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WORKS BY THE SAMS AUTBOB. 



Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Urinary and 

BneratiTe Oigaua in Both Seies. — Part I. Hon-Specifio DiBeoBes. Part 11. 
rpMlia. Butirelj Be-written, wiili Gopioos AddJUons, Illustrated b; Coloured 
lates and Woodcnte. Third Edition, Octavo. 



Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive Organs 

Tonth, in Adult Age, and in Advanaed Life. Considered id their FbTsiologicRl, 
Kaol, and Fsfchologicid Selatiaois. Octara. 7s. 




PROSTITUTION, 




k 



K^ 



7 






b w w t> t> w 

to to Wto c V- 



*> V w ^ w 



'* Had the poets to fabler qi^ mythology, the Eros of the London streets would be 

not the ofbpring of Yenf^^, btitlitb/obil^pf SoBiioSir anjji STiriMrauoK." . • 

• «••••• , i • • • • • •••••• • 

PhaietoXfyHdon t4f^^J B>. L. BLiiroHABD. 

• • • • • • 








PREFACE, 



I HA YE often regretted that persona more learned and influential 
than myself have not publicly attempted to enforce upon the State 
the propriety, firstly, of arresting to some extent the unnecessary 
speed at which Prostitution is now eating into the heart of society ; 
and secondly, of recognising and opposing Venereal diseases upon 
public grounds. 

Had Ibeen so anticipated, I can imagine that by this time the work 
might have been well in hand. But unfortunately, the best of 
minds and the most excellent pens have hitherto refrained from 
the various topics involved, because (confounding delicacy with 
difficulty) they have conceived a superstition that they would find 
opposed to thera an array of obstacles, all attempts to pass which 
would be futile, if not wrong. And thus so very few have ventured 
beyond the shelter of anonymous writing in the avowal of their 
opinions, that the topics in question have been avoided, and in 
the absence of rehable guides, have at last come to be virtually 
ignored by the public at large. 

In the course of a special service at the Lourcine and Du Midi 
Hospitals at Paris, my attention was necessarily turned to Prosti- 
tution and its conseqnencea I, like others who have had the same 
opportunities of study, was pained when, on my return to this 
country, I compared the noble public charities I had quitted with 
our only special institution of the kind, the Lock Hospital Fresh 
experience in London also strengthened my dissent from the vulgar 
error that early death overtakes the daughters of pleasure, as also 
my impression that the harlot's progress as often tends upwarf'" "" 



downwards. I became daily more convinced that far from perishing 
in hospitals, workhouses, or obscure degradation, she generally, in 
course of time, amalgamates with the population ; and I argued to 
myself, that society could not be uninterested in her during her state 
of transition. 

After privately maintaining this doctrine for some years, I ven- 
tured at length upon submitting to certain local and public authori- 
ties the moral, social, and sanitary considerations which seem to 
demand the public treatment of Venereal diseases. How I fared 
win appear in the following pages. It may suffice here to say, that 
little came of my suit. Still, cherishing the idea of State interven- 
tion, I continued to accumulate material here made use of, and 
more, that might have wearied the professional reader, to whom 
the deeper shadows of the great world offer no novelty, with- 
out profiting the few serious laymen whom it is my collateral hope 
to interest. At length, when the tone of public feeling seemed to 
indicate an appropriate time for calling the attention of society i 
■ to its most deep-seated ailment, and inviting its consideration of I 
remedies, I thought it due to my convictions that I should submit | 
them, and the reasoning whereon they are based, to the ordeal of i 
publication. 

The reader who is a conscientious parent must perforce support 
me; for, were the educational and sanitary measures I advocate 
once in operation, with what diminished anxiety would he not con- 
template the progress of his boys from infancy to manhood f The 
politician and the political economist are mine already, for are not 
armies and navies invalidated — is not labour enfeebled — is not 
even population checked by the evils against which I propose we 
should contend? The sympathies of all who can look kindly 
upon the sick, the sorry, and the fallen, must gain new impulse 
from the study of the facts, figures, and deductions, possibly new to 
them, which I have here marshalled for their use. 

There are persons who, alas, will hear neither of reformatories 
nor of hospitals, but demand severity and suppression. To such a 
these I have attempted, in my brief notices of foreign police arrange- . 
menta, to give some notion of the limited extent of vice over which { 



FBEFACB, TU 

the continental authorities can, with all their machinery, main- 
tain control; and of the spur given to immorality in private by 
its suppression in public. I have also sketched for them, I hope 
intelligibly, the boundaries which English common sense wiLL 
rigorously prescribe to the prostitute-regulations they sigh for; and 
on the other hand, the sanction that same common sense would, in 
my opinion, extend to a broader application of the existing law. 

For those who profess a real or fictitious ignorance of prostitution, 
its miseries, and its ill effects — and those again who plead conscience 
as an excuse for inaction, I have this one reply. Pointing to the 
outward signs of prostitution in our streets and hospitals, I inquire 
whether we can flatter ourselves that the subject has drifted into 
a satisfactory state on the "know-nothing" and "do-nothing" 
principles. I hint at the perilous self-sufficiency of the Pharisee, 
and the wilful bhndness of the Levite, who " passed by on the other 
side;" and I press upon them, that after reading this work, and 
testing its author's veracity, they should either refute its arguments 
or be themselves converted. 

The Sanitary Association I have sketched may at first sight 
appear to some of my readers Quixotic, if not immoral. But I 
have so often found, on submitting it to thinking men, that derision 
and censure gave place to approval and encouragement, that as 
an alternative only I have resolved to propound it. Let those 
to whom it may appear ridiculous, either amend it (which I grant 
is possible), or unite with me in agitating for more acceptable 
means of furthering its object; and if it find opponents on the 
score of religion, let these mark that I advance it not to sup- 
plant the Church and State — the proper parents, guardians, and 
teachers of the wicked as of the virtuous — but to fiU the void 
created by their laches. I am ready, and I should rejoice to give 
them their due precedence; but even without them something 
should be done. It is by no means certain, moreover, that exhortaf 
tions to prudence and self-respect may not better prepare the heart 
of a vicious woman to receive the foundation of morahty than the 
^^-.bumt tracts of the missionary or the hated staff of the policeman , 
^^h The apprehension sometimes suggested to me, that a work like 



I 



»iH PHEFACE. 

this might have a prejudicial action upon the innocence of 
youth hae, I confesSj in no way fettered my pen. Regret it as w& 
may, this ia an age of male and female pre-maturity; but hence, tw 
my thinking, it is more 6t and reasonable that true light should be 
made manifest than that it should be veiled. But, in any case^ 
these pages will not be vended or purchased at street comers. 
Their price, especially, and the channels through which alone 
they are likely to he attainable, preclude the idea of their becoming 
an investment for the pocket-money of school-children or the 
savings of nursery-maids. Nothing favours the probabihty thati 
they will find their way to youth and innocence, unless with th»| 
privity of age and experience. I have only, therefore, to remind , 
alarmists, that not on the author, but on the purchaser, muat rest, 
the responsibility of their falling into young hands without propW' 
interpretation and commentary. ' 

I have little to say in the way of apology, for my plain speakingf, 
The nature of the subject has forced this upon me. To have calleA 
things here treated of by other than their right names would havd 
been in any writer an absurdity — in me a gross one. My style m, 
I regret, somewhat rugged. The experiences I have collected may 
to optimists or recluses appear exaggerated. The visions I have in- 
dulged in may be hard to grasp. But this most complicated kno# 
demands a swordsman, not an infant. The inhabitants of a provin- 
cial city demanded of Lord Palmerston that the angel of pestilenoft 
should be stayed by a day of national prayer and fasting. I will 
fast with you, and pray with you, was the statesman's answer, but 
let us also drain, scrub, wash, and he clean. Let us exorcise the 
demon, hut let us also try to leave no foothold for him. Thus 
is it with Prostitution and its resultant evd.i Prayer and lamenta- 
tion will not cure them — sackcloth and ashea will not arrest the 
deterioration of our national fibre. The schemes of Reformatories, 
Maids' Protection Societies, Vice and Obscene Book Suppression 
Societies, all amiable though they be in the abstract, are quoad the 
great enterprise but paltry, peddling scratches on the surface of evil, 
.They will ever be miserably partial in their effects, if not utterly abor- 
tive. A grave internal malady lurks deep within the body social, 



i 



and if society will not hear these words of mine, or words Kke them 
from others, the patient will be extinct before tlie disease is 
eradicated. 

I shall have occasion, in the body of the text, to express my 
thanks to several gentlemen whose communications I have tmmed 
to good account. I may here acknowledge my obhgations to the 
surgeons of the various hospitals, who have kindly placed at my 
disposal the best statistical information within their reach ; to 
friends who have lent me countenanco in a task not always con- 
genial either to themselves or me ; to others who have given good 
counsel ; to Messrs. Trebucbet and Poirat-Duval, joint editors 
of the third edition of Parent-DuchS.teIet; and lastly, to my 
valued friend and coUaborateur, Mr, Horace Green, whose energy 
and perfect appreciation of the objects I have in view have been, 
I may truly say, invaluable to me. 



46, Queen Anne Street, Cavendish Sqitare, 
October Ut, 1857. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGB 

INTRODUCTION 1 

CHAPTER I. 

PBOSTITUTION DEFINED 7 

CHAPTER 11. 

RELIGIOUS OBJECTIONS TO RECOGNITION OP PROSTITUTION CONSIDERED 9 

CHAPTER III. 

EXTENT OP PROSTITUTION 15 

CHAPTER rV. 

CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION 20 

CHAPTER V. 

DISEASES THE RESULT OF PROSTITUTION 33 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE MODERN HARLOT'S PROGRESS 52 

CHAPTER VII. 

POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME ..••.•••• 74 

CHAPTER VIII. 

SANITARY REGULATIONS ABROAD AND AT HOME ,125 

CHAPTER IX. 

PREVENTION 161 




" It is time to burst througb the veil of that artificial baalifulness 
■which has injured the growth, whOe it has iiffected the features, of 
genuine purity. Society haa BuiJered enough fiwm that spurious modesty 
which lets fearful forms of vice swell to a rank luxuriance rather than 
point at their existence, — which coyly turns away its head from the 
' wounds and putrifying sores' that are eating into our system, because 
it wotdd have to blush at the exposure."* 

"Had I not," says PareDt-DuchStelet, "a deep conviction that ray 
researches on prostitution would tend to the advantage of the public 
health and monils, I would not have published their results. I have laid 
bare one of the great miseries of humanity. Beriowa men, for whom I 
have written, will appreciate my motives. Those who loye their fellows 
■will neither fear to follow me in the study, nor avert thoir eyes from the 
picture I have presented to their view. In order to know how much 
good ia yet undone, and to enter ■with any prospect of success upon the 
path of amelioration, it is necessary to be acquainted with things as they 
exist^it is necessary to know the truth."t 

" There ai-e some questions so painful and perplexing, that statesmen, 
moralists, and philanthropists shrink from them by common consent. 
The subject to which the following pages are devoted is one of these. 
Of all the social problems which philosophy has to deal with, tliis is, we ~i 
believe, the darkest, the knottiest, and the saddest From whatever point / 
of view it is regarded, it presents considerations so difficult and so 
grievous, that iii this country no ruler or writer has yet been found with 
neiTe to face the sadness, or resolution to encounter the difficulties. 
Statesmen see the mighty evil lying on the main pathway of the world, 
and, with a groan of pity and despair, ' pass by on the other side.' They 
act like the timid patient, who, fearing and feeling the existence of a 
terrible disease, dares not examine its symptoms or probe its depth, lost 
he should realize it too clearly, and possibly aggravate its intensity by the 
mere investigation. Or, like a more foolish animal still, they hide their 
head at the mention of the danger, ea if they hoped, by ignoring, to anni- 
hilate it. 

" It is from a strong conviction that this ia not worthy behaviour on 
the part of those who aspire to guide either the actions or the opinions 



L* Qoartcri 
f ProBtitQ 




S INTKOBULTIOK. 

of others, that, after much hesitations and many i 
undertaken to speitk of eo dismal and dehcate a matter, 
that mischief is risked hy bringing the stthject prominently hefore the 
public eye, and that the beueiit to ho derived from the discuHsion shoold 
be ao clear and certain as unquestionably to overbalance this risk. We 
are aware tliat it ia a matter on which it is not easy to speak ojienly — 
not always possible to speak with confidence as to facts, causes, or conse- 
quences ; we are aware that we shall expose ourselves to much scoffing 
from the vulgar and light-minded j much dishonest misrepresentation 
from those who recklessly echo any popular cry ; much unmerited anger 
from those who deem that I'efinement forbida them to speak of things 
which it does not forbid them to do ; much serious blame on the part 
of those who think that no object can justify us in compelling attention 
to 80 revolting a moral aore. We have weighed all these obstacles ; and 
we have concluded that the end we have in view, and the chance of the 
good we may efiect and the suffering we may mitigate, warrant ua in dis- 
regarding them. We think that such considerations have already too long 
withheld serious and benevolent men irom facing one of the sorest avila 
that the English sun now shines upon. Our divines, our philanthropists, 
our missionaries, nay, even our ereurs rk la charitl, do not shrink from 
entering, in person, the most loathsome abodes of sin and misery, — or 
from penetrating into the lowest dens of filth and pollution, when* h omiui 
despair and degradation ever dragged itself to die, — when led thither by 
the iraj>ulse of compassion and the hope of good. Why, then, should we 
allow indolence, disgust, or the fear of misconstruction, to deter us from 
entering ui>on an inquiry as to the possibility of mitigating the very 
worst form which humau wretchedness and degradation can assume t 
The best and purest of our race do not feel themselves repelled ii-om, or 
tarnished by, the darkest haunts of actual guilt and horror, where pain ia 
to be assuaged, or where Bouls are to be saved. Let us act by eubjeeti, as 
they act by scenes. 

" Feeling, then, that it is a false and mischievous delicacy, and a culpable 
moral cowwdice, which shrinks from the consideration of the great social 
viceof Prostitution, because the subject is a loathsome one; — feeling, also, 
that no good can be hoped unless we are at liberty to treat the subject, and 
all its collaterals, with perfect freedom, both of thought and speech ; — 
convinced that the evil must bo probed with a courageous and unshrink- 
ing hand before a cure can be suggested, or palliatives can safely be 
applied ; — we have deliberately resolved to call public attention to it, 
though we do so with pain, reluctance, and diffidence."* 



In a previous work, of a more strictly professional character than the 
present, I advocated at some length the consideration of prostitution 
upon sanitary grounds. I illustrated by the statistics then open to me, 
and which I have since been enabled to bring down to the present day 
for use in the following pages, the lamentable ravages of venei-eal disease, 
I showed h*v the out-patients of our metropolitan hospitals suffering 

• Westminslec Beview, July, 18S0. 




IlfTBODUCTION. 3 

a traceiibia to pi'ostitution fur outuumbered those afflicted 
bj- any other complaint, fonnii>g, iu fact, nearly SO per cent, of the aggre- 
gate. I showed to what extent the efficiency of our military aud naval 
services is positively impaired by the same cause; and I brought forward 
the experience of continental cities in proof that many of its melancholy 
results in London might be obviated, or at least palliated, if we only 
could or would act on the defensive. 

At that time, however, I dared do little more than point out these 
conaequeaces ; and for going even thus far I was subjected, in certain 
quarters, to the pains and penalties so ably described by the West- 
minster Reviewer, although the subject and professional nature of the 
book removed it, in great measure, fi-om the scope of general criticism. 

But the success of my first experiment upon the public pulse has so 
far emboldened me, that I uow not merely return to the charge with my 
former mnteriel, but, backed by the endeavours of others, and the opinions 
of many indulgent judges, I shall argue the propriety of ameliorating 
the sanitary condition of prostitutes, from later aud still more accurate 
statistics, and attempt — with the greatest respect, be it said, for the 
scruples of others — to combat arguments, baaed upon religious grounds, 
against any movement on the part of English society towards offering a 
determined resistance to the spread of venereal diseases. At no period 
has the public mind been so well prepared to listen to suggestions of a 
practical nature, and to such I shall endeavour to confine myself. 

I may as well state, in liinine, that I have no intention of advocating 
the adoption by Great Britain of the system of prostitution-management 
praotiaed by the police of continental States; but it must not be ima- 
gined that there are no suggestions of value deri\-able from foreign 
experience, — and I shall point out, therefore, a few features which might 
be engrafted upon our own no-management system without infringement 
of liberty. 

Although an author may hazard, as I have hinted, the favour of many, 
by ventm-ing at all upon such delicate ground, I aid aware that his 
views, on the other hand, may foil grievously short in the opinion of 
some ardent and enthusiastic persons. The schemes I now advocate for 
the assistance as well as the control of prostitutes would have been far 
too mild and inefficient for my own young fancy, before deep and careful 
consideration had matured my views, and the advice and practice of 
official men had shown me the value of those good old beasts of burden, 
"compromise" and "expediency," and the difficulties of even slight inno- 
vation. I have found it easy to discern diseases, and a task of no great 
difficulty to point out remedies ; but as in medical, so in social therapeutics, 
the question often arises — Can good be done at the coat of no harm J 
May not the removal of one abuse originate another ) In doing justice 
or charity to one class, may we not hazard an entail of wrong upon 
another } Can we take steps to prevent this or that evil without grazing 
our neighbour's dearest prejudices, if not opposmg a stumbling-block, in 
some cases, to his religious belief J 

I propose, in the following pages, to inquire whether, in the interest of 

society and civilization, on what are commonly called sanitary and social 

grounds, some compromise, which I should term " recognition," may not 

be effected betweensanction and pretended ignorance of vice, and whether 

b3 



some useful raeau may not exist bctweon uuhridled licence and despotUni 
■which for want of a better name might be called " kegulatiok." I 
intend to advance, that a lai^e claas of our women should not b( 
ignored or excommunicateil, and to show why they should be aa worthy, 
of irapi-ovement, regulation, and even specif legislation, aa murderera, 
thieves, gamblers, and other male membera of the dangerous (JasseB* 
Jjet the objectors atrike, but hear. 

Young persons are, I believe, generally led to believe that the olasa of 
unfortunate fomales are, with few eioeptionSj Messalinas and Dalilahs,— 
living in riot for a little season,— dying neglected and miserable — - 
of most dreadful diseases, or by violence or suicide, — upon dungt 
hills or in ditches. It is mai-velloua, too, how this belief grows with thfl 
growth of many who, having been gently trained, have as adults kept 
themselves unspotted from the world. But aa some few are awarfi, who 
have soberly used their opportunities of observation, this is aa gross q 
fallacy as that every prostitute is a Dame ana-. CameUaa. The sufferingt 
of the class arc great enough, as these pages will show, but their amal- 
gamation with the population, to which I shall presently allude, seem^ 
notwithstanding all our contrary impressions, to be so regular, so exten-' 
aive, and to all appearances so much upon the increase, not owing to thtf 
spread of vicious desires alone, but also to the action of ' society' itself 
that it seems to me we must no longer hold them outlaws during tl 
passage through their furnace of purification. Granted their admisi 
within the pale of the law, their better regulation and the amelioratioi 
of their state will, I think, follow as a matter of course. 

While I do not propose to aim at high colouring, I hope I shall b 
able to avoid the imputation of flippancy. The nature of the suhjec 
demands a sobriety of tone, and at the same time a degree of freedon 
from emotion or exaggeration, which few but professional men whoa 
duties throw them among the persons and scenes here treated of cai 
hope to acquire. I wish to plead in cool reason. If I have no desira 
nor the requisite flow of words, to dress up vice in those genteel am 
fascinating habiliments in which it is paraded in some lighter books 
I must confess that long iamiliarity with the subject precludes thi 
possibility of my attaining that rapture of horror with which anothe: 
class of observers, perhaps involuntarily, clothe their notes upon had 
society. 

I believe that the celebrated series of pictures entitled " The Harlot's 
Progress," and the commonplace reflections which usually accorapanj 
engravings after them, have done much towards founding the necessilgl 
for this work. They have been, I believe, the test for many a sermon, 
the substratum of a thousand and one religious tracts, and have inspired 
our people from generation to generation with the notion of a Pariah 
class existing within the bosom of society, whom the world of sinners 
might be pardoned for stoning to death. They have unfortunately dif- 
fused injurious and abused impressions on the subject they profess to 
delineate, and have assisted the natural aupineness of men to defer a 
righteous adjustment of the questions it involvee. It in no more a neces- 
sary consequence that the loss of her honour should divest one woman of 
the other feminine attributes, than that another who has preeerved it 
Bhould therefore be in ail other respects perfect and complete. 



INTRODUCTION. S 

It ie monstroaa to pretend tliat every fallen woman muat first have 
had, anil then have coat away, the pearl religion, which ao manj' of the 
pure B.nA chaste have died without a, glimpse of. Monstroiia, again, to 
think BO ill of her on whom ho little but the fiita! gift of beauty was 
bestowed, that in the garden of her aoul she haa not brought to fruit the 
healing plant of holiness. The common germ of it, indeed, was there, 
tut fallen in a, bye place, a little, solitary, (intended seed, where the weeds 
also were sown broadcast and bounteously nurtured by wicked man. 
Most hard, again, that sown as it was, grown without the needful 
light from heaven, and therefore doomed to certain fruitlessneas, this 
weakly plant alone, from out a world of pompoiis, eelf-asserting, barren 
fig-trees (barren in spite of every favouring condition), should be fixed 
upon for the axe and the outer fire. 

Monstrous, un-Christianliko, un-Euglishlike are those who would pass 
upon her, whose calhng ia an epilepsy of punishment, the sentence of 
excommunication that ia withheld by the hand of nnrighteous conven- 
tionality from her tempter and accomplice, and empty the vial of social 
wrath upon her who ia vulgar and oblmaive, while mere fiiirylike chas- 
tisement is considered enough for the notorious sinner of good breeding , 
and position. Foolish and shortsighted those who imagine that if they I 
may send forth the scape goat into the wilderness, they can also, under f 
our dispensation, impose the burden of their sins upon her. 

I shall endeavour to occupy the reader as little as possible with 
statiatica. Aa reg.arda prostitution in this country, I could not have 
entered, had I been so minded, into the elaborate details which con- 
tinental police arrangements place in some measure at the disposal 
of continental authors ; and I have furnished such particulars only of its 
condition elsewhere, aa may help to elucidate the policy we might adopt 
towards those who follow the calling in England, their ministerSj and 
their parasites. 



PROSTITUTION DEFINED. 



Ettholooy woQld, of oourBe, at once aaggeat a. " standing fortb, or plying 
for hire in open market," as a definition of the word prostitution. 
Charitable and refined persons instinctively recoil from its general 
use, under the very natural impression that the essence of " prostitution" 
is not so much tite receipt of consideration as oomitw.nity; but, on the 
other hand, many forcible divines and moralists have maintained 
that all illicit intercourse is prostitution, and that this word is as justly 
applicable as those of " fornication" and "whoredom" to the female who, 
■whether for hii'e or not, voluntarily surrenders her virtue. According 
to them, her first ofience is as much an act of proatitution as its 
repetition. 

For the purpose of the poUtico-statistioal researches which {more to 
find occupation -for its superfluous bureaucracy than, as is sometlmBS 
supposed, through mere tyrannical curiosity) the French administrators 
have, since the time of the first Republic, made into prostitution, as well 
as everything else, they arrange disorderly women under two heads, 
/emmes dehaueJtSes and proslituieg. The former, instead of being, aa 
would at first sight appear, a generio term, seems to distinguish the 
numerous troop known as few.mee galantea and jK?e* elandestines, and 
corresponds with the "kept miatressea" and more reserved class of 
prostitutes in this country. Over it, while a certain degree of self- 
respect is preserved, the police neither assert nor can maintain control. 
Its members enjoy to the fnll extent their civic rights, and a maxim of 
law is acknowledged in their favour, which their sisters of this country 
are obliged to maintain for tbemsolvos, — often to the disgust, and occa- 
sionally to the amusement, of the public, " Mulieris, quEe non palam sed 
passim et paucia sui copiam facit, actio competit adveraua eum qui earn 
meritricem vocavit." 

Into the second class, which answers to our common street- walkera, 
the French authorities do their best to drive such of the first aa they 
consider to have forfeited their independent position. It is held that 
the legally established and repeated exercise of fornication as a calling, 
combined with public notoriety thereof, arrest in flagrante, proved by 
witnesses other than the informer or the police agent, constitute the 
"prostitute," The prostitute baa been more particularly described by a 
French author as the woman who abjures society, repudiates its lawa, 
and forfeits all claims upon it, by adopting those "habitudes scandaleuses 
hardiment ct constamment publiquea," through which she passes into 



8 PROSTITUTION DEFINED. 

" cet ^tat de brutality scandaleuse dent rautorit^ doit r^piimer 
les exces."* 

According to the Board of Public Morals at Berlin, all voluntary 
sexual abandonment for a consideration is held to be prostitution. The 
distinctions, however, between the several shades of female frailty are so 
faint, and it seems so immaterial whether we apply to all erring women 
indiscriminately the term "prostitute," or another, perhaps coarser one, 
about which no etymological cavil could arise, that I confess I think 
any further disquisition upon this head quite uncalled-for and uninte- 
resting. I shall therefore assume, with the divines and moralists, for 
the purpose of my present inquiry, that the fjEwrf; of " hiring," whether 
openly or secretly, whether by an individual or a plurality in succession, 
constitutes prostitution. 

* Parent-Ducli&telet, troisidme Edition, torn. i. p. 25. 



CHAPTER IL 



E difficulties the pMlanthropist and sui^eoa have to meet in dealing 

''i this sabject are raised miiinly on its moral and religious side. 

) who would amelioi-ate the jihysical condition of prostitutes on 

alf of society are at onee met by the objection — "Disease is s punisb- 

tnt forain;" "syphilis the penaJty paid by society for indulgence in 

oication;" and many worthy persona are so deeply impressed with 

1 convictions, as to say, " We will hare none of your sanitary or 

IBventive measures, in this respect at least," And again, " The present 

uices of contracting disease is the strongest means of deterrijig meu 

m being unchaste. This risk is the most potent barrier against vice. 

move it, and you put a premium on fornication, discourage matrimony, 

i upset society." 

It niust be my endeavour to show the worth of this kind of objection, 
and further, to advance vien^ which I trust may not be deemed incom- 
patible with Christianity and good morals, I adinit, without hesitation, 
that contagions diseases operate with many a gentleman of education and 
refinement as deterrents from fornication, and that, involviag, as they 
in general do, both bodily suffering and financial loss, they exert a major 
force upon the unlimited recurrence to debauchery of the poor, coarse, 
incontinent rake ; I allow that, without this pressure, men's sex passion 
is so strong, and the training to coctiiience has been bo neglected, that a 
life of sensual indulgence would, in the present state of society, be mora 
a rule than an exception; and I know that it exercises some little influ- 
ence when religion is unheeded, especially among the bulk of the better 
educated youth, whose minds are eo little made up upon the sinfulness 
of fornication, that I believe the fear of suffering on earth operates more 
as a curb upon its licentious practice than the more remote contingency 
of punishment hereafter. 

But, conceding this certain amount of deterrent power to the liability 
to disease, we shall look in vain for proof that it has had any efleot 
towai"ds extiipating the calling of the harlot, or the traffic in female 
virtue, which has of late years forced itself upon the attention of our 
legislature. For every thousand upon whom it does operate, there are 
ten thousand thoughtless, passionate, habitually licentious men, on 
whom all lessons are thrown away, and ss many defiant scoffers at 
religion and morality, who will point out some grey-haired offender, per- 
ftitted by Providence to " go on still in the way of his wickedness," for 
" frightful example" ^at can be adduced on the other aide. 





I 



10 BELicioTJS OBJEcrroNa to the 

TtiB may probably be considered si low estimate of public moralityj 
but it seema to be that which an important fraction of the religious 
world incline to adopt and act upon. Man has taken upon himself to 
Bay, that the purpose of the Almighty is answered when the infraction of 
His law is suppressed by terror, — that it ia the duty of the Christian to 
watch with calm serenity the growing crop that waits the scythe of the 
destroying angel, so long aa he can take precantions to seciu-e hia own 
exemption from the fatal harvest. 

Withregard to ordinary crimes Dud offenceB, we arc gradually repealing 
this Draconian code, and coming round to the more Chriatian belief that 
preventive dispositions may more than compensate for relaxation of 
severity. In the case of juvenile vagrancy, we no longer confine ourselves 
to the flogging or incarceration of the primary ofiender, but we combine 
his milder punishment with some pressure upon the parent — hia indirect 
accomplice — whom wo mulct towards tho maintenance of the young 
prisoner, considering Lim responsible for the child's appearance ia the 
dock and the jail. Society tried severity, hut having found it no deter- 
rent, now racks its ingenuity, not so much for penal devices as for 
Hohemes to check the supply of crime by appealing to both parents and 
children by means of education, reformatories, and liberal relief, that 
they should the more honourably perform their duties to each other and 
to the community. 

Such are our modem engines of social improvement^ though we have 
by no means loosed our hold from the salutary rod of punishment. In 
former days society thought of vengeance alone, and struck blindly and 
wickedly at His creatures in the sacred name of a long-suffeiing and 
merciful Creator. 

If conscience still permits, and experience of successful i-esnlts still 
encourages, the most eminent Christians to persevere in their attempla 
to check tho spread and intensity of ordinary crime by mitigating 
those ancillary miseries which are both its provocatives and its results, 
why, I ask, should pervei'se, sacrilegious industry, and panderism to vice 
and immorality, be recklessly imputed to those who seek to improve the 
physical condition of a vicious class, whom outraged nature heavily 
afflicts by permission of the Almighty, but whose heaven sent pnnish- 
menti with which we may not interfere, is " the worm that never dies !" 

I may mention, if it will do aught to conciliate conscientious oppo- 
nents of the tolerant system I am. about to recommend, that all modern 
investigations tend to show how inadequate are human means to eradi- 
cate venereal disease from society. It will probably ever maintain any 
value it may now possess as a preventive of fornication. Precautions 
and sanitary regulations may go far to mitigate its evils; but enough 
will remain to operate as a warning and a penalty. 

"While, however, I confess how inefficient have been the endeavours, 
and how faint the hopes, of those who have contemplated anything 
approaching to the eradication of the disease,* I must call all medical 

■" It ttppeara that, notwithstanding the preoaationB taken with reference to prostitution 
in Paris, tho hoapitala of that city are ciowderl with diseaaed men and women. The 
BeTBrilj of the complaint, however, is progreBalrfll j abating in consequence of tlie rigorona 
but panaal aanitarj reBulations I ahall presently bate occaaion to eonaider. M. Michel 
Levy, he»d of tho French military madicil staff, etatea in a recent treatise, that in 1842, 



^^^^ 



I 

I 
I 



^^ BECOGNITIOX OF PllOSTlTtlTION CONSIDERED. 11 

experience to witness tliafc we have already done mucli to alleviate the 
Bufferinga of mankind. We have not yet mot with the fate of the apoativte 
Julian ; hnt, on the contrary, the Pi'ovidence we are taxed with rebelling 
against would seem to have already blessed our endeavours. The evil 
remaiiiB, it is true, but its ravages have ceased from the devastating fury 
of the olden days. 

It seems to me an usurpation of the divine function, for man tacitly to 
aggravate, by refusing to alleviate, the punishment of one particular vice, 
B3 indefeasible as would be his presuming to originate and to .mete out 
such a doom. Were such an abominable creed to be carried to its length, 
what a miserable prospect would he opened to poor, frail humanity- — all 
siuners as we are ! When all are sinnem, and when all sickness may be 
chastisement from the Almighty, how few of iis, once stricken, would be 
saved for repentance and ninendoient ! To deprecate the fatal end of 
disease would he a minor sin, and the art of the physician a gross 
impiety. 

Mr. Gamier, late Chaplain to the Lock Hospital, has very delicately 
replied to this class of objections, in the following forcible passage ;— 

"We would not say anything except in perfect admiration of that 
spirit of high-toned morality by which many in the upper circles of 
society in this country are so happily impregnated ; although we are 
aware that many exceUent persons from that cause refuse their support 
to the charity, fearful lest by so doing they should give their countenance 
to vine, and should be virtually fostering those very penal evils which 
the hospital is founded to eradicate. The governors would only request 
such persons calmly to examine the question in all its hearings. 

" It is true that many of the objects of ita merciful protection are 
sinners, suflering directly from the effects of their own profligate conduct. 
But is the mitigation of no evil or disease to be attempted except such 
as have been inherited, or have come upon the sufferer while pursuing 
the path of propriety aud virtue 1 Within the limits of how small & 
circle could the benevolence of the Christian be then confined 1 To how 
few oases in our general hospitals could assistance be conscientiously 
extended) how many must be suffered to pine away iu abject destitution 1 
Were this a principle of conduct enjoined by Divine authority and com- 
mended by Divine example, surely the sua would not now rise upon the 
unjust, nor would the rain descend upon the unthankful and the evil, — 
no scheme of redemption would ever have been formed for our fallen 
race,— nor would the Saviour Himself, our great example, have healed 
in His day all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the 
people, without any reference to the characters of the sufferers or the 
causes of their maladies," 

But most immediate Scriptural sanction can be found for the views of 
the meixrifully-minded. Do we read in St. Luke's Gospel that our 
Saviour forbad the presence and the contact of the Magdalen ! His 
answer to the seandaUzing Pharisee was, " Her sins, which are many, are 
forgiven; for she loved mucL" Again, it is no vain repetition here to 

6059 patients were admitted inta ths Parisian Civil Venereal Hospitttla, that 7648 ont- 
patients were relieveil tliere, and that in the military liospitsl, the Yal de Gr4ce, 2TU3 
aoldiora were treated the same year— aad these, it must be remembered, form bnt a part 
of the pnpalatioQ similarlj atTected daring the period. 



KELIGIOUa OBJECT! ONa TO THE 

quote, for tlie paasnge is too beautiful — 
fuF condensation, what took placo wbe: 
in adultery (John viii) ; 

And the Scribes and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken 
in adultery; and when they had set her in the miilst. 

They say unto Lira, Maater, this woman was taken in adultery, in 
the Tery act. 

Now Mosea in the law commanded us, that such should be stoned. 
But what sayest tliou 1 

Thia they said, tempting him, that they might have to accuse him. 
But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote upon the ground, as 
though he heard them not 

So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself and said unto 
them, He that ia without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. 

And again he stooped down and wrote on the gi'ound. 

And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, 
went out one by one, beginning at ike ddeet, men imto the last : and Jesus 
was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst. 

When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, 
Le said unto her, Woman, where abb those tuise accusers ! hath no 

HAN CONDEMNED THEeI 

She said, No man, Loi-d. And Jesns said unto her. Neither do I 
CONDEMN thee; go, and sin s 

In St. Matthew, chap. xxi. ver. 31, we have additional evidence that 
the treatment of imchaste women was put forward by the Jewish priests 
and lawyers as a touchstone to the Saviour,and taken up by Him as such. 
He spoke to them in the temple thus freely of the possibility of the sal- 
vation of the harlot ; — " Terily, the publicans and harlots go into the 
kingdom of God before you. For John came unto you in the way of * 
righteousness, and ye believed hini not ; but the publicans and the harlota | 
believed him." 

Any pretence of mine to originality in claiming a iavonrable construe- 1 
tion of these passages would be superfluous. They speak for themselves, 
and loudly, in favour of greater charitableness, and they need i 
nient. I only argue from them that no gospel warranty exists for the 
enhancement of the prostitute's degradation by a sinful world — for the 
thickening of the slough of despond in which she is already steeped. 

The tendency of the present age is to Christianize, according to the 
true spirit and meaning of the word, the world we live in. Of late 
years much Las been done towards remedying ite old intolerance, but 
much yet remains to be done. The churchman, guided, it may be, by the 
best of intentions, still, aa of old, feels called upon to oppose many views 
of statesmen, many projects of sanitarians. But whatever the practice 
they cling to, the most conservative have begun to i-ecognise, as a fixed 

• I should montjon that thia entire history, from chap. yii. ver. 63. to ehan. viii. 
TBT. 11, ia found wanting in manj ancient manuacripts of the 
eircumstaneo Dr. Pusoj temarka ; " The inference ia obrious 
auapecled the anthenticity of the pasaage, or that they 
a sentence ahunld prOTO produotiTB of evil ' 
wo that we ahonld preauma thoB to judge of the work of thi 
fietb : who is he that candenmeth t What know we of thia v 
mind, heart V 



jpela, uponwliicli abrauge 
t men either mast have 
! dreaded leet ao meroiful 
Church of Chriat. But who and what aco 
work of the Spirit I It ia Qod tliatjuati- 
nmn'a age, hiatur;, character, 



RECOQSITIOS OF PIIOSTITUTIOM CONSIDERED. 13 



law, tbat as oivilization advances, they most move — or bo swept — alieaJ, 
curbing their more elevated religious theories by "liberal Cliristiau 
charity, guiding and counselling where they may not couimanU, aud not 
S3 of old ignoring expediency. 

A Soottiah divine, Dr. Wardlaw, thus unoomi)romiBingly objects 
to any save repressive action : — "To take vice under legal regulation is 
to give it, in the public eye, a species of legal sanction. It can never be 
right toregidate what Ih wrong to do and wrong to tolerate. To licence 
immorality is to protect and encourage it. Individuals and houses which 
have a place on the public registers naturally regard theinselves, aud are 
regarded by others, as being under the law's giiardiaoahip and authority, — 
not, as they ought to bo, Ainder its ban and repression. ' 

With regard to the Doctor's last assertion, that a place on the public 
register of dangerous and suspected objects can be a convertible term 
with "under the favour of the law," I have this to say, that I have yet to 
learn that so gross a. delusion prevails among the keepers and frequenters 
of thieves' lodging-houseSj gaming-houHes, aud betting-houses here, and of 
houses of ill-fiime abroad. The phrase " known to the police," is synony- 
mous among ourselves with discredit. The feet alone is pregnant with a 
discomfort to the "known." individual, which he cannot shake off. No 
greater grievance frets the liberated convict, the incipient thief, the 
gambler, and every low, knavtsh, dissolute character, than the sleepless 
eye of the law, which he knows has never left, nor will ever leave him, 
from the hour of his first appearance on the " public registers." In 
answer to the leading feature of the extract from Wardlaw, I can do no 
better than reprint at length the following forcible and admirable pas- 
sage from an article on Prostitution in the "Westminster Review" of 
July, 1850:— 

" It is urged that the ' tacit sanction ' given to vice by such a reco- 
gnition of pi-ostitution as would be involved in a system of supervision, 
registration, or licence, would be a greater evil than all the maladies 
(moral and physical) which now flow from its unchecked prevalence. 
But let it bo considered that by ignoring, we do not abolish it ; we do not 
even conceal it j it speaks aloud ; it walks abroad ; it is a vice as patent 
and as well known as drunkenness ; it is already ' tacitly sanctioned ' by 
the mere fact of its permitted or connived-at existence — by the very cir- 
cumstance which stares us in the face, that the legislative and executive 
authorities, seeing it, deploring it, yet confess by their inaction their in- 
ability to check it, and their unwillingness to prohibit it, and virtually 
say to the unfortunate prostitutes and their frequenters — 'As long as 
you create no public scandal, but thraw a decent veU over your proceed- 
ings, we shall not interfere with you, but shall regard yon aa an inevitable 
evil.' By an attempt to regulate and control them, the authorities would 
confess nothing more than they already in act acknowledge — viz., their 
desire to mitigate an evil which they have discovered their incompetency 
to suppress. By prohibiting the practice of prostitution under certain 
contlitinns, they do not legalize or authorize it under all other conditions ; 
they simply announce that, under these certain conditions, they feel called 
upon promptly to interfere. The legislature does not forbid drunken- 
ness, knowing that it would be futile to do so : but if a man, when drunk, 
is disorderly, pugnacion'*, or indecent, or in other mode compromises 



ETC., CONSLDERIO). 

jiuLlic comfort or puljlic inoralB, it steps forward to arrest and punish 
Lini ; yet, surely, by no fair use of words caa it be represented as thereby 
sanctioning dmukeiiness when unaccompanied by indecorous or riotoHS 
behaviour. It merely declares tliat in the one cose interference falls 
withio its fimctions, and that in the other case it does not. Likewise, in 
the parallel case under consideration, such legislative interference as wo 
suggest would merely hold this clear, sound, intelligible language; — 
' Prostitution per as in a ain against tastCj morals, and religion; but it is 
one of those vices, lite bad temper, hatred, malice, and covetousness, 
■which, however noxious, it is not a part of the duty of government 
actively to repi-eas or punish; the propagation of syphilis ia an overt act 
of public mischief, a crime committ^ against society, which it clearly 
tails within their province to prevent,' 

" One word more on this subject. We cannot imagine that any one 
civn seriously suppose that prostitution would be made either more gene- 
rally attractive or respectable by the greater decency and deconim which 
administrative supervision woidd compel it to throw over its exterior. 
We know that the absence of these does not deter men of irregular 
passions from thg low pursuit; and we know, moreover, that wherever 
these are needed for the behoof of a more scnipulous and refined class of 
fornicators, they are to be found. We are convinced, also, that much of 
the permanent ruin to the feelings and character which results from the 
habit of visiting the haunts of prostitution, ia to be attributed to the 
coarse language and the brutal manners which prevail there; and that 
this vice, like many others, would lose much of its evil by losing all of 
groBsnera tliat is separable from it. Nor do wo fear that the improve- 
ment in the lone of prostitution which would thus result, would render 
its unhappy victims less anxious to escape from it. Soften its horroi-s 
and gild its loathsomeness as you may, thoro will always remain enough 
to revolt all who are not wholly lost. Much, too — everything almost— 
is gained if you can retain any degree of self-respect among the fallen : 
the more of this that remains, the greater chance is there of ultimate 
redemption; it is always a mistaken and a cruel ]Tolicy to allow vice to 
grow desperate and reckless. It is for the interest of society at large, as 
well as for that of the guilty individual, that we should never break down 
the bridge behind any sinner." 

The last few lines of the preceding psasage aeera to me most appro- 
priately to enunciate the main proposition to which 1 am about to address 
myaell^ — namely, that strong argnments for regulating and ameliorating 
the physical condition of prostitutes are to be deduced from considei'a- 
tiou, not of their temporal and bodily comfort, hut of their future amend- 
ment and spiritual welfare, as well as of the interests of their frequenters 
and of posterity. 

The whole subject having been so unpopular, and the mere allusion to 
it virtually tabooed, even in administrative circles, perhaps from men's 
nei'vous reluctance to admit acquaintance with it, only half-formed 
opinions prevail among the most enlightened official men, and extremely 
erroneous ones among the general public. This is particularly noticeable 
with respect to the extent of tlie class, and the progress, efiects upon 
society, and social future of its members; and I shall endeavour, in sue- 
Deeding chapters, to supply materials for an amended judgment. 



CHAPTER III. 



EXTEKT OF PROSTITUTIOX. 



I HAD better obviate the possibility of misapprebensioa by stating, in 
limhiJi, that I &m oiie of tUose who look upon prostitution as au inevitAble 
attendant upon civilized, anil especially closely-packed, population. When 
all is said and done, it is, and I believe ever will be, ineradicable. 
Whether, like those of disease and crime, ita ravages may not he modified 
by unceasing watchfulness — whether it may not be the duty of the 
executive, as a French wiiter suggests, to treat it as they do such ordi- 
nary nuisances as drains, sewers, and so forth, by diaiiuiahing its incon- 
venience to the senses, and, in fact, 'rendering its presence as little 
noticeable as possible, it will be my business to inquire in a fiiture 
chapter. At present I shall offer as complete a survey of that portion 
of it which stalka abroad, tete levee, in this metropolis, as the dtkt& at any 
English writer's disposal admit of, and a few figures relating to foreign 
cities, drawn from the only reliable sources. 

The number of prostitutes in London has been variously estimated, 
according to the opportunities, credulity, or religious fervour of observers, 
and the width of interpretation they have put upon the word. To 
attempt to reconcile or construct tables upon those I have met with 
would be a hopeless task. I can merely give a few of the more moderate 
that have been handed down by my predecessors. Mr. Colquhoun, at that 
time magistrate at the Thames Folice Court, rated them at 50,000 some 
sixty years ago. The Bishop of Exeter spokeof them as reaching 80,000; 
Mr. Talbot, secretary of a society for the protection of young females, 
made the same estimate. The returns on the constabulary force pi'esented 
to Parliament in 1839, furnished an estimate of 6371— viz., 3732 
" known to the police as kept by the proprietors of brothels," and 2639 
as resident in lodgings of their own, and dependent on prostitution alone 
for ft livelihood. It was estimated by the Home auttiorities, in 1841, 
that the corresponding total was 9i09 — which, I need hardly point out, 
does not include the vast num.bers who regularly or occasionally abandon 
themselves, but in a less open manner. 

I am indebted to the courtesy of 8ir Richard Mayne, the Chief Com- 
miaaioner of Metropolitan Police, and the good offices of Mr. Yardley, of 
the same department, for the subjoined retum, aa well aa for that of 
1837 (made up in 1841). 



EXTENT OF PKOSTITUTION. 




r.Be(M»vi of the nwmber of BrolJids and Proalitutea within the Melropdilan 
Police District, as nearly as can be ascertained at this date {May 20lh, 
1857). 







™b,ro 


fbrolhds. 




N™b.,pfp,p..Ut,. 1 




ti 


ii 






|. 


in-- 


tv 








P 


II 


^ 


1-9 


III 


III 


' 


























135 


18 


163 






144 




524 




u 


03 


46 








160 




318 




10 


113 


le 


139 


n 














110 


64 


194 


266 








646 




26 




19 


46 






120 










77 


72 


162 


360 


?)! 


165 








20U 


217 


45 


471 


239 




J20 




1803 






+02 


17 


419 


882 


IS 


435 


517 


965 






1S4 


193 


377 


275 


108 


329 


365 


802 


M 


]2 


138 


18 




178 


13 


71 


583 


067 


N 


53 


98 


34 


ISfl 


162 




142 


216 




r 


3 


33 


29 


65 


56 


63 


67 


98 


228 


It 


IB 






148 


122 


69 


116 


216 


401 


s 




52 






66 


8 


BO 


133 


231 


T 




12 




12 


107 




12 


94 


106 


V 


i 


37 


S 


47 


4 


35 


82 


92 


209 


TotuJ 


410 


nee 


649 


2825 


3325 


921 


2616 


6063 


8600 


B..!^! 


933 


15ii 


81S 


S32fi 


- 


2071 


1994 


ES41 


9409 



A. Whiteiiall, the Parks, Palawa, GoTerument Offices. 

B. Westioiiurter, Bromploii, Fimlico, pdrt of Gfaelees. 

C. St. James's, Begeat-Btrcet, Sd)id, LeicSBter-sqiiBTe. 

D. Marjlehone, Paddington, St. John's Wood. 

E. Between Oiford-atreet, Portland -place, New-rood, ond Gray's-inn-Iaue. 

F. CoTent Garden, Dnirj-lane, St. Giles's. 

G. Clerkenwell, Pentonville, Citj-road, Shoreditch. 
n. gpitalGelds, Houneditch, WLitechapel, Batcliff. 

E. Bethnal-green, Mile End, and from Shadwell to Blackwall. 

L. Lambeth and Blaekfiiara, including Watarloo-rood, &.C.. 

M. Sfluthwark, BermondsE;, Katherhithe. 

N. Islington, Hackney, Homerton, kc 

P. Camberwell, Walworth, port of Peokliam. 

K. DeptforrJ, Greenwich, and uoighhourhood, 

S. Kilbnm, Portland, Kentish and Camden Towns to Cattla Market. 

T. Kensington, Hammersmith, North End, Fulham. 

V. WalbMn-green, Fulham, Cheleeo, Cremome. 

The headingB of the foregoing table demand a few esplanatoiy observa- 
I tions. It is, in the first pJace, desirabie that the reader should under- 
f stand the distinction between three classes of tonsea, termed by the 
I {lolice, brothels. The firet, or " houses in which prostitutes are kept," 

3 those whose proprietors overtly devote their establishments to the 



i 






t 
k 

h 
t. 



EXTENT OF PROSTITUTION. ' 17 

lodging, and aolnetimea boarding, of prostitu6e3, and proBtitutes only. 
At first sight it might apjiear that, by the plii-ase employed, were indi- 
cated houses in which prostitutes are Itarhoured, fed, and olothed at the 
roost of speculators, who derive a revenue from the fiivm of their persona. 
'Juch is, however, not the intention of the framers of tlie dociiraeut. The 
louses last mentioned are, doubtless, included in this first colunui, but 
tre not now sufSciently numei-ous to form a separate oiass. 

By " houses in which prostitutes lodge," the reader must understand 
those in which one or two prostitutes occupy private apartments, gene- 
rally with, though perhaps in rare cases without, the connivance of the 
proprietor. It often occurs, it must be remembered, that females of no 
virtue are so desirous of preserving the appearance of it before those 
among whom they reside, that they will not introduce their paramours 
to their apartments; but both they and their domicile, being generally 
known to the police, both figure on the return. " Houses to which 
prostitutes resort" repr^ents night houses — the brothels devoted to 
I jQttsual entertainment of these women and their frequenters, and the 
I- ooffee-sbops and supper-shops which they haunt. 

t The " well-dressed, living in lodgings" prostitute is supposed to be 
I the female who, though to all intents and purposes common, extending 
I her pursuit of acquaintances over the town at large, or limiting it to 
' the places of public recreation, eschews absolute " street-walliing." 

The " well-dressed, walking the streets" ia the prostitute errant, or 
absolute street-walker, who plies In the open thoroughfare and there 
oidy, restricting herself generally to a definite parade, whereon she may 
always be found by her friends, and hence becomes, of course, "perfectly 
well known to the police." 

The " low prostitute, infesting low neighbourhoods," is a phrase whicli 
speaks for itself The police hnve not attempted to include — in fact, 
f ould not have justly included, I might almost say — the unnumbered 
prostitutes, whose appearance in the streets as such never takes place — 
who are not seen abroad at unseemly hours — who are reserved in man- 
ners, quiet and unobtrusive in their houses or lodgings, and whose 
general conduct is such that the most vigilant of constables could have no 
pretence for claiming to be officially aware of their existence or pumuits. 
The return gives, after all, but a faint idea of the grand total of prosti- 
tution, though it may be received ea a conscientious approximation to 
the number of street-walkers. Tho reader, who will, no doubt, observe 
that the numbers returned aa " well dressed, walking the streets," in the 
C Division, which comprehends the Haymarket and Eegent^street, figure 
as 150 only, may very naturally be disposed to challenge the accuracy of 
a report from his own personal experience of the circulating harlotry of 
that district. When I suggested this to Mr. Hannant, the obliging 
superintendent at Vine-street, whom I have to thank for his lucid 
answers to my queries, he informed me that he had, in the firstinstanc^ 
returned the number of women in his division as 600 j but, on an 
intimation from bead-quarters that he was to take no account of 
non-resident floating prostitution which surrounded Uim, hia total was at 
once reduced to 150. The motive which governed this direction is 

Kioua. The authorities in Scotland-yard were of opinion, of course, 
t were the habitual presence of a woman, and not her domicile, in a 
. : 



18 EXTENT or PBOSTirUTION. 

particular division, to govern her ascription to it, half the prostitutes in 
the metropolis might be returned as of the parish of St, James's, aod a 
false appearance of morality, perhaps, he thrown over other quarters. 

Inspector Lester, of the C Division, informed me, in answer to my 
statement that with a friend I had counted 189 in the course of a walk 
Lome from the Opera to Poilland-place, that he believed, from frequent 
observations, that in the limited space of the Haymarket alone, after the 
closure of the Casinos, there might be as many as 50 on each side of thab 
thoroughfare at one time in movemect, and at the same moment more 
than 200 might be estimated to be in the houses ahout the neighbourhood 
taking refireshment. 

Were there any possibility of reckoning all those in London who 
wouid come within the definition of prostitutes, which, for the sake of the 
argument I adopted in the last chapter, I am inclined to think that the 
estimates of the boldest who have preceded me would be thrown into 
the shade. A figure or two from the census tables may furnish material 
for more thought on this head than would be due to a wilderness of 
random cocjoctures. 

In the year 1851, 42,000 children were born alive in England and 
"Wales upon a total of 2,449,669 unmarried women, among whom 
■widows were included for the pui-poses of calculation, between the ages 
of fifteen and fifty-five, or i'7 percent. Each of these mothers has taken 
the first step in prostitution; and, conceding to each the trifling expec- 
tation of five years of unreformed life, we shall find that 210,000, or one 
in twelve, of the unmarried females in the country above the !^e of 
puberty hiive strayed from the path of virtue. This approximation may 
be objected to aa erroneous, inasmuch as one woman may have two, 
three, or four illegitimate children; but this is balanced by the un- 
doubted fact that an enormous number of illicit connexions are un- 
fruitful, or result in premature or unregistered births. 

The Government commentator upon the Census argues from the above 
figures, that if as many unmarried women are living irregularly to every 
child born out of wedlock, as there are vdves to every child born in 
wedlock — viz., 1000 to 212— then 186,920, or 1 in 13, of the unmarried 
women must be living so as to contribate as much to the births as an 
equal number of married women. 

The registered births in 1851, out of 212,293 unmarried women in 
London, were 3203. The application of the first of the above formulte 
gives 16,331, and of the second, 15,000 as the irregular indigenous con- 
nexions of this city, but affords no givide to the extent of its common pros- 
titution. I have tried an approximation of the latter from the above 
figures ; but seeing that each registration need not imply a new connexion, 
— that untold seductions are concealed by infertility, abortion, or still-birth, 
— and that London is the centre to which much of the country prosti- 
tution converges, — I am compelled in conscience to give up the attempt. 
The extreme youth of the junior portion of the " street-walkers " is 
a remarkable feature of London prostitution, and has been the subject of 
much comment by foreign tmvellers who have published their impres- 
sions of social London. Certain quarters of the town are positively 
infested by juvenile offenders, whose effrontery is more intolerably dis- 
gusting than that of their elder Hist«rs. It is tnie, these young things 
apring from the lowest dregs of the population ; and, from wluit I can 



EXTENT OP PROSTITUTIOS. 19 

learn, of their Labits, their sediictioa — if seduction it can be called — has 
been effected, with their own consent, by boys no older than themaelvea, 
and is an all but natural consequence of promiacnous herding, that main- 
spring of corruption among oar lower orders. That such as these are 
generally the Tictima of pHuders and old debauc/tees ia as uotrae as 
]Jiany of the wretched fallacies set about by some who write fictions 
about social matters in the guise of facts; but whatever the prime cause 
of their appearance in the streets as prostitutes, it is none the less strange 
and sad — none the less wortji amending, that the London poor should 
furnish, and London immorality should maintain, so vaanj of these half- 
fledged nurselings, who take to prostitution, as do their brothers of the 
same age to thieving and other evil courses, for a bare subsistence. 

Mr. Tait, a writer on prostitution iu Edinburgh, whose estimates I 
receive with every respect, but at the same time with considerable 
reserve, informs us that in tliat city they number about 800, or nearly 
1 to every 80 of the adult male population. In London he considers 
they are as 1 to 60; in Paris, aa 1 to 15 ; and in New York, as 1 to IS. 
The manner of these calculations is as follows : One-half of the popula- 
tion of each place is supposed to be males, of whom one-third are thrown 
aside as too young or too old for the exercise of the generative functions. 
The remainder is then divided by the alleged number of public women 
in each community — namely, in Edinburgh, 800; in London, 8000; in 
Paris, 18,000; and in New York, 10,000. It appears that the above 
estimate for London is not far short of the mark, the number of 
recognised women being about 8 GOO; but the number of males, of twenty 
years of age and upwards, being close upon 700,000 (632,545 in 
1851), we should arrive at the proportion, for London, of one prostitute- 
ovei't to every 81 (not every 60} adult males.* It will he observed, also, 
that in attributing 8000 public women to London and 18,000 to Paris, 
this writer has not allowed tor the enormous clandestinity of our own 
capital, while he has more than quadrupled the French official returns, I 
presume, on that account. 

In Paris, in 185i, among a population numfaering 1,500,000 persons, 
there were 420G registered " iilles publiques," that is to say, one overt 
prostitute to 356 inhabitants, over and above the unnumbered clandestine 
ones, who are variously estimated at 20,000,t 40,000, 50,000, and 60,000. 

In Hamburg (population within the walls 120,000), there were, in 
1846, only 500 registered pubhc women, or 1 to every 240 inhabitant; 
but I have seen no estimate of the clandestinaires of the place. 

The population of Brussels is about 270,000, and the number of 
females borne upon the books of the Moral, and Sanitary Police is 630. 
That capital would appear pure indeed, were the relation of these num- 
bers to be taken as an index, of morality ; hut it will appear hereafter 
that this test is fallacious. 

In Berlin, we are told by Dr. Holland that, in 1849, " the number of 
prostitutes in brothels was 225, and of women under the superintendence 
of the police 545; total, 770 ; and taking the male population above 
sixteen years of age aa 153,802, there would be 201 males to eveiy such 
female. This gives no clue to the extent of clandestine pi-ostitution ; hut 
I find that, in a report of the Berlin poHce of 1849, the total number 
of loose women of all classes of society wua estimated at 10,000. J 

• Ihc nagte mtlet ar« but ISB,S5T + See p. 75. ^ Dt. Bebread inclines to 8000. 

C2 — 



CHAPTER IV, 

CAUSES OF PKOSTITCTION. 



1 wm. now toucli upon most briefly — because I believe no paH of tha' 
aubjeot has been bo thoroughly mastered by the public — ^tho well-known 
fruitful causes which induce women, for money or other consideration, 
to resign their persons to prostitution. 

Evei-y one now, I believe, admite that uncontrollable sexual desires of 
her own play but a little part in induciug profligacy of the female. 
Strong passions, save in exceptional caaes, at certain times, and in ad- 
vanced stages of dissipation, as little disturb the economy of the human 
as they do that of the animal female. How beautifuliy is tliia alluded 
to in the following pafisage from the "Westminster Review :" — 

"We believe we shall be borne out by the observation of all who have 
inquired much into the antecedents of this unfortunate class of women — 
those, at least, who have not sprung from the very low, or the actually 
vicious sections of the community — in stating that a vast proportion of 
those who, after passing through the career of kept mistresses, ultimately 
come upon the town, fail in the first instance from a mere exaggeration. 
and pervereion of one of the best qualities of a woman's heart. They 
yield to desires in which they do not share, irom a weak generosity 
which camiot refuse anything to the passionate entreaties of the man 
they love. Tliere is in the warm fond heart of woman a strange 
Buhlime unselfishness, which men too commonly discover only to profit 
by, — a positive love of self-sacrifice, — an active, so to speak, an aggressiva 
desire to show their affection, by giving up to those who have won it 
something they bold very dear. It is an unreasoning and dangerous 
yearning of the spirit, precisely analogous to tliat which prompts the 
Burrenders and self-tortures of the rehgious devotee. Both seek to prove 
their devotion to the idol they have enshrined, by casting down before 
bis ^tar their richest and most cherished treasures. This is no romantic 
or over-coloured picture; those who deem it so have not known the 
better portion of the sex, or do not deserve to have known them."* 

It has been, of course, suggested, over and over again, that education 
and religion would be very efficacious to control the male sexual feelings. 
But, unfortunately, as tlie churchtnan, the lawyer, and the statesman too 
well know, these powerful agents influence very slightly the vast numbor 
of men who believe the former to be bounded by the alphabet, and never 
heard of the latter at all; and, however much to be deplored, it is no 
less true, that myriads, for removed from the less blameable category of 
• July, 18B0. 



I 



1 



CAUSES OF PK03TITUTI0N. 21 

the ignorant and tlie outctiat, not alono neglect to cnrl), but do spur and 
flog, their poasions, alike heedleaa of religion and reason. 

Such are the aialea, or rather, such are a huge proportion of the 
rolling population of groat modem towns; and when the female, with 
lier own peculiar clasaes and degrera of instinct, enters into loose pro- 
miscuous intercourse and free companionship with them, the losa of virtue 
J3 110 more surpriaing than sparks from flint and ateeh If T seek to 
number the oiierative causes other than passion of the woman, I am met 
on the very threshold of the task by vanity, vanity, and then vanity, — 
for what but this are love of dress and admiration, and what sacrifices 
will not tens of thousands of the uneducated make to gain these 1 How 
near the brink of ruin thousands of the highly taught will flutter in the 
same pursuit, until some fall, it is not my province to teU. Then comes 
want of occupation, miserable want of thought — then sad hard times, 
low wages, and starvation. On these, hear Mayhew, than whom no 
more sympathizing or instructed writer haa approached the subject, 
and whom I would rather quote with tlianka than plunder without 
acknowledgment ; — 

" During the course of my investigation into the condition of those 
who are dependent upon their needle for their support, I had been so 
repeatedly assured that tlie young girla were mostly compelled to reaort I 
to prostitution to eke out their auhsistence, that I was anxious to test I 
the truth of the statement. I had seen much want, but I had uo idea 
of the intensity of the privations suffered by the needlewomen of London 
until I came to inquire into this part of the subject. But the poor 
ci-eatures shall speak for themselves. I should inform the reader, how- 
ever, that I have made inciuiries into the truth of the almost incredible 
statements here given, and I can in moat of the particulars at least 
vouch for the truth of the statement. Indeed, in one inatahce^tliat of 
tlie last case here recorded — I travelled nearly tea milea in order to 
obtain the character of the young woman. The first case ia that of a 
giod-lookicg girl. Her story ia as follows ; — 

'"I make moleskin ti'ousera. I get Id. and 8d. per pair. T can do 
two pairs in a day, and twelve, when there ia full employment, in a 
week. But some weeks I have no work at all. I work from six in the 
moi'uing to ten at night; that is what I call my day's work. When I 
am fiilly employed I get from 7s. to 8». a week. My expenses out of 
that for twist, thread, and candles are about Is. 6d. a week, leaving me 
about 6«. a week clear. But there's coala to pay for out of this, and 
tliab's at the least Gd. more; so 5s. IJd. is the very outside of what I earn 
when I'm in full work. Taking one week with another, all the yeai- 
round, I don't make above 3g. clear money each week. I duu't work at 
any other kind of slop work. The trousers work ia held to he the beat 
paid of all. I give Is. a week rent My father died when I was five 
years of age. My mother is a widow, upwards of sixty-six years of age, 
and seldom haa a day's work. Generally once in the week she is em- 
ployed pot-BCOuiing — that ia, cleaning publicana' pots. She is paid id. 
a dozen for that, and does about four dozen and a half, so that she gets 
nbont Is. Gd. in the day by it. For the rest she is dependent upon me. 
3 am twenty years of age the 25th of this month. We earn together, to 
keep the two of ua, from da. 6J. to 6s, each week. Out of this we have 




22 CAUSES OF 

to pay 1». rent, and tliere remaina 3b. (id. to is. to find us botL m food 
und clothing. It is of course impossible for us to Hto upon it, and the 
consequence is, I am obligated to go abod way. I have been three yetas 
working at (dop work. / usw virtiiouK w/i^re / Jirst went to work, and I 
remained «o tUl this la»t twelvemonth. I struggled very hard to keep 
m;/sel/ cfui&te, but ! found that I couldn't get food and clothing /or myse^ 
and mol/ier; so I took to live with a young man. He is turned twenty. 
He in a tinman. He did promise to marry me, but his sister made mis- 
chief between me and }dm; so that parted us. I have not seen, him 
now for about six months, and I can't say whether he will keep hia 
promise or not. I am now pregnant by him, and expect to be confined 
in two months' time. He knows of my situation, and so does my 
mother. My mother believed me to be married to him. She knows 
otherwise now. I was very fond of him, and had known him for two 
years before he seduced me. He could make 14s. a week. He told me 
if I came to live with hira he'd take care I shouldn't want, ajid botlt 
mother and me had been very bad off before. He said, too, he'd i 
me his lawful wife, 6w( I hardly cared so long as I caiild get food for 
myself and mother. Many young girls at the shop advised i 
wrong. They told me how comfortable they was off; they said i 
could get plenty to eat and driuk, and good clothes. There ian't 
young girl as can get her living by slop work. I am satisfied there i^ 
not one young girl that works at slop work that is virtuous, and ther^ 
are some thousands in the ti-ade. They may do very well if they have 
got mothers and fathers to lind them a home and food, and to let thent 
have what they earn for clothes; then they may be virtuous, but noft 
without. I have heard of numbers who Lave gone from slop-work t 
the utreets altogether for a living, and I shall bo obligated to do tiifl 
same thing my.^elf, unleas something better turns up for me. If 1 w 
never allowed to speak no more, it was the tittle money I got by n 
labour that caused me to go wiiDng. Could 1 have honestly eami 
enoiigh to have subsisted upon, to fiud me in proper food and clothings 
such as ia necessary, I should not have gone astray, — no, never! As 
was, I fought against it as long as I could — that I did — to tlio last, 
know how horrible all this is. It would have been much better for u 
to have subsisted upon a dry crust and water rather than be as I a: 
now. But no one knows the temptations of us poor girls in wanb 
Gentlefolks can never understand it. If I had been bom a lady, it 
wouldn't have been very hard to have acted like one. To be poor and 
to be honest, especially with young girls, ia the hardest struggle of all. 
There isn't one in a thousand that can get the better of it. I am ready- 
to say again, thiit it was want, and nothing more, that made me trans- 
gress. If I had been better paid I should have done better. Young aa 
I am, ray life is a curse tii me. If the Almighty would please to take 
mo before my child is bora, I should die happy.' 

"The next were two 'trousers hands,' working for the same piece- 
mietress. I was assured by the woman by whom they were employed, 
and whom I visited expressly to make inquiries into the matter, that 
they were both hard-working and sober individuals. The first of these 
made the following extraordinary statement ; — 

" 'I work at slop trousers, moleskin aud cord — no cloth. We make 



CAtlSEa OF PROSTITDTION. 2S 

aljoat is. a week, but we must work till nine or ten o'clock every night 
for that. We never make more than is., and very often less. If you 
go of an errand, or want a bit of bread, you lose time ; and Hometunes 
tiie work comes out harder — it's moi-e atubborn, and takes more time. 
I've known it like a bit of board. I make, I should say, taking one 
week with another, about 3a. 4rf. a week. The sweater finds us our 
lodging; but we has to find our candles out of what we make, and they 
cost US about Id. each evening, or, I should say, 5rf. a, week I earn 
clear just upon 3a. ; that's about it. I find it very hard indeed to live 
upon that. If we &11 ill we're turned ofi'. The sweater won't keep ua 
with her not the second day. I have been manied. My husband has 
been dead seven year. I wish he wasn't. I have no children alive. I 
have buried three. I had two children alive when my husband died. 
The youngest was five and the other was aeven. My husband was a 
soap-maker. He got 11. a week, I worked at the slop trade while ha 
was alive. Our weekly earnings — his and mine together — was about 
26a The slop trade was hetter paid then thao now, and what's more, 
I had the work on my own account. I was very happy and comfortable 
while he lived.' [Here the woman burst out crying, and wiped her eyes 
with the comer of her old rusty shawl.] ' I was always true to him 
while he was alive, so help me Ood 1 After his death I was penniless, 
with two young children. The only means I had of keeping myself and 
little ones was by the slop work ; and that brought me in about 5a. Gd. 
a week first hand. That was to keep me and my two boys. When my 
eldest boy died — and that was two year after his &ther — I couldn't afford 
to bury him. My sister paid for the funeraL I was very thankful to 
the Almighty when he took him from me, for I had not sufficient to feed 
him. He died of scarlatina. My second boy has only been dead five 
months. He died of the hooping-cough. I loved him as I did my life^ 
but I was glad he was taken from me, for I know he's better now than I 
coidd have done for him. He could but have been brought up in the 
worst kind of poverty by me, and God only knows what might have 
become of him if he had lived. My security died five year ago, and then 
the house that I had been used to work for refused to give me any mo 
BO I was obligated to work for a sweater, and I have done so ever sin 
This was a heavy blow to me. I waa getting about 5s. Gd. a week before 
then. The trousers was better paid for at that time besides, and when I 
waa obligated to work second-handed I couldn't get niore than is. Ona 
of my boys was alive at this time, and we really could not live upon thft 
money. I apphed to the pariah, and they wanted me to go into the 
house ; but I knew if I did bo, they'd take my boy from me, and I'd 
Bufi'er anything first AC times I was so badly off, me and my boy, that I 
was forced to resort to prostitution to keep us from, starving. It was not 
until after my security died that I did this. Before that we could 
just live by my labour, but afterwards it was impossible for me to get 
food and clothing for myself and child out of 4«. a week, which was all 
I could earn ; so I was obligated to get a little inore money in a way thai 
I blush to meiUion to you. Up to tlie time of the death of my seawrity, I 
can swear, before God, I was an honest woman ; and had the price I waa 
paid for my labour been such that I could get a living by it, I would 
never have resorted to the atreeta for money, I am sorry to say there is 



24 CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION. 

Moo many pei-aona like nie in tlie trade — hundreds of married and ainglt 
doing lite game as I do, /or the same reeuon.' " 

ContiDuing tUis branch of the inquii7, Mr. Mayhew gives the atata- 1 
ment of the second trousers hand, whjch waa to the Bame effect, and ran ] 
as follows: — 

" ' r work at the slop, make tvousers — moleskin and cord — any sort ofM 
plain work. I work at the same place as the other woman works at, and f 
fur the same prices. I earn, like her, taking one week with another, f 
about 3a. id., and, taking off the candles, about 3s. eveiy week. I havB' 1 
been married, but my husband's been, dead eleven years. I have 1 
had two children, but I've buried them. When he died he left me J 
penniless, with a baby to keep. I waa an honest woman up to the time 
of my husband's death. I never did him wrong. I can lay my hand on 
my heart and say so. But since then the world has drove me about bo, 
and poverty and trouble has forced me to do what I never did before.. 
I do the best I can with what little money I earn, and the rest I am 
obligated to go to tlie Bbreeta for. That is true, though. I says it aa I 
shouldn't. / cant get a rag to wear uritliotit flying to prostitution for it^ \ 
My wages will barely find me in food. Indeed, I eat more than I earn, 
and I am obligated to make up my money in other ways. I know a I 
great many women who are situated in tie same way as I am, We 1 
pretty well all share one fate in that respect — with the exception of those I 
that's got husbands to keep them. The young and middle-aged all do the J 
same, as fer as I know. There's good and bad in all ; but with the moafe I 
of 'em I'm sure they're drove to it— yea, that they are. I have frequently I 
heard them regret that they are forced to go to the streets to make out 
their living,' 

" The story which follows is perhaps one of the most tragia and touch- 
ing romances ever read. 1 must confess, that to myself the meutal and 
bo<lily agony of the poor Magdalen who related it, was quite ovei-powering. 
She waa a tall, fine-grown girl, with remarkably regular features. She 
told her tale with her face hidden in her hands, and sobbing so loud that 
it was with difficulty I could catch her words, Aa she held her banda 
before her eyes, I could see the tears oozing between her fingei-s. Indeed, I 
never remember to have witnessed such intense grief. Her statement 
was of so startling a nature, that I felt it due to the public to inquii-o 
into the character of the girl, Though it was late at night, and the 
gentleman who had brought the case to me assured me that he himself 
was able to corroborate almost every word of the girl's story, still I felt 
that I should not be doing my duty to the office that had been entrusted 
to me, if I allowed so pathetic and romantic a statement to go forth 
without using every means to test the truth of what I had hcai-d. 
Accordingly, being informed that the girl waa in service, I made the best 
of my way, not only to her present master, but also to the one she had 
left but a few months previous. The gentleman who had brought her to 
me willingly accompanied me thither. One of the parties livedat the east 
end of London, the other in the extreme suburbs of London. The result 
was well worth the journey. Both peraons spoke in the highest terms of 
the girl's honesty, sobriety, and industry, and of hor virtue in particular. 
" With this preamble let me proceed to tell her story in her own 
touching words ; 



U^ , CAUSES OF PKOSTTTUTION, 25. 

" ' I used to work at slop work — at the shirt work — the fine full- 
fronted white ahirtn; I got 2^d. each for 'em. There were sLs button-holes, 
four rows of stitching in the &ont, and the collars and wristbands stitched 
aa welL By working from five o'clock in the morning till midnight each 
night, I might he able to do aeven in the week. These would bring me 
in nj^. for my whole week's labour. Out of this the cotton must be 
tak«i, &nd that came to id. every week, and bo left me \5^d. to pD.7 rent 
and living and buy candles with, I was single, and received some little 
help from my friends; still it was impceaible for me to live. Iinas/orced 
to go out of a nig/tt to 'make out my Ivovng. I had a e/itld, and it used to 
cry for food J so, as I could not gel a living for him myself by my needle, 
I went into the streets, and mstde out a. living that way. Sometimoa 
there was no work for me, and then I was forced to depend entirely upoa 
the streets for my food. On my soul, I went to the streets solely to get a 
living for myself and ckUd. If I had been able to get it otherwise, I 
would not have done so. I am the dau'ghter of a minister of the Gospel. 
My faih&r was am. Independent preacher, and I pledge my word, sdemnly 
and sacredly, that it teas tha low price paid for my labour thai drove me 
to prostitution. I often struggled against it, ajid many times have I 
taken my child intg the streets to beg, rather tlian I would bring ahame 
tipon myself and it any longer. I have made pincushions and fancy 
articles — such as I could manage to scrape together — and taken them to 
the streets to sell, so that I might get an honest living, but I couldn't. 
Sometimes I should be out all night in the rain, and sell nothing at all, 
rae and my child together ; and when we didn't get anything that way, 
we used to ait in a abed, for I was too fatigued with my baby to atand, 
and I was so poor I couldn't have even a night's lodging ujioit credit. 
One night in the depth of winter his legs froze to my side. We sat down 
on the step of a door. I was trying to make my way to the workliouse, 
but was so weak 1 couldn't get on any further. The snow was over my 
shoes. It had been snowing all day, and me and my boy out in it. We 
hadn't tasted any food since the morning before, and that I got in another 
person's nam& I was driven by positive starvation to say that they sent 
me, when they did no such thing. All this time I waa struggling to give 
up prostitution. I had many ofFera, but I refused them all. I had sworn 
to myself that I would keep from that mode of life for my hoy's sake. 
A tady saw me sitting on the door-step, and took me into her house, and 
rubbed my child's legs with brandy. She gave us some food, both my 
child and me, but I waa so far gone I couldn't eat, I got to the work- 
house that night. I told them we were starving, but they refused to 
admit us without an order ; so I -went back to prostitution again for 
another month. I then made from 3«. to 4a. a week, and from that time 
I gave up prostitution. For the sake of my child I should not like my 
name to be known ; but for the sake of other young girls, I can and will 
solemnly state, that it was the smallnesa of the price / got for my labour 
tliat drove me to prostitution as a means of living. In my heart I lioted 
it ; my wlujle naiure rebelled at it, and nobody but God knows how I 
struggled to give it up. I was only able to do so by getting work at 
Bomething that was better paid. Had I remained at shirt-making, I 
must have been a prostitute to this day. I have taken my gown off my 
back and pledged it, and gone in my petticoat — 1 had but one — rather 
than take to the streets again ; but it was all in vain.' 



36 



(5AUSE8 OF PROSTITUTIOS. 



' I now come to the aeoond teat that waa adopted in order to verify 
my conclusions. This was the conyening of such a number of needle- 
omen and fllop-workers as would enable me to arrive at a correct average 
1 to the earuingB of the claas. I was particularly anxious to do this, 
not only with r^ard to the more reapectoble portion of the operatives, 
hut also with reference to those who, I have been given to uuderstaad, 
resorted to prostitution in order to eke out their subsistence. I con- 
suited a friend who is well acquainted with the habits and feelings <^jjl 
the slop-workera, as to the possibility of gathering together a number o^| 
women who would be willing to state that they h^d been forced to takofl 
to the streets on account of the low prices for their work. He told incM 
he was afraid, from the shame of their mode of life becoming known, itfl 
would be almost impossible to collect together a number of females whoffl 
would be ready to say as much publicly. However, it was deoidedl'l 
that at least the experiment should be made, and that everything should 
be done to assure the parties of the strict privacy of the assembly. It 
was arranged that the gentleman and myself should be the only male 
persons visible on the occasion, and that the place of meeting should be 
aa dimly lighted as possible, so that they could scarcely see or be seen by 
one another, or by us. Cards of admission were issued and distributed 
as privately as possible, and, to my friend's astonishment, aa many as 
twenty-five came, on the evening named, to the appointed place — intent 
upon making known the sorrows and Bufferings that had driven them to 
fly to the streets, in order to get the bread which the wretched price* 
paid for their labour would not peimit them to obtain. Never in &11 
history was such a sight seen, or such tales heard. There, in the dim ^ 
haze of the large bare room in which they met, sat women and girla 
some with babies suckling at their breasts — others in rags — and eves 
these borrowed, in order that they might come and toll their miseiy t 
the world. I have witnessed many a sceue of sorrow latoly; I haT< 
heard stories that have unmanned me ; but never till last Wednesday h 
I heard or seen anything bo solemn, so ten-ible as this. If ever eloquen 
was listened to, it was in the outpourings of those poor lorn mother 
hearts for their base-bom little ones, as each told her woes and struggleBjM 
and published her shame amid the convulsive sobs of tiie others — nay^B 
ail present. Behind a screen, removed from sight, so as not to wouodrl 
the piodesty of the women — who were nevertheless awai-e of their pre*l 
sence — sat two reporters from this journal, to take down vKrhaiim. thftfl 
confessions and declarations of those assembled, and to them I am.W 
indebted for the following report of the statements made at the meet^B 
ing." 



" They wei 
— probably o 

husband or parent to support them — resorted to the atreeta to eke out a 1 
living. Accordingly, assuming the government returns to be con'eeti J 
and that there are upwards of eleven thousand females under twenty, -T 
living by needle and slop-work, the numerical amount of prostitutioii \ 
becomes awful to contemplate." 1 

Another and fertile cause lias heen the early herding together of tha 1 
sexes (no other word is applicable), through the want of sufficient houM ■ 
accommodation for the poor. (As to recent improvement, seep. H^J 
I again quote Mr. Mayhew's letter to the " Morning Chronicle"— 



CiOBEB OF PROSTITLTION. 27 

"Let ua eonaider, for a moment, tbo progi-oss of a fa.mLly amongst 
them. A man and womiiu intermarry, and take a cottaj^e. In eight 
oases out of ten it is a cotts^e with but two rooms. For a time, so far 
as room at least is concerned, this answers their purpose ; but they take 
it, not because it is at the time sufficiently spacious for them, but 
because they could not procure a more roomy dwelling, even did they 
desire it. In thia they pass with tolerable comfort, considering their 
notions of what comfort is, the first period of married life. But, by- 
and-by they have children, and the family increases until, in the course 
of a few years, they number perhaps fi-om eight to ten individuals. But 
all this time there has been no increase to their household accommoda- 
tion. As at first, 80 to the very last, there is but the one aleeping room. 
As the family increases additional beda are crammed into this apart- 
ment, until at last it ia so filled with them that there is scarcely room 
left to move between them. Aa already mentioned, I have known 
instances in which they had to crawl over each other to get to their 
beds. So long aa the children are very young, the only evil connected 
with this is the physical one arising from crowding so many people 
together in what is generally a dingy, frequently a damp, and invariably 
an ill-ventilated apartment. But years ateal on, and the family oon- 
tinaea thus bedded together. Some of its members may yet be in their 
in&ncy, but other of both sexes have crosaed the line of puberty. But 
there they are, still together in the same i-oom — the father and mother, 
the sona and the daughters — young men, young women, and children. 
Cousins, too, of both sexes, are often thrown together into the same room, 
and not unfrequently into the same bed. I have also known of cases in 
■which uncles slept in the same room with their grown-up nieces, and 
newly-married couples occupied the same chamber with those long mar- 
ried, and with those marriageable but unmarried. A case also came to 
my notice — already alluded to in connexion with another branch of 
the subject — in which two sisters, who were married on the same day, 
occupied adjoining rooms, in the same hut, with nothing but a thin 
board partition, which did not reach the ceiling, between the two rooma, 
and a door in the partition which only partly filled up the doorway. 
For years back, in these same two rooms, have slept twelve people, of 
both sexes and all ages. Sometimes, when there ia but one room, a 
praiseworthy efibrt is made for the conservation of decency. But Ilia 
hanging up of a piece of tattered cloth between the beds — which is 
generally all that is done in this I'espect, and even that but seldom— is 
but a poor set-off to the fact that a femily, which, in common decency, 
should, aa regards aleeping accommodations, be separated at least into 
three diviaiona, occupy, night after night, but one and the same chamber. 
Thia is a frightful position for them to be in when an infectious or epi- 
demic disease enters their abode. But this, important though it be, ia 
the leaat important consideration connected with their circumstances. 
That which ia moat ao is the effect produced by them upr>n their habits 
and morals. In the illicit intercourse to which such apoaition frequently 
gives riae, it is not always that the tie of blood is respected. Certain it 
ia that, when the i-elationaldp is even but one degree removed irom that 
of brother and sister, that tie ia frequently overlooked. And when the 
oircumataucea do not lead to such horrible conaeijuencea, the mind, par- 



CAUSES OF pBosmmo! 



lieacj B^i^^l 
I the t^inp^Hj 



ticnlarly of the female, is wtoll}' divested of that seaae of delieacj i 
fehajne which, so loDg as they are preserved, ore the chief aafc^oaraB ^ 
her chastity. She therefore fidJa an early and an easy prey to the ti 
tations wtuch beset her beyond tlie immediate circle of her &i 
People in the other spheres of life are but little aware of the extent to 
which this precocious demoralization of the female amongst the lowex' 
orders in the country has proceeded. But how conld it be otherwtwl 
The philaDthropist may exert hiniBeif in Ibeir behalf^ the moralist may 
incalcate even the worldly advantages of a better course of life, and the 
minister of religion mfky warn them of the eternal penalties which they 
are incurring ; bnt there is an instnictor constantly at work more |>oteat 
than them all, an instructor in mischief, of which they must get rid ere 
they make any real progre^ in their laudable efforts— and that ia, the 
single bed-chatnier in the two^oomed eollaife," 

Now what sayg this same observer npou the low lodging-house acooni~B 
modation in London and other large towns : — 9 

" A good-looking girl of sistecu gave me the following aw^l statementtfl 
Her hands were swollen with cold : ^ 

'"1 am an orphan. When I was ten I was seat to service as maid-of- 
all-work, in a small tradesmau's family. It was a hard place, and my 
fiustress used me very cruelly, beating me often. When I had been 
in place three weeks, my mother died ; my &ther having died twelve 
months before. T stood my miHtress's ill treatment for about six: months. 
She beat me with sticks as well as with her bauds. I was block and 

blue, and at last I ran away. I got to Mrs. , a low lodging-honse. 

I dida't know before that there was such a place. I heard of it from 
Bome girls at the Glasshouse (baths and washhouses), where I went for 
shelter. I went with them to have a half-penny worth of coffee, and 
they took me to the lodging-house. I then had three shillings, and 
stayed about a mouth, and did nothing wrong, living on the three shil- 
lings and what I pawned ray clothes for, as I got some pretty good things 
away with me. In the lodging-house I saw nothing but what was bad, 
and heard nothing but what was bad- I was laughed at, and was told to 
swear. They said, " Look at her for a d — d modest fool"-— sometimes 
woiTe than that, until by degrees I got to be as had as they were. 
Luring this time I used to see boys and girls from ten and twelve years 
olJ sleeping together, but understood nothing wrong. I had never heai-d 
of such places before I ran away. I can neither read or write, Jly 
mother was a good womau, and I wish I'd had her to run away to. I 
WW things bi-tween almost children that I can't describe to you — very 
often I saw them, and that shocked me. At the month's end, when I 
was beat out, I met with a young man of fifteen — I myself was going 
on to twelve years old— and he persuaded me to take up with him. I 
stayed with him three months in the same lodging-house, living with him 
as his wife, though we wei-e mere children, and being true to him. At 
the three months' end he was taken up for picking pockets, and got six 
months. I was Bony, for he was kind to me ; though I was made ill 
through him ; so I broke some windows in St. Paul's Churchyard to 
get into prison to get cured. I had a month in the Comptor, and came 
out well. T was scolded very much in the Comptor, on accouut of tha 
Btate I was in, being so young. I had 2«. Gd. given to me when I came out. 



CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION. S9 

ftnd was forced to go iuto the streets for a living. I oontinuod walltiiig 
the streets for three years, sometimes makiug a good deal of moiiey, 
Boraetimes uone, feasting one day aud starving tho next. The bigger 
girla could persuade me to do anything they liked with my money. I 
■was never happy al! the time, but I could get no character and could not 
get out of the life. I lodged all this time at a lodging-house in Kent- 
street. They were all thieyea and bad girls. I have known between 
three and four dozen boya and girls sleep in one room. The beds were 
horrid filthy and full of vermin. There was very wicked carryings on. 
The boys, if any difference, was the worst. We lay packed oa a full 
night, a dozen boys and girls squeezed into one bed. That waa very 
often the case — some at the foot and some at the top — boys and girla all 
mixed. I can't go into all the particulars, but whatever could take 
place in words or acta between boya and girls did take place, and in the 
midst of the others. I am sorry to say I took part in these bad. ways 
myself, but I wasn't so bad as some of the others. There waa only a 
candle burning all night, but in summer it was light great part of tho 
night. Some boys and girla slept without any clothes, and would dance 
about the room that way. I have seen them, and, wicked aa I was, felt 
ashamed. I have seen two dozen capering about the room that way; 

some mere children — the boys generally the youngest There 

were no men or women present. There were often fights. The deputy 
never interfered. This is carried on just the same as ever to this day, 
and is the same every night. I have heard young girls shout out to 
one another how often they had been obliged to go to the hospital, or the 
infirmary, or the workhouse. Thei-e was a great deal of boasting about 
what the boys and girla had stolen during the day. I have known boys 
and girls change their ' partnera,' just for a night. At three years' end 
I stole a piece of beef from a butcher. I did it to get into prison. I 
was sick of the life I waa leading, and didn't know how to get out of iL 
I had a month for stealing. When I got out I passed two days and a 
night in the streets doing nothing wrong, and then went and threatened 

to break Messrs. windows again. I did that to get into prison 

again ; for when I lay quiet of a night in prison I thought things over, 
and considered what a shocking life I was leading, and how my health 
might be ruined completely, and I thought I would stick to prison rather 
than go back to such a life. I got six months for threatening. When I 
got out I broke a lamp next morning for the same purpose, and had a 
fortnight. That was the last time I waa in prison. I have since been 
leading the same life as I told you of for three years, and lodging at the 
same hoiises, and seeing the same goings on. I hate such a life now 
more than ever. I am willing to do any work that I can in washing and 
cleaning. Anybody may call in the day time at this house and have a 
halfpennyworth of coffee, and ait any length of time until evening. I 
have Been three dozen sitting there that way, all thievea and had girls. 
There are no chairs, and only one form in front of the fire, on wliich a 
dozen can sit. The others sit on the fioor all about the room, as near 
the fire as they can. Bad language goes on during the day, aa 1 have 
told you it did during the night, and indecencies too, but nothing like so 
bad aa at night. They talk about where there is good places to go and 
i call sometimes, but they're laughed at often 



I 



W CAUSES OF rBOSTlTUTlON. 

when they're talking, and alwaja before the door'a closed on them. If 
a decent girl ffOFs there to get a ha'porth of coffee, seeing the board over 
the door, she is alwaja shocked. Many a poor girl has been ruined in 
thia honse aince I 'was, and hoys have boasted ahont it. I never knew 
boy or girl do good, once get iised there. Get used there, indeed, and 
you are life-ruined. I was an only child, and haven't a Mend in tba. 
world. I have heard several girls say how they would like to get out, 
of the life, and out of the place. From those I know, I think thatk' 
cruel parents and mistresses cause many to be driven there. One lodgings 

house keeper, Mrs. , goes out dressed respectable, and pawns any 

stolen property, or sells it at public- houses.' 

" To show then the actual state of these lodging-houses from the testi- 
mony of one who has heen long resident in them, I give the following state- 
ment. It was made to me hy a man of superior education and intelli* 
geoce (as the tone of his narrative fully shows), whom circumstance^ 
which do not affect the object of my present letter, and therefore need 
not be detailed, had reduced from t^uence to beggary, so that he wtW' 
compelled to he the constant inmate of those places. All the othoe 
statements that I obtained on the subject — and they wi 
were corroborative of his account to the very letter: — 

" ' I have been familiar, unfortunately for me, with low lodging- 
houses, both in town and country, for more than ten years, I consider 
that, as to the conduct of these places, it is woi-se in London than in. 
the country — while in the country the character of the keeper ia worse 
than in London, although but a small difference can be noted. The 
worst I am acquainted with, though I haven't been in it lately, i 
the neighhourhoiMi of Drury-lane — this is the worst, both for filth and J 
for the character of the lodgers. In the room where I slept, which v 
like a barn in size, the tiles were off the i-oof, and as theie was no.T 
ceiling, 1 could see the blue sky from where I lay. That may be altered 
now. Here I slept in what was called the single men's room, and it 
was confined to men. In another part of the house was : 
married couples, as it was called; but of such apartments I can tell you 
more concerning other houses, I'or the bed with the view of the blui 
sky I paid 3d. If it rained there was no shelter. I have slept in i 
room in Brick-lane, Whiteohapel, in which were fourteen beds. In the 1 
next bed to me, on the one side, was a man, his wife, and three children, I 
and a man and his wife on the other. They wei-e Irish people, and I t 
believe the women were the men's wives — as the Irish women generally j 
are. Of all the women that resort to these places, the Irish are far the J 
best for chastity. All the beds were occupied, single men being mixed 
with the couples of the two sexes. The question is never asked, when a 
man and woman go to a lodging-house, if they are man and wife. All 
must pay before they go to bed, or be turned into the street. These 
beds were made — as all the low lodging-house beds are — of the worst 
cotton flocks, stuffed in coarse, strong canvas. There is a pair of sheets, , 
a blanket, and a rug. I have known the bedding to be unchanged for ] 
three months; but that is not general. The beds are an average size. 
Dirt is the rule with them, and cleanliness the eKception. They a 
infested with vermin. I never met with an exception. No o 
required to wash before going to bed in any of these places (except at I 



am 

i ■ 
t 

II 






(UDSES or PEOamXTIOB. 81 

& very few, where a very dirty fellow would not be admitled). nnleas lie 
haa beeu walking on a wet day without shoes or stocking and then he 
must bathe his feet. The people who slept in the room I am deacribing 
were chiefly young men, almost all si:Gompaiued by young females. I 
haye seen girls of fifteen sleep with " their chape" — in some places with 
yontha of from sixteen to twenty. There is no objection to any boy or 
girl occupying a bed, even tliough the keeper knows that they were 
previoUBly strangers to each other. The accommodation for purposes of 
decency is very bad in some places. A piul in the middle of the room, 
to which both sescs may resort, is a fi^quent arrangement. Ho delicacy 
or decency is ever observed. The women are, I think, worse than the 
nten. If any one, posseesing a sense of shame, says a word of rebuke, be 
is at once assailed, by the women in particular, with the coarsest words 
in the language. The Irish women are as bad as the others with ree^>ect 
to langiuige ; but I have known them keep themselves covered in beil 
when the other women were outraging modesty or decency. The Irish 
vill sleep anywhere to save a halfpenny a night, if they have ever so 
.Uuch money.' [Here he stated certain gross acts common to lodging- 
' which cannot be detailed in print.] 'It is not uncommon for a 

>, man to take a girl out of the streets to these apartments. Some 
I same as coramoo brothels, women lieing taken in at all hours 
of the day or night. In m.ost, however, they must stay all night as a 
married couple. In dressing orimdressing there is no regard to decency; 
while diagusting blackguardism is often carried on in the conversation 
of the inmates. I have known decent people, those that are driven to 
such places from destitution, perhaps for the first time, shocked and 
disgusted at what they saw. I have seen a decent married pair eo 
shocked and disgusted, that they have insisted on leaving the place, and 
have left it.' " 

Although a large number of women fall victims as above, it cannot be 
denied that others early evince a natural indisposition to do work when 
they might obtain it, and may thus be said to court admission into the 
ranks of prostitution. That idleuess and vanity are almost inevitable 
bequesta trom parent to child, is proved by the fact that the children of 
the numerous diseased prostitutes, consigned by the police to the St, 
La^e Hospital in Paiis, notwithstanding all thereligious teachings of the 
Sisters of Charity, and the excellent secular education given thera within 
walls of that institution, where they are received as old as seven or 
jht years, almost invariably become prostitutes. The foundlings, or 
ierted children, oftentimes illegitimate, who crowd our workhouses, 
s in like manner a very fruitful source for the recruitment of the 
metropolitan pav6. 

With the absolute neglect of children by parents, and the interminable 
scheming of lustful men, I may end the roll of causes wiiich have ope- 
rated ill this direction since the dawn of civilization, and, singly or com- 
bined, will so continue, I presume, to oi)erate for all time. I should not 
be doing my duty to the sex it is my aim to benefit, if I did not press 
into their service the following passage from my cAffoal de hataiUe, the 
"Westminster Review" article, which has, I believe, exhausted this part 
of the question, and for whose author I Iinve no better way than this 
of expressing my admiration : — 



r 



'33 CAUSES or prostitctios. 

" Mauj' — and these are commonly the most innoceat and the most 
wronged of all — are deceived by unreal marriages ; and in these casea 
their culpability consists in the folly which confided in their lover to 
the extent of concealing their intention from their friends— in all cases 
a weak, and in most cases a blameable, concealment; but surely not one 
■worthy of the fearful punishment which orertakes it Many — far more 
than would generally he believed — fall from pure unknowingness. Their 
affections are engaged, their confidence secured; thinking no evil them- 
selveH, they permit caresses which in themselves, and to them, indicate 
no wrong, aud are led on ignorantly and thoughtlessly from one fami- 
liarity to Hnother, not conscious where those familiarities must inevitably 
end, till ultimate resistance becomes almost impossible; and they leant, 
when it is too late — what women can never leani too early, or impress 
their minds — that a lover's encroachments, to be repelled 

iccesafuUy, must be repelled and negatived at the very outset." 




CHAPTER V. 

DISEASES THE RESULT OF PHOSTITDTION. 

I HATE now to conaider one or two of the moat ordinary conaequeuces 
of promiBcuou.i mtercounse. In passing througli (as she gensrolly doos, 
whether rising or falling in the scale) this phaae of her career, the pros- 
titute almost inevitably contracts some form of the contagious (vulgo 
" infectious") diseases, which in medicine we term '■ venereal."* How 
these are passed from sex to sez and back again, ad injinilum, it were 
BuperfluDus here to illustrate. I have treated at length elaewhere, under 
the head of Bpeoific disease, of the laws which seem to govern these com- 
plaints, and of the influences which favour their diffusion, and the reader 
will, I dare say, gladly dispense with the re-introduction of those topics 
here. I propose, however, in the following pages, to offer some idea of 
their importance, as being the first and foremost of the effects of prosti- 
tution coming under the notice of the surgeon. 

If the hospitals of London preserved lists of all cases which come 
under their care, whether as in or out patients, their tabulation would 
be no difficult task, and I should be enabled to show the exact proportion 
which the venereal and its sub-classes bear to one another, and to the 
maas of disease. But in the absence of any such statistics, the reader 
will, I hope, be content with a few official, semi-official, and non-official 
figures I have been at some pains to collect, and will observe, by the way. 
Low unprejjared must be the profession itself, much more go the public, 
to deal comprehensively with the subject. 

LONDON CIVIL HOSPITAL ESPERIEMCK. 

St. Bartkolomew^a Soapital. 

The following table gives the symptoms of twenty-nine female patients 
examined by Mr. Stanley, as candidates for admission into St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital, on Thursday the 12th of November, 1840 : — 

1. Condylomata, tho elevated form. 

2. Condjlomata, flattaDed, einoriated. 

3. Tabarcular aniption coveriog the whole body. 

4. CondyloiData, eloTSlflil, mncb excoriation aroimd. 
6. Ulceration of the buttock, very exUnaiTe. 

6. EaormonB eicoriBtion of and around the genital organs. 



• Venereal DiseasBB are affoctions more or leas directly the oonaeqnence of Beinal 
interconree. They emhrare two grand divifdona — vis., "specifio" and "non-Bpeoific." 
Under the fonnor 1 include sjptiliB and itb eeiinelw ; under the latter come goaorrh(ea 
and its train of eviln. 



I 



34 DISEASES THE BE9CLT OF PEOSTITUTIOS. 

7. CLancrea, eicariatious, and large condjloinai. 

8. CutnljlomalooB Bwelling, and pbjmoaia of tlie prseputium clituridea. , 

9. TuWcalar empttoii, sure (BDperGcial) throat. 

10. CoDdjlomalo. 

11. AbBcesB in the clitoris. 

12. CoQdjlomata, open bnbo (slight). 

13. Tnbercnl^r ernptlon, condylomata, nloeraled. 

14. Condylomata, enperfiml nlcoration of tbe throat. 

15. Saperfidal nlceratioa of the tbraat. 
Id. BieoriaUon of the genital organs, sore throat (saperiicul). 

17. 1, Longitadinat fiasnre of tlie tongne, 2, bald patcLes. 

18. Small tubenular emption (uaiTet^). 
1 S. OoDonhcea, bubo in left groia. 

20. Sores around the anus. 

21. <ih>notrho», eiooriation very extenuve. 

22. TabixcDiaT sniptioa, iritis, sore throat (EDperficial). 

23. White phageclirnii; olcoration of the internal part of valva (ler; sevi 

24. So™ on the labium. 

25. Baised eoDdjlomala around the anus (clean, without esicuriatiOD). 

26. Large coadjlomata. 

27. Condylomata, tubercular (red), eruption around tie genital oi^ana. 

28. Condylomata, tuberenlor eruption. 

29. Condjlomata, between the toea, aore throat (superficial). 

Twenty-four cases, classed aa imder, presented themselves to Mr. 1 
Ijawrence, for admission into tlio same hospital, on Thursday the 26th of I 
November, in the same year : — 

1. Bubo, sore at Uie entrance of vagina. 

2. Sores. 

S. Condylomata, excoriation. 

i. Itch, gDuorrhiEii, excoriation. 

S. Sapporating bnbo, gonorrhcea. 

8. Warta, gonorrhaa. 

7. Very large sores on thighs. 

8. Two large sorea on Tulva, two buboes. 

9. OonorrlicQi, excoriated tongue. 

10. ExcoriattDna around tbe anue. 

11. Condylomata of the vulva (very red), two buboes. 

12. Teiy large condylomata, eiooriaUon of the throat. 

13. Condylomata, itch, and a curioua eruption. 

14. A BmsU sore on vnlva, eruption on body, sore throat. 

15. Discbarge frriin vagina, raised condylomata. 

16. Sores on the labium, perhaps primary. 
IT. Condylomata. 

IS. Eczema, itch, phagedsnio sores. 

19. Condytomals, excoriation very erxtenuve. 

20. Very large condylomata, white excoriation between toes, and on thrjat. 

21. Condylomata, veiy extensive offecUon of tongue. 

23. Discharge from vagina, superficial ulceration. 

24. Two buboes, condylomata. 

Feeling the importance of presenting the experience of this hospital, 
whieh now, as in 1840, takes the lead of all others in the comprehen- 
siveneBS of its relief, bronght down to the present time, I availed 
myself of the politeness of Mr. Holmes Coote, who has favoured me 
with the following notes of applieants' cases. I may hereafter have 
occasion to allude to a fact which 1 will now state broadly — viz., that 
in no continental capital conld such frightfully aggravated forms and 
complications of the venereal disease be found as present themselves, I 



DISEASES THE IIESDLT OF PROSTITUTION. 35 

may say weekly, to the surgeons of St. Bartholomew's, in the generally 
Tery healthy metropolis of EugUnd. This indication of the severity 
which the oomplaint ia permitted to attuin, in a country who^ climate 
wonld not favour it, waa particularly commented upon by M. Kicord, 
when he inspected the hospitals of London with me a few years ago. 

Canes Examined/or Admission into St. Sartholameio'a Hospital 
{June, 1857) 6y Mr. Uolmes Coote. 

OlWH. 

1. Oonoirlires, omple 1 

2. CFoDOtrhiEii, vitb flatteoed and o:ici)rifte«d mucous tubeicles S 

8. Sap«rficial Borea of tiiB labia, discharge from the vugina 4 

i. Clceratoi veirurae 2 

5. Qonorrhfeo, superficial ulceTaLioa of ]ab[& and nymplue, cedema of the ex- 
ternal orgnjis... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

B. mcerated bubo 2 

7. Superficial njreration of a»lernal organs, with dlsohargc, and bubo in auiii 

8. Omupa of papuhe orer the face, trunk, nnd limbi, upon an inflamed bnae, 

thickening of the mucous membrane of the tongue, inflammation luid pro- 
hable nkemtion of the munoua membrane of the throat 1 

9. SnperGcial nlceiatiou of the tonsila and soft palate 2 

10. FrituHiy Boro, with indurated hiuie the fize nf a shilling on the labium 1 

11. Hucous tubercles occupying the wliole entrance of the Tagina 1 

12. Ciironic discharge, ulceration on the OS tines) (speculum) 1 

Thos proving that venereal disease presents the same fehtares in 
London hospitals now that it did seventeen years ago, when the first 
table was compiled. 

It so happens that when these notes were taken, the applicants were 
far less numerous than on the occasions above referred to. I am enabled 
to state, however, on the very best authority, that whatever progres-s 
modem aurgery may have made against the intensity of venereal com- 
plaints, it has made none against their frequency. 

In 1849, I made an analysis of the surgical out-patients of Messrs. 
Lloyd and Wormald, at that time assistant-surgeons to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital. They amounted to 5327 during the year; of whom 2513, 
or nearly half, suffered from venereal diaeasea : — 



Hence it appears that about one in every five out-patients was a woman 

In the "Medical Times" for 1854, page 587, I find in a report made 
by Mr. Coote, on his out-patients at St. Bartholomew's during four 
months, he states that out of 493, the whole number, 212 or 43 per cent, 
were venereal cases. Of this number there were 155 males and 57 
females, which would seem to favour an approximate calculation, that 
one female infected on an average three males. The aame gentleman, 
in his recent " Report on some important points of Syphilis," informs 
us that in St. Bartholomew's Hospital between 7000 and 8O00 jiatienta 



3S 



DISEASES THE RESULT OF PB09TITUTJON. 



of both aexea and of all ages, are annually seen labouring under venereal 

Mse. Of those, the proportion of women to men is as 3 to 6, and 
of infants to adulta as 6 to 1000, The moat prevalent form is gonor- 
rhcea. In the months of September ajid October the number of primary 

1 secondary cases were nearly equai About 400 females are 
admitted into the foul wards of St Bartholomew's Hospital duiing 
(he year. Bee p. 138, 

On the 21st of April, 1857, ft cold and wet day, therefore reducing to 
somewhat below the average the attendance of applicactB for relief, I 
saw Mr. Paget treat his out-patients at St. Bartholomew's: 123 nien, 

men, and children, passed under my eye, and out of theae there were 
59 venereal and 64 non-venereal cases. 

From this it would appear, primA facie, that dow, aa in 1849 and 
1854, nearly one-half of the surgical out-patienta treated at St. 
Bartholomew's should be classed under the former of these headings. 
But Mr. Paget very properly called my attention to a fact, which, by 
' e way, should be taken into consideration by those who undei'take the 
construction of such tables as I have recommended, that syphilis is a 
mplaint oflong duration, and the patient suffering from it is constantly 
coming to the out-patient department, whereas the 
are generally disposed of in a few visits. T therefore took 
distinguish the new cases, and I found that eight of them were 
vener^ and sixteen non-venereal — say 33 per cent, of the former, and 
66 per cent, of the latter. 

Mr, PageSs Ovi-patients, Male and FenuiZe, St. Bartholomew's Sospital, 
April 2nd, 1857. 

Gonorrbceii 

Swelled testis 

Simple chBuctea 

Indurated ditto 

Secondary symptoms 

Tertiary ditto 

Infantile syphilis 
Btricture ... 

Intsi veoeroal csmb. 



The very scanty appearance of gonorrhcca in the above tables, is to be 
accounted for by its being treated in another department of the hospital, 
the casualty ward. The paucity of primary syphilis, again, among Mr. 
Paget's cases, may be due to the fact that one of his colleagues, who ia 
at the present time occupied in syphilitic investigations, might have ob- 
tained a temporary preponderance of such cases from the receiving ward. 

The heavy proportion of secondary symptoms, under various forms, 
is worthy of notice. There were 27 cases of secondary, and 12 of ter- 
tiaiy symptoms, which must all have oiiginated months previously. 
This fearful tenaeity of the disease is not peculiar to one surgeon's cases 
or one hospital. Mr. Coote,in his Treatise on 8yphiliB(p. 15), observes; — ■ 
" In the month of October, 1856, out of 93 venereal cases seen by my- 
self and one of my colleagues, there were 19 cases of gonorrhcea and 7i 



1 



i 




r 



' PBOSTITUTION. 



37 

of flypliitia. Of these Bjrphilitic casoB, 35 were primaiy Borea, and 39 
coDStitutional afiuctious. In the month of September there were, out of 
81 patients, 34 case!) of gonorrhtsa, 23 casca of primaiy syphilis, antl 29 
of oonatitutional sTphilis. 

Royai Free Hotpital. 

As I was desiroua of knowing the class of out-patients, and the pro- 
portion of veuereal cases seekiijg the aid of an institution that reaJly 
opens its doors and gives gratuitous advice to all comei-s, I gladly accepted 
the invitation of Mr. de Meric to see liica treat his cases at the Jtoyal 
Free Hospital, in March last (1857). 

I spent three hours veiy pi'ofitably in ohaervation of the male oasea, 
m7 engagements not allowing me bo wait and see the females. The 
results are shown in the following table, which ia very simply constructed, 
as follows : — Divide a sheet of ruled foolscap paper into two equal 
columns. Appropriate one of these to the more usual forms of venereal 
diseases, written down in order; and the other to non-venereal affectiona 
en masse. As each patient is inspected, make a cross upon the proper 

I line, and, when the consultation is over, you will have a tabulated view 



Mr. de Meric's Ovi-Palienlg (Males) at ilie Royal Free Uoa^ntal, 
March 3rd, 1857. 



W»rta 

SveUed testis 

SpeTmatarrhcea (oDanisia) 

Chancre 

Indurated chancre 

I^agediemc chnncre 

Bubo 

Secondor; BjmptomB 

Tertiarr syphilis of face ... . 
Tertiary aflbctions of elun 

TiituI venerea] ... . 

Non-yenereal, total . 



... 9 



Each of the above eases was classed according to its most salient 
symptom, although it frequently happened that a patient presented 
Beveml forms of the same diseaae. Thus any one, at very small cost of 
trouble, may prepare elementary papers for statistics ; and I venture to 
impress upon medical iv^aders, without pretending to elaborate a schemE^ 
and I dare say only following in the track of all judicious professors, that 
if they will adopt the habitual preparation of similar forms, carefully 
dated, and i-etum them to some of the medical or statistical associations, 
some very valuable tables might, in course of time, be constructed, whicli 
could not fail to be advant^eous to tiie profession and to humanity. The 
results of the table are such as any one conversant with the working of 
syphilis in large capitals would Lave anticipated. Out of 87 males, 64 
were the venereal cases tabulated above, and 23 mixed diseases, such as 



36 



DI3EASE6 THE RESULT OF FROSTITUTION, 



1. Among the former, I found 
equally abundiint. These wiU 
long maasea of men who neglect 
Dus forms of sccondaFj symptom^ 
ere rife. I noticed onlj one caae 
eruptii 



bad fingers, ulcerated legs, and so 
gonorrlicea and secondary symptor 
always be the moat frequent forms 
themselves. I did not tabulate the t 
hut affections of the skin and tongue 
of rupia, and one of iritis. Papular i 

I am disposed to attnbute some share in the diminished virulence of 
venereal complaints to the opening of this and other perfectly free insti- 
tutions, togeUier with a slight increase of cleauliness among the poor — 
though by no means proportional, as yet, to the increaae of water supply, — 
the institution of public baths, and the greater cheapness of soap and 
clothing. 

The forms of chancre I witnessed were not serious, and phagedsena 
was rare, although the patients I saw were mostly from the very drega 
of society. I should add, that the weather had been mild and dry for 
the previous three weeks, both very favourable conditions for the cure 
of this class of out-patient disease. 

In arranging my papers, I lately lighted upon a similar table, made 
fifteen years ago, when the same department waa under the care of Mr. 
Gay. It will be observed to correspond with the foi-egoing one, as re- 
gards the relative proportions of venereal and non-venereai cases : — 

Mr. Gay's Out-Fatients {Males) at the Royal Free Hospital, 
August 9(A, 1842. 

Balanllis 6 

Gonorrhffli 32 

Drianrj fistula I 

Primarj ayphilia 10 

Tertiary ditto I 

Bubo 2 

Total venereal fl3 

Total uon-Tenereal 18 

The excessive proportion of gonorrhcea cases here is remarkable, 
amounting, as it does, to 50 per cent, of the whole; the non-venereal 
complaints presented nothing unusual. It would appear, then, that two- 
thii-ds of the male applicants for relief at this institution have been 
driven to it by venereal affecticnB ; and it would seem probable that this 
has been going on for fifteen years at least. 



UILITAItT HOSPITAL EXPEKIENCB. 

Admienona into So»pital /or Vanereai Affections among fJie Dragoon I 
Gma/rds and Dragoons servin(/ in the United Kingdom during Sev 
Years and a Quarter preeiouB to 1837. 
From the " Statistical Keporta on the Sickness, Mortality, and In- 
validing among the Troops in the United Kingdom, the Mediterranean, 
and British America," presented to Parliament in 1839, I extract tha 
following table; — 



k 



DISEASES TUE RESULT OF PROSTITUTION. 39 

Sfphilu primitiTs 1,J1S 

Sjpbilis ooDsecutiTa 33S 

UlouB penis non Bjpbtliljcuiii 2,141 

Babo umplex SH 

Quheiia a;pbUoide» 4 

GonorrbiEa 2,449 

Hernia huuoraliH 714 

Strintun urethree lOO 

Phymooa et pornpfajmoiiB 27 

Total cases during mtcd and a-qoarter jeara S,0T2 

Total aggregate strength far ditto , ... ... 44,(111 

Annual mean atrengtb fur ditto 6,153 

Thus 181 per 1000, or about one niaa in five, ajipear to liave been 
attacked. Primary ulcers on tbe penis were more numci'oue than dis- 
diarges from the urethra, the numbers being 3559 primary iJcers, 2449 
caaea of gonorrhcea ; say, iibuut one soldier in twelve sufiered from the 
former, one in eighteen from tbe latter, once during the period. 

The aboTi! table was printed in the last edition of my work " On the 
X)iseaBe8 of tbe Generative Organs." I extract the following table 
^m a subsequent Beport on army diseases &om 1837 to 1S47. 

.dmiaaions into Hoapibd from, Venereal Disease and Deatlts among the 
Dragoon Guards amd Dragoons, tite Foot Guards, and In/a/ntry of 
the Line sercing in tlie United Kingdom from, April \3t, 1837, to 
March 31»(, 1847. 





CivBlrJ. 


Foot Quards 


Infimtrj. j Total. 


Death.. 




64,374 


40,120 


160,103 264,697 




Sjphilis primitiya 


1,398 

462 

2,920 

1,495 

3,725 

1,019 

131 

6 

52 


4,769 
536 

989 
2,198 

ess 

92 
'18 


6,157 

2,086 

13,380 

8,835 

12,988 

2,788 

198 

7 

217 


12,322 

3,083 

17,183 

9.119 

18,911 

4,34S 

421 

12 

237 


I 
8 
1 
1 

4 
2 


BnlBBimple. 

Cronoirnoza 

Striotnra nretlusB 

Cacliexia Bjphiloidea 

PhjmoBia et paraplijmoBiB 

Total 

Nnmterof menperlOOOof 
Btrengtli admitted during 


11,205 


10,043 


44,435 


65,683 


17 


206 


250 


277 


257 





Dr. Balfour, who, with Sir Alexander Tulloch, da-ew up the report 
from which this table was compiled, has kindly fiivoured me with the 
following particulara, which may serve to illustrate it: — 

In answer to tbe inquiiy why this distinction ia made between the 
foot-guarda and infejitry, he informed me that the line contains a large 
proportion of recruits, and of men returning from foreign service ; 
whereas in tbe foot-guarda there is usually a much gi-eater proportion of 
soldiers who have arrived at matmrity on tbe one hand, and who, on the 
other, have not served in foreign climates. As these circumstances were 



4 MISULT OF PBOSTITUTION. 



^^V likely to have affected tbe amount of aicknesa and mortality, tlie retoniB 

^^M of the two classes were kept separate in preparing the tahles. 

^^M Dr. Balfour also I'emarka, that the meaning of the distinct clasai£ca- 

^^B tion of " Syphilis primitiva" and " TJlcua penis uon syphiliticum," is not 

^^M in pursuance of any written regulation or printed direction. The sur- 

^^P geou is at full liberty to enter his cases under either title. In answer to 

^■^ my doubt — resulting from the discrepancy of the tahle with my pre- 
conceptions — whether all cases of gonorrhtea are noted in the army, ho 
told me that, ad &r as his experience went, no great number of them 
escaped notice, as health inspections were made once a week, which is 

^^ the general rule in the service. If a soldier is found at inspection to be 

^^L labourin^r under disease, he is reported fur having concealed it to Ma 

^^U superior officer, who orders him punishment- drill on his discharge from 

^^H hospital. In order to induce him to apply early for relief, the soldier is 

^^1 told that if he do so, he may probably be only a few days instead of 

^^H several weeks under treatment. 

^^M It is contrary to tlie rules of the service to treat men out of 

^H hospital; even were it otherwise, the habits of the soldier and the 

^^m accommodation in barracks would not favour celerity of ci 

^^M I called Dr. Balfour's attention to the large number of army casea 

^^1 followed by hernia humoralis, the proportion of which exceeds what 

^^M are accustomed to see in private or in hospital practice. It follows about 

^^B one case in four of gonorrhcea in the army generally, and one in three 

^^H the cavalry ; and Cr. Balfour informs me it probably arisea among the 

^^H latter fi-om the efiects of horse exercise, and, speaking of the army 

^^1 generally, from the secret use of injections to check discharge, and the 

^^M exercise taken at drill when the man has not reported himself iu the 

^^H very earliest stage of the disease. As regards relapses among soldiers, 

^^B it is as difficult to say as iu private practice whether they are genuine i 

^^H in fact, &esh attacks. 

^^V If a man has chancre together with gonorrhcea or hernia humoralis, he 

^^1 would, probably, be entered as suffering from syphilis; but ample disere- 

^^1 tion is allowed to the surgeon. 

^^M The cases of syphilis primitiva among the household infantry seem 

^^B enormously to outnumber those in other corps, being one to every tea 

^^1 soldiers of the former against one in twenty-six of the infantry at large. 

^^M The proportion of syphilis oonsecutiva throughout the army is large, 

^^H being as one to four cases of syphilis pnmitiva. In the brigade of Guards, 

^^1 though the average of syphilis primitiva is heavy, as above stated, only 

^^1 11 per cent, of the caxes are followed by secondary symptoms, which, 

^^H however, follow 33 per cent, of the cases in the Line. It is not im- 

^H probable, I apprehend, that some portion of the heavy mortality attri- 

^^M buted to secondary syphilis would have been more accurately classed 

^H under the head of cachexia syphiloidea. 

^^B Dr. Balfour says a mild mercurial treatment is usually pursued ii 

^^B army, for hard sores especially. Some surgeons give no mercury 

^^M this depends upon the tfiacrotion of the individual. Sir James M'Grigor, 

^H the late Director-General of the Army Medical Department, issued a. 

^^H circular some yeai-s ago, soon after the publication of Mr. Boss's work, 

^^1 in which attention was called to the subject : but full discretionary 

^^1 power was lell in the hands of the surgeon. 



I 



DI8EASE3 THE RESULT OF PROSTITCTION. 



41 



An apparent increase will be observed in the number of diseased 
soldiers Juring the second of the above periods. The annua! number of 
diseased cavalry in the first table was 181 ; and in the second 206 per 
1000 men. This iuorease would appear enormous j and it is quite an open 
question whether, iu truth, it represents an aggravation of dissipation 
and disease, in spite of the advances of scienoe and more caveful army 
management, or, as Dr. Balfour, who drew up these valuable tables, 
suggests, is apparent only, resulting from more painstaking and systematic 
collection of returns, for the continuation of which I shall look with 
anxiety. 

It must be remembered, also, that the same man may be in hospital 
several times in a year, and thus figure upon paper as several patients ; 
but, making every allowance, the documents before us show amply how 
great is the enemy we have to deal with. 

It is cheering, nevertheless, to observe that the absolute deaths in the 
last decennial period upon an aggregate of 254,597 men numbered only 
17; and happily, also, we now rarely meet with those losses of the palate, 
nose, or portions of the cranium which our museums show must formerly 
have been frequent. 

I will now endeavour to Show the condition of a particular regiment. 
In 1851, Dr. Gordon, surgeon to the 57th, read a paper before the 
Surgical Society of Ireland, in which he states (see " Dublin Medical 
Press," February 26th, 1851) that, duriug the year ending 31st March, 
1850, the following number, out of an average strength of 408 men, 
were treated for venerea! diseases in the Head-quarters Hospital : — 



Species of Tenorcal Diacaso, 


1 


P 


piy. 


Syphilis primitiTa 

SyphLliB cansacQt:™ 

TJIena peaia non-ajphiJitleuni 

BuboBimplBK 

Qonorrhnjn 

Hernia bumoralis 

Total 


63 
13 

2 
10 
32 

S 


1210 
462 

43 
381 
481 

42 


£66 10 3 

25 6 11 
2 3 7 

16 * E 

26 1 1 
2 6 6 


113 


251B 


136 10 9 



On this the Doctor observes ; " For the sake of convenience, however, 
let us assume that the actual sum is 136?. for an average strength of 500 
men; then, as we have taken the very low average of 24,000 as the 
strength of the army in Ireland, we find that, according to this calcula- 
tion, the sum annually lost to the State, in consequence of the prevalence 
of venereal diseases among them, amounts to no less than 6528?."* 

* It msy be stoted, ttal althonBh the appfirent loss to the country is 66281. worth of 
the pay of suMiera put hoTi de cumbat, about five-aiiths tlieteof is reoovereii, as lOd. per 
day it stopped from eflpb man's py while he is in hospital. The loBS to the conntry 
JB his time, nliieh, huwcver, during peace, is noD- productive. 



DISEASES THE BESOI.T OP PKOSTITIITION. 



KAVT EXPEEIEHCE. 

from official returns extending over tlie seven years from 
1830 to 1836 inclusive, and relating to an aggregate of 21,493 mer 
ployed in the " home Bervice," — that ia to say, in onr ports and about 
our coasts, — that 2880, say 134 per thousand, or 13-4:0 per cent., w 
attacked with venereal affeetiona during that period. 

In the year 1851 the following report was published, canying on 
ftxperience from lb37 to 1843, both years inclusive : — 

Report o/lTte Health o/the Nafl>y {Home Service) for i/te Seven Tears 
from 1837 to 1843. 





„,. 


183S. 


leae. 


im. 


1^1. 


1813. ISB. 


T«UL 


Ste 


doDonrhiea... 






101 


122 


200 


207 


205 


1010 


31-9 


aferietnre ... 






12 


IB 


24 


17 


i 


85 


2'S 


Orahitia ... 


30 




18 


26 


60 


33 


eo 


236 


1-6 


Syphilis ... 


ns 


122 


1«2 


176 


820 


276 


5U 


14S6 


*6-l 



report, that on board of 






It appears from another table in the 
ships employed "variously" — i.e., not exoli 

(when the men are apt to give way to excesses in foreign ports and with 
a variety of seriously affected ■women), the proportions of syphilis 
nearly double those given above, being 73 against 46 per thousand 
men, while the gonorrhtea patients were 44 against 31 per thousand. 

These diseases, then, are more common ameug soldiers than among 
aailoi's, owing probably to the more limited opportunities of 1 
infected which the profession of the latter leaves open to them, 

MERCHAST SEEVICE EXPERIENCE. 

In 1851, Mr. Busk, surgeon to the hospital ship Dreadnought, Idndlj' 

furnished me with the returns of the venereal cases that were treated in 

that institution. These embrace a period of five years, durii:g whicb 

13,081 medical and surgical cases were admitted, of which no less thaa 



I 



3703, or 28 


per cent., w 


ere 


venerea! ;- 


- 










Total 


BnrgioJ, 




Prnr". 


rtion Arer.™ 












'<rtet-i3: 




admitted. 






adnus. 


January 


1,218 


360 


303 


Bfi 


6 22-1 












1,015 


303 


273 




5 21-8 


March ... 










1,073 


31 B 


327 


31 


2 20 '0 


April ... 












272 


248 


2'/ 


2 20-8 


May ... 










971 


342 


251 


2« 


7 23-4 














309 




■iti 


5 El -3 


Jnly ... 










1,082 


365 


300 


'^i> 


J 20-7 


August 










1,093 


336 


320 


3(1 


5 24-2 












1,143 


33* 


S48 


2K 


) 23-6 


October 














354 


H1 




November 














360 


^■'. 




December 










1,236 


3S9 


302 


28 


5 23 B 


AnaD 


a totals . 






13,081 


39S7 


3703 


28 


3 22-5 




DISE.VSEa THE RESCLT OF PROSTITDTIOS. 4-3 

Tn a communication tLe same gentlemtm baa Teiy recently fikvoured 
me with, he states liis im^iression tliat tUe niiniber of venereal patients is 
now considerably less than formeriy; and from what he can see of the 
patients, he is satisfied that there is a far les» number of severe cases. 

As &r, then, as we may judge from the data above cited, venereal dis- 
eases are still very common among large bodies of otherwise healthy males 
(engaged in the public service. At the same time scurvy, and hospital 
gangrene, have nearly disappeared from the reports. The returns do 
Sot enable us to arrive at any accurate conclusion how fcr they incapa- 
tutate their victims from duty. Dr. Wilson, who miiat be supposed to 
1>e a competent judge, inasmuch as he has compiled the returns, tells me, 
that on an average each man so affected is incapacitated from doing duty 
Ibr a month. In the army, his stay in hospital ha^ been averaged at six 
■weeks. In the return furnished by Mr. Buiik, the average stay in hospital 
is stated to be twenty-two days; this is similar to that in the army (see 
p. 41); and during five years the expense of venereal patients vras 4165^, 
I doubt whether venereal complaints, although evidently more severe 
foimeriy, were ever more common than at present, or whether, since 

tayphilis was first treated in hospitals, the laige proportion here noticed, 
namely two out of three out-patients at the Fi-ee Hospital, nearly one in 
.two at St. Bartholomew's, one out of every three at the Dreadnauyht, 
"one out of four in the army, one out of seven in the navy, at any former 
period suffered from venereal disease, — and yet many believe that the 
disease ia declining. That such is not the case, if number be any 
criterion, must be admitted by all who weigh wel! the above statistics, 

tand compare them with the statements met with in nearly all the books 
that have treated of syphilis. I think the surgeon to Queen Elizabeth, 
who nearly three centuries ago penned the following words, could he rise 
from his grave to see the present condition of the complaint, would oor- 
roborate my opinion ; — 

" If I he not deceived in mine opinion (friendly reader), I suppose the 
disease ifcselfe wns never more rife in Naples, ItaJie, France, or Spaine, 
than it is this day in the Eealme of England.* I may speake boldly 
because I speake truly; and yet I speake it with griefe of minde that in 
the Hospital of Saint Bartholomew, in London, there hath been cured of 
this disease, by me and three others, within five years, to the number of 
one thousand and more. I speake nothing of Saint Thomas Hospital, 
and other houses about the citie, wherein an infinite multitude are daily 
cared. It Jiappened very seldom in the HospUoll of Saint Bartkoloinew's 
vjkUat I etayed tliere, amongst every tioenty diseased tJtat were taken 
. into tliiS said houge, which wag moat cortmumly on t}m Monday, ten of (Item 
' with Lues Venerea." — A hriefe and necessary Treatise 
vching the cvre of the disease now vsvally called Lvee Venerea, by W. 
BCHowes, one of her Maiesttes Chirurgions, 169G, p. 149.+ 

If my inferences are correct, that venereal diseases, though decreasing 
[*in virulence, are numerically as prevalent as ever, where single men are 

* Hr. Coobi colls attention to the rarity of Tcnerenl diseatug in t!ie East (whera poly- 
.gamy U nniverBa!), whieb it ia hurd to Kceount for, ualexs indeed, B/lia he, It hns been 
f Inbvduced, bs ia Uie caae in our Indian poBsessJutin, b; the formation of large military 
BVlepOt^ or the conBliDCtion of cities. The pnctice of giolf gamy Booma to have been intro- 
dnced in conaeqaence of the rapid evaneacencs of fomnte beauty and attractiTenera. 
*(■ A copy of thia woik con lie Been in the libriiry of tha Medioo-Ghinugical Society. 



DlSEASEa THE BESCTLT OF PBOSTirgTIOS-. 

massed together, is it not time to consider, whetherin the present advanced 
state of ciyilizationj aome methodical steps should not be taken still 
ferther to mitigate and, as nearly as may be, eradicate the evil, more 
especially as we have bo succesafuUy operated against many othera 
"the thousand natural shocks that flesh is heir to." 

Truth demands the acknowledgment tha,t the individual affections 
both in England and on the Continent, are less severe in the present 
day. In but few cases do the symptoms run high, or is the patient per- 
manently crippled by the disease. I myself can testify to enormous 
changes in this respect during the last twenty years. The Irightful 
cases, which formerly were really not uncommon, are now very rare 
in private practice. The weekly average of deaths from syplulia in 
London, within the last ten years, varies from 1-6 to 4-3. Phagedaeoa, or 
" the black lion of Portugal," was formerly to be met with weekly in 
our hospitals. It is now an exceptional case. Sir Astley Cooper statc^ 
that in the St. Giles' Workhouse at one time and in one room there were 
seven of these terrible cases, of which five were fatal Ineednot say that, 
thanks to the improved treatment, and the many channels of relief 
available to the poor, these wholesale calamities are put a atop to, 
although an isolated case, as the Eegistrar-General's tables tell ua, may 
every now and then result in a fatal termination.' 

The registered mortality is just at present considerably above the 
s will be seen in the following 



TabU of Registered Deaths fr 
cfd 


=cer 


years 


3 in corresponding weeks 


Week. 


■» 


,J,-„ 


vm 


1 


„J,..J..,.'..., 


Meu 


.S.7. 1 
















DeatliB. 


Tenp. 




t™p. 


32nd 


\ 


3 


• 


\ 


\ 


1 


4 


3 


I 


\ 


3-a 


62-4° 
83-8= 


I 


68-= 

Bsa" 

65'U° 

«... 



CONTINENTAL EXPERIENCE. ■ 

The different forms of venereal disease prevalent at the present day 
in Paris will clearly appear to the student of the following table, which I 
made up wliile going round M. Kicord's wards at the Hfipital du Midi, on 
the 14th of October, 1855. I may premise that be sees out-patients 
twice a week, and selects from them the most argent and surgically . 
interesting cases for immediate admission into the house. On the day i 

* It appears tbst the French armj quartered b Rome in IS60 Buffered under most J 
severe Forme of primarj syphilia. In a few dajs after infection gangrene of the prepnce-fl 
took place, aud severe forma of huboes were very common. ConaLitutJODal Eymploms I 
came on more quickly Chan in France, and showed themiielTea in two-tUirds of tbe cases ;.% 
whereas in French military hospitals secondary symptoms are exceptional. Yet the 
treatment (mercurial) was employed. It was likewise remarked that iodide of pota^ 
■was more usefnl in primary and secondary eymptoms in Italy than in France. — M.Chalon, 
Chinirgien sons- aide : " Auooles dea Maladiee de laFeao," vol. iv., p. 161, lS)i, 




^^^ DISEASES THE RESULT OF 

of my visit the following forms of disease p 
the in-patieata : — 

Balanitis 

»P&raph/moBis 
CireumciBiuD 
OonorcliiBa 
VarioocelB 
Tnberale on penis 

Warta 

Svelled t«BticIe 

Piatnia, urinary 

Infecting ehanore 

I Chancre on gnin 
Orethral chancre 
Inoculated chancre 
Secpiginone chancre 
Indurated ditto 
Phagedenic ditto 
Butw) , 
Btrumous ditto 
Secondary Bjmptoms, papular 
Byphilitjc herpes 
CDudjlomata 
Secondor; eymptoma ^ 
Irilis 
Tertiary Hjmptoma 
DouWul 
D;»ea« 
Itch ., 
Sjphili 
Convali 



la of the akin 



Total 99 

On Easter Monday, tlie 2nd of April, 1850, when 1 also visited the 
same wards, there were a few beds vacant, but the foIlowiDg is the 
Teaum& of the cases — I append it for comparison sake : — 



Vesical catarrb .., 

Fhagedienic i^hancre.'. -^ - 

BpididymitiB 

Drinacy fictola 

VegetaWona 

Tertiary ayniptoma 

Simple chancre, non-indurated 

Gonorrbtea prffipuljalia 

SerofulouB aSection of the teatis 

Blenaoirhagia 

Striotnre 

Chancre of the anna 

(iloiorrliceat rheumatiam 

Albuminuria 

Hsmorrhoida 

Total 112 

The first thing that will strike the most casual observer, who looks 
>Yer the cases, is the large proportion of indurated chancres — thirty-three 



iO 



1JI3EA8ES THE HESULT OF PHOaiTTUTION, 



being in the 'vards at one time. Here the student may study induratioa, 
in all its forms. The frequency of this symptom in the wards depends 
uponM. Bicord's admission by preference, of those patients who present it. 

It would be vain and unsafe to attempt any estimate of the proportii 
of diseased prostitutes, who are following their calling in the streets of 
London. But the French authorities are at least enabled to show 
the exact proportion of disease among the limited number who are 
under police control, and the editors of the third edition of Parent- 
Duchatelet's work have added the following interesting table : — 

Annual Average of Syphilis wnumg ReghsUrei Froettlutes in Paris ii 
the Sviwrbs, aa well as the Unregistered. 



Yoar. 


^"^hnd to ^'" 
brothfl. within '" 


o, ID (he 
Jiiirba. 


u5f£. 


wompncap- 
tnred being 






seued. 


Di»eiuwi 




1845 


1 in 142 1 


n 59 


1 in 361 


line 


1848 


1 in ISl 1 


in 63 


1 in 183 




1817 


1 in 154 1 


in 61 


1 in 860 


linO 


1848 


1 in I2fi 1 


la 37 


1 in 181 


linS 


1849 


1 in 128 1 


ui 44 


lm200 


] infi 


18B0 


1 in 148 1 


in 47 


1 in 143 


linS 


1851 


1 in 198 1 


n 60 


1 in 180 


lin5 


18S2 


1 in 184 1 


n 76 


1 in 349 


linB 


1863 


1 in 183 1 


in 122 


1 in 402 


linS 


1854 


1 in na 1 


in 102 


1 in 370 


linl 



The greater proportion of disease affecting prostitutes attached to 
brothels is explained by the girls being compelled (particularly in 
lower description of house) to prostitute themselves to all comers, 
matter how numeroue, be they covered with rags or not, who can satisfy 
the demands of the dome de maison. But the woman living at large has 
1 choice left her whether or not she will tolerate a man she may think 



Among the registered females there were, in 1854, 358 case 
uterine disorder, and among the unregistered 282 — total, 640, 

Certain razzias made lately upon the clandestine prostitutes frequented 
by the soldiers have proved that two and sometimes three out of five of 
them were diseased. 

Every French soldier or sailor attacked with syphilis is bound to i-e- 
port himself to the surgeon-major of the service to which he belongs, and 
should he do so spontaneously, receives no punishment. If he should 
not do so, he is treated A la eaUe dee cotmgne^, and punished with 
month de consigne on his leaving hospital. Ho is called upon to point 
out the woman that has infected him ; but this regulation is hard to 
enforce, as rather than inform, the men take punishment. In many cases 
it would be an impossibility, as they frequent a plurality of women, and 
are occasionally too far gone in liquor at the time of the act to establish 
a identity. 



• See chaptec On Police Superviaion, It 



lof tlioae headings (paga 82). 



DISEASES THE KESULT OE PROSTiTUTlOIf. 



^^r At Brest, the Portsmouth of France, out of 5947 men, forming in 
1853 the marine artillery and infantry of the garrison, 1635, or 27-SO 
per cent contracted syphilis. In 1853, ont of an effective of C294 indi- 
viduals, 2144, or 34 per cent were attacked. T find, from a tract by Dr. 
Stroh], that the mean monthly strength for 1856 of the garrison of 
Strasburg, where the sanitary rognlations are very strict, was 7712, 
and the venereals of the same ypar were 1009, or 13 par cent, 

AMERICAS ARMY. 

Sir Alexander TuUoch has kindly furnished mo with a report on 
venereal diaeasea in the American army, compiled from official returns, 
from which it appears that in the northern division, out of an aggregate 
of 32,246 men, 971 cases ofgonorrhcea occurred, or 1 in 20 ; and 462 of 
syphilis, or 1 in 48. In the southern division, out of an aggregate of 
24,979 men, there were 929 cases of gonorrhcea, or 1 in 27 ; and 684 
cases of syphilis, or 1 in 43. 



In 1842, says Dr. Michel L6vy, in his "Traited'HygiSne Publique," 
tome ii., p. 751, M. Vleminokx, Inspector-general of Health of the 
Belgian Army, effected such a diminution in the number of venereal 
cases, that only one soldier in 190 was affected ; whereas, at the same 
time, in the French gan-isons of Strasburg and Lyons, one in every 33, 
and one in 40 respectively were affected. In a communication to the 
"Gazette Medicale de Paris," January, 1846, M. Vlemincks: stated, 
"II n'y a plus que cent trente vSnSriens, dans toute I'armSe Beige, qui 
presente un effective dc vingt-ciiiq & trente mille hommes." But I con- 
fess I can hardly reconcile this with other information from Brussels, to 
the effect that of a garrison of less than 3000 men, the entries into tho 
military venereal hospital were 413, in the year 185C. 

OARBISON OF BERLTN. 

Among the garrison of Berlin, 19,030 strong, there were in 184!) 
(while for a time prostitution was proscribed and ignored), 1423 cases of 
syphilis. Prostitution being again admitted to exist, and strict inspec- 
tion introduced, the numbers dropped as sooo as 1852, to 332. It is 
worth notice, that in 1853, wiiile the new regulations were in course of 
establishment, 38 females were examined weekly, and the cases of de- 
tected syphilis were 29 per cent., while in April, 1853, out 'of 540 
inspected, there were but 5 per cent, found syphilitic. 

Before Parent-Dnchatelet commenced his investigations, one public 
woman out of every nine was found infected, whereas at the time he pub- 
lished his first edition, the proportion had fiUlen to one in every sixteen.* 



Dr. Lebeau has been bo kind as to furnish me with an interesting 
memoir on the clinical service of Professor Thiry's division of the 
lUpital St Pierre, at Brussels, in 1855, written by Mr. Decostep, a 

I'l^eon of that institution. There were treated 55 1 patients, of 
)6 were males and 245 females. 



• Michel L6vj, torn, ii,, p. 751, 



THE HESULT OF PKOSTITUTlOif, 



ies of tlie males presented the following symptor 

AcqM GDDonrliica 

Gleet 

Swelled testis 

Phjmosis 

BalftEutLB .., 

BdIjo eimplex .-^ 

Strictore ... 

Warta 

Macons tabei'ctea 

flm.n-nlH.r Urethritis 

Urethral chanore 

Chancre of glana and prapoce 

ChanCTS at anas 

Buboea 

Secondary symptoms, oonsiati 

Sore throat 

Affection of siin 

Condylomata 

Syphilitic tuberclea ... 



Those of the fenmlea presented the following 

AcBt« Tolvilia 

Urethritia 

Urethra vaginitis ... 

Acute vaginitis 

PLlegmonona al>BoesBes of the labia 
Abaceaa of the vaginal glands 

Sub-nrethi'al ahaceaa 

Exeoriationa 

FisauresofthoannB 

Bubo 

Warta 

Affectiona of the ateros 

ASectioaa of the OS uteri 

Fissure of the neck of clitlo 

T^etaljon, &o., 00 ditto 

Tubercles on ditto 

Chancres, simple or phagedEenio, on 

oriSce of the urethra in 

Chaocies in the canal 

Chancres, vaginal 

^ Chancrea on the anns 

Chancres at the neck uf uterus ... 
Chancres at the cc 

Buboes 

Secondary aymptoms 



It win, doubtless, strike non-professional readers that the totals of the 

" above columns would, if added up, far exceed the number of caaea I hnva 

given on the preceding page, namely, 306 males and 245 females. This 

is to be accounted for by repeated entry of certain cases which presented 

a plurality of strongly marked symptoms. 

I have copied from Mr. Wyld'a "Medical lustitutions of Austria," the 
following report of caaea treated in the syphilitic division of the General 
Hospital at Tienna, in the years 1839 and 1840 : — 



^ 



of vMch S 
J only becamo 
indurated. 



DISEASES THE RESULT OF 



I 



Gonorrhrea 

AbaceasnB labii .. 
Hamia huninniliH 
Teslfifl Hypbilitlcffi 
FhjTaoMB et pan 

Angina nloerosa 



Scrofola with syphilis 



sUlTl 186 



2 :iS s 86 loss 



II 



EXPERIENCE IN PRIVATE PRACTICE: 

I cannot pretend to offer an opinion as to the general i 
decrease of theee complaiute in private practice. There is in our pro- 
fession very little interchange of notes and statistics, and no organized 
oorreapondenco with any body or society, and I fancy no medical man. 
could draw a sound deduction aa to the greater or Iraa prevalence of any 
particular disease from the state of his own practice. Ho who should 
believe and say disease was extravagantly rife in London heoanae he 
individually happened to he much in vogue, would deliver himself of aa 
notable a fallacy, I apprehend, as another who should declare it was 
totally extinct, because from being out of repute, out of date, out of the 
stream, or for some other of the thousand reasons which away theBritish 
public, he never happened to see a patient at all. 

Each one, however, may without difficulty contribute a little informa- 
tion to the conunoa stock by analysing the mass of cases which are presented 
to him. I shall give here one or two opinions, resulting &om my own ex- 
perience, which may, perhaps, be hereafter of value to others wishing to 
compare the- proportions of the various affeotiona in 1867 with those 
prevailing in our day. 

In the first place — the venereal affections now seen in private praotice 
are slight. Patients come to the medical man early. The jnauvaUe , 
honte, which formerly acted to their prejudice, is passing away,,jiii4, toe '■ 
necessity for immediate treatment generally admitted. -To ^his-cjiVM I - 
attribute to a great extent the milduesi of -the di^e'io^ .and tJie rapidity 
of cure in the majority of coses. No doubt can exist that improved 
treatment and a more correct diagnosis are operating in the same direc- 
tion ; science has been assiated by the almost complete abstinence of the 



rffO DlStJtStS THE RE3LXT OF rBO^tTCTIOS. ^H 

Upper classes generally from intosicatiaii, ihough not from liqnor, anA, ^H 

the libeial ablutions now so mucli &&d so beneficially in fiishiou. ^H 

Tlie Io3H of the virile organ is, now-a-dAyg, a thing almost unheard ot ^H 

in iirivnJ^ timirt.Trj* A snrffpon micrLt nmflti^A in this tykipn Fnr -mnTiir ^^ 



I 



I private practice. A surgeon might practise in this town for many 
years without gaining any experience of the affection of the bones of the 
uose which causes that organ to fall in. It ia true that we occasionally 
meet with an obstinate case of this affection in highly Btmmons patients, 
but even these, under appropriate treatment^ escape the sad deformity, 
and ultimately recover. I have, every now and then, cases of tertiary 
symptoms, which return again and ag^n, and offer most rebellions 
instancesof the virulence of the disease amongst the weak and debilitated; 
but Htill death from syphilis is alroost unheard of in private practice. 
I did see one some time ago. It camo on gradually from a want of 
rallying power in the Bystena, and a few tubercles were found in the 
lungH. It is to bo regretted that in the present day the indurated sore 
is not more FHre, attended as it ia with many sad sequelae. Secondary 
symptom-S are not severe, but, although slif^t, they linger on for months, ' 
now better, now worse, until the powers of the system, if well supported, 
get the hotter of the affections of the tongue or the eruption on the akin. 
Rarely, now, are the deeper structures affected, and patients generally, 
if not very injudiciously treated, completely recover within a reasonable 
time. 

The results of private practice bear out the statistics from the public 
institutions, tliiit gouorrhoaa ia the most frequent of the venereal 
affections. It no longer, however, takes the formidable shapes of bygone 
times, although it is often to the full as tiresome from assuming the 
chronic form. 

I am often obliged to remind discontented patients who complain of 
tardy cures, that though they have to thank advancing scienoo ibr such 
mild results as now form the penalty of their frailty, they must not ex- 
pect a day when the complaint is to be divested of all pain or annoy- 
ance, Keither the disease nor our profession are in general bo much to 
bo blamed for the worst phases which the former even now occasionally 
Rsaumcs, aa the naturally bad constitution of the sufferer or the perverse 
industry he has applied to the debilitation of a sound one. He has 
utteiitimes his own neglect to thank for doubled and trebled suffering 
— often his own folly lu bringing to us only tiie reversion of a case com- 
plicated, and perha].ffl aggravated, by one or other of the villanous 
quacksalvers who are still permitted to flaunt their nostrums in the 
public face, to gull, to swindle, and to kilL 

While these sheets were going through the press, the following case 

of Tictiniizatiou by one of this fraternity came under my notice. A. 

gentleman who believed himself to be suffering from spermatorrhtea went 

to a noted quack and paid his usual fee. A specimen of his urine was 

, immediately demanded, and on examination under a Tnicroscope, pro- 

■ iphacfd to be full of spermatozoa. The patient showed unmis- 

* ■tuJc^^I.e signs of-alafm, and the quack, finding he had the proper sort 

of custbrnuS', ljolA|j*'Jire3ioted speedy death, to be averted only by the 

purchase of a cnr6 fof •qftyiounds. The first call of nine pounds ou 

account of this sum was piud on the spot, and the remainder within a 

few days. The patient was then, I am assured, presented with a large 



DISEASES THE EE80LT OF PBOSTITUTION. 51 

box of medicines, ready packed, and desired to keep in a room at th6 
same temperature for twenty-eight weeks, or thereabouts, and not atterapb 
to breathe the outer air. After some weeks of unrewarded perseveranoe 
in this regime, the unhappy patient again sought the presence of the 
wizard, and complained that he felt no better. He was asked, " How 
oould he expect it I Had he not disobeyed t His presence there was 
proof enough of that !" He pleaded in vain, that to keep his room for 
twenty-eight weeks, if not impoasible, would be his ruin, and was told 
I that, having by his own act removed the responsibility from the learned 
I doctoi^s shoulders, their contract was at an end, and ho must now put 
up with the possible ill consequences, and the certain loss of his money. 
It was under these circumstances that he came to me, in a highly nervous 
state, and of course niuch annoyed at being bereit of fifty pounds by this 
" microscope dodge." In three weeks he recovered, and would not havQ 
ished, as he did, into the courts of law but for the impudent plea set 
p for not returning the money after feilure of the consideration. The 
recipient of the Mtj pounds actually stated that the deluded one had 
Ireen guilty of masturbation, and therefore could not show his fece in 
oonrt. The challenge was accepted, and the in&mons imputation of 
course faded away. I cannot show the sequel better than by quoting 
the following passage from the judgment of the Court ; 

'■ I have not the slightest doubt upon this case — that it is a case for 
images, and that the plaintiff is entitled to recover the whole of the 
sum claimed, 1 think it is highly creditable to the plaintiff that he had 
the moral courage to come into court and expose tins transaction ; and 
as to the agency,* the asaistant, whoever he may be, has certainly com- 
mitted a gross fraud, and one cannot help feeling warmly that this &aud 

■was practised. At the saine time one cannot help seeing as to 

■ not having been present at the interviews, that this ia a mere 

stratagem to secure himself against the consequences of being brought 
into a court of justice; and the whole of the case, I think, is very dis- 
oreditable to the defendant, and the plaintiff is entitled to the judgment 
of the court for the whole of the amount sued for. One cannot lielp 
flaying that the whole case is most discreditable and disgusting, and I 
shall allow the highest expenses to the witnesses." 

The editor of " The Lancet" observed, in conclusion of his remarks 
upon this case : 

" How long ia this system to continue? It is a disgrace to the laws, 
which falsely pretend to r^pilate practitioners of medicine and to protect 
the public, that such things are ^owed. The case in question is simply 
an illustration of a system so ruinous, so devastating, so fatal to i^ 

I-viotims, that it calls loudly for legislative interference. Laws, however 
framed, will probably be inadequate altogether to suppress those out- 
rages upon humanity ; but legislation may do somethiog to mitigate 
aud an'est them. If we are to have laws for the protection of women 
and the suppression of obscene publications, why should we not have an 
Act of Parliament to suppress a traffic which, in its consequences, is 
equally detrimental to the health and happiness of a large portion of the 



Bitted by o 



J 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE MODEEN HARLOT S PROGRESS. 



When tlie licentious epoch of the Restoration, due itself to the national 
recoil from the abortive attempt of the P«ritana to enact religion and 
morality, was succeeded by the austerity of the Roman Catholic Jamea 
and the decorous court of William, and Mary, and while the fi^ed and 
floating population of the capital was increasing with the facilities of 
travel, the growth of trade, and the general wealth, thci-e is no doubt 
that long rampant immorality — incurable at shori^ notice — was but held 
repressed, and compelled to hide its head. A remarkable impetus was 
therefore given to comparatively secret prostitution, corresponding to 
the decrease in adidtery and overt concubinage which about that time 
ceased to be indispenaable qualifications of the man of parts and fashion. 
When I consider that genteel society was passing during the period ot 
the Augustan essayists from a political and moral delirium towards 
a state of repose, and the artificial scarcity of trained intellects 
which yet recent events had created among the elaaa for whom they 
wrote — I am not surprised that earnest authors, careful of administering 
strong meat to babes, should have elected to work upon the puhhc ndnd, 
1 they did, with types and parables. But I do wonder that so many 
Je men, from that period to our own day, who might have touched 
moral pitch without the fear or imputation of delilement, have, whether 
through raoi"al cowaixlice or considerations of esjjediency, still as it were 
by concert, been content to do little more than retouch and restore the 
pictures of the ancient masters, adding, from time to time, perhaps, some 
horrid feature. Thus has been painfully built up a sort of " bogie" in a 
comer cupboard, unheeded by the infant, terrible to the aged, the un- 
tempted, and others wjiom it concerned not; while the ilower of the 
people have rushed into the streets and worshipped the immodest 

Thus, I believe, was firmly rooted — if it did not thus originate — and 

I thus has mightily prospered, remaining even to our day an overshadow- 
ing article of almost religious belief, the notion that the career of the 
woman who once quits the pinnacle of virtue involves the very swift 
decline and ultimate total loss of health, modesty, and temporal pros- 
perity. And herein are contained three vulgar errors: — 
1. That once a harlot, always a harlot. 
3. That there is no possible advance, moral or physical, in the condi- 
tion of the actual prostitute. 
3. That the harlot's progress is short and rapid. 
I A k 



I 



THE MODERN harlot's PROOBEBa. C3 



I 



And the sooner fearless common, sense has cleared tlie ground of fallacy, 
tte HooDer may statesmen see their way to handle a question of wliich 
they haye not denied the importance. 

It is a little too absurd to tell us that " the dirty, intoxicated slattern, 
in tawdry finery and an inch thick in paint" — long a conventional 
lymbol of prostitution — is a correct figure in the middle of the nine- 
teeth century. If she is not apocryphal, one mnst at least go out of the 
beaten path to find her. She is met with, it is true, in filthy taps, resorts 
of crime, and in the squalid laira of poverty— rarely courting the light, 
but lurking in covert spots to catch the reckless, the besotted, and the 
young of the opposite sex. And though such may he even numbered 
by hundreds, it must, on refiection, be conceded by those who have 
walked through the world with open eyes, that, considering the square 
mileage of the metropolis, and the enormous aggregate I am treating o^ 
they are but aa drops in an ocean. The Gorgon of the present day 
against whom we should arm our children should be a woman who, 
■whether sound or diseased, is generally pretty aod elegant — oftener 
painted by Nature than by art — whose predecessors cast away the custom 
of drunkenness when the gentlemen of England did the same — and on 
whose backs, as if following the poet's direction, in corjmre vUi, the minis- 
ters of fashion exhibit the results of their most egregious experimenta. 

The shades of Loudon prostitution — the previous definition at pages 
7 and 8 being kept in view — are as numberlesa as those of society at 
large, and may be said to blend at their edges, but no further. The 
microcosm, in fiict, exhibits, like its archetype, saving one, all the virtues 
and good qualities, as well as all the vices, weaknesses, and follies. 

The great substitution of unchaatity for female honour has run through 
and dislocated all the system ; but it must not be imagined that, though 
disordered and for a time lost to oursight, the other strata of the woman's 
nature have ceased to exist. 

The class maintain their notions of caste and quality with all the 
pertinacity of their betters. The greatest amount of income procurable 
with the least amount of exertion, is with them, aa with society, the 
grand gauge of position ; and each individual, like her betters, sets up for 
private contemplation some ideal standard with wliieh she may compare, 
deeming most indispensable to beauty and gentility the particular ele- 
ments she may best lay claim to. 

I see the numde and demi^timde as shy of one another among the 
prostitutes of London as in other classes. I see, too, the arrogance of 
bran-new, short-lived prosperity, that has dashed from the ranks, and the 
jealous writhing of the beaten ruck. I see the active sinfulness and 
passive heedlessne^ of one set, and the patient hope and bewildered eu- 
"tanglement of another. But not admitting such salient differences 
"between this fraction and the mass of the community aa justify its 
jKilitioal severance, I cannot see that it presents material for a special 
physiology ; and as such a task would be neither profitable to the reader 
ior congenial to myself, I will, as nearly as I may, avoid it, A writer 
vho could analyse and catalogue the combinations of the kaleidoscope 
may some day, perhaps, be found to undertake the equally useless task 
of dissecting to each filament this twisted yam of everyday virtue, vice, 
and good and evil qualities — variegated by degree of education — stained 



Hi THE MODERN HARLOT'S PROGRESS, 

fciullyby one predotninant vice and its ancillary failings — interwoven firom * 
end to end of the piece with one half of society, and supposed by 
courteous fiction to exist without the cognizance of the other. We caa 
well afford to wait his coming, for we have not put to use one-half our i 
present stock of knowledge. 

The order may be dividbd into three classes — the "kept woman" (a 
repulsive term, for which I have in vain sought an English substitute), 
who has iu truth, or pretends to have, hut one paramoui-, with whom she, 
in some cases, resides ; the comm.on prostitute, who is at the service, 
with slight reservation, of the first comer, and attempts no other means 
of life ; and the woman whose prostitution ia a subsidiary calling. 

The presence of the individual in either of these categories may of 
course depend upon a thousand accidents ; but ouce in either rank, as a, 
general rule her footing is permanent while her prostitution, in any senae 
of the word, continues. There is, although the moralists inaist otherwiBS^ 
little promotion, and less degradation. The eases of the latter are quite . 
exceptional j those of the foi'mer leas rare, but still not frequent. The 
seduction and primary desertion of each woman who afterwards becomes 
a prostitute ia an. afiair apart; and the liaison of a woman with her 
seducer ia generally of the shortest. This over, her remaining 
in the ranks of honest society, or her adoption of prostitution, become 
her question. Some few voluntarily take the latter alternative. Domestic 
servants, and girls of decent iamily, are generally driven headlong to the 
streets for support of themselves and their babies ; needlewomen of 
some classes by the incompatibility of infant nursing with the discipline 
of the workshop. Those who take work at home are fortunate enough, 
and generally too happy, to reconcile continuance of their labours with 
a mother's nursing duties, and by management retain a permanent con- 
nexion with the army of lahour, adopting prostitution only when their 
slender wages become insufficient for their legitimate wants. 

Thus the ouvrHre classy-corresponding to the grtaetle of the French 
.. writers — and the promiscuous class of prostitutes— answering to their 
lorettee, are accounted for. Our first, or superior order, recruits its 



ranks as follows ; — 

1. From women cohabiting i 
seducers. 

. From kept women who a 



ith, or separately maintained by, their 



8 it were, in the business, and transfer 
their allegiance from party to party at the dictates of caprice or financial 
expediency, 

. 3. From women whom men select for a thousand and one reasons, 
fi^jm promiscuous orders — or, aa commonly said, "take off the town," 

4, From women similarly promoted irom the ouvriZre class. 

The prominent or retiring position the individual occupies in these 
three divisions — allowing, of course, for exceptions influenced by her 
idiosyncrasies — depends mainly upon gaiety or gravity of temperament. 
These characteristics exaggerated, on the one hand into boisterous vul- 
garity, on the other into nervous retirement — both chequered, more or 
less, at times, by extreme depression and hysterical mirth — pervade the 
devotees to this calling, and influence their whole career. A woman 
endowed with the one may, for a time, by force of circumstances, assume 
jthe other — but for a time only. The spring i-eooilsj and the natural 



55 

cliaracter aaaerta its sway. It is superfluous almost to allude, among 
men of the world, to the ai-rogant and offensive conduct into which some 
proatitutea of the upper daaa, and of mercurial temperament, will he 
betrayed, even when pennitted to elbow respectability ajid good conduct 
in public places ; or to their intense asaumption of superiority over their 
less full-blown sisters, on the strengtli of an equipage, an opera bos, 
a aaddle-horae, a Brompton villa, and a visiting list. This is the kind 
of woman of whom I said just now that the loss of her honour seemed to 
Lave intensified every evil point in her character. She it is who inflicts the 
greatest scandal and damage upon society, and by whom, though she is 
but a fraction of her class, the whole are neceasarily, but injudiciously, if 
not cruelly, judged. This is the flaunting, extravagant quean, who, 
young and fair — ^the milliners' herald of forthcoming fashions — will 
daily drag a boyish lover (for whose abject aubmiaaioo she will return 
tolerable constancy, and over whose virtue she'presidea like another Diaii), 
will he nill he, like a lacquey, in her train to Blackwall partiea, flower 
shows, andraces — night after night to the " select ballet balls," plays, oi- 
pnblic dancing saloons — will see him gaily, along with jockeys who are 
no gentlemen and gentlemen who are all jockey, through his capital or 
his allowances, and then, without a sigh, enlist in the sei'vice of another 
— perhaps hja intimate fiiend— -till she has run the gauntlet as kept mis- 
tress through half-a-dozen short generationa of men about town. 

Descend a step to the promiscuous category, and trace the harlot to 
whom a tavern-bar was congenial instead of repulsive on ber first 
appearance there — say at sixteen or eighteen years of age. At thirty and 
at forty yon will find her (if she rises in the scale) the loudest of the 
loud, in the utmost blaze of finery, looked on as "first-rate company" 
by aspiring gents, surrounded by a knot of "gentlemen" who applaud 
her rampant nonsense, and wondering, hotel-sick, countiy men of busi- 
ness, whose footsteps stray at night to where she keeps her foolish court. 
She ia a sort of whitewashed sepulchre, fiiir to the eye, hut full of inner 
rottenness — a merceuai'y human tigress; albeit there exists at times some 
paltry bul!-dog, nuraed in the same Bohemian den, who may light up all 
the tires of womanhood within her — some raaoally enchanter, who may 
tame her at the height of her fury, when none else human may approach 
her, by whispering or blows. Exigcant of respect beyond belief, but in- 
Bufi'erably rude, she is proud and high-minded in talk one moment, but 
not ashamed to beg for a shilling the next. The great sums of money she 
BometimeB earns, she spends with romantic extravagance, on her toilette 
partly, and partly circulates, with thoughtless generosity, among the 
lodging-house sharks ajid other baser parasites that feed upon her 

Should such a light-minded woman descend in the scale of promiscuous 
prostitution, which of course is a matter of possibility, though not so 
likely as her rise, she will stiU be found the sama As no access of for- 
tune will do much toward humanizing, so no ill-luck will soften or chasten 
her. She will be in Lambeth or Whiteohapel as I have described her in 
Soho or the Haymarket — a drunkenj brawling reprobate — but in a 
lower orbit. 

On the other hand, the sad career in prostitution of the softer-minded 
woman, iu whatever rank she may be, will be marked and affected by 



THE MODERN HAilLOT'S 



that qii^ity. Whatever befaJ her in this vale of tears, the gentl*- 
minded woman will he gentle still ; and with this native hue will be 
tinged all her dealings with the sisterhood, and with the rough rude 
males whom ever and anon it is her fate to meet. If fortunivte enough 
have the acquaintance of some quiet men of means, she will not b»; 
puffed up with vain-gloriousnesa, but seeking comfort in obscurity, and 
clinging fast to what i-espeot she may gain of others, will profess — what' 
I dare say she really often feels — disgust at brazen impudence, and all 
the pomps and vanities. Whether this eschewal be irom real delicacy, 
OP considerations of ecouoiuy, or because any sort of notoriety, instead of 
cementing, as in the case of others mentioned, would be fatal to their pai^ 
ticular Hainan, it is hard to aayj but, however that may bo, it is no leas 
true that hundreds of females so constituted are at this moment living 
within a few miles of Charing Cross, in easy if not elegant circumstanoeB, 
with every regard to outward decorum and good taste, and ahocking none 
of the public who will not attempt unneceasarily close investigation, ' ' 
for all that " in a state of prostitution." The ease and comparative p 
perity that inflates the lighter woman into a public nuisance have 
such effect upon such a one as I have spoken of last. They but cj 
her to prize each day more highly peace and quietness — more aadly tff' 
regret the irrevocable past — more profoundly to yearn after some way 
out of the wilderness. 

Among the promiscuous prostitutes of the milder order will be fbunii 
a numerous hand, who, unlike the magnificMit virago of the supper^ 
shops, rarely see the evening lamps. Sober, genteelly dressed, well 
ordered, often elegant in person — snch girls have the taste and the 
power to select their acquaintances from among the most truly eligible 
men whom the present false state of society debars from marriage. 
Their attractions, indeed, are of the subdued order that neither the hot- 
blood of the novice nor the prurient fency of the used-up rake could 
appreciate. Of course, they take the chances of their calling. They 
know that a short acquaintance often turns their sorrow into joy, and 
opens out a better, happier future. They know, too, that one unlucky 
hour may make them scatterers of pestilence. What wonder, then,, 
that woman's taet, sharpened by uses of adversity, should induce them 
to prefer the respect and counsel of well-bred men of settled character 
to the evanescent passion of mere youths. From the former they get' 
lessons, rarely thrown away, on the value of repose and thrift; from, ths 
latter, only new proofe of folly and fickleness. With the one they may 
for a time forget their occupation; with the other, only sharpen memory. 
They exhibit at times the greatest respect for themselves, and for the 
opinions, scruples, and weaknesses of those with whom they 
nected, and whom they love to call their " friends ;" and, above all, the] 
are notable for the intensity of love with which they will cling to th^j 
sister, the mother, the brother — in fact, to any one " from home" who^J 
knowing of their iall, will not abjure them, or, ignorant of their present! 
calling, still cherishes some respect and regard for them. The sick mam 
is safe in their hands, and the fool's money also. There is many a tale 
well known of their nursing and watching, and more than will do sq 
could tell of the harlot's guardianship in his hour of drunkenneas, I 
have seen the fondest of daughters and mothers among them. I fancy 



i 



THE MODEIUT HAKLOT'B PROGRESS. 57 

that where tiiey have that regard for men which they are too pleased to 
return for mere politeness, they ai'e well-meaning, and not always foolish 
^ frienda — no abettors of exrtravagance, and, as far aa absolute honesty is 
^goncerned, implicitly to be reUed on. They are more the dupes than 
rtooators — more sinned against than sinning — till the play is played 
oat, the pilgrimage accomplished, and they who have long strained their 
eyes for a resting-place quit the painful road — as 1 say they mo,stly do — 
for a, better life on eai-th; or, leaving hope behind on their diachai^o 
from the hospitals, issue to an obscurity more melanchoiy and degraded 
than ever. For of such on whom bos faUeu the lot of foul disease, or 
whom a loss of health or beauty has deprived of worthy associates, are 
the abject maundering creatures who haunt the lower dens of vice and 
crime. Deficient in mental and physical elasticity to resist the down- 
ward pressure of iiitei'mittent starvation and undying consdenoe, they 
are pulled from depth to lower deep, by men who trample, and women 
of their class who prey upon them. Liquor, which Other organizations 
adopt as a jovial friend and partner of eocb gleam of suushiae, is to these 
the medicine and permanent aggravation of dejected misery. Cruelly 
injured by the other sex, they moodily resolve to let retribution take its 
course through their diseased agency j trodden under foot by society, 
what can society expect from them but scorn for scorn 1* 

The woman, the castle of whose modesty offered stoutest resist- 
ance to the storm of the seducer, often becomes in time the most abiding 
stronghold of vice. Saturated with misery and drink, perhaps then crime 
and disease, dead long in heart, and barely willing to live on in the 
flesh — ceasing to look upward, ceasing to strike outward, she will pas- 
sively diift down the stream into that listless state of moral insensibility 
in which so many pass from this world into the presence of their 

"And here" — I can fency some reader iatemipting — "here ends your 
catechism. You have led us a painful pilgrimage through the obscurest 
comers behind the scenes of civilized society, casting, by the way, a glare 
on matters froia whose contemplation mature refinement would gladly be 
spared, and the bare conception of which should be studiously shut out 
from youth and innocence. At the end of all you show us the heroine 
of your prurient sympathy overtaken by her doom. We have seen by 
turns reflected on your mirror the pampered concubine and the common 
street- walker— the haunts of dissipation and the foul ward; but you 
dissent from our religious, and at least venerably antique belief that 
between these stages Ihere is an organized progi'ession. You cast your 
lantern ray at last upon a guilty, solitary wreck, perishing, covered with 
Bores, in some back garret, in a filthy court; and you ask us to believe 
that this is not retribution." 

I do, in truth. For if this fate were general— inevitable, unless by 
direct intervention of Providence, or arrest of its decree by pei-verse 
interposition of science, I might admit the tnith of my opponents" creed. 
But I maintain, on the conti-ary, that such an ending of the harlot's Ufe 

* I mast be nnderstood as not attempting io aletcb other than oscQl&tor? prostitation. 
The systenmCic coacubiniige which is eOtleil, I believe wllh troth, to preTail imong the 
lowest chiea in this city BJid in tho tnuiafactimiig diitiicti ia sa inHtitntjoa out of m; 



I 



I 




58 THE MODERN 

IK the altogether rare exceptiou, not the general iiile; that thodownwatfl 
progress and death of the prostitute in the absolute ranks of that oc 
pation are exceptional also, and tliat she succumbB at last, not to t. 
calling, nor to venereal disease, but iii due time, and to other ntaladifls 
common to respectable humanity. 

I hope to show fair grounds for these conclusions, and for my opiiii<Mlfl 
that the doors of escape from this evil career ai-e many; that those who | 
have walked in it do eagerly rush through them, neither lingering nor 
looking behind; that the greatest and moat flagrant are not strickea 
down in the pursuit of sin, nor does the blow fall when it might be of 
service as an example. If in the following pages I can do something 
towards this, it may lie more justly argued, I think, that an all-wise, 
all-mercifiil God has provided these escapes, than that those whom fiit« 
overtakes within the vicious circle are selected by His design. And if 
eo, it justly follows that those are less impious and erring, than furthering. 
God's will, who would widen the gates of the fold of penitence and n 
gather by all possible means yet another crop to the harvest of s 
and claim the Christian's noble birthright of rejoicing over more 
yet more repentant ainnera. 

To those who may ask, "What can it matter to us what becomes o 
them 1 The subject may be statistically interesting, but no farthevi^ 
The interests of society demand that a disgusting inquiry should be d 
couraged, lest hy chance the eyes of youth should bo polluted;" — I ha 
this much to say. That, the "Utopian epoch being long since pasaed, ij 
indeed it ever had a beginning, when the book of evil could be sealed tt 
the people, it is time that the good and wise, not flinching from thw 
moral pitch, should emulate the evil and the crooked- minded in t' 
fttterapte to guide the public. 

The streets of Loudon are an open book, and very few may \ 
therein who cannot and will not inquire and read for themselves. Shall 'I 
those who of right should be commentators for ever leave an open field 
to the bigotted and the sinful, with the idea of fostering a degree o£ 
purity to which the state of society precludes a more than fi.ctitiou8 
existence 1 ShaU dirt be allowed to accumulate, only because it is dirt t . 

A few stubborn figures may perhaps assist the candid reader towar(^,J 
at least, a partial removal of impressions he may have received, i 
common with a lai^e portion of the public, as to the causes of mortality m 
among prostitutes. I 

Some years ago the Registrar- General, Major Graham, with hia uaual.B 
politeness and at considerable trouble, extracted for me (in 1851) the I 
number of deaths aacribable to venereal disease which ocoTirred in th« f 
metropolis during the yeai-s 18i6-7-8, and from them I have compiled 1 
the following : — 




THE KODEBK QABLOT S PltOQREaS. 



Table, dialinguiahing tJie Males from ths Females, tlteir Ages, and the 
fonns o/Uie Dismse of which they died. 





FlULBI. 


Mitia. 


It 


Si 


IS 


S 


;^ 




% 


a 


s a 


s 


S 


t, 




?. 


R 


S 


°. 


S 


t 






j< 






^y 




2 


!S 




s 


■& 


a 


£2 s 


» 


" 


5 




Sjpliiliji 


S 


n 




7 


K 


«9 


+ 


+ 


a 


_ 


1 14 


43 




« 


a 










a 










V 






1 






1 






1 




1 


— 2 


J> 


Uloerationof larjni 


1 


y 










1 


s 














« 










I 










7 


Conmmptioji 


« 


« 










1 


s 




•i 


1 10 


IH 


Chest affeitira 


1 


M 










1 


1 






1 1 3 




ParaljeU 








1 








1 






— ' I 


2 


Caahexia oad debility . . . 


•i 


« 




1 










1 


3 








b 


1 




-^ 


— 


» 






1 


— 






AUdiaeuea ... .-. ... 


''r 


13 


fl 


3 


73 


IS 


25- 


* 


8 


1 


127 



TLe fivat thing that strikes the reader here is the paucity of fetal oases. 
2^ot with standing the frequency of the complaiat ia the metropoiis, as 
shown in preceding pages, only 127 deaths are noted during 156 weeks, 
out of a population amounting to more than 2,000,000, or on the average 
less tlma one a ^eek. 

The aboFe tahle, I think, diaposes of the hypothesis that any large 
number of femalea, whether prostitutes or not, die annually of syphilis. It 
exhibits only 73 women to 5i men ; and this proportion ia more striking 
when we consider that the female population of London i^ to the male 
u 120 to 100, or six to five. 

In order to corroborate my assertions made some years ago, that 
gyphilia was not a fatal disease, I again applied, in May, 1857, to Major 
Graham, and he kindly forwarded me the annexed table, which ia curious 
as showing how large a proportion of the female mortality from syphilb 
ialls upon infants and ohil<b%n under five yeare of age : — 




Total, all sgea 

Let persona who have been througli the syphilitic wards of hospiti 
call to mind the stamp of women to be seen there. The &ct of a gii' 
Beduction generally warrants her poaseBsioti of youth, health, good looks, 
and a well-proportioned frame — qualifications usually incompatible witk 
* feeble constitution. She, at least, meets the world with power of re- 
sistance beyond the average of women in her station. Notwithstanding 
all her excesses (and legion is their name), the prostitute passes through 
the ftimace of a dissipated career less worse from wear tlian her male 
aaaociates ; and when she withdraws from it — as withdraw she will in a 
few years, for old prostitutes are rarely met with — she is seldom found 
with her nose sunk in, her palate gone, or nodes iipon her shins. 

Nay, more, experience teaches that frequently the most violent and 
fetal cases among women take their rise during the period of com- 
parative innocence, before their adoption of prostitution, and their conse- 
quent acquirement of worldly knowledge. I grieve to say that there 
are systematic seducers so unutterably base its not only to pollute the 
mind of modest girls, but simultaneously to steep their bodies in moat 
lamentable corruption. Their want of knowledge and ingenuous sense 
of shame induce, in cases such as these, aggravation of suffering from, 
which the experienced prostitute is comparatively exempt, 

80 rare is death from uncomplicated syphilis, that many a sui^eon 
Las never witnessed a single instance; and those attached to hospitals 
where venereal diseases are specially treated have so few opportunities of 
■witnessing post-mortems of persona who have suocumhed to them, that 
it becomes interesting to inquire how they produced death. This is 
answered by the return from the Registrar- General. In the first place, 
eiysipelaa may attack the sores of all patients entering an hospital, and 



J 



^ THE ItODERK I1ARL0T8 PROGREBS. 61 

R certain number of syphilitic patients, aa of other clsussca, die from 
this cause. Syphilis, therefore, actaJ hut a, seooDdaiy part in pro- 
ducing the fatal termination of the 17 cases of erysipelas in the ahove 
table. 

We sometimes, in the present day, meet with death from sloughing 
phagedena, but rarely wiUiout complication. - I lately, for instance, saw 
it in a man who died, not from its severity, hat from debility and loss of 
blood at stool, which nothing could check, and which was found to 
depend upon ulceiution in the iuteatinea. I have already alluded, at 
p. 4i, to the phagedtenaat 8t. Giles's Workhouse. I find that this form 
of the disease is now unknown there, and the preceding table records 
only seven deaths from phagedsena throughout Londoa in throe years. 
Whilst these pages were passing through the press, an epidemic of this 
affection was spreading to such an extent through the foul wards of 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital (having already caused the death of, I tel ieve, 
three women), that the authorities were moat reluctantly obliged to cId e 
them for a time against syphilitic patients, in order to aireat wh t n ^ht 
have proved a frightiVd scourge. 

Dr. MacCarthy tells us* — " In Paris, out of nine pat t ff t d 
■with phageda;nic serpiginous chancre, four died from the p gress f he 
disease and colliquative diarrhcea, and on opening these If d It 
inflammation of the entire colon and rectum, and I observ d th m 
membrane sprinkled over with ulceratioas. It is not uuinterestmg to 
compare this fact with the frequency noted by Dupuytren of the occur- 
rence of ulcerations in persons who have died irom the effects of severe 

Ormerod inentiQns+ that a patient died at St. Bartholomew's from 
the giving way of a vessel in the upper part of the vagina. 

In the army returns above quoted only two deaths took place in 
seven years and a quarter; one of these followed from phagedena' and 
the other from cachexia syphilitica. 

lu Wild's excellent Table, inserted at p. 49, I find seven deaths re- 
ported as having taken place in Vienna; five the result of bubo, pi-o- 
bably sloughing; one from sore-throat; and one from general secondary 
symptoms. Of these, three wei-e males, and only four females. 

The whole mortality of prostitutes at St. Lazare, the female venereal 
hospital at Paris, was biit 16 in 1853, and 17 in 1854, The deaths 
were principally caused by non-syphilitic affections, the germs of which 
they had contracted before coming into hospital. 

In the year 1855, there were 14 deaths at the Loui-cine Hospital oiji 
of 1384 patients admitted, and of these only one was attributed to 
sypliilis. 

But if syphilia be retributive, it would ajipear to be visited on the 
children with far greater severity than on the parents; for out of 85 
infants, who in 1854 were born at the Lourcine, or, being under two 
years of age, were admitted with their mothers, I find that no less than 
24 perished from its effects. Out of 60 cHldren at the same hospital 
in 1865, there were 10 deaths. 

Death from primary or secondary symptoms is of very rare occur- 






Tbeois, p. 17. 18U. t CUnical Obsemit 



GS THE UODEKN HARLOTS PROOBEES. 

rcnce. I do not, in fact, very ■well see how it could be produced, unless 
erysipelas, tevet, or acuta inflammatorj diaeaae set in and destroyed tbe 
patient 

Syphilis ia most frequently fdtal when it has reached the tertiary 
form, in the neglected cases of wliich we observe ita greatest ravages. 
Patients are destroyed by tbe deposit of bone) which, pressing on the 
brain, produces paralysis, convulsions, and other nervous phenomena. 
In other cases caries of bones takes place, and ejdiaiistion causes death. 
Occasionally the cartilages of the larynK fall in, and the patient dies 
asphyxiated. Lastly, the hopeless and intense form of tertiary syphiJis, 
known aa syphilitic cachexia, sometimes conies on, and gradually leads 
to a fatal termination, as in the following instance: — 

I was called to see a young girl who was stated to be very ill, at 
Eing-street, Islington. I found my poor dispensary patient living in an 
attic, in one of the small streets ofl' the Lower Eoad, attended by her 
mother, without fire or furniture, almost without clothing. She lay, 
doubled up in the comer of this bare room, on an old mattress stuffed 
with shavings, with no bed-linen but a thin patched quilt and a few 
rags. She was covered with rupia, and attenuated to the last degree, 
though bearing marks of having been a very pretty girl. 

She had never left her mother's roof for twenty-four hours; but had 
nevertheless been seduced, diseased, and deserted — sad and frequent 
story — and, as long as she was able, had iu secret attended at an hospital, 
Het mother had never left her, and-^ao naive had she remained in this 
city of licentionaness — was apparently unaware of the nature of her 
child's disorder. Never applying to the parish, slie had obtained a bare 
Eubsifitence by her needle, until her ministering office Lad shut out even 
this precarious support She had parted witli her every property, till, 
indeed, no warmth could be obtained except by creeping close together 
under their miserable counterpane. 

At once, seeing the natiu« of the case, and the impossibility of my 
being of material service to this poor creature, I spoke of the hospital, 
but neither mother nor daughter would hear of it; they had never been 
separated, and never would be. Persuasion was in vain. AsaiiitancQ was 
procured; still the debility incressed, and I M'as absolutely obliged to 
threaten the int«rforence of the parish officers. At last the patient con- 
sented to be carried to the hospital, but at such a stage of the complaint 
this could only be effected with the greatest difSculty, She was, however 
admitted into St. Bartliolomew's, and the comforts which that noble 
iyatitution so liberally furnishes to its sick, at first caused her to rally 
but an immense abswss formed in her tliigh, and she sank in a short 
time under " syphilitic cachexia." 

Who could have seen that hapless, unoffending victim to her woman's 
tmat and man's barbarity, hurried to an early grave, without asking 
himself could such a one have been marked out for example and for 
punishment by a discerning Providence, as some would tell us ) 

I have now furnished the data whence I argue that syphilis ia the 
fate neither of the bulk, nor of an important fraction, of prostitutesj 
and to meet the hypothesis that, if such is not the fact, they may at 
least fall victims to suicide, intemperance, or complaints incidental to an 
irregvUar course of life, I have made special inquiries among the medical 



•niE UODERN harlot's PROGRESS. G3 

attemJanta of Loapitals, peniteutiariea, as well as welt-informed private 
practitioners, and certain parish authorities. Their replies seem to eorro- 
boratti my impressions tliat the combined operation of all these agencies, 
in addition to venereal complaints, is inadequate to extirpate, a^ alleged, 
a generation of prostitutes every few years, and that no other class of 
females is so free from general disease as this is. I find that in 1840 
only 56 women above the age of twenty committed suicide in London, 
of whom there was no reason to believe that even one-half were prosti- 
tutes; and Major Graham states, in a communication he has recently 
favoured me with, that the female suicides aged twenty and upwards, in 
the year 1855, numbered only 59, 

Parent-Duchatelet, in treating of Parisian prostitution, was able, as 
follows, to account for a portion of the mortality among those who 
died in harness. "It extends," he says, " principally to women between 
twenty and thirty years of age, whose constitutions have been used up at 
a great pace by excesses. They say of themselves, that a girl in one of 
the low houses lasts three years. When we consider that such women 
are constantly drunk, and that they commit the sexual act from fifteen to 
twenty times a day, can we be surprised that they cannot hold out for 

So &r, BO well. The sarao holds good, la truth, of a class of women 
in this city, but we know that here, as in Paris, it is extremely 
restricted. The records of our civil courts have recently proved how 
hard it is to kill a person of tine constitution, supplied designedly with 
unlimited liquor and relays of pot companions; and we know again, that 
by the thorough prostitutes the sexual act is generally performed with 
the least possible exertion, and that her visitor is not uncommonly him- 
self debauched, and, for the time being, impotent On the other hand, 
the same writer again observes : " All that I have said on the chances. 
of contracting disease to which prostitutes are exposed, confirms tlie 
truth of the position taken by sui^eona and others who have had their 
charge ; — viz., that, notwithstanding all their excesses and exposure to so 
many causes of disease, their health resists all attacks better than that of 
the oi-dinary run of women who have children and lead orderly Uvea. They 
have (as some one has remai-ked) u'on bodies, which enable them with 
impunity to meet trials such as would prove fatal to others." 

If we compare the prostitute at thirty-five with her sister, who perhaps 
is the maiTieil mother of a family, or has been a toiling slave for years 
in the over-heated laboratories of fashion, we shall seldom find that the 
constitutional ravages oilen thought to be necessary consequences of 
prostitution exceed those attributable to the oares of a family and the 
heart-wearing struggles of virtuous labour. 

How then is the disparition of this class of women to be accounted for, 
as they are neither stricken down in the practice of harlotry, nor by 
their own hands, nor by intemperance and venereal disease, nor would 
seem to perish of supervening evils in any notable proportion t Do they 
fall by the wayside, as some assume, like leaves of autumn, unnoticed and 
unnumbered, to bo heaped up and to rot t Do unknown graves conceal, 
not keeping green the lost one's memory, and the obscure fallible records 
of the pauper burials at last confound all clue and chance of tracing her? 
Is she filtered again into the world through a reformatory ? or does she 



64f 



TUE MODERlf HAELOTS riiOCIlESS. 



a to Bome ^M 
sr number o^^| 



crawl from tto sight of men and the haunts of hi 
homely spot in time to linger and to die? 

I have every reason to believe, that by fer the larger 
women who have resorted to prostitution for & livelihood, return si 
or later to a more or leas regular course of life. Before coming to this 
conclusion I Lave consulted many likely to be acquainted with their 
habits, and have founded my belief upon the following data. Whatever 
be the cause of a female becoming a prostitute, one thing is certain — 
before she has carried on the trade four years, she has fully compre- 
hended her situation, its horrors and its difficulties, and is prepared to 
escape, should opportunity present itself. The constant humiliation of 
all, eren of those in the greatest affluence, and the frequent pressure o' 
"want attendant on the vocation of the absolute street- walker, cioudioi 
the gaiety of the kept woman, and driving the wedge of bitter reflectioi 
into the intervals of the wildest harlot's frenzy, are the agencies whiol^ 
clear the ranks of all but veterans who seem to thrive in proportio 
their age. 

Incumbrances rarely attend the prostitute who flies from the horror 
of her position. We must recollect that she has a healthy frame, s 
excellent constitution, and is in the vigour of life. During her career^ 
she has obtained a knowledge of the world most probably above th^^ 
Bitiiation she was bom in. Her return to the hearth of her infancy isj 
for obvious reasons a very I'are occurrence. Is it surprising, then, that 
she should look to the chance of amalgamating with society at large, and 
make a dash at respeetabihty by a marriage 1 Thus, to amost surprising, 
and year by yeai- increasing extent, the better inclined class of prosti- 
tutes become the wedded wives of men in every grade of society, from 
the peer^e to the staljle, and as they are frequently barren, or have but 
a few children, there is reason to believe they often live in ease unknown 
to many women who have never strayed, and on whose unvitiatei^ 
organization matrimony has entailed the burden of families. 

Others who, as often happens, have been enabled to lay by i 
sums of money, work their own reclamation as established milliner 
small shop keepers, and lodging-house keepers, in which cajiacitiet 
often find kind assistance from d-devant male acquaintances, who a 
only too glad to second their endeavours. Others, again, devote their 1 
energies and their savings to preying in their turn, as keepers or J 
attacliies of brothels and other disorderly establishments, upon the olass^ 
of male and female victims they themselves have emerged from. 

The most prudish will doubtless agree with me, that an importanfej 
fraction of ex-prostitutea may be accounted for in the last of thewf 
categories. Such, indeed — as reformatories of the kind hitherto openedl 
Lave been notoriously restricted in their operation — has been the cu»-l 
ternary theoretical disposition of all, or almost all, who were supposed,* 
not to die in the ranks or of supervening illnesses. On reflection, too^ ■ 
the reader may, perhaps, acquiesce in some occasional re-entrances intol 
society through the portals of labour. Emigration also, under its I 
present easy conditions, may be admitted to be an outlet to a certain I 
extent. 

When, however, 1 surest an enormous and continual action of m 
lock upon prostitution, 1 am quito prepared for the smile of incredulity J 



^^^ TEia MODERN HABLOT'S PR0OBEB3. 65 

and the frowa of censure &OTa many whose notions of caatCj propriety, 
and so forth, preclude their entertaining for a moment a proposition 
whieh would to them appear fi'aught with scandal, and because Bcanda^- 
loTifl, prepoateroua. But let me tell the sceptic that this is a matter 
■which, though heretofore it has attracted the attention of a few, will 
hereafter speak to society as with the voice of a trumpet. " Suuui est 
cui proximus ardet," and few may say how soon or how near the fire 
may not approach them. The ball ia rolling, the Rubicon has been 
croMed by nuiiiy who have not been drowned in the attempt, nor found 
a state of thiaga on the other side more distasteful than compulsory 
celibacy j and I apprehend that if some of our social marriage enactments 
are not repealed by acclamation or tacitly, I shall live to see a very large 
increase in concubinage and the marriages of prostitutes. 

There are thousands of fathers, and what is worse, mothers of ^milies, 
in, every rank and occupation of life, who have done much evil, I fear, 
by the attempt to set up the worship of society in association with that of 
Mammon. Wholesale dealers ia so-called respectability, but screwing 
out scanty halfpenny-worths of brotherly love, they have passed a mar- 
riage code in the joint names of these false divinities, which renders day 
by day more difficult the union of youth and love unsahctified by money 
and position. As this goes on, we see more and more of our maidens 
pining on the stem of single blessedness, more and more of our young 
men resigning themselves first, for a time, to miscellaneous fornication, then 
to systematic concubinage, and, of course for all this, none the richer or 
more eligible in the eyes of society, at laat to a mesalliance. 

I need not enlarge upon the social offence of one who thus practically 
lessena the number of prostitutes. All reflective men must appreciate 
in common the sad distress and shame which may accrue to his family, 
the depmvity of his taste, who could consider it a triumph to bear off 
a battered prize from other competitors, and his insanity, who should 
dream of avoiding detection, or indulge the hope that, after detection, 
his false step could he forgotten or forgiven by the world. All can 
compassionate the temporary weakness of a mind which could esteem 
the permanent possession of a tiunted woman worth the sacrifice of home 
and social ties. All are at liberty to predict his future sadno^, if not 
misery ; though we are apt to err in supposing that the woman pur- 
chased at this sacrifice has no affection to return to him, bo gratitude, no 
feeling, no good taste. An d, I confess, I have occasionally joined the very 
worldly aod immoral cry against the folly of a man who contrives to 
make an indissoluble bond of a silken thread which he might have 
rent at his own wUl and pleasure — who pays so dearly for the ownership 
of that which, by a little management, he might have occupied from year 
to year at will, for next to nothing. These are all every-day platitudes, 
and unfortunately iu such common request that men may gather them 
at the street coraera. I need not tire the reader by their useless amjili- 
fioation, but will briefiy touch on a less hackneyed theme — I mean the 
circumstances which in general prelude such matches, and which, 1 fancy, 
will continue to induce them, until the advent of somehealthy change in 

I the management of the marriage booth in Vanity Fair. 
; Take a gentleman, A or B, of any income you please, so it be adequate 
tfi the support of two jieraouF, and of any social position — iroia. the smLgra 



TDK MOOEUr BjUUjOI'I 

' nf Maf fiiir t" tlto "jrminK man" of tlw I 
>«M (Mr l«'H» til" tP*-'!" '" "'"'•'y (t»hinil kM Iwck, af c 
" tiitm tM* *|pi*r<tlar 11 !■ tliitl Ko-nnd-Mt b 
„ 11.*, i^lN... "t lir... of o-.vrtai««l , 

" tulMd'H " 'I'Ik' iviimnirM nru nt butL Tlw medicBl a^vw . 
vt'AmMy iff A "f Pt Ih«w>i«b > i^rfeot ■irBUger to tlw R^ of «ka i 

wniWafcrtiii, |*ilm|"..i'»«lly'"i!l|{lil«nllitiiiiii><mpomU wfciefc»W^ . 
Aftitulif i«fp.iii«l« from fillioin. not knowing what might tnm i^ mai 







mdUtil Viir III 
fl,.. fiirprnr, .'liili, 

||N|||lt«Wt|l<l» 'III 

(ilafit *lii"i will 



Tbe I 



'■% 



finmii anil liiiiiiUniiiu, < 

fllHlll lrlll< IliU'l'i^l'lliU 



MtriNi-r, I 



/e vi'Uhaw il'aiarui 
,ft«ii, tlml tlioU({h A oi 
uiilliitt-lii'iiMii ur till) faoUiry — fre^ocnta tka I 
.1' IiIn 'iwii |iitn>iilW iiioat oungrtigate, — itiiiaii.awiiliB awl 
Kill i(|i]Hiiint uvuu, on ocoudon, Lo mj kdj'a Jia w ia g- 
iillioriiiUn " liiH ntiil Ijowur of ratt is in aome ■awalMJ 
I n niiliKi'lmii (lutliiKQ, or jwrhapa a London '"^g^fig 

iiiiiiiiliriitia iif ilia nmbiguoua ago "da Bals^* aaii 
Willi iir wlllii'iil liiciimbrBnooa — aTowedlj wUov, 
mi' iiiny I'o, Orir nooi mora or leas taate and pf«- 

ipiiiiil unHKtcil in a profeHiiion, will be atritilf 
i<< , utiil at au'itlior liiii liabiU, or other eonnden- 

ii' iii|ij|il. llin K"'*a of n travelling roercltant, en- 
I "ailing, Mill tliu* oxciiae to urvants and nei^ 
rnnira liU niiiiljiiiiinl itlimmou (Vmii liomo. 

if, ini UiH iiLliuc IiuikI, Im vUlt mily in tlio Qtinnictcr of a relative, next 
fcltfiif), Ifiwhw. HiKntitiii' (if iluodMud IuimIiahiI, godfntliur to the children, 
iif wlitil ri'ii, liiH InUrioiniiHi la tioooiwarily more roatrioted — less blaehood 
anil triiiiliU Km flitiilliitl — and both pnrtioa are lean a,ppreheDBive of an 
tnl'UMiuimimi, and inoi-o hul<i|iunilont. Wliilo tradespeople and aeP- 
vunla Mi'n well daulb by, tlm TiiiriHiiiM uonflnmoil nre saved the unpleaaaot** 
HUM (if Iioarlliji In tlio purfmir lliu tittle-tattle which of c 
pliMW at tliii Nldu-dout'. The K""*'l*""aii him iihviuuB reasons 
tidwuwirlly atlrontiriK the nol-iuo of the world about him ; and the femal 
(m noiitaut with hi.ir niii)(h1iniii'H In inovlUble) will generally do her b 
to gain tliiiir rnnpiiot and at'oi'l all uaiiHo uf ■caudal. Little educated, ll 
a, matter nf ooumu, unit generally uunooompliiilied, she appreciates I 
literature beymid mmdl joiii'iialH, umallur NtoHos, and the emidJest poetr; 
Her ponltion with "her ft'icnd " and her ueighbonra, depending t 
reHpiiel^tblu demeanour, «lio avoidit vnlgnrity, evil coDi])aiiy, and the attei 
tioius of atraTige men, and fuUa liaolc, if oliildleui, upon the domestia pu] 
Huita of gardening, needlework, cookery, and scriipulou 
If a mother, she is, aH mothers are, devoted — mo\irning at 
cieucy aa a trainer, pasaienatoly desirous for the respoet as well as love d 
her ofifepring, as well aa solicitous that they shall walk in the way Of 
virtue and propriety. 









.1, and the A or B in question gets no younger, 1. 
n the less disposed to alt«r habits that have grown upon him, perhapi 
irem youth. In the plurality of eases he has been disgusted in socieM 



Tll£ HODEIIN HABLOT'b PUDCiltESS. 67 



or has never cultivated any but that of men. He may even have heen 
crossed in a legitimate love, or have had a protrosal de convenance thrown 
lukck in his teeth. He is eick and tired of an atmosphere of deceit or 
mystery in which he haa spent one-half of his time. He is fond of himself 
and of ease, and he haa found it, afiection, and consideration of hia 
every whim, at the hands of this woman — he may really, in course of 
time, have conceived for her that amount of respect which is necessary 
to the composition of a perfect love. For his sake, she tells him — some- 
times falsely, sometimes truly — she haa rejected offers of position. Cases 
are handy of unfaithful wives legitimately wooed and won — her con- 
stancy without the tie should be rewarded. He knows, or maybe 
thinks he knows, by heart, the woman who has shared hia hed and board 
for years, while he argues that all regular courtships are no better than 
tedious sharas^a series of organized impositions on both sides — and that 
marriage d la vnode is a lottery. His inclinations sometimes even press 
conscience into an alliance, and conscience seems to say it must be wrong 
to cast from his bosom down the winds of fortune the woman whose 
attractions he had enjoyed while the days of her youth sped from her, 
without a thought bestowed by either of them on her future. Maybe 
she has children — to whom he is much attached — and shall he J — no 1 he 
will not send them illegitimate upon the world. He could do nothing 
less than keep them all, whatever came to pass; and if he married 
suitably, their veiy life would be a cloud upon his future. He asks 
himself. Has he philosophy to break tiie chain if a reputable marriage 
were open to himi And inclination replying — as she sometimes does — 
in the negative, conscience warns him not to peril the happiness of a 
wife, besides hia own and his paramour's. Considerations such as these 
combine at length, and deepen into a quasi- religious conviction, which is 
little to be wondered at where a man has been the original seducer of 
hia mistress ; and which, wondrous or not, veiy frequently operates — 
especially where the latter is a woman of taet — to change the most 
irregularly contracted liaison into the indiasoluhlo bond of marriaga 

The above arguments are capable of a thousand combinations, with 
some of which men of all ranks and tomperaments are apt to back up 
their inclinations, and attempt the after-justification of their proceedings. 
There are, however, many other marriages of this description susceptible 
of no defence, which, originating in a very different manner, are planned 
at haste, and produce their bitter fruit, sometimes forthwith, sometimes 
at leisure. 

A banished prodigal, a spendthrift greenhorn, a discarded lover, will 
often rush headlong into matrimony to provoke hia respectable relatives, 
to spite his mistress, or in a frenzy of jealousy and intoxication. I have 
known a man of family, position, and fortune caiTy a pi-ostitute to church 
almost against her will, and reckless of all consequences — without the 
slightest prospect of ever gaining her affections, but in the mere mad 
hope of securing her person from hia rivals. I have known a month's 
acquaintance, bom at a ca.^ino, nourished at Vauxhall, to terminate at 
the altar of Bt, Oeoi^e'a, with little othei- object in the maniac bride- 

I groom's head than to add fresh fuel to the Are of a father's anger, and 
*to do," as he said, " something worth a shilling legacy." 1 have known 
k:man — of taste and elegance before his lunacy — take for better or woiae 
f2 




HiHLOTa PHOGRESa. 

a tliorougli strumpet, that he might wound more deeply still a virtuoi 
heart be had already withered. The aunah of the class could tell 
of the mnn of fashion who ran the passionate tradesman neck and neck 
for the poaaeasion of their common favourite — how ho only won her by 
the wedding-ring — and how his discouaolate rival took to poetry and 
travel. Full many a simpleton haa conceived a paaaion in course of a 
night's debauch which, needing no spur of rivaJry or spite, couJd not be 
assuaged except by marriage in hot haste, without even a preliminary 
Btate of probation. 

If "society" would consider the numberless and inscrutable phases of 
which this marriage mania is auseeptible — the beauty, and often the 
shrewdness of the women— the immense concourse of marriageable males 
at the height of their passions, who, from various causes, seek female 
society more in the stroots than in the boudoir, and who are, at the same 
time, utterly deficient in physico-moral training— it would, as 1 do, 
marvel less at the occasional explosion of these flagrant cases than at 
their i-arity. 

The following case is, of course, violently exceptional ; hut it is no lesa 
true that, some time back, a. gentleman of family, on his road to a county 
jail, to which he had been committed for misdemeanonr, invited and' 
accepted the recommeodation of a wife from the driver of the vehids. 
He absolutely married her, led subsequently a miserable life, and is eincft 
dead. This painful story needs no illustration, and no comment. 

I speak advisedly — and many persons of experience will bear me out 
— when I state my firm belief that hardly a prostitute in 'London haa- 
not, at some period of her career, an opportunity of marriage almost 
always above her original station. It is no rare occurrence for a woman, 
comparatively public to have one or two lovers on her list, who, with it 
full knowledge of her situation, will hold their hands for a length of' 
time at her disposal. She will keep them dangling, as her betters do 
their Mwains, while she sows her wild oats, from a reluctance to desert 
some more cherished acquaintance who will not op cannot afibrd to marry, 
or Bom.e wealthy admirer from whom she may have, not merely income, 
but exijeotations. 

A friend of mine was some time ago attending a very ladylike person, 
living in the first style. She was well known to be unmarried, and to 
receive the attentions of three gentlemen, of whom two had considerable 
property, while the third, although well placed, was not so well off. From 
an affection of the utems, her health declined; and, after some ineffectual 
attempts at cure, she was advised that her recovery must depend upon 
the dismissal of her lovers and the adoption of an exti-emely quiet life. 
I am not prepared to detail the mechanism of the plot ; but suffice it to 
aay, that when I next heard of this lady, she was rid for ever of two of 
her lovers, and had married the last, to whom she was an excellent and 
affectionate wife. 

There are individuals who, from sheer idleness, nervousness, want of 
leisure or of wit, prefer the sociability, ample choice, and faoihty trf 
making acquaintance which characterize the dancing-master's " select 
aasemblies," to the atraightness and frigidity of more orthodox avenues, 
to matrimony. And it must be remembered^ as I am sjieaking of all 
conditions of men — that such gatherings as would appear to the higher 



I 



I 



THE MODERN DAULOT's PI10CRE9S. C9 

onleratolietiioroughly promiscuous, are, iatheeyeaof ayerylarge number 
of our young jieople, as genteel aad Bolect, and to others as inaccesKible, 
as are Almack's baOa to the bulk itf tlio middle classes. They are oer- 
toinly as well conducted, generally speaking. And thus a fraction of the 
slioals of amiable girls, whose fell from modesty has been achieved by 
the kind of "gentlemen" who regularly prowl in search of prey at such 
assemblies and the plcasui-e gardens, very prudently gather, en revanche, 
the flower of safety from the self-same bed of nettles, and, withdrawing 
in time from the outskirts of prostitution and the prospective horrors 
of the absolute pave, make excellent wives to men, sometimes in, and 
often above their own rank of life, who, being imconscious of their atite- 
cedentB, neither sufler in mind nor can aggi-avato any after difficulties by 
cruel and unavailing reproach. 

The ranks of prostitution, again, aro to some extent reduced by men 
who, not exactly in search of wives, are yet prepared for marriage, and 
flutter, as Jo moths about a light, round the Circes of the marine parade, 
the boai-ding-hotise, thepewffioJi-6(Kir5eoise, and the table-d'hfito — Circes 
for whom the education-mongers have contracted (on a somewhat sandy 
base) to set one up complete with deportment and accomplishments to 
match. The fate of such a bachelor, who should too long dally at 
Horence, Paris, Biidon, Tours, Boulogne, or Brighton, among the elegant 
and experienced company I have seen there, is like the egg-trick of tha 
conjuror Columbus — no problem when found out. Matches like these, 
of course not every day, but not uncommonly, relievo the pocket and the 
conscience of some ancient lover, and make a pair of speculators in- 
differently happy. 

I remember a very laughable one, improvised at a water-cure, between 
a notorious dilapidated fortune-hunter and a pretended officer's widow. 
Appearances justified each in consideriiig the other a capitalist. The 
wedding was splendid and charming — the honeymoon gay and expensive; 
but when the hour of payment came, their resources turned out to be 
an accurately fiishionable toilette on either side, and a joint income of 
IflOi. ayear. The lady's share had been settled recently upon her by 
an admirer of her younger days, and the gentleman's was a life-interest. 
The explosion was paiuful; but these defeated adventuxcrB, after chafing 
at the collar for a while, very wisely joined their talents for the common 
good, and make a head against the world, I hear, successfully. 

Nor is the union of the wealthy man's dependant with the pensioned 
mistress, by consent of all three, by any means less common in the 
world than is represented in plays and story-books. Upon the tempera- 
ment and original social position of the female, and also the degree of 
luxury in which she has lived, must depend the position to which she 
will stoop ; for it may be relied on she wOl, to all appearance, be the 
condescending party. The gentleman's means and sympathy naturally 
fix the limit to hia generosity, and decide the style of husband pur- 
chaseable. As men of every grade, and with every sort of maintenance 
at their disposal, from the Government clerkship to the gamekeeper's 
lodge, have every year to disembarrass themselves of ties such as we 
apeak of— nothing, I confess, seems to me more proper than that the 
suitor ex machinA, who (having had perhaps hia own full share of 
trouble) can set at rest two uneasy consciences, and the anxieties, it may 



I 

I 

I 



I 



ro I 

be, of a whole family without violence to his own feelings, should Mm 
very haudsomely provided for. Nothing seems more natural than that J 
he should, if possible, be quartered upon the public — failing that, upon < 
the family estate, or the business — or last of all, be set up i 
shop, an inn, or " the general line" in a countiy village. The transaetion 
is not blazoned in the columns of the " Morning Post," nor announced by 
sound of bell at the market-crosa ; and, with a world of exeuaes to 
choose from, it is hard if the actors in this venial plot cannot ftoaount for J 
their paiia ao as to answer all but that impertinent curiosity which at J 
once eneoTirages and richly merits deception. I 

As long as such events occur, they were better not made needleaslj' | 
public property ; but their number ia certainly too important to be di&- 1 
carded from such a calculation as mine. >l 

It is, 1 believe, an undisputed, though perhaps unparalleled, anecdote, ' 
that a once celebrated sporting character, who, with a well-intentioned 
view to some such ultimate disposal of a person he was connected with, 
and mindfiil, too, how iugitive are speculative gains and good intentions, 
had made a considerable settlement upon her — was not sorry, in an after 
time of pressure, to re-acquire, as husband, the funds he had placed be- 
yond his own control by the fortunate liberality of more prosperous days. 

It is no uncommon thing, again, for the smart London girl, who has 
contrived to maintain some relations with her home — and I never heard 
of one who did not cherish in her heart of hearts that tie — to go occsi- 
sionally on a visit of sufferance to her countiy Mends. The virtuous' 
sisters, or the stepmother, who would ruthlessly close the door against 
the penitent, will yet permit their dulncss to be enlivened for awhilflj^ 
perhaps even under protest of some members of the femily, by thft 
■ bearer of new London scraps and lashions, " My daughter," or " 
Bister fivam town," is — for all the neighbours know — a milliner's 
prover, a nursery governess, or a lady's companion. Lively, well-dres 
a first-rate dancer, and as modest-looking as the best, she not unA*^ 
quently attracts a country suitor, whom she may accept at once, or bind 
to an apprenticeship, while she takes a partiog sip at the cup of pleasures 
and fortifies her good resolutions by a little more dissipation and a IJttlf 
more trouble. Another campaign, too, may give the ojiportunity of A 
little diplomatic arrangement for a settlement or a bonne main, accoi-din j 
to the style of subsisting connexions. 

I can by no means close this lengthy analysis of prostitution-marriaj 
without including the very imaginable category of matches for love o 
both sides; and protesting against the vulgar erroi- which denies su 
coptibility of love to the woman of pleasure. The "Arthur" of Frend 
light literature, the man for whom she keeps what heart she may, whilf 
her person is public, is not so common a personage here as elsewher^ 
because the independence of the English character will not suffer sua 
youths as a gay woman of pretension would adopt, to step forward a 
candidates for her unpurchased afiection; hut it may be relied on thi 
the story of the much-abused Da/ine mtx Camdiaa is, I might almost sa] 
an every-day one. I have seen a London sultana, whose expenditun 
could not be leas than from two to three thousand a year, and the futuM 
of whose children only partially pi-ovided for, cut off by degrees all hai 
BUperfiuitiea and luxuries, as her affection for a poor merchant's clei?' 




THE MODERN HARLOTS PROGRESS. 71 

c oraft from day to day more distasteful, and forced her to 
cashier, one by one, her opulent admirera; and in my opinion, half the 
wildest women in our town would, to the estent of their ]K)wer, go half 
way, and ^rther, to meet the genuine love of any man. The prostitute 
knows well enough to distinguiah the furious evanescent tlame of an 
emancipated schoolboy, or the buainesa-like indifierence of the practised 
man about town, from the paeaionato affection and sympathy which 
chance sometimes brings to her feet. Should she herself conceive the 
flame, what wonder cau there be that with the terrible sword of jealousy 
ever ready to her hand, bt^side all the smaller weapons of the female 
arsenal, she should gain any amount of ascendancy where she would not 
wed; and where she would, a rapid victory over every consideration of 
reason and expediency. 

It may, I dare say, be objected that in preceding pages I have lent 
myself to a gross alander upon the public at large, by setting at so 
grievous a discount the popular estimation of virtue and propriety. 
£ut it is not to a fervid imagination, but hard memory and the espe- 
rience of our profession, that I owe the preceding iacts and analysis ; and, 
when I reconsider what I have written, I confess I can see no single 
statement or opinion that can surprise the major part of readers con- 
versant with London, although their juxtaposition be new, and favour 
startling inferences. If we consult the experiences of the clergy, who 
e the best of authorities upon the social condition of both urban and 
mufacturing communities ; or men who, like the Brothers Mayhew,* 
■e sifted to the drags the lower orders in capital cities, and in this me- 
Vpolis particularly, we find that female honour by no means holds its 
Ikeoreticol position in public esteem.t In parts of the mannfocturing 
iad mining districts, again, whore the infant labour produces an early 
addition to the parents' resourcea, it is considered unthrifty and unne- 
lessary to marry a woman who has not given evidence of fertility. She 
■who cannot at least ahow feir prospect of adding young piecers, tenters, 
or burners, as well as her own person, to the common stock, is no better 
than an unproductive incumbrance. " If thou houd'st, I wed thee j if 
thou doesn't, thou'rt none the waur," is a north countiy proverb, fami- 
Bjiar enough to many southerners, and acted upon to an immense 
^bxtent, as I have been repeatedly and seriously informed by reliable 
^puthorities.}: 

■ • On thB last day of the last week of the first quarter nf 1854, there were 13,893 able- 

■ijbadied women in the workhomes iu England and Wales.. Of these, 1604 were of disso- 

I .lote and abandoned cbaiaeter, and S5S'i were mntheca of ille^timate ehlldcen, but wGie 

t*"! of disaolnte or abandoned imliita. The ealrajala of women whiot bore frnit, and 

irere avowed b; re^trstion of the infants, were in 1852 no less than 66,000. I sEiouM 

inuigine that if the cases of seducljon- bastardy not broc^ht to light through non-regiHlra- 

tion, onfruitfulnesa, miscarriages, and abortions could be calculated, tlieir numheis would 

be as three to one of those whir^h transpired as above. 

t Mr. Maybew says but one in twenty of ths "street folk" who lit* as man and 
wife are married. The oouploa of the working populatioa who cohabit in town are not 
B-JBairled, and in many agricultural previnoes cohabitatioa before marriage is systematic, 
^*lnd a matter of pubho underatauding. 

J I am not speaking on my own anthcrity, hut on tbat of credible witnesses, when 
3 »sf that in a midland county, families are uuable to keep female domestics virtuous for 
y length of lime ; and I am able of my own eiperienoe to assert that in the home 
antjee the same occurs, and that tbe beet of servaata ore oftea found amoni; those 
fho have children la support. 



72 



THE MOEERN HARLOTS PROOHESa. 



L 



It is within the niGmory of politicianSj that among the causes of the 
change in the bastitrdj clauses of the old Poor JJaw, was the prevalent 
fact, that a woman who had had aeyeral children, perhaps hy different 
men, was in some parts of the country considered » more eligible match 
than the virtuous village girl who had no fruit of ain to her marriage 
portion; and the numbers of our lower orders whom the philaiit!iropi< 
clergy have found willing to accept of gratuitous marriage, but who ad- 
hered pertinaciously to concubinage until the Church gave up her feeSj, 
demonatratea clearly enough that the equivalent of a few gallons of hear 
consumed during the honejnnoon, suffices with their order to kick thtf 
beam between morality and immorality, religion and irreligion, deoenty 
and indecency, present gi'atifioatiou and care for the fnturp. 

How little can these men prize the honour of wives or the credit 
of offspring — how little these females thought of their vii-tue, or of ths ■ 
rights of married women, the noo-appreciation of maidenliood, the ramy 
fication of prostitution. The moi-e I reflect on these things, the mt 
am I convinced that vast masses from top to bottom of our people, haT*i 
not the proper poetical or theoretical appreciation of female virtuS)^ 
and are, at present, most indiffei-eot to those laws of society and religioA , 
by which they are supposed to be swayed. I am of opinion that tbes^ 
masses must, and obviously may be, dealt with by statesmen for tlieiri 
good, but constitutionally, and as far as they are concerned, without thS; 
slightest fear of jaiTing with an imaginary refinement which they do' 
not possess. 

Prostitution diffuses itself through the social fabric, though it is per- 
ceptible for a time only, as is the moorland stream which stains but 
for a apace the bluest river. The maases I have spoken of, then, and 
those who to the third and fourth generation may have a concern in the 
actual harlot of to-day, are hy far too great and important that they 
their interests should he ignored or set aside, only through fear of gi-ating, 
on the fanci^ belief of poetical meu and ladylike politicians, or breaking, 
down their plaster imiiges of a perfectly genteel and virtuous politjs.' 
True religion says this must not he. 

There are persons who deem the Haymarket and the Argyll Rooms — 
because, I presume, being adjacent to the Opera House, these places 
come betwixt the wind and their fine susceptibilities — at once the Alpha 
and the Omega of prostitution, and would exterminate the vice and its 
practitioners at one fetl swoop, hy a bonfire, in the Eegent Circus. 
These will clamour, that the evil ia over-magnified when each harlot ir 
called a harlot, because this enlargement of the field of operations putai 
an end to all nonsensical proposals of high-handed suppression, I usO 
none but their own weapons, when I marshal in the ranks of prosfii 
tution each woman who. Id a pure society, would properly be so construed., 
But the accumulation to bo dealt with thus becomes so frightful, that 
all who can read and think will agree with me, that management aadil 
regulation of " the greatest sociid evil" by the bitfon or the pillory, 
grateful though it might be to Exeter Hall, would be neither etfectiTe', 
nop perhaps politic. 

The hand of an Englishman should bo as withered before it advocati 
the forcible suppression of this vice, as must bo the foolish brain thai 
could plot it. Virtue and vice, aa we all know, are no Bubjeols fori 



1 




THE UODERN HA BLOT B PaOUOESB. 



73 



enactment. To probeat against the latter's concentration is futile and 
absurd aa to argue agiiinat the herding of noblea or parvenuet, trades- 
men or manufacturers, criminals or paupers. Secrecy would be more 
franght than publicity with danger to individuals and the public ; dif- 
^ion would be lunacy on grounds both of morals and policy. The 
existing regulations are adeqviate for public protection and order, which 
are all the judJciouH can at present hope for; for anything farther in 
that direction we are certainly not prepared. The Home Secretary wlio 
Hfaonld attempt any thing like coei-cion would soon have hia hands full 
indeed. We are already polices enough — we nre, indeed, already on 
the verge of escess. The shivering scorn with which the million utterly 
unafFeoted by the measure he was advocating, received the Puritan legis- 
lator's prescription of a " six-pounders tail on the pavement," as a 
plaster for public discontent, should be a lesson, "when found to be 
^inade a note of," by such as would play incautiously with the screw of 

I repeat that prostitution ia a transitory state, through which an 

Oitotd number of British women are ever on their passage. Until pre- 

jntive measures, previously hinted at, to which I shall presently refer, 

"J have been considerately adopted — and thereafter, too, if needful, 

no nostrum-monger — it ia the duty, and it should be the busi- 

all, in the interest of the commonwealth, to see these women 

Tihrongh that state, so as to save harmless as much as may be of tha 

bodies and souls of them. And the commonwealth's intcreat in it is 

this — that there ia never a one among all of tlieae whose partners in 

vice may not some time become the husbands of other women, and fathers 

of English chiklren ; never a one of them but may herself, when the 

Ehadow is past, become the wife of an Englishman and the mother of hni 

offipring ; that multitudes are mothers before they become prostitutes, 

and other multitudes become mothers during their evil career. If the 

e of the people is of no concern to the State, then has the State no 

a. arresting its vitiation. But if this concern and this interest 

« admitted, then arises the necessity for depriving prostitution not only 

rf its moral, but of its physical venom also. The means I will herGatW 

' Jakof. 



CHAPTER VII. 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABKOAD AND AT HOME. 



I 



I CAMNOT Tenture to hojie that the sexual paaaion will in our time ceaM I 
to operate or dimiuish very materially. I have uo idea that the pre- I 
veBtives of prostitutioa hereafter suggested, will, if adopted at all, optrat»l 
otherwise than tai-dily, and after all incompletely. It becomes us, then, j 
to consider what cui'ativea or palliatives are at our disposaL Havii^ 4 
already attempted to depict, not extravagantly, the present externu I 
aspect of the vice, and the interest of society in its being well ordered, I J 
"Will now glance at its organization, and the possibility of our regulating I 
it by law, or mitigating its attendant evils. ■ 

It will be necesisary, therefoj-e, concisely to set out the modes of life 4 
and behaviour prescribed to a portion of their prostitutes by the policol 
of continental States, and also those which prevail among them here. A J 
notice of the state of our own lav^, and of the difficulties which arise I 
when our auliioritiea attempt any move in the direction of pressure ,1 
may something help the reader, who, having perused and thought upon J 
the foreign systems, may wish to form his own judgment as to how fitf m 
such could be conveniently applied to the street-demeanour, amuse- 4 
ments, and domiciliary arrangements of prostitutes in this country, 
have long sought the opportunity which now offers of throwing out a 
few suggestions for future elaboration by wiser heads and more com- 
petent hands than my own. I may be misunderstood or misinterpreted, 
and the emdeness in which want of time, and it may be of capacity, m 
have naturally left my ideas on the subject, may lead to their rejection.^ 
as absurdities in quartei's where I should prefer their favourable recep^M 
tion. But I also hope that among the many benevolent and influentil ' 
persons under whose notice these pages may chance to come, some mayB 
be found who, alive to the interests of society and the demands of public 
order, may sbc their way to advance those interests, and comply, at leHaiS 
partially, with those demands, without deepening the misfortunes of thai 
class or trenching upon the liberties of ua ail. 

We may here at once discard from our calculation the class of femaleR^ 
who live in a state of concubinage. Their ill effect upon so( 
long as they remain in that category, is moral, not physical. They dofl 
not, or according to my theory previously illustrated, they very rarelyi 
descend into the grade of public supply, but are, even on the Continent^ 
and still more in this country, utterly beyond the reach of medical 
public police supervision. The depravation of public health and tbj 
national power are more traceable to the young clandestine prostituti« 



and tie pi-omiacuous class who practice, from year'a end to year's end, 
for five, ten, fifteen, or twenty years of their lives, in a, chronic or inter- 
mittent state of uusouudness. 

Tbe hacdened common prostitute, when overtaken by disease, pursues 
her trade, oa a general rule, uninterruptedly, spreading contagion among 
men, in apite of her own pain, that she may live and avoid debt, until 
positively obliged to lay up for medical treatment in lodgings or in an 
hospital It is from this class that society may be prepared for, if not 
expect, contempt and danger to public order and decency; and over 
them the police of foreign countries have established the partial control 
which I shall presently describe. As these regulations are as vaguely 
comprehended in this country as their adoption is frequently invoked 
for our own relief I tliink it as well to be somewhat difi'uae ujion them, 
for the convenioncQ of such as take an interest in these matters. 



1 



i 



STNOPSIB OP FKENCH HEQULATIOHa. 



1 may as well premise by observing that the authorities of Paris by 
I means pretend to have established a control over the whole prostitu- 
tion of that city. The amovAinaires they cannot roach. The large 
sections of superior professional prostitutes, whom the French term 
/emmes gcda^tes and lovelies, evade them, as do also vast hordes of 
the lowest class of strumpets who throng the low quarters and the 
villages of the Banlieu. I should havementioned under the head "Extent," 
that M. Antin, an official of the Assistanee-Publique, estimated in 1850 
that there were 20,000 females in Pai'is having no other ostensible 
means of subsistence, on whom a tax in aid of retreats firom prostitution 
might be levied. He assumed that 10,000 of this number could be 
rated at an annual contribution of fifty francs j 5000 at eighty francs ; 
3500 at 100 francs; 1500 at 200 francs— yielding in aU 1,550,000 
francs. 

It appears that, the then existing statutes being too cnmbrous to 
check the flagrancy of prostitution, the following simple and expeditious 
police decree was devised, in 1776, to strengthen the hands of the autho- 
rities. Although partially repealed, it is the last operative enactment 
on the subject, and is, as will be seen, the basis of the existing regu- 
lations : — ■ 

Art. L — No debauched wonien and girls to solicit in tbe sti-eets, 
on the quays, squares and public walks, and boulevards of this city oi 
Paris, even from windows, under pain of being shaven and locked up, 
and in case of a second offence, of corporal punishment, as provided in. 
previous ordinances, deGi"ee3, and regulations. 

Art. II. — No owners and occupiers of houses to imderlet to, or har- 
bour in their houses, persons of other than good conduct, morals, and 
reimte, or to permit within the same any cover for debauchery, under 
penalty of 400 franca. 

Aet. III. — All Bucli owners and occupiers of houses as aforesaid, 
whereinto loose women have been introduced, to make a declaration 
within twenty-four hours before the commissary of the quai-ter, against 
him or her who has so imposed upon them, to the end that, on report of 
tbe fact by the said commissary, the delinquente may lae fiued 400 
francs, or even specially proceeded against. 



76 POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME. 

Abt. IV, — No person, of whatsoever calling or condition, to underlet, 
by the day, week, fortnight, month, or othet term, any chamber or fi 
nished place, to debauched women or girls, or directly or indirectly 
take part in any such hiring, under penalty of 400 francs. 

Abt. v.— Alt persona letting hotels, furnished honsea, and lodgings, 
by the month, fortnight, week, day, i&c, to inscribe forthwith, day by 
day, and without blanks, the name, surname, quality, birth-jilace, and 
ordinary domicile of each lodger, upon a police register which they 
shall keep for the purpose, to be checked by the commissaries of their 
respective quarters; not to harbour in such hotels, houses, or lodgings, 
any persons without tBtenaihle description, or women or girls who have 
recoui'SB to prostitution ; to keep separate apartments for men and 
women; not to permit men to occupy private rooms with women calling 
themaelves married, except after exhibition by them of their maniage 
certihoate, or their written identification by known and respectabla 
persons, under penalty of 200 francs. 

Signed by tho Lieutenant of Police, 

l&cJi ^oveTiiber, 1778. Lekoir. 

This ordinance, which was soon found to be too strong for itself 
amounting as it did, in fact, to a prohibition of illicit intercourse, was 
set at nought by the public and all concerned, who boMly laced the 
crusades of zealous officials, and were regarded as martyrs when, con- 
victed. It was aubsecjuently swept off at the Revolution, and prostitution 
became rampant. 

It is true that a law was passed in July, 1791, which addressed itself 
to the suppression of procui'ation ; but its framera, doubtless mindful of. 
the spirit of the times, prudently avoided the subject of prostitution, 
and this one, therefore, among othei" vices of Paris, being relieved from all , 
the restraints which anterior ordinances had imposed upon it, very 
shortly achieved the frightful eminence which is a matter of history, ami , 
to check which the Directory and theCouncU of Five Hundred were loudly 
called on by the voice of public opinion to interpose. The President of 
the Directory, Rewhell, drew up a powerful appeal to the latter body, in- 
viting them to legislate for the suppression of the disorder which , 
meuaced public morality. The embaiTassing nature of the subject, how- 1 
ever, imported into the document a projMisition of so singular a nature , 
considering ii» source, as to be worth extractiou. It may also, if my 
view be eori-ect that it is a suggestion of a secret police, form an addi- 
tional aid to the reflections of the advocates of strong measures i. 

"It is our duty to submit one observation more. It appears to u* 
essential that your treatment should prescribe a form of process which. 
shall exempt police inspectors and agents from the inconvenience of. 
being called as witnesses against such of the accused, or their v^abond 
hangers-on, whom they may happen to know; tlie result of which would 
be to neutralize the action of zealous agents of police, through the peree- 
cution and insult they would undergo when charges were dismissed for 

I want of sufficient evidence, and the peraonal danger they would incor ^h 
in the course of their investigations." ^H 

[ Nothing was done until 1796, when the uewIy-inBtitutad prefecture'^! 
I lb ■ 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT SOUE. 77 

of police took the matter in hand, and a projeC de loi waa prepared, but 
fell through. The sarao thing occurred agiiiu and again. Napoleon, the 
First, who had private renaons for moving in the matter, was compelled 
to act arbitrarily. Since hia time the law of July, 1791, Las remained 
the only authority and cover for the proceedings of the Executive in 
this regard; and an opinion has always prevailed in certain quarters 
that these were more sanctioned by expediency and the force majeure of 
bureaucracy than by legality. , 

The Prelect Pasquiev, towards the close of the first Empire, actively 
engaged in a code of regulations, which never oame to the foot of the 
throne. In 1816, when, after the occupation of Paris, the morality of 
the city was at a iow ebb, and venereal diseases at their maximum, some 
plans for regulatmg prostitution were entertained by men in office; but 
it being ruled, at the instance of the Minister of Police, that the i84th 
article of the penal code gave the administrators of justice powers amply 
sufficient for the restraint of excess, the agitation dropped. The words 
of this clause (and I have preserved in my translation the ambiguity of 
the original) are as follows : 

"With regard to subjects not touched by the present code, to which 
special laws and regulations apply, the courts and tribunals will continue 
to observe them." 

It ia argued by some French jurisconsults that the only ancient enact- 
ment bearing upon the question, and capable of being revived by this 
article, that of 1788, having been abrogated at the period of the Revolu- 
tion, and the penal code being otherwise silent upon the subject, is 
that of 1791 above cited. But this being in fact directed only against 
private debauchery of minors, rto., and not against public prostitution, 
the latter form of vice is absolutely unprovided for, and the pi'eseut 
system pretending to be baaed upon the statute and buttressed by the 
penal code, ia in point of fact an illegal excrescence. Eighteen months 
afterwards, on receipt of applications for some model regulations for pro- 
vincial cities, the prefect of police, AnglSs, drew up a paper on the 
whole subject, which he wound up as follows:— 

" Sooner or later the principle of individual liberty must triumph, and 
prostitution muat become, under the shadow of general principles, as 
unrestricted aa any other commerce; or, legislation explicitly admitting 
distinctions and exceptions, must place undev the eye of the magistracy 
charged with the protection of morality and order, such charactei-s a.s, by 
their attitude and the depravity of their sentiments, are in coutinual 
opposition to religion, morals, good order, and the interest of society." 

Id 1819, the Government commissioned the advocates, Masson and 
Billeooq, to draw a Bill for the Chambers, which had no result. In 
1822, again, a new law was contemplated, but no more; and to the 
present day the question baa not been again mooted. The police 
administration baa pursued its way in perfect conviction of rL'ctitude, 
and of courFe without questioning the legahty or illegality of iia own 
proceedings. 

The official i-egistration 6f common prostitutes was first loosely set on 
foot in 1765, and re-oiganized in 1796, under the Convention, Through 
neglect it was inoperative until 1801 ; then, after reorganization, it fell 
gradually into desuetude until 1816, when the present mecliauism was 



78 POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME. 

adopted, and has undergone alight change, except in 1838, when exhi- 
bition of her acte de ncdssanee was first demanded of each person pre- 
eenting herself for inscription, and the poll-tax waa abolislied. 

The keepers of licensed houses acted formerly aleo as ageni;s in 
collecting women into the grasp of the authorities ; biit this haa been 
suppressed on oh^ous grounds, that if it were permitted they would be- 
come purveyors.* The registration is now either on the voluntaty 
demand of the female, or by requisition of the Bureau des Mteurs. ~ 
appearing before this tribunal, the candidate, after declaring her name, 
age, quality, birth-place, occupation, and domicile, is submitted to Si 
searching examination, as follows. Is she married or siogle 1 Has shd 
father and mother living, and what are their pursuits 1 Does she residd 
with them ; if not, why not, and when did she leave them ? Haa she 
children 1 How long has she inhabited Paris, and can she bo owned 
there ) Haa she ever been arrested, and if so, the particulars 1 Haa 
she previously been a prostitute; if so, the details f Has she had any, 
and what, education 1 Has she bad any venereal affection 1 Her 
tivea for the step ? 

She next proceeds to the £wreau Sanittdre, is medically examined, and 
enrolled in that department. If found diseased, she is consigned to the 
Siunt-Laaare Hospital forthwith. Steps are meanwhile taken to verify 
her replies at the Bwreau dee Mcettre, and formal communications ate 
now made to the mayor of her native commune, with an appeal for 
the woman's redemption to her parents. I present a copy of the latter, , 
which ia of course slightly varied if a female haa voluntarily presented ' 
herself for examination ; — 

" MoNSiEmi — 

" Votre fille &gfe de , a 6t6 arr6t6o le 

pour fait de d^bauche" {if diseased, " et p]ac6e 4 I'lnfirmerie de Saint- . 
Iiozare afin d'y recevoir les soins que sa sante exige.) 

" On I'a invitee i. retoumer prSs de vous, mais eUe s'y eat refiisfie bien , 
qu'il lui ait €t€ offert pasaeport gratuit avec secours de route. 

" Je voua prie, en oonsSquence, de me faire conni^tre quels moyens 
VOU3 coraptea employer pour assurer son retour (en cas de maladie aprfis 
gufirison) au cas oi voua ne pourriez venir la chercher vous m^me ou 
ohoiger une personne sllre du soin de voua la renvoyer." 

Should the relatives of the girl be willing to receive her, she is re- 
mitted to them at the public cost. She, however, frequently refuses to 
dMclose them, or ia ignorant of their existence, and it rarely occurs 
that they reclaim her. I^ as has happened, she be a vii^in or a minor, 
she is consigned to a religious establishment. Should spleen or deapair 
cause the step, and she show symptoms of good qualities, immediate 
attempts ore made to change her intention, and she ia often sent home, 
or placed in a reformatory at the public cost If her parents reside 
Paris they are communicated with. All, in fact, that the Bureav, ■ 
McBwra can do, I should in justice say, I believe to be done, to warn 

" The inoijoni de ioUrance are neTertheJeaa recruited, in fact, tbrongh tie e 
and at the coat of their keepcre, from lioBpilala and other bouioss in the enpital, uid If 
agency and correBpondEnce from the depsuiments Hnd Belgium. 



1 
I 



IHI^ 



^P POLICE 8UPEBVISI0N ABROAD AND AT llOMB. 79 

and reatrain the femalo about to enrol herself in the ranks of public 
prostitution, and only when all has failed is the formality complied 
■with. This formality, which takes the form of a colourable contract 
or covenant between the prostitute and the authorities, would seem to 

" L'au , pardevant nous, commissairo de police, 

bureau , s'eat preseut6e pour Stre inecrite comme 
fille publique, la uommge , natiye de , 

enregistr^ d'aprSs decision du , laquelle, instruite par 
nous des rSglements sanitaires fitablia par la prefecture, pour les fillea de 

subir les visites periodiques de MM. les m£decins du dispensaire de salu- 
brity, promettant de ae conformer strictemeat 4 toutea les regies pre- 
sorites pour la surveillance. 

"I« Commisaaire de Police, 

"D . 

" En foi de quoi elle a sign6." 

This over, the individual is presumed at liberty to select the category 

destitute, or any arrangement to this effect had been previously entered 
into, she is registered to a certain licensed house, to whose licensed pro- 
prietress she becomes a. marked and numbered serf or chattel, to be used 
or abused, within certain limitations, at discretion. If she has com- 
mand of capital enough to furnish a lodging of her own, she is provided 
with a ticket, or carte, of which I append a translation : 




^^5 J reHdence, i:^. 




18—. 


Firat 
fortnight. 


Signature af medioBl 


SooDDd 
forlsiitht. 


Signatnro of medicBl 


January ... 
February ... 
Man,!. ...... 

^.:=. 

Jane 

July 

Angurt ... 
Saptember 
October ... 
Xovember 
December... 












a 

1 


n the reverse of which are printed the following 

OhUgaliotM and Restrictions imposed on FvhUc W<ymen. 
"Public women, en coArte, are called upon to present themselves 
le dispensary for examination, onoe at leaat every fifteen days. 


1 

at ■ 

■ 




voucB scrxBTiaicm asboao a^td at hoik 

upon to exliiHt Hum cmxd, on every reqnett of polios 

tu pnuttise tJie cnUing ilnringdayligbt, or towalk 

i^&KO* until at least luilf-uu-hiiiir after the public larap» 

oi the vtMT hefan seven, o'clock, or after 

"ttb^ nOHk ba mmfijtaiL iaoaailjdmd. as u net ta attract Rttention 
Iht' tliB ttttkiBM^ tAulliiu a>lDQf% "iff irrtf n i ayiinlf fcrfiwii of tlietr drooL 




r to'aitd from a DKtrow i^aa^ar to 

i or tbOowed b^ men. 
M otM and diapchi, within a nuli^ of 
md approschiu uf ttid I'lilaia Kn^l, tj^ 
^ anij tlie Jardm den PlnutvH, nro tnturdicted. 
• tiyvimt tho Terrace of the IiivaliUoa, lliii exturiar ~^Tfcr 

. *S« ijunys, the bridgeg, and the moru'uurrviiueated and 

utoentw l>iiiahti«ii nrv alike forbidden. 

"'ttw* wo «»pt<tii<iUj' forbidden to frequent piililio patiLbliNhinenta or 
|)cI«ikHf IwuMf* where cianJestina prostitution mijiht I* fadlitutcd, or to 
oUbhJ fwWsn-'/A'X*, reside in bwirdiug-htiUHeii, or oxurciw tlie caOitw 
INhiiuJ Uiw i(iuu-t»r of the town they reHJde il^ 

'' t'hujf wv likewise strictly prohibited from «linring lodgingB with & 
tl^tliL wvuiuu, or other girl, or to reside in tiirniiilitd lodgjngt at all 
<NUll<>ti>> <^ i^nait. 

" I'lililio wymBH mtist abstain when nt hf.iiio from auything which can 
IJLVV lil'um»4 tW i-oaiplaiKts by their uirinhljoiirii, or the {Muwiers-by. 

" TLwi fbtf- limy infringe Uio aUtVH rdgiilntioijn, rcHiiit the agettto of 
iiHUwilUy, I'C giv« ftilse names or addriHww, will incur petiallaes propor- 
lilvUw ^ '^« K'wvi'y of the case." 

Td v«iittidtu]»hs then ; the public women called JUlei aoumiaea 
(M«|f'if«l, I'l' ettrttgvarles, over whoui tlio /7weojt de^ Mceura of the 

{il'tWit'lU'C "f iwlioo has cast its net, are diviUo<l into two outegoriea - 

t. Ttint'lolled lJ», »iid registered to cort«iu licensed housea, for who 

I'liii V"i2"''» ff tliwHj houses are rospnnsihlo. "' 

3, Fi'i^j pitiatitiiteia, who are i-esponiiiljle ti) tlio authorities direct 

TliP ricl., Ill- jUkn dea maiamig, ani known at the Bureaux by* th ■ 

,, .r Ihe honse to wliiah they are inaoritea B.ri,i"" 

. rain A .^^0. l-hBi/ health i« inspeS] T 

' il, ,it the howBo of their iuecription, once in ^^ 

^ _:_ : nil two Bub-olusaoit— viz., women who haveTl^'^ 

■iiiture, and others who, by special iiermit ,- ^^.'*" 

Tc all of the«e, who are termed Sv^^ '" 

Wi a mrle, or bill of health, fi-oni Urn^ f ""'■'"' 

""^ *o tjiuo 



I IB supplied, to whick the visa of the medical ofEcer of the Bureau Sani- 
taire ia affixed at the health inapectioaa for whic!i they present them- 
eelyes once every fifteen days, in compliance with obligatiDn 1. 
This sanitary department was placed upoa its present footing ii 
The medical staff consists of ten superior and ten assistant sui'geo 
the number of inspections in 1854 was ; — 
pe. 
pa 



rOUCE SDPERVIHION ABKOiD J 



At the dispensary .„' ^.. 

At the regiatered hoQsea 

At tbe depfit of the prefecture (which uiawe 
first-claaa poliue station here) 



155,807 

very frequently used, : 



The inspection, for which the speculur 
performed with all the delicacy oonsistent with accuracy, and great des- 
patch ; the average time occupied being tliree minutes, which includes 
filling up the papers. The total number inscribed upon the register < 
the Administration des Mmura at the close of the year 1854, was 4261 
showing an inoi-ease of 515 only over 3746, the number registered i 
December, 1833. Of these, 1503 were mmneroties, or attached to the 

, houses, and the other 2758 were free, or isolees. 

The same policy which considers the registra,tion of the prostitute 

r indiapensable to public order, dictates the exercise of considerable cau- 
f "laon in liberating her from supervision. The formalities which attend 

I. what ia termed the authorized " radiation" are numerous and strict. 
The petition must invariably be in writing, and supported by evidence of 
&u intention really and truly to abandon the mode of life. The corro- 
borative demand of an intending husband; of parents or relatives who w 

■ be responsible for future conduct ; in certain well-authenticated cases, 
that of one who will secure her as a mistress against future want ; 
medical certificate of inability to continue prostitution, all command 
respect and action, more or less immediate. But the mei'c profession < 
changed sentimente is treated with suspicion, and a probation of two c 
three months under private surveillance is insisted upon. The prayer 
*B granted only on its being made clear that it results from something 
nore than an intention paasagire, or disgust at the inspection — that 

I means of honest support are more than probably forthcoming, and that 
pubHo order and salubrity will not be jeopardized by the reappearance 
of the petitioner as an ijwownige upon the pubUc streets. 

The authoiized annual radiation during the ten years ending 1854, 

averaged 358, of whom 24 per annum became wives. The unaufiiorized 

averaged 72C, and the recaptures 450 per annum, respectively. 

The Parisian maitong de tolerance, formerly called hordeU (he: 

I English word brothel), in which prostitutes are lodged gregariously, 

I are, generally speaking, under the most complete supervision of the police 
Numerous fornialitiea must be gone through before a licence is granted 
by the Bureau des Meeurs, and stringent regulations must be comphed 
with under inexorable penalties. The houses must be confined to the 
one purpose, excepting in the Banlieu, where, from the impossibility of 
exercising perfect control, and other considerations, a dispensation ia 
granted to deal, during pleasure, ia liquor and tobaoco. They may not 

I exist near places of worship, public buildings, schools, furnished hotels, 



^^H granted to d 




r anth. rity the obaerY*] 



L d generally ke^^ 
< h regard to theiF 1 



POLICE StTERViaiON A.BEOAD AND AT HOME. 



or important factoriea. They may not be on a common etatrcase. They 
are not allowed to be near one another, within the walls, but in the ban- 
lieu their concentration is imposed. They must he distinguished from 
other houses by the size of the figures of their number, which must be 
two feet in lengtL Thoir total numhtr in January, 1854, was 144 
within, and 68 without, the town, against corresponding numbers of 
193 and 36 in 1842, The number of women registered to these houses 
in 1854, were 1009 and 493 respectively 

Among the regulations applicable to the mattresses, or dwn 
maison, are the following ; — 

They must lodge no more inmates than they hare distinct rooms 

They may keep no child above four years old upon the premisea. 

They must 'report, within twenty-four hours, every application made to 
them for lodgings, and every change of lodgers, as well as to keep accu- 
rate registers for the inspection of the police. Their windows must ba 
kept constantly closed, and be either of ground glass or provided witi^ 
blinds and curtains. 

They may place no person at their door as a sign of their busineat^j 
before seven or after eleven, p.m. 

They must enforce upon the women nnd 
ance of the provisions of the carte. 

They may not receive minors, or studen n unif i 

They must report immediately all case dis 
record of all that paseea in their houses, o rans ires " 
inmates. 

Those of the Banlieu must conduct th ir d rs n in every week 
to the central s^itary oMce for examination , must demand the permits 
of the military at night, and make return of all cases of excessive eicpea- 
diture on their premises, or residence by strangers for more than twenty- 
four hours. 

They may not send abroad more than one woman each at one time, 
the effect of which provision is that there being (for the sake of example) 
20i houses and I50i /emmes numSrotees on the register, the streets may 
be said to be permanently secui^ against the presence of 1298 indivi- 
duals of the class. 

The dames de maison are of course a vicious and, as a general nole^ 
ferocious mercenary band, tyrannising over the unfortunate helota who 
form their stock-in-trade, and abjectly crouching before the inspector, 
the surgeon, and the mouchard. The possession of a house of this kind 
is, as marriage is in England, the highest aspiration of the prostitute. 
One of these sometimes succeeds in attaining to this pernicious eminence, 
but it is more frequently in the hands of families in whom houses and 
goodwill descend as heritable property. The recent editors of Pai'ent'a 
work instance that as much as 2400^. has been given for such an esta- 
blishment, and 81. has been offered as fine to avoid suspension for three days 
of one of the lowest. Large as these sums may seem, especially when re- 
duced into francs, they will by no means surprise persons cognizant of 
the property amassed by those who minister, for ready money only, to 
the lower gratifications of even our more thrifty countrymen. 

The houses appropriated in Paris to the temporary accommodation of 
prostitutes and ^eir frequenters, termed maUoTis de passe, have been 



H 



i 



POLICE SirPERVIBION 

always considered, and it would seem justly, more dimgerous to publin 
morality tLan the mere lodging-houses. They have been consequently 
the objects of much aasioua vigilance by the authoritiea, who, never- 
theless, proceeding on the principle that anything ia preferable to uncon- 
trolled clandestine prostitution, have takcD them under their supervision 
as tar as possible. Their numbers are, however, unknown. The only 
record given by Parent, and we may therefore safely assume the only 
one to be got, ia, that ia 1625 there were 150 of them recognised. To 
facilitate tlie operation of the police, each such establishment is compelled 
to bear on its books two registered wonien, and ia therefore to all in- 
tents and purposes subject to the general dispositions with regard to the 
madrons pvhliqueg. The proprietors are subject to heavy penalties for 
receiving, en passe, girls under fifteen years of age, public women not 
known to them, or verified as such by production of the carta, or students 
of the public schools. 

The^e en carle of I'aris obtains, of course, what she can for her ser- 
vices, but the usual fee ia from two to five francs. In the tolerated 
houses, the sum charged by the establishment varies from five to twenty, 
in adiUtion to which the generosity of the visitor usually dictates atiifling 
present to the victim, pour sea gants, ns it is called. At the Barriers, 
artisans pay by custom one franc, soldiers fifty centimes, for the hire of 
women by the hour. Excited to drink (for, as I have mentioned, the 
sale of liquor at the lowest class of houses is winked at by the police) by 
their visitors and the dames de maison, each from different motives, 
these ^es numerotiea of the Banlieu are from habitual intoxication so 
incapable of sanitary precautions or observance of decorum, that in their 
case, at least, the regulations of the Bureau des Miewra may be esteemed 
rather a blessing than a curse. 

Similar systems, more or less improved upon the Parisian type, pre- 
vail at Toulon, Lyons, Strasburg, Brest, and other large French gar- 
rison towns ; but as they appear unlikely to furnish the reader with new 
ideas, I will spare myself and him any further reference to them, until I 
have to speak of foreign hospital arrangements. 



OF BELGIAN KROtTLATIONa. 

^B I am indebted to Dr. J. R. Marinns, Joint-Secretary of the Belgian 
Royal Academy of Medicine, for a view of prostitution in Brussels. 
That city owes to the exertions of M. Charles de Bronckfire, her chief 
magistrate, and of her Commercial Council, a very stringent code of 
regulations, passed in virtue of their general power to make bye-laws, 
and based, to a great extent, upon the abortive stiggeistiuas for legislatiou 
prepared by the Hygienic Conference in 1832, the Academy of Medicine 
in 1842, and the Central Public Health Committee in 183S ; and upon 
the experience of the Parisian system, which, as has been seen, is the 
gi-owth of long study and practice. 

All prostitutes are by these edicts divided into two classes — 

1. FiSes de maisons-tolerees, called mtmerolees. 

k2. Filies eparses, corresponding to the French ^filk in carte. 
Aa the regulations as to admission, enrolment, radiation, tickets, houses, 



Si POLICE SUPERVISION 



r 

I 
1 



AjQ; arc so similar to those in force at Paria that their recital 'would bO' 
tedious, I shall content myself with giving statistics, and particularizing 
a few of the more characteristio featiirea of the Belgian rSffirae. 

The Qxed and floating population of Bnisaela and its Buburba 
January, 1856, was 260,080, to which the garrison contributed 2414. 

In the some year, the total registrations of prostitutes, according to the 
law in their respect provided, numbered 638, whereof 440 were renewals, 
and 108 fresh ones. But it appears that though the numbei-a of the j{^ (Jb 
mwfMonare not subject to variation, a great many of the epwraee 
trive to avoid inrther annoyance 

The numbers of the former returned as under surveillance in Deoembep 
of that year were — 

In 4 licensed houses of the 1st class, 27 women. 
In 25 „ „ 2nd „ 123 „ 

In 13 „ ,, 3rd ,, 47 ,, 



\ 



Total .... 197 

'which nearly corresponds with the total of previous years, 'while of 
Sparaea only 90 were reported at the same date, against 186 in the year 
1855 — to which figure they had gradually dwintUed from 232 in 1849. 

The main difference between the Belgian and French systems appears 
to me to he, that the circulation of prostitutes in the streets after e 
down is prohibited under the former ; women under twenty-one may 
be inscribed ; and the medical visitation, au apemilum, takes place twice 
a week by the divisional surgeons, and whenever else he may please by 
the superintending officer. 

All the Sparaea and third-class fiUea de maisona are seen at the dispen- 
sary, and the firat and second classes of the latter order at their domiiales. 
The iparsee may secure this privilege by payment of an extra franc per 
visit. 

The tariff of duties payable by houses and wometi is aa follows : 

Every 1st class mawon de passe pays 25 francs per month. 
» 2nd „ „ 15 „ „ 

.. 3rd „ „ 5 „ „ 

Every first-class tnaiaon de dehaucke jiajs 60 to 78 francs monthly, 
according to the number of its authorized occupants — from 6 to 10 ; and 
two fi'ancs ez.tra for each such additional person. 

Every such second-clasa house pays 20 to 32 franca for from 3 to 7 
women, and one franc extra for each additional. 

Every such third-class house pays 8 to 16 francs for from 2 to 7 
women, and one franc extra for each additional. 

a each inspection 40 centimes. 



Upon punctuality for four successive visits these payments are re- 
turned ; for inexactitude they are doubled. 

The following correspondence haa been established between the medical 



POLICE SUPEKVI3I0N ABBOAD AND AT HOME. 85 

men of the roilitaiy hospitals and tLoee of the police office, vhicli is 
stated to have had fttt excellent effect upon the health of thia garrison. 

The hospital medical staff forward dn-y by day to the surgery of the police 
minute aud exact particulars of euch military venereal patient taken into 
hospital, with his account of the place, house, and woman who he has 
reason to think infected him. She is soon brought up, and if upon 
examination 'she should prove to be diseased — yet neither on the polioo 
anrgeon's list nor in hospital — she is BpeedUy introduced to both, aud 
restrained for a time from further openitiona against the public health. 

Truth compels me to avow my opinion, that however much the 
virulence of syphilis may have abated, and the health of the Brussels 
garrison been improved within twenty years, there is no marked im- 
provement in the general tone of morals there. 

For the tkct appears to be, that while the regulations of the centra! 
police are rejnarkably stringent upon a few hundred women who reside 
within the walls, their application in the suburban communes is at the 
discretion of the local magistracy. As, therefore, the screw of power is 
turned in Brussels, the unfortunates have withdrawn to Saint-Josse and 
other extramural spots, where every variety of vice is domiciled ; or, 
coining trom the town for the occasion, seek passing cover to an uncalcu- 
lated extent* The limited number of soumises, and the flying notice I 
liave given of the complicated and minute details of the system, will be 
apt, I think, to encourage the idea that the whole affair is a somewhat 
tyrannical and useless plaything— for somebody's pleasure, I presume, 
and for somebody's profit also — but little enough condiiciTC to morality 

tfor the publio good. 
SYSOPSia OF THE QAUBUKG EEGULiTIOHS. 
The flourishing city of Hamburg proper, with a fixed population of 
180,000, and a large floating one, began aa early as a.d. 1293 to provide 
in its municipal code for the toleration and control of fornication. The 
system at present in force was initiated by the town herself in 1807, im- 
proved upon under the French occupation in 1811, and finally settled in 
1834. It is of great length, and minute, as might be expectod, to the 
extreme ; but though of gi-eat value as a check upon tie most fruitful 
sources of venereal disease, is, like its doubles in other cited instances, 
a painfully weak experiment as i-cgards public morality. 

Kegistration, both of women and houses for their reception and use, 

is compulsory. Recruitment, by means of authorized procuresses, who 

make a few shillings per head on importations from country districts, ia 

permitted by the police, who properly caution and examine, medically and 

otherwise, each female so brought to them, explaining the nature of the 

contract to which she proposes to become a party, and ofiering, to a cer- 

^^ tain extent, acceptable alternatives before the last rags of modesty are 

^^L officially scattered to the winds, and the health-tlcket finally delivered. 

^^K The registered woman may accost persons of the male sex neithei- by day 

^H'kttei 



_._ji it stfttdJ while thesQ ahecta wore paaaiDg tbrougb the press, tliat an 

I' •ttompt haa raceutlj 1>eBii tomle to eitend the police regnlationB more rigorooaij to tlia 
p iDbuFboD eontnru.net .- with nhat result remaina to be seen. 



86 POLICE 9UPEBVIS10N 

or night — may show no light in 

unaoQompanied, after 11 pm i 
landlord of the house sho c 
nwnt on bread and wate di t 
of doora, by any speech o ge^ 
three grades of females ; and h 
keeper in their respect are — 



AND AT UOME. 

her rooms, unless behind di 

Q y years of age — nor ho in the street^, 
p altiea, both to herself and the 

I f ti m two to eight days impriaon- 

5h a HO strictly forbidden, when out 

e o ndicate her object. There 

ra ea f duty levied iifcn the house- 




Upon t])e 1st class, 5'70 irancs per month. 



but when unpaid, without 
by the lodging-honse, and 



„ 3rd „ 1'90 

This is remitted to such as have children 
this excuse, entails forfeiture of the concessi< 

of the livreC by the woman. The number of inacritea waa 513 in lS4fi, 
of whom 334 were resident in 90 licensed domiciles, and 178 in their 
own apartments ; and the last reports favour the idea that these numbers 
have not up to the preseut time fluctuated. The examiitation with the 
speculum, which takes plate at home twice a week, is conducted by a 
staff of three medical officers and an inspector of police, who sign the 
bill of health or remit the individual to the hospital forthwith, as the 
case may be. 

The revenue accruing (besides a trifling levy by the medical staff em- 
ployed) ia about 14,000 marcs banco per annum, of which 5000 marcs 
banco are apportioned to the General Hospital, where gratuitous treat- 
ment is, in virtue of these arrangements, afforded to prostitntea ; 2000 
marcs banco to the Bridewell, or House of Correction; and the rest 
to charitable institutions for penitents 

With the exception of the provision common to this town and Berlin, 
that the keeper of a licensed house must defray the coat of curing any 
person whose contraction of venereal disease in his house caji be esta- 
blished, I think there are no other features peculiarly worth notice ia. 
the Hamburg rlgime, either with respect to the mawona de paase 
the Tnaisona tolerees. But I may not conclude this necessarily brief notice 
without offering, as additional material for thought, the statement, which 
I extract for what it is worth, from Dr. Lippert's communication to the 
last edition of Parent-Duchatelet : 

" Marriage seema to be on the decline in Hamburg much i 

other more populous communities, for it ia remarked that — 

In 1709 there was 1 marriage to 45 souls. 

From 1826 to 1835 „ 1 „ 97 „ 

„ 1840 „ 1 „ 100 „ 

And in 1823 and I82G, according to the registers of the latter year, 

accouehements three or four months aiter maiTiage took place in about 

Our countrymen who have viaited Hamburg are no doubt familiar 
with the fine bold countenances of the females of the second class, who, 
flashily and not always inelegantly dressed, habitually poae themselves 
at their open windows, by twos and threes, talking loudly together, but 
without more than fiirtive recognition of, or allurement to, the passer-by 



I 

I 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME. 87 

beyond ttia mere display. The interiora of the first-clasa establishments, 
whose inmates — mostly Bavarian and PomeraniaE girls — are generally 
paraded for exhibition in a, handsome apartment, are studiously airanged, 
both here and in Berlin, with a, view to comfort aud some propriety. The 
police make constant domicilinry inspections, and nasceut disorder of ajiy 
kind is suppressed at a moment's notice. 

I should also odd, that the waterside suburb of St. Paul, inhabited by 
the sailors and lower order of artisans, has a distinct police organization 
with reference to prostitution. 



j OF BEGULATIONS IS BERLtH. 

The regulation of the prostitution of Berlin, a city of 400,000 inha- 
bitants, has long been the cause of contention between the severe puri- 
taniam of the religious public and the police administration of the place. 
It has been much argned by the former that, inasmuch as marriage was 
a desirable stat«, it could be fostered by uprooting tho vices parasitical 
to celibacy, and crusades have, therefore, when this party baa been in the 
ascendant, been carried on against prostitution in particular. The town 
has been repeatedly purged since the Heformation, but has as often 
immediately jallen a prey to desertion of infants, adultery, abortions, 
and clandestine prostitution, i Ilenoe the public recognition of that which 
they could neither suppress nor ignore with public advantage has been 
forced upon the authorities. 

It appeared to a Commission of Inqiury, in 1717, when repression was 
in vogue, that clandestinity had attained such magnitude that the Bride- 
wells were inadequate for the reception of the arrested women. The 
tolerated houses which had been previously shut up were therefore 
again opened. The monthly contribution by prostitutes to a sick fund 
was instituted in 1791, and in 1795 the houses were classified. In 1796 
a strong and successful attempt at suppression by the religious party 
induced the old result of increaaed disease and secret vice. After a 
return to toleration, the same thing again occurred in 1845, when the 
twenty-six lioeused houses were closed, despite the remonstrances of the 
pohcQ department, and their 300 inhabitants banished, as well as all 
other females without ostensible means of support. But unnatural 
ofienoes, self abufle^ secret prostitution, and illegitimate births, became so 
common, and syphilis so much more than ever severe and &equent, that 
even General von Wrangel was induced to make ft forcible appeal, on 

»bebaU of the army's health, against the quoH improved order of things. 
The number of females who entered the public hospital had risen from 
627 and 761 to 83S, and that of the males from 711 in the year 1845 to 
979 in the year 1848. 

In the year 1850, a Commission of Public Morals was founded to act 
with the police department in framing and enforcing regulations, and in 
1853 a code was prom\dgated in the hope of assisting — - 

tl. Fubhc health, by checking contagious disease. 
2. Public morality, by preventing seduction and the corruption of 
tnorals generally. 
3. Public safety, by denying refuge in the haunta of prostitution to 
tttieves and other dangerous characters. 
Among its leading provisions are the following :— 



POLICE SfPERViaiOS ABROAD AKD AT HOIBE. 

e of prostitution must be conGned to licensed houses, ( 
esteemed olandesttne and suspicious. A register of suspected females M 
to 1je kept, and they shall from time to time be cautioned. If detect 
they mnat be visited weekly, and otlierwiso treated as common womi 
Formahtiea similar to those prevailing in France are gone through witM 
i-egard to the ticket, admission, liberation, Ac. The inscriUi ai 
amined with the speculum twice a week, and may not appear at Hny^ 
place of public amusement, nor indeed leave home unaccompanied by the 
lodging-house keeper or Ins authorized deputy. The engagement between 
these house-keepers and the authorities is stringent upon the former, who 
have to deposit caution-money and are subject to numerous fines. They 
must provide under-linen «nd certain medical appliances for the peraontU.J 
cleanliness of their lodgers, as well as for their surgical inapeetior 
nant for their good treatment, and pay a monthly sum towards a medicalfl 
fund, in exchange for which the department contracts for the perfect J 
cure of all disease. They may permit no visitors at their establishments 
after 1 p.m., and must at once report and keep separate any female 
suspected of disease, or in default be liable to make good the pecuniaryj 
daui^e wliich may accrue to othei-a through her contact. They may not-B 
detain for debt the person or neeossary clothing of any woman who may J 
wish to quit their roof, nor, under penalty, connive at her contraction of J 
debts exceeding in the aggregate twenty thalers. 

In a public document of 1849 the number of prostitutes of all clasBea 
in Berlin was estimated at 10,000. Dr. F, J. Behrend, whose work 
furnishes me with the preceding particulars, considers that the clandes- 
tine ones now reach 8000. ' He however furnishes no material for 
approximating the number of novmises. This is probably due to the ' 
well-known reserve of the Prusaian police ; but, considering the proved I 
tendency of the numbei^ on these regiateis to be stationary, and the 1 
number returned in 1845, we shall, I apprehend, not be very far wrong 1 
in estimating them something short of 1000. | 

Dr. Holland states, with reference to a certain class of tlie tolerated I 
houses in Berlin, " The entrance ia 6rf., for which a cup of coffee is given. J 
The use of a private room for fifteen minutes, 3». ; for thirty mi 
for one hour, 9». j and these prices include the company of o 
women for the time stated, who is permitted by the authorities to 1 
receive one-third for herself" 



SYHOP3I3 OP EEOCLATlONa IN VIENNA. 

I extract the following interesting ohservatiuns, bearing upon the 
prostitution of Vienna, from Mr. Wilde's work upon the institutions of 
Austria: — 

" Public brothels are not tolerated by the police, and public won 
are sent into the houses of correction; this, however, is but the letter of * 
the law, not the practice; for though it has been stated that, owing to 
the present condition of morality, such persons are not required in that 
country, yet the lowest calculation allows the number of public females 
in the capital to be 15,000. It ia, however, much to be admired that the 
same disgusting exhibitions which are witnessed in the capitals of Great 
Britain are not permitted by the Austrian police; all persons considered 



POLICE SUPEBVISJOS ABROVU) AND AT HOME. 89 

of an improper character, when found in the streets after a certain hour, 
being conduated to the police office, and if on examination found 
to be diseased, being at once Bent into hospital. Public women are not 
licensed in Austria, but the police have the power of entering tlieir 
dwellings, accompanied by one of the police physicians, and if they aro 
diseased compelling them to go into hoapital. Notwithstanding the 
apparent moral condition of the city after nightfall, which must at onco 
strike a foreigner, I am much inclined to thint that the public esbibi- 
tion of vice ia often a teat of private morality; aa instances pro and coil 
I migbt adduce the cities of Rome and Vienna on the one hand, and 
Dublin on the other."* 

In the same work, if wo turn to p. 21 2, we iind, aa if corroborative of 
the writer's opinion as to Austrian immorality, that in the city of 
Vienna almost one in every two children is illegitimate; thia, he adds, 
is only surpassed by Miuiioh, where it is recorded in 1 838 the number of 
illegitimate exceeded tlie legitimate by 270, and yet in that goodly city- 
public woniea as well as tobacco-smokers are not allowed to appear in 
the streets; or in other woi-da, during t!ie last seven years, ending 1837, 
the proportion of illegitimate to legitimate births have been as ten to 
twelve in Vienna. 

Mr. WUde goes on to observe, at p, 213, "It may be asked are there 
any political reasons for encouraging such a condition of morals, for by 
thus permitting, it encourages 1 Yes, the Austrian State, whose political 
web extends not only into the paths of literature and science, but sends 
its iar-stretching fibres into every domestic circle in the land, has, I have 
been credibly informed, and I believe it to be true, an object in thus 
countenancing illegitimacy — it is that of checking over-population, aa 
those who are infonned upon the subject of population well know it has 
the power to do, by decreasing the number of births and increasing the 
infantile mortality." 

At pp. 209 and 210, he says — "Startling as it may appear, it (the law) 
has offered a premium, for Ulegiiimaoff. IaA us see how tlus is brought 
about ; Ist, The laws, both civil and ecclesiaatital, relating to marriages 
in Austria, are so strict that few of the lower orders are able to avail 
themselves of that rite; 2nd, A female, even of the better class, does 
not (at least to the same extent as in other countries) lose caste on be- 
coming illegitimately with child ; 3rd, In the seventh month of her preg- 
nancy (and many of them are enabled to get in sooner) she applies to 
the Lying-in Hospital, states her poverty, and is asked two questions — 
Are you legitimately or illegitimately with child ) If she answers the 
latter she is received sa/it eerimonte; she is given a suit of clothes pro- 
vided by the State (an imperial liveiy) to wear, and her own are cai-e- 
fully preserved till the period of her departura After delivery she has 
to nurse her own, and perhaps another ohild, and on her departure she 
gets a bonus of five shillings. During the first two months the child ia 
committed to her own care ; it is then sent into the country at the 
public expense, and if a male it is always a welcome visitor in the femily 
of an Austrian peasant, for if it can be i-eared to eighteen years of 
^^^ flge it is rendered up to the conscription instead of the eldest son of its 
^^^lidopted father." 

^H • WildE^ pp. 313, 14. 



POLICE aUPERTISION ABROAD AKD AT HOME, 



PKOSTITCTION IN ITALY, 



^ome.— In the Iioly capital of sunny, pasaiocate Italy, prostitution 
in no shape recognised hy either Church or State, on the ground, I 
believe, that the Pontiffs secular and religious fanctiona are one and 
indivisible ; and that the admission, much more the toleration, by Christ's 
Vicar of unhallo-wed connexion ia an utter impossibility. But even the 
traditionalBanctityofthecentreofChrifltendom, the presence of St. Peter's 
Chair, and the partial training to self-mortification, which might be sap- 
posed to oomhine with ardent faith and blind obedience to the Church in 
strengthening virtue, are insufficient to counterbalance the instincte of 
men and the influence of climate. The mere aspirations of the religiouH, 
and the example of the virtuous world, are in Rome, as elsewhere, very 
feeble against the common promptings of nature, especially when backed, 
as they are in Italy, by temperament, idleness, and beauty. In the Ponti- 
fical States, of all civilized communities — where, over and above other 
considerations, the fearfully rapid development of syphilis by the climate, 
and the disproportionate amount of femide celibacy entailed by monastic 
institutions among the males, might be alleged aa excuBea for its extended 
toleration and regulation — prostitution is nominally prohibited. Its 
resorts are proscribed, and bo continually hunted from point to point, in 
compliance with no written law, by arbitrary authority, that scarce a 
dozen houses can contrive to lurk within the limits of the Bomau police 
jurisdiction, and then only through the bribed connivance of the lower 
officials. 

But the reverse of this pleasing show of external propriety showB 
clandestine prostitution, with its inevitable concomitants, depravati 
morals and wide diSiision of intense disease, has invaded domestieity 
itself. 

We are informed by Dr. Jacquot, a physician of the French army of' 
occupation — and with regard to the last and most deplorable of them 
there is abundance of prior corroborative testimony— that there prevul 
in Bome five shapes of claudestittity. 

I, Jjbb Pierreiises, whom he describes to be a horde of creatures growit 
formidable since the military occupation, and plying their trade by 
night, with troops of men, in the angles of walls, ruins, colonnadea 
and porticoes. "When in charge of venereal soldiers in Eome," he say^ 
" I have traced as many as five cases of syphilis to one night's operations 
of a woman of this description." 

2 and 3. Prostitution-covert in accommodation houses, sometime! 
kept by procuresses, and frequented by women of all classes. 

4. Femmes gaianteg, who are mistresses of both residents and visitors 
firom generation to generation. 

5. Prostitution in private life. 
With reference to the second, third, and fourth categories, no remark 

IB necessary ; but the last source of supply requires, I think, some brief 
observations, beginning with a recital of Dr. Jaoquot's impressions. 

" As a consequence of this disastrous rule (viz., suppression), prostitu- 
tion in Rome is more or less all -pervading. It is carried on, alas I too 
often in families, under the parental eye, almost as though it wi 
admissible calling. A mother will introduce you to her daughteJ 



1 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME. 91 

yptmg girl, -whose tura is yet to come, to her elder aiater; and the little 
brother will light yon up the stair — a degree of turpitude and degrada- 
tion ■which, by the way, exists also at Nftplea, where proatitution is tole- 
rated. If tlie customa of the Cicisbei hiive left the mansions of the rich 
and noblo, where they were nurtured by idleness and immorality, uecesaity 
has imported acquiescence nearly as degrading into the less opulent houses 
of the middle rank." 

Ladies of this caste submit themselves occasionally to sheer prostitu- 
tion by visiting the maiaons de paase, or strangers who gain access to 
them through the intervention of procuresses. This demoralization is, 
I conceive, loss traceable to vicious propensities than to impatience of 
restricted means — leas to absolute penary than to the attrition of facti- 
ti()us wants engendered by the passion for display and luxury, which 
leads the smaller proprietors, the lackland nobility, and the underpaid 
official gentility of the south, into exjienses totally unwarranted by their 
incomes. The carriage and pair is so imperious a necessity with the 
Roman lady, who can by no means brook the humble one-horse vehicle, 
that the Milanese have an old saying — " The Eomans put their stomachs 
into harness j" and sometimes the observer of to-day might add, "thoir 
honour too." 

1 have a holy horror of travellers' iacfa; so I will leave to others the 
moat easy labour of collecting a. farrago of semi-incredible tales of Italian 
frailty, and conclude by saying, that the women who will thus set virtue 
at no higher price than wardrobe or equipage, are oftener than not 
excellent mothers, and (though many an English reader would hero 
exclaim, CredaC JudcBiia, ifec.) truly affectionate wives — at leant, so say 
men who pretend thoroughly to understand Italian society. In judging of 
prostitution, as of the other immoralities of one people, we shall do well 
not to gauge them inexorably by our own manners and customs. The 
ladies of ancient Rome bore, as protecting amulets, carved golden 
images that we should now consider emblems of indecency ; and the pair 
of monster horns that deck the chamber of a married pair in modem 
Italy, as a charm against witchcraft, is a "word of fear distasteful to tho 
wedded ear" among the nations of the north. 

Among the lower orders — save, perhaps, among the Transteverici, 
where virtue is the rule — misery operates as elsewhere. So little work 
is there to be found in a country with neither manufactures nor agricul- 
ture—so potent is the love of the /fir niente among the modem Romans 
— that the poor man's wife is too often welcome to his bed if she only 
bring the spoil of the travelling or the native debanche for which she 
has bartered her adulterous embraces. Tliia deplorable state of morals, 
although it has uot attained the colossal proportions attributed to it by 
hostile malice, is nevertheless no secret ; and persons who have long 
withheld credence from it become in time convinced that there aru 
grounds for believing in its existence. 

But monstrous though it be, and deplorable — no less remarkable are 
the gigantic provisions made, in this poverty-stricken, police-ridden capital 
of 150,000 souls, for the poor and needy, and the sick and sorry. A 
community, not more extensive than some London parishes, lodges, feeds, 
and keeps entirely, more than 4000 aged and infirm persons, orphans, 
and foundlings, brides giving general out-door relief, and caring specially 



POLICE SUPERVISIOy ABROAD AND AT I 



"he m 

if 
b, 

'>« 



S3 

for more tliau 1000 superannuated artisans. It mumtaios the stu^cal 
hospital of St. James, of 384 beds, of which a number are aUotted to 
venereal patients ; and those of the Good Sliepherd and Santa Maria 
Transteveiina, Eeaidoa these foundations, there are the refuges of Santa 
Croce and Loretto for repentant females ; a vast pilgrim hospital ; and 
" homes" out of number for the houseless poor, and for destitute females. 
The objects of public Christian charity in Rome number in all aomewhei 
about 22,000 annually, and the sums iawn from the Roman public for the I 
noble work would astonish even the rich and openhanded muuicipalilj 
of Paris, still more ao the sometimes shortsighted guardians of parochia|fl 
purses in our own plethoric metropolis. 

Naples. — The stews or bordelie of this capital are fully recognised, if 
not licensed, by the police, and undergo inspection at intervals by 
underpaid Government officials, who derive additions to their income 
&om the contributions of the class whom it is their supposed duty to _ 
supervise. There are also in Naples great numbers of quasi elandeatdiu 
prostitutes, chiefly Sicilians, who are supported through the activity d9 
the ■ncjiani, or pimps, who operate in the frequented quarters of the tow; 
and pester Englishmen especially with their offers of service. The loir** 
prostitution of the town, ministering fov the most part to the desiree of 
the military and marine, is gathered together in the suburb outside 
the Porta Capuana. Keport says, there is a certain fixed tariff for the 
enjoyment of these women ;* and the entrance to and exit from their 
qimrter are under the charge of military posts, which, every other route 
being carefully blockaded, aU visitors must pass. A drive through this 
"inferno" wa8,aiidperhapsis,oneof the great sights for strangersat Naples. 
Its shamelena denizens would expose themselves most fully to the curttms in 
the open street. They were supposed to number some thousands, but I am 
afraid to say how many ; and also have reason to think, although. I 
repeat it with reserve, that residence in the quarter is imposed upon 
some of them as a punishment for private erotic delinquencies, attended J 
by mote than usually notorious scandal. 

I am inclined to think this system of subm'ban prostitution r 
have obtained in the days of the dramatist Ford. In Lovis i^acri/u 
(Act iv.. Scene L), D'Avolos ia made to say : — "Your only course, I casl 
advise you, is, to pass to Naples, and set up a house of casualty jT 
there are many fair and fr^uent suburbs, and yon need not fear thel 
contagion of any pestilent disease, for the very worst is very proper toB 

The English cemetery is close to the prostitutes' quarter, and t 
the latter was hemmed in, the chaplain, on the road to the scene oi 
labours, was obliged, unless ho made a long dMour, to pa^ through I 
some of its streets, 

HOMES AND HAUNTS OF PKOSTITTTTES IN LONDON. 

I will now endeavour to supply the reader with a few of my improH- I 

sions upon the unfettered domestic life and haunts of London prostitutes, I 

which in default of better experience he can presently bring to bear with I 

what information we may have as to' the present state of our law, f 

' Soo bBrriar housas of Porie, paj{e 83, 



POUCE 3UPi;KViaiON ABllOAD AND AT HOME. 93 

towards estimating tlie practicability of assimilating it to those which 
prevail abroad or otherwise improving it. For the sake of cleamesH I 
shall briefly notice under separate heads ; — 

1. Homes — viz., dress houses ; houses in which piristitutes lodge. 

2. Haunta^viz,, introducing houses ; accommodation houses ; cas 
aod pleasure gardens ; the public streets. 

Dress Houses. — The description of brothels called dress houses was 
much more prevalent a few years ago than ia the case at present. They 
are Htill, however, maintained to some eytent by persons who furnish 
board, lod^ng, and clothes to a auraber of prostitutes whoui they send 
out into the streets under guard of servants, or keep at home to receive 
visitors. The girls, who, it is needless to say, are of the most utterly 
degraded class, receive but a small share of the wages of their sin ; their 
condition is almost as abject as the Jiilea nimierotees of the Continent in 
general, and they are far more unprotected than those of Berlin, espe- 
cially against those who speculate in them. But the spread of venereal 
taint is not, as might be imagined, more fevoured by this most revolting 
shape of the evil than by any other. The brutalized woman-iarmers 
have, it is true, no more bowels of compassion for the male sex than for 
their stock-in-trade, and will drive into the streets with tauuts and curses 
the diseased unfortunate. But the evil reputation which an establish- 
ment might acquire by being a focus of disease, induces them to adopt a 
certain degree of care and precaution. 

The sympathy and curiosity of a, fortunately sober, friend of mine 
were once awakened by the behaviour of a very handsome girl, who, 
seemingly against her will, was very urgently forced upon his notice by 
a brothel-keeper, who was hawking her about the streets. Acquiescing 
in the offev of her company and paying the demands of the house, he 
put some searching questions to the girl. She at first half confessed 
slight indisposition, but on his avowing himself a medical man, and 
showing clearly enough that his curiosity like his gift was dictated by 
mere charity, she submitted to a superficial examination. Ko more was 
required to prove that she was a mass of syphilis. 

The rouged and whitewashed creatures, with painted lips and eye- 
brows, and false hair, who haunt Langham Place, portions of the New 
Road, the Quadrant, the Peristyle of the Haymarket Theatre, the City 
Boad, and the purlieus of the Lyceum, are the most prominent gangs of 
this description in London. They are watched by persons of their sex, 
employed purposely to prevent their abstraction of the lodging-house 
finery, or their clandestine traffic with men. As their bodies and their 
time are no longer their own, they are restricted, for the convenience ot 
the real proprietors, to certain parades or beats, and from year's end to 
year's end may be observed on the same side of one particular street, and 
within a few hundred yards or less of one particular spot. Should their 
solicitations be imauccessful, their exertions are stimulated by the pro- 
prietor in person, who will sally forth from the den to aid the canvass, 
to admonish and to swear ; and sometimes by the sentinel in charge, who 
assumes for the time being these functions of authority. 

There are probably seven or eight French houses of this description in 
London, and I have reason to believe that the lodgers of all but two of 
them are rarely seen plying in the public streets. They are principally 



u 



POLICE HtPEUVlS 



I recnuted hy women imported from Paris, after being redeemed &om tiiB 

I maisans toleriea of that capital by payment of the debts they have coq- 

I traoted. Each -woman who under these eonditions tatos up a residence 

i in England, is a]ready shackled. She is clad \>j the keejier, who feeds 

I her well, and allows her to enjoy herself in her own manner, perhaps 

I one day a week, but under strict surreillance always, if on no cither 

I account, for the sake of the property upon her back. The natural quea- 

I tion, " Why does not this woman escape from this white slavery 1" ia 

I best answered by other queries — Whither can she flyl What can she 

I do ? She speaks no English, and owes money for which she might, and 

K no doubt would, be rigorously persecuted. On the other hand, she has 

m been thoroughly trained as a prostitute perhaps from tender years, and 

I has never regarded herself in any other light than as a chattel; is found 

I in fine olothea, is well fed, and allowed liquor, for which Frenchwomai 

I here domiciled soon contract a fancy. When used up she will be diB-. 

I missed to practise for herself, or, less from charity than to clear tlu 

I market of her presence, sent back to Ei-ance. 

I Hince the above lines were written, I have received abundant corro] 

■ boration of my impressions that this kind of establishment is far lea 

I numerous in Western London than heretofore. It will he rei 

I that before the invention of casinos, and while the only lust garlen o 

I London was Vauxhall, the leading theatres were the centres of prostitik 

F tion and its allied and parasitic callings. The whole neighbourhood of 

I \ Covent Garden and Bniry Lane, which are now by no means pure, then 
\\ reeked of it. The boxes and the saloons of the playhouses were the 

I I marts, and as the wholesale dealers kept the adjacent tavema and 
I 1 1 lodging-houses within a moderate radius, the business was as it were con- 
I I centrated and under control. But when the distant and far apart casino 
I and Cremome drained the saloon and the gin-shop, it appears to me that 
I the perfect supervision and economy of the special trade being no longet 
f practicable, the majority of those who pursued it fell back upon con- 
generous but less pernicious industries. In the low quarters of lie town, 
however (the city proper excepted, which, from its thin resident popula:- 

I tion and ample poUce, is remarkably free from all forms of domidledproati- 

I tution), they are still numerous. It must be avowed, too, that personaj 

I whose opinions are entitled to respect, consider that, as in Paris,* so m.<m 

1 London, and for the same reasons, this farming out of their peraomifl 

I is not attended with such unmixed evil, as regards their temporal in- S 

I terests, to the very dregs of this order, as might, primd fade, appear.'l 

I its necessary consequence. Soddened with liquor as_ they usually are,'.l 

I ever reckless, often frenzied, they would, without the'constant supeij-S 

F vision of some crafty and spiiit proof old hag, be more uncontrollably ■ 
dangerous to themselves and society than at present. ■ 

I " This inquiry must not be lost sight of by such as would philosophically I 

I consider the subject The British dame de maison is no doubt almost I 

I "as black as she has been painted ;" but is it not among possibilitiea 1 

I that society might be the worse for her utter abolition 1 She is, of | 

I course, a tyrant, and an odious flesh contractor ; but taking into view the 1 
[ \i peculiar depravity and Irightfully callous ignorance of those most aban- | 



* Se« Women of the Banliei 



p. S3. 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT UOME. 95 

dened of all abandoned, who Tolnntarily seek her tutelage (for nearly all 
the tales of inveiglement, i-ajie, and involuntary detention in these places 
are romance), I confess the inquiry suggests itself to me, where (imlesaina 
prison) but «nder such a tyranny, could these castaways find harbour — 
where find food ) 

And here, again, I feel hound to protest against the extraordinary in- 
ventions indiscreet fervour has contributed as facts to the public stock 
of information upon the prostitutes' haunts and calling. Exaggerated nai'- 
rativea of robbery and violence in brothels, based it is true on rare aad 
scattered fiiets, hut ventilated without fear of contradiction, because the 
defendants have no locwe standi, and multiplied as stories always are by 
telling, are so seriously received by a number of the public and some 
zealoua authors as general truths, not singular exceptions, that calm 
deliberate handling of the subject is almost scouted even by educated 
men. I find, for instance, translated from the French, in a recent pub- 
lication, the following passage ; — " From a medical friend he learned, that 
near what is called the Fleet Ditch, almost every house la a low and 
infamous brothel, There is an wjueduct of large dimensions, into which 
murdered bodies are precipitated by bullies, and discharged at a consi- 
derable distance into the Thames, without the slightest chance of 
discovery." 

I ti'aced the windings through English and French authors of this 
anecdote, until I found it first in print in the work of an English pro- 
fessional gentleman, dated 1839. Who was the medical friend who 
imposed upon his authority, must remain, as far as I am concerned, a 
secret ; but the anonymous compiler of to-day who represents the an- 
cestry of this and other fictions, culled, I believe, from " Jack Sheppard," 
" Oliver Twist," and the comedies of tie Restoration, is put forward to 
the world as (alas, for science) "a physician."* 

Souses in lohichJ'roslilwles Lodge. — I must now briefly notice the domi- 
ciliary arrangements of the various classes of independent prostitutes. 
These are so influenced, like our own homes, by the resources and taste of 
the individual — have so little local colour — and are besides so exceedingly 
well understood among men, that aocurate pictures at any length would 
be as superfluous as feney sketches would be out of placa 

* It la singDlBir tliat Dr. Richelot, who qnotea in his treatise, vithout further impngning 
it thaji as un pea trap i^limiile, mj opiniun, ' ' thut ths miijarit; of our prostltntea return 
sooner or later to a more regular course of life," should a few pages off express himself in 
the followjug terma : — "Seulemeut Aa.ae la proeCitutioo, jamais on ne s'61eTe ; toujoura 
on tomhe de plus en plus bas, et toutes les classes teudent, par un aiiliaaemEnt progressif, 
a se fondre en un senle, cells qui eat plaofi an dernier 6chdon. Cost snrtout & Londrea, 
que cette degradaCiDU mpide est manifsBte. Far rindnence combineo de la dnretS des 
eutiemetteuns, de riudSmfuce da del et de i'ftge tendre des prostitutes, ces demi^res s'y 
usent et s'j d^trissent avec une promptitude efirsjaate." I need hard]; sa; I diSer from 
my confrire, toto cido, unless (ajid I would g;Te him the benefit of the doubt, and suggest 
this also to persons who ma; read elsewhere traoslated extracts from Fieai^ works) ha 
pnta a fer narrower oonstruction npon proatititie than we in England apply to pniaiilale. 
It would almost seem as if ha intended to convej b; it onl; the Tery dregs of the class ; 
for after quoting one or two passages from Talbot and K;an, applicable to anch only, he 
says, " Le petit nombre de faits que je Tiens de rassembler puurrait euSro, & la rigueur, 
pour donner une idoe assei exacts de la vie que lea proatitalei de Luudres, ont a supporter 
en gitiSral." I have no hesitation in saying, though for this I cannot blame Dr. Richelot, 
that the few facta in qnestion could give no general ideas whatever about London 
proatitution. 



1 



1 



OC POLICE SUI'ERVISIOH ABROAU AND Al' HOMK 

If we enter the house or (lecent ftjiartment, in a Burlmrban ncighbour- 
]iuod — where, perhaps, the occupier of the shop Lelow is uon-reaident — of 
the first-ckaa common prostitute, we find it neat or slovenly, plaiii or 
elegant, according to its mistress's income, the manners and taate of her 
singular or plural admirers, and her tendency to sobriety or the reverse. 
We liftvo cheap and respectable lodgings, in reputable quarters of the 
town, wherein young and pleasing women of unambitious terapei'ainent 
will reside for years, receiving no visitora at home, anxiously guarding 
their characters there, and from olioice involving therauelves in no more 
sin than will serve to eke out their modest earnings, or provide a slender 
maintenance, which they may have been precluded from earning in their 
normal wait of life by the first false step. This numerous band, who, 
keenly alive to their painful position, willing to do better, unvfilling 
— even for the sake of those wondrous magnets, di-esa and admiration — 
to join the ranks of the flashy and dissipated, are the proper objects for _ 
reformatory institutions. London holds hundreds of them, not too &| 
gone for true, permanent reform ; and euccess would richly reward i 
far larger expenditure than can bo expected at the hands of privat 
charity. 

A. gi-eat number of lodging-houses crowded together, in certain n 
bouriioods of no feir fame, and called generically, in police roporte, " 
riouB brothels," devote themselves especially to the reception of p 
tutes. They are clean or dirty — comparatively well or ill furnished, 
according to the capital embarked in them. From the highly-rented 
Louses near Portland Place and the cheap (because new) ones in inacces- 
sible Pimlico, to the atrocious slums of Blackfriara and Whitechapel, 
there ai-e, of course, many steps, and with the rent at which the pro- 
prietors offer their apartments varies, of course, the style of the sub- 
tenants. In point of morality, there is, of coui-se, no difference ; and iu 
the general internal propriety, little enough. The most decently-minded 
woman who takes up her quari;ers in a circle of prostitutes, and, though 
ehe has a private apartment to receive company, betakes heraelf for 
society and difitraction, as do always the inmates of such houses, to the 
common kitchen, must speedily fall to the common level. She finds that 
modesty and propriety are considered offensive hypocrisy. Liquor, in 
the intervals of biisineaa, is insisted upon by her companions and the 
landlady, who makes a profit on the supply. Her company is sought for 
novelty's sake when she is a new comer, and her absence or reserve is 
considered insulting when she is fairly settled ; so, if she had any pre- 
vious idea of keeping herself to herself, it is very soon dissipated. Slie 
finds, when she has no male visitors, a sort of communism established in 
her rooms, which she can only avoid by resorting to the common hall in 
the dirty kitchen. There is no making head against this practice in 
lodging-houses generally, and hence the remarkable uniformity in tlie 
habits, manners, dre.^s, and demeanour of the thi-ee or four sub-sections 
of their inhabitants. 

They are usually during the day, unless called upon by their followers, 
or employed in dressing, to be found, dishevelled, dirty, slipshod ami 
dressing-gowned, in this kitchen, where the mistress keeps her tahle-tSli^te. 
Stupid from beer, or fractious from gin, they swear and chatter brainless 
stuff all day, about men and millinery, their own schemes and adventures, 



H POLICE SUPERVISION ABKOAD ASD AT UOME. 97 

and the faults of others of the sisterhood. As a heap of rubbish will 
ferment, so surely will a number of unvirtuoua women deteriorate, what- 
ever their antecedents or good qualitiea previous to their being herded 
under the semi-tyranny of a lodging-house-keeper of this kiu<L In such 
a household, all the projections of decency, modesty, propriety, and con- 
science must, to preserve harmony and re]iublican equality, be planed 
down, and the woman hammered out, Dot by the practice of her profes- 
sion or the company of men, but by association with her own sex and 
class, to the dead level of harlotry. 

From such houses issue the greater number of the dressy females with 
whom we are familiar as the frequenters of the Haymarket and the night- 
houses. Here they seem to rally, the last thing, from other parts of the 
town, when general society, and the most decent as well as lowest classes 
of prostitutes, are alike Loused for the night. Here they throw the last 
allures of fiiscination to the prowler and the drunkard — hence wander to 
their lairs, disgusted and weary if alone — noisy and highspirited if chance 
has lent them company. 

The keepers of these lodging-houses are mostly females of extreme 
avarice, and often ferocious manners — the former sharpened by the un- 
principled atmosphere in which they live, and the latter by the necessity 
of preserving discipline among their tenants and dependents. They aro 
ordinarily persona who have been bred to the business from youth, as 
relatives or old servants of their predecessors. Such an establishment is 
too lucrative to permit the idea of its dispei'sion upon the death or re- 
tirement of a proprietor ; and the lact is, that the lease, goodwill, and 
stock-in-trade of a brothel are, in such an event, disposed of like those of 
ajiy other lodging-house. Women who have been themselves kept or 
frequented by men of property are sometimes able to found or purchase 
one or more of them. A lai^e share of their tenants' earnings passes 
through their hands, and a liberal portion always remains there. They 
are highly paid for liquors and eatables they may procure on accovmt of 
male visitors; and several instances ai-e well authenticated of their 
having left ample means behind them, or having retired wealthy into 
private life. 

L HAUNTS or PROSTITUTES. 

P Introducing Eimses. — The establishments of certain procuresses 
' (Latin, pTOxeneiie; Trench, proxenite : brokers, go-betweens, match- 
makers), vulgarly called " introducing houses," which resemble, to some 
extent, the maitona & partie» kept for a similar purpose by somewhat 
used-up loreitM of the first water in Paiis, are worth notice as the lead- 
ing centres of prostitution here. Unobtrusive, and dependent upon great 
es-terior decency for a good connexion, they concern us as little from 
a sanitary as irom a police point of view, but are not without an influence 
upon the morals of the highest society. Their existence depends upon 
the co-operation and discretion of various subordinate accomplices, and 
on the patronage of some of the many wealthy, indolent, sensual men of 
London, who will pay any premium for assurance against social discredit 
and sanitary damage. Disease is thus rarely traceable to such a source, 
and notoriety and scandal nearly as seldom ; although impolitic economy 
on the gentleman's part, or indiscreet bearing towards any of the cha- 



98 POLICE auPERVISIOK iHKOAD AND AT HOME. 

racterB among whom he cannot he a hero, will induce them ocoaaionalljP 
to hunt him and hia follies into dajlight, as a warning to others, n 
against the lusts of the flesh, hut against sentiments which horse-leechM.B 
might consider illiberal. He usually obtains for hia money eecurity,T 
comfort, and a superior class of prostibute, who is, according to hia know-i 
ledge of the world or desires, presented to him us maid, wife, or widow — M 
British, or imported direct from foreign parts. The female obtains fairly -1 
liberal terms, either directly from the paramour, or from the entreprenewae M 
(who, of com'se, takes good care of herself); the company of g 
and when this is an object with her, unquestionable privacy. A numberv 
of the firat-claas prostitutes have relations with these houses, and ar»l 
aent for as occasion and demand may arise. I hare heard of o\ 
bliahment at which no female is welcome who has not some particular I 
accomplishment, as music, singing, dancing, or languages, to a more than '1 
common extent. 

A stranger might be long in London — aa he might, indeed, in Parity 
where the dame A parties is a more prevalent institution — without hear- 
ing of, and still longer without gaining access to, this aristocracy of 
brothels. Their frequenters are often elderly, sometimes married, and 
generally men of exclusive sets, upon whom it would not be to the pro- 
prietor's interest to impose even unseen association with the stranger or 
the Totu/rier. The leading persona in this line of business, who keep up 
regular relations with certain men of fashion, and sometimes means, make 
known to their clients their novel and attractive wares, one might almost 
aay, by circular. A. finds a note at his club, telling him that a charming 
arrivaJ, dt la plus grwnde Jraicheur,* is on view at Madame de It's. 
If he has no vacancy for a connexion, he may answer that a mutual friend, 

C, a very proper man, will call on such and auch a day in road, < 

that Madame may drive the object round to his rooms at such 

another time ; but that he has no great fancy at present for anything hut 
a thoroughly warranted — in fact, an ail-but modest person. All parties 
handle the affair with mock refinement. Sometimes, money passes direct, 
as third persona have to be arranged with; at others, the broker, or pro- 
curess, ventiu^s her capital, and leaves recompence to the honour of her 
friends — some of whom, of course, fleece her, others do what is considered 
fair, and now and then may be so generous that she is, on the whole, 
perhaps, better off than if she traded on strict cash principles only. The 
pungent anecdotes which occur to me respecting such houses and their 
frequenters, would, if properly disguised, go little way in proof of their 
existence — which, hy the way, must be patent enough to those who 
habituaUy read law reports — and aa their unvarnished recital here would 
give my pagea an air of levity quite foreign to my intentions, I must 
suppress them, and requeat the reader to take for granted, for the pur- 
poses of this survey, die existence of these superior haunts of London 
prostitution. 

Accommodation Souses. — Accommodation houses for casual use only, 
the maiions de paese of London, wherein permanent lodgers are not re- 
ceived, are diffused throughout the capital ; neither ita wealth nor po- 
verty exempting a district from their presence. I have not, and I believe 
that no other person has, any guide to their numbers or olaasification. I 






POLICE SUPERVISION ALUOAl) AHD AT HOME. 99 



I have seen various numerical estimates of these and other houses in priat, 
Bonie of them profea-'tiug to be from public sources ; but I attach in this 
respect little value to eveu those I have obtained from the police, aa 
their fVaraera seem neither to have settled for themselves or for the 
public the precise meanings of terms they employ. In the restricted 
sense in which I have employed the words "accommodation house," I 
fancy their number ia limited. Pew persona I have spoken to are aware 
of more than fifteen or twenty within two or thi-ee large parishes, and as 
they almost invariably name the same, I am strengthened in my opinion 
that these lupanaria are few. It were more desirable, indeed, that they 
should multiply than either class of the brothel pi-oper above described j or 
that clandestine prostitution should be largely carried on in houses 
devoted to legitimate trades, and inhabited presumedly by modest 
females. The thorough elasticity of prostitution is shown ia this as 
well as other ways; that there being a demand for more numerous and 
dispersed places of transient accommodation than at present exists, 
within the last few years numerous coffee-houses and legitimate taverns, 
at which in former days no casual lodgers would have been admitted, 
without scrutiny, now, I understand, give accommodation of the kind, 
for the part openly, or when not exactly so, on exhibition of a slight 
apology for travelling baggage, ' 

The few accommodation houses of IJondon are generally thronged 
with custom, and their proprietors are of the same order, and perhaps 
make even more money, than those of the lodging-houses. Their tarifis 
and accommodation range between luxury and the squalor of those ambi- 
guous dens, half-brothel and half lodging-house, whose inhabitants pay 
their twopenees nightly, I believe that disorder ia rarely encountered or 
courted by any casual frequenters of such places, and that in all of them 
but the vilest of the vile, the proprietors would be for tbeir own sakes 
the last to countenance it, and the first to call in the aid of the law. 

Dancing Booms and Pleasure Gardeng ; Laurent's Casino. — I confess, 
after a sufficiently painstaking survey of these resorts, to some difficulty 
in confining to the pursuit of serious speculations the pen that ia 
almost irresistibly drawn towards description and touches of character. 
I am, however, discreet enough to perceive that the eye of a professional 
man is but faintly adapted to catch the lights and shades on the Eialtos 
of prostitution, and that the task of sketching them should devolve upon 
the momlist, not the surgeon. Any such attempt of mine would be 
■ absurd, has probably been anticipated by more competent hand8,and would 
moreover be most stale and flat to my readers. For many of these will 
be better versed, and the rest, I espect, will not be less so, than 1 am in 
the places of entertainment in question. 

In the course of some researches after concentrated pi-oatitution, 
I was iuduced obviously enough to pay a visit to M. Laurent's pre- 
tended " dancing academy," whereat to dance is rather nKtwoais genre, 
eschewed alike by the real gibus and toothpick school, who wander there 
to kill the dreary time between clarot and lansquenet ; their feeble imita- 
tors of the middle classes, and the well-gloved Uirces to whom perfect 
absence from the Argyll would be more tolerable than not to rattle up 
in hired brougham or well-appointed cab. The most striking thing to 
me about the place was an upper gallery, fringed with this sort of com- 



100 POLICE SUPERVISION ABHOAD ANT AT HOME. 

pany. A sprinkliiig of each clnss seemed to be there by assignatdoD, and 
with no idea of seeking acquaintances. A number of both aesea, Bgun, 
were evidently visitors for distraction's Bate alone ; the rest were to all 
intents and purposes in quest of intrigues. 

The utter indifference of the stylieh loungers in these shambles eon- 
ti-flsted painfully with the anxious countenances of the many unnoticed 
women whom the improved manners of the time by no means permit to 
make advances. I noticed some very sad eyes, that gave the lie to laug^ 
ing lips, as they wandered round in search of some familiar face,^ 
in hope of friendly greeting. There was the sly triumph of here and 
there a vixenish hoyden with her leaah of patrons about her, and the' 
same envy, hatred, and malice of the neglected " has been," that some 
have thought they saw in every day society. The glory of the ascendant 
harlot was no plainer than the discomfiture of her sister out of lack^ 
whom want of elbow-room and excitement threw back upon her vacant 
self. The affectation of reserve and gentility that pervaded the pens of 
that upper region, seemed to me but to lay more bare the skeleton ; and 
I thought, as I circulated among the promiscuous herd of groundlings, 
that the sixpenny balcony would better serve to point a moral than the 
somewhat more natural and, at all events, far more hilarious throng about) 
me. As far as regarded public order, it seemed an admirable ari'angement 
- — to the proprietor of the rooms, profitable — of moat of ita cribbed and 
cabined occupants a voluntary martyrdom — in all of them, as making 
more plain their folly and misfortunes, a mistake. 

The great mass of the general company wore on that occasion males 
—young, middle aged, and old, married and single, of ovory shade of 
rank and respectability — and of these again, the majority seemed to 
have UD other aim than to kill an hour or two in philosophizing 
staring at one another and the women about them, and listening to 
good music, without a thought of dancing or intention of ultimate dis- 
sipation. When I consider the floating population, to whom it were 
ah3\ird to preach intellectual pastime, whose alternatives after their day's 
pursuits arc the inelegant dinner-recking coffee-rooms of London inns, 
where unwholesome brandy and water is the inevitable penalty upon 
peace and q\uetuess, a visit to some place of amusement, or positive 
street walking, I cannot wonder at the flocks of passenger birds who 
resort to the overcrowded music rooms at Evans' {where also grog pra- 
vaOs), and thence, I think, overflow into the casinos. Add to these the 
men in chambers, sick when night comes of their dull apologies for 
homos ; then the unnumbered waifs and strays of every mercantile and 
professional calling, with minds left fallow byindifierent education; then 
those of genuinely dissipated inclinations, and you will come, I think, 
at last to wonder tis I do, that no more than two or three of these 
well-ventilated lounges are open and well fiUed. Among them, or 
I should say, among us, was of course an abundance of prostitutes of 
every degree, short of the balcony aristocracy, — flaring and retiring, hand- 
some and repulsive, well dressed and tawdry. A few had come with 
companions of our sex to dance, and many had paid their shillings on 
speculation only. Some pretty grisettes had been brought by their 
. lovers to be seen and to see, and once or twice I thought I saw " a sun- 
beam that had lost its way," where a modest young girl was being 



I 



^ POLICE SUPERVISION ABItOAD AND AT HOME. 101 

paraded by a, foolish Bwain, or indoctrinated iiito the charms of town by 
a designing acamp. There were plenty of dancers, and the casual 
polka was often enough, by mutnal consent, the beginning and end of 
the acquaintance. There was little appearance of refreshment or solici- 
tation, and none whatever of ill-behaviour or drunkennesa. It was clear 
that two rills of population had met in Windniiil Street : one, idle and 
vioiouB by pi-ofesaiou or inclination, the other, idle for a few hours on 
compulsion. Between them there was little amalgamation. A few 
dozen couples of the former, had there been no casino, would have 
concocted their amours in the thoroughfiireB ; the crowd who formed the 
other seemed to seek the place with uo definite views beyond light, 
music, and shelter. Many whose thorough British gravity was proof 
against more than all the meretriciouaneaaof the assembly would, 1 fancy, 
have been there had it been confined to males only. I am convinced they 
were open to neither flirtation nor temptation, and I know enough of my 
countrymen's general taato to affirm tiat they ran little hazai'd of the 
latter. 

That a great improvement has taken place in the manners and appear- 
ance of these women, no one will deny, who recollects past generations 
of their quality. This ia due to the substitution, in a great measure, of 
dancing and music for the sedentary drinking of former days. The 
graceful and, indeed, unnaturally slight forms now prevalent, contrast no 
more Strongly with the Rubenesque development which was the lioiTor 
of former days, than the decorum of the Argyll Rooms with the tra- 
ditional intoxication and bruising of our lathers' time. We are not, it 
is true, an easily contented people, and it is perhaps well so ; but when 
I coll to mind what was formerly seen in the fashionable resorts of 
prostitution, the theatrical saloons to wit, whose novelty and splendour 
indeed hardly served to veil their obscenity from the neophyte ; and how 
in the sialiis quo ante polka the upper boxes of the now charming Hay- 
market Theati-e were blockaded against ladies by ladies of easy virtue, I 
cannot refrain from so far regwding casinos with aatialaction. The 
columns of the press used to teem with diatribes against both saloons and 
upper boxes, but though Mr. Manager this, and Mr. Lessee that, promised 
and vowed "vigilance," " amendment," " a new leaf," "most fastidious 
taate," "shock the eye and ear of refinement," " directions given to the 
attendants," "keep out all improper characters," and so on without end; 
BtUl, while the dissolute had money and to spare, and manager and lessee 
■were not always in that position, the scarlet fiuttered in saloon and 
boxes. Paterfamilias has the great and simple invention of M. Cel- 
lariiis to thanfc for his abUity to take his wife and daughters to the play, 
or send them there with beaux or brothera, without anxious misgivings. 
He takes advantage of this, hut I believe he is not half thankful, for he 
still now and then rides his old hobby into the new lists, and forgetful of 
how things have changed, nms a tilt against the present haunts of pros- 
titution. He rails and preaches against vice when he ought, as I view it, 
to thank her for spontaneously doing what he coidd obtain of her neither 
by persuasion nor by force, T mean putting herself in a comer. He 
surely cannot want the casinos too. This .<Eolian Cave of contrary 
winds is for ever helping to distract the judgment of the public and 
of public men, and to defer any arrangement of the many questions 
involved. 



102 POLICE 3UPEBVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME. 



Casino de Veniee {Holhorn Ctuiino). — Having seen little else at M, 
Laurent's balls but worn-out lackadaisical women and bored moB, I 
waa aatonisbed at the bugc suq>luB of vitality which distinguishes the 
habitites of this dancing-room. I say habitude, because my companions 
and myself remarked that the place was, as it were, in the hands of 
an extensive clique. In this respect it somewhat brought to my mind 
the Bal du Prado of the Quartier- Latin, the select Almack's of the 
students and etiidiantet of that ever-to-be- remembered locality, where 
strangers to the quarter and its customs, if admitted without a voucher, 
soon feel in a Mse position. I would not be at all interpreted as 
casting a slur upon either the management or the society of the 
Holboni balls. On the contrary, if I have any bias, I must own it 
is towards a favourable consideration of such easements of the street% 
presenting aa they do in their athletic amusements and prevalent sobriety 
a remarkable contrast to the grosser haunts of prostitution formerly 
in fashion, and intolerable to young men of still recent times, whose taste 
and judgment could hardly be said to have broken the shell. 

Here were few loungers and no exquisites. The briUiant ball-room, 
glittering with a myriad prisms, which might do duty with young 
minds for a hall of diamonds in a fairy palace, was given over to a 
troop of dancing dervishes. The frenzy of these fenatica was stimu- 
lated not by poisonous champagne or spirits, hut by the act itself of 
dancing, glasses of bitter beer, and bottles of soda-water. The yoiug 
men, when they changed the dance from the levelling polka to tha 
more criticizable quadrille, betrayed themselves to be generally clerks, 
apprentices, and young shopkeepers of position. There was also a 
sprinkling of law and, I dare say, medical students, and a stray mid- 
diipmau or two were obviously bent upon consuming some largo stocks 
of preserved energy. 

I was pleased to note the radiant health and spirits of nearly all 
present. I could not, though I would willingly have so done, persuade 
myself that I was not in an assembly of whom a third at least were 
prostitutes, but I saw here, with no small satisfaction, a foil 
oon-oboration of my impression tliat brutal manners and scandalous 
behaviour are no necessary integer of the prostitute's character, and 
that when she is treated like a civilized being, and not da kaut en 
has hy men, she can be a& orderly and natural as the virtuous of 
her sex. There were evidently present on the evening in question — and 
from inquiries made at the time, I fancy this ia the ordinary com- 
plexion of the society — a considerable number of the griaette class of 
girls, the equals in point of all but means of their dancing partners, 
and, putting honour for a moment on one side, of those partners' siatera. 
I could not but regret that the silly aspirations of society had conspired 
with sad chance first to hinder tliese youths from early and consistent 
marriage with girls adapted to them, and then to throw those very girls 
at their feet as mistresses and harlots. All, however, whom I 
grisette or common prostitute— wei'e cleanly, weU-dressed, and well- 
ordered. The old master of the ceremonies, whose face I well recolloot 
among the corps de ballet of the Opera, ruled the aasenibly with a smile, 
and the constable in the lobby was the only one of all the visitors and 
offidals who seemed thoroughly out of employment. I presume that an 



I 



I 



r POLICE BUPEBVISION ABROAD AND AT HOJIE. 103 

occnsioiial drimken man or jealous woman must find their way to tliia as 
to other mixed assemblies, and as such complaints are catcliiug, the 
ouBtomaiy acenea must occur, and the proper punishment of disorder 
ninst ensue. My own favourable impressions of the ploou were not dis- 
turbed by any suah ooomrence, and when I left it, I could not avoid the 
reflection that this one at least among modem resorts of vice, if not less 
dangerous to morality than ite filthy predecessors, the Tom-and-Jerry 
shop and the Drury-lane stew previously alluded to, had the advan- 
tage over them in refinement and public deceacy, and in being far leas 
injurious to the health of the visitors. 

The Gartkn at Crmiwme. — It might seem rather late in the day to 
|. Argue, on the grounds of its entertaining prostitutes among others, against 
I tbe moat beautiful pnbKc garden London can boast for the amusement 
*■ of her people, and which, like many others of its kind, has taken, despite 
ofstrong objections, a position among the /(wfewccomp^is of the age. The 
union of Terpsichore and Melpomene, long forbidden by puritanism, is 
now, I am glad to say, sanctioned by the magistracy ; large capital bas been 
iuvettted in providing local habitations for the young couple, and these are 
frequented without risk of more than nominal damage by great crowds 
of both sexes, all ranks, and all ages. No less than fifteen thousand 
people were lately present at Oremome, on the occasion of the manager's 
benefit, and the nightly visitors during the fine season amount to between 
1600 and 2000. As my present business, however, is with the de- 
meanour of Xjondon prostitution, I mnat unwillingly limit myself to the 
' consideration of public out-door amusements, with reference to that 
Q feature only, and state some impressions of travel on a July 
evening in 1857, from Charing-croas to Chelsea. As calico and meny 
respectubility tailed off eastward by penny steamers, the setting sun 
brought westward Hansoms fi^ighted with demure immorality in silk 
and tine linen. By about ten o'clock, age and innocence, of whom there 
had been much in the place that day, had seemingly all retired, weary with 
a long and paid bill of amusements, leaving the massive elms, the grass- 
plots, and the geranium-beds, the kiosks, temples, "monster platforms," 
and " crystal circle" of Cremorne to flicker in the thousand gas-lightB 
there for the gratification of the dancing public only. On and around 
that platform waltzed, strolled, and fed some thousand souls — perhaps 
seven hundred of them men of the upper and middle class, the remainder 
prostitutes more or leas prononcies. I suppose that a hundred couples 
(partly old acquaintances, partly improvised) were engaged in dancing 
and other amusements, and the rest of the society, myself included, 
circulated listlessly about the garden, and enjoyed in a grim kind of 
way the " selection" from some favourite opera and the aool night- 
breeze from the river. 

The extent of disiUusion he has purchased in this world come forcibly 

home to the middle-aged man who in such a scene attempts to fiithom 

former iaith and ancient joys, and perhaps even vainly to fancy he might 

by some possibility begin again. I saw saores, nay hundreds, about me 

in the same position as myself. We wore there^and some of us, 1 feel 

^^ sure, hardly knew why — but being there, and it being obviously impoa- 

^^L Hble to enjoy the place after the manner of youth, it was necessary, I 

^^MMppose, to chew the cud of sweet and bitter &ncies; and then so little 

m 



jL 



I 



104 POLICE suPEavisiOH abroad and at home, 

pleasure came, that the Britannic aolitlitywaxedsoliderthaii ever eve 
garden full of music and dancing, and so an almost mute procession, not 1 
of joj-oua rovollers, but thonghtfiil, careworn men and women, pac 
round and round the platform as on a horizontal treadmill There ■« 
now and then a bare recognition between passera by — they seemed to 1 
touch and go, like anta in the hnny of business. I do not imagine for | 
a moment they could have been aware that a self-appointed ins[ 
was among them, but had they known it never so well, the intercourse 
of tbo sexes could hardly have been more reserved — oa it general rule, 
he it always nnderalood, Tor my part, I was occupied, when the first 
chill of change waa shaken off, in quest of noise, disorder, debauchery, 
and bad manners. Hopeless task ! The pic-nic at Eumham Beeches, 
that showed no more life and merriment than Cremome on the night 
and time above-mentioned, would be a failure indeed, unless the company 
were antiquarians or undei-takera. A jolly bursit of laughter now and 
then came bounding through the crowd that fringed the dancing-floor ■ 
and roved about the adjacent sheds in seai-ch of company; but that goufr J 
by, you heard very plainly the aigh of the po]Jar, the surging gossip of 1 
the tulip-treo, and the plash of the little embowered fountain that served T 
two plaster children for an endless shower-hath. Tha grafus puellie risvs- \ 
was put in a comer with a vengeance, under a colder shade than that of | 
chastity itself, and the function of the very hand appeared to be to 4 
di'own not noise, but stillness. f 

The younger portion of the company formed the dances, and enjoyed 1 
themselves after the manner of youth, but I may fairly say, without 
offence to the moat fastidious eye or ear. The Sergent de Ville, so neces- 
sary — if the semblance of propriety is to he preserved at all — to repress 
the effervescent indecorum of the bal MabUle at Paris, would have been 
here an offensive superfluity. The ofEciating member of the executive, I 
Policeman V, had token up an amiably discreet position, where his 
presence could in no way appear symjitomatic of pressure, and the 
chances seemed to be, that had he atood so posed until his interference was 
necessary on behalf of public order, he might have been there to this day. 
Lemonade and sherry seemed to please the dancers, and the loungem 
indulged the waiters' importunity with a rare order for bitter-beer. A 
atrongiahparty of undergraduates in drinking — all males — wei'e deepening 
their native dulneas in a comer with bottled stout, and more seasoned 
vessels struggled against depression with hot grog In front of the 
liquor-har, called, in the language of the billographer, " the gastronomic 
department," two rosy capitalists (their wives at Brighton or elsewhere) 
were pouring, for mere distraction's sake, libations of fictitious Mbet, to 
the memory of auld lang syne with some fat old dames de mtdson, pos- 
sibly extinct planets of the Georgian era. There was no drunkenneaa 1 
here to take hold of As I have before recorded, there waa among the I 
general company barely vivacity, much leas boiaterous disoider. Let me .] 
try the assembly for immodest, brazen-faced solicitation by women. I I 
declare my belief that I never saw the notoriously anti-sociable habit at j 
Englishpeople more rigorously adhered to. Of the character of the f 
female viaitora — let me always say wiiA tome exceptions — I could have' I 
little moral doubt, but it waa clear enough tliat self-proclamation by any I 
great number of them was out of the question. It was open to the male 1 



POLICE BUPEBVISION ABKOAD AND AT HOME. 105 

viaitora to invite attention and solicit acquaintance. No gentlemanlv 
proposition of tbe kind wouid have been rebuffed, no courteous offer ot' 
refreahmeTit, posaibly, declined, but I am firmly of opinion, that had the 
most eligible men present tarried in hopes of overtures iroca the other 
side, they might have beeD there yet, with Policeman V. 

As to the coatumea of the company I have little to say, beyond that 
pretty and quiet dressing was almost universal, and painted cheeks a 
rarity; but one or two physical chajwiteristica seem worth mentioning. I 
saw many an etiolated eye and blanched chlorotic complexion, due to want 
of Huu and air, and genei-al defibrinization, but not more noticeable here 
than in Mayfair. There was here and there a deplorable hectic flush, 
diatinguiahable enough from carmine; and I noticed a great prevalence 
of sunken eyes, drawn features, and thin lips, roaulting from that 
absorption of the cellular tissue which leaves mere threads of muscle 
stretched upon the skulL Inasmuch aa within my recollection women 
of the town had a well-known tendency to stoutcess, and they now live 
no worse tlian heretofore, I am incliited to atti-ibute these symptoms not 
80 much (aa is the vulgar error) to the practice of prostitution, aa to the 
dancing mania, which has been the only remarkable change of late years 
in their mode of life, superadded in many instances to the action of early 
privations, and perhaps hard work in domestic service and millinery 
feotories, upon naturally delicate or defective organizations. 

The Streets of London ai'e, as I have said before, an open book, and 
he who walks in them can read and think for himself. I have now to 
approach the difficult topic of eegulation. 

PRESENT STATE OF THE LAW. 

The Police Act. — It becomes me now to inquire what ia the actual state 
of the law with regard to [jroatitution — that ia, what pressure it is in the 
power of the authorities to exercise upon it, and how far that power is 
exerted. 

The horn-book of the metropolitan constable, his articles of war, the 
Alpha and Omega of his arguments, is the Act of Parliament of the 2nd 
and 3rd of Victoria, cap. 47, dated 17th August, 1839, and intituled 
" An Act for fnrther Improving the Police in and near the Metropolis;" 
being an amendment of Sir Eobert Peel's original Statute, the 10th 
George IV. 

I have before me a copy of the 2nd and 3rd of Victoria, and on 
examination I find the clauses bearing upon pixistitution to be the 44th, 
62nd, 54th, 58th, and 63rd. 

The 44th clause runs as follows i 

" And whereas it ia expedient that tbe provisions made by law for 
preventing disorderly conduct in the houses of licensed victuallers be 
extended to other houses of public resort; be it enacted, that every 
person who shall have or keep any house, shop, room, or place of public 
reaort within the Metropolitan Police District, wherein provisions, 
liquors, or refreshments if any kind shall be sold or consumed {whether 
the same shall be kept or retailed therein, or procured elsewhere), and 
who shall wilfully or knowingly permit drunkenness or other disorderly 
conduct in such house, shop, room, or place, or knowingly suffer any 
unlawful games or any gaming whatsoever therein, or knowingly suffer 



106 POLICE aupERVisiON 

or permit proglUules, or peraons of uotorionaly bad character, to meeti 
ti^ether and remaan therein, ehail for every such offence be liable to 
penalty of not more than five pounds." 

It would appear that no more right of entry or power of action is 
^ven to the police by this clause, or any other in the Act before me, 
tlian they enjoy under the Licensed Tictnallera' Act, the 9th of George 
IV. cap. Gl, the governing statute in this case, by which they can only 
enter housee in case of disorder on request of the landlord, and can only 
proceed against him by summons or sworn infonnation of one or more 



The 52nd clause of the same statute provides: 

" That it shall be lawful for the Commissioners of Police from time to 
time, and as occasion may require, to make regulation for the route to 
be observed by all carts, carriages, horses, and persona, and for preventing 
obstructions of the streets and thoroughfares within the Metropolitan 
Police District, in all times of public proceaaions, public rejoicings, or 
ittuminations; and also to give directions to the constables for keeping 
order, and for preventing any obstruction of the thoroughiares in the 
immediate neighbourhood of her Majesty's palaces and the public offices, 
the High Court of Parliament, the courts of law and equity, the police 
courts, the theatres, and other places of public resort, and in any case 
when the streets or thoroughfiireB may be thronged, or may be liable tp 
be obfltructed." 

The 64th clause provides, in continuation : 

"That every person who, after being made acquainted with the regar 
lations or directions which the Commissioners of Police shall have made 
for regulating the route of horses, carts, carriages, and persons during the 
time of Divine Service, and for preventing obstmetions during public 
pi'ocessions, and on other occasions hereinbefore specified, shall wilfully 
disregard, or not conform himself thereto, shall be liable to a penalty erf 
not more than forty shillings. And it shall be lawful for any constable 
belonging to the Metropolitan Police Force to take into custody, 
vrit?u»tl warroTit, any person who shall commit any such offence within 
view of any such constable." 

The same 54th clause also provides ; 

" That every common prostitute or night-walker, loitering, or being 
in any thoroughfare or public place, for the purpose of prostitution or 
solicitation, to the annoyance of the inhabitajits or passengers, shall be 
liable to a penalty of not more than forty shillings, and to be dealt with 

And again, that " every person who shall use any profene, indecent^ ( 
obscene language, to the annoyance of the inhabitants or passengers 
and also " every person who shall use any threatening, abusive, or il 
suiting words or behaviour, with intent to provoke a breach of the 
peace, or whereby a breach of the peace may be occasioned," may be also 
BO dealt with. 

The 68tli clause enacts: 

" That every person who shall be found drunk in any street or public 
thoroughfare within the said district, and who while drunk shall be 
guilty of any riotous or indecent behaviour, and also every person who 
shall be guilty of any violent or indecent behaviour in any police station- 



I 



I 




POLICR SUPERVISION ABRO.VD AXD AT HOME. 107 

house, shall he liable to a penalty of not more than forty ahillings for 
every audi offence, or may be committed, if the magiBtrate by whom ho 
shall be convicted shall think tit, inst«^ of indicting upon him any 
pecuniary tine, to the house of correction for any time not more than 
seven days. 

The 63rd clause enacts: 

"That it shall be lawful for any constahle belonging to the Metro- 
politan Police District, and for all persons whom he shall call to his 
aaaistance, to take into custody, without a warrant, any person who, 
vrithin view of any such constable, ahall oSend in aoy manner against 
this act, and whose name and residence shall be unknown to such 
constable, aad cannot bo ascertained by such constable." 

Disorder — Solicitaiion.—T)\Q police then are empowered, under the 
above-recited 58th clause, to deiJ with disorder, dninkenneaa, disorderly 
conduct, brawling, loitering, and obstruction, whether coming by pros- 
titutes or others. Habitual loitering upon certain fixed spote they 
already keep in check, generally speaking without tyranny; and next 
comes to be considered what can be done in case of what is called 
"solicitation," or importunity, a prominent feature in the general bill of 
indictment against prostitution. 

I quite agree with Sir Geoi^e Grey, whose opinion I shall presently 
quote, that great evil might happen were the power of arrest on sus- 
picion to be left in the hands of the police, or were unsupported charges 
of improper solicitation considered enough to justify their intervention. 
This woiUd at once give the power, and thousands would avail themselves 
of it, to every unprincipled villain to bring discredit upon any woman 
he had a spite against ; and the discretion as to receivuig charges could 
not then he safely entrusted to the ordinary and not over-paid policeman. 
Those who recollect the public sensation when, a twelvemonth ago, an 
honest young person was injuriously, though on apparently fair grounds, 
taken into custody, at the instance of a shopkeeper, on a charge of 
passing false money, will readily estimate the anxiety which, were such 
an-esta possible, would attend the walks, whether on bnaiuess or for 
pleasure, of all unprotected women. Tlie period of such an experiment 
would he a reign of terror, and on the first case of imposition on the 
police, mistaken identity, or abuse of power, either of which might 
occur within the first week, the enactment would explode amidst public 



I have already said that solicitation by English prostitutes is confined 
to females of a low grade. As iar as my experience goes, and that of 
most men whose opinions I have asked, tlie annoyance in question is of 
the most trifiing and transient description. I have noticed particularly 
that those who practise it are, as it were, confined to one beaten track, 
and never follow a man across the street Again, it may so easily be 
ended by total silence, that the efficacious uitima ratio of an appeal to 
the police is rarely needed by the «o6er pedestrian; and society can 
hardly be expected to step out of its way for the protection of the i^eling 
"drunkard, whose own folly issues an invitation to all the predatory classes. 
It is not olear that even Parliament may lawfully pretend to deny 
to any person, however vile, the absolute freedom of civilly addressing 
any other; but supposing it desirable to act strongly against solicitation, 



101 



POLICE SUPERTIBION 



AND AT HOME. 



under the sanction of this 54tli dause, we should find, I believe, that 
the necessary burden of proving, first prostitution, and then annoyance, 
■wherewith we are obliged to fence public liberty, will render all regu- 
lationa comparatively inoperative. It would be inexpedient, for the 
reason I have before stated (although it is now legal), that charges of 
solicitation should he taken freely, without the evidence of at least one 
peraoD of character, totally independent of both the poKce officer and 
the actual or supposed complainant. This necessary evidence would, I 
fancy, be very rarely forthcoming; and even supposing it dispensed with, 
we should always find that the precise person to whom the importunity 
of the woman would he insupportable overnight, would be infinitely 
more troubled by having to devote the following morning to appearance 
as complainant or witness against her at a police office. 

Si. James's Parishioners. — In no part of our metropolis does prostitu- 
tion 80 raukly flourish as in its richest and most popidous western quiuiier. 
A recent deputation to the Home Secretary, Sir George Grey, Irom St 
James's, Westminster, after touching upon the increase of in&mom 
houses, and the inefiicacy of legal prooeedingH taken by the authorities of 
that pariah, for their suppression, entered the following protest against the 
aspect of Eegent-street : 

" In close connexion with, and a consequence of the numerous existing 
brothels, to the extent and evils of which your memorialists trust they 
have sufficiently adverted to command your attention, is the assemblage 
of large numbers of prostitutes (chiefly foreigners) and their male fol- 
lowers in the principal streets, who not only loiter on, but actually block 
up the footpaths from an early hour in the afternoon, making the passage 
of decent females unattended, without insult, very hazardous, and even 
when attended, rendering it almost imposaible for them to escape from 
disgusting language or indecent conduct. That your memorialistB poa- 
sesa no control whatever over persons misconducting themselves in the 
public streets, but believe such offences to be punishable under the Act 
2nd and 3rd Vict,, cap, 47, intituled 'An Act for further Improving the 
Police in and near the Metropolis,' which renders liable to a penalty not 
exceeding forty shillings, ' every common prostitute, or night-walker, 
loitering, or being in any thoroughfare or public plaoe for the purpose 
of prostitution or solicitation, to the annoyance of the inhabitante OC 
passengers.' " 

Allowing, as will the majority of disinterested readers well acquainted 
with our streets, for a good deal of suggestive exaggeration in the above 
memorial, I must still own there is too much of truth at the bottom, of 
it Of this any man may convince himself who will take a few turns 
any fine afternoon along the lower half of Regrait- street. His ear will 
be met by a confusion of vulgar, shameless female tongues, and his eye 
with the most ridiculous vagaries of design in millinery. He will con- 
gratulate himself that the Babel is not caused by the English sisterhood, 
to whom it is perhaps more offensive for many reasons than to other 
citizens, but to a party of foreign women from every climate 
heaven, who seem to make up on British ground for the long restraint 
their tongues and persons have been subjected to in the countries of 
their birth. 

Turning to the Police Act, we fiud that the inliahitants themselves 



at V 

?:1 



I 



i 



ABBOAD AND AT HOME. lOD 

aeem to have ample power under the statute to put an end to the 
nuisance they complain of. We follow them to the seat of juaticc, and 
we find a stop put to their proceedings by an enlightened adminbtrator 
of the law, in the name of public libei'ty and equal justice for all. 

Proceedinga at MarUjorough-atreet.—'Vhei following decisioa of Mr. 
Hardwick, stipeudiaiy magiati-ate at Marlborough-street,* in the case 
of aorowd of these women arrested for loitering in Eegenfc-atreet, iaatill 
fresh in public recollection, and abundantly illustrates the difficulty 
which besots the application of the present law. " Five prostitutes {the 
majority foreigners) were charged by the police with walking up and 
down Regent-street in the open day, for an immoral purpose. Police- 
CMinatahle Simons said, " In consequence of the complaints of the in- 
habitants of the nuisance and obstruction to buaineas occasioned by the 
sliameless conduct of women of loose character (principally foreigners), 
who congregated in Regent-circus and the adjacent streets, the defen- ' 
danto had been taken into custody, and charged with parading up and 
down the public street for the purpose of prostitution." Several of the 
inhabitants of Regent-street, who wore in court, came forward to sustain 
the proceedings of the police. They said that the lower part of Regent- 
street in particular was infested all day long by throngs of French and 
Belgian prostitutes, whoso immodest and audacious behaviour had a 
seriouH effect on the business of the street, and was particularly detri- 
mental to ti-adoamen who wished to let apartments. They trusted that 
the magistrate would assist them in their efforts to abate this intolerable 



^K migai 



Blr. Hardwick "was disposed to give aU reasonable assistance in audi 
a case, but it was only on clear and broad grounds that he would act. M^o 
doubt it was a violation of public decency that at all hours of the 
day this exhibition on the part of prostitutes shoidd be going on, in 
one of the most public streets in the metropolis. In no other capital 
in Europe would this lie tolerated, and if he wished to put down the 
noiaance here, the question must first be raised as to whether this 
class of women should be allowed in the street at all. It would not 
do to deal with a few only ; they must all be dealt with, whether in 
Regent-street, Pall-mail, or Oxford- street, who were walking about 
avowedly for the purposes of prostitution. If the eidating law were 
put into force, all such women wei* liable to a penalty of forty shillings, 
but it would not do to bring up a few for judgment — the law must be 
enforced against all. He should recommend the inhabitants to draw up 
a request to the PoUce Commissioners on the subject, and then no doubt 
the police would receive further instructions. As the defendants were 
only charged with walking about publicly, he should now discharge 

Proceedings at Guildhall.-^'ihe subjoined report of a conversation in 
the Municipal Council of this city will serve to show the opinions there 
evoked on the first blush of a coercive proposition. The national love 
of liberty, anterior to law and logic, dictated the absolute dismissal, by 
persons of undoubted character, of a petition, compliance with which 
might have involved its infringement, and would rule confonnably the 



"The Globe," Dec. 28lli, 1855. 



no 



5 SUPERVISION i 



deoiaion of any dtlilieratiyo aBsenilily, from that of St. Stephi 
Veereliop, before wbich the matter might come. 

Alderman Wii.aos presented a petition fi-om the inhabitants of the' 
Ward of Castle Baynard, complaining that the neighbourhood of St, 
Panl'B-churchyard was greatly disturbed by the conduct of women of the 
town at night, and praying that the Court would take some means to 
abate so serious a nuisance. He had, upon the representation of the 
circumstances to him, advised the petitioners to apply to the Commis- 
sioner of City Police, who, however, informed them that the magistrates 
woidd not assist his efforts to remove the women of the town from tho 
place described as being subject to the nuisance. 

Alderman Fabebrotuek said, if the commissioner or his men could 
not establish a case against the unfortunate women whom they might 
think proper to take into cuatody, why should not the magistrata 
dismiss them i (Hear, hear.) These poor creatures moat be somewhere; 
in Regent-street they were infinitely more numerous than they were in 
St. Paurs-churchyardj and why, if acts of disoi'der were not proved 
against them, should they be punished with imprisonment or with the 
bad treatment of being brought before magistrates at all ? He for one 
woidd not imprison a wretched woman merely because she was brought 
before him by a policeman. 

Sir P. IiAUBiE had often discharged unfortunate women against what 
appeared to be the reasoning of the police — that if a woman after having 
widked down Fleet-street dared to walk back again, she must be walked 
ofi' to prison. (Hear, hear.) 

The Recorder read the section of the City Police Act, to show that it 
was not exactly according to the statute to take into cuatody and 
imprison unfortunate women who waited the streets without committing 
any offence. 

The petition was tlien rejected.* 

Parish of St. Jiunes't Deputation to the Home Secretary. — The law 
certainly strong enough to effect much that the most anxious advocates 
of repression would demand. But the obstacles in the way of its 
forcement — even supposing it conceded that notoriety of characters 
ipao facto " public disorder " — seem to be many. There is the difBculty 
of applying equal pressure over such a large extent of ground, and to 
such a numei-ous body as even the known prostitutes, and the inequity 
of arbitrary selection — then the inconvenience to "inhabitants" and 
" passengers" of pleading " annoyance" within the meaning of the act — 
then the possibility of error — and, lastly, the reluctance of magistrates 
to entertain charges on the mere unsupported allegation of a constabla 

The street features of London prostitution, which are painful to our- 
selves, are disgusting to all foreigners of refinement, who, of course, con- 
trast ite attitude here with that in their respective capitals. They natu- 
rally, of course, inquire why an orderly commonwealth like ours neglecta 
to remedy, by an imitation of their systems, the evil all are agreed in 
condemning! Thus stimulated, and irritated, beyond a doubt, by the 
couatant presence among them of foreign prostitutes, whom they justly 
imagined would be numbered and ticketed in their own countries. 



i 



I 



I 



" The Times," Fob. 2lBt, 18J1. 



J 



POLICE aUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT UOME. Ill 

deputation of our fellow-citizeus very naturally suggested to Sir George 
Grey the adoption of tlie foreign restrictive policy. They received the 
following answer : — 

" As to the reference which had been made to the absence in France 
and Belgium of annoyances in the public streets, it should be remembered 
that that freedom was purchased at the expense of a direct legislative 
sanction of prostitution. He (Sir George Grey) questioned whether it 
would be right, on the ground of public morality or good principle, for 
Mm to suggest any similar course to the legislature of this country, and 
he felt certain that the publio generally would not sanction any such 
courae. If tliey did not sanction what foreign countriea did, they must 
continue to submit to annoyances such as those complained of. 

" With respect to what had been said about pi-ostitutes in the streets, 
and the power wliich existed under the Police Act of dealing witli 
them, the law required that some act should be done to prove that the 
person was really a prostitute. It would never do to place in the hands 
of the police the power to take up any woman whom they pleased to 
suppose to be a person of improper character. In their anxiety to sup- 
press a great evU they must take care not to give such instructious to the 
police as might, when carried out, prove injurious and annoying to per- 
sons of good character." 

It appeai-B to me, supposing the above report to be accui-ate, that the 
Home Secretary would have found far better shelter under the political 
than the religious difficulty. The direct legislative sanction, of which he 
made an imposing feature, is the weak spot of hia argument. Had ho 
said that freedom from annoyance was purchased abroad at the expense 
of liberty, he would have been in the right ; but he could not have esta- 
blished, without difficulty, that it was either impolitic or in-eligious to 
recognise all callings whose pursuit may bring individuals within the 
action of public poHoe. This applies no less to prostitution than to all 
branches of professional crime and vice. Nothing would be more natural 
and certain than our derision of the Minister who informed ua that 
whatever degree of freedom from burglary we enjoy, was so enjoyed at 
the expense of an immoral sanction of the crime by Parliament I 

Prostitution was kept out of view in the Licensed Victuallei's' Act, 
and the original Police Act, but was introduced and specially recognised 
in that of Victoriaj hut is still fer short of being under direct legislative 
sanction. Messrs. Hardy and Headlam would be surprised to hear the 
imputation that in their Bill, recently thrown out for its curiously 
monopolizing and tyrannical tendencies, tliey had been conspu-ing to 
place prostitution under the favour of the law or the protection of Par- 
liament. 

I think the feelings of the religious world would not have been out- 
raged, while the efforts of social reformers must have been encouraged, 
had the speech of the right honourable Baronet contained a passage in 
the following sense: 

" Aa to the reference which Lad been made to the absence in France 
and Belgium of annoyances in the public streets, it should bo remem- 
bered that this freedom was, in the firat place, after all 'incomplete. The 
public nuisance of solicitation still existed to a certain, though modified, 
extent in the capitals of those countriea ; and what he presumed would 



.Mi 



113 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABHOAD AND AT 1 



I 
I 



ever be in virtuous eyes fclie greater evil — namely, the actual presence of 
vicious -women, and their mixture with the virtuous — was, if anything, 
more patent to observant persons in those cities than in London. The 
subjection, again, of personal liberty to police action, for which a degree 
of exemption was purchased, waa carried on, it was true, by sufferance, 
but was barely justified by either French or Belgian law ; and being en- 
forced, not against all prostitutes indiscriminately, but against such only 
as could not command means t-o evade it, would be charaterized in this 
country by tho odious title of ' one law for the rich and another for the 

" Prostitution, although some persons would be surprised to hear it, 
was already to a limited extent recognised by English law, and to 
exert farther pressure upon it would demand a far more complete 
rec<^nition, which might he distaateful to many. Great power was 
by our present law reposed in respectable householders and passengers 
in the streets, but the exercise of this power appeared to present such 
inconveniences that these parties now requested of him, not, it would 
appear, to strengthen their hands, but to act for them. He ques- 
tioned whether members of the deputation would not be among the 
first to censure any attempt on the part of his department to issue and 
enforce repressive edicts without the consent of Parliament, and also 
whether Parliament itself could he induced to pass enactments which . 
might with show of reason be termed very anti-liberal." 

I should have then taken no objection, had Sir George Grey some- 
what oracularly concluded as follows ;— " He must beg to be understood 
as not declining to entertain the subject, because he was of opinion that 
something might yet be done. If the existing law should, on conside- 
ration, appear insufficient, or its operation constitutionally inconvenient^ 
he was not without hopes of being able to devise measures which should 
tend towards the very proper aim of the parishioners, without throwing 
undue power into the hands of the police, or affording ])lauaible ground 
for religious discontent, by appearing to lend to vice the sanction and 
protection of the State. But the deputation must fuUy perceive that it 
was a delicate matter to find a way through all the di^&cultiee he had 
mentioned." 

Segulation of Regent Street. — I am, as will have been seen, no advocate 
of rough measures; but it does not seem to follow as a matter of course 
that what caimot be cured must be endured without mitigation. Al- 
though morals, law, and liberty are at a dead lock, all expedients are 
not exhausted. The vigilant police of the C division have already, since 
the date of the above deputation, so materially abated the Rogent-street 
nuisance, that after several inspections 1 am warranted in stating the 
amount of disorder and solicitation in that thoroughfare to be nominaL 
I am informed that a year or two back every passing shower afforded a 
pretext to the foreign women of the Kegent-street division for extrava- 
gantly raising their dresses; but — so much will a j'mi^ictoms police effect — 
this practice has been abandoned without more than passive remonstrance. 
As concentration, termed I believe by the French police Tacerocka^e, 
still to some extent prevails in Regent-street, and very largely in ^e 
Haymarket, where, as Superintendent Lister says — and I &Lncy he is 
-within the mark — as many as three himdred loose women might bo 



I 



POLICE SUrERVlSION ABROAD AHD AT EOUE. 113 



counted at ooe time on the troltoir and within their different honsea of 
call ; I venture to propose at least one unpretending scheme, suited to 
the real wanta of public order in each of those thoroughfares particularly, 
and in other situations in London similarly haunted by prostitutes. 

The main object of the St. James's deputation was, I apprehend, tha 
suppression of the public exposure, wpon a very limited area, of noisy, 
soliciting, gesticulating pi'ostitntes. So far I think the public would 
saoctioti severity. It occurs, as I have before remarked, in only three 
or four spots in town, at least during hours when shops are open eai 
decent people sujiposed to be abroad, and mainly becomes a nuisance by 
intercepting the promenades of l^es, and consequently injariag trade 
and depreciating the value of property. In Regent-street it arises almost 
entirely by the foreign importations, who, not content with advertising 
their craft upon their backs, proclaim it li la haute voix. From English 
women of any grade frequenting that locality, except the lowest and the 
tipsy, few persons can preteud to experience any annoyance, even at 
night. It ia considered bad taste among the class to he noisy, obtrusive, 
or to address men without prior encourage raent Such as the nuisance 
13, however, I &ncy the following plan would go some way towards its 
abatement, without prejudice to the morality or liberty of the citizen. 
It would be preposterous, of course, to deny perfect freedom of the 
streets to the prostitute; but equal liberty might be conceded, at least 
tor a time, to the authoritiea, and the employment in the foUowing 
manner, by either the police department or the parishioners, of a speoial 
prostitution constabulary, woidd iu my opinion put such a pressure upon 
the pockets of the woman, farmer (or in the absence of that intermediary, 
of the women themselves) as would compel both to alter their system of 

e of constables, numerous, and not secret, but fl^rant in 
miforms, were allotted to follow industriously the troupe complained 

I of up and down the short portion of the street they now so much fro- 
qnent, notice being given that this measure would be continued until 
they extended their radius from 200 yiirds to two miles, I am oonviaced 
they would be shortly starved into a capitulation, because no customer 
at all likely t-o be pi-ofitahle would accost them under such a swrtieUlance. 
Efisist they dare not, for they know the state of publlo opinion in tlieir 
regard, and the local interests would then reap a certain advantage at 
the common cost, by diffusing an evil whose concentration at their own 
doors thiy now suffer vicariously for the public. 
It was suggested by Superintendent Hannant, when I drew his at- 
tention to some such e^ipedient, that an additional force of constables 
would be required to cany it out, and that the ratepayers would pro- 
bably object to the burden of their maintenance; but to this I can only 
rejoin that, if the parties aggrieved render the provision of the 54th 
^^^ clause inoperative by their own snpineness or good-natured reluctance, 
^^L and, although genoraJly wealthy people, have not sufficient public spirit 
^^H to contribute to one another's relief, by raising funds which, on tlieir 
^^H own showing, would advance their pecuniary interests, then neither their 
^^H moral suffering nor financial damage can be so extensive as has been 
^^K* alleged. 
^^U Jlegulation of Portland-plaee. — I have doubted whether the following 

I , 



business. 
If a servi. 
^^ their uniforn 
^^L of up and d< 
^^B qnent, notici 
^^V they extendi 
^^V they would 1 
^H at all likely 
^^B Sesist they < 
^^B regard, and 
^B the common 
^^B doors thiy n 
^^B It was BU) 
^ir tention to sc 



114 POLICE SUFEBVXSIOS ABROAD AKD AT HOME. H 

important document should be recited here, aa bearing upon mere 
"street regulation," or considered of iu some other pnrt of the preseut 
treatise as an attempt at " general moral! zation." But, inasmuch aa the 
wholesale prosecution of occupiera, suggested by one of the speaJiera, 
must probably, when set up in newspaper type, have struck even it»-_ 
most zealous advocates aa somewhat visionary— as the author of the in&- f 
morial was not personally cognizant of the continual disoi-dera to whicli 1 
he referred — and as the painful annoyance of respectable inhahitimta 1 
of Portland-place by the crowd of street-walkers who infest that locality J 
must be fully admitted on all hands, I have judged its insertion in thia | 
place convenient r — 

" On Saturday, at the meeting of the Representative Council of Sb J 
Maryleboue, held at the Court-house, Mr, Jonathan Soden, church- | 
warden, in the chair, a subject was brought under the notice of tha 
vestry which not only involves most seriously the conduct of the police, 
but will in all probability lead to some steps being taken on the part of 
the Government with reference to one of the greatest and increasing 
evils with which the metropolis abounds. The foUowing communicatiou, 
read by Mr, Greenwell, the vestry clerk, from Mr. Eouudell Palmer, 
Q.C., M.P., will explain the matter : — 

"•TotkeGenilemmo/ihe Vettry of St. MaryUhone. 

" ' 6, Portland-plare, AngTlBt 1, 

" ' Gentlemen, — I have been requested by a private meeting of several I 
influential inhabitants of thie neighbourhood, which assembled at tayl 
liouse on Wednesday evening last, and which was attended (iLmong 1 
others) by the rectors of All Souls and Trinity districts, to solicit your f 
most serious attention to a very great and increasing nuisance which j 
infests our neighbourhood, and which we humbly conceive to he of vital I 
consequence to an important part of the parish which the law has placed ' 
under your management. 

" ' llie evil to which I refer ia the multiplication of houses of ill-fame 
in the streets on the east-side of Portland-place, especially Norton and 
Upper Norton-streets, the gross outrages upon decency and morality, 
and other disorders, which are reported to us as continually occurring in 
these places, and the consequently nightly resort of crowds of prostitutes 
to Portland.pl ace, to the great offence, scandal, and disgust of the 
residents and their families and friends when going to and from their 
homes. 

" ' It would be difRcult to exaggerate the seriousness of these evils, or 
the extent of the distre^ and annoyance which they cause to the resjieo- 
table part of the population ; or their tendency to introduce crime, dis- 
order, and dumorfdization into the neighbourhood, and to increase tha 
rates and to depreciate the property therein. 

" ' Believing that the remedy is in no slight degree in your hands, I 
have the honour to remain, gentlemen, your very obedient humble | 
servant, 

"'RouNDELL Palmer,' 

" The Rev. Mr, Garnier, Rector of Trinity, who attended with Mcv.fl 
E. Hickman, one of the chureh wardens of that district, moved the fol>.l 
lowing resolution : — 

" ' That the letter of Mr. Eoundcll Palmer be referred to the solicito 



P POLICE auPEBVISION ABEOAD AND AT HOME. 115 

of this vastly, ■with instructions to him to institute immediate pro- 
ceedings against the occupiers of the houses complained of upon auoh 
sufficient evidence an he may now possess, or may be able to procure 
gainst them.' 

" The state of the district around Portland-place was so painfully dis- 
graceful, that upon the lowest oompatation, made after due investigation 
by himael^ curates, readers, and others, no less tlian from 130 to liO 
places wei-e the resort of the unfortunate class of women alluded to, more 
especially in Cireucestei'-phice and Norton-street. Ou a calculation, 
from 900 to 1000 women of the most abandoned character lived ia that 
part of this most respectable pariah, aad which was one in twelve of the 
population, and one in six of the poor population of the district. This 
state of tilings he considered was most alarming. 

" The Eev. Mr. Wilmot, Rector of All Souls, seconded the resolution, 
and complained of the scenes of debauchery presented along Portland-place. 
" The Bev. Mr. Garnier said one wealthy gentleman who had been 
compelled to give up his mansion was a supporter of all their local 
charities, schools, and benevolent institutions, and the clergy and the 
poor, as well aa the parish, would deeply feel his loss. 

" Mr. HuTCHONS did not see what that ve«itry could do in this matter. 
Norton-street, Cliarlotte-street, and the neighbourhood had ])ossesaed the 
same character for thii-ty or forty years. {'Hear, hear,' and 'No, no.') 
It was a moat difficult question to deal with. The Colonnade of the 
Eegeut's-quadrant had been taken down some few years since, one of the 
main objects being to prevent the congregation of those unfortunate 
women, but he believed it had not resulted in effecting that object to any 
great extent. 

" After some further discussion, Mr. Tavener said he had no objection 
to the resolution passing, if one, two, or more specific cases could be 
made out, but he did not think it at all wise that they should give Mr. 
EandaU, the parish solicitor, the power of proceeding against 140 houses 
at once. 

"Mr. Frebth said the only way to put down this crying evil was to 
make sure of one particular house, and then pursue the case to the ut- 
most Vice was generating in every part of the metropolis, and this 
ought to be made a governmental and not a local question. It was no 
use applying to the police, for it was well known they would not do 
their duty, aa they were wallowing in the same filth. 
I " The Rev. Mr. Eyre, the new Rector for Marylebone, said although 
I Lat newly resident in the pariah, his attention had been directed to 
the lamentable state of things which existed in the particular dis- 
tricts referred to. His opinion wna, tliat if they could not destroy an 
evil it would be better to disperse it. He was disposed to support the 
I resolution. 

" The Rev. Mr. Garnier said that Mr. Tavener had offere 
[ tion which he had no objection whatever to add to and incorporate 
V wth his resolution. It was to the effect that the Comniissiouers of 
L Police be applied to, and be requested to co-operate with the vestry ia 
f endeavouring to put an end t« these glaring evils. (Hear, hear). 
" The resolution as amended was carried unanimously."* 

• " The TimeB,-' Aug. 3rd, 1857. 



116 



FOLICE aUPEEYlSIOK ABBGAD AND AT 1 






1 shall, in & fiitnre page, consider how the domicile of the prt 
tute may be regulated, but will here look upon the Poi-tland-plat 
memorial as a petition for regulation of the PavS. 

It must be recollected, that the devotion of the district to infamoua 
purpoHea is coeval with, if it was not anterior to, the driving of the mag- 
nificent air-shaft from the metropolis into the Regent's Park. The first 
ODcupanta of those mansions found bad neigliboura in possession of the 
district, and as evil as well as good must reside somewhere until its 
extinction, I cannot see that its summary eviction, en bloc, from any 
particular haunt, is consistent with public policy. Granting the right 
of vice to a local habitation, it would be a wrong that the elevated aiid 
armed, because instructed, propriety of Portlaud-place should be per- 
mitted to transfer the adjacent slums to some quarter yet unpolluted mr^ 
more susceptible of pollution. I am so apprehensive that all the evilc 
of a sporadic pest would attend such a dispersion of residences as was 
spoken of by the Rector of Marylebone, that I am far more inclined, if 
a real move is to be made, to advocate the concentration enforced at 
Naples and Hamburg. But against disorder in the homes of prostitutes, 
and against their congregating in the streets, all virtuous people, rich 
and poor, gentle and simple, are alike entitled to a remedy. 

Interference with the ingress and egress to and from tlie domicili 
persons who have not forfeited civil rights, is, I think I may say as yet 
unconstitutional and beyond the power (thongh 1 say this with deft 
ence to the distinguish ed advocate and Christian who has moved in 
the matter) of the Marylebone Representative Council Bv)t it appears 
to me that the dispersion of those who now ply in Portland- place, and 
yet by continual movement contrive to evade the penalties of loitering, 
is a legitimate object, and that, pending farther legislation, the simple 
expedient suggested at page 113, with reference to Lower Regent-street, 
might be immediately adopted. It is not quite clear on the face of 
the report, that by the incoi-poration of Mr. Taverner's suggestion with 
the Rector of Trinity's motion, the precipitate plunge of the district into 
law will be suspended; but the meeting at all events exercised a. sound 
discretion in requesting the co-opei-ation of the Police CommissionerSfi 
who, not being the aggrieved parties, will doubtless take a more 
borative view of the question. The action of a body of discreet 
stables in the manner T have suggested, would effect the desired object 
as for as street regulation goes, and the difficulty as to the sin 
war could not be here interposed with justice. The respectable inha- 
bitants of the ward are numerous, wealthy, and considerate enough for 
their neighbours to acquiesce in a special district police rate in that 
behoof, and were even this an erroneous impression of mine, I should 
apprehend no difficulty in raising among the householders of Portland- 
place, an adequate guanintee for the extra unauthorized expenditure in- 
curred by the jiolice department. 

.Protection of Uoneat Women.- — But A 
nity, and the like, let me invite alt tbos 
possible I'estrictions upon prostitution, : 
modesty and public decency, to a laboui 
tlieir energies. I invite them, iu the n 
daughters, and of all virtuous Englishv 






ropos of solicitation, importu^J 
who urge inexpedient and im'ifl 
the name of outraged female^ 
nore easy and nioi-e worthy of 
nes of our wives, sistera, and 
men, wliom men habitually. 



POLICE SUPERVISION ADROAD AXD AT HOME. 117 

insult and terrify by confoiindiiig them witL tLe harlots, to agitate for 
Bammary dealings agHiwst improper aolicitatiDn by males. It is a crying 
evil of our atrcets, and I apprebund abould be a greater shock to real 
modesty than the mere sight of prostitutes, that any attractive woman, 
whatever be her station, who, whether for pleasure or on business, may 
walk unattended in London, ia subject to indelicate, and often indecent 
overtures. I cannot farther digress iuto consideration of this topic, which 
I merely submit as a knot worth untying by such as have time and zeal. 
Proposed Regulation of the Hnyiiiarkel. — This thoroughfare, so cele- 
brated and ao justly complained of, is, I need hardly say, no daylight 
resort of proatitutea, but their nightly rendeavous. Until an advanced 
hour of the evening, the most fastiilious could, I think, observe nothing 
about its paaaengera whereon to ground a charge of impurilj j but its 
proximity to the Haymarket Theatre and the Opera IIouHe renders it a 
grave nuisance to frequenters of those amusements. I have been pained 
to see homeward-bound ladies and gentlemen, who should have known 
better, purposely threading the intricate maze of loose women on the 
weatem aide of the street, while the more unfrequented opposite path, 
and that by Waterloo-place were perfectly Q\>sa to them ; but the want 
of space for cai-riages at the colonnade, and the reluctance of the public 
to wait the " turn" of their conveyances, render it needful, on many 
occasions, that the access to "the rank" shoiild be disencumbered of tho 
mass of bad characters with whom innocent women leaving the Opera 
are often entangled. There is much twaddle talked and written about 
annoyances that are really never experienced, and cures that are un- 
reasonable ; but here ia a real grievance, and the remedy seems to me, 
who am no lawyer, within reach of a abort arm. Here the public might 
justly call upon the Police Commisaioners to put the above-cited 52ud 
clause and ita rider into operation, and when they had done so, one of the 
most painful and salient features of London prostitution would have 
been removed. In the Haymarket are two well-attended theatres, at 
the nightly close of which throngs of orderly company — and among 
tbem many young, virtuous, and corruptible persons-— are desiroiia of 
leaving the vicinity. But the prostitutes and their fblluwera are in 
possession. The corruptible are wedged in with corruption ; and youth 
and virtue are with difficulty extricated fi-om the vi^Ue. This ia mani- 
festly an "obstruction" coming by proatitution, and is " in the immediate 
neighbourhood of theatres." Ko clearer case for police interference 
could be made out ; but though the Commissioners are, on these occa- 
sions, absolute upon the Haymarket carriage-way, and maintain their 
authority there with all proper firmness, they are paradoxically inactive 
upon the footpath. As T can see no reason for this, I take leave to pro- 
pose, as an amendment, that for the one half-hour only at the time of 
closing these theatres, the obstruction of the latter should be prevented, 
by its previous and complete clearance. It should be treated, during 
that short period only as an appendage to and a sallyport from the theatres. 
After five minutes' grace allowed for pedestrians in transitu, its vicious 
habituies should be swept into their local haunts or out of the neigh- 
bourhood, by an adequate picket of police armed with Clause 53, and 
allowed the same discretion as to admitting inhabitants and persons 
having ostensible business on the spot as they n 



118 



ABKOAS AKQ AT BO UK 



thoroughfiires blockaded by fires, processions, or on other legitimate 
crowds. This temporajy diversion of ordinary traffic ia no greater 
stretch of authority than I have observed when rapid progress has been 
desired for two or three of the Royal carriages. Those in whose behalf 
I move my amendment include thousands of my feir and virtuous 
fellow-flubjeots — their fathers, brothers, and cavaliers. I think I may 
count upon the support of all who have ever felt the ])ain and emljarrasS' 
ment of escorting — or, as it often happens, driving — a convoy of ladies 
shoulder to shoulder, pell-mell, through a crowd of Cyprians and " lewd 
fallows of the baser sort who keep them company." Traviata-ism for 
ladies may be well enough across the footligh^ but a plunge into a hot 
bath of it on leaving her Majesty's Theatre is a greater penalty than 
I would impose upon the most ardent admirer of that very popular 
" opera without music." Some growling, upon felse premises, might be 
expected from a few politicians, who believe that the greatest pleasui-e 
and business, as well as the inherent right, of cats is to look at kings, 
and would, 1 dai'e say, in the first instance, attribute such a regulation 
to aristocratic exclusiveness. But the respectable masaea, who, great as 
may be their passion for imitation, wisely care but little for pure gaping 
at their betters, would so slightly feel this midnight deprivation, that 
any attempt to get up an excitement among tkem would be fruitless. 
Some discontent would, of coarse, be evinced hy the classes directly 
affected. But the senae and sentiment of even the aiders and abettors 
of prostitutiou — of such, at least, aa were blessed with modest female 
relatives — would ensure the success of the scheme. If, however, the 
executive — and against this blunder they must be warned — should un- 
fortunately be led, by stress of puritauism, or a sneaking kindness for 
tyranny, to use the compromise against the liberty of the subject, all 
support would, I hope and trust, fail them, and my proposed amendment, 
becoming a public raw, be rejected with every indignity. 

Conscientious men, who are used to do nothing without considering 
the end, can do no more to hel|i society against the Haymarket. Perhaps 
this opinion ought to be explained. Much of the immoral presence 
observable in the neighbourhood is, as all men know, due to the numerous 
refreshment-houses and coffee-shops to which persons of both sexes resort 
after their evening's amusement in the adjacent iLmcing-rooms and else- 
where. The street itself has become a common rendezvous of harlots 
and their frequenters, and every house on the western side seems more 
or less dependent on the class. 

I have such a deep conviction that, for purposes both of morality and 
police, it were better if the entire vice of a large town could be covered 
by a hat, instead of being distributed by conduits, like gas and water, 
that I incline to favour resorts like your casinos, your Cremornes, a^id 
your Haymarkets. I have always heard that the crafty police managers 
of foreign States plume themselves not a little if they can collect 
members of any gang, conspiracy, society, club, or fraternity under their 
hand. JXvide et impera is no motto of theirs, bat a mousetrap or 
BotiricHre is the emblem they afifect. Hence, though I conceive some of 
the moral provisions of Mr, Hardy's proposed bill might be advan- 
tageously brought to bear upon the haunts of prostitution, I am far 
from coinciding with some enthusiasts of my acquaintance who pro- 



J 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME. 119 

claimeJ that a fine coup-d'llal was about to be worked, and " Geheima 
fair," as one of them poetically termed it, be abolished. I rejoice 
exoeediagly that the volcano of prostitution, which now bums so briskly 
ill St. James's pariah until three F.U., ia not compelled to vomit a stream 
of lava upon every quiet quarter of the town two hours before midnight 
— I think things are far better as they are. 

Mr. Hardy's 19th clause attempted to lend new and ineceaaed force 
to the 4ith section of the 2ad and 3rd Victoria (see p. 105), which has 
ialleQ into partial desuetude from its over strength. The introduction 
of this Bill may have been due, as was alleged by some of the honour- 
able gentleman's opponents, more to a tendresae for the beer interest 
than a passion to restrain the immoralities of oyster-shops and coffee- 
houses; but, be that as it may, it would have placed in the power of 
somebody, to force every keeper of any such place of refection or enter- 
tainment in London to refuse dealings with persons of bad character, 
under pain of loss of licence. It could only have been stronger had 
there been a snuii-t penalty upon the policeman for neglecting to enforce 
the landlord's diiignosia. Such attempts aa this bring legislation and legis- 
lators into contemjit. If it ia " looming in the future" that by and bye 
the bad character and the prostitute are to have nor food, nor drink, nor 
place to lie, being already sufficiently prohibited from wandering about : — 
if none but persons of high reputation for soberness and chastity are to 
be received into public house or coffee house after ten o'clock, under 
very serious penalties, we hid better, I think, re-establish the ciu-few 
at once, with a clause in the Act entitled " Constables required to see 
everybody safe in bed," and prepare for some unpleasant consequences. 

DOSUCIUAKT BEOULATIONa APPLICABLE TO THE HOMES OP PKOSTITUTE8. 

TJpou this question, no leas important than others I have rather en- 
deavoured to lay befoi-e the reader than pretended to solve, great diffe- 
rence of opinion prevails, and we must prolit by domestic as well ae 
foreign experience in framing proposed additions to our present system. 

" Ulose them all ! Down with them — to the very ground — and that 
at onoel" says some enthusiast. "Can any doubt exist about it? What- 
ever we do for society, or the prostitute, let us begin by getting rid of 
these plague spots, these incitements to vice and ministering aids to evil 
desiresl" "But, first of all, turn," I say, " to Berlin andtoKome. Call 
figures fictions, domeatia prostitution, a nightmare, if you will; take 
liberal discount from my statements, and those of my corroborators, 
on account of inaccuracy, and then even you must think twice before you 
propose for a land of liberty such high and mighty regulation as has so 
signally failed in States where civil and riligious power ia strong enough, 
if any where, to make men good by beat of drum and wave of censer." 
^■^ Let us inquire what is the state of the law. The subjoined extract 
^^k£vm a memorial recently addressed to the Home Secretai^ will serve to 
^^Hjtiow the present state of the law bearing upon brothels : — 
^^K^"That housra kept for the purpose of prostitution have become 
^^H alarmingly numerous in this parish and neighbourhood, and are not only 
^^B]iighly injurious to the public morals, but also seriously detrimental to 
^^Hj^Q value of property. That although the legislature has, of late years, 



rlSO MUUE VFrSRTISlOX ABKOAD UiD AT HOUE. 

miule proTistoD fur Uie more omy snppreasion nf giiming And other vicei^' 
tho law tvlntiug to krotbcta htm wkotlv escaped rvviaion, aud the statuts 
undor whicli piucrttliiigs must be taken to suppress buoU nuifiancea, is 
mure ttutn * cwntuiy old {35lh Oeorgv 11^ oliap. 36). 7hEit the eviduncu 
minimi to snppnrt ■ prowcutioii undor tlmt statute is of a very compli- 
OfttMl iMtuns wait tlMt in most caaee it b requisite to enga^ the services 
of a person, if not aottuJljr lo oommit a criuiiual act, nt least under the 
aombUukw tkud pretencv of dutng an, to oUtuu adiaittance to a. house, for 
tlie pvirjioM of itlenttfjrin^t the peroona apparcutly acting as the Iteepei-s 

Itiieroof. That tho perwua usting in the direct maoagomeiit of such 
honars are fmgucntly iHiljr servuits, the real keepers not resiiling on the 
urciuisve^ and in a rocvnt prosecution b; this parish at the Middlesex 
BcMioiui agMnst tho rail ownor of one of these houses, although cle&r 
proof was M<)iluoe<t of (ho hiring and payment of wiiges by him to 
"the Mirvaut in tho hokise, who attended on the visitors, and of his 
receiving, through that sf rvaut, rent of the todgei-s, the present osaistanb- 
judge felt hi]usetf cum{ie)lei.l to direct an tu^uittal, on the ground that 
the ovidenoe was iiisufficiout to show an iDteriereuce in the imiaediate 
management of Hie house as a brothel ; and thus a notorious offender, 
having four other houses in the parish open of a similar kind, after 
puttiug the ratepayers to very heavy eJi|>enses, escaped punishment. 
That it by no meuus follows, as the hiw is aU ministered, that a conviction 

of this offence is succeeded by au adetiuiite, or indeed any, punishment 

the usual course being, on proof that the house, in respect of which the 

I defendant stood indicted, has been closed, to allow him to be discharged 
on entering into recognizances to come up for judgment when called 
upon for any renewed offence — a coutBe, it is submitted, not very likely 
to intimidate persona of this class, or to discourage otliera from tha 
pursuit of a similar calling. Tliat persons carrying on this occupation 
have become emboldened by the difficulties and expense with which 
they are aware the enforcement of the law is attended, and that some 
of the beat business streets in this {mrisli are now infested by houses of 
this character, where, in the lower portion, an ostensible ordinary trade 
is frequently carried on as a blind, producing this additional evil, that 
no female, however high in rank or exemplary in conduct, whilst merely 
entering a shop to make a purchase, is safe from the imputation of 
having been seen visiting a house of inipro]>er description, That the 
consequenceB of the introduction of these houses to a respectable neigh- 
bourhood are ruinous to the very many householders who gain their 
livelihood by letting tlieir apartments, and pernicious to the public 
morals fi'om the presence of temptation and opportunity for vice, in 
quarters which are frequented by persons who would be deterred, by 
regard for their obaraoter, fk-om resorting to neighbourhoods of notorious 
ill repute." 

Various and repeated attempts have been made to put down brothels 

and accommodation houses in London; and the abortive result of tho 

I deputations and memorials I have referred to typify the success which 

r has attended them. I have good authority for saying, that the police 

LHaministration, wisely admitting the value of experience gained else- 

"'leli attempts are inmlviaable as long as 

tined. Houses of ill-fame are usually 



Qotoriotia streets would 


observed as in 


Conti- 


women lurking 


about, 


, Their dwell 


ng3 are 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME. 121 

confined, fi«m considerations common to their proprietors, lodgei-s, and 
frequentera, to certain localities already paat spoiling; aod the tempo- 
rary adjustment of the question is acquiesced ia by parochial authorities, 
not as sanctioning such institutions, but through fear of worse eventu- 
alities, hereinbefore suggested. The efforts of power, therefore, are mainly 
directed, to the prevention of public notorious sonadal and discontent,^ 
and the repression of active disorder. 

The keepers of the ^825 houses reierred to in the return on page IG 
are so well aware of the conditions of the subsisting truce, that witb the 
exception of the veiy lowest, belonging to the class of the jieople wlio are 
bora, live, and die at war with society, they consult their own interest 
by unreserved compliance with public order regulations. A stranger 
walking through some of the quiet but most ' ' ' ' 

little guess their character. No open doors ar 
uental towns, no flaring light or giant figures, e 
for this is obviously not their field of operatioi 

of external respectability, and their use only known to the /tabil'iees or 
to neighbours, who either gladly avail themselves of the lightly- gotten 
money circulating there, or court the advantages of low rents in a bad 
locality. 

By referring to page 83, it will be seen that the French authorities 
set their faces against maiaoiM de passe, or houses appropriated to tho 
temporary accommodation of prostitutes and their frequouters. "What 
ia the result in Paris 9 When a young man takes up his residence in 
almost any 'quarter of the French capital, it is understood that his 
apparlemmt may be indicated by the amaierge to any well-dreased female 
asking for him. She may take her meais, and pass the night with him 
without any great scandal. The recorded number of pairs of ladies' 
boots left out to be cleaned every morning in one of the leading kdlels 
garni* frequented by single men, would be considered fabulous; but I 
have seen enough of such evidence to convince me that the accommoda- 
tion-honse in Paris would be, as far as middle class young men are con- 
cerned, an utter superfluity. 

I need not ask the reader to picture to himself his London landlady's 
horror if good-looking girls, names unknown, were continually calling 
upon him; or to fancy the welcome she would extend to such visitors. 
All single men must be aware that in London notice to 4]uit would be 
BOon given to any tenant who received known prostitutes at his lodgings. 

This sanctity of the private house being so generally claimed and 
acknowledged among ourselves, it is not surprising that meetings should 
take place either at the home of the female or, pursuant to assignation, 
at accommodation brothels. I submit that the existence of these houses 
is to a certain extent the defence of our hearths, and that the use of 
them indicates a superior condition of morality, which their forcible 
suppression might very possibly tend to shake. 

Complaints are sometimes heai'd on the part of house-owners, that 
certain streets have obtained too evil a reputation for respectable persons 
to inhabit them, but so great are the pi-eoautions taken, except in neigh- 
bourhoods long paat pollution, that it is very diflicult for the law to 
interfere. Discrimination, moreover, is not always easy as to the locus 
standi of the applicant for relief. A person, for instance, living ia 



^ 



122 POLICE snPERViaioK 

NortoTi-Btreet, not long ago memorialized tlte veatry of my parish against I 
tlie annoyance ho experienced from the arrival of parties of gentleroen at I 
the house opposite hia own, who were no sooner admitted than persons at J 
hia drawing-room windows were shocked by the sight of naked n 
chasing one another about their apartment, and committing other acts t^l 
the most di^usting indelicacy. ■ 

The result was, I believe, inaction — and partly so because in the par- I 
ticular case it could not be denied that the complainant had moved to the 
nuisance. But in eases like the ahove, which are happily very exceptional, 
the feelings of all good citizens would go with the authorities in putting 
on the extreme of pressure the law permits, however inexpedient that i 
may generally be. 

Few will deny, I think, that it should be competent to the com' j 
munity to suspend in its own interest the inviolability of the domicile 1 
where the Englishman's castle is so grossly pervei'ted into a batteryl 
i^iuBt English morality as in the case just i-ecited, and in that of a 1 
i-ecent brothel robbery in Norton-street. The outside public were oa 1 
the latter occasion aware that aeaaiilt and plunder were being enacted J 
within doors, but neither public nor police, except at their legal peril, ■ 
might force an entry, or interfere without request of the occupier, i 
was himself least likely to demand the assiatAUce of the laws he 
engaged in violating.* 

We may hy no means deprive the female of the right to abandoa4 



• It ia riglit, the more eaperially as some of mj obserraUonB maj fsTOor the imprei 
of my too lenient diepoBitioc towards Bucb cb&rauters, that I ehauld condense so much of' 
the newBpapQT report of this case as seems neceo^OFy to exhibit the oomputaorj inaction, td 
the police outside, while violence and robbery were going on within, the occa^ionaL excessea 
to which bi-othel-keepers give way, and the certaiji^ of tieir reaping punishment in the 
shape of fiDancial luio, if in no other. It is some consolation to know that though the 
gniity parties have escaped — I apprehend tbrongh the necessities of the complainant — atiO. 
Mr. Sheriff Lynch and hie poise tomilat&t subsequently nearly destroyed the premise^ . 
and would have exterminated the tenants Iiad they canght them. 

Three parties, a niau and wife keeping a brothel, and a prostitute, were charged witk 
committing a murderous assault on a foung man, wbu appeared with his head anil Ss/oa 
shockingly bruised and cut, his clothes turn from his back, and his whole sppearanm 
indicative of having been engaged in a long and deadly struggle. He said he met Ilia 
prostitute in the Haymarket, and was taken by her lu Nurtfln-strect. Re gave a aovereigii 
to the other female prisoner, who he supposed kept the house, and told her to get a battle 
of wine. The wfne was brought, but no change. He asked for his change, if only ten 
ehillings, or five shillings, but he could not get an; money. He said he wonid not be 
robbed in that barelaced way, and should get a constable. He was going ont for that 
purpose, when the woman he had entered with coUared him, and swore he shonld not leave 
the bouse. Fearing, from the menacing manner of the parties, that some mischief was 
intended, be poshed away the one who had hold of him, intending to make Mb escape. The 
women called cut, and the male priuonGr came npstairs with a poker in his hand, and 
saying he would teach him what lighting was, struck him repeatetliy over the h^. He 
put up his arm to ward off the blows, otherwise his skull would have been beaten in. Hi« 
hand wasmach bruised, and a ringon hia finger was bent by the blows with the poker. He 
managed to get to the street-door, caliing, "Murderl Belp 1 Police!" The landlady 
followed him, and pulled bjm back, whereby his coat was nearly lorn into pieces. The 
male prisouer also had hold of him, dragged him into a room, and closed the door. Ha 
rushed to tiie window, threw it up, and called " Police 1" scTBral times. A private con- 
stable cama into the house, but declined to interfere, although he must have known the 
rtate of the case. A mob having got about the honse, the people swore they would break 
open the door unless they were admitted. The doorwaa at length opened, several polica- 
nien and others entered, and then the prisanera were taken into custody. WilnesB'fl head 



I 



POLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT HOME. 123 

herself privately for love, lust, or lucre, tbe last of which ia clearly pros- 
titution. Her right to see and be seen in the streets she enjoys in 
common with all well-conducted Christian women. No necessity can 
be shown for restricting her incomings and outgoings. The correction"^ 
of her public excesses against order and sobriety is already provided for. L 
But the " organization of prostitution," the binding into stubborn bundles [ 
the detached arrows of immorality, offers, I think, &.ir pretence for I 
public interference in aelf-defenos. It might be insisted on, and without i 
delriment, I repeat, to morality, because, as I have said, to deal with any 
crime, any vice, implies not sanction, but recognition, that all houses aud 
persons notoriously harbouring prostitutes, if not already under the 
operation of Licensed Victuallers' or Common Lodging-house Acts, should 
be compelled or compellable to become so. No serious opposition would 
arise, because the gains of the trade are too large and the consciences of 
its followers too elastic, to allow of their either resigning or denying their 
business through disgust at licensing or registration; their avocations 
are necessarily too public to admit of quibbling of any kind. Thus we 
sliould bring all casinos, plea.'^ure-gardens, brothels, and acconimadation- 
houses not already under supervision aa licensed public-houses, under 
the action of a special branch of the police, who should have powera 
of domiciliary visitation, and be chai^ged by alt meana with the 
extermination of absolute dealing in prostitutes, which should he 
distinctly recognised as a pursuit largely followed, and be made 
henceforth as penal as ia the ti-ade in virginity under the Bishop 
of Oxford's Act 'i?hna also the oppression of women by lodging-houso 
keepers, the robbery of the latter by the former, and the demeanour of 
both towards their male customers, would be more under check than at 
present. 

It is fair to say that more than one of the most eminent lawyers who 
have illuminated the seat of justice in this country have expressed 
themselves against domiciliary visitation aa " contrary to the spirit of 
the English law." 

This registration once admitted necessary, legalized, and conceded to 
the authorities, we should secure returns from time to time of the number 
of inmates, which should be limited according to the accommodation of 
the place. The improper character of any unregistered house should be 
established by its pi-esentment to the police department by parochial 
authorities, who in turn must be moved by rated inhabitants of good 
character and standing. 

The sifting of evidence necessary to the accomplishment of these steps 
would, I imagine, be held ample to justify the police in exercising their 
right of inviting the registration of disorderly premises, and suhse- 

iiiid bodj were cut and brniaed in varioos places, and the vbleQcfl he snataioed was ao 

A witness saw one of the females holding the complnuiaiit bj the hair, and trying to 
thiDW him orei the baaistei's. 

A. policeman deposed to baring 
plunant bleeding from the moalh ai 

Thfl complainant's head was found badly woonded, and with a blunt instcament, and 
cross-examination appaared not to shake lua evidence : but the Base being adjanrned hs 
nerer appeared again. 



124 JPOLICE SUPERVISION ABROAD AND AT DOME. H 

quently that of visitation. No great anxiety should be displayed to 
bring pei-sooa or houses within the operation of either one or other: 
but 80 little synonymous are recognition and patronage of vice, that 
great benefit would accrue from the mere desire of all parties concerned 
to keep without them. The first and second ofiences against order by 
registered hrothel-keejiers should be visited by fine, and the third by 
■withdi-awal of the licence, not from the person only, but from the house, 
in addition to other punishments now provided. 

This would have the effect of rendering brothel-keepers such preoariong 
tenants, that they would find constant difficulty in securing houses. The 
business would then be confined (as is to some extent the case now) to 
freeholders, whose property— as a third offence would entail ruin op 
a change of pursuits — would he security to society, if not for morality, 
at least for good order. The opening of unlicensed haunts of any kind 
should be severely punished, and a penalty imposed upon entertainment 
of young persons. It is needless to add that as women would for the 
most part have to be dealt with, the service of inspection should be 
entrusted to none hut persons of high character, untouched by fanaticiam, 
and gifted with more than an average temper and discretion. 



4 



CHAPTER Vlir. 



SANITARY REGULATIONS ABROAD AND AT HOME. 

I WAS much struck by Lord Itobert Grosveaor'a candid avowal, on the 
Middlesex hustiuga of 1857, of his conviction, better late than never, 
that the Eiigliah will not become virtuous at the strappado. Being 
asked by an elector whether, if returned, he would introduce hia cele- 
brated aud abortive Suuday Bill? liis Lordship repUed, " That he might 
jiosseea the courage, but not the fool hardiness, to propose measui'ea which 
experience taught him were distasteful to the majority of his constituents; 
and he took the opportunity of stnting that he had beeu misinformed on 
the subject. Had he believed that the Bill would have received such 
opposition, he would not have introduced it."* 

Should the imitation of this dbcretion and this candour, which I hojie 
are not mere election amenities, become popular among those who have 
always looked to his Lordship as a leader and an authority, there ia some 
room for hope of larger results in future from the vast amount of philan- 
thropic aud religious zeal heretofore ■working to waste, because not 
adequately tempered by judgment and knowledge of the world ; and 
tha^ possibly, even some little portion of its spare power may be utilized 
in curbing the evil tendencies, and palliating the evil consequences, of the 
great and confessedly incurable social evil we are treating o£ 

Although interference with the out-door pursuits aud amusements of 
public women, beyond the limits I have prescribed, is neither convenient 
nor likely to be gravely entertained by any government : it by no meana 
follows that society has exiiausted its power of modifying, as well for its 
own benefit as lor that of the lost, but never in-ecoverable prostitute, 
both the ravages of disease and want upon herself, and her dangerous 
propag<vlive action upon mankind. 

Although the adoption in England of the compulaoiy and excsptional 
sanitary regulations which prevail abroad must ever be impracticable, 
if not impossible, because unconstitutional, it cannot for a moment 
be denied that a certain amount of misery must be alleviated by them. 
Hence arises the urgency (pretending, as we do iu England, to high 
civilization and enlaiged Christian chaiity) of our inquiring, whether 
some scheme or other of syphilis- repression may not be found compatible 
with our free institutions. 

I shall hereafter touch upon the steps which strike me as moet likely 

to be efficient, and I hope it will appear as feasible to others as to myself, to 

accomplish some good without interference with liberty or encouragement 

■ " The Times," M»rcli Slat, 1867. 



125 



SANITABT BEGULATIOSS 



AND AT HOHE. 



inatniot^jH 



of vice ; and I have, at all events, to hope and pray that a 
construction may be put upon my endeavour. 

1 ahall hereafter argue that the prostitnte should be 
Lot little short of inevitable is disease— how injurious, when it cotucf^ 
to herself and others— how its evil consequences to herself and her for- 
tnnes must be ^gravated by neglect and continued piu^uit of her calling 
— by what precautlona Ita advent may be retarded-— how its presence 
may be recogniued — -and how tatal, after recognition, may be delay. 

But my immediate task — and I confess to approaching it with diQidcnce 
and misgiving — is to show, as best I may, how the hand of the public 
may be stretched out to and imposed upon the sick woman, at 
assisting and controlling her, for her temporal and, I hope, eternal 
— for its own protection against both moral aad physical sufiering 
depravation. 

What becomes of a diseased prostitute* 1 She may herself, for a tim^^ 
be unconscious that she is a distributer of poison to others and herself, in. 
I the path of physical aanihilation. This cannot last long, and the plague 
I must sooner or later bo recognised by the stricken. Her first impres- 
sion is incredulity ; her first plan is secrecy. No inspector is bound to 
verify her condition — uo lodging-house keeper compelled, under 2)ena!ty, 
to report her if diseased — no stranger dare challenge her. She ia, of 
course, indebted, and looks for active unkindncsa if she shows a symptom 
of being insolvent. Were she to impeach herself before men she could 
not hope for a living ; so for a time she lets her secret gnaw her veiy 
soul, while corruption devours her frame. She feeds the flame with the 
liquor that dulls her senses, and, maybe, throws away, perhaps, upon 
some murderous quack, what little money^e caa lay her hands on. "" 
the day soon comes when the quack can draw no more money, and 
housekeeper no more rent — when even the labour of search after pi 
becomes oppressive, and connexion unendurable. So, whether she bo 
destitute outcast or a barely-tolerated inmate of the lodging-house, she 
must, perforce, seek gratuitous relief She has been for four, five, or six 
weeks after first discovering her condition, a minister of destruction 
among men, and each week of that period has added, by intensifying the 
complaint, perhaps a fortnight to the length of treatment necessary. 
She has caused a frightful damage to the human race ; in some cases a 
damage which will last for generations. She has shortened her own ex- 
pectation of life. And all this would have been obviated had she, by 
force or her own common sense, been brought a few weeks sooner under 
surgical treatment, 

I cannot believe — and I take every opportunity, at the risk of the 
reader's weariness, of so saying — that this woman ia, as some would have 
it, a vessel chosen for this destructive and suicidal mission, or that her 
hindrtuice in it would be impious or inexpedient. But, reserving this 
point — which, after all, each must settle for himself by the light of reason 
and hiB own good conscience — let me proceed to inquire what next 
becomes of a sick public prostitute t 

She has three courses open to her, and these arc — the foul ward of an 
hospital, the infirmary of a workhouse, or that of a jail 

As the law stands, every diseased and destitute woman, whatever her 
class or calling, may apply to tho parochial authorities of her quarter. 



pon 

BofcS 

thA 



SANITAKT REOrLATlOSa ABKOAD ASH AT HOME. 127 

■who, unless they can. establish the liability upon other shoulders, are 
bound to administer relief! But 'what a relief is that ! Though I have 
small wish to appear inimical to parochial officers generally, I must state 
my impression that, perhaps thixiugh imstaken tnews of morality, they 
practically throw every legal obstacle in the way of the harlot seeking 
relie£ She is, in the first place, required to prove her settlement. This 
done, and other tedious formalities complied with, the smallest modicum 
of alms consistent with the letter of the law is given, and the sick 
woman who Jiaa once had the courage or desperation to face the dreadful 
preliminaiy ordeal of Bumbledom, must go through it again and again 
to get mere out-door relief, until the passive resistance of official forms 
has triumphed over the strength of tlie law and her resolution, and she 
gives up in disgust the unsatisfactory pursuit of such misnamed charity. 

Herrenaaining alternatives are — the public hospital, to which she may 
be admitted, in her turn, on the occurrence of a vacancy ; and the prison 
hospital, to which she may obtain entrance by the avenue of the police 

It wiU here be, I think, convenient that I should give the reader some 
idea of the foreign treatment of venereal patients. It is, moreover, no 
Igts than due, that, having freely characterized some regulations prevalent 
amoog our neighbours as despotic, barely legal, and incompatible with 
English freedom, I should not be silent upon the benevolent completeness 
with which their executives carry out their portion of an implied cove- 
nant, by returning cure for controL I should never recommend that 
domiciliary police visitation (except in rare and fairly exceptional 
instances, or compulsory medical inspection) should be engrafted upon 
our institutions ; but it ia otherwise with the niagnificeut hospital 
systems which are a glory of poorer nations, and their boast, when com- 
pared with the misemble arraugemouts, which know-nothingiam imposes 
upon ourselves. 

Pursuing, therefore, the same plan as with regard to the external 
aspect of prostitution, I shall place in juxtaposition, the organized treat- 
ment of venereal disease in some foreign capitals, and the ntesquine 
barrier which private benevolence ia able, with all the beat of will, to 
oppose to a rushing torrent of evil — the hap-hazard provision it can make 
for its noble attempt to discharge a proper liability of the State. 

The earliest official recognition of syphilis by the French was in 1497 
and 1498, when an hospital for the " protection" of poor destitute moles 
from infection — for contagion was not then imagined to be a cause — was 
decreed by the Parliament of Paris. The necessity of curijig was first 
acknowledged in 1505, but the raalady was unchecked until the com- 
pulsory establishment of the parochial dispensai'y of St Euatache, in 
1536. This, like many succeeding experiments, was abortive, and it 
was only in 1614 that, by joint action of the HStel Dieu committee and 
the Bureau des Pauvres, a service was organized for male patients; but as 
corporal chastisement was exhibited with the medicaments of the period, 
the institution for cure of " la gross v6role," as it was called, made but 
little progress. 

The first Parisian female hospital was in a comer of the prison of La, 
Balp5tri6re, established in 1657, for the punisliment of disorderly women. 
Its patients, and those of the above-mentioned male hospital, were subso- 



J 



12S 



hegolatioss 



quently moved to the Hoapice de Bicetre, where in 1730 there wora 400 
patients, all in the direat wretchedness and neglect The horrors of 
Bicetre were atrocious, — iu spite of all attempts to remedy them by 
Mar^schal, the Court Physician; the minister Breteuil, who was shocked 
on an inspection in 1784; and other reformers — until great improvementB 
were introduced by Michel Cullerier, appointed surgeon in 1787. This 
able and virtuous man persuaded the Constituent Assembly, in 1792, to 
remove his chaises to the then new Hopital du Midi. 

In 1812, sixty beds for venereal patients were organized at the H&pitftl 
8t, Louis; and in 1815, when the invasion brought a frightful amount of 
disease into the town, additional accommodation became again neces- 
sary. La Petite Force prison was made a suhsidiary hospital, and 8iil«e- 
qnently a part of the Hopital la PitiS being also called into similar use, 
the municipality, who had theretofore not flinched, sought assistauce 
from the pnblic treasury. The Minister of the Interior demurred. The 
Prefect Angles insisted that this was not a local but a public question; 
but without avaO. No mateiial progress was made. The dispute aa to 
the expense entirely prevented it; and when Parent-DuchStelet wrote, 
he laniented that no special hospital for diseased women existed, aa well 
as a special prison for the criminal and disorderly; these institutions 
being at the time of his death still amalgamated. In 1835, however, 
the body whom we might here denominate the Board of Hospital 
Commissionera, recognised the propriety of the separation, and. the 
regime which now prevails was set on foot 

The venereal hospitals of Paris are Saint-Lazare, for police female 
patients, say 200 beds; Lourcine, female, 270 beds; Du Midi, free male, 
336 beds, of which 22 are reserved for patients who can pay Is. 3d. per 
diem. There are also a limited number of beds for peculiar cases in the 
General Hospital, St Louis, and about 15 or 20 reserved for paying 
patients at the Maison Dubois, or Municipal Infirmary, in the Rue du 
Panbourg St. Denis. 

The Sai!It-Lazae£ Hospital, in the Paubourg St. Denis, combines an 
infirmaiy for feaiaJes with what we should here term a bridewell. It is 
under the control of the prefect of police, whose department consigns 
to it all the regulai'ly enrolled females reported unsound by the medical 
branch, and the captured tnsoumiaes who are found diseased upon 
examination at the d^pSts. The infirmary department is under the 
direction of two physicians, two house surgeons, an apothecary, twenty- 
two wardswomeUj and eight Sisters of Charity of the order of JInrie 
Joseph. The patients are very carefully classed with a view to the 
separation of the old from the young, and the hardened from those whose 
reclamation is not hopeless. Such as manifest a disposition to retum to 
their parents are sedulously kept apart. The total of beds is about 300, 
(if which 200 occupy the venereal wards. 

The following table of admissions is furnished by Messrs. Trebucliet 
and Poirat-Dfiuval, who have together superinteuded the last edition of 
ParentrDuch&telet's work. I have every reliance upon the accuracy of 
any figures relative to the French haspitals furnished by these gentle- 
men, OS they are both of them connected with the Prefecture of Policy, 



ic«..^ 



r 



SANITABY KEGDLATIOXS ADROAB t 



FiJlea do Mabon de Paris. Sypbilis 307 



Nou-speciSc uid Uteiine AffectioDS 





.. 1358 


in 1856 ... 


.. 1384 


The nverage of eleven jears being 


.. 1398 



TLe mortalitj from all canaes -was, in 1853 16 

„ „ ,, 1864 IT 

The LouRciNK Hospital was, after loog and anxious consiti oration, 
eatabltslied by the Hospital Board, in 1836, as a free receptacle for 
unregistered (officially du dwi) syphilitic females. Of its 276 beds, 
there are 36, ina distinct ward, appropriated to mothers suckling infected 
infants, and 13 to g^ls under fifteen years of age.* The "service" com- 
priaea three superior and seven subordiuate medical officers, 12 Sisters of 
Charity of the order of La Comj>assion, and 13 wardswoni en, besides 
other female servants; and its expenses amounted in 1855 to 181,543 
franca, or 726i;. 

12!' 1485 

82 1486 

80 1478 

No less than 85 of the children in 1854, and 60 in 18oJ5, were born 
eyphilized within the walla, or introduced under two years of age with 
their mothers — a frightful proof of suffering entaded upon innocents by 
the depravity of their parents. The numerical disproportion of their 
deaths to those of adults has been already noticed at p. 61, and other 
interesting figures with regard to the statistics of this hospital will be 
found on the following pages. 

On application, the patients are examined with the speculum, and aa 
often sulwequent to admission as may be considered necessary. A. part 
of each ward is partitioned off, and secured within it irom the observa- 
tion of all other inmates, those designated for the operation are succes' 
sively inspected 

It has been found, in practice, that the few who object are females of 
the most shameless and abandoned description, who cling to the idea o( 
being cured without revealing even to the medical staff the entire 
extent of their diaease. Friends of patientn are, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, admitted on two days a week. The interviews usually take 
place through a giuting, and in presence of a Sister ; but when the 
■visitors are relatives, these precautions (which are enforced to control, as 
&r as possible, the recruiting operations of the dames de ^naiaoii) are 
dispensed with. Threatened suspension of the privilege in case of dis- 
I orderly or indecorous behaviour is found gooerally sufficient to ensure 
\ the quiet and propriety of the hospital It is an interesting fact, well 

• M. Battel observes with profonnd regret the nninber of yonng girls from twelve to 
fifteen years of age infected with BTphiiis, and eumetjnies eihibitiag traces of violence. 
This he ascribes partly to the previdence among the lowest class of an eiecrable super- 
■Utioa, to the effect tbat counesiou villi a child is a cure for sn>l>ilis in lie male. 






130 SANITARY EEGULATIOKS ABROAD AKD AT nOMH 

wortliy of observation, that, tlioiigh at neither Lourcine nor Saint-LAzare 
in attendant^ at religious worsliip made compulsory, the ceremonial is 
for the moat part eagerly and devoutly observed by all who ate not bed- 
ridden, and the chaplains prodnce pleasing evidence of the value of their 
reformatory counsels. 

The inmates of the Lourcine are employed — for employment is the 
mainstay of morality as idlenesa ia the handmaid of evil— under the 
direction of the lady visitors and at certain very trifling wages, about 
the entire household service, washing, and needlework of the institution. 
They may quit the establishment at their own pluasure, even before 
being cured. In the latter case, urgent remonstrances are offered, and 
every kind of official delay is interposed; but should this, as indeed 
rarely happens, fail to restrain them, they are of course placed under the 
surveillance of the sanitary police as pestiferous, and therefore dangerous 
to public health. 

The HBpital du Midi, of 31i free beds for males only, where also 
are treated not less than 140 or 150 out-patients daily, ia under the 
management of the celebrated M. Eicord, M. Cullerier, and a third 
sui^eon, aided by a staff of seven other medical officers of various grades, 
and forty attendants. Its expenses for the year 1855 were 203,123 
francs, or 8125?. Aa, unfortunately, there is not the same opportnnity 
of employing the patients as in the female hospitals, their sufferings 
from want of thought have been considerately abridged by the formation 
of a lending library of 700 volumea The devotion by the Hospital 
Euard of twenty-two beds to persons who can pay a franc and a-half per 
diem in consideration of seclusion, has proved, as may readily he imagined, 
a boon to many an imfortunate sufferer, disqualified by his antecedents 
for the very mixed society in the free wards, but too poor, or perhaps 
too proud, to secure in private such advice as is open at the Midi to all 

The number of admissions for half a century, by periods of ten yeai^ 
and also during the years 1854 and 1855, with the mean stay in 
hospital and mortality, appear in the following tables, which offer some 
facilities for comparing the male and female venereal statistics, as r&. 
turned by the Itlfde Hospitals and the Lourcine ; — 



k^h™ 


..». 




I«)D»r^.»B. 1 




Annnsl 


M««i 




A^u^ 


M.-n 








.t^C.f 


;Sf 


Ceitlu. 


nZiS-c^ 


% 


Death.. 


uidw la, 

of both 




»rflnl««l. 






ftmiilM. 




admitted. 


180fitolS14 


18S2 


S7 


lin 66 












11S6 


61 


lin «a 












H88 


45 


lin ao 














B2 


I in 126 












8120 


S3 


lin 163 










{ela«inje»re) 

















1835, at the Midi, of venereal males 



SANITASY REGCLiTIONS ABROAD AKD AT EOUE. 



M 


.»B,H.p„M, 






T.„. 




Mem slBT 




Me«..l.T 




d^gr«r. 


1849 


2931 


36-18 


1419 


56-66 


1S46 


2789 


38-22 


1574 


4e 


a 


1847 


2837 


37-21 


1334 


61 


73 


1848 


2747 


36-12 


2H9 


45 


70 


1849 


2772 


36-06 


1381 


49 


le 


1S50 


3159 


32-94 


1247 


68 




1851 


3019 




1102 


6e 


61 


1852 


336T 


30-23 


1114 


64 


38 


U5S 


3600 


30-00 


1274 


66 


21 




3425 


31-00 


1363 


62 


76 


ISfiB 


3632 


29-72 


1384 


69-89 


Total ... 


34,338 




16,336 




Mean .. 


3121 


33-46 


1399 


57-20 



Adult Males at 36pital du Midi. 

AdmiaaioflB 3425 S632 

Meanstaj 81-06 29-72 

TenenaJ mortolit; ... IS 34 

Adult Females at Louroine, 

AdmiBsionB 1358 1384 

Meanstay 62'75 5939 

TeneTcal mortalit; 1 

PopnlatioD of Paris, 1,3S7,153. 

The preceding tables call for a few remarks. 

1, The extraordinary- rise in the number of patienta at the Midi in 
the ten years following 1835 waa due to the concentration there during 
those years of patienta previously treated elsewhere. The male returns, 
therefore, since 1835 may be taken to refer to that liospital alone. 

2. Mortality of infants and children under sisteen baa been given in 
previona pagea. 

3. Out-patient returns are not included. 

4, The actual admissions of males into hospital during 1855 exceeded 
by 25 per cent, those of 1845, and Lave an upward tendency. Their 
mean stay haa been gradually shortened to the extent of 16 percent, 
during the same period, while the coireBponding admission of females 
shows the very alight decrease of 2'iO per cent., and their mean stay a 
prolongation of 5-70 per cent 

Although the average of males under treatment during the period 
from 1845 exceeded by 55 percent, that of the period ending 1814,* 
their average stay in hospital had diminished from 57 days to 33, or 42 
per cent. The variation in tho female averages during the half century 
appears not quite so trifling as during the last decennial period. The 



i^ 



ealBop. 47. 

k3 



ABBOAD AND AT HOME. 



132 SANITAET 

BdiniasioiiB have on the ■whole increased 8 per cent ; the length of illness 
has shortened 12 per cent.; and moiliality has decreaaed 8 per cent. 

An eniirmouH increase of ftnmle sickness followed the Eevolution of 
1848, and that among the males after the trouhlea of 1850 is still more 
Hiai'ked. The St. Lazare Hospital received at the latter period 150 
patients in excess of its proper accommodation. The dm-ation of female 
sicknesa during the term of eleven years ending 1855 was to that 
of the male as 67 '20 to 33-46— i.e., it was 40 per cent, longer, 
alleged by the officials that the mean duration of the diBease among 
the sournisea at St. Lazare — in whose -personB it is supposed to l>e an-csted 
at an early period hy the visiting surgeons before having made greai' 
ravages — is as much as forty-five days. 

During a recent visit to Paris, I asked M. Ricord, who has had a' 
thirty years' experience of hospital direction, and is thoroughly 8Vlpe^iea^ 
to the pi-ejudicea in favour of the wee anU'gii<s which are not seldom 
contemporary with such length of sorvice, whether he had any idea as t< 
improving the system of venereal management in Paris. He was d 
opinion fiiat no change could be advantageously introduced beyond 
rendering the sanitary police examination of registered women yet mon 
Bccnrate, and permitting the imregistered to enter all the hcapitali 
indiscriminately. The obligation now imposed upon this class of r» 
pairing to the Lourciue only, thereby making puhlic the nature of thral 
ailmenta, and setting a stamp upon their pursuits, acts, he thinksj prejn- 
dicially, by causing concealment, neglect, and aggravation of diaeaHe. 

Berlin. — The Chabity Hospital, specially devoted to the treatmeni 
of venereal diseases, is supported to a great extent by public funds, and 
partly, as has been seen, by contributions exacted from prostitutes. It 
must, however, be noted, that owing to the strict sanitary reguh 
forced, these probably furnish hut few of the cases whose length of stay 
in the hospital appe^ar to indicate a marked degi'ee of severity. T' 
majority of the latter are, I think, traceable to clandestiiiity. 

The following return of in-patients, and the duration of their cnsee 
compiled from the registers of the establishment, and cannot foil to 
interesting : 



Y«r. 


AtoiHioM 


DijTiln 


Admi™™ 




""•"■ 




FeniBle.. 




1844 


741 


21 


657 


31 


18*6 


711 


26 


514 


42 


1848 


813 


80 


637 


51 


1847 


8S4 


34 


761 


43 


1848 


978 


33 


836 


S3 



The report made in May, 1853, to the Berlin Board of Public Morals,, 
by Dr. Stumpf, chief medical officer of the King's Guard, upon the health 
of the garrison, then numbering 19,030 men, is worth con.vi deration. It 
is to be regretted that the Doctor did not append the aLri'iigth of tbeJ 
forces in question at the earlier dates to which his report nfera. Sup. 
posing it to have been equal at the various periods, there must have been 
the surprising reduction in the number of syphilitic cases of 50 per cent. 



SANITARY REGULATIONS 



AND AT HOME. 



133 



In two years, and 64 per cent, during the three years following the rein- 
troduotion of toleration and inoroaaed activity of the inspection.* 

He says r — " In unawer to the letter of the Board, dated April 30, 
1853, 1 have to rejxirt that, among other things, we have observed, during 
the last few yeara, a remarkable diminution of syphilia among the gar- 
rison. While in the year 18i9 there were 1423 cases, 
in 1850 „ 526 „ 

1851 „ 526 „ 

in the first quarter of 1853 „ 59 „ 

Also, in respect of intensity, the disease forms a most favourable contrast 
with that of former years. In my opinion, the above numerical propor- 
tion furnishes the moat snfEcient proof of the utility of the existing 
sanitary regulations." 

Brugsds, — From the returns of the Saint-Pierre, the public venereal 
hospital of BrusselSjt to which are consigned pauper males and the 
women {soumiaea and insoumises) found diseased upon examination at the 
police dispensaiy, Dr. Marinus, to whom I have before been indebted, 
has estracted materials from which I oompile the following table. I 
have inoorpomtod with it the return for five yeiars of the Garrison 
HoHpital : 



r™ 


Public 


•~S" 


Md» 


Total oiril 


ss 




enleiTd. 








1S18 


323 


68 








1347 


619 


12S 








18*8 


633 


157 








1849 


498 


113 








iseo 


366 


98 








1851 


327 


56 








1852 


298 


78 


281 




3ei 


1853 




es 


soa 


675 


360 


1854 


297 


67 


236 


689 


357 


1853 


223 


63 


233 


614 


218 


1B5I1 


137 


GO 


Z12 


S99 


413 



These, it will be observed, are in-patients treated at the public ex- 
pense, the returns noticing neither out-patients nor those relieved at 
private dispensaries. The Brussels physician seems to claim, with some 
degree of hesitation, the diminished frequency of ayphilis in that city ; 
for be is perfectly cognizant of this fact, and, indeed, admits it in the 
context, that the strictness of the police within the town has driven both 
proatitution and its attendant diseases to the suburbs, where the extent 
of one and the ravages of the others are alike beyond conti'ol and cal- 
culation. 

Hamburg. — The clandestine prostitutes apprehended by the police are 
consigned to the Kurhaus Hospital of this town. The registered, with 
a few others, and males, are treated at the Krankenhaua. The latter 
enjoys a subsidy (see p. 86) of 5000 marks from the Registration Fee 



m 



r 



134 



BEOULATlONa ABROAD AND AT HOKE. 




Fiinil, In the year 1845 it received 592 females, of wliom 521 Trers 
carolled, and 71 unregistered. The mean atay of the former class wna 
53 days, and of the latter 74. The syphilitic males treated at this 
hospital were 365 in 1843, 335 in 1844, 316 in 1845. 

Vienna is celebrated, among other things, for its syphilitic hospital, 
"which possesses one of the finest collections of preparations in ^Europe. 
It devotes 200 beds to males, and 150 to females. 

iyona.— Dr. Potton, who has published an admirable statistical and 
medical review of prostitution in Lyons, informs us that the Antiqnaille 
Hospital in that city, maintained by the municipality, will accommodate 
128 female patients, and is, on an average, occupied by 85 or 90 ; and 
has also 110 beds for males, always full. The Dispensaire Special tvea,i 
in round numbers, 1 100 males and 250 females per annum, and the 
patient service attached to the Antiquaille is also extensive. 

Slraaburg. — The diseased prostitutes of Straaburg are treated 
special department of the Civil Hospital, comprising 40 beds, in three 
spacious wards — 4nscriles being kept apart from all others. The accom- 
modation is complained of by Dr. Strohl as being far too restricted — so 
m.uch so, indeed, tliat beds have to be made up on the floors of the warda, 
and, worse still, the patients are frequently discharged to recomment 
their operations before their sores are safely healed. The civil mal 
patients are treated in other wards of the same hospital 
sictness of the garrison has been noticed at page 47. Tlie number 
prostitutes of ail classes affected in 1855 was 544; and in 1856, 
Since the introduction of strict surveillance over clandestine prostitution, 
it is claimed by the officials that the intensity of the complaint, as 
evinced by average length of stay in hospital, has been vastly mitigated. 
In 1847, the latter was 44 days ; and followed the progression of 44, 40|, 
38, 30, 30, 31, and 25 days, until, in 1855, it became 24 days. 



; and 

e ot^j^l 

inkV 
three 

d — so 

rardSj-H 

nenoa^l 

ieree£H 



Let us now turu to London, a city of 2,500,000 souls, and 
cnly ONE little institution apeeially devoted to the treatment of 
diseases — the Lock Hospital,* formerly of Southwark, now of West- 
bourne Green, the existence of which for mora than a century has beeD 

* Mr. Cnnningham, in his " Handtoot of London," tella that " Loctiia deriTedfrom Uk 
French word loqua, Bignifjing rags, handages, lint ; hence, also, locks of hair, wool, dc' 
Bnt as the Lock Hospital in Suuthwark was fonnded, I belieya, on the Bite of a houa* 
for lepers, who were formerly kept in restraint, I incline to prefer the obtione etjnioiogy 
to the mora recondite one promoted hy that ingeniooa author. The following passage ia 
from Turner's wori on syphilia (p. 175), pnhlished in 1724:— "Ah to yoar desire of 
knowing how many patients might be taken into the Look Hospital, Sonthwark, I hsTB 
Bend jou an eiact aoconnt of those that were admitted and disoliarged from that houa« 
in 1720, which was the last year they were nnder my direction. 

"Admittedfrom January ITJJinclnBive to Jannary, 1720, eiolaaivo 
Cured and discharged 




Died . 



"SiK. PiLKBB." 



SANITARY REGULATIONS ABROAD AND AT HOME. 135 

one continued struggle. Unsupported by Parliiimentary grants or 
metropolitan local iiinda, the Lock Hoapital derived, inl85G, 12'J21. 18s. 
of its trifling income from the voluntary contributions which do 
honour to the liberality of a very limited body of subscribers, and 
from the half-profita of a chapel (1) 227/. Sis. It relieves, at one 
time, ahout 45 in and 350 out-patients. The totals, in 1856, were of 
the former 397, of the latter 2170, and its entire income waa 
1505/. 17s. 9,;. 

It would almost seem to one reading the annual report of the charity, 
that the governing body are painfully nervous lest its real aim should 
appear in black and white upon their pages. The airirit of kuow- 
nothingiam sits heavy on their shoulders, although they hint at its folly 
in others. They give their time, trouble, and money to the charity, but 
they hesitate, I see, to avow the character of the good work they are 
eng^ed upon. They invite their friends to give publicity to their 
report and their appeal ; bnt the one ia comparatively dumb upon the 
topics which would have nerved the other. It seems, indeed, as though 
the hospital were put forward leas upon its own merits than under the 
wing of the affiliated asylum or reformatory, which, though of Jess public 
importance, is made so prominent as to divert, I fear, the financial nutri- 
ment so much required by its parent. " The mission of such institu- 
tions," say the governors, " is to eradicate a wide spread moral as well 
aa i)hy8ical malady." Should they fall even something short of this, they 
will have done great things, but if they hope for any material advance 
from their own present unpromising position, they must shake off unne- 
oesaary timidity, appeal to the public and the State, and take much more 
advantage than heretofore of the nucleus for extended operations offered 
by the antiquity and repute of the charity they superintend. 

I would not have ventured upon this expression of opinion did I not 
wish well to all concerned, and believe that by giving additional pub- 
licity in unfiiuching terms to its legitimate object and ita wants, I may 
even be doing the Lock Hospital good service. 

ST. mart's hospital, paddisgton. 
Venereal patients are not admitted. . 

CHIVEESITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL 

Admits venereal patients in very exceptional cases only. No beds are 
appropriated to the complaints, but Mr. Erichsen writes mo word that 
possibly one-fourth of the surgical out-patients suffer from sypliilja. 

sing's COLLEGE HOSPITAL 

Appropriates six of its 150 beds to venereal females, an.i males are 
occasionally admitted into the ordinary warda. The latter being not 
invariably registered as venereal, and no accurate record of out-patients 
(beyond their names and addresses) being kept ■ the medical staff would 
not be warranted in venturing upon a. definite statement. It is how- 
ever believed that about 6000 out-patients are annually treated in this 
hospital for venereal complaints. 



SANITARY REQUIATTONS ABHOAD AND / 




Appropriates no beds to venereal disease, but special cases are admitted 
oa the urgent request of the surgeon. A large mimlier apply for advioe 
and are relieved, but as very few of them obtiiiu governors' letters, theitB 
i not registered, and therefore no accurate statistics c 



procured. 

Appropriates no beds to 



BT. GEORGES HOSPITAL 



THE KOTAL FREE HOSPITAL 

■s t'wenty-siz beds to female venereal patients, and none ' 
On turning to page 37 it will be seen that a lai-ger proportion 
real out-patients are here prescribed for than at auj other institution j 
London, forming, according to the average I have established, two outM 
every throe out-putients who apply for surgical assistance. 

MinOLESEX HOSPITAL. 

Some years ago, persons labouring under syphilis were not admitted 
in-patieuts to the Middiesesi Hospital, except on pre-payment of two 
pounds, and this bye-law was printed on all the letters or petitions for 
admission. The reason assigned was, tliat persona v/ha contn 
syiihilis ought not to partalce of a charity intended for more deservi 
objects than the vicious and licentious. I need not say that evosii 
became very common, and the regulation practically inoperati 
guardians of workhouses used to send their very bad cases to the 
hospital, and pay the two pounds; but such patients rarely recovered 
under many months, and the governors found that their cost far ex- 
ceeded the amount received for their treatment. This, with the limited 
number of persons who could afford to pay, the protests of the surgeons, 
who were unable to teach pupils the treatment of syphilis, and, it is to 
be hoped, more pliilanthropic and correct sanitary views on the part of 
the governors, has erased the law in question f!"om the statute bookj 
and this institution now devotes sixteen separate beds to the gratuitous 
treatment of venereal cases — namely, eigiit to females, and eight to 
males. The numbers received during the last year were sixty-five of 
the former, and seventy-four of the latter. As far as can be ascertained, 
the out-patients labouring under venereal affections amounted to four. 
hundred and sixty-five. 



I 



^^L obtain any 
^^^ oat-patienl 



The following bye-law still exists at the London Hospital ; — 
person shall be adm.ittod with the venereal distemper, except by ths] 
special order of the House Committee, subject to such regulations astheyB 
shall irom time to time establish." 1 am informed that there is now n 
practical impediment to the admission of syphilitic cases, under the headfl 
of skin diseases, ulcers, &c., but this, of course, pi'ecludes the idea of any ■ 
record of their number, and, I am sorry to say, I have not been able toM 
obtain any statistics relative to the proportion of venereal diseases among T 
out-patients. 



f sanitart eegulat10n8 abroad and at home. 137 

dot's hospital. 

I aliould be doing injustice to Guy's Hospital, ■were I to pasa without 
BUcomium the annual rejmrt presented to the governors by the suporm- 
tendent, Dr, Steele, That for 1856, which I have now before me, 
givea a, complete and valuable set of statistics for the year, well worthy 
of imitation by the managers of all other English hospitals with which 
I am acquainted. I gather from it, that out of 543 beds the hospital 
devotes 24 to male venereal cases, and 30 to female ; and that the 
medical staff were last year enabled to treat 526 patients, of whom 401 
were cured. 111 relieved, 10 unrelieved, and 4 died, the mortality beara 
therefore 0*76 per cent. The author of the report says — " During the 
past three years, the number of applicants with venereal affections hiis 
exiiibited a considerable increase j aud as thia e^ccess has been notice' 
able mainly among the female applicants, its caiuie may be attributable 
to the additional accommodation provided by five beds which were added 
to the female wards about two years since. It is instructive, also, as 
illustrating a well-established law in connexion with the working of the 
hospital — that increased accommodation in any one department never 
fails to be attended with a larger proportionate increase in the number 
of applicants for relief." 

Dr. Steele has been good enough to inform me, since the date of the 
report, that only one-third of the female candidates eligible for beds 
can ever be taken into the house. The ^es of the venereal patients 
discharged were — one to five, ; five to ten, 1 ; ten to fifteen, 8; fif- 
teen to twenty, 239 ; twenty to twenty-five, 153 ; twenty-five to thirty, 
71 ; thirty to forty, 33; forty to fifty, 13; fifty to sixty, 5; total, 
522. Of the four deaths, two occurred to patients between the ages 
of 15 aud 20 ; one between 20 and 25 ; and one between 30 and 40. 

BT, Thomas's hospital 
Devotes sixty-one beds to venereal diseases, of which twenty-five ara 
for females, and thirty-six for males. During the year 1856, there 
were admitted 165 of the former, and 245 of the latter. No exact 
information is piMCurable as to the number of out-pat ienta, but at least 
one-half of them are venereal. 

ST. Bartholomew's hospital. 

Having been educated at this hospital, I may be pardoned for re- 
joicing at the noble prominence my Alma Mater has been enabled to 
assume in alleviating the miseries of humanity. This present work of 
mine may pixibably be traceable to the unequalled opportunities she 
afforded ine of seeing venerea! affections in the commencement of my 
studies, and the following figures will show how far she must still con- 
tribute to the spread of similar knowledge among a boat of students. I 
am much indebted to my friend, Mr. Holmes Coote, the present ns.iiatant- 
Burgeon, for the pains he has kindly bestowed upon selecting inatcriala 
_forthe subjoined 






I 
I 



aASITART REGULATIOKS ABROAD J 



Tables, showing tlie grand Total of Bedt and of Adi 
In-patietUs, during the Tear 1856. 

ICiunher ot bedfl for maleH 

AdmissioQa, maleB 

Humber of beds iir femalea 

Admissions, females 

Total of beds 

Total of adaimsioiis 

The followiDg mimbera are included in those ubove 

Beds devoted to Teaereal EDslee 

Admissions, males 

Beds devoted to leuereal females 

AdmiBaiona, fem^ea 

Total of VBnereal beds 

Total of Tonereal admissions ... 

The number of poor people suffering from every sort of accident K 
ailment, who annually apply for out-patient relief at the casualty u 
is from 60,000 to 65,000, a. great number of whom, affected with gone 
rhcea and syphilis, are consigned to other departments. 

The "registered" ie., severe out-jxUisnt cases, are treated by i 
assistant-surgeons to the hospital, and on an average 150 i 
appear weekly, or about 7600 annually, women and children included, J 
whom about one-third* are affected with venereal ailments. 

The last year's operations of this institutiou against venereal disea 
cannot, at the loweat computation, be said to have extended c 
than 12,000 cases.* 

It ia matter of very serious regi'et that the officers of St. Bartholomew 
Hospital are obliged, from week to week throughout the year (see p. 33), t 
make out-patients of a number of destitute women, whose segregation 
until cured is imperatively called for by every consideration of public 
health and morality. I need hardly say that this would not occur were 
the funds under their control as expansive as their anxiety to diffuse the 
blessings of the institution; but as it is well known that their latge 
revenues are already ftilly bespoken and worthily expended, it would be 
unbecoming inmeuot to repudiate ou their behalf the slightest suspicion 
of shortcoming. Out of the fifty-three applicauts catalogued at pp. 33 
and 3i, no more than eighteen could be received into the house, and the 
other thirty-five either became out-patients, went off to seek adraiaaion 
elsewhere with infinitely less chance of ultimate success, or m.ore horrible 
thought still, after becoming out-patients, fell back in many oases upon 
their miserable avocations— to prowl the streets, to drink, to get worse 
day by day in spite of all our physic, and to propagate disease for gain, 
or perish. 

The propriety and the utility of treating primary Hympton 
tutes while they remain out-patients seem alike questionable. One, £ 
instance, grievously afflicted, among the number i ' 
attracted my paiticular notice by the superiority of her dress. 

' Compare with Etatemente, pp. 35, 36. 





ABROAD AND AT HOME. 139 

lived, she said, in her own lodgings in a street near the Strand. It is 
therefore clear she had no home to look to but the streets nnlesa she 
paid her rent. In the course of the very sarao evening I was tihocked to 
see this woman, accompanied hy another, soliciting (as. the Act of Parlia- 
ment has it) in the street, and to reflect how frightfully she mnat 
contaminate any unfortunate man who might yield to her desperate 
entreaties. In dress and bearing ehe was by no means a female of the 
lowest class. No ordinary observer wonld have recognised her saiiitary 
condition; but there she was — her rent, her food, her clothes to be 
earned — obliged to drink intoxicating liquor with every man who might 
oflTer it, dangerous alike to gentle and simple, the fast young man, or the 
tipsy father of a family who might be attracted by her pleasing face, 
and utterly heedless how much she was protracting, perhaps aggravating, 
her own ■Bufferings. How comparatively futile our morning labours! 
how inefEcacious the eleemosynary drugs I 

Advocates of the " know-not liing " system, stand aghast! and ask 
yourselves if the toleration by society of this emissary of death in the 
attitude in which I saw her is reconoileable with societies' duties (if 
duties it has) to God or man. 

Here you see a woman who, patched up by voluntary charity in the 
momiug, knows no other way — nay, whose only possible resource — ^to 
get her necessary food, or bed at night, is to sally forth into the sti'cets. 
The ministers of charity eased her pain this morning; they dressed her 
sores and gave her drugs. So they will again next Thursday. She 
may be worse then, or she may have made a little progress in spite of 
her drinking and her fornication. But in a month she will he no nearer 
soundness than had she been taken care of by the State within the walls 
of our hospital for one week ; and within that month what a scourge 
upon society will the surgeons not have kept afoot by their exertions t 
Here is the power of charity again working to waste. I will not insult 
you by supposing that you would have had that creature, and the 
hundreds of whom she is the example, spumed from the gates of every 
workhouse and hospital, and kicked from every domicile in the name of 
religion, to perish how and where they might by lingering loathsome 
disease. That were too absurd. But what you do, virtually, ia this : 
You who, if your principles have any worth in them, should protest 
against the Ijock Hospital, proclaim the foul ward a misappropriation, 
and excommunicate all who relieve or sympathize with the venereal 
pariiih — you neither protest, nor proclaim, nor excommunicate. You 
testify against none of these things on principle, but only against their ex- 
tension — against exchanging for a useful flame that inefficient rushlight of 
private diarity which now serves only to make misery visible. 

If you consider it wicked encourigement of vice and countenance of 
immorality to feed, to clothe, to lodge the syphilitic, you will bo satisfied 
that in these five-and-thirty cases the hospital administration steered 
clear of those greater sins. But, though you dare not go so for as to 
claim the entire dismission of these wretohea down the winds of fate, 
you ought Burely, in justice to your principles, to some extent to censure 
those who wrestled with corruption for their poor bodies, preserved 
them yet a little longer to defile the earth; perverted charity from what 
you would allow to be proper objects, and as it were "threw physic to 



1 



140 BANITAUT BEGULATIONS ABROAD AND AT EOUB. 



the dogB." In truth, we are at a dead lock, all of iih — hospital 
ritieR, aociol Badicals, and sodaJ Toriea. 

The snme necessity of selection wLieh is imposed upou the 
enrgeon by the restricted number of beds at his dispoaition, wod 
alao in another way. As long aa it ia guided, not by philosophical 
sideratioiis of pubKc morula and public health, but by that sympathy 
eufFering humanity which animated the munificent founders of onr h 
pitals, and the proper desire of the medical achoola to secure the anpei^ 
Tision of the moat peculiar forms of disease, we shall take aa in-patieiits 
only those most malignant and complicated cases, wherein the subject is 
practically incapable of getting about, and thus, by inference, of earning 
his or her bread. Thua competition among cases is as it were invited, 
the premium of a bed ia held ont for auccesaful severity, aud it is no 
exaggeration to say that the invitation is responded to, and -the prize 
contended for, by the unfortunate out-patients who find themaelvea finm 
week to week " not eligible through seniority," " not yet bad enough" 
to be taken iDto the house. The devices, therefore, to which they fre- 
quently resort, in order to qualify, are, first to throw away the hospital 
medicines, and then, reckless of consequences to society, to pursue the 
best known means of aggravating disease— viz., drunkenness, debauchery, 
and utter aelf-n^lect. 

If the British public could only once conceive the idea that the treat- 
ment, cure, aud temporary segi'egation of the syphilitic, was as much and 
more a matter of public interest aa that of the lunatic, whose secluaton 
all counties, towns, and ]>arishe8 provide for with such remarkable 
alacrity, not so much out of love or respect for him aa becauae he is a 
dangerous thing to be at largo, I think I should not long be alone in 
wishing for equally public recognition of both complaints. The attitudo 
of aociety towards those afflicted, must, of course, differ ; for, whereas 
upon the former we may properly, I think, exercise compulsion, we can 
do no more witk the other than offer inducements and invitation to bo 
made whole. 

Were thoae inducements ample, in the shape of accommodation and 
treatment, and were the germs of pestilence sought out with more 
anxiety than the old neglected cases, which are so interesting to the 
medical classes, we should in a few years have reduced the virulence of 
hospital syphilis to the level of that now seen in private practice, and of 
the latter, again, I have no doubt, to a corresponding extent 

I hold it to be the doty of the community to itself — in what form it 
provides the requisite money is immaterial, and the difficulty of this 
particular question ia a contemptible excuse for inaction — to hold out by 
its public hospitals to all jioor and common syphilitics the same'fecilities 
for being cured as the rich aud genteel derive ivom their money and the 
skill of private practitioners. Both classes are equally dangerous to 
society, in the first stages of the disease ; equally dangerous in the aggra- 
vated and neglected onea. It may ho relied upon that the propagation 
of syphilis affords no more personal gratification to the degraded paujwr- 
liarlot than to the man of means and position. The one extensirely 
eommit« the crime against society because it ia inseparable from her 
only alternative against starvation; the other seldom (I wish, for the 
honour of our sex, I could say never) knowingly, because it is not only 



^ 



P SANITARY REGULATIONS ABROAD AND AT HOSIE. 141 

crtiel and clisgiisticg, but often physically painfiil, and always unnecessary 
to Ma existence. If we may not, under our present or any probable 
Iftw, punish her for the crime, let us at least be wise enough, for the 
sake of society, to alter the circumataneea which now almost drive her 

Admitting even that the means of granting in-door relief now at the 
disposal of the existing hospitals remained unamplified, I incline, on 
reflection, to the belief and I would call the attention of the hospital 
Burgeon of London to the fact, that the reverse of the present system of 
Hclectiou would (as far as concerns syphilitic patients) be attended with 
advantage to the public health, and to that of the majority of diseased 
prostitutes, without aggravating the sufferings of the remainder. 

Were the slighter, because more recent, cases taken in hand as 
soon aa presented, and the patients separated from the world, fed, 
lodged, and nursed until cured, it must be plain that infinitely more of 
them would be disposed of during twelve months, and a far less 
number of propagations be traceable to them, and the latter would, in 
their turn, be far less malignant. The brood sowing of syphilis, it 
must be kept in mind, is not so much due to the fearfidly bad or com- 
plicated cases, which, besides generally betraying themselves, render 
fornication itself burdensome, as it is, among the higher order of pros- 
titutes, to the inchoate or amoulderiag forma often unrecognised by the 
female herself and, among the lower order, to the out-patient candi- 
dates for beds, who m,u»t and will live somehow and somewhere, and to 
the greater or less damage of the commonwealth, according to the state 
of their particular cases. While a bed in the syphilitic ward of an 
hospital is occupied, for say six weeks, by one case of secondary or 
tertiary symptoms, the department might have nipped in the bud by 
active treatment three cases of syphilis primitiva, or gonon-hcea. The 
former, had it been kept as .an out-patient, would have withdrawn to 
its garret, or its cellar, or its dark arch, and amended by degrees on 
its straw pallet or bundle of rags, nnder the care of some diapeasaiy or 
parish medical officer. It could not have wandered a-field for prey, and 
none of its fellows woidd have sought it from predilection. Its power 
of prop^ation would have been very limited indeed. 

But neither of the three affected women who, by its admission into the 
hospital, are kept upon the out-patiests' list, are precluded from tlie 
practice of their avocation. They continue it, on the contrary, as a 
general rule, and therefore oscillate for months between progreaa and 
relapses, until patched up cures are perhaps in two or three months 
accomplished, or steadily get worse and worue, until absolute laying up 
becomes indispensable, and admisKiou into the house a mere matter of 
seniority. Each of theie three women being then, ao long as abe is 
a-foot, adiseasedistributor, effective according to her unconsumed energy, 
it is a simple question, how much more the world would have benefited 
by their early recognition, and thereafter immediaf« separation and 
treatment in-doors, than by the devotion of a precioofl Ijed for an in- 
definite period to one particularly malignant and interesting case 1 

For the reader's convenience I have computed a precis of the preceding 
retvirns, showing the accommodation appropriated to venereal in-patienta 
at the various hospitals of London; of the number of cases treated in 



I 
I 



) AT HOUE. 



s well 03 this can be procured, i 



e extent of out-patient 



HoipLUI.. 


il 




FhuJm 


il 


Uale. 
tr«Med. 


ss.. 


Tesenil Out- 


ChwingCroM . . 
at. George-.. . . 
RoTidFrH . . . 

ujaainu . . . 

London .... 
Oof 

SLThomM-i , . 




JH 


Ho mSrn 

k€pt 

ditto 
No return 


36 


None 

Afe- 

No return 

a 

... 


Is 

No «lnra 


«70 
KUO 

1»,H00 


ToUl . . . 


^ 


■" 




113 







I believe that the reader who has perused the foregoing pagea will 
now, for the first time, be enabled roughly to estimate the number of 
venereal eases, as well as the hospital relief open to them, in London. 
There are few non-professional persons who wiU not be horrified at the 
enormous extent to which these ailraenta invalidate our population; and 
this sentiment will not be diminished by my stating that hundreds, 
perhaps thousands, of out-patient cases which must have been treated 
at the London Hospital, find no place in the above table, and adding mjr 
impression (although the vevy meagre nature of the retuma hardly 
perhaps justifies me in stating this of any particular institution) that the 
average stay in hospital of each patient suffering under primary syphilia 
is not often less thsu one mouth, and of each affected with seooudttry 
symptoms not less than six weeks. Sir John Pitcaime informed the 
Committee of the House of Commons upon the Hospitals of Dublin, 
that the average duration of primary eases among the soldiery was &om 
three to six weeks. I think that, considei-ing the facilities the system of 
inspection ofiera for early detection of the disorder, and hospital discipline 
for its cure, the army cases, if proper facilities were afibrded for washing, 
or at least the majority of them, should be cured in the shorter time. 
I have been told, however, by a trustworthy non-comraisaioned officer, 
who not long since came under my care, that the number of men who 
at present have one washing apparatus in common for their hands and 
faces would not permit its use by one of their number for the lower 
parts of his person. This is not to be wondered at, but it strikes me, 
if the general statement be true that no special conveniences of the kind 
are provided, that the sooner a change takes place the better. 

While I put on record my obligations to those of my professional 
brethren who have been so kind as to respond to my i-equest fi 
returns, I cannot help expressing my regret at the very limited a 



t 



est for thea^l 
ted acquaq^l 






SANITART REGULATIOUa ABROAD AKD i 



143 



tance with the importance of medical stafciatica which would appear to 
prevail among governors of hosjiitals and others concerned in their 
administration. Thus the medical officers — whose legitimate duties can 
hardly be said to include the compilation of statistics, however favour- 
ably they may look upon such inquiries— are precluded from all chance 
of accurately investigating either the spread or the decrease of diseftse. 

It ia well known that some of the above institutioaa having been 
founded only by great exertions, are still incomplete or fiuaacially 
embarrassed. It ia as well known that the richer ones work to their 
full power. No reproach can attach, then, to the managei-s of this or 
that hospital, that it has no venereal ward, or that it appropriates too 
few beds to the complaints. I have no doubt that surgeons would be 
■willing enough to undertake the additional charge, if only for the sake 
of enlarging the opportunities of study they might offer to their 
respective jmpils; but I can perfectly understand that where the space 
and revenues of an institution are alike restricted, it would be most 
inconvenient to appropriate a distinct department to cases which, in the 
first place, cannot be placed in the ordinary wards; which, secondly, if 
so urgent as to be dangerous, would occupy beds so long as to impair 
the general utility of an establishment; and the propriety of whose 
reception, lastly, might be a subject of question among the voluntary 
subscribers. I have already attempted to show that out-door treatment 
of women for primary syphilis and gonorrhoea is a partial mistake, and 
that much money so spent is positively wasted; and I am disposed to 
think, therefore, that financially weak institutions do well in not 
attempting professedly, what to be of much service to the community 
must be done wholesale. 

It appears that London, with her population of two millions and a 
half, and her 350,000 unmaiTied women above fifteen years of age, has 
hospital accommodation for 184 venereal females. By applying the rule 
of simple proportion to the population and venereal totals of some 
other places, I aiTtve at the following tabular view of our own short- 



Glj. 




ofBedi 
fcr 


FopulBtlon of 


on^erofbeds 

tbcreehoiOdbe 

in London. 


Berlin 

Branselfl (eicluave of suburbs) 

Hamburg 

Paria 

Vienna 


400,000 
170,000 
200,000 
1,500,000 
420,000 


120 
30 
120 
470 
150 


2,600,'000 ■ 


rso 

441 
1600 
783 

... 



Supposing, therefore (to allow for short returns), that 200 beds are 
oonstantlj' appropriated to ^^mo^e venereal patients iu London, our short- 
coming, as compai-ed with 

Berlin, is 7C0 — 200 = B50 

BrasBels 441 — 200 = 241 

\ Hamburg 1500 — 200 = 1300 

Paris 783 — 200 =. fiS3 

Vienna 8B2 — 300 = 692 




U4 



EAIflTART EEQULATIONS ROAD ABAND AT HOME. 



Leaving the above table, for which I claim mo more credit thsn may 
be due to a very careful study of the limited materials accessible, and 
an approximate calculation based thereon, to the reader's favourable 
consideration, I will now offer a few remarks on Bome features of the 
treatment pursued towards Tenereal patients in this country. 

It would, as I have before hinted, be superfluous were I to sound the 
praises of the zeal and skill brought to bear by our hospital officers, I 
should be attempting to gild fine gold were I to admire the vast bene- 
volent liberality of individuals, which enables hundreds of thousands 
annually to obtain general medical and surgical relief. But this zeal, 
skill, and liberality being admitted, and so well known, thu succeeding 
observations may he set down by some persons to a captious spirit on 
my part) and an affectation of unnecessary delicacy. This, however, 
wonld be incorrect. I am certainly about to recommend more delicacy, 
and that towards prostitutes — often very common and very low pros- 
titutes; but my principal object being to show the necessity of Govern- 
ment action against venereal diseases, my second, the amelioration, ad 
well of the moral as of the physical condition of the class just mentioned, 
I feel sure the public will agi'ee with me, that if this gieater delicacy 
would tend to keep full the hospitals which I argue the State should 
build and maintain, and to soften the hearts of their unhappy ianuitet^ 
it could by no means bo superfluous. 

I object in toto to the name ai. foul wards, now bestowed upon those 
consecrated to venereal patients. I look on it as a remnant of the ancient 
regime for sick prostitutes, of which flagellation, hair-cutting, and head- 
shaving were features, and as one of those psunful stings which makes 
the receipt of charity a martyrdom. I Imve mentioned my Mend 
M. Eicord's opinion, with regard to the Parisian venereal treatment, 
that one of the best modes of still further advancing the interest of the 
jmblic health would be to allow diseased women to enter hospitaJa 
without publishing the nature of their affliction, which is inevitable 
now that iiourcine is the only one open to the unregistered. I think, 
that the disgusting term " foul ward" in use among ourseives, pregnant as 
it is with disgrace, hut which it were romantic folly to imagine could 
check vicious tendencies outside the hospital, prevents many a woman in 
the early stages of these diseases from seeking surgical relief, and 
induces her either to try her fortune with the charlatan or to neglect 
herself entirely. 

The manner in which the clinical eiamination of venereal patients ia 
conducted should, I think, be the subject of revision, and be assimilated 
to that in practice at the Lourcine in Paris. A separate room should 
be set apart, or at the least a screen set up at the end of the ward, behind 
which the proper inspection should take place by the surgeon, his regular 
staff of assistants, and a limited number of pupils. It is well known 
that clinical examination is now conducted in public, before a large 
class, which is shocking to that certain degree of modesty which, what- 
ever may be thought to the contrary, is left to all but the most hearttcsi 
and hardened of the sex. My next recon;mendation may possibly 
some seem inconsistent with the delicacy I advocate; but, althou^i 
strong professional conservatives have raised objections, on the grou 
of indelicacy, to the instrument, these are, it ia now pretty well tnoi 



may I 



4 



SASITAHY I1EQUI.ATI0NS AEROAD AUD AT UOME. l45 

both to medical men and to the pubiio, not to apply to its use by ahla 
hauda, and certainly not to outweigh its enormous value. Eyciy 
venereal prostitute Bhould be examined with the speculum for her own 
sake and that of her medical attendant. To attempt her cure without 
it ja to waate the time of both parties. 

Venereal Wards shmild not he too public. — That it is desirable for a 
class of pupils to witness all the forma of venereal disease met with 
among prostitutes, admits of no doubt; I need not say how especially 
necessary it is that those who indulge the hope of becoming attached to 
hospitals and prisons, as well as those who aspire to military, naval, or 
poor-law appointments, should be well acquainted with them. But I 
really do not think it desirable thatthewardswherein a number of diseased 
unfortunates are confined should be open, as now, to all pupils alike. 
In lunatic hospitals, selected pupils are alone allowed to enter the wards, 
and precautions are taken that this privilege should not be abused, as 
the wards should only be open to these students during the visit of tba 
medical man, who gives lectures on tlie most interesting forms of disease. 

In Paris the wards of the female venereal hospitals are so sealed to 
impertinent curiosity, that a pupil desirous of studying these diseases 
must become attached to the house in the capacity oiexteme, by special 
permission of the General Hospital Board, and on the recommendation 
of the surgeon. He gives bis aei-vices, whatever they may be worth, in 
consideration of a daily mess and a stipend of eight francs a month, and 
has, no doubt, great opporcunities of study. No more than an extremely 
limited number of men, therefore, is seen at any time about the wards 
of the Lourciue Hospital; and as these invariably exhibit the greatest 
delicacy and politeness towards the unfortunate inmates, such satisfactory 
relations are maintained between the patient and the doctor aa make 
the word hospital far less a word of horror to Frenchwomen than to 
those of the class in this country. 

If no other change is practicable in the system of managing our 
venereal wards, I might at least suggest that the large parties who 
frequent them should be allowed to witness the treatment of a selected 
number of cases only. The inspection of a number of women whoso 
cases present no marked features of interest, can be fraught with no 
advantage to science, and is painful and demoralizing to the unhappy 
patients. 

Classification of Female Patients. — We might, I think, take with 
advant^e another hint from our neighbours, by dividing the women 
who apply for the cure of venereal complaints into the following 
classes: — 

1. Tlie married, who, guiltless themselves, have been injured by their 
husbands. These are annually becoming more numerous in the London 
hospitals, and no less than thirty-four of them were admitted into the 
Dublin Lock Hospital in the year 1854. To class them with the 
hardened ofiendera is a scandal to decency and morality, — a cruelty 
to them if tliey submit to it, or has the effect of keeping them out of 
hospital if they will not. 

2. Girls who have been recently seduced and defiled, — for their reforma- 
tion is not hopeless, but often accomplished where proper ciasaiiicatioii 
takes place, as in the Lonrcine, but is next to impossible if they are 



1 



L of s _ 



HG SANITATIY SEQL'LATIOKa ABUOAD AND AX HOME. 

placed among the thorotiglily vicioiiB, who are too apt to pass theiir 
in hospitals, even when strictly watched, in obliteratiug all trace 
modesty from their less practised fellow-sufferers, 

3. Proatitutea with children- — for the child is a certain link betwi 
the mother and morality, during the existence of which her case is 
hopeless; and charity, placing youth by the side of oonuption, has 
to answer for. 

4. The childleaa, barren, and confirmed prnatitutes. 
Of Slate Interferenne with the V^iereal Disease.— T am quite 

that to speak of such a classification of the very few patients received aft 
some of our hospitals may he called absurd, and that a proposition so to 
arrange even the nnniher present at any time in the larger ones would 
he met, and reaaonahiy enough, by objections on the score of cost. Tlie 
present stnictures, were the governors to make up their minds to a 
olaasiificatiou, would require expensive alteration. The subdivision of s 
ward would entail certain extra attendance at an expense also. 1 
SO dealt with might perhaps be less airy than when undivided. 
pitala, unsupported as they are by public grants, have already enough 
do to make both ends meet. They, as it were, live up to their income^ 
and have no surplus, after doing all they can for the public health, to 
spend in fanciful provisions for public morality. All this I should be 
prepared to hear, and I ara ready to admit, i^ain and again, that ea 
much is done, and is as well done, too, for venereal cases, as we have any 
right to expect of the existing bodies. I hasten, in fact, to make this 
admission, due alike to the medical service of all hospitals, and to their 
voluntary subscribers. The sooner it is made, the sooner is the ground 
clear for progress. 

The careful reader Of the foregoing pages will have seen that th*^ 
virtual exclusion of venereal patients from some of our large honpil 
has thrown them back upon others, who are tiius unduly taxed. He wil 
have observed that nearly one-half of the surgical ont-patieuta 
St. Bartholomew's, Bt. Thomas's, and Guy's, and nearly all those of th^J 
Boyal Free Hospital, are so afflicted, and that the selection impoEW 
upon those icstitutioiiH renders vain all hope of their establishing audit!! 
command over the disease as the acknowledged advance of scieni 
assisted by adequate funds, might, in the absence of such necessity^) 
have secured. He will next base to form hia own opinion, takii 
into consideration what he has read m this and previous chaj 
whether or not the eradication or diminution of syphilis is a quest 
of national importance, and how far any special ban of Providi 
has been placed upon man's small pxertioua m that direction. ~ 
if, after considering whether piostitution, the prime cause of ayphilnl 
is rife, and what extent of suppression or repression the English Gh 
vemment or English society can apply to it. it should appear to hil 
that when that power over the prime cause sliall have been exhai 
a flood of the evil effect will still have to be dealt with, and may 
righteously dealt with, he will, I think, admit the duty of good ' 
to organize a powerful opposition- to it. 

I can quite believe tliat, until recently, few members of the Legisli 
ture could have been found to support, much less to propose to Miaii 
tei-a, a Parliamentary vote in aid of JJondon venereal hospitals. But 



SAKITART REGCLATIONS ABROAD ASD AT HOME. 147 

atu inclined to believe that in the present Pai-liament tliere are men who, 
once convinoBd, have indepeudence and sufficient moral courage to do 
either the one or the other; and I believe, again, that the man of any 
ability who would couch some such viewa as these in Parliamentary 
phraseology hcfore the House of Commons, would neither want many 
nor attentive hearers. 

Although successive Governments have deliberated, through fear of 
going too far — and perhaps, after all, wisely — before subjecting prostitu- 
tion to public police interference, or even sanitary regulation, they have 
somewhat furtively procivred an annual recognition of the public duty 
to lessen its evils, by bringing forward the Dublin Lock Hospital Grant 
of 2813^., until the Scotch purists and the Lamheth economists were 
strong enough, first to reduce it in 183S to llSOi., and then in 1854 to 
overthrow it altogether. But a Committee of the House of Commons 
in 1857 succeeded, in spite of even Miabterial opposition, in restoring 
the vote to its place on the list. This was no packed tribunal, as may be 
imagined from its being opposed to the opinions of Mr. Wilson, and from 
its approval of an annual grant for Irish benefit, although composed of 
eleven English and only five Irish members. But the evidence brought 
before it showed so cleai'ly that the time of soldiers, w^hioh had heea 
purchased by the public, was wasted by syphilis, that the Dublin garrison, 
like all othei-s, was a scourge not merely to i^rostitutes, but to married 
women, and that only U. had been voluntarily snbscribed there for the 
purpose during thirty-four years, that the Committee had no alternative, 
as Christians and good citizens, but to report as follows: — 

"That the importance of such an institution (a Louk Hospital) Jn 
a town like Dublin, can hardly be over-rated. It appears that in large 
garrison towns the establishment of a lock hospital for females is the 
beat mode of preventing venereal disease among the soldiery. 

" On the mere grounds of economy, its support by Parliament oan ha 
jiistified, as venereal disease constantly incapacitates and even causes 
the discharge of the soJdior at the veiy age that is most serviceable to 
the country." 

A considerable show of opposition was made to the vote proposed for 
the imtitution in pursaance of the above report, on the evening of the 
13th July, 1857; but I am happy to say this was ultimately withdrawn, 
and the unfortunate syphilitic cases of Dublin are a^ain recognised by 
the State. How much good the authorities of the Westmoreland Lock 
Hospital can effect with a small sum of money is shown by the fact that 
the avei-age cost to the charity of each female patient is 3^., and the 
number admitted in 1853 was 575 ; in 1856, 418. 

Now, seeing that a Committee of the House of Commons have re- 
ported as above, and their report has been endorsed and legislated on by 
Parliament, and seeing again that venereal branches have been appended 
by the Government authorities to their hospitals at Portsmouth,* 

• Sir Jdhn Liddell baa kin^Ij furnished ma with tLe following particulars rolatiya to 
tli6 lloForameDt grant alluded la ill the Committae of tlie House of Camniona on tha 
Dublin lioflpilals :— 

"AdmiraUji, lllh Am/iit; 1S67. 

' ' Dear Sir, —In repi j to jour note of j-esterdHj, I tsTa to infurm jon tbat Look wards 
for twBotj bade have been fuuuded (Uid niaiutaiued bj the Navy, in ooDnfl.iion with tha 



REQULATiOKS AUQOAD AND I 



148 

with the view of repairing aa much as possible the damage reRulting to 
the public health from the presence of large bodies of Holdiera and 
sailors, it is clear that the very indispensable necessary, " a precedent," 
is not wanting for Government action. I therefore ask that our own 
City, London, should te put upon the footing of the more &vonred 
CSty of Dublin, and the still more favoured capitals of foreign countries. 

It is vain to say that she is rich enough to help hei-aelf, for thoiigh 
Ler inhabitant* might at the bidding of enterprise build another Cryatol 
Palace, or construct a second Great Western Railway, the same fear of 
assisting the vicious while doing public good, the same old convenient 
excuse, that what is every one's business is no one's business, will be 
ever found in London, as in Dublin, to Idnder the eatabliahment of pul " 
venereal hospitals by private snbscriptionsj and the best reaso 
against their foundation by private generosity is, in my opini 
foot that this foundation is the aflair of the public. To the public purso 
atone do I look for it. 

Supposing that for a time — neglecting gonorrlnea and secondary symp- 
toms — the operations of the national hospitals were to be confined to 
primary syphilis, in the suppi-ession of which, aa I have said elsewhere, 
the race of the people has the greater interest; I believe the least extent 
of accommodation we ought to provide should be 300 beds for females, 
and 200 for mules, which would place it in the power of all existing 
institutions either to maintain their present venereal wards for \ha 
purposes of their respective medical schools, or conacientiouely to 
abandon the reception of such cases, and appropriate the valuable space 
to other complaints. These establishments would in any case be in- 
valuable as diatriet dispensaries for out-patient treatment, under a Bystem 
I am about to hint at, could this be made compatible witli their proper 
dignity and position, and that of their several staffs ; and they would, ' 
the event of their retaining their in-patient wards, no doubt retain, their 
pre-eminence as places for the study of peculiar forms of disease. 

I believe that a female venereal hospital of 300 beds for primary ■ 
this metropolis would, wei-e proper machinery set to work for the ro» 
ceptioQ of patients in the early stages of the disease, turn out 3000 
annually (and that the discoverera of these 3000 caaes would find another 
thousand who would be treated at home), and that the sum of 90002. 
per annum would be required for its maintenance. I am not in a 
position to furnish a closer estimate, either for building or annual 
expenses, but I apprehend that the figure I have named may be rather 
excessive than otherwise. If such is the case, it is clear that out of a 
parliamentary vote of 30,000?. per annum, the metropolis might 
tain the lUOO beds for syphilitics which would neai-ly put her i 

Fortsmanth, Forteea, and Gosport Hospital, nhich are alwaje kept full, and an 
mriHt beneficially. A sum uf 1B00(. was voted by Parliament for the erection of tl 
warda, and fiOOi. is granted jrearlj in the Navy Estimates for tlieir support. 

"ha attempt iiaa been made to ealAbliab a aimilar institatiun at FlymoMh. ■ 
DeTonport, where there ifl no aanilarj proTiaion whateTer for the pterention or taitj sn, 
W the dieeaae amongst the nnfortnnate women ; but the anthoritiea of theae towia « 
not sanction any prorision being made for the admission into their bospitnle, worhhoi 
OF diapensari™, of diseaaes that are eontiacted by iminnrality, and the thing ia then 
for Ihe present in abeyance. " Yonra truly, 

' "W. Alton, Esu-" "J. LinnBLt. 



lbe,_ 
[bUeJ 



1 

1^^ 



SANlTAIiY ItEGULATIOSS ABr.OAD AXD AT nOJlE. 149 

eame position with regard to tlie disorder h^ some foreign citiea. 
Aiicitlier 10,000?. weH spent in ont-patient treitiuent of secondary Hytnp- 
tomfl and gonorrboea by the hospital statf and numerous local diapeusarieB 
would complete the work. 

The right of entiy, not at present enjoyed by the police, except in the 
case of common lodging-houses, is vested, nevertheless, under the Public 
Health Acts, in certain medical officers, who have access to eveiy house 
ill their respective districts. I see no impossibility of applying machiiieiy 
of this sort to the further benefit of the pi'ostitute and the community, 
by the detection of venereal disease. I should be among the tirst to 
protest against compulsory health inspoctioD of the person, which, unless 
hy speculum, cannot be performed efficaciously. I believe, however, that 
were the repression of syphilis hut to be taken, as it should be, under the 
care of the State, as a parental measure, the officer of health, whom I 
hope to see year after yeiir more recognised as a public necessity and 
a public friend, would be the most natural and efficient agent for peopling 
the national hospitals. 

The confidence of all classes, and particularly of the jMwr and tlie 
vicious, though rai'ely given till too late to the emissary of the Cross, is 
nioi'e often volunteered than not to the medical man. I believe that 
were district sub-inspectors appointed nnder the Health Acts, not from 
among strangei-a, but from the resident members of our profession — -who 
have ready access to the homes, and often enough, as I have said, to all 
the private aifaira, of those among whom they caat their lot— and were 
this staff adequately remunerated for the nse of their tune and trouble 
about a public matter, cases of syphilta would, after a little practice, be 
speedily discovei"ed and put under treatment, and the disease itself, io 
pi-oceas of time, if cot absolutely eradicated, be reduced to a trifling 



Their strict duty should of course be limited to the enforcement of 
ordinary public health regulations, which are now systematically neg- 
lected in such haunts and homes, But in addition to this function, the 
district health officer, who must be uudoubtedly a person of manners 
and tacti should be charged with the diffusion of information upon the 
value of decency and private sanitary precautions. He would find 
abundant opportunities of inculcating personal cleanliness, the impor- 
tanoe and means of self-defence ag-.iiust venereal disease, the stents to 
be taken in the case (which the unfortunate always believes impro- 
bable) of her contracting it, and the immense advantage of imme- 
diate action. He should, in fact, forewarn and forearm, thus paving 
the way for whoever may he charged with the case when disease at 
length appears. 

Though the prostitute in health rarely turns her thoughts to her own 
sickness, it is iar otherwise with the lodgiug-house ke«^jer, who quakes 
at the idea of an epidemic in her neighbourhood, or on the outbreak of 
venereal disease in her establishment She may flout and she may 
swear at the daily additions to the floating debt of her invalid inmate; 
but when, reckless of the public health, she urges the unfortunate to the 
streets, she but hastens the inevitable crisis of the hospital or the sick 
room, and defers her own chances of being paid If she drive her 
lodger out of doors she virtually abandons her claims; and if she alluw 




150 SAKITAUT REGULATIONS ABKOAD AND AT HOME. 

her to remain an inmate she retains an unprofitable and troubleaoan 

inoombrance, Fi-ora her unsleeping cupidity, then, when 

object of the health officer wa« recognised, I should calculate on a degi 

of welcome and assistance which the professional or voluntary 

of i-eligion may never look for. 

I should apprehend no discontent and no opposition from the mem' 
of my profession. Even were the advancement of the public liealth to 
demand some sacrifices of them, I have reason to think thoae aacrificea 
would be patiently, if not cheerftdly borne. But the preceding propo- 
sition tends, I fancy, rather to better the position of district pi-actitiouers 
than otherwise. A. man of skill and acquire menta, who has establitihed 
himself in any dense metropolitan neighbourhood, is, as things now 
stand, beset by venereal patients. Instead of being pursuer, he is in 
this aspect the pursued. He must either in self-defence briefly steel hia 
breast against appeals for gratuitous treatment and credit, or his time 
and his surgery ai-e heavily taxed by the former, and of such as beoomft. 
his debtors, perhaps only one in four can meet him on the day ot 
payment. 

But were my voice listened to, the establishments of such men Tronld 
become divisional surgeries, or diapensaries, the surgeon himself being 
paid for hia inspection services, either by salary, or head money oh cases 
remitted by him to central hospitals. Certain cases, not demanding 
hospital care, he should be charged with, under direction of a proper 
central hosjiital board, and paid for. lie would obviously retain, the 
power of treating all whose circumstances might enable them both to 
keep out of hospital and to pay. An end would thus be put to tl 
gratuitous treatment of syphilitic cases, as those who being too poor to paj 
yet too proud or impatient of restraint to accept of public diapeusaiy 
hospital treatment, have surely no claim upon the heavily taxed syi 
pathies of our profession. The class who absolutely would not, whi 
they might, be gratuitously treated for venereal disorders, must, owing^]] 
to the manifold inconveniences of the disease, and the feir averagati 
dilTusion of common sense among English people, be so restricted that ' 
provisions in their regai-d, whether for compulsion or punishment, would 
be superfluous. The " Act for the Prevention and Mitigation of certain 
Contagious Disorders" — an act of mercy indeed, which I hope before I 
die will set another jewel in the crown of a virtuous Queen — should 
impose penalties upon the fraudulent dealings, by irregular practitiouersj 
with the public health, and make the communication of syphilis ttt 
minors a felony, 

.Although I have long had the intention of laying these 
the public, I must admit, after seeing them in manuscript, that the>^ 
have pretensions to Uttie more than the germs of what is called " tl 
practical." To have presented them in a mature form would hai 
involved, among other things, the elaboration of an hospital schemi 
task to which many of my readera must be moi-e competent than myself 
I may on the one hand have overrated the power of the sum I have>, 
named, and on the other I may possibly — though I have littla appF»» 
ion on this head — have mis^ialcQlated the degree of countenanoa-/ 
which the scheme of a public anti-syphilis organization would receive 
h tmm the profession. Any accurate estimate of the cost of such a meaanra 



I 



lOAD AND AT HOME. 161 

■would have demanded the administratire capacity of Mr. Steele, of Guy's 
Hospital, and a devotion of time not at my disposal. To haye tested at 
all Batiafactorily the opinions of the medical body, or to have attempted 
to move it by the agency of our corporate inatitutions, would have 
required the heads of Oei-berus, and the haads of Briareus. 

Being not thus endowed, and yet desirous to avail myself of wtat 
seemed a highly favourable condition of the public mind, I have been 
obliged to thivw out the foregoing enggestions in a crude state. As 
regards the public, I believe .they will yet amply serve to catch opinions. 
Had they been the labour of a lifetime, they would still have fallen 
short in. point of mechanism, and been open to manifold suggestions of 
improvement by professional judges. To the public and the profession, 
therefore, I commit them, deprecating condemnation on account of au 
immaturity which I confess, and leaving, it must be observed, a wider 
field for the ingenuity of others than had I taken time to clothe the 
bare skeleton of a plan with laborious, and at present unnecessary detail. 
For the time, it is enough that the principle of public opposition to 
venereal diaeaae in London should be brought forward and considered 
from the moral, sauitaiy, and constitutional points of view. I have 
endeavoured to throw some light upon it by adducing the best (though 
unfortunately meagre) evidence procurable; and should it ever, sur- 
viving the various preliminary ordeals, make its appearance on tlio 
refining hearth of a Parliamentary Committee, then will arise the im- 
portant question of a detailed scheme, and the much more knotty one of 
ways and means. Oould I as clearly see a way thixiugh the latter as 
through the former of these difficulties, my mind would be easy indeed. 
I fiilly anticipate the progress, sure though slow, of the subject as far as 
that troublesome siding of pounds, shillings, and pence on which so 
many a proper measure has been shunted for ever; and I can imagine 
that such a vote as I have projjosed, were it even backed by a Blue-book 
full of convincing evidence, and a rejiort from the most conscientious 
Committee that ever sat, would be just such a " tub to a whale" as an 
anxious Treasury Bench might be expected to throw overboard to pacify 
a sharp Parliamentary inquirer. But the moat economical of minda 
cannot for ever be dead to the calls of patriotism and charity; and 
should the urgent and especial interest of our urban comimmities, in 
showing a bold front to these diseases, ever break upon men in office, I 
am not without hope that the representatives of those communities at 
least, among whom, I believe, are the leading apostles of thrift, will find 
it their duty also to support Bills, votes, or resolutions tending to that 
end. The question then remaining — and it would he a natural and 
proper one for debate — would be upon whose financial shoulders ought 
the burden to be imposed — whether on those of municipalities or on 
tboae of the country at large. 





SAXITIBY REOUL.OIONS ABSOAD AND AT nOUB. 



ViairATION AND RELIEF FUND, SUPPORTED BY PCBLIC SUBSCKIPTK 
OR, THE LAST ALTERNATIVE — A SliLF-SUPPORTINQ 8ANITAKT SOCll 
AIDED BY VOLUNTARY SUBSCKIPTIONS, 

I took occaBion, twelve montTis ago, when my ideas upon thb subjet 
■were perhaps hardly so matured as at present, to aubrait them to bodm^ 
parochial authorities, illustrating by such arguments aa I thought they 
might appreciate, the value of prophylactic measures against venereal as 
well 33 against other diseases. My so-styled " preposterous idea," that 
the over-taxed ratepayers — many of them hardly able to support them- 
selves — shoulj be called upon actually to search out and then maintain J 
ia idleDeaa a parcel of iovahd harlots, thus qualifying them for freiA V 
oampaigns against the public, was duly sifted over and ridiculed, and ItsS 
uahicky author was dismissed to keep the appropriate company of otiuff fl 
visionaries. I had clearly made one mistake; but with scai'ce-abatattj 
hope, and sure, at least, of being better undtistood, I waited upon tk| 
accomplished medical officer of the General Board of Health, and Ifud'^ 
before him a somewhat lengthy epitome of my views upon prostitution 
and venereal disease. I pointed out that our enemy, unlike cholera, 
is always with us, operating on the hstpptnesa and the physical condition 
— sometimes from generation to generation — of the community, I 
showed in how much greater proportion the public health suffers from 
tliis than from other disorders, and how our knowledge of its laws might 
enable us, first to arrest, and then to gain ground against it. Having 
raised and, I believe, disposed of, the moral and religious fiillacy, I hinted 
that, unless through Government indiscretion, no greater political danger 
attended a change in our tactics than had been involved in the laws 
upon vaccination and quarantine; and I ventured to uudertalte that the 
medical profession, with proper State support, would devise and put in. j 
action measures adequate, uot to the extirpation of syphilia, but at lea " 
to its thorough subjugation. Were lai-ge tempoi-ary acoommodatii 
provided in addition to that at the disposal of existing hospitals, and ti 
system of detection and eai'ly treatment once in broad operation, jj 
thought that the victoiy would soon be so iar achieved, that i 
sporadic cases would remain. Touching upon the public loss by n 
effective males — whether of the labouring classes or in the puhfl 
service— I called attention to the prevalent misapprehension as ' 
fete of prostitutes, and the possibility that the Government ( 
country gravely erred in practically endorsing by inaction the vulg;; 
notion that the woman once a prostitute always remains such, and tht 
the community can have no concern in her welfare after her fail. 

I acknowledge with pleasure that my statements were heard iritig 
patient and considerate attention; but therCj alas! ended, or nearly a 
ibr the time, my communication with the executive upon this matte 
For " had I not," J was asked, " omitted to count the cost of all thia^ 
Was I not aware that Gorerumont had no means at its disposal for s 
a purpose, and that the unauthorized a])propriation to it of funds othe^ 
wise destined, was out of the question. Were not the House of Oo^ 
mous entrusted with the national purse-atriugs, and did they : 
jealously guard this cherished function 1 Could I, in fine, ibr 4 



BASIT.IRV REGULATIOKS ABROAD AND AT HOME. l03 

moment, in my Bimplioity, imagine that acy memLor of GoTcrnment, oi- 
iuJeed any member of the House of Onmmona, oonlJ lie ftmnd ao hokl 
a^ to propose from his place in that House a gmut of money with suah 
au object, howevor assured he might be of its propriety and public iui- 
portaiice!" 

Forgetful at the time of the annual vote for the Dahlia Lock Hos- 
pital, I was unable to pany with it this idlhna ratio of my well-disposed 
official friend. He, however, recommended — if my convictions and 
enargy were atill unimpaired — that I should endeavour to organize a 
system of visitation on the voluntary principle, and in the metropolis. 
If Huhseijuently, supported by facts and evidence of success, even upon a 
small senile, I chose again to try my fortunes at Whitehall, I might 
indulge, he thought, some hope of the possible eventual couateuancu of 
Government. When, with this lengthy vista of probabilities before me 
— great though the object at its close — Iweighed the very partial results 
to be expected, and the difficulty of so propagating ray views as to raise 
even a limited private fund, to say nothing of personal convenience and 
professional avocations, I must conless that, although my convictions did 
remain unimpaired, I lost the intensity of pui'pose demanded by an 
enterprize so new and sq peculiar. 

While brooding over the necessity of State intervention, and accumu- 
lating materials for this present plea in its favour, my thoughts would 
frequently recur to Mr. Simon's suggestion, that aa far as visitation 
went, my. seheme should be carried out by private exertion ; and while 
preiKiring for the i>ras3, I resolved onoe more to mate an attempt. Tlie 
old obstacles encumbered the graund, and new ones came up thick and 
fast, even when, abandoning the notion of general oiJCPtttions, I had 
selected for a beginning the obviously ample field presented by the oon- 
oeutrated prostitution iu my own immediate neighboui'hood. Not the 
least of these would be that combination of moral cowardice and dis- 
honesty not peculiar to prostitutes, and often tatsely called " inde- 
jjendence of spirit," or even " higli-mindeduesa," which prefers contraction 
of debt without reasonable prospect of payment, to being apparently an 
object of charity, or as it is at other times expi-eased, " being under 
obligations." Ignorance, thoughtlessness, and insincerity, again, might 
lead to much involuntary as well an purposed deception of visitors, even 
after first prejudices against what might be thought impertinent 
curiosity had been smoothed down. The probable nji prehensions of 
the class that gratuitous sanitary visitation must of necessity be a cloak 
for some religious or police oontrivauce, would have to be overcome ; 
and on my part, there was the fear that the practitioners of the dis- 
trict might conceive themselves profestaionally slighted — not to say 
nnhandsomely interfered with — were strange emissaries of a medical 
charity to be introduced into the neighbourhood without reference to 
their interests or opinions. Lastly, when I thought over the reluc- 
tance of some and the religious scruplea of other most worthy and 
charitable men as to coming forward to patronize and conduct such 
an institution, and the alacrity with which othera not so eligible would 
certainly embrace the opjHii-tunity of indulging idle curiosity, I felt 
compelled once more, not to abaudon my project, but to re-arrange it. 
Taking counsel with some friends of muie, we decided tliat b.3 thid 




154 SANlTAilT REGULATIONS ABROAD ASD AT HOME. 

scheme was of profeasioDal origin, so by profeaaional agency and u 
pvofesaianaJ maiiiLgemeiit alone coulcl we liope to mature it. It 
bj no mejms certain that if the profession took the matter in iia.iidt~ 
a larger subacviption-liat could not be i-aiseil for tbe peculiar object 
than would be forthcoming in answer to the appeal of a. few charitabie 
laymen. This much was certain : it would not be less. It was clear 
that none would require so little indoctrination upon the subject as men 
of our calling ; none would be so alive to the extent of the evil and the 
importance of a remedy; and therefore few, if our hearts were in it, 
would plead better than we should. Again, if the State demanded proofs 
of sanitary truths, no laymen so fit as we to furnish them. If she could 
be spurred to do her duty by the shown exjierienGe of an ordinai^frB 
association of voluntary subacribera, how much more effective would m| 
that of a medical charity supported by medical men 1 Who so trusb^ 
■worthy as investigators 1 who so likely as them to be listened to b]*! 
the particular class in question, whether as advocates of health, precao^l 
tions, or of worldly prudence t Who, last of all, would be so competeufr:^ 
as ourselves to solve that standing problem to all charities — uamelj-^ j 
how to do the most good with the least money ? I 

I therefore found myself at this conclusion ; — that the new sanitary J 
movement must, to have a chance of success, be under the direction, ofv 
at least the eponaorship, of medical men. The question of ways and , 
means next presented itself. The accounts of the Lock Hospital would 
Beem to hold out small encouragement to hope for great immediate public 
sympathy. On the other hand, the managers of that charity are ham- 
pered in their exertions by a clog of delicacy which would not neutralize 
the zeal of professional men bent upou the new experiment. But still, 
when 1 remembered the reluctance of the best among ua to contribute 
to untried plana, the difficulty, indeed the questionable propriety, of 
ventilating this one by the usual agencies of public meetings, circulars, 
and advertisements, I was again bi'ought to a atand-still. Hetuming 
again to the charge, I weighed the rooted aversion to hospital treat- 
nieut entertained by the particular section of women with whom it was 
proposed to begin, and the consequent distrust with which they would 
regard eleemosynary visitation; and asked myself, was there any para- 
mount necessity for beginning in that quarter at alii The answer was 
aflirnuitive; fori found that, with all their braveries, the West- End 
pi-oatitutes bear no amulet against disease. As susceptible of, and, £1*001 
their promiscuity, if anything, more liable to syphilis than the lowest 
strumpet, these women are, for the same reason perhaps, more dif- 
fusive of it than she is; and their bad physical condition materiallj . 
concerns classes of males whose soundness is no less important to sociel ' ' 
than that of the soldiers or artisans infected by the proatitutea of Wea 
minster and Lambeth. As, therefore, I could have gained nothing I 
new difficulties by changing the venue, I decided on promolgataai 
the following scheme for the sanitary regulation of the West-Enj, 
pi-ostitutes, which is calculated, I believe, to meet the various diffianlti(i[| 
hereinbefore raised, and is susceptible of modified adaptatior 
districts, 

I propose to extend to the woman of the town the advantages of a.^ 
Friendly Society, or Benefit Club, so that, when suffering &om anj^J 



SANITARY REGULATIONS ABROAD AMD AT IIOMK 155 

affeotion whatsoever, incidental or not incidental to her vocation, alie 
iniiy, in virtue and right of her own payments during health,* ensure 
tlie attendauce and remuneration of any qualified practitioner resident in 
the district, whom she might select, aa well aa an allowance while under 
treatment. 

The general and financial management of the Institution, which I 
propose to call the London Female Sanitaiy Society, T would vest in a 
sufficiently numerous council of lay and professional persons of good 
repute. The medical suporviBion ought, forohvious [■easous, to rest witli 
a distinct committee of medical men, and no others. Ample machinery 
for the detection and cure of venereal disease already exists, in the shape 
of the resident practitioners, and only requires organization to fit it for 
our purpose. Tiie assistance of these gentlemen is indispensabla I 
hare already shown, in treating of Government intervention, their 
peculiar fitne'ia for the worfc, and the probability of their zealoua co-ope- 
ration with the State; and, from inquiries I have mide, I believe that 
the same zeal and acquirements would bo cheerfully brought to the 
asaiatance of a sound and well-directed sanitary movement promoted by 
individuals. 

The Society's income should be derived ; — 

lat. From members' enti-anee fees. 

2nd. From their weekly payments. 

3rd. From subsoriptioca and donations. These I think woiild be forth- 
coming, aa well from the benevolent class of persons who support tlie 
bulk of our charitable institiitions, as from a number of the public 
who have long compassionated fiillen women, andfi-om others again whose 
recollection of their own past sufferings may induce them to recognise 
the value, and deplore the former absence, of such an institution. 

The sickness of prostitutes from all caiisest averages about four weeks 
per annum. An allowance of 308. pet week for this period — and less 
would be insufficient for women treated at home — would amount to Gl. 
Payment for profeasioual services by the ease would be infinitely preferable 
to any other mode ; and after conferring with gentlemen who have already 
considerable practice of the kind, I think that '21. lOs. per cose would 
cover the cost of medicine and attendance, and of the other services the 
Society would require of its repre.'ientatives. 

The weekly payment necessary to secure tiie annual demand upon the 
funds of 8^. lOs. (the sum of the above items) in respect of each member, 
■would be three siiillings and three pence. 

If the surgical fee were reduced to 21. per case, and the members' 
sick allowance to 11. per week, a weekly contribution of two shillings 

* I f«ol thnt this inviting vromea to aubsCTibe is the weak point al the whole Bf Bl«in^ 
HO much so that 1 hava boen oier and over again on the point of giving up the notion. It 
Jniiat inatinulJTBly tnj repugnant to every well-regulated mind to he inatnimontal in ool- 
leotjng moneir tliat ia thu wages oF aln^the reword of iniquity. Conid I haie devlsad 
any other plan, willinglj would I hare done ho. It the State, a.i I believe is its duty, or 
the public, nndertonk the fonndntion and maiatenanis of Bpeoial hospitals, these words 

Muroa, I am furced back upon this proposal of co-oporation : and have ailanwd my own 
doubts by the nrgumeuL, that the diruction of Ihe wagas of sin towards the salvation of 
the Binnar, ia more than enough to mniitify their handling. 
f Say &01U uteriue, venereal, h;Bt«rical, and chest aSeationa. 




15'i SANITAItV REGCLATIO^'S ABROAD AND AT I10»E. ^^^^^H 

ainl sixpence would ail ffi.ce. But as I contemplate imposing upon tnediaJ 
oQlcerH, in lulditioD to atteudance upon, and the supply of medicine to, 
the sick, the labour of ByphUia discovery, distribution of aauitary rales, 
collection of retuma, and correspondence with the Medical Committee, 
their remuneration should, I fancy, be something in excess of the coat 
price of their Tiaita and drugs. I have therefore thought it best to assume 
that each medical mnu in union with the Institution will receive 21. 10k 
on each member's case. 

It is not improbable that certain of these women would coDsider a 
Bick allowance of li. lOg. per week a bagatelle, and would rather not 
aul)Soribe than contemplate the possibility of what they would call such 
fearfully reduced ciroumatancea. It would be imprudent, however, on 
the part of the manugcineut, unless there were more prospect than I can 
foresee of a numeroua distinct class of heavy assurers, to run the hazard 
of impairing the sounduesa of the bene&t fund by mixing exceptional 
risks with the general body. 

Supposing the association to be well under weigh, it ia obvious that a 
member shouhl not be admitteil unless she were apparently in a fcir 
state of fiouudneaa /or a proatUtUe; but I am uot unprepared for abuses. 
It would be all but impossible in the early stages, whatever might bs 
afterwai-ds deemed expedi«nt, to insist upon examination as a condition 
of adralBsioa. The chances are, indeed, that aa we should be under the 
necessity of canvassing for members, the adoption of auch a rule would 
render the acheme unpopular and its failure certain. 

Hence the general funds would suiFer. Women in a state of disease 
would pass a superficial examination undetected, join the society to be 
eured, and with characteristic improvidence, forthwith drop their pay- 
ments. Impositions of this nature, to which all benefit clubs are more 
or less liable, would preaa unduly upon the benefit fund; but I have 
calculated u[ion the public aubscriptiona to compensate for them. And 
again, aa it would be pointed out that they had a tendency to prejudice 
the iuteresta of the beneficiary members, I should expect that the Iatt«r, 
like those of other aocietiea, would after a time bo anxious to detect and 
expose them, as they well might, for their own protection. But 
whether auch attempts to take unfair advantage of the inatitcition be so 
prevented or not, it must be borne in mind that, hiiving on. the one 
hand no views of profit and no payments after death to provide for, and 
on the other, having in prospect the contributions ot the charitable 
public, it will not be vitally important to steer the conrse of stern 
economy that would dictate the inexorable rejection of invalid candi- 
dates by an ordinary friendly society. Our object ia to employ medicina 
for the improvement not of public health alone, but also of public 
morals, and to that end it will be our bouiiden duty to open our doom 
to the sick and aorry as widely as common aenae and honesty may 
permit — to invite the entrance unquestioned of all whom we may hy 
any means secure the means to treat without misappropriatiug the 
Bacred fund of the contributing members. 

The reader will recollect, tiiat when a contributory scheme was pro- 
jiosed, it was, through well-founded apprehension that the class might 
in their foolish pi'ide, aa insolently reject the iuterforence of chaji^ i 
they do that of religion. Wo adopted it as a kind of pavise behind whf 



sanitafly REQULATioNa ABROAD ASD AT none. 157 



■we might win our way into their homes and confidence ; but we can only 
hope for balil resulta if we allow ourselves to be nnduly encumbered by 
it at the hill-foot of our enterprise, when the heaviest part of the work 
is before ua, and our powers are undeveloped. 

The whole success of the experiment is involved in the steady co- 
operation of the visiting officers. I have before explained that such a 
staff was ready to our hands, and how they may be conaidered as being 
even personally interested in the movement I rely, however, upoa 
other and higher inducements for their enlistment, for I consider that no 
man may have elected to pass hia days in one of the crowded districts 
who is not, as it were, forced to sympathize with the miseries of his 
neighbours, more patent as they must he to his eyes than to those of 
the uninstruoted. No man but would rejoice (considerations of profit 
apart) at the slightest modicum of as.siatance supplied by charity to hia 
already over-taxed resources of gratuitous relief. By investing him more- 
over with the functions of the almoner, besides those of the physician, 
we should be adding unquestionahly to hia local inSnence and to liis 
value to ourselves. 

Such an emissary need never be accompanied on his rounds, as are 
his foreign prototypes, by a, file of the police; his visits, on the contrary, 
would soon be recognised, not as impertinent, but as the mere perform- 
ance of a covenant between the Society and its members. They would 
be rigorously exacted by the latter, and the advantage of hia precautionary 
advice volunteered to all women in health, would soon come to be 
anxiously sought for. One of his most important doctrines in connexion 
with the Society would be the inotiJcation of prophylacticB upon women 
in health, to whom, under the circnmstanoea I have imagined, he would 
have easy access. 

The carelessness and indolence that counteract in practice the theo- 
retical acquaintance of even well-informed persons with the value of 
preventive measures, have ever been the powerful allies of contagion 
against the health of the regular proatitute. To substitute instruction 
for her ignorance, and self-respect for her reckleasness, has been hitherto 
nobody's business, and has not been attempted. Bought, sold, and 
cheapened, like other articles of trade, often used by the brothel-keeper 
as it were a sponge, to collect loose money from our sex, and to be 
squeezed dry at leisure, the denizen of the brothel at least, whatever 
more elevated ideas may have found a. pla<» in the understanding of 
her independent sisters, has looked upon diaeaae as a remote con- 
tingency- — which good luck might defer for ever — unprofitable and 
unpleasant to contemplate beforehand. As reflection and economy, 
which stiike at the root of brothel society, have ever been expelled from 
it as common enemies ; so, I apprehend, are health precautions, savouring 
as they do of decency, foresight, and calculation, likely to be discouraged 
among these fatalists as unmeaning or futile. But a strong impression 
tnight be made upon this ignorance and fatalism if the surgeon, who is 
generally regarded among our lower classes much as the mysterious 
" medicine man" of yet wilder tribes, were to assume before them the 
mission of disease eradication with a faint show of that boldness which 
never fails to find believers and victims for the charlatun. 

The \iBiting officer of the Society, upon his tour of sanitary propa- 



158 



1 



gnudiBm, Bhould commanicate to' the members oral, and perhaps pri] 
information upon the following heads: — 

The vaJue, proper times, aoJ proper method of ablntion should 
first dwelt upon. Cold water is, I am aware, oft^n nsed externally', 
Irnt still not so commonly aa might be wished. Few females apply 
it with regnlarify to the generative oi^ans, and of these few again do 
so at proper seaaona. Moat scrupnlous use of soap and \Fater imme- 
diately after connexion should be insisted upon, and micturition at the 
sarae time, as tending to remove any irritating secretion that may have 
found its way to tlie urethra. 

The female shovdd be especially cautioned agaiast too frequent sexual 
congress, whether in obedience to instincts of her own, or in compliant 
with male lasciviousnosa. 

She should be made aware of the impropriety of connexion for 
least two days before and after the penods of menstruation, as also durii^ 
those periods. 

She should be entreated to discard the notion that because, as a 
aubacriber to a fond, she may procure relief, thiit fund can absolve 
her from the penalty imposed upon her general health for the abuse of a 
calling which is in its mildest form an abuse of Nature. 

It should be impressed upon her that it is her almost inevitable fate, 
sooner or later, to undergo one of the uterine or venereal complaints, 
but that hy her precaution, vigilance, and immediate correspondenoe 
with our profession, its severity and duration may be .mitigated, 
while if neglected, it will prove serious, or at all events tedious. Jot 
their common benefit, prostitutes should be earnestly entreated to 
euforce upon each other the surgeon's serious advice, to avoid stimulating 
drinks and connexion while im.der treatment ; and thoiin in health should 
be cautioned against the use of water, sponges, or chamber utensils iu 
coniTOon with the diseased, though they may inhabit the same room^ 
sleep in the same bed, and perhaps drink out of the same cups. 

They should be seriously shown the absurdity of noatmms, the dangera 
to health and purse that result from quackery in geueraL The daily 
use of an injection, composed of one ounce of solution of clilorinated soda 
to one pint of water, should be recommended, and be applied with a 
proper elastic syringe, the ordinary pew1«r ones being of little use. The 
solution should not be used before connexion, as its tendency is to remove 
a portion of the mucus that sheathes the membrane, and by its astringeucy 
to coagulate the remainder into an incrustation, whose abrasion during 
the act would leave the parts bare and more susceptible than before. 
The prostitutes of some foreign cities are by law compelled to keeg^ 
some such preparation in their rooms, but I fancy the police of thi 
capitals have stopped short of the absurdity of attempting to enforce 
private use by stress of edicts. 

She may, s^ter a time, be delicately told, that one of the great adi 
tages of interior examination is the early discovery of venereal aora 
abrasions, which, if immediately treated, have no more than transiei 
unpleasant results. 

And lastly, it should he impressed upon her, that there are pera( 

arid who are neither ujiconcemed for her present health, 
\s of her reclamation j tliat though she niay have no deliuito 



lal 



i 



SANITARY REQULATiONa ABIIOAD ASD AT HOME. 159 

ideas of quitting her evil way, there are those who conaiiler her eoa- 
tiiiniitice in it terminable, and who, beiieving that length of days and 
[leaoe may be in store for her, hold out what glimmeriug light they may 
to help her, if ever ao little, through the darkness in which she walks. 

Each medical officer in union with the Society, and I presume that 
nearly all the qualified practitioners of the district would become so, 
would make a weekly report to the medical committee, of new and old 
cnsea nnder his charge. His duty would be to see sick membera three 
tim.es a-week, when and where might be .settled between them; and for 
the statiatical inquiry and sanitary propagandiam, it were better that he 
should make his way into as many dwelling-houaes aa possible. In peeu- 
liai' or difficult case?, the medical committee would be at his disposal 
for consultation, and in such aa showed symptoms of becoming un- 
duely burdensome upon the funds of the latter, would be bound to offer 
their assistance, and one of their number should be considered aa dis- 
posable every week for this purpose. I have no doubt but that the 
expenses would for two years be heavy, and that the machinery alto- 
gether would be found to work somewhat inaccurately, but 1 think that 
atter that interval, witen the value of thriftiness and precaution had 
come home to the class, they would seek, instead of requiring to be 
sought by, our health officers. We should soon begiu to collect those 
ample and reliable venereal statistics whose want 1 have so often had 
occasion to deplore during the comjiosition of this and other works. 
These once_^ obtained, we should find after another interval that we were 
shortening the mean duration of venereal sickness by means of eavJy 
discovery and treatment, and this would be of course synonymous with 
reduced intensity of disease and diminished male and female Buffijriag. 

As, besides impoverishing the funds, it would exceed the legitimate 
aim of the Society to imjiose upon it the care of prolonged or inciu-able 
cases, it seems no more than right that its members, like those of other 
benefit clubs, should covenant with it for a material decrease of the 
sick allowance after a certain length of illness. The Society should, 
on its part, be bound to treat the patient either in cheap lodgings or 
in a proper infirmary. To enable it to carry out this agreement, I 
should rely upon the public subscription, not the contributors' fund, 
and I expect that the system would in a, few years make such progress 
that severe and expensive cases of venereal disease, at least, would he 
rarely heard of. 

The idea that such an institution woidd induce one woman more to 
enter upon sinfulness, will not for a moment bear the light of reason. It 
holds out no aliuiement of impunity; and providence was never an 
inducement to vice. I may say to the advocates of reformatories, and 
nothing but refonn atones, that the primary object of this Club would 
not be reformation or proselytism : it would be Christiau charity to- 
wards the fallen, and Christian charity is the handmaid of religion. You 
must soften the steel before you can mould it ; you must get in somehow 
the thin end of the wedge of improvement, A member of such an 
institution, though she were casehardened as steel, must be something 
Bofteued by the novel sense of disintei-ested sympathy in time of health, 
and consideration in the time of sickness and trouble. But we would have 
no direut hand in the conversion of the pi-odigaL We would leave that 



ICO SANITAHY KEGVLATIONS ABROAD ASD AT HOME. 

to tlie Church, wliose fitting office it ia, contente<l with the reflection that 
we had been lier harbingera and her pioneers, that we had opened a way 
to the heart and conscience, where she stood aghast at the work. 

The feet that those who have the closest relutioua with the class with 
whom it ia proposed to deal have direct pecuniary interest in the succftes 
of such an undertaking, would not slightly, I apprehend, enhance the 
probabihtiea in its favour. The lodging-house keeper, whose avarice, 
as a general rule, ha» devoured her other passions, and who now, as cre- 
ditor for home and food, is leae a ministering angel than a veidng demon 
at the bedside of sickueas, must from mere self-interest become our pro- 
pa^ndist, and thus retribntively the most impure will aid us to uproot, 
or at the least to lop, the upas tree wherein tboy harbour. 

Enough has been said to show why memberaof our profession through- 
out London, whose time is now distracted by att-endance, nominally or 
virtually gratuitous, upon increasing numbers of patients whom they 
kuow to he proper objects of the publiccarc, should he our nafurul 
Silvocates and our working staff. Our ideas have no tendency towards 
centralization, but rather to contending in detail, and by district organi- 
zation of lay and professional efforts, against the formidable deterionitor , 
of the human race. Fighting for the public health, we may, we eames ~ 
believe, damage in our progress the outworks of immorality and vioe, a 
establish a foothold for the emissary of the Cross ■where now he wearie*^ 
heart and eye in seeking one. Once on the march, we shall be sloi 
sure, and if we win but way enough to induce the State to do its office, 
OUT object will have been answered. The State has virtually refused 
to initiate the work of controlling syphilis, and has, in a manner, 
challenged individuals to the experiment. How that challenge might b 
taken up, it has been the object of the preceding pages, after years e 
oniioua thought and rejected plans, to point out. 



CHAPTER IX 



PEEVENTION. 



I HAVE now, as well as I could, fulfilled tny promise of examiaing the 
jn\>babilities of our applying some such influeucea to prostitution as 
might prepare the road for the escape of its victims, while lessening both 
its temporary and permanent ill effects upon them and upon public 
health, and, at the same time, correcting those excesses which oflend 
delicacy. I will now glance at the prospects of prevention which, 
visionary or otherwise, desei-ye to be taken some account of. 

To suppose an absence of the sexual ideas, which are instiuctive in 
youth, and ia age, passion, is to suppose an imperfect and objectless 
human being. Such absence would abrogate at once the term " conti- 
nence," and the necessity for my writing. But they are universal ; and 
this, their universality, fraught with happiness when disciplined, and 
with misery when uncontrolled, induces me, when I consider the slow 
growth and limited efficacy of the moral and religious curb, to advocate 
the introduction of worldly-wiee and physico-moral training into the 
curriculum of modem education. Whatever may be said to the contrary, 
the major force of prostitution comes, except in extraordinary cases, by 
the desire of the male. It is visionary indeed to entertain the idea of 
summary repression, or of purifying the morals of men by parliament or 
police. The chances are that were the eruptive tendencies of prostitution 
driven inwards, grave internal disorder would be set up. If we were 
forced then to adopt preventive measures against this plague, instead of 
Backcloth and ashes for its arrest, we should find there was no better 
oliance and no livelier hope of diminishing the supply of prostitution 
than by operating against the demand; no better means of doing this 
than sexual education or training to continence. The mind of the 
youDg, whose vices, like those of adults, are ignored by society, and who 
obey the promptings of instinct until the gates of reflection are opened, 
perhaps, for the first tinie, by suffering, is admitted by all to be the 
proper battle-ground of religion against sinfulness. On that same field, 
I say, would be opened just as appropriately the first campaign of virtue 
against vice. 

The serious aggregate of adult misery resulting from the sexual mal- 
practices of youth, determined me in a previous work* to advocate 
publicly what I therein termed "training to continence;" and having 
once broken the ice, I have now no hesitation in avowing my opinion 



■4 

tbe 
Ling ■ 



168 PREVENTION. 

that no material bead will erer be made against prostitntion nnl^s smne 
agreement is come to on this point among tlioae who are coucemed in 
edncation. 

Tonng people of the present day are at full liberty, and, when gathered 
togethei- in numbers especiallyj are accustomed, to sap the foundations of 
their physical fabric without a word of enlightenment v/ntU Jbund out.. 
After discovery, which the supineness of tutors or youthful cunning may 
defer indefinitely, comea warning, perhajs punishment. With the acci- 
dent, then, of discovery or secreay varies the amount of physical mischief 
they are permitted to work upon tlieir frames, and the intensity of evil 
inclinations they may foster and store up for the perversion of their 
future steps. 

The heart of the child ia wicked, but his mind has well been called* 
fair book, on which he who will may write some lasting record, 
cannot be in error, though I may he reiterating a vain platitude, when 
urge that the guides of our youth should show their charges more of the 
sloughs and pitfalls that beset the way through the world. The general 
wrongnesa, deformity, and puniahmetit of abstract vice, the beauty, con- 
solation, and reward of abstract virtue, have been hitherto the beginning 
and end of our moral training. This system has brought ua indifferentl*^ 
well, so far us we may as a nation pretend to be advanced, but I le&ve u 
to those who have the care of souls to say how far that may be. 
maintain that a most salutary innovation upon it would be to take 
precedence of the instructor in vice, who ia ever at hand to the young, 
and to forearm the cliild against the most insidious disguise of the evil 
one, the drea^ of pleasure. An instructor who should awaken the mind 
of youth to the sinfulness and worldly folly of destroying that transient 
shrine of the heaven-lent immoitality, man's body, would surely be 
materially advancing the eternal as well as temporal interests of his 
pupil. No more doubt can exist that the health and wealth of the adult 
may be influenced for good or ill by the direction of the youthful idies 
gine&iques, than that such direction is at present left to chance. The 
illustration of the seventh, which of all the commandments has the 
greatest practical bearing upon the earthly career of man, and ia of 
conrse no less impoitant to his future than the others, ia, under our 
system, evaded, while every possible hght is thrown upon the othera. 
Ko amount of time would, I believe, be deemed wasted, which a aptrituol 
pastor and master had spent in illustrating the nine commandments, 
whose breach by untutored man is not a matter of certainty, and 
obedience to which may be almost enforced by pi-ecept. But the one of 
the ten that is directed against unlavrful use of the arch function of 
man, namely, that of procreation, and has to war against not only abstract 
sinfulness but also against positive lust, is so shunned by schoolmasters, 
that boys have to ask themselves at years of puberty, has the adultery of 
the commandment any wider sense than the adultery of the dictionary 1 
What wonder, then, if passion and the force of example ahould press 
into their service at a critical period a conveniently-restricted interpre- 
tation of this word; and then the three together shotdd clear the first 
and often the last feeble entrenchment thrown up by conscience. Thufl, , 
the boy who was yesterday in statu pupillari at a public school, and I 
to-day the run of the London streets with s ■ • ■ 



3 gumeas i 



TbUfl, M 

ind hi ^ 

I 



PREVENTION. 183 

may fiud to-morrow murning tlmt he has taken a, vast step in his educa- 
tiuu as e. iniui of the world. I'o-diij' he mnj be in rude elastic health, 
with what he conaidei-s a stock of vitality to spare. In a week's time ho 
may be carrying a foul disease about with him, and even ignorantly or 
carelessly disseminating it. In a month or two his superfluous power is 
gone, and the natural stock nearly so : the former burnt to waste in tlie 
fiirnaoe of his body, the latter draining off by disease. It is in inexpe- 
rienced youths, wiljk fresh constitutions, that venereal diseases leave their 
most permanent marks, wliile they lightly glance off the man of full age, 
who thinks twice at least before exposing himself to their attack. The 
latter is timid and suspicious ; seeks professional advioe on the Ikintest 
show of aymptoms — often, indeed, before them. Fear, shame, or igno- 
i-ance may prevent the former irom adopting remedial measures until the 
enemy has made such progress that a thread of anxiety is woven into 
his career, and perhaps a permanent taint into his blood. If the effects ' 
are not serious, his escape is a matter of congratulation — his surprise 
deferred. Having once passed the fence of virtue, and found sweet 
fruit in the orchard of evil, he is encouraged to tempt chance again, until 
disease, financial embaiTossment, or a painful liaison makes a reflective 
man of him at one coup. Many fathers of the present day, recognising 
this tmth, are apt to give a few wovds of worldly advice to lads starting 
in life ; but these are rather how to deal witli the ill oonsequences of 
dissipation, than how to tame fleshly lust itself. To leave the acquisition 
Ol this experience to be a matter of chance or purchase, is, from my 
point of view, a wrong not merely against the individual, but against 
the community, unworthily done in the name of modesty. Having firat, 
to please what is called " delicacy," left in his own hand the sexual edu- 
cation of the child and tiie school-boy, we send him forth, again to please 
delicacy, unarmed, to meet an unknown, terrible enemy, who will come 
in the guise of love, and be welcomed hy natural instinct. He may 
encounter the finished votaries of vice, or girls themselves unarmed 
except by that veil of native modesty which, by its mere self, offers but 
a flimsy resistance to the assault of energetic passion. Whether he 
becomes the victim or the maker of harlots ia an afiair of chance. 

But surely much of this might be avoided were the parents, the edu- 
cators, and the spiritual guardians of youth charged, in all cases — first 
being oa well informed themselves on physiological points as we must 
suppose them to be upon religious — with opening carefidly to the eye of 
youth this page in the book; with showing, by degrees proportioned to 
the age of the pupil, the worldly impolicy, as well as the impropriety, of 
vice; and with prescribing to adults who would trample upon their 
lusts, and enforcing upon children, hygienic and gymnastic training, 
according to the temperament of each. In another treatise I have 
dilated upou the possibility of thus abating the sexual suffering of 
single meu ; and my observations have been received with so much 
iavour, that I have no fear in urging again the value of physical 
regimen, not only to the male, but as a material check upon the demand 
for female prostitution. I urge, in fact, that, instead of, as at present, 
ignoring the sex passion and its consequences, the Protestant Church 
should boldly follow the example of her elder sister of Rome, and at 
least prepare the way for the crusade against vice which may succeed 



PREVENTION. 



the V 



a and wishes of to-day. Our Church c 



r which 

ecclesiastics ; but I am convinced that slie might do something. Ii 
not for me to prescribe or to recommend a, coin-sa to her ; but I desire 
movement. I am willing to give her the precedence ; 1 would have 
science co-operate with her ; but I would not linger for her. 

Whatever may be thought of my proposal tbat the parents, spiritual 
trustees, and schoolmasters should administer the proper antidote before 
the " leprous distilment " of moral poison kaa been poured by the many 
agencies of the world into the ear of the child, I think few will he 
hardy enough to contend that modes+y should be longer pleaded to bar 
anti-sensual instruction in the institutions for adult educatioa now BO 

"Quocnnque Yerum," writing on moral progress in "The Times" (rf 
the 3rd June, observes justly enough : 

" Our parochial clei^ are gradually opening their eyes, I hope;, to the 
fact, that when they have got their infant, day, and Sunday-schools into 
full working efficiency, (and in agricultural parishes how few can. say so 
much as this 1) their real work for and with the rising generation is only 

just begun The young men's society and the young women's 

class must be as integral a portion of parocbiai machinery as the day- 
schools or Sunday-school, if he would save many of his flock firem thai 
descensus avemi, of which only the police who inspect, and the few 
private persons who visit, common lodging-houses have any reali 

This writer — than whom, perhaps, none more competent or henevoh 
could have taken up the pen — seems fully to corroborate my impressioi 
as to the extent of the field yet open to the workers, the use which 
may make of educational classes, and their very great present popularii 
It is on the spi'ead of these agencies, I confess, I much rely for diffiii ' 
useful knowledge, among both sexes about self-i-egulation, the control 
fleshly inclinations, the evils attendant upon vice, the shapes it 
and the means of resistance to it. 

There is no subject, however sacred or prolific of interest, that may 
not be desecrated or spoiled in treatment — no subject so unpromising, 
that, conscientiously yet firmly handled, it may not be made to yield up 
its modicum of good. J have such a strong belief in the present wide 
diffusion of evil knowledge, that I fancy physiological and moral lectures 
would not so often bring the blush of outraged ingenuousness as that of 
conscience to nature's confessional. Such lectures would at least serve > 
to atri|) the gilding from the attractions of vice, and expose the horron 
lurking beneath. They would confirm the strong, fortify the weak, and 
bring the foolish to confusion. So many men of knowledge and refinement, 
have lamented to me that in their youth there had not been some actiT6 i 
bitter, mixed by designing education, with their cup of pleasure — soma 
word of warning as to the future taste of what is sweet in the moiith — 
that I am daily more and more convinced of the use and possibility of 
imparting to youth the knowledge of an eiEcacious curb of passion, with 
instructions how to apply it. '' 

The Established Uhuicli, coming by her prelates, her deans, and h< 
deacons, has descended from her pedestal of ancient ways to preach to 



\ 



PREVEhTION-. 165 

milHuu in pojiular areas, in tlie fit;! J, a.ad at the market cross. It is now 
clear that Mahomet has determined to move to the m mm tain, and that the 
Church of England has resolved on popularising herself, and on col- 
lecting, as she has the right, in the highways and byeways gueata for 
that ample wedding feast of which she is a steward, and which can never 
be over-crowded. 

It is a sign of the tiroes which reijuires no comment, that a Yioe- 
Chancellor of England, whose purity and taste well fit him for such an 
office, not long ago presided at a large meeting of "a young men's im- 
provement society." It is, indeed, " a sign of the times," that this and 
other good and eminent men, who have no single thing to gaiu but the 
approval of conscience, take their turn on the popular platform with the 
crotchet mongers and the adventurers, and we may rejoice in the assur- 
ance that public good comes of the exertions of all of them. We see 
again the finished statesman and the political tyro, moved it maybe in part 
by other springs, unfolding, in town and countiy lectn re-halls, the stores 
of ioformation they have gained upon some speciality, and thus doing 
m.ore than their forefathers dreamed of to ditfuse not knowledge alone, 
but also respect for education and the educated. The colouring such men 
sometimes endeavour to lend to the information they impart is imma- 
terial ; they may be allowed this, for it is evanescent, and there still 
remains behind some useful seed to bear its fruit in season. I am not 
far wrong wjien I regard these things, and the popularity of debating 
classes, diaeuasion forums, mutual improvement societies, and mechanics' 
institutes, aa so many premonitory symptoms of an educational crusade 
against vice and ignorance, for wiiich our country has been long pre- 
paring, and for which good men have sorely yearned. It may even not 
burat forth in our time, to gladden the few now living pioneora of popular 
instruction who first unfurled their colours against the bigotry of the 
upper classes and the aerai-barbarism of the lower ; but there is ample 
evidence how great is the positiuo already won, how fair the prospect, 
and how spirited the troops. 

The young men aro.oug whom intellectual pastimes are now spreading 
fast, are neither ]>aupers, mechanics, nor agricultural labourers, who have 
little to do with the superlicial prostitution of towns, and whose instruc- 
tion would not diminish it ; but they are of the class of whom I said 
before, that whether they become the victims or the makers of harlots 
is a mere matter of chance. I am able, of my own knowledge, to speak 
of London youths. Though no advocate of what is called " an old 
head upon young shoulders," I have seen with satisfaction the improved 
morals and advanced acquirements which have during my time accrued 
to that important class of young men who, being engaged in the lower 
departments of commerce and trade, may in iact be not inaptly 
termed undergraduates of those faculties. Wben 1, having concluded a 
medical student's career in London and another in Paris, returned to 
this country not unacquainted with the habits and manners of young 
Frenchmen, I found myself hy no means impressed by any superior 
morality among my compeers of the middle classes at home. I was, on 
the contrary, somewhat surprised to find their promiscuous vioiousnesa 
and constant craving after fresh artificial excitements. Among the 
London youths I found the systematic streetwalkers, frequenters of night- 



166 PREVENTION, 

honseB, diBOrderly bmwlera, assailura of female modesty, habitiml 
paniona of positive prostitutes, to be much more nnblusliing, and, 
dering the comparative population at the two periodSj 
than they now are. The " gent" of 1840, much such a, creature aa I 
have described, had overrun the tovm. He waa not to the same ex- 
tent as our genteel fathers, inclined to disorder, and mistake dmnken- 
nesa for jollification. So far he was improved, and he welcomed with 
enthusiasm the invention of casinos and the naturalization of the then 
recent polka. But although by no means an extinct animal, he is no 
longer the featnre of the town. He has in great measure left the un- 
profitable arena to the gently bom and bred. The latter e 
Cremome and in the Haymarket, while your snob pur sang, 
up hia loina for the race of life in which he presnes hard upon his bet 
" coaching" himself in his Crosby Halls and in the public librarie^' 
chesa cluba, debating classes, and other multifarious edacational institu- 
tions, two or three of which are to bo found in every metropolitan and 
Bubnrban pai-ish. 

Many of these men, then, are fighting their own battle, and without 
(Bsistance, against the flesh. Every hour spent, as I have deaci-ibed, ia, 
intellectual amusement (the lowest denomination such pnrsuitii 
ceptible of), ia an hour saved from idleness, the "root of all evil," and' 
what is more fi'om idleneas at night, the great ally of vice and crimOi 
Eut this, valuable as it ia, will not tlo all, and to those therefore who 
have the influence or ability to collect and to hold them in thrall rf 
eloquence, I commend the masses of young adulta for inatniction 
the " training to continence," on the worldly evil attendant upon 
adultery and fornication, and on the duty of marriage. The absence ( ' 
sexual knowledge, aa all testify who are acquainted with the phili 
Bopby of vice, has not suppressed or diminished prostitution, but 
concomitant with, if indeed it has not favoured its increase. The 
of men and Christians are induced, in the extremity of their grief, to 
the evil ia irremediable, or to propose inadequate or impossible 
If matters are at the worst, though I do not subscribe to this, the 
tion of my suggestion, which is at least practicable, can do no harm. 
propose, in feet, to engage in a pitched battle on the field of youttfiil 
minds, with the old insidious adversary, who will for ever heat us in 
detail if we suffer our hands to be tied by conventionalism. The chancefl 
of the open field are surely better than the undenied certainties of the 
ambuscade. Danger to the army from its own weapons can only 
accrue from imperfect training to their use. 

The classeH next in the ascending scale of society come year after 
year more within the reach of such training as I advocate through the 
vast increase, not so much in the number as in the quality of middle 
class educational establishments. The standard of those now employed 
in teaching the children of the gentry is infinitely higher than that of 
the pedagogues of fifty years since ; and if this does not hold good of 
the public schools, par aredlenee, it is at all events perfectly tme of the 
numerous endowed grammar schools throughout the coYintry. Many of 
these, before Lord Brougham's move in their behoof, were in a con 
toae state — their revenues mediatized oft«ner than not by lay ^vs^den 
other impropriator — nominally kept np according to the founder' 



\ 



a com&'-^l 
rsrden oi(^| 
ler's wUt^l 



PREVENTION. 167 

but in point of iact, not equal to so many charity sohoola of the preaent 
time. They have, however, beGn Lrought round, thanta to the inter- 
vention uf Parliament. The young of the farm labourer, who gets, I 
am sorry to say, but little of that instruction which the State ahoiJcI 
force upon him, has given place upon their benches to the children of 
the miller, the farmer, and the squire — the dilapidated building of 
former days, to a creditable specimen of the last new Gothic taste — the 
old incapable tenant of the ferula to whom the spoilers allotted, inste.id 
of its modern equivalent, the original 40/. or 50^. annuity of the pious 
testator, has retired in favour of a wrangler or a class man^ — and the 
free schoola of England bid fair to raise within a century the standard 
of middle class education, aa much as the infant school and the uni- 
versity will in the same time have iniluenced the racks of society open 
to their action. Each of them that now comes under the charge of an 
educated gentleman, should be, to my thinking, a centre of physico- 
uioral instruction. 

Nine-tenths of the persons employed in education are, I dare say, 
well aware that the habitual and compulsory practice of gymnastic 
exercises and dietetics at school will assist the development of the 
physical frame, but they are, I expect, unacquainted with the lact that 
it would generally during childhood fully balance the idies ginisiques we 
are all afraid of, and go a long way towards the work of aelf-reatraint in 
the adolescent. During the iast terms of every school-boy, who should 
be clothed for his battle of life with the armour of strength, truth, and 
modesty, I would have his tutor point out to him all those loose rivets 
and defective joints in that Christian harness that the lance jwint of the 
world will full soon find out. I would have explained to him, in sober, 
serious, imambiguous terms, the temptations to pleasant sin he will meet 
with, how best to encounter them — the worldly value to him of victory, 
the worldly consequences of defeat. 

I am unwilling to censure, in toto, without having heard reasons offi- 
cially stated, the tutorial prohibition which this year put an end, not 
alone to the public school cricket matches, but to the gathering of the 
generations in which thousands of us have been used t-o delight ; but if, 
as has been alleged, it be tmceable to the fear of metropolitap contami- 
nation to the elevens, and subsequent contagion to the young flocks of 
the schools, I think it a sad reflection upon those charged with the 
direction of these establishments, or to speak more generally upon " the 
system." The age at which the flower of young England have been 
Been amongua at these matches, is precisely that at which they should have 
entered the adolescent class of phyaico-moral training. Kadiant with 
health and strength, and in the blush of mental power, their bodies and 
niinds would at this age be best adapted to the trial. To just such 
boys an experienced and respected tutor should unfold from the appro- 
priate point of view the hazarda of the situation ; from such he might 
gain, I know, inviolable promises of good order and self-restraint. But 
no I It has been decided, I am told, that not at the feet of Minerva, 
but in the lap of Venus, is our English lad to draw his first breath of 
worldlinesa, — take his first lesson of self-reliance and self-management. 
The former evadea the responsibility which the latter seizes with avidity. 
The public schoolboy may have read of King Solomon and of Lot's 



168 PREVENTION. 

daugbters. He may be well up in the glories of Lais, Phryne, and 
AsjiasiA, Mistress Nell Gwynne and the fair Ninon, the Czarina 
Cathecine and the Empress Theodora. It is his business, if he reada 
history, to be acquainted with the manners and habiti of the French 
Begency, and the Court of Charles II. of England. He will find the 
thinly disguised immodesty of Eugene Sue and Paul de Kock in very 
good houses, and he will hear enough of Don Juan's improprieties to 
ensure his selection of that chaste work for early study. There are 
plenty of filthy books sold outside of Holy well-street, differing from 
many Holywell-street books, too, as having indecent insidea as well as 
covers.* The Sosii of " the Eow" reprint the British Di'amatists to the 
letter, and the sayings and doings of the good Pantagruel are on every 
stall. Whichever way he turns in the fields of literature, he will find 
vice and immorality invested with dignity, beauty, and spirit. He will 
have gathered, in the course of his education, that ain is very sinful, vice 
very wrong and sometimes ungentle manlike, gaming no profibable, drink" 
ing low — but how to know these things when he sees them, in what' 
form they will present themselves, and what are their immediate conse- 
quences he is utterly untaught. He is sent, while yet the toga iiirUv 
sits awkwardly upon his shoulders, to be "a man" at an university, or 
in the junior ranks of some piofession, and thus planted out from the 
nursery into the big world he will remain, as the sham must be kept up, 
theoretically pure and untainted, and tor all the instiTJction he will 
get, except by purchase, theoretically ignorant also upon all sexual 
matters. 

Look we now to the Universities, which have, since the opening of 
the trade in education, an enormous and properly-increasing influence 
upon the future of the wealthier and higher classes — whose afhiumi are 
by courtesy considered men, and, indeed, during no inconsiderable por- 
tion of the twelvemonth, have more than all the leisure of fiill^rown 
adults — all the self-confidence natural to their age, and all its liability 
to temptation. 

Is it not inexcusable that in these quasi- monastic institutions the con- 
tinence of all classes should be left to chance — i.e., left alone! and that 
the possibility of aiding discretion and restraining indulgence by educa- 
tion and advice should be forgotten, or, if remembered, glossed over? 
The scheme of each University — ou leaving which a man must shortly 
put on manhood, if its elements are in him — should, to my thinking, 
include a class of moral physiology and anatomy senior to that I have 
already indicated for children and schoolboys, and carried as far aa the 
circumstances obviously demand. 

The first man who founds a chair of worldly wisdom and moral 
physiology, and the University Synod which makes compulsory the 
attendance of all undergTiiduates at the classes of a learned, discreet 
professor of those sciences, would he doing the State good service. We 
should then hear leas, I am convinced, of the ruinous effects of a college 



\ 



* Very clieap editiona of " The Caatle of Otranto," Lewis's " Mont," and, I dare Bij, 
other iuuoouoUB romaunta, doue up in obai;ene wrappeca, are sold at high prioM ip 
Hul J well -street. It ia a good trick, as the bujer has aa remedy for the Borpriso, m ' ' 
dispenaea with the QeeeEsity of keeping much sellable Btook. Thia wa^ I beUav^ 
alluded to in recent debntea on Lor.l CatopbeU'B bill 



PREVENTION. 169 

career upon fathers auil sons — cf disappointed hopes and emptied poeketa 
— of curates and professional men stretched for life on the rack of debt^ 
of gentlemen, of large or small eatiite, cleaned out by the male and 
female acqiiaintancea who undertake so willingly the charge of the 
college graduate when he steps into the great world sa a freshman. 

Onr profession would see fewer instances of wasted minds and battered 
frames ; society would have fewer nnacoountable celibacies and scandalous 
marriages to wonder at ; and a certain blow would be given to the 
great hold of prostitution, which, if tlie same society but lent its proper 
aid, would be the more effective. 

What aid can society lend? What can society do) 

I am aware that, although society has a positive power, its action in 
more perceptible as the avenger than the preventer of social crime, and 
is moat commonly exerted upon those who have done flagraut wrong in 
full antieipation of the consequences, are prepared for them, and case- 
hardened against thera, or on those who, having erred on the chance of 
impunity, are yet not unprepared for the reverse. The tendencies of 
English people are towards morality, and, in the present age especially, 
are fostered by the example and practice of the purest Court recorded 
in our history, which has done as much to make virtue i»pular, for 
fashion's sake, irrespective of her own attractions, as the entourage of 
other monarchs has done to give vogue to licentiousness. The highest 
persons in this kingdom so discourage vice, that all connected with the 
Court must preserve at least external decency. Though the days of 
duelling are, so to speak, past, a man dares not now flaunt a liaison with 
a married woman, and an illicit one of any description must by all 
meana be kept as secret as money and contrivance can effect. Thus vice 
in private circles is held in check ; but, owing to the bugbear of delicacy 
— the reluctance to hold council when the hearts of men are full — ^tjiis 
gagging of the mouth that ifl re.idy to speak — society parts with the 
power of correcting evil that insists upon publicity.* Let me, however, 
Lope for some better change. 

Supposing the demand for prostitutes to have been, in some measure, 
checked by moral and physical training of males, the moat obvious checks 
upon the supply in the power of society are — a modification of the 
restraints now imposed upon lawful wedlock among the educated classes, 
and a graver treatment of seducers and deserters of women. The mea- 
sures which the State should adopt in the same direction are — tlie 
punishment of seducers; continued improvement in the dwellings of the 

• The hollowuesa of our pretended ignorance of the depravity Ihat aiuTonndB na ia thuB 
eloquently eipoaed by aji eloquent writer in the "Lancet" '. — " There fiouriah lit the 
Weat-end, gorgeous hoases where passers-by see only the painted face of Jezebel look ont 
of the window, from whioh sight Virtue averts her face and blnsliBa — jet we Eire asked to 
beiiere that she does not sse or kuow why she turns away her head. The children of 
Camelin inquire eoncemiug ' the beautiful lady" whose quiet brougham stops the way at 
tlie door of the theatre or concert- rooni, and we are expeeted to assume that it is ignurnnce 
which makes the pure matron hesitate to answer them. Samson, whose fine propurtions 
STB the envy of the Domestic troops, drives Dalilab in the park ; and we bue aaked to 
suppose that his sisteia are unaware who it is rata by bis side. The daughters of Dives, 
knowing all about the plot of the 'Traviats,' visit the opera to witness the aputbeosis of . 
a consumptive prostitute, and drive home through (he Qehetma fair n^tly held in the 
Haymarket ; — yet we are expected to credit that they lay their heads on (heir pillows 
without considering what it ijl means." 




ragement of colo- 



170 PREVENTION, 



poor, higher education of poor females, larger i 
uization. 

I have observed with pleasure, while preparing these sheets for the 
press, the great amount of public attention which has been vouchsafed 
to the project of a St. James's Keformatory for high-class prostitutes. I 
also agree with many writers who have reviewed the scheme, that a class 
reformatory is hardly a public object, and that the amiable experiment 
wouid be utterly incapable— as " beginning at the wrong end" — of dinii- 
niahing the extent of the " great social evil ;" and unhkely to remedy 
more than infinitesimally the miseries ensuing from it in the parisli of 
St. James's, Piccadilly, which was a main feature in its prospectus. But 
a great deal has been done, by the thorough ventilation of the topic, 
towards "rending the veil of spurious delicacy." Although I have been 
foi-estalled by various writers in arguments which I would willingly have 
brought forward with some show of originality, I cannot help rejoicing 
that I have been anticipated by sound thinkers commanding publicity for 
their views to a far greater extent than I can venture to hope for. The 
sparks of truth elicited by the friction of these minds have been carried 
far and wide, and have found so eager welcome from the public, that I 
am the more encouraged to fan them, and to hope that within onr time 
we may live to see a salutary and efficient flame to light us from our diffi- 
culties. 

I consider it would be alike ungenerous to attempt to paraphrase, and 
impossible to express better than himself, the ideas of " Theophrastus," 
upon the anti-matrimonial tendencies of modem middle-claas society, 
in his communication entitled, "The Other Side of the Picture," to the 
editor of "The Times," May 7, 1857: 

" The laws which society impones in the present day in respect of 
marriage upon young men belonging to the middle class are, in the 
highest degree, unnatural, and are the real cause of most of our social 
corruptions. The father of a family has, in many instances, risen from 
a comparatively humble origin to a position of easy competence. His 
wife has her carriage ; he associates with men of wealth greater than his 
own. His sons rtach the age when, in the natural course of tilings, they 
ought to marry and establish a home for themselves, It would seem no 
great hardship that a young couple should begin on the same level as 
their parents began, and be content for the first few years with the mere 
necessaries of life ; and there are thousands who, were it not for society, 
would gladly marry on such terms. But here the tyrant world inter- 
Dses ; the son must not marry until he can maintain an establishment 
a much the same footing as his father's. If he dare to set the law at 
i family lose casle, and he and his wife are quietly dropt 
out of the circle in which they have hitherto moved. All that society 
will allow is an engagement, and then we have the sad but familiar sight 
of two young lovers wearing out their besb years with hearts sickened 
with hope long defended ; often, after all, ending in disappointment, or 
in the shattered health of the poor girl, unable to bear up. against the 
harassing anxiety. Or even when a long engagement does finally end in 
maiTiage, how diminished are the chances of happiness ! Tlie union, 
which, if allowed at first, would have proved happy imder worldly diffi- 
culty, has lost its brightness when postponed until middle life, even with 





PnEVENTIOS. 171 

competence and a cari'iage. Perhaps tLe early atrugglea would have only- 
strengthened the bonds of affection ; but here I feel that I am on dan- 
gerous ground. Already I hear society loudly exclaiming that T am advo- 
cating improvident marriages, that I would flood the country with genteel 
paupera, that I am advising what ia contrary to the best interests of society. 

" But stay awhile, society. Your picture of marriages at thirty-five, 
with a Belgriivian house for the happy couple, a footman in splendid, 
uniform, and at least a brougham, is very pleasing ; but there is a, 
reverse to the canvas, and that a very dark one. How has the bride- 
groom been living since he attained hia manhood 1 I believe that there 
are very many young men who are keeping themaelvoa pure amid al! the 
temptations of London life. God's blessing be with them, for they are 
the salt of our comipt city. But I know that there are thousands who 
are living in sin, chiefly in consequenOe of the impossibility (as the world 
says) of their marrying. Some go quietly with the sti'eam, and do as 
others do around them, almost without a thought of the misery they are 
causing, and the curse they are laying up for themselves. But many, 
perhaps most of them, are wretched under the convictions of their con- 
science. Living in the midst of temptation, they have not sufficient 
principle to resist its fascination, and although they know where God 
intends that they shall find their safety, yet they dare not ofiend their 
family, alienate their Mends, and lose thiir social position by making 
what the world calls an imprudent marriage. The very feeling which 
Heaven has given as a chief purifier of man's nature ia darkening their 
conscience and hardening their heart, because the law of society conti-a- 
dicts the law of God. I might touch upon even a more terrible result 
of the present state of things — medical men and clergymen will under- 
stand what I mean — but I dare not, and I have said enough. 

" I must in sadness confess that in the face of the powerful tyranny of 
social law in this country, it is difficult to suggest any general remedy 
for this evil. But the mischief is on the increase with our increasing 
worship of money, and public attention ought to be appealed to on the 
subject. If our American eulogist be right in commending 'pluck' as 
one of our distinctive characteristics, it is not our young men who should 
lack the quality. Jf they will shake ofi" the affectations of club life, and 
clEiim a position in society for tliemselves and for their wives, because 
they are qualified for it by education and character, and not mei'ely 
because they represent so much money, they will soon force the world to 
give way, and strike down one of the greatest hindrances to their own 
happiness, both temporal and eternal. It will not in general be difficult 
to bring the daughters over to the same opinion. Mothers and sisters 
are seldom very hardhearted in such cases, and by united efforts the 
stem father may be induced to give his blessing, even though the happy 
couple (ay, ha]ipy, let the world sneer as it will) have to begin on little 
more than the pioverbial bread and cheese. 

" The recognition of this principle woidd do much to check some ot 
our most de;idly sorial evils. It would make many a girl whom the 
tyranny of the world now dooms to a joyless celibacy a happy wife and 
mother. It would raise the tone of chai-acter of our young men, bring- 
ing out into heaithfiil exercise the home affections, which are now denied 
them, at the very time of life when their influence is most beneficial. 



1T2 PBEVEKTION. ^^^^^H^^^^H 

It would Jiive away all frivolity and efferaioacy before the realities of 
steady work, wliich early man-iage would olJige them to face. It would 
purify our streets, and check many a bitter p"ng of conscience, and save 
many a soul. We are experiencing the bitter fniits of man's law — let ua 
see whether God's law will not work better." 

The upper ten thousand too often, I fear, forget that the outstiJ* 
million — among whom, it has been quaintly said, they " condescend to 
live" — cannot be relied on to travel for ever iu the grooves out out for 
them by their betters, and assume that if no overt and organized resist- 
ance to the Medo-Fersian nkanea of society and fashion appears on 
the surface, those edicts are immutable — that tyranny permanent. Bot 
the feet ia — and they should be reminded of it — that with regard tfl 
some things, and among them marriage, there ia a, numerous and increas- 
ing class, by no means the waifs and strays of the community, who are 
disposed, not to question or propose any change in the law, but simply 
to ignore it, and to " put up," as they say, " with the consequences." 

The nnmberleM cases of viSsalliance daily occumug, whereof the 
majority entail, beside the paltry consequence of " Coventry," the very 
serious ones of unfruitfulncss and domestic infelicity, seetn to me to 
point the finger of warning to the guardians of our social code. That 
finger indicates a blot upon the table of the law, — cause of a nascent 
canker, which— not, perhaps, for many a long day, but certainly si 
day — if left untreated, will corrupt the fabric. 

I extract the following passages from the admirable editoritJ r 
upon the foregoing letter of Theophrastus ; — 

" Do we not make difficulties for ourselves here, even wLei-e i 
makes none, and ci'eate by our system a huge mass of artificial tempta- 
tion which need never have existed! .... A great law of Providence 
cannot be neglected with impunity, and this undue, artificial, and unna- 
tural poatponeraent of marriage ends in a great blot upon our social 
system. Vice is the result, and vice creates a class of victims to in- 
dulge it. If Providence has ordained that man ehould not live alone, 
and if conventional maxims or mere empty fashion and the artiHcial 
attractions of society lead to overlooking, or superseding, or tampering 
with this law, the neglect of a. Providential law will surely avenge 
itself in social disease and corruption in one or other part of the 
system. It is not, then, because we wish for a moment to encourage 
improvident marriages, but because we feel convinced that oui" modem 
caution here has outstepped all reasonable limits, has become extrava- 
gant, has from being a dictate of natural common sense became a mere 
conventional and artificial rule, the voice of empty fashion, and a gra- 
tuitous hindrance to social happiness and the designs of Providence, that 
we call serious attention to this subject. The fear of poverty has 
become morbid, and men cry out not only befoi-e they are hurt, but 
before there is any reasonable prospect of it. Tliey must see iu 
married life a perfectly guaranteed and undisturbed vista of the amplest 
pecuniary resources before they will enter upon it. They forget that 
married men can worli, and that marriage is a stimulus to work, and 
again and again elicits those latent activities of mind which prodnoff j 
not only competency, but affluence."" H 

* '■ Ths Times," May 9iL, 1^67. I 



Jremari^B 
re Datufi'il 



PREVENTION. 173 

But, from present eigna, so sadly do I, with " Theophrastus," despair 
of any coDtraction, by the lawgivers of feishion, of the ample line of 
chevaux de/rise they have skilfully disposed roiinil lawful wedlock ; so 
farocioua, on the contrary, is the struggle for "poaition," so terrible an 
jEgia lurks in the bitter sound of "genteel beggary," that I am more 
inchned to look for the sanction by society of aeif-immolation by auper- 
fluouB virgins, the revival of convents, or the Malthusian modes of 
checking popuLition which prevail elsewhere, than for the rich, still 
less the poor genteel, to permit their unfeeaimpled or undowered off- 
spring to increase and multiply young, so called "paupers," of still 
less estate, without the fear of mammon's law before their eye3, and in 
obedience to the will of Him who feeds the young ravena. 

It ia quite customary to argue, that the punishment of seduction 
cannot be apportioned otherwise than as present ^namely, wholly to the 
female, unless where illegitimate offepring result from it, in which case 
the State imposes a fine of two shillings and sixpence per week upon 
the father. The grounds on which the legislature have decreed this 
state of the law are, that the woman, if not always the most active, is 
a consenting party. The result ia practically that the consequences to 
the male being known and finite, thousands of men annually Buffer them- 
selves to be seduced^-aa the law baa it— by designing women, who 
aacrifice not only their own future peace of mind and temporal prospects, 
but court the acorn of the world and bodily suffering to gratify inor- 
dinate paiision. The unfortunate male ia the victim, and by curious 
perversion the manufacture of prostitutes by female labour is rampant. 
This is another painful fiction, which, had I the power, I would attempt 
to dissipate. II' I could not do so much, I would at least endeavour to 
devise a means of strengthening the male resolution, Tlie next time 
the bastardy laws come up for consideration, I should propose inquiry 
how, while in other respects the mental inferiority of woman continues 
to be insisted on in all other particulars, she should he held paramount 
in that of seductive powera. That this ia false ia jjroved by the fact 
that the woman allows the sacrifices and sufferings she incurs to 
equipobe with those of lier seducer. She is acquainted too well before- 
hand with both, to allow the hypothesis of her total ignorance. In the 
majority of cases she has plentiful knowledge of precedents; yet ahe 
falla. She must, therefore, either be temjiorarily inaane, or permanently 
weaker minded. Her very liability to aiege almost presupposes personal 
atti-action, and personal attractions as naturally ensure vanity. There is 
never a fair start between man and woman cmteria parihuB. Her side of 
the balance is always over-weighted. Enough of vanity alone to kick the 
beam is in her scale ; yet because, from the day when a man in real 
earnest fii-st set Lis wit against her, she waa no more able to fly from his 
fascinating power than the quarry fi:om the falcon, or the rabbit from 
the anake, hut rather met her fate half-way, this strong-minded creatui-e 
is by law considered the real seducer, and a number of the most esti- 
mable people iu the world are ever ready to endorse without queati9n 
this cruel article of the law's belief. 

And here, agiiin, must physiology be invoked to help the lawgivers 
and society to a more just conclusion. It will some day be taken into 
account I hope, that aa (I believe) Coleridge said, the desire is on thu 




174 PREVEKTIOy. 

Eiile of man, love of approbation on tlie aide of the n 

be amended after deeply comparing the pliyfiiology i 

with that of virtuous, but of fallen women. We have hitherto set up 

for comparison an impregnable female eidulun, and because elia was 

adamant have declared men to be the seduced, not the seducei's. 

We are used to talk, and we have, in fiict, legislated, as if the gates 
of a woiuou's honour were of brass, and could not be opened but 
from within; and as if the outer force required to beat them down conld 
be calculated to a pound by an engineer. There are gates, it is true, 
and modesty is their keeper; but the keeper may slumber or be bribed, 
or may make a fair fight against the foe and be beaten. But how doea 
the righteous world act t Though the castle and the gate, the porter 
and the enemy are all variable quantities — when the place falls, we alwavs 
hang the gaiTison. 

I extract the following passage from one of the many letters to tLe 
Editor of " The Times," evoked by the proposition of the St. James's 
Refuge :— 

"The law of 1834, which, in my opinion, brougfit this mischief on 
Hociety, was founded on a mistaken theory — namely, that women are 
the best guardians of their own honour. This is inverting the order of 
nature, and felsifying the common experience of all time. It is, in feet, 
splendid nonaenae. The result is, that the law thi-ows upon the weakest 
of the two offenders all the consequences of a vice in which she at least 
could only bea participator. There was, to my mind, something marvel- 
lously cowardly and unmanly in this. The best guardian of the honour 
of woman is he who, having gained her affections, has obtained a mas- 
tery over her judgment, and all that makes her respectable in society. 
But the days of chivalry are indeed past, since men become seducers by 
Parliamentarj- licence. It is, however, alleged that the Legislature h^ 
provided means for securing justice to the woman so betrayed, by allow- 
ing her to produce corroborative evidence. This is adding insult to 
injury. Why, Sir, between 300 and 400 of these cases come under my 
own observation every year, and I can affirm that in nine ca^ea out ^f 
ten there is a total absence of any evidence whatever— and why) 
Because the men who practise these frauds are for the most part habitual 
seducers, and take all the precautions which such scoundrels are likely to 
invent. It is not an uncommon circumstance for two or three young 
women (mere girls, in some instances) to be with child at one and the 
same time by one man, and that man a married man, and yet the law 
has no i-emedy for this, because there is no corroborative evidence. 
But suppose it otherwise, what is a penniless girl to do against a 
fellow who can afford to fee counsel to browbeat and frighten hei" out 
of court 1 

" Let every tnffinher of Parliatiwnt who voted for a law founded upon 
the Arcadian notion tltal eee/ry Wimum is the best giiardian of her own 
hmwwT apply it to his oum daughters, and watch the result. IFAy, he 
gi.ves the lie to it every day of his life, his ansdotis tlumglit being Iiow bed 
tifffiiard his chUdrett from, the poUulions which surround even tJiem. If, 
therefore, the rich practically repudiate the notion, why apply it to the 
children of the poor, who on leaving home at an early age for service are 
deprived of the restiaints and chocks of kindredl 



A 



PKEVENTIOS. 175 

" It will then be asked, what are the remedies for Bach obvious evils 1 
I answer that paternal govemora should adopt the same course in their 
collective as they would in their individual character — namely, to dia- 
tinguiah between habitual profligacy and a casual error ; to aflbrd to the 
■woman who appears for the first time in the character of a mother, a 
facility for affiliating her child which should be denied to her who 
commits a second offence. By this means a great end would be accom- 
plished — viz., fixing the consequences where fliey ought to rest — on the 
actual seducer of the woman. Sterne, no mean observer of human nature, 
asked one hundred years ago — ' Is there no diflerence between one pre- 
pensely going out of the way, and continuing there by depravity of will, 
and a hapless wanderer straying by delusion and wearily treading back 
lier steps )' I ask the same question." — (J. B.) 

I have taken the liberty of italicising, without farther comment, a 
passage which I should especially recomniend to the consideration of our 
lawgivers and others whom it may concern. But the whole appears to 
me valuable, as conveying the impressions of a thoughtful and experi- 
enced man, who evidently is versed in a sphere other than metropolitan, 
and serves me to open, I think, not inappropriately, a few observatioua 
upon the bastardy laws, a change in which would be a considerable step 
towards prostitution prevention. 

It cannot be denied by any one acquainted with rural life, tliat seduc- 
tion of girls is a sport and a habit with vast numbers of men, married 
(as suggested by " J. B.," which I fully corroborate) and single, placed 
above the ranks of labour. The " keeping company" of the labouring 
classes, accompanied by illicit intercourse, as I have before (see page 71) 
explained, aa often as not leads to marriage ; but not so that of the 
farmer's son, former, first, second, or third-class, squire, or squireen. 
Many such rustics of the middle clasB,and men ofparallel grades in country 
towns, employ a portion of their spare time in the coarse, deliberate 
villainy of making prostitutes. Of these, the handsomer are draughted 
off into the larger communities, where their attractions enable them to 
settle ; the others are tied to the spot of their birth and fall. Men who 
themselves employ female labour, or direct it for others, have always 
ample opportunities of choice, compulsion, secrecy, and subsequent 
intimidation, should exposure be probable and disagreeable. They can, 
for a time, show favour to their victim by preferring her before her 
fellows ; they can at any time convenient discharge her. The lower sort 
of them can often procure access to the Union for both her and her 
offspring ; and the upper can scheme maiTiages of the nature alluded to 
at p^e 69. With these, and with the gentlemen whose dilassmnent 
is the contamination of town servants and owerieres, the first grand 
engine is, of course, vanity — the little more money that will get the 
poor girl a little more dress, admiration, and envy than her equals enjoy. 
Then, when the torch is set to the fire, woman's love of approbation 
helps her to her own destruction. Then cheap promises— promises of 
marrii^e — made to he broken — which, however, the strong-minded one 
of the Parliament's imagining is always ready to believe — and promises 
often taken down on the rolls of Heaven, whose breach must be a sin 
against the God of Mercy himself, of care for the woman and her offspring. 
But the latter are as easily snapped as the former, and the woman 



L 



1 75 PREVESTIOK. 

■whom her neighLoura cull a scheming hussey for thinting of a maniage 
HbovB her station, 13 called a silly fool for her paina if she fall, without 
inducements of ambition, before the assault of passion only. She may 
be with child, or slie may not, but she has at law a remedy for her 
wrong. Yes, and what isitt Will the strong-minded ono apply her- 
aelf to it? — and how often J She lo^ved too much, and she stijl loTea 
overtnucb, in nine caaea out of ten, to dream of worldly wisdom, or, as 
she calls it, persecuting her child's fatlier. The worldly wisdom that 
overcame, as the Eham has it, the hardihood and modesty of the male, 
and turned his head, cannot get its poor owner into a court of justice, 
even when her pareuts are so minded, and fiinds are forthcoming for a 
breach of promise action. Her remedy ia a farce so far ; or rather it is 
a. farce to say that it has any prophylactic or in lerrorma value. But 
she has more remedy—or her friends have; for her father, -whom the 
law supposes to be charged with the maintenance of his children when 
derelict by the world, and therefore to have in retnm some presnmed 
employer's right over them, may proceed at common law for loss of her 
services. But this he can only do if he Las means, inclination to face 
the extreme of publicity and abuse, courage to meet a heavy prepon- 
derance of law and public feeling against him, and can adduce an amount 
of corroborative evidence which should suffice to cany a much more 
heavy conviction. This machinery, which stands upon, a fiction, is 
cumbrous, and its results ai-e rare and generally ridiculona. It amounts, 
in feet, to no remedy for wroug ; and the crime which it is supposed to 
check flourishes under its pleasant shade. There is, however, one tolerably 
certain method of enforcing law against a man who, having seduced, has 
deserted a woman and her child. When we have recited that, we may 
close the list of remedies. She msy apply to a bench of magistrates fur 
a aummone. The summons is granted ; and the njnn found, or not found, 
the usual result is " an order in bastardy," in pursuance of which the 
maximum sum of half-a-crown is due and payable by the father each 
and every week for the support and maintenance of the said infant, but 
for that of his strong-minded seducer — nothing 1 

Sighing, — or, it may be, smiling compassionately at the crestfallen 
appeai'ance of the strong one who has found hardihood to come before 
them, — the bench of justices regret their inability to do more for her. 
They would make an example if they could, they say in some instances; 
in others, they make an order for only la. 6d. or 2a. a week. The magis- 
trate, who is a family man, and has ever grown a crop of wild oats, 
gives a sad thought or two to the case as he jogs home ; and has even 

ibeen known to advocate in public some more extended protection of 
■women. But the plague is for all that — as it may be when I, too, am 
passed away^yet unstayed.' The days of chivalry ai-e gone indeed, and 
the honour of all women but those of his own house is so much a bye- 
word with the Englishman — their bodies so often his sport — that the 
reform of the bastardy law, and the thence resulting check to prostitu- 
tion, may chance to be deferred until a sense of common danger shall 
have made us all fellow-agitator's. 

If I could not get imprisonment of the male party to a seduction stib>4 
stituted for the paltry fine of half-a-crown a week, I would at li 
to the common wealth, now liable to pecuniary daiiinge by bastardy, si 



auction snb*^ 
nt least gh^H 
itardy, S0^^| 



PREVEHTIOy. 177 

interest in its detection and punislinient. The union house is now nflen 
enough the home of the deserted mother and the infant bastard ; and the 
gitardiana of the poor ought, I think, to have the right, in the interest 
of the commune, to act as bastardy police, and to he recouped their 
charges. I would not allow the maintenance of an illegitimate child to 
be at the expense of any but the father. I would make it the incubos 
on him, not on its mother; and I would not leave his detection, 
exposure, and money loss in the option of the latter. A young man 
who now has a second or third illegitimate child, by different women, 
has not lived without adding some low cunning to his natura It often 
happens that a fellow of this sort will, for a time, by specious promises 
or presents to a girl he fully intends ultimately to desert, defer making 
any payments for or on account of her child. If he can for twelve 
months, and without entering into any shadow of an agreement (and we 
may all guess how far the craft of an injuiiid woman will help her to 
one that would hold water), stave off any application on her jMirt to the 
authorities, her claim at law ia barred ; and she herself, defied at leisure, 
]>ecomes, in due course, chargeable to her parish or union. But not 
thus should a virtuous State connive at the obligations of paternity 
being shoffled on to its public shoulders, when, by a vety trilling modi- 
fication of the existing machinery they might be adjusted on the proper 
back — permanently or temporarily, aa might be considered publicly 
expedient. I would enact, I say, by the help of society, that, in the 
lirst place, the seduction of a female, properly proved, should involve the 
male in a heavy pecuniary fine, according to his pcsition — not at all by 
Wiiy of punishment, but to strengthen, by the very firm abutment of the 
breechfea -pocket, both him and his good resolutions against the tempta- 
tions and force of designing womjin. I would not offer the latter, aa I 
foresee will be inataataneously objected, this bounty upon sinfulness — 
this incentive to be a seducer; but, on the eontrai-y, the money should 
be due to the community, and recoverable in the county court orsuperior 
court at the suit of its engine, the union ; and should be invested by the 
treasurer of such court, or by the county, or by some public trustee in 
bastardy, for the benefit of mother and child The child's portion of 
this deodand should be retained by such public officer until the risk of 
its becoming chargeable to the community quasi bastard should be re- 
moved by the mother's marriage, or otherwise ; and the mother's share 
should be for her benefit aa an emigration fund or marriage ])ortion. 
Persons acquainted with the country will bear me out, that many a 
woman not married by her seducer for economy's sake (wiiich would 
satisfy justice), would, with a dower, even thus accruing, soon re-enter the 
pale of society through the gate of matrimony. I think that very useful 
knowledge of such a law as this would be rapidly diffused, and be found 
matei-ially to harden men's hearts against female seductions. 

Morality based on fear has, I grant, a most rotten foundation. But 
the reader must remember that the ear and heart of man, once barred 
by salutary caution against the charmings of ail save exceptional and un- 
governable lust, would be much more accessible to the moralizing 
influence — the legitimate attachment — which I have proposed that 
society should simultaneously hold out at a cheaper rate. To the prac- 
tical, Bystematic seducer — no uncommon character — upon whom moral 



178 PKEVENTIOS. 

argument is, and Hlways wjll be, thrown away, this pursuit woulJ, Tinder 
Huch a r^wje, become a very lirBt-cliiss and moat expensive luxury, demand- 
ing more money, craft, and time tban many of na have to dispose of. 

The careless man, who in, as the law now stands, supposed to be the 
Becondary or paasive party, finding that seduction, besides being neither 
HO convenient nor so creditable aa marriage, was nearly as costly — espe- 
cially when often given way to — would cease to expose himself un- 
guardedly to the illicit blandishmenta of womankind. It would be a 
hard matter for an intelligent girl to compass her own estrayal against 
the conscieace that her pecuniary profit would be nothing, her public 
shame in the power of her neighbours, and that her intended victim was 
armed against her by a chevaita!-de-/rwe of pounds, sbillinga, and pence, 
replacing, for their joint good, the trivial weekly half-crown, which is 
at present no defence to bim — no check upon either his or her propensi- 
ties. Supposing, again, for the sake of ailment, that the sin and the 
gratification of a seduction are shared in common; few, I presume, will 
deny that practically, aod in most eases, the female pays all the penalty) 
Are we not called upon, then, by common justice, if not by religion, to 
invite some such change in the law as shall help to guard the pair from 
the sin, and, at all events, seeure a more equitable adjustment of the 
consequences. 

I cannot close these observations without again drawing at some 
length upon the eloquent article in the " Westminster Eoview," to which 
I am already so much indebted. The quotation, even if the passage be 
well known to them, must be welcome to all men of feeling who take an 
interest in the subject, and doubly welcome to those who are yet unaware 
what pure hearts, powerful minds, spirit-stirring pens have preceded mo 
in this agitation : 

" The third needed change in social etlics is this : that the deserter — 
not the seducer — shall be branded with the same kind and degree of 
reprobation with which society bow visits the coward and the cheat. 
The man who submits to insult rather than fight ; the gambler who 
packs the cards, or loads the dice, or refuses to pay his debts of honour; 
is hunted from among even hia unscrupulous associates as a stained and 
I tarnished character. Let the same measure of retrihutive jttatiee be dealt 
', to the seducer who deserts the toonian who has trusted him, and allows her 
', to come upon tJie town. We say the deserter — not the seducer: for there 
is as wide a distinction between them as there is between the gamester 
and the sharper. Mere seduction will never be visited with extreme 
severity among men of the world, however correct and refined may be 
their general tone of morals ; for they will always make large allowances 
on the score of youthful passions, fevouring circumstances, and excited 
feeling. Moreover, they well know that there is a wide distinction — 
that there are all degrees of distinction — between a man who commita a 
fault of this land under the influence of warm affections and a fiery 
temperament, and the coldhearted systematic assailer of female virtue, 
whom all reprobate and shun. It is universally felt that you cannot, 
with any justice, class these men in the same categoiy, nor mete out to 
them the same measure of condemnation. Biit the man who, when hi* 
oaprice is satisfied, caste off his victim as a woni-out garment, or a 
damaged toy; who allows the woman who trusted bis protestations, 



A 



PBEVENTION. 179 

reciprocated Hs caresaee, shared in his joys, lay in hk bosom, resigned 
herself to him, in short, 

' In all the trnsting helplessneBB of love,' 
to sink froni the position of his mistress to the loathsome life of prosti- 
tution, because his seduction and desertion has left no other couiBe open 
to her — who is not ready to make any sacrifice of peace, of fortune, of 
reputation even, in order to save one whom he has once loved from such 
an abyss of wretched infamy — mnst surely be more stained, soiled, and 
hardened in aoul, more utterly unfitted for the company or sympathies of 
gentlemen or men of honour — than amy coward, any gambler, OJiy 

" When once the morality of the world has recovered a healthy tone 
on this subject, and desertion is branded as unmanly and dishonourable, 
seduction will become comparatively rare ; for men will be chaiy of con- 
tracting obligations which they feel must cling to them for ever. All 
men will feel then, as the ingenuous and kind-hearted feel now, how sad 
a mistake it is to suppose that the chains of illicit love are at aU lighter 
or weaker than those of more public and legitimate connexions. ' It 
never happens,' says one of onr chief novelists, 'to a man of just and 
bonourable feeling, to make a wontan wholly dependent on himself, aud 
to shut on her the gates of the world, without his discovering, sooner or 
later, that he has not only encumbered his conscience, but has more 
effectually crippled his liberty, and more deeply imphoatad his peace, than 
by all the embarrassments of the Church.' " 

Having, in the chapter on " Causes of Prostitution," referred to the 
vice bred, like filth, from the miserable herding of the lower orders, it 
becomes me also to number the improvement of their dwellings among 
preventive measures. The passing of the Commou Lodging-house Act 
of 1851, rendering compulsory the registration of such houses and the 
compliance of their keepers with certain regulations demanded by decency 
and cleanliness, has been a step in the right direction ; and the results 
reported by Captain Harris, of the police force, are satisfactory as show- 
ing how much has been done — painful as showing what is atill to do. 

It appears that notices to come under the operation of that act have 
been served upon the keepers of H,500 houses. Of these, 6292 have 
been surveyed aud measured to aceominodate 91,000 persons; 2355 
houses, capable of receiving 42,000 persons, have been actually regis- 
tered ; but only half of them, adapted for 28,000 lodgers, remw.n upon 
the books. Nearly 7000 bouses and parts of houses wholly unfit for 
registration have been closed; and 700,000 domiciliary visits, which have 
been made by the police during five years, have met with the support 
of the classes benefited, instead of that active or tacit oppcsition which 
the lodging-house-keepers might have been expected to promote. 

That much aanitai^ ground has been gained ia proved by the profes- 
sional certificates appended to Captain Harris's report, which establish 
that the inmates of registered lodging-houses enjoy an immunity from 
fever and epidemic diseases as compared with the same class living under 
other conditions. If, however, the calculation be correct, that nearly 
500,000 people resort nightly to such places, it ia clear that their whole 
number have not yet been brought under supervision. This must be a 



work of time ; 



t, for want of 



PREVENTIOIf. 



.it enough good has resulted hitherto to encourage ua tfi 
proceej m what is obviously the way of right. I 

A atep above these comraou loilgiiig-hoHses are the ao-ealled privata 
dwellings, whece each chamber is let to a eeparate fiimily. These are 
subject hy law to none but health inspection ; but their occupants being 
geuerftHy of a ckas to whom all decency within theirmeans is as grateful 
as to the wealthiest, the promiacuouH crowding is a source of pain to them, 
that the public would farther its own interest by helping to alleviate. 
None can feel more acutely than the working classes of all grades the 
great difficulty of procuring wholesome dwellings near the seat of their 
labour. Mauy men live miles away from their work in order to preserve 
their growing families from the moral and physical contamination of the 
crowdeil courta and alleys, in. which only they could find lodgings within 
their means. The State by itself, or by energetically putting the screw 
of compulsion upon the municipalities who are slow to avail themselves 
of permissive enactments to love their neighboura as themselves, should 
hold out a helping hand to the working million, i 
dwellings adapted to their use, drifting to and fro 

lioadoa "tenements," or reduced to harbour in the common lodging-^ 
house. 

This packing of the lower cJaasea is clearly not yet under control, and' 
seems liable to aggravation by every new thoroughfare and airway 
which we pierce our denser neighbourhoods. "While it prevails, wl 
can impute the defilement of girls, the demoralization of both sexes, 
blame to the hapless parent who does the best he can with his littlft- 
funds, and procures the only accommodation in the market open to himl 
It is preposterous, as I have before hinted, to attribute the prostitution 
so engendered to seduction, or to vicious inclinations of the woman, 
From that indifference to modesty, which Li perforce the sequel of pro- 
miscuous herding, it is a short step to illicit commerce ; and this, once 
established, the reserve or publicity of the female is entirely a matter (^j 
chance. 

A zealous writer in the " Weekly Times," in a recent paper 
dwellings of the labouring classes, lias based a suggestion upon Captain^j 
Harris's report, which, whether welcomed as it deserves or not by thosi' 
to whom he appeals, shall at least be put on record here, with the aspir*'' 
tions of myself and others ;— 

"Captain Harris says that, 'if houses were ei'ected or converted tO' 
the pui'pose of being let out in rooms to married couples, at rates noti 
exceeding a shilling a week per room, with the necessary provision for' 
health and cleanliness, the greatest benefit would be conferred.' The 
suggestion is an excellent one, and we trust that some attempt may be 
made to put it in practice. But the want is too large to be supplied by 
private enterprise or individual benevolence. The Government and 
the municipal bodies of the great towns ought to take the work in hand. 
We will not enter upon detail, but we may point to the large tracts 
waste ground in London and Westminster which seem to offer oppi 
tuuity for the erection of dwellings for the working claKses. Along thi 
new line of street which the Corporation of London is opening from,' 
Farringdon-street to Clerkenwell, such houses might be erected, anj,' 
would be a profitable investment. There are other tracts in the n 



n 

tJ«T 

ml ■ 




PBEVEHTION. 181 

bourhood of the Abbey wliich might be advantageously appropriated 
to tbe same purpose. Something ought to bo given in return for the 
houses swept away in clearaaces and improvements. The difficulty of 
procuring suitable dwellings is one of the heavieit evila pressing on the 
iudustrial classes in large towns. It is a pereanial curse to thetii. So 
long ttii the present state of things is allowed to endure, it is idle to 
talk of ediioatioo, or to preach temperance. The miaerable homes of 
the majority, who earn their bread by the sweat of their browa, are at 
the root of our most deplorable social evils. The most elevating in- 
fluence that caa be exercised on man is to teach him sell-respect. We 
fully adopt the dictum of a contemporary, that ' the bodily state of 
eveiy man must be the basis of his mental state.' Tlie man who is 
compelled to see hia £imily withering ia some overnirowded house in a 
pestilential court must lose energy, and can sciircely escape from despair. 
Place him where he can enjoy the light of heaven, and all the appliances 
of comfort and decency— make htx home habitable and cheerful, and he 
will t!ie more readily practise all the moral and social virtuea." 

I have again been anticipated, as follows, by the Editor of " The 
Times," in the argument — obvious enough, perhaps, when found out — 
that among the preventives we ought to consider of before we attempt 
the cure of proatitutiou, should be numbered an altered and improved 
system of female training ; — 

" Now, when we examine our system of training for girls of the 
poorer class, we see one very impoi-tant defect immediately in it, 
and that is, that they receive no iusti-uction in. household work. Girls 
are taught sewing in our parish schools, and very properly, because, 
even with a view to domestic service, sewing is an important accom- 
jilishment ; but they are not taught anything about household work. 
We do not say that a parish school could teach this, for household 
■work caa only be really learnt in a house ; the schoolroom can provide 
najikins and towels, but it cannot supply tables, chairs, mantelpieces, 
and carpets for rubbing and brushing ; and, the material to work upon 
being wanting, the art cannot be taught. But this is ouly explaining 
the fact, and not altering it. Household work is not learnt, and what 
is the cousetjuence 1 The department of domestic service iu this country 
is hardly at this moment sufSciently supjilied, while crowds of girls enter 
into the department of needlework in one or other of its branches, and 
of course overstock it enormously. Add to this a sort of foolish pride 
that poor people have in the apparent rise which is gained in rank by 
this profession, — for, of course, every one of these girls is ultimately 
to be a 'milliner,' which has for them rather a grand sound. The 
metropolis, sooner or later, receives this vast overplus of the sewing 
female population, and the immense milliners' and tailors' and shirt- 
makers' establishments hardly absorb the overflowing supply of female 
labour and skill, while, of course, they profit to the very utmost by the 
glut of the labour-market. A vast multitude of half-starviug women 
IB the result of the system ; whereas, had household work formed a 
part of their instruction, besides a better supply of the home field of 
service, what is of much more couaer|uenae, the ooloni^ would take a 
large part of this overplus off our hands. 

'■ What is the natural remedy, then, for this defect in the traiaing of 



r 




182 PKEVKSTION.- 

girk of the poorer classes in tliia country 1 Tte remedy ii 
that they should be taught, in Bome way or other, household work. At 
present, in the absence of any Huch instruction as this, it must be 
admitted that, however incidentally, the sewing which is taught in all 
our parish Bchools is simply aiding the oTerflowing tide of needle labour, 
which is every year taking up such multitudes of young women to the 
metropolis, and exposing them to the dreadful temptations of an under- 
paid service. And bow is household work to be taught ? Well, that is, 
of course, the difficulty. There are, as we have said, great difficulties in 
the way of our parish schools taking it up. The experiment, however, 
lies been tried, in different places, of special institutions for this object ; 
and, in the absence of any formal and public institutions, the houses of 
our gentry and clergy might be made to supply such instruction to a 
Qonsiderable extent, and without any inordinate demand on private 
charity. Extra labour, as every householder knows, is often wanted ia 
every domestic establishment; it is even wanted periodically and at 
regular intervals in a large proportion of our good honsea. It would be 
of great service to the country if a practice, which is already par- 
tially adopted, were more common and genei'al — that of taking jiarish 
girls by turns for these sjiecial occasions. This might be done, at any 
Tate in the country, to a large extent, and even a few days' employment 
of this kind in a well-fumiahed house, occurring at more or less regular 
intervals, would be often enough to create a taste and a capacity for 
household work. The profesaion of household service might thus be in- 
definitely widened, and a large class be created that would naturally look 
to such service as its distinct employment, and he ready, in case of disap- 
pointment at home, to seek it in the colonies."* 

The needle has swallowed up the hearth. We seem, as a nation, to 
■ assume, that stitching is the woman's normal calling, and the duties of 
wife and helper, which are her real inherent rights, to be but secondary 
or alternative. We seem to consider that if we enable her perchance 
to crawl alone, independently of her destined staff, we have done our 
duty by her, ■whereas we have but evaded a parental responsihility. 
This responsibility would be fulfilled, first, by fitting her to be a wife 
in feet as welt as in name — encouraging, by all means, the demand for 
her as such — helping her to the scene of that demand. But now, alas ! 
society does much to qualify the poor girl who comes to seek its care in 
formd pauperis, for slavery and prostitution, to encourage the demand 
for her in both these capacities, and to rivet her fetters when she has 
iollen. I am aware that to rail at the white slave labour market may 
be heresy of the deadliest against the demon of political economy ; and 
that he who deplores the existence of the slop and contract system, 
and would relieve the market for man-labour by withdrawing female 
competition, may be proved, as far as commercial logic can do it, to 
be in grievous though amiable error. But it is an eiTor of Lhe heart in 
which, until farther advised of the impossibility of realizing the visions 
of the philanthropist, I, for one, am too happy to partake. Are those 
visions hut as the mirage, or may we hope to find they are the 
shadows in the clouds of things that will be J "^ 



" The Times," May Bth, 1867, 



i 



PREVENTION. 183 

Ishndder aslread each jubilaut onnouncenieut of "another new diannel 
for female labour." Each leeture, pamphlet, and handbill, that callx 
attention to some new field of competition, seeniis to me but the knell of 
hundreds whose diversion \>j capital from their natural functions to its 
own uses, is a curse to both sexes and an hindrance of the purposes of 
our Creator. No mom impious coup Sitat of Mammon could be devised 
than that grinding down against one another of the sexes intended by 
thuir Maker for mutusl support and comfort. 

Free-trade in female honour follows hard upon that in female labour; 
the wages of working men, wherever they compete with female la- 
bour, are lowered by the flood of cheap and agile hands, until mar- 
riage and a family are an almost impossible luxury or a misery. The 
earnings of man's unfortunate competitor are in their turn driven 
down by machinery until inadeijuate to support her life. The econo- 
mist, as ho turns the screw of torture, points complacently to this 
farther illustration of the law of trade; the moralist pointing out how 
inexorable is the command to labour, iao seldom and too late arrests 
the torture. He only cries enough when the famished worker, wearied 
of the useless struggle against capital, too honest yet to steai, too 
proud yet to put up useless prayers for nominal relief at the hands of 
the community, and having sold even to the lost but one of her pos- 
sessions, takes virtue itself to market. "And thus," as Parent says, 
"prostitution exists, and will aver exist, in all great towns, because, 
like mendicancy and gambling, it is an industry and a resouiMe against 
hunger, one may even say against dishonour. For, to what excess may 
not an individual be driven, cut off from all resources, her very existence 
compromised) This last alternative, it is true, is degrading, hut It 
nevertheless exists." 

But if the national education of women is not to be confined to 
reading, writing, and needlework, what are we to do with thomi says 
the ever ready avocato del diablo. The ready answer is — tbaok THEU 
HODSBwiFERT ; and the rejoinder, how and where, was well met by tlie 
sensible and practical suggestion in the newspaper article above quoted, 
that household education should be incorporated to a much greater ex- 
tent than at present, with the discipline of union houses and schools. 

The parochial clergy and well dispostd gentry of the country have 
ample opportunities, if they would embrace them, of diverting to house- 
hold pursuits the crowds of young women who annually jostle one another 
into the ranks of needle-work. The hall, the parsonage, and the pariah 
school would be the best of normal scliools for cooking, scrubbing, 
washing, ironing, and the like. Their owners would gladly, I ikncy, 
impart gratuitous instruction in exchange for gratuitous service, and 
every housekeeper will bear me out in saying that the knowledge of the 
business once acqnired, the market for properly qualified domestic ser- 
vants is ample and not half supplied, while that for every description of 
needlework has long been overstocked. The vanity of girls and mothers 
must, it is tme, be overcome, but the greater economy of the proposed 
domestic education would go some way to carry the day in its favourj 
and if a true appreciation of the happiness that waits on colonization, 
and of the essentials to its success, were once to get well abroad among 
our people, their mother wit would lead them soon enough to grasp the 



I8i PREVENTION. ^^^^^H 

comparative value of the domestic and needlework eysteina of training. 
The best proof that Bometliiog of tlie kind is practicable will be an 
extract from a letter,signed " St. Diinstan's in the West," to " The Times" 
of May 8lh, 1857. The model institution the writer describes, which 
has reduced our tlieory to practice, and by thus ameliorating the educa- 
tion and position of a number of young women has borne its part in 
prevention of prostitution is, 1 think, well worthy of record here, and of 
imitation fur and wide : — 

" Some eighteen years ago this weak point in our parish-scliool system 
engaged the serious attention of a respected inhabitant of this pariah — 
Mr. Thomaa Sloan — now no more, and before his death he lived to see 
established, with the assistance of hia neighbours, the ' St. Dunstan's 
Parochial Girls' Foundation School.' In this school, the funds of which 
are kept quite distinct, are draughted from time to time the girls from 
the ordinary girls' parochial school, when they have attained the age of 
fourteen. They are then boarded, lodged, and provided for, as well as 
iostmcted in all the duties of household servants by a competent matron 
and Bchoolmistress, until sixteen years of age. It is gratifying to add, 
the girls of the school have obtained so good a name for competency ai 
domestic servants, that they always obtain good places, and the applic 
tions to the matron for servants from the Foundation School exceed thafl 
supply that can be afforded." 

Major Powys, again, of the Soldiers' Daughtei's' Home, at Kampstcad, 
that the good old plea of " it has not been tried" may not bar the way of 
improvement, gives the following pari^iculara of an experiment now in. 
progresa at that institution. The foundation is too recent to admit of j 
results being at present chronicled, but that they will prove emiuentl]^ 
Eatiafectory no person who is alive to the extreme scarcity of v 
often termed " servants of the good old school" can entertain a doubt. 

" We are determined," says the gallant officer, " with the blessing of 
God upon our efforts, to prevent at least 123 poor girls from applying 
to the proposed 'Refuge' in St. Jameo's pariah, to which your powerful 
article in yesterday's paper so truthfully alluded. 

" Our object at the Soldiei-s' Daughters' Home, at Hampstead, is not 
only t^j save more especially the motherless girl from destitution and its 
awful eonsequencea, but to save her from over-education and its inevitable 
results. We are more concerned to train them for the kitchen, the 
laundry, the dairy, the nursery, the housemaid'a. work, with a littl 
needlework and knitting, than to lead their minds through the difficnltii 
of the present refined education, or their fingers through the intricacy oi 
millinery excellence." 

But let those remember — whose charitable alms and tear of pity w 
ever ready for the starving myriads ; the half-starving million; the die* 
less life of him who would, but cannot or may not, marry ; the wretched" 
ness of those who jump, ignorant of self-restraints, and despei-ate of lawful 
love, at lawless intercourse; — that the sympathy of individuals will do 
little more than elicit yet a greater breadth of misery. The tears 
which shall blot out prostitution must be wept in streams by the 
body politic and social. The body politic and social must hold ont_J 
ungrudgingly, not the himdreds, but the millions of relief to t 
appeal to it, not for charity, but for work. Jf nothing e 



of 

entlnJI 
t bMM 




FBEVEKTlOJf, 185 

done without an eye to trade, let them know tLat the profits on the 
investment will be large and the dividends regular. 

The sua, they say, never seta upon our dominions ; and true it is that, 
go far aa you will towai-ds his setting glories, there are rolling lands 
beyond that call for English hands; and English hearts that loog for 
company. The cry for elbow-room is even now heard among ourselves, 
and wei'e our population area limited to Great Britain, I would among 
the first deride my own exhortations to matrimony. But empire upon 
empire that will vindicate the glories of Old England when these islands 
may be swallowed up by jealous Europe, look to her to plant within 
their borders the germ of population ; and she will not have fulfilled her 
mission, nor done her duty to herself and her children, until slie haa 
more than shown them the road to lands that flow with milk and honey, 
and whose best of fruits is peace of mind. This fniit may not be gathered 
by idle hands — drones may not eat that honey; but the young, and 
strong, and willing, who may not here hold up against the tide, may there 
find rest and plenty. Each scowling labourer, whom a week's mora 
want may make a thief — and who can predict he would starve ere be 
stolel— each worn and weary needlewoman, every heartsick professional 
man and hopeless trader who oscillatca at home between want of 
work that begets idleness and idleness that makes work distasteful, may 
find in those &dr lands new work, new homes, new happiness. Removed 
from the scorn, or, what is almost worse, the inactive pity of society, 
even misery itself becomes more endurable; but no misery can hold its 
own against the efiervescing vitality that the western colonist must draw 
perforce from the very air. There are regions as wide to the east, but 
the curse of gold is upon them : so let England, acting as a nation, wisely 
direct a flood of population upon the ample fields of her American colo- 
nies, where the iiselesa must become useful, the worthless almost worthy, 
and where the emigrant who can work has but two alternatives^ — death 
or prosperity. If a perfect state ia desirable, or worth conaidering— and 
the total absence of the evil I have been treating of would impJy almost 
an Iltopia^far larger schemes must bo taken and reviewed than the 
reformation of a few ladylike specimens of the vice here and there, and 
the rightful direction of a few young minds. This is clearly my fair 
apology for the comprehensive nature of the preventives I have suggested, 
which, I repeat, are physical moral culture of the young mates, house- 
wifery education of young females, wholesale encouragement of marriage 
by society, colonization not by driblets but by tribes, -v 

Eor the sufierings of labour, for the immorality of the community,^ 1 
my nostrum is, marry and colonize — colonize— colonize. I have neither 1 
space nor ability for a treatise on emigration considered politico- economi- 
cally; but until better infonned, I take it that the prospects of labour in 
this country have been already improved by the emigration of the last 
twenty years, for wages show symptoms of slow but permanent rise. It 
is well known that an aj^parent advance, and much more a real one, in 
the prosperity of the people, induces a great iiici'ease in the number of 
marriages; and I believe that by a liirge continuous export of middle 
and lower class labour to our colonies, we should convert and substitute a 
material for an apparent improvement in the condition of those left at 
home, thus fevouring their conjugal tendencies and consequent morality. 




188^ PKEVENTIOS. 

By State promotion and conduct of eucli an exodus &nni this cotiQti; 
to the colonies, we should be not only enlarging our breathing re 
here, but be planting in the "West the natural course of all 
provement, a Buccesaion Empire to our own, instead of, as at present, " 
seeing the flower of our surplus population diverted to the inaprovement 
of the magnificent Western States of the North American confederation. 
Tlie resolute non-encouragement of emigration by Parliament — for no 
person in hia senses will ai^ue that the present emigration department of 
the Government (though efficient as far as it goes) is more than a 
bagatelle — has always been to mo so inexplicable that I cannot wondei' 
at imputations put forward by the discontented of collusion between tlie 
aristocracy and plousiocracy to keep down wages. The colonies demand 
labour, and labour is redundant in the mother country, but yet neither 
the home nor the colonial Government will export it. As an article of 
merchandize, labour is worth ready cash to the colony, and once 
settled, becomes an annuity to the mother country, instead of an incabos 
on public or private reaourcea. In the rural, not town, distncts of 
Lower Canada alone, accoi'ding to the replies to ofScial circulara, there 
are at once urgently demanded 7933 farm labourers, each of whom 
might be married; besides 3103 adult and 3113 young females in 
various capacities. The town of Toronto alone sends a requisition Ibr 
several hundred maid -servants, and the total immediate want of this 
one province is 25,000 head of workpeople, who are supposed by tl 
colonial authorities to represent an immigration of 100,000 soula. 

This official ikot as to Lower Canada holds good, in all probability^ 
as to New Brunswick, Upper Canada, Australia, Prince Edwi " 
Island, and Nova Scotia. The lands uudisposed of in the Canadas ai 
175,577,674 acres, and the average price of those sold last yearn 
about ten shillings. Mail after mail brings prayers to England for n 
hands for her Western Empire, but the old country folds her arms," 
declines intervention, and confines herself to superintending the pas- 
senger arrangements of those who have capital enough to transport 
themselves. During five years this stolid mother country baa checked 
and supervised the additional export of 1,200,000 of her offspring to the 
resources of the United States, a self-supporting community, where the 
emigrant is once and for all lost to us, both as a citizen and a customer, 
and of 204,000 only to the North American colonies, where the home of 
the Old Country is an evergreen memory to the emigrant, and biB 
material coimexion with it by the links of trade is unbroken. Not a 
mau in Whitehall but knows that the beat interests of the individuals 
and of this Empire had been served by reversal of these figures; but yet 
the Government of this day, directed by some sort of political economy — 
I presume from indications lately furnished in tiie case of the discha^;ed 
Woolwich artisans — seem determined to let misery take its county so loQg 
as the labour market be not disturbed. 

We saw, it seems but yeatei'day, some thousand pair of hands, able 
"with sledge and bill to forge and hack out a new colony, uplifted in our 
streets for most distasteful alms. Here was the raw material of empiios 
going a-begging. Sis pounds a-head* would have landed the j " '" 



it abmeA b; the Woolwicli fund, and a nom'ber 



orof th^H 



PREVENTIOlf. 187 

lepon on the western sliorea, and made each man of them worth hundreds 
to the State. But n th th Id nation, whose labour market they 
incumbered, nor the n wh e wheels of progress they might 

grease, would be at th ost f th r transport. So private charity, 
diverted from more fi t ng hami 1 tepped out to do the public work, 
and the victims of pol t al n m shiiking the British dust from off 
their shoes, were draft d ff t t ngthen other States, and were lost to 
ours for ever. 

I must plead the very intimate connexion of wj^es and population 
with morality as a last apology for thus wading almost out of my 
depth, and as it may appear at first sight to some readers, needlessly 
extending these remarks in a political direction. But when I consider 
the tens of thousands we might strike out of calculations upon prostitu- 
tion by helping their eniigration, I am from a social point of view indig- 
nant that society, which besides purgation, might reap profit from their 
transplantation, should confine itself to unavailing lamentation over their 
poverty and their sins. In a year's time we shall have bridged the 
Atlantic, connecting ourselves, I hear, not with our American colonies, 
but with the United States — to whom I grudge nothing but our people 
— by the monster ark now towering over Greenwich Hospital She 
may chance to be the first of a leviathan line, adequate in reality to the 
depletion of our social system, though she may not be destined to effect 
the transfusion I advocate. I look anxiously for the experiment, which 
appears pregnant with results of importance. When the facilities for 
wholesale emigration come, as now seems within probability, to bo 
developed, when due knowledge of the happioess attendant upon colo- 
nization has flashed upon the labouring classes, but not till then, we 
may expect an approximate solution of that good old problem, " how to 
get a fair day's wages for a fair day's work." As this has long been a 
puzzle to the husbandman especially, I will take his case for the sake of 
argument. He who has coaxed Dame Nature of her gifts {no longer 
poured as from a horn of plenty) has seen the fruit of his handiwork 
paradoxically enhanced both in price and quantity, while his wages, 
representing the coat of so much bread, have barely kept pace with the 
one, without correction for the other. Steam, mechanics, and the 
opening of the trade in him {as an article of merchandize) by an altered 
law of settlement, have defeated (except in parts) the rise in his price 
which might have been expected. But the market for him, I should 
aay in the phraseology of trade, shows symptoms of no very distant 
recovery. Mechanics and steam have made their rush and had their 
grand effect U[>on rural economy; the Arkwrights and Cromptons of 
agriculture have made their mark; and henceforth, -as Nature herself 
seems to prescribe bounds to steam husbandry, its progress will be 
slow, and tend rather to excellence of results than economy of process, 

The agricultural males* in this country, who, Magna Charta and 
civilization notwithstanding, are not very much more comfortably cir- 
oumatanced than their fore&thers, the vUleina of feudal days, number 



L 



Total l,E0T,8aaofiJl»( 



188 



PREVENTION. 




about 1,500,000, of -whom 1,000,000 may lie of fit Egcs to bear 
These men, who preaerve the fighting quality of our ancient 
although their warlike spirit has been seJuloualy kept down 
governing classes, furnish in a great measure the military power oi tQe 
Empire. The market for their labour is also sensitive to sudden abstrao- 
tions. Recent events warrant us the expectation of a prolonged auo- 
cession of calls for English armies, a probability which, though doubtless 
already discounted in Threadneedle-sti-eet, may not for years to ci 
have its fidl effect throughout the country. The regular emigratioi 
the people is already treading hard upon ihe heels of their increase, 
it seems that the total exodus of 1851 was 335,966, and that of 185j 
■was 368,764, while the excess of births over deaths in England 
Wales during the former of tlioae years wan only 220, 691,* 

These circumstances seem to me to foreshadow an increased dem 
for the services of the agricultural labourer, whose profits — by uhicb 
here mean the excess of his wages over his expenditure in mere bread- 
are at a low point of depreasion. But suppose that in addition to 
improved prospect the peasant who had none or inadequate meana 
escape from meriy England, were on waking some morning t« find that 
colonial Parliaments had wisely offered a rewai'd for him in money or ■ 
firee passage, or both, and were ready, as they ought to b^ to give him 
certain freehold land in consideration of stipulated service upon public 
works, and suppose that he sliould learn of these monster ships, tlieir 
successful voyages, and the comfoi-t of their passengers, and that the 
ship agent offering cheap bei-ths, and the colonial emissaryt offering free 
or assisted passages, were, in point of fact, competing for him with the 
farmer at the atljacent "Plough and Harrow," I believe that with 
his proverbial stupidity, this Bceotian would he shrewd enough to 
hia account in a i-ising market, and would let hia lusty arms to 
highest bidder. But even without quite all this competition, if iustino-' 
tively comprehending the growing facility, cheapness, and comfort of 
colonization, our peasantry were to gird up their loins and leave the 
land in masses, as their compeers of Ireland have done, we might realize 
the almost visionary result of a standing premium on their clas,s of 
labour. In such a case, the Englishman would make little of the fabled 
ties which are by poets' hcence supposed instead of ignorance and poverty 



thfl_ 



' Bmigiatbi 



a the United Kingdom laa bflea going on of late jenre as fbllowa -,-^ i 



82,238 
162,164 
188,233 
21S,4S0 




FREVEKTIOS, 189 

to bind him to the soil. He would think no more of leaving tbe 
hamlet of his accidental birth and hopeless compulsory life, were ho 
shown and given the means of escape, than the hawk uuhooded and 
unjessed tLiiiks of leaving the fist of her ti-aiiier. 

He has all the makings of a colonist about him, for he has in- 
hei'ited Htrougth, endurance, and a fancy for solitude from his fore- 
fathers, and in the craft of husbandry there is none like him. la 
these particulars he stands out from all classes of our population 
as eligible; but thousands of every class resemble him, in that they 
would joyftiljy welcome more favourable conditions of emigration, and 
would settle down in peace and plenty after a more or less troublesome 
novitiate. Were the holding out of such conditions engrafted upon our" 
State policy, this country might, in my opinion, he soon relieved of every- 
thing like surplus population, and our dependencies receive no more 
than wholesome supplies of it. Higher wages, no longer needfully 
accompanied by dearer bread — in other words, comparative wealth — 
woutd-fall to the lot of those left with us: happiness they might not 
hope for here would wait upon the pilgrims, A vast increase in 
Marriaqes, the goage and sequel of even apparent prosperity, would as 
surely follow this improvement in the material condition of the people; 
and such increase could alone be drawn from those vast reserves of 
single persons which the Registrar- General denotes as applicable to the 
adjustment of the population, and which all must agree with me are 
also onr bursting storehouses of VIOE and lUUORALn?. 

If I have conjured up visions, they are begotten of the visionary 
aspirations of those who have dreamed of putting an end to prostitution 
by exhortation, exorcism, or force. T at least am not guilty of invoking 
supernatural virtue {composed, as Burke said, of sad stuff) to dislocate 
tho social fabric, or of proposing to suppress vice by enactment — 'd. 
course which has led to nothing, or to pernicious results, wherever 
attempted. I have but endeavoured to sum up, for those who have not 
survived the fresh dtvoueatent of youth — that unpractical enthusiasm 
which spurns all obst-toles and counts no cost— the evidence I could 
collect, that all action is not impossible : the evidence that means may 
exist of partly preventing and modifying this evil, without hazard of 
11 oral or political danger. 




LONDON : 
8AYILL AND EDWABDS, PBINTEBS, CHAND08 8TBSET, 

OOVENT OABDEN. 



CRITICISMS OF THE MEDICAL PRESS 

ME. ACTON'S PREVIOUS WOEKS. 



FTDvingial Medical and BnrgioBl lonmal, April I6tli, 1851, {Leader.) 

Is Ihii coontrj, so remnrluMa for the eitornal manirMtatioDt of piety uid parity— for tbe »pi)t. 

. 1b9s appMrmniw of the " oulaifle of the plstter," there fau •JwBya been ■ aiffloidty In deoidiiii 

vhelber we should, u t. mHaa, TicluaUy ignore the sriHl«iice of pnistitulJOD, uid OM., m aaeo^ 

fur s9 TDBj be harmleas to the community. Herelofore, under the preianre of n mutioan modesty, 
xhieh KOuld rslbec lei the foitl itreami of Init and dueaae spmid over the surfsee of sodelv nilhouC 
check, than have pnhhcly to pomt ont tlieir eiSstenoe, the promiBcuoua iDlercourae of lie Mies, 
whilelittleifit nil leHl&iin iacoaotriei invhjch female purilria held compBratiiely chenp, ia m 

The immediHte cnnse of this lamentable fact ia, we bdieTe, mainly to be ronnd in the absurd rent- 

vietim of proatilnlion lllej would 'bi enooiiariug'the^vica" refuse M™iteild tSieit beneS J tl 'the eaV- 
jeote of ayphilii. The coDaaquecce ia, that they are driven to aeek snch ioefBcient treatment as oui 
be oMaineil >t the hands of some ignorant chemist, or what ia worse, return to tlieir wretohcd trade 
stiU further to propagaLo a disease wbicha-squeanuBh purilanism has refused to alleviate. The aad 
reenlta attending tjiia folly are, however, so admirably ahown by Mr. Acton,* whose pamphlet has 

for advice or lrf]lay blather owu rooms UTItU ahe has recovered. Let us suppose she hfts been refused 
att^ndanee or medieme at the institutions alluded tu : is it to l>e believed that she will atane rather 

flultp Her own complnint becomes aggravated, she applies to the parish, which ia bintnd to reheve 
her.take her into the houae, or send her to the hoapiljd. It is aociety that suflbra, as instead of at 
flnlreoaiFiiigalitUemedioine, she must now probably be maintained fur three months at the puliho 

municaleeayphilislohis wife, and the mother to the chUd. The father ia afraid to oonfide to his wife 
the nature of hid complaint^ the woman is ignorant of the oonsequenceo an til the disease has made 
DtHuidertble pnigren, and Ulus wfl have an entire famUy oonverted into ' oou-efiective' indlTiduala, 
'"—"- overt^H a Urge proportion of the oblldren thus inflated, the health uf the parents ia permi' 
damaoad, aud bewho turned tlie afllicted prostitate from the hoapital door, may, perhaps, for 
_ ^__ . .^_. ._ . . -■-road ' the pestilence that «alliethT)y [■-■" ■ - -~ -' ■'-^— 



iby night,' to alHict the in 



. . itained picture, but one, the trtithAdposB of which eveij medioal man must reoo- 

gniae, and it beboTss us as a portion of the duty we owe to society, to raise oor^roices aguust the 

obarities. That it is most unressooable ao to do, a momeut'i reflection willsbow, for if it be right to 

admit others efpially the heirloom of iniquity. If the oou 

shoulii not escape i and the diseased hver, the dyaoepsia, 
should on the same principle bf denied relief. 

perhaps have Greater weight with come Loinda, opposed to the best interests of society, mfnal and 
pecanuiry. The abatement of the causes of Hyphilis must one day take its place beside the many 
other quefltidns involved in the sanilaiT movement, and it ia to medical men we moat look for tba 

have hitherto prevailed. Kot only must the pumber of special hospitals for syphilis be increased, but 
viBt we oonEend (br in the present article, OUT generaf hospitals must no looger be closed to tba 
venereal patient. In this way alone, by admitting of an early remedy, will this fearful evil be mo* 



Hedical Timet, lUrgh ISth, 1857. 
pTottituHim in Relation lo Public Health. By William Aotoji, lata Sorgeoti lo tbe 

Islington Dispenaaiy. (Heprinted for private circulation.) 

This pamphlet is the introdnolory chapter to the second edition of Mr. Acton's treatiae on 

ByphiKs, but the matter has appeared to him ho important, that he has reprinted it forpntatB 

omralatinn. Its purport ia lopoml out that syphilis la adiseaoe to he prtoniM, as cholera or lyphua 

niont lo mention, that Mr. Actou telio'es that syphilis is as prevalent now as it ever hsa been, and 

• FmatilndDD in ralatioii to FnbiiD Eealtli, by WiUiun Aolon, Eiq. 




I 



7ioi« iTi.viinj f "WIo.j, Bona dis 

iDnorabfBOOnfAro.frappidetgri , 

fl^TieDBa et fraidB ^e IVtflt dc& choBea^ ^ Aier I'aclentJDa publique aar U progreuioq ^fraduelbdfl k 

glnift, nioq gommea c4rav4iD0a que lea [ir^Jaa^ fondu lur une aiideTiiie hAbitade, «ur une inLan)r^[i 
tion ficheiuft de U lo] et dea aenliinonfl religieof, ne tlendrcmt paa langteiQpt dfivBnt In cDlffre 
pent-fitre eiogfr^ qai portent lee ohilbea dea proatHufea danf ' ' "" 

oielfl da la maritie et da l'Armif«» c^i niontrent qae dane I'ariui^ff 

pandre dims la paya Dett« pnte qui infeete lea gdndratigni joBque dana lemr eouive, et qui menuQ de 

d'ftvoir proToquc MUsaijn paja nne dear^rormea lea pica aljlea """ '^' — 



™Sr«r» 



Medical Circnlu, Aogoat SBth, ISST. 
Propoiat to Form, a London Female Sanitarn Society/ and Samngt Bani. 

B7 WlLLIAH ACTOK, 

There dbd he no doubt tbil there ia > Isrffa dIsu of reinalea salt helpleas and hopelcan npo 
darneai of large oitien—" Ftsesrs in the deaart," »a tho writer of tlie present bmiiiri: atjla 

at Ireaoheroua pissions they became the oaat-awaja of aociety j but there they are, ■ f jlai^r 
.p nf moral «id phjsioal oril, loByenin^ willi (heir corrupt infliieocea the entire locW must. 
The extent to whieh the evil ramiflea it vere diffitoll to nj, nor ia it DFceaauT ; ererj m -dfcal 
DofexperieDae must be able to lodge for himaelfr 

It is Mt. Aaton'a niah !□ anEble these netehad nomau to help thetDBelies. Einss the Qo n- 
i^hoapitaisforthe eure^of sjpbiliajheprogoaea to ronodsBeneatSodatJi 






'■ My propoBul, to fact, atripped of all wordj BupcrBuitiea, ia to Eiteod fbr the firat lime UiB adi 
tsgas of Friandly Sai^latiea and Bnuaflt Cloba to an order of iroman. nbom I need aot ' ' 
l..riw, but whom fe^ -ill Dot admit to beir nxoat important ralaliona to society. I b 

their beltera, th^ woold aoon leam and eomo lo icknowled^e the adianlagas of up , _,^ 

ehow the world that their proverbial improvidence m^nlyariiei from tb™ not beln» inWiatedifl 
the praeliee and the value of thrift." ^ 

Th^«f|PhU«nlhropicpropoailion reaommended iu an earnest ipirit, and it dMerveato 
Ihia eiperiment will hang. We hope Ibe latter, and that Mr. Aetou'a propoial will most nilh IhVi 



Lancet, Aognit Stli, 1397. 

"'™n lli°aVntSe™''^lii™Ma'h Sf "'^"^^ armed Utllepamphlet raceolly usued. mJ? J 
tho moat cordial approval and support, * 



^to loapilal for lyphilia per JiKHI men, it is pomible that the same caae m»y be relnnJdS 

dSt'^'l^e " timea,-ao that lhi> ratio may be too great. Stifl the nuSw J 

Tie annual coat of sjphilitie jatienta in tbo Dreadnought ij nearly lOOOf, par nanmi 




* Anlliors a mde ■ 



oddiuaed to ail Clauea of the ProfeaHion. 

■-"t>'V>>/v\AjT-f\R.'\A/\j'y/^^ ' '-'--" 

THE BRITISH AND FOREIBN MEDIGQ-GHIHURGIGAL REVIEW, 



THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPICAL 
SCIENCE. 

Edited by Edwib Lankesteh, M.D., F.B.S., F.L.S., and Georoe BnsK, F.R.C.S.R, 



is.Gd.; IX. to XII 



THE JOURNAL OF MENTAL SCIENCE. 

Pntlisiied ty suthoritj of the Aasociatiun of Medical Officers of Aayluina and Hospitals 
far the iDsane. 
Edited hy C. L. Hobeeisoh, M.B., and Hkbkt MAnosLBT, M.D. 

Publiabed Qaartetly, price Half-a-Crown. New Series. Nos. I. to XI. 

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PuWishfd Quarterly; No8. I. - "■ ' 



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Published Annually. 8>o. cloth, lOs. 6d. 



OM. fl 



^6<i*s — M- 



-W9«»A 



A CLASSIFIED INDEX 

MJESSfiS. CHBEmm'! S8HS' CAIAISCTI. 




Bird on Children 



t on Utarine 1 



Sqnlra'i Hospital rhsimaGOpffiii 
SteraHll's First Unca for Che 

... _ a Toilcologlcsl Cliart 
Taylor on Pdaons 



■ai on ChlWrim 
Qiedtle) on Pa 



GflDtonBladABT., 

in STpblUe 
iSjphilla .. , 
r on ^hilli 
Wilson an Sypbilla . 



BYQTESX. 

nstroDE on Nav&l Hyghsna 
ila'sLsimotfletdUi .. .. 
lo. Htaim uid DlMase ,. 

Csrti^r on Training 



onVlehr 

PhjsIcA] EdDcaCioi 
'silt of proloneing LI 



oore'9 Health in I'roplM 
IcUQrd on Hyj^ene 



MATEEU HEDICA and 



n UcalUij and Din- 



DBVcy*! Ganglionic NervDBS 

Eyn on StomBcb 1 1 

li on CUolcra Is 



Myalgia 
L on Lb^rdat^jio 



Robara on Palsy 

Robertaoj " — *■ 

SiTory's 



Whai la Obwrre at Iho E 
Wright on Headaohoa ' 



-— ^•«* 



4> 












I. 



viriuifinorE 



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Nuvrf-r . r. « "Opinio rtiUrity .. 5 
.*<■: : : » "> Ma:v.:a1 i>f Ilotany .. 6 
::.r. »■ Nfcr-ral rhilufciphy .. 6 
0-1... ; !. iv;n^' ronsioii ,. 10 
'..ur:.* 4^ ..'> ■^^..■^t«>^rn»phy . . .. 14 

r, :■..> .-.fcr-.v.."':;ic» 15 

.•.'i:'.'» :.■. Vs*i.^n 17 

.•;. .T. yx..xly. Sense. And Mind 17 

Vji«:'f ■> iwuvn 'iO 

:>fcr:V »'-rrift*;.ip- of lYeation.. 28 

r^.-> l\vcc.:nc aiid Centric 

l.-rw W 

f*T." .'c. iV^iA". Motion . . . . M 
f*r".^ > rh."«:,VT»;^hio Mjuiipulft- 

ri..r. .'. « 

fiK.Pt » ."^r. S^f 1*.* »3 

j.f »-:r«.ir«.-. > Ar.:r.*.a» Klectrieity 83 
".K' '.*:■> VkIicaI «lnh»prudeiice 27 
■. t;^--"*. FoTAr.iml IjOTter* .. 89 
^ ,•< ,^c* ,x OnfAi-j^i 28 

srsesBT. 

\:it.T.> .-^T. V.f r*r»:;.^:i of Tendons 3 

.•■• >;:Nr4:r«i::ieoiis Surpery 3 

*«r'.'.'r!*.'<T .-.T. J^o Skia .. .. 3 

«»».T.-.-ir ,^7. Ki^Wsn*. 4 

Sh"v. . :,T. WitM,a<i' i>{ «1olnt« . . 4 

.".-.»..! ..rsi .-iT. Ar>x->}i.'*i» .. .. 7 

54- M.: .iT. '.\iif^*iio»«-tf Joint* .. 7 

Ju. ii-:».i*-r ."c. K-,-.y-r:ire 8 

x^-ltHiitnu. ,"ir. V^-XT* 9 

.V. Vfcnxxxw Vein* .. .. 9 

x'*;h-.-k"* ,">.■.;:-.:«:» of S;;T>?rtT . . 9 

»".v.:v: ."^i.T A. .^T. T«Ca».. .. 9 

A. .N* >4;:;rs. l^v-CJonary 10 

,* .1. •s.-^- .vr. '..-c^.-corAy ., ..10 

x"*!.- V ■■■' /■■fV'"-"" 10 

.\- .T '. ,-s::5 10 

• '" ^ »*'- "iK '^" ,. ..11 

• .- \ s*.-.T/* S,-.:"p!:rj- 11 

' . ». • x \; .7»,-c >-i7p?ry Aiid 

S-. • si*.%: . '.. .. 1.S 

. .^\- XsT.-cr. ,-.r y-.:r»Wvn" Silver 15 

\.^^- .V l>-,-*CA» l,s 

■ .V .'JiT-O-V.TT l,s 

• -^ " V.,'^.ji 16 

■■• •■ ■> x" - j^yu Surpf ry .. 17 
;.»> \ '•otf'^ N.-T'c;-} .. ..18 

■^- J>. . . ...^ 1^ 

. V. x s;,. v.--> _ _ 19 

\ ,. v.\ V S, vv-> "■;>.v' Ctlmea 19 
V«s. ^- :■■• >>>x:uLrc* .. ..19 
V » .. c- ^ x'^-.v -sii-.^v S;:ry»ry . . ao 
N - -x ,» ." •- i>>it',x:A» .. ' .. 21 

'^ ■v.'* >;i^^r> « 

^■,V .{- S.T'.-;-.;:.* sa 

N. ^v '♦^ > x'-.-.k-c iV.w Or^»n» 24 
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