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Pronouncing Vocabulary of 

Geographical Names 







The following list has been compiled as a guide to the correct 
pronunciation of geographical names — a matter of generally recog- 
nized importance, and one which must daily force itself upon the 
notice of every one in the habit of reading. 

It contains nearly 10,000 names, the proper pronunciation of 
each being shown by re-spelling the word as it should be sounded, 
and by marking the accent. The system of indicating the sounds is 
very simple, and any one who carefully reads the introductory notes 
will find little or no difficulty in correctly pronouncing any of the 

The explanatory list of foreign words which frequently enter into 
the composition of place-names, with examples of their use, will be 
of interest to many readers, as enabling them often to find out what 
meaning is to be attached to such names. 



Notes on the Spelling and Pronunciation of 

Foreign Names, 7 

Pronouncing Vocabulary, 16 

Prefixes, Suffixes, and other components of Geo- 
graphical Names, with their Meanings and 
Examples of their Use, 91 

System of Orthography for Native Names of 
Places 102 




Foreign geographical names are spelled in English books either in 
the same manner as they are spelled in the language of the country 
to which they belong, or phonetically in accordance with the prevail- 
ing sounds of the letters of the English alphabet. The first method 
can, of course, be adopted only for names belonging to countries in 
which the Roman alphabet is used with or without diacritic marks. 
In the following notes on the pronunciation of foreign names the 
sounds indicated as those corresponding to the letters of foreign 
alphabets are explained, where necessary, by the key at the foot of 
'the page. 

In that key it will be seen that six signs are used to represent 
un-English sounds. These must be learned by the ear from those 
who are able to render them accurately, but it may be mentioned 
that the French sound heard long in vile and short in biit is like the 
sound of u in the Scotch word abune; that that heard long in bl/u 
and short in neuf has some resemblance to the sound of e in her; 
that the sound represented by n (as in the French on) is produced 
by emitting voice through the mouth and nose at the same time, 
and is accordingly not a pure nasal (like the English ng in sing) but 
a semi-nasal; and that the ch in the German nacht is a strongly 
aspirated guttural like ch in the Scotch word loch. Strictly speak- 
ing two sounds are represented in German by ch, or by g, which 
is sometimes its equivalent. After the vowels a, o, m it is a guttural 
as in the Scotch loch, but after the other vowels and after consonants 
it is produced by the emission of breath between the point of the 
tongue and the fore-part of the palate. 

Even with these signs for un-English sounds it must be remem- 
bered that the sound indicated for the letters of foreign alphabets is 
very often only an approximation to the true pronunciation, as for- 
eign languages have a great many shades of sound which can be 
acquired only by those who have familiarized themselves with these 

Fate, fir, fat, fftU; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; n6te, not, move; 

tub. hiill: oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go; j.joD; y, j/es; ISU, then; th, thin; 

zh, azure. ireuch, vde, bQt; blcti, neUf; h, yn. German, 6h, nacAt. 



languages as they are actually spoken by the people, and which, 
besides, no Englishman would ever think of trying to reproduce in 
pronouncing foreign names while reading or speaking English. It 
will be observed that, as the key shows, y is always used with its 
consonantal or semi-vowel sound as in yes. Thus when it is stated 
that the Hungarian gy has the sound of dy, it is to be understood 
that at the end of a word that combination does not form a separate 
syllable, but goes to form one syllable with the preceding letters. 
The Hungarian prefix Nagy, for example, is pronounced in one 
syllable Nody, the d being followed by the consonant y with an 
effect closely resembling that of a very soft zh. 

A. Some rules for the pronunciation of languages using the Roman 

Vowels and Vowel Digraphs. 

a is usually sounded a, but sometimes long sometimes short. In 
Hungarian it is sometimes like o in not. 

k in Swedish is sounded 6. 

a or ae is usually sounded like a or e, in Flemish (and old Dutch) 
like a. 

^ in Polish is sounded like the French on. 

aa in Danish is sounded as o, in Dutch as a. 

ai and ay usually have each of the vowels sounded, the sound of 
a being rapidly followed by that of e. In German they are sounded 
like i in pine, in French mostly like a. 

ao in Portuguese is sounded as oun. 

au is usually pronounced either with the sounds of the vowels 
separately, or as a diphthong like ou. In French it is pronounced 
like o in note. 

e is usually sounded like a or e in met. In Spanish it always has 
the latter sound. Very often it has an obscure sound as in the 
English golden. In French it is often mute. 

e in Polish is sounded like the French ain (an). 

e in Bohemian and Servian is sounded as ye or ya. 

eau in French has the sound of o in note. 

ei and ey, like ai and ay, usually have each of the vowels sounded 
separately, the soimd of a being rapidly followed by that of e. In 
Dutch and German they have the sound of i. In French they are 
pronounced like a or e. 

eu is sounded in Dutch as in French, in German like oi, in other 
languages with the sounds of the vowels separately. 

i is usually sounded like e, or, when short, often like i. 

ie in Dutch, German, and French is sounded like e, except where 
the letters belong to two syllables. 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; n6te, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, chaxa; g, go\ j, job; y, yes; th, tlmn, th, (/tin; 



ij iu Dutch has a sound like that of i in pine, but more open, 
that is, with less of the e-sound at the close. 

o is usually sounded like o or o, in Danish and Norwegian some- 
times like o in move. 

6 or oe is sounded in German, Danish, and Swedish like eu in 

ti in Danish has a sound similar to o, but somewhat closer. 

6 in Polish is sounded like o in move. 

oi is usually pronounced with the sounds of the separate vowels, 
in French it is like wa in war. 

ou in French has the sound of o in move, in Dutch and Norwegian 
that of ou in pound. 

u is usually sounded as o or u ; in French, as already mentioned, 
the sound is peculiar. In Danish, when short, it is sounded like e; 
in Dutch, when short and followed by a consonant in the same syl- 
lable, like u; when long, like ft; in Welsh, without an accent mark, 
like i. 

ii or ue in German is sounded like ti or tt. 

ft in Welsh is sounded like e. 

ui in Dutch is pronounced like oi in oil. 

y is usiaally sounded like e ; in Danish, Swedish, and Polish like 
the French u. In old Dutch it is used where the digraph ij is used 
in modern orthography. In Welsh, without an accent mark, it has 
the sound of u, except at the end of a word when it sounds like i. 

f in Welsh has the sound of e in me (like the Welsh ft). 

Consonants and Consonantal Digraphs. 

Most of the consonants have the same sound in the languages 
of the European continent using the Roman alphabet as they have 
in English, but the following peculiarities are to be noted: — 

b at the end of a word is often sounded in German like p. In 
Spanish it is pronounced with very feeble contact of the lips so as 
to be softened almost to a v-sound. 

c before another consonant and before the vowels a, o, u is usually 
sounded like k; in French, Danish, Swedish, and Portuguese it is 
sounded in other situations like s, in Italian like ch in chain, in 
Spanish like th in thin, in German like ts. In Italian where 
another vowel follows ci (as well as gi or sci) the i is not sounded. 
In Spanish America c is usually pronounced as s in those cases in 
which in Spain it is pronounced th. In Bohemian and Polish it is 
always sounded like ts, and in Welsh always like k. 

9 is used in French and Portuguese to indicate the s-sound of c 
before the vowels a, o, and u. 

ch in Dutch, Polish, and Bohemian, as well as in German, has 
the sound of ch ; in Italian it has the sound of k ; in French (except 

ih, axore. French, vfte, bttt; blt^i, neuf ; h, on. German, th, nacAt. 


in some words derived from the Greek, in which it is sounded like 
k) that of sh. 

cs in Hungarian has the sound of ch in chain. 

cz in Polish has the sound of ch in chain, in Hungarian that 
of ts. 

d at the end of a word in German and Dutch is often sounded 
like t. In Spanish and Danish between two vowels, and after a 
vowel at the end of a word, it is softened to the sound of th, and 
in the latter language the same sound is given to it even when 
doubled. Strictly speaking the Spanish d is a dental d, being 
sounded by placing the tip of the tongue close to the lower edge of 
the upper front teeth. At the beginning of a sentence and when 
the d is preceded by another consonant, whether in the same word 
or another, the tongue is more firmly pressed against the teeth and 
a sound like that of the English d is produced, but in other cases 
the contact is so slight as to produce a sound almost exactly like 
that of TH. At the end of words even this sound is almost in- 
audible. When d comes after 1, n, r in Danish it is not sounded at 
all, and it is still more frequently silent in the Norwegian pronun- 
ciation of the language. 

dd in Welsh has the sound of ?H. 

di in Polish is sounded like dzy. 

g before a consonant and before the vowels a, o, and u mostly has 
the sound of g in go; and it has the same sound before other vowels 
also in German and Danish, and in all situations in Polish and Welsh. 
After a vowel it frequently has in German and Danish a guttural 
sound, and in the Norwegian pronunciation of the latter language 
it is often silent in that situation. In Dutch it is always a deep 
guttural, except in the combinations gh and ng, the former of which 
is pronounced like g in go, the latter like ng in sing. In French, 
Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish it has the sound of the j of the 
same languages in all situations in which it has not the sound of g 
in go, and in Italian it is then sounded like our j. (See above 
under c.) 

gh in Italian and Dutch has the sound of g in go. 

gl in Italian has the sound of ly. 

gn in French and Italian has the sound of ny. 

gu in French always, and in Portuguese and Spanish before e 
and i, has the sound of g in go. 

gy in Hungarian has the sound of dy or dzh. 

h in French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese is silent or scarcely 
audible. In Spanish it is heard as a slight aspiration before the 
combination ue. In Danish it is not sounded before j and v. 

j in most languages has the sound of y, in French and Portuguese 
that of zh, in Spanish that of ch. In Danish the sound of the 
Danish j (that is, the sound of the consonant y) is always inter- 
Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, mOve; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go\ j, job; y, yes; th, then; th, thia; 



polated after the consonants k and g before the vowels ae, 6, fi, y, and i. 
In Hungarian at the end of a syllable j has the sound of e in me. 

k in Norwegian before e, i, j, y, and the modifications of a and o, 
is sounded like ty. 

I represents in Polish a sound peculiar to that language and Russian. 
It is produced by attempting to sound an 1 with the point of the 
tongue directed further back in the palate than for the ordinary 1, 
and with very slight contact between the tongue and palate. 

Ih in Portuguese has the sound of ly (Ital. gl). 

II in French in formal speech has the sound of ly, but colloquially 
is generally sounded like the consonant y without any 1-sound. In 
Spain it always has the former sound, but in Mexico the latter is 
often substituted. In Welsh it has a peculiar sound, which is 
approximately rendered when one attempts to pronounce tl at the 
beginning of a syllable. 

m in French and Portuguese often has the sound of n. 

n. See preliminary remarks. 

n in Spanish \ 

n in Polish f all have the sound of ny (French and Italian 

H in Bohemian ^ gn). 

nh in Portuguese ) 

qu in French always, and in Portuguese and Spanish before e and 
i, is sounded like k. 

■r is almost always more strongly trilled than in English. 

? in Bohemian j ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ 

rz m Polish ) 

8 in German is usually pronounced soft, like English z, at the 
beginning of a word where a vowel follows; in Hungarian it is 
sounded as sh. 

i in Polish has the sound of sy. 

8C in Italian before e and i has the sound of sh. (See above 
under c.) 

sch in German has the sound of sh, but in Dutch and Italian has 
that of s followed by the respective sounds of ch; in Dutch accord- 
ingly it is equivalent to sch, in Italian to sk. 

sk before e, i, j, y, and the modifications of a and is sounded in 
Norwegian like sh. 

stj in Swedish when followed by a vowel has the sound of sh. 

8Z in Hungarian is sounded like s. 
t in Spanish is dental like the Spanish d. 

th in Welsh is sounded like th in thin, in all other European 
languages using the Roman alphabet like the simple t. 

tj in Swedish when followed by a vowel has the sound of ch in chain. 

ts in Hungarian is sounded like ch in chain. 

w in German and Dutch has a sound closely resembling that of v 

zh, &nire. French, vde, bat; bl^, netif; b, 07k UMUutu, dh, uucAt. 


produced by bringing the lips feebly into contact, not by placing the 
upper teeth against the lower lip. In "Welsh it has the sound of u 
in bull, or o in move. 

X in Portuguese has the sound of sh ; in old Spanish spelling it 
is used where j is now used to represent the sound of ch. 

y is usually a vowel, but in Spanish it has also a consonantal 
sound like the English y, and the same sound is heard in Hun- 
garian after d, g, 1, n, and t. 

z in German and Swedish has the sound of ts, in Italian sometimes 
that of dz sometimes that of ts, in Spanish that of th in thin. In 
Spanish America this th-sound usually gives place, like the th-sound 
of c, to that of s in sing. 

i in Polish has the sound of zy. 

± in Polish ) 

z in Bohemian and Servian > all have the sound of zh. 

zs in Hungarian ) 

B. Hints on the pronunciation of geographical names belonging to 
languages not using the Roman alphabet. 

The general rule regarding the spelling of such names is to spell 
them in English phonetically in accordance with the prevailing 
sounds of the letters of the English alphabet. In such phonetic 
spellings, however, the vowels usually receive their continental 
sounds (as in /ar, vein, pique, rule). In Indian and some other 
Asiatic names and in Arabic names a is often used also to represent 
the sound of the English u in but. The vowel digraph ai usually 
represents the sound of y in fly, but sometimes (as in all Greek 
names) that of a in fate; ei, most commonly that of a in fate, but 
sometimes that of y in fly; au for the most part sounds as ow in 
notv, but in some cases as a in faU. In the spelling of Indian 
names this last digraph is often used where ^ is now mostly used, the 
sound intended being that of a in far, or perhaps one somewhat 
broader. The consonants j, w, y, z have as a rule their characteristic 
English sounds, as in^e^, yet, well, zeal; g usually has its hard sound 
as in get. Ch usually represents the sound which it has in chain; 
gh sometimes that of a very rough aspirate, sometimes a sound 
like that of the Northumberland or Berwickshire burr, sometimes, 
before e or i, merely the hard sound of g; kh is the combination 
most frequently used to represent the sound of ch; and th usually 
stands for the sound which it has in thin, sometimes for that which 
it has in then. 

In the spelling of geographical names belonging to languages 
which do not use the Roman alphabet (as also of those which were 
first put in writing by Europeans) numerous variations are found 
from different causes, and it will throw some light on the pronuncia- 
tion to note what the principal causes of these variations are. 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, c/iain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; in, then; th, thin; 



1. Very often the variation is due to the irregularity in the use 
of our own alphabet, which leads one person to represent the same 
sound phonetically in one way, another in another. From this 
cause 8 and z are frequently interchanged, as in Kasan, Kazan; so 
also are oo, ou, and u, where the sound of u in bull or in rule is 
intended, as in Moorzook, Mourzouk, Murzuk, &c.; and so also are 
i and y, as in Ustyansk, Ustiansk; Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoiarsk. 
Hence likeAvise those names which are spelled with a to represent 
the sound of u in hut, are also frequently found spelled with u, as in 
Pan jab, Punjab. 

2. Sometimes the variation is due to the obscurity of the sounds 
themselves, as where a vowel sound is so short that its exact quality 
can hardly be determined, as in Bedouin, Bedawin; or where a short 
vowel sound seems to one ear to make a separate syllable, while to 
another ear no such syllable seems to be heard, as in Bassora, Basra; 
Wargela, Wargla. 

3. In other cases the variation is due to the adoption in English 
of a continental mode of spelling, as where dj is adopted from the 
French for j, as in Djebel for Jebel, or tch from the same lan- 
guage for ch, as in Nertchinsk for Nerchinsk, Kamtchatka (the 
common spelling) for Kamchatka, or j from the practice of most 
continental nations for y, as in Jakutsk for Yakutsk. 

When the variation in spelling is due to any of these causes, a 
comparison of the different forms of the name will often serve as a 
good indication of the correct pronunciation, where any one of them 
might leave it doubtful ; for the correct pronunciation must be more 
or less consistent with all the different forms. Thus when Bassora 
is also found spelled Basra it is clear that the correct pronunciation 
cannot be Basso'ra, and when Bedouin is found spelled also Bedawin, 
Bedaween, &c., it shows that the accents lie on the first and third 
syllables, and that the i in Bedouin is pronounced as e in me, 

4. Other variations are due to the fact that the sounds to be repre- 
sented have no signs for them in the Roman alphabet or any of its 
commonly used digraphs, so that different signs are adopted to 
represent them approximately in accordance with the conceptions 
of different persons. One of the chief instances of this sort is a 
sound existing in Arabic and Hindu resembling the Northum- 
brian burr. Usually this sound is represented by gh, but in the case 
of many Arabic names in North Africa it is often represented by 
rh or r. Thus Ghadaraes is often spelled Rhadames, the tribe of the 
Songhay often Sonrhay. 

5. In other cases the variation is accounted for by differences of 
dialect, or different pronunciations of the same dialect in different 
parts of the country or region in which a particular language is 
spoken. In this way arise many of the varieties of spelling in 
Chinese, Indian, and Arabic names. In the last one of the most 
notable dialectical peculiarities of pronunciation is in the case of 

zh, azure. French, vOe, bat; bluu. ueuf ; h, on. German, 6h, nacAt. 


the Arab character usually sounded as j, but in some parts, as in 
Egypt, as g in yet. For this reason the Arabic Jebel (mountain) 
is usually spelled in Egyptian names Gebel, in which g is intended 
to have its hard and not its soft sound. 

6. Another cause of variation is the fact that the strict rule of 
phonetic spelling is sometimes departed from, and the English form 
of a name is partly accommodated to the spelling of the language 
to which it belongs, the same letter in that language being always 
represented by the same in English, even though the pronunciation 
may vary in the original language. This is frequent in Russian 
names, in which the sounds of v and f, those of a and o, &c., are 
often represented by the same letter, and in which the Russian 
character representing the sound of a in fate or e in met sometimes 
stands for the same sound preceded by that of the consonant y. 
In this way are explained such variations as Kief, Kiev; Semi- 
polatinsk, Semipalatinsk ; Semiryechensk, Semirechensk. 

7. Lastly, the foreign spelling of a name is sometimes adopted for 
native names in regions out of Europe belonging politically to 
European powers. Thus Sourabaya may sometimes be seen spelled 
in the Dutch fashion, Soerabaja. In Spanish and Portuguese 
America this is done almost uniformly. 

In Chinese the digraph ao represents the sound of a in far gliding 
into that of o, the whole sound closely resembling that of ow in 
now; ei represents the sound of a in fate gliding into a very short 
e-sound (as in me) ; in ia, ie, iu the sounds of a, e, u are preceded by 
a very short i-sound, a sound almost identical with that of the con- 
sonant y; 00 (for which u is often used) usually represents the sound 
of u in hull or in rule, but sometimes it represents a long o gliding 
into a very short sound like that of u in bull. When o precedes 
a or ei it is sounded very short so as to be almost equivalent to the 
consonant w; hence we have such spellings as Whangho (or 
Hwangho) and Kweichoo or Queichoo, as well as Hoangho and 
Koeichoo. The initial ng is a nasal, as in the word sing (not as in 
finger), and this initial sound is also met with in names belonging to 
the other monosyllabic languages of Eastern Asia, as well as in 
some African and New Zealand names. 

In Indian, Arabic, and some other names aspirated consonants 
occur, and are represented in spelling by an h following the con- 
sonant, as in Bhd,galpur. The proper sound of this combination is 
accurately represented by the letters composing it, but in the 
English pronunciation of such names this peculiarity is commonly 

In African words the consonant m used as a prefix has a short- 
ened sound of um, and in the South African colonies this prefix is 
so spelled, as in IJmtata, Umzila, &c. By travellers in equatorial 
Africa, however, the simple m is always used, as in Mpwapwa. 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 

tub, bull; oil, poiind; ch, c/iain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; th, tAen; th, tMn; 



Except at the end of a word y is always the consonant. Lake 
Nyassa, for example, is to be pronounced as two syllables, Nyas'sa, 
not in three as Ni-as'sa. 

For the spelling of Maori names in New Zealand the Roman 
alphabet was introduced by the English missionaries, but only four- 
teen characters are required, namely, a, e, h, i, k, m, n, o, p, r, t, u, w, 
and the nasal ng. The vowels have the continental sounds, and 
are always sounded separately, never coalescing into a proper diph- 

In the following list showing the pronunciation of geographical 
names the only diacritic marks which are used are the acute, grave, 
and circumflex accents (' ^ ^ ), the modification mark ( •• ), the cedilla 
(4), and the tilde ("); and it will be understood that, where the 
respeUing of a name indicates the pronunciation of a diacritically 
marked letter not so marked in the name as given in the list, that 
name is spelled with a letter so marked in the language of the 
country to which it belongs. Thus, when it is stated that the 
Swedish name Tomea is pronounced tor'na-o, it may be inferred, 
in accordance with the rules just given, that in Swedish that name 
is spelled Tomei. In respelling names to indicate pronunciation 
the consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, I, m, n, p, r, t, v, w, and 2, and the 
digraphs ng, nk, and sh always have their usual English sounds, and 
« always has the hissing sound as in sea. The key-line gives the 
explanation of the other signs. 

Note. — In consulting this List it should be kept in mind that 
attention to the preceding notes indicating the variations that may 
be looked for in the spelling of foreign names will often be of 
assistance to those doing so in finding the name they are in search 
of, since names not found under one spelling may be found under 
some other equivalent spelling. Thus many names not found spelled 
with c, ch, z, y, &c., may be found under the spellings k, kh, s, j, 
&c. respectively ; Spanish names in x may be found spelled with j, 
Dutch names in y may be found in ij, German, Danish, and other 
names in ae or oe may be found in a (sometimes e) or o; and so forth. 

zh, azure. French, vHe, b&t; bleti, neuf ; b, on. German, 6h, nacAt. 


Aachen, a'6hen (Ger.) 
Aagerup, o'ga-rftp (Den.) 
Aakirkeby, o-kerk'a-bQ (Den.) 
Aar, ar (Ger. Switz.) r. 
Aargau, iir'gou (Switz.) 
Aarhuus, oi-'libs (Den.) 
Abana, ab'a-na (Syr.) r. 
Abaacay, a-ban'ki (Peru) 
Abano, a'ba-no (It.) 
Abasia, a-ba'sya (Rus.) 
Abassabad, a-bas'sa-bad (Rus.)/<. 
Abauj, o-bo'u-e (Hung.) 
Abbeokuta, ab-be-6-kb'ta (Af.) 
Abbeville, ab-vel' (Fr.); ab'be-vil (U.S.) 
Abbitibbe, ab-bi-tib'be (Can.) 
Abergavenny, ab-6r-ga-ven'ni or ab-6r- 

ga'ui (Eng.) 
Abergele, ab-6r-ge'li (Wales) 
Aberystwith, ab-er-ist'with (Wales) 
Abingdon, ab'ing-don (Eng.) 
Ab-Istada, ab-i-sta'da (Afg.) 
Ablis, a-ble' (Fr.) 
Abo, o'bo (Rus.) 
Abomey, a-bo'ma (Af.) 
Aboukir, a-bo'ker (Eg.) 
Abraham, ab'ra-hara (Rus.) isl. 
Abrantes, a-bran'tas (Port.) 
Abrets, les, laz-a-bra' (Fr.) 
Abrolhos, a-brol'yos 
Abruzzo, a-brot'tso (It.) 
Abydos, a-be'dos (Tiir.) 
Abydus, a-bi'du8(Eg.) 
Abyssinia, ab-i-sin'i-a (Af.) 
Acadia, a-ka'di-a (Can.) 
Acadie, a-ka-de' (Can.) 
Acaponeta, a-ka-p6-ua'ta (Mex.) 
Acapulco, a-ka-pbrko (Mex.) 
Acarai, ak-a-ra'e (S. Am.) mt. 
Acarnania, a-kar-na'ne-a (Gr.) 
Accumuli, ak-kb'mu-le (It.) 
Acerenza, a-cha-ran'tsa (It.) 
Ach, a6h(Ger.) 

Acha, Sierra de, se-er'ra de a'chfi (Mex.) 
Achaia, a-ka'ya (Gr.) 
Achaltzik, a-6hart3ek(Rus.) 
Achata, a-cha'ta (Arg. Con.) mt. 
Acheen, a-chen' (Sumatra) 
Achill, ak'il (Ir.) 
Achray, a6h-ra'(Scot.) I. 
Aciorolo, dell, dal a-cho-ro'lo (It.) 
Aci Reale, a'che ra-a'la (It.) 
Aconcagua, a-kon-kii'gwa (Chile) 

Aconquija, a-kon-ke'6ha (Arg. Con.) mt. 
Acquapendente ak-k\va-pan-dan'ta(It ) 
Acre, a'k6r or a'k6r (Syr.) 
Actopan, ak-tb-pan' (Mex.) 
Adalia, a-da'le-a (Tur.) 
Adamawa, ad-a-ma'wa (Af.) 
Adamello, a-da-mal'lb (It.) ivt. 
Adamuz, a-THa-mbth'(Sp.) • 
Adana, a-da'na (As. Mi.) 
Adel, a'del (Af.) 
Adelsheim, a'delz-him (Ger.) 
Aden, a'den; Arab. pron. a'den (Ar.) 
Aderbaijan, Aderbijan, ad-6r-bl-jan' 

Adige, a'de-ja (It.) r. 
Adirondack, ad-i-ron'dak (U. S.) 
Adour, a-dbr' (Fr.) r. 
Adria, a'dre-a(It.) 
Adrianople, ad-re-a-n5'pl (Tur.) 
Adriatic, ad-re-at'ik (It.) 
Aelberg, al'berg (Aust.) 
Aerb, a'reu (Den.) isl. 
Aerschot, ar'skot (Bel.) 
Aerteholme, ar'te-hbl-me (Den.) isl. 
.^tna, et'na (Sic.) int. 
Afghanistan, af-ghan"i-stan' or af-gan'- 

is-tan (As.) 

Agades, a'ga-dez (Af.) 
Agadir, a-ga'der (Mar.) 
Agbosome, ag-bo-so'me (Af.) 
Agers, a'g6rs (Den.) isl. 
Agerskov, a-g6r-skov' (Den.) 
Aggebye, ag-ge-btl' (Den.) 
Aggersoe, ag'g6r-seii (Den.) isl. 
Agincourt, a-zhaii-kbr' (Fr.) 
Aglie, alya (It.) 
Agoas de Moilra, a'go-as de mo-el'ra 

Aguajo, a-gwa'6h6 (Mex.) 
Agualulco, a-gwa-lbl'kb (Mex.) 
Agua Nueva, a'gwa nu-e'va (Mex.) 
Aguascalientes, a ' gwas - ka - le - en " tes 

Aguilar, a-ge-lar' (Sp.) 
Agulhas, a-gb'lyas or a-gul'as (Af.) c. 
Agysoo, a-gu'sb (Rus.)/<. 
Ahmedabad, ah'med-a-bad" (Ind.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, ^70; j, job; y, j/es; TH, thtn; th, thixi\ 

(16) (296) 




Ahmednuggur, ah-med-nug'g6r (Ind.) 

Ahreusbok, ah'rens-beuk (Ger.) 

Aiasoluk, i"a-so-luk' (As. Mi.) 

Aibling, iTjleng (Ger.) 

Aichach, i'Chafih (Ger.) 

Aidin, i-den'(As. Mi.) 

Aigle, a'gl (Switz. Fr.) 

Aigues-mortes, ag-mort' (Fr.) 

Aiii, aft (Fr.) dep. 

Aisiie, an (Fr.) dep. 

.\ivali, ^-e-va'le (A3. Mi.) 

Aix, aka (Fr.) 

Aix la Chapelle, aks la sha-per(Ger.) 

Ajaccio. a-yfich'o (It.) 

Ajnieer or Ajiuir, aj-mei-' (Ind.) 

Akabah, a-ka-bah' (Ar.) 

Akbarrabad, ak'bar-ra-bad" (Ind.) 

Akermann, a'ker-uian (Rus.) 

Akesh, a'kesh (Ru3.) 

Akhal, a-Chal'(A3.) 

Akhalzikh, a-6hal'tseeh (Rus.) 

Akhdar, adh-dar' (Ar.) 

Akhissar, iik-his-sar' (As. Tur.) 

Akhtirka, aCh-tei-'ka (Rus.) 

Akreyri, ak-ri're (Iceld.) 

Aktatchi, ak-tat'che (Rus.) 

Alabama, al-a-ba'ma (U. S.) 

Alachua, a-lach'u-a (U. S.) 

Alacranes, a-la-kra'nes (Mex.) isl. 

Alaghir, al-ff-ger' (As. Tur.) r. 

Alagoas, a-la-go'as (Braz.) 

Alagon, a-la-gon' ^Sp.) 

Alaguela, al-la-ga'la (Cent. Am.) 

Alais, a-la'(Fr.) 

Alalo, a-la'lo (Rus.) 

Alameda, a-la-me'THa (Sp.) 

Alamillo, a-la-mel'lyo (Sp.) 

Alamomocho, a-la-mo-mo'ch6 (Mex.) 

Alamora, a-ia-mo'ra (Sp.) 

Aland, a'land; Swed.pron. o1and(Ru«.) 

Alashehr, al-a-shahi-'(As. Mi.) 
Alaska, a-las'ka (X. Am.) 
Alaasio, a-las'se-o (It.) 
Alatamaha, a-la-ta-ma-ha' (U. S.) 
Alava, a'la-va (Sp.) 
Albacete, {ll-ba-the'te(Sp.) 
Albania, al-ba'ni-a (Tur.) 
Albano, al-ba'no (It.) 
Albans, ^I'banz (Eng.) 
Albarracln, al-bilr-ia-then' (Sp.) 
Albatana, al-ba-ta'na (Sp.) 
Albatera, al-ba-te'ra (Sp.) 
Alhegna. al-ba'nya (It.) r. 
Albemarle, al'be-marl (Eng.); al-be- 

marl'(U. S.) 
.Mbenga, al-ban'ga (It.) 
Alberche, al-ber^ha (Sp.) r. 

Albergaria, al-ber-ga're-a (Sp.) 

Alberoni, al-be-ro'ne (It.) 

Albert, al-bar'(Fr.) 

Albertas, ai-bar'tas (Fr.) 

Albidona, al-be-do'na (It.) 

Albinona, al-be-no'na (It.) 

Albuera, al-bu-e'ra (Sp.) 

Albula, alTjU-ia (Switz.) r. 

Albuquerque, al-bu-ker'ka (Mex. Sp.) 

Albury, al'b6-ri (Ni'S. W.) 

Alcala, al-ka-la'(Sp.) 

Aloala de Henares, al-ka-la' de e-na'res 

Alcailiz, al-ka-nyeth'(Sp.) 

Alcantara, al-kan'ta-ra (Sp.) 

Alcantarilla, al-kan-ta-rel'lya (Sp.) 

Alcaraz, al-ka-rath'(Sp.) 

Alcazar de San Juan, al-ka-thar' de san 

Alcino, al-che'no (It.) mt. 
Alcira, al-the'ra (Sp.) 
Alcobaga, al-ko-ba'sa (Port.) 
Alcolea, al-ko-le'a (Sp.) 
Alcoy, al-ko'e (Sp.) 
Alcudia, al-kb'THe-a (Sp.) 
Aldea Gallega, al-de'a ga-lye'ga (Sp.) 
Alderney, al'der-ni (Eng.) isl. 
Alei, a-la'e (Sib.) 
Alemtejo, a-lefi-ta'zho (Port.) 
Alen<;on, a-laft-sofi'(Fr.) 
Alepho, a-la'fo (Rus.) 
Aleppo, a-lep'po (Tur.) 
Aleria, a-la-re'a (Cors.^ 
Alessandria, a-les-san'dre-a (It.) 
Alet, a-la' (Fr.) 

Aleutian, al-yb'ti-an (N. Am.) isl. 
Alexandria, a-legz-an'dri-a (Eg.) 
Alfaques, al-fa'kes (Sp.) 
Alfldena, al-fe-da'na (It.) 
Algarinejo, al-ga-re-ne'Cho (Sp.) 
Algarve, al-gar'va (Port.) 
Algeciras, al-Che-the'ras (Sp.) 
Algeria, al-je'ri-a (Af.) 
Alghero, al-ga'ro (It.) 
Algiers, al-jerz' (Af.) 
Algoa Bay, al-go'a ba (Af.) 
Algonquin, al-gonTtwin (Can.) 
Alhama, al-a'ma(Sp.) 
Alhucemas, al-u-the'mas (Mar.) 
Alibunar, a-le-b5-nar' (Aust.) 
Alicante, a-le-kan'te (Sp.) 
Alicata, a-le-ka'ta (It.) 
Alicudi, a-le-ko'de (It.) isl. 
Alife, a-le'fa (It.) 
Alighur, a-16-ghur' (Ind.) 
Ali-Musjid, a-le-mus-jed' (Afg.) 
Al Jezireh, al je-ze're (As. Tur.) 
Aljezur, al-cihe-thbr' (Sp.) 
Allahabad, al'la-ha-bad" (Ind.) 
Alleghany, al-le-ga'ni (U. S.) 
Allier, ai-le-a' (Fr.) 

zh, azure. French, vfie, bQt; bl»^, neuf ; b, on. 
(296) (17) 

Qernian, 6h, n&eht 




Alloa, al'lo-a (Scot.) 

Almachik, al'ma-chek (Rus.) 

Almaden, al-ma-THen' (Sp.) 

Almagro, al-ma'gro (Sp.) 

Alraali, al-ma-le'(Tur.) 

Almeida, al-ma'e-da (Port.) 

Almenara, al-me-na'ra (Sp.) 

Alraendolara, al-men-do-la'ra (It.) 

Almeria, ai-me-re'a (Sp.) 

Almerode, al-ma-ro'de (Ger.) 

Almufiecar, al-mo-nye-kar' (Sp.) 

Alnmouth, al'muth (Eng.) 

Alnwick, an'ik (Eng.) 

Alora, a-16'ra (Sp.) 

Alost, a-16st' (Bel.) 

Alpes, alp (Fr.) 

Alphen, al'fen (Neth.) 

Alpuj arras, al-po-6har'ras (Sp. Mex.) 

Alsace, al-sas' (Ger.) 

Alsbjerg, als'byerg (Den.) 

Alstahoug, al-sta-houg' (Nor.) 

Altai, al-ti' (As.) mts. 

Altamaha, al-ta-ma-ha' (U. S.) 

Altamura, al-ta-mb'ra (It.) 

Altenkirchen, al'ten-ker-Chen (Ger.) 

Altkirch, alt-kerCh' (Ger.) 

Altona, al'to-na (Ger.) 

Altona. al-to'na (Tur.) 

Altring:ham, al'tring-ara (Eng.) 

Aluta, a-lo'ta (Roum.)r. 

Alvarado, al-va-ra'THo (Mex.) 

Alvito, ai-ve'to (Sp.) 

Alyth, a'lith (Scot.) 

Amager, a'ma-ger (Den.) isl. 

Amal, 6'mal (Swe.) 

Amarapura, a-ma-ra-po'ra(Bur.) 

Amaaia, a-ma'se-a (Tur.) 

Amazon, am'a-zon (S. Am.) 

Amazonas, am-a-zo'nas (Braz.)' am-a- 

so'nas (Span. Am.) 
Ambato, am-ba'to (Ecuad.) 
Ambau, amnbou (Fiji) isl. 
Ambert, ofi-bar' (Fr.) 
Ambleteuse, oii-bl-tetiz' (Fr.) 
Amboina, am-boi'na (East. Arch.) M. 
Amboise, oft-bwaz' (Fr.) 
Amboy, am'boi (tl. S.) 
Ameland, a'me-lant (Neth.) isl. 
Amersfoort, a'merz-fort (Xeth.) 
Amhara, am-ha'ra (Abyss.) 
Amherst, am'6rst (U. S.) 
Amiens, a-me-an' (Fr.) 
Amirante, am-i-rant' (Af.) isls. 
Amite, a-met' (U. S.) 
Amlwch, am'lok (Wales) 
Amoor, a-mor' (As.) r. and dist. 
Amoy, a-moi' (China) 
Amposta, am-pos'ta (Sp.^ 
Amritsar, am-rit'sar (Ina.) 

Amur, a-mor' (As.) r. and dist. 

Anadolia, a-na-dole-a (Tur.) 

Anagada de Fuera, a-na-ga'THa de fu-e'- 
ra (Mex.) 

Anahuac, a-na-wak' (Mex.) 

Anam, a-nam' (As.) 

Anaradhapura or Anarajapoora, a-na- 
rad-ha-po'ra, a-na-ra-ja-p5'ra (Cey- 

Anatolia, a-na-to'le-a (As.) 

Ancachs, an-kach' (Peru) 

Ancona, an-ko'na (It.) 

Andalusia, an-da-lo'she-a; Sp. Andalu- 
cia, an-da-lu-the'a (Sp.) 

Andaman, an-da-man' (Ind.) isls. 

Andelflngen, an-del-fing'en (Switz.) 

Andkhoo, and-kho' (Tart.) 

Andover, an'do-ver (Eng. ; U. S.) 

Andreasberg, an-dra'as-berg (Ger.) 

Andrews, St., sant, colloquially sint 
an'droz (Scot.) 

Anegada, an-e-ga'da (W. Ind.) isl. 

Angerman, ong'Sr-man (Swe.) 

Angermiinde, ang-6r-mtln'de (Prus.) 

Angers, oii-zha' (Fr.) 

Angillon, ofi-zhel-lyoh' or oh-zhe-yofi' 

Anglesey, ang'gl-se(Eng.) 

Angola, an-go'ia (Af.) 

Angora, an-go'ra (Tur.) 

Angostura, an-gos-to'ra (Venez.) 

Angouldme, oii-go-lam' (Fr.) 

Angouraois, on-gb-mwg,' (Fr.) 

Angra Pequena, ang'grii pa-kS,'na (Af.) 

Anguilla, ang-gil'la (W. Ind.) M 

Anholtby, an'holt-bd (Den.) 

Anjer, an'yer (Java) 

Anjou, oh-zho' (Fr.) 

Ankobar, an-ko'bar (Abyss.) 

Ankova, au-ko'va (Madag.) 

Annamaboe, an-nam'a-bo (Af.) 

Annapolis, an-nap'0-lis (N. S.) 

Annecy, an-se' (Fr.) 

Annobon, an'no-bou (Af.) isl. 

Annonay, an-no-na' (Fr.) 

Antakia, an-ta-ke'a (Syr.) 

Antananarivo, an-ta-na-n a-re' vo 

Antibes, ofi-teb' (Fr.) 

Antigua, an-te'ga (W. Ind.) isl. 

Autino, an-te'no (It.) 

Antioquia, an-te-6-ke'a (Col.) 

Antisana. an-ti-sa'na (Ecuad.) 

Antivari, an-te'va-re (ilonten.) 

Antonio, Port, port an-to'ni-o (Jam.) 

Antrim, an' trim (Ir.^ 

Antwerp, ant'werp (Belg.) 

Anuradhapura, an-u-rad-ha-po'ra (Cey- 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go; j, job; y, yei 


n6te, not, move; 
TH, then: th, thin: 




Aosta, a-os'ta (It.) 
Apaches, a-pa'ches (Mex.) tr. 
Apennines, ap'e-ninz (It.) 
Apenrade, a-pen-ra'de (Ger.) 
Apoquido, ap-o-ke'5H6 (Chile.) 
Appalachians, ap-pa-la'che-anz (U. S.) 

Appalachicola, ap-pa-la-chi-ko'la (U.S.) 
Appenzell, ap-pen-tsel' (Switz.) 
Appomattox, ap-po-mat'toks (U. S.) 
Aprouague, a-pro-ag' (Fr. Gui.) r. 
Apure, a-po'ra (S. Am.) 
Apurimac, a-po're-mak (S. Am.) 
Aquafreddo, a-kwa-frad'do (It.) 
Aquila, aTcwe-la ^It.) 
Arabia, a-ra'bi-a (As.) 
Aracan, a-ra-kan' (Brit. Bur.) 
Arad, or'od (Aust.)/«. 
Arafat, a-ra-fat' (Ar.) mt. 
Aragon, a'ra-gon (Sp.) 
Aragona, a-ra-go'na (It.) 
Araguaya, a-ra-gwi'a (Braz.) r. 
Aral, a'ral (Cent. As.) 
Aranjuez, a-ran-6ho-eth' (Sp.) 
Arapahoe, a-rap'a-h6 (U. S.) 
Ararat, a'ra-rat (Armen.) w^ 
Araucania, a-rou-ka'ne-a (Chile) 
Arauco, a-rou'ko (Chile) 
Arbois, ar-bwa' (Fr.) 
Arbroath, ar-"t)r6th' (Scot.) 
Arcachon, ar-ka-shofi' (Fr.) 
Arcadia, ar-ka'di-a (Gr.) 
Archangel, ark-an'jel; Russian pron. 

ark-ang'gel (Rus.) 
Archipelago, ar-ki-pel'a-go 
Arcole, ar'ko-la (It.) 
Arcot, ar-kot' (Ind.) 
Ardahan, ar-da-han' (Tur.) 
Ardchattan, ard-chat'tan (Scot.) 
Ardebeel, ai-'de-bel (Per.) 
Ardeche, ar-dash' (Fr.) 
Ardennes, ar-den' (Fr. Bel.) 
Ardnamurchan, ard - na - mur ' dhan 

Ardoch, iir'dofih (Scot.) 
Ardres, ar'dr (Fr.) 
Ardrishaig, ard-nsh'&g (Scot.) 
Arena, a-ra'na (It.) r. 
Arenas, a-re'nas (Sp. ; Mex.) 
Arequipa, a-re-kg'pa (Peru) 
Arevalo, a-re-va'I6 (Sp.) 
Arezzo, a-rat'tso (ItJ 
Argeles, ar-zhe-la (Fr.) 
Argens, ar-zhoh' (Fr.) 
Argentaro, ar-jan-ta'ro (It.) mt. 
Argentat, ar-zhoh-ta' (Fr.) 
Argon teuil, ar-zhoft-tefl-e'lye or ftr- 

zhaft-teft-e'ye (Fr.) 
Argentiferes, ar-zhoft-te-ar' (Fr.) 
Argentine (Confederation), ar'jen-tln; 

Sp. Confederacion Argentina, kon- 

fed-e-ra'thi-6n ar-6hen-te'na (S. 

Argenton, ar-zhofi'tofi (Fr.) 
Arghandab, ar-gund'ab (Afg.) 
Argostoli, ar-gos'to-le (Gr.) 
Argyle, ar-gil' (Scot.) 
Ariano, a-re-a'no (It.) 
Arica, a-rSTca (Chile) 
Arifege, a-re-azh' (Fr.) 
Arignano, a-re-nya'no (It.) 
Arish, el, el a'resh (Eg.) 
Arispe, a-res'pe (Mex.) 
Arizona, a-ri-zo'na (U. 3.) 
Arjonilla, ar-fiho-nel'lya (Sp.) 
Arkansas, ar-kan-sa or ar-kan'sas (U.S.) 
Aries, arl (Fr.) 
Armagh, ai'-ma' (Ir.) 
Armagnac, ar-ma-nyak'(Fr.) 
Armenia, ar-me'ni-a (Tur.) 
Armentiferes, ar-mon-tyar' (Fr.) 
Arnemuiden, ar-ne-moi'den (Hol.) 
Arnould, ar-nbl' (Fr.) 
Aroa, a-ro'a (Venez.) 
Aroe. See Arroo. 
Aroostook, a-rbs'tuk (U. S.) 
Arouat, el, el a-rb'wat (Af.) 
Arpajon, ar-pa-zhoh' (Fr.) 
Arpino, ar-pe'no (It.) 
Arques, ark (Fr.) 
Arras, ar-ra' (Fr.) 
Arrecife, ar-ra-se'fe (Can. Isls.) 
Arrochar, ar'ro6h-ar (Scot.) 
Arroo, Arru, ar'ro (East. Arch.) isls. 
Arth, art (Switz.) 
Artois, ar-tws,' (Fr.) 
Artuan, ar-to'an (Tur.) 
Aruba, a-ro'ba (S. Am.) isl. 
Arundel, a 'run -del (Eng.); a-run'del 

(U. S.) 
Aruwimi, ar-u-we'me (Af.) r. 
Ascalon, a3'ka-lon(Syr.) 
Ascension, as-sen'shon (Atl. Oc.^ isl. 
Aschaffenburg, a-shaffen-borg (Bav.) 
Aschersleben, ash'ferz-la-ben (Prus.) 
Ascoli Piceno, as'ko-le pe-cha'no (It.) 
Ashantee, a-sMn'te or ash-an-te' (Af.) 
Asia, a'shi-a 
Asinara, a-se-na'ra (It.) 
Asir, a-ser' (Ar.) 

Aspropotamos, as-pro-pot'a-moB (Gr.) 
Assam, as-sam' (Ind.) 
Assaye, as-si'(Ind.) 
Asseerghur, as-ser-ghur' (IndL) 
Assen, as'8«n (Neth.) 
Assiniboine, as-sin'i-boin (Can.) 
Assisi, as-se'ze (It.) 
Assmannshausen, as'manz-houz-en 

Assouan, as-sd-an' (Eg.) 

zh, azure. French, vte. bftt; 

bltSti, netif; h, on. 
(19) . 

German, 6h, nacAt. 




Astara, a<?'ta-ra (Transcauc.) 
Asterabad, as-te-ra-bad' (Per.) 
Astrakhan, as-tra-kiiu' ; E,us, prou. as- 

tra-Chan' (Rus.) 
Aaturias, as-tb're-aa (Sp.) 
Atacama, a-ta-ka'ma (Chile) 
Atbara, at-ba'ra (Xubia) 
Atchafalaya, ach-a-fa-li'ya (U. S.) 
Athabasca, a-tha-bas'ka (Can.) 
Athenry, ath-en-ri' (Ir.) 
Athens, ath'enz fGr.) 
Athlone, ath-lon' (Ir.) 
Athy, a-thi' (Ir.) 
Atrato, a-tra'to (Col.) r. 
Aube, 6b (Fr.) 
Aubigny, o-be-nye' (Fr.) 
Aubusson, o-btis-soh' (Fr.) 
Auch, osh (Fr.) 

Auchterarder, aCh-tfer-ar'der (Scot.) 
Auchtermuchty, aeh-t6r-mu6h'ti (Scot. ) 
Aude, 6d (Fr.) 

Audenarde, 6-de-nard' (Belg.) 
Aue, ou'e (Ger.) r. 
Auerbach, ou'6r-ba6h (Ger.) 
Augsburg, ougz'borg (Ger.) 
Aullagas, oul-ya'ga3(Bol.) 
Ault, 61 (Fr.) 
Aumale, 6-mal' (Fr.) 
Aunis, 6-ne' (Fr.) 

Aurillac, o-rel-lyak' or 6-re-yak' (Fr.) 
Aurungabad, a-rung-ga-bad' (Ind.) 
Austerlitz, ous'ter-lets (Aust.) 
Australasia, as-tral-a'shi-a 
Australia, j,s-tra'li-a 
Autun, 6-tun' (Fr.) 
Auvergne, 6-ver'nye (Fr.) 
Auxerre, 6s-sar' (Fr.) 
Auxonne, 6s-son' (Fr.) 
Aveiro, a-va'e-r6 (Port.) 
Avellino, a-val-le'no (It.) 
Avesnes, a- van' (Fr.^ 
Aveyron, a-va-r6h' (Fr.) dep. 
Avignon, a-ve-nyoh' (Fr.) 
Avila, a'vi-la (Sp.) 
Avoyelles, a-voi-elz', popularly a-vi'el 

(U. S.) 
Avranches, a-vroftsh' (Fr.) 
Ayacucho, a-ya-ko'cho (Peru) 
Ayasoluk. See Aiasoluk. 
Aymara, i-ma-ra' (S. Am.) tr. 
Ajrr, ar (Scot.) 
Ayuthia, a-ybfhe-a (Siani.) 
Azerbaijan, Azerbijan, a-z6r-bi-jan' 

Azof, az'of ; Rus. pron. a-zof (Rus.) 
Azores, a-z6rz' or a-zo'res 
Azua de Compostela, a-z6'a de kom- 

pos-tel'a (Hayti) 

Azuay, az-u-i' (Ecuad.) 
Azuey, a-z6'a (Hayti) 


Baalbec, bal-bek' (Syr.) 
Baardwijk, bard'vik ^Neth.) 
Babadagh, ba-ba-dag' (Bulg. ) 
Babelmandeb, ba-bel-man'deb (Ar.) 
Bacchiglione, bak-ke-ly5'na (It.) 
Bacharach, ba-6ha-ra6h' (Ger.) 
Bacs, bach (Hung.) 
Badagry, ba-da'gri (Af.) 
Badajoz, ba-THa-6h6th' (Sp.) 
Badakhshan, bud-u6h-shan' (As.) 
Badalona, ba-THa-16'na (Sp.) 
Baden, ba'den (Ger.; Switz. ; Aust.) 
Badenoch, bad'en-o6h (Scot.) 
Badenweiler, ba'den-vM6r (Ger.) 
Bagamoyo, bag-a-moi'6 (E. Af.) 
Bagdad, bag-dad' (Tur.) 
Bagnferes de Bigorre, ba-nyai''d6-be-g6r' 

Bagnferes de Luchon, ba-nyar' d6-lti- 

Bagnes, ba'nye (Switz.) 
Bagnols, ba-ny6r (Fr.) 
Bahamas, ba-ha'maz (W. Ind.) isU. 
Bahawulpoor, ba-ha'wul-p6i-" (Ind.) 
Bahia, bi"-e'a (Braz.) 
Bahiuda, ba-hy6'da(Af.) 
Bahlingen, ba'ling-en (Ger.) 
Bahrein, ba-ra'en (Ar.) ids. 
Bahr-el-Abiad, bar-el-ab'e-ad (Af.) 
Bahr-el-Azrek, bar-el-az'rek (Af.) 
Baiern, bi'6rn (Ger.) 
Baikal, bi'kal (Sib.;) I. 
Bailar, bi'lar (Rus.) 
Bailen, ba-e-len' (Sp.) 
Baileschdi, bi-lash'de (Tur.) 
Bairamdere, bl-ram'da-ra (Tur.) 
Baireuth, bi'roit (Ger.) 
Bajezid, ba-ya-zed' (Tur.) 
Bakchili, bak-che'le (Rus.) 
Bakhteghan, baCh-ta-chan' (Per.) I 
Bakonyer Wald, ba-k5n'yer vald (Hung. ) 
Baktchiserai, bak'che-sa-ra"l (Rus.) 
Bala, ba'la (Wales) 
Balaclava, ba-la-kla'va (Rus.) h. 
Balaghauts, ba'la-gats (Ind.) 
Balaguer, ba-la-ger' (Sp.) 
Balakhna, ba-la6h'na (Rus.) 
Balasore, ba-la-sor' (Ind.) 
Balaton, bal'a-ton; Hung. Bdlatony, 

ba'la-tony (Hung.) I. 
Balbriggan, bal-brig'gan (Ir.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; th, «Aen; th, thva.\ 





B41e, bal (Switz.) 

Balfrush, bal-frosh' (Per.) 

Bali, bale (East. Arch.) isl. 

Balize, ba-lez' (Cent. Am.) 

Balkan, bal-kan' (Tur.) vit. 

Balkh, baldh (Tart.) 

Ballarat, bal-k-rat' (Austral.) 

Ballina, bal-li-na' (Ir.) 

Ballinasloe, bal-li-nas-16' (Ir.) 

Ballon, bal-lon' (Fr.) 

Ballymena, bal-li-me'na (Ir.) 

Balsamo, Costa de, kos'ta de bal-sa'mo 

(Cent. Am.) 
Baltic, bal'tik, sea 
Baltimore, bal'ti-mor (U. S.) 
Balukha, ba-lo'Cha (As.) mt. 
Banat, ba-nat' (Aust.) 
Banff, bamf (Scot.) 
Bangalore, bang-ga-loi-' (Ind.) 
Bangweolo, bang-we-o'lo (Af.) I. 
Banjermassin,ban-jer-nias'sen (Borneo) 
BankuUan, ban-kul'lan (East. Arch.) 
Bannalec, ban-na ]ek'(Fr.) 
Bannockburn, ban'nok-b6rn (Scot.) 
Baiios, ba'nyOs (Sp.) 
Bantam, ban-tam' (Java) 
Banya, Nagy, nodzh-ban'ya (Hung.) 
Bapaume, ba-p6m' (Fr.) 
Baraba, ba-ra-ba' (Sib.) 
Baratala, ba-ra-ta'la (As.) I. 
Barbados, bar-ba'doz (W. Ind.) 
Barbary, bar'ba-ri (Af.) 
Barbuda, bar-bb'da (W. Ind.) 
Barcellos, bar-thellyos (Sp.) 
Barcelona, bar-the-16'na (Sp.) 
Barcelonetta, bar-the-lo-net'ta (Sp.) 
Barcelonette, bar-se-lo-net' (Fr.) 
Bareges, ba-razh' (Fr.) 
Bareily, ba-ra'i-li (Ind. ) 
Barfleur, bar-fleiir'(Fr.) 
Barile, ba-re'la (It.) 
Barnaul, bar-nii'ul (Sib.) 
Baroach, ba-roch' (Ind.) 
Baroda, ba-ro'da (Ind.) 
Barquisimeto, bar-ke-se-me'to (Venez.) 
Barranquilla, bar-ran-kel'ya (Col.) 
Barrosa, bJir-ro'feJi (Sp.) 
Bars, barsh (Hung.) 
Barth^l^my, bar-ta-la-me' (Fr.) 
Basarjik, ba-sar'jik (Tur.) 
Basel, ba'z«l (Switz.) 
Baailicata, ba-ze-le-fea'ta (It.) 
Basques, Hade des, rad da biisk (Fr.) 
Bassano, bas-sft'no (It.) 
Bassora, bas'so-ra (Tur.) 
Bastia, bas-te'il (It.) 
Basuto, ba-sb'to (Af.) 
Batanai, bJi-tU-nr (Rus.) 
Batavis, ba-ta'vi-a (Java) 

Bathurst, ba'thSrst (Austral.) 

Baton Rouge, bat'un rbzh (V. S.) 

Batonya, ba-ton'ya (Aust.) 

Batoum, ba-tbm' (Tur.) 

Battaglia, bat-talya (It.) 

Baturin, ba'tu-rin (Rus.) 

Baxuyen, baks-u-yen' (Fr. Coch. Chi.) 

Bayazid, bi-a-zed' (Arm.) 

Bayeux, ba-yeti' (Fr.) 

Baylen. See Bailen. 

Bayona, ba-yo'na (Sp.^ 

Bayonne, ba-yon' (Fr.) 

Bayonne, ba-yon'ne (Mex.) 

Eayoudouri, ba-yb-db'ri (Tur.) 

Bayreuth, bi'roit (Ger. ) 

Bayuda, ba-yb'da (Af.) 

Bazarchik, ba-zai-'chek (Rus.) 

Beaminster, bem'in-st6r (Eng.) 

Beam, ba-ar' (Fr.) 

Beas, be'as (Ind.) r. 

Beaufort, bo-for' (Fr.) ; bo'fort (U. S. ; 

Cape Col.) 
Beaugency, bo-zhon-se' (Fr.) 
Beauharnois, bo-har'na (Can.) 
Beaujolais, b6-zho-la'(Fr.) 
Beaulieu, bii'li (Eng.); bo-lyeV(Fr.) 
Beaumaris, bo-ma'ris (Wales) 
Beaume, le, 16 bom (Fr.) 
Beaumont, b5-m6ft' (Fr.) 
Beaupr^au, bo-pra-6' (Fr.) 
Beauvais, bo-va' (Fr.) 
Beau voir, bo-vwar' (Fr. ) 
Bechev, ba-chav' (Rus.) 
Becskerek, bech-ka'rek (Hung.) 
B^darieux, ba-da-re-eu' (Fr.) 
Bedfordshire, bed'ford-sh6r or bed'- 

ford-shlr (Eng.) 
Bedouin or Beduin, hed'u-eti" 
Beerbhoom, ber-bhom' (Ind.) 
Behbehan, ba-be-hau' (Per.) 
Behrend, ba'rent (Pi'us.) 
Behring's Strait, ba'ringz strat 
Beilitskoi, bi-lits'ko-e (Rus.) 
Beira, ba'e-ra (Port.) 
Beirout or Beirut. See Beyroot. 
Beja, ba'zha (Port.) 
Bejapoor, be-ja-pbr' (Ind.) 
Bekes, ba-kesh' (Hung.) 
Belem, ba-lefi' (Port. ) 
Belfast, bel-fast' (Ir.); bel'fast (U. S.) 
Belgaum, bel-goum' (Ind.) 
Belgiojoso, bal-jo-yo'so (It) 
Belgradchik, bal-grat'chek (Tur.) 
Belgrade, bel-grad' (Servia) 
Belize, bel-ez' (Brit. Hond.) 
Bellano, bel-la^no (It.) 
Belle Alliance, bel al-le-ofis' (Bel.) 
Bellefontaine, bel-fbfi-tan' (Fr.); bel- 

fon'ten (U. S.) 
Belle Isle, bel U (N. Am.) 

zh, azure. 

French, vtte, bQt; bltjt, netif; 

t, on. German, ch, n&cht. 




Bellinzona, bel-len-tso'na (Switz.) 
Bellunese, bel-lo-na'za (It.) 
Belluno, bel-lo'no (It.) 
Belmonte, bel-mon'te (Sp.); bel-mont' 

(U. S.) 
Beloochistan, be-lo-chis-tan' (As.) 
Belorado, be-lo-ra'TH6 (Sp.) 
Benares, be-na'res (Ind.) 
Benbecula, ben-bek'yu-la (Scot.) 
Bencoolen, ben-kolen (Sumatra) 
Bendigo, ben'di-go (Austral.) 
Bengal, ben-gal' (Ind.) 
Bengazi, ben-ga'ze (Tripoli) 
Benguela, ben-ga'la (Af.) 
Benicarlo, be-ne-kai-'lo (Sp.) 
Benin, ben-en' (Af.) 
Benisueff, ba-ne-swef (Eg.) 
Benkoelen, ben-ko'Ien (Sumatra) 
Bentheim, bent'Jiim (Ger. ) 
Beraun, be-roun' (Aust.) r. 
Berbera, ber-ba'ra (Af . ) 
Berberino, bar-ba-re'no (It.) 
Berbice, bSr-bes' (Gui. ) 
Berchtesgaden, ber^h'tes-ga-den (Ger.) 
Beresina, ba-res'i-na (Rus.) 
Berezan, ba-ra-zan'(Ru3.) id. 
Berezov, ba-ra-zof (Rus.) 
Bergama, ber'ga-ma (As. Mi.) 
Bergamo, bar'ga-mo (It.) 
Bergen, ber'gen (Nor.) 
Bergen - op - Zoom, ber' 6hen - op - zom 

Beringen, ba'ring-en (Switz.) 
■ Berkhampstead, berk'ham-sted (Eng.) 
Berkshire, b6rk'sher or berk'shir (Eng.) 
Berlichingen, bai-ledh-ing-en (Ger.) 
Berlikura, bar'le-kum (Neth.) 
Berlin, bar-len' (Prus.) 
Bermudas, b6r-myo'daz, isls. 
Bemera, b6r'ne-ra (Scot.) isl. 
Berrima, ber'ri-ma (Austral.) r. 
Berthier, b6r'te-a (Can.) 
Bertischwyl, bai-'tesh-vel (Switz.) 
Berwick, b6r'ik (Scot.) 
BesauQon, ba-zoft-s6fi' (Fr.) 
Besika, ba-se'ka (Tur.) b. 
Bessarabia, bes-sa-ra'bi-a (Rus.) 
Betanzos, be-tan'thos (Sp.) 
B^thune, ba-tttn'(Fr.) 
Bettona, bet-to'ua (It.) 
Bettws, bet'tiiz (Wales) 
Beuthen, boi'ten (Prus.) 
Bevedero, be-ve-de'ro (Arg.Con.) I. 
Beveland, ba'va lant (Neth.) 
Beveren, ba'v6-ren (Neth.) 
Beverwijk, ba'v6r-vik (Neth.) 
Bevilacqua, ba-vel-a'kwa (It.) 
Bewdley, biid'li (Eng.) 
Bex, beks (Switz.) 

Beyra, ba'e-ra (Port.) 

Beyroot or Beii'ut, Turkish pron. bi'rbt, 

Arab. pron. ba'rbt (Syr.) 
Beziers, ba-ze-a' (Fr.j 
Bezoara, be-zo-a'ra (Ind.) 
Bhaugulpore, bha-gul-por' (Ind.) 
Bhopaul, bho-pal' (Ind.) 
Bhotan, bho-tan' (Ind.) 
Bhurtpoor, bhurt-poi-' (Ind.) 
Biafra, bi-a'fra (Af.) 
Bialystok, be-yalus-tok (Rus.) 
Biarritz, be-ar-rets'(Fr.) 
Bibbiena, bib-be-a'na (It.) 
Bibbona, bib-bo'na (It.) 
Biberach, be'be-ra6h (Ger.) 
Bicanere, be-ka-uei*' (Ind.) 
Bicester, bis'ter (Eng.) 
Bidassoa, be-THas-s6'a (Sp.) 
Bideford, bid'e-ford (Eng.) 
Bidschow, bed-sho' (Bohem.) 
Biecz, byech (Aust. Gal.) 
Bielaia Tserkov, be-a-la'ya ts6r-kof' 

Bielefeld, be'le-felt (Ger.) 
Bielgorod, be-al'go-rod (Rus.) 
Bielitz, belets (Aust.) 
Bielo, be-ya'16 (Rus.) I. 
Bielo Ozero, be-ya'lo 6-za'ro (Rus.) 
Bielsk, be-yalsk' (Rus.) 
Bienne, be-en' (Switz.) I. 
Bienvenida, be-en-ve-ne'THa (Sp.) 
Biervliet, bei-'vlet (Neth.) 
Biesbosch, bes'bosch (Neth.) 
Biggleswade, big'glz-wad (Eng.) 
Bihacs, be-hach' (Bosnia) 
Bilbao, bel-ba'o(Sp.) 
Biledulgerid, bil-ed-ul-je-red' (Af.) 
Billericay, biri6-ri-ka (Eng.) 
Billiton, billi-ton (East. Arch.) isl. 
Binasco, be-nas'ko (It.) 
Bindrabund, bin'dra-bund (Ind.) 
Bingen, bfing'en (Ger.) 
Biobio, be-o-be'6 (S. Am.) r. 
Birkenfeld, ber'ken-felt (Ger.) 
Birkenhead, b6i-'ken-hed (Eng.) 
Birket - el - Kerun, ber - kat ' el - ka-ron" 

Bii-mingham, b6r'ming-am (Eng.) 
Bisaccia, be-sach'a (It.) 
Bisceglie, be-shal'ya (It.) 
Bischweiler, bish-vil'er (Ger.) 
Bisignano, be-se-nya'no (It.) 
Biskra, bes'kra (Af.) 
Bissagos, bes-sa'gos (Af.) isls. 
Bissao, bes-sa'o (Af.) 
Bissayas, bes-si'as (Philip.) 
Biwano-Oumi, be-wa'no-o"me (Jap.) 
Bizerta, be-zar'ta (Tunis) 
Bjbrkb, byetir'keu (Swe.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cTiain; g, fl'o; j,joh; y, 2/es; SEH, t^en; th, <Ain; 





Bjomeboi^, byeiir'ne-borg (Rus.) 
Blaavand's Hook, blo'vand (Den.) 
Blair- Athole, blar-ath'ol (Scot.) 
Blairgowrie, blar-gou'ri (Scot.) 
Blanc, le, le Won' (Fr.) mt. 
Blankenberghe, blanTcen-berg (Bel.) 
Blankenese, blan-ke-na'za (Den.) 
Blankenhain, blang'ken-hin (Ger.) 
Blantyre, blan-tir' (Scot.) 
Blaye, bla (Fr.) 
Blegno. bla'nyo (Switz.) val. 
Bleiskwijk, blisk'vik (Neth.) 
Blekinge, bla'king-e (Swe.) 
Blenheim, blen'im ; Germ. pron. bleu'- 

him (Bav.) 
Bleybach, bliOjath (Switz.) 
Bligh, bli (Austral.) 
Blois, biwa (Fr.) 
Blokzijl, biok'zil (Neth.) 
Bloomfontein, blbm'fon-ten (S. Af.) 
Jiludenz, blo'dents (Aust.) 
Bobbio, bob'be-o (It.) 
Bobrov, bo-brof (Rus.) 
Bocage, bo-kazh' (Fr.) 
Bochetta Pass, bo-ket'ta (It.) 
Bochnia, bo6h'ne-a (Aust. Gal ) 
Bocholz, bo'iholz (Neth.) 
Bochum, bo6h'om (Ger.) 
Bodensee, bo'den-ze (Ger.) I. 
Bceotia, be-6'shi^ (Gr.) 
Bog, bog (Rus.) r. 

Bogoie\ lensk, bo-go'yef-lensk (Rus.) 
Bogoroditsk, bo'go-rod-itsk (Rus.) 
Bogorodsk, bo'go-rodsk (Rus.) 
Bogota, bo-go-ta' (Col.) 
Bohemia, bo-he'mi-a (Aust.) 
Bbhmen, beu'men (Aust.) 
Bohmerwald, beu'mer-vald (Bohem.) 
Bohol, bo-hol'miilip.) 
Bohus, bo'hijs (Swe.) 
Bois le Due, bw^ 16 dOk (Neth.) 
Boizenburg, bo-et'sen-borg (Ger.) 
Bojador, bo'ya-dor (Af.) c. 
Bojano, bo-ya'no (It.) 
Bokhara, b6-dha'ra (Tur.) 
Bolan, bo'lan (Afg.) 
Bolivar, bo le'var(S. Ara.> 
Bolivia, b6-li've-a (S. Am.) 
Bolobo, bo'io-bo (Af.) 
Bologna, bo-lo'nya (It.) 
Bolognese, bo-lo-nya'za (It.) 
Bolonchen, bo-lon-chen' (Mex.) 
Bolsena, bol-sa'na (It.) 
Bolaward, bols'vard (Neth.) 
Bolzano, bol-tsa'no (Aust.) 
Bomarsund, bo'mar-sond (Rus.) 
Bombay, bom-ba' (Ind.) 
Bonaire, bd-nar' (W. Ind.) 
Bondeno, b<5n-da'n6 (It.) 
Bonhlll, bonTiil (Scot.) 

Boni, bo-ne' (Celebes) 
Bonifaccio, bo-ne-fat'cho (It.) 
Bonin, bo-nen' (Pac. Oc.) isls. 
Bonito, bo-ne' to (It.) 
Bonnetable, bon-ta'bl (Fr.) 
Bonoa, bo-no'a (East. Arch.) 
Boodroom, bbd-rbm' (Tur.) 
Boorhanpoor, bbr-han-pbr' (Ind.) 
Bootan, bo-tan' (Ind.) 
Boothia, boTH'i-a (N. Am.) 
Borabora, b6'ra-bo"ra (Soc. Isls.) 
Boras, bo'ros (Sc. Pen.) 
Borculo, bor-ku-lo' (Neth.) 
Bordeaux, bor-do' (Fr.) 
Bordelais, bor-de-la' (Fr.) 
Borga, bor'go (Finland) 
Bormida, bor-me'da (It.) r. 
Bormio, bor'me-6 (It.) 
Borneo, boi-'ne-o (East. Arch.) isl. 
Bornholm, born'holm (Swe.) 
Bornu, bor no' (Af.) 
Borodino, bo-ro-de-no' (Riis.) 
Borregaard, boi-'re-gord (Den.) 
Borsod, bor'shod (Hung.) 
Borssele, bors'se-la (Neth.) 
Bosna-serai, bos-na-se-ri' (Bosnia) 
Bosnia, boz'ne-a 
Bosporus, bos'po-rus (Tur.) 
Bothnia, Gulf of, both'ne-a (Rus.) 
Bottaro, bot-ta'ro (It.) isl. 
Bouches-du-Rhone, bbsh'dil-rou (Fr.) 
Boug or Bug, bog (Rus.) r. 
Bougie, bb-zhe' (Alg.) 
Bougival, bb-zhe-val' (Fr.) 
Bouillon, bbl-yoh' or bo-yoh' (Bel.) 
Boulac, or Boolak, bb-lak' (Eg.) 
Boulganack, bbl-ga'nak (Rus.) r. 
Boulogne, bo-lo'nye (Fr.) 
Bourbon, bbr-bon' (Af.) isl. 
Bourbonnais, or Bourbonnois, bbr-bon- 

na' (Fr. ) 
Bourganeuf, bbr-ga-neuf (Fr.) 
Bourges, bbrzh (Fr.) 
Bourgoin, bbr-gwafi' (Fr.) 
Bou-sada, bo-sa'da (Alg.) 
Boussa, bus'sa (Af.) 
Bo vernier, bo-var-ne-a' (Switz.) 
Boviano, bo-ve-a'no (It.) 
Bovlno, bo-ve'no Tit.) 
Bowdoin, ho'den (U. S.^ 
Bowling, bo'ling (Scot.) 
Boxmeer, boks'mar (Neth.) 
Boxtel, boks'tel (Neth.) 
BoyacA, bo-ya-ka' ^ol. ) 
Brabant, N. and S., braljant or bn- 

bant' (Neth.) 
Bracciano, brat-chA'no (It.) 
Braemar, bra-mar' (Scot.) 
Braganza, bra-gan'za (Port.) 
Brahestad, bra'ha-stat (Rus.) 

zh, azure. 

French, rde, bat; bl^, netif ; fi, gn. 

German, ib. na<:^t. 




Brahilov or Brahilow, bra-he-lov' (Tur. ) 

Brahmapootra, bra-ma-po'tra (lud.) r. 

Braila, bra-e'la (Tm\) 

Braine I'alleud, bran lal-leu' (Bel.) 

Braine le Compte, bran le coiit (Bel.) 

Brake, bra'ke (Ger.) 

Brambanan, bram-ba'nan (Java) 

Brandenburg, bran'deu-bbrg (Prus.) 

Brazil, bra-zil' 

Breadalbane, bred-al'ban (Scot.) 

Brechin, brefih'in (Scot.) 

Brecknockshire, brek'nok-sh6r, brek' 
nok-shir (Eng.) 

Brecon, bre'kon (Wales) 

Breda, bra-da' (Xeth.) 

Bregagiia, bra-ga'lya (It.) 

Bregenz, bra'gents (Aust.) 

Brehar, bre'har (Chan. Isls.) 

Brehat, bra-ha' (Fr.) isl. 

Breisgau, bns'gou (Ger.) 

Bremen, bra'meu (Ger.^ 

Bremerhafen, bra'mer-lia-feu (Ger.) 

Brescia, bra'she-a or bra'sha (It.) 

Breslau, bras'lou (Prus.) 

Brest, brest(Fr.) 

Bretagne, bra-ta'nye (Fr.) 

Breteuil, bra-teu-e'lye or bra-teti-e'ye 

BrianQon, bre-on-s6fi' (Fr.) 

Bricquebec, brek-bek' (Fr.) 

Bridlington, brid'ling-ton ; popularly 
pronounced and often written Bur- 
lington (Eng.) 

Brienne le Chateau, bre-en' 16 sha-to' 

Brienz, bre'ents (Switz.) 

Brieuc, St., san bre-euk' (Fr.) 

BrignoUes, bre-nyol' (Fr.) 

Brindisi, bren'de-se (It.) 

Britannia, bri-tan'ni-a 

Brittany, brit'ta-ni (Fr.) 

Brives, brev (Fr.) 

Brixen, brek'sen (Aust.) 

Brixham, briks'ani (Eng.) 

Brizina, bre-ze'na (Alg.) 

Brody, bro'di (Aust.) 

Bromley, brum'Ii (Eug.) 

Bromsgrove, brumz'grov (Eng.) 

Bromwich, brum'ich (Eng.) 

Bronnitzy, bron-nit'zu (Rus.) 

Brooklyn, bruk'lin (U. S.) 

Broughtyiferry, bra'ti-fe-ri (Scot.) 

Broussa, bros'sa (Tur.) 

Brouwershaven, brou'verz-ha-ven 

Brozas, bro'thas (Sp.) 

Bruchsal, broCh'sal (Ger.) 

Bruges, brtlzh (Fr.) 

Bruhl, brtil (Ger.) 

Brunei, bro-ni' (Borneo) 

Briinn, briln (Aust.) 

Brunswick, brunz'wik (Ger.) 

Briix, braks (Bohem.) 

Bruxelles, brfl-sel' (Bel.) 

Brzesc, bzhests (Pol.) 

Brzezauy, bzha-za'ne (Aust. Gal.) 

Brzozow, bzho'zov (Aust. Gal.) 

Bucellas, bo sal'las (Port.) 

Buchan, bu6h'an (Scot.) 

Buchanan, bu-kan'an, not byu-kan'an 

(Scot, and U. S.) 
Bucharest, bb'ka-rest (R«nini.) 
Buchholz, bb6h'holts (Ger.). 
Biickeburg, bil'ke-bbrg (Ger.) 
Buckie, buk'i (Scot.) 
Buda, bb'da; Hungar. pron. bo'do 

Budukshan, bud-u6h-shan' (As.) 
Budweis, bod' vis (Aust.) 
Buenaveutui'a, bu-e-na-ven-tb'ra(Mex.) 
Buena Vista, bu-e'na ves'ta (Mex.) 
Buen Ayre, bwen i'ra (S^ Am.) isl. 
Buenos Ayres, bii-e'nos I'res (S. Am.) 
Buffalora Pass, bbf-fa-16'ra (Switz.) 
Bug or Boug, bbg (Rus.) r. 
Buggenhout, bug'gen-hout; French 

pron. btlg-gon-hb' (Bel.) 
Bugulma, bb-gul'ma (Rus.) 
Builth, bilth (Wales) 
Buitenzorg. boi'ten-zorg (Java) 
Bujalance, bb-6ha-lan'tlie (Sp.) 
Bukharia, Little, bb-ka're-a (Cent. As.) 
Bukowina, bb-kb-ve'na (Aust.) 
Bulacan, bb-la-kan' (Philip.) 
Bulante, bu-lan'ta (Celebes) 
Bulgaria, bul-ga'ri-a (Tur.) 
Bulti, bul'te(As.) 
Buncombe, bungk'um (U. S.) 
Bundelcund, bun'del-kund (Ind.) 
Bunzlau, bbnts'lou (Prus.) 
Burdwan, burd-wan' (Ind.) 
Burghausen, bbrg-houz'en (Ger.) 
Biirglen, bflr'glen (Switz.) 
Burgos, bbr'gos (Sp.) 
Burgundy, ber'gun-di (Fr.) 
Burmah, bei-'nia (As.) 
Burntisland, b^rnt-i'land (Scot.) 
Bursa, bbr'sa (Tur.) 
Burtscheid, bbrt'shid (Ger.) 
Bury, ber'i (Eng.) 
Buseo, bb'sa-o (Tur.) 
Bushire, bb-sher' (Per.) 
Bussaher, bus'sa-h6r (Ind.) 
Bussorah, bus'so-rah (Tur.) 
Butte vant, but'te-vant (Ir.) 
Buxtehude, bbks-ta-hb'de (Ger.) 
Buyukdere, bb-ybk-da'ra (Tur.) 
Byen, bti'en (Den.) isl. 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; TH, «Aen; th, fAin; 






Cabanes, ka-ba'nes (Sp.) 

Cabarras, ka-bai-'ras (U. S.) 

Cabellos da Velha, ka-bel'los da vel'ya 

Cabrera, ka-bre'ra (Sp.) isl. 
CabiU or Cabool, k^Tjul (Afg.) 
Cabulistan, ka-bol-is-tSu' (As.) 
Caceres, ka-thie'res (Sp.) 
Cauhao, kach'ii-o, almost kach'ou 

Cachoeira, ka-cho-a'e-ra (Braz.) 
Cadiz, ka'diz ; Span. pron. ka-THeth' 

Caen, kon (Fi-.) 
Caerleon, kar-le'on (Eng.) 
Caermarthen, kar-mar'THen (Wales) 
Caernarvon, kar-nar'von (Wales) 
Cagliari, ka'lya-re (Sardin.) 
Cahir, ka'6r (Ir.) 
Cahors, ka-or' (Fr.) 
Caicos, ki'kos (W, Ind.) 
Cairo, ki'r6(Eg.) 
Caithness, kath'nes (Scot.) 
Cajamarca, ka-dKa-mar'ka (Peru) 
Calabar, ka-la-bar' (Af.) 
Calaboso or Calabozo, ka- la -bo 'so 


Calabria, ka-la'bre-a (It.) 
Calahorra, ka-la-hor'ra (Sp.) 
Calais, kal'is ; Fr. pron. ka-la' (Fr.) 
Calamocha, ka-la-mo'cha (Sp.) 
Calantan, ka-lan'tan pialac.) 
Calatafimi, ka-la-ta-fe'me (It.) 
Calatrava, ka-la-tra'va (Sp.) 
Calcutta, kal-kut'ta(Ind.) 
Caldeirao, kal-da-e-rouft' (Port.) 
Caldera, kal-de'ra (Chile) 
Calicut, kaai-kut(Ind.) 
California, kal-i-for'ni-a (N. Am.) 
Callao, kal-lya'o (Peru) 
Callinger, kanin-j6r (Ind.) 
Calore, ka-16'ra (It.) r. 
Caltanisetta, kal-ta-ne-sat'ta (It.) 
Citlvados, kal-va-do' (Fr.) dep. 
Cahv, kalv (Ger.) 
Cakada, kal-thsi'THa (Sp.) 
Camacho or Camaxo, ka-ma'sho (Braz.) 
Camargue, ka-niarg' (Fr.) 
Camariilaa, ka-nia-re'nySs (Sp.) 
Cambodia, kam-bo'di-a (East Pen.) 
Cambray, koh-bra' (Fr.) 
Cambrdsis, ko(j-l»ra-ze' (Fr.) 
Cambridge, kam'brij (Eng.) 
Camenz, ka'ments (Oer.) 
Camerino, ka-ma-re'n6(It.) 

Cameroons, ka-me-ronz' (Af.) 
Camoghe, ka-mo'ga (Switz.) int. 
Campagua, kam-pa'nya (It.) 
Campana, la, la kam-pa'ua (Sp.) 
Campbelton or Campbeltown, kam'- 

Campeche, kam-pe'che (Cent. Am.) 
Camperduin, kam'per-doin (Neth.) 
Campiglia, kiim-pe'lya (It.) 
Campine, kam-pen' (Bel.) 
Campo Formio, kam-po foi-'me-o (It.) 
Canandaigua, kan-an-da'gwa (U. S.) 
Canara, ka'na-ra (Ind.') 
Candahar, kan-da-har (Ind.) 
Candeish, kan'desh (Ind.) 
Candia, kan'di-a (Eur.) isl. 
Canea, ka-ne'a (Crete) 
Canelones, ka-ne-lo'nes (TJrug.) 
Cano Desecho, ka'nyo de-se'cho (Braz.) 
Cantal, koii-tal' (Fr.) dep. 
Cantire, kan-tii-' (Scot.) 
Canton, kan-ton' (China) 
Cape Breton, brit'un (Can.) isl. 
Capitanata, ka-pe-ta-na'ta (It.) 
Caprera, ka-pra'ra (It.) isl. 
Capua, kap'yu-a; Ital. pron. ka'pii-a(It.) 
Carabobo, ka-ra-boHbo (Venez.) 
Caracas, ka-raTias (S. Am.) 
Caravaggio, ka-ra-vad'zho (It.) 
Carbonara, kar-bo-na'ra (It.) c. 
Carcagente, kar-ka-Chen'te (Sp.) 
Carcassonne, kar-kas-son' (Fr.) 
Cardiff, kar'dif (Wales) 
Cardigan, kar'di-gan (Eng.) 
Cardinale, kar-de-na'la (It.) 
Cardona, kar-do'na (Sp.) 
Carhaix, kar-a' (Fr.) 
Cariaco, ka-re-a'ko (Venez.) 
Carignano, ka-re-nya'no (It.) 
Carimata, ka-re-ma'ta (East. Arch.) 
Carinhenha, ka-re-nya'nya (Braz.) 
Carleton, karl'tou (Eng.) 
Carlisle, kar-lil' (Eng.) 
Carlowitz, kai-'lo-vets (Aust.) 
Carlscrona, karlz-kro'na (Swe.) 
Carlshamn, karlz'ham (Swe.) 
Carlsruhe, karlz-rb'e (Ger.) 
Carmagnola, kar-ma-nyo'la (It.) 
Camiola, kiir-ne-o'la (Aust.) 
Carnoustie, kar-nous'ti, often also ksir- 

niis'ti (Scot.) 
Camtual, karn-tyn'al (Ir.) tnt. 
Carolina, ka-ro-li'na (U. S.) 
Carpathian, kar-pa'thi-an (Aust.) int. 
Carpentaria, kar-pen-ta'ri-a (Austral.) 

Carrara, kar-ra'ra (It.) 
Cartagena, kar-ta-Che'na (Sp.) 
Caitago, kar-tJi'go (Cent. Am.) 
Casale, ka-za'la(It.) 

zh, azure. French, vtte, bat; bleti, netif ; t, on. 

German, ch, n&cht. 




Casamanza, ka-sa-man'za(Af.) 
Casanare, ka-sa-na're (Col.) 
Casbin, kas-ben' (Per.) 
Cashel, kash'el (Ir.) 
Cashgar, kash-gai*' (Tart.) 
Cashmere, kash-niei-' (Ind.) 
Cassiquiai-i, kas-se-ke-a're (Venez.) 
Castagnetto, kas-ta-nyat'to (It.) 
Castagnola, kas-ta-nyo'la (It.) 
Castambul, kas-tam-bol' (Tur.) 
Castellamare, kas'tal-la-ma"ra (It.) 
Castellon-de-la-Plano, kas-tel'lyon-de- 

la-pla'no (Sp.) 
Castelnau, kas-tal-no' (Fr.) 
Castelnaudary, kas-tal-no-dji-re' (Fr.) 
Castiglione, kas-te-lyo'ua (It.) 
Castile, kas-tel' (Sp.) 
Castlebar, kas-l-bai-' (Ir.) 
Castlecomer, kas-1-ko'mer (Ir.) 
Castleton, kas'1-ton (Eng.) 
Castres, kastr (Fr.) 
Castrojeriz, kas-tr6-6he-reth' (Sp.) 
Catahoula or Catahoola, ka-ta-ho'la 

(U. S.) 
Catalonia, ka-ta-lo'ne-a (Sp.) 
Catamarca, ka-ta-mar'ka (S. Am.) 
Catania, ka-ta'ne-a (Sic.) 
Catanzaro, ka-tan-tsa'ro (It.) 
Catawba, ka-ta'ba (U. S.) 
Catoche, Cape, ka-to'che (Cent. Am.) 
Cattaraugus, kat-ta-rg'gus (U. S.) 
Cattaro, kat'ta-ro (Aust.) 
Cattegat, kat'ta-gat (Swe. ; Den). 
Caucasus, ka'ka-sus (Rus.) 
Caudebec, kod-bek' (Fr.) 
Cauquenes, kou-ke'nes (Chile) 
Cavan, ka'van (Ir.) 
Cavery, ka've-ri (Ind.) 
Cawnpoor, kan-por' (Ind.) 
Caxamarca, ka-6ha-mai''ka (Peru) 
Caxoeira, ka-sho-a'e-ra (Braz.) 
Cayambi, ki-am'be (Ecuad.) mt. 
Cayenne, ki-en'^Fr. Gui.) 
Cayman, ki-man' (W. Ind.) 
Cayuga, ka-yo'ga (U. S.) 
CearA, sa-a-ra' (Braz.) 
Cefalu, che-fa-lo' (Sic.) 
Celano, cha-la'no (It.) 
Celebes, sel'e-bez (East. Arch.) 
Ceneda, cha-na'da (It.) 
Cenis, 86-ne'; Italian, Cenisio, cha-ne'- 

se-o (It.) mt. 
Cephalonia, sef-a-16'ne-a (Ion. Islds.) 
Ceram, se-ram' (East. Arch.) 
Cerignola, cha-re-nyola (It.) 
Cerigo, cher'e-go (Ion. Islds.) 
Cemowitz, tsai-'no-vets (Aust. ) 
Cerreto, char-ra'to (It.^ 
Cerro Largo, ser'ro lar'go (Urug.) 

Cervera, ther-ve'ra (Sp.) 

Cervin, ser-vah'(Switz.;^ 

Cesano, cha-za'no (It.) 

Cette, set(Fr.) 

Cettinje, set-ten'ya (Monten.) 

Ceuta, su'ta; Span. pron. the-o'ta(Mar.) 

Ce venues, sa-ven' (Fr.) 

Ceylon, se-16n' (As.) isl. 

Chablis, shab-le' (Fr.) 

Chacim, cha-sem' (Port.) 

Chagos, cha'gos (Ind. Oc.) isls. 

Chagres, cha'gres (Col.) 

Chaleur Bay, sha-lbr' ba (N. Am.) 

Chalonnais, sha-16n-na' (Fr.) 

Chalon sur Sadne, sha-lon' stir son (Fr.) 

Cham, 6ham (Switz.) 

Chamouni, sha-mo-ne' (Switz.) 

Champagne, shoh-pa'nye (Fr.) 

Champlain, sham-plan' (Can.; U. S.) 

Chaiiaral, chan-ya-ral' (Chile) 

Chandernagore, chan-der-na-goi-' (Ind.) 

Chantibun, chan-ti-bun' (Siam) 

Chantilly, shofi-tel-lye' or shon-te-ye' 

Chapala, cha-pa'la (Mex.) 
Chare nte, sha-roht' (Fr.) dep. 
Charleroi, sharl-rwa' (Bel.) 
Charlotte Amalie, shar-lot' a-ma'le-a 

(W. Ind.) 
Charlottenburg, shar - lot ' ten - borg 

Chartres, shartr (Fr.) 
Chartreuse, shar-treiiz' (Fr.) 
Charysh, cha-resh' (Sib.) r. 
Chasseron, shas-se-roh' (Switz.) mt. 
Chatauque, sha-ta'kwe (U. S.) 
Chateau Thierry, sha-to' te-ar-re' (Fr.) 
Chateaubriant, sha-to-bre-oh' (Fr.) 
Chatelet, shat-la' (Fr., Bel.) 
Chatellerault, sha-tel-ro' (Fr.) 
Chatham, chat'am (Eng.) 
Chatillon, sha-tel-lyoh' or sha-te-yofi' 

Chatkara, chat-ka'ra (Rus.) 
Chaudiere, sho-de-ai*' (U. S.) 
Chautauqua, sha-ta'kwa (U. S.) 
Chaux de Fonds, La, la sho d6 fofi 

Chaves, sha-vas' (Port.) 
Cheadle, che'dl (Eng.) 
Chedabucto Bay, she-da-buk'to ba (N. 

Chekiang, che-ki-ang' (China) 
Cheltenham, chel'ten-am (Eng.) 
Chelyuskin, chel-yus'kin (Sib.) 
Chemnitz, 6ham'nets (Ger.) 
Chenango, she-nang'go (U. S.) 
Chenaub, che-nftb' (Ind.) r. 
Cherasco, cha-ras'ko (It.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, rot, move; 
tub, bull; oil, poiind; ch, chain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; th, then; th, thin; 





Cherbourg, sher-borg' (Fr.) 
Cheribon, che'ri-bon (Java) 
Cherokee, che-ro-ke' (U. S.) 
Cherson, ch6r-son' (Rus.) 
Chertsey, chert'se (Eng.) 
Chesapeake, ches'a-pek (U. S.) 
Cheskaya, ches-ki'a (Rus.) 
Chesuncook, che-sun'kok (U. S.) I. 
Chetimaches, chet-i-mach'iz or shet- 

mash'(U. S.) 
Cheveney, shav-na' (Switz.) 
Cheviot, ch6'vi-ot (Scot.^ mt. 
Cheyenne, shi-en' (U. S.) 
Chiana, ke-a'na (It.) 
Chiapas, che-a'pas (Mex.) 
Chiavari, ke-a-va're (It.) 
Chiavenna, ke-a-van'na (It.) 
Chicago, shi-ka'go (U. S.) 
Chicapee or Chicopee, chik-a-pe' (U. S.) 
Chichen Itza, che-chen' et-sa' (Mex.) 
Chichester, chi'ches-t6r (Eng.) 
Chiclana, che-kla'na (Sp.) 
Chicot, she'ko (U. S.) 
Chiem-See, che'em-za (Bav.) 
Chiens, Isle aux, el 6 she-ai' (N. Amer.) 

Chiete, ke-a'ta (It.) 
Chifevres, she-avi-' (Bel.) 
Chihuahua, che-ya'wa (Mex.) 
Chile, chil'e; Span. pron. che'le(S. Am.) 
Chilka, chil-ka' (Ind.) 
Chilian, chel-yan' (Chile) 
Chillecothe, chil-le-koth'e (U.S.) 
Chillianwalla, chil-li-an-wal'la (Ind.) 
Chiloe, che-lo-e' (Chile) 
Chiltepeque, chel-te-pe'ke (Mex.) 
Chimalapan, che-ma-la'pan (Mex.) 
Chimborazo, chim-b6-ra'so; Span, pron 

chem-l)6-ra'thd (S. Am.) 
Chinandega, che-nan-de'ga (Mex.) 
Chinchaycocha, chen-chi-ko'cha (Peru) 
Chinchilla, chen-chel'lya (Sp.) 
Chingleput, ching-gel-put' (Ind.) 
Chinsurah, chin-sb'ra (Ind.) 
Chioggia, ke-6j'a (It.) 
Chippenham, chip'pen-am (Eng.) 
Chippeway, chip'pe-wa (U. S.) 
Chiquinmla, che-ke-mb'la (Cent. Am.) 
Chiquitos, che-ke'tos (Bol.) 
Chiriqui, che-re-ke' (Cent. Am.) 
Chitteldroog, chit-tel-drog'(Ind.) 
Chittoor, chit-tor' (Ind.) 
Chiusa, ke-o'za (It.) 
Chiva. See Khiva. 
Chlumetz, fthl<i'met8(Au8t.) 
Chobe, ch6n>a(Af.)r. 
Choco, choTio^Col.) 
Cholula, ch6-lo'ia(Mex.) 
Chotzen, dhot'sen (Aust.) 
Christiania, kres-te-a'ne-a (Nor.) 

Christiansand, kres'te-an-sand (Nor.) 
Christiansoe, kres'te-an-seii (Den.) 
Christinehamn, kris-te'ne-ham (Swe.) 
Chrudim, chrb'dem (Bohem.) 
Chudleigh, chud'h (Eng.) 
Chuquisaca, cho-ke-sa'ka (S. Am.) 
Chur, ehor (Switz.) 
Chusan, chb-san' (China) 
Cianciana, chan-cha'na (Sic.) 
Cibao, se-ba'6 (Hayti) mt. 
Cilicia, si-li'shi-a (As.) 
Cimbrishamn, sem'bres-ham (Swe.) 
Cimone, che-mo'na (It) 
Cincinnati, sin-sin-na'ti (U. S.) 
Ciney, se-na'(Bel.) 
Cinque Ports, sink'ports (Eng.) 
Cintra, seu'tra (Port.) 
Ciotat, se-6-ta' (Fr.) 
Circassla, ser-ka'sh6-a (Rus.) 
Cirencester, si'ren-ses-ter ; popularly 

sis-e-t6r (Eng.) 
Citta Nuova, chet-ta' nu^'va (It.) 
Citta Vecchia, chet-ta' vak'ke-a (It.) 
CiudadReal, the-d-THaTH' re-al'(Mex.) 
Ciudad Rodrigo, the-d-iHaiH' ro-THre'- 

go (Sp.) 
Civita Vecchia, che-ve-ta' vakTce-a (It.) 
Clachnaharry, klach'na-har-ri (Scot.) 
Clageiifurt, kla'gen-fbrt (Aust.) 
Clapham, klap'am (Eng.) 
Clara, Santa, san'ta kla'ra (Sp. ) 
Clarens, kla-roii' (Switz.) 
Clausenburg, klou'zen-borg (Aust.) 
Clermont, klar-moh' (Fr.); kler-mont' 

(U. S.) 
Cleves, klevz ; German, Kleve, pron. 

kla'va (Ger.) 
Clitheroe, kli'th6-ro (Eng.) 
Clogher, klo'6h6r (Ir.) 
Clonakilty, klon-a-kil'ti (Ir.) 
Clones, klonz (Ir. ) 
Clonmel, klon-mel' (Ir.) 
Cloud, St.. sanklo(Fr.) 
Clusone, klb-zo'na (It.) r. 
Clutha, klo'tha (N. Zd.) r. 
Clyde, klId(Scot.) 
Coahuila, ko-a-we'la (Mex.) 
Cobija, ko-be'6ha (Chile) 
Coblenz, ko'blents (Ger.) 
Cochabamba, ko-cha-bam'ba (Bol.) 
Cochin, ko'chin (Ind.) 
Coel. ko-el' (Ind.) 
Coeymans, kwe'manz (U. S.) 
Coggeshall, kog'ges-h^l (Eng.) 
Cognac, ko-nyak' (Fr.) 
Coimbatoor, ko-im-ba-toi-' (lad.) 
Coimbra, ko-emTbra (Port.) 
Coire, kwgr (Switz.) 
Cojedes, ko-dhe'des (Vencz.) 

zh, azura 

Freach, Tfte, btKi; bleli, ne1if ; 

1^, otw On^sjoam, cb, nacAt. 




Colchagua, kol-cha'gwa (Chile) 

Colchester, kol'ches-t^r (Eng.) 

Coleraine, kol-ian' (Ir.) 

Colima, ko-le'ma (Mex. ) 

Collin, kSl'len (Bohem.) 

Colne, koln (Eng. ) 

Cologne, ko-lon' (Ger.) 

Colombia, ko-lom'bi-a (S. Am.) 

Colombo, ko-lom'bd (Ceylon) 

Colonia, ko-lo'ne-a (Urug.) 

Colonsay, kol'on-sa (Scot.) 

Colorado, kol-6-ra'do (N. Am.) r. 

Comayagua, ko-nia-ya'gwa (S. Am.) 

Combaconum, kom-ba-ko'num (Ind.) 

Comorin, ko'nio-rin (Ind.) 

Comorn, ko-niom' (Hung.) 

Comoro, kom'o-ro (Ind. Oc.) isls. 

Compostella, kom-pos-tel'lya (Sp.) 

Concan, kon-kan' (Ind.) 

Coucepcion, kon-sep-se-on' (N. and S. 

Conchagua, k5n-cha'g\va (Cent. Am.) 

Conecocheague, kon-e-ko-cheg' (U. S.) 

Conegliano, ko-na-lya'no (It.) 

Congaree, kong'ga-re (IT. S.) 

Congleton, kong'gel-ton (Eng. ) 

Congo, kong'go (Af.) 

Conjeveram, kon-je-ve-ram' (Ind.) 

Connaught, kon-n^t' (Ir.) 

Connecticut, kon-net'i-kut (U. S,) 

Connemara, kon-ne-m&'ra (Ir.) 

Courochite, kon-ro-che'ta (Braz.) 

Coomassie, ko-mas'si (Af.) 

Coorg, korg (Ind.) 

Copan, ko-pan' (Cent. Am.) 

Copenhagen, ko-p«n-ha'gen (Den.) 

Copiapo, ko-pe-a-p6' (Chile) 

Coppet, kop-pa'(Switz.) 

Coquet, kok'et (Eng.) r. 

Coquimbo, ko-kem'bo (S. Am.) 

Corangamite, ko - rang 'ga- met (Aus- 
tral.) i. 

Corbeil, kor-ba'e (Fr.) 

Corcovado, kor-ko-va'do (S. Am.) 

Cordillera, kor-del-ye'ra (S. Am.) mts. 

Cordoba or Cordova, kor'do-va (Sp.) 

Corea, ko-re'a (As.) 

Corfu, kor-fo' (Gr.) isl. 

Coringa, ko-ring'ga (Ind.) 

Corinth, ko'rinth (Gr.) 

Corneto, kor-na'to (It.) 

Cornwall, korn'wal (Eng.) 

Coronata, ko-ro-na'ta (Auat.) isl. 

Corpach, kor'padh (Scot.) 

Corregaum, kor-re-gam' (Ind.) 

Corrientes, kor-re-en'tes (Arg. Con.) 

Cortona, kor-to'na (It.) 

Corunna, ko-run'na ; Span. Corufia, ko- 
ro'nya (Sp.) 

Cosenza, ko-san'tsa (It.) 
Cosseir, kos-sa'er (Af. ) 
Cossimbazar, kos-sim-ba-zS.r' (Ind.) 
Cotopaxi, ko-to-pak'se (S. Am.) 
Courbevoie, kbrb-vwa' (Fr.) 
Courland, kor'laud (Rus.) 
Courtray, kor-tra' (Bel.) 
Coutances, ko-tons' (Fr.) 
Coventry, kuv'en-tri (Eng.) 
Covilhao, ko-vel-youn' (Port.) 
Covington, kuv'ing-ton (Eng. and U. S.) 
Cowes, kouz (Eng.) 
Coxim, ko-shem' (Braz.) 
Cracow or Krakow, kra-kou' (Aust.) 
Craon, kra-6h' (Fr.) 
Creich, krich (Eng.) 
Cremona, kra-mo'na (It.) 
Crescentino, kra-shan-te'no (It.) 
Creuzot, kreu-zo' (Fr.) 
Crewe, kro (Eng.) 
Crickhowell, krik-ho'el (Wales) 
Crieff, kref (Scot.) 
Crimea, kri-me'a (Rus.) 
Crimmitschau, krem'raet-shou (Ger.) 
Cristoval, San, san kres'to-val (Mex.) 
Croagh Patrick, kro'adh pat'rik (Ir.) 
Croatia, kro-a'shi-a (Aust., Tur.) 
Cromarty, krom'6r-ti (Scot.) 
Cronstadt, kron'stat (Rus.) 
Crozet, kro-zet' (Ind. Oc.) isls. 
Cruz del Seybo, Sta., san'ta kros del 

sa'e-bo (Hayti) 
Csongrad, chon'grad (Hung.) 
Cuddalore, kud-da-lor' (Ind.) 
Cuenca, ku-en'ka (Sp.) 
Cuernavaca, ku-er-na-va'ka(Mex.) 
Culebra, ko-la'iira (W. Ind.) isls. 
Culiacan, kb-le-a-kan'(Mex.) 
Culloden, kul-lod'en (Scot.) 
Cumana, ko-ma-na' (Venez.) 
Cumino, kd-me'no (Medit.) isl 
Cupar, ku'p6r (Scot. ) 
Curasao (Span.), or Cura^oa (Dutch), 

kb-ra-sa'6, or ko-ra-s6'a (W. Ind.) 
Curico, kb-re-ko' (Chile) 
Curzola, kbr-dzb'la (Adr. Sea) isl. 
Cutch, kuch(Ind.) 
Cuttack, kut'tak (Ind.) 
Cuxhaven, kbks'ha-fen (Ger.) 
Cuyaba, kb-ya-ba' (Braz.) 
Cuyahoga, ki-a-ho'ga (U. S. ) 
Cuzco, kbs'kb (Peru) 
Cyclades, sik'la-dez (Gr. ) isls. 
Czamowo, char-no'vo (Poland) 
Czaslau, chas'lou (Aust.) 
Czenstochov, chan-stb'chov (Rus.) 
Czortkow, chort'kov (Aust. Gal.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; 
tub, bull; oil, poiind; ch, c^aiu; g, go; j, job; y, yes; 


note, not, mbve; 
TH, thm; th, thin; 





Daelen, daaen(Bel.) 
Daghestan, da-ges-tan' (Rus.) 
Dagoe, da'geii (Rus.) isl. 
Dahlen, dalcn (Ger.) 
Dahomey, da-ho'mi (Af.) 
Dakota, da-ko'ta (U. S.) 
Dalarne, da-lar'na (Swe.) 
Dalaro, dii'la-reu (Swe.) 
Dalecarlia, da-la-kar'le-a (Swe.) 
Dalhousie, dal-hb'zi (Scot.) 
Dalkeith, dal-keth' (Scot.) 
Dalkey. dal'ke(Ir.) 
Dalmally, dal-malli (Scot.) 
Dalmatia, dal-ma'shi-a 
Dairy, dal-ri' (Scot.) 
Dal ton, dal'toii (Eng.) 
Damara Land, dam'a-ra (Af.) 
Damascus, da-mas'kus (Tur.) 
Damietta, da-mi-et'ta (Eg.) 
Dampier's Archipelago, Group, and 

Strait, dam'perz (Austral.) 
Danakil, da-na-kel' (Af. ) 
Dangra-yura Kor, dang'gra-yum nor 

(As.) I. 
Danilov, da'ne-lov(Ilu8.) 
Dankali, dan-ka-le' (Af.) tii. 
Dannemora, da-na-mo'ra (Swe.) 
Danzig, dan'tsech (Prus.) 
Darahjerd, da'rab-jerd (Pers.) 
Dardanelles, diir-da-ni Iz' (Tur.) 
Dar-es-Salaam, dar-es-sa-lam' (Af.) 
Darfur, dar-fbr' (Af.) 
Dariel, da-re-el' (Rus.) 
Darien, da're-en (S. Am.) 
Darjiling, dar-jeling (Ind.) 
Darlaston, dar'ias-ton (Eng.) 
Darlington, dar'ling-ton (Eng.) 
Darwar, dar-war'(Ind.) 
Dauphin^, do-fe-na' (Fr.) 
Daventry, da'ven-tri ; popularly, dan'- 

tre (Eng.) 
Davos, da- v6s'(Switz.) i 

Dawalagiri, da-wa-la-ge're (NepAl) I 
Da war, da- war' (Afg.) 
Deakovar, da-ak-6-var'(Aust.) I 

Debaia, Ed, ed de-bi'a (Af.) j 

Debreczin, da'bre-tsen (Hung.) 
Decatur, de-ka't6r (U. S) 
Decazeville, d6-kaz-vel' (Fr.) 
Dees, daz (Aust.) 
Delagoa Bay, de-la-go'a ba (.\f.) 
Delaware, del'a-war (N. Am.) 
Del^mont, d6-]a-m6h' (Switz.) 
Delfzijl, delf'zil(Neth.) 
Delgada Point, del-ga'd£l (Azores) 

Delhi, del'l (Ind.); del-hi' (U. S.) 

Delitzsch, de-lech' (Prus.) 

Delos, de'los (Gr.) 

Delphi, del'fi(Gr.) 

Demavend, de-ma'veud (Per.) 

Dembea, dem'be-a (Abyss. ) I. 

Demerara, de-me-ra'ra (S. Am.) 

Demir-hissar, da-mer-hes-sar' (Tur.) 

Demoticos, de-mo'ti-kos (Tur.) 

Denbigh, den'bi (Wales) 

Dendera, den'de-ra (Eg.) 

Dendermonde, den-der-mon'de (Bel.) 

Denia, da-ne'a(Sp.) 

Deniliquin, de-nil'i-kwin (N". S. W.) 

Denis, St., sail d6-ne' (Fr.) 

Dent de Midi, dofi d6 me-de' (Switz.) 

D'Entrecasteaux, doii-tr-kas-to' (Aus- 

Depeyster, de-pis'ter (Pac. Oc.) isls. 

Deptford, det'ford (Eng.) 

Derag, Ben, de'rag (Scot.) mt. 

Dera Ghazi Khan, da'rii glia-ze' khan 

Dera Ismail Khan, da'ra es-ma-el' khan 

Derecske, da-rach'ka (Hung.) 

Desaguadero, da-sa-gwa-de'ro (S. Am.) 

Deseada, de-se-a'da (W. Ind.) isl. 

Deseret. des-6r-et' (U. S.) 

Desertas, da-zer'tas (A. Ocean) isls. 

Desful, dez-fol' (Pers.) 

D^sirade, da-ze-rad' (W. Ind.) isi. 

Des Moines, d6 moin' (U. S.) 

Despoblado, des-po-bla'THo (S. Am.) 

Despoto-Dagh, des-po'to-dag (Tur.) 

Dessau, des'sou (Prus.) 

Detroit, de-troit' (U. S.) 

Dettingen, det' ting-en (G er. ; Switz.) 

Deutz, doits (Ger.) 

Deux Ponts, deti poii' (Ger.) 

Deventer, dev'en-ter (Neth.) 

Devizes, de-vi'zez (Eng.) 

Devon, de'von (Eng.) 

Dewsbury, dyoz'be-ri (Eng.) 

Dhalac, dha-lak' (Red Sea) isl. 

Dharwar, dhar-wai*' (Ind.) 

Dhofar, dho-far' (Ar.) 

Diablerets, de-a-ble-ra' (Switz.) 

Diadin, de-^-den' (Armen.) 

Diamantino, de-ft-mjin-te'no (Braz.) r. 

Diana, de-a'na (Rus.) 

Diarbekir, de-ai-'ba-ker (Tur.) 

Die, de (Fr.) 

Di6, de-a' (Fr.) 

Diego, de-e'go (Mex.) 

Dieppe, de-ep' (Fr.) 

Diest, dest (Bel.) 

Dieu, deeu (Fr.) isl 

Digne, de'ny6 (Fr.) 

zh, azure. French, vfte, bGt; 

bl^, neuf; b, on. 

German, ih, u&cht 




Digny, de-nye'(Fr.) 

Digoin, de-gwafi' (Fr.) 

Dijon, de-zhoft' (Fr.) 

Dillengen, del'leng-en (Ger.) 

Dilolo, di-lo'lo (Af.) I. 

Dinagepoor or Dinajpur, di-naj'p6r" 

Dinapoor, de-na-por' (Ind. ) 
Dingwall, diug'wal (Scot. ) 
Dinkelsblihl, den'kelz-btil (Ger.) 
Dios Gyor, de-osh' dyeur (Hung.) 
Dippoldiswalde, dep-pol'des-varde 

Dissentis, dis'sen-tes (Switz.) 
Diu. de-o'(Ind.)/^ and isl. 
Dixcove, diks'kov (Af.) 
Dixmude, diks-m^d' (Bel.) 
Dizier, de-ze-a' (Fr.) 
Dmitrov, dnie-trov' (Rus.) 
Dniitrovsk, dme-trovsk' (Rus.) 
Dnieper, ne'p6r; Russ. pron. dnyep'er 

Dniester, nes'tdr; Russ. pron. dnyes'- 

t«r (Rus.) 
Doab, do'ab (Ind.) 
Doboka, do-bo'ko (Transyl.) 
Dobral, do-bral' (Tur.) 
Dobrudsha, do-brod'sha (Roum.) 
Dobrzyn, dob'zhin (Rus. Pol.) 
Doce, do'sa (Braz.) r. 
Dochart, do6h'art (Scot.) I. 
Doekum, do'kum (Neth.) 
Doesburg, doz'burg (Neth.) 
Doetinchem, db'tin-6hem (Neth.) 
Dogliani, do-lya'ne (It.) 
Dognacska, dog-nach'ko (Hung.) 
Dolgelly, dol-gel'li (Wales) 
Dolores, do-lo'res (Sp. and Am.) 
Domdidier, doft-de-de-a' (Switz.) 
Donifront, don-fron' (Fr.) 
Domingo, San, san do-meng'go (Hayti) 
Dominica, dom-i-ne'ka (W. Ind.) isl. 
Domo d'Ossola, do'mo dos'so-ia) (It.) 
Domremy, dofi-ra-me' (Fr. ) 
Donaghadee, do-na-Cha-de' (Ir.) 
Donau (Danube), do'nou (Ger.) r. 
Donaueschingen, do - nou - esh ' ing - en 

Donauworth, do'nou-veurt (Ger.) 
Doncaster, dong'kas-t6r (Eng.) 
Dondrah, don'dra (Ceylon) c. 
Donegal, don'e-gal (Ir.) 
Doneraile, don-6r-ar (Ir.) 
Dongola, dong'go-la (Af.) 
Donnaoe, don'na-eu-e (Nor.) 
Donzenac, don-ze-nak' (Fr.) 
Doornspijk, dorn'spik (Neth.) 
Dora Baltea, do'ra bal-ta'a (It.) r. 
Dorama, do-ra'raa (Ar.) 

Dora Ripaira, do'ra r6-pa'e-ra (It.) r. 
Dorat, Le, 16 do-ra' (Fr. ) 
Dordogne, dor-do'uy6 (Fr.) dep. 
Dordrecht, doi-'dreftht (Neth.) 
Dorgali, d6r-ga'le(It.) 
Dornoch, dor'nofih (Scot.) 
Dorogh, d6-rog'(Hung.) 
Dorogoboozh or Dorogobouj, do-ro-go- 

Dortmund, dort'mOnt (Ger.) 
Dotis, do'tesh (Hung.) 
Douarnenez, do-ar-ne-na' (Fr.) 
Douay, d5-a' (Fr.) 
Doubovka, do-bof'ka (Rus.)" 
Doubs, do (Fr.) 
Dou6, do-a' (Fr.) 
Douglas, dug'las (I. of Man) 
Doullens, doMofi' (Fr.) 
Douro, do'ro. Port. pron. d6'u-r6(Port.) 
Dovrefjeld, do'vre-fyel (Nor.) 
Dowlatabad, dou-la-ta-bad' (Ind.) 
Draa, dra'a (Syr.) 
Draaby, dro'btl (Den.) 
Dragonera, dra-go-ne'ra (Sp.) isl. 
Dragor, dra'gettr (Den.) 
Draguignan, dra-ge-nyoii' (Fr.) 
Drave, drav or drav; Slavonic, Drava, 

Drenthe, dren'ta (Neth.) 
Dreux, dreti (Fr.) 
Driffield, driffeld (Eng.) 
Drogheda, dro'e-da (Ir.) 
Drohobycz, droho'-bech (Aust. Gal.) 
Dromore, dro-moi-' (Ir.) 
Drontheim, dront'him (German name 

of Throndhjem) 
Droylsden, droil/den (Eng.) 
Drumsna, drumz'na (Ir.) 
Dubois, du-boi' or du-bois' (XJ. S.) 
Dubrovna, do-brov'na (Rus.) 
Dubuque, du-bok' (U. S. ) 
Duero, d\i-e'ro (Sp.) r. 
Duida, du-e'da(S. Am.)m«. 
Duisburg, do-es-borg' (Ger.) 
Duiveland, doi've-lant (Neth.) 
Duiven, doi'ven (Neth.) 
Dulce, dol'sa or dol'tha (Mex.)flr and I. 
Dulcigno, dol-che'nyo (Monten.) 
Dulwich, dul'ich (Eng.) 
Dumaresq, du-ma-resk' (Austral.) r. 
Dumbarton, dum-bar'ton (Scot.) 
Dumfries, dum-fres' (Scot.) 
Diina, dft'na (Rus.) r. 
Diinaburg, dA'na-borg (Rus.) 
Dunblane, dun-blan' (Scot.) 
Dundalk, dun-dak' (Ir.) 
Dundas, dun-das' (Can.) 
Dundee, dun-de' (Scot.) 
Dunfermline, dun-ffirmlin (Scot.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; n6te, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go\ j, job; y, j/es; TH, </ieu; th, ^/tin; 





Dungarvan, dun-gar'van (Ir.) 
Dungeness, dunj-nes' (Eng.) c. 
Dungiven, dun-giv'en (Ir.) 
Dunkeld, dun-keld' (Scot.) 
Dunkirk, dun'k6rk (Fr.) 
Dunmstnway, dun-nian'wa (Ir.) 
Dunnamaragh, dun-na-ma-ra6h' (Ir.) 
Dun tocher, dun-to6h'er (Scot.) 
Dunwich, dun'ich (Eng.) 
Durance, dd-rofts' (Fr.) 
Durango, do-ran'go (Sp. ; Mex.) 
Durazno, dij-ras'no (Urug.) 
Durban, d6rT)an (Natal) 
Durham, dur'am (Eng.) 
Durlach, dorliidh (Ger.) 
Dusseldorf, dils's«I-dorf (Ger.) 
Dvina, dve'na (Rus.) r. 
Dych-tau, de<ih'tou (Caucasus) 
Dyle, del (Bel.) 
Dysart, di'z6rt (Scot.^ 
DzooDgaria, dzon-gaTi-a (As.) 


Eaglesham, e'glz-ham (Scot.) 
Ebeltoft, aTjel-toft (Den.) 
Ebersfeld, e'bt'rz-felt (Ger.) 
Ebesfalva, a-besh-fol'vo (Aust.) 
Ebro. eT^ro; Span. pron. a'bro (Sp.) 
Ecclefechan, ek-kl-fedh'an (Scot.) 
Echelles, Les, laz a-shel' (Fr.) 
Echmiadzin, ech-mi-ad'zin (Armen.) 
Echt, edht (Neth.) 
Echuca, e-chb'ka (Austral.) 
Ecija, e'the-6ha(Sp.) 
Eckmiihl, ek'miil (Ger.) 
Ecouen, a-ko-ofi' (Fr.) 
Ecrehou Rocks, e-ker-ho' (Chan. Islds.) 
Ecuador, e-kwa-dor' (S. Am.) 
Edam, a-dam' (Neth.) 
Eday, e'da (Scot.) isl. 
Edgecumbe, ej'kum (N. Z.) 
Edgware, ej'war (Eng.) 
Edinburgh, ed'in-bu-ru or ed'en-bu-ru 

Edime, a'd6r-na (Tur.) 
Edisto, ed'i8-to(U. S.) 
Edmonton, ed'mon-ton (Eng.) 
Edreneh, ed're-ne (Tur.) 
Eelde, al'de (Neth.) 
Efat. a'fat (Af.) 
Egeri, eg'e-re (Switz.) 
Egersund, a'ger-sOnd (Nor.) 
^na, e-ji'na(Gr.) 
Eglisau, egHi-zou (Switz.) 
Egripo, eg'ri-p6(Gr.) 
Ehrenbreltstein, a-ren-brit'stln (Ger.) 

Eibenstock, iTjen-stok (Ger.) 
Eichstadt, idh'stet (Ger.) 
Eig, eg or eg (Scot.) isl. 
Eijerland, i'er-lant (Neth.) 
Eil, Loch, loeh el (Scot.) 
Eilau, i'lou(Ger.) 
Eimeo, i'me-o (S. Pac.) isl. 
Einsiedeln, in-ze'deln (Switz.) 
Eisenach, i'ze-nadh (Ger.) 
Eisleben, isla-ben (Ger.) 
Ekaterinburg, ya-ka'ta-ren-borg (Rus.) 
Ekaterinodar, ya-ka-ta-ren'o-dar (Rus.) 

Ekaterinoslav, ya - k& - ta - ren - 6 - slav' 

Ekerbe, a-ke-reti'e (G. of Bothnia) isl. 

Ekowe, ech'o-we (S. Af.) 

Eksjd, ak'sheu (Swe.) 

El-Ahsa, el-ah-sa' (Ar.) 

El-Araisch, el-a-rish' (Mar.) 

Elbe, elb; Ger. pron. el'be (Ger.)r, 

Elberfeld, el'ber-felt (Ger.) 

Elbeuf, al-beuf (Fr.) 

Elbing'erode, erbeng-e-ro"de (Ger.) 

Elbrouz, el'brbz (Rus.) mt. 

Elburg, ell) urg (Neth.) 

Elburz, el-borz' (Per.) mt. 

Elchingen, el'fihing-eu (Ger.) 

El Dorado, el do-ra'do (U. S.) 

Elephanta, el-e-fan'ta (Ind.) 

Eleusis, e-lyo'sis (Gr.) b. 

Eleuthera, e-lyo'the-ra (W. Ind.) isl. 

Elfkarleby, alf-kar'la-ba (Swe.) 

Elfvedal, al'va-dal (Swe.) 

Elis, e'lis (Gr.) 

Elizabetpol, ya-le-za-vet-pol' (Rus.) 

El-Khargeh, el-6har'ge (Eg.) 

Ellesmere, elz'mer (Eng.) 

Ellora, el-lo'ra(Ind.) 

EUwangen, al-vang'en (Ger.) 

Elmina, el-me'na (Af.) 

Elmshorn, elmz'horn (Den.) 

Elne, eln(Fr.) 

Elsinore, el'se-nor (Den.) 

Eltham, elt'am (Eng.) 

Ely, e'li (Eng.) 

Elze, el'tse (Ger.) 

Embrun, oh-brQfi' (Fr.) 

Emmerich, em'me-redn (Ger.) 

Empoli, am'po-le (It.) 

Enara, e-nii'ra (Rus.) 

Enarea, e-na-re'a (Af.) 

Endracht's Land, en'dradhts land (Aus- 

Engadin, en'ga-den (Switz.) 

Engelberg, eng'el-berg (Switz.) 

Enghien, oft-ge-afi' (Belg.) 

England, ing'gland 

Enkhuizen, enk-hoi'zen (Neth.) 

Enkbping, en'tyetip-ing (Swe.) 

zh, azure. French, vfle, bQt; 

ble^. mnif; 

ft, 'W. German, ih, nacht. 




Enniscorthy, en-nis-koi-'Tni (Ir.) 
Eriniskillen, en-nis-kirien (Ir.) 
Enriquillo, eu-re-kel'lyo (Hayti) I. 
Easchede, en-s6ha'de ^Neth.) 
Entlebuch, ent'le-bo6h (Switz.) 
Entraigues, oft-trag' (Fr.) 
Entrecasteaux.d', doft-tr-kas-to'(N.Zd.) 

Entre Douro e Minho, en'tra do'u-ro a 

me'nyo (Port.) 
Entre Rios, en'tre re'os (S. Am.) 
Enzili, en-ze'le (Per.) 
Epanomeria, e-pa-n6-me-re'a (Gr.) 
Epauvillers, a-po-vel-lyar' (Switz.) 
Eperies, a-pa-re-esh'(Hung.) 
Epernay, a-per-na' (Fr.) 
Epirus, e-pi'ru8 (Tur. ; Gr.) 
Ercsi, ar-che'(Hung.) 
Erekli, a-rek-le' (Tur.) 
Eriboll, e'ri-bol (Scot.) I. 
Ericht, er'i6ht(Scot.)«. 
Erie, e'ri (N. Am.) Z. 
Erin (poetical name for Ireland), er'in 
Erivan, e're-van (Rus.) ft. 
Erlach, ei-'lafih (Switz.) 
Erlangen, er'lang-en (Ger.) 
Ermatingen, ei-"ma'ting-en (Switz.) 
Ermelo ei-'me-lo (Neth. ) 
Erromango, er-r6-mang'g6(Pac.Oc.) isl. 
Erzeroum, er-ze-rbm' (Tur.) 
Erzgebirge, erts-ge-ber'ge (Aust.) mts. 
Escala, es-ka'la (Sp.) 
Eschenz, esh'ents (Switz.) 
Eschwege, esh-va'ge (Ger.) 
Escombrera, es-kom-bre'ra (Sp.) isl. 
Escondido, es-kon-de'THo (Span. Am.) 
Esber, e'sh6r (Eng.) 
Esino, a-se'no (It.)r. 
Eskilstuua, as-kel-sto'na (Swe.) 
Eski Sagra, es'ke sa'gra (Tur.) 
Esmeralda, es-me-ral'da (S. Am.) 
Esneh, es'ne (Eg.) 
Esparta, Nueva, nu-e'va es-par'ta 

Espejo, es-pe'6h6(Sp.) 
Espichel, es-pe-shel' (Port.) c. 
Espinar, es-pe-nar' (Sp.) 
Espinha<;o, Serra do, ser'ra do es-pe- 

nya'so (Braz.) 
Espinosa, es-pe-no'sa (Sp.) 
Espirito Santo, es-pe're-to san'to (Braz.) 
Esporlas, es-por'las (Sp.) 
Esquimau, es-ke'malt (Brit. Col.) 
Esquimaux, es'kwi-mo or es'ki-mo (N. 

Am.) I. 
Esquipulas, es-ke-po'las (Cent. Am.) 
Essequibo, es-se-ke'bo (S. Am.) 
Es Siout, es se-bt' (Eg.) 
Esslingen, esTing-en (Ger.) 

Estados Unidos (de Colombia, &c.), es- 

ta'THos o-ne'THos (Span. Am.) 
Estancia, es-tan'se-a (Braz.) 
Estella, es-tel'Iya(Sp.) 
Estepona, es-ta-p6'na (Sp.) 
Esterhaz, as-tar-haz' (Hung.) 
Esthonia, es-tho'ni-a (Rus.) 
Estremadura, Span. prou. es-tre-ma- 

THb'ra; Portug. pron. es-tre-ma- 

do'ra(Sp.; Port.) 
Estremoz. as'tra-moz (Port.) 
Eszek, es'ek(Aust.) 
Etaples, a-ta'pl (Fr.) 
Etaweh, e-ta'we (Ind.) 
Etchemin, ech'miri (Can.) 
Etienne, St., saft-ta-te-en' (Fr.) 
Etive, et'iv (Scot.) I. 
Etowah, et'o-wa (U. S.) 
Etretat, a-tr6-ta' (Fr.) 
Etruria, e-tro'ri-a (It. ; Eng.) 
Ettlingen, etiing-en (Ger.) 
Eu, ea(Fr.) 
Euboea, yu-be'a(Gr.) 
Eufemia, a-u-fa'me-a (It.) 
Euganean (Hills), yu-ga-ne'an (It.) 
Eupatoria, yu-pa-to'ri-a (Rus.) 
Eupen, oi'peu (Ger.) 
Euphrates, yu-fra'tez (As ) 
Eure, eur (Fr. ) 

Euskirchen, ois-kerCh'en (Ger.) 
Eustatius, St., sant, collo(juially sii.t 

yus-ta'shi-us (W. Ind.) isl. 
Eutin, oi-ten' (Ger.) 
Evesham, evz'ham or evz'am (Eng.) 
Evora, ev'o-ra (Port.) 
Evreux, a-vreti' (Fr.) 
Exe, eks (Eng.) 
Exeter, eks'e-tSr (Eng.) 
Eya, i'a (Iceld.) 
Eyder, i'der (Den.) r. 
Eye, a or i (Eng.) 
Eylau, i'lou (Prus.) 
Eymou tiers, a-mb-te-a' (Fr.) 
Eyriksjbknll, i'riks-yeu'kul (Iceld.) 
Eysden, Is'den (Neth.) 
Ezcaray, eth-ka-ri' (Sp.) 


Faaborg, foHaorg (Den.) 
Faarup, fo'rbp (Den.) 
Fabbriano, fab-bre-a'no (It.) 
Fabbrica, fab'bre-ka (It.) 
Fachingen, fa'Ching-en (Ger.) 
Faemund, fa'mbnd (Nor.) 
Faenza, fa-an'tsa (It.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, her, golden; pine, pin; note, not, mbve; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, c/iain; g. (70; j, job; y, j/es; TH, fTien; th, «Ain; 





Fahlun, falon (Swe.) 

Faido, fi'd6(Switz.) 

Faifo, fi-e-fo' (Aiiam.) 

Faioom, fi-om' (Eg.)py. 

Falaba, fa-la-bii' (Af.) 

Falcon, fal-kou' (Veuez.) 

Falemeh, fa-la'me (W. Af.) r. 

Falkirk, falTcfirk (Scot.) 

Falkoping, fal-tyeiip'ing (Swe.) 

Falmouth, fal'muth (Eng.) 

Falsterbo, f al'stai-bo (Swe. ) 

Famagosta, fa-mii-gos'ta (Cyprus) 

Famatina, fd-nia-te'na (Arg. Con.) 

Fanoe, fa'neu-e (Den.) ul. 

Fan tee, fan-te' (W. Af.) 

Faouet, fa-o-a'(Fr.) 

Farallones, fa-ral-16'nez (Calif or.) isls. 

Fareham, far'ham (Eng.) 

Fargeau, St., san far-zho' (Fr.) 

Farigliano, fit-re-lyii'no (It.) 

Farne, i'ivn (Eng.) ials. 

Faroe, fa'ro (Atl. Go.) isls. 

FJlrbeme, far-eu'6r-ne (Dan. name of 

Faroe Islands) 
Farquhar's Isls., fkr'kar (Austral.) 
Fara or Farsistan, farz or far-sis-tan' 

Fatatenda, fa-ta-tan'da (W. Af.) 
Fatsizio, fat-se'ze-o (Jap.) isl. 
Faucigny, fo-se-nye' (FrT) 
Faucilles, fo-sel' (Fr.) mts. 
Faverges, fa-varzh' (Fr. ) 
Faversham, fav'6r-sham (Eng.) 
Favignana, fa-ve-nya'na (It.) iil. 
Fawey, foi (Eng.) r. and tn. 
Faxoe, fak'seu-e (Den.) 
Fayal, fi-ai' (Azores) 
Fayence, fa-yohs' (Fr.) 
Fayetteville, fa-yet'vil (U. S.) 
Fayoum, fi-om' (Eg.) 
Feia, fa'e-a (Braz.) i. 
Felegyhaza, fa-ledzh-hU'zo (Hun.) 
Felicudi, fa-le-ko'de (It.) isl. 
Felipe, San, san fe-le'pe (Venez.) 
Femeren, fa'me-r«n (Den.) isl. 
Femina, fa'me-na (It. ) isl. 
Feodosia, fS-o-do'sS-a (Rus. ) 
Ferentino, fa-ran-te'no (It.) 
Fermanagh, f6r-maii'a (Ir.) co. 
Fermoy, f6r-moi' (Ir.) 
Fernando Po, fer-nan'd6 p6 (W. Af.) 
Feme, f6m (Eng.) isls. 
Femex or Ferney, far-na' (Fr.) 
Ferozepoor, fe-roz-pcir' (Ind.) 
Ferrara, far-ra'ra (It.) 
Ferrato, far-ra'to (It.) 
Ferrol, fer-rol' (Sp.) 
Fertit, far-tet' (Af.) 
Fethard. feth'ard (Ir.) 
Feuchtwang, foi£ht'v&ng (Ger.) 

Fez, faz (Af.) 

Fezzan, fez-zan' (Af.) pr. 

Fichtelberg or Fichtelgebirge, fe6h'- 

tel-berg or feCh'tel-ge-ber'ge (Ger.) 

Fideris, fe'de-res (Switz.) 
Fiesole, fe-a'so-la (It.) 
Figeac, fe-zhak' (Fr.) 
Figline, fe-lye'na (It.) 
Figueira, fe-ga'e-ra (Port.) 
Figueras, fe-ga'ras (Sp.) 
Fiji, fe'je (Pac. Oc.) isls. 
Filibe, fe-le-ba'(Tur.) 
Finale, fe-nala (It.) 
Fiiiana, fe-nya'na (Sp.) 
Findbe, fen'deu-e (Nor.) 
Finestrat, fe-nes-trat' (Sp.) 
Finistfere, fe-nes-tar' (Fr.) 
Finster Aarhorn, feu'ster ar'hom 

Fintona, fin-to'na (Ir.) 
Fiorenzuola, fe-6-ran-tsu-o1a (li) 
Fioro, fe-o'ro (It.) r. 
Firando, fe-ran'do (Jap.) isl. 
Firenze, fe-ran'tsa (It.) 
Fismes, fem (Fr.) 
Fitero, fe-ta'ro (Sp.) 
Fittre, fet-tra' (Cent. Af.) 
Fiume, fe-o'ma (Aust.) 
Fiumicino, fe-o-me-che'no (It.) 
Fizen, fe'zen (Jap.) 
Flatow, fla'to (Ger.) 
Flfeche, La, la flash (Fr.) 
Flers, flar (Fr.) 
Fleurus, tteti'rti (Bel.) 
Flintshire, flint'shfer or flint' shir (Engj) 
Flix, fleCh(Sp.) 
Florida, flo'ri-da (U. S.), flo-re'da(Span. 

Florsheim, flebrs'hini (Ger.) 
Fliielen, flft'e-len (Switz.) 
Flumini Majori, flo'me-ne ma-y6'r§ 

Flushing, flush'ing (Neth.) 
Fochabers, fo6h'a-b6rz (Scot.) 
Fogaras, fo-go-rosh' (Transyl.) 
Foggia, f6j'a(It.) 
Foix, fwft (Fr.) 
Fojano, fo-ya'no (It.) 
Fokien, f6j£e-en'(Ch.) 
Fbldvar, feuld-var' (Hung.) 
Foligiio, fo-le'nyo (It.) 
Follcestone, fok'ston (Eng.) 
Fonseca, fon-se'ka (Mex.)fir. 
Fontainebleau, fdfi-tan-blo' (Fr.) 
Fontana, fon-ta'na (It.)/«. 
Fontarabia, fon-ta-ra'he-a (Sp.) 
Fontenay, fofi-te-na' (Fr.) 
Fontenoy, f6fi-t«-nwa'(Bel.) 
Fontevrault, t6b-te-\T& (Fr.) 

ih, azure. French, vCle, bOt; blrfb. iv-ut; 
(296) (33) 

fi, on. 

German, 6h, nacAt. 




Fontiveros, fon-te-ve'ros (Sp.) 
Foota-Jallon, fo-ta-jallon (W. Af.) 
Forcados, Rio dos, re'6 dos for-ka'dos 

(W. Af.) 
Forchheim, forfihTiim (Ger.) 
Forez, fo-ra' (Fr.) 
Forfar, foi-'far (Scot.) co. 
Foria, fo're-a (It.) 
Forli, for-le' (It.) 

Forlimpopoli, for-lem-po'po-le (It.) 
Formentera, for-men-te'ra (Sp.) isl. 
Formigny, for-me-nye' (Fr.) 
Formosa, for-mo'sa (China) 
Forres, for'res (Scot.) 
Forsyth, for-sith' (U. S.) 
Fortaleza, for-ta-la'za (Braz.) 
Fortanete, for-ta-ne'te (Sp.) 
Fortore, for-to'ra (It.) r. 
Fortrose, fort-roz' (Scot.) 
Fossano, f6s-sa'n6 (It.) 
Fossaseca, fos-sa-sa'ka (It.) 
Fosse, fos (Bel.) 

Fossombrone, fos-som-bro'na (It.) 
Foasuni, fos'som (Nor.) 
Fostat, f OS-tat' rEg.) 
Fotheringay, fo'TH6r-in-ga (Eng.) 
Fougferes, fo-zhar' (Fr.) 
FougeroUes, fd-zhc-rol' (Fr.) 
Fowey, foi (Eng.) r. and tn. 
Foy, St., gatifwa(Can.) 
Foyers, foi'6rz (Scot.) 
Foyle, Lough, lo6h foil (Ir.) 
Framlingham, fram'ling-ham (Eng.) 
Francavilla, fran-ka-vel'Ia (It.) 
Franche Comt6, frohsh kofi-ta' (Fr.) 
Francisco, San, san fran-sis'ko (U. S.) 
Franconia, frang-ko'ni-a (Ger.) 
Franeker, fra'ne-ker (Neth.) 
Frankenhausen, f rangk ' en-houz-en 

Frankenstein, frSngk'en-stin (Ger.) 
Frankenthal, frangk'en-tal (Ger.) 
Frankfort, f rangk'fort; Ger. Frankfurt, 

frangk'furt (Ger.) 
Franzensbad, fran'tsenz-bad (Bohem.) 
Franzensbrunn, fran ' tsenz - bron 

Frascati, fras-ka'te (It.) 
Fraserburgh, fra'z6r-bu-ru(Scot.) 
Fraubrunnen, frou'bron-en (Switz.) 
Frauenfeld, frou'en-felt (Switz.) 
Fray Bentos, fri ben'tos (Urug.) 
Frayles, Los, 16s f ri'les (Carib. Sea) isls. 
Frechilla, fre-chellya (Sp.) 
Fredeburg, fra'de-borg (Ger.) 
Fredericia, fra-da-re'se-a (Den.) 
Fredericksborg, fra'de-reks-borg (Den.) 
Freiburg, fri'borg (Ger.) 

Frejus, fra-zhfls' (Fr.) 
Fremantle, fre'man-tel (Austral.) 
Fremont, frg-mont' (U. S.) 
Freystadtel, fri'stet-tel (Hung.) 
Fribourg, fre-bbr' (Switz.) 
Friedland, fred'lant (Prus.) 
Friedrichshaf en, f red ' re6hs - hii - ten 

Friedrickshamn, fred'reks-ham (Rus.) 
Friesland, frezland (Neth.) 
Frische Haff, fre'sha-haf (Prus.) 
Frische Nehrung, fre'sha-na-rong 

Friuli, fre-o'le(It.) 

Frobisher's Strait, frob'ish-6rz (N. Am.) 
Frodsham, frod'sham (Eng.) 
Frontenac, frOt-te-nak' (Can.) 
Frontera, fron-te'ra (Mex.) 
Frosinone, fr6-ze-no'na(It.) 
Froyen, fro'yen (Nor.) isl. 
Fruges, frtizh (Fr.) 
Fryken, frft'ken (Swe.) I. 
Fucecchio, fo-chak'ke-6 (It.) 
Fucino, fO'che-no (It.) I. 
Fuego, Tierra del, te-ar'ra del fu-a'go 

(S. Am.) 
Fuencaliente, fu-en-ka-le-en'te (Sp.) 
Fuenterrabia or (in Anglicized form) 

Fontarabia, fu-en-ter-ra'be-a, fon- 

ta-ra'bi-a (Sp.) 
Fueraventura, fu-e-rtt-yen-tO'ra (Can, 

Isls.) isl. 
Fulda, fol'da (Ger.) 
Fulnek, fbl'nek (Aust.) 
Fulton, furton(U. S.) 
Funchal, fon-shal' (Madeira) 
Fiinen, fft'nen, Ger. name of Fyen, i»l. 
Fiinfkirchen, f(lnf'ker6h-en (Hung.) 
Furneaux Isls., f6r-n6' (S. Pac. Oc.) 
Fumes, ftim (Bel.) 
Furruckabad, fu-ruk-a-bad' (Ind.) 
Furstenau, fflrst'e-nou (Prus.) 
Furth, fort (Ger.) 
Fusiyama, fo-ze-ya'ma (Jap.) nU. 
Futteghur, fut-te-ghur' (Ind.) 
Futtehpoor, fut-te-por' (Ind.) 
Fuur, for (Den.) isl. 
Fyen, fd'en (Den.) isl. 
Fyne, Loch, lo6h fin (Scot.) 
Fyum, fi-bm' (Eg.) 
Fyzabad, fi-za-bad' (Ind.) 


Gablonz, ga-blonts' (Bohem.) 
Gaboon, ga-bbn' (Af.) r. 

Fate, far, fat, fftU; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, mSve; 
tub, bull; oil, poiind; ch, chain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; tn, then; th, thia; 





Gabrova, gii-bro'va (Bulg.) 

Gadamis, ga-da'mis (Af.) 

Gadebusch, ga'de-bosh (Ger.) 

Gadeh, gii'de (Java) 7nt. 

Gaeta, ga-a'tii (It.) 

Gagliano, ga-lya'uo (It.) 

Gaidronisi, gi-dro-ne'se (Tur.) isl. 

Gainsborough, ganzT)u-ru (Eng.) 

Gais, gis (Switz.) 

Galapagos, ga-la-pa'gos; Span. pron. gft- 
la'pa-gos, isl. 

Galashiels, ga-la-shek'(8cot.) 

Galata, ga'lata (Tur.) 

Galatz, ga-lats' (Roum.) 

Galdhoepig, gal-heu'pig (Nor.) 

Galena, ga-le'na (U. S.) 

Galera, ga-le'ra (Sp., It.) 

Galicia, ga lish'e-a (Anglicized name of 
an Aust. prov.) 

Galicia, ga-le'the-a (Sp.) 

Galinara, ga-le-na'ra (It.) isl. 

Gall, St., sant, colloquially sint g^l 
(Anglicized name of Swiss canton) 

Gallarate, gil-la-ra'ta (It.) 

Galle, gal (Ceylon) 

Gallegos, ga-lye'gos (Sp.) r. 

Gallen, St., sankt gal'en (Switz.) 

Gallipoli, gal-le'p6-le (It.: Tur.) 

Galoengong, ga-lon-gong' (Java) 

Galtee, gsl'te(I^.)m^- 
Galveston, gal'ves-ton (U. S.) 

Gal way, gal'wa (Ir.) 

Gambia, gam'bi-a (Af.) 

Gambler, gam'ber (Austral.) isl. 

Gand, gofi(Bel.) 

Gandesa, gan-de'sS (Sp.) 

Gandia, gan'de-a (Sp.) 

Ganges, gofizh (Fr.) 

Ganges, gan'jez (Ind.) r. 

Gangotri, gan-go'trS (Ind.) 

Canjani, gan-jam' (Ind.) 

Gantheaume Bay, gan'thora ba (Aus- 

Gap, gap (Ft.) 

Garbieh, gar-be'e (Eg.) 

Gard, gar (Fr.) dep. 

Gardaia, gar-di'a (Alg.) 

Garessio, ga-ras'se-o (It.) 

Gar^ano, gar-ga'no (It.) mt. 

Ganep, ga-rep' (Af.) 

Garlieston, gar'lis-ton (Scot.) 

Garonne, ga-ron' (Fr.) dep. 

Garrows, gar'roz (IndJ 

Garstang, gars' tang (Eng.) 

Garvagh, gar'va(Ir.) 

Garvan, gar- van' (Ir.) isl. 

Gascogne, gas-kon'ye (Fr.) 

Gaspe, gas-pa' (Can.) dist. 

Oastein, gils'tin (Ger.) 

Oa«teren, gis'te-ren (Switz.) 

Gatineau, ga-te-n6'(Can.) r. 
Gattinara, gat-te-na'ra (It.) 
Gaucin, ga-u-then' (Sp.) 
Gaulna, gal'na (Ind.) 
Gauritz, gou'rits (Cape Col.) r. 
Gawelghur, ga-wel-ghur' (Ind.) 
G6ant, zha-oii' (Switz.) mt. 
Geelong, ge-long' (Austral.) 
Geelvink, gal-vingk' (N. Guin. ) b. 
Geertruidenberg, gar - troi ' den - berg 

Gefle, ya'fla (Swe.) 
Geisenheim, giz'en-him (Ger.) 
Geislingen, gisling-en (Ger.) 
Gelderland, gel'der-lant (Neth.) jpr. 
Geldern, gel'dfem (Ger.) 
Gellivara, yel-le-va'ra (Swe.) 
Gelves, chel'ves (Sp.) 
Gemmi, gem'me (Switz.) 
Gemona, ja-mo'na (It.) 
Gemiinden, ge-mtin'den (Ger.) 
Genemuiden, ga-na-moi'den (Neth.) 
Genessee, jen-e-se' (U. S.) 
Geneva, ge-ne'va (Switz.) 
Genfeve, zh6-nav' (Switz.) 
Genevieve, St., sant, colloquially sint 

jen'e-vev (U. S.) 
Genevre, ja-na'vra (It.) mt. 
Gennaro, jan-na'ro (It.) mt. 
Genoa, jen'6-a (It.) 
Geneva, jen'6-va (It.) 
Gensano, jan-sa'no (It.) 
Gent, gent (Bel.) 
Gentilly, zhoft-teMy§' or zhofi-te-ye' 

Georgievsk, ga-or'ge-evsk (Rus.)/<. 
Gera, ga'ra (Ger.) 
Gerace, je-ra'cha (It.) 
Geraldton, jer'ald-ton (Austral.) 
Germain, St., saft zhar-maft'(Fr.) 
Gerolstein, ger'ol-stin (Ger.) 
Gerona, dhe-ro'na (Sp.) 
Gestrikland, yes'trik-land (Swe.) 
Gex, zheks (Fr.) 
Ghadames, ga-da'mes (N. Af.) 
Gharian, ga're-an (Af.) mt. 
Gharnis, El, el gar'nes (Tunis) 
Ghauts, ghats (Ind.) 
Ghazeepoor, ga-ze-pbr' (Ind.) 
Ghazni, guz'ne (Afg.) 
Ghenneh, gen'ne (Eg.) 
Ghent, gent (Bel.) 
Ghilan, ge'lan (Per.) 
Ghiustendil, gyus'tan-del (Tur.) 
Ghizeh, ge'ze (Eg.) See Gizeh 
Ghuznee, guz'ne (Afg.) 
Gianjar, ge-an-jar' (East. Arch.) 
Glaveno, ja-va'no (It.) 
Gibraltar, ji-brftl'tar (Sp.) 
Gien, zhe-8fi'(Fr.) 

zh, azure. French, rfte, bOt; 

bl^, neuf; b, on. 

German, th, naeht. 




Gigha, ge'ga (Scot.) isl. 

Giglio, je'lyo (It.) isl. 

Gijon, 6he-6h6n'(Sp.) 

Gilghit, gil'git (Ind.) 

Gilolo, je-lo'16 (lud.) 

Giojosa, jo-yo'sa (It.) 

Giorgio, San, joi-'jo (It.) 

Giovanazzo, jo-va-nat'tso (It.) 

Gippsland, gips'land (Austral.) 

Girgeh, ger'ge (Eg.) 

Girgenti, jer-jan'te (It.) 

Gironde, zhe-roud' (Fr.) dep. 

Girvan, gSr'van (Scot. ) 

Gitschin, gech'eu (Bohem.) 

Giurgevo, Giurgewo, jdr-ja'vo (Roum.) 

Gizeh, Egyp. pron. ge'ze; pron. of other 

Arab, dialects je'ze(Eg.) 
Gjatsk, gzhatsk (Riis.) 
Glamorgan, gla-mor'gan (Wales) 
Glasgow, glas'go (Scot.) 
Glastonbury, glas'ton-be-ri (Eng.) 
Glauchau, glou'Chou (Ger.) 
Glencaim, gleu-karn'(Scot.) 
Glencoe, glen-ko' (Scot.) 
Glengarry, glen-gar'ri (Scot.) 
Glenorchy, glen-or'ki (Scot.) 
Gloucester, glos'ter (Eng.) 
Gliickstadt, gltik'stat (Ger.) 
Gmiinden, gmun'den (Aust.) 
Gnesen, gna'zen (Prus.) 
Guiefkowo, gnef-ko'vo (Prus.) 
Goajira, g6-a-6he'ra (Col.) 
Goar, Sankt, sankt go'ar (Ger.) 
Gobi, go'be (As ) des. 
Godalming, god'al-niing (Eng.) 
Godavery, go dii've-ri (Ind.) 
Godollo, geu-deul-leu'(Hung.) 
Goedereede, go-de-ra'de (Neth.) 
Goenong Api, go-uoug'ii'pe (Moluc.) 
Goes, gos (Neth. ) 
Goisern, g6-ez'6rn (Aust.) 
Goito, go-e'to (It.) 
Gojam, go-jam' (Abyss.) 
Golconda, gol-kon'da (Ind.) 
Goldau, gol'dou (Switz.) 
Goldingen, gol'ding-en (Rus.) 
Golspie, gol'spi (Scot.) 
Gombroon, goni-bron'(Per.) 
Gomera, go-me'ra (Can. Isls.) 
Gometra, gom'e-tra (Scot.) isl. 
Gbmor, geu-nieur' (Hung.) 
Gomul, go'mbl (Afg.) r. 
Gondar, gon'dar (Af.) 
Gonzaga, gon-tsa'ga (It.) 
Gonzales, gon-za'Iez (U. S.) 
Goole, gbl (Eng. ) 
Goomty, gom'ti (Ind.) 
Goor, gor (Neth.) 

Goorkha, gor'kha (Nepal.) 
Goppingen, geup'ping-en (Ger.) 
Gorbatov, gor-ba-toV (Rus. ) 
Gordoncillo, gor-don-thel'yo (Sp.) 
Goree, go-ra' (Chan. Isls.) 
Gorgona, gor-go'na (Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Gorgonzola, gor-gon-tso'la (It.) 
Gbrlitz, geui-'lets (Prus.) 
Gorokhov, gor-6-6hov' (Rus.) 
Gorontalo, go-ron-ta'16 (East. Arcli.) 6. 
Gorredijk, goi-'ra-dik (Neth.) 
Gbrschen, geur'shen (Prus.) 
Goruckpoor, go-ruk-pbi"' (Ind.) 
Gorz, geurz (Aust.) 
Goslar, goz'lar (Ger.) 
Gbtaland, yeu'ta-lan (Swe.) isl. 
Gbteborg, yeu'te-bnrg (Swe.) 
Gotha, g6'ta(Ger.) 
Gothard, St., saiit, colloquially sint 

goth'ard; Germ. pron. sankt gbt'- 

Gothland, goth'land (Swe.) isl. 
Gottenburg, got'teu-bbrg (Swe.) 
Gbttingen, geut'ing-en (Ger.) 
Gottska Sandbe,gots'kasan'deu-e (Swe.) 
Gouda, gou'da (Neth.) 
Goumri or Gumri, gbm're (Rus.) 
Gour, gour (Ind.) 
Gourock, gb'rok(Scot.) 
Govan, guv'an (Scot.) 
Governador, gb-var-na-doi-' (Braz.) isl. 
Goyaz, go-yaz' (Braz.) 
Gozo, go'sb (Medit.) isl. 
Graaf-Reynet, graf-re-net' (.Cape Col.) 
Graauw, gra'uv (Neth.) 
Grabow, gra'bo (Ger.) 
Gradiska, N., gra-des'ka (Aust.) 
Graena, gra-e'na (Sp.) 
Grafenberg, gra'f en-berg (Ger.) 
Graf en worth, gra'fen-velirt (Ger.) 
Graigue, grag(Ir.) 
Graiguemanach, grag-man'ach (Ir.) 
Grammichele, gram-me-ka'la (Sic.) 
Granada, gra-na'THa (Sp. ) 
Granadilla, gra-na-THel'lya (Sp.) 
Granard, gra-nard'(Ir.) 
Granatula, gra-na-tb'la (Sp.) 
Grande, gran'da (Braz.) r. 
Grand Lieu, grofi le-eu' (Fr.) I. 
Grand Tr6, groh pra (Fr.) 
Grangemouth, granj'mouth (Scot.) 
Granichen, gra'ne-6hen (Switz.) 
Granja, La, la gran'Cha (Sp.) 
Grantham, grant'am (Eng.) 
Gran ton, gran'ton (Scot.) 
Grasb, gra'seu (Swe.) isl. 
Gratiot, gra'shi-ot (U. S.) 
Gratz, grets(Aust. Prus.) 
Graubiinden, grou'bilnd-en (Switz.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, chain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; nu, then; th, thin; 





Graudenz. grou'dents (Prus.) 
Graulhet, gro-la' (Fr.) 
Gravelines, grav-leu'(Fi*.) 
Gravesend, gravz'end (Eng.) 
Gravezande, gra-ve-zau'de (Neth.) 
Gravina, gra-ve'na (It.) 
Gray, gra (Fr.) 

Grazalema, gra-thii-le'ma (Sp.) 
Greenhithe, gren'hiTH (Eng.) 
Greenock, gren'ok (Scot.) 
Greenwich, grin'ich (Eng.) 
Greifswalde, grlfs'va,l-de (Prus.) 
Greitz, grits (Ger.) 
Grenaae, gre-no'a (Den.) 
Grenada, gre-na'da, tsi. 
Grenade, gre-nivl' (Fr.) 
Grenoble, gre-nolt)! (Fr.) 
Greussen. grois'sen (Ger.) 
Grevismiihlen, gra-fes-niMen (Ger.) 
Greyerz, gn'erts (Switz.) 
Grignano, gre-nya'no (It.) 
Grigoriopol, gre-go-re-o'pol (Rus.) 
Grijo, grg'zho (Port.) 
Grijpskerk, grips'kerk (Neth.) 
Grimsel Pass, grem'sel (Switz.) 
Grindelwald, gren'del-valt (Switz.) 
Grinnell Land, gri-nel' land (Arc. Oc.) 
Griqua, gre'kwa(Af.) 
Grislehamn, gresla-ham (Swe.) 
Gris Xez, gre na (Fr.) c. 
Grisons, gre-zoii' (Switz:) 
Groede, grb'de (Neth.) 
Groenlo, grbn'lo (Neth.) 
Groix, grw|i (Fr.) isl. 
Groningen, gro'ning-en (Neth.) 
Gronsund, gretin'sdnd (Den.) 
Groote Eylandt, gro'te iiant (Austral) 

Groot Zundert, grot ziin'dert (Neth.) 
Grossetto, gros-sat'to (It.) 
Gross Venediger, gros ve-na'di-6her 

Grosswardein, gros-vai'din (Hung.) 
Groton, grot'on (Eng.); gro'ton (U. S.) 
Grudek, grb'dek (Aust.) 
Grutii, grdt'le (Switz.) 
GruySres, gru-yar' (Switz.) 
Gsteig. gstig (Switz.) 
Guadalaviar, gwa-THa-la-ve-ar' (Sp.) r. 
Guadalaxara or Guadalajara, gwa-THa- 

Guadalmez, gwa-THal-meth'(Sp.) r. 
Guadalquivir, gwa'THiil-ke-ver' (Sp.) r. 
Guadalupe, gwa-da-Ib'pa; popularly ga- 

da-l5p'(U. S.) 
Guadarrama, gwa-THar-ra'ma (8p.) 
Gua<leloupe, ga-dd-lbp' (W. Ind.) 
Guadiana, gwa-THe-a'na (Sp.) r. 
Guadix, gwa-iHe6h' (Sp.) 
Guahan, gwa-han' (Ladrone Isls.) 

Guaianeco, gwa-ya-na'ko (Patag.) isls. 
Guajiro, gwa-6he'ro (Venez.) 
Gualateiri, gwa-la-ta'e-re (Chile) 
Gualdo, gu-ai'do (It.) 
Guamachucho, gwa-ma-chb'cho (Peru) 
Guanianga, gwa-nian'ga (Peru) 
Guanacache, gwa-na-ka'che (Arg. Con.) 
Guanahani, gwa-na-ha'ne (Bahamas) 
Guanajuato, gwa-na-6hu-a'to (Mex.) 
Guapore, gwa-po'ra (Braz.) r. 
Guarapari, gwa-ra-pa're (Braz. ) 
Guaratingueta, gwa-ra-ten-ga'ta (Braz.) 
Guardafui, gwar-da-fwe' (Af.) 
Guardamar, gwar-da-mar' (Sp.) 
Guardia, gwar'de-a (Sp.) 
Guarico, gwa-re'ko (Venez.) 
Guarino, gwa-re-no' (Col.) r. 
Guarisamey, gwa-re-sa-ma' (ilex.) 
Guarmey, gwar-ma' (Peru) 
Guatemala, gwa-te-ma'la (Cent. Am.) 
Guatla, gwat'la(Mex.) 
Guayana, gwi-a'na(S. Am.) 
Guayaquil, gwi-a-kel' (S. Am.) 
Guayas, gwi'as (Ecuad.) 
Guaymas, gwa-e-mas' (Mex.) 
Guayra, La, la gwa'e-ra (Venez. ) 
Gubbio, gbb'be-b(It.) 
Guebwiller, geb-vel-lar' (Fr.) 
Guelders, Guelderland, gel'derz, gel'- 

der-lant (Neth.) 
Gu^rande, ga-roiid' (Fr.) 
Guerara, ga-rii'ra (Alg.) 
Guercino, gwer-che'nb (It.) 
Guernsey, gern'zi (Chan. Isls.) isl. 
Guerrero, ger-re'ro (Mex. ) 
Guglionisi, gb-lyo-ne'ze (It.) 
Guguan, gb-gwan' (Ladrone Isls.) 
Guiana, Guyana, ge-a'na or gi a'ua 
Guienne, ge-en' (Fr.) jir. 
Guildford, gil'ford or gild'ford (Eng.) 
Guimaraens, ge-ma-ra'efiz (Port) 
Guinea, gi'ne (Af.) 
Guines, gen (Fr.) 
Guingamp, gaft-gofi' (Fr.) 
Guipuzcoa, ge-pbth'ko-a (Sp.) 
Guisborough, giz'bu-ru (Eng.) 
Guise, gez (Fr.) 
Gu jerat, gb'je-rat (Ind. ) 
Guldbrandsdal, gbl'branz-dal (Nor.) 
Gumbinnen, gbm-ben'en (Prus.) 
Gumiel, gb-me-er(Sp.) 
Gunabad, gb'na-bad (Per.) 
Gundaniuk, gun'da-muk (Afg.) 
Gundelflngen, gbn'del-feng-en (Ger.) 
Gundwaua, gun-dwa'na Qnd.) 
Gunong Ledang, gb-nongMe-dang'(MaL 

Giins, gftnsh (Hung.) 
Gurhwal, gur-hwar (Ind^ 
Gurupatuba, gb-rb-pa-tb'ba (Braz.) r. 

xh, azure. French, vQe, bQt; 

bleu, neuf; 

b, on. German, ch, n&cht 




Guspini, g08-p6'ne (It.) 
Gussago, gos-sa'go (It.) 
Gussola, go8-so'la (It.) 
Gustrow, gils'tro (Ger.) 
Guthrie, guth'ri (Scot.) 
Gutzkow, gflts'ko (Ger.) 
Guyandotte, gl-an-dot' (U. S.) 
Gwalior, gwa'le-or (Ind. ) 
Gyarraath, dyor-mot' (Hung.) 
Gympie, gim'pi (Qld.) 
Gyongyos, dyeun-dyeush (Hung.) 
Gydrgyd, dyeur-dyeu' (Hung.) 
Gyswyl, ges'vgl (Switz.) 
Gyula, dyb'lo (Hung.) 


Haag, h&g (Neth.) 

Haarlem, Haerlem, Harlem, harlem 

Habana or Havana, ha-va'na (Cuba) 
Habsburg, habz'borg (Switz.) 
Hacha, ach'a (Col.) r. 
Hacienda, a-se-en'da (Mex.) 
Haddington, had'ing-ton (Scot.) 
Hadersleben, ha-derz-la'beu (Den.) 
Hadleigh, had'li (Eng.) 
Hadramaut, ha-di^-mout'; Arab. pron. 

Hagenow, ha'ge-no (Ger. ) 
Hague, The, hag (English name of Den 

Haag, Neth.) 
Haguenau, a-g6-n6' (Fr.) 
Haiducken, hi-dok'en (Hung.) 
Hailesborough, halz'bu-ru (Eng.) 
Hailsham, hal'sham (Eng.) 
Hainan, hl-nan' (China) 
Hainaut or Hainault, ha-no' (Bel) 
Hainichen, hi'ne-6hen (Ger.) 
Haitien, ha'ti-en (Hayti) c. 
Hajypoor, ha-ji-por' (Ind. ) 
Hakodade, ha-ko-da'de (Japan) 
Halas, ha'lash (Hung.) 
Halberstadt, hal'ber-stat (Prus.) 
Haleb, ha'leb (Syr.) 
Halesowen, halzo'wen (Eng.) 
Halicz, ha'lech (Aust.) 
Halifax, hal'i-faks (Eng. ; Am.) 
Halle, hal'le (Prus.) 
Hallingdall, hal'ing-dal (Nor.) 
Hallowell, hal'lo-wel (U. S.) 
Halmahera, hiil-ma-ha'ra (Moluc.) 
Halatead, hal'sted (Eng.) 
Ham, hoh (Fr.) 
Hamadan, ha-ma-diin' (Pers.) 
Hamburg, hiim'bdrg (Ger.) 

Hammerfest, ham'mer-fest (Nor.) j)f. 

Hamoon, ha-nibn' (Afg.) I. 

Hanau, ha'nou (Ger.) 

Hanover, han'6-v6r; German, Hannover 

han-no'ver (Ger.) 
Haparanda, ha-pa-ran'da (Swe.) 
Hardanger Fjeld,har'dang-6r fyel(Nor.) 
Harderwijk, har'der-vik (Neth.) 
Harfleur, har-fletii-' (Fr.) 
Haringvliet, ha'ring-vlet (Neth.) r. 
Hari-Rud, ha're-rbd (Afg.) 
Harlech, har'leCh (Wales) 
Harlingen, hai-'ling-en (Neth.) 
Haro, a'rb (Sp.) 
Harrogate, ha'ro-gat (Eng.) 
Hartenstein, har'ten-stin (Ger.) 
Hartford, hart'ford (U. S.) 
Hartlepool, har'tel-pbl (Eng.) 
Harwich, har'ich (Eng.) 
Harz, harts (Ger.) mt. 
Haslingden, haz'ling-den (Eng.) 
Hassan-Kaleh, has-san-kaia (Tur.) 
Hasselt, has'selt (Bel.) 
Hastings, has'tingz (Eng.) 
Hastrup, has'trbp (Den. ) 
Hatteras, hat'te-ras (U. S.) c. 
Hatvan, hot'von (Hung.) 
Hauenstein, hou'en-stin (Switz.) 
Haulbowline, hal-bb'lin(Ir.) 
Havanna or Havana, ha-va'na (Cuba) 
Havelberg, ha'vel-berg (Ger. ) 
Haverfordwest, ha 'v6r- ford -west 

Haverhill, hav'6r-il (Eng.): ha'ver-il 

(U. S.) 
Havre, Le, 16 havr (Fr.) 
Hawaii, ha-wi'e (Sand. Isls.) 
Hawarden, har'den (Wales) 
Hawea, ha-wa'a (N. Zd.) I. 
Hawick, ha'ik (Scot.) 
Hayle, hal(Eng.) 
Haynau, hi'nou (Ger.) 
Hayti or Haiti, ha'ti (W. Ind.) 
Hazebrouck, ha-ze-brbk' (Fr.) 
Heanor, h5'a-nor or he'nor (Eng.) 
Hebrides, heb'ri-d6z (Scot.) 
Hechingen, he6h'ing-en (Ger.) 
Heckmondwike, hek'mond-wik (Eng.) 
Hedemora, ha-da-mo'ra (Swe.) 
Heerlen, harlen (Neth.) 
Heesch, hasdh (Neth.) 
Hegyallya, hed-yol'yo (Hung.) 
Heidelberg, hi'del-berg (Ger.) 
Heilbronn, hil'bron (Ger.) 
Heiligenstadt, hi'li-gen-stat or hili- 

Chen-stat (Prus.) 
Hejaz, he-jaz' (Ar.) 
Helena, St., sant, colloquially sint he- 

le'na (Eng.) isl. 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, mbve; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; oh, chain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; TH, then; th, thin; 





Helgeo, herge-eii (Nor.) isl. 

Heliers, St., sant, colloquially sint 

hel'yferz (Chan. Isls.) 
Heligoland or Helgoland hel'i-go-land 

or hel'go-land (Ger. Oc.) isl. 
Hellespont hel'les-pont (Tur.) st. 
Hellevoetsluis, hel'le-vbt-slois (Neth.) 
Helmbrechts, helm'bre6hts (Ger.) 
Helmund, hel'mund (Afg.) r. 
Helsingborg, hal'seng-borg (Swe.) 
Helsingfors, hal'seng-foi-s (Riis.) 
Helsingor, hal'seng-eur(Den.) 
Helvellyn, hel-veHin (Eng.) 
Hemixen, ha-mek'sen (Bel.) 
Hemmingsted, hem'eng-sted (Den.) 
Hengelo, heng'e-16 (Neth.) 
Henley, henli (Eng.) 
Henlopen, hen-16'pen (U. S.) c. 
Hennebont, hen-bon'(Fr.) 
Hennepin, hen'ne-pin (U. S.) 
Henrico, hen-ri'ko (U. S.) 
Heraclea, he-ra-kle'a (Tur.) 
Herat, he-rat' (Afg.) 
H^rault, a-ro'(Fr.) 
Herbolzheim, har'bolts-lura (Ger.) 
Hereford, he're-ford (Eng.) 
Herencia, e-ren'the-a (Sp. ) 
Herenfhals, ha'ren-tiils ?Bel.) 
H^ricourt, a-ra-kbi-' (Fr._) 
Herisau, ha're-zou (Switz.) 
Herjedalen, her'ye-da-len (Swe.) 
Hermann, her-manle (Bulg. ) 
Hermannstadt, her'man-stat (Aust.) 
Hermanos, Dos, dos er-ma'nos (Venez.) 

Hemad, her-nod' (Hung.) r. 
Hemani, er-na'ne (Sp.) 
HemosaHd, har'neu-san (Swe.) 
Herrera, er-re'ra (Sp. ) 
Hermhut, hern'hot (Ger.) 
Hertford, h6rt'ford or har'ford (Eng.); 

h6rt'ford (U. S.) 
Hertogenboscn, her-t6'gen-bos<ih 

Herzeele, har-zale (Neth.) 
Herzegowina, herts-e-go-ve'na (Tur.) 
Herzogenbuschsee, har-tsog'cn-bdsh-za 

Hesain, as-daft' (Fr.) 
Hesse-Darmstadt, hes-se-darm'stat; 

German, Hessen - darnistadt, hes- 

sen-diirm'stat (Ger.) 
Hessleholm, hes'le-holm (Swe.) 
Heubach, hofbadh (Ger.) 
Heusden, hetis'den (Neth.) 
Heves, ha'vesh (Hung.) 
Hexham, heks'am (Eng.) 
fleyst, hist (Belg.) 
Heytesbury, hats'be-ri (Eng.) 
Hibiappaba, e-be-ap-pa'ba (Braz.) 

Hidegkut, he-dag'kut (Hung.) 
Hidveg, hed'veg (Hung.) 
Hierapolis, hi-e-rap'o-lia (Tur.) 
Hiferes, e-ar'(Fr.) 
Higuera, e-ge'ra (Sp.) 
Higuey, e-ga' (Hayti) 
Hilaire, St., san-te-lar' (Fr.) 
Hildburghausen, held'bbrg-houz-en 

Hildesheim, hel'des-him (Ger. ) 
Himalaya, he-mala-ya; popularly, him- 

a-la'ya (Ind.) mt. 
Hindeloopen, hin-de-lo'pen (Neth.) 
Hindden, hen'deu-en (Nor.) isl. 
Hingham, hing'am (U. S.) 
Hinojosa, e-no-6h6'sa (Sp.) 
Hiogo, he-o'go (Jap.) 
Hippolyte, ep-p6-let' (Fr.) 
Hispaniola, es-pa-nS-o'la (W. Ind.) 
Hjarnde, yar'neii-e (Den.) isl. 
Hjelmar, yel'mar (Swe.) I. 
Hjorring, yeurtng (Den.) 
Hlassa, hlas'sa (Tibet) 
Hoang-Ho, ho-ang-ho' almost hwang- 

ho' (As.) 
Hoboken, ho-bo'ken (U. S.) 
Hochheim. hofih'him (Ger.) 
Hdchst, heudhst (Ger.) 
Hdchstadt, hetiCh'stat (Ger.) 
Hochstetten, h66h'stet-ten (Switz.) 
floddesdon, hodz'don (Eng.) 
Hodeida, h6-da'e-da(Ar.) 
Hoevelaken, ho've-la-ken (Neth.) 
Hohenlinden, ho'en-len-den (Ger.) 
Hohenlohe, ho'en-lo-e (Ger.) 
Hohenstaufen, ho'en-stou-fen (Ger.) 
Hohenzollern, ho-en-tsollern (Ger.) 
Hokitika, ho-ki-t6'ka(N. Zd.) 
Holcar, hol-k^r' (Ind.) 
Hold-Mezd-Vasarhely, hold-me-zeu-va- 

shar-haly' (Hung.) 
Holmestrand, hol'me-stran (Swe.) 
Holstebrd, hol'sta-breti (Den.) 
Holsteln, hol'stin (Ger.) 
Holyliead, liol'i-hed (Wales) 
Holywell, hol'i-wel (Wales) 
Hombori, hom'bo-re (Af.) mts. 
Homburg, hom'bdrg (Ger.) 
Ho-nan, ho-nan' (China) 
Honduras, hon-dd'ras ; Span. pron. on- 

dd-ras' (Cent. Am.) 
Honeoye, hon-e-oi' (U. S.) 
Honfleur, h6fi-fletir'(Fr.) 
Hong-kong, hong-kong' (China) 
Honiton, hon'i-ton (Eng.) 
Honolulu, ho-no-ld'ld (Sand. Isls.) 
Honrubia, 6n-rd'be-a (Sp.) 
Honth, hont (Hung.) 
Hoofdplaat, hoft'plat (Neth.) 
Hoogeveen, ho'ge-van (Neth.) 

zb, azure. 

French, vde, blit; bl^, netif ; 1x, on, 

Qerman, ch, n&cht. 




Hooghly, hog'll (Ind.) 

Hoogstraeten, h6g-8tra'ten(Bel.) 

Hoonan, ho-nan' (China) 

Hoom, horn (Neth.) 

Horazdiowitz, ho-raz'dyo-v5ts (Bohem.) 

Horcajo, 6r-ka'6ho (Sp.) 

Hormigas, 6r-me'gas (Sp.) isl. 

Hornachos, or-na'chos (Sp.) 

Hornburg, hSrn'bbrg (Ger.) 

Hornli, horn'lg (Switz.) 

Hornsea, horn'sS (Eng.) 

Horsens, hor'sens (Den.) 

Horsham, hors'am (Eng.) 

Hostoraitz, hos'to-mets (Bohem.) 

Hoszszu, hos'so (Hung.) 

Hoszu, ho'so (Hung.) 

Hotellerie, o-tel-re' (Fr.) isl. 

Hottentot, hot'ten-tot (Af.) tr. 

Hotzenplotz, ho'tsen-plots (Aust.) 

Houat, b-a' (Fr.) isl. 

Houdan, o-doii'(Fr.) 

Houdeng, hb-doh' (Bel.) 

Houghton - le-Spring, ho'ton-le-spring 

Hounslow, hounz'16 (Eng.) 
Houpe, ho-pa' (China) 
Housatonic, hb-sa-ton'ik (U. S.) 
Houssa, hous'sa (Af.) 
Houtman's Abrolhos, hout'manz a-bro'- 

lyos (Austral.) isls. 
Howick, hou'ik (Eng.) 
Howth, both (Ir.) 
Hbxter, heuks'ter (Ger.) 
Hoya, ho'ya (Ger.) 
Hoyerswerda, ho-yer-zvar'da (Prus.) 
Hradisch, hra'desh (Aust.) 
Huachipas, wa-che-pas' (Peru) 
Huaheine, hb-a-hi'ne (Pac. Oc.) 
Huallaga, wal-lya'ga (Peru) r. 
Huamachuco, wa-ma-chb'ko (Peru) 
Huancavelica, wan-ka-ve-le'ka (Peru) 
Huanuco, wa-nb'kb (Peru) 
Huaqui, wa'ke (Mex.) r. 
Huari, wa-re' (Peru) 
Huasco, was'ko (Chile) 
Huddersfield, hud'd6rz-feld (Eng.) 
Hudiksvall, hb'deks-val (Swe.) 
Hu6, hb-a'; almost hwa (Anam) 
Huelma, wel'ma (Sp.) 
Huelva, wel'va (Sp.) 
Huen or Hveen, hu-an' or van (Den.) 

Huercalobera, wer-kS-lo-be'rll (Sp.) 
Huerta, wei-'ta (Sp.) 
Huesca, wes'ka (Sp.) 
Huescar, wes-kar' (Sp.) 
Hulme, hy6m (Eng.) 
Humber, hum'b6r (Eng.) 
Humboldt, hum'bolt (U. S.) 

Humpoletz, hum'pb-lets (Bohem.) 
Hundsruck, hbndz'rtik (Ger.) mts. 
Hungerford, hung'ger-ford (Eng.) 
Huntingdon, hun'ting-don (Eng.) 
Hurdwar, hurd-wai"' (Ind.) 
Huron, hyb'ron (N. Am.) I. 
Hurrur, hur'rur (Af.) 
Hussingabad, hus-sing-ga-bad' (Ind.) 
Husura, hb'sbra (Den.) 
Huy, Flem. pron. hoi ; French pron. 

u-e' (Bel.) 
Hvaloen, va'leun (Nor.) 
Hvita, ve'ta (Iceld.) 
Hyderabad, hi-de-ra-bad' (Ind) 
Hydra, hi'dra (Gr.) isl. 
Hyferes, e-ai-' (Fr.) 
Hythe, hilH (Eng.) 

lana, ya'na(Sib.)r. 

Ibach, e'hMh (Switz.) 

Ibague, e-ba'ge (Col.) 

Ibbenbiiren, eb-ben-btl'ren (Ger.) 

Ibiapaba, e-be-a-pa'ba (Braz.) mt. 

Ibicui, e-be-kwe' (S. Am.) r. 

Ibrahim, eb-ra-hem' (As. Tur.) r. 

Ibraila, e-bra-g'la (Roum.) 

Icana, e-ka'na (Braz.) r. 

Icaque, e-ka'ke (Trinid.) c 

Ichaboe, ik'a-bo (Af. ) isl. 

Icolmkill, e-kom-kil' (Scot.) 

Idaho, i'da-ho (U. S.) 

Idanha, e-da'nya (Port.) 

Iddah, ed'dah (W. Af.) 

Idria, e'dre-a (Aust.) 


lelagoui, ya la-gb'e (Sib.) r. 

Igal, e-gal' (Aust). 

Igarape, e-ga-ra'pa (Braz.) 

Igatimi, e-ga-te'me (S. Am.) 

Iglau, S'glou (Aust.) 

Iglesias, g-glVse-as (It.) 

IguaQU, e-gvva'sb (Braz.) 

Igualada, e-gwa-la'THa (Sp.) 

Igumen, g-gb-men' (Rus.) 

Ij, i (Neth.) 

Ijma, Szh'ma (Rus.) r. 

Ijssel, is'scl (Neth.) r. 

Hay, gli (Peru) 

Ilchester, il'ches-t6r (Eng.) 

Ildefonso, San, san el-de-fon'so (Sp.) 

Ilfracombe, il'fra-kbm (Eng. ) 

llha Grande, el'ya gran'da (Braz.) 

Hi, g-le'(As.)r. 

Ilkeston, il'kes-ton (Eng.) 

Illanon, gl-ia-non' (Philip.) b. 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; n6te, not, mbve; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go; j,joh; y, yes; tH, then; th, thin; 





Illasi, Sl-la'se (It.) 

lUawarra, il-la-war'ra (AustraL) 

Ille, el (Fr.) 

Ille et Vilaine, 61 a vg-lan' (Fr.) dep. 

Iller, el'ler (Ger.) r. 

Illescas, el-iyes-kas' (Sp.) 

Illimani,el-ye-ina'ne(Bol.) mt. 

Illinois, il-li-uois' or il-li-noi' (U. S.) 

lUora, el-lyo'ra (Sp.) 

Illyria, il-li'ri-a (Aust.) 

Ilm, elm (Ger.)r. 

Ilraen, il'nien (Rus.) 

Ilmenau, el'me-nou (Ger.) 

Ilminster, il'min-ster (Eng.) 

Ilz, gits (Ger.) 

Imandra, e-niiin'dra (Rus.) I. 

Imbabura, eru-ba-bo'ra (Ecuad.) 

Imerethi or Imeritia, e-ma-ra'ts, im- 

6r-ish'i-a (Transcauc.) 
Imola, e'mo-lft (It.) 
Inagua, e-ua'gwa (Bahamas) isl. 
Inchiquin, insh'i-kwin (Ir.) 
Incisa, en-che'za (It.) 
Indals-Elf, 6n'dalz-elf (Swe.) 
Indiana, in-di-an'a (U. S.) 
Indore, in-d6i-'(Ind.) 
Indre, afi'dr (Fr.) r. 
Indre et Loire, afi'dr a Iw^r (Fr.) 
Indus, in'dus (Ind.) r. 
Ineboli, e-na-bo'le (Tur.) 
Ingendohl, eng'cn-dol (Switz.) 
Ingleborough, ing'gl-bu-ru (Eng ) mt. 
Ingoda, en-go'da (As.) r. 
Ingoldstadt, eng'old-stat (Bav.) 
Ingouville, aft-go-ver(Fr.) 
Inhambane, en-yam-ba'na (E. Af.) 
Inhauma, 6n-you'ma (Braz.) 
Iniesta, g-ne-es'ta (Sp.) 
Inkerman, IngTcgr-man (Rus.) val. 
Inn, Sn (Aust.; Ger.; Switz.) r. 
Innerleithen, in-ngr-le'THen (Scot.) 
Innspruck, Sns'prok (Aust.^ 
Inowrazlaw, e-nov-rats'lav (Prus.) 
Interlaken, en-ter-laTtcn (Switz.) 
Inverary, in-v6-ra'ri (Scot.) 
Inverkeithing, in-v6r-k6TH'ing (Scot.) 
lona, !-o'na(Scot.) 
Iowa, i'6-wa (U. S.) 
Ipanema, 6-pa-na'ma (Braz.) 
Ipsambool, 6p-8iim-boV (Nubia) 
Ipswich, ips'wich (Eng.) 
Iquiiiue, 6-k6'ke (Chile) 
Iraja. 6 la zha (Braz.) 
Irak Ajenii, Crak aj'e-mS (Per.) 
Irak Arabi, frak ar'a-bs (As. Tur.) 
Irasu, 6-rii-sb' (Cent. Am.) vole. 
Iredell, ir'del (u. S.) 
Ir^h, 5-rag' (Hung.) 
Irkutsk, gr-k6t8k'7Sib.) 
Iroquois, i-ro-kwoi' (N. Am.) 

Irrawaddy, er-ra-wad'di (Bur.) 

Irtish, er-tgsh' (Sib.) 

Irvine, 6r'vin (Scot.) 

Isakchi, e-sak'che (Roum.) 

Isamal, e-sa-mai' (Mex.) 

Ischia, es'ke-a (It.) isl. 

Ischim, ish-em'(Sib.) r. 

Isefiord, e'sa-fyor (Den.) 

Iseo, g-sa'6 (It.) 

Iserlohn, e'zer-lon (Ger.) 

Isemia, e-sar'ne-a (It.) 

Isidoro, g-se-do'ro (Mex.) 

Isigny, g-sg-nye'(J'r.) 

Isili, e-sgle (Sardin.) 

Iskanderieh, is-kan-de-re'e (As. Tur.; 

Iskelib, 6s'ke-leb(Tur.) 
Islamabad, es-lam-a-bad' (Ind.) 
Islay, na(Scot.) isl. 
Islington, iz'llng-ton (Eng.) 
Ismail, es-nia-el' (Rus.) 
Ismailia, es-ma-e'ie-a 
Isnik, gz-ngk' (Tur.) 
Isola, e's6-la (It.) 
Ispahan, es-pa-han' (Per.) 
Issoudun, gs-so-duh' (Fr.) 
Issyk-kul, is'sek-kol (Sib.) 
Istalif, gs-ta-lef'(Afg.) 
Istria, is'tre-a (Aust.) 
Itacolumi, g-ta-ko-lb'mg (Braz.) mts. 
Itamaraca, g-ta-ma-ra-ka' (Braz.) isl. 
Itaparica, e-ta-pa-rGTca (Braz.) isl. 
Itapicuru, e-ta-pe-ko-rb' (Braz.) r. 
Itaqueira, g-ta-ka'e-ra (Braz.) mt. 
Itatiaiossu, S-ta-te-i-os'so (Braz.) 
Itawamba, it-a-wom'ba (U. S.) 
Ithaca, ith'a-ka (Gr. ; U. S.) 
Ithaki, ith'a-kg (Gr.) 
Iturup, e-to-rbp'(N. Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Itzehoe, et'sa-hd (Ger.) 
Ivanovo, e-vano'vo (Rus.) 
Ives, St., sant, colloquially sint ivz 

Ivi<;a, e've-sa (Sp.) isl. 
Ivinghoe, i'ving-ho (Eng.) 
Ivrea, ev-ra'ii (It.) 
Ixelles, ik-sel' (Bel.) 
Izamal, c-sa-mal' (Mex.) 
Iznajar, eth-na-(Miar' (Sp.) 


Jablonec, ya-blo-nets' (Bohem.) 
Jablonka, ya-blon'ko (Hung.) 
Jabugo, El, el 6ha-bb'gd (Sp.) 
Jacarehi, zha-ka-ra'g (Braz.) 
Jacinto, San, san ]a-sin'td (U. S.) 

zh, azure. French, vfte, btit; bleu, ne'uf; h, on. 

German, ch, nacAt. 




Jacniel or Jacquemel, zhak-mel' 

Jadraque, 6ha-dra'ke (Sp.) 
Jaen, 6M-en' (Sp.) 
Jagerndorf, ya'gern-dorf (Aust.) 
Jaguaribe, zha-gwa-re'ba (Braz.) r. 
Jahde, yah'de (Ger.) r. 
Jahicos, zha-e'kos (Braz.) 
Jalapa, 6ha-la'pa (Mex.) 
Jalisco, 6ha-les'k6 (Mex.) 
Jamaica, ja-ma'ka, isl. 
Jarau, ju-mo' (Ind.) 
Janina or Yanina, ya'ne-na (Tur.) 
Jan Mayen, yan mi'en (Arc. Oc.) isl. 
Japan, ja-pan' (As.) 
Japura, ya-po'ra (S. Am.) r. 
Jaraicejo, 6ha-ra-e-the'ch6 (Sp.) 
Jarama, 6ha-ra'ma (Sp.) r. 
Jardinillos, char-de-nel'lyos (Cuba) 

Jaromirz, ya'ro-merts (Bohem.) 
Jaroslav, ya'ro-slav (Rus.) r. 
Jassy, yas'se fRoum.) 
Jastrow, yas'tro (Prus.) 
Jaszbereny, yas-ba-rany' (Hung.) 
Jauja, 6hou'6ha (Peru) 
Java, ja'va (East Arch.) isl. 
Javari, ya-va-re'(Braz.) 
Jawana, jii-va'na (Java) 
Jean d'Angely, St., san zhon dofizh-le' 

Jean de Luz, St., san zhon de IQz (Fr.) 
Jedburgh, jed'bu-ru (Scot.) 
Jedo, ye'do (Jap.) 
Jelalabad, jel-al-a-bad'(Afg.) 
Jelatma, ye-lat'ma (Rus.) 
Jemilah, je-me'la (Alg. ) 
Jemtland, yemt'land (Swe.) 
Jenne, jen'ne (W. Af.) 
Jequitinhonha, zha-ke-te-nyo'nya 

(Braz.) r. 
Jerahi, je-ra'he (Per.) r. 
Jerez de la Frontera, Cher-eth' de la 

fron-te'ra (Sp.) 
Jerica, che-re'ka (Sp.) 
Jersey, j6r'zi (Chan. Isls.) 
Jessulmeer, jes-sul-mer' (Ind.) 
Jeypoor, ji-por' (Ind.) 
Jezairi - bahri - Sefld, je-zi're-ba'hri-sa' 

fed (Tur.) 
Jezireh-ibn-Omar, ja-ze'reh-ebn-6-mar' 

Jhalavan, jha'la-van (Beluch.) 
Jijona, dhe-Cho'na (Sp.) 
Jimena, 6he-me'na (Sp.) 
Jitomir, zhit'6-mer (Rus.) 
Joachirasthal, yo'a-ehems-tal (Bohem.) 
Joao, Sao, souh zho-oufi' (Port.) 
Joaquin, San, san wa-ken' (Calif or.) 

JcBtun Fjelil, yeut'ftn fyel (Nor.) 
Johannesburg, jo-han'es-burg (S. .^f.) 
Johannisberg, yo-han'nes-berg (Prus.) 
Johore, jo-hoi-' (Mai. Pen.) 
Joinville, zhwaii-vel' (Fr.) 
Joliba, jol'i-ba(Af.)r. 
Jonkjdping, yeun-tyelip'ing (Swe.) 
Joodpoor, jod-por' (Ind.) 
Joonaghur, jb-na-gur'(Ind.) 
Jorquera, 6hor-ke'ra (Sp.) 
Jorullo, ch6-ro'lyo(Mex.) 
Jostedalsbrse, yos'te-dalz-bra (Nor.) 
Jouf, EI, el jbf (Af.) 
Joug, yog (Rus. ) r. 
Joure, you're (Neth.) 
Joyeuse, zhwa-ye1lz' (Fr.) 
Juan, San, san dhy-an' (Arg. Con.) 
Juan Fernandez, ju'an f6r-Tian'dez; Sp. 

pron. 6hu-an' fer-nan'deth (S. Am.) 

Jubbulpoor, jub-bul-por' (Ind.) 
Jucar, 6hb-kar' (Sp.) 
JugduUuk, jug-dul'luk (Afg.) 
Juggernauth, jng'ger-iiat (Ind.) 
Jujuy 6hb-6hwe' (Arg. Con.) 
Juliers, zhfi-le-a' (Ger."^ 
Julunder, ]u'lun-d6r (Ind.) 
Juniifeges, zhii-me-azh'(Fr.) 
Jumilla, 6h6-me'lya (Sp.) 
Jumna, jum'na (Ind.) r. 
Jumnoutri, jum-nb'tri (Ind.) 
Junee, ju-ne' (N. S. W.) 
Jungfrau, ybng'frou (Switz.) mt, 
Junin, 6ho-n6n' (Peru) 
Jura, jo'ra (Scot.) isl. 
Jura, zha-ra' (Fr.) dep. 
Jura, yb'ra (Switz.) mts. 
Juruena, zhb-rij-a'na (Braz.) r. 
Jutay, dho'ti (S. Am.) r. 
Jutland (Anglicized form of Danish 

Jylland), Jutland (Den.) 
Jylland, yftl'lan (Den.) 
Jynteah, jin'te-S (Ind.) 


Kaagoe, ko'geu-e (Nor.) isl. 
Kabardah, ka-bar'da (Rus.) 
Kabool, Kabul, ka'bul (Afg.) 
Kacunda, ka-kun'da (W. Af. ) 
Kadjang, kad-jang' (Celebes) 
Kadoe, ka-db' (Java) 
Kafiristan, ka-fe-res-tan' (Cent. As.) 
Kahira, ka'he-ra (Eg. ) 
Kaifung, ki-f ung' (China) 
Kainsk, ka-ensk' (Sib.) 
Kaira, ka'e-ra (Ind.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, her, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go\ j, job; y, yes; TH, Wien; th, tAin; 





Kairwan, kir-wan' (Af.) 
Kaisarieh, ki-sa-re'e (Tur.) 
Kaiserslautern, ki-zerz-lou'tem (Ger.) 
Kaiserstuhl, ki'zer-stol (Switz.) 
Kaiserswbrth, ki'zerz-vetirt (Ger.) 
Kalabsheh, ka-lab'she (Nubia) 
Kalafat, ka-la-fat' (Roum.) 
Kalamaki, ka-ia-ma'ke (As. Tur.) b. 
Kalamazoo, ka-la-ma-zo' (U. S.) 
Kalamita, ka-la-me'ta (Black Sea) b. 
Kalantan, ka-lan-tan' (Mai. Pen.) 
Kalavrita, ka-lav-re'ta (Gr.) 
Kalgujev, kal-go-yef (Rus.) isl. 
Kalimno, ka-lim'no (Gr.) isL 
Kalisch, ka'lesh (Rus.) 
Kalisz, ka'lesh (Rus.) 
Kalmar, kal-mai-' (Swe.) 
Kaltbrunnen, kalt-brdn'en (Switz.) 
Kaluga, ka-lo'ga (Rus.) 
Kalusz, kalosh (Aust. Gal.) 
Kama, ka'ma (Rus.) r. 
Kaniaran, ka-ma'ran (Red Sea) isl 
Kamenaia-Ba, ka-ma-na'ya-ba (Rus.) 
Kamenetz, ka'ma-nets (Rus.) 
Kamenitz, ka'ma-nets (Bohem.;Hung.) 
Kamenskoi, ka-men'sko-e (Rus.) 
Kamieniec, kam-yen'yets (Rus.) 
Kamishin, ka-me'shen (Rus.) 
Kamoe, kaTneu-e (Nor.) isl. 
Kamouraska, ka-mo-ras'ka (Can.) 
Kampen, kam'pen (Den.) 
Kamtchatka, kam-chat'ka (As.) 
Kanaga, ka-na'ga (Aleut. Isls.) 
Kanagawa, ka-na-ga'wa (Japan) 
Kanawha, ka-na.'wa(U. S.) 
Kanchinjinga, kun'chin-jing"ga (As.) 

Kan-chow, kan-chou' (China) 
Kandabou, kan-da-bo' (Fiji Isls.) 
Kandahar, kan-da-har' (Afg.) 
Kandalaska, kan-da-las'ka (Rus.) 
Kandersteg, kan'der-steg (Switz.) 
Kandy, kan'di fCeylon) 
Kangelang, kang-ge-lang' (East. Arch.) 

Kania, ka'ne-arW. Af.) 
Kanisa, ka-ne'sha (Hung.) 
Kankari, kan'ka-re (Tur.) 
Kan-kiang, kan-ki-ang' (China) r. 
Kannagherry, kan'na-ge-ri (Ind.) 
Kano, ka-no' (Cent. Af.) 
Kanoje, ka'noj (Ind.) 
Kansas, kan'zas (U. S.) 
Kansoo, kan-sb' (China) 
Kantalicounda, kan-ta-le-k5n'da (W. 

Kantavu, kan-ta-vb' (Fiji Isls.) 
Kanturk, kan-t6rk' (Ir.) 
Kaobangtran, ka-6-bang-tran', almost 

kou-bang-tran' (Ao&m.) 

Kapricio, ka-prs'se-o (Tur.) 

Kara, ka'ra (Rus.) r. 

Karabashle, ka-ra-bashla (Tur.) 

Karabaugh, ka-ra-bag' (Transcauc.) 

Kara-Dagh, ka-ra'dag (Tur. in Eur. and 
As.) mis. 

Karaghinsky, ka-ra-g6n'sks (Sib.) isl. 

Kara Hissar, ka-ra'hes-sar' (Tur.) 

Karakal, ka-ra-kal' (Roum.) 

Karakoram Pass, ka-ra-ko'rum pas 
(Cent. As.) 

Karaman, ka-ra-man' (As. Tur.) 

Karamania, ka-ra-ma'ne-a (As. Tur. ) 

Karang-asam, ka-rang'a-sani (East. 

Karansebes, kor-on-sha-besh' (Hung.) 

Kara-Su, Karasou, ka-ra'so" (Rus. and 
As.) r. 

Karateghin, ka-ra-te-gen' (Cent. As.) 

Karaula, ka-rala (N. S. W) r. 

Kardszag, kord-sog' (Hung.) 

Karikal, ka're-kal (Ind.) 

Karleby Gamla (kar'le-btt gam 'la 

Karlova, kar-16'va(Hung.) 

Karlstadt, karl'stat (Ger.) 

Karoly, ka-roly' rHung.) 

Karroos, kar-rbz' (S. Af.) 

Kasan, ka-zan' (Rus.) 

Kaschau, kash'au (Hung.) 

Kashan, ka-shan' (Per.) 

Kaskaskia, kas-kas'ki-a (U. S.) 

Kasmark, kash'mark (Hung.) 

Kassa, kosh'sho (Hung.) 

Kastamuni, kas-ta-mo'ng (As. Tur.) 

Kastrikum, kast'ri-kum (Neth.) 

Katagum, ka'ta-gom (Cent. Af.) 

Katahdin, ka-tah'din (U. S.) mt. 

Katrine, Loch, lo6h kat'rin (Scot.) 

Katsena, kat-se'na (Cent. Af.) 

Kattegat, kat'te-gat (N. Sea) 

Katunga, ka-ton'ga (W. Af.) 

Katwijk, kat'vik (Neth.) 

Kauai, kou'I (Sand. Isls.) isl. 

Kaufbeuren, kouf-boi'ren (Ger.) 

Kautokeino, kou-to-ka'e-no (Nor.) 

Kavala, ka-va'la (Tur.) 

Kayserberg, ki'z6r-berg (Fr.) 

Kazan, ka-zan' (Rus.) 

Kazbek, kaz-bek' (Rus.) mt. 

Kazeroun, ka'ze-rbn (Per.) 

Kealakeakua, ka-a'la-ka-a-kb"a (Ha- 
waii) b. 

Kebir, El, el ke-b6r' (Tunis) 

Kecskemet, kech-ke-met'(Hung.) 

Kediri, ka-dg'r6 (Java) 

Keewatin, ke-wa'tin (Can.) 

Keighley. kSth'li (Eng.) 

Keiskamma, kis-kam'ma (S. Af.) r. 

Kelat, ke-iat' (As.) 

zh, azure. 

French, vfte, bQt; bltiti, neuf ; 

b, on. German, ch, n&cht. 




Keneh, ken'e (Eg.) 
Kenia, ke-ne'a (Af.) ynt. 
Kennebec, ken-ne-bek' (U. S.) 
Kennebunk, keu-ne-bungk' (U. S.) 
Kentucky, ken-tuk'i (U. S.) 
Kenzingen, ken'tsing-en (Ger.) 
Keokuk, ke'o-kuk (U. S.) 
Kerah, ka'ra (Per.) 
Kerbela, ker-ba'la (As. Tur.) 
Kerguelen, kSr'ge-len (Ind. Oc.) Ul. 
Kerkinet, ker'kg-net (Black Sea) g. 
Kerman, ker-mjin' (Per.) 
Kermanshah, ker-man'sha (Per.) 
Kerrera or Kerera, ker're-ra (Scot.) 

Kerry, ke'ri (Ir.) co. 
Kershaw, k6r-sha'(U. S.) 
Keswick, kez'wik or kez'ik (Eng.) 
Keszthely, kest'haly (Hung.) 
Kew, kyo (Eng.) 
Kezdi Vasarhely, kez'de va-shar-haly' 

Khamil, dha-meV (Cent. As.) 
Khamtis, Cham'tSz (East. Pen.) tr. 
Khanpoor, khan-por' (Ind.) 
Kharek, kha'rek (Per.) isl. 
Khargeh, El, el 6hai-'ge (Eg.) 
Kharijeh, El, el 6har'i-]e (Eg.) 
Kharkow, 6har-kof' ( 
Kliarput, 6har-put'(Armen.) 
Khartoom, 6har-tom' (Eg.) 
Khatanga, 6ha-tang'ga (Sib.) 
Khatniaudoo, kat-nian-db' (Ind.) 
Kherson, 6her-son' (Rus.) city 
Khin-gan, 6h6n-gan' (As.) rnt. 
Khiva, dhe'va(Tart.) 
Khodavendikiar, cho - da - ven-d5-kyar' 

(As. Tur.) 
Khojak, 6ho-jak'(Afg.) 
Khojend, 6ho-jend' (As.) j 

Khokand, 6h6-kand'(As.) i 

Khoondooz, 6hbn-dbz' (Cent. As.) 
Khorassan, 6ho-ras-san' (Per.) 
Khotan, 6h6-tan' (Cent. As.) 
Khuzistan, 6hb-ze-stan' (Per.) 
Khyber Pass, ehi'ber pas (Afg.) 
Khyerpoor, khi-er-pbr' (Ind.) 
Kiachta or Kiakhta, ke-a6h'ta (Sib.) 
Kiang-se, ke-ang-se' (China) 
Kiangsoo, ke-ang-sb' (China) 
Kichinev, kish-in-ef (Rus.) 
Kidderminster, kid'der-min-st6r (Eng.) 
Kidwelly, kid-wel'li (Wales) 
Kiel. kel(Prus.) 
Kielce, k5-el'tse(Ilus.) 
Kienlung, k6-en-lung' (Tibet) 
Kiev, ke-yef (Rus.) 
Kilauea, ki-lou-a'a (Sand. Isls.) 
Kilbarchan, kil-bar'6han(Scot.) 

Kildare, kildar' (Ir.) co. 

Kilia, ke'le-a (Rus.) mouth qf the Da- 
nube, ft. 

Kilkee, kil-ke' (Ir.) 

Kilkenny, kil-ken'ni (Ir.) co. 

Killala, kil-la-la' (Ir.) 

Killaloe, kil-la-lb' (Ir.) 

Killarney, kil-Iar'ni (Ir.) 

Killeani, kil-lern' (Scot.) 

Killiecrankie, kil-li-krang^i (Scot.) 

Kilmalcolm or Kilmacolm, kil-nia- 

Kilmarnock, kil-mar'nok (Scot.) 

Kilrush, kil-rush' (Ir.) 

Kilsyth, kil-sith' (Scot.) 

Kimpina, kem-pe'na (Roum.) 

Kincardine, kin-kar'din (Scot.) co. 

Kinphorn, king'horn (Scot.) 

Kingussie, king yn'si (Scot.) 

Kinross, kin-ros' (Scot.) co. 

Kinsale, kin-sal' (Ir.) 

Kin tamo, kin-ta'mo (Af.) 

Kintore, kin-toi"' (Scot.) 

Kintyre, kin-tii-' (Scot.) 

Kinzig, ken'tseih (Ger.) 

Kibge, ke-eti'ga (Den.) b. 

Kiowa, ki'o-wa (U. S.) 
i Kippure, kip'yur (Ir.) int. 

Kiraly, kg-ral/ (Hung.) 

Kirghiz, ker-gfiz' (As.) 

Kirin-oola, ke-ren-b'la (China) 

Kirkby - Lonsdale, kerk - bi - lonz ' dal 

Kirkcaldy, ker-ka'di (Scot.) 

Kirkcudbright, ker-kb'bri (Scot.) 

Kirkebye, ker'ka-btl (Den.) 

Kirkintilloch, kerk-in-til'lo6h (Scot.) 

Kirriemuir, kir-ri-mybi-' (Scot.) 

Kirsanov, ker-sa-nof (Rus.) 

Kishenev, ke-she-nyef (Rua.) 

irtskiminetas, kls-ki-min'e-tas (U. S.) 

Kisliar, kez-le-ai-' (Rus.) 

Kissingen, k6s'ing-en (CJer.) 

Kitzbiihel, kets'bO-el (Aust.) 

Kiung-chau-fu, ke-ung-chou-fb' (China) 

Kiusiu, ke-b'se-b" (Jap.) isl. 

Kixim, kek'sem (Rus.)2><. 

Kiyoto, ke-yo'to (Jap.) 

Kizil Irmak, kiz'il er-mak' (Tur.) r. 

Kizliar, kez-le-ar' (Rus.) 

Kjallerup, kyal'le-riip (Den.) 

Kjeletz, kyel'ets (Rus.) 

Kjerteminde, kyer-te-men'de (Den.) 

Kjbbenhavn, kyeti'ben-hafen (Den.) 

Klagenfurt, kla'gen-furt (Aust ) 

Klamath, kla'mat (U.S.) 

Klausenburg, klou zen-bbrg (Transyl.) 

Klausthal, klous'tal (Ger.) 

Kloppenburg, klop'pen-bbrg<Ger.) 

Fate, far, fat, fftU; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, poiind; oh, c^ain; g, go\ j, job; y, yes; th, f^en; th, t^in; 





KloBterneuburg, kl6s-ter-noi'b5rg 

Klundert, klun'dert (Xeth.) 

Knaresboroiigh, narz'bu-iu (Eng.) 

Knesaelaere, knes-se-la'ra (Bel.) 

Knockmeledown, nok-mel'e-doun (Ir.) 

Knottingley, not'ing-li (Eng.) 

Knutsford, nuts'ford (Eng.) 

Kobbe, kob'bS (Cent. Af.) 

Kobenhavn, kyeli'ben-hafen (Den.) 

Kobryn, k6-bren' (Rus.) 

Kochem, ko6h'em (Ger.) 

Koedijk, ko'dik (Neth.) 

Koeichoo, ko-a-cho'; almost kwa-cho' 

Koenigsberg, ketin'egz-berg (Ger.) 

Koevorden, ko'vor-den (Neth.) 

Kohat, ko-hat' (Ind.) 

Kohistan, ko-hSs-tan' (Beluch.) 

Kokan, ko-kau' (Cent. As.) 

Kokel, ko'kel (Transyl.) 

Koko-nor, ko-ko-nor' (China) 

Kokura, ko-ko'ra (Jap.) 

Koladyne, kol'a-din (Bur.) 

Kolby, kol'ba(Den.) 

Kolliken, keiUae-keu (Switz.) 

Koln, keuln (Ger.) 

Kolobeng, kol-o-beng' (Af.) 

Kolokythia, ko-lo-ki-the'a (Gr.) 

Kolomea, k6-16-nia'a (Aust.) 

Kolozsvar, kol-osh-vir' (Transyl.) 

Kolyma, k6'le-ma (Sib.) r. 

Komlos, kom-losh' (Hung.) 

Komorn, k5-m6rn'(Hung.) 

Kongelf, kong'elf (Nor.) 

Konia, ko'nS-a (As. Mi.) 

Konieh, k6'ne-e (As. Mi.) 

Koniggratz, keii'neg-grets (Bohem.) 

Kbuigsberg, keu'nSgz-berg (Ger.) 

Kbnigsee, keii'n6g-za (Ger.) 

Kbnigstein, keu'neg-stin (Ger.) 

Kbnigs winter, keu'nggz-ven-ter (Ger.) 

Konotop, k6'n6-top (Rus.) 

Konstantinograd, kon-stan-tS-no-grad' 

Konstanz, kSn'stants (Ger.) 

Koomeshah, ko-me-sha' (Per.) 

Koordistan, kbr-dis-tan' (Per.) 

Kooria Mooria, kO'ri-a mo'ri-a (Arab. 
Sea) igls. 

Kootenay, ko'te-na (Brit. Col.) 

Kooweerup, ko'we-ryp (Austral.) I. 

Kopreinitz, ko-pri'ngts (Aust.) 

Korana, kO-ra'na (Aust.) r. 

Eoranganiite, ko - rang 'ga- met (Aus- 
tral.) I. 

Kordofan, kor-do-fan' (Af.) 

Korenicsa, ko-ra-ne'cha (Croat.) 

Komeuberg, kSr'noi-berg (Aust.) 

Koronika, ko-ro-ue'ka (Rus.) 

Kororareka, ko-ro-ra-ra'ka (N. Zd.) b. 

Koros, keti-retish' (Hung.) 

Korsabad, kor-sa-bad' (Tur.) 

Korsor, kOr'stJtir (Den.) 

Korvai, kor-va'6 (N. Zd.) 

Kosciusko, kos-i-us'ko (U. S.; Austral.) 

Kosel, k6'zel (Ger.) 

Kosfeld, kehz'felt (Ger.) 

Koshtan-tau, kosh'tan-tou (Cauc.) mt 

Kosima, ko'se-ma (Jap.) 

Koslin, keuz'lgn (Ger.) 

Koslow, kos-lof (Rus.^ 

Kosseir, kos-sa'5r (Eg.) 

Kossovo, kos-86'v6 (Tur.) 

Kosteletz, kos'te-lets (Bohem.) 


Kotelnitsch, ko-tel-nSch' (Rus.) 

Kbthen, keu'ten (Ger.) 

Kotzebue Sound, kot'ze-byu sound 

Kouban, ko-ban' (Rus.) r. and I. 
Koubinskoe, kb-ben'sk5-a (Rus.) 
Kouche, kb'cha (Turkestan) 
Koudekerke, kou'de-ker-ke (Neth.) 
Kouenlun, ko-en-lun' (Cent. As.) rnts. 
Kouka, koTca (Af .) 
Koukou-Khoto, kb-ko-6ho't6 (Mong.) 
Koulfo, kol'fo (W. Af.) 
Kouloi, koao-g (Rus.) r. 
Koursk, kOrsk (Rus.) 
Koushan, ko-shan' (As.) 
Koutayeh, kb-ti'ye (As. Mi.) 
Kovitska, k6-vets'ka (Rus.) b. 
Kowno, kov'no (Rus.) 
Kozlov, koz-lof (Rus.) 
Krabbendijke, krablben-di-ke (Neth.) 
Krageroe, kra'ge-reu-e (Nor.) 
Kragujevatz or Kraguyevatz, kr&-go- 

ya'vats (Servia) 
Krajova, kra-yo'va (Roum.) 
Krakow, kra'kou (Aust.) 
Kranenburg, kra'nen-bbrg (Ger.) 
Kranichfeld, kra'nedh-felt (Ger.) 
Krasnoe-selo, kras-no-a-sa'lo (Rus.) 
Krasnoiarsk, kras-no-yarsk' (Sib.) 
Krassova, kra-sho'vo (Hung.) 
Kraszua, kras'na (Hung.) 
Krauchthal, krou6h'tai (Switz.) 
Krautheim, krout'him (Ger.) 
Krefeld, kra'felt (Ger.) 
Krejanovka, kra-ya-nof'ka (Rus.) 
Krementchug, kra-nieu-chbg' (Rus.) 
Krempe, krem'pe (Den.) 
Kreuzburg, kroits'bbrg (Prus.) 
Kreuznach, kroits'nach (Ger.) 
Kriens, kre'ens (Swit.) 
Kronach, kr6'na<ih (Ger.) 
Kronberg, kron'berg (Den.) 
Kronstadt, kron'stat (Transyl. ; Rus.) 


French, vOe, b&t; bleti, neuf; b, on. 

German, th, u&eht. 




Kjotoszyn, kro-to-shen' ^Prus. Pol.) 
Krumenau, krb'me-nou (Switz.) 
Krusenstern, kro'zen-st6m (Pac. Oc.) 

Krylov, kri-lof (Rus. ) 
Kuban, ko-ban' (Rus.) r. 
Kuchuk-Kainarji, ko - chok - ki - nar - jS' 

Kuilenburg, koilen-burg (Neth.) 
Kuiiider, koin'der (Neth.) 
Kukewari, ko-ka-wa'rS (Ind.) r. 
Kul-i-kalan, kul-e-ka-lan' (Cent. As.) I. 
Kuma, ko'ma (Transcauc.) r. 
Kuniaon or Kumaun, ku-mii'on or 

ku-moun' (Ind.) 
Kunashir, ko-na-sher' (Jap.) isl. 
Kunawar, ku-na-war' (Ind.) 
Kunchinjunga, kun-chin-jung'ga (Ind.) 

KUnzelsau, kfin'tsel-zou (Ger.) 
Kuopio, ko-6'pe-o (Rus.) 
Kur, kiir (Tur.) r. 

Kurdistan, kor-dis-tan' (Tur. ; Per.) 
Kuriles, kyvi'rilz (Pac. Oc.) ids. 
Kuriuch-Su, ko-re-och'so (Rus.) r. 
Kurland, kbr'land fRus.) 
Kuro-Sivo, ko'ro-sg v6 (Pac. Oc.) curt. 
Kurrachee, ku-ra'che (Ind.) 
Kurram or Kurrum, kur'rum (Afg.) 
Kurreechane, ku-r§-cha'ne (S. Af.) 
Kurshee, kor-shg' (Cent. As.) 
Kussery, kbs'se-ri (Cent. Af.) 
Kussnacht, kfts'nacht (Switz.) 
Kustenji, kos-ten'js (Tur.) 
Kiistrin, ktls'tren (Prus.) 
Kut, kbt (Tur.) 
Kutais, kb'tis (Rus.) 
Kutaiyeh, ko-ti'ye (Tur.) 
Kutaya, kb-ta'ya (Tur.) 
Kutchuk-Kainar ji, kb-chbk - ki - nar - jS* 

Kuttigen, kttt'ti-gen (Switz.) 
Kyen-dwen, kyen'dwen (Bur.) r. 
Kyritz, ks'rets (Prus.) 
Kyundoung, kyun-dung' (Bur.) 

Laaland, loian (Den.) isl. 
Labiau, laTjg-ou (Prus.) 
Labischiu. la-be'shgn (Prus.) 
Labrador, lab-ra-dor' (N. Am. ; Eng.) 
Labuan, la-bu-an' (East. Arch.) isl. 
Lacantun, la-kan-tun' (Cent. Am.) r. 
Laccadives, lak-a-divz' (Ind. Oc.) isls. 
Lacedogna, la-cha-do'nya (It.) 

Lachen, ia'6hen (Switz.) 
Lachine, ia-sh6n' (Can.) 
Lachlan, la6h'lan (Austral.) 
Lackawannock or Lackawanna, lak-a- 

wau'nuk, lak-a-wan'na (U. S.) 
Lactacunga, lak-ta-kbng'ga (Ecuad.) 
Ladak, la-dak' (Cent. As.) 
Ladany, la-dany' (Hung.) 
Ladoga, lad'o-ga (Rus.) i. 
Ladoga, la-do'ga (U. S.) 
Ladrones, la-dronz' (Pac. Oc.) isls. 
Laeken, la'ken (Bel.) 
Lagan, lag'an (Ir.) r. 
Lagartas, la-gar'tas (Mex.) 
Laggan, lag'gan (Scot.) 
Lagnieu, la-nyg-eu' (Fr.) 
Lagonero, la-go-na'ro (It.) 
Lagos, la'gos (W. Af. ; Sp. ; Mex.) 
Lagosta, la-gos'ta (Aust.) isl. 
Laguna, la-go'na (Mex.) 
Lagunilla, la-go-ue'lya (Sp. ; Venez.) 
Lahadj, la-haj' (Ar.) 
Lahajan, la-ha-jan' (Per.) 
Lahej, la-hej' (Ar.) 
Lahijan, la-he-jan' (Per.) 
Laholm, laTiolm (Swe.) 
Lahore, la-hor' (Ind.) 
Lahul, la-hol' (Ind ) 
Laibach, liljafih (Aust.) 
Lalita-patan, la-le-ta-pa-tan' (Ind.) 
La Mancha, la man'cha (Sp.) 
Lambalamflpa, lam-ba-lam-fe'pa (Af.) 

Lambayeque, lam-ba-ye'ke (Peru) 
Lambesc, lofi-besk' (Fr.) 
Lambeth, lam'beth (Eng.) 
Lamego, la-ma'go (Port.) 
Lamlash, lam-lash' (Scot.) 
Lammermoor, Iam-m6r-m6r' (Scot. )m ts. 
Lamo, la'mo (E. Af.) 
Lamone, la-mo'na (It.) r, 
Lampara, lam-pa'ra (Cent. Am.) I. 
Lampedusa, lam-pa-db'sa (Medit.) isl. 
Lampertheim, lam'pert-him (Ger.) 
Lampeter, lam'pe-t6r (Eng.) 
Lamporecchio, lam-p6-rilk'lce-b (It.) 
Lamsaki, lam'sa-ke (As. Mi.) 
Lanark, lan'ark (Scot.) 
Lancashire, lang'ka-shir or lang'ka- 

Bh6r (Eng.) 
Lancaster, lang'kas-t6r (Eng.) b. 
Lanciano, lan-cha'no (It.) 
Landeron, lofi-de-rbh' (Switz.) 
Landes, lohd (Fr. ) dep. 
Landivisian, lofi-d5-ve-zg-ofi' (Fr.) 
Landrecies, lofi-dr-sg' (Fr.) 
Landriano, lan-dre-a'no (It.) 
Landscrona, lans-kro'na (Swe.) pt. 
Landshut, landzTibt (Ger. ; Prus.) 

Fate, far, fat, fgll; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, mbve; 
tub, bflll; oQ, pound; eh, cfcain; g, go; j,job; y, j/es; TH, then; th, thin; 





Landstuhl, land'stol (Ger.) 
Langeac, lofi-zhak' (Fr.) 
Langeais, loi-zha' (Fr.) 
Langeland, lang'e-lan (Den.) isl. 
Langenaes, lang'e-niiz (Nor.) 
Langenau, lang'e-nou (Ger.) 
Langenbielau, laug-en-belou (Prus.) 
Langenbriicken. lang-en-brtik'en (Ger.) 
Langensalza, lang-en-zal'tsa (Prua.) 
Langenschwalbach, lang-eu-shval'badh 

Langenthal, lang'en-tiil (Swltz.) 
Langholm, lang'om (Scot.) 
Langoen, lang'eu-en (Nor.) isl. 
Langogne, lofi-gon'ye (Fr.) 
Langres, loftgr (Fr.) 
Languedoc, lot-ge-dok' (Fr.) 
Lanjaron, iSn-dha-ron' (Sp.) 
Lanniles, lan-nel' (Fr.) 
Launion, lan-ng-oh' (Fr.) 
Lannoy, laii-nw^' (Fr.) 
Lansingburg, lans'ing-b6i^ (U. S.) 
Lanslebourg, loi'i-le-bbr' (Fr.) 
Lantadilla, lan-ta-TH6l'lya (Sp.) 
Lantwit-Major, lan't wit-nia-jor (Wales) 
Lanusei, la-no-sa'e (Sardin.) 
Lanzarote, lan-sa-ro'ta (Can. Isls.) isl. 
Laon, la-61i'(Fr.) 
Laos, la'os (East. Pen.) 
La Plata, la pla'ta (S. Am.) r. 
Laramie, lar'a-mg (U. S.) 
Laranjeiras, la-rsLn-zha'g-ras (Braz.) 
Largentifere, lar-zhoft-te-ar' (Fr.) 
Larino, la-rs'no (It.) 
Larissa, lil-res'sa (Gr.) 
Laristan, la r5s-tan' (Per.) 
Larkhana, lar-kha'na (Ind.) 
Lame, lam (Ir.) 
Lamica or Lamaca, lar'ni-kK, l&r'na-k& 

Laroles, la-rS'les (Sp.) 
Larraga, lar-ra'ga (Sp.) 
Lasalle. la-zal' (Fr.) 
Lasoe, la'seu-e (Den.) isl. 
Laswaree, las-wa'r6 (Ind.) 
Latakia, la-ta-k6'a(Tur.) 
Laterina, la-ta-r6'na (It.) 
Latorcza. la-tort'so (Hung.) r. 
Lattai, lat-tl' (Fiji Isls.) isl. 
Lattakoo, lat-ta-ko' (S. Af.) 
Laubach, lou'bach (Ger.) 
Lauban, lou'ban (Prus.) 
Lauchstadt, louAh'stat (Oer.) 
Lauderdale, lft'd6r-dal (Scot.) 
Lauenburg, lou'en-b5rg (Ger.) 
Lauffen, louf'fcn (Switz.) 
Laughame, Ift-gar'ne (Wales) 
" la/d 

Laujar-de-Andarax, lou-charde-an-dll- 
I'ton (Eng. ; Tasm.) 

raCh (Sp.) 



Laupersweil, lou'perz-vil (Switz.) 
Lauraguais, lo-ra-ga' (Fr.) 
Laurencekirk, la'rens-k6rk (Scot.) 
Lauricocha, lou-re-ko'cha (Peru) 
Lausanne, lo-zan' (Switz.) 
Lausitz, lou-zets' (Fr.) 
Laut, lout (East. Arch.) 
Lauterbrunnen,lou'ter-brun-en (Switz. 
Lauven, lou'ven (Nor.) r. 
Lauwer Zee, lou'v6r za (Neth.) 
Lavagna, la-va'nya (It.) 
Lavaur, la-vor' (Fr.) 
Lavoro, la-vo'ro (It.) 
Lavos, la'vos (Port.) 
Laxa, la'6ha (Chile) r. 
Laybach, li'baeh (Aust.) 
Lazzaro, San, san lad'za-ro (It.) r. 
Leadhills, led'hilz (Scot.) 
Leamington, lem'ing-ton (Eng.) 
Leao-tong, le-a-6-tong', almost lyou- 

tong' (China) 
Lean, 16 (Bel.) 

Lebanon, leb'a-non (Pal.) mt. 
Lebida, leb'i-da (N. Af.) 
Lebrija, la-bre'6ha (Sp.) 
Lecce, lat'cha (It.) 
Leccio, lat'cho (It.) 
Lechhausen, lefihTiouz-cn (Ger.) 
Lectoure, lak-tor' (Fr.) 
Leczna, lech'na (Rus. PoL 
Ledafia, le-da'nya (Sp.) 
Leende, lan'de (Neth.) 
Leersum, lar'sum (Neth.) 
Leeu warden, la'u-var-den .^lath.) 
Leeuwen, la'u-ven (Bel.) 
Leeuwin's Land, la'u-winz or lyn'ini: 

land (Austral.) 
Leganes, le-ga'nes (Sp.) 
Legnago, la-nya'go (It.) 
Legnano, la-nya'no (It.) 
Lehe, la'e (G^r.) 
Lehigh, leTii (U. S.) 
Lehota, la-ho'to (Hung.) 
Leibnitz, lib'nets (Aust.) 
Leicester, les't6r (Eng.) 
Leiden, li'den (Neth.) 
Leigh, 16 (Eng.) 
Leigh ton, is'ton (U. S.) 
Leighton- Buzzard, la 'ton buz'zUrd 

Leiningen, lin'ing-en (Ger.) 
Leinster, len'st6r (Ir.) mt. 
Leipzig, lip'tsCg or lip'tsedh (Ger.) 
Leiria, la-g-rS'a (Port.) 
Leith, isth (Scot.) 
Leitmeritz, lit'me-rSts (Bohem.) 
Leitomischel, li-tS-mS'shel (Bohem.) 
Leitrim, I6'trim (Ir.) co. 
Leixlip, laslip (Ir.) 
Lekkerkerk, lekTcer-kerk (Neth.) 

zh, azure. 

French, vile, bOt; bl^, netif; 

b, on. German, th, nacAt. 




Leman or Lemanus, lem'aii, l6-ma'nus 

Lena, le'na; Rus. pron. lya'na (Sib.) 
Lenawee, leu'a-we (U. S.) 
Lendinara, lau-de-na'rii (It.) 
Lengenfeld, leng'en-felt (Ger.) 
Lengnau, leng'nou (Switz.) 
Lennox, len'noks (Scot.) 
Lennoxtown, len'noks-toun (Scot.) 
Lenoir, le-nor' (U. S.) 
Lentini, lan-t€'n6 (It.) 
Lenzen, len'tsen (Prus.) 
Leobadda, le-o-bad'da (W. Af.) 
Leobschiitz, la'ob-shflts (Prus.) 
Leogane, la-6-gan' (W. Ind.) 
Leominster, lem'st6r(Eng.); Iem'ins-t6r 

(U. S.) 
Leon, le-6n' (Sp.;Mex.) 
Leonard's, St., sant, colloquially sint 

len'ardz (Eng.) 
Leonessa, la-6-nas'sa (It.) 
Leonforte, la-on-for'ta (It.) 
Leonil, la-o-uel' (Braz.) 
Leopoldshaf en, la ' 6 - poldz - ha - ten 

Leopoldstadt, la'6-pold-stat (Aust.) 
Leova, la-o'va(Tur.) 
Lepanto, la-pan't6 (Gr.) 
Lepseny, lep-shany' (Hung.) 
Le Puy, le pwe (Fr.) 
Lequeitio, la-ke'8-te-6 (Sp.) 
Lerchenfeld, lei-'6hen-felt (Aust.) 
Lerici, ler'i-che (It.) 
Lerida, ler'i-da (Sp.) 
Lerwick, ler'wik or 16r'ik (Scot.) 
Les Andelys, laz of)d-le' (Fr.) 
Lescar, la-kar' (Fr.) 
Lesghis, les-ghez' (Cauc.) 
Lesiguano, la-s6-nya'no (It.) 
Lesina, las'fi-na (Dalmat.) 
Lesmahagow, les-nia-ha'go (Scot.) 
Lesneven, las-nS-vaft' (Fr.) 
Le Sueur, le su'er (U. S.) 
Letitchev, la-te-chef (Rus.) 
Letterkenny, let-t6r-ken'ni (Ir.) 
Lettowitz, lat'to-vets (Aust.) 
Letur, le-tor' (Sp.) 
Letyczew, la-te-chef (Rus.) 
Leuca, Capo di, ka'po de la-o'ka (It.) 
Leucadia, lyu-ka'di-a (Ion. Isls.) 
Leuchars, lyo6h'arz (Scot.) 
Leuchtenberg, loi6h'ten-I)erg (Ger.) 
Leuk, loik (Switz.) 
Leukerbad, loi'ker-bad (Switz.) 
Leutomischel, loi-to-me'shel (Bohem.) 
Leutschau, loit'shou (Hung.) 
Leuze, leti'za (Bel.^ 
Levanger, la-vang'ger (Nor.) 
Levant, le-vanf 

Levante, la-van'ta (It.) 
Levantina, la-van-te'na (Switz.) 
Levanzo, la-van'ts6 (It. ) isl. 
Leven, le'ven (Eng.; Scot.) 
Levizzano, la-vet-tsa'no (It.) 
Levkosia, lef-ko-ze'a (Cyprus) 
Levroux, la-vro'(Fr.) 
Levuka, le-vb'ka (Fiji Isls.) 
Lewes, lyu'es (Eng.) 
Lewis, lyu'is (Scot.) inl. 
Lewisham, lu'ish-am (En^.) • 
Lexington, leks'ing-ton (U. S.) 
Leyden, li'den (Neth.) 
Leyderdorp, li'der-dorp (Neth.) 
Leyland, la'land (Eng.) 
Leymuiden, li-moi'den (Neth.) 
Leyte, la'e-ta (Philip.) isl. 
Lezuza, la-thb'tha(Sp.) 
Libadia, liv-a-THe'a (Gr.) 
Libanus, lib'a-nus (Tur.) mt. 
Liberia, li-be'ri-a (W. Af.) 
Libertad, le-ber-taTH' (Peru) 
Liboume, le-bom' (Fr.) 
Libyan (Desert), lib'i-an (Af.) 
Lichfield, lich'feld (Eng.) 
Lichtenau, leCh'te-nou (Ger.) 
Lichtensteig, le6h't«n-stig (Switz.) 
Licordia, le-koi-'de-a (It.) 
Licosa, le-ko'sa (It.) 
Liddesdale, lid'dez-dal (Sot.) 
Lidkbping, led-tyeup'ing (Swe.) 
Lieberose, le-be-ro'za (Prus.) 
Liechtenstein, leCh'ten-stin (Ger.) 
Lifege, le-azh' (Bel.) 
Liegnitz, leg'nets or ledh'neta (Ger.) 
Lierre or Lier, le-ar' (Bel.) 
Liestal, les'tal (Switz.) 
Lietor, le-e-tor' (Sp.) 
Liffey, lif'fl (Ir.) 
Lifland, lef'land (Rus.) 
Lifu, le'fb (S. Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Ligniferes, le-nye-ar' (Fr.) 
Ligny, le-nye' (Fr.) 
Liim Fjord, lem'fyor (Den.) g. 
Likhvin, lefth'vin (Rus.) 
Lille, lei (Fr.) 
Lillebonne, lel-bon' (Fr.) 
Lillers, lel-lya' or le-ya' (Fr.) 
Lillo, lel'lyo (Sp.) 
Lima, le'ma (Peru); li'ma (U. S.) 
Limari, le-ma-re' (Chile) r. 
Limassol, le-mas-sol' (Cyprus) 
Limbourg, lafi-bbr' (BeL) 
Limburg, lem'bbrg (Ger.) 
Limerick, lim'e-rik (Ir.) co. 
Limmat, Ifirn'mat (Switz.) r. 
Limoges, le-mozh' (Fr.) 
Limone, le-mo'na (It.) 
Limosani, le-mo-sa'ne (It.) 

Fate, far, fat, f^U; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, c/iain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; TH, then; th, fWn; 





Limousin, le-mo-zaft' (Fr.) 
Liinoux, le-mo' (I'r.) 
Limpopo, Iim-p6'p6 (Af.) r. 
Linares, le-na'res (Sp. ; Chile) 
Lincoln, ling'kon (Eng.) 
Lindenau, len'de-nou (Get.) 
Lingayen, len-ga-yen' (Philip.) 
Liugen or Linga,leug'gen, Igng'ga (East. 

Arch.) isl. 
Lingen, leng'en (Ger.) 
Linkoping, len-tyetip'ing (Swe. ) 
Linlithgow, lin-lith'go (Scot.) 
Linnhe, Loch, lo6h lin'ni (Scot.) 
Lintthal, lent'tal (Switz.) 
Linyanti, lin-yan'te (S. Af.) 
Linz, l5nts (Ger.) 
Lion, le-on' (Fr.) 
Lipari, IS'pa-re (It.) isl. 
Lipcse, ISp'cha (Hung. ) 
Lipnicza, lep-nS^tso (Hung.) 
Liria, le're-a (Sp.) 
Lisbon, liz'bon (Port.) 
Lisburn, lis'b6rn (Ir.) 
Liscia, le'sha (It.) 
Lisieux, le-z6-eii' (Fr.) 
Liskeard, lis-kard' (Eng.) 
Lisle, lei (Fr.) 
Lismore, liz-moi' (Scot.) isL, (Ir.) in.; 

Us'mor (U. S.) 
Listowel, lis-to'el (Ir.) 
Lithada, le-tha'dii (Gr.) c. 
Lithang, le-thang' (Tibet) 
Lithuania, li-thyu-a'ni-a (Rus.) 
Littlehampton, lit - el - hamp ' ton 

Littorale, let-to-ra'la(Aust.) 
Liusne or Ljusne, lybs'na (Swe.) 
Livadia, liv-a-THe'a (Gr.) 
Livenza, iS-van'tsa (It.) r. 
Liverpool. liv'6r-pol (Eng.) 
Livonia, l6-v6'ni-a (Rus.)^. 
Livomo, l6-v6r'n6 (It.) 
Liwuraba, li-wum'ba (Af. ) r. 
Lizard (Point), liz'ard (Eng.) 
Ljusan, lyo'sSn (Swe.) r. 
Llandaff, lan-daf (Wales) 
Llandeilo-Faur, lan-di'16-four (Wales) 
Llandovery, lan-duv'e-ri (Wales) 
Llandudno, lan-did'no (Wales) 
Llanelly, la-nel'li (Wales) 
Llanerchymedd, la-n6r-6hu'meTH 

Llanes, lya-nes' (Sp.) 
Llangadock, lan-ga-dok' (Wales) 
Llangollen, lan-gol'len; Welsh pron. 

tlan-gothlen (Wales) 
Llanidloes, la-nid'los (Wales) 
Llano Estacado, lya'no es-tii-ka'do 

Llanos, ly&'nos (S. Am.) 

Llanos de Chaco, lya'nos de cha'ko 
(S. Am.) 

Llanquihue, lyan-kg'wa (Chile) 

Llanrwst, lan-rbst' (Eng.) 

Llantrissent, lan-tris'sent (Wales) 

Llerena, lye-re'na (Sp.) 

Llerona, lye-ro'na (Sp.) 

Llobregat, lyo-bre-gat' (Sp.) 

Llummayor, Ivum-nia-yor' (Sp.) 

Loando, 16-au'do (W. Af.) 

Loango, 16-ang'go (Af.) 

Loano, lo-a'no (It.) 

Lbbau, leti'bou (Ger.) 

Lbbejan, leu'be-yan (Prus.) 

Lob-Nor, lob-nor' (Cent. As.) I. 

Lobositz, 16'bo-sets (Bohem.) 

Lochaber, loCh-a'ber (Scot.) 

Lochem, lo'fihem (Neth.) 

Loches, losh (Fr.) 

Lochgilphead, lodh-gilpTied (Scot.) 

Lochgoilhead, lofih-goil'hed (Scot.) 

Lochinvar, lo6h-in-var' (Scot.) 

Lochmaben, lo6h-ma'ben (Scot.) 

Lochwinnoch, loCh-win'nodh; popu- 
larly, lo6h'en-yu6h (Scot.) 

Lockerby, lok'er-bi (Scot.) 

Locle, loTil (Switz.) 

Lod, letid (Hung.) 

Loddon, lod'don (Eng.) 

Lodomir, lo-do-mfir' (Aust.) 

Loehoe, Ib'ho (Celebes) 

Loenen, Ib'nen (Neth.) 

Lofodden, lo-fod'den (Nor.) isls. 

Logazohy, 16-ga-z6'hi (W. Af.) 

Logrofto, 16-gr6'ny6 (Sp.) 

Logrosan, 16-gro-san' (Sp.) 

Loheia, 16-ha'ya (Ar.) 

Loir, 1 war (Fr.)r. 

Loire, Iw^r (Fr.) r. 

Loiret, lwa-ra'(Fr.) 

Loir-et-Cher, Iwg.r-a-shar' (Fr.) dep. 

Loitz, lo-Sts' (Prus.) 

Loja or Loxa, lo'dha (Sp.) 

Lojano, 16-ya'n6 (It.) 

Lokeren, lo'k6-ren (Bel.) 

LoUara, 161-ia'ra(Ind.) 

Lombardy, lom'bar-di (It.) 

Lomblem, lom-blem' (East. Arch.) isl. 

Lombok, lom-bok' (East. Arch.) isl. 

Lomellina, 16-mal-l6'nii (It.) 

Lomond, 16'mond (Scot.) 

Lomza, lom'zha (Ilus.) 

Lonato, 16-nii't6 (It.) 

London, lun'duu (Eng.) 

Londonderry, lun'dun-de-ri (Ir.) 

Longarone, Ion-ga-r6'na(It.) 

Longford, long'ford (Ir.) co. 

Longjumeau, lofi-zhO-mo' (Fr.) 

Long'ton, long'ton (Eng.) 

Longwy, 16h-v6' (Fr.) 

ih, azure. French, v(te, bftt; 

bleu, neUf; 

fi, o«. 

German, ch, utLcht. 




Lonigo, lo-ne'go (It.) ' 

Lonneker, lon'ne-ker (Neth.) 

Ions le Saulnier, lofi 16 so-ne-a' (Fr.) 

Loochristy, 16-6hres'te (Bel.) 

Loodiana, Ib-de-a'na (Ind.) 

Lootenhalle, lo-ten-hal'le (Bel.) 

Lopez, lo'pez (W. Af.) c. 

Lorenzo Marquez, 16-ren'z6 mftr-kez' 

(S. Af .) 
Loreto orLoretto, 16-ra'to, lo-rat't6(It.) 
Lorient, lo-re-oi'i' (Fr.) 
Los Angeles, los an'je-Ies (U. S.) 
Lossini, los-s6'ne (It.) isl. 
Lossnitz, leus'nSts (Ger.) 
Lostwlthiel, lost-with'el (Eng.) 
Lot, \6 or lot (Fr.) 
Lot-et-Garonne, lot-a-ga-ron' (Fr.) 
Lothian, lo'THi-an (Scot.) 
Loudoun, lou'dun (Scot. ; U. S.) 
Loudun, lO-duii' (Fr.) 
Louga, 16'ga (Rus. ) 
Lougan, lou'gan (Nor.) r. 
Loughans, lo-gori' (Fr.) 
Loughborough, lufbu-ru (Eng.) 
Lough Neagh, lo6h na; locally, na'a6h 

Loughrea, lo6h-ra' (Ir.) 
Louis, St. , sant, colloquially sint lo'is 

(U. S.) 
Louisburg, lo'is-bSrg (Cape Breton) 
Louisiade, 16-e-zS-ad' (S. Pac. Oc.) isls. 
Louisiana, Ib-ez-i-a'na (U. S.) 
Louisville, 16'is-vil (U. S.) 
Lourdes, lord (Fr.) 
LoureuQO, Sao, soufi 16-ren'so (Port.) 
Louristan, lo-res-tftn' (Per.) 
Louth, louth (Ir.) eo. 
Lou vain, lo-vaft' (Bel.) 
Louven, lou'ven (Nor.) r. 
Louviers, Ib-vS-a' (Fr.) 
Lovatz, 16-vats' (Bulg.) 
Lovere, lo-va'ra (It.) 
Lovisa, 16-ve'za (Rus.) 
Lowell, lo'el (U. S.) 
Lbwenberg, leti'ven-berg (Prus.) 
Lowes or Lows (Loch of the), louz 

Lowestoft, lo'stoft or lo'e-stoft (Eng.) 
Lowicz, lo'vich (Rus.) 
Lowndes, loundz (U. S.) 
Loxa or Loja, lo'Cha (Sp.; Ecuad.) 
Loyola, lo-yo'la (Sp.) 
Lozfere, lo-zai*' (Fr.) 
Lualaba, lu-a-la'ba (Af.) r. 
Luapula, lu-a-po'la (Af.) r. 
Liibeck, M'bek (Ger.) 
Lubina, lo-be'no (Hung.) 
Lublin, lub'lin (Rus.) 
Lubnaig, Loch, lo6h lub'nag (Scot.) 

Lucayos, lu-ki'6s (W. Ind.) isls. 

Lucea, lu-se'a (Jam.) 

Lucena, lo-the'na (Sp.) 

Lucera, lo-cha'ra (It.) 

Lucerne, lu-s6rn'; Fr. pron. Ift-aem'; 

Germ. Lucern or Luzern, Ib'tseru 

Luchow, lb'6ho (Ger.) 
Luckipoor, luk-e-poi-' (Ind.) 
Lucknow, luk'nou (Ind.) 
Ludamar, Ib'da-mar (Cent. Af.) 
Ludlow, lud'lo (Eng.) 
Ludwigshafen, Ibd'vegs-haf-en (Ger.) 
Lugano, Id-ga'no (It.) 
Lugar, lo'gar (Scot.) 
Luguaquilla, lug-na-fcwil'a (Ir.) 
Luis, San, san lo-es' (Arg. Re?. 
Lukar, Ib-kar' (Rus.) isl. 
Lukuga, lu-ko'ga (Af.) r. 
Lulea, lo'la-6 (Swe.) 
Lumbreras, Ibm-bre'ras (Sp.) 
Lumphanan, lum-fan'an (Scot.) 
Lund, lond (Swe.) 
Liineburg, Ift'ne-borg (Ger.) 
Lun^ville, Ifl-na-vel' (Fr.) 
Luugern, lung'ern (Switz.) 
Lupata, lu-pa'ta (Af.) mts. 
Lurgan, lur'gan (Ir.) 
Luristan, lo-res-tan' (Per.) 
Lusignan, lu-ze-nyoft\Tr.) 
Lusigny, lii-ze-nye' (Fr.) 
Luss, lus (Scot.) 
Lussurgiu (San), Ibs-sor-jb' (It.) 
Liitjenburg, Iflt'yen-borg (Den.) 
Lutomirsk, lo-tb-mersk' (Rus.) 
Luton, lu'ton (Eng.) 
Liitzen, Iflt'sen (Ger.) 
Luvino, lo-ve'no (It.) 
Luxembourg, lak-soft-bor' (Bel.) 
Luxeuii, Itlk-seti-erye or Itik-setl-e'y . 

Luzern, lo'tsern (Switz.) 
Luzerne, lu-z6m' (U. S.) 
Luzia, Santa, san'ta Ib-se'a (Braz.) 
Luzon, lb-z6n'; Span. pron. Ib-thor' 

(Philip.) isl. 
Lybster, llb'st6r (Scot.) 
Lycoming, li-kom'ing (U. S.) 
Lykabettos, le-ka-bet'tos (Gr.) 
Lyme-Regis, lim-re'jis (Eng.) 
Lymington, lim'ing-ton (Eng.) 
Lynchburg, linch'b6rg (U. S.) 
Lyngaas, Itin'gos (Den.) 
Lyngby, Iting'btl (Den.) 
Lynn-Regis, lin-re'jis (Eng.) 
Lyon, le-6h' (Fr.) 
Lyonnais, le-6n-na' (Fr.) 
Lys, les (Fr.) r. 
Lyttelton, lit'tel-ton (N. Zd.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go; jjoh; y, yes; th, ^/len; th. fMn. 






Maartensdijk, mar'tenz-dik (Neth.) 
Maas, mas (Neth.) r. 
Maassluis, mas'slois (Neth.) 
Maastricht, nias'tre6ht (Neth.) 
Macao, raa-kou' (China) 
Macapa, ma-ka-pa' (Braz.) 
Maccassar, mak-kas'sar (Celebes) 
Macclesfield, mak'klz-feld (Eng.) 
Macerata, ma-cha-ra'ta (It.) 
Machias, ma-chi'as (U. S.) 
Machynlleth, ma-6hun'tleth (Wales) 
Mackinaw or Mackinac, mak'i-na (U.S.) 
Macomb, ma-kom' (U. 8.) 
Macotera, ma-ko-te'ra (Sp.) 
Macquarie, mak-kwo'ri (Austral.) 
Macronisi, ma-kro-ne'se (Gr.) isl. 
Macroom, ma-krbm' (Ir.) 
Macullah, ma-kul'lah (Ar.) 
Madagascar, ma-da-gas'kar (Af.) isl. 
Madawaska, ma-da- was'ka (U. S.) 
Maddallena, mad-dal-la'nii (It.) isl. 
Maddehjee, mad-deh-je' (Ind.) 
Madeira, ma-de'ra; Port. pron. ma-da'- 

Madioen, ma'di-on (Java) 
Madjicosemah, raad-ji-ko-se'ma (N. 

Pac. Oc.) isls. 
Madras, ma-dras' (Ind.) 
Madrid, ma-drid'; Span. pron. ma- 

THreTH' (Sp.); mad'rid (F. S.) 
Madridejos, ma-THre-THe'Chos (Sp.) 
Madroflera, ma-THro-nye'ra (Sp.) 
Madura, ma-db'ra (Ind. ; East. Arch.) 
Maelstroem, mal'streum (Nor.) 
Maeseyck, maz'ik (Bel.) 
Maestricht, mas'tretht (Neth.) 
Magadino, ma-ga-de'no (Switz.) 
Magadoxo, ma-ga-dok'so ; Port. pron. 

ma-ga-do'sho (E. Af . ) 
Magalhaens, ma-ga-lya'ens (S. Am) str. 
Magdala, mag-da'la (Abyss.) ft. 
Magdalena, mag-dii-le'na (Col.) 
Magdeburg, mag'de-borg (Prus.) 
Magellan, ma-gellan (S. Am.) str. 
Magenta, ma-jen'ta (It.) 
Mageroe, mft'ge-re'u-e (Nor.) 
Maggiore, ma-jo'ra (It.) I. 
Magherafelt, maCh-er-a-felt' (Ir.) 
Magnisi, ma-nye'ze (Sic.) 
Mahabalesh wur, ma - ha' bul - esh - wur 

Mahabalipooram, mft-hti-ba-Ie-pu-rilm' 

Mahanuddy, ma-ha"nud'di (Ind.) r. 
Mah^, ma-h&' (Ind. ) tn. ; (Seychelles) isl. 
Mahmoudieh, m&-mo-de'e (Eg.) 

Mahon, ma-on' (Minorca) 

Mahora, ma-o'ra (Sp.) 

Mahrah, mah'rah (Arab.) 

Mahren, ma'ren (Aust.) 

Maimene, mi'me-na (Afg.) 

Mam, min (Ger.) r. 

Maintenon, madi-U-nbti' (Fr.) 

Mainz, mints (Ger.) 

Majorca, ma-jor'ka; Span. Mallorca, 

mal-yor'ka (Mediterr.) isl. 
Majunga, mSi-jun'ga (Mada«as.) 
Makadishu, ma-ka-de'sho (E. Af.) 
Makian, ma-ke-an' (East. Arch.) isl. 
Makoqueta, ma-kok'e-ta (XT. S.) 
Malabar, ma-la-bar' (Ind.) 
Malacca, ma-lak'ka (Ind.) 
Maladetta, ma-la-det'ta (Pyrenees) mt. 
Malaga, ma'la-ga (Sp.) 
Malahide, ma-la-hid' (Ir.) 
Malar, ma'lar; Swedish, Malaren, ma'- 

lar-en (Swe.) I. 
Malay, ma-la' (East. 'Pen.) pen. 
Maiden, mal'den (U. S.) tns.; (Pac. Oc.) 

Maldive, mal-div' (Ind.) isl. 
Maldonado, mal-do-na'do (Urug.) 
Malesherbes, mal-zerb' (Fr.) 
Malmaison, mal-ma-z6ft' (Fr.) 
Malmedy, mal'me-de (Prus.) 
Malmesbury, mamz'be-ri (Eng.) 
Malmo, mal'meu (Swe.) 
Malmohus, mal'meu-hos (Swe.) 
Malpartida, mal-piir-te'THa (Sp.) 
Malplaquet, mal-pla-ka'(Fr.) 
Malta, mal'ta (Medit. Sea) isl. 
Malton, nial'ton (Eng.) 
Maluti, ma-16'te (S. Af.) mts. 
Malvaglia, mal-va'lyil (Switz.) 
Malvern, mal'vSni (Eng.) 
Malwa, mai'wa (Ind.) 
Mamore, ma-m6-ra'(S. Am.) r. 
Mamuni, ma-mb'n6 (Braz.) 
Manaar, ma-niii-' (Ceylon) 
Manacor, ma-na-kor'(Sp.) 
Managua, ma-uJi'gwa (Cent. Am.) 
^Manakau, ma-na-ka'u (N. Zd.) 
ilanasarowar, ma-na-sa-ro-war' (Tibet) 

Manawatu, ma-na-wa-to' (N. Ztl.) r. 
Mancha Real, man'cha re-ar(Sp.) 
Manche, La, la mofish (Fr.) dep. 
Manchester, man'ches-t6r (Eng.) 
Manchooria, man-chb'ri-a (China) 
Mandalay, man'da-la (Bur.) 
Mandara, nian-da'ra (Af.) 
Mandavee, man-da-ve'(Ind.) 
Mandingo, man-ding'go (Af.) 
Manfredonia, man-fra-do'nS-a (It.) 
Mangaia, man-ga'ya (8. Pac. Oc.) id. 
Mangalore, man-gU-ldr'(Ind.) 

zh, airure. 

French, vOe, bflt; bl^, neuf; 

fi, on. German, 6h, nzehi. 




Mangola, man-go'la (East. Arch.) isl. 
Manhattan, man-hat'tan (U. S.) 
Maniago, ma-ne-a'go (It.) 
Manilla, ma-nil'la; Span. Manila, ma- 

ne'la (Philip.) 
Maniluki, man-i-lo'ks (Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Manisa, ma-ne'sa (As. Tur. ) 
Manitoba, man'i-to-ba" (Can.) 
Manitoulin, ma-ni-to'lin or man-i-to- 

len' (Can.) Ma. 
Manitowoc, man'i-to-wok" (U. S.) 
Mannheim, man'him (Ger.) 
Manoe, ma'mju-e (Den.) isl. 
Manosque, ma-n6sk'(Fr.) 
Manresa, man-re'sa (Sp.) 
Mans, Le, 16 moh (Fr.) 
Mansura, man-so'ra (Eg.) 
Mantinia, man-ti-ne'a (Gr.) 
Mantiqueir a, man-tg-ka'g-ra(Braz. ) m ts. 
Mantua, man'tyu-a; Ital. Mantova, 

man' to- va (It.) 
Manyuema, man-yu-a'ma (Af.) 
Manzanares, man-tha-na'res (Sp.) 
Manzanillo, man-tha-ngl'lyo; in Mexico 

pronounced man-8a-neriyo(Sp. and 

Maouna, ma-o'na (S. Pac. Oc.) 
Mapimi, ma-pe'me (Mex.) 
Mapoota, ma-po'ta (E. Af.) r. 
Maquoketa, ma-kok'e-ta (U. S.) 
Maracaibo, ma-ra-ka'e-bo (S. Am.) 
Maragogipe, ma-ra-go-zhe'pa (Braz.) 
Marajo, ma-ra-zh6'(Braz.) isl. 
Maranham, ma-ran-yam'; Portug. Mar 

anhao, ma-ra-nyouft (Braz.) 
Marathonisi, ma-ra-thon-6'se (Gr.) 
Maravaca, ma-ra-va'ka (Venez.) mt. 
Marazion, ma-ra'zi-on (Eng.) 
March, mar6h (Aust.) r. 
Marchena, mar-che'na (Sp.) 
Marciano, mar-cha'no (It.) mt. 
Marcigny, mar-se-nyS' (Fr. ) 
Marckolsheim, mar'kolz-him (Ger.) 
Marcolez, mar-ko-la' (Fr.) 
Marecchia, ma-rek'k6-a CLt.) 
Maree, Loch, loCh ma-re (Scot.) 
Maremma, ma-ram'ma (It.) 
Marengo, ma-ran'go (It.) 
Mareotis, ma-re-o'tis (Eg.) I. 
Margarita, mar-ga-re'ta (S. Am.) isl. 
Margate, mar'gat or mar'get (Eng.) 
Margharita, mar-ga-re'ta (Gr.) 
Maria, Sta, san'ta ma-re'a (Sp.) 
Mariager, ma-re-a'ger (Den.) 
Marianna, ma-re-an'na (Braz.) 
Marianne, ma-re-an'(A8.) isls. 

en-stat (Hung.) 
Maribo, ma're-bo (Den.) 

Marie Galante, ma-re' ga-loht' (W. Ind. ) 

Marienbad, ma-re'en-bad (Aust.) 
Marienburg, ma-re'en-bbrg (Ger.) 
Marienwerder, ma-re'en-verd-er (Prus. ) 
Mariestad, ma-re'a-stad (Swe.) 
Marietta, ma-re-et'ta (U. S.) 
Marigliano, ma-rel-ya'no (It.) 
Marinha, ma-re'nya (Port.) 
Marino, ma-re'no (It. ; Venez.) 
Mariposa, mar-i-p6'sa (U. S.) 
Mariquita, ma-re-ke'ta (Col.) 
Maritimo, ma-re' te-mo (It.) 
Maritza, ma-ret'sa (Tur.) r. 
Marlborough, marl'bu-ru or niiiinbu-ru 

(Eng.); marl'bu-ru (U. S.) 
Marlow, mar'lo (Eng.) 
Marmirolo, mar-me-ro'lo (It.) 
Marmora, mar'mo-ra (Tur.) sea 
Mannoutier, mar-mo-te-a' (Fr.) 
Maroni, ma-ro-ne' (Guiana) r. 
Maros, ma'rosh (Hung.) r. 
Marostica, ma-ros'te-ka (It.) 
Marowyne, mar-6-win' (Guiana) r. 
Marquesas, mar-ka'sas (S. Pac. Oc.) isU. 
Marsala, mar-sa'ia (Sic.) 
Marseilles, mar-salz'; French, Marseille, 

mar-sal'ye or mar-sa'ye (Fr.) 
Martaban, mar-ta-ban'(Bur.) 
Martigny, mar-te-nye' (Switz.) 
Martigurs, Les, la mar-teg'(Fr.) 
Martinique, mar-te-nek' (W. Ind.) 
Marum, ma'rum (Neth.) 
Marwar, mar- war' (Ind.) 
Maryborough, ma'ri-bu-ru (Ir.) 
Maiyculter, ma-ri-ku'ter (Scot.) 
Marylebone, ma'ri-le-bon ; popularly 

mar'i-bun (Eng.) 
Mas-a-fuera, ma-sa-fu-e'ra (S. ,4 m.) isl. 
Mascali, mas-ka'le (It.) 
Mascara, mas'ka-ra (Alg.) 
Mascarenhas, mas-kar-au'yas 
Mascat, mus-kat' (Ar.) 
Mashonaland, ma-sho'na-land (S. Af.) 
Masone, ma-s6'na (It.) 
Massachusetts, mas-sa-chb'sets (IT. S.) 
Massaciuccoli, mas-sa-chb'ko-le (It.) 
Massera, mas'se-ra (Arab. ) isl. 
Massillon, mas'sil-lon (U. S.) 
Massowa, mas-sou'a (Abyss. ) 
Mastenbroek, mas'ten-brok (Neth.) 
Masulipatam, ma-so-le-pa-tam' (Ind.) 
Matamoros, ma-ta-mo'ros (Mex.) 
Matanzas, ma-tan'sas or ma-tan'thas 

Matapan, ma-ta-pan'(Gr.J 
Matarieh, ma-ta-re'e (Eg.) 
Mataro, ma-ta'ro (Sp.) 
Mateo, San, san ma-ta'6 (It.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; nSte, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, ci'iain; s, go; j, ^'ob; y, j/es; th, </ien; th, fAin; 





Matera, ma-ta'ra (It.) 
Matsmai, mats'mi (Jap.) 
Mattawa, mat'a-wa (Can.) r. 
Maturin, nia-to'ren (Venez.) 
Maubeuge, m6-beuzh'(Fr.) 
Maubourguet, mo-bor-ga' (Fr.) 
Mauduit, mo-dwe' (Pyrenees) mt. 
Maui, mou'e (Sand. Isl.) isl. 
Maule. mii'u-le (Chile) 
MauUin, ma-uMyen' (Chile) 
Maulmain, mourmin (Bur.) 
Maumee, ma'me (U. S.) 
Mauna Loa, mou'na lo'a (Sand. Isls.) 
Maura, Santa, san'ta ma'u-ra (Ion. Isls.) 
Mauritius, m^-rish'us (Af . ) isl. 
Mavronero, niaf-ro-na'ro (Gr.) r. 
Mavro - potamos, maf' ro - pot ' a - mos 

Maxwelltown, maks'wel-toun (Scot.) 
Mayenfeld, mi'en-felt (Switz.) 
Mayenne, ma-yen' (Fr.) 
Mayn or Main, min (Ger.) r. 
Maynooth, nia-nbth'(Ir.) 
Mayo, ma'6 (Ir.) cty; nii'6 (U. S.) r. 
Maypu, ma-e-pb' (Chile) r. 
Maysi, ma-e-se' (Cuba) c. 
Mazagan, ma-za'gan'(Mar.) 
Mazanderan, ma-zan-da-ran' (Per.) 
Mazatlan, ma-8at-lan'(Mex.) 
Mazzara, mat-tsa'ra (Sic.) 
Meaco, me-a'ko (Jap.^ 
Meanee, nie-a'ne (Ina.) 
Meams, niemz (Scot.) 
Meath, meth (Ir.) 
Mechlin, meCh'len (Bel.) 
Mechoacan, ma-cho-a-kan' (Mex.) 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, mek'len-bbrg- 

shva'ren (Ger.) 
Mecklenburg - Strelitz, meklen-bbrg- 

Medeagh, ma-da'a6h (Alg.) 
Medellin, me-THenyen(Sp.; Col.) 
Medesano, ma-da-sa'no (It.) 
Medgyes, med-yesh'(Tran8yl.) 
Medina, ma-de'na (Ar.) 
Medina de Rioseco, nie-de'nii de re-6- 

Medina Sidonia, me-de'na se-do'ne-a 

Medmet-el-Fayoum, ma-de'net-el-fa- 

ybni" (Pig.) 
Medynsk, ma-d^nsk' (Rus.) 
Meerle, marHe (Bel.) 
Meerut, me'rut (Ind.) 
Meganisi, me-ga-ne'se (Ion. Isls.) 
Megara, meg'a-rtl (Gr.) 
Megyer, me-dyer'^Hung.) 
Megyes, me-dve8h'(Hung.) 
Mehadia, ma-ha'de-o (Hung.) 
Mehedia, ma-ha-de'a (Mar.) 

Meia-ponte, nia-ya-pon'ta (Braz.) 

Meidan, ma'e-dau (Ar.) 

Meigle, me'gel (Scot.) 

Meilhan, ma-lofi' (Fr.) 

Meinam, ma-naui' (East. Pen.)y. 

Meiningen, min'ing-en (Ger.) 

Meiringen, mi'ring-en (Switz.) 

Mejerdah, me-jer'da (Tunis) r. 

Mekiuez, ma'ki-nez (Mar. ) 

Mekong, ma-kong' (East. Pen.) r. 

Mekran, mak-ran' (Beluch.) 

Melada, nia-la'da (Adr. Sea) isl. 

Melakuri, ma-la-kb'ri (W. Af.) 

^Melbourne, mel'bem (Austral.) 

Meleda, ma'la-da (Dalniat.) isl. 

Melegnano, ma-la-nya'no (It.) 

Melencze, nia-len'tsa(Hung.) 

MelgaQO, mel-ga'so (Port.) 

Melikut, ma'le-kut (Hung.) 

Melila. ma-le'la (Mar.) 

Melinda, ma-len'da (E. Af.) 

Mellingen, mel'ling-en (Switz.) 

Melloncharles. mellon-char-elz (Scot.) 

Melrose, mel'roz (Scot.) 

Melton - Mowbray, mel - ton - mo ' bra 

Membrio, mem'bre-o (Sp.) 

Memmingen, mam'ming-en (Ger.) 

Memphremagog, mem - fre - ma ' gog 
(U. S.)l. 

Menado, ma-na'do (Celebes) 

Menai Strait, men'i strat (Wales) 

Menam, ma-nam' (East. Pen.) r. 

Menan, Great and Little, me -nan' 
(U. S.) isls. 

Menangkabu, ma-nang'ka-bo (Su- 

Menbrilla, men-brel1ya (Sp.) 

3Iendavia, man-da've-a (Sp.) 

Menderes, men'de-res (As. Mi.^ r. 

Mendocino, men-do-se'no (N. Am.) c. 

Mendota, men-do'ta (U. S.) 

Mendoza, men-do'sa or men-do'tha 
(S. Am.) 

Mendrisio, man-dre'8e-6 (Switz.) 

Menehoud, Sainte, saftt ma-no' (Fr.) 

Menmuir, men-myor' (Scot.) 

Mennomonie, Menominee, me-nom'i- 
ne(U. S.) 

Menona, me-no'na (U. S.) I. 

Menouf, me-nbf (Eg.) 

Menstrie, men'stri (Scot.) 

Mentone, men-to'na (It.) 

Mentrida, man-tre'THa (Sp.) 

Menzaleh, men-za'le (Eg.) I. 

Mequinenza, me-ke-nen'tha (Sp.) 

Mequinez, ma'ki-nez (Mar.) 

Merapi, ma-ra'pe (East. Arch.) isl. 

Merate, ma-ra'ta (It.) 

Mercara, mer-ka'r&(Ind.) 

zh, azure. French, yde, bttt; 

bl«^, neuf ; 

b, on. German, 6h, nac^t. 




Mercedario, Cerro de, ser'ro de mer- 

se-da're-o (S. Am.) mt. 
Mer de Glace, niar de glas (Switz.) 
Mergiii, mer-ge' (Bur.) 
Merida, mei-'e-THa (Sp. ; Sp. Amer.) 
Meriden, mer'i-den (U. S.) 
Merioneth, me-re-on'eth (Wales) 
Merischwanden, ma - re - shvan ' den 

Mermentau, m6r-men-to' (U. S.) 
Meroe, nia'ro-a T Af . ) 
Merseburg, marze-bbrg (Prus.) 
Mersey, m6r'zi (Eng. ) r. 
Merthyr-Tydvil, mer-th6r-tid'vil ; 
Welsh pron. m6r-th6r-tud'vil 

Meruchak, mer'u-chak (Afg.) 
Merwede, De, de mer've-de (Neth.) 
Merz-el-Kebir, marz-el-ke-ber' (Alg.) 
Mesagna, nia-sa'nya (It.) 
Meschede, nia'she-de (Prus.) 
Meseritz, ma-ze-rets' (Prus.) 
Meshid, mesh'id (Per.) 
Mesquitella, mes-ki-tel'la (Port.) 
Messaria, nies-sa-re'a (Cyprus) 
Messina, mas-se'na (It.) 
Mestchowsk, mest-chofsk' (Rus.) 
Mesurado, ma-so-ra'do (W. Af.) c. 
Metapa, me-ta'pa (Cent. Am.) 
Metijah, me-te'ja(Alg.) 
Metzingen, mets'ing-en (Ger.) 
Meudon, meti-don' (Fr.) 
Meun-sur- Loire, meuft-stir-lwgr' (Ft.) 
Meursault, meur-s6' (Fr.) 
Mewar, ma-wai-'(Ind.) 
Me we, ma'va (Prus.) 
Mexico, meks'i-ko; Span. pron. me'che- 

ko (N. Am.) 
Meyenfeld, mi'en-felt (Switz.) 
Meyringen, mi'ring-en (Switz.) 
M^zenc, nia-zofi' (Fr.) mt. 
Mezi^res, ma-ze-ar' (Fr.) 
Mezo, ma'zeu (Hung.) 
Mezzolombardo, med-dzo-lom-bar'do 

Mglin, mglen (Rus.) 
Miajadas, me-a-6ha'THas (Sp.) 
Miako, me-a'ko (Jap.) 
Miami, mi-am'i (U. S.) 
Miava, me-ov'o (Hung.) 
Michigan, mish'i-gan (U. S.) 
Michilimackinac, mish-i-li-mak'i-na 

(N. Am.) str. 
Michipicoten, mish - 1 - pi-ko'ten (N. 

Am.) r. 
Michoacan, me-ch6-a-kau'(Mex.) 
Middlesbrough, mid'delz-bro (ling.) 
Mldwolde, mid-vol'de (Neth.) 
Miguel, San, san me-ger(Col.)^. 

Miguelturra, me-gel-tor'ra (Sp.) 

Mihaly, me-haly' (Hung.) 

Mijas, me-fthas' (Sp.) 

Mijdrecht, mid're6ht (Neth.) 

Mikhailow, me-ehi-lof (Rus.) 

Miklos, me-klosh'(Hung.) 

Milah, me'la (Alg.) 

Milan, mil'an (Anglicized form of Ital. 

Milano, me-la'no (It.) 
Milianah, me-le-ii'na (Alg.) 
Militar - Grenze, me - le - tar 'gren - tse 

Milledgeville, mil'lej-vil (U. S.) 
Millesimo, mel-la'se-mo (It.) 
Milnathort, mil-na-thort' (Scot.) 
Milngavie, mil-gi' (Scot.) 
Milnthorpe, mil'tliorp (Eng.) 
Milorado, me-lo-ra'do (Rus.) 
Milwaukee, mil-wa'ke (U. S.) 
Minahassa, me-na-has'sa (Celebes) 
Minas-Geraes, me-nas-zhe-ra'es (Braz.) 
Mincio, mgn'cho (It.) r. 
Mindanao, men-da-na'6 (Philip.) isl. 
Mindoro, men-do'ro (Philip.) id. 
Mineo, me-na'o (Sic.) 
Mingrelia, min-gre'le-a (Rus.) 
Minho, me'nyo (Port.) 
Miniato, San, san me-ne-a'to (It.) 
Minnesota, min-ne-s6'ta (U. S.) 
Minorca, me-nor'ka (Sp.) isl. 
Miblb, me-eu'leu (Rus.) isls. 
Mibsen, me-eu'zen (Nor.) isl. 
Mious, me-ous' (Rus.) r. 
Miquelon, mik'e-lon; Fr. pron. mek- 

lofi' (N. Am.) isls. 
Miramichi, mir-a-mi-she' (X. Bruns.) 
Mirandola, me-ran'do-la (It.) 
Mirebalais, mer-ba-la' (Fr. ; Hayti) 
Mirebeau, me-re-bo' ^Fr.) 
Mirecourt, me-re-kor (Fr.) 
Mirim, me-ren' (Braz.) I. 
Miropolie, me-ro-po'le-a (Rus.) 
Mirzapore, mer-za-poi-' (Ind.) 
Miseno, me-sa'no (It.) c. 
Misiones, me-se-o'nes (S. Am.) 
Miskolcz, mish-kolts' (Hung.) 
Misselemieh, mes-sa-la-me'e (Nubia) 
Mississippi, mis-sis-sip'pi (U. S.) 
Missolonghi, mis-s6-long'ge (Gr.) 
Missouri, mis-sb'ri(U. S.) 
Mistassinny, mis-tas-sin'ni (Can.) I. 
Mitchelstown, mich'elz-toun (Ir.) 
Mitla, met'la (Mex.) 
Mitrovicz, me'tro-vets (Aust.) 
Mittenwalde, met-ten-val'de (Prus.) 
Mittweida, met-vi'da(Ger.) 

Mitylene, mi-ti-le'n6 (Tur.) isl 
Mixtecapan, miks-ta-ka-pan' ( 

pan' (Mex.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, chain; g. go; j, job; y, ^es; lu, then; th, tim; 




Mobile, mo-bsr (U. S.) 

Mocha, mok'a; Arab. pron. moCh'a 

Modena, mod'e-na (It.) 
Modica, niod'e-ka (Sic.) 
Modigliana, mo-de-lya'na (It.) 
Moen, meu'en (Den.ji isl. 
McBris, me'ris (Eg.) /. 
Moero, ino-5'ro; almost mwe'ro (Af.) I. 
Mogador, mo-ga-dor' (Af.) 
Mogaung, nio-gaug' (Bur.) 
Mogente, m6-6hen'te (Sp.) 
Moghilev, mo-6he-lef' (Rus.) 
Mogi - das - Cruzes, mo-zlie-das-krb'zas 

Mogureli, mo-go-rale (Tur.) 
Mohacs, mo-hach' ^Hung.) 
Mohammerah, mo-nam'6r-a (Per.) 
Mohawk, mo'hak (U. S.) 
Mobile V, mo-he-lef (Rus.) 
Moidart, moi'dart (Scot.) 
Moifetta, mo-e-fat'ta (It.) 
Moissac, mwa-sak' (Fr.) 
Mojacar, mo-fiha-kar' (Sp.) 
Mojada, Sierra, se-er'ra mo-Cha'THa 

Mojaisk, mo-zba'isk (Rus.) 
Mojos, mo'ch63'(S. Am.) tr. 
Mokhansk, mo-Chausk' (Rus.) 
Moldova, mol-do'vo (Hung.) 
Molesson, mo-les-son' (Switz.) mt. 
Molina, mo-lG'na (Sp.) 
Mollendo, raol-yen'do (Peru) 
Molokai, mo-lo-ki' (Sand. Isls.) 
Molokini, mo-lo-ke'ne (Sand. Isls.) 
Molsheim, molzTiim (Ger.) 
Moluccas, mo-luk'kaz (As.) 
Moluche, mo-lb'che (S. Am.) tr. 
Mombas, mom-bas' (E. Af.) 
Mompox, m6m'p6ks (Col.) 
Monaco, mon'a-ko (It.) 
Monadnock, mo-nad'nok (U. S.) mt. 
Monaghan, mon'a-6han (Ir.) 
Monagh Lea, mo'nafih la (Ir.) mts. 
Mona Vallagh, mo'na valladh (Ir.) mt. 
Monastereven, mon-a8-t6r-ev'en (Ir.) 
Monasterio, mo-nas-ta'rg-o (Sp.) 
Monastir, mo-nas-tei-' (Tur.) 
Monbelliard, moii-baM6-ar' (Fr.) 
Moncalieri, mon-ka-le-a'r6 (It.) 
Mon9ao, mon-souh' (Port.) 
Mbnch, metinCh (Switz.^ mt. 
Monchabo, mon-cha-bo^(Bur.) 
Monchique, mon-chelta (Port.) mts. 
Moncuq, mofi-kOk' (Fr.) 
Mondania, m6n-da'n6-a (Tur.) 
Mondego, mon-da'go (Port.) 
Mondejar, mSn-de-dhar' (Sp.) 
Mondofiedo, m6n-d6-nye'THo (Sp.) 
Mondovi, m6n'd6-v6 (It.) 

Monghir, mon-ger' (Ind.) 
Mongolia, mon-golg-a (As.) 
Monifieth, mon-i-feth' (Scot.^ 
Moniquira, mon-i-ke'ra (Col.) 
Monjos, Los, 16s mon-chos' (S. Pac. Oc.) 

Monmouth, mon'muth (Eng.) 
Monnickendam, mou ' uik - ken - dam 

Monomoezi, mo-no-mo-a'ze (E. Af.) 
Monomotapa, mo-no-mo-ta'pa (E. Af.) 
Monongahela, mo-non'ga-he"la (U.S.)r. 
Monopoli, mo-nop'o-le (It.) 
Monostorszeg, mo-nosh-tor'seg (Hung.) 
Monovar, mo-no-var' (Sp.) 
Monquhitter, mon-hwit't6r (Scot.) 
Alonreal, mon-re-al' (Sp.) 
Monreale, m6n-ra-jna(It.) 
Monrovia, mon-ro'vS-a (W. Af.) 
Monserrat, mon-ser-rat' (Sp.) 
Montabaur, mon-ta-bour' (Ger.) 
Montaf unerthal, mon - ta - f o ' uer - tal 

Montagnac, mofi-ta-nyak' (Fr.) 
Montagnana, mon-ta-nya'ua (It.) 
Montaigu, mofi-ta-gu' (Fr.) 
Montalban, mon-tal-ban' (Sp.) 
Montalcino, mon-tal-che'no (It.) 
Montalegre, mon-ta-le'gre (Sp.) 
Montalvao, mon-tal-voufi' (Port.) 
Montana, mon-ta'na (U. S.) 
Montanches, mon-tan-ches' (Sp.) 
Montauban, moh-to-bon' (Fr.) 
Montbard, mofi-bar' (Fr.) 
Montbelliard, mofi-bel-le-ar' (Fr.) 
Montblanch, mont-blanch' (Sp.) 
Montcalm, mont-kam' (Can. ; U. S.) 
Montdidier, mot-de-de-a' (Fr.) 
Montechiaro, mon-ta-ke-a'ro (It.) 
Monte-Christi, mon-ta-kres'te (Hayti) 
Montefiascone, mon-ta-fe-as-kO'na (It.) 
Montefrio, mon-ta-fre'6 (Sp.) 
Montego Bay, mon-te'go ba (W. Ind.) 
Monteith, mon-teth' (Scot.) 
Monteleone, mon-ta-la-o'na (It.) 
Mout^limart, mofi-ta-le-mar (Fr.) 
Montellano, mon-tel-lya'no ^Sp.) 
Montemolin, mon-te-mo-len' (Sp.) 
Montenegro, mon-ta-na'gro (Eur.) 
Montepulciano, mon-ta-pdl-cha'no (It.) 
Monterey, mou-te-ra' (U. S.); mon-te- 

ra'e (Mex.) 
Montevarchi, mon-ta-varTce (It.) 
Montevideo, m6n-ta-v6'de-6 (S. Am.) 
Montferrat, m6nt-far-rat'(lt.) 
Montgomery, mont-gum'e-ri (Wales; 

U. 8.) 
Mon thai, mofi-tft' (Switz.) 
Montiglio, mon-te'lyo (It.) 
Moutijo, mon-te'(5h6 (Sp.) 

zh, anire. French, vde, bat; 

bl^, nelif ; 

h, on. Qenuau, th, nacAt 




Montjoie, mon-zhwa' (Prus.) 
Montlu^on, mofi-ltl-sofi' (Fr.) 
Mont Marault, mon ma-ro' (Fr.) 
Montm6dy, mon-ma-de' (Fr.) 
Montm^lian, mont-ma-le-ofi' (Ft.) 
Montmorency, mon-nio-ron-se' (Fr.); 

mont-mo-ren'si (Can.) 
Montoro, mon-to'ro (Sp.) 
Montpelier, mont-pel'y^r (U. S.) 
Montpellier, mofi-pal-le-a' (Fr.) 
Montreal, mon-tre-al' (Can.) 
Montrejeau, mofi-tr-zho' (Fr.) 
Montreuil, mofi-treu-e'ye (Fr.) 
Montreux, mofi-treu' (Switz.) 
Montrose, mon-troz' (Scot.) 
Alontserrat, mont-ae-rat' (W. Ind.) isl. 
Monzie, mo-ne' (Scot.) 
Monzievaird, mon-i-vard' (Scot.) 
Moordrecht, mor'dredht (Neth.) 
Moorshedabad, mor-she-da-bad' (Ind.) 
Moquegua, mo-ke'gwa (Peru) 
Moradabad, mo-ra-da-biid' (Ind.) 
Moraleja, m6-ra-le'6ha (Sp.) 
Morant, mo-rant' (W. Ind.) 
Morat, mo-ra' (Switz.) 
Morava, mo-ra'va (Aust. ; Servia) r». 
Moravia, mo-ra' vi-a (Aust.) 
Moray, mur'i (Scot.) 
Morbegno, mor-ba'nyo (It.) 
Morbeya, mor-ba'ya (Mar.) r. 
Morbihan, mor-be-ofi' (Fr.) dep. 
Morea, mo-re'a (Gr.) 
Morecambe, morTcam (Eng.) 
Morelia, mo-re'le-a (Mex.) 
Morellii, mo-rellya (Sp.) 
Morelos, mo-rel'os (Mex.) 
Morena, Sierra, se-er'ra mo-re'na (Sp.) 
Moresby, Port, port morz'bi (N. Guin.) 
Moretta, mo-rat'ta (It.) 
Morez, mo-ra' (Fr.) 
Morgarten, mQT-g&r'ten (Switz.) 
Morges, morzh (Switz.) 
Morlaix, mor-la' (Fr. ) 
Morpeth, mor'peth (Eng.) 
Mortagne, mor-ta'nye (Fr.) 
Mortara, mor-ta'ra (It.) 
Mosambique, mo-zam-bek' (E. Af.) 
Mosciska, nios-tses'ka (Aust. Gal.) 
Moskva or Moskwa, mosk-va' (Rus.) r. 
Mosquitia, m5s-ke'te-a (Cent. Am.) 
Mossamba, mos-sam'ba (Af.) mts. 
Mossamedes, mos-sa-ma'des (S. At) 
Mossgiel, mos-gel' (Scot.) 
Mossocz, mosh'shots (Hung.) 
Mostaganem, m6s-ta-ga-nem'(Alg.) 
Mostar, mos-tar' (Herzeg.) 
Mosul, mo'sul (As. Tur.) 
Motagua, mo-ta'gwa (Cent. Am.) 
Motala, mo-ta'la (Swe.) 

Moukden, mok-den' (China) 

Moulins, mo-lah' (Fr.) 

Moulmain, moul-min' (Bur.) 

Moultau, mbl-tan' (Ind.) 

Moui-ao, mo-u-rouh' (Port.) 

Mourzouk, mbr-zbk' (N. Al.) 

Moutiers, mo-te-a' (Fr.) 

Moville, mo-vil' (Ir.) 

Moxos, mo'Chos (8. Am.) tr. 

Mozambique, mo-zam-bek' (Af.) 

Mpongwe, mpong'wa (W. Af) tr. 

Mpwapwa, mpwa'pwa (E. Af.) 

Msuata, msu-a'ta (Af.) 

Muchamiel, mo-cha-me-el' (Sp.) 

Mudgee, mud'je (Austral.) 

Muhlberg, miU'berg (Ger.) 

Muhlenbach, miU'en-badh (Au?t.) 

Miihlhausen, mdl'houz-en (Ger.) 

Muiden, moi'den (2<eth.) 

Muilrea or Mulrea, mwel-ra', mul-ra 
(Ir.) int. 

Muirkirk, myorTcerk (Scot.) 

Mulahacen, mb-la-a-then' (Sp.) 

Mulhacen, mbl-a-then' (Sp. ) 

Miilhausen, mtll'hou-zen (Ger.) 

Mullingar, mul-lin-gar' (Ir.) 

Multan, mbl-tan' (Ind.) 

Multedo, mol-ta'do (It.) 

Miinchen, mftu'6hen (Ger.) 

Miinchengratz, m(ln'(ihen-grats (Aust."! 

Mundaca, nibn-da'ka (Sp.) 

Mimdelsheim, muu'delz-him (Ger.) 

Muneepoor, mu-ne-pbr' (Ind.) 

Munich (English name of Germar 
Miinchen), myb'nik (Ger.) 

Miinsingen, mQn'ziug-en (Switz.) 

Munkacs, mbu'kach (Hung.) 

Miinster, mtln'ster (Ger.) 

Munster, mun'ster (Ir.) 

MUnsterberg, mQn'ster-berg (Prus.) 

Muonio, mb-6'ne-o (Rus. and Swe.) r. 

Muotta, mu-ot'ta (Switz.) 

Murano, mb-ra'no (It.) 

Murat, mQ-ra' (Fr.) 

Muravera, mb-ra-va'ra (It.) 

Murcia, mur'shi-a; Span. pron. mor'- 

Murfreesborough, m6r-frezT)u-ru(U.S.) 

Murghab, mor-gab' (As.) r. 

Murrumbidgee, mur'rum-bid'je (Aus- 
tral.) r. 

Murviedro, mor-ve-e'THro (Sp.) 

Muscat, mus-kat' (Ar.) 

Mushakh, mu-shak' (E. Af.) isl. 

Muskegon, mus-ke'gon (U. S.) 

Muskingum, mus-king'gum (U. S.) 

Mussendom, mus's«n-dom (Ar.) c. 

Mussomelio, mos-so-ma1e-o (It.) 

Mustung, mus-tung' (Beluch.) 

Fate, far, fat, f^ll; me, met, her, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; di, chain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; TH, then; th, thin; 





Muta Nzige, mo'ta nze'ge (Af.) I. 

Muttra, mut'tra (Ar.) 

Muy, Le, 16 mws' (Fr.) 

Muzo, mo'so (Ck)l.) 

Mwutan Xzige, mwb'tan nze'ge (Af.) I. 

Myconi, mik'6-ne (Gr.) isl. 

Mylau, me'lou (Ger.) 

Mysore, mi-sor' (Lad.) 


Naaldwijk, nald'vik (Neth.) 
Naas, nas, locally na'as (Ir.) 
Nab, nab (Ger.) r. 
Nablous, na-blos'(S}T.) 
Nachar, na-6har' (Ind.) 
Nachitchevan, na-chet'cha-van (Rus.) 
Nachod, na'dhod (Bohem.) 
Nacogdoches, na-ko-do'chiz (TJ. S.) 
Nagara, na-ga'ra (Tur. ; Borneo) 
Nagasaki, na-ga-sa'ke (Jap.) 
Nagy Banya, nodzh bon'yo (Hung.) 
Nagy ilaros, nodzh mo-rosh' (Hung.) 
Nagy V4rad, nodzh va'rod (Hung.) 
Nahant, na-bant' (U. S.) 
Nahe, na'e (Ger.) r. 
Najera, na-6he'ra (Sp.) 
Namaqualand, na-maTcwa-land (Af.) 
Nameszto, no-mes'to (Hung.) 
Namur, na-mljr'(Bel.) 
Nanaimo, na-ni'mo (Vane. Isl.) 
Nanas, no-nosh' (Hung.) 
Nancy, nofi-se' (Fr.) 
Nangasaki, n&n-g^-sa'ke (Jap.) 
NanKiiig, nan-king' (China) 
Nansemond, nan'se-mond (U. S.) 
Nantes, noht(Fr.) 
Nantua, noh-tO-a' (Fr.) 
Nantucket, nan-tuk'et (U. S.) 
Nantwich, nant'wich or nan'tich (Eng. ) 
Napoli (Naples), na'p6-le (It.) 
Napoli di Malvasia, na'po-ls d6 mal-va- 

■8'ft (Gr.) 
Napoli di Romania, na'p6-lS d6 ro-ma- 

Naranjos, nft-rin-ihos' (Cent. Am.) isls. 
Narbadi, nur-bud'a (Ind.) r. 
Narcondam, nar-kon-dam' (Ind.) igl. 
Narenta, na-ren'ta (Aust.) r. 
Narowa, nii-ro'va (Rus.) r. 
Narraganset, nar-ra-gan'set (U. 8.) 
Narraingunge, niir-ra-in-gunj' (Ind.) 
Na»eby, naz'bi (Eng.) 
Nashua, na8h'u-a(U. S.) 
Nassau, nils'sou (Ger.) 
Natal, na-tal' (E. Af.) 
Natauchta, na-touch'ta (Tur.) r. 
Natchez, nach'iz (U. S.) 

Natchitoches, nak'i-tosh (U. S.) 
Natunas, na-tb'nas (China) isls. 
Naugatuck, ua'ga-tuk (U. S.) 
Naumburg, noum'bbrg (Prus.) 
Naundoorbar, nan-dbr-bar' (Ind.) 
Nauplia, na'ple-a (Gr.) 
Nauta, na'uta (Ecuad.) 
Nauvoo, na-vb'(U. S.) 
Nava-del-Rey, na-va-del-re'e (Sp.) 
Navahermosa, na-va-er-mo'sa (Sp.) 
Navahoa, na-va-6'a (Mex.) 
Naval, na-val' (Sp.) 
Navalcamero, na-val-kar-ne'ro (Sp.) 
Navalnioral, na-val-mo-ral' (Sp.) 
Navalrerski, na-val-rar'ski (Rns.)ft. 
Navan, na-van' (Ir.) 
Navarino, na-va-re'n6(Gr.) 
Navarra, na-var'ra (Pen.) 
Navasota, na-va-s6'ta (Mex.) r. 
Naxia, naks'e-a (Mex.) 
Nazaire, St., safi na-zar'(Fr.) 
Neagh, Lough, lo6h na; locally, na'a6h 

Neath, neth (Wales) 
Nebraska, ne-bras'ka (U. S.) 
Neches, nech'iz (U. S.) 
Neckalofa, nek-ka-16'fa (S. Pac.) 
Neckar-Gremiind, nek-kar-ge-mOnd' 

Nedenes, na'de-nas (Nor.) 
Nederbrakel, na-der-bra'kel (Bel.) 
Neemutch, ne-much' (Ind.) 
Neftenbach, nef ten-bach (Switz.) 
Negapatam, na-ga-pa-tani' (Ind.) 
Negombo, ne-gom'bo (Ceylon) 
Negri Sembilan, nu'gre sem'bi-lan (Mai. 

Negro, Rio, re'6 na'gro (S. Am.) r. 
Nehavend, na-ha'vend (Pers.) 
Neheini, na'him (Prus.) 
Nehrung, na'rbng (Prus.) 
Neidenburg, ni'd«n-bbT^ (Prus.) 
Neilgherries, nel-ge'riz (Ind.) 
Neilston, nel'sten (Scot.) 
Neirai, nl'ra-e (S. Pac.) isl. 
Neirone, na-e-ro'na (It.) 
Neisse, nis'se (Prus.) 
Nejd, nejd (Ar.) 
Nejin, ne-zhen' rRus.) 
Nemaha, ne'ma-na (U. S.) 
Nemethi, na-ma'te (Aust.) 
Nemours, na-raor'(Fr.) 
Nenagh, ne'na; locally, ne'nath (Ir.) 
Nene, nen (Eng.) r. 
Neots, St., sant, colloquially sint ne'ots 

Nepaul, ne-pal' (Ind.) 
Nepean, ne-pe'an (S. Pac.) isl. 
Nephin, nef'in (Ir.) mt. 
Nepissing, nep'is-ing (Can.) 

zh, amre. French, yte, bQt; 

bl^, neuf ; 

fc, on. German, th, nacht. 




Nepomuck, na'po-mok (Bohem.) 
Nescopeck, nes'ko-pek (U. S.) 
Neshaminy, ne-sham'i-ni (U. S.) 
Nestved, nast'vaTH (Den.) 
Nesvij, nas'vezh (Rus.) 
Nether Stowey, nelH'er sto'i (Eng.) 
Netolitz, na'to-lets (Bohem.) 
Nettstal, nets'tal (Switz.) 
Nettuno, nat-Wno (It.) 
Neuberg, noi'berg (Ger.) 
Neiichatel, neu-sha-tel' (Switz.) 
Neudamm, noi'dam (Prus.) 
Neudorf , noi'dorf (Ger.) 
Neuenburg, noi'en-borg (Ger. ; Switz.) 
Neufchateau, neu-sha-to' (Fr. ; Bel.) 
Neufch&tel, neu-sha-tel' (Switz.) 
Neugedein, noi'ge-din (Bohem.) 
Neuhausel, noi'hauz-el (Hung.) 
Neuilly-sur-Seine, neti-e-lye'sOr-san" or 

neu-e-ye'sflr-san" (Fr.) 
Neukirch, noi'kerCh (Switz.) 
Neupaka, noi-pa'ka (Bohem.) 
Neusalz, noi'zalts (Prus.) 
Neuse, nyus (U. S.) 
Neu-Shehr, na'o-shar (As. Mi.) 
Neusiedl, noi-zedl' (Aust.) 
Neusiedler See, noi-zed'ler za(Hung.)i. 
Neustadt, noi'stat (Ger. ; Prus. ; Aust.) 
Neu-Strelitz, noi'stra-lets (Ger.) 
Neutitschein, noi-tet'shin (Aust.) 
Neuwedel, noi'va-del (Prus.) 
Neuwied, noi'ved (Prus.) 
Neva, nya'va (Rus.) r. 
Nevada, Sierra, se-ei-'ra ne-va'THa (Sp.) 
Nevada y Motilones, ne-va'THa e mot- 

Neville, ne-vel'lye (Mex.) 
Nevis, ne'vis (W. Ind.) isl. 
Newark, nyo'ark (Eng.; U. S.) 
Newbigging, nyo'big-ing (Scot.) 
Newbridge, nyo'brij (Wales) 
New Brunswick, nyo-brunz'wik (Can.) 
Newburgh, nyo'bu-ru (Scot.) 
Newbury, nyo'be-ri (Eng.) 
Newcastle, nyo'kas-el (Eng.) 
Newent, nyo'ent (Eng.) 
Newfoundland, nyu-found'land. Am. 

pronun. nyo-found-land' (N. Am.) 
New Granada, nyo gra-na'da (S. Am.) 
New Orleans, nyo oi-'le-anz (U. S.) 
Newry, nyd'ri (Ir.) 
Nexel, nek'sel (Den.) isl. 
Nexoe, nek'seu-e (Den.) 
Ngami, nga'me (S. At) I. 
Nganhoei, ngan-ho-a'e; almost ngan- 

hwa' (China) 
Niagara, ni-ag'a-ra (Can.) 
Niam-Niam, ne-am'ne-ani" (Af. ) tn. 
Nias, ne-as' (Ind. Ocean) isl. 

Nicaragua, ne-ka-ra'gwa (N. Am.) 
Nice, nes (It.) 

Nicobar, nik-6-bar' (As.) isls. 
Nicolaiev, ne-ko-li'yef (Rus.)/^ 
Nicolas, St., sah ne-ko-la' (Bel.) 
Nicolosi, ne-ko-16'se (It.) 
Nicomedia, ne-ko-ma'de-a (As. >0.) 
Nicopoli, ne-ko'po-le (Tur.) 
Nicosia, ne-ko-se'a (Sic. ; Cyprus) 
Nicoya, ne-ko'ya (Mex.) g. 
Niederbaiern, ne-der-bi'6rn (Ger.) 
Niemen, nya'men (Rus.) r. 
Niengyan, nyeng-yan' (Bur.) 
Nieuwendam, nyeu'ven-dam (Neth.) 
Nieuweveld, nyo' felt- (Cape Col.) 
Nifevre, ne-avr' (Fr.) dep. 
Nigdeh, neg'de (Tur.) 
Niger, ni'j6r (Af.) r. 
Niigata, ne-e-ga'ta (Jap.) 
Niihau, ne-e-hou' (Sand. Isls.) 
Nijar, ne-6har' (Sp.) 
Nijehaske, 'u-e-has'ke (Neth.) 
Nijkerk, ni'kerk (Neth.) 
Nijmegen, ni'ma-gen (Neth.) 

Nijnei-Lomov, nizh-ni-16-mov' (Rus.) 

Nijnei-Novgorod, nizh - ni - nov ' go - rod 

Nikita, n6-ke'ta (Rus.) 

Nikolai, ne'ko-li (Prus.) 

Nikolsburg, ne'kols-bbrg (Aust.) 

Nikolskaia, ne-kol-ski'ya (Rus.) 

Nikopol, ne'ko-pol (Tur.) 

Nilgherry, nil-ge'ri (Ind.) mt. 

Nimar, ne-mar' (Ind.) 

Nimptsch, nempch (Prus.) 

Nimwegen, nim-va'gen (Neth.) 

Ning-Hia, ning-hya' (China) 

Ninose, ne-no'sa (Jap.) 

Ninove, ne-no'va (Bel.) 

Niort, ne-or' (Fr.) 

Niphon, ne-fon' (Jap.) 

Nipissing, nip'is-ing (N. Am.) I. 

Nishapoor, ne-sha-poi"' (Pers.) 

Nismes, nem (Fr.) 

Nitcheguon, nich'e-gwon (N. Am.) i. 

Nitherohi, ne-te-ro'e (Braz.) 

Nivelles, ne-vel' (Bel.) 

Nivemais, ne-var-na' (Fr.) 

Nixdorf, neks'dorf (Bohem.) 

Niza, ne'za (Port.) 

Nizam, ne-zam' (Ind.) 

Nizza, net'sa {It) 

Njurunda, nyo-ron'da (Swe.) 

Noakote, no-a-ko'te (Nepaul.) 

Noale, no-a'la (It.) 

Noalejo, no-a-le'cho (Sp.) 

Nocera, no-cha'ra (It.) 

Noceto, no-che'to (Sp.) 

Nodwengu, nod-weng'gu (S. Af.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go', j, ;ob; y, j/es; IH, «Aen; th, thin', 





Nogent, no-zhon' (Ft.) 
Nogiiera, no-ge'ra (Sp.) r. 
Nohcacab, no-ka-kab' (Mex.) 
Noirmont, nwgr-mon' (Switz.) 
Noirmoutiers, nwar-mo-te-a' (Fr.) 
Nontron, noii-troft' (Fr.) 
Noordbroek, nord'brok (Xeth.) 
Noordwijkerhout, nord'vi-ker-hout 

Norcia, nor'cha (It.) . 
Nord, nor (Fr.) dep. 
Nordemey, nor'der-ni (Ger.) 
Norderoog, noi-'der-66h (Neth.) isl. 
Nordkyn, nor'ktin (Nor.) c. 
Nordlingen, neurd'ling-eu (Ger.) 
Nordmalinse, nor-ma'ling-a (Nor.) 
Nordstrand, nor'stran (Den.) isl. 
Nora, nor (Eng.) 
Norfolk, nor'fok (Eng.) 
Norridgewock, nor'rij-wok (U. S.) 
Norrkoping, nor-ch^p'ing (Swe.) 
Norrska Fiellen, norsTca fe-el'len (Nor.) 
Norrtelge, nor-tal'ya (Swe.) 
Nort, nor (Fr.) 

Northallerton, north-allSr-ton (Eng.) 
Northampton, north-amp'ton (Eng.) 
Northeira, nopt'him (Ger.) 
Northumberland, nor-thumTiSr-land 

Northwich, north'wlch (En^.) 
Norwich, nor'ich (Eng.); norich or nor'- 

wlch (U. S.) 
Nossibe, nos-si-ba' (Ind. Oc.) isl. 
Notaro, no-ta'ro (It.) 
Notteroe, not'ta-reu-e (Nor. ) isl. 
Nottingham, not'ing-am (Eng.) 
Noumea, no-ma-a' (N. Caled.) 
Nouvions, no-ve-6u'(Fr.) 
Novara, no-va'ra (It.) 
Nova Scotia, no'va sko'shi-a CN. Am.) 
Novaya Zemlya, no-vi'ya zem'lya(Ru3.) 

Nova Zembla, no'va zem'bla (Rus.) 
Novelda, no-vel'da (Sp.) 
Noventa, no-van'ta (It.) 
Novgorod, nov'go-rod (Rus.) 
Novi-Bazar, no-ve-ba-zar' (Bosnia) 
Novi Ligure, no've le-gb'ra (It.) 
Novomirgorod, n6-v5-mer'go-rod 

Noya, no'ya (Sp.) 
Noyer, Le, 16 nwji-ya' (Fr.) 
Nueva, nu-e'va(Pen.) 
Nuevitas, nwe-vg'taa (Cuba) 
Nuevo Leon, nu-e'v6 le-6n' (Mex.) 
Nu-Gariep, no-ga-rep' (S. Af.) r. 
Nuggur, nug'gfer (Ind.) 
Nuits, ntt-e'(Fr.) 

Nuka-Hiva, noTia-he-va (S. Pac.) isl. 
Numansdorp, nfi'manz-dorp (Neth.) 

Nun, non (Mar. ; W. Af. ; Manchoor.) 
Nundydroog, nun-di-drbg' (Ind.) 
Nuneaton, mm-e'ton (Eng.) 
Nunez, Rio, re'o no-nez' ("W. Af.) r. 
Nunivack, nun'i-vak (Behring's Sea) isl. 
Nurnberg, niini'berg (Ger.) 
Nurpur, nor-por' (Ind.) 
Niirtingen, n<lr'ting-en (Ger.) 
Nusserabad, nus-ser-a-bad' (Ind.) 
Nuyt's Archipelago, noits ar-ki-pel'a- 

go (Austral.) 
Nyack, ni'ak (U. S.) 
Nyangwe, nyang'we (Af.) 
Nyassa, nyas'sa (E. Af.) 
Nyby, nii'bft (Swe. ) 
Nyeborg or Nyborg, nii'e-borg or nf- 

borg (Den.) 
Nyegaard, n<i'e-gor (Den.) 
Nyhamni, nu'ham (Swe.) 
Nyiregyhdza, nyer-edzh-ha'zo (Hung.) 
Nykerk, ni'kerk (Neth.) 
Nykobing, nii-ky^b'eng (Den.) 
Nykbping, nii-cheup'ing (Swe.) 
Nyslott, nu'slot (Rus.) 
Nystad, nti'stad (Rus.) 
Nysted, nfi'sted (Den.) 


Oahu, 6-a-ho' (Sand. Isls.) 
Oajaca. o-a-6ha'ka (Mex.) 
Oban, o'ban (Scot.) 
Obe or Obi, 6'be (Rus.) r. 
Obeid, o-ba'ed (Af.) 
Oberlin, oTifir-lm (U. S.) 
Obernai, o-ber-na' (Alsace) 
Oberstein, oTjer-stin (Ger.) 
Oberuzweil, 6-ber-ots'vil (Switz.) 
Oberwesel, o-ber-va'zel (Prus.) 
Obidos, 6-be-d6s' (Port. ; Braz.) 
Oboyan or Obojan, o'bo-yan (Rus.) 
Ocafta, o-ka'nya (Sp.) 
Occimiano, ot-che-me-ji'no (It.) 
Occoquan, ok'ko-kwan (U. S.) 
Oceania, o-she-an'i-a (Pac. Oc.) 
Oceola, 6-86-6'la (U. S.) 
Ochakov, och-U-kof (Rus.)!?^ 
Ochill Hills, 66h'il hilz (Scot.) 
Ochiltree, odi'el-tre (Scot.) 
Ochotsk, 6-Chotsk' (Rus.) sea 
Ochrida, 6-6hre'da (Tur.^ 
Ochsenfurt, oks'en-fbrt (Ger.) 
Ochta, o6h'tii(Rus.) 
Ocmulgee, ok-miil'ge (U. S.) 
Oconee, 6-k6'ne (U. S.) 
Ocosingo, o-ko-sing'go (Mex.) 
Octorara, ok-to-ra'ra (U. S.) 
OczakofT, och-a-kof (Rus.)/«. 

zh, ware. 

French, vHe, b&t; bleti, neuf ; h, on. 

German, 6b, nacAt 




Odemira, 6-da-me'ra (Port.) 
Odense, 6'den-sa (Den.) 
Odensholm, o'denz-holm (Rus.) isl. 
Odenwald, o'den-valt (Ger.) 
Oderau, 6'de-rou (Aust.) 
Oderzo, 6-dar'tso (It.) 
Odessa, 6-des'sa (Eus.) 
Odeypoor, o-di-pbi-' (Ind.) 
Oedenbur^, eu'den-bbrg (Aust.) 
Oedenrode, St., sant o'den-ro-de (Neth.) 
Oederan, eU'de-ran (Ger.) 
Oehringen, eti'ring-en (Ger.) 
Oeiras, 6-a'e-ras ; almost wa'ras (Port. ; 

Oeland, eu'lan (Swe.) isl. 
Oerebro or Orebro, eu're-bro (Swe.) 
Oeta, e'ta (Gr.) mt. 
Oettingen, eut'ing-en (Ger.) 
Of en, 6'fen(Au8t.) 
Ogahden, o-ga'den (E. Af.) 
Ogeechee, o-ge'che (U. S.) r. 
Oglethorpe, 6'gel-thorp (U. S.) 
Oglio, o'lyo (It.) r. 

Ogovf6 or Ogowai, og'o-wa (W. Af.) r. 
Ohanez, 6-ha-neth' (Sp. ) 
Ohasaka, o-ha-sa'ka (Jap.) 
Ohio, o-hi'6(U. S.)r. 
Ohiva-Oa, 6-he'va-o'a (S. Pac.) isl. 
Ohlau, 6'lou (Ger.) 
Ohomura, o-ho-mo'ra (Jap.) 
Oiat, 6'yat (Rus.)r. 
Oich, Loch, loch oidh (Scot.) 
Oignies, wa-nye' (Bel.) 
Oignon, wa-nyon' (Fr.) r. 
Oirschot, 6'ir-s6hot (Neth.) 
Oisterwijk, 6'is-ter-vik (Neth.) 
Okehampton, ok'hamp-ton (Eng.) 
Okhota, 6-6h6'ta (Sib.) r. 
Okhotsk, 6-6hotsk'(A8.) 
Okladnikovo, ok-lad-ne-ko'vo (Rus.) I. 
Olbernhau, ol'bern-hou (Ger.) 
Oldeboom, ol-d6-born' (Neth.) 
Oldenburg, 61'den-borg (Ger.) 
Oldeslo, ol'des-leu (Ger.) 
Oldham, old'ara (Eng.) 
Olean, 6-le-an' (U. S.) 
Olekma, o-lek'ma (As.) r. 
Olenek, 6'la-nek (Sib.) r. 
016ron, 6-la-roft' (Fr.) 
Olesa, 6-le'sa(Sp.) 
Oletzko, 6-lets'ko (Prus.) 
Olevano, 6-la-va'n6 (It.) 
Olgiate, 61-ja'ta, (It.) 
Olginate, 61-je-na'ta (It.) 
Oliena, 6-le-a'na (It.) 
Olif ant's River, ol'i-fants ri'v6r (S. Af.) 
Oliva, 6-le'va(Sp.) 
Olivaes, ol-e-va'es (Port.) 
Olivares, o-le-va-res' (Sp.) 

Oliveira, o-le-va'e-ra (Port. ; Brazil.) 

Olivenza, o-le-ven'tha (Sp.) 

Oliveto, o-le-va'to (It.) 

Olkanskaia, ol-kan-ski'ya (Rus.) 

Olkhon, ol'6h6n (Sib.) isl. 

OUeria, 6-lye-re'a (Sp.) 

Olmedo, 6l-me'THo (Sp.) 

Olmeto, ol-ma'to (Cors.) 

Olmiitz, ol'mflts (Aust.) 

Olney, orni(Eng.) 

Olonetz, 6'16-nets (Rus.) 

Oloron, 6-l6-r5fi' (Fr.) 

Olten, 61' ten (Switz.) 

Oltenitza, 61-ta-net'sa (Tur.) 

Olutorskoi, o-lO-tors'ko-e (Sib.) c. 

Olvera, 61-ve'ra (Sp.) 

Omagh, o'ma; locally, o-ma6h'(Ir.) 

Omaha, o'ma-hji (U. S.) 

Oman, o-man' ( Ar. ) 

Ombay, 6m-bi' (East. Arch.) iM. 

Ombergsheden, 6m'bergs-ha-den (Swe.) 

Omer, St., saii-to-mar' (Fr.) 

Ometeque, 6-me-te'ke (Cent. Am.) 

Omoa, 6-m6'a (Cent. Am.) 

Omoe, o'meu-e (Den.) isl. 

Omolon, o-mo-lon' (Sib.) r. 

Onate, 6-nya'te (Sp.) 

OneaHalgan, o-ne'a hal'gan (S. Pac.) is?. 

Onega, 6-nya'ga (Rus. ) 2>i!. 

Oneglia, 6-na'lya(It.) 

Oneida, 6-ni'da (U. S.) 

Onekotan, o-ne'ko-tan (N. Pac.) isl. 

Onnaing, 6n-nafi' (Fr.) 

Onon, o'non (Mongolia) r. 

Onondaga, on-on-da'ga (U. S.) 

Onstwedde, ons-tved'de (Neth.) 

Ontario, on-ta'ri-o (N. Am.) 

Onteniente, on-te-ne-en'te (Sp.) 

Ontonagon, on-to-nag'on (U. S.) 

Oo, 6 (Fr.) 

Oojein, b-jin' (Ind.) 

Oonalashka, b-na-lash'ka (N. Pac.) isl. 

Oonimak, b-ni-mak' (N. Pac.) isl. 

Oonjara, bn-ja'ra (Ind.) 

Oordegem, or'de-gem (Bel.) 

Oorfa, br'fa (Tur.) 

Oorga, br'ga (Cent. As.) 

Ooroomiyah, b-rb-me'ya (Per.) 

Oosima, b-se'ma (Jap.) 

Oosterbeek os'ter-bak (Neth.) 

Oosterhout, os'ter-hout (Neth.) 

Oostkerke, ost'ker-ke (Neth.) 

Ootacamund, b-ta-ka-mund' (Ind.) 

Ootmarssum, ot-mars'sum (Neth.) 

Ootradroog, b-tra-drbg' (Ind.) 

Opatow, o-pa-tof (Rus. ) 

Opelousas, op-e-lb'sas (U. S.) 

Openshaw, o'pen-sha (Eng.) 

Ophir, b'fer (Mai. Pen.) mt. 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, her, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, buU; oil, pound; ch, c^ain; g, go; hjoh; y, j/es; tk, then; th, thin; 





Opoczno, 6-poch'n6 (Rus.) 

Oporto, o-por'to (Port.) 

Oppeln, op'pcln (Prus.) 

Oppenheim, op'peu-him (Gter.) 

Oppido, 6p'pe-do (It.) 

Oragawa, 6-ra-ga'wa (Jap.) 

Oran, 6-raix' (Alg.) 

Orange, 6-rohzh' (Fr.) 

Orani, 6-ra'ne (It.) 

Oranieuburg, o-ra'ne-en-borg (Prus.) r. 

Oranmore, o-ran-ni6r'(Ir.) 

Oravicza, 6-ra-ve'tsa (Hung.) 

Orbey, 6r-ba' (Alsace) 

Orbye, orlbti-e (Den.) 

Orce, 6i-'the(Sp.) 

Orchies, 6r-she' /Fr.) 

Orchilla, or-cherlya (Veuez.) 

Orciano, or-chii'no (It.) 

Ordona, 6r-d6'na (It. ) 

Ordufia, 6r-do'nya (Sp.) 

Orebro, eti're-bro (Swe.) 

Oregon, oi-'i-gon (IT. S.) 

Orel, or-yol' (Rus. ) 

Orellana, 6-rel-lya'na (Sp.) 

Orenburg, 6'ren-borg (Rus.) 

Orense, 6-ren'se (Sp. ) 

Orgiios, 6r-goiuiz' (Braz.) mts. 

Orgaz, 6r-gath' (Sp.) 

Orgon, OT-goix' (Fr.) 

Orient, L', 16-re-ou' (Fr.) 

Origny, o-re-nye' (Fr.) 

Orihuela, o-re-u-e'la (Sp.) 

Orinoco, o-re-no'ko (S. Am.) 

Oriskany, o-ris'ka-ni (U. S.) 

Orissa, o-ris'sa (Ind.) 

Orlstano, o-res-ta'no (It.) 

Orizaba, 6-re-sa'va (Mex. ) 

Orklion, 6r-6h6n' (Mongol.) r. 

Orlamiinde, 6r-la-miin'de (Ger.) 

Orl^anais, 6r-la-a-na' (Fr.) 

Orleans, 6r-la-on' (Fr.) 

Orlogshainn, 6r^og8-ham (Rus.) haven. 

Onnea, 6r-ma'a (It. ) 

Orni.sby, ormz'bi (Eng.) 

Orniskirk, ormzTcerk (Eng.) 

Omiuz, or'muz (Per. ) 

Ornain, 6r-nah' (Fr.) r. 

Ornans, 6r-nofi' (Fr.) 

Oronoco, 6-r6-n6'ko (S. Am.) 

Orontes, 6-ron'tez (Syr. ) 

Oropesa, o-ro-pe'sii (3p.) 

Oropo, o-ro'po (Gr.) 

Oroshaza, or-osn-ha'zo (Hung.) 

Orotava, 6-r6-ta'va (Canary Isls.) 

Oroya, o-ro'ya (Peru) 

Oreova, or'sho-va (Servia) 

Ortegal, or-te-gal' (Sp.) c. 

Ortelsburg, 6r't«lz-borg (Prus.) 

Orthez, 6r-ta' (Fr.^ 

Ortler Spitze, ort'ler spet'se (Tyrol) m<, 

Ortona, or-to'na (It.) 
Oruba, 6-ro'ba (W. Ind.) 
Oruro, 6-ro'ro (Bol. ) 
Orvieto, or-ve-a'to (It.) 
Orzinovi, 6r-tse-no've (It ) 
Osage, o-saj' or 6'sij (U. S.) 
Osaka, o-sa'ka (Jap.) 
Oschersleben, o-sherz-la'ben (Ger.) 
Osilo, 6-seao (It.) 
Osima, 6-se'ma (Jap.) isl. 
Oslo di Sopra, 6'se-o de so'pra (It.) 
Osman-Bazar, os-man'ba-zar" (Bulg.) 
Osmandjik, 6s-nian'jek (Tur.) 
Osnabriick, os'na-brttk (Ger.) 
Osomo, 6-sor'no (S. Am.) 
Osselt, os'selt (Eng.) 
Ossero. 6s-sa'ro (Adr. Sea) isl. 
Ostend, 6s-tend' (Belg.) 
Osterburg, os'ter-borg (Prus.) 
Osterby, os'ter-bti (Swe.) 
Osterode, os-ta-ro'de (Ger.) 
Ostersund, os'ter-son (Swe.) 
Osterwiek, os'ter-vek (Prus.) 
Ostia, os'te-a (It.) 
Ostiaks, ost'yaks (As.) 
Ostiano, 6s-te-a'n6 (It.) 
Ostiglia, os-te'lya (It.) 
Ostrogojsk, os-tro-go'isk (Rus.) 
Ostrolenka, 6s-tr6-lan'ka (Rus.) 
Osuna, 6-sb'na (Sp.) 
Oswegatchie, os-we-gach'i (U. S.) 
Oswego, os-we'g6(U. S.) 
Oswestry, oz'es-tri (Eng.) 
Oswiecim, 6s-ve-at'sim (Aust. Gal.) 
Otago, o-ta'go (N. Zd.) 
Otaheite, o-ta-he'te (Soc. Isls.) 
Otavalo, 6-ta-va'lo (Ecuador) 
Otchakov, och-a-kof (Rus.) 
Otea, 6-ta'a (N. Zd.) isl. 
Otranto, o-tran'to (It.) 
Otricoli, o-tre'ko-le (It.) 
Otsego, ot-se'go (U. S.^ I. 
Ottajano, ot-ta-ya'no (ItX 
Ottawa, ot'ta-wa (Can.) 
Otterburn, ot'ter-b6rn (Eng.) 
Ottobeuren, 6t-to-boi'rcn (Ger.) 
Ottone. 6t-t6'na (It.) 
Oturaba, o-tom'ba (Mex.) 
Ouachita, wa'shi-ta(U. S.) 
Oualan, o'a-lan (N. Pac. Oc.) 
Ouchy, o-she'(Switz.) 

Oude or Oudh, oud (Ind.) 
" " ■'; Fie 

ou-de-niir'de (Bel.) 

Oudenarde, b-de-nard'; Flemlsn pi-on. 

Ouderkerk, ou'der-kerk (Neth.) 
Oudewater, ou'de-vii-ter (Neth.) 
Ouen, St., sah-tb-ah' (Fr.) 
Oufa, b'fa (Rus.) r. 

Oughteraru, ou't6r-ard or 6't6r-&rd; 
locaUy, 0(Sh-t6r-ard' (Ir.) 

zh. azure. 

French, vfte, bOt; bleTi, netif; fi, o>i. 

German, 6h, nacht. 




Oundle, oun'del (Eng.) 
Ourga, or'ga (Mong.) 
Ourique, o-u-re'ka (Port.) 
Ouro Preto, 6'u-ro pra'to (Braz.) 
Ouse, oz (Eng.) r. 
Outagamie, o-ta-gam'i (U. S.) 
Ovada, 6-va'da (It.) 
Ovalau, 6-va-lou' (Fiji) isl 
Ovar, 5-var' (Port.) 
Overflakkee, o-ver-flakTce (Neth.) 
Overijssel, 6-ver-is'sel (Neth.) 
Oviedo, 6-ve-e'TH6(Sp.) 
Owasco, 6-was'ko (U. S.) 
Owhyhee, o-hwi-he' (Sand. Isls.) 
Oxus, oks'us (As.)r. 
Oyapok, o-ya-pok' (S. Am.) r. 
Oye, wa (Fr.) 

Oyonnax, 6-yon-naks' (Fr.) 
Ozania, o-sa'ma (Hayti) r. 
Ozara, 6-za'ra (Hung.) 
Ozark, 6-zark' (U. S.) 
Ozieri, o-tse-a're (It.) 
Ozorkov, 6-zorTtov (Pol.) 

Pabbay, pabHba (Scot.) isls. 
Pabilonis, pa-be-lo'nes (It.) 
Pacaraima, Sierra, se-er'ra pa-ka-ra'e 

ma (S. Am.) 
Pachacamac, pa-cha-ka-mak' (Peru) 

Pachitea, pa-che-te'a (Peru) r. 
Pachuca, pa-cho'ka (Mex.) 
Padang, pa-dang' (Sumatra) 
Padenghe, pa-dan'ga (It.) 
Paderborn, pa'der-born (Ger.) 
Padiham, pad'i-ham (Eng.) 
Padova, pa'do-va (It.) 
Padua (Anglicised form of It. Padova), 

Paducah, pa-dyb'ka (U. S.) 
Paesana, pa-a-sa'na (It.) 
Paganico, pa-ga-ne'ko (It.) 
Pahang, pa-hang' (Mai. Pen.) 
Paignton, pan' ton (Eng.) 
Paillasse, pa-lyas' or pa-yas' (Fr.) 
PaimbcBuf, pah-beuf (Fr.) 
Paisley, paz'li (Scot.) 
Pajares, pa Chii res (Sp.) 
Pakracz, pa-krats' (Slav.) 
Paks, poksh (Hung.) 
Palacios, pa-la- the-6s' (Sp.) 
Palaestro, pa-la-as'tro ht.) 
Palafurgell, pa-la-fdr-dhel' (Sp.) 
Palamos, pa'la-raos (Sp.) 
Palancia, pa-lan-the'a (Sp.) r. 

Palanka, pa-ian'ka (Hung.) 
Palanza, pa-lan'tsa (It.) 
Palatinate, pa-lat'i-nat (Ger.) 
Palaur, pa-lar' (Ind.^ r. 
Palawan, pa-la- wan' (East. Arch.) isl. 
Palazzo, pa-lat'tso (It.) 
Palegiano, pa-la-ja'no (It.) 
Palembang, pa-lem-bang' (Sumatra) 
Palena, pa-la'na (It.) 
Palencia, pa-len-the'a (Sp.) 
Palenque, pa-len'ke (Mex.) 
Palermo, pa-lai-'mo (It.) 
Palestrina, pa-les-tre'nii (It.) 
Paliano, pa-le-a'no (It.) 
Palighaut, pa-le-gat' (Ind.) 
Palk, pak(Ind.)s<r. 
Pallanza, pal-lan'tsa (It.) 
Palmar, pal-mftr' (Sp.) 
Palmaria, pal-ma-re'a (ItJ isl. 
Palmeiras, pal-ma'e-ras (Braz.) 
Palmyra, pal-mi'ra (Syria) 
Palomar, pa-16-mar' (Sp.) 
Palota, pa-16'to (Hung.) 
Pamir, pa-mer' (Cent. As.) 
Pamlico, pam'li-ko (U. S.) 
Pampas, pam'pas (S. Am.) 
Pampeluna, pam-pe-lo'na (Sp.) 
Pampilhoza, pani-pe-lyo'za (Port.) 
Pamplona, pam-plo'na (Sp.) 
Pamunky, pa-mung'ki (U. S.) 
Panama, pa-na-ma' (S. Am.) 
Pananich, pan'-a-niCh (Scot.) 
Panaur, pa-nar' (Ind.) r. 
Panay, pa-ni' (East. Arch.) isl. 
Pancalieri, pan-ka-le-a're (It.) 
Panchshir, panch'sher (Afg.) val. 
Pancsova, pan'cho-vo rHung.) 
Pandacan, pan-da-kan' (Philip.) 
Pandeiros de Baixe, pan-da'e-ros da bi'- 

Pangansene, pan-gan-sa'na (Ind. Arch.) 

Pangasinan, pan-ga-se-nan' (Philip.) 
Panhandle, pan'han-del (U. S.) 
Paniput, pa-ne-put' (Ind.) 
Pankota, pan-ko'to (Hung.) 
Panompeng, pa-nom'peng (Siam)' 
Panomsok, pa-nom'sok (Siam) 
Panteg or Panteague, pan-teg* (Eng.) 
Pantellaria, pan-tal-la-re'a (It.) isl. 
Panticosa, pan-te-ko'sa (Sp.) 
Panuco, pa-nij'ko (Mex.) 
Panwell, pan-wel' Qnd.) 
Paou, pa'o (Fiji) isl. 
Papantla, pa-pan t'la (Mex.) 
Papasquiaro, pa-pas-ke-a'ro (Mex.) 
Papa-Stour, pa-pa-stor' (Scot.) isl. 
Papua, pa'pu-a or pa-pb'a (S. Pac.) isl. 
Para, pa-ra' (Braz.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met. h6r. golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, buU; oil, pound; ch, chain; g, go; j.job; y, j/es; tu, then; th, thin; 





Paracatu, pa-i^-ka-to' (Braz.) r. 
Paragua, pa-ra'gwa(Venez.) r. 
ParaguaQU, pa-ra-gwa-sb'(Braz.) r. 
Paraguay, par'a-gwa; Span. pron. pa- 

ra-gwi'(S. Am.) 
Parahiba or Parahyba, pa-ra-e'ba 

Paramaribo, pa-ra-ma'ri-bo (S. Am.) 
Paramatta, pa-ra-mat'ta (Austral.) 
Paranagua, pa-ra-na-gwa' (S. Am.) 
Paranahyba, pa-ra-na-e'ba (Braz.) 
Paranapanema, pa-ra-na-pa-na'ma 

(Braz.) r. 
Parati, pa-ra'te (Braz.) 
Parchim, par'them (Ger.) 
Pardubitz, par'du-bets (Bohem.) 
Paredes, pa-re'THes (Sp.) 
Paria, pa're-a (S. Am.) g. 
Paris, pa-re, Eng. par'is (Fr.) 
Painahiba, par-na-e'ba (Braz.) r. 
Paropamisan (Mts.), pa-ro-pam-i-zan' 

Parthenay, par-t«-na' (Fr.) 
Partick, par'tik (Scot.) 
Pascagoula, pas-ka-go'Ia (U. S.) 
Pascuaro, pas-ku-a'ro (Alex.) 
Pas-de-Calais, pa-d6-ka-la' (Fr.) 
Pasig, pa'seg (Philip.) r. 
Paaion, Rio de la, re'6 de la pa-se-on' 

(Cent. Am.) 
Pasitano, pa-se-ta'no (It.) 
Passage, pas'saj (Ir.) 
Passaic, pas-sa'ik (U. S.) 
Paasamaquoddy, pas-sa-ma-kwod'di 

(U. S.) 
Passariano, pas-sa-re-a'no (It.) 
Passarovitz, pas-sa-ro'vets (Tur.) 
Pastacja, pas-ta'sa (S. Am.) r. 
Pastrana, pas-tra'na (Sp.) 
Paszto, pas'to (Hung.) 
Patagonia, pa-ta-go'ni-a (S. Am.) 
Patapsco, pa-tap'8k6 (U. S.) r. 
Patia, pa-t^'a (Colom.) r.r. 
Patjitan, pat'ye-tan (Java) 
Patras, pa-tras' (Gr.) 
Patria, pji-tre'a, (It.) I. 
Patricroft, pa'tri-kroft (Eng.) 
Pattensen, pat't«n-zen (Ger.) 
Pattialah, pat-te-ii'la (Ind.) 
Patuxent, pa-tuk'sent (U. S.) 
Patzum, pat-Bom' (Cent. Am.) 
Pau, p6(Fr.) 

Paucartambo, pa-u-kar-tam'bo (Peru) 
Pauillac, p6-e-lyak' or p6-e-yak' (Fr.) 
Paulghautcherry, p»l-g3t-che'ri (Ind.) 
Paria, pa'vi-a; Ital. pron. pa-v§'tt(It.) 
Pavone, pft-v6'na (It.) 
Paweea, pa-we'a (W. Af.) 
Pawtucket, p8-tuk'et (U. 8.) 
Pawtuxet, pft-tuk'set (U. S.) 

Payerne, pa-yern' (Switz.) 

Paysandii, pa-e-san-do' (Urug.) 

Payta, pa'e-ta (Peru) 

Peban, pe-ban' (Mex.) 

Pecatonica, pek-a-ton'i-ka (U. S.) 

Peckham, pek'am (Eng.) 

Pecs, pech (Hung.) 

Pedee, pe-de' (U. S.) r. 

Pedraza, pa-dra'sa (Venez.) 

Pedrogao, pa-dro-goufi' (Port.) 

PedrofLeras, pe-?Hro-nye'ras (Sp.) 

Pedroso, pe-THro'so (Sp.) 

Peebles, pe'belz (Scot.) 

•Pegalajar, pe-ga-la-Char' (Sp.) 

Pegu, pe-go'(As.) 

Pei-Ho, pa-ho' (China) r. 

Peipus, pa'e-pus (Bus.) I. 

Pekalongan, pa-ka-lon'gan (Java) 

Pekela, pa'ke-la (Neth.) 

Pekin or Peking, pe-kin', pe-king* 

Pelestrina, pa-las-trg'na (It.) 
Peling, pa-ling' (East. Arch. ; Yel. Sea) 

Pellegi-ino, pal-la-gre'no (It.) 
Pellew, pellyo (Austral.) isls. 
Pelotas, pa-16'tas (Braz.) 
Peltew, pel-tev' (Aust. Gal.) r. 
Pefiaflel, pe-nya-fe-el' (Sp.) 
Penalara, pen-ya-la'ra (Sp.) 
Penalva, pe-nal'va (Port.) 
Penamacor, pa-na-ma-kor' (Port.) 
Penang, pe-nang^ (East. Pen.) isl. 
Pefiaroya, pe-nya-r6'ya(Sp.) 
Pefiaa deSan Pedro, pen'yas de san 

pa'lHro (Sp.) 
Penedo, pa-na'do (Braz.) 
Penge, penj (Eng.) 
Peniche, pa-ne'sha (Port.) 
Penicuik, pen-i-kuk' (Scot.) 
Pefiiscola, pen-yes-ko'la (Sp.) 
Penmaenmawr, Welsli pron. pen- 

ma'en-mour (Wales) 
Pennar, pen-nar' (Ind.)r. 
Pennigant, pen'ni-gant (Eng.) int. 
Pennsylvania, pen-sil-va'ni-a (U. S.) 
Penobscot, pe-nob'skot (U. S.) 
Pefion de Velez, pe-nyon' de ve'leth 
Penrith, pen'rith (Eng.) 
Penryn, pen'rin (Eng.) 
Pensacola, pen-sa-ko'la (U. 8.) 
Penteli, pen'te-le (Gr.)7n<. 
Penzance, pen-zans' (Eng.) 
Peoria, pe-6'ri-a (U. S.) 
Pequefies, pe-ken'yes (S. Am.) mt. pass 
Perak, pa'rak (Mai. Pen.) 
Peraleda, pe-ra-le'THa (Sp.) 
Perekop, pe're-kop (Rus.) 
Peribouaca or Peribuca, per-l-b\}-a-kil', 


Zh, azure. French, vOe, btjt; bl«^, neuf; fi, on 

German, 6h, nacht 




P^rigord, pa-re-gor' (Fr.) 

Perigueux, pa-re-geu' (Fr.) 

Perija, pa-re'6ha (Venez.) 

Perim, pa-rem' (Red Sea) isl. 

Pernagoa, per-nii'go-a. (Braz.) 

Pernambuco, par-uam-bb'ko (Braz.) 

Femes, parn (Fr.) 

Pernis, per'iiis (Neth.) 

P^ronne, pa-ron' (Fr.) 

Perosa, pa-r6'za(It.) 

Perpignan, par-pe-nyofi' (Fr.) 

Persepolis, per-sep'6-lis (Per.) ruiiis 

Pershore, p6r'sh6r (Eng.) 

Persia, p6r'shi-a (As.) 

Pertuis, par-twe' (Fr.) 

Peru, pe-ro' (S. Am.) 

Perugia, pa-ro'ja(It.) 

Perugino, pa-ro-je'no (It.) 

Peruwelz, pa-ro-valz' (Belg.) 

Pesale, pa-sii'la (Ceylou) 

Pesaro, pa'sa-ro (It.) 

Pescadores, pes-ka-d6'res(Pac. Oc.) isls. 

Pescara, pas-ka'ra (It.) 

Peschici, pas-ke'che (It.) 

Peschiera, pas-ke-a'ra (It.) 

Peshawer, pe-sha'w6r (Ind.) 

Pesquiera, pas-ke-a'ra (Port. ) 

Pesth, pest ; Hung. pron. pesht (Hung.) 

Petaluma, pet-a-lb'ma (U. S.) 

Petchora, pet-cho'ra ; Russ. pron. pyet- 

cho'ra (Rus. ) r. 
Peten, pe-ten' (Mex.) 
Peterborough, pe't6r-bu-ru (Eng.) 
Peteruulter, pe-t6r-ku't6r (Scot.) 
Peterhead, pe-t6r-hed' (Scot.) 
Peterhof, pa'tar-hof (Rus.) 
Petersburg, St. , saut (colloquially, sint) 

Petersfteld, pe'terz-feld (Eng.) 
Peterwardein, pa-ter-var'din (Hung.) 
Petherton, peth'6r-ton (Eng.) 
Petra, pe'tra; Arab. pron. pa-tra' (Ar.) 
Petralia Sottana, pu-tra'le-a sot-tii'na 

Petrel, pe-trer(Sp.) 
Petrinia, pa-tre ne-a (Aust.) 
Petropaulovski, pa-tro-poul-ov'ski 

Petrovacz, pa'tro-vat3(Hung.) 
Petrozavodsk, pa-tro-za-vodsk' (Rus.) 
Pets, petsh (Hung.) 
Pettycur, pet-ti-kei-' (Scot.) 
Peveragno, pa-va-ra'nyo(It.) 
Peyrehorade, par-6-rad' (Fr.) 
P^z^nas, pa-za-na' (Fr. ) 
Pfaffenhofen, pfaf'fen-ho-fen (Ger.) 
Pfafflkon, pfeffe-kon (Switz.) 
Pfalz, pfalts (Ger.) 
Pfeffers, pfef'fers (Switz.) 

Pforzheim, pfortsTiIm (Ger.) 

Pfyn, pfen (Switz.) 

Philadelphia, fil-a-del'fl-a (U. S.) 

Philates, fe-lii'tas (Tur.) 

Philippeville, fe-lep-vel' (Alg.) 

Philippines, firip-inz (East. Arch.) 

Philippopoli, ftl-ip-pop'o-le (Tur.) 

Phillack, fil'lak (Eng.) 

Piacenza, pe-a-chan'tsa (It. ) 

Pianosa, pe-a-no'za (It.) isl. 

Piasina, pe-a-se'na (Sib.) 1/ 

Piauhy, pe-a-u-e' (Braz.) 

Piave, pg-a'va(It.)r. 

Piavozero, pe-ya-v6-za'r6 (Rus.) L 

Piazza, pe-at'tsa (It.) 

Picardie, pe-kar-de' (Fr.) 

Picerno, p6-char'n6 (It.) 

Pichachen, pe-cha-chen' (Chile) 

Pichincha, pe-chen'cha (S. Am.) int. 

Pictou, pik-to'(Can.) 

Piedimonte, pe-a-de-mon'ta (It.) 

Piedmont, ped'mont (It.) 

Pielis, pe'ya-lis (Rus.) I. 

Pierre, St., sail pe-ai-' (W. Ind.) isl. 

Pieterlen, pe'ter-len (Switz.) 

Pieter-Maritzburg, pe-t6r-nia'rits-burg 

Pietra, pe-a'tra (It.) 
Pilar, pe-lar' (Braz.) 
Pilatus, pe-la'tus (Switz.) 
Pilaya, pe-la'ya (S. Ain.)r. 
Pilcomayo, pel-ko-ma'yo (S. Am.) r 
Pilibhit, pil-i-bet' (Ind.) 
Pillau, pel'lou (Priis.) 
Pillnitz, pel'nets (Ger.) 
Pimlico, pini'li-ko (Eng.) 
Pindamonhangaba, pen-da-nio-nyJlii" 

Pindus, pin'dus (Gr.) mt. 
Pinega, pe-na'ga (Rus. ) r. 
Pinerolo, pe-na-io'16 (It.) 
Pinheiro, pe-nya'e-ro (Port.) 
Piukafeld, pen'ka-feld (Hung.) 
Pinneberg, pen'ua-berg (Den.) 
Pinos, pe'nos (8p.) 
Piutada, pin-ta'da (U. S.) int. 
Pioche, pe-och'a(U. S.) 
Piombino, pe-6m-be'n6 (It.) 
Piotrokof, pe-ot'ro-kof (Rus.) 
Piperno, pe-par'no (It.) 
Piply, pe'ple (Ind.) 
Piqua, pik'wa (U. S.) 
Piquetberg, pik'et-berg (Cape CoL) 
Piquiri, pe-ke-re' (Braz.) r. 
Piraeus, pi-re'us (Gr.) 
Pirano, pe-ra'no (Istria) 
Piratinini, pe-rii-te-nen' (Braz.) 
Piritu, pe-re-tb' (Venez.) 
Pirniasens, per-ma'zenz (Ger.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, chain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; Til, tlien\ th, thm; 





Pir-Panjal, per-pun-jal' (Cashmere) mt. 

Pisa, pe'za (It.) 

Piscataquis, pis-kat'a-kwis (U. S.) 

Pisciotta, pe-shot'ta (It.) 

Pisek, pe'sek (Bohem.) 

Pisogne, pe-so'nya (It. ) 

Pissevache, pes-vaan' (Switz.) 

Pistoja, pes-to'ya (It.) 

Pitcairn, pit-karn' (Scot.) 

Pitea, pe'ta-6 (Swe.) r. 

Pithiviers, pe-te-ve-a' (Fr.) 

Pi tic, pe-tek' (Mex.) 

Pitigliano, pe-te-lya'no (It.) 

Pittenweeni, pit- t«n-wera' (Scot.) 

Pittsburg, pit3'Mrg(U. S.) 

Piura, pe-o'rii (Peru) 

Pi Ute, pi ybt (U. S.) 

Pivniczna, pev-nets'na (Aust. Gal.) 

Pizzighettone, pet-tse-gat-to'na (It.) 

Placencia, pla-then'the-a (Sp.) 

Placentia, pla-sen'shi-a (Newfd.) 

Plaistow, plas'to (Eng. ; U. S.) 

Planina, pla-ne'iia (Aust.) 

Plaquemine, plak-men' (IT. S.) 

Plassey, plas'se (Ind.) 

Plata, La, lii pla'ta (S. Am.) 

Platani, pla-tii'ne (Sic.) r. 

Platte, plat' (U. S.) r. 

Plattsburg, plats'bSrg (U. S.) 

Plauen, plou'en (Ger. ) 

Plevna, plev'na (Bulg.) 

Pliego, ple-e'go (Sp.) 

Plock, plotsk (Pol.) 

Ploermel, plo-ar-mal' (Fr.) 

Plomb de Cantal, plot d6 koft-tal' (Fr.) 

Plombieres, plofi-be-ar' (Fr.) 
Plon, pliitin (Den.) I. 
Plymouth, pli'muth (Eng.) 
Plynlimmon, plin-lim'mon (Wales) mt. 
Pocahontas, po-ka-hon'tas (U. S.) 
Pocomoke, pok'o-mok (U. S.) 
Podebrad, po'de-briid (Bohem.) 
Podgoritza, pod-go-ret'sa (Monten.) 
Podolia, p6-d6'le-a(Rus.) 
Podolsk, po-dolsk' (Rus.) 
Pohono, po-ho'no (U. S.) 
Point a Pitre, pwfth-ta-petr' CW. Ind.) 
Point de Galle, point de gal (Ceylon) 
Poitiers, pw^-te-a' (Fr.) 
Poitou, pwft-to' (Fr.) 
Poix, pw}i(Fr.) 
Polesine, p6-la-ze'na (It.) 
Policastro, p6-le-kas'tr6 (It.) 
Polignano, p6-le-nya'n6 (It.) 
Poligny, p6-le-nye' (Fr.) 
Pollenza, pol-len'za (Majorca) 
Poltawa, pol-ta'va (Rus.) 
Polynesia, pol-i-ne'shi-a 
Pomba, pom'ba (Af.) b. 

Pombeiro, p6m-ba'e-r6 (Port.) 
Pomerania (Anglicized form of Ger. 

Pommem), pom-er-a'ne-a (Prus.) 
Pomieczyn, p6-me-tsen' (Prus.) 
Pommern, pom'mem (Prus.) 
Pomona, po-mo'na (Scot.) 
Pompeii, pom-p6'yi; Ital. pron. pom- 

pa'g-6 (It.) ruins 
Pomponesco, pom-p6-nas'k6 (It.) 
Ponany, po-nii'ni (Ind.) 
Ponchatoula, pon-sha-tola (U. S.) 
Pondicherry, pon-di-sher'ri ; Fr. pron. 

p6ft-de-shar-re' (Ind.) 
Ponferrada, pon-fer-ra'THa (Sp.) 
Pontarlier, pon-tar-le-a' (Fr.) 
Pont Audemer, poh-t6-d6-mar' (Fr.) 
Pontchartrain, pon'char-tran (U. S.) 
Ponte Delgado.pon'te del-ga'do (Azores) 
Pontedra, pon-ta'drS (It.) 
Pontefract, pon'ti-f rakt ; colloquially, 

pom'fret (Eng.) 
Pontestura, p5n-ta8-to'ra (It.) 
Pontevedra, p6n-te-ve'THra (Sp.) 
Pontiac, pon'ti-ak (U. S.) 
Pontianak, pon-tya-nak' (Borneo) 
Pontivy, p6ft-te-ve' (Fr.) 
Pontoise, poh-twaz' (Fr.) 
Pontotoc, pon-to-tok' (U. S.) 
Pontremoli, p6n-tra'mo-l6 (It.) 
Pontypool, pon'ti-pol (Eng.) 
Poole, pol (Eng.) 
Poolewe, pol-yo' (Scot.) 
Poonah, po'na (Ind.) 
Poorbunder, pbr-bun'd6r (Ind.) 
Popayan, po-pa-yan' (S. Am.) 
Poperingue, po-p6-raiig' (Belg. ) 
Popocatepetl, po-po-ka-te-petl' (Mex.) 
Popoli, p6'p6-lg (It.^ 
Poquiock, po-kg-ok''^(K Bruns.) 
Porchester, por'ches-t^r (Eng.) 
Porcuna, por-ko'na (Sp.) 
Pordenone, p6r-da-n6'na (It.) 
Porlock, por'lok (Eng.) 
Poromushir, p6-r6-mo-sh5r' (Kuriles) 

Porquerolles, p6r-kft-r61' (Fr.) isl. 
Porrentrui, por-rofi-trwS' (Switz.) 
Porreras, por-re'ras (Sp.) 
Porrudos, por-rb'dos (Braz.) r. 
Portadown, p6rt-a-doun' (Ir.) 
Portaferry, port-a-fe'ri (Ir.) 
Portarlington, port-ar'ling-ton (Ir.) 
Port-au-Prince, port-5-prins'; Fr. pron. 

p5r-t6-prahs' (W. Ind.) 
Portendik, p6r-ten'dik (W. Af.) 
Portici, poi-'te-che (It.) 
Portmadock, port-mad'ok (Wales) 
Portmahomack, p6rt-ma-h5'mak(Scot.) 
Portmoak, port-mok' (Scot.) 
Portnahaven, p6rt-na-ha'ven (Scot) 

ih, azure. French, viie, bttt; 

bleti, neuf; f», on. 

German, th, nacAt. 




Portobello, por-to-bel'lo (Scot.) 

Porto das Caixas, por'to das kl'shas 

Portogruaro, p6r-t6-gro-a'r6 (It.) 
Porto Rico, por'to re'ko ("W. Ind.) 
Porto venere, p6r-t6-va'na-ra (It.) 
Portreath, port-reth' (Eng.) 
Portree, port-re' (Scot.) 
Portrush, port-rush' (Ir.) 
Portsea, port'sg (Eng.) 
Portsmouth, ports'mouth orports'rauth 

Portugalete, p5r-tu-ga-la'ta (Port.) 
Portuguesa, p6r-tu-ge'sa (Venez.) r. 
Poschiavo, pos-ke-a'v6 (Switz.) 
Posega, p6-sha'ga (Slav.) 
Posen, po'zen (Prus.) 
Posing, pebsh'mg (Hung.) 
Poszneck, pos'nak (Ger.) 
Potchefstrom, pot'chef-strom (S. Af.) 
Potenza, p6-tan'dza (It.) 
Potomac, p6-t6'mak (U. S.) 
Potosi, po-tS'se; properly pot-o-se 

Pottawatomie, pot-ta-wot'o-mi (U. S.) 
Pouching-hien, po-ching-hyen' (China) 
Poughkeepsie, po-kip'se (U. S.) 
Pouilly, pb-e-lye' or po-e-ye' (Fr.) 
Poulton le Fylde, pol'ton le feld 

Pourcjain, St., saft por-sah' (Fr.) 
Povoa, p6-v5'a (Port.) 
Poweshiek, pou-e-shek' (U. S.) 
Powhatan, pou-a-tan' (IT. S.) 
Poyais, po-ya'es (Cent. Am.) 
Pozo Estrecho, po'tho es-tre'cho (Sp.) 
Pozuelo, po-thu-e'lo (Sp.) 
Pozzuoli, pot-tswo'le (ID.) 
Prachatitz, pra-6ha-tets' (Bohem.) 
Prades, prM (Fr.) 

Prague, prag; Ger. Prag, prag (Bohem.) 
Prahusta, pra-hus'ta(Tur.) 
Praslin, pras'lin (Ind. Oc.) isl. 
Prasto, pras'teu (Den.) 
Preanger, pra-ang'er, (Java) 
Premeira, pra-ma'e-ra (E. Af.) isls. 
Prescot, pres'kot (Eng.) 
Presidio, pre-se'di-o (U. S.) 
Pressburg, pras'bbrg (Hung.) 
Prestonpans, pres-ton-panz' (Scot.) 
Prestwick, prest'wik (Scot.) 
Pretoria, pre-to're-a (Transvaal) 
Pi-euilly, pre1i-e-lye' or preu-e-ye' (Fr.) 
Prevesa, pra've-sa (Tur.) 
Pribyloff, pri-by-lor (Pac. Oc.) isls. 
Priego, pre-e'go (Sp.) 
Priestholme, prestTiolm (\^'■ales) isl. 
Priluki, pre-lo'ke (Rus.) 
Primislau, pre'mes-lou (Bohem.) 

Principato Citra, pren-che-pa'to che'trS 

Principato Ultra, pren-che-pa'to ol'tra 

Principe, pren'se-pe (Mex.) 
Prinkipos, pren'ki-pos (Tur.) 
Pripet or Pripets, pri'pet, prip'ets 

(Pol.) r. 
Prlsrend, pres'rend (Tur.) 
Pristina, pres-te'na (Tur.) 
Privas, pre-va' (Fr.) 
Procida, pro'che-da (It.) isl. 
Prome, prom (Br. Bur.) 
Propiha, pro-pe'a (Braz.) 
Provence, pro-vofts' (Fr.) 
Provins, pro-van' (Fr.) 
Prussia, prush'i-a (Ger.) 
Pruszka, pros'ka (Hung.) 
Pruth, prbth;Ger. pron. prbt (Europe) r. 
Prypec, prip'ets (Pol.) r. 
Przemysl, pzha'mizl (Aust.) 
Przeworsk, pzha'vorsk (Aust.) 
Przibram, pzhe'bram (Aust.) 
Psilorati, pse-lo-ra'te (Crete) mt. 
Psiol, pse'ol (Rus.) r. 
Pskov, pskof (Rus.) 
Puchow, po'6ho (Aust.) 
Puckawa, puk'a-wa (U. S.) I. 
Pudsey, pud'si (Eng.) 
Puebla, La, la pij-eb'ia (Sp.) 
Puebla de los Angeles, La, la pu-eb'la 

de 16s an'6he-les (Mex.) 
Puerto Principe, p\i-er't6 pren'se-pe 

(W. Ind.) 
Puget Sound, pyu'jet sound (N. Am.) 
Pulawy, pb-ia'vu (Rus.) 
Pulciano, pbl-cha'no (It.) mt. 
Pulicat, pb'le-kat (Ind.) 
Pulteney Town, pult'm toun (Scot.) 
Pultusk, pbl-tusk' (Rus.) 
Punchshir, punch'sher (Afg.) 
Punderpoor, pun-der-pbr' (Ind.) 
Punhete, pb-nya'ta (Port.) 
Punjab, pun-jab' (Ind.) 
Punjnud, punj-nud' (Ind.) 
Punta Arenas, pbn'ta a-re'nas (Cent. 

and S. Am.) 
Punta Pariria, pbn'ta pa-re'nya (S. Am.) 
Purac^, pb-ra-sa' (S. Am.) 
Purbeck, Isle of, p6r'bek (Eng.) 
Purchena, pbr-che'na (Sp.) 
Purfleet, pfer'flet (Eng.) 
Purmerende, pur-me-ren'de (Neth.) 
Purneah, p6r'ne-a (Ind.) 
Purus, pb-rbs' (S. Am.) r. 
Purwan, p6r-wan' (Afg.) 
Pusterthal, pbs'ter-tal (Tyrol) 
Putiwl, pb-tefl' (Rus.) 
Putlam, put-lam' (Ceylon) 

Fate, far, fat, fftll: me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cha.m; g, go; j, job; y, yes; th, then; th, thin; 





Putney, put'ni (Eng.) 

Putumayo, po-to-ma'yo (S. Am.) r. 

Putzig, pbt'tsedh (Prus.) 

Puy de Dome, pue d6 dom (Fr.) dep. 

Pwllheli, pol-hale (Wales) 

Pjchma, puch'ma (Rus.) 

Pyrenees, pir-e-nez'; Fr. Pyr^n^es, pe- 

ra-na' (Eur.) mts. 
Pyrmont, per'mOnt (Ger.) 


Quakake, kwa-kak'(U. S.) 
Quakenbruck, kvaTcan-brbk ^Ger.) 
Quangtong, kwang-tong' (China) 
Quantock, kwan'tok (Eng.) hills 
Qu'Appelle, ka-pel' (Can.) 
Quarnero, kvar-na'ro (Aust.) 
Quathlamba, kwat-lam'ba (3. Af.) mts. 
Quatre Bras, ka'tr bra (Bel.) 
Quebec, kwe-bek' (Can.) 
Quedah, ke-da' (Mai. Pen.) 
Quedlinburg, kvadlen-bbrg (Prus.) 
Queensferry, kw6nz'fe-ri (Scot,) 
Queenstown, kwtoz'toun (Ir.) 
Queich, kvith (Ger.) r. 
Queichoo, kwa-cho' (China) 
Quelpaert, kwel'part (N. Pac.) isl. 
■Queluz, kaioz (Braz.) 
Quemada, ke-ma'da (Mex.) 
Quenemo, ke-ng'mo (U. S.) 
Quentin, St., sail kofa-taft' (Fr.) 
Queretaro, ke-ret'a-io (Mex.) 
Querimba, ka-rernHba (E. Af.) isU. 
Quesaltenango, ke-sal-te-nan'g6 S. Am. 
Quiberon, k6-b6-r6n' (Fr.) 
Quibo, ke'b6(S. Am.) isl. 
Quicara, kS-ka'ra (S. Am.)i8ls. 
Quillabamba, k6l-ya-bam'ba (Peru) 
Quilleboeuf, ke-y6-be'ilf (Fr.) 
Quillimane, kel-Ie-ma'na (E. Af.) 
Quillota, ke-lyo'ta (Chile) 
Quimper, kafi-par' (Fr.) 
Quimperl6, kafi-par-la' (Fr.) 
Quindiu, ken-de'b (S. km.)mt. 
Quinhon, ken-hon' (Anam) 
Quintana, k6n-tft'na (Sp). 
Quintanar, ken-ta-nar' (Sp.) 
Quiotepec, ke-6-te-pek' (Mex.) 
Quito, ke'tb (S. Am.) 
Quorra, kwor'ra (Af.) 


Raab, rttb (Anst.) 
Kaalte, r&Pte (Neth.) 
Kaasay, rtt'B& (Scot.) itl. 

Rabastens, ra-bas-toft'(Fr.) 
Rabat, ra-bat' (Maroc.) 
Racconigi, rak-k6-ne'je(It.) 
Raczkeve, rats-ka'va (Hung.) 
Radkersburg, rUd'kerz-bbrg (Aust.) 
Radnor, rad'nor (Wales) 
Radokala, ra-do-ka'la (N. Pac.) isU. 
Radolpszell, ra'dolps-tsel (Ger.) 
Radovitz, ra'd6-v5ts (Prus.) 
Ragatz, ra-gata' (Switz.) 
Ragusa, ra-gb'za (Dalmat.) 
Rahden, ra'den (Ger.) 
Rahmanieh, ra6h-ma-nS'e (Eg.) 
Rahova, ra-ho'va (Bulg.) 
Rahway, ra'wa (U. S.) 
Raiatea, ra-ya-ta'a (S. Pac.) isl. 
Raidroog, rld-rog' (Ind.) 
Rajahraundry, ra-ja-mun'dri (Ind.) 
Rajamahal, ra-ja-ma-hal' (Ind.) 
Rajawur, ra'ja-wur (Ind. ) 
Rajpootana, raj-pb-ta'na (Ind.) 
Rajshahye, raj-sha'he (Ind.) 
Rakonitz, ra'ko-nets (Bohem.) 
Raleigh, ra'Ie (U. S.) 
Rama, ra'ma (Syr.) 
Ramapo, ram-a-p6' (U. S.) 
Rambervilliers, roh-bar-ve-lyS-a' (Fr.) 
Rambouillet, roft-bb-lya' or roft-bb-ya' 

Ramghaut, ram-gat' (Ind.) 
Ramghur, ram-gu? (Ind.) 
Ramgunga, ram-gung'ga (Ind.) r. 
Ramillies, ra-me-lye' or ra-m5-ye' (Bel.) 
Ramisseram, ra-mis-se-ram' (Ind.) 
Ramnad, ram-nad' (Ind.) 
Ramnuggur, ram-nug'gur (Ind.) 
Rampoor, ram-pbr' (Ind.) 
Ramree, ram-r5'(Bur.) 
Ramsey, ram'zi (Eng.) 
Randers, ran'dars (Den.) 
Ranea, ra'na-o (Swe.) r. 
Raneegunge, ra-ne-gunj' (Ind.) 
Rangitoto, rang-6-t6'tb (N. Zd.) isl. 
Rangoon, rang-gbn' (Ind.) 
Rannoch, Loch, ran'o6h (Scot.) I. 
Raon I'Etape, ra-6fi' la-tap' (Fr.) 
Raphoe, ra-fo' (Ir.) 
Raploch, rap'lodh (Scot.) 
Rappahannock, rap-pa-han'nok(U.S.)r. 
Rapperschwyl or Rappersweil, rap'per- 

shvel, rap'perz-vil (Switz.) 
Raraka, ra-ra'ka (S. Pac.) isl. 
Raritan, rar'i-tan (U. 8.) r. 
Rarotonga, ra-ro-tong'ga (8. Pac. Oc.) 

Rasay, ra'sa (Scot.) isl. 
Raspeig, ras-pa-Sg' (Sp.) 
Rassein, riU-sa'in (Roum.) {. 
Rassova, r&s-sd'va (Roum.) 
Rastede, ras-ta'da (Ger. ) 

zh, azure. French, vfte, bflt; 

bl^, netif; ft, on. 

German, t\\, nacAi 




Rastenburg, ras'ten-borg (Prus.) 

Requeria, re-ken'ya (Sp.) 

Rastriok, ras'trik (Eng.) 

Reshd, resht(Pers.) 

Ratass, ra-tas'(Ir.) 

Resina, ra-se'iia (It.) 

Rathangan, rath-ang'gan (Ir.) 

Restalrig, res'al-rig(Scot.) 

Rathcormac, rath-koi-'mak (Ir.) 

Restigouche, res'ti-gbsh (N. Bruns.) 

Rathen, rath'en (Scot.) 

Retford, ret'ford (Eng.) 

Rathenau, ra'te-nou (Prus.) 

Retimo, re-te'mo (Crete) 

Rathkeale, rath-kSl' (Ir.) 

Reuilly, reu-e-lye' or reu-e-ye' (Fr.) 

Rathlin, rath'lin (Ir.) i«Z. 

Reunion, ra-ft-ne-oli' (Ind. Oc.) isl. 

Rathmines, rath-minz' (Ir.) 

Reus, re-bs' (Sp.) 

Ratho, ra'tho (Scot.) 

Reuss, rois (Ger. ; Switz.) 

Ratibor, ra'te-bor (Prua.) 

Reutlingen, roit'ling-en (Ger.) 

Ratisbon, ra'tis-bon (Ger.) 

Revel, ra'vel (Rus.); re-veV (Fr.) 

Ratnapoora, rtit-na-po'ra (Ceylon) 

Revilla Gegedo, re-vel'lya cihe-Che'do 

Ratoneau, ra-to-no' (Fr.) isl. 

(Mex.) isl. 

Rattan, rat-tan' (Mex.) isl. 

Rewah, ra-wa' (Ind.) 

Rattray, rat'tra (Scot.) 

Reyes, re-yes' (Mex. ; S. Am.) 

Katzebufir, rat'sa-bor (Prus.) 

Reynagh, ra'na6h (Ir.) 
Reynolds, ren'olz (U. S.) 

Ratzeburg, rat'sa-borg (Prus.) 

Ravenna, ra-van'na (It.) 

Rheims. See Reims. 

Ravensburg, ra'venz-bbrg (Ger.) 

Rhein, rin (Ger. ; Neth.) 

Ravnagora, rav-na-go'ra (Aust.) 

Rheinzabern, rin-tsa'bern (Ger.) 

Rawa, ra'fa (Rus.) 

Rhio, re'o (East. Arch.) isl. 

Rawal Pinde, ra'wul pin'di (Ind.) 

Rhodes, rodz(Tur.)isZ. 

Rawicz, ra'vech (Prus.) 

Rh6ne, r6u (Fr.) dep. 

Raygunge, ra-gunj' (Ind.) 
Raz6.9, ra-za' (Fr.) 

Rhbngebirge, reun'ge-ber-ge (Ger.) 

Rhuddin, hriTH'in (Wales) 

Reading, red'ing (Eng.) 

Rhuddlan, hriiH'lan (Wales) 

Real, ra-al' (Braz.) r. 

Rhynie, ri'ni (Scot.) 

Realejo, re-a-le'6ho (Mex.) 

Rhynns or Rhinns, rmz (Scot.) 

Recanati, ra-ka-na'te (It.) 

Riadh, re'ad(Ar.) 

Recherche Bay, ra-shersh'ba (Tasm.) 

Riajsk, re-yazhsk' (Rus.) 

Recife, ra-se'fa (Braz.) 

Rians, re-oii' (Fr.) 

Recoaro, ra-ko-a'ro (It.) 

Riaza, re-a'tha (Sp.) 

Redcar, red'kar (Eng.) 

Riazan, re-ya'zan (Rus.) 

Redditch, red'dich (Eng.) 

Ribarroja, re-bar-r6'6ha (Sp.) 

Redonda, ra-don'da (W. Ind.) 

Ribas, re-bas'(Sp.) 

Redruth, red'roth (Eng.) 

Ribbesford, ribz'ford (Eng.) 

Regalbuto, ra-gal-bo'to (It.) 

Ribchester, rib'ches-ter (Eng.) 

Regensburg, ra'genz-bbrg (Ger.) 

Ribe, re'ba(Den.) 

Reggio, rej'6(It.) 

Ribeauvill6, re-bo-vel-lya' or re-bo-ve- 

Rehoboth, re-ho'both (U. S.) 

ya' (Fr.) 

Reichenau, ri'6he-nou (Ger.) 

Ribeira Grande, re-ba'e-ra grLlu'da 



Reichenstein, ri'ehen-stin (Prus.) 

Ribeirao, re-ba-e-rouh' (Port.) 

Reichstadt, rich'stat (Bohera.) 

Ribemont, re-be-moh' (Fr.) 

Reigate, ri'gat(Eng.) 

Ribera, re-ba'ra (It.) 

Reigoldsweil, ri'gOldz-vil (Switz.) 

Riccia, rech'a(It.) 

Reikiavik, ri'kya-vik (Iceld.) 

Riceys, Les, la re-sa' (Fr.) 

Reims, remz; Fr. pron. rafiz (Fr.) 

Richborough, rich'bu-ru (Eng. ) 

Remagen, ra'ma-gen (Prus.) 

Richelieu, resh-le-eu' (Fr.); lesh-e-lyu' 

Rembang, rem-bang' (Java) 


Remedies, re-me'de-os (Col.) 

Richibucto, rish-i-buk'to (N. Bruns.) 

Remiremont, r6-mer-mofi' (Fr.) 

Richmond, rich'mond (Eng.) 

Remscheid, ram'shid (Prus.) 

Richtenberg, re6h'ten-berg (Prus.) 

Renaix, re-na' (Bel.) 

Rickmansworth, rik'manz-w6rth (Eng.) 

Renfrew, ren'fru (Scot.) 

Ricote, re-ko'te (Sp.) 

Rennes, ren (Fr.) 

Rideau, re-do' (Can.) r. and I. 
Riehen, re'en (Switz.) 

Rensellaer, ren's«l-6r (U. S.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, poiind; ch, c/iaiu; g, go; j,;ob; y, yes; nu, then; th, thin; 





Rieka, re-a'ka (Monten.) 

Riera, re-e'rii (ilex.) 

Riesa, re'za (Ger.) 

Rieseugebirge, re'zen-ge-ber-ge (Aust.) 

Rieti, re-a'te (It.) 

Riga, re'ga(Rus.) 

Righi or Rigi, re'ge (Switz.) mt. 

Rignano, re-nya'no (It.) 

Rigolato, re-go-la' to (It.) 

Rigyicza, re-dyet'so (Huug.) 

Rijswijk, ris'vik (Neth.) 

Rille, rel (Fr.) r. 

Rima Szombath, re'm& som'bot(Huiig.) 

Rimini, re'me-ne (It. ) 

Rimouski, re-mos-kg' (Can.) 

Rinjani, ren-ya'ne (Lombok) 

Rinkjoebiug, reng-kyeub'eng (Den.^ 

Ringgenberg, reng'gen-berg (Switz.) 

Ringvaldsoe, reng-vald'seli-e (Xor.) 

Rintein, ren'tein (Ger.) 

Rio de Janeiro, re'6 da zha-na'e-ro 

Rio Vermelho, rS'o var-ma'lyo (Braz.) 
Riobamba, re-6-bam'ba (Ecuad.) 
Rioja, re-6'eha (Sp.; S Am.) 
Riolobos, r6-o-lo'b6s (Sp.) 
Riols, re-61' (Fr.J 
Riom, re-ofi' (Fr.) 
Rion, re'6n (Transcauc.) r. 
Rionero, re-o-na'ro (It.) 
Riou, re-o' (Fr.) isl. 
Riouw, re'ou (Ind. Arch.) uil. 
Ripen, rip'on (Eng.) 
Rippoldsau, rep'pold-zou (Ger.) 
Ripponden, rip'pon-den (Eng.) 
Risborough, Prince's, prin'siz rizTbu-ru 

Ritzebiittel, ret'se-bOt-tel (Ger.) 
Rivadeo, re-va-THe'6 (Sp.) 
Rivarolo, re-va-ro'lo (It.) 
Rive de Gier, rev d6 zhe-a' (Fr.) 
Riverina, riv-6r-e'na (N. S. W.) 
Rivesaltes, rev-zalt' (Fr.) 
Rivoli, r6'v6-le(It.) 
Roag, Loch, lodh ro'ag (Scot.) 
Roanne, r6-an'(Fr.) 
Roanoke, ro-an-ok' (U. 8.) 
Roapoa, ro-a-po'a (Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Roatan, ro-a-tan' (Cent. Am.) isl 
Robbio, rob'be-o (It.) 
Robilante, ro-bg-lan'ta (It.) 
Robleda, ro-ble'THa(Sp.) 1 

Roccella, rot-challa at.) I 

Rochdale, roch'dal (Eng.) j 

Rochechouart, rosh-sho-ar' (Fr.) 
Rochefort, rosh-for' (Fr.) • 

Rochefoucauld, rosh-fo-ko' (Fr.) 
Rochelle, La, la ro-shel' (Fr.) ! 

Roche.Hter, roch'e8-t6r (Eng.) I 

Bocroi, r6-krwft' (Fr.) I 

Rodby, retid'bti (Den.) 
Rodez, ro-da' (Fr.) 
Roding, rod'ing (Eng.) r. 
Rodosto, ro-dos'to (Tur.) 
Rodriguez, i-o-dre'gez Ind. Oc.) isl. 
Roermond, rbr'niont (Neth.) 
Roeskilde, reus-kel'da (Den.) 
Roeulx, reu (Belg.) 
Rogasen, ro-ga'zen (Prus.) 
Roggeveld, rog'ge-velt (S. At.) mts. 
Rogliano, ro-lya'no (It.) ' 
Rohan, ro-ofi'(Fr.) 
Rohilcund, ro-hil kund' (Ind.) 
Rojales, ro-6ha'les (Sp.) 
Rokeby, rok'bi (Eng.) 
Rokelle, ro-kel' (W. Af.) r. 
Rolvenden, rol-ven-den' (Eng.) 
Romagna, ro-ma'nya(It.) 
Romagnano, ro-ma-nya'no (It.) 
Romano, ro-ma'no (It.) 
Romanow, ro-ma-nof (Rus.) 
Romans, ro-mofi' (Fr.) 
Romanshom, ro'manz-horn (Switz ) 
Romanzoff, ro-man-zof (Pac. Oc.) iah 
Romblou, rom-blon' (Philip.) int. 
Ronide, ro'meu-e (Den.) isl. 
Romoos, ro-mos' (Switz.) 
Romorantin, ro-mo-roii-tah' (Fr.) 
Romsey, rum'si (Eng.) 
Ronaldshay, ron'ald-sha (Scot.) isls. 
Roncesvalles, ron-thes-val'Iyes (Sp.) 
Ronciglione, ron-che-lyo'na (It.) 
Rondout, ron'dout (U. S.) 
Ronneby, reun'na-bti (Swe.) 
Ronsdorf, ronz'dorf (Prus.) 
Roon, ron (Neth.) 
Roosebeke, ro'sa-ba-ka (Bel.) 
Roque, San, san ro'ke (Sp.) 
Roquemaure, rok-mor' (Fr.) 
Roquetas, ro-ke'tas (Sp.) 
Roquevaire, rok-var (Fr.) 
Roraas, reti'ros (Nor.) 
Roraima, ro-ra'e-ma (S. Am.) mts. 
Rorschach. ror'shaCh (Switz.) 
Rosario, ro-sa're-o (Arg. Rep.) 
Roscoff, ros-kof (Fr.) 
Roscommon, ros-kom'mon (Ir.) 
Roscrea, ros-kra' (Ir.) 
Roseau, ro-zo' (W. Ind.) 
Rosenheim, ro'zen-him (Ger.) 
Rosetta, ro-zet'ta (Eg.) 
Rosheim, ros'him ; Fr. pron. ro-zem 

Rosienna, ro-se-yen'iia (Rus.) 
Rosignano, ro-se-nya'no (It.) 
Roskilde. See Roeskilde. 
Roslawl, ros-lafl' (Rus.) 
Roslin, roslin (Scot.) 
Rosneath, roz-neth' (Scot.) 
RoBsauo, ros-s&'nd (It.) 

Mh, arare. French, vde, bQt; 

bleti, neuf ; 

b, on. German, 6h, uac/tt. 




Rosabach, ros'badh (Priis.) 
Rbssel, reus'sel (Prus.) 
Rossignol, ros-se-nyol' (N. Am.) I. 
Rosstrevor, ros-tre'vor (Ir.) 
Rostock, ros'tok (Ger.) 
Roth, rot (Ger.) 
Rothay, ro'THa (Eng.) r. 
Rothbury, rothTje-ri (Eng.) 
Rothenburg, ro'ten-bbrg (Ger. ; Switz.) 
Rotherham, roTH'6r-am (Eng.) 
Rotherhithe, roTH'6r-hiTH (Eng.) 
R.othe8, ro'thez (Scot.) 
Rothesay, roth'sa (Scot.) 
Rotomahana, ro-to-ma-ha'na (N. Zd.) I. 
Rotterdam, rot't6r-dam (Neth.) 
Rottweil, rot'vil (Ger.) 
Rotumah, r5-t5'ma (Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Roubaix, ro-ba' (Fr.) 
Rouen, ro-oh' (Fr.) 
Rouergue, ro-arg' (Fr.) dist. 
Rouffach, rof-fash' (Fr.) 
Roumania, ro-ma'ni-a (Eur.) 
Roumelia, ro-me'li-a (Tur.) 
Rousay, ro'sa (Scot.) td. 
Rouse's Point, rous'iz point (U. S.) 
Roussillon, rbs-sel-lyoh' or rbs-se-yOfi' 

(Fr.) dist. 
Roveredo, ro-va-ra'do (Aust. ; Switz.) 
Rovezzano, ro-vat-tsa'no (It.) 
Rovigno, ro-ve'nyo (Aust.) 
Rovigo, ro-ve'go (It.) 
Rovuma, r5-vo'ma (Af.) r. 
Row, ro (Scot.) 

Rowandiz, rou-an'diz (As. 3*Ii.) 
Rowardennan, rou-ar-den'nan (Scot.) 
Rowe, ro(U. S.) 

Rowley Regis, rou'la re'jis (Eng.) 
Roxburgh, roks'bu-ru (Scot.) 
Royan, ro-yoh' (Fr.) 
Roye, rwa (Fr.) 

Ruahine, ni-a-h5'na (K Zd.) mts. 
Ruapehu, ru-a-pa-hb' (N. Zd.) mt. 
Rubicon, niTbi-kon; Ital. Rubicone, 

rb-be-ko'na (It.) r. 
Rudbar, rud-bar' (Per.) 
Rudesheim, rO'des-him (Ger.) 
Rudgeley. See Rugeley. 
Rudkjbbing, rbd-kyetib'eng (Den.) 
Rudolstadt, rb'dol-stat (Ger.) 
Rugby, rug'bi (Eng.) 
Rugeley, ruj'li (Eng.) 
Rugles, r<i'gl(Fr.) 
Ruhrort, rbr'ort (Prus.) 
Ruinen, roi'nen (Neth.) 
Ruinerwold, roi'ner-volt (Neth.) 
Rum, rum (Scot.) isl. 
Rumili, rb'me-le (Tur.) 
Runcorn, rung'korn (Eng.) 
Rungpoor, rung-pbr' (Ind.) 

Runnymede, run'ni-med (Eng.) 
Rupelmonde, rb-pal-mon'da (Bel.) 
Rupouuny, rb-po-nb'n6 (S. Am.) r. 
Rusholme, rush'um (Eng.) 
Russia, rush'i-a 
Russikon, rbs'se-kon (Switz.) 
Rustchuk, rust-chuk' (Bulg.) 
Rutherglen, ruTH'6r-glen; colloquially, 

ruglen (Scot.) 
Ruthin (Anglicized form of Rhuddin), 

ruth'in (Wales) 
Rutigiiano, rb-te-lya'no (It.) 
Rxitli, rflt'le (Switz.) 
Ruysselede, rois-se-la'de (Bel.) 
Ryan, Loch, loCh ri'an (Scot.) 
Rybinsk, ru-b6nsk' (Rus.) 
Rybnik, reb'nsk (Prus.) 
Rydal, ri'dal (Eng.) 
Ryde, rid (Eng.) 
Rye, ri (Eng.) 
Rylstone, ril'ston (Eng.) 
Rzeszow, zha-shor (Aust. GaL) 


Saale, zaie (Ger.) r. 

Saanen, za'nen (Switz.) 

Saarbriick, zar'brtlk (Ger.) 

Saargemiind, zai-'ge-mQnt (Ger.) 

Saarlouis, zar-lb-e' (Ger.) 

Saas, zas (Switz.) 

Saba, saOja (W. Ind.) isl. 

Sabanilla, sa-ba-nel'ya (Col.) 

Sahara, sa-ba'ra (Braz.) 

Sabbionetta, sab-be-6-nat'ta (It.) 

Sabine, sa-ben' (U. S.) I. and r. 

Sabioncello, sa-be-on-chal'lb (Dalmat.) 

Sabiote, sa-be-6'te (Sp.) 

Sables d'Olonne, Les, la saTjl do-lon' 

Sabrina, sa-bre'na (Azores) isl. 
Sacatecoluco, sa-ka-te-k5-lb'ko (Cent 

Sacatepec, sa-ka'te-pek (Cent. Am.) 
Sacconex, sak-ko-neks' (Switz.) 
Sacedon, sa-the-d5n' (Sp.) 
Sachsen (Saxony), zak'scn (Ger.) 
Sachsenhausen, zak'sen-houz-en (Ger.) 
Sacile, sa-che'la (It.) 
Sackatoo, sak-ka-tb' (Cent. Af.) 
Saco, sa'ko (U. S.) 
Sacondaga, sak-on-da'ga (U. S.)r. 
Sacramento, sa-kra-men'to(U. S. ; Mex.) 
Sacriflcios, sa-kri-fe'se-os (Mex.) isl. 
Sacuhi, sa-kb-e' (Braz.) r. 
Sadowa, sad'6-va (Bohem.) 
Saghalien, 8a-6ha-l5n' (As.) isl. 

Fate, far, fat, f^U; me, met, her, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, povind; ch, chain; g, go; j,job; y,yes; te., then; th, thin; 





Saginaw, sag'i-na (U. S.) 

Saguache, sa-woch' (U. S.) 

Saguenay, sag-e-na' (Can.) r. 

Sahagun, sa'a-gon (Sp.) 

Sahama, sS-ha'nia (Bol.) mt. 

Sahara, sa-ha'ra (Af.) 

Saharunpoor, sa-ha-run-p6r' (Ind.) 

Saiansk, sa-ySnsk' (Sib.) mt. 


Saigon, si-gon'; Fr. pron. sa-goii' (Fr. 

Coch. China) 
Saintonge, sah-tofizh' (Fr.) 
Sajama, sS-dha'ma (Bol.) mt. 
Sajansk, sa-yansk' (Sib.) mts. 
Sakaria, sa-ka-re'a (As- Mi.) r. 
Sakhalin, sa-6ha-lgn' (As.) isl. 
Sakkara, sak-ka'ra (Eg.) 
Sakmara, siik-ma'ra (Rus.) r. 
Salado, sa-la'do (S. Am.) r. 
Salama, sa-la'ma (Cent. Ara.) 
Salamanca, sa-la-man'ka (Sp. ; Mex.) 
Salamls, sa'la-mis (Gr. ) isl. 
Salangore, sa-lan-goi-' (Mai. Pen.) 
Salawatty, sa-la-wat'ti (East. Arch.) isl. 
Salayer, sa-li'er (East. Arch.) isl. 
Saldanha, sal-da'nya (S. Af.) b. 
Salem, salem (U. S. and Ind.) 
Salembria, sa-leifi-bre'a (Gr.) r. 
Salemi, sa-la'me (Sic.) 
Salerno, sa-iar'no (It.) 
Salford, sal'ford (Eng.) 
Salgado, sal-ga'do (Braz.) 
Salhieh, sal-lie'e (Eg.) 
Salies, sa-le' (Fr.) 
Salina, sa-le'na (It. ) isl. 
Salisbury, salz'be-ri (Eng.) 
Sallenches, sal-lofish' (Fr.) 
Salobrena, sa-lo-bra'na (It.) 
Salona, sa-lo'nii ( Aust. ; Gr.) 
Saloniki, 8a-l6-ne'k6(Tur.) 
Salop, sal'op (Eng.) 
Salorino, sa-16-re'no (Sp.) 
Salsette, sal-set'; Port. pron. sal-set'ta 

(Ind.) isls. 
Saltcoats, sftlfkots (Scot.) 
Saltillo, sai-tel'lyo (Mex.); sal-til '16 

(U. S.) 
Salton, B^rtun (Scot.) 
Saluen or Sal wen, sal-wgn' (As.) r, 
Saluzzo, sa-lbt't36(It.) 
Saluzzola, sa-lbt'tso-la (It.) 
Salvador, sal-va-dor' (Cent. Am.) 
Salvatore, San, sin Bal-va-t6'ra (It.) 
Salzbrunn, 8altsn)r6n (Prus.) 
Salzburg, saltsTiOrg (Aust.) 
Salzkammergut, salts 'kam-mer-gOt 

Salzungen, salts'ung-en (Ger.) 
Salzwedel, ziilts'va-del (Prus.) 
Samac4, sa-ma-ka' (Col.) 

Samakov, sa-ma-kov' (Bulg.) 
Sam ana, sa-ma-na' (Hayti) pen. 
Samar, sa-mar' (Ind. Arch.) isl. 
Samai-a, sa-ma'ra (Rus.) 
Samarang, sa-ma-rang' (Java) 
Samarkand, sa-mar-kand' (As.) 
Sambilang, sam-bg-iaug' (East. Arch.) 

Samboanga, sam-bo-ang'ga (Philip.) 
Sambre, soh'br (Bel.) r. 
Sambuca, sam-bb'ka (It.) 
Samoan Islands, sa-mo'an (S. Pac. Oc.) 
Samos, sa'mos (Tur.) isl. 
Samothraki, sa-m5-thra'k6 (Tur.) isl. 
Sampeyre, sam-pa'e-ra (It.) 
Samsbe, siim'seu-e (Den.) isl. 
Samsoon, sam-son' (As. Mi.) 
Sanday, san'da (Scot.) isl. 
Sandhurst, sand'h6rst (Eng.) 
Sandomir, san-do-mer' (Rus.) 
Sandusky, san-dusTci (U. S.) 
Sandwich, sand'wich (Eng.) 
Sangai, san-ga'e (Ecuad.) vole. 
Sangamon, san'ga-mon (U. S.) r. 
San Giorgio, san joi-'ja (It.) 
Sangir, san'ger (East. Arch.) isl. 
Sanguesa, san-ge'sa (Sp.) 
San Ildefonso, san el-de-fon's6 (Sp.) 
San Joaquin, san wa-ken' (Calif or.) 
Sanlucar, san-lo-kar' (Sp.) 
San Marino, san ma-re 'n5 (It.) 
San Miguel, san me-gel' (U. S. ; Cent. 

Sannio, san'ne-o (It.) 
Sanquhar, sang ' kwar ; colloquially, 

sang'kSr (Scot.) 
San Salvador, san sal-va-dor' (Cent. Am.) 
Sansanding or Sansandig, san-san-ding^ 

or san-san-dig' (Af.) 
San Sebastian, san se-bas-te-an' (Sp.) 
Sansego, san-sa'go (Adr. Sea) isl. 
San Stefano, san stef'a-no (Tur.) 
Santa Cruz, san'ta krbs (W. Ind.) mt. 
Santander, san-tan-der' (Mex. ; Sp.) 
Santarem, san-ta'reh (Port.) 
Santiago, san-t6-a'go (Sp. ; Span. Am.) 
Santillana, san-t6l-lya'na (Mex.) 
Santipoor, san-te-pbr' (Ind.) 
Santo Domingo, san'to do-m6ng'g6 (W. 

Santofia, san-to'nya (Sp.) 
Santorin, san-to-ren' (Gr.) isl. 
Sao LoureuQO, soufi lo-u-ren'so (Braz.) 
Sa6ne, son (Fr.) dep. 
Sio Sebastiio, soufi sa-bas-te-oufi' 

Saquamera, sS-kwa-ma'ra (Braz.) 
Sarabat, sa'ra-bat (As. Mi.)r. 
Saragossa, sa-ra-gos'sa (Sp.) 
Sarakhs, sa-rachs' (Cent. As.) 

zh, amre. 

French, vde, b&t; bli^, netif; t, on. 

German, th, nacAt. 



Sarapul, sa'ra-pol (Rus.) 

Saratoga, sa-ra-to'ga (U. S.) 

Saratov, sa-ra'tov (Rus.) 

Sarawak, sa-ra'wak (Borneo) dist. 

Sarawan, sa-ra-wan' (Belooch.) dist. 

Sardara, sar-da'ra (It.) 

Sardes, sar'des (Tur.) 

Sardinia, sar-di'ni-a (It.) isi. 

Sarepta, sa-rep'ta (Rus.) 

Sanniento, sar-me-en'to (S. Am.) 7nt. 

Sarrebourg, sftr-bbr' (Ger.) 

Sarrebruck, sar-brtik' (Ger.) 

Sarreguemines, 8ar-g6-men' (Ger.) 

Sarria, sar're-a (Sp.) 

Sarthe, sart (Fr.) dej). and r. 

Sarum, Old, sa'rum (Eng.) 

Sarun, sa'run(Ind.) dist. 

Sarzana, sar-dza'na (It.) 

Sarzeau, sar-zo'(Fr.) 

Sarzedas, sar-za'das (Port.) 

Saskatchewan, saa-kach'e-won (N. Am.) 

Sassafras, sas'sa-fras (U. S.) 

Sassari, sas'sa-re (Sardin.) 

Satanow, sa-ta-nof (Rus.) 

Satara, sa-ta'ra (Ind. ) 

Satgaon, sat-ga'on (Ind.) 

Satorallya Ujhely, sa-tor-ol'yo u-e-haly' 

Satpoora, sat'pvj-ra (Ind.) mts. 

Satsuma, sat-sO'ma (Jap.) 

Sattarah, sat-ta'ra (Ind.) dist. 

Saubermutty, sa,-b6r-mut'ti (Ind.) r. 

Saucejo, El, el sa-u-the'6ho (Sp.) 

Saugur, sa'gur(Ind.) 

Saulieu, so-lS-eu' (Fr.) 

Sault Sainte Marie, Fr. pron. so safi 
ma-re'; local pron. so sint ma're 
(U. S.) 

Saulzoir, so-zw^r' (Fr.) 

Saumur, s6-m(ir' (Fr.) 

Sauternes, so-tarn' (Fr.) 

Sauveterre, sdv-tei*' (Fr.) 

Savaii, sa-vi'e (S. Pac.) isl. 

Savannah, sa-van'na (U. S.) 

Saverne, sa-varn' (Fr. ) 

Savigliano, sa-ve-lya'no (It.) 

Savignone, sa-ve-nyo'na (It.) 

Savio, sa've-6 (It.) r. 

Savoie, sa-vwg,' (Fr.) dep. 

Savona, sa-vo'na (It.) 

Sawakin, sa-wa'ken (Af.) 

Saxe-Altenburg, saks-al'ten-borg (An- 
glicized form of German Sachsen- 

Saxmundham, saks'mund-am (Eng.) 

Saxony, saks'6-ni (Ger.) 

Scafell, ska-fel' (Eng.) mt. 

Scalloway, skal'lo-wa (Scot.) 

Scalpa Flow, skal'pa flo (Scot.) 6. 
Scanderoon, skan-de-rdn' (As.) 
Scarborough, skar'bu-ru (Eng.) 
Scarcies, skai-'siz (W. Af.) isls. 
Scardona, skar-do'na (Dalmat.) 
Schaffhausen, shaf'houz-en (Switz.) 
Schaghticoke, skat'i-kuk (U. S. ) 
Schandau. shan'dou (Ger.) 
Schaumburg-Lippe, shoum'bOrg-lip-pe 

Scheemda, s6ham'da (Neth.) 
Scheldt, skelt; Dutch, Schelde, sfthel'de 

(Neth.) r. 
Schelling, Ter, ter sdhel'ing (Neth.) 

Schemnitz, shem'nSts (Ger.) 
Schenectady, ske-nek'ta-di (U. S.) 
Scherwiller, shar-vel-lar' (Alsace) 
Scheveningen, s6ha'vcn-ing-eu (Neth.) 
Schiedam, sChe'dam (Neth.) 
Schiermonnikoog, scher - mon ' ni - kog 

(Neth.) isl. 
Schinznach, shents'nafih (Switz.) 
Schio, ske'o (It.) 

Schlangenbad, shlang'en-bad (Ger.) 
Schlesien, shla'ze-en (Ger. ) 
Schleswig or Sleswick, shlas'veg (Ger.) 
Schleusingen, shlois'ing-en (Prus ) 
Schmalkalden, shmal-kal'den (Ger.) 
Schneekoppe, shna'kop-pe (Ger.) int. 
Schneidemiihl, shni'de-mftl (Prus.) 
Schoharie, sko-ha'rg (U. S.) 
Schokland, sehok'lant (Neth.) 
Schonau, sheti'nou (Ger.) 
Schonbrunn, shetm'bron (Aust.) 
Schoondijke, s6h6n'di-ke (Neth.) 
Schoonhoven, sfihon'ho-vcn (Neth.) 
Schouten, sh6'ten (S. Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Schouwen, s6hou'ven (Neth.) isl. 
Schreisheim, shrls'him (Ger.) 
Schroon, skron (U. S.) 
Schuyler, ski'16r (U. S.) 
Schuylkill, skbl'kil (U. S.) 
Schwaben (Suabia), shva'ben (Ger.) 
Schwarzawa, shvarts'a-va (Aust.) r. 
Schwarzburg Rudolstadt, shvarts'borg 

ro'dol-stat (Ger.) 
Schwarzburg Sondershausen, shvarts'- 
borg zon'ders-houz-en (Ger.) 
Schwarzwald, shvarts'valt (Ger.) 
Schweinfurt, shvin'fbrt (Ger.) 
Schweiz (Switzerland) shvits (Eur.) 
Schwetzingen, shvets'ing-en (Ger.) 
Schwyz, shvets (Switz.) 
Schyl, shel(Hung. and Tur.) r. 
Scilly Islands, sil'li i'landz (Eng.) 
Scinde, sind (Ind.) 
Scio, s6'6 (Gr.) 
Scioto, si-6'to {U. S.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, her, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, poiind; ch, cAain; g, flfo; j, job; y, j/es; tr, then, th, thin; 





Scituate, sit'yu-at (U. S.) 

Scombi, skom'be (Tur.) r. 

Scone, skon (Scot.) 

Scutari, skb'ta-re (Eur. Txir.; As. Mi.) 

Seacombe, sg'kum (Eng.) 

Sealkote, se-al'k5t (Ind.) 

Seattle, 8^-at't«l (U. S.) 

Sebastopol, se-bas'to-pol; Russ. pron. 

sa-vas-top'ol (Rus.) 
Sebenico (sa-ba'ne-ko (Aust.) 
Sechuen, se-chwen' (China) prov. 
Sechura, sa-cho'ra (Peru) b. 
Secunderabad, se-kun-de-ra-bad' (Ind.) 
Secundra, se-kun'dra (Ind.) 
Sedan, s6-dofi' (Fr.) 
Sedbergh, sed'b6rg (Eng.) 
Sedgemoor, sej'mor (Eng.) 
Seeland (Anglicized form of Danish 

Sjselland), se'land (Den.) isl. 
Sefan, se-fan' (Tiliet) dM. 
Sefid Rud, se-fed' rod (Per.) r. 
Segamet, sa-ga-met' (Mai. Pen.) dint. 
Sego, sa'go (W. Af.) 
Segorbe, 3a-gorT)e (Sp.) 
Segovia, se-go've-a (Sp.) 
Segura, se-go'ra(Sp.) 
Seharunpur, se-ha'run-por"(Ind.) 
Sehwan, se-vau' (Ind.) 
Seine, san (Fr.) r. ^ 

Seine Inf^rieure, san ali-fa-rg-CTir' (Fr.) 

Seistan, sa-is-tan' (Afg.) 
Selangor, se-lang'gor (Mai. Pen.) 
Selenga, sa-leng'gS. (Cent. As.)r. 
Semao, se-ma'6 (East. Arch.) isl 
Semendria, sa-men'dre-a CSer.) 
Semipalatinsk, se-nii-pa-la'tinsk" (Sib.) 
Semirechensk, sa-mer-ye-chensk' (Sib.) 
Semisopochnoi, se-mi-86-po6h'n6-S (N. 

Pac. Oc.) i«l. 
Sempach, zam'pa<;h (Switz.) 
Sendai, sen-dl' (Jap.) 
Seneca, sen'e-ka (U. S.) I. 
Senegal, sen-ne-gftl' or sen-e-gar(Af.) r. 
Senegambia, sen-e-gani'b6-a(Af.) 
Senio, sa'ne-6(It.) r. 
Senlis, saft-les' (Fr.) 
Sennar or Sennaar, sen-nar' (Af.) 
Seo de Urgel, se'o de br-dhel' (Sp.) 
Sepolcro, San, san sa-pol'kro (It.) 
Septimer, sap'te-mer (Switz. ) pass 
Sepulveda, se-pbl-ve'THa(Sp.) 
Seraiev6, se-ri-ya'vd (Bosnia) 
Serampore, se-rampor' (Ind.) 
Sergipe, sar-zhe'pa (Br&z.)dist. 
Serinagur, se-re-na-gur'(Ind.) 
Seringapatam, 8e-ring-ga-pa-tam'(Ind.) 
Seringham, se-rin-fram (Ind.) 
Serino, sa-re'no (It.) 
Serle, 86rt (8. Pac.) ial. 

Serohi, ser-o-he' (Ind.) 

Serpentaria, sar-pan-ta're-a (It.) isl. 

Serpho, ser'f o (Gr. ) isl. 

Serriferes, sar-re-ar' (Fr.) 

Seshek^, se-she-ke' (S. Af.) 

Sesia, sa'se-a (It.) r. 

Se tubal, sa-to-bal' (Port.) 

Sevan, sa-van' (Armen.) I. 

Sevastopol, Russ. pron. sa-vas-top'ol 

Seven oaks, sev'en-oks (Eng.) 
Severn, sev'6rn (Eng.) r. 
Sevemdroog, se-vern-drog' (Ind.) 
Sevilla, sa-veaya (Sp.) 
Seville (Anglicized form of Span. 

Sevilla), sev'il or se-vil' (Sp.) 
Sevres, Deux, deli savr (Fr.) dep. 
Sevvalik, se-walik (Ind.) mts. 
Sewestan, sa-wes-tan' (Afg.) 
Seychelles, sa-shel' (Ind. Oc.) isls. 
Shaftesbury, shaftsHbe-ri (Eng.) 
Shaliabad, sha-ha-bad' (Ind.) 
Shahjehanpoor, shah - je - ban- por ' 

Shamakha, sha-nia'6ha (Transcauc.) 
Shamo, sha'mo (Cent. As.) des. 
Shanalin, shan-a-lin' (Cent. As.) mts. 
Shanghai, shang-hi' (China) 
Shannon, shan'non (Ir.) 
Shapinshay, shap'in-sha (Scot.) isl. 
Shax-i or Shary, sha'ri (Cent. Af.) r. 
Shediac, she-de-ak' (N. Bruns.) 
Sheerness, sher-nes' (Eng.) 
Sheffield, sheffeld (Eng.) 
Shellif, shel-lef'(Alg.)r. 
Shelagskoi, she-lag'sko-e (Sib.) e. 
Shenandoah, shen-an-do'a (U. S.) 
Shendy, shan'de (Nub.) 
Shense, shen-se' (China) 
Shershel, sher-shel' (Alg.) 
Shetland, shet'land (Scot.) co. 
Shields, sheldz (Eng. ) 
Shigatze, shi-gat'sa (Tibet) 
Shikarpoor, shi-kar-pbr' (Ind.) 
Shimiyu, shi-me'yu (Af.) r. 
Shimoga, shi-m6'ga(Ind.) 
Shippegan, ship'pe-gan (K Brun.)M 
Shiraz, shg-raz' (Per.) 
Shire, she'ra (Af.) I. 
Shirwa, shir'wa (Af.) I. 
Shistova, shes-to'va (Bulg.) 
Shoa, sh6'a(Af.) 

Shoeburyness, sho'be-ri-nes (Eng.) 
Shohola, sho-ho'la (U. S.) 
Shoreham, shor'ani (Eng.) 
Shoshone or Shoshonee, sho-sho'ne 

(U. S.) 
Shrewsbury, shrozlje-ri (Eng.) 
Shumla, shom'la (Bulg.) 
Shuster, shOs'tfer (Per.) 

zh, aaire. French, rtle, bdt; 

bldl, ne1if; 

h, on. Qerman, th, naaht. 




Shutargardan, 8ho'tar-gar"(ian (Afg.) 

mt. pass 
Siam, 86-am' or si-am' (As.) 
Siberia, si-be'ri-a (As.) 
Sibilla, se-bel'la (It.) mt. 
Sicily, sis'i-li (It.) isl. 
Siderno, se-dar'no (It.) 
Sidlaw (Hills), sid'la (Scot.) 
Sidmouth, sid'rauth (Eng.) 
Sidra, se'dra (Af.)gr. 
Siebenbiirgen, zeb'en-bQr-gen (Aust.) 
Siebengebirge, ze'ben-ge-ber-ge (Ger.) 

Siedlec or Siedletz, sed'lets (Pol.) 
Siemrab, se-em'rab (Siam) 
Siena, se-a'na (It.) 

Sierra Leone, se-er'ra le-o'ne (W. Af.) 
Sierra Nevada, se-er'ra ne-va' Tiia or 

ne-va'da (Sp. and Calif.) 
Sigmaringen ze6h-ma'ring-en (Ger.) 
Sigrisweil, ze'gres-vil (Switz.) 
Sigtuna, seg-to'na (Swe.) 
Siguantanejo, se-gwan-ta-ne'cho (Mex.) 
Siguenza, s6-gen'tha (Sp.) 
Sihut, se-hut' (Ar.) 
Sikoku, se-ko'ku (Jap.) isl. 
Silesia, sl-le'shi-a (Aust.) 
Silhet, sil-het' (Ind.) dist. 
Silistri, se-lSs'tre (Bulg.) 
Silistria, se-les'tre-a (Bulg.) 
Silivri, se-l5'vre (Tur.) 
Siljan, sel'yan (Swe.) I. 
Simabara, s6-ma-ba'ra (Jap.) 
Simancas, se-man-kas' (Sp.) 
Simand, she-mond' (Hung.) 
Simbirsk, sem-bersk' (Rus.) 
Simcoe, sim'ko (Can.) I. 
Simferopol, sem-fer-op'ol (Rus.) 
Simla, sim'la (Ind.) 
Simplon, sim'plon ; Fr. pron. san-plofi' 

Simusir, sS-mo-ser' (N. Pac.) isl. 
Sinai, si'na (Ar.) mt. 
Sinde, sind (Ind.) 
Singapore, sing-ga-por' (Ind.) 
Sing-Sing, sing'sing (U. S.) 
Sinigaglia, se-ne-ga'lya (It.) 
Sinjar, sen-jar' (As. Tur.) 
Sinnamari, sen-na-ma-re' (Fr. Gui.)r. 
Sinope, se-no'pa (As. Mi.) 
Siout, se-ot' (Eg.) 
Sioux, so (U. S.) r. 
Siphanto, s5-fan't6 (Gr.) isl. 
Sipotuba, sS-p6-to'ba (Braz.) r. 
Sir-Daria, ser-da'rg-a (Cent. As.)r. 
Sirhind, ser-hind' (Ind.) 
Sir-i-Kol, ser-e-kor (Cent. As.) I. 
Sir wan, ser-wan' (Per,) 
Sisal, se-sal' (Mex.) 

Siseboli, se-sa'bo-le (Tur.) 
Sissach, zes'siich (Switz.) 
Sisteron, ses-te-ron' (Fr.) 
Sistova, ses-to'va (Bulg.) 
Sitges, set'6hes (Sp.) 
Sitka, sit'ka (Alaska) isls. 
Sittingbourne, sit' ting-born (Eng.) 
Sivana, se-va'na (Ind.) isl. 
Sivas, se'vas (As. Tur.) 
Siwah, se'wa (Eg.) 
Sjnelland, syel'lan (Den.) ■ 
Skagastblstind, ska-ga-steul'sten (Nor.) 
Skagen, ska'gen (Den.) c. 
Skager-Rack, ska'ger-rak (N. Sea) 
Skagit, skag'it (Brit. Col.) r. 
Skalitz, shka'leta (Hung.) 
Skanderborg, skan'der-borg (Den.) 
Skaneateles, skan-e-at'les (U. S.) 
Skaraborg, ska'ra-borg (Swe.) dist. 
Skelleftea, skal-laf'ta-6 (Swe.) 
Skelligs, skel'ligz (Ir.) isls. 
Skerries, ske'riz (Scot. ; Ir.) 
Skerryvore, sker-ri-vor' (^Hebrides) 
Skiatho, ske'a-tho (Gr.) isl. 
Skibbereen, skib-b6r-en' (Ir.) 
Skiddaw, skid'da (Eng.) mt. 
Skielskor, skels'keur (Den.) 
Skopelo, skop'e-lo (Gr.) isl. 
Skowhegan, sk6-he'gan (U. S.) 
Skye, ski (Scot.) isl. 
Sleaford, slg'ford (Eng.) 
Sliebhbloom, slev-blbm' (Ir.) mts. 
Sliebhdonard, slev-don'ard (Ir.) mt. 
Sliedrecht, sle'dre6ht (Neth.) 
Sligo, sli'go (Ir.) co. 
Slough, slou (Eng.) 
Sluis, slois (Neth.) 
Smailholm, smal'um (Scot.) 
Smethwick, smeTH'ik (Eng.) 
Smichew, sme'6hev (Bohem.) 
Smblen, smeti'len (Nor.) isl. 
Smolensk, smo-lensk' (Rus.) 
Smyrna, sm^r'na (As. Mi.) 
Snafellsjokull, sna-fels-yeuk'ul (Iceld.) 

Sneehaetten, sna'het-ten (Nor.) mt. 
Sneeuwbergen, snyo'ber-gen(Cape Col.) 

Snizort, Loch, lo6h sni'zort (Scot.) 
Snohomish, sno-ho'mish (U. S.) 
Snowdon, sno'den (Eng.) 
Snyatin, snya'ten (Aust.) 
Soar, sor (Eng.) r. 
Soay, so'a (Scot.) isls. 
Sobieslau, so-be-eslou (Bohem.) 
Sobraon, so-bra'on (Ind.) 
Socorro, so-kor'ro (U. S.; Mex.) 
Socotra, so-ko'tra (Ind. Oc.) isl. 
Socuellamos, so-ku-el-lya'mos (Sp.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bftll; oil, poiind; ch, cAain; g, go; j, job; y, yer, IH, then; th, thin; 





Soderkoping or Soderkjoping, seu-der- 

chetip'eng (Swe.) 
Sodertelge, seu-dar-tal'ga (Swe.) 
Soemanap, s6-ma-nap' (East. Arch.) 
Soerabaya, so-ra-ba'ya (Java) 
Soerakarta, so-ra-kar'ta (Java) 
Soest, zost (Ger.) 
Sofala, so-fa la (E. Af.) dist. 
Sofia, so'fe-a (Bulg.) 
Sognefjeld, Bog'na-fyel (Nor.) 
Sognef jord, sog'na-fyor (Nor.) 
Soham, so'ham (Eug.) 
Sohar, so-har' (Ar.) 
Soignies, swa-nye' (Bel.) 
Soissons, swas-sofi' (Fr.) 
Sokoto, 8ok'o-t6 (Cent. Af.) 
Solana, so-ia'na (Sp.) 
Solander, s6-lan'd6r (N. Zd.) isl. 
Solent, so'lent (Eng. j sea 
Solesmes, s6-lam'(Fr.) 
Soleure, so-letir' (Switz.) 
Solfatara, sol-fa-ta'ra (It. ) I. 
Solferino, s6l-fa-r5'n6 (It.) 
Solihull, s6-li-hul' (Eng.) 
Solikamsk, so-le-kamsk' (Rus.) 
Solingen, zo'ling-en (Ger.) 
Solipaca, so-lg-pa'ka (It.) 
Solofra, 80-l6'fra (It.) 
Solola, 86-lo'la (Mex.) 
Solothurn, s6l6-tbm (Switz.) 
Solre le Chateau, solr 16 sha-to' (Fr.) 
Solsona, s6l-s6'na (Sp.) 
Solvesborg, setirvas-b6rg(Swe.) 
Sol way, sol'wa (Scot.) 
Somauli (Country), so-ma'le (E. Af.) 
Sombrerete, som-bre-re'te (Mex.) 
Somerset, sum'6r-set (Eng.) 
Somersham, sum'6rz-ham (Eng.) 
Somlyo, somlyd (Transyl.) 
Sommariva, som-ma-rS'va (It.) 
Somme, som (Fr.) dep. r. 
Sommelsdijk, som'melz-dik (Neth.) 
Sommiferes, so-me-ar' (Fr.) 
Somnath or Somnauth, som-nat', som 

nath' (Ind.) 
Sondershausen, zon'derz-houz'en (Ger.) 
Sondrio, son'dre-o (It.) 
Sone, Soane, or Son, son (Ind.) r. 
Songari, son-ga-rS' (China) r. 
Song-ca, song-ka' (Anam) r. 
Sonmeanee, son-ma-a'ne (Beluch.) 
Sonoma, so-no'ma (U. S.) 
Sonora, so-no'ra (Mex.) 
Sonseca, sSn-seTca (Sp.) 
Sonsonate, son-so-na'te (Mex.) 
Soodan, sO-dan' (Af.) 
Soerabaya, so-ra-ba'ya (Java) 
Sophia, Bd'fe-a (Bulg.) 
Sorata, 86-ra'tft (BoL) mt. 
Sorel, 86-rer(Can.) 

Soria, s6'r6-a (Sp.) 

Soriano, so-re-a'no (It.) 

Sorde, so'reu-e (Den.; Nor.) isl. 

Sorrento, sor-ran'to (It.) 

Sotto Marina, s6t't6 ma-re'na (It.) isl. 

Soturba, so-tdrHba (Nubia) mt. 

Soudan, so-dan' (Af.) 

Souillac, sb-lyak' or sb-yak' (Fr.) 

Soukgoum-Kale, sbk-gbm-ka-la' (Rus.) 

Sourabaya, sb-ra-ba'ya (Java) 

Sourdeval, sbr-de-val' (Fr.) 

Sousa, sb'sa (Tunis) 

Souterraine, La, la sb-ter-ran' (Fr.) 

Southampton, south-amp' ton (Eng.) 

Southend, south-end' (Eng.) 

Southwark, south 'ark; colloquially 

suTH'ark (Eng.) 
Souvigny, sb-ve-nye'(Fr.) 
Souzdal, sbz'dal(Ru8.) 
Spa, spa; Fr. and Flemish pron. spa 

Spalatro, spa-la'tr5 (Aust.) 
Spalding, spal'ding (Eng.) 
Spandau, span'dou (Prus.) 
Spangenberg, spang'en-berg (Ger.) 
Spartel, spar'tel (Af .) c. 
Spartivento, spar-te-van'to (It.) c. 
Speier or Speyer. spi'er (Ger. ) 
Speightstown, spits'toun (W. Ind.) 
Spessart, spes'art (Ger.) mts. 
Spey, spa (Scot.) r. 
Spezzia, spat'tse-a (Gr.) isl. 
Sphagia, sfa-ge'a (Gr.) isl. 
Sphakia, sfa-ke'a (Crete) 
Spiez, spets (Switz.) 
Spilsby, spilz'bi (Eng.) 
Spinazzola, spf-nat'ts6-la (It.) 
Spineto, spe-na'to (It.) 
Spires (English name for Speier), spirz 

Spiridione, spg-re-de-o'na (Gr.) 
Spitalfields, spit'al-feldz (Eng.) 
Spithead, spit'hed (Eng.) 
Spitzbergen, spets-ber'gen (Arc. Oc.) 
Spliigen, splG'gen (Switz.) pass. 
Spoleto, spo-la'to (It.) 
Sporades, spoi-'a-dSz (Gr.) isls. 
Spree, spra (Prus.) r. 
Sprogbe, spro'geti-e (Den.) isl. 
Squam, skwom (U. S.) I. 
Squillace, skwel-la'cha (It.) 
Srinagar, srg-na-gar' (Kashmir) 
Stabio, 8ta'b6-6 (Switz.) 
Stadacona, sta-dak'o-na (Can.) 
Stadthagen, stafha-gen (Ger.) 
Staeden, sta'den (Bel.) 
Stagnone, sta-nyo'na (It.) isls 
Stalimni or Stalimene, sta-lim'ne, sta- 

lim'e-nS (Mg. Sea) isl. 
Stalybridge, stali-brij (Eng.) 

zh, azure. French, vtie, bflt; bl^, neuf; b, on. 

German, th, nacAt. 




Stamboul, stara-bol' (Tur.) 
Stampalia, stam-pa-lg'a (Gr.) isl. 
Stampfen, shtamp'fen (Hung.) 
Stancho, stan'ko (Gr.) isl. 
Stanhope, stan'hop (Eng.) 
Stanislaus, stan-is-lou' (Calif or.) 
Stanmore, stan'mor (Eng. ) 
Stanovoi, stan'o-v6-e (As.) nits. 
Stanstead, stan'sted (Eng.) 
Stapleton, sta'pl-ton (Eng.) 
Staraja Russa, sta-ra'yii ros'sa (Rus.) 
Staritza, sta'ret-sa (Rus.) 
Starkenbach, star'ken-ha6h (Bohem.) 
Staro Constantinow, sta'ro kon-stan-te- 

nof (Rus.) 
Starodoub, sta-ro-dob'(Rus.) 
Staten Isl., sta'ten (U. S.; Tierra del 

Staubbach, stoub'bafih (Switz.) 
Staunton, stan'ton (U. S.) 
Stavanger, sta'vang-gax (Nor.) 
Staveley, stav'li (Eng.) 
Stavelot, sta-vc-16' (Bel.) 
Stavenisse, sta've-nis-se (Neth.) 
Stavoren, sta'vo-ren (JSTeth.) 
Stavropol, stav'ro-pol (Rus.) 
Stayley, sta'li (Eng.) 
Steenkerque, stan'kerk (Bel.) 
Steenwijkerwolde, stan - vi ' ker-vol - de 

Steep-Holmes, step'homz (Eng.) isl. 
Steiermark, sti'er-mark (Aust.) 
Steinach, stin'ash (Ger.) r. 
Steinau, stin'ou (Ger.) 
Steinfort, stin'fort (Neth.) 
Stellenbosch, stel'len-bush (S. Af.) 
Stelvio, stal've-o (Alps) pass. 
Stenhouseniuir, sten'hous-niyor (Scot.) 
Stepney, step'ni (Eng.) 
Sternberg, starn'barg (Aust. ; Ger.) 
Stettin, Stat- ten' (Prus.) 
Stevenage, ste'ven-aj (Eng.) 
Stevenston, ste'ven-ston (Scot.) 
Steuben, styO'ben or styu-ben' (U. S.) 
Stewarton, styu'art-on (Scot.) 
Steyer, sti'er (Aust.) 
Stikine, sti-kgn' (N. Am.) r. 
Stilsserjoch, stel'ser-yoCh (Aust.) 
Stinchar, stin'shar (Scot.) r. 
Stirling, ster'ling (Scot.) 
Stobnica, stob-net'sa (Pol.) 
Stockholm, stok'holm (Swe.) 
Stolbovoi, stol-b6'v6-e (Arc. Oc.) isl. 
Stolwijk, stol'vik (Neth.) 
Stonehaven, ston-ha'ven (Scot.) 
Stonehenge, ston'henj (Eng.) 
Stonehouse, ston'hous (Eng.) 
Stoneykirk, sto'ni-k6rk (Scot.) 
Stonington, sto'ning-ton (U. S.) 

Storeheddinge, st6r-had'd6ng-a (Den.) 
Stornoway, stor'no-wa (Scot.j 
Storsjbn, stor'syetin (Swe) I. 
Stotteritz, stent' te-rets (Ger.) 
Stour, stour (Eng.) r. 
Stourbridge, st^Pbrij (Eng.) 
Stourport, st6r'p6rt (Eng.) 
Stow, sto (Eng.; Scot.; U. S.) 
Stowmarket, sto'mar-ket (Eng.) 
Strabane, stra-bin' (Ir.) 
Strachan, strau (Scot.)!ot.)' 
Strachur, stra-6hur' (Scot.) 
Stradella, stra-dal'la (It.) 
Strakonitz, stra'ko-nets (Aust.) 
Stralen, stral'en (Ger.) 
Stralsund, stral'zont (Prus.) 
Strambino, stram-be'no (It.) 
Stranorlar, stra-noi-'lar (Ir.) 
Stranraer, stran-rar' (Scot. ) 
Strasbourg (French name of Strass- 

burg), stras-bor' (Ger.) 
Strassburg, strUs'borg or stras'bbrch 

Stratford - upon - Avon , strat " f ord - u - 

pon-a'ven (Eng.) 
Strathaven, strath-a'vn, colloquially 

stra'vn (Scot.) 
Strathblane, strath-blan' (Scot.) 
Strathbogie, strath-bo'gi (Scot.) 
Strathearn, strath-6rn' (Scot.) 
Strathfleldsaye, strath-feld'sa (Eng.) 
Strathkinnes, strath-kin'nes (Scot.) 
Strathmiglo, strath-mig'16 (Scot.) 
Strathyre, strath-ir' (Scot.) 
Strichen, stridh'en (Scot.) 
Strijen, stri'en (Neth.) 
Stromboli, strom'bo-le (It.) isl. 
Stromness, strom-nes' (Scot.) 
Stromoe, streum'eii-e (Faroe Isls.)i«Z. 
Stronachlacher, stron - aCh - la6h ' 6r 

Stronsay, stron'sa (Scot.) isl. 
Strontian, stron'shi-an ; locally, stron- 

te'an (Scot.) 
Strood, strbd (Eng.) 
Stroud, Stroud (Eng.) 
Stroud water, stroud'wa-t6r (Eng.) 
Stubbekjbbing, stdb - be - kyeub ' eng 

Stuhlweissenburg, stbl - vis 'en - borg 

Stuttgart, stut'gart (Ger.) 
Stuyvesant, sti've-sant (U. S.) 
Styria, stir'i-a (Aust.) 
Suabia, swa'bi-a (Ger. ) 
Suaheli, su-a-ha'le (Af.) 
Suakin, su-a'ken (Af.) 
Subiaco, sub-e-a'ko (It.) 
Subtiapa, sub-te-a'pa (Cent. Am.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, c/taiu; g, go; j,joh; y, yes; tb., then; th, thin; 





Succadana, suk-ka-da'na (Borneo) diet. 

Suchona, su-Cho'na (Rus.) r. 

Sucre, sb'kre (Bol.) 

Suczawa, so-cha'va (Aust.) 

Sudbury, sud'be-ri (Eng.) 

Sudetes, so-da'tas (Ger.) mts. 

Sueca, su-e'ka(Sp.) 

Suez, su'ez (Eg.) 

Suffolk, suf'fok (Eng.) 

Suippes, 8wep(Fr.) 

Suir, shor (Ir.) r. 

Suisun, su-g-son' (U. S.) 

Sukkur, suk-kur' (Ind.) 

Suledal, so'la-dal (Nor.) 

Suliman or Sulaiman, su-li-man' (Afg.) 

Sulina, so-le'na (Roum.) r. 
Sulitjelma, so-let-yal'ma (Swe.) mt. 
Sulmona, sol-mo'na (It.) 
Sultanieh, sol-ta-ne'e (Per.) 
Sulzbach, zdlts'bafh (Ger.) 
Sulzer Belchen, sdl'tser bel'fihen (Ger.) 

Sumanap, so-ma-njip' (East. Arch.) 
Sumatra, sd-ma'tra (East. Arch.) isl. 
Sumbawa, sdm-ba'wa (East. Arch.) 

Sumbhulpoor, sum-bul-por' (Ind.) 
Sumiswald, zo'mfs-valt (Switz.) 
Sunart, suu'art (Scot.) inlet 
Sunda, sun'da (East. Arch.) isls. st. 
Sunderbunds, 8un'd6r-bunds (Ind.) 
Sunderland, sun'd6r-land (Eng.) 
Sungei-Ujong, sun-ge-i-d-jong' (Mai. 

Pen.) dist. 
Sungora, sun-go'ra (Siam) 
Surat, sd-rat' (Ind.) 
Surbiton, s6r'bi-ton (Eng.) 
Surinam, sd-re-niim' (S. Am.) 
Surrey, su'ri (Eng.) 
Surtshellir, sdrts-hel'ler (Iceld.) 
Suruga, su-rd'ga (Jap.) 
Susquehanna, sus-kw6-han'na (U. S.) 
Sussex, sus'seks (Eng.) 
Sutherland, suTH'er-land (Scot.) 
Sutlej, sut'lej (Ind.) r. 
Suwalki, sd-val'ki (Rus.) 
Suwanee, su-w^'ne (U. S.)r. 
Suwarrow, sd-wiir'ro (S. Pac.) isls. 
Svanike, sva'ng-ka (Den.) 
Svartsjde, svart'syeu-e (Swe.) 
Sveaborg, 8va'a-b6rg (Rus. ) 
Sverige, 8va'r6-ge (native name of 

Swabia. See Suabia 
Swaffham, swaf'am (Eng.) 
Swale, swal (Eng.) r. 
Swansea, swon'ze (Eng.) 
Swan wick, swon'ik (Eng.) 
Swatow, swtlf ou (China) 

Sweaborg, sva'a-borg (Rus.) 
Swedona, swe-do'na (XJ. S.) 
Sweira, swe'ra (Mar.) 
Swellendam, swel'en-dam (S. Af.) 
Sweveghem, sva'va-gem (Bel.) 
Swinemiinde, sve'ne-mtin-de (Prus.) 
Swinford Regis, swin'ford re'jis 

Switzerland, swit's6r-land (Eur.) 
Sydenham, sid'en-am (Eng.) 
Sydney, sid'ni (Austral.) 
Syene, si-6'ne (Eg.) 
Syhoon, si-hdn' (As.) r. 
Sylhet, sil-het' (Ind.) 
Syra, se'ra (Gr.) isl. 
Syracuse, si'ra-kydz (U. S.) 
Syria, si'ri-a(As.) 
Syrmia, ser'me-a (Aust.) dist. 
Syzran, suz'ran (Rus. ) 
Szabadka, so-bod'ko (Hung.) 
Szabolcs, sa'bolch (Hung.) co. 
Szalad, so-lod' (Hung.) 
Szamos, so-mosh' (Hung.) r. 
Szasz Regen, sas ra'gen (Transyl.) 
Szaszvaros, sas-va'rosh (Transyl.) 
Szathraar, sot-mar' (Hung.) 
Szczuczin, shchd'chin (Pol.) 
Szegedin, seg^e-den (Hung.) 
Szekely, sa-kaly' (Transyl.) 
Szigeth, se'get (Hung.) 
Szombathely, som-bo-taly' (Hung.) 

Taasinge, to'seng-a (Den.) isl. 
Tabarca, ta-bar'ka (Af.) isl. 
Tabaria, ta-ba-re'a (Syr.) 
Tabasco, ta-bas'ko (Mex.) 
Tabatinga, ta-bii-ten'ga (Braz.) 
Tabernas, ta-ber'nas (Sp.) 
Taboa, ta-bo'a (Port.) 
Taboga, ta-bo'ga (Col.) isl. 
Tabreez or Tabriz, ta-l)rez' (Per.) 
Tabria, ta'brg-a (W. Af.) 
Tacarigua, ta-ka-re'gwa (Venez.) I. 
Tacazze, ta-kat'sa (Abyss.) r. 
Tachira, ta-ch6'ra (Venez.) 
Taclagur, tak-la-gur' (Tibet) 
Tacloban, tak-lo-l)iin' (Philip.) 
Tacna, tak'nii (Chile) 
Tacoai7, tu-ko-a-re' (Braz.) r. 
Tacuba. ta-kd'ba (Mex.) 
Tacunga, La, la ta-kdn'ga (Ecuad.) 
Tadcaster. tad'kas-ter (Eng.) 
Tadjurah. tad-jd'ra (E. Af.) 
Tadousac, ta-dd-sak' (Can.) 
Tafalla, ta-fal'lya(Sp.) 
Tafelneh, ta-fal'ne (Mar.) 

zh, azure. 

French, vde, bttt; bl^, ncuf; fi, on. 

German, ih, naeht. 




Tafllelt, ta-fg lelt' (Mar.) 
Taganrog, ta-gjln-rog' (Bus.) 
Taghkanic, tok'hon-ik (U. S.) 
Taghmon, tadh'mou (Ir.) 
Tagliamento, ta-lya-man'to (It.) r. 
Tagliocozzo, ta-lyo-kot'tso (It.) 
Tagodast, ta-go-dast' (Mar.) 
Tagus, ta'gus (Sp.) r. 
Tahiti, ta-he'te (S. Pac. Oc.) ul. 
Tahoe, ta-ho' (Calif or.) I. 
Tahura, ta-ho'ra (Sand. Isls.) isl. 
Tain, tan (Scot.); taft (Fr.) 
Taiyuenfoo, ti-yu-en'fo" (China) 
Tajo (Spanish name of Tagus), ta'6ho 

Tajoora, tii-jo'ra (E. Af.) 
Takhti Soleiman, tu6h'tS so -II -man' 

Ta-kiang, ta-ke-ang' (China) r. 
Takinos, ta'k6-nos (Tur.) I. 
Takow, ta-kou' (China) 
Talanti, ta-lan'te (Gr.) ch. 
Talavera de la Reina, ta-la-ve'ra de la 

re-e'na (Sp.) 
Talbot, tal'bot (U. S.) 
Talcaguana, tal-ka-gwa'na (Chile) 
Taliabo, talya'bo (East. Arch.) id. 
Talicote, tale-kot (Ind.) 
Talladega, tal-la-ds'ga (U. S.) 
Tallahassee, tai-ia-has'sg (U. S.) 
Tallahatchie, tal-la-hat'chg (U. S.) 
Tallapoosa, tal-la-p6'sa (U. S.) r. 
Tallarrubias, tal-lar-ro'be-as (Sp.) 
Tamandar^, ta-man-da-ra' (Braz.) h. 
Tamandua, ta-man'du-a (Braz.) 
Taraar, ta'mar (Eng.) r. 
Tamarugal, ta-raa-ro'gal (S. Am.) 
Taraatave, ta-ma-tav' (Madag.) 
Tamaulipas, ta-ma-u-lg'pas (Mex.) 
Tambelan, tam-ba-lan' (East. Arch.)tsZ. 
Tame, tam (Eng.) r. 
Tamega, ta-me'ga (Sp.) r. 
Tamiagua, ta-me-a'gwa (Mex.) 
Tamlaght, tara-laght' (Ir.) 
Tampico, tam-pe'ko (Mex.) 
Tanadice, tan'a-dis (Scot.) 
Tanaga, ta-na'ga (Aleut. Isls.) id. 
Tanah, ta'na(Eg.) 

Tanakeke, ta-na-ka'ka(Ea3t. Arch.)tsZs. 
Tananarivo, ta-na-na-re'v6 (Madag.) 
Tanaro, ta-na'ro (It.) r. 
Tanderagee, tan-de-ra-ge' (Ir.) 
Tanganyika, tan-gan-yg'ka (Af.) I. 
Tangermiinde, tang'er-mtln-de (Prus.) 
Tangier, tan-jgr' (Af.) 
Tangipahoa, tan-ji-pa-ho' (U. S.) 
Tanjore, tan-jor' (Ind.) 
Taormina, ta-or-mS'na (Sic.) 
Taos, ta'os, almost tons (U. S.) 

Tapajos, ta-pa'zhos (Braz.) r. 
Tapera, ta-pa'ra (Braz.) 
Tapiai, ta-pe'se (S. Am.) r. 
Tappanooly Bay, tap-pa-nolS ba (Sum- 
Taptee, tap-te' (Ind.) r. 
Taquari, ta-kwa^rg' (Braz.) r. 
Tarakai, ta-ra-ki' (As.) id. and g. 
Taranaki, ta-ra-na'kg (N. Zd.) 
Tarancon, ta-ran-kon' (Sp.). 
Taranto, ta-ran'to (It.) 
Tarapaca, ta-ra-pa-ka' (Chile) 
Tararua, ta-ra-rb'a (N. Zd.) 
Taraacon, ta-ras-koh' (Fr.) 
Tarasp, ta-rasp' (Switz.) 
Tarawera, ta-ra-wa'ra (X. Zd.) I. 
Tarazona, ta-ra-tho'na (Sp.) 
Tarbagatai, tar-ba-garti' (China) dist. 
Tarbert, tar'bfert (Scot.) 
Tarbes, tarb (Fr.) 
Tarbolton, tar-bol'ton (Scot.) 
Tardenois, tar-de-nwa' (Fr.) dist. 
Tarifa, ta-re'fa (Sp.) 
Tarija, ta-re'6ha (Bol.) 
Tarim, ta-rgm' (East. Turk.) r. 
Tarn, tarn (Fr.) 
Tarnopol, tar-no'pol (Aust.) 
Tarnow, tar'no (Aust.) 
Tarnowitz, tar'no- vets (Prus.) 
Tarporley, tar'por-li (Eng.) 
Tarragona, tar-ra-go'na (Sp.) 
Tarrasa, tar-ra'sa(Sp.) 
Tartary, tar'ta-ri (As.) 
Tartas, tar-ta'(Fr.) 
Tashkent, tash-kent' (Tart.) 
Tashlidge, tashli-je (Bosnia) 
Tasmania, taz-ma'ni-a (S. Pac. Oc.) isZ. 
Tassisudon, tas-sg-so'don (Bhutan) 
Taubate, ta-u-ba'ta (Braz.) 
Taulignan, to-lg-nyon' (Fr.) 
Taunton, tan'ton (Eng.) 
Taunus, tou'nbs (Ger. ) mti. 
Taupo, ta'u-p6 (N. Zd.) I. 
Tauranga, ta-u-ran'ga (N. Zd.) 
Taurida, tou'ri-da (Rus.) 
Taurus, t&'rus (As. Mi.) mfe. 
Tavannes, ta-van' (Switz.) 
Taverna, ta-var'na (It.) 
Taviano, ta-ve-a'no (It.) 
Tavignano, ta-vg-nya'no (It.) r. 
Tavira, ta-ve'ra (Port.) 
Tavistock, tav'is-tok (Eng.) 
Tavolara, ta-v6-la'ra (It.) id. 
Tavoy, ta-voi', (Brit. Bur.) jwov. 
Tawasthuus, ta-vasf hos (Rus.) 
Tawrow, taf-rof'(Ru8.) 
Tayabas, ta-ya'bas (East. Arch.) 
Tayf, ta-ef (Arab.) 
Taytao, ti-ta'6 (S. Am.) c. 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go\ j, job; y, yes; th, «Aen; th, fWn", 





Tazeen, ta-zen' (Afg.) 

Tazewell, taz'wel (U. S.) 

Teh. Names beginning with this com- 
bination see under Oh. 

Teano, ta-a'no (It.) 

Tebessa, ta-bas'sa (Alg.) 

Tecolotlan, te-ko-lot'ian (Mex.) 

Tecumseh, te-kum'se (U. S.) 

Tees, tez (Eng.) r. 

Teflis, tef-lgs' (Transcauc.) 

Tegernsee, ta'gem-za (Ger.) I. 

Tegucigalpa, te-go-sS-gal'pa (Hond.) 

Teguise, te-g6'se (Can. Isls.) 

Tehama, ta-ha'ma (Ar.); te-ha'ma 
(Calif or.) 

Teheran, te-he-rSn' (Per.) 

Tehuacan, te-walsan (Mex.) 

Tehuantepec, te-wan'te-pek (Mex.> 

Teify, ti've (Wales) r. 

Teign, tan (Eng.)r. 

Teignmouth, tin'muth (Eng.) 

Teith, teth(Scot.)r. 

Tejent, ta-jent' (Per.) r. 

Tejutia, te-6hot'la (Cent. Am.) 

Tekama, te-ka'ma (U. S.) 

Tel el Kebir, tel el ke-ber' (Eg.) 

Tellicherry, tel-li-che'ri (Ind.) 

Telugu, tel-o-go' (Ind.) peo. 

Temacin, ta'aia-sin (Alg.) 

Temascaltepec, te-mas-kal'te-pek 

Tembleque, tam-bleTce (Sp.) 

Teme, t6m(Eng.)r. 

Temerin, ta'ma-rin (Hung.) 

Temes, ta-mesh' (Hung.) 

Temesvar, ta-raesh-var' (Hung.) 

Temiscaming, te-mis'ka-ming (Can.) I. 

Temiscouata, te-mis-kij-a'ta (Can.) I. 

Temnikow, tera-n5-kof' (Rus.) 

Templemore, tem-pel-mor' (Ir.) 

Templeuve, tah-pleuv' (Belg.) 

Tenancingo, te-nan-sen'go (Mex.) 

Tenasserira, te-nas'se-rim (Bur.) 

Tenbury, ten'be-ri (Eng.) 

Tenby, tenOji (Wales) 

Tendra, ten'dra (Rua.) isl. 

Tenedos, ta'na-dos (Tur.) 

Teneriffe, ten-6r-if' ; Spanish, Tenerife, 

Tenes. ta'na8(Alg.) 

Tenghistoun, ten-gis-tCn' (Per. ) 

Tengri Nor, tan'grg nor (Tibet) I. 

Tenimber, ta-nem'ber(Ea8t. ATch.)utls. 

Tennessee, ten-nes-sfi' (U. S.) 

Tensift, tan-8€ft' (Maroc.) r. 

Tenterden, ten't6r-den (Eng.) 

Teora, ta-d'ra(It.) 

Teotihuacan, teo-te-wftTcan (Mex.) 

Tepic, te-p€k' (Mex.) 

Teplitz, tep'lets (Bohem ) 

Tequamenon, te-kwam'e-non (U. S.) 

Tequendama, te-ken-da'ma (Col.) 

Tequia, te-kg'a (Col. ) 

Teramo, ter'a-mo (It.) 

Terceira, tar-sa'6-ra (Azores) isl. 

Tercero, ter-se'ro (S. Am.) r. 

Terchova, tar-cho'vo (Hung.) 

Terek, ta'rek (Rus.) r. 

Tergovist, tar-go-vest' (Tur.) 

Termini, tar'me-ne (It.) 

Termoli, tar'mo-le (It.) 

Tenuonde, tar-nion'da (Belg.) 

Temate, tar-na'ta (East. Arch.) isU. 

Terni, tai-'ne(It.) 

Terracina, tar-ra-che'na (It.) 

Terra di Lavoro, tar'ra de la-vo'ro (It) 

Terrason, tar-ra-s6fi' (Fr.) 

Terrebonne, ter-bon' (Can. ; U. S.) 

Terregles, ter-reg'elz (Scot.) 

Terre Haute, ter're hot (U. S.) 

Terressa, tar-res'sa (Ind. Oc.) isl. 

Ten'icciuola, ter-rech-u-o'lii (It.) 

Teruel, te-ru-el' (Sp.) 

Teschen, ta'shen (Aust.) 

Tessin, tas-sen' (Switz.) 

Testigos, tas-te'gos (S. Am.) isl. 

Tetbury, tefbe-ri (Eng.) 

Tete, ta'ta (E. Af.) 

T6te Noire, tat-nwg.r' (Switz.) pass 

Teterow, ta'ta-ro (Ger.) 

Tete wan, tet-e-wan' (Mar.) 

Tettenhall Regis, tet'ten-h^l rS'jis 

Tetuan, tet-u-an' (Mar.) 

Teufelsbrlicke, toi'fels-brtik-ke (Switz.) 

Teulada, ta-u-la'da (It.) c. 

Teutoburgerwald, toi-to-bor ' ger-valt 

Tevere, ta'va-ra (It.) r. 

Teverone, ta-va-ro'na (It.) r. 

Teviot, te'vi-ot (Scot.) r. 

Tewksbury, tyoks'be-ri (Eng.) 

Texas, teks'as (U. S.) 

Texel, teks'el (Neth.) isl. 

Tezcuco, tes-ko'ko (Mex.) 

Thame, tam (Eng.) 

Thames, temz (Eng.) r. 

Thanet, Isle of, than'et (Eng.) 

Thann, tan (Fr.) 

Tharanadt, ta'rft-n&t (Ger.) 

Thaso, tha'so (JEg. Sea) isl. 

Thaumaco, thou'mft-ko (Gr.) 

Thaxted, thaks'ted (Eng.) 
I Thaya, ta'ya (Aust.) r. 
I Thayetmayo, tha-yet-nii'o (Bur.) 
I Thebaid, the-ba'id (Eg.) 
' Thebes, thebz (Eg.) 

Theiss, tis (Hung.) r. 

Therapia, thft-ra'pS-ft (Tur.) 


zh. aznre. 

French, vGe, btlt; bldi, nelif ; h, on. 

German, 6h, nacAt. 




Thermia, th6r'nie-a (Gr.) isl. 
'Iherniopylae, th6r-mop'i-le (Gr.) pass 
Thessaly, thes'sa-li (Gr.) prov. 
Thetford, thet'ford (Eng.) 
Thiagur, the-U-gur' (Ind.) 
Thian-Shan, t5-an-shan' (Mongol.) 

Thibet, ti-bet' (As.) 
Thierachem, ter'ii-dhem (Switz.) 
Thiers, te-ai-'(Fr.) 
Thingvallavatn, teng-val-la-va't«n 

(Iceld.) I. 
Thionville, te-oft-vel' (Fr.) 
Thirsk, th6rsk (Eng.) 
Thisted, tes'ted (Den.) 
Thiviers, te-ve-a' (Fr.) 
Thogji Chumo, thog'je cho'mo (Cent. 

As.) I. 
Thomar, to-mar' (Port.) 
Thone, to'ne (Ger.) 
Thonex, t5-na' (Fr.) 
Thonon, to-nofi' (Fr.) 
Thorald, thor'ald (Can.) 
Thorda, tor'da (Aust.) 
Thorn, torn (Neth.; Prus.) 
Thornaby, thor'na-bi (Eng.) 
Thome, thorn (Eng.) 
Thornhill, thorn'hil (Eng. ; Scot.) 
Thomliebank, thorn'li-bangk (Scot.) 
Thorbe, to'reu-e (Den.) isl. 
Thorshalla, tors-hel'la (Swe. ) 
Thorshavn, tors-havn' (Faroe Isls.) 
Thouars, to-ar'(Fr.) 
Thourout, to-rbt' (Belg.) 
Throckmorton, throk'mor-ton (XJ. S.) 
Throndhjem, tron'yem (Nor.) 
Thuin, tA-ah' (Belg.) 
Than, ton (Switz.) 
Thurgau, toi-'gou (Switz.) 
Thiiringerwald, td'ring-er-valt (Ger.) 
Thuringia, thyo-rin'ji-a (Ger.) 
Thurles, th6rlz (Ir.) 
Thurso, th6r'so (Scot.) 
Tiago de Cacem, San, san te-a'go de 

ka'seh (Port.) 
Tia-Huanaco, te'a-wa-na"k6 (Bol.) 
Tiber, ti'b6r (It.) 
Tiberias, ti-be'ri-as (Syr.) I. 
Tibesti, te-bes-te' (Af.) 
Tibet, ti-bet' (As.) 
Tibnron, te-bii-ron' (Hayti) 
Ticao, te-ka'6 (East. Arch.) isl. 
Tichbom, tich'born (Eng.) 
Ticino, te-che'no (It.) 
Ticonderoga, ti-kon-d6-r6'ga (IT. S.) 
Ticul, te-kbl' (Mex.) 
Tidenham, ti'den-am (Eng.) 
Tideswell, tidz'wel (Eng.) 
Tidore, te-dor' (East. Arch.) isl. 

Tiene, te-a'na (It.) 

Tien-pe, te-en-pe' (China) 

Tientsin, ti-en'tsen" (Chinn) 

Tiet^, te-a'ta (Braz.) r. 

Tiflis, tif-les' (Transcauc.) 

Tighnabruaich, ti-na-bro'afth (Scot.) 

Tigre, te'gra (Mex.) r. 

Tigr6, te-gra' (Abyss.) dist. 

Tigris, ti'gris (Tut.) r. 

Tijola, te-ftho'la (Sp.) 

Til Afar, tel a-far' ?Tur.) ■ 

Tilbury, til'be-ri (Eng.) 

Tillicoultry, til-li-kb'tri (Scot.) 

Tilsit, tel'zet(Prus.) 

Timbalier, tim-ba-ler' (U. S.) 6. 

Timbuctoo, tim-buk'tb (Af.) 

Timimoun, te-me-mon' (N. Af.) 

Timok, t«-ni6k' (Tur.) r. 

Timoleague, tini-6-lag'(Ir.) 

Timor, te-moi-' (East. Arch.) st. 

Timor-laut, te-mor-lout' (East. Arch.) 

Tinchebray, tah8h-bra'(Fr.) 
Tindaro, ten-da'ro (It.) c. 
Tinfield, ten'fyel (Nor.) mts. 
Tinhosa, tin-ho'sa (China) isl. 
Tinnevelly, tin'ne-vel-le (Ind.) 
Tinos, te'nos (Gr.) isl. 
Tinto, ten't6(Sp.)r. 
Tintwistle, tin'twis-el (Eng.) 
Tioern, cheurn (Swe.) tsl. 
Tioga, te-o'ga(U. S.)r. 
Tiotbe, te-o'teu-e (Nor.) isl. 
Tipitapa, te-pe-ta'pa (Cent. Am.) r. 
Tippecanoe, tip-pe-ka-nb' (U. S.) 
Tipperah, tip'e-ra (Ind.) 
Tipperary, tip-p6-ra'ri (Ir.) 
Tirajana, te-ra-6ha'na (Can. Islds.) 
Tirano, te-ra'no (It.) 
Tii'aspol, te-ras'pol (Rus.) 
Tireboli, te-ra'bo-le (Tur.) 
Tiree, ti-re' (Scot. ) isl. 
Tirhoot, tir-hbt' (Ind.) 
Tirlemont. terl-mon' (Belg.) 
Tirnova, ter'no-va (Bulg.) 
Tirschenreut, tersh'en-roit (Ger.) 
Tirsi, ter'se (It.) r. 
Tisza, te'so (Hung.) r. 
Titano, te-ta'no (It.) mt. 
Titchfleld. tich'feld (Eng.) 
Titicaca, te-te-ka'ka (S. Am.) I. 
Titlis, tet'les (Switz.) mt. 
Tiumen, tyo'nien (Rus.) 
Tiverton, tiv'er-ton (Eng.) 
Tivissa, te-ves'sa (Sp.) 
Tivoli, te'v6-le (It.) 
Tizzana, t€t-tsa'na (It.) 
Tjbrn, chetirn (Swe.) isl. 
Tlalpam, tlal-pam' (Mex.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, fjo; J, job; y, yes; th, then; th, thiu', 





Tlalpujahua, tlal-po-6ha'wa (Mex.) 
Tlamath, tla-math'(U. S.)r. 
Tlascala, tlaa-ka'Ia (Mex.) 
Tlemcen, tlam'seu (Alg.) 
Tobago, to-ba'go (W. Ind.) 
Tobarra, to-bar'ra (Pen.) 
Tobermory, to-b6r-m6'ri (Scot.) 
Tobol, to-bol' (Sib.) r. 
Tobolsk, to-bolsk' (Sib.) 
Toboso. to-bo'so (Sp.) 
Tocantina, to-kan-tSns' (Braz.) 
Tocat, to-kat' (Tur.) 
Tocco, tok'ko (It.) 
Tocuyo, to-ko'yo (Venez.) 
Toddington, tod'ing-ton (Eng.) 
Todmorden, tod-mor'den (Eng.) 
Toggenbui^, tog'gen-borg (Switz.) 
Toiros, to-e'ros (Braz.) 
Tokat, to-kat' (Tur.) 
Tokay, t5-ka'; Hurig. pron. to-koi' 

Toko-labo, to-ko-ia'bo (N. Zd.) h. 
Tokyo, Tokiyo, to-kyo', to-ke y6'(Jap.) 
Toledo, to-le'do; Span. pron. t6-le'TH5 

Tolentino, to-lan-te'nS (It.) 
Tolima, to-le'ma (Col.) vole. 
Tolkemit, tol'ka-met (Prus. ) 
Tolosa, t6-l6'sa ('Sp.) 
Tolotlan, to-lot'lan (Mex.) r. 
Toluca, t6-lo'ka (Mex.) 
Tomaszow, to-ma-shof (Pol.) 
Tombigbee or Tombeckbee, tom-big'bg, 

tom-bek'be (U. S.)r. 
Tombuctoo, tom-buk'to (Cent. Af.) 
Tomelloso, to-mel-lyo'so (Sp.) 
Tombs, teu-meush' (Transyl.) ^jass 
Tonal, t6'nal(It.) 
Tonawanda, to-na-w^n'da (U. S.) 
Tondem, ton'dem (Den.) 
Tondi, ton'dS (Ind.) 
Tondo, ton'do (East. Arch.) 
Toiigariro, tong-a-re'ro (N. 7A.)mt. 
Tongatabu, ton-ga-taTib (Pac. Oc "■ isl. 
Tongerloo, tong-er-16' (Bel.) 
Tongres, tdfi'gr (Neth.) 
Tonnay Charente, ton-na' 8ha-rolit'(Fr. ) 
Tonneins, t6n-nah'(Fr.) 
Tonnerre, ton-nar' (Fr.) 
Tonquin, ton-ken' (As.) 
Tense or Tons, tons (Ind.) r. 
Toola, tbaa (Rus.) govt; (B. Af.) isl. 

Toombudra. tbm-bud'i* (Ind.) 
Topeka, to-p6'ka (U. S.) 
Tophana, tdp-ha'nft (Tur.) 
Tbplltz, tetipaets (Bohem.) 
Topolias, td-pdae-as (Or.) I. 
Topolya, td-pol'yo (Hung.) 
Topozero, t&-pd-za'rd (Bus.) I. 

Topsham, tops'am (Eng.) 
Torbay, tor-ba' (Eng.) 
Torbiscon, tor-bes-kon' (Sp.) 
Torcello, tor-chel'lo (It.) 
Tordera, tor-de'ra (Sp.) 
' Tordesillas, tor-de-sel-lyas' (Sp.) 
j Torella, to-ral'la (It.) 
I Torello, to-rel'lyo (Sp.) 
Torgau, tor'gou (Prus.) 
Torino, to-rS'no (It.) 
Toritto, to-ret'to (It.) 
Torjok, t6r-zhok' (Rus.) 
Tormentine, tor-men'tin (N. Bruns.) c. 
Tonnes, tor-mes' (Sp.) r. 
Tornavacas, tor-na-va-kas'(Sp.) 
Tomea, toi-'na-o (Swe.) 
Tomolo, tor-no'lo (It.) 
Toroczko, to-roch'ko (Aust.) 
Tbrok, teii'reiik (Hung.) 
Torontal, to-rOn'tal (Hung.) 
Toronto, to-ron'to (Can.) 
Toropetz, to-r6-pets'(Ru8.) 
Torphichen, tor-fldh'en (Scot.) 
Torquay, tor-ke' (Eng.) 
Torquemada, tor-ke-ma'THa (Sp.) 
Torralba, t6r-ral'ba (Sp.) 
Torrao, tor-roufi' (Port.) 
Torrecilla, t6r-re-th6l'lya (Sp.) 
Torredembarra, tor-ra-dem-bar'ra (Sp.^ 
Torre joncillo, t6r-re-6h6n-theriy5 (Sp.) 
Torremocha, tor-re-mo'cha (Sp.) 
Torrenueva, tor-re-nu-e'va (Sp.) 
Torres Vedras, tdr'ras va'dras (Port.) 
Torrevieja, tor-re-ve-e'cha (Sp.) 
Torridon, toi-'ri-don (Scot.) inlet 
Torriglia, tor-re'lya (It.) 
Torrijos, t6r-re'6h6s (Sp.) 
Torrington, tor'ring-ton (Eng.) 
ToiToella, tor-ro-el'Iya (Sp.) 
Torrox, t6r-r66h' (Sp.) 
Torrubia, tor-rb'bS-a (Sp.) 
Torthorwald, tor-thor'wftld (Scot.) 
Tortola, tor-to'la (W. Ind.) ia. 
Tortona, tor-to'na (It.) 
Tortosa, tor-to'sa (Sp.) 
Tortsvar, tetirts-var' (Aust.) 
Tortuga, tor-tb'ga (W. Ind.) ul. 
Toscana, tos-ka'na (It.) 
Toscanella, tos-ka-nal'la (It.) 
Tostak, tds-tak'(Sib.)r. 
Totana, t6-ta'na(Sp.) 
Totma, tot-ma' (Rus.) 
Totness, tot'nes (Eng.) 
Totonicapan, td-to-ne-ka-pan' (Cent. 

Tottenham, tot'en-am (Eng.) 
Tottington, tot'ing-ton (Eng.) 
Touat, tu-at' (Af.) oagis 
Toubouai. tou-bou-i' (S. Pac. Oc.) iilt. 
Toul, tbl (Fr.) • 

zh, azure. 

French, vile, btkt; bl^. nelif; ix, on. 
) (81) 

German, 6h, nacAt. 




Toulcha, tbrcha (Roum.) 
Toulon, to-l6fi' (Fr.) 
Toulousain, to-lo-safi'(Fi*.)dMe. 
Touloxise, to-loz' (Fr.) 
Toumen, to-men' (Corea) r. 
Toiiraine, to-ran' (Fr.) dist 
Tourcoing, tor-kwftft' (Fr.) 
Tour du Pin, la, la tor da pali' (Fr.) 
Tourlaville, tor-la-vSl' (Fr.) 
Tournai, tor-na' (Bel.) 
Tournaisls, tor-na-86' (Fr.) dist. 
Tournus, tor-ntl' (Fr.) 
Tours, tor (Fr.) 
Tourves, torv (Fr.) 
Towcester, tous't^ (Eng.) 
Towy tou'i (Wales), r. 
Tracadie, trak'a-d5 (Nova So.) 
Trachselwald, trach'sel-viilt CSwitz.) 
Trafalgar, tra-fal-gar' (Sp,)c. 
Traiskirchen, tris-kSr'fihen (Aust.) 
Trajetto, tra-yat'to (It.) 
Tralee, tra-ie' (Ir.) 
Tramelan, tra'me-lan (Switz.) 
Tramore, tra-mor' (Jr.) 
Tranent, tra-nent'(Scot.) 
Trani, tra'nS (It.) 
Tranmere, tran'mSr (Eng.) 
Tranque, tranTce (Chile) isl. 
Tranquebar, tran-kwe-bar' (Ind.) 
Transcaucasia, trans-k^-ka'shi-a (As.) 
Transkei, trans-ki' (S. Af.) 
Transvaal, trans-vai' (S. Af.) 
Transylvania, tran-sil-va'ni-a (Aust.) 
Trapani, tra'pa-ne (It.) 
Trapano, tra'pa-no (Aus.) c. 
Traquair, tra-kwar* (Scot.) 
Traunstein, troun'stin (Ger.) 
Trautenau, trou'te-nou (Bohem.) 
Travancore, tra-van-kor' (lud.) 
Travemiinde, tra-ve-mfln'de (Ger.) 
Traverse, trav'6rs (Pr. Ed. Isl.) c. 
Travinik, tra'vS-nck (Tur.) 
Trebbin, trab'ben (Prus.) 
Trebia, tra'bs-a (It.) r. 
Trebinye, tra-bgn'ye (Herzeg.) 
Trebisaccia, tra-b6-sat'cha (It.) 
Trebitsch, tra'bech (Aust.) 
Trebizonde, treb'i-zond (As. Mi.) 
Trebujena, tre-b6-6he'na (Sp.) 
Trecastagne, tra-kas-ta'nya (It.) 
Trecate, tra-ka'ta (It.) 
Trecenta, tra-chan'ta (It.) 
Tredegar, tred'e-gar (Eng.) 
Treguier, tra-ge-a' (Fr.) 
Treignac, tra-nyak' (Fr.) 
Treishnish, tresh-nish' (Scot.) isl. 
Tremadoc, tre-mad'ok (Wales) 
Trembowla, tram-bovia (Aust.) 
Tremiti, tra'me-t€ (It.) isl 

Tremont, tre-mont' (U. S.) 

Tr6port, tra-por' (Fr.) 

Treptow, trap'tof (Prus.) 

Trescoe, tresTco (Eng.) isl. 

Trets, tra (Fr.) 

Treuenbrietzen, troi-en-bi*e'tsen (Prus.) 

Trevandrum, tra-van'drum (Ind.) 

Treves, trav (Ger.) 

Treviglio, tra-ve'lyo (It.) 

Trevigno, tra-v5'ny6 (It.) 

Treviso, tra-ve'zo (It.) 

Trevoux, tra-vo' (Fr.) 

Treysa, tri'za (Ger.) 

Tricarico, tre-ka-re'ko (It.) 

Tricase, tre-ka'sa (It.) 

Trichinopoly, tri-chi-nop'6-li (Ind.) 

Trichoor, trg-chor' (Ind.) 

Trient, trg-ent' (Aust.) 

Trier, trSr (Ger.) 

Trieste, tre-est'; Ital. pron. tre-as'ta 

Trigueros, tre-ge'ros (Sp.) 
Trikkala, tr6k'ka-la (Gr.) 
Trikkeri, trek'ke-re (Gr.) 
Trincomalee, tren-kom-a-le' (Ind.) 
Tringano, tren-ga'no (It.) 
Trinidad, trin-i-dad' (W. Ind.) 
Trinita, tr6-ne-ta' (It.) 
Trinity, La, la trg-ne-ta' (W. Ind.) 
Triora, tre-6'ra (It.) 
Tripatoor, tre-pa-tbr' (Ind.) 
Tripoli, tre'p6-lg (Af. ; Syr.) 
Tripolis, tr6'p6-les (Syr.) 
Tripolizza, tre-po-lfit'tsa (Gr.) 
Tristan da Cunha, tres'tan da ko'nya 

(S. At.) isls. 
Triumpho, tre-om'fo (Braz.) 
Trivaloor, tr5-va-lor' (Ind.) 
Trobriand, tro-bre'and (S. Pac.) isl. 
Trochtelfingen, tr66h-tel-feng'en (Ger.) 
Troense, treti'en-sa (Den.) 
Trogen, tro'gcn (Switz.) 
Trois Riviferes, trw^ rg-vg-ar' (W. 

Troitsk, tr6-etsk'(Rus.) 
Trolhatta, trol-hat'ta (Swe.) 
Tromoe, trS'meii-e (Nor.) 
Tromsoe, tr6m'seu-e (Nor.) 
Trondhjem, tron'yem (Nor.) 
Troon, trbn(Scot.) 
Tropea, tro-pa'S (It.) 
Tropez, St., saft tr6-pa' (Fr.) 
Troppau, trop'pou (Aust.^ 
Trossachs, tros'aks (Scot.) 
Trouville, tro-vgl' (Fr.) 
Trowbridge, trou'brij or tro'brij (Eng.) 
Troyes, trw^ (Fr.) 
Trsztenna, trs-tan'na (Hung.) 
Trueyre, trd-ar' (Fr.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; n6te, not, move; 
tab, bull; oil, pound; ch, cftain; g, flfo; j, job; y, j/es; tr, then: th, thin; 





Trujillo or Tmxillo, tro-Cheiayo (Sp. ; 

Span. Am.) 
Truro, tro'rS (Eng.) 
Trzemeszno, tzha-mash'no (Prus.) 
Tsampaynago, tsam-pi-na'gO (Burm.) 
Tsarskoe-Selo, tsar'sk6-a-8a-16" (Rus.) 
Tschitscher Boden, chs'cher b6'den 

Tsiamdo, ts6-am'd6 (Tibet) 
Tsikugo Uawa, tse-kd'go ga-wa (Japan) 

Tsitsikar, tsS-tsS-kar' (Manchoor.) 
Tsong-gan-hien, tsong-gan-hyen' (Ch.) 
Tsus-sinia, tsus-se'mii (N. Pac.) isls. 
Tuam. to'am (Ir.) 
Tuat or Twat, tu-at', twat (Af.) 
Tubal, to-bal' (Chile) r. 
Tubingen, tfllaing-en (Ger.) 
Tucka]boe, tuk-a-ho' (U. S.) 
Tuckerton, tuk'6r-ton (U. S.) 
Tucopia, tb-ko'pe-a (S. Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Tucuman, to-ko-man' (Arg. Con.) 
Tudela, tu-THela (Sp.) 
Tuejar, tu-e-ihar' (Sp.) 
Tugela, ttt-gela (S. Af.) r. 
Tuggurt, tug-gort' (Alg.) 
Tukhti Suleiman, tuCh'tg su-li-man' 

(Afg.) vit. 
Tula, tola (Rus. ; China) 
Tulare, tu-lar' (Calif or.) 
Tullamore, tul-la-moi*' (Ir.) 
Tullibardine, tul-li-bai-'din (Scot.) 
Tulmaro, t^l-ma'ro (A'enez.) 

Tumat, td-mat' (Abyss.) r. 
Tumbez, tomTjes (Peru) 
Tunbridge, tun'bnj (Eng.) 
Tunguragua, tdng-g^j-ra'gwa (Peru)r. 
Tunguska. tun-gijs'ka (Sib.) r. 
Tunis, tyd'nis(Af.) 
Tunja. ton'fiha (Col.) 
Tun stall, tun'stal (Eng.) 
Tuparro, tb-par'ro (Col.) r. 
Tupiza, td-p6'sa(Bol.) 
Tuptmgato td-pbng-ga'to (Chile), mt. 
Turbaco, tdr-baTco (CoL) 
Txirin, tyu-rin' (Anglicized form of Ital, 

Torino) (It.) 
Turkestan, tdr-Kes-tan'(A8.) 
Turkey, t6rlci (Eur.; As.) 
Tumhout, Flemish pron. tum-hout'; 

Ft. pron. tOrn-d' (Bel.) 
Turquino, tur-kc'no (Cuba) mt. 
Turriff, tu'rif (Scot.) 
Turukansk, td-rd-kansk' rSib.) 
Tuscaloosa, tus-ka-ld'sa (U. S.) 
Tuscany, tusTca-ni (Anglicized form of 

Ital. Toscana) (It.) 
Tuscarawas, tus-ka-rs'was (U. S.) 

Tuscarora, tus-ka-rd'ra (U. S.) 
Tuscumbia, tus-kumTbi-a (U. S.) 
Tutbury, tut'be-ri (Eng.) 
Tuticorin, tu-te-kor'in (Ind.) 
Tutoya, td-td'ya (Braz.) 
Tuttlingen, tvit'ling-en (Ger.) 
Tuxtla, tdks'tla (Mex.) 
Twickenham, twik'en-am (Eng.) 
Twinholm, twin'om (Scot.) 
Twyford, twi'ford (Eng.) 
Tynemouth, tin'muth or tin'muth 

Tyimingharae, tin'ning-gara (Scot.) 
Tyrol, te-rdl' (Aust.) 
Tyrone, ti-ron' (Ir.) 
Tysmienica, tes-myen-St'sa (Aust.) 
Tzaritzin, tsar'et-seu (Rus.) 


Ubatuba, tt-ba-tdTja (Braz.) 
Ubeda, d-be'THa (Sp.) 
Ubrique, d-brS'ke (Sp.) 
Ucayale, d-ka-yale (S. Am.) r. 
Uddevalle, dd-da-val'lfi (Swe.) 
Uddingston, ud'ings-ton (Scot.) 
Udenhout, d'den-hout (Neth.) 
Udine, d'dS-na (It.) 
Udinsk, d-d6nsk' (Rus.) 
Udvarhely, dd-var'haly (Hung.) 
Ueberlingen, <i'ber-ling-en (Ger.) 
Ueberlingersee, <i'ber-ling-er-za (Ger.) 
Uebi^au, il'be-gou (Ger.) 
Uerdingen, dr'ding-en (Prus.) 
Uetersen, ti'ter-zen (Prus.) 
TTetikou, <i'te-kou (Switz.) 
Ufa, d'fa (Rus.) 
Uffenheim, uf'fen-him (Ger.) 
Uffington, uf'ing-ton (Eng.) 
Uganda, ji-gan'da (Af.) 
Ugie, d'gi (Scot.) 
Ugijar, d-6he-ehar' (Sp.) 
Ugocs, d-goch' (Hung.) 
Uhricksville, yd'riks-vil (U. S.) 
Ui, d-S' (Sib.) r«. 
Uig, wig (Scot.) ial 
Uintah, yij-in'ta(U. S.) 
Uist, wist (Scot.) isl. 
Uitenhage, yut'cn-hag (Cape Col.) 
Uithuizen, oit-hoi'zen (Neth.) 

UJiji, u-JS'je (Af.) 


d-ke-rS'we (Af.) I. 

UJiji, u-j 
Ujvar, d'l 

'6-var" (Hung.) 

Ukraine or Ukraina, \i-kran, d-kri'na 

Uleaborg, d'la-6-b6rg(Ru8.) 
Ullasutai. d-lS-a-sd'ti (Alongol.) 
Ullapool, ulla-pdl (Scot.) 

zh, a^nre. French, yte, btlt; 

bl^, ne\if ; 

t, on. German, th, nacAt 




Ulloa, ol-lyo'a (Cent. Am.) r. 
Ullsvvater, ulz'wft-ter (Eng.) I. 
Ulm, dim (Ger.) 

Ulricehamn, ol-re'sa-ham (Swe.) 
Ulster. ul'8t6r (Ir.) 
Ulundi, u-lon'dg (S. Af.) 
Ulva, ul'va (Scot.) isl. 
Ulverston, ul'vSr-ston (Eng.) 
Umbagog, um'ba-gog (U. S.) I. 
Umballa, um-baria(Ind.) 
Umbrete, um-bre'te (Sp.) 
Umbriatico, ora-bre-a'tS-ko (It.) 
Umea, o'ma-o (Swe.) 
Umhlatosi, ura-hla-to'se (S. Af.) 
Umpqua, ump'kwg, (U. S.) 
Umritsir, um-ret'sSr (Ind.) 
Umtata, um-ta'ta (S. Af.) r. 
Unst, unst(Scot.)isZ. 
Unstrut, bn'strot (Prus.) r. 
Unterseen, un'ter-za-en (Switz.) 
Unterwalden, un'ter-val-den (Switz.) 
Unyamwezi, \in-yam-we'zi (Af.) 
Unyanyembe, un-yan-yem'be (Af.) 
Upemivik or Upernavik, u-per'ni-vek 

or u-per-na-vek (Greenld.) 
Uphall, up-hal' (Scot.) 
Upolu, o-p6-lo' (S. Pac.) id. 
Upsala, op-sa'la (Swe.) 
Ural, b-ral' (Rus.) mt, r. 
Uralsk, o-ralsk' (Rus.) 
Urbana, 6r-ba'na (U. S.) 
Urbino, or-be'no (It.) 
Uresino, o-ra-se'no (Jap.) 
Urgub, or-gob'(Tur.) 
Urgundab, ur-gun'dab (Afg.) r. 
Uri, 6're (Switz.) 
Urlingford, 6r'ling-f6rd (Ir.) 
Umen, or'nen (Switz.) 
Urquhart, 6i-'kart (Scot.) 
Urseren, or'se-ren (Switz.) val. 
Uruara, 6-ro-a'ra (Braz.) r. 
Urubucuara, o-ro-bo-ku-a'ra (Braz.) r. 
Urucaia, b-rb-ka'ya (Braz.) r. 
Uruguay, ur'u-gwa; Span. pron. o-ro- 

gwa'e (S. Am.) r. 
Urumiyah, o-ro-me'ya (Per.) 
Urup, o-rop' (N. Pac. Oc.) isl. 
Usedom, o'ze-dom (Prus.) isl. 
Ushak, b-shak'(Tur.) 
Ushant, fi-shoii' (Fr.) isl. 
Usingen, b'zing-en (Ger.) 
Usinovsk, o-se-novsk' (Rus.) 
Usk, usk(Eng.) 
Uskub, os'kub (Tur.) 
Usogo, n-so'go (Cent. Af.) 
Uspallata, bs-pal-la'ta (S. km.) pass 
Ussel, <is-sel' (Fr.) 
Ustaritz, ils-ta-rets' (Fr.) 
Ustica, bs't€-ka (It.) isl. 

Ustiujna, ost-yozh'na ^Rus.) 

Ustjug Veliki, ost-ybg^ va-le'ke (Rus.) 

Ust Urt, bst ort (As.) 

Usumasinta, b-sb-ma-sen'ta (Mex.) r. 

Usurbil, b-sor-bel' (Sp.) 

Utah, yo'ta (U. S.) 

Ute, yut(U. S.) 

Utelle, o-tal'la (It.) 

Utica, yo'ti-ka(U. S.) 

Utiel, b-te-al' (Pen.) 

Utoe, o'teii-e (Swe.) isl. 

Utrecht, b'tredht (Neth.) 

Utrera, b-tre'ra (Sp.) 

Uttoxeter, ut-toks'e-ter (Eng. ) 

Uxbridge, uks'brij (FJng.) 

Uya, b'ya (Scot.) isl. 

Uzbecks, uz'beks (As.)peo. 

Uzel, fl-zel' (Fr.) ) 

Uzfes, A-zas' (Fr.) 

Uznach, bts'na6n (Switz.) 


Vaagen, vo'gen (Nor.) isls. 
Vaast, St., saft vas (Fr. ; Bel.) 
Vadavate, va-da'va-ta (Ind.) r. 
Vadisco, va-des'kb (It.) 
Vadstena, vad-sta'na (Swe.) 
Vaerdal, var'dal (Nor.) 
Vagh Besztercze, vag bas-tar'tsa 

Vaglio, va'lyo (It.) 
Vaigatz, vi-gats' (Rus.) isl. 
Vaihingen, vi'hing-en (Ger.) 
Valais, va-la' (Switz.) 
Valdagno, val-da'nyo (It.) 
Valdai, val-di' (Rus.) mts. 
Valdemoro, val-de-mo'ro (Sp.) 
Valdepefias, val-de-pe'nyas (Sp.) 
Valderas, val-de-ras' (Sp.) 
Valderrobres, val-der-ro'bres (Sp.) 
Valdivia, val-de've-a (Chile) 
Valdobbiadene, val-dob-be-a-da'na (It.) 
Valenga, va-len'sa (Braz. ; Port.) 
Valence, va-loiis' (Fr.) 
Valencia, va-len'shi-a; Span. pron. va- 

len'the-a (Sp.) 
Valenciennes, va-Ioh-se-an' (Fr.) 
Valentia, va-len'shi-a (Ir.) 
Valenza, va-lan'tsa (It.) 
Valenzuela, va-len-thu-e'la (Sp. ) 
Valeryen Caux, St., saft va le-re oii ko 

Valetta, va-let'ta (Malta) 
Valhalla, val-haHa (Ger. ) 
Valladolid, val-lya-THo-leTn' fSp.) 
Vallamartin, val-la-mar-teii' (Sp.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, cAain; g, go; j, job; y, yes; th, </ieu; th, tAin; 





Vallay, val'la (Scot.) ul. 
Valledulnio, viil-la-dormo (It.) 
Vallegio, val-la'j6(It.) 

Vallelunga, val-la-lon'ga (It.) 
Valleiisole, val-lan-so'la (it.) 
Vallerauge, val-le-rozh' (Fr.) 
Vallier, St., sail Val-le-a' (Fr.) 
Vallievo, val-le-a'vo (Servia) 
Vallon, val-16fi'(I'r.) 
Valognes, va-16'nye (Fr.) 
Valois, va-lwa' (Fr.) dist. 
Valona, va-16'na (Tur. ) 
Valparaiso, val-pa-ri'so (Chile) 
V'alsequillo, val-se-kel'lyo (Can. Isls.) 
Valteline, val-te-len' (It.; Switz.) dist. 
Valtellina, val-tel-le'na(It. ; Switz.)dist. 
Van Buren, van byu'ren (U. S.) 
Vancouver's Island, van-ko'v6rz iland 

(N. Am.) 
Van Diemen's Land, van de'menz land 

(S. Pac. Go.) isl. 
Vanikoro, va-ne-ko'ro (S. Pac. Oc.) isls. 
Vanua Valavo, va-niya va-la'v6 (Fiji) 

Vaprio, va'pre-6 (It.) 
Varanger Fiord, va-rang'er fyor (Nor.) 
Varano, va-ra'iio (It.) I. 
Vardoehuus, var'deu-ho8(Nor.) 
Varela, va-ra'la (East. Arch.) isl.; 

(Anam) c. 
Varennes, va-ren' (Fr.) 
Varese, va-ra'za (It.) 
Varinas, va-re'nas (Venez.) 
Varna, viir'nii (Tur. ) 
Vasarhely, va-shar-haly' (Hung.) 
Vatersa, va't6r-8a (Scot.) isl. 
Vathi, va'the(Gr.)wi. 
Vaucluse, vo-klflz' (Fr.) 
Vaucouleurs, vo-ku-leui-' (Fr.) 
Vaud, vo (Switz.) 
Vaiidreuil, vo-drol' (Can.) 
Vaugirard, vo-zhe-rar' (Fr.) 
Vauxhall, vftks-hal' (Eng.) 
Vavao, va-va'o (Fiji) isl. 
Vavitou, va'vi-to fS. Pac. Go.) isl. 
Vazabarris, va-za-bar-res' (Braz.) r. 
Veendam, van'dam (Neth.) 
Veenendaal. va'nen-dal (J<eth.) 
Vegesack, va'ge-zak (Ger.) 
Veglia, valya (A dr. Sea) isl. 
Vejer, ve-CheK(Sp.) 
Vela»co, ve-ljis'ko (Arg. Con.) mts. 
Velaur, ve-lar' (Ind.) r. 
Velez, ve-leth'(Sp.) 
Velha, va'lya (Braz.) mts. 
Velikaia, va-le-ka'ya (Rus.) r. 
Veliki Luki, va-lS'ke 16'k6(Ru8.) 
Velino, va-lfi'nd (It.) r. 
Velletri, val-la'trS(It.) 
VeUore. vel-16r'(Ind.) 

Velsique, val-sek' (Bel.) 

Veluwe, ve-lb've (Xetli.) dist. 

Vementry, vem'en-tri (Scot.) isl. 

Venado, ve-na'do (Mex.) 

Venafro, va-na'fro (It.) 

Venaissin, ve-na-saii' (Fr.) 

Vendue, von-da' (Fr.) 

Vendonie, vofi-dom' (Fr.) 

Vendotena, van-do-ta'na (It.) isl. 

Veneria, va-na-re'a(It.) 

Venezia, va-na'tse-a (It.) 

Venezuela, ve-ne-thu-e'ia or ve-ne-su- 
e'la (S. Am.) 

Venice (Anglicized form of Ital. Vene- 
zia), ven'is (It.) 

Vennachar or Venachar, ven'na-6har 
(Scot.) I. 

Venosa, va-no'sa (It.) 

Ventana, van-ta'na (Arg. Con.) mts. 

Ventiraiglia, van-tS-m6'lya (It.) 

Ventipur, ven-te-pbi-' (Ind.) 

Ventnor, vent'nor (Eng.^ 

Venzone, van-tso'na (It.) 

Vera Cruz, ve'ra kros (Span. Am.) 

Veragua, va-ra'gwa (Col. ) 

Verbicaro, ver-bS-ka'ro (It.) 

Vercelli, var-chrU'le (It.) 

Verdun, var-dufi' (Fr.) 

Vereja, va-ra'ya (Rus.) 

Vergennes, v6r-jenz' (U. S.) 

Verkhoyansk, ver-6h6-yansk' (Sib.) 

Vermandois, var-mon-dw^' (Fr.) 

Vermejo, ver-me'6ho (S. Am.) r. 

Vemielho, var-ma'lyo (Braz.) r. 

Vermont, v6r-mont' (IT. S.) 

Vemeuil, var-neu-e' (Fr.) 

Vemoux, var-no'(Fr.) 

Vemoye, ver-no'ye (Sib.) 

Verola, va-ro'la (It.) 

Verona, va-ro'na (It.) 

Versailles, ver-salz'; Fr. pron. var- 
sal'lye or var-sa'ye (Fr.) 

Verviers, var-vg-a' (Bel.) 

Vervins, var-van' (Fr.) 

Verzuolo, var-tsij-o'lo (It.) 

Vescovato, ves-ko-va'to (It.) 

V^soul, va-sdr(Fr.) 

Vestervik, vas'ter-vek (Swe.)pt 

Vesuvius, Vesuvio, ve-syb'vi-us, va- 
zb'v6-6 (It.) mt. 

Veszprim, vas'prem (Hung.) 

Vetluga, vat-lb'ga (Rus.) r. 

Vevay, ve-va' (Switz.) 

V^zfere, va-zar' (Fr.) r. 

Vezzano, vat-tsa'no (It.) 

Viadana, ve-a-da'na (It.) 

Viamilo, v6-a-moufi' (Braz.) 

Viana, v5-a'na (Sp.) 

Vianen, v6-a'nen (Hoi.) 

Vianna, ve-an'na (Port.) 

zh, azure. French, vOe, btkt; bl.^. mut; fi, on. German, Ch, nac/it. 
(296) (86) Fl 




Viatka, ve-at'ka (Rus.) 
Viazma, ve-az'ma (Rus.) 
Viazniki, ve-az-ne'ke (Rus. ) 
Viborg, ve'borg (Den. ; Finld.) 
Vicente, ve-then'te (Sp.) 
Vicenza, ve-chan'tsa (It.) 
Vichada, ve-cha'da (Col.) r. 
Vichera, ve-cha'ra (Rus.) r. 
Vichy, ve-sh5' (Fr.) 
Vicksburg, viks'b^rg (U. S.) 
Vicomarino, ve-ko-ma-re'no (It.) 
Victoria Nyanza, vik-to'ri-a nyan'za 

(Af.) I. 
Vidauban, ve-do-boli' (Fr. ) 
Vidigueira, vS-de-ga'e-ra (Port.) 
Vienna, vS-en' (Fr.) 
Vieque, ve-e'ke (W. Ind.) id. 
Vierlande, fer'lan-de (Ger.) 
Vierlingsbeek, ver'lings-bak (Neth.) 

(Switz.) I. 
Vierzon, vg-ar-zoh' (Fr.) 
Viesbachhorn, fesTjaeh-hom (Switz.) 

Viesti, ve-as'tg (It.) 
Vietri, vg-a'tre (It.) 
Vigevano, T6-ja-va'n6 (It.) 
Viggianello, ve-ja-nallo (It.) 
Viggiano, ve-ja'no (It.) 
Vigia, ve-zhe'a (Braz.) 
Vignola, v6-ny6'la (It.) 
Vigo, v6'g6 (Rus. ; Sp.) 
Vigone, ve-go'na (It.) 
Viguera, ve-ge'ra (Sp.) 
Viguzzolo, v6-got'ts6-l6 (It.) 
Vilagos, ve-lo-gosh' (Hung.) 
Vilaine, vg-lan' (Fr.) r. 
Vilcabamba, v6l-ka-bam'ba (S. Am.) 
Vilcomayo, v5l-ko-mi'y6 (S. Am.) r. 
Villacarrillo, vel-lya-ka-rellyo (Sp.) 
Villach, vel'laCh(Au8t.) 
Villafames, v6l-lya-fa'mes (Sp.) 
Villafranca, vgl-lya-franTca (Sp.); vel- 

Villahermosa, vel-lya-er-mo'sa (Sp.) 
Villajoyosa, v6l-lya-6ho-yo'sa (Sp.) 
Villalon, vel-lya-lon' (Sp.) 
Villamiel, vel-lya-me-el' (Sp.) 
Villanova, vel'la-no'va (It. ; Braz.) 
Villanueva, vel-lya-nu-e'va (Sp.; Mex.) 
Villanuova, vel-la-nu-o'va (It.) 
Villar, vel-lyar'(Sp.) 
Villaramiel, vel-lya-ra-me-el' (Sp.) 
Villareal, vel-lya-re-al' (Sp.) 
Villares, vel-lya-res' (Sp.) 
Villarobledo, vel-lya-ro-ble'THo (Sp.) 
Villaroyo, vel-lya-ro'yo (Sp.) 
Villarubia, vgl-lya-ro'b5-a (Sp.) 
Villaviciosa, vel-lya-vg-the-6'sa (Sp.) 

Villedieu, vel-de-eu' (Fr.) 
Villefranche, v6l-frofish' (Fr.) 
Villena, vel-lye'na (Sp.) 
Villenauxe, vel-noks' (Fr. ) 
Villeneuve, v6l-netiv' (Switz. ; Fr.) 
Villers, vel-lya' or ve-ya' (Bel.) 
Villers-Coter§ts, ve-ya-ko-te-ra' (Fr.) 
Vilna, vel'na (Rus.) 
Vilshofen, fels'h6-f«n (Ger.) 
Vilvorde, vel-vor'da (Bel.) 
Vimeira, vS-ma'e-ra (Port.) 
Vimieiro, vS-me-a'e-ro (Port.) 
Vimoutiers, ve-mo-t6-a' (Fr.) 
Vinaroz, v5-na-r6th' (Sp.) 
Vincennes, van-san' (Fr.) 
Vincent, St., sant, colloquially sint. 

vin'sent (W. Ind.) isl. 
Vindhya, ven'dhya (Ind. ) mfs. 
Vingurla, vin-gur'la (Ind.) 
Vinkeveen, vin'ke-van (Neth.) 
Vinkovcze, ven-kov'tsa (Aust.) 
Vintimiglia, ven-te-me'lya (It.) 
Virginia, ver-jin'i-a(U. S.) 
Visby, ves'bti (Swe.) 
Viseu, ve-sa'u (Port.) 
Vistula, vis'tyu-la (Pol.; Ger.) r. 
Vitebsk, ve-tabsk' (Rus.) 
Viterbo, ve-tar'bo (It.) 
Viti Levu, ve-te' le-vo' (Fiji) id. 
Vitolano, ve-t6-la'no.(It.) 
Vittoria, vg-to'rg-a (Sp.) 
Vivarais, ve-va-ra' (Fr.) dist. 
Vivel, ve-vel' (Sp.) 
Vivero, ve-ve'r6(Sp.) 
Viviers, ve-ve-a' (Fr.) 
Vizagapatam, ve-za-ga-pa-t&m' (Ind.) 
Vizianagram, ve-zg-a'na-gram (Ind.) 
Vizzini, vet-tse'ne(It.) 
Vlaardingen, vlar'deng-en (Bel.) 
Vladimir, vla'de-mer(Rus.) 
Vlieland, rle'lant (Neth.) 
Vlijraen, vli'men (Neth.) 
Vlissingen, vles'sing-en (Neth.) 
Vogatza, v6-gat'sa (Tur. ) r. 
Vogelberg, fo'gel-berg (Ger.) mt. 
Voghera, v6-ga'ra (It. ) 
Vogogna, vo-go'nya (It.) 
Vohringen, feu'ring-en (Ger.) 
Voigtland, f6'e6ht-lant (Ger.) did. 
Voiron, vwg-ron' (Fr.) 
Vojutza, v6-jot'za (Tur.) r. 
Volcano, vol-ka'no (Pac. Oc.) ids. 
Volga, vol'ga ^Rus.)r. 
Volhynia, vol-lii'ne-a (Rus.) 
Vollenhove, vol-len-ho've (Neth.) 
Vologda, v6-16g'da(Rus.) 
Volpiano, v61-pe-a'n6 (It.) 
Volta, v61'ta(It.; W. Af.) 
Volterra, vol-tar'ra (It.) 

Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, c^ain; g, go\ j, job; y, yes; th, «/ten; th, thva; 





Volturara, vol-tu-ra'ra(It.) 
Voltumo, ¥61-101^00(11.)^ 
Vol vie, vol-vek' (Fr.) 
Vonitza, fo-net'sa (Gr.) 
Voortschoten, vor-s(5h6't«n (Neth.) 
Vorarlberg, f6r-arl'berg(Aust.) dist. 
Voreppe, v6-rap'(Fr.) 
Vorona, v6-r6'na (Rus.) r. 
Voronej, v6-ro'nezh (Rus.) 
Voronetz, v6-ron'ets (Rus.) 
Vosges, vozh (Fr.) 
Vostitza, f6s-tet'za (Gr.) 
Vostochni, vos-to6h'ne (Sib.) c. 
Vouziers, vo-ze-a' (Fr.) 
Vrana, vi-a'na (Tur.) 
Vreden, fra'd^n (Ger.) 
Vreeswijk, vras'vik (Xeth.) 
Vriesenveen, vre'zen-van (Neth.) 
Vriesland, vrez'lant (Neth.) 
\ ryburg, fri'burg (S. Af.) 
Vukovar, vo-ko-var' (Aust.) 
Vulcano, vol-ka'no (It.) isl. 
Vuoxen, vo-oks'eu (Finld.) r. 
Vusitrin, vo-se'tren (Tur.) 
Vytegra, vu-ta'gra (Rus.) 


Waalwljk, vai'vik (Neth.) 
Wabash, w^Tjash (U. S.), r. 
Waday, wa-di'(Cent. Af.) 
Wad Medina, wad ma-de'na (Eg.) 
Waereghem, va're-gem (Belg.) 
Waerschoot, var'sdliot (Belg.) 
Wageniugen, va'ge-ning-en (Neth.) 
Wagram, va'gram (Aust.) 
Wah-el-Baharieh, wa-el-ba-ha-r5'e (Eg. 
Wah-el-Dakhileh, wa-el-da'<ihe-le (Eg. 
Wah-el-Ferafreh, wa-el-fe-raf 're (Eg. ) 
Wah-el-Kharijeh, wa-el-cha'ri-je (Eg.) 
Wahleren, vale-ren (Switz.) 
Wateatch, wa-sach' (U. S.) mts. 
Waiblingen, vi'bling-en (Ger. ) 
Waidhofen, vidTio-fen (Aust.) 
Waigatz, vi-gats' (Rus.) isl. 
Waigeou, vi-ge-o' (East. Arch.) isl. 
Waikato, wa-e-ka'to (N. Zd.)r. 
Waitemata, wa-e-ta-ma'ta (N. Zd.) 
Waitzen, vit'tsen (Aust.) 
Wakatipu. wa-ka-te'po (N. Zd.) I. 
Wakefield, wak'fSld (Eng.) 
Wakenltz, va'ke-u6t8(Ger.)r. 
Walachia, or Wallachia, wft-l&'kl-a 

Walcheren, vai'fthe-ren (Neth.) 
Walcourt, viil-kor' (Bel.) 
Waldeck, val'dek (Ger.) 
Walden, Saffron, saffron warden (Eng.) 

Waldenburg, val'den-bbrg (Ger.) 
Waldlieim, vald'him (Ger.) 
Waldshut, valdz'hot(Ger.) 
Walla Walla, wolla wol'la (U. S.) 
Walldiiren, val'dii-ren (Ger.) 
Wallenstadt, val'len-stat (Switz.) 
Wallingford, wolling-ford (Eng.) 
Walloostook, wol-lus-tuk' (N. Am.) r. 
Wallsend, w^lz-end' (Eng.) 
Walmer, wfti'mfer (Eng.) 
Walney, wal'ni (Eng.) isl. 
Walsall, wal'sal(Eng.) 
Waltershausen, val'terz-houz-en (Ger.) 
Waltham, wol'tham (Eng.) 
Walthamstow, wol'tham-sto (Eng.) 
Walton, wal'ton (Eng.) 
Walvisch Bay, wal'fish ba (S. Af.) 
Walworth, wal'wifertn (Eng.) 
Wandiwash, wan-di-wash' (Ind.) 
Wandsworth, wandz'werth (Eng.) 
Wanganui, wan-ga-nb'e (N. Zd.) 
Wangari, wan-ga're (N. Zd.) b. 
Wangeroog, vang'e-rog(Ger.) is?. 
Wanjanga, wan-jang'ga (Af.) 
Wantage, won'taj or won'tij (Eng.) 
Wapakoneta, wa-pa-ko-net'a (U. S.) 
Wappatoo, wap-pa-to' (U. S.) isl. 
Wapping, wop'ing(Eng.) 
Warasdin, va'ras-den (Aust.) 
Warburton, worHofer-ton (Austral.) r. 
Warendorf, va'ren-dorf (Prus.) 
Wargela, war'ge-la (Alg.) oasis 
Wark worth, wark'w6rth (Eng.) 
Warminster, W3,r'min-st6r(Eng.) 
Warree, war-re' (Cent. Af.) 
Warrenpoint, wor'ren-point (Inl.) 
Warrington, wor'ring-ton (Eng.) 
Warsaw, war'sa; Polish, Warszawa, 

Wartenburg, var'ten-borg (Prus.) 
Warwick, war'rik (Eng.) 
Washita, wosh'i-tg, (U. S.) 
Wasmes, vam (Bel.) 
Wasungen, va'zung-en (Ger.) 
Waterbury, wa't6r-be-ri (U. S.) 
Waterford, wft't6r-ford (Ir.) 
Waterhead, wft't6r-hed(Eng.) 
Wateringen, va'te-ring-en (Neth.) 
Waterloo, wa-t6r-ld'; Flemish pron. 

Watseka, wot-se'ka (U. S.) 
Wavertree, wa'v6r-tre (Eng.) 
Wazan, wa-zan' (Mar.) 
Weald, The, thu weld (Eng.) 
Wear, wer (Eng.)r. 
Wednesbury, wenz'be-ri (Eng.) 
Weedon, we'don(Eng.) 
Weggis, vag'ges (Switz.) 
Weighton Market, wa'ton mSr'ket 


zh, amre. French, rfte, bdt; 

bl^, netif; 

b, on. German, th, nacAt. 




Weihien, wa-hyen' (China) 
Weikersheim, vi'kerz-him (Ger.) 
Weimar, vi'mar (Ger.) 
Weissenburg, vis'sen-borg (Switz. and 

Weissenfels, vis'sen-fels (Prus.) 
Weiasenhorn, vis'sen-horn (Switz.) 
Weisskirchen, via'kSrch-en (Hung.) 
Welland, wel'land (Eng. ; Can.) 
Wellingborough, wel'ling-bu-ru (Eng.) 
Wellington, wel'ling-tou (N. Zd. &c.) 
Wells, welz (Eng.) 
Welshpool, welsh'pol (Wales) 
Weltevreden, vel'te-vra-den (Java) 
Wemyss, wemz (Scot.) 
Wener, va'ner (Swe.) /. 
Wenersberg, va'nerz-berg(Swe.) 
Wengem, weng'eni (Switz.) 
Wenham Lake, wen'am lak (U. S.) 
Wenona, we-no'na (U. S.) 
Wentworth, went'w6rth (Eng.) 
Were j a, va-ra'ya(Ru8.) 
Wernigerode, var-ne-ge-ro'de (Prus.) 
Wertheira, vart'him (Ger.) 
Wervick, var'vgk (Belg.) 
Weael, va'z«l (Ger.) 
Weser, va'zer (Ger.) r. 
Wesijegonsk, va-se-ya-gonsk' (Rus.) 
Wessel, wes'sel (Austral.) isls. i 

Westbury, west'be-ri (Eng.) 
Westeras, vas'te-ros (Swe.) I 

Westerbotten, vas'ter-bot-ten (Swe.) ■ 
Westerwald, vas'ter-valt (Ger.) mts. I 
Westnieath, west-meTH' (Ir.) ! 

Westminster, west'min-stfer (Eng.) i 
Westmoreland, west'mor-land (Eng.) 
Westoe, wes'to (Eng.) 
Weston - super - Mare, wes'ton-syu-per 

Westphalia, west-fa'li-a; Ger. West 

phalen, vast-fa'len (Ger.) 
Westruther, west'ruTH-er (Scot.) 
Westzaan, vest'zan (Neth.) 
Wetherby, welH'er-bi (Eng.) 
Wetter, vet'ter (Swe.) «. 
Wetteren, va.t'te-r«n (Bel.) 
Wetterhorn, vat'ter-hom (Switz.) 
Wetzlar, vats'lar (Ger.) 
Wevelghem, va'vel-gem (Bel.) 
Wexford, weks'ford (Ir.) 
Wexio, vek'sh5-eu (Swe.) 
Wey, wa (Eng.)r. 
Weymouth, wa'muth (Eng.) 
Whalsey, hwal'si (Scot.) isl. 
Whampoa, hwam-po'a (China) 
Wharf e, hwarf (Eng.)r. 
Whitby, hwit'bi (Eng.) 
Whitehaven, hwlt'ha-vcn (Eng.) 
Whithorn, hwit'horn (Scot.) 

Whitstable, hwit'sta-bl(Eng.) 
Whittlesey, hwit'tel-si (Eng.) 
Whydah, hwi'da (W. Af.) 
Wiborg, ve'borg (Den. ; Rus.) 
Wicklow, wik'lo (Ir.) 
Wicomico, wi-kom'i-ko (U. S.) 
Widdin, ved'den(Bulg.) tn. 
Wieliczka, ve-lech'ka (Aust. Gal.) 
Wien (Vienna), ven (Aust.) 
Wienerwald, ve'ner-valt (Aust.) mts. 
Wieprz, vyeprzh (Rus.) r. 
Wiesbaden, vez'ba-den (Ger.) 
Wigan, wig'an (Eng.) 
Wight, wit(Eng.)i«i. 
Wigton, Wigtown, wig'ton (Scot. ; Eng.) 
Wijchen, vi'6hen (Neth.) 
Wijk, vik (Neth.) 
Wildbad, velt'bat(Ger.) 
Wildenfels, vel'den-fels (Ger.) 
Wildungen, v6rd\ing-en (Ger.) 
Wilhelmsburg, vel'helms-bbrg (Ger.) 
Wilkesbarre, wilksHjar-re (U. S.) 
Willamette, wil-la'met (U. S.) r. 
Willemstad, vel'lem-stad (Neth.) 
Willesden, wil'lez-den (Eng.) 
Willoughby, wil'lo-bi (U. S.) 
Wilmington, wil'ming-ton (U. S.) 
Wilna, vel'na (Rus.) 
Wimbledon, wim'bel-don (Eng.) 
Wimmera, wim-mg'ra (Austral.) 
Wincanton, win'kan-ton (Eng.) 
Winchcombe, winsh'kom (Eng.) 
Winchelsea, win'chel-se (Eng.) 
Winchester, win'ches-t6r (Eng.) 
Windermere, win'd6r-mer (Eng.) I. 
Windischgratz, ven'desh-grets (Aust.) 
Windsor, wind'zor (Eng.) 
Winlaton, win'la-ton (Eng.) 
Winnebago, win-ne-ba'go (U. S.) I. 
Winnenden, ven'nen-den (Ger.) 
Winnepesaukee, win - ne - pe - sg ' ke 

(U. S.) i. 
Winnipeg, win'ni-peg (N. Am.) I. 
Winnipegoos or Winnipegosis, win'ni- 

pe-gbs, win-ni-pe-go'sis (N. Am.) I. 
Winnipiseogee, wiu-ne-pe-se-6'ge (U. S.) 

Winona, wi-no'na (U. S.) 
Winschoten, ven-s6ho'ten (Neth.) 
Winterthur, ven'ter-tor (Switz.) 
Wipper, vep'per (Ger.) r. 
Wipperfurth, vep'per-fort (Ger.) 
Wirksworth, w6rks'w6rth (Eng.) 
Wisbeach, wiz'hech (Eng.) 
Wisby, vesTja (Swe.) 
Wisconsin, wis-kon'sin (U. S.) 
Wisehau, v6'ze-hou (Aust.) 
Wishaw, wish'a (Scot.) 
Wisloka, ve-slo'ka (Aust. Gal.) r. 

Fate, far, fat, f^U; me, met, h6r, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 
tub, bull; oil, pound; ch, c/iaiu; g, gro; j, job; y, j/es; TH, «/ien; tli, «/iin; 





Wismar, vez'mar (Ger.) 
Wissembourg (French name of Weis- 

senburg), ves-son-bor' (Ger. ) 
Withani, with'am (Eng.)r. 
Wittelsbach, vet'telz-ba6h (Ger.) 
Wittenberg, vet'ten-berg (Prus.) 
AVittgenstein, ^it'gen-stin (S. Pac.) ial. 
Wittichenau, vet'te-6he-nou (Prus.) 
Wittingen, vet'ting-en (Ger.) j 

Witzenhausen, vet's<?n-houz-en (Ger.) 
Wiveliscombe, wil'skum (Eng.) 
Wladimir, vla'de-nier (Rus.) 
Woburn, wo'bern (Eng.) 
Wodnian, vod'ne-an (Aust.) 
Wohlau, vo'lou (Prus.) 
Woking, wo'king (Eng.) 
Wokingham, wo'king-ham (Eng.) 
Wolborough, wol'bu-ru (Eng.) 
Wolfenbuttel, vol'fpn-btlt-tcl (Ger.) 
Wulga, vol'ga (Kus.) r. 
WoUaston, wol'las-ton (N. Am.) 
Wollerau, vol'le-rou (Switz.) 
Wollin, vol'len (Prus.) 
Wollishofen, vol'les-hof-en (Switz.) 
WoUomba, wol-lom'ba (Austral.) r. 
Wollongong, w61-lon-gong' (Austral.) 
Wolstanton, wul-stan'ton (Eng.) 
Woluwe, vo-lQ'va (Bel.) 
Wolverhampton, w\}l - v6r - hamp ' ton 

Wolverley, wul'ver-li (Eng.) 
Wolverton, wul'v^r-ton (Eng.) 
Wonibwell, wom'bel (Eng.) 
Woodstock, w^d'stok (Eng.) 
Wooler, wul'6r (Eng.) 
Woolly a, wbHya (S. Am.) 
Woolwich, wyl'ich (Eng.) 
Woonsocket, won-sok'et (U. S.) 
Woosue, wo-8\i-a' (China) 
Wootton Basset, wb'tcn bas'set (Eng.) 
Worcester, wbs't6r (Eng.) 
Workington, w6rk'ing-ton (Eng.) 
Worksop, w6rk'sop (Eng.) 
Wormel d i ngen , vor-mel'dnig-en (Neth. ) 
Wormhoudt, v6rm-hb' (Fr.) 
Worms, vormz (Ger.> 
Worsborough, wers'bu-ru (Eng.) 
Worsley, wfers'le (Eng.) 
Worth, veurt (Ger.) 
Worthing, wfer'THing (Eng.) 
Wortley, w6rt'li (Eng.) 
Woudrichem, vou'dr6-6hem (Neth.) 
Wouw, vouv(Neth.) 
Woznesensk, voz-na-sansk' (Rus.) 
Wrangell Land, rang'gel land (Arc. Oc.) 
Wrekin, rek'in (Eng.) 
Wrexham, reks'am (Eng.) 
Wnttle, rit'tl (Eng.) 
Wrockwardine, rok-wftr'din (Eng.) 

Wulur, wu-lbr' (Ind.) I. 
Wunsiedel, vbn'ze-del (Ger.) 
Wunzendake, wvin'zen-da-ka (3ap.)mt. 
Wurda, wur'da (Ind.) 
Wtirtemberg, vvlr'tem-berg (Ger.) 
Wurzburg, vurts'bbrg (Ger.) 
Wurzen, vbr'tsen (Ger.) 
Wustani, wus-ta'ne (Eg.) 
Wusterhausen, vbs'ter-houz-en (Prus.) 
Wyandot, wi'an-dot (U. S.) 
Wyborg, veHborg (Rus.) 
Wycombe, wi'kom (Eng.) 
Wye, wi (Eng.) r. 
Wyenbash, ve'an-bash (Rus.) 
Wyk, wtlk (Den.) 
Wymondham or Wyndham, wi'mond- 

ham or wind'am (Eng.) 
Wynaad, wi-nad' (Ind.) 
Wynegunga, win-gun'ga (Ind.) r, 
Wyoming, wi-6'ming (U. S.) 
Wyre, wir (Eng.)r. 
Wyvis, Ben, ben wi'vis (Scot.) mt 

(For most Spanish names in X see 
under J.) 
Xalapa, 6ha-la'pa (Mex.) 
Xamiltepec, dha-niel'te-pek (Mex.) 
Xanten, ksan'ten (Ger.) 
Xarayes, sha-ra'yas (Braz.) dist. 


Xativa, Cha-te'va (Sp.) 
Xavier, San, san (5ha've-a 
Xenia, ze'ni-a (U. S.) 
Xenil, ehe-nel' (Sp.) 
Xeres, dher-es' (Sp.) 
Xingu, shen'gb (Braz.) r. 
Xulla, ksbl'ia (East. Arch.) isls. 

Yablonoi, yab-lo-no'e (Sib.) mts. 
Yadkin, yad'kin (U. S.) 
Yaguache, yii-gwa'che (Ecuad.) 
Yaila, yna (Rus.) mt. 
Yakima, yak'i-ma(U. S.) 
Yakutsk, ya-kotsk' (Sib.) 
Yamina, ya-me'na (Af.) 
Yana. ya'na (Sib.) r. 
Yanaon, ya-nil'on (Ind.) 
Yandal)oo, yiin-da-bb' (Bur.) 
Yangtse-kiang.yang-tse-ke-ang' (China) 
Yanina, yan'i-na (Albania) [r. ] 

Yaoori, ya-o're (Cent. Af.) 
Yapura, ya-pu-ra'(S. Am.)r. 
Yaqui, yft-ke'(Mex.; Hayti) 

zh, azure. French, vtle, bat; 

bleu, netif ; h, on. 

German, 6h, nacAt 




Yaracui, ya-ra-kwe' (Venez.) 

Yarkand, yar'kand (As.) r. 

Yarmouth, yar'muth (Eng.) 

Yaroslaf, ya-ro-slaf (Rus.) 

Yarra Yarra, yai-'ra yar'ra (Austral.) r. 

Yarriba, yar're-ba (W. Af.) 

Yarrow, yar'ra (Scot.) 

Yavapai, yav'a-p! (U. S.) 

Yavari, ya-va-re' (S. Am.) r. 

Yazoo, ya-zb' (U. S.) 

Ybicui, e-be-kwe' (Urug.) 

Y^a, e'sa (Peru) 

Yeadon, ye'don (Eng.) 

Yeddo or Yedo, yed'6 (Jap.) 

Yellala, yel-la'la {M.) falls 

Yemen, yem'en (Ar.) 

Yeni Bazar, ya'ne ba-zar' (Bosnia) 

Yenidge, ya'ne-je (Tur.) 

Yenikale, ya-ne-ka'la (Rus.) st. and/^. 

Yenisei, ye-ne-sa'e (Sib.) r. 

Yeniseisk, ya-ne-sa'esk (Sib.) 

Yeou, ya-o' (Cent. Af.) r. 

Yeovil, y6'vil(Eng.) 

Yferes, yar (Fr.) r. 

Yesso, yes'so (Jap.) 

Yestor Beacon, yes'tor be'kou (Eng.) 

Yetholm, yet'um (Scot.) 
Yezd, yezd (Per.) 
Yezdikhast, yez-de-kast' (Per.) 
Ylopango, e-lo-pan'go (Cent. Am.) I. 
Yokohama, yd-ko-ha'ma (Jap.) 
Yola, yo'la(Cent. Af.) 
Yonkers, yong'kerz (U. S.) 
Yoomadung, yo'ma-dung (Ind.) mts. 
Yori, yo're (Rus.) r. 
Yosemite, yo-sem'i-te (U. S.) 
Youghall, ya'hal or yal (Ir.) 
Youghiogheny, yo-ho-ga'ni (U. S.) r. 
Ypane, e-pa'ne (S. Am.) r. 
Ypres (French) or Ypern (Flemish), 

e'per, i'pern (Bel.) 
Ypsilanti, ip-si-lan'ti (U. S.) 
Yrieix, St., saii-te-re-a' (Fr.) 
Yser, e-sar' (Fr.) r. 
Yssel. is'sel (Neth.) r. 
Ysselmond, is'sel-mond (Neth.) 
Yasengeaux, es-sofi-go' (Fr.) 
Ystad, ti'stad(Swe.) 
Vstradyfodwg, us-tra-di-fod-ug 

Ystwith, ist'with (Wales) r. 
Ythan, i'than (Scot.) r. 
Yucatan, yo-ka-tan' (Mex.) 
Yukari Sobla, yb-ka're so'bla (Rus.) 
Yukon, yuTcon (N. Am.) r. 
Yiinnan, ytln-nan' (China) 
Yunquera, ydn-ke'ra (Sp.) 
Yuritala. yo-re-ta'la.(Ru8.) 

Yverdon, 6-var-d6h' (Switz.) 
Yvetot, ev-t6'(Fr.) 
Yvome, e-vorn' (Switz.) 

Zaandam, zan'dam (Neth.) 
Zaandijk, zan'dik (Neth. ) 
Zabacano, za-ba-ka'no (W. Af.) 
Zabara, zii-ba'ra (Ar.) mt. 
Zabern, tsa'bern (Ger.) 
Zacapa, sa-ka'pa (Cent. Am.) 
Zacatapeques, sa-ka-ta-pe-kes' (Cent 

Zacatecas, sa-ka-ta'kas (Mex.) 
Zacatula, sa-ka-tola (Mex.) 
Zacualpan, sa-kwal-pan' (Mex.) 
Zafaran-Boli, za'fa-ran-bo'le (Tur.) 
Zaffarano, tsaf-fa-ra'no (It.) c. 
Zagarolo, dza-ga-ro'lo (It.) 
Zagazig, za-ga-zeg' (Eg.) 
Zagora, za'go-ra (Gr.) 
Zahringen, tsa'ring-en (Ger.) 
Zalamea, tha-la-me'ii (Sp.) 
Zalankoi, za-lan'ko-e (Rus.) 
Zalathna, zo-lot'no (Transyl.) 
Zaleszcyki, za-lash-che'ke (Aust. Gal.) 
Zambezi or Zambesi, zam-be'zi (Af.) 

Zamora, tha-mo'ra (Sp.); sii-mo'ra 

Zancara, than-ka'ra (Sp.)r. 
Zanguebar, zan-ga-bar' (Af.) 
Zanskar, zans-kai-' (As.) 
Zante, zan'ta (Gr.) isl. 
Zanzibar, zan-ze-bar' (Af.) 
Zapatosa, sa-pa-to'sa (Col. ) I. 
Zara, tsa'ra; Ital. pron. dza'ra (Dalmat.) 
Zarafshan, za-raf'shan'' (Cent. As.) 
Zarskoe-Selo, tsar'sko a-sa-lo" (Rus.) 
Zaruma, sa-ro'ma (S. Am.) 
Zbarasz, zba'rash (Aust. Gal.) 
Zea, ze'a (Gr.) isl. 
Zebayer, za-ba'yar (Red Sea) isls. 
Zebid, za-bed' (Ar. ) 
Zeeland, za'lant (Neth.) 
Zehdenick, tsa'de-nek (Prus.) 
Zehree. zech-re' (Belooch.) 
Zeila, za'la (Af.) 
Zeitun, za'ton (Gr. ) g. 
Zelaya, se-la'yji (Mex.) 
Zellerfeld, tsal'ler-felt (Ger.) 
Zelline, tsal-le'na (It.) r. 
Zempelburg, tsam'pel-borg (Prus.) 
Zemplin, zem-plen' (Hung.) 

Fate, far, fat, full: me, met, her, golden; pine, pin; note, not, move; 

tub, bull; oil, pouud; ch, cAain; g, fl^o; j, job; y, t/es; th, t^en; th, <Mu; 





Zen j an, zan-jan' (Per.) 

Zerafshan, ze-riif shan" (Cent. As.) r. 

Zerbst, tsarbst (Ger.) 

Zemagora. See Zniagora. 

Zeveuaar, za've-nai- (Neth.) 

Zevenhuizen, za-ven-hoiz'en (Neth.) 

Zeyla, za'la(Af.) 

Zezere, za-za'ra (Port.) r. 

Zibello, tse-bal'16 (It.) 

Ziegenhain, tse'gcn-hin (Ger.) 

Zillerthal, tsel'ler-tal (Tyrol.) 

Zinmierwald, tsem'mer-valt (Switz.) 

Zips, zeps (Hung.) 

Zircz, zerts (Hung.) 

Zirknitz, tserk'nets (Aust.) 

Zizers, tse'tserz (Switz.) 

Zlatousk, zla-tbsk' (Rus.) 

Zloczow, zlo'chov (Aust. Gal.) 

Znaim, tsnim (Aust.) 

Zoest, zbst (\eth.) 

Zofingen, ts6'flng-en (Switz.) 

Zondereinde, z6n'der-in-de (S. Af.) 

Zonnebeke, zon-na-ba'ka(Bel.) 
Zonzonate, son-so-na'te (Cent. Am.) 
Zorita, tho-re'ta (Sp.) 
Zouga, zb'ga (*. Af.) r. 
Zrnagora, cher-nag'o-ra (Eur.) 
Zsambek, zham'bek (Hung.) 
Zubia, La, la thoOje-a (Sp.) 

Zug, tsog (Switz.) 
Zuider-Zee, zoi'der-z& (Neth.) 
Zuidlaren, zoid'la-ren (Neth.) 
Zuj'ar, tho char' (Sp.) 
Zulftcar, tsul'fe-kar (Cent. As.) 
ZUllichau, tsul'le-chou (Prus.) 
Ziilpich, tstH'peeh (Prus.) 
Zululand, zo'ld-land (S. Af.) 
Zundert, Groot, grot zun'dert (Neth. 
Zurgena, thor-6he'na(Sp.) 
Zurich, tsii'redh (Switz.) 
Zuruma, zu-ro'ma (Braz.) r. 
Zutphen, zut'fen (Neth.) 
Zuyder-Zee, zoi'der-za (Neth.) 
Zvornik, zvor'nek (Tur.) 
Zwart-Berg, swarrberg (S. Af.) mt 
Zwartesluis, zvar'te-slois (Neth.) 
Zweibriicken, tsvi'brak-en (Ger.) 
Zweisimmen, tsvl'sem-men (Switz.) 
Zwellendam, swel'len-dam (S. Af.) 
Zwickau, tsvek'kou (Ger.) 
Zwijndrecht, zvin'drefiht (Neth.) 
Zwittau, tsvet'tou (Aust.) 
Zwittawa, zvet-ta'va (Aust.) 
ZwoUe, zvol'le (Neth.) 
Zwyndrecht, zvin'dreCht (Bel.) 
Zydaczow, ze-dach'ov (Aust.) 
Zyghur, zi-gur' (Ind.) 
Zyria, ze'ri-a (Gr.) mt. 
Zytomir, zhet-o-mer' (Rus.) 



A (Sw.), river, as in Toruea. 

Aa (Dan. and D.), river; as Groote Aa, 
great river (Holland). 

Ab or Aub (Per.), water; as Doab, two 
rivers ; Punjaub, five rivers. 

Abad (Per., Hind., <fec.), house, town; 
as Akbarabad, town of Akbar; Hyder- 
abad, town of Hyder; Faizabad, 
abode of plenty. 

Abbas (Per.), father; Abbasabad, pater- 
nal town or abode. 

Aber (Celt.), mouth of a river; Aber- 
deen, town at the mouth of the Dee ; 
Aberavon, mouth of the Avon. 

Ach, Ache (G. = Lat. aouo, chiefly used 
in the Alps), river ; Bregenzer Ache, 
Krimler Ache, Salzach. 

Adel (G.), noble; Adelsberg, noble's 
mountain; Adelsheim, noble's home. 

Agli (Erse = Auch in Scotland), a field : 

Ardagh, the field on the height. 
Agoa (Pg.), Agua (Sp.), water; Agoa 

Fria, cold water; Aguas Calientes, 

warm waters. 
Aiguille (Fr. ), needle, mountain peak ; 

Aiguille d'Argentifere. 
Ain (Ar.), a sprmg; Ain Moosa, spring 

of Moses. 
Ak (Turk.), white; Ak-Serai, whito 

palace ; Ak-su, white river. 
Al, El, (Ar.), the or a; Alcantara, the 

bridge; Alcazar, the palace; Alhama, 

the baths. 
Ala (Turk.), spotted, variegated; Alatau 

(for Alatagh), variegated mountains, 

so called on account of the stripes 

and patches of dark rock alternating 

witli snowfields. 

zb, azure. 

French, v4e, bat ; bl^, Qe& ; h, on. 

Oerman, 6h, nacAt 




Aid C= Gael, allt), a stream; Aldarder, 

Aldernan, Aldourie. 
Allah (Ar.), God; Allahabad, town of 

Allt. Alt, Gait (Welsh), high; a cUff ; 

Penbuallt, Peiialt. 
Allt, Alt (Gael.), a stream, a brook; 

Allt-an-Feariiha, stream of the alder- 
Alp, Alb (Celt.), an elevated place; 

Alpnach, high waters. 
Als6 (Hung.), lower, opposite of Felso, 

upper ; Als6 Leudva. 
Alt (Wei.), a steep place ; Altcar. 
Alt (G.), old ; Altdorf (or Altorf), old 

village ; Altenkircheu, old churches. 
Alta, Alto (Sp., It., Pg.), high; Tierra 

Alta, high land (Sp.). 
Altyu (Turk.), golden; Altyn-tagh; 

golden mountain. 
Am (Welsh), by, near ; Amlwch ; Hen- 

llan-am-goed, the old church by the 

Amara(Ind.), immortal; Amarapuram, 

town of the immortals. The same 

root is seen in Amritsar, lake of im- 
Ar (Welsh), upon ; Llanarmon. 
Ard (Celt.), high, height; Ardglass, 

green height; Ardnamurchan, height 

of the great headland ; Lizard, high 

Arl, Adler (G.), eagle ; Arlberg, Adler- 

berg, eagle's mountain. 
Arroyo (Sp. ), rivulet; Arroyo de Puerco, 

rivulet of the hog. 
Ath (Erse), a ford ; Athlone. 
Au, Aue (G.), meadow; Reichenau, 

rich meadow; Goldene Aue, golden 

Auch (Celt.), a field; Auchinleck. 
Ava (Slav.), water, river; Morava, 

Aven, Avon (Celt.), flowing water; 

Avonmore, great water ; Strathaven, 

valley of the river. 

Bab (Ar., Chal.), gate, court; Bab-el- 

Mandeb, gate of tears. 
Baba (Turk.), father; Babadagh, fatlier 

Bach (G.), brook, rivulet; Erlen- 

bach, alder brook ; Fischbach, fish 

brook; Schwarzenbach, black or 

dark brook. 
Bach (Welsh), little; EglwysMch, little 

Bad (G.), bath; Baden, the baths; 

Carlsbad, Charles's bath. 
Bahia (Sp., Pg.), bay; Bahia de Todos 

OS Santos, bay of all saints. 
Bahr (Ar.), sea. river ; Bahr Lut, sea of 

Lot, the Dead Sea; Bahr-el-Abiad, 

the white (or clear) river(White Nile); 
Bahr-el-Azrek, blue (or turbid) river, 
its watei's not h.aving been filtered 
like those of the White Nile, by pass- 
ing through lakes. 

Bal, Balla, or Bally (Celt.), town; Ballin- 
derry, town of the oak wood ; Bally- 
clare, town on the plain ; Ballachu- 
lish, town on the strait. 

Banya (Hung.), a mine; Banya-Nagy, 
great mine; Banya-Felso, upper mine. 

Bar (Hind.), country; Malabar, moun- 
tainous country. 

Batch, Bach (Eng., a form of heck), a 
brook ; Woodbatch, Comberbatch, 

Bazar, Basar (Turk.), market town; 
Novi-Bazar or Yeni-Bazar, new 
market tovra. 

Bear (Eng.). See Bere. 

Beau, Bel (Fr.), beautiful; Beaulieu, 
beautiful place; Belmont, beautiful 

Bee (in Fr. names of Scand. origin), a 
brook; Caudebec, Houlbec, Foulbec. 

Beck (in Eng. names of Scand. origin, 
= G. bach), brook; Wansbeck, Trout- 
beck, Holbeck, Fulbeck. 

Bedd (Welsh), a grave ; Beddgelert. 

Bedw (Welsh), birch trees ; Llanbedw, 
birch church. 

Beer (Eng.). See Bere. 

Beer, Beyr (Heb), a well; Beersheba, 

Bel (Celt), a ford ; Belfast, the ford of 
the sandbank (Jarset or farst). 

Bela, Bielo (Rus.), white; Belgrade, 
white town ; Bielaya, white stream. 

Beled, BilM (Ar.), country, town; 
Biledulgerid, country of dates. 

Bello, Bella (It., Sp., and Pg.), beauti- 
ful ; Portobello, beautiful port. 

Ben (Celt.), hill; Ben More, the great 
hill ; Ben Cruachan, the cone-shaped 
mountain ; Ben Macdhui, mountain 
of the black sow. 

Bender (Turk., Per.), port; Bender- 
Abbaz (Persia). 

Bere, Bear, Beer (in Eng. names of 
Scand. origln),anabode,f arm, village ; 
Shebbear, Bockbere, Kentisbeer, 

Berg (G.), hill, mountain; Carlsberg, 
Charles's hill; Konigsberg, king's 
hill ; Schwarzenberg, black hill. 

Beth (Heb.), house; Bethel, house of 
God; Bethhoron, house of the hollows; 
Bethlehem, house of bread. 

Bettws (Welsli), dwelling, village, town; 
Bettws-y-coed; Bettws Leiki; Bettws 

Bhiim, Bhoom (Hind.), land, country; 
Birbhiim, land of heroes. 





Bir (Ar.), well ; Bir-es-Seba, well of 
seven { = Beersheba). 

Bischof (G.), bishop: Bischofsheim, 
bishop's home ; Bischofszell, bishop's 

Blair (Celt), a plain clear of wood; 

Blanc, Blanche (Fr.), white; Mont 
Blanc; Dent Blanche, white tooth 
(mountain peak). 

Blanco (Sp.), white; Cabo Blanco, white 

Bocca (It.), Boca (Sp., Pg.), mouth; 
Bocca Chica. little mouth. 

Bod (Celt), a house; Bodmin, Bodwrog. 

BcEuf (in Fr. names of Scand. origin, 
from same root as -here and -by in 
Eng. names), an abode, village ; Quit- 
teboeuf, white village; Marboeuf, 
Elbceuf, Paimboeuf. 

Borg (Sw., Dan.), castle; Aalborg, eel- 
town; Frederjksborg. 

Borough. See Burg. 

Bosch (D.), wood ; Hertogenbosch, 
duke's wood (Bois-le-duc). 

Bouroun or Bourun (Turk.), cape; 
Narat-Bournn, cape of llrs. 

Brae (Nor.), glacier; Jostedalsbrae. 

Bre (Celt.), a promontory ; Bredon. 

Brig (Eng.), bridge ; Briggate, Brigham, 
Brighouse. The same root is seen in 
Brixton, Brixham, Brixworth. 

Bron (G.), a spring, a well; Heilbron, 
holy well. 

Bruck, Briick, Brugg(G.), bridge; Inns- 
briick, the bridge over the Inn ; Zwei- 
briicken, the two bridges; Glattbrugg. 

Brunn, Bruunen (G.), well; Schon- 
brunn, beautiful well. 

BrynOVelsh), slope of a hill; Bryngwyn. 

Bud, Buda(Slav.), a hut; Buda, Budan, 

Bueno, Buena (Sp.). good; Buenos 
Ayres, fine airs; Buena Vista, fine 
view ; Buenaventura, good luck. 

Burg, Burgh, Borough, Bury (Teut.); 
castle, fortified place; Rothenburg, 
red castle; Augsburg, castle of Au- 
gustus ; Edinburgh, Peterborough, 

Bum, Bourn, Bourne (Eng), a spring, 
stream ; Blackburn, Sittingboume. 

By (same as bere); Sundby, town on 
the sound; Ashby, ash town; Kirkby, 
church town ; Whitby, white town ; 
Appleby, Manby. Denby, Eastby, 
Scaldby, Helperby, Sowerby, New- 
by, Hornby, Normanby, &c. 

Caer, Car (Celt.), fortified place, forti- 
fied town ; Caer-Caradoc, fort of 
Caradoc or Caractacus; Carnarvon, 
fort in Arvon. 

Cairn (Celt.), a stony hill; Cairngorm, 
blue rocky mountain. 

Calder (Celt.), a wooded stream ; Mid- 

Cambus (Celt.), a bay, a bend; Cambus- 
kenneth, Cambusnethan, Cambus- 

Capel (Welsh), chapel ; Capelcurig. 

Car (Celt). See Caer. 

Carrick (Celt.) = crag ; Carrickfergus. 

Casa (Sp.), house ; Casas-Grandes, the 
great houses. 

Caster, Chester, Cester, &c. (in Eng. 
names from Lat. castrum, a fort); 
Lancaster, Manchester, Cirencester, 

Cefn (Celt.), a back or ridge ; Cefn Coed ; 
Cefn Bryn. The same root is seen in 
the Chevin, a ridge in Wharfedale, 
Yorkshire, in Chevening, on the 
North Downs, Kent, and in the Ce- 
vennes in France. 

Cerrig (Welsh) = crag ; Cerrigceinwin. 

Cerro (Sp.), mountain-peak, rugged hill; 
Cerro de Pasco. 

Cester. See Caster. 

Chang and Chung (Chinese), middle; 
Chang-choo-foo, Chang-chuen. 

Chatel (Fr.), castle; Neuchatel, new 
castle (same as Neuenburg, its Ger- 
man name). 

Cheap, Chep. See Chipping. 

Cheri, Chery (S. India), town; Pondi- 
chery, new town. 

Chemi. See Czerna. 

Chester. See Caster. 

Chipping (Eng. = Scand. koping), a mar- 
ket-place; Chipping Norton, Chipping 
Sodbury; Chipping Ongar; Chipping- 
ham. The same root is seen in Cheap- 
side, Eastcheap, and Chepstow. 

Chow (Chinese), island; also, a town 
which is the residence of the governor 
of one of the principal suljdivisiona 
of the great provinces ; Hang-chow. 

Cidade (Pg.), city ; Cidade do Recife, 
city of the reef. 

Cima(It.), mountain-peak; CimaNove, 
new peak. 

Citta(It.),city, town; Citta-di-Castello, 
town of the castle. 

Ciudad (Sp.), city; Ciudad Real, royal 
city; Ciudad -Rodrigo, city of Ro- 

Civita (It.), town; Civita Vecchia, old 

Clawdd (Welsh), a ditch, a fence ; Caron 

Clere (Ang -Nor.), a royal or episcopal 
residence on a hill; Highclere, Kings- 

Coch. Goch (Welsh), red; Llanbedrgoch; 
red church of St. Peter. 





Coed (Celt.), a wood; Bettws-y-coed, 

dwellins across the wood. 
Col (Fr.), Colle (It.), pass, elevated pass; 

Col de G^ant, giant's pass; Colle di 

Coin (from Latin colonia, a colony); 

Colwyn (Welsh), hazel grove. 
Combe (Eng. form of Welsh cwm), a 

half-round valley; Babbacombe, II- 

fracombe, Wycombe. 
Cor, Gor (Welsh), a choir ; Gorwydd. 
Costa (Sp.), coast; Costa Rica, rich 

coast (gold having formerly been 

found there). 
Cote, Cot (Ang. Sax., pi. coton), a mud 

cottage; iN'orthcote, Fosscot, Clay- 

Craig (Celt.) = crag; Craignish; Craig- 

lands; Craigruigh. 
Crick (Celt.) = crag; Cricklade. 
Croce (It.), cross; Santa Croce, the 

holy cross. 
Croes, Crwys, Gros (Welsh), a cross; 

Llancrwys, church of the cross. 
Croix (Fr.), cross; Sainte Croix, the 

holy cross. 
Cruz.(Sp.), cross; V»ra Cruz, the true 

cross ; Santa Cruz, the holy cross. 
Cumbre(Sp.), mountain peak; Cumbres 

Altas, the high peaks. 
Cund. See Khand. 
Cwm (Welsh), a valley shaped like a 

bowl open on one side; Cwmdu, 

Czema, Czerny, Cherni (Slav.), black; 

Czernagora, the black mountain 

( = Montenegro) ; Czernamore, the 

Black Sea. 

Dagh, Tagh (Per., Turk.), mountain or 

mountain range; Babadagh, father 

Dal (Celt.). SeeDol. 
Dal, pi. Dalar (Dan., Sw.), valley, dale ; 

Dal Elf, valley river; Dalarne, the 

Dam (D.), dam or embankment; Am- 
sterdam, the dam of the Amstel; 

Rotterdam, dam of the Rotte. 
Dar (Arab.), land ; Darfor, land of the 

Daria, Darya (Per.), sea, river; Amu 

Darya, Sir Darya. 
Dasht (Cent. As.), a steppe; Dasht-i- 

Alai, Dasht-i-Andamao. 
Den, Dene (Celt.), a deep wooded valley; 

Tenterden, Kingsden, Halden. 
Dent (Fr.), a tooth, a peak ; Dent du 

Dera(Ind.), house, encampment ; Dera 

Ghazi Khan; Derajat, the three 


Dewi (Welsh), David; Llandewi, church 
of St. David. 

Dinas (Welsh), fortress ; Dinas Powis. 

Diva, Diu (Hind.), island; the Maldives, 

Dol (Celt.), a plain, dale, meadow; 
Dolberry, Dolgelly. The same root 
appears in Dalkeith, Dairy, Dal- 

Don (Celt.). See Dun. 

Dorf (G.), village; Diisseldorf. 

Draeth. See Traeth. 

Dii, Dou(Celt.), black; Douglas; Cwmdu. 

Dun, Don (Celt.), a hill or hill-fort; 
Dundee, the fort on the Tay ; Snow- 
don, snow hill; London (probably 
= Llyndon, pool-hill). In Dumfries 
and Dumbarton, the m is merely a 
euphonic change. 

Dwfr, Dwr, Dr (Welsh), water; Cam- 

Dyffryn (Welsh), a wide valley; Dy- 
ffryn Clydach. 

Eglwys (Welsh, corruption of ecclesia), 
a church; Eglwyswrw, Trefeglwys, 
Eglwysilan, Eglwysfach. 

Eisen (G.), iron ; Eisenberg, iron moun- 
tain ; Eisenstadt, iron town. 

El, Al (Ar.), the or a ; El Kantara, the 
bridge. See Al. (El is also Spanish 
for the.) 

Elf (Sw.), river; Gota-Elf; Dal -Elf, 
river of the dale. 

Ennis (Celt. ), island ; Enniskillen, En- 

Escob, Escop (Welsh), bishop; Tyr- 
"escob, bishop's tower. 

Eski (Turk. ), old ; Eski-Hissar, old castle ; 
Eski-Stambul, old Constantinople. 

Ey (Teut.), island; Anglesey, Orkney, 
Norderney, Selsey (seals' island). 

Fab (Welsh), father. 

Fach, Fechan (Welsh), little ; Venny- 
fach ; Llandwyfach ; Llanfihangel- 
fechan, little church of all the angels. 

Fair, Mair (Welsh), the Virgin ilary; 
Llanfairfechan, little church of St. 
Mary ; Llanfairnantgwyn. 

Feld (G.), place in which trees have 
been felled, a clearing, field ; Feld- 
kirch, field church ; Hirschfeld, field 
of the stag. 

Fell ( = Scand. Fjeld), a mountain ; 
Goatfell, Snaefell, Scawfell. 

Fels, Felsen (G.), rock; Drachenfels, 
dragon rock. 

Felsij (Hung), upper; opposite of Als6, 
lower ; Felso Lendva. 

Fjeld or Field (Dan.), Fjall (Sw.), moun- 
tain or high plateau, as the Dovre- 
fjeld, the Fdlefjeld. 





Fleet (Eng.), a stream; Northfleet, 

old (Eng.), an inclosure made of felled 

Foo (Chinese), the termination att;iched 
to names of towns in CJiina, which 
are the seats of the governors of the 
great provinces or primary divisions; 

Ford (a frequent termination in English 
names, literally, a passage); 1. In 
names of Anglo-Saxon origin, a 
passage across a river, a ford; Ox- 
ford, Camelford (ford of the Camel) ; 
2, In names of Scand. origin, a 
passage for ships, a creek (Scand. 
jiord, fjord), Milford, Wexford, 

Foss or Fos (Nor.), Force (Eng.; in 
Yorkshire, the pronunciation is 
mostly undistingiiishable from the 
Norwegian), a waterfall ; Rjukand 
Fos, reeking waterfall ; Stockgill 

Frey, Frei (G.), free; Freiburg, free 
castle or town. 

Fried, Fried^n (G.), peace; Friedland, 
land of peace. 

FUrst (G.), prince; FUrstenwalde, 
prince's wood. 

Fynnon (Welsh), a well; Fynnon-Asa, 
St. Asaph's well. 

Gamla (Sw.), old; Gamla Karleby, old 

Ganga (Ind.), river; Gangapura, river 

town. Ganga is the Indian name of 

the river Ganges, which latter form 

is originally Greek. 
Ganj, Gunj (Ind.), market; Aniirganj, 

the prince's market; ISakshiganj, 

colonel's or paymaster's market; 

Raniganj, queen's market. 
Gar (Arab.), a cave ; Trafalgar. 
Garb, Gurh, Ghur'(Hind.), castle; Fut- 

teiigurh (Fatigarh), fort of victory. 
Garth(inEng. namesof Norweg origin), 

an inclosed place (yard); Applegarth, 

Gat(Teut.), passage, strait; Kattegat. 
Gau (Ind.), village; Bangau, forest 

village ; Baragau, great village. 
Gau (Teut), district; Breisgau. The 

same root is seen in Spengay (Cam- 
bridgeshire) ; Wormegay (Norfolk). 
Gawa (Japanese), river ; Sakada-gawa ; 

Gebirge(G.), mountains; Riesengebirge, 

giant mountains; Erzgebirge, ore 

Gelli (Welsh), hazel; Dolgelly, hazel 

valley (Hazeldean) 
Ghaut, Gh&t (Hind.), a flight of steps 

forming a landing-place on the bank 

of a river ; hence, a mountain pass ; 

also the mountains themselves. 
Gill (in Eng. names of Norweg. origin), a 

ravine ; Stockgill, Easgill, Ramsgill. 
Gir, Giri (Ind.), a peak ; Dawalagiri 

(Dhavalagiri), the white mountain; 

Nilgiri (Neilgherry), blue mountains. 
Glas (Celt.), green; Glascoed, green 

Glen (Celt.), a narrow valley; Glencoe, 

Glyn (in Welsh names) =' glen; Glyn- 

neath, Glyntrain, Glynfach. 
Goed (Welsh=Coed), a wood; Llangoed. 
Gol (Mongol), river; Karagol, black 

river; Sharagol, yellow river. 
Gol (Turk.), lake ; Ak-gol, white lake. 
Gong (Ind.), village; Chittagong, the 

four villages. 
Gor. See Cor. 
Gora (Slav), mountain; Czernagora, 

black mountain ( = Montenegro). The 

same root is seen in Gorlitz (Carpa- 
Gornj (Slav.). Same as Hornj. 
Gorod, Grad (Slav.), town; Novgorod, 

new town ; Belgrad, white town. 
Graf, Graf en (G.), count; Grafenberg, 

count's hill. 
Grande, Gran (Sp., It., Pg.), great ; Rio 

Grande, great river; (jran Sasso, 

great rock. 
Graz, Gratz (Ger. form of Slav. Grad, 

Gorod), town ; Graz, Koniggratz. 
Groote (D.), great; Groote Aa, great 

Gros. See Croes. 
Gross (G.), great; Gross-Glogau; Gross- 

Quad, Guadi (Sp. form of Arab Wadi), 

river ; Guadalquivir, the great river ; 

Guadalavlar, the white river ; Guadi- 

ana, the river Anas. 
Gunj. See Ganj. 
Gunong (Malay), mountain ; Gunoug 

Tebur ; Gunong Api. 
Gwy (Welsh), a stream. 
Gwynn. See Wynn. 

Hafen (G.), Havn (Dan), port: Bremer- 
hafen, port of Bremen; Kjbbenhavn, 
merchant's haven (Copenhagen). 

Hai (Chi.), sea ; Whang-hai, Hoang-hai, 
yellow sea. 

Haigh, Hay, Hey (Eng.), a place sur- 
rounded by a hedge ; Rothwellhaigh, 
Horsehay, Harpurhey. 

Hali (Ang.-Sax.), holy; Halifax, holy 
tress (namely of the Virgin's hair, 
long held in veneration here). 

Hall (Eng.). a stone house ; Mildeuhall, 
Willenhall, Coggeshall. 





Ham (Eng), home, farm, village; Bir- 

Ham, Hamn (Sw), port; Carlshamn, 
Charles's haven. 

Hama (Japanese), flat coast; Yoko- 

Haugh (Norse, /ia«gfr), amound; Philip- 

Haus,Hausen(G.), house; 
house ; Oberhausen, upper houses ; 

Havn (Dan.), port. See Hafen, Ham. 

Havod, Hafod (Welsh), a summer hut, 
a shealing. 

Hegy(Hung.), mountain; Hegy-allya. 

Heilige, Heiligen (G.), holy, saint ; 
Heiligenstadt, holy toAvu. 

Helm (G.), home ( = E. -ham); Bischofs- 
heim, bishop's home. 

Heli (Welsh), salt ; Pwllheli, salt pool. 

Hen (Welsh), old; Heneglwys, old 

Hima (Hind.), snow; Him&laya, abode 
of snow. 

Hinter (G.), hinder, lying behind; 
Hinter Rhein, the name of a head- 
water of the Rhine. 

Hissar(Turk.), castle; Ak-Hissar, white 
castle ; Kara-Hissar, black castle. 

Hithe (Eng.), a harbour; Rotherhithe, 
the harbour at the mouth of the 
Rother; Greenhithe. The same root 
is seen in Erith. 

Hjem (Nor. = G. Heim ; Eng. ham), 
home, village; Throndhjem, the 
throne home (place of coronation of 
the kings of Norway). 

Ho (Chinese), river, canal ; Hoang-ho, 
yellow river ; Pei-ho, white river. 

Hoang (Chinese), yellow ; Hoang-ho, 
yellow river ; Hoang -choo, yellow 

Hoch (G.), high; Hochkirch, high 
church ; Hochberg, high mountain. 

Hoe. See Hoo. 

Hof (G.), an inclosure, a farm; Hofheim, 
Hofkirchen, Hofstetten. 

Hohe (G.), height; HohenzoUern, the 
height of the Zoller family. 

Holm (Sw., Dan.), small island; Born- 
holm, island of Burgundians. 
Holt (Eng.), a copse ; Bergholt, Esholt, 

Sparsholt, Wiggonholt. 
Hondo, Honda (Sp.), deep; Rio Hondo, 

deep river. 
Hoo, Hoe (Eng.), a tongue of higher 
land running out into a plain ; Wy ven- 
Horn (G.), a peak; Matterhorn, peak 
of the meadows (round the base); 
Schreckhorn, peak of terror; Wetter- 
horn, peak of storms; Finsteraarhorn, 
dark peak of the Aar. 1 


Hornj (Slav), uijper. 

Hurst (Eng.), thick wood; Norman- 
hurst, Penshurst, Lyndhurst, Hurst- 
monceaux, Hurstpierpoint, Wad- 
hurst, Lamberliurst, Ashurst, Nut- 
hurst, Midhurst. 

He, Isle (Fr.), island ; Belleisle, beauti- 
ful island ; Lisle (I'isle), the island. 

Inch (Celt, another form of Ennis), 
island; Inchkeith, Inchcolm. 

Ing (Ang.-Sa.x.), a meadow ; lugham. 

lug, a very frequent component in the 
names of English towns and villages, 
as in Dorking, Kettering, Roothing, 
Bocking; more frequently in the 
middle of a word, as in Kensington, 
Islington, Haddington, Wyvinghoe. 
Most commonly it is the Anglo-Saxon 
patronymic, and originally denoted 
the seat of a particular family. It 
corresponds to the German ingen, as 
in Tiibingen. 

Inver (Celt.), mouth of a river ; Inver- 
ness, mouth of the Ness. 

Irmak (Turk.), river ; Kizil-Irmak, red 
river (the ancient Halys). 

Is, Ys, Dis, Issa(Welsh), lower; Gwnnws 
Issa ; Discoed, below the wood ; Ys- 

Isaf (Welsh), lowest. 

Isola (It.), Isla (Sp.), Ilha (Pg.), island; 
Isola Bella, beautiful island; Ilha 
Grande, great island. 

Jebel, Djebel (Ar.), moimtain; Jebel 
Moosa, mount of Moses, the modern 
Arabic name of Mt. Sinai; Jebel 
Akhdar, green mountain ; Gibraltar, 
corrupted from Jebel al Tarik, mount 
of Tarik. 

Jeni (Turk.), new. See Yeni. 

Jezireh (Ar.), island; Al Jezireh, the 
name of the region between the 
Euphrates and Tigris. 

Jbkull (Icel.), an ice-covered mountain 
or plateau; Vatna-jbkuU, CErafajb- 

Kafir (Ar.), infidel; Kafiristan, land of 

Kaiser (G.), emperor; Kaiserstuhl, em- 
peror's chair or throne; Kaiserstadt, 

emperor's town. 
Kale (Turk.), castle; Yeni-kale, new 

castle ; Kale Dagh, castle hill. 
Kand, Kend (Turk.), town ; Tashkend, 

stone town; Samarkand, Samar's 

Kara (Turk.), black; Kara-su, black 

river ; Kara-Hissar, black fortress. 
Kawa (Japanese := gawa), river ; Shira- 





Khand, Kand, Kend, Cund (Ind), a 
field, region ; Bandelkhand. 

Kiaug (Chinese), river ; Yang-tse-kiang, 
son of the sea river ; Ta-kiang, great 
river ; Pe-kiang, north river. 

Kil (Celt), cell, church; Kilpatrick, 
church or cell of St. Patrick; Kil- 
kenny, church of St. Kenny; Kildare, 
church of the oaks. 

Kin (Celt.), head, upper part; Kinloch, 
head of the loch ; Kiusale, head of 
the brine, that is of the tide. 

King(Chinese), town; Pe-king, northern 
city ; Nan-king, southern city. 

Kio. Kei (Japanese), town; Tokio. 

Kirche (6.), church; Kirchdorf, church 
village; Kirchberg, church mountain; 
Fiinfkirchen, five churches. 

Kirk (Eng.), church; Kirkcudbright, 
Kirkhope, Kirkham, Kirkwall. 

Kis (Hung.), little; Kis-barath; Kis- 

Kizil. Kysyl (Turk.), red ; Kizil-Irmak, 
red river; Kizil Kum, red sand (desert 
south-east of the Aral Sea); Kizil 
Yart, red pass. 

Klein (G.), little; Klein-Glogau, as dis- 
tinguished from Gross-Glogau. 

Knock (Celt.), hill; Knockduff, Knock- 

Knott (Eng.), a small round hill ; Ling 
Knott, Amside Knott, Knottingley. 

Koh, Kohat (Pers.), mountain; Safid 
(Sefld or Sufld) Koh, white mountain ; 
Siah Koh, black mountain; Hindu- 
koh, Indian mountain. 

Kol. Kul(Tart.), lake; KaraKul, black 
lake ; Issikol or Issikul. 

Kbnig (G.), king; Konigsberg, king's 

Kopf (G.), head; Schneekopf, snow- 
head, snow-capped mountain. 

Kbping (Dan., Sw.), market-town; Ny- 
koping, new market-town. 

Kot (Ind.), fort; Asurkot, fort of the 
Asura ; Noakot, new fort. 

Kote (Ind.X a fort ; Sealkote. 

Krasnoe (Rus), pretty; Krasnoe-selo, 
pretty village. 

Kra8noi(Rus.), red; Krasnoiarsk, town 
of the red cliff. 

Kreis (G.), circle, district forming an 
administrative tlivision. 

Kund, Kand (Ind.), a province; Bandel- 

Kuro (Japanese), l)lack ; Kuro Shivo 
(Sivo); black stream or cun-ent. 

Lago (It, Sp.. Pg.), lake; 
giore, the greater lake. 

Lago Mag- 

Lagima(It, Sp). marsh, lagoon. 
Langen, Lange (G), long; Langenberg, 

lung mountain. 

Lauter (G.), clear; Lauterbrunnen, 

clear fountains. 
Law. Low (Ang.-Sax. hlaw), a mound, a 

hill; Ludlow, Marlow, Houuslow, 

Largo Law, North Berwick Law, 

Levante (It), east, eastern region ; 

hence the Levant. 
Ley, Leigh (Eng.), an open place in a 

wood; Bexley, Hartley, Laugley, &c.; 

Leighton, Hadleigh. 
Lha (Thibet), god; Lhassa, land of the 

Licht (G.), light; Lichtenstein, clear 

stone or rock. 
Lieu (Fr.), place; Beaulieu, fine 

Lin (Celt), a pool; Dublin, black 

Ling (Chi. ), mountain s ; Peling, northern 

mountains; Nanling, southern moun- 
Lis (Celt), an earthen fort; Lismore, 

Listowel, Lisburn, and many other 

names in Ireland. 
Elan (Welsh), an in closure, a church; 

Llanddausaint, church of two saints ; 

Llantrisaint, church of three saints; 

Llandudno, church of St. Tudno; 

Llanbedr, church of St. Peter ; Llan- 

fihangel or Llanvihangel, church of 

all the angels. 
Loo (D. and Flemish, = Eng. ley), Water- 
loo ; Venloo, Westerloo. 
Low. See Law. 

Madeira (Port), timber; Madeira, isl, 

Madeira, riv. 
Maen (Welsh), a large stone ; Penmaen- 

Maes (Welsh), a heath ; Maesmynis. 
Mag, Magh (Celtic), a field; Armagh, 

Maha (Ind.), great; Mahanadi, great 

river; Mahavelliganga, great sand 

Mala (Slav.), little. 
Mark (Teut.), boundary, march; Mark- 

dorf, boundary village; Lappmark, 

Markt (G.), market; Neumarkt, new 

market ; Markt Oberhausen. 
Marsa (Arab.), a port; Marsala. 
Matt (Swiss), a meadow ; Andermatt, 

Zermatt, Matterhom. 
Mauna (Polynes.), mountain; Mauna 

Kea, white mountain (snow-capped 

in winter). 
Mavros, Mavron, Mavro (Gr.), black; 

Mavron Oros. black mountain ; Mav- 

ropotamos, V)lack river. 
Mawr (Welsh form of More), great; 

Penmaenmawr, great mountains. 





Maz (Per.), mountain; Mazandaran, 
within the mountains(thatis,between 
the mountains and the sea). 

Meer, Mere(Teut.), sea, lake; Schwarzes 
Meer, the Black Sea; Borkumer 
Meer; Windermere. 

Mer (Fr.), sea; Mer Morte, the Dead Sea. 

Mezo, Meso (Hung.), field ; Mezo- 
Cereny, &c. 

Minster (Lat.), a monastery; West- 
minster, Kidderminster. 

Mittel (G.), middle; Mittelwalde, 
middle wood, &c. 

Mo (Cliin.), sea ; Shamo, sea of sand. 

Moel (Wales), a round hill; Moel 

Mond, Monde (D.), mouth; Dender- 
monde, town at the mouth of the 

More (Celt.), great; Glen More, the 
great glen ; Ben More, the great 

Morfa (Wales), a marsh ; Penmorfa. 

Muhl (G.), mill ; Altmuhl, the old mill; 
Miihlhausen, mill-houses. 

Maiden (D.), mouth ; Ijmuiden. 

Mull (Celt.), a headland ; Mull of Kin- 

Mund, Miinde (G.), mouth; Warne- 
miinde, town at the mouth of the 

Miinster (G.), monastery, minster; 
Miinsterberg, minster mountain. 

Mynydd (Wales), bald head ; Mynydd- 
mawr, the great bald head. 

Nadi (Ind. ), river; Mahanadi, great 

river ; Kalinadi, river of Kali (wife 

of Siva). 
Nagor, Nagar, Nuggur (Hind.), town; 

Ahmeduagar, town of Ahmed; Chan- 

darnagar (Chandernagore), moon- 
Nagy (Hung.), great; Nagy-Varad, 

same as Grosswardein. 
Nahr (Ar.), river; Nahr el Asy, the 

Orontes (in Syria). 
Nan (Chinese), southern; Nan-king, 

southern city (opposite of Pe-king). 
Nant (Celt), a brook; Nantfrangon, 

Nantglyn, Nantmel. 
Negro (It., Sp., Pg.), black; Rio Negro, 

black river; Negro -Cerro, black 

Nemet (Hung.), German. 
Ness (Eng.), nose, cape; Holderness, 

Neu (G.), new; Neahaus, new house; 

Neubrunn, new fountain. 
Nevado or Nevada (Sp.), snowy; Sierra 

Nevada, snowy chain of mountains. 
Nieder(G.), lower; Niederbronn, lower 

well ; Niederlande, the Netherlands. 

Nieuw, Nieu (D.), new; Nieuwpoort, 

Nieuport, new port. 
Nizhnei, Nijnei(, lower; Nizhnei- 

Novgorod, lower new town. 
Nor (Mong.), lake; Koko Nor, Lob Nor. 
Nov, Novoi, Novaia (E.U8.), new; Nov- 
gorod, new town ; Novoi-Cherkask ; 

Novaia-Zemlia, new land. 
Nuevo, Nueva(Sp.), new; Villa Nueva, 

new town. 
Nuggur. See Nagor. 
Nui (Maori), great; Wanganui, great 

Nuovo, Nuova (It.), new. 
Nur (Ind.), light; Nurnagar, Nurpur, 

Nurabad, all meaning town of light. 
Ny (Sw.), new; Nyborg, new town; 

Nykdping, new market. 

6 (Hung.), old; d-Becse. 

0, Oe, pi. (Eer (Dan., Sw.), island; 

Sando, sand island; Samsb, Lesso; 

Faroe (Dan. Far CEer), sheep islands. 
Ober (G.), upper; Oberkirch, upper 

church ; Ober Glogau. 
Ohla(Hung.), Walachian. 
Ola, Oola (Mongolian), mountain ; 

Bogdo-Oola, holy mountain. 
Oost (D.), east; Oostburg, east town; 

Oostwinkel, east angle or bend. 
Or (Teut.), the shore of a river or sea; 

Bognor, Cumnor, Elsinore. 
Ost, Oster, (Ester (G), east; Oesterreich, 

eastern empire, Austria. 
Ostrog (Rus.), fortress, as the town 

Ostrog iu Volhynia. 
Oud, Oude (D), old; Oudenbosch, old 

wood ; Oudewater, old water. 
Over (Teut.; Ang.-Sax., ofer, G. ii/er), 

a shore, Hanover, Overijssel, Wend- 
Ozero (Rus), lake ; Bielozersk, town on 

Lake Bielo. 

Pani (Ind), water; Panigong, water 

Para (Ind.), village; Goalpara, cow- 
herd's village. 

Para (S. Am. Ind.), river, sea; Parana, 
Parahiba, bad river ; Paracatu, good 
river. The same root is seen in Per- 
nambuco = arm of the sea, so called 
because a huge rocky reef (Recife) 
situated in front of the town forms 
a fine natural harbour. 

Patam (Hind.), town; Seringapatam, 
town of Sriringa or Vishnu. 

Pe (Chinese), north, northern ; Pe-king, 
the northern city. 

Pei (Chinese), white ; Pei-ho, the white 

Pen (Celt.), a head, a mountain; Pen- 
maennuiwr, Penygent. 





Pic, Pico (Sp., Pg.), mountain-peak; 

Pic du Midi ; Pico de Tenerife, Peak 

of Teneriffe. 
Pied (Fr), Pie (Ital), Piedmont, Pie- 

monte, foot of the mountain. 
Pike (Eng.), another form of peak; 

Langdale Pikes. 
PistiU (Welsh), a waterfall. 
Piz (Ruraonsh), mountain-peak ; = It. 

pizzo, Sp. pico ; Piz Langard. 
Pol, Poli, Polis, Pie (Gr.), town; Sevas- 
topol, city of Augustus ; Tripoli, the 

three cities; of victory; 

Constantinople, city of Constantino. 
Pole. See Pwll. 
Pont (Fr.), Ponte (It. and Pg.), Puente 

(Sp), bridge; Pont-du-Ch&teau, 

bridge of the castle ; Ponte-San-Pietro, 

St. Peter's bridge. 
Pont (Welsh), a bridge ; Pontypridd. 
Pool. See Pwl. 
Poor, Pore, Pur (Hind.), town ; Cawn- 

poor, city of the khan or chieftain ; 

Jejrpoor, Jjrpoor, city of victory; 

Baizapur, white or clean town; Mani- 

pur, gem town ; Shikarpur, hunter's 

town ; Udaipur, town of happiness. 
Porto (It., Pg), harbour; Portobello, 

beautiful harbour. 
Potaraos, Potamo (Gr.), river; Mavro- 

potamo, black river; Aspropotamo, 

white river. 
Puebla, (Sp.), village, town; Puebla 

Nueva, new village or town. 
Puerto (Sp.), harbour; Puerto Rico, 

rich port, Porto Rico. 
Pulo (Malay), island; Pulo Penang, 

Areca Island, Penang or Prince of 

Wales' Island. 
Putra (Ind), son ; Brahmaputra, Brah- 
ma's son. 
Puy (in Auvergne, Celt), peak; Puy de 

Pwll, Pool, Pole (Celt.), an inlet or pool; 

Pwllheli, Bradpole, Liverpool. 

Quebrada(Sp.), ravine, gorge. 

Eas (Ar), cape, promontory; Ras-el- 
had, cape of danger; Ras-el-Abiad, 
white capie. 

Rat (Ind). kingdom; Gujrat, kingdom 
of the Gurjaras. 

Rath ^Erse). an earthen fort or mound; 
Rattilin, Rnthmines. 

Reich (G.), kingdom, monarchy, do- 
minion; Oesterreich (the German 
name of which Austria is a corrup- 
tion), the eastern kingdom. The 
same root appears in Surrey, the 
southern kingdom. 

Rhaindr, Rhaydr (Welsh), a cataract; 
Llaurbaiadr, church of the cataract. 

Rhos (Celt.), a moor ; Penrhos ; Eg- 
Iwysrhos. The same root is seen in 
the English names Rossall and Rush- 

Rhydd (Welsh), a ford; Llanrhydd, 
ford church. 

Rio (Sp., Pg.), river ; Rio Grande, great 
river; Rio Negro, black river; Entre 
Rios, province lying between the 
rivers; Rio de la Plata, river of silver. 

Rith, Reth (Eng.), running water; 
Meldrith, Shepreth. 

Ross, Rose (Celt.), a promontory ; Kin- 
ross, Roseneath, Melrose. 

Roth (G.), red; Rothwasser, red water; 
Rothenburg, red castle; Rothen- 
thurm, red tower. 

Roto (Maori), lake ; Rotomahana, Ro- 
torua, Rotokawa (bitter lake), &c. 

Royd (Teut.), land cleared of trees; 
Huntroyd, Holroyd, Ormeroyd. 

Rud, Rood (Per.), river; Heri-rud, 
Kash-rud, Keshef-rud. 

Saki, Misaki (Japanese), cape; Idsumo- 

saki, Kona-saki. 
Sal, Sail (Eng.), a stone house ; Kensal, 

Walsall, Pelsall, Codsall, Cunsall, 

Croxall, Kelsall. 
Salinas (Sp.), salt lakes or pools. 
Salz (G.), salt; Salzburg, salt castle, 

castle on the Salza or salt stream. 
San, Santo, or Santa (Sp., Pg., It.), 

saint; San-Juan, San-Miguel, Santo- 
Domingo, Santa-Rosa. 
Sar (Ind.), lake ; Amritsar, lake of im- 
mortality ; Hakritsar, lake of weeds. 
Scale (Norse), a shepherd's hut ; Port- 

inscale, Scalloway. 
Scar (Norse), a cliff ; Scarborough, Nab 

Scar, Long Scar, Cronkley Scar. 
Schnee (G.), snow; Schneekopf, snow- 
head, snow-capped mountain. 
Schwarz (G.), black ; Schwarzwald, the 

Black Forest. 
See (G.), lake; Bodensee, the Lake of 

Constance; Thunersee, the Lake of 

Serai, Sarai (Turk.), palace; Ak-Serai, 

white palace ; Baktchi-serai, palace 

of the gardens. 
Serra (Pg), Sierra (Sp.), mountain 

range ; Sierra Nevada, snowy range ; 

Sierra Morena, black range. 
Seter, Ster (Norse), a settlement; El- 

lanseter, Ulster. 
Sha (Chin.), sand ; Shamo, sand sea. 
Shan (Chinese), mountain ; Tian-Shan, 

mountains of heaven. 
Shaw (Eng.), a wood; Bagshaw, Pol- 

Shehr (Turk., Per), city, house; Eskl- 

Shehr, old city. 





Shire (Eng), something shorn off, a 
division; Hampshire. 

Si (Chinese), west ; Si-Hai, western sea ; 

Sima, Shima (Japanese), island; Tsu- 
Sima, Tanega-Sima, &c. 

Sk (Rus), town; Irkutsk, town on 
the Irkut; Tobolsk, town on the 

Ski, Skoi, Skoe, Skaia (Rus.), cape; 
Chukot-skoi, Kromskaia. 

Slieve, Sliebh (Celt.), mountain; Slieve 
Bloom. On the Isle of Man this 
prefix takes the form Slieu. 

Snee Sna3 (Dan., Sw.), snow; Snee- 
hsetten, Snehatta, snow-hat, snow- 
capped mountain ; Snajfell (Isle of 

Sneeuw (D.), snow; Sneeuwbergen, 
snowy mountains. 

Soder (Bw.), south; Soderhamn, south 

Spitz, Spitze (G.), peak ; Ortelesspitze, 

Stadt (G.), Stad (Dan., Sw., and D.), 
town, Friedrichstadt, Frederikstad, 
Frederick's town. 

Stan (Per.), country ; Afghanistan, land 
of the Afghans ; Hindustan, land of 
the Hindus. 

Stanitza (Rus.), village, place of en- 

Staple, Stable (Eng.), a market ; Staple- 
ton, Stapleford, Staplegrove, Staple- 
hurst, Dunstable, Wliitstable. 

Stara (Slav.), old. 

Stead (Eng.), a place ; Hampstead. 

Steen(D.), stone; Brunsteen. 

Stein(G.), stone, rock; Ehrenbreitstein, 
broad stone of honour; Lahnstein, 
stone of the Lahn. 

Ster. See Seter. 

Stoke, Stock, Stow (Eng.), a stockaded 
place ; Basingstoke, Tavistock, Chep- 

Stor (Sw.), great; Stor A, the great 
river ; Stor Skar, great island. 

Stow. See Stoke. 

Strath (Celt.), a valley; Strathmore, 
the great valley. 

Su or Soo (Turk.), lake, river; Ak-su, 
white river ; Kara-su, black water. 

Sul (Pg.). south; Rio Grande do Sul, 
grand river of the south. 

Szasz (Hung.), Saxon. 

Szent (Hung.), saint; Szent-Benedek, 
Saint Benedict. 

Sziget (Hunj,'.). island, island town, 
town at the confluence of rivers. 

Ta, Tai (Chinese), great; Ta-Kiang, 
great river, a name of the Yang-tse ; 
Tai-hu, great lake. 

Tag or Tagh (Turk., Per.), mountain; 
Agri-Tagh, painful mountain, a name 
of Mount Ararat; Muztagh, glacier 
mountain ; Dagh is another form of 
this word. 

Taj (Ind.), crown; Taj Mahal, crown 

Tal (Ind.), lake ; Naini-tal, lake of the 
goddess Naini. 

Tanjong (Malay), cape, point ; Tanjong 
Datu, and other capes in Borneo. 

Tara (Maori), rock, rocks; Tarawera, 
burnt rocks; Te Tarata, tattooed 

Tarn (in the English Lake District), a 
small mountain lake ; Blentarn. 

Tau (Turk.), mountain; Koshtan-Tau, 
one of the peaks of Caucasus. 

Tell (Arab.), a heap, a small hill ; Tell- 
el-Kebir, great hill; Tell-es-Safleh, 
Tell-Hamar, &c. 

Tepetl (Aztek), mountain ; Popoca- 
tepetl, mountain of smoke. 

Terra (Pg., It.), Tierra (Sp.), earth, 
land; Terra or Tierra del Fuego, 
land of fire; Tien-a Caliente, hot 

Thai (G.), valley; Rheinthal, valley 
of the Rhine; Langenthal, long 

Thorpe (A. Sax. = G. dorf), a village ; 
Althorpe, Friesthorpe, Northorpe. 

Thwaite (in Eng. names of Norwegian 
origin), a parcel of land; Bassen- 
thwaite ; Seathwaite. 

Tian (Chinese), heaven; Tian-Shan, 
mountains of heaven. 

Tire, Tyre (Celt.), land; Kintyre, head 
of the land. 

Toft, tot (in Eng. and French names of 
Scand. origin), an inclosure ; Lowes- 
toft, Totness, Yvetot, Lilletot, Lange- 

Ton (Eng.), an inclosure, village, town ; 
Norton, north town ; Sutton, soutli 
town; Easton, east town; Weston, 
west town; "Walton, walled town; 
Acton, oak town ; Boston, Botolphe's 
town; Wotton, Wooton, &c., wood 
town; Stretton, street town (town 
on a Roman road); Overton, upper 
town ; Netlierton, lower town ; Mer- 
ton, Morton, lake town. 

Tor (Celt), a tower-like rock, a hill; 
Torquay, Yes-tor, Mam-tor, Hay -tor. 
Petit- tor. 

Tra (Celt), a strand; Tralee, Ballintra. 

Traeth, Draeth (Welsh), an estuary; 
Pentraeth, Tref draeth. 

Traws (Welsh), across, beyond; Traws- 
coed, beyond the wood. 

Tre (Celt.), a village; Tredegar, Tre- 
neglos, Tregavethan, Tregynon. 





Tri (Gr.), three; Tripoli, three cities 
(from three Phoenician cities which 
anciently stood on this coast). 

Tung (Chin), east; Shantung. 

Twistle (X. Eng), a boundary, En- 
twistle, Oswaldtwistle, Birchtwistle. 

Ty (Welsh), a house, Tythegston, Ty- 

Tyr (Welsh), a tower; Tyr-escob, 
bishop's tower ; Tyrymynach. 

U (in Afr. names), country, Ukonjo, 

Unyoro, Uganda. 
TJch, Ucha, Uwch (Welsh), higher; 

Gwnnws Ucha, Vaynor Ucha; Llan- 

uwchllyn, the church above the pool. 
Uchaf (Welsh), highest. 
Uj (Hung.), new; Uj-Becse or Turkisch- 

Um (Frisian form of -ham), Bochum, 

Unter(G.), under, lower; Unterwalden, 

under or below the woods; Unter 

Ust (Rus.), mouth; Ust-Ishma, town 

at the mouth of the Ishma. 

Val(It., Sp.), valley; Val d'Arno, valley 

of the Arno; Valparaiso, paradise 

Val, Vala (Ind.), town; IS'aroval, Che- 

kaval ; Arandval, castor-oil town ; 

Mirvala, prince's town. 
Valle (Sp., It., Pg.), valley; Valle Her- 

moso, beautiful valley; Rio del Valle, 

river of the valley. 
Var, Vdros (Hung.), fortress, town ; 

Temesvar, castle or fortress on the 

river Temes. 
Vatn, Vat (Norse), a lake; Myvatn 

(Iceland) ; OUevat (Hebrides). 
Vecchio, Vecchia (It), old; Porto 

Vecchio, old port; Civita Vecchia, 

old city. 
Veld (D.), field; Roggeveld, field or 

plain of rye. 
Verkhni, Verchne, Verchnoi (Rus.), 

upper ; Verkhni-Kamtchatsk. 
Vik (Icel.). bay; Reikjavik, smoke bay. 
Villa (It, Sp., Pg), town ; Villa Nova, 

Villa Nuova, new town. 
Ville. Villiers (Fr. = G. Weiler), town ; 

Villeneuve, new town; Abbeville, 

abbot's town ; Hardivilliers. 
Voe (in Shetland Island, Norse), a bay; 

Westvoe, Laxvoe, Ac. 
Vorder(G.), in front; Vorderrhein, one 

of the head-waters of the Rhine. 

Wa (In Af. names), people of ; Wajiwa, 
people of the sun ; Wakonja, people 


Wadi, Wady (Ar), valley, a valley with 
a river in it, a river ; Wady Moosa, 
valley of Moses; Wad-el-Kebir, great 
river (hence Guadalquivir). 

Wai (Maori), water ; Waikato, flowing 
water ; Waipa, still water; Waikare, 
bubbling water ; Waiho, new river. 

Wald (G.), forest; Schwarzwald, the 
Black Forest. 

Wath (Eng. from Lat. vadum), a ford ; 

Way. See Wy. 

Weiler (G.), village; Badenweiler, vil- 
lage of baths. 

Weiss (G.), white; Weisskirch, white 
church ; Weissenburg, wliite castle. 

Well (Eng. = G. Weiler), an abode, a 
house, a village ; Kettlewell. 

Werder (G. = Eng. worth), Marien- 

Werth (G. = Eng. worth), Kaiserwerth. 

Wick, Wich (a very frequent termina- 
tion in Eng. names): 1. In names of 
Anglo-Saxon origin, an abode, a town; 
Chiswick, Hamptonwick, Hawick. 
2. In names of Scandinavian origin, 
a small bay; Berwick, Eastwick, 

Wiese (G.), meadow; Wiesenthal, mea- 
dow valley. 

Wold (Eng.), a wood; Cotswold, Wymes- 

Worth, Worthy (Eng.), Worth (G.), a 
place warded oflf, an inclosure, a 
river island or peninsula; Tamworth, 
Kenilworth,Brixworth, Wandsworth, 
Woolfardisworthy ; Donauwdrth. 

Wy, Way (Celt.), river ; Edwy, Elwy, 
Conway, Medway, Solway, Wye. 

Wyke (Eng.), a small bay; Rumbolds- 

Y (Welsh), across ; Bettws-y-coed. 
Yama (Japanese), mountain ; Fusi- 

Yama, the great mountain. 
Yeni(Turk.), new; Yeni-Bazar(=NoTi- 

bazar), new market. 
Yn, Ym, Yng (Welsh), in, at 
Ynys (Welsh ; another form of Ennis, 

Inch), island ; Ynyscynhaiarn. 
Yr (Welsh), the. 
Ys. See Is. 
Yspytty (Welsh), hospital; Yspytty 

Ystrad (Welsh), a paved road, a street ; 


Zee (D.), sea; Zuider Zee, the south 
sea (as distinguished from the North 
Sea or German Ocean). 

Zuid (D.), south; Zuidland, south land. 

Zwart,Zwarte(D.), black; Zwarte-berg, 
the black mountain. 



(From the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society for August, 1885.) 

Taking into consideration the present 
want of a system of geographical 
orthography, and tlie consequent con- 
fusion and variety that exist in the 
mode of spelling in English maps, the 
Council of the Royal Geographical 
Society have adopted the following 
rules for such geographical names as 
are not, in the countries to which they 
belong, written in the Roman character. 
These rules are identical with those 
adopted for the Admiralty charts, and 
will henceforth be used in all publica- 
tions of the Society. 

1. No change will be made in the 
orthography of foreign names in coun- 
tries which use Roman letters: thus 
Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, &c., names 
will be spelt as by the respective 

2. Neither will any change be made 
in the spelling of such names in lan- 
guages which are not written in Roman 
character as have become by long usage 
familiar to English readers : thus Cal- 
cutta, Cutch, Celebes, Mecca, &c., will 
be retained in their present form. 

3. The true sound of the word as 
locally pronounced will be taken as the 
basis of the spelling. 

4. An approximation, however, to the 
sound is alone aimed at. A system 
which would attempt to represent the 
more delicate inflections of sound and 
accent would be so complicated as only 
to defeat itself. Those who desire a 
more accurate pronunciation of the 
written name must learn it on the spot 
by a study of local accent and peculia- 

5. 1"he broad features of the system 
are, that vowels are pronounced as in 
Italian and consonants as in English. 

6. One accent only is used, the acute, 
to denote the syllable on which stress 
is laid. This is very important, as the 
sounds of many names are entirely 
altered by the misplacement of this 

7. Every letter is pronounced. When 
two vowels come together, each one 
is sounded, though the result, when 
spoken quickly, is sometimes scarcely 
to be distinguished from.a single sound, 
as in ai, au, ei. 

8. Indian names are accepted as spelt 
in Hunter's Gazetteer. 

The ampliflcation of the rules is given 


Pronunciation and Remarks. 

ah, a SLS in father 

eh, e as in benefit 

English e; i as in ravine; the sound of ee 

in beet .. . . Thus, not Feejee, but 

as in mote 

long w as in flute; the sound of oo in boot. 

Thus, not Zooloo, but 

All vowels are shortened in sound by 

doubling the following consonant. 
Doubling of a vowel is only necessary 

where there is a distinct repetition of 

the single sound. 

English i as in ICC . . 

ow as in how . . Thus, not Foochoiv, but 

is slightly different from above 

is the sound of the two Italian vowels, but 

is frequently slurred over, when it is 

scarcely to be distinguished from ey 

in the English they. 



Java, Bandna, Somdli, Bari. 

Tel-el-Kebir, 0161eh, Yezo, 

Medina, Leviika, Peru. 

Fiji, Hindi. 

Zulu, Sumatra. 
Yarra, Tanna, 
Jidda, Bonny. 
Nuuliia, Oosima. 

! Shanghai. 

I Macao. 

Beiriit, Belltil. 




Pronunciation Mid Remarks. 



English & 


is always soft, but is so nearly the sound 
of 8 that it should be seldom used. 

If Celebes were not already recognized it 
would be written Selebes. 



is always soft as in church 



English d 


English/, ph should not be used for the 
sound of/. Thus, not Haiphong, but 

Haifong, Nafa. 


is always hard. (Soft g is given by j) 
is always pronounced when inserted. 




English j. Dj should never be put for this 

English *. It should always be put for the 

Japan, Jinchuen. 


hard c . . Thus, not Corea, but 



The Oriental guttural 




is another guttural, as in the Turkish 

Dagh, GhMi 

[as in English. 

has two separate sounds, the one hard as 

in the English word finger, the other as 

in singer. As these two sounds are rarely 

employed in the same locality, no at- 

tempt is made to distinguish between 


As in English. 

should never be employed; qu is given as kw 


i-As in English. 


is always a consonant, as in yard, and 
therefore should never be used as a ter- 
minal, i or e being substituted. 


Thus, not Mikinddny, but 


not Kwaly, but 



English z 


Accents should not generally be used, but 

Tongatdbu, GaWpagos, Pa- 
lawan, Sar&wak. 

where there is a very decided emphatic 

syllable or stress which affects the sound 

of the word, it should be marked by an 

acute accent. 


Brief List of Books on 

History and Geography 



The Oxford Ilanuals of English 

General Editor— C. W. C. Oman, 
M.A., F.S.A., Fellow of All 
Souls College ; Chichele Pro- 
fessor of Modern History in the 
Universityof Oxford. With Maps, 
Genealogies, and Index. \s, each. 

I. The Making of the English Nation, 

55 B.C.-1135 A.D. By C. G. Robert- 
son, B.A., Fellow of All Souls College ; 
Lecturer in Modem History, Exeter 

II. King and Baronage, 1135-1327. 
By W. H. Hutton, B.D., Fellow and 
Tutor of St. John's College ; Examiner 
in the Honour School of Modem 

III. England and the Hundred Years' 
War, 1 327-1484. By Prof. Oman. 

IV. England and the Reformation, 
1485-1603. By G. W. Powers, M.A., 
sometime Scholar of New College. 

V. King and Parliament, 1603-1714. 

By G. H. Wakeling, M.A., Fellow 
of Brasenose College ; Lecturer in 
Modern History at NIagdalen and 
Wadham Colleges. 

VI. The Makingofthe BritishEmpire, 
1714-1832. By Arthur Hassail, M.A., 
Student and Tutor of Christ Church. 

VII. Modern England, 1832-1909. By 
Arthur Hassail, M.A- 

" This series is eminently suited for use 
in secondary schools." — Bookman. 

" The ' Manuals ', under the able general 
editorship of Prof. C W. C Oman, 
should prove invaluable educational 
»\ds." —Literary iVorid. 

Landmarks in English Industrial 
History. By G. Townsend War- 
ner, M.A., sometime Fellow of 
Jesus College, Cambridge, Master 
of the Modem Side in Harrow 
School. Eleventh Exiition, thor- 
oughly revised. 5^. 

"'l*his book is a god-send. ... All 
students of history should at once pro- 
cure it." — Cambridge Revieiv. 

A Brief Survey of British History. 
By G. Townsend Warner, M.A. 
With Tables, Summaries, Maps, 
Notes, &c. IS. 6d. Synopsis, 6d. 

"Far and away ahead of most short 
histories for school use." 

— Joxinial of Educatio7t. 

The Warwick English History. 

A Sketch of the Development of 
England and the Empire. From 
B.C. 55 to the present time. 
2s. 6d. 

A Survey of the British Empire^, 

Historical, Geographical, and 
Commercial. With Illustrations, 
Coloured and Sketch Maps, Ap- 
pendices, and Geographical Sum- 
mary. 2S. 

"A lucid and attractive book." — Times. 

" Readable, complete, and thoroughly 
up-to-date."— /'a// Mall Gazette. 

A History of the British Empire. 

By Edgar Sanderson, M.A. New 
Edition. Reset in large clear 
type and brought up to date. 

2S. 6d 

The British Empire in the Nine- 
teenth Century. 

With many coloured and other 
pictures, is. dd. 

Readings in English History. 
From Original Sources. Interest- 
ing Selections, arranged chrono- 
logically, illustrating the Chief 
Events and Characters of English 
History. Edited i)y K. B. Mor- 
gan, B.Litt., and E. J. Bailey, 
B.A. Illustrated. 
Vol. I, B.C. 54 to A.I). 1154, 2J. 
Vol. II, 1154 to 1485, zs. 6d. 
Vol. Ill, 1485 to 1688, 2s. 6d. 

" It would be difficult to praise too 
highly Readings in English History 
from Original Sources. ' — Academy. 

An Introduction to British History. 

For young pupils. Illustrated in 
colour and in black-and-white. 

IS. 2d. 

A Short History of Great Britain. 

With Lessons on Civics. Illus- 
trated by reproductions of famous 
paintings and by drawings of 
subjects taken from old manu- 
scripts and other historical and 
archaeological sources. 2s. 

The Growth of Greater Britain. 

A Sketch of the History of the 
British Colonies and Dependen- 
cies, with Biographies of Leading 
Persons. By F. B. Kirkman, B.A. 
\s. f)d. 

The Reign of Queen Victoria. 

With Biographies of Leading 
Persons. By J. Holland Rose, 
M.A., Litt.D. 15. 90?. 

'* Altogether a sound book." 

— Educational Times. 

Queen Victoria: Scenes from her 
Life and Reign. By G. A. Henty. 
Illustrated. \s. 6d. 

History of King Alfred of England. 

By Jacob Abbott, is. 

Our Country: 

A Reading - Book for Junior 
Forms. By Edgar Sanderson, 
M.A. Fully Illustrated, is. /^. 

The Story of England. 

By Edgar Sanderson, M.A. is. 6d. 

Macaulay's History of England. 
Chapter III. Edited by Pro- 
fessor II. C. Notcutt. 2S. 

British History in Review. 

By M. MacArthur. is. 6d. 

*' A capital synopsis for school and uni- 
versity uses."— Zi/^rrt^'j' IVorld. 

A Summary of British History. 
By Edgar Sanderson, M.A. 

A clearly arranged, briefly put epi- 
tome. With Appendices. i.y. 

A Synopsis of English History: 

or, Historical Notebook. Com- 
piled by Herbert Wills. 2s. 

English Historians. Edited by 
A. J. Grant, M.A., Professor of 
History in the University of Leeds. 
25. 6d. 

This book consists of three 
parts: the editor's introduction, 
reviewing the literary treatment 
of history in English ; a selection 
of passages from famous historians, 
giving their views on the study 
of history; and a representative 
selection from the writings of the 
great historians. 

"It is a work of prime interest to the 
student who wishes to get at the real 
purpose of history, to understand the 
philosophy of the subject and the re- 
lative values of leading historians." 
— ScJioolmaster. 


A Brief Survey of European 

An excellent Sketch of European 
History from Charles the Great 
to the Present Time. By Arthur 
Hassall, M.A. Student of Christ 
Church, Oxford. 45. dd. 

" The facts are concisely stated, and the 
text is illustrated by maps and a nimiber 
of genealogical tables. It is a practical 
and useful manual." — Schoolmaster. 

Heroes of the European Nations. 

From Early Greece to Waterloo. 
By A. R. Hope Moncrieff. is. 6d. 

" In all respects an excellent book. To 
the many teachers of history who have 
been wanting a bright interesting sketch 
of European history, this book will be 
most welcome." — Practical Teacher. 

Landmarks of European History. 

By E. H. M'Dougall, M.A. 
(Oxon.), late Prof, of History 
and English, Elphinstone Col- 
lege, Bombay. With many Col- 
oured and Sketch Maps, Index, 
&c. 35. 6d. 

" (The author) has done his work well. 
Considering the immense period he has 
had to deal with, he writes lucidly, 
and leaves a distinct impression on the 
minds of his readers of the great events 
of European history." 

—your7tal of Education. 

Outlines of the World's History. 
Ancient, Mediaival, and Modern. 
By Edgar Sanderson, M. A. New 
Edition, thoroughly revised and 
brought to date. With Numerous 
Illustrations and Coloured Maps. 
6s. net. Also in Parts. 

Pt. I. Ancient Oriental Monarchies, 2f. 

Part II. Greece and Rome, 2s. 

Part III. Mediaeval History, 2S. 

Part IV. Modern History, 2s. 6d. 

An Epitome of History, 

Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. 
By Carl Ploetz. Translated by 
W. H. Tillinghast. 7s. 6d. 

An Epitome of Medissval History. 
Being Part II of Ploetz's Epitome 
of History, issued separately. 
2s. 6(i. 

Myths and Legends of Greece 
and Rome. By E. M. Berens. 
Fully Illustrated. 2s. 6d. 

Sanderson's History of Greece 
and Rome. By Edgar Sanderson, 
M.A. With Illustrations and 
Coloured Map. 2s. 

A Brief Sketch of French History 
(1789-1815). By Leony Guil- 
gault. Professor of French at 
Queen's Service Academy, Dub- 
lin, is. 6d. 

JL Brief Sketch of French History 
(1815-1873). By Henry Hirsch, 
B.A., Headmaster of the Royal 
School, Armagh, is. 6d. 

A Short History of India. By 

Mahamahopadhyaya Hara Prasad 
Sastri, M.A., Principal, Sanskrit 
College, Calcutta, is. 

A History of India. By Mahama- 
hopadhyaya Hara Prasad Sastri, 
M.A. 25. 


Blackie's British Histories for 
Scottish Schools. In accordance 
with the Ili.story Memorandum. 
With many Illustrations, Maps, 
and Coloured Time-Charts. 

Book I. Our Country's Story. From 
the Earliest Times till 1707. By David 
Campbell and David Frew, B. A- With 
Illustrations and Time-Chart, if. 3^. 

Book II. Our Native Land. From the 
Earliest Times to 1603. By Duncan 
Macgillivray, M.A., F.E.I.S., Rector 
of Bellahouston Academy, Govan, late 
Examiner in Education in Glasgow 
University. With 16 full-page and 
many other Illustrations, Time-Chart, 
and Historical Bibliography, is. 6d. 

Book III. The Two Kingdoms. The 
Story of Scotland and England from 
the Battle of Flodden to the Death of 
Queen Anne. By T. D. Robb, M.A., 
Paisley Grammar School. With Illus- 
trations, coloured Time - Chart, &c. 
IS. 6d. 

Book IV. The United Kingdom. The 
Story of Scotland, England, and Ire- 
land from the Death of Queen Anne 
to the Present Day. By T. D. Robb, 
M.A. With Illustrations, coloured 
Time-Chart, &c. is. 6d. 

An Intermediate History of Scot- 
land. From the Earliest Times 
to the Present Day. By T. 
Douglas Dunn, M.A., formerly of 
Bellahouston Academy, Govan. 
is. net. 

From the Tales of a Grandfather. 
A History of Scotland from early 
times to the Union of the Parlia- 
ments, with complete text of the 
Treaty of Union. From Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's Tales of a Grandfather. 
Edited by T. D. Robb, M.A., 
English Master Paisley Grammar 
School. Illustrated. \s. T,d. 

A Sketch of Scottish Industrial 
and Social History in the i8th 
and 19th Centuries. By Amelia 
Hutchison Stirling, M.A., for- 
merly Examiner in the University 
of St. Andrews. Illustrated with 
Portraits, is. 6d. 

A Synopsis of Scottish History: 
or. Historical Notebook. Com- 
piled by Herbert Wills. 2s. 

An Outline of the Relations be- 
tween England and Scotland 
(500-1707). By Robert S. Rait, 
Fellow of New College, Oxford. 
Ts. 6d. net. 

The Scottish Parliament. Before 
the Union of the Crowns. By 
Robert S. Rait. 5^. net. 

The Story of Glasgow. From the 
Earliest Times to the Present 
Day. By George Eyre -Todd. 
Illustrated, is. €d. 

Blackie's English Texts— History 
Section. In limp cloth covers. 
6d. each. 


Britain and Germany in Roman 
Times. Czesar's Invasion of Britain, 
translated by Golding (1590); Taci- 
tus' Germania, translated by Grene- 
WAY (1598); and Agricola, translated 
by Savile (1591). 

Bede's History of the Church of 
England. An abridgment containing 
the more interesting parts of the narra- 
tive down to 709 A.u. 

^A/■allace and Bruce. With the Story 
of Macbeth. From Scott's Tales of a 

Fkoissart's Chronicle (Berners* Trans- 
lation, 1525). 3 vols. 

1. Border Warfare under Edward 

III and Richard II; (Robert 
Bruce, David II, and Robert II 
of Scotland). Containing the cap- 
ture of Berwick and of Edinburgh 
Castle, the Battle of Otterburn, &c. 

2. The Reign of Richard II. Con- 

taining the account of Wat Tyler's 

3. Crecy and Poitiers. Containing, 

besides the battles named, the siege 
of Calais, and other adventures of 
the English in France. 

Philip de Commines— W^arwick the 
Kingmaker (1470-1490). Dealing also 
with Edward IV, Louis XI, and the 
Duke of Burgundy. The translation 
is by Danett, 1596. 

HoLiNSHED — England in the Six- 
teenth Century. 

The Spanish Armada, The Last 
Fight of the Revenge, and other 
Adventures of the Reign of Queen 

John Smith— General History of Vir- 
ginia. Book III, 1627. 

Macaulay's History, Chapters I-III. 
3 vols. 

First Chapter. Before the Resto- 

Second Chapter. Under Charles II. 

Third Chapter. The State of Eng- 
land in 1685. 

Macaulav— Essay on Clive. 

Macaulav— Essay on Warren Has- 

Macaulav— Second Essay on Pitt, 

Earl of Chatham. This essay deals 
with the latter part of his life' (1760- 
1778).— The Black Hole of Calcutta, 
and the Battle of Plassey. 

Burke— -Speeches on America. 

Horace Walpole— Letters on the 
American War of Independence. 

Napier— Battles of the Peninsular 
War. 2 vols. 

1. Conina, Talavera, Badajos. 

2. Salamanca, Siege of Burgos, Vittoria, 
Siege of San Sebastian. 

Blakeney— The Retreat to Corunna. 
Part of the Memoirs 0/ Robert Blakeney, 
first published 1899. 


Richard Knolles — Wars with the 
Turks. From the Getieral History of 
the Turks, 1604. Contains the Sack of 
Constantinople (1453); Siege of Buda 
and Vienna; Conquest of Cyprus ; and 
the Battle of Lepanto (1571). 

The Adventures of Montluc. (Cotton's 
translation, 1674.) From Montluc's 
Comtnentaries, giving an unequalled 
picture of war in the sixteenth century. 

Pkescott— The Conquest of Peru. 

Prescott — Montezuma. Containing 
the story of Montezuma and the 
advance of Coites upon Me.xico. 

Prescott— The Capture of Mexico. 

The last siege and capture of the city 
of Mexico. 

Motley— W^illiam the Silent. Chapters 
from the Rise of the Djitch Repitblic. 

Horace Walpole's Letters on France 
and the French Revolution. 


Thucydides— The Siege of Syracuse. 

(From Nicoll's translation, 1550.) 

Plutarch— Life of Alexander. (North's 
translation, 1579.) 

LivY— Hannibal in Italy. (Holland's 
translation, 1600.) 

Plutarch— Life of Julius Caesar. 
(North's translation, 1579.) 

Plutarch— Lives of Brutus and Co- 
riolanus. (North's translation 1579.) 

Josephus— The Siege of Jerusalem. 
(Lodge's translation, 1602.) 

Gibbon— The Age of the Antonines. 
The first three chapters of the Decline 
and Fall. 

Am.mianus Marcelunus— Julian the 
Apostate. (Holland's translation, 

Complete History Readers. A 

series on the concentric method. 
Each volume covers the whole 
course of British History. With 
coloured illustrations. 

Book I. First Book of Stories from His- 
tory. I(X/. 

Book II. Second Book of Stories from 
History, is. 

Book III. Introduction to British His- 
tory. IS. "2(1. 

Book IV. An Outline of British History. 
IS. 4J. 

Book V. A Fuller Outline of British His- 
tory. IS. 6d. 

Book VI. The Story of our Native Land 
and Empire, is. td. 

Book VII. A Short History of Britain, 
with Lessons on Civics. 2.5. 

British History in Periods. Beauti- 
fully illustrated in colour and in 

Book I. First Book of Stories from His- 
tory. \od. 

Book II. Second Book of Stories from 
BUstory. i.^. 

Book III. An Introduction to British 
History. \s. id. 

Book IV. From the Rom an I nvasion to 
the Accession of Henry VU. 1.$-. ^d. 

Book V. From Henry VII to the Battle 
of Waterloo, u. td. 

Book VI. The British Empire in the 
Nineteenth Century. \s. 6d. 

The Raleigh History Readers. 

No. I.— History Stories for Beginners. 
Part I. Zd. 

No. II.— History Stories for Beginners. 
Part II. lod. 

No. III. — Early England (to Norman 
Conquest), i^. 

No. IV.— Twenty Stories and Biographies 
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No. v.— Twenty Stories and Biographies 
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No. VI.— The B^ign of Queen Victoria. 
Biographies of Six Leading Persons. 
If. 9</. 

No. VI I. —The Growth of Greater Britain. 
Biographies of Leading Persons. By 
F. 15. Kirkman, B.A. is. 9^. 

Handbooks for Home Lessons. No. Ill, 
id.; IV, «i; V, y.; VI, 4^/. 

The Warwick History Readers. 

Each book, above the second, 
contains a concise summary, and 
anappendixof notes and meanings. 
With numerous illustrations, sum- 
maries, notes, &c. Nos. I and II 
form a First Course i Nos. Ill, 
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No. v.— Stories from 1688 to Present 
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IS. 6d. 

No. VI.— History of England to 1603. 
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No. VII.— History of England from 1603 
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IS. gd. 

Handbooks for Home Lessons. With 
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IV, 2d.; V, ^d.; VI, 3^.; VII, ^d. 

The Century Historical Readers. 
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Course of History in successive 

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Blackie's Narrative Histories. A 
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No. Ilia. — An Introduction to British 
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No. IV. — Our Country, is. 4^. 

No. v.— The Story of England. \s. td. 

No. VI.— A Brief Survey of British His- 
tory. By G. Townsend Warner, M.A. 
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Handbooks. No. Ill, irf. ; Nos. IV and 
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The Douglas Readers. Illustrated 
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tory. \s. 6d. 

No. VI.— ABrief Survey of British History. 
By G. Townsend Warner, M.A. is. 6d. 

Handbooks. No. IV, ^d. ; V, 2d. •.yi,6d. 

Stories for Little Headers. 6d. 

Old Scottish Stories. 8^'. 


Blackie's Causal Geographies. 

Regionally Treated. By H. J. 
Snape, M.A., Senior English 
Master, King Edward VII's 
School, Sheffield. A new Series 
covering a complete course of 
geography. The subject is treated 
on modern scientific lines — 
regional, physical, causal, and 
historic. The influence of geo- 
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of man is constantly kept in view, 
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graphic conditions. The Series 
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Europe and the British Isles, treated as 
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Asia and North America. 

South America, Africa, and Australasia. 

The Junior Scholarship Geography. 

Physical, Historical, Political. 
With Diagrams, Glossary of Geo- 
graphical Terms ; Index ; Voca- 
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dices. By Henry E. Evans, 
B.A., L.C.P., Rastrick Grammar 
School, Brighouse. 2s. 6d. 
"Excellent as a book of reference- 
succinct, clear, accurate." 

— ^Journal of Education. 

Geography. Structural — Physical 
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With an entirely new series of 22 
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Physical and Structural Geo- 
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Physical, Comparative. By Pro- 
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An Elementary Practical Geo- 
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By Frederick Mort, M.A., B.Sc, 
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Practical Geography. For Scottish 
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The Geography of the British 

By W. G. Baker, M.A. 3^. 6d. 

A Survey of the British Empire. 
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A First Geography. 

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ceptors. With many Diagrams 
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Commercial Geography. A Com- 
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Intaroductory Geography. 

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A S3moptical Geography of the 
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Rapid Revisal in preparing for 
Examinations, and for General 
Reference. With a complete 
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The Geography of British South 
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Side in Harrow School. With 
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A Geography of Egypt and the 

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 
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Training College, Cairo. 2s. 

A Geography of Europe and the 
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Historical, Commercial. With 
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A Pronouncing Vocabulary of 
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Name Lists for Repetition Maps, 
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How to Draw a Map from Memory. 
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Man on the Earth. By Prof. Lionel 
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Object Lessons in Geography and 
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Blackie's Illustrated Continental 
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Blackie's Continental Geographies. 
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Blackie's New Century Geography 
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Books I and II. Geography and Com- 
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Book III. Industrial England, i^. 2d. 

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Book V. Europe, is. 6d. 

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Book VII. The World, is. gd. 

The Raleigh Geography Readers. 

A composite course of lessons on 
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IS. Or, Tales and Talks on Common 
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Book III. Nature - Knowledge. Part 
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Book VII. Brief Introduction to the 
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The Century Geographical Readers. 

A picturesque account of the 
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Maps), id. 
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Lands and their Stories. A new 

series correlating the teaching of 
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coloured reproductions of Famous 

Book I. Little Folk in Many Lands. By 
Hugh Laurence. With 16 coloured 
and 50 other pictures. F'cap 4to, u. 

An informal introduction to Geo- 
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Book II. Tales and Travels. By Hugh 
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For children of about eight. The 
stories from history take the form of 
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scene changes from land to land. 

Book III. England and the English. By 
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An introduction to the study of phy- 
sical and regional geography and its 
bearing upon history, as illustrated in 
the geography and great historical 
movements of England. 

Book IV. Scotland, Ireland, and Britain 
Overseas. By A. J. Berry, M.A., 
Director of Education, Preston. 12 
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Demy 8vo, cloth, is. 6d. 

The regional geography of these 
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Book V. Europe and its Peoples. By H. 

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A physical and regional study of the 
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A physical and regional study of the 
lands forming the British Empire, and 
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The English Counties. 

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Birmingham and the Midlands. 

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Lancashire. Surrey. Kent. 

Middlesex. Cumberland. West- 
morland and Furness. North 

Midlands. Yorkshire. 
Dorset. By H. Harding. With 8 full. 

page Illustrations from Photographs, is. 
Hertfordshire. By H. R. Wilton Hall. 

With 16 full-page Illustrations from 

Photographs, is. 
The Story of Leicester. Illustrated. 

IS. 6d. 
London, Historical and Descriptive. 

By Ben Jonson. Illustrated. 15. 6d. 
Our English Towns and Villages. 

Outdoor History and the Meaning of 

our Surroundings. By H. R. Wilton 

Hall. IS. 6d. 


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