshg-, 'bybg- 
burly 'byli; ES 'bsh, 'byli 
Burma 'byma; ES 'bsma, 'byma; |-n -n 
Burmese by'miz; ES bs'miz, by'miz 
burn byn; ES bsn, byn; [-ed -d or -t -t 
Burne-Jones 'byn'dsonz; ES 'bsn-, 'byn-; 

|-'S -IZ 

Burnell 'bynj; ES 'bsnl, 'bynj 
burner 'byna^; ES 'bsna(r, 'byna(r 
burnet B- 'bynit; ES 'bsnit, 'bynit 
Burnett by 'net, 'bynit; ES bs-, by-, 'bs-, 

Burney 'byni; ES 'bsni, 'byni 
Burnham 'bynam; ES 'bsnam, 'bynam 
burnish 'byni/; ES 'bs-, 'by-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
burnoose, -nous ba^'nus, 'bynus; ES ba-, 

'bs-, 'by-; |-(e)s -iz |-(e)d -t 
Burns bynz; ES bsnz, b^nz; |-'s- iz |-ian -lan 
burnside, B- 'byn^said; ES 'bsn-, 'byn-; 

|-s -z 
burnt bynt; ES bsnt^bynt 
Burntisland 'bynt'ailand ; ES 'bsnt-, 'bynt-; 

Sc+ 'br Ant- 
burr, B- by; ES b3(r, by; |-ed -d 
Burrillville 'byal^vil, 'byl-; ES 'bsr-, 'bAr-, 

'by-, 'bsl-, 'by|- 
Burritt 'byit; ES 'bsnt, 'bAnt, 'byit 
burro 'byo, 'buro, -a; ES 'bsr-, 'bAr-, 'by-, 

Burroughs 'byoz, -az; ES 'bsr-, 'bAt-, 'by-; 

Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |aiigry 'feg-gn 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj, wotj" (§12) [jaw dsa jgorge gards |go go 




burrow 'byo, -a; ES 'bar-, 'bAr-, 'bs'-; |-ed -d 
burrowing 'bs'awig; ES 'bsrawig, 'bAr-, 'by- 
Burrows 'byoz, -az; ES 'bar-, 'bAr-, 'by-; 

|-'s -iz 
burrstone 'by^ston; ES 'ba-, 'by- 
bursa 'bysa; ES 'basa, 'bysa; \-s -z |-sae -si 
bursar 'bysa^; ES 'b3S3(r, 'bysaCr; |-y -i 
burse bys; ES bas, bys; |-s -iz 
burst byst; ES bsst, byst 
burstone 'by^ston; ES 'bs-, 'by- 
burthen 'bytJan; ES 'bsSan, 'bySan; |-ed -d 
Burton 'bytn; ES 'bstn, 'bytn 
bury 'ben | buried 'bend 
Bury places 'ben, surname 'ben, 'bjuri, 'biu- 
burying ground 'benig^graund 
bus bAS Ibusses, buses 'bAsiz 
busby, B- 'bAzbi 
Busch buf |-'s -IZ 

bush buj" Ibushes 'bufiz [bushed buft 
bushel 'bufal |-ed -d [-ing 'bujalig, 'bujlig 
bushing 'bu/ig 
bushman, B-, -men 'bufman 
Bushnell 'bufnal 

bushranger 'buf^rendsa'; ES -jrend3a(r 
bushwhack 'bujjhwaek |-ed -t [-er -a^; ES -a(r 
bushy, B- 'bufi 
busily 'bizli, -zih 
business '■occupation' 'biznis |-es -iz 
business, busy- ''activity^ 'bizinis 
businesslike 'biznis^aik 
businessman 'biznis,maen |-men -jmen 
Busiris bju'sains, biu- |-'s -iz 
busk bAsk Ibusked bAskt 
buskin 'bAskin |-ed -d 
busman, -men 'bAsman 
Busra, -rah 'bAsra=vBasra 
buss bAS Ibusses 'bAsiz |bussedbAst 
bust M, V bAst I busted 'bAstid 
bustard 'bAsta'd; ES 'bAstad 
busticate 'bAsta^ket |-d -id 
bustle 'bAsl |-d -d |-ling 'bAslig, 'bAslig 
busy 'bizi I busied 'bizid 
busybody 'bizi^badi; ES-t- -jbodi 
busyness 'bizinis 

but unstressed bat, stressed or hesit. 'bAt, }i\t 
but-and-ben 'bAtn'ben 
butane 'bjuten, 'biu-, bju'ten, biu- 
butcher 'but/a^; ES 'but/aCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'but/ang, 'butjrig |-y -i, -tjri 

butcherbird 'butJV^byd; ES 'but/a jbad, 

'but/a jbyd 
butcher-knife 'but/a' ^naif; ES 'but/a-; j-ives 

Bute bjut, biut 

butler, B- 'bAtla^; ES 'bAtla(r; |-y -i 
butt, B- bAt I butted 'bAtid 
butte, B- bjut, biut 
butter 'bAta^; ES 'bAta(r; |-ed -d 
butter-and-eggs 'bAta^n'egz, 'bAtarand'egz; 

ES 'bAtan-, 'bAtarand- 
buttercup 'bAta^jkAp; ES 'bAta- 
butterfat 'bAta^jfaet; ES 'bAta- 
butterfingers 'bAta^jfigga^z; ES 'bAta^figgaz 
butterfly 'bAta'jflai; ES 'bAta-; i -flies -jflaiz 

l-flied -;flaid 
Butterick 'bAtarik, 'bAtnk 
butterine 'bAtajrin, -rin 
butterman 'bAta'jinaen, -man; ES 'bAta-; 

I -men -jinen, -man 
Buttermere 'bAta^jnur; ES 'bAta^miaCr, S-i- 

buttermilk 'bAta^^milk; ES 'bAta- 
butternut 'bAta^nat, -^nAt; ES 'bAta- 
butterscotch 'bAta^'skat/; ES 'bAta'skatJ, 

-'skntj; |-es -iz ('butter-scotch 'flavor) 
Butterwick 'bAtarik, 'bAta^wik; ES 'bAtarik, 

Butterworth 'bAta^wa'O, -jWyO; ES 'bAtawaG, 

-iW36, 'bAtajWyO 
buttery Hike butter' 'bAtan 
buttery 'pantry' 'bAtri, 'bAtan 
buttle 'bAtl |-d -d |-ling 'bAtlig, 'bAtlig 
buttock 'bAtak |buttocked 'bAtakt 
button, B- 'bAtn |-ed -d |-ing 'bAtnig, -tnig 
buttonhole 'bAtn^hol |-d -d 
buttonhook 'bAtn^huk 
buttonwood 'bAtn^wud 
buttress 'bAtris j-es -iz |-ed -t 
Butts bAts |-'s -iz 

butts and bounds 'bAtsn'baundz, -nz 
buttstock 'bAtjStak, -^stok 
butyl 'bjutil, 'biu- 
butylene 'bjutjjin, 'biu- 
butyric bju'tink, biu- |-ally -li, -ikli 
butyrin 'bjutann, 'biu- 
buxom 'bAksam 
Buxton 'bAkstan 
buy bai | bought bat 

|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred| [keep 'em 'kipm 




buzz bAz [buzzes 'Baziz | buzzed bAzd 

buzzard 'bAza^d; ES 'bAzad 

Buzzard's Bay 'bAza^dz'be; ES 'bAzadz- 

by stressed 'bai, jbai; zm^/r. bai, ba 

by-and-by 'baian'bai, 'baim'bai 

bye bai 

bye-bye n 'baijbai 

bye-bye intj 'bai 'bai, 'baijbai 

byelaw 'baijb 

by-form 'bai^farm; ES -jfaam 

bygone 'bai^gDn, -jgon, viuch lessfreq. -/gan 

bylaw 'baijb 

byname 'bai,nein |-d -d 

Bynner 'bina^; ES 'bin3(r 

by-pass 'bai^paes; E+-jpas, -^pas; |-es -iz 

l-ed -t 
bypast 'bai/paest; E+-jpast, -jpast 
bypath 'bai^paeS; E-H-,pa6, -ipaO; |-ths -Sz 
byplay 'baijple 

by-product 'baijpradakt, -dAkt; ES+-jprDd- 
Byrd b^d; ES bad, b^d 

byre bair; ES bai3(r 

Byrne byn; ES bsn, byn 

bymie 'byni; ES 'bsni, 'byni 

byroad 'bai^rod 

Byrom 'bairam 

Byron 'bairan |-esque jbair3n'8sk 

Byronian bai'ronian 

Byronic bai'ranik; ES+-'rDn-; |-ally -Ii, 

Byronism 'bairanjizam 
byssal 'bisl 
Bysshe bij |-'s -iz 

byssus 'bis3s |byssuses 'bisasiz [-ssi -sai 
bystander 'bai^staenda^; ES -jstaendacr 
bystreet 'bai^strit 
b3rway 'baijwe 

byword 'baijwyd; ES -,w3d, -jwyd 
Byzantian bi'zaenjan, -'zaentian 
Byzantine bi'zaentin, 'bizn^tain, -jtin 
Byzantinism bi'zaentin ^izam 
Byzantium bi'zaenjiam, -'zxntism 

C, c letter si \pl C's, Cs, poss C's siz 

cachination jkfeka'nefan 

cab kaeb 

cachou ka'/u, kae'/u {Fr ka'/u) 

cabal ka'bael [caballed ka'baeld 

cacique ka'sik 

cabala, cabbala 'kaebala 

cackle 'kaekl J-d -d [-ling 'kaekhg, -klig 

cabalistic ^kaeba'kstik 

cacodemon ^kaeka'diman 

cabaret 'kaebajrtt.'ca/e' jkaeba're {Fr kaba'r£) 

cacoethes jkaeko'iOiz, -Gis 

cabbage 'kaebids |-s -iz |-d -d {Shak. cabidge) 

cacogenics jkaeka'dseniks 

Cabell 'kjEbl 

cacophonic jkaeka'fanik; ES-h-'fomk 

cabin 'kaebin [cabined 'kaebind 

cacophonous kae'kafanas, ka-; ES+-'kDf- 

cabinet 'kaebanit -maker -^mek^•, ES -3(r 

cacophony kae'kafani, ka-; ES-h-'kof- 

cabinetwork 'kaebanit^wyk; ES -^wsk, -jwyk 

cactus 'kasktas j-es -iz [cacti 'kaektai 

cable 'kebl |-d -d -ling 'keblig, 'kebhg 

cad kaed 

cablegram 'kebj^graem 

cadaver ka'daeva^, ka'deva^; ES -va(r 

cabman 'kaebman [cabmen 'kaebmon, -^men 

cadaverous ka'daevaras, ka'daevras 

cabob ka'bab; ESn-ka'bnb 

caddie 'kaedi 

caboose ka'bus [cabooses ka'busiz 

caddis, -ice 'kaedis |-(e)s -iz |-(e)d -t 

Cabot 'kaebat 

caddy 'ksdi 

cabriolet jkaebria'le, jkaebria'kt {Fr kabrio'k) 

Cade ked 

cacao ka'keo, ka'kao 

cadence 'kedns |-s -iz |-cy -i [-dent -dnt 

cache ka;J caches 'ksefiz [cached kaeft 

cadenza ka'denza {It ka'dentsa) 

cachet kae'/e, 'kaefe {Fr ka'/e) 

cadet ka'det 

cachexia ka'keksia [cachexy ka'keksi 

cadge kiEd3 [cadges 'kaedsiz [cadged kaedsd 

cachinate 'kaeka^net [-nated -^netid 

Cadillac 'kaedl/aek 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |3^et ]zt [sang saeg [angry 'ag-gri 
[bath baeO; E bad (§10) jah a [far far jwatch watj, wotj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




Cadiz Spain 'kediz, PI 'kadis, 'kaediz. 

calcareous kael'kenas, -'kaer-, -'ker- 

'kediz |-'s -iziz, -isiz {Sp 'katJiO) 

Calchas 'kaelkas |Calchas's 'kaelkasiz 

Cadman 'kaedman 

calcify 'kaelsa^fai |calcified 'kaelsa;faid 

cadmium 'kfedmism 

calcimine 'kaelsajmain, -nun |-d -d 

Cadmus 'kaedmas |Cadmus's 'kaedmasiz 

calcine 'kaelsain, -sm |-d -d 

Cadnam 'kaednam — cj Puttenham 

calcite 'kaelsait |calcitic kael'sitik 

Cadogan ka'dAgan 

calcium 'kaelsiam 

cadre 'kada^; ES 'kadaCr; mz7.+'kaedn 

calculable 'k^elkjalab) |-bly -bh 

caduceus ka'djusias, -'diu-, -'du- |-cei -si^ai 

calculate 'kaelkjajet |-lated -Jetid 

Cadwal 'kaedwal, -wdI, -wdI 

calculation jkaelkja'le/an 

Cadwallader kaed'wabda', -Vol-, -Vol-; ES 

calculator 'kaelkjajleta'; ES -Jeta(r 


calculus 'kfelkjalas j-es -iz |-li -Jai 

caecum 'sikam Jcaeca 'sika 

Calcutta kael'kAtd 

Caedmon 'kaedman |-ian kaed'monian |-ic 

Calderon 'kaldaran {Sp ^kaldeVan) , 

kaed'manik; ES+-'mDnik 

caldron 'kaldran |-ed -d 

Caen 'kean, 'kan {Fr ka) 

Caldwell 'kaldwtl, 'kaldwal, Yks loc. 'kadwel 

Caesar 'siza^; ES 'siz3(r 

Caleb 'kelab, 'kehb 

Caesarea jsesa'ria, jsez- |-rean -Vbn 

Caledonia jkaela'donia, -'donja |-n -n 

Caesarean, -ian siirg. si'zerian, -'zaer-, -'zer- 

calendar 'kaelanda-, 'kaelin-; ES -da(r; [-ed -d 

caesium 'siziam 

calender 'kaelanda^, 'kaelin-; ES -da(r; ]-ed -d 

caesura si'sura, si'zjura, -'ziura |-1 -1 

calends 'kaelandz, 'kaelindz, -nz 

cafe ka'fe, kae'fe 

calendula ka'kndsala, -dsula 

cafe-au-lait ka'fe-o'Ie, jkaefio'le (/^/- kafeo'k) 

calenture 'kaelan^t/u*, -tja^; ES -jtJuaCr, 

cafeteria ^kaefa'tiria, -ta'ria 


caffeine, -in 'kafiin, -jin, 'kaefin 

Calexico ka'kksijko 

cage keds | cages 'kedsiz | caged kedsd 

calf kaef ; E kaf, kaf, kaef ; |-'s -s, -vz |-lves -vz 

cahoot ka 'hut |-s -s 

calf's-foot 'kaevzjfut; E 'kavz-, 'kavz-, 'kaevz-; 

Caiaphas 'keaf as, 'kai- [ Caiaphas's -f asiz 

— 'kaevz- is not the plural, but the older 

Cain ken 

possessive singular. 

cairn kern, kaern; E kean, ES kaean 

calfskin 'kaef^skin; E 'kaf-, 'kaf-, 'kaef- 

Cairo Egypt 'kairo, US 'kero, 'kero 

Calgary 'kaelgari 

caisson 'kesn 

Calhoun ka'hun, kiel'bun 

Caithness 'keOnes, keG'nes |-'s -iz 

Caliban 'kaelajbaen 

caitiff 'ketif | caitiffs 'ketifs 

caliber, -bre 'kaelaba'; ES 'kaelabaCr; |-(e)d -d 

Caius 'keas, Cambridge college kiz 

cahbrate 'kaelajbret |-brated -jbretid 

cajole ka'dsol | cajoled ka'dsold |-ry -an 

calibration jkaela'brefan 

Cajun, -jan, -jen 'kedsan — see Acadian 

calico 'kaela^ko 

cake kek leaked kekt |caky 'keki 

Cahcut 'kiela^kAt, 'kaelakat 

calabash 'kasla^bas/ 1 calabashes 'kaelajbaefiz 

California jkaela'farnja, esp. NEngd -nia; ES 

calaboose 'kaebjbus, ^kaela'bus |-s -iz 


Calabria ka'lebria |-brian -brian 

Caligula ka'ligjula 

Calais US 'kaelis ; France 'kaelis, 'kaele {mod. 

cahper 'kaelapa^; ES 'kalapa(r; |-ed -d 

Fr ka'k)-^-^ Shaks. 'Callis, 'Callice. "^ 

caliph 'kehf, 'kaelif |-ate 'kaela^'fet, -fit 

town which once sent members to the English 

caUsthenics jkaelas'Oeniks 

Parliament has a right to an English name." 

caUx 'keliks |calices 'kaehjsiz 

— John Sargeaunt. See §122. 

calk kak | calked kakt 

calamitous ka'laematas |calamity ka'laemati 

call kal Icalled kald j-er -a'; ES -a(r 

calash ka'laej |calashes ka'laefiz |-ed -t 

calla 'kaela 

Calaveras jkaelaVtras, -'veras |-'s -iz 

Callahan 'kaelajhaen 

|full ful |tooth tue Ifurther 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Callao Peru ka'jao, VS 'kaelijO {Am Sp 

Callaway 'kaela^we 
Calles 'kajes {Am Sp 'kajes) 
calligrapher ka'Iigrafa^; ES -faCr; |-pliy -h 
calligraphic ^kaela'graefik 
calling 'kalig 

Calliope ka'IaiSjpi, -pi |Kallyope 'kaeli/op 
calliper 'kaebpa^; ES 'kaelapafr; |-ed -d 
callisthenics jkaelas'GEniks 
CalUsto ka'listo 

callosity ka'lasati, kae-; ES+-'Ids- 
callous 'kaelas |-es -iz |-ed -t 
callow 'kaelo, 'kaela |-er 'kaebwa^; ES -W3(r; 

|-est 'kaelawist 
callus 'kaelas |-es -iz |-li -lai |-ed -t 
calm kam; E kam, kam; |-ed -d 
calomel 'kaelamj, 'kaelajiiiEl 
caloric ka'brik, ka'Iarik, -'lor- 
calorie, -y 'kaelari |-rific ^kaelaVifik 
calorimeter jkaeb'rimata'; ES -t3(r 
Calphurnia kael'fynia, -nja; ES -'fsn-, -'fyn- 
Calpumia kael'pynia, -nja; ES -'psn-, -'pyn- 
calumet, C- 'kaelju^mEt, -mit, -mat, ^kaelju- 

calumniate ka'lAmnijet |-d -id 
calumniation ka/lAmm'e/an 
calumniatory ka'lAmniSjtori, -jtori; S -itori 
calumny 'kaebmni 
Calvary 'kaelvari 

calve kiev; E kav, kav, kaev; |-d -d 
calves-foot 'kaevz^fut; E 'kavz-, 'kavz-, 

Calvin 'kaelvin |-ism -^izam |-ist -ist 
Calvinistic jkaelva'nistik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
calx kaelks |calxes 'kaelksiz | calces 'kaelsiz 
Calydon 'kaela^dan; ES+-jdDn 
Calydonian jkaela'donian, -'donjan 
Calypso ka'lipso 

calyx 'keliks, 'kael- |-es -iz [calyces 'kaelajsiz 
cam kaem | cammed kaemd 
camaraderie jkama'radari, -^ri {Fr kamara- 

camarilla jkaema'rila {Sp kama'riXa) 
camber 'kaemba^; ES 'kaembaCr; |-ed -d 
cambium 'kaembiam, 'kaembjam 
Cambodia kaem'bodia, kaem'bodja 
Cambria 'kaembria [Cambrian 'kaembrian 
cambric 'kembrik 

Cambridge 'kembrids |-'s -iz [-shire -jjir, -/a^; 

ES -Ji3(r, -/3(r 
Cambs short for Cambridgeshire kaemz, 

Cambyses k«m'baisiz [-ses' -siz 
Camden 'kaemdan 
came past of come kem 
camel 'kaeml 

camellia ka'meba, -'milia, -Ija 
camelopard ka'mela/pard; ES -jpa:d, E+ 

Camelot 'kaemajat; ES+-jDt 
Camembert 'ktemam^ber, -ybaer; E -jbeafr, 

ES -jbaeaCr; {Fr kama'bEir) 
cameo 'kaemijO, 'kasmjo |-ed -d 
camera 'kaemara |-s -z |-rae -^ri 
Cameron 'kaemaran, 'k«mr3n 
Cameroon jkaema'run [-roons -'runz 
Camilla ka'mila 
Camille ka'mil {Fr ka'iiii:j) 
Camillo ka'milo 
camisole 'kaemajSol 

Camoens 'kaemo,£nz [Camoens's 'kaemo^enziz 
camomile 'kaem3;mail 
camouflage 'kaema^flas, 'kaemu- [-s -iz [-d -d 

{Fr kamu'flars) 
camp kaemp [camped kaempt 
Campagna kam'panja, kaem- {It kam'pajijia) 
campaign kaem'pen [campaigned ksm'pend 
Campania ka;m'peni3 
campanile jkaempa'nili |-s -z [-li -II 
Campaspe kaem'paespi 
Campbell 'kaeml, 'kaembl |-ite -^ait 
Campeius kaem'pias [-'s -iz 
campfire 'kaemp^fair; ES -;faia(r 
camphene 'kajmfin, kaem 'fin 
camphor 'kaemfa^, 'kaempfa^; ES -f3(r 
campstool 'kaemp^stul 
Campton 'k^emptan 
campus 'kaempas [campuses 'kaempasiz 
can n, v kaen [canned kaend 
can aux. v stressed 'kten, ^kaen; unsfr. kan, kn, 

kg (jaikg'go) 
Cana 'kena 

Canaan 'kenan [Canaanite 'ken3n,ait 
Canada 'kaenada [-dian ka'nedian 
canaille ks'nel {Fr ka'na:j) 
Canajoharie jkaenadso'haeri 
canal ka'nael [-nailed, -naled -'naeld 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E bad (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




canalization kajnaela'zefan, ^kasnla-, -ai'z- 

cannoneer ^kaenan'ir; ES ^kaenan'iaCr, S+ 

canalize ka'naelaiz, 'kaenl^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


Canal Zone ka'naelizon 

cannot formal colloq. ^kasnat, kae'nat, ka'nat 

Canandaigua ^kaenan'degwa 

'kaenat. The usual familiar form is can't. 

canape 'kaenapi {Fr kana'pe) 

Emph. ka'nat, kse^nat, 'kaen^nat; ES+-Dt 

canard ka'nard; ES ka'nard; {Fr kaW:r) 

canny 'kaem 

canary, C- ka'neri, ka'nen 

canoe ka'nu 

Canberra 'kasnbara 

canon 'kaenan j-ed -d 

cancel 'kaensl |-ed -d |-ing -slig, -sbg 

caiion 'kaenjan |-ed -d 

cancellation jkaensl'e/an 

Canon City 'kaenjan'siti 

cancellous 'kaensalas 

canoness 'kaenanis |-es -iz 

cancer, C- 'kaensa^; ES ^kaens3(r; |Cancri 

canonic ka'namk; ES+-'nDn-; |-al -1 [-ally -}i. 



cancerous 'kaensaras, ^kaensras 

canonicity jkaenan'isati 

candelabrum jkaendl'ebram |-s -z |-bra -bra 

canonization jkaenana'ze/an, -ai'z- 

candent 'kaendant 

canonize 'kaenan^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

candescent kaen'desnt |-scence -sns 

Canonsburg 'kaenanz^byg ; ES -^bag, -jbyg 

candid 'kaendid, ^kaendad 

Canopic ka'nopik 

Candida 'kaendida 

Canopus ka'nopas |-'s -iz |Canopi ka'nopai 

candidate 'kaenda^det, -dit |-dacy -dasi 

canopy 'kaenapi [canopied 'kaenapid 

Candide kan'did, kaen- {Fr ka'did) 

Canossa ka'nasa, ka'nosa, ka'nasa {It 

Candish 'kaendij |-'s -iz = Cavendish 


candle kaendl |-d -d |-ling 'kaendlig, -dlig 

canst stressed ^kaenst, jkaenst; unstr. kanst 

candlelight 'kaendljait, 'kaendl^art 

cant kaent [canted 'kaentid 

Candlemas 'kaendlmas |-es -iz 

can't kaent; E kant, kant, kaent 

candlestick 'kaendl^stik 

Cantabrigian jkaenta'bridsian 

candor 'kaenda^; ES 'kasndaCr 

cantaloupe, -lope 'kaentI,op, mainly Brit -^up 

candy 'kaendi [candied 'kaendid 

cantankerous kaen'taegkaras, -kras 

candytuft 'kaendi^tAft 

cantata kaen'tata, kan-, -'taeta 

cane ken leaned kend 

canteen kaen'tin 

canescent ka'nesnt |canescence ka'nesns 

canter 'kaenta^; ES 'kaenta(r; |-ed -d [-ing 

Canidius ka'nidias |-'s -iz 

'kaentarig, 'kaentrig 

canine 'kenain, ka^nam 

Canterbury 'kaenta^^beri, 'kaenta-r ES 

canister 'kaenista^; ES 'kaenist3(r 

'kaenta-; — In the second pron. ^ is lost by 

canker 'kaegka^; ES 'kaegka(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

dissimilation {§121). 

'kaegkarig, -krig 

canticle 'kaentikl 

cankerous 'kaegkaras, 'kaegkras 

cantilever 'kaentljeva^, 'kaentljiva' ; ES -va(r 

cankerworm 'kaegka'jwym; ES 'kaegka^wsm. 

cantle 'kaenti |-d -d 


canto 'kaento 

canna 'kaina 

canton n 'kaentan, -tan, kaen'tan; ES+-Dn 

Cannae 'kaeni {mod. It Canne 'kanne) 

canton v 'divide' 'kaentan, k^en^tan; ES+-Dn; 

cannel 'kasnl 

'quarter troops' kaen'tan, -'ton, -'tun; ES+ 

canner 'kaena^; ES 'kaen3(r; |-y 'kaenari 

-'tnn; [-ed -d 

Cannes kaen, kaenz {Fr kan) |-'s kaenz, 'kaenziz 

Canton China kaen'tan; ES+-'tDn; US 'ksen- 

cannibal 'kaenabi |cannibalism 'kaenabljzam 

tan, 'kaentn 

cannikin 'kaenskin 

Cantonese jkaentan'iz 

canning, C- 'kaemg 

cantonment kaen'tanmant, -'tun-, -'ton-; 

cannon, C- 'kaenan |-ed -d [-ry -n 

ES+ -'ton- 

cannonade ^kaenan'ed |-d -id 

cantor 'kaentar, -ta^; ES 'kaentaaCr, -ta(r 

|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with e ('kEri, §94) 

Canuck ka'nAk 

Canute ka'nut, ka'niut, ks'njut 

canvas 'kaenvas | canvases 'kaenvasiz |-ed -t 

canvasback 'kaenvas^baek 

canva,ss 'kaenvas |-es -iz |-ed -t 

canyon, C- 'kaenjan |canyoned 'kaenjand 

caoutchouc 'kut/uk, kau'tjuk 

cap kasp | capped kaept 

capability jkepa'bilati 

capable 'kepabj | capably 'kepabli 

capacious ka'pe/as 

capacitance ka'paesatans 

capacitate ka'paesa^tet |-tated -^tetid [-ity -ati 

cap and gown 'kaepan'gaun, 'kaepm'gaun 

cap-a-pie ^kaepa'pi 

caparison ka'paerasn |-ed -d 

cape kep 

cape icrit 'kepi 

Cape Breton 'kep'britn, -'bretn, loc. ka'britn 

Capel. -11 'kaepl, 'kepi 

Capella ka'pela 

Capen 'kepan 

Cape of Good Hope 'kepav'gudjhop 

caper 'kepa^; ES 'kep3(r; |-ed -d 

capercaillie jkaepa^'kelji; ES jkaepa-; |-cailzie 

-'kelji, -'kelzi 
Capernaum ka'pyniam; ES -'psn-, -'pyn- 
Capet 'kepit, 'kaepit {Fr ka'pe) 
Capetian ka'pijan 

Cape Town, Capetown 'kep'taun, -^taun 
Caphis 'kef IS |-'s -iz 
capias 'kepias |-es -iz 
capillary 'kaepljEn; Brit ka'pilari; [-aritj^ 

capital 'kajpatj |-ly -i |-ism -^izam |-ist -ist 
capitalization jksepatla'zejan, -ai'z- 
capitalize 'ka^patj^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
capitate 'kaepajtet |-d -id |-tion jkaepa'te/an 
Capitol, c- 'kaepatl |-ine -jam 
capitular ka'pit/al*; ES -l3(r; |-lary -jlcri 
capitulate ka'pit/ajet |-lated -jletid 
capitulation kajpitja'le/an 
capon 'kepan, 'kepan; ES+-pDn 
capote ka'pot 

Cappadocia jk^epa'dofia, -/a |-n -n 
capper, C- 'kaepa^; ES 'kajpad 
Capri 'kapri 

capriccio ka'prit/ijO {It ka'pritt/o) 

capriccioso kajprit/i'Dso {It kaprit'tJo:so) 

caprice ka'pris |caprjces ka'prisiz 

capricious ka'pri/as, ofteji -'pri/-, c/ caprice 

Capricorn 'kaeprijkarn; ES 'kaiprijkaan 

Capron 'kepa^n; ES 'kepan; c/ apron 

capsize kaep'saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

capstan 'kaepstan 

capsular 'kaepsala^, -sjula^; ES -la(r 

capsule 'kaepsj, 'k«psjul |-d -d 

captain 'kaeptin, 'kaeptan, 'k«ptn |-cy -si 

caption 'kaep/an |-ed -d |-tious -/as 

captivate 'kaepta^vet [captivated 'kaeptajvetid 

captive 'kaeptiv |-d -d |-vity kaep'tivati 

captor 'kaepta^; ES 'kaepta(r 

capture 'kaept Jb^; ES 'kaept/a(r; |-d -d 

Capua 'kaepjua {It 'kapwa) 

Capuchin 'kaepjujt/in, -j/in 

Capucius ka'pju/as, -'piu- |-'s -iz 

Capulet 'kaepja,kt, 'kaepjaht 

capybara ^kaepi'bara 

car kar; ES ka:(r; [-red -d 

carabao jkara'bao 

carabineer, -nier jkaeraba'nir; ES -'nia(r, S-t- 

Caracas ka'rakas ]-'s -iz {Sp ka'rakas) 
carack 'kaerak 

caracole 'kaerajkol |-col -jkal, -jkol 
Caractacus ka'r«ktakas |-'s -iz 
Caradoc 'kaera^dak, ka'radak; ES+-jdDk; = 

Cradock; geol. ka'raedak 
carafe ka'raef ; E+-'raf, -'raf 
caramel 'kseraml |-ed -d — hi many places 

'karml is often heard. 
caramelize 'kaeramljaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
carapace 'kaerajpes |-s -iz |-d -t 
carat 'kaerat 

caravan 'kaerajvaen |-ed -d 
caravanserai jkaera'vaensajrai, -jte |-sary -ri 
caravel, -elle 'kaerajvel 
caraway 'kaerajwe 
carbazole 'korbajzol; ES 'ka:-; [-zol -jzal, 

carbide 'karbaid, -bid; ES 'ka:b- 
carbine 'karbain; ES 'ka-.bain 
carbineer jkarba'nir; ES jka:ba'nia(r, S-i- 


Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij^et jet |sang saeo jangrA^ 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a jfar far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw d33 |gorge gards |go go 



carl in 

Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (farm) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaen) are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 

carbinol 'karb3,nol; ES 'kaiba- 
carbohydrate jkarbo'haidret; ES jka:bo- 
carbolated 'karbajetid; ES 'kaiba- 
carbolic kar'balik; ES kaz'bahk, -'bnbk 
carbolize 'karba^laiz; ES 'kaiba-; |-s -iz 

carbon, C- 'karban, -ban; ES 'ka:ban, -bon, 

carbonaceous jkarba'nej'as; ES ^kaiba- 
carbonate n 'karbamt, -^net; ES 'kaiba- 
carbonate v 'karba^net; ES 'kaiba-; |-d -id 
Carbondale 'karban^del; ES 'kaiban- 
carbonic kar'banik; ES kar'banik, -'bonik 
carboniferous jkarba'nifaras; ES ^karba- 
carbonize 'karban^aiz; ES 'ka:ban-; |-s -iz 

carbonyl 'karba^nil; ES 'ka:ba- 
carborundum, C- jkarba'rAndam; ES jka:ba- 
carboxyl kar'baksil; ES ka:'baksil, -'boksil 
carboy 'karbai; ES 'ka:bai; |-ed -d 
carbuncle 'karbAijkl; ES 'kaibAgkj; |-d -d 
carburate 'korbajret, -bja-; ES 'ka:b-; |-d -id 
carburation ykarba'refan, -bja-; ES jka:b- 
carburator 'karba^ret*, -bja-; ES 'ka:b-, -ta(r 
carburet 'karba^ret, -bja-; ES 'ka:b-; j-ed -id 
carburetion jkarbaVe/an, -bja-; ES jkarb- 
carburetor, -ttor 'karbajteta^, -bja^reta'; ES 

'ka:b-, -ta(r 
carburize 'karba^raiz, -bja-; ES 'ka:b-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
carcajou 'karka^dsu, -;3u; ES 'ka:ka- 
carcass, -case 'karkas; ES 'karkas; |-es -iz 

l-ed -t 
Carchemish 'karkajnu/; ES 'ka:k- 
carcinogen kar'sinadsan, -djin, 'karsana-; 

ES ka-, 'ka:s- 
carcinoma jkarsa'noma; ES ^karsa-; |-s -z 

|-ta -ta 
card kard; ES ka:d; |-ed -id 
cardamom, -mum 'kardamam; ES 'ka:da-; 

1-mon -man 
cardboard 'kard^bord, -jbard; ES 'kard^boad, 

cardcase 'kard^kes; ES 'ka:d-; |-s -iz 
Cardenas 'kardi^nas; ES 'ka:d-; {Sp 'kartSe- 

cardiac 'kardi^aek; ES 'ka:di- 

cardiacal kar'daiakl; ES ka'daiakl 
Cardiff 'kardif ; ES 'ka:dif 
Cardigan, c- 'kardigan; ES 'ka:di-; 

-Jir, S^; ES -jXia(r, -/a(r 
cardinal, C- 'kardnal, -dnal; ES 'ka:d- 


cardiograph 'kardiaigraef; ES 'ka:dia-, E+ 

-jgraf, -igraf 
carditis kar'daitis; ES kar'daitis 
Cardozo kar'dozo; ES kar'dozo 
care ker, kaer; E kea(r, ES kaea(r; |-d -d 
careen ka'rin [careened ka'rind 
career ka'rir; ES kaVia(r, S+-'rea(r; [-ed -d 
carefree 'kEt/fri, 'kaer-; E 'kea-, ES 'kaea- 
careful 'kerfal, 'kaer-; E 'kea-, ES 'kaea-; 

l-ly -I 
careless 'kerbs, 'kaer-; E 'kea-, ES 'kaea- 
caress ka'res [caresses ka'resiz |-ed -t 
caret 'kaerat, 'kerat 
caretaker 'ker^teka^, 'kaer-; E 'keajteka(r, ES 

Carew ka'ru, -'riu, 'keru, 'ke-, -riu, -ri 
careworn 'ker^worn, 'kaer-, -^warn; E 

'keajwoan, 'kaea-, -^waan; S 'kaea^woan 
Carey 'ken, 'ke:ri, 'ken, 'kaeri; S 'ken, 

'kaeri; — Some speakers distinguish Carey 

from Kerry by a lofiger e. 
carf karf ; ES ka:f 

carfare 'kar^fer, -jfaer; E 'ka:jfEa(r, ES -^faeaCr 
cargo 'kargo; ES 'kargo 
Carhart 'kar^hart; ES 'kai^ha:! 
Carib 'kaerib |-al -1 |-an -an 
Caribbean ^kaera'bian, ka'nbian 
Caribbee, -ibee 'kaerajbi |-s -z 
Caribian 'Cariba?i' ka'nbian — see Carib 
caribou, C- 'kaera^bu 
caricature 'kaerikatja', -it/ur; ES -t/afr, 

-jt/ua(r; |-d -d |-rist -ist 
caries 'keriz, 'ke-, -n^iz 
carillon 'kaerajlan, -Jnn, -Ian, ka'riljan |-ed -d 

{Fr kari'jo) 
Carinthia ka'rinGia |-n -n 
cariole 'kaen^ol, -pi 
cark kark; ES ka:k; |-ed -t 
carl, -e, C- karl; ES ka:l 
Carleton 'karltan; ES 'ka:l- 
Carlile kar'lail, ka^-; ES kai'lail, ka- 
carlin, -e 'karbn; ES 'ka:bn 

|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish dif [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carrj' 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with £ ('keri, §94) 

car-line 'karjlain; ES 'ka:- 

carouse ka'rauz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sal -] 

ca.rlmg naut. 'karlig; ES 'ka:ho 

carousel jkaera^zel, /kaeru- 

Carlisle kar'lail, ka^-; ES kai'lail, ka- 

carp karp; ES ka:p; |-ed -t 

Carlotta kar'lata; ES kai'lata, -'lota 

carpal 'karpl; ES 'ka:pl 

Carlovingian jkarb'vindsian; ES jkaib- 

Carpathian kor'peOian, -6jan; ES ka'peO- 

Carlsbad 'karlzbaed; ES 'ka:lzbaed 

carpe diem 'karpi'daiem; ES 'ka:pi- 

Carlsruhe 'karlzrua; ES 'ka:lzrua 

carpel 'karpl; ES 'ka:pl; |-lary -,en 

Carlton 'karltan; ES 'kailtan 

Carpentaria ^karpan'tEria, -'ter-; ES jkarp- 

Carlyle kar'lail, ka^-; ES ka:Uail, ka- 

carpenter, C- 'karpanta^, 'karpmta^; ES 'ka:p-, 

carmagnole jkarman'jol; ES ,ka:-;{Fr karma- 

-ta(r; |-ed -d j-ing -tarig, -trig |-try -tn 


carpet 'karpit; ES 'ka:pit; |-ed -id 

Carman 'karman; ES 'kaiman 

carpetbag 'karpit^baeg ; ES 'ka:pit-; 1-ged -d 

Carmarthen ka^'marSan; ES ka^maitJan; 

|-ger -3^; ES -a(r 

|-shire -;Xir» S^' ES -JiaCr, -f^it 

carpus 'karpas; ES 'kazpas; |-es -iz ]-pi -pai 

Carmel 'karml; ES 'ka:mj; Cat Car'mel 

Carr kar; ES ka:(r 

Carmen 'karman; ES 'kaiman 

carrack 'kaerak 

Carmi 'karmai; ES 'karmai 

Carrara ka'rara (It kar'raira) 

Carmichael 'karmaikl; ES 'karmaikl 

carraway 'kaera^we 

carminative kar'minativ; ES ka'mmativ 

Carrel ka'rel 

carmine 'karmin, -mam; ES 'ka:m-; |-d -d 

carrettina jkara'tina (It jkarret'ti:na) 

carnage 'karnids; ES 'ka:n-; |-s -iz |-d -d 

carriage 'vehicle' 'kaerids |-s -iz; freight 

carnal 'karnj; ES 'ka:nl; |-ly -i 

charge' 'kaeriids 

Carnarvon ka-'narvan; ES ka'naivan; |-shire 

carrier 'kaeria^; ES 'kaeri«a(r 

-Jir, -JV; ES -Jia(r, -/a(r 

Carrington 'kaerigtan 

Carnatic kar'naetik; ES ka:'naetik 

carriole 'kaeri^ol, -pi 

carnation kar'nejan; ES ka:'ne/an; |-ed -d 

carrion 'kaerian 

Carnegie karWgi, ka^-; ES kar'negi, ka-; 

Carrizo kaVizo (Atn Sp ka'rriso) 

('Car.negie 'Hall) 

Carroll 'kaeral |-ton -tan 

carnelian kar'niljan; ES kar'niljan 

carronade ^kaera'ned 

Carniola jkarni'ola; ES 'jka:ni-; |-n -n (It 

carrot 'kaerat |-ed -id 


carrousel jkaera'zd, ,kaeru- 

carnival 'karnavl; ES 'karnavl 

Carruthers ka'rA'Sa'z; ES -'rAtiaz; |-'s -iz 

Carnivora kar'nivara; ES ka'nivara 

carry 'kaeri [carried 'kaerid 

carnivore 'karnajvor, -iVar; ES 'ka:najVoa(r, 

carryall 'kaeri,3l = cariole, carriole 


Carshalton ka^'/altn; ES ka- 

carnivorous kar'nivaras; ES ka'nivaras 

Carson 'karsn; ES 'ka:sn 

Carnot Am name 'karnat, -not; ES 'ka:nat. 

Carstairs, -stares 'karsterz, -staerz; E 

-not, -not, Fr name kar'no; ES ka:'no 

'ka:st£az, ES -staeaz 

carob 'kaerab 

cart kart; ES ka:t; j-ed -id |-age -ids |-ful 

caroche ka'rotj, -'roj \-s -iz |-d -t 


carol, C- 'kaeral, kaerl |-ed -d 

Cartagena jkartaMsina; ES jka:ta- 

Carolina jkaera'laina — see N. 6° S. Carolina 

carte kart; ES ka:t 

Caroline 'kaerajain, -lin 

carte blanche 'kart'blanj; ES 'ka:t-; \pl 

Carolingian jkaera'hndsian 

cartes 'karts-; ES 'ka:ts-; (Fr kart'bla:]") 

Carolinian jkaera'hnian 

cartel 'kartl, kar'ttl; ES 'ka:-, ka:- 

carom 'kaeram jcaromed 'kaeramd 

carter, C- 'karta^; ES 'ka:ta(r 

carotid ka'ratid; ES+-'rDtid 

Carteret 'kartarit; ES 'ka:ta- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) jrate ret [yet jet |sang saeg [angry 'ag-gn 
jbath baeO; E baO (§10) jah a |far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

Cartesian kar'tisan; ES kar'tisan 

casein 'kesiin 

Carthage 'karGids; ES \a-MAy, |-'s -iz 

case-knife 'kes^naif, -'naif |-ives -aivz 

Carthaginian jkarGa'dsmian; ES jkaiGa- 

casemate 'kes^met [-mated -jinetid 

Carthusian kar'ejusan, -'Oiu-; ES ka:- 

casement, C- 'kesmant |-ed -id 

Cartier jkarti'e, kar'tje; ES ika:-, ka:-; 

caseose 'kesi^os [caseous 'kesias 

{Fr kar'tje) 

casern, -e ka'zyn; ES -'zan, -'zyn 

cartilage 'kortlids; ES 'ka:t-; [-s -iz 

Casey 'kesi. III 'kezi 

cartilaginous jkartl'aedsanas; ES jka:t- 

caseworm 'kes^wym; ES -^wsm, -^wym 

cartle 'kartl; ES 'ka:tl 

cash kaef [cashes 'kae/iz [cashed kaejt 

cartogram 'kartajgraem; ES ^ka:t3- 

casha 'kaeja 

cartograph 'kartajgraef; ES 'ka:t3-. 


cash-and-carry 'kae/an'kaen 

-jgraf, -,graf 

cashaw ka'Ja 

cartographer kar'tagrafa^, -Hog-; ES 


cashbook 'kaef^buk 

-f3(r; |-phy -fi 

cashboy 'kaefjbai 

cartographic jkorta'graefik; ES jka:t3-; 


cashew ka'/u, -'/lu, 'kaef- 

-1 l-ally -h, -ikh 

cashier n, v kae'/ir; ES -'/laCr, S-i--'J*£a(r; 

carton, C- 'kartn, -tan; ES 'ka:t-, -ton 

[-ed -d ('cashjier 'Jones) 

cartoon kar'tun; ES ka:'tun; |-ed -d j-ist 


cashmere cloth 'kaefmir; ES -mia(r 

cartouche, -ch kar'tuj; ES kar'tuj"; |-s - 


Cashmere India kae/'mir; ES -'mia(r 

cartridge 'kortrids; ES 'kaitrids; |-s -iz 

cashoo ka'Xu = catechu 

cart-track 'kart^traek; ES 'ka:t- 

casimere, -mire 'kaesajinir, 'kaeza-; ES -jmia(r 

cartulary 'kart/ujlen ; ES 'kait/ujkn 

Casimir 'kaesajinir; ES -jmia(r 

cartwright, C- 'kart^rait; ES 'ka:t- 

casing 'kesig 

Caruso ka'ruso (7/ ka'ru:zo) 

casino, C- ka'sino [-s -z |-ni -ni 

Caruthers ka'tASa^z; ES kaVAcJaz; |-'s - 


cask kaesk; E-t-kask, kask; |-ed -t 

carve karv; ES ka:v; |-d -d \arch. pptc -n 


casket 'kaeskit; E 'kaes-, much less freq. 

carvel 'karvl 

'kas-, 'kas-; [-ed -id 

carven 'karvan; ES 'kaivan 

Caslon 'kaezlan 

Cary 'ken, 'k£:ri, 'ken, 'kaeri; S 'ken, 'kaeri; 

Caspar, -per 'kaespa^; ES 'kaespa(r 

see note at Carey 

Caspian 'kaespian 

caryatid jkaen'aetid \-s -z J-es -jiz 

casque 'kaesk [casqued 'kaeskt |-quet 'kaeskit 

casaba ka'saba 

Cass kaes [Cass's 'kaesiz 

Casabianca jkaesabi'aegka (// jkasa'bjagka) 

cassaba ka'saba 

Casablanca jkasa'blagka, jkaesa'blaeoka 

Cassandra ka'saendra 

Casanova jkaeza'nova {It ,kasa'nD:va) 

cassation kae'se/an 

Casaubon ka'saban (Fr kazo'bo) 

cassava ka'sava 

Casca 'kaeskd 

Cassel, -11 'kaesl 

cascade, C- kaes'ked |-caded -'kedid 

casserole 'kaesajrol [-d -d 

cascara kaes'kera, -'kera {Sp 'kaskara) 

Cassia 'kaejia [cassia 'kae/a 

cascarilla jkaeska'nla 

Cassiepeia jkaesia'pia 

cascaron jkaeska'ron (Am Sp jkaska'ron) 

Cassil 'kaesl 

Casco 'kaesko 

cassimere 'kaesajinir; ES-jmia(r 

case, C- kes leases 'kesiz [cased kest 

cassino ka'sino 

casease 'kesi,es 

Cassio 'kaejijo, 'kaejjo 

caseate 'kesi^et |-d -id 

Cassiopeia, -pea jkaesia'pia [-n -n 

casefy 'kesa^fai |-fied -jfaid 

Cassius 'kae/as, 'kaejias [-'s -iz 

caseharden 'kes^hardn, -'hardn; ES -jha:dn. 

cassock 'ksesak |-ed -t 

-'ha:dn; |-ed -d |-ing -dnig, -dnig 

cassowary 'kaesa^wen 

[full ful [tooth tu9 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fs'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz Idish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




cast kaest; ES+kast, kast 

catalysis ka'taebsis |-yses -a^siz 

Castalia kaes'telia |-n -n 

catalyst 'kaetlist j-lytic ^kaetl'itik 

Castanet ,ksest3^mt 

catalyze 'kaetl^aiz |-s -iz \-d -d 

castaway 'kaesta^we; E+'kast-, 'kast- 

catamaran /kfetama'raen 

caste kaest; E+kast, kast 

catamount 'kaet3,maunt 

castellan 'kaestabn 

Catania ka'tenia, -nja (It ka'tamja) 

castellate 'kaesta Jet |-d -id 

catapult 'kaet3,pAlt j-ed -id 

caster 'kaesta-; ES 'kaest3(r, E+'kas-, %as- 

cataract 'kseta^riekt |-ed -id 

Casterbridge 'kaest^^brids; ES %aesta-; |-'s 

catarrh ka 'tar; ES ka'taUr, E+-'ta:(r; ]-ed -d 


|-al -a! 1-ally -ak 

castigate 'kaestajget |-d -id 

Catasauqua jkaeta'sakwa 

castigation jkaesta'gejaii 

catastasis ka't^estasis |-tases -ta^siz 

Castile kaes'til ('Cas^tile 'soap), NY kaes'tail 

catastrophe ka'taestrafi 

Castilian kaes'tiljan, -lian 

catastrophic ^kaeta'strafik; ES+-'strDf-; J-al 

cast-iron adj 'kaest'aia^n; ES 'kaest'ai-an, E+ 

-1 l-ally -li, -ikh 

'kast-, 'kast-; ('cast-jiron 'pipe) 

Catawba, c- ka'taba 

castle, C- 'kaesl; E+'kasl, 'kasl; |-d -d 

Catawissa jkaeta'wisa 

|-ling 'kaeslig, 'kaeshg 

catbird 'kastjbs^d; ES -jbsd, -jbyd 

Castlereagh 'kaesljre; E+'kasl-, 'kasl-; 

catboat 'kaet^bot 

acci + J Castle 'r eagh 

catcall 'k^tjkol |-ed -d 

castoff n 'kaest pf, -jof; E+'kast-, 'kast- 

catch kaetj, not infreq. ket/ |-es -iz | caught kat 

castor, C- 'kaesta^; ES 'kaest3(r, E+'kas-, 'kas- 

catchall 'k^tjpl 

castrate 'kaestret |-d -id 

catcher 'kaetla-, 'kst/a^; ES -tJaCr 

casual 'kaesual, 'kaejul |-ly -i j-ty -ti 

catchpenny 'kaet/,p£ni 

casuist 'kaesuist 1-ry -ri 

catchpole, -poll 'kietjjpol |-d, -ed -d 

casuistic jkaesu'istik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 

catchup 'kiet/ap, 'kEtJap 

casus belli 'kesas'belai 

catchword 'kaet/jwyd; ES -jwsd, -jwyd 

Caswell 'kaezwal, -wtl 

cate ket |cates kets 

cat kaet |catted 'kaetid 

catechesis ^kaeta'kisis |-cheses -'kisiz 

catabolism ka'taebjjizam 

catechetical jkaeta'ketikl |-ly -i 

catachresis ^kaeta'krisis |-chreses -'krisiz 

catechism 'kaetajkizam |-chist -kist 

catachrestic jkaeta'krestik |-al -I |-ally -li. 

catechistic jkaeta'kistik |-al -1 |-alh' -li, -ikli 


catechize 'kaeta^kaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

cataclinal jkaeta'klainl 

catechu 'kaetajtju 

cataclysm 'kaetayklizam |-al jkaeta'kliznij 

catechumen jkaeta'kjuman, -'kiu- |-al -1 |-ate 

cataclysmic jkaets'klizmik |-ally -li, -ikli 

-jCt |-ism -jizam 

catacomb 'kaeta^kom 

categorical jkaeta'garikl, -'gar-, -'gor- |-ly -i 

catacumbal jkaeta'kAmbl 

category 'kaetajgori, -/gari; S -;gori 

catafalque 'kaeta^faelk 

catena ka'tina |-s -z j-nae -ni j-r}- -ri 

Catahoula jkaeta'hub 

catenate 'kaetrijet j-d -id 

Catalan 'kaetjan, 'kaetljaen 

cater 'keta^; ES 'ket3(r; 1-ed -d j-ing 'ketarig. 

catalase 'kaetl/es 


catalectic jkaetl'ektik 

catercornered 'kaetajkarna^d, 'kjcty-; ES 

catalepsis jkaetl'Epsis |-leptic -'eptik 

'kaetajkaanad — In 'kastajkariud the first ^ 

catalepsy 'kaetljcpsi 

was lost by dissimilation (§121). 

Catalina, c- jkaetl'ina 

cater-cousin 'keta^jkAzn; ES 'keta- 

catalogue, -log 'kaetlpg, -^ag, -^ng [-d, -ged -d 

caterer 'ketara^; ES 'ketaraCr 

Catalonia jkaetl'onia \-n -n 

Caterina /kaeta'rina (// jkate'ri:na) 

catalpa, C- ka'taelpa, occas. ka'tolpa 

caterpillar 'kaetajpila^, 'kaeta^-; ES 'kaeta- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr>- 'aeg-gri 
|bath basG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa jgorge gards |go go 




iPil3(r; 1-ed -d — In \xi^ ipiisf- the first 2f- was 

cat's-paw 'kaetS/pD 

lost hy dissimilation {§121). 

catsup 'kaetsap, 'kstjap 

caterwaul 'kaeta^jwal; ES 'kaeta-; j-ed -d 

cattail 'kaetjtel 

Catesby 'ketsbi 

Cattaraugus jkaetaVogas |-'s -iz 

catfall 'kaet,f3l 

Cattegat 'kaeti^gaet, jkaeti'gaet 

catfish 'ksetjfij |-'s -iz 

Cattellka'tel, kae- 

catgut 'kaetjgAt ('kaetgat 'strig) 

cattish 'kaetij |catty 'kaeti 

Catharine 'kaeGrin, 'kaeGsrin 

cattle 'kaetl |-less 'kaetjlis 

catharsis ka'Oarsis; ES -'Oais-, E+-'Oa:s- 

Catullus ka'tAlas |-'s -iz 

cathartic ka'Gartik; ES -'ea:t-, E+-'ea:t-; 

Catulus 'kaet/abs |-'s -iz 

l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 

catwalk 'kaetjwak 

Cathay ka'Oe, kae'Oe 

Caucasia kD'kesa, -^keja 

Cathcart 'kaeOka^t, -kart; ES -kat, -ka:t, E+ 

Caucasian ko'kejan, -'kejon, -^kaesan 



cathead 'kaet^hed |-ed -id 

Caucasus 'kokasas |-sus' -sas 

cathedra ka'Oidra, 'kaeGidra 

caucus 'kakas [-es -iz 1-ed -t 

cathedral ka'Oidral 

caudal 'kadi |-ly -i 

Cather 'kaeSa-; ES 'kjae'SaCr 

caudate 'kadet \-A -id 

Catherine 'kaeOnn, 'kaeOarin 

caudicle 'kadikl 

Catherwood 'kaeOa^jWud; ES 'kaeOa- 

Caudine 'kadain 

catheter 'kaeeata^; ES 'kaeOataCr 

caudle 'kadi |-d -d |-ling 'kadlig, -dlig 

Cathleen 'kaeelin 

Caudle 'kadi, cf Caldwell 

cathode 'kaeGod 

caught kat 

cathodic ka'Oadik; ES+-'eDd-; |-al -1 |-ally 

caul kal 

-h. -ikh 

cauldron 'kaldran |-ed -d 

cat -hole 'kaet^hol 

cauUfiower 'kala^flaua^; ES -jflau-a(r 

cathoHc, C- 'kaeeahk, 'kaeGlik 

caulk kak | caulked kakt 

Catholicism, C- ka'OabjSizam; ES+-'6nl- 

causal 'kazl j-ly -i |-ity ka'zaelati 

catholicity jkaeGa'lisati 

causation ka'ze/an ] causative 'kazativ 

catholicize ka'GabjSaiz; ES+-'Gd1-; |-s -iz 

cause kaz | causes 'kaziz ] caused kazd 


causerie jkoza'ri {Fr koz'ri) 

catholicon ka'Gabkan; ES+-'GdI- 

causeway 'kaz^we |-wayed -jwed 

Catihne 'kaetljain 

causey 'kazi |-ed -d 

cation 'kaetjaian 

caustic 'kastik |-ly -li |-al -1 |-ally -li 

catkin 'kaetkin 

cautel 'katl 

Catlettsburg 'kaetlits^s'g; ES -^bsg, -jbyg 

cauterization jkatara'ze/an, -ai'z- 

catmint 'kaetjmmt 

cauterize 'kata^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d j-tery -ri 

catnip 'kaetnip, -nap 

caution 'ka/an j-ed -d |-ing 'kajanig, -Jnig 

Cato 'keto 

cautionary 'kajanjcri 

cat-o'-nine-tails jkaeta^nainjtelz, jkaetn'ain- 

cautious 'ka/as 

Catoosa ka'tusa 

cavalcade jkaevl'ked |-caded -'kedid 

catoptric ka'taptrik; ES+-^tDp-; |-s -s J-al -1 

cavaher, C- jkasva'lir; ES -'lia(r, S4--'Iea(r 

l-ally -h, -ikli 

cavalry 'kaevlri -man, -men -man 

cat-rigged 'kaet^rigd 

cavatina jkaeva'tina {It ,kava'ti:na) 

Catron ka'tran; ES + -'trDn 

cave, C- kev |caved kevd 

cat's-cradle 'kaets^kredl 

caveat 'kevi^aet 

cat's-ear 'kaetsjir; ES -ji3(r, S+-j83(r 

caveat emptor 'kevijaet'smptar; ES -taa(r 

cat's-eye 'kaets^ai 

cave-in 'kevjin 

Catskill 'kaets.kil 

Cavell, Edith 'kaevl 

|full ful Itooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Cavendish, c-, Candish 'kaevandi/, loc.+ 

'kiendij |-'s -iz 
cavern 'kaeva^n; ES 'kaevan; |-ed -d |-ous -as 
caviar, -are jkaevi'ar, 'kaevijor; ES -'a:(r, 

-ja:(r; — ift Hamlet caviary, probably pron. 

cavie 'kevi 

cavil 'kaevl, -vil |-ed -d j-ing 'kaevlig, -vhg 
Cavite kaVite, ka- 
cavity 'kaevati |cavitied 'kaevatid 
cavort kaVart; ES -Vaat; |-ed -id 
Cavour kaVur; ES -Vu3(r; {It kaVu:r) 
cavy 'kevi 
caw ka ] cawed kad 
Cawdor 'kada^; ES 'kadaCr 
Cawnpore, -pur kan'por, -'par. -'pur; ES 

-'po3(r, -^pu3(r, E+-'p33(r 
Caxton 'kaekstan 

cay ke, ki, in West Itidies usually ki 
cayenne, C- kai'en, ke'en ('cay^enne 'pepper) 
cayman 'keman | caymans 'kemanz 
Cayman isls. kai'man 
Cayuga ke'uga, -'juga, ki'uga, 'kjuga 
Cayuse, c- kai'jus, -'jius 
Cazenovia jkaeza'novia 
cease sis [ceases 'sisiz ] ceased sist 
Cebu se'bu 
Cecil Md co. 'sisl, -sil, pers. name 'sisl/sEsl, 

Cecilia si'silja, -'silia, -'silja 
Cecily 'sesli, 'sisji 
Cecropia si'kropia 
cedar 'sida^; ES 'sida(r; j-ed -d 
cede sid | ceded 'sidid 
cedilla si'dila 
Cedric 'ssdrik, 'sidrik 
cee si 

ceil sil |ceiled sild |ceiling 'silig 
celandine 'selan^dain 
Celebes 'sela^biz, sa'libiz 
celebrant 'selabrant 
celebrate 'sela,bret j-brated -jbretid 
celebration js^la^brefan 
celebrity sa'kbrati 
celerity sa'krati 
celery 'selari 
celesta sa'lesta 
celeste, C- sa'lest 
celestial, C- sa'lestfal ]-ly -i 

Celia 'silja, in Shak. 'silia 
celiac 'silijaek 

celibate 'selabit, -jbet 1-bacy -basi 
Celina saUaina 
cell sel Icelled seld 
cellar 'sela^; ES 's£la(r; j-ed -d ■ 
cellarage 'selarids \-s -ii 
cellarer 'selara^; ES 's£lara(r 
Cellini t/e'lini {It tjel'litni) 
cellist, 'cellist 'tjElist 
cello, 'cello 'tjelo |-s -z |-li -i 
cellophane, C- 'selajfen |-d -d 
cellular 'seljala^; ES 'seljala(r 
cellulate 'selja^let |-d -id 
cellule 'sel Jul 

celluloid, C- 'seljajlaid, 'sela- 
cellulose 'seljajlos j-s -iz |-d -t |-lous -las 
Celoron 'selajran, -jjnm 
Celotex, c- 'sela^teks 
Celsius 'selsias j-'s -iz 
celt selt 

Celt selt |-ist -ist 
Celtic 'seltik |-ally -h, -ikli 
Celticism 'seltajSizam |-cist -sist 
cement sa'mEnt |-ed -id 
cementation jsiman'tejan, jseman- 
cemetery 'semajteri, 'semitn 
Cenci 'tj£ntji {It 'tjEiitJi) 
Cenis sa'ni 

cenobite 'sena.bait, 'sin- 
cenotaph 'sena,taef 
Cenozoic ^sina'zoak, jsena- 
cense sens [censes 'sensiz [censed senst 
censer 'sensa^; ES 'sensaCr 
censor 'sensa^; ES 'sensa(r; |-ed -d 
censorial stn'sorial, -'sar-; S -'sor- 
censorious sen'sorias, -'sar-; S -'sor- 
censorship 'sensa'yj'ip; ES 'sensa- 
censurability jSEn/ara'bilati 
censurable 'senjarabl |-bly -bli 
censure 'senja^; ES 'senja(r; j-d -d [-ring 

'sEn/arig, 'sen/rig 
census 'sensas |-es -iz |-ed -t [-sus' -sas 
cent s£nt [cental 'sentl 
centaur 'sentar; ES 's£ntaa(r 
Centaurus, c- sen'taras \ge7i b" pi -ri -rai 

l-'s -iz 
centavo sen'tavo 
centenarian jS£nta'n£rian, -Wr- 1-ism -jizam 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi jpity ^piti (§6) [rate ret jyet J£t [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E ba6 (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wnt/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




centenary ^SEnta^nEn, SEnUenari, mainly Brit 

centennial sen^tenisl, -njal [-ly -i 
center, -tre 'senta'; ES 'sentaCr; |-(e)d -d 

|-(r)ing 'sentarig, 'sentrig 
centerboard, -tre- 'senta^jbord, -^bord; ES 

'senta^boad, E+-jb33d 
center-fire, -tre- 'senta^'fair; ES 'senta'faiaCr; 

('center-jfire 'shell) 
centerpiece, -tre- 'sEnta^^pis; ES 'senta-; 

|-s -iz 
centesimal sen'tesaml |-ly -i 
centesimo sen'tEsajmo 
centiar 'sEntijor; ES -ja:(r 
centiare 'sEntijEt, -jaer; E -i£3(r, ES -^aeaCr 
centigrade 'sEnta^gred 
centigram, -mme 'sEntajgraem 
centiliter, -tre 'sEntljita^; ES -t3(r 
centillion SEn'tiljan 
centime 'santlm, san'tim {Fr sa'tim) 
centimeter, -tre 'sEntajinita'; ES -jmit3(r; 

{Fr sati'mEtr) 
centimeter-gram-second, -tre- 'sEnta^mita^- 

'graem'sEkand ; ES -jinita- 
centimo 'sEntajino 
centipede 'sEntajpid 
centistere 'sEntajStir; ES -jsti3(r 
Centlivre SEnt'liv*, -Hiva^; ES 

-'hv3(r, -'liv- 
centner 'sEntna^; ES 'sEntn3(r; {Ger 'tsEntnar) 
cento 'sEnto 

central 'sEntral |-ly -i |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
Centralia SEn'trelia, -Ija 
centrality SEn'traelati 
centralization jSEntrala'zeJan, -ai'z- 
centralize 'sEntral^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
centric 'sEntrik j-al -j |ally -li, -ikh 
centrifugal SEn'trifjugl |-ly -i 
centrifuge 'sEntra^fjuds, -jfiuds j-s -iz 
centripetal SEn'tripatl j-ly -i 
centrist, C- 'sEntrist 
centrosphere 'sEntra^sfir; ES -jsfia(r, S+ 

centuple 'sEntupj, -tju-, SEn'tupl, -'tiu-, 

-'tju- |-d -d 1-ling -plig, -plig 
centurial SEn'tjurial, -'tiunal, -'tor- 
centurion SEn'tjurian, -'tiurian, -'tur- 
een tury 'sEntJari |-ried -d 
cephalic sa'faelik, se- 

Cephalonia jSEfa'lonia, -nja |-n -n 
cephalopod 'sEfala^pad; ES+-jpDd 
Cephalopoda ^SEfa'lapada; ES+-'1dp- 
cephalothorax jSEfala'Oorseks, -'6ar-; S -'6or-; 

|-es -IZ 
cephalous 'sEfalas 
Cephalus 'sEfalas |-'s -iz 
Cephas 'sifas |-'s -iz 
Cepheus 'sifjus, 'sifias j-'s -iz 
ceramic sa'raeinik |-s -s 
cerate 'siret 

Cerberus 's^baras; ES 'ssb-, 'syb-; [-'s -iz 
cere sir; ES sia(r, S+SEa(r; |-d -d 
cereal 'sirial 

cerebellar jSEra'bEla^; ES -'belaCr 
cerebellum ^sEra'bElam |-s -z j-la -la 
cerebral 'sErabral |-ly -i 
cerebrate 'sEra^bret j-brated -^bretid 
cerebration iSEra'breJan 
cerebrospinal jSErabro'spainl 
cerebrum 'sErabram 1-s -z |-bra -bra 
cerecloth 'sir^kbO, -jkloO; ES 'sia-; j-ths -tJz, 


cerement 'sirmant; ES 'siamant 

ceremonial jSEra'monial, -njal |-ly -i 

ceremonious jSEra'monias, -njas 

ceremony 'sEra^moni 

Ceres 'siriz, 'siriz |-res' -riz 

Cereus, c- 'sirias, 'si- j-es -iz 

cerif, -iph 's£rif = serif 

Cerigo 'tjEri/go {It 'tjE:rijgo) 

Cerimon 'sEri,man, -^mon 

cerise sa'riz, -'ris j-s -iz 

cerium 'siriam 

Cerro Gordo 'sEro'gardo; ES -'gaado 

certain 'sytn, -in, -an; ES 'sst-, 'ss^t-; j-ty -ti 

certes 'sytiz; ES 's3t-, 'syt- 

certifiable 'syta/faiabl; ES 'ssta-, 'ssta-; 

l-bly -bh 
certificate n sa^'tifakit; ES sa'tif- 
certificate v sa^'tifajket; ES sa-; |-d -id 
certification 'certifying^ jsytafa'ke/an; ES 

jssta-, jsyta- 
certification 'certificating^ sa^^tifa'ke/an; ES 

certify 'syta^fai; ES 'sata-, 'syta-; |-fied -^faid 
certiorari ,s3j"ia'rEri, -'reri; ES ^ss/i-, jsy/i- 
certitude 'syta^tjud, -^tiud; -^tud; ES 'sst-, 


IfuU ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi5an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




cerulean saVulisn, -'riulian, -Ijan 

chainwork 't/en^wyk; ES -jwak, -^wyk 

cerumen sa'ruman, -'riuman 

chair tjer, tjaer; E tjeacr, ES tXaa(r; |-ed -d 

ceruse 'sirus, sa'rus 

chairman 'tjErman, 'tJaer-; E 't/ea-, ES 

Cervantes sa^'vaentiz; ES sa-; |-tes' -tiz 


't/aea-; |-men -man j-ship -^/ip 


chaise /ez |chaises '/eziz Ichaisedjezd 

cervical 'syvikl; ES 'ssv-, 'ss^v- 

chaise longue '/ez'lagg, -'Ingg (/^r/eiz'log) 

cervix 's^viks; ES 'ssv-, 'syv-; |-es 


Chalcedon 'kaelsidan, -jdan, -^don 

|cervices sa^'vaisiz; ES sa- 

chalcedony kael'sedni, 'kselsajdoiu 

Cesar 'sezar; ES 'seza:(r, E+-za:(r; 


chalcid 'kaelsid 


chalcography kael'kagrafi, -'kog- 

Cesarea ^SEsaVb, jsez- l-rean -Vbn 

chalcographic jkaelka'graefik |-al -1 

Cesarean, c-, -ian surg. si'zerian, -'zaer-, - 


chalcopyrite jkaelka'pairait, -'pir- 

cesium 'siziam 

Chaldaic kael'de-ik ]-al -1 

cessation se'sejan 

Chaldea kael'dia |-n -n |-dee kael'di, 'kaeldi 

cession 'sE^an 

chaldron 't/aldran 

cesspit 'sesjpit 

chalet /iene, '/ah (Fr /a'k) 

cesspool 'sesjpul 

Chalfont Bucks 'tjaelfant, loc. 'tjafant 

cestode 'sestod 

chalice 't/aelis |-s -iz |-d -t 

cestus, C- 'sEstas [-es -iz 

chalk tjak | chalked tjakt 

cesura si'jura, si'zjura, -'ziura |-1 -1 

challenge 't/aehnds, -ands |-s -iz |-d -d 

Cetacea si'te/a |cetacean si'te/an 

chaUis, -Hie Ifaeh 

Cetus 'sitas \gen Ceti 'sitai 

Chalmers 't/aelma^z, 't/am-, 't/om-; ES -az; 

cevitamic jsivai'taemik 

l-'s -IZ 

Ceylon si'Ian; ES+-'lDn; |-ese ^sila'niz 

cham dial. '/ am' t/aem 

Ceyx 'silks |-'s -iz 

cham 'khan'' kaem 

Cezanne si'zaMi {Fr se'zan) 

chamade /a 'mad 

cf. ^compare' 'si'ef, kan'fy; ES -'f3(r, -'fy 

chamber 'tJemW; ES -ba(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

chabouk, -buk 'tjabuk 

'tjembarig, 'tjembrig 

Chaco 't/ako 

chamberer 'tjembara^; ES 'tJembaraCr 

Chad tjied, t/ad 

chamberlain 'tjemb^lin; ES 't/emba- 

Chadds Ford 'tjiedz'ford, -'fard; ES -'foad. 

Chamberlain, -lin 'tjemba^bn; ES 'tjemba- 


chambermaid 'tjemba^jmed; ES 't/emba- 

Chadron '/aedran 

chambray 'Jaembre 

Chaeronea jktra'nia 

chameleon ka'mUian, -Ijan 

chafe tjef | chafed tjeft 

chamfer 't/aemfa^; ES 'tJaemfaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

Chafee 'tjefi, 'tja^fi 

'tjaemfarig, 'tjaemfrig 

chafer 'tjefa-; ES 'tXefa(r; |-y -i 

chamois, -mmy 'Jaemi 

chaff t/aef ; E+t/af, t^af ; j-ed -t 

chamomile 'kaema^mail 

Chaffee 'tjiefi, 't/efi 

Chamonix, -mouny '/aemani (Fr Jamu'; " 

chaffer 'tjaefa^; ES 'tJaefaCr; |-ed -d 


champ tfaemp | champed tjaempt 

'tjaefarig, 'tjaefrig 

champac, -pak 'tjaempak, 'tjAmpAk 

Chaffey 'tjjefi, 'tjefi 

champagne Jaem'pen j-d -d 

chaffinch 'tJae^fintX, 'tjaef jfintj" |-es -iz 

Champagne Jaem'pen {Fr Ja'paji) 

Chagres 'tjagres 

champaign Jaem'pen, 'tjaempen 

chagrin Ja 'grin |-ed -d 

Champaign III Jaem'pen 

Chagrin Falls /a'grin'falz, /oc. + 'Jug 


champerty 'tjaempa'ti; ES 'tjampati 


champion, C- 'tjaempian |-ed -d |-ship -Ji;) 

chain tjen | chained tjend 

Champlain Jaem'plen 

chain-stitch 'tjen^stitj |-es -iz ]-ed -t 

Champlin 'tjaemphn 

Key: See in full §§3—47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet jet Isang saeg jangrj' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) ]j'avv dsa |gorge gards |go go 

Champs Elysees 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

Champs Elysees Fr /azeli'ze 
chance tjaens; E+tJans, tjans; j-s -iz |-d -t 
chancel 'tjaensl; E+'tJan-, 't/an- 
chancellery 't/aensalari, -slari; E+'t/an-, 

chancellor, C- 't/aensala^, -sla'; ES -laCr, E+ 

'tjan-, 't/an-; [-ship -Jip 
Chancellorsville 'tJaensala^ZiVil, -sl»z-; ES 

-bz-, E+'tJan-, 't/an- 
chancery 'tjaensari; E+'t/an-, HJan- 
chancre 'Jaegka^; ES IfaegkaCr 
chancy, -cey 'tJaensi; E+'tJan-, 'tj"an- 
chandelier j/sendl'ir; ES -'i3(r, S+-'E3(r 
chandler, C- 'tjaendla-; ES -dl3(r, E+'t/an-, 

Chandos 'tjfendas, 'Jaen-; ES+-dDs; j-'s -iz 
Chandragupta jtjAndra'gupta 
Changchun 'tjag'tjun 
change t/ends [changes 't/endsiz |-d -d 
changeabiHty jt/endsa'bibti 
changeable 'tjendsabl j-bly -bh 
changeling 'tjendskg 
Chang Kai-shek 't/ag'kai'/ek, 't/aeg- 
channel 't/aenl [channeled 'tjaenld 
Channing 'tjaenig 

chanson '/aensan, -san, -son (Fr Ja'so) 
chant tjaent; E+tJant, tjant; |-ed -id 
chantey, -ty 'Jsenti, 'tjaen-; E+-an-, -an- 
chanticleer 't/aentijkhr; ES -jkli3(r, S+ 

Chantilly Va, France jxnhiXi (Fr/ati'ji) 
chantress 't/aentris; E+'t/ant-, 't/ant-; |-es 


chantry, C- 't/aentri; E+'tJant-, 'tjant- 

Chanute tja'nut, jD'nut 

chaos 'keas; ES+'kens; |-es -iz 

chaotic ke'atik; ES+-'Dtik; ]-al -1 |-ally -]i, 

chap 'fellow', 'crack' t/aep |chapped tj"aept 
chap 'jaiv' t/aep — cf chop 'jaw' 
chaparajos jt/apa'rahos |-rejos -'rehos 
chaparral jt/aepa'rael 
chaparreras, -pareras jtjapa'reras 
chapbook 't/aepjbuk 
chape tjep 

chapeau /ae'po |-x, -s -z (Fr /a'po) 
chapel, C- 't/aepl |-ed -d |-ing 't/aeplig, -plig 
chaperajos jtjapa'rohos 

chaperon, -one '/aepajron |-ed -d |-age -ids 

chapf alien 'tJaep^Dlan, -jfaln — cf chopf alien 

chaplain 'tjaepbn |-cy -si |-ship -^/ip 

chaplet 'tjaeplit |-ed -id 

Chaplin 'tjaeplin 

Chapman, c- 'tjaepman |-men -man 

Chappell, -pple 't/aepl 

chappie, -ppy 'tjaepi 

chaptalize 'Jaeptl/aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

chapter 'tjaepta^; ES -t3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'tjaeptarig, -trig 
Chapultepec tJa'pAltajpek (Sp t/ajpuIte'pEk) 
char tjor; ES tXa:(r; |-red -d 
charabanc 'Jaerajbaegk, -jbaeg (Fr /ara'ba) 
character 'kaerikta^, -ok-; ES -t3(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -tang, -trig 
characteristic jkaerikta'ristik, jkaerak- |-al -1 

I -ally -li, -ikli 
characterization jkaeriktra'zeXsn, -ak-, -tara-, 

characterize 'kaeriktajraiz, 'kaerak- |-s -iz 

charactery 'kaeriktari, -ak-, -tri 
charade /a 'red 

charcoal 'tjor^kol; ES 'tjai^kol; j-ed -d 
chard tjard; ES t/ard 
Chardon '/ardn; ES 'Ja:dn 
chare t/er, t/aer; E tXEa(r, ES t/aeaCr; |-d -d 
charge t/ards; ES tjards; |-s -iz \-d -d |-able 

-abl l-bly -bh 
charge d'affaires Jar'sedae'fer, -'faer; E 

Ja:'3edae'f£a(r, ES -'faea(r; \pl charges 

-'sez- (Fr Jarseda'fEir) 
charily 'tjerah, 'tjaer-, 'tjer-, -ih; S 't/aer-, 

chariness 't/Erinis, 'tJaer-, 'tJer-; S 't/aer-, 

Charing Cross 'tjaerig'kras, 'tJer-, -'kros; S 

't/aerig-; ('Charing jCross 'Road) 
chariot 'tjaeriat |-ed -id 
charioteer ^t/aeriat'ir; ES -'ia(r, S+-'£a(r 
charitable 't/aeratabl |-bly -bk 
Chariton 'Jeratn, '/aer-; S 'Jaer- 
charity 't/aerati 
charivari /ajriva'ri, jXiva'ri, jXari'vari — In 

j/iva'ri tite first r is lost by dissimilation 

(§121). Cf shivaree 
charkha, -ka 'tjArka; ES 't/Aika 

|full fu! [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

charlatan 'Jarlatn; ES 'Jatla-; |-ism -^izam 

|-ry -n 
charlatanic yjarla'taenik; ES ^Jaib-; |-al -j 

I -ally -li, -ikb 
Charlecote 't/arlkat, -kot; ES 'tja:!- 
Charlemagne Ifarbjmen; ES lfa:b-; (F/- 

Charleroi Pa j/arbVai, 'Xarb^rai; ES iJa:!-, 

Ifa:!-; \Belg -roi, -roy /^r Jarb'rwa 
Charles tjarlz; ES tj"a:lz; |-'s -iz |-ton -tan 

[-town -/taun 
Charley, -ie 'tjarh; ES 'tjaili 
charlock 't/orbk; ES 't/aibk 
Charlotte/ew. name 'Jarlat, US places '/arbt, 

Ja-'lat; ES '/a:l-, /a-, -'lot 
Charlottenburg Jar 'latn jbs'g ; ES /a 'latn jbsg, 

-'lot-, -jbyg (Gc;- Jar 'btaiijburk) 
charlotte russe '/arbtVus, -'ruf; ES lfa:bt- 
Charlottesville IfarbtSjVil; ES Ifa:!-, S+-vl 
Charlton 'tjarltan; ES 'tja:l- 
charm tjarm; ES t/a:m; j-ed -d |-edly -idb 
charmeuse/arWsz; ES Ja:-; (Fr Jar'moiz) 
Charmian 't/armian, 'karm-; ES 't/a:m-, 

chamel 'tjarnj; ES 't/ainl 
Charon 'keran, 'kaeran, 'keran; S 'kaeran, 

charpoy, -pai 'tjar'paij -'p^"^; ES 'tja:- 
chart tjart; ES tjart; j-ed -id 
charter 't/arta^; ES 't/aitaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

-tang, -trig 
Charteihouse, c- 'tjarta'jhaus; ES 'tjaita- 
chartograph 'kartajgraef; ES 'ka:ta-, E+ 

-jgraf, -jgraf 
chartographer kar'tagrafa', -'tog-; ES ka-, 

-fa(r; |-phy -fi 
chartographic jkarta'graefik; ES ;ka:t3- 
Chartres Ifartra, Jort; ES 'Ja:t-, Ja:t; {Fr 

chartreuse, C-Xar'trsz; ESja:-; (Fr/ar'treiz) 
chartulary 'kartjujeri; ES 'kaitju^leri 
charwoman 'tjar^wuman, -jwu-; ES 'tja:-; 

I -men -jWimin, -an 
chary 'tX£ri, 't/erri, 'tjaeri, 'tjen; S 't/aeri, 

't/eri — Some speakers distinguish char\' 

from cherry by a longer e. 
Charybdis ka'ribdis |-'s -iz |-dian -dian 
chase, C- tjes |chases 't/esiz jchased tjest 

chasm 'kaezam, tnuch less freq. 'kaezm 1-ed -d 

chasmal 'kaezml |chasmic ^ksezmik 

chasse /ae'se |-d -d — cf sashay 

chasseur Jae'sy, ES -'s3(r, -'sy; (Fr/a'soeir) 

chassis 'Jaesi, 'Jaesis \pl chassis 'Jaesiz 

chaste tJest 

chasten 't/esn ]-ed -d j-ing 't/esnii), -snig 

chastise tjaes'taiz [-s -iz |-d -d 

chastisement 'tjaestizmant, tjaes'taizmant 

chastity 'tjaestati 

chasuble 'tjaezjubl, 't/aes- 

chat tjaet 1 chatted 'tjaetid 

chateau /ae'to \pl -teaux -'toz {Fr Ja'to) 

Chateaubriand Jae'tobriand, -^and {Fr 

Chateau-Thierry /a'totb'ri {Fr /atotJE'rl) 
chatelain 'Jaetljcn (Fr /a'tlS) 
chatelaine '/^etljen (Fr Ja'tkn) 
Chatham 'tjaetam, US ^/ace^ + 'tjaet-haem, 

Chatillon Shak. Jae'tiljan {Fr /ati'jo) 
Chattahoochee jtXaeta'hut/i 
Chattanooga jt/aetn'uga, jtjaeta'nuga 
chattel 't/aetl |-ed -d 
chatterbox 't/aeta^jbaks; ES 't/aetajbaks, 

-jbnks; |-es -iz 
Chatterton 'tjaeta^tan; ES 't/aetatan 
Chattooga tja'tuga 

Chaucer 't/asa^; ES 'tXasa(r; |-ism -jizam 
Chaucerian tja'sirian 
chauffer ^ stove' 'tfafa^; ES 'tj"afa(r 
chauffeur 'Jbfa^jjo'fy; ES 'Xofa(r, Jo'f3(r, -'fy; 

l-ed -d 
chaulmoogra, -mugra t/al'mugra 
Chauncey 't/ansi, 'tjonsi, 'tjansi, 'tjaensi 
chaunt tfant, tjont, tjant |-ed -id 
Chautauqua, c-Ja'takwa |-n -n 
chauvinism '/ovinjizam |-ist -ist 
chauvinistic j/ovi'mstik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
chaw t/a [chawed tjad 
Chazy '/ezi, /e'zi ('Chazy's 'Landing) 
cheap tj"ip |-ed -t 

cheapen 'tjipan |-ed -d |-ing 'tjipanig, -pnig 
Cheapside 't/ip^said, -'said 
cheat, C- tjit | cheated 'tjitid 
Cheatham 'tjitam — cf Cheetham, Chetham 
Cheboygan /I'baigan 
check t/ek | checked t/skt |-book -jbuk 

Key: See in full §§3—47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg*gri 
jbath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj", wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 


checker 'tfek*; ES 't/tkaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'tjEkarig, 'tfekrig 
checkerboard 'tjeka^jbord, -^bord; ES 'tftka- 

jboad, E+-jb33d; |-ed -id 
checkmate 't/ek^met |-mated -^metid 
checkoff UJekpf, -jii 
checkrein 'tjek^ren 
checkroom 'tjek^rum, -jrum 
checkrow 't/ek^ro |-ed -d 
checkstrap 't/skjStraep 
Cheddar 't/eda-; ES 'tJedaCr 
cheek tjik | cheeked tjikt 
cheekbone 'tXikjbon, -'bon 
Cheeke tfik 
cheekily 'tfikli, -ih 
cheep tjip [cheeped tjipt 
cheer tjir; ES tji3(r, S+tJ"E3(r; |-ed -d 
cheerful 'tjirfal; ES 'tjia-, S+'tJea-; j-ly -i 
cheerily 'tjirali, -ili 
cheerio 't/irijO 

cheerly 'tjirh; ES 'tjiali, S+'t/Eali 
cheese tfiz |cheeses 'tjiziz jcheesed tfizd 
cheesecake 'tjiz^kek 

cheesecloth HJizjkbe, -jkloG |-ths -t$z, -Gs 
cheesemonger HJ'izjmAijga' ; ES -jmAggaCr 
cheeseparing 'tjiz^perig, -jpaerig; S -jpaerig 
cheetah 'tjita 

Cheetham 'tjitam — cf Cheatham 
chef /£f 

chef-d'oeuvre Je'dcevra (Fr J"e'doe:vr) 
Chefoo 'tji'fu 
Cheke tjik 
Chekov 't/ekof, -kof 
chela 'claw' 'kila ] chelae ^kili 
chela 'disciple' 'tjela 
chela measure 'kela 
Chelan /a 'laen 
Chelmsford Mass Hfcmzi^d, 'tjElmz-, Engd 

'tjelms-, 't/ems-; ES -fad 
Chelonia ka'loma |chelonian kaUonian 
Chelsea 'tjelsi 

Cheltenham 'tjeltnam, 'tjeltnam 
chemic 'kenuk j-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikb 
chemise /a 'miz |-s -iz |-sette jJemi'zEt 
chemist 'kenust j-ry -ri 
Chemnitz 'kemnits \-'s -iz 
Chemosh 'kimaj, -mnj |-'s -iz 
chemotherapy jkemo'Oerapi 
Chemung /I'mAg 

79 cheval-de-frise 

chemurgic kem'a^dsik; ES -hd^-, -^yds-; 

l-al -1 
chemurgy 'ktms^dsi; ES -sdsi, -ydsi 
Chenango Ji'naeggo 
chenille /a 'nil 

Cheops 'kiaps; ES+'kiops |-'s -iz 
Chepstow 'tjepsto 
cheque tjek |-r -■y-; ES -a(r; j-red -a^d; ES -ad; 

I -ring 't/ekarig, 'tjekrig 
chequerboard 'tXtka^jbord, -^bard; ES 't/eka- 

(boad, E+-jbaad; |-ed -id 
Cheraw 'tjira, tji'ra 
Cherbourg Iferburg; ES Ifeabuag; {Fr 

cherish 'tJenX |-es -iz |-ed -t 
Cherith 'kiriO, 'tJiriO 
Cherokee 'tjerajki, jtfera'ki 
cheroot /a 'rut 

cherry 't/eri |cherried 'tj"end 
Chersonese, c- 'k3"sa,niz; ES 'kssa-, 'ks'sa- 
chert tjs^t; ES tjst, tjyt 
cherub 'tjerab \-s, -z |-im -im, 'tferjubim 

I -in -in, -jubin 
cherubic tja'rubik, -'nubik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

chervonets tjtr'vanits \pl chervontsi tjer- 

Cherwell 'tjarwal, -wel; ES 'tja:- 
Chesaning 'tjEsnig 
Chesapeake tjes'pik, jt/esa'pik ('Chesajpeake 

Chesham 'tjEjam, less frcq. 't/Esam — 'tjE/am 

is a sp. pron. Cf Bentham 
Cheshire 'tjEjir, 'tMa^; ES 'tXeXia(r, -/a(r 
chess tjES I chesses 'iJesiz 
chessboard 'tjESjbord, -^bard; ES -jboad, E-t- 

chessman 'tjESjmaen, -man |-men -jiUEn, -man 
chest tjESt I chested 'tjEstid 
Chester, c- 'tjesta^; ES 'tX£sta(r 
Chesterfield 'tjEsta^^fild; ES 'tJ"Esta- 
Chesterton 't/Esta'tan; ES 'tjEstatan, -tn 
Chester White 'tjEsta^'hwait; ES 't/ESta- 
chestnut 'tjEsnat, -^nAt 
chestnut-roan 'tjesnat'ron ('chestnut^roan 

chetah 'tjita 

Chetham 't/Etam — cf Cheatham 
cheval-de-frise /a 'vaelda 'friz \pl -vaux- -'vo- 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi5an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 




cheval-glass /aVaeljglaes; E+-jglas, 


chide tjaid \past chid tjid or chided 'tjaidid 

|-es -iz 

\pptc chid t/id or chidden 't/idn or chided 

chevalier jjeva'hr; ES -'li3(r, S+-'lE3(t 


Cheviot Hills, sheep 'tjeviat, 'tfiv-; 


Chidley 'tj-idli 

If mat. Ifev-; jCh-, ch- cloth 


chief t/if |-tain -tin |-taincy -tinsi 


chield tjild Ichiel tJU 

Chevrolet jjEvra'le 

chiffon /i 'fan, -'fon, 'Jifan 

chevron 'Jevran |-ed -d 

chiffonier jjifa'nir; ES -'ni3(r, S-t--'nE3(r, 

chevy, C- 't/Evi | chevied 'tjevid 


chew, C- tju, t/iu |-ed -d 

chigger 'tjiga^; ES 'tJigaCr 

chewink t/i'wigk 

chignon 'Jinjan, -jon (/^r Ji'jio) 

Cheyenne /ai'en 

chigoe 'tjigo 

Cheyne 't/eni, 't/en 

Chihuahua tji'wawa, -'wdwd 

chi G^ letter kai 

chilblain 't/iljblen |-ed -d J-s -z 

Chian 'kaisn 

child, C-(e) tjaild |-ed -id \pl see children 

Chiang Kai-shek tji'ag'kaiyek, 'tjjag 


childbearing 't/aild^bEng, -jbaerig; S -jbaer- 

Chianti, c- ki'aenti {It 'kjanti) 

childbirth 't/aild^yO; ES -^bsB, ->yO j-ths 

chiaroscuro ki^ara'skjuro, -'skiuro {It 




Childermas 't/ilda^mas; ES 't/ilda- 

chibouk, -que tji'buk, -T)uk 

childhood 'tjaild^hud 

chic Jik, /ik 

childlike 't/aild,laik 

Chicago Ja'kago, -'kngo, -'kago, /i-, -a 

l-ed -d 

children 't/ildran, -drin, -da^n; ES -dran. 

|-goan -gawan 

-drin, -dan 

chicane Ji'ken | -caned -'kend |- 


Childress 't/aildris j-'s -iz 


Chile 'tjih l-an -an j-lian -ban {Sp 'tJUe) 

Chichen Itza tJi'tjEiiit'sa 

Chili US\Sih, iVF 'tjailai 

Chichester 't/itjista^; ES HJitJistaCr 

chih, -le 'tjib 

chick tjik 

Chilkat 'tjilkat 

chickadee 'tjikajdi, jtJikaMi 

Chilkoot 't/ilkut 

Chickahominy jtjika'hamam; ES-i--'hi 


chill tjil 1 chilled tjild 

Chickamauga jtJika'mDga ('Chicka^ 


chilli 'tjik 


Chillicothe .t/ila'kaOi; ES+-'knOi; ('ChiUi- 

chickaree 't/ikajri 

jcothe 'Road) 

Chickasaw 't/ikajso 

Chillingworth 'tXibgwa-O, -jWyO; ES -wa6. 

Chickasawhay jtJika'sDwe |-wha -wa 

-jwso, -jw^e 

Chickasha 't/ikayjc 

Chillon/a'lan, -'Ion, '/ilan {FrfV jo) 

chicken 't/ikin, -an 

chilly 'tJib 

chickenhearted 'tXikin'hartid, -an- 

; ES 

Chiltern 't/ilta^n; ES 't/iltan 

-'ha:tid, E+-'ha:tid; ('chickenjhearted 

chimaera ka'nura, kai- 


chimb t/aim 

chicken-pox 'tjikiii^paks, -an-; ES-t--iPoks 

Chimborazo jtjimba'rezo, -'razo {Am Sp 

Chickering 'tjikang, 't/ikrig 

jt/imbo'raso) |+ J- 

chickweed 'tjikjwid 

chime t/aim |chimed t/aimd 

chicle 'tjikl, 'tjikl {Sp 'tjikle) 

chimera ka'mira, kai'mira 

Chico 'tjiko 

cliimerical ka'mirikl, kai- |-ly -i, -ikli 

Chicopee 'tjika^pi, -pi 

chimney 'tj"imni | chimneyed 't/imnid 

chicory 'tjikari, H/ikri 

chimpanzee jtXimpaen'zi, tjim'paenzi, ,/-, /- 

Chicot 'tJiko(Fr/i'ko) 

chin t/in jchinned tfind 

Chicot Ifiko 

China, c- 't/aina [-man, -men -man 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |3^et JEt |sang sasg | angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeB; E baS (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wntj" (§12) |jaw 650 |gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

chinaware 't/amajwer, -jwaer; E 

-iWEa(r, ES 

Chisholm 't/izam [Chisolm 't/izam 


Chiswick 't/izik 

chincapin 'f/igkapin 

chit t/it [chitted 't/itid 

chinch 't/mtj |-es -iz 

chitchat 't/it^t/aet |-ty -i 

chinchilla, C- t/m't/ila 

chiton 'kaitii, -tan, -ton 

chincough 'tjiiijkaf, -^kof 

Chittenden 'tjitiidan 

chine t/ain | chined t/aind 

chitter 'tjita^; ES 't/itaCr; j-ed -d 

Chinee t/ai'ni 

chitterling 't/ita^lig; ES 'tjita- 

Chinese tjai'niz |-'s -iz ('Chi^nese 


chivalric '/ivlrik, Ji Vaelrik [-rous 'Jivlras 

chink tjigk [chinked t/igkt 

chivalry Ifivlri — The historical pron. 'tjivlri is 

chinkapin 'tjigkapin 

now rare. 

Chino- Japanese 'tjamojdsaepa'niz 

chive t/aiv 

Chinook, c- tji'nuk, -'nuk 

Chivers 't/iva^z; ES 't/ivaz 

chinquapin 'tjigkapin 

chlamys 'klemis, 'klaem- |-es -iz j-mydes 

chinse, chintze naut. tfints |-d -t 


chintz t/ints [chintzes 't/mtsiz 

Chloe 'klo'i 

Chios 'kaias, -ds 

chloral 'kloral, 'kbr-; S 'kloral 

chip tjip [chipped tjipt 

chlorate 'klorit, 'kbr-, -ret; S 'klor- 

Chipewayan ^tJipaVean 

chloric 'klorik, 'kbr-; S 'klonk 

Chipewyan jt/ipaVaian 

chlorid 'klorid, 'kbr-; S 'klorid; [-ride -raid. 

chipmunk 'tJipmAgk 


Chippawa 'tjipajwa, -jWd, -jwe. 


chlorin 'klorin, 'klar-; S 'klorin; [-rine -rin, 

Chippendale 't/ipan^del 


Chippenham 'tjipanam 

chlorinate 'klori^net, 'kbr-; S 'klor-; |-d -id 

chipper 't/ipa^; ES 'tJipaCr; [-ed -d |-ing 

chlorite 'klorait, 'kbr-; S 'klorait 

'tfiparig, 'tjiprig 

chloroform 'klor a jf arm, 'kbra-; ES 'klor a - 

Chippewa 't/ipajWa, -jWd, -^we. 

-wa [-way 

yfaam, E+'klara- 


chlorophyll, -yl 'kloraifil, 'kbra-; S 'klor a - 

chippy 't/ipi 

chloroplast 'klorajplaest, 'kbra-; S 'klora- 

chirk tjyk; ES tjsk, t/yk; [ed -t 

chlorous 'kloras, 'kbr-; S 'kloras 

chirm, charm tfym, tjarm; ES t/sm, tfym. 

Choate t/ot 


choate adj 'koet 

chirograph ^aira^graef; E+-igraf, 


chock tjak [chocked tjakt 

chirographer kai'ragrafa^, -'rug-; 

ES -fa(r; 

chockablock 'tjaka'blak 

[-phy -fi 

chock-full 'tj"ak'ful 

chirographic jkaira'graefik |-al -1 

chocolate 'tjakht, -kalit, 't/ak-, 't/ok-; S 

Chiron 'kairan, -ron, -ran 

'tJak-, 'tjuk-, 't/ak- 

chiropody kaiVapadi |-dist -dist 

Chocorua tja'karawa./a-, -'kar, -'knr- 

chiropracter 'kaira^praekta'; ES -jpraekt3(r 

Choctaw 'tjakta 

chiropractic jkaira'praektik 

choice t/ais [choices 't/aisiz 

chirp t/yp; ES tjsp, tjyp; |-ed -t 

choir kwair; ES kwaia(r; [-ed -d 

chirr tfy; ES t/3(r, tjy; |-ed -d 

choirboy 'kwairjbai; ES 'kwaia- 

chirrup 't/irap, 'tjyap; ES+'tJsr-, 


choke tjok [choked tjokt; iNEngd+tpik (§46) 

chirurgeon kaiVydsan; ES -Vsds 

-, -'rydj- 

chokebore 'tjokjbor, -ibar; ES -^boaCr, E+ 

chirurgery kai'rydsari; ES -'rads 

-, -Vyds- 

-jbaaCr; |-d -d 

chirurgic kai'rydsik; ES -'rsds-, - 


chokecherry ^tJok^tXeri 

Chisago jtfisa'go 

chokedamp 't/ok^daemp 

chisel 't/iz} [-ed -d [-ing 'tfizbg, - 


choke-full 't/ok'ful 

[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish d^f [vision 'visan [Eden 'idi^ [cradle 'kred| [keep 'era 'kipip 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

chold dial. '/ would' t/ud 

crisscross 'kris^kras, -jkrns |-es -iz 

choler 'kala^; ES 'kab(r 

Christ Jesus kraist, given name krist, kris 

cholera 'kabra 

Christabel 'kristajbel 

choleric 'kalsrik 

Christchurch 'kraist ^t/ytj"; ES -.t/stj, -.tjytj 

cholesterol ka'kstajtol 

christcross 'kris^kros, -jkros |-es -iz 

Cholmley, -meley, -mondeley, Chomley 

christen 'krisn |-ed -d j-ing 'knsnig, -snig 


Christendom 'krisndam 

choose tfuz |-s -iz | chose tjoz ] chosen 'tjozn 

Christian 'kristjan 

chop 'j'aw' tjap j-s -s = chap 

Christiana jkristi'aena 

chop V tfap [chopped tjapt 

Christiania jkristi'ania, kns'tjama 

chopf alien 't/apjfDbn, -^foln 

Christianity jkristji'aenati, kris't/aenati 

Chopin Ifopaen./o'paen (Fr/o'p*) 

Christianize 'kristjan^aiz \-s -iz |-d -d 

chopin, -e measure 'tjapin 

Christie 'kristi 

chopine, -in ^patten' 'tJapin, tjo'pin 

Christina kns'tina |-tine -'tin ('Chrisjtina 

choppy 't/api 


chopstick 'tjapjstik 

Christlike 'kraist Jaik [Christly 'kraistli 

chop suey, sooy 't/ap'sui, -'siui 

Christmas 'krismas |-es -iz 1-ed -t 

choral adj 'koral, 'karal; S 'koral |-ly -i 

Christmastide 'krismas,taid 

choral, -e n ko'ral, ka-, 'koral, 'kor-; S koVal, 

Christopher 'kristafa^; ES 'kristafa(r 


Christy 'kristi 

Chorazin koVezin 

chroma 'kroma 

chord kord; ES kaad; |-ed -id 

chromate 'kromet |-d -id 

chore tjor, tjar; ES tJoaCr, E+tX33(r; |-d -d 

chromatic kro'maetik |-al -1 1-ally -li, -ikli 

chorea ko'ria, k3-; S ko'ria; j-l -1 j-reic -Viik 

chromatin 'kromatin 

choreography jkon'agrafi, jka-, -'og-; S ^ko- 

chrome krom | chromed kromd [chromic 

choric 'korik, 'kor-, 'kar-, 'kor- 


chorister 'korista', 'kar-, ^kor-; ES -t3(r 

chromium 'kromiam 

chorography ko'ragrafi, ka-, -Vog-; S ko- 

chromo 'kromo 

choroid 'koroid, 'kor-; S 'kor- 

chromolithograph ^kromo'liea^graef; E+ 

chortle 'tjDrtl; ES 't/aatl; j-d -d j-ling -tlig, 

-jgraf, -,graf 


chromosome 'kroma ^som 

chorus 'koras, 'karas; S 'koras; |-es -iz j-ed -t 

chromosphere 'kroma^sfir; ES -jsfia(r, S+ 

chose past of choose tJoz 


chose 'property' Joz choses 'Joziz 

chronic 'kranik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

chosen pptc of choose 'tjozri 

chronicle 'kranikl j-d -d [ling -klig, -klig 

Chosen 'Korea' H/o'sen 

chronicler 'kranikla^; ES -kla(r 

chough t/Af 

Chronicles 'kraniklz 

chouse t/aus |-s -iz 

chronograph 'kranajgraef; E+-jgraf, -igraf 

chow tjau 

chronographic ^krana'graefik j-al -1 [-ally -li, 

chowchow 'tjauitjau 


chowder 't/auda^; ES H/audaCr; j-ed -d |-ing 

chronologer kra'naladsa^; ES -dsaCr; |-gy 

'tjaudarig, -dng 

-dsi l-gist -dsist 

chow mein 'tjau'inen 

chronologic ^krana'ladsik |-al -1 |-ally -li. 

Chrestien, -et-, de Troyes Fr kretjada'trwa 


chrestomathy kres'tamaOi 

chronometer kra'namata'; ES -'namata(r; 

chrism 'krizam |-ed -d 

|-try -tri 

chrismal 'krizml |chrismale knz'meli 

chronometric ^krana'mEtrik j-al -1 |-ally -li, 

chrisom 'knzam 


Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |ja\v dsa |gorge gards |go go 




chronoscope 'kranajskop; ES + 'kron- 

cicatrize 'sika^traiz j-s -iz |-d -d 

chronoscopic jkrona^skapik |-ally -h, -ikh 

cicely 'sisli |-hes -liz 

chronoscopy kro^naskspi; ES+-'nDS- 

Cicely 'sisli 

chrysaUd 'krislid 

Cicero 'sisa^ro |-nian jSisa 'reman 

chrysalis 'krislis |-es -iz [-Hdes kn^saelsidiz 

cicerone jSisa'roni, jtjitja'roni {It itjit/e- 

chrysanthemum kris'aenOsmam 


Chryseis krai'siis |-'s -iz 

Cid sid {Sp eit$) 

Chrysler 'kraisla^; ES 'kraisl3(r 

cider 'saida^; ES 'saidaCr 

chrysoberyl 'krisajberal, -il 

cider-mill 'saida^jinil; ES 'saida- 

chrysolite 'krisl^ait 

cider-press 'saida^jprss; ES 'saida-; |-es -iz 

chrysoprase 'krisa^prez 

cigar SI 'gar; ES si'ga:(r, E+-'ga:(r 

Chrysostom ^knsastam, kris'astam, -'ds- 

cigarette, -ret ^siga'ret, 'sigajtet 

chthonian 'Oonian |-onic 'Oanik; ES+'Gon- 

cilia pi 'silia \sg cihum 'siliam 

chub t/Ab Ichubbed 'tJ"Abid 

cihary 'sili^eri 

chubby 'tjAbi Ichubbily 'tjAbli, -di 

ciliate 'sihit, 'sih^et |-ated -iCtid 

chuck t/Ak 1 chucked tjAkt 

Cihcia sa'lija, -Jia |-n -n 

chuck-full 't/Ak'ful 

cilium 'siliam 

chuckle 'tjAkl |-d -d |-ling 'tjAkhg, -kjig 

Cimabue jt/ima'bui (7/ jtjima'bure) 

chucklehead 'tjAkl^hed 

Cimarron 'simajron, jSima'ron {Am Sp 

chud dial. 'I would' tfud 


chuff t/Af 1 chuffed t/Aft 

Cimber 'simba^; ES 'simba(r 

chug tfAg Ichugged t/Agd 

cimex 'saimsks |cimices 'simajsiz 

chukker, -kar 't/Aka^; ES 'tjAkaCr 

Cimmerian sa'nurian 

Chulmleigh 'tjAinh 

cinch sint/ |cinches 'sintjiz [cinched sintjt 

chum tfAm | chummed tjAmd j-my -i 

cinchona, C- sin'kona 

chump t/Amp |chumped tjAmpt 

Cincinnati jSinsa'naeti, -'naeta; E-|--'nat-; — 

Chungking 't/ug'kig 

-ti b' -ta seem about equally frequent loc. 

chunk t/Aijk [chunked t/Agkt 

and generally. 

church, C- tjs^tj; ES t/stj, tjytj"; |-es -iz |-ed-t 

Cincinnatus jSinsa'netas [-'s -iz 

Churchill 'tj3^tXri, -3l; ES 't/st/-, 'tjytj- 

cincture 'sigkija^; ES 'sigktJaCr; |-d -d 

churchman, C-, -men 'tjs^tjman; ES see 

cinder 'sinda^; ES 'sinda(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


'sindrig, 'sindarig 

churchwarden 'tJytJVordn, -jwardn; ES 

Cinderella jSinda'rela 

't/st/'waadn, 't/yt/'waadn, -jwoadn 

cinema 'smama 

churchyard 'tjytjjard; ES 'tjstjjaid, 'tfa-tf- 

cinematograph iSma'maetajgraef; E+-jgraf, 

Ja:d, E+-ja:d 


churl tjyl; ES tjsl, t/yl; |-ed -d 1-ish -ij 

cinematography jSinama'tagrafi, -'tog- 

churn tfa^n; ES tjsn, t/yn; |-ed -d 

cineraria, C- jSina'tEfia, -'rer- 

churr tjy; ES tjalr, tjy; |-ed -d 

cinerarium jSina'tEriam, -'rer- \pl -ria -ria 

chute Jut Ichuted Ifutid 

cinerary 'sinajteri 

chutney, -nee 't/Atni 

Cingalese jsigga'liz 

Chuzzlewit 'tjAzl^wit 

Cinna 'sina 

chyle kail [chylous ^kailss 

cinnabar 'smajbor; ES -jba:(r, E+-jba:(r 

chyme kaim |chymous 'kaimas . 

cinnamon 'sinaman [-ed -d 

Cibber 'siba-; ES 'sibaCr 

cinque sigk 

ciborium si'boriam, -^bar-; S -'bor-; |-s -z 

cinquefoil 'sigk^fail 

|-ia -13 

Cinque Ports 'sigk'ports, -'parts; ES -'poats, 

cicada si^keda, -^kada 


cicatrix 'sikatriks |-es -iz | -trices jSikaHraisiz 

CIO 'si^ai'o 

[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fs^Sa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




cion 'scton 'saian 
Cipango si'paeggo 
cipher 'saifa^; ES ^saif3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

%aifng, ^aifsrig 
cipolin 'sipslin 
circa 'syka; ES 'saka, 'ss'ka 
Circassia sa^'ksejia, -Ja; ES sa-; |-n -n 
Circe 'sysi, -si; ES 'sss-, 'sys- 
circinate 'sysn^et; ES 'sss-, 'sys- 
circle 'sykl; ES 'sskl, 'sykl; [-d -d 1-ling 

-kho, -khg 
circlet 'ss'klit; ES 'ssk-, 'syk- 
circuit 'sykit; ES 'sskit, 'sa^kit; |-ed -id 
circuitous sa^'kjuitas, -'kiu-; ES sa-; |-ty -ti 
circular 'sykjala^; ES 's3kJ3l3(r, 'sykjalaCr 
circularity jsykja'laerati; ES jssk-, jss^k- 
circularize 'sykjala^raiz; ES 'ssk-, 'syk-; 

|-s -iz |-d -d 
circulate 'sykjajet; ES 'ssk-, 'syk-; |-d -id 
circulation jsykja'leXan; ES ^ssk-, jsyk- 
circulatory 'sykjalajtori, -jtori; ES 'sskjala- 

jtori, 'syk-, E+-jt3ri 
circumambient jsykam'aembiant ; ES jssk-, 

circumambulate jsykam'aembjajlet; ES jssk-, 

iSyk-; |-d -id 
circumaviate jsykam'evijct; ES ^ssk-, ^ss^k-; 

l-d -id 
circumcise 'sykam^saiz; ES 's3k-, 'syk-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
circumcision jSykam'sisan; ES ^ssk-, ^syk- 
circumference sa^'kAmfarans, sa'kAm-; ES 

sa-; |-s -IZ — In the 2d pron. ^ has become a 

by r -dissimilation {§121) . 
circumferential sa^jkAmfa'renJal; ES sa-; 

circumflex 'sykam^fleks; ES 's3k-, 'syk-; 

|-es -IZ 1-ed -t 
circumfluent sa^'kAmfluant; ES sa- 
circumfuse ^sykam'fjuz, -'fiuz; ES jssk-, 

jsyk-; |-s -iz j-d -d 
circumjacence jsykam'dsesns; ES jssk-, 

iSyk-; |-cy -i |-cent -snt 
circumlocution ^ss^kamlo'kjujan, -'kiu-; ES 

jssk-, jsyk- 
circumlocutory jsykam'lakjajtori, -jtari; ES 

iSsk-, jsyk-, -'Ink-, E+-jt3ri 
circumnavigable jss^kam'naevagabl; ES jSsk-, 


cireumnavigate jSa'kamWvajget; ES jsak-, 

jsyk-; |-d -id |-tor -9^; ES -a(r 
circumnavigation jsykanijnaeva'ge/an; ES 

jsak-, jsyk- 
circumpolar jsykam'pola^; ES jS3kam'pola(r, 

circumscribe ,s3^kam'skraib; ES ^ssk-, ^ss^k-; 

|-d -d ('circum^scribed 'halo) 
circumscription jsykam'sknpjan; ES jSsk-, 

circumspect 'ss^kam^spEkt; ES 'ssk-, 's^k- 
circumspection jsykam'spEkJan; ES ^ssk-, 

;syk-; |-tive -tiv 
circumstance 'sykam^staens; ES 'ssk-, 'syk-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -t 
circumstantial jsykam'staen/al; ES jSsk-, 

jsyk-; |-ly -i 
circumstantiality jsykamjstaenji'jebti; ES 

jSsk-, ,syk- 
circumstantiate jsykam'staen/ijct; ES jSsk-, 

jsyk-; |-d -id 
circumvallation jS3'kamvae'leJ'3n; ES jSsk-, 

circumvent jsyksmHxnt; ES ^ssk-, jsyk-; 

|-ed -id |-vention -Ven/an 
circus, C- 'sykas; ES 'ssk-, 'syk-; |-es -iz 
Cirencester 'sairan^sEsta^, 'sisita^, 'sizita^; ES 

-ta(r — All tliese prons. {including the -■») are 

used in Cirencester and vicinity. The BBC {in 

1936) recommended 'sisitar, 'saiaran^sEstar. 
cirque syk; ES ssk, sa^k 
cirrhosis siVosis 
cirro-cumulus jSiro'kjumjabs, -'kium- |-li 

cirrose 'siros 

cirro-stratus jSiro'stretas |-ti -tai 
cirrus 'siras ] cirri 'sirai | cirrous 'siras 
cisalpine, C- sis'aelpain, -pin 
cisco, C- ^sisko 

cismontane, C- sis'manten; ES+-'niDn- 
cispadane 'sispa^den, sis'peden 
cist sist, kist = kist 
Cistercian sis'ty/an; ES -'tsj-, -'tyj- 
cistern 'sista^n; ES 'sistan 
citable 'saitabl 
citadel, C- 'sitadl, -jdel 
citation sai'te/3n 

cite salt ]cited 'saitid |citeable 'saitabl 
cithara 'siOara 

Key; See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'p'ti (§6) [rate ret |yet jst |sang saeij |angrj' 'aeg^gri 
|bath baee; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wDiJ" (§12) Ijaw dja |gorge gards |go go 




cither 'siOa^; ES 'si63(r; |-n -n 

citied 'sitid 

citify ^sitijfai |-fied -^faid 

citizen 'sitszn, -sn |-ry -ri j-ship -j/ip 

citrate 'sitret, -rit |-d -id |-ric -rik 

citriculture 'sitrijkAltXa^; ES -jkAltJaCr 

citrine 'sitnn 

Citroen 'sitrojcn 

citron 'sitran |-ade jSitran'ed 

citronella jSitr3n'£l3 

citrus, C- 'sitras | citrous 'sitras 

Citta del Vaticano It tjit'ta-deljvati'kamo 

cittern 'sita^n; ES 'sitan 

city 'siti [citied 'sitid 

city-state 'siti'stet 

Ciudad Trujillo Am Sp sju'tiatitru'hijo 

civet 'sivit j-ed -id 

civic 'sivik |-s -s |-ally -li, -ikli 

civil 'sivl, less freq. 'sivil |-ly -i 

civilian saViljan jcivility sa'vilati 

civilizable 'sivl,aiz3bl 

civilization iSivla'ze/an, -ai'z- 

civilize 'sivl,aiz j-s -iz [-d -d 

clabber 'klaeba^; ES -baCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'klaebarig, 'klaebrig 
clack klaek | clacked klaekt 
Clackamas 'klaekamas |-'s -iz 
Clackmannan klaek'maenan |-shire -;Xir, -Ja^; 

ES -;Xi3(r, -/3(r 
clad klaed 

Claiborne 'kleba^n; ES 'kleban 
Claibornian kle'bornian, -'bam-; ES -'boan-, 

claim klem [claimed klemd |-ant -ant 
Clair(e) kkr, klar; E kka(r, ES klaea(r 
clairvoyance kkr'vaians, klaer-; E kka-, ES 

kliea-; |-ant -ant 
Clallam 'klaelam 
clam klaem [clammed klsemd 
clamant 'klemant 
clambake 'klaem^bek 
clamber 'klaemba^; ES -ba(r; ]-ed -d |-ing 

'klaembarig, 'klaembrig 
clammy 'klaemi |-mily -mli, -mih 
clamor 'klaema-; ES 'klaema(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'klfemrig, 'klaemarig 
clamorous 'klaemaras, 'kl^emras 
clamp klaemp [clamped klaempt 
clamshell 'klaemj/tl 

clan klaen [clanned klaend [-nish -ij 

clandestine klaen'dEStin 

clang klag [clanged klaegd 

clangor 'klaegga^, 'klaega^; ES -a(r; |-ed -d 

|-ous -as 
clank klsegk [clanked klaegkt 
clansman 'klaenzman [-men -man 
clap klaep [clapped klaept 
clapboard 'klaeba^d, 'klaebord, 'klaep^bord, 

-3rd; ES 'klajbad, 'klaeboad, 'klaepjboad, 

E+-aad; |-ed -id 
clapper 'klaepa^; ES 'klaepa(r; |-ed -d [-ing 

'klaeparig, 'klaeprig 
clapperclaw 'klaepa^jkla; ES 'klaepa-; j-ed -d 
claptrap 'klaep jtraep 
claque klaek 

Clara 'klera, 'klaera; S 'klaera 
clarabella, C- jklaera'bela 
Clare kkr, klaer; E kka(r, ES klaBa(r 
Claremont 'kkrmant, 'klaer-; E 'kka-, ES 

'klaea-, -mont 
Claremore 'kkrmor, 'klaer-, -mar; E 

'kkamoa(r, 'klaa-, -maa(r; S 'klaeamoa(r 
Clarence 'klaerans [-'s -iz 
Clarendon, c- 'klaerandan 
claret 'klaerat, -it 
Claribel 'klaera jbel 
Clarice 'klaeris |-'s -iz 
clarification ^klaerafa'kejan 
clarify 'klaera jfai |-fied -jfaid 
Clarinda kla'rinda 
clarinet jklaera'net ('clarionet 'solo) . 
clarion, C- 'klaerian 
clarionet ^klaeria'net 
Clarissa kla'risa 
clarity 'klaerati 

Clark, -e klark; ES kla:k, E-hkla:k 
Clarksburg 'klarksbyg; ES 'kla-.ksbsg, 

'kla:ksbyg, E-i-'kla:ks- 
clary 'kkri, 'klaen; S 'klaeri 
clash klaej [clashes 'klaejiz [clashed klae/t 
clasp klaesp; E+klasp, klasp; [ed -t 
class klaes; E-i-klas, klas; |-es -iz [-ed -t 
classic 'klaesik [-al -I [-ally -li, -ikli 
classicalism 'klaesikl,izam |-ist -ist 
classicaUty jklaesa'kaelati 
classicism 'klaesa jSizam [-cist -sist 
classifiable 'klaesajfaiabl 
classification jklaesafa'kejan 

[full ful [tooth tu8 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, huz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




classify 'klaes3,fai |-fied -jfaid 

classman 'klaesman; E+'klas-, 'klas-; |-men 

classmate 'klaes^met; E+'klas-, 'klas- 
classroom 'klaes^rum, -,Tvm; E+'klas-, 'klas- 
clatter 'klaeta^; ES 'klaet3(r; [-ed -d 
Claude Lorrain 'kbdlo'ren, -b-, -Id- (Fr 

Claudia 'kbdia |-n -n ]-ius -s 1-ius's -siz 
Claudio 'kbdijO, 'kbdjo 
clause kbz |clauses ^kbziz ]-d -d |-sal -1 
claustral 'kbstral 
claustrophobia ^kbstra'fobia 
clavate 'klevet |-d -id 
clave arch, past of cleave klev 
Claverhouse 'klaevaras, 'klaeva^z, 'klaev»- 

jhaus; ES 'klaevaras, 'klaevaz, 'klaeva^haus; 

|-'s -iz, Bri4+^k\e\- 
clavichord 'klaevajkard; ES -^kaad 
clavicle 'klaevakl 

clavier 'keyboard' 'klaevia^, kbVir, 'instru- 
ment' kbVir; ES 'klaevi'3(r, kla'viaCr 
claw kb I clawed kbd 
clay, C- kle | clayed kled 
Clayhanger 'kle^haeria^; ES -jhaeoaCr 
claymore 'klemor, -mar; ES -mo3(r, E + 

Clayton 'kletn 

clean klin | cleaned klind |-ness 'klmnis 
clean-cut 'klin'kAt ('clean-^cut 'edges) 
cleanly adj 'kknli 
cleanly adv 'klinli 

cleanse kknz [cleanses 'kkiiziz |-d -d 
cleanup n 'klin^Ap 

clear kbr; ES kli3(r, S+kl£3(r; |-ed -d 
clearance 'klirans; S + 'kkr-; |-s -iz 
clear-cut 'klir'kAt; ES 'kha'kAt, S+'kka- 
clear-eyed 'khr'aid; S-h'kkr-; ('clear-^eyed 

Clearfield 'kbr.fdd; ES 'kha-, S+'klea- 
clearheaded 'klir'hedid; ES 'kba-, S-h'kka- 
clearing 'kbrig; S+'kkrig; |-house -,haus 
clear-sighted 'kbr'saitid; ES 'kba-, S-i-'kka- 
clearstarch 'kbr^startj; E 'kbajstaitj, -^sta:!/; 

S 'kbajstaitj, 'kka-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
clearstory 'kbr,ston, -jston; E 'kba-; S 

'kbajSton, 'kka- 
Clearwater 'kbr^wota', -jwata^, -jwnta^; ES 

'kb3jW3t3(r, -jwat-, -jwnt-, S+'kka- 

cleat klit (cleated 'klitid 

cleavable 'kUvabl 

cleavage 'kUvids \-s -iz 

cleave 'clitig' kliv \past b" pptc cleaved klivd 

\arch. past clave klev or clove klov 
cleave 'split' kUv \past cleft kleft or cleaved 

klivd or clove klov; arch, clave klev \pptc 

cleft kkft or cleaved klivd or cloven 

'klovan; arch, clove klov 
Cleaveland, Moses 'kbvbnd 
cleek klik |-ed -t 
clef kkf 
cleft kkft 

cleistogamus klais'tagsmss, -'tog- 
clematis, C- 'kkmatis |-es -iz 
Clemenceau jkkman'so (Frklema'so) 
Clemens 'kkmanz |-'s -iz 
clement, C- 'kkmant | clemency 'kkmsnsi 
Clementina jkkman'tina 
Clementine /e??7. name 'kkman^tin, -jtain 
Clementine 'of Clement' 'kkmantin, -jtain 
clench kkntj [clenches 'klentjiz [-ed -t 
Cleomenes kU'amSjiiiz; ES-h-'om-; [-'s -iz 
Cleon 'klian, -on 

Cleopatra jklia'petra, -'patra, -'paetra 
clepsydra 'kkpsidra \-s -z j-drae -jdri 
cleptomania ^kkpta'mema |-iac -i,aek 
clerestory 'kbr;Stori, -jstori; E 'klia-; S 

'kbajstori, 'kka- 
clergy 'kls^dsi; ES 'kbdsi, 'klydsi; |-man 

-man |-men -man 
cleric 'kkrik |-al -1 |-ally -b, -ikb 
clerk klyk; ES kbk, klyk; Brit. kla:k, klark; 

|-ed -t |-ly -b 
Clerkenwell 'klykan^wel; ES 'kbk-, 'kls-k-; 

loc. 'kla:kanwal 
Clermont 'kkrmant; ES 'kkamant, -mnnt 
Clevedon 'kUvdan 
Cleveland 'kbvland 
clever 'kkva^; ES 'kkva(r; [-er 'kkvara^, 

'kkvra^; ES -ra(r; |-est -ist, -vrist 
Cleves klivz |-'s -iz 
clevis 'kkvis |-es -iz 
clew klu, kliu j-ed -d 
chche kli'/e 
click kbk |chcked kbkt 
clickety -clack 'kbkati'klaek | -click -'kbk 
client 'klaiant |-ed -id |-age -ids 
cHentele ^klaian'tel 

Key: See in full §§3-^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet ]zt |sang saeg |angr>^ 'aeo'gri 
Ibath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watf, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 




cliff klif Icliffed klift 

clootie ^kluti, Sc 'klyti 

Clifford 'khfa^d; ES Mifad 

Cloquet klo'ke 

Clifton 'khftan |-ia khf'tonia 

close adj klos; NEngd+hY6s {§46) 

climacteric klai'maektsrik, jklaimsek'terik 

close n 'end' kloz |-s -iz 

climacterical jklaimaek^terikl |-ly -i 

close n 'enclosed place' klos |-s -iz 

climactic klai'maektik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

close V kloz 1 closes 'kloziz [closed klozd 

climate 'klaimit |-d -id |-tal -itl, -all 

closefisted 'klos'fistid ('close-fisted 'miser] 

climatology jklaima'tabdsi; ES+-'tDl- 

close-fitting 'klos'fitig 

climature 'klaimajt/ur; ES -^tJuaCr 

close-grained 'klos 'gr end 

climax ^klaimaeks |-es -iz |-ed -t 

close-hauled 'klos 'hold 

climb klaim jclimbed klaimd j-er -a^; ES -3(r 

close-lipped 'klos'hpt ('close-clipped 'smile) 

clime klaim 

close-mouthed 'klos'mau'Sd, -'mauGt 

clinch, C- klintj" |-es -iz j-ed -t 

closet 'klazit, 'klnzit |-ed -id 

Clinedinst 'klaindmst 

close-up 'klosjAp 

cling khg | clung kUg | -stone -jston 

closure 'klosa^; ES 'klo33(r; |-d -d 

clinic 'klinik |-al -1 -ally -li, -ikli 

clot klat; ES-i-klnt; |-ted -id 

clinician kli'ni/an 

Cloten 'klotn 

clink kligk |clinked kliijkt |-er -»; ES -3(r 

cloth kbe, kloG |-ths 'pieces of cloth' -Sz, 

clinker-built 'khgka-jbilt; ES 'kligka- 

'kinds of cloth' -9s |-'s -0s 

clinkety-clink ^kligkati'kligk 

clothe V kloiJ |clothes kloSz |clothed kloSd — 

clinometer klai'namata^, kli-; ES -'namataCr, 

Note that the 3 sg pres is not kloz, the usual 


pron. of the noun clothes, which occurs far 

cHnometric ^klaina'metrik |-al -1 


Clinton 'klintan 

clothes n kloz, klotSz — kloz has been the culti- 

Clio 'klaio 

vated colloq. pron. for 200 yrs. Dr. Johnson 

clip klip 1 clipped khpt |-per -a^; ES -3(r 

says "always clo's," Sheridan {1780) &r 

clique klik, klik 

Walker {1791) give only kloz. Oxf. Diet. 

Clitheroe 'klitJa^ro 

calls it "vulgar or careless." Fowler {Mod. 

clitoris 'klaitaris, 'klitaris |-es -iz 

Eng. Usage) denies this and says kloz is the 

Clitus 'klaitas |-'s -iz 

usual pron. [in Engd]. Webster Jias cor- 

Clive klaiv 

rectly labeled kloz 'Colloq.' for some 70 yrs. 

Cliveden 'klivdan 

Tfie L. A. shoivs an overwhelming majority 

cloaca klo'eka |-s -z |-acae -'esi 

for kloz. Tlie verb clothes klotiz keeps its ?i 

cloak klok |cloaked klokt; [NEngd+kVSk 

from clothe klot$ b' clothed klotid. The 

cloakroom 'klok^rum, -/rum 

noun has no sg klotS. 

cloche klo/ jcloches 'klojiz (Fr klbj") 

clothesbasket 'kloz^baeskit, 'klotJz-; E+ 

clock klak; ES-i-klok; |-ed -t 

-jbas-, -jbas- 

clockwise Makjwaiz; ES-t-'klok- 

clothesbrush 'kloz^biAj, 'kloSz- |-es -iz 

clockwork 'kiak^wyk; ES 'klakjwsk, -jwyk, 

clotheshorse 'kloz^hars, 'klotiz-; ES -^haas; 


|-S -IZ 

clod klad; ES+klod; |-ded -id 

clothesline 'klozjlam, 'klotJz- 

clodhopper 'klad^hapa'; ES 'kladjhap3(r. 

clothespin 'klozjpin, 'kloSz- 


clothespress 'klozjpres, 'kloSz- \-es -iz 

clodpate %lad^pet; ES-^'klnd-; |-d -id 

clothes-wringer 'kloz^riga', 'kloSz-; ES -jrig3(r 

clodpoll, -pole Madjpol; ES+ Mod- 

clothier 'klotSja-, -tJia^; ES 'kloSjaCr, -i-3(r 

clog klag, king, kbg [ged -d 

clothing 'klo^ig 

cloisonne ^kbiza'ne {Fr klwaza'ne) 

Clotho 'kloeo 

cloister 'kbista^; ES -st3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

cloths 'pieces of cloth' klacJz, klntiz; 'kinds of 

Maistarig, ^kbistrig |-tral -tral 

cloth' kbes, kloes 

|full ful |tooth tue Ifurther 'fySa'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fauz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced uith n in E and S 

cloture 'klotja^, -tjur; ES 'klot/aCr, -tJuaCr; 

Cnossus 'nasas |-sus' -sas 


Cnut ka'nut, -'niut, -'njut= Canute 

cloud klaud |clouded ^klaudid 

coach kotj |coaches 'kotjiz [coached kotjt 

cloudburst 'klaud^byst; ES -^bsst, -jbyst 

coach-and-four 'kotjan'for, -'far; ES -'foa(r, 

cloud-capped 'klaud^kaept 


cloudland 'klaud jlsend 

Coachella jkoa't/ela 

cloudlet 'klaudbt 

coachman 'kotjman |-men -man 

clough kUf, klau 

coact ko'aekt |-ed -id |-ction -kj"an j-ive -iv 

Clough kUf , Irel klox 

coadjutor ko'aedsata^, ^koa'dsuta^; ES -ta(r 

clout klaut Iclouted 'klautid 

coagulate ko'aegja Jet j-d -id |-lant -lant 

clove 'spice' klov jcloved klovd 

coagulation kojaegja'leXan, jkoaegja- 

clove past of cleave klov 

Coahoma jkoa'homa 

Clovelly klo'vEli 

Coahuila jkoa'wila 

cloven 'klovan 

coal kol 1 coaled kold 

cloven-footed Movan'futid ('cloven-jfooted 

coalesce jkoa'les 1-s -iz 1-d -t 


coalescence jkoa'lEsns 1-cy -i j-cent -snt 

cloven-hoofed 'klovan'huft, -'huft 

Coalinga jkoa'hrjga 

clover 'klova^; ES 'klov3(r; |-ed -d 

coalition ikoa'lijan ('coajUtion 'party) 

clover-leaf adj 'klova^jlif ; ES 'klova- 

coalless 'kollis 

Clovis 'klovis |-'s -iz 

coaming 'konug 

clown klaun 1-ed -d |-age -ids 1-ery -an 

coarse kors, kars; ES koas, E+kaas 

cloy kbi 1-ed -d |-edness -idnis 

coarse-grained 'kors'grend, 'kars-; ES 'koas-. 

club kUb 1 clubbed kUbd 


clubbable, clubable 'kUbabl 

coarsen 'korsn, 'karsn; ES 'koasn, E+'kaasn; 

clubfoot 'kUb'fut, -,fut 

1-ed -d 1-ing -snirj, -snig 

clubfooted 'kUb'futid ('clubifooted 'sophisms) 

coast kost Icoasted 'kostid j-al -1 [-ally -li 

clubland 'kUbjlaend 

coastward 'kostwa^d; ES 'kostwad 

clubman 'kUbman, -jmaen |-men -man, 

coastways 'kost^wez 1-wise -jwaiz 


coat kot Icoated 'kotid; \NEngd+\:6i (§46) 

clubwoman 'kUb^wuman, -,wum- |-men 

coati ko'ati 

-jwinun, -an 

coattail 'kot,tel |-ed -d 

cluck kUk 1 clucked kUkt 

coauthor ko'aOa^; ES -'a0a(r; [-ship -//ip 

clue klu, kliu j-d -d 

coax koks | coaxes 'koksiz | coaxed kokst; 

clumber 'kUmba-; ES 'kUmbaCr 

INEngd+k'Sks (§46) 

clump kUmp | clumped kUmpt 

coaxal ko'aeksl 1-xial -ksial 1-xially -ksiali 

clumsy 'kUmzi |-sily -zali, -zili 

cob kab |-bed -d 

clung klAo 

cobalt, C- 'kobalt 

Cluniac 'klunijaek, 'khuni- 

Cobbett 'kabit 

Cluny 'kluni, 'kliuni {Fr kly'ni) 

cobble 'kabl j-d -d |-ling 'kablig, -blig 

cluster 'kksta-; ES -ta(r; j-ed -d |-ing 

cobbler 'kabla^; ES 'kabla(r; |-y -i 

'klAstriQ, 'kUstang 

cobblestone 'kabljston 

clutch kUtJ 1 clutches 'kUtJiz j-ed -t 

Cobden 'kabdan 

clutter 'klAta^; ES 'klAta(r; j-ed -d 

Cobh kov 

Clutton-Brock 'kktn'brak 

Cobham 'kabam, 'kabm 

Clyde klaid |-bank -^baegk |-sdale -Zjdel 

Coblenz 'koblents l-'s -iz 

Clymer 'klaima^; ES 'klaima(r 

Cobleskill 'kobjz,kil, 'kobl.skil 

Clytemnestra, -taem- jklaitam'nestra 

Cobourg Can 'kobyg; ES 'kobsg, -byg 

Cnidus 'naidas |-'s -iz 

cobra 'kobra 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) Irate ret lyet J£t jsang saeg |angr\- 'seg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baO (§10) lah a Ifar far |watch watj", wntj (§12) jjaw dsa |gorge gards jgo go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

Coburg Germany 'kobyg; ES -bag, -byg; {Ger 

cocksure 'kak'Jur; ES -lfua(r; ('cock-sure 

K- 'ko:burk) 


Coburn 'kobs'n; ES 'koban; c/Cockbum 

cockswain 'kaks^i, 'kak jS wen 

cobweb 'kabjweb |-webbery -iWebari, -bri 

cocktail 'kak^tel j-ed -d 

coca 'koka 

coco 'koko 

cocaine, -ain ko^ken, 'koken |-ism -'kenizam 

cocoa 'koko, 'koka 

coccus 'kakas ] cocci 'koksai 

coconut, cocoa- 'kokanat, 'koka^nAt 

coccygeal kak^sidsial 

cocoon ka'kun, ku'kun 

coccyx 'kaksiks |-es -iz |coccyges kak'saidsiz 

Cocos 'kokas 

Cochin, c- 'kot/m, 'kat/in 

cocotte ko'kat, ka- {Fr ka'kat) 

Cochin China 'kotjin't/aina, 'katj- 

cocytus, C- ko'saitas j-'s -iz 

cochineal jkatja'nil ('cochijneal 'dye) 

cod, C- kad [codded 'kadid 

cochlea 'kaklia | cochleae 'kakhji 

C.O.D. 'si.o'di 

cochlear 'kaklia-; ES 'kakli'3(r 

coda 'koda 

Cochran, -e 'kakran 

Coddington 'kadigtan 

cock kak | cocked kakt 

coddle 'kadi |-d -d |-ling 'kadbg, 'kadlig 

cockade kak'ed |-aded -'edid 

code kod [coded 'kodid 

cock-a-doodle jkaka'dudl |-d -d 

codefendant jkodi'fendant 

cock-a-doodle-doo 'kakajdudl'du 

codeine 'kodijin, 'kodin |-dein -dun 

cock-a-hoop jkaka'hup, -'hup 

codex 'kodsks |-es -iz |codices 'koda^siz. 

Cockaigne ka'ken 

'kad Tlw o in codices is by analogy with 

cockalorum jkaka'loram, -'bram; S -'loram 

the singidar. The lo7ig o of Latin becomes 

cock-and-bull story 'kakan'buljStori, 'kakg-, 

short in English, as in orator, prominent. 

-jStari; S -jStori 

solitude, nominal, etc. 

cockatoo jkaka'tu ('cockaitoo 'orchis) 

codfish 'kadjfij j-'s -iz 

cockatrice 'kakatris |-s -iz 

codger 'kadsa^; ES 'kadsaCr 

cockboat 'kak^bot 

codices 'koda,siz, 'kad- • — see codex 

Cockburn 'koba^n; ES 'koban; cf Coburn 

codicil 'kadasi, -jsil 

cockchafer 'kak^tjefa^; ES -jt/efaCr 

codify 'kadajfai, 'kod- |-fied -jfaid 

cockcrow 'kakjkro 

codling 'kadkg 

cocker 'kaka^; ES 'kaka(r; j-ed -d |-ing 

codpiece 'kad^pis [-pieces -jpisiz 

'kakarig, 'kakrig 

Cody 'kodi 

cockerel 'kakaral, 'kakral 

coed, co-ed 'ko'ed, 'koitd ('co^ed 'college) 

Cockermouth 'kaka^maG, -jinauG; ES 'kaka- 

coeducation jkoedsa'ke/an |-al -1 [-ally -k 

cockeye 'kak^ai |-d -d 

coefiicient jkoa'fijant, ^kci- 

cockfight 'kakjfait 

coeliac 'sikjtek 

cockhorse 'kak 'bars; ES -'baas; |-s -iz (a 

coempt ko'Empt |-ed -id j-ption -p/an 

'cockjhorse 'air) 

coenobite 'sEnajbait, 'sin- 

cockle 'kakl |-d -d |-ling 'kakkg, 'kaklig 

coequal ko'ikwal j-ed -d |-ly -i 

cocklebur 'kakl^by; ES -ib3(r, -jbs^ 

coequality jko-i'kwalati, 'kwnl- 

cockleshell 'kaklj/tl 

coerce ko'ys; ES -'as, -'ys; |-s -iz |-d -t 

cockloft 'kak^bft, -\nii 

coercion ko'3j"an; ES -'a/an, -'sj'an |-cive 

cockney, C- 'kakni |-ism -jizam 


cockpit 'kakjpit 

coetemal jkci'ts^nl; ES -'tanl, -'tynl; j-ly -i 

cockroach 'kak^rotj" j-es -iz 

Coeur de Lion jkyda'lian, -'Uan; ES jks-, 

cockscomb 'kaksjkom |-ed -d |-ry -n 


cockshot 'kakjat 

coeval ko'ivl |-ly -i |-ity jko«i'vaebti 

cockshut 'kakjAt 

coexecutor ^ko-ig'zekjata'; ES -'z£kjata(r 

Ifull ful Itooth tue [further 'fytS*; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwari [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish AiS [vision 'vigan [Eden 'id^ [cradle 'kred) [keep 'em 'kipip 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

coexist jko-ig^zist |-ed -id j-ence -ans |-ent 

coinsure ^kcin'/ur; ES -Jfuacr; |-d -d 


coir kair; ES kaia(r 

coextend ^ko'ik'stend |-ed -id |-tensive -nsiv 

coistrel, -il ^kaistral 

coffee, C- 'kafi, 'kofi, rmich less Jreq. 'kafi 

coition ko'i/an 

1 -house -jhaus |-pot -ipat — In coffee 3 

coitus 'ko-itas 

clearly prevails in all regions of US. 

coke kok | coked kokt 

coffer 'kafa^, 'kofa^; ES -f3(r; |-dam -jdaem 

Coke kuk, kok 

Coffey ville %3fi,vd, 'kofi-; S+-vl 

colander 'kAlanda^, 'kal-; ES -da(r 

cofi&n, C- 'kafin, 'kofm |-ed -d 

Colbert A7n name 'kolba^t, 'kal-, 'kol-; ES 

Coffman 'kafman, 'kof-, 'kaf- 

-bat; Fr name kal'berr 

cog kag, kog, lessfreq. kog |-ged -d 

Colby 'kolbi 

cogence 'kodsans l-cy -i j-gent -dsant 

Colchester 'koljtjESta^ ; 'koltXista-; ES -ta(r 

cogitable 'kadsitabl 

colchicum, C- 'kalt/ikam 

cogitate 'kadsa^tet |-d -id |-tive -iv 

Colchis 'kalkis |-'s -iz 

cogitation jkadsa'te/an 

cold kold Icolded %oldid 

cognac 'konjaek, 'kan- {Fr ka'jiak) 

cold-blooded 'kold'hUdid, -jbkdid ('cold- 

cognate 'kagnet 

-blooded 'mahce) 

cognition kag'mXan | cognitive 'kagnativ 

cold-hearted 'kold'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, E+ 

cognizable 'kagnazabl |-bly -bli 


cognizance 'kagnazans, 'kan- \-s -iz |-nt -nt 

cold-shoulder v 'kold'/olda'; ES -'/olda(r; 

cognomen kag'noman j-s -z |-nomina 

|-ed -d 1-ing -Ifoldario. -Ifoldrig 


coldslaw 'kol/sla, 'kold- 

cogwheel 'kagjhwil, 'kng-, lessfreq. 'kag- 

Coldstream 'kold^strim 

cohabit ko'haebit |-ed -id 

cole kol 

cohabitation jkohaeba'tejan 

Coleman 'kolman 

Cohasset ko'haesit 

coleopterous jkoli'aptaras, jkak- 

coheir ko'er, -'aer; E -'£a(r, ES -'aea(r; |-ess -is 

Coleridge 'kolridg, not infreq. 'kolarids |-'s -iz 

1 -esses -isiz 

coleslaw 'kolisla 

cohere ko'hir; ES ko'hia(r, S+-'hea(r 

Colet 'kaht 

coherence ko'hirans; S + -'h£r-; |-ent -ant 

coleus, C- 'kohas |-es -iz 

coherer ko'hira^; ES -'hira(r, S+-'hera(r 

Coleville 'kolvil 

cohesion ko'hisan |-hesive -'hisiv 

colewort 'koljwyt; ES -^wst, -^wyt 

Cohoes ko'hoz |-'s -iz 

Colfax 'kolfieks |-'s -iz 

cohort 'kohart; ES 'kohaat 

colic 'kahk [cohcky 'kaliki 

cohortative ko'hartativ; ES -%aat- 

Colin 'kalin 

coif kaif 1 coifed kaift 

Coliseum jkala'siam 

coiffeur kwafer; ES -'f3(r, -'fy; {Fr kwa- 

colitis koHaitis 


collaborate ka'laebaifet j-d -id [-tor -»; ES 

coiffure kwa'fjur, -'fiur; ES -'£jua(r, -'fiua(r; 

-a(r; j-tive -iv 

(Fr kwa'fy:r) 

collaboration ka^laeba 're/an 

coign, -e kam 

collage ka'las, ko- 1-gist -ist. {Fr ka'lars) 

coil kail 1 coiled kaild 

collapse ka'laeps |-s -iz j-d -t |-sible -abl 

coin kam |-ed -d |-age -ids |-ages -idsiz 

collapsibility kajlaepsa'bilati 

coincide jko-in'said |-cided -'saidid 

collar 'kala^; ES 'kala(r; |-ed -d 

coincidence ko'msadans \-s -iz |-cy -i |-nt -nt 

collarbone 'kala^'bon, -jbon; ES 'kala- 

coincidental kojinsa'dcntl, jkcm- |-ly -i 

collaret, -tte jkala'ret 

coincidently ko'msadantli 

collate ka'let, ka-, 'kalet |-d -id 

coinsurance jko-in'/urans |-s -iz 

collateral ka'laetaral |-ly -i 

Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jst |sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

collation ka'lejan, ka- 

colonnade ^kab'ned |-naded -'nedid 

colleague n 'kalig 

colony 'kabni 

colleague v ka'lig, ka- |-leagued -'ligd 

colophon 'kabjfan, -fan 

collect n 'kalekt 

color 'kAla^; ES 'kAb(r; j-ed -d 

collect V ka'kkt |-ed -id 

colorable 'kAbrabl |-bly -bh 

collectanea jkalek 'tenia 

Colorado ^kab'raedo, -'rado |-dan -dan — Ob- 

collectibility, -ability kajektd'bilstl 

servers disagree as to whether jkab'raedo or 

collectible, -able ka'lektabl 

-'rado prevails in the state. Tliere is little 

collection ka'kkjan 

doubt that in the US as a whole jkab'raedo 

collective ka'Iektiv |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 


collectivistic kaJektaVistik j-ally -li, -ikh 

coloration jkAb 're/an 

collector ka'lekta^; ES -'Isktacr; |-ship -Jip 

coloratura jkAbra'tjura, ikal-, -'tiura, -'tura 

colleen 'kalin, ka'lin 

colorature 'kAbraitJur, 'kal-; ES -jtfua(r 

college 'kalids j-s -iz 

color-bearer 'kAla^jbera', -^baera^; E 'kAb- 

college-bred 'kalids'bred ( 'college- jbred 'man) 

ibera(r, ES -jbaera(r 

collegian ka'lidsan, -dsian |-giate -dsiit, -dsit 

color-blind 'kAb^bbind; ES 'kAb- 

collet 'kaht |-ed -id 

colorful 'kAWal; ES 'kAb-; |-ly -i 

Colleton 'kabtn 

colorimeter jkAb'rimata^; ES -'rimata{r 

collide ka'laid |-lided -'laidid 

colossal ka'lasl |-ly -i 

collie 'kah 

Colosseum jkab'sbm 

collied 'kalid 

Colossian ka 'la/an |-s -z 

collier 'kalja^; ES 'kalJ3(r; j-y -i 

colossus ka'lasas |-es -iz |-ssi -sai j-sus' -sas 

collimiate 'kalajmet j-d -id j-tion jkab'mejsn 

colporteur, -ter 'kal^porta', -iparta^; ES 

CoUingwood 'kalig^wud 

-ipoata(r, E+-jpaata(r; {Fr kalpar'toe:r) 

Collins 'kalinz |-'s -iz 

Colquhoun ka'hun 

Collin wood 'kalin^wud 

colt, C- kolt Icolted 'koltid; \NEngd+\:i\t 

collision ka'hsan j-al -1 


collocate 'kalojket |-d -id |-tion ^kalo'ke/an 

colter 'kolta^; ES 'kolta(r; |-ed -d 

collodion ka'lodisn 

Colton 'koltn 

colloid 'kabid |-al ka'bidl 

Colum 'kabm 

collop 'kabp IcoUoped 'kabpt 

Columb 'kabm 

colloquial ka'lokwial |-ly -i j-ism -^izam 

Columba ka'lAmba 

colloquiality kajlokwi'aebti 

Columbia ka'Umbia, -bja |-n -n 

colloquy 'kabkwi 

columbine, C- 'kabm^bain 

coUude ks'lud, -'liud |-d -id 

columbium ka'lAmbiam 

collusion ka'lusan, -'liusan |-sive -siv 

Columbus ka'bmbas |-'s -iz 

Colman 'kolman 

column 'kabm, humorous 'kaljam |-ed -d 

Cologne, c- ka'lon {Ger Koln, C- koeln) 

columnar ka'lAinna^; ES -'lAnma(r 

Colombia ka'bmbia {Sp ko'bmbja) j-n -n 

columniation 'columning' kajAmni'eJan 

Colombo ka'lAmbo, ks'lambo 

columnist 'kabmist, 'kabmnist 

Colon ko'lan, -'Ion {Am Sp ko'lon) 

Colusa ka'lusa, ka'husa 

colon 'kobn 

Colvin 'kolvin, 'kal- 

colon coin ko'lon |-s -z |-es -es 

coma 'stupor' 'koma 1-s -z 

colonel 'kynl; ES 'ksnl, 'kynl; 1-ed -d j-cy -si 

coma 'comet's head' 'koma [-ae -i 

colonial ka'lonial |-ism -^izam 

Comanche kc'raaent/i |-chean -tjian 

colonist 'kabnist 

comatose 'kamajtos, 'koma- 

colonization jkabna'zeXan, -ai'z- j-ist -ist 

comb kom | combed komd; \NEngd+ii6v\ 

colonize 'kab^naiz |-s -iz j-d -d 


|full ful Itooth tu6 Ifurther 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig jfuse fjuz, fiuz ]dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

comb 'valley' kum 

commandment ka'msendmant, -'maenmant; 

combat n 'kambaet, 'kAm- 

E+-an-, -an- 

combat v 'kambaet, 'kAm-, kam'beet |-tec 


commemorate ka'memajret |-rated -jretid 

combatant 'kambatant, 'kAm- 

commemoration kajmema'rejan 

combative kam'baetiv, 'kambativ, 'kAm- 

commence ka'mens |-s -iz |-d -t |-ment -mant 

combe kum 

commend ka'mend |-ed -id 

comber 'koma^; ES 'komaCr 

commendable ka'mendabl |-bly -bli 

combination jkaraba'nejan 

commendation jkaman'de/an, jkamen- 

combinative 'kamba^netiv, kam'bamativ 

commendatory ka'mendajton, -jtari; S -jtori 

combine n 'kambain, kam'bam 

commensurability kajmEnJara'bdati, -^men- 

combine v kam'bain |-bined -'baind [-dly ■ 



combings 'komigz 

commensurable ka'men/arabl, -'mensara- 

combust kam'bAst |-ed -id 

I-bly ^bh 

combustibility kamjbAsta'bibti 

commensurate adj ka'mtnjarit, -'mensa- 

combustible kam'bAstabl j-bly -bh 

commensurate v ka'mEnJajret, -'mensa- j-d 

combustion kam'bAstJan 


come n malting kom, kum 

commensuration kajmEnJa'reJan, -^mensa- 

come V kAm |came kem jcome kAm — i?t 


comment n 'kament 

stressed position often kam (kam'in!) 

comment v 'kament, lessfreq. ka'ment j-ed -id 

come-and-go 'kAman'go 

commentary 'kaman^tEri 

comedian ka'midian 

commentator 'kaman^teta^; ES -,teta(r 

comedienne ka^midi'sn {Fr kame'dJEn) 

commerce n 'kama^s, -mys; ES 'kamas, 

comedy 'kamadi 

-mss, -mys 

comely 'kAmli 

commerce v ka'mys; ES -'mss, -'mys; |-s -iz 

comestible ka'mestabl 


comet 'kamit 

commercial ka'my/al; ES -'ms/-, -'msj"-; 

comfit 'kAmfit, 'kam- 

|-ly -I |-ism -jizam 

comfort 'kAmfa^t; ES -fat; |-ed -id 

commercialization kajmy/ala'zejan, -ai'z-; 

comfortable 'kAmfa^tabl; ES 'kAmfatabI 

ES -jms/-, -jmsj- 

comforter 'kAmfa^ta^, 'kAmfata^; ES -fata( 

r; — 

commercialize ka'myfal,aiz; ES -'ms/-, 

'kAmfata' shows r-dissimilation {§121). 

-'my/-; 1-s -iz |-d -d 

comfry 'kAmfri 

comminate 'kamajuet [-nated -^netid 

comic 'kamik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

commination ,kama'nejan 

Cominius ka'mmias, -njas j-'s -iz 

commingle ka'miggl |-d -d 

Comintern jkamm'tyn, 'kamin^tyn; ES 


comminute 'kama^njut, -^niut, -^nut |-d -id 


comminution jkama'njujan, -'niu-, -'nu- 

comitatus jkami'tetas 

commiserable ka'mizarabl 

comity 'kamati 

commiserate ka'mizajtet ] -rated -jetid 

comma 'kama |-ed -d 

commiseration ka^miza 're/an 

command ka'maend; ES-i--'mand, -'mand; 

commiserative ka'miza^retiv 

l-ed -id 

commissar jkama'sar; ES -'sa:(r, E-i--'sa:(r 

conomandant jkaman'daent, -'dant 

commissariat /kama'sEriat, -'saer-, -'ser- 

commandeer jkaman'dir; ES -'dia(r. 


commissarj^ 'kama, sen 

-'deaCr; |-ed -d 

commission ka'mijan |-ed -d 

commander jka'maenda^; ES -da(r. 

E + 

commissionaire kajmijan'sr, -'aer; E -'sad. 

-'mand-, -'mand- 

ES -'aea(r 

commander in chief ka'maendarin'tjif; 


commissioner ka'mi/ana', -'mi/na^; ES -na(r 

-'mand-, -'mand- 

commit ka'mit |-ted -id |-tal -\ 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet I sang saeg |angr}' 'asg-gn 
Ibath baed; E baO (§10) [ah a |far far |watch wat/, wo^f (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 




Those ivords below in whicli the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

committee ka'miti |-d -d [-man -man, -^maen 

|-men -man, -^men 
commix ka'miks, ka- j-es -iz |-ed -t 
commixture ka'nukstJV, ka-; ES -'nukstJaCr 
commode ka'mod 
commodious kaWodiss 
commodity kaWadati 
commodore 'kamajdor, -jdar; ES -jdoa(r, E+ 

common 'kaman |-ed -d |-ness 'kamannis 
commonage 'kamanids j-s -iz 
commonality ,kaman^aelati 
commonalty 'kamanalti 
commonplace 'kaman^ples j-s -iz 
common-sense adj 'kaman 'ssns ('common- 

'sense jway) 
commonweal 'kaman^wil 
commonwealth 'kaman^welO, 'kaman'wslO 
commotion ka 'mo/an 
communal 'kamjunj, kaWjunl, -'mm- j-ism 

-jizam |-ist -ist |-ly -i 
commune n 'kamjun, -miun 
commune v ka'mjun, -'miun |-d -d 
communicability kajmjunika'bilati, -^miun- 
communicable ka'mjunikabi, -'nuun- |-bly 

communicant ka'mjunikant, -'miun- 
communicate ka'mjuna^ket, -'miun- j-d -id 
communication kajmjuna'ke/an, -^miun- 
communicative ka'mjunajketiv, -'miun- 
communion ka'mjunjan, -'miun- 
communique kajmjuna'ke, -jmmn- 
communism 'kamju^nizam |-ist -nist 
communistic jkamju'nistik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

community ka'mjunati, -'miun- 
communize 'kamju^naiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
commutable ka'mjutabi, -'miut- 
commutate 'kamju^tet j-d -id |-ter -3^; ES -a(r 
commutation jkamju'te/an 
commute ka'mjut, -'miut |-d -id |-r -a^; ES 

Como 'komo 

compact adj kam'paekt ('com^pact 'mass) 
compact n 'kampaekt 
compact V kam'paekt |-ed -id 
companion kam'paenjan |-ed -d |-ship -i/ip 
companionable kam'paenjanabl |bly -bli 

companionate adj kam'paenjanit 

companionway kam'paenjanjwe 

company 'kAmpani, 'kAmpni |-nied -nid 

comparability ^kampara'bilati 

comparable 'kamparabl, -prabl |-bly -bh 

comparative kam'paerativ 

compare kam'per, -'paer; E -'pEa(r, ES 

Coniparetti ^kampa'reti {It jkompa'retti) 
comparison kam'paerasn 
compartment kam'partmant; ES -'pa:t-, E+ 

compass 'kAmpas |-es -iz |-ed -t 
compassion kam'p«J"an j-ed -d |-ate -it 
compatibility kam,paeta'bilati 
compatible kam'paetabl |-bly -bli 
compatriot kam'petnat, less freq. -'paet- 
compeer kam'pir, 'kampir; ES -ia(r, S4--ea(r 
compel kam'pel [-led -d 
compellable kam'pelabl |-bly -bli 
compend 'kampend |-ious kam'pendias 
compendium kam'pendiam \-s -z |-dia -dia 
compensable kam'pensabj 
compensate 'kampan^set, -pen-, kam'penset 

l-d -id 
compensation jkampan'sejan, -pen- 
compensative 'kampanjsetiv, kam'pensativ 
compensatory kam'pensajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
compete kam'pit |-peted -'pitid 
competence 'kampatans |-s -iz j-cy -i j-nt -nt 
competition jkampa'tijan 
competitive kam'petativ |-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 
compilation jkampl'e/an, -pi'le/an 
compile kam'pail | -piled -'paild 
complacence kam'plesns j-cy -i |-cent -snt 
complain kam'plen |-ed -d |-ant -ant |-t -t 
complaisance kam'plezns, 'kamplijzaens |-sant 

-znt, -jzaent 
complement n 'kamplamant 
complement v 'kampla^ment |-ed -id 
complemental jkampla'mentl |-ly -i 
complementary jkampla'mEntari, -'mentri 
complete kam'plit |-d -id |-tion -'pli/an 
complex n 'kampleks \-es -iz 
complex adj kam'pkks, 'kampleks ('comiplex 

complex V kam'pleks |-es -iz j-ed -t 
complexion, -plection kara'plek/an 1-ed -d 

|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fySa^; ES 'fstia [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

complexity kara'pleksati 

compliance kam'plaians |-cy -i 1-ant -ant 

complicate adj 'kamplakit 

complicate v 'kampla^ket j-cated -^ketid 

complication jkampb'kejan 

compKce 'kamplis j-s -iz 

complicity ksm'plissti 

compliment n 'kamplamant 

compliment 'kamplajment |-ed -id 

complimentary jkamplaWentari, -'mentn 

complin 'kampbn j-pline -plin, -plain 

comply kam'plai |-plied -'plaid 

component kam'ponant j-ed -id 

comport kam'port, -'part; ES -'poat, E+ 

-'p33t; |-ed -id 
compose kam'poz |-s -iz |-d -d j-dly -idli 
composite kam'pazit |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 
compos mentis 'kampas'mentis 
compost 'kampost |-ed -id, -psstid 
composure kam'posa^; ES -'po33(r 
compote 'kampot [-poted -potid 
compound n 'kampaund 
compound adj kam'paund ('comjpound 

compound v kam'paund, kam- |-ed -id 
comprehend ,kampri'hend |-ed -id |-ible -abl 
comprehensibility jkampri ^hensa 'bilati 
comprehensible jkampri'hEnsabl j-bly -bli 
comprehension jkampri'henj'an j-sive -siv 
compress n 'kampres |-es -iz 
compress v kam'pr£s |-es -iz j-ed -t |-edly 

-idb, -'presth 
compressibility kanijpresa'bilati 
compressible kam'presabl |-bly -bli 
compression kara'prejan |-sive -'presiv j-sor 

-'presa^; ES -a(r 
comprise, -ze kam'praiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
compromise 'kampra,niaiz j-s -iz |-d -d 
comptometer, C-kamp'tamata*^; ES -'tamata(r 
Compton 'kamptan, 'kAmptan 
comptroller kan'trola^; ES -la(r; j-ship -yjip 
compulsion kam'pAlJan |-sive -siv |-sory -sari 
compunction kain'pAokJ"an |-tious -/as 
compurgation ^kampy'ge/an, -pa^-; ES -p3-, 

-py-, -pa- 
computablHty kam;pjuta'bilati, -jpiut- 
computable kam'pjutabl, -'piut-, 'kampjuta- 

l-bly -bli 

computation jkampja'te/an, -pjc- 

compute kam'pjut, -'piut |-d -id 

comrade 'kamraed, 'kAm-, -nd 

Comstock 'kAmstak, -stok, -stak 

Comte kant {Fr kot) 

Comus 'komas |-'s -iz 

con 'against^ kan 

con 'study kan | conned kand 

con amore jkana'mon, -'man; S -'mon; {It 

Conan 'kanan, 'konan 
Conant 'konant 

conation ko'ttejan |-al -1 [-tive 'kanativ 
concatenate kan'k£etn,et, kan- |-d -id 
concatenation jkankaetn'e/an, kan^kaetn- 
concave n 'kankev, 'kag- 
concave adj kan'kev, kan- ('coujcave 'surface) 
concave v kan'kev, kan- |-d -d | -cavity 

concavo-concave kan'kevokan'kev 
concavo-convex kan'kevokan'vEks 
conceal kan'sil |-ed -d |-edly -idb 
concede kan'sid |-ceded -'sidid 
conceit kan'sit |-ed -id 
conceivability kanjsiva'bilati 
conceivable kan'sivabl |-bly -bli 
conceive kan'siv |-ceived -'sivd 
concentrate 'kansrijtret, -sen- |-d -id 
concentration jkansn'trejan, -ssn- 
concentric kan'sentrik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
Concepcion kanjsepsi'on {Am Sp kon- 

concept 'kansept |-ption, C- kan'sepjan 
conceptual kan'sept/ual, -tjul |-ly -i 
concern kan'ss'n; ES -'san, -'syn; |-ed -d 

|-edly -idb 
concert n 'kansyt, -sa't; ES -sst, -ss't, -sat 
concert v kan'syt; ES -'sst, -'syt; |-ed -id 
concertina jkansa^'tina; ES ^konsa- 
concertmaster 'kansa^t^maesta^; ES 'kansat- 

]maesta(r, E + -jmas-, -^mas- 
concertmeister 'kansa^t^maista^; ES 'kansat- 

^maista(r; {Ger Konzert- kan'tsertiinaistar) 
concerto kan't/Erto; ES -'t/eato; {It kon- 

concession kan'sejan 
concessionaire kanjse/an'er, -'aer; E -'£a(r, 

ES -'aea(r 

Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet Isang saeg langrj^ 'aeg-gri 
ibath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

concessionary kan'ss/aiijEn 

concessive kan'sesiv 

conch kagk, kngk |-ed -t 

Concho 'kantjo |Conchos 'kant/os |-s's -siz 

conchology kag'kabdsi, kng- |-gist -dsist 

concierge jkansi'ers; ES -'e35; {Fr ko'sjers) 

concihable kan'siliabl 

conciliate kan'silijct j-ated -^etid 

concihation kanjsili'ejan 

conciliatory ksn'siliSjtori, -jtDri; S -jtori 

concise kan'sais |-cision kan'sissn 

conclave 'kanklev, 'kag- 

conclude kan'klud, -'khud |-d -id 

conclusion kan'klusan, -'kliusan |-sive -siv 

concoct kan'kakt, kan- |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 

concomitance kan'kamatans, kan- j-cy -i 

I -ant -ant 
concord 'kankard, -'kag-; ES -kaad 
Concord Mass, NH ^kagka^d; ES 'kagkad; 

elsewftere in US, towns &" grape 'kankord; 

ES 'kankaad 
concordance kan'kardns, kan-; ES -'kaad-; 

|-s -iz |-d -t |-dant -dnt 
concordat kan'kardaet; ES -'kaadtet 
Concordia kan'kardia; ES -'kaadia 
concourse 'kankors, 'kag-, -kars; ES -koas, 

E+-kDas; |-s -iz 
concrete adj kan'krit, 'kankrit, much lessfreq. 

kag-, 'kag- ('conjcrete 'act) 
concrete n 'kankrit, kan'krit, much less freq. 

'kag-, kag- 
concrete v 'congeal' kan'krit; 'cement' 'kankrit, 

kan'krit |-d -id — see n 
concretion kan'krijan — see n 
concubinage kan'kjubanids, -'kiub- 
concubine 'kagkjujbain, 'kan- 
concupiscence kan'kjupasns, -'kiu- |-cent 

concur kan'ks^; ES -'k3(r, -'ky; j-red -d 
concurrence kan'kyans; ES -'ksr-, -'kAr-, 

-'ky-; |-cy -i |-ent -ant 
concussion kan'kA/an |-sive -siv 
condemn kan'dem |-ed -d |-ing -ig 
condemnable 'subject to condemnation' kan- 

'demabl, 'fit to be condemned' kan'demnabj 

l-bly -bii 
condemnation jkandEm'ne/an, -dam- 
condemnatory kan'dEinnajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 

condensability kanjdensa'bilati 

condensable kan'densabl 

condensate kan'denset 

condensation ^kanden'se/an 

condense kan'dens |-s -iz |-d -t |-dly -idli 

condescend jkandi'send |-ed -id 

condescendence jkandi'sendans |-dent -dant 

condescension jkandi'sen/an 

condign kan'dain ('con^dign 'censure) 

condiment 'kandamant 

condition kan'dijan |-ed -d |-ing -J"anig, -J"nig 

conditional kan'difanl, -/nal |-ly -i 

condole kan'dol |-d -d 

condolence kan'dolans, 'kandalans |-s -iz 

condominium ^kanda'miniam 

condone kan'don [-d -d |-nation jkando'ne/an 

condor 'kanda^; ES 'kanda(r 

condottiere It jkondot'tje:re 

conduce kan'djus, -'dius |-s -iz \-d -t |-cive -iv 

conduct n 'kandAkt 

conduct V kan'dAkt |-ed -id 

conductance kan'dAktans \-s -iz 

conductibility kan^dAkta'bilati 

conductible kan'dAktabl 

conduction kan'dAk/an j-tive -tiv 

conductivity jkandAk'tivati 

conductor kan'dAkta^; ES -'dAkta(r 

conduit 'kandit, 'kanduit 

cone kon | coned kond 

Conejos ka'neas, -'nehas, -'nehos \-'s -iz 

(Am Sp ko'nehos) 
Conemaugh 'kana^ma 
conenose 'kon^noz |-s -iz 
Conestoga jkana'stoga 
coney 'koni, 'kAiu — see cony 
Coney 'koni 
confab 'kanfaeb 

confabulate kan'faebjajet |-lated -^letid 
confabulation kanjfaebja'le/an 
confect n 'kanfekt 

confect V kan'fekt j-ed -id |-ction -k/an 
confectionary kan'fek/anjen 
confectioner kan'fek/ana^, -k/na^; ES -n3(r 
confectionery kan'fEkJanjEri 
confederacy, C- kan'fedarasi, -'fedrasi 
confederate, C- n, adj kan'fedarit, -'fedrit 
confederate v kan'fEda^ret |-d -id j-tive -iv 
confederation kanjfEda'reJ"an 

[full ful |tooth tue Ifurther 'fytSa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E atid S 

confer kan'fy; ES -'f3(r, -'fy; j-red -d 

conferee jkanfaVi 

conference 'kanfarans |-s -iz 

confess kan'fes |-es -iz |-ed -t |-edly -idli 

Confessio Amantis kan^feXijO a'maentis 

confession kan'fE/an |-al -1 |-ary -jcri 

confessor kan'fesa^; ES -'fesaCr 

confetti kan'feti (7/ kon'fetti) 

confidant, -nte ;kanf a 'daent, ^kanfa^daent 

confide kan'f aid |-fided -'faidid 

confidence 'kanfadans |-s -iz |-dent -dant 

confidential jkanfa'den/al |-ly -i 

configuration kan/figja're/an |-al -j |-ally -h 

confine n 'kanfain 

confine v kan^fain |-d -d j-dly -idli 

confirm kan'fa^m; ES -'fsm, -'fym; |-ed -d 

|-edly -idli |-atory -ajtori, -a^tari; S -a,tori 
confirmation jkanfa^'me/an; ES jkanfa- 
confirmative kan'fymativ; ES -'fsm-, -'fym- 
confiscate 'kanfis^ket, kan'fisket |-d -id 
confiscation jkanfis'ke/an 
confiscatory kan'fiska,tori, -jtari; S -jtori 
confiture 'kanfijt/ur; ES -/tXua(r 
conflagrate 'kanfla^gret | -grated -jgretid 
conflagration ,kanf la 'gre/an 
conflate kan'flet |-d -id |-tion -'fle/an 
conflict n 'kanflikt 

conflict V kan'flikt |-ed -id |-ction -kjan 
confluence 'kanfluans, -fliu- |-s -iz |-ent -ant 
conflux 'kanfUks |-es -iz 
conform kan'farm; ES -'faam; |-ed -d 
conformable kan'farmabl; ES -'faam-; |-bl}' 

conformance kan'farmans; ES -'faam-; |-s -iz 
conformation jkanfar'mejan; ES -faa- 
conformist kan'farmist; ES -'faam- 
conformity kan'farmati; ES -'faam- 
confound kan'faund, kan-; 'damn' 'kan'faund 

|-ed -id 
confrere 'kanfrer; ES -fr£a(r 
confront kan'frAnt |-ed -id 
Confucian kan'fjujan, -'fiu- |-ism -jizam 
Confucius kan'fju/as, -'fiu- |-'s -iz 
confuse kan'fjuz, -'fiuz |-s -iz |-d -d [-dly 

-idh. -dh 
confusion kan'fjusan, -^fiujan 
confutation jkanfju'te/an, -fiu- 
confutative kan'fjutativ, -'fiu- 

confute kan'fjut, -'fiut |-d -id 

Congaree jkagga'ri 

conge 'kanse {Fr ko'se) 

congeal kan'dsil |-ed -d 

congee 'kand3i 

congener 'kandsina^; ES -na(r 

congenial kan'dsinjal |-ly -i 

congeniality kan^dsini'selati, -jdsinji'aelati; 

congenital kan'dsEnatl |-ly -i 
conger, C- 'kagga^; ES 'kagga(r 
congeries kan'dsiriz, -'dsiri^iz 
congest kan'dsest |-ed -id |-ive -iv [-stion 

conglobate kan'globet, 'kagglojbet 
conglomerate n, adj kan'glamarit; -'glamnt 
conglomerate v kan'glamajtet | -rated -^retid 
conglomeration kan jglama 're/an 
Congo 'kaggo 

congratulate kan'graet/ajet |-lated -jletid 
congratulation kanjgraetJa'IeXan 
congratulatory kan'graetjalajton, -jtari; S 

congregate 'kaggri^get [-gated -igetid 
congregation jkaggri'gefan |-al -1, -/nal |-ally 

-li, -/nail 
Congregational jkaggri'ge/anl, -/nal [-ism 

-jizam |-ist -ist 
congress 'kaggras, -is |-es iz |-ed -t 
congressional kan'gre/anl, -Jnal |-ly -i 
congressman 'kaggrasman |-men -man 
congresswoman 'kaggras^wuman, -jwu- |-men 

-jwimin, -an 
Congreve 'kangriv, ^kag- 
congruence 'kaggruans, 'kan^gruans, -jgriu- 

|-s -IZ |-cy -I |-ent -ant 
congruity kan'gruati, -'griu- 
congruous 'kaggruas 
conic 'kanik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
conifer 'konafa^, 'kan-; ES -fa(r 
coniferous ko'nifaras 
Coningsby 'kAnigzbi 
Coniston 'kanistan 
conjectural kan'dsekt/aral [-ly -i 
conjecture kan'dsekt/a'; ES -tja(r; |-d -d 

|-ring -'dsekt/arig, -'dsskt/rig 
conjoin kan'dsain [-ed -d |-edly -idli |-t -t 
conjugal 'kandgugl |-ty -i 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E bae (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

conjugality ^kandsu'gaebti 

conjugate n, adj 'hands ugit, -iget 

conjugate v 'kandsa^get | -gated -igetid 

conjugation jkand33'geXan 

conjunct ksn'dsAgkt ('con^junct Verb) 

conjunction kan'dsAgkJan |-tive -tiv 

conjunctiva jkandsAgk'taiva 

conjunctivitis kanjdsAgktaVaitis 

conjuncture kan'dsAgkt/a^ ; ES -tJaCr; |-ral -al 

conjuration jkandsu'rejan 

conjure 'jtiggle' 'kAndsa^, 'kan-; ES -d33(r; 

conjure 'implore' kan'dsur, -'dsiur; ES -3(r; 

conjurer, -or 'juggler' 'kAndsara*, 'kan-; ES 

conjurer, -or 'petitioner' kan'dsura^, -'dsiu-; 

ES -r3(r 
conjuror 'coswearer' kan'dsura', -'dsiu-; ES 

Conkling 'kagklig 
Connacht 'kanaxt, -nat 
Connaught 'kanot 
Conneaut 'kani pt 

connect ka'nekt |-ed -id [-ible, -able -abl 
Connecticut ka'netikat — Tlie Brit pron. 

ka'nEktikat, based on the current erroneous 

spelling, has fio Am currency. 
connection, -nexion ka'nEk/an |-ctive -ktiv 
Connelly 'kanli 
conning 'kanig 
conniption ka'nipXan 

connivance ka'naivans |-s -iz [-cy -i |-ant -ant 
connive ka'naiv |-nived -'naivd |-vent -ant 
connoisseur ^kana'sy; ES -'s3(r, -'sy; (Fr 

connaisseur kane'soeir) 
connotation jkana'te/an 
connotative 'kanajtetiv, ka'notativ 
connote ka'not | -noted -'notid 
connubial ka'nubial, -'niub-, -'njub- |-ly -i 
conoid 'konaid 
conquer 'kagka^, 'kogka^, 'kagka^; ES -ka(r; 

|-ed -d |-ing -karig, -krig |-or -a^; ES -a(r 
conquest 'kankwEst, 'kag- 
conquistador kan'kwistajdar; ES -^daaCr 
Conrad, -e 'kanrsed 
Conroe 'kanro 
consanguine kan'saeggwin 

consanguineous (kansaeg'gwinias |-nity -nati 

conscience 'kan/ans |-s -iz 

conscientious ikan/i 'En/as, /kansi- 

conscionable 'kan/anabl |-bly -bh 

conscious 'kan/as 

conscribe kan'skraib |-scribed -'skraibd 

conscript n, adj 'kanskript 

conscript v kan'skript |-ed -id |-ption -p/an 

consecrate 'kansijkret [-crated -jkretid 

consecration jkansi^kre/an 

consecutive kan'sEkjativ 

consensus kan'sEnsas |-suses -sasiz 

consent kan'sEnt |-ed -id ]-ient -'sEn/ant 

consequence 'kansa^kwEns |-s -iz |-quent 

consequential jkansa'kwEnJal |-ly -i 
consequentiality ^kansa ^kwEn/i 'aelati 
conservable kan'syvabl; ES -'s3v-, -'ss^v- 
conservancy kan'syvansi; ES -'s3v-, -'syv- 
conservation jkansa^Vefan; ES ^kansa- 
conservatism kan'ss^va/tizam; ES -'ssv-, 

conservative kan's^vativ; ES -'ssv-, -'syv- 
conservatoire kan^syva'twar; ES -jssva- 

'twa:(r, -jS3^va'twa:(r; (Fr kos£rva'twa:r) 
conservator 'preserver' 'kansa^jveta^, kan- 

'syvata^, bank officer kan'ss^vata^; ES 

'kansajveta(r, kan's3vata(r, kan'syvata(r 
conservatory kan'ss^va^tori, -jtan; ES kan- 

's3vajtori, -'ss'v-, E+-jtari 
conserve n 'kans3"v, kan's^v; ES -3V, -yv 
conserve v kan'syv; ES -'s3v, -'syv; |-d -d 
Conshohocken jkanja'hakan 
consider kan'sida^; ES -'sida(r; [-ed -d |-ing 

-'sidarig, -'sidrig 
considerable kan'sidarabl, -'sidrabi |-bly -bii 
considerate kan'sidarit, -'sidrit 
consideration kan^sidaVe/an 
consign kan'sain |-ed -d 
consignee jkansai'ni, -si'ni 
consigner kan'saina^; ES -'saina(r 
consignment kan'sainmant 
consignor kan'saina^; ES -'saina(r; (^con- 

sign'ee & jconsign'or) 
consist kan'sist |-ed -id 
consistence kan'sistans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 
consistory kan'sistari, -'sistri 
consociate n, adj kan'so/iit, -JiiCt 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'f3'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

consociate v kan'so/i^et |-ated -jctid 

consociation kanjsosi'efan, -jSo/i- 

consol 'kansal, kan'sal |-s -z 

consolable kan'sobbl |-bly -bh 

consolation jkansa'le/an 

consolatory kan'salajton, -jtari; S -jton 

console n 'kansol 

console v kan'sol |-soled -'sold 

consolidate kan'sala^det |-dated -,detid 

consolidation kan^sala'de/an 

consomme jkansa'me 

consonance 'kansanans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 

consonantal jkansa'naentl |-ly -i 

consonantly 'kansananth 

consort n 'kansart; ES -saat 

consort v kan'sart; ES -'saat; |-ed -id 

consortium kan'sar/iam; ES -'saa/-; |-ia -la 

conspectus kan'spektas |-es -iz 

conspicuous kan'spikjuas 

conspirator kan'spirata^ ; ES -ta(r; |-acy -asi 

conspiratorial kan^spira 'tonal, -'tar-; S -'tor-; 

conspire kan'spanr; ES -'spaia(r; |-d -d 
conspirer kan'spaira^; ES -'spaira(r 
constable 'kanstabi, 'kAn T}ie sp. pron. is 

now more freq. than the traditional one; see 

Constable 'kAnstabl 
constabulary kan'staebja Jen 
Constance 'kanstans |-'s -iz 
constancy 'kanstansi |-tant -tant 
Constantine 'kanstan^tain, -jtin 
Constantinople jkanstaenta'nopl, -staentn'opj 
constellation jkansta'lejan 
consternate 'kansta^^net; ES 'kansta-; |-d -id 
consternation jkansta^'ne/an; ES jkonsta- 
constipate 'kansta^pet |-pated -jpetid 
constipation /kansta 'pejan 
constituency kan'stit/uansi |-ent -ant 
constitute 'kansta,tjut, -jtiut, -jtut |-d -id 
constitution jkansta'tju/an, -'tin-, -'tu- |-al -j 

l-aUy -h 
constitutionality jkanstajtjujan'aelati, -jtiu-, 

constitutive 'kansta^tjutiv, -jtiu-, -fu- 
constrain kan'stren |-ed -d |-edly -idb |-t -t 
constrict kan'strikt |-ed -id |-or -a^; ES -a(r 
constriction kan'strik/an |-tive -tiv 

construable kan'stniabl, -'stnu- 
construct adj kan'strAkt ('con^struct 'state) 
construct n 'kanstrAkt 
construct v kan'strAkt |-ed -id 
construction kan'stTAktJan [-al -1 |-ally -li 

|-tive -tiv 
construe kan'stni, -'stnu |-d -d — in Shak. 

conster 'kansta^ 
consubstantial (konsab'staenjal |-ly -i 
consubstantiality jktmsabjstaenji'aelati 
consubstantiate jkansab'staenjijet |-ed -id 
consubstantiation jkansabjstaenji'ejan 
consuetude 'kcmswi^tjud, -^tiud, -jtud 
consuetudinary ^ktmswi'tjudnjen, -'tiud-, 

consul 'kansl ]-ship -^/ip 
consular 'konsla^, 'kansjala^; ES -a(r 
consulate 'kanslit, 'kansjalit 
consult n 'kansAlt, kan'sAlt 
consult V kan'sAlt |-ed -id |-ant -nt 
consultation jkansl'te/an 
consultative kan'sAltativ 
consultatory kan'sAlta^tori, -jtari; S -jtori 
consultory kan'sAltan 
consumable kan'sumabl, -'sium-, -'sjum- 
consume kan'sum, -'sium, '-sjum |-d -d 

consumer kan'suma^, -'siuma', -'sjuma'; ES 

consummate adj kan'sAmit 
consummate v 'kansajinet |-mated -^metid 
consummation jkansa 'me/an 
consumption kan'sAmpJan |-tive -tiv 
contact 'kantaekt |-ed -id 
contagion kan'tedsan j-gious -dsas 
contain kan'ten |-ed -d 
contaminate kan'tasma^net |-nated -^netid 
contamination kanjtaema'ne/an 
contemn kan'tem |-ed -d |-edly -nidli 
contemnible kan'temnabl |-bly -bli 
contemner kan'tema^; ES -'temaCr 
contemnor kan'temna^; ES -'temnaCr 
contemplable kan'templabl 
contemplate 'kantam^plet, kan'templet 1-d -id 
contemplation jkantam'ple/an 
contemplative 'kantanijpletiv, kan'templativ 
contemporaneity kan jtempara 'niati 
contemporaneous kan^tEmpa'tenias 

Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeo |angr>^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far | watch watj", wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa ] gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with D in E and S 

contemporary kan'tempajreri 

contempt kan'tempt 

contemptible ksn^temptdbl |-bly -bli 

contemptuous kan'temptjuas 

contend kan'tsnd |-ed -id 

content n 'satisfaction^ kan'tent, 'what is con- 
tained' 'kontent, kan'tent 

content adj, v kan'tEnt |-ed -id 

contention kan'tEn/an |-al -1 ]-tious -Jas 

conterminous kan'tymanas; ES -'tam-, 

contest n 'kantEst 

contest V kan'test |-ed -id [-ant -ant 

context 'kantEkst 

contextual kan'tEkstJual, kan- |-ly -i 

contexture kan'tEkst/a^, kan-; ES -'tEkstXa(r 

contiguity jkanti'gjuati, -'giu- 

contiguous kan'tigjuas 

continence 'kantanans |-cy -i |-nent -nant 

continental jkanta'nEntl j-ly -i 

contingence kan'tindsans |-cy -i |-gent -dsant 

continual kan'tinjual |-ly -i 

continuance kan'tinjuans |-s -iz |-ant -ant 

continuation kan^tinju'eXan 

continue kan 'tin ju |-d -d |-dly -judh 

continuity ^kanta'nuati, -'niu-, -'nju- 

continuous kan'tinjuas |-nuum -njuam [-nua 

contort kan 'tart; ES -'taat; |-ed -id 

contortion kan'tar/an; ES -'taa/an 

contour 'kantur; ES -tua(r; |-ed -d 

contra 'kantra 

contraband 'kantra jbaend |-age -ids |-ist -ist 

contrabandism 'kantrabaendjizam 

contrabass 'kantra^bes |-es -iz 

contraception jkantra'sEpJan |-tive -tiv 

contraclockwise /kantra 'klakjwaiz 

contract n 'kantraekt 

contract v 'shrink' kan'traekt, 'make a con- 
tract' +\antTxiit |-ed -id 

contractible kan'traektabl |-bly -bb 

contractile kan'traektl, -til 

contractility jkantraek'tilati 

contraction kan'traekjan |-tive -tiv 

contractor 'kantraekta^, kan'traekta^ ; ES -ta(r 

contractual kan'traektjual |-ly -i 

contradict jkantra'dikt |-ed -id 

contradiction jkantra'dik/an |-tory -tan, -tri 

contradistinction ^kantradi'stigk/an |-tive 

contraindication ^kantra jinda 'ke/an 

contralto kan'traelto 

contraposition jkantrapa'zifan 

contraption kan'traepjan 

contrapuntal /kantra'pAntI ]-ly -i 

contrariety jkantra'raiati 

contrarily 'kantiErah, esp. if emph. kan- 
'trerali, -'trer- 

contrarious kan'ttErias, -'trer- 

contrariwise 'kantrErijwaiz 

contrary 'opposite' 'kantreri; 'perverse' 
'kantren, kan'trEri, -'treri 

contrast n 'kontraest 

contrast v kan'traest [-ed -id 

contravene jkantra'vin |-vened -'vind 

contravention ^kantra'vEn/an 

contredanse Fr kotra'dars 

contretemps Fr kotra'ta 

contribute kan'tribjut [-d -bjatid 

contribution jkantra'bjujan, -'biu/an 

contributor kan'tnbjata^; ES -ta(r 

contributory kan'tribjajtori, -]tori; S -^tori 

contrite 'kontrait, kan'trait ('con^trite 'heart, 
'hearts con'trite) 

contrition kan'trijan 

contrivance kan'traivans |-s -iz [-cy -i 

contrive kan'traiv |-d -d 

control kan'trol | -trolled -'trold 

controllable kan'trolabl |-bly -bh 

controller kan'trola^; ES -'trola(r; |-ship -Jip 

controversial ;kantra'v3j"al, -sial; ES -'v3-, 
-'va^-; |-ly -i 

controversy 'kantra jvs^si; ES -jvasi, -^vysi 

controvert 'kantra^vyt, jkontra'vyt; ES -st, 
-s't; |-ed -id 

controvertible /kantra'vs'tabl; ES -'v3t-, 
-'yyt-; acc/+'controjvertible |-bly -bh 

contumacious jkantju'inejas, ^kantu- 

contumacy 'kantjumasi, 'kantu- 

contumehous /kantju'milias, jkantu- 

contumely 'kantjumah, 'kantu-, -jinih, 
kan'tjumab, -'tiu-, -'tu- ■ — Only a book- 
word. Formerly 'kantjujinili, as in Chap- 
man and probably Shak. Hood has kan- 
'tjumili {rime gloomily). 

contuse kan'tjuz, -'tiuz, -'tuz j-s -iz \-d -d 

|full ful |tooth tu9 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
lusing 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with D in E and S 

contusion kan'tjujan, -'tius-, -'tu3- 

conundrum ka'nAndram 

convalesce jkanvs'les |-s -iz |-d -t 

convalescence jkanva'ksns j-cy -i |-scent -snt 

convection kanVekJan |-al -1 

convenance 'kanva^nans |-s -iz {Fr kov'na:s) 

convene kanVin |-vened -Vind 

convenience kanVinjans |-s -iz |-ient -jant 

convent 'kanvent 

conventical kanVentikl |-ly -i 

conventicle kanVentikl |-d -d 

convention kanVenJan |-al -1, -/nal |-ally -li, 

conventionalism kanVen/anljizam, -/nal- 

|-ist -ist 
conventionality kanjVEn/an'aslati 
conventionalize kanVenJanljaiz, -Jnal- j-s -iz 

l-d -d 
conventual kanVentJual j-ly -i 
converge kanVyds; ES -Vads, -Vs^ds; |-s -iz 

convergence kanVydsans; ES -Vsds-, 

-Vyds-; |-cy -i |-gent -dsant 
conversance 'kanva^sns, kanVs^sns; ES -vas-, 

-'v3s-, -Vys-; |-cy -i |-sant -snt 
conversation jkanva^'sejan; ES ^kanva-; |-al 

-1 I -ally -h 
conversationalist jkanva^'sejanlist, -/nal-; 

ES jkanva- 
converse n 'kanvys; ES -V3S, -vys; |-s -iz 
converse adj kanVys; ES -Vss, -Vys; 

('con^verse Hvind) 
converse v kan'v^s; ES -Vss, -Vys; j-s -iz 

conversion kan'v3/an, -3an; ES -Vs-, -Vy- 
convert n 'kanvyt; ES -vst, -v^t 
convert v kan'vyt; ES -Vst, -Vyt; |-ed -id 
convertibility kanjvyta'bilati; ES -iVst-, 

convertible kanV^tabl; ES -Vst-, -Vyt-; 

l-bly -bk 
convex adj kanVsks, kan- ('con/vex 'surface) 
convex n, v 'kanveks |-es -iz |-ed -t, v+ 

convexity kanVeksati 
convey kanVe |-ed -d |-ance -ans |-ances 

convict n 'kanvikt 

convict V kan'vikt |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 

convince kanVins |-s -iz |-d -t j-dly -idli 

convivial kanVivial |-ly -i 

conviviality kan^vivi'selati 

convocation jkanva'ke/an ]-al -I |-ally -li 

convoke kanVok |-voked -Vokt 

convolute 'kanva Jut, -^liut |-d -id 

convolution jkanva'lujan, -'hujan, -vl'jujan 

convolvulus, C- kanValvjalas |-es -iz [-li -jlai 

convoy n 'kanvai 

convoy v kanVai |-ed -d 

convulse kanVAls |-s -iz j-d -t |-dly -idli 

convulsion kanVAl/an j-sive -siv 

Conway 'ktinwe 

Conwell 'kanwel 

cony 'koni, 'kAiu — When the word was popu- 
lar, it was pron. 'kAiu; since it became a 
book-word, sp. pron. has prevailed. 

conycatcher 'koni^kaetJV, 'kAni-; ES -jkaet/aCr 

coo ku I cooed kud 

cook kuk Icooked kukt |-ery -an, -n |-y, -ie -i 

cool kul I cooled kuld 

Cooley 'kuli 

cool-headed 'kul'hEdid ('cool-jheaded 'move) 

Coolidge 'kulids [-'s -iz 

coolie, -ly 'kuli 

coolly 'kuli, 'kulli 

coomb; coombe, coom 'valley' kum 

coon kun ]cooned kund 

co-op ko'ap, 'kojop 

coop kup, kup; S kup, kup; |-ed -t 

cooper, C- 'kupa^, 'kupa^; E -pa(r; S 'kupa(r, 
'kup-; |-ed -d |-ing -pang, -prig 

co-operate adj ko'aparit, -'aprit 

co-operate v ko'apajret |-rated -^retid 

co-operation ko,apa'reJan, jkoapa- 

co-operative ko'apajtetiv, -'aprativ 

Cooperstown 'kupa^z^taun, 'kup-; E -paz-; S 
'kupaz-, 'kup- 

co-opt ko'apt |-opted -'aptid 

co-ordinate, n, adj ko'ardnit, -^et; ES -'aad- 

co-ordinate v ko'ardnjet; ES -'aad-; |-d -id 

co-ordination koprdn'e/an; ES -jDadn'e/an 

co-ordinative ko'ardn,etiv; ES -'aadnjctiv 

Coos NH ko'as, 'koas; Oreg kus 

coot kut Icooted 'kutid 

cop kap I copped kapt 

copal 'kopl, 'kopael 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret lyet jet jsang saeg [angr}- 'jeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) jah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) Ijaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with o in E and S 

coparcenary ko'parsnj£n; ES -'pa:s-, E+ 

coparcener ko'pcrsna'; ES -Va:sn3(r, E + 

copartner ko'partna'; ES -'pa:tn3(r, E+ 

cope kop [coped kept 
copeck, -pec 'kopek 
Copeland 'koplsnd 

Copenhagen jkopan'hegan {Dan jkopn'haun) 
Copernicus ko'ps^nikas; ES -'pan-, -'pyn-; 

|-'s -iz |-can -kan 
copestone 'kopjSton 
Cophetua ko'letjua 
Copiah ks'pais, ko- 
copier 'kapia'; ES %api'3(r 
coping 'kopio 
copious 'kopias 
Coplay 'kapli [Copley 'kapli 
copper 'kapa^; ES 'kap3(r; [-ed -d (-ing 

'kaparig, 'kaprig 
copperas 'kaparas, 'kapras 
Copperfield 'kapa^jfild; ES 'kapa- 
copperhead, C- 'kapa'jhed; ES 'kapa- 
copperplate 'engraving' 'kapa^jplet; ES 'kapa- 
copperplate 'engrave' 'kapa'jplet; ES 'kapa-; 

l-d -id 
copper-plate 'plate with copper' 'kapa^'plet; ES 

'kapa-; [-d -id ('copper- jplated 'medal) 
coppersmith 'kapa^jsmiO; ES 'kapa-; [-ths -6s 
coppice 'kapis |-s -iz [-d -t 
copra 'kapra 

copse kaps [copses 'kapsiz jcopsed kapst 
Copt kapt I Coptic 'kaptik 
copula 'kapjala 
copulate adj 'kapjalit 
copulate V 'kapjajlet [-lated - jetid 
copulation jkapja'lejan |-tive 'kapjajletiv 
copy 'kapi [copied 'kapid [-pyist -ist 
copybook 'kapi^buk 
copyhold 'kapijhold 
copyright 'kapi^rait [-ed -id 
coquet ko'ket [-quetted -'ketid 
coquetry 'kokitri, ko'kEtri 
coquette ko'ket [-quetted -'kstid 
Coquille ko'kil 
Cora 'kora, 'kara; S 'kora 
coracle 'karakl, 'kar-, 'kor- 

coral 'karal, 'kar-, 'kor-, 'kor- [-ed -d 

Coran ko'ran, -'raen 

CoraopoHs jkori'aplis, -plis, jkora'-'ap-, 

jkar-; S ^kor- 
corbel 'karbl; ES 'kaabl; |-ed -d 
corbie 'karbi; ES 'kaabi 
Corcoran 'karkaran; ES 'kaakaran 
cord kard; ES kaad; [-ed -id [-age -ids 
Cordelia kar'dilja; ES kaa'dilja 
Cordell kar 'del; ES kaa'del ('Cor, dell 'Hull) 
cordial 'kardsal; ES 'kaads-; Brit -dial |-ly -i 
cordiality kar'dsaelati ; ES ka-; Brit -di'ael- 
cordillera, C- kar'dilara, jkardil'jera; ES ka-, 

jkaa-; (Am Sp ^karSi'jera) 
cordite 'kardait 

Cordoba 'kardova; ES 'kaa-; {Sp 'kartJo^a) 
cordoba 'kardaba; ES 'kaa- 
cordon 'kardn; ES 'kaadn; [-ed -d 
Cordova 'kardava; ES 'kaa-; [-n -n — some 

US places Cor'dova 
corduroy ^karda'rai; ES jkaada-; ('cordu^roy 

cordwain 'kardwen; ES 'kaad-; [-er -»; ES 

cordwood 'kard^wud; ES 'kaad- 
core kor, kar; ES koa(r, E+kaa(r; |-d -d 
Corea ko'ria |-n -n 
corelation ^koTi'le/an 
coreligionist ^koTi'lidsanist 
corella ka'rela 
Corelli ka'reli 

coreopsis jkori'apsis, jkari-; S ^kon- 
corespondent jkcn'spandant 
Corfu 'karf ju, -fiu, kar'fu; ES 'kaa-, kaa- 
Corgi 'kargi; ES 'kaagi 
coriander jkori'aenda^, ,kari-; ES ,kori'aenda(r, 

Corin 'karin, 'kar-, 'kor- 
Corinna ka'rina 

Corinth 'karinG, 'kar-, 'kor- [-ian ka'rinGian 
Coriolanus jkaria'lenas, ,kar-, jknr- |-'s -iz 
Corioles ka'raiajliz, -liz [-'s -iz [-li -,lai 
cork, C- kark; ES kaak; [-ed -t 
corival ko'raivl, ka- 

corkscrew 'kark,skru, -jskriu; ES 'kaak- 
Corliss 'karlis; ES 'kaahs; |-'s -iz 
corm karm; ES kaam 
cormorant 'karmarant; ES 'kaam- 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



corn korn; ES koan; |-ed -d |-cake -^kek |-cob 

-jkab; ES+'ikob 
cornea 'karma; ES 'kaania 
Corneille kar'ne; ES koa'ne {Fr kb'r'ne:j) 
cornel 'karnl, -nel; ES 'kaan- 
Cornelia kar'nilja, ka^-; ES kaa'nllja, ka- 
cornelian ^carnelian' kar'niljan, ka^-; ES kaa-, 

Cornelius kar'niljas, ks'-; ES kaa-, ka-; [-'s -iz 
Cornell kar'nel; ES kaa'nel; ('Cor^nell 'cap) 
corneous 'kariuas; ES 'kaanias 
corner 'karna^; ES 'kaana(r; ]-ed -d — A dis- 

similated pron. 'kana^ is sometimes heard 

cornerstone 'karna^^ston; ES 'kaana- 
cornerways 'karna^^wez; ES 'kaana-; |-\vise 

cornet 'karmt, kar'nst, musical instr. kar'ntt; 

ES 'kaa-, kaa- 
cornettist, -netist kar'n£tist; ES kaa- 
corn-flour 'karn^flaur; ES 'kaanjflaua(r 
cornflower 'karn^flaua^; ES 'kaanjflau-a(r 
cornice 'karnis; ES 'kaanis; |-s -iz |-d -t 
Cornish 'karnij; ES 'kaanij; |-man, -men 

cornstarch 'karn^startX, -'start/; ES 'kaan- 

,sta:t/, -'start/, E+-a:t/ 
cornucopia jkarna'kopia; ES jkaana-; |-n -n 
Cornwall 'karnwal, -wal; ES 'kaan- 
Cornwallis karn'wahs, -'wnl-, -'wal-; ES 

kaan-; |-'s -iz 
corody 'karadi, 'kar-, 'kor- 
corolla ka'rala; ES+-'rDla 
corollary 'kara,kri, 'kar-, 'kor-, Brit ka- 

corona, C- ka'rona |-s -z |-nae -ni 
coronach 'karanax, 'kar-, 'kor- 
coronal n 'karanl, 'kar-, 'kor- 
coronal adj ka'ronl, 'karanl, 'kar-, 'kor- 

coronary 'karajneri, 'kar-, 'kor- 
coronation ^kara'ne/an, jkar-, jkor- 
coroner 'karana^, 'kar-, 'kor-; ES -na(r 
coronet 'karamt, 'kar-, 'kor- |-ed -id, -^netid 
Corot ka'ro 

corporal 'karparal, 'karpral; ES 'kaap-; |-ly-i 
corporality jkarpa'raelati; ES jkaap- 
corporate adj 'karpant, 'karprit; ES 'kaap- 
corporate v 'karpa^ret; ES 'kaap-; |-d -id 

corporation jkarpa 're/an; ES jkaap- 
corporeal kar'porial, -'par-; ES ka'ponal, E+ 

-'panal; |-ly -i 
corporeity jkarpa'riati; ES ,kaap- 
corposant 'karpa^zaent; ES 'kaap- 
corps kor, kar; ES koa(r, E+kaa(r; \pl -ps -z 
corpse karps; ES kaaps; |-s -iz 
corpulence 'karpjalans; ES 'kaap-; |-cy -i 

|-nt -nt 
corpus 'karpas; ES 'kaap-; j-es -iz |-pora -para 
Corpus Christi 'karpas'knsti; ES 'kaap-; 

Church +-tai 
corpuscular kar'pAskjala^; ES ka'pAskjalaCr 
corpuscle 'karpasl, 'karpxvsl; ES 'kaap- 
corpus delicti 'karpasdi'hktai; ES 'kaap- 
corral ka'rael [-led -d 
correct ka'rekt j-ed -id 
correction ka'rek/an |-tive -tiv 
correctitude ka'rekta^tjud, -jtiud, -^tud 
corrector ka'rekta^; ES -'rektaCr 
Corregidor ka'r£gajdar; ES -^daaCr; {Am Sp 

correlate 'kara,let, 'kar-, 'kor- |-d -id 
correlation jkara'le/an, jkar-, jknr- 
correlative ka'iElativ j-vity kajrsla'tivati 
correspond ^kara'spand, jkar-, jknr-; ES+ 

-'spond; |-ed -id |-ence -ans |-ent -ant 
corridor 'karada^, 'kar-, 'kor-, geog. + -jdar; 

ES -da(r, -jdaa(r; |-ed -d 
corrie 'kari, 'kari, 'kori 
Corrigan 'karagan, 'kar-, 'kor- 
corrigendum ^kari'dsendam, ^kar-, ^kor- |-da 

corrigibility jkarad3a'bilati, ^kar-, jknr- 
corrigible 'karadsabl, 'kar-, 'kor- |-bly -bli 
corrival ka'raivl 

corrobboree, -ri n ka'rabari; ES-h-'rob- 
corroborant ka'rabarant; ES+-'rDb- 
corroborate adj ka'rabarit; ES+-'rDb- 
corroborate v ka'raba^ret; ES+-'rDb-; |-d -id 

|-tive -tiv 
corroboration ka,raba're/an; ES+-jrDb- 
corroboratory ka'rabarajtori, -jtari; S -itori 
corroboree, -ri n ka'rabari; ES+-'rDb- 
corroboree v ka'rabajri |-d -d 
corrode ka'rod |-roded -'rodid 
corrosion ka'ro3an |-sive -siv 
corrugate adj 'karagit, 'karja-, 'kar-, 'kor-, 


Key; See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet J£t |sang saeg langrj- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) [ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spe, 
corrugate v 'karajget, 'korja-, 'kar-, 'kor- 

l-d -id 
corrugation jkara'ge/an, jk3rJ3-, ikar-, jkor- 
corrupt ka'rApt j-ed -id 1-ption -pjan 
corruptibility kajtApta'bilati 
corruptible ka'rAptabl |-bly -bh 
Corry 'kori, 'kari, 'kori 
corsage kor'sas; ES kaa'sas; [-s -iz 
corsair 'karser, -saer; E 'kD3se3(r, ES -sae3(r 
corse kars; ES koas; |-s -iz 
corselet ^ armor' 'k3rslit; ES 'kaos-; 'under- 
garment' jkarsl'et; ES jkaas- 
corset 'korsit; ES 'kaasit; |-ed -id 
Corsica 'korsika; ES 'koasika; |-n -n 
Corsicana jkorsi'kaena; ES jkaas- 
corslet 'karslit; ES 'kaaslit 
Corson 'korsn; ES 'koasn 
cortege kar'tes, -hzy, ES kaa-; {Fr karHsrs) 
Cortes Sp b' Pg legist, 'kortiz; ES 'koat-; 

{Sp 'kartes, Pg 'kartej) 
Cortes, -ez Sp soldier 'kartEz; ES 'koatez; 

{Sp kar'tes) |-'s -iz 
cortex 'karteks; ES 'kaa-; |-es -iz |-tices 

cortez kar'tes; ES kaa; |-es -iz 
cortical 'kortikl; ES 'kaa-; |-ly -i 
corticate adj 'kartikit, -jket; ES 'kaa-; 

|-cated -jketid 
Cortland 'kortland, ^kort-; ES 'koat-, E+ 

corundum ka'rAndam 
coruscant ka'rAskant 
coruscate 'karasjket, 'kar-, 'kor- [-d -id 
coruscation jkaras'ke/an, jkar-, ^kor- 
Corvallis kar'vaehs; ES kaa-; |-'s -iz 
corvee kar've; ES koa've; {Fr kiir've) 
corvette, -vet kar'vet; ES kaaVet 
Corybant 'karajb^ent, 'kar-, 'kar- |-s -s |-es 

jkara'b^entiz |-ic jkara'baentik 
Corydon 'karadn, 'kar-, 'kor-, -jdan, -jdon 
Coryell jkori'2l, ^kar-; S jkor- 
corymb 'karimb, 'kar-, 'kor-, -im 
coryphaeus ^kara'fias, ^kar-, jkor- |-es -iz 

|-phaei -'fiai 
coryphee jkara'fe, ^kara'fe, jknra'fe |-s -z 

{Fr kari'fe) 
coryza ka'raiza 
cose 'kos' kos 

// o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

cose 'coze' koz | coses 'koziz | cosed kozd 

cosecant ko'sikant, -kaent 

cosey 'cozy' 'kozi 

Cosgrave 'kazgrev, 'knz- 

Coshocton ka'/oktan 

cosie 'cozy' 'kozi 

cosignatory ko'signajtori, -jtari; S -jton 

cosine 'kosam 

Cos lettuce 'kasjktis, 'kos-, -as 

cosmetic kaz'mEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

cosmic 'kozmik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

cosmogony kaz'magani, -'mng- 

cosmographic jkazma'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

cosmography kaz'magrafi, -'mng- 
cosmology kaz'maladgi 
cosm.opolitan jkazma'palatn |-ism -,izam 
cosmopolitanize jkozma'palatrijaiz |-s -iz j-d -d 
cosmopolite kaz'mapa,Iait 
cosmos 'kazmas, -mas |-es -iz 
Cossack 'kasaek, 'kos-, -ak 
cosset 'kasit, 'kosit |-ed -id 
cost kast, kost 

costa 'kasta |-tae -ti |-tal -tl |-tally -tli 
costard, C- 'kasta^d; ES 'kastad 
Costa Rica 'kasta'rika, 'kns-, 'kas-, 'kos- 

|-n -n 
costermonger 'kasta' jmAgga^, 'kos-; ES 

costive 'kastiv, 'kos- 
costly 'kastli, 'kost- 
costmary 'kastjineri, 'kost-, -jmaeri; S 

-jmaeri, -jmen 
costrel 'kastral, 'kos- 
costume n 'kastjum, 'kos-, -tium, -turn 
costume v kas'tjum, kos-, -'tium, -'turn ]-d -d 

l-r-a'; ES -a(r 
costumier kas'tjumia'; -'tium-, -'turn-; ES 

-i-a(r; {Fr kasty'mjc) 
cosy 'cozy' 'kozi 
cot kat Icotted 'katid — see cote 
cotangent ko'taendgant 
cotangential jkotaen'dsenjal 
cote kot — cot b' cote are distinct, hut related, 

words in the oldest English, hut Imve become 

confused in spelling. 
cotemporaneous kojtempa'reiuas, 'kotempa- 
cotemporary ko't£mpajreri 

|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 

cote n ant 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with o in E and S 

cotenant ko'tenant |-ancy -ansi 

count kaunt [counted 'kauntid 

coterie 'kotari 

countenance 'kauntanans |-s -iz |-d -t 

coterminous ko'tymanas; ES -Hsm-, -Hym- 

counter 'kaunta^; ES 'kaunta(r; |-ed -d 

cothumus ko'Oynas; ES -'Bsn-, -'Os^n-; 

counteraccusation jka unta^ jaekj u 'zejan 

|-ni -nai 

counteract jkaunta^'aekt |-ed -id 

cotidal ko'taidj 

counteraction jkaunta^'aek/an (^action & 

cotillion, -Hon ko'tiljan 

'counter ^action) 

Cotopaxi jkota'paeksi {Am Sp jkoto'pa-hi) 

counterattack n 'kauntarajtaek 

Cotsvvold 'katswold, -wald |-s -z 

counterattack v jkauntara'taek |-ed -t 

cottage 'katid3 1-s -iz 1-d -d 

counterattraction ,kauntara 'traekjan 

cotter, -ar 'kata^; ES 'kat3(r 

counterbalance n 'kaunta^^baelans; ES -ta-; 

Cotterell 'kataral, 'katral 

|-S -IZ 

cottier 'katia^; ES 'kati'3(r 

counterbalance v ^kaunta'baelans; ES -ta-; 

cotton, C- 'katn |-ed -d 

1-s -IZ |-d -t 

Cottonian ka'tonian 

counterblast 'kaunta^^blaest; ES -ta-, E+ 

cottonmouth 'katn^mauO [-ths -tJz 

-jblast, -jblast 

cottonseed 'katn^sid 

counterchange v jkaunta^'tjendg; ES -ta-; |-s 

cottontail 'katrijtel 

-IZ |-d -d 

Cottonwood 'katrijwud 

countercharge n 'kaunta^jt/ords; ES 

Cottrell 'katral 

'kauntajt/a:d3, E+-;tXa:d3; |-s -iz 

cotyledon ^katridn j-ous -'idnas, -^tdnas 

countercharge v ^kaunt^'t/ards; ES 

couch kautj [couches 'kaut/iz |couched 

jkaunta'tjaids, E+-'tXa:d3; |-s -iz |-d -d 


■countercheck n 'kaunta-^tjEk; ES 'kaunta- 

Couch kautJ, kutj" |-'s -iz 

counterclaim n 'kaunta^jklem; ES 'kaunta- 

couchant 'kaut/ant 

counterclaim v jkaunta^'klem; ES jkaunta-; 

Coudersport 'kauda^z^port; ES 'kaudaz^poat. 

l-ed -d 


counterclockwise jkaunta^'klakjwaiz; ES 

Coue ku'e 


Coues kauz |-'s -iz 

counterdemonstiation jkaunta^jdEman'strefan ; 

cougar 'kuga^; ES ^kug3(r 

ES jkaunta- 

cough kaf, kof |-ed -t 

counterespionage jkaunt3''£spianid3, -a'spai- 

Coughlin Raglan, 'kng- 


could stressed 'kud, jkud; unstr. kad 

counterfeit 'kaunta^fit; ES 'kaunta-; [-ed 

couldest 'kudist 


couldn't 'kudnt, before some conss. + \vAn 

counterfoil 'kaunta^jfail; ES 'kaunta- 

('kudn'se)— r/ze pron. 'kudant is substand- 

counterirritant jkaunta^'iratant 


counterjumper 'kaunta'jdsAmpa'; ES 'kaunta- 

couldst stressed 'kudst, jkudst; unstr. kadst 


coulee 'kuli {Fr coulee kuUe) 

countermand n 'kaunta^^maend; ES 'kaunta-. 

coulomb, C- ku'lam, -'Inm 

E+-jmand, -^mond 

coulter, C- 'kolta^; ES 'kolta(r; j-ed -d 

countermand v ^kaunta-'maend; ES ^kaunta-. 

Coulton 'koltn 

E+-'mand, -'mand; |-ed -id ('counter- 

council 'kaunsl 

jmand 'orders) 

Council Bluffs 'kaunsVbUfs 

countermarch n 'kaunta^^martj; ES 'kaunta- 

councilman 'kaunslman |-men -man 

jma:tX, E-i--jma:tX; |-es -iz 

councilor, -llor 'kaunsja^, -sla^; ES -a(r 

countermarch v jkaunta-'martj; ES jkaunta- 

counsel 'kaunsj |-ed -d |-ing 'kaunshg, -shg 

'mart/, E+-'ma:tX; |-es -iz |-ed -t 

counselor, -llor 'kaunsl*, -sla^; ES -a(r 

coimtermine n 'kaunta^jniam; ES 'kaunta- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij'et jet |sang saeg |angr}- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gard3 [go go 




countermine v ^kaunta^'main; ES jkaunta-; 

countermove ^kaunta^^muv; ES 'kaunta- 
counteroffensive (kauntara'fEnsiv (offensive 

& 'counterofifensive) 
counterpane 'kaunta^jpen; ES 'kaunta-; 

counterpart 'kaunta^^part; ES 'kaunt3ipa:t, 

counterplot n, v 'kaunta^jplat; ES 'kaunta- 

jplat, -jplot; I -ted -id 
counterpoint 'kaunta^^point; ES 'kaunta- 
counterpoise n, v 'kaunta^^poiz ; ES 'kaunta-; 

|-s -iz |-d -d 
counterproposal 'kaunta'prajpozl; ES 'kaunta- 
counterreformation /kaunt3'jr£f3''mejan; ES 

counterrevolution jkaunta^jreva'lu/an, -'hu/an, 

-jrEvrjufan; ES jkaunta-; j-ary -jsri 
counterscarp 'kaunta^jskarp; ES 'kaunto- 

jska:p, E-t--jska:p 
countershaft 'kaunta'jjaeft; ES 'kaunta-, E-i- 

- Jaft, - Jaft 
countersign n 'kaunta^jsain; ES 'kaunta- 
countersign v 'kaunta^^sain, jkaunta^'sain; ES 

-ta-; |-ed -d 
countersignature ^kaunta^'signatja'; ES 

^kaunta'signatja(r; ('signature & 'counter- 

countersink n 'kaunta^^sigk; ES 'kaunta- 
countersink v 'kaunta^jsigk, jkaunta^'sigk; ES 

-ta-; |-sunk -jSAgk, -'sAgk 
counterstatement 'kaunta^jstetmant; ES 

counterstroke 'kaunta^jStrok; ES 'kaunta- 
countersuggestion 'kaunta'sagjdsestj'an, -sa- 

jdsestjan; ES 'kaunta- 
counterthrust 'kaunta^jGrAst; ES 'kaunta- 
countervail jkaunta^'vel; ES jkaunta-; |-ed -d 
counterweigh jkaunta^'we; ES jkaunta-; |-ed 

counterweight 'kaunta^jwet; ES 'kaunta- 
counterwork 7t 'kaunta^jwyk; ES 'kaunta- 

jwsk, -jW3^k 
counterwork v jkaunta^V^k; ES ^kaunta- 

Vsk, -Vyk 
countess 'kauntis ]-es -iz 
countinghouse 'kauntig^haus j-ses -ziz 
country 'kAntri |-trified, -tryf- 'kAntrijfaid 

country-bred 'kAntri'bred ('country-jbred 

country-dance 'kAntri'daens, -jdaens; E+ 

-ans, -ans; [-s -iz 
countryfolk 'kAntri^fok 
countryman 'kAntnman |-men -man 
countryseat 'kAntrijsit, -'sit 
countryside %AntrijSaid ('whole 'country- 

country-style 'kAntri^stail, -'stail 
country-wide 'kAntri'waid 
countrywoman 'kAntri^wuman, ^wu- |-women 

-jwrnun, -an 
county 'kaunti 

coup 'upset', 'drink' kop, kup j-ed -t 
coup 'stroke' ku 
coup de grace Fr kuda'gra:s 
coup de main Fr kuda'ma; 
coup d'etat 'kude'ta {Fr kude'ta) 
coupe 'carriage' ku'pe; 'auto' kup, less frcq. 

couple 'kApl |-d -d |-hng 'kAplig, 'kAplig 
coupler 'kApla^; ES 'kApla(r 
couplet 'kAplit 
coupling n 'kAphg 
coupon 'kupan, 'kju-, 'kiu-, -pnn 
courage 'kyids; ES 'karids, 'kAr-, 'ky-; |-d -d 
courageous ka'redsas 
courante ku'rant {Fr ku'ra) 
courier 'kuna, 'k3<^ia^; ES 'kuri-a(r, 'ksr-, 

'kAt-, 'ka^- 
course kors, kars, esp. in 'of course' kurs; ES 

koas, kuas, E-i-kaas |-s -iz |-d -t 
courser 'korsa^, 'kar-; ES 'koasa(r, E+'kaa- 
court kort, kart; ES koat, E-i-kaat; |-ed -id 
courteous 'kytias; ES 'kstias, 'kyt- 
courtesan, -zan 'kortazn, 'kart-, 'kyt-; ES 

'koat-, 'kst-, 'kyt-, E+'kaat- 
courtesy 'politeness' 'kytasi; ES 'kstasi, 'kyt- 
courtesy 'curtsy' ks^tsi; ES 'kstsi, 'k^t-; [-ied 

Courthope 'kortap, 'kart-, -ihop; ES 'koat-, 

courthouse 'kort^haus, 'kart-; ES 'koat-, E-i- 

'kaat-; |-ses -ziz 
courtier 'kortia^, 'kart-, -tja^; ES 'koati'a(r, 

-tjaCr, E+'kaat- 
courtly 'kortli, 'kart-; ES 'koat-, E+'kaat- 
court-martial 'kort'marjal, 'kart-; ES 'koat- 

|full ful I tooth tue [further 'fySa-; ES 'faSa [custom |kAStam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 

court- plaster 



'mai/al, E+'koat-, -'marjal; |-ed -d 


cowherd 'kau^hyd; ES -jhsd, -,hyd 

-/alio, -Jlio 

cowhide 'kau,haid |-d -id 

court-plaster 'kort,plaest3', 'kart-; ES 'koat- 

cowl, C- kaul |-ed -d 

jplaesta(r, E+'koat-, -iplas-, -;plas- 

Cowley 'kauli 

courtroom 'kortjrum, 'kart-, -jrum; 


cowlick 'kau, Ilk 

'koat-, E+'kaat- 

cowHng, C- 'kaulig 

courtship 'kort/ip, 'kart-; ES ^koat-. 


co-worker ko'ws'ka^; ES -VakaCr, -VykaCr 


cowpea 'kau, pi 

courtyard 'kort/jard, 'kart-; ES 'koatj 


Cowpens SC 'kau,penz, Zoc.+'kApinz 

E+'kaat-, -ja:d 

Cowper 'kupa', 'kaupa^; ES -pa(r; — the same 

cousin 'kAzn |-ed -d |-ing %Aznig, 'kAznig 

■word as Cooper, 'kaupa' being a spelling 

cousin-german 'kAzn'dsyman; ES -^ds 



-Msym-; \pl cousins- 'kAznz- 

cowpox 'kau,paks; ES+-,pDks 

Cousins 'kAznz |-'s -iz 

cowpuncher 'kaUjpAnt/a'; ES -jpAnt/aCr 

couth ku8 

cowrie, -ry 'kaun 

couturier Fr kuty Vje \fcm -riere -^rJ£:r 

cowskin 'kau,skm 

Couzens 'kAznz |-'s -iz 

cowslip 'kaujsbp — c/oxlip 

cove kov [coved kovd 

cox kaks; ES+koks; |-es -iz 

covenant, C- 'kAvanant, 'kAvnant J-ed -i 


coxcomb 'kaks,koin; ES+'koks-; |-ry -ri 

covenanter, -or 'kAvananta', 'kAvn-; ES 


coxcombic kaks'kamik, -'kom-; ES+-'kDm-; 

Covenanter 'kAvajnaenta^, ^kAva'naenta^; 


l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 


coxswain 'kaksn, 'kak,swen; ES-i-'kok- 

Covent 'kAvant, 'kav-; ES+'kov- 

coy kai |coyed kaid 

Coventry 'kavantri, 'kAv-; ES+'kov-; 


coyote kai'ot, kai'oti, 'kaiot 

-d — Both 0(0) and A appear to he historical. 


cover 'kAva'; ES 'kAva(r; |-ed -d 


coze koz ] cozes 'koziz ] cozed kozd 

'kAvarii), 'kAvrig 

cozen 'kAzn |-ed -d |-ing 'kAznig, 'kAznig 

coverage 'kAvarids, 'kAvridj |-s -iz 

cozenage 'kAznidg, 'kAznids 

Coverdale 'kAva'idel; ES 'kAva- 

cozy 'kozi 

covering n 'kAvrig 

Cozzens 'kAznz |-'s -iz 

coverlet 'kAva^lit; ES 'kAva- 

crab kraeb [crabbed kraebd 

Coverley 'kAva^h; ES 'kAva- 

Crabbe kraeb 

coverlid 'kAva^^bd; ES 'kAva- 

crabbed adj 'kraebid |-ly -li 

covert 'kAva^t; ES 'kAvat 

crabby 'kra^bi 

coverture 'kAva^t/a'; ES 'kAvat/aCr 

crack kraek [cracked kraekt 

covet 'kAvit |-ed -id |-ous -as 

crackajack 'kraeka,d3aek 

covey 'kAvi |-ed -d 

crackbrain 'kraek ,br en 

covin 'kAvin 

crackbrained 'kraek'brend ('crack,brained 

Covina koVina 


Covington 'kAvigtan 

cracker 'kraeka^; ES 'kraeka(r 

cow kau |cowed kaud 

crackerjack 'kraeka^jdsaek; ES 'kraeka- 

coward, C- 'kaua^d; ES 'kau-ad; [-ice -is 

crackle 'kraekl |-d -d [ling 'kraekkg, -klig- 

cowbell 'kau, be! 

crackling n 'kraekhg 

cowbird 'kaujbyd; ES -jbad, -jbyd 

cracknel 'kraeknl 

cowboy 'kau^bai 

cracksman 'kraeksman [-men -man 

cowcatcher 'kaujkaetja', -jkttJV; ES -tja(r 

crack-up 'kraek,Ap 

cower 'kaua^; ES 'kau'a(r; |-ed -d 


Cracow 'kreko, 'kraekau {see Krakow) 

'kauarig, 'kaurig 

Craddock 'kraedak 

Cowes kauz |-'s -iz 

cradle 'kredl [d -d [-ling 'kredlig, 'kredbg 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angn,- 'aeg-gri 
[bath bae6; E baO (§10) jah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




Cradock 'kraBd3k=Caradoc knight 

crate kret | crated 'kretid 

craft kraeft; ES+kraft, kraft; |-y -i 

crater 'kreta^; ES 'kreta(r; |-ed -d 

craftsman 'kraeftsman; E+'krafts-, 'krafts-; 

cravat kra'vaet j-vatted -'vaetid 

|-men -man |-manship -manj/ip 

crave krev [craved krevd 

crag kraeg |cragged 'kraegid |-gy -i 

craven 'krevan |-ed -d |-ing 'krevanig, -vnig 

Craigenputtock jkregan'pAtak 

cravenette, C- jkraeva'net, ,krev- |-d -id 

Craigie 'kregi 

craving 'krevig 

crake krek |craked krekt 

craw kra 

crakow 'kraekau 

crawfish 'kra,fiX |-es -iz [-ed -t 

cram kraem | crammed kraemd 

Crawford 'krafa-d; ES 'krafad; |-sville -z,vil 

crambo 'kraembo 

crawl kral [crawled krald |-y -i 

cramp kraemp | cramped kraempt 

Crawley 'krali 

crampon 'kraempan 

crayfish 'kre,fij |-'s -iz 

cranage 'krenids 

crayon 'krean [crayoned 'kreand 

Cranage 'kraenids |-'s -iz 

craze krez [crazes 'kreziz [crazed krezd 

cranberry 'kraenjberi, -ban 

crazy 'krezi [crazily 'krezli, -zik 

Crandall 'krandl 

creak krik [creaked krikt 

crane, C- kren | craned krend 

cream krim [creamed krirad [-ery -an, 

Cranford 'kraenfa^d; ES 'kraenfad 


cranial 'krenial |-ly -i 

cream-faced 'krim'fest ('cream-, faced 'loon) 

craniological jkrenia'ladsikl; ES+-%d3-; 

crease kris [creases 'krisiz [creased krist 


creasy 'krisi 

craniology jkreni'aladsi; ES+-'d1- 

create kri'et [created kri'etid [-tion -'ejan 

craniometer jkreni'amata^; ES -'amata(r. 

creative kri'etiv [-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 


creature 'krit/a'; ES 'kritXa(r; |-ral -al 

craniometric ^krenia'metnk |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

creche kre/, krej [-s -iz {Fr krerj) 


Crecy 'kresi {Fr kre'si) 

craniometry jkreni'amatn; ES+-'Dm- 

credence 'kridns [-dent -dnt 

cranium 'kreniam j-s -z j-nia -ma 

credential kri'd£nXal |-ed -d 

crank kraegk [cranked kraegkt 

credibility ,kr8da'bilati 

crankcase 'kraegk, kes | -cases -jkesiz 

credible 'kredabl |-bly -bli 

crankle 'kraegkl ]-d -d j-ling 'kraegkhg, -klig 

credit 'kredit [credited 'krtditid 

crankpin 'kraegk, pin 

creditability ,kr£dita'bilati 

crankshaft 'kraegkjjaeft; E+-,J'aft,-,Xaft 

creditable 'krsditabl [-bly -bli 

Cranmer 'kraenma^; ES 'kraenma(r 

creditor 'kredita^; ES 'kreditaCr 

crannog 'kraenag 

credo, C- 'krido, 'kredo 

cranny 'kraem [crannied 'kraemd 

credulity kra'dulati, -'dm-, -'dju- 

Cranston 'kraenstan 

credulous 'kredsalas 

crape krep jcraped krept 

Cree kri 

crappie 'kraepi, 'krapi 

creed krid [creeded 'kridid 

craps kraeps 

creek krik, krik — krik is much less freq. in ilie 

crapulous 'krapjulas 

S, bzit appears to be the native form in the 

crash kraej j-es -iz j-ed -t 

N b' E. krik, origi?ially a North British dia- 

Crashaw 'kraeja 

lect form, is still native in the Appalachians. 

crasis 'kresis ] erases 'kresiz 

According to Horn's, Jordan's, and Luick's 

crass kraes 

Historical English Grammars, krik repre- 

Crassus 'kraesas |-sus' -sas 

se7its the original word (ME crike), later 

cratch, C- kraetj | cratches 'kraet/iz 

altered to krik and then spelt creek. Crike is 

Cratchit 'kraetfit 

vmch the earlier recorded form. At first krik 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fmz [dish di/ [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 




was not a spelling pronunciation, bid the 

crick krik [cricked krikt 

spelling creek doubtless encouraged its spread. 

cricket 'krikit |-ed -id |-er -a^; ES -a(r 

Luick thinks that American krik represents 

cricoid 'kraikaid 

the normal standard English development. 

cried kraid 

Creek krik 

crier 'kraia^; ES 'krai-aCr 

creel kril | creeled krild 

cries kraiz 

creep krip |crept krspt |-er 'kripa^; ES -p3(r 

Crile krail 

creepmouse 'krip^maus |-'s -iz |-mice -^mais 

crime kraim [crimed kraimd 

creese kris | creeses 'krisiz 

Crimea krai'mia, kri- |-n -n 

Creighton 'kretn, 'kraitn 

criminal 'krimanj, 'krinml |-ly -i 

cremate 'krimet |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 

criminality jkrima'naelati 

crematory 'krimaytori, 'krEm-, -jtDti; S -itori 

criminate 'krimajnet |-nated -^netid 

creme de menthe Fr kremda'mat 

crimination jkrima'ne/an 

Cremona kri'mona 

criminologic jkrimana'ladsik, ^krimna-; ES+ 

crenate 'krinet |-d -id |-tion kri'ne/an 


crenel 'krenl |creneled 'krenld 

criminologist jkrima'nalad3ist, krim'nal-; 

crenelate, -11- 'kren}jet |-d -id 

ES+-'nDl-; |-gy-d3i 

crenelation, -11- ^krEnl'e/an 

crimp krimp [crimped krimpt 

Creole, c- 'kriol 

crimple 'krimpi |-d -d [-ling -'krimplig, -plig 

Creon 'krian, -nn 

crimson 'krimzn | crimsoned 'krimznd 

creosote 'kria^sot |creosoted 'kria^sotid 

cringe krinds [cringes 'krmdsiz j-d -d 

crepe, crepe krep |-d -t 

cringle 'kriggl 

crepe de Chine jkrepda'/in 

crinkle 'krigkl |-d -d [-ling 'krigkhg, -klig 

crepitant 'krepatant |-itate -jtet |-tated -^tetid 

crinkly 'krigkli 

crept krept 

crinoid 'krainaid, 'krin- 

crepuscle kri'pAsl |-cular -kjala^; ES -l3(r 

crinoline 'krinjin, -jin 

crescendo kra'/endo, -'sEn- {It kre'Jendo) 

cripple 'kripl |-d -d |-ling 'kriplig, -plig 

crescent 'kresnt |-ed -id 

Cripple Creek 'kripl'krik, -'krik 

cresol 'krisol 

Cripplegate 'kripljget, -git 

cress kres |cresses 'kresiz [cressed krest 

Criseyde in Chaucer kri'seda 

cresset 'kresit 

crisis 'kraisis [crises 'kraisiz 

Cressida in Shak. 'kresida — see Criseyde 

crisp krisp [crisped krispt 

Cressy 'kresi {Fr Crecy kre'si) 

crisscross 'kriSjkras, -jkrus [-es -iz [-ed -t 

crest krest | crested 'krestid 

Cristobal kris'tobi {Sp kris'toIJal) 

crestfallen 'krest^falan, -jfaln 

criterion krai'tirian [-teria -'tiria 

Crestline 'krestlain, 'krEslain 

critic 'kritik [al -1 [ally -li, -ikli 

cretaceous kri'tejas 

criticaster 'kritikjaesta^; ES -^aestad 

Crete krit | Cretan 'kritn 

criticism 'kritajSizam 

cretin 'kritin |-ism -jizam, -tn- 

criticize 'krita/Saiz [-s -iz [-d -d 

cretonne kri'tan, -'ton, 'kritan, -tnn 

critique kri'tik 

crevasse kraVaes |-s -iz |-d -t 

Crito 'kraito 

crevice 'krevis ]-s -iz |-d -t 

Crittendon 'kritndan 

crew kru, kriu 

croak krok [croaked krokt 

Crewe kru, kriu 

croaker, C- 'kroka^; ES 'kroka(r 

crewel 'krual, 'kriual 

Croat 'kroaet, -at 

crib krib | cribbed kribd 

Croatia kro'e/a, -Jia [-n -n 

cribbage 'kribids |-s -iz |-d -d 

Croce 'krotji {It 'kroit/e) 

cribwork 'krib^wyk; ES -^wsk, -jwyk 

crochet n 'kratjit; ES+'krot/it 

Crichton 'kraitn 

crochet v kro'/e [-cheted -'/ed -cheting -'/e-ig 

Key: See in full §§3-^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg jangr)- 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




crock krak; ES+krok; |-ed -t |-ery -an, -ri 

Crockett 'krakit; ES+'krokit 

crocodile 'krakajdail; ES+'krok- 

crocodilian jkraka'dilian; ES+jkrnk- 

crocus, C- 'krokas |-es -iz |-ci -sai 

Croesus 'krisas |-sus' -sas 

croft kroft, kroft 

Croix krai {Fr krwa) 

Croix de guerre Fr krwad 'ge:r 

Croker 'kroka^; ES 'krok3(r 

crokinole, C- 'kroka^nol 

Cro-Magnon kro'maegnan, -non {Fr 

Cromarty 'krama^ti; ES 'kramati, 'krom- 
cromlech 'kramlek; ES+'kinm- 
Crompton 'kramptan; ES+'krnmp- 
Cromwell 'kramwal, -wel, 'krAm-; ES+ 

Cromwellian kram'wElian, -Ijan; ES+krom- 
crone kron 

Cronus 'kronas |-'s -iz 
crony 'kroni |cronied 'kronid 
crook kruk | crooked krukt 
crookback 'kruk^baek [-ed -t 
crooked adj 'krukid 
Crookes kruks |-'s -iz 
crookneck 'kruk^nek |-ed -t 
croon krun [crooned krund 
crop krap; ES+krop; |-ped -t 
crop-eared 'krap'ird; ES 'krap'iad, 'krop-, 

S+-'£ad; ('crop-beared 'cur) 
cropper 'krapa^; ES 'krapa(r, 'krop- 
croppie 'krapi; ES+'kropi 
croquet kro'ke [croqueted kro'ked j-ing 

croquette kro'kEt 

croquignole 'krokainol, -km jol {Fr kraki'jibO 
crore kror, krar; ES kroa(r, E+kraa(r 
Crosby 'krazbi, 'krnz-, 'kraz- 
crosier, C- 'kro33^; ES 'kro3a(r; ]-ed -d 
cross kras, kms |-es -iz |-ed -t 
crossbar 'kras,bar, 'krns-; ES -jba:(r, E+ 

-jba:(r; |-red -d 
crossbeam 'kras^bim, 'kros- 
crossbill 'kras^bil, 'kros- 
crossbones 'krasjbonz, 'krns- 
crossbow 'kraSibo, 'kros- |-man -man |-men 

crossbred 'kras'bred, 'kros- ('cross-bred 'dog) 

crossbreed n 'krasjbrid, 'kros- 

crossbreed v 'kras'brid, 'kros-, -^brid ]-bred 

-'bred, -jbred 
crosscut 'kraSjkAt, 'krbs- 
crosse kras, kros |-s -iz 

cross-examination 'krasigjzaema'nejan, 'kros- 
cross-examine 'krasig'zaemin, 'kros- |-d -d 
cross-eye 'kras^ai, 'kros- 
cross-eyed 'kras 'aid, 'kros- ( 'cross- ^eyed 

cross-fertilization 'krasjfytla'ze/an, 'kros-, 

-ai'z-; ES -ifatl-, -,fytl- 
cross-fertilize 'kras'fytljaiz, 'kros-; ES -'fstl-, 

-'fytl-; |-s -IZ |-d -d 
cross-gartered 'kras'garta'd, 'krns-; ES 

-'ga:tad, E+-'ga:tad 
cross-grained 'kras'grend, 'kros- 
crosshatch 'krasjhaetj, 'kros- |-es -iz |-ed -t 
cross-legged 'kras'kgid, -'legd, 'kros- ('sit 

jcross-'legged, 'cross- ^legged 'knight) 
crossover n 'krasjova^, 'krns-; ES -jOV9(r 
crosspatch 'krasjpjetj, 'krns- |-es -iz 
crosspiece 'krasjpis, 'krns- |-s -iz 
cross-pollinate 'kras'pala^net, 'kros-; ES-i- 

-'pnl-; |-d -id 
cross-pollination 'kraSjpala'ne/an, 'krns-; 

cross-purpose 'kras'pypas, 'kros-; ES -'psp-, 

-'pyp-; 1-s -iz 
cross-question 'kras'kwest/an, 'kros- |-ed -d 
crossruff 'kras^rAf, 'kros- |-ed -t 
cross-section v 'kras'sekjan, 'krns- |-ed -d 
cross-stitch 'kras^stitj, 'kros- |-es -iz j-ed -t 
crosstrees 'kras^triz, 'krns- 
crossways 'krasjwez, 'kros- |-wise -^waiz 
crossword 'kras^wyd, 'kros-; ES -;W3d, -^wyd 
crotch kratf ; ES+krotJ; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
crotched adj 'krat/t, 'kratjid; ES+'krotJ- 
crotchet 'kratjit; ES+'krotJit; |-ed -id 
Crothers 'krA'Sa'z; ES 'krAtJaz; |-'s -iz 
croton, C- krotn 

crouch kraut/ |crouches 'krautjiz |-ed -t 
croup krup |-ed -t 

crouper 'crupper' 'krupa^, 'krupa", ES -pa(r 
croupier 'krupia^; ES 'krupi'a(r 
crouton kru'tan, -'ton {Fr kru'to) 
crow kro \past crew kru, kriu or crowed krod 

\pplc crowed krod 
crowbar 'kro^bar; ES -jba:(r, E-i--jba:(r 

|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fy'5a'; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish di/ |vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl |keep 'em 'kipm 




crowd kraud Icrowded 'kraudid 

Crowell 'kroal 

crowfoot 'krojfut \pl -feet -jfit, plant -foots 

Crowley 'kroli, 'krauli 
crown kraun |crowned kraund 
crown piece 'kraun ^pis | -pieces -^pisiz 
crow's-foot 'krozjfut j-feet -^fit 
crow's-nest 'kroz^nest 
Croydon 'kraidn 

crozier, C- 'krosa^; ES 'krogaCr; |-ed -d 
cruces pi of crux 'krusiz, 'kriusiz 
crucial 'krujal, 'kriu/al |-ly -i 
cruciate adj 'krujiit, 'kriu-, -i^et 
cruciate v 'kru/ijCt, 'kriu- |-ated -^etid 
crucible 'krussbl, 'kriu- |-d -d 
crucifix 'krus3jfiks, 'kriu- |-es -iz 
crucifixion jkrusa'fik/an, jkriu- 
cruciform 'krusS/fDrm, 'kriu-; ES -jfaam 
crucify 'krusa^fai, 'knu- |-fied -jfaid 
crude krud, kriud |-dity -ati 
cruel 'krual, 'kriual |-ly -i |-ty -ti 
cruet 'kruit, 'kriuit 
Cruikshank 'krukj/aegk 
cruise kruz, kriuz |-s -iz |-d -d 
cruiser 'kruza^, 'kriuza^; ES -Z3(r 
cruller 'krAla^; ES 'krAl3(r 
crumb, C- krAm [crumbed krAmd 
crumble 'krAinbl |crumbled 'krAmbld |-bly 

crump krAmp | crumped krAmpt 
crumpet 'krAmpit 

crumple 'krAmpl |-d -d 1-ling 'krAmplig, -plig 
crumply 'krAmpli 

crunch krAntJ | crunches 'krAnt/iz |-ed -t 
crupper 'krApa^, 'krupa^; ES -p3(r 
crural 'krural, 'kriural 
crusade, C- kru'sed, knu- ]-d -id 
cruse kruz, kriuz, -s |-s -iz 
crush krAj | crushes 'krA/iz | crushed krAjt 
Crusoe 'kruso, 'kriuso 
crust krAst | crusted 'krAstid 
crustacean krAs'tefan |-ceous -/as 
crutch krAt/ |crutches 'krAtJiz |-ed -t 
crux krAks |-es -iz | cruces 'krusiz, 'kriu- 
cry krai | cried kraid |-baby -jbebi 
cryolite 'kraiajait 
crypt kript |crypted 'kriptid 
cryptic 'kriptik |-al -I |-ally -li, -ikli 

cryptogam 'knptajgaem |-ic /knpta'gjemik 
cryptogamous krip'tagamas, -'tog- |-my -mi 
cryptogram 'kripta/graem 
cryptograph 'kripta,graef ; E+-/graf, -jgraf 
cryptographer krip'tagrafa^, -'tog-; ES -fa(r; 

|-phy -fi 
cryptographic ^kripta'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

crystal, C- 'knstl |-ed -d 
crystalhne 'knstlin, -jam, ^oei.-i-kns'tael- 
crystallization jkristla'zejan, -ai'z- 
crystaUize 'kristljaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
crystallography ,kristl'agrafi, -'og- 
crystalloid 'kristlpid |-al ikristl'aidl 
Ctesiphon 'tEsajfan, -jfmi 
cub kAb [cubbed kAbd 
Cuba 'kjuba, 'kiuba |-n -n {Sp 'ku^a) 
cubbyhole 'kAbijhol 
cube kjub, kiub |-d -d 
cubeb 'kjubsb, 'kiubeb 
cubic 'kjubik, 'kiu- j-al -1 |-ally -]i |-icly -ikli 
cubicle 'kjubikl, 'kiu- 
cubism 'kjubizam, 'kiub- |-ist -ist 
cubistic kju'bistik, kiu- 
cubit 'kjubit, 'kiubit |-ed -id 
cuboid 'kjubaid, 'kiubaid 
Cuchulainn, -llin ku'kAlin, 'kuxuhn 
cucking-stool 'kAkiOiStul 
cuckold 'kAkjd |-ed -id j-ry -ri 
cuckoo 'kuku, ku'ku j-ed -d 
cuckooflower 'kuku^flaua-; ES -jflau-a(r 
cucumber 'kjukAmba^, 'kiu-; ES -kAmba(r 
cud kAd 

Cudahy 'kAdahi 

cuddle 'kAdl 1-d -d |-ling 'kAdlig, 'kAdlig 
cuddly 'kAdli 
cuddy, C- 'kAdi 

cudgel 'kAdsal [cudgeled 'kAdsald 
cue kju, kiu [cued kjud, kiud 
cuff kAf [cuffed kAft 
Cufic 'kjufik, 'kiu- 
cuirass kwi'raes |-es -iz |-ed -t 
cuirassier ^kwira'sir; ES -'siaCr 
cuisine kwi'zin 
cuisse kwis [cuisses 'kwisiz 
cul-de-sac 'kAlda'saek, 'kul- {Fr kyd'sak, kyt-) 
Culebra ku'lebra 

culex, C- 'kjuleks, 'kiu- [-lices -h^siz 
culinary 'kiula,neri, 'kiula- 

Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg |angr\' 'asg-gri 
[bath bae6; E baO (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




cuU kAl IcuUed kAld 

cuneiform 'kjumajarm, 'kiun-. 


Cullen 'kAlin, -an 

kju'nla-, kiu-; ES -Jaam 

cullender 'kAlanda^, 'kAlin-; ES -dacr 

cuniform 'kjumjarm, 'kium-; ES - 


cullion 'kAljan |-ry -n 

cunner 'kAna^; ES 'kAna(r 

Culloden ka'ladn, -'lodn, -'lodn 

cunning 'kAnig 

culm kAlm |culmed kAlmd 

Cunningham 'kAnig^haem, %Amgam 

culminate 'k Alma, net |-nated -,netid 

cup kAp 1 cupped kApt 

culmination jkAlma'ne/an 

cupalo, -olo 'kjnpajo, 'km- |-ed -d- 


culpability ikAlpa'bibti 

represents a 17c variant of cupola still widely 

culpable 'kAlpabl |-bly -bli 

heard in US. 

Culpeper 'kAlpepa"^; ES 'kAlpEp3(r 

cupbearer 'kAp^ber*, -^baera'; E -,b£ra(r, ES 

culprit 'kAlprit 


cult kAlt 

cupboard 'kAba'd; ES 'kAbad; |-ed 


cultivability jkAltava'bibti 

cupful 'kApJul |-s -z 

cultivable %Alt3vabl |-bly -bli 

Cupid, c- 'kjupid, 'kiupid 

cultivate 'kAltajVet |-vated -,vetid 

cupidity kju'pidati, kiu- 

cultivation jkAltaVeJan 

cupola 'kjupala, 'km- |-ed -d — see c 


cultivator 'kAltajveta^; ES -jvetaCr 

cupreous 'kjuprias, 'kmp- 1-rous -ras j-ric -rik 

cultural 'kAlt/aral |-ly -i 

cur ky; ES k3(r, ks' 

culture 'kAltJa^; ES 'kAltJaCr; |-d -d 

curability jkjura'bilati, jkiura- 

culver, C- 'kAlva^; ES 'kAlv3(r 

curable 'kjurabl, 'kiur- |-bly -bh 

culverin 'kAlvarin 

Curasao, c-, -goa jkjura'so, ^kiura- 

culvert 'kAlva^t; ES 'kAlvat; |-ed -id 

curacy 'kjurasi, 'kiurasi 

cumber 'kAmba^; ES 'kAmb3(r; |-ed -d j-ing 

Curan 'kyan; ES 'ksran, 'kAran, 'ka^an 

'kAmbrig, 'kAmbarii) 

curassow 'kjura^so, 'kiura- 

Cumberland 'kAmba^land; ES 'kAmba- 

curate 'kjurit, 'kiurit 

cumbersome 'kAmba^sam; ES 'kAmba- 

curative 'kjurativ, 'kiu- 

cumbrance 'kAmbrans |-s -iz |-brous -bras 

curator kju'reta^, kiu'reta^, law- 

f 'kjurata-. 

Cumbria 'liAmbria |-n -n 

'kiur-; ES -ta(r 

cumin, cumm- 'kAmin 

curatorial jkjura 'tonal, ,kiura-. 

-'tar-; S 

cum laude 'kAm'bdi, 'kum'laudi 


Cimunings 'kAnugz |-'s -iz 

curb kyb; ES ksb, k^b; |-ed -d |-stone -,ston 

Cummins 'kAminz |-'s -iz 

curculio ks^'yulijO, -'kmli-; ES ks 


cumquat 'kAmkwat, -kwot 

curd ks^d; ES ksd, kyd; |-ed -id 

cumshaw 'kAm/a 

curdle 'ka^dl; ES 'kadi, 'kydl; 1-d -d |-ling 

cumulate adj 'kjumjaht, 'kium-, -Jet 

-djig, -dbg 

cumulate v 'kjumjajlet, 'kium- 1-lated -,letid 

cure kjur, kiur; ES -a(r; |-d -d 

cumulation jkjumja'leXan, ,kiumja- 

cure kju're, kiu're {Fr ky're) 

cumulative 'kiumja,letiv, 'kiumja- 

cure-all 'kjur pi, 'kiur pi 

cumulo-cirrus ,kjumjalo'siras, jkium- |-ri -rai 

curette kju'ret, kiu- |-d -id 

cumulo-nimbus jkjumjalo'nimbas, ,kium- 

curfew 'kyfju, -fiu; ES 'ks-, 'ks'- 

|-bi -bai 

curia 'kjuria, 'kiuria |-iae -iji 

cumulo-stratus jkjumjalo'stretas, ^kmm- |-ti 

Curie, c- 'kjuri, 'kiu-, kju'ri, kiu- 

{Fr ky'ri) 


curio, C- 'kjurijO, 'kiuri- 

cumulous 'kjumjalas, 'kium- 

curiosity ,kjuri'asati, ,kiuri-; ES-i- 


cumulus 'kjumjalas, 'kium- |-es -iz |-li -Jai 

curious 'kjurias, 'kiun- 

Cunard kju'nard, kiu-; ES -'na:d, E+-'na:d 

curl ks'l; ES ksl, ks^l; |-ed -d 

cunctator kAgk'teta^; ES -'teta(r; |-ship -Jip 

curlew 'kylu, -Im, 'kylju; ES 'ks-, 


cuneate 'kjuniit, 'kiun-, -i^et 

curlicue 'kyli/kju, -,km; ES 'ksli-. 


|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau [toy tai 
(using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif [vision 'vi3an |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




curmudgeon ka^'mAdjan; ES ka- 

cushaw ka'/b 

currant 'kyant; ES 'ksrant, 'kAr-, 'ky- 

Gushing 'ku/ig 

currency 'kyansi; ES 'ksransi, 'kAr-, 'ky- 

Cushman 'kujman 

current 'kyant; ES 'ksrant, 'kAr-, 'ky- 

cushion 'kujan, -in |-ed -d 

curricle 'kyikl; ES 'ksrikl, 'kAr-, 'ka^-; 

cusp kAsp jcusped kAspt |-id -id j-idal -idl 

1-d -d |-ling -kho, -klig 

cuspate 'kAspit, -pet |-d -petid 

curricular ka'rikjala^; ES -l3(r 

cuspidate 'kAspijdet |-dated -^detid 

curriculum ka'rikjabm |-s -z |-la -la 

cuspidor 'kAspajdar; ES -jdaa(r 

currier, C- 'kyia^; ES 'ksri-aCr, 'kAri-, 'kyi- 

cuss kAS 1 cusses 'kAsiz | cussed kAst 

Currier and Ives 'kyia^n'aivz, 'kyiarand'aivz; 

cussed adj 'kAsid |-ly -li 

ES 'ksrian'aivz, 'kArian'aivz, 'kyian'aivz. 

cuss-word 'kASjwyd; ES -jwsd, -jWyd 

'ksriarand'aivz 'kAriarand'aivz, 'kyiarand- 

custard 'kAsta^d; ES 'kAstad 


Custer 'kAsta^; ES 'kAsta(r 

currish 'kyij; ES 'ksrij, 'ky- 

Custis 'kAstis |-'s -IZ 

curry 'kyi; ES 'ksri, 'kAri, 'kyi; [-ied -d 

custodial kAs'todial |-an -an j-anship -an Jip 

|-comb -jkom 

custody 'kAstadi 

curse kys; ES kss, kys; [-s -iz |-d -t 

custom 'kAstam |-ed -d 

cursed adj 'kysid, kyst; ES 'kss-, 'kys-, 

customarily 'kAstanijErali, esp. if emph. 

k3st, kyst; 1-ly -idli 


cursive 'kysiv; ES 'kss-, 'kys-; j-sory -sari 

customary 'kAstanijen 

cursorial ky'sonal, -'s3r-; ES ks'sonal, ky-. 

customer 'kAstama^; ES 'kAstamaCr 


customhouse 'kAStam^haus |-ses -ziz 

Cursor Mundi 'kysar'mAndai, 'kysa^-, -di; 

custom-made 'kAstam'med ('custom-jmade 

ES 'k3S33-, -S3-, 'kys33-, 'kys3- 


curst kyst; ES ksst, kyst 

cut kAt 

curt kyt; ES kst, kyt 

cut-and-fill 'kAtn'M 

curtail ky'tel, ka^-; ES ks-, ky-, ka-; |-ed -d 

cutaneous kju'tenias, kiu- 

('curjtail 'spending) 

cutaway 'kAta^we 

curtain 'kytn, -tin, -tan; ES 'kst-, 'kyt-; 

cutback 'kAtjbaek 

|-ed -d |-ing -irj, -tniij 

cute kjut, kiut 

curtal 'kytl; ES 'kstl, 'kytl 

Cuthbert 'kAOba-t; ES 'kAGbat 

curtesy 'kytasi; ES 'kst-, 'kyt- 

cuticle 'kjutikl, 'kiut- 

curtilage 'k^tlids; ES 'kst-, 'kyt-; |-s -iz 

cutlass, -las 'kAtlas j-es -iz 

Curtis, -ss 'kytis; ES 'kst-, 'kyt-; |-'s -iz 

cut-leaf 'kAtjlif | -leaved -jlivd 

curtsy -sey 'ks'tsi; ES 'kst-, 'kyt-; |-ied -d 

cutler 'kAtla^; ES 'kAtla(r; |-ess -is |-y -i 

curule 'kjurul, 'kiur-, -rui 

cutlet 'kAtht 

curvature 'ks'vatja'; -jtjur; ES 'ksvat/aCr, 

cutoff 'kAtpf, -iuf 

'ks'vatJaCr, -/tju3(r 

cutout 'kAt,aut 

curve kyy; ES ksv, kyv; |-d -d |-dly -idli 

cutover 'kAtjOva^; ES -jOva(r 

curvet n 'kyvit; ES 'ksv-, 'kyv- 

cutpurse 'kAt^pys; ES -ipss, -ipys; ]-s -iz 

curvet V 'kyvit, ka-'vet; ES 'ksvit, 'kyy-. 

cut-rate 'kAt'ret ('cut-jrate 'store) 

ka'vEt; |-(t)ed -id 

cutter 'kAta^; ES 'kAta(r 

curvilineal jkyva'lmial; ES jksva-, ^kyva-; 

cutthroat 'kAt^Orot 

|-ear-i3-; ES -i'3(r 

cutting 'kAtig 

Curwood 'ks^jwud; ES 'ks^wud, 'ky- 

cuttle, C- 'kAtl l-bone -jbon j-fish -M 

Curzon 'kyzn; ES 'kszn, 'ks^zn 

cutty 'kAti 

Cusco 'kusko 

Cuttyhunk 'kAtijhAgk 

cusec 'kjusek, 'kiusek 

cutworm 'kAt,wym; ES -jwsm, -^wym 

Cush kAj l-'s -IZ |-ite -ait |-itic kAj'itik 

Cuvier 'kjuvijC, 'kiu- {Fr ky'vje) 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret ij^et jet |sang saeg |angr>- 'aeo-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Cuyahoga kai'hags, ^kaia-, ka-, -'hoga, 

•'haga, old-fash, -'hoga 
Cuyahoga Falls ka^haga^falz. kai-, -^hoga-, 

-'haga-, old-fash, -'hoga- 
Cuzco 'kusko 
cyanamide jSaia^naemaid, sai^senajinaid, -mid 

I -mid -mid 
cyanate ^saia^net 
cyanic sai'aemk 

cyanide 'saidiiiaid, -md |-nid -nid |-d -id 
cyanogen sai'^enadsan, -dsin 
cyanosis jsaiaWsis 
Cybele, c- 'sibl^i 
Cyclades ^sikbjdiz 
cyclamen 'siklaman, -jmen 
cycle 'saikl |-d -d |-ling ^saiklig, %aik]io 
cyclic ^saiklik, 'sik- ]-al -j |-ally -ji, -ikh 
cyclist 'saiklist, ^saikhst 
cycloid ^saikbid |-al sai'kbidl [-ally sai- 

cyclometer sai'klamata^; ES -^klam3t3(r, 

cyclone 'saiklon |-d -d 
cyclonic sai'klanik; ES+-'klDn-; |-al -1 |-alty 

-li, -ikh 
Cyclopean, c- ^saikla'pian 
cyclopedia, -paed- jsaikb^idia 
cyclopedic, -paed- jsaikb'pidik |-al -1 [-ally 

-li, -ikh 
Cyclops ^saiklaps; ES+-klDps; |-es -iz 

I -elopes sai'klopiz 
cyclorama jSaikla'raema, -'roma 
cygnet 'signit 

Cygnus ^signas |-'s -iz \gen Cygni ^signal 
cylinder 'silinda^; ES -da(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'silindrig, -dang 
cylindric si^indnk |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
cymbal 'simbl |-ed -d |-ing ^simb]ig, -bhg 
C3Tnbalist 'simblist, 'simblist 

Cymbeline ^simb]jin 

cyme saim jcymose 'saimos, saiWos 

cymous 'saimas 

Cymric 'simrik, ^kimrik |-ry -ri 

Cynewulf 'kim^wulf 

cynic 'simk |-al -} |-ally -ji, -ikk 

cynicism 'sinajSizam |-eist -sist 

cynocephalic jSinose'faebk, jsamo- 

cynocephalus ^sino'sefabs, ^sai- |-lous -bs 

cynosure 'sainaj'ur, 'sina-; ES -Svair 

Cynthia ^sinGia |Cynthiana jSinOi'aena 

cypher 'saifa^; ES 'saifa(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'saifrig, ^saifarig 
cypress 'saipras |-es -iz |-ed -t 
Cyprian 'siprian 
cyprinoid 'sipra^naid 
Cypriot 'sipriat |-ote -^ot 
cypripedium, C- jSipra'pidiam |-dia -dia 
Cyprus, c- 'saipras |-'s -iz 
Cyrano de Bergerac 'sirajnoda'byd3a,raek; 

ES -'bsds-, -'byds-; (Fr siranodbergaVak) 
Cyrenaic jSira'ne-ik, jsaira- |-naica -'neaka 
Cyrene pers. name sai'rin, Gk city sai'rini 
Cyril 'siral, -il 
Cyrus 'sairas |-'s -iz 
cyst sist |-ed -id |-itis sis'taitis 
Cythera si'Oira 
Cytherea /SiOa'na |-n -n 
cytology sai'ta!ad3i; ES+-'tDl-; 1-gist -st 
cytoplasm 'saita^plaezam |-ic jsaita'plaezmik 
czar zar; ES za:(r, E+za:(r 
czarevitch 'zarajVit/; E+'zara-; [-'s -iz 
czarevna za'r£vna; E+za- 
czarina zaVina; E+za- 
Czech t/ek |-ic -ik |-ish -if 
Czechoslovak, Czecho-Sl- jt/eka'slovaek, -vak 
Czechoslovakia, Czecho-Sl- jt/tkasloVaekia, 

-Vak-, -kja |-n -n 
Czernowitz 't/ErnajVits l-'s -iz 

|full ful Itooth tue [further 'fytia^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy t3i 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




D, d letter di \pl D's, Ds, poss D's diz 

-d ending see -ed 

'd abbr. spelling of unstressed had, would, as in 
I'd aid, he'd hid, she'd Jid, it'd itad, we'd 
wid, you'd jud, they'd tied, there'd tJerd, 
tiead, etc. 

dab daeb | dabbed daebd 

dabble 'daebl |-d -d l-hng ^daeblig, ^daeblig 

dabster 'daebsta'; ES 'daebst3(r 

da capo It da'ka:po 

dace des | daces 'desiz 

dachshund 'daksjhund, ^daeks^IiAnd {Ger 

Dacia 'de/ia, 'de/a [-n -n 

dacoit da'koit |dacoitage da'koitids \-y -i 

dactyl, D- 'daektil, -tl |Dactyli ^daektijai 

dactylic daek'tilik 

dad daed | daddy 'daedi 

dado 'dedo | dadoed 'dedod 

Daedalus 'dedlas |Daedalus's 'dedlasiz 

daemon 'diman |-s -z |daemones 'diman^iz 

daffodil 'daefa^dil |-dilly -jdili 

daffy 'daefi 

daffydowndilly ^daefijdaun^dili 

Dafoe 'defo 

daft daeft; E+daft, daft 

dag daejl |dagged daegd 

dagger 'daega-; ES 'daegaCr 

daggle 'da^gl |-d -d | daggling Maeghg, -glig 

Dago 'Italian' 'dego; Darjur Negro 'dago 

Dagobert 'daegab^t, 'dfego^bs't; ES 'daega- 
bat, 'daegojbat, -jbs^t 

Dagon 'degan, -gan; ES+'degnn 

Daguerre Fr da'g£:r 

daguerreotype da'gerajtaip, da'gena- 

Dahl dal 

Dahlgren 'daelgrin, -an 

dahha 'daslja, 'dalja, 'delja — The regtdar 
Anglicized form is 'delja, prevalent in Engd 
and formerly in Amer. 'dalja is. formed on 
Sw Dahl, and 'daelja is an Am modification 
of 'dalja. 

Dahomey da'homi, da'home 

Dail Eireann 'dail'eran, 'dail-, -'eran 

daily, D- 'deli 

daimio 'daimjo 

Daimler 'demla^, 'daimla'; ES -la(r 

daimon 'dannan; ES+'daimnn 

Daingerfield 'dendsa-^fild; ES 'dendja- 

Dai Nippon 'dai ni'pan, -'pon, 'nip'pan, -'pon 
{Jap 'njippon) 

dainty 'denti |-tily 'dentli, -till 

dairy 'den, 'de:ri, 'den [-man -man, -jmaen 
|-men -man, -^men — Some speakers distin- 
guish dsiiry from Derry by a longer e. 

dais 'de-is, des |daises 'de-isiz, 'desiz — "The 
dissyllabic pronunciation of dais is a 'shot' at 
the word from the spelling." — OED. 

daisy 'dezi [daisied 'dezid 

dak, dawk dak, dak 

Dakar da'kar, da-; ES -'ka:(r, E+-'ka:(r 

Dakin 'dekin 

Dakota da'kota, di'kota 

Dalai Lama da'lai'lama, 'dalai- 

dale del |-man, -men -man |-sman, -smen 

Dalhousie college dael'hauzi, Quebec dael'huzi 

Dallas 'daelas, Texas /oc.+'daelis |-'s -iz 

daUes, D- daelz 

dalliance 'daehans, 'daeljans |-s -iz 

dally 'daeli |dalhed 'daelid 

Dalmatia dael'me/ia, -'me/a ]-n -n 

dalmatic, D- dael'maetik 

Dalrymple 'daelnmpl, dael'nmpl 

Dalton 'daltn 

Daly 'deh 

Dalzel, -11, -ziel Am name dael'zEl; Scotl 
dal'jel, -'zel, di'el, di'el, da'el 

dam daem [dammed daemd 

damage 'daemids |-s -iz |-d -d 

Damariscotta jdaemari'skata; ES+-'skDta; 
loc. jdaema'skoti 

Damascene 'daema^sin, jdaema'sln 

Damascus da'maeskas |-'s -iz 

damask 'daemask 

dame dem 

Damien 'demian, -mjan {Fr da'mj«) 

damn daam |-ed -d [damning 'daemig, 

damnable 'daemnabl |-bly -bh |-ation daem- 

damnatory 'daemnajtori, -jtari; S 'daemna- 

damnify 'daemna^fai [damnified 'daemnajfaid 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw daa [gorge g3rd3 [go go 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

Damocles 'daemajkliz |Damocles's 'daema- 

Daphne 'daefra 


Daphnis 'daefnis |Daphnis's 'daefnisiz 

Damon ^deman 

dapper 'daepa^; ES 'daepa(r 

damosel, -zel 'daema^zEl |-zell jdaema^zEl 

dapple 'daepl |-d -d |-ling 'daeplig, -plig 

damosella jdaema'zela 

dapple-gray 'daepl'gre ('dapple-^gray 'mare) 

damp daemp | damped daempt 

Darbishire 'darbi^/ir, -/a^; ES 'da:bijXia(r, 

dampen 'daempan |-ed -d |-ing -panig, -pnig 


damper 'dasmpa^; ES 'daemp3(r 

Darby 'darbi; ES 'da:bi 

Dampier 'd«mpir, 'daempi-a^, -pjsr ; ES -pi3(r. 

Dardanelles /dardn'Elz; ES jda:d- 

-pi-3(r, -pJ3(r 

Dardanius dar'denias; ES da-; |-'s -iz 

Damrosch 'daemra/; ES+-rDX; j-'s -iz 

dare der, daer; E deaCr, ES daea(r; |-d -d 

damsel 'daemzl 

or durst da^st; ES dsst, dyst; pptc -d -d 

damson 'daemzn 

daredevil 'der^dEvI, 'daer- ; E 'dea-, ES 'daea- ; 

Dan daen 

|-try -tri 

Dana 'dena 

daren't demt, daemt; E deant, ES d«ant 

Danae 'daenij 

Dares 'deriz, 'daeriz, 'deriz; S 'dteriz, 'deriz; 

Danai 'daenijai 

|-es' -iz 

Danbury 'daen^bEri, 'daenbari 

Darfur dar'fur, 'dorfa^; ES da:'£ua(r, 'da:fa(r 

dance daens; E+dans, dans; |-s -iz |-d -t 

daric 'daerik 

dandelion 'daendl^aian, 'daendi^laian 

Darien Panama jden'en, ^daer-, 'deri^En, 

dander 'daenda^; ES 'diendaCr 

'daer-, -an; S jdaer-, 'daer-; Co7in -'en 

Dandie 'daendi 

daring 'derig, 'daeng; S 'daerig 

dandify 'daendi jfai |-fied -^faid 

Darius da'raias |Darius's da'raiasiz 

dandle 'daendi |-d -d |-ling 'daendhg, 'daendlig 

Darjeeling, -jil- dar'dsihg; ES dar'ds- 

dandier 'daendla^; ES 'daendla(r 

dark dark; ES dark; |darked darkt; ES da:kt 

dandruff 'daendraf 

darken 'darkan; ES 'da:k-; |-ed -d |-ing 

dandy 'daendi 

-kanig, -knig 

Dane den |-geld -igeld |-lagh, -law -Ja 

darkey 'darki; ES 'da:ki 

Danenhower 'daenan^hauof; ES -jhau»a(r 

darkling 'darklig; ES 'darkbg 

danger 'dend33'; ES 'dend3a(r; |-ous -as. 

darkroom 'dark^rum, -^rum; ES 'dark- 


darksome 'darksam; ES 'darksam 

Dangerfield 'dendsa^^fild; ES 'dendsa- 

darky 'darki; ES 'darki 

dangle 'daeggl |-d -d |-ling 'daegglig, -glig 

Darlan 'dorian; ES 'darl-; {Fr dar'la) 

Daniel 'daenjal, old-fash, 'daenj |-s -z 

darUng 'darlig ; ES 'darlig 

Danielson Conn 'daenlsn, 'daenjalsn 

Darmstadt 'darmjstat; ES 'darm-; {Ger 

Danish 'denif 


Danite 'daenait 

darn dam; ES darn; f-ed -d j-edest -dist 

dank daegk 

Darnal, -11 'daml; ES 'darnl 

d'Annunzio da'nunzijO {It dan'nuntsjo) 

Darnay dar'ne; ES dar'ne 

danseuse dan'ssz, daen- |-s -iz {Fr dasorz) 

darnel 'darnl; ES 'darnl 

Dante 'daenti, 'danti {It 'dante) 

Darnel, -11 'darnl, dar'nel; ES 'darnl, dar'nel 

Dantean 'daentian, daen'tian, 'dan-, dan- 

Darnley 'darnli; ES 'darnk 

Dantesque daen'tesk, dan- 

Darrow 'daero, -a 

Danton 'daentan, Fr leader sarj 3a:k da'to 

Darsie 'darsi; ES 'darsi 

Danube 'daenj ub, 'daenjub |-bian daen'jubian 

dart dart; ES dart; |-ed -id 

Dan vers 'daenva^z; ES 'daenvaz; |-'s -iz 

Dartford 'dartfa-d; ES 'dartfad 

Danzig 'daentsig {Ger 'dantsix) 

dartle 'dartl; ES 'darti; |-d -d |-ling -tlig, 

dap daep [dapped daept 


|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytja^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

Dartmoor 'dart^mur, -jmor, -jinar; ES 'da:t- 

jinu3(r, -^moaCr, E+-im33(r 
Dartmouth 'dartmaG; ES 'dattmaO 
Darwin 'darwm; ES 'da:win; |-ism -^izam 
Darwinian dar'wiman; ES da'winian 
Dasent ^desnt 

dash daej | dashes 'daefiz |-ed -t |-edly -idli 
dashboard 'dae/jbord, -Joord; ES 'dae/jboad, 

dastard 'daesta^d; ES ^daestad 
data 'deta, 'daeta, 'data 
datary 'detari |dataria da'teria, de-, -'ter- 
date det [dated 'detid 
dative 'detiv 

datum 'detain [data 'deta, 'daeta, 'data 
daub dab | daubed dabd 
Daubeney 'dabani, 'dabni 
Daubigny do'binji (Fr dobi'jii) 
Daudet do'de, 'dode (Fr do'de) 
daughter 'data^; ES 'dataCr 
daughter-in-law 'datannja, 'data^nja; ES 

'datarinja, 'datanja 
daughters-in-law 'data^zin^la, 'data^znja; ES 

'datazin^la, 'datazrija 
daunt dant, dnnt, dant |-ed -id |-less -lis 
dauphin 'dafm |-ess -is, -j8s (Fr do'f*) 
davenport, D- 'dasvan^port, 'daevm^port, 

-jpart; ES -^poat, E-i--jpaat 
Daventry 'daevantri, loc. 'dentn 
David 'devid |-son -sn 
Davies 'deviz, 'devis, 'deviz |-'s -iz 
Daviess 'devis |-'s -iz 
da Vinci, Leonardo jlia'nardo da'vmt/i; ES 

-'na:do; (It jleo'nardo da'vintji) 
Davis 'devis | Davis's 'devisiz |-on -n 
davit 'daevit 
Davy 'devi 
daw da 

dawdle 'dadl |-d -d 1-hng 'dadhij, 'dadjig 
Dawes daz | Dawes's 'daziz 
dawk dak, dak 
dawn dan [dawned dand 
Dawson 'dasn 

day, D- de |-book -jbuk [-break -jbrek 
Dayak 'daiask 
daydream 'de^drim |-ed -d 
dayflower 'de^flaua^, -jflaur; ES -jflau'a(r, 


daylight 'dcjlait 

daylight-saving 'dejait'sevig ('daylight-iSav- 

ing 'time) 
dayspring 'de^spno 
daystar 'dcjstar; ES 'deiSta:(r 
daytime 'deitaim 
Dayton 'detn |-ian de 'toman 
Daytona de'tona 

daze dez | dazes 'deziz [dazed dezd |-dly -idb 
dazzle 'daezl |-d -d |-hng 'daezbg, daezlig 
de- prefix. Wlien wJwlly unaccented, de- varies 

between di- and da-. Wlien only one of these 

is given in the vocab., it is to be understood 

that the otlier is used by many speakers, or 

often by the same speaker in different styles. 

The di- type with many speakers has the 

usual tendency toward di-. 
deacon 'dikan |-ed -d ]-ate -it |-ess -is |-esses 

dead ded |deaded 'dedid |-ly -b 
deaden 'dgdn |-ed -d |-ing 'dednig, 'dednig 
deadeye, D- 'ded^ai 
deadfall 'dedjfal 

deadhead 'dEd^hed [-headed -jhedid 
deadliness 'dedbnis 
deadlock 'dedjak; ES+'^lok; |-ed -t 
deadwood, .D- 'ded^wud 
deaf def, now miich less frcq. dif 
deaf-and-dumb 'defan'dAin ('deaf-and-'dumb 

^school, 'deaf-and-jdumb 'boy) 
deafen 'defan |-ed -d [ing 'defamg, 'defnig 
deaf-mute 'def mjut, -'miut, -jnijut, -^miut 
deal dil [dealt dslt 

dean din [deaned dind |-ery -an, -ri j-ship -/ip 
Dean(e) din 

dear dir; ES dia(r, S+d£a(r, dJ£a(r 
Dearborn 'dirba^n, -jbam; ES 'diaban, -^baan, 

S-i-'dea-, 'djea- 
dearth d^G; ES dsG, d^G; [-ths -Gs 
deary, -ie 'din; S+'den, 'dJEn 
death dcG [-ths -Gs |-ly -h j-like -Jaik 
deathbed 'deG^bed 
deathblow 'dsG^blo 
death's-head 'dEGs^hed 
deathwatch 'dEG^watJ, -/WotJ, -jwatj" [-es -iz 
Deauville 'dovil {Fr do'vil) 
debacle de'bakl, di-, -'baekl {Fr de'ba:kj) 
debar di'bar; ES -'ba:(r; [-red -d 

Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet JEt [sang sasg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baG (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gardj [go go 




debark di'bark; ES -'ba:k, E+-'ba:k; 1-ed -t 

Decapolis di'kaepahs |-'s -iz 

debarkation ^dibar'kejan; ES -ba:-, E+-ba:- 

decarbonate di'karban^et; ES -'ka:b-. 


debase di'bes |-s -iz |-d -t |-dness -idnis 

-'ka:b-; |-ated -^etid 

debatable, -bateable di'betabl 

decarbonize di^karban^aiz; ES -'ka:b-. 


debate di'bet |-bated -'betid 

-'ka:b-; |-s -iz |-d -d 

debauch di'bat/ |-es -iz |-ed -t |-edly -idli 

decarburize dl'karbja^raiz, -'karba-; 


debauchee jdeba'tji, -'/i 

-'ka:b-, E+-'ka:b- 

debauchery di'botjari, -t/n 

decasyllable 'dekajSilabl |-bic ^dekasi'laebik 

debenture di'bentja^; ES -'bent/aCr; |-d -d 

decathlon di'kaeOlan; ES+-lon 

debiUtate di'bibjtet |-tated -^tetid 

Decatur di'ket»; ES -'keta(r 

debUitation di^bila'teXan 

decay di'ke |-cayed -'ked 

debility di'bibti 

Deccan 'dekan 

debit 'debit | debited 'debitid 

decease di'sis |-s -iz |-d -t 

debonair, -aire jdebaWr, -'naer; E -'nE3(r, 

decedent di'sidnt 

ES -'naB3(r 

deceit di'sit |-ful -fal [-fully -fah 

Deborah 'debsra 

deceive di'siv |-ceived -'sivd 

debouch di'buj |-es -iz [-ed -t 

decelerate di'selajret [-rated -^retid 

debris, de- da'bri, 'debri, Brit 'debri 

deceleration di^selaVe/an, jdisela- 

Debs debz |-'s -iz 

December di'semba^; ES -'s£mba(r 

debt del [debtor 'deta^; ES 'detaCr 

decemvir di'semva'; ES -'s£mva(r; [-s 

-z [-i 

debunk di'bAgk |-ed -t 


De Burgh di'bs^g; ES -'bsg, -'byg 

decemvirate di'semvarit, -jtet, -vrit 

Debussy da'bjusi, -'biu- {Fr daby'si) 

decency 'disnsi [decent Misnt 

debut di'bju, de-, -'biu, 'debju, -biu |-ed -d 

decennial di'semal [-ly -i 

{Fr de'by) 

decenter, -tre di'senta^; ES -'s£nta(r; [-(e)d -d 

debutante idebju'tant 'debja^taEnt 

|-(r)ing -'sentarig, -'sentrig 

decade 'deked, dek'ed 

decentralization ^disentrala'zejan, dijsen-. 

decadence di'kedns, 'dekadans |-cy -i |-dent 


di'kednt, 'dekadant 

decentralize di'sentral^aiz |-s -iz [-d -d 

decagon 'dekajgan; ES+-jgDn 

deception di'sep/an |-tive -tiv 

decagram, -mme 'deka^graem 

decibel 'desa^bel 

decahedral jdeka'hidral 

decide di'said [-cided -'saidid 

decahedron jdeka'hidran |-s -z [-dra -dra 

deciduous di'sidsuas 

decalcify di'kaelsa^fai |-fied -^faid 

decigram, -mme 'desajgriem 

decalescence jdika'lesns |-scent -snt 

decile, -il 'desil 

decaliter, -tre 'dekajita^; ES -jlita(r 

deciliter, -tre 'desajlita'; ES -jlita(r 

Decalogue, -log 'deka^bg, -\ag, -jlog 

decillion di'siljan j-th -6 [-ths -Os 

Decameron di'kaemaran, de- 

decimal 'desaml [-ly -i 

decameter verse di'kaemata^; ES -'kaemata(r 

decimate 'desajmet [-d -id j-tion jdesa'tne/an 

decameter, -tre meas. 'dekajmita^; ES -ta(r 

decimeter, -tre 'desa^mita^; ES -jmita(r 

decamp di'kaemp | -camped -'kaempt 

decipher di'saifa^; ES -'saifa(r; j-ed -d 


de Camp di'kaemp 

-'saifario, -'saifrig 

decanal 'dekanl, di'keni |-ly -i 

decision di'sigan |-al -1 

decane 'deken 

decisive di'saisiv 

decant di'kaent |-ed -id |-er -3^; ES -a(r 

decistere 'desa;Stir; ES -^stiaCr 

decantation ^dikaen'te/an 

Decius 'di/ias, -/as |-'s -iz 

decapitate di'kaepa^tet |-tated -^tetid 

deck dek [decked dekt j-house -^haus 

decapitation dijkaepa'te/an, jdikaepa- 

deckle, -ckel 'dekl 

decapod 'dekajpad; ES+-jpDd 


[full ful jtooth tuO [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish di/ [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




declaim di^klem |-claimed -'klemd 

decurrent di'kyant; ES -'ksr-, -'kAr-, -\3- 

declamation ^dEkb'meJan 

Dedham 'dedam 

declamatory di'klaema^tori, -^tari; S -^tori 

dedicate 'deda^ket |-d -id |-tor -»; ES -a(r 

declaration jdekb 're/an 

dedication /deda^ke/an 

declarative di'klaerativ 

dedicatory 'dEdakajton, -^tan; S -^toin 

declaratory di'kljerajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 

deduce di'djus, -'dius, -'dus |-s -iz |-d -t 

declare di'kler, -'klaer; E -'kle3(r, ES 

deducibility di^djusa'bilati, -jdius-, -^dus- 

-'klaeaCr; |-d -d |-dly -idli |-r -9-; ES -3(r 

deducible di'djusabl, -'dius-, -'dus- |-bly 

declension di'kknjan |-al -1 [-ally -k 


declinable di'klainabi 

deduct di'dAkt |-ed -id |-ible -abl 

declination jdekla'ne/an |-al -1 

deduction di'dAkJan j-tive -trv 

decline di'kkm |-clined -'kkind 

Dee di 

declivitous di'klivatas |-ty -ti 

dee 'die' di 

decoct di'kakt; ES+-'kDkt; |-ed -id 

dee 'damn' di |-d -d 

decoction di'kak/an; ES + -'kDk-; |-tive -tiv 

dee letter di 

decode di'kod |-coded -'kodid 

deed did [deeded 'didid 

decollate di'kakt; ES+-'kDl-; \-d -id 

deem dim [deemed dimd 

decollete jdekaFte, -kola'te, -kol- (Fr de- 

Deems dimz |-'s -iz 


deemster 'dimsta^; ES 'dimsta(r 

decolorant di'kAkrant 

deep dip 

decolorate di'kAk^ret |-rated -jtetid 

deepen 'dipan [-ed -d |-ing 'dipanig, 'dipniij 

decoloration jdikAlaVeJan 

deep-mouthed 'dip'mautid, -et ('deep- 

decolorize di'kAb^raiz |-s -iz \-d -d 

-mouthed 'bay) 

decompose jdikam'poz |-s -iz |-d -d 

deep-rooted 'dip'rutid, -'rutid 

decomposition jdikampa'zi/an; ES+-kmn- 

deep-sea 'dip'si ('deep-'sea jlife) 

decompound jdiksm'paund |-ed -id 

deep-seated 'dip'sitid ('deep-jseated 'faith) 

decompress jdikam'prES |-es -iz j-ed -t 

deer dir; ES dia(r, S-fdEa(r, dJEa(r; | -hound 

decor de'kar; ES -'kasd; (Fr de\'6:r) 

-jhaund |-skin -jskm |-stalking -jStakig 

Decorah di'kora, -'kara; S -'kora 

Deerfield 'dir.fild; ES 'dia.fild, S+'d£a-, 

decorate 'deka^ret |-d -id |-tion jdeka'rejan 


decorative 'dEka^retiv |-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 

deface di'fes |-s -iz j-d -t |-able -abl 

decorous 'dekaras, di'koras; EN+-'kDr- 

de facto di'faekto 

decorum di'koram, -'kar-; S -%orain 

defalcate di'faelket, -^fal- |-d -id |-tor -a-; ES 

decoy n di'kai, 'dikai 


decoy v di'kai |-ed -d 

defalcation jdifael'kejan, -fal- 

decrease n 'dikris, ^di'kris, di- |-s -iz 

defamation ^dEfa'meJan, jdi- 

decrease v di'kris, jdi- |-s -iz |-d -t ('de- 

defamatory di'faemajton, -jtari; S -jtori 

jcreased 'buying) 

defame di'fem |-famed -'femd 

decree di'kri |-creed -'krid 

default di'falt |-ed -id 

decrement 'dekramant 

defeasibility dijfiza'bdati 

decrepit di'krepit 

defeasible di'fizabl 

decrepitude di'krEpajtjud, -jtiud, -^tud 

defeat di'fit |-ed -id |-ism -izam |-ist -ist 

decrescendo ^dikra'/endo, ^de- (// jdekre- 

defecate 'dsfa^ket |-d -id j-tion jdEfa'keJan 


defect di'fEkt, 'difEkt 

decretal di'kritl 

defection di'fekjan |-tive -trv 

decry di'krai |-cried -'kraid |-crial -'kraial 

defend di'fEnd |-ed -id |-ant -ant 

decumbent di'kAmbant 

defense, Brit -ce di'fsns |-s -iz j-sive -iv 

decuple 'dekjupl, dek'jupl |-d -d |-ling -plig. 

defensibility di;fEnsa'bikti 


defensible di'tensabl |-bly -bh 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |}^et jst |sang saeg |angr}- 'ag-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a Jfar far |watch watf, wot/ (§12) |jaw d^o [gorge gards |go go 




defer di'fs^; ES -'fsCr, -'fy; |-red -d 

dehorn di'harn; ES -'haan; |-ed -d 

deference 'dsfarans 

dehydrate di'haidret |-drated -dretid 

deferential jdefa'ren/al |-ly -i 

deictic 'daiktik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 

deferrer di'fya^; ES -'fsraCr, -'fyaCr 

deification jdiafa'ke/an 

defiance, D- di'faians |-s -iz |-ant -ant 

deiform 'diajfarm; ES -jfaam 

deficiency di'fi/ansi |-cient -/ant 

deify 'diajfai |-fied -^faid 

deficit 'defasit, 5n7 + di'fisit 

deign den [deigned dend 

defier di'faia^; ES -'fai'3(r 

Dei gratia 'diai'grejia 

defile 'befouV di'fail |-filed -'faild 

deU dil 

defile 'march o_ff' di'fail, <difail |-d -d 

Deiphobus di'ifabas |-'s -iz 

defile n di'fail, 'difail 

Deira 'deara 

definable di'fainabl |-bly -bli 

Deirdre Mirdri, 'derdri; ES 'dia-, 'dea-; Ir 

define di'fain | -fined -'faind 


definition jdefa'nijan 

deism 'diizam |-ist -ist 

definitive di'finativ 

deistic di'istik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 

deflate di'flet |-d -id |-flation -'fle/an 

deity 'diati 

deflationaiy di'fleXanjeri 

deject di'd3ekt |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 

deflect di'fkkt |-ed -id 

dejeune, -ner n 'desa^ne {Fr desoe'ne) 

deflection, -flexion di'tlekjan 

de jure di'dsuri, -'dsiuri 

deflower di'flaua^; ES -'flau-3(r; |-ed -d 

De Kalb di'k^lb 

Defoe, De Foe di'fo 

Dekker 'deka^; ES 'deka 

deforce di'fors, -'fors; ES -'foas, E+- 


dekle 'dekl 

|-s -IZ |-d -t 

De Koven di'kovan 

deforest di'forist, -'far-, -'for- |-ed -id 

Delafield 'dela.fild 

deforestation di^faris'teXan, -^far-, -jfor- 


Delagoa jdEla'goa ('Delajgoa 'Bay) 

deform di'form; ES -'faam; |-ed -d | 


delaine, D- da'len 


de la Mare, D- 'dela/mEr, -jmaer; E -jm8a(r. 

deformation jdifor'mejan, jdefa^-; ES jdifaa-. 

ES -jmaea(r; acd + jde la 'Mare 


Delamere 'dElajmir; ES -jmia(r, S+-jm8a(r 

deformity di'formati; ES -'faamati 

De Land di'Iaend 

defraud di'frad |-ed -id 

Deland di'Iaend, Brit tiame 'diland 

defray di'fre |-ed -d |-able -abj |-al -al 

Delano 'dela^no 

defrock di'frak; ES+-'frDk; |-ed -t 

De la Pole ^dela'pol 

defrost di'frast, -'frost |-ed -id 

delate di'let |-lated -'letid 

deft dEft 

Delavan 'delavan 

defunct di'fAgkt 

Delaware 'dela^wEr, -^waer; E -jwea(r, ES 

defy n di'fai, 'difai 


defy V di'fai |-fied -'faid 

Delawarean idela'werian, -Vaer-; S -'waerian 

degenerate adj di'dsenarit, -'dsenrit | 


De La Warr 'dtla^wer -jwaer; E -^weaCr, ES 

-rasi, -nrasi 


degenerate v di'd3enajret |-d -id |-tive - 


delay di'Ie |-layed -'led 

degeneration dijd3ena'rej'an, jdidsena- 

dele 'dill 1 deled 'dilid 

deglutinate di'glutn^et, -'gliut- |-d -id 

delectable di'lektabj |-bly -bli 

deglutition jdiglu'tijan, -gliu- 

delectation jdlkk'te/an, dijlek'te/an 

degrade di'gred |-d -id |-dation ^dEgra'c 


delegate ti 'dela^get, 'delagit j-gacy -gasi 

degree di'gri |-d -d 

delegate v 'debjget |-d -id |-tion jdela'ge/an 

De Groot da'grot=Grotius 

de Lesseps da'ksaps {Fr dale'ssps) j-'s -iz 

degum dl'gAm | -gummed -'gAmd 

delete di'lit |-leted -'litid |-letion -'li/an 

dehisce di'his |-s -iz |-d -t |-nce -ns |-nt 


deleterious jdela'tirias 

|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytfa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




delft, D- delft |-ware -iwet, -^waer; E 

-,vf£3{r, ES -jWaB3(r 
Delhi US 'delhai, India 'deh 
Delia 'diJja, -ha |-n -n 
deliberate adj di'libarit, -brrt 
deliberate v di'liba^ret |-d -id |-tion dijiba- 

deliberative di'Iiba^retiv |-tor -ta^; ES -t3(r 
delicate 'debkat, -kit |-cacy -kasi 
delicatessen jdelaka'tesn 
delicious di'li/as 

delight di'lait |-ed -id |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 
Delilah di'laila 
delimit diUimit |-ed -id 
delimitation dijima'te/an, jdllima- 
delineate di'linijct |-d -id |-tion dijiiu'e/an 
delineative di'lini^etiv |-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 
delinquency di'hgkwansi |-quent -kwant 
deliquesce ^dela'kwes |-s -iz |-d -t 
deliquescence jdela'kwesns |-cent -snt 
delirium diUiriam |-s -z |-ria -ria |-rious -rias 
Delisle, De I'lsle US di'lail, Fr name da'lil 
Dehtzsch 'dehtj |-'s -iz 
DeUus 'dihas |-'s -iz 
dehver di'hva^; ES -'liva(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-'hvario. -'hvriij |-ance -varans, -vrans 
deliverer di'Iivara^, -'Iivra^; ES -ra(r; |-very 

-\9TI, -vri 

dell, D- del | Delia 'dela 

Delia Robbia ^dela'rabia, -'rob- (It jdella- 

Delmarva dei'marva; ES -'ma:va, E+ 

Delmonico dermanijko, -'mon- 
Delos 'dilas, -Ids |-'s -iz 
delouse di'laus, -'lauz |-s -iz |-d -t, -d 
Delphi 'delfai |-phian -fian |-phic -fik 
delphinium, D- derfiniam |-s -z 
Delphos 'delfas, -fas, -fos |-'s -iz 
DelRio del'rio 

Delsarte del'sart; ES -'sa:t, E+-'sa:t 
del Sarto, Andrea 'andriadel'sarto; ES 

-'sa:to, E+-'sa:to; (li an'dreradel'sarto) 
delta, D- 'delta |-ic del'te-ik |-toid 'deltoid 
delude di'lud, -'liud |-d -id 
deluge 'deljuds |-s -iz |-d -d 
delusion di'lusan, -'liusan 
delusive di'lusiv, -'lius- |-sory -sari 
de luxe di'luks, -'Uks (Fr da'lyks) 

delve delv [delved delvd 

demagnetization jdimaegnata'zejan, di^mjeg-, 

demagnetize di'maegna^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
demagogic jdema'gadsik, -'gDd5-, -'gag-, 

-'gDg- |-al -1 !-ally -li, -ikli 
demagogism 'demaigagizam, -/gag-, -^gog- 
demagogue, -gog 'dema^gag, -jgag, -^gug 

|-guery -an, -n 
demagogy 'demajgodsi, -^gagi, -jgagi, -,gDgi 
demand di'maend; E+-'inaiid, -'mand; |-ed 

demarcate di'raarket, 'dimar^ket; ES -a:k-, 

E+-a:k-; |-d -id 
demarcation jdimar'kejan; ES -ma:'k-, E+ 

Demas 'dimas |-'s -iz 
dematerialize jdima'tirialjaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
demean di'tnin |-ed -d |-or -a-; ES -a(r 
dement di'ment |-ed -id |-ia -'menjia, -fa 
demerit di'ment |-ed -id 
demesne di'men, -'min |-nial -lal 
Demeter di'mita^; ES -'mita(r 
Demetrius di'mitrias |-'s -iz 
demigod 'demajgad, -igod 
demijohn 'dema^dsan, -td^nn 
demihtarize di'milatajraiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
demimondaine ^demiman'den, -mon- (Fr 

demimonde 'demi^mand, -jmond, jdemi'm- 

(Fr dami'mord) 
Deming 'demig 
demirep 'deim^rep 
demise di'maiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
demisemiquaver jdemi'semajkweva^; ES 

demission di'mi/an |-ary -jeri 
demit m di'mit, 'dimit 
demit v di'mit |-ted -id 
demitasse 'dema/tses, -jtas (Fr dami'ta:s) 
demitint 'demi^tint 

demiurge 'demij^ds; ES -isdj, -j^ds; |-s -iz 
demobilization jdimobla'zefan, di^mobla-, 

demobilize di'mobljaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
democracy da'makrasi; ES+-'mDk- 
democrat, D- 'demajkraet 
democratic jdema'kraetik [-al -1 |-ally -|i, 


Key: See hi full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gardj |go go 




democratize da^makra^taiz; ESH—'mok-s l-s 

demurrer 'objection' di'mya*} ES -'m3r3(r, 

-iz |-d -d 

-Wr-, -'ma^aCr 

Democritus di^makritss; ES+'Wok-; |-'s -iz 

demy di'mai 

Demogorgon jdims^gorgdn, jdems-; ES 

den den | denned dend 


denarius di'nerias, -'ner- [-s -iz |-rii -riiai 

demography diWagrsfi, di-, -'mng- 

denary 'denari, 'dinari 

demoiselle jdemwa'zel {Fr damwa'zel) 

denationalize diW/anj^aiz, -/nal- l-s -iz 

demolish diWali/; ES+-'mDl-; |-es -iz j-ed -t 


demolition jdema'li/an, jdlma- 

denaturahzation dljnaet/rala'ze/an, -ai'z- 

demon 'dimsn 

denaturalize di'naet/raljaiz, -tjaral- \-s -iz 

demonetization dijinanats^zcjan, -^mAn-, 


-ai'z-; ES+-jmDn- 

denaturant di'net/arant 

demonetize di'manajtaiz, -'mAn-; ES+ 

denature di'net/a^; ES -tja(r; [-d -d [-ring 

-'mon-; |-s -iz |-d -d 

-'net/anrj, -'net/rig 

demoniac diWoni^sek 

Denbigh 'denbi |-shire -Ju, -/a^; ES -Jia(r, 

demoniacal jdima'naiakl |-ly -i, -akh 


demonic di'manik; ES+-'mDn-; |-al -1 

dendrite 'dendrait 

demonism 'dimdnjizsm |-ist -ist 

dendroid 'dendroid |-al den'draidj 

demonolater jdiman'abta^ ; ES -'abtaCr, 

dendrology den'draladsi; ES+-'drDl- 

-'d1-; |-try -tri |-logy -ladsi 

Deneb 'deneb 

demonstrability ^demanstra'bilati, di^man- 

dengue 'deggi, 'degge 

stra-; ES+'^mnn- 

Denham 'denam 

demonstrable 'dEmanstrabI, di^manstrs-; 

denial di'naial, -'nail |-able -'naiabl 

ES+-'mDn-; l-bly-bh 

denier 'contradicter' di'naia^; ES -'nai-acr 

demonstrant di'manstrant; ES+-'mDn- 

denier coin da'nir; ES -'nia(r; {Fr da'nje) 

demonstrate 'deman^stret |-strated -^stretid 

denigrate 'dena^gret |-grated -^gretid 

demonstration jdeman'stre/an 

denim 'denam, 'demm 

demonstrative di'manstrativ; ES+-'mDn-; in 

Denis 'denis |-'s -iz {Fr da'ni) 

sense '^/joie'y'+'dEmanjStretiv 

Denise da'niz |-'s -iz 

demonstrator 'demanjStreta' ; ES -jstret3(r 

Denison 'denasn 

demoralization di^marala'ae/an, -^mar-. 

denitrate di'naitret |-trated -tretid 

-iinior-, -ai'z- 

denizen 'denazn |-ed -d 

demorahze di'moraljaiz, -'mar-, -'mor- |-s -iz 

Denmark 'denmark; ES -mark, E+-ma:k 


Dennis 'denis |-'s -iz 

De Morgan di'margan; ES -'maagan 

Dennison 'denasn 

demos Mimas, -mns |-mi -mai 

Denny 'deni |-s -s |-s's -siz 

Demosthenes di'masOa/niz, -'mos- |-'s -iz 

denominate adj di'namanit, -jnet; ES+ 

demote di'mot |-moted -'motid |-tion -'mo/an 


demotics di'matiks; ES+-'mDt- 

denomination di^nama'nejan; ES+-jnDm-; 

demount di'maunt |-able -abj 

|-al -I, -Jnal |-ally -li, -/nali j-alism -l^izam, 

dempster 'dempsta^; ES -sta(r 


demulcent di'mAlsnt 

denominative di'nama^netiv, -nativ; ES+ 

demur di'my; ES -'m3(r, -'my; ]-red -d 


demure di'mjur, -'miur; ES -'mjuaCr, 

denominator dt'namajnet»; ES-'nama^netaCr, 



demurrage di'm^ids; ES -'msr-, -'mAr-, 

denotation jdino'te/an 


denotative di'notativ, esp. in contrast with 

demurrer 'objector^ di'ms^; ES -'m3ra(r. 

connotative 'dino^tetiv 


denote di'not |-noted -'notid 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Ss'; ES 'fatSa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
I using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, imz |dish di/ | vision 'vijan [Eden 'idi^i |cradk 'kredj jkeep 'em 'kipifi 




denouement de'numa {Fr denu'ma) 

deplorable di'plorab}, -'pbr-; S -'plor-; |-bly 

denounce di'nauns |-s -iz |-d -t 


de novo di'novo 

deplore di'plor, -'pbr; ES -'plo3(r, E+ 

dense dens | density 'densati 

-'pb3(r; l-d -d 

dent d£nt | dented 'dentid 

deploy di'pbi |-ed -d 

dental 'denti |-ly -i 

deplume di'plum, -'plium |-d -d 

dentate 'dentet |-tated -tetid |-tion den'tejan 

depolarization jdipobra'zejan, di^pol-, -ai'z- 

denticulate adj den'tikjalit, -^let |-d -id 

depolarize di'pobjraiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

dentifrice 'dentajfris |-s -iz 

depone di'pon |-d -d |-nt -ant 

dentilabial ^denti'lebial 

depopulate di'papjajlet; ES-i--'pDp-; ]-d -id 

dentin 'dentin | dentine 'dentin, -tax 

depopulation jdipapja'le/an, dijpap-; ES+ 

dentist 'dentist |-ry -ri 


dentition den'ti/an 

deport di'port, -'part; ES -'peat, E+-'poat; 

Denton 'dentan 

|-ed -id 

denture 'dentja^; ES 'dentJaCr; |-ral -al 

deportation jdipor'te/an, -par-; ES -poa-, 

denudation jdinju'dejan, jden-, -niu-, -nu- 


denude di'njud, -'mud, -'nud |-d -id 

deportee jdipor'ti, -par-; ES -poa-, E-^-paa- 

denunciate di'nAnsi^et, -/i- |-d -id j-tive -iv 

deportment di'portmant, -'part-; ES -'poat-. 

denunciation dijnAnsi'efan, -Ji'e/an 


denunciatory di'nAnsia^tori, -Ji-, -itari; S 

depose di'poz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sal -1 


deposit, D- di'pazit; ES+-'pDz-; |-ed -id 

Denver 'denva'; ES 'denv3(r 

depositary di'paza^teri; ES+-'pDZ- 

deny di'nai [denied di'naid 

deposition ^depa'zi/an, jdi- 

Denys 'denis |-'s -iz {Fr da'ni) 

depositor di'pazita^; ES -'pazita(r, -'pnz- 

deodand 'dis^daend 

depository di'pazajtori, -jtari; S -^tori. 

deodar 'disjdar; ES -jda:(r, E+-jda:(r 


deodorant di'odarant 

depot 'dipo, Brit usually 'depo 

deodorize di'odajraiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

depravation jdepra've/an 

Deo gratias 'dio'grefijaes 

deprave di'prev |-d -d |-pravity -^praevati 

Deo volente 'diovo'lenti 

deprecate 'depra^ket |-d -id |-tive -iv 

deoxidize di'aksajdaiz; ES+-'Dks-; |-s -iz 

deprecation jdepra'ke/an 


deprecatory 'deprakajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 

depart di'part; ES -^pa:t, E+-'pa:t; |-ed -id 

depreciable di'prijiabj 

|-ment -mant 

depreciate di'pri/ijct |-ated -^etid 

departmental dispart 'mentl, jdipart-; ES 

depreciation di^pri/i'ejan 

-a:t-, E+-a:t-; |-ly -i 

depreciative di'pri/ijetiv [-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 

departure di'part/a^; ES -'pa:tj3(r, E+ -'part- 

depreciatory di'prij'ia^tori, -jtari; S -,toTi 

depend di'pend |-ed -id 

depredate 'depri^det |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 

dependability dijpenda'bilati 

depredation ^depri'de/an 

dependable di'pendabl |-bly -bh 

depress di'pres |-es -iz |-ed -t |-ant -nt 

dependence di'pendans [-cy -i 

depression di'prejan |-sive -'presiv 

dependent, -ant di 'pendant 

deprival di'praivl 

Depere di'pir; ES -'pi3(r 

deprivation jdepra've/an 

Depew di'pju, -'piu 

deprive di'praiv |-prived -'praivd 

depict di'pikt j-ed -id 

de profundis ;dipra'fAndis 

depiction di'pik/an |-ture -tja^; ES -tX3(r 

Deptford 'detfyd; ES 'detfad 

depilate 'depa^let |-lated -Jetid 

depth depG |-ths -Os 

depilatory di'pibjtori, -jtari; S -jtori 

Depue di'pju, -'piu 

deplete di'plit |-d -id |-tion -'pli/an 

deputation jdepja'te/an 

Key; See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang ssg [angry 'aeg-gri 
[bath baee; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) jjaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




depute di'pjut, -'pnit [-d -id 

Descartes de'kart; ES -'ka:t, E+-'ka:t; (Fr 

deputize 'dEpja^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d |-ty -ti 

de'kart, de-) 

De Quincey, -cy di'kwinsi 

descend di'send |-ed -id |-ible, -able -abl 

derail di'rel | -railed -Veld 

descendant n, adj di'sendant 

derange di 'rends |-s -iz |-d -d 

descendent adj di'sendant 

Derby Engd 'darbi, 'dybi; Am races 'dybi. 

descent di'sent 

less freq. 'darbi; Eng races 'darbi; US 

Deschamps Fr de'/a, de- 

places 'dybi; ES 'da:bi, 'dabi, 'dybi. 

Deschutes de'/ut 

E+'da:bi; |-shire -Jir, -JV; ES -jJiaCr, -Ja(r 

describable di'skraibabl |-bly -bli 

— The Brit pron. of all these is 'da:bi, 'darbi, 

describe di'skraib |-scribed -'skraibd 

less freq. 'dabi, 'dybi. 

description di'skripjan |-tive -tiv 

derby 'dybi; ES 'dabi, 'dybi; Brit 'da:bi, 

descry di'skrai |-scried -'skraid 


Desdemona jdezda'mona 

derelict 'dera^Iikt |-ction idera'hkjan 

desecrate 'desi^kret |-crated -^kretid 

deride di'raid |-rided -'raidid 

desecration jdESi'kreJan 

de rigueur Fr dari'gceir 

desensitization ^disensata'zejan, di^sen-. 

derision di'risan | -risible di'nzabl 


derisive di'raisiv |-sory -sari 

desensitize di's£nsajtaiz [-s -iz |-d -d 

derivable di'raivabl |-bly -bli 

desert 'merit' di'za^t; ES -'zat, -'za't 

derivation jdera've/an 

desert 'a waste' 'deza^t; ES 'dezat 

derivative da'rivativ 

desert 'abandon' di'za^t; ES -'zat, -'zyt; j-ed 

derive da'raiv | -rived -'raivd 


derma 'd^ma; ES 'dsma, 'dyma 

desertion di'zaj'an; ES -'zaj-, -'zaj"- 

dermatitis jdyma'taitis; ES jdama-, jdyma- 

deserve di'zs^v; ES -'zav, -'za^v; |-d -d j-dly 

dermatological jds^mata'ladsikl; ES ^dsma-. 


jds^ma-, -'lods- 

deshabille ^deza'bil, c/ i^r deshabille dezabi'je 

dermatology ^dyma'taladsi; ES jdama-. 

&° Eng dishabille 

jdyma-, -'tol-; -gist -dsist 

desiccant 'desakant 

dermis 'dymis; ES 'damis, 'dymis 

desiccate 'dEsa^ket |-d -d |-tive -iv 

Dermott 'da'mat; ES 'damat, 'dymat 

desiderate di'sida^ret |-rated -itetid 

Derna 'dema; ES 'deana 

desideratum di^sida'retam |-rata -'reta 

dernier 'da'^nia^; ES 'dam«a(r, 'dyn-; {Fr 

design di'zam | -signed -'zaind |-edly -idli 


designate adj 'dezignit, 'd£s-, -^net 

dewier cri Fr dEmje'kri 

designate v 'dezig^net, 'des- |-d -id 

dernier ressort Fr dernjera'sb'ir 

designation jdezig'tie/an, jdes- 

derogate 'dera^get |-gated -igetid 

designative 'dezigjuetiv, 'd£S- 

derogation jdera'ge/an 

designee jdezig'ni, jd£S- 

derogative di'ragativ, -'rng- 

desirabiUty di^zaira'bilati 

derogatory di'taga^tori, -'rng-, -itari; S 

desirable di'zairabl |-bly -bli 

-jtori; |-rily -rah 

desire di'zair; ES di'zaia(r; |-d -d |-dly -idh 

Deronda da'randa; ES-h-'ron- 

|-rous -as 

derrick, D- 'derik |-ed -t 

desist di'zist |-ed -id |-ance -ans |-ive -iv 

derring-do 'derig'du 

desk d£sk |desked deskt 

derringer, D- 'dermdsa^; ES -dsaCr 

Des Moines di'main, -'mainz |-'s -z, -nziz 

Derry 'den 

desolate adj 'deslit 

dervish 'dyvij*; ES 'dav-, 'dyv-; |-es -iz 

desolate v 'desj^et |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 

Derwent 'da^want, -went; ES 'da-, 'da'- 

De Soto di'soto, -'sota 

descant n 'deskaent 

despair di'sper, -'spaer; E -'spea(r, ES 

descant v des'kaent, di'skaent [-ed -id 

-'spaea(r; |-ed -d 

|full ful |tooth tu9 [further 'fa's*; ES 'fatSa |custom 'kAStam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'klpm 




despatch di'spaetj 1-es -iz 1-ed -t= dispatch 

deteriorate di'tiriS/ret |-rated -jretid 

desperado ^despa'tedo 

deterioration di/tiriaVeJan 

desperate ^desprit, -pant |-tion jdesps 're/an 

determinable di'ts'imnab}; ES -'tam-, ■ 


despicable Mespikib}, less freq. di'spikab) 

l-bly -bli 

l-bly -bh 

determinant di'ts'manant; ES -'tsm-, 


despise di'spaiz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dness -idnis 

determinate adj di't^manit; ES 


despite di'spait |-d -id |-ful -fal | -fully -fall 

-'t3^m-; n -nit, -/net 

Des Plaines des'plenz (Fr de'plen) 

determination dijts'ma'nejan; ES 


despoil di'spail |-ed -d 


despoliation dijSpoli'eXan 

deternune di'tymin; ES -'tam-, -'ts'm- 

; l-d -d 

despond di'spand, -'spend |-ed -id |-€nce 

|-dly -dli, -idli |-nism -/izam |-nist 


-ans |-ency -ansi |-ent -ant 

deterrent di'tsrant, -'ter-; ES -'tsr-, 


despot 'despat, -pat; ES-t--pDt 

-'ty-, -'tEr- 

despotic di'spatik; ES+-'spnt-; |-al -1 |-ally 

detest di'tESt |-ed -id |-able -abl |-bly 


-h l-ly -h 

detestation /ditEs'te/an 

despotism 'despatiizam 

dethrone di'Sron, di- |-d -d 

despumate di'spjumet, -'spiu-, 'despjujinet 

de Tocqueville di'takvil, -'tok- (Fr datak'vil) 

l-d -id 

detonate 'dEtan/ct, -ton- |-d -id |-tor 

-3-; ES 

desquamate 'deskwa^met |-mated -^metid 


dessert di'zyt; ES -hst, -Wt; |-spoon -jspun, 

detonation /dEta'ne/an, -to- 


detour 'ditur, di'tur |-ed -d 

de Stijl da'stil 

detract di'traekt |-ed -id j-or -^; ES - 


destination jdestaW/an 

detraction di'traek/an |-tory -tan 

destine 'destin |-d -d |-tiny -tani 

detrain di'tren |-trained -'trend 

destitute 'd£st9/tjut, -jtiut, -^tut |-d -id 

detriment 'dEtramant 

destitution jdesta'tju/an, -'tiu-, -'tu- 

detrimental /dEtra'mEntl |-ly -i 

destroy di'strai |-ed -d |-er -3-; ES -a(r 

detrition di'tn/an 

destructibility di^strAkta'bilati 

detritus di'traitas 

destructible di'strAktabl 

Detroit di'trait |-er -^; ES -a(r 

destruction di'strAk/an |-tive -trv 

de trop Fr da'tro 

destructivity jdistrAk'tivati, di^strAk'trv- 

Deucahon dju'kehan, dm-, du-, -Ijan 

desuetude 'deswi^tjud, -^tiud, -jtud 

deuce djus, dius, dus |-s -iz [d -id. 

-t l-dly 

desulphurize di'sAlfa^raiz, -fja- |-s -iz |-d -d 


desultory 'desj/ton, -/tan; S -/ton; |-rily 

Deuel 'djual, 'dmal, 'dual 


-rail, -nil 

deus ex machina 'dias/Eks'maekma 

detach di'taetj" |-es -iz [-ed -t |-edly -idh 

deuterium dju'tinam, diu-, du- 

detachabihty di/taet/a'bibti 

Deuteronomy /djuta'ransmi, jdiu-, 


detachable di'taetjabl |-bly -bli 


detail n 'ditel, di'tel 

Deutsches Reich Ger 'daytjas'raix 

detail v di'tel [-ed -d |-edly -idh 

Deutschland Gcr 'doytj/lant 

detain di'ten |-ed -d 

De Valera dava'iera, -'kra, -'lira 

detect di'tekt 1-ed -id |-able -abl |-bly -bli 

devaluate di'vaelju/et |-ated -/Ctid 

detection di'tek/an |-tive -tiv |-tor -ta^; ES 

devaluation /divaelju'efan 


devastate 'dEvaS/tet |-tated -/tetid 

detent di'tEnt 

devastation /dEvas'tefan 

detention di 'ten/an 

develop di'vslap |-ed -t 

deter di'ty; ES -'t3(r, -'ty; [-red -d 

De Vere di'vir; ES -'via(r 

deterge di'tyds; ES -'tsdj, -'tyds; [-s -iz 

Devereux 'dEva/ru, -/riu 

|-d -d |-nce -ans |-ncy -ansi |-nt -ant 

deviate 'divi/et |-d -id |-tion /dm'e/an 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) Irate ret lyet jet Isang saeg langrj' 'aeg-gn 
|bath bsefl; E baB (§10) lah a Ifar far Iwatch watj, wot/ (§12) Ijaw dga Igorge gardj Igo go 




device diVais |-vices -Vaisiz 

dey de 

devil 'devl |-ed -d |-ing 'devlig, 'd£v}io 

Dhaulagiri jdaula'giri 

devilfish 'devl^fij |-'s -iz 

dhole dol 

deviHsh 'devlij", 'devlij" 

dhoti, dhooti 'doti 

devil-may-care 'devlmi'ker, -'kaer; E -'k£3(r, 

dhow dau 

ES -'kae3(r; ('devil-may-jcare 'wit) 

diabase 'daia^bes |-sic ^daia'besik 

devilment 'devlmant 

diabetes jdaia'bitis, -tiz 

devilry 'd£vlri | deviltry 'devltri 

diabetic ^daia'betik, -'bitik |-al -I 

devious 'divias, -vjas 

diablerie di'ablari {Fr djabla'ri) 

devisable diVaizabj 

diabolic jdaia'balik; ES+-'bDl-; |-al -1 |-ally 

devise diVaiz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sal -1 

-li, -ikli 

devisee dijvaiz'i, ^devi'zi (de^vis'ee & de- 

diaboHsm dai'aebajlizam 


diachronic jdaia'kranik; ES-|--'krDn- 

devisor di'vaiza^, di^vaizbr; ES -3(r, -'D3(r 

diacid dai'aesid 

devitalization dijvaitla'ze/an, jdivait-, -ai'z- 

diaconate dai'aekanit, -^net |-nal -nl 

devitalize diVaitj^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

diacritic jdaia'kritik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 

Devizes diVaiziz |-zes' -ziz 

diadem 'daia^dem |-demed -jdemd 

devoice di'vais \-s -iz j-d -t 

diaeresis dai'erasis |-eses -ajsiz 

devoid di'void 

diagnose jdaiag'nos, -'noz |-s -iz j-d -t, -d 

devoir daVwar, 'devwar; ES -wa:(r; (Fr 

diagnosis jdaiag'nosis |-noses -'nosiz 


diagnostic jdaiag'nastik; ES+-'nDS-; |-ally 

devolution ^deva'Iu/an, -'liujan, -vl'ju/an 

-h, -ikh 

devolve diValv, -VdIv |-d -d 

diagnostician ^daiagnas'ti/an; ES-i--nDS- 

Devon 'devan | Devonian daVonian 

diagonal dai'seganl |-ly -i, -'aegnali 

Devonport 'dEvanjport, 'devm-, -jport; ES 

diagram 'daia^graem |-(m)ed -d 

-jpoat, E-t--jp33t 

diagrammatic jdaiagra'maetik |-al -1 |-ally 

Devonshire 'devan^Xir, -Ja^; ES -jj'i3(r, -/3(r 

-h, -ikh 

devote diVot |-d -id 

dial 'daial, dail |-ed -d 

devotee jdeva'ti 

dialect 'daia^kkt 

devotion di'vojan |-al -1 |-ally -li 

dialectal jdaia'kktl |-ly -i 

devour di'vaur; ES -Vau3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

dialectic jdaia'kktik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikk 


dialectician ^daiakk'tijan 

devout di'vaut 

dialectology jdaialek'taladsi; ES+-'tDl- 

De Vries da'vris |-'s -iz 

dialogist dai'aeladsist 

dew dju, dm, du |-ed -d 

dialogue, -log 'daiajag, -Jag, -Jog j-d, -ged -d 

Dewar 'djua', 'diua^, 'dua^; ES -3(r 

dialysis dai'aelasis |-yses -a^siz 

dewberry 'dju/beri, 'diu-, 'du-, -ban 

dialytic jdaia'litik |-ally -li, -ikli 

dewdrop 'djujdrap, 'diu-, 'du-; ES+-jdrDp 

diamagnetic /daiamaeg'netik |-ally -li, -ikli 

Dewey 'djui, 'diur, 'dui 

diamagnetism ydaia'maegnaytizam 

Dewitt, De-Witt v di'wit |-ed -id 

diameter dai'aemata'; ES -'aemata(r 

dewlap 'djujaep, 'diu-, 'du- |-ped -t 

diametric jdaia'mEtrik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikli 

dewy 'djui, 'diui, 'dui 

diamond 'daimand, 'daia- |-ed -id — 'daimand 

dexter, D- 'deksta^; ES 'dekstaCr 

is common from the 16c {often spelt dimond), 

dexterity dtks'terati 

being found in Slmk., Milton, Pope, Cowper, 

dexterous 'dekstras, -taras 

Keats, Tennyson. 

dextral 'dekstral |-ly -i 

Dian 'daian |Diana dai'aena 

dextrin 'dekstrin | -trine -trin, -trin 

dianthus, D- dai'aenGas |-es -iz 

dextrose 'dekstros 

diapason jdaia'pezn, -'pesn 

dextrous 'dekstras 

diaper 'daiapa^; ES 'daiapa(r; |-ed -d 

Ifull ful |tooth tu0 Ifurther 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish di/ [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




diaphanous dai'aefanas 

diaphone 'daia^fon 

diaphonic jdaia'fanik; ES+-'fDn-; |-al -1 

diaphoresis jdaiafa'risis 

diaphoretic ^daiafa'retik |-al -1 

diaphragm 'daiajfraem |-ed -d 

diaphragmatic ^daiafrag'maetik |-ally -li, 

diarchy ^daiarki; ES -a:ki, E+-a:ki 
diarist ^daiarist 
diarrhea, -rrhoea jdaiaVia 
diary 'daiari 
Diaspora dai'aespsrs 
diastase 'daia^stes 
diastole dai^aestaji 
diastolic jdais^stalik; ES+-'stDl- 
diastrophism dai'^strajfizsm 
diathermic jdaia'eymik; ES -'63m-, -'flym- 
diathermy 'daia^Oa^mi; ES -jGsmi, -fis^mi 
diatom 'daiatam, -jtam; ES+-jtDm 
diatomaceous jdaiata 'me/as 
diatonic jdaia'tanik; ES+-'tDn-; |-al -I |-ally 

-li, -ikk 
diatribe 'daia^traib |-tribed -^traibd 

Diaz 'dias |-'s -iz 

dib dib Idibbed dibd 

dibase 'dai^bes |-sic dai'besik 

dibble 'dibl |-d -d |-ling 'dibbg, 'diblig 

dice dais |diced daist |-'s -iz 

dichlorid dai'klond, -'klar-; S -'klor-; |-ride 
-raid, -nd 

dichotomous dai'katamas; ES+-'kDt-; |-my 

dichromatic jdaikroWaetik |-tism dai'kroma- 

Dick dik 

dickcissel dik^sisl, 'dik^s- 

Dickens, d- 'dikinz |-'s -iz |-ian di'kenzian 

dicker 'dika^; ES 'dik3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 'dikar- 
10, 'dikrig 

Dickinson, Dicken- Mikinsn 

dicotyledon jdaikatl'idn, daijkat-; ES+-Dt-; 
|-ous -'idnas, -'ednas 

dictaphone, D- ^dikta^fon 

dictate n 'diktet 

dictate v 'diktat, dik'tet |-d -id 

dictation dik'tejan 

dictator 'diktet*, dik'teta^; ES -t3(r; |-ship 

dictatorial ^dikta^tonal, -'tar-; S -'tor-; 

l-ly -I 
dictic 'diktik |-al -1 |-aUy -li, -ikli 
diction 'dikjan 

dictionary 'dikjan^en, as a Briticism+^Ask- 
Janari, -Janri, -Jnan 

dictograph, D- 'dikta^graef ; E+-igraf, -jgrof 

dictum 'diktam |-s -z |-ta -ta 

did did — for Jonns see do 

didactic dai'daektik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 

diddest 'didist — see do 

diddle 'didl |-d -d |-Hng 'didhg, 'didlig 

Diderot 'didajto {Fr di'dro) 

didest 'didist— ^ee do 

didn't 'didnt, before some conss.+^AiAn 
(jdidn'go) — Tlie pron. ^didant is substand- 

Dido, d- 'daido 

didst didst — see do 

Didymus 'didamas |-'s -iz 

die 'cube' dai \pl dice dais 

die Hool' dai \pl dies daiz 

die 'expire' dai |died daid 

die-hard 'daijhard; ES -jha:d, E+-iba:d 

dielectric jdaia'kktrik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 

Dieman, van vaen'diman 

Dieppe di'ep {Fr djep) 

dieresis dai'erasis |-eses -a^slz 

dies 'expires,' 'colors,' 'tools' daiz 

dies 'day' 'daiiz 

Dies, Martin daiz \-& -iz 

Diesel 'dizl, 'disl 

Dies Irae 'daiiz'airi 

diet 'daiat |-ed -id |-ary 'daiajtsn 

dietetic idaia't8tik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

dietician ^daia'tijan |-titian -'ti/an 

differ 'difa^; ES -fa(r; |-ed -d |-ing ^drfng, 

difference 'difrans, 'difa^ns, 'difarans; ES 
-frans, -far-, -fans; |-s -iz |-nt -nt 

differentia jdifa'ren/ia |-tiae -Ji^I 

differential jdifa'ren/al |-ly -i 

differentiate jdifa'rEn/ijCt j-ated -^etid 

differentiation jdifajrEnJi'eJan 

difficile ^AiW^W, formerly di'fisl 

difficult 'difa.kAlt, 'difakalt, -kit 

difficulty 'difa^kAlti, -kalti, -klti 

diffidence 'difadans |-dent -dant 

diffract di'fraekt |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet J£t jsang saeg langry 'jeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw d^o [gorge gards |go go 




diffuse, adj di'fjus, -'fius 

diluvial di'luvial, -'hu- |-an -an 

diffuse V di'fjuz, -'fiuz |-s -iz [-d -d |-dly -idli 

dim dim | dimmed dimd 

diffusibility di^fjuza'bibti, -^fiuz- 

dime daim 

diffusible di'fjuzabl, -'fiuz- |-bly -bk 

dimension da'menjan |-ed -d ]-al -1 |-ally -h 

diffusion di'fjusan, -'fiu- |-sive -siv 

dimeter 'dimata^; ES 'dimata(r 

dig dig [past 6" pptc dug dAg, or arch, digged 

diminish da'mini/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 


diminuendo da^minju'Endo 

digamma dai'gasma 

diminution ^dima'njujan, -'luu-, -'nu- 

digest n 'daidjEst 

diminutive da'minjativ 

digest V da'dsest, dai'dsest |-ed -id 

dimissory 'dimajsori, da'misari; EN+-iS3ri 

digestibility dajdsesta'bilati, dai- 

dimity 'dimati 

digestible da'dsestabl, dai- |-bly -bh 

Dimmesdale 'dimzdel 

digestion da'dsest/an, dai- |-gestive -^sestiv 

Dimond 'daimand 

digger 'diga^; ES "dig3(r; |digging 'digiQ 

dimorphism dai'marfizam; ES -'maaf- 

Diggory 'digari 

dimple 'dimpl |-d -d |-ling 'dimphij, -plig 

dight dait \past & pptc dight dait, or dighted 

din dm | dinned dind 


Dinah 'daina 

Dighton 'daitn 

dinar di'nar; ES -'na:(r 

digit 'didsit l-al -I |-ally -h 

dine dam [dined daind 

digitalin jdidsa'telin 

ding dig [dinged digd 

digitalis jdidsa'tehs, -'taelis 

dingdong 'dig^dag, -jdng; S+-jdag; |-ed -d 

digitate adj 'didsa^tet |-d -id 

dinghy, -gey, -gy Miggi 

digitigrade 'didsita^gred |-ism -gred^izam 

dingle 'diggl |-d -d [-Hng 'digghg, -glig 

dignify 'digna^fai |-fied -^faid 

dingo Miggo 

dignitary 'digna^ten 

dingy 'dinghy' 'diggi 

dignity 'dignati 

dingy 'dusky' 'dind3i 

digraph 'daigraef; E+-graf, -graf 

dinkey, -ky 'digki 

digress da'gres, dai- |-es -iz |-ed -t 

Dinmont, d- Minmant, -mant; ES+-mDnt 

digression da'gre/an, dai- |-sive -'gresiv 

dinner 'dma^; ES Mina(r 

dihedral dai'hidral |-dron -dran 

dinnerware 'dma^^wEr, -jwaer; E 'dinajW£a(r, 

Dijk, van vaen'daik 

ES -jwaea(r 

Dijon 'disan, -3Dn, di'3- {Fr di'30) 

dinosaur 'dama^sar; ES -jsaa(r 

dike daik |-d -t 

Dinosauria jdama'saria |d-n jdaina'sarian 

dilantin dai'laentin 

dinosaurus jdama'saras |-rai -rai 

dilapidate da'Iaepajdet |-dated -^detid 

dinothere 'daina/Gir; ES -jGia(r 

dilapidation dajaepa'dejan 

Dinotherium ^dama'Giriam 

dilatation jdila'te/an, jdaila- 

dint dint [dinted 'dintid 

dilate dai'let, di- |-d -id |-Iation -Uejan 

Dinwiddle din'widi, 'dinwidi 

dilatory 'dilajfori, -jtari; S -jtori; |-rily -rah. 

diocesan dai'asasn, 'daia^sisn; ES+-^ds- 


diocese Maia^sis |-s -iz 

dilemma da'kma 

Diodes 'daia/kliz |-'s -iz 

dilettante ^dila'taenti |-ism -tiiizam |-tism 

Diocletian jdaia'kUJan 


Diodorus jdaia'doras, -'dar-; S -'dor-; |-'s -iz 

diligence 'dilad3ans [-s -iz j-gent -d5ant 

Diogenes dai'ad3ajniz; ES+-'Dd3-; |-'s -iz 

dill dil 

Diomed 'daiajinEd |-mede -^mid 

Dillon Milan 

Diomedes jdaia'midiz |-des' -diz 

dillydally 'dih^daeli [-ied -d 

Dion 'daian 

diluent 'diljuant 

Dionysia jdaia'tujia, -sia |-iac -'nisijaek 

dilute di'lut, -'hut |-d -id |-tion -J*an 

Dionysian jdaia'nijan, -'nisian 

[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fatJa jcustom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Dionysius jdaia'nijias, -'nisias |-'s -iz 
Dionysus ^daia'naisas |-sus' -sas 
Dionyza ^daia'naiza 
diopter dai'apta'; ES -'apt3(r, -^op- 
dioptric dai'aptrik; ES+-'Dp-; |-s -s 
diorama jdaia'rfemd, -'rama 
diorite 'daid^rait 

Dioscuri jdais'skjurai, -'skiu- |-rian -nan 
dioxide dai'aksaid, -id; ES+-'Dks-; |-id -id 
dip dip [dipped dipt 
diphase 'dai,fez [-phasic dai'fezik 
diphosgene dai'fasdsin; ES+-'fDS- 
diphtheria dif'Giria, dip-; S+-'eEr-; |-1 -1 
diphtheretic jdifGa'retik, ^dip- |-ally -ji, -ikli 
diphthong 'difOag, 'dip-, -Gng |-ed -d 
diphthongal dif'flaggl, dip-, -'63gl, -'eog- 

diphthongization jdifGDga'zeJan, jdip-, 

-ODgga-, -Gng-, -ai'z- 
diphthongize 'dif63gjaiz, 'dip-, -Oag^gaiz, 

-Gog- |-s -iz |-d -d 
diplococcus idipb'kakas; ES-^-'kok-; |-ci 

diploma di'ploma |-s -z |-ed -d |-cy -si 
diplomat 'dipbjmaet |-ist di'plomatist 
diplomatic jdipb'maetik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
dipody 'dipadi 

dipolar dai'pola^; ES -'pol3(r; [-pole 'dai^pol 
dipper 'dipa-; ES 'dip3(r 
dipsomania jdipss'menid [-maniac -'menijaek 
dipterous 'diptaras 
dire dair; ES dai3(r 
direct da'rekt, dai- [-ed -id [-ive -iv 
direction da'rek/an, dai- [-al -j [-ally -li 
director da'rekta^, dai-; ES -t3(r; |-ate -it 

[-ship - Jip 
directorial da^rEk'torial, jdairek-, -'tar-; S 

-'tor-; [-ly -i 
directory da'rektari, -'rektri 
directress da'rektris, dai- |-es -iz 
directrix da'rektriks, dai- [-es -iz \for any that 

desire it -trices jdairck'traisiz 
direful 'dairfal; ES 'daiafal; [-ly -i 
dirge dydj; ES dsdj, dyds; [-s -iz [-d -d 
dirigibihty jdiradsa'bilati 
dirigible 'diradsabj, Brit + di'ridgabl 
dirk, D- dyk; ES dsk, ds^k; |-ed -t 
dirt dyt; ES dst, dyt; [-ed -id |-y -i [-ied -id 

l-ily -li, -ih 

Dis dis [-'s -IZ 

disability jdisa'bilati 

disable dis'ebl, diz- [-d -d 

disabuse jdisa'bjuz, -'biuz (-s -iz [-d -d 

disaccord ^disa'kard; ES -'kaad; [-ed -id 

disaccustom ;disa'kAstam [-ed -d 

disadvantage jdisad'vaentids; E-f-'van-, 

-'van-; [-s -iz [-d -d 
disadvantageous dis^aedvan'tedsas, jdisaed- 

disafifect jdisa'fekt |-ed -id [-ction -k/an 
disagree jdisa'gri [-d -d [-able -abl [-bly -bli 
disallow jdisa'lau [-ed -d [-ance -ans 
disannul jdisa'nAl [-led -d 
disappear ^disa'pir; ES -'pia(r, S-i--'pEa(r, 

-'pi£a(r; [-ed -d |-ance -ans [-ances -ansiz 
disappoint jdisa'paint [-ed -id [-ment -mant 
disapprobation jdisaepra 'be/an, dis,aepra- 
disapprove ;disa'pruv [-d -d [-val -vl 
disarm dis 'arm, diz-; ES -'a:m, E+-'a:m; |-ed 

-d [-ament -amant 
disarrange jdisa'rends [-$ -iz |-d -d 
disarray ^disa're |-ed -d 
disaster diz'aesta^; ES -'aesta(r, E-h-'as-, 

-'as-; j-trous -tras 
disavow jdisa'vau [-ed -d |-edly -idle |-al -al 
disband dis'baend [-ed -id 
disbar dis'bor; ES -'ba:(r, E-f--'ba:(r; [-red -d 
disbark dis'bark; ES -'ba:k, E-i--'ba:k; [-ed -t 
disbeheve jdisba'liv |-d -d |-lief -'lif 
disburden dis'bydn; ES -'bsdn, -'bydn; 

disburse dis'bs's; ES -'bss, -'bys; |-s -iz 

disc disk 

discard n 'diskard; ES -ka:d, E-h-kaid 
discard v dis'kard; ES -'ka:d, E-i--'ka:d; |-ed 

discern di'zyn, -'s3^n; ES -sn, -yn; |-ed -d 

|-ible -abl [-bly -bli 
discharge dis't/ardj; ES -'tjaids, E-i- 

-'tjaids; [-S -iz [-d -d 
disciple, D- di'saipl [-d -d [-ship -^Jip 
disciplinable 'disajplinabl 
disciplinarian jdisaplin'erian, -'er- 
disciplinar}^ 'disaplinjEri 
discipline n 'disaplin 
discipline v 'disa^plin [-d -d 
disclaim dis'klem j-ed -d 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angn,' 'seg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj", wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




disclose dis'kloz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sure -53^; ES 

discolor dis'kAla^; ES -'kAl3(r; |-ed -d 
discoloration jdiskAlaVeJan, diSjkAla- 
discombobulate jdiskam'babjiet; ES+-'bDb-; 

l-d -id 
discomfit dis^kAmfit |-ed -id |-ure -fitja'; ES 

discomfort dis'kAmfa't; ES -'kAmfat; |-ed -id 
discommode jdisks'mod |-d -id 
discompose jdiskam'poz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly 

-idli |-sure -'posa^; ES -'po33(r 
disconcert ^diskan'ss^t; ES -'sat, -'syt; |-ed 

disconnect jdiska'nekt |-ed -id 
disconnection, -nexion jdiska'nekXan 
disconsolate dis'kanslit; ES+-'kDn- 
disconsolation jdiskansa'le/an, dis^kansa-; 

ES+ -on- 
discontent jdiskan'tent |-ed -id 
discontinuance jdiskan'tmjuans |-s -iz 
discontinuation jdiskaiijtinj u 'e/an 
discontinue jdiskan'tinju |-d -d |-uous -juas 
discontinuity jdiskanta'nudti, -'luu-, -'nju-; 

discord n 'diskard; ES -kaad 
discord v dis'kard; ES -'kaad; |-ed -id 
discordance dis'kordns; ES -'kaad-; j-s -iz 

|-dant -dnt 
discount n 'diskaunt 
discount v 'diskaunt, dis'kaunt |-ed -id 
discountenance dis'kauntsnsns \-s -ix |-d -t 
discourage dis'ks'ids; ES -'ksr-, -'kAr-, 

-'ky-; |-s -IZ |-d -d 
discourse n 'diskors, di'skors, -3rs; ES -oas, 

E+-33S; |-s -IZ 
discourse v di'skors, -'skars; ES -'skoas, 

E+-'sk33s; |-s -IZ |-d -t 
discourteous dis'kytias; ES -'kst-, -'kyt-; 

|-esy -3SI 
discover di'skAva^; ES -'skAV3(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -'skAvariij, -'skAvrig |-y -'skAvri, 

discredit dis'kredit |-ed -id 
discreditable dis'ktEditabl |-bly -bh 
discreet di'skrit 

discrepance di'skrepans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 
discrete di'skrit 
discretion di'skre/an |-al -1 |-ally -ji 

discretionary di'skre/anjEri 
discriminate adj di'skrimanit 
discriminate v di'skrimajnet |-d -id [-tive -iv 
discrimination di/skrima'ne/an 
discriminatory di'skrimanajtori, -^tan; S 

discrown dis'kraun |-ed -d 
discursive di'skysiv; ES -'skss-, -'skys-; 

|-sory -san 
discus 'diskas |-es -iz |disci 'disai 
discuss di'skAS |-es -iz |-ed -t |-ion -'skAjan 
disdain dis'den, diz- |-ed -d 
disdainful dis'denfai, diz- |-ly -i 
disease di'ziz |-s -iz [-d -d |-dly -idli 
disembark idisim'bark; ES -'ba:k, E+-'ba:k; 

l-ed -t 
disembarkation jdisembar'ke/an, diSjem-; 

ES -ba:-, E+ -bar- 
disembarrass jdisim'baeras, -is [-es -iz ]-ed -t 
disembody jdisim'badi; ES+-'bDdi; [-ied -d 
disembowel ^disim'baual, -'baul |-ed -d 
disenchant jdisin'tjaent; E+-'t/ant, -'tjant; 

l-ed -id 
disencumber ^disin'kAmba^; ES -'kAmba(r; 

|-ed -d |-ing -'kAmbarig, -'kAmbrig 
disenfranchise jdism'fraentXaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
disenfranchisement jdisin'traentjizmant 
disengage ^disin'geds |-s -iz |-d -d |-dness 

-idnis, -dnis 
disentangle ^disin'taeggl |-d -d [-ling -'taegglig, 

disestablish jdisa'stasbbj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
disesteem jdisa'stim |-ed -d 
disfavor dis'feva^; ES -'feva(r; |-ed -d ]-ing 

-'fevarig, -'fevrig 
disfiguration ^disfigja're/an, diSjfigja- 
disfigure dis'figja^; ES -'figja(r; |-d -d 
disfranchise dis'fraentjaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
disfranchisement dis'lraent/izmant 
disgorge dis'gards; ES -'gaads; |-s -iz |-d -d 
disgrace dis'gres |-s -iz |-d -t 
disgraceful dis'gresfal |-ly -i 
disgruntle dis'grAntl |-d -d 
disguise dis'gaiz |-s -iz |-d -d [-dly -idh 
disgust dis'gAst, diz- |-ed -id 
dish dij [dishes 'di/iz | dished di/t 
dishabille ^disa'bil, cf deshabille 
disharmonious jdis-har'monias; ES -ha-, E 


|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytja^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




disharmony dis'liarmsni; ES -'ha:m-, E+ 

dishcloth 'diJjkbO, -jkloG |-ths -tJz, -Gs 
dishearten dis'hartn; ES -'ha:tn, E+-'ha:tn; 

|-ed -d |-ing -tiug, -tnig 
disherison dis'herazn |-ed -d 
dishevel di'/evl |-ed -d |-ing -'/evlig, -vlig 
dishful 'di/jful |-s -z 

dishonest dis'anist, diz-; ES+-'Dn-; |-y -i 
dishonor dis'ana^, diz-; ES -'anad, -'on-; 

|-able -abl |-bly -bli 
disillusion jdisi'lu53n, -'Iiu- |-ed -d 
disinclination jdisinkla'neXan, dis^inkla- 
disincHne jdisin'klain |-cHned -'klaind 
disinfect jdisin'fekt, jdisn- |-ed -id |-ant -ant 

|-ction -kjan 
disingenuous jdisin'djenjuas, jdisn- 
disinherit jdisin'herit, jdisi^- |-ed -id 
disintegrable dis'intagrabl 
disintegrate dis'inta^gret |-grated -^gretid 
disintegration jdisinta'gre/an, diSjinta- 
disinter ^disin'ty; ES -'t3(r, -ks^; |-red -d 
disinterested dis'intarastid, -'intristid, -'inta- 

^restid— ^ee interesting 
disjoin dis'dsam |-ed -d |-t -t |-ted -tid 
disjunct dis'dsAgkt |-ction -k/an |-ive -iv 
disk disk |-ed -t 
dislike dis'Iaik |-liked -'laikt 
dislocate 'dislojket, dis'loket |-d -id 
dislocation jdislo'ke/an 
dislodge dis'lads; ES+-'lDd5; |-s -iz |-d -d 
disloyal dis'bial, -'bjal |-ly -i |-ty -ti 
dismal 'dizml |-]y -i 

dismantle dis'maentl |-d -d [ling -tlig, -tlig 
dismast dis'maest; E+-'mast, -'mast; |-ed -id 
dismay dis'me, diz- |-ed -d |-edness -dms, 

dismember dis'memba^; ES -'msmbaCr; j-ed 

-d |-ing -'membrig, -'mEmbarig 
dismiss dis'mis |-ed -d |-al -1 
dismount dis'maunt |-ed -id 
disobedience jdisa'bidians |-ent -ant 
disobey jdisa'be |-ed -d 
disoblige jdisa'blaid^ |-s -iz |-d -d 
disorder disbrda^, diz-; ES -bada(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -dang, -drig 
disorganic ^disar'gaemk; ES -aa'gaen- 
disorganization disprgana'zeXan, jdisar-; ES 

-pagana-, -aag-, -ai'z- 

disorganize disWgajnaiz; ES -'aaga-; |-s -iz 

disown dis'on, diz- |-ed -d 
disparage di'spaends |-es -iz |-d -d 
disparate 'disparit [disparity dis'paerati 
dispart dis'part; ES -'pa:t, E+-'pa:t; led -id 
dispassion dis'paejan |-ed -d |-ate -it 
dispatch di'spaetj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
dispel di'spel |-led -d 
dispensable di'spensabl 
dispensary di'spensari 
dispensation jdispan'sej"an, -pen- 
dispensatory di'spensa^tori, -itan; S -^ton 
dispense di'spens ]-s -iz |-d -t 
disperse di'spys; ES -'spas, -'spa^s; |-s -iz 

|-d -t |-sal -1 
dispersion di'spsj'an, -%p3"3-; ES -'spa-, 

-'spy-; |-sive -siv 
dispirit di'spirit |-ed -id 
displace dis'ples |-s -iz j-d -t 
display di'sple |-ed -d 
displease dis'pliz |-s -iz |-d -d 
displeasure dis'plE33'; ES -'pl£5a(r; |-d -d 
disport di'sport, -'spart; ES -'spoat, E+ 

-'spaat; |-ed -id 
disposable di'spozabi [-sal -zl 
dispose di'spoz |-s -iz |-d -d 
disposition ^dispa'zijan 
dispossess ^dispa'zes |-es -iz |-ed -t 
disposure di'sposa^; ES -'spo3a(r 
dispraise dis'prez |-s -iz ]- d -d 
disprize dis'praiz |-s -iz |- d -d 
disproof dis'pruf ('proof and 'dis^proof) 
disproportion jdispra'por/an, -'par-; ES 

-'poa-, E+-'paa-; |-al -1 |-ally -li |-ate -it 
disprove dis'pruv |-proved -'pruvd |-val -1 
disputable di'spjutabi, -'spiut-, 'dispjutabl 

|-bly -bh — The accentuation of dis'putable 

like dis'pute has inevitably won its icay into 

good use. 
disputant 'dispjutant, di'spjutnt, -'spiut- 
disputation jdispju'tejan |-tious -Jas 
disputative di'spjutativ, -'spiut- 
dispute di'spjut, -'spiut ]-d -id 
disqualification jdiskwalafa'ke/an, diSjkw-, 

disqualify dis'kwalajfai, -'kwol- ]-fied -jfaid 
disquiet dis'kwaiat |-ed -id 
disquietude dis'kwaiajtjud, -^tnid, -^tud 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg |angr>' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




disquisition jdiskwa'zijan 

Disraeli diz'reli 

disrate dis'ret | -rated -'retid 

disregard ^disri'gard; ES -'ga:d, E+-'ga:d; 

l-ed -id 
disrelish disVehJ ]-es -iz |-ed -t 
disrepair ^disri'psrj -'paer; E -'pe3(r, ES 

disreputability dis^repjata'bibti, ^disrep- 
disreputable dis'repjatabl |-bly -bh 
disrepute jdisri'pjut, -'piut 
disrespect jdisri'sp£kt |-ed -id 
disrespectful jdisri'spektfal |-ly -i 
disrobe dis'rob |-robed -'robd 
disrupt dis'rApt |-ed -id |-ption -pjan |-ive -iv 
dissatisfaction jdissfetis'faekjan, jdisaet- |-tory 

dissatisfy dis'saetis^fai, di'saet- |-fied -jfaid 
dissect di'sekt |-ed -id |-ction -kjan 
disseize dis'siz |-s -iz |-d -d 
dissemblance di'ssmblans 
dissemble di'sembl |-d -d |-ling -blio, -bliij 
disseminate di's8m3jnet |-nated -^netid 
dissemination dijsema'nefan 
dissention di'senjan 
dissent di'sent |-ed -id |-er -9-; ES -3(r 
dissentience di'senjans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 
dissert di'syt; ES -'sat, -'syt; |-ed -id 
dissertation jdisa^'te/an; ES ^disa- 
disservice dis'ss'vis; ES -'s3v-, -Wv-; |-s -iz 

dissever di^eva^; ES -'sev3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-'sevarig, -'sevrig 
dissidence 'disadans |-dent -dant 
dissimilar di'simala^, dis's-; ES -'simabCr 
dissimilarity dijSima'laerati, dis^s-, jdissim- 
dissimilate di'sima^let, dis's- |-d -id 
dissimilation di^sima'lejan, dis^s-, jdissim- 
dissimilitude jdissi'mibjtjud, -ytiud, -^tud 
dissimulate di'simjajlet |-lated -^letid 
dissimulation di^simja'le/an 
dissipate 'disa^pet |-d -id |-tion jdisa'pejan 
dissociate di'so/ijet |-ated -^etid 
dissociation dijsosi'ejan, -jso/i- 
dissociative di'soJi,etiv 
dissolubility dijsaljs'bilati; ES+-jSd1- 
dissoluble di'saljabl; ES+-'sd1-; — The accen- 
tuation dis'soluble has displaced 'dissoluble 
by analogy of 'soluble and dis'solve. 

dissolute 'disajlut, -\mt, 'disljut 

dissolution jdisa'lujan, -'liu-, -sj'jujan 

dissolve di'zalv, -'zolv |-d -d |-nt -ant 

dissonance 'disanans |-s -iz |-cy -i |-ant -ant 

dissuade di'swed |-d -id 

dissuasion di'swesan |-sive -'swesiv 

dissyllabic jdissi'laebik, jdisi- 

dissyllable di'silabl, 'disjsilabi 

distaff 'distaef ; E+ 'distaf, 'distaf 

distain di'sten |-ed -d 

distal 'distl |-ly -i 

distance 'distans |-s -iz [-d -t |-tant -tant 

distaste dis'test |-tasted -'testid 

distasteful dis'testfal |-ly -i 

distemper dis'tsmpa^; ES -pa(r; |-ed -d 

i-parig, -prig 
distend di'stend |-ed -id 
distensible di'st£nsabl 
distention, -sion di'stenjan 
distich 'distik 
distill, -til di'stil |-(l)ed -d 
distillate 'distlit, -^et 
distillation jdistl'e/an, -stil- 
distiller di'stila-; ES -'stila(r; \-y -i 
distinct di'stigkt |-ction -k/an j-ctive -ktiv 
distingue jdistaeg'ge, di'staegge {Fr distie'ge) 
distinguish di'stiggwij j-es -iz j-ed -t 
distinguishable di'stiggvvijabi |-bly -bh 
distort dis'tart; ES -'taat; |-ed -id 
distortion dis 'tar/an; ES -'taa/an 
distract di'straekt |-ed -id 
distraction di'straekjan |-tive -tiv 
distrain di'stren |-ed -d |-t -t 
distrait di'stre |-e -t {Fr dis'tr£(t)) 
distraught di'strat 

distress di'stres |-es -iz |-ed -t [-edly -idli 
distressful di'stre sfal |-ly -i 
distributable di'stribjatabl 
distribute di'stribjut |-d -bjatid |-tive -bjativ 
distribution jdistra'bjujan, -'biujan 
distributor di'stribjata^; ES -ta(r 
district 'distrikt |-ed -id 
distrust dis'trAst |-ed -id 
distrustful dis'trAstfal |-ly -i 
disturb di'styb; ES -'stsb, -'styb; l-ed -d 

|-ance -ans |-ances -ansiz 
disulphate, -fate dai'sAlfet 
disulphide, -fide dai'sAlfaid, -fid |-phid, -fid 


[full ful Itooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

disunion dis'junjan 

division da'visan [-al -1 [-ally -li 

disunite jdisju'nait |-nited -'naitid 

divisive da'vaisiv 

disuse n dis'jus |-s -iz 

divisor da'vaiza^; ES -'vaiza(r; |-ry -i 

disuse V dis'juz j-s -iz |-d -d 

divorce da 'vers, -'vars; ES -'voas, E-t--'vaas; 

disyllable di'sibbl [disyllabic jdisi'ltebik 

|-s -IZ |-d -t 

ditch dit/ [ditches 'dit/iz [ditched ditjt 

divorce, -cee da^vor'se, -jvar-; ES -/voa-. 

dither 'ditfa^; ES -3(r; [-ed -d |-ing -^arig. 

E+-jvaa-; |-cee -'si {Fr divar'se) 


divot 'divat 

dithyramb 'diOajraem, -jraemb 

divulge da'vAlds |-s -iz [-d -d |-nce -ans 

dithyrambic jdiGa'raembik [-ally -li, -ikh 

Dixie 'diksi 

ditto 'dito |-ed -d 

Dixon 'diksn 

ditty 'diti [-led -d 

dizen 'dizn, 'daizn [-ed -d [ing -zniij, -znirj 

diuretic jdaiju'retik |-al -1 [-ally -h, -ikli 

dizzy 'dizi [dizzied 'dizid 

diurnal dai'ynl; ES -'snj, -'ynl; [-ly -i 

Dnepropetrovsk ^dnjepropje'trafsk 

diva 'diva 

Dnieper 'nip*; ES 'nipa(r 

divagate 'daiva^get |-d -id |-tion jdaiva'ge/an 

Dniester 'nista^; ES 'nista(r 

divalent daiVebnt, 'divalant 

do music, Jap geography do 

divan 'daivaen, di'vaen 

do V stressed forms: — [do 'du, jdu \2 sg arch. 

divaricate da'vaerajket, dai- |-d -id 

dost 'dAst, jdAst or doest 'duist, ^duist 

divarication dajvaera'kejan, dai- 

\3 sg does 'dAz, jdAz or arch, doth 'dAG, 

dive daiv \past dove dov or dived daivd \pptc 

jdA0 or doeth 'duiG, ^duiG \past 2 sg arch. 

dived daivd 

didst 'didst, jdidst or diddest, didest 

diver 'daiva^; ES 'daiv3(r 

'didist, jdidist \past 1 b^ 3 sg, 1-3 pi did 

diverge da'yyds, dai-; ES -Vsds, -Vyds; 

'did, jdid \pptc done 'dAn, jdAn; unstressed 

|-s -iz |-d -d [-nee -ans j-ncy -ansi [-nt -ant 

forms {auxiliaries): — [do bcf. vowels du 

divers 'swimmers,' 'various' Maiva^z; ES 

(iSo du 'ai); bef. conss. da (^so da 'Se) 


[dost dast ('hwai dast '3au ypain witJ'in?) 

diverse da'vys, dai-; ES -Vss, -Vys; 

[doth dae (daG '«sk a 'drirjk di'vain) [does 

('di^ verse 'forces) 

daz (jhau daz it 'luk?), dz (^haudzit 'sim?), 

diversification dajvysafa'kejan, dai-; ES 

ts (jhwattsit 'maeta^?) [did did (jhw£n did 

-jV3S-, -(Vys- 

it 'kAm?), dad (jhau dad 'hi iHo?), d 

diversify da'vysa^fai, dai-; ES -'v3s-, -'vys-; 

(ihaudit 'go? >aud tSe 'laik it?) 

|-fied -jfaid 

doable 'duabl 

diversion da'yysan, dai-, -/an; ES -'v3-, 

dob dab, dob [bed -d 


Dobbin, d- 'dabin 

diversity da'vysati, dai-; ES -'vss-, -'vys- 

Dobell do'bel 

divert da'vs^t, dai-; ES -'vst, -'vyt; |-ed -id 

Dobruja, -dja 'dobrudsa 

divertisement da'vytizmant; ES -'v3t-, -'v^t- 

Dobson, d- 'dabsn 

divertissement Fr divertis'ma 

docent 'dosnt {Gcr dozent do'tsent) 

Dives 'daiviz [-ves' -viz 

docibility jdasa'bilati 

divest da'vsst, dai- |-ed -id 

docile 'dasj, 'dasil [-ly -i 

divide da'vaid |-vided -'vaidid 

docility do'silati, da'sil- 

dividend 'diva^dend 

dock dak [docked dakt j-age -ids 

divination jdiva'ne/an 

docket 'dakit |-ed -id 

divine da 'vain [-vineness -'vainnis 

dockyard 'dakjard; ES -Jard, E-i--ja:d 

divinity da'vinati 

doctor 'dakta^; ES -ta(r; j-ed -d |-ing 'dak- 

divisibihty da,viza'bilati 

tarig, 'daktrig 

divisible da'vizabi |-bly -bli 

doctoral 'daktaral [ly -i [-rate -tarit, -trit 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet jsang saeg jangn,^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E ba6 (§10) jah a [far far [watch watj, y/ntS (§12) jjavv dsa [gorge gards jgo go 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

doctrinaire ^daktri'ner, -'naer; ES -'ne3(r, ES 

doily 'daili 


doings 'duigz, humorous 'duinz 

doctrine 'daktrin |-al -1 |-ally -li 

doit dait 

document n 'dakjamant |-al jdakja'mEntI 

Dolabella jdala'bela 

document v 'dakjajmEnt |-ed -id 

dolce far niente 'doltXijfor'm'enti; ES -fa:- 

documentary jdakja'mEntari, -tri |-rily -rail 

{It 'dolt/e,far'njente) 

documentation jdakjamen'tejan 

doldrum 'daldram |-s -z 

dodder 'dada^; ES 'dad3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

dole dol Idoled dold |-ful -fal |-fully -fali 

'dadarig, 'dadrig 

dolerite 'dala^rait 

dodecagon do'dekajgan, -gan 

Dolgelly dal'geeli, -'geh {Welsh dol'ge4i) 

dodecahedron jdodEka'hidran |-s -z |-dra -dra 

Dolgeville 'daldsvil 

Dodecanese jdodeka'nis, do^dek- |-nesus 

dolichocephalic 'dalijkosa'faehk 


doll dal, dol, dal |-ed -d 

dodge, D- dads [-s -iz |-d -d|-r -a^; ES -a(r 

dollar 'dala^; ES 'dala(r 

Dodgson 'dadgsan 

Dollard 'dala^d; ES 'dalad 

dodo 'dodo 

dolly, D- 'dali, 'doll, 'dah 

Dodona do 'dona 

dolman 'dolman |-s -z 

doe, D- do 

dolmen 'dalmEn J-s -z 

does dAz — -for forms see do 

dolomite 'dala^mait 

doesn't 'dAznt, before some con^^.+'dAzn 

Dolomites 'dalajmaits 

(jdAzn'ker) — 'dAzant is substa7idard 

dolor 'dola^; ES 'dola(r; [-ous 'dalaras, 'dol- 

doest ^Auist— for forms see do 

Dolores da 'Ions, -iz, -'lar-; S -'lor-; |-'s -iz 

doeth ^AaiO— for forms see do 

dolphin 'dalfin 

doff daf, dof, daf |-ed -t 

dolt dolt; NEngd+^6\i (§46) 

dog dag, dog, 7nuch less freq. dag |-ged -d 

-dom unstressed ending -dam — Many words in 

Dogberry, d- 'dag^beri, 'dog-, -ban 

-dom are omitted from the vocab. 

dogcart 'dag^kart, 'dog-; ES -jka:t, E+-jka:t 

domain do 'men |-ial -lal 

doge dod3 )-'s -iz 

Dombey 'dambi 

dog-ear 'dag^ir 'dng-; ES -^laCr, S+-jEa(r; 

dome dom [domed domd |domal 'doml 


domesday, D- 'dumzjde = doomsday 

dogged adj 'dagid, 'dog- 

domestic da'mestik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 

dogger 'daga', 'dnga^; ES -a(r 

domesticate da'mEsta^ket |-cated -^ketid 

doggerel 'dagaral, 'dog-, 'dag-, -gral 

domestication daymesta'ke/an 

dogie 'dogi 

domesticity jdomes'tisati, da,m£s'tisati 

dogma 'dagma, 'dog-, 'dag- |-tism -^tizam 

domicile 'damasl, -sil |-d -d 

|-tist -tist 

domiciliary jdama'silijEri 

dogmatic dag'maetik, dog-, dag- |-al -I |-ally 

dominance 'damanans |-cy -i |-nant -nant 

-li, -ikli 

dominate 'dama^net |-d -id |-tion jdama- 

dogmatize 'dagma jtaiz, 'dog-, 'dag- |-s -iz 



domineer ^dama'nir; ES -'nia(r, S+-'n8a(r, 

dog-tired 'dag'taird, 'dog-; ES -'taiad 

-'njea(r; |-ed -d 

dogtooth 'dagjtuG, 'dog- |-teeth -^tie |-ed 

Domingo da'miggo 

-et, -M 

Dominic 'damanik 

dogtrot 'dagjtrat, 'dog- 

Dominica da'minika, jdama'nika [n -n 

dogwatch 'dagjwatj, 'dog-, -iwotj, -jwat/ 

dominical da'minikl 

|-es -IZ 

dominie 'damani, ' pastor' +^dom3ni 

dogwood 'dagjwud, 'dog- 

dominion da'minjan 

dogy 'dogi 

domino 'dama^no 

|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytSa^; ES 'facJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

Domitian da'mifan, -Jian |-tius -/as, -Jias 

doodlebug 'dudljbAg 

|-tius's -3SIZ 

doom dum | doomed dumd 

Domremy-la-Pucelle Fr doramilapy'sEl 

doomsday, D- 'dumz^de 

don, D- dan | donned dand 

Doon(e) dun 

Don Adriano de Armado ^dan-adri'anojdear- 

door, D- dor, dar; ES doa(r, E+daa(r; j-ed -d 

'mado; ES -a:'mado 

doorjamb 'dor^dsaem, 'dar-; ES 'doa-. 

Donalbain 'danljben 


Donald 'danld |-son 'danjsn, ^danldsan 

doorman 'dor^maen, -man |-men -^msn, -man 

donate 'donet |-nated -netid |-tion do'ne/an 

doornail 'dor^nel, 'dar-, -'nel; ES 'doa-, 

Donatello idana'telo (// jdona'ttUo) 

E-i- 'daa- 

Donati do'nati 

dooryard 'dorjard, 'dar-; ES 'doajard. 

donative 'danativ, 'don- 

E+'daa-, -ja:d 

Donatus do'netas |-'s -iz 

dope dop 1 doped dopt 

Doncaster 'daokaesta^, 'dan-; ES -kiestaCr 

dor, -rr dar; ES daa(r 

done dAn 

Dora 'dora, 'dara; S 'dora 

done for 'dAn^far; ES -jfaaCr 

Dorcas 'darkas; ES 'daakas; ]-'s -iz 

done up 'dAnUp 

Dorchester 'dar^tjesta', 'dartjista^; ES 'daa-. 

done with 'dAn^witJ, -^wiB 


donee do'ni 

Dordogne dar'danja {Fr dbr'db'ji) 

Donegal 'dani^gal, jdani'gal 

Dordrecht 'dardrskt, -drext 

Donelson 'danjsn 

Dore do're, da-; S do 're; {Fr da're) 

Don Giovanni jdan-dsiaVani, -djo- {It 

Dorian 'dorian, 'dar-; S 'dorian 


Doric 'dank, 'dar-, 'dor- 

Dongola 'daggala 

Doricles 'dara^kliz, 'dar-, 'dor- |-'s -iz 

Donizetti jdana'zeti, {It jdoni'dzetti) 

Dorigen 'daragin, -gan, 'dar-, 'dnr- 

donjon 'dAndsan, 'dan- 

Doris 'dans, 'dar-, 'dor- |-'s -iz 

Don Juan dan'dsuan, -'dgiuan {Sp dan- 

Dorking 'darkig; ES 'daakig 


dormancy 'darmansi; ES 'daam-; ]-mant 

donkey 'dagki, 'dooki, 'dagki, 'dAgki 


Donley 'danli 

dormer 'darma^; ES 'daama(r; |-ed -d 

donna, D- 'dana (// 'danna) 

dormitory 'darma^tori, -jtari; ES 'daama^tori. 

Donne dAn 


Donnelly 'danli, 'danli 

dormouse 'dar^maus; ES 'daa-; |-'s -iz |-mice 

Donnithorne 'danajOarn; ES -^Oaan 

-jmais l-mice's -^maisiz 

Donnybrook 'dani,bruk 

dormy, -mie 'darmi; ES 'daami 

Donohue 'dana^hju, -jhiu, -^hu, 'dAn- 

Dorothea ^dara'Oia, ^dar-, jdor- 

donor 'dona^; ES 'dona(r; (do'ni an do'nar) 

Dorothy 'daraOi, 'dar-, 'dnr- 

Donora do'nora, -'nara; S -'nora 

Dorrit 'darit, 'dar-, 'dnr- 

do-nothing 'du^nAGig 

dorsal 'darsl; ES 'daasl; |-ly -i 

Don Pedro dan'pidro 

Dorset 'darsit; ES 'daasit; |-shire -Jir, -Ja^; 

Don Quixote jdanki'hoti, dan'kwiksat {Sp 

ES -;Xia(r, -/aCr 


Dortmund 'dartmand; ES 'daat-; {Ger 

don't dont, hef. some conss. often don (don'tek 


it), bef. n often don, do (don'no, do'no), 

dory- D- 'don, 'dan; S 'dori 

bef. p, b, m often domp (domppri'tsnd ^tu. 

dos-a-dos Fr doza'do 

dompba'liv it, domp'maind it), hef. k, g 

dosage 'dosids |-s -iz 

ofteji dog, dogk (dog'kaer, dogk'kaer. 

dose dos |doses 'dosiz [dosed dost; \NEngd-ir 

dog 'go, dogk'go); \NEngd+^6nt {§46) 

das {§46) 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg |angn,- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |\vatch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards jgo go 

Dos Passes 



Dos Passos dasVaesos; ES+dos-; |-sos* -sos 
dossier 'dasijC, 'dasia^; ES 'dasijC, 'dasi'3(r, 

'dos-; {Fr do'sje) 
dost dAst — see do 
Dostoevski ^dasta'jefski, jdos- 
dot 'dowry dat; ES+dot; {Fr dbt) 
dot 'point' dot; ES+dot; |-ted -id 
dotard 'dotard; ES 'dotad 
dote dot [doted 'dotid |dotage 'dotids 
doth dA6 — see do 
Dothan 'doGan, 'doOaen 
Dotheboys Hall 'dutJajbaiz'hal 
dotterel 'dataral; ES+'dot- 
Douai, -ay du'e ('DoUjai 'Bible) 
double 'dAbI |-d -d |-ling 'dAblio, 'dAblig 
double-barreled 'dAbl'baerald 
double-breasted 'dAbl'brestid 
double-cross 'dAbl'kras, -'kros |-es -iz |-ed -t 
double-edged 'dAbl'edsd, -'£d3id 
double-entendre 'dublan'tandra {Fr dubla- 

double-faced 'dAbl'fest |-facedly -'fesidli 
double-leaded 'dAbl'ledid 
double-lived 'dAbl'laivd ('double- jlived 'bards) 
double-quick 'dAbl'kwik ('double-^quick 

doublet 'dAblit |-ed -id 
doubletree 'dAbl^tri, -tri 
double-U letter 'dAb-lju, 'dAblju, 'dAbju 
doubloon dA'blun 
doubly 'dAbli 

doubt daut |-ed -id |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 
Douce daus, dus |-'s -iz 
douceur du'sy; ES -'s3(r, -'sy; {Fr du'soe:r) 
douche duj" jdouches 'du/iz [douched dujt 
Dougal, -II 'dugl 

dough do |doughed dod |-y -i |-boy -jbai 
Dougherty 'doa'ti, 'daa'ti, 'daha^ti; ES 'doa-, 

'daa-, 'daha- 
doughfaced 'deafest 
doughnut 'donat, -^nAt 
doughty 'dauti 
Douglas, -ss 'dAglas |-'s -iz 
dour dur, dur, daur; ES dua(r, dua(r, daua(r 
Dousabel 'dusa^bel 

douse daus |douses 'dausiz |doused daust 
dove 'pigeon' dAv 
dove 'dived' dov 
Dove Eng name dAv, Ger name 'dova 

dovecot 'dAVjkat; ES+-ikDt;^ — see cot 

dovecote 'dAV/kot — see cot, cote 

Dovedale 'dAv^del 

Dover 'dova'; ES 'dova(r 

dovetail 'dAv^tel [-tailed -jteld 

Dow dau 

dowager 'dauadsa^; ES 'dauadsaCr 

Dowagiac da'wad3aek 

Dowden 'daudn 

dowdy 'daudi 

dowel 'daual |-ed -d 

dower 'daua^; ES 'dau'a(r; j-ed -d |-ing 

'dauarig, 'daurig 
down daun [downed daund 
down-and-out 'daunan'aut, 'daunand'aut 
downcast 'daun^kaest; E+-jkast, -^kast 
downfall 'daun^fal |-en -an, -jfoln 
downgrade adj, adv 'daun'gred, cf upgrade 
downhearted 'daun'hartid ; ES -'ha:t-, E+ 

downhill n 'daun^hil, daun'hil 
Downing 'daunig 
downpour 'daun^por, -jpar, -ipur; ES -jpoa(r, 

-jpua(r, E+-jpaa(r 
downright adj 'daun^rait 
downright adv 'daun^rait, daun'rait 
downside 'daun'said, 'daun^said 
downstage adj, adv, v 'daun'steds [-s -iz |-d -d 
downstairs n daun'sterz, -'staerz; E -'stsaz, 

ES -'staeaz; acc^ + 'down ^stairs, adj, adv 

downstream adj, adv 'daun'strim; v daun- 

'strim [-ed -d 
downtown n daun'taun, 'daun^taun 
downtown adj, adv 'daun'taun ('up^town & 

downtrodden 'daun'tradn; ES+-'trDdri 
downward 'daunwa^d; ES 'daunwad [-s -z 
dowry 'daun 
dowsabel 'dausajb£l 
doxology daks'aladsi; ES+doks'nl- 
doyen 'daian {Fr dwa'jte) 
Doyle dail 

Doylestown 'dailzjtaun 
doze doz [dozes 'doziz [dozed dozd 
dozen 'stun' 'dozn [-ed -d 
dozen 'twelve' 'dAzn [-ed -d 
dozy 'dozi 
drab draeb [drabbed draebd 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'faSa 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 

[custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




drabble 'draebl |-d -d |-ling 'draeblig, 


drawee dra'I 

drachm draem 

drawer 'one who draws' 'draa^; ES 'dr3-a(r 

drachma 'draekma |-s -z |-mae -mi 

drawer of a dresser drar; ES draa(r; |-s -z 

Draco 'dreko \gen Draconis dre'konis 

drawing-room 'dra-ig^rum, -^rum 

Draconian dre'konian 

drawknife 'dra^naif |-knives -^naivz 

Dracula 'draekjula 

drawl dral | drawled drald 

Dracut 'drekat 

drawn dran 

draff draef 

drawshave 'drajjev 

draft draef t; E+ draft, draft; [ed -id 

dray dre |-ed -d |-age -ids l-man, -men -man 

draftsman 'draef tsman; E+ 'draft-. 


Drayton 'dretn 

|-men -man 

dread dred |-ed -id |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 

drag draeg dragged draegd 

dreadnought, -naught, D- 'dred^nat 

draggle 'draegj |-d -d |-ling 'draeghg. 


dream drim [dreamed drimd or dreamt 

draggly 'draegli 


dragnet 'draeg^net 

dreamland 'drimjaend, -land 

dragoman 'draegaman |-mans -manz |-men 

drear drir; ES dria(r, S+dr8a(r 


dreary 'driri, 'driri; S+'dreri 

dragon 'draegan |-et -it |-fly -jflai 

dredge dreds |-s -iz |-d -d 

dragonnade jdraega'ned 

dregs dregz 

dragoon dra'gun -ed -d [-age -ids 

Dreiser 'draisa', -za^; ES 'draisa(r, -za(r 

dragrope 'draeg^rop 

drench drentj" |-es -iz |-ed -t 

drain dren | drained drend |-age -ids 

Dresden 'drezdan 

drake, D- drek 

dress dres |-es -iz |-ed or drest 'drest 

dram draem 

dressmaker 'drss^meka^; ES -jmeka(r 

drama 'drama, 'drasma, 'drama. 


dress suit 'dres'sut, -'siut, -'sjut ('dress- 'suit 


iCase, 'dress-jsuit jcase) 

dramatic dra'maetik [-al -1 |-ally -|i, - 


drew, D- dru, driu 

dramatis personae 'draematispa^'soni; ES 

Dreyfus 'drefas, 'drai- |-'s -iz (Fr dre'fys) 


dribble 'dribi |-d -d |-Ung 'driblig, -bliQ 

dramatization jdraemata'zejan, -ai'z- 

dribbler 'dribla-; ES 'dribla(r 

dramatize 'draemajtaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

driblet, dribb- 'driblit 

dramaturgic jdraema'tydsik; ES 


dried draid 


drier 'draia-; ES 'drai'a(r 

dramaturgy 'draema^t^dsi; ES -jtsdsi, 


dries draiz 

dramshop 'draem^/ap; ES+-jXdp 

drift drift [drifted 'driftid [-wood -^wud 

drank draeijk 

drill dril [drilled drild 

drape drep |-d -t [-r -^; ES -a(r; |-ry 

-an, -ri 

drily 'draili 

drastic 'draestik |-ally -h, -ikli 

drink drigk [drank draeijk [drunk dr.vgk 

drat draet [dratted 'draetid 

drinkable 'drigkabl [-bty -bli 

draught draeft; E+draft, draft; [-ed - 


Drinkwater 'drigk^wata', -jwata^, -^wnta^; ES 

draughtsman 'draef tsman; E+ 'draft-. 



|-men -man 

drip drip [dripped dript 

Drava 'drava 

drippings 'dripigz 

Dravida 'dravida [-vidian dra'vidian 

drivable, driveable 'draivabl 

draw dra [drew dru, driu |drawn dran 

drive draiv [drove drov [driven 'drivan 

drawbar 'drawbar; ES -jba:(r, E+-;ba 


drivel 'drivl [ed -d [ing 'drivhg, -vlig 

drawboard 'dra^bord, -^bard; ES 


driveling adj 'drivlirj 


drivewa}^ 'draivjwe 

drawbridge 'drajbridj |-s -iz 

drizzle 'drizl [-d -d [-ling 'dnzho, -zlig 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [}'et jet [sang saeg |angr>' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wntf (§12) [jaw dga [gorge gards jgo go 




drizzly 'drizh 

Drogheda 'draada, 'dra-ida 

drogher, droger 'droga^; ES 'drog3(r 

droll drol |-ed -d |ery -an |-3^ 'droUi, -oli 

dromedary 'dramajderi, 'drAm-; ES+-'drDm- 

Dromio 'dromjo, 'dromijO 

drone dron | droned drond |-age -ids 

Drood drud 

drool drul | drooled druld 

droop drup | drooped drupt 

drop drap; ES + drop; |-ped, -t -t 

drop-forge 'drap'fards, -'fords; ES -'foads, 

-'faads; |-s -iz |-d -d — see forge 
droplet 'draplit; ES+'drop- 
droplight 'drap^lait; ES+ 'drop- 
dropper 'drapa^; ES 'drap3(r, 'drnp- 
dropsical 'drapsikl; ES+'drop-; |-ly -i 
dropsy 'drapsi; ES+'drnp-; |-ied -d 
dropt drapt; ES + dropt 
droshky 'drajki; ES+'drnf- 
Drosophila, d- dro'safab; ES+-'sDf-; |-lae 

dross dras, dros |-es -iz |-ed -t 

drought draut 

drouth draue |-ths -6s — Drouth is not an 

error for drought, hut a normal historical 

variant in wide American use. 
drove drov [droved drovd 
drover 'drova'; ES 'drova(r 
drown draun | drowned draund 
drowse drauz |-s -iz |-d -d 
drowsy 'drauzi |-sily 'drauzli, -zili 
drub drAb | drubbed drAbd |-bing -ig 
drudge drAdg |-s -iz |-d -d |-ry -an, -ri 
drug drAg | drugged drAgd |-gist -ist 
drugget 'drAgit 
drugstore 'drAg^stor, -^star; ES -jStoa(r, 

druid, D- 'druid, 'driuid 
druidic dru'idik, driu- |-al -1 
drum drAm |drummed drAmd |-mer -a^; ES 

drumfire 'drAm^fair; ES -jfaia(r 
drumhead 'drAm^hed 
drumlin 'drAmlin 
Drummond 'drAmand 
drumstick 'diAm^stik 
drunk drAgk |-en -an |-ard -a^d; ES -ad 
drunkenness 'drAijkannis 

drupaceous dru'pejas, driu- 

drupe drup, driup |-let -lit 

Drury Lane 'druri'len, 'driuri- 

Drusilla dru'sila, driu- 

dry drai | dried draid 

dryad 'draiad, -aed 

Dryasdust 'draiaz^dAst 

Dryburgh 'drai^byo, -a; ES -jbsr-, -^bAr-, 

-jbar-; Brit 'draibara 
dry-clean 'drai'klin, -jklin [ed -d 
Dryden 'draidn 
dryer 'draia^; ES 'drai-aCr 
dryly 'draili 
dry-nurse 'drai^nys; ES -^nss, -^nys; |-s -iz 

drysalter 'draijsalta'; ES -^saltaCr; |-y -i 
dry-shod 'drai'/ad; ES -'/od 
'dst 'woiildst' dst 

dual 'djual, 'diual, 'dual |-ism -^izam 
dualistic jdjual'istik, jdiu-, ^du- [-ally -li, 

duahty dju'aelati, diu-, du- 
dub dAb I dubbed dAbd 
Du Barry dju'bteri, diu- du- {Fr dyba'rl) 
Du Bartas djubar'tas, diu-, du-; ES -ba:'tas; 

{Fr dybar'tais) |-'s -iz 
dubiety dju'baiati, diu-, du- 
dubious 'djubias, 'dm-, 'du- 
dubitable 'djubitabl, 'dm-, 'du- |-bly -bli 
dubitate 'djuba^tet, 'dm-, 'du- j-d -id 1-tive 


dubitation ^djuba'te/an, ^diu- jdu- 

Dubhn 'dAblm 

Dubois, Du Bois da'bais, du-, 'dubais |-'s -iz 

Dubuque da'bjuk, du-, -'biuk 

ducal 'djuki, 'diu-, 'du- |-ly -i 

Du Cange dju'kaends, dm-, du- |-'s -iz {Fr 

ducat 'dAkat 
duce It 'du:t/e 
Duchesne in Utah du'Jen, diu-; Fr name 

duchess 'd At/is ]-'s -iz 
duchy 'dAtJi 

duck dAk I ducked dAkt |-Hng 'dAkhg 
duct dAkt |-ed -id 
ductile 'dAktl, -til |-ly -i 
ductiUty dAk'tilati 
dud dAd 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAStam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'vigan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Duddon 'dAdn 

dunderpate 'dAnda^pet; ES 'dAnda- 

dude djud, diud, dud 

Dundreary, d- dAn'driri 

dudgeon 'dAdsan 

dune djun, diun, dun 

Dudley 'dAdli 

Dun Edin, Dunedin dAu'idn, -dm 

due dju, diu, du 

Dunellen dAu'ebn 

duel 'djual, 'diu-, 'du- |-ed -d |-ist -ist 

Dunfermline dAn'fs^mbn, dAm-; ES 


duello dju'elo, diu-, du- {It du'ello) 

-'fym-; /oc. + -'ferm-, -'farm- 

duenna dju'ena, diu-, du- 

dung dAo [-ed -d 

duet dju'8t, diu-, du- |-ted -id 

dungaree, -ri jdAgga'ri 

duff dAf 1 duffed dAft |-el -1 |-er -a^; ES -3(r 

dungeon 'dAudsan |-ed -d 

dug dAg 

dung-fork 'dAg^fark; ES -jfaak 

Dugdale 'dAgdel 

dunghill 'dAg^hil 

dugong 'dugarj, -goij, -gag 

Dunkard 'dAgka^d; ES 'dAgkad 

dugout 'dAg^aut 

Dunker 'dAgka^; ES 'dAgka(r 

dugvvay 'dAg^we 

Dunkirk US 'dAukyk; ES -kak. 


duke djuk, diuk, duk |-dom -dam |-ry -an 

France 'Dunkirk, Dun 'kirk 

dulcet 'dAlsit 

Dunmore dAn'mor, -'mar; ES - 


dulcimer 'dAlsama^; ES 'dAlsama(r 


Dulcinea dAl'sinia, jdAlsa'nia {Sp jdulGi'nea) 

Dunmow 'dAnmo 

dulia dju'Iaia, dm-, du- 

dunnage 'dAuids |-s -iz |-d -d 

dull dAl Idulled dAld |-ard -a^d; ES -ad 

Duns dAnz, dAns |-'s -iz 

dully 'dAlll, 'dAh 

Dunsany dAn'sem 

Duluth da'lue, du-, -'buO 

Dunsinane 'dAnsa^nen, ^dAusa'nen 

Dulwich 'dAhds, -itj |-'s -iz 

Dunsmuir 'dAuzmjur, -miur 

duly 'djuli, 'diuli, 'dull 

Duns Scotus 'dAuz'skotas, earlier 


Dumain dju'men, dm-, du- 

I-'S -IZ 

Dumas dju'ma, dm-, du-, acc/+ 'Dumas {Fr 

Dunstan 'dAnstan 


Dunster 'dAusta^; ES 'dAiista(r 

Du Maurier dju'marije, dm-, du- {Fr 

duo It 'du:o 


duo- 'djuo, 'drao, 'duo, -a 

dumb dAm |-ed -d |-bell -^bsl 

duodecimal jdjua'desaml, ^diua-, jdua 


Dumbarton dAin'bartn; ES -'ba:tn, E+ 

|-mo -jmo 

-'ba:tn; |-sliire -Jir, -/a-; ES -iJiaCr, -/aCr 

duodenal jdjua'dini, jdiua-, ^dua- |-num -nam 

dumdum 'dAmdAm 

|-na -na 

dumfound, dumbf- dAm'faund |-ed -id 

duologue 'djua,lag, 'diua-, 'dua-, -Jag 

;. -iiog 

Dumfries dAm'fris |-shire -/ir, -JV; ES 

dupe djup, diup, dup [d -t [-ry -an, - 


-Xia(r, -/a(r 

duple 'djupl, 'diupl, 'dupl 

dummy 'dAini |-ied -d 

duplex 'djupkks, 'dm-, 'du- j-es -iz [- 

ed -t 

dump dAmp [dumped dAmpt |-ling -lig 

duplicate, n, adj 'djuplakit, 'dm-, 'du- 

, -iket 

dun dAu [dunned dAnd 

dupUcate v 'djupbiket, 'dm-, 'du- 

l-d -id 

Dunbar US 'dAubar; ES -ba:(r, E+-ba:(r; 

[-tor -a^; ES -a(r 

Scotl Dun 'bar 

duplication jdjupla'kejan, jdm-, ^du- 

Duncan 'dAgkan 

duplicity dju'pbsati, dm-, du- 

Duncannon dAn'kaenan 

Dupont 'djupant, 'dm-, 'du-; ES+-pDnt; 

dunce dAns [dunces 'dAnsiz 

acc/+Du'pont ('Du/pont 'product) 

Dunciad 'dAnsijjed 

Duquesne dju'ken, dm-, du- 

Dundas dAn'da^s |-'s -iz 

Du Quoin dju'kain, dm-, du- 

Dundee dAu'di ('Dun,dee 'road) 

durability ,djura'bilati, jdiur-, /dur- 

dunderhead 'dAnda^jhed; ES 'dAuda- 

durable 'djurabl, 'diur-, 'dur- [bly -bb 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret jyet jet [sang saeg [angrj' 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ak a [far far [watch wot/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards (go go 




duralumin, D- djuVaeljajinin, diu-, du- 

durance 'djurans, 'diur-, 'dur- 

Durand dju'raend, diu-, du- 

Durango dju'raerjgo, diu-, du- 

Durant dju'raent, diu-, du- 

duration djuVeJan, diu-, du- 

durative 'djurativ, 'diur-, 'dur- 

Durazzo du'ratso 

Durban 'dyban, da^'baen; ES 'dab-, 'dyb-, 

durbar 'dybar; ES 'dabarCr, 'dyba:(r, 

D'Urberville 'dyba^^vil; ES 'dsba-, 'dyba- 
Durbeyfield 'dybi^fild; ES 'dsbi-, 'dybi- 
dure djur, diur, dur; ES -3(r; |-d -d 
duress 'djuris, 'diur-, 'dur-, acci+du'ress 
D'Urfey, Durfey 'dyfi; ES 'dsfi, 'dyfi 
Durham 'dyam; ES 'dsram, 'dAr-, 'dy- 
during 'dung, 'diurig, 'djurig 
durn dyn; ES dan, dyn; |-ed -d |-edest -dist 
Duroc 'djurak, 'diur-, 'dur-; ES+-ok 
durst dyst; ES dast, da'st |-stn't -snt — before 

some conss. +-sn (jdysn'go) 
durum 'djuram, 'diur-, 'dur- 
Duse 'duzi (It 'du:ze) 
dusk dAsk I dusked dAskt 
Diisseldorf 'disljdarf, 'dAsl-; ES -jdaaf; {Ger 

dust dAst I dusted 'dAstid 
dustman 'dAstman |-men -man 
dustpan 'dAst^paen, 'dASjpaen 
dustproof 'dAst'pruf ('dust-proof 'bearings) 
Dutch dAt/ I dutches 'dAtJiz |dutched dAtft 
Dutchman 'd At/man |-men -man 
Dutchman's-breeches 'dAtJmanz'britJiz 
duteous 'djutias, 'diu-, 'du- 
dutiable 'djutiabl, 'diu-, 'du- 
dutiful 'djutifal, 'diu-, 'du- |-ly -i 
duty 'djuti, 'diu-, 'du- 
duty-free 'djuti'fri, 'dm-, 'du- 
duumvir dju'Amva^, dm-, du-; ES -'Amva(r; 

|-ate -it 
Duxbury 'dAks,b£ri, -ban 
Duyckinck 'daikigk 

Dvina dvi'na 

Dvorak 'dvarsak, da'varsak, 'varsaek, 'var- 

/aek; ES -aa- 
dwarf dwarf; ES dwaaf ; |-ed -t |-ish -ij 
dwarvish 'dwarvij; ES 'dwaavi/ 
dwell dwel [dwelt dw£lt, arch, dwelled dweld 
dwelling 'dwEbg 

dwindle 'dwindl |-d -d |-ling 'dwmdlig, -dhg 
Dwight dwait 
Dyak 'daiaek 

dyarchy 'daiarki; ES -a:ki, E+-a:ki 
Dyce dais |-'s -iz 
Dyck, van vaen'daik 

dye dai |dyed daid |-ing -ig |-r -a^; ES -a(r 
dyed-in-the-wool 'daidntSa'wul, 'daidmtJa- 
dyeing from dye 'daiig 
dyestuff 'dai^stAf 
dying /rom die 'dang 
Dyke, van vaen'daik 
dyke daik | dyked daikt 
Dykema 'daikama 
Dykstra 'daikstra 
Dymond 'daimand 

dynameter dai'naemata^; ES -'naemataCr 
dynamic dai'naemik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
dynamism 'dainajmizam |-mist -mist 
dynamite 'daina^mait |-mited -^maitid 
dynamo 'daina^mo 
dynamometer ^daina'mamata'; ES -'mama- 

ta(r, -'mnm- 
dynast 'dainaest, 'dainast 
dynastic dai'naestik [-al -1 j-ally -Ii, -ikli 
dynasty 'dainasti, 'dainaesti — 'dinasti is 

mainly Brit. 
dyne dam 

Dysart 'daiza^t, -zart; ES 'daizat, -za:t 
dysentery 'disn^teri 
d3^sgenic dis'dsemk 
Dyson 'daisn 
dyspepsia di'sprp/a, -/la 
dyspeptic di'speptik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 
dysphasia dis'fega, -31a 
dyspnea, -noea disp'nia 
dysprosium dis'prosiam, -'pro/iam 

|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idri [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




E, e letter i \pl E's, Es, poss E's iz 

earwig 'ir^wig; ES 'lajWig, S + 'ea-; ]-wigged 

e- word initial. When unstressed, this varies as 


i-, I-, £-, or 3- according to style of speech or 

Easdale 'iz^del 

commonness of the word, a- is esp. freq. be- 

ease iz |-s -iz |-d -d j-ful -fal ] -fully -fall 

fore I (elect I'kkt, a'lekt). When only one 

easel 'izl 

or two prons. are given in the vocab., it is to 

easement 'izmant 

he understood that one or more of the others 

easily 'izli, 'izili 

are used by many speakers. 

Easley 'izli 

each itj |each's 'itjiz 

east, E- ist 

Eads idz |Eads's 'idziz 

Eastbourne 'ist^bom, -jbam, -ba^n; ES 'ist- 

eager 'iga^; ES 'ig3(r 

jboan, -ban, E+-ibaan 

eagle 'igl | eaglet 'iglit 

Eastcheap 'ist^tjip, 'isjtjip 

eagre 'iga^, 'ega^; ES 'ig3(r, 'egaCr 

Easter 'ista^; ES 'ista(r 

Eakins 'ekinz |-'s -iz 

easterly 'ista^b; ES 'istali 

Eames emz, imz |Eames's 'emziz, ^imziz 

eastern Usta^n; ES 'istan; |-er -a^; ES -a(r; 

Eamon de Valera 'laman dsvaUera, -Uera, 

|-most -jHiost, -mast — 'istana^ is sometimes 


heard by r-dissimilation {§121). 

can in |eaned Ind |eanling 'inlig 

Eastertide 'ista^^taid; ES 'ista^taid 

ear ir; ES i3(r, S+£3(r; |-ed -d 

East Greenwich RI 'ist 'grin witj*, loc.+ 

earache 'ir^ek; S + 'er^ek 

-'grimds, -itX 

eardrop 'ir^drap; ES 'la^drap, ^la^drnp. 

Eastham 'istam. Mass Zoc. + 'istsm 

S + 'ea- 

East Ham 'ist'haem 

eardrum 'ir,drAm; ES 'i3jdrAm, S + 'ea- 

Eastman 'istman 

earl yl; ES si, yl; |-dom -dam 

Easton 'istan 

early 's^li; ES 'sli, 'yli 

eastward 'istwa^d; ES 'istwad 

earmark 'ir,mark; E 'la^matk, -jma:k; S 

easy 'izi | -going -'goig ('easy, going 'man) 

'i3jraa:k, '23- 

eat it |ate et |eaten 'itn |eat dial, past £t, it — 

earn yn; ES sn, yn; |-ed -d 

8t is occas. in cultivated S, see ate. 

earnest 'ynist, -ast; ES 'sn-, 'yn- 

eatable 'itabl 

earnings 'yniQz; ES 'anigz, 's^n- 

Eaton 'itn jEatonton 'itntan |-town 'itn^taun 

earphone 'ir^fon; ES 'i3jfon, S + 'es- 

Eau Claire jo'kkr, jo'klaer; E jo'kl£a(r, ES 

earring 'ir^rig; ES 'i3jrio, S + 'eaiOO 


Earsdon 'irzd3n; ES 'i3z-; /oc. + 'jazn 

Eau de Cologne jodaka'lon 

earshot \rjat; ES 'i3iJ"at, 'i3j/Dt, S + 'es- 

eaves ivz 

earth yO; ES 3O, yO; |-th's -Os 

eavesdrop 'ivz^drap; ES + -jdrDp; |-ped -t 

earthborn 'yOjbarn; ES '30,b33n, 'yO^baan 

ebb zh lebbed ebd |ebb-tide 'eb'taid, -;taid 

earthbound 'yG,baund; ES 'sG-, 'yO- 

Ebenezer jeba'ttiza", ES ,£ba'mza(r 

earthen 'yGan; ES 'sGan, 'yGan 

Ebensburg 'ebanz^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg 

earthenware 's^Gan^wer, -jwaer; E 'sGan- 

ebon 'fiban | ebony 'ebani 

jW£a(r, 'yG-, ES -jwaea(r 

ebriate adj 'ibriit |ebriated 'ibn^etid 

earthling 's^Oliij ; ES 'sGlig, 'yGlig 

ebriety i'braiati 

earthly 'yOli; ES '3OI1, 'yBli 

Ebro 'ibro, 'ebro 

earthquake 'yGjkwek; ES bG-, 'yQ- 

ebulhence I'bAljans, I'bAhans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 

earthshine 'yGjain; ES 'sG-, 'yG- 

ebullition ^eba'li/an 

earthward 'yOwa^d; ES 'sGwad, 'yGwad 

ecarte ,ekar'te; ES ,eka:'te; (Fr ekar'te) 

earthwork VGjwyk; ES 'sG^wak, 'yG^wyk 

ecce homo 'eksi'homo, 'tkE- 

earthworm 'yG^wym; ES 'sG^wsm, 'yG^wyin 

eccentric ik'sentnk, sk- |-al -I j-ally -h, -ikli 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langr>' 'aeg-gri 
|bath bae6; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw d^o [gorge gards |go go 




eccentricity ^eksan'trisati, jEksen- 

Ecclefechan jEkl'fEkan, -'fexan 

Eccles 'eklz [-'s -iz 

Ecclesiastes ijklizi^^stiz |-tes' -tiz 

ecclesiastic ijklizi'sestik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 

ecclesiasticism i jklizi 'aests jSizam 

Ecclesiasticus ijklizi^aestikas |-'s -iz 

echelon 'ejajlan, -}mi {Fr e/'Io) 

echinoderm e'kainajda^m, 'ekina-; ES -^dsm, 

echinus s'kainas |echini s^kainai 

echo 'eko | echoed 'ekod 1-ing 'ekawig 

echoic £'ko-ik 

eclair e'kler, e'klaer, i-; E -'kkaCr, ES 

eclat I'kla, e'kia {Fr e'kla) 

eclectic ikUektik, £k- j-ticism -jSizam 

eclipse i^klips jeclipses i^klipsiz |-d -t 

ecliptic I'kliptik, i- 

eclogue 'ekbg, -lag, -log 

ecology i'kabdsi; ES + -'kDl- 

economic jika^namik, j£k-; ES+-'nmn-; \-s -s 
|-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

economist I'kansnust, I-; ES+-'kDn- 

economize I'kanajinaiz, i-; ES + -'kDn-; j-s -iz 
|-d -d I -my -mi 

ecru 'ekru, 'ekru, e'kru {Fr e'kry) 

ecstasy 'ekstasi 

ecstatic ik'staetik, £k- |-ally -h, -ikli 

ectoderm 'ektajds'm; ES -jdam, -^dym 

ectoplasm 'ektajplaszam 

Ecuador 'ekwajdor; ES 'ekwajdaaCr 

Ecuadorian jEkwa'dorian, -'dor-; S -'dorian 

ecumenic jEkju'menik j-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

eczema 'eksama, 'egzama, -ima, igVima 

-ed, -d ending of the past and pptc, and of cer- 
tain adjectives. Pronounced -t after voiceless 
consonant sounds except t (walk-ed wak-t, 
price-d prais-t, reach-ed ritj-t) ; pronounced 
-d after vowel and voiced conso7iants sounds 
except d (paw-ed pa-d, free-d fri-d, dragg-ed 
draeg-d, prized praiz-d, horn-ed harn-d, 
age-d eds-d); pronounced -id or -ad after 
t b- d (state-d 'stet-id, -ad, fatt-ed 'faet-id, 
-ad, wood-ed 'wud-id, -ad, raid-ed 'red-id, 
-ad, padd-ed 'paed-id, -ad) ; in a few adjec- 
tives pronounced -id, -ad also after other 
consonants than t 6" d (age-d 'edj-id, -ad, 
crabb-ed 'kraeb-id, -ad, bless-ed 'bles-id. 

-ad, two-legg-ed 'tu'kg-id, -ad). With 
different speakers the unstressed vowel of -ed 
{when sounded at all) varies from a sound 
like that in bit bit to one like the last vowel 
in method 'meOad. Very often it is a sound 
made with the tongue higher than the central 
position {that for a), and back of that for i 
{phonetic symbol i). In the vocabulary, as a 
nde, only the pronunciation -id is given, it 
being understood that many speakers instead 
pronounce -id, or {fewer in the E dr S) -ad 
as in method 'mEGad. The difference be- 
tween -ad &= -id or -az &° -iz is sometimes 
phonemic — used to distinguish words other- 
wise alike, as quotaed {Jefferson) 'kwotad, 
quoted 'kwotid, or Louisa's lu'izaz, 
Louise's lu'iziz, aitd often in ES: Caesars 
'sizaz, seizes 'siziz or mattered 'maetad, 
matted 'maetid. 

Edam 'idam, 'idaem {Du e'dam) 

Edda 'sda 

eddy, E- 'Edi | eddied 'fidid 

Eddystone light 'sdistan. Pa hor. 'EdijSton 

edelweiss 'edl^vais |-es -iz 

edema i'dima |-mata -mata |-tous -tas 

Eden 'idn |-ton 'idntan 

Edgar 'edga^; ES 'Edga(r 

edge Eds ledges 'sdsiz [edged sdsd 

Edgerton 'Edsa'tan; ES 'edsatan 

edgeways 'Eds^wez |edgewise 'Edg^waiz 

Edgeworth 'Edswa^O; ES 'fidswaQ 

edible 'Edabl [edibility jsda'bilati 

edict 'idikt 

edification ^Edafa'ke/an 

edifice 'Edafis [edifices 'Edafisiz |-d -t 

edify 'Eda^fai [edified 'sda^faid 

edile 'idail 

Edinburg US 'sdn^byg, 'Edm-; ES -ibsg, 

Edinburgh Scotl 'Edn^bs^o, 'Edm-, -a; ES 
-jbsr-, -jbAr-, -;by-; {Brit. pro7i. 'Edinbra, 
'Edn-, -bara, -^bAra) 

Edison 'sdasn 

edit 'Edit [edited 'Editid 

Edith 'idie 

edition I'di/an, i'dijan 

editor 'sdita'; ES 'Edita(r; [-ship -j/ip 

editorial jEda'torial, -'tar-; S -'tor-; |-ly -i 

-edly ending of advs formed on -ed words, as 

[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




designedly di^zainidli — Advs in -edly are 

effete e'fit, i- 

only given in the vocabulary when the pron. 

efficacious ^efa'kejas 

cannot be inferred from the form in -ed, as 

efficacy 'efakasi 

disguised dis'gaizd but disguisedly dis- 

efficiency a'fajansi, i-j |-ent -ant 

'gaizidli. But disgustedly dis'gAstidli is 

Effie 'efi 

not entered, since the pron. can be found by 

effigy 'efadsi 

adding -h directly to dis'gAstid. For the 

Effingham US 'efig^haem; Engd -igam 

vowels in -edly see -ed b' -ly in the vocab. 

effloresce jEflo'res, -fb-; S -flo-; |-s -iz \-d -t 

The pron. of -edness as -idnis or -dnis 

1-cence -ns |-cency -nsi 

usually follows that of -edly. 

effluence 'sfluans, 'efliuans |-s -iz 

Edmondson, -nson 'edmansn 

effluvium E'fluviam, i-, -'fhu- |-via -via 

Edmonton 'edmantan 

efflux 'efUks [effluxes 'efLvksiz 

Edmund 'edmand, before some conss. + '8dm3n 

effort 'efa^t; ES 'efat 

('edmand'smiO, '£dm3n'smi9) 

effrontery a'frAntan, i- 

Edmundston 'edmanstan 

effulge E'fAlds, i- |-s -iz I-d -d j-nce -ans 

Edna 'edna 

|-ncy -ansi [-nt -ant 

-edness ending, see -edly 

effuse adj E^fjus, i-, -'fius |-sive -iv 

Edom ^dam |Edomite 'idanijait 

effuse V e'fjuz, i-, -'fmz |-s -iz |-d -d 

educability jgdsaka^bilati, jcdsu- 

effusion a'fjusan, i-, £-, -'fiusan 

educable 'edsakabl, 'edsu- 

eft eft [eftsoon eft'sun |-soons -'sunz 

educate 'edsajket, 'ed3u- |-d -id 

e.g. 'i'dsi, ig'zemplai'grej'ia, farig'zaempl 

educator 'edsa^keta^, 'edsu-; ES -jketa(r 

egad I'gaed, i'gaed 

education jedja'kejan, ^edsu- 

egalitarian iigaela'terian, i-, -'ter- 

educational jEdsa'keJanl, itdsu-, -Jnal j-ist 

Egbert 'ggba-t; ES 'egbat 

-1st |-ly -I 

Egerton 'edsa^tan; ES 'edsatan 

educative 'edsajketiv, ^ed^v- 

egest i'djEst |-ed -id 

educe I'djus, I'dms, I'dus, i- ]-s -iz |-d -t 

Egeus myth. Hdsjus, -dsus, Shak. i'dsias 

eductive i^Aktiv, i- |-tion -kjan 

l-'s -IZ 

Edward 'gdwa'd; ES 'edwad; |-s -z |-s's -ziz 

egg 8g legged Egd 

Edwardian, -dean edVordian; ES ed'waadian 

Eggleston 'eglz-tan, ^Egl-stan 

Edwin 'gdwin jEdwina ed'wina, -Vina 

eggnog 'Eg'nag, 'fig/nag, -'nog, -,nDg 

eel il 

eggplant 'Egjplaent; E+-jplant, -^plant 

eelgrass 'iljgraes; E-h-^gras, -jgras 

eggshell '£g;/El 

eelpout 'iljpaut 

egis 4d3is |egises 'idsisiz 

e'en in 

Eglamore 'Egbjinor, -^mar; ES -jmoa(r. 

e'er ga^; ES ea(r 

E-i--jm3a(r; |-mour -jinor; ES -jmua(r 

eerie, -ry 'in, 'iri 

eglantine 'Eglan^tain, -jtin 

ef ef 

ego 'igo, 'Ego |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 

efface I'fes, e- |-faces -'fesiz [-faced -'fast 

egocentric jigo'sEntrik, jEgo- 

effect a'fekt, I'fekt, £~ |-fected -'fektid 

egotism 'iga^tizain, 'Eg- [-tist -tist 

effective a'fektiv, i- 

egotistic jiga'tistik, jEg- |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikh 

effector a'fekta^, i-; ES -'fektaCr 

egregious I'gridsas, I'gridsias 

effectual a^fekt/ual, -t/ul, i- |-ly -i 

egress n 'igiES [egresses 'igrEsiz 

effectuality ajfektju'selati, i- 

egress v I'grES, i- [-es -iz [-ed -t 

effectuate a'fekt/ujet, i- |-ated -^etid 

egret 'igrit, -grEt, 'e- 

effeminacy a'femanasi, i- |-nate -nit 

Egypt 'idsapt, 'idsipt [-ptian I'dsip/an, i- 

efferent 'efarant 

Egj^tology jidsip'taladsi; ES-h-'tol- 

effervesce ^efa^Ves; ES jEfaVes; |-s -iz |-d -t 

eh e, E and various other inquiring sounds 

|-cence -ns |-cent -nt 

eider 'aida^; ES 'aida(r 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [j^et JEt [sang saeg [angr>' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E baG (§10) jah a [far far [watch watj, wotj" (§12) [jaw dsa (gorge gards [go go 




Eiffel 'aifl 

Eldorado Calif jElda'rado; III, Kas, Mo 

eight et | eighth etG [eighty 'eti |-ieth -iiO 


|-ieths -iiGs 

eldritch, E- 'EldritJ |Eldritch's 'Eldritjiz 

eighteen e'tin, 'e'tin ('eigh^teen 'years) 

Eleanor 'Elana^, 'filma'; ES -na(r 

eightfold adj, adv 'et'fold ('eight^fold 'loss) 

Eleanora jEla'nora, fiha-, -'nara; S -'nora 

eightpenny 'et^pEni, -pani 

Eleazar, -er jEli'eza^; ES jEli'eza(r 

eikon, E- 'aikan; ES + 'aikon 

elecampane jElakam'pen, jeIi- 

Eileeu ai'lin ('Eijleen 'Johnson) 

elect I'kkt, a'kkt |-lected -'kktid 

Einstein 'amstain |-ian ain'stamian 

election I'lek/an, a'kkjan 

Eire 'era, 'Era |Eireann 'eran, 'eran 

electioneer i^kkjaii'ir, a-; ES -'ia(r, S+-'£a(r; 

eisteddfod e'steSvad, 8-, -vod 

l-ed -d 

either 'iSa^, much less freq. 'ai'Sa^ ; ES -tJaCr 

elective I'kktiv, a'kktiv 

ejaculate I'dsaekjajet, i'dsaekju- |-d -id 

elector I'kkta', a-; ES -'kkta(r 

ejaculation ijdsaekja'lejan, i^dsaekju- 

electoral I'kktaral, a- |-ly -i [-rate -rit, -trit 

ejaculatory I'dsaekjala^tori, i'ds^ekju-, -itari; 

Electra I'kktra 

S -iton 

electress I'kktris, a- j-es -iz 

eject n 'idsekt 

electric I'kktrik, a- |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 

eject V I'djekt, i- j-jected -'dsektid 

electrician i;kk'tnjan, a-, jilsk'tn/an 

ejecta i'dsekta 

electricity ijkk'trisati, a-, jikk'trisati 

ejection I'dsek/an, i- |-tment -'dsektmant 

electrification ijkktrafa'ke/an, a- 

eke adv ik 

electrify i'kktra jfai, a- |-fied -^faid 

eke V ik [eked ikt 

electro I'kktro, a- 


electroanalysis i^kktroa'naelasis, a- 

elaborate adj I'laebarit, a-, -'labrit 

electrochemical ijkktro'kEinikl, a- j-ly -i 

elaborate v I'laebairet, a- | -rated -^retid 

electrochemist ijkktro'kEiiust, a- |-ry -ri 

elaboration ijlaeba 're/an, a- 

electrocute I'kktra^kjut, a-, -^kiut |-d -id 

Elaine I'len, a'len 

electrocution ijkktra'kju/an, a-, -'kiu/an 

Elam 'ilam |-ite -^ait |-itic ^ila'mitik 

electrode I'kktrod, a- 

elan Fr e'15 

electrodeposit ijkktrodi'pazit, 3-; ES + 

eland 'Hand 


elapse I'laeps, a- \-s -iz [-d -t 

electrodynamics ijEktrodai'naemiks, a- 

elastic I'laestik, a- |-ally -li, -ikh 

electroencephalograph ijkktro-En'sEfalajgraef, 

elasticity ijlaes'tisati, a-, jilaes'tisati 

9-; E+-jgraf, -jgraf 

elate I'let, i- |-lated -'letid 

electrograph I'kktrOigraef, a-; E+-af, -af 

elation I'le/an, i- 

electrokinetics i^kktroki'nEtiks, a-, -kai- 

Elba 'Elba 

electrolysis i^kk'tralasis, a-; ES+-'trDl- 

Elbe Elb (Ger 'elba) 

electrolyte i'kktra jkit, a- 

Elbert 'elba^t; ES 'elbat 

electrolytic i^kktra'litik, a- 

elbow 'eljbo | elbowed 'el^bod 

electrolyze i'kktra ^laiz, a- |-s -iz |-d -d 

elbowroom 'Elbojrum, -^rum 

electromagnet ijkktro'maegnit, a- 

eld eld 

electromagnetic ijkktromaeg'nEtik, a- \-s -s 

elder 'elda^; ES 'sldaCr 

electromagnetism ijkktro'maegnajtizam, a- 

elderberry 'Elda'jbEri, 'elda-, -ban, -bri; ES 

electrometallurgy i;kktro'm£tl,yd5i, a-, -iiie- 

'Elda-; The second pron. results from 

'taela^dsi; ES -isd^i, -j^dsi, -'taeladsi 

r-dissimilation {§121). 

electrometer ijkk'tramata^, a-, jikk-; ES 

elderly 'Elda^h; ES 'eldah 

-'tramata(r, -'trDmata(r 

eldest 'Eldist 

electromotive ijkktra'motiv, a- 

Eldora El'dora, -'dara; S -'dora 

electromotor ijkktra'mota', a-; ES -'mota(r 

El Dorado myth. ^Elda'rado, Ark city -'redo 

electron I'kktran, a-; ES+-tnon 

|full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




electroplate I'lektra^plet, a- |-d -id 

Elimelech I'limajek, a- 

electroscope I'kktrajskop, 9- 

ehminate I'limajnet, a- |-nated -^netid 

electroscopic ijlEktra'skapik, a-; ES + -^ 


elimination ijlima'ne/an, a- 

electrostatic i^kktra'staetik, a- [-al -1 


Elinor 'ehna^; ES 'elinaCr 

-h, -ikh 

Eliot 'chat, 'eljat 

electrotherapeutic i^lEktrojGera'pjutik 

, 3-, 

Eliphalet I'hfalit, a- 

-'piu- |-al -1 

Eliphaz 'ela^faez |-'s -iz 

electrotherapy ijlektro'eerapi, a- 

Elis 'ihs |-'s -IZ 

electrotype I'lektrajtaip, a- |-d -t 

Elisabeth I'lizabaG, 9 — see Elizabeth 

electrum I'kktram, a- 

Elisha I'lai/a, a- 

electuary I'lekt/u^eri, a- 

eHsion I'lisan 

eleemosynary jEla'masnjEri, fihs-; 

ES + 

elite I'lit, e'lit 


elixir I'hksa^; ES i'liksa(r 

elegance 'elagans 1-cy -i |-gant -gant 

Eliza i^laiza 

elegiac i'lid3i,aek, a-, ^ela'dsaiaek, -ak 

Elizabeth I'lizabaO, a- |-ton -tan |-town 

elegiacal jgla'dsaiakl 

-jtaun — spelt with z in the 1611 Bible 

elegize 'ebjdsaiz \-s -iz J-d -d 

Elizabethan ijliza'biGan, a-, -'beGan, I'liza- 

elegy ^adsi |-gist -dsist 


element 'elamant 

elk elk 

elemental jcla'tnentl [-ly -i ]-tary -tsn. 


Elkanah 'elkana, el'kena 

Elena 'elana 

Elkhart 'elk, hart; ES -,ha:t, E+-,lia:t 

Eleonora jela'nora, jElia-, -^nara; S -'nora 

ell el — The n sound was lost from ell (OE eln 

elephant 'Elafant |-a jEla'faenta 

measure) in the same way as from kiln, mill, 

elephantiasis jslafan'taiasis, -faen- 


elephantine iela'fsentin, -tain, -tin 

Ella 'ela 

Eleusinian jelju'sinian 

Ellen 'elm, -an 

Eleusis e'lusis, a-, -'liusis |-sis' -sis 

Ellesmere 'elzmir; ES -miaCr 

elevate 'elajvet |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 

Ellice Islands 'ebs'ailandz, -lanz 

elevation jelaVe/an 

Elliott 'ehat, 'eljat 

eleven I'kvan, I'levm, a- j-th -anO |-ths 


ellipse I'lips, a- \-s -iz 

elf elf |-'s -s 1 elves elvz |-in -m 

ellipsis i^ipsis, a- |-pses -psiz 

elfish '£lfi/, 'eIvi/ 

ellipsoid lUipsaid, a- 

elflock 'elf^lak; ES+-M 

ellipsoidal ijip'saidl, a-, jelip'saidl 

Elfrida E^frida 

elliptic I'liptik, a- |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikh 

Elgar 'elga-; ES 'elgaCr 

ellipticity i^lip'tisati, a-, jclipHisati 

Elgin US 'eldsin; C, Scotl, Lord, marble 

Ellis 'elis l-'s -IZ 


Ellsworth 'elzwa^G; ES 'elzwaG 

Elginshire '£lgin;Xir, -JV; ES -Jia(r, -/a(r 

elm elm 

El Greco ergreko, -^greko 

Elmer 'elma^; ES 'elmaCr 

Eli 'ilai 

Elmira el'maira 

Elia 'iha 

Elmo 'elmo 

Elias i^Iaias |-'s -iz 

El Modena jclmo'dina 

elicit I'lisit |-ed -id 

Elmore 'elmor, -mar; ES -moa(r, E+-maa(r 

elide I'laid |-lided -'laidid 

elocution iela'kjujan, -'kiu- |-ary -ieri 

eligibiUty jclidga'bilati 

Elohim e'lohim, -him j-hist -hist |-hism 

eligible 'elid3abl |-bly -bli 


EHhu Bible I'laihju, -hiu; Am name 'Ela^hju, 

Elohistic ,elo'histik 


eloign, eloin I'lain j-ed -d 

Elijah I'laidsa, a- 

Eloise 'Heloise' jclo'iz, £«g natne jela'wiz 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'p'^i (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeij |angn,' 'teij-gn 
[bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




elongate I'bgget, I'log-; S+i'Iag-; |-gated 

elongation ijbg'ge/an, lilog-, ^ibg-, iilog-; 

elope I'lop, 3- j-d -t 

eloquence 'ebkwans j-quent -kwant 

El Paso el'pjeso 

Elphinstone 'elfinstan 

Elsa 'elsa {Ger 'eIzq:) 

El Salvador el'saelvajdor; ES -jdo3(r; {Sp 

Elsass Ger 'elzas 

else eIs [else's 'eIsiz 

El Segundo jelsa'gAndo, -'gun- 
elsewhere 'elsjhwEr, -^hwaer; E -^hweaCr, ES 

Elsie 'elsi 

Elsinore 'elsainor, -jnor; ES -jno3(r, E + 
-jn33(r; acci + jElsi Wre 

Elsmere 'elzmir; ES -mi3(r 

Elspeth 'slspae 

Elsworthy 'elzwySi; ES -wstSi, -wytJi 

Eltham Kent 'eltam, 'ElGam — 'ElOam is a sp. 

elucidate I'lusa^det, I'lius- |-d -id 

elucidation ijlusaMe/an, ijlius- 

elude I'lud, iHiud |-d -id 

elusive I'lusiv, I'liusiv j-sory -san 

elves elvz 

Elvira ei'vaira 

elvish 'eIviJ 

Ely 'ih, pers. name +^i\ai, cfEli 

Elyot 'sliat, 'eljat 

Elyria i^iris, a- 

Elysia I'lisia, I'lizia 

Elysian I'lisan, I'hsian 

Elysium I'ligiam, I'liziam 

elzevir, E- 'flzava', -jVir; ES -V3(r, -jVi3(r 

em Em 

'em unstressed only am, after p or b+m (keep 
'em 'kipm, mob 'em 'mabm) — When tin- 
stressed, hem, the native Eng word for 'them,' 
lost its h sound just as do he, her, his, him 
when unstressed. Hem and hit lost the letter 
h also. The mistaken belief that 'em is an 
abbreviation of them has led some to avoid it, 
hut it is in excellent colloquial use. 

em- unstressed prefix im-, Em — see en- 
emaciate I'me/ijct |-ated -,etid 

emaciation ijme/i'ejan, i^mesi- 

emanate 'Emajnet |-d -id |-tion ;Ema'ne/an 

emancipate I'maensajpet |-pated -^petid 

emancipation i^maensa'pejan 

Emanuel I'maenjual, -jeI 

emasculate I'maeskjajlet |-lated -jletid 

emasculation ijmaeskja'lejan 

embalm im'bam |-ed -d 

embank im'baegk |-ed -t 

embar Em'bar; ES -'ba:(r, E+-'ba:(r; |-red -d 

embarcation jEmbar^keJan; ES -ba:-, E + 

embargo im'bargo; ES -'ba:-, E+-'ba:-; 

l-ed -d 
embark im'bark; ES -'ba:k, E+-'ba:k; |-ed -t 
embarkation jEmbar'keJan; ES -ba:-, E + 

embarrass im'baeras, -is |-es -iz |-ed -t 
embassador im'baesada^; ES -'baesada(r 
embassage 'Embasids |-s -iz |-bassy -basi 
embattle Em'bajtl |-d -d |-ling -'baetjig, -tlig 
embay Em'be [-ed -d 
embed im'bsd |-ded -id 
embellish im'bEliJ" |-es -iz |-ed -t 
ember 'Emba^; ES '£mba(r 
embezzle im'bEzl |-ed -d |-ling -'bEzlig, -zlig 
embitter im'bita'; ES -'bita(r; j-ed -d 
emblaze Em'blez |-s -iz |-d -d 
emblazon em'blezn |-ed -d |-ing -znig, -znig 
emblem 'fimblam |-ed -d 
emblematic ^Embla'maetik |-al -I j-ally -li, 

embodiment im'badimant; ES+-'bijdi- 
embody im'badi; ES+-'bDdi; j-ied -d 
embolden im'boldn |-ed -d |-ing -dnig, -dnig 
embolic Em'bahk; ES + -'bDl- 
embolism 'Emba^lizam |-lus -las j-li -jlai 
embonpoint Fr abo'pwie 
embosom Ein'buzam, -'buzam |-ed -d 
emboss im'bas, -'bns [-es -iz |-ed -t 
embouchure jambu'/ur; ES -'/uaCr; {Fr 

embow sm'bo j-ed -d 
embowel Em'baual, -'baul |-ed -d 
embower Em'baua^; ES -'bau'a(r; ]-ed -d j-ing 

-'bauarig, -'baurig 
embrace im'bres |-s -iz |-d -t 
embraceor Em'bresa^; ES -'bresa(r; |-cery -i 
embracer im'bresa^; ES -'bresa(r 

|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




embranchment em'braentjmant ; E + -'brant/-, 

embrasure 2in'bre53^; ES -'bre33(r; |-d -d 
embrocate 'embrojket |-cated -^ketid 
embrocation jembro'kejan 
embroider im'brDida^; ES -'braidaCr; |-ed -d 

|-ing -dang, -driij |-y -dan, -dn 
embroil em'brDil |-ed -d 
embrown em'braun |-ed -d 
embrue em'bru, -'bnu |-d -d 
embryo 'embrijO 
embryologic jembri3'lad3ik;ES+-'lDd3-; |-al 

-1 I -ally -h, -ikh 
embryologist iEmbri'aladsist; ES+-'d1-; |-gy 

embryonic jembn'anik; ES+-'Dn-; |-ally -li, 

Emden 'emdan 

emeer a'mir; ES a'miaCr; |-ate -it 
Emeline 'emajain, -jlin 
emend i'm£nd |-ed -id 
emendate 'imanjdet |-dated -jdetid 
emendation ^imen'dej'an, -man-, jEinan- 

emendator 'iman^deta^, 'Eman-; ES -jdeta(r 
emendatory I'mendajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
emerald 'Emarald, 'Emrald 
emerge i'myd3; ES i'm3d3, i'myd3; |-s -iz 

emergence i'm3'd3ans; ES i'm3d3-, I'myds-; 

|-cy -I I -gent -d3ant 
emeritus I'meratas |-ti -^tai 
emersed i'm^st; ES i'msst, i'myst 
emersion i'my/an, -san; ES -'ms-, -'my- 
Emerson 'Eina^sn; ES 'emasn 
emery 'emari, 'emri |-ied -d 
emetic I'mEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
emigrant 'emagrant, -^graent 
emigrate 'Emajgret |-d -id |-tion jEma'greJan 
emigre 'Emajgre {Fr emi'gre) 
Emil 'iml 

Emilia I'milia, iWilja 
Emily 'ehiIi 

eminence 'fimanans |-cy -i |-nent -nant 
emir a'mir; ES a'mia(r; |-ate -it 
emissary 'EmajSEri 
emission I'mi/an 
emit I'mit [emitted I'mitid 
Emma 'Ema 

Emmanuel I'msenjual 

Emmaus E'meas, 'Emias |-'s -iz 

EmmeMne 'Emajlain, -^lin 

emmet, E- 'Emit 

Emmetsburg, Emmits- 'Emits^byg; ES -jbag, 

emollient I'maljant, -hant; ES-f-'mol- 
emolument I'maljamant; ES-t--'mDl- 
Emory 'Eman 

emotion I'mojan j-al -1, -J"nal |-ally -li, -/nah 
emotionalism I'mojanljizam, -'mojnaljizain 
emotionality i^mofan'selati 
emotionalization ijino/anla'ze/an, -Jnala-, 

emotionalize I'mojanljaiz, -Jnal- [-s -iz |-d -d 
emotive I'motiv 
empale im'pel j-d -d 
empanel imVaen] 1-ed -d 
empathic Em'paefiik 1-ally -li, -ikli 
empathy 'smpaGi 
Empedocles Ein'pedajkliz |-'s -iz 
emperor 'Empara^; ES 'emparaCr 
empery 'Empari 

emphasis 'emfasis j-phases -fajsiz 
emphasize 'Emfa^saiz [-s -iz j-d -d 
emphatic im'faetik [-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
empire 'Empair; ES '£inpaia(r 
empiric Em'pirik |-al -1 |-aUy -li, -ikk 
empiricism Em'pirajSizam [-cist -sist 
emplacement im'plesmant 
employ im'pbi |-ed -d |-ment -mant 
employee, -ye, -ye im'pbi!'i» iCnipbi'i 
employer im'pbia^, -'pbj^"; ES -'pbi'a(r, 

empoison Em'pDizn j-ed -d |-ing -znig, -znig 
Emporia Em'poria, -'par-; S -'pona 
emporium Ein'poriam, -'par-; S -'ponam; [-s 

-z |-ia -la 
empower im'paua^; ES -'pau-aCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

-'paurig, -'pauarig 
empress 'Empris |-es -iz 
emprise, -ze Em'praiz |-s -iz 
emption 'Emp/an |-al -1 
empty 'Einpti |-ied -d 
empurple Ein'pypl; ES -'p3pj, -'ps^pl; [-d -d 

I -ling -phg, -plig 
empyema jEmpi'ima, -pai- [-mata -'imata, 

empyreal Em'pirial, jEmpa'rial, -pai- 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg |angn,' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) [ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 




empyrean jEmps'ridn, 



emu imju, 'imiu 

emulate adj 'emjaht 

emulate v 'emjajlet ] -la ted -^letid |-tive -iv 

emulation jEmja'leJan 

emulator 'Einjajeta^; ES -JetaCr 

emulous 'Emjalas 

emulsification i^mAlsafa'keJ'an 

emulsify I'mAlsa^fai |-fied -jfaid 

emulsion I'mAl/an 

en en 

en- prefix in-, en — When wholly unstressed in 
familiar words, pronounced in-, sometimes 
an-. Since words vary in familiarity, and 
since styles and personal habits vary, many 
such words are pronounced with either in- or 
zrv-. Observe that many such words are spelt 
with either en- or in-, as endorse, indorse. 
These facts will explain seeming inconsis- 
tencies in the pron. of stich words in the vo- 
cabulary. The same statements apply to the 
variant em-. In these prefixes, im-, in- are 
heard in more familiar words; cf im'bEzI 
with Em'blezn, or i^naeml with en'klaesp. 

enable in'ebl |-d -d |-ling -'eblig, -'eblig 

enact in'aekt j-ed -id |-ive -iv |-ory -an 

enamel I'naeml j-ed -d |-ing -mlig, -mlig 

enamor in'aema^; ES -'aBm3(r; |-ed -d 

en bloc En'blak; ES + -'blDk; (Fr a'blSk) 

encage En'keds |-s -iz |-d -d 

encamp in'kaemp |-ed -t |-ment -msnt 

encase in'kes |-s -iz |-d -t 

encaustic en'k3stik |-ally -li, -ikh 

enceinte en'sent {Fr a's«t) 

Enceladus En'sEbdas |-'s -iz 

encephalic jensa^faehk 

encephalitis jEnsefa'laitis, en^sEfa- 

encephalon En'sEfa^lan, -jlnn |-la -la 

enchain En't/en ] -chained -'t/end 

enchant in't/aent; E-^-'t/ant, -'t/ant; |-ed -id 
|-ress -ris |-resses -risiz 

enchase En't/es |-s -iz |-d -t 

encircle in^sykl; ES -'sakl, -'sykl; |-d -d 
|-ling -kbg, -klig 

Encke 'egka 

enclasp en'klaesp; E+-'klasp, -'klasp; |-ed -t 

enclave n 'Enklev {Fr a'klarv) 

enclave v En'klev |-claved -'klevd 

enclitic en'kbtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 

enclose in'kloz |-s -iz |-d -d 

enclosure in'klosa^; ES -'klo33(r 

encomiast En'komijaest 

encomiastic En^komi^^estik |-al -1 [-ally -ji, 

encomium en^konuam |-s -z |-comia -mia 
encompass in'kAmpas [-es -iz |-ed -t 
encore n, v 'agkor, W-, -kar; ES -koa(r, 

E+-kaa(r; |-d -d — »+en'core 
encounter in'kaunta^; ES -'kaunta(r; |-ed -d 

1-ing -tang, -trig 
encourage in'kyids; ES -'ksr-, -'kAr-, -'ks^-; 

|-s -iz |-d -d 
encrimson En'krimzn [-ed -d 
encroach in'krotj" |-es -iz |-ed -t 
encrust in'krAst |-ed -id 
encumber in'kAmba^; ES -'kAmba(r; [-ed -d 

|-ing -bang, -brig 
encumbrance in'kAmbrans |-s -iz 
encycUcal en'siklikl, -'saik- 
encyclopedia, -paed- in^saikla'pidia 
encyclopedic, -paed- in^saikla'pidik |-al -1 

I -ally -h, -ikh 
encyclopedism, -paed- in^saikla'pidizam |-ist 

encyst En'sist |-ed -id 
end End [ended 'endid 
endanger in'dendsa^; ES -'dendsaCr; ]-ed -d 

|-ing -dsarig, -dsrig 
endear in'dir; ES -'dia(r, S + -'d£a(r, -'dJ£a(r; 

l-ed -d 
endeavor in'deva'; ES -'dEva(r; |-ed -d [-ing 

-'dEvarig, -'dEvrig 
endemic En'demik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 
Enderby 'Enda'bi; ES 'Endabi 
endermic En'dymik; ES -'dsm-, -'dym-; |-al 

-1 I -ally -Ii, -ikh 
Endicott 'Endi^kat, -kat; ES+-jkDt 
endive 'Endaiv, 'andiv {Fr a'di:v) 
endlong 'endjag, -jlog; S+-ilag 
endmost 'End^most, 'En^most 
endocarditis ^Endokar'daitis; ES -ka:-, E + 

endocardium ^Endo'kardiam; ES -'ka:d-, 

endocarp 'Endo^karp; ES -ika:p, E-f-^karp 
endocrin ^Endo^krin 

endocrine 'endojkrain |-nal jEndo'krainl 
endocrinology jEndokrai'naladsi; ES + -'nDl- 

|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




endoderm 'Endojdym; ES -jdsm, -jdym 

England 'iggland |-er -^; ES -a(r; freq. 

endogamy en'dagami, -'dog- 

'igland, which many regard as careless 

endogenous En'dadsanas; ES+-'dDd3- 

Englefield 'eggl.fild 

endolymph 'endojlimf, -Jimpf 

Englewood 'eggl^wud 

endoparasite jcndo'paerajsait 

EngUsh 'igglij |-ed -t |-man -man |-men -man 

endoplasm 'Endojplaezam 

|-ry -n |-woman -^wuman, -^wu- |-women 

Endor 'enda^, -dar; ES 'endaCr, -doaCr 

-jwimin, -■an— freq. 'igli/; see England 

endorse m'dars; ES -'daas; |-s -iz |-d -t 

engorge en'gard3; ES -'goads; |-s -iz |-d -d 

endorsee in^dor'si, jEndor'si; ES -^daa-, -daa- 

engraft En'graeft; E + -'graft, -'graft; |-ed -id 

endoscope 'end3,skop 

engrain in'gren |-ed -d |-edly -idli 

endothelium jendo'Giliam |-lia -ha 

engrave in'grev [-graved -'grevd 

endothermic jEndo'Oa^mik; ES -'Gam-, -'Gym- 

engross in'gros |-es -iz |-ed -t [-edly -idh 

endow in'dau lendowed in'daud 

engulf in'gAlf |-ed -t 

endue in'dju, -'dm, -'du |-d -d 

enhance in'haens; E+-'hans, -'bans; |-s -iz 

endurance m'djurans, -'diur-, -'dur- 


endure in'djur, -'diur, -'dur; ES -3(r 

enharmonic jenhar'mamk ; ES -lia:'manik. 

endways 'endjwez |-wise -^waiz 

-'mnn-, E-i--ha:-; |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

Endymion En'dimian 

Enid 'inid 

Eneas I'nias [-'s -iz 

enigma I'mgma 

Eneid I'niid, -ad 

enigmatic ^emg'maetik, ^i- |-al -1 |-ally -li. 

enema 'enama 


enemy 'enami 

enjambment, -bement in'dsaemmant {Fr 

energetic ^ena^'dsetik; ES ^ena-; |-al -1 |-ally 


-h, -ikh 

enjoin in'dsain |-ed -d 

energize 'ena^^dsaiz; ES 'ena-; |-s -iz |-d -d 

enjoy m'dsai |-ed -d 

energy 'ena^dsi; ES 'enadsi 

enkindle en'kmdl |-d -d |-ling -dbg, -dlig 

enervate adj I'ns^vit; ES I'nsv-, I'nyv- 

enlace in 'las |-s -iz |-d -t 

enervate v 'ena^jvet; ES 'ena-; |-d -id 

enlarge m'lards; ES -'lards, E+-'la:d3; j-s 

enervation jEna-'veJan; ES ,en3- 

-IZ l-d -d l-dly -idli, -dli 

enfeeble in'fibl |-d -d [-ling -blig, -blig 

enlighten m'laitn [-ed -d |-ing -tnig, -tnig 

enfeoff tn'fef |-ed -t 

enlist in'bst |-ed -id 

Enfield 'enfild 

enliven m'laivan |-ed -d |-ing -vanig, -vnig 

enfilade jenfa'led | -laded -'ledid 

en masse en'maes {Fr a'mas) 

enfold in'fold |-ed -id 

enmesh en'mej |-es -iz |-ed -t 

enforce in'fors, -'fars; ES -'foas, E+-'faas; 

enmity 'enmati 

|-s -iz |-d -t j-dly -idli 

ennoble I'nobl, en'nobl |-d -d |-ling -'nobhg. 

enfranchise en'fraent/aiz ]-s -iz |-d -d 


enfranchisement en'fraent/izmant 

ennui 'anwi {Fr a'nqi) 

engage in'geds |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idli 

Enobarb 'ina^barb, 'tna-; ES -^ba:b, E-i- 

engarland En'garland; ES -'ga:l-, E+-'ga:l-; 


|-ed -id 

Enobarbus ^ina'barbas, jEna-; ES -'ba:b-, 

Engedi en'gidai 

E + -'ba:b-; |-'s -iz 

Engels Ger 'egals 

Enoch 'inak 

engender in'dsenda^; ES -'d3enda(r; |-ed -d 

enorm I'norm; ES I'naam 

|-ing -'dsendrig, -'dsendarig 

enormous I'narmas; ES I'naamas; |-mity 

engine 'endsan |-d -d |-ry -ri 


engineer ^Endsa'nir; ES -'nia(r, S+-'nea(r, 

Enos 'Inas |-'s -iz 

-'nj£a(r; |-ed -d 

enough a'nAf , I'nAf — after t, d, s, z, often n'Af 

engird en'gyd; ES -'gsd, -'g3^d; |-ed -id 

(gudn'Af, 'Saetsn'Af) 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



enounce i'nauns |-s -iz |-d -t 

enow I'nau 

enplane en'plen |-planed -'pknd 

enquire in'kwair; ES -'kwai3(r; |-d -d |-ry -i 

enrage in 'reds \-s -iz |-d -d j-dly -idli, -dli 

enrapture in'raeptja^; ES -'raept/aCr; |-d -d 

enravish En'raevi/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 

enregister en'redsista- ; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-trig, -tang 
enrich in'ritj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
enrobe en'rob | -robed -Vobd 
enroll, -ol in'rol |-(l)ed -d 
enroot en'rut, -'rut |-ed -id 
Enroughty en'rauti — 'da:bi is not a pronun- 
ciation oj Enroughty, hut a substitution for 

en route an'rut {Fr a 'rut) 
ensample en'saempj; E + -'sampl, -'sampl 
ensanguine En'saeggwin j-d -d 
ensconce gn'skans; ES-h-'skons; |-s -iz |-d -t 
ensemble an'sambl {Fr a'sa:bl) 
enshade En'Jed | -shaded -'/edid 
enshrine in '/rain j-d -d 
enshroud en'/raud |-ed -id 
ensign n 'ensain, m/. + 'ensn 
ensign v en'sain |-ed -d 
ensilage 'ens lids 
ensile en'sail, 'ensail |-d -d 
enslave in'slev |-slaved -'slevd 
ensnare en'sner, -'snaer; E -'sn£3(r, ES 

-'snae3(r; |-d -d 
ensphere en'sfir; ES -'sfi3(r, S+-'sf£3(r 
ensue en'su, -'siu, -'sju |-d -d 
en suite an'swit {Fr a'sqit) 
ensure in'Jur; ES -'/u3(r; |-d -d 
enswathe en'sweS | -swathed -'sweSd 
entablature en'taebbtja^; ES -t/aCr 
entablement en'teblmant 
entail in'tel |-ed -d 

entangle in'taeggl |-d -d |-ling -glig, -glig 
entelechy en'telaki 
entente an'tant {Fr a'ta:t) 
enter 'enta^; ES -t3(r; |-ed -d |-ing -tang, 

enteric en'terik |-ritis jgnta'raitis 
enteron 'enta^ran; ES-F-jron 
enterprise 'enta^jpraiz, 'enta-; ES 'enta-; |-s 

-IZ |-d -d — In the second pron. a' becomes a 

by dissimilation {§121). 

entertain ^enta^'ten; ES ^enta-; |-ed -d 
enthrall, -al in'Oral |-(l)ed -d 
enthrone in'Oron |-d -d 
enthronize en'Oronaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
enthuse in'Ojuz, -'Oiuz, -'6uz |-s -iz |-d -d 
enthusiasm in'Ojuzijaezam, -'Oiuz-, -'8uz- 

|-ast -jaest 
enthusiastic injOJuzi'aestik, -jOiuz-, -j6uz- |-al 

-1 I -ally -h, -ikk 
enthymeme '£nOa/mim 
entice in'tais |-s -iz [-d -t 
entire in'tair; ES -'taia(r; |-ty -ti ('en^tire 

entitle in'taitl |-d -d |-ling -tjig, -tbg 
entity 'entati 
entoil En'tail |-ed -d 

entomb in'tum |-ed -d j-ment -'tummant 
entomologic ^entama'ladsik; ES-h-'lods-; 

l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 
entomologist ^enta'maladsist; ES-H-'mol-; 

l-gy -dsi 

entourage ^antu'ras {Fr atu'rais) 

entr'acte an'traekt {Fr a'trakt) 

entrails 'entralz 

entrain in'tren ]-ed -d 

entrance n 'entrans |-s -iz |-trant -trant 

entrance v in'traens; E-i- -'trans, -'trans; |-s 

-IZ |-d -t |-dly -idli 
entrap in'traep [-trapped -'traept 
entreasure en'tresa^; ES -'tr83a(r; |-d -d 
entreat in'trit |-ed -id |-y -i 
entree 'antre {Fr fi'tre) 
entremets 'antra^me \pl -mets -jmez {Fr 

entrench in'trent/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 
entre nous Fr atra'nu 
entrepot 'antraipo {Fr atra'po) 
entrepreneur ^antrapra'ny; ES -'n3(r, -'ns^; 

{Fr atrapra'noerr) 
entropy 'entrapi 
entrust in'trAst |-ed -id 
entry 'entri 
entwine in'twain |-d -d 
entwist en'twist |-ed -id 
enucleate adj I'njukliit, I'niu-, I'nu-, -^et 
enucleate v I'njukhjet, I'niu-, I'nu- j-d -id 
enucleation ijnjukli'e/an, i^niu-, i^nu- 
enumerate i'n)uma/ret, I'niu-, I'nu- |-d -id 
enumeration ijnjuma're/an, i^niu-, i,nu- 

IfuU ful |tooth tuB [further 'fytJa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




enunciate I'nAnsijCt, -J"i- |-d -id 

enunciation ijnAnsi'eJan, i^nAnJi- 

enure in'jur; ES in'ju3(r; |-d -d 

envelop n, v in'veiap |-ed -t 

envelope n 'envajlop, 'an-, inVebp {Fr 

a'vlb'p) — 'anvajop is pseudo-French. 
envelopment in'velapmant 
envenom EnVenam |-ed -d 
enviable 'enviabj |-bly -bh |-vious -vias 
environ v inVairan |-ed -d 
environs n in'vairanz, 'envaranz 
envisage en'vizid3 [-s -iz |-d -d 
envision enVisan |-ed -d 
envoy 'postscript' 'envai {Fr aVwa) 
envoy 'messenger' 'envoi 
envy 'envi j-ied -d 
enwrap en'raep [-wrapped -'raept 
enwreathe En'rlti |-d -d 
enzym 'enzim |-zyme - zaim, -zim 
Eoanthropus jioaen'Oropas |-'s -iz 
Eocene 'isjsln 
Eohippus jio'hipas |-'s -iz 
Eolia i'olia |-n -n 

Eolis 'ialis |-'s -iz |-t -t |-m -jhzam 
eolith 'iajhO |-ths -Gs |-ic jb'liGik 
Eolus 'ialas, Vt nit. loc. i'olas |-'s -iz 
eon 'ian, 'ian; ES + 'inn 
Eos 'ias; ES + -ds; l-'s -iz 
eosin 'ia^sin 
Eothen i'oOEn 

Epaminondas Ejpaema'nandas; ES+-'nDn- 
eparch 'epark; ES 'epa:k, E + -a:k 
epaulet, -tte 'epajlet, 'epaht 
epencephalon jEpen'sefajlan, -jlon 
ephah 'ifa 

ephedrine, -in e'ledrin, cfem. -t-'efaidrin 
ephemera, E- a'femara |-s -z |-rae -jri 
ephemeral a'femaral |-ly -i |-rid -rid 
Ephesian I'fisan 
Ephesus 'efasas, -zas |-us' -as 
ephod 'efad, 'i-, -fad; ES+-fDd 
Ephraim 'ifriam |-ite -^ait 
epic 'epik |-al -1 |-ally -li |-ly -li 
epicene 'epajsin 

epicenter, -tre 'Epi^senta*; ES -jS£nta(r 
Epictetus jEpik'titas j-'s -iz 
epicure 'epijijur, -jkiur; ES -a(r 
Epicurean /spikju'rian, -kiu'rian |-ism -jizam 
epicurism 'epikju^rizam, -kiu- 

Epicurus jEpi'kjuras, -'kicras l-'s -iz 
epicycle 'epa^saikl 
epicyclic ^epa'saiklik, -'sik- |-al -1 
epidemic jEpa'deimk |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
epidermic jcpa'darmik; ES -'dam-, -'dym-; 

l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 
epidermis jEpa'da^mis; ES -'dsm-, -'dym-; 

|-mal -ml 
epigene 'epajdsin [-genesis jEpa'dsenasis 
epiglottal jepa'glati; ES-h-'glotl 
epiglottis jEpa'glatis; ES+-'glDt-; |-es -iz 
epigram 'epajgraem 
epigrammatic j£pagra'maetik ]-al -1 |-ally -li, 

epigraph 'epajgraef; E-[--jgraf, -^graf 
epigraphy e'pigrafi 
epilepsy 'epajlepsi 

epileptic jEpa'leptik |-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 
epilogue, -log 'tpajag, -Jag, -Jog 1-d, -ged -d 
Epimenides jepa'menajdiz l-'s -iz 
Epinal 'epinl {Fr epi'nal) 
Epiphany I'pifam 
epiphyte 'epijfait |-tic ^epi'fitik 
Epipsychidion jepisai'kidian, -si'kidian 
Epirus E'pairas |-'s -iz 
episcopacy I'piskapasi 
episcopal, E- I'piskapl 1-ly -i 
episcopalian, E- i^piska'peljan, -kan 
episcopate I'piskapit, -jpet 
episode 'epa^sod, -jzod 
episodic jEpa'sadik, -'zad-; ES-i--Dd-; j-al -1 

I -ally -li, -ikli 
epistemology i^pista'maladsi; ES-t--'mDl- 
epistle I'pisj 
epistolary I'pista^len 
epistyle 'epijstail 

epitaph 'epa^taef; ES+-itaf, -jtaf; |-ed -t 
epithalamium ^epiOa'lemiam |-s -z ]-lamia 

epithelium jEpa'Oiliam j-s -z |-ha -ha 
epithet 'epajOtt |-theted -jGetid 
epithetic ,£pa'eetik l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 
epitome I'pitami 

epitomize I'pita^maiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
epoch 'epak |-al -1 |-ally -li — 'ipok is mainly 

epode 'epod 
eponym 'epa^nim |-ous e'panamas; ES-f- 


Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet }zi Isang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baG (§10) lah a jfar far [watch wat/, wnt/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards Igo go 




epos '8pas; ES+-ds; |-es -iz 

-er ending of agent nouns (maker) and the 

Epping '£pig 

comparative degree (slower) -a^ ; ES -a(r. In 

epsilon 'epsalan, -ilan, -jlon, Brit ep'sailan 

the vocab. usually omitted when its sound can 

Epsom 'epsam 

be added directly to that of the head word, as 

Epworth '8pw3^e; ES 'epwaO 

make mek, maker 'mek-a^; ES 'mek-a(r; 

equable 'ekwabl, 'Ik- |-bly -bh 

slow slo, slower 'slo-a^; ES 'slo-a(r. Whett 

equal 'ikwal |-ed -d |-ly -i 

-y- follows -r-, as in blusterer 'blAs«taT», 

equalitarian i^kwab'ttrian, -^kwol-, -Uer- 

'blAS'tra^, or syllabic 1 or n, as in handler 

equality I'kwabti, I'kwol- 

'haend-1-3', 'haend-la-, or fastener 'faes-n-*. 

equalization jikwab'zeXan, -ai'z- 

'faes-na^, thei^ are usually the same alterna- 

equalize 'ikwal^aiz j-s -iz |-d -d 

tives as in tlte addition of -ing jw similar 

equanimity jikwa'nimati 

cases. See also -est. 

equate I'kwet [equated I'kwetid 

era 'ira, 'Ira 

equation i'kwe33n, -/an |-al -1 |-ally -li 

eradiate i'redijCt |-ated -^etid 

equator I'kweta^; ES i'kwet3(r 

eradicable I'raedikabl 

equatorial jikwa'torial, fik-, -'tar-; S -'tor-; 

eradicate I'raedijket |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 

l-ly -I 

eradication ijraedi'ke/an 

equerry 'ekwan 

erase I'res |-s -iz |-d -t |-r -a^; ES -9(r 

equestrian I'kwestnan |-ienne i^kwestri'sn 

Erasmus I'raezmas |-'s -iz 

equiangular jikwi'teggjaly; ES -'aeggJ3l3(r 

Erastus I'raestas |-'s -iz 

equidistance jikws'distans |-tant -tant 

erasure I'resa', I'reJV; ES -a(r 

equilateral jikwa'laetaral |-ly -i 

Erath i'raeO 

equilibrant I'kwibbrant 

erbium 'a^biam; ES 'sb-, 'yb- 

equilibrate jikwa'laibret, I'kwibjbret |-d -id 

ere zr, aer; ES £a(r, aea(r 

equilibrist I'kwibbrist 

Erebus 'erabas |-'s -iz 

equilibrium ^ikwa'hbriam |-s -z |-ria -ria 

Erechtheum jerik'eiam 

equine 'ikwain 

Erechtheus I'rEkejus, -Gius |-'s -iz 

equinoctial jikwa'nak/al; ES+-'nDk-; |-ly -i 

erect I'rekt |-ed -id |-ile -1, -il 

equinox 'ikwa^naks; ES+-inDks; [-es -iz 

erectility i^rek'tilati, jirek'tilati 

equip I'kwip [equipped I'kwipt 

erection I'lek/an 

equipage 'ekwapids |-s -iz 

erelong er'bg, aer-, -'log; ES ea-, aea-, 

equipoise 'ekwa^paiz, 'i- |-s -iz [-d -d 


equiponderance jikwi'pandarans; ES+-'pDn- 

eremite 'era^mait 

equiponderate jikwi'ponda^ret; ES+-'pDn-; 

erenow er'nau, aer-; ES £a-, aea- 

l-d -id 

Eretria I'ritria, I'ret- |-n -n 

equipotential jikwipo'tenXal 

erewhile er'hwail, aer-; ES ta-, aea- 

equisetum jekwa'sitam |-s -z |-ta -ta 

Erewhon 'erahwan 

equitable 'ekwitabl [-bly -bh 

erg yg; ES 3g, s'g 

equitation ^Ekwi'te/an 

ergo 'ygo; ES 'ago, Vgo; see argal 

equity 'ekwati 

ergon 'ygan; ES 'agan, 'y-, -gon 

equivalence I'kwivalans |-cy -i |-lent -lant 

ergosterol a^'gastajrol; ES a'gas-, a'gDS- 

equivocal I'kwivakl |-ly -i, -akh 

ergot 'ygat; ES 'agat, Vgat 

equivocate I'kwiva^ket |-cated -^ketid 

Eric 'erik |-son, -riccson 'eriksn 

equivocation i^kwiva'ke/an 

Erie 'iri; 8+ 'in 

equivoque, -oke 'ekwijvok 

Erin 'erin, 'irm 

er intj of hesitation a, a:. A, a: of various 

Erinys I'rinis, I'rainis |-'s -iz \pl Erinyes 

lengths. This spelling originated with writers 


who did not sound the r. It is a blunder in 

Eris 'ins, 'iris, 'ens ]-'s -iz 

reading to pronounce it ^ or y. 

Eritrea jEn'tria |-n -n {It eri'tr£:a) 

|full ful Itooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAStam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 




eriking 'a^ljkii); ES ^3\-, 'yl — The pronuncia- 

save-s sev-z); pron. -iz or -az after tlte 

tion 'erljkiij is a mixture of Ger and Eng. 

voiceless and voiced sibilants s, J, t/, z, 3, ds 

The Ger is Erlkonig 'Erljkenix. 

(face-s 'fes-iz, Nash's 'nsej-iz, catch-es 

Erma 'yma; ES 'ama, 'yma 

'kaetj-iz, nose-s 'noz-iz, rouge-s 'ru3-iz. 

Ermengarde 's^man^gord; ES bman^gard, 

George's 'dsards-iz). For the variation in 


unstressed vowel between -iz &° -9z, see f idler 

ermine 'ymin; ES bmin, 'a^m-; |-d -d 

statement of the sams variation at -ed in the 

Erminia y'minia; ES s'mmia, y- 

vocab., and for ftdl illustration of tlte ending 

erne, ern s^n; ES 3n, yn 

-es, -s see §88. 

Ernest 'ynist; ES 'snist, 'y- 

Esau 'is3 

Ernestine /ew. waiwe 'yniSjtin; ES b-, V- 

escadrille ^eska'dnl {Fr eska'drirj) 

Ernestine adj 'ynistin; ES '3-, 's'- 

escalade jEska'led [-laded -'ledid 

erode iVod |-d -id 

escalator, E- 'eskajleta^; ES -jletaCr 

Eroica I'ro-ika 

escalop, -11- e'skabp, e'skaebp; ES+-'skDl-; 

Eros 'iras, 'i-, 'e-, -rns |-'s -iz 

|-ed -t 

erosion I'rosan 

Escalus 'eskabs |-'s -iz 

erotic I'ratik; ES+-'rDt-; j-al -1 |-ally -h, 

Escanes 'Eska^niz |-'s -iz 


escapade 'Eska^ped, ^Eska'ped 

eroticism I'ratajSizam; ES+-'rDt- 

escape a'skep, i-, e- j-d -t |-pism -izam j-pist 

Erpingham 'ypig jhaem, 'ypigam; ES 'sp-. 


's'p-; iw 5A(j^. 'Erpingjham 

escarp E'skarp; ES E'ska:p, E+E'ska:p; 

err y; ES 3(r, s^; |-ed -d 

|-ed -t 

errand '£r3nd 

eschatological ;Eskaeta'lad3ikI; ES + -'lDd3- 

errant 'grant ]-ry -ri 

eschatologist jeska'talad3ist; ES + -'tDl-; j-gy 

errata I'reta, e-, -'rata 


erratic a'raetik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikk 

escheat Es't/it |-ed -id |-age -ids 

erratum I'retam, e-, -'rat- [-ta -ta 

eschew Es'tju, -'t/iu |-ed -d |-al -al 

erring 'yig ; ES 'sriQ, 'a^ig ; less Jreq. 'eng 

Escorial Es'korial, -'kar-; S -'kor-; {Sp 

erroneous a'ronias, e- 


error 'era^; ES 'eraCr 

escort n 'Eskart; ES 'Eskaat 

ersatz Ger er'zats 

escort V I'skart; ES I'skaat; |-ed -id 

Erse 3-s; ES ss, s's 

escritoire jEskn'twar, -'twar; ES -'twa:(r. 

Erskine 's'skin; ES 'as-, 's'S- 

-'twaa(r; (Fr ecritoire ekri'twa:r) 

erst yst; ES 3st, yst; |-while -^hwail 

escrow 'Eskro, E'skro 

eruct I'rAkt j-ed -id |-ate -et |-ated -etid 

esculent 'Eskjalant 

eructation i^rAk'teXan, jirAk- 

escutcheon I'skAtJan |-ed -d 

erudite 'eru^dait, 'erju- 

Esdraelon jEzdra'ilan, ^es- 

erudition jEru'di/an, iCrju- 

Esdras 'Ezdras |-'s -iz 

erupt I'rApt |-ed -id j-ption -pjan 

-ese word ending (Chinese, Burmese) -'iz, -^iz, 

Ervine 'yvin; ES 'svin, '3^- 

-iz; in America much less often -s 

Erwin 'ywin; ES '3win, 'y- 

esker, -kar 'Eska^; ES 'Eska(r 

erysipelas jEra'siplas, jira- 

Eskimo 'Eskajmo |-mauan, -moan jEska'moan 

erythrocyte i'ri6ro;sait, e- 

Esmeralda ^Ezma'taelda 

-es, -s ending for pi &= poss of nouns, &= for 3 

Esmond 'Ezmand 

sg pres of verbs. Pron. -s after voiceless 

esophagus i'safagas; ES + -'sDf-; |-es -iz |-gi 

consonant sounds except s, J, tj (cap-s 


kaep-s, Kate's ket-s, chafe-s t/ef-s); pron. 

Esopus i'sopas |-'s -iz 

z after vowel 6" voiced consonant sounds ex- 

esoteric jEsa'tErik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

cept z, 3, ds (ball-s bal-z, Joe's dso-z, 

espalier e'spaelja'; ES -ja(r; |-ed -d 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt [sang saeg [angn,' 'aeg-gri 
Ibath bae6; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




especial a'spE/al |-ly -i, -JIi 

esperance 'csparans |-s -iz 

Esperanto jEspa'ranto, -'raento 

espial I'spaisl 

espionage '8spi3nid3, a^spaianids {Fr espion- 
nage espja'nais) 

esplanade jEspla'ned 

espouse I'spauz [-s -iz [-d -d |-sal -1 

esprit e'spri 

esprit de corps e'sprida'kor, -'kar; ES -'ko3(r, 
E+-'k33(r; {Fr Esprid'kair) 

espy s^spai |-ied -d 

Espy 'espi 

Esquimau 'eska^mo |-maux -]mo, -^moz 
|-mauan jEska'moan 

esquire a'skwair; ES 3'skwai3(r; |-d -d 

ess £s |esses 'esiz 

-ess fern, ending -is, -as; if lightly accented, 
esp. in verse, sometimes -es. In the vocab. 
if only -IS is given, it is to be tmderstood that 
-3S and -ES are also possible. Often omitted 
when the pron. can be found by adding -is, 
-3S, -es to the head pronunciation. 

essay 'composition' 'esi, 'esc; HriaV e'se, 

essay Hry' a'se, e'se |-ed -d 

esse 'esi 

Essen 'esn 

essence 'esns ]-s -iz 

Essene 'esin, e'sin 

essential a'sen/al |-ly -i |-ity ajSEn/i'aelati 

Essex 'esiks |-'s -iz 

-est unstressed superlative &' archaic 2 sg pres 
ending -ist or -ast; if lightly stressed, esp. 
in verse, sometimes -est. In the vocab. if 
only -ist is given, it is to be understood that 
many speakers {fewer in the E b' S) also 
pronounce -ast as in August bgast. For the 
vowel see also -ed. 

establish a'stiebhj |-es -iz |-ed -t 

estaminet Fr estami'ne 

estate a'stet |-d -id 

esteem a'stim |-ed -d 

Estella e'stela |Estelle e'stel 

ester 'esta^; ES 'estaCr 

Estes 'estiz |-tes' -tiz 

Esther 'esta^; ES '£sta(r 

esthesia es'eisa, -31a |-thesis -'6isis 

esthete 'esOit 

esthetic es'Oetik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

estheticism Es'OEtajSizam |-thetics -'Oetiks 

Esthonia es'tonia, -'Bon- |-n -n = Estonia 

estimable 'estamabl |-bly -bli 

estimate n 'estamit, -^met 

estimate v 'esta^met [-d -id |-tion jesta'mejan 

estival 'estavl, es'taivl 

estivate 'Esta^vet |-d -id |-tion jEstaVeJ"an 

Estmere 'Estmir; ES -mia(r, S+-mEa(r 

Estonia Es'tonia |-n -n 

estop e'stap; ES+E'stop; |-ped -t |-pel -j 

estovers E'stova^z; ES -vaz 

estrange a'strends |-s -iz |-d -d |-dness -idnis, 

astray I'stre 
estreat I'strit j-ed -id 
estrous 'Estras, 'is- 
estrum 'Estram, 'is- |-trus -tras |-truses 

estuary 'Est/ujEri |-arial jEstJu'erial 
esurient I'sjuriant, I'siur-, I'sur- 
et 'and' et 
-et unstressed word terminal, as in pocket, 

tablet, comet, carpet, rivet, etc. -it, -at. 

In the vocab. when only -it is given, it is to 

be understood that many speakers {fewer in 

the E b' S) also pron. -at as in pilot 'pailat. 
eta Gk letter 'eta, 'ita 
etaoin 'Etipin — cf shrdlu 
et cetera Et'sEtara, -'sEtra |-s -z 
etch EtJ letches 'et/iz | etched Etjt 
eternal I'tynl; ES I'tsnl, I'tynl; |-ly -i 
eternalize I'tynl^aiz; ES I'tsn-, I'tyn-; |-s -iz 

1-d -d 
eterne I'tyn; ES I'tan, I'ts^n J-nity -ati 
eternization ijtyna'ze/an, -ai'z-; ES ijtsn-, 

eternize I'tynaiz; ES I'tan-, lUyn-; [-s -iz 

Ethan 'i6an 
ethane 'eOen 
Ethel 'EOal 
Ethelbald 'eOal^bald 
Ethelbert 'eOalba^t; ES -bat 
Ethelberta ^Eeal'byta; ES -'bsta, -'byta 
Ethelred 'EOal^rEd jEthelwulf 'eOal^wulf 
ether 'ie3';ES 'iea(r 
ethereal I'Oirial j-ly -i 
ethereality ijOiri^aelati 

|full ful Itooth tue [further 'fyS*; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fmz [dish dij [vision Vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Etherege 'eearidg |-'s -iz 

Euganean juga'nian, ju'geman 

etherization jiOara'zeXan, -ai'z- 

Eugene ju'dsin |-nia -la |-nius -las j-nius's 

etherize 'iGSiraiz |-s -iz j-d -d 


ethic '£eik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 

eugenic ju'dssnik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

Ethiop 'iBiiOp; ES + -jDp 

Eugenie Fr 03e'ni 

Ethiopia jiOi'opia |-n -n 

eugenism 'judsajnizam |-nist -mst 

Ethiopic jiOi'apik, -'opik; ES+-'Dp- 

Eulalia ju'lelia, -Ija 

ethmoid 'eOmaid 

eulogia ju'lodsia |-giae -dsiji 

ethnic 'EOnik |-al -1 [-ally -h, -ikli 

eulogist 'juladsist [-gy -dsi 

ethnographic ^EOna'graefik |-al -1 1-ally -li. 

eulogistic jula'dsistik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


eulogize 'jula^dsaiz ]-s -iz |-d -d 

ethnography eG'nagrafi, -'nog- 

Eumenides ju'menajdiz 

ethnologic jeOna'ladsik; ES+-'lDd5-; |-al -1 

Eunice 'junis j-'s -iz 

|-ally -li, -ikh 

eunuch 'junak 

ethnology eO'naladgi; ES+-'nDl- 

eupepsia ju'pepja, -/la |-ptic -tik 

ethos 'iOas; ES + -6ds 

Euphemia ju'fimia 

ethyl, E- '£03l, -il 

euphemism 'jufajmizam |-mist -mist 

ethylate '8e3jlet j-lated -^letid 

euphemistic jufa'mistik |-al -1 |-ally -li. 

ethylene 'eOajlin 


ethylic I'Oilik 

euphonic ju'ftmik; ES+-'fDn-; ]-al -1 |-ally 

etiology ^iti'abdsi; ES + -'dI- 

-h, -ikli 

etiquette 'Etijkst 

euphony 'jufani |-phonious ju'fomas 

Etna, e- 'etna 

Euphorbia, e- ju'farbia; ES -'faab- 

Eton 'Itn |-tonian i'tonian 

Euphrates ju'fretiz, in Shak. 'jufrajtiz |-tes' 

Etruria I'truria |-n -n 


Etruscan I'trAskan 

Euphronius ju'fronias |-'s -iz 

Ettrick 'etnk 

Euphrosyne ju'frasaini, -'frns- 

etude e'tjud, e'tiud, e'tud {Fr e'tyd) 

Euphues 'jufjujiz |-'s -iz 

etymologic jEtama'ladsik; ES+-'lDd3-; |-al 

euphuism 'jufjujizam |-ist -ist 

-! l-ally -h, -ikh 

euphuistic jufju'istik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikk 

etymologist jeta'maladsist; ES+-W10I-; ]-gy 

Eurasia ju'resa, -'reja ]-n -n 


Eureka, e- ju'rika 

etymologize jEta'malaidsaiz; ES+-'mDl-; |-s 

eurhythmic ju'riSmik |-al -1 |-niy -mi 

-IZ |-d -d 

Euripedes ju'ripajdiz |-'s -iz 

etymon 'Eta^man, -jmnn |-s -z |-ma -ma 

Euroclydon juVakli^dan; ES+-'n)klijdDn 

Euboea ju'bia |-n -n |-boic -'bo-ik 

Europa ju'ropa 

eucalypt 'jukajipt |-ic juka'liptik 

Europe 'jurap |-an jjcra'pisn 

eucalyptus, E- juka'hptas 1-es -iz |-ti -tai 

europium ju'ropiam 

Eucharist 'jukarist 

Eurus 'juras |-'s -iz 

Eucharistic jukaVistik [-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 

Eurydice juVidajsi 

euchre 'juka^; ES 'iuka(r; |-d -d |-ring -karig, 

eurythmic ju'ri'Smik |-al -1 j-my -mi 


Eusebius ju'sibias |-'s -iz 

Euclid 'juklid |-ean ju'klidian 

Eustace 'justis, -tas |-'s -iz 

eudaemon, -dam- ju'diman ]-monia judi- 

Eustachian ju'stekian, -/lan, -/an 


Eustis 'justis |-'s -iz 

eudiometer Judi'amata' ; ES -'amata(r, -'nm- 

Euston 'justan 

eudiometric judia'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

Eutaw 'juta 


eutectic ju'tektik 

Eudora ju'dora, -'dara; S -'dora 

Euterpe ju'typi; ES -Hspi, -Uypi 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet J£t |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath bsG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch v/atf, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards ]go go 



euthanasia JuGa'nesa, -313 

eventuate I'vEnt/ujCt j-ated -^etid 

euthenics ju'eeniks |-ist ^eanist 

ever 'ev3^; ES 'Eva(r 

euxenite 'juksajnait 

Everest 'Evrist, 'Evarist 

Euxine 'juksin, -am 

Everett, -itt 'Evrit, 'Evarit 

Eva 'iv3, 'eva 

everglade, E- 'EVS'jgled; ES 'Evajgled 

evacuant iVaekjuant 

evergreen 'Eva^igrln; ES 'Evajgrin 

evacuate iVaekju^et \-d -id |-tion ijvaekju- 

everlasting jEva-'laestirj; ES iEva-, E+-'last-, 


-'last-; ('ever^lasting 'whip^cord) 

evacuee iVaekjuji, ijvaekju'i, -'e (Fr eva 


evermore /Eva^'mor, -'mar; ES -'moa(r, 

evadable, -ible iVedabl 


evade iVed [evaded I'vedid 

aversion i'vy/an, -san; ES i'v3-, i'vy- 

evaluate iVaelju^et |-d -id 1-tion i^vaeljij 


evert i'vyt; ES i'vat, i'vyt; |-ed -id 

Evan 'Evan 

every 'evo, 'Evari 

Evander iVaenda^; ES i'vaenda(r 

everybody 'Evri^badi, -jbAdi, -badi; ES + 

evanesce jEva'nES |-s -iz |-d -t 


evanescence jEva'nesns 1-cy -i |-ent -nt 

everyday 'Evn'de ('every ^day 'clothes) 

evangel iVaendsal 

Everyman 'Evri^maen 

evangelic jivaen'dsehk, ^Evan- |-al -I 


everyone 'Evri^wAn, -wan 

-h, -ikli 

everything 'EvrijOig 

Evangeline iVaendsajlin, -hn, -Jam 

everywhere 'Evri^hwEr, -jhwaer; E -jliWEa(r, 

evangelism iVaend3ajlizam [-list -list 

ES -jhwaeaCr 

evangelistic ijvaendsa'hstik [-ally -li, -ikli 

Evesham 'iv/am, 'ivzam, loc. + 'i/am, 'isam 

evangelize I'viendsajlaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

evict I'vikt |-ed -id |-ction I'vikjan 

evanish iVaeniJ |-es -iz |-ed -t 

evidence 'svadans |-s -iz |-d -t ]-dent -dant 

Evans 'Evanz |-'s -iz |-ville -^vil 

evidential ^Eva'dEnJal |-ly -i 

Evanston 'Evan-stan, 'Evanz-tan 

evidently 'Evadantli, -dEntli, sometimes if 

evaporability ijvaepara'bilati 

emphatic jEva 'dEntli 

evaporable iVaeparabl, -prabl 

evil ^iy], formal, esp. in church, + ^\yi\ |-ly -i. 

evaporate iVaepa^ret |-rated -^retid 


evaporation ijvaepaVeJan 

evince I'vins |-s -iz |-d -t 

Evarts 'Eva^ts; ES 'Evats; |-'s -iz 

eviscerate I'visa^ret |-rated -^retid 

evasion I'vejan |-sive -siv 

evisceration ijvisa're/an 

eve iv 

evocable 'Evakabl |-cation jEvo'keJan 

Eve iv 

evocative I'vakatrv, I'vok-; ES+-'vok- 

Eveleth 'EvaliG 

evoke I'vok [evoked I'vokt 

Evelina jEvaUaina, -'llna 

evolute n, adj, v 'Evajlut, -Jiut |-d -id 

Eveline 'Evajlam, -lin, 'evIiii 

evolution ^Eva'lujan, -'liu-, Evrju/an |-ary 

Evelyn 'Evalin, 'Evlm, Uvlm 


even 'Ivan |-fall -jfal 

evolve iValv, i'vdIv |-d -d 

evener 'ivna', 'ivana^; ES -na(r 

Ewart 'ju3't; ES 'ju-at 

evenhanded 'ivan'haendid ('even-handed 'jus- 

ewe ju, jo — The historical variant jo is still 


common among sheep breeders both in Eng- 

evening 'Ivnig 

land and America. 

evenness 'ivannis 

Ewen 'juin, -an 

evensong 'ivan^saoj -iSng; S+-jsag 

ewer 'jua^; ES 'ju'a(r 

event I'vEnt 

Ewers 'jua^z, jurz; ES 'ju-az, juaz; |-'s -iz 

eventide 'ivan^taid 

Ewing 'juig 

eventual I'vEnt/ual |-ly -i, I'vEnt/uli 

ex Eks |exes 'Eksiz 

eventuality i^vEnt/u'aelati 

ex- prefix. When quite unaccented, the vowel 

|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa-; ES 'fstJa 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 

[custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




is tisuatty i in current speech, less freq. a or 
E, of the two 9 being more likely in rapid- 
speech of £ in careful. In the vocab. when 
only I is given, it is to be understood that a 
or £ may also occur. 
exacerbate ig'zaesa^jbet, ik'saes-; ES -aesa-; 

l-d -id 
exacerbation ig^zaesa^ 'be/an, ik^saes-; ES 

exact ig'zaekt |-ed -id ]-ction -k/an 
exactitude ig'zaektSjtjud, -^tiud, -^tud 
exactly ig'zaektli, ig'zaekk 
exaggerate ig'zaedga^ret |-d -id |-tive -iv 
exaggeration ig^zaedsa 're/an 
exalt ig'zalt |-ed -id |-ation jEgzal'te/an 
exam ig^zaem |-ination igjzaema'ne/an 
examine ig'zaemin |-d -d |-nee igjzaema'ni 
example ig'zaempl; E + -'zam-, -'zam-; |-d -d 

I -ling -phg, -plig 
exanimate adj ig'zaenamit, -^met 
exanimate v ig'zaena^met |-mated -^metid 
exarch 'eksark; ES 'eksark, E+-a:k 
exasperate ig'zaespsjret |-reted -^retid 
exasperation ig^zaespaVefan 
Excalibur eks'kaelaba'; ES -b3(r 
ex cathedra jekska'Oidra, Eks'kaeOidra 
excavate 'ekska^vet |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 
excavation jekskaVe/an 
exceed ik'sid |-ed -id 
excel ik's£l [-celled -'ssld 
excellence 'ekslans |-cy -i j-ent -ant 
excelsior ik'selsia^; ES -'selsi'3(r 
except ik'sept |-ed -id |-ption -'sEp/an 
exceptionable ik'sep/anabl, -/nabl |-bly -bli 
exceptional ik'sepjanl, -Jnal |-ly -i 
excerpt 71 'eksypt; ES -sspt, -sypt 
excerpt v ik'sypt; ES -'sspt, -'ss^pt; |-ed -id 

|-ption -p/an 
excess ik'sES |-es -iz |-ed -t ('ek^ses Vet) 
exchange iks't/ends |-s -iz |-d -d 
exchangeability iksjt/endja'bilati 
exchangeable iks't/endjabl |-bly -bli 
exchequer iks't/eka', 'Ekstjeka^; ES -k3(r 
excise n ik'saiz ('exjcise 'duty) 
excise v ik'saiz |-s -iz ]-d -d 
excision ik'sisan 
excitability ikjsaita'bilab 
excitable ik'saitabl 
excitation jEksai'te/an 

excitatory ik'saitajton, -jtori; S -jtori 

excite ik'sait |-cited -'saitid 

exclaim ik'sklem |-ed -d 

exclamation ^Ekskla'mejan 

exclamatory ik'sklaemajton, -jton; S -jton 

exclave 'eksklev 

exclude ik'sklud, -'skhud |-d -id 

exclusion ik'sklusan, -'skku- j-sive -siv 

excogitate eks'kadsajtet; ES-t--'knd5-; |-d 

excogitation eksjkad33HeX3n; ES + -jkDd3- 
excommunicable jekska'mjunikabl, -'miun- 
excommunicate ^Ekska'mjunaiket, -'miun- 

l-d -id 
excommunication jEkskajinjuna'keJan, -jiniun- 
excoriate ik'skorijct, -'skar-; S -^skor-; |-d -id 
excoriation ikjskori'ejan, jekskon-, -kar; S 

excrement 'ekskrimant 
excremental jEkskri'mentl |-tary -tan 
excrescence ik'skresns j-cy -i |-scent -snt 
excreta ek'skrita |-tal -tl 
excrete ik'skrit l-d -id |-tion -'skrijan 
excretory 'Ekskrijtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
excruciate ik'skru/i,et, -'skriu- |-d -id 
excruciation ik,skruji'e/an, -jskriu-, -si- 
exculpate 'ekskAl^pet, ik'skAlpet |-d -id 
exculpation jEkskAl'pe/an 
exculpatory ik'skAlpajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
excursion ik'sk^san, -/an; ES -'sks-, -'sky-; 

|-sive -SIV 
excursus ek'skysas; ES -'skss-, -'skys-; |-es 


excusability ikjskjuza'bilati, -jskiuz- 
excusable ik'skjuzabj, -'skiuz- |-bly -bli 
excusatory ik'skjuzajtori, -'skiuz-, -jtari; S 

excuse ti ik'skjus, -'skius |-s -iz 
excuse v ik'skjuz, -'skiuz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Exe eks |-'s -iz 
execrable 'eksikrabl |-bly -bli 
execrate 'eksiikret |-crated -^kretid 
execration j£ks-i'kre/an 
execratory 'eksikrajtori, -jtari, -jkretari; S 

-jtori, -jkretari 
executable 'eksijkjutabl, -jkiut-, ig'zekjutabl 
executant ig'ztkjutant 
execute 'Eksijkjut, -jkiut |-d -id 
execution jEksi'kju/an, -'kiu- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'prti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langr}' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




executive ig'zEkjutiv 

executor 'performer^ 'eksijkjuta', -^kiu-, law 

ig'zekjata^; ES -t3(r 
executory ig'zekjojtori, -itari; S -jtori 
executrix ig'zEkjatriks |-es -iz \L pi -trices 

exegesis ^eksa'dsisis |-geses -'dsisiz 
exegetic ^eksa'dsEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
exemplar ig'zgmpla^; ES -'zsmplaCr; |-y -i 
exemplification igjzemplafa'kejan 
exemplify ig'zEmpla^fai |-fied -jfaid 
exempli gratia ig'ztmplai'gre/ia 
exempt ig'zempt |-ed -id |-ption -p/an 
exequatur jeksi'kweta^; ES -'kweta(r 
exequy 'tksikwi |-quies -kwiz 
exercise 'eksa^^saiz; ES 'eksa-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
exercitation ig,zysi'tej3n; ES -jzs-, -jzy- 
exert igWt; ES -'zst, -Wt; |-ed -id 
exertion ig'zy/an; ES -'zs/-, -'zy/- 
Exeter 'eksita^; ES 'eksitaCr 
exeunt 'eksiant, 'eksi^Ant 
exhalant Eks'helant, ig'zelant 
exhalation jeksa'le/an, jEgza- 
exhale Eks'hel, ig'zel |-d -d 
exhaust ig'zast |-ed -id |-ion -st/an ]-ive -iv 
exhibit ig'zibit |-ed -id 
exhibition jEksa'bi/an ]-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
exhibitive ig'zibitiv 
exhibitory ig'zibajtori, -jtari; S -^tori 
exhilarate ig'zil3,ret |-d -id |-rant -rant 
exhilaration ig^zila 're/an 
exhort ig'zart; ES -'zaat; |-ed -id 
exhortation jEgza^'teJan, jcksa^-, -ar^e/an; ES 

jEgza-, jEksa-, -aa'te/an 
exhume ig'zjum, ik'sjum, -lum, -um |-d -d 
exigence 'sksadsans |-cy -i |-gent -dsant 
exiguity jEksa'gjuati, -'giu- 
exiguous ig'zigjuas, ik'sig- 
exile w 'Egzail, 'Eksail 
exile V 'Egzail, 'sksail, igWil |-d -d 
exist ig'zist |-ed -id |-ence -ans |-ent -ant 
exit 'Egzit, ^Eksit |-ed -id 
ex libris eks'laibris 
Exmoor 'Eks^mur; ES -jmua(r 
Exmouth 'EksjinauO, 'EksmaG 
exodontia jfksa 'dan/a, -Jia; ES+-'dDn- 
exodus, E- 'Eksadas |-es -iz 
ex officio /Eksa'fi/ijO 
exogamy Eks'agami, -^ng- 

exonerate ig'zana^ret; ES+-'zDn-; |-d -id 
exorable 'Eksarabl 

exorbitance ig'zarbatans; ES -'zaab-; |-nt -nt 
exorcise, -ze 'Eksar^saiz; ES 'eksaa-; j-s -iz 

|-d -d |-cism -jSizam 
exordium ig'zardiam, ik's-; ES -aad-; |-s -z 

|-ia -la 
exoskeleton ^ekso'skElatn |-tal -tl 
exoteric ^Eksa'tEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
exotic ig'zatik; ES + -'zDt-; |-ally -li, -ikli 
expand ik'spaend |-ed -id 
expanse ik'spaens |-s -iz |-sion -/an |-sive -iv 
expansibility ik^spaensa'bilati 
expansible ik'spaensabl |-bly -bli 
expansile ik'spaensl, -sil 
ex parte Eks 'parti; ES -'pa:ti, E+-'pa:tr 
expatiate ik'speji^et |-d -id 
expatiation ikjspeji'e/an 
expatriate adj Eks'petriit, -^et 
expatriate v Eks^petri^et |-d -id 
expatriation Eksjpetri'ejan, ^Ekspetri- 
expect ik'spEkt |-ed -id 
expectance ik'spEktans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 
expectation jEkspEk'te/an 
expectorant ik'spsktarant 
expectorate ik'spEkta^ret | -rated -^retid 
expectoration ik^spEkta 're/an 
expedience ik'spidians j-cy -i |-ent -ant 
expedite '£kspi;dait |-dited -jdaitid 
expedition jEkspi'di/an |-ary -^eri |-tious -Jas 
expel ik'spEl |-led -d ]-lant, -lent -ant 
expend ik'spEnd |-ed -id 
expenditure ik'spEndit/y, -jt/ur; ES -t/aCr, 

expense ik'spsns j-s -iz |-sive -iv 
experience ik'spirians; S+-'spEr-; |-s -iz 

experiential ik^spiri^En/al; S+-^spEr-; |-ly -i 
experiment ik'spEramant 
experimental ikjSpEra'mEntI, jEkspEra- |-ly -i 

|-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
experimentation ikjSpEramEn'te/an, -man- 
expert n ^Ekspyt; ES -spat, -spyt 
expert adj ik'spyt, ^Ekspyt; ES -pst, -pyt 

('ex^pert 'workman) 
expert v ik'spyt; ES -'spst, -'spyt; j-ed -id 
expiable' 'skspiabl 

expiate 'Ekspi^et |-d -id |-tion jEkspi'e/an 
expiatory 'Ekspiajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 

|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fs^tJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how bau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




expiration ^ekspa 're/an 

express ik'spres |-es -iz |-ed -t |-ive -iv 

expiratory ik'spairajtori, -jtDri; S -jtori 

expressible ik'spresabl |-bly -bli 

expire ik'spair; ES -'spai3(r; [-d -d 

expression ik'spr2/an |-ism -yizam |-ist -ist 

expiry ik^spairi, 'ekspan 

expressionistic ik/sprejan'istik 

explain ik'splen [-ed -d 

expressman ik'spresman |-men -man 

explanation jekspla'nejan 

expropriate eks'proprijet |-d -id 

explanatory ik'splaenajtori, -^tari; S -jtori 

expropriation eksjpropn'e/an, jekspropri- 

expletive 'eksplitiv 

expulsion ik'spAlJan |-sive -siv 

explicable 'eksphkabl, lessfreq. ik'sphkabj — 

expunction ik'spAgk/an 

cf inexplicable 

expunge ik'spAndj |-s -iz ]-d -d 

explicate 'eksplijket |-d -id |-tive -iv 

expurgate cdj 'ekspa^git, -jget; ES -pa- 

explication jeksph'ke/an 

expurgate V 'ekspa^jget, ik'spyget; ES 

explicatory 'Eksplikajtori, -jtari; S -/ton; 

'ekspa-, -'sp3-, -'spy-; |-d -id 

Brii 'eksphjketari, iks'phkatari, -tn 

expurgation iEkspa^'ge/an; ES ^ekspa- 

explicit 'here etids' 'ekspbsit 

expurgatory ik'spygajton, -;tari; ES ik- 

explicit 'precise' ik'splisit 

'spsgajton, -'spy-, E + -jtari 

explode ik'splod |-d -id 

exquisite 'ekskwizit, less Jreq. ik'skwizit 

exploit n 'eksplait, ik'spbit 

exscind Ek'sind |-ed -id 

exploit V ik'spbit |-ed -id 

exsect ek'sekt |-ed -id 

exploitation jEkspbi'teJan 

exsert ek'syt; ES -'sst, -'syt; |-ed -id 

exploration jEkspb're/an, -splo- 

ex-service 'eks'syvis; ES -'s3v-, -'syv- 

exploratory ik'splor3/tori, -'spbra/tari; S 

exsiccate 'eksi^ket |-d -id 


exsufflicate adj Eks'sAfli^ket, -kit 

explore ik'splor, -'spbr; ES ik'splo3(r, E + 

extant ik'staent, 'ekstant 

-'spb3(r; |-d -d 

extemporal ik'stEinparal |-ly -i 

explosion ik'splosan |-sive -siv 

extemporaneity ikjStempara'niati 

exponent ik'sponant 

extemporaneous ikjStEmpa'renias 

exponential jEkspo'nenXal |-ly -i 

extemporary ik'stempajren |-rarily -rail, esp. 

export n 'eksport, -part; ES -peat, E + -p33t 

if emph. ikjStempa'rErali 

export V iks^ort, -V^rt; ES iks'poat, E + 

extempore ik'stEmpan, -^ri 

-'paat; |-ed -id — ace/ + 'export, esp. in con- 

extemporize ik'stEmpa^raiz [-s -iz |-d -d 

trast to import v. 

extend ik'stEnd |-ed -id 

exportation /ekspor'tejan, -par-; ES -poa-. 

extensibility ikjstEnsa'bilati 


extensible ik'stEnsabl 

expose ik'spoz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dness -idnis. 

extensile ik'stEnsl, -sil 


extensimeter iEkstEn'simata^; ES -'simatacr 

expose jskspo'ze 

extension ik'stEnJan |-sive -siv 

exposition jekspa'zi/an 

extensometer jEkstEn'samata' ; ES -'samata(r. 

expositor ik'spazita^; ES ik'spazita(r, -'spoz-; 


|-tory -jtori, -/tan; S -/ton 

extensor ik'stEnsa^, as L -sar; ES -sa(r. 

ex post facto 'eks/post'faekto 


expostulate ik'spastjajet; ES + -'spDS-; |-d 

extent ik'stEnt 


extenuate ik'st£niu,et |-d -id |-tive -iv 

expostulation ik/spast/a'lefan; ES + -/SpDS- 

extenuation ik^stEnju'e/an 

expostulatory ik'spast/alajton, -jtari; S 

extenuatory ik'stEnjuajton, -^tari-; S -jtori 

-/ton, ES+-'spDS- 

exterior ik'stiri3'; ES -'stin-aCr 

exposure ik'spo3a'; ES -'spo3a(r 

exteriorize ik'stiria^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

expound ik'spaund |-ed -id 

exterminable ik'styminabl; ES -'stsm-. 

ex-president 'eks'prezadant, -'prezdant 


Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi Ipity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 




exterminate ik'stymSinet; ES -'stsm-. 

extravert v jEkstra'vyt; ES -'vat, -'vyt; |-ed 

-'stym-; |-d -id |-tor -^; ES -3(r 


extermination ikjstyma'ne/an; ES -jstsm-. 

extreme ik'strim (the 'ex^treme 'verge) 


extremism ik'strimizam |-ist -ist 

external ik'stynl; ES -'stanl, -'stynl; |-Iy -i 

extremity ik'strEinati 

externality ^Eksta^'naebti; ES /eksta- 

extricable 'Ekstrikabl j-bly -bli 

exterritorial jskstera'torial, -'tar-; S -'tor-; 

extricate 'Ekstrijket |-cated -jketid 

l-ly -I 

extrication jEkstri'ke/an 

exterritoriality Eks^terajtori'aelati, ^ekstera-, 

extrinsic Ek'strinsik j-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

-it3r-; S -jtor- 

extrorse Ek'strars; ES -'straas 

extinct ik'stigkt |-ction -'stigk/an 

extroversion jEkstro'vsJ'an, -'vs^s-; ES -'v3-. 

extinguish ik'stiggwij |-es -iz |-ed -t 


extirpate 'eksta^^pet, ik'stypet; ES -sta-. 

extrovert n 'Ekstrojvyt; ES -iVat, -jvyt 

-'sts-, -'sty-; |-d -id 

extrovert v jEkstro'vs't; ES -'vst, -'yyt; ]-ed 

extirpation jeksta-'pe/an; ES ^eksta- 


extol, -11 ik'stal, -'stol, -'stol |-(l)ed -d 

extrude ik'strud, -'stnud |-d -id 

Exton 'ekstan 

extrusion ik'strusan, -'striu- |-sive -siv 

extort ik 'start; ES -'staat; |-ed -id 

exuberance ig'zjubarans, -'ziu-, -'zu- |-cy -i 

extortion ik'starjan; ES -'staajan; |-ary -jsri 

|-ant -ant 

l-ate -It 

exude ig'zjud, -'ziud, -'zud, ik'sjud, -'siud. 

extra 'ekstra — 'Ekstri is often heard from edu- 

-'sud |-d -id [exudation ^Eksju'de/an 

cated speakers, esp. before a vowel (extra 

exult ig'zAlt |-ed -id |-ant -nt 


exultation jEgzAl'teJan, jEksAl- 

extract n 'ekstraekt 

-ey ending see -y 

extract v ik'straekt |-ed -id j-ction -kjan 

eyas 'aias [-es -iz 

extractable, -ible ik'straektabl 

Eyck, van vaen'aik 

extracurricular jEkstraka'rikjala^; ES -la(r 

eye ai |eyed aid j-ful -^ful [-fuls -jfulz 

extraditable 'ekstrajdaitabl 

eyeglass 'ai^glaes; E+-jglas, -jglas; |-es -iz 

extradite 'ekstra^dait |-dited -jdaitid 

eyehole 'ai;hol 

extradition jEkstra'di/an 

eyelash 'aijlaej |-es -iz 

extrados ek'stredas; ES + -dDs; |-es -iz 

eyeless 'aihs 

extrajudicial jekstradsu'difal, -dsiu- |-ly -i 

eyelet 'ailit |-ed -id ]-lid 'aijlid 

extralegal jEkstra'IIgl |-ly -i 

eye-minded 'ai'maindid ('eye-^minded 'man) 

extramarital jEkstra'maeratl |-ly -i 

eye-opener 'aijopana^, -^opna^; ES -na(r 

extramundane jEkstra'mAnden 

eyeservant 'aijsa^vant; ES -iSsv-, -jSS'v- 

extramural jEkstra'mjural, -'nuu- j-ly -i 

eyeservice 'ai^syvis; ES -^ssv-, -jsyv- 

extraneous ik'strenias 

eyeshot 'ai^/at; ES+-^jDt 

extraofEcial ;£kstria'fiXal, jEkstra'a'fi/al 

eyesight 'aijSait 

extraordinarily ik'strardn^Erah, esp. if emph. 

eyesore 'aijsor, -^sar; ES -jSoa(r, E+-jSaa(r 

ikjStrardn'Erali ; ES -aadn- 

eyestrain 'aijstren 

extraordinary ik'strardnjeri, envoy ^Ekstra- 

eyetooth 'ai'tuO, -jtuO |-teeth -'tie, -itie 

'ardnjEn, -tri-; ES -aadn- 

eyewash 'aijwa/, -jwaj", -jwof |-es -iz 

extra territorial jEkstra^tEra 'tonal, -'tar-; S 

eyewater 'aijwata^, -jwata^, -,wotdf-; ES -ta(r 

-'tor-; l-ly -i 

eyewitness 'ai'witnis, -jWit- [-es -iz [-ed -t 

extraterritoriality jEkstra^terajton'ielati, -jtar-; 

eyne 'eyes' ain 

S -jtor- 

eyre, E- Er, aer; E £a(r, ES aea(r 

extravagance ik'straevagans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 

eyrie, -ry 'sri, 'sen, 'iri; S 'aeri, 'in 

extravaganza ik^straeva'gaenza 

Ezekiel I'zikial, -kjal 

extravert n 'Ekstra^vyt; ES -iVat, -^vyt 

Ezra 'Ezra 

|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



F, f letter ef \pl F's, Fs, poss F's efs 

fa music fa 

Faber Eng name 'feba', Ger name 'faba^; ES 

Fabian 'febian |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 

Fabius 'febias |-'s -iz 

fable 'febl |-d -d |-ling 'feblig, -blig 

Fabre 'faba^, 'fabra; ES -ba(r, -bra; {Fr fabr) 

fabric 'ffebrik |-ation jfaebri'kejan 

fabricate 'faebri^ket |-d -id |-tor -3'; ES -a(r 

Fabrikoid 'faebri^kaid 

fabulous 'faebjalas 

Fabyan 'febian 

fagade fa'sad, fae'sad ]-d -id {Fr fa'sad) 

face fes [faces 'fesiz jfaced fest 

facet 'faesit |-ed -id 

facetiae fa'si/iji 

facetious fa'sijas 

facial 'fefal |-ly -i 

facile 'faesl, -sil 

facilely 'faesli, -sib, -sih, -siUi 

facilitate fa'sila^tet |-tated -jtetid 

facilitation fajSila'te/an 

facility fa'silati 

facing 'fesig 

facsimile faek'simah, -'simaji |-s -z 

fact faekt jfacts faekts, faeks 

faction 'faekjan |-tious -/as 

factitious faek'ti/as 

factitive 'faektativ 

factor 'faekta^; ES 'faekta(r; |-ed -d j-ing 
'faektarig, 'faektng 

factorial faek'torial, -'tarial; S -'tonal 

factory 'faektri, 'faektari 

factotum faek'totam 

factual 'faekt/ual |-ly -i 

facultative 'faekl,tetiv 

faculty 'faeklti 

fad faed | faddish 'faedij" | faddist 'faedist 

fade fed | faded 'fedid 

faeces 'fisiz 

faerie, -ry, F- 'feari, 'fsri, 'f£:n, 'faeri; S 
'feari, 'faeri, 'fen — Some speakers distin- 
guish faerie bf fairy //'om ferry hy a longer 


I Faeroes 'fsroz, ^faeroz, 'feroz; S 'faeroz, 'feroz 
Fafnir 'favnir, 'faf-, -na^; ES -nia(r, -na(r 

fag faeg [fagged faegd 

Fagin 'fegin 

fagot, fagg- 'faegat [-ed -id 

Fahrenheit 'faeraiijhait, 'faran- 

faience fai'ans, fe'ans {Fr fa'ja:s) 

fail fel [failed feld ]-ure -ja^; ES -ja(r 

fain fen 

faineant 'feniant, -njant {Fr fene'a) 

faint fent [fainted 'fentid 

fainthearted 'fent'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, E + 

-'ha:t-; ('faint-hearted 'hero) 
fair fer, faer; E f£a(r, ES faea(r; [-ed -d |-er -a-; 

ES -a(r 
Fairfax 'fer^faeks, 'faer-; E 'fsa-, ES 'faea-; 

[-fax's -;faeksiz 
Fair Haven, Fairhaven 'fEr'hevan, 'faer-; E 

'fea-, ES 'faea- 
f air-lead 'ferilid, 'faer-; E 'fsa-, ES 'faea- 
f air-minded 'fer'maindid, 'faer-; E 'fsa-, ES 

Fairport 'fer^port, 'faer-, -jpart; E 'fea^poat, 

'faea-, -,paat; S 'faeajpoat 
fair-spoken 'fer'spokan, 'faer-; E 'fea-, ES 

'faea-; ('fair-^spoken 'man) 
Fairview 'ftr^vju, 'faer-, -jviu; E 'fea-, ES 

f airway 'fEt^we, 'faer-; E 'fea-, ES 'faea- 
Fairweather 'fer^weSa^, 'faer-; E 'feajwecJaCr, 

ES 'f«a- 
fairy 'fen, 'fe:ri, 'fan; S 'faeri, 'fen; [-land 

-jlaend — see note at faerie 
fait accompli Fr fetako'pli 
faith feO [-ths -Os [-ful -fal [-fully -fab 
Faiyum fai'jum 

fake fek [faked fekt [faker 'feka^; ES 'feka(r 
fakir fa'kir, 'feka^; ES fa'kia(r, 'feka(r 
Falangist fa'laendsist 
falchion 'faltjan, 'fal/an 
falcon 'falkan, esp. among falconers 'fakan 
Falconbridge 'fakan^brids, 'falkan- |-'s -iz 
Falconer 'fakna^, 'falkana^; ES -na(r 
falderal 'faelda^rael — see folderol 
Falernian fa'lynian, fae-; ES -'Isn-, -'lyn- 
Falkirk 'falkyk, 'fak-; ES -ksk, -ka-k 
Falkland 'fakland, 'falkland 
Falkner 'fakna^; ES 'fakna(r 
fall fal [fell fel [fallen 'falan, fain 

Key: See in full §§3~A7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang steg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch wat/, wotj" (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




Words below that have ae before r (carry 'k«ri) are often pronounced in N with e ('k£n, §9'f) 
Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

fallacy 'faelasi [-lacious fa'lefas 

fantasm 'faentaezam 

fallibility ^faeb'bibti 

fantastic faen'taestik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 

fallible 'f^bbl |falKbly 'f^labh 

fantasy 'faentasi, 'faentazi |-ied -d 

Falloden 'faebdn 

far far; ES fa:(r 

Fallon 'faelan 

farad 'faerad, 'faeraed 

Fallopian fa'Iopian, fae- 

Faraday, f- 'faeradi, 'faera^de 

f allow 'faelo, 'faela |-ed -d |-ing 'faelawig 

faradic fa'raedik, fae'raedik 

Falmouth 'faelmae 

faraway adj, n 'far a 'we ('farajway 'look) 

false fals |falsed fDlst 

farce fars; ES fa:s; |-s -iz |-d -t 

falsehearted 'fals'hartid; ES 'fals'haitid; 

farcical 'farsikl; ES 'fa:sikl; |-ly -i, -ikh 

('falsejhearted 'knave) 

fardle 'fardi; ES 'fa:dl 

falsehood 'fals-hud 

fare fsr, faer; E fea(r, ES faea(r; |-ed -d 

falsetto farseto, -'seta 

farewell intj 'fsr'wEl, 'faer-; ES see fare 

falsification ^folsafa'ke/an 

farewell n jfer'wEl, jfaer-; ES see fare; ('fare- 

falsify 'falsajfai Ifalsified 'fols3jfaid 

jwell 'speech) 

falsity 'fDlsati 

farfetched 'for'fEt/t; ES 'fa:-; ('far-fetched 

FalstafiE 'falstaef; E+-staf, -staf 


Falstaffian fol'staefian; E+-'staf-, -'staf- 

far-flung 'far'fkg; ES 'faz'fUg 

falter 'folta-; ES 'faltaCr; |-ed -d |-ing Mtarig 

far-forth 'far^fore, -.farO; ES 'fai^foaG, E+ 


-;faa6; acct varies 

fame fem |famed femd |famous 'femas 

Fargo 'forgo; ES 'fa:go 

familiar fa'milja^; ES fa'nuljaCr 

Faribault 'fera^bo, 'faerajbo; S 'faerajbo 

familiarity fajnuli'aerati, fa^milji'serati, fa- 

farina fa'rina, -'raina |-naceous jfaera'nejas 


farinose 'faerajnos 

familiarize fa'miljajraiz |-s -iz j-d -d 

farm farm; ES fa:m; [-ed -d J-er -9-; ES -a(r 

family 'faemli, 'faemali 

farmer-general 'farma^'djenaral, -'dsenral; 

famine 'faeinin 

ES 'fa:raa- 

famish 'faemi/ ] famishes 'faemijiz j-ed -t 

farmhouse 'farm^haus; ES 'farm^haus; [-ses 

fan faen | fanned faend 


fanatic fa'naetik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikh 

farmistead 'farm^stEd; ES 'farm^stEd 

fanaticism fa'naetajSizam 

farmyard 'farmjard; ES 'faimjaid 

fanciful 'faensifal j-ly -i 

Fame Islands 'farn'ailandz, -anz; ES 'fa:n- 

fancy 'faensi | fancied 'faensid 

Farnham 'farnam; ES 'fa:n- 

fancy-free 'faensi'fri ('fancy-^free 'maiden) 

faro 'fEro, 'faero; S 'faero 

fandango faen'daeggo 

Faroe 'fEro, 'faero, 'fero 

fane fen 

Faroese jfEto'iz, jfaer-, ^fer- 

Faneuil 'faenl, 'faenjal, -jual, older 'fAnl 

far-ofE n, adj 'far'af, -'nf ('far-^off 'look) 

fanfare 'faen^fer, -jfa»r; E -ifeaCr, ES -jfaeaCr 

Farquhar 'farkwa^, -kwar, -ka^; ES 'fa:kwa(r. 

fanfaron 'faenfa^ran; ES+-jrDn 

-kwa:(r, -ka(r 

fanfaronade ifaenfara'ned, -faera- 

farrago fa 'r ego, fa'rago 

fang faeg jfanged ffegd 

Farragut 'faeragat, 'faera^gAt 

fangle 'faeggl |fangled 'faeggld 

Farrand 'faerand 

fanlight 'faen^lait |-ed -id 

Farrar 'faera^; ES 'faera(r; Geraldine fa'rar; 

fanner 'faena^; ES 'faenaCr 

ES fa'ra:(r 

fantail 'faen/el |fantailed 'faen^teld 

far-reaching 'far'ritjig; ES 'fai'ritjig 

fan-tan 'faen/aen 

Farrell 'faeral 

fantasia faen'tesia, -53, -zia {It ;fanta'zi:a) 

Farrer 'faera^; ES 'faera(r 

[full ful [tooth tu0 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fatJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Words below thai have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 
Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (farm) 

farrier 'faeria^; ES 'faeri-aCr; |-y -i 

fattish 'faeti/ [fatty 'faeti 

farrow 'fasro, -a [-ed -d |-ing 'faerawig 

fatuitous fa'tjuatas, -'tiu-, -'tu- |-ity -ati 

farse fars; ES fa:s; |-s -iz |-d -t 

fatuous 'faetjuas 

farseeing 'far'siig; ES 'far'siig 

fat-witted 'faet'witid ('fat-jwitted 'Falstaff) 

farsighted 'far'saitid; ES 'far'saitid 

fauces 'fasiz 

farther 'far'Sa^; ES 'fartJaCr; |-most -^most, 

faucet 'fasit, occas. 'faesit, 'fasit 


Faucit 'fasit 

farthest 'fartJist; ES 'fartSist 

faugh fa, pf, and variotis pufs of breath 

farthing 'fartJig; ES 'fa:3ig 

Faulconbridge 'fakan^bnds, 'falkan- |-'s -iz 

farthingale 'fartJig^gel; ES 'faitJig/gel 

Faulkner 'fakna^; ES 'fakna(r 

fasces 'faeslz L pi of fascis 'fajsis 

fault fait [faulted 'faltid [faulty 'falti 

fasciate 'fae/ijet ifasciated 'faejijctid 

faultfinding 'falt^faindig 

fascicle 'faesikl [fasicled 'faesikld 

faun fan [fauna 'fana 

fascinate 'faesn^et |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 

Fauntleroy 'fantb^rai, ^fnnt-, ^fant- 

fascination jfaesn'e/an 

Fauquier fa'kir; ES -'kia(r, S-i--'k£a(r 

fascine fae'sln, fa'sin |-d -d 

Faust faust [Faustian 'faustian, 'fas- 

fascis 'faesis \pl fasces 'faesiz 

Faustus 'fastas [Faustus's 'fastasiz 

Fascism 'faef^izam |-ist -ist 

faux pas 'fo'pa \pl -'paz {Fr pi -'pa) 

Fascis ti fa'/isti, fae'/isti {It fa'Jisti) 

Faversham 'faevaj'am; ES 'faeva- 

Fascistic fa'/istik |-ally -li, -ikh 

favor 'feva^; ES 'feva(r; [-ed -d |-ing 'fevrig. 

fashion 'faejan |-ed -d |-ing 'faeXanig, 'faejnig 

'fevang [-able 'fevrabl, 'fevarabl [-bly -bli 

fashionable 'faejnabl, 'faejanabl |-bly -bli 

favorite 'fevrit, 'fevarit [-tism -jizam 

Fashoda fa'/oda 

Fawcett 'fasit 

fast fast; E+fast, fast; |-ed -id 

Fawkes faks [Fawkes's ['faksiz 

fasten 'faesn; E + 'fasn, 'fasn; |-ed -d |-ing 

fawn fan [fawned fand 

-smg, -snig 

fay f e 

fastidious faes'tidias, -djas 

Fayal fai'al 

fastness 'faestnis |-es -iz; E see fast 

Fa3aim fai'jum 

Fastolf, -e 'faestalf, -tnlf 

faze fez [fazes 'feziz [fazed fezd — less prop- 

fat faet | fatted 'faetid 

erly spelt f eaze 

fatal 'fetl |-ly -i |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 

feal Hiirf fil 

fataHstic ^fetl'istik |-ally -li, -ikli 

fealty 'fialti, 'fllti 

fatality fe'taelati, fa'taelati, fi'taelati 

fear fir; ES fia(r, S-i-feaCr, fjia(r, fJ£a(r; [-ful 

Fata Morgana 'f atamar'gana ; ES -maa'gana 

-fal [fully -fah, -fh 

father 'fa3»; ES -Sa(r, E + 'fatJ-; |-hood -jhud 

fearnought 'fir^nat; ES 'fia-, S-i-'fea-, 'fjia-. 

father-in-law 'faSarin^b, 'fatJa^n^b; ES 'fa- 


(Jarinja, 'faSan^b, E + 'fatJ- 

fearsome 'firsam; ES 'fiasam, S+'fea-, 'fjia-. 

fatherland 'fatJa^Jaend; ES 'fatJa-, E-t-'fatJa- 


fathers-in-law 'fatSa^zm^b, 'fatJa^zn^b; ES 

feasance 'fizns 

'faSazinib, 'fatJaznJa, E-f-'fatJ- 

feasibility jfiza'bibti 

fathom 'faetiam |fathomed 'faeSamd 

feasible 'fizabl [-bly -bh 

fatigable 'fietigabl 

feast fist [feasted 'fistid 

fatigate 'faetijget |fatigated 'faeti^getid 

feat fit 

fatigue fa'tig [fatigued fa'tigd 

feather 'fetSa^; ES 'fetJaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

Fatima 'faetima, 'fatima 

'fetSang, 'feSrig 

fatHng 'faetlig 

featherbrain 'fetia^jbren; ES 'fe'Sa-; [-ed -d 

fatten 'faetn |-ed -d [-ing 'faetnig, ^faetnig 

featherhead 'feSa^^htd; ES 'fe'Sa-; [-ed -id 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet ]zt [sang saeg |angr}' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wotj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gardj |go go 




featherstitch 'fetJa'.stitJ; ES 'fetJa-; |-es -iz 

feU n, V, adj M |felled ffild 

l-ed -t' 

fellah 'fEla \Arab pi -ahin, -aheen jfEla'hin 

featherweight 'fetJa^^wet; ES 'fe'Sa- 

fellmonger 'fEl^mAgga^; ES -ga(r 

feathery 'fEtJari, 'fEtJri 

felloe 'wheel rim' ^iz\o, -a — Felloe, mainly 

feature 'fit/a-; ES 'fitjad; |-d -d 

Brit, comes from the OE pi f elga ; cf felly. 

feaze 'feeze' fiz |-s -iz 1-d -d, cf faze 

fellow 'fslo, 'ffila |-ed -d |-ship -^/ip 

febrifuge 'febrijfjuds, -jfiuds |-s -iz 

felly 'wheel rim' ^ieh — Felly, Am and Brit, 

febrile 'fibral, 'feb- 

comes from the OE dative sg felge; cf felloe. 

February 'februjEn, 'fEbjujEri, -an — Loss of 

felly adv 'cruelly' 'fElli, 'fEli 

r in 'fEbjujEri is due to dissimilation and the 

felon 'fElan |-y -i |-lonious fa'lonias, fs- 

influence of 'dsaenjujEri {§121). 

felsite 'fElsait 

feces 'fisiz 

felspar 'fEl^spar; ES -jspa:(r, E+-jspa:(r 

feckless 'fEkks 

felt past £r pptc of feel fElt 

feculence 'fEkjubns |-lent -lant 

felt n, V fElt 1 felted 'ffiltid 

fecund 'fiksnd, 'fEk-, -And 

felucca fa'kka, fE- 

fecundate 'fikanjdet, 'fsk- |-d -id 

female 'fimel 

fecundity fi'kAndati 

feme f£m 

fed fEd 

feme covert 'fEm'kAva^t; ES -'kAvat 

federacy 'fEdarasi 

feme sole 'fEm'sol 

federal, F- 'fEdaral, 'fsdral |-Iy -i j-ist -ist 

feminacy 'fEmanasi j-neity jfEma'niati 

federahze 'fsdaral^aiz, 'fEdral- |-s -iz j-d -d 

feminie 'fEmani 

federate n, adj 'fEdarit, 'fsdrit 

feminine 'fEmanin |feminineness 'fEmamnnis 

federate, v 'fEda^ret |-d -id 

femininity jfEma'ninati 

federation jfEda 're/an 

feminism 'fEma^nizam |-nist -nist 

fedora, F- fi'dora, -'dara; S -'dora 

femme de chambre Fr famda'Jarbr 

fee fi \past &= pptc feed fid 

femoral 'fEinaral 

feeble ^fibl 1-bly -bh |-bler -bla-; ES -bla(r; 

femur 'fima^; ES -ina(r; ]-$ -z j-mora 'fEmara 

|-blest -bhst 

fen f En 

feeble-minded ^fibrmamdid ('feeble-jminded 

fence fEns |-s -iz |-d -t 


fencible 'fEnsabl 

feed past &" pptc of fee fid 

fend ffind |fended 'fEndid j-er -a<-; ES -a(r 

feed V fid |fed fEd 

Fenelon 'fEnljon, -jon {Fr fen'lo) 

feedback 'fidjbaek 

Fenian 'finian, -njan |-ism -jizam 

feel fil Ifelt IeU 

fennel 'fEnl 

feere 'mate' arch, fir; ES fia(r, S+fEa(r 

Fennimore 'fEna^mor, -^mar; ES -jmoa(r. 

fee-simple 'fi'simpl 


feet fit 

fenny 'fEiu 

feeze fiz | feezes 'fiziz [-d -d 

Fenton 'fEntan 

feign fen | feigned fend |-edly -idh 

fenugreek 'fEnjujgrik 

feint fent | feinted 'fentid 

feod fjud, fiud |-al -1 |-ary -an 

feldspar 'fEld^spar, 'IeI-; ES -iSpa:(r, E + 

feodaUty fju'daelati, fiu- 


feoff fEf, fif l-ed -t 

Felicia fa'li/ia, -Ja 

feoffee fEf 'i, fif 4 

felicitate fa'hsajtet |-tated -^tetid 

feoffor 'fEfa', 'fifa^; ES -a(r; (fEf^i an fEf'ar) 

felicitation fajlisa'te/an 

feracious faVe/as, fe- 

felicity faUisati |-tous -tas 

feral 'firal 

feline 'filain 

Ferber 'fyba-; ES 'fabaCr, 'fyba(r 

Felix 'filiks |-'s -iz 

fer-de-lance Fr fErda'lars 

fell past of fall f eI 

Ferdinand 'fydn^aend; ES 'fsd-, 'fyd- 

[full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 




fere ^mate' arch, fir; ES fi3(r, S+fE3(r 

feretory 'ferajton, -jtari; S -^tori 

Ferguson, -sson 'fygasn; ES 'fsg-, 'fs'g- 

Feringi fa'riggi 

ferly 'fyli, 'ferli; ES 'fsli, ^kab, 'fs^h 

ferment 71 'foment; ES 'fa-, 'fy- 

ferment v fa^'ment; ES fa-; |-ed -id |-able -abl 

fermentation jfyman'te/an, -men-; ES jfs-, 

fern fyn; ES fan, fyn; |-ery -an, -n 
ferocious fa'rofas, fi-, em^/z. + 'f i'rojas 
ferocity fa'rasati, fi-; ES+-'rDS- 
Ferrara fa'rara, fe- {It fer'ra:ra) 
ferrate 'feret ]-d -id 
ferret 'ferit |-ed -id 
ferriage 'feriids ]-s -iz 
ferric 'ferik 
ferrite 'ferait 
ferroconcrete jf£ro'kankrit, -kan'krit; ES+ 

ferromagnetic jferomaeg'nEtik 
ferrous 'feras 

ferruginous fe'rudsanas, fa- 
ferrule 'ring' 'feral |-d -d 
ferry 'feri |-ied -d |-boat -jbot 
fertile 'fytl; ES 'fstl, 'fytl; |-tilely -tli, -tlb 
fertility fs^'tilati; ES fs-, fy- 
fertilization jfytla'zejan, -ai'z-; ES jfst-, 

fertilize 'fytl^aiz; ES 'fst-, 'fyt-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
ferule 'ruler' 'feral, 'ferul |-d -d 
fervency 'fyvansi; ES 'fsv-, 'fyv-; |-ent -ant 
fervid 'fyvid; ES 'fsvid, 'fyv- 
fervor 'fyva^; ES 'fsvatr, 'fyva(r 
fescue 'feskju, 'feskiu 
Fessenden 'fesndan 
festal 'festj |-ly -i 
Feste 'festi 
fester 'festa^; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d |-ing ^festang, 

festival 'festavj 
festive 'festiv |-vity fes'tivati 
festoon fes'tun |-ed -d |-ery -an 
fetal 'fill I -ism -^izam 
fetation fi'tejan 

fetch fet/ [fetches 'fet/iz [fetched fet/t 
fete, fete fet |-d -id {Fr fe:t) 
feterita jfeta'rita 
feticide 'fitajsaid |-dal ,fita'saidl 

fetid 'fetid, 'fitid 

fetish, -ich 'fiti/, 'fetij |-ed -t 

fetlock 'fet.lak; ES+->k; 1-ed -t 

fetter 'feta^; ES 'feta(r; |-ed -d 

fettle 'fetl |-d -d |-ling 'fetbg, 'fetbg 

fetus 'fitas j-es -iz 

Fetzer 'fetsa^; ES 'fetsa(r 

feu fju, fiu |-ed -d 

feud fjud, fiud |-ist -ist 

feudal 'fjudj, 'fiudl [-ism -jizam |-ist -1st 

feudalize 'fjudl^aiz, 'fiud- |-s -iz |-d -d 
feudatory 'fjuda^ton, 'fiud-, -jtan; S -jton 
fever 'fiva^; ES 'fiva(r; |-ed -d |-ing 'fivang, 

'fivrig |-ous -varas, -vras 
feverfew 'fiva^^fju, -,fiu; ES 'fiva- 
Feversham 'fevaj'am; ES 'feva- 
few, F- fju, fiu 
Fewkes fjuks, fiuks |-'s -iz 
fey fe 

fez, F- fez |fezzes 'feziz |fezzed fezd 
fiacre fi'aka^; ES -'aka(r; {Fr fjakr) 
fiance jfian'se, fijon'se, fi'anse {Fr f ja'se) 
fiancee pron. like fiance 
Fianna Fail 'fiana'fail, -'fail 
fiasco fi'aesko 
fiat 'faiat, 'faiaet |-ed -id 
fib fib I fibbed fibd 

fiber, -bre 'faiba^; ES 'faiba(r; |-ed, -d -d 
fibril 'faibral, -bril |-led -d 
fibrin 'faibrin j-ation jfaibri'ne/an 
fibrinogen fai'brinadsan, -idsen 
fibroid 'faibraid | fibrous 'faibras 
fibster 'fibsta^; ES 'fibsta(r 
fibula 'fibjala |-s -z |-lae -jli 
Fichte 'fixta |-tean -tian l-teanism -tianjizam 
fichu 'fi/u, -/lu, -Jju {Fr fi'Jy) 
fickle 'fikl 
fico 'fiko 
fictile 'fiktj, -til 
fiction 'fik/an |-al -1 [-ally -li 
fictitious fik'ti/as |fictive 'fiktrv 
fid fid Ifidded 'fidid 
fiddle 'fidl l-d -d 1-Hng 'fidhg, 'fidlig 
fiddle-dee-dee ^fidl'di'dl, ^fidldi'di 
fiddle-faddle 'fidl'^fadl l-d -d |-Ung -dlig, 

fiddlehead 'fid], bed 
fiddler 'fidla^, 'fidla^; ES -a(r 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [j'et jet [sang saeg |angry ^aeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 




fiddlestick 'fidl^stik 
Fidele fi'dili 
Fidelia fi'dilja, -lia 
Fidelio fi'delio, -Ijo 
fidelity fai^delati, fa- 
fidget 'fid3it |-ed -id 
fiducial fi'du/al, -'diu-, -'dju- [-ly -i 
fiduciary fi'dujiieri, -'dm-, -'dju-, -Jan 
fie fai |fie-fie adj, v 'fai^fai |-d -d 
fief fif 

field, F- fild l-ed -id 

fieldfare 'fildjler, -jfaer; E -jf£3(r, ES -jfae3(r 
Fielding 'fildig 
fieldpiece 'fild^pis j-s -iz 
fiend find [fiends findz, finz 
fierce firs; ES fias, S+ftas, fjeas 
fiery 'fain, 'faiari 
Fiesole fi'ezali {It 'f jeizole) 
fiesta fi'esta {Sp 'fjesta) 
fife, F- faif l-d -t |-shire -/ir, ->; ES -/i3(r, 

fifteen fif tin, 'fif'tin ('fif jteen 'men) 
fifteenth fif'tinO, 'fif- [-ths -Gs 
fifth fife |-ths -es 
fifty 'fifti l-tieth -tiiO i-fold -'fold ('fifty ,fold 


fig fig 

Figaro 'figa^ro {Fr figa'ro) 

fight fait Ifought f3t 

figment 'figmsnt |figmental fig'tnentl 

figurate adj 'figjarit 

figurate v 'figja^ret |-d -id 

figuration jfigja'te/an 

figurative 'figjarativ, 'figarativ, 'figrativ 

figure 'figja', 'figa'; ES -a(r; |-d -d |-ring 

-gjarig, -garig, -grig — In America 'figa^, 

-a(r is less freq. 
figurehead 'figja-^hed, 'figa'-; ES 'figja-, -ga- 
figurine jfigja'rin 

Fiji 'fidsi jFigian fi'dsian, 'fidsian 
filament n 'filamant |filimented 'filamantid 
filament v 'filajinent |-ed -id 
filar 'fails' ; ES -la(r 
filbert 'fiiba^t; ES 'filbat 
filch filtj |-es -IZ |-ed -t 
file fail jfiled faild 
filet 'fillet' 'fiht ifileted 'filitid 
filet de sole Eng 'fihav'sol, Fr file d'sal 
filet mignon fi'Ie min'ja (Fr file mi'jio) 

filial 'filial, -Ijal |-ly -i 

filiate 'filijct l-d -id |-tion jfih'ejan 

filibuster 'fila/bAsta^; ES -jbAsta(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -jbAstarig, -trig 
filibusterer jfila'bAstara'; ES -ra(r; |-terism 

-tajrizam [-terous -taras, -tras 
filiform 'filajfarm, 'faila-; ES -jfaam 
filigree 'fila^gri |-d -d 
filing 'failig 

Filipino jfila'pino \fem -pina -'pina, -a 
fill fil [filled fild 
fillet 'filit I filleted 'filitid 
fillip 'filap I filliped 'filapt 
Fillmore 'filmor, -mar; ES -moa(r, E + 

filly 'fill 

film film [filmed filmd 
filose 'failos 
filter 'filta^; ES -ta(r; j-ed -d j-ing 'filtarig, 

filterable 'filtarabl, 'filtrabl 
filth file l-ths -Os 1-y -I [filthily 'filOali 
filtrable 'filtrabl 
filtrate n 'filtret, 'filtrit 
filtrate v 'filtret [-d -id [-tion fil'tre/an 
fin fin [finned find 
finable 'fainabl 

finagle fa'negl [-nagler -'negla^; ES -la(r 
final 'fainl |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist [-ly -i 
finale fi'nali {It fi'na:le) 
finality fai'naelati 

finance fa'naens, 'fainaens [-s -iz [-d -t 
financial fa'naen/al, fai'naenjal |-ly -i 
financier ^finan'sir, ^fainan-; ES -^sia(r; 

l-ed -d 
finback 'fin/baek 

finch fintj [finches 'fintjiz [finched fmt/t 
Finchley 'fintjli 
find faind [found faund 
fin de siecle Fr fseda'sjekl 
Findlay 'finli, less freq. 'findli 
fine fain [fined faind [fineness 'fainnis 
fineable 'fainabl 
finery 'fainari 

finespun 'fain'spAn ('fine-spun 'theory) 
finesse fa'nes [-s -iz [-d -t 
Fingal 'figgl 
finger 'figga^; ES 'figga(r; [-ed -d [-ing 'fig- 

garig, 'fig grig 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fs^tJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




fingerer 'figgara^; ES -r3(r 

fingerling 'figga^hg; ES 'figga- 

fingernail 'figga^jnel, jfigga^'nel; ES -ga- 

fingerprint 'figga^jprint; ES 'figga-; ]-ed -id 

finial 'finidl, 'fainial 

finical 'finikl |-ly -i, -ikh 

finicking 'finikig |-cky -ki 

finikin 'finikin 

finis 'fainis [finises 'fainisiz | + 'finis 

finish 'finij" |-es -iz [-ed -t 

Finistere Fr finis'terr 

Finisterre jfinis'ttr; ES -'teaCr 

finite 'fainait 

finitude 'finsjtjud, 'faina-, -jtiud, -jtud 

Finland 'finland 

finland 'home of fish' 'finjaend 

Finlay 'finh |Finley 'finli 

Finn fin j-ish -ij 

finnan haddie 'finan'haedi 

finny 'fini 

fiord fjord, fjard; ES fjoad, E+fjoad 

fipple 'fipj 

fir fy; ES f3(r, fy; |-ry -i 

fire fair; ES fai3(r; |-d -d [-ring 'famg 

firearm 'fairjorm; ES -ja:m, E+-ja:m 

fireball 'fair^bal; ES 'fai9- 

firebird 'fair,byd; ES 'faia^bsd, 'fawjbyd 

firebox 'fair^baks; ES 'faia^baks, -jboks; J-es 


firebrand 'f air ^braend ; ES 'faia-; |-ed -id 

firebreak 'fair^brek; ES 'faia- 

firebrick 'fair^brik; ES 'faia- 

firebug 'faitjbAg; ES 'faia- 

firecracker 'fair^kraeka'; ES 'faia^kraekaCr 

firedamp 'fair^daemp; ES 'faia- 

firedog 'fairjdog, -jdng; ES 'faia- 

firedrake 'fair^drek; ES 'faia- 

fire-eater 'fair^ita^; ES 'fair^itaCr 

firefang 'fair,faeg; ES 'faia-; |-ed -d 

firefly 'fair,flai; ES 'faia- 

fireguard 'fair,gard; ES 'fai3,ga:d, E+-jga:d 

firelock 'fair^lak; ES 'faiajak, -^lok 

fireman 'f airman; ES 'faiaman; |-men -man 

fireplace 'fair;ples; ES 'faia-; |-s -iz 

fireproof adj 'fair'pruf; ES 'faia-; ('fire^proof 

fireproof v 'fair,pruf; ES 'faia-; |-ed -t 
fireside 'fair^said; ES 'faia- 
firetrap 'fair^traep; ES 'faia- 

firewarden 'fair^wDrdn; ES 'faia^wDadn 
firewater 'fair^wota--, -jwata^, -^wDt»; ES 

'faia-, -ta(r 
firewood 'fair^wud; ES 'faia- 
firework 'fair^wyk; ES 'faia^wsk, -jW3:k; 

|-s -s 
firkin 'fykin; ES 'fakin, 'fy-; |-ed -d • 
firm fym; ES ism, fym; |-ed -d 
firmament 'fymamant; ES 'fsm-, 'fym- 
firman 'fyman, f^'man; ES 'fam-, 'fym-, fa- 
Firman pers. name 'fyman; ES 'fsm-, 'fym- 
first fyst; ES fsst, fyst 
first-born 'fs^st'bam; ES 'fsst'boan, 'fyst- 

first-class 'fyst'klas; ES 'fast-, 'fyst-, 

E+-'klas, -'klas; ('first-jclass 'fare) 
firsthand 'fyst'haend; ES 'fsst-, 'fyst- 
firstling 'fysthg; ES 'fsst-, 'fyst- 
firstly 'fysth; ES 'fsstli, 'fysth 
first-rate 'fys'tret, 'fyst'ret; ES 'fa-, 'fy- 
firth fye; ES fse, fs-G; |-ths -Gs 
fisc fisk 

fiscal 'fiskl |-ly -i 
fish fi/ I fishes 'fijiz [fished fi/t 
fisher, F- 'fija^; ES 'fij"a(r; ]-man, -men -man 
fishery 'fijari 
fishhook 'fij^huk, 'fi/uk 
fishmonger 'fi/^mAgga^; ES -jmAgga(r 
fishwife 'fijjwaif |-'s -s, -vz |-wives -jwaivz 
fishy 'fiji 
fisk, F- fisk 
fissile 'fisj, 'fisil 
fission 'fi/an |-ed -d 
fissure 'fi/a-; ES 'fiJaCr; [-d -d 
fist fist I fisted 'fistid |-ic -ik j-ical -ikl 
fisticuff 'fistijkAf |-ed -t 
fistula 'fist/ula |-s -z |-lae -jli 
fit fit [fitted 'fitid 
Fitch fitj [Fitch's 'fitjiz 
fitchew 'fit/u, 'fitjiu 
fitful 'fitfal l-ly -I 
fitting 'fitig 
Fitzgerald fits'djerald 
FitzGerald Eng poet fits'dserald 
Fitzhugh fits'hju, -'hiu ('FitZjhugh 'Lee) 
Fitzsimmons fit'simanz, fits's- [-'s -iz 
Fitzwalter 'fitsjwalta^; ES -^waltaCr 
Fitzwater 'fitsjwata', -jwata^, -jwota'; ES 

-isix; formerly Fitzwalter 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet J£t [sang saeg |angr}' 'aeg^gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wotj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




Fiume It ' 

flank flaegk [flanked flaegkt 

five faiv |-r 'faiva^; ES -V3(r 

flannel 'flaenl [-ed -d 

fivefold adj, adv 'faiv'fold ('fivejfold 'loss) 

flannelette, -let jflaenl'et 

fivepence 'f aivpans, now less freq. 'f ipans 

flap flap [flapped flaept 

fivepenny 'faiVjpEni, -pani 

flapdoodle 'flaep/dudl 

fix fiks 1 fixes 'fiksiz [fixed, fixt fikst |-edly 

flapjack 'flaep/dsaek 


flapper 'flaepa^; ES 'flaep3(r; [-ed -d 

fixate 'fikset j-d -id |-tion fiks'ejan 

flare fler, flaer; E fkaCr, ES flse3(r; [-d -d 

fixative 'fiksativ 

flare-up 'fletjAp, 'flaetjAp; S 'flaer, Ap 

fixity 'fiksati 

flash flae/ [flashes 'flajiz [flashed flaejt 

fixt fikst 

flashboard 'flaeJ,bord, -^bord; ES -^boad. 

fixture 'fikstJV; ES 'fikst Ja(r 


fizgig 'fizjgig 

flashlight 'flaejjlait [-ed -id 

fizz fiz 1-es -iz 1-ed -d |-y -i 

flask flaesk; E+flask, flqsk 

fizzle 'fizl |-d -d |-ling 'fizlig, 'fizlig 

flat flaet [flatted 'flaetid 

fjord fjord, fJ3rd; ES fjoad, E+fjaad 

flatboat ' 

flabbergast 'flaeba^jgaest; ES 'flaeba-; j-ed -id 

flatcar 'flaet^kar; ES -,ka:(r, E+-,ka:(r 

flabby 'flsebi 

flatfish ' [-es -iz 

flabellum fb'bElam |-bella -'btla 

flat-footed 'flaet'futid ('flat-,footed 'way) 

flaccid 'flaeksid |-ity flaek'sidati 

flathead, F- 'flaet^hed 

flag flaeg [flagged flaegd 

flatiron 'flaet^aia^n, -,airn; ES -^ai-an, -^aian 

flagellant 'flaedsabnt, fla'dgebnt 

flatten 'flaetn [-ed -d [-ing 'flaetnig, -tnig 

flagellate 'flaedsajet |-d -id 

flatter 'flaeta-; ES -ta(r; [-ed -d [-ing 'flfetarig. 

flageolet jfliedsa'kt 


flaggy 'flaegi 

flattery 'flastari, 'flaetn 

flagitious fb'dsipas 

flatulence 'flaet/alans |-cy -i [-lent -lant 

flagman 'flaegman |-men -man 

flatus 'fletas [-es -iz 

flagon 'flaegan 

flatways 'flaet,wez [flatwise 'flast^waiz 

flagrancy 'flegransi [flagrant 'flegrant 

flaunt fbnt, flont, flant [-ed -id 

flagship 'flaegjjip 

flauntily 'fbntji, 'fbnt-, 'flant- 

Flagstad 'flaegstaed 

flautist 'fbtist 

flagstaff, F- 'flieg^staef; E+-jStaf, -^staf; \-s 

Flavins 'flevias, -vjas [-'s -iz 

-s — The pi flagstaves -^stevz is rare in 

flavor 'flev3^; ES -va(r; |-ing 'flevrig, -varig 


flaw fb [flawed fbd [-less -lis |-y 'fb-i 

flagstone 'flaegiSton 

flax flaeks [flaxes 'flaeksiz [-ed -t |-en -n 

Flaherty 'flaea^ti; ES 'flae-ati 

flaxseed 'flaeks^sid, 'flaek^sid 

flail flel [flailed field 

flay fie [flayed fled 

flair fkr, flaer; E fkaCr, ES flaeaCr; [ed -d 

flea fli [-bane -,ben [-bite -,bait 

flake flek [flaked flekt [flaky 'fleki 

flea-bitten 'fli^bitn 

flam flaem [flammed flaemd 

Fleance 'flbns |-'s -iz 

flambeau 'flaembo [-beaux or -beaus -boz 

Fleay fie 

flamboyance flaem'baians |-cy -i [-ant -ant 

fleck fkk [flecked fkkt 

flame flem [flamed flemd 

Flecknoe 'fkkno 

flame-color 'flem^kAla^; ES -jkAlaCr; [-ed -d 

flection 'fkk/an [-al -1 

flamingo fb'miijgo, flae- 

fled past &> pptc of flee f kd 

Flaminius fb'minias, -njas j-'s -iz 

fledge fkds |-s -iz [-d -d [-dgling, -dgeling 

flan pastry flasn {Fr f 15) 


Flanders 'flaenda^z; ES 'flaendaz; |-'s -iz 

flee fli [fled fkd 

flange flaends [-s -iz [-d -d 

fleece flis [fleeces 'flisiz [fleeced flist 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstfa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 




fleer 'gibe' flir; ES fli3(r, S+fkaCr; [-ed -d 

fleer 'one who flees' 'flia^; ES 'fli'3(r 

fleet flit I fleeted 'flitid 

Fleming 'flemig | Flemish 'fkmi/ 

flense, flence fkns |-s -iz j-d -t 

flesh flej I fleshes 'fkjiz | fleshed fkjt 

fleshly 'fkjh [fleshy 'fk/i 

fleshpot 'fk/jpat; ES+-jpDt 

fletch fkt/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 

fletcher 'fktJV; ES 'fktj3(r 

Fletcherism 'fktjajrizam |-rite -;rait 

Fletcherize 'fktj3,raiz |-s -iz \-d -d 

fleur-de-lis .flyda'li, -'lis; ES .fb-, ^fly-; \pl 

-lis -'liz or -Uses -'lisiz 
flew 'dog's lip' flu, fliu |-s -z [-ed -d 
flew past of fly flu, f hu 
flex fkks I flexes 'fkksiz | flexed fkkst 
flexibility jfkksa'bilati 
flexible 'fkksabl |-bly -bli 
flexion 'fkkjan 1-al -1 
Flexner 'fkksna^; ES 'fkksn3(r 
flexor 'fkksa^; ES 'fkks3(r 
flexure 'fkkja'; ES 'fkkj3(r; |-xuous -kjuas 
flibbertigibbet, F- 'fliba^ti.dsibit; ES 'fliba- 
flick fhk I flicked flikt 
flicker 'flika^; ES 'fhkaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'fhkdrig, 'fhkrig 
flier 'flaia^; ES 'flai'a(r 
flies flaiz 
flight flait l-y -i 
flimflam 'flim^flaem ]-med -d 
flimsy 'flimzi 

flinch flint/ [flinches 'flmtjiz |-ed -t 
flinder 'flinda^; ES 'flindaCr 
fling fill) I flung flAg 
flint, F- flint |flinted 'flintid 
flintlock 'flintjlak; ES + -jDk 
FHntshire 'flintjir, -Jsr; ES -/laCr, -JaCr 
flip flip [flipped flipt 
flippancy 'flipansi |-ant -ant 
flirt flyt; ES fbt, fbt; [ed -id 
flirtatious fly'te/as; ES fls-, fly- 
flit flit [flitted 'fhtid 
flitch flit/ [flitches 'flit/iz |-ed -t 
flite flait |-d -id [-ting 'flaitig 
flitter 'fhta-; ES 'flit3(r; |-ed -d 
flivver 'fliva^; ES ^fliv3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'flivarig, 'flivrig 
float flot [floated 'flotid |-age -ids 

floatation flo'tejan 

floe flak; ES-Fflok 

floccose 'flakos, fla'kos; ES-i--Dk- 

flocculence 'flakjsbns; ES + 'flok-; |-nt -nt 

flock flak; ES-i-flok; [-ed -t 

Flodden 'fladn; ES + 'flndn 

floe flo 

flog flag, flog, fbg [ged -d 

flood fbd [flooded 'fbdid j-gate -jget 

floodlight 'flAdjlait |-ed -id 

floor flor, fbr; ES floafr, E-i-fb3(r 

floorcloth 'flor.kbe, 'fbr-, -.kbe; ES 'floa-, 

E-i-'fba-; |-ths -t$z, -es 
flooring 'florig, 'fbrig; S 'florig 
floorwalker 'flor jwoka^, 'fbr- ; ES 'floajWakaCr, 

E + 'fba- 
flop flap; ES+flop; |-ped -t j-py -i 
Flora 'flora, 'fbra; S 'flora 
floral 'floral, 'fbral; S 'floral 
Florala fb'raeb, fla-, fin- 
Florence 'f brans, 'flar-, 'flor- |-'s -iz [-entine 

flores 'floriz, 'fbriz; S 'floriz 
florescence flo'resns, fb-; S flo-; |-nt -nt 
Floresville 'floriSjVil, 'fb-; S 'flo-, S-t--vl 
floriculture 'florijkAltJV, 'fb-; ES 'flon- 

^Alt/a(r,E + 'f la- 
florid 'fbrid, 'flarid, 'florid 
Florida 'fbrada, 'flar-, 'flor- |-n -n 
Floridian flo'ridian, fb-, fla-, flo- 
Florimel 'fbrajmsl, 'flar-, 'flor- 
florin 'fbrin, 'flar-, 'flor-, 'florin 
florist 'florist, 'fbr-, 'flar-, 'flor- 
Florizel 'fbra^zsl, 'flar-, 'flnr- 
floss fbs, flos |-es -iz [-ed -t 
flota 'flota 

flotage 'flotids |-s -iz 
flotation flo'te/an 
flotilla flo'tila 
flotsam 'flatsam; ES + 'flotsam; less freq. 

'flotsam (19c floatsome) 
flounce flauns [flounces 'flaunsiz [-d -t 
flounder 'flaunda-; ES -da(r; j-ed -d j-ing 

'flaundang, 'flaundrig 
flour flaur; ES flaua(r; |-ed -d 
flourish 'flyi/; ES 'fbrij, 'fLvnJ, 'flyij"; |-es 

-IZ [-ed -t 
flout flaut [flouted 'flautid 
flow flo [flowed flod 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg |angr\- 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) jah a [far far jwatch wat/, wotj (§12) [jaw dja [gorge gards [go go 




flower 'flaua^, flaur; ES 'flau'3(r, flau3(r; 

flyspeck 'flai^spek [-ed -t 

l-ed -d 

flyte flait |-d -id [-ting -ig 

flower-de-luce 'flaurdi'lus, -'hus; ES 'flaua-; 

flytrap 'flaijtraep 

|-s -IZ 

flyweight 'flai^wet 

floweret 'flaunt 

flywheel 'flai^hwil 

flowerpot 'flaur jpat; ES 'flauSjpat, -jpot 

foal fol [foaled fold 

flowery 'flauri, 'flauari 

foam fom [foamed fomd 

flown f Ion 

f.o.b. 'Efjo'bl 

flu flu, fliu 

fob fab; ES+fnb; |-bed -d 

fluctuate 'flAkt/ujCt |-ated -jCtid [-ant -ant 

focal 'fokl |-ly -i 

fluctuation ^flAkt/u'eJan 

focalize 'fokl^aiz [-s -iz j-d -d 

flue flu, fhu 

Foch fo/, fak {Fr fa/, Ger fak) 

Fluellen flu'elin, -an 

focus 'fokas |-es -iz [-ed -t [foci 'fosai 

fluent 'fluant, 'fliuant |-ency -ansi 

fodder 'fada^; ES 'fada(r, 'fod-; |-ed -d j-ing 

fluff fUf Ifluffed fUft 

-dang, -drig 

Flugel 'fligl {Ger 'fly:gal) 

foe fo 

fluid 'fluid, 'fliuid 

foehn fen {Ger f0:n) 

fluidity flu'idati, fliu- 

foeman 'foman [-men -man 

fluke fluk, fhuk |-d -t [-ky -i 

foetal 'fitl [-ism -jizam 

flume, F- flunis flium 

foetation fi'te/an 

flummery 'fUmari 

foeticide 'fita^said [-dal jfita'saidl 

flummox 'flAmaks ]-es -iz j-ed -t 

foetus 'fitas |-es -iz 

flung flAo 

fog fag, fag, fog [-ged -d [-gy -i 

flunk flAgk [flunked flAgkt 

foghorn 'fag^harn, 'fag-, 'fog-; ES -^haan 

fluor 'flua^, 'fhua-; ES -a(r 

fogy 'fogi 

fluoresce jflua'res, jfliu- [-s -iz ]-d -t |-nce -ns 

foible 'faibl 

|-nt -nt 

foie gras Fr fwa'gra 

fluoric flu'arik, fliu-, -'arik, -'nrik 

foil fail [foiled faild 

fluorine 'flua^rin, 'fliu-, -rin |-rin -rin 

foison 'faizn 

fluorite 'flua^rait 'fliu- 

foist faist [foisted 'faistid 

fluoroscope 'flura,skop, 'fliu- 

fold fold [folded 'foldid 

flurry 'flyi; ES 'fbri, 'fUri, 'flyi 

folderol 'faldajtal; ES-f-'fnldajtnl 

flush flAj [flushes 'flAj"iz [flushed fUJt 

Folger 'foldsa-; ES 'foldsaCr 

fluster 'flAsta^; ES 'flAsta(r; |-ed -d [-ing 

foliage 'fobids [-s -iz [-d -d 

'flAstario, 'flAstrig 

foliate adj 'fohit, -^et 

flustrate 'fUstret |-terate -tajtet, -tret |-d -id 

foliate V 'folijet [-ated -^etid 

flute flut, flmt l-d -id 

folio 'foli|0, -Ijo j-ed -d 

flutter 'flAta^; ES 'flAta(r; |-ed -d 

foHum 'foliam [-s -z j-lia -a 

fluty 'fluti, 'fliuti 

folk fok [-S -s; NEngd+i6\is (§46) 

Fluvanna flu'vaena, fliu- 

Folkestone 'fokjston, Brit 'fokstan 

fluvial 'fluvial, 'fliu- 

folklore 'fokjlor, -jlar; ES -jloa(r, E-h-jbaCr 

flux fkks [fluxes 'fkksiz [fluxed fUkst 

folkmoot 'fokjmut [folkmote, -mot 'fokjinot 

fluxion 'fUk/an 

folkway 'fok/ we 

fly flai [flew flu, fliu [flown flon 

Follansbee 'falanzbi; ES-i-'fol- 

flyaway 'flaiajwe 

follicle'falikl;ES + 'fDl- 

flycatcher 'flai^kaetJV; ES -jkaetJaCr 

follow 'falo, -a; ES + 'fnl-; j-ed-d [-ing -lawig 

flyer 'flaia-; ES 'flai-a(r 

follow-up 'falojAp, 'falajWAp; ES + 'fol- 

flyleaf 'flaijif [-leaves -jlivz 

f oily 'fall; ES + 'fnli 

fljT^roof 'flai'pruf ('fly^proof 'ointment) 

foment n 'fomEnt 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




foment v fo'ment |-ed -id ('foment 'trouble) 

foot-ton 'fut'tAn 

fomentation jfoman'tejan, -men- 

footway 'futjwe 

fond fand, fnnd 

footwear 'fut^wer, -^waer; E -jWE3(r, ES 

fondant 'fondant, 'fnn- 


Fond du Lac 'fandsajlaek, -d3u-, 'fanda-. 

footwork 'futjwyk; ES -jwsk, -jwyk 


footworn 'fut^worn, -jwom; ES -^woan. 

fondle 'fundi, 'fon- |-d -d |-ling -dlig, -dbg 


fondler 'fandla^, 'fon-; ES -l3(r 

foozle 'fuzl |-d -d |-ling 'fuzbg, 'fuzbg 

fondue 'fandu, fan'du, -on- (Fr fo'dy) 

fop fap; ES+fnp; |-pery -an, -ri 

font font; ES+fnnt 

for stressed 'for, ^far; ES 'f33(r, jfD3(r; unstr. 

Fontaine, La laefan'ten, -fon- (Fr lafo'ten) 

i^; ES f3(r 

Fontainebleau 'fantin^blo, jfantin'blo, -nn- 

forage 'forids, 'for-, 'for- |-s -iz |-d -d 

(Fr foten'blo) 

Foraker 'faraka^, 'for-, 'for-; ES -kaCr 

fontanel, -lie ^fanta'nel; ES+ifon- 

foramen fo'reman |-s -z |foramina fo- 

Foochow 'fu't/au (Chin -'dso) 


food fud jfoodstuff 'fudjStAf 

forasmuch jfaraz'mAtJ 

fool ful 1 fooled fuld j-ery -an 

foray 'fore, 'fare, 'fnre |-ed -d 

foolhardy 'ful^hardi; ES -^hardi, E+-iha:di 

forbade fa^'baed; ES fa'baed 

fooHsh 'fub/ 

forbear 'ancestor^ 'fDr^ber, -jbaer; E 'fDa^beaCr, 

foolproof 'ful'pruf ('fool-proof 'gadget) 

ES -jbae3(r 

foolscap 'fulzjkaep, paper often 'ful^skiep 

forbear v far'ber, far-, -'baer; E faa'beaCr, fa-. 

foot fut |footed 'futid j-age -ids |-ing -iij 

ES -'baea(r; |-bore -'bor, -'bar; ES -'bo3(r. 

football 'futjbol 

E-t--'b33(r; |-borne -'born, -'barn; ES 

footboard 'futjbord, -^bord; ES -jboad, E + 

-'bean, E4--'b33n; ('bear and 'forebear) 


forbearance for'berans, fa^-, -'baEr3ns; E fa3-, 

footboy 'futjbai 

fa-; S fas'baerans, fa- 

footbridge 'fut^bnds |-s -iz 

Forbes-Robertson 'farbz'raba'tsn; ES 'faabz- 

foot-candle 'fut'kaendj 

'rab3tsn, -'rob- 

footfall 'fut^fDl 

forbid fa^'bid; ES f3'bid; J-bad, -bade -'bad 

footgear 'fut^gir; ES -jgi3(r, S + -ig£3(r 

1 -bidden -'bidn | -dance -ns 

foothill 'futjhil 

forbore for'bor, fa^-, -'bar; ES faa'boaCr, fa-. 

foothold 'futjhold 

E-(--'b3a(r; |-rne -n 

footle 'futl l-d -d 1-ling 'futbg, 'futhg 

forby, -bye far'bai; ES faa'bai 

footlights 'futjlaits 

force fors, fars; ES foas, E+f33s; |-s -iz |-d -t 

footling adv, adj 'futbg 

l-dly -idh 

foot-loose 'futjlus 

forceable 'coerceable' 'fors3bl, 'fars-; ES 

footman 'futman |-men -man 

'foas-, E + 'faas- 

footmark 'fut^mark; ES -jma:k, E+-jma:k 

forceful 'forsfal, 'fars-; ES 'fo3S-, E + 'fass-; 

footnote 'fut^not |-d -id 

l-ly -I 

footpad 'futjpaed 

forcemeat 'forsjinit, 'fars-; ES 'foas-, E + 

footpath 'fut/paeO; E-i--jpae, -^paG; |-ths -Sz 


foot-pound 'fut'paund 

forceps 'farsaps; ES 'faassps 

footprint 'futjpnnt |-ed -id 

forcible 'violent' 'fors3bl, 'fars-; ES 'foas-. 

footrest 'futjtest 

E + 'faas-; |-bly -bb 

footrope 'fut^rop 

ford, F- ford, fard; ES foad, E+faad; |-ed -id 

footsore 'futjsor, -jS3r; ES -jsoo(r, E+-jS33(r 

Fordham 'fordam, 'far-; ES 'fo3d3m, E-i- 

footstep 'futjStEp 


footstock 'futjstak; ES^-^stDk 

fordo far'du; ES faa-; ]-does -'dAz |-did -'did 

footstool 'futjstul 

[-done -'dAn 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi Ipity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dga [gorge gards |go go 




Fordyce 'fardais; ES 'faa-; |-'s -iz, Scotl 

fore for, far; ES foa(r, E+f33(r 
fore-and-aft 'foran'aeft, 'far-, -and-; E+-'aft, 

-'aft; S 'foran(d)'aeft 
forearm n 'forearm, 'far-; ES 'forja:m, 

E + 'far-, -fl'.m 
forearm v for'arm, far-; ES for'a:m, E+far-, 

-'arm; |-ed -d 
forebear 'ancestor' 'for^bEr, 'far-, -jbaer; E 

'foajbE3(r, 'faa-, -jbaea(r; S 'foajbaeaCr 
forebode for 'bod, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; |-d 

-id |-ding -10 
forebrain 'for^bren, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E-i-'faa- 
forecast n 'for^kaest, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E+'faa-, 

-jkast, -jkast 
forecast v for'kaest, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-, 

-'kast, -'kast; \past -cast, -casted -id 

\acct + 'f orejcast(ed) 
forecastle naut. 'foksl, as sp. pron. 'forjkaesl, 

'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-, -jkasl, -jkasl 
foreclose for'kloz, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; \-s 

-IZ |-d -d j-sure -33^; ES -3a (r 
foredo for'du, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; |-does 

-'dAz 1-did -'did |-done -'dAn 
foredoom n 'for^dum, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foredoom v for'dum, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

l-ed -d 
forefather 'for^faSa', 'far-; ES 'foajfatJaCr, 

E+'faa-, -jfatSa(r 
forefend for 'fend, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-ed -id 
forefinger 'forjfirjga^, 'far-; ES 'foa^figgaCr, 

E + 'faa- 
forefoot 'forkful, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

|-feet -fit — acc^+'fore'f- 
foregather for'gaeSa^, far-; ES foa'gaecSaCr, 

E+faa-; |-ed -d 1-ing -'gae'Sarirj, -'gaeSrig 
forego for'go, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; |-went 

-'went |-gone -'gan, -'gon, less freq. -'gan 
foregoing for'gO'ig, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

('fore^going 'day) 
foregone for 'gan, far-, -'gon; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

('fore^gone con'clusion) 
foreground 'for^graund, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 

forehand 'for^haend, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
forehanded 'for'haendid, 'far-; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'faa- 

forehead 'farid, 'far-, 'for-, -ad, 'far^hed 
foreign 'farm, 'far-, 'for-, -an |-ness -nis 
forejudge for'dsAds, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
foreknow for 'no, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-knew -'nju, -'niu, -'nu |-known -'non 
foreknowledge 'for^nalids, 'far-; ES 'foa^nal-, 

-jnnl-, E + 'faa-; acd+ fore 'knowledge 
forelady 'for^ledi, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foreland 'forland, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foreleg 'forjeg, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

acd + 'fore 'leg 
forelimb 'for Jim, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

acd+ 'fore 'limb 
forelock 'forjak, 'far-; ES 'foajak, -jink, 

E + 'faa- 
foreman 'forman, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

I -men -man 
foremast 'for^maest, 'far-; ES 'foa^maest, 

E + 'faa-, -jmast, -^mast 
foremost 'foremost, 'far-, -mast; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'faa- 
forename 'for^nem, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

forenoon for 'nun, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

('fore^noon 'task) 
forensic fa'rensik, fo- |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
foreordain ^forar'den, ifar-; ES iforaa'den, 

E+jfar-; |-ed -d 
foreordinate v for'ardn^et, far-; ES for'aadn-, 

E+far-; |-d -id 
foreordination jforardn'e/an, jfar-; ES ^for- 

adn-, E + jf ar- 
Forepaugh 'for^pa, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
forepaw, F- 'for, pa, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
forequarter 'for^kwarta^, 'far-; ES 'foa- 

jkwaata(r, E + 'faa- 
forerun for 'r An, far-; ES foa'rAn, E+faa-; 

|-ran -'raen \pplc -run -'rAn [-ner -a^; ES 

-a(r; acd + 'fore-runner 
foresaid 'for^sed, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foresail 'for^sel, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foresee for'si, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; |-saw 

-'sa |-seen -'sin 
foreshadow n 'forjjaedo, 'far-, -a; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'faa- 
foreshadow v for'/aedo, far-, -a; ES foa-, 

E+faa-; |-ed -d |-ing -'/aedawiij 
foreshank 'for,Jaegk, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 

|full ful |tooth tu6 Ifurther 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij" [vision 'vijan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




foresheet 'for Jit, 'for-; ES 'foa-, E+'faa- 
foreshore 'forj/or, 'for^Xor; ES 'foaj/oaCr, 

E + 'f33i/33(r 

foreshorten for'Jortn, far-; ES foa'/aatn, E + 

foa-; |-ed -d |-ing -tnig, -tnig 
foreside 'foresaid, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E+'faa-; 

ace/ + 'fore 'side 
foresight 'for^sait, 'for-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foresighted 'for'saitid, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 

'faa-; ('fore^sighted 'act) 
foreskin 'foreskin, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
forespeak for'spik, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-spoke -'spok |-spoken -'spokan 
forest 'farist, 'far-, 'for-, -ast |-ed -id |-ry -ri 
forestall for'stal, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

l-ed -d 
forestation jfaris'te/an, jfar-, jfor- 
foretaste n 'for^test, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foretaste v for 'test, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

l-d -id 
foretell for'tel, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; [-told 

fo rethink for'Giijk, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

I -thought -'Gat 
forethought 11 'for^Gat, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foretime 'for^taim, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foretimed 'timed before' for'taimd, far-; ES 

foa-, E+faa- 
foretoken n 'for^tokan, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foretoken v for'tokan, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-ed -d I-ing -'tokanig, -'toknig 
foretop 'for^tap, 'far-; ES 'foa^tap, -jtop, 

E + 'faa- 
f ore- topmast for'tapjOiaest, far-; ES foa'tap- 

jinaest, -'top-, E+faa-, -;mast, -^mast 
fore-topsail for'tapiSel, naut. -sj, far-; ES 

foa'tap-, -'top-, E+faa- 
forever fa-'eva^; ES -'£va(r 
forevermore fa^jEva^'mor, -'mar; ES fa^jsva- 

'moa(r, E + -'maa(r 
forewarn for 'warn, far-; ES foa'waan, E+ 

faa-; |-ed -d 
forewent past of forego for 'went, far-; ES foa-, 

forewoman 'for^wuman, 'far-, -jwum-; ES 

'foa-, E + 'faa-; |-women -jwimin, -man — 

see woman 
foreword 'for^wyd, 'far-; ES 'foa^wsd, 'foa- 

jwyd, E + 'faa- 

foreyard 'forjard, 'far-; ES 'foaJa:d, E + 

'faa-, -ija:d 
Forfar 'f^rf^^; loc. 'fnrfar; ES 'faafa(r; [-shire 

-Jir, -/»; ES -;Jia(r, -Ja(r 
forfeit 'farfit; ES 'faafit; j-ed -id 
forfeiture 'farfit/a^; ES 'faafit Ja(r 
forfend far'fend; ES faa 'fend; |-ed -id 
forgather far'gaetia'; ES faa'gae?ia(r; j-ed -d 

|-ing -'gaetiarig, -'gaESrig 
forgave fa^'gev; ES fa'gev 
forge fards, fords; ES foads, faadj; |-s -iz |-d 

-d — The pron. with a by many who say ford, 

forG, etc., results from ME double forms 

'fordsa &° 'fatrdsa. 
forger 'fardsa^, 'fordsa^; ES 'foad3a(r, 'faa-; 

|-y -I — see forge 
forget fa^'gEt; ES fa-; \past -got -'gat \pptc 

-gotten, -got -'gatn, -'gat; |ES + -'gDt(n) 
forgetful fa^'gEtfal; ES fa-; \-\y -i 
forgetive 'fardsativ, 'for-; ES 'foads-, 'faads- 

— see forge 
forget-me-not fa^'gEtmijUat; ES fa'gEtmi^nat, 


forgettable fa-'gEtabl; ES fa- 
forgive fa^'giv; ES fa-; |-gave -'gev [-given 

-'givan |-ness -nis 
forgo far'go; ES faa'go; |-went -'went |-gone 

-'gan, -'gnn, less freq. -'gan 
forgot fa^'gat; ES fa'gat, -'got; |-ten -^i 
forjudge far'dsAds; ES faa-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
fork fark; ES faak; |-ed -t 
forked adj farkt, 'farkid; ES faak- 
forlorn fy'larn; ES fa'laan; |-ness -nis 
form farm; ES faam; |-ed -d [-al -1 j-ally -li — 
The pron. form /or the sense 'rank,' 'bench,' 
once current in Engd, comes from a ME 
variant furme, fourme 'fu:rma. Cf course, 
formaldehyde far'maelda^haid; ES fa'mael- 
formalin, F- 'farmalin; ES 'faam- 
formalism 'farmjjizam; ES 'faam-; |-ist -ist 
formahty far'maelati; ES fa- 
formalize 'farml^aiz; ES 'faam-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
formant 'farraant; ES 'faam- 
format 'farmaet {Fr far 'ma) 
formation far'me/an; ES faa- 
formative 'farmativ; ES 'faam- 
forme farm; ES faam 

former 'farma^; ES 'faama(r; |-ly -li — 
'farmali, by r-dissimilation, is often heard. 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg |angr>' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wntj" (§12) Ijaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




leading to easier confusion with formally 

formic 'farmik; ES 'foam-; |-ary -jEri 
formicate adj 'farmikit; ES 'foam- 
formicate V 'formijket; ES 'foam-; |-d -id 
formidable 'fornudabl; ES 'foam-; |-bly -bli 

— Brit+io^mid- 
Formosa far'mosa; ES faa- 
formula 'farmjala; ES 'faam-; |-s -z |-lae -}i 

|-lary -Jen 
formulate 'farmjajet; ES 'faam-; |-d -id 
formulation jfarmja'le/an; ES ifaam- 
fornicate 'farnijket; ES 'faan-; |-d -id 
fornication jfarni'keXan; ES jfaan- 
Forres 'fans, 'fans, 'foris, -iz |-'s -isiz, -iziz 
Forrest 'farist, 'farist, 'fonst 
forsake fa^'sek; ES fa-; |-sook -'suk 1-saken 

forsooth fa^'suO; ES fa'suG 
forspend far 'spend; ES faa-; [-spent -'spent 
forswear far'swer, -'swaer; E faa'swea(r, ES 

faa'swaea(r; |-swore -'swor, -'swar; ES 

-'swoa(r, E + -'swaa(r; |-sworn -'sworn, 

-'swarn; ES -'swoan, E+-'swaan 
Forsyte 'farsait; ES 'faasait 
Forsyth fa^'saiO; ES fa'saiG 
forsythia, F- fa^'siOia, far-, -'sai6-, -Oja; ES 

fa-, fa-; The 1st pron. follows English Latin 

tradition, as in Lydia (Z, Lydia); the 2d, 

the analogy of Forsyth, 
fort fort, fart; ES foat, E+faat 
forte ^strong point' fort, fart; ES foat, E+faat 
forte music 'farti, -te; ES 'faat- 
Fortescue 'fartis^kju, -jkiu; ES 'faat- 
forth, F- fore, farO; ES foae, E+faaO 
forthcoming 'forG'kAmig, 'farO-; ES 'foaG-, 

forthright adj, adv forO'rait, farG-; ES foaG-, 

E+faaG-; ('forth^right 'mind) 
forthwith forG'wiG, farG-, -'wi(J; ES foaG-, 

fortification jfartafa'ke/an; ES /faata- 
fortify 'farta^fai; ES 'faata-; |-fied -jfaid 
Fortinbras 'fartn^braes, 'fartin-; ES 'faat- 
fortissimo far'tisajino; ES fa'tis-; {It for- 

fortitude 'farta^tjud, -jtiud, -^tud; ES 'faat- 
fortnight 'fartnait, 'fort-, -nit, -nat; ES 

'faat-, 'foat-; |-ly -li — All the pronuncia- 

tions of fortnight here given are regtdar 

phonetic or analogical developments. 
fortress 'fartris, -tras; ES 'faat-; |-es -iz 

l-ed -t 
fortuitous far'tjuatas, -'tiu-, -'tu-; ES fa-; 

|-tism -jtizam |-ty -ti 
Fortuna far'tjuna, -'tiu-, -'tu-; ES faa- 
fortune 'fart/an; ES 'faa-; |-nate -it 
fortuneteller 'fart/an^tela^; ES 'faat/an^telaCr 
forty 'farti; ES 'faati; |-tieth -tiiG |-fold -'fold 
forty-niner ^farti'naina^; ES jfaati'naina(r 
forum 'foram, 'faram; S 'foram; |-s -z j-ra -ra 
forward 'farwa^d; ES 'faawad; |-s -z — Some 

good speakers still use the historical pron. 

'fara'd; ES 'farad. 
forwent past of forgo far 'went; ES faa- 
forwhy far'hwai; ES faa'hwai 
fosse fas, fos |-s -iz |-d -t 
fossil 'fasl, 'fosj; |-ize -^aiz |-izes -^aiziz |-ized 

foster, F- 'fasta^, 'fas-, ^fos-; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -tang, -trig 
Fostoria fas'tona, fos-, -'tar-; S -'tor- 
Fotheringay 'faSarigjge, -'Srig-; ES + 'ft»?l- 
fought fat 

foul faul |-ed -d |-ly 'fauUi, 'fauli 
foulard fu'lard, fa'lard; ES -'la:d, E+-'la:d 
foul-breathed 'faul'breGt 
foulmouthed 'faul'mau'Sd, -Gt |-thedly -'Sidli 
foulness 'faulnis |-es -iz 
Foulness jfaul'nes |-'s -iz 
found past b" pptc of find faund 
found V faund [founded 'faundid 
foundation faun'de/an |-al -| |-ally -Ii 
founder n 'faunda^; ES -da(r; |-dress -dris 
founder v 'faunda^; ES -da(r; j-ed -d j-ing 

'faundang, -drig 
foundery 'faundari, 'faundn |-dry -dri 
fount faunt 

fountain 'fauntn, -tin, -tan 
four for, far; ES foa(r, E+faa(r 
Fourdrinier fur'drini*; ES fua'drini'a(r 
four-flush 'for'fkj, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

|-es -IZ |-ed -t [-er -a^; ES -a(r 
fourfold adj, adv 'for 'fold, 'far-; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'faa- 
four-footed 'f or'f utid, 'far- ; ES 'foa-, E + 'f aa- 
Fourier jfuri'e, 'funa^; ES jfuri'e, 'furi-aCr; 

{Fr fu'rje) 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kiedl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Fourierism 'furia'jizam |-ist -ist 
four-in-hand 'foriiijhaend, 'for-; S 'for- 
four-legged 'for'kgid, 'for-, -'kgd; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'f33- 

four-masted 'for'maestid, 'for-; ES 'foa-, 

E-i-'faa-, -'mast-, -'mast- 
four-o'clock 'fora^klak, 'fora-; ES 'fora^klak, 

-jklok, E + 'fara- 
fourpence 'forpans, 'for-; ES 'foa-, E + 'foa-; 

I -penny -jpeni, -pom 
four-poster 'for 'posts', 'for-; ES 'foo'postoCr, 

E + 'foo- 
fourscore 'for'skor, 'for'skor; ES 'foa'skooCr, 

E + 'fo3'sko3(r; ('four, score and 'ten) 
foursome 'forsom, 'for-; ES 'foo-, E + 'foo- 
foursquare 'for'skwer, 'for-, -'skwaer; E 

'foo'skwEoCr, 'foo-, -'skwaeoCr; S 'foo- 

'skwaeo(r; ('four,square 'room) 
fourteen for 'tin, for-; ES foa-, E+foa-; (,he's 

'four'teen, 'four^teen 'men) 
fourteenth for'tinO, for-; ES foo-, E+foo-; 

I -ths -8s — acct + 'four 'teen th 
fourth fore, forO; ES fooG, E-t-fooO; |-ths -Gs 
four-wheel adj, n 'for,liwiI, 'for-; ES 'foo-, 

E + 'foo- 
four-wheeled 'for'hwild, 'for-; ES 'foo-, E + 

'fo3-; ('four-, wheeled 'truck) 
f outer, -tre 'futa^; ES 'futoCr 
fowl faul [fowled fauld |fowhng 'faulig 
fox faks; ES+fnks; |-es -iz |-ed -t |-glove 

-,glAV |-hound -,haund |-tail -,tel 
foy V foi |-ed -d 
foyer 'pilot' 'foijy; ES 'foi-3(r 
foyer 'lobby' 'foia^, 'foi-e; ES 'foi-3(r, 'foi-e; 

{Fr fwa'je) 
fra, F- fra 

fracas 'frekas |-es -iz; Brit 'fraeka, pi -kaz 
fraction 'fraek/an |-ed -d |-al -} |-ally -li 
fractionate 'fraekj"an,et |-d -id 
fractious 'fraek/as 
fracture 'fraektJV; ES -tJaCr; |-d -d 
f rae stressed 'f re, ,f re ; unstr. fre, f ri 
fragile 'fraedsal, -dsil |-gilely -dsali, -djili, 

-alli, -lUi 
fragility frae'djilati, fra- 
fragment 'fraegmant 
fragmental fraeg'mentj |-ly -i 
fragmentary 'fraegman,t£ri |-ly -li, esp. if 

efnph. ,fraegman'terali 

fragrance 'fregrans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 

frail frel |-ly 'frelb, 'freh |-ty -ti 

f raise frez |-s -iz |-d -d 

frame frem |-d -d 

frame-up 'frem,Ap 

framework 'frem/wyk; ES -,w3k, -,wyk 

Framingham Mass 'fremig,haEm, Engd 

franc fraegk 

France fraens; E-i-frans, frans; |-'s -iz 
Frances 'fraensis E-i-'fran-, 'fran-; |-ces' -sis 
Francesca fran'tjeska {It fran'tjeska) 
franchise 'fraent/aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
franchisement 'fraent/izmant 
Francis 'fraensis; E-h'fran-, 'fran-; |-cis' -sis 
Francisca fraen'siska |-can -kan |-co -ko 
Franck fraok {Fr fra:k, Ger fragk) 
Francke, Kuno 'kuno'fragka 
Franco-American 'f raeijkoa 'merakan 
Franco-British 'fraegko'britij" 
Franco-German 'fraegko'dsyman; ES -Mssm-, 

Francophile 'fraegka,fail 
Francophobe 'fraegka,fob j-bia jfraegka'fobia 
Franco-Prussian 'fraegko'prAjan 
frangible 'fraendsabl |-bihty jfraendsa'bilati 
frangipane 'fraendsa^pen 
frangipani ^fraendsi'paeni, -'pani 
frank, F- fraegk |-ed -t 
Frankenstein 'fraegkan,stain, -kin- 
Frankfort 'fraegkfa^t; ES 'fraegkfat 
Frankfurt 'fraegkfa^t; ES 'fraegkfat; {Ger 

frankfurter, F- 'fraegkfa^ta^; ES 'fraegkfata(r 
frankincense 'fraegkin,sens 
franklin, F- 'fraegklin |-ite -^ait 
frankpledge 'fraegk^pleds |-s -iz 
frantic 'fraentik j-ly -li |-ally -li 
frappe frae'pe |-ed -d (Fr fra'pe) 
Eraser 'freza^, 'fresa^; ES -a(r; {Sc 'fre:3ar) 
frater 'freta^; ES 'freta(r 
fraternal fra'tynl, fre-; ES -'tsnl, -'tynl; 

fraternity fra'tynati; ES -Han-, -'tyn- 
fraternize 'fraeta^^naiz, 'fret-; ES -ta-; |-s -iz 

fratricide 'fraetrajsaid, 'fretra- 
fratricidal jfraetra'saidl, ^fretra- 
fraud frod |-ful -fal | -fully -fall 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr},' 'aeg-gri 
jbath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wntj (§12) |jaw dso [gorge gord3 |go go 




fraudulence 'fr3d33l3ns [-cy -i |-lent -lant 

frequence 'frikwans |-s -iz [-cy -i [-nt -nt 

fraught f rat 

frequent v fn'kwent [-ed -id 

Fraunhofer 'fraun/hofa^; ES -^hofaCr 

Frere frir; ES fna(r, S-i-fr£a(r 

fray fre |-ed -d 

fresco 'fresko [-ed -d 

Frazer 'freza', 'fresa^; ES -3(r; {Sc 'fre-.sar) 

fresh fre/ [-es -iz [-ed -t 

Frazier 'fresa'; ES 'fre53(r; cf Fraser, Frazer 

freshen 'f re/an [-ed -d [-ing 'fre/anig, -/nig 

frazzle 'fraezl |-d"-d |-ling 'fraezhg, -zlig 

freshet 'fre/it 

freak f rik 

freshman 'fre/man [-men -man 

freckle 'frekl |-d -d |-ling 'freklirj, -klig 

Fresno 'frezno 

Frederic, -ick 'ftEdarik, 'fr£drik 

fret fret [-ted -id [-ful -fal [-fully -fall 

Frederica jfredaVika 

fretsome 'fretsam 

Fredericksburg 'frednksjbyg; ES - 


fretwork 'fret^wsk; ES -jwsk, -jwa^k 


Freud fraid {Ger frayt) Freudian 'fraidian 

Fredonia NY, Kan fri'donia; Colombia 


Frey fre, Swiss statesm. frai 

'donja {Am Sp fre'Sonja) 

Freya 'frea [Freyja 'freja 

free fri |freer 'fria^; ES 'fri-aCr 

friable 'fraiabi 

freeboard 'fri^bord, -^bard; ES -jboad, 

E + 

friar, F- 'fraia', frair; ES 'frai'a(r, fraia(r 


friary 'fraiari 

freebooter 'fri^buta^; ES -jbutaCr 

fribble 'fribl [d -d [-ling 'friblig, -blig 

freeborn 'fri^born; ES -jbaan 

fricassee ^frika'si [-d -d 

Freeborn 'friba^n; ES 'friban 

fricative 'frikativ 

freedman, F- 'fridman [-men -man 

friction 'frik/an [-ed -d 

freedom, F- 'fridam 

Friday 'fraidi — spelt Fridy in 1642 

freedwoman 'frid^wuman, -jwu- | 


fried past b' pptc of fry fraid 

-Vimin, -an — see woman 

friedcake 'fraid jkek 

free-for-all 'frifa^bl ('free-for-.all 'fight) 

friend trend |-ly -li [-ship -/ip, 'fren/ip 

freehand 'frijhaend 

frier 'fryer' 'fraia^; ES 'frai'a(r 

freehanded 'fri'haendid 

Fries Sw hot., Ger philos. fris; Am schol. friz 

freehold 'fri^hold 

[-'s -IZ 

freeman, F- 'friman |-men -man 

fries from fry fraiz 

Freemason 'frijmesn, ;fri'mesn |-ry -ri 

Friesian 'frisan [-sic -zik |-sish -zij 

freer, F- 'fria^; ES 'fri-aCr 

Friesland 'frizland, -Jaend 

free-soil, F- 'fri'sail ('Free-jSoil 'party) 

frieze friz [-s -iz [-d-d 

free-spoken 'fri'spokan 

frigate 'frigit 

freestone, F- 'frijston 

Frigg frig [Frigga 'friga 

freethinker 'fri'eigka^; ES -'GigkaCr 

fright frait |-ed -id 

freeze, F- friz |-s -iz [froze froz [frozen 'frozn 

frighten 'fraitn [-ed -d [-ing 'fraitnig, -tnig 

Freiburg 'fraibyg; ES -bsg, -byg; 


frightful 'fraitfal [-ly -i 


frigid 'fridsid |-ity fri'd3idati . 

freight fret [freighted 'fretid 

frijol, -e 'frihol, -'bol 

Fremont John C. 'frimant, -mont, fri'm 


frill fril l-ed -d 

Fremont 'frimant, -mont 

fringe fnnds [-s -iz [-d -d 

French frsntj [-'s -iz [-man, -men 


frippery 'fripari 

[-woman -^wuman [-women -jWimin, - 

an — 

Frisian 'frisan, 'fri3ian 

see woman 

frisk frisk |-ed -t 

Frenchify 'f rent/a ^fai [-fied -^faid 

frit frit 

Freneau fri'no, f re- 

frith frie [-ths -Os 

frenetic fra'netik, fri- |-al -1 [-ally -h 

fritillary 'fritljeri 

frenzy 'ftEnzi |-ied -d 

fritter 'frita-; ES 'frita(r; [-ed -d 

[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




frivol 'frivi |-ed -d 1-ing 'frivlig, -vlig 

frowzy 'frauzi 

frivolity fnValati; ES + -'vd1- 

froze froz [frozen 'frozn 

frivolous 'frivabs, 'frivlas 

fructification jfrAktafa'keJan 

friz, -zz friz [frizzes 'fnziz [frizzed frizd 

fructify 'frAkta^fai |-fied -^faid j-tose -tos 

frizzle 'frizl |-d -d |-ling 'frizlig, -zlig 

fructuous 'frAktJuas 

fro fro 

frugal 'frugl, 'friugl |-ity fru'galati, fnu- 

Frobel 'frebl {Ger 'frorbal) 

fruit frut, friut |-ed -id |-ful--fal [-fully -fall 

Frobisher 'frobija^; ES 'frobij3(r 

fruitcake 'frut^kek, 'friut- 

frock frak; ES+frnk; |-ed -t 

fruiterer 'frutara^, 'friut-; ES -tara(r 

froe fro 

fruition fru'i/an, fnu- 

Froebel ^frebl {Ger 'frotbal) 

frumenty 'frumanti, 'fnu- 

frog frag, frag, frog; S frog, frag, frog; |-eye 

frump frAoip j-ed -t 


frustrate 'frAstret [-d -id |-tion frAs'treJan 

Frohman 'froman 

frustrum erron. for frustum 'frAstram [-s -z 

Froissart 'froisart; ES -sa:t, E+-sa:t; {Fr 

j-tra -tra 


frustum 'frAstam |-s -z |-ta -ta 

frolic 'frahk; ES + 'frolik; |-some -sam 

fry frai [fried fraid [fryer 'fraia^; ES -a(r 

from stressed 'from, jfram, ^frnm, jfrom. 

Fryeburg 'fraibyg; ES -bag, -byg 

'frAm, jfrAm; tmstr. fram 

fuchsia, F- 'f ju/a, 'fiu-, -Jia, generic 'fuksia 

Frome Eng rivs. b' places frum — A sp. pron. 

fuchsin 'fuksin [-sine -sin, -sin 

from is also heard in Engd. 

fuddle 'fAdl l-d -d j-ling 'fAdhg, 'fAdhg 

frond frond, frnnd 

fudge fAds [fudges 'f Adsiz [fudged fAdsd 

Fronde Fr fro:d 

Fuegian f ju'idsian, fiu-, 'fweds- 

front frAnt [fronted %Antid j-age -ids 1-ages 

Fuehrer 'fira', 'fju-; ES -ra(r; {Ger 'fy:rar) 

-idsiz |-al -1 |-ally -li 

fuel 'fjual, 'final [-ed -d 

Frontenac 'frantajnaek, 'frnn-, in C+Fr 

fugacious fju'ge/as, fiu- 


fugitive 'fjudsativ, 'fiu- 

frontier frAn'tir, fran-, frnn-, ^frAntir, ^fran-. 

fugleman 'fjuglman, 'fiu- j-men -man 

'fron-; ES -'ti3(r, -ti3(r, S+-'te3(r, -t83(r; 

fugue fjug, fiug |-d -d 

|-sman -zman |-smen -zman 

Fiihrer 'fira^, 'fju-; ES -ra(r; {Ger 'fj-:rar) 

frontispiece 'frAntis^pis, 'fran-; ES + 'fron-; 

Fuji 'fudsi [Fujiyama jfudsi'jama 

|-s -IZ 

-i\i\ unstressed ending forming adjectives (plaj^- 

frontlet 'frAntlit 

ful), pron. -fal, -fl, less freq. -ful. Only the 

frore arch, fror, frar; ES fro3(r, E+fr33(r 

pron. -fal is given in the vocabulary, it being 

frost frast, frost |-ed -id |-ing -ig 

understood that -f 1 is a common variant, and 

frostbite 'frast^bait, 'frost- |-bit -jbit [-bitten 

-ful a less freq. one, being heard chiefly in 


formal style or consciously careful speech. 

frostflower 'frost ^f la ua^, 'frost-, -jflaur; ES 

Many adjectives in -ful are omitted from the 

-yflau'3(r, -jflau3(r 


frostwork 'frost jwyk, 'frost-; ES -jwak. 

-ful half-stressed ending of compound nouns 


(cupful 'kApjful). 

froth froe, froO |-ths -Gs |-ed -t 

-ful, -full stressed second element of compound 

Froude frud 

adjectives (brimful, -11 'brim'ful, -jful, half- 

frou-frou 'frufru 

full 'h^f'ful, -,ful). 

frounce frauns j-s -iz |-d -t 

fulcrum 'fAlkram [-s -z [-ra -ra 

frouzy 'frauzi 

fulfill, -fil ful'fil |-(l)ed -d 

fro ward 'froa^d, 'frowa'd; ES -ad, -wad 

fulgent 'fAldsant [-gid -dsid 

frown fraun |-ed -d 

fulgor 'fAlga'; ES -ga(r; |-ous -as 

frowsty 'frausti 

full ful [fulled fuld [fully 'full 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret jyet jet [sang s£eg |angr\' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) jjaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




fullback ^fuljbaek 

fuller 'fula^; ES 'ful3(r; |-ed -d 

fulmar 'fulma^; ES 'fulm3(r 

fulminate 'f Alma^net |-d -id |-nant -nant 

fulmination jfAlma'nefan |-nous ^fAlmanss 

fulsome 'fulsam, 'IaI- 

Fulton 'fultni 

Fulvia 'f a1vi3, -vja 

fulvous 'f a1v3s 

fumarole 'fjumajtol, 'fiu- 

fumatory 'fjumajtori, 'fiu-, -jt3ri; S -jtori 

fumble 'fAmbl |-d -d |-ling ^fAmblig, -blig 

fume fjum, fium \-d -d 

fumet 'fjumit, 'fiu- |fumette f ju'met, fiu- 

fumigate 'f juma^get, 'fiu- [-d -id 

fumiter 'fjumata', 'fiu-; ES -t3(r 

fumitory 'fjumajtori, 'fiu-, -itari; S -jton 

fumy 'fjumi, 'fiumi 

fun fAn I funned fAnd 

function 'fAgk/an |-ed -d |-al -1 [-ally -|i 

functionary 'fAgkJaiijeri 

fund fAnd [funded 'f Andid 

fundament 'f Andaman! 

fundamental ^f Anda'mentj |-ly -i |-ism -jizam 

|-ist -ist 
fundus 'fAndas |-es -iz 
Fundy 'f Andi 
funeral 'fjunaral, 'fiu- 
funereal fju'nirial, fiu- j-ly -i 
funest f ju'nest, fiu- 
fungi 'f Andsai 
fungicide 'fAndsa^said 
fungoid 'fAggaid |-al fAg'gaidl 
fungous adj 'fAggas 
fungus n 'fAggas |-es -iz |fungi 'fAudsai 
funicle 'fjunikl, 'fiu- 
funicular fju'nikjala^, fiu-; ES -la(r 
funk fAgk [funked f Agkt 
funnel 'fAnl |-ed -d 
funny 'f Am 

fur fy; ES f3(r, fy; |-red -d 
furbelow 'fybl^o; ES 'fs-, 'fy-; j-ed -d 
furbish 'fs^biji ES 'fs-, 'fy-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
furcate adj 'fyket, -kit; ES 'fs-, 'fy- 
furcate v 'fyket; ES 'fs-, 'fy-; \-d -id 
furfur 'fa^fa^; ES 'fsfaCr, 'fyfaCr; |-es -^iz j-al 

furibund 'fjun^bAnd, 'fio- 
furious 'fjurias, 'fiu- 

furl fyl; ES fsl, fyl; |-ed -d 

furlong 'fs'bg, -log; ES 'fs-, 'fy-, S + -lag 

furlough 'fylo; ES 'fslo, 'fylo 

furmenty 'fs^manti; ES 'fs-, 'fs*- 

furmity 'fs'mati; ES 'fs-, 'fy- 

furnace ^fs'nis, -as; ES 'fs-, 'fy-; |-s -iz 

Furnas 'fs^nis, -as; ES 'fs-, 'fs'-; |-'s -iz 

Furness, -niss 'fynis, -as; ES 'fs-, 'fy-; |-'s 


furnish 'fyni/; ES 'fs-, 'fs^-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 

furniture 'fs^nitja^; ES 'fsnit/aCr, 'fs'nit/aCr 

Furnival, -all 'fynavl; ES 'fsn-, 'fs^n- 

furor 'f juror, 'fiu-; ES -raa(r 

furrier 'fyia^; ES 'fsri-aCr, 'fAr-, 'fyi'a(r 

furring 'fs'ig; ES 'fsrig, 'fs'ig 

furrow 'fyo, -a; ES 'fsr-, 'fAr-, 'fy-; |-ed -d 

furrowing 'fs^awig; ES 'fsrawig, 'fAr-, 'fy- 

furry 'fs^i; ES 'fsn, 'fyi 

further 'fytJa-; ES 'fsSaCr, 'fy3a(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -tiarig, -'Srig ]-ance -ans, -Srans 
furthermore 'fs^Sa^jinor, 'fySa-, -^mar; ES 

'fstSa^moaCr, 'fySajmoaCr, E+-jm3a(r; — In 

the 2d pron. ^ has become a by dissimilation 

furthermost 'fytJa^jmost; ES 'fstSa-, ^fs'tSa- 
furthest 'fytJist; ES 'fs-, 'fy- 
furtive 'fs^tiv; ES 'fs-, 'fs'- 
fury 'fjuri, 'fiuri 

furze fyz; ES fsz, fyz; j-s -iz |-d -d 
fusain 'fjuzen, 'fiu-, f ju'zen, fiu- {Fr fy'z«) 
fuscous 'fAskas 
fuse fjuz, fiuz j-s -IZ |-d -d 
fusee gun f ju'zi, fiu- 
fusee mils. Fr fy'ze 
fusel 'fjuzl, 'fiu-, -si 
fuselage 'fjuzlids, 'fiu-, -^05; |-s -iz {Fr 

fusibility jfjuza'bilati, jfiu- 
fusible 'fjuzabl, 'fiu- |-bly -bh 
fusiform 'fjuza^farm, 'fiu-; ES -jfaam 
fusil 'fjuzl, 'fiu-, -zil 
fusilier, -eer ^fjuzl'ir, ^fiu-; ES -'ia(r, S + 

fusillade jfjuz|'ed, ^fiu- |-d -id 
fusion 'fju3an, 'fiu- 
fuss fAs [fusses 'f Asiz [fussed fAst 
fustian 'f Ast/an 
fustic 'f Astik 
fustigate 'f Astajget [-d -id [-tor -»', ES -a(r 

jfuU ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij* [vision Visan [Eden 'idiri [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipiii 




fusty 'fAsti ]-tily -tli, -till 

futhorc, -rk 'fuOark; ES 'fuOaak 

futile 'fjutl, 'fiu-, -til |-ly -i 

futilitarian jfjutib'terian, jfiu-, -'ter-, -rjan, 

acct + f u J tili ' tarian 
futility fju'tilati, fiu- 
Futrall 'fjutral, 'fiu- 
Futrell 'f jutral, 'fiu- 
Futrelle f ju'trel, fiu- 

futtock 'f Atak 

future 'fjutja^, 'fiu-; ES -tj3(r; |-rism -jizam 

|-ist -ist 
futuristic ,f jut/a 'ristik, jfiu- 
futurity fju'turati, fiu-, -'tiur-, -'tjur- |-ric 

fuze fjuz, fiuz j-s -iz |-d -d 
fuzee f ju'zi, fiu- 
fuzz fAZ I fuzzes 'fAziz I fuzzed fAzd |-y -i 


G, g letter dgi \pl G's, Gs, poss G's dgiz 

gab gaeb | gabbed gaebd 

gabardine, -ber- 'gteba'jdin, jgaeba^'din; ES 

gabble 'gaebl |-d -d |-ling 'gaebhg, 'gaeblig 
gabby 'gaebi 

gable 'gebl |-d -d |-ling 'geblig, 'geblig 
Gabriel 'gebrial 
gad, G- gaed | gadded 'gaedid 
gadabout 'gaeda^baut 
Gadarine jgaeda'rin, 'gaeda^rln 
Gades 'gediz |-es' -iz 
gadfly 'gaedjflai 
gadget 'gaedsit 

gadolinium jgaedaUinistn, -^linjam 
Gadsden 'gaedzdan 
Gadshill 'gaedz^hil 
gadzooks 'gaed'zuks, 'gaed'zuks 
Gaea 'djia 

Gaekvvar 'dsikwar; ES 'dsikwarCr 
Gael gel | Gaelic 'gelik jGaelicist 'gelasist 
gaff gaef | gaffed gaeft 
gaffer 'gaefa^; ES 'gaef a (r 
gaff-topsail 'gaef'tapsl, -jsel; ES+-'tDp- 
gag gaeg | gagged gaegd 
gage gads 1 gages 'gedsiz | gaged gedsd 
Gaia 'gea, 'gaia 
gaiety 'geati | gaily 'geli 
gaillardia ge'lardia, gi-; ES -^lardia, E + 

gain gen |-ed -d |-ful -fal | -fully -fab 
Gainesville 'genzvil; S+-vl 
gainly 'genii 
gainsay gen'se |-says -'sez, -'sez |-said -'sed, 

-'sed, acd + 'gain jsay, -jsaid 

Gainsborough 'genz^byo, -a; ES -^bar-;, 

-jbAr-, -jby-; Brit -bara, -bra 
Gairdner 'gardna^, 'g2rd-, 'gaerd-; ES 

'ga:dna(r, 'gaead-, E-i-'ga:d-, 'gead- 
gait get Igaited 'getid 
gaiter 'geta^; ES 'geta(r 
Gains 'geas, 'gaias j-'s -iz 
gala 'gela 
galactic ga'laektik 
galactose ga'laektos 
Galahad 'gaelajhaed 
Galapagos ga'lapa/gos {Sp ga'lapagas) 
Galashiels jgaela'Jilz 
Galatea ^gaela'tia 

Galatia ga'le/a, ga'lejia- |-tians -/anz, -Jianz 
Galax, g- 'gelaeks |-'s -iz |-ias ga'l^eksias 
galaxy 'gaelaksi |-xian ga'l^eksian 
Galba 'gaelba 
gale gel |galed geld 
Galen 'gelan, 'gelin 
galena, G- ga'lina 

Galesburg 'gelzbyg; ES -bsg, -byg 
Galicia ga'lijia, -'hja |-cian -Jian, -Jan 
Galilee 'gaela^li [Galilean jgaela'lian 
Galileo jgaela'lio {It igali'kro) 
galingale 'gaelin^gel, 'gaelig^gel 
Gallon 'gaelian 
gall gal I galled gald 
Gall gal, gal, gael 
gallant adj '■brave' 'gaelant 
gallant adj 'amorous' ga'laent, 'gaelant 
gallant n 'gaelant, ga'laent |-ry 'gaelantn 
gallant v ga'laent |gallanted ga'laentid 
Gallatin 'gaslatin 
galleass 'gaeli,aes, 'gaebas |-es -iz 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr}' 'seg-gri 
jbath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj", wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




galleon 'gaehan, ^gaeljsn 

Gambia 'gaembi«3 

gallery 'gaelari, -ki |-ied -d 

Gambler 'gaem,bir; ES -jbi3(r; /oc-t-gaem- 

galley 'gaeh 


gallfly 'gDljflai 

gambler 'gaemjbir; ES -jbi3(r 

Gallia 'gaeha 

gambit 'gaembit 

galliard 'gaelja^d; ES 'gaeljad 

gamble 'gaembl [-d -d |-ling 'gaemblio. 

galHardise 'gaelja^djiz; ES 'gaeljad^iz 


gallic, G- 'gaehk 

gambrel 'gaembral [gambreled 'gaembrald 

Gallicism 'gaelajSizam 

Gambrinus gaem'brainas |-'s -iz 

Galli-Curci 'gah'kurtji, 'gaeli'kytji; ES 

game gem |-d -d [-some -sam 

-'ku3-, -'k3-, -'ky-; {It 'galll'kurtji) 

gamecock 'gem^kak; ES-i--/kDk 

gallimaufry jgaeb'mofri 

gamester 'gemsta^; ES 'gemstaCr 

gallinaceous jgaeb'nejas 

gamete 'gaemit, ga'mit, gae'mit 

gallinule 'gaelajojul, -^niul, -^nul 

gamin 'gaemin {Fr ga'mse) 

Gallipoli gsUipali, ga'hpajli 

gamma 'gaema 

Gallipolis jgaelapa'lis |-lis's -Uisiz 

gammer 'gaema^; ES 'gaema(r 

gallipot 'gaebipat; ES + -jpiot 

gammon 'gaeman 

Gallitzin Pa ga'litsm 

Gamp gaemp 

gallium 'gaeliam 

gamut 'gaemat 

gallivant 'gaebjvaent, jgaelaVaent |-ed -id 

gamy 'gemi 

gall-less 'gallis 

gan gaen 

gallnut 'galjHAt 

Gananoque jgaena'nok, /oc.-i--'nakwi {Fr ga- 

galloglass 'gaelojglaes |-glasses -jglaesiz 


gallon 'gaebn 

gander 'gaenda^; ES 'gaendaCr 

gallop 'gaebp | galloped 'gaebpt 

Gandhi 'gandi, 'gandi, 'gaendi, 'gaendi 

Galloway 'gaeb^we 

ganef 'ganaf- 

gallowglass 'gasbjglaes ] -glasses -jglaesiz 

gang gaeo [ganged gaegd [ganging 'gaegig 

gallows 'gaebz, -az | gallowses rare 'gaebziz. 

gange gaends [-s -iz [-d -d 

-bziz \dial. gallus 'gaebs [galluses 'gaebsiz 

Ganges 'gaendsiz [Ganges' 'gaendsiz 

gallstone 'galjSton 

gangling 'gaegglig [-gly -gli 

Gallup 'g«bp 

gangHon 'gaegglian [ganglia 'gaegglia 

Gallus 'gaebs j-li -lai |-'s -iz 

gangplank 'gaeg^plaegk 

galop 'gaebp | galoped 'gaebpt 

gangrene 'gaeggrin, 'gaen-, gaeg'grin, gaen- 

galore ga'br, -'br; ES -'b3(r, E-h-'baCr 


galosh ga'laj; ES-h-'IdJ; |-es -iz 

gangster 'gaegsta^; ES 'gaegsta(r 

Galsworthy 'galz^ws'tJi, 'gaelz-; ES -jWstSi, 

gangue gaeg 

-jwySi; Dev 'gaelzari 

gangway 'gaeg^we 

galumph ga'lAmf [galumphed ga^Umft 

gannet, G- 'gaemt 

Galvani gaelVani {It galVami) 

ganof 'ganaf 

galvanic gael'vaenik [galvanism 'gaelv3iniz3m 

ganoid 'gaenaid [ganoidal ga'naidl 

galvanize 'gaslvajnaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

Gans gaenz [-'s -iz {Ger gans) 

galvanometer jgaelva'namata'; ES -'namatCr, 

Gansevoort 'gaensvurt; ES -vuat 

-'nom-; |-metry -matri 

gantlet 'gaentlit — see gauntlet 

galvanoscope gaelVaenajskop, 'gaelvana^skop 

gantline 'gaentjlain 

Galveston 'gaelvistn, 'gaelvastn 

gantry 'gaentn 

Galway 'galwe 

Ganymede 'gaena^mid 

gam gaem [gammed gaemd 

gaol djel [gaoled A^eXA, formerly gel, geld — 

Gamaliel ga'mehal, gaWeljal 

^' Some, .again are boring their very Noses 

Gambetta gaem 'beta 

•with hot Irons, in rage that they cannot corns 

[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fa^'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 

ling -bho, 

to a Resolution, whether they shall say. . 

Jayl or Gaol."— i?. UEstrange {OED). 
gaolbird 'dselibyd; ES -^bsd, -^byd 
gap gaep [gapped gaept 
gape gep, gaep | gaped gept, gaept — see gaup 
gapingstock 'gepig^stak, 'gaep-; ES+-jStDk 
gar gar; ES ga:(r 
garage ga'ras, ga'radj, 'gaeras [-s -iz |-d -d 

{Fr ga'rais) — The f idly Anglicized 'gaeridj 

{of carriage 'kaerids) is not general in 

American cultivated use. 
Garand 'gserand 
garb garb; ES ga:b; j-ed -d 
garbage 'garbids; ES ^gaibids 
garble 'garbl; ES 'ga:bl; |-d -d ] 

garboard 'gar^bord, -^bard; ES 

Garcia 'gar/ia, -/a, -sia, Col gar'sia; ES -a:-: 

{Am Sp gar'sia) 
garden 'gardn, 'gardin; ES 'ga:dn, -dm 
gardener, G- 'gardna^, 'gardna^; ES 'ga:d- 
gardenia gar'dinia, -nja; ES ga'din- 
Gardiner 'gardna^, 'gardna^, 'gardina^; ES 

'ga:dn3(r, -dn3(r, -din3(r 
Gardner 'gardna^; ES 'ga:dn3(r 
Gareth 'gaeriG, 'gaeraO 
Garfield 'garfild; ES 'ga:fild 
Gargantua gar'gaent/ua ; ES ga'gaentfua; 

|-n -n 
gargle 'gargi; ES 'ga:gl; |-d -d |-ling 


gargoyle 'gargail; ES 'gaigail; [-d -d 
Gargrave 'gargrev; ES 'gargrev 
Garibaldi ^gaera'baldi (// jgari'baldi) 
garish 'gerij", 'gaerij; S 'gaerij 
garland, G- 'garland; ES 'garland; |-ed 
garlic 'garhk; ES 'ga:bk 
garment 'garmant; ES 'ga:mant; j-ed -id 
garner 'gorna^; ES 'ga:na(r; |-ed -d 
garnet 'garnit; ES 'ga:nit; |-ed -id 
garnish 'garnij; ES 'ga:ni/; |-es -iz 
garnishee igarni'Ji; ES iga:-; |-d -d 
garniture 'garnit/a^; ES 'gamit/aCr 
Garrard 'gaera^d; ES 'gaerad 
garret 'gaerit 
Garrett 'gaerit |-sville -s,vil 



1-ed -t 

Garrick 'gaerik 

garrison 'gaerasn |-ed -d 

garrote, -tte ga'rot, ga'rat; ES+-'rDt; [-d -id 

garrulity ga'rulati, ga'riulati 

garrulous 'gaeralas, 'gaerjalas 

Garry 'gaen 

garter 'garta^; ES 'ga:ta(r; |-ed -d 

garth gare; ES gaiG; |-ths -Os 

Gary 'g£ri, 'g2:ri, 'gaen, 'gen; S 'gen, 'gaen — 

Some speakers distinguish Gary /row Gerry 

by a longer e. 
gas n gaes [gases 'gaesiz [gassy 'gaesi 
gas V gaes [gasses 'gaesiz [gassed gaest 
Gascoigne gaes'kain, 'gaeskain, 'gaeskin 
Gascon 'gaeskan [Gascony 'gaeskani 
gasconade ^gaeskan'ed |-aded -'edid 
gaseous 'gaesias, 'gaesjas, 'gaez- 
gash gaej [gashes 'gae/iz [gashed gaejt 
gasiform 'gaesajfarm; ES -^faam 
gasify 'gaesa^fai |-fied -^faid 
Gaskell 'gaeskl 

gasket 'gaeskit [gasketed 'gaeskitid 
gasKght 'gaesjlait [-lighted -jlaitid 
gasohne, -lene 'gaesl^in, ;gaes)'m, 'gaez-, 

gasometer gaes'amata^; ES -'amata(r, -'oma- 

gasp gaesp; E+gasp, gasp; [-ed -t 
Gaspe gaes'pe {Fr gas'pe) ('Gasjpe 'tourist) 
gaspergou ^gaespa^'gu, 'gaespa^jgu; ES -pa- 
gastight 'gaes'tait ('gasjtight 'joint) 
Gaston US 'gaestan; Fr name gass'tan, -'tan, 

-'ton {Fr gas'to) 
gastric 'gaestnk [gastritis gaes'traitis 
gastroenteritis 'gaestrojcnta'raitis 
gastronomic jgaestra'namik; ES + -'nDinik; 

l-al -1 l-aUy -h, -ikh 
gastronomy gaes'tranami; ES + -'trDnami 
gastropod 'gaestrajpad; ES-F-jpod 
gastroscope 'gaestra^skop 
gat gaet 

gate get [gated 'getid [-way -jwe 
gate-leg 'getjkg [gate-legged 'getjegd 
Gath gaee 
gather 'gaetJa^; ES 'gae?ia(r; j-ed -d [-ing 

'gaeting, 'gaeSarig 
Gatling 'gaetlig 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) jah a [far far [watch watj", wutj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




Gatun ga'tun 

gauche goj 

gaucherie jgoja'ri, 'gojajri {Fr goJVi) 

Gaucho 'gaut/o 

gaud god I gaudy 'gadi |-ed -id 

gauffer 'gofa^, 'gnfa', 'gafa'; ES -faCr; [-ed -d 

|-ing -fang, -frig 
gauge geds jgauges 'gedsiz Igauged gedsd 
Gaul gal 

gaunt, G- gant, gont, gant 
gauntlet 'gantht, 'gnnt-, 'gant — cf gantlet 
gaup gap Igauped gapt — see gape 
gauss gaus [gausses 'gausiz 
Gauss Christian, Karl gaus; Clarence gas 

l-'s -iz 
Gautama 'gatama 

gauze gaz | gauzes 'gaziz | gauzy 'gazi 
gave gev 

gavel 'gaevl |-ed -d |-ing 'gaevlig, 'gaevhg 
gavelkind 'gaevl^kaind 
Gawain 'gawin, 'gawin 
gawk gak | gawky 'gaki 
gay ge Igayety 'geati 
Gaza Palestine 'geza, Mozambique 'gaza 
gaze gez | gazes 'geziz | gazed gezd 
gazelle ga'zel 

gazette ga'zet [gazetted ga'zetid 
gazetteer ^gaeza'tir; ES -'tia(r, S+-HEa(r 
Gdynia ga'dinja, -ma {Pol 'gdijia) 
gear gir; ES gia(r, S+ge3(r; [-ed -d |-sliift 

Geauga dsi'aga 
gecko 'geko 

Geddes 'gediz, -is |-'s -iz 
gee dsi |geed dsid 
geese gis [geese's 'gisiz 
geest gist 

geezer 'giza", ES 'giza(r 
Geffrey 'dsefri 
Gehenna gi'hena 
Gehrkens 'gykinz, 'ger-; ES ^g3-, 'gy-, 

'gea-; [-'s -iz 
Geierstein 'gaia^^stain; ES 'gaia- 
Geikie 'giki 
geisha 'ge/a 

gel chem. dsel [gelled djeld 
gelatin, -e Mselatn [-(e)d -d 
gelatinate dsa'laetrijet j-d -id [-nous -as 
gelation dsEl'eXan, dsa'l- 

geld n geld 

geld V geld [gelded 'geldid or gelt gelt 

Gelderland 'gelda'land; ES 'gelda- 

gelding 'geldig 

gelid 'dselid |-ity dsa'lidati, dse- 

gelt past b' pptc of geld gelt 

gem dsem jgemmed dsemd 

geminate n, adj 'dsemanit 

geminate v 'dsema/iiet [-d -id 

gemination idsema'nejan 

Gemini 'd5emainai, as intj 'dsimani 

gemot, -e ga'mot 

gemsbok 'gemzbak; ES+-bDk 

gendarme 'sandarm; ES -da:m, E+-da:m; 

[-ry -an, -ri (Fr sa'darm) 
gender 'dsenda^; ES -dad; |-ed -d |-ing -dang, 

gene dsin 
genealogical jdsenia'ladsikl, ^dsini-; ES+ 

-'lods-; |-ly -i 
genealogy jdsini'aeladsi, jdseni-, -'aladsi; 

ES+-'d1-; [-gist -st; The a or n sound is 

found in all parts of the US and in Canada. 

The -ology words have influenced it. 
genera pi of genus 'dsenara 
general M3enaral, 'dsenral |-cy -si 
generalissimo jd3enararisajmo, ^dsenral- 
generality jdsenaVaelati 
generalization jdsenarala'zejan, Msenral-, 

generalize 'dsenaral^aiz, Msenral- |-s -iz 

generally Msenarali, 'dsenrali 
generally 'dsenaralti, 'dsenralti 
generate 'dsenajret [-d -id [-tor -3^; ES -a(r 
generation ^dgena're/an 
generic dsa'nerik [-al -1 [-ally -Ii, -ikli 
generosity jdsenaVasati; ES+-'rDS- 
generous 'dsenaras, 'dsenras 
Genesee jdsena'si ('Gene^see 'River) 
Genesee jdjena'sio 

genesis, G- 'dsenasis \pl geneses 'dgena^slz 
Genest, Genet dsa'net, sa'ne {Fr 3a 'ne) 
genet, -tte M3enit, dsa'net 
genetic dsa'netik [-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli [-s -s 
geneticism dsa'netajSizam [-cist -sist 
Geneva dsa'niva [-van -van 
Genevese jd3ena'viz 
Genevieve 'dsenajviv, jd3enaViv 

[full ful [tooth tu8 [further 'fytia'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision Visan [Eden 'Idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 

Genevieve 182 

Genevieve, -vicve saint 'dsena^viv {Fr 

Genghis Khan 'djEn-giz^kan, 'dseggiz- 
genial 'cheerful' 'dsinjal |-ly -i 
genial 'generative' 'dsinial 
genial 'of lite chin' dsi'naial 
geniality jdsini'aelati, -n'jael-, -nji'aelati 
genie 'dsenik 
geniculate adj dss^nikjalit 
genie 'dsim 
genii 'dsinijai 
genital 'dsEnatl 
genitival jdsena'taivl j-ly -i 
genitive MsEnativ 
geni to-urinary jdsEnato'jura^nEri 
geniture 'dssnitja'; ES -t/alr 
genius 'dsinjas, 'spirit' + -ni3s |-'s -iz \pl 

geniuses 'dsinjasiz, 'spirits' genii 'dsinijai 
Gennesaret ga'nEsarit, dsa- 
Genoa Italy 'djenawa, dsa'noa {It Geneva 

'd3£:nova) ; US dsa'noa 
Genoese jdsena'wiz 
genotype 'dsenOjtaip 

genotypic jdseno'tipik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
genre '3anr3 {Fr 5a:r) 
genro 'gen'ro 

gens dsenz \pl gentes ^dsentiz 
Genseric 'djensarik, 'gen- 
gent dsent 

genteel dsenHil |-ly -'tilk, -'till 
gentes pi of gens 'dstntiz 
gentian 'dsenjan, -/lan 
gentile, G- Msentail 
gentilesse 'dsentj^es, ME 'dsenti^kssa 
gentility dsen'tilati 
gentle 'dsentl |-d -d j-ling -tlig, -tlig |-r -tla^; 

ES -tl3(r; 1-st -tlist, -thst 
gentlefolk Msentljfok j-s -s 
gentleman 'dsentlman |-men -man j-ly -h 
gentlewoman 'dsentljwuman, -jwu- [-men 

-jWimin, -an — see woman 
gently 'dsentli 
gentrice 'dsentris 
gentry 'dsentri 

genuflect 'djenjujfkkt |-ed -id 
genuflection, -flexion jdsEniujflEkJan 
genuflexuous ^dsEnju'tlekJuas 
genuine MjEnjuin |-ineness 'dsEnjuinnis 
Genung dsi'nAg 


genus 'd3in3s \pl genera 'dsEnara \less freq. 

-es -iz 
geocentric jdsio'sEntnk |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikh 
geochemistry jdsio'kEnustri 
geode 'dsiod 

geodesic jdsia'dEsik, -'dis- |-al -} 
geodesist dsi'adasist; ES-i--'Dd- 
geodesy dsi'adssi; ES+-'Dd- 
geodetic jdsia'dEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
Geoffrey 'dsEfri 

geographer dsi'agrafa^, -'og-; ES -faCr 
geographic ^dsia'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikb 
geography dsi'agrafi, -'og- 
geoid 'dsiaid |-al dsibidl 
geologic jdsia'ladsik; ES-|--'lDd3-; [-al -I 

l-ally -h, -ikh 
geologist dsi'aladsist; ES-i--'d1- 
geologize d3i'alajd3aiz; ES + -'d1-; \-s -iz 

geology d3i'al3d3i; ES-h-'dI- 
geomancer 'd3ia,maens»; ES -S3(r; |-cy -si 
geometer dsi'amata^; ES -'amataCr, -'om- 
geometric jd3i3'm£trik |-al -j !-ally -li, -ikh 
geometrician jd3i3m3'trij"3n, d3ijani3-; ES + 

geometrize d3i'ain3jtraiz; ES + -'Dm-; |-s -iz 

l-d -d 
geometry d3ram3tri; ES-h-'om- 
geomorphic jd3i3'in3rfik; ES -Waa- 
geophysics ^dsio'fiziks 
geopolitics jdsio'palatiks; ES + -'pd1- 
geoponic jdsia'panik; ES-h-'ponik; |-al -1 
George d33rd3; ES dsoads; |-'s -iz 
Georgette d33r'd3Et; ES dsaa- 
Georgia 'd33rd33, -d3i3; ES 'd333d3-; ]-n -n 
Georgiana d33r'd3aen3, -d3i'aen3; ES d333- 
georgic, G- 'd33rd3ik; ES 'd333-; |-al -1 
geostatic jd3i3'st£etik [-s -s 
geosyncline jd3io'sinklain |-nal -sin'klainl 
geotectonic jdsiotEk'tanik; ES + -'tDn- 
geo tropic jdsb'trapik; ES + -'trDpik 
geotropism d3i'atr3jpiz3m; ES-F-'nt- 
gerah 'gira, 'giro 
Geraint d33Vent 
Gerald 'd3Er3ld |-ine -jin, -in 
geranium d33Veni3m, -njam 
Gerard d33'rard; ES -'ra:d, E-f--'ra:d; Brit + 

'd3Era:d, -rsd 
gerent 'd3ir3nt 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret jyet JEt |sang saei) |angr\' 'aeo'g" 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wntj" (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gDrd3 [go go 




gerfalcon ^d^j^tiolkan, -^fakan; ES 'd33-, 

Gergesenes 'gyga^sinz; ES 'gs-, 'gy- 
Gerhard 'gyhard; ES 'gshard, 'gy-, E+-ha:d 
Gerizim ga'raizim, 'gerazim 
germ dsym; ES dssm, ds^m 
german 'ds^man; ES 'dssm-, 'dsym- 
German 'djyman; ES 'ds^m-, 'dsym-; |-ism 

-jizsm 1-y -I 
germander dsa^'maenda^; ES dsa'mfendaCr 
germane ds^'men, dsa^-; ES dsa-, dsy-, 

dsa-; |-maneness -'mennis 
Germanic d33''maenik, d^d^-; ES dss-, dsy-, 

germanium dsa^'meniam, -njam; ES dss-, 

Germantown 'dsyman^taun; ES 'dssm-, 

germen 'dsymin, -an; ES 'dssm-, 'dsym-; 

|-s -z |-mina -mina 
germicide 'ds^maiSaid; ES 'dssm-, 'dsym- 
germinal 'ds^manl; ES Mssm-, Msym-; 

l-ly -I 
germinant ^dss'manant; ES 'dsam-, 'dsym- 
germinate 'dsyma^net; ES 'dssm-, ^dsym-; 

|-d -id |-tive -IV 
germination jd5yma'nej'an; ES jdsam-, 

Gerontius dsaVantias; ES+-VDn-; |-'s -iz 
Gerrard 'dsera^^d; ES 'dserad 
Gerrold» 'dserald 
Gerry 'gen 

gerrymander 'gerijinaenda', 'dseri-; ES -da(r 
Gertrude 'gytrud; ES 'gst-, 'gyt- 
gerund 'dserand, -And |-ive dsa'rAndiv 
Geryon 'dsirian, 'genan |-es dsiVaiajniz, ga- 
gest, -e dsEst 

Gestapo ga'stapo (Ger ga'/tapo) 
gestate 'dsestet |-d -id |-tion dses'te/an 
gesticulate dsEs'tikjaJet |-d -id 
gesticulation jdsestikja'le/an, dsesjtik- 
gesticulatory dsEs'tikjabjton, -itari; S -^tori 
gestion 'dsestjan 
gesture 'dsEst/a^; ES -tXa(r; |-d -d 
get get \past got gat, arch, gat gaet \pptc got 

gat or gotten 'gatn; ES+gDt(n) — in un- 
stressed position often git (wi jk^ent git 'in) 
get-at-able gHt'aetabl, git'aetabl 
getaway 'getajwe 

Gethsemane geG'sEmani 

Gettysburg 'getiz^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg 

getup 'getjAp 

gewgaw 'gjuga, 'giu- |-ed -d |-ry -ri 

geyser 'spring' 'gaiza^, 'gaisa^, water-heater 

Brit 'giza^; ES -a(r 
ghast arch, gaest j-ful -fal |-fully -fall 
ghastly 'gaesth; E + 'gast-, 'gast- 
ghat, ghaut gat 
ghazi, G- 'gazi 
ghee gi 

Ghent Belg gent, O djent 
gherkin 'gykin; ES 'gsk-, 'gyk- 
ghetto 'geto 
Ghibelline 'giblin, -jin 
Ghoorka 'gurka; ES 'guaka 
ghost gost |-ed -id |-ly -h 
ghoul gul |-ish -i/ 
Ghurka 'gurka; ES 'guaka 
ghyl 'ravine' gil 

giant 'dsaiant |-ess -is | -esses -isiz 
giaour d3aur; ES dsauaCr 
gib, G- gib 
gibber v 'jabber' 'dsiba', 'giba^; ES -ba(r; |-ed 

-d 1-ing -bang, -brig |-ish -barij, -brij" 
gibber n 'hump' 'giba^; ES 'giba(r 
gibbet 'dsibit |-ed -id 
gibbon, G- 'giban 

gibbosity gi'basati; ES + -'bDS-; |-bous 'gibas 
gib-cat 'Gilbert cat' 'gib/kaet 
gibe dsaib [gibed djaibd 
Gibeon 'gibian |-ites -^aits 
giblet 'dsibht 

Gibralter dsib'ralta'; ES -ta(r 
Gibson 'gibsn 
giddy 'gidi 

Gideon 'gidian j-s -z |-ite -^ait 
Gielgud 'gilgud 
gier-eagle 'dsir^igl 
gift gift I gifted 'giftid 
gig gig 1 gigged gigd 
gigantean jdsaigaen'tian |-tesque -^tesk 
gigantic djai'gaentik j-ally -li, -ikli ('gi- 

jgantic 'hound) 
gigantism 'dsaigaenjtizam, dsai'gaentizam 
gigantomachy jdsaigaen'tamaki; ES-t--'tDm- 
giggle 'gigl 1-d -d I -ling 'giglig, 'giglig 
giglet 'gight 
gigolo 'djigajlo {Fr siga'lo) 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fytJ*; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




gigue 3ig 

Gila 'hib 

gilbert, G- 'gilba^t; ES -bat 

Gilbert and EUice Islands 'gilba^tn'ehs- 

^ailsndz, -Isnz; ES -bat- 
Gilbertian gil'bytian; ES -'bat-, -'byt- 
Gilboa gil'boa 
Gilchrist 'gilkrist 
gild gild I gilded 'gildid or gilt gilt 
Gilead 'giliad |-ites -^aits 
Giles dsailz |-'s -iz 
Gilfillan gil'fibn 
gill 'quarter pint' dgil 
Gill Jack 6= Gill dsil 
gill 'ravine' gil 
gill of a fish gil Igilled gild 
Gillespie gi'lespi 
Gillett, -e dsa'let, 'dsilit 
Gillian 'dsiban, -Ijan 
gillie, -y 'servant,' 'serve' 'gili |-d -d 
Gilliss 'gilis |-'s -IZ 
gill-less 'gilbs 
gillyflower 'dsili^flaua^, -^flaur; ES -jflau-3(r, 

gilt past &= pptc of gild gilt 
gilt-edged 'gilt'edsd ('gilt-hedged 'book) 
gimbals 'dsimblz, 'gim- 
gimcrack 'dsinijkraek 
gimlet 'gimlit |-ed -id 
gimmal 'giml, 'dsiml |-ed -d 
gimmick 'ginuk 
gimp 'trimming' gimp |-ed -t 
gin 'begin' gin \past gan gsen \pptc gun gAn 
gin liquor djin 

gin machine dsin [ginned dsind 
Ginevra dsi'nevra 
ginger 'd3ind33^; ES -d33(r; |-ly -h [-bread 

-jbred |-snap -jsnaep 
gingham 'gigam |-ed -d 
gingival d3in'd3aivl, 'd3ind39vl 
gingko, ginko 'gigko, 'dsigko 
gink gigk 
Ginn gin 

ginseng, -sing 'dsinsEi), -sig 
Giotto 'd3ato, 'd5Dto {It 'd33tto) 
gip d3ip |-ped -t 
gip 'cut fish' gip |-ped -t 
gipon d5i'pan, 'd3ipan; ES+-Dn 
gipsy 'd3ipsi 

girafife dsa'raef; E+-'raf, -'raf 

girandole 'dsiran^dol 

Girard d33'rard; ES -'ra:d, E+-Va:d 

gird 'encircle' gyd \past b° pptc girt gyt or 
girded 'gydid; |ES -3-, -y- 

gird 'sill' 'sneer' gyd; ES gsd, gyd; |-ed -id 

girdle 'gydl; ES 'gsdl, 'gydl; |-d -d l-hng 
-dlig, -dlig |-ler -dla^, -dja^; ES -db(r, 

girl gyl, mu£h lessfreq. gerl; ES gal, gyl, geal; 
|-hood -hud 

Girondist dsa'randist; ES-h-'ron- 

girt gyt; ES gst, gyt; |-ed -id 

girth gye; ES gsO, gyB; |-ths -Gs |-ed -t 

gisarme gi'zarm; ES -'za:m, E-t--'za:m 

Gissing 'gisig 

gist d3ist 

gittern 'gita^n; ES 'gitan 

give giv Igave gev [given 'givan 

give-and-take 'givan'tek 

giveaway 'giva^we 

given 'givan 

Giza 'giza |Gizeh 'gize 

gizzard 'giza^d; ES 'gizad 

glabrous 'glebras 

glace glae'se {Fr gla'se) 

glacial 'gle/al, -Jial |-ly -i 

glaciate 'gle/ijct |-d -id 

glacier 'gleJV; ES 'gleJaCr; Brit tmcally 

'glaesia, 'glasja 
glacis 'glesis, 'glaesis {Fr gla'si) |-es -iz 
glad glaed | gladded 'glaedid 
gladden, G- 'glaedp j-ed -d |-ing 'glaednig, 

glade gled 

gladiator 'glaedijeta^; ES -jeta(r 
gladiatorial ^glaedia 'tonal, -'tar-; S -'tor- 
gladiola jglaedi'ob, gb'daiab \pl -s -z 
gladiolus plant jgl^edi'obs \pl -es -iz |-li -lai 
Gladiolus tlie genus gb'daiabs \pl -li -Jai 
gladsome 'glaedsam 

Gladstone 'glaed^ston, -stan — W. E. Glad- 
stone pronounced his name 'glad^ston 
Gladys 'glaedis |-'s -iz 
glair gler, glaer; E gka(r, ES glaea(r; |-ed -d 

|-eous -las |-y -i 
glaive glev Iglaived glevd 
Glamis Scotl glamz, in Shak. 'glamis |-'s -iz 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) )rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langr}' 'ag-gri 
Ibath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw d3a [gorge gDrd3 [go go 




Glamorganshire glaWargan^/ir, -/a^; ES 

-'mD3g3njXia(r, -JaCr 
glamorous 'glaemaras, ^glaemrss 
glamour, -mor 'glaema'; ES 'glaem3(r 
glance glaens; E+glans, glans; |-s -iz |-d -t 
gland glaend 

glanders 'glaenda^z; ES 'glaendaz 
glandular 'glaendsala'; ES 'glaendsalaCr; |-lous 

glandule 'glaendsul 
glans glaenz \pl glandes ^glaendiz 
Glansdale 'glaenzjdel, -dl 
glare gkr, glaer; E gleaCr, ES glaeaCr; ]-d -d 
Glarus Swtz 'glaras {,Fr Glaris gla'ris), Wis 

'glaeras |-'s -iz 
Glasgow 'glaesgo, 'glaez-, 'glaesko, 5n7+'gla- 
glass glaes; E+glas, glas; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
glassful 'glaesjful; E + 'glas-, 'glas-; |-s -z 
glasshouse 'glaes^haus; E + 'glas-, 'glas-; 

I -houses -jhauziz 
glassmaker 'glaes^meka'; ES -^mekaCr, E + 

'glas-, 'glas- 
glassman 'glaesman; E + 'glas-, 'glas-; |-men 

glassware 'glaes jWef, -jwaer; E -^weaCr, 

-jwae3(r, 'glas-, 'glas-; S 'glaes;waea(r 
glasswork 'glaes jwyk; ES -jwsk, -^wyk, 

E + 'glas-, 'glas- 
Glastonbury 'glfestan^ben, 'glaesn-, -ban 
Glaswegian glaes'widsan, -dsian 
Glauber 'glauba^; ES 'glaub3(r 
glaucoma gb'koms 
glaucous, G- 'gbkas 
glaze glez | glazes 'gleziz | glazed glezd 
glazier 'glesa^; ES 'gle33(r 
gleam glim |-ed -d 
glean glin |-ed -d 
glebe glib 
glee gli |-ful -fal [-fully -fall I -man -man 

I -men -man 
glee V 'squint^ gli Igleed glid — see agley 
gleet glit I glee ted 'glltid 
glen glen 
Glencairn glen'kern, -'kaern; E -'kean, ES 

Glencoe US 'glenko, Scotl glen'ko 
Glendower 'glendaua^, gkn'daua'; ES -a(r 
Glengarry gkn'gaeri 
gley V 'sq^dni' glai Igleyed glaid — see agley 

glib glib Ighbbed ghbd 

glide glaid |gUded 'glaidid |-r -a^; ES -a(r 

glim gbm 

glimmer 'ghma'; ES -a(r; |-ed -d [-ing 'glim- 

arig, 'glimrig 
glimpse glimps |-s -iz |-d -t 
glint glint I glinted 'glintid 
glissade gli'sad, -'sed |-d -id 
glissando gli'sando \pl -di -di {pseitdo-It) 
glisten 'glisn |-ed -d |-ing 'glisnig, -snig 
glister 'glista^; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d |-ing 'glistarig, 

glitter 'glita^; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d 
gloam glom |-ed -d |-ing -ig 
gloat glot I gloated 'gbtid 
global 'globl |-ly -i 
globate 'globet |-d -id 
globe glob I globed globd 
globeflower 'glob^flaua^, -jflaur; ES -jflau-a(r, 

globoid 'globoid 

globose 'globes, glo'bos |-bous 'globas 
globular 'glabjala^; ES 'glabjala(r, 'glob- 
globule 'glabjul; ES + 'glnb- 
globulin 'glabjalin; ES + 'glob- 
Glocester 'glasta', 'gins-; ES -ta(r 
glockenspiel 'glakan^spil; ES + 'glok-; {Ger 

glomerate adj 'glamant, -mrit; ES+'glom- 
glomerate v 'glama^ret; ES+'glom-; |-d -id 
glomeration jglama'rejan; ES + jglom- 
gloom glum I gloomed glumd |-y -i 
Gloria 'gloria, 'gbr-; S 'gloria; [G- Patri 

-'patri, -'petrai 
Gloriana jglori'aena, ^gbr-, -'ena; S jglor- 
glorification jglorafa'ke/an, jgbr-; S iglor- 
glorify 'glorajfai, 'gbr-; S 'glor-; |-lied -^faid 

I -her -jfaia^; ES -jfai>a(r 
glorious 'glorias, 'gbr-; S 'glor- 
glory 'glori, 'gbri; S 'glori; |-ried -rid 
Glos. ahhr. for Gloucestershire glas, gins, gbs 
gloss gbs, gins |-es -iz |-ed -t 
glossary 'glasan, 'gins-, 'gbs- 
Gloster Ga, La, Minn, Miss 'glasta^, 'glos-; 

ES -ta(r 
glottal 'glatl; ES+'gbtl 
glottalize 'glatl^aiz; ES + 'glnt-; j-s -iz |-d -d 
glottis 'glatis; ES + 'glot-; |-es -iz 
Gloucester 'glasta^, 'glos-, 'gbs-; ES -ta(r; in 

jfull ful |tooth tue [further 'fytSa-; ES 'fatJa [custom 'k\stam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision Visan [Eden 'idi^ [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipip 




Engd loc. 'gbs- | -shire -i/ir, -/a^; ES -i/i3(r. 

freq. gan — in unstressed position often gu 


(jlets gu'in), or ga (jkts ga'daun) 

Glouster 'glausta^; ES 'glaustaCr 

goad god 1 goaded 'godid 

glove glAV 1 gloved gUvd 

go-ahead adj 'goa'hed ('gq-a'head jchap, 

Gloversville 'glAva^z^vil; ES -vaz- 

'go-ajhead 'spirit) 

glow glo 1 glowed glod 

go-ahead n 'goa^hed 

glower 'glaua^; ES 'glau'3(r; [-ed -d |-ing 

goal gol |-ed -d, children'' s game +gul 

'glaurig, 'glauarig 

goalkeeper 'goljkipa'; ES -^kipaCr 

glowfly 'glojflai 

goalless 'goUis 

glowworm 'glojwym; ES -jwam, -jwym 

goat got 

gloxinia, G- glak^siiua, -nja; ES+glok- 

goatee go'ti 

gloze gloz Iglozes 'gloziz Iglozed glozd 

goatherd 'got^hyd; ES -Jaad, -^ha-d 

glucinum, -nium glu^samam, -'siniam, gliu- 

goatsbeard 'gots^bird; ES -jbiad, S+'^bead 

Gluck gluk 

goatsucker 'gotjSAka'; ES -^sAka(r 

glucose 'glukos, 'gku- ]-coside -ka^said 

gob, G- gab; ES-f gob 

glue glu, gliu |-d -d 

gobbet 'gabit; ES + 'gobit 

Glueck gluk 

gobble 'gabl; ES + 'gobl; j-d -d [-ling -blig. 

glum gUm 


glume glum, glium 

gobbler 'gabla^; ES ^gabla(r, 'gnb- 

glut gUt Iglutted 'gUtid 

Gobbo 'gabo; ES+'gobo 

gluten 'glutn, 'ghutn |-ous -as 

GobeHn 'gabalin, 'gob-; ES+'gob-; (^Fr 

glutinus ^glutinas, 'gliu- 


glutton 'gUtn |-ous -as |-y -i 

go-between 'gobajtwin 

glyceric gli'serik, 'ghsarik 

Gobi 'gobi, 'gobi 

glycerin 'glisrin, -sarin |-ine -rm, -S3jrm 

goblet 'gabht; ES-t-'gnb- 

glycerol 'glisajtol, -^ral, -fv\ 

goblin 'gablin; ES + 'gnb-; In 'Little OrpJtant 

glyceryl 'glisajril 

Annie' Riley protioimced it 'gabajlm. 

glycine 'glaisin, glai^sin 

goby 'gobi 

glycogen 'glaikadsan, -dsin 

go-by 'gOjbai 

glycol glaikol, -kal, -knl 

gocart 'gOjkart; ES -jka:t, E-i--jka:t 

glycoprotein jglaikaVrotiin 

god gad, god 

glyph ghf 

God gad, god, less freq. gad 

glyptic 'gliptik 1-al -1 

Godalming 'gadlmig, 'god- 

G-man 'dsi^maen |-men -jinen 

godchild 'gadjtjaild, 'god- 

Gnadenhutten 0, loc. dsi'nednjhAtn {Ger 

goddaughter 'gadjdata', 'god-; ES -ta(r 

-hiitten 'gnazdan^hytan) 

goddess 'gadis, 'god- |-es -iz 

gnarl narl; ES na:l, E-i-na:l; |-ed -d 

godfather 'gad.fa'Sa^, 'god-; ES -,fatJa(r, 

gnash naej | gnashes ^nae/iz [gnashed naej't 


gnat naet 

god-fearing 'gadjfing, 'god-; S+-jferig, 

gnaw na [gnawed nad ]-er 'naa'; ES ^na'a(r 

-,f jirig, -^f jerig 

gneiss nais 

god-forsaken 'gadfa^'sekan, ^god-; ES -fa-; 

gnome nom 

Cgod-for^saken 'place) 

gnomic 'nomik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 

Godfrey 'gadfri, 'god- 

gnomon 'noman, ^nomon 

godhead 'gadhed, 'god- |-hood -bed 

Gnossus ^nasas; ES + 'nos-; |-sus' -sas 

Godiva go'daiva 

gnostic ^nastik; ES + 'nos-; |-al -1 |-ally -li. 

godlike 'gadjaik, 'god- 

-ikli |-ism -ta,sizam 

godly 'gadli, 'godb 

gnu nu, niu, nju 

godmother 'gadjOiAS*, 'god-; ES -jmA'Sa(r 

go go [went went Igone gan, gnn, much less 

godown 'a drink' 'go^daun 

Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [j'et jtt [sang saeg langrA' 'aeg-gri 
Jbath baeO; E bae (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wo*/ (§12) |jaw d5a Igorge gards |go go 




godown 'warehouse' go'daun 
godparent 'gadjperant, 'god-, -jpaer-, -jper- 
godsend 'gad^send, 'god- 
godson 'gadjSAn, 'god- 
Godspeed 'gadjspid, 'god-, -'spid 
Godward 'gadwa^d, 'god-; ES -wad 
Goebbels Ger 'goebals 
goer 'goa^; ES 'gO'3(r 
Goethals 'goOslz |-'s -iz 
Goethe 'geti, 'g3t3 (Ger 'g0:ta) 
Goffe gaf, gof 
goffer 'gafa^, 'gofa', 'gafa^; ES -faCr; |-ed -d 

|-ing -fang, -frig 
Gog gag, gog, gag 
go-getter 'golgEta^; ES -'geta(r 
goggle 'gagl, 'gog! 1-d -d |-ling -glig, -glig 
goggles 'gaglz, 'gog- 
Gogmagog 'gagmajgag, 'gogma^gog 
Gogol 'gogal, 'gogol 
Goidelic gai'debk 

goiter, -tre 'gaita^; ES 'gaita(r; |-(e)d -d 
Golconda gal'kanda ; ES -f gol'konda 
gold gold, formerly guld 
goldbeater 'gold^bita^; ES -jbita(r 
golden 'goldn 

goldenrod 'goldn ^rad; ES+-jrDd 
goldfinch 'goldjfintj |-es -iz 
goldfish 'goldjfij* |-es -iz j-'s -iz 
goldilocks, G- 'goldijlaks; ES-h-Joks; |-'s -iz 
gold-plate V 'gold'plet | -plated -'pletid 
goldsmith, G- 'gold^smiG |-ths -6s 
Goldwin, Gouldin 'goldwin, 'goldin 
goK galf , golf, galf, much less freq. gaf, gof 

|-ed -t 
Golgotha 'galgaOa, 'gol- 
goliard 'golja^d; ES 'goljad 
GoHath ga'laiae 

Gollancz 'galants, -aents; ES-i-'gol-; |-'s -iz 
golliwog 'galijwag, -jwog; ES + 'gol- 
golosh ga'la/; ES + -'loJ; \-es -iz 
Gomorrah, -rrha ga'mara, -'mar-, -'mor- 
gonad 'ganaed, 'gon- 
gondola 'gandala, 'gon- |-ed -d 
gondolier jganda'lir, ;gon-; ES -'lia(r, S+ 

gone gan, gon, miich less freq. gan 
goneness 'gannis, 'gon-, much less freq. 'gan- 
Goneril 'ganaral, 'gon-, -nl 
gonfalon 'ganfalan, 'gon- 

gonfalonier jganfala'nir, jgon-; ES -'nia(r, 

S + -'n£a(r 
gonfanon 'ganfanan, 'gon- 
gong gag, gog, gag |-ed -d 
gonococcus jgana'kakas \pl -cocci -'kaksai; 

lES + jgona'kok- 
gonof 'ganaf, 'gon- 
gonorrhea ^gana'ria, jgon- 
Gonzaga gan'zaga (It gon'dza:ga) 
Gonzalo gan'zalo 
goober 'guba^, 'guba^; ES -ba(r 
good gud I goodly 'gudli 
good-by, -bye gud'bai 
good deal 'good bargain' 'gud'dil, 'much' 

goodhearted 'gud'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, E + 

good-humored 'gud'juma^d, -'hjuma'd; ES 

goodman 'gudman |-men -man 
good-natured 'gud'netja^d; ES -'net/ad; 

Cgood-jnatured 'dog) 
goodness 'gudnis |-es -iz 
goods gudz 

good-tempered 'gud'tempa^d; ES -Htmpad 
goodwife 'gudjwaif — see wife 
Goodwin 'gudwin 
goody 'gudi 
Goodyear 'gudsir, 'gudjir; ES -ia(r, S-i- 

goof guf |-y -I 
googly 'gugk 
goon gun 
Goop gup 

goose gus j-'s -IZ Igeese gis [geese's 'gisiz 
gooseberry 'gusjberi, 'guz-, -ban, rarely 

gooseherd 'guSihyd; ES -/hsd, -^hyd; for- 

merly 'gaza'd, 'goz- 
gooseneck 'gusjnEk |-ed -t 
gopher 'gofa^; ES -fa(r; j-ed -d ]-ing ^gofarig, 

Gordian 'gardian, -djan; ES 'gaad- 
gore gor, gar; ES goa(r, E-i-gaa(r; |-d -d 
gorge gards; ES gaads; j-s -iz |-d -d |-ous -as 
gorget 'gardsit; ES 'gaadsit; |-ed -id 
Gorgon 'gargan; ES 'gaagan 
Gorgonian gar'gonian, -njan; ES ga- 
Gorgonzola jgargan'zola; ES jgaagan- 

|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa-; ES 'faSa 
(using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 

[custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 




Gorham 'garam, NH 'goram, ^garam 

governance ^gAva^nans; ES 'gAvanans; |-s -iz 

gorilla ga'rila 

governess 'gAva^nis; ES 'gAvanis; |-es -iz 

Gorky, -ki 'garki; ES 'goaki 

government 'gAva^mant, 'gAvanmant; ES 

gormand 'garmand; ES ^gasmsnd 

'gAvamant, 'gAvanmant, 'gAvmant; No 

gormandize 'garman^daiz; ES 'gDam-; 

-S -IZ 

competent observer can doubt the prevalence 


of 'gAvanmant, 'gAvamant among the leading 

gorse gars; ES gaas; |-s -iz 

statesmen of US and England, even in formal 

gory 'gori, 'gan; S 'gori 

public address. 

goshawk 'gasjhak, 'gns- 

governor 'gAvana', ^gAvna', 'gAva^na^; ES 

Goshen 'gojan 

'gAvana(r, 'gAvna(r; — a for &■ in 'gAvana^ 

gosling ^gazlig, ^gnz- 

shows dissimilation {§121). 

gospel 'gaspl, 'gDS- |-ed -d 

gowan 'gauan 

gossamer 'gasama^; ES ^gasama(r, ^gos 

Gowanda ga'wanda, go-, -'wonda 

Gosse gas, gos, gas 

Gower ME poet 'goa^, 'gaua'. Loud street 

gossip 'gasap; ES + 'gos-; |-ed -t 

'gaua^; ES 'go-a(r, 'gau-aCr 

gossoon ga'sun; ES+go- 

gown gaun |-ed -d 

got gat; ES+gDt 

grab graeb [grabbed graebd 

Gotama 'gatama, ^got- 

grabble 'graebl |-d -d |-ling 'graeblig, -blig 

Goteborg 'jetajbarg or Gothenburg 


Gracchus 'graekas |-'s -iz \pl -chi 'graekai 

jbyg; ES 'jeta^baag, 'gatn>3g, -jbyg. 


grace, G- gres |-'s -iz |-s -iz j-d -t 

{Sw jflta'barj) 

gracile 'graesl, -il 

Goth gaO, gne, gaO 1-ths -Os 

gracious 'gre/as 

Gotham ^New York' ^gaOam, 'goeam, 'go8am. 

grackle 'graekl 

in Notts 'gatam, ^gotam, loc. 'gotam 

gradate 'gredet |-d -id 

Gothard 'gata^d; ES 'gatad, 'got-; 


gradation gre'de/an |-ed -d |-al -1 j-ally -li 


grade gred [graded 'gredid 

Gothic 'gaOik, 'gD0ik [-ism -GajSizam 

Gradgrind, g- 'graedjgraind ]-ian -lan |-ism 

Gotland 'gatland, 'got- 


gotten 'gain; ES + 'gotn 

gradient 'grediant, -djant 

Gotterdammerung Ger 'goetar^dEma/rur 


gradual 'graedsual, -dsul |-ly -i, -dsak 

Gotthard 'gata^d; ES ^gatad, 'got- 


graduate n, adj 'graedsuit, -jCt 


graduate v 'graedsu^et [-d -id 

Gottland ^gatland, ^gnt- 

graduation jgraedju'e/an 

gouge gauds Igouges 'gaudsiz Igouged gaudsd 

Gradus, g- 'gredas |-es -iz 

— Brit +gud5 

graft graeft; E+graft, graft; j-ed -id 

Gough gaf , gnf, gaf 

graham, G- 'gream 

goulash 'gulaef, -laj |-es -iz 

grail grel 

Gouldin = Goldwin 'goldin 

grain gren j-ed -d 

Gouldsboro 'guldz,byo, -a; ES -jbar-, - 


grainery, -ary 'grenan, 'grenn — cf granarj'. 

-jbs'- ; Me loc. 'gulzbra 

Both grainery, -ary and granary date from 

Gounod 'guno {Fr gu'no) 

the 16c. In US 'grenan, 'grenn appears to 

gourd gord, gard, gurd; E goad, gaad, guad; 



gram graem 

gourmand 'gurmand; ES ^guamand 

; (Fr 

gramarye, -ry 'graeman 


gramercy gra'mysi; ES -'mssi, -'my si; 

gourmet 'gurme; ES 'guame; (Fr gur^mE) 

('Gramercy 'Park) 

gout gaut 

grammar 'graema^; ES 'graema(r 

Gouverneur NY jgAva^'nur; ES jgAva^nua(r 

grammarian gra'mErian, -'maer-, -'mer- 

govern 'gAva^n; ES 'gAvan; |-ed -d 

grammatical gra'maetikl |-ly -i, -ikli 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr}- 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeG; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, woij (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




gramme graem 

grandsire 'graen^sair, 'graend-; ES -^saiaCr 

gramophone, G- 'graemajfon 

grandson 'graen^sAn, 'graend- 

Grampian 'graempian, -pjan 1-s -z 

grandstand 'graen^staend, 'graend- 

grampus ^graempas \-es -iz 

Grand Teton 'graen'titn, 'graend-, -tan, -tnn 

Granada gra'nada (Sp gra'natJa) 

granduncle 'graend'Aokl 

granary 'graenari — cf grainery. Granary 

grange, G- grends \-s -iz 

'graenari comes from Latin granarium; 

Granicus gra'naikas |-'s -iz 

grainery, -ary from English grain. 

granite 'graemt j-tic gra'nitik, grae- 

Granby 'graenbi; in Mass loc. 'graembi 

granny 'graem 

Gran Chaco 'gran'tjako 

grant graent; E+ grant, grant; |-ed -id 

grand graend, before some conss.+^xa {cf 

Grant graent 

'graend'lek with 'graen'vju) 

grantee graen'ti; E+gran-, gran- 

grandad 'graen^daed [-dy -i 

grantor 'graent*, graen'tar; ES -ta(r, -'taa(r. 

grandam 'graendam 

E+gran-, gran- 

grandame 'graendem, -dam 

granular 'graenjala^; ES 'graenjalaCr 

grandaunt 'graend'aent, miich less freq. -'ant; 

granulate adj 'graenjalit 

E -'ant, -Wt, -'aent 

granulate v 'graenjajlet |-d -id 

grandchild 'graen^tjaild, 'graend- [-ren -it/il- 

granulation jgraenja'lejan 


granule 'graenjul 

Grand Coulee 'graend'kuli, -'kuli 

Granville 'graenvil 

granddad 'graen^daed |-dy -i 

grape grep 

granddaughter 'graen^data', 'graend-; ES 

grapefruit 'grep jf rut, -jfriut 


grapeshot 'grep^/at; ES+-i/i)t 

grandee graen'di 

grapevine 'grep^vain |-d -d 

grandeur 'graendsa', -dsur; ES 'graendsafr. 

graph graef; E+graf, graf; |-ed -t 


graphic 'graef ik |-ly -li |-ally -li 

grandfather 'graenjfa'Sa', 'graend-; ES -jfa?Sa(r, 

graphite 'graef ait |-d -id 

E + -jfa3a(r; |-ly -h 

graphophone, G- 'graef a jf on 

Grandgent 'graendsant 

grapnel 'graepnal |-ed -d 

grandiloquence graen'dilakwans |-ent -ant 

grapple 'graepl |-d -d |-ling 'graeplig, -plig 

grandiose 'graendi^os 

Grasmere 'graesmir; ES -mia(r, E + 'gras-, 

grandiosity jgraendi'asati; ES + -'Dsati 


Grandison 'graendasn 

grasp graesp; E+ grasp, grasp; |-ed -t 

grandma 'graenma, 'graemma, 'graema, 

grass graes; E+gras, gras; |-es -iz |-ed -t 

'graema, 'grandma 

Grasse, de da'gras 

grandmamma 'graen/mama, 'graend-, -ma,ma 

grasshopper 'graes^hapa^; ES -jhapa(r, -jhDpa(r, 

grandmother 'graen^mAcSa^, 'graend-; ES 

E + 'gras-, 'gras- 

-jmAtSaCr; ]-ly -h 

Grassmann 'grasman 

grandnephew 'graen'nef ju, 'graend-, muck less 

grate gret [grated 'gretid 

freq. -'nevju 

grateful 'thankful' 'gretfal |-ly -i 

grandniece 'graen'nis, 'graend- |-s -iz 

grateful 'filled grate' 'grateful |-s -z 

grandpa 'graenpa, 'graempa, 'graempa, 'graend- 

Gratiano jgrae/i'ano, jgra/-, Brit igre/- 


gratification jgraetafa'ke/an 

grandpapa 'graen,papa, -pa 'pa, 'graend- 

gratify 'graeta^fai |-fied -jfaid 

grandparent 'graen operant, 'graend-, -jpaer-. 

gratin 'graet^ (Fr gra'tse) 

-jper-; S -jpaer-, -/per- 

grating 'gretirj 

Grand Pre 'graen'pre, 'graend- {Fr gra'pre) 

Gratiot 'grae/iat, 'gre- 

Grandpre Shak. 'graenpre, 'graendp-; Fr vil. 

gratis 'gretis 


gratitude 'graeta^tjud, -jtrad, -jtud 

|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 

G rattan 



Grattan 'graetn 

Grecian 'gri/an 

gratuitous gra'tjuatas, -'tiu-, -'tu- |-ty -ti 

gree gri 

gratulate 'graetjajlet, -t/u- 

Greece gris ]-'s -iz 

gravamen gra'vemen |-s -z |-mina -Vaemina 

greed grid |-y -i |-ily 'gridli, -dih 

grave grev \past graved grevd \pptc graven 

Greek grik 

'grevan or graved grevd 

Greeley 'grili 

gravel 'graevl |-ed -d |-ing 'grfevhg, -vhg 

green grin | greened grind ]-ness 'grinnis 

gravel-blind 'graevljblamd 

Greenaway 'grina^we 

graven 'grevan 

greenback 'grin^baek 

gravestone 'grevjSton 

green-backed 'grin'baekt ('green-jbacked 'bird) 

graveyard 'grevjard; ES -jard, E+-ja:d 

greenbrier, G- 'grin^braia ; ES -jbrai'a(r 

gravid 'graevid |-ity graVidati 

greenery 'grinari, 'grinri 

gravitate 'graevajtet \-d -id 

green-eyed 'grin'aid ('green-^eyed 'Becky) 

gravitation jgraeva'tejan 

greengrocer 'grin,gros3^; ES -jgrosa(r; |-y -i. 

gravity 'graevati 


gravure 'grevjar, -jur; ES 'grevja(r, -jua(r 

greenhorn 'grin^harn; ES -jhaan 

-gravure -gra'vjur; ES -VjuaCr 

greenhouse 'grin^haus |-s -jhauziz 

gravy 'grevi 

Greenland 'grinland 

gray, G- gre 

greensward 'grin^sward; ES -^swaad; |-ed -id 

graybeard 'gre^bird; ES -jbiad, S+"-jbead 

Greenville 'grinvil; S-i--vl 

grayling 'grelio 

Greenwich Engd 'grinidg, 'grtn-, -itj; US 

graze grez | grazes 'greziz | grazed grezd 

places usually 'grinwitj". How far 'gnnitj". 

grazier 'gresa^; ES 'gresaCr 

'gren- are traditional a^id prevalent for some 

grease n gris | greases 'grisiz 

Eastern places, or recent imitations of Brit 

grease v gris, griz; S griz; |-s -iz |-d -grist, 

is doubtful. 'grEiutJ appears to prevail for 

grizd — 'grizi and ta griz are phonetically 

Greenwich Village, NY. 

normal; 'grisi and ta gris imitate the noun 

greenwood, G- 'grin^wud 

grease (gris). 

greet grit | greeted 'gritid 

greasewood 'grisjwud 

Greet, William Cabell 'wiljam'kaebl'grit 

greasy 'grisi, 'grizi; S 'grizi — Some distin- 

gregarious gri'gerias, -'gaer-, -'ger- 

guish 'grisi 'covered -with grease' from ^grizi 

Gregorian gr£'gorian, -'gar-; S -'gorian 


Gregory 'gregari 

great gret; S occas. gret, a historical ^orm, cj 

gremial 'grimial 

threat Gret; The pronunciation gret paral- 

Gremio 'grimijO, 'grimjo 

lels that of bread, deaf, sweat, thread, tread. 

Grenada Miss gri'nada, Brit colony gri'neda 


grenade gri'ned 

great-aunt 'gret'aent, much less freq. -'ant; E 

grenadier ^grena'dir; ES -'dia(r, S-f-'d£a(r 

-'ant, -'ant, -'aent 

grenadine ^grena'din, 'grena^din 

Great Britain 'gret'britn, -tan 

Grendel 'grendl 

greatcoat 'gret^kot |-ed -id 

Gresham 'grejam, 'gresam — 'gre/am is a 

great deal 'important bargain' 'gret'dil, 

sp. pron. 

'large amount' 'gre'dil, 'gret'dil 

Gretchen 'gretjin 

greaten 'gretn |-ed -d |-ing 'gretnig, -tnig 

Gretel 'gretl — see Hansel and Gretel 

Greatheart 'gret.hart; ES -jha:t, E + -iha:t 

Gretna 'gretna 

greathearted 'gret'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, E + 

Gretna Green 'gretna'grin 


Greville 'gr£vl, -il 

great-uncle 'gret'Agkl 

grew past of grow gru, grra 

greave griv |greaved grivd 

grewsome 'grusam, 'gnu- 

grebe grib 

grey, G- gre 

Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angn,- 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E bad (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards Igo go 




greyhound 'gre^haund 

grid grid |gridded 'gridid 

griddle 'gridl |-d -d j-ling ^gndlig, -djig 

griddlecake 'gridl^kek 

gride graid | grided 'graidid 

gridiron 'gridjaia^n, -jairn; ES -^ai-an, -jaian 

grief grif 

Grieg grig 

Grierson 'grirsn; ES 'griasn 

grievance 'grivans |-s -iz 

grieve griv \-d -d 1-dly -idly ]-vous -as 

griff grif 

griffin 'grif in | griffon 'grif an 

Griffith 'grifie 

grifter 'grifta^; ES 'griftaCr 

grig grig Igrigged grigd 

grill, -e gril [grilled grild 

grim grim 

grimace gri'mes |-s -iz |-d -t 

grimalkin gri'maelkin, -Wolkin, -'mokin 

grime, G- graim | grimed graimd | grimy 

Grimm grim 
grin grin | grinned grind 
grind graind | ground graund 
grindstone 'grainjstoh, 'graind- 
gringo 'griggo 
Grinnell gri'nel 
grip grip [gripped gript 
gripe graip | griped graipt 
grippe grip 
gripsack 'grip^saek 
Griqualand 'grikwajaend, 'grikwa- 
Griselda gri'zelda 
grisly 'ghastly' 'grizli 

grisly 'gristly' 'grisli, 'grisli v 

grist grist 

gristle 'grisl |-tly 'gnsli, 'grisli 
gristmill 'grist ^mil 
Griswold 'grizwald 
grit grit [gritted 'gritid Igritty ^griti 
grith griO |-ths -Gs 
grits grits |-tten 'gritn 
grizzle 'grizi |-d -d j-ling 'gnzlig, -zhg 
grizzly 'grizli 
groan gron [groaned grond 
groat grot 

grocer 'grosa^; ES 'gros3(r; |-y -i, -sri 
Groesbeck 'grosbek 

grog grag, grng, grag |-ged -d [-gery -an 

l-gy -I 

grogram 'gragram, 'grog-, 'grog- 
groin grain [groined graind 
grommet 'gramit; ES + 'grnmit 
Groningen 'gronigan 
groom grum, grum |-ed -d 
groomsman 'grumzman, 'grumz- j-men -man 
groove gruv [grooved gruvd 
grope grop [groped gropt 
grosbeak 'gros/bik 
grosgrain 'grojgren j-ed -d 
gross gros |-es -iz[-ed -t 
grot coin grot \pl grote 'grota or groten 'grotan 
grot 'grotto' grat; ES+grnt 
grotesque gro'tesk |-rie -an, -skri 
Grotius 'grojias \or De Groot da'grot [Gro- 

tius's -IZ 
Groton US places variously pron. 'gratn, 

'grntn, 'gratn, 'grotn — in NEngd £f NY 

usually 'gratn, 'grntn 
grotto 'grato; ES + 'grnto 
grouch grautj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
ground graund |-ed -id j-ling -lig 
ground-hog 'graund jhag, -jhag, -ihng; S 

-jhag, -thag, -^ng 
groundnut 'graund^nAt, 'graun^nAt 
groundsel 'graunsl, 'graundsl 
groundwork 'graund^wyk; ES -jwak, -^wyk 
group grup [grouped grupt 
grouse bird graus |i ^g -s -iz [-d -t 
grousy 'having grouse' 'grauzi, -si 
grout graut [grouted 'grautid 
grove grov [groved grovd 
grovel 'gravl, 'grAvI; ES+'grovl; J-ed -d |-mg 

-vlig, -vlig — A shows the original vowel, 

a being a sp. pron. 
Grover 'grova^; ES 'grova(r 
grow gro [grew gru, griu [grown gron 
growl graul [growled grauld 
grown gron 
grown-up n 'gron^Ap 

grown-up adj 'gron'Ap ('grown-^up 'boys) 
growth groO |-ths -Gs 
grub grAb [grubbed grAbd 
grubstake 'grAbjStek [-staked -jStekt 
grudge grAdj [grudges 'grAdsiz [grudged 

gruel 'grual, 'griual [-ed -d 

[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 

gruesome 192 

gruesome 'grusam, 'griu- 

grufE grAf 

grumble 'grAmbl |-d -d |-ling 'grAmblig, 

Grumio 'grumijO, 'grumjo 
grumpy 'grAmpi 

Grundy 'grAndi |-ism -/izam |-dyist -ist 
grunt gfAnt | grunted 'grAntid 
Gruyere gru'jer, gri'jer; ES -'je3(r; {Fr 

gryphon 'grifan 
Guadalquivir jgwadrkwiv*, jgwod-; ES 

-V3(r; {Sp jgwatJalki'liir) 
Guadalupe Tex 'gadl^up, jgadl'up, jgwadj'up, 

igwod- {Sp jgwatSa'lupe) 
Guadalupe Hidalgo Mex ,gwadl'up'hi'daelgo, 

jgwod- {Sp jgwaSaUupe-i'tJalgo) 
Guadeloupe WI jgadj'up, ^gwad-, jgwnd- 
Guam gwam, gwnm 
guanine 'gwanin, 'gwon- 
guano 'gwano, 'gwono 
guarantee jgaeran'ti |-d -d 
guarantor 'garanta', -tar, in contrast -'tar; ES 

-t3(r, -t33(r, -'t33(r 
guaranty 'gaeranti |-tied -tid 
guard gard; ES ga:d, E+ga:d; |-ed -id 
guardhouse 'gard^haus |-houses -jhauziz; ES 

see guard 
guardian 'gardian; ES see guard 
guardroom 'gard,rum, -,rum; ES see guard 
guardsman 'gardzman |-men -man; ES see 

Guatemala ^gwata mala, jgwnt-, older igata- 

^mala |-n -n 
guava 'gwava, 'gwova 
Guayaquil jgwaia'kil {Sp jgwaja'kil) 
gubernatorial jgjub^na'torial, igiu-, -'tar-; 

ES -bana-, S -'tor- 
gudgeon 'gAdsan |-ed -d 
Gudrun 'gudrun 

guelder-rose 'gelda^^roz; ES 'gelda- 
Guelph gwelf 
guerdon 'gydn; ES 'gsdn, 'gydn j-ed -d 

|-ing -dnig, -dnig 
Guernsey, g- 'ga^nzi; ES 'gsnzi, 'gynzi 
guerrilla, gueri- ga'rila 
guess g£s I guesses 'gesiz | guessed gsst 
guesswork 'ges^ws^k; ES -^wsk, -jwyk 
guest g£st Iguested 'gestid 


guffaw gA'fa, ga'fa |-ed -d 

Guiana gi'asna, gi'ana {Sp 'gjana) 

guidance 'gaidns |-s -iz 

guide gaid | guided 'gaidid 

Guiderius gwi'dirias, -rjas |-'s -iz 

guidon 'gaidn 

guild gild 

Guildenstern 'gildn^styn; ES -^stsn, -^styn 

guilder 'gilda^; ES 'gilda(r 

Guildford 'gilfa^d; ES 'gilfad 

guildhall, G- 'gild'hal— c/ ylw 'town 'hall 

guile gail |-ful -fal | -fully -fall [-less 'gailhs 

Guilford 'gilfa-d; ES 'gilfad 

guillemot 'gila^mat; ES + -jmDt 

guillotine n 'gila^tin 

guillotine v jgila'tin, 'gilajtin |-d -d 

guilt gilt |-y -I |-ily 'giltab, -tib 

guimpe 'chemisette^ gaemp, gimp {Fr g^:p) 

Guinea, g- 'gini 

Guinevere, -ver 'gwina^vir, -va^; ES -jViaCr, 

Guiney 'gaini 

guise gaiz [guises 'gaiziz [guised gaizd 
guitar gi'tar; ES -'ta:(r, E + -'ta:(r 
Guiterman 'gita^man; ES 'gita- 
gulch gAlt/ I gulches 'gAltJiz |gulched gAlt/t 
gulden 'guldan 
gules gjulz, giulz 
gulf gAlf I gulfed gAlft 
gulfweed 'gAlf^wid 
gull gAl Igulled gAld 
Gullah 'gAla 
gullet 'gAlit |-ed -id 
gullibility ^gAla'bilati 
gullible 'gAlabl |-bly -bh 
Gulliver 'gAlava^; ES 'gAlava(r 
gully 'gAb I gullied 'gAbd 
gulp gAlp I gulped gAlpt 
gum gAm Igummed gAmd 
gum arable jgAm'aerabik, now rare ^gAma- 

gumbo 'gAmbo 

gumdrop 'gAm^drap; ES-h-jdrup 
gumption 'gAmpJan |-tious -Jas 
gums 'alveoli' gAmz, jnuch less frcq. gumz, 

gumshoe 'gAm'/u, 'gAm^/u 
gumwood 'gAm^wud 
gun gAn Igunned gAnd 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Iji-et jst |sang saeg ]angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 

gunboat 193 

gunboat 'gAn^bot 

guncotton 'gAnjkatn; ES+-jkDtn 

gunfire 'gAn^fair; ES -jfai3(r 

gunman 'gAn^maen, -man |-men -jmen, -man 

Gunnar 'gunar. Am pers. name 'gAna^; ES 

-a:(r, -3(r 
gunnel 'gAnl 

gunner 'gAna^; ES 'gAn3(r; |-y -i 
gunny 'gAni 

gunpowder, G- 'gAHjpauda'; ES -jpaud3(r 
gunrunning 'gAn^rAnig 
gunshot 'gAn/Jat; ES+'j/ot 
gunwale 'gAnl 

gurge gyds; ES gsds, gs^ds; \-s -iz 1-d -d 
gurgitation jgyd33'te/an; ES jgsds-, jgyds- 
gurgle 'gygl; ES 'gsgl, 'gygl; |-d -d j-ling 

-ghg, -glig 
Gurkha 'gurka; ES 'guaka 
gurnard 'gyna'd; ES 'ganad, 'gynad 
Gurney, -nee 'gym; ES 'gsni, 'gym 
gush gAj I gushes 'gAjiz | gushed gA/t 
gusset 'gAsit Igusseted 'gAsitid 
gust gAst I gusty 'gASti 
gustation gAs'te/an 
gustatory 'gAstajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
Gustavus gAs'tevas |-'s -iz 
gusto 'gAsto 
gut gAt I gutted 'gAtid 
Gutenberg 'gutn^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg; {Ger 

Guthrie 'gAOri 
Guthrun 'gutSrun 
gutta 'gAta 

gutta-percha 'gAta'pytJa; ES -'pstja, -'pyt Ja 
Guttenberg US 'gAtn^byg; ES -ibag, -jbyg 
gutter 'gAta'; ES 'gAta(r; |-ed -d 
guttersnipe 'gAta^^snaip; ES 'gAta- 


guttural 'gAtaral |-ly -i 

guy gai I guyed gaid 

Guyandot 'gaian^dat; ES+'idnt 

guzzle 'gAzl |-d -d [-ling 'gAzjig, 'gAzlig 

Gwendolen, -ine, -yn 'gwendjin 

Gwinnett gwi'net 

gybe dsaib |-d -d 

gymnasium dsim'neziam, -zjam |-s -z |-sia 

gymnast Msimnaest 

gymnastic dsim'naestik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
gynae- see gyne- 

gynarchy 'dsainarki; ES -a:ki, E + -a:ki 
gynecologic jdsaimka'ladsik, jgain-; ES + 

-'lDd5-; l-al -1 
gynecologist jdsaini'kaladsist, ^gaim-; ES + 

gynecology jdsaim'kaladji, ^gaini-; ES + 

-'kol-; — One form is as 'correct' as the 

other. The first is more Englished. 
gyp dsip I gypped dsipt 
g)T)sum 'dsipsam 
gypsy 'dsipsi 
gyral 'dsairal |-ly -i 
gyrate 'dsairet j-d -id j-tion dsai 're/an 
gyrator dsai'reta', 'dsaireta^; ES -ta(r 
gyratory 'dsairajtori, -jtari; S -^tori 
gyre dsair; ES dsaiaCr; |-d -d 
gyrfalcon 'dsy^falkan, -jfakan; ES 'djs-, 

gyro 'dsairo 

gyrocompass 'dsairojkAmpas |-es -iz 
gyroscope 'dsaira^skop 
gyroscopic jdsaira'skapik; ES+-'skDp-; [-ally 

-h, -ikli 
gyrostatic jdsaira'staetik [-ally -li, -ikk 
gyve dsaiv | gyved dsaivd 

H, h letter etf \pl H's, Hs, poss H's 'et/iz 

ha intj, n ha \pl has, ha's haz 

ha V ha |haes haz |haed had |haing 'ha-ig 

Haarlem 'harlam; ES 'ha:lam, E-i-'ha:lam 

Habakkuk ha'baskak, 'haeba^kAk 

Habana 'Havana' Sp a'(5ana 

habeas corpus 'hebias'karpas; ES -'kaapas 


haberdasher 'haeba'^dae/a'; ES 'haebajdaeja(r; 

|-y -I, -Jri 
habergeon 'haeba^dsan; ES 'haebadsan 
habiliment ha'bilamant 
habilitate ha'bila^tet |-tated -jtetid 
habit 'haebit |-ed -id |-able -abl |-bly -bb 
habitant 'haebatant 

|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif |vision 'vijan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipm 




habitat 'haebajtaet |-tation jhaeba'te/an 

hail hel [hailed beld |hailstone 'bel/Ston 

habitual ha'bit/ual, -t/ul |-ly -i 

Haile Selassie 'baibsa'lasi, -sa'laesi 

habituate ha'bit/uict |-ated -jctid 

hailstorm 'bel^starm; ES 'beljstaam 

habitude 'haeba^tjud, -jtiud, -jtud 

hair her, baer; E bea(r, ES baea(r ; |-ed -d |-y -i 

habitue ha'bit/uje, ha.bit/u'e (i^r abi'tqe) 

hairbreadth 'berjbrede, 'baer-; ES see hair 

Habsburg 'haepsbyg; ES -bsg, -ba^g; {Ger 

hairbrush 'bEr,brAj, 'baer-; ES see hair 

'harpsburk) — see Hapsburg 

haircloth 'berjkbe, 'baer-, -jklnB; ES see hair; 

hacienda jhasi'enda {Sp a'sjenda) 

pi see cloth 

hack bask | hacked haekt 

haircut 'ber jkAt, 'baer- ; ES see hair 

hackamore 'haekajmor, -jinar; ES -^moaCr, 

hair-do 'berjdu, 'baer-; ES see hair 


hairdresser 'ber^drEsa^, 'baer-; ES -a(r, see 

hackberry 'haek^beri, -ban 


hackbut 'haekbAt — see hagbut 

hairline 'berjlam, 'baer-; ES see hair 

hackle 'haekl |-d -d |-ling ^sekhg, %aeklig 

hair's-breadth 'berz'bredO, 'baerz-, -jbredG; 

hackman 'haekman, -jmaen [hackmen 'haek- 

E 'beaz-, ES 'basaz- 

man, -jmen 

hairsplitter 'ber^spbta^, 'baer-; ES -iSphta(r, 

hackney 'haekni | hackneyed 'haeknid 

see hair 

had stressed 'haed, jbaed; Mwsi?". had, bed, ad. 

hairspring 'ber^spng, 'baer-; ES see hair 

Ed, id I'd d 

Haiti 'heti |Haitian 'hetian 

Haddington ^haedigtan 

hake bek 

haddock 'haedak 

Hakluyt 'baeklut, 'baeklait, 'baekkt 

Hades 'hediz | Hades' 'bediz 

halation be'le/an, bae'lejan 

hadj haeds |hadjes 'baedsiz |hadji 'baedsi 

halberd 'baelba^d; ES 'bselbad; [-rt -t— for- 

hadn't 'haednt, before some conss. + ^hxdn 

merly 'balb-, 'bab-, spelt haubert, holberd 

('baedn 'sinim) 

halcyon 'baelsian 

Hadrian 'hedrian 

Haldane 'balden 

hadst stressed 'baedst, jbaedst; unstr. hadst, 

hale bel |haled beld 

adst, dst 

half baef ; E baf, baef, haf ; |-'s -s |-lves -vz 

haem- see hem- 

half-and-half 'baefn'baf ; E see half 

haemo- see hemo- 

halfback 'baef^baek; E see half 

Haensel 'bensl = Hansel 

half-baked 'baef 'bekt; E^ee half; ('half-^baked 

haft haeft |hafted 'baeftid 


hag baeg 

half-blooded 'bafbUdid; E see half; ('haK- 

Hagar 'bega', 'begar; ES 'bega(r, 'hega:(r 

iblooded 'Indian) 

hagbut 'baegbAt 

half-breed 'baef^brid; E see half 

Hagen 'bagan 

half-caste 'baef^kaest; E+'baf^kast, 'baf^kast 

Hagerstown 'bega^Zjlaun; ES 'hegaz- 

half -full 'baf'ful; E see half 

haggada ba^gada, -da \pl haggadoth ha^gadoO 

halfhearted 'baef'bartid; ES -'ba:tid, E+ 

Haggai 'haegijai, 'haegai 

-'bartid — see half; ('half-hearted 'effort) 

haggard, H- 'baeg^d; ES 'baegad 

half-hour 'baef'aur; ES -'aua(r, E see half 

haggis 'baegis |-es -iz 

half-length 'baef'kgke, -'kge; E sec half 

haggle 'baegl |-d -d j-ling 'baeglig, 'baegbg 

half-mast 'baef'maest; E -i- 'baf 'mast, 'baf- 

hagiography jbaegi'agrah, jhedsi-, -'ng- 


hagiolatry jbaegi'alatn, jbedsi-; ES + -'d1- 

half-moon 'baef'mun; E see half 

hagiology jbaegi'aladsi, jbedsi-; ES+-'d1- 

halfpenny Brit 'bepm, 'bepani \pl halfpence 

Hague beg 

'bepans, halfpennies 'hepniz, 'bepaniz 

Hahnemann ^banaman (Ger 'ba:naiman) 

half-timbered 'baef 'timba^d ; ES -'timbad, E 

Haidarabad ^baidara^baed, jbaidara^bad 

see half 

haikwan 'bai'kwan 

half-tone 'baef^ton; E see half 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeG; E baB (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, -wniS (§12) jjaw dsa [gorge g3rd3 [go go 




half-truth 'haefjtrue; E see half 

Hamburg 'haembyg; ES 'haembag, -byg; 

halfway 'haef'we; E see half; ('halfjway 'up) 

{Ger 'hamburk) 

half-witted 'haef'witid; E see half 

hamburger 'haembyga^; ES 'haeinb3ga(r, 

Haliburton 'haelajbs^tn; ES -ibstn, - 



hahbut 'haebbat, 'habbat; ES + 'hol 


hame hem 

Halicarnassus /haelikar'naesas ; ES 


Hamilcar ba'milkar, 'haemj-; ES -ka:(r. 

|-SUS' -S3S 


halide 'haelaid, ^belaid 

Hamilton 'haemltan jHamiltonian jhaemj- 

halidom 'haehdam |halidome 'haelijdom 


Halifax 'haelajfaeks [Halifax's 'haela^faeksiz 

Hamite 'baemait |-tic baem'itik, ha'mitik 

Haligonian jhaela'gonian, jhaeh- 

hamlet, H- 'haembt 

halitosis jhaela'tosis 

hammer 'haema^; ES 'haema(r; j-ed -d |-ing 

HaHver 'haebva', 'hae^liva'; ES -va(r 

'haemariij, 'haemrii) 

hall, H- hal 

hammerhead 'haema^jbed; ES 'baemajbed; 

Hallam 'hsebm 

|-ed -id 

Halle Am name 'haeh; Ger city 'hala 

hammock 'baemak 

Halleck 'h«hk, 'hsbk 

Hammurabi jhama'rabi, jhamu'rabi 

hallelujah, -iah jhsebluja, -'huja 

Hampden 'baempdan, 'baemdan 

Halley 'h«h 

hamper 'haempa^; ES 'haempa(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

Halliburton 'haebjbytn; ES -ibstn, - 


'baemparig, ^baemprig 

Halliday 'haebjde 

Hampshire 'baemp/ir, 'baempja^; ES -/laCr, 

Halliwell 'haeb^wel, 'haebwal 


hallmark 'hallmark; ES 'hDl^ma 

k, E + 

Hampstead 'baempsted, 'baempstid 

-;ma:k; |-ed -t 

Hampton 'baemptan 

hallo, -loa ha'lo 

hamstring 'hfem^strig [-strung -jStrAg or 

halloo haUu [hallooed hsUud 

-stringed -,strigd 

hallow 'haelo, -a J-ed -d, worship ' 


Hamsun, Knut 'knut'baemsan, -'bamsun 

|-ing 'haebwig 

Hamtramck Mich baem'traemik 

Halloween jbaelo'in, jhab'in ('Hallowjcen 

Han ban 


hanaper 'baenapa^; ES 'baenapa(r 

Hallowmas 'haelojinaes, -mas |-es -iz 

Hancock 'haenkak; ES + 'baenkok 

hallucinate ha'lusrijet, -'bu- |-d -id 

hand baend [handed 'haendid 

hallucination hajlusn'e/an, -jhu- 

handbag 'baend^baeg, 'baen^baeg 

hallucinatory hs'lusna^tori, -'bu-. 

■jtari; S 

handball 'baend^bal, 'baen/bal 


handbarrow 'baend^baero, 'baen,baero, -a 

hallway 'hal^we 

handbill 'basndjbil, 'baen,bil 

halo 'helo | haloed 'helod 

handbook 'baendjbuk, 'baen^buk 

halogen 'baebdsan, -d3in 

handbreadth 'baend^brEde, 'baeiijbrEde |-ths 

haloid 'haebid, 'hebid 


Halpin, -ine 'haelpm 

handcar 'baend^kar, 'baen-; ES -ika:(r, E + 

Hals, Frans 'frans'hals, 'fraens'haels 

l-'s -IZ 


Halstead 'hoisted, 'halstid, 'bael- 

handcart 'baend jkart, 'baen-; ES -jkait. 

halt halt [halted 'haltid 


halter 'halta-; ES 'haltaCr 

Handcock 'baenkak; ES + -kDk 

halve haev; E hav, haev, hav |-d -d 

handcuff 'baendjkAf, 'haen^kAf [-cuffed -jkAft 

halyard 'haelja'd; ES 'haeljad 

Handel 'baendl {Ger Handel 'bEndal) 

ham, H- baem 

HandeHan baen'dihan, -'diljan 

hamadryad jhaema'draiad, -'draiaed 

handfast 'baend^fiest, 'baen-; E-i--jfast, -jfast 

Haman 'heman 

handful 'baend ,ful, 'baen^ful [-s -z 

[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while bwail [how bau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 

handgrip 'hsend^grip, 'haen^grip 

Hanover 'haenova'; ES 'haenovaCr; {Ger Han- 

handicap 'haendijkaep |handicapped 'haendi- 

nover ha'no:var, loc. ha'norfar) 


Hanoverian ,haeno'vinan 

handicraft 'haendi^kraeft; E+-;kraft, -^kraft 

Hans haens, -z {Ger hans) 

handicraftsman 'haendijkraeftsman; E + 

Hansard 'haensa'd, 'haensord; ES 'hansad, 

-jkrafts-, -jkrafts-; |-men -man 


handiwork 'haendi^wyk; ES -jwsk, -jW^k 

hanse haens |hanses 'haensiz 

handkerchief 'haegka^t/if, -itjif; ES -ka-; |-s 

Hanseatic ,haensi'aetik, ,haenzi'aetik 

-t/ivz, -tfifs, -itjivz, -it/ifs 

hansel 'haensl hanseled 'haensld 

hand-knit 'haend'nit, 'haen'nit |-ted -id 

Hansel and Gretel 'henslan'gretj 

handle 'haend| |-d -d |-Hng 'haendhg, -dlig 

hansom 'haensam 

handleless 'haend}hs. 

Hants short for Hampshire haents 

handmade 'haend'med, %aen- ('handimade 

hap haep ] happed haept | haply 'haepli 


haphazard /haep'haeza^d; ES -'haezad 

handmaid 'haend^med, 'haen- |-en -^med^ 

haploid 'haeplaid |-loidic haep'laidik 

hand-me-down 'haenmi^daun 

haplosis haep'losis 

handout 'haend^aut 

happen 'haepan, -pm |-ed -d |-ing -panig, 

handrail 'haend^rel 


handsaw 'haend^sa, 'haen- 

happy 'haepi |-pily -pli, -pili 

handsel 'hiensl |-ed -d 

happy-go-lucky 'haepi,go'lAki 

handset 'haend'set, 'haen- ('hand^set 'type) 

Hapsburg 'haepsbyg; ES -bag, -byg; {Ger 

handsome 'haensam 


handspike 'haenjspaik, 'haend- 

hara-kiri 'hara'kiri, 'haera- 

handspring 'haen^sprii), 'haend- 

harangue ha'raeg |-d -d |-guing -'ragig 

hand-to-mouth 'haendta'mauG, 'haentta- 

harass 'haeras, ha'raes; S + 'haens; |-es -iz 

handwork 'haend^wyk; ES -jwsk, -,wyk 

|-ed -t — The pronunciation ha'raes instead 

handwriting 'haend^raitig 

of the older 'haeras appears to be on the in- 

handy 'haendi 


hang haeg |hung hAg or hanged haegd |-ing 

Harbin 'har'bin; ES 'har'bin 


harbinger 'harbindsa^; ES 'ha:bmd3a(r; 

hangar 'haega', 'haeggar; ES 'haegaCr, 'haeg- 

l-ed -d 


harbor 'harba^; ES 'ha:ba(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

Hangchow 'hajg't/au (CJiin 'xag'dso) 

-bang, -bng |-age -bands, -brids 

hangdog 'haeg, dag, 'haeg, dog 

Harcourt 'harkort, -kart, -ka^t; ES -koat. 

hanger 'haega^; ES 'haeg3(r 

-kat, E+-kaat 

hanger-on 'haega^'an, -'on, -'an 

hard hard; ES ha:d 

hangers-on 'haega^z'an, -'on, -'an; ES 'haegaz- 

hard-bitted 'hard'bitid; ES 'ha:d-; ('hard- 

hangman 'haegman [hangmen 'haegman 

jbitted 'horse) 

hangnail 'haeg,nel 

hard-bitten 'hard'bitn; ES 'ha:d- 

hank haegk |hanked haegkt 

hard-boiled 'hard'baild; ES 'ha:d- 

hanker 'haegka^; ES 'haegka(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

harden 'hardn; ES 'ha:dn; |-ed -d |-ing 

'haegkarig, 'haegkrig 

-dnig, -dnig 

Hankow 'haen'kau, 'haeg'kau {Chinese 'xan- 

hard-featured 'hard'fit/a^d; ES 'haid'fitjad 


hard-fisted 'hard'fistid; ES 'ha:d- 

hanky-panky 'haegki'paegki 

hardhack 'hard^hsk; ES 'ha:d,haek 

Hanley 'haenli 

hardhanded 'hard'haendid; ES 'ha:d- 

Hannah 'haena 

hardhead 'hardjhcd; ES 'ha:d- 

Hannibal 'haenabl 

hardheaded 'hard'hedid; ES 'hard- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 




Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 

hardhearted 'hard'hartid; ES 'ha:d'ha:tid 

hardihood 'hardi^hud; ES 'ha:di- 

hardly 'hardh; ES 'ha:dli 

hardmouthed 'hard'mau'Sd, -9t; ES %a:d-; 

('hardimouthed 'horse) 
hardpan 'hard;paen; ES 'hard- 
hard-shell 'hardjEl; ES 'hard-; |-ed -d 
hardship 'hardjip; ES 'hard- 
hardtack 'hardjtaek; ES 'hard- 
hardware 'hardjWEr, -jwaer; E 'hard^weaCr, 

ES -jwaeaCr 
hardwood 'hardjwud; ES 'hard- 
hardy, H- 'hardi; ES 'hardi; |-dily -dli, -dili 
hare her, haer; E heaCr, ES hae3(r; |-d -d 
harebell 'her^bel, 'hter-; ES see hare 
harebrained 'her'brend, 'haer-; ES see hare 
harelip 'hEr'hp, 'haer-, -jhp; ES see hare 
harelipped 'het'lipt, 'haer-; ES see hare; 

('harejlipped 'boy) 
harem 'heram, 'haer-, 'her-; S 'haeram, 'her- 
Harfleur 'harfly; ES 'harfbcr, 'harfls^; (Fr 

ar'flcErr) — in Shak Harflew 'harflu, -fhu; 

ES 'harf- 
haricot 'haeri^ko j-coed -,kod 
hark hark; ES hark; j-ed -t 
harken 'harkan; ES 'hark-; [-ed -d |-ing 

-kanig, -knit) 
Harleian 'harlian, har'lian; ES 'harl-, har'l- 
Harlem 'harlam; ES 'harlam 
harlequin, H- 'harlakwin, -km; ES 'harl- 
harlequinade ^harlakwin'ed, -kin-; ES jharl- 
Harley 'harh; ES 'hark 
harlot 'harlat; ES 'harbt; |-ry -ri 
harm harm; ES harm; |-ed -d |-ful -fal |-fully 

harmonic har'manik; ES har'manik, -'mon-; 

|-a -a l-ally -li, -ikh 
harmonious har'monias; ES ha'mon-; |-nium 

harmonize 'harmajnaiz; ES 'harm-; [-s -iz 

harmony 'harmani; ES 'harm-; |-nied -nid 
harness 'harms; ES 'harms; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
Harold 'haerald 
harp harp; ES harp; |-ed -t 
harpoon har'pun; ES har'pun; [-ed -d 
harpsichord 'harpsi/kard; ES 'harpsijkaad 

Harpy 'harpi; ES 'harpi 

harquebus 'harkwibas; ES 'harkwibas; |-es 


harquebusier jharkwibas'ir; ES jharkwibas- 

'ia(r, S+-'£a(r 
harridan 'haeradan 
harrier 'haena^; ES 'haeri-a(r 
Harriet 'hasriat, 'haeriit 
Harrison 'haerasn 

Harrisburg 'haeriSibyg; ES -/bsg, -^byg 
harrow, H- 'haero, -a |-ed -d |-ing 'haerawig 
harry, H- 'haeri | harried 'haerid 
harsh harj; ES bar/ 
hart hart; ES hart 
Harte hart; ES hart 
hartebeest 'harta^bist; ES 'harta^bist 
Hartford 'hartfa-d; ES 'hartfad 
hartshorn 'harts jharn; ES 'harts jbaan 
Harum 'hsram, 'haeram; S 'haeram 
harum-scarum 'heram'skeram, 'haeram- 

'skaeram; S 'haeram'skaeram; ('harum- 
-scarum 'manners) 
Harun-al-Raschid 'haerunael'raejid, ha'run- 

haruspex ha'rAspeks, 'haeras- |-pexes -^peksiz 

|haruspices ha'rAspi,siz 
Harvard 'harvard; ES 'harvad 
harvest 'harvist, -vast; ES 'harvist; |-ed -id 
Harvey 'harvi; ES 'harvi 
Harwich Engd 'haerids, 'haeritj; Mass 'har- 

wit/; ES 'harwitj; |-'s -iz 
Harz harts ; ES harts 

has stressed 'haez, ^haez; unstr. haz, az |'s z, s 
has-been 'haez, bin 
Hasbrouck 'haezbruk 
Hasdrubal 'haezdrubl, 'haezdrujbael 
hash haej [hashes 'hae/iz [hashed haejt 
hashish, -eesh 'haejij 
hasn't 'haeznt, bef. some com55. + 'haezn ('hazn 

hasp haesp; E-i-hasp, hasp; |-ed -t 
hassock 'haesak |-ed -t 

hast stressed 'haest, jhaest; unstr. hast, ast, st 
haste best | hasted 'hestid 
hasten 'hesn |-ed -d |-ing 'hesnig, 'hesmg 
Hastings 'hestigz |-'s -iz 
hasty 'hesti [hastily 'hestli, -tili 

|full ful [tooth tu9 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




hat haet |hatted 'haetid 

Havre de Grace 'haeva'da'graBs, -'gres; 


hatband 'haetjbaend 


hatbox 'haetjbaks; ES+-,bDks; |-es -z 

haw ba [hawed had 

hatch haetj | hatches 'haetjiz [hatched haet/t 

Hawaii ha'waija, ba'waja, ba'wnja. 


hatchel 'haetjal |hatcheled 'hsetjald 

'wai'i, ba'wa-i 

hatchery 'haetjari, 'haetjri 

Hawarden US 'bewardn; ES -wa:dn; \\ 


hatchet 'haet Jit |-ed -id 

'ba-a'dn, 'bardn; ES 'ba-adn, 'ba:dn 

hatchway 'haetX,we 

hawk hak [hawked bakt 

hate het | hated 'hetid [hateful 'hetfal [-fully 

hawk-eyed 'bak,aid 


Hawkins 'bakmz [Hawkins's 'bakmziz 

hath stressed 'haeG, jhaeG; tmstr. haO, 36 

hawse baz [hawses 'baziz 

Hathaway 'haeOajWe 

hawsehole 'bazjbol, 'bas- 

Hathorn(e) 'hDOarn; ES ^hoQoani—The BBC 

hawser 'baza^; ES 'baza(r 

recommends 'haeGorn/or the British name. 

hawthorn, Hawthorn (e) 'ba,eam; ES -jOaan 

hatred 'hetrid 

hay be [hayed bed [haying 'be-ig 

hatter 'haeta^; ES 'haet3(r 

Hayakawa jhaia'kawa 

Hatteras 'haetaras jHatteras's 'haetarasiz 

haycock 'be^kak; ES + 'bejkok 

hauberk 'habyk; ES 'habsk, 'habyk 

Hayden 'bedn 

Haugen 'haugan 

Haydn 'haidn, 'bedn 

haughty 'hati j-tily -tli, -tih 

Haydon 'bedn 

haul hal [hauled bald [haulage 'halids 

Hayes bez Hayes's 'beziz 

haunch bantj", hontj, bant/ [-es -iz |-ed -t 

hayfork 'be.fark; ES 'be^faak 

haunt bant, hrnit, bant [-ed -id 

hayloft 'be^laft, 'be.lnft 

Hauptmann 'bauptman, 'baupm- {Ger 'baupt- 

haymarket 'hejinarkit; ES 'be^markit 


haymow 'bcjinau 

hautboy 'bobai, 'obai {Fr o'bwa) 

hayrack 'be^raek [-rick -^rik 

hauteur bo'ty, o'ty; ES -'t3(r -'ty; {Fr 

hayseed 'be^sid -stack -,stsk 


Hayti 'beti, US places + \eta.\ 

Havana haVaena {Sp Habana a '(Sana) 

Hayward 'bewa^d; ES 'hewad 

have stressed 'baev, ,baev; unstr. bav, av [Ve v 

hayward 'be^ward, -wa^d; ES 'be^waad, - 


[have to hef. conss. 'baefta, bef. vow. 'haeftu, 

hazard 'baeza^d; ES 'baezad; [-ed -id [-ous 


'baefta — In "I could of done it," of is 

haze bez [hazes 'heziz [hazed bezd 

merely a misspelling for have. Their pro- 

hazel, H- 'bezl [-nut -nat, -^nAt 

nunciation is identical. The pron. %aefta. 

Hazledean 'bezljdin 

'baeftu is universal in unafected familiar 

Hazleton 'bezltan 

speech in US and England. 

Hazlitt 'baezbt 

Havelock, -lok, h- 'baevlak; ES+-lDk 

hazy 'bezi [-zily -zji, -zili 

haven 'bevan [havened 'bevand 

he stressed 'hi, ^bi; unstr. i, i, hi 

haven't 'baevnt, hef. some com^5. + 'baevn 

head bed [headed 'btdid 

('baevn 'sinim) 

headache 'b^d^ek 

Haverford 'baeva^fa^d; ES 'baevafad 

headband 'bed^baend 

Haverhill 'bevaril, 'bevril, -ral 

headboard 'bEd^bord, -^bard; ES -jboad, 

haversack 'baeva'jsaek; ES 'baeva,saek 


Haverstraw 'baeva'jstra; ES 'baevajStra 

headcheese 'bedjijiz [-s -iz 

havior 'bevja'; ES 'hevja(r 

headdress 'bedjdres [-es -iz 

havoc 'baevak 

headfirst 'bed'fyst; ES -'fsst, -'fyst 

Havre US 'baeva^; ES 'bava(r 

headforemost 'bed'torjinost, -'far-, -mast 


Havre France 'bava^, 'bavra; ES 'bava(r, 

-'foa-, E-i--'faa- 

'bavra; {Fr la'a:vr) 

headgear 'bed^gir; ES -igia(r, S-i--jgea(r 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angrj-- 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E ba6 (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




Words below in which ea before r (heart) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (ha:t) 

heading 'hedig 

hearthstone 'harO^ston; ES 'harO-; — see 

headland implowed land 'hedjaend, 'promon- 


tory^ 'hedland 

heartily 'hartli, -ih; ES 'hart- 

headlight 'hedjait 

heartsease 'hartSjiz; ES 'harts- 

headline 'hedjlain j-d -d 

heartsick 'hart;Sik, -'sik; ES 'hart- 

headlock 'hed^lak; ES + -jlDk 

heartsore 'hart^sor, -jsar; ES -jSoa(r, E + 

headlong 'hed'bg, -ibg, -og; S + -ag 

-(Saa(r; ace/ -i- 'heart 'sore 

headman 'hEdmon -men -man 

heartstring 'hartjstrig; ES 'hart- 

headmaster 'hed'tnaesta^; ES -t3(r, E+-'mas-, 

heart-to-heart 'hartta'hart; ES 'hartta'hart 


heart-whole 'hart 'hoi; ES 'hart-; ('heart- 

head-on 'hed'an, -'on, -bn ('head-pn 'crash) 

-whole 'maid) 

headphone 'hed^fon 

heartwood 'hartiWud; ES 'hart- 

headpiece 'hEd^pis |-s -iz 

heat hit [heated 'hitid 

headquarters 'hed'kworta^z, -jkw-; ES -'kw33- 

heath hie |-ths -Os 

taz, -jkw- 

heathen 'hiSan |-ism -^izam |-ness -Sannis 

headrest 'hsd^rest 

heathenesse arch. 'hiSanjes 

headsman 'hedzman |-men -man 

heather 'hetJa^; ES 'hE'Sa(r; |-ed -d 

headspring 'hed^sprig 

heatstroke 'hitjstrok 

headstock 'hedjStak; ES-h-iStnk 

heaume horn 

headstone 'h£djSton 

heave hiv | heaved hivd or hove hov 

headstrong 'hEd^strag, -^strDg; S+-iStrag 

heaven 'hsvan, 'hevm |-ward -wa^d; ES -wad 

headwater 'hedjwata^, -jwata^, -jwota^; ES 

Heavener 'hivna^; ES 'hlvna(r 


heavily 'hevli, -ili 

headway 'hedjwe 

Heaviside 'he vi, said 

headwork 'hediWyk; ES -jwsk, -^wyk 

heavy 'weighty' 'hevi 

heal hil | healed hild 

heavy 'broken-winded' 'hivi 

health helO |-ths -Os |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 

heavy-hearted 'hevi'hartid; ES -'hartid 

healthy 'helGi |-thily -Gali, -Oik 

heavyweight 'hevijwet 

heap hip | heaped hipt 

hebdomad 'hebdajmaed 

hear hir; ES hia(r, S-t-hjeaCr, hjiaCr, h£a(r; 

hebdomadal hefo'damadl; ES + -'dom-; |-ly -i 

1 heard hyd; ES hsd, hyd 

Hebe 'hibi 

hearken 'harkan; ES 'hatkan; ]-ed -d |-ing 

Hebraic hi'bre-ik |-al -1 -ally -li 

-kanig, -kmg 

Hebraism 'hlbriiizam |-ist -ist 

hearsay 'hir^se; ES 'hia-, S-h'hjea-, 'hjia-. 

Hebraistic jhibri'istik [-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


Hebrew 'hibru, 'hibriu 

hearse hys; ES hss, hys; |-d -t 

Hebrides 'hebrajdiz 

heart hart; ES hart 

Hebron 'hibran 

heartache 'hart^ek; ES 'ha:t- 

Hecate 'hekati, in Shak. 'hekit 

heartbreak 'hart^brek; ES 'hart- 

hecatomb 'hekajtom, -jtum 

heartbroken 'hartjbrokan, -'brokan; ES 

Hecht hekt 


heckle 'hekl |-d -d |-ling 'hekhg, 'heklig 

heartburn 'hartjbyn; ES 'hart^bsn, 'hart,byn; 

hectare 'hekter, -taer; E -tea(r, ES -taea(r 

l-ed -d 

hectic 'hektik |-ly -li |-al -1 |-ally -li 

hearten 'hartn; ES 'hartn; |-ed -d |-ing -tnig. 

hectograph 'hekta^graef; E-h-^graf, -igraf 


Hector 'hekta^; ES 'h£kta(r 

heartfelt 'hart^felt, -'felt; ES 'hart- 

hector 'hekta^; ES 'hekta(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

hearth harO; ES harO; |-ths -&s— Poetic hyO, 

'hsktang, 'hektrig 

hsO is still occas. heard. 

Hecuba 'hekjuba 

jfull ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fytSa'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




he'd abbr. spelling ofhe had, he would, stressed 

helicoid 'heli/kaid 

'hid, ,hid; imstr. id, id. hid 

hehcoidal jheh'kaidl |-ly -? 

heddle 'hedj |-d -d |-ling -dlig, -dhg 

Hehcon, h- 'hEli,kan, -kan; ES-t--ikDn 

hedge hedj |hedges 'hedjiz |hedged hedsd 

helicopter jheh'kapta^; ES -'kaptad, -'kop- 

hedgehog 'heds^hag, -thog, -ihng; S ■ 


Heligoland 'hehgojaend 

-,hag, -,hDg 

hehocentric jhiho'sentrik |-al -i |-ally -li. 

hedgerow 'heds^ro 


Hedjaz he'dsaz 

Heliogabalus ;hiha'gaebalas |-'s -iz 

hedonic hi'danik; ES+-'dDn-; |-al -1 |-ally -li 

heliograph 'hihajgraef; E-i--jgraf,, -^grof 

hedonism 'hidrijizani |-ist -ist 

heUometer jhili'amata^^; ES -'amatafr, -'nm- 

Hedwig 'hedwig 

Heliopolis jhih'apahs; ES-i--'Dp-; |-'e -iz 

heed hid | heeded 'hidid |-ful -fal | -fully- 


Helios 'hihjQs; ES-f--jDS 

heedless 'hidhs 

heUoscope 'hihajskop, 'hilja= 

heehaw 'hijho, 'i^hS (nasal i) |-ed -d 

heliotherapy jhiho'OErapi 

heel hil | heeled hild |-less 'hilhs 

heUotrope 'hiljajtrop, 'hiha- 

heelpiece 'hil^pis |-s -iz |-d -t 

helium 'hiham 

heeltap 'hil,taep |-tapped -jtaept 

helix 'hihks [-es -iz | helices ^h£k,siz 

Heep, Uriah ju'raia'hip 

hell hel 

hett hsft Ihefted 'heftid [-y -i 

he'll abbr. spellhig of he will, stressed 'hil, jhil; 

Hegel 'hegl 

unstr. il, il, hil 

Hegelian he'gehan, hi'dsihan 

hellbender 'hel^benda^; ES -jbEnda(r 

hegemony hi'dsemam, 'hedsa^mom 

hellbroth 'hEl^braO, -jbroe |-ths -Gs 

hegira, H- hi'dsaira, 'hsdsara 

hellcat 'hEljkaet 

Heidelberg 'haidl^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg; 


hell-diver 'hEljdaiva'; ES -jdaiva(r 


hellebore 'hElajbor, -jbar; ES -jboaCr, E+ 

heifer 'hEta-; ES 'hefaCr 


Heifetz 'haifits |-'s -iz 

Hellen 'hslin, -an, -En 

heigh intj he, hai 

Hellene 'helin |Hellenes 'helinz 

heigh-ho intj, n, v 'he'hoj 'hai'ho |-ed -t 

Hellenic hE'lEnik, -'lin- |-ally -li, -ikli 

height halt — cf highth 

Hellenism 'hEhnjizam, -Ian- |-ist -ist 

heighten 'haitn |-ed -d |-ing 'haitnig, -tnig 

Hellenistic jhElm'istik, -Ian- |-al -1 |-aliy -li. 

Heine 'haina 


Heinic, -ne nickname 'haini 

Hellenize 'hfilinjaiz, -Ian- |-s -iz |-d -d 

heinous 'henas 

Hellespont 'hslajspant, -,spDnt 

Heinz haints, hainz |-'s -iz 

hell-fire, H- 'hel'fair, -,fair; ES -aia(r 

heir er, aer; E £3(r, ES ae3(r; |-ess -is |- 


hellgrammite 'helgrajmait 


hellhound 'hEl,haund 

heirloom 'er'lum, 'aer-, -jlum; E 'ea-, ES 


hellion 'hEljan 

Hejaz hs'dsaz 

hellkite 'hEljkait 

hejira, H- hi'dsaira, 'hedsara 

hello hE'lo, ha'lo, "helo, 'hAlo, emph. 'hEVlo, 

Hekate 'hekatij m Shak. 'hekit 


held held 

helm hslm ] helmed helmd 

Helen 'hebn, -an 

helmet 'hElmit |helmeted 'hElmitid 

Helena 'hehna, he 'Una; cf Saint H. &= Lena 

Helmholtz 'hElnijholts |-'s -iz 

Helgoland 'hElgO/laend {Ger -jlant) 

helmsman 'hElmzman j-men -man 

hehacal hi'laiakl -ly -i, -akh 

Heloise Eng name jhElo'iz -'s -iz 

helical 'hehk} -ly -i 

Heloise wife of Abelard jclo'iz \-'s -xz {Fr 

Helicanus ^hEli'kenas |-'s -iz 


heUcline 'h£li,klain 

Helot, h- 'hslat, 'hilat |-ism -,izam |-ry -n 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee hi |pity *piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg iangrs' 'ag-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba© (§19) |ah a |far far |watch wat.J', wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 




help help |helped helpt |holp arch. 

past b" 

hennery 'hEnari 

pptc holp |holpen arch, pptc 'holpan 

henpeck 'hEn^pEk |-pecked -ipskt 

helpful 'helpfal |-ly -i 

Henrietta jhenri'Eta 

helpmate 'help^met |helpmeet 'helpjinit 

henry, H- 'hEnri 

Helsingfors 'helsitj^farz, -jfDrs; ES 


hepatic hi'paetik -a -a |-al -1 


Hephaestus hi'fEstas |-'s -iz 

Helsinki 'helsigki 

Hephzibah 'hEfziba 

helter-skelter 'hElta^'skElta^; ES 'helta'sktl- 

Hepplewhite 'hEpl^hwait 


heptagon 'hEptajgan; ES + -jgDn 

helve helv | helved htlvd 

heptagonal hEp'taeganl 

Helvetia hEi'viJa, -/la |-n -n 

heptameter hEp'taemata'; ES -'t£emata(r 

Helvetii hel'vi/ijai 

heptarchy, H- 'hEptarki; ES -ta:ki, E + -ta:ki 

hem liEm |hemmed h£md 

Heptateuch 'hEpta^tjuk, -jtiuk, -;tuk 

Hemans 'hemanz, 'himanz |-'s -iz 

Hepzibah Pyncheon 'hEpziba'prntJan 

hematic, hae- hi'maetik 

her stressed 'hy, jhs'; ES 'h3(r, ihsir, 'by, ^by; 

hematite, haem- 'hEmajtait 

tmstr. ^, ba^; ES a(r, ha(r 

hemicycle 'hEinajSaikl 

Hera 'bira, 'bira 

hemicyclic jhEma'saiklik, -'sik- 

Heracles 'bErajkliz |-'s -iz 


Heraclitus jbEra'klaitas |-'s -iz 

ES -jkwev3(r 

Herakles 'bEra^kHz |-'s -iz 

hemin, hae- 'himin 

herald 'bErald, bErld |-ed -id |-ry -ri 

Hemingway 'hEinig^we 

heraldic bE'raeldik |-al -1 -ally -li, -ikli 

hemiplegy 'hEinijplidsi |-gia ^liEini'plidsia 

herb yb, hyb; ES sb, bsb, yb, hyb 

hemisphere 'hEinasjfir; ES -jfi3(r, S-i- 


herbaceous hy'bejas; ES bs-, by- 

hemispheric jhema'sfErik |-al -1 |-ally 


herbage 'ybids, 'byb-; ES 'sb-, 'bsb-, %b-. 

hemispheroid jhEma'sfiroid 


hemistich 'hEma^stik 

herbal 'bybl, 'ybl; ES 'bsbj, 'sbl, 'hs-bl, 'ybl; 

hemlock 'hemlak; ES-f-lok 

|-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 

hemoglobin, haem- jhima'globm, jhEina- 

herbarium hy'bEriam, -'baer-, -'ber-; ES hs-. 

hemophiha, haem- ^hima'filia, jhEma- 

by-; |-s -z |-ia -la 

hemorrhage, haem- 'hEmarids, 'hEmrids |-s 

Herbert 'byba^t; ES 'bsbat, 'bybat 


herbiferous hy'bifaras; ES bs-, by- 

hemorrhoid, haem- 'hEmajtaid, 'hEiiiji 


herbivorous by'bivaras; ES bs-, by- 

hemp hEmp hempen 'hEmpan |-seed - 


Herculaneum ihykja'leniam; ES ihs-, jby- 

Hempl, George, Am scholar 'hEmpl 

•herculean, H- by'kjuban, -'kiul-, jbykja'lian; 

hemstitch 'hEmjStitJ -es -iz |-ed -t 

ES -3-, -y- 

hen hEn [henbane 'hEn^ben 

Hercules 'b^kjajiz; ES 'bs-, 'bs^-; |-'s -iz 

hence Hehs 

herd byd; ES bsd, hyd; -ed -id 

henceforth jhEns'forO, -'farG; ES 


Herder Ger poet 'hErda^; ES 'hEada(r 


herdsman 'bydzman; ES 'bsdz-, 'bydz-; 

henceforward jhEns'farwa'd; ES -'faawad 

|-nien -man 

henchman 'hEntJman |-men -man 

here bir; ES bia(r, S+bjea(r, biia(r, iEa(r, 

hencoop 'hEn^kup, -jkup — see coop 


hendiadys hEn'daiadis 

Here 'biri=Hera 

henequen, -quin %Enakin 

hereabout jbira'baut, 'bira^baut; S+5ee here 

Hengist 'hEggist, 'hEndsist 

hereafter bir'aefta^; ES bir'aefta(r, E-h-'af-, 

Henley 'hEnli 

-'af-, S+see here 

henna 'hEna |hennaed 'hEnad 

hereat hir'aet; S-f-see here 

Hennepin 'hEnapin {Fr En'p^) 

hereby bir'bai; ES bia'bai, S+5ee here 

|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while bwail [how bau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




hereditable ha'redatabl |-bly -bli 
hereditament jhera'ditamant 
hereditary ha'redajteri |-dity -dati 
herefor hir'far; ES hia'faaCr, S+5ee here 
Hereford 'herafa'd, by Am stockmen usually 

'hyfa^d; ES 'herafad, 'hsf-, 'hyfad; |-shire 

-Jir, -JV; ES -Ji3(r, -/aCr 
herefrom hir'fram, -'from; ES hia-, S+5ee 

herein hir'in; S+^ee here 
hereinafter jhirin'aef ta^ ; ES -'aeftaCr, E+-'af-, 

-'af-, 'Si+see here 
hereinbefore jhirinbi'tor, -'far; ES -'fo3(r, 

E + -'f33(r, ?>+see here 
hereinto hir'intu, -tu; S+^ee here — acct + 

hereof hir'av, -'af, -'d-; S+i'ee here 
hereon hir'an, -'on, -'an; S+see here 
heresy 'hsrasi jheretic 'heratik 
heretical ha'retikl |-ly -i, -ikh 
hereto hir'tu; ES hia'tu, S + see here 
heretofore jhirta'for, -'far; ES ^hiata'foa(r, 

E + -'faa(r, S+^ee here 
hereunder hir'Anda^; ES -'Anda(r, S+^ee here 
hereunto hir'Antu, -tu; S+^ee here — acct+ 

hereupon ;hira'pan, -'pon, -'pan; S+5ee here 
Hereward 'herawa^d; ES 'herawad 
herewith hir'wiG, -'wi?i; ES hia-, S+^ee here; 

cf wherewith 
Herford 'hyfa^d; ES 'hsfad, 'hyfad 
Hergesheimer 'hygas,haim3'; ES 'hsgas- 

jhaima(r, 'hygas;haima(r 
Herington 'herigtan 
heriot, H- 'heriat 
heritable 'heratabl |-bly -bli 
heritage 'hcratids |-tance -tans [-s -iz 
heritor 'hsrata^; ES 'herata(r 
Herkimer 'hykama^; ES 'h3kama(r, 'hyka- 

herl hyl; ES hsl, hyl 
Herman 'hyman; ES 'hsm-, 'hym- 
hermaphrodite hy'maefrajdait; ES hs-, hy- 
hermaphroditic hy/mafra'ditik; ES h3-,hy-; 

l-al -1 l-ally -h, -ikli 
hermeneutic jhyman'jutik, -ma'niutik, -'nu-; 

ES jhs-, jhy-; |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikk 
Hermes 'hymiz; ES 'hsmiz, 'hymiz; l-mes' 

hermetic hy'metik; ES ha-, hy-; |-al -1 

l-ally -h, -ikli 
Hermia 'hymia, -mja; ES 'hsm-, 'hym- 
Hermione hy'maiani; ES ha-, by 
hermit 'bymit; ES 'ham-, 'ham-; |-age -ids 

I -ages -idsiz 
Hermon 'hyman; ES 'ham-, 'ham- 
hernia 'bynia, -nja; ES 'han-, 'ban-; |-s -z 

|-niae -ni,i 
hero, H- 'hiro, 'biro 
Herod 'herad |-rodian he'rodian 
Herodias ha'rodias, he- |-'s -iz 
Herodotus ha'radatas; ES + -'rDd-; |-'s -iz 
heroic bi'ro-ik, ha-, he- |-al -1 |-ally -li |-icly 

heroin, H- drug 'hero-in 
heroine 'heroic woman' 'bero-m 
heroism 'berojizam 
heron 'beran |-ry -ri 
heronsew, -sewe arch, 'heran^sju, -;Siu, -jSu 

|-shaw -j/a 
herpes 'hypiz; ES 'ha-, 'by- 
herpetology jbypa'taladsi; ES jbap-, jhyp-, 

Herr Ger title her; ES bea(r 
Herrick 'herik 
herring 'berig |-bone -jbon 
Herriot Ain pers. name 'heriat, Fr statesman 

hers hyz; ES haz, byz 
Herschel 'by/al; ES 'ha/-, 'by/- 
herself h3''self, + //" "oi initial or after a pause 

3^'self; ES ha-, a- 
Hertford US 'bytfa^d; ES 'batfad, 'ba-tfad; 

Engd 'harfa^d, 'bartfa^d; ES 'ha:fad, 

'ha:tfad, E + 'ha:-; |-shire -iJir, -JV; ES 

- Ji3(r, -Ja(r 
Herts short for Hertfordshire harts, byts; ES 

harts, hats, byts, E+ha:ts 
Hertz berts, byts; ES heats, hats, hyts; |-'s 

-IZ |-ian -lan 
he's abhr. spelling o/he has, he is, stressed 'hiz, 

jhiz; unstr. iz, iz, biz, hiz 
Hesiod 'bisiad, 'bes- 
Hesione hi'saiani, he- 
hesitance 'hezatans |-cy -i |-tant -tant 
hesitate 'bezajtet |-d -id |-tion jbeza'te/an 
Hesper 'bespa^; ES 'hespa(r 
Hesperia bes'piria |-n -n 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet jet |sang saeg |angr\- 'aeg-gn 
|bath bicG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 



high -test 

Hesperides hes'perajdiz 

hiccup 'hikAp, 'hikap |-ed -t 

Hesperus 'hesparas |-'s -iz 

hickory, H- 'hikri, 'hikari 

Hesse Ger region hes, 'hesi {Ger Hessen 

hickory-nut ^hikrmat, 'hikari-, -^iiAt, dial. 

'hesan) — The Ger word Hesse 'hesa means 


'resident of Hesse' (Ger Hessen). 

hid hid 

Hessian 'he/an 

hidalgo, H- hi'daelgo (Sp i'tJalgo) 

hest best 

hidden 'hidn |-ness 'hidnnis 

Hester 'hesta^; ES 'hestatf 

hide 'conceal' haid |hid hid |hidden 'hidn 

Hestia 'hsstia 

hide 'skin' haid hided 'haidid 

hetaera hi'tira |hetaira hi'taira 

hide-and-seek 'haidn'sik 

Hetch Hetchy Valley 'het/'hEtXi'vaeli 

hidebound 'haid^baund 

heterodox 'hetarajdaks, 'hetra-; ES + ^dnks; 

hideous 'hidias 


hie hai |hied haid 

heterodyne 'hetarajdam 

Hiems, h- 'haiamz |-'s -iz 

heterogeneity jhetaradsa'niati, jhctaro- 

hierarch 'haia^rark; ES -jaik, E+-jra:k; 

heterogeneous jhetara'dsinias, -njas 


heteronym 'hetarajnim 

hieratic jhaia'rjetik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 

heterosyllabic jhetajro-si'laebik 

hieroglyph 'haiara^ghf, 'haira- 

hetman 'hetman \pl hetmans 'hetmanz 

hieroglyphic jhaiara'ghfik, jhaira- |-al -1 

hew hju, hiu \past -ed -d \pptc -ed -d or -n -n 

l-ally -h, -ikh 

hex heks |hexes 'heksiz |hexed hekst 

Hieronymus jhaia'ranamas, -'rnn- 

hexachord 'heksajkard; ES -jkaad 

higgle 'higl |-d -d -ling 'highrj, ^higlig 

hexa-emeron jheksa'cmajran, ES + -jrDn 

higgledy-piggledy 'higldi'pigldi 

hexagon 'heksajgan, -gan; ES + -jgDn 

high hai |-er 'haia^; ES 'hai-a(r; |-est -ist 

hexagonal heks'aeganl |-ly -i 

Higham ^haiam 

hexagram 'h8ksajgraem 

highball 'haijbal 

hexahedral jheksa'hidral 

highbinder 'haijbainda'; ES -jbainda(r 

hexahedron ^heksa'hidran |-s -z |-dra -dra 

highborn 'hai'barn; ES -'baan; ('high-born 

hexahemeron jheksa'hEmajran; ES+-jrDn 


hexameter heks'aemata^; ES -'aemata(r; |-ed -d 

highboy 'hai^bai 

hexane 'heksen 

highbred 'hai 'bred 

hexangular hEks'aeggjala^; ES -'aeggjalaCr 

high-brow 'hai^brau 

hexapla 'heksapla 

highfalutin, -ting, -ten ,haifa'lutn, -'hutn 

hexapod 'heksajpad; ES + -jpnd 

highflier 'haijflaia-; ES -jflai'3(r 

hexarchy 'heksarki; ES 'heksaiki, E+-a:ki 

high-flown 'hai'flon ('high-jflown 'speech) 

Hexateuch 'heksajtjuk, -jtiuk, -^tuk 

Highgate US 'hai^get, Engd 'haigit 

hey he [heyday 'he^de 

highhanded 'hai'haendid 

Heyne 'haina 

highjacker 'haijdsaeka^; ES -idgaekaCr 

He)rwood 'hewud 

highland, H- 'hailand |-er -a^; ES -a(r 

Hezekiah jheza'kaia 

highlight V 'haijlait |-ed -id 

hiatus hai'etas |-es -iz 

highminded 'hai'maindid 

Hiawatha jhaia'waOa, -VnOa 

high-pitched 'hai'pit/t ('high-,pitched 'note) 

hibernal hai'bynl; ES -'bsnl, -'bynl 

high-pressure 'hai'preja^; ES -'prs/aCr 

hibernate 'haiba^^net; ES -basnet; |-d -id 

highroad 'haijtod, -'rod 

hibernation jhaiba^'ne/an; ES jhaiba- 

high-spirited 'hai'spiritid 

Hibernia hai'bynia; ES -'bsn-, -'byn-; |-n -n 

high-strung 'hai'strAij ('high-jstrung 'nervesj 

■ l-nicism -najSizam 

hight arch, v 'call' 'called' bait 

hibiscus, H- hai'biskas, hi- |-es -iz 

hight var. sp. of height hait 

hiccough erroneous sp. for hiccup 

high-test 'hai'test 

|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




highth doublet of height haitO, Bril+haiQ — 
Highth is not an error for height, hut a pho- 
netically normal historical variant, found 
e.g. in Milton. 

high-toned 'hai'tond 

highty-tighty 'haiti'taiti 

highway 'haijwe 

highwayman 'robber' 'hai^weman, hai'we- 

highwayman 'road overseer' 'haiwe^maen 
|-men -jm£n 

hike haik | hiked haikt 

Hilaire hi'ler, -'laer; E -'kaCr, ES -laeaCr 

hilarious ha'krias, hi-, hai-, -'laer-, -'ler- 

hilarity ha'laerati, hi-, hai- 

Hilda 'Hilda 

Hildebrand 'hildsjbrasnd {Ger 'hildajbrant) 

Hildegarde 'hildajgard; ES -;ga:d, E + -jga:d 

hilding 'hildig 

hill hil I hilled hild 

hillbilly 'hil^bih 

HilUs 'hilis |-'s -iz 

hill-less 'hillis 

hillock 'hibk |hillocked 'hilakt 

hillside 'hil^said 

hilt hilt ihilted 'hiltid 

hilum 'hailam |-s -z |-la -la 

him stressed 'him, jhim; unstr. im, him 

Himalaya hi'malja, -'malaja, jhima'lea |-n -n 
i-s -z — In Engd the traditional Anglicized 
pron. still prevails (Jones says hi'malaja is 
rare), as it once did in America, but the pron. 
more like the native one has recently become 
frequent here. 

himself him's£lf,+?/ not initial or after a 
pause im'self 

hind haind 

hindbrain 'liaind^bren, 'ham- 
hinder 'hack' 'hainda^; ES 'haindafr 

hinder 'obstruct' 'hindaf; ES 'hindaCr; |-ed -d 
|-ing 'hindrig, 'hindarig 

hindermost 'hainda^jmost; ES 'hainda- 

Hindi 'hindi, 'hin'di 

hindmost 'haind^most, 'ham- 
Hindoo 'hindu, 'hin'du |-ism ^hindujzam 
|-stani jhindu'staeni, -'stani 

Hindostan ,hindu'staen, -'stan |-i -i 

hindquarter 'haind'kwarta', 'ham-; ES 

hindrance 'hindrans I-s -iz 

hindside 'hamd/Said, 'hain- 
hind-side-foremost 'hamdjsaid'forjmostj'hain-, 

-'far-; ES -'foa-, E-f--'faa- 
hindsight 'haind^sait, 'ham- 
Hindu 'hindu, 'hin'du ('Hin^du 'races) 
Hinduism 'hmdujizam 
Hindu Kush 'hmdu'kuj, -du- 
Hindustan jhmdu'stsen, -'stan |-i -i 
hinge hinds |hinges 'hindsiz |hinged hindsd 
Hingham 'higam 
hinny 'hini 
Hinsdale 'hmzdel 
hint hint [hinted 'hmtid 
hinterland 'hmta^jlaend; ES 'hinta-; {Ger 

hip hip |hipped hipt |-bone -'bon, -^bon 
hippocampus jhipa'kaempas |-es -iz |-pi -pai 
hippocras 'hipajkraes 

Hippocrates hi'pakrajtiz; ES + -'pDk-; j-'s -iz 
Hippocratic ,hipa'kraetik 
Hippocrene 'hipa/krin, jhipa'krini 
hippodrome 'hipa,drom 
hippogriff, -gryff 'hipa,grif 
Hippolyta hi'palita; ES-h-'pnl-; |-tus -tas 

|-tus's -tasiz 
hippopotamus ^hipa'patamas; ES + -'pDt-; 

|-es -IZ |-mi -^mai 
Hiram 'hairam 

hircine 'hysain, -sin; ES 'hs-, 'hy- 
hire hair; ES haia(r; |-d -d [-ling -lig 
Hirohito jhiro'hito 
Hirsch hy/; ES hsj, hsj"; |-'s -iz 
hirsute 'hysut, -siut, -sjut; ES 'hs-, 'hy- 
his stressed 'hiz, jhiz; unstr. iz, hiz — When 

entirely unstressed, his has no h, just like he, 

her, him, 'em, it. 
Hispania his'penia, -nja |-nic his'paenik 
Hispaniola ^hispan'jola 
hispid 'hispid |hispidity his'pidati 
Iiiss his |hisses 'hisiz |hissed hist 
hist hist |histed 'histid 
histology his'taladji; ES-h-'toI- 
historian his'torian, -'tor-; S -'tor- 
historic his'tarik, -'tank, -'tnrik ]-al -1 |-alty 

-h, -ikh 
historicity ^hista'risati 
historiographer jhistori'agrafa', hiSjton-, -an, 

-'og-; S -on-, ES -fa(r 
history 'histri, 'histari |-ried -rid 

Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg |angry 'asg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wot/, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards Igo go 




histrionic ^histri^anik; ES + -'Dn-; |-al -1 

Hoboken 'hobokan 

|-ally -Ii, -ikh 

Hobson 'habsn; ES-f-'hobsn 

hit hit 

hock hak; ES+hnk; |-ed -t 

hit-and-miss ^hitn'mis 

hockey 'haki; ES + 'hoki 

hit-and-run 'hitn'rAn ('hit-and-^run 'driver) 

hocus 'hokas |hocuses 'hokasiz [hocused 

hitch hit/ Ihitches 'hitjiz |hitched hit/t 


hitchhike 'hit/^haik | -hiked -^haikt 

hocus-pocus 'hokas'pokas [-ed -t 

hithe, H- halts 

hod had; ES-f-hod 

hither 'hitJa^; ES 'hitJa(r; [-most -jmost 

Hodgenville 'hadsan^vil; ES-f-'hodj-, S+-vl 

hitherto ^hitSa^'tu; ES ^hitJa-; (' 

hodgepodge 'hads^pads; ES-f'hndsjpods; 


|-s -iz |-d -d 

hitherward 'hitJa'wa'd ; ES 'hitiawad; [-s -z 

hodman-bhnd 'hadman'blaind; ES+'hod-; 

Hitler 'hitla^; ES 'hitlaCr; |-ism -jizam [-ite 

see hoodman-blind 


hoe ho jhoed hod [-cake -jkek 

Hitlerian hit'lirian 

hog hag, hag, hog; S hag, hag, hng; [ged -d 

hit-or-miss 'hita^'mis; ES 'hita^mis 

Hogarth 'hogarO; ES -ga:0, E-|--ga:0 

hit-skip 'hit'skip |-ped -t ('hit-^skip 'driver) 

Hogarthian ho'garOian; ES -'ga:0-, E-f- 

Hittite 'hitait 


hive haiv | hived harvd 

hogback 'hag^baek, 'hag-, 'hog- |-ed -t — c/hog 

h'm, hm hm — the h nasal, w-ith closed lips 

hogmanay jhagma'ne, jhog- 

ho ho 

hognose 'hag^noz, 'hag-, 'hog- j-d -A—cf hog 

hoar, H- hor, har; ES ho3(r, E-i-hosCr 

hognut 'hagjnAt, 'hag-, 'hng-, -nat — cf hog 

hoard herd, hard; ES hoad, E-t-haad; |-ed -id 

hogshead 'hagz^hed, 'hagz-, 'hogz-, -zid — cf 

hoarfrost 'hor^frast, 'har-, -^frDst; ES 'hoa-, 



hogwash 'hagjwaj", 'hag-, 'hog-, -iWa/, -jWdJ 

hoarhound 'horjhaund, 'har-; ES 'hoa-. 

—cf hog 


Hohenlinden 'hoan^hndan 

hoarse hors, hars; ES hoas, E-i-haas 

Hohenstaufen Ger jho:an'/taiifan 

hoary 'hori, 'hari; S 'hori 

Hohenzollern 'hoan^zala^n; ES -jzalan, -jZdI-: 

hoaryheaded 'hori'h£did, 'hari-; S 'hori-; 

{Ger jho:an'tsalarn) 

('hoary jheaded 'joke) 

hoicks haiks 

hoax hoks |hoaxes 'hoksiz [hoaxed hokst; 

hoiden 'haidn |-ed -d j-ing -dniij, -dnig 

\NEngd+}x6ks {§46) 

hoi polloi 'haipa'lai 

hob hab; ES+hob; |-bed -d 

hoise arch, haiz jhoised haizd or hoist haist 

hob-and-nob 'haban'nab; ES + 'hoban'nnb 

hoist V pres haist |-ed -id 

Hobart Tasni 'hoba^t, -bart, US pers. name 

hokeypokey 'hoki'poki 

'hoba^t; ES -bat, -ba:t 

Hokkaido ha'kaido, ho- 

Hobbes habz; ES-t-hnbz; |-'s -iz 

hokum 'hokam 

hobble 'habl; ES + 'hnbl; ]-d -d |-Ung -blig, 

Holbein 'holbam, 'hal-, 'hol- 


Holborn Loud 'hoba^n, 'hoi-; ES -ban; Scotl 

hobbledehoy 'habldi.hai; ES-f 'hob- 

hol'bom, -'bam; ES -'boan, E + -'baan 

hobby 'habi; ES-i-'hobi; |-horse -^hars; ES 

hold hold [held held \arch. pptc hoiden 'holdan 


holdall 'holdpl 

hobgobHn 'hab^gabbn; ES-t-'hob^gobbn 

holdback 'hold^baek 

hobman-blind 'habman'blaind; ES-f'hnb-; 

Hoiden 'holdan, -dm 

see hodman-blind 

holder 'holda^; ES 'holda(r 

hobnail 'hab^nel; ES-h'hob-; |-ed -d 

holdfast 'hold.faest; E-t--,fasf, -,fast 

hobnob 'hab^nab; ES+'hob^nnb; |-bed -d 

holdup 'holdjAp 

hobo 'hobo 

hole hoi jholed hold 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fs'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fmz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




holiday 'habjde; ES + 'hnl- 

holiness, H- 'holinis |-'s -iz 

Holinshed 'hahnzjhEd, 'halnij/ed; ES + 

'hoi-; -]Jed is a sp. pron.; the second part= 

holla 'hala, ha 'la — see hollo 
Holland 'habnd; ES+'hnl- 
hollandaise ^halan'dez; ES+^hul-; ('hollan- 

jdaise 'sauce) 
hollo 'halo, ha'lo — This 'wordb'\io\\diare hardly 

in current use. The living word is holler 

'hala^; ES 'hal3(r, 'hoi-, shunned by many. 
hollow 'halo, 'hab; ES + 'hnl-; |-ed -d |-ing 

-bwiij |-er -lawa^; ES -W3(r; |-est -lawist 
holly 'hah; ES + 'hoh 
hollyhock 'hah,hak, -jhok; ES + 'hoh^faDk; 

The pronunciation 'hah^hok is evidenced 
from all parts of US and from Canada. 
Hollywood 'hahjwud; ES + 'holi- 
holm horn 

Holmes homz; NEtigd+h'6mz (§46) |-'s -iz 
holmia 'holmia |holmium 'holmiam 1-mic 

holocaust 'halajkast; ES + 'hol- 
Holof ernes, -pher- jhab'fyniz; ES jhab- 

'faniz, jhnl-, -'fyniz; |-nes' -niz 
holograph 'hab^graef; ES + 'hol-, E+-^graf, . 

holophote 'habjfot; ES + 'hnl- 
holp arch, past &' pptc of help help 
holpen arch, pptc of help 'holpan 
Holstein 'holstain, with US farmers usually 

'holstin {Ger 'halXtain) 
Holstein-Friesian 'holstain'frisan, -stin- 
holster 'holsta^; ES -st3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 'hol- 

starig, 'holstrig 
holt, H- holt; NEngd+Kolt {§46) 
holy 'hoh |holily 'holali, -hh 
holyday 'holi,de 

Holyhead Wales 'hah.hed, -'hed; ES + 'tnli- 
Holyoke 'holijok. Mass city cf college 'holjok 
Holyrood Scotl 'halijrud; ES + 'hnli- 
holystone 'holi/Ston |-d -d 
holy tide 'holi^taid 

Holywell 'halijW£l, -wal; ES + 'hnli- 
homage 'hamids, 'am-; ES + 'hom-, 'nm-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
hombre Sp 'man' bmbre \pl -bres -bres 
hombre 'omber' 'amba^; ES 'ambaCr, 'nm- 

home hom |homed homd; \A^Engd+K6m 

homebred 'hom'bred ('home-bred 'mink) 
homeland 'homeland 
homelike 'hom,laik 
homely 'homh; A^Eng^+'hb'mli {§46) 
homemade 'hom'med 
homemaker 'honijmeka^; ES -^mekaCr 
homeopath 'homi3jpae6 |-ths -6s 
homeopathic jhomia'pseOik |-ally -li, -ikh 
homeopathist jhomi'apaGist; ES+-'dp-; |-thy 


homer 'homa^; ES 'homaCr 

Homer 'homa^; ES 'homaCr 

Homeric ho'inerik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikli 

homesick 'hom^sik 

homespun 'honijSpAn 

homestead, H- 'homjSted, 'homstid 

homestretch 'hom'stret/ |-es -iz 

homeward 'homwa-d; ES 'homwad 

homework 'hom^wyk; ES -^wsk, -^wyk 

homey 'homi 

homicidal jhama'saidl; ES+-ihDm-; |-ly -i 

homicide 'hamajsaid; ES + 'hom- 

homiletic jhama'ktik; ES + ihnm-; |-al -1 

l-ally -li, -ikh 
homily 'hamli; ES+'hom- 
hominy 'hamani; ES + 'hom- 
homo, H- 'homo \pl homines 'hamayiiiz; 

ES + 'hom- 
homogamic jhoma'gasmik, ^ham-; ES + zhom- 
homogamy ho'magami, -'mng- 
homogeneity jhomadsa'niati, jham-; ES + 

homogeneous jhoma'dsLmas, ^ham-; ES + 

homogenesis jhoma'dsEnasis, jham-; ES + 

homogenize ho'mad33,naiz; ES+ -'mods- 
homologous ho'malagas; ES+-'mDl- 
homologue 'hamajbg, -jlag, -jlog; ES + 'hom- 
homology ho'maladsi; ES + -'mDl- 
homonym 'hama^nim; ES + 'liDm- 
homonymous ho'manamas; ES+-'mmi-; 

|-my -mi 
homophone 'ham3;fon; ES + 'hnm- 
homophonic jhama'fanik; ES + ihoma'tomk 
homophonous ho'mafanas; ES+-'mDf-; |-ny 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang S£eg langry 'asg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) [ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dga |gorge gards [go go 




homorganic jhomar'gaenik, jham-; ES jhomaa- 

Hooker 'huka^; ES 'hukaCr 

'gaenik, jham-, jhora- 

hookup 'hukjAp 

Homo sapiens 'homo'sepiiCnz 

hookworm 'huk^ws^m; ES -^wsm, -jwa^m 

homunculus ho'mAgkjabs -li -Jai 

hooky 'huki 

Honan 'ho'naen, -'nan(C/ww 'xA'nan) 

hooligan 'huhgan [-ism -jizam 

Honduran han'duran, -'diur-, -'djur-; ES + 

hoop hup, hup [-ed -t 

hnn-; |-ras -ras |-ras's -rasiz 

hooping-cough 'hupigjkof, 'hupig-, -jknf 

hone hon [honed hond 

hoopoe 'hupu 

honest Wist; ES + 'nn-; |-y -i 

hooray hu're, hu- 

honey 'hAni jhoneyed 'liAnid |-bee -jbi 

Hoosac 'husak, -saek 

honeycomb 'hAni,kom |-ed -d 

hoosegow, hoosg- 'husgau 

honeydew 'hAnijdju, -jdni, -^du 

Hoosic, -sick 'husik 

honeymoon 'hAnijinun |-ed -d 

Hoosier 'husa-; ES 'husaCr 

honeysuckle 'hAiu^sAkl |-d -d 

hoot hut [hooted 'hutid 

honey-tongued 'hAni'tAijd ('honey-jtongued 

Hoover 'huva^; ES 'buva(r 


hooves pi of hoof huvz, huvz 

Hong Kong 'hag'kag, 'hon'kng 

hop hap; ES+hnp; |-ped -t 

Honiton 'hanitn, loc. 'hAnitn; ES + 'hnn- 

Hopatcong ho'paetkqg, ha-, -kog 

honk 'hogk, 'haok, 'hogk |-ed -t 

hope, H- hop [hoped hopt; \NEngd+h'6p 

Honolulu jhana^la, -lu; ES + ^hon-; native 


'ho'noUuUu {even stress) 

Hopeh, -pei 'ho'pe 

honor 'ana'; ES 'an3(r, 'Dn3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

hoplite 'haplait; ES + 'hnp- 

-nang, -nrig [-able -abl, -nrsbl |-bly -bli 

hop-o'-my-thumb 'hapamai'OAm; ES4- 


honorarium jana'rEriam, -'raer-, -'rer-; ES + 

hopper 'hapaf; ES 'hapa(r, 'hep- 

jon-; |-s -z |-ria -na 

hopscotch 'hapjskatj"; ES + 'hop^skntj"; 

[-ed -t 

honorary 'an3,rEri; ES + 'on- 

Horace 'bans, 'bar-, 'bor-, -as [-'s -iz 

honoritic ^anaVifik; ES + ^Dn-; [-al -1 [-ally 

Horatian ha'rejan, bo-, -/lan 

-h, -ikli 

Horatio ba're/o, bo-, -J"io 

Honshu 'hanju, 'hon- 

Horatius ba'rejas, bo-, -Jias |-'s -iz 

hooch hutj 

horde hord, hard; ES boad, E+baad; 

1-d -id 

hood, H- hud |hooded 'hudid 

Horeb 'borab, 'bar-, -eb; S 'bor- 

-hood efiding, pron. -hud, -^hud according to 

Hore-BeUsha 'borba'lija, 'har-; ES 


number of syllables; as 'maenbud, 'laikh- 


jhud. The pron. of all such words omitted 

horehound 'bor^baund, 'bar-; ES 


from lite vocab. can be found by adding -hud 

E-i- 'baa- 

or -jhud directly to the main ward. 

horizon ba'raizn |-ed -d |-ing -'raizmg 

, -znig 

hoodlum 'hudbm 

horizontal ^bara'zantj, jbar-, ^bor-; 

ES + 

hoodman 'hudman |-men -man 

-'zon-; |-ly -i 

hoodman-blind 'hudman'blamd 

hormone 'barmon; ES 'baamon 

hoodoo 'hudu [hoodooed 'hudud 

Hormuz 'barniAz; ES 'baamAz; |-'s -iz 

hoodwink 'hud^wigk |-ed -t 

horn, H- barn; ES haan; |-ed -d 

hooey 'hui 

hornblende 'barnjbknd; ES 'haan- 

hoof huf , huf |-s -s \rarely hooves -vz |-ed -t — 

hornbook 'barn^buk; ES 'baan- 

The pronunciation huf clearly prevails in 

Hornell bar'nel; ES baa'nel 

the N, E, and S, and probably in Canada. 

Horner 'barna'; ES 'baana(r 

Hooghly, -gly 'hugh 

hornet 'barnit; ES 'baanit 

hook huk [hooked hukt 

Hornie 'bami; ES 'baam 

hookah, -ka 'huka 

horn-mad 'barn'maed; ES 'baan- 

hooked adj 'hukid, hukt |-ness 'hukidnis 

hornpipe 'bam,paip; ES 'baan- 

[full ful [tooth tuO [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fa'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while bwail jhow bau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'vijan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




horologe 'harajods, 'har-, 'hor-, -]lad5; 

ES+'Jods; |-s -iz 
horologer ho'raladsa^, ho-; ES -'raladsaCr, 

-'rol-; |-gist -dgist |-gy -dsi 
horoscope harajskop, 'har9-, 'hnra- 
horoscopy ho'raskapi, ha-; ES + -'rDS- 
horrendous ha'tEndas, ha-, ho- 
horrent 'harant, 'har-, 'hor- 
horrible 'harabj, 'har-, 'hur- |-bly -bli 
horrid 'hand, 'har-, 'hor- 
horrific ha'rifik, ha-, ho- 
horrification ^harafa'kejan, jhar-, ^hor- 
horrify 'hara^fai, 'har-, 'hor- |-fied -jfaid 
Horrocks 'haraks, 'har-, 'hnr- |-'s -iz 
horror 'hara', 'har-, 'hor-; ES -ra(r 
Horsa 'harsa; ES 'haasa 
hors de combat 'arda'kamha; ES 'aada-, 

-'kom-; {Fr ardako'ba) 
hors d'oeuvre ar'doevra, -'dAv; ES aa-; {Fr 

horse hars; ES haas; |-s -iz |-d -t 
horse-and-buggy adj 'harsn'bAgi; ES 'haas- 
horseback 'hars^baek; ES 'haas- 
horsecar 'harsjkar; ES 'ha3Sjka:(r, E + -jka:(r 
horsecloth 'hars^kbG, -^kloO |-ths -6s, -tSz — see 

horseflesh 'harsjfkj; ES 'haas- 
horsefly 'hars,flai; ES 'haas- 
horsehair 'harsjhcr, -^haer; E 'haasjh£a(r, ES 

horsehide 'hars,haid; ES 'haas- 
horse jockey 'harsjdsaki; ES 'haas-, -jdsoki 
horselaugh 'harsjaef; ES 'haas-, E + -jlaf, 

-^laf ; |-ed -t 
horseleech 'hars,litX; ES 'haas-; j-es -iz 
horseman rider, manager 'harsman; ES 

'haas-; |-men -man 
horseman racing sport, expert 'harsjinaen; ES 

'haas-; |-men -jin£n 
horseplay 'hars^ple; ES 'haas- 
horsepower 'harsjpaua^; ES 'ha3s,pau-a(r 
horse-radish 'hars'rajdi/; ES 'haas-; |-es -iz 
horseshoe 'harjjju, 'harsjju, -jjiu; ES 'haa/-, 

'haas-; |-d -d 
horsetail 'hars,tel; ES 'haas- 
horsewhip 'harsjhwip; ES 'haas-; |-ped -t 
horsewoman 'harsjwiiman, -jwum-; ES 

'haas-; |-women -jWimin — see woman 
Horsham 'harjam; ES 'haa/am; sp. pron. 

Horst Wessel 'harst'vssl; ES 'haast- 

horsy 'harsi; ES 'haasi 

hortative 'hartativ; ES 'haata- 

hortatory 'hartajton, -jtari; ES 'haata,ton, 

E + -;tari 
Hortense har 'tens; ES haa-; |-'s -iz (F,- 

Hortensia har'tensia, -Jia; ES ha- |-ius -s 

|-ius's -siz 
Hortensio har'tensi^o, -'tEnJjo; ES ha- 
horticulture 'hartiikAhJa- ; ES 'haatijk Alt/a (r 
hosanna, H- ho'zaena 
hose hoz |hoses 'hoziz |hosed hozd 
Hosea prophet ho'zia, pers. name ho'zia, 'hozia 

('Hojsea 'Biglow) 
hosier 'hosa^; ES 'ho3a(r; |-y -i, -sri 
Hosmer 'hazma^; ES 'hazma(r, 'hoz- 
hospice 'haspis, 'hns- |-s -iz 
hospitable 'haspitabl, 'hns-, much less freq. 

has'pitabl, hos- |-bly -hh 
hospital 'haspitl, 'has^pitl, 'hns- 
hospitality ;haspi'taelati, ^hos- 
hospitahzation jhaspitla'ze/an, jhns-, -ai'z- 
hospitahze 'haspitj^aiz, 'hos- |-s -iz |-d -d 
host host [hosted 'hostid 
hostage 'hastids; ES + 'hns-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
hostel 'hastl; ES + 'hos-; |-ry -ri 
hosteler 'hastla^; ES 'hastla(r, 'hns- 
hostess 'hostis [hostesses 'hostisiz 
hostile 'hastl, -til: ES + 'hos- 
hostility has'tilati; ES+hos- 
hostler 'hasla^, 'asla^; ES 'hasla(r, 'asla(r 

'hos-, 'ds- 
hot hat; ES+hnt 
hotbed 'hat^btd; ES + 'hnt- 
hot-blooded 'hafbUdid; ES + 'hot- 
hotbox 'hatjbaks; ES + 'hot^boks; |-es -iz 
hot-breathed 'hat'breet; ES + 'hnt- 
hotchpot 'hat/jpat; ES + 'hot/jpot 
hotchpotch 'hat/ipatj; ES + 'hot/jpotJ"; |-es 

-IZ |-ed -t 
hotel ho't£l ('Hojtel 'Cleveland) 
hotfoot 'hat.fut; ES + 'hnt-; i-ed -id 
hothead 'hatched; ES-i- 'hot- 
hotheaded 'hat'hedid; ES + 'hnt- 
hothouse 'hat,haus; ES + 'hnt-; |-ses -ziz 
hotspur, H- 'hatjspy; ES 'hatjsp3(r, -/spy, 

Hottentot 'hatn,tat; ES + 'hotn^tot 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee hi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jst [sang saeg |angn,- 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dja |gorge gards |go go 




Houdini hu^dini 

Howard 'haua^d; ES %au«ad 

hough hak; ES+hok; [-ed -t (Sc hox) 

howbeit hau'biit 

Hough hAf, hoi, hai, hni 

howdah 'hauda 

Houghton 'hotn, 'hautn, 'hotri 

how-do-you-do ^haudaJaMu, 'haudaju'du. 

Houlton 'holtn 

'haudaji'du, 'haudja'du, 'haudju'du, 'hau- 

hound haund |hounded 'haundid 

di'du, 'haud'du 

Hounslow 'haunzlo 

how-dy-do 'haudi'du 

hour aur; ES aua(r 

howe'er hau'er; ES hau'ea(r 

hourglass 'aur^glaes; ES ^aua-, E+-]glas, 

Howells 'haualz |-'s -iz 

-iglas; |-es -iz 

however hau'eva^; ES hau'£va(r 

houri 'huri, 'hauri 

howitzer 'hauitsa^; ES 'hauitsa(r 

Housatonic jhusa'tanik; ES+-'tDn-; loc.+ 

howl haul [howled hauld [-er -a^; ES -a(r 


howlet 'haukt 

house n haus [house's 'hausiz [houses 'hauziz 

howsoever jhauso'eva'; ES -'8va(r 

house V hauz [houses 'hauziz [housed hauzd 

hoy hai [hoyed hoid 

houseboat 'hausjbot [-ed -id 

hoyden 'haidn [-ed -d [-ing -dnig, -dnig 

housebreaking 'haus,brekig 

hub hAb [hubbed hAbd 

housebroken 'haus^brokan 

Hubbell 'hAbl 

housecarl 'hausjkarl; ES -^ka:l, E+'^ka:! 

hubbub 'hAbAb 

housefly 'haus^flai 

Hubert 'hjuba^t, %iu-; ES -bat 

houseful 'hausjful [fuls -jfulz 

huckaback 'hAka^baek 

household ^aus^hold, -jold 

huckle 'hAkl [-back -jbaek (-backed -jbaekt 

housekeeper ^hauSikipa*; ES -jkipaCr 

huckleberry, H- 'hAkl^beri, -ban 

housel 'hauzl [houseled 'hauzld 

hucklebone 'hAkjjbon 

houseless 'hauslis 

huckster 'hAkst*; ES 'hAksta(r 

housemaid 'haus^med 

hucksterer 'hAkstara^; ES 'hAkstara(r 

house-raising 'haus^rezio 

huddle 'hAdl |-d -d [ling ^hAdhg, 'hAdhg 

housetop 'hausjtap; ES+-jtDp 

Hudibras 'hjudi^braes, 'hiu- [-'s -iz 

housewarming 'hauSjWDrmig; ES -jWDamig 

Hudibrastic jhjudi'braestik, jhiu- 

housewife ^wommi' 'hausjwaif |-ves -vz 

Hudson 'hAdsn 

housewife 'sewing-kit' 'hAzif, 'haus^waif |-fes 

hue hju, hiu jhued hjud, hiud 

-fs [-ves -vz 

Huebner 'hjubna^, 'hiub-, 'hib-; ES -na(r; 

housewife v 'haus^waif |-s -s [-d -t 

{Ger 'hy:bnar) 

housewifery 'hausjwaifn, -fan, 'hAzifri 

Huerta 'werta {Sp Verta) 

housework 'hausjwyk; ES -jwsk, -jwyk 

huff hAf [huffed hAft 

housing 'hauzig 

hug hAg [hugged hAgd 

Housman 'hausman 

huge hjudg, hiuds, judj 

Houston Tex soldier b" city 'hjustan, 'hius-; 

huggermugger 'hAga^^mAga^; ES 'hAga^mAgaCr 

Eng botanist 'hustan, NYC street, Ga co. 

Hugh h)u, hiu 

'haustan, Scotl 'hustan 

Hughes hjuz, hiuz |-'s -iz 

Houyhnhnm hu'inam, ^winam, ^hwin- 

Hugh 'hugk 

''m^m^m — 

Hugo %jugo, 'hiugo 

hove n &° past of heave hov 

Huguenot 'hjugajnat, 'hiu-; ES-h-^nrat 

hovel %Avl, much less freq. 'havl; ES + 'hDvl; 

huh hA {nasal a) &" various other grunts 

[-ed -d [-ing -vlig, -vlig 

Huidekoper 'haidi^kopa^; ES -;kopa(r 

hover 'hAva^, imich less freq. 'hava^; ES -V3(r, 

hula or hula-hula 'hula, 'hula 'hula 

'hov-; j-ed -d [-ing -varig, -vrig 

hulk hAlk [hulked hAlkt 

how hau 

hull hAl [hulled hAld 

How(e) hau 

hullabaloo 'hAlabajlu, 'hAlaba'lu 

[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipni 




hullo ha'lo Ihulloed ha'lod 

humph hmmm b° various other grimts C7° nasal 

Hulme hjum, hium, hAlm 


Hultzen hul'tsen 

Humphrey, -ry 'hAmfn, 'Am-, -pfri |-s -z 

hum hAm jhummed hAmd 

l-s' -z 

human 'hjuman, 'hiuman, 'juman |-ness 

humus 'hjumas, 'hiu- 


Hun hAn 

humane hju'men, hiu'men, ju'men |-ness 

hunch hAntJ" [hunches 'hAntJiz [hunched 



humanism 'hjumaiiiizam, 'hiu- |-ist -ist 

hunchback 'hAntJjbaek [-backed -jbtekt 

humanitarian hju^maena'tErian, hiu-, -'ter-, 

hundred 'hAndrad, -drid, -da'd; ES -drad. 

^hjumaena-, jhiu- 

-drid, -dad; [th -e [-fold -'fold, -,fold 

humanity hju'maenati, hiu- 

j-weight -'wet, -jwet — 'hAnd»d, -dad Jias 

Humber 'hAmba^; ES 'hAmb3(r 

been current from the 14c to Tennyson and 

Humbert ^Amba^t; ES 'hAmbat 

King George V. 

humble 'hAmbl, Umbl |-d -d — The historical 

hung hAQ 

Umbl is well preserved in the S. 

Hungary 'hAugari |-rian hAg'gEnan, -'ger- 

bumblebee 'hAmbl^bi 

hunger 'hAgga^; ES 'hAgga(r; [-ed -d |-ing 

humbler 'hAmbla^, Um-; ES -blaCr; |-blest 

'hAggarig, 'hAggrig |-gry -gri 

-bhst |-bly -bk 

hunh hA (nasal a) a' other similar sounds 

Humboldt 'hAmboIt {per 'humbalt) 

hunk hAgk 

humbug 'hAitiybAg [humbugged 'hAm,bAgd 

hunky 'hAgki 

humdrum 'hAm^drAm |humdrunimed 'hAm- 

hunky-dory jhAgki'dori, -'dan; S -'don 


Hunnish 'hAmJ 

Hume hjum, hium 

hunt hAnt hunted 'hAntid 

humerus 'hjumaras, 'hiu- |-es -iz |-ri -{tai 

hunter, H- 'hAnta^; ES 'hAnta(r 

humid 'hjumid, 'hiumid 

Hunterian hAii'tinan 

humidify hju'midajfai, hiu- |-fied -jfaid 

Huntingdon 'hAntigdan [-shire -i/ir, -Ja'; ES 

humidity hju'midati, hiu- 

- Jia(r, -Ja(r 

humidor 'hjumijdar, 'hiu-; ES -jd3a(r 

Huntington 'hAntigtan 

humiliate hju'imlijCt, hiu- |-ated -/Ctid 

Hunts short for Huntingdonshire hAnts 

humiliation hjujimli'ejan, hiu-, jhjumili-. 

huntsman 'hAntsman -men -man 


hurdle 'hydl; ES 'hsdl, 'hydl; [d -d [-Ung 

humiliatory hju'mihajtori, biu-, -^tari; S 

-dhg, -dhg 


hurdy-gurdy 'hydijgydi; ES 'hsdijgsdi. 

humility hju'milati, hiu- 


hummer 'hAma^; ES 'hAin3(r 

hurl hyl; ES hsl, bs^l; |-ed -d 

hummingbird 'hAmiQjbyd; ES -^bsd, -^byd 

hurly-burly 'hylijbs'li; ES 'hsli^bsli, 'hyli- 

hummock 'hAmak |hummocked 'hAmakt 


humor 'hjumy, 'hiu-, 'ju-; ES -ma(r; |-ed -d 

Huron 'hjuran, 'hiu- 

|-ing -mariij, -inrig — The pron. 'juma'. 

hurrah ha'ra, ha'ra, hu- 

'juma(r is most likely to occzir in 'sense of 

hurray ha 're, hu- 

humor,' 'mood,'' and in the verb. 

hurricane 'hyijken; ES 'hsn-, 'hAn-, 'hyi- 

humoresque jhjumaVesk, jhiu- 

hurry 'hyi; ES 'hsn, 'hAn, 'hyi; [-ried -d 

humorist 'hjumarist, 'hiu-, 'ju- 

hurry-scurry, -sk- 'hs'i'skyi; ES 'hsn'sksn. 

humoristic jhjumaVistik, jhiu-, jju- |-al -1 

'hAn'skAn, 'hyi'skyi [-ried -d 

humorous 'hjumaras, 'hiu-, 'ju- 

hurt hyt; ES hst, hyt; |-ful -fal [-fully -fall 

hump hAmp [humped hAmpt 

hurtle 'hytl; ES 'hstl, 'hs^tl; |-d -d [-Ung 

humpback 'hAmpjbaek [-backed -jbaekt 

-thg, -thg 

Humperdinck 'humpa^jdigk; ES 'humpa- 

husband 'hAzband [husbanded 'hAzbandid 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angn*^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath bae6; E ba6 (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wutj" (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




husbandman 'hAzbandman, -banman j-men 

husbandry 'hAzbandri 
hush HaJ I hushed hAjt |-edly -idli 
hushaby 'hAjajbai 
Hushai 'hju/ijai, 'hiu-, -Jai 
husk hAsk I husked hAskt 
husky 'hAski | Husky 'hAski 
Huss Has |Huss's 'Hasiz |-ite -ait 
hussar hu'zar; ES hu'za:(r, E+-'za:(r 
hussy 'Hasi, 'Hazi 
hustings 'hAstigz 

hustle 'hAsl |-d -d |-ling ^hAshg, 'hAs]ig 
huswife 'hAzif 
hut hAt Ihutted 'hAtid 
hutch hAt/ [hutches 'hAtJiz [hutched hAtJt 
Hutten, von fan'hutn 
Huxley 'hAksli 
Huygens ^haiganz 
huzza ha^za, hu'za 
Hwang-ho 'hwseij'ho, 'hwag- 
hyacinth, H- ^hais^sinO |-ths -Os 
Hyads 'haiadz |Hyades 'haia^diz 
hyaena hai'ina 
hyaline 'haislin 
hyalogen hai^£el3d33n, -dsm 
Hyannis hai'aenis |-'s -iz 
Hybla 'haibb 

hybrid ^haibrid |-ity hai^bridati 
hybridization jhaibrida'zefan, -ai'z- 
hybridize 'haibrid^aiz \-s -iz [-d -d 
Hydaspes hai^dsespiz |-pes' -piz 
Hyderabad, Hydra- 'haidsrs^b^d, jhaidara- 

'bad, 'haidra-, ^haidra- 
Hydra 'haidra |-s -z |-drae -dri 
hydracid hai'draesid 

hydrangea, H- hai'drendsa, -'draendsia, -dsa 
hydrant 'haidrant 
hydrate n 'haidret, -drit 
hydrate v 'haidret |hydrated 'haidretid 
hydraulic hai'drolik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 
hydride ^haidraid, -dnd |drid -drid 
hydrocarbon jhaidro'karban, -ban; ES 'ka:b-, 

-bon, E + 'ka:b- 
hydrocephaly jhaidro'sefab |-lic -sa'faelik 
hydrochloric jhaidra'klorik, -'kbr-; S -'klor- 
hydrochloride jhaidra'kloraid, -'kbr-, -id; S 

-'klor-; |-rid -id 
hydrocyanic jhaidrosai'aenik 

hydrodynamics jbaidrodai'nsemiks 

hydroelectric jhaidro-i'lektrik 

hydrogen 'haidradsan, -d3in |-ate -fit |-ated 

hydrogenize ^aidradsanjaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
hydrogenous hai'dradsanas; ES^-'drnds- 
hydrographer hai'dragrafa^, -'drog-; ES 

-fa(r; |-phy -fi 
hydroid 'haidraid 
hydrolysis hai'drabsis; ES+-'drDl-; |-yses 

hydromechanics jhaidromi'kaeniks 
hydromel 'haidrajmel 
hydrometer hai'dramata^; ES -'dramata(r, 

hydropathic jhaidra'paeOik |-al -1 
hydropathy hai'drapaOi; ES + -'drDp- 
hydrophobia /haidra'fobia 
hydroplane 'haidra^plen 
hydroponics jhaidra'paniks; ES+-'pDn- 
hydroponist hai'drapanist; ES + - 'drop- 
hydropsy 'baidrapsi; ES + -drDp- 
hydroquinone jhaidrokwi'non 
hydrosphere 'haidra^sfir; ES -jsfia(r, S + 

hydrostatic ^haidra'staetik [-s -s |-al -1 |-ally 

-h, -ikh 
hydrosulphide, -fide, ^haidro'sAlfaid, -fid 

|-phid, -fid -fid 
hydrosulphite jhaidro'sAlfait 
hydrotherapeutics jhaidrOjOera'pjutiks, -'piu- 
hydrous 'haidras 
hydroxide hai'draksaid, -id; ES+-'drDks-; 

l-id -id 
hydroxyl hai'draksil; ES+-'drDk- 
hydrozoan, H- ^haidra'zoan 
hyena hai'ina 
Hygeia hai'dgia 
hygiene 'haidsin, 'haidgi^m 
hygienic jhaid3i'£nik |-s -s |-al -1 ]-ally -li, 

hygienist 'haid3ianist 
hygrometer hai'gramata'; ES -'gramata(r, 

hygrometric jhaigraWetrik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

hygroscope 'haigrajskop 
hying ptc of hie 'haiirj 
Hyksos 'hiksos, -sas; ES + -sds 

|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
(using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Hymen, h- 'haiman 

hymeneal ^haima'nial |-ly -i |-nean -'nian 

hymenopterous jhaima'naptaras, -tras; ES + 

Hymettus hai'metas |-'s -iz 
hymn him [hymned himd [hymning 'himii) 
hymnal 'himnal |-nist -nist |-nody -nadi 
hymnbook 'him^buk 
hymnology him'naladsi; ES+-'nDl- 
hyoid 'haiaid 
Hypatia hai'pe/ia, -/a 
hyperacid jhaipa^'aesid 
hyperacidity jhaipara'sidati, -ae'sidati 
hyperbola hai'pa^bala; ES -'ps-, -V^^-; I-s -z 
hyperbole haiipyba^li, -li; ES -'ps-, -'py-; 

|-s -z 
hyperbolic jhaipy'balik; ES jhaipa'balik, 

-'bol-; [-ally -li |-icly -ikli 
hyperbolize hai^s^bajlaiz; ES -'p3-> -'py-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
hyperborean, H- jbaipa^'borian, -'bar-; ES 

jhaipa'bor-, E + -'bar- 
hypercivilized jhaipa^'sivljaizd; ES jhaipa- 
hypercritic ^haipa^'kritik; ES ^haipa-; |-al -| 

|-ally -ji, -ikli |-ticism -tajSizam 
hyperfunction jhaipa^'fAijkXan; ES jhaipa- 
Hyperion haiVinan 
hyperopia jhaipa^'opia 
hypersensitive jhaipa^'sensativ; ES jhaipa-; 

|-vity -jS2nsa'tivati 
hyperthyroidism jhaip^'Oairaidjizam; ES 

hj^ertrophy hai'pytrafi; ES -'p3-, -V^'-; 

|-phied -fid 
hyphen 'harfan j-ed -d |-ate -jCt |-ated -jctid 
hyphenize 'haifaiijaiz [-s -iz |-d -d 
hypnosis hipWsis [-noses -'noslz 

hypnotic hip'natik; ES-i--'nDt-; [-ally -li, 

hypnotism 'hipna^tizam |-tist -tist 
hypnotize 'hipna^taiz [-s -iz [-d -d 
hypo 'haipo 
hypochondria ^haipa'kandna, ^hip-; ES-i- 

-'knn-; [-driac -drijaek 
hypocrisy hi'pokrasi; ES + -'pDk- 
hypocrite 'hipa^krit 
hypocritical jhipa'kritikl [-ly -i, -ikli 
hypodermic jhaipa'dymik; ES -Mam-, 

-'dym-; [-ally -li, -ikli 
hypogene 'hipajdjin, 'haipa- 
hypophosphate jhaipa'fasfet; ES+-'fDs-; 

|-phite -fait 
hypophosphorous jhaipa'fasfaras; ES+-'fDS- 
hyposulphite ^haipa'sAlfait 
hyposulphurous ^haipa'sAlfaras, -SAl'fju-, 

hypotenuse, -poth- hai'patrijus, -jius, -jus, 

-z; ES+-VDt-; [-s -iz 
hypothecate hai'paGajket; ES-f-'pnG-; |-d -id 
hypothecation haijpaea'ke/an; ES-h-iPoG- 
hypothesis hai'paOasis; ES-i--'pdG-; |-ses 

hypothesize hai'paOajsaiz; ES+-'pDe-; |-s -iz 

hypothetic jhaipa'OEtik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -il:!i 
hyrax, H- 'hairaeks [-es -iz [-races -ra^siz 
Hyrcania hy'kenia; ES hs-, hy-; |-n -n 
hyson 'haisn 
hyssop ^hisap 
hysteresis ,hista'risis 
hysteretic ^histaVrtik [-ally -li, -ikli 
hysteria his'tiria, less freq. his'teria 
hysteric bis'tsrik |-s -s |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
hythe, H- haitS 

I, i letter ai \pl I's, Is, poss I's aiz 

I pro stressed 'ai, ^ai; unstr. ai, 3i, familiar a 

i-, -i- I, a — The non final unaccented vowel 
spelt i and originally pron. i shoivs a tendency 
in innumerable words of normal conversation 

. to he obscured in the direction of the sound a, 
as in possible 'pasabl, divide daVaid. As a 

rule only one pronunciation (a or i) is shown 
in the vocab. The alternative pron. with i is 
permissible if it does not sound artifi-cial (as 
it woidd in possible) , or with a if it does not 
sound slovenly (as it would in sluggish). 
But such judgments depend somewhat on 
habit, and as regional practice varies con- 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) [rate ret \ytt jet [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E bae (§10) |ah a [far far [watch wat/, wntj (§12) jjaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



siderably, only an enlightened judgment and 

ichneumon ik'njuman, -'niu-, -'nu- 

observation can decide. 

ichor 'aikor, -ka^; ES 'aik33(r, 'aik3(r 

-ia ending (mania) , -ia- plus consonant (trivial, 

ichthyologic ^ikGis'ladsik; ES + -'lDd5-; |-al -1 

ruffian), -ie- plus cons, (alien), -io (Bas- 

|-ally -li, -ikli 

sanio), -io- plus cons, (scorpion), -ious 

ichthyologist jikOi'aladsist; ES-t--'Dl-; |-gy 

(tedious), -ius (radius). These and similar 


combinations of unstressed i plus vowel 

ichthyosaur 'ikGiajSar; ES -jS33(r 

regularly have double prons. la &" ja. In 

ichthyosaurus, I- jikOia'saras |-es -iz |-ri -rai 

the vocab. usually the one believed to be most 

icicle 'aijsikl, 'aisikl |-d -d 

common in ordinary speech is given, with 

icily 'aisli, 'aisili 

the understanding that the other pron. is also 

icing 'aisig 

more or less common. 

Ickes 'ikis, -as, -iz [-'s -iz 

lachimo 'jakijmo; so Shak.; mod.+3a}sek^ imo 

icon 'aikan, -knn |-s -z |-es 'aika,niz 

lago I'ago 

iconoclasm ai^kana^klaezam; ES-h-'knn-; 

-ial see -ia 

1-clast -iklaest 

iamb 'aiaemb |-ic ai'aembik 

iconoclastic ai,kana'klaestik, ^aikana-; ES-i- 

iambus ai'aembas |-es -iz |-bi ai'aembai 

-on-; |-ally -li, -ikh 

-ian see -ia 

iconography ^aikan'ografi, -'ng- 

iarovize 'jara^vaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

icosahedron jaikosa'hidran |-dra -dra 

Iberia ai'biria |-ian -lan 

ictus 'iktas |-es -iz 

ibex, I- 'aibeks |-es -iz |ibices 'ibi^siz, 'ai- 

icy 'aisi 

ibidem abbr. ibid, i^baidem, 'ibid, 'aibid 

I'd abbr. spelling of I had, I would, stressed 

ibis 'aibis |-es -iz 

'aid, jaid; unstr. aid, aid, occas. ad 

-ibie see -able 

Idaho 'aida^ho, 'aidi^ho |-an -an 

Ibsen 'ibsn 

idea ai'dia, ai'dia, occas. by sentence rhythm 

-ically ending of advs to words in -ic (comic) or 


in -ical (radical), pron. -ik-l-i ('raedik-l-i) 

ideal ai'dial, ai'dil, ai'dial |-ism -jizam |-ist 

or -ik'h ('raedik-b). The pron. ivith -ik-li 


is very common colloquially, and in a good 

idealistic jaidial'istik, -dial-, ai^d- |-al -1 

many ivords is recognized by the spelling, 

1 ally -li, -ikh 

which usually lags behind pronunciation; 

ideality jaidi'aelati 

as in authentically, -thenticly, cubically. 

idealization ai,diala'zeXan, -jdial-, -ai'z- 

-icly, heroically, -icly, rustically, -icly, 

idealize ai'dialjaiz, ai'dial- |-s -iz |-d -d 

specifically, -icly, symbolically, -icly, ty- 

ideate n ai'diit, -et 

rannically, -icly, etc. 

ideate v ai'diet, -'diet |-d -id 

Icarian I'kerian, I'ker- 

ideation ^aidi'ejan 

Icarus 'ikaras, 'ai- |-'s -iz 

ideatum jaidi'etam |-ta -ta 

ice ais |ices 'aisiz |iced aist 

idem 'aidem 

iceberg 'aiS/byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg 

idempotent ai'dtmpatant 

iceboat 'aisjbot 

Iden 'aidn 

icebound 'aiSjbaund 

identic ai'dentik |-al -1 [-ally -|i, -ikli 

icebox 'aiSjbaks; ES + -jbDks; [-es -iz 

identification aijdentafa'kejan 

ice cream 'ais'krim 

identify ai'denta^fai j-fied -jfaid 

ice-cream 'ais%rim ('ice-'cream jcone, 'ice- 

identity ai'dentati 

jcream 'soda) 

ideogram 'idia^graem, 'aidia- 

icehouse 'aiSjhaus |-ses -ziz 

ideograph 'idia^graef, 'aidia-; E-t--jgraf, 

Iceland 'aisland |-ic ais'laendik 


iceman 'aiSjmaen, -man |-men -jinEn, -man 

ideographic jdia'graefik, ^aidia- 

Ichabod 'ika^bad, -jbod 

ideography ,idi'agrafi, ^aidi-, -'og- 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzio [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




ideology ^aidi'abdsi, jid-; ES + -'d1- 

ileum 'iliam [ileac, iliac 'ilijaek 

ides aidz 

ilex, I- 'aikks |-es -iz 

id est 'that is' ^id'est 

Ilfracombe 'ilfra/kum, jilfra'kum 

idiocy 'idiosi 

iliac 'ihjaek = ileac 

idiom 'idiam 

Iliac 'of Ilium' 'ili^aek 

idiomatic /idia'maetik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

Iliad 'ibad 

idiosyncrasy jidia'smkrasi, -'siij- 

Ilion 'iban |Ilium 'ibam 

idiosyncratic ^idiosm'kraetik |-al -I |-ally -h. 

ilium 'ibam 


ilk ilk 

idiot 'idiat |-ism -jizam 


idiotic ;idi'atik; ES + 'Wik; |-al -1 |-ally -h. 

I'll ahhr. spelling o/ 1 will ail — not a contraction 


of I shall (= 'aijl) but often suhstittited for it 

idle 'aidj |-d -d j-ling ^aidliij, -dlig \-r -dla^; 

ill-advised 'ibd'vaizd |-sedly -zidb 

ES -dl9(r; |-st -dhst 

illation I'le/an [illative 'ibtrv 

idly 'aidli 

ill-boding 'il'bodig 

idol 'aidl |-ed -d ]-ing 'aidlig 

ill-bred 'il'bred 

idolater ai'dabta^; ES ai'dabtaCr, -MdI-; 

illegal I'Hgl, il'lJgl l-ly -i 

|-tress -tris |-try -tri 

illegality jili'ga;bti 

idolization jaidja'zejan, -ai'z- 

illegibility jikdsa'bibti, ^ilkds-, ijrds- 

idolize 'aidljaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

illegible I'kdsabl, il'kds- |-bly -bb 

Idomeneus ai'daman jus, -m3inius, -majnus; 

illegitimacy jib'djitamasi, jilb- [-mate -mit 

ES + -'dDm-; |-'s -iz 

ill-fated 'il'fetid ('ill-^fated 'project) 

Idumaea, -mea jidju'inia, ^aid-, -du- |-n -n 

ill-favored 'il'feva^d; ES -'fevad 

Idun 'idun = Ithunn 

ill-gotten 'il'gatn; ES-f-'gntn 

idyl, -11 'aidl 

ill-humor 'il'juma', -'bjuma^, -'hiu-; ES -ma(r; 

idyllic ai'dikk |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikh 

l-ed -d 

-ie ending see -y 

illiberal I'bbaral, I'bbral, il'l- |-ly -i 

-iel ending see -ia 

iUiberality jibba'raebti, jillib- 

-ien ending see -ia 

illicit I'bsit, il'bs- 

if if, f 

illimitable I'bmitabl, il'bm- ]-bly -bb 

igloo ^iglu 

illinium I'lmiam 

Ignatius Loyola ig'ne/as bi'ob, b'job 

Illinoian ,ib'naian 

igneous 'ignias 

Illinois jib'nai, -'n3iz |-nois's -'naiz, -'naiziz 

ignescent ig'nEsnt 

— jib'naiz, not infrequent generally, is esp. 

ignis fatuus. 'ignis 'f set Juas [ignes fatui 'igniz- 

common in the S. 


Illinoisan jib'naian, -'naizan 

ignite ig'nait |-d -id |-nition ig'ni/an 

illiteracy I'btarasi, il'lit- |-rate -nt, -trit 

ignoble ig'nobl |-bly -bli 

ill-looking 'il'lukiij 

ignominious jigna'minias 

ill-mannered 'il'maena^d; ES -'maenad 

ignominy 'ignajmnii 

ill-natured 'il'netja^d; ES -'net/ad 

ignoramus jigna'remas |-es -iz 

illness 'ilnis |-es -iz 

ignorance 'ignarans |-rant -rant 

illogical i'lad3ikl, il'l-; ES + -'lod3-; [-ly -i. 

ignore ig'nor, -'nor; ES ig'no3(r, E + -'n33(r; 



ill-omened 'il'omind, -mand 

Igorot jiga'rot, ^I- {Sp ^iga'rrote) 

ill-starred 'il'stard; ES -'sta:d, E + -'sta:d . 

Igraine I'gren 

ill-tempered 'il'tempa-d; ES -'tempad 

iguana I'gwana 

ill-timed 'il'taimd ('ill-jtimed 'start) 

il- 'not'' see in- prefix 

ill-treat il'trit |-ed -id 

11 Duce il'dutji {It il'du:t/e) 

illume I'lum, I'lium |-d -d 

Key: See in f nil §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saerj |angr}- 'aeij-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 




iliuminant i^lumsnant, I'hum- 

imbroglio im'broljo (It im'braXXo) 

illuminate I'lumajnet, I'lium- |-d -id 

imbrue im'bru, -'briu |-d -d 

illuminati, I- i/luma'netai, ijlumi'nati, ijliuin- 

imbrute im'brut, -'briut |-d -id 

illumination ijluma'ne/an, ijium- 

imbue im'bju, -'biu |-d -d 

illuminative I'lumajnetiv, i 'hum- 

imid 'imid |imide 'imaid, 'imid 

illuminator I'luma^neta^, I'lium-; ES -t3(r 

imidogen I'midadsan, I'mida-, -dsm 

illumine I'lumin, I'liunun |-d -d 

imine I'min 

ill-usage 'il'jusidj, -'juz- [-s -iz 

imi table 'imitabl 

ill-use n 'il'jus |-s -iz 

imitate 'ima^tet [-tated -jtetid ]-tive -iv 

ill-use V il'juz |-s -IZ |-d -d 

imitation jima'te/an 

illusion i'lu53n, I'liugan |-ed -d 

imitator 'ima^teta^; ES -jteta(r 

illusive I'lusiv, I'liusiv |-sory -sari 

immaculate I'maekjaht 

illustrate 'ibstret, I'Ustret |-d -id 

immane I'men 

illustration jibs'trejan, ijlAs'trefan 

immanence 'imanans |-nent -nant 

illustrative I'lAstrativ, 'ibs^tretiv, I'Usjtretiv 

Immanuel I'maenjual 

illustrator 'ibsjtreta', I'lASjtreta'; ES -t3(r 

immaterial ^ima'tinal |-ly -i |-ism -^izam 

illustrious I'lAstnas 

immateriality jimajtin'aebti 

illy subsiattdard for adv ill 'ih 

immature ,ima'tur, -'tiur, -'tjur; ES -a(r; 

Illyria I'liria |-n -n 

|-rity -ati 

Ilokano jilo'kano 

immeasurable I'mesrabl, im'm-, -'mesara- 

11 Penseroso jilpensaVoso (It il^pense'roiso) 

l-bly -bk 

I'm abbr. spelling of I am, stressed 'aim, ^aim; 

immediacy I'midiasi 

unstr. aim, occas. am 

immediate I'midiit, esp. C I'midjat 

im- 'not' see in- prefix 

immemorial ^ima'morial, jiimna-, -'mar-; S 

image 'imids |-s -iz ]-d -d 

-'mor-; |-ly -i 

imagery 'iimdsri, -dsari 

immense I'mens |-sity -ati 

imaginable i'maed3in3bl, i'ma2d3n3bl |-bly 

immerse I'mTs; ES I'mss, I'mys; [-s -iz |-d -t 


immersion I'my/an; ES I'ms/-, I'msJ"- 

imaginary I'maedsa^nEri 

immigrant 'imagrant, -/graent 

imagination i^maedsa'neXan |-tive I'maedga- 

immigrate 'ima,gret |-d -id |-tion jima'gre/an 


imminence 'imanans |-nent -nant 

imagine I'maedgin |-d -d 

immiscible I'misabl |-bly -bli 

imagist 'im3d3ist |-gism -jdsizam 

immitigable I'mitagabl |-bly -bli 

imago I'mego \pl -s -z |imagines I'maedsi^niz 

immix im'miks |-es -iz j-ed -t 

imam I'mam |imaum I'mam, I'mom 

immixture im'mikst/a^; ES -'mikstja(r 

imbalm im'bam; E + -'bam; |-ed -d 

immobile I'mobl, im'm-, -bil, -bil 

imbark im'bark; ES -'ba:k, E+-'ba:k; |-ed -t 

immobility jimo'bibti, jmmo- 

imbecile 'imbasl, -jsil |-lity /imba'sibti 

immobilization i^mobla'ze/an, im^mo-, jimob-. 

imbed im'bed | -bedded -'bedid 

jimmob-, -ai'z- 

imbibe im'baib |-bibed -'baibd 

immobilize i'mobl,aiz, im'mo- [-s -iz [-d -d 

imbitter im'bita^; ES -'bit3(r; |-ed -d 

immoderate I'madarit, im'mad-, -drit; ES-t- 

imbody im'badi; ES+-'bDdi; |-died -did 

- 'mod- 

imbolden im'boldn |-ed -d |-ing -'boldnig. 

immodest I'madist, im'mad-; ES-f-'mod-; 



imbosom im'buzam, -'buzam [-ed -d 

immolate 'ima^let |-d -id |-tion jima'le/an 

imbower im'baua^; ES -'bau»3(r 

immolator 'ima^leta^; ES -,leta(r 

imbricate adj 'imbrikit, -^ket 

immoral I'maral, im'm-, -'mar-, -'mor- |-ly -i 

imbricate v 'imbn^ket \- d -id 

immorality jima'raebti, -ma-, -ma-, -mo-. 

imbrication jimbri'kejan 


|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstfa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vijan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




immortal I'martl; ES I'maatl 

impeach im'pit/ |-es -iz [-ed -t 

immortality jimDr'taebti; ES jimD'taebti 

impeachability jimpit/a'bilati, im^plt/a 


immortalize I'martljaiz; ES I'maatl-; |-s -iz 

impeachable im'pitjabl 


impearl im'pyl; ES im'psl, -'pyl; |-ed 


immortelle jimar'tel; ES jimaa'tel 

impeccabihty ^impEka'bilati, im^pek- 

immovability i^muva^bibti, inijmuv-, jimuv-. 

impeccable im'pEkabl -bly -bh 


impecuniosity ^impijkjuni'asati, -jkiuni-; 

immovable I'muvabl, im'muv- |-bly -bli 


immune I'mjun, I'nuun |-nity -ati 

impecunious jimpi'kjunias, -'kiun- 

immunization jimjuna'zejan, -ai'z- 

impede im'pid |-d -id |-dance -'pidns 

immunize 'imjainaiz, -ju- |-s -iz |-d -d 

impediment ira'pedamant 

immunology jimjs'naladsi, -ju-; ES + -'nDl- 

impedimenta jimpeda'mEnta, im,p£d- 

immure I'mjur, I'miur; ES -3(r; |-d -d 

impedimentary imjpEda'mEntari, -tn 

immutability ijmjuta'bilati, -^miut-, jimjut-. 

impel im'pEl |-pelled -'peld 

jimiut-, jimra- 

impend im'pend |-ed -id 

immutable I'mjutabl, I'mnit- |-bly -bli 

impenetrability jimpenatra'bilati, im^pen- 

Imogen 'im3d3m, -an [-gene -jdsln 

impenetrable imVenatrabl -bly -bh 

imp imp limped impt 

impenitence im'p£natans |-tent -tant 

impact n 'impaekt 

imperative im'perativ 

impact V im'paekt |-pacted -'paektid 

imperator jimpa'reta^; ES -Veta(r 

impair im'pEr, -'paer; E -'p£3(r, ES -'paEa(r; 

imperatorial jimpera 'tonal, im^pEra-, 


l-ed -d 

S -'tor- 

impale im'pe! |-d -d 

imperceptibility jmpa'jsepta'bilati; ES 


impalpability jmpaelpa'bilati, im^pael- 

imperceptible jimpa^'septabj; ES j 


impalpable imVaelpabl |-bly -bli 

l-bly -bh 

impanel im'paenl -ed -d 

imperceptive jimpa^'sEptiv; ES jimpa- 

imparadise im'paerajdais |-s -iz |-d -t 

imperfect im'pyfikt; ES -'psf-, -'ps^f- 

impark im'park; ES im'pa:k, E+-'pa:k; 

imperfection jimpa^'fEkJan; ES ^impa- 

l-ed -t 

imperforate adj, n im'ps^farit; ES 


impart imVart; ES -'pa:t, E+-'pa:t; [-ed -id 


impartation jimpar He/an; ES -pa:-, E 4- -par- 

imperforated im'pyfajretid; ES -'paf-. 


impartial im'parfal; ES -'pa:j3l» E + -'pa:j3l"» 

imperial im'pirial |-ly -i 

l-ly -I 

imperialism im'pirial^izam |-ist -ist 

impartiality jimparlfaelati, -Ji'ael-; ES -pa-. 

imperialistic imipinal'istik [-ally -h, -i 


E + -pa- 

imperil im'pEral, -il |-ed -d 

impassability jimpaesa'bilati, im^paes-; E-t- 

imperious im'pirias 

-pas-, -jpas-, -pas-, -jpas- 

imperishability ,impEriJa'bilati, imjpEi 


impassable imVaesabl; E-i--'pas-, -'pas-; 

imperishable im'psnjab}, |-bly -bh 

l-bly -bh 

imperium im'piriam |-ria -na 

impasse im'paes, 'impaes; E-i--a-, -a- |-s -iz 

impermanent ira'pymanant; ES - 


{Fr x\a:%) 


impassible im'paesabl |-bly -bh 

impermeability jimpymia'bilati, inijpym-; 

impassionate adj im'paeXanit 

ES -3-, -y- 

impassionate v im'paeXanjet |-d -id 

impermeable im'pymiabl; ES -'psm-, -' 


impassioned im'pae/and 

l-bly -bh 

impassive im'pajsiv |-sivity jimpas'sivati 

impersonal im'pysnl, -'pysnal; ES 


impaste im'pest |-d -id 

-'pys-; |-ly -I 

impatience im'pefans |-tient -/ant 

impersonality ^imps'sn'aelati, nn^pys 

-; ES 

impavid im'paevid 

-3-, -3^- 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) |rate ret jyet JEt |sang saeij Iangr>^ 'aerj-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a jfar far jwatch watj", ^votj" (§12) jjaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




impersonate irnVs'sn^et; ES -'p3s-, -'pys-; 

l-d -id 
impersonation jimpysn'e/an, ini/pys-; ES 

-3-, -y- 

impertinence ira'pytnans; ES -'pat-, -'pyt-; 

|-s -iz |-tinent -tnant 
imperturbability jimpa^jtyba'bilati; ES -pa- 

jtsb-, -p3jtyb- 
imperturbable jimpa^'tybabl; ES -pa'tsb-, 

-pa'tyb-; |-bly -bli 
imperturbation jimpyta^'be/an; ES -pata-, 

impervious im'pyvias; ES -'psv-, -'p^'v- 
impetigo jimpi'taigo 
impetuosity jimpet/u'asati, im^pEt-; ES + 

impetuous ira'pet/uas 
impetus ^mpatas |-es -iz 
Impey 'impi |-an -an 
impiety imVaiati | impious 'impias 
impinge im'pmds |-s -iz [-d -d 
impish 'impij" 

implacability jimpleka'bilati, im^plek-, -laek- 
implacable im'plekabl, -'plaek- |-bly -bh 
implant im'pl«nt; E + -'plant, -'plant; |-ed -id 
implausible im'pbzabl |-bly -bh 
implead im'plid |-ed -id 
implement 7t 'implamant 
implement v 'impla^mEnt |-ed -id 
implemental ^impla'mentl 
implementation jimplamen'te/an 
implicate adj 'imphkit 
implicate v 'imph;ket |-d -id 
implication jimpb'ke/an |-tive 'implijketiv 
implicit im'pbsit 
implore im'plor, -'pbr; ES -'ploa(r, E + 

-'plaa(r; |-d -d 
imply im'plai |-plied -'plaid |-pliedly -'plai- 

impolite jimpa'lait 
impolitic ira'pala^tik; ES + -'pd1- 
imponderability jimpandara'bilati, im^pan-; 

ES+ -Dn- 
imponderable im'pandarabl; ES + -'pDn-; 

l-bly -bk 
import ti 'import, -part; ES -poat, E + -paat 
import V im'port, -'part; ES -'poat, E + -'paat; 

|-ed -id — acc^ + 'import, esp. in contrast to 

export, V. 

mportance im'partns; ES -'paatns; |-tant 

mportation jimpor'tejan, -par-; ES -poa-, 

mportunate adj im'part/anit; ES -'paa- 
mportunate v ira'part/a^net; ES -'paa-; \-d 

mportune adj, v jimpa^'tjun, -'tiun, -'tun, 

im'part/an; ES jimpa-, im'paat/-; |-d -d 
mportunity jimpa^'tjunati, -'tiun-, -'tun-; ES 

mpose im'poz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sing -ig 
mposition jimpa'zi/an 
mpossibility jimpasa'bilati, im^pas-; ES + 


mpossible im'pasabl; ES + -'pDS-; |-bly -bb 
mpost 'impost |-ed -id 
mpostor im'pasta^; ES -'pasta(r, -'pns- 
mpostume im'past/um; ES + -'pDS- 
mposture im'past/a^; ES -'pastXa(r, -'pos- 
mpotence 'impatans |-tent -tant 
mpound im'paund |-ed -id |-age -ids 
mpoverish im'pavarij", -vrij"; ES + -'pDV-; 

|-es -IZ |-ed -t 
mpracticability jimpraektika'bilati, im^praek- 
mpracticable im'praektikabi |-bly -bh 
mpractical im'praektikl 
mpracticality jimpraekti'kaelati, im^praek- 
mprecate 'impri^ket |- d -id 
mprecation ^impri'ke/an 
mprecatory 'imprika^tori, -;tari; S -jtori 
mpregnability jimpregna'bilati, im^preg- 
mpregnable im'pregnabl |-bly -bh 
mpregnate adj im'prEgnit 
mpregnate v im'pregnet |-d -id 
mpregnation jimprEg'neJan 
mpresario jimpri'sarijO 
mprescriptible jimpri'skriptabi |-bly -bh 
mpress w 'imprES |-es -iz 
mpress v im'pres |-es -iz |-ed -t [-edly -idh 
mpressibility jimptEsa'bilati, im^prES- 
mpressible im'prEsabl |-bly -bh 
mpression im'prs/an |-al -1 [-ally -h 
mpressionability imjpre/ana'bilati, -Jna- 
mpressionable im'preXanabl, -/na- |-bly -bh 
mpressionism im'prejanjizam |-ist -ist 
mpressionistic inijprE/an'istik |-ally -li, 

mpressive im'presiv 

|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 




imprest adj, n 'imprest 

imprest v im'prest j-prested -'prestid 

imprimatur jimpri'meta^; ES -'met3(r 

imprimis im'praimis 

imprint n 'imprint 

imprint v im'print |-ed -id 

imprison im'prizn |-ed -d |-ing -'pnznig, 

improbability jimpraba'bilati, im^pr-; ES + 

improbable im'prababi; ES+-'pn)b-; |-bly 

improbity im'probati, -'prabati; ES+-'pnjb- 
impromptu im'pramptu, -tiu, -tju; ES + 

improper im'prapa^; ES -'prap3(r, -'prnp- 
impropriety jimpra'praiati, jimpa'praiati — In 

jimpa'praiati r is lost by dissimilation 

improvability iiiijpruva'bilati 
improvable im'pruvabl |-bly -bb 
improve im'pruv |-d -d 
improvidence im'pravadans; ES+-'prDV-; 

|-nt -nt 
improvisation jimpravai'zefan, -prava'ze-; 

ES 4- -prov- 
improvise 'imprajvaiz, jimpra'vaiz |-s -iz j-d 

-d |-visedly -'vaizidb 
imprudence im'prudns, -'priud- |-dent -dnt 
impudence 'impjadans, -pju- |-dent -dant 
impugn im'pjun, -'piun |-ed -d |-er -3'; ES 

-3(r; |-able -abj |-bly -bh 
impugnable 'unconqueyable' im'pAgnabl 
impuissance im'pjuisns, -'piu- j-sant -snt 
impulse n 'impAls ]-s -iz 
impulse v im'pAls [-s -iz |-d -t 
impulsion im'pAlJan j-sive -siv 
impunity im'pjunati, -'piun- 
impure im'pjur, -'piur; ES -a(r; |-rity -ati 
imputability inijpjuta'bilati, -^piut-, jimp- 
imputable im'pjutabl, -'piut- |-bly -bli 
imputation ^impju'te/an 
impute im'pjut, -'piut |-d -id 
in adj, adv in 
in prep stressed 'in, ^in; unstr. in, n (cut in two 

'kAtn'tu), occas. nonsyllahic n before the 

article a a (I'm in a hurry jaimna'hs'i, 

He'll go in a minute bil'gona'minit) 
in- prefix. In words like inactive, ivhere in- 

means 'not,' and the second part clearly has 
its separate meaning, the in- just before the 
main accent has a slight stress that could be 
marked thus: jin'aektiv, or under emphasis 
even 'in'aektiv. But if the second part does 
not show a clear meaning, being fused with 
the in- into a sim-ple word, as insipid in- 
'sipid, then the in- is quite stressless. Since 
with different speakers and styles of speech 
there are all grades between no stress and full 
stress, it is not feasible to m^rk this accent, 
though it often exists in speech. The same 
statements apply to the variants il- and im-. 
nabiHty jina'bdati 
n absentia ^inab'sEnJia 
naccessibility jinak,s8sa'bilati, ^maek- 
naccessible ^inak'sEsabl, jinaek- |-bly -bh 
naccuracy in'jekjarasi [-rate -nt 
naction in'aek/an |-active -'jektrv 
nactivity ^inaek'tivati 
nadequacy in'aedakwasi |-quate -kwit 
nadmissibility jinadjnusa'bilati 
nadmissible jinad'nusabi |-bly -bh 
nadvertence jinad'vytns; ES -'vat-, -'vyt-; 

|-cy -I |-ent -tnt 
nadvisability jinad^vaiza'bdati 
nadvisable jinad'vaizabl [-bly -bh 
nalienability jineljana'bilati, injcljan-, -han- 
nalienable in'eljanabi, -'ehan- |-bly -bh 
nalterable in'aharabi |-bly -bh 
namorata injaema'rata, jinaem- 
nane in'en 
nanimate in'aBnamit 
nanity in'aenati [inanition jina'ni/an 
nappeasable yina'pizabl 
napplicability jinaephka'bilati, in^aep- 
napplicable in'aephkabl |-bly -bh 
napposite in'aepazit 
nappreciable ;ina'pri/iabl |-bly -bh 
nappreciative ^ina'pri/ijCtiv 
napproachabiHty ^ina/prot/a'bilati 
napproachable ^ina'prot/abl |-bly -bh 
nappropriate jina'propnit 
napt in'aept 

naptitude in'aeptajtjud, -;tiud, -^tud 
narm m'arm; ES -'a:m, E + -'a:m; |-ed -d 
narticulate /inar'tikjaht; ES -a-, E + -a- 
nartistic ^inar'tistik; ES -a:'tis-, E-)--a:'tis-; 
l-al -! l-ally -li, -ikh 

Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [j'et jet [sang saerj |angr}- 'aeo'g" 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dja Igorge gard5 |go go 




inasmuch jinaz'mAt/ 

inch intj [inches 'int/iz [inched int/t 

inattention ^ma 'ten/an |-tive -tiv 

Inchbald 'mt/bald 

inaudibility jinoda'bibti, inpd- 

inchoate adj in'kcit 

inaudible in'odabl |-bly -bli 

inchoate v 'inko^et [-d -id 

inaugural in'agjaral, inbgaral 

inchworm 'intJ'jWS'ni; ES -^wam, -^ws^m 

inaugurate inbgja^ret, -'aga- |-d -id 

incidence 'insadans [-dent -dant 

inauguration inpgja're/an, -pga- 

incidental jinsa'dentl |-Iy -i 

inauspicious jina'spi/ss 

incinerate in'smajret [-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 

inboard 'in^bord, -^bard; ES -^boad, E + 

incipience in'sipians [-cy -i |-ent -ant 


incipit 'here begins' 'insipit 

inborn m'barn; ES -'baan; ('in^born ^ace) 

incise in'saiz [-s -iz |-d -d 

inbound 'in'baund ('in^bound 'ship) 

incision in'sisan 

inbreathe in'bri'S |-d -d 

incisive in'saisiv, -ziv 

inbred adj in'bred ('injbred 'tact) 

incisor in'saiza^; ES -'saiza(r 

inbreed in'brid |-bred -'bred 

incite m'sait |-d -id [-tation jinsai'te/an 

Inca 'igka 

incivility ^insa'vilati 

incalculability jinkaelkjala'bilatr, in^kael- 

inclemency in'kkmansi [-clement -'kkmant 

incalculable in'ktelkjalabl |-bly -bh 

incHnable in'klainabl 

incandesce ^inkan'des, -kaen- |-s -iz |-d -t 

inclination ^inkla'nejan 

incandescence ^inkan'desns )-cy -i |-nt -nt 

incline n 'inklain, in'klain 

incantation jinkaen'te/an 

incline v in'klain |-d -d 

incapabiHty /inkepa'bilati, in^kep- 

incUnometer jnkli'namata'; ES -'namataCr, 

incapable in'kepabl |-bly -bli 


incapacitate jinka'paesajtet ]-d -id |-ity -ti 

inclose in'kloz |-s -iz [-d-d 

incarcerate m'karsa^ret; ES -'ka:s-, E + 

inclosure in'klosa';. ES -3a(r 

-'ka:s-; |-d -id 

include m'klud, -'kbud [-d -id 

incarceration injkarsa're/an; ES -jka:s-. 

inclusion in'klusan, -'kliu- 

E+-ika:s-; ^ink- 

inclusive m'klusiv, -'khu-, -ziv 

incarnadine m'karnajdam, -dm; ES -'ka:-. 

incog in'kag, -'kng 

E+-'ka:-; |-d -d 

incognito in'kagnijto, -'kng- 

incarnate adj in'karnit, -net; ES -'ka:-. 

incoherence jinko'hirans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 

E + -'ka:- 

incombustibility jinkanijbAsta'bilati 

incarnate v in'kamet; ES -'ka:-, E + -'ka:-; 

incombustible jinkam'bAstabl [-bly -bh 

l-d -id 

income 'in^kAm, 'ig^kAm 

incarnation, I- jinkar'ne/an; ES -ka:-. 

incoming 'in^kAmig 


incommensurability jinka^mEnJara'bilati, 

incase in'kes [-cases -'kesiz |-cased -'kest 


incaution in'kajan |-tious -/as 

incommensurable (inka'ttienjarabl, -sara- 

incendiary in'sendi^Eri |-arism -a^rizam 

[-bly -bh 

incense n 'insens \adj - d -t 

incommensurate jinka'men/arit, -sarit 

incense v in'sens |-s -iz [-d -t 

incommode jinka'mod [-d -id [-dious -las 

incentive in'sentiv 

incommodity jinka'madati; ES+-'niDd- 

incept in'sept |-ed -id 

incommunicability jinkajmjunika'bilati. 

inception in'sEp/an |-tive -tiv 


inceration jinsa'Tc/an 

incommunicable jinka'mjunikabl, -'miun- 

incertitude in'ss'tajtjud, -jtiud, -jtud; ES 

[-bly -bh 

-'s3t-, -'syt- 

incommunicado ^inkajmjuni'kado, -^miun- 

incessancy in'sEsnsi |-sant -snt 

incommunicative /inka'injunajketiv, -'miun- 

incest 'insest |-uous in'sEst/uas 

incompact jnkam'paekt 

[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstia [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy ti. 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipitt. 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

incomparability jinkampara'bilati, -pr3-, in- 

incomparable m'kamparab), -pra- |-bly -bli 
incompatibility jinkaniipaeta'bilati 
incompatible jinkam'paetabl |-bly -bli 
incompetence in'kampatans |-cy -i |-tent 

incomplete ;inkam'plit I-pletion -^plijan 
incompliance jinkam'plaians |-cy -i |-nt -nt 
incomprehensibility jinkamprijhensa'bilati, 

incomprehensible jinkampri'hensabl, in^kam- 

|-bly -bli |-sive -siv 
incompressible jinkam'prEsabl |-bly -bh 
incomputable jinkam'pjutabi, -'pmt- 
inconceivability ^inkaiijsiva'bilati 
inconceivable jinkan'sivabl |-bly -bli 
inconclusive ^inkan'klusiv, -'kliu- 
inconformity jinkan'farmati; ES -^faamati 
incongruence in'kaggruans |-ent -ant 
incongruity ^inkag'gruati, -kag-, -n'gru-, 

incongruous in'kaogruas 
inconsecutive jinkan'sskjativ 
inconsequence in^kansa^kwEns |-quent -^kwent 
inconsequential /inkansa'kwEn/al |-ly -i 
inconsequentiality jinkansajkwEn/i'aelati, in- 

inconsiderable jinkan'sidarabl, -'sidra- |-bly 

inconsiderate ^inkan'sidarit, -'sidrit 
inconsideration jinkan,sida'reXan 
inconsistence ^inkan'sistans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 
inconsolability jinkanjsola'bilati 
inconsolable jinkan'solabl |-bly -bli 
inconsonance in'kansanans |-nant -nant 
inconspicuous ^inkan'spikjuas 
inconstancy in'kanstansi |-tant -tant 
incontestable jinkan'testabl |-bly -bli 
incontinence in'kantanans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 
incontrollable jinkan'trolabl |-bly -bh 
incontrovertability jinkantrajvyta'bilati, m- 

jkan-; ES -jvat-, -jvyt- 
incontrovertible jinkantra'vytabl, in^kan-; 

ES -Vst-, -Vs't-; occi+in'contro avertible 

I-bly -bli 
inconvenience jinkanVinjans |-s -iz [-d -t [-nt 


inconvertibility ^inkanjVS'-ta'bilati; ES -jVst-, 

inconvertible ^inkanVytabl; ES -Vst-, -Vyt-; 

I-bly -bU 
inconvincibility ,inkan;\insa'bilati 
inconvincible jinkanVinsabI |-bly -bli 
in-co-ordinate jinko'Drdnit; ES -badnit; 

|-nated -dn^etid 
in-co-ordination jinkoprdn'ejan; ES -padn- 

incorporable in'karparabl; ES -'kaap- 
incorporate adj in'karparit, -prit; ES -'kaap- 
incorporate v in'karpajtet; ES -'koap-; |-d -id 

|-rative -jtetiv 
incorporation in^karpa 're/an; ES -jkaap-; 

incorporeal jinkar'porial, -'par-; ES jinka- 

'porial, E + -'parial 
incorporeity jinkarpa'riati; ES -kap-; in^k- 
incorrect jinka'tekt ('incorrect 'answer) 
incorrigibility ^inkandsa'bilati, m^kar-, -ar-, 

incorrigible in'karidsabl, -'kar-, -'kor- |-bly 

incorrupt jinka'rApt |-ed -id 
incorruptibility jinka^rApta'bilati 
incorruptible jinka'rAptabl |-bly -bli 
incorruption jinka'rAp/an 
increase n 'inkris, 'igk- |-s -iz 
increase v in'kris |-s -iz |-d -t |-dly -idli 
increasingly in'krisir)li 
incredibility jinkreda'bilati, in^kreda- 
incredible in'kredabl |-bly -bh 
incredulity jinkra'dulati, -'diul-, -'djul- 
incredulous in'kredsalas 
increment 'inkramant, 'igk- |-al jinkra'm£ntl 
incriminate in'krimajnet |-d -id 
incrimination injkrima'ne/an, jinkrima- 
incriminator in'krimajneta'; ES -jneta(r 
incriminatory in'krimanajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
incrust in'krAst |-ed -id 
incrustation jinkrAs'te/an 
incubate 'inkjajbet, 'igk- |-d -id 
incubation jinkja'bejan, jigk- 
incubator 'inkjajbeta^, 'igk-; ES -ta(r 
incubus 'inkjabas, 'igk- |-es -iz |-bi -jbai 
inculcate in'kAlket, 'inkAl^ket |-d -id 
inculcation jinkAl'ke/an 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij^et J2t [sang saeg Iangr>- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far Jwatch wat/, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




inculpate in'kAlpet, 'inkAljpet |-d -id 
inculpation jinkAl'peJan 
inculpatory in'kAlp9jtori, -ttsri; S -^tori 
incult in'kAlt ('in^cult 'beard) 
incumbency in'kAmbansi |-bent -bant 
incumber in'kAmba'; ES -'kAmbaCr; |-ed -d 

|-ing -'kAmbrig, -bang 
incumbrance in'kAmbrans |-s -iz 
incunabula jnkju'naBbjala \sg -lum -lam 
incur in'ky; ES -'ksCr, -'ky; |-red -d 
incurability ^inkjura'bilati, -kiur-, irijk- 
incurable in'kjurabl, -'kiur- |-bly -bh 
incuriosity jinkjuri'asati, -kiur-; ES+-'ds- 
incurious in'kjurias, -'kiur- 
incurrence in'kyans; ES -'karans, -'kArans, 

-'kyans; |-s -iz 
incursion in'kysan, -'ky/-; ES -'ks-, -'k?- 
incursive in'kysiv; ES -'kss-, -'kys- 
incurvate adj in'kyvit, -vet; ES -'ksv-, -'ka^v- 
incurvate in'kyvet; ES -'ksv-, -'kyv-; |-d -id 
incurvation jinks^Ve/an; ES -ks'v-, -ks^V- 
incurve n 'in^ks^v; ES -jksv, -jkyv 
incurve v in'kyv; ES -'ksv, -'kyv; |-d -d 
incus 'igkas |-es -iz |-cudes in'kjudiz, -'kiu- 
Ind 'India' ind, aind — The historical pron. is 

aind, as in Chauc. and Shak. 
indamin 'indamin |-mine -jinin, -mm 
indebt in'det |-ed -id |-edness -idnis 
indecency in'disnsi |-cent -snt 
indecipherability .indijsaifra'bilati, -fara- 
indecipherable jindi'saifrabl, -fara- [-bly -bli 
indecision jindi'sisan |-cisive -'saisiv 
indeclinable jindi'klainabl |-bly -bh 
indecorous in'dekaras, jindi'koras; EN+ 

indecorum jindi'koram, -'kar-; S -'koram 
indeed in'did, n'did, ew^//. + 'in'did ('jEsn- 

indefatigability jindi^faetiga'bilati 
indefatigable jindi'faetigabl |-bly -bh 
indefeasible ^indi'fizabl |-bly -bh 
indefensible jindi'fensabi |-bly -bh 
indefinable jindi'fainabl |-bly -bh 
indefinite in'dEfanit 
indehiscence jindi'hisns | -scent -snt 
indelibility iindela^bilati, inydel- 
indelible ni'delab! |-bly -bh 
indelicate in'dElakat, -kit |-cacy -kasi 
indemnification nijdemnafa'ke/an 

indemnify in'dEmna/fai |-fied -jfaid |-ity -ti 
indemonstrable in'dEmanstrabj, ^indi'man- 

strabl; ES+-'mDn-; |-bly -bh 
indene 'indin 
indent n in'dent, 'indent 
indent v in'dent |-ed -id |-ation jinden'te/an 
indention in'den/an 

indenture in'dentja"-; ES -'dent/a(r; |-d -d 
independence ;indi'p£ndans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 
indescribable jindi'skraibabl |-bly -bh 
indestructibility jindijStrAkta'bilati 
indestructible jindi'sttAktabl |-bly -bh 
indeterminable iindi'tyminabl; ES -'tsm-, 

-'tym-; |-bly-bh 
indeterminate ^indi'ts-manit; ES -'tsm-, 

inde termination ^indijtyma'ne/an; ES -^tam-, 

indeterminism jindi'tymanjizam; ES -'t3m-, 

-'tym-; |-ist -ist 
index 'indeks |-es -iz [indices 'indajsiz |-ed -t 
India 'india, 'indja |-n -n |-man -man |-men 

Indiana ;indi'aena — BBC indi'a:na is not Am. 
Indianapolis jindian'asphs, -'aephs, -as |-'s -iz 
Indianian jindi'aenian, -njan 
Indie 'indik 

indie 'indik |indican 'indikan 
indicant 'indikant 

indicate 'inda^ket [-d -id |-tion ^inda'kejan 
indicative in'dikativ, -'dikitiv 
indicator 'inda^keta^; ES -jketa(r 
indices pi of index 'inda^siz 
indict in'dait |-ed -id |-er, -or -a^; ES -a(r 
indictable in'daitabl |-bly -bh 
indictee jindait'i 
indiction in'dik/an 
indictment in'daitmant 
Indies 'indiz, 'indiz 

indifference in'difrans, -'difarans ]-nt -nt 
indigence 'indadsans |-gent -dsant 
indigene 'inda^dsin 
indigenous in'didsanas 
indigestibility jindajdsesta'bilati 
indigestible jinda'dsestabl |-bly -bh 
indigestion jinda'dsestjan 
indign in'dain 

indignant in'dignant |-gnation jindig'nejan 
indignity in'dignati 

|full ful [tooth tuO [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




indigo 'indijgo |-digoid -di^gaid 

Indo-Germanic (indodsa^^'maemk, -ds^-; ES 

indigotin in'digatin, ^indi'gotin 

-dsa-, -dss-, -dsy- 

Indio 'indijO 

indol 'indol, -dal, -dol |-dole -dol 

indirect jinda'rekt |-rection -Vek/an 

indolence 'indalans |-lent -bnt 

indiscernible yindi'zynabl, -'syn-; ES -an-. 

indomitable in'damatsbl; ES-h-'dnm-; |-bly 

-yn-; |-bly -bh 


indiscreet jindi'skrit |-scretion -'skreXan 

Indonesian ^indo'niXan, -33n 

indiscriminate ^indi'skrimanit 

indoor 'in^dor, -/dar; ES -jdo3(r, E + -jd33(r 

indiscrimination jindijskrima'ne/an 

indoors n in'dorz, -'darz; ES -'doaz, E-i- 

indispensability jindiyspensa'bibti 


indispensable jindi'sp8ns3bl |-ljly -bli 

indoors adj 'in^dorz, -jdarz; ES -^doazj 

indispose jindi'spoz |-s -iz |-d -d 

E + -jdD3Z 

indisposition ^indispa'zi/an 

indoors adv 'in'dorz, -'darz; ES -'doaz. 

indisputability ^indijSpjuta'bibti, -^spiut-. 

E + -'d33Z 


indophenol jindo'finol, -nal, -nol 

indisputable jindi'spjutabl, -'spiut-, in'dis- 

indorse in'dars; ES -'daas; |-s -iz |-d -t 

pjutabl |-bly -bh — Usage appears to he 

indoxyl in'daksil; ES-f-'dok- 

sensibly foUoidng the analogy 0/ dispute. 

Indra 'indra 

indissolubility jindijsalja'bilati, in^dislju- 

indraft, -draught 'm^draeft; E+-jdraft, -^draft 

'bibti; ES + -jSd1- 

indrawn 'in'dran ('in;drawn 'breath) 

indissoluble jindi'saljabl, in'disljubl; ES + 

indubitable in'djubitabl, -'diu-, -'du- |-bly 

-'sdI-; |-bly -bb 


indistinct jindi'stiijkt 

induce in'djus, -'dius, -'dus |-s -iz |-d -t 

indistinguishability jindijstiijgwija'bilati 

|-cible -abl |-dly -idh 

indistinguishable jindi'stiggwijabl 1-bly -bh 

induct in'dAkt |-ed -id |-ance -ans 

indite in'dait |-d -id 

inductile in'dAktl, -til 

indium 'indiam 

inductihty jindAk'tibti 

individual jinda'vidsual, -dgul |-ly -i 1-ism 

induction in'dAk/an |-tive -trv 

-jizam |-ist -ist 

inductivity jindAk'trvati 

individualistic jinda^vidsual'istik, -d3ul- 

inductor in'dAkta^; ES -'dAktaCr 

|-ally -Ii, -ikh 

indue in'dju, -'dm, -'du |-d -d 

individuality jindajvidsu'aelati 

indulge in'dAlds |-s -iz |-d -d 

individualization jmdajvidsuala'zejan, -d5ul-, 

indulgence in'dAldgans |-s -iz |-d -t |-nt -nt 


indulin 'indjuhn |-line -Jin, -hn 

individualize jindaVidsual^aiz, -dsul- |-s -iz 

indurate adj 'indjurit, -durit 


indurate v 'indjujret, -du^ret |-d -id 

indivisibility jindajViza'bibti 

induration ^indju're/an, -du- 

indivisible jinda'vizabl |-bly -bh 

Indus 'indas |-'s -iz 

Indo-Aryan 'indo'Erian, -W-, -W-, -rjan; 

industrial in'dAstrial |-ly -i j-ism -jzam j-ist 

S -'aer-, -'er-, -'ar- 


Indo-British 'indo'briti/ 

industrialization injdAstriala'ze/an, -ai'z- 

Indo-Chinese 'indotJ"ai'niz 

industrialize in'dAstrialjaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

indocile in'dasl, -sil; ES+-'dDS- 

industrious in'dAstnas 

indocility jindo'sibti 

industry 'indastri, 'in^dAstri "~ 

indoctrinate in'daktrinjet; ES-h-Mok-; |-d 

indwell in'dwel [-dwelt -'dwelt 


indweller 'in^dwela^; ES -jdwelaCr 

indoctrination in^daktri'iiejan, jindak-; ES + 

indwelling n 'in,dwEhg 


inearth in'yO; ES -'36, -'yO; |-ed -t 

Indo-European ^inda jura'pisn* jindo- 

inebriacy in'ibrissi |-briant -briant 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr}- 'asg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far |watch wat/, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge g3rd5 |go go 




inebriate adj in'ibnit 

inexpiable in'Ekspiabl |-bly -bli 

inebriate n in'ibriit, -ifii 

inexplainable jinik'splenabj 

inebriate v in'ibriiet |-d -id 

inexplicability injEkspIika'bilati, jinsks- 

inebriation mjibri'e/an 

inexplicable in'sksplikobj |-bly -bli — Brii 

inebriety ^ini'braiati 

occasional ^inik'splikabj seems to he gaining 

inedibility jineda'bilati, injcda- 

groiond here. 

inedible lo'edabl 

inexpressible ^inik'sprEsabl |-bly -bli 

inedited in'editid 

inexpressive jinik'sprESiv 

ineducability jinedsaka'bilati, -dsu- 

inexpugnable jnik'spAgnabl [-bly -bli 

ineducable in'edsakabl, -A^v- 

in extenso ^inik'stEnso 

ineffability jiiiEfa'bibti, in^efa- 

inextinguishable ^imk'stiggwijabl |-bly -bli 

ineffable in'efabl |-bly -bli 

in extremis ^imk'striniis 

ineffaceable jina'fesabj |-bly -bli 

inextricable in'Ekstrikabl |-bly -bh 

ineffective jina'fsktiv 

infallibility jinfaela'bilati, in^faela- 

ineffectual jina'fekt/ual, -t/ul |-ly -i 

infallible in'faelabl |-bly -bli 

ineffectuality jinajfEkt/u'aebti 

infamous 'infamas | infamy 'iiifami 

inefficacious jinEfa'ke/as |-cacy in'efakasi 

infancy 'infansi |-fant -fant 

inefficience jina'fi/ons |-cy -i |-nt -nt 

infanta in'faenta infante in'faente 

inelastic jini'laestik 

infanticide in'faenta^said 

inelasticity jinilaes'tisati 

infantile 'infan^tail, -tal, -til 

inelegance in'sbgans |-s -iz |-cy -i |-nt -nt 

infantine 'infan^tain, -tm 

ineligibility jinekdsa'bibti, in^Elidsa- 

infantry 'infantri |-man -man ]-men -man 

ineMgible in'shdjabl |-bly -bli 

infatuate in'faet/ujet |-d -id 

ineluctable jini'lAktabl |-bly -bli 

infatuation in^fastju'e/an 

inept in'Ept 

infeasible in'fizabi 

ineptitude in'Eptajtjud, -jtiud, -^tud 

infect in'fEkt |-ed -id 

inequality jini'kwabti, -'kwol- 

infection in'fEkJan |-tious -/as |-tive -tiv 

inequitable in'skwitabl |-bly -bli |-ty -ti 

infelicitous jinfa'lisatas |-ty -ti 

ineradicable jim'raedikabl |-bly -bli 

infelt 'in^fElt 

inerrancy in'sransi |-rant -rant 

infer mfe; ES -'f3(r, -'fy; |-red -d 

inert in'yt; ES in'at, -'yt 

inferable in'fyabl, 'infarabi; ES+-'f3rabl 

inertia in'^/a; ES -'a/a, -'y/a 

inference 'infarans |-s -iz 

inescapable iina'skepabl |-bly -bli 

inferential jinfa'rEn/al |-ly -i 

in esse ih'esi 

inferior in'firia'; ES -'firi'a(r 

inessential jina's£nj"al 

inferiority injfin'arati, -'ar-, -'nr-, jnfir- 

inestimable in'sstamabl |-bly -bli 

infernal in'fynl; ES -'fsnl, -'fynl; [-ly -i 

inevitability ^inEvata'bilati, idjEv- 

inferno, I- in'fyno; ES -'fane, -'fyno 

inevi table in'svatabl |-bly -bli 

inferrible m'fyabl; ES + -'f3rabl 

inexact jinig'zaekt 

infertile in'fytl, -til; ES -'fs-, -'fy-; l-ly -i 

inexactitude jinig^zaekta^tjud, -^tiud, -^tud - 

infertility jnfa^'tilati; ES jinfa- 

inexcusable jinik'skjuzabl, -'skiuz- |-bly -bli 

infest in'fEst |-ed -id |-ation jinfEs'te/an 

inexhaustibility ^inigjzasta'bilati 

infidel 'infadi |-delity ^infa'dElati 

inexhaustible jinig'zastabj |-bly -bli 

infield 'in^fild 

inexorable m'Eksarabl |-bly -bh 

infiltrate in'filtret |-d -id 

inexpedience jinik'spidians |-cy -i |-nt -nt 

infiltration jinfil'tre/an 

inexpensive jimk'spEnsiv 

infinite, I- 'infanit, worship occas. -^nait 

inexperience jnik'spirians [-d -t 

infinitesimal jinfina'tEsaml |-ly -i 

inexpert jnik'spyt; ES -'spst, -'spyt; ('inex- 

infinitival jnfina'taivl, in^fina- |-ly -i 

jpert 'help) 

infinitive in'finativ 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision Vi5an |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




infinitude in'finajtjud, -jtiud, -^tud 

infusoria, I- jinfju'soria, -fiu-, -'soria; S 

infinity in'finati 

-'soria; |-1 -1 |-n -n 

infirm in'fym; ES -'fsm, -'fym; |-ary -an, -n 

-ing ending of pres ptc b' verbal n, pronounced 

|-ity -3ti 

-ig, -g, -in, -an, n. Syllabic -g frequeiitly 

infix n 'in^fiks |-es -iz 

replaces -ig after a k or g sound, as making 

infix V in'fiks |-es -iz |-ed -t 

'mekig, 'mekg, or dragging 'draegig. 

inflame in'flem |-d -d |-dly -idli 

'draegg. The pronunciation -with -in, -an 

inflammability in/flaema'bilati, jinflaems- 

(running 'rAnin, 'rAnan) or ivith -n (getting 

inflammable in'flaemabl |-bly -bli 

'getn) is occasionally heard in tJie informal 

inflammation jinfb'mejon 

speech of the cultivated in all parts of the 

inflammatory in'flaemajtori, -jtori; S -^tori 

US b" C. It is more frequent in the S, "where 

inflate in'flet |-d -id 

it is not infreqii-ently heard also on formal 

inflation in'fle/an |-ary -jgri |-ism -^izam ]-ist 

occasions. In this vocabulary only -ig is 


given, and this is usually omitted if the pro- 

inflect in'fkkt |-ed -id 

nunciation can be inferred by adding the 

inflection in'fkk/an |-al -j |-ally -li 

sounds -ig directly to the head pronunciation. 

inflexibility injfkksa'bibti, jinfkksa- 

Ingaevones ^indsiVoniz 

inflexible in'fkksabl |-bly -bh 

ingather m'gieSa'; ES -'gaeSaCr; |-ed -d ]-ing 

inflexion in'fkkjan 

-'gaeSrig, -'gaeSarig 

inflict in'fhkt |-ed -id |-ction -kjan 

ingathering n 'in^gaetJrig, -jgaeSang 

inflorescence jinflo'resns, -fb-; S -flo-; J-s -iz 

Inge Dean of St. FauFs ig 

|-cent -snt 

Ingelow 'indsajo 

inflow n 'iiijflo 

ingeminate in'dsEmajnet |-d -id 

influence 'influans, -fliuans |-s -iz |-d -t 

ingenerate adj in'dsenarit 

influential jinflu'En/al, -fliu- j-ly -i 

ingenerate v in'dsEnajret [-d -id 

influenza jinflu'enza, -fliu- 

ingenious in'dsinjas 

influx 'in^fUks |-es -iz 

ingenue Fr ieje'ny 

infold in'fold |-ed -id 

ingenuity ^indsa'nuati, -'nni-, -'nju- 

inform in^form; ES -'foam; |-ed -d |-edly -idh 

ingenuous in'dsenjuas 

informal m'farmj; ES -'faamj; |-!y -i 

Ingersoll 'igga-sal, -jsal, -jSdI, -^sal; ES 'igga- 

informality jinfor'tnaelati; ES -fD^maslati 

ingest in'dsEst \-ed -id j-gestion -'dsEstJon 

informant in'fDrmant; ES -'faamant 

Ingham 'igam 

information jinfa-'mejan; ES jinfa- 

ingle 'iggl |-nook -^nuk 

informative in'farmativ; ES -'foamativ 

inglobe in'glob |-d -d 

infra 'infra 

inglorious in 'glorias, -'gbr-; S -'glor- 

infract in'fraekt |-ed -id 

ingoing 'in^goig 

infra dig short for infra dignitatem 'infra- 

Ingold 'ingold, 'iggold 


Ingoldsby 'iggjzbi, 'iggaldzbi 

infrangible in'fraendsabl |-bly -bli 

ingot 'iggat -ed -id 

infrared jinfra'red 

ingraft in'grasft; E + -'graft, -'graft; |-ed -id 

infrequence in'frikwans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 

Ingraham 'iggriam, 'iggraham 

infringe in'f rinds |-s -iz |-d -d 

ingrain n 'in^gren 

infundibulum jinfAn'dibjabm |-la -la 

ingrain adj, v in'gren ]-ed -d ('in^grain 'rug) 

infuriate c^f/m'fj unit, -'fiur- 

ingrained adj in'grend |-nedly -nidli, -ndli 

infuriate v in'fjurijet, -'fiur- |-d -id 

Ingram 'iggram 

infuse in'fjuz, -'fiuz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idli 

ingrate n 'ingret 

infusible in^fjuzabj, -'fiuz- 

ingratiate in'gre/ijct [-d -id 

infusion in'fjusan, -'fiujan 

ingratiatory in'grefiajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 

infusive in'fjusiv, -'fius- 

ingratitude in'graBta,tjud, -jtiud, -jtud 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr}' 'seg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj", wotj (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 




ingredient in'gridiant 

inion 'inian 

ingress n 'ingrts |-es -iz 

iniquitous I'nikwatas |-ty -ti 

ingress v in'grES |-es -iz |-ed -t 

initial I'm/al |-ly -i 

ingression in'greXan |-sive -'gr£siv 

initiate n, adj I'ni/iit, -^et 

ingrow 'in^gro |-grew -igru, -jgriu |-grown 

initiate v I'm/iiCt |-d -id 


initiation ijiu/i'efan 

ingrown adj 'm'gron ('in^grown 'habit) 

initiative i'ni/i,etiv, I'ni/iativ 

ingrowth 'iiijgroB |-ths -0s 

initiatory I'ni/iajtori, -jtori; S -jtori 

inguinal 'iggwinl 

inject in'dsekt |-ed -id j-ction -kjan 

ingulf in'gAlf |-ed -t 

injector in'dsekta^; ES -'dsektaCr 

ingurgitate m'gs'dsajtet; ES -'gsds-, -'gyds- ; 

injudicious ^indsu'diXas, -dsiu- 

Id -id 

injunction in'dsAgkJan [tive -tiv 

inhabit in'haebit |-ed -id 

injure 'indsa^; ES -d53(r; |-d -d |-ry -i 

inhabitability ' habitabiliiy' injhaebita'bilati 

injurious in'dsurias, -'dsiu- 

inhabitability 'nonhabitability' ^inliaebita- 

injustice in'dsAstis |-s -iz 


ink iflk |-ed -t |-horn -jhorn; ES -jhaan 

inhabitable 'habitable' in'hiebitabl 

inkling 'igklig 

inhabitable 'not habitable' 'in'haEbitabl 

inkstand 'iflkjstaend 

inhabitancy in'haebatansi |-tant -tant 

inkwell 'igk^wel 

inhabitation in^haeba'tejan 

inland adj 'inland 

inhalant in'hebnt 

inland n, adv 'injaend, 'inland 

inhale in'hel |-d -d |-lation jinha'Ie/an 

inlander 'inlanda^; ES -da(r 

inharmonic jinhar'manik; ES -ha:'manik. 

inlaw n 'inja, v in'la |-ed in'lad 

-'mon-, E+ -bar- 

inlay n \n\e, v in'le |-laid in'led 

inharmonious jnharWonias; ES -ha'mon-. 

inlet n 'in^kt, v in'let 

E + -ha- 

inly 'ink 

inhere in'hir; ES -'hi3(r, S + -'he3(r; |-d -d 

inmate 'inmet 

inherence in'hirans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 

in medias res in 'inidi,aes 'riz 

inheritable in'heratabl |-bly -bb 

in memoriam jinma'morijaem, -'man-, -jon. 

inheritance m'heratans |-s -iz 

S -'mori- 

inheritor in'berata'; ES -'h£r3t3(r; |-tress 

inmost 'in^most, -mast 

-tris 1 -tress's -trisiz 

inn in |inned ind 

inheritrix in'heratriks [-es -iz 

innate I'net, in'net ('in^nate 'poise) 

inhibit in'hibit [-ed -id 

inner 'ina^; ES 'ina(r; |-most -^most, -mast 

inhibition jini'bijan, jinhi- 

innervate I'nyvet, 'ina^jvet; ES I'nsv-, I'nyv-, 

inhibitive in'hibitiv 

'ina-; |-d -id 

inhibitory in'hibajtori, -jtari; S -^tori 

innervation jina^'vejan; ES jina- 

inhospitable m'haspitabl; ES + -'hDS-; much 

innerve I'ns'v, in'nyv; ES -'nav, -'nyv; 

less freq. jinhos'pitable |-bly -bh 


inhospitality ^inhaspa'taelati; ES-i- -bos- 

Innes, Inness 'inis |-'s -iz 

inhuman inTijuman, -'hiuman, -'juman 

innholder 'in^holda^; ES -jholda(r 

inhumane jinbju'men, -biuWen, -juWen 

inning 'inii) 

inhumanity jinhjuWaenati, -hiu-, -ju'maen- 

innkeeper 'in^kipa'; ES -jkipa(r 

inhumation jinbju'mejan, -hiu- [-tionist -ist 

innocence 'inasns |-cy -i |-cent -snt 

inhume m'bjum, -'hium |-d -d 

innocuous I'nakjuas; ES + -'nnk- 

Inigo 'inijgo 

innominate adj I'namanit, in'n-; ES + -'nDm- 

inimical in'imikl |-ly -i, -ikb 

innovate 'inajvet |-d -id |-tion jina'vejan 

inimitability jinimitD'bilati 

innoxious I'nakjas, in'n-; ES + -'nDk- 

inimitable in'imatabl |-bly -bh 

Innsbruck 'inzbruk (Ger 'insbruk) 

|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kredl |keep 'em 'kipm 




innuendo ^inju'Endo 

innumerable I'njumarabl, m'n-, -'mum-, 

-'num- |-bly -bh 
innumerous m'njumaras, -'mum-, -'num- 
innutrition jinju'tri/an, ^mnju-, -mu-, -nu- 

|-tious -/as 
inobservance jinab'zyvans; ES -'z3V-, -'zyv-; 

|-nt -nt 
inoculable in'akjalabl; ES + -'iok- 
inoculate in'akjajlet; ES + -'Dk-; |-d -id 
inoculation injakja'leXan; ES+-jt)k- 
inodorous in'odaras 
inoffensive jina'fEnsiv 
inofEcious jina'fi/as 
inoperable in'aparabl; ES+-'Dp- 
inoperative in'apajretiv, -'aparativ, -'aprativ; 

inopportune ^inapa^'tjun, in^ap-, -'tiun, -'tun; 

ES+-DP-, -jop- 
inordinate in'ordnit; ES -'aadnit 
inorganic jinar'gaenik; ES -aa'gaen-; j-al -j 

I -ally -h, -ikh 
inosculate in'askjajlet; ES+-'ds-; \-d -id 
inositol I'nosijtol 
inpatient 'injpejant 
inphase adj 'in^fez 
inpour n 'iii/por, -jpar, -ipur; ES -,po3{t, 

-;pu3(r, E + -;pD3(r 
inpour v in'por, -'por-, -'pur; ES -'po3(r, 

-'pu3(r, E + -'p33(r; |-ed -d 
input 'in^put 
inquest 'inkwEst 
inquiet in'kwaiat 

inquietude in'kwaiajtjud, -jtiud, -jtud 
inquire in'kwair; ES -'kwai3(r; |-d -d 
inquiry m'kwairi, 'inkwari 
inquisition jnkwa'zi/on 
inquisitive in'kwizativ |-tor -t^; ES -t3(r 
inquisitorial iiijkwiza 'tonal, jinkwiza-, -'tor-; 

S -'tor- 
in re in'ri 
inroad 'in^rod 
inrush n 'in^rAX 1-es -iz 
inrush v in'rAj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
insalivate in'saelajvet |-d -id 
insalubrious jinsa'lubrias, -'hub- ]-brity 

insane in'sen ('iujsane 'root) 
insanitary in'saenajteri 

insanity in'saenati 

insatiability injse/ia'bilati, -^seja-, /insej- 

insatiable in'sefiabl, -'seja- |-bly -bli 

insatiate in'sejiit |-ated -^etid 

inscribe in'skraib |-d -d 

inscription in'sknpjan 

inscroll m'skrol |-ed -d 

inscrutability iiijskruta'b^ati, -^sknut-, ^in- 

inscru table in'sknitabl, -'skmit- |-bly -bb 
insculp in'skAlp |-ed -t |-ture -t/a--; ES -tja(r 
insect 'insekt 

insectarium ^insEk'tEnam, -'ter- 
insectary 'insEk^tEn 

insecticide in'sektajsaid |-dal -jsekta'saidl 
insectival jinsEk'taivl, in'sektavl 
insectivore in'sEktajVor, -^var; ES -^voaCr, 

insectivorous jinsEk'tivaras, -'trvras 
insecure jinsi'kjur, -'kiur; ES -a(r 
insecurity jinsi'kjurati, -'kiurati 
inseminate in'sE magnet |-d -id 
insemination nijSEma'neJan, jinsEma- 
insensate m'senset, -sit 
insensibility jinssnsa'bilati, in^SEnsa- 
insensible in'sEusabj |-bly -bli 
insensitive in'sensativ 
insensitivity jinsEusa'tivati, nijSEnsa- 
insentient in'sEnJiant, -Jant 
inseparability jinsEpara'bilati, in^SEpara-, 

inseparable in'sEparabj, -pra- |-bly -bli 
insert n 'insyt; ES -sst, -syt 
insert v in'syt; ES -'sst, -'s^t; |-ed -id 
insertion in'saj'an; ES -'ss/an, -'syjan 
inset n 'in^sEt, v in'set 
insheathe in'/itS \-d -d 
inshore adj \nJot, -/Jar; ES -j/oa(r, E + 

-yJaaCr; adv 'in'shore 
inside n, adj 'in'said ('in^side 'door) 
inside adv 'in'said ('in^side & 'out^side) 
inside prep in'said 
insider in'saida^; ES -'saida(r 
insidious in'sidias 
insight 'lUjsait 
insignia in'signia 

insignificance jinsig'mfakans j-cant -kant 
insincere jinsin'sir; ES -'si3(r, S-i--'sEa(r 
insincerity ,insin's£rati 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saerj langrj- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |\vatch watj, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




insinuate in'sinjujct |-d -id 

instead in'sted — The historical doublet in^stid 

insinuation injSinju'e/an 

is frequently heard. 

insipid in'sipid |-ity ^insiVdati 

instep 'injstep 

insipience m'sipians |-ent -ant 

instigate ^instajget |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 

insist in'sist |-ed -id 

instigation /insta'gejan 

insistence m'sistans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 

instill, -il in'stil |-ed, -led -d 

in situ in'saitju, -tiu-, -tu 

instillation jinsti'Ie/an 

insnare in'sner, -'snaer; E -'sn£3(r, ES 

instinct n 'instigkt 

-'snaE3(r; |-d -d 

instinct adj in'stigkt |-ive -iv 

insobriety jinsa'braiati, ^inso- 

institute 'insta/tjut, -jtiut-, -^tut |-d -id 

insociability jinso/a'bilati, in^so/a- 

institution jinsta'tju/an, -^tiu-, -'tu- |-ary 

insociable in'so/abj |-bly -bh 


insolate 'insojiet |-d -id 

institutionalize jmsta'tju/anj^aiz, -Jnal- |-s 

insolation jinso'le/an 

-IZ |-d -d 

insole 'injsol |-d -d 

institutive 'msta^tjutiv, -/tiu-, -^tu- 

insolence 'msalans |-s -iz j-cy -i |-nt -nt 

instruct in'strAkt |-ed -id 1-ction -k/an |-ive 

insolubility jinsalja^bibti; ES+-sdI- 

-IV |-or -3^; ES -a(r 

insoluble in'saljabj; ES + -'sd1-; ]-bly -bli 

instrument 'instramant 

insolvable in'salvabl, -'solv- |-bly -bli 

instrumental /instra'mentl |-ist -ist 1-ly -i 

insolvency in'salvansi, -'sdIv- |-vent -vant 

instrumentality /instramen'taelati 

insomnia in'samms; ES + -'si3m- 

instrumentation /instramen'tejan 

insomuch jinsa'mAt/, -so- 

insubordinate jinsa'bardnit; -dnit; ES -^baad- 

insouciance in'susians {Fr ^esu'sja-.s) 

insubordination jinsa/bardn'e/an; ES -^baad- 

insouciant in'susiant {Fr ^su'sja) 

insubstantial jinsab'stjenjal 

inspan in'spsen j-ned -d 

insubstantiality /insabjstaenXi'aelati 

inspect in'spekt |-ed -id J-ction -kjan 

insufferable m'sAfrabl, -fara- j-bly -bh 

inspector m'spekta^; ES -'spektaCr; ]-ate -it 

insufficience /insa'fi/ans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 

insphere lu'sfir; ES -'sfi3(r, S+-'sfE3(r 

insufflate in'sAflet, 'insa/flet |-d -id 

inspirable in'spairabi 

insufflation jinsa'fle/an 

inspiration jinspa'rejan |-al -1 |-ally -li 

insular 'insala^, 'insju-; ES -Ia(r 

inspiratory in'spaira^tori, -jtari; S -/ton 

insularity jnsa'lasrati, /insju- 

inspire in'spair; ES -'spai3(r; |-d -d j-dly 

insulate 'insajlet, 'insju- |-tor -9-', ES -a(r 


insulation jinsa'lejan, -sju- 

inspirit in'spint j-ed -id 

insulin 'insalin, -sju- 

inspissate in'spiset j-d -id 

insulize 'msa^laiz, -sju- |-s -iz |-d -d 

instability jinsta'bilati 

insult n 'insAlt, v in'sAlt |-ed in'sAltid 

install in'stal |-ed -d 

insuperability in^supara^bilati, -^siu-, -iSJu-, 

installation imsta'lejan 


installment, -stalm- in'stolmant 

insuperable in'suparabl, -'siu-, -^sju- |-bly 

instance 'instans |-s -iz |-d -t j-stant -stant 


instantaneous jinstan^enias 

insupportable jinsa'portabi, -'part-; ES 

instanter m'stasnta^; ES -'staenta(r 

-'poat-, E+-V33t-; ]-bly -bh 

instar n ^instar; ES -sta:(r, E+-sta:(r 

insuppressible jinsa'prEsabl |-bly -bh 

instar v in'star; ES -'sta:(r, E+-'sta:(r; 

insurable in'/urabl |-ability inj/ura'bilati 

l-red -d 

insurance m'/urans |-s -iz 

instate in'stet |-d -id 

insure in'/ur; ES -'j"ua(r; |-d -d 

in statu quo in'stetju'kwo, -^staetju- 

insurer in'/ura^; ES -ra(r 

instaurate in'staret |-d -id 

insurgence in'sydsans; ES -'ssds-, -'s3'd3-; 

instauratlon /instaVe/an 

|-cy -I |-ent -ant 

|full ful Itooth tue Ifurther 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail [how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzirj |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish di/ [vision Visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




insurmountable jinsa^'mauntabl; ES -sa-; 

intercalary in'tyka^lEri; ES -'tsk-, -'ts'k- 

l-bly -bh 

intercalate in'tyka^let; ES -'tsk-, -'tyk-; j-d 

insurrection jinsaVek/an |-ary -^en 

-id |-tive -IV 

insusceptibility jins3jS£pt3'bibti 

intercalation in^tyka^lejan; ES -^tsk-, -jt^rk- 

insusceptible jinsa'septabl l-bly -bli 

intercede ^mta^'sid; ES /inta-; [-d -id 

inswathe m'swetJ |-d -d 

intercellular ^inta^'sEljala--; ES ^inta'sEljalaCr 

inswept 'in^swEpt 

intercept n 'inta^jSEpt; ES 'inta- 

intact in'taekt 

intercept v ^mta-'sEpt; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 

intaglio m'taeljo, -'taljo {It inHaXito) 

j-ption -p/an 

intake 'in^tek 

intercession jinta^'se/an; ES ^inta- 

intangible in'tiendsabl l-bly -bk 

intercessory ^inta^'sEsan; ES ^rnta- 

integer 'intadsa^; ES -d33(r 

interchange n 'inta^yt/ends; ES 'inta-; j-s -iz 

integral 'intagral 1-ly -i 1-grable -gr9bl 

interchange v jinta^'t/ends; ES ^mta-; |-s -iz 

integrality ^inta'graelati 


integrant 'intagrant | -grand -^graend 

interchangeability ^inta'jtj'endsa'bilati; ES 

integrate 'intajgret 1-grated -^gretid 


integration jinta'grejan 

interchangeable ^mta^'t/endsabl; ES ^inta-; 

integrator 'intaigreta^; ES -jgreta(r 

l-bly -bh 

integrity in'tegrati 

interclass 'inta-^klaes ; ES 'mta-, E-i--'klas, 

integument n in'tEgjamant 

-'klas; ('inter^class 'game) 

integument v in'tEgjajiriEnt |-ed -id 

intercollegiate jintyka'lidsiit, -dsit; ES ^mta- 

intellect 'mtl.ekt 

intercolonial ^inta^ka'lonial; ES ;inta-; 1-ly -i 

intellection jintrek/an I-tive -tiv 

intercommunicate jinta^ka'mjunajket, -'miiin-; 

intellectual ^intrekt/ual, -tjul 1-ly -i |-ism 

ES jinta-; |-d -id 

-jizam j-ist -ist 

intercommunication jnta'kajinjuna^ej'an. 

intellectuality jintl/ektXu'aelati 

-jiniun-; ES ^inta- 

intellectualize jintl'ektjualjaiz, -tjul- |-s -iz 

intercommunion ^inta'ka'mjunjan, -'miun-; 


ES jinta- 

intelligence in'teladsans |-s -iz j-d -t 

interconnect jint3<^ka'n£kt; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 

intelligent in't£lad3ant 

interconnection yinta^ka'nEk/an; ES jinta- 

intelligential injtela'dsen/al 

intercostal jinta^'kastl, -'kos-, -'kas-; ES 

intelligentsia in^tEla'dsEntsia, -'gEntsia 

iinta-; |-ly -i 

intelligibility injtElidsa'bilati 

intercourse 'mta'jkors, -jkars; ES 'intajkoas, 

intelligible in'tElidsabl |-bly -bli 

E + -jkaas 

intemperance in'tEmparans, -prans 

intercurrent ^inta^'kyant; ES jinta'ksr-. 

intemperate inHEmpant, -pnt 

-'kAr-, -'ky- 

intend in'tEnd j-ed -id 1-ance -ans |-ant -ant 

interdenominational jinta^dijnama'nej'anl. 

intense in'tEns j-sity -ati 1-sive -iv 

-/nal; ES iintadi^nama-, -jnoma- 

intensification iiijtEnsafa'kcJan 

interdental jinta^'dEntl; ES ^inta-; 1-ly -i 

intensify in'tEnsajfai |-iied -jfaid 

interdepartmental jinta-dijpart'mEntl, -,di- 

intension in'tEn/an 

part-; ES ^mtadi^pait-, -jdipa:t-, E + -;pa:t-, 

intent in'tEnt 

-pa:t-; |-ly -i 

intention in'tEn/an |-al -1, -Jnal j-ally -li, 

interdependence jinta^di'pendans; ES ^inta-; 


|-ent -ant 

inter in'ty; ES -'t3(r, -'ty; |-red -d 

interdict n 'inta^^dikt; ES 'inta- 

inter- prefix 'inta^-; ES 'inta(r- 

interdict v jinta^'dikt; ES ^inta-; 1-ed -id 

interact jinta^'aekt j-ed -id -ion -k/an |-ive -iv 

interdiction jinta^'dik/an; ES ^inta- 

interblend jinta-'blEnd; ES jnta-; |-ed -id 

interest n 'intarist, 'intrist 

interbreed iinta^'brid; ES ^inta-; j-bred -'brsd 

interest v 'intarist, 'intrist, 'inta;rEst 

Key: See hi full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret lyet JEt Isang saeg |angr\- 'aef-gri 
|bath baee; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards Igu go 




interested 'intaristid, -ros-, 'intristid, -tras-, 

interesting 'intaristirj, -ras-, 'intristiQ, -tras-, 

'inta/estig — The former pron. ^inta'rEstid, 

-II), is now somewhat old-fashioned {though 

still heard both in America and England), 

but 'inta^rEstid, -ig are still in excellent use, 

esp. in England. 
interfere jinta^'fir; ES jinta'fioCr, S+-'f£3(r'; 

|-d -d I -nee -ans |-nces -ansiz 
interferometer ^inta^fiVamata^; ES jintafi- 

'ramataCr, -Vom- 
interfuse jinta^'fjuz, -'fiuz; ES jinta-; |-s -iz 

|-d -d |-sion -3an 
interglacial jinta^'gleXal; ES jinta- 
intergrade n 'inta^^gred; ES 'inta- 
intergrade v jnt3''gred; ES jinta-; |-d -id 
interim 'intarim 
interior in'tiria'; ES -'tiri'a(r 
interiority in^tiribrati, -'ar-, -W- 
interject jinta^'dsakt; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 
interjection ^inta^'dgek/an; ES ^inta-; |-al -] 

|-ally -Ii |-tory -tan 
interknit ^inta^'nit; ES jinta-; \past df pptc 

-knit -'nit or -knitted -'nitid 
interlace jnta^'les; ES jinta-; |-s -iz |-d -t 
Interlaken 'inta^ilakan; ES 'mta- 
interlard jinta^'lard; ES jinta'lard, E + -'la:(I; 

l-ed -id 
interlay n 'inta^Je; ES 'inta- 
interlay v jinta^'le; ES jinta-; |-laid -'led 
interleaf n 'inta^^lif; ES 'inta-; | -leaves -vz 
interleaf v jinta^Uif ; ES ^inta-; |-s -s |-ed -t 
interleave v jinta^'liv; ES ^inta-; |-s -z |d -d 
interline n 'inta^jlain; ES 'inta- 
interline v jinta^'lain; ES ^inta-; |d -d 
interlineal jinta^'Iinial; ES jnta-; |-ly -i 
interlinear jint3^'lini3^; ES ,inta'lini'a(r 
interlineate jnta^ 'limpet; ES jinta-; j-d -id 
interlineation jinta^jluu'ejan; ES ^inta- 
interlink n 'inta'Jigk; ES 'inta- 
interlinkz) iinta^'hgk; ES jinta-; |-ed -t 
interlocate ^inta^'Ioket; ES jinta-; |-d -id 
interlock n 'inta^jlak; ES 'intajak, -jlok 
interlock v jinta^'lak; ES jinta'lak, -'Ink; 

l-ed -t 
interlocution jnta^la'kju/an, -'kiu-; ES jinta- 
interlocutor ^inta-'lakjata^; ES ,inta'lakjata(r, 

-'Ink-; |-tory -,tori, -itari; S -,tori 

interlope jinta^'Iop; ES /inta-; |-d -t |-r -'3; 

ES -a(r; flcc^ + 'interloper 
interlude 'inta^jlud, -Jiud; ES 'inta- 
interlunar jinta^'luna', -'liuna^; ES jinta- 

'luna(r, -'liu- 
intermarriage jinta^'maerids; ES jinta-; |-s 


intermarry jinta^'mjeri; ES ^inta-; |-ied -d 
intermeddle jinta^'mEdj; ES ^inta-; |-d -d 

|-ling -'medlig, -'medlig 
intermediacy jinta^'midiasi; ES ;inta- 
intermediary jinta^'midijEri; ES ^into- 
intermediate adj jinta^'midiit; ES ^mta- 
intermediate v jinta^'midi^et; ES jinta-; |-d -id 
interment in'tymant; ES -'ts-, -'ty- 
intermezzo jinta^'metso, -'medzo; ES jinta-; 

{It jinter'meddzo) 
interminable in'tyminabl; ES -'tsm-, -'tym-; 

l-bly -bh 
intermingle jinta^'miggl; ES jnta-; |-d -d 

|-ling -'migghg, -gjig 
intermission jinta^'mijan; ES jinta- 
intermit jinta^'mit; ES jinta-; j-ted -id |-tent 

intermix jinta^'miks; ES jinta-; ]-es -iz j-ed 

-t |-ture -iS^; ES -tJaCr 
intern, -e adj in'tyn; ES -'tan, -'tyn 
intern, -e n 'intyn; ES -tsn, -tyn 
intern v 'segregate' m'tyn; ES -'tsn, -'tyn; 

l-ed -d 
intern v 'act as intern' 'intyn; ES -tsn, -tyn; 

l-ed -d 
internal in'tynl; ES -'tsnl, -'tynl; |-ly -i 
internal-combustion in'tynlkam'bAstJan; ES 

-'tsnl-, -'ts'nl-; | ace/ + 'in ternal- 
internality jinta^'naelati; ES jinta- 
int&rnational, I- jinta^'nae/an], -J"nal; ES 

jinta-; |-ly -i |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
internationalization jinta^^naeJanla'zeTan, 

-/nala-, -ai'z-; ES ^inta- 
internationalize jinta^'nae/anjjaiz, -J"nal-; ES 

jinta-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
internecine jinta^'nisin, -sain; ES jinta- 
internment in'tynmant; ES -'tsn-, -'tyn- 
internship, -terne- 'intyny/ip, in'tyn/ip; ES 

-sn-, -s'n- 
internuncio jnta^'nAnJijO; ES jinta- 
interoceanic jinta^joXi'aenik 
interpellant ^inta^'pelant; ES ,inta- 

|full ful jtooth tuG Ifurther 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz Idish dij" |vision 'visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kredl |keep 'em 'kipm 




interpellate jinta^'pelet, in'ts^pi^Iet; ES jinta-, 

-hs-, -'ta--; |-d -id 
interpellation jinta^pEle/an, m^typi'lejan; ES 

jinta-, -its-, -ity- 
interpellator jinta^pe'leta', in'ts^pijleta^; ES 

jint3p2'Iet3(r, in'tspijletaCr, -'ts'pijletacr 
interpenetrate jinta^'pEiajtret; ES jinta-; 

l-d -id 
interpenetration jinta^^pena'trejan; ES jinta- 
interplanetary jinta^'plaena^tEri; ES jinta- 
interplay n 'inta'iple; ES jinta- 
interplay v ^inta^'ple; ES ^into-; |-ed -d 
interplead jinta^'p'id; ES ^inta-; |-ed -id or 

-plead, -pled -'pltd 
interpolate in'typa^let; ES -'ts-, -'ty-; j-d -id 

|-tor -9-; ES -3(r 
interpolation in^ts^ps'le/on; ES -^ts-, -^ty- 
interposal jinta^'pozj; ES ^inta- 
interpose ^inta^'poz; ES jinta-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
interposition jinta^pa'zi/an; ES jinta- 
interpret in'typrit; ES -'tsp-, -'ts'p-; |-ed -id 

— The occasional pron. in'ts^pit is due to 

dissimilation {§121). 
interpretability in^typrits^bdati; ES -itsp-, 

interpretation in^typri'teXan; ES -jtap-, 

interpretative in'ts^pn^tetiv; ES -'tsp-, -'typ- 
interpretive in'ta^pritiv; ES -'tap-, -'typ- 
interracial jinta^'rejal, -/lal; ES jinta- 
interregnum jinta^'regnam; ES ^inta-; j-s -z 

|-na -na 
interrelate ^intari'let; ES ^inta-; |-d -id |-tion 

interrenal jinta^'rinl; ES jinta- 
interrex 'inta^jtEks; ES 'inta-; j-reges jint<r- 

'ridsiz; ES jinta- ^ 

interrogate in't2rajget |-d -id [-tor -a-; ES 

interrogation injtEra'ge/an |-al -1 
interrogative ^intaVagativ, -'rog- |-tory -jtori, 

-/tan; S -,ton 
interrupt jintaVApt |-ed -id |-ption -p/an 
interscholastic jinta^ska^laestik, -sko-; ES 

intersect jinta^'sckt; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 

|-ction -k/an 
interspace n 'inta^jspes; ES 'inta-; |-s -iz 
interspace v jinta^'spes; ES jinta-; |-s -iz |-d -t 

interspatial jinta^'spe/al; ES ^inta-; ]-ly -i 
intersperse jinta^'spys; ES jinta'spss, -'spys; 

|-s -iz |-d -t |-dly -idli |-sion -/an, -3311 
interstate jinta^'stet; ES jinta-; (.'inter jState 

interstellar ^inta^ 'stela--; ES jinta'stelafr 
interstice in'tystis; ES -'tas-, -'tys-; j-s -iz 

. '"^■*. 

interstitial jinta^'sti/al; ES jinta-; |-ly -i 

intertribal jinta^'traibl; ES jinta- 

intertwine n 'inta^^twain; ES 'inta- 

intertwine v ^inta^ 'twain; ES jinta-; |-d -d 

intertwist n 'inta^jtwist; ES 'mta- 

intertwist v jinta' 'twist; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 

interurban jinta^'yban; ES ^inta^'sban, -'ab- 

interval 'inta^vl; ES 'inta-; |-ed -d 

intervale 'inta^,vel, attrib. + -\\, -vil; ES 'inta- 

intervene jinta^'vin; ES jinta-; |-d -d 

intervenience ^inta^'vinjans; ES ^inta-; |-cy -i 

I -lent -jant 
intervention jinta^'ven/an; ES jinta-; |-al -1 

1-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
interview 'inta^jvju, -jViu; ES 'inta-; ]-ed -d 
intervocal ^inta^'vokl; ES ^inta-; |-ly -i 
intervocalic jinta^vo'kaelik; ES jinta-; [-ally 

-h, -ikh 
interweave ^inta^'wiv; ES ;inta-; ]-\vove -'wov 

I -woven -'wo van or -wove -'wov 
intestate in'testet, -tit |-tacy -tasi 
intestine in'testin |-nal -1 j-nally -li {BLC 

inthrall, -al in 'Oral |-(l)ed -d 
inthrone in'Oron j-d -d 
intimate adj 'intamit |-macy -masi 
intimate v 'inta^met |-d -id j-tion (inta'me/on 
intimidate in'timajdet |-d -id 
intimidation in^tima'dejan 
intitle in'taitl |-d -d |-ling -tlig, -tlig 
intitule in'titjul |-d -d 
into before vowel 'intu, 'inta; before cons, 'inta; 

before pause 'intu; in poetry often in'tu 
intolerability injtalara'bilati; ES + -jtDl- 
intolerable in'talarabl; ES + -'tDl-; j-bly -bli 
intolerance in'talarans; ES+-'tDl-; |-ant -ant 
intomb m'tum |-ed -d [-ment in'tummant 
intonate 'into^net |-nated -^netid 
intone in'ton |-d -d |-nation jinto'nejan 
in torsion in'tarjan; ES -'taa/an 
intort in'tart; ES -'taat; l-ed -id 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr\' '«o*gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 

in toto 



in toto in'toto 

intoxicant in'taksakant; ES+-'tDks- 

intoxicate in'taks9jket; ES+-'tDks-; 


intoxication in^taksa'kejan; ES+-jtDks- 

intra 'intra 

intracellular jintra'seljala'; ES -laCr 

intracollegiate jintraka'lidsiit, -dsit 

intractability jintraekta'bibti, in^traekta- 

intractable in'traektabl |-bly -bk 

intractile in'traektj, -til 

intrados in'tredas; ES + -dDs; |-es -iz 

intramolecular jintrama'kkjala^; ES -laCr 

intramural jintra'mjurol, -'miural 

intramuscular jintra'mAskjala^; ES -lafr 

intransigence in'traensadsans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 

intransitive in'traensativ 

intrant 'intrant 

intrastate jintra'stet ('intranstate 'trade) 

intravenous jntra'vlnas 

intreat m'trit j-ed -id 

intrench in'trentj j-es -iz |-ed -t 

intrepid in'trepid |-pidity ^intra'pidati 

intricate 'intrakit |-cacy -kasi 

intrigue n in'trig, 'intrig 

intrigue v in'trig |-d -d 

intrinsic in'trinsik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

intrinsicate in'trinsikit, -jket 

introduce jintra'djus, -'dius, -'dus j-s -iz |-d -t 

introduction jintra'dAk/an j-tive -tiv |-tory 

-tan, -tri 
introit in'tro'it 
introjection ^mtra'dsekjan 
intromission jintra'mi/an 
intromit jintra'mit |-ted -id |-tent -nt 
introrse in'trars; ES -'traas 
introspect jintra'spekt j-ed -id 
introspection jintra'spek/an j-tive -tiv 
introversion jintra'vy/an, -5an; ES -'vs-, 

-'vy-; |-sive -siv 
introvert n 'intrajvyt; ES -iVst, -jvyt 
introvert v jintra'vyt; ES -'vst, -'vyt; |-ed -id 

|-ive -IV 
intrude in'trud, -'tnud j-d -id 
intrusion in'trusan, -'triusan |-sive -siv 
intrust in'trAst |-ed -id 
intuit 'intjuit, -tiu-, -tu-, in'tjuit, -'tra-, 

-'tu- |-ed -id 
intuition jintu'ijan, -tiu-, -t]u- 

intuitive in'tjuitiv, -'tiu-, -'tu- 

intumescence jintju'mEsns, -tiu-, -tu- |-nt -nt 

inturn 'in^tyn; ES -jtsn, -jtyn; |-ed -d 

intussuscept jintassa'sept |-ed -id |-ion -pjan 

intwine in'twain |-d -d 

inulin 'injalin 

inunction in'AgkJan 

inundate 'inan^det, -An-, in'Andet |-d -id 

inundation jinau'dejan, jinAn- 

inure in'jur; ES -'jua(r; |-d -d 

inurn in'yn; ES -'sn, -'yn; |-ed -d 

inutile in'jutj, -til |-ly -i 

inutility ^inju'tilati 

in vacuo in'vaekjujO 

invade in'ved |-vaded -'vedid 

invalid 'not valid' in'vaelid 

invalid n, adj 'sick' 'invalid j-ism -^izam , 

invalid v 'invalid |-lided -jlidid 

invalidate in'vjelajdet |-dated -jdetid 

invalidation injvaela'dejan, ^invsela- 

in validity jinva'lidati 

invaluable in'vaeljabl, -'vaeljuabl |-bly -bli 

invariability jinvEria'bilati, -ver-, -vaer-, 


invariable in'vEnabl, -'ver-, -'vaer- 1-bly -bli 

invasion lu'vegan |-sive -siv 

invective in'vektiv 

inveigh in've |-ed -d 

inveigle in'vigl, -'veg| |-d -d |-ling -gjig, 


invent in 'vent |-ed -id |-ive -iv |-ntion -n/an 
inventory 'invanjtori, -jtari; S -^tori 
Inverness jinva^'nes; ES -va-; ('Inver^ness 

'cape) |-ness-shire -'nesjir,- 'ne//-, -JV; ES 

-Xia(r, -fair 
inverse n, adj in'vs's; ES -'v3S, -'vys; ('in- 

jverse 'ratio) 
inverse v in'vys; ES -'v3s, -'vs's; \-s -iz |-d -t 

1-dly -idh, -tli 
inversion in'v3\fan, -san; ES -'v3-, -'vs^- 
invert n, adj 'invyt; ES -vst, -vyt 
invert v in'vyt; ES -'vst, -'vyt; l-ed -id 
invertebrate n, adj in'vytabrit, -jbret; ES 

-'vst-, -'v3*t-; |-d -jbretid 
invest in'vest |-ed -id 
investigable in'vestigabl j-gatable -;getabl 
investigate in'vEsta^get \-d -id |-tor -a^; ES 

investigation in/vesta'gejan 

|full ful Itooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




investiture inVestat/a'; ES -tJaCr 

investment m'vestmant |-stor -ta^; ES -t3(r 

inveteracy inVetarasi |-rate -rit 

Invictus inViktas 

invidious inVidias 

invigorate inViga^ret |-rated -^retid 

invigoration in^vigaVe/an 

invincibility iiijVinsa'bilati, jinvinsa- 

invincible in'vinsabl j-bly -bli 

inviolability injvaiala'bilati, ^invaiala- 

inviolable inVaialabl 1-bly -bh 

inviolate inVaialit, -Jet 

invisibility jinviza'bilati, in^viza- 

in visible inVizabl |-bly -bli 

invitation jinva'te/an 

invite n 'invait 

invite v inVait |-vited -Vaitid 

invocate 'inv3jket \-d -id |-tion jinva'kejan 

invoice 'invais |-s -iz |-d -t 

invoke in'vok |-voked -Vokt 

involucre 'invajluka^, -jliuka^; ES -kaCr; |-d -d 

involuntar}/ in'val3n,tEri; ES -Vol-; |-rily 

-rail, esp. if emph. ^involun'tarily 
involute 'invajlut, -\ii\t |-d -id 
involution jinva'lujan, -'liujan, -vl'ju/an 
involve in'valv, -VdIv j-d -d j-dly -idli 
invulnerability jinvAlnara'bilati, in^vAl-, -nra- 
invulnerable in'vAlnarabl, -nra- |-bly -bli 
inwall n 'in^wal, v in'wal |-ed in'wald 
inward 'inwa'd; ES 'inwad; j-s -z 
inweave in'wiV |-wove -Vov |-woven -Vovan 

or -wove -Vov 
inwind in'waind | -wound -Vaund 
inwork in'wyk; ES -'wsk, -'wyk; 1-ed -t or 

-wrought -Vat 
inwound inVaund 
inwove in Vov | -woven -'wovan ('in^woven 

iriwrap in'raep |-ped -t 
inwreathe in'riS |-d -d 
inwrought in Vat ('in^wrought 'colors) 
lo 'aio 

-io ending see -ia 
iodate 'aiSjdet |-dated -jdetid 
iodide 'aia,daid, -did jiodid 'aiadid 
iodin 'aiadin 

iodine 'aia^dain, -dm, chem. usually -jdin 
iodize 'aia^daiz j-s -iz |-d -d 
iodoform ai'odajfarm, -'ad-; ES -jfaam, -'od- 

lola ai'ola 

lolanthe jaia'laenGi 

-ion ending see -ia 

ion 'aian, 'aian, -nn 

Ion 'aian, -on 

lona ai'ona 

lone heroine ai'oni 

lone village, geol. formation ai'on 

Ionia ai'onia, -nja |-n -n 

ionic, I- ai'anik, -'on- 

ionium ai'oniam 

ionization jaiana'zejan, -ai'z- 

ionize 'aian^aiz \-s -iz |-d -d 

Iosco ai'asko; ES + -'ds- 

iota ai'ota J-cism -^sizam 

iotize 'ai3jtaiz j-s -iz |-d -d 

I O U 'aijo'ju 

-ious ending see -ia 

Iowa 'aiawa, /oc. -i-'ai3jwe 

I P A 'aijpi'e, jinta^'naefanl fo'nEtik a^sosi- 

jejan, ajso/i-; ES ^inta-; c/" A P I 
ipecac Vpi^kaek |-uanha -ju'aena 
Iphigenia jifadsi'naia, mod. name -'dsinja 
ipse dixit Vpsi'diksit 
ipso facto 'ipso'faekto 
Ipswich Vpswit/ |-'s -IZ 
Iquique i'kike 
iracund 'airajkAnd 
irade i'radi 

Iran ai'raen, i'ran ]-ian ai 'reman 
Iraq i'rak |-i -i 
Iras 'airas ]-'s -iz 
irascibility ai^raesa'bilati, i,rjesa- 
irascible ai'raesabi, I'raesa- |-bly -bli 
irate 'airet, ai'ret ('irate 'foreman) 
ire air; ES aia(r; |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 
Iredell 'airdsl; ES 'aia- 
Ireland 'airland; ES 'aialand 
Irenaeus ^aira'nias |-'s -iz 
Irene ai'rin, myth, ai'rini 
irenic ai'rsnik, -rinik |-al -I |-ally -Ii, -ikli 
iridaceous jairi'de/as, jiri- 
iridesce ^ira'dss |-s -iz |-d -t 
iridescence ^ira'desns |-cy -i |-ent -snt 
iridium ai'ridiam, i- 
Irion 'irian, -an, -nn 
iris, I- 'airis |-es -iz ]-ed -t 
Irish 'airi/ |-man -man |-men -man | -woman 

-jwuman, -jwu- |-\vomen -jWimin, -an 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet J£t |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
I bath bae6; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw Ayi | gorge gards |go go 




iritis arraitis |-tic -Vitik 

irk yk; ES ak, yk; |-ed -t |-some -sam 

Irkutsk ir'kutsk; ES la- 

Irma 'yma; ES 'sma, 'yma 

iron, I- 'aia^n; ES 'ai-an |-ed -d 

ironclad 'aia'n'klaed; ES 'ai-an-; ('ironjclad 

iron-gray, -grey 'aia^n'gre; ES 'ai-an-; ('iron- 

jgray 'hair) 
ironic ai'ranik; ES-h-Von-; ]-al -1 |-ally -Ii, 

ironmonger 'aia^n^niAgga^ ; ES 'ai-an^raAggaCr; 

|-y -gari, -gri 
ironside, I- 'aia^n^said; ES 'ai-an-; |-s -z 
ironsmith 'aia^n^smifl; ES 'ai-an-; |-ths -Gs 
ironstone 'aia^n^ston; ES 'ai-an- 
ironware 'aia^n^wer, -jwaer; E 'ai'3njW£3(r, 

ES -jwae3(r 
ironwork 'aia^n^wyk; ES 'ai-an^wsk, 'ai-an- 

irony Hike iron' 'ai»ni; ES 'ai-ani 
irony kind of humor 'airani 
Iroquoian jira'kwaian 
Iroquois 'ira^kwai, -^kwDiz |-'s -jkw3iz, 

irradiance iVedians j-cy -i |-ant -ant 
irradiate I'redi^et |-ated -^etid |-tive -iv 
irradiation jiredi'e/an, i^redi- 
irrational iVaefanl, ir'raej-; ES I'r-, la'r-; 
_ 1-Iy-i 
irrationality ijrae/a'naelati, jirrae/a-; ES 

i^raefa-, jiarae/a- 
Irrawaddy jira'wadi, -Vodi 
irreclaimability jirijklems'bilsti, jirri-; ES 

jiri-, jiari- 
irreclaimable /iri'klemabl, ^irri-; ES jiri-, 

;i3ri-; |-bly -bh 
irreconcilability ijrekanjsaila'bilatis ir^rek-; 

ES litEk-, la^rek- 
irreconcilable iVekan^sailabl, ir'rek-; ES 

I'rek-, laVek-; em/'/^. + jirrecon'cilable |-bly 

irrecoverable jiri'kAvarabl, jirri-, -vra-; ES 

jiri-, jiari-; |-bly -bh 
irredeemable jiri'dimabi, jirri-; ES ^iri-, 

jian-; |-bly -bli 
Irredentist jiri'd£ntist 
irreducible jiri'djusabl, jirri-, -Mius-, -'dus-; 

ES jiri-, jiari-; |-bly -bh 

irrefragability ijrEfraga'bibti, ir^ref-; ES 

ijfEf-, la^ref- 
irrefragable I'refragabl, irVef-; ES I'lef-, 

la'ref-; |-bly -bh 
irrefutabihty ijrefjuta'bilati, ixitzi-, ^iri- 

jfjuta-, jirri-, -jfiuta-; ES i^rEf-, la^ref-, 

jiri^f-, jiarijf- 
irrefutable I'refjutabl, ir'r£f-, jiri'fjutabl, 

jirn-, -'fiuta-; ES iVef-, la'rcf-, jiri'f-, 

irregular I'tEgjala^, ir'reg-; ES I'rEgjalaCr, 

irregularity jirEgja'Iaerati, jirreg-, ijreg-, 

ir^reg-; ES ;ireg-, iiareg-, ijreg-, lajieg-; 

|-lation -ja'le/an 
irrelative I'rdativ, ir'rel-; ES I'rel-, la'rel- 
irrelevance I'relavans, irVel-; ES I'rsl-, 

laW-; |-cy -i |-ant -ant 
irreligion jiri'hdsan, ^irri-; ES ^in-, ^lari-; 

|-gious -dsas 
irremediable jin'midiabj, jirn-; ES iiri-, 

jian-; |-bly -bh 
irremovabihty jrijmuva'bilati, ^im-; ES 

jiri-, jiari- 
irremovable jin'muvabi, iVtn-', ES ^iri-, 

jiari-; |-bly -bh 
irreparability jirepara'bilati, jirrep-, ijrep-, 

ir^rep-; ES jirep-, jiarep-, i^rEp-, la^rep- 
irreparable iVEparabl, ir'rep-; ES I'rep-, 

la'rep-; |-bly -bh 
irrepealable jiri'pilabl, jirri-; ES ;in-, jian-; 

l-bly -bh 
irreplaceable jiri'plesabl, jirri-; ES jiri-, 

jiari-; |-bly -bh 
irrepressibility jirijpresa'bilati, ^im-; ES 

yiri-, jiari- 
irrepressible jri'pr£sabl, jim-; ES iiri-, jiari-; 

l-bly -bh 
irreproachable jiri'protj'abi, jim-; ES ^iri-, 

jiari-; 1-bIy -bh 
irresistibility ^irijZista'bilati, jim-; ES jiri-, 

irresistible jiri'zistabl, iim-; ES jiri-, iiari-; 

l-bly -bh 
irresolute iVeza^lut, ir'rEz-, -ihut, -Vczljut; 

ES iVez-, la'rez- 
irresolution jireza'lujan, ,irr£z-, i^rez-, ir^rez-, 

-'hu-, -zFjuJan; ES iirez-, ^larez-, i^rez-, 


jfull ful |tooth iu6 jfurther 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |\vhile hwail [how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fniz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

irresolvable ^iri'zalvabl, jirri-, -'zdIv-; ES 

jin-, jian- 
irrespective ^iri'spektiv, iim-; ES jin-, jian- 
irresponsibility jinjspansa'bilah, ^im-; ES 

irresponsible jin'spansabl, iim-; ES jin-, 

jiori-; |-bly -bh 
irresponsive iiri'spansiv, jirn-; ES ^in-, 

irretraceable jiri'tresabi, jirn-; ES jin-, 

jiari-; |-bly -bli 
irretrievabiHty ^iri^triva^bilati, jirn-; ES ;iri-, 

irretrievable /in'trivabl, iirn-; ES jin-, 

jiari-; |-bly -bli 
irreverence I'rEvarans, iiVev-; ES I'rev-, 

la'rev-; |-ent -gnt 
irreversibility jirijVS'sa'bilati, iirn-; ES 

jirijvss-, -jvys-, jiari- 
irreversible jiriVysabl, iirn-; ES jiriVas-, 

-Vys-, jiari-; |-bly -bli 
irrevocability ijrevaka'bilati, ir^rev-; ES 

I /rev-, i3,rev- 
irrevocable I'revakabl, ir'rev- 


is'rEV-; |-bly -b!i — Cultivated speakers often 
pron. jin'vokabl, hy confusion of revocable 
with revokable. 

irrigable 'irigabl |-bly -bli 

irrigate 'ira^get |-d -id |-tion jira'gejan 

irritability jirata'bilati 

irritable 'iratabl |-bly -bli 

irritant ^irotant 

irritate 'ira^tet |-tated -itetid |-tive -rv 

irritation ^ira'tefan 

irruption I'rAp/an |-tive -tiv 

Irvine 'yvin; ES 'svin, 'a^vm 

Irving 'yvig; ES 'sviij, 'yvig |-ton -tan 

Irwin 'ywin; ES 'swin, 'ywin 

is stressed 'iz, jiz; imstr. cf sometimes spelt 's: 
after voiced sounds except sibilants z; after 
voiceless sounds except sibilants s; after tlte 
sibilants (s, z, /, 5, t/, ds) iz—see 's or §88. 

Isaac 'aizak |-s -s |-s's -siz 

Isabel 'izajbsl, -bl |-la jizo'bela 

Isadora jiza'dora, -Mara; S -'dora 

isagoge ^aisa'godsi 

isagogic jaisa'gadsik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

Isaiah ai'zea, ai'zaia 

isatin 'aisatin 

Iscariot is'kaenat 

ischium 'iskiam |-ia -la 

Iseult I'sult 

Isfahan jisfa'han, -'hasn 

-ish adj ending -1/ — often omitted when the 
pron. can be found by adding -ij to the head 

Ishbosheth iJ'bo/iG 

Ishmael 'i/mial |-ite -;ait 

Ish tar 'i/tar; ES -ta:(r, E + -ta:(r 

Isiac 'aisij^k 

Isidore 'iza^dor, -jdar; S -jdor 

Isidorian ^iza 'dorian, -'dar-; S -'dor- 
isinglass 'aiziOyglaes; E + -;glas, -jglas 

Isis 'aisis |Isis' 'aisis 

Islam 'islam, is'lam j-ic is'laemik, -'lamik 

Islamite 'islam^ait |-tic jisla'mitik 

island 'ailand 

isle ail |-d -d |-less 'aillis 

Isle Royale 'ail'raial, -'rajal 

islet 'ailit 

Isleton 'ailtan 

Isleworth 'aizlwa^O; ES -wa6 

Islington 'izligtan 

Islip 0.x f, LI 'aislip, N orthants +'^saz- 

ism n 'izara 

-ism ending -izam, -izm — The pron. -izm is 
less frequent, though the vowel iit -izam is 
often very brief. In the vocab. only -izam is 
given, it being understood that -izm is also a 
possible pron. If tlte syllable before has the 
main accent, as in 'truism, -iz- has slightly 
more stress than -am, though usually the 
accent mark is not used. If -ism follows a?! 
unaccented syllable, it has a secondary accent 
('htaraljizam, 'fEma^nizam, 'fetjjizam). 

Ismail Rus city, Egyp viceroy ^isma'il 

isn't 'iznt, before some conss. + hzr\. (There 
isn't time Sa^jizn'taim) 

isobar 'aisa^bar; ES -jba:(r, E + -jba:(r 

isobaric jaisa'baerik 

Isobel 'izabl, -^bel 

isochromatic jaisakro'mactik 

isochronal ai'sakranl j-ly -i |-nous -nas 

isochronize ai'sakrajiiaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

isoclinal jaisa'klainl |-clinic -'klmik 

Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang sjeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is s 
isocline 'aiso/klain 
isocracy ai'sakrasi 
Isocrates ai'sakra^tiz |-'s -iz 
isodynamic jaisadai'naemik |-al -I 
isoelectric jaiso-i'lektrik |-ally -li, -ikh 
isogenous ai'sadsanas 

isogeo therm ^aisa'dsiajOs^m; ES -fism, -^Oym 
isogonal ai'sag3n| |-ly -i |-gonic ^aisa'ganik 
isolable 'aisalabj, 'is- 
isolate 'aisj^et, 'is- |-ated -fitid 
isolation jaisre/an, js- 
Isolda I'solda, I'zol- 

Isolde I'sold, I'solda, I'zol- {Ger h'zolda) 
isomagnetic jaisamajg'nstik 
isomer 'aisama'; ES -m3(r 
isomere 'aisajinir; ES -^miaCr 
isomeric ^aisa'ttiErik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikli 
isomerism ai'samajrizam |-rous -ras 
isometric jaisa'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
isometry ai'samatri 
isomorph 'aisOimarf; ES -jinaaf 
isomorphic jaisa'tnorfik; ES -'moafik; |-phism 

-fizam |-phous -fas 
isopiestic ^aisapai'tstik |-ally -h, -ikli 
isopleth 'aisa^pIeG |-ths -Gs 
isopod 'ais3ipad 
isoprene 'ais3;prm 
isosceles ai'sasljiz 
isoseismal jaisa'saizml, -'sais- 
isoseismic ^aisa'saiznuk, -'sais- |-al -1 
isostasy ai'sastssi 

isostatic ^aisa'staetik j-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 
isothere ^aisa^Gir; ES -jGiaCr 
isotherm 'ais3iGym; ES -fism, -fis^ni 
isothermal jaisa'Oyml; ES -^Gsml, -'Gyml 
isotonic jaisa'tanik |-ity jaisato'nisati 
isotope 'ais3jtop |-pic jaisa'tapik 
isotrope 'aisajtrop |-pic ^aisa'trapik 
isotropy ai'satrapi 
Ispahan jispa'han, -^haen 
Israel 'izrial |-ite -^ait |-itish -jaitij 
Issachar 'isaka^; ES -k3(r 
issuable 'i/uabj, 'ijju- |-bly -bk 
issuance 'i/uans, 'ijju- |-s -iz j-ant -ant 
issue 'iju, hfjv \-d -d — 'isju is mainly Brit. 
Issus 'isas |Issus' 'isas 
Istanbul jstan'bul, jistam- 
isthmus 'ismas |-es -iz l-mian -inian 

dt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

Istria 'istria |-n -n 

it stressed \t, ^it; tmstr. it or {spelt 't) t 

see 'tis, 't'll, 'twas, 'twere, 'twill, 'twould 

Italian I'taeljan, a-, now less freq. ai'taeljan 

Italianate adj I'taeljan^et, -it 

ItaUanate v I'taeljanjet |-ated -^etid 

Italianize I'taeljan^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

italic, I- I'taelik |-ally -li, -ikh 

italicize I'taela^saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

Italy 'itli 

Itasca ai'tasska 

itch It/ litches 'it/iz |itched it/t 

Itchen 'it/in, -an 

it'd Ht woidd' 'itad 

item L adv 'aitem 

item n, v 'aitam |-ed -d 

itemize 'aitam^aiz |-s -iz [-d -d 

iterate 'ita^ret |-d -id |-tive -iv 

iteration ^ita 're/an 

Ithaca 'iGaka, 'iGika 

Ithamar 'iGa;mar; ES -jma:(r, E + -jma:(r 

Ithunn, -un 'i'Sun = Idun 

Ithuriel I'Gjurial, I'Giurial 

itineracy ai'tinarasi, i- |-ancy -ansi |-ant -ant 

itinerary ai'tinajteri, i- 

itinerate ai'tina^ret, i- |-rated -^retid 

it'll Ht will' 'itl 

its pass its I it's 'it is,' 'it has' its 

itself it'self 

-ity word ending (fatahty, familiarity, au- 
thority) -ati, -iti. It seems clear that -ati is 
the prevailing pron. in colloq. speech, -iti is 
probably somewhat more common in the 
E b' S than in the N. 

-ius ending see -ia 

Ivan 'aivan 

Ivanhoe 'aivan^ho 

I've '/ have' aiv 

-ive unstressed ending -iv — often omitted from 
the vocab. when its pron. may be added di- 
rectly to that of the head word 

Ives aivz |-'s -iz 

ivory, I- 'aivri, 'aivan 

ivy 'aivi [-ied -d 

iwis, y- I'wis \erron. I wis ai'wis 

Ixion iks'aian 

izard, I- 'iza'd; ES 'izad 

izzard 'iza^d; ES 'izad 

[full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij |vision Visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kredl |keep 'em 'kipiii 



J, j letter dse \pl J's, Js, poss J's dsez 

jab dsaeb Ijabbed dsaebd 

jabber 'dsaeba^; ES -b3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'dsaebrig, Msaebarig 
Jabberwock ^dsaeba^jwak, -jwnk; ES Msaeba- 
Jabesh-gilead 'dsebc/'gihad 
Jabez 'dsebiz |-'s -iz 
jabot gae'bo {Fr sa'bo) 
jacinth 'dsesinO |-ths -0s 
Jack, j- dsaek |jacked dsaekt 
jack-a-dandy jdsaeka'dtendi 
jackal 'd3tek3l 

jackanapes 'djaekajneps |-napeses -jnepsiz 
jackass 'dsaek/aes |-es -iz |-ed -t 
jackdaw Msaek^da 
jacket 'dsaekit j-ed -id 
jack-in-a-box Msaekina^baks; ES + -jbDks; 

|-es -iz 
jack-in-the-box 'dsaekin'Sajbaks; ES+-jbioks; 

I-es -IZ 
jack-in-the-pulpit 'd3aekin'33'pulpit 
jackknife 'dsaek^naif |-knives -^naivz 
Jack-of-all-trades, j- jdsaekavbljtredz 
jack-o'-lantern 'dsaskajaenta-n, 'dsaek^l-; ES 

jack-rabbit Msaekjraebit 
jackscrew ^djaek^skru, -jskriu 
Jackson Msaeksn j-ville -iVil; S-i--vl 
Jacksonian dsask'sonian 
jackstay Msaek^ste 
jackstraw 'dsaekjstra 
jack-tar Msaek'tar; ES -Ha:(r, E-i--'ta:(r 
Jacob Msekab, 'dsekap 
Jacobean jdsaeka'bian ('Jacojbean 'style) 
Jacobi Am dsa'kobi, various Germans ja- 

%obi {Ger ja'ko:bi:) 
Jacobian dsa'kobian, dse- 
Jacobin 'dsaekabin 

Jacobinic jdsaeka'binik |-al -1 J-ally -Ii, -ikk 
Jacobite 'dsaeka^bait 

Jacobitic jdsaeka'bitik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
jacobus dsa'kobas |-es -iz 
jacoby M3aek3bi 

Jacoby, Harold dsa'kobi, Johann ja- 
Jacquard, j- dsa'kard; ES -'ka:d, E-i--'ka:d; 

(Fr 5a'ka:r) 
Jacqueline Msaekwalin, -Jin 

Jacquerie Fr sak'ri 

jactation dsaek'te/an |-titation -ti'te/an 

jade dsed |jaded 'dsedid 

jaeger, jag- bird 'jega', 'dse-, rifleman 'jega^; 

ES -g3(r; {Ger 'jeigar) 
Jael 'dseal 
Jaffa 'dsaeia 
Jaffrey 'dsaefn 
jag dsaeg | jagged dsaegd 
jagged adj M5aEgid 
jagged-toothed 'dsaegid'tuGt, -'Sd 
jaguar 'dsaegwar, Msaegjujor; ES -wa:(r, -,a:(T 
Jahveh 'jav£ |-vism -vizam |-vist -\ist 

|-vistic ja'vistik 
Jahweh 'jawe |-wism -wizam |-wist -vnst 

|-wistic ja'wistik 
jail dsel [jailed dseld |-er -a^; ES -a(r; rfgaol 
jailbird 'dseljbyd; ES -jbsd, -^byd 
Jain dsain |-a -a |-ism -izam |-ist -ist 
Jaipur dsai'pur; ES -'pua(r; acd-h'Jaipur 
Jairus dse'airas, 'dsearas |-'s -iz 
jalap Msaelap 
Jalna ^dsalna 
jalopy dsa'lapi; ES-f-%pi 
jalousie jsaelu'zi {Fr salu'zi) 
jam dsaem | jammed dsaemd 
Jam dsam 

Jamaica dsa'meka |-n -n 
jamb, -e dsaem 
jambeau 'dsaembo ]-x -z 
jamboree jdsaembaVi 
James dsemz j-ian -lan |-'s -iz 
Jameson 'dsemsn 
Jamestown 'djemz^taun 
Jamestown weed 'dsimsn^wid 
Jamieson 'dsemasn 
Jamy Mseini 
Jan dsaen 
Jane dsen 

Janeiro dsa'mro, -'nero {Pg sa'neiru) 
Janesville 'dsenzvil 
Janet /c7?J. name 'dsjenit, dsa'net; Fr writer 

Sa'ne {Fr sa'ns) 
jangle 'dsaeogl |-d -d |-Hng 'dsaeggliQ, -glio 
Janice 'dsaenis |-'s -iz 
Janicula dsa'nikjala 
Janiculum d5a'nikjalam 

Key; See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'p'ti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang Sicg |angr>' 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E ba0 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 




janitor 'dsaenata^; ES -t3(r; ]-ed -d |-ing 

Msaenatarii), -trig 
Janizary 'dsaenaiZeri 
Jansen 'dsaensn |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
January Msaenjujeri, 'dsaenjuari 
Janus 'dsenas |-'s -iz 
Jap dsaep 

Japan, j- dsa'psen, dsae- j-ned -d 
Japanese jdsaepa'niz ('Japa^nese ^beetle) 
jape dsep | japed dsept 
Japhet 'dsefit 
Japheth 'dsefiO, -fit 
Japhetic dsa'fetik, d^e- 
Jaqueline 'dsaekwalin, -Jin 
Jaquenetta jdsaekwa'neta, jdsaeka- 
Jaques surname dsaeks, dseks; iw ^/za^. 

'dsekwiz, -kwiz |-'s -iz 
jar dsar; ES dsarCr, E+dgaUr; |-red -d 
jardiniere jdsardn'ir; E jd3a:dn'i3(r, jd3a:d-; 

S jd3a:dn'i3(r, -'83(r; (Fr 3ardi'nJ£:r) 
Jared 'd3erid 

jarful 'd3arjful; ES 'd3a:-, E + 'dsa:-; |-s -z 
jargon M3arg3n, -gan, -gnn |-ed -d 
jarl jarl; ES jail, E+ja:l; |-ess -is 
jar less 'without jar' 'dsarlis; ES Msa:-, 

E + 'd3a:- 
jarovize 'jaraivaiz |-s -iz [-d -d 
Jarrow 'd3aEro, -a 

Jarvis M3arvis; ES ^30:-, E + 'd3a:-; ]-'s -iz 
jasmine, -min 'd3aesmin, Msaez- 
Jason 'dsesn 

jasper, J- 'd3aesp3'; ES 'dsaespaCr; j-ed -d 
Jassy ^jasi, 'd3aesi 
Jastrow Msaestro 

jaundice Msandis, M3Dn-, ^300- |-s -iz |-d -t 
jaunt d33nt, d3Diit, d3ant |-ed -id j-y -i 
Java 'dsava |-n -n 
Javan Bible 'd3ev3n, Msevaen 
Javanese jdsaeva'niz ('Java^nese ^people) 
javelin M3aevlin |-ed -d 
jaw dsD Ijawed dsad 
jawbone Mso'bon, -^bon 
jawbreaker 'd33jbrek3'; ES -jbrekaCr 
jay, J- d3e 

jayhawk 'd3ejh3k j-ed -t |-er -a^; ES -3(r 
jay-walk 'd3ejW3k |-ed -t j-er -a^; ES -3(r 
jazz dsasz [jazzes M3aeziz |-ed -d |-ily -li, -ili 
Jeaffreson M3Ef3^sn; ES M3£f3sn 
jealous 'dsElas |y -i 

Jeames dsimz [-'s -iz 

Jean Eng name d3in, Fr name 3a 

jean cloth A'^m, d3en 

Jeanne Eng name d3m, Fr name 30:11 

Jeanne d'Arc Fr 3a:n'dark 

Jeannette d33'ii8t 

Jeans d3inz |-'s -iz 

Jebusite M3£bjujzait | -si tic jdsEbju'zitik 

Jedburgh 'dsed^byo, -a; ES -^bar, -^bAr-, 

-jby-; Brit 'd3Edb3r3 
Jedediah jd3edi'dai3 
jeer d3ir; ES d3i3(r, S+d3£3(r; |-ed -d 
Jefferies 'dsefriz |-ries' -riz 
Jefferson Msefs'sn; ES 'd3Ef3sn 
Jeffersonian jd3£f3' 'soman; ES id^eis- 
Jeffrey, -fferey 'd3£fri 
Jeffreys 'd3Efriz |-reys' -riz 
Jeffries 'dsEfriz |-ries' -riz 
jehad dsi'had 
Jehoiakim dsi'haiajkim 
Jehoram d3i'hor3m, -'bar-; S -'horam 
Jehoshaphat d3i'haX3jfaet, -'has-; ES+-'hD- 
Jehovah dsi'hova 
Jehu 'd3ihju, -hiu 

jejune d3i'd3un, -'d3iun ('jej'une 'diet) 
jejunum d3i'd3un3m, -'d3iun3m 
Jekyll 'dslkl, 'd3Ekl 
jelly 'd3Eli |-ied -d |-fish -jfif 
Jemima d33'niaini3 
jemmy, J- 'dsEini 
Jena 'jena 

Jenghiz Khan, -is 'd3En-giz'kan, 'd3Eggiz- 
Jenkins 'dsEgkinz |-'s -iz 
Jenner 'd3£n3'; ES 'd3£n3(r 
jennet 'dsEnit 
Jenny, j- 'd3£ni 

jeopard 'dsEpa^d; ES 'd3£p3d; |-ed -id |-y -i 
jeopardize 'dsEpa^d^aiz; ES 'd3Ep3d-; \-s -iz 

Jephtha 'dsEfGa, 'dsEpGa 
Jerauld dsa'rold 
jerboa d33''bo3; ES d33'bo3 
jeremiad jd3Er3'mai3d, -aed 
Jeremiah jd3Er3'mai3 
Jeremy 'd3£r3mi 
Jericho 'dsEra^ko 
Jeritza 'JEritsa 

jerk d3yk; ES d33k, ds^k; |-ed -t 
jerkin 'd3ykin; ES 'dssk-, 'd3yk-; |-ed -d 

|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fycJa^; ES 'fsSa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'vi33n [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipin 




Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

Jeroboam, j- jdsEra'boam 

Jerome dsa'rom, 'dsEram 

Jerrold 'dsErald 

Jerry, j- 'dseri 

Jerry -build 'dseri^bild | -built -^bilt 

Jersey, j- M5TZ1; ES 'dsszi, 'ds^zi; j-ed -d 

Jerusalem dsa'rusalam, -Viu- 

Jervaulx Yks 'dsarvis, Msyvo; ES 'djaivis, 

'dgsvo, 'dsyvo, E + 'dsaivis; |-'s -isiz, -voz 
Jervis 'd33'vis, 'dsarvis; ES 'dsavis, 'dsyv-, 

'd3a:v-, E + 'dsarv-; |-'s -iz 
Jervois Austral 'dgyvis; ES M33V-, Msyv- 
Jeshurun 'dsEjjuran, ^seJu- 
Jespersen 'jespa^sn; ES 'jespasn 
jess dses Ijesses 'dsEsiz |jessed dsest 
Jessamine, J- 'dsesamin 
Jesse 'dsEsi Ijessie 'dsEsi |-sica 'dsESika 
Jessopp, Jessup 'dsEsap 
Jest djEst I Jested ^d3Estid 
Jesu Msizju, 'dsis-, -lu, -u 
Jesuit 'd3£3uit, 'dsEzju- |-ry -ri 
Jesuitic, J- jd3E3u'itik, jdsEzju- |-al -1 |-ally 

-li, -ikli 
Jesup 'dsEsap 
Jesus 'd3iz3s |-sus' -zas 
Jet d3£t iJetted 'dsEtid 
Jet-black 'dset'blaek ('Jet-^black 'eyes) 
Jethro 'dsEGro 
Jetsam 'dsEtsam 
Jettison ^d3Et3sn, -zn [-ed -d 
Jetty 'd5£ti Ijettied 'd3£tid 
Jeu d'esprit Fr 3odEs'pi'i 
Jevons 'dsEvanz |-'s -iz 
Jew d3u, d3iu |-ess -is |-ry -ri 
Jewel, J- 'd3U3l, 'dsiuol |-ry -ri 
Jewett 'dsurt, 'dsiuit 
Jew's-harp Vl3UZjharp, 'd3us-, M31U-; ES 

-jha:p, E-i--iha:p; M3us/liarp preserves a 

regular old form, dissociated from Jew's. 
Jezebel 'dsEzabl 

Jezreel 'd3Ezri3l, d3£z'ril |-ite 'dsEzrial^ait 
Jib d3ib I Jibbed dsibd 
Jibber M3ib3^; ES -3(r; |-ed -d j-ing -bang, 

Jibboom 'd3ib'bum 
Jibe d3aib |jibed d3aibd 
Jiffy 'dsifi 
Jig dsig 1 Jigged d3igd 

Iger 'dsiga^; ES -3(r; |-ed -d |-ing -ig, -gnij 
iiggle 'd3ig! |-d -d |-ling 'dsiglig, -glig 
igsaw 'd3igjS3 [-ed -d 
ihad d3i'had 
Jill d3il 

Jilt d3ilt I jilted 'dsiltid 
Jim dsim 

Jimjams M3iinjd3aemz 
Jimmy, J- Msinu |-ied -d 
Jimson weed 'd3imsn;wid 
Jinghis Khan 'd3in-giz'kan, 'd3iggiz- 
jingle 'd3iggl |-d -d |-hng 'd3igglig, -glig 
Jingo 'd3iggo J-ed -d |-ism -jizsm 
Jink dsigk |jinked d3igkt 
Jinn pi d3iii 

Jinnee, -nni d3i'ni \pl jinn dsin 
Jinniyeh dsi'nijE \pl jinn d3m 
Jinricksha, -rikisha dsinVikJa, -^3 
Jinx d3igks Ijinxes M3igksiz Ijinxed dsigkst 
Jitney 'd3itni 

jitters 'dsita^z; ES 'dsitaz; |-ery -an 
Jiujitsu, jiujutsu d3u^d5itsu, d3iu- 
Joab Msoaeb 
Joachim, -akim Bible 'dsos^kim, violinist 

'jo3jkim {per jo'axim) 
Joan d3on, 'd303n, dso'aen — d3o'aen is a 

spelling pron., not used by those familiar 

with the traditional pron. 
Joanna d3o'aen3 
Joan of Arc Msonav'ark, d3o'aen-; ES -'a:k, 

E-i--'a:k; — see Joan 
Joaquin hwa'kin {Am Sp hwa-) 
job d3ab |-bed -d |-ber -a*; ES -3(r 
Job dsob 

Jobson 'dsabsn, 'dsob- 
Jocasta d3o'kaest3 

Jocelin, -ine, -lyn 'd3asb;n, 'dsasalm 
Jock dsak 

jockey 'd3aki ]-ed -d 
jocko 'dsako 

jocose dso'kos j-sity -'kas3ti 
jocular 'dsakjsla^; ES -l3(r; |-ity jd3akJ3- 

jocund 'd3ak3nd, -And [ity dso^Andati 
jodel 'jodl |-ed -d j-ing 'jodlig, 'jodlig 
Jodhpur d3od'pur; ES -'pu3(r; af c/ -h ' Jodhpur 
jodhpurs 'd3adp3^z, 'djod-; ES -p3z 
Joe d30 

Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg |angr}- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw d33 |gorge gards |go go 




Those words below in which the a sound is 
Joel 'dsoal 
Joffre Fr sbfr 
jog dsag I jogged dsagd 
joggle 'dsagl |-d -d |-ling 'dsaghg, -giro 
Johanna d3o'haen9 
Johannes, j- dso'haeniz |-es' -iz 
Johannesburg dso'haeniSjbs'g, jo-; ES -jbsg; 

John dsan, dson |-ian 'dsonian 
johnnycake 'dsani^kek 
Johnny-jump-up 'dsani'dsAmpjAp 
Johnson 'dgansn |-ese ^dsansn'iz 
Johnsonian dsan'sonian 
Johnston 'dsanstan ' 

Johnstown 'dsanz^taun 
joie-de-vivre Fr jwadaVivr 
join dsDin |-ed -d 
joinder 'dsDinda^; ES 'dsoindaCr 
joiner 'dsama^; ES 'd53in3(r; |-ed -d |-y -i 
joint d33int |-ed -id j-ress -ris |-resses -risiz 
joint-stock 'dsaint'stak ('joint-jstock 'bank) 
jointure 'dsaintja^; ES ^dsointJaCr; |-d -d 
joist d33ist, d33is ] -joists dsaists, dsois: 
joke dsok | joked d3okt 
JoHet III 'dsohjEt, -at, jdsoli'et, -al- 
Jolhet, JoK- explorer 'dsolijEt, -3t, ^dsoli^et. 

-al- {Fr 3l>'lJ8) 
jollification jdsalafa'ke/an 
jollify 'dsabjfai |-fied -^faid 
jolly M3ali Ijollity Msalati 
jolt d3olt Ijolted 'dsoltid 
Jon d3an 
Jonah 'dsona 
Jonas 'd3on3s |-'s -iz 
Jonathan 'dsanaGan 
Jones dsonz |-'s -iz 
jonglery 'dsagglan 
jongleur 'dsaggla^; ES 'dsagglaCr; {Fr 30- 

jonquil 'dsagkwil, 'd3an- 
Jonson 'dsansn |-ian dsan'sonian 
Joplin 'dsaplin 
Joppa 'd3ap3 

Jordan 'dgordn; ES 'd333dn 
jorum 'dsoram, Msor-; S 'd3or3m 
Joseph Msozaf |-phine 'd30Z3;fm 
Josepha d3o'sif3 |-phus -fas |-phus's -fasiz 
josh dsa/ Ijoshes 'dsajiz [joshed dsajt 

spelt o are often pronounced with o in E mid S 
Joshua 'dsajua, o.j. 'dsaja^we 
Josiah d3o'sai3 
joss d3as, dsDS |-es -iz 
jostle 'dgasj |-d -d |-hng 'd3ashg, -slig 
jot dsat Ijotted 'd3atid 
Jotunn, -un 'jatun, 'jot- [-heim -jhem 
Joule d3aul, dsul, dsol |joule dsaul, dsul 
jounce dsauns Ijounces Msaunsiz |-d -t 
Jourdain Shak. dsur'den; ES dsua-; Fr name 

journal 'ds^nj; ES 'dsanl, 'dsynl; j-ed -d 

|-ism -jizani |-ist -1st 
journalese jdsynl'iz, -'is; ES jdssnl-, jdsynl- 
journalistic jdsynl'istik; ES jdssnl-, jd3ynl-; 

I -ally -h, -ikli 
journahze 'd3ynljaiz; ES 'dgsnj-, 'dynl-; 

j-s -IZ |-d -d 
journey ^33^111; ES Mssni, 'dss'ni; |-ed -d 

I -man -man |-men -man 
joust d3Ast, dsaust |-ed -id 
Jove dsov I Jovian 'dsovian 
jovial 'd3ov3al, -vial |-ity jdsovi'aelati 
Jovinian d3oVinian 
Jowett 'd3auit 
jowl dsaul, dsol |-ed -d 
joy d3Di |-ed -d |-ful -fal | -fully -fah j-ous -as 
Joyce dsais |-'s -iz 
Juab 'dsiiaeb, 'dsiuasb 
Juan 'dsuan, 'dsiiian {Sp xwan) 
Juanita wa'nita, wd-, wa- {Sp xwa'nita) 
Juarez, Juarez 'hwares {Am Sp 'hwares) 
Jubal 'dsubj, 'dsiubl 

jubilance 'd3ublans, 'dsiu- |-cy -i |-ant -ant 
jubilate 'dsubl^et, 'dsiu- |-d -id 
Jubilate jdsuba'leti, jd3iu- 
jubilation jdsubl'e/an, jdsiu- 
jubilee 'd3ublji, 'd3iu- 
Judaea d3u'dia, d3iu- |-n -n 
Judah 'd3uda, 'dsiuda 

Judaic d3u'de'ik, dsiu- |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
Judaism 'dsudi^izam, 'dsiu- 
judaize 'dsudi^aiz, 'dsiu- j-s -iz j-d -d 
Judas 'd3udas, 'dsm- j-'s -iz 
Judd dsAd 
Jude dsud, dsiud 
Judea d3u'dia, d3iu- |-n -n 
judge d3Ad3 [judges 'dsAdsiz 1-d -d 
judgement 'd3Ad3mant 

[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytiV; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fiuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 




Judges 'dsAdsiz 

judgeship 'dsAdsJip 

judgmatic dsAds'maetik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikh 

judgment 'dsAdsmant 

judicable Msudikabl, 'dsiu- 

judicatory 'dsudika^ton, ^dsiu-, -jton; S 

judicature ^dsudikat/a^, M31U-; ES -tj3(r 

judiciable dsu'di/iabl, dsiu- 

judicial dsu'di/al, dsiu- |-ly -i 

judiciary dsuMiJi^en, dsiu-, -^difan 

judicious dsu'di/as, dsiu- 

Judith 'dsudiG, M31U- 

Judson MsAdsn 

Judy Msudi, 'dsiudi 

jug d3Ag Ijugged dsAgd 

Juggernaut, j- 'dsAga^^nat; ES MsAga-; |-cd 

juggle MsAgl I-d -d |-ling 'dsAglig, -ghij 

jugglery ^dsAgbri 

Jugoslav n ^jugo^slav, -jslaev 

Jugoslav adj 'jugo'slav, -^slaev ('Jugo^slav 

Jugoslavia 'jugo'slavia, -vja |-n -n 

Jugoslavic jugo'slavik, -'sliev- 

jugular MsAgjala^, less freq. 'dsug-; ES -b(r 

Jugurtha dju'gyGa; ES -'g303, -'gyOa 

juice dsus, dsius j-s -iz |-d -d j-cy -i 

jujitsu dsuMsitsu, dsiu- 

juju 'dsudsu |-ism -jizam ]-ist -ist 

jujube 'd3ud3ub, 'd3nid3iub {Fr 3y'3yb) 

jujutsu d3u'd3itsu, d3iu- 

Jukes dsuks, d3iuks j-'s -iz 

julep 'd3ukp, 'dsiu-, -lap 

Julia 'd3ulJ3, 'd3iul- |-n -n 

Juliana jdsub'aena, ^dsiul-, -ji'aena 

Julien 'd3ulJ3n, M3iulJ3n 

julienne jdsuh'en, idsiul- 

Juliet 'd3ulJ3t, Msml-, -hat — The freqnerd 
modern pron. jd5uh'Et has no basis in Shake- 
speare's verse. Gf some 47 occiurences, 43 
show only two syllables and initial accent; 
in the 4 cases of three syllables {all highly 
emotional) there is no evidence that the last 
syllable had more than secondary accent. 

Julius 'dsuljas, 'dsml- |-'s -iz 

July dsu'lai, d3iu- ('Ju^ly 'first) 

jumble 'd3Ambl |-d -d |-ling 'd3Amblio, -blig 

Jumbo, j- 'd3Ambo 

jump dsAmp [jumped d3Ampt 

junco, J- 'd3Ai)ko 

junction 'd3Ar)k/3n j-ed -d 

juncture 'd3AgktJV; ES M3Agktj3(r 

June d3un, d3run 

Juneau 'd3uno, 'dsiu- 

Jungfrau 'jug;frau 

jungle 'dsAggl |-d -d 

Juniata jdsuni'aeta, jdsiu- 

junior 'd3unJ3', M3iun-; ES -J3(r 

juniority d3un'J3r3ti, d3iun-, -'jar-, -'jnr- 

juniper 'd3un3p3', 'd3iun-; ES -p3(r 

Junius Mjunjas, 'd3iun-, -mas |-'s -iz 

junk d3Agk Ijunked dsAgkt 

Junker, j- 'jugka-; ES 'jugkaCr 

junket 'd3Agkit j-ed -id 

Juno M3uno, 'd3iuno 

junta 'd3Ant3 |junto 'dsAnto 

Jupiter 'd3Up3t3^, 'dsiu-; ES -t3(r 

Jura 'dsura, 'dsiura {Fr 3y'ra) 

jural Msural, 'dsiur- |-ly -i 

jurant 'd3ur3nt, 'dsiur- 

jurassic d3uVaesik, d3iu- 

jurat 'd3uraet, 'dsiur- 

juridical dsu'ridik}, dsiu- |-ly -i, -ikli 

jurisconsult jdsuriskan'sAlt, jd3iur-, -'kan- 
saU; ES + -'kDii- 

jurisdiction jd3uris'dikj"3n, jd3iur- |-al -1 
1-ally -h 

jurisprudence ^dsuns'prudns, jdsicns'priud- 

|-dent -dnt 
jurist 'd3urist, 'd3icr- 
juristic d3uVistik, dsiu- |-al -1 j-ally -Ii, 

juror 'd3ur3', 'dsiuras ES -r3(r 
jury 'd3uri, 'd3iun j-man -man |-men -man 
jury-rigged 'dsuri^rigd, 'dsiuri- 
Jusserand Fr 3y'sra 
just dsAst, lightly stressed adv often d5ast, 

justice 'd3Astis |-s -iz |-d -t j-sliip -^Jip 
justiciable dsAs'tiJiabl 
justiciar d3As'tiXi3'; ES -'tiJi-aCr 
justiciary d3As'tiJij£ri 
justifiability jd3Astajfaia'bilati 
justifiable 'd3Astajfaiabl |-bly -bli 
justification jdsAstafa'ke/an 
justificatory dsAs'trfakajton, 'd3Astafajke- 
tari; EN+-jtari 

Key: See in full §§3-^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg jangn.- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw d33 |gorge gard3 |go go 

j ustif y 



justify 'djAstajfai |-fied -jfaid 
Justin ^dsAstin |-ian dsAs'tmian 
Justus MsAstas |-'s -iz 
Jut dsAt Ijutted 'dsAtid 
jute, J- dsut, dsmt 
Jutland MsAtland 

Juvenal 'dsuvanl, 'dsiuv- 
juvenescence jdsuva'nesns, jdsiu- j-ent -nt 
juvenile 'dsuvanl, 'dsiu-, -ml, -^nail 
juvenility jdjuva'nilati, jdsiu- 
juxtapose ^dsAksta'poz j-s -iz |-d -d 
juxtaposition jd3Akst3p3'zij3n |-al -1 


K, k letter ke \pl K's, Ks, pass K 

s ke2 

Karakoram ^kara'koram, ^kaera-; EN+ 

Kaaterskill 'kat^z.kil, 'kat-; ES 



Kabul 'kabul 

KareHa ka'rUia 

Kadesh-Barnea 'kede/'bornia; 

ES - 


Karl karl; ES ka:l, E+ka:I 

E+ -'barn- 

Karlsbad 'karlzbaed; ES 'ka:lz-, E + 'ka:lz-; 

Kaffir, Kafir 'kaefa^; ES 'kaefaCr 

{Ger 'karlsbat) 

Kahoka ka'hoka 

Karlsruhe 'karlzrua; ES 'ka:Iz-, E + 'ka:lz-; 

kaiser, K- 'kaiza'; ES 'kaiz3(r 

{per 'korlsru-.a, -'ru:a) 

Kalamazoo ^kaelama'zu 

karma 'karma, 'ks^ma; ES 'ka:ma, 'ksma. 

kale kel 

'kyma; {Hind 'kArma) 

kaleidoscope ks'laida^skop 

Karnak 'karnaek; ES 'ka:-, E + 'ka:- 

kaleidoscopic ka^laida'skapik; ES+- 


Karroo, Karoo, k- ka'ru, kae'ru 

l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikh 

Kashmir India kaej'imr; ES -'mia(r; |-ian 

kalends 'kaelindz, -andz, -nz 


Kalevala jkabVola 

Kaskaskia kaes'kaeskia 

Kalkaska kael'kaeska 

Katahdin ka'tadin, -dn 

Kallyope 'calliope' 'kaebiOp 

Kate, k- ket 

Kalmuck, k-, -muk 'kaebnAk 

Katharina jkaeOa'rina 

kalsomine 'kjelsa^main |-d -d 

Katharine 'kaeOrin, 'kteGarm 

Kama 'kama 

katharsis ka'Oarsis; ES -'Oa:s-, E+-'6a:s- 

Kamchatka kaem'tjaetka 

Katherine 'kaeGrin, 'kaeGarin 

Kamerun jkaema'run (Ger jkama' 


Kathleen 'kaeGlin 

Kanaka ka'naeka, 'kaenaka 

kathode 'kaeOod 

Kanawha ka'nawa 

Kathrine 'kaeGrin, 'kaeGann 

Kanchanjanga jkantX3n'd3agga 

Katrine 'kaetnn, 'kaetrin, Sc 'kat- 

Kandahar jkaenda'hctr, ^kAnda-; 



Kattegat 'kaetiigaet, jkaeti'gaet 

Kandy 'kaendis %an- 

katydid 'ketijdid |-dided -jdidid 

Kane ken 

Kauai jka-u'a-i 

kangaroo ^kaegga'ru |-ed -d 

Kauffman 'kafman [Kaufman 'kafman {Ger 

Kankakee jk^gka'ki 


Kansas 'kaenzss, rarely -sas; S+- 

zis; 1 

-an -an 

Kaukauna ka'kana 

|-sas' -as, -IS 

Kavanagh 'kaeva^na, -na 

Kant kaent {Ger kant) |-ian -lan 



Kavanaugh 'kaevajna, -na 

|-ianism -lanjizam 

kay ke 

kaoliang ^kaoh'aeg 

Kay ke 

kaoUn, -ine 'keahn 

kayak 'kaiaek 

kapok 'kepak, 'ksepak; ES+-pnk 

Kaye ke jKaye-Smith 'ke'smiG 

kappa 'kaepa 

Kazan ka'zan 

|full ful jtooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish d^J" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idif [cradle 'kred| [keep 'em 'kipip 




Kean, -e kin 

Kenmore US 'kenmor, -mar; ES -moafr, E + 

Kearny, -ey 'karni; ES 'ka:ni, E + 


-mD3(r; Scotl Ken'more 

Kearsarge 'kirsards; ES 'ki3sa:d3, E + 

Kennan 'kenan 

-sa:d3; l-'s -iz 

Kennebec jkena'bek ('Kennejbec 'River) 

Keats kits |-'s -iz 

Kennebunk jkena'bAgk 

Keble 'kibl 

Kennebunkport jkenabAok'port -'port; ES 

Kedar 'klda^; ES 'kidaCr 

-'poat, E-K-'paat 

kedge keds |kedges 'kedsiz |kedged kedsd 

Kennedy 'kenadi 

kedgeree 'ked33jri, ^kedsaVi 

kennel 'kenl j-ed -d |-ly 'kenli 

Kedron 'kidrsn 

Kennedy 'kena-b; ES 'kenali 

keel kil 1 keeled kild [-less 'killis 

Kennesaw 'kena^sD 

keelhaul 'kil^hal |-ed -d 

Kenneth 'keniG 

keelson 'k£lsn, 'kii- 

Kennett Square 'kenit'skwEr, -'skwasr; E 

keen kin |-ness 'kinnis 

-'skw£a(r, ES -'skwasa(r 

Keene kin 

keno 'kino 

keep kip |kept kept |-sake 'kip^sek 

Kenora ka'nora, -'nara; S -'nora 

Keewatin ki'watin, -'wnt- 

Kenosha ka'nqfa 

keg kEg L.A. shows that keg 6" less 

freq. kaeg 

Kenova ka'nova 

are used by cultured informants. 

Kensington 'kenziijtan 

Keighly Yks 'kiGh 

Kent kent |-ish -ij 

Keightley 'kith 

Kenton 'kentan 

Keijo 'ke'dso 

Kentucky kan'tAki, /oc. +ken'tAki j-kian -an 

Keith kie 

Kenya 'kenja, /oc. + 'kinia 

Kellar, -er \el^; ES 'kela(r 

Kenyon 'kenjan 

Kelley, -ly, k- 'keli Ikelhed 'kehd 

Keokuk 'kla^kAk 

Kellogg 'kebg, -ag, -og 

kepi 'kepi 

Kelmscot 'kemskat (Kelm- J274, 


Kepler 'keplsr; ES 'kepla(r 

1695), 'kelm- 

kept kept, before some conss. +kep ('kep'takig) 

kelp kslp 

Ker, -rr ky, kar; ES k3(r, ky, ka:(r, E + ka:(r 

kelpie, -py 'kelpi 

keratin 'keratin 

Kelsey 'kelsi 

kerb kyb; ES ksb, kyb; | -stone -jSton 

Kelso 'kelso 

kerchief 'kyt/if; ES 'ks-, 'ky-; j-s -s !-ed -t 

kelson 'kelsn 

kerf kyf, karf; ES kaf, kyf, ka:f, E+ka:£ 

Kelt kelt |-ist -ist 

kermes 'ks^miz; ES 'ksm-, 'kym- 

kelter 'kelta^; ES 'keltaCr 

kermis, -mess 'kymis; ES 'ksm-, 'kym-; ]-es 

Keltic 'ksltik |-ally -h, -ikh 


Kelticism 'keltajSizam |-cist -sist 

kern kyn; ES ksn, kyn; |-ed -d 

Kelvin 'kelvin 

Kernahan, -no- 'kyna/hten, 'kar-; ES 'ks-, 

Kemal ka'mal, 'kemal 

'ky-, 'ka:-, E + 'ka:- 

kemb kem |kembed kemd or kempt kempt 

kernel 'kynl; E-S 'ksnl, 'kynl; |-ed -d 

Kemble 'kembl 

kernelless 'kynlhs; ES 'ksn-, 'kyn- 

Kemmerer 'kemara^; ES 'kemaraCr 

kerosene 'kera^sin, jkera'sin |-d -d 

kemp, K- kemp 

Kerr ky, kar; ES ksd, ky, ka:(r, E-t-ka:(r 

Kempis 'kempis |-'s -iz 

Kerry 'ken 

ken ken kenned ksnd 

kersey, K- 'kyzi; ES 'kszi, 'kyzi 

Kendal, -11 'kendl |-ville -jVil 

Kershaw ky'/a; ES ks-, ky- 

Kenedy 'ksnadi 

Kesteven Lines 'kestivan, /oc.+kes'tivan 

Kenelm 'kenalm, -elm 

kestrel 'kestral 

Kenilworth 'kEnljwyG; ES -jW30, - 


Keswick 'kezik 

Kc^: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langrs' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeS; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wDtJ (§12) |jaw Ay» |gorge gards |go go 




ketch, K- ketf ]-es -iz 

Kilauea jkilau'ea 

ketchup 'ketjap 

Kildare kil'der, -'daer; E -'dE3(r, ES -'dae3(r 

ketene 'kitin 

kilderkin 'kilda^kin; ES 'kilda- 

ketone 'kiton 

kilerg 'kiljS'g; ES -flg, -^yg 

kettle, K- 'ketl i-drum -jdrAm — 'kitl, a his- 

Kilkenny kil'ksni ('Kil^kenny 'cats) 

torical variant, is still not infrequently heard. 

kill kil Ikilled kild |-able -abl 

Keturah ki'tjura, -'tiura 

Killarney ki'larni; ES -'la:ni, E + -'la:ni 

Keuka ki'juka, 'kjuka 

killdeer 'kilidir;ES -jdi3(r, S + -jdE3(r, -jdje3(r 

Kew kju, km 

Killiecrankie /kili'kraegki 

Kewanee ka'wani, -'wnni 

Killigrew 'kib^gru, -igriu 

Kewaunee ka'wani 

killjoy 'kil(d33i 

Keweenaw 'kiwi^nD 

Kilmarnock kil'marn3k; ES -'ma:n-, E+ 

key, K- ki j-ed -d |-board -^bord, - 

jbord; ES 


-jboad, E+-jb33d 

Kilmer 'kilma^; ES 'kilm3(r 

Keyes kiz, kaiz |-'s -iz 

kiln kil, kiln — spelt kill since 1470 {so in the 

keyhole 'ki^hol 

1611 Bible) — The n sound was lost from 

keyman 'ki^maen, -'maen |-men -jinEn, -'mEn 

kiln in the same way as it was from ell, mill, 

Keynes kenz |-'s -iz 


keynote 'ki^not, -'not 

kiln-dry 'lul^drai | -dried -^draid 

Keyport 'ki^port, -^pDrt; ES -^poat, 

E + -iP33t 

kilo 'kilo, 'ki- 

Keyser 'kaiz*; ES 'kaiz3(r 

kilocalorie 'kibikaebn 

keystone, K- 'kijston j-d -d 

kilocycle 'kil3jsaikl 

Key West 'ki'west 

kilogram, -mme 'kib^graem 

Kezia, -h ka'zaia 

kiloliter, -tre 'kibjita^; ES -jlit3(r 

khaddar 'kAda^; ES 'kAdaCr 

kilometer, -tre 'kil3/mit3^, much less freq. 

khaki 'kaki, 'kaeki |-ed -d 

ki'lam3t3*; ES -t3(r, -'loin- 

khan, K- kan, kaen 

kilowatt 'kibjwat, -J wot 

Kharkov 'karkDf, -k»f ; ES 'ka:-, E 

+ 'ka:- 

kilowatt-hour 'kib^wat'aur, -^wot-; ES 

Khartoum, -turn kar'tum; ES ka:-. 



Khayyam kai'am, -'aem, -'jam, -'jaem 

Kilpatrick kil'paetrik 

khedive, K- ka'div j-vial -lal, -jal 

-viate -lit 

kilt kilt Ikilted 'kiltid 

Khmer kmer; ES kme3(r 

kilter 'kilta^; ES 'kilt3(r 

Khyber 'kaiba^; ES 'kaib3(r 

Kim kim |-ball -bl |-berley -ba^li; ES -bab 

Kiangsu 'kjaeo'su {Chin 'dsjag'su) 

Kimbolton kim'boltn, NC 'kimblt3n. 

Kiaochow 'kjau't/au {Chin 'dsjau'dso) 

Hunts kim'boltn, /orwe/'Zy 'kimlt3n {Shak. 

kibe kaib |kibed kaibd 


kibitzer 'kibitsa^, ka'bit-; ES -S3(r 

kimono k3'mon3, -no 

kibosh 'kaiba/, ki'baj; ES + -dX 

kin km 

kick kik |-ed -t |-back -jbaek j-ofE - 

of, -jOf 

kinaesthesia ^kims'Oiss, -zi3 |-thetlc -'GEtik 

kickshaw 'kik/a 

Kincaid kin'ked, kig'ked 

kickup 'kikjAp 

Kincardine kin'kardin, kig-; ES -'ka:d-. 

kid kid Ikidded 'kidid i-dy -i 

E + -'ka:d- 

Kidd kid 

Kinchinjunga jkint/in'dsAgga 

kidnap 'kidnajp l-(p)ed -t 

kind kaind 

kidney 'kidm 

kindergarten 'kinda^jgartn; ES 'kind3jga:tn; 

Kidron 'kidran 

E+-jga:tn; |-tner, -tener -tna^; ES -tn3(r 

kidskin 'kidjskm 

kindhearted 'kamd'hartid; ES -'ha:t-, E + 

Kiel kil 

-'ha:t-; ('kind-hearted 'man) 

Kiev kl'Ev, -'eI, 'kiEv, -Ef 

kindle 'kindl |-d -d |-ling -dlig, -dlig 

I full ful I tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'f3t53 [custom 'kAst3m | while hwarl |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif [vision 'vi33n |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 


kindling n 'kindlig 

kindness 'kaindnis, 'kainms |-es -iz 

kindred 'kindrid, -ad 

kine kam |-pox -^paks; ES + 'ipoks 

kinema 'kinama 

kinematic jkina'maetik j-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 

kinematograph jkina'maetajgraef; E + -jgraf, 

kinesthesia jkinis'Gisa, -zia |-thetic -'Gstik 
kinetic ki'netik, kai- [-al -1 [ally -li, -ikli 
kinfolk 'kin,fok 
king, K- kig 

kingbird 'kig^byd; ES -^bsd, -^byd 
kingbolt 'kig,bolt 

kingcraft 'kig^kraeft; E+-jkraft, -^kroft 
kingdom 'kigdam 
Kingdon 'kigdan 
kingfisher 'kigjfi/a'; ES -^fiJaCr 
kinglet 'kiglit 
kingpin 'kig^pin 
Kingsbury 'kigzjberi, -ban 
kingship 'kigjip 
Kingsley 'kigzli 

Kingston, -e 'kig-stan, 'kigz'tan, 'kigks- 
Kingstown 'kigzjtaun 
kink kigk [kinked kigkt Ikinky ^kigki 
Kinkaid kin'ked, kig'ked 
kinkajou 'kigka^dsu 
kinnikinnick, -kinic jkinika'nik 
Kinross kin'ras, -'ros |-ross-shire -Vasfir, 

-'raj/-, -Vd-, -Ja^; ES -JiaCr, -JaCr 
Kinsey 'kinsi, -zi 
kinsfolk 'kinz^fok 
kinship 'kinjip 

kinsman, K- 'kinzman ]-men -man 
kinswoman 'kinzjwuman, -jwu- |-women 

-jWimin, -an 
kiosk ki'ask, 'kaiask; ES + -'Dsk, -osk 
Kioto 'kjoto 

Kiowa US places 'kaiawa 
Kiowa, -way Indian 'kaiajwe, -wa 
Kipling 'kiplig 

kipper 'kipa^; ES 'kipa(r; |-ed -d 
Kirby 'kybi; ES 'ksbi, 'kybi 
Kirghiz kir'giz; ES kia-; |-'s -iz 
kirk, K- kyk; ES ksk, kyk 
Kirkby 'kykbi, 'kybi; ES 'ks-, 'ky- 
Kirkcaldy ky'kaldi, -'kadi, -'kadi; ES ks-, 


244 knead 

Kirkcudbright ky'kubn; ES ks-, ky-; ]-shire 

-Jir, -JV; ES -Jia(r, -/a(r 
Kirkland 'ka-kland; ES 'ksk-, 'kyk- 
kirmess 'kynus; ES 'ksm-, 'kym-; |-es -iz 
Kirtland 'kytland; ES 'kst-, 'kyt- 
kirtle 'kytl; ES 'kstl, 'kytl; |-d -d 
kismet 'kizmet, 'kis- 
kiss kis Ikisses 'kisiz |kissed kist 
kist kist 

kit, K- kit l-ty -i 
kitcat 'kit/kaet 
kitchen, K- 'kit/in, -an 

Kitchener, k- 'kit/ina', -ana^, -t/na^; ES -na(r 
kitchenette jkitj'in'et, -an- 
kitchenware 'kitjin^wer, -an-, -jwaer; E 

-jwea(r, ES -jwaea(r 
Kitchin 'kitjin 
kite kait | kited 'kaitid 

Kittanning ki'tsenig 
Kitta tinny jkita'tini 

kitten 'kitn — The pron. ^hitan is substatidard. 
Kittery 'kitari 
Kittitas 'kitijtaes |-'s -iz 
kittiwake 'kitijwek 
kittle 'kitl 

Kittredge 'kitrids |-'s -iz 
kitty, K- 'kiti 

Kitty Hawk 'kiti'hak |Kittyhawk 'kitijhak 
kiva 'kiva 

Kiwanian ka'wanian, -'won- |-wanis -nis 
kiwi 'kiwi 

Klaeber 'kleba^; ES 'kkbaCr 
Klamath 'kltemaO 
KleinSmid, von fan'klainjsmid 
kleptomania jkkpta'menia |-niac -'meiUjak 
klieg klig 

Klingsor 'kligzor, -zar; ES -zoa(r, E+-z3a{r 
Klondike 'klandaik; ES + 'klnn- 
Klopstock 'klapstak; ES + 'klopstnk; {Ger 

Kluge Ger scholar 'kluga; Eng jiaine kluds, 

knack naek |knacked naekt 
knag naeg |knagged 'naegid |-gy -i 
knap naep | knapped naept |-sack -jS£ek 
knar nar; ES na:(r, E+na:(r; |-red -d |-ry -i 
knave nev ]-d -d |-ry -an, -n |-ship -/ip 
knead nid [kneaded 'nidid 

Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet J£t |sang saeg Iangr\- 'feg-gn 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) lah a Ifar far Iwatch watf, wntf (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 




knee ni | kneed nid |-cap -jkaep 

knur, -rr ny; ES n3(r, ny; [-(r)ed -d 

knee-deep 'ni'dip ('knee-jdeep 'clover) 

knurl nyl; ES nsl, nyl; [-ed -d 

knee-high 'ni'hai 

Knut ka'nut, -'niut, -'niut = Canute 

kneel nil [knelt nelt or kneeled nild 

knut 'nut' humorous ka'nAt 

kneepad 'ni^paed |-pan -jpaen 

Knutsford 'uAtsfa'd; ES 'nAtsfad 

knell nel | knelled neld 

Kobe 'kobi 

Kneller 'nela^; ES 'ndad 

Koblenz 'kobknts [-'s -iz 

knelt nelt 

kobold 'kobald, -bold, -bold {Ger 'korbalt) 

knew nju, nm, nu 

Kobuk ko'buk 

knicker 'luka^; ES 'nikaCr; [-ed -d 

Koch Ger kax; 'Assamese^ kotj [-es^otjiz 

Knickerbocker, k- 'nika^jbaka^; ES ^mka- 

Kodak 'kodaek kodaked 'kodakt 

ibak3(r, -jbnk-; |-ed -d 

Kodiak 'kodi^ajk 

knickknack 'nik^naek -ery -an, -ri 

Koekeritz 'k£karits |-'s -iz 

knife n naif [knife's naifs {in Shak. knives 

Koheleth ko'hehO 

naivz) \pl knives naivz — The pronunciation 

Koh-i-noor, Kohinoor, -nur ^ko-i'nur; ES 

naivz for knife's is the older possessive singu- 



kohl, K- kol [Kohlan 'kolan 

knife v naif [knifes naifs [knifed naift 

Kohler 'kola^; ES 'kob(r 

knifeful 'naif^ful [-s -z 

kohlrabi 'kol^rabi, 'kol'rabi 

knight nait [knighted 'naitid |-age -idg 

koine 'kaini, -ni 

knight-errant 'nait'erant [-ry -ri 

Kokomo 'koka^mo 

knighthood 'nait-hud 

kola 'kola 

knit nit [knit nit or knitted 'nitid 

Komintern jkamin'tyn, 'kamin^tyn; ES -an. 

knives naivz knive's naivz — see knife n 

-s'n, -Dm- 

knob nab; ES+nnb; [-bed -d, -id |-by -i 

Kongo 'kaggo; ES + 'kog- 

knobble 'nabl; ES + 'nubl; [-d -d [-hng -bho. 

Konigsberg 'kenigz^byg; ES -jbsg, -jbyg; 

-bhg [bly -bli, -bli 

{Ger 'k0:niksjberk) 

Knoblock 'nablak; ES-t-'noblok