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Full text of "Proposal for a comprehensive high school for negroes in Princess Anne County"

A FB0FC6AL FCB A CCMFfiUOBIVX HIGH 



IN P&XMC8SS AMI COUNTZ 



AThoaia 
oaa nt a d to 
ttoa on Qraduato Study 
Institute 



In Partial itOttiaaant 
tha Regulr— nte for tha 



JoMpb ¥• Boyidn 

lb 19A9 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/proposalforcomprOOboyk 



Sincere gratitude and indebtedness is acknowledged to the advisor* 
of this thesis«""Dr* L* F, rtilnor and Dr* B» 8, Fala»r—for -valuable sugges- 
tions rendered In connection with the writing of this work* Also, thank* 
are expressed to the Director of Susraer Study, Ur» WilXian IS, Cooper, to 
individuals who returned the questionnaires, and ethers who have assisted 
in the development of this study. 



TABUS Of C08T3ITS 

CHAPtSl PACK 

i. TJii immascmm . . . 1 

Statement of the problem • •...••••••.••. 1 

Definition of terns ................. 3 

Source of data ............•..•••.• 6 

Significance of the problem ••••••• 8 

limitations of tho problem •••..... 12 

Analysis of tho problou •••........ 13 

II. RELATED STUaidS AMD UfBRATWUi 15 

in. history and mssds or ths probls* 21 

History of tho problem ••••.••••••••••• 22 

Background of school eosssmlty • . . . •• 21 

hysieal characteristics • • . • 21 

Besaarow . 22 

Population ...... 30 

!• ru school cGiJidB anl enroll <-nt. 32 

Background of tho probles 34 

Seoondaxy ourriculua inadequate 34 

Curriculum needs of the school ............ 40 

Specific eoursos for individual needs 40 

Vocational courses ............... 40 

54 



iii 

ciikptm mm 

17 08a*SIZ3H> BIGS SCHOOL C )&u&£ 59 

Subjects for ^radM eighth through twelve • • ■ 61 

Eighth grade exploratory course ....... 61 

Srade uine through twelve ••••••■..• 64 

Subjects for eoireaorciAl course •.....••• 70 

Subjects for & tr&des course ••••••••• 75 

Subjects for & llboral arts course ••••••• 75 

Subjocts for a fine arts course • 78 

Buarom « es 

General stssmry ••• 85 

Findings ••••• .... 87 

Jenoralisstions • •••*...........• 88 

KeeosssexKlat ions ......•.......*.• 89 

muwutMi 91 

▲Fr.JTOIK I 



, - - 



nati 

I* Begro School Census and Jiar ollneut in Princess Anns 
County* Virginia and all Virginia Counties, 
1945-46 • • • • 10 

II. Basic Data in relation to Financial Support to Public 

Schools, iVinces6 Anne County and highest and lowest 
counties in Virginia, 1941-42 •••••• 24 

III. All Sources of lleceipts for Princess Anne County and the 

Average for all Counties in Virginia, 194C-47 • • • • 26 

IV. Areas and Disbursements to Support -Education in Princess 
Anns County, and Average for all Counties in Virginia, 
1946-47 • ••••• 28 

V* Areas of Distribution of State funds to Princess Anns 

County for Education and the Average for all Virginia 
Counties, 1046-47 .......... •••• 29 

VI* Census and Per Cent of Increase for Princess Anns County 

and Average for all Counties in Virginia, 1930-1940 • • SO 

VII, Population of Civil Districts in Princess Anns County, 

1940 •• SI 

VIII. TiB^ro Population in Princess Anne County, 1940, 1930, 1920 52 

IX* School Census and School Binrollsent of I&gro Pupils in 

Princess Anas County, 1954-56 to 1948-49 ...... 55 



X* Boater and Per Cant of Svery 1,000 Pupils Advancing front 

Grade Six through Hi-h School ••••*••••••• 56 

XI* Drop-Outs by Grade Level and Sex, Princess Anns County 

Training School, Euclid, Virginia •••••••••• GO 

XII* rade level of Subjects Offered at Princess Anne County 

Training School, 1946-49 . ......... 41 

XIII* Basher and Per Cent of Suggestions for Curriculum iapro?e- 
osnt by ^rop-outs, Princess Anne County Training 
School, 1948 .................... si 



I. ttaaber and Bar Cent of SusseationB far Curriculum 2»» 

proveaeate V Oraduates of ftrineees An&e County Training 
:. : .-;3 



Xf Sunber *fid l*r Cant of Sogceetloas for Curricula* 

norrtc by 1348 Senior ©less* Princoac Asm County ?rain» 

;. .cLo-i M 

VI Bias Bigs**t Suggested C«nrwt Cosspilad froa Tahlos XI. :« 
Uunher end Per Cesfe # Princes* Anne County 7r*lrda£ 
School* 1348 • 43 

XTH Bar Cent of total Busfcer of Boys Scrolled is Agriculture, 

'. ,oosa Kam County trclsiag School *•••••••• &2 

I7ITI Per lent of -otal Suaber of iirla Enrolled in Sesae £«oeo- 

slce* Princess Anae Cotarty Training School •••••• Ml 



XIX Biartmr and far Cent of Graduate* she &fe£e>red Coll©£e~ 

Priaeee* Acs* Training School* 1:41-48 • ••••••• 



XX tab*? and Per Cant of Oredufcte* ah* Entered College out 
of %uti*tiwa.«.jr«-fi i-'atursedg. Princes* Anae County Train- 
inc School, 1943 ****** I 

XXI 8«b>ets, Parted** f3**k«, am Credit* for the Sigkth Orate ■ 

Q Seh>cts, P criod** Sssks* end Credits for the SXntfc 

^ra<l» • ••••••••••••••»••••••••• CS 



XXXII subjects, Pariah , teaks* and Credits for the tenth --rada H 

XXI7 Sajbjoctc, friri>:e # "fecks, and Credits far the Ele-aaath 

Ahead* ••.•••••••«••••••*••••••• C7 

I 7 subjects, ffcriols* Seek** an lor the Twelfth 



X2.TI X Suggest** Four*7oar Course la Cgntsarvlal Sdueat ion • • 72 

XX7T2 X 8ttgje*ted l our-Tear ^ourso in SoodwerfcSas • •♦••• 74 

XXTIII A Suggested Four-Tewr College Froparanry Courea in English 

and History • • 77 

XXIX A *u£geet*d Pour-Year Course in ?usic ••••••••• 30 



Lioi or FiacEM 



Distribution of Vocational Interests impressed by 

255 Students at jPrinoees Anne County Training School, 
1348-49 .......... 50 



CHAPTER X 



Statement ©£ £hj. problem. It is srtomatlc thai mmcj high 
should fc*et Uw needs of all the students enrolled* The curricula of the 
»a jority of the sciiools are adapted to prepare youth for college regardless 
of what the objective of those students soy be. Curing the twentieth cen- 
tury , the concept of an adequate high sohool program has boon modified in 
many respects. The curriculum has boon greatly revised because of increased 
enrollment, the varied typos of pupils in sohool who need acre than the tra- 
ditional college preparatory curriculum, and because of other significant 
factors, such as technological advances and changes in patterns of living* 
A high sohool prograia is artoowatB whan it servos all of the pupils 
the oowsanlty. The program is adequate if it provides the college- 
group with sore complete preparation for their work, and if it pre- 
those for their work who go directly from high sohool into an occupa- 
tion. The p ro gram should offer rich and stimlatiog experiences which are 
vitally connected with the life of the ooamunity. ' It should help pupils 
through guidance to find and pursue courses which are appropriate to their 
and in which they can as individuals su cc eed superlatively well.* 



1 L Comnrehensive Prograr. o£ xlucation for Virginia ' a Publio Schools 
(CejuLOTwealth of Virginia, state board of education, KJ 
1947). pp. 1-2* 



2 
Virginia is coving rapidly toward the establishment of the twelve- 
systea, eo that she oan sere adequately neet the need* of the 



A seat important oonsideration should be introduced here. 
It is the aost fundamental end serious problem facing secon- 
dary education ia Virginia; in the hiph schools of Virginia 
we are succeeding with only approximately one-third of the 
boys and girls of high school ago, fourteen through eighteen. 
Fifty-five per seat of the boys and girls of high school age 
are now enrolled in our high schools* Forty-five par sent are 
not in high school at all. Twelve to fourteen per cent of the 
55 per cent drop out. and 21 per cent of the 55 per cant are 
as failures. 2 



The Curriculum of Princess Anne County Training school, fltslld. 
Virginia, Is not adequate. As principal of the school for the past three 
years, the writer is convinced that this school is characteristic of the 
"eld college-preparatory" type and is not serving the needs of all of the 
negro high sshool pupils of Prinosss Anns County. Out of this hnekgrcufid. 
pertinent date have bean assembled in this study for the solution of the 
following problem 

10 WHAT ffiTSHT CAM PRINCESS AftHS COUKTI ADAPT THB VIRGIHIA 

coMPRaiaeivs rich school to the kbbb of tub mourn of 

THB COtBRT? 



2 Fred K. Alexander, "The ivighth Grade ia the Coaprehensive High 

School," JM £&a^a^rWtf»T«fW« SL && S&J3S& ftriWllfr (diversity 
of Virginia, June, 1V48), pp. 1-2. 



I. DEFINHIOM CT TEfiMS 



ttgb flfifaofil* *** tern "comprehensive high school" 
Is relatively new, but the concept is very olxu The meaning of a coqpre- 
heoBlvQ lu\gh school, acccrdiag to materials from Uu ^tate board at 
li— stf ,ri, Richmond, Virginia, Is quoted belos. 



fabst is the comprehensive high school in actuality and 
In practice? First, it consists of an offering broad enough 
to meet the individual needs of all the boys and girls of high 

age including 

A* General education for citisenehip and other 



b. Specialised offering to meet individual needs 

including 

2* leaden ie subjects 

2. Fine arts 

3* Practical arts in vocational fields! 
second , systematic and organised guidance services including 
follow-up of drop-outs and graduatasi third, adequate trainin. 
and devoted personnel for teaching and guidance} fourth, a 
high quality of organisation inclining public relations 
involving both school and community, and superb sdministration 
to accomplish the task of educating 99 par cent of the secondary 
school populavLonj and fifth, evaluation through the use of 
IH ovuluuilv« criteria H SMeW iMlnBBali ef MldMttMM 



In the early days of curriculum develojrcnt, 
it «os regarded as a list of subjects, a course of study, fupil eaqperieaet 
secured outside of the class room sere not regarded as a part of the 
curriciilusw During recent years definitions of the curriculum have bosons 
■ore inclusive. In brief, the curriculum is ma defined as "all the 



~£2L»»» p. 5. 



activities and all the experience* in which pupils engage under the 
direction of the school to achieve the objectives of the school* n It is 
as broad as life— life in the past, at present, and as it sill be or should 
be in the future. It should be guided by worthy goals— goals which kocp 
in rind the needs both of society and of the pupils.^ 



I. This tern means all those phases of training 1 > 

j, growth, and development that pupils should obtain while in, 

or under the direction of the school* "It means seeking clues to the 

5 
desirable reoonstruction of the whole self in the adult personal! iy # n 



This is the ncne ef the 
school for which this study is scant. The nans is misleading to many 
people, because of the word "training" in it. Princess ^jxjg Uounty Train* 
lag School is an accredited, medium-sized, four-year high sciiool. The 
eighth f&ttr exploratory course was added to the curriculum in 1946-47 • 
The school year, 1950-51, there will be five years instead of four in the 
high school department. 

itrop-oufca . For this study dropping out has reference to all pupils 
who enroll and remain long enough to receive a grade nark. Six weeks is 



*feard G. header, Ife ftirriflliftnt If s£. tiuALi getool ftlpMPtrrfltrtaB 
(Sew i'crki The maftrnmnn Company, 1947), pp. 603-4. 

V. T. Thayer, Caroline h. Zachry, and Huth Kolinsky, hffffl-fT flUlng 
education (New Xorkt D. Apple ton-Century Company, 1939), p. 50 



5 
the use e s aery tine required to receive subject grades. If • pupil 
Imtm school daring the Mbool year, ho is considered dropping oat 
of the ciaee in which ho had enrolled. If a popil completes a grade 
and does nek return to school the next year, he is considered dropping 
auk of the grade In which he was pronoted. In the event that a popil 
fails to be proaoted at the end of the school /ear and does not return 
to s c n o ol the following /ear, ho is considered dropping out of the grade 
in which he failed. Brief ly stated, all si afloat ■ who enroll and ranain 
for six weeks, but do not attend continuously until they are graduated 
are tended drop-outs. 



ii. sources cr data 



Three groups responded to inquiries which 
it to thee in Decaeber, 1948* the eeniore of the 194&-49 class received 
thirty-five questionnaires and returned the sans* To former graduates 
of the sehooJ, were sent 150, and sixty-eight or 45.3 per sent of tue» 
To drop-cute of the school were sent 125, and sixty-six 
52*8 per cent were returned. These questionnaires were carefully cow* 
for clearness and for brevity in response for aoet items. Seas 
itsDS allowed freedon for a wide range of sxprosilon. Sach one of the 
fame contained a short paragraph explaining its purpose and soliciting 
the cooperation of the person to whow it was sent. 



Collage records . Catalogs from all Megro colleges in Virginia and 
of the colleges in Maryland and North Carolina have been studied* 
bulletins were rev ie wed to ascertain entrance requirements* -uoh 
information served as a basis for required subjects of the courses in the 
of this study. 



.aciool JbflQEg ££&£&• This office has furnished many reliable 
documents* among the most helpful of these reports are £bs. SsiiBA £tttt£b*» 
StBBtiSL £fi£ MS. IMBBI ££ EriflfiaRS. iflBft C«intT P JtajBiol fi£ ftrtmllfltiirffllhliiTsI 
fojj l^lfi Hi h I^Mswsl fl£ YliTfliliWil r a** 1 the fiaport c£ yff,rgiTllfl 1 M "Tit- < '?fr 



•Copies of the questionnaires are in the appendix 



llaalth Danartneiit . Pamphlets on health conditions of the county 
sere furnished the writer. 

IMTT* 04 *-* & 21E&U0&. This instd iutioa has furnished date on the 
pnimlnilim trends of friuoeas itnne County, 

atta&fi RtTMeMIrt fit ttiMi %atWatJatti *«» this dsparteent has 
cojo Dtiny vary sl^dfiMi BssMSSSi pM^MMiSe ■"^•••i ■* ■»§■>■ 
■eterial of greet value* 

Bwtrtiirt at fr—r-ni iasfiau at JA& £aa^t, »am'»torton» fcfr iron 

thic office various reports have been secured on population, and Ikoceo. 
for Virginia and Prinoess Anne County. 



III. THE SIGNIFICANCE CF THE PiUBUBI 

Theoretical aJLa£&£&sanc£. Currioulura development is one of the 
largo fields in education, end this study seeks to contribute to that 
knowledge. The significance of this problem sill be interpreted end 
defended by the writer in Princess Anne County, »;.er* it is expected to 
be implemented. 

Pr actical glgnjfjfisjsie* * comprehensive high school sill nuke it 
poojihle for the negroes of Princess Anne County to develop a progrun of 
education for tie pupils in school and tie people of the community miick 
sill enable thoc to develop into more productive and competent citizens 
of the cocounity and thereby sake their mavlmna contribution to the total 



ty life* If a high school program of comprehensive education is 
developed, it is reasonable to believe that 60 per cent of the pupils 
of high school age, fourteen to eighteen, inclusively, could be served by 
the ocijool* This would mean that Princess Anne County coulc expect to 
have 549 Kegro pupil enrolled in high school in the immediate future* 

Sixty pei cent of Negro youth in the county ages fourteen to eighteen 

7 
inclusive would equal 549 at the present. The current enroUnuat ie 273. 



6 i» SSBSKSl SL && JMstHsl AS School ftlll^liy *<geds (Princes* Anns 
County, viiviuio, 1947), p. 4 

7 £M*$ P. 24 



Table I shews that the percentage of census enrolled for I*egroos 
in rtrino— o Anne County is 68,6 per cent as coopered with on average of 
74*7 per cent for all the counties of Virginia. This Beans that the 
lagro enrollment of Prin c es s Anne County is less than the average enroll* 
■sat for all of the counties of the otate. It is reasonable to predict 
that with a comprehensive program of education for the •leBontary and 
high schools the enrollment sill equal, if not exceed, the average per 
cent of all the counties of Virginia, 74*7* Ibis sould aean an increased 
enrollment in Princess Anns County free 1816 pupils, elsnantary and high t 
to approximately 2,000. 



T*bl£ II - NfcitoO SCHOOL CttfSOS AKD flffiflMMffW lb 

CbSS avM. COUNT!, VfiiGItflii AM) ALL Vlt&IHlA 
CODNTIw,, 1945-46* 



Census 
enrollment 


Princess nam 
County 


Counties 
of the State 


1945 
f-flhoftl ceiL-UB 


2,647 


139,956 


1945-46 
enrollment 


1,816 


104,6a 


Percentage of 
census enrolled 


68.6 


74.7 



♦Source* heport of the Canmlttee on the . chool 
building Needs for the Negroes of Princess Anne County, 
Virginia, 1947 



In addition to sore productive and competent citisens, and increased 
marcillmnt, another practical significance would be , .id 

increased efficiency of the school progr c. The school would be in a 

position to reader those services which it is destined to perform. 



IT. UmrjATIQBS Gt IE 



Although questionnaire* are e^lcyed 
in studies and investigations, they have lira, tnt ions that should not be 
Cfmrloufcsd. The greatest weakness, it appears, is in the unreliability 
of this method of inquiry. Subjectivity and false response are elements 
that nay enter into this sethod of collecting data and alt_r the true 
value of it* however, when questionnaires are used, they should be for- 
rxii:.to<.. i^ mil a MMw* till fcfci aroint of sui-j activity Is r . ■.:.-... ,o 
a minimus. 

"It is impossible to expect accuracy in returns obtained by 
circulars, various constructions being put upon the same question by 
different individuals who consequently classify their replies upon various 
principles." 

flfthor ilttiiiag factors . A standard vocational-int rest testing 
program for a period of four years mould have increased the reliability 
of the study. Cumulative follow-up records of all students of the high 
school woulf have been a source of dependable information, but such records 
mere not sellable. The writer* s short term of principalsiip, also, o rved 
to limit the effectiveness of this wcrk. 



Q 

C. C. hoes, £easureaante in, T«rtay»« Schools (flew larks i-r aties- 



Kall Incorporated, 1943)* p. 59 



V* AMALXSIS Of IK f&CBUK 

A complicated problem c&n not be solved successfully by attacking 
it as a Biiole. Tbe prbblaD must be approached or solved in parte. So 
tide problem has keen divided into Its component parts in orde: to 
simplify its solution, and in order to solve each part separately. The 
main problem has been divided Into the following minor p rtej 

1. fthat is the history of the problem? 

2. hhat are the curriculum needs of the 
pupils? 



3. Hhat program will meet the mlntmw needs 
of the pupils of the community? 



IX. 

The discovery of a need to iaprove the curriculum ouX .rings at 
Princess iinne County Training School has bean set forth in the statement 
of this problem* This section of the chapter concisely points out 
the failure of high schools to serve adequately its pupils* The majority 
of the secondary schools have served only those who have planned to go 
on to college. The large portion of boys and girls who have not gone 
to a higher institution of learning have not received value commensurate 
with their tine in school* 

Instruments used to reveal curriculum m eed s of this problem hove 
bean briefly presented* Questionnaires* the principal source of dai_, 
mors answered by former graduates* drop-outs* and seniors of the 1949 
class* This method of collecting data for this stu y has sooe limita- 
tions that sere mentioned* Ihe element of subjectivity in responses 
free individuals mas felt to be the greatest weakness of tli© inquiries* 
The inability of persons responding to know the curriculum needs of the 
ociioal decreases the reliability of data in these instruments* Other 
valuable sources of Information used to indicate curriculum aseds were f: 
the offices of the local School Board and the State Department of Public 
Instruction* 

The potential significance of tnis study is its contribution in the 
area of curriculum development in secondary education* and its practical 
implications for the students and lay people of Princess Anne County* 



CHAPTLR II 
RELATED MMtOM hH> LJX£&AlUti£ 

The purpose of this chapter is to point out some tt Ifet signif leant 
related studies and literature that the writur has diocov red frost on 
investigation of the field and to shoe the relationship of the problssi 
of this study to previous works of a similar nature* 

An eras 1 nation of such material has revealed the extent to which 
the field has been explored, and it reflects how much re: earoh aid 
expe&lBe&tal investigation remains to be dons in the field of cuiT-iculum 
re-organisation. 

Many authors have advocated various degrees of secondary-school 
re-organisation and have suggested causes for the changing internal struc- 
ture of the modern high school* 

The Study "Curriculum Development in City-School tfftt lm" by 
Lawecn? is a research production shich sill greatly aid school administra- 
tors in the Implementation of new practices in the school curriculum 
and elimination of ■outmoded" practices. In this report, ihe trends in 
curriculum development in the school systems are clearly revealed by 
the aut : cr # These trends shoe the changes that have gradually tukon place 
in curriculum content and methods and provide the basis for predicting 



^Douglas £• Lesson. Curriculum Davalaf- n nti J3 Clty-cchool -^sterns 
(Chicago. Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. 1940). pp. 97-99 



16 

the emerging curriculum in the near future. 

Friar to 1850, the typical high school progr m included approximate^ 
thirty different subjects of stucy, with no election of subjects . rovided* 
9y 1936, the typical high school offered over twice this ouster of 
subjects, v;ith elections frequently outnumbering the required courses* 

Socio-economic developsents hare greatly influenced and have 

10 
direction to present secondary education* crinkle points out 



too methods of curriculum re-organisationt one method is principally that 
of subject matter} and, another method considers broad fields of experience, 
such as experience with one's natural environment, exp ..;1 nee with people, 
and vocational experience* Grade placement, extracurricul ., activities, 
testing programs, time to graduate, and other vital aspects of modernised 
education are discussed in this book* 
It bee been pointed out by Thayer 11 that the courses of study and 
curricula have come to reflect the uncertainties of a changing 
rld# Consequently, they are no longer viewed as permanent foroatione of 
principles and established bodies of facts organised for the conv nience 
of teachers throughout undisturbed periods of time* On the contrary, 
progressive schools are constantly re-organising their curricula in 
sensitive response to the actual needs and character is ties of boys and girls 
and the changing circumstances conditioning their growth and development* 



iiiUiam L* ;.rinkle, "Modernising Secondary education," Xuca - 
aJlBlnJiiTfitillTn OBI WUh>TYifiiQa> JUIIi, pp. 161-74 

^v* T, Thayer, "A basis for a New Secondary Curriculum," .rrogrsa - 
elve Lduc&tion . (12*478, November, 1935) 



17 

1 study bar Draper^ 12 largely deals with the approach Bade by 
educational societies and individuals auring the present century to deter* 
Bine those basic factors, skills , attitudes , and ideals which aire impor- 
tant enough to be included in the indoctrination program for ev ry 
Individual in the United States* *s this literature points out, cecon- 
dary education is mostly concerned with individual interest, and growth* 
In the first year of the high eehool, individual differences, abilities, 
aptitudes, and interests of students are explored | in the later years 
of this unit those interests which have been definitely established are 
capitalised! and specialisation Is basic in the entire progrus by the 
— Ml iii,i ion of the junior college year. The selection of a life vocation 
by the pupil and training for efficiency in the work of hie chosen field 
constitutes one phase of the secondary program in this country . It begins 
sw an exploratory program and extends through a period of rather intensive 
specialisation. 

Hots. 1 ' in reports of a study of trends in the high schools of the 
■Berth Central Association" covering the period from 1930 to 1933, noted 
that in the fields of the commercial subjects, social ■ , -nrlish, 
instrumental arts, end mvt ic, more subjects have been added to the 
curriculum than have been dropped. 



12 

-dgar Marion l/rsper, Principles and Technique of curriculum 

Making (Mew Xorki b. Apple ton-Century Comp&oy, 193b). " 

13 
H. G. Hots, "Trends in the Development of Secondary -chools." 
|MjMj Centr 1 Aaanrtt^t,^ gsjmjmmj^ K)i287-97, January. 1936. 



18 

ttreaner 1 ^ and Lorge. from their long-time surrey of rural cobools* 
noted this mos tendency that Hots did* Their figures shooed mmmt In the 
period 1924-1930, some 164 courses or dep.rtmtnts s^re added *: eroas only 
eirhty-two sere dropped* la their survey the nee courses s> re largely 
In the field of the social sciences with vocational education an guidance 
functions ranking next in Importance* 

One of the most Interesting discussions on the curriculum ic that 
by Stuart* 2 "* This book attempts to "present the plans and devices of the 
iiT3enal Technical schools* Indianapolis* *h reby the interest of the 
individual is kept paramount*" These schools* fourteen of them* are organ- 
ised as • single unit which is characteristic of s comprehensive . A,jh 
acLool* Stucrt gives the theoretical background of his schools and indi- 
cates influential trends of thought by the lay people* mention mas mads 
of school population falling into three groups* Thame groups arei 
(1) the group which plans to enter college* (2) a group seat on hih school 
graduation and mho intends to go immediately thereafter into Ehatevor 
position their training and their opportunities make possible* and (3) those 
mho do not know whether or not they will graduate from high swfaool* 

In the 1936 "roll 0101" Balyeat 26 found thirty-two stete-vldo 
ourriculum-revision programs mentioned* A previous study revealed only two 



Edmund he S* Srunner, and Irving Lorge* kural trend s in Depression 
fears (New fork: Columbia University Press* 193771 



^ iio e. stuart. ihe. ft-gflnjirtlfln s£ jfe fiflmrftfiMBtTO fikb 

(Sew Torks The Mwomlllnn Company, 1926)* 

^F, A* Balyeat* "Thirty-Two States flan CurriculuQ 
■H • j*Jdi I— m i UmlWJw mmfmmmmjr. 10m* 



19 

states mentioned curriculum change* in 1927* By 1936, Ik numbe. bad 
increased to thirty-two. Trends toward long-term prograisa hare been noticed 
from this survey, lbs purpose of "Curriculum hevisloB* was indicated by 
asms of the states t Arkansas - "designed to adapt the curriculum to 
•hanging social and economic needs"; California ■ "to meet new social 
nooda"; Colorado ■ "accomplish the articulation of high school courses 
with life's problems"; Maryland - "a liberalized curriculum to meet the 

of non-acade&ic pupils"; Massachusetts * "to meet the needs of 
social individuals." 
"The tims is ripe to tales up the curriculum work with increased' 

enlist the rank and file of teachers into the movement unri-- compe- 
tent and responsible leadership, and produce curriculum end courses of 

17 

study worthy of the opportunity and the need." ' 



17 ibM.» p. 12 



III. SUMURX 

Trim the various materials presented In this chapter, It la 
evident that considerable thought and work have beeu done la the fluid 
of curriculum sssslopss nt and revision. BsorganisMtlon of curxacuium 
off cringe to meet the needs of all pupils has made such progress in the 
direction of the goals and objectives of education. In the meantime, the 
curriculum needs sore study and isproves o nt If it is to he2p all boys and 
girls make the adjustments necessary to live happy and successful lives* 
As yet thgr* has been mo clear cut effective study of curriculum organisation. 



chapl-k in 

HISTCttI riBD NEEDS 

The history and needs of this problem ore so closely interrelated 
that both of these phases of the ixoblem have been included in the Dane 
chapter. 



FART I 

THE HJSTQhX. Ok TR& ihOBLHI 

I* BACKiitOUi*D Ok *M SCHOOL 



ffbaraet^rtfiUfi§» Princess Anne County, the 
division in which this problem is intended, is located in the extreme 
eastern section of Virginia* It is bounded on the south by crth Carolina, 
on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the North by the Chesapeake Bay, 
and on the vest by Norfolk County. It has an area of approximate 125 
square miles. The topography of the county is suited principally to 
farming. The land is very fertile, of which s substantial portion is in 
use* The mild sinters and breezy summers ere stimulating factors which 
• fast growing summer resort, Virginia beach, located in the 
section of the county, bordering the Atlantic Ocean* 



22 

Princess Aim* County Training Softool is situated In the western 
portion of the county, twelve ailee from Virginia Beach, and four Biles 
from the Morfollc*Prlncese Anne County line. It is located in the area that 
coutui:,a tie largest nusibei 1 of .aegro ■wMsMMt li ^ r Mftl sf I ._o 
location, sons pupils are transported long distances on school buses* 
High school work only Is offered for 273 students who constitute the 
present (1948-1949 ) enrollment* 

Within a distance of thirty-five Biles vest and northwest of 
Princes ■ Anne large urban centers— Norfolk, ftartsmouth, seap o rt sews* and 
Suffolk-can be reached* These nearby cities offer mployaont opportunity 
for »any people in Princess Anne County* 



I* Farcing Is the predominant industry of the conounity. 
It is carried on largely by plantation owners aho work a 1 rge nunbor of 
Negroes as share-croppers* Although Bany Negro fact! lee own their fares, 
the majority of the colored people in the county are tenant farcers* "In 
1940* the predominant type of production in which Negroes wore i ; loyed 
In Princess Anne County was agriculture* The estimated per capita 
annual income was between §400 and $499* "^ 

Truck, dairy, and poultry products are sources of considerable 
income* Timber, converted into lumber by sawmills, is a valuable source 
of Income to the county* Financial support in 1941*42 to pu lie schools 
in the county is pictured in Table II* * The data la this table may be 



-%haddeus C. Smith, "Job Opportunity for Negroes Norfolk-Princess 
Anns County Area," (Unpublished aaster's thesis, Hampton Institute* Kampton, 
Virginia, 1947), p. 23 

•JkEflti fl£ &£. Tiy^i"** education fiMTllfirfl o (Senate hocutaent 
Number 1, Division of Purchase and printing, Kiobmond, 1944). p* 75 



23 

as follows s for the average annual salary to teachers the county 
ranked 8th among the one hundred counties and paid $998} the county that 
ranked first, paid the highest, an average of $1,516 i and, the county that 
ranked one hundredth paid the lowest, an average of £624* "True v lue of 
locally taxable wealth" Beans all the available property that MA be 
I* ($27,299,280) 



24 



UH« II» - u*8fl RATA B BUXXfli 10 FDIAKIAL 88PWBJ 10 W Lit ... 00L5 
PHttCESS AMIS COUSTX A*& HIGH £T AND LOmiST ua xH 

VliUilNU, 1941-42* 



xoae of I _ 




A.i.o cOUHTI 


Hank let 
in support 


. nnk 100th 


financial ■upport 


imA 


support 


in support 


Average W"t*^i1 
salary to teachers 


8th 


• 998 


$ 1,516 


v 624 


Ability equal*** true 
value of locally taxable 
wealth divided by A.D.A. 


11th 


9,260 


23,779 


2,420 


i<atio of children 
f-19 to adults 20-64 


50th 


.5761 


.9076 


.2597 


lotol cost of 
education per pupil 
in A.D.A. 


67th 


43.14 


72.63 


26.37 


Effort equal**** aaount 
received for education 
free local sources 
divided by "true value 
of locally taxable 
■eelth 


89th 


.0035 


•0106 


•0025 



• Sourest Keport of the Virginia jiducatlon Cossussion, 1944, p. 75 
«* True value of locally taxable wealth equals 137,299,280 
*** Aaount received for education from local sources equals 230,547.38 



All sources of receipts for Princess Anne County are given in 
labia III allien also shows that the average income aaa for all the countiea 
In the state. Thie table should be read as follows: "funic iron the 
atate," Princess Anne County reoeived c-198^22.2^, and the average for all 
the countiea in the atate aaa ,191,274.24.. This means that irincesa 
County received 47, 143 sore than the averaga county reoeived from ; tate 
funds* kith the exception of "other funds, " Prineaaa mine County aaa 
above the averaga for all counties in all sources of receipts* 



TABLE III! - ALL SOD&CES tt RECEIPTS tOtx PRINCESS ASMS COJMTI 
AMD Tiki AVUiACK FOv ALL C01WU ~ , 

1946-47* 



Source of receipts 


i-rincese 
Anne County 


-verae© for 
Viri^nia 


State funds 


$198,422.24 


191,274*24 


City-County Funds 


167,198,06 


158,768.20 


Matriet iunds 


31,036.63 


10,941.12 


Other Funds 


2,457.18 


15,748.73 


Loans, bonds, etc. 


37,404.00 


22,750.10 


Total reeelpta 


436,518.11 


399,482^9 


Total balance 


83,476.16 


48,815.25 


Total receipts and balance 


519,994.27 


448,297.64 



* Sources - Annual Report of Superintendent of 

Public Instruction, Virginia, p. 194 



Total diabuweaents In education for Princess Anna County vera above 
the average far all the countlee for the tate aa is pointed out in Table 
IV. The table say be read aa follows: disbursements for admin ietrr./ on, 
Princess County received $9»063«98, and the average for all t^e ouiities 
Hi 7,063. f :>9. 'ihic m <ns IfeeJl MsBM! AMI -o.^iy | • t ', \»y„ | ra 
than the average county spent for administration in 1946-47, 

S$ate total distribution to Prinoeaa Anna County for education 
■■■nil ml the average for all the counties of Virginia. This fact is 
illustrated in Table V which may be read as follows* "general appropria- 
tion, 8 Princess Anna County received 4168,524, and the average for all the 
sac 159,34&.^. 1'ables IMf indicate HhA Hh flMMtel 
for education in Princess kom County were better than the 
in Virginia, 



TABLL IV'l - AREAS aND DBBUBSEMSMTS TO SUPPORT SDCCaIIGH IK PRJSCKSft 
AHKE COUNTY AND AV<2iAGL FOh ALL COUNT! I , 

1946-^7* 



idTOOS of 

dlsbursefaents 


Princess 
Anne County 


average 
all counties 


Administration 


* 9,063.96 


7,063.59 


Instruction 


271,777.14 


240,558.52 


Other Instructional cost 


9,395.93 


22,931.73 


Coordinate activities 


90.00 


1,124.01 


Auxiliary agendas 


57,881.46 


53,834.20 


Operation of school plant 


25,928.89 


20,576.69 


Lalntenanc© of school plant 


22,353.24 


12,105.68 


fixed charges 


1,924.93 


3,630.65 


Total operations 


398,415.59 


352,025*18 


Capital outlay 


3,031.55 


40,229.40 


Debt service 


24,182.89 


16,561.15 


Total disbursesents 


425,630.03 


408,815.74 


Balance close of year 


94,364*24 


39.4&1.90 


Total disbursements 
and Balance 


519,994*27 


446^297.64 



* Sources * Annual Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Virginia, p. 196 



29 



TABLS Vt ARS.AS 0* DlSYKIBUf IOf V STATE FUHDS TO FhOGBflB AttBE 

CQDittX FCfc fifiUCATIOH AMD THE AVfcftAGB FOn *LL I Ufi iilA 
COUHTJES, 1946-47* 



Atms off distribution 


Princess 
Abjds County 


ASSJVJBSJi 

for Virginia 


General appropriation 


$168,524.00 


^159^346.48 


Special supervision 


4,399.99 


3,412.56 


iyolfll and adult education 


— 


407.98 


Supenrleii.g principals 


1,226.66 


1,217.52 


Discretionary fund 


— 


440.75 


Vocational fund 


7,298.46 


12,138.01 


School lunch program 


16,062.01 


11,739.69 


MhMMM tMMfaej psjBSJI 


891,12 


2,526.58 


other state funds 


— 


44,66 


Total from state 


198,422.24 


191,274.24 



* Source s Annual heport of Superintendent of lu lie 
Instruction, Virginia, p. 204 



Population . The 1930 census shows a total population in irincee* 
Anne County of 16,282. In the last census of 1940* the population me 
19,984, an Increase of 3,702 or 22.7 per cent over that of 1 30. Table 



VI shoes this data and what the data '.as for the average of all counties. 



M 



TABLE: ?Il OMS08 AM) P3t CEW 0> IMCBEASE FCt 

CCUUTI AND AVt&AGc. fCh ALL COQilTLuS, 1930, 1940* 



I ILjco 



1940 1930 



1930- 
2940 



W50- 

*4fl 



t/LM L4nmMi 



1920* 

1930 



Princess *Jim 

County 

Average for 
all cou n ties 



19,984 
17,331 



16,282 
16,363 



3,702 



968 






.. 



: .- 



.- 



* wource: uursau of the Census, Dap r tasnt 
Washington, D. C. 



Ih\re tJfe five minor civil divisions in irincess *xuie Comity. The 
district and population of each ares leaps villa, 7,6o9| Lynnhaven, 7,070| 
Seaboarcl, 2,629; tungo, 2,L46f and blacksater, $30. The school is located 
in Kogpsville district. Pungo District, the ensiles t, is the greatest 
distance froa the school. 



*Wrf»t of Cc*eree, *xr~u of the Census (Washington, ft. .„ 
January, 1941) 



Although these figures include both Negro end shite population, 
the writer feels that the colored people ere distributed tsMftghsst the dis< 
trie to in proportion to the total population of the county* 



TABLB VIIs PCfGUXIQH Of CIVIL 1 

ABB COBWI, 1940* 



Anne County 



19,964 



District 
District 
Us trie t 
District 

District 



MB) 

7,070 

2,629 

2,U6 

530 



« Sources Bureau of the Census, Deportaent 
of Cosmeree, Washington, L>. -• 



32 

"The Itegro population of Princess Anne County increased from 6^.6 
la 1920, to 7,597 In 1930. It bad groan to 7,747 by 1940. "^ 

TABI& fills HEGhO fOHILiillOa IH iralHCiSS Affl£ COUNTX, 1940, 1930, 1920* 







Per cent 
incrj.be of increase 




Pot*] 


lf.tjon 
1930 




1930- 
1940 


1920- 
1930 


1930- 

1 . 


1920- 


Place 


1940 


1920 


1930 


Princess 
JountS. 


7,747 


7,593 


6,426 


150 


1,171 


let 


18,2 



• Sources hsport of the Cosslttee oa School Building {feeds 



an! — BMMJi In Table EC, it la rev ..led 
that the total nunber of Negro pupi Is enrolled in the public schools of 
Princess Anne County baa varied only slightly from 1934-35 to 194S-<49. 
During this period the schools have enrolled approximately 1,900 pupils* 
The elementary school enrollment has tended to decline since 1936-37. This 
probably was due to the fact that a high school yrogr m was first cads 



SL ii£ rrfmlUrftl SU School ^ytillW fooda. on. ciy f p. 2 



flBti Ut iAJKGOL 



AMD SCHOOL £MhOUft£Mt OF MBGB0 RJi Ik, HI ^OuCtSS 
ASK COOWI, 1934-1935 TO 1948-49* 





Comus** 


Knvnllnnnt. 


Xoor 


•Chool 


ilecentuiy 

6C OOl 


Total 


1934-1935 


3,438 




1,850 


1,850 


1935-1936 






1,898 


1,898 


1936-1937 






1,839 


1,839 


1937-1938 






1,779 


1,779 


1938-1939 




145 


1,577 


1,722 


1939-1940 


2,669 


169 


1,633 


1,802 


1940-19U 






1,678 


1,867 


1941-1942 




181 


1,600 


1,781 


1942-1943 




175 


1,565 


1,740 


1943-1944 




204 


1,492 


1,696 


1944-1945 


2,647 


211 


1,571 


1,782 


1945-<i946 




251 


1,565 


1,816 


1946-1947 




262 


1,554 


1,816 


19417-1948 




268 


1,580 


1,848 


1948-1949 




273 


1,615 


1,888 



* Sourcoi Report of the Coamittee on the Lchool Building Need* 
of Princees *xme County, Virginia, 1947 

** Sciiool Census in Counties of Virginia is not t .kaa MHb year 



available to the Negroes of Princess Anne County during that your and 
that a number of pupils mho had f ormerly continued in the elementary schools 
to t<.ke advantage AT the opportunities for high school training* 



The high school enrollment has steadily increased each year Kith the 
Uon of 1941*12 and 1942-43. 22 



IX. fiACXGBCDml) Oc life rttOBLai 



Rm mmMImi ./ c .. . b £■ 
secondary school curriculum to Beet the needs oi present-day youth, have 
groan out of several years of fundamental thinking, res e a r ch , and practice, 
ms early as 1650, Herbert Spencer, according to Alexander, advocated a 
program of education of the comprehensive type* Curricula should pr pare 
pupils for complete living if it is to discharge the function of education* 
the magnificent task of the high school is mounting as society groes 
in complexity* Secondary education is expected to help prepare high school 
graduates for some vocation that sill help them earn a living* .*luo f it is 
expected to help, in a vocational may, the large majority of pupils mho 
leave school before graduation, according to Lies, 2 * Kale has Indica te d the 



23 
Alexander, ojj. ciu . f p. 2 

24 kugene X* Lies, Zbft £tl A&fcUEfi CtollgBtH &* &&2A& (New Xorki 
(See Sbrkt National heoreation Association, 313 Fourth Avenue, 1933)* P. 38 



35 
of pupils leaving school at various grade levels. 



Idas Florence lisle 1a hor 1932 prosidontial 
at Atlantic City gave the following figures 
snoot this gsnaral subject of !, drop-outsj " "Out of 
every 1,000 children who enter the public schools, 
974 reach the sixth grade, 855 the seventh, 766 the 
eighth, 610 the ninth, 438 ths tenth, 321 the eleventh, 
266 the twelfth, and 260 graduate from high school." 
It is known, further, that about 8,7 per cent of all 
who enter the public schools go to college. 

The preceding quoted infort ation has been arranged in 
Table X for convenient interpretation* It cay be read as fol- 
lows i out of every 1,000 pupils who enter the public schools, 
973 or 97*4 per cent reach the sixth grade. 



XAki*. it —nri m> r&& cent of 1,000 poils awaucihg raoi 

SIX TtL-.OOGB HIGH SCHOOL* 



Orate 


Husher out of 


i-er cent out of 


lev 1 


1,000 pupils 


1,000 pupils reach- 




reaching variouB 


ing various grades 








Sixth 


974 


97.4 


Seventh 


855 


85.5 


Eighth 


768 


76.8 


Ninth 


610 


61.0 


Tenth 


438 


43*8 


tleventh 


321 


3^a 


Twelfth 


268 


26.8 


(jreduatee 


260 


26.0 



* Sources Eugene T. Lies, 22tt £n Leisure 9h ,13Lt1WI 

&& £abfid» p. 38 



37 

l oc orrt e at Priooeas Noam Count/ Training Sohool shoe that 
a large number of pupils drop out of eahool at various grade 
levels* Table XI indicates the rate of leaver* before graduation* 
Drop-outs are highest ia grade nine, and they are lowest in grade 
eleven* 



38 



TABL2 lit BfeOP-GOTS BX GiuJfc LSVKL A*- *»*, fivL^ UB O0CNTI 

I&.IHIIG SCHOOL, aUCLJi), yfiuiDllA, 1939-1948* 



Grade level 
at tine of 


JfUBber of ftrop 
outs by §*3S 


Per cent of drop* 
outs bv sei 




All 


Mala 


Fenal* 




1 frflift 


-On!* 


uiL flTBfilfiff 


. 275.._ 


IOC. 


175 




39.6 


60.Z. 


LlcJith 


42 


19 


23 


15.3 


6.9 


8.4 


Ninth 


106 


43 


63 


38.5 


15.6 


22.9 


Tenth 


97 


29 


68 


35.3 


10.6 


24.7 


Eleventh 


30 


9 


21 


10.9 


6.5 


4.4 



* Sources Scnool keeorde 



39 



a fundamental and serious consideration f aciot; hijja school officials 

25 
in Virginia has boon pronounced by Alexander. p Only one-third of the 

boys and girls of high school age, fourteen through eighteen, are succeed- 
ing* Of all the youth of high school age 55 per cent are in school* and 
45 per cent are not In high school at all* Twelve to 14 per cent of the 
55 per cent drop out. and 21 per cent of the 55 per cent are regarded as 
failures* 

The writer feels safe to predict that the sans critical situation 
exists in Princess Anns County* one of the school divisions of Virginia* 
it is the philosophical background in this section that has stimulated this 
study* 



25 
Alexanders a** £&&•» PP* 2 



PARI II 

CUKiOCULUM NtaJDS OP P&SCESS atia* COUMTI TiUlHIHG SCHOOL 
SPECIFIC COHiSES FCft IaDIVIOOaL ifcOJS 



l« It la obvious that the impact of technological 
c hang e s and increased enrollment of pupils from all types of fanilleo have 
given rise to an increasing responsibility upon school people to organise 
an adequate curriculum. Students who do not receive sobs preparation for 
an occupation, while in high school, have failed to obtain the training 
that secondary education should provide for than* 

The majority of the pupils eho leave Princess Anne County Training 
Bwbool before or after graduation have not received training that will aid 
than in some kind of vocation. This fact points out a definite used for 
vocational courses at the school* 

Table XII reveals, by grade level, the subjects that are offered, 
it may be read as follows. English is offered in the eighth, ninth, tenth, 
and eleventh grades. As the table indicates, agriculture unci hone 
are the only two courses offered in ad ition to the strictly academic 
subjects. 



u 



TABLE nil GRACE I£VBL OF SUBJECTS OFFERED AX iKBBSSS AWOt COUHTI 
THAISIHG SCHOOL. 194-3-1949* 







j tail 






Ssfcjwte tfftrafl 


J 


_.2_ 


-JLSL 


Ljll 


English 


x 


z 


X 


X 


Social iitudiee (Personal and Social Problaos) 


1 








tfarld History 




1 






American History 






X 




Aaearican Government 








X 


Sciences 










G©neral Science 

Biology 

Cfaeaistry 


X 


X 




X 


Bathes* tics 










JBtlJMlto 


x 








Algebra 
Plana Geonetry 




1 


X 


X 


Languages 






1 


X 


Agriculture 




iw 


X 








X 


1 





* Source* School Records 






42 

Table XIII is eoaposed of data fros. questionnaires sent to drop-outs 
asking than for suggestions that they thought would inprove the curriculuw. 
offering. One hundred inquiries sere sent out and f orty-eijfct ears 
refccned. Nineteen or 12,2 per cent of all responses suggested susic, which 
is interpreted to include instrasental, vocal, band, and other fossa of 
aneic. IIts or 3.2 per cent of all responses were Xros sals students, sad 
fourteen or 9 par cent of all responses were from resale students. It was 
that pupils who Me nt ioned these courses are interested in the* and 
the sane if they were offered. 



43 



table XXX2L — nrr aw per cent or suggestions for curriculum um,\mx i jx bx 

BiU*-OI1S, PLINCESS ANNE COUNTI TRAINING SCHOOL, 194* 





Mo* of suggestions 


Per cent of sugges- 




k 


? sex 








All 


bale 


: smIsj 


All 


■ale . h ■!■ 


All suggestions 


156 


80 


76 


100.0 


51*2 




Basic 


29 


5 


U 


12*2 


.... 


9.0 


Bricklaying 


15 


11 


4 


9.6 


7.0 


.... 


Carpentry 


u 


8 


6 


9.0 


sa 


:... 


P limbing 


12 


10 


2 


7.7 


6.4 


1.3 


Auto soohnnioa 


11 


~ 


11 


7.0 


~ 


7.0 


Bub loBa8 


10 


— 


10 


M 


— 


6.4 


Cooking 


10 


3 


7 


6.4 


2.0 


4.4 


Nursing 


9 


5 


4 


5.7 


3.2 


2.5 


Stenography 


7 


5 


2 


4.5 


3.2 


1.3 


Pipe fitting 


7 


5 


2 


4.5 


fcl 


1.3 


Sheet natal 


7 


5 


2 


4.5 


3.2 


1.3 


Latin 


6 


2 


4 


3.8 


1^ 


2.5 


Recreation Center 


6 


6 


Ml 


3.8 


3.8 


■a 


Electricity 


6 


6 


— 


j.. 


3.8 


— 


Art (drawing) 


5 


5 


— 


3.2 


3.2 


— 


Spanish 


4 


— 


4 


2.5 


— 


2.5 


Do not knoD 


3 


-— 


3 


2.0 


Mi 


2.0 


Engineering 


3 


3 


— 


2.0 


2.0 


— 


Did not say 


1 


1 


— 


.7 


.7 


— 




1 


■Mt 


1 


.7 




.7 



* Sources Replies to questionnaires from drop-outs 



44 

Table XH. like Table Xlli, was used to reveal needs expressed by 
quaBtiomaire returns froc sixty-eight former graduates of the school* Of 
the total number of returns, twenty-eight were sale and forty sere female. 
This table may be read in the same say as Table XIII. 

Table XV is composed from replies of thirty-five seniors* ihase 
students were in the 1949 graduating doss at the time that these data sen 
gathered* This table is similar to the previous tso tables. That is, all 
three tables contain suggestions for the improvement of the curriculum* 
Although the training and experience of the three groups who returned 
questionnaires are not the same* they expressed similar opinions lor the 
betteraent of the school. 



45 



TABI£ Ufl BOMBSt AMD PER CENT OF SUUGKSTIOHS FCh. CUKhJCULUM HJtbtMiJUtt8 
BX GRADUAZLS OF PROCESS aNNE CODNTI Tiw*J*L» &, 1948* 



m-u-L 1 ' .= 


Busbar ofsuggestions 


r — :■:=: 
Per cent of 


■ofgee- 










tipns bf 






Si 


Male 


reiili 


All 


. .lo 


Fesmle 


All maattBBti.com 


194 


76 


118 


ttQafi. 




. A.,: 


Stenography 


34 


14 


20 


17*5 


7.2 


10.3 


Music 


30 


10 


20 


15*4 


5.1 


10.3 


I artmi 


20 


6 


14 


10.3 


3.1 


7.2 


Carpentry 


16 


12 


4 


8,3 


6.3 


2.0 


MAi ImMmMMM 


14 


8 


6 


7.2 


4.1 


3.1 


Art 


11 


— . 


11 


5.7 


— 


5.7 


hMta 


10 


6 


4 


5.1 


3.1 


2.0 


Agriculture 


8 


4 


4 


4*1 


2.1 


2.0 


Bricklaying 


8 


2 


6 


4*1 


1.0 


3.1 


latin 


8 


— 


8 


4.1 




4*1 


Radio Mechanics 


8 


3 


5 


4.1 


1.6 


2.5 


Physical Education 


5 


2 


3 


2.5 


.9 


1.6 


Might Course* 


4 


4 


- 


2.0 


— 


2*0 


^■Mtrii 


4 


2 


2 


2.0 


1.0 


1.0 


Sex education 


4 


- 


4 


2.0 


~ 


2.0 


Physics 


3 


- 


3 


1*6 


— 


1.6 


Guidance 


2 


2 


s» 


1*1 


1*1 


■— 


Geography 


2 


2 


- 


1.1 


1.1 


— 


Medicine 


2 


• 


2 


1.1 


•""" 


1.1 


Barber ing 


1 


• 


1 


.5 


«M» 


.5 



• Sources Replies to questionnaires 



TABLE Wt DIM MD P - CENT OF SUGGESTIONS FOK OftUilCULUM OtPfUWEkaNT BX 
1949 S&iia CLASS, PRINCESS ANNE CGDNTX TfUlNIHG SCHOOL* 







1 of suggestions 


Per cent of suggestions 






by fflffi 






fU v.^C r 






All 


Hale 


Fenale 


All 


Hale 


fasali 


All suggestions 


80 


32 


48 


100.0 


40.1 


59.9 


Music 


17 


6 


11 


21.3 


7.5 


13.8 


Typing 


14 


4 


10 


17.5 


5.0 


02.5 


NsiaeM 


11 


6 


5 


13.7 


7.5 


6.2 


Art 


7 


3 


4 


8.8 


M 


5.0 


StenograFfcy 


6 


4 


2 


7.4 


5.0 


2.4 


Latin 


5 


2 


3 


6.1 


2.5 


,. 


Nursing 


3 


1 


2 


3.9 


1.2 


2.7 


Bookkeeping 


2 


- 


2 


2.5 


- 


2.5 


Library service 


2 


- 


2 


2.5 


e 


2.5 


Kadio course 


2 


2 


« 


2.5 


2,5 


• 


Geosetry (solid) 


1 


1 


- 


1.3 


1.3 


- 


Health ^mat-*^ 


1 


«e 


1 


1U 


— 


1.2 


Social hygiene 


1 


- 


1 


I* 


- 


1.2 


Trlgonsoetry 


1 


1 




1*3 


1.3 


• 



• Sourcet Replies to questionnaires froe 1949 Senior Class 



47 

It baa bwn discovered from claee observation of Tabloe XXII-SV 
tnat certain ooureee not given at the school now, are thought to be vary 
desirable by those who returned questionnaires, These subjects are listed 
in the order of their laportenes aad rank as follows: uiiwi tilil 
■asic, woodworking, auto-swjobanies, bricklaying, nursing, plmbing. 



Table XVI contains the upper half of suggested courses in Tables 
XHI-»f. The total mnber of frequenolss for the nine eo arses «as 324, 
of riMMfe 01 ■■ raule and Ml .*as fawBlfl* M or MM 3U, tMI . . jL J wwfcMP 
tion received 105 or 33*4 per cent of shioh thirty-seven or UL7 per cent 
sen sale, and sixty-eight or 21.2 per cent sas female. The p r og r as in 
Chapter IV which Includes the addition of r newer oUI education, woodworking, 
auto-mechanics, bricklaying, sad nusic was based largely on data frosi 
Tables XHI-XVI. It Is obvious for hose eoononice and agriculture to rank 
low* Those two coiraee are part of the p r es e n t curriculum. 



T4BI£ Sril NINE RICHEST SUGGESTED COUhSES C€HPH£D FECI TABIDS £111- 

i?i ■■nmni aid per asm, frihcsss ahus cobhtx t&aihi§6 

SCHOOL, 1%S* 





All 


Mala 


Female 




All Courses 


All 


iclu ' 


Female 




3U 
105 


130 


an 


100.0 


0*4 


58.6 


Gonrorcial Education 


37 


68 


33*4 


11.7 


21.7 


mm 


84 


2A 


60 


26*8 


7.7 


19.1 


loodsorki&f 


30 


20 


10 


9.6 


6.3 


3.3 


Auto-Gechanice 


29 


12 


17 


9.2 


;- 


5.A 


Bricklaying 


23 


Xi 


10 


7.3 


4.0 


3.3 


■mlai 


13 


7 


6 


..... 


2.2 


1. 


Plaabiag 


12 


10 


2 


>. 


3.3 


•5 


■■i MSSJBjIm 


10 


3 


7 


3.3 


1.1 


2.2 


Agriculture 


8 


4 


4 


2.6 


JU3 


1.3 



Compiled from Tables XH-XCT 



m 



The bar graph, Figure 1, represent* an expressed vocational 
interest of all (255) puplla present ehen the survey sas taken, 1948-49. 
Xfas student body sas informed of various jobs, job opportunities, 
salaries to be expected, and training requirenants in a series of 
assembly lectures. Afterwards, tfcey sere asked to indicate tbeir occups 
tionel interest or desire. This figure may be read as follows: fifty- 
eiftt or 23 per cent of the 255 pupils indicated interest in nursi... , 
et cetera* All Jobs listed as trades sere put together in the bar 



50 



jk& asm op m-esuua u sace vocaxios 



60 


•4 


•< 


.4 


•3 


1.2 


1.6 


1#6 


2.0 


2J 2.4 


6.4 


•■: 


... 


7,4 


li'al 


11*6 


13 »7 


u* 






































65 






































60 






































46 




































■ 


40 




































1 

; 1 


55 




SO 




25 








80 














































15 




■ ■ 


i i 




10 






















i 


■ 
















1 I 7 


6 























i 


J ; t 














I 


; 












o 




' 


'. ■' 1 


s 










■. - 






■■ 


! f 


■ I. — * 




■- 




1 


1 


1 


2 


6 


4 


4 


6 


1 


1 


16 


16 


17 


19 


29 


SI 


36 


H 










3 

fe 










o 








at 
g 










*«•»• 






ft 


--> 

M 




>■» 






•A 


t-t 






A 


•1 


■ 

B 
3 


■ 












i 

I 


v5 
M 


| 

B 

3 


3 




i~« 




4 


■ ) 


1 


I 


I 




I 


1 



CO 
66 
50 
45 
40 



SO 
M 

20 

16 

10 

6 





Distribution of Vocational Interests 



FU'JiOS li Distribution and percentage of Vocational Interest of 266 students at 
Princess Anne County Training School, 1943-49. 



AflCkttiL£UBB flOa Jttflft MQDflnifiA* * QMd for other vocational 
subjects sas discovered through the present enroUaeat of hone 
and agriculture. The enrol 3 men t in these vocational courses shown la 
TublG XVH and Table XTUI Indicate e tremendous need for aspamrtrm in 
this ares* For example, the fact that of the 123 boys enrolled in irriacosa 
Anas County Training School in 1943-1949 only forty of thee registered in 
the only vocational course available to then indicates that a aider 
variety of offering is necessary in this field. The relatively high 
percentage of girls enrolled la the hone economics course nay indicate 
one of two things* (1) that the course is sell adjusted to their needs or 
(2) a largo nunber of pupils are registered in this course because no 
other vocational courses are open to than. 



TABLE mi* Piit CElff Oi • TOTAL KIHEEE CF £0X5 ENROLLED 

II AfiRICULIimE—KilUCESS ANHB CCONTI TiuilH- 
BfQ SCHOOL, 1948-49, 1947-48, 
1946-47* 



Tear 


Total number 


Per cent of total 
boys enrolled 




in school 


In course 


in dourao 


1948H9 


123 


40 


32.5 


1947-48 


118 


48 


40.6 


1946-47 


111 


44 


39.6 



• Sources School Records 



53 



TABLE Willi PER C£HI OF TGffAL OttBER GF GIRLS 

KMHOUflP IN HOME ECONOMICS-^ PuEiCfiSS 
AH8S COUNTY TRAINING SCKOOL, 1948«*9 
1947-^8, 1946-*7* 





Total amber 


Per cent of total 
girls enrolled 


lear 




momm 


iftCoyr.se 


1948-49 


150 


94 


62*6 


1947-48 


156 


57 


36.5 


1946-47 


158 


63 


39»8 



* Source t School Records 



CftTiag* EfiifilEflk&aEX* This curricultsa should not be dlspoaeod with 

rauch criticise has been advanced against such courses as the only 
ones available to high school pupils in many situations. The need for 
training is clear, and records have oonfinaed a need for it. Table XIX 
shoes the number and per cent of graduates who entered collage for ftse 
weneoorrMve years, 1943-1944 through 1947-4B, from Princess Anne County Train- 
ing School* The table say be read as follows! of the thirty-one 1948 gradu- 
ates, nine or 29 per cent entered collage} out of this ansiber two or 6j> 
per cent were Bale, and amwa or 22,6 per cent ware f eaala* 

another need to continue the college preparatory courses were revealed 
in the number of questionnaires from graduates who entered college. One of 
the itere of the inquiry produced data for Table XX, which indicates the 

of graduates who had been to a higher institution of learning. 



55 



TABLE XIX« 


NUMBER AND P£K CENT OF GRADUATE «0 ENTERED COLI^GF-FBDCBSS 
ABB COUMTI TRAINING SCHOOL, 1944-1948* 


Seat 


Ho* In 

S&IM 








■ 


*■ . V J 




paiwtsl 


All 


■tig 


takl* 


All 


. ■!■ 


•%■*!■ 


I>4a 


No. entered 
college 


31 
9 


U 

2 


21 
7 


200*0 
29.0 


35.5 
6.4 


64*5 
22*6 


1947 


So* in 

class 

No, entered 

oollege 


45 
27 


16 
5 


29 
22 


100*0 
60*0 


37.7 

1.1 


62.3 
48*9 


1946 


No. in 

olass 

Mo. entered 

oollege 


22 
5 


5 

2 


37 
3 


100.0 

22.7 


22.7 

.- 


77.3 
33.7 


1945 


Mo. in 

ijo. entered 
college 


35 
6 


8 

1 


27 
5 


100*0 

37a 


22*8 
2*9 


77.2 

14.2 


1944 


So* in 

class 

No. entered 

college 


27 
6 


9 

2 


18 

4 


100*0 
22*2 


33.3 
7.4 


66.7 

14.8 


Total 


All 

graduates 


60 


49 


111 


loo.o 


30.6 


69.4 


1944 

mm 


All entered 
1 oollege 


43 

JL 


22 


» 


26*2 


. 


19*4 



* Source* School Records 



56 



TABLE XX* IUBER AW F£K CJtfff OF GRABOATiS UiO 

COLLEGE AS XKKATLD BX QUEST UMAffiES &EXUHHEB 
nUMCBSS AUK CCDJffl TRAINING SCHOOL, 1948* 







fr-T^n 






filT. ea»* 


OH gradwtee 


All 

68 


Hale 
26 


Female 

m 

15 


All 

100.0 

26 .4 


• ale 

38.2 


: aai lo 
61*8 


■stored college 


18 


3 


eel 


22.0 


Did not enter 
college 


50 


23 


27 


-3.6 


33^ 


39.8 



• Source* ^ueetlotualree returned 



57 

A third Med for a college preparatory course was shown by the 
vocational-Interest inventory in Figure 1, on i age 50 in the bar graph* 
it wcs found that out of 255 students, fifty-eight or 23 par cent were 
interested in nursing} twenty-nine or 11.3 per cent were interested in 
teaching! and, nineteen or 7.4 per cent were interested in Dedlciiie. 



JgBmifi* A department that is vital to the life of the school aad that 
interests a large group of students is the department of music, a need for 
adequate music at Princess Anne County Training School has been strongly 
indicated in Tables XIU-WI and in the bar graph, Figure 1* In Sables 
XXIX, and XV, susic ranks first} and, in table XX? , music ranks secocd. In 

bar graph, music ranks third, with a total of thirty-one or 12.1 per 

of 255 students. 



£• The history and needs of this chapter have been pre ted 
in two sections. 

In Part X, an account of the history of the problem has been discussed. 
In this part the background of the community indicated the strength, ability, 
and implications of the county to support a comprehensive program of education 
for Nogro youth of high school age. It was shown that Princess Anno County 
is above the average county of Virginia in strength and ability to support 
education* "All sources of receipt©," "areas of disbursements," "distribu- 
tion of State Funds" were areas in which she ranked above par. A population 
of 19»9£A is more than the average county has as revealed by the 19AC 
ceneuB. The Negro population of Princess Anne County was 7,747 of the 19*964 
total, than the 1940 census was taken, there were 2,669 ehildren of aohool 



age bSx to eighteen* The last eohool oeneua of 19-U^45 showed « alight 
deereaoG, 2,647 againat 2,669 in 1939-1940. Also in Fart I is stated various 
conceptions and views which are indications that aecondary school curriculum 
is inadequate* It was pointed out that drop-outs and graduates are not 
reoeiving preparation in some vocation that would help then ear: a living* 
A tronondous number of boys and girls leave school before graduating* She 
greatest nunbex of leavers at Princess Anne County Training School is in 
the ninth grade* 

In Fart II, the procedures used to discover curriculum needs were 
presented* A disclosure of the present offering depicted a very limited pro- 
gran which is inadequate* Questlonnairee from three different groups 
revealed a need, on the purt ox those returning the forms, for comneroial 
education, music, woodworking, auto-mechanice, bricklaying, and nursing* 
These courses were in the upper third of all courses suggested, and they 
ranked in the order listed* Although the number of students cnterir,. • college 
is Si ell, this number Is sufficient to warrant the continuation oi.' the 
libe al art subjects* 



CEAKER IV 

THE mOfZi&H ORGABIZED HIGH SCHOOL C0V88S 

The program In. this chapter is deeii?ied for a sail 
high school ard will eugaest the ndnimuD courses for a oon- 
prehensive high aohool for ft* incase Anne County Training 
School* It will adhere strictly to the plan of organisation 
recomsnded by the .' tato Board of education, "fcdthia reoent 
years a conooption of a comprehensive rrogran of education 
has emerged in %rginla ihioh is now generally accepted as 

the basis upon which educational programs in the local divi* 

M 



should be projected* 
There is general agreement in lay and educational 
circles that Virginia is ready to provide twelve years of 
education for everybody* Approximately half of the Counties 
and Cities of the State either have twelve-year school eystec 
in operation or are In the process of adapting this system* 
The pattern of organisation is seven years in the elementary 
school and five years in the high school* More than 90 per 
cent of the school systems that either hscve already adapted 
or are in the process of adapting twelve-year systems are 
organised on this basis* This organisation is peculiarly 
adapted to Virginia as In the majority of oases* it cakes 
possible high schools of sufficient; sise to provide 
and comrrohensive offering* 



*** jBCSw °f C omgA t ft f oa School Building Heeds, og* olt* » 
V* 5 



m ttm Mew* report of tbo t>oany Coacdaciom mi «©11 no 
iopopfcaafc etudloa Lao oade it cloar that Virginia auot 
contiaoe to osrtand and enrich her prccren of education* 
Aaouc atihare, tbe f oilowine tLiroo treada in ti» dovoloptjaab 
of tl*e hic^ achool grogran hawe received iapefcae froa throe 
repcrte aafl iron the Suftato a t nanlfoetart Igr Joglalafccrs aaS 
at largit (1) tbe eilniMliiii of Use public echool 
frou eleven to twelve ;**aroi (2) ©jo devolopnent of a 



broader and richer bi££ aohool offeri&oJ (3) tfoe 

Or, 



27* Ajeanncer, eg» olt« , p» 4* 



: 



61 
8PCXF1C COURSES FOR BTOIVIDttAL HEEDS 

In the analysis of oMdt in part II, Chapter HI, cer- 
tain courses stood out as basic needs of the school* ihe 
discovery of these ourriculuo needs has suggested courses 
that should be added to the rresent progran of education at 
the school* It is tt>3t that the inpleoontation of cooper- 
cial education, v/oodKorliinG, auto-zasehanics, bricklaying, and 
uusic would be justified at the present. According to the 
findings, the following courses should be retain** in the 
Vocational Agriculture, Hone ^concedes, and the 
subjects for college preparation* All pupils 
entering the school would take courses in the eighth grade 
designed for exploratory purposes* 

SUBJECTS FOR GRADES SIGHT TBROOOH TKBUte 

Eighth grade exploratory course. The eighth grade is 
not an isolated year* As the first year of the f ivs-year 
high school it is an integral part of the secondary school* 
This universal practice has already been validated by ex* 
parlance with the eighth grade in Virginia* It has been 
aiaply demonstrated hers in our own State that a transition 
ysex* between Ihe eletaentary and secondary school is needed 
in Yhloh oany services such as guidance, diagnosis, explora- 
tion, retaadlal work, and the like are provided in order to 
supply one of the great lacks of our elsvcn-yaar system. 

This eighth grade or first year of the five year high 
school is essential for preventing misfits and for genuine 



62 



guidance* resulting in the bringing of all pupils at least 
up to their grade levels in the fundanenbal skills. 

Subjects listed In the Eighth Grade chart include re- 
quired and elective subjects* English, Soci&l-ftersonal £rob- 
lezss* Elementary Science, Lfcthemtios* and hyeical and 
Health education are roquirod oub joots set up by the i tate 
for all hl^ school ~raduetee* The other courses ere for ex* 
pi oratory purposes* It is not intended that a pupil would 
take all of the nine mtiik courses* but an eighth grader 
should choose four of these exploratory subjects* 

The present practice in Virginia soeus to be to de- 
velop exploratory oouroes of 9* 12* or 18 weeks in leigh* 
As is shown* no credits ere allowed at the present for 
eighth grade subjects* 



88* Alexander* op* clt* » pp. 1, 4. 

29* Suggestions for the Inauguration of a Teelve leer School 

W&rrte7). p* 2. 



TABLE XXIi Subjects, feriods* tfaeks, and Credit* 
for m&fiii Orod« 



EJLSITll G&AE6 



■ctufrjoctg foriod* n—k» Credits 

... llii. 



•OPrtMl '-■ccita 



Arts 

Hon* Seoooctos • voo* 
Voe&tioaal i^ricultor* 



As 

"•rlok}?.;-*-^ 



6 


36 


■"" 


: 


18 


m 


5 


M 


m 


6 


56 


m 


5 


9 


m 


I 


10 


m 


C 


I 


m 


6 





m 


S 


9 


— 


I 


G 


— 


6 


9 


- 


S 


9 


w 



■jaji 



Grades nine through teolve» The scope of offering in 
the regaining four r j9ore has been shown in tables, vhioh re* 
veal * program that trill noet the ainirjun requirements for 
• Begro high school in FriacesaAane County* This scope ad> 
haves closely to the Virginia plan of a ccaprehensive high 
school proGPaaw 

In crder to provide for the nsrejtgun development, the 
mining four ;«are of hi^i school can supply a ooogrehensive 
progran of offering consisting of general education for all 
pupils and at least three fields of specialisations acedenio 
subjects, fine arts* and practical arts and vocational sub- 
jected Thus* it will be possible to provide educational 
opportunities for all pupils in terse cf the work to ahlch 
they are best by aptitude and ability.** 



SO« A Comprehensive Program of Education for Virginia's 
schools, op,, cit«, p, 4, 



65 



urn wkbm - - mm . uph« m Ef« a a mmm 

rOI HIHTK GRALH 



.. : _: .-•.._ 






•ubjeots 


Period. 


lacks 


Credits 


Baquirad 








EncXiah 


6 


36 


1 


TfctTia— tli ■ 


6 


86 


1 


Any Seieneo 


5 


56 


1 


nvveieal I health EA. 


6 


36 


- 


Elective* 








General Science 


6 


36 


1 


ftorld History 


5 


36 


1 


General Music 


6 


36 


1 


Vocational Koosuaaking 


6 


56 


1 


Vocational Agriculture 


6 


36 


1 


Coonercial ttlveation 








Businsss Arithmetic 


5 


18-36 


•5-1 


Business Fuulaoentals 


6 


16-56 


.5-1 


foncrnl Shop I 








TToothrorklng 


5 


35 


1 


Auto-Ltochanice 


5 


36 


1 


Bricklaying 


5 


56 


1 



(C 



TABLE XXIII* — SUBJECTS, BERICDS* WESXS. AID CREDITS 
FCB TESTS GRABS 



TESTII 


mat 






Subjscts 


ft>rlods 


leeks 


Credits 


Required 








English 


6 


M 


1 


Bbitod States History 


6 


56 


1 


CiTlOS 


5 


IB 


sf 


Fhysiosl & Health Ed* 


5 


86 


- 


ElsetiVBS 








Al«ehrft II 


6 


16-56 


•6*1 


Biology 


| 


36 


1 


Gonsral .Music 


5 


18-36 


•5-1 


General Arts 


5 


10-66 


•5*1 


Coesarolsl Education 








Businsss l^iiadlanenfcals 


6 


mm 


•8-1 


Vocational flcwecsUcinc 


6 


S6 


1 


Vocational Agriculture 


6 


56 


1 


General Shop I 








Woodworking 


5 


56 


1 


Auto-JJschanios 


8 


56 


1 


Dricklayinc 


5 


56 


1 



67 



TABLE XXJVi — SUBJECTS, POtXODS, WEEKS, AH) CREDITS 
FOB E1EVEHTB GRADE 



SXJEIESEB GRADD 



MjMti 



fbriods 00:3 Credits 



i.oquirotl 



Mwrlnan Go ver n m e nt 
Hiyaical & Health fid. 
Elective* 



Plana GoooBtry 
Cheodetry 
Social Problem 
Comarolal Education 



Shorthand 
Muaio Appreciation 
Art Appreciation 
Vocational Hoaa caking 
Vocational Agriculturo 
General Shop II 



Aufco-ibohaaiea 
Bricklaying 



36 
18 



•6 



Gc 


1 


56 


1 


18^6 


•5*1 


le-ss 


•5-1 


18«*6 


.5-1 


18-36 


•b-1 


13-3C 


.6-1 


18-36 


•5-1 


36 


1 


5C 


1 


36 


1 


36 


1 


36 


1 



TABLB XXTi «M SOBJBCTS, HRI0D8, *BEK8 # AID CREDITS 
FOR TWELFTH GRABS 



TWELFTH OUtBB 



Sub>ots leriode oc!:s Credits 



i:equired 




Ecelieh 


5 


Jfcyeleal & Health &d« 


6 


Fleetives 




Advanced Literature 


6 


Systematic Creurar 


6 


Journalise! 


5 


Trlgonoaastry 


5 


General ifcthetaatics 


6 


Social Problem 


5 


Ffiysios 


5 


Cocoerclal Education 




Advanced Bookkbeplnc 


1 


Typewriting 


6 


Office Practice 


10 


Uusio • Advanced Theory 


6 


Arte 




Dra*etios acd speech 


6 


Ceramics and Modeling 


6 



36 



16-86 


•5-1 


18-36 


•8-1 


18-36 


•0-1 


36 


1 


36 


1 


18-36 


•5-1 


of 


1 


18-36 


•5-1 


18-06 


•5-1 


18 


1.5 


18-36 


.5-1 


18-36 


•5-1 


18-36 


•5-1 






: - :\'o I 



- . cat, 



..:■ .. 



mm Q 




.arluklo^lag 



6 13-30 •&•! 
6 M 2 



I 

6 



2 
1 
1 



7© 
II. COMGRCIAL STBJ8CTS 

the early appearance of cortorcial subjects In the secon- 
dary eehool program at the beginning of the century ma an 
effort to sake acre practical the educational progran for 
adolescents. The increasing interest in the field during 
the past two decades is due to the social triplications of 
ooneroial subjects as veil to the relationship to epeoifio 
occupational :;oalc. 

In the early t»riod of the cocnereial procrom thore rma 
a general tendency to separate then into a special department 
frequently called the "coanercial department." There was 
little effort to articulate tits -vatic in the oosnerojal field 
with the cocrionly aoceptod purposes of the secondary school* 
Mray hi£h schools throuchout tli© country carried one and two 
year courses in corrercial education from which pupils -wore 
graduated with little opportunity to take advantage of the 
opportunities in Ensile! or other subjects of rich social 

value. 

as 
According to Wiley, Jr., the Sixth Yearbook of the 

Department of Superintendence states as follows! 



There is a kind of cojnsroial eduoa tion that con- 
certain commercial occupations, such as those of 
bookkeepers, salesmen, and stenographers* There is a 
second kind of commercial education that concerns all 
occupations, commercial or otherwise, since there is 
obviously a business side of the work of engineer. 



51. George U. Wiley, Jr., The Re directi on of Secondary 
Bducation (Hen Yorkt TnTWaiUan tJonpaay, 1942), 

p. a? 7 . 



52. Ibid., p. 269. 



n 



imtf and njWTa Thar* la * 
third kind of owM&erdal education that eonoerna 
all aocial inetitutione, alnea thara la clearly 
a buaineas aida of tha houa # church, state, ergan- 
lead recreation, aad eohoele am vail aa tha busi- 
itaelf. 



Pehlto high eeaoole arc Justified in of f arias 
for at laaat two roaeons. 



1« Tha contribution which certain phaeaa of 

aareial education con «aka toward tha attltudce, 
ondOTetanrtl ng, # r yi-* flf ^t l re w, and akilla valuable 
for all pupils, and 

2. The prevooatlonel and vooatlonal training n aa d a d 
by aeay pupila on tha high aahool level. 

Table XXVI outlinee n a euggaeted four-year course in 

aercial education." Required subjects for high school graduation 

are listed. Other subjects are specific and related eoureea in 

this 



72 



TABLE XXVIi — A gUOffl ttfg ) FOOR-TBAR COURSE II 
CO&02CIAL ED0CATI08 









Grades 






Subjects 


S 


10 


11 


12 


Credits 


English* 


x 


X 


X 


X 


4*0 


Hsthenstics* 


a 








1.0 


Science (any)* 


x 








M 


Comsrciel -ducat ion 












Bos* Arithmetic 


X 








M 


Bus. Fvmdaaentele 


X 


X 






2.0 


united States History* 




X 






1.0 


Civics* 




X 






0.5 


Als»bra II 




X 






M 


African Govcnaapnt* 






X 




0.8 


Coroeroial Education 












Oswentary Booklax. :1;\, 






X 




M 


UpHtM^I 






X 


X 
X 


2^> 
1*0 


Short! iand 








X 


1.0 


General Uathetaatles 






X 




M 


TrlscnoHBtry 








X 


M 


Hiysioal * Health iifi.* 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 



e Required Subjects 



III. PRACTICAL ARD IBD05TRIAL AMH5 

The purpose of industrial art© In high schools is to lay a 
brood foundation of experience and information that will assist 
each pupil to interpret the social and indastriol f oroao that work 
in bio environment to the end that ho nay omko a aloe and intelligent 
choice of his life's work and thus develop into an efficient and 
loyal oitiaen. 

Kilojr^ states that the oowwonly accepted also of practical 
and industrial arts Sa the high school should bet 

1. To provide opportunity for boys to sake and to do the things 
they like to do 

2. To give training la the season usuable skills everyone 

si mU 



9* To provide technical exploration or tr y -o ut experier 
in the shops representing industrial occupations in 
to help boys determine shether they p os sess general 
anical aptitude or possibly soae special one* 

4* To help students understand the relationships of industrial 
organs sot tons and to work in hartony with c o - work ers, 
foreman, and oaployer 

5. To develop a working knowledge of p r oc e ss es carried on in 
the hoae, and a degree of skill in the performance of them 



Table XXVII outlines "a suggested four-year course ia 
working" wit, ; required subjects for high school graduation listed. 
Other subjects are specific and related courses in this 



33 e£&*>» PP» 256-57. 



n 



?asw. ?*Yn<-* 



nrodM 



Subject* 9 10 11 12 Crecita 

Baeliefc.* x x x x 4*0 



x 1.0 

Sclera* (&sy)* " 1»0 

Tntfced 8b&ias Eiat* H 1.0 

AlG»bTR XI X 1.0 

Citric** x 0.5 

T fe odwar l doe X X 4.0 

Aanrlcan Crcv«t.» x 0.5 

flam Gcoautry x 1.0 

BuniTWBC Pqadar»r4»2o x 1.0 

Ottawa! Itetfceoafcioa x 1.0 
Qoxmr&l 9iop II 



Ihyaieal A 3aalth 

Muoatica* x r. 



«B*t>j±r«d Gubjeots 



XV. LIBERAL ARTS 

CurriouluB designed tor a liberal arts education does not 
— Mim ltaalf with vocational needs or interests of pupils. Dar- 
ing the early days of higher institutions of learning, it aaa fait 
that liberal arte paplle should be confined to a aaleetad group 
who aaa preparing for the clergy, nedieine, law, etc. or for that 
elaas of people aha pursued it without professional interest* This 
early conception of the collage exerted a prevailing influence en 
the curriculum of the high school* H o we v er , nsny forces have bean 
at work to introduce into the high schools a curriculuia that will 
not only prepare boys and girls for the liberal arts colleges, Hut 
a curriculus that will prepare then far whatever vocation suits 
than bast. 

Over a period of about a quarter century, in ana 
large group ef schools investigated, there was a ra- 
pid increase in the nanbar of curriculus* offered. 

College-preparatory ourrlculun decreased fm& wall 
over ■ If to about a V ird of ti.v whole curriculum a 
offered. Correspondingly, general ourrlouluas and 
aonwarcial, Industrial arts, household arts, fine arts, 
and ether currieuluss, as a group, shifted to the pssi- 



This trend indicates a recognition of individual differances, 
and the ourrieuluas are being reorganized to serve individuals 
who differ. 

Table XXVIII presents "a suggested four-year liberal arts 
course" with ioajors in English and history. Courses starred are 

sot up as requireoents for high school graduation by the 

57 

•" Leonard V. Koos, and others, Administering U» Secondary 
school (Ken Yorki Asarioan Book Conpany, 1940), p. 16. 



H 

stat* of VlTGlnia* Thee© courses or© sucaeetive ishieh ooano 
a subject not listed nay be pursued if a student deeiros 
soasthine else* 



77 



usls xmixt~ a suoosstm rota-tat* cauiaawBS»AHA»iar 

IK 2B2LXSB AHU HX510KF 



Gr*cU*e «—««■ 

Subjeote ""5 ST ll ""XT" Credits 



•the -.fitiCF' 
Selenoe (any)* 
v orld History 
United states History* 
Civics* 



Social Probless 
Masie Appreciation 

Ii.t0rt1i.ure 



Art 

Itgrcical &. Health Education" x 



X 


X 


4.0 
1.0 
1.0 
14 

1.0 

1.0 

uo 


X 




4.5 


X 




1.0 


X 


X 


1.0 




3t 


1*0 


X 


X 


2.0 


X 


X 






* Required subjects 



v. 

Fine art* are sinply enriched f eras of expression* 
They are other ways of ccoiHunicating our best thoughts anc' 
ideas* They include the arts of the spoken and written 
word, developed by the Utnglish Lepartmentf the arts of vocal 
and instrumental sound* the concern of the llusio Qepertsents 
the art of the rhythrdc novecamt* often eophaslsed by the 
phyaloal education department | and the verioue arts of 
painting* sculpture, oererdca* and modeling* developed by 
the Art DepartEsat* 

Seas of the alias and purposes of art education are as 

felloes* 

1* To develop an understanding that art ia an en- 
riched fern of expression* and that it is tlie re- 
sult of original thinking and aotivity* 

2* To provide opportunity for the student to explore 
and exper incut with a vide variety of art material* 

5* To enrich the experiences and to improve the quality 
of daily living of art students* 

4* To provide guidance in acquiring specific as sell 
as broad knowledge and sacs skill Mil oh will enable 
the pupil to choose intelligently* 35 

laaaic* From the field of fine art&, nuaic has found a 

place in the school program, not through statute* but through 

growing appreciation of the rioh values it possesses* To 

Many individuals* music interprets the highest ideals of nan* 

and through this neens* it has coos to occupy a large place 

In our social life end living* A few of the objectives of 

55* Suggestions for the Inauguration of a Twelve Year Sohool 

step * <jg* cit* * p» 8* 



jsusle In schools are listed beloet 



1* To elevate taste and standards in •object setter 
performance 



2. To introduce pupils to e new experience in music 
through mss singing 



3. To acquire a repertoire of songs that can be given from 
4* To males use of musical training and experience of 



5* To moot the needs, tastes, and emotional defelopment of 
pupils be; a oareful choice of trnterial 

6. To provide nee ransical experienoeet 

a. Creative work - melody writing 

b. Staple cord progression 

c. Biographical research 

d. Club organisations 



e. Identification through ear and eye the orchestral 
instruments and their combination 3° 

Table XXIX presents "a suggested four-year course" in tousle. 
In addition to the required subjects, all related courses in nusle 
are suggested. 

Required •objects are listed in the tables for grades eight 
through twelve* The essential reason for having • pupil asks required 
subjects for high school graduation is the prerogative that a pupil 
has to change to a college-preparatory course during his high school 
eareer. 



m I iley, Jr., od.. ci^., p. 235-37. 



80 
TABU2 XXIX t- A SUGG35TSD KXn-TBAft COtfflSS ZR ISTIC 













tubjeots 


9 


10 11 


B 


Credit* 


meii«h» 


X 


X X 


X 


4.0 


Uath«r*tica' 


X 






1.0 


Science (any)* 


X 






1*0 


General ueic 


X 


X 




M 


United States liatory 




X 




1.0 


Givics 




X 




uo 


Aneriean Government* 




X 




IS 


: ueic Approoiatlon 




X 




1.0 


Art Appreciation 




X 




1*0 


Advanced literature 






X 


1*0 


Advaaeed Theory 






X 


a* 


art 

Dramatic* and Speech 






X 


1.0 


flenernl Hone Itiennmlrn 






X 


10 


Physical and Health adue.* 


X 


X X 


X 


mmm 



Bequired sub jeote 



81 

Although one nay sot intend to £© on to college during his 
early high school years, ho is subject to change his rind by 
the tins ha roaches his senior year* In such a case the r.it>- 
jeots needed to enter college would be lacking! so, in such a 
condition* it is highly desirable and plausible for college- 
ontrance requireoents to be met throughe** the high school 
years. 

"Subjects required for admission to college are sone- 
tinoe introduosd as roquiroEents into curriculum. Iresuoably 
intended for non-college going students* against tho likeli- 
hood that sons students pur suing these curriculum will 

37 

dNQP I'^ir :i::.s Ml iMfil st tMli s4MsWtM ■ coil _<_." 

It should not be conceived that college-entrance re- 
qtdreaents are intended for success in a college career* 
"There is no significant correlation be tw e en the nunber of 
units of credit earned in high school in any subject natter 
field and scholastic success in college*"* 8 



37* Leonard V. Koos # and others, op. oiL. , p. 10. 
3G. Ibi*., p. 19. 



I ■ 

VI. ruHJAJCS 



Services of guidance are necessary in as effective pro- 
gram of education, but this study ic ca-icerned only with ari>- 
ject sx.ttcr courses* However, Mention is hereby aade of 
•oss) of the icportant features of guidance services* 

In its broadest sense, guidance is coroeraed with 
every j£»se of the life of the individual* It isuat, there- 
fore, be as broad rt education, ezsl it sruat oonsider every 
aspect of the life of the '.dual* 

Guidance activities nay bo carried on wherever teachers 
work or associate with pupils whether it be in tire hoaercoa* 
In the club or school organisation, in asserfcly, on the play- 
ground or in the cootanity*, Jtost schools carry on guidance 
activities in places sectioned above* 

The head counselor should, so far as his training and 
experience perait, counsel with special oases as referred 
by other counselors* as well as assist 'iiose counselors to 
neater the fundsswntal techniques involved in O ood counsel- 
ing* Tho guidance expert should prepare occupational and 
educational materials for counselors and students, particu- 
larly where such mterlala are not avails^ le in the ochool 
In large quantities for wide distribution* Tho jrcparction 
of case stuJies, holding case conferences ind drawing cocrs>* 
nity resources into Wm ^uidanee proggraa are t.*\jor responsi- 
bilities of the ha**' . 

Interviews eooupy an lepertant place in the guidance 
progran. Despise V& limitations of the interview, it is an 



indispensable teobx£qu» in educational guidance* Patterson S9 

has listed tha airs of an interview aa fcllowet 

2* Studying the tins distribution of all students* 

2* Inwatigating rjethods* tirae* place and condition of 
study* 

5* Studying each atudont , s vocational ait»* to deter» 
ndne its ori£ia» its harwjny with tha fasdly bade- 
ground and the studantsi real abilities* 

4* Give each studet* an opportunity to discuss 
problems* 



39* ItonaW C» Ffcttsrson and others* 3tugesfc Guidance Teob- 
njque, (Hew tbrlc, aa Gr asn H ill Book Cotapany, 1033), p* 8# 



84 
The program suggested In this chapter is intended 
to aeet the trdnlMw roqajronsnte in courses for a comprehensive 
highsehool for Negr oes in Prinesss Anno County. Tables XXI through 
XXV contain subjects that a pupil would take while in high school, 
the eighth grade will serve two eajor functions: (1) it will offer 
exploratory material for all pupils who say enter the school, and 
(2) it will ahtioulate hi#i school subjects with elesentary sub- 
jects. Other years of high school are designed to provide oppor- 
tunity for youth to follow courses according to their aptitudes, 
interests, abilities, etc. 

Suggested four-year courses are offered as sstnples of 
courses which students toy follow. It is not intended, h o wev er, 
that a student would toko only the courses that are 



CHAPTER V 



in this chapter has been concerned with 
* probler. which, if solved, should improve the curriculum offerings at 
Prineeee Anne County Training School. Ii is generally conceived that high 
schools are not meeting the needs of the majority of the pupils enrolled 
in them* The Negro nigh school in Princess »'nne county is faced with the 
problem of helping vocationally a large number of pupils who are graduated 
but do not go to college. It is c onc er n ed, too, with a larger number of 
pupils who drop out of school before they are graduated. In order to la- 
prove this current situation, the writer has attempted to find a solution 
to the followlnr problems To wnat extent sen Princess Anne County adapt 
the Virginia comprehensive high school to the needs of the Negroes of the 
county? 

From a survey of related studies and literature in the area of cur- 
riculum development, it was discovered that such work had been done to offer 
soaething concrete and tangible in curriculum reorganisation, any research 
studies have pointed out changes and expansion In secondary school courses 
which are increasingly meeting more of the needs of school youth. These 
studies have given impetus and insight for the solution of this problem. 

Procedures used included the collection of data from questionnaires, 
state and oounty reports, sod school records. Questionnaires were care- 
fully com p o s e d and sent to three groups of individuals in order to get s 
section response. These inquiries were cent to former graduates, 



3C 

drop-out a * and seniors of the 1949 class* A close correlation existed in 
the results obtained fren the three -roups Mentioned above* This similari- 
ty indicates a hi,?,h decree of reliability in the data of the questionnaires 
which were used principally to determine courses to be addled to the curricu- 
lum* Reports frost the state end county offices were useful for statistical 
purposes* And the school records were used chiefly to reveal pertinent facts 
about a r op-out b and graduates* 

Frotra this study oertain basic facts have been discovered* 



87 



PtnAlnse i 

A* School enrollment I 

1« Princess Anno County ranks below the average of ell the 

counties In Virginia in "percentage of school census enrolled" 
for Segroos* 
2* Enrollraent in the Hsgro high school has steadily increased 
since 1338-59 to the present* 
B* Resources* 

1* Princess Anne County ranks above the average county in Virginia 
in 

(a) Ability to support education 

(b) All sources of receipts 

(c) Disbursessnts to support education 

(d) Distribution of State funds for education 
C* Studies! 

1« "relatively few research studies have been aaede in the area 

of curriculuri development dealing with this problem* 
D» Population* 

1. The population in Princess Anne County in 1940 exceeded the 

average for all counties in Virginia* 
2* The per cent of increase for Princess Anne County exceeded 

the average for all count lea of Virginia froa 1920*1950 and 

froa 1350-1940* 
3* Begro population has increased since 1920* 
I* Graduates enter colleges 

1* During five consecutive years 43 or 26*2 per cent o- 174 high 



school ^jraduatee entering college* 

F* Hew bourses t 

1* rhe need for connereial education* xausie, woodworkir.-., auto* 
mechanics* bricklaying-, end nursing wee in the upper third 
ef questionnaire data* 
Qm I>rop-©ufcei 

1« the largest ranbor of drop-outs was in the ninth grade-* 
106 or 58 •§ per cent— and the smallest number was in the 
eleventh grade— SO or 10 #9 per cent* 

It has been shown from the find in s that mny existing; factors point 
to a need for an adequate curriculum program* foe many pupils leave the 
school without sons vocational training* A greater per ceitfc of the school 
eeneue should receive some trainin in high school* flie findings reveal a 
resource status of the county that is above par* lo sua up the findings 
it nay be stated that the educational program for Kegroes in Princess Anas 
County ranks low in comparison with .nsans for the support of education* 

generalisations* In the light of these findings* the following 
statesnents are :nade« 

1* A comprehensive high school program for Princess Anne County 
Training School would increase the "percentage of school census enrolled*" 
It would meet the needs of a larger number of drop-outs and graduates who 
do not go to coll©-e* It would offer vocatiejjal courses which are in great 
need at the school* A comprehensive program of education for Begroes in 



Princess itnne vounty would increase their Taxational efficiency and 

r» 

2* iTlnnoss Anns Count,/ is able to finance e progras of sd uoa t lon to 
the wJwtaMi requirements for a comprehensive hiffc school for Kofroee* 
It la above the evsrcge in Virginia in its ability, sources of receipts, end 
ilttliwsiiawffrts to support education. It has a resident population widen 
has gradually increased since 1920 and of ehich 38*7 par sent Is colored* 

3# *naing the pest firs /ears 26.2 per cent of all graduates of 
Princess Anns Training School entered oollegs* 



From the evidence produced in the study of t&ls 
problea and opes the basis of the finding pointed out, the srlter hereby 
sokes tns following reooaaeadations t 

!• Saat a ooaprehensive high sohool prograa ho established for the 
of Frlaceas sans County. 

2* That S w i s s la nrsssrnliil education, aueic, aoodsorkl'ig, 
shanis** sad bricklaying bo added to the curriculum. 

3* That Friaoess anas County increase its financial ■ajupstt to 



km That opportunity be provided for vocational training for the largo 
of pupils aha ana leave the sonool sithout say skills for earning s 

living* 

$• the* opportunities be bade available in the school's curricula* 

for pupils to develop in the areas of their potential ltd on, interests, aptitude 

aad f^ MIM ^ 



6* That the school offerings bo nade attractive la order to increase 
the enrollment • 

7* That the prosent courses, college preparatory, agriculture* and 
economies be continued* 
0* That this problem be studied further* 



B IBLIOGRAPIIT 



BISLIO-RaPEY 



Alexander, Fred il., The. £i,;hth urado JLn the. Corearohsnaiy High School . 
The University of Virginia, June, 1048* IS pp. 

Dalyeat, F. A., "Thirty-Two State* Plan Curriculum Revision*" Th* Clear* 
ia^ jva, il,ll * ls * Soptea&er, 1936. 

Brunner, Sdmund »• S., and Irving Lorge, Rural Trends in Depression Year a . 
lev Torki Columbia University Press, 1S37. 367 pp. 

Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, *ashin:;ton, D. C,, 
January, 1941* 

Corjprohensivs Program of Education fpr Vir inia'g Public Schools. 
State Board of Education, Rioteaond, Virginia • lay, 1947. 25 pp. 

Draper, Sdgar ?%rion. Principles and_ Technique a of Currioulun Lakin^. 
Bow York* D. Appletou-Century Coaijxiny, 1936. 875 pp. 

Everett, Samuel, and William #• Sattanberg, "Reorganisation of Subjects," 
Review of Educational ^s e arch, 7»l24-27, April, 1937, 

Dots, : . ., "trends in the Development of Secondary Education,* E orth 
Central Association wuartorly . I0l237«-OT» January, 1936, 

Eoo8, Leonard V., and others. Administer ln£ th e Seooadary Schools . Saw 
York i Araerican Book Company, 1940* C07 pp. 

Lies, Eugene T.. The Sew Leisure Chalienr.es the Schools . !iew York! 

National Recreation Association, 3 15 Fourth Avenue, 1935. 226 pp» 

Bstterson, Donald •«* and others. Student Ouidanoo Technique . Hew York! 
HoSraw-lIill Book Company, 1958 • 316 pp. 

, Hard a., Th» Fundamentals of Public school Administration. 
Yerki Prent, ica-iiall. Inc., 1945. 597 pp. 

Report o f the Virginia Sducation Commission innate ftocmnsnt limabor &» • 
Hichmond, Virginia, Division of Purchase and Printing, 1945. 198 pp. 

Ross, C« C, L»agureapnts in Today's Schools . Hew York! Prentice-I*ll, 
Inc., 1945. 597 pp. " 

The School Building jfjeefls fo r the Herroea of Princess Anne County . A 

sport of the Committee Appointed by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction to Survey the school Buildings for Hegroes and to 



a Lone Sange Building Program to tho School Off icials of 
Princess Anno County, May, 1947* 2G pp, 

Snith, Thaddeu* C», "Job Opportunities for Ile~roos in !Jor folk-Prinoess 
Anno County Area*" Unpublished Mutcr's Thsais, Hanpton Institute, 
1947* 

Stuart, Kilo k*. Tho Organisation of tho Conprohcnsive High Sohool « Uesr 
York i Tho Maonillaa Company, 1B26, 127 pp, ' 

, £SL tho Inauguration of a r»olvo»Year School aystom 
Firsinia, -State Hoard of Education, ;»ay, 1947, " 

Thayer, V, I,, "A Basis for a Sow Seoondery Curriculum," Pro~ro«sl'*a 
Sducetion, 12*470-79, Kowaber, 1935* 

Thayor, V, X., Carolina B* Zaehry, and Ruth Kotinsky, Rsor^anlsine ,3 ooon- 

dary Education, Bsv York! fi. Applet on-Contury Company, 1959 • 483 pp» 

Wiley, Jr., BtWfi ::., n& r^diroc^^pn o£ &gfiafl&g£ S^Hc^Am* *» Yo **» 

Tho idac-iillan Company, 1942, 493 pp» 

Wrinkle, tfillian L., "Uodernlsinc Soeondary Education," Educational 

MntelAtmtea tm. tommAni °a»" 221101-74, :.*rch, I .. 



APPEND II 



frinoesa Anne County Jraialiic School 
Prince** Anne County, Virginia 
February 5, 1949 



Dear seniori 

I ctn cakinc a study of year aohcol to ascertain that lnprove- 
Bints oan be oede* It Is felt t&at dots courses should bo 
offered for high school students* You oan yreatly assist re 
by ansoerinc the questionnaire below and return it to as at 
your earliest convenience. 

Thanks, 

J* V. Boykin 



(optional) 



2* How aany years have you been In high school, including 
this year? 

9* TChet three subjects do you like best? a > | 

• c. 



4* Drief ly ex pl ain **hy you like these subjects* 



5* Bane In the order of importance the three subjects which 
helped you nost* a* 



G* Hear do you thiol: these three subjects have helped you? 



7* ?&at kind of vocation aro you planning to follow? 



C* Do you think this school has helped you to prepare for 

that vocation? (oheok) lb s Ho 
9. If answer to ITo* 8 above is yes, briefly explain* 



1C. If answer to Bo* 8 above is no, briefly explain* 



11* Vo you plan to continue your education after you graduate 

fran this hi$i school? (check) Ye s I K ) 

12* If answer to Ko. 11 above la yes. what eyecial course do 

you plan to pursue ? ,,,, . ,, 
12* That couraee not offered now do you think would creatly 

benefit students at thie eehool? a * 

b* c. 



d« e, 



14* Do you think thie eehool could be of any assistance to 
you after you Graduate fresi hare? (cheek) Ye s Be 

15* If ■us— I to nusfeer 14 above Is yes, briefly explain how 
it could help you* 



16* Please write in the space below just what you think of 
this school, and tshat you think would imjrove it* 



frineeas &nae County training School 
rrixeees Ann© County* Virginia 
October £1* 1W8 



I aia umklnr- a study of Brinooaa Anna County Tralninc Softool 
to aaoertaia isbat iagr overeats oaa be ::&de* !■■ -is felt that 
nore courses ahould bo offered for hi^i school students* 
You crm yrtsetly assist no by ensnaring tha queationa below* 

Eizdly return this questionnaire aa early as jftft possibly 
oax by the otudont who gives it to you* 

1 thank you vary .j^ ^ advene© for helping raa in thia studjfr 

J* ?• Boyidm 



1* Did you go to collate or bob* other school after graeV 
uating firoa» hi£& school? (check) Yea Bo 



2* If ebova answer is yes* (a) rher© did you attend college? 

mmmmm ^ mimmammm ________ _______ 0>) Hear amy yeare Cid 

attend? ^^ mm ^ m 
3* If you did not co to collage* tell why 



4* flhat kinds of work have yea done einca you graduated from 

hitfj school? (a) Cb) 

<c) (d) 

<•> (f) 



5* tt*t kind of »ork are you doing near? 



6* What ooursos do you think this school should adu to its 
curviculun? (a ) (b ) _ 
<o) (d) 



(•) (f) 



7* tibat kind of work do you lite bast? 



8* ivrit© in the space below t&at you think would inprovo thia 
school* 



Jriaoees iaua county Draining School 

Irinoess Anno County* Vir^niA 

October 21, 1940 



iHf Mb 



I en rafrinr: a study of Xrinoees Anne County Training School 
to ascertain -chat is^roveoasafc sea be trade. It is 2»lt that 
■era octree* should be offered for hi;h echool students* You 
can greatly assist re by anewerinc the questions bnlow* 

Xiudly return this questionaeir© as early as you possibly can 
by the stisdent who £iveo it to you* 



I thank you in advance vary ouch for helping n* In this study* 

J. V, Bcykin 

In ?2iy id you leave school? (oheok) 

a* To TTor k f« Death in faail y _ 

b* Adieu TxTsub foot s £• Did not like coixaes__ 

o# ?o get rwrriod h« Did not liJ» teacher a_ 

d. Your fenily agw o^ i. Lid not like claeeiaetea^ 

o« :.ioknoaa in fatall y J. Other reaao n 

£♦ «8iat kinds of work have you done sinee you left school? 

b. 



c* d. 



S* ?hat kind of work ere you doing Met 
4* That kind of work do you like beat? 



6* ^hat kind of courses do you think would have helped yea 
in your present Jobt a » b « 

c« d. 



6* Fhat vocational entrees do you think thle school should 
add to its curriculum? a* b« 



c» d« e« f. 



T» Write in the apace below w!iat you actually think of thia 
echool and what should be done to iiajrov© the procrerw 



f