^R P S A L S
OF ALL USEFUL
TRADES and Husbandry,
Profit for the RICH,
A Plentiful Living for the
A Good Education for YOUTH.'
Which will "be Advantage to the GovernmBnt ,
"by the Increase of the People,
and their Riches.
By John Sellers.
INDUSTRY BRINGS PLENTY
The Sluggard shall be cloathed witn Raggs.
He that will not Work, shall not Eat.
London. Printed and Sold by _T. Sowle, in
Wliite-Har1>ourt in Gracious- street. 1696.
The Lord Chief Justice HALE, (that great com-
position of learning and vertue) in his Dis
course for Imploying the Poor, saitn,
that are rich, are stewards of their
"wealth; and they that are wise, are stewards
"of their wisdom unto that great Master of the
"Family of Heaven and Earth, to whom they must
"give an account of "both; and one (I am sure)
"of the best accounts they can give of "both,
"is to employ them in the reformation and re-
"lief of those that want both, or either; (Am
"I my brother f s keener, was the answer of one
"of the worst of men.)
"2. It would "be a work of great humanity, we
"owe to those of our own nature as we are men,
"and that as well "becomes a Christian as any,
"and the ill provision for the poor in Eng-
"land one of the greatest reproaches to our
"3. The want of a due provision for education
"and relief of the poor in a way of industry,
"is that which fills the gaols with malefac-
"tors, and the kingdom with idle persons that
"consume the stock of the kingdom, without
"improving it; and that will daily encrease,
"even to a DESOLATION in time: And this errour
!l in the first concoction, is never remediable
"but by gibbets and whipping; but a sound,
"prudent method for an industrious education
"of the poor, will give a better remedy
"against these corruptions, than all the gib-
"bets and whipping-posts in this kingdom;
"but as necessitous and un-educated persons
"increase, tne multitude of malefactors will
"increase, notwithstanding the examples of
11 severity. "
1. To the Lords and Commons assembled in
2. To the Thinking and Publick Spirited.
3. The Introduction, with Reasons for pro-
viding for the Poor.
a Colledge Fellowship.
5. Proposals to the Co 11 edge-Founders.
6 . Some of the Advantages to the Founders and
Rich fry it.
? Some of tne Advantages to the Poor Collegians
8. Some Hules about Governing the Colledge
9. Of the Education of Children.
10. An Answer to several Objections.
11. A Postscript.
To the LOHBS and COLONS
Assembled in Parliament,
The cries and miseries of some, and
idleness and lewdness of others of the
poor, and the charge the nation is at
for them "being great, hath encouraged
me to present You with some proposals
of embodying the poor so together,
that thereby they may be made of equal
value to money (by their raising a
plentiful supply of all conveniences
of life.) And by this example the
parish rates, and many commons, may be
most profitably imploy'd, and the present
hospitals of England may be greatly
improved, and also from it the most
successful fishery may be raised, and
our manufactures best and fully
wrought in our own nation; I do not
say it may be increased to make
England the mart and treasury of
Europe, but that time and practice may
shew the profit one or two such
colledges will bring.
I humbly pray You would please to
consider it, and as may be
agreeable to your wisdom, (like
the summer sun to a fruitful tree)
these proposals to the nations
advantage, r when any subscribers to
such a Colledge shall petition You
(for their better government, and not
to exclude others) to incorporate
them, You would please to grant it.
And if several models shall "be
proposed to You, that private persons
will undertake; with submission, I
conceive it's the publick's interest
they have encouragement, because the
nation will then have the advantage
of following what their experience
shall prove the best method, if You
hall not think fit to make any of them
more national before.
To the Thinking and Publick-Spirited.
CHRISTIANITY mends, but marrs no mans
good nature; it "binding us to love our
neighbour, and that love, to desire
our country's prosperity. And from
that love do I meditate the publick
good, and publish these proposals I
think tends to it: Believing there is
many who would be glad to see the poor
reformed in manners, and better
provided for to live that will be
willing to contribute their assistance
with money, and advice towards it, when
opportunity shall be offered them.
And therefore to such I propose a
general subscription; which when
considerable, and a meeting of the
subscribers, there every one may have
an opportunity of proposing any other
useful thought they have, on this
subject; (whereas private discourse,
though never so good (is but like
single sparks) comes to little) in
order to draw up suitable rules and
methods for suda an undertaking; and
by whom application may be made to the
Government for encouraging of it, more
acceptable, and with more advantage,
than from a single person.
Such as are willing to set forward
this undertaking, may enter their
subscriptions with Edward Skeat, at
William Reynolds^, goldsmith, at
the Cup and Star near Fleet-bridge in
Fleet-street; or Herbert Springet,
attorney, in George-yard in Lunfbard-
It's the interest of the rich to take
care of the poor, and their education,
"by which they will take care of their
own heirs: For as kingdoms and nations
are subject to revolutions and changes,
much more (and nothing commoner than)
for private families to do so; and who
knows how soon it may "be his own lot,
or his posterities, to fall poor? Is
there any poor now, that some of their
ancestors have not been rich? Or any
rich now, that some of their ancestors
have not "been poor?
View the cities, towns, and counties
in this nation, and see what alterations
come in two or three generations in most
families. Were above one in ten of the
men now house-keepers in London, born
there? And but few (in comparison of
the multitude) that have gone out with
estates: And what better is it with
gentlemens younger children, and the
eldest also, many times.
There is- three things I aim at:
First, Profit for the rich, (which will
be life to the rest.) Secondly, A
plentiful living for the poor, without
A good education for youth, thalr may tend to
prepare their souls into the nature of the gpod
However prevalent arguments of charity may
"be to some, when profit is joyned with it, it
will raise most money, provide for most people,
hold longest, and do most good: for what sap
is to a tree, that profit is to all business,
"by increasing and keeping it alive; so employ-
ing the poor, excells the "barren keeping them;
in the first, the increase of the poor is no
"burthen, ("but advantage) because their conven-
iencies increase witn them; "but in the latter,
there is no strength or relief "but what they
have from others, who possibly may sometimes
think they have little enough for themselves.
As a good and plentiful living must be the
poor f s encouragement; so their increase, the
advantage of the rich; Without them, they
cannot be rich; for if one had a hundred
thousand acres of land, and as many pounds in
money, and as many cattle, without a labourer,
what would the rich man be, but a labourer?
And as the labourers make men rich, so the more
labourers, there will be the more rich men (where
there is land to employ and provide for them).
Therefore I think it the interest of the rich
to encourage the honest labourers marrying at
full age; but by the want of it, it seems to
me the world is out of frame, and not under-
standing its own interest. The labour of the
poor being the mines of the rich.
For is it not strange to consider how in-
dustrious the world is, to raise corn and
cattle, which only serves men, and how neg-
ligent of ( or rather careful to hinder)
the increase of men, who are a tnousand times
"better (than "beasts) "being to serve G-od? Do
not men greatly reproach their Maker, as if he
had chosen the uselessest part of the creation
to serve him, whilst men think them the least
worth their while to raise?
But they that provide food for the poor,
lend to the Lord, who is the best pay-master;
and if an industrious raising of corn and
cattle (mean things) is commendable in a hus-
bandman, how much more is the putting mankind
into a comfortable way of living, which will
be instrumental in God's hand in finishing his
creation (man being- the head of it) by provi-
ding for the increase of their posterity, which
joyned with a good education, they may prove
in the ages to come, both good and great in this
world, and as angels in t he next: For as
ground that bringeth forth the grossest
weeds, may by good culture and seed, bring
forth excellent corn, -so we may hope as great
a change may be made by good instruction and
example among the worst of men, at least of
Therefore how worthy is it to provide a
good education and employ for the poor, the
breeding poor children with industry and tem-
perance, will make the next age as happy in
their service, as this age is unhappy in their
parents 1 vices, for which reason their chil-
dren had need of better tutors; considering
now many, for want of it, comes to be miserable
and vagabonds, and continue so for many gen-
erations, from father to son?
This col ledge-fellowship will make
labour, and not
money, the standard to value all necessaries by;
and tho 1 money hath its conveniencies, in the
common way of living, it "being a pledge among
men for want of credit; yet not without its
mischiefs; and call'd "by our Saviour, The
Mammon of Unrighteousness; most cheats and
robberies would go but slowly on, if it were
not for money; And when people have their
whole dependance of trading by money, if 'that
fails, or is corrupted, they are next door to
ruine; and the poor stand still, because the
rich have no money to employ them, tho 1 they
have the same land and hands to provide vic-
tuals and cloaths, as ever they had; which is tbe
true riches of a nation, and not the money in
it; except we may reckon beads and pin-dust
so, because we may have gold at Quiney for
Money in the body politick, is what a crutch
is to the natural body, cripled; but when the
body is sound, the crutch is but troublesome:
So when the particular interest is made a pub-
lick interest, in such a colledge money will
be of little use there.
Tho 1 it*s not so natural for the old and
rich to live with a common stock, yet more nat-
ural with the young and poor, witness the sev-
eral hospitals of England and Holland; Old
people are like earthen vessels, not so easily
to be new moulded; yet children are more like
clay out of the pit, and easie to take any
form they are put into.
The variety of tempers, and the idle ex-
pectations of some of the first workmen, may
make the undertaking difficult; and therefore
the more excellent will
be the accomplishment; And if the poor
at first prove "brittle, let the rich
keep patience; seven or fourteen years
may bring up young ones that life will
be more natural to: and if the attaining
such a method, would be a blessing to
the people, certainly it's worth more
than a little labour to accomplish it.
When by the good rules thereof may be
removed, in great measure, the
prophaneness of swearing, drunkenness,
&c. with the idleness and penury of
many in the nation; which evil equalities
of the poor, are an objection with some
against this undertaking, thou^i with
others a great reason for it: for the
worse they are, the more need of
endeavouring to mend them; (and why
not by this method, till a better is
offered.) And its as much more charity
to put the poor in a way to live by
honest labour, thai to maintain them
idle; as it would be to set a man's
broken leg, that he might go himself,
rather then always to carry him.
A Specimen shewing how the Rich may gain, the
Poor maintain themselves, and Children "be ed-
ucated "by "being incorporated as a Co 11 edge
of all Sorts of useful Trades, that shall
work one for another, without other relief:
Suppose three hundred in a Colledge. to work
the usual time or task as abroad, and what
any doth more, to "be paid, for it. to en-
Two hundred of all trades I suppose suffi-
cient to find necessaries for three hundred,
and therefore what manufacture, the other hun-
dred make, will "be profit for the founders.
2 A Governour and De- 4
2 Shoo -makers 1
3 Taylors 2
1 Brewer 1
1 Butcher 1
1 Upholster 1
1 Barber 1
1 Physician 2
2 Linnen J
'fallow- Cnandl er
Carpenter and Joy-
Butler & Store-
Women and Girls
& Gtoverness ana De-
4 House- Cleaners
6 Sempsters to make
& mend Cloaths
5 Knitters or Weavers
Spinners and Car-
ders for Stockins
Linnen ) Spinners &
A Farm of 500. Der an.
A Steward and his
Hinds for Cattle
44 Tradesmen, &c.
82 Women and Grirles.
24 Men and Boys upon tne farm.
10 Mens Work at lfi. each, is 15C. a
year, for fewel, iron, &c.
5 Mens Work at 15. each, is 75. a year
35 Mens Work at 15 each, is 525. a year,
for rent of a farm, for meat, drink,
100 People's Labour, if "but 10. each is
1000. per annum profit, "but if we
300 yalue them at 15. each, is 1500.
I do not suppose the computation is exact
to a man, for as some trades useful are not
set down, so there is some of them set down,
who are able to provide for two or three times
that number: But if it should require 220
people to provide necessaries for 300, it will
pay the undertakers well enough.
And that this computation is not much out
of the way, of 200 providing all necessaries
for 300, it may appear,
First, From a view of tne nation, where I
suppose not above two thirds, if one half of
the nation, are useful workers; and yet all
have a living.
Secondly, From the many advantages the
colledge will have over others, for there will
1. Shopkeepers ) And all their Ser-
2. All Useless Trades; vants and Depen-
3. Lawsuit es. dents.
4. Bad Debts.
5. Dear Bargains.
6. Loss of time for want of work.
7. Many Women and Childrens work.
Cooking, Brewing, and Baking.
Fetcning and Carrying of Work
15. Clothing hurt in the making, tho 1 not
so fit for sale, may wear never the
orse; and the Colledge will find
Customers to wear it, that a Trades-
man must lose by.
Thirdly, There will "be several advantages
to the land:
1. There will "be all the soil of the tra-
desmen, "besides the husbandmans, for
2. As there will "be more cattel kept, and
occasion for more pasture, tnan in most
corn-countries, so tne plowed ground
may "be tne better kept in heart, by the
great quantity of dung made, and it
will be less worn out of heart, by ofter
laying that down and breaking up fresh.
3. Now much land is unimproved, to what it
might be, because the landlord or ten-
ant are not able, or not willing to do
it for the other: The colledge, I con-
ceive, will have neither of them dif-
4. All the mechanicks will be ready at
harvest, to help in with it, in a
quarter of the time others do it, which,
when wet, may be of great advantage:
which change of work, as it will be
acceptable to many, so also for the
health of such as are used to sitting
Proposals to the Colledge Pounders.
JISST, Tho 1 the example be put of renting
land and house at 600. per annum, the better
to she^v how the profit will arise by such an
undertaking, all charges deducted; yet I pro-
pose for every 300 persons the raising
10000. To buy an estate in land of 500.
2000. To stock the land, and
3000. To prepare necessaries to set the
several trades to work.
3000. For new-building or repairing old.
In all 18000 pound.
By wnich means the trouble of raising
money to pay rent, will be saved, and the
founders may have the more goods from the col-
ledge, if desired, and the undertaking will
not "be so apt to miscarry in its infancy.
Secondly, The stock to "be valued every year
and the profit to "be divided; that such as
desire to draw their profit out, may have it
yearly; "but such as desire to continue it in
the coll edge, may have it. added as principal;
and that stock- jobbing (which will ruine any
good thing) may be prevented, if any have a
mind to sell their interest, the rest of the
proprietors shall have the liberty, to bring
in a purchaser by majority of votes, at the
value as it was last cast up.
Thirdly, The first founders the more the
better; and if some of every useful trade,
the better; and then every trade will be the
better managed, and every mans days work
Fourthly, None to subscribe less than 25.
Fifthly, Every 60 or 100. ^o have a vote in
making by-laws, and chusing officers; but no
one to have above 5 votes.
Sixthly, Once a year, twelve or more of the
proprietors to be chosen a committee, as vis-
itors to inspect, and counsellors for advice,
for the governours and workmen to apply to,
as there may be occasion.
Seventhly, The governours nor under-offlLcers
not to have any sallary, "but only all the
reasonable conveniences the coll edge can
Eighthly, Corrections to "be rather abate-
ments of food, &c. than stripes; and such as
deserve greater punishment to be expel^d, or
sent to a house of correction, but not in the
coll edge, for two reasons; first, It will re-
lish too much of Bridewel; secondly, Their ill
company and example will tend to corrupt the
youth; and therefore should be as far from a
nursery of trade, as from a nursery of Jearning,
Ninthly, Because the whole success (under
the Providence of God) will lie in a right
beginning, (for though an acorn doth naturally
produce an oak, yet how many little accidents
may prevent its ever being one? So any great
undertaking, however rational and natural in
its beginning, may easily be spoiled) there-
fore let the nation be looked through, for the
first workmen, if can find but three or four
in a. county (the rest may be prentices) of
good lives and tempers, it will be a leven
to influence their successors, and it will be
such a pattern of plentiful living, that many
of the Poor will readily submit to the* rules,
to partake of it; and to the children bred
prentices in the colledge, it will be their
Tenthly, If there should be much more sub-
scribed than at first there will be occasion
to use, (for that will be as a suitable pur-
chase may offer) it is but everybody 1 s paying
a proportion to their subscription, and
there will be no inconveniency, tho 1 there
should "be never so many and large subscrip-
Some Advantages to the Founders axyl Rich*
"by such a
JIEST, if the living in this affair, will
make their own eyes and hands their execu-
tors and overseers, and deposit that now they
are alive, which they intend to give when dead.
it may be that and much more money saved to
themselves and their heirs.
Secondly, The founders of the colledge from
thence may have for themselves and families,
(in part of their profit) yearly a certain
quantity of woollen and linnen cloth, shooes,
Thirdly, Though the computation be but
300 in a colledge; there may be 3000, or more:
And such a one may be at
Colchester, where are made bayes and
Taunt on, for Searges.
Stroud, for Cloth.
Devonshire for Kersies. And other places
for other goods.
As also at the sea-coast may be raised
several colledges, as nurseries to the most
effectual and successfulest fishery; the
collegians being taught industry and temper-
ance, (idleness and drunkenness greatly spoil-
ing the last English fishery) the colledge
can supply all
conveniences and necessaries, and spare one
third of their company to fish: And what fish
is got out of the sea, is as the addition of
so much land to the undertakers, as it will
feed an equal number' of men to it; and so
much more, as the fish is catch'd with less
labour; and also it is more accep table in
And thus every C. oil edge raising one third
(or more) of their manufactures and conven-
iences, more than they use themselves, they
may be distributed several ways besides the
1. In being divided among the founders.
2. In providing for more people in the
colledge, which is best profit.
3. In buying and improving of land.
4. In building.
5. In fetching foreign commodities.
6. In selling for money, which will be of
least use in the colledge.
Fifthly, Any that iave estates in land or
money, doing the colledge business, and
living under the colledge rules; may have
the col ledge-allowance, and lay up ti.e
profit of their own estates.
Sixthly, Any giving 15 . a year land, or
30Q. in money, to the colledge, or what other
sum mpy be thought reasonable according to the
county it's in; may have the right of keep-
ing one person in the colledge (without
working) with coll edge-allowance, and under
colledge-rules; or but half the money and
do half the work, or any other pro-
portion: Which is a good
expedient for an indigent child, for the
father to buy it a col ledge- commons: reserv-
ing liberty to the colledge, in case of ex-
orbitancy, to expel him the house, returning
his money, or handing him col ledge-allowance
Seventhly, An estate settled thus in a
colledge, is not so liable to be lost or
spent, as most other estates; for if the heir
be simple, there is enough of the rest to
look after it; and being joyned with good
company, he will not be so liable to be a
spend thrift; and if he should, the Colledge
for his labour will entertain him and his
posterity; so that he and his may reap ben-
efit from his fathers estate, after he hath
spent it; and here a parent may entail it
upon the colledge, and then the heir cannot
Eighthly, Here peoples children of estates
may be boarded and educated in all useful
learning, who seeing others work, at spare
times, instead of playing, would be learning
some trade , work not being more labour than
play; and seeing others work, to imitate
them would be as much diversion to the chil-
dren as play, which would the more inure
them to business, when grown up; the want of
which hath ruined many a hopeful plant, who
will be doing, if not of good, of evil; an
idle learning being little better than the
learning of idleness.
1 inthly, An hundred pound a year in such a
colledge I suppose will maintain ten times as
many people as 10G. a year in alms-houses, or
hospitals; because the provision and manu-
facture raised from 100. a year land, is
worth ten times the rent; as the farmer
raiseth yearly three times his rent, and the
inechanicks make their work wortjj three or
four times what it was in the farmers hands.
Some of the Advantages the poor; Collegians
1. FEDM "being poor, they will be made rich,
by enjoying all things needful in health or
sickness, single or married, wife and chil-
dren; and if parents die, their children
well educated, and preserved from misery, and
their marrying incourag f d, which is now gen-
2. As the world now lives, every man is
under a double care, besides his bodily laboui?
first, To provide for himself and family:
secondly, to guard against the intrigues of
his neighbour's over-reaching him, both in
buying of, and selling to him; which in such
a colledge will be reduced to this single
point, of doing only an easie days work; and
then instead of every bodies endeavouring to
get from him, every body is working for him;
and they will have more conveniences in the
Colledge than out.
3. In the common way of living and trade,
men, their wives or children, often lose
half what they get, either by dear bargains,
bad debts, or law suits, of which there will
be neither in the colledge; and if the earth
gives but forth its fruit, and the workmen
do but their parts, they will have plenty:
Whereas often now the husbandman and mecha-
nicks both are ruined,
tho 1 the first have a great crop, and the
second industriously maketh much manufacture;
money, and not labour, being made the stan-
dard; the husbandman paying the same rent
and wages as when his crop yielded double
the price; it being no better with the mech-
anicks, where it's not who wants his com-
modity, but who can give him money for it,
(will keep him) and so often he must take
half the value in money, another could give
him in labour, that hath no money.
4. That as they grow in years in the col-
ledge, they may be allowed to abate an hour
in a day of their work, and when come to
sixty years old, (if merit prefer them not
sooner) they may be made overseers; which for
ease and pleasant life, will equal what the
hoards of a private purse can give; and ex-
cel, in so much as it hath less care and
danger of losing.
5. And if we may compute by the parable of
the sower, that many people lose Heaven by
the cares of this life, may not a collegiate
way of living be the occasion of saving many,
by preventing them cares? And for bodily
labour, its a primitive institution of God,
It should earn its bread in the sweat of its
brows; labour being as proper for the bodies
.health, as eating is for its living; for what
pains a man saves by ease, he will find in
disease; and less labour will provide for a
man in the colledge, than out.
6. The regular life in the colledge, with
abatement of worldly cares, with an easie
honest labour, and religious instructions,
may make it a nursery, and school of vertue.
7. The poor thus in a colledge, will "be a
community something like the example of prim-
itive Christianity, that lived in common, and
the power that did attend it, "bespeaks its
excellency; "but considering the constitution
of mankind that have estates ("but it's not so
with the poor) it was none of the least mir-
acles of that age, and so a"bated as other
8. A colledge thus constituted cannot so
easily "be undone as single men, whatever
changes comes, (except the people are des-
troyed) for if plundered, twelve months time
will recruit again; like the grass new mowed,
the next year supplies again; labour "bringing
a supply as the ground doth; and when toge-
ther, they assist one another; "but when
scattered are useless, if not preying upon
A few Rules for Governing the Co Hedge-
1. ALL the colledges and hospitals of Eng-
land and Holland, should "be visited, to see
what rules and orders they have for govern-
ing their societies, that may "be useful in
2. All sorts of tradesmen should "be con-
sulted, what is a common and reasonable days
work for a man, that the rules and laws of
the colledge may "be made according.
3. It $hould "be called a colledge, rather
than a work-house, "because a name more grate-
ful; and "besides, all sorts of useful learn-
ing may "be taught there.
4. The members of the col ledge may "be dis-
tinguished in caps and cloaths, as the master-
workmen from the prentices, and women from
5. A certain number of the boys and girls
should be appointed weekly to wait at table
upon the men and women at meals, that as
much as may be, the men and women may live
better in the colledge than any where else.
6. There should be several wards:
1. For young men and boys.
2. For young women and girls.
3. For married persons.
4. For sick and lame.
7. As the men and women have distinct
lodging, so they should have distinct work-
rooms; and as much as the imploys will ad-
mit of it, the men may be in one room, and
the women in another, that their governours
may the better look over them.
8. The men to be prentices till twenty
four years old, and women till twenty one
years, or marry, (as the law allows) and
then may have liberty to go out of the col-
ledge, or stay in, and marry if they will.
Of the Education of Children, and teaching
1. THO 1 rules, as well as words, must be
understood to make a complete scholar, yet
considering words lies in the memory, and
rules in the understanding; and that chil-
dren have first memory before understanding;
by that nature shews memory is to "be first
used; and that in the learning of language,
words should "be first learned and after-
wards rules to put them together; children
first learning the words of their mother-
tongue, and then sentences; "but to under-
stand what rules their language hath, re-
quires a ripeness of judgment; and the putting
of rules upon children "before, cripples
their understandings; when boys of twelve
years old are as long again at school learn-
ing a language by rules, as a child of three
years old without rules.
And therefore I think vocabulary and
dictionary is to be learnt before accidence
and grammar; and childrens reading and dis-
coursing one to another, gives a deeper im-
pression than reading to themselves, we re-
membering a man's voice longer than his face;
a sound upon the ear penetrating the spirits,
more than a silent seeing, where the spirits
are not affected with the subject, as few
children are with their books.
2. Four hours in a morning, and four in an
afternoon, is too long to tye a child to his
book; it's hard for a man to be tyed upon
one subject so long, much more is it toil-
some to children, whose natures are weak,
and love change; it hurts their spirits,
makes them out of love with their books,
and loseth much time; the children might be
imployed to more profit; a labouring man
will hold longer at work, than a thinking-
man in his study: Men will grow strong with
working, but not with thinking: Who have
stronger bodies than labourers, and weaker
bodies than great students? labour adds
oyl to the lamp of life when thinking in-
3. A rebellious temper must "be subdued "by
correction, (for "better "be unlearned than
ill-bred) but such will not make ingenious
scholars; stripes weakening that presence of
mind which is needful to a ready learning:
Understanding must rather be distilled, as
children can take it, than drove into them;
grief hurting the memory, and disordering
the thoughts of most: Raise a child's love
to what he should learn, by rewards and" em-
ulation, for beating them (only) to make
them learn, spoils their natural parts, more
than the acquired (they are beat to) will
make up; by which some, that would make any
thing better than scholars, are made only
4. Where people of estates are willing to
qualifie their children with what learning
they will take; or where others appear of
ready and pregnant understandings, it may
be worth incouraging to the furthest degree;
yet beyond reading and writing, a multitude
of scholars is not so useful to the public
as some think; the body requiring more
hands and legs to provide for, and support
it, than heads to direct it; and if the head,
grows too big for the body, the whole will
fall into the rickets. It's labour sus-
tains, maintains, and upholds, tho 1 learning
gives a useful varnish.
5. Tho 1 learning is useful, yet a vertuous,
industrious education tends more to happiness
here and hereafter; and what is a great im-
pediment in the common education, is the
letting children employ themselves without
directions; which is a loss several ways:
first, To their bodies and present
Secondly, fo their spirits and future
Por at four or five years old, "besides
reading, "boys and girls might "be taught to
knit, spin, &c. and "bigger "boys turning, &c.
and "beginning young, they would make the
"best artists; and "being upon "business, tho 1
slight, it improves their reasons "by sensi-
ble demonstration, (which is sooner learn 1 d
than any rational demonstration without it;
as a child at three years old, "by feeling
knows fire will "burn, mucn "better than one
of thirteen from the most rational discourse
without feeling) whereas a childish silly
employ, leaves their minds silly. And the
will "being the greatest enemy a man hath,
when it is not subject to the will of God;
How valuable is it then for a child's will
to be kept under another^ direction than
its own? It will be the less difficult to
submit it to the will of God, when grown a
man, especially if season'd with religious
lessens of scriptures, &c.
Thus the hand employ 1 d brings profit, the
reason used in it makes wise, and the will
subdued makes them good.
For tho 1 men should be guided more by
reason than sense, yet children are guided
more by sense than reason; and therefore
must be hedged from evil more by wise manage-
ment than discourse; as we see colts are
tamed more by it tkan words.
All which considered, there is less won-
der any prove ill, but that any prove good,
from such an idle education as the common
breeding of children, where the mind is at
leisure to receive all the evil impressions
their several ages are capable of.
A good education, tho 1 with but a little
a happier man, than a great estate without it;
for the first not only supports the name of
his family, "but raiseth a name and family to
himself; whereas the latter, many times the
more rich, the more wicked; and only pleased
when at once he is making an end of "body,
estate, and name together.
And whatever some men may think, there
requires more care, as there is more diffi-
culty, in breeding than feeding children; for
upon their proving good, depends the good
success of all a man's industry: For an evil
child in few years spoils the labours of
whole ages his predecessors have "been gather-
ing. And as debauchery is the mine of the
best estates, so is it of the best trades; and
therefore it ! s as absolutely needful to breed
the youth up in temperance, as to learn them
trades, it will make their trades profitable,
and them useful to tne commonwealth,
Such parents as have also a sence of a
future state and tne happiness or unhappiness
their children are capable of, will think tnere
is no comparison between a good and an evil
And I think such a colledge-education, un-
der good rules, beyond any private one, having
several advantages the private will want.
1. ^here will be all sorts of employs and
tools for every age and capacity to be em-
2. All languages (and learning) may be
learn 'd there, by having some of all nations
(tradesmen) who may teach their mother-tongue
to the youth, as they teach it their own chil-
3. Men and children submit easier to
laws they see others submit to as well as them-
selves, than if they were alone; as children
jna .acihool, and soldiers in an army, are more
regular, and in subjection, than when scattered
4. They will "be more under the eye-sight of
one master or another, tnan in a private fam-
ily; and consequently prevented of more folly.
5. Company being tne delight of all creatures,
whether men or beast, and the world being so
corrupted, makes its company a great snare to
youth; but the colledge having company suffi-
cient, will prevent the temptation of going
abroad; and being well govern 1 d, will much pre-
vent the evils that are learn 1 d abroad.
6. There may be a library of books, a phy-
sick-garden, for understanding' of herbs, and a
laboratory, for preparing of medicines.
And tho 1 ships and boats can't swim in the
colledge, the men that manage them may be of
the college-fellowship, and have their conven-
iences thence, as well as return their profit
or cargoes thitner.
In short, as it may be an epitomy of the
world, by a collection of all the useful trades
in it; so it may afford all the conveniencies
and comforts a man can want, and a Christian
&y which example also, the present hospi-
tals of England may be greatly improved, the
blin?L or lame being able to do something, and
every body but sucklings and bed-rid, is cap-
able of doing little or much towards a living;
which will either add plenty to their
present life, or else make the gifts of the
founders go much farther, "by entertaining the
more people in the hospitals, so that if suit-
able trades may "be put into them, they may "be
much cheaper supplied than now; and also the
present alms-folks might in part either prac-
tice their old trades, or learn something else
I "believe the present idle hands of tne
poor of this nation, are able to raise pro-
vision and manufactures that would bring Eng-
land as much treasure as the mines do Spain,
if send them conveniencies abroad, when that
can be thought tne nations interest more than
breeding up people with it among ourselves,
which I think would be the greatest improve-
ment of the lands of England that can be; it
being the multitude of people that makes land
in Europe more valuable than land in America,
or in Hollanc than Ireland; regular people
(of all visible creatures) being the life and
perfection of treasure, the strength of
nations, and glory of princes.
Answers to several Ob .lections.
OBJECT. 1. 1'ho' the work be very good and ex-
cellent, if it could be accomplished, yet there
will be so mucn difficulty, labour and care.
in the doing it. there will not be found men
tnat will undertake the toyl of it.
Answ. 1. This objection would have preven-
ted any good work, if difficulty would have
prevented the doing it.
2. If the act be but good^, we may hope God
raise instruments; for tho 1 some men nave taken
up a rest in their estates, and seek only a
provision and diversions in it for their own
families, yet there is many have a touch of
a more -universal love.
3. Tho 1 it would "be toilsome for any one
man, or a few,- yet 'tis easily done by a
greater number; as one man cannot, and ten
men must strain, to lift a tun weight, yet
one hundred men can do it only "by the strength
of a finger of each of them.
4. As this will "be a greater charity than
most gifts, by the great good it will do to
the poor, so it will be as certain profit to
the founders as most trades, and consequently
worth some of their time, as well as any
5. If evil men corrupt and debauch their
fellow creatures by the influence and oppor-
tunities their estates give them: Is there
not the greatest reason and prudence for good
men to place their estates, at least some of
it, so as it may influence many to vertue,
especially when it will bring profit with it?
And whether some may not be raised to an
estate, (as Queen Hester was to a crown) for
to be instruments in such a work; and then
will it not add to the difficulty of making up
their account at the last dayt if they neg-
lect so great an opportunity of doing good,
when it was in their hands?
Object. 2. The times being troublesome, and
trade dull. it ! s not seasonable to set such a
thing a foot; and if we should have the cal-
amity of war, (or any other) among us. the
under taking would be ruined.
1. It is the chiefest time when tra-
ding 1 s dull, "because now the poor cannot so
easily get work, they will the readier accept
of new masters and terms; whereas when trade
comes quick, the "best workmen will "be fix'd
under tneir old masters, and only the worser
sort want work.
2. If calamities should come of any sort, the
poor in a "body would subsist better than if
single; "because when together, their labour
would provide convenienoies one for another,
which single persons could do little at.
3. Whatever calamities would ruine a coll edge,
will much easier ruine single persons; and there
fore if danger of losing all, it's best for
the rich to do some good whilst they have it;
for if they should lose their estates, it would
be out of their power to do it. And besides
if the poor be put in a good method, they
may be able to help their old benefactors,
when the rich may have nothing to help them-
selves, nor cannot work for want of use.
Object. 3. But if there should happen a
scarcity or famine in the land, how will the
people be provided for then?
Answ. 1. If more vertuous than the rest of
the nation, they may hope to scape better, but
2. But as there is hopes, by good orders,
of a more vertuous way of living in the col-
ledge than elsewhere, so by more wisdom, of
better provision in a scarcity, by stores 'laid
up. Por the nation is commonly sick of a
great plenty, that if corn is cheap, care not
they send it away for money, tho 1 they may
v?ant it next year.
3. But the colled \ , not wanting money, will
not be under the temptation of selling their
corn, nor extravagantly wasting it, they may
keep it till they may want it at home. And
there hath seldon been any years of scarcity,
but years of plenty have be-an first.
Object. 4. Why propose to get by the poor's
labour, and not let them have all the profit.
and then will need raise less money, as 18QQ^
instead of 18QQQ.
Answ. 1. Because the rich have no other way
of living, but by the labour of others; as
the landlord by the labour of his tenants, and
the merchants and tradesmen by the labour of
tne mechanicks, except they turn levellers,
and set the rich to work with the poor.
2. A thousand pound is easier raised where
there is profit, than one hundred pound only
upon charity; people readily employing all
their estates where there is profit, when they
will not give a tenth of it to the poor.
3. The more valuable the fund, and the
more men is concerned in it, the better will
it be looked after, and the more people will
be provided for.
4. ! Tis not proposed only for relieving
the poor, but also how the rich may employ
their estates with profit to themselves, and
prevent any from being poor; a comfortable
living in the colledge to the industrious
labourer, being the rich man's debt, and not
their charity to them; labour giving the
labourer as good a
right to a living there, as the rich mens
estates do them*
5. This method is a greater security to the
poor (than the common way of living) who here
must "be provided for, according to the consti-
tution of tne colledge laws, "before the rich
can have any thing; the rich being only to
have what the colledge don 1 t spend. Whereas
the poor now are at great uncertainty, (at
least difficulty) of getting a living, because
the tradesmen are endeavouring to get one from
another what they can; so they are all strain-
ing the necessity of the mechanick, not regard-
ing how little he gets, but to get as much as
tney can for themselves.
6. Considering it f s either by losses, or
being outwitted and cheated, or the idleness
and extravagancy of the poor, that makes most
want charity from others: If ty the coll edge-
rales may be removed these four evils, few
will then want the gift of charity.
Object. 5. If take not in aged and deer ep id
people into this colledge; what charity, to
take in people that can live out of it?
Answ. All living growing bodies, whether
natural or politick, must be suckled and nurs ! d
before they come to their 'strength; for hdw
helpless or useless is tiie body of man new
born? And how much tendence do they want,
that with good looking after ^row in time to
be strong men, and not only able to serve
themselves, but their parents that bred them?
So this body politick of the colledge,
by the many difficulties at first it will
meet with, must only take in
useful hands to strengthen and support it,
that in time may grow to "be a~ble to bear all
tne poor could reasonably be put upon it.
Object 6. May it be supposed 1 that any
man that can get more than will keep them*
will come and work in the colledge only for
victuals and cloaths?
Answ. 1. Suppose not; but besides their
own keeping, there is laid up in the coll edge
stores, sufficient for their young children ,
2. For themselves when sick or aged, and
better provided for than most mechanicks.
3. If they die, and leave wife and young
children, they will be kept from misery; added
to the uncertainty of a man's life, whether
he may live to make so good a provision for
his wife and children as the colledge.
4. But where good workmen at first are not
to be had otherwise, they may be allowed some
wages to instruct the youth.
5. What they get more tnan their task, will
be their own, and if they can get enough, may
put it into the foundation if they will.
6. The advantage from the prentices will be
sufficient to the founders, if no more.
7. Though some young men may be in hopes of
better preferment, yet not all; and also many
that have tried the world, and find the dif-
ficulty of living in it, would be glad of so
certain a provision as the colledge. The
vanity of tne Spanish beggar doth not attend
all poor, y;ho, when an English merchant would
have taken her son and provided for him, re-
fused his offer, saying, Her son might come
to "be King of Spain for ought she knew, and
therefore should not be his servant! For
though some poor get estates, yet how many
more become miserable?
Object. 7. The people will not bear the con-
finement, of the colledge.
Answ. 1. Neither would the poor v/ork, if
there were not greater inconveniencies; that
is, starving, or robbing, and that's hanging.
2. I suppose the plenty and conveniencies
in the colledge, will sufficiently allay the
hardness of the colledge rules.
3. The confinement will not be more, if so
much, as the best governed prentices are under
in London, and many other places.
4. It's not proposed the confinement should
be more than's absolutely needful for the good
government of the colledge.
Object. 8. Why the name colledge, and not a
community or work house?
Answ. A work-house bespeaks too much of
servitude, for people of estates to send their
children for education; and too much of Bride-
wel, for honest tradesmen to like it; and
the name community implies a greater unity in
spirit, than colledge doth; and therefore not
so proper to be used to such a mixt multitude
of men and boys; the word colledge more re-
lates to an outward fellowship than an inward
communion, and therefore better suits the
Object. 9. Will not this col ledge introduce
laziness or monkery?
Anew. No; except removing the difficulties
of marriage, will encourage a single life; and
industry introduce idleness.
1. Because one of the greatest obstacles
against marriage, is the difficulty of pro-
viding for wife and children, which the col-
ledge life effectually removes.
2. The interest and authority of the
founders will prevent laziness, "because ^hey
have no other profit for their pains and es-
tates, "but what the collegians raise more than
they spend; and therefore the founders will
see every one doth his days work according to
the original contract, or else expel him, if
a milder method will not do; and without la-
bour, the land will not maintain the collegians
themselves, they having no rents to live upon.
Object. 10. Can any method be found to pre-
vent selfish designing men coming into this
as founders; and being in. their spoiling of it'
Answ. This being a civil fellowship, more
than a religious one, requires not that strict
scrutiny into men, as religious societies do,
whilst the laws and profit (if not love) of
the colledge, may be supposed will restrain
There's three sorts of fellowships in the
world, each of which have their bond and gov-
ernment by which they subsist; the 1st is out-
ward laws, which support the outward govern-
ments in the world. The 2d profit, which gov-
erns and binds the fellowships of trade. The
3d love, which "binds religious societies.
And seeing these three great "bodies or con-
stitutions, ban subsist with each of them a
single "bond, certainly when can "bring all
three "bonds to bind the colledge, it will
"be sufficiently secured.
And that it may, I propose, 1st, That the
Grovernment may "be addressed to, to make it a
corporation, which will give it the bond of
2dly, And if no privatesallaries "be allowed
to draw it away, the undertaking will afford
all the profit that trade and husbandry can
give, which is the 2d bond.
And 3dly, The love andfriendship among
thinking and publick- spirited men, especially
if religion be added, will make them capable
of laying the 3d bond upon this colledge.
Object. 11. There have been several manu-
factures set a foot at several times, that have
not turned to profit.
Answ. 1. If a -man have never so much clothing
and no food, he may die with hunger, which is
the case of several manufactures. The raisers
of food are so far scattered asunder from the
manufactures, that it's endless to seek their
2. To sell it to shop-keepers it must be
cheap, because they must be kept out of it,
if not raise estates; which will leave little
profit to the undertakers if not starve the
3. Stock-jobbing hath helped to ruine some
of them; for however well laid the first under-
taking might be, and understood by the first
"being hid beyond the real worth "by cunning*
"brokers for foolish "buyers, the first "begin-
ners sell themselves out, and leave it to
the "buyers; and then between the carelessness
of one, and ignorance of t 1 other, it must
fall; which would spoil the "best undertaking
in the world, if it had no other disadvantage.
1. To answer all objections, would be to
empty the sea, whilst mistake or prejudice may
object against any thing that's offered, the
greatest truth having met with objections; but
if I can but be understood by the well-in-
clined, or stir up the wise to propuond a
better method than this, it's sufficient;
whilst I load rather put my money into a good
undertaking of another s, than a bad one of
2. To reconcile different interests, and to
answer objections that are contradictions,
will be difficult; as for the rich man to say,
it will yield no benefit to the undertakers,
and at the same time for the poor to object
The proposals give too much to the rich, and
too little to them: For answer, I say, As the
proposition seems to have all the profit the
earth and mechanicks can raise any where > so
it cuts off all superfluity and extravagancies
used among others; and consequently raises
the greatest stock both for founders
and workmen, which is the point I aim at:
Whilst I am not willing to admit of the sup-
position, That tho 1 such advantage is offered
to the rich and poor, they will lose it, for
want of agreeing how to divide it, hoping
there's "but few would make out the truth of
the story of covetousness and envyvrho when
they were offered, whatever the first asked,
only the second should have double to what
the first asked, they could not agree which
should ask first *
However I have this satisfaction, I intend
the advantage of "both, whilst I think the
method will afford "both profit to the rich,
and plenty to the poor. I will not pretend
to seek any method of living in this world,
that hath no inconveniency in it, "but only
what hath fewest. But till the rich "be sat-
isfied to put it a-foot, the poor cannot, if
they would, for want of materials.
AFTER sufficient subscriptions is made, the
following informations will "be useful and
1st. Where any land may "be had suitable and
healthy for such an undertaking.
2d. An account of tne rules and methods of
any of the colleges and hospitals in England,
and foreign parts, "both for their behaviour,
and food and clothing, that may have the op-
portunity of picking out what may be most
suitable for this,
3d. An account from trades-men, hus~bandmen
and mechanicks, what may be for the improve-
ment of their faculties and trades, and also
what is a common and reasonable days work for
a man in each trade, that the col ledge laws
may be made according.
4th. An account of orderly industrious
trades-men, husbandmen, labourers, women, and
children, suitable (and willing) to make a
regular beginning of such a colledge.
>th. Remedies against diseases of the body,
b^ing as useful, and many times more difficult
to be got than food and clothing, if any that
have secrets in physick or surgery ( out of
love to such an industrious composure of
people as I have here proposed) will communi-
cate for the good of the afflicted, as it will
be one finishing stroke to the college comforts,
so it will be one good improvement of the
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