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^R P S A L S 




TRADES and Husbandry, 


Profit for the RICH, 
A Plentiful Living for the 

A Good Education for YOUTH.' 

Which will "be Advantage to the GovernmBnt , 
"by the Increase of the People, 
and their Riches. 

By John Sellers. 



The Sluggard shall be cloathed witn Raggs. 
He that will not Work, shall not Eat. 

London. Printed and Sold by _T. Sowle, in 

Wliite-Har1>ourt in Gracious- street. 1696. 

The Lord Chief Justice HALE, (that great com- 
position of learning and vertue) in his Dis 
course for Imploying the Poor, saitn, 

that are rich, are stewards of their 
"wealth; and they that are wise, are stewards 
"of their wisdom unto that great Master of the 
"Family of Heaven and Earth, to whom they must 
"give an account of "both; and one (I am sure) 
"of the best accounts they can give of "both, 
"is to employ them in the reformation and re- 
"lief of those that want both, or either; (Am 
"I my brother f s keener, was the answer of one 
"of the worst of men.) 

"2. It would "be a work of great humanity, we 
"owe to those of our own nature as we are men, 
"and that as well "becomes a Christian as any, 
"and the ill provision for the poor in Eng- 
"land one of the greatest reproaches to our 
"Christian profession. 

"3. The want of a due provision for education 
"and relief of the poor in a way of industry, 
"is that which fills the gaols with malefac- 
"tors, and the kingdom with idle persons that 
"consume the stock of the kingdom, without 
"improving it; and that will daily encrease, 
"even to a DESOLATION in time: And this errour 
!l in the first concoction, is never remediable 
"but by gibbets and whipping; but a sound, 
"prudent method for an industrious education 
"of the poor, will give a better remedy 
"against these corruptions, than all the gib- 
"bets and whipping-posts in this kingdom; 
"but as necessitous and un-educated persons 
"increase, tne multitude of malefactors will 
"increase, notwithstanding the examples of 
11 severity. " 


1. To the Lords and Commons assembled in 

Parliament . 

2. To the Thinking and Publick Spirited. 

3. The Introduction, with Reasons for pro- 

viding for the Poor. 

a Colledge Fellowship. 

5. Proposals to the Co 11 edge-Founders. 

6 . Some of the Advantages to the Founders and 

Rich fry it. 
? Some of tne Advantages to the Poor Collegians 

8. Some Hules about Governing the Colledge 


9. Of the Education of Children. 

10. An Answer to several Objections. 

11. A Postscript. 

To the LOHBS and COLONS 
Assembled in Parliament, 

The cries and miseries of some, and 
idleness and lewdness of others of the 
poor, and the charge the nation is at 
for them "being great, hath encouraged 
me to present You with some proposals 
of embodying the poor so together, 
that thereby they may be made of equal 
value to money (by their raising a 
plentiful supply of all conveniences 
of life.) And by this example the 
parish rates, and many commons, may be 
most profitably imploy'd, and the present 
hospitals of England may be greatly 
improved, and also from it the most 
successful fishery may be raised, and 
our manufactures best and fully 
wrought in our own nation; I do not 
say it may be increased to make 
England the mart and treasury of 
Europe, but that time and practice may 
shew the profit one or two such 
colledges will bring. 

I humbly pray You would please to 
consider it, and as may be 
agreeable to your wisdom, (like 
the summer sun to a fruitful tree) 

these proposals to the nations 
advantage, r when any subscribers to 
such a Colledge shall petition You 
(for their better government, and not 
to exclude others) to incorporate 
them, You would please to grant it. 
And if several models shall "be 
proposed to You, that private persons 
will undertake; with submission, I 
conceive it's the publick's interest 
they have encouragement, because the 
nation will then have the advantage 
of following what their experience 
shall prove the best method, if You 
hall not think fit to make any of them 
more national before. 


To the Thinking and Publick-Spirited. 

CHRISTIANITY mends, but marrs no mans 
good nature; it "binding us to love our 
neighbour, and that love, to desire 
our country's prosperity. And from 
that love do I meditate the publick 
good, and publish these proposals I 
think tends to it: Believing there is 
many who would be glad to see the poor 
reformed in manners, and better 
provided for to live that will be 
willing to contribute their assistance 
with money, and advice towards it, when 
opportunity shall be offered them. 

And therefore to such I propose a 
general subscription; which when 
considerable, and a meeting of the 
subscribers, there every one may have 
an opportunity of proposing any other 
useful thought they have, on this 
subject; (whereas private discourse, 
though never so good (is but like 
single sparks) comes to little) in 
order to draw up suitable rules and 
methods for suda an undertaking; and 
by whom application may be made to the 
Government for encouraging of it, more 


acceptable, and with more advantage, 
than from a single person. 


Such as are willing to set forward 
this undertaking, may enter their 
subscriptions with Edward Skeat, at 
William Reynolds^, goldsmith, at 
the Cup and Star near Fleet-bridge in 
Fleet-street; or Herbert Springet, 
attorney, in George-yard in Lunfbard- 
street, London. 


It's the interest of the rich to take 
care of the poor, and their education, 
"by which they will take care of their 
own heirs: For as kingdoms and nations 
are subject to revolutions and changes, 
much more (and nothing commoner than) 
for private families to do so; and who 
knows how soon it may "be his own lot, 
or his posterities, to fall poor? Is 
there any poor now, that some of their 
ancestors have not been rich? Or any 
rich now, that some of their ancestors 
have not "been poor? 

View the cities, towns, and counties 
in this nation, and see what alterations 
come in two or three generations in most 
families. Were above one in ten of the 
men now house-keepers in London, born 
there? And but few (in comparison of 
the multitude) that have gone out with 
estates: And what better is it with 
gentlemens younger children, and the 
eldest also, many times. 

There is- three things I aim at: 
First, Profit for the rich, (which will 
be life to the rest.) Secondly, A 
plentiful living for the poor, without 
difficulty. Thirdly, 


A good education for youth, thalr may tend to 
prepare their souls into the nature of the gpod 

However prevalent arguments of charity may 
"be to some, when profit is joyned with it, it 
will raise most money, provide for most people, 
hold longest, and do most good: for what sap 
is to a tree, that profit is to all business, 
"by increasing and keeping it alive; so employ- 
ing the poor, excells the "barren keeping them; 
in the first, the increase of the poor is no 
"burthen, ("but advantage) because their conven- 
iencies increase witn them; "but in the latter, 
there is no strength or relief "but what they 
have from others, who possibly may sometimes 
think they have little enough for themselves. 

As a good and plentiful living must be the 
poor f s encouragement; so their increase, the 
advantage of the rich; Without them, they 
cannot be rich; for if one had a hundred 
thousand acres of land, and as many pounds in 
money, and as many cattle, without a labourer, 
what would the rich man be, but a labourer? 
And as the labourers make men rich, so the more 
labourers, there will be the more rich men (where 
there is land to employ and provide for them). 
Therefore I think it the interest of the rich 
to encourage the honest labourers marrying at 
full age; but by the want of it, it seems to 
me the world is out of frame, and not under- 
standing its own interest. The labour of the 
poor being the mines of the rich. 

For is it not strange to consider how in- 
dustrious the world is, to raise corn and 
cattle, which only serves men, and how neg- 
ligent of ( or rather careful to hinder) 


the increase of men, who are a tnousand times 
"better (than "beasts) "being to serve G-od? Do 
not men greatly reproach their Maker, as if he 
had chosen the uselessest part of the creation 
to serve him, whilst men think them the least 
worth their while to raise? 

But they that provide food for the poor, 
lend to the Lord, who is the best pay-master; 
and if an industrious raising of corn and 
cattle (mean things) is commendable in a hus- 
bandman, how much more is the putting mankind 
into a comfortable way of living, which will 
be instrumental in God's hand in finishing his 
creation (man being- the head of it) by provi- 
ding for the increase of their posterity, which 
joyned with a good education, they may prove 
in the ages to come, both good and great in this 
world, and as angels in t he next: For as 
ground that bringeth forth the grossest 
weeds, may by good culture and seed, bring 
forth excellent corn, -so we may hope as great 
a change may be made by good instruction and 
example among the worst of men, at least of 
their stock. 

Therefore how worthy is it to provide a 
good education and employ for the poor, the 
breeding poor children with industry and tem- 
perance, will make the next age as happy in 
their service, as this age is unhappy in their 
parents 1 vices, for which reason their chil- 
dren had need of better tutors; considering 
now many, for want of it, comes to be miserable 
and vagabonds, and continue so for many gen- 
erations, from father to son? 

This col ledge-fellowship will make 
labour, and not 


money, the standard to value all necessaries by; 
and tho 1 money hath its conveniencies, in the 
common way of living, it "being a pledge among 
men for want of credit; yet not without its 
mischiefs; and call'd "by our Saviour, The 
Mammon of Unrighteousness; most cheats and 
robberies would go but slowly on, if it were 
not for money; And when people have their 
whole dependance of trading by money, if 'that 
fails, or is corrupted, they are next door to 
ruine; and the poor stand still, because the 
rich have no money to employ them, tho 1 they 
have the same land and hands to provide vic- 
tuals and cloaths, as ever they had; which is tbe 
true riches of a nation, and not the money in 
it; except we may reckon beads and pin-dust 
so, because we may have gold at Quiney for 

Money in the body politick, is what a crutch 
is to the natural body, cripled; but when the 
body is sound, the crutch is but troublesome: 
So when the particular interest is made a pub- 
lick interest, in such a colledge money will 
be of little use there. 

Tho 1 it*s not so natural for the old and 
rich to live with a common stock, yet more nat- 
ural with the young and poor, witness the sev- 
eral hospitals of England and Holland; Old 
people are like earthen vessels, not so easily 
to be new moulded; yet children are more like 
clay out of the pit, and easie to take any 
form they are put into. 

The variety of tempers, and the idle ex- 
pectations of some of the first workmen, may 
make the undertaking difficult; and therefore 
the more excellent will 


be the accomplishment; And if the poor 
at first prove "brittle, let the rich 
keep patience; seven or fourteen years 
may bring up young ones that life will 
be more natural to: and if the attaining 
such a method, would be a blessing to 
the people, certainly it's worth more 
than a little labour to accomplish it. 
When by the good rules thereof may be 
removed, in great measure, the 
prophaneness of swearing, drunkenness, 
&c. with the idleness and penury of 
many in the nation; which evil equalities 
of the poor, are an objection with some 
against this undertaking, thou^i with 
others a great reason for it: for the 
worse they are, the more need of 
endeavouring to mend them; (and why 
not by this method, till a better is 
offered.) And its as much more charity 
to put the poor in a way to live by 
honest labour, thai to maintain them 
idle; as it would be to set a man's 
broken leg, that he might go himself, 
rather then always to carry him. 


A Specimen shewing how the Rich may gain, the 
Poor maintain themselves, and Children "be ed- 
ucated "by "being incorporated as a Co 11 edge 
of all Sorts of useful Trades, that shall 
work one for another, without other relief: 
Suppose three hundred in a Colledge. to work 
the usual time or task as abroad, and what 
any doth more, to "be paid, for it. to en- 
courage industry. 

Two hundred of all trades I suppose suffi- 
cient to find necessaries for three hundred, 
and therefore what manufacture, the other hun- 
dred make, will "be profit for the founders. 

2 A Governour and De- 4 

puty. 1 

2 Shoo -makers 1 

3 Taylors 2 
1 Baker 

1 Brewer 1 

1 Butcher 1 

1 Upholster 1 

1 Barber 1 

1 Physician 2 

2 Linnen J 
2 Woollen, 

4 Cooks 


Gar diners 
3flax-Dressor and 

'fallow- Cnandl er 
Carpenter and Joy- 

Bricklayer and 




Butler & Store- 

Women and Girls 

& Gtoverness ana De- 

6 Bed-Makers 
6 Nurses 
6 Washers 

4 House- Cleaners 

6 Sempsters to make 
& mend Cloaths 

5 Knitters or Weavers 

of Stockins 




Spinners and Car- 
ders for Stockins 
Linnen ) Spinners & 
Woollen; Carders 

A Farm of 500. Der an. 



A Steward and his 

Hinds for Cattle 
Hedgers and 


44 Tradesmen, &c. 

82 Women and Grirles. 

24 Men and Boys upon tne farm. 

10 Mens Work at lfi. each, is 15C. a 

year, for fewel, iron, &c. 
5 Mens Work at 15. each, is 75. a year 

for house-rent. 
35 Mens Work at 15 each, is 525. a year, 

for rent of a farm, for meat, drink, 

200 &o. 

100 People's Labour, if "but 10. each is 

1000. per annum profit, "but if we 

300 yalue them at 15. each, is 1500. 


I do not suppose the computation is exact 
to a man, for as some trades useful are not 
set down, so there is some of them set down, 
who are able to provide for two or three times 
that number: But if it should require 220 
people to provide necessaries for 300, it will 
pay the undertakers well enough. 

And that this computation is not much out 
of the way, of 200 providing all necessaries 
for 300, it may appear, 

First, From a view of tne nation, where I 
suppose not above two thirds, if one half of 
the nation, are useful workers; and yet all 
have a living. 

Secondly, From the many advantages the 
colledge will have over others, for there will 
be saved, 

1. Shopkeepers ) And all their Ser- 

2. All Useless Trades; vants and Depen- 

3. Lawsuit es. dents. 

4. Bad Debts. 

5. Dear Bargains. 

6. Loss of time for want of work. 

7. Many Women and Childrens work. 

8. Beggars. 

9. Much 



Cooking, Brewing, and Baking. 
Fetcning and Carrying of Work 
and Provision. 

15. Clothing hurt in the making, tho 1 not 
so fit for sale, may wear never the 

orse; and the Colledge will find 
Customers to wear it, that a Trades- 
man must lose by. 


Thirdly, There will "be several advantages 
to the land: 

1. There will "be all the soil of the tra- 

desmen, "besides the husbandmans, for 
improving it. 

2. As there will "be more cattel kept, and 

occasion for more pasture, tnan in most 
corn-countries, so tne plowed ground 
may "be tne better kept in heart, by the 
great quantity of dung made, and it 
will be less worn out of heart, by ofter 
laying that down and breaking up fresh. 

3. Now much land is unimproved, to what it 

might be, because the landlord or ten- 
ant are not able, or not willing to do 
it for the other: The colledge, I con- 
ceive, will have neither of them dif- 

4. All the mechanicks will be ready at 

harvest, to help in with it, in a 
quarter of the time others do it, which, 
when wet, may be of great advantage: 
which change of work, as it will be 
acceptable to many, so also for the 
health of such as are used to sitting 

Proposals to the Colledge Pounders. 

JISST, Tho 1 the example be put of renting 
land and house at 600. per annum, the better 
to she^v how the profit will arise by such an 
undertaking, all charges deducted; yet I pro- 
pose for every 300 persons the raising 

10000. To buy an estate in land of 500. 


2000. To stock the land, and 

3000. To prepare necessaries to set the 

several trades to work. 
3000. For new-building or repairing old. 
In all 18000 pound. 

By wnich means the trouble of raising 
money to pay rent, will be saved, and the 
founders may have the more goods from the col- 
ledge, if desired, and the undertaking will 
not "be so apt to miscarry in its infancy. 

Secondly, The stock to "be valued every year 
and the profit to "be divided; that such as 
desire to draw their profit out, may have it 
yearly; "but such as desire to continue it in 
the coll edge, may have it. added as principal; 
and that stock- jobbing (which will ruine any 
good thing) may be prevented, if any have a 
mind to sell their interest, the rest of the 
proprietors shall have the liberty, to bring 
in a purchaser by majority of votes, at the 
value as it was last cast up. 

Thirdly, The first founders the more the 
better; and if some of every useful trade, 
the better; and then every trade will be the 
better managed, and every mans days work 
better understood. 

Fourthly, None to subscribe less than 25. 

Fifthly, Every 60 or 100. ^o have a vote in 
making by-laws, and chusing officers; but no 
one to have above 5 votes. 

Sixthly, Once a year, twelve or more of the 
proprietors to be chosen a committee, as vis- 
itors to inspect, and counsellors for advice, 
for the governours and workmen to apply to, 
as there may be occasion. 


Seventhly, The governours nor under-offlLcers 
not to have any sallary, "but only all the 
reasonable conveniences the coll edge can 
afford them. 

Eighthly, Corrections to "be rather abate- 
ments of food, &c. than stripes; and such as 
deserve greater punishment to be expel^d, or 
sent to a house of correction, but not in the 
coll edge, for two reasons; first, It will re- 
lish too much of Bridewel; secondly, Their ill 
company and example will tend to corrupt the 
youth; and therefore should be as far from a 
nursery of trade, as from a nursery of Jearning, 

Ninthly, Because the whole success (under 
the Providence of God) will lie in a right 
beginning, (for though an acorn doth naturally 
produce an oak, yet how many little accidents 
may prevent its ever being one? So any great 
undertaking, however rational and natural in 
its beginning, may easily be spoiled) there- 
fore let the nation be looked through, for the 
first workmen, if can find but three or four 
in a. county (the rest may be prentices) of 
good lives and tempers, it will be a leven 
to influence their successors, and it will be 
such a pattern of plentiful living, that many 
of the Poor will readily submit to the* rules, 
to partake of it; and to the children bred 
prentices in the colledge, it will be their 

Tenthly, If there should be much more sub- 
scribed than at first there will be occasion 
to use, (for that will be as a suitable pur- 
chase may offer) it is but everybody 1 s paying 
a proportion to their subscription, and 


there will be no inconveniency, tho 1 there 
should "be never so many and large subscrip- 

Some Advantages to the Founders axyl Rich* 
"by such a 

JIEST, if the living in this affair, will 
make their own eyes and hands their execu- 
tors and overseers, and deposit that now they 
are alive, which they intend to give when dead. 
it may be that and much more money saved to 
themselves and their heirs. 

Secondly, The founders of the colledge from 
thence may have for themselves and families, 
(in part of their profit) yearly a certain 
quantity of woollen and linnen cloth, shooes, 
stockings, &c. 

Thirdly, Though the computation be but 
300 in a colledge; there may be 3000, or more: 
And such a one may be at 

Colchester, where are made bayes and 

Taunt on, for Searges. 
Stroud, for Cloth. 

Devonshire for Kersies. And other places 
for other goods. 

As also at the sea-coast may be raised 
several colledges, as nurseries to the most 
effectual and successfulest fishery; the 
collegians being taught industry and temper- 
ance, (idleness and drunkenness greatly spoil- 
ing the last English fishery) the colledge 
can supply all 


conveniences and necessaries, and spare one 
third of their company to fish: And what fish 
is got out of the sea, is as the addition of 
so much land to the undertakers, as it will 
feed an equal number' of men to it; and so 
much more, as the fish is catch'd with less 
labour; and also it is more accep table in 
foreign markets. 

And thus every C. oil edge raising one third 
(or more) of their manufactures and conven- 
iences, more than they use themselves, they 
may be distributed several ways besides the 
fishery: As, 

1. In being divided among the founders. 

2. In providing for more people in the 

colledge, which is best profit. 

3. In buying and improving of land. 

4. In building. 

5. In fetching foreign commodities. 

6. In selling for money, which will be of 

least use in the colledge. 

Fifthly, Any that iave estates in land or 
money, doing the colledge business, and 
living under the colledge rules; may have 
the col ledge-allowance, and lay up ti.e 
profit of their own estates. 

Sixthly, Any giving 15 . a year land, or 
30Q. in money, to the colledge, or what other 
sum mpy be thought reasonable according to the 
county it's in; may have the right of keep- 
ing one person in the colledge (without 
working) with coll edge-allowance, and under 
colledge-rules; or but half the money and 
do half the work, or any other pro- 
portion: Which is a good 


expedient for an indigent child, for the 
father to buy it a col ledge- commons: reserv- 
ing liberty to the colledge, in case of ex- 
orbitancy, to expel him the house, returning 
his money, or handing him col ledge-allowance 

Seventhly, An estate settled thus in a 
colledge, is not so liable to be lost or 
spent, as most other estates; for if the heir 
be simple, there is enough of the rest to 
look after it; and being joyned with good 
company, he will not be so liable to be a 
spend thrift; and if he should, the Colledge 
for his labour will entertain him and his 
posterity; so that he and his may reap ben- 
efit from his fathers estate, after he hath 
spent it; and here a parent may entail it 
upon the colledge, and then the heir cannot 
sell it. 

Eighthly, Here peoples children of estates 
may be boarded and educated in all useful 
learning, who seeing others work, at spare 
times, instead of playing, would be learning 
some trade , work not being more labour than 
play; and seeing others work, to imitate 
them would be as much diversion to the chil- 
dren as play, which would the more inure 
them to business, when grown up; the want of 
which hath ruined many a hopeful plant, who 
will be doing, if not of good, of evil; an 
idle learning being little better than the 
learning of idleness. 

1 inthly, An hundred pound a year in such a 
colledge I suppose will maintain ten times as 
many people as 10G. a year in alms-houses, or 
hospitals; because the provision and manu- 
facture raised from 100. a year land, is 
worth ten times the rent; as the farmer 


raiseth yearly three times his rent, and the 
inechanicks make their work wortjj three or 
four times what it was in the farmers hands. 

Some of the Advantages the poor; Collegians 
will have. 

1. FEDM "being poor, they will be made rich, 
by enjoying all things needful in health or 
sickness, single or married, wife and chil- 
dren; and if parents die, their children 
well educated, and preserved from misery, and 
their marrying incourag f d, which is now gen- 
erally discourag'd. 

2. As the world now lives, every man is 
under a double care, besides his bodily laboui? 
first, To provide for himself and family: 
secondly, to guard against the intrigues of 
his neighbour's over-reaching him, both in 
buying of, and selling to him; which in such 

a colledge will be reduced to this single 
point, of doing only an easie days work; and 
then instead of every bodies endeavouring to 
get from him, every body is working for him; 
and they will have more conveniences in the 
Colledge than out. 

3. In the common way of living and trade, 
men, their wives or children, often lose 
half what they get, either by dear bargains, 
bad debts, or law suits, of which there will 
be neither in the colledge; and if the earth 
gives but forth its fruit, and the workmen 
do but their parts, they will have plenty: 
Whereas often now the husbandman and mecha- 
nicks both are ruined, 


tho 1 the first have a great crop, and the 
second industriously maketh much manufacture; 
money, and not labour, being made the stan- 
dard; the husbandman paying the same rent 
and wages as when his crop yielded double 
the price; it being no better with the mech- 
anicks, where it's not who wants his com- 
modity, but who can give him money for it, 
(will keep him) and so often he must take 
half the value in money, another could give 
him in labour, that hath no money. 

4. That as they grow in years in the col- 
ledge, they may be allowed to abate an hour 
in a day of their work, and when come to 
sixty years old, (if merit prefer them not 
sooner) they may be made overseers; which for 
ease and pleasant life, will equal what the 
hoards of a private purse can give; and ex- 
cel, in so much as it hath less care and 
danger of losing. 

5. And if we may compute by the parable of 
the sower, that many people lose Heaven by 
the cares of this life, may not a collegiate 
way of living be the occasion of saving many, 
by preventing them cares? And for bodily 
labour, its a primitive institution of God, 
It should earn its bread in the sweat of its 
brows; labour being as proper for the bodies 
.health, as eating is for its living; for what 
pains a man saves by ease, he will find in 
disease; and less labour will provide for a 
man in the colledge, than out. 

6. The regular life in the colledge, with 
abatement of worldly cares, with an easie 
honest labour, and religious instructions, 
may make it a nursery, and school of vertue. 


7. The poor thus in a colledge, will "be a 
community something like the example of prim- 
itive Christianity, that lived in common, and 
the power that did attend it, "bespeaks its 
excellency; "but considering the constitution 
of mankind that have estates ("but it's not so 
with the poor) it was none of the least mir- 
acles of that age, and so a"bated as other 
miracles did. 

8. A colledge thus constituted cannot so 
easily "be undone as single men, whatever 
changes comes, (except the people are des- 
troyed) for if plundered, twelve months time 
will recruit again; like the grass new mowed, 
the next year supplies again; labour "bringing 
a supply as the ground doth; and when toge- 
ther, they assist one another; "but when 
scattered are useless, if not preying upon 
one another. 

A few Rules for Governing the Co Hedge- 

1. ALL the colledges and hospitals of Eng- 
land and Holland, should "be visited, to see 
what rules and orders they have for govern- 
ing their societies, that may "be useful in 
this colledge. 

2. All sorts of tradesmen should "be con- 
sulted, what is a common and reasonable days 
work for a man, that the rules and laws of 
the colledge may "be made according. 

3. It $hould "be called a colledge, rather 
than a work-house, "because a name more grate- 
ful; and "besides, all sorts of useful learn- 
ing may "be taught there. 


4. The members of the col ledge may "be dis- 
tinguished in caps and cloaths, as the master- 
workmen from the prentices, and women from 

5. A certain number of the boys and girls 
should be appointed weekly to wait at table 
upon the men and women at meals, that as 
much as may be, the men and women may live 
better in the colledge than any where else. 

6. There should be several wards: 

1. For young men and boys. 

2. For young women and girls. 

3. For married persons. 

4. For sick and lame. 

7. As the men and women have distinct 
lodging, so they should have distinct work- 
rooms; and as much as the imploys will ad- 
mit of it, the men may be in one room, and 
the women in another, that their governours 
may the better look over them. 

8. The men to be prentices till twenty 
four years old, and women till twenty one 
years, or marry, (as the law allows) and 
then may have liberty to go out of the col- 
ledge, or stay in, and marry if they will. 

Of the Education of Children, and teaching 
them Languages. 

1. THO 1 rules, as well as words, must be 
understood to make a complete scholar, yet 
considering words lies in the memory, and 
rules in the understanding; and that chil- 
dren have first memory before understanding; 


by that nature shews memory is to "be first 
used; and that in the learning of language, 
words should "be first learned and after- 
wards rules to put them together; children 
first learning the words of their mother- 
tongue, and then sentences; "but to under- 
stand what rules their language hath, re- 
quires a ripeness of judgment; and the putting 
of rules upon children "before, cripples 
their understandings; when boys of twelve 
years old are as long again at school learn- 
ing a language by rules, as a child of three 
years old without rules. 

And therefore I think vocabulary and 
dictionary is to be learnt before accidence 
and grammar; and childrens reading and dis- 
coursing one to another, gives a deeper im- 
pression than reading to themselves, we re- 
membering a man's voice longer than his face; 
a sound upon the ear penetrating the spirits, 
more than a silent seeing, where the spirits 
are not affected with the subject, as few 
children are with their books. 

2. Four hours in a morning, and four in an 
afternoon, is too long to tye a child to his 
book; it's hard for a man to be tyed upon 
one subject so long, much more is it toil- 
some to children, whose natures are weak, 
and love change; it hurts their spirits, 
makes them out of love with their books, 
and loseth much time; the children might be 
imployed to more profit; a labouring man 
will hold longer at work, than a thinking- 
man in his study: Men will grow strong with 
working, but not with thinking: Who have 
stronger bodies than labourers, and weaker 
bodies than great students? labour adds 
oyl to the lamp of life when thinking in- 
flames it. 


3. A rebellious temper must "be subdued "by 
correction, (for "better "be unlearned than 
ill-bred) but such will not make ingenious 
scholars; stripes weakening that presence of 
mind which is needful to a ready learning: 
Understanding must rather be distilled, as 
children can take it, than drove into them; 
grief hurting the memory, and disordering 
the thoughts of most: Raise a child's love 
to what he should learn, by rewards and" em- 
ulation, for beating them (only) to make 
them learn, spoils their natural parts, more 
than the acquired (they are beat to) will 
make up; by which some, that would make any 
thing better than scholars, are made only 
meer scholars. 

4. Where people of estates are willing to 
qualifie their children with what learning 
they will take; or where others appear of 
ready and pregnant understandings, it may 
be worth incouraging to the furthest degree; 
yet beyond reading and writing, a multitude 
of scholars is not so useful to the public 
as some think; the body requiring more 
hands and legs to provide for, and support 
it, than heads to direct it; and if the head, 
grows too big for the body, the whole will 
fall into the rickets. It's labour sus- 
tains, maintains, and upholds, tho 1 learning 
gives a useful varnish. 

5. Tho 1 learning is useful, yet a vertuous, 
industrious education tends more to happiness 
here and hereafter; and what is a great im- 
pediment in the common education, is the 
letting children employ themselves without 
directions; which is a loss several ways: 

first, To their bodies and present 

Secondly, fo their spirits and future 



Por at four or five years old, "besides 
reading, "boys and girls might "be taught to 
knit, spin, &c. and "bigger "boys turning, &c. 
and "beginning young, they would make the 
"best artists; and "being upon "business, tho 1 
slight, it improves their reasons "by sensi- 
ble demonstration, (which is sooner learn 1 d 
than any rational demonstration without it; 
as a child at three years old, "by feeling 
knows fire will "burn, mucn "better than one 
of thirteen from the most rational discourse 
without feeling) whereas a childish silly 
employ, leaves their minds silly. And the 
will "being the greatest enemy a man hath, 
when it is not subject to the will of God; 
How valuable is it then for a child's will 
to be kept under another^ direction than 
its own? It will be the less difficult to 
submit it to the will of God, when grown a 
man, especially if season'd with religious 
lessens of scriptures, &c. 

Thus the hand employ 1 d brings profit, the 
reason used in it makes wise, and the will 
subdued makes them good. 

For tho 1 men should be guided more by 
reason than sense, yet children are guided 
more by sense than reason; and therefore 
must be hedged from evil more by wise manage- 
ment than discourse; as we see colts are 
tamed more by it tkan words. 

All which considered, there is less won- 
der any prove ill, but that any prove good, 
from such an idle education as the common 
breeding of children, where the mind is at 
leisure to receive all the evil impressions 
their several ages are capable of. 

A good education, tho 1 with but a little 
estate, makes 


a happier man, than a great estate without it; 
for the first not only supports the name of 
his family, "but raiseth a name and family to 
himself; whereas the latter, many times the 
more rich, the more wicked; and only pleased 
when at once he is making an end of "body, 
estate, and name together. 

And whatever some men may think, there 
requires more care, as there is more diffi- 
culty, in breeding than feeding children; for 
upon their proving good, depends the good 
success of all a man's industry: For an evil 
child in few years spoils the labours of 
whole ages his predecessors have "been gather- 
ing. And as debauchery is the mine of the 
best estates, so is it of the best trades; and 
therefore it ! s as absolutely needful to breed 
the youth up in temperance, as to learn them 
trades, it will make their trades profitable, 
and them useful to tne commonwealth, 

Such parents as have also a sence of a 
future state and tne happiness or unhappiness 
their children are capable of, will think tnere 
is no comparison between a good and an evil 

And I think such a colledge-education, un- 
der good rules, beyond any private one, having 
several advantages the private will want. 

1. ^here will be all sorts of employs and 
tools for every age and capacity to be em- 
ployed with. 

2. All languages (and learning) may be 
learn 'd there, by having some of all nations 
(tradesmen) who may teach their mother-tongue 
to the youth, as they teach it their own chil- 

3. Men and children submit easier to 


laws they see others submit to as well as them- 
selves, than if they were alone; as children 
jna .acihool, and soldiers in an army, are more 
regular, and in subjection, than when scattered 

4. They will "be more under the eye-sight of 
one master or another, tnan in a private fam- 
ily; and consequently prevented of more folly. 

5. Company being tne delight of all creatures, 
whether men or beast, and the world being so 
corrupted, makes its company a great snare to 
youth; but the colledge having company suffi- 
cient, will prevent the temptation of going 
abroad; and being well govern 1 d, will much pre- 
vent the evils that are learn 1 d abroad. 

6. There may be a library of books, a phy- 
sick-garden, for understanding' of herbs, and a 
laboratory, for preparing of medicines. 

And tho 1 ships and boats can't swim in the 
colledge, the men that manage them may be of 
the college-fellowship, and have their conven- 
iences thence, as well as return their profit 
or cargoes thitner. 

In short, as it may be an epitomy of the 
world, by a collection of all the useful trades 
in it; so it may afford all the conveniencies 
and comforts a man can want, and a Christian 

&y which example also, the present hospi- 
tals of England may be greatly improved, the 
blin?L or lame being able to do something, and 
every body but sucklings and bed-rid, is cap- 
able of doing little or much towards a living; 
which will either add plenty to their 


present life, or else make the gifts of the 
founders go much farther, "by entertaining the 
more people in the hospitals, so that if suit- 
able trades may "be put into them, they may "be 
much cheaper supplied than now; and also the 
present alms-folks might in part either prac- 
tice their old trades, or learn something else 

I "believe the present idle hands of tne 
poor of this nation, are able to raise pro- 
vision and manufactures that would bring Eng- 
land as much treasure as the mines do Spain, 
if send them conveniencies abroad, when that 
can be thought tne nations interest more than 
breeding up people with it among ourselves, 
which I think would be the greatest improve- 
ment of the lands of England that can be; it 
being the multitude of people that makes land 
in Europe more valuable than land in America, 
or in Hollanc than Ireland; regular people 
(of all visible creatures) being the life and 
perfection of treasure, the strength of 
nations, and glory of princes. 

Answers to several Ob .lections. 

OBJECT. 1. 1'ho' the work be very good and ex- 
cellent, if it could be accomplished, yet there 
will be so mucn difficulty, labour and care. 
in the doing it. there will not be found men 
tnat will undertake the toyl of it. 

Answ. 1. This objection would have preven- 
ted any good work, if difficulty would have 
prevented the doing it. 

2. If the act be but good^, we may hope God 


raise instruments; for tho 1 some men nave taken 
up a rest in their estates, and seek only a 
provision and diversions in it for their own 
families, yet there is many have a touch of 
a more -universal love. 

3. Tho 1 it would "be toilsome for any one 
man, or a few,- yet 'tis easily done by a 
greater number; as one man cannot, and ten 
men must strain, to lift a tun weight, yet 
one hundred men can do it only "by the strength 
of a finger of each of them. 

4. As this will "be a greater charity than 
most gifts, by the great good it will do to 
the poor, so it will be as certain profit to 
the founders as most trades, and consequently 
worth some of their time, as well as any 
other trade. 

5. If evil men corrupt and debauch their 
fellow creatures by the influence and oppor- 
tunities their estates give them: Is there 
not the greatest reason and prudence for good 
men to place their estates, at least some of 
it, so as it may influence many to vertue, 
especially when it will bring profit with it? 

And whether some may not be raised to an 
estate, (as Queen Hester was to a crown) for 
to be instruments in such a work; and then 
will it not add to the difficulty of making up 
their account at the last dayt if they neg- 
lect so great an opportunity of doing good, 
when it was in their hands? 

Object. 2. The times being troublesome, and 
trade dull. it ! s not seasonable to set such a 
thing a foot; and if we should have the cal- 
amity of war, (or any other) among us. the 
under taking would be ruined. 


1. It is the chiefest time when tra- 
ding 1 s dull, "because now the poor cannot so 
easily get work, they will the readier accept 
of new masters and terms; whereas when trade 
comes quick, the "best workmen will "be fix'd 
under tneir old masters, and only the worser 
sort want work. 

2. If calamities should come of any sort, the 
poor in a "body would subsist better than if 
single; "because when together, their labour 
would provide convenienoies one for another, 
which single persons could do little at. 

3. Whatever calamities would ruine a coll edge, 
will much easier ruine single persons; and there 
fore if danger of losing all, it's best for 

the rich to do some good whilst they have it; 
for if they should lose their estates, it would 
be out of their power to do it. And besides 
if the poor be put in a good method, they 
may be able to help their old benefactors, 
when the rich may have nothing to help them- 
selves, nor cannot work for want of use. 

Object. 3. But if there should happen a 
scarcity or famine in the land, how will the 
people be provided for then? 

Answ. 1. If more vertuous than the rest of 
the nation, they may hope to scape better, but 
not else. 

2. But as there is hopes, by good orders, 
of a more vertuous way of living in the col- 
ledge than elsewhere, so by more wisdom, of 
better provision in a scarcity, by stores 'laid 
up. Por the nation is commonly sick of a 
great plenty, that if corn is cheap, care not 


they send it away for money, tho 1 they may 
v?ant it next year. 

3. But the colled \ , not wanting money, will 
not be under the temptation of selling their 
corn, nor extravagantly wasting it, they may 
keep it till they may want it at home. And 
there hath seldon been any years of scarcity, 
but years of plenty have be-an first. 

Object. 4. Why propose to get by the poor's 
labour, and not let them have all the profit. 
and then will need raise less money, as 18QQ^ 
instead of 18QQQ. 

Answ. 1. Because the rich have no other way 
of living, but by the labour of others; as 
the landlord by the labour of his tenants, and 
the merchants and tradesmen by the labour of 
tne mechanicks, except they turn levellers, 
and set the rich to work with the poor. 

2. A thousand pound is easier raised where 
there is profit, than one hundred pound only 
upon charity; people readily employing all 
their estates where there is profit, when they 
will not give a tenth of it to the poor. 

3. The more valuable the fund, and the 
more men is concerned in it, the better will 
it be looked after, and the more people will 
be provided for. 

4. ! Tis not proposed only for relieving 
the poor, but also how the rich may employ 
their estates with profit to themselves, and 
prevent any from being poor; a comfortable 
living in the colledge to the industrious 
labourer, being the rich man's debt, and not 
their charity to them; labour giving the 
labourer as good a 


right to a living there, as the rich mens 
estates do them* 

5. This method is a greater security to the 
poor (than the common way of living) who here 
must "be provided for, according to the consti- 
tution of tne colledge laws, "before the rich 
can have any thing; the rich being only to 
have what the colledge don 1 t spend. Whereas 
the poor now are at great uncertainty, (at 
least difficulty) of getting a living, because 
the tradesmen are endeavouring to get one from 
another what they can; so they are all strain- 
ing the necessity of the mechanick, not regard- 
ing how little he gets, but to get as much as 
tney can for themselves. 

6. Considering it f s either by losses, or 
being outwitted and cheated, or the idleness 
and extravagancy of the poor, that makes most 
want charity from others: If ty the coll edge- 
rales may be removed these four evils, few 
will then want the gift of charity. 

Object. 5. If take not in aged and deer ep id 
people into this colledge; what charity, to 
take in people that can live out of it? 

Answ. All living growing bodies, whether 
natural or politick, must be suckled and nurs ! d 
before they come to their 'strength; for hdw 
helpless or useless is tiie body of man new 
born? And how much tendence do they want, 
that with good looking after ^row in time to 
be strong men, and not only able to serve 
themselves, but their parents that bred them? 

So this body politick of the colledge, 
by the many difficulties at first it will 
meet with, must only take in 


useful hands to strengthen and support it, 
that in time may grow to "be a~ble to bear all 
tne poor could reasonably be put upon it. 

Object 6. May it be supposed 1 that any 
man that can get more than will keep them* 
will come and work in the colledge only for 
victuals and cloaths? 

Answ. 1. Suppose not; but besides their 

own keeping, there is laid up in the coll edge 

stores, sufficient for their young children , 
as born. 

2. For themselves when sick or aged, and 
better provided for than most mechanicks. 

3. If they die, and leave wife and young 
children, they will be kept from misery; added 
to the uncertainty of a man's life, whether 

he may live to make so good a provision for 
his wife and children as the colledge. 

4. But where good workmen at first are not 
to be had otherwise, they may be allowed some 
wages to instruct the youth. 

5. What they get more tnan their task, will 
be their own, and if they can get enough, may 
put it into the foundation if they will. 

6. The advantage from the prentices will be 
sufficient to the founders, if no more. 

7. Though some young men may be in hopes of 
better preferment, yet not all; and also many 
that have tried the world, and find the dif- 
ficulty of living in it, would be glad of so 
certain a provision as the colledge. The 
vanity of tne Spanish beggar doth not attend 
all poor, y;ho, when an English merchant would 


have taken her son and provided for him, re- 
fused his offer, saying, Her son might come 
to "be King of Spain for ought she knew, and 
therefore should not be his servant! For 
though some poor get estates, yet how many 
more become miserable? 

Object. 7. The people will not bear the con- 
finement, of the colledge. 

Answ. 1. Neither would the poor v/ork, if 
there were not greater inconveniencies; that 
is, starving, or robbing, and that's hanging. 

2. I suppose the plenty and conveniencies 
in the colledge, will sufficiently allay the 
hardness of the colledge rules. 

3. The confinement will not be more, if so 
much, as the best governed prentices are under 
in London, and many other places. 

4. It's not proposed the confinement should 
be more than's absolutely needful for the good 
government of the colledge. 

Object. 8. Why the name colledge, and not a 
community or work house? 

Answ. A work-house bespeaks too much of 
servitude, for people of estates to send their 
children for education; and too much of Bride- 
wel, for honest tradesmen to like it; and 
the name community implies a greater unity in 
spirit, than colledge doth; and therefore not 
so proper to be used to such a mixt multitude 
of men and boys; the word colledge more re- 
lates to an outward fellowship than an inward 
communion, and therefore better suits the 


Object. 9. Will not this col ledge introduce 
laziness or monkery? 

Anew. No; except removing the difficulties 
of marriage, will encourage a single life; and 
industry introduce idleness. 

1. Because one of the greatest obstacles 
against marriage, is the difficulty of pro- 
viding for wife and children, which the col- 
ledge life effectually removes. 

2. The interest and authority of the 
founders will prevent laziness, "because ^hey 
have no other profit for their pains and es- 
tates, "but what the collegians raise more than 
they spend; and therefore the founders will 
see every one doth his days work according to 
the original contract, or else expel him, if 
a milder method will not do; and without la- 
bour, the land will not maintain the collegians 
themselves, they having no rents to live upon. 

Object. 10. Can any method be found to pre- 
vent selfish designing men coming into this 
as founders; and being in. their spoiling of it' 

Answ. This being a civil fellowship, more 
than a religious one, requires not that strict 
scrutiny into men, as religious societies do, 
whilst the laws and profit (if not love) of 
the colledge, may be supposed will restrain 

There's three sorts of fellowships in the 
world, each of which have their bond and gov- 
ernment by which they subsist; the 1st is out- 
ward laws, which support the outward govern- 
ments in the world. The 2d profit, which gov- 
erns and binds the fellowships of trade. The 


3d love, which "binds religious societies. 
And seeing these three great "bodies or con- 
stitutions, ban subsist with each of them a 
single "bond, certainly when can "bring all 
three "bonds to bind the colledge, it will 
"be sufficiently secured. 

And that it may, I propose, 1st, That the 
Grovernment may "be addressed to, to make it a 
corporation, which will give it the bond of 

2dly, And if no privatesallaries "be allowed 
to draw it away, the undertaking will afford 
all the profit that trade and husbandry can 
give, which is the 2d bond. 

And 3dly, The love andfriendship among 
thinking and publick- spirited men, especially 
if religion be added, will make them capable 
of laying the 3d bond upon this colledge. 

Object. 11. There have been several manu- 
factures set a foot at several times, that have 
not turned to profit. 

Answ. 1. If a -man have never so much clothing 
and no food, he may die with hunger, which is 
the case of several manufactures. The raisers 
of food are so far scattered asunder from the 
manufactures, that it's endless to seek their 

2. To sell it to shop-keepers it must be 
cheap, because they must be kept out of it, 
if not raise estates; which will leave little 
profit to the undertakers if not starve the 

3. Stock-jobbing hath helped to ruine some 

of them; for however well laid the first under- 
taking might be, and understood by the first 
undertakers, yet 


"being hid beyond the real worth "by cunning* 
"brokers for foolish "buyers, the first "begin- 
ners sell themselves out, and leave it to 
the "buyers; and then between the carelessness 
of one, and ignorance of t 1 other, it must 
fall; which would spoil the "best undertaking 
in the world, if it had no other disadvantage. 

J. B. 


1. To answer all objections, would be to 
empty the sea, whilst mistake or prejudice may 
object against any thing that's offered, the 
greatest truth having met with objections; but 
if I can but be understood by the well-in- 
clined, or stir up the wise to propuond a 
better method than this, it's sufficient; 
whilst I load rather put my money into a good 
undertaking of another s, than a bad one of 

my own. 

2. To reconcile different interests, and to 
answer objections that are contradictions, 
will be difficult; as for the rich man to say, 
it will yield no benefit to the undertakers, 
and at the same time for the poor to object 
The proposals give too much to the rich, and 
too little to them: For answer, I say, As the 
proposition seems to have all the profit the 
earth and mechanicks can raise any where > so 
it cuts off all superfluity and extravagancies 
used among others; and consequently raises 
the greatest stock both for founders 

and workmen, which is the point I aim at: 
Whilst I am not willing to admit of the sup- 
position, That tho 1 such advantage is offered 
to the rich and poor, they will lose it, for 
want of agreeing how to divide it, hoping 
there's "but few would make out the truth of 
the story of covetousness and envyvrho when 
they were offered, whatever the first asked, 
only the second should have double to what 
the first asked, they could not agree which 
should ask first * 

However I have this satisfaction, I intend 
the advantage of "both, whilst I think the 
method will afford "both profit to the rich, 
and plenty to the poor. I will not pretend 
to seek any method of living in this world, 
that hath no inconveniency in it, "but only 
what hath fewest. But till the rich "be sat- 
isfied to put it a-foot, the poor cannot, if 
they would, for want of materials. 


AFTER sufficient subscriptions is made, the 
following informations will "be useful and 

1st. Where any land may "be had suitable and 
healthy for such an undertaking. 

2d. An account of tne rules and methods of 
any of the colleges and hospitals in England, 
and foreign parts, "both for their behaviour, 
and food and clothing, that may have the op- 
portunity of picking out what may be most 
suitable for this, 


3d. An account from trades-men, hus~bandmen 
and mechanicks, what may be for the improve- 
ment of their faculties and trades, and also 
what is a common and reasonable days work for 
a man in each trade, that the col ledge laws 
may be made according. 

4th. An account of orderly industrious 
trades-men, husbandmen, labourers, women, and 
children, suitable (and willing) to make a 
regular beginning of such a colledge. 

>th. Remedies against diseases of the body, 
b^ing as useful, and many times more difficult 
to be got than food and clothing, if any that 
have secrets in physick or surgery ( out of 
love to such an industrious composure of 
people as I have here proposed) will communi- 
cate for the good of the afflicted, as it will 
be one finishing stroke to the college comforts, 
so it will be one good improvement of the 
donors tallent. 



Return to desk from which borrowed. 
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