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Full text of "The pronunciation of English: 1. Phonetics; 2. Phonetic transcriptions"

CAMBRIDGE J^ 

PRIMERS OF PRONUNCIATION 

Edited by Daniel Jones 



The Pronunciation of English 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 

Eontion: FETTER LANE, E.G. 

lElrinliurffi) : roo PRINCES STREET 




f.thJ l^ovl;: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

eombnK nun CTnlcuUn: MACMIIJ.AN AND Co., Lto. 

BToronto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, Ltd, 

BTokjJo: THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 



All rights reserved 



^ The 

Pronunciation of English 

i. Phonetics 
ii. Phonetic Transcriptions 

by 

Daniel Jones, M.A. 

Lecturer m Phonetics at University College, London 



SECOND EDITION 




Cambridge 

at the University Press 

1914 



First Edition 1909 
Reprinted 1909, 1911 
Second Edition 1914 



Pf 



35 



Jt7 



PREFACE 

TN studying the pronunciation of a language two things 
-^ are necessary, firstly to acquire familiarity with the 
variou8_el emen tary speech_Simnds of which the language 
is composed and the modes of producing them, and 
secondly to learn when and in what combinations the 
elementary sounds are used so as to form words and 
sentences. 

This book is accordingly divided into two parts. Part I 
dealing with phonetics proper, that is the analysis and 
classification of the elementary speech sounds of the 
English language, Part II consisting of phonetic tran- 
scriptions of passages selected from well-known English 
authors. In Part I Educated Southern English pronun- 
ciation is dealt with in detail and the principal varieties 
of pronunciation heard in London and elsewhere are 
described. Part II contains specimens of various kinds 
of pronunciation and is divided into five sections. Sec- 
tions I, II and III contain transcriptions of average 
Standard English (as defined in Part I, § 1), illustrating 
the careful conversational, the rapid conversational, and 
the declamatory styles of pronunciation respectively; 
section iv contains transcriptions of the actual pronun- 
ciation of various educated persons from different parts 



VI PREFACE 

of the country; section v consists of a specimen of 
uneducated London dialect. 

The phonetic system used is that of the International 
Phonetic Association, and the symbols are fully explained 
in Part I. The ordinary spelling of the pieces transcribed 
is given at the end for reference. 

I have to thank the following authors and publishers 
for kindly allowing me to reproduce copyright matter: 
Messrs Sampson Low, Marston & Co. for the illustrations 
of the Larynx (fig. 2) which are taken from Voice, Song 
and Speech by Browne and Behnke, Messrs George Bell 
& Sons for the poem of Calverley (no. 3), Mr Benson and 
his publishers Messrs Methuen for the passage from Dodo 
(no. 9), Dr Fuhrken and Dr Rodhe for the transcription 
from Fuhrken- Jespersen-Rodhe's Engelsk Ldsehok (no. 17), 
Messrs Macmillan & Co. for the passage of Huxley (no. 19), 
Messrs Teubner for the transcription from Lloyd's Northern 
English (no. 20), and Mr Pett Ridge for the passage from 
his London Only (no. 26). 

1 also wish to express my thanks to Mr G. Noel- 
Armfield (London), Dr E. R. Edwards (London), Mr H. D. 
Ellis (London), Mr B. Lockhart (Scotland), and Miss 
B. Robson (Edinburgh), for their kindness in furnishing 
me with transcriptions of their respective pronunciations 
(nos. 16, 18, 19, 22 and 24 respectively) and giving me 
information for the notes which are placed after each 
transcription. I am also indebted to Dr G. E. Fuhrken, 
the transcriber of no. 17 mentioned above, for information 
regarding his pronunciation. Special thanks are also due 
to Mr Noel-Armfield, who was kind enough to make the 



PREFACE VU 

transcriptions of the pronunciation of Mr R. P. H. Blore 
(no. 21), Mr J H. Fadge (no. 23) and Mr J. Sinclair 
(no. 25) (whose kindness in allowing their pronunciation 
to be recorded I also desire to acknowledge) and to furnish 
me with notes on their pronunciation. 

The present work is primarily designed for the use of 
English students and teachers, and more especially for 
students in training-colleges and teachers whose aim is 
to correct cockneyisms or other undesirable pronuncia- 
tion in their scholars. At the same time it is hoped that 
the book may be found of use to lecturers, barristers, 
clergy, etc., in short to all who desire to read or speak 
in public. The dialectal peculiarities, indistinctness and 
artificialities which are unfortunately so common in the 
pronunciation of public speakers may be avoided by the 
application of the elementary principles of phonetics. It 
may be added that a study of the pronunciation of the 
mother tongue is the indispensable foundation for the ac- 
quisition of the correct pronunciation of foreign languages. 

It is not necessary to urge further reasons why English 
people should be encouraged to study the pronunciation 
of their own language. The fact that the Board of 
Education has now introduced the subject into the 
regular course of training of teachers for service in 
public elementary schools is sufi&cient proof that its 
importance is now generally recognised. 

DANIEL JONES. 

Wimbledon, 
Aprily 1909. 



PEEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

TN the second edition of this book alterations have been 
-*- made in the definition of a vowel (§ 12) and in the 
classification of vowels (pp. 10, 11 and § 129). Several 
corrections have also been made in the intonation-curves 
on pp. 87 — 97. Otherwise the book remains substantially 
as before. 

Gramophone Records of Texts 8 and 9 have recently 
been prepared, and it is hoped that they may be of 
assistance to those readers who have access to gramo- 
phones. They are spoken by myself and are published 
by the Deutsche Grammophon-Gesellschaft, Rittcrstr. 35, 
Berlin. The catalogue numbers of the records are 201392 
and 201393 respectively. (For the benefit of Indian 
readers it may be added that the records are stocked at 
Spencers Stores, Madras.) 

A few discrepancies between the pronunciation on the 
records and that indicated in the texts will be noticed. 
These are chiefly due to the fact that in making a gramo- 
phone record it is necessary to speak with exaggerated 
distinctness. A study of such discrepancies is instructive. 



DANIEL JONES. 



University College, 
London, W.C. 

Augustf 1914. 



CONTENTS 

SECTION PAGE 

Preface v 

Table of English Speech Sounds .... xiii 

Values of phonetic symbols xiv 

Abbreviations xvii 

Script forms of phonetic symbols and specimens of 

phonetic writing xviii 



PART I: PHONETICS 

I. Standard pronunciation 1 

II. Organs of Speech : 

General remarks 2 

Vocal chords. Breath and Voice ... 3 

III. Classification of Sounds : 

General remarks. Definitions of Vowels and 

Consonants ...... 6 

Classification of Consonants .... 7 

Classification of Vowels 9 

IV. English Speech-sounds in detail : 

General remarks 14 

Consonants : Plosives 15 

Liquids 19 

Fricatives 28 

Semi- Vowels 33 

Vowels 34 

V. Nasalisation 48 

a5 



X 


CONTENTS 










SECTION 


PAOE 


VI. 


Assimilation 49 


VIL 


Quantity 








52 


VIII. 


Syllables 








65 


IX. 


Stress 








57 


X. 


Breath -groups . 








58 


XI. 


Intonation .... 








69 


XII. 


Theory of Plosive Consonants. 








65 


XIII. 


Initial and Final Voiced Fricatives 








69 



PART II: PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

I. Standard Pronunciation. A. Careful Conversational 

Style : 

1. Bronte, a passage from Jane Eyrej , , 73 

2. Burke, a passage from Thoughts on the 
French Revolution 74 

3. Calverlet, Contentment (after the manner 

of Horace) 75 

4. Scott, Hunting Song 77 

5. Thackeray, a passage from the Essay on 
Whitebait 79 

6. yfoB.T>&YfORTB^** I wandered lonely" . , 82 

II. Standard Pronunciation. B. Rapid Conversational 

Style : 

7. Dickens, a passage from the Pickwick Papers 83 

8. George Eliot, a passage from the MiU on 

the Floss 85 

9. Benson, a passage from Dodo (with Intona- 
tion Curves) 87 



CONTENTS XI 

SKCTION PAOJfi 

III. Standard Pronunciation. C. Declamatory Stylo : 

10. Byron, a passage from Childe Harold . . 98 

11. Gladstone, Peroration of the Speech on the 
Second Reading of the Reform Bill of 1866 . 99 

12. Keats, Sonnet to Sleep .... 101 

13. Milton, At a Solemn Music .... 102 

14. Shakespeare, a passage from Julius Caesar 103 

16. Tennyson, Lyrics from The Princess (with 

Intonation Curves) . . ... . . 104 

IV. Pronunciation of particular speakers : 

16. Addison, a passage from Sir Roger de Cover- 
ley^ s country residev/ie and friends (pronuncia- 
tion of G. Noel-Armfield, Esq., Yorkshire and 
London) . . 108 

Notes on Mr No6l- Arm field's pronunciation . 109 

17. Fuhrken-Jespersen-Rodhe, anecdote taken 
from Fuhrken's transcription of Jespersen- 
Rodhe's Engelsk Ldsebok (pronunciation of G. 

E. Fuhrken, Esq., London) . . . . Ill 

Notes on Dr Fuhrken's pronunciation . . 112 

18. Goldsmith, a passage from Beau Tibbs at 
Vauxhall (pronunciation of Dr E. R. Edwards, 
London) 112 

Notes on Dr Edwards' pronunciation . . . 113 

19. lluxLEY, a passage from Discourses Biological 
and Geological (pronunciation of H. D. Ellis, 

Esq., Devonshire and London) . . . 114 
Notes on Mr Ellis' pronunciation . . . 114 

20. Lloyd, a passage from the Daily Mail as 
transcribed in Lloyd's Northern English (pro- 
nunciation of R. J. Lloyd, Esq., Liverpool) . 115 

Notes on Dr Lloyd's pronunciation . . . 117 



XU CONTENTS 

SECTION I'AUK 

21. Macaulay, a passage from the History of 
England (pronunciation of R P. Houghton 
Blore, Esq., Lancashire and London) . . 118 

Notes on Mr Blore's pronunciation . . . 118 

22. Macaulay, a passage from the History of 
England (pronunciation of B. Lockhart, Esq., 
Scotland and South of England) . . . 119 

Notes on Mr Lockhart's pronunciation . . 120 

23. Buskin, a passage from Modern Painters 
(pronunciation of J. H. Fudge, Esq., Hamp- 
shire and London) 120 

Notes on Mr Fudge's pronunciation . . . 121 

24. Scott, a passage from Old Mortality (pro- 
nunciation of Miss B. Robson, Edinburgh) . 122 

Notes on Miss Robson's pronunciation . . 123 

25. Stevenson, a passage from Treasure Island 
(pronunciation of J. Sinclair, Esq., Glasgow) . 124 

Notes on Mr Sinclair's pronunciation . . . 124 

V. London Dialect : 

26. Pett Ridge, a passage from London Only . 126 

Appendix. Ordinary spelling of the pieces transcribed in 

Part II 129 



TABLE OF ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS 

This table is for reference only. It should be used 
constantly in connexion with the detailed descriptions of 
the sounds, Part I, §§ 29 ff. 



Glot- 
tal 


1 


1 








Velar 


o: 
^1 


P 


3 




£ 


1 ^ 

1 


O 
0) 


<l> 


> 

8-* 












■^ 


'3 

1 


•Ml 


C 


f— t 


t« 


2>. 

CD P 








1- 


■11 










> 

(Hi 


I 

1 

! 






0*1 


a 






^ 


.^. 
5 

^ 


J. 








> 

'i 




1 

J 


1 
1 


1 




-1 


1 

tri 


1 

o 






s(juisuosno;3 


S|8M0^ 



The sounds underlined in the table are breathed, all 
others are voiced (§ 9). 

Sounds which appear twice in the table have a double 
articulation, the secondary articulation being shown by 
the symbol in ( ); see the sections relating to each of 
the sounds in question. 



VALUES OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

The following key words are in StP as defined in 
Part I, §^ 1, 2. 



Phonetic 


Ordinary 


Phonetic 


Symbols 


Spelling 


Transcription 


a: heard in father 


'fCLlSa 


a 


COW 


kau (see § 135) 


a 


„ % 


flai 


SB 


cab 


kaeb 


A 


, mwch 


mAt/ 


b 


6oat 


bout 


d 


rfay 


dei 


$ 


then 


Sen 


e , 


, red 


red 


ci 


play 


plei 


e 


, there 


Sea 


a: 


, bird 


ba:d 


a 


, above,china a'bAvr^tJama/ 


f 


, /cot 


fut 


g 


^ive 


qiv 


h 


hurt 


h9:t 


i: 


, queen 


kwi;n 


i 


„ Hp 


lip 


J 


», yon 


i^- 



VALUES OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS XV 



Phonetic 




Ordinary 


Phonetic 


Symbols 




Spelling T 


ranscriptioii 


k heard 


in cold 


kould 


1 


>: 


/eap, fee^ 


li:p, fill (see § 62) 


m 


» 


mark 


maik 


n 


» 


new 


nju; 


D 


» 


son^ 


sor) 






(low 

INoveiaber 


lou 


o 


J» 


no'vemba (see § 150) 


o: 


JJ 


saw 


so: 


o 


)} 


long 


lor) 


P 


„ 


pay 


pei 


r 


» 


right 


rait (see § 69) 


s 


» 


sun 


SAn 


/ 


» 


show 


Jou 


t 


„ 


too 


tu: 


e 


,, 


thin 


ein 


u: 


» 


food 


fu:d 


u 


,, 


good 


gud 


V 


»J 


vow- 


VCLU 


w 


» 


wine 


wain 


z 


» 


2:eal 


ziil 


3 


)» 


measure 


'meja 



' means that the following syllable is stressed, e.g. 
above aTjAV, measure 'mesa. 

, placed under a consonant symbol, as in n, ], means 
that the consonant is syllabic. It is not usually 
necessary to insert this mark ; see § 199. 

The foregoing symbols are those used in the tran- 
scription of ordinary Standard English. The following 
are required in exceptional cases for indicating variations 
from the normal pronunciation. 



XVI VALUES OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

A, the open back unrounded vowel, § 130 
a:, a lengthened a, § 126 

d, a vowel intermediate between a: and a, § 175 
®> » „ H SB „ a, §175 
as:, a lengthened aB, § 100 
e:, the half-closed front tense unrounded vowel, §§ 117, 119 

e, the half-closed mixed lax unrounded vowel, § 153 
e:, a lengthened 6 
a, a vowel intermediate between a: and a, § 175 j 
a-ri, a lowered variety of a:, § 167 | 
axi, a raised variety of a:, § 167 

1, the closed mixed lax unrounded vowel, § 158 i 

I, a vowel intermediate between i and e, § 111 . 

o:, the half-closed back tense rounded vowel, § 151 j 

o, the half-closed mixed lax rounded vowel, § 153 i 

Q, a vowel intermediate between o and a, § 175 \ 

OB, the half-open front rounded vowel, § 153 
in, the closed back lax unrounded vowel, § 157 
ii, the closed mixed lax rounded vowel, ^ 153, 158 
a 



vowels pronounced with " inversion " of the tip of the 
tongue, § 71 



nasalised vowels, §§ 25, 180 



I 
5 

ft 

?, the glottal plosive, § 47 

c, the breathed palatal plosive, § 46 

f, the voiced palatal plosive, § 46 



VALUES OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS XVIJ 



9, the breathed palatal fricative, § 99 
V L devocalised d, v, z, §§ 238, 239 



m 

o 

n 

o 

r 



., devocalised 1, m, n, r, j, §§ 14, 51, 55, 185 



1", 1', 1' etc., varieties of 1 sounds, § Gl 

f , the semirolled r sound, § 69 note 

J, the fricative r sound, § 69 

B, the uvular r sound, § 73 

J^, a sound intermediate between / and j, § 101 

5', ...... » 3 " i' § 101 

v^, a semivocalic v, § 77 

AV, the breathed w sound, § 81 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 



L London dialect 

N Northern dialects (Lancashire, etc.) 

N.Eng. The North of England 

N.Mid. North Midland dialects 

Sc Scottish dialects 

S.Eng. The South of England 

StP The form of Standard Pronunciation described 

in Part I, § 2 

W Western dialects (Devon, etc.) 



SCRIPT FORMS OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS 



a a, ^ y 



a a. 



r 7*' {or It when no con- 
fusion can arise) 



e t * 



// 



o ^ z z. 



SPECIMENS OF PHONETIC WRITING 

c^J<ccl -^ /ccyiy^^^^ ^TT 66:o?j. /cI/Pto ^71x6 yctUjC 

(Sweet.) 

(Sweet.) 

Many prefer to write : as .«^, as in the following 
example. 

(Ellis.) 



PART I 

PHONETICS 



L STANDARD PRONUNCIATION 

1. No two persons pronounce exactly alike. The 
differences may arise from a variety of causes, such as 
locality, early influences, social surroundings, individual 
peculiarities, and the like. For the purposes of the 
present book it is necessary to. set up a standard, and 
the standard selected is the pronunciation which appears 
to be most usually employed by Southern English persons 
who have been educated at the great public boarding- 
schools. Where such usage varies, the style adopted by 
the majority will be preferred. 

2. But here it must be noticed that even the best 
speakers commonly use more than one style. There is 
the rapid colloquial style and the formal oratorical style, 
and there are many shades between the two extremes. 
For our standard pronunciation we shall adopt in Part I 
of this book an intermediate style, which may be termed 
the careful conversational style. This form of standard 
pronunciation will be denoted by the abbreviation StP, and 
it will be understood that whenever phonetic transcription 
is used, StP is intended to be represented, unless the 
contrary is stated. Students should note carefully all 
points in which their own pronunciation differs from StP. 

J. 1 



PHONETICS 



11. ORGANS OF SPEECH 

3. The first essential for the student of Phonetics is 
to have a clear idea of the structure and functions of the 
various parts of the organs of speech. Those who have 
not already done so, should make a thorough examination 
of the inside of their mouth by means of a hand looking- 
glass. The best way of doing this is to stand with the 
back to the light and to hold the looking-glass in such a 
position that it reflects the light into the mouth, and at 
the same time enables the observer to see the interior 
thus illuminated. It is not difficult to find the right 
position for the glass. 

4. The following diagram shows all that is required 
for the purposes of this book. 



B. Back of Tongue. 

Bl. Blade of Tongue. 

F. Front of Tongue. 

G. Upper Gums. 

Gt. Gullet (food passage). 

H. Hard Palate. 

LL. Lips. 

P. Pbaryngal cavity (Pharynx). 

S. Soft Palate. 

TT. Teeth. 

U. Uvula. 

V. Position of Vocal Chords. 

W, Wind-pipe, 




Fig. 1. The Organs of Speech. 



ORGANS OF SPEECH 3 

6. Note that the main part of the roof of the mouth 
is divided into two parts, the front part constituting the 
hatd palate, and the back part the soft palate. These 
two parts should be examined carefully in the looking- 
glass. They may be felt by the tongue or with the finger. 
The soft palate can be moved upwards from the position 
shown in fig. 1. When raised to its fullest extent it 
touches the back wall of the pharynx, as in fig. 5 (p. 11). 
The upper gums are defined as the part of the roof of 
the mouth which is convex to the tongue, the imaginary 
division between the gums and hard palate being made at 
the point where the roof of the mouth ceases to be convex 
to the tongue, and begins to be concave. 

6. Note particularly the meaning of the terms back 
and front, as applied to the tongue. The back is the part 
opposite the soft palate when the tongue is in the position 
of rest, the front is the part opposite the hard palate. 
The blade is the part opposite the gums, and includes the 
tip. 

THE VOCAL CHOEDS. BEEATH AND VOICE 

7. The vocal chords are situated in the larynx and 
resemble two lips. They run in a horizontal direction 
from back to front (see figs. 1 and 2). The space between 
them is called the glottis. The chords may be kept apart, 
or they may be brought together so as to close the air 
passage completely. When they are brought close together 
and air is forced between them, they vibrate, producing 
the sound known as voice. When they are wide apart 
and air passes between them, the sound produced is called 
BREATH. Certain intermediate states of the glottis give 

1—2 



4 



PHONETICS 



rise to whisper. The sound h (§ 102) is pure breath ; the 
vowel sounds are practically pure voice. 



Fron^ 



Fronf 





Back B 

Back 
Fig. 2. The Larynx as seen through the laryngoscope. 
A. Position for Breath. B. Position for Voice. 
TT. Tongue. VV. Vocal Chords, W. Windpipe. 

8. Breath and voice may be illustrated artificially by 
the following simple experiment. Take a short tube of 
wood or glass T, say 1 J inches long and \ inch in diameter, 
and tie on to one end of it a piece of thin indiarubber 
tubing I, of a rather larger diameter, say J inch, as shown 
in the accompanying diagram. The tube 
of wood or glass represents the windpipe, 
and the indiarubber part the larynx. The 
space enclosed by the edge of the india- 
rubber EE, represents the glottis. If we 
leave the indiarubber in its natural posi- 
tion and blow through the tube, air passes 
out, making a slight hissing sound. This 
corresponds to breath. If we take hold 
of two opposite points of the edge of the 
indiarubber E, E, and draw them apart Fig. 3. 

so that two edges of the indiarubber come 
into contact along a straight line, we have a representation 




ORGANS OF SPEECH 5 

of the glottis in the position for voice, the two edges 
which are in contact representing the two vocal chords. 
Now, if we blow down the tube, the air in passing out 
causes the edges to vibrate and a kind of musical sound is 
produced. This sound corresponds to voice. 

9. Every normal speech sound contains cither breath 
or voice. Those which contain breath are called breathed, 
and those which contain voice arc called voiced. Examples 
of breathed sounds are p, f ; examples of voiced sounds 
are b, v, a:\ 

10. When we speak in a whisper, voice is replaced 
throughout by whisper (§ 7), the breathed sounds remain- 
ing unaltered. It will not be necessary to deal further 
with whisper. 

11. It does not require much practice to be able to 
recognise by the ear the difference between breathed and 
voiced sounds. The following well-known tests may how- 
ever sometimes be found useful. If breathed and voiced 
sounds are pronounced while the ears are stopped, a loud 
buzzing sound is heard in the latter case but not in the 
former. Again, if the throat be touched by the fingers, 
a distinct vibration is felt when voiced sounds are pro- 
nounced, but not otherwise. Compare in these ways f 
with V, p with a:. 

1 Letters in tliick type are plionetic symbols. In naming the pho- 
netic symbols, they should be designated by their sounds and not by the 
ordinary names of the letters ; thus the symbols p, f are not called pi:, 
cf but are designated by the initial and final sounds of these two groups 
respectively. 



PHONETICS 



ni. CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS 

12. Every speech sound belongs to one or other of 
the two main classes known as Vowels and Consonants. 
A VOWEL (in normal speech^) is defined as a voiced sound 
in which the air has a free passage through the mouth, 
and does not produce any audible friction. All other 
sounds (in normal speech^) are called CONSONANTS. 

13. The distinction between vowels and consonants 
is not an arbitrary physiological distinction. It is in 
reality a distinction based on acoustic considerations, 
namely on the relative sonority of the various sounds. 
Some sounds are more sonorous than others, that is to 
say they carry better or can be heard at a greater dis- 
tance. Thus the sound a pronounced in the normal 
manner can be heard at a greater distance than the sound 
p or the sound f pronounced in the normal manner. It 
so happens that the sounds defined as vowels in § 12 are 
noticeably more sonorous than any other speech sounds 
(when pronounced in the normal manner). 

Consonants 

14. Some consonants are breathed, others are voiced 
(§ 9). To every breathed consonant corresponds a voiced 
consonant, i.e. one produced with the same position of the 
articulating organs, but with voice substituted for breath, 
and vice versa: thus v corresponds to f, b to p. The 

^ Whispered speech is not considered as normal. In whispered 
speech " voice " is replaced throughout by " whisper " and every sound 
consists of audible friction and nothing else (except the *' stops " of 
breathed plosives, which have no sound at all). 



CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS 7 

breathed forms corresponding to several of the English 
voiced consonants, e.g., m, 1, do not occur regularly in 
English. It is, however, a good phonetic exercise to 
practise such unfamiliar breathed sounds (phonetic sym- 
bols m, 1). They may be acquired by practising vfvf..., 
zszs..., until the method of passing from voice to breath 
is clearly understood, and then applying the same method 
to m, 1, etc., thus obtaining mmmm..., 1111..., etc. The 
voiced consonant corresponding to h does not occur 
regularly in English, but it is not a difficult sound to 
pronounce. 

Vowels 

15. There are numerous positions of the organs of 
speech, and more especially of the tongue, in which, when 
voice is produced, it is accompanied by little or no noise. 
Such positions are called vowel positions. In each of 
these positions a resonance chamber is formed, which 
modifies the quality of tone produced, and gives rise to 
a distinct vowel. The number of possible vowels which 
can be distinguished by a good ear is very large — some 
hundreds — but in any one language the number of distinct 
vowels in use is comparatively small. (See Table of 
English Vowels, p. 14.) 



CLASSIFICATION OP CONSONANTS 

16. Consonants may be classified (1) according to the 
organs which articulate them, (2) according to the manner 
in which the organs articulate them. If we classify them 
according to the organs which articulate them, we dis- 
tinguish five main classes : — 



8 PHONETICS 

(1) Labial or lip sounds, which may be subdivided 

into 

Bi-lahial, viz. sounds articulated by the two 
lips. Examples p, m. 

Labio-dental, viz. sounds articulated by the 
lower lip against the upper teeth. Ex- 
ample f. 

(2) Dental, viz. sounds articulated by the tip or 
blade of the tongue against the upper teeth or gums\ 
Examples t, ^. 

(3) Palatal, viz. sounds articulated by the front of 
the tongue against the hard palate. Example j. 

(4) Velar, viz. sounds articulated by the back of 
the tongue against the soft palate^ Example k. 

(5) Glottal, viz. sounds articulated in the glottis. 
Example h. 

17. If we classify consonants according to the manner 
in which the organs articulate them, we distinguish five 
main classes : — 

(1) Plosive, formed by completely closing the air 
passage and suddenly removing the obstacle (or one of 
the obstacles), so that the air escapes making an explosive 
sound. Examples p, d. 

(2) Nasal, formed by completely closing the mouth 
at some point, the soft palate remaining lowered so that 
the air is free to pass out through the nose. Example m. 
(These are the only sounds of StP in which the soft palate 
is lowered.) 

(3) Lateral, formed by an obstacle placed in the 

middle of the mouth, the air being free to escape at the 

sides (see § 60). Example 1. 

^ These consonants are termed lingual by many authors. 
' The velum is another name for the soft palate. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS 



9 



(4) Rolled, formed by a rapid succession of taps of 
some elastic organ. Example rolled r. 

(5) Fricative, formed by a narrowing of the air 
passage at some point so that the air in escaping makes 
a kind of hissing sound. Examples f, z. 

The nasal, lateral, and rolled consonants are sometimes 
grouped together under the name of liquids. 

18. It is convenient to arrange the consonants in a 
table, horizontal rows containing sounds articulated in the 
same manner, and vertical columns containing sounds 
articulated by the same organs thus: —  





Lai 

Bi- 
labial 


3ial 

Labio- 
dental 


Dental 


Palatal 


Velar 


Glottal 


Plosive 


Pb 




ta 




kg 


? 


Nasal 


m 




n 




T) 




Lateral 






1 




(1) 




Rolled 






r 








Fricative 


w 


fv 


05, sz 
/3,J 


J 


(w) 


h 



Tliese consonants are examined in detail in 55 29 — 105. 



CLASSIFICATION OP VOWELS 



19. The characteristic qualities of vowels depend on 
the positions of the tongue and lips. It is convenient to 
classify them according to the position of the main part 
of the tongue. The position of the tip has no great effect 



10 PHONETICS 

on vowel quality, except in the cases noted in § 71, which 
do not occur in StP. In the following explanation the 
tip of the tongue is supposed to be touching the lower 
teeth, or at any rate to be close to them (see fig. 5). 

20. Some vowels (e.g. those in see, far) have clear and 
well-defined quality ; others (e.g. that in bird) have a more 
obscure sound. Vowels of obscure quality are chiefly those 
in which the tongue is in an intermediate vowel position, 
not raised markedly in the front or at the back, and not 
too low down in the mouth ; vowels of well-defined quality 
are chiefly those in which the tongue is remote from such 
an intermediate position, that is to say those in which the 
tongue is markedly raised in the front or at the back or 
is quite low down in the mouth. If we examine the 
tongue positions of the most typical sounds of well-defined 
quality we find that the highest points of the tongue lie 
roughly on the sides of a triangle the angles of which are 
marked by the points i, a, u in fig. 5 (the sounds of the 
e type falling between i and a, and the sounds of the 
o type falling between a and u). Vowels which have 
the highest point of the tongue approximately on the 
left-hand side of this triangle are called front vowels', 
those in which the highest point of the tongue is ap- 
proximately on the right-hand side of this triangle are 
called hack vowels \ those in which the highest point of 
the tongue is well within the triangle are called mixed 
vowels. 

21. Vowels are thus classed as front, mixed, and back, 
according to the horizontal position of the highest point 
of the tongue. They may also be classified according to 
the vertical position of the highest point of the tongue. 
Those in which the tongue is as high as possible con- 



CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS 



11 



sistently with not producing perceptible friction are called 
close vowels. Those in which the tongue is as low as 
possible are called open vowels. We distinguish two 
intermediate positions, half-close and half-open, in which 
the tongue is lowered from the close position to about 
one-third, and two-thirds, of the total distance from the 
close position to the open position. Examples of front, 
mixed and back vowels are i (lip, lip), a: (bird, ba:d), 
u (good, gud), respectively. Examples of close, half-close, 
half-open, and open vowels are u: (boot, buit), e (pen, pen). 



Front 



Close 



Half-close 



Half- open 



Open 



Half-closed 




Open 



Fronr Back' 

Fig. 4. The classification of vowels. 




Fig. 5. Tongue-positions for the vowels l, a, u. 



12 PHONETICS 

6 {pair, pea), a {father, faiSa), respectively. Figs. 4 
and 5 will help to make clear the basis of the classifi- 
cation of vowels. (Fig. 4 is an elaboration of the " vowel- 
triangle.") 

22. Vowel quality is also largely dependent on the 
position of the lips. The lips may be held in a natural 
or neutral position, they may be spread out so as to leave 
a long narrow opening between them, or they may be 
drawn together so that the opening between them is 
more or less round. Vowels produced with the lips in 
the latter position are called rounded vowels. Others 
are called unrounded. If the spreading of the lips is 
very marked, the vowels may be termed sj^read. Such 
lip-spreading is, however, not usual in English, and it is 
sufficient to distinguish the English vowels simply as 
rounded and unrounded. An example of a rounded vowel 
is u:; examples of unrounded vowels are i, a:. 

23. Another element which is sometimes of import- 
ance in determining vowel quality is what may be termed 
the state of the tongue and lips (more especially the former) 
as regards muscular tension. Vowels produced while the 
tongue is in a state of considerable muscular tension 
are called tense vowels; example i: {leap, liip). Those 
produced while the tongue is not in a state of muscular 
tension but is held loosely, are called lax vowels ; example 
i {lip, lip). The difference in quality between a tense 
vowel and the corresponding lax vowel (i.e. one in which 
the highest point of the tongue is in about the same 
position as in the case of the tense vowel, but the tongue 
is relaxed) is sometimes very considerable, especially in 
the case of close vowels, i is the lax vowel corresponding 



CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS 13 

to the tense i:. The u: in boot, bu:t, and u in foot, fut, 
are corresponding tense and lax vowels \ 

24. The tenseness or laxness of a vowel can in some 
cases be observed mechanically by placing the finger on 
the throat between the larynx and the chin. When 
pronouncing a lax vowel such as i this part feels loose, 
but when pronouncing a tense vowel as i:, it becomes 
considerably tenser and is slightly pushed forward. 

25. The soft palate may affect vowel quality. In the 
articulation of normal vowels the soft palate is raised so 
that it touches the back wall of the pharynx as shown in 
fig. 5 (p. 11). The result is that no air can pass through 
the nose. It is, however, possible to lower the soft palate 
so that it takes up the position shown in fig. 1 (p. 2) and 
the air can then pass out through the nose as well as 
through the mouth. When vowels are pronounced with 
the soft palate lowered in this way, they are said to be 
nasalised. Nasalised vowels do not occur in StP, but 
they are heard in many dialects, notably L (see §§ 179 ff.). 
Lateral, rolled and fricative consonants may also be nasal- 
ised^, but such nasalised consonants do not occur in StP. 

2G. We now give a table of the vowels ordinarily 
used in StP. A few others are used in very careful 
speaking (see § 175), but it is not necessary to complicate 
the table by inserting them. 

1 The terms tense and lax will only be applied in the case of close 
and half-close vowels, and in the case of the sounds o:, o. In other 
cases it is hardly necessary to make any distinction between tense and 
lax vowels ; in fact there is in regard to some of the opener vowels con- 
siderable difference of opinion as to whether they are tense or lax. 

2 When ay\plosive consonant is nasalised, it becomes a nasal con- 
sonant, e.g. piasalised b is in. 



^rUiAJt^ 



14 



PHONETICS 





Front Mixed Back 


Close 


i:,l \ / u:,u 


Half-close 


e \ / o 


Half-open 


* w ^ 


Open 


SB ^ o: 
a a o 



These vowels are examined in detail in §§ 106 — 178. 



IV. ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 

27. We are now in a position to consider the English 
speech sounds in detail. It will in many cases be sufficient 
to explain the formation of sounds by using the terms 
already defined. Raising of the soft palate (as in fig. 5) 
is to be implied in the case of all sounds except the nasal 
consonants, unless the contrary is stated. 

28. Thus when we say that k is the breathed 
velar plosive, no further description is necessary. The 
description 'breathed velar plosive* means that it is a 
consonant which is articulated by raising the back of 
the tongue so as to touch the soft palate ; the soft palate 
is raised so that no air can pass through the nose; the 
air is forced upwards from the lungs without causing 
the vocal chords to vibrate, and the tongue is suddenly 
removed from the soft palate, the result being an explosive 
sound. Similarly, voiced labio-dental fricative is a sufficient 
description of the sound v. It means that v is a consonant 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 16 

articulated by placing the lower lip against the upper 
teeth so as to leave only a very narrow space for the air 
to escape ; the soft palate is raised so that no air can pass 
through the nose; air is forced upwards from the lungs, 
and the vocal chords are so placed that the air passing 
between them causes them to vibrate, producing voice; 
the air in passing between the lower lip and upper teeth 
escapes continuously, making a fricative noise. Again, 
close front lax unrounded is a sufficient explanation of 
the formation oi the vowel i. It means that i is a vowel 
in which the front of the tongue is raised in the direction 
of the hard palate as high as possible consistently with 
not producing perceptible friction, and is held loosely ; the 
soft palate is raised, and there is no lip-rounding. 

CONSONANTS 
1. Plosives 

29. p. Breathed bi-labial plosive. Example pipCt 
paip. 

30. When p is followed by a vowel in a stressed 
syllable (as in apart, apait), a slight puff of breath, i.e. a 
slight h (§ 102), is heard after the explosion of the p and^ 
before the beginning of the vowel IrTStP^lihis h sound 
isTo slight that it is not necessary to indicate it specially 
in a practical phonetic transcription. With some speakers, 
however, this h sound is very marked, sufficiently so to 
require a separate symbol in the phonetic transcription, 
thus aphait. Such a pronunciation is not recommended. 
See also Theory of Plosive Consonants, §§ 224 ff. 

31. b. Voiced bi-labial plosive. Example hnhe, beib. 



16 PHONETICS 

32. No remarks necessary here. See, however, Theory 
of Plosive Consonants, §§ 224 ff. As regards sebm for 
sevn see § 86. 

33. t. Breathed dental plosive. Articulated in StP 
by the tip of the tongue against the upper gums. Example 
touch, tAtJ. 

34. A slight h sound is inserted in StP between t 
and a following vowel in stressed syllables, as in target, 
ta:git, but this is not sufficient to require marking in an 
ordinary phonetic transcription. The exaggerated pro- 
nunciation thaigit is not recommended. See also Theory 
of Plosive Consonants, §§ 224 ff. 

35. In some N dialects when t is followed by r as in 
true, tru:, it is articulated against the upper teeth instead 
of the upper gums. This produces a very peculiar effect, 
which sounds rather as if a 6 were inserted (t9ru:). In 
many dialects t between two vowels is replaced in certain 
cases by a kind of semi-rolled r (§ 69), Saturday, saetadi, 
becoming saeradi. In L get out of the way is often 
pronounced girsearatSawai. In Sc and L, t is often 
replaced by the glottal plosive ? (§ 47). Saturday in 
Glasgow dialect is pronounced saPadi, water, woPr (StP 
woita). In L the expression / haven't got one (StP ai 
hsBvnt got war) becomes aaiijgoPwan. 

36. In StP the sound t is very often dropped when 
it occurs in the middle of a group of consonants, especially 
when preceded by s. This is regular in words like listen, 
castle, mustn't (lisn, kaisl, mAsnt). There are, however, 
many cases in which it is dropped in conversational 
pronunciation though it might be retained in very careful 
speaking. Examples: next Christmas, nekskrismas ; 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 17 

postman, pousman; most people, mouspiipl. Note the 
word often, eight different pronunciations of which may 
be heard from educated people, viz. often, oftn, ofan, 
ofn, oiftan, oiftn, oifan, o:fn. of tan is the pronuncia- 
tion generally recommended by teachers, but many people 
consider this affected, oifn and o:ftan are on the whole / 
the pronunciations most frequently heard from educated \ 
people. (See § 146.) 

37. Some speakers often drop t before d. Pronuncia- 
tions like sidaun, wodjuiwont for sitdaun {sit down), 
(h)wot<yu:wont (what do you want?) may not infre- 
quently be heard from educated people, but they are not 
pronunciations to be recommended for teaching purposes. 

t is often inserted in fifth, fif(t)9; sixth, siks(t)9 and / 
always in eighth, eit9. '- 

38. d. Voiced dental plosive. Articulated in StP by 
the tip of the tongue against the upper gums. Example 
deed, di:d. ' ^ 

39. In some N dialects it is articulated against the 
upper teeth when followed by r, as in drop, drop. This 
gives rather the effect of an inserted ® (d?5rop). See 
also Theory of Plosive Consonants, §§ 224 ff. 

40. The sound d is frequently dropped in conversa- 
tional pronunciation when it occurs in the middle of a 
group of consonants, especially when preceded or followed 
by a nasal. Kindness, grandmother, are very commonly, if 
not usually, pronounced kainnis, graenmA^a. (These are 
really cases of Assimilation, see §§ 182 ff.) A very common 
c ise is the word and when unstressed. Bread and butter 
is generally pronounced brednbAta (not bredsendbAta !), 
and two-and-six is usually tuiansiks in conversational 
pronunciation. 



18 PHONETICS 

41. k. Breathed velar plosive. Example cake, keik. 

42. A slight h sound is inserted in StP between k 
and a following vowel in stressed syllables (as in cupboard, 
kAbad), but this is not sufficient to require marking in 
an ordinary phonetic transcription. The exaggerated 
pronunciation khAbad is not recommended. See also 
Theory of Plosive Consonants, §§ 224 ff. 

43. Note the common mispronunciation a:st for a:skt 
(asked). It is no doubt due to this that the word ask 
itself is so frequently pronounced a:st in L (a:la:stim for 
aila:sk(h)im, I'll ask him). As regards nAOlrjk for nAOir) 
see § 59. 

44. g. Voiced velar plosive. Example go, gou. 

45. See Theory of Plosive Consonants, §§ 224 ff. 
Note the common mispronunciation of recognise (StP 
rekagnaiz) as rekanaiz. As regards g after tj when 
not required in StP see § 59. 

46. The old-fashioned use of the breathed and voiced 
palatal plosives (phonetic symbols c, j), instead of k,g before 
a and ai (and a: in the single word girl), is rapidly dying 
out but is still heard occasionally in the words kind, sky, 
girl (caind, scai, jail; StP kaind, skai, ga:l)\ These 
palatal sounds are frequently heard in L, e.g. count, csunt 
(StP kaunt or kaunt), catch, cet/ (StP kaet/). 

47. P. Glottal plosive. Formed by closing the 
glottis completely (i.e. bringing the vocal chords into 
contact), and suddenly opening it (i.e. separating the 
vocal chords). 

48. This consonant in an exaggerated form is the 
' For the various pr^onunciations of this latter word see § 170. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 19 

explosive sound heard in coughing. A cough may be 
represented in phonetic transcription if desired. A com- 
mon kind is Paha Pah. The sound P occurs in many 
dialects but is not common in StP. It frequently replaces 
t in Sc and L (see § 35). In Sc it is sometimes simply 
inserted in the middle of words, e g. in Glasgow dialect 
donH (StP dount) is pronounced doiPnt. 

49. In StP the sound is sometimes heard at the 
beginning of a syllable which normally begins with a 
vowel, when that vowel is very strongly stressed, e.g. it 
waz tJi Pounli wei ta du: it^ and even (h)wenPevar ai 
gou Sea, hi: z aut. Sonie use it also to avoid a sequence 
of two vowels in such expressions as the India Office, 
indja Pofis. This is no doubt due to a reaction against 
the pronunciation indjarofis which is frequently heard 
even from educated people (see § 74). Some speakers 
have a tendency to insert the sound at the beginning of 
all words which normally begin with a vowel, whether 
strongly stressed or not: examples, Westminster Abbey, 
wes(t)minsta Paebi, the ends of the earth, tJi Pendz av tSi 
Pa:6 (StP wes(t)minstaraBbi, fJiendzavt$:a:9) ; this pro- 
nunciation is, however, not to be recommended. The sound 
P should in fact be avoided as much as possible. It is 
not a pleasant sound in itself, and is never necessary for 
the sense. The second syllable of (h)weneva can be 
made quite prominent enough without inserting P. India 
Office may very well be pronounced indjaofis. 

2. Liquids 

50. m. Voiced bi-labial nasal. Example move, muiy. 

51. The corresponding breathed sound (phonetic 
symbol m) only occurs in interjections such as i|ixn, 

2—2 



20 PHONETICS 

mipm (generally written hm, ahem), and occasionally in 
rapid conversational pronunciation, e.g. ai doumi|i maind, 
for StP ai dount maind. See also § 185. 

52. In words like prism, chasm, prizm, kaezm, the m 
is syllabic (§ 199). Many speakers insert a vowel of some 
kind, usually a, between the z and m in such words 
(prizam, etc.); this pronunciation is not recommended. 
These words are frequently regarded in poetry as consti- 
tuting only one syllable. In such cases the m should 
be -pronounced as lightly as possible. 

53. m sometimes occurs in careless speech instead of 
syllabic n, when preceded by p or b, e.g. open, StP oup(a)ii 
becoming oupm, cup and saucer, StP kAp an(d) 8o:s3 
becoming kApmsoisa. Such forms should be avoided. 
Note the following forms heard in L, sebm, ilebm, ebm, 
aipmi, gremfAiva, for StP sevn, ilevn, hevn, heipani, 
graBn(d)fa:tJ3. 

54. n. Voiced dental nasal. Articulated by the tip 
of the tongue against the upper gums. Example now, nau. 

65. The corresponding breathed sound (phonetic 
symbol 9) only occurs in interjectional sounds such as 
9119 and occasionally in rapid conversational pronunciation, 
e.g. ai doun^ nou for ai dount nou (an expression which 
is often still further modified, becoming aidou(n)nou, 
or even aid(a)nou in careless speaking, especially when 
followed by a strongly stressed word such as how, hau). 
See also § 185. 

56. n is frequently syllabic (§ 199), especially in syl- 
lables beginning with other dental consonants, thus, mutton, 
ridden, person, are usually pronounced mAtn, ridn, paisn 
(not mAtan, etc.). Sometimes this syllabic n does not 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 21 

count as a separate syllable in poetry, words like even 
being considered as monosyllabic and written ev'n^, etc. 
In such cases the n must be pronounced as lightly as 
possible. 

57. In uneducated speech n is sometimes omitted 
from the beginning of words which ought to begin with 
it. The commonest case is the pronunciation of nought, 
no:t (zero) as o:t. This is due to the fact that the word 
is usually preceded by the indefinite article a, an (a, an), 
and the group a no:t is almost indistinguishable from 
an o:t. Conversely in some dialects an initial n is some- 
times inserted where not required, e.g. nATjkl for ATjkl 
(due to main AT)kl)^ 

58. T). Voiced velar nasal. Examples song, sotj, ink, 
iTjk. 

59. Many speakers use syllabic i) instead of (a)n 
when preceded by k or g, e.g. bacon, beikij, better beik(a)n. 
The mispronunciation of " dropping one's ^'s " is simply a 
substitution of n for tj, e.g. kAmin for kAmiij (coming). 
In L k is often inserted after t) in nothing, anything, 
the words being pronounced nafiTjk, enifii]k (StP nAGii], 
eniGiTj). In some dialects, especially in N.Mid., g is added 
after T) Avhere it is not inserted in StP, e.g. Iotjcj for Iot) 
(long), sii]giT)g for sItj'tj (singing)^ Note the uneducated 
pronunciation kit/ii] for kit/in (kitchen), 

^ Distinct from the other contraction e^en. 

' The same thing has occurred in the past in many words which are 
now included in standard English. Adder was formerly nadder, newt 
was formerly ewt. 

3 In StP ng is pronounced tj alone (1) when final, (2) when medial in 
words formed from words ending in ng, by the addition of a simple sufBx 
such as -er, -ing (e.g. siTja, siijii], compared with anger, seijga, changing. 
tjeindjiij). 



22 PHONETICS 

60. 1. Voiced dental lateral. Articulated by the 
tip of the tongue against the upper gums. The sound 
is sometimes pronounced uni-laterally, i.e. the tongue 
obstructs the air-passage in the middle of the mouth and 
on one side, the air being free to pass out on the other. 
The sound so produced is not appreciably different from 
the normal lateral sound. Example laugh, laif 

61. Many varieties of 1 sounds may be formed with 
the tip of the tongue against the upper gums in the 
lateral position. These varieties depend on the position 
of the main part of the tongue. While the tip is touching 
the upper gums, the main part is free to take up any 
position, and in particular, it may take up any given 
vowel position. The 1 sound produced with a given vowel 
position of the main part of the tongue, always has a 
noticeable resemblance to the vowel in question. Thus 
the 1 sound heard in StP people very much resembles 
the vowel u, the reason being that though the sound is 
primarily articulated by the tip of the tongue against the 
upper gums, yet the back of the tongue is simultaneously 
raised in the direction of the soft palate into the u 
position (§ 162). An 1 sound in which the front of the 
tongue is raised to the i position (§ 110) sounds rather 
like the vowel i, and one in which the main part of the 
tongue is neutral sounds rather like the vowel 9. These 
varieties of 1 may be represented by 1", 1*, 1*, ...^ 

^ It is often stated (erroneously) that the peculiar qualities of the 
sounds here denoted by 1", l=», as compared with 1*, 1», are due to 
retraction of the tip of the tongue. As a matter of fact I" pronounced 
with the tip of the tongue against the back part of the gums is practically 
indistinguishable from I" pronounced with the tip of the tongue against 
the teeth, and the same applies to all the other varieties. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 2:3 

62. In StP when the 1 sound is final or followed by 
a consonant, it usually has the value 1"; when followed 
by a vowel it has the value 1® which tends towards I* when 
the following vowel is i: or i (compare /eeZ, fill", with /ee?- 
17?^, fi:l*ii], and the two Vs in little, l4tl"). Some speakers 
use 1® in all cases, and this pronunciation is usually recom- 
mended by elocutionists. Pronunciations like pi:pl® are 
however very often found difficult to acquire by those who 
are accustomed to pronounce piipl". 

63. In L the 1 sound when final or followed by a 
consonant, has the value 1', e.g. field, fil'd (StP fi:l"d 
or fi:l®d). It is sometimes even replaced by a vowel 
resembling o, e.g. raiowai for reilwei (railway). In 
the N and in Ireland the 1 sound when final or followed 
by a consonant is often pronounced 1* (piipl', bells, bel*z). 

64. Pronunciations such as f il'd may be corrected by 
putting the tip of the tongue against the upper gums in 
the lateral position, and trying to pronounce simultaneously 
different vowels (a, e, o, u:, i:...) one after the other; 
with a little practice students will be able to produce 
readily the various varieties of 1 (P, 1®, 1*, ...), and will 
therefore be able in particular to pronounce the 1", 1* of 
StP. 

65. In transcribing StP the plain symbol 1 is used to 
avoid unnecessary complication, its precise value depend- 
ing on the rule given at the beginning of § 62, 

66. The following diagrams showing the approximate 
tongue-positions of 1*, 1" will help to make clear the 
formation of the 1 sounds. They should be compared 
with the tongue-positions of i, u shown in fig. 5 (p. 11). 



21 



PHONETIC 




V lu 

(i) Fig. 6. (ii) 

67. 1 is sometimes dropped in careless speech, e.g. 
wS8/(a)wigou for (h)wea/alwi:gou {where shall we go ?), 
o:rait for ailrait (all right). Breathed 1 sounds do not 
exist regularly in English ; see, however, § 185. 

68. r. Voiced dental rolled. Formed by a rapid 
succession of taps made by the tip of the tongue against 
the upper gums. Examples right, write, rait. 

69. The fully rolled sound is common in N.Eng. It 
is not generally used in StP, though it is regarded by 
most teachers as the correct pronunciation of the letter r 
when followed by a vowel. In StP a semi-rolled r, i.e. one 
which is formed like the fully-rolled sound, but consists 
of one single tap of the tongue \ is commonly used between 

^ This sound may be represented by £ when great accuracy is required, 
but a separate symbol is not usually necessary. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 25 

two vowels, as in period, piariad, arrive, araiv*. It is 
also frequently used after G, t (§§ 87, 89), as in three, 
Gri:. In other cases, and notably when preceded by a 
dental consonant, the r sound is a voiced dental fricative 
consonant, which may be represented when necessary by 
J (§ 95). Examples : try, taai, draw, djo:, Henry, henji, 
shrink, /aii)k (usually written trai, etc. for convenience). 

70. Many S.Eng. speakers use J (§ 95) in all cases. 
These are said not to "roll their r's." There are no 
infallible rules for learning to pronounce the rolled r. 
The method usually recommended is the following. 
Pronounce tadaitada:... at first slowly and then with 
gradually increasing speed. If the tongue is kept loose, 
when this is pronounced very fast, the d tends to become 
a kind of semi-rolled r (traitra: ...). When the semi- 
rolled r has been thus acquired, after a little practice the 
action can be extended to the fully-rolled sound. The 
only other method is to practise all kinds of voiced dental 
fricative sounds, using considerable force of the breath 
and keeping the tongue loose. After a little practice 
students usually manage to hit on the position in which 
the tip of the tongue will begin to vibrate slightly. A 
perfect sustained r often requires very considerable prac- 
tice, say five or ten minutes a day for several weeks. 

71. When final or followed by a consonant, the letter 
r is not pronounced as a consonant at all in StP, e.g. 
farm, fa:m; purse, pais; nor, no: {=^gnnw)', poor, pua; 
jjair, pea; fire, faia". In Sc a consonantal r sound (i.e. 
r fully or semi-rolled, or j) is used in this position, thus 

' Exception, where the first vowel is o and is preceded by a dental 
consonant. In these cases x (§ 95) is used, e.g. history, bistazi, literary, 
Utoaooi. 

' When a word ending with r is followed by a word beginning with a 



26 



PHONETICS 



farm, pArs, puir^ In N the letter r is either pronounced 
J in this position, or is heard as a peculiar modification 
of the preceding vowel. This modification is called inversion 
and is produced by turning back the tip of the tongue 
towards the hard palate during the pronunciation of the 
vowel (phonetic symbol placed under the symbol for the 




Fig. 7. Diagram illnstrating Inversion, 
sound which is thus modified, thus CL, inverted a). Fig. 7 
shows the approximate tongue-position in pronouncing an 
open vowel such as a with inversion of the tongue. 

72. This modification of vowels is found not only in 
N but also in W (where it is very marked) and many 
other parts, including L. Examples: heard, ha:d, there, 

vowel which is closely connected with the first word by the sense, a 
consonantal r is generally inserted, e.g. • peor ev btuts. The omission 
of this r (pe© ov) though common, is not to be recommended. 

^ Some Southern English elocutionists recommend inserting a trace 
of a consonantal r sound finally and before consonants, as is usually 
done in singing ; there does not however seem to be any great advantage 
in doing so. 



I 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 27 

«E8, or «6:i, farw., fa:m, for StP haid, «ea, fa:m. This 
inversion can be corrected by keeping the tip of the tongue 
1 irmly pressed against the lower teeth during the pro- 
nunciation of the, vowel, holding it down mechanically 
if necessary, say with the end of a pencil. 

73. In parts of Scotland, Northumberland and Dur- 
ham r is replaced by a uvular rolled consonant, known as 
the "burr," formed by a vibration of the uvula against 
the back of the. tongue (phonetic symbol b). 

74. Many speakers, including educated speakers, 
insert a consonantal r sound in such phrases as the idea 
of it, the India Office, where there is no r in the spelling, 
so as to avoid the succession of vowels aa, ao, etc., thus : 
tSi aidiar av it, indjar of is, hi: put iz Ambrelar Ap, 
a soudar an milk and a vanilar ais, instead of aidia av, 
etc. This is considered incorrect by most teachers. In 
L it is done not only after a as in the above examples 
but also after stressed vowels, e.g. tJa loir av ii]C|land {law 
of), BOirin (sawing), and also where in StP there is an 
unstressed ou, e.g. swolarin (swallowing, StP swolouirj). 

75. Note the incorrect insertion of a before the r 
sound in Henry, umbrella, L enari, Ambarela, StP henri, 
Ambrela. 

76. When there are two consecutive weak syllables 
beginning with the r sound in StP, one of the rs is dropped 
in L, e.g. lAib(a)ri, febjuari or febjueri for StP laibrari, 
(library), februari (February). Servants who go out by 
the week generally call themselves tempariz (temporaries, 
StP temparariz). 

77. A common fault is the substitution of a semi- 
vocalic V for r (for the meaning of "semi- vocalic" see § 105). 

* f : denotes a lengthened e . 



28 priONETics 

This peculiarity is usually represented in print by w {vewy 
for very, etc.). The sound is, however, not w but a very 
weak kind of v, which may be represented by v^ (vev^i 
for StP veri). 

78. Breathed r sounds do not exist regularly in 
English; see, however, § 185. 

79. In transcribing StP we shall in future use the 
symbol r in all cases so as to avoid unnecessary complica- 
tions. Whether r, r or j is actually pronounced depends 
on circumstances, as mentioned in § 69. 

3, Fricatives 

80. w. Voiced bi-labial fricative. The back of the 
tongue is simultaneously raised in the direction of the 
soft palate. The consonant is therefore very like the 
vowel u (§ 162). Some phoneticians prefer to regard it 
as a consonantal u, and represent it by fi. Example 
want, wont. 

81. The corresponding breathed consonant (phonetic 
symbol ia) is used by many speakers in words spelt with 
wh (what, lAot). This is regular in Sc and N.Eng., but 
w is the more usual in S. Eng. (wot). Some use hw 
instead of this ja. The pronunciation m or hw is 
generally recommended by teachers as correct in words 
beginning with wh. These words may be conveniently 
transcribed with (h)w, this being taken to mean that 
either w, m or hw may be used. For other cases in 
which JA is occasionally heard see § 185. 

82. Note that w is often omitted in the words will, 
would, e.g. that will do, 9aetldu:. 

83. f. Breathed labio-dental fricative. Example 
foot, fut. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 29 

84. Note the faulty pronunciations of dtphihoiig, 
naphtha, etc. as dip9oTj, naepBa, etc. (StP difOoTj, naefGa, 
etc.). Note also the dialectal pronunciation of nephew 
(StP nevju:) as nefju:. 

85. V. Voiced labio-dental fricative. Examples vain, 
vein, vein. 

86. In L and other dialects, v has become b in words 
ending in v(a)n in StP, e.g. sebm, ilebm, ebm, for StP 
sevn, ilevn, hevn. In L the v of unstressed of and have 
(av) is regularly dropped before consonants (e.g. eio:t9a- 
danit, StP hi:o:ttuavdAnit, he ought to have done it). 
This may sometimes be heard even from educated speakers, 
e.g. an auta^awei pleis, instead of autavtSawei. 

87. G. A breathed dental fricative. Articulated by 
the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth, the main 
part of the tongue being more or less flat (see fig. 8). 
Example thin, Gin. 

88. In careless speaking G is sometimes weakened 
to a kind of h between two vowels, e.g. nohaerjkju for 
nouGaBTjkju:. There is also a tendency to drop G or change 
it into t in combinations such as nGs, sGs, e.g. sikss for 
siks(t)Gs (sixths), mAns or mAnts for mAnGs (months). 
Such contractions should be avoided ^ In L the sound G 
is frequently replaced by f, e.g. frei, nafirjk for Gri:, 

HAGiT). 

89. 9. A voiced dental fricative. It is the voiced 
form of G (see fig. 8). Example then, Sen. 

90. In L this sound is frequently replaced by v, e.g. 
fAiva for fa:Sa. Note the old-fashioned pronunciation of 
kloutSz as klouz, which is now considered a vulgarism. 

* In asthma, seaSma, the 9 is generally very weak, but should not be 
omitted entirely, sestms is also permissible. 



30 PHONETICS 

91. s. A breathed dental fricative. Articulated by 
the tip of the tongue^ against the upper gums, the front 
part of the tongue being slightly raised towards the hard 
palate (see fig. 8). Example cease, si:s. As regards sj 
becoming / see § 100. 

92. z. A voiced dental fricative. It is the voiced 
form of s (see fig. 8). Examples zeal, zi:l, has, haez. As 
regards zj becoming 5 see § 100. 

93. /. A breathed dental fricative. Articulated by 
the tip of the tongue^ against the upper gums, the front 
of the tongue being considerably raised towards the hard 
palate (see fig. 8). Many speakers add some lip-rounding 
to this consonant. Examples shoe, /u:, church, t/a:t/. As 
regards tj becoming t/ see § 101. 

94. 3. A voiced dental fricative. It is the voiced 
form of / (see fig. 8). Many speakers use lip-rounding. 
Examples measure, mesa, judge, d5Ad5. As regards dj 
becoming d5 see § 101. 

95. J. A voiced dental fricative. Articulated by 
the tip of the tongue against the upper gums, the front 
part of the tongue being rather hollowed (see fig. 8). 

96. It is the r sound regularly used in StP when the 
preceding sound is a dental consonant, e.g. draw, djo:, 
Henry, henji (usually written dro:, henri to avoid un- 
necessary complication). It is also very commonly used 
initially, and when preceded by consonants other than 
dentals. When intervocalic the r sound is usually semi- 
rolled. There are, however, many who use j in all cases 
(see § 69). Jn some dialects J is replaced by the 'inverted' 

1 Some articulate the sound with the blade, keeping the tip against 
the lower teeth. The sound thus produced is not appreciably different 
from the normal sound. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 



31 



consonant J, i.e. a fricative r sound pronounced with the 
tip of the tongue turned back towards the hard palate. 
As regards partial de vocalisation of J see § 185. 

97. The formation of the various dental fricatives will 
be made clearer by the following diagram. 



e, s 

s, z 




Fig. 8. 
Tongue-positions of the dental fricatives'*. 

98. J. Voiced palatal fricative. Example young, jatj 
The tongue-position is very similar to that which produces 
the vowel i (§ 110), but the tongue is slightly higher (see 
fig. 9, p. 51). Some phoneticians prefer to regard the 
sound as a consonantal i, and represent it by 1 

99. The corresponding breathed sound (phonetic 

symbol 9) is occasionally heard instead of initial hj, e.g. 

9u:d5 for hjuids (huge) (see also § 185). Note the dia- 

^ For the sake of clearness the mouth has been drawn wide open. As 
a matter of fact, in pronouncing u, z and J, j the teeth are generally 
almost in contact. 



32 PHONETICS 

lectal pronunciation of ear (StP ia) as jia or Jai. J is 
often omitted in beyond, bi(j)ond. 

100. In L and other dialects, StP sj, zj often become 
J, 3, e.g. i/u:, tJiJia, isaboksredel, for isju: (issue), 
tSisjia {this year), izjoiboksredi (Is your box ready?). 
This change is due to assimilation (§ 191). Former sj, zJ 
have become /, 3 in StP in many cases, e.g. nation, nei/(a)n 
(Shakespearian pronunciation nsisjon or naeision^), but 
in the best pronunciation this assimilation has not been 
made, except where the following sound is a or a syllabic 
consonant^, as in nei/(a)n, ocean, ouJ(a)n, special, spej(a)l. 
Exceptional cases : sure, Jua, sugar, /uga, usual, Ju:3ual 
(sometimes contracted in rapid familiar speech to Ju:3ul, 
ju:3(a)l). In casual the pronunciations kaezjual, ks3ual, 
kae5Jual may all be heard from educated people. 

101. In L and other dialects, StP tj, dj often become 
t/, d3, by assimilation (§ 192), e.g. tjiiib (for iii see 
§ 158) for tjuib, indsius for in<yu:s. Former tj, 6j 
have become tj, d3 in StP in many cases, e.g. nature, 
neit/a, grandeur, grsendsa (Shakespearian naeitjur^, 
grandjur). In the best pronunciation tj, d3 are not 
used in such words unless the following sound is a or a 
syllabic consonant. In very careful speaking a compromise 
is often made between tj, dj and tj, d3, in words of this 
kind. This compromise may be represented when necessary 
by tj^, d3^. In recitation nature would be pronounced 
neitj^a rather than neitja, grandeur, graends^ua or 
even graencyua rather than grsnd5a. 

* ae: denotes a lengthened ee. 

2 The assimilation is not invariably made even in these cases, excep- 
tions being words which are comparatively rare, especially names of 
places etc., e.g. Lycia, lisjo, not lijo, Elysian, ilizjan, cp. elision, 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 33 

102. h. Breathed glottal fricative. Examples hard, 
ha:d, who, hu:, hit, hit. This is the fricative sound heard 
as the air passes through the open glottis, the other organs 
being in position, for the following vowels 

103. The sound h disappeared long ago from L and 
many other dialects. Dropping ^'s has long been looked 
upon as a vulgarism. The influence of teachers is now- 
beginning to cause the sound to reappear in the pronun- 
ciation of the uneducated classes. The chief difficulty 
experienced is that when those who do not naturally 
possess the sound try to acquire it, they often insert it 
where not required (e.g. aemanhegz for hsemandegz). 

104. In StP h is frequently dropped in unimportant 
words such as him, her, have, when unstressed, e.g. / should 
have thought so, ai /ad av 9o:t sou, but in deliberate 
speaking (recitation, etc.) it should be inserted. 

SEMI-VOWELS 

105. All fricative consonants may be pronounced 
with a varying amount of friction. In the case of voiced 
consonants, when the friction is very slight, the sounds 
become what are called semi-vowels, sounds which are on 
the border line between vowels and consonants (see 
definition of vowels and consonants, § 13). Fricative 
consonants in which the friction is strong may be termed 
pure fricatives. To every pure fricative corresponds a 
semi- vowel and vice versa. Of the English fricative con- 
sonants w, J, and j are pronounced with much less friction 
than the rest and may be classed, if desired, as semi- 
vowels. 

^ It would therefore be logically more accurate to represent the li in 
hard, lia:d by ^, the li in hit, hit by |, etc. (q being the symbol of 
devocalisation), bat this would be practically inconvenient. 

J. 3 



34 PHONETICS 



VOWELS 



(For the meaning of the terms closed, front, etc., see 
§§ 20-23.) 

106. i:. Close front tense unrounded. Example 
meet, mi:t. 

107. Many speakers slightly diphthongise the sound, 
especially when final (for the meaning of the term diphthong 
see § 201). This diphthong may be represented by i;j or 
ij, e.g. sea, si: or siy (sy). Pure i: is, however, preferable. 

108. In L the vowel is regularly diphthongised, and 
the diphthongisation is much more marked than in St P. 
One form is a diphthong beginning with a very lax I, 
and finishing with a tenser i or j. Another form is el, 
e.g. akapatei for StP akApavti:. When followed by 1 
(L 1*, § 63) the vowel is reduced bo simple i or e, e.g. 
field, f il'd or felM, for StP fi:l»d or fi:lM (§ 62). 

109. Some use i: as the first element of the diphthong 
in hear, thus hi:a. i is however preferable (hia). 

110. i. Close front lax unrounded. Example ^^, fit. 

111. In StP the sound tends towards e when un- 
stressed (§ 205), e.g. the second vowel in very, veri, is not 
very different from the first. The two vowels in pity, pitl, 
are noticeably different. When great accuracy is required 
this lowered i may be represented by i (ven). This 
sound I is also heard in words like basket, baiskit, 
language, laBT]gwid5 (usually written for convenience 
ba:skit, IseTjgwids). 

112. In carefiil speech a distinction is often made 
between these words spelt with e, a, etc., and words spelt 
with i, 2/, etc., i being used in the first, and i in the 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 35 

socond. Thus many good speakers would make a distinc- 
tion between prophet, profit, profit, profit; enquire, 
inkwaia, inquire, inkwaia; language, \?Bi^'yNi6.'^, Gam- 
bridge, keimbrid^. 

113. In L i sometimes tends to become e even when 
.stressed, and when final it is diphthongised, e.g. sing, 
StP sIt), in L frequently seij; twenty, L twentei, StP 
twenti. In some dialects, e.g. Australian English, i is 
replaced by the corresponding tense vowel when final (as 
in very, veri). Note the artificial pronunciation of Eng- 
land as CTjgland (StP irjgland). 

114. i also occurs in StP as the first element of the 
diphthong ia (for the definition of the term diphthong see 
§ 201). Examples : here, hear, hia. This diphthong is 
often pronounced i:a (in N and W etc., i:a, iu, etc., §§71, 
72), but ia is preferable. In affected pronunciation the 
diphthong often becomes Ia or ia (for a, a see §§ 147, 
129), oh dear being pronounced oiidia, StP being oudia 
(for oii see § 153). Note the frequent omission of i in 
year, jia or jai. i also occurs in the diphthongs ei, ai, oi 
(see g 117, 123,145). 

115. e. Half-close front lax unrounded. Examples: 
jjen, pen, head, bed. 

116. In L this vowel is often replaced by i, e.g. git, 
ind5in for get (get), end5in (engine). In many dialects 
it is replaced by the opener e (§ 118), thus, pen, bed. 

117. Besides occurring independently, the sound e 
occurs in StP as the first element of the diphthong ei, 
e.g. day, dei. With many speakers, especially in N.Eng. 
this diphthong is tense, i.e. the two elements are the tense 

3—2 



36 PHONETICS 

vowels corresponding to the lax e, i. In Sc the diphthong 
is not generally used, a pure tense vowel (phonetic symbol 
e:) being substituted (de:). In L the first element of the 
diphthong ei is much opener than in StP, becoming e, ae, 
a, or even a (§§ 118, 121, 123, 129), thus dei, daBi, dai, 
dai. In L e sometimes occurs instead of a (see § 148). 
Note the faulty pronunciation of aerate (StP eiareit or 
eareit) as eareit or iareit. The words again, always 
are often pronounced agen, oilwiz, o:lwaz, but the forms 
agein, oilweiz are preferable. 

118. e. Half-open front unrounded. This sound only 
occurs in StP in the diphthong ea. Examples there, their, 
tJea. See also the previous section. 

119. In the pronunciation of many S.Eng. speakers, 
the first element of this diphthong is more open than e, 
being in fact practically ae (§ 121) ("SaBa). The form ea is 
preferable. In L the first element of this diphthong is 
the half-close tense vowel e: (tJeia). 

120. In many dialects, especially N and W, the 
diphthong becomes ea, e:, ej, etc. (§§ 71, 72). 

121. ae. A vowel intermediate between half-open 
front unrounded, and open front unrounded ^ Example 
man, maen. 

122. In N the sound tends towards the fully open 
vowel a (§ 123) (man). In L the sound generally tends 
towards 6 or e, e.g. keb or keb for kaeb (cab). 

123. a. Open front unrounded. This vowel only 
occurs in StP as the first element of the diphthong ai. 
Example fly, flai. 

* There is considerable difference of opinion as to tbe exact analysis 
of this vowel. Some regard c as a tense vowel and ae as the corre-^ 
spending lax vowel. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 37 

124. In ordinary speaking the tongue usually does 
not reach the full i position in pronouncing this diphthong, 
so that ae Avould perhaps be a more accurate represen- 
tation of it. i should, however, be aimed at in careful 
speaking (but see § 126). 

125. In L the first element of this diphthong is 
retracted to a, a (§ 130) or even o (flat, fLai, floi). The 
pronunciation aei is sometimes heard, especially in N.Eng. 
In the best pronunciation of ai, the a should err on- 
the side of ae rather than on the side of a. Note the 
pronunciation a:l for Fll, as in Fll ask him, ailaiskim, 
not unfrequently heard from educated people in rapid 
familiar conversation. 

126. ai sometimes forms a triphthong (§ 203) with a 
following 9, e.g. fire, faia. In pronouncing this triphthong, 
the tongue does not usually reach the full i position ; aea 
or aea would be a nearer representation of the pronuncia- 
tion usually heard. Sometimes the assimilation is carried 
so far that the triphthong becomes simply a lengthened a 
(represented phonetically by a:), e.g. fii^e, fa: (distinct 
from far, fa:). This is especially frequent in unstressed 
syllables, e.g. irate, a:'reit for aia'reit, aea'reit^. 

127. In very careful pronunciation aia often does not 
form a triphthong, but is pronounced as two syllables, ai-a. 
Compare higher with hire, which are both pronounced as 
one syllable in ordinary speaking (written phonetically 
haia). In such cases a distinction is made in the pro- 
nunciation of the second element of the triphthong. When 
the group aia constitutes two syllables, the second element 
is distinctly pronounced as i. When the group only con- 
stitutes one syllable the i position is not reached, in tact 

^ ' denotes that the following syllable is stressed. 



38 PHONETICS 

the tongue hardly rises above e. When it is desired to 
bring out this distinction we can write aia and aea, thus 
higher, haia ; buyer, baia ; but hire, haea ; irony, aearanl. 
This is, however, not usually necessary. 

128. In many dialects, especially N and W, the 
triphthong becomes aia, a€, a:, aij, etc. (see §§ 71, 72). 
a is sometimes used for a (§ 148), but this is not to be 
recommended. 

129. a (written a: when long). Open advanced-back 
unrounded. Examples /a^Ae?',/ar^/ier, faitSa. 

130. In L this sound is retracted to the full back 
position. This retracted vowel has a much deeper sound 
than the a: of StP, and may be represented if desired by 
a: (fAi^Ja). Sometimes lip-rounding is added, the sound 
becoming a lengthened o (§ 140) or even o: (§ 142). 

131. Some speakers use a or ae instead of StP a: in 
many words spelt with a followed by n, f, or 8, followed 
in turn by a consonant letter, e.g. plant, plant, plaent; 
ash, ask; master, massta, etc. for StP plaint, aisk, 
ma:sta^. This is regularly done in N. It is also heard 
in S.Eng. but sounds rather affected. Some elocutionists, 
however, recommend the use of a in these cases. 

132. Some old-fashioned speakers use S, (nasalised a, 
§ 25) in words spelt with an followed by a consonant 
letter, e.g. plant, brant/. 

133. Many speakers slightly diphthongise a: especially 
when final, e.g. far, fa:a, StP fa: . Some make a distinction 
between words which are and are not spelt with the letter 

^ A few words of this kind are regularly pronounced with 8d in StP, 
e.g. mass, ant, macs, sent. The pronunciations ina:a, a:at are also heard, 
but are not recommended. 



I 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 39 

r, by diphthongising the former, e.g. afar, dfaia, but 'pa'pa, 
papa:. 

134. In many dialects, especially N and W, a distinc- 
tion is made between words which are and are not spelt 
with the letter r by inverting the tip of the tongue in the 
former cq&q, farther becoming faiSa, as distinguished from 
father, faiSa (see §§ 71, 72). 

135. The sound a also occurs as the first element of 
the diphthong written au. Example how, hau. This 
first element is strictly a vowel intermediate between a 
and a. 

186. In L this diphthong is treated in two ways, 
becoming either a: (broad Cockney), or 8bu, sea or even 
eu, ea, e.g. get out, gitait, gitaeut, etc., StP getaut ; and 
it is sometimes even reduced to ae or e, e.g. how are you 
getting on? L aejagitnon, StP haudju:getii]on. The StP 
diphthong is usually transcribed au, and there is no great 
objection to this, if it is clearly understood that the a is 
with most speakers not quite the same a as in ai, but a 
retracted variety rather like a. Pure a is not unfre- 
quently heard in this diphthong from educated people, 
but any variety of a that tends towards ae is not good : it 
is better to err on the side of a than on that of a (ae), 
and for this reason the transcription au is used in this 
book in preference to au. 

137. au often forms a triphthong (§ 203) with a fol- 
lowing a. This triphthong aua is treated similarly to the 
triphthong aia. The tongue does not usually reach the 
full u position, the usual pronunciation being rather aoa. 
Sometimes the assimilation is carried so far that the triph- 
thong is simply reduced to the first element lengthened, 
viz. a:, not very different from the ordinary a: in fa:9a, 



40 PHONETICS 

e.g. power, pau3 becoming pa:, very like par, pa:. This 
is especially frequent in unstressed syllables, e.g. our own, 
ai'roun for aua'roun or aoa'roun. 

138. In very careful pronunciation aua often does 
not form a triphthong, but is pronounced as two separate 
syllables, au-a, compare tower, taua with hour, aua, which 
are both pronounced as one syllable in ordinary speech. 
In such cases a distinction is made in the pronunciation 
of the second element of the triphthong. When the group 
constitutes two syllables the second element is distinctly 
pronounced u or even w, and when the group constitutes 
only one syllable, the full u position is not reached. 
When it is desired to bring out this distinction, we can 
write aua, aoa, thus, tower, taua, plougher, plaua, but 
hour, aoa. This is, however, not usually necessary. 

139. In many dialects, especially N and W, the 
triphthong becomes aua, a:, auj, etc. (see §§ 71, 72). 

140. o. Open back, with slight lip-rounding. Ex- 
ample hot, hot. 

141. In many dialects the sound is pronounced with- 
out lip-rounding. It thus becomes the sound a described 
in § 130. In L o is often replaced by o:; thus want, dog, 
StP wont, dog often become in L wo:nt, do:g. In some 
dialects the sound is replaced by a or even a, e.g. in 
America, where for instance Oxford (StP oksfad) is pro- 
nounced aksfad. A kind of o occurs as the first element 
of the diphthong oi (see § 145). 

142. o:. A vowel intermediate between open back 
rounded and half-open back rounded. Examples saw, 
sore, soar, so:. 

143. Many speakers diphthongise this sound, especially 
when final, e.g. four, fo:a, StP fo:. Some make a distinc- 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 41 

tion between words which are and are not spelt with the 
letter r, by diphthongising the former, e.g. soar, sore, sots, 
but saw, so:. o:a is often used in one or two words 
spelt with our, e.g. mourns pour, by people who do not 
diphthongise the sound o: in other cases. In L o: is often 
replaced by o: (§ 151), and when final by oiwa, e.g. fo:wo 
for fox. 

144. In many dialects, especially N and W, a dis- 
tinction is made between words which are and are not 
spelt with the letter r, by inverting the tip of the tongue 
in the former case, sore, soar becoming so:?, so:, so: J, etc. 
(see §§ 71, 72), distinct from saw, so:. 

145. The first element of the diphthong oi, as in hoy, 
boi, is strictly a sound intermediate between o: and o. 
Pronunciations in which the first element is exactly o: 
or o are dialectal (the former is common in L). Some 
dialects substitute oi (boil) (for o see § 150). 

146. In many words spelt with of or os followed by 
a consonant letter, there is hesitation in StP between o: 
and o, e.g. often, off, cross, lost, o: (o:f(ta)n, kro:s, etc.) is 
perhaps the most common, but o (ofl^t9)n, etc.) is generally 
considered more elegant. Many good speakers use an 
intermediate vowel in these words. The same applies to 
salt, solt or so:lt, gone, gon or go:n. Because is usually 
pronounced bikoz, but many teachers recommend biko:z 
as more correct. Some make a compromise in this word 
and use o, as in hot, lengthened, which gives the effect 
of a sound intermediate between o and o:. 

147. . A. Half-open back unrounded. Example rug, 
FAg. 



42 PHONETICS 

148. In many dialects, including L, A is replaced by 
a. a is also sometimes heard. These are, however, not to 
be recommended. In L e is also sometimes substituted 
(e.g. d5es set/ for d5Ast SAtJ), and sometimes i (d5is sit/). 

149. In some words there is hesitation in StP between 
A and o, e.g. hovel, hAv(a)l or hov(a)l; dromedary, 
drAHiddari or dromadari. ' In such cases a is generally 
preferable. Wont is now usually pronounced wount, like 
wont "WAnt is old-fashioned. 

160. o. Half-close back lax rounded. In StP 
this vowel generally occurs as the first element of the 
diphthong ou, as in no, nou (for u see § 162). It some- 
times occurs by itself in unstressed positions, e.g. November, 
novemba (also pronounced nouvemba or navemba). 

151. In N this diphthong is tense, i.e. the two 
elements are the tense vowels corresponding to the lax 
o, u. In So the diphthong is not used, a pure tense 
vowel (phonetic symbol o:) being substituted (no:). 

152. Many varieties of the standard diphthong ou 
are found in L, e.g. ou, au, au, au, au ; oh no (StP ou 
nou) being pronounced ou nou, au nau, etc. 

153. Sometimes o and u are shifted forwards into 
the mixed position, becoming the half-close mixed lax 
rounded, and close mixed lax rounded vowels respectively 
(phonetic symbols o, ii), nou becoming noii. Sometimes 
this pronunciation of the diphthong is still further modified 
by unrounding the first element so that it becomes the 
half-close mixed lax unrounded vowel (phonetic symbol 
e), thus neii. oii and eii are heard in affected speech, 
also sometimes in L. Sometimes in educated speech o is 
shifted even as far as the front position, especially when 
unstressed, becoming some variety of front rounded vowel. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 43 

snch as the half-open front rounded vowel (phonetic symbol 
ob) ; there is an example in Part II, passage 16, inoesnt 
for StP inosnt (or inasnt). In L unstressed ou often 
becomes a, e.g. wlnda, swolarin, for windou, swolouii). 

154. In the best speaking care should be taken to 
round the lips properly in pronouncing ou, and not to 
exaggerate the diphthongisation. 

155 u: Close back tense rounded. Example /ood, 
fuid. 

156. Many speakers slightly diphthongise the sound, 
especially when final. This diphthong may be represented 
by u:w or uw, e.g. too, tu:w (tuw). Pure u: is, however, 
preferable. 

157. In L the vowel is regularly diphthongised, and 
the diphthongisation is much more marked than in StP. 
One form is a diphthong beginning with a very lax u 
(§ 162) and finishing with a tenser u or w. Another variety 
is produced by complete unrounding of the first element 
of this latter diphthong (the phonetic symbol for unrounded 
u is in), e.g. ftuwd or fuiud. 

158. Other common varieties are formed by advancing 
the tongue towards the mixed position. The symbol for 
the close mixed lax rounded vowel is ii, and the corre- 
sponding unrounded vowel is represented by 'i, and the 
diphthong often becomes raii, iiw, or iii, e.g. StP hu:9ju: 
(who are you?) becomes miiajuiu or iiiajiu. Sometimes 
the first element is advanced as far as the front position, 
becoming i, e.g. tjiuz for StP tjuiz. All these varieties 
arc objectionable. 

159. In the best speaking care must be taken to 
round the lips well, and to keep the tongue as far back 
as possible. 



44 PHONETICS 

160. Some use u: as the first element of the diphthong 
heard in poor, pua, thus pu:d. u (§ 162) is, however, 
preferable. 

161. The sound u: when represented by the letters 
u, eUj ew, ui is often preceded by J in StP, e.g. tune, 
Ijuin, suit, sjuit. In many dialects, including L, this j is 
often omitted (tiiwii, smiit, etc.). The rule relating to 
insertion of this j in StP is as follows, j is not inserted 
when the preceding consonant is r, /, or 5, or when the 
preceding consonant is 1 preceded in turn by a consonant, 
e.g. rule, chew, June, blu£, ru:l, t/u:, d5u:n, blu:, not 
rjuil, t/ju:, etc. When the preceding consonant is 1 not 
])receded in turn by a consonant, usage varies, e.g. lute, 
Ijuit or lu:t. It is generally considered more elegant to 
insert the j, though it is perhaps more usual in conver- 
sational pronunciation not to do so. In other cases j is 
regularly inserted. 

162. u. Close back lax rounded. Example good. 
gud. 

163. In Sc u is generally replaced by u:. In St? 
besides occurring independently, the sound u occurs as the 
first element of the diphthong ua. Example poor, pua. 
This diphthong is often pronounced u:a (and in many 
dialects, especially N and W, u:a, uu, etc., §§71, 72), but 
ua is preferable. Other varieties not unfrequently heard 
from educated speakers in London are oa and o: (poa, po:). 
This latter pronunciation is usual in the word your, jua 
or Jo:. In other cases it is not to be recommended ^ 
a: (§ 166) is sometimes substituted for ua in the words 
sure, curious (/a:, ljja:rias for StP /ua, kjuarias). 

^ The group us does not always form a diphthong, e.g. in influence, 
inflaons, where the two sounds belong to different syllables ; in such 
cas3S there is no tendency to replace the group ua by »:. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 45 

164. In StP J is inserted before ua in the same cases 
as before u: (§ 161), e.g. rural, niarol, sure, Jua, jury, 
d5uari, plural, pluaral; lure, Ijua or lua (the first of 
these two pronunciations being preferable); cure, kjua, 
fury, fjuari. 

165. u also occurs in the diphthongs au, ou (§§ 135, 
150). 

16G. a:. Half-open mixed tense unrounded. The 
tongue is perhaps slightly higher than the exact half-open 
position^ Examples fir, fur, fa:. 

167. Some speakers endeavour artificially to make a 
difference between words spelt with ur and those spelt 
with ir, er, ear, etc., by using a lowered variety of a: 
(phonetic symbol a^:) in the former case, and a raised 
variety (phonetic symbol a^:) in the latter, e.g. fur, fa^i, 
but fir, pearl, fa-"-:, pe^il, etc. 

168. a: is generally replaced by the lowered variety 
a^: in L. 

169. In many dialects, especially N and W, the sound 
becomes a: (§§ 71, 72). 

170. The word girl is pronounced in a great many 
different ways by educated people. ga:l is the most 
common, geal is very frequently used, especially by ladies. 
Other varieties are gial, gsal, j.a:l, a-eal, etc. (3. is the 
voiced palatal plosive, § 46) ; in N and W etc. ga:l, ge?!, 
etc. (§§ 71, 72) ; in Sc gerl. In vulgar speech the following 
forms may also be heard, ga^:!, gaeal, gael, gel, gel. 



* Some regard this vowel as open. This cannot well be the case, 
because if the mouth is opened as widely as possible o: cannot be 
pronounced properly, whereas open vowels such as o, a, a, ae can be 
pronounced perfectly well. 



46 PHONETICS 

171. 9. Half-open mixed lax unrounded. Examples : 
over, ouva, alight, alait. 

172. This sound varies slightly in quality according 
to its position. When final, the tongue is rather lower 
than in other cases; compare the a sounds in the above 
two examples. It is not generally necessary to mark these 
variations in practical phonetic transcriptions. Some 
speakers actually replace a when final by a, thus making 
the two vowels in butter (StP bAta) identical (bAtA). In 
many dialects, especially N and W, a is replaced by a, i.e. 
a pronounced with simultaneous inversion of the tip of 
the tongue (§ 71), in cases where the vowel letter in the 
spelling is followed by r + a consonant or r final, proverb, 
provab becoming provab, tojether, tageVa becoming 
tagetSa. 

173. a is only used in unstressed syllables. Cases 
occur in which almost all other vowels may be reduced 
to a when unstressed. Thus: 

e becomes o in moment, moumant, compare momentous, ino(ti)xnent9s 



ae „ 


„ miracle, mirdkl, ,, 


miraculous, miraBlsJulds 


O'- » 


„ vineyard, vini9d, ,, 


yard, Ja:d 


O' u 


„ cupboard, kAbad, „ 


board, bo:d 


ou „ 


„ Gladstone, glsedston, „ 


stone, stoun 


o: >i 


„ proverb, prsvdb, ,, 


proverbial, pravdibjal 



174. i: and i are not generally reduced to a when 
unstressed, except in the word the when followed by a 
word beginning with a consonant, as in the man, 5a msn, 
and in the termination -ible, e.g. possible, posibl or posabl. 
i generally remains unchanged and i: tends to become i 
when unstressed; thus receive is pronounced risi:v (cp. 
however precede, pri:si:d), latin, Isetin. Pronunciations 
like rasi:v, lst(a)n, are heard, but are dialectal. 



ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS IN DETAIL 



47 



175. In very careful speaking there is, in many cases, 
a tendency to replace a by strong vowels, i.e. vowels which 
can occur in stressed syllables. The result is that several 
new vowels are introduced, viz. sounds intermediate in 
acoustic effect between various strong vowels and the 
weak vowel a. Thus, in very careful speaking, moment 
would not be pronounced either moumant, as in ordinary 
conversation, or moument, but the last vowel would be 
something intermediate in acoustic effect between a and e. 
This vowel is practically the same as the sound e referred 
to in § 153. Similarly, the first vowel in acknowledge 
would not be a as in ordinary pronunciation (aknolids), 
but something intermediate between a and aB. This 
intermediate vowel may be conveniently represented by ». 
Similar vowels occur which are intermediate between i and 
a, a and a, o: or o and a, a: and a. The first of these is 
practiially the same as the sound i referred to in § 158. 
The second, third and fourth may be represented by d, o, 
and a. The sound intermediate between u: and a is 
u, and that intermediate between ou and a is the first 
element o. Examples : 

horrible, conversational pronun. lior»bl, careful prouun. horibl 

vineyard ,, ,, vinjad ,, ,, vi^jad 

forget 

offend 

exercise 

obey 

today 

176. It is very important to use these intermediate 
vowels correctly in the declamatory style of speaking. If 
ordinary strong vowels are used in their place undue 
prominence is given to unimportant syllables, as when 
untrained curates say tu aeknolidj an konfes where 
they should say tu aeknolid5 send konfes. On the 



faget M 


, fISget 


afend „ , 


, ofend 


elcsasaiz ,, , 


eksSsaiz 


abei „ , 


, obei 


tod«i 


tndei 



48 PHONETICS 

other hand, if a is used just as in ordinary conversation 
the utterance becomes obscure and the pronunciation may 
even sound vulgar. 

177. The existence of these vowels renders the pho- 
netic transcription of the declamatory style of English 
rather complicated. This is, however, unavoidable. For 
this reason students should start with transcriptions in 
conversational style and make themselves thoroughly 
familiar with this before proceeding to the declamatory 
style. 

178. In cases where diphthongs are reduced to a in 
conversational pronunciation, the full strong form is used 
in careful speaking. Thus in declamatory style the word 
hy would always be pronounced bai and never reduced to 
b3 as it often is in conversational pronunciation, e.g. ta 
sel tiam ba "Sa paund. 

V. NASALISATION 

179. Nasalised sounds (§ 25) do not occur in StP. 
They are sometimes heard as individual or dialectal 
peculiarities. The symbol of nasalisation is * placed 
over the symbol of the sound which is nasalised. 

180. In L vowels are generally nasalised when fol- 
lowed by nasal consonants, e.g. Arerit you coming? StP 
aint Ju: kAmir) becomes in L alnt /a kamin. Sometimes 
the nasal consonant is dropped, especially when w follows ; 
thus / don't want it, StP ai dount wont it, often becomes 
in L Ai dau woint it. Sometimes all vowels, or at any 
rate all the more open vowels, are nasalised independently 
of any nasal consonant ; this produces what is called nasal 
twang. 



NASALISATION. ASSIMILATION 49 

181. Those who habitually nasalise their vowels^ often 
liave difiSculty in getting rid of the fault. It can only be 
cured by constant practice of isolated vowel sounds. It is 
better to start practising with close vowels, there being 
less tendency to nasalise these. When a pure i: and u: 
can be produced, which should not require much practice, 
the opener vowels may be rendered pure by exercises such 
as i:ei:e...u:ou:o... pronounced without a break of any 
kind between the i: and e, u: and o, etc. Half-open and 
open vowels may be practised in the same way. When 
all the isolated vowels can be pronounced without nasal- 
isation, easy words should be practised. The greatest 
difficulty will probably be found in words in which the 
vowel is followed by a nasal consonant, e.g. can, kaen; 
such words should therefore be reserved till the last. In 
practising the word can a complete break should at first 
be made between the SB and the n, kaB-n; this interval 
may be gradually reduced until at last there is no break 
whatever. Other words containing vowels followed by 
nasal consonants may be practised in a similar way. 

VI. ASSIMILATION 

182. When a sound is influenced by another sound 
near it, it is said to undergo an assimilation. Various 
kinds of assimilation are met with in English. The 
principal are: 

183. (1) Assimilations from breath to voice or voice 
to breath. 

184. In raspberry, raizbari the p has dropped out 
and the s has been voiced under the influence of the 

* We are here speaking of nasalisation which is merely the result of 
habit and not due to any physical defect. 

J. 4 



•50 PHONETICS 

following voiced consonant b, thus becoming z. In. dogs, 
dogz the plural termination is pronounced z (see, how- 
ever, § 239) ; this is due to the influence of the preceding 
voiced consonant (cp. cats, kaets). Pronunciations such 
as sidaun for sitdaun are due to assimilation of the t to 
d under the influence of the following d. 

185. Partial assimilation of voice to breath regularly 
occurs where a liquid or semi-vowel is preceded by a 
breathed consonant in the same syllable; e.g. in small, 
smo:l, snuff, buaT, place, pleis, sweet, swi:t, try, trai, 
jyew, pju:, the consonants m, n, 1, w, r (which here = j), j 
are partially devocalised, the sounds beginning breathed 
and ending voiced. With some speakers the assimilation 
is complete, the words becoming s^o:l, s^Af, pleis, SMi:t, 
taai, P9u:. 

186. An assimilation of a similar kind occurs when 
tj, sj become t/, / (§§ 101, 100). A simple assimilation 
of tongue-position (§§ 191, 192) would change J to 3. 
There is, however, in addition a de vocalisation under the 
influence of the preceding breathed consonant. 

187. (2) Nasalisations under the influence of a nasal 
consonant, e.g. the nasalisation of vowels w^hen followed 
by a nasal consonant referred to in § 180. The disappear- 
ance of d in kindness, kainnis, grandmother, grsnmAVa 
is due to this; when the d is nasalised it becomes n, 
which then readily disappears. 

188. (3) Assimilations affecting the position of the 
tongue. 

189. The k sound in key, ki: is more advanced than 
the k sound in cot, kot. This is readily heard if we 



ASSIMILATION 



51 



whisper the words. The advancement in the case of ki: 
is due to the influence of the front vowel i:. The n 
sound in month, mAn9 is formed against the teeth under 
tlie influence of the 9, and not against the upper gums 
like the normal n sound. 

190. In these cases the character of the sound is 
not greatly altered by the assimilation. In certain cases, 




Z(8) 






5^f) 



Fig. 9. Diagram illustrating the Assimilation of j to jfj) under 
the influence of ^(s)^ 

however, the sound is considerably modified. A common 
one is the assimilation of s(z) to J(5) under the influence 
of a following J(5) ; thus liorseshoe, does she are generally 

^ For the sake of clearness the mouth has been drawn wide open. As 
a matter of fact, in pronouncing z(8) and ^(J) the teeth are generally 
almost in contact. 

4—2 



62 PHONETICS 

pronounced ho:J/u:, dAjJi:, not hoisju:, dAzJi:. Another 
case is the change of n to i] under the influence of a 
preceding or following velar consonant — bacon, beikT] (§ 59); 
congress, koTjgres (compare congratulate, kangrstjuleit). 
Another is that of k, g to t, d under the influence of a 
following 1, e.g. tli:n dlAVZ for kliin glAVZ {clean gloves), 
(This latter assimilation should be avoided.) 

191. Another very common assimilation is that of j 
to 5(/) under the influence of a preceding z(s) or d(t) 
(§§ 100, 101). 5(/) is intermediate in tongue-position 
between z(s) and j. Hence the coalition of z(s) and j 
naturally gives 3(/), see fig. 9. 

192. The tongue-position for d(t) is much the same 
as that for z(s), except that actual contact is made by the 
tip of the tongue against the upper gums. The d(t) has 
therefore influenced the j by drawing the front of the 
tongue somewhat downwards, thus changing the sound 
into 5(/). 

193. (4) Assimilations aflfecting the position of the 
lips. 

194. The k in quite, kwalt is pronounced with lip- 
rounding under the influence of the following w. A 
labio-dental nasal consonant is sometimes used instead 
of m, when followed by f or v, as in comfort, kAmfat. 
n sometimes becomes m under the influence of a preceding 
labial, e.g. oupm for oup(a)n. 

VII. QUANTITY 

195. All sounds may be continued during a shorter 
or longer period. For practical purposes it is sufficient to 
distinguish two or at most three degrees of quantity {long 
and short, or long, half-long and short). 



QUAXTTTY 53 

196. The rules of quantity in standard English are : 

(1) i:, a:, o:, u:, a: arc long in stressed syllables 
when final or followed by a voiced consonant, e.g. in sea 
si:, seed, si:d, far, fa:, halve, ha:v, lose, lu:z, two, tu:. 
They are reduced to half-length (1) when followed by a 
breathed consonant, e.g. seat, si:t, half, ha:f, loose, lu:s, 
(2) when quite unstressed (§ 205), e.g. linseed oil, 'linsi:d- 
'oil\ (3) when followed by another vowel, e.g. deist, di:ist. 
In the second case the vowels sometimes become quite 
short, especially when a breathed consonant follows, as in 
economy, i:'konami; authority, oi'Ooriti. 

(2) i, e, ae, o, a, u are generally short but become 
half-long when stressed and followed by a voiced con- 
sonant other than a liquid, compare pit, pit, pig, pig, pin, 
pin. 9 (which is always unstressed) and unstressed 1 are 
practically always short. Some speakers, however, lengthen 
them slightly when final, and when followed by a voiced 
consonant in a final syllable, as in manners, maendz, 
carry, kseri. 

(3) Diphthongs may be long or short. They are 
treated like the vowels 1:, a:, etc., becoming short in the 
cases where 1:, a:, etc. become half-long. Compare the 
words high, hai, hide, haid, in which the diphthong ai is 
long, with height, hait, idea, ai'dia, in which it is short. 

(4) Consonants are slightly lengthened when final 
and preceded by i, e, ae, o, a, or u. Compare seen, si:n 
with sin, sin. Liquids are lengthened when followed by 
a voiced consonant in the same syllable, e.g. wind, wind, 
cp. hint, hint. 

^ ' denotes that the following syllable is stressed. 



54 PHONETICS 

(5) Syllabic consonants are always unstressed, and 
like the vowel a are practically always short (see (2)). 

197. These rules are only approximate. It is not 
difficult to distinguish five or six degrees of quantity if 
we wish : thus the i: in siin is clearly intermediate between 
the long i: in seize, si:z and the half-long i: in seat, si:t ; 
the o: in scald, skoild is shorter than the long o: in saw, 
so:, but longer than the half-long o: in halt, h3:lt; the 
9 in manners, msenaz is longer than the 9 in callous, 
kslas, but is hardly half-long. The rules given are, 
however, sufficiently exact for practical purposes. In fact 
it is often sufficient to generalise still further by dis- 
tinguishing only two degrees of length, and taking as the 
general rule tliat in standard English the sounds i:, a:, 
o:, u:, a: are long and all other sounds are short. 

(Note. It is in consequence of this approximate rule 
that we are able to represent the sounds ii, o:, u:, a: by 
means of the symbols i, o, u, a followed by the mark :. 
: is strictly speaking the symbol of length, and has nothing 
to do with the quality of sounds. If the above rule did 
not exist, we should be obliged to have separate symbols 
to distinguish i: from i, o: fi*om o, etc. ; and even as it is, 
it is sometimes necessary to have such separate symbols, 
when great accuracy is required; see for instance the 
transcriptions in the author's Intonation Curves (Teubner, 
Leipzig). Generally speaking, however, the insertion of 
the length mark : is sufficient to render confusion im- 
possible.) 



SYLLABLES 55 



VITI. SYLLABLES 



198. When two sounds are separated by one or more 
sounds less sonorous than either of them, they are said to 
belong to different syllables. The relative sonority or 
carrying power of sounds depends chiefly on their quality, 
and to some extent on the force of the breath with which 
they are pronounced. When there is no great variation 
in the force of the breath, vowels are more sonorous 
than consonants; open vowels are more sonorous than 
close vowels; voiced consonants are more sonorous than 
breathed consonants; voiced liquid consonants are more 
sonorous than other voiced consonants. 

199. The most sonorous sound in a syllable is said to 
be syllabic. The syllabic sound of a syllable is generally 
a vowel, but is occasionally a consonant (as in the second 
syllables of people, pi:pl, written, ritn). Syllabic conso- 
nants are marked when necessary by , placed under the 
consonant symbol. It is however only necessary when a 
vowel follows. Thus it must be inserted in glAt^i (the 
alternative pronunciation of gluttony, glAtani) to show 
that it does not rhyme with chutnee, t/Atni; but the 
mark is quite superfluous in pi:pl, because the 1 cannot 
be sounded in this position without being syllabic. 

200. Syllabic sounds are generally separated by con- 
sonants. When two consecutive vowels belong to two 
syllables as in create, kri:-eit, there must be either a slight 
decrease in the force of the breath between them or an 

nsertion of a trace of some consonant or consonantal vowel 
(§ 202). In kri:eit there is usually a slight j inserted 
between the i: and the e, though it is not sufficient to 



56 PHONETICS 

mark in a practical phonetic transcription; in gnawer, 
no:-a, the division between the syllables is marked rather 
by a slight diminution in the force of the breath. 

201. When two vowels are not separated either by 
a consonantal sound or by a decrease in the force of the 
breath, they cannot constitute more than one syllable. 
They are then said to form a diphthong. 

202. The least sonorous vowel in a diphthong (whether 
the sonority is due to vowel-quality or to force of the 
breath or to a combination of the two) is said to be 
consonantal. Thus in the diphthongs ai, ea, the i and 
9 are the consonantal elements. 

203. When in a group of three vowels not separated 
either by consonantal sounds or decrease in the force of 
the breath the second is opener than either of the others, 
we have a true triphthong. An example of a true 
triphthong is oae (a careless way of pronouncing the 
word why, (h)wai). 

204. The groups aia, aua are not true triphthongs ; 
i and u are less sonorous than a, a and a, and therefore 
the a, a and a belong to different syllables (§ 198). When 
the second element of these groups is lowered (§§ 126, 137) 
they approach nearer to true triphthongs, but they never 
become true triphthongs. In their extreme forms they 
become diphthongs (aa, aa) or single vowels (a:, a:) 
(§§ 126, 137). It is however convenient to call the groups 
aia, aua triphthongs, because they are often treated in 
poetry as forming only one syllable. 



STRESS 67 



IX. STRESS 



205. The force of the breath with which a syllable is 
pronounced is called stress. Stress varies from syllable to 
syllable. Syllables which are pronounced mth greater 
stress than the neighbouring syllables are said to be 
stressed. 

20G. It is possible to distinguish many degrees of 
stress; if we use the figure 1 to denote the strongest 
stress, 2 to denote the second strongest and so on, the 
stress of the word opportunity might be marked thus: 

2 4 16 3 

opstjuiniti. Such accuracy is, however, not necessary 
for practical purposes ; it is in fact generally sufficient to 
distinguish two degrees only — stressed and unstressed. 
Stressed syllables are marked when necessary by ' placed 
immediately before them, thus father, 'fa:^a, arrive, 
a'raiv, opportunity, opa'tjuiniti, what shall we do? 
'(h)wot/alwi:'du:. 

207. The same words and sentences are not always 
stressed in the same way. Variations are sometimes 
necessary for making the meaning clear, and they are 
sometimes due to rhythmical considerations. Thus the 
word injudicious when simply taken to mean "foolish" 
would have the stress on the third syllable, thus he was 
very injudicious, hi:waz'veriind5u:'dijas, but when used 
in contrast with judicious, the chief stress would be on 
the first syllable, the stress on the third being only secon- 
dary, e.g. that was very judicious, SaBtwaz'verid5u:'di/as, 
answer / should call it very injudicious, 'ai/adkoilitveri- 
'ind5u:di/as. Untrained speakers often fail to bring out 
contrasts of this kind properly. 



58 PHONETICS 

208. In '(h)wot/alwi:'du:, (h)wot'/8Blwi:'du:, 
'(h)wotJal'wi:du:, the variations of stress actually modify 
the meaning of the words. 

209. The word unknoim, Announ shows clearly how 
rhythm may affect stress. Compare an unknown land, 
dn'Announ'laend with quite unknown, 'kwaitAn'noun. 
When isolated the word would generally be pronounced 
'An'noun, the two syllables having equal stress. Tlie 
rhythmical principle underlying these changes is a tendency 
to avoid consecutive stressed syllables when possible. 

210. When we wish to emphafiize a whole word (not 
any special part of it, such as the in- of injudicious), we 
usually increase the amount of stress on the syllable 
which is normally stressed. Thus when magnificent, 
maeg'nifisant is pronounced with great emphasis, the 
second syllable receives a very strong stress, although it 
is a very unimportant syllable from the point of view 
of the meaning. Occasionally an additional stress is put 
on some syllable other than that which is normally 
stressed, e.g. absolutely when emphasized is sometimes 
pronounced 'aBbs3'l(j)u:tli instead of 'aBb8al(j)u:tli. 

X. BREATH-GROUPS 

211. Pauses occur at frequent intervals in speaking. 
They are made (1) for the purpose of taking breath, (2) for 
the purpose of making the meaning of the words clearer. 

212. Groups of sounds which are pronounced with- 
out pause are called breath-groups. The following are 
examples of breath-groups: Yes, jes; Good morning, 
gud'mo:niT) ; Shall we go out for a walkl, '/aelwiigou- 
'autfar&'tvaik ; Shall lue go out for a walk or shall we 



imEATU-GROUPS. INTONATION 69 

stay at homel, '/sBlwiigou'autfara'woikoiJalwii'steiat- 

'houm. The last of these would often be divided into 
two breath-groups if spoken slowly, a pause (not neces- 
sarily a pause for taking breath) being made after the 
word wo:k. 

213. Pauses for breath should always be made at 
points where pauses are necessary or permissible from 
the point of view of meaning. Untrained speakers often 
arrange their breath-groups badly, taking breath and 
making other pauses in wrong places. 

214. The proper divisions between breath-groups are 
generally indicated in writing by the punctuation niarks. 
In phonetic transcriptions it is often useful to mark the 
limits of breath-groups by ||, and | may be used to mark 
points where a slight pause may be made but is not essen- 
tial. Thus, What shall we do ? Shall we go out for a walk 
or shall we stay at home? may be written || '(h)wot/alwi:- 
'du: II '/a9lwi:gou'autfara'wo:k | oijalwii'steiat'houm || 



XL INTONATION 

215. In speaking, the pitch of the voice, i.e. the pitch 
of the musical note produced by the vocal chords, is 
constantly changing. These variations in pitch are called 
intonation (or inflection). Intonation is thus quite inde- 
pendent of stress (§ 205), with which it is sometimes con- 
fused by beginners. There is of course no intonation when 
breathed sounds are pronounced. The number of these is 
however small compared with the voiced sounds, so that 
the intonation in any ordinary breath-group may be 
regarded as practically continuous. 



60 PHONETICS 

216. When the pitch of the voice rises we have a 
rising intonation ; when it falls we have a falling intona- 
tion ; when it remains on one note for an appreciable 
time, we have level intonation. Level intonation is rare 
in ordinary speaking, but is not uncommon in serious 
recitation. 

217. The range of intonation is very extensive. Most 
people in speaking reach notes much higher and much 
lower than they can sing. The range is as a general rule 
greater in declamatory style than in conversational style. 
In declamatory style it is not unusual for a man with a 
voice of ordinary pitch to have a range of intonation of over 

two octaves, rising to F / ^\. "^ - or even higher, and going 

down so low that the voice degenerates into a kind of growl 
which can hardly be regarded as a musical sound at all. In 
the case of ladies' voices the range of intonation does not 
often exceed IJ octaves, the average limits in declamatory 

218. The only satisfactory way of representing in- 
tonation is by means of a curved line, which rises as the 
pitch rises and falls as the pitch falls, placed immediately 
above the line of phonetic transcription. 

219. Intonation is most important for indicating 
shades of meaning. Compare tl?e following: 

high pitch 

low pitch ^^>w meaning " That is so." ^ 

je» 



style being about D X^ I and G 




INTONATION 61 

1. p J!w meaning " Of course it is so." 

jes 



h.p 

I. p ^~ „ "Is it really so ? " 

jes 



ZZ 



1. p \^ — „ " That may be so.* 

Jes 

hp> 



I. p ^V> expressmg curiosity. 

'(h)wot9ju:'du:iT) 



t.p. 

1. p. =^ — „ anger. 

'(h)w3taju:'du:if) 



pleasure. 
(h)wota'bju:tafl'dei 

h.p. 



1. p. -^ used sarcastically. 

'(h)wotabju:t9fldei 

220. The most important rules of intonetion are: 
1. A falling intonation is used at the end of 
(1) Complete commands, 
h.p. 

1. p. ^^ Come here. 

'kAm'liia 



62 



PHONETICS 



(2) Complete statements, i.e. statements which 
do not imply any continuation or rejoinder. 

h.p. 

l.p. 

wi:v'd5AstkAm'in 'wiivdSAStkAm'in 

We have just come in, 

(3) Complete questions containing a specific in- 
terrogative word or phrase. 

h. p . . 

l.p. 



'(h)wotaju:'du:iT| 



(h)wotd'ju:du:iT) 



(h)wota'ju:du:iTf) (h)wot'a:ju:'du:iT) 

What are you doing ? 
(4) The last of two or more alternative questions, 
h.p ^ 

/8Blwi:goufara'wo:klo:rd'raid|o:rd'draiv 

Shall we go for a walk, or a ride, or a drive? 
If a rising intonation were used on draiv, a further 
alternative would be implied. 

2. A rising intonation is used at the end of 

(1) Unfinished commands, statements and ques- 
tions, i.e. where a continuation, rejoinder or answer is 
expressed or implied. 

h.p ^ 

'sain€3'peiparan(d/teikitt9'5i:'ofis 

Sign the paper, and take it to the office. 
(Rising intonation on peipa.) 



INTONATIONS 



ea 



itwaz'fain'jestadibat'wettJadeibi'fo: 

U was fine yesterday, but wet the day before. 
(Rising intonation on jestadi.) 

b. p 

'wAn'tu:'eri:To;'faiv 

One, two, three, four, five (counting slowly). 
(Rising intonations on WAn, tu:, Sri:, fo:.) 
See also the example 1 (4). 

(2) Complete questions not containing a specific 
^ interrogative word or phrase. 

h- P . ^ 

'/aelwiigou'autnau '/selwi:gouaut'nau 

Shall we go out now / 

(3) Dependent clauses, where the principal 
clause follows or is suppressed. 

h. p. 

1. p. 

( h )weiiQ3' wa:ks!£lni j thi:lkAm'baek 

When the luork is finished, he will come back. 

(Rising intonation on fini/t.) 

h.p. 

1. p. 

and'ifjui'dount 

And if you don% — . 

221. When not affected by the above rules stressed 
"syllables generally have a higher pitch than unstressed. 



64 PHONETICS 

222. The efteut of a rising intonation is greater if it 
is immediately preceded by a falling intonation, and the 
effect of a falling intonation is greater if it is immediately 
preceded by a rising intonation. Thus 



Are you going f 
'a:ju:'gouiTj 

is more emphatic than 

b.p 

I. p. ^ 



'a;Ju:'gouiT) 

Compare also 

h.p. __ 



a;ju:'9ouiT) 

is more emphatic still 



itwaz'sb8dl(j)u:tUim'pos9bl 



with ^- P- 



ZX 



itwdZ'sbs3l(j)u:tliim'posdbl 

It was absolutely impossible. 



223. Many untrained speakers use a rising intonation 
at the end of sentences where a falling intonation should 
be used. This may be individual habit or dialectal pecu- 
liarity (it is very common in Sc and N). The fault can 
only be cured by practising very exaggerated falling 
intonations, practising at first if necessary by simply 
singing descending scales of notes. 



THEORY OF PLOSIVE CONSONANTS 65 

XIT. THEORY OF PLOSIVE CONSONANTS 

224. To pronounce a complete plosive consonant 
(§ 17) two things are essential: (1) Contact must be 
made by the articulating organs, (2) The articulating 
organs must be subsequently separated. Thus, in pro- 
nouncing p the lips must be first closed and then opened. 
The explosion of a plosive consonant is formed by the air 
as it rushes out at the instant when contact is released ; 
the air, however, necessarily continues to escape for an 
appreciable time after the actual explosion, thus giving 
rise to an independent sound. A plosive consonant there- 
fore cannot be properly pronounced without being followed 
by another independent sound. This independent sound 
may be breathed or voiced. 

225. When a voiced plosive consonant, e.g. b, is 
followed by a vowel, the vowel itself constitutes the 
necessary independent sound. It is possible to pronounce 
a breathed plosive, e.g. p, followed by a vowel, in such a 
way that the vowel constitutes the additional sound 
necessary for the proper pronunciation of the consonant. 
This is, however, not usually done in English, a short h 
sound being generally inserted before the commencement 
of the vowef(§§ 30, 34, 42). Similarly the first part of a 
following voiced consonant is generally devocalised (§ 185) ; 
it is however possible to pronounce a group such as pi in 
such a way that the voice begins at the instant of the 
explosion. 

226. When we try to pronounce a breathed plosive, 
e.g. p, by itself, it is generally followed by a short breathed 
sound h; when we try to pronounce a voiced plosive, 
e.g. b, by itself, it is generally followed by a short vowel a. 

J, 5 



66 PHONETICS 

227. It is sometimes convenient to represent sounds 
of very short duration by symbols in very small type. 
Thus the group usually represented by pa: would be 
more accurately represented by phai. When we try to 
pronounce p and b by themselves we really say pn, bo. 
The word praise, preiz would be more accurately repre- 
sented by pfreiz. 

228. The time during which the articulating organs 
are actually in contact may be termed the stop. In the 
case of the breathed consonants, e.g. p, nothing whatever 
is heard during the stop ; in the case of the voiced con- 
sonants, e.g. b, some voice is usually heard during the 
stop. 

229. In English there are cases in which plosive 
consonants are not fully articulated, where in fact, stops 
occur without explosions. The most important of these 
cases is where a plosive consonant is immediately followed 
by another plosive consonant. Thus in the StP of the 
word act, aBkt, the tongue does not leave the roof of the 
mouth in passing from the k to the t. There is therefore 
no explosion of the k, only the stop being pronounced. 
He will act too is usually pronounced hi: wilaekttu: , with 
no explosion to the k or to the first t (the first t is in fact 
only indicated by a silence). Similarly in begged, begd, 
there is no explosion to the g. 

230. In that time, tSaettaim, red deer, reddid, the 
first t and d are not exploded in StP, in fact the only 
difference between the tt and dd in these examples and 
the t, d in satire, saetaia, red ear, 'red'ia, readier, 'redla, 
is that in the former case the stop is very much longer 
than in the latter. Similar considerations apply to the 
groups pp, bb, kk, gg. 



THEORY OF PLOSIVE CONSONANTS 67 

231. In apt, sept, ebbed, ebd, the t, d are formed 
while the lips are still closed for the p, b. The result is 
that no h or a sound is heard when the lips are separated ^. 
In ink-pot, iijkpot, big boy, bigboi, the lips are closed for 
the p, b during the stop of the k, g. The result is that 
no explosion of the k or g is heard. Similar considerations 
apply to all other groups of two plosive consonants articu- 
lated in different parts of the mouth. 

232. The td in that day, tSaetdei, only differs from 
the d in faddy, faedi, in having a longer stop, the first 
part of which is breathed. In tJaetdei, midday, middei, 
the stops are of the same length, but in the former the 
first part of the stop is breathed and the second part 
voiced, while in the latter the stop is voiced throughout. 
The sound of dt in bedtime, bedtaim only differs from 
the t in better, beta in having a longer stop, the first part 
of which is voiced. In bedtaim, ^aettaim, the stops are 
of the same length, but in the former the first part of the 
stop is voiced and the second part breathed, while in the 
latter the stop is breathed throughout. Similar considera- 
tions apply to the groups pb, bp, kg, gk. 

233. Pronunciations such as aekhtntu:, begad, tSaetb- 
taim, rededia, aep&t, ebed, iTjkupot, bigoboi, tSaetudeij 
bedbtaim are heard, but are generally dialectal. Some- 
times, however, such b, e sounds are inserted in very careful 
speaking when it is advisable to mark very clearly the 
beginnings and ends of words. Thus, in reading aloud to 
a large audience, aekttu: might be pronounced SBktbtu:. 

234. When a plosive is followed by a nasal consonant 

^ A noise is sometimes heard as the lips separate : this is howevei* 
not formed by an escape of breath, but is due to the moisture on the lips. 

5—2 



68 PHONETICS 

as in that night, tJaetnait, topmost, topmoust, utmosty 
Atmoust, Wednesday, wednzdi, the action of the articu- 
lating organs is the same as in the case of a plosive 
followed by a plosive. Thus no t or o is inserted between 
the t and n, p and m, t and m, d and n in the above 
examples; pronunciations such as tophmoust are as a 
rule dialectal, but are occasionally heard in careful speak- 
ing when special distinctness is desired. 

235. There is an explosion in the ordinary pronuncia- 
tion of these combinations of plosive and nasal. This is 
not, however, formed at the point of the mouth where 
closure is made, but is due to the lowering of the soft 
palate which causes the air to escape suddenly through 
the nose. 

236. When a voiced plosive consonant is initial, the 
stop is often partially devocalised, i.e. the first part of it is 
breathed, voice being only added just before the explosion. 
When the speaker is speaking softly, there is usually no 
voice at all during the stop. The resulting sound differs 
from the corresponding breathed plosive in being pro- 
nounced with less force of the breath and being followed 
immediately by voice, i.e. a vowel or a voiced consonant. 
(Breathed plosive consonants are immediately followed by 
breath, i.e. h or a breathed consonant, § 225.) In careful 
speaking the stop of an initial voiced plosive should be 
fully voiced. 

237. When a voiced plosive consonant is said to be 
final it is really followed by another sound (§§ 224, 226) ^ 
The sound which is really final is e or n, more often the 

1 The pronunciation of the stop alone in final plosives may be some- 
times observed in individual cases, but can hardly be considered normal. 



i 



INITIAL AND FINAL VOICED FRICATIVES 69 

latter, especially when the voiced plosive is preceded by 
another consonant, thus cab is pronounced kaebe or kaebb, 
hold is generally houldh, occasionally (especially in decla- 
matory style) houldo. 

238. Sometimes voice is not heard during the whole 
stop of a final voiced plosive, but only during the first 
part of it. The sound then resembles a feebly articulated 
breathed plosive. When the consonant in question is 
preceded by another consonant it fi-equently happens 
that no voice is produced during the stop at all, • i.e. 
the consonant is completely devocalised. (Devocalisation 
is represented phonetically by ^ under the symbol for 
the voiced sound.) Thus in hould the d is sometimes 
completely devocalised and becomes a very weak kind of 
t (hould). This is still more frequent when there are two 
preceding consonants as in cleansed, klenzd. or klenzd. 
When great distinctness is desired final voiced plosives 
should be fully voiced. 

XIII. INITIAL AND FINAL VOICED FRICATIVES 

239. When a voiced pure fricative (§ 105), e.g. z, is 
initial or final, it is generally not fully voiced. When 
initial as in zeal, zi:l, it begins breathed and ends voiced, 
and when final, as in ease, i:z, it begins voiced and ends 
breathed. When final and preceded by another consonant, 
e.g. in heads, hedz, valves, vaelvz, it is often completely 
devocalised, becoming a weak kind of s (phonetic symbol 
j), these words being more accurately written hedz, vaelvz 
or vsBlvz. When great distinctness is desired, initial and 
final voiced fricatives should be fully voiced. 



PART II 

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 



I. STANDARD PRONUNCIATION i 

A. CAREFUL CONVERSATIONAL STYLE 

1. Charlotte Bronte 

Passage from Jane Eyre, Chap, xxxv 

'oil 59 'haus waz 'stil ; far ai biliiv 'o:l iksept 'sindjan 
ond mai'self wa 'nau ri'taiad ta 'rest. Sa 'wAn 'ksendl waz 
'daiirj 'aut; ?5a 'rum waz 'ful av 'muinlait. mai 'ha:t bi:t 
'fa:st and '6ik ; ai 'ha:d its 'Grab. 'sAdnli it 'stud 'stil tu 
an iniks'presibP 'fidirj Sat '8rild it 'Gru: and 'pa:st at 
'wAns ta mai 'bed and iks'tremitiz. Sa fiilir) waz 'not laik 
an i'lektrik 'Jok, bat it waz 'kwait az '/a:p, az 'streinds, 
az 'stcLitlir) ; it 'aektid on mai 'sensiz az if Sear 'Atmoust 
aek'tiviti hiSa'tu: had bi:n bat 'to;pa, fram (h)wit/ Sei wa 
'nau 'sAmand and 'foist tu 'weik. Sei 'rouz iks'pektant; 'ai 
and 'ia 'weitid (h)wail Sa 'flej 'kwivad on mai 'bounz. 

" '(h)wot (h)av ju: 'ha;d ? '(h)vvot d(a) ju: 'si: ? " a;skt 
'sindgan. ai 'so; 'nAGir), bat ai 'haid a 'vois 'sAm(h)wea 'krai 
" 'd3ein, 'd3ein, 'd3ein ! " — ^'nAQir) 'mo:. 

"'ou 'god ! '(h)wot 'iz it ? " ai 'ga:spt. 

ai 'mait (h)av sed, " '(h)wear iz it ? " far it 'did not si:m 
in Sa 'rum, no:r in Sa 'haus, no:r in Sa 'ga:dn ; it 'did not 
kAm aut av Si 'ea, no: fram Anda Si 'a:G, no: fram ouva'hed. 

* As defined in Part 1, § 1. ^ Often pronounced iniks'presobl. 



74 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

ai (h)8d 'hard it — '(h)w£8, oi '(h)wens\ far 'ev9(r) im'posibl'^ 
ta 'nou ! and it waz Sa vois av a 'hjuiman 'bi;ir) — a 'noun, 
'1a vd, 'welri'membad 'vois — 'Sset av 'edwad 'feafaeks 'rot/ista ; 
and it spouk in 'pein and 'wou, 'waildli, 'iarili, 'a;d3antli. 

"'ai am 'kAmir)!** ai kraid, "'weit fa mi;! 'ou, ai wil 
'kAm!" ai 'flu: ta Sa 'do;, and 'lukt inta Sa 'poesidg ; it 
waz 'da;k. ai 'raen 'aut inta Sa 'ga;dn; it waz 'void. 

"'(h)wear 'a; ju;?" ai iks'kleimd. 

iSa 'hilz bi'jond 'ma;/ 'glen 'sent Si 'cL;nsa 'feintli 'baek, 
"'(h) wear 'a; ju;?" ai 'lisnd. Sa 'wind 'said 'lou in Sa 
'fa;z; 'o:l waz 'mualand 'lounlinis and 'midnait '1ia/. 



2. Edmund Burke 
A passage from Thoughts on the Fi^ench Revolution 

it iz 'nau 'siksti;n o; 'sevnti;n 'jiaz'* sins ai 'so; Sa 'kwi;n 
av 'fra;ns, 'Sen Sa 'do;finis, at vsr'sa;j ; and 'Juali 'neva 
'laitid on Sis 'o;b, (h)wit/ Ji; 'ha;dli si;md ta 'tAtJ, a mo; 
di'laitful 'vi3an. ai 'so: ha: 'djAst a'bAv Sa ha'raizn, 
'dekareitir) and 't/iarir) Si; 'eliveitid 'sfia Ji; 'djAst bi'gsen 
ta 'mu:v in, — 'glitarir) laik Sa 'mo:nir) 'sta:, 'ful av 'laif, 
and 'splenda, and 'djoi. 'ou ! (h)wot a reva'l(j)u:/n ! and 
(h)wot a 'hcL;t mast ai haev ta 'kontempleit wiS'aut i'mou/n 
Saet eli'vei/n and Saet 'fo;l ! 'litl did ai 'dri;m (h)wen /i: 
'sedid 'taitlz av vena'rei/n ta Souz av ineju;zi'aestik, 'distant, 
ri'spektful 'Iav, Sat Ji; Jud 'eva bi: a'blaidgd ta 'kaeri Sa 
'/a;p 'centidout ageinst dis'greis kan'si;ld in Saet 'buzam; 
'litl did ai 'dri;m Sat ai Jad (h)av 'livd ta 'si; 'sAtJ di'za;staz 
fo:lan apon ha;(r) in a 'nei/n av 'gaelant 'men, in a 'nei/n av 

1 Or '(h)wcor o: '(li)wens. ^ Qften pronounced im'posabl. 

» Or 'jo:z. 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE A 75 

men av 'ona, and av kosva'liaz. ai 0o:t 'ten 'Oauzond 'so:dz 
iHAst hav 'lept fram Sea 'sksebadz tu a'ven(d)3 i:vn a 'luk 
Sat 'Oretnd ha; wis 'insAlt. 

bat Si; 'eid3 av 't/ivalri iz 'gon. Sast av 'sofistaz, 
i;'konamists, and 'kselkjuleitaz, haz sak'si;did ; and Sa 'cjlo;ri 
av 'juarap iz iks'tirjgwi/t far 'eva. 'neva, 'neva 'mo; Jal wi: 
bi'hould Sget 'd3enaras 'loialti ta 'raerjk and 'seks, Soet 'praud 
saVmi/n, Sset 'dignifaid a'biidjans^, Sset saboidi'nei/n av Sa 
'ha;t, (h)witj 'kept a'laiv, i;vn in 'sa:vitju:d it'self, Sa 'spirit 
av an ig'zo;ltid 'fri;dara. Si: 'Anbo;t 'greis av 'laif, Sa 't/iip 
di'fens av'nei/nz, Sa 'na:s av 'mgenli 'sentimant and hi'rouik 
'entapraiz, iz 'gon ! it iz 'gon, Sset sensi'biliti av 'prinsipl^ 
Saet 't/sestiti av 'ona, (h)wit/ 'felt a 'stein laik a 'wu;nd, 
(h)wit/ in'spaiad 'kAridg (h)wailst it 'mitigeitid fi'rositi, 
(h)wit/ i'noubld (h)wotevar it 'tAt/t, and Anda (ti)wit/ 'vais 
it'self 'lo;st 'ha;f its 'i;vil, bai lu;zir) 'o;l its 'grousnis. 

3. C. S. Calverley 

Contentment 
(after the manner of Horace)^ 
'frend, Sea bi: 'Sei on hu:m 'mishsep 

o; 'neva o; 'sou 'reali 'kAmz, 
Saet, (h)wen Sei '0ir)k Searof, Sei 'snsep 
di'raisiv '6Amz; 

send Sea bi; 'Sei hu: 'laitli 'lu;z 
Sear 'o;l, jet 'fi;l 'nou 'eikig 'void; 

Jud 'o:t a'noi Sam, Sei ri'fju;z 
ta bi; a'noid; 

1 Or o'blicUons. a Qr 'prinsspl. 

3 Reproduced from Calverley's Fly Leaves by kind permission of the 
publishers, Messrs George Bell and Sons. 



76 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

9nd 'fein wud 'ai bi: i:n az 'Si:z! 

'laif iz wis 'sAtJ 'o:l 'biar and 'skitlz; 
6ei a: 'not 'difiklt ta 'pli:z 

abaut Bea 'vitlz; 

6a 'trcLut, t5a 'graus, Ci: 'a:li 'pii, 
bai 'sAt/, 'if 'Ssa, a: 'fridi 'teikan; 

'if 'not, (5ei 'mAn(t)J wiS 'i:kwal 'gli: 
Sea 'bit av 'beikan; 

and (h)wen Sei 'waeks a litl 'gei 

and 't/a:f Sa 'pAblik a;fta 'lAn(t)/an, 

if Sea kan'frAntid wis a 'strei 
pa'li.'smanz 'trAn(t)Jan, 

Sei 'geiz Searset wiS 'CLutstret/t 'neks, 

and 'la:fta (h)wit/ 'nou 'Grets kan 'smASa, 

and 'tel Sa 'horastrikan 'eks 
Sat 'hi;z a'nASa. 

in 'snoutaim if Sei 'kro:s^ a 'spot 
(h)wear 'Ansas'pektid 'boiz hav 'slid, 

Sei 'fo:l not 'daun — ^'Sou Sei wud 'not 
'maind if Sei 'did ; 

(h)wen Sa 'sprig 'rouzbAd (h)wit/ Sei 'wea 
'breiks '/o:t and 'tAmblz fram its 'stem, 

'nou '6o:t av biiig 'aeggri 'ea 
'do:nz apan 'Sem; 

'Sou twaz d/ji'maimaz 'haend Sat 'pleist, 
(az 'wel ju: 'wi:n) at 'i:vnigz 'aua, 

in Sa 'lAvd 'bAtnhoul Sset 't/eist 
and 't/eri/t 'flaua. 

1 Or 'kro». 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE A 77 

end (h)wen ?5ei 'trsevl, if Sei 'faind 
Sat Sei hav 'left Sea 'pokit'kAmpas 

o: 'mAri o: '0ik 'bu:ts bihaind, 
t5ei 'reiz 'nou 'rAmpas, 

bat 'plod si'ri:nli 'on wiS'aut; 

'nouir) its 'beta tu in'djua 
Si: 'i:vil (h)wit/ bijond 'oil 'daut 

ju: 'ksenot 'kjua. 

(h)wen fa Sset 'a:li 'trein Sea 'leit, 
Sei du: not 'meik Sea 'wouz Sa 'tekst 

av 'saimanz in Sa 'taimz, bat 'weit 
'on fa Sa 'nekst; 

and 'djAmp in'said, and 'ounli 'grin 

Jud it a'pia Sat 'Sset 'drai 'wseg, 
Sa 'ga:d, o'mitid ta 'put 'in 

Sea 'kaipitbseg. 



4. Sir Walter Scott 

Hunting Song 

'weikan, 'loidz and 'leidiz 'gei, 
on Sa 'mauntin 'domz Sa 'dei; 
'o:l Sa 'd3oli 't/eis iz 'hia 
wis 'hoik, and 'ho:s, and 'hAntirj'spia ! 
'haundz a:r in Sea 'kAplz 'jelig, 
'ho:ks a: '(h)wislir), 'ho:nz a: 'nelig; 
'merili, 'merili 'mirjgl Sei, 
'"weikan, 'loidz and 'leidiz 'gei/' 



78 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

'weikan, 'lo:dz and 'leidiz 'gei, 
Sa 'mist haz 'left Sa 'mauntin 'grei; 
'sprirjlits in Sa 'do:n a: 'stiimir), 
'daiamandz on Sa 'breik a: 'cjli:mir); 
and 'foristaz hav 'bizi 'bi:n 
ta 'trsek 6a 'bAk in 'Oikit 'grim; 
'nan wi: 'kAm ta 't/amt aua 'lei, 
"'weikan, 'lo:dz and 'leidiz 'gei." 

'weikan, 'loidz and 'leidiz 'gei, 
ta Sa 'griniwud 'heist a'wei; 
'wi: kan 'Jou ju: (h)wea hi; 'laiz, 
'fliit av 'fut and 'tod av 'saiz; 
wi: kan 'Jou t5a 'ma:ks hi: 'meid, 
(h)wen geinst Si 'ouk hiz 'aentlaz 'freid; 
'ju: Jal 'si: him 'bro:t ta 'bei, 
"'weikan, 'lo:dz and 'leidiz 'gei/* 

'lauda, 'lauda 't/cL:nt Sa 'lei, 
'weikan, 'lo:dz and 'leidiz 'gei! 
'tel Sam,.'ju:9, and 'ma;0, and 'gli; 
'rAn a 'ko:s, az 'wel az 'wi:; 
'taim, 'sta:n 'hAntsman! 'hu: kan 'bo:k, 
'sto:n(t)/ az 'haund, and 'fli:t az 'ho:k; 
'yirjk av 'Sis, and 'raiz wiS 'dei, 
'd3entl 'lo:dz and 'leidiz 'gei. 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE A 79 

5. W. M. Thackeray 
A passage from the Essay on Whitebait 

ai W8Z 'ri.-sntli 'to;kir) in a veri 'tAtJir) and po(uyetikl 
'strein abaut Si: a'bAV 'delikit 'fij ta mai frend 'fu:zl and 
sam 'A?5az at 6a 'kUb, and iks'pei/ieitir) apan Si: 'eksalans 
av Sa 'dina (h)\vit/ aua 'litl 'frend 'gAtlbari had 'givn as, 
(h)wen 'fu:zl, 'lukir) 'raund a'baut him wiS an 'ear av 
'traiamf and i'mens 'vvizdam, 'sed, — 

"ail 'tel ju: 'wot, wsegstcL:f, 'aim a 'plein 'msen, and 
dis'paiz o:l jo;^ 'goimandaizir) and 'kik/o:z. ai 'dount nou 
Sa 'difrans bitwiin 'wAn av joir^ ab'said 'meid 'di/iz and 
a'nASa; 'giv mi: a 'plein 'kAt av 'mAtn o: 'bi:f. aim o 
'plein 'irjglijman, 'ai sem, an(d) 'nou 'gUtn." 

'fu:zl, ai sei, '6o:t 'Sis 'spi:t/ a 'teribF 'set 'daun fa 'mi: ; 
{end in'di:d 'sektid Ap ta hiz 'prinsiplz*. ju: mei 'si: (h)im 
'eni 'dei at 'siks 'sitir) 'daun bifoir a 'greit 'ri:kiT) 'dgoint av 
'mi:t ; hiz 'aiz 'kwivarirj, hiz 'feis 'red, and 'hi: 'kAtirj 'greit 
'smoukir) 'red 'kolaps ciut av Sa 'bi:f bi'fo: him^ (h)wit/ 
(h)i: di'vauaz wis koris'pondir) 'kwontitiz av 'ksebidg an(d) 
pa'teitouz, and Si: 'A(5a 'greitis 'Uk/uriz av Sa 'kUb'teibl. 

'(h)wot ai kam'plein ov 'iz, 'not Sat Sa ma3n Jud in'd3oi 
hiz 'greit 'mi:l av 'sti:mir) 'bi:f — 'let (h)im bi 'hsepi ouva 
'Saet, az mAtJ az Sa 'bi:f hi: iz di'vauarir) waz in 'laif 'hsepi 
Guvar 'oil'keiks o: 'm8er)gl'wa:zl — bat ai 'heit Sa felouz 
'bru:tl 'selfkam'pleisnsi, and hiz 'sko:n av 'ASa 'pi:pl hu: 
hoev 'difrant 'teists fram 'hiz. a 'maen hu: 'brsegz riga:dir) 
himself, Sat (h)wot'eva hi: 'swolouz iz Sa 'seim to 'him, and 

* Or jua. - Or jusr. 

^ Often pronounced 'terabl. * Or tu iz 'prinsoplz. 

* Or bi'fb:riin. 



80 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

b'at 'hiz 'ko:s 'pselit 'rekegnaiziz 'nou 'difrans bitwiin 'venzn 
9n(d) 'taitl, 'pudir), o: 'mAtn'bro:0, aez hiz in'difrant 'd3o;z 
'klouz 'ouva Sam, 'brjEgz abaut a 'paisnl di'fekt — tSa 'ret J — 
an(d) 'not abaut 8 'vaitju:. it iz^ 'laik a 'msen 'boustir) 
tJat (h)i: hsez 'nou 'ia fa 'mjuizik, o: 'nou 'ai fa 'kAla, o: Sat 
(h)iz 'nouz 'ksenot 'sent Sa 'difrans bitwiin a 'rouz and a 
'ksebidj. ai 'sei, az a 'dgenaral 'ru:l, 'set 'Sset 'mgen 'daun 
az a kan'si:tid 'felou hui 'swsegaz abaut 'not 'kearir) fa hiz' 
'dina. 

'(h)wai '/udnt wi: ksar abaut it ? waz 'i:tir) 'not 'meid 
ta bi: a 'plesa tu as ? 'jes, ai sei, a 'deili 'plesa — a 'swi;t 
sou'leimen — a 'ple3a fa'milja, jet 'eva 'nju: ; Sa 'seim, and 
'jet hau 'difrant ! it iz 'wAn av Sa 'koiziz av doumes'tisiti. 
Sa 'ni:t 'dina meiks Sa 'hAzband 'pliizd, Sa 'hauswaif 'haepi ; 
Sa 't/ildran konsikwantli a: 'wel bro:t 'Ap, and 'Iav tSea 
pa'pa; an(d) ma'ma:. a 'gud 'dina(r) iz 5a 'sen tar av 5a 
'sa:kl av 5a 'soujl 'simpa9iz. it 'wo;mz e'kweintans/ip^ 
inta 'fren(d)/ip ; it mein'teinz 53et 'fren(d)/ip 'kAmfatabli 
'Anim'pead ; 'enimiz 'mi:t ouvar it and a: 'rekansaild. 'hau 
'meni av 'ju;, dia frendz, haz 53et 'leit 'botl av 'klserat 
'wo:md intu a'fek/anit fa'givnis, 'tenda reka'lek/anz av 
'ould 'taimz, and 'a:d(a)nt 'glouir) aentisi'peijnz av 'nju: ! 
5a 'brein iz a tri'mendas 'siikrit. ai bili:v 'sAm 'kimist* 
wil 'raiz a'non bu: wil 'nou hau ta 'dokta 5a 'brein sbz 
5ei du: 5a 'bodi 'nau, sez 'li:big^ doktaz 6a 'graund. 5ei 
wil a'plai 'sa:tn 'medsinz, and pra'dju:s 'krops av 'saitn 
'kwolitiz 5at a: 'laiig 'do:mant 'nau fa 'wont av inti'lektjual 
'gwa:nou. bat '5is iz a SAbd^ikt fa 'fjuit/a spekju'lei/n — 

1 Or it 8. ' Or for Iz. 

* Or o'kweintonjjip. 

* Or 'kemlst. 

» The name is strictly 'liitolf (for f see Part I, § 99). 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE A 81 

pa'renGisis 'grouif) 'aut av 8'nA?5apa'renOisis; '(h) wot ai wud 
'8;d2 i'spe/eli 'hi8(r) iz a 'point (h)wit/ 'mAst bi fa'milja wiS 
'evri 'paisn a'kAstamd tu 'i:t 'gud 'dinaz — 'neimli, Sa 'noubl 
and 'frendli 'kwolitiz Sat (5ei i'lisit. 'hau 'iz it wi: 'kAt sAt/ 
'dgouks ouva Sam ? 'hau 'iz it wi; bikAm sou ri'ma:kabli 
'frendli ? 'hau 'iz it Sat 'sAm av as, in'spaiad bai a 'gud 
'dina, haev 'sAdn 'gAsts av 'd^iinjas 'An'noun in Sa 'kwaiat 
'An'festiv 'steit? 'saih men meik 'spi:t/iz; 'sAm 'Jeik Sea 
'neiba bai Sa 'haend, and in'vait him, o: Sam'selvz, ta 'dain ; 
'SAm 'sir) pra'did3asli ; mai frend 'sseladin, far instans, 'gouz 
'houm, hi: sez, wiS Sa moust 'bjuitafl 'ha:maniz 'rirjirj in 
(h)iz 'iaz; and 'ai, fa 'mai pa:t, wil teik 'eni 'givn 'tju;n, 
an(d) 'meik veari'ei/nz apon it far 'eni 'givn 'piariad av 
'auaz, 'greitli, nou daut, ta Sa di'lait av 'oil 'hiaraz. 'Si:z 
ar 'ounli 'temparari inspi'rei/nz^ 'givn as bai Sa 'djoli 
'd3i:njas, bat 'a: Sei ta bi; dis'paizd on 'Saet akaunt ? 'nou. 
'gud 'dinaz (h)av bi;n Sa 'greitist 'viiiklz av bi'nevalans 
sins 'maen bi'gaen tu 'i;t. 

8 'teist fa 'gud 'livir), Sen, iz 'preizwa:Si in moda'rei/n — 
laik 'o:l Si: 'ASa 'kwolitiz and in'daumants av 'maen. 'if a 
msen wa ta ni'glekt (h)iz 'faemili o: hiz^ 'biznis on akaunt 
av (h)iz 'Iav fa Sa 'fidl o; Sa 'fain 'a:ts, hi: wud kamit 
'd3Ast Sa 'kraim Sat Sa 'dina'sensjualist^ iz 'gilti ov; bAt 
tu in'd3oi 'waizli iz a 'maeksim av (h)wit/'nou maen ni:d bi: 
a'/eimd. bat 'if ju: 'kaenot 'i:t a 'dinar av 'ha:bz az 'wel az 
a 'sto:ld 'oks, 'Sen ju ar an An'fo:t/anit 'maen; jo:* 'Iav fo 
'gud 'dinaz haz 'pa:st Sa 'houlsam 'baundari, and di'd3ena- 
reitid inta 'gUtani^ 

* Or insps'reijnz. * Or oar Iz. 

> Or dinasenJuoUst. * Or Jua. 

» Or gUtni (see Part I, § 199). 



82 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 



6. William Wordsworth 

ai 'wondad 'lounli 8z a 'klaud 
Cat 'flouts on 'hai oa^ 'veilz and 'hilz, 
(h)wen 'o:l at 'wAns ai so: a 'kraud, 
a 'houst av 'gouldan 'dsofadilz; 
bi'said Sa 'leik, bi'ni.-e Sa 'tri:z, 
'flAtrir) and 'dainsir) in Sa 'bri;z. 

kan'tinjuas az Sa 'sta:z Sat 'Jain 
and 'twirjkl on tSa 'milki 'wei, 
(5ei 'stretjt in 'nevai-'endir) 'lain 
alor) ?5a 'maid^in av a 'bei; 
'ten '6auz(a)nd 'so: ai at a 'fjla:ns, 
'to:sir)^ Sea 'hedz in 'spraitli 'da:ns. 

Sa 'weivz bi'said Sam 'da:nst, bat 'Sei 

'aut'did Sa 'spa;:klir) 'weivz in 'gli: ; 

9 'pouet^ 'kud not bat bi 'gci 

in sAtJ a 'd3okand 'kAmpani; 

ai 'geizd — and 'geizd — bat 'litl '0o:t 

(h)wot 'welG Sa '/ou ta 'mi: had 'bro:L 

far 'o:ft* (h)wen on mai 'kautj ai 'lai 
in 'veikant o:r in 'pensiv 'mu:d, 
Cei 'flsej apan Soet 'inwad 'ai, 
(h)wit/ iz Sa 'blis av 'solitju:d; 
and 'Sen mai 'halt wiS 'plega 'filz, 
end 'da:nsiz wiS Sa 'dsefadilz. 

1 Or 0:9, or o:. « Or tosiij (see Part I, § 146). 

» Or poult. * Or dft (see Part I, § 146). 



II. STANDAKD PRONUNCIATION 

B. RAPID CONVERSATIONAL STYLE 

7. Charles Dickens 
A passage from the Pickwick Papers (Chap. 7) 

(5a 'streindja, 'miinwaiU, (h)ad bi:n 'iitir), 'drir)kir), an 
'toikirj, wiS'aut se'sei/n. at 'evri 'gud 'strouk (h)i: iks'prest 
(h)iz sjBtis'faek/n and a'pruiyl av Sa 'pleia(r) in a moiist 
kondi'sendir) an(d) 'paetranaizir) 'msena, wit/ 'kudnt 'feil tu 
av bi:n 'haili 'grsetifaiir) ta Sa 'pa,:ti kan'sa:nd; wail at'evri 
'baed a'tem(p)t at a 'ksetj, and 'evri 'feilja ta 'stop t5a 'bo;l, 
hi; 'lo:n(t)/t (h)iz 'pa:snl dis'ple5a(r) at Sa 'hed av Sa 
di'voutid indi'vidjual in 'sAtJ dinAnsi'ei/nz sez "'a:, 'a: ! — 
'stjuipid " — " 'nau, 'bAtafirjgaz " — " 'mAf " — " 'hAmbAg " — an 
'sou h:Q — idgsekju'leijnz wit/ 'si:md tu is'tsebli/ (h)im in 
Si epinjan av 'oil a'raund, az a moust 'eksalant and 
Andi'naiabl 'dgAdg av Sa 'houl 'a:t an 'mistari av Sa 'noubl 
'geim av 'krikit. 

"'kaepitl 'geim — 'wel 'pleid — ^'sAm strouks '8edm(a)rabl," 
sed Sa streind3a, az 'bouS 'saidz 'kraudid inta Sa 'tent, at 
6a kan'kluign av ?5a 'geim. 

"ju: v 'pleid it, sa?" inkwaiad mista 'wo;dl, hu: ad 
bi:n 'mAt/ a'mju:zd bai hiz la'kwsesiti. 

* Or ini:a'wail (in this particular case). 

6—2 



84 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

"'pleid it! '0ir)k ai 'haev — ^'6auzn(d)z av taimz — ^'not 
'hie — ^'west 'indiz — ik'saitir) 'Oir) — ^'hot 'we:k — ^'veri." 

"it 'mAs(t) bi rciiSar a 'wo;m pa'sjuit in 'sAtJ a 
'klaimitV' aV^aivd mista 'pikwik. 

"'wo:m — ^'red'hot — ^'skoifc/irj — 'glouir). 'pleid 8 'maet/ 
'wAns — 'sirjgl 'wikit — ^'frend Sa 'kainl — sa 'tomas 'bleizou — 
'hu: /(a)d get Sa 'greitist 'nAmbar av'rAnz. — ^'wati Sa 'to:s — 
'fa ;st 'inigz — 'sevn a'klok 'ei 'em — 'siks 'neitivz ta luk 'aut 
— ^'went 'in ; 'kept in — ^'hiit in'tens — 'neitivz 'o:l 'feintid — 
'teikn a'wei — 'frej 'ha:f'dAzn 'oidad — 'feintid 'oilsou — 
'bleizou 'boulig — sa'po.'tid bai 'tu; 'neitivz — ^'kudnt 'boul 
mi: 'aut — ^'feintid 'tu: — ^'kliad a'wei Sa 'ka:nl — 'wudnt giv 
'in — 'fei9fl a'tendant — ^'kwaegkou 'saemba — ^'la:st maen 'left 
— 'sAn 'sou 'hot, 'bset in 'blistaz — 'bo:l 'sko:t/t 'braun — 
'faiv hAndrad n 'sevnti 'rAnz — 'rcL:Sar ig'zo:stid — ^'kwagkou 
'mAstad 'Ap 'la:st ri'meinir) 'streg6 — 'bould mi: 'aut — ^'hsed 
a 'ba:0 n 'went 'aut ta 'dina." 

"an(d) 'wot bikeim av 'wotsizneim, sa," inkwaiad an 
'oul(d) 'dgentlman. 

"'bleizou?" 

"'nou — Si 'ASa dgentlman." 

" 'kwsegkou 'ssemba ? " 

"'jes, sa." 

"'pua 'kwaegkou — 'neva ri'kAvad it — 'bould 'on, on 
'mai akaunt — ^'bould 'o:f, on iz 'oun — 'daid, sa." 'hia Sa 
'streindga 'berid (h)iz 'kauntinans in a 'braun 'djAg, bat 
'weSa ta 'haid (h)iz i'moujn o:(r) im'baib its kan'tents, wi: 
'kaenot dis'tirjktli a'fa.m. wi: 'ounli 'nou Sat (h)i: 'po:zd 
'sAdnli, 'dm: a 'lor) an 'di:p 'bre0, an(d) 'lukt '8eg(k)/asli 'on, az 

^ This sentence might well be read more slowly than the rest and in 
declamatory style, thus : — " it 'xnAst W: rarSar e 'wo:in posjirt in 'sAtJ 
'-- - It." 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STVLE B 86 

'tu; av t59 'prinsapl 'membaz av Sa 'dirjli 'del 'klAb e'prout/t 
mista 'pikwik, an(d) 'sed — 

" wiar a'baut ta pa/teik av a 'plein 'dina(r) at (5a 'blu: 
'laian, sa; wi: 'houp 'ju; an(d) jo: 'frendz (wi)l 'dgoin as." 

"av 'ko:s," sed mista 'woidl, "a'aiAr) aua 'frendz wi; 
in'klu.-d mista " and (h)i; lukt t(aywo:dz^ Sa 'streindga. 

" 'd3ir)gl/' sed Sset 'vaisatail 'djentlman, 'teikirj Sa 'hint 
at 'wAns. " 'dgirjgl — 'aelfrid 'd3ir)gl iskwaia(r), av 'nou 'ho;l, 
'nouwea." 

" ai /I bi 'veri 'hsepi, aim 'J^a," sed mista 'pikwik. 

"'sou Jl 'ai/' sed mistar 'selfrid 'dsirjgl, 'dro:ir) 'wAn 
'a:m eru; mista 'pikwiks, and a'nASa Gru: mista 'woidlz, 
aez (h)i: 'wispad konfi'den/ali in Si: 'iar av Sa 'fo;ma 
djentlman : — 

"'devlij 'gud 'dina — ^'kould, bat 'kaepitl — ^'piipt inta Sa 
'T^um Sis 'moinirj — ^TcLulz (a)n 'paiz, and 'o:l 'Sast so;t av 
8iT)— 'pleznt 'felouz 'Si:z — ^'wel bi'heivd, 'tu: — ^'veri." 



8. George Eliot 

A passage from the Mill on the Floss 
(Standard Edition, Vol. I, pp. 226, 227) 

' "'ou, 'ai 'sei, 'maegi," sed 'tom at 'la:st, 'liftir) 'Ap Sa 
'stgend, " wi: mas(t) 'ki:p 'kwaiat 'hia, ju: nou. if wi: 'breik 
eniOir), 'misiz 'stelirj 1 'meik as 'krai pe'keivai." 

"'wot s 'Saet?" sed 'msegi. 

" 'ou, it s Sa 'laetin far a 'gud 'skouldir)," sed 'torn, 'not 
wiSaut 'sAm 'praid in (h)iz 'nolidj. 

"i3 Ji: a 'kro;s wuman?" sed 'maegi. 

"'ai b(i)'li:v ju:!" sed 'tom, wiS en im'fotik 'nod. 
1 Or 'to:dx. 



86 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

. . ^ 

"ai Qiv/k 'o:l 'wimin -^'kro:sa^ San 'men," sed 'msegi. 

"'amt 'gleg z a 'greit di:l 'kro:sa^ San 'Arjkl gleg, an 'mASa 
'skouldz mi; 'mo; San 'fa:Sa dAz." 

"'wel, 'ju: Z bi a 'wuman 'sAm dei," sed 'torn, "sou 'ju: 
ni;dnt to;k." 

" bat 'ai Jl bi a 'klevd wuman," sed 'msegi, wis 9 'to;s'. 

" 'ou, ai 'dea'sei, and a 'naisti kan'si;tid '8ir). 'evribodi 1 
'heit ju;." 

"bat ju; 'o;tnt ta 'heit mi, tom; it 1 bi 'veri 'wikid 
ov ju;, far ai /I 'bi; jo; 'sista." 

"'jes, bat 'if ju ar a 'na;sti disa'griabl '9ig, ai 'faBl 
heit ju;." 

"'ou bat, tom, ju; 'wount! ai '/a;nt bi disagriabl. ai 
Jl bi 'veri 'gud t(a) ju; — and ai Jl bi gud tu 'evribodi. ju; 
'wount heit mi 'riali, 'wil ju;, tom?" 

"ou, 'boSa ! 'neva 'maind! 'kAm, its 'taim fa mi; ta 
'la;n mai 'lesnz. 'si: 'hia ! wot ai v got ta 'du;," sed 'torn, 
'dro:ir) 'msegi't(a)wo:dz' (h)im an(d)'/ouir) ha:(r) iz '0iarem, 
wail Ji; 'pu/t (h)a: 'hea bihaind (h)a;r 'iaz, an(d) pri'pead 
(h)a:self ta 'pru;v (h)a; keipa'biliti av 'helpir) (h)im in 
'juiklid. /i; bi'gsen ta 'ri:d wiS 'ful 'konfidaus in (h)a;r 
'oun 'pauaz, bat 'prezntli, bikAmir) 'kwait bi'wildad, ha: 
'feis 'flA/t wis iri'tei/n. it waz 'kwait Ana'voidabl — fi: 
mas(t) kan'fes (h)a:r in'kompitansi, 9n(d) fi: waz 'not 'fond 
av hju:mili'ei/n. ^^^^ 

" it s 'nonsns ! " Ji s^d^-" an(d) 'veri 'Agli 'stAf— -'noubadi 
ni;d 'wont ta meik it 'CLut." 

"'a:, 'Sea nciu, mis 'maegi!" sed 'tom, 'droig Sa 'buk 
a'wei, an(d) 'waegig (h)iz 'hed set (h)a;, " ju: 'si; ju d 'not sou 
'klevar az ju; 'do:t ju: wa:." ^ 

1 Or 'kroBo. » Or 'toa. » Or 'to:dx. 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE B 



87 



" 'ou," sed 'maifji, 'pautir), " ai 'dea'sei ai kad 'meik it 
'aiit, if ai d 'la;nt wot 'gouz bi'fo:, az 'ju; haBv." 

"bat '5aet s wot ju: 'djAst 'kudnt, mis 'wizdam," sed 
'torn. "f(a)r its 'o:l (5a 'ha:da wen ju: 'nou wot 'gouz 
bi'fo:; fa 'Sen ju: v got ta 'sei 'wot defi'ni/n '0ri: iz,.an(d) 
'wot 'aeksiom 'faiv iz. bat 'get a'loT) wi5 ju 'nau ; ai mas(t) 
'gou 'on wis 'Sis. 'hiaz Sa 'laetin 'grsema. 'si: wot ju: kan 
'meik av 'Soet.'* 

9. E. F. Benson 

A passage from Dodo (Chap. 4)* 

With intonation curves* 

P V 



at'Sis'moumant | a'/ril'vois'ko:ld'doudouframtJa'droir)rum. || 

/ p 



'doudou'doudou " it'kraid. 




Sa'm3en'bro:tmi'tu:'tepid'pout/t'egz 



1 Reproduced by kind permission of Mr Benson and the publishers, 
Messrs Methuen. 

^ See Part I, pp. 59 — 64. p, /, etc. are here used with their usual 
musical values to indicate the average loudness of the groups. For U 
and I see Part I, § 214. 



88 



PHONETIC TRANSCEIPTIONS 



/ 



'<iu;senmisAm0ir)'els. jl 'izt5(e)8SAt/96ir)aza'grild'boun ? " 1| 
P P ^ 

'5i:zn'ma:kswa'spi:dilifoloud'Ap | baiSia'piaransav'mis'steinz | 
p p p 



9t{59'dainir)rum'do:. || in'wAn'haend J /i'heldtJadis'paizd'egz, || 
P P 



int5i'ASa | a'kwaiarav'mju:zikpeip9. || 



P 



bi'haind(h)9:folouda'futman | ' wi5(h)a;'brekfas(t)trei, 
P p 




iniks'kjuizabl'ignarans | ozta'wotw8zri'kwaiadov(h)im 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE B 89 

mf p 



'*'diadoudou'7iwent'on, | 



mf 



"ju/nouweuaimk9m'pouzir)a'sinifani 



Vif 



/v 



ai'woiitsAmeir)'mo:rik'saitir)t59nau:'pout/t'egz. 
mf 



'roista'brokstnai'noul'teikmai'said. || 
nf rnf 



ju:'kudnt'i;t'pout/t'egzata'bo:l | — 'kudju: ? [( 
mf w/ 



^imaiVdu:veri'welfara'fju:nrdl'raa;tJ | o:r3nok'ta;n, 



90 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

mf mf 



batSei'woruntdu.'fera'simfani, | is'pe/lifeSa'skeatsou. 

/ 



o'br3endion'soude9nda'gril(i'boun 



/ 



(i)zwotwAii'nali'woiitsfer9'ske9tsou, 
mf 




ounli'58etedbi'k\vaitautav?id'kwestJ(^9)n." 




'i:did'steinzto;ktina'lauddi'te:mind'vois, 
/ V 



ond'emfasaiz(^(h)a:'points | wi5litl'dfE/izn'flAri/iz 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE B 91 



dvSa'di/ev'pout/t'egz. || at'Sis'moumaDt j 
mf mf 




^wAnavSem'flu.-ontetJa'flo: | endiks'ploudid 



b9titson'il'wind(58tblouz'noub8dienigud, 



P 




ondot'enireit'disri'liivdSo'futmenfromiz'steitavindi'sisn 



hizi'mKdjet'mi/nwaz'klialitari'muivit. || 
mf mf 



'doudou'tiru:(h)9:self'J3aekin(h)a;'t/6d | wiea'pirlav'laifta- |l 



PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 



'gou'on'gou'oD'7»'kraid. | "jud'tui'splendid. || 

/ 



'tebswotjuraitSe'prestouon." |[ 



ai'ka:nt'wei8te'nA5d'moumdnt"sed'i:di6 




" aimin5a'mJdl8v5amoustin'tra:nsir)mou'ti;f, | 
mf 



wi t/iz'wa ikirj'au t'bj u : taflL 



'dju;'mainmai'smoukir)in5a'droir)rum ? {{ 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE B 93 

P P 




aim'o:fli'sori, | betitmeiks'oilSa'difranstamai'waik. 



^/ 



mf 



'beinalitl'insensSear'aiftewddz. || 'dursenmie'boun'doudou.* || 
mf 



'kAmand'hiamipleiSa'sksotsouleitai-'on. 
m/ / / 




7T 



itsSa'best'wirjaiv'eva'dAn, || 'ou, | 'baiSa'wei, | 



ai'teli(jra:fttahee'trAf(e)nta'kArat9'morou- 



'hiizmaikon'dAktaju'nou. || juikan'putim'ApinSa'vilidj | 



94 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

w/ . mf 



o;5a'koulhouliijuiaik. || hiiz'kwait'hsepi 
mf mf 



if(h)i:'getsi'nAf'bia. || hiizmai'd^aimankan'dAktaju'nou. || 
mf mf 



ai'meid'himin'taiali. || ai'tuk(h)imta58prin'ses6iA?J8'dei 
mf mf 



wenaiwazat'eiks, | ondwi'oilhsed'biatageSa | 
mf mf 




inSava'rsendaavSa'bou'siit. || ju;lbia'mju;zdwi3(h)im. 
mf p mf 



'ou'rcL;Sa"sed'doudou ; | " 'Saetlbi'oil'rait. || 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE B 95 

i mf rnf 



hi:kii'sli:pinSe'haus. || 'wil(h)i:kAm'8:litamorou ? || 



/ / 



\ /A 



'lets'si: 



ta'morouz'SAndi. 
mf 



'iidiG, I aiv'gotnai'dia. 




wiilhseva'dielitl'saivisinSa'haus — 



m/ 



wi/kdintgouta't/ait/ifit'snouz— \\ 9nd'ju;/l'pleijo:'maes, 
mf 



and'hea'wotsizneim/lkan'dAkt, | 
mf mf 




3n(d)'b9:tian'gra:nti8n(dyju:9n(dyailsiT). || 'wountitbi'lAvli ? || 



\ 



96 



,7*/ 



PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 
mf 



"ju:en(dyaijsetj'o:l'5aet5isa;ft8'nu:n. || 'teligraiftd'trAfla | 



3:wot'evariz'neim'iz. | takAinbaiSi'eit'twenti. || 
mf 



een(h)i:lbi'hiabai'twelv, | 



nf 



3nid)wi:lh8evSa'sa;visata'kwo:t8'pa:st." 
/ IP mf 



"doudouSaetlbi'grsend"sed'i:dit*. || " ai'kaint'weit'nau. 
mf mf 



gu(d)'bai. || 'hAri'Apmai'brekfost — | 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE B 97 



aim'o;fli'/a:p'set." 'iidie'went'baektatJa'droirjrum, 



'wislirjinopa'tikjelali'/ril'maena. 



III. STANDARD PRONUNCIA.TION 
C. DECLAMATORY STYLE 

10. Lord Byron 

A passage from Childe Harold 
(Canto IV, stanzas 177 — 179) 

'on ! C&t t58 'dezat wa: mai 'dvvelirjpleis, 
wis 'wAn 'fea 'spirit fo mai 'minista, 
6aet ai mait 'o:l fo'get Sa 'hju:man 'reis, 
send, 'heitir) 'nou wAn, 'Iav bAt 'ounli 'ha:! 
ji: 'eliments ! — in hu:z m'noublir) 'sta:(r) 
ai 'fill maiself ig'zo:ltid — ^'kaen ji; not 
ae'koid mi; 'sAtJ a 'biiirj ? du: ai 'a:(r) 
in 'di;mir) 'sAtJ in'hsebit 'meni a 'spot? 
6ou 'wii5 Sem tu k5n'va:s ksen 'reali bi; aoa* 'lot. 

6ear iz a 'ple3a(r) in Sa 'pa:6lis 'wudz, 
tJear iz a 'r8ept/Jua(r) on Sa 'lounli 'Jo: (a), 
Sear iz so'saieti hwea 'nAn in'tru;dz, 
bai Sa 'di;p 'si;, aend 'mjii;zik in its 'ro;(a); 
ai 'Iav not 'maen Sa 'les, bAt 'neit/Jua 'mo:(a), 
from 'Si:z aoar 'intavju;z, in 'hwit/ ai 'sti;l 
from 'o;l ai 'mei 'bi;, o; 'haev 'bi;n bi'fo;(a), 
tu 'mirjcjl wiS 6a 'ju:niva;s, aend 'fi:l 
'hwot ai kttn 'near iks'pres, jet 'kaenot 'o;l kon'siil. 
1 For ao9 see Part I, § 138. 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE C 99 

'roul 'on, Sail 'di;p afend *'daik 'blu: 'ou/an — 'roul ! 
'ten 'Gauzand 'flirts 'swiip ouva Si: in 'vein; 
'msen 'ma:ks Si; 'a:9 wiS 'ru;in — hiz kon'troul 
'stops wis Sa '/o:(a); — Apon Sa 'wo:t(a)ri 'plein 
Sa 'reks a;r 'o:l 'Sai 'di:d, 'no: dA0 ri'mein 
a 'Jaedou ov 'msenz 'rsBvidg, 'seiv hiz 'oun, 
'hvven, for a 'moument, laik a 'drop ov 'rein, 
hi: 'sifjks intu Sai 'dep9s wiS 'bAblir) 'cjroiin, 
wiS'aut d 'cjreiv, 'An'neld, 'An'kofind, aend 'An'noun. 



11. W. E. Gladstone 

Peroration of Mr Gladstone's speech on the second 
reading of the Reform Bill of 1866^ 

'mei ai 'sei tu 'onorabl 'd3entlmen 'opozit, sez 'sAm ov 
Sem haev a'drest a'dvais tu djentlmen on 'Sis 'said ov Sa 
'haus, "'wil ju: not kon'sida bi'fo:(a) ju: im'baik in Sis 
'nju: krui'seid, 'hweSa Sa ri'zAlts ov Si: 'ASaz in hwitj ju: 
hffiv in'geid3d haev bi:n sou saetis'fsektori ? " 'greit 'baetlz 
ju: haev 'fo:t, aend 'fo;t Sem 'maenfuli. Sa 'baetl ov mein- 
'teinirj 'sivil disa'bilitiz on akaunt ov ri'lid3as bi'li:f, Sa 
baetl ov ri'zistir) Sa 'fa:st ri'foim aekt, Sa baetl ov pro'tek/an, 
'oil 'Siiz 'greit 'baetlz haev bi:n 'fo:t bai Sa 'greit 'pa:ti Saet 
ai 'si: 'opozit ; aend aez tu 'sAm ov Sem ai a'dmit mai 'oun 
'/ea(r) ov Sa risponsi'biliti. bAt 'haev Sea ri'zAlts bi:n 'sAtJ 
oez Saet ju: Jud bi: dis'pouzd tu ri'nju: Si:z a'taeks a'gein? 
'sa:tenli 'Souz hu: 'sit on 'Sis said haev 'nou 'ri:zan o: 'taitl 
tu 'faind 'forltl Si: i'fekt ov jua^ 'ko:(a)s haez bi:n tu 'giv 

1 The pronunciation actually used by Mr Gladstone differed in many 
respects from that given here. It was rather similar to that given in 
no. 20. 

2 Or '«»lt. » Or jo:(9). 

7—2 



100 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

6em fb 'faiv aut ov 'siks, o; fo 'siks CLut ov 'sevan 'jiaz^ (58 
'kondakt send 'msenid3ment ov 'pAblik e'feaz. Si: ifekt 
haez bi:n tu 'loua, tu ri'djuis, send kon'traekt jua^ 'd3Ast 
'influens in Sa 'kAntri, fend tu 8'brid3 jua^ '/ea(r) in Si: 
sed gainis'treifan ov Sa 'gAvanment. it iz 'gud fo Sa 'pAblik 
'intrist^ Saet ju: Jud bi* 'stror); bAt 'if ju: a: tu bi* 'stror), 
ju: kaen 'ounli 'bi: sou bai 'Jouir), aez 'wel aez Sa 'kaindnis 
aend Sa 'pa:sanal dgenfrositi hwit/ ai sem 'Jua ju: 'fi:l 
to:(a)dz" Sa 'piipl, a 'pAblik 'trAst aend 'konfidens 'in Sem. 
'hwot ai 'sei 'nau k&n 'ha:dli bi: 'sed wiG sbn 'iivil 'raoutiv. 
'bAt, sa:, wi: a:r a'seild ; 'Sis 'bil iz in a steit ov 'kraisis 
gend ov 'peril, send 6a 'gAvanment a'lor) 'wiS it. wi: 'staend 
o: 'foil wis it aez haez bi:n di'klead bai mai 'noubl 'frend. 
wi: 'staend wis it 'nau ; wi: 'mei 'fo:l wiS it a 'Jo:t 'taim 
'hens, aend 'if wi: 'du:, wi: Jael 'raiz wiS it hiai"'a:fta. ai 
Jael 'not a'tempt tu 'me39 wiS pri'si3an Sa 'foisiz Saet a: tu 
bi: a'reid in Sa 'kAmir) 'strAgl. pa'hacps Sa 'greit di'vi3an 
ov tu'nait iz 'not Sa 'la;st Saet mAst 'teik 'pleis in Sa 'strAgl. 
ju: mei 'posibli sak'si:d aet 'sAm 'point ov Sa 'kontest. ju: 
mei 'draiv as from CLoa 'si:ts. ju: mei 'beri Sa 'bil Saet wi: 
haev intro'dju:st, bAt for its 'epita:f wi: wil 'rait apon its 
'greivstoun 'Sis 'lain, wiS 'sa:ten 'konfidens in its fulfil- 
ment : — 

" ekso:ri'eari 'aelikwis 'nostris 'eks 'osibas 'Alto:'." 
ju: 'kaenot 'fait ageinst Sa 'fju:t/Jua. 'taim iz on 'aoa 'said. 
Sa 'greit 'sou/al 'foisiz hwitj 'mu:v 'on in Ssa 'mait send 

1 Or jo:z. 2 Or jo:{0). ' Or 'interest. 

4 Or bi:. " Or tu'wo-dz. 

6 In the modern reformed pronunciation of Latin this line would be :— 
eksori'aore 'alikwls 'no8tri:s 'eks 'osilmB 'ultoar. 
Some might stress the wqrds more rhythmically thus :— 

'ek83rl'aar(e) ali'kwis notftriia eks 'osibus 'ultoir. 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE C 101 

'm8ed3isti, send hwit/ 69 'tju:mAlt ov 'aoa di'beits dAz not 
for a 'moument im'piid 0; dis'ta:b — 'Souz 'greit 'sou/al 
'foisiz a;r o'geinst ju:; Sei a; 'maijald on 'aoa 'said, aend 
Sa 'baena hwit/ wi: 'nau 'kaeri, Sou po'hgeps at 'sAm 
'moument it mei 'dru:p ouvar aoo 'sirjkirj 'hedz, jet it 
'sum 9'gein wil 'flout in 5i: 'ai ov 'hevon, aend it wil bi: 
'bo:n bai 6a 'farm 'haendz ov Sa ju:'naitid 'pi:pl ov Sa '0ri: 
'kirjdamz, pa'haeps 'not tu an 'iizi, bAt tu a 'saiten aend tu 
a 'not 'distant 'viktori. 



12. John Keats 

Sonnet to Sleep 

'ou 'so:fb^ im'ba:ma(r) ov Sa 'stil 'mid'nait, 

'/Atir) wif5 'keaful 'firjgaz aend bi'nain, 
aoa 'glu:mpli:zd 'aiz, im'bauad from 5a 'lait, 

in'/eidid in fo'getfulnis di'vain; 
'ou '8u:Sist 'sliip! if 'sou it 'pli:z 6i:, 'klouz, 

in 'midst ov 'Sis Sain 'him, mai 'wiliij 'aiz, 
o: 'weit Si: 'ei'men, 'ea Sai 'popi 'Orouz 

a'raund mai 'bed its 'IaHt) 't/seritiz; 

'Sen 'seiv mi:, o: Sa 'pa:sid 'dei wil 'Jain 
apon mai 'pilou, 'bri:dir) 'meni 'wouz, — 

'seiv mi: from 'kjuarias ' kon fans . Saet 'stil 'lo:dz 
its 'strer)9 fo 'da:knis, 'bAiouig laik a 'moul; 

'ta:n Sa 'ki: 'deftli in Si: 'oilid 'wo:dz, 
aend 'si:l Sa 'hA/id 'ka:skit ov mai 'soul. 

1 Or '■oft. 



102, phonetic transcriptions 

13. John Milton 

At a Solemn Music 

'blest 'pear ov 'saearmz^ 'pledsiz ov 'hevnz 'dsoi, 
'sfiaboin ha/mounias 'sistaz, 'vols aend 'va:s, 
'wed jua'^ di'vain 'saundz, aend 'mikst 'paoar^ im'ploi, 
'ded eirjz wiS 'inbriitSd 'sens 'eibl tu 'pias; 

5 aend tu aoa 'haireizd 'faentasi pri'zent 
Saet 'Andis'taibid 'sor) ov 'pjua kon'sent, 
'ei 'sATj bifo:(a) Sa 'ssefaeakAlad 'Oroun 
tu 'him Saet 'sits Sear'on, 
wi(5 'seintli '/aut send 'solam 'dguibilii; 

lo 'hwea 6a 'brait 'serafim in 'bainirj 'rou 
6ea 'laud Ap'liftid 'eindgel'trAmpits 'blou, 
aend 5a t/e'ru:bik 'houst in '0auzand 'kwaeaz 
'tAt/ 6ear i'mo;t(a)l 'ha;ps ov 'goulden 'waeez, 
wis '6ouz 'dsAst 'spirits 6aet 'wea vik'to:rjas 'paimz, 

15 'himz di'vaut aend 'houli 'saimz 
'sirjir) eva'laistirjli ; 

Caet 'wi: on 'aiQ, wiS 'Andis'koidirj 'vois, 
mei 'raitli 'ainsa Saet mi'loudjas 'noiz; 
aez 'wAns wi: 'did, til 'dispro'po:/and 'sin 

20 'd3a;d ageinst 'neit/^uaz 't/aim, send wis 'ha;/ 'din 
'brouk Sa fea 'mju:zik Saet 'o:l 'kri;t/^uaz 'meid 
tu 'Sea 'greit 'lo:d, hu;z 'Iav Sea 'mou/an 'sweid 
in 'pa:fikt daia'peisan, 'hwailst Sei 'stud 
in 'fa:st o'biidjens, aend Sea 'steit ov 'gud. 

25 'ou, mei wi: 'su:n agein ri'nju: Saet 'sot), 
aend 'ki:p in 'tju:n wiS 'hevn, til 'god ea 'lor) 
tu hiz si'lestjal 'konso:t as ju:'nait, 
tu 'liv wis 'him, aend 'sir) in 'endlis 'mo:n ov 'lait! 
1 For ac», ao« see Part I, §§ 127, 138. ^ Or jo:(»). 



standard pronunciation. style c 103 

14. William Shakespeare 
A passage from Julius Caesar, Act ill, Scene 2 

(A phonetic transcription of the original 16th century pronuncia- 
tion of this passage will be found in Vietor, Skakespear^s 
Pronunciation, Vol. ii, p. 131.) 

'SBntoni, 'frendz, 'roumanz, 'kAntrimen, 'lend mi; 
juar^ 'iaz; 
ai 'kAm tu 'beri 'siiza*, 'not tu 'preiz him. 
5i: 'iivil Cast 'men 'du; 'livz 'aifba Sem; 
6a 'gud iz 'o:ft^ in'tairid wis Sea 'bounz; 
'sou let it bi: wis 'si:za. Sa 'noubl 'bruitas 
ha;9 'tould ju: 'si;za woz sem'bi/as*; 
'if it 'wa:^ sou, it woz a 'griivas 'foilt^, 
aend 'griivasli hse9 'siiza 'ainsad it. 
'hia, Anda 'li:v ov 'bruitas aend Sa 'rest — 
fo 'bruitas iz aen 'onorabl maen; 
'sou ai Sei 'oil; 'oil 'onorabl men — 
'kAm 'ai tu 'spiik in 'siizaz'^ 'fjumaral. 
'hi: woz mai 'frend, 'feiOful send 'djAst tu 'mi:; 
bAt 'bruitas 'sez hi: woz sem'bi/as*; 
aend 'bru:tas iz aen 'onorabl maen, 
hi: haeO 'bro:t 'meni 'kseptivz 'houm tu 'roum, 
hu:z 'raensamz did Sa 'dsenaral 'kofaz 'fil; 

1 Or jo:(a)r. 

2 Some might use the vowel a (Part I, § 176) instead of a in the word 
Caesar(^s) : thiis, '8i:zu,(z). 

3 Or 'oft. 

^ The pronunciation sem'bijios is occasionally heard in this particular 
case, the second i being introduced for the sake of the metre; such a 
pronunciation is however not necessary. 

» Or 'wE». « Or 'folt. 



104 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

did '5is in 'si.'za si:m aem'bi/as^ ? 

'hwen Sset S9 'pua haev 'kraid, 'si.'za hae0 'wept; 

sem'bi/an /ud bi' meid ov 'stama 'stAf; 

jet 'bru:tas 'sez hi: woz aem'bi/as^; 

aend 'bruitas iz aen 'onorabl maen. 

ju; 'oil did 'si: 6aet on 5a 'l(j)u:pakael 

ai '6rais pri'zentid him a 'kirjli 'kraun, 

hwitj 'hi: did '0rais ri'fjuiz. 'woz 'Sis aem'bi/an? 

jet 'bru:tas 'sez hi: woz aem'bi/as*; 

aend, 'Jua, hi: iz aen 'onorabl maen. 

ai 'spi:k 'not tu 'dis'pru:v hwot 'bru:tas 'spouk, 

bAt 'hiar ai 'sem, tu 'spi:k 'hwot ai du: 'nou. 

ju: 'o:l did 'Iav him 'wAns, 'not wiSaut 'ko:z; 

'hwot 'ko:z wi6'houldz^ ju: Sen, tu 'mo:(a)n fo him ? 

'ou 'dgAdgment! Sau (i:t 'fled tu 'bruiti/ 'bi:sts, 

aend 'men haev 'lo:st* Sea 'ri;zan. 'bea wis mi: ; 

mai 'ha:t iz in Sa 'kofin 'Sea wiS 'siiza, 

Bend ai mAst 'po:z, til it 'kAm 'baek tu mi:. 

1 See note 4 on previous page. 2 Or bl:. 

» Or wlS'botildz. * Or 'lost. 

15. Alfred Lord Tennyson 

Lyrics from The Princess 
With intonation curves* 

/ 



Sa'8plendo'fo:lzon'ka:8l'wo:lz | 

^ See Part I, pp. 59 — 64. p, /, etc. are here used with their usual 
musical values to indicate the average loudness of the groups. For II 
and 1 see Part I, § 214. 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE 105 



/ 



aend'snoui'SAmita I 'ouldin'storri ; 



/ 



Sa'lorj'lait'/eiksakroisSd'leiks, || 




aBnd59'waild'k3et8r8ekt'li;psin'glo.Ti 

/ / s s 



^- "\ 




'blou I 'bjuigl, II 'blou, || 'settJe'waild'ekouz'flaiir), || 
/ mf mp mp p pp 



r^ 



'blou I 'bju:gl, || 'a;ns9> j 'ekouz, 1| 'daiir) | 'daiir) | 'daiiTj, |[ 
p p p 



'ou'haik f 'ou'hia! || hau'Oinsend'klia || 

1 If no break is made between this group and tbe next, r should be 
inserted, thus: 'ainsor'ekouz. 



L06 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

V P P 



send'eina | 'kliara | 'faiCa'gouirj I || 
P P 



'ou'swiitaend'fa; | from'klifaend'ska; li 
P P 



Sa'homzov'elflaend | 'feintli'blouirj ! 1| 
mf p 



"^ 



'blou II letAs'hiatJa'pa.-pl'glenzri'plailr) : || 
mp p p PP P P PP 



^\ 



'blou I 'bjuigl (1 'a:nsa» | 'ekouz || 'daiir) | 'daiii) | 'daiiT). || 
mp mp 



'ou'Iav I Cei'daiin'jon'rit/'skai || 
> See note on previous page. 



STANDARD PRONUNCIATION. STYLE C 107 

P P P 



tJei'feinton'hil | o:'fi:ld | o/riva |1 



mf 



aodr'ekouz'roulfraiu'soultu'soul [ 



/ 



/ 



aend'groufor'eva* | aendfoi^eva |I 



/ / / 



A 



^ 




'blou I 'bju;gl || 'blou || 'setSd'waild'ekouz'flaiirj || 



mp 



mp p P PP 



send'a:ns3^ | 'ekouz || 'a;iisa || 'daiir) | 'daiir) | 'daiiij. [| 
> See note od p. 105. 



IV. PRONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR 
SPEAKERS 

16. Joseph Addison 

A passage from Sir Roger de Goverley's country residence 
and friends 

Pronunciation of Q. Noel- Arm field, Esq. (London) » 

ai hav ab'zaivd in 'sevrl 9v mai 'peipaz, Sat mai 'frond 

^ sa 'rodja, amidst 'o:l hiz 'gud 'kwolitiz iz 'sAm9ir) av a 

/ 'hjumarist, an Sat hiz 'vaitjuz az 'wel az impa'fek/nz, ar az 

2 it wa: 'tind3d bai a 'sa:tn eks'trsevagans, hwit/ 'meiks Sam 

pa'tikjulali 'hiz, an dis'tirjgwi/iz Sam from 'Souz av 'ASa 

/ 'men. 'Sis 'ka:st av 'maind, az it iz 'djenrali 'veri 'inoesnt 

^ in it'self, 'sou it 'rendaz hiz konva'sei/n 'haili 9'gri:abl, an 

'mora di'laitfl San Sa 'seim di'gri; av 'sens an 'va:tju wud 

a'pia in Sea 'koman and 'oidnri 'kAlaz. az ai waz 'woikirj 

wi9 him 'laist 'nait, hij 'askt mi 'hau ai 'laikt Sa 'gud 

'msen, hu;ra ai av 'dsAst 'nau 'men/nd : an wiS'aut 'steir) 

; fa mai 'a;nsa, 'tould mi Sat hi waz a'freid av biiT) in'sAltid 

wis 'laetin an 'griik at hiz 'oun 'teibl: fa 'hwitj 'ri;zn hi 

/ di'zaiad a pa'tikjala 'frend av hiz at Si juni'vaisiti ta 'faind 

1 See notes on pp. 109, 110. 



PRONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKERS 109 

im 'aut 9 'klo:d5iman 'raiSar ev 'plein 'sens 5n 'mAt/ 'leinir), $ 
9v 9 'gud 'aespekt, a 'klia 'vois, a 'sou/abl 'tempa, 'send, 'if 
'posibl, 9 'maen t59t Anda'stud 9 'litl 9v bcek'gaemn. " mai 
'frend," sez sa 'rod3a, "'faund mi 'aut 'Sis dgentlmn, 'hu, 
bi'saidz Si en'dauman+^^s ri'kwaiad 9v him 'iz, Sei 'tel mi, a 
'gud 'tikolg, So i 'dAznt 'Jou it. ai hgv 'givn im S9 'pa:snid3 / 
av Sa 'pserij; an bikoiz ai 'nou hiz 'vaelju, haev 'setld Apon I 
him a 'gud a'njuiti fa 'laif. 'if hij aut'livz mi, hi f\ 'faind 
Sot hi waz 'haiar in mai es'tiim San pa'hseps hi 'Oirjks hij 1 
iz. hi az 'nau 'bi:n wiS mi '9a;ti 'jaiz and Sou i 'dAznt 'nou J 
ai hav teikn 'noutis av it, haz 'nevar in 'o;l 'Saet 'taim / 
'a:skt 'eni0ir) av mi fr im'self. So ij iz 'evri 'dei sa'lisitir) mi 
fo 'sAm9ir) in bi'ha:f av 'wau ar 'ASar av mai 'tenants, 'hiz / 
po'ri/naz. Sar az 'not bim a 'b;sju;t in Sa 'paerij sins hi az 3 
'livd am AT) Sam; if 'eni dis'pjuit a'raiziz, Sei a'plai Sam- / 
selvz ta 'him fa Sa di'si3n : if Sei du 'not sekwij'es in hiz 
'd3Ad3mant, hwitj ai Girjk 'neva 'hsepnd abAv 'wAns a 'twais 
at 'moust, Sei a'pid ta 'mi:j. at hiz 'fa:st 'setlirj wis mi, 0~^ 1 
ai 'meid im a 'preznt av 'o:l Sa 'gud 'sa;mnz hwitJ av bim 3 
'printid in 'irjfjlij, and 'ounli 'bcgd av him, Sat 'evri 'sAnde 
hi wud pra'nauns 'wau av Sam in Sa 'pulpit. a'ko;dir)li hi ^ 
az di'd3estid Sam intu 'sAtJ a 'siariz, Sat Se 'folo wau a'uASa 
'nset/rli, an 'meik a kan'tinj u:d 'sistim av 'prsektikl di'viniti." / 

Notes on the pronunciation of 0. Noel-Armjield, Esq. 

Mr Noel-Armfield's father spoke Southern English, his 
mother came from Yorkshire but acquired the Southern 
English pronunciation. Mr Noel-Armfield spent many 
years of his youth in Yorkshire, but this did not greatly 
affect his pronunciation. He studied at London Univer- 
sity and at the University of Lille. 



110 



PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 



The following are the chief points in which his pro- 
nunciation differs from StP as defined in Part I, §§ 1, 2. 

(1) e is used in the first syllable of extravagance, 
endowments and the second syllable of Sunday. 

(2) i: is used in agreeable. 

(3) G is used in tuith when followed by a breathed 
consonant. 

(4) OB (= e with lip-rounding added) is used in the 
second syllable of innocent. 

Note also that 

(5) u is used in the third syllable of particularly 
but 9 in particular. 

(6) I, the vowel intermediate between i and e, is 
used in the terminations -ed, -es, -age etc. 

Mr Noel-Armfield has also kindly given me the follow- 
ing particulars regarding his pronunciation which do not 
appear from the phonetic text. 

(7) r after p, b, f, v, 9, 8 is rolled, not fricative. 

(8) The o: in bikoiz is intermediate between the 
usual o: and o. 

(9) a: varies slightly in quality according as it 
represents ir in the spelling or not. In the former case 
it tends towards a lengthened a (which may be written 
a:). Thus httrt (halt) is distinct from shir^t (/ait, tending 
towards /Ait). 



PHONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKERS 111 



17. Fuhrken-Jespersen-Rodhe 

Anecdote taken from Fuhrken's Transcription of 
Jespersen and Rodhe's EngeUk Ldsebok^ 

Pronunciation of Q. E. Fuhrken, Esq., M.A., Ph.D. (London) 2 
?58 'teligraif iks'pleind 

tu iks'plein 'simpli Sa 'waikirj 9v Sa 'wAndras 'teligraif 
iz a 'pAzl fa t5a fi'losafa^; an nou 'wAnda 'simpl 'fouks 'kAm 
ta 'griif ouva Sa 'ta:sk. tSa 'folouirj iz Si:* 'ekspla'nei/n 
'cjivn tu iz 'felou bai an i'tseljan 'peznt. 

"'dount ju;* si:* Souz 'poulz n 'vvaiaz Cat 'rAn a'lorj 
bi'said 69 'reilwei?'* 

" ai 'nou Sset iz Sa 'teligra:f ; bat 'hau^ daz it 'wa:k ? " 

"'nA9irj mo: 'simpl; ju:* av 'ounli ta 'tAtJ 'wau 'end av 
5a 'waia, an 'klik ! — Si:* 'ASar end 'raits it 'daun 'd3A8t Sa 
'seim az a 'pen." 

" 'stil, ai 'dount kwait 'si: hau its 'dAn." 

' Reproduced by kind permission of Dr Fuhrken and Dr Rodhe. 
2 See notes on p. 112. 

* The variations in the quality of the vowel (Part I, § 172) are 
indicated in Dr Fuhrken's transcriptions by distinguishing two varieties 
which he writes a and 9, s denoting the opener variety. The distinction 
has been reproduced above, Dr Fuhrken's symbol o being altered to 6, 
because ^ is used in the present book with a different meaning (Part I, 
§ 71). 

* Dr Fuhrken uses the symbols i, u for the sounds represented in 
this book by i, u, and he uses I, u to represent i:, u: in cases where, 
owing to want of stress, the sounds are very short (Part I, § 196, 1 (2)). 
The words marked ^ on this page and * on the next are the cases in 
which he indicates in this way that the vowel sound is short. 

^ Dr Fuhrken uses an to represent the diphthong here written an 
(see Part I, §§ 135, 136). 



112 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

^mi:^ 'trai ta meik it 'plein. 'haev ju:^ a 'dog ? " 

"'wot daz ill 'du: if ju:» 'pin/ iz 'teil ? " 
'"ba:k, tabii^'/ua." 

"'wel Sen, sa'pouzir) joa 'dog wa 'lorj inAf ta 'ri:t/ in 
'bodi fram 'florans 'hia ta tJa 'ksepitl." 

":wel?" .KK . . . 

"it iz 'klia Sen Sat if ju:^ 'pi^^z 'teil in 'florans hi:* 
wil 'ba:k in 'roum. 'Sea, frend, Saets ig'zsektli hcLu Si;* 
i'lektrik 'teligra:f wa;ks." 

Notes on the pronunciation of Dr Fuhrken 

Dr Fuhrken was educated in Enghmd. He is now 
lecturer on English at the University of Gothenburg. 
He speaks typical educated Southern English. 

Note the insertion of a in joa. Dr Fuhrken's o sound 
in this word is intermediate in quality between o and o:. 



18. Oliver Goldsmith 

A passage from Beau Tihhs at Vauxhall 

Pronunciation of Dr E. R. Edwards (London) 

ai waz 'gouirj tu 'sekand (h)iz ri'ma:ks, wen wi wa 'koild 
tu a konsal'tei/an bai 'mista 'tibz an Sa 'rest av Sa 'kAmpani, 
tu 'nou in 'wot 'msena wi wa tu 'lei 'aut Si 'iivnirj tu Sa 
'greitist ad'vaintidj. 'misiz tibz woz fa 'ki:pir) Sa djen'tiil 
'work av Sa 'ga:dn, 'wea, Ji ab'za:vd. Sea waz 'oilwiz Sa veri 
'best 'kAmpani; Sa 'widou on Sa 'kontrari, hu 'keim bat 
'wAns a 'si:zn W02 fa si'kjuarir) a 'gud 'stsendirj-pleis tu 'si: Sa 

^ See note 4 on previous page. 



J 



PRONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKERS 113 

'wo:taw8:ks, wit/ Ji a'/uod as Avud bi'cjin in 'les San on 
'aue(r) at 'faiSast; 9 dis'pju:t 6eefo; bi'gaen, and 'aez it waz 
'msenid3d bitwi;n 'tuw av 'veri 'opazit 'kaeriktaz, it 'Oretnd 
tu grou 'mo: 'bita(r) at 'evri ri'plai. 'misiz 'tibz 'vvAndad 
hau pi;pl kud pri'tend tu 'nou 6a pa'lait 'wa;ld, hu ad 
risiivd 'o:l Sea 'ruidimants av 'bri:dir) bi'haind a 'kaunta; 
tu wit/ Si 'ASa ri'plaid, Sat Sou ^sAm piipl 'saet bi'haind 
'kauntaz, jst Sei kud 'sit at Sa 'lied av Sear 'oun 'teiblz 
'tuw, an 'ka:v '0rij 'gud 'di/iz av 'hot 'mi;t wen'eva Sei 
'0o:t 'propa; — wit/ waz 'mo: San 'sAm pi:pl kud 'sei fa 
Sam'selvz, Sat 'ha:dli njuw a 'rsebit i;i 'Anjanz fram a 'gri:n 
'gu:s an 'guzbriz. 

it s 'ha:d tu 'sei 'wea Sis mait av 'endid, had not Sa 
'hAzband, hu 'probabli 'njuw Si impetju'ositi av (h)iz 'waifs 
dispa'zi/an, pra'pouzd tu 'end Sa dis'pju:t bai a'd3a:nir) tu 
a 'boks, an 'trai if Sea waz 'eniyir) tu bi 'ha3d fa 'sApa Sat 
waz sa'po:tabl. 



Notes on the pronunciation of Dr Ediuards 

Dr Edwards spent the first twelve years of his life in 
Japan, but since that time he has lived chiefly in London. 
Most of his education was received in the South of 
England. 

The pronunciation is typical educated Southern 
English, and does not call for much comment. Note that 

(1) the vowel in when, less, etc. is not identical 
with the first element of the diphthong ei, but is the 
opener sound e ; it is however not quite so open as the e 
in the diphthong ea, 

(2) i: and u: are slightly diphthongized. 



114 phonetic transcriptions 

19. Thomas Huxley 

Apassage hom Discourses Biological and Geological (p.224)» 

Pronunciation of H. D. Ellis, Esq., M.A, (London) 

'wot iz Sa 'poipas ov 'praimari inta'lektjual edju/kei/en ? 
ai 'sepri'hend Sat its 'fa:st 'obd3ekt iz ta 'trein 6i 'JArj in Si 
'ju;s av 'Souz 'tuilz wsa'wi0 'men eks'traekt 'noledj from Si; 
'eva'/iftir) sak'se/an ov fa'nomina wit/ 'pa:s ba'fo: Ser 'aiz ; 
send Sat its 'sekand obdsekt iz tu: in'foim Sam ov Sa 'fAn- 
da'mentl 'lo:z wit/ av bin 'faund bai eks'piirians ta 'gAvan 
Sa 'ko:s av 'Girjz, sou Sat Sei mei 'not bi taind 'aut inta Sa 
'wa:ld 'neiked, da'fenslas, send a 'prei tu Si; a'vonts Sei mait 
kan'troul. 

9 'boi iz 'to;t tu 'ri:d hiz 'oun and 'aSo 'laer)gwad3ez in 
'o;da Sat hi; mei hasv 'aekses tu 'infinitli 'waida 'stoiaz av 
'noleds Saen kud 'eva bi; 'oupnd ta him bai 'oiral 'intako;s 
wis hiz 'felou'men; hi; la;nz tu 'rait, Sat hiz 'mi;nz ev 
kamju;ni'kei/an wiS Sa 'rest av msen'kaind, mei bi in- 
'definitli en'la;d3d, send Sat hi; mei ri'ko;d and 'sto;r 'Ap 
Sa 'noled3 hi; a'kwaiaz. hi; iz 'to:t ela'mentari mseQa- 
'msetiks, Sset hi; mei 'Anda'stsend 'o;l Souz ra'lei/anz ov 
'nAmba send 'fo;m, Apan 'wit/ Sa trsenz'aek/anz av 'men, 
a'sou/ieitid in 'komplikeitid so'saiatiz, cl; 'bilt, send Sat 
hi; mei hsev 'sAm 'prsektis in da'dAktiv 'ri;znir). 

'o;l Si:z opa'rei/anz av 'ri;dir), 'raitir) send 'saifarirj a;r 
inta'lektjual 'tu;lz, hu;z 'ju;s '/ud, bafo;r 'o:l 0ir)z bi 'la;nd 
send 'la;nd '6Arali; 'sou Sat Si 'ju;9 mei bi; e'neibld tu 
'meik hiz 'laif Sset wit/ it 'o;t ta bi;, a kan'tinjual 'prougres 
in 'la;nir) send in 'wizdam. 

Notes on the pronunciation of Mr Ellis 
The parents of Mr Ellis were both from Devonshire. 
He was educated in the South of England, and has lived 
^ Ileproduced by kind permission of the publishers, Messrs Macmillan. 



PRONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKERS 115 

in London for many years. The peculiarity of pronuncia- 
tion which is generally most characteristic of the speech 
of Devonshire people, viz. the inversion of the tip of 
the tongue in pronouncing vowels which are followed 
by r + consonant letter or r final (Part I, § 71), is not 
sufficiently marked in Mr Ellis' pronunciation to require 
the use of the symbols o, o etc. in the transcription. 

The following are the chief points in which Mr Ellis' 
pronunciation differs from StP as defined in Part I, §§ 1, 2. 

(1) o is used in weak of, from etc. 

(2) Weak i of StP is sometimes replaced by a (as in 
dd'fenslas), and sometimes by e as in 'obdgekt, eks'traekt. 

(3) The form tSi and not tJa is used in "Si jatj 
«i ju:s, «i ju:e. 

(4) i: is used in the second syllable of experience. 

(5) 9 is inserted after the o: in stores. 

(6) and is generally aend. 

20. R. J. Lloyd 
A passage from the Daily Mail, 22nd Oct. 1897, 
as transcribed in Lloyd's Northern English^ 
Pronuuciation of R. J. Lloyd, Esq., M.A., D.Litt. (Liverpool) ^ 
'insekts in 'lapland 
'eniwan hu ho;ps tu me:k ae 'kamfatabl 'dsaini in 
'lapland Jod 'nsva me:k Sae mis'teik ov 9'raivir) Se i/kwipt 
^ Reproduced by kind permission of the publishers, Messrs Teubuer 
of Leipzig. Some of the symbols used by Dr Lloyd are not quite the 
same as those used in this book ; the corresponding symbols according to 
the notqjiion used here have of course been substituted, the values 
attached to Dr Lloyd's symbols being gathered from the descriptions 
given in the earlier part of his book. One or two obvious misprints 
have been corrected. Stress marks have also been added ; they are only 
given here and there in the original, 
* See notes on p. 117. 

8—2 



116 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

£ez sen '?:dinari 'tuirist. its fe kantri ^"tet ae'baundz in 
mos'kiitoz 8n(d) 'noits, send 'if Saz ae 'flai 'moa pa'sistaent 
?5an a'naSa its as 'no:t. ae 'no:t iz ae 'smoil 'kriitja wie 6i 
'obstinasi ov ae 'handraed mas'kiitoz, and Sae 'pe:/n:s^ ov 
'ten 'djoibz. ae mas'kiito 'heraldz iz 'o:n fe'proitj wi0 ae 
'menaesir) 'baz:^. hi 'hovaz a'raund, aend if Si(j) in'tsnded 
'viktim iz 'kwik, ^iid 'pest kan bi 'kild, aend 'i:zili kild ; So: 
ov 'ko;as, if Sae kriitjaz sb'tak in bae'taljanz, Sae 'ho:l 'namba 
'ka:nt^ bi 'slo:tad, aend 'viktari mast go: tu Sa 'meni. Sae 
'no:t on Si(j) aSa hand, iz 'saila?nt aend ^'peira'ntli* 'ha:mla?s. 
hi; ae'raivz anob'tru:sivli. hi 'stroilz as'baut ae bit, az if hi 
wa 'not in Sae 'liist bit 'harjgri, bat 'o:nli ae litl 'pleznitli* 
irj'kwizitiv. 'hwot 'ha:m kod sat/ ae 'smo:l 0ir) 'du: tu ju 
'6ik 'nited 'stokirjz ? bat ?aB 'bi:k ov Sae no:t iz 'lor), aend 
havir) 't/o:zn:^ (h)iz 'roindivu:, Si 'oinar ov Sat bi:k pro'siidz 
tu 'baro wiS it, wiS ae ri'zalt c^ifets oilta'geSa sa'praizir), aend 
'sa:taenli 'moist 'pe:infl:^ Sae 'lap him'self 'steiinz (h)iz 
'fe;s wis ae mikstjar ov 'ta:r aen(d) 'griis, hwitj Sae kri:tjaz 
'do:nt 'laik. mo:'ro:var its ae 'fakt Saet Sae mas'ki:to 8en(d) 
'npit 'domt ae'se.'il Sae 'ne:tivz aez Se;i du 'streiindjaz. ae 
'mask ov 'Sis 'steiin, send ae 'harjkat/if, 'ple;st in'said Sae 
'kap aend 'left tu 'hag 'daun bi'haind, cl Sae 'ne;tiv pri'ko;/n:\ 
bat Sae 'tuirist Gigks ov "'igglaend, 'ho;m aend 'bju:ti/' send 
'probabli 'daznt 'relij dis'gaizig (h)iz kam'plek/n: intu 'Sat 
ov ae mju'lato. so; hi 'me:ks (h)im'self 'mizarabl bai 'trai(j)ig 
tu 'we:r* ae 've;il, samSig laik ae 'mi;tse:f, from hwit/ 'o;l 
Sae 'wa;ld luks laik 'milkaen(d)'wo:ta, tijnd hi 'briiSz wi9 ae 
'safoke;tig 'fiilig, aez if hi wa on Sae 'point ov 't/o:kig 9 
'fe:intig, o duiig samGig 'iikwoli an'manli. 

^ n: denotes a lengthened n. ^ z: denotes a lengthened z. 

3 The original gives ka:nt, but this appears to be a misprint, judging 
by the remarks on the sounds a and a: given in the previous part of 
Pr Lloyd's book. 

* t: denotes a lengthened c. ' L denotes a lengthened 1. 



PRONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKERS 117 

Notes on the pronunciation of Dr Lloyd 

The late Dr Lloyd was bom and brought up in Liver- 
pool and spent most of his life there. His degrees were 
obtained at the University of London. He was a Fellow 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and Honorary Reader 
in Phonetics at the University College, Liverpool. 

The following are the chief points in which his pronun- 
ciation differs from StP as defined in Part I, §§ 1, 2 : — 

(1) The half-open 6 (Part I, § 118) is used in left, 
pleasant, etc. 

(2) The presence of the letter r in the spelling 
when not followed by a vowel, is indicated by inversion 
of the tip of the tongue during the pronunciation of the 
preceding vowel (Part I, § 71), as in d5a:ni, ko:as, no:t. 

(3) The fully open a is used in Lapland, etc. - 

(4) .Weak vowels e, ae, d, o are used as in the 
declamatory style of Standard Southern English, though 
not always in the same cases. 

(5) o: and e: or e:i are used where StP has ou, ei. 
Pure e: is used when a breathed consonant follows, and 
e:i in other cases. 

(6) a is used in stressed syllables in haijgri, rizalt, 
etc. 

(7) i: is used in the first syllable of equipped, 

(8) j is used in kriitja, mikstjar. 

(9) is used in with. 

(10) Tj is used in inquisitive. 
Note also that the r sound is generally rolled but 
sometimes becomes fricative (Part I, § 95) when preceded 
by a consonant. 



118 phonetic transcriptions 

21. Thomas B. Macaulay 

A passage from the History of England 

Pronunciation of R. P. Houghton Blorb, Esq., B.A. (Lancashire) 

it wud 'not bi 'difiklt tu kom'poiz 9 Igem'pum or 
paeni'dgirik on 'aiSo ev '5i:z ri'naund 'fsekjnz. fo 'no: 
msen 'not 'Atoli 'destitjut ov 'djAdjmnt sen 'ksendua wil 
di'nai Sset Cor o 'mem 'di;p 'ste;nz on 6o 'fe:m ov So 'pa:ti 
tu 'MitJ i bi'loTjz, o Saet So 'paiti tu AitJ i iz o'po:zd me: 
'djAstli 'bo:st ov 'msni i'lAstrJAS 'ne:mz, ov 'mem hi'roik 
'sek/nz sen ov 'msni 'gre:t 'so:visiz 'rendad_to tJo 'ste:t. So 
'tru:e 'iz Sset So 'bo:9 pa:tiz hov 'ofri(^rJAsli/o:d, 'iijglond 
kud hov 'speod 'naiSo, 'if, in hor instP^uJnz^ 'fri:dom ond 
'o:do, Si sed'vsentidsiz o'raizir) from ino've:/n ond Si sed'vsen- 
tidgiz oraizir) from pris'krip/n, haev bi:n kom'baind tu on 
eks'tsnt 'elsAveo An'noin, Mi me: e'tribjut Sis 'hsepi pikju- 
li'seriti tu So 'strsnjuAs 'konflikts end ol'to:nst 'viktonz ov 
'tu: 'raivl kon'fedorisiz ov 'ste:tsmn. 

Notes on the pronunciation of Mr Blore 
Mr Blore's parents were from Lancashire. He was 
educated in Lancashire and graduated at London Uni- 
versity. 

The following are the chief points in which his pro- 
nunciation differs from StP as defined in Part I, §§ 1, 2 : — 

(1) o: and e: are used where StP has ou, ei. 

(2) Syllabic consonants are very frequent. 

(3) o is used in the first syllable of compose, conflict 
(verb), in the second syllable of innovation, in unstressed 
for, from etc. 

(4) StP ia is replaced by ja or JA. 

(5) 8B is used in the second syllable of advantage. 



I»RONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKERS 119 

(6) U3 is used in the second syllable of candour. 

(7) lA (Part I, § 81) is used in which, where etc.; 
also in we. (The distinction made by Mr Blore is that m 
is used before front vowels and w before back vowels.) 

(8) u is used in the ending -ute etc. 

(9) e is used in the last syllable of alternate. 

(10) A is sometimes used for StP a as in the last 
syllables of illustrious, strenuous. 

The following points should also be noted, which do 
not appear from the transcription : — 

(11) o: and e: are often slightly diphthongised ; they 
are not very tense. 

(12) r is the rolled consonant (Part I, § 68), but is 
not very strongly rolled. 

(13) 6 sometimes tends towards e. 

22. Thomas B, Macaulay 

A passage from the History of England (on Laud) 
Pronunciation of B. Lockhart, Esq. (Scotland) 

tSa si'viarast 'pAni/mont wit/ 5a 'tu; 'hauziz kad av 
in'fliktid wud av bi:n ta 'set im at 'libati an 'send im tu 
'oksfad. '5e:a hi mait av 'steid, 'toitjad bai hiz 'oun 
daia'bolikl 'tempa, 'hAijgrir) fa 'pjuritanz ta 'pilari an 
'mserjgl, 'pleigirj t5a kseva'lioz, fa 'wont av 'sAmbadi 'els -ta 
pleig, wis iz 'piivi/nis and seb'saiditi, pa'foimir) gri'meisiz 
and 'sentiks in Sa ka3'9i:drol, kan'tinjuir) Gaet irj'komparabl 
'daiari, wit/ wi 'neva 'si: wiSaut fa'getir) 6a 'vaisiz av iz 
'ha:t in 5a imbe'siliti av iz 'intilekt, mai'njuitir) 'daun hiz 
'driimz, 'kauntir) (5a 'drops av 'bUd wit/ 'fel fram iz 'nouz, 
'wot/irj 3a dai'rek/n av Sa 'soilt, an 'lisnir) fa tJa 'nout av tSa 



120 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

'skri:t/ aulz. kan'temtjuas 'mo:si waz Sa 'ounli 'vend38ns 
wit/ it bi'keim tJa 'pa:bmant ta 'teik on SAtJ a ri'dikjalas 
ould 'bigat. 

Notes on the pronunciation of Mr Loclchart 
Mr Lockhart is of Scottish parentage. He was edu- 
cated in Scotland and on the Continent. He has lived 
for many years in the South of England. 

The following are the chief points in which his pro- 
nunciation differs from StP as defined in Part I, §§ 1, 2 : — 

(1) The inverted vowels a, o:, etc. are used (Part I, 
§71). 

(2) j is used in toitjad. 

(3) No 9 is inserted after the u in pjuritdnz. 

(4) ae is used in the first syllable of absurdity. 

(5) Tj is used in incomparable. 

(6) ai is used in the first syllable of direction, 

(7) 9 is used in the before vowels. 

23. John Ruskin 

A passage from Modem Painters 

Pronunciation of J. H. Fudge, Esq., M.A. (London) 

'gaeSar a 'sirjgl 'bleid av 'gra:s, and eg'zaemin far a minit, 

'kwaiatli, its 'noero 'so:ad-/eipt 'strip ov 'flu:tid 'grim. 

'na9ir) aez it 'si:mz 'Sea, av 'noutabl 'gudnas o 'bjuti. a 

'veri litl 'strer)9, and a 'veri litl 'toilnas, and a 'fju: 'delikat 

'lor) 'lainz 'mi;tir) in a 'point, 'not a 'paifikt point 'naiSa, 

bAt 'bUnt and 'An'fini/t, bai 'nou mi:nz a 'kreditabl or 

se'paerantli 'mAtJ 'kead fo cg'zaimpl av 'neit/az 'wa:kman/ip, 

'meid aez it 'si:mz 'onli ta bi 'trodn on tu'dei, send ta'moro 

tu bi 'kaist intu 5i 'avn ; send a 'litl 'peil and 'holou 'sto:k, 

'fi;bl and 'flaeksid, 'liidirj 'daun tu tJa 'dal 'braun 'faibaz 

av 'ruits. an 'jet, '0ir)k av it 'wel jend 'd^Adj hweSar ev 



PRONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKER.. 121 

'oil Sa 'goid^JAs 'flauaz Sat 'bi;m in 'sAmar 'ea, and av 'o:l 
'stror) and 'gudli 'tri:z, 'pleznt tu 5i 'aiz o 'gud fa 'fu:d — 
'steitli 'pa:m and 'pain, 'stror) 'aej and 'ouk, 'sentid 'sitron, 
'baidnd 'vain — ^Sea bij 'eni bai 'maen sou 'di:pli 'lAvd, bai 
'god sou 'haili 'greist sez 5aet 'nsero 'point av 'fi:bl 'grim. 

Notes on the pronunciation of Mr Fudge 
Mr Fudge's parents were from Dorsetshire. He was 
born and educated in Hampshire and at Bristol, and took 
his M.A. degree at the University of London. 

The following are the chief points in which his pro- 
nunciation differs from StP as defined in Parti, §§ 1, 2: — 

(1) e is used in the first syllable of exam^jle, 
examine. 

(2) The inverted vowels a, o etc. are used (Part I, 

§71). 

(3) 9 is used in the last syllable of goodness, 
delicate, etc. 

(4) The vowel in sword is diphthongised. 

The following points should also be noted, which do 
not appear from the transcription : — 

(5) r is always fricative and tends towards the 
inverted consonant x (Part I, § 96). 

(6) The a in ai is identical with that in au, 
namely a vowel intermediate between the sounds a and 
a as defined in Part I, §§ 123, 129. 

(7) All the vowels are rather laxer than in Stan- 
dard Pronunciation with the exception of o: and o which 
often tend towards o:. 

, (8) The u sounds tend towards the mixed vowel ii 
(Parti, §153). 

(9) The inversion in the vowels a, o, etc. (Part 1, 
§ 71) tends to disappear when speaking carefully. 



122 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 



24. Sir Walter Scott 



A passage from Old Mortality 
Pronunciation of Miss B. Robson, M.A. (Edinburgh) 

'i:vnir) 'lo;ard eraund 'mortn az hi; ad'vainst Ap Sa 'nsero 
'del A\it/ mAst hav 'wAns bi;n a 'wuid, bat waz 'nau 9 ra'vim 
di'vestid af 'tri:z, An'les A\er q 'fju: fram tJer inaek'sesibl 
sitju'ei/n on 5i 'edg af pri'sipitAS 'baerjks, or 'klirjir) amAij 'roks 
and '9u;d3 'stomz da'faid 5i in'veign af 'men and af 'kaetl 
Idik Sa 'sksetard 'traibz af a 'korjkard 'kAntri, 'drivn ta te;k 
'refju.'dj in Sa 'bseran 'strer)9 af its 'mauntnz. '5i:z 'tu:, 
'we.'stad and di'keid, si;md raiSar tu: eg'zist Saen ta 'fUriJ, • 
and 'oinli 'sairvd tu: 'indikeit 'A\ofc t5a 'laenske:p mast 'wAns 
hav 'bi:n. bat Sa 'stri:m 'bro:ld 'daun amAr) (5am in 'o:l its 
'fre/nas and vi'vsesiti, givir) Sa 'laif and 3eni'me:/n A\it/ a { 
'mauntn 'rivjurlat a'lo:n kten kon'fer on Sa 'be:rast^ and 
mo:st 'saevidj 'si:nz, and AvitJ Si in'hgebitants af SAtJ a 
'kAntri 'mis Men 'ge:zir) i:vn apon Sa 'trserjkwil 'waindir) af 
a m8e'd3estik 'stri:m 6ru; 'ple:nz af fsr'tiliti, and basaid 
'paelisaz af 'splendar. Sa 'traek af ?Ja 'ro:d 'folo:d ?5a 'ko:rs 
af Sa 'bru:k A\it/ waz 'nau 'vizibl, and 'nau 'oinli ta bi 
dis'tirjgwi/t bai its 'bro:lir) 'ha:rd amAr) Sa 'sto:nz, or in Ca 
'klefts af Sa 'roks, Sat o'ke:3anali inta'rAptad its 'ko:rs. 

"'ma:rmarar Sat Sau 'a:rt," sed 'mortn, in Si en'Guiziazm 
af hiz 'reveri, "'Aiai 't/e:f \vi(0) Sa 'roks Sat 'stop Sai 'ko:rs 
far a 'mo:mant? Ser iz a 'si: ta ri'si:v Si: in its 'bu:zam; end 
Ser iz an i:'terniti far 'msen A\en hiz 'fretfl and 'he:sti 'ko:rs 
9ru: Sa 've:l af 'taim Jal bi 'si:st and 'o:var. 'A\ot 'Sai 'peti 
'fju:mir) iz ta Sa 'di:p and 'va:st 'biloz af 8 '/o:rlas 'o:/n, a:r 
'aur 'ke:rz, 'ho:ps, 'fi:rz, 'djoiz, and 'soroz, ta Si 'obd3akts 
A\it/ mAst 'okju:pai as Bru: Si: 'o:fl and 'baundlas sAk'se/n 
af'eidjoz." 

> c: denotes a lengthened c. 






PRONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKERS 123 

Notes on the pronunciation of Miss Robson 

Miss Robson is of Scottish parentage and was educated 
in Edinburgh. She is Lecturer on Phonetics to the Edin- 
burgh Provincial Committee for the Training of Teachers. 

The following are the chief points in which her pro- 
nunciation differs from StP as defined in Part I, §§ 1, 2 : — 

(1) e:, o: are used where StP has ei, ou. 

(2) e is used in confer, fertility, eternity. 

(3) M., the breathed consonant corresponding to 
the voiced w, is used in which, where, etc. 

(4) 9, the breathed consonant corresponding to the 
voiced j (Part I, § 99), is used in huge (cuidj). 

(5) The tense u: is used where Southern English 
has the lax u, as in wood, bosom, etc. 

(6) fisusedino/(af). 

(7) 9 is frequently used where Southern English 
has unstressed i, e.g. in freshness (frejnas), wasted 
(weistad). e is however used in exist (egzist). 

(8) The second syllable of mountains contains no 
vowel. 

(9) Strong vowels are used in the first syllables of 
succession, occasionally. 

(10) The r sound is used even where no vowel follows. 
Note also the following points which do not appear 

from the transcription : — 

(11) Differences of quantity are not so great as in 
Southern English. 

(12) Tlje r sound is always rolled. 



124 phonetic transcriptions 

25. Robert Louis Stevenson 

A passage from Treasure Island (Chap. 13) 

Pronunciation of J. Sinclair, Esq., M.A. (Glasgow) 

Si e'piiarans ov 6i 'ailand hwen ai 'ke;im on 'dek nekst 
'mo.'rnir) woz 'oiltageSa 'tje:md3d. oil'Sou tSa 'bri:z hsed 
'nau 'Atarli 'feiild, wi had me:id a 'greiit did ov 'we:i 
djuriT) Sa 'nait, send we:r 'nau 'laiir) bi'ka:md abaut 'haf 
a 'mail tu Sa 'sau6 'i:st ov ?5a 'loiu 'i;stsrn 'ko:ust. 'gre:i 
kAlard 'wudz kAvard a 'lcLrd3 'part ov Sa 'sArfis. 'Sis 'i:vn 
'tint woz in'diid 'broiukan 'Ap bai 'stri:ks ov 'jelom 'ssend- 
bre:ik in 5a 'lo:uar 'laendz, and bai 'mem 'to:l 'tri:z ov 
t5a 'pain fa3raili, 'aut'topir) 6i 'ASarz — ^'sAm 'sirjgli, 'sAm in 
'kUmps; bAt Sa 'd3ensrol 'kAlarir) waz 'junifo:m and 'saed. 
Sa 'hilz rasn Ap 'kli:ar a'bAv Sa ved3i'te:i/n in 'spaiarz ov 
'neikid 'rok. 'o:l we;r 'stre:in3li '/e:ipt and 5a 'spaiglais 
hwit/ woz bai '6ri or 'for 'hAndrid 'fi:t 5d 'todest on 5i 
'ailand waz 'laikwaiz 5a 'stre:in3est in konficyu'red/n, 'rAnir) 
'Ap '/i:ar from odmast 'evri 'said and 'Sen 'sAdnli 'kAt 'of at 
5a 'top laik a 'pedistoel tu 'put a 'staetju on. 

Notes on the pronunciation of Mr Sinclair 

Mr Sinclair was born and educated in Glasgow. His 
father was a Scotsman and his mother from the North 
of England. He has lived for many years in England. 

The following are the chief points in which his pronun- 
ciation differs from StP as defined in Part I, §§ 1, 2 : — 

(1) i: is used in clear etc. 

(2) Words such as of, and etc. are frequently 
pronounced with strong vowels even when unstressed. 
Similarly in the second syllable of easier ti. 



PRONUNCIATION OF PARTICULAR SPEAKERS 125 

(3) r is pronounced even where no vowel follows 
(except in the word oiltagelSa). 

(4) Tense e: and o: are used in the diphthongs 
e:i, o:u. 

(5) No 9 is inserted in words like where, the first 
syllable of dmnng, etc. 

(6) A is used in the first syllable of surface. 

(7) e is used in the last syllable of tallest, strangest. 

(8) o is used in off. 

^The following points should also be noted, which do 
not appear from the transcription : — 

(9) The sound i: is very tense indeed. 

(10) The sound ae tends towards a. 

(11) There is a tendency to omit r when final or 
followed by a consonant, when speaking carefully. 

(12) There is a marked tendency to insert ? (Part I, 
§ 47) at the beginning of words which generally begin 
with a vowel, e.g. to say woz Po:ltdget$a instead of woz 
oiltagetSa. 



V. LONDON DIALECT 

26. W. Pett Ridge 

A passage from London Only^ 

"'Aiv 'fgeund am!" sed (h)iz 'Isenleidi ig'zAltantli, az 
(h)i; 'stAmbld inta. Sa 'nserou, 'dimli 'laitid 'psesidj. /i: 
'fcaind 'Ap Sa litl 'oil'lsemp 'stsendir) on Sa 'braekit, and Si 
'oil'laemp, a'noid, bigoen ta 'smouk 'ijuariasli. "'aIv 'faeund 
am, mista 'meriweSa, n 'glsd 'naf a! 'em ta a bein a 'sam 
'sa:vis tm ja." /i; waz a vai'vei/as ould 'leidi in 9 'bi:did 
'kaep wis a 'laivli 'nolid^ av Si a'feaz av 'ASa 'piipl, and 
'd3Ast 'nau 'kimli 'intristid^ in Sa 'nju; 'okjupant av ha: 
'bed'sitirjrum. " nd 3a 'masn 'eer)k mi, koz Aim 'aunli 'tiii 
'pleizd ta brir) 'frenz n 'rePtivz' ta'geSa." 

"'nsBu wot /a 'keklin abseat, mam ?" hi: 'a:skt pa'laitli. 

"'a:," riplaid Si 'ould 'leidi 't/iafuli, "jo:P 'siUn 'nau. 
wi '/A:nt bi 'lor) 'noeu. it P bi az 'gud az a 'plai ta 'sei 'jiii 
'fiii 'meit." /i: 'wept and 'rAbd ha:r 'aiz. "'peipP ma 'sai 
wot Sa 'kik, bat Se:az 'nafirjk in 'o:P Sis 'wAid 'wa:Pd ta bi 
kam'pe:ad ta 'fiii 'lavin 'A:ts." 

^ This piece is reproduced by the kind permission of Mr Pett Kidge. 
The descriptive parts are transcribed in Standard Pronunciation and the 
dialogue in one of the many forms of uneducated London Pronunciation. 

2 Or 'intoresUd. 

3 1* denotes a variety of 1 sound in which the main part of the tongue 
is in the position of the vowel o. See Part I, §§ 61, G3. 



LONDON DIALECT 127 

"'let mi 'ev mAi 'sapa," hi: 'sed 'pei/ntli, "n 'Sen 'leiv 
mi 'bei. Ai 'wont to ev q 'smauk n 9 '<3ir)k." 

"'jiti 'waun 'dm mat/ 'dirjkin," rima:kt Sa 'laenleidi 
'nouirjli, " wen jar 'i;a 5a 'niiiz Ai v 'got fo: ja. ja 'sed 3a 
'naim waz 'meriweSa, 'didnt /a ? " 

" Ai 'daunt di'nAi it." 
. "nd 3a 'sed 33 d got 'frcnz ni:ar 'i;a — ja d fa'got 5i 
a'dres." 

" Ai mAit a 'let 'fo:P a 'ke3P ri'mAik," sed 'bel 'keafuli, 
az (h)i: 'held Sa 'hsendl av (h)iz 'do:, "o:wa 'staitmant ta 
'Set 'fekt. wot'cvar aI 'sed 'aI P 'stik fiii." 

^ "'Ai 'niii 'Set," riplaid Si 'ould 'Isenleidi. "'Ai 'aup Ai 
kn 'teP a 'd3enlmn fram a 'mi:a 'koman pa:sn. 'sam peipP 
'luk 'dgeun on 'sailaz n 'sat/Uik, bat 'Aim 'not 'wan a 'Set 
so:t. ez 'Ai 'o:fn 'sai, 'weia d 'auPd 'hirjland bei wiS'aeut 
am!" 

" 'ari 'ap wa Set 'sapa," sed mista 'bel. 

" Jl Ai 'lai fa 'fiii, mista 'meriweSa ? " aiskt Si 'ould 
'leidi. 

" 'ko:s not ! Ai m 'aunli 'wan." 

"batSa'laidei?" 

"'wot'laidei?" 

"'wAi," Ji sed, "'jo:wa 'wAif!" 'mista 'bel 'puld Sa 
'hoendl fram Sa 'do:(r) and 'stud 'lukirj set (h)a: 'blserjkli. 
Sa 'Isenleidi geiv a 'd3est/ar av 'selfri'pruivl. "Set s 'mei 
'o:l 'auva. Ai fa'get wot Ai 'ev 'sed n Ai fa'get wot Ai 'evnt 
sed. wot Ai 'o:t t tauPd 3a bi'fo:wa 'bla:tn it 'seut kik 
'Set woz Sat Ai v dis'kavad 3a 'wAif, 'misas 'meriweSa, in 
'grandei 'streit ; Sat Jei z 'simpli auvo'd3oid ta 'i:ar ov ja, 
n Ai v 'A:st a ta 'kam 'i:a Sis 'eivnin." 

"'Sen," sed mista 'bel 'solamli, and 'Jeikirj Sa 'wait 
'do:hsendl in Si 'ould 'leidiz 'feis, "'jm 'djes 'lisn ta 'meL 



128 PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS 

'jiii V 'Aist 9 ta 'kam 'i;o ; ja kn 'd^es 'dpli weP 'Aist 9 to 
•gau a'wai egain. a! m 'not 'gain ta 'sei a." 

"'weP, 'weP, 'weV" sed Si a'meizd 'Isenleidi, "'i;a z a 
priti 'seud3a'diu ! n Ji 'toikt 'sau 'fek/nt a'bseat /a 'fiii, n 
/i 'sez, ' 'au ' Ji sez, * aI 'diii 'sau 'log ta 'luk on mi 'sweit 
wanz 'fais again.* Ai ed Sa 'leist 'drop a 'spirits wiS a, n 
wi 'drsgk 'joiwa 'gud 'ePO." 

"'veri 'kAind ov ja," sed mista 'bel 'dogidli, "bat '6et 
'daunt 'fekt 'mAi p'zi/n. 'wen Ji 'kamz, 'jiii get 'rid av a, 
n in 'fiut/a 'daug 'gau 'potrin a'boeut n 'miksn jasePf 'ap 
in 'mAi a'feiaz, koz Ai 'waunt 'ev it. 'sei ? Ai got 'plenti ta 
'wari abaeat," sedid mista 'bel 'fiasli — "'mo:wa Sn 'jiii '6igk 
foiwa; n Ai 'daun 'wont 'nau hinta'fi:rin 'auP 'ket— " 

" 'wen j a 'kwAit 'dan 'jiiizn 'hggwidj," inta'rAptid Si 
'ould 'leidi, 'braidlig, "'prsps ja P 'kAinli 'put 'bsk Set 
'do:warendP weia ja 'fseund it. 'letn jiU mAi 'grseun'floiwa 
'frant fr a 'poiPtri 'foiwarn'siks a 'weik 'daunt n'tAitP ja ta 
'wo:k a'baeut wiS 'bits av it in jar 'snz. sa 'Se:a, nseu!" 
Ji: 'went to:dz^ Sa 'kit/in, sa'lilakwaizig. "'hinta'fi:rin 
auP 'ket ndeid I *Ai I' 'lam im ! " 

^ Or towo:dz. 



APPENDIX 

ORDINARY SPELLING OF ALL THE PIECES 
TRANSCRIBED IN PART II 

1. C. Bronte 
Passage from Jane Eyre 

All the house was still ; for I believe all, except St John and 
myself, were now retired to rest. The one candle was dying out ; 
the room was full of moonlight. My heart beat fast and thick; 
I heard its throb. Suddenly it stood still to an inexpressible 
feeling that thrilled it through, and passed at once to my head 
and extremities. The feeling was not like an electric shock, but 
it was quite as sharp, as strange, as startling ; it acted on my senses 
as if their utmost activity hitherto had been but torpor, from which 
they were now summoned and forced to wake. They rose expectant ; 
eye and ear waited while the flesh quivered on my bones. 

" What have you heard ? What do you see ? " asked St John. 
I saw nothing, but I heard a voice somewhere cry — 

" Jane ! Jane ! Jane ! " — nothing more. 

"0 God ! what is it ?" I gasped. 

I might have said, "Where is it?" for it did not seem in the 
room, nor in the house, nor in the garden ; it did not come out of 
the air, nor from under the earth, nor from overhead. I had heard 
it — where, or whence, for ever impossible to know 1 And it was the 
voice of a human being — a known, loved, well-remembered voice — 
that of Edward Fairfax Rochester ; and it spoke in pain and woe, 
wildly, eerily, urgently. 

"I am coming !" I cried. "Wait for me ! Oh, I will come !" 
I flew to the door and looked into the passage ; it was dark. I ran 
out into the garden ; it was void. 

" Where are you 1 " I exclaimed. 

The hills beyond Marsh Glen sent the answer faintly back, 
"Where are you?" I listened. The wind sighed low in the firs; 
all was moorland loneliness and midnight hush. 

J. 9 



130 appendix 

2. Burke 
Passage from Thoughts on the FrevrJi Revolution 

It is now sixteen or seventeen years since I saw the queen of 
France, then the Dauphiness, at Versailles ; and surely never lighted 
on this orb, which she hardly seemed to touch, a more delightful 
vision, I saw her just above the horizon, decorating and cheering 
the elevated sphere she just began to move in, — glittering like the 
morning star, full of life, and splendour, and joy. Oh 1 what a 
revolution ! and what a heart must I have to contemplate without 
emotion that elevation and that fall 1 Little did I dream when she 
added titles of veneration to those of enthusiastic, distant, respectful 
love, that she should ever be obliged to carry the sharp antidote 
against disgrace concealed in that bosom ; little did I dream that 
I should have lived to see such disasters fallen upon her in a nation 
of gallant men, in a nation of men of honour and of cavaliers. 
I thought ten thousand swords must have leaped from their scab- 
bards to avenge even a look that threatened her with insult. 

But the age of chivalry is gone. That of sophisters, economists 
and calculators, has succeeded ; and the glory of Europe is extin- 
guished for ever. Never, never more shall we behold that generous 
loyalty to rank and sex, that proud submission, that dignified 
obedience, that subordination of the heart, which kept alive, even 
in servitude itself, the spirit of an exalted freedom. The unbought 
grace of life, the cheap defence of nations, the nurse of manly 
sentiment and heroic enterprise, is gone! It is gone, that sensi- 
bility of principle, that chastity of honour, which felt a stain like 
a wound, which inspired courage whilst it mitigated ferocity, which 
ennobled whatever it touched, and under which vice itself lost half 
its evil, by losing all its grossness. 

3. Calverley 
Contentment 
(After the Manner of Horace) * 
Friend, there be they on whom mishap 

Or never or so rarely comes. 
That, when they think thereof, they snap 
Derisive thumbs ; 
* Reproduced from Calverley's Fly Leaves by kind permission of the 
publishers, Messrs George Bell and Sons. 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TRANSCRIJJED 131 

And there be they who lightly lose 

Their all, yet feel no aching void ; 
Should aught annoy them, they refuse 

To be annoy'd ; 

And fain would I be e'en as these ! 

Life is with such all beer and skittles; 
They are not difficult to please 

About their victuals ; 

The trout, the grouse, the early pea, 

By such, if there, are freely taken ; 
If not, they munch with equal glee 

Their bit of bacon ; 

Aad when they wax a little gay 

And chaff the public after luncheon, 
If they're confronted with a stray 

Policeman's truncheon, 

Tliey gaze thereat with outstretch'd necks. 
And laughter which no threats can smother, 

And tell the horror-stricken X 
That he's another. 

In snowtime if they cross a spot 

Where unsuspected boys have slid. 
They fall not down — though they would not 

Mind if they did ; 

"When the spring rosebud which they wear 
Breaks short and tumbles from its stem, 
, No thought of being angry e'er 
Dawns upon them ; 

Though 'twas Jemima's hand that placed, 
(As well you ween) at evening's hour, 

In the loved button-hole that chaste 
And cherish'd flower. 

And when they travel, if they find 
That they have left their pocket-compass 

Or Murray or thick boots behind. 
They raise no rumpus, 

9—2 



132 APPENDIX 

But plod serenely on without ; 

Knowing it's better to endure 
The evil which beyond all doubt 

You cannot cure. 

When for that early train they're late, 
They do not make their woes the text 

Of sermons in the TinieSy but wait 
On for the next ; 

And jump inside, and only grin 

Should it appear that that dry wag, 

The guard, omitted to put in 
Their carpet-bag. 



4. Scott 
Hunting Song 

Waken, lords and ladies gay. 

On the mountain dawns the day; 

All the jolly chase is here 

With hawk, and horse, and hunting-spear I 

Hounds are in their couples yelling. 

Hawks are whistUng, horns are knelling; 

Merrily, merrily mingle they, 

"Waken, lords and ladies gay." 

Waken, lords and ladies gay, 

The mist has left the mountain grey; 

Springlets in the dawn are steaming. 

Diamonds on the brake are gleaming; 

And foresters have busy been 

To track the buck in thicket green ; 

Now we come to chant our lay, 

"Waken, lords and ladies gay." 

Waken, lords and ladies gay. 

To the greenwood haste away; 

We can show you where he lies, ^ 

Fleet of foot and tall of size ; ' ^ 

sc 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TRANSCRIBED 133 

"We can show the marks he made, 
When 'gainst the oak his antlers frayed ; 
You shall see him brought to bay, 
"Waken, lords and ladies gay." 
Louder, louder chant the lay. 
Waken, lords and ladies gay! 
Tell them, youth, and mirth, and glee 
Run a course, as well as wo ; 
Time, stern huntsman ! who pan baulk, 
Staunch as hound, and fleet as hawk; 
Think of this, and rise with day. 
Gentle lords and ladies gay. 

5. Thackeray 
Passage from the Essay on Whitebait 

I was recently talking in a very touching and poetical strain 
about the above delicate fish to my friend Foozle and some others 
at the club, and expatiating upon the excellence of the dinner 
which our little friend Guttlebury had given us, when Foozle, 
looking round about him with an air of triumph and immense 
wisdom, said, — 

" I'll tell you what, Wagstaff, I'm a plain man, and despise all 
your gormandizing and kickshaws. I don't know the difierence 
between one of your absurd made dishes and another ; give me a 
plain cut of mutton or beef. I'm a plain Englishman, I am, and no 
glutton." 

Foozle, I say, thought this speech a terrible set-down for me ; 
and indeed ^cted up to his principles. You may see him any day 
at six sitting down before a great reeking joint of meat ; his eyes 
quivering, his face red, and he cutting great smoking red collops 
out of the beef before him, which he devours with corresponding 
quantities of cabbage and potatoes, and the other gratis luxuries of 
the club-table. 

What I complain of is, not that the man should enjoy his great 
meal of steaming beef— let him be happy over that as much as the 
beef he is devouring was in life happy over oil-cakes or mangel- 
wurzel — but I hate the fellow's brutal self-complacency, and his 
scorn of other people who have different tastes from his. A man 



134 APPENDIX 

who brags regarding himself, that whatever he swallows is the 
same to him, and that his coarse palate recognizes no difference 
between venison and turtle, pudding, or mutton-broth, as his 
indifferent jaws close over them, brags about a personal defect — 
the wretch — and not about a virtue. It is like a man boasting 
that he has no ear for music, or no eye for colour, or that his nose 
cannot scent the difference between a rose and a cabbage. I say, 
as a general rule, set that man down as a conceited fellow who 
swaggers about not caring for his dinner. 

Why shouldn't wo care about it ? Was eating not made to be a 
pleasure to us? Yes, I say, a daily pleasure — a sweet solamen — 
a pleasure familiar, yet ever new ; the same, and yet how different ! 
It is one of the causes of domesticity. The neat dinner makes the 
husband pleased, the housewife happy; the children consequently 
are well brought up, and love their papa and mamma. A good 
dinner is the centre of the circle of the social sympathies. It warms 
acquaintanceship into friendship ; it maintains that friendship 
comfortably unimpaired ; enemies meet over it and are reconciled. 
How many of you, dear friends, has that late bottle of claret 
warmed into affectionate forgiveness, tender recollections of old 
times, and ardent glowing anticipations of new ! The brain is a 
tremendous secret. I believe some chemist will arise anon who 
will know how to doctor the brain as they do the body now, as 
Liebig doctors the ground. They will apply certain medicines, and 
produce crops of certain qualities that are lying dormant now for 
want of intellectual guano. But this is a subject for future specu- 
lation — a parenthesis growing out of another parenthesis ; what 
I would urge especially here is a point which must be familiar with 
every person accustomed to eat good dinners — namely, the noble 
and friendly qualities that they elicit. How is it we cut such jokes 
over them ? How is it wo become so remarkably friendly ? How 
is it that some of us, insjured by a good dinner, have sudden gusts 
of genius unknown in the quiet unfestive state ? Some men make 
speeches ; some shake their neighbour by the hand, and invite him 
or themselves to dine ; some sing prodigiously ; my friend Saladin, 
for instance, goes home, he says, with the most beautiful harmonies 
ringing in his ears ; and I, for my part, will take any given tune, 
and make variations upon it for any given period of hours, greatly, 
no doubt, to the delight of all hearers. These are only temporary 
inspirations given us by the jolly genius, but arc they to be despised 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TRANSCRIBED 135 

on that account ? No. Good dinners have been the greatest vehicles 
of benevolence since man began to eat. 

A taste for good living, then, is praiseworthy in moderation — 
like all the other qualities and endowments of man. If a man were 
to neglect his family or his business on account of his love for the 
fiddle or the fine arts, he would commit just the crime that the 
dinner-sensualist is guilty of ; but to enjoy wisely is a maxim of 
which no man need be ashamed. But if you cannot eat a dinner of 
herbs as well as a stalled ox, then you are an unfortunate man ; 
your love for good dinners has passed the wholesome boundary, and 
degenerated into gluttony. 



6. Wordsworth 

I wandered lonely as a cloud 

That floats on high o'er vales and hills, 

When all at once I saw a crowd, 

A host of golden dafibdils ; 

Ijcside the lake, beneath the trees, 

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. 

Continuous as the stars that shine 

And twinkle on the milky way, 

They stretched in never-ending line 

Along the margin of a bay ; 

Ten thousand saw I at a glance, 

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. 

The waves beside them danced, but they 

Outdid the sparkling waves in glee ; 

A ^oet could not but be gay 

In such a jocund company; 

I gazed — and gazed — but little thought 

What wealth the show to me had brought. 

For oft when on my couch I lie 

In vacant or in pensive mood. 

They flash upon that inward eye 

AVhich is the bliss of solitude; 

And then my heart with pleasure fills, 

And dances with the dafibdils. 



136 appendix 

7. Dickens 
Passage from the Pickwick Papers 

The stranger, meanwhile, had been eating, drinking, and talking, 
without cessation. At every good stroke he expressed his satis- 
faction and approval of the player in a most condescending and 
patronising manner, which could not fail to have been highly 
gratifying to the party concerned ; while at every bad attempt at 
a catch, and every failure to stop the ball, he launched his personal 
displeasure at the head of the devoted individual in such denuncia- 
tions as "Ah, ah! — stupid" — "Now, butter-fingers" — "Muflf" — 
" Humbug " — and so forth — ejaculations which seemed to establish 
him in the opinion of all around, as a most excellent and undeniable 
judge of the whole art and mystery of the noble game of cricket. 

" Capital game — well played — some strokes admirable," said the 
stranger, as both sides crowded into the tent, at the conclusion of 
the game. 

" You have played it, sir ? " inquired Mr Wardle, who had been 
much amused by his loquacity. 

" Played it ! Think I have — thousands of times — not here — 
West Indies— exciting thing — hot work — very." 

" It must be rather a warm pursuit in such a climate," observed 
Mr Pickwick. 

" Warm ! — red hot — scorching — glowing. Played a match once — 
single wicket — friend the Colonel— Sir Thomas Blazo — who should 
get the greatest number of nms. — Won the toss — first innings — 
seven o'clock a.m. — six natives to look out — went in ; kept in — 
heat intense — natives all fainted — taken away — fresh half-dozen 
ordered — fainted also — Blazo bowling — supported by two natives — 
couldn't bowl me out— fainted too — cleared away the Colonel — 
wouldn't give in — faithful attendant — Quanko Samba — last man 
left — sun so hot, bat in blisters — ball scorched brown — five hundred 
and seventy runs — rather exhausted — Quanko mustered up last 
remaining strength — bowled me out — had a bath, and went out to 
dinner." 

"And what became of what's-his-name, sir?" inquired an old 
gentleman. 

"Blazo?" 

" No — the other gentleman." 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TRANSCRIBED 137 

"Quanko Samba?" 

"Yes, sir." 

" Poor Quanko — never recovered it — bowled on, on my account — 
bowled off, on his own — died, sir." Here the stranger buried his 
countenance in a brown jug, but whether to hide his emotion or 
imbibe its contents, we cannot distinctly affirm. We only know 
that he paused suddenly, drew a long and deep breath, and looked 
anxiously on, as two of the principal members of the Dingley Dell 
club approached Mr Pickwick, and said — 

" We are about to partake of a plain dinner at the Blue Lion, 
sir ; we hope you and your friends will join us." 

" Of course," said Mr Wardle, " among our friends we include 
Mr " and he looked towards the stranger. 

" Jingle," said that versatile gentleman, taking the hint at once. 
" Jingle — Alfred Jingle, Esq. of No Hall, Nowhere." 

" 1 shall be very happy, I am sure," said Mr Pickwick. 

"So shall I," said Mr Alfred Jingle, drawing one arm through 
Mr Pickwick's, and another through Mr Wardle's, as he whispered 
confidentially in the ear of the former gentleman : — 

" Devilish good dinner — cold, but capital — peeped into the room 
this morning— fowls and pies, and all that sort of thing— pleasant 
fellows these — well behaved, too — very." 

8. George Eliot 
Passage from the Mill on the Floss 

"Oh, I say, Maggie," said Tom at last, lifting up the stand, 
"we must keep quiet here, you know. If we break anything, 
IVIrs Stelling '11 make us cry peccavi." 

"What's that?" said Maggie. 

" Oh, it's the Latin for a good scjolding," said Tom, not without 
some pride in his knowledge. 

" Is she a cross woman?" said Maggie. 

" I believe you ! " said Tom, with an emphatic nod. 

" I think all women are crosser than men," said Maggie. "Aunt 
Glegg's a great deal crosser than Uncle Glegg, and mother scolds 
me more than father does." 

" Well, you'll be a woman some day," said Tom, " so i/ou needn't 
talk." 



138 APPENDIX 

" But I shall be a clever woman," said Maggie, with a toss. 

" Oh, I daresay, and a nasty conceited thing. Everybody '11 hate 
you." 

"But you oughtn't to hate me, Tom ; it'll be very wicked of you, 
for I shall be your sister." 

"Yes, but if you're a nasty disagreeable thing, I ihall hate you." 

" Oh but, Tom, you won't ! I shan't be disagreeable. I shall 
be very good to you — and I shall be good to everybody. You won't 
hate me really, will you, Tom % " 

" Oh, bother ! never mind 1 Come, it's time for me to learn my 
lessons. See here ! what I've got to do," said Tom, drawing Maggie 
towards him and showing her his theorem, while she pushed her 
hair behind her ears, and prepared herself to prove her capability 
of helping him in Euclid. She began to read with full confidence 
in her own powers, but presently, becoming quite bewildered, her 
face flushed with irritation. It was unavoidable — she must confess 
her incompetency, and she was not fond of humiliation. 

" It's nonsense ! " she said, * and very ugly stuft'— nobody need 
want to make it out." 

"Ah, there now. Miss Maggie!" said Tom, drawing the book 
away, and wagging his head at her, " you see you're not so clever as 
you thought you were." 

" Oh," said Maggie, pouting, " I daresay I could make it out, if 
I'd learned what goes before, as you have." 

" But that's what you just couldn't, Miss Wisdom," said Tom. 
" For it's all the harder when you know what goes before ; for then 
you've got to say what definition 3 is, and what axiom V. is. But 
get along with you now ; I must go on with this. Here's the Latin 
Grammar. See what you can make of that." 

9. E. F. Benson 
Passage from Bodo^ 

At this moment a shrill voice called Dodo from the drawing-room. 

"Dodo, Dodo," it cried, "the man brought me two tepid poached 
eggs ! Do send me something else. Is there such a thing as a 
grilled bone ? " 

' Eeproduced by kind permission of Mr Beusou and his publishers, 
Jlessrs Methuen, 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TRANSCRIBED 130 

These remarks were speedily followed up by the appearance of 
Miss Staines at the dining-room door. In one hand she held the 
despised eggs, in the other a quire of music paper. Behind her 
followed a footman with her breakfast-tray, in excusable ignorance 
as to what was required of him. 

"Dear Dodo," she went on, "you know when I'm composing a 
symphony I want something more exciting than two poached eggs. 
Mr Broxton, I know, will take my side. You couldn't eat poached 
eggs at a ball — could you 1 They might do very well for a funeral 
march or a nocturne, but they won't do for a symphony, especially 
for the scherzo. A brandy-and-soda and a grilled bone is what one 
really wants for a scherzo, only that would be quite out of the 
question." 

Edith Staines talked in a loud, determined voice, and emphasized 
her points with little dashes and flourishes of the (iish of poached 
eggs. At this moment one of them flew on to the floor and 
exploded. But it is an ill wind that blows nobody any good, and 
at any rate this relieved the footman from his state of indecision. 
His immediate mission was clearly to remove it. 

Dodo threw herself back in her chair with a peal of laughter. 

"Go on, go on," she cried, "you are too splendid. Tell us what 
70U write the presto on." 

"I can't waste another moment," said Edith. "I'm in the 
middle of the most entrancing motif, which is working out beauti- 
fully. Do you mind my smoking in the drawing-room ? I am 
awfully sorry, but it makes all the difference to my work. Burn a 
little incense there afterwards. Do send me a bone, Dodo. Come 
ai\d hear me play the scherzo later on. It's the best thing I've 
ever done. Oh, by the way, I telegraphed to Herr Truffcn to come 
to-morrow — he's my conductor, you know. You can put him up in 
the village or the coal-hole, if you like. He's quite happy if he gets 
enough beer. He's my German conductor, you know. I made him 
entirely. I took him to the Princess the other day when I was at 
Aix, and we all had beer together in the verandah of the Beau Site. 
You'll be amused with him." 

" Oh, rather," said Dodo ; " that will be all right. He can sleep 
in the house. Will he come early to-morrow ? Let's see — to-morrow's 
Sunday. Edith, I've got an idea. We'll have a dear little service 
in the house — we can't go to church if it snows — and you shall play 
your mass, and Herr What's-his-name shall conduct, and Bertie, 



140 APPENDIX 

and Grantie, and you and I will sing. Won't it be lovely ? You 
and I will settle all that this afternoon. Telegraph to Truffler, or 
whatever his name is, to come by the eight-twenty. Then he'll be 
here by twelve, and we'll have the service at a quarter past." 

"Dodo, that will be grand," said Edith. "I can'c wait now. 
Goodbye. Hurry up my breakfast — I'm awfully sharp-set." 

Edith went back to the drawing-room, whistling in a particularly 
shrill manner. 

10. Byron 

Passage from Ghilde Harold 

Oh! that the desert were my dwelling-place, 

With one fair Spirit for my minister, 
That I might all forget the human race. 

And, hating no one, love but only her! 
Ye Elements ! — in whose ennobling stir 

I feel myself exalted — Can ye not 
Accord me such a being? Do I err 

In deeming such inhabit many a spot? 
Though with them to converse can rarely be our lot. 
There is a pleasure in the pathless woods, 

There is a rapture on the lonely shore, 
There is society where none intrudes. 

By the deep Sea, and music in its roar; 
I love not man the less, but Nature more, 

From these our interviews, in which I steal 
From all I may be, or have been before. 

To mingle with the Universe, and feel 
What I can ne'er express, yet cannot all conceal 
Rnll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean— roll 1 

Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain ; 
Man marks the earth with ruin — his control 

Stops with the shore; — upon the watery plain 
The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth remain 

A shadow of man's ravage, save his own. 
When, for a moment, like a drop of rain. 

He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan, 
Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined, and unknown. 



ordinary spelling of pieces transcribed 141 

11. Gladstone 

Peroration of the Speech on the Second Reading 
of the Reform Bill of 1866 

May I say to honourable gentlemen opposite, as some of theui 
have addressed advice to gentlemen on this side of the House, 
"Will you not consider before you embark in this new crusade 
whether the results of the others in which you have engaged have 
been so satisfactory 1 " Great battles you have fought, and fought 
them manfully. The battle of maintaining civil disabilities on 
account of religious belief, the battle of resisting the first Reform 
Act, the battle of Protection, all these great battles have been 
fought by the great party that I see opposite ; and as to some of 
them I admit my own share of the responsibility. But have their 
results been such as that you should be disposed to renew these 
attacks again ? Certainly those who sit on this side have no reason 
or title to find fault. The effect of your course has been to give 
them for five out of six, or for six out of seven years, the conduct 
and management of public affairs. The effect has been to lower, to 
reduce, and contract your just influence in the country, and to 
abridge your share in the administration of the Government. It 
is good for the public interest that you should be strong ; but if 
you are to be strong, you can only be so by showing, as well as the 
kindness and the personal generosity which I am sure you feel 
towards the people, a public trust and confidence in them. What 
I say now can hardly be said with an evil motive. 

But, sir, we are assailed ; this Bill is in a state of crisis and of 
peril, and the Government along with it. We stand or fall with 
it as has been declared by my noble friend. We stand with it now ; 
we may fall with it a short time hence, and if we do we shall rise 
with it hereafter. I shall not attempt to measure with precision the 
forces that are to be arrayed in the coming struggle. Perhaps the 
great division of to-night is not the last that must take place in the 
struggle. You may possibly succeed at some point of the contest. 
You may drive us from our seats. You may bury the Bill that we 
have introduced, but for its epitaph we will write upon its grave- 
stone this line, with certain confidence in its fulfilment : — 

"Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor." 
You cannot fight against the future. Time is on our side. The 
great social forces which move on in their might and majesty, and 



142 APPENDIX 

which the tumult of our debates does not for a raoment impede or 
disturb— those great social forces are against you ; they are mar- 
shalled on our side, and the banner which we now carry, though 
perhaps at some moment it may droop over our sinking heads, yet 
it soon again will float in the eye of heaven, and it will be borne by 
the firm hands of the united people of the three Kingdoms, perhaps 
not to an easy, but to a certain and to a not distant victory. 

12. Keats 

To Sleep 

O soft embalmer of the still midnight. 

Shutting with careful fingers and benign, 
Our gloom-pleased eyes, embowered from the light, 

Enshaded in forgetfulness divine ; 
O soothest Sleep ! if so it please thee, close. 

In midst of this thine hymn, my willing eyes, 
Or wait the amen, ere thy poppy throws 

Around my bed its lulling charities ; 

Then save me, or the passed day will shine 
Upon my pillow, breeding many woes, — 

Save me from curious conscience, that still lords 
Its strength for darkness, burrowing like a mole; 

Turn the key deftly in the oiled wards, 
And seal the hushed casket of my souL 

13. Milton 
At a Solemn Music 

Blest pair of Sirens, pledges of Heaven's joy, 

Sphere-born harmonious sisters. Voice and Verse, 

Wed your divine sounds, and mixed power employ. 

Dead things with inbreathed sense able to pierce; 

And to our high-raised phantasy present 

That undisturbed song of pure concent. 

Aye sung before the sapphire-coloured throne 

To Him that sits thereon, 

AVith saintly shout and solemn jubilee ; 

AVhere the bright Seraphim in burning row 

Their loud uplifted angel-trumpets blow. 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TRANSCRIBED 143 

And the Chenibic host in thousand quires 

Touch their immortal harps of golden wires, 

With those just Spirits that wear victorious palms, 

Hymns devout and holy psalms 

Singing everlastingly ; 

That wo on Earth, with undiscording voice, 

May rightly answer that melodious noise ; 

As once we did, till disproportioned sin 

Jarred ag;vinst nature's chime, and with harsh din 

Broke the fair music that all creatures made 

To their great Lord, whose love their motion swayed 

In perfect diapason, whilst they stood 

In first obedience, and their state of good. 

0, may we soon again renew that song, 

And keep in tune with Heaven, till God ere long 

To his celestial consort us unite. 

To live with Him, and sing in endless morn of light ! 

14. Shakespeare 

Passage from Julius Caesar 

Ant. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears ; 
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. 
The evil that men do lives after them ; 
The good is oft interred with their bones; 
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutua 
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious ; 
If it were so, it was a grievous fault. 
And grievously hath Caesar answer'd it 
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest — 
For Brutus is an honourable man ; 
So are they all, all honourable men — 
Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. 
He was my friend, faithful and just to me ; 
But Brutus says he was ambitious ; 
And Brutus is an honourable man. 
He hath brought many captives home to Rome, 
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill ; 
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? 



144 APPENDIX 

When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept; 

Ambition should be made of sterner stuff; 

Yet Brutus says he was ambitious ; 

And Brutus is an honourable man. 

You all did see that on the Lupercal 

I thrice presented him a kingly crown, 

Which he did thrice refuse ; was this ambition ? 

Yet Brutus says he was ambitious ; 

And, sure, he is an honourable man. 

I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, 

But here I am, to speak what I do know. 

You all did love him once, not without cause; 

What cause withholds you then, to mourn for himf 

judgement 1 thou art fled to brutish beasts, 

And men have lost their reason. Bear with me; 

My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, 

And I must pause, till it come back to me. 

15. Tennyson 
Lyrics from The Princess 

The splendour falls on castle walls 

And snowy summits old in story; 
The long light shakes across the lakes, 
And the wild cataract leaps in glory. 
Blow, bugle, blow, set the wild echoes flying, 
Blow, bugle ; answer, echoes, dying, dying, dying. 

hark, hear ! how thin and clear. 
And thinner, clearer, farther going 1 
sweet and far from clifi' and scar 
The horns of Elfland faintly blowing ! 
Blow, let us hear the pm-ple glens replying: 
Blow, bugle ; answer, echoes, dying, dying, dying. 
love, they die in yon rich sky. 

They faint on hill or field or river; 
Oar echoes roll from soul to soul. 
And grow for ever and for ever. 
Blow, bugle, blow, set the wild echoes flying. 
And answer, echoes, answer, dying, dying, dying. 



ordinary spelling of pieces transcribed 145 

16. Addison 

Passage from Sir Roger de Coverleys country residence 
and friends 

I have observed in several of my papers, that my friend Sir 
Roger, amidst all his good qualities, is something of a humorist, 
and that his virtues, as well as imperfections, are as it were tinged 
by a certain extravagance, which makes them particularly his, and 
distinguishes them from those of other men. This cast of mind, as 
it is generally very innocent in itself, so it renders his conversation 
highly agreeable, and more delightful than the same degree of sense 
and virtue would appear in their common and ordinary colours. 
As I was walking with him last night, he asked me how I liked the 
good man whom I have just now mentioned ; and without staying 
for my answer, told me that he was afraid of being insulted with 
Latin and Greek at his own table ; for which reason he desired a 
particular friend of his at the university to find him out a clergyman 
rather of plain sense than much learning, of a good aspect, a clear 
voice, a sociable temper, and, if possible, a man that understood a 
little of backgammon. " My friend," says Sir Roger, " found me 
out this gentleman, who, besides the endowments required of him, 
is, they tell me, a good scholar, though he does not show it. I have 
given him the parsonage of the parish; and because I know his 
value, have settled upon him a good annuity for life. If he outlives 
me, he shall find, that he was higher in my esteem than perhaps he 
thinks he is. He has now been with me thirty years and though 
he does not know I have taken notice of it, has never in all that 
time a.sked anything of me for himself, though he is every day 
soliciting me for something in behalf of one or other of my tenants, 
his parishioners. There has not been a lawsuit in the parish since 
he has lived among them ; if any dispute arises, they apply them- 
selves to him for the decision ; if they do not acquiesce in his 
judgment, which I think never happened above once or twice at 
most, they appeal to me. At his first settling with me, I made him 
a present of all the good sermons which have been printed in 
English, and only begged of him, that every Sunday he would 
pronounce one of them in the pulpit. Accordingly he has digested 
them into such a series, that they follow one another naturally, and 
make a continued system of practical divinity." 

J. 10 



146 APPENDIX 

17. Fuhrken-Jespersen-Eodhe 

Anecdote from Engelsk LcLsebok 
The telegraph explained 

To explain simply the working of the wondrous telegraph is a 
puzzle for the philosopher ; and no wonder simple folks come to 
grief over the task. The following is the explanation given to his 
fellow by an Italian peasant. 

" Don't you see those poles and wires that run along beside the 
railway?" 

" I know that is the telegraph ; but how does it work ?" 

" Nothing more simple ; you have only to touch one end of the 
wire, and click — the other end writes it down just the same as a 
pen." 

" Still, I don't quite see how it's done." 

" Let me try to make it plain. Have you a dog ?" 

"Yes." 

" What does he do if you pinch his tail ? " 

" Bark, to be sure." 

"Well then, supposing your dog were long enough to reach in 
body from Florence here to the capital." 

"Well?" 

** It is clear then that if you pinch his tail in Florence ho will 
bark in Rome. There, friend, that's exactly how the electric tele- 
graph works." 

18. Goldsmith 

Passage from Beau Tibhs at Vauschall 

I was going to second his remarks, when we were called to a 
consultation by Mr Tibbs and the rest of the company, to know in 
what manner we were to lay out the evening to the greatest ad- 
vantage. Mrs Tibbs was for keeping the genteel walk of the garden, 
where, she observed, there was always the very best company ; the 
widow, on the contrary, who came but once a season, was for securing 
a good standing-place to see the waterworks, which she assured us 
would begin in less than an hour at furthest ; a dispute therefore 
began, and as it was managed between two of very opposite cha- 
racters, it threatened to grow more bitter at every reply. Mrs Tibbs 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TRANSCRIBED 147 

wondered how people could pretend to know the polite world, who 
had received all their rudiments of breeding behind a counter ; to 
which the other replied, that though some people sat behind counters, 
yet they could sit at the head of their own tables too, and carve 
three good dishes of hot raeat whenever they thought proper ; — which 
was more than some people could say for themselves, that hardly 
knew a rabbit and onions from a green goose and gooseberries. 

It is hard to say where this might have ended, had not the 
husband, who probably knew the impetuosity of his wife's dis- 
position, proposed to end the dispute by adjourning to a box, and 
try if there was anything to be had for supper that was supportable. 

19. Huxley 
Passage from Discourses Biological and Geological (p. 224)^ 

What is the purpose of primary intellectual education ? I appre- 
hend that its first object is to train the young in the use of those 
tools wherewith men extract knowledge from the ever-shifting 
succession of phenomena which pass before their eyes ; and that 
its second object is to inform them of the fundamental laws which 
have been found by experience to govern the course of things, so 
that they may not be turned out into the world naked, defenceless, 
and a prey to the events they might control. 

A boy is taught to read his own and other languages, in order 
that he may have access to infinitely wider stores of knowledge 
than could ever be opened to him by oral intercourse with his 
fellow men ; he learns to write, that his means of communication 
with the rest of mankind may be indefinitely enlarged, and that he 
may record and store up the knowledge he acquires. He is taught 
elementary mathematics, that he may understand all those relations 
of number and form, upon which the transactions of men, associated 
in complicated societies, are built, and that he may have some 
practice in deductive reasoning. 

All these operations of reading, writing, and ciphering are 
intellectual tools, whose use should, before all things, be learned, 
and learned thoroughly; so that the youth may be enabled to 
make his life that which it ought to be, a continual progress in 
learning and in wisdom. 

^ Reproduced by kind permission of the publishers, Messrs Macraillan. 



148 APPENDIX 



20. Lloyd 

A passage from the Daily Mail, 22nd Oct. 1897 
as transcribed in Lloyd's Northern English 

Insects in Lapland 

Anyone who hopes to make a comfortable journey in Lapland 
should never make the mistake of arriving there equipped as an 
ordinary tourist. It is a country that abounds in mosquitoes and 
knorts, and if there is a fly more persistent than another it is a 
knort, A knort is a small creature with the obstinacy of a hundred 
mosquitoes and the patience of ten Jobs. A mosquito heralds his 
own approach with a menacing buzz. He hovers around, and if 
the intended victim is quick, the pest can be killed, and easily 
killed ; though of course, if the creatures attack in battalions, the 
whole number cannot be slaughtered, and victory must go to the 
many. The knort, on the other hand, is silent and apparently 
harmless. He arrives unobtrusively. He strolls about a bit, as if 
he were not in the least bit hungry, but only a little pleasantly 
inquisitive. What harm could such a small thing do to your thick 
knitted stockings ? 

But the beak of the knort is long, and having chosen his 
rendezvous, the owner of that beak proceeds to burrow with it, 
with a result that is altogether surprising, and certainly most 
painful. The Lapp himself stains his face with a mixture of tar 
and grease, which the creatures do not like. Moreover it is a 
fact that the mosquito and knort do not assail the natives as 
they do strangers. A mask of this stain, and a handkerchief, 
placed inside the cap and left to hang down behind, are the native 
precaution. But the tourist thinks of "England, home and beauty," 
and probably does not relish disguising his complexion into that of 
a mulatto. So he makes himself miserable by trying to wear a veil, 
something like a meat-safe, from which all the world looks like 
milk-and-water, and he breathes with a suffocating feeling, as if ho 
were on the point of choking or fainting, or doing something equally 
unmanly. 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TKANSCIUBED 149 



21. Macaulay 

Passage fiom the History of England 

It would uot be difficult to compose a lampoon or panegyric 
on either of these renowned factions. For no man not utterly 
destitute of judgment and candour will deny that there are many 
deep stains on the fame of the party to which he belongs, or that 
the party to which he is opposed may justly boast of many illustrious 
names, of many heroic actions and of many great services rendered 
to the state. The truth is that though both parties have often 
seriously erred, England could have spared neither ; if in her in- 
stitutions, freedom and order, the advantages arising from innovation 
and the advantages arising from prescription have been combined to 
an extent elsewhere unknown, we may attribute this happy pecu- 
liarity to the strenuous conflicts and alternate victories of two rival 
confederacies of statesmen. 



22. Macaulay 

Passage from the History of England (on Laud) 

The severest punishment which the two Houses could have 
inflicted on him would have been to set him at liberty and send 
him to Oxford. There he might have stayed, tortured by his own 
diabolical temper, hungering for puritans to pillory and mangle, 
plaguing the cavaliers, for want of somebody else to plague, with 
his peevishness and absurdity, performing grimaces and antics in 
the cathedral, continuing that incomparable diary, which we never 
see without forgetting the vices of his heart in the imbecility of his 
intellect, minuting down his dreams, counting the drops of blood 
which fell from his nose, watchiug the direction of the salt, and 
listening for the note of the screech-owls. Contemptuous mercy 
was the only vengeance which it became the Parliament to take on 
such a ridiculous old bigot. 

10—3 



150 APPENDIX 

23. RUSKIN 

Passage from Modern Painters 

Gather a single blade of grass, and examine for a minute, quietly, 
its narrow sword-shaped strip of fluted green. Nothing as it seems 
there, of notable goodness or beauty. A very little strength, and a 
very little tallness, and a few delicate long lines meeting in a point, 
not a perfect point neither, but blunt and unfinished, by no means 
a creditable or apparently much cared for example of nature's 
workmanship, made as it seems only to be trodden on to-day, 
and to-morrow to be cast into the oven; and a little pale and 
hollow stalk, feeble and flaccid, leading down to the dull brown 
fibres of roots. And yet, think of it well, and judge whether of 
all the gorgeous flowers that beam in summer air, and of all strong 
and goodly trees, pleasant to the eyes or good for food — stately 
palm and pine, strong ash and oak, scented citron, burdened vine— 
there be any by man so deeply loved, by God so highly graced as 
that narrow point of feeble green. 



24. Scott 
A passage from Old Mortality 

Evening lowered around Morton as he advanced up the narrow 
dell which must have once been a wood, but was now a ravine 
divested of trees, unless where a few from their inaccessible situation 
on the edge of precipitous banks, or clinging among rocks and huge 
stones, defied the invasion of men and of cattle, like the scattered 
tribes of a conquered country, driven to take refuge in the barren 
strength of its mountains. These too, wasted and decayed, seemed 
rather to exist than to flourish, and only served to indicate what 
the landscape must once have been. But the stream brawled down 
among them in all its freshness and vivacity, giving the life and 
animation which a mountain rivulet alone can confer on the barest 
and most savage scenes, and which the inhabitants of such a country 
miss when gazing even upon the tranquil winding of a majestic 
stream through plains of fertility, and beside palaces of splendour. 



ORDINARY SPELLING OF PIECES TRANSCRIBED 151 

The track of the road followed the course of the brook, which was 
now visible, and now only to be distinguished by its brawling heard 
among the stones, or in the clefts of the rocks, that occasionally 
interrupted its course. 

"Murmurer that thou art," said Morton, in the enthusiasm of 
his reverie, "why chafe with the rocks that stop thy course for 
a moment ? There is a sea to receive thee in its bosom ; and there 
is an eternity for man when his fretful and hasty course through 
the vale of time shall be ceased and over. What thy petty fuming 
is to the deep and vast billows of a shoreless ocean, are our cares, 
hopes, fears, joys, and sorrows, to the objects which must occupy 
us through the awful and boundless succession of ages." 

25. Stevenson 
Passage from Treasure Island 

The appearance of the island when I came on deck next morning 
was altogether changed. Although the breeze had now utterly 
failed, we had made a great deal of way during the night, and were 
now lying becalmed about half a mile to the south-east of the low 
eastern coast. Grey-coloured woods covered a large part of the 
surface. This even tint was indeed broken up by streaks of yellow 
sandbreak in the lower lands, and by many tall trees of the pine 
family, out-topping the others — some singly, some in clumps ; but 
the general colouring was uniform and sad. The hills ran up clear 
above the vegetation in spires of naked rock. All were strangely 
shaped, and the Spy-glass, which was by three or four hundred 
feet the tallest on the island, was likewise the strangest in con- 
figuration, running up sheer from almost every side, and then 
suddenly cut oft" at the top like a pedestal to put a statue on. 

26. W. Pett Ridge 

A passage from London Only (pp. 9 — 12)^ 

" I've found 'em ! " said his landlady exultantly, as he stumbled 
into the narrow, dimly lighted passage. She turned up the little 
oil-lamp standing on the bracket, and the oil-lamp, annoyed, began 

1 Reproduced by kind permission of Mr Pett Ridge. 



152 APPENDIX 

to smoke furiously. " I've found 'em, Mr Merrywcathcr, and gl.id 
enough I am to 'ave been of some service to you." She was a 
vivacious old lady in a beaded cap with a lively knowledge of the 
affairs of other people, and just now keenly interested in the new 
occupant of her bed-sitting-room. "And you mustn't thank me, 
because I'm only too pleased to bring friends and rel'tives together." 

"iVbw what are you cacklin' about, ma'am ?" he asked politely. 

"Ah," replied the old lady cheerfully, "you'll soon know. We 
shan't be long now. It'll be as good as a play to see you two meet." 
She wept and rubbed her eyes. " People may say what they like, 
but there's nothing in all this wide world to be compared to two 
loyin' 'earts." 

" Let me 'ave my supper," he said patiently, " and then leave me 
be. I want to 'ave a smoke and a think." 

" Fou won't do much thinking," remarked the landlady know- 
ingly, " when you 'ear the news I've got for you. You said your 
name was Mcrryweather, didn't you ? " 

"I don't deny it." 

"And you said you'd got friends near 'ere — you'd forgot the 
address." 

" I might have let fall a casual remark," said Bell carefully, as 
he held the handle of his door, " or statement to that eflfect. What- 
ever I said I'll stick to." 

" I knew that," replied the old landlady. " I 'ope I can tell a 
gentleman from a mere common person. Some people look down 
on sailors and such-like, but I'm not one of that sort. As I often 
say, where would Old England be without 'em ! " 

" 'Urry up with that supper," said Mr Bell. 

" Shall I lay for two, Mr Mcrryweather ? " asked the old lady. 

" Course not ! I'm only one." 

"But the lady?" 

"What lady?" 

" Why," she said, " your wife ! " Mr Bell pulled the handle from 
the door and stood looking at her blankly. The landlady gave a 
gesture of self-reproval. "That's me all over. I forget what I 
'ave said and I forget what I 'aven't said. What I ought to have 
told you before blurting it out like that was that I've discovered 
your wife, Mrs Mcrryweather, in Grundy Street ; that she's simply 
overjoyed to 'car of you, and I've asked her to come 'ere this 



ORDINARY SPELLING OP PIECES TRANSCRIBED 153 

"Then," said Mr Bell solemnly, and shaking the white door- 
handle in the old lady's face, "you jest listen to me. You've asked 
her to come 'ere ; you can jest jolly well ask her to go away again. 
I'm not going to see her." 

" Well, well, welly" said the amazed landlady, " 'ere's a pretty 
how-d'ye-do ! And she talked so affectionate about you, too, and 
she says, * Oh ! ' she says, ' I do so long to look on my sweet one's 
face again.' I had the least drop of spirits with her, and we drank 
your good 'ealth." 

"Very kind of you," said Mr Bell doggedly, "but that don't 
aifect my position. When she comes, you get rid of her, and, in 
future, don't go potterin' about and mixing yourself up in my affairs, 
because I won't have it. See? I've got plenty to worry about," 
added Mr Bell fiercely — "more than you think for; and I don't 
want no interforin' old cat — " 

" When you've quite done using language," interrupted the old 
lady, bridling, "p'raps you'll kindly put back that door-'andle where 
you found it. Letting you my ground-floor front for a paltry four- 
and-six a- week don't entitle you to walk about with bits of it in 
your 'ands. So there, now ! " She went towards the kitchen, 
soliloquising. " Interferin' old cat indeed ! Vll learn him ! " 



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