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YaAMOI 50A0MfiNT05 




ftonHon: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 




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K^^ 6 ^N9pconoc o^TOC AfKAioc ka) cyAaBhc, npocAexoMCNOC ud^pi- 
kAhcin to? Icp&hA, kaI hncyma hn ip'ON ^n AYTdN. 












THE raison d'itre of this book is to be sought for partly in 
the fact that the Psalms of Solomon recently formed one 
of the subjects selected for the Theological Tripos by the 
Special Board of Theological Studies in the University of 
Cambridge, and partly in the fact that existing editions and 
commentaries were in many respects unsatisfactory, and difficult 
of access. It is hoped that the present edition will meet the 
needs of English students, at all events until the publication of 
the long-promised work of Dr Oscar von Gebhardt. 

To the Syndics of the University Press we would express 
our sincere thanks for the publication of our book. We wish it 
were more worthy of the privilege thus accorded to it. 

In respect of our other obligations, we have great pleasure in 
calling the attention of our readers to the help we have received 
from Dr Chr. Bruun, Librarian of the Royal Library at Copen- 
hagen, from the Archimandrite Wladimir, of Moscow, and from 
M. TAbb^ Pierre Batiffol, of Paris. Our obligations to previous 
writers upon the Psalms of Solomon we have endeavoured to 
express in our Introduction. 

viii PREFACE. 

The text of this edition is based on collations of three MSS. 
unknown to previous editors, together with a fresh collation of 
the two remaining authorities. Passages in which the LXX. 
version appears to have suggested words or phrases are printed 
in uncial type. 

The translation aims at being literal. 

The notes are intended to be useful to students of a not very 
advanced type. We venture to hope that the Indices will be 
found serviceable. The somewhat full Table of Contents is 
intended to obviate the necessity of an Index Remm, 

A joint Editorship, while productive of most real pleasure, 
is yet peculiarly favourable to the survival of errors of the press. 
For such of these as remain uncorrected in the present work we 
would apologise to our readers. 

H. E. RYLE. 

King's College, Cambridge, 
March^ 1891. 


Introduction. § i. Editions page xiii 

Cerda. Fabricius. Whiston. German version. French 
version. Akibon. Hilgenfeld's first and second editions. 
Geiger. Fritzsche. Hilgenfeld's last edition. Schmidt's con- 
jectures. Wellhausen. Pick. Gebhardt's proposed edition. 
Writers who have treated of the Psalms. Nieremberg. Fer- 
randus. Janenski. Huet. Ernest Bengel. Movers (Kaulen). 
Ewald. Stanley. Grimm. Hitzig. A. Geiger. Langen. 
Delitzsch. Keim. Dillmann. Carridre. Vemes. Gratz. 
Dninmiond. Stanton. Schiirer. Edersheim. Holtzmann. 

§ iL History of the book xxi 

Early mentions of it Stichometries. Pseudo-Athanasius. 
Nicephorus. The 'Sixty Books.' The Codex Alexandrinus. 
Council of Laodicea. Zonaras and Balsamon. The ' Pistis 
Sophia.' Ambrose. Lactantius. Vigilantius. The supple- 
mentary odes. Their probable origin and length. Versions 
of the Psalms in other languages. 

§ iii. 77ie MSS. xxvii 

The Augsburg MS. (A). Its history. The Vienna MS. 
Its contents and history. The Copenhagen MS. (K). De- 
scription. History. Contents. The Moscow MS. (M). De- 
scription by the Archimandrite Wladimir. The Paris MS. (P). 
Contents. Relation of the MSS. to each other. Readings 
peculiar to A. Probable errors of Cerda. Readings peculiar 
to V, K, P, M. Readings in which any two MSS. agfree. Pro- 
visional pedigree. Possible identity of AV. Table of the 
Titles. Error in numeration of the Psalms. Close resem- 
blance of all the MSS. to each other. Similarity of P to M. 

§ iv. Date aiii^ Authorship of the Psahin . . pagi 

Historical position described in the Psalms. The foreign 
invader. Conjectured to be Tilus, Antiochus F'piphancs, 
Herod the Great. The true solution ; Pompey. Objections. 
Allusions to drought and famine. Date of the Psalms. Ex- 
treme limits of date. 

§ V. Jewish Parties : and the Religious Thouglit of the Psalms 

of Solomon 

The title ' Psalms of the Pharisees." The origin of the 
Pharisaic party. The Asmonean princes. The Sadducees, 
Identification of these with the party attacked by the Psalmist, 
as usurpers, unclean, indulging in foreign vices, oppressive. 
Attitude of the Psalmist characteristic of a Pharisee. Theo- 
cratic idea. The Law. Providence and Free Will. Retri- 
bution. Eternal life. Doom of the wicked. Angels, The 

§ vi. Hie Idea of the Messiah in the Psalms of Solomon 

Main outline. The time of Messiah's coming. His origin. 
Mission. Character of his rule. Distinctive characteristics. 
The title of Christ. Davidic descent. Subordination to God. 
King and priest. No Divine element. Resemblance to Solo- 
mon. Traits drawn from O. T. Special significance of this 
representation of the Messiah (o) in the history of the doctrine. 
Daniel, Enoch. Sibylline Oracles, {ffi Significance in the 
history of the people. 

g vii. Place of tvriting, Authorship, Purpose, Style, Title of 

Ike Psalms of Solomon 

Place of writing, Jerusalem. Author a Pharisee, frerhaps a 
priest. Purpose mainly polemical, perhaps liturgical. Style 
simple : resemblance to the ' Songs ' in St Luke. Title pseu- 
donymous i reasons for the choice. 

S viii. The Psalms of Solomon and Jewish Literature 

Relation to Psalmic Literature. Allusions to O. T. history. 
Relation to Ecclesiasticus. To Sib. Orac. iii. To the Book of 
Enoch. To the Parables of Enoch. To the Book of Jubilees. 
ToiheN.T. To iv. Esdras. Toy. Esdias. To the Apoca- 
lypse of Baruch. To the Assumption of Moses. To the Tes- 
taments of the Twelve Patriarchs. To the Pirqe Aboth. 
Relation of Ps. xi. to Baruch iv., v. examined in detail. Other 
resemblances to Baruch. 




§ ix. The Probability of a Hebreiv original . . page Ixxvii 

Antecedent Probability. Passages explicable on the hypo- 
thesis of corruption in a Hebrew text. Possible instances of 
mistranslation, from erroneous pointing, and from confusion of 
consonants. Structure of the Greek. Confusion of tenses. 
Misuse of the Hebrew Imperfect. Duplicate renderings. 
Literal reproductions of Hebrew in respect of Substantives, 
Verbs, Prepositions, the Negative, etc. Hypothesis of Greek 
original. Relation of the Psalms to the Book of Wisdom. 

§ X. The character of the Greek Translation .... Ixxxvii 

Instances of obscure phrases. Words only found in these 
Psalms. Noteworthy Substantives, Adjectives, Verbs, Ad- 
verbs. Use of Prepositions. 

§ xi. The Date of the Greek Translation .... xc 

Not later than A.D. loo. Absence of Christian touches. 
Phrases indicative of date. Resemblances to the ' Songs ' in 
Luke i. ii. 

AdditioncU Note on Cod. V xcii 

The Psalms of Solomon. Text, Translation, and Notes i 

Appendix. The Odes of the * Pistis Sophia * . 
Note on Svriac Apocryphal Psalms 

Indices. L Of Greek words 
IL Of Prepositions 
in. Of Passages in the LXX. Version 





§ i. Editions, 

The eighteen Psalms contained in this book have already been 
edited in one form or another some ten times, and to each of these ten 
editions we propose to devote a few words. 

The Editio Princeps appeared in 1626 at Lyons. Its editor was 
one John Louis de la Cerda, a Spaniard, of the Society of Jesus, 
bom at Toledo cir. 1560, died at Madrid 1643. His magnum opus was 
a commentary on Virgil in three folio volumes. The work with which 
we are concerned is entitled 'Adversaria sacra, opus varium ac veluti fax 
ad lucem quam multorum locorum utriusque Instrumenti, Patrumque 
et Scriptorum quorumcunque : Christianae antiquitatis et sacrorum 
rituum pancarpia: politioris denique literaturae thesaurus multiplex. 
Accessit eodem autore Psalterii Salomonis ex Graeco MS. codice 
pervetusto Latina versio et ad Tertulliani librum de pallio commenta- 
rius auction' The Adversaria are 187 chapters devoted to the dis- 
cussion and illustration of obscure words occurring in the Vulgate 
and Latin Fathers. Among Cerda's favourite authors are Tertullian 
and St Aldhelm. 

By way of appendix to this he adds two tracts, one the Psalterium 
Salomonis, the other Tertullian de Pallio. The latter is presented in 
an amended text, and is furnished with critical notes. We are only 
concerned at present with the former. 

It is entitled simply 'Psalterium Salomonis.' In a short note 'Ad 
Lectorem,' Cerda merely says that he received the Psalms from the 
Rev. Father Andreas Schott, and that they had been recently found 
'in membranis antiquissimis Bibliothecae Augustanae.' These words 
taken by themselves leave it an open question whether Cerda actually 
had the MS. in his hands or only a copy of it. From some of Cerda's 
'Scholia/ however, one would rather gather that he had the ms. before 
him; see e.g. on ii. 4, iv. 19 ('obscure in meo Graeco Codice'), 21, 


V. i6 (' in Codice quem vidi '); vil 9 (' vix pennittit Graecum legi') e _ 
Fabricius, however (p. 973), says that Cerda 'apographum se accepisse 
profitetur' from Schott On the further history of the Ms. see 
section iii., p. xxvii. 

On the merits of Cerda's edition it may be well to say something. 
His MS. was either in a damaged condition or had been defectively 
copied for him, and his conjectures are not often convincing. In 
some few passages his Greek text gives one reading and his Latin 
version adopts another,, probably, he had imperfectly revised 
the former. His view of the book is this;— that if not the work 
of Solomon, the great objection to such a view being the silence of 
ages concerning the document, it is at any rate the production of a 
man well learned in the Scriptures. He rejects the idea that it is a 
forgery, or that the author was a real Solomon, distinct from the king. 
His explanation of what he considers it to be is not easy to under- 
stand, 'quia induceret ilium (Soloinonem) loquentem et psallentem, 
ac parens David fortasse etiam accederet ut ipse auctor diceretur 
Solomon, nisi id fecisset Nepos episcopus,' etc. Elsewhere he speaks 
of himself as kindly inclined to the hypothesis of genuine Solomonic 

His notes are not very suggestive; he quotes from the classics a 
good deal, and interprets allusions occasionally. Psalm ii. is referred 
to a king of Babylon. He designedly assimilates his Latin version to 
the language of the Vulgate, which he has evidently studied with great 

The Psalms appeared next in the Codex Pseiidepigraphus VeUris 
Testammti of Jo. Alb. Fabricius, Hamburg and Leipsic, 1713, pp. 
914 — 999. Fabricius, whose services to Apocryphal literature can 
hardly be over-estimated, gives us here merely a reprint of Cerda's 
text version and scholia, prefixing an extract from Huet {Deinomlr. 
EraHg. IV. p. 397), and adding a few notes of his own. Some errors of 
the press are to be found in his reprint ; his conjectures, which are few 
in number, can only be sustained, it seems to us, in two cases (iv. 2 
(n}/iE(Eavci and xviii. 4 vEovt). The rest may be seen in our Apparatus 

The next two appearances of our Psalter were in translations. 
The first is Whiston's, which is to be found in that curious person's 
Authentick Records, Vol. 1. p. 117 — 161. (London, 1727-) 

We have here a version made, it seems, more on the authority of 
Cerda's Latin than on that of the original Greek. Its value is, as 
nearly as possible, nothing. But Whiston's theory of the authorship of 


the Psalms is so eccentric as to deserve mention. He regards them as 
the work of a certain Solomon, distinct from the king of Israel, of whom 
he finds mention made in 4 Esdr. x. 46, 'and afler thirty years 
Solomon built the city and offered sacrifices' [thirty being here a 
misreading for three thousand]. Solomon, then, was an otherwise 
unknown leader who lived during the period of the Persian Captivity, 
in the days of Artaxerxes Mnemon. 

The one service which Whiston has rendered seems to be that of 
introducing our book to English readers : but we cannot find that his 
work had much effect. He is also the first (and only) editor who calls 
attention to the passage from Lactantius (see p. xxiii.). 

Geiger (p. 6) cites Fabr. BibL Gr, xiv. p. 162, as mentioning a 
German translation of these Psalms which appeared in 17 16 at Leipzig. 

Here may be also mentioned the French version inserted in Migne's 
Diet, des Apocryphes^ Vol. i. col. 939 — 956 (1856). Nothing but a 
short prefatory note accompanies the translation, which is not par- 
ticularly faithful. 

Dr Akibon (mentioned by Geiger, p. 6) produced a German version 
in 1857. 

All these editors had only Cerda's text to go upon. We now come 
to a series of editions which aim at presenting an emended text. 

First come the two editions of Hilgenfeld, which are practically 
identical. The first appeared in his Zeitschrift fiir WissenschaftUche 
Theologie xi. pp. 133 — 168 and 356. The second in his Messias 
/udaeorum, Leipzig, 1869, pp. xi. — xviii., i — 33. 

His text is based on Cerda, and on Jos. Haupt's collation of the 
Vienna ms. He introduces also a good many emendations of his own, 
and some of Dr Paul de Lagarde's. Many of his own conjectures are 
ingenious, many very wild ; all will be found in our Apparatus Criticus, 
but not many have been adopted into our text. Those by Lagarde 
are nearly always interesting, some, e.g. iirevK-nj viii. 18, seem to us 
undoubtedly right. This great scholar is, it may be incidentally men- 
tioned, a believer in a Hebrew original of the Psalms (Hilg. on ii. 23). 

Hilgenfeld's views may be shortly summarized here. He places the 
date shortly after Pompey's death in 48 b.c, and regards the book as an 
original Greek composition. The writer, he thinks, made use of the 
Wisdom of Solomon and the 3rd Book of the Sibylline Oracles. 
The writer of 4 Esdras, on the other hand, made use of the Psalms. 
Lastly, Hilgenfeld believes them to have been written in Egypt. 

The next edition is that of Father Edward Ephraem Geiger, of the 
Convent of St Stephen at Augsburg. This book appeared in 187 1 
J. P. d 


at Augsburg. It is an octavo of i68 pages, Der Psalter Salomifs 
heraussegeben und trkliirt, etc. (Prolegomena, pp, i — 25. Text and 
German translation, pp. 28 — 79. Critical notes, pp. 80 — 94. Com- 
mentary, pp. 95 — 165.) His text is based on the same materials as 
Hilgenf eld's, but he does not adopt many of H.'s conjectures. He 
devotes much of his Introduction and Notes to the consideration of 
the Hebrew original, in which he is a firm believer. His genera! view 
of the date and situation agrees with that of Hilgenfeld and others : 
on certain questions, such as the relation of Ps. xi. to Baruch, he says 
little or nothing. On the whole, his book is a valuable and instructive 
one, and considerable use has been made of it in this edition. 

FritKsche, in his Lihri V. T. Pstuiiepigraphi iekdi {1871) has pre- 
sented our book in a most convenient and accessible form (pp. i — 21). 
V\'c have here a Greek text simply, with a short prefatory note. The 
editor is conscious of Hilgenfeld, but apparently not of Geiger. He 
uses no more mss. than his predecessors. His collation of Cerda is not 
complete ; the conjectures which he adds are not as a rule successfid in 
our judgment, and he often prefers patent error in Hilgenfeld's com- 
pany to possible correctness along with the mss. 

The last edition produced by Hilgenfeld calls for some remark. It 
is in the form of a translation with critical notes, and is to be found in 
Hilgenfeld's Zdlschrijt fiir WisunichaftlUhe Theologie for 1871, pp. 
383 — 418. The immediate occasion for it was the appearance of 
Geiger's edition, and his strong advocacy of the Hebrew original of 
the Psalms, Hilgenfeld, disbelieving in this Hebrew original, takes 
occasion to renew Geiger's argutnents in critical notes attached to each 
Psalm. There is, further, a second set of critical notes, in which 
Geiger's readings are reviewed, and new conjectures of Hilgenfeld or of 
other scholars are added. This second set of notes is, in our opinion, 
ihe most important pari of this edition, and the best of the new con- 
jectures are by Maur. Schmidt; Hilgenfeld gives us no reference to 
any article or pubhcation in which these conjectures may have been 
advanced, so that we are left lo conclude that they were communicated 
privately to the editor. These conjectures are three in number : 

i. t. lira 'kxaiscTai. 

All these are remarkable, and it is much lo be wished that 
Mr Schmidt should have occupied more lime in elucidating the text of 
our book. 

The new conjectures advanced by Hilgenfeld himself cannot be 


said to add much to the value of the work. The best is perhaps ^c 
opcW ii. 30, for M opc<0v. Others, not so good, are 

iv. 15. AmoTJ for h ra&rg, 

viii. 9. ^ wapopur/t^ for ev vapopyiff/if. 

xii. 3. rapoa^la...^\oyi (ijKovs for vapoucUL...^oyti^v<nit. 

xvi. 8. ^OKiuofUwcv for ^occi/i/rov. 

pcvii. 14. ^ovT for cdXXovf. 37. doirlSat for iXrlSas. 

One passage is puzzling, viz. iv. 11 dXkijkiav, Hilgenfeld's note 
here is ^dyyCktay andere ich in dyyikwv (vgl. 2 Kon. (Sam.) 14, 20).' 
We have been unable so far to find any trace of a reading ayytXwv in 
either mss. or editions, nor are we able to suggest what meaning could 
attach to it if it existed. On the other hand the alteration into ayycXo>v 
is an extremely obvious but also a very important one, and is adopted 
by Wellhausen. It would therefore be very desirable to know the 
precise history of the reading. 

Lastly in his Zeitschrift for 1876, pp. 140 — 2, Hilgenfeld reviews 
Wellhausen's translation of the Psalms with the approval it deserves, 
and takes occasion to defend once more his theory of the Greek 
original None of the arguments he adduces in this article seem quite 
worth repeating. 

The translation anji notes which Wellhausen has given as an 
appendix to his book Die Pharisder und Sadducder, 1874, Greifswald, 
form by far the most important contribution to the study of this book 
which recent years have supplied. Some of Wellhausen's conjectures 
are exceedingly felicitous; all will be noticed in their proper places. 
But the great feature of his work is the view which he gives of the 
historical and religious position of the writer of the Psalms. 

He speaks of having made a Hebrew version of the book, but we 
gather from Professor Robertson Smith, who was kind enough to com- 
municate with him on the subject, that he has not committed it to 

The most recent edition of the Psalms is that by the Rev. Bemhard 
Pick, Ph.D., of Alleghany, Penn., which appeared in the Presbyterian 
Review for October, 1883, pp. 775 — 813. The form of this edition is 
extremely convenient; we first have a short Introduction (taken largely 
from Hilgenfeld, Geiger and Wellhausen) and a Bibliography taken 
chiefly from Schiirer. Then from pp. 785 — 812 we have the text and 
English translation of the Psalms in parallel columns. The Apparatus 
Criticus and text of course depend on the work of previous editors, 
though the former is by no means complete, and no conjectures are 
advanced on Dr Pick's own responsibility. But the weak point of the 



whole is the translation, and the defects of this seem to emanate partly 
from an imperfect knowledge of English, and partly from the fact that 
he sometimes prints one text and translates another. A few instances 
ivill serve to show this ; 

i, 4, JiASw fl\ filled. 

ii. a. ■oTfiritToiii', They have walked up and down in il. 6. h kinciiinf h 
in the sight of. 7, (Iti lyKariXiTn. That He left them. 13. ii»Tl -ra/*^. 
Because of the prostilules. 15, 6. For nil Lhesc things my heart mourns. 16. 
They will bring this lo an end, 18. it iprdyiian liku Turies. us- jmiii/fiui- 

iii. 6. He looks out, where will come etc. 

iv. 1. surpassing in word«, surpassing in indolence all. 7 insolence. 1 1. dX- 
Xi)\u» or others. 13. succeeded to scatter. 

V. 3. After having called 10 Thee. 6. against thy discrimination, rapi t4 
irf>ffia <rov. 7. wilst (ix. 19). 9. we shall not cease. 

viii. I. ihtoinnji, calling lo. 1. great pillar of fire- 7. Tut. in tst, pres. in 
tnmii. ij. away rrom all kinds of impurity. ij. iittpanfv sent upon them. 
16, the Ilardstricker. 36. ^!j wtm \vrfiaviUi'm, irretrievably. 

ix. 6. run- ifflmr tm. Thy pious. 

xi. 8. tKiXqaty iyaSlm, has promised salvation. 

xii. 4. iriryxf»'t lo bring together. 

xiv. 4. Who loved the day in the participation of their sins. 

IV. 7. eveiy substance of sinners. 6. as a persecuting himger. ?■;. (Xfti- 
d^orrai, shall be pitied. 

xvi. I. I almost fell into a slnpcfaclion. 8. not of any who is cnntrolleil by 
unprofitable sin. 

icvii. 16. As the heathen do for their idols. 31. He will emit the Lord ei- 
coedingly in all the earth. 

sviii. a gift beyond price. 

We cannot, in the face of this, affirm that Dr Pick has contributed 
much that is valuable to the study of these Psalms, though he has 
undoubtedly done a good work in bringing them before the notice of a 
fresh circle of students in a convenient and accessible form. 

Had Dr Oscar von Gebhardt given his promised edition to the 
world, there would probably have been neither room nor demand for 
ours. But it may well be the case that English students will be glad to 
have an edition in their own language, which shall unite as far as 
possible all the results of criticism on the important document before 
us. No doubt Dr von Gebhardt will have many valuable solutions of 
critical and historical problems to offer ; we heartily hope that he may 
be more successful than we have been in deaUng with some of them. 

We must now attempt to enumerate the principal notices of the 
Solomonic Psalms other than separate editions. 

The first writer after Cerda who says anything much about them 


is, we believe, John Eusebius Nieremberg, S. J. In his work De 
ofigine S. Scripturae, Libri xii. fol. Lyons, 1641, et aL he devotes some 
space to a notice of our book; lib. ix. c. 37 (pp. 337 — 342). He 
prints Pss. i. and xviii. in Greek and Latin, and Ps. xvii. 23 — 51 in 
Latin only. He also gives a list of the headings. He decides against 
the Solomonic authorship, alleging, exempli gratia, two points from 
the Psalms he selects, (i) The mention of 'persecution' in Ps. i.; 
(ii) the xpMTTos fcvpios in Ps. xviii. ; and he adds the mention of a bat- 
tering-ram in Ps. ii. I, and the fact that no father alludes to the book 

Of the two 'next authorities we have not been able to furnish any 
account from personal inspection. They are (i) Lud. Ferrandus, who 
makes some mention of the Psalms of Solomon in his commentary on 
the Psalter, Paris 1683, and (2) G. Janenski, who wrote a special 
dissertation de Psalterio Solomonis, published under the auspices of 
J. G. Neumann, Wittenberg, 1687. 

Huet (Pet Dan.), Bp of Avranches, the well-known critic, has a 
notice of our book in his Demonsiratio Evangelica, iv. p. 397, which 
Fabricius quotes. He attributes it to a Hellenist familiar with the 
Lxx., living not long after our Lord; and he doubts whether any 
imposture was intended. 

Probably other notices might be found in the works of eighteenth 
century scholars, but the next whom we are able to cite is Ernest 
Bengel, who, in his posthumous Opuscula Academica^ Hamburg, 1834, 
examines the views of our writer on (i) the future life, p. 178, (2) the 
Messianic hope, p. 394. He gathers from Pss. ii. and xi. that the date 
of composition was posterior to the destruction of Jerusalem, and 
mentions a theory of Bretschneider's that the Psalms, originally written 
in Hebrew after the Exile, were rendered into Greek after a.d. 70. 

An article by Movers in Herder's KirchenUxicon^ 1847, s.v. 
Apokryphen (revised by Kaulen for the recent edition by Wetzer and 
Welt), marks an epoch in the history of the criticism of our book. 
Movers is the first to assign the period of Pompey's invasion as the 
date of it, and, further, he believes in the Hebrew original. He speaks 
of the book as a pearl among Apocryphal documents. 

Ewald in his History of Israel {ioWovftd by Stanley, Jeunsh Churchy 
IV. 303), assigns the book to the time of Antiochus Epiphanes. Else- 
where he suggests the probability that some of the Psalms, e.g. i. and 
ii., are wrongly separated, and offers at least one conjecture on the text 
(xvii. 13). 

Grimm (C. L. W.), in his Ersie Buck der Maccabder, p. xxvii., 

agrees in this view of the date, and mentions with favour tlic idea of a 
Hebrew original. 

Hitzig, Gach. d. Volka Israel, p. 50a, attributes the book to a 
Sadducaean author. Among his reasons for adopting this singular 
position are these, (1) that the description of the menpleasers in Ps. iv. 
resembles that of the Pharisees in the Gospels, (a) that the doctrine of 
freewill expressed in Ps. ix. 7 is Sadducaean, {3) that the DavJdic 
Messiah of Ps. xvii. owes his revival to the existence of the Asmonean 

Geiger (Abr.) in the Jiid. Zetlschr. /. Wissenich. u. Lebai, vi. fasc. 
iii. ?4o, 1868, quoted by Hilgenfeld, calls the book a-colourless pro- 
duction of the controversy between Pharisees and Sadducees — colour- 
less, in the sense that it is difficult to date precisely. 

Langen, Jildenthum im Zeit Christi, p. 64, devotes some space to 
enunciating views which are practically those of Movers, and opposes 
Ewald's position. 

Detitzsch, on the Psalter, 11. 381, and K.eim,/«K v. Nasara, 1. 243, 
name the reign of Herod the Great, or the time of bis accession, as the 
probable date. 

Dillraann, in Herzog's Realtncyklopiidit, s.v. Pseudepigrap/icH d. 
A. T., has a notice on the subject. Since the publication of the first 
edition this critic has altered his views. At that time he supported 
Ewald's theory of the date. In the more recent editions he adopts 
Wellhausen's results. Oehler in the same work, s.v. Mtssias, has a 
short notice. 

Carri^re (Aug.) has written a special dissertation in Latin, Strasburg, 
1870. We have not been able to see a copy of it 

Vemes (Maurite) in his Hutoire des IdUs Mcssianiques, 1874, 121 — 
1 39, discusses the hook at length with reference to his main subject, the 
doctrine of the Messiah. We are indebted to him for some few refer- 

Gratz, Gtscli. d. Jud., ill. 489, assigned the Psalms to a Christian 
author, on the very slightest grounds. In the latest editions the state- 
ment is omitted. 

Urummond, Tlu Messiah, 1877, 133 — 14a. This book gives a 
useful summary of previous criticisms, and a statement of the author's 
own view, which agrees for the most part with that of Movers, etc. 

Stanton (Professor V. H.), TAe Jetvisli and Christian Messiah, 
Cambridge, 1884, has a short notice: he does not attempt to deter- 
mine the date of the Greek version. 

Schiirer, Palesliiu in the time of our Lord, Eng. Trans., iii. 1 7, gives 


by far the best and fullest account that has yet appeared of the book, 
its MSS. and editions. He gives a list of references to authors who have 
written on the subject : of these, most have been noticed in the pre- 
ceding pages ; a few remain whom we have not been able to consult. 

Dr Edersheim (Life and Times of yesus the Messiah^ i. p. 79, 146) 
gives an appreciation of the book, and contributes a suggestion that the 
successive Psalms should be read in connection with the correspondingly 
numbered Psalms in the Davidic Psalter. 

Holtzmann (Oscar), (Gesch, d, Volkes Israels) in part 153 of the 
Berlin AUgemeine GeschUhte^ edited by W. Oncken, pp. 448 — 56, gives 
an excellent r^sum^ of the character and contents of the Psalms. He 
adopts the standpoint of Wellhausen, and quotes copiously from his 

A Montauban programme by M. Jules Girbal (Toulouse, 1887) seems 
intended to prepare the way for a new French edition of these Psalms, 
but offers little that is new towards the understanding of them. 

§ ii. History of the book. 

The history of the Psalms before us, so far as it is to be gathered 
from early criticisms, 'testimonies,* or quotations, is very short and 
scanty indeed. Of passages where direct and undoubted mention is 
made of the collection, we have but six in all, and four of these are 
mere lists of books, while the two others form practically but a single 
one, for they are couched in identical words. Of passages where the 
reference is doubtful, or only by implication, we have three. It will be 
as well, we think, to put together these passages at once, and see what 
information we may fairly deduce from them. We will divide them 
into two classes, those whose reference is clear and unmistakable being 
placed in the first, those of less certain import in the second. 

First come three well-known catalogues of Canonical and Un- 
canonical books, that called by the name of Athanasius (Synopsis S. 
Scripturae), that of Nicephorus (a.d. 806 — 814), and that which may be 
conveniently cited as the list of the Sixty Books. 

Credner {Zur GescMchte des Kanons) investigates the relations of 
these first two lists. He concludes that the one attributed to Nice- 
phorus is really the earlier, and originated in Syria in 500 a.d., and that 
the Athanasian one, whatever its date, is an abridged form of this 
(omitting the orixot), and is of Alexandrine origin. 

Schiirer, Vol. 111., p. 123, also gives the text of the lists, and a 
similar estimate of their relations one to another. With reference to 



the 3rd, he adds thai it is for ihe most part a rearrangeraent of that of 
Nicephorus. Each has one item peculiar to itself. 

Credner's conclusions are traversed by Zahn, with his usual ability 
{Gesch. d. NcuUst. Kanom 11. i. p. 295, etc.). According to him, 
Nicephorus's list is a document reduced to its present form at Jeru- 
salem cir. 850, while the Synopsis was compiled in the sixth century. 

(i) ' Athanasias' (T. 11., p. 154 of the Paduan edition) in § 74 of 
the Synopsis, following on an analysis of the Apocalypse, gives a list 
which is the prototype of that of Nicephorus. 

He enumerates (for the second lime) certain tiiTiA.cyo'^«va of the 
O. T., y\z. Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Esther, Judith and Tobit, and adds 

Maxxa/Sauca /3i/3Xia S'. 

nToXtfiatKa. ^B 

^aX^oi Koi <^ SoXo/uDiaos. (Fabricius and others read i^SaL) ^H 

(2) Nicephorus (Patriarch of Constantinople a.d. 806 — 814) r^^ 
arranges this list, and adds the number of arixot to each item. He 
also omits one, the DToXt/iaina (which, as Credncr suggests, perhaps = 

3 Mace. Zahn would read iroXf/intti, and connect the word with 

The entry in his Stichometry is as follows (v. Westcott On the 
Canon of thf N. T., no. Xix., App.) : 

KOI o<Tai ovTiAtyoiral t^« iroXaias avrai tltriv. 

1. 3 books of Maccabees. 

2. Wisdom of Solomon. (Here one ms. inserts no. 4.) 

3. Ecclesiasticus. 

4. i^a\/ioi Hat ifSal (v. I. -ij) SoXo/jjtJi^of, (ni)(oi fip (2100). 

5. Esther. 

6. Judith. 7, Susanna. 8. Tobtt. 

(3) The list of the 'Sixty Books,' which is found appended to 
Anastasius Sinaita's Quaestiones el Hespomiones, has been often printed ; 
from a Royal ms. at Paris by Cotelier, Patr. Aposl. 1, p. 196, from a 
Coislin MS. by Moutfaucon, Bibl. Coisl., p. 194, from the Baroccian 
MS. no. io6 in Hody de Bibliorum Textibus, and Westcott On the 
Canon 0/ the N. T. App. no. xvn., from a Vatican ms. by Pitra/wm 
Ecct. hist, tt mon. i. 100, and lastly by 7.ahn, I.e. p. 189. It contains 
an appendix to the canonical books in two sections. (1) oo-a «iu ruiv 
i', which consists of nine Deuterocanonical books. {2) oa-a aironpvipa, 
twenty-five pseudepigrapha of Old and New Testament arranged in 
an order partly corresponding to the dates of the su|>posed authors. 


No. 8 is *AvaX,rnlfi^ Mcdvctccds. No. 9 is ^aXfidi "SiokofAMVTo^. No. lo, 
'HXiov a7roir<iA.v^is. This list is closely related to that of Nicephonis. 

(4) Next in order comes the well-known catalogue of the contents 
of the Alexandrine ms. Here our book appears in the following con- 
nection : 

OTTOKaXxnlfl^ 'loMivvov 

K\TJfi€vros itrurroX.T^ a 
KAif/Acvros ^TTtoToXiJ ^ 

6/iov PipXCa (number illegible) 

^aXfiol 'SiokofMiVTO^ irf. 

We may note here that it seems possible that the Sinaitic ms 
(M) originally contained our book on six leaves now lost at the end. 
Such is Mr Rendel Harris's conjecture. 

(5) The Lixth canon of the Council of Laodicea (c. 360 a.d.) pro- 
vides ore ov ScZ i8ta>riKovs i/^oX/xovs Xcyccr^cu Iv ry iKKKifaiq., ovSk axavo- 
vurra jStjSXca, aXXa fiova ra Kavovuca r^^ iraXcud^ koL Kaivrj^ Sta^m/s. On 
this Joannes Zonaras (in 11 18) and Theodorus Balsamon (about 70 
years later) have the following note (see Beveridge's SyftodicMm, i. p. 
480), quoted by Fabricius and others; cktos ftcv twv pv if/aXfiiav rov 
Aaj3i8 cvpuTKOvrac icai rivcs crcpoi Xryo/icvoi rov iokofJMJvros cTvai xai 
oXXoiv Tivwv, ovs Kol ISuiiTiKOv^ (tfvo/AOO'av 01 Trarcpcs koX jjltj kiytaOai cv 
rg iKKkrforui, Sccra^vro. Balsamon merely copies Zonaras, as is his 

These are all the undoubted references to our book which the 
united industry of previous editors has been able to collect, and we are 
unable to add anything to them. 

(6) The second class of references is headed by the evidence of the 
book * Pistis Sophia ' (composed in Greek in Egypt during the period 
200 — 250 A.D., and extant in the Thebaic dialect). This evidence must 
be examined in detail later on; at present it may suffice to say that 
<p3ai of Solomon are mentioned in four places, and in one passage 
(P- 75 of the Latin, 116 of the Thebaic) a nineteenth ode of Solomon 
is cited. 

(7) Ambrose, Prae/, in Lid. Psalmorum (quoted by Geiger), * seems 
to show a consciousness of uncanonical poems attributed to Solomon,' 
where he says, 'Salomo ipse David filius licet innumera cantica 
cecinisse dicatur, unum tamen quod ecclesia receperit canticorum can- 
ticum dereliquit' 

(8) Lactantius, Div. InsL iv. 12, Epit, Div, InsL c. xliv., has the 
following passage: 'Salomon ita dicit; Iniirmatus est uterus Virginis, 


et acccjjit fucLun], ct gravata est, ct facta tist in mulla miseraliont: 
maler Virgo.' In ihe Epitome the same words occur thus introduced, 
'Apud Saloinoncm ita scriptum est.' So the passage nms in the 
ordinary text, but several mss. add the source of the citation. In the 
Paris edition (Le Brun and Du Fresnoy) of 1748 we find the following 
note, 'Inter caeteros alii addunt in Ode undevisesima ; alii in Psalma 
tindevigesimo : duo in Psalmo vigtsimo.' Whether these words should 
stand in the text or not, they are all-important for our purpose. The 
fluctuation between Pmimus and Ode seems to point to the fact that 
different scribes added the reference from their own knowledge of the 
source quoted, and by consequence, to sliow lliat the words are a gloss. 
As to the conclusions to be drawn from the whole passage, tliey will be 
best reserved tin's later period. WhJston (Auth. Pec. 1. 155) is the first 
and only editor who called attention to this passage. 

(9) That Vigilantius, ihe adversary of Jerome, who made use of 
the 4th Book of Esdras, made use likewise of an Apocryph under the 
name of Solomon seems certain from the following words of Jerome 
adz'. yigilant. {quoted by Geiger) : ' in commentariolo tuo quasi pro te 
faciens de Salomone sumis testimonium quod Salomon omnino non 
sctipsit, ut qui habes alterum Esdram habeas et Salomonem alterum.' 

That this ' second Solomon ' is to be identified wiili the book used 
by Lactantius is at any rate not unlikely. More than (his it would 
hardly be safe to say. 

These are all the Patristic references, certain or supposed, to the 
Psalms of Solomon ; what may fairly be adduced from them t 

GeneraUy, we may gather that the book attained only a very 
limited circulation. This is a necessary conclusion from tJie paucity of 
Patristic references. On the other hand, where it was read, it seems to 
have been read with respect. It is the solitary instance of an Old 
Testament book, whlcji from being merely avriXtyoittvov became airo- 
Kpv^v. It is the one book which the scribe of A thought fit to add to 
the Canon. It is not, we think, possible to draw any instructive con- 
clusion as to the Churches which received it most freely. Our evidence is 
fairly well scattered; one authority is Egyptian (perhaps two), one Syrian, 
three Latin, one Byzantine. But if Zonaras is right in his guess that 
the council of Laodicea had the Psalms of Solomon in their minds when 
they forbad the use of i&iuriKol li^aKnoi in church, we should gain a 
sinking proof of their popularity in Asia in the ivth century. We be- 
lieve, however, that Zonaras only instances our book because it was 
the one uncanonical collection of Psalms known to him. 

Going more into detail, we gather that the book was existing about 


A.D. 500 in two forms. There was, first, the collection now extant, the 
eighteen * Psalms of Solomon.' There was also, however, an Appendix 
to this collection of <^3al SoXofUtfvros, almost equalling the first part in 
length, it may be. It is true that the latest editions of the lists of Ps.- 
Athanasius and Nicephorus read ^aXfu>l ical <p^ 2., but against this we 
have to set the earlier evidence of the Pistis Sophia, which uniformly 
speaks of the * Odes of Solomon.' This appendix of Odes was, if not 
entirely Christian, at any rate interpolated with distinctively Christian 
matter. We hope to show, later on, that some of the Odes in the Pistis 
Sophia are, in fact, not necessarily Christian at all; but the passage 
which Lactantius quotes is unmistakable in its character. It is a curious 
coincidence that another fragment of the same Ode should be quoted 
in the Pistis Sophia : in that fragment the Christian element is not so 

The Odes, whatever their origin, were most likely a later addition to 
the eighteen Psalms. Why were they added? Partly, no doubt, on 
the strength of the 1005 odes mentioned in the Book of Kings; but 
also, as we believe, because the original collection was obviously im- 
perfect at the end. We venture to suggest that a possible history of 
the collection is the following. The original collection, of at least nine- 
teen complete Psalms, and perhaps more, is circulated during the first 
century in Palestine. With the destruction of Jerusalem it narrowly 
escapes extinction, and is eventually propagated by the Christian com- 
munity of Palestine, from an archetype of which the last leaf (or leaves) 
had disappeared. By way of restoring, or supplementing the gap, 
certain Odes are added, either Jewish ones already in circulation as de- 
tached pieces, or Christian ones composed for the purpose, and into 
the 2nd part Christian interpolations are introduced to an extent not 
now discoverable. However, copies of the original eighteen Psalms are 
still in circulation without the added Odes, and it is from these copies 
that our present text is derived. The scribe of A, and probably the 
author of the 3rd List of Books, was in possession of the shorter col- 
lection : Nicephorus, Lactantius, and the author of the Pistis Sophia, 
used the longer one. This is, of course, mere conjecture, and it may be 
urged that one feature in the particular is not probable, namely, the 
idea that the copies of the book had at one time all disappeared save 
one, and that a mutilated one. We should answer that it is most 
improbable that many copies of the Greek Version of this book were in 
existence before a.d. 70. The Psalms, according to most critics, were 
written in Hebrew for liturgical use. They probably would not be so 
used save in the near neighbourhood of Jerusalem, and in the city 




itsiilf, ariiJ the majority of men who knew them at all would not requi 
any Greek version of them. Hence the Greek copies would he few in 
number, and prohably not dispersed over at all a wide area; for the 
Psalms are strongly Palestinian in character, and would not possess 
nearly the same amount of interest for a resident at Rome or Alexandria 
as for one living at or near the centre of political and religious life. 

As to the length of the additions to the Psalms, we have only two 
facts to go upon. Nicephonis gives the length of Psalms and Odes 
together as txao (m'x'"- The Mss. of the Psalms say that they contain 
looo Jtit;. It has been suggested by previous editors, that the Jtos is 
much longer than the <rtlya%, and therefore that the iioo trriypi might 
be amply accounted for by the eighteen Psalms plus the five Odes. 
Any such hypothesis is, however, put out of court by the investigations 
of M. Ch. Graux (see his article in the Revue de Philologie, &'c. n. s. ii. 
97), who has shown that irr()(p>i and <Vos are synonymous terms for 
a fixed quantity, and that the trrtxo^ had an uniform length of 34 to 38 
letters. According to him, the stichomelry of our book is corrupt. The 
18 Psalms contain nearly 24,000 letters; and this means that they 
would yield about 700 otixo". But though the number looo, given by 
our MSS., may be wrong for our present text, it does not follow that it 
was necessarily wrong when the calculation was made. It may refer to 
a slightly longer recension than wc possess — one, for example, in which 
the last Psalm existed in a complete form. Still less can we conclude 
that the stichometry of Nicephorus Js incorrect in allotting 2100 erTixoi 
to the Psalms and Oda of Solomon. This much is clear ; that the five 
Odes in the Pistis Sophia would not nearly make up the difference 
between 1000 and 2100 lines. Besides this, we must remember that 
there is nothing to show that the five Odes were all that existed under 
Solomon's name, — indeed, the evidence points In the other direction. 
We believe then that the added portion was quite twice as long as 
our present collection, and it is much to be wished that some further 
remains of it should be recovered. The number of ori^ot attributed 
to the whole by Nicephorus gives us a book of the same length as 
Joshua. The canonical Psalms, according to the same authority, contain 

A word as to possible versions of our book in other languages than 
Greek. We cannot assume the existence of a Thebaic version from the 
evidence of the Pistis Sophia, for the whole of that book may be a trans- 
lation from Greek. It will have been noticed, however, that three of the 
authorities quoted above are l^tin writers, and, in particular, the refer- 
ence supplied by the mss. of Lactantius may very fairly be taken as 


indicating that an old I^rin version existed at one time. This is, on 
other accounts, probable enough : it seems likely from Priscillian's tracts, 
the Gelasian Decree and other lists, that very obscure apocryphal books 
were well known in the West. No one would have suspected the existence 
of a Latin Book of Jubilees or Assumption of Moses ; yet the Milan 
palimpsest established their existence. We are not aware that a trace 
of any other version — Ethiopic, Syriac or Armenian — has ever been 
pointed out. 

§ iii. The AfSS. 

There are at present four mss. of the Psalms of Solomon known to 
exist, and of one, which is lost, we possess a printed edition. Two of 
these MSS. were first noticed by Dr Oscar von Gebhardt, and one by 
that excellent palaeographer, the late M. Charles Graux. The present 
edition is the first in which all five authorities have been used. 

We proceed to describe the mss. 

I. A. Augustanus. This ms., from which the Psalms were first printed 
by J. L. de la Cerda, was in his time preserved in the Public Library at 
Augsburg. We first hear of it in a letter from Andreas Schott to Johannes 
Meursius written in 1615 {Meursii opera^ ed, J, Lamy^ xi. p. 249). Schott 
says: *Hoeschelius Graece pollicetur editurum se Cyrilli Alexandrini 
adversus Julianum wapapdnjv libros; nactum se quoque Salomonis 
exemplar vetustissimum Constantinopoli adlatum, in quo psalmi xviii 
Salomonis, hactenus avcKSorot et invisi.* Cerda, in his prefatory note 
to the Psalms, does not tell us even so much as this about the ms. 
He says : * Misit adhuc Reuerentissimus Pater Andreas Schottus Socie- 
tatis nostrae hos Psalmos Salomonis recens in membranis antiquissimis 
Bibliothecae Augustanae repertos, Graece solum manu scriptos.' Fa- 
bricius says that Cerda professes only to have received a transcript 
of the MS., but the tatter's notes led one to believe that Schott sent him 
the MS. itself (see p. xiii.). No one has ever seen it since, though 
Hilgenfeld and Geiger both made enquiries after it. From these ex- 
tremely meagre accounts we gather that the ms. was a parchment one, 
of considerable age (the *vetustissimus' can hardly be pressed), and that 
it contained some of the other Sapiential books (Schott speaks of it as 
'Salomonis exemplar'): from Cerda's notes we gather further that it 
was difficult to read or damaged in some places; 'obscure scriptum ut 
legere nequirem' and similar expressions occur with some frequency. 


If Cerda's reprint is to be trusted, the Augsburg MS. cannot be ideniified 
with any of those now known. But on this matter see below. 

2. V. Vindobonensis. This MS., which was first used by Hilgenfeld 
for the text of the Psalms, is mentioned first by Petrus I^mbecius in 
his Commenlariiis lie Bib!. Cats. Vindoh. iii. p. zo; next by Ncssel 
in his catalogue, p. 31. Fabricius (p. 973) notices its existence, Hilgen- 
feld obtained a collation and description of it from Jos. Haupt (Mess. 
Jud. p. xiii.). 

It is numbered as Cod. Gr. Theol. 7 (i i in Nessel), a folio measuring 
13 J by loj Vienna inches, of the xth century, written in double columns 
of j6 lines, i\ Vienna inches high, in one hand, written in semi-undals. 
The ink has faded somewhat, even the rubricated titles and initials of the 
Psalms. The margins of the pages are prepared for Scholia. 
The contents of the ms. are as follows : 
Job, with a catena f. i. 

Proverbs .t -> 34- 

Ecclesiastes 1, „ 6i- 

Song of Solomon „ „ 77. 

Wisdom, without a catena 86, 

'I'aX/.ioc SoA^/iWTOf 105 b. 

EcclesJasticus 1 1 8 — 166. 

Twenty-two leaves are lost between (f. 33—34- The ms. was 
bought by Augier de Busbecq at Constantinople cir. 1570. I^am- 
becius, in a mai^inal note, mentions Cerda's work, and recommends 
the collation of this copy. 

We depend on Hilgenfeld's edition for our knowledge of this MS, 
[Since the above was written, we have obtained a full collation of V 
made by Dr Rudolf Beer, which shows that Haupt's was most inaccurate, 
and materially changes our estimate of the ms.] 

3. K. Havniensis. This ms., now preserved in the Royal Library 
at Copenhagen, was first noticed by M. Charles Graux, who, in the 
Re^me Critique for 1877, p. 291 — 3, in a review of Dr Chr. Bniun's 
Aariberetningeii og Meddeleiscr fra det Store Kongelige Bibliothek, Pt 
iii. 1877, describes the ms. briefly and gives a few specimens of its 
readings. He subsequently gave a fuller description in his Notices 
sommaires des MSS. grecs de la Grafide Bil'liolhiqwe Royale de Copen- 
hagiie. Paris, 1879, pp. i — 4. From these sources we gather the 
following facts. 

The MS. is no. 6 of the old Royal collection. It was bought at 
Venice in 1699 by Frederick Roslgaard, along with most of the other 
Greek mss. at Copenhagen, In 172O, Count Uanncskjold bought his 

I, I wil 


collection, and in 1732 most of it passed into the Royal Library. This 
volume consists of quires 11 — 39 of a xth century ms. in folio, 
written in double columns, with scholia, in a very beautiful hand. It 
contains : 

Job, with a catena. 


Ecclesiastes, \ with Scholia. 

Song of Songs, 


Psalms of Solomon, \ without Scholia. 


At fol. 84 is a very fine full-page painting representing Solomon 
enthroned. A facsimile of this may be seen in M. Bruun's work referred 
to above. Graux also gives two pages of the Psalms in facsimile. The 
liberality of the authorities at Copenhagen permitted this precious 
volume to be sent to the Cambridge University Library in the summer 
of 1888, and here Professor Ryle collated it for the purposes of this 
edition. To Dr Bruun in particular, for his great services to us in this 
matter, we beg to offer a sincere expression of our gratitude. 

4. M. Mosquensis. This ms. was discovered by Dr Oscar von Geb- 
hardt in 1879. The discovery is announced in an article by Dr Hamack 
in the TheologUche Litteratur-Zeitung for 1877, p. 627. No description 
of the MS. is there given. 

We owe our knowledge of this ms. to the very great kindness of the 
Archimandrite Wladimir who holds the position of 2wo8iico9 SKcvcx^vXa^ 
KOI Xapro^vXa^, to whom we desire hereby to render our warmest thanks. 
On being asked to furnish us with a collation of the ms. he at once sent 
a transcript of the entire text, made by himself, and a description of 
the MS. which we here subjoin. Such signal kindness as this deserves 
a better recognition than we can give. 

Mosquensis Sanctissimae Synodi Bibliothecae Graecae Codex N 147, 
membranaceus, sec. xiii. fol. 225 (longitudo 13^ digitos, latitude 11 d.), 
duabus et tribus columnis paginae scriptae sunt, celere characters 
Tituli librorum et litterae initiales minio scripti sunt. Mosquam hie 
Codex translatus est ex monasterio Iberorum in Monte Atho, ab 
Arsenio Suchanow anno Christi 1653. Huic Codici in principio ad- 
scriptum Apacvio) HF twv *I)8i7pci>v. Continet (i) fol. 3 — 82, BifiXo^ toS 
*I«i8; habet 33 capita cum catena variorum patrum : Chrysostomi, 
Dion. Areopagitae, Basilii Magni, Greg. Naz., Olympiodori, Theod. 
Mops., Polychronii, Didymi, Apolinarii, Origenis, Juliani, Theoph. 
Alex, et Cyrilli, Seven Antioch., Methodii, et Evagrii. Initium catenae, 


'H x^'p" 7 'AveriTis, x*^" '!'' ''^ 'HwaC. Finis texti in f. Sj, oi Si l\BQVTt% 

Trpos auTOl' ^ikai., "EXi^a^ Tuiv 'Ho-av viuli', ©aijionSi' ^(utiAevs, BoXSaS o 
Savx'U'u^ TvpavvcK. Saj<^a^ d Mivoiuiv /^airtAciif. TJltimum scholium 
Evagrii, toC "EXi^aC ^v iids Su>*ap hq'. *A/iaX.JK, etc. (j) f. 83—125, 
nofjoi/iLai SoXa^uii^ot. Init. catenae, Ei kq! Kara TO priTov to <u0(f 01 
Tuc Iliipoi/muv aV<Kroifou(7i Xo'yot. Nomina commentatorum : Apol., Did., 
Dionys., Cyr., et Marcus. (3) f. 126 — 141, JKuXijo-ttumJe cum scholiis 
anon, quorum init. Ei «KKX)j(r«Mrn}s a XaXuii', tVicXijo-iQ! u^ta ra Xcyd/jcva. 
(4) f. 142 — 1 50 'AiT/ia yVfuiTun'. Nomen auctoris et init. scholii am- 
pHus legi nequit, atramentum etiini expalluit. (5) f. 151 — 168 So^iV 
SoXo/iiui'Tos sine scholiis. (6) hie in f. 168 — 179 leguntiir xviii Psalmi 
el Oclae qui [ab] aliis tribuuntur Salomoni, sine titulis, sine divisione in 
capita el carmina, et sine scholiis. {7) f. 179—225 ^otfiia 'Ir/aov vlov 
St/>a'x> sine scholiis. Init. prologi, IToXXiuv xai ntydXiov. In fol. 224 

Y]poatv)0 'IjproiJ v'lov 2tpaj[. Init. t^o^oXoyijco^oi UOL, k.t.X. 

5. P. Parisietisis. This ms. was also first noticed by Dr O. v. 
Gebhardt, and the discovery announced in Dr Harnack's article referred 
to above. In the case of this ms. also we have to acknowledge a debt 
of gratitude to a scholar who has been kind enough to devote time and 
thought to furnishing us with a full collation of the text. The Rev. 
Pierre BatifFol, well known as the discoverer of Codex * (Beratinus), 
and as the editor of the Nicene Canons, and of Etudes Patristiques, etc., 
has most generously furnished us with a collation of the ms. in question : 
and it is with the greatest pleasure that we place on record this instance 
of his courtesy, and offer him our sincerest acknowledgments. In 
September of this year (1890) Mr James was able to make a brief 
inspection of the ms. and to gJean a few additional particulars of it. 

The MS. is no. 2991 a in the National Library at Paris. It is a 
paper book written in 1419 in ' petit format,' of 495 leaves. The con- 
tents are very miscellaneous, but fall for the most ]wrt into well-dcrmed 


a. First comes Isocratis oratio ad Demonicum.. f. 2 

Oratorum nomina, etc ir /' 

Aesopi fabulae aliquot 12 

(*. Next two Byzantine tracts. 

Mich. Attaliotae promptuarium juris, imperfect. ..r4 

Georg. Codini de officiis aulae CP 65 

f. Then Letters of Basil to Gregory Naz 135 

Letters of Libanius and Basil 143 

rf. Niceph. Gregoras. two ' monodiae ' and some letters 154 


e* Speeches and excerpts from Josephus, including the Hip- 

polytean fragment irept tov Travros ...173 


/ Wisdom of Solomon 195 

Psalms of Solomon 224^ 

Ecclesiasticus 244 

g. Physiognomic signs of character 320^ 

h. Prayer by Matthew of Philadelphia 324^ 

/. The Emperor Basil's exhortations to his son 334 

Gymnosophistarum responsiones 360 b 

Secundus the Pythagorean, his answer to Hadrian 363^ 

On the 8 deadly sins 366 

Dionysii Catonis sententiae 366^ 

vii sapientium apophthegmata 371 b 

k. A group of chronological lists 372-381 

/. A Byzantine miscellany of letters and verses 381 ^-42 7 

tn. An ethical miscellany 427 ^-447 

n. Satires and letters of Mazaris and Manuel Holobolus 448-495 

Groups/ to m are all in one and the same hand : the colophon on 
f^^6b states that the book was written at the expense rov iravev- 

ycvcoTttTOV Kvpov MttT^atov IlciXaioXayoi; tov AacKapL 

These are all the mss. known at present. That more may be dis- 
covered, even in European libraries, is by no means an impossibility. 

We have now to investigate the relations of these authorities to one 
another. The most practical way of doing this will be to tabulate the 
readings peculiar to each. Two points— the numeration and titles of 
the Psalms, — we reserve for a subsequent period. 

The following are the principal readings peculiar to A (excluding 
probable misprints in Cerda's book). 

i. 8. i.fMprl(u for dvofdoUf very likely repeated by Cerda from the line before. On 
ii. 4 see notes, 
iv. 4. om. ol. 

V. 15. derfpttxrm for dfvr., but ? misread, 
vi. 5. ffoXQif for ffoXtay. 
viii. 4. T6\€i for t6\iv, 38. om. o^k. 
ix. a. 5 for ft. 16. om. xal ijfieTs — otKretpov. 
xi. 9. om. h dydfJMTi — *I<rpaiJX. 
xii. 4. om. x^^V — fpopovfiivuu, 
xiii. 5. Karafi^oipii for Karaarpotfyfi, but pr()l)al)ly Cerda read this wrong. 

J. P. t' 


XiWiji for x^"*)'- 

xvii. II. rb. fnr oIi. ,:ti. fdmy koI \(toi>i foi X. k. 
xviil. 5. inapeint loi inaeim. ? mislnke ofCerda's 

Another class of peculiar readings we r 
misreadings of Cerda's. 

ill- 3. ^XXarr for if/aXo 

W. 1. (m^dukriH for -vo 
\ilpluv for i^i Btipluir. 

V. I. oMtu for -at. 

vi. 9. nlXoyifru for 4t. 

viij. 13. /y ^6piii [ai iit/iSpiii. ifi. KjXm 

JK. 6. Kal oi for K. tdB. 7. fpa int. i: 
16. ffoO,..drn7T4iT<(i for aiH.-ArwfT'^jfi. 

XI. 6. SpoftiA for fipu^ol. 

xiii, I. inTleoei for iirxir. or ^ni^inr. 

xvii. 9- ^fKTur for qriuiv. 13. flici for a 

xviii. ri. iciifMf? for rajxlp. 
There is a 3rd class of obvious mi 
We will instance a few, 

1. fi. dvoro... 

V. 7. triKoKaao/ifOii. 15. m^ii. 

;gard as most probably 

;6. rpiJarai for ^(fff 

40. oi-itSi fcir alrtr6t. 
dfuyXay^att for ^foA- 

iprinls which are very numerous, 

siii. 13, ifpaiiTa\^V: e 

ix. 17. ipiTini lor -u or -ot ('elegisli'). 
Eight out of seventeen readings in the first class c 
and consequently there is a possibility that Cerda, who does not seem 
to have spent a very long time over his work, may be responsible for 
them. It does not seem to us tliat he was at all a skilled palaeographer, 
and certainly he did not keep his printer at all well in hand: so that 
a certain doubt hangs over almost every reading peculiar to A. In 
a note on vi. 7 Cerda says he has made several tacit corrections : 'resti- 
tui...ut et alia levia quae omitto.' 

Next, of readings peculiar to V, The following ate given by Hilg. 

ii. 3. jiipu sic [really iu/Hi]. 4. ^n^^rS)) [^tjiSij as K = i^i^iMir]. 

V. 16. t4 ii\ for Ti li. [The ms. has U.\ 

X. 9. tu^pooiIrTi' for aia^p. [The MS. hns oui^p.] 

liii. I, i-wf^-rn-af for ianleacf or te%a{>\- [The MS. has ^iw/irniiE,] 

xvii. 9. y»ot for -Of!. [The Ms. bas 7/raui, ] 

It will be seen that every one of these is discredited by the new 

See further the additional note. 

The readings in which K stands alnne amount to no more than two. 
xi. 9. om. ri A«H. xvii, 9. Tr/foi. 
and we think that these may be oversights in collation. 


Readings peculiar to P. 

iv. 17. d«'o/>{ais for the and ^leofAq,. 

vili. 34. Aa/ov for ^Xeov (an itacism). 

xi. 6. iffKlpTrfffOM for iaKlaaaif, 

xii. 1. aXX^ for oXy. 

xvL I. Karaipopq. for Kara^^opa. la. ^(rxi^o'eu for M^uo-ai. 

xvii. 35. d/iraios Ka\ di^aiCT6s ins. /ccU. 40. ai^^ct for &^€i. 

Readings peculiar to M. 

ii. 4. iviStoKev, 5. a^rji (or aOrou. 11. o-x^^op (itacism). 

iii. 7. wapii dtw aurripos (mistake). 

viiL 13. d^old/Mii (itacism). 14. ^^rvi^rei^ (error). 

xiv. 3. oMdpiSnrov for oipapoG. 7 ovfov misread. 

xvi. 9. ^6/3^ for t6t<p. 

xvii. 3, 4. om. fUT iX^ov kcU ii pcur: tov deov iifi: tls r. alia¥a (homoeoteleuton). 

34. 4p4porras ? (obscurely written in the copy). 

The above lists will be found, we believe, to contain all the im- 
portant readings (diversities in titles and numerations excepted) which 
are peculiar to each ms. The following lists will show what com- 
binations of Mss. are most common. 

First we will take the group AV. They agree in the following 
readings : 

iii. 1 1 . om. firiTp6s. 

V. 7. eTf for cT. 

ix. 17. om. Tapii. 

X. r. i\iyxv for iXtyfJup. 

Other groups of two into which A enters : 

A| K. ii. 15. ^cu{dy for ivirai^v, 

xvii. 30. KarafieTpUrei for xaraficp, 

A, P. ii. 41. hunr. rCav io6\tav (P ex silentio). xvii. 5. paaiXetav. 

A, M. xvii. 16. AfiapTtakQp for -ovt. 

Groups of two into which V enters. 

V, K. xvii. 23. oZ8ef for -at. 17. aretX^. 

V, P. nil. 

V, M. xiv. I. ivvbpm^. 

Groups of two into which K enters. 
A, K, V, K, see above. K, P, K» M, nil. 

Groups of two into which P enters. 

A, P, V, P, K, P, see above. 

P, M. ii. 10. The lines of the verse are transposed. 24. iirayuy^, 

V. I. rh opopA ffov (for dative). 

xi. 8. dyaOdk for -dr. 

xii. 4. &Tb KaK(2v for ixdjc. 

xvii. 13. otSat not cWej or olSes. 17. omit iv drciXy — avrov. 

As a result of this investigation certain facts come forward promi- 
nently at once. 

c 2 


I. That A. V are very closely connected. 
3. That K, P, M usually agree against them, 
3. That P. M are very closely connected. 
In other words, we arrive at a provisional genealogy of this form 

P M 

Can we define the relationships more precisely than this? A theory 
has occurred to us which we are on the whole not inclined to accept, 
but which is worth stating, because the statement of the pros and cons 
of it may save others from the trouble of formulating it in the future. 
It is that A and V are one and the same ms. From Augsburg to Vienna 
is no very far ciy, though we are not at present able to (race any trans- 
ference of Mss. from one to the other. But that is a minor point. 
\Vhat is important in favour of the idea is fa) the character of A's 
peculiar readings, (^) the paucity of Vs peculiar readings, (y) the 
number and character of those in which A and V agree. 

As to (a) it has already been remarked that by far the most important 
of those given above consist in omissions, and we repeat Ihe suggestion 
made there, that Cerda does not inspire sufficient confidence as an 
editor, to free us from the suspicion that he is to blame for tbese 

As to (j8) we have only given five readings peculiar to V, and one of 
ihem, which if correctly given would close the question, is inferred tx 
si/entio. There are three readings of A's which if confirmed would break 
the theory down al once. (toXiuv (specially noticed by Cerda), Ka-raiicrphtt 
and aiiapToiXwv (xvii. a6). Of the first of these we can say nothing in 
face of Cerda's statement, but of the others it may be said that rp is very 
easily read for p m some hands, and that o/iapTioXiBv may represent a 
wrongly expanded abbreviation. 

In every one of the other cases we might suspect a misreading. 

But there is another branch of evidence not yet alluded to, which is 
less easily set aside, namely, the titles and numbering of the Psalms. 
The following table gives a conspectus of the MS. evidence on this poinl. 


M omits all numbers and titles, save in the cnsc of Ps. i 

A, <li. rf 2. wfpl 'IfpowroX^fi fl*. 

V K have the numcra! on ihc left, rather higher u]). 


iii. A, ^. r^ 2. vept Succduv y'. 

V K P omit y. 

M has the title but omits y. 

iv. A P, ^. r^ Z. roif oMOpwirapiffKois Si. 

V P the same, but T for y. 

K, f ^. r. 2. 
V. A, ^. r. 2. €'. 
VKP. A^. 2. 

vi. A, ^. cr eXrWt t# 2. S^ 

V K P, B' eV cXir. ry 2. 

vii. A, ^. r. 2. €XLffrpo^ri% ^, 

V K P, r TV 2. e^-urrp. 

viii. A, ^. T._2. e/f ydcaf 17'. 

V K P, Z Z' TV 2. €U w/cOT. 
ix. A, yff, T. 2. efj iXeyxw V, 

V K P, e T. 2. 6/f A. 

X. A, 0/iyof rj^ 2. «'. 

V K prefix t'. 

P has the same as A. 

xi. A, r^ 2. e/f wpoaSoKlaif ui!. (Fabr. inserts ^aX/i6f.) 
VKP prefix lA'. 

xii. A P, rjy 2. ci^ yXibaffji xafM»bfiMv tfi, (Fabr. adds ^aX^s.) 

V K prefix l^, 

xiii. A, ^. r. 2. TapdicXi7<nf r(av iiKalwv ly'. 

V K P, ir TV 2. ^. etc. 
xiv. A, Cfwot TV 2. id'. A. 

V K P, lA 0/*wf TV 2. 

XV. A P, ^. T. 2. /teT* v^^f le'. 

V K prefix i^. 

xvi. A, ^. T. 2. e/j dirrCKri^LP i^\ 
VKP prefix ir'. 

xvii. A, ^. T. 2. fUT (fdrjs tv paaikei t^. 

V K P as xvi. 

xviii. A P, ^. T. 2. evl rod xpi^^ov Kvplov Ltf, 

V K as XV. 

Now from this table certain curious points arise. First as to titles. 
Psalm i. has no title but in A. Ps. iii. is the only one to which M gives 
a title at all 

Next as to numeration. V, K and P agree in numbering certain 
Psalms wrongly, thus. They omit the number of Ps. iii., and call 
Ps. iv., iii. instead. Then, according to them, Ps. v. = iv., Ps. vi. = v., 
Ps. viL = vi., Ps. viii. = vii They omit the number viii. altogether, and 


give Ps. IX. iis correct number. The only olher difTLTcncc is lliat lliey 
lonsistenlly prefix the number to tbe title, instead of affixing il. In liiis 
last matter the scribe of P is influenced by the breadth of his margin. 

We are inclined to attribute a considerable number of these dif- 
ferences to Cerda's editorship. When we see Fabricius consistently 
altering the position of the nuniecal and reading <^. t. 2. ^ irtpX 'Upov- 
aakijfi and so on, and twice inserting a ^oAfio's which he did not find in 
Cerda, we see how little editors of two centuries back thought of altera- 
tions which we now consider inexcusable. And it is, we think, most 
likely that Cerda took great liberties in this particular. To begin 
with, he calls the collection by a name which no olher ms. or authority 
is known to give, ^akr^pioy (instead of •tuX/iol) SoXo^kui-tos, This 
name he may very well have invented, as well as the title of the 
ist Psalm, which is as obvious as it could well be. It is also most 
probable that, if A had the wrong numbering just noticed in V and K, 
Curda would have corrected it without saying anything about it, and 
that he would have altered the position of the numerals. Again, it is 
by no means out of the question thai he should have sometimes inserted 
•ifakfiai, where V and K omit it (as in vi. and viii.), and sometimes 
omitted to insert it (as in xi. and xii.). In Ps. viii. again, vuim of A is 
very likely to be a misreading for vwos of VK. 

The above paragraphs were written before we had found means to 
olitain a fresh collation of V, or indeed, had had reason to believe that 
such a thing was really needed. Had we procured it earlier, it is 
doubtful whether we should have laid such stress on the possibility of 
identifying A with V. Readings that had before seemed striking 
evidences of affinity (e.g. the omission of oupavov in xiv. 3, and of cuts in 
xviii. 13, and such coincidences as dXriOtiif in xvii. 20) now prove to be 
siinply mistakes in Haupl's collation ; we had collected from Hilgen- 
feld's notes seventeen such instances of agreement between A and V 
against the other MSs. ; and of these seventeen, thirteen are entirely set 
aside by the new evidence. In spite of this we have preferred to let 
the discussion stand. The tabulation of the titles is comijlele, and may 
prove useful ; and the whole section, if it serves no other purpose, may 
at least prove an effective warning against the unquestioning employ- 
ment of any old collation of a ms. 

Moreover, it can hardly be said that the identity of A and V is 
absolutely out of the iiuestion even now. It might be argued, plausibly 
enough, that if Haup^ in 1868 could commit such enormities, the pro- 
bability that Cerda in 1626 may have done still worse, is increased. But 
as a whole, the case for the identity is considerably weakened, and the 


net result of the investigation has been to deepen our distrust in the 
editio prinapSy and to bring all our authorities into closer connection 
with each other than we had before thought possible. 

For, in spite of the subdivisions into which our five mss. fall, they 
undoubtedly belong to one and the same family. This, we think, 
necessarily follows from the fact that they all contain the book in the 
same connection, i.e. they give it as an appendix to, or a component 
part of, the Solomonic writings contained in the lxx. Of this fact we are 
certain in four cases, and in each of these the position of the book is 
the same — ^between Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus — while in the fifth case 
(that of A) we know that other Solomonic writings were contained in 
the MS. It seems probable, then, that the Alexandrine ms. followed 
a tradition different from any of ours, for it placed the Psalm at the end 
of the sacred writings, as an appendix to the whole. There is no such 
difference, we believe, between our mss., as would not be amply accounted 
for by the intervention of a few steps between the archetype and their 
immediate progenitors. Beyond the solitary indication afforded by the 
subscription of P in which A' is expanded into rpiaKovra, there is nothing 
to show definitely that any one of them was copied from an uncial ms., 
and of course even this trace does not prove an immediate descent from 
an uncial ancestor.' 

The similarity of P to M might suggest the idea that P was a copy 
of M. But this is at once negatived by the absence of titles in M and 
by the fact that in xvii. 3, 4 M omits words which P inserts. 

On the whole we are inclined to say that K is the best of our mss. 
It is as old as any, and presents a very neutral text, though not free 
from corruption. On the whole we cannot feel ourselves justified in 
constructing any more precise genealogy of the mss. than that given 
above, though the error in numeration common to V, K, and P, tends 
very considerably to closen the connection between the two main sub- 
divisions of our authorities. 

The scanty notes of provenance which we possess are not such as to 
be very helpful. A, V, and P (?), came from Constantinople. K was 
bought at Venice. M came from Iviron on Athos. 

§ iv. Date and Authorship of the Psalms. 

At what date were the Psalms composed ? Internal evidence enables 
us to give the answer. We find in certain Psalms clear allusions to 
contemporary and recent historical events of momentous importance 
to the Jewish nation. If these can be identified, we are in a position 


a[ any rale approximalely lo determine Ihe period nt which iht; book 
was written ; and the knowledge of their date, wilhin certain limits, will 
be the key lo various allusions descriptive of the internal condition of 
ihe Jewish community. 

The historical events, lo which we have referred, form the groundwork 
of Pss. i., ii., viii., xvil i — it; and indirect allusions to the same group 
of events may possibly be found in Pss. v., vii., ix., xv. One aspect of 
the social condition of the people is presented in Pss. iv. and xii. : Pss. 
xi., xvii. 23 — end, xviii. give expression to the Messianic expectation: 
Pss. iii., vi., xiv., xvi do not possess any distinctive colouring. 

The following is the picture of contemporary events which we 
obtain from Pss. i., ii., viii., xvii. 

The Jews are enjoying prosperity ; they have grown greatly in 
numbers and fame {i. 3, 4); they are satisfied that God is thus 
blessing their upright and pious conduct (i. 2, viii. 7). They arc how- 
ever deceived. For suddenly there is an alarm of war (i. t, viii. i); 
a tumour comes of the advance of a hostile host, which threatens Jeru- 
salem (viii. 2—4). The Psalmist now discovers the hollowness of his 
countrymen's piely, and sees in the approaching catastrophe a just 
judgment. The hostile army is led by a stranger, who comes from the 
utlermost [arts of the earth ; he is a mighty warrior, and, as the repre- 
sentative of ihe heathen foe, he is designated at different times ' the 
sinner,' ' the lawless,' 'the dragon,' 'the adversary' (cf ii. 1 and 29, viii. 
16, xvii. 9, 13, 15). He prepares war; but the rulers of Jerusalem 
go forth to meet him, they throw open the approaches to the city, 
and welcome him with acclamations; he enters and takes possession 
(viii. 17 — 20). From some quarter however resistance is offered; the 
invader with his battering-ram throws down strong walls, seizes the 
fortifications ; Gentiles enter the sacred precincts of the Temple, and 
pollute the Altar with their presence (ii. 1, 2, viii. zi). A sanguinary 
vengeance is taken ; a massacre lakes place in which blood flows like 
water in Jerusalem (ii. 25 — 28, viii. 23, xvii. 13). Large numbers are 
sent away as exiles (viii. 24); they are taken to live the life of prisoners 
among the Gentiles (ii. 6, 13, 14); their destination is 'the bounds 
of the west ' (tus itr\ Svo-^v), and even the rulers of the land are not 
spared, they are carried off to be the object of contumely and insult 
(xvii. 14). The conqueror in his pride and arrogance is guilty of acts of 
heathenish profanity in Jerusalem (viii. 15, iG, cf. ii. 29); his ambition 
has no limits, he does not realise that he is but a mortal man (ii, 32 
— 2,-i); God sends retribution; he is assassinated in Egypt, his body 
lies tossing on the waves, there is no one to bury him (ii. 30). 


Such are the main features of the crisis in Jewish affairs, to which 
our Psalms allude. Who then is the foreigner, from the ends of the 
earth, who menaces Judaea, who, having been welcomed within Jeru- 
salem, is nevertheless compelled to batter down walls with his siege- 
train, who massacres many citizens, and carries them off to * the bounds 
of the west,' who is guilty of impious audacity, and receives a heaven- 
sent retribution, meeting an inglorious death on the shores of Egypt ? 

We will pass in review the names of the most eminent of Jeru- 
salem's conquerors, and consider how far this description is applicable 
to them. 

(i) The name of Titus need hardly come under serious discus- 
sion. The death of Titus, over which the Jews exulted as a heaven- 
sent retribution for the destruction of Jerusalem, bears no resemblance 
to the description in Ps. S. ii. 30. The welcome accorded to the invader 
in viii. 18—20 has no counterpart in the narrative of the great Jewish 
revolt against the Romans. Our Psalms moreover most certainly pre- 
suppose the survival of the city, after the invasion of the foreigner. It 
has been polluted by the Gentile (ii. 2, viii. 25, xvii. 25), but not 
destroyed. Some degree of mercy has been shown ; the people have 
not been utterly consumed (il 26, xvii. 11). 

(2) The name of Antiochus Epiphanes has with better show of 
reason received considerable support. His relations with the Jews 
introduce several points of similarity to the picture described above. 
But the more closely we carry the inspection, the less probable does 
this identification appear. The description of the invader * as one who 
came from the uttermost parts of the earth ' (toV air' ia^drov 7^5 yijs, 
viii. 16), though possibly only an imitation of the old prophetical style, 
is scarcely appropriate to the monarch of the adjoining kingdom of 
Syria. It is true he oppressed the Jews and carried on numerous wars, 
but the epithet of ' the mighty striker ' {t6v traCovra Kpara^m) would be 
more suited to a warrior whose success in arms had been less chequered 
or on a larger scale. We know that at the beginning of his reign there 
was a strong Hellenizing party in Jerusalem ; but we do not find that 
Antiochus ever received such a welcome as is described in viii. 18 — 20. 
On the contrary, he is said on two occasions to have been obliged to 
attack Jerusalem, and yet the resistance which he encountered was 
never obstinate enough to compel resort to such extreme measures as 
the battering-ram (ii. i). The defilement of the altars and the pollution 
of the Temple (ii. 2 — 5, viii. 25, 26, xvii. 16) suggest the temporary 
dishonour, not the overthrow of the Temple and the complete cessation 
of the Temple worship, which signalized Antiochus' capture of Jeru- 



ssicm. Griiniing ihat he may have carried away many Jewish prisoners, 
ihe statement that they were sent to 'the bounds of the west' would 
be quite inappropriate to the captives of the Syrian king, Lastly, 
although the conclusion of Ps. ii. might represent a Jew's exultation at 
the news of Antiochus" death, the passage in ii. 30,]iu.vov... 
Aiyuwrov is quite sufficient to show that the Syrian monarch is not in- 
tended. Surely too a Jew, in any lyrical description of Antiochus Epi- 
phanes, would have used the opportunities afforded by Pss. S. ii., iv., 
xviL to denounce the oppressor of his nation in a far less measured 

(3) The name of Herod the Great is very naturally suggested by 
the description of the invader as a man who was a ' stranger to our 
race ' {avQ^t^mmi dKkoTpwy ytVovs vf^^v, xvii, 9). We know too that he 
and Sosius combined to lay siege to Jerusalem, and that the former 
signalized the beginning of his reign by the cruel slaughter of the lead- 
ing members of the Sanhedrin, But we should not expect that an 
Idumean by birth, even if he had as a youth been prisoner in Rome, 
would be called ' one that came from the uttermost parts of the earth ' ; 
the epithet of 'the mighty striker' would not be very applicable in 
Herod's case, who, with all his force and vigour, obtained greater 
triumphs in the field of diplomacy than in that of battle. Herod it is 
true was an alien by race, but he was most careful to conciliate the re- 
ligious i>rcjudices of the Jews, and the charge of idolatry and insolent 
infamy in wii. 15, 16 is not what we should expect to find in a descrip- 
tion of his deeds. Herod permanently resided in or near Jerusalem 
itself; the description in Pss. S. ii., iv., xvii. gives the impression only of a 
temporary occupation by heathen troops. We never find that Herod's 
arrival was welcomed by the leaders of the people (viii. 18 sqq.), and 
however relentless he may have been in the pursuit of a cruel policy — 
sufficiently so to justify such a description as viii. 13 sqq, — yet it could 
never, we think, be said of him that he sent away captives to 'the 
west' (xvii. r4), or that he made slaves of the children of Jerusalem 
(ii. 5). The last days of Herod have a tragic and terrible history; 
but there is nothing in them at all resembling the descriprion of the 
conqueror's doom on the shores of Egypt (ii. 30). 

(4) We have reserved (o the last the name of Pompey. In his 
case we find the most striking resemblances to the historical picture 
presented by our Psalms. He comes from Rome, ' from the uttermost 
parts of the earth' (viii. 16). He as the greatest general of the day, who 
had just overthrown Mithridates, is 'the mighty striker' (t6v waiovTa 
uparatui, viii. 16). The haughtiness and ambition of the great Roman 


correspond with the description of ii. 33 (elirev v^ii» Kvpios yrjs #cat 
OcLXcurayfs ccro/iat). Pompey arrived in Syria not long after the Civil 
War between Hyrcanus II. and his brother Aristobulus II. had broken 
out Hyrcanus was assisted by Aretas the Nabatsean king. This civil 
conflict which followed the peaceful and prosperous reign of Alexandra 
is possibly intended by the allusion to the sudden outbreak of war after 
a period of tranquillity (i. i, viii. i). Pompey was with his army at 
Damascus, when he received overtures from both these rivals and from 
a third party consisting of the supporters of a Theocratic policy. 
Pompe/s march through Palestine to Jericho was unopposed; the 
chief fortresses were surrendered to him without a blow. In Jerusalem 
Hyrcanus' party prevailed ; the gates of the city were thrown open ; the 
Roman soldiers entered unopposed (cf. viii. 18 — 20). But the sup- 
porters of Aristobulus were determined to resist: they established them- 
selves in the Temple and refused to capitulate. An obstinate conflict 
ensued. The strength of the Temple fortifications was immense; 
Pompey was compelled to invest it by a regular siege : his engines and 
battering-rams were brought from Tyre, and after three months a 
breach was effected (ii. i), and an assault made : the Temple was taken 
and a bloody massacre ensued (viii. 23). It was computed that 12000 
Jews lost their lives in this first desperate conflict against the Romans. 
Aristobulus himself and certain members of his family were sent to 
Rome (€ft)s iirl Svcr/Awv), to adorn the triumph of Pompey (eis lynraiyfiov, 
xvii. 14). Hyrcanus was spared, and reinstated in the High Priest- 
hood. Pompey acted with clemency and consideration (cf. ii. 26, xvii. 
11): he restored the worship of the Temple, and did not touch its 
treasury; but by entering the Holy of Holies he was guilty of an 
unpardonable act of profanation. In strict correspondence with this 
description of Pompe/s behaviour, we find that the Psalmist, who does 
not denounce the invader in nearly such unmeasured terms as he 
expends upon his own countrymen, refers to certain profane and insolent 
acts, perpetrated by the conqueror, in his ignorance of the Jewish God 
(xviL 15). For some such profanation the doom described in ii. 30 — 35 
befell the invader as a divine retribution ; and it is impossible not to 
recognise in the picture of the stabbed and dishonoured corpse on the 
borders of Egypt a description of Pompe/s treacherous assassination. 

In this identification two points demand further consideration, 
(i) It may be objected that the penetration into the Holy of Holies, 
which the Jews so bitterly resented, would have been mentioned more 
definitely. But it must be remembered that, if in this matter Pompey 
displayed contempt for the religious scruples of the Jews, in other respects 


he Imd sjliown consideration and kindness. Moreover we should noi 
expect lo find in a liturgical Psalm any detailed reference to an act so 
abbonent to the pious Jew, that its Divine permission seemed an 
inexplicable mystery. In these Psalms Porapey is referred to as 
the scourge of Jewish iniquity ; his profane acts are those of ignorance 
(xvii. i6, 17), and, although the detailed description of his doom is best 
understood in the light of this crowning act of profanity, the purpose of 
the Psalms is to describe not the impiety of the captor, but the heaven- 
sent disasters of Jerusalem as a judicial visitation for sin. 

(z) It may be objected that the passages describing wholesale 
slaughter (viii. 23, xvii. 13) and large numbers of captives (ii. 6, 
viii. J4, xvii. 14) give a darker page of history than we should be 
justified, by Josephus' account, in attaching to Pompey's capture of 
Jerusalem. But Josephus wrote a century and a half after these events 
took place; and it is difficult to realise from his concise and simple 
narrative, that he is telling us of the loss of 13,000 Jewish lives in 
three months fighting over the walls of the Temple. The number of 
Jewish captives conveyed to Rome by Pompey laid the foundation of 
the large Jewish community of which Philo speaks a few decades later 
{De Leg. ad Caiiim, % 23). These disasters are insignificant by com- 
parison with those which Josephus himself witnessed. But to the Jew, 
who wrote our Psalms, with the slaughter of so many countrymen, the 
dishonourable captivity of many others, and the utter overthrow of 
national independence fresh in his memory, it was impossible not lo 
paint in darkest tints the crisis through which the country had passed. 

That Pompey's invasion of Judaa is the historical event to which 
this group of Psalms refers, may pmssibly be indicated by two further 
pieces of evidence. (1) In xvii. 22 we have the mention of a Jewish 
king (d ^auiXfii). Now the title of king, which was first assumed in the 
Asmouean dynasty by Aristobulus (105 — 104) and appears on the coins 
of his brother Alexander Jannieus( 1 04 — 78), was dropped after Pompey's 
capture of Jerusalem. Pompey restored to Hyrcanus the High Priest- 
hood but not the royal power : Hyrcanus is called ' the High Priest and 
Ethnarch of the Jews ' (Joseph. Ant. xiv. xii. 3). In later years Herod 
the Great received the kingdom of Judrea from Mark Antony (Jos. Ant. 
XIV. xiv. 4 — 6); but if Josephus may be trusted, the Jews never regarded 
him as a true king, 'the royal authority, which was a dignity formerly 
bestowed on those that were high priests by right of their birth, became 
the property of common men (Si/fiorimui' d.v^p<av),' Jos. Ant. xiv. iv. 5. 
Now the title <J ^am\(w in xvii. 22 is clearly applied to a native prince 
and therefore lo some one quite distinct from 'the stranger' (d aXAa- 


Tpios) of xvii. 9. Accordingly it cannot be used either of Herod or 
of Antiochus Epiphanes; while if * the stranger' be, as we contend, 
Pompey, then the mention of Hyrcanus II. or Aristobulus II., the rival 
Asmonean princes of the blood royal, by the title of ' the king ' would 
be quite appropriate in the writing of a contemporary Jew. 

(2) The allusions in our Psalms to drought and famine (ii. 10, v., 
xvii. 21) occurring at or near the time of the invasion of Judaea are not 
sufficiently definite to admit of any very certain identification. It is 
interesting however to find that in a passage where Josephus is speaking 
of the outbreak of hostilities between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, he 
mentions a holy man named Onias, whose prayers were said to have 
prevailed with God to cause a certain drought to cease (Jos. AnL xiv. 
ii. i). In the very next chapter of his history, he describes how God 
punished the impiety of the Jews by sending 'a strong and vehement 
storm of wind ' that destroyed the crops of the whole country, till a 
measure of wheat was bought for eleven drachmas (Jos. Ant, xiv. ii.). 

If we may assume that Pompe/s capture of Jerusalem is the 
historical event to which Pss. S. i., ii , viii., xvii. refer, we may approxi- 
mately determine the limits of date within which our Psalms were 
composed. There is nothing in the style or contents of the other 
Psalms to separate them in respect of date of composition from those 
which are definitely historical in colouring. We have no hesitation in 
assuming that the whole collection springs fi*om the literary activity, if 
not of a single writer, at any rate of a single generation. Judging from 
the detailed character of the allusions, the historical Psalms must have 
been composed not very long after the events which they describe. 
The impressions are still fresh in the Psalmist's mind. 

Wellhausen's supposition that Ps. S. iv. expressed the exasperation 
of the Pharisees against Alexander Jannaeus is based on a misconception 
of iv. 1 1 (see note). The earliest direct allusions in the collection are to be 
found in Pss. S. i. and viii. which describe the outbreak of the war and 
the invasion of Pompey (b.c. 63). The latest event to which reference 
is certainly made is Pompey's death which took place in B.C. 48. It is 
we think conceivable that the tone of exultation which succeeds the 
description of Pompe/s fate (ii. 36 — 41), the strain of joy which 
pervades Ps. S. x., and the confident expectation of the restoration from 
the Dispersion to be observed in Ps. S. xi. and xvii., may be explained 
by the enthusiasm, with which the Jews would hail the success of Julius 
Caesar. From his hand they received especial favours and privileges, and 
presumably they hoped to obtain from him a yet more complete measure 




of freedom. This however belongs to the region of conjecture. We 
find no allusion either to Caesar's death or to the ascendancy of 
Herod the Great, 

We are of opinion that Pss, S. iv. and xii. are among the earliest in 
the collection. For, whereas in Pss, S. i., viii., xiii., xvii. 'the sinners' 
are already punished by the disasters of the Pompeian invasion, in Pss. 
S. iv, and xii. ' the sinners ' are only denounced with the utmost hatred, 
while the visiiation by ' the Gentiles ' is not mentioned, and the inter- 
ference of a foreigner with Jewish atfairs is apparently not foreseen. 

In assigning the years B,c, 70 and b.c. 40 as the extreme limits of 
(late within which our Psalms were written, wc keep securely within 
the bounds of probability. 

Jcivish Parties; and the Religious Tkonghl nf the Psalms of 

This period of thirty years (70 — -40 R.C.) witnessed the last scenes of 
the prolonged struggle between the two great parties in Palestine, the 
Pharisees and the Sadducees. With the downfall of the Asmonean 
dynasty and the irresistible assertion of Roman rule, the conflict between 
the two factions began insensibly to be withdrawn from the arena of 
politics. But the feeling throughout the twenty years that elapsed be- 
tween Pompey's capture of Jerusalem and Ctcsar's death was at all 
limes bitter. We should naturally expect that Palestinian Psalms of 
this period would throw light upon the condition of Jewish society or 
would at any rate reveal to which side in this intestinal contest the 
writer or writers inclined. Nor are wc altogether disappointed, although 
we might have hoped for more. The Psalms reflect something of the 
intensity of the current animosities of the time. They leave the reader 
in no doubt to which party they belong. We shall have no difficulty in 
establishing the general grounds on which we give to the ' Psalms of 
Solomon' the significant title of 'Psalms of the Pharisees.' 

A brief digression is here necessary in order to remind the reader as 
to Ihe origin of the differences between the Pharisees and the Sad- 
ducees, It will be remembered that at the outbreak of the persecution 
of Antiochus Epiphanes there were two sections of the Jewish com- 
munity bitterly opposed to one another. On the one side stood the 
Hellenizing parly, including many of the aristocracy and led by the 
High Priest himself, prepared for the sake of political advantage or 
private gain to make any sacrifice of national religion or to adopt any 

/XT/^ODrcr/ox. xw 

pnctke from among pagan superstitions. On the opposite extren^e 
stood the Asideans. the £uiatical followers of the Jevish law. devoted 
to the principle of theocratic Judaism, piepared to sutfer anr luudship 
and to endure any loss rather than abandon a syllable of the sacred 
heritage. The fervour of the Maccabean re\x>lt swept away the Hel> 
lenizers. The Asideans were strengthened by the successes of the 
patriots. The cause of Theocracy triumphed. But the spirit which 
had given rise to the Hellenizing of the former generation was still at 
work ; it was fostered by the military successes of the Jewish captains 
and by the growth of Jewish prosperit)*. The Asmonean princes* to 
whose fomily the people had gi\*en the High Priesthood, upheld the 
sanctity of the law and the honour of the race. But the stricter Jews 
took umbrage nominally at the secularizing of the nation by enter|>riscs < 
undertaken not for the defence of religion, but for the gain of political 
liberty ; they ca\'illed at the right of the .\smonean princes to hold the 
High Priesthood ; they murmured at the erection of an earthly kingilom. 
The fanaticism of these men who, as those who se|xirated themsd^'es 
from all impurity, were called Pharisees or * Separatists,' gradually dro\^ 
the Asmonean princes, their natural champions, to seek the support of 
the old aristocracy, who had no sympathy with the new enthusiasm. 
Among the latter were the leading Priests who claimed to be the true . 
sons of Zadok (Sadducees), conservative of the letter of the Mosaic law, 
but pa>ing little heed to the teaching of the Scribes either upon future 
retribution or upon the countless methods of purification muUiplictl by 

For some years before his death Johannes H)Tcanus (t 105) had 
utterly broken with the Pharisees. During the reign of his son Alex- 
ander Jannaeus the opposition between the two parties reached a climax 
in the great Civil War which raged for six years (arc. 86 — 80). The 
power and influence of the Pharisees increased in proportion as the * 
Asmonean ruler seemed to abandon the religious spirit of his grcat 
ancestors. A High Priest whose whole life was given to military ' 
adventure seemed to degrade the religion of his nation. The triumph 
of Alexander Jaimseus and his Sadducee supporters, followed by the 
wholesale slaughter and banishment of Pharisee foes, was powerless to 
stem the current of popular feeling. When Alexandra succeeded to 
her husband's throne in b.c 78, she could only maintain her position 
by the reversal of the previous policy and the recall of the exiles. Her 
reign was prosperous and peaceful; by the Pharisees it was regarded 
as a golden period (Taanith 23a). The Sadducees however felt them- 
selves displaced from their rightful position. Their nobles, with the 



young prince Aristobiilus at iheir head, began lo demand a larger 
control in the administration of the kingdom. Already in the year of 
the queen's death, b.c. 69, they had succeeded in occupying some of 
the strongest fortresses. On Hyrcanus' succeeding to the throne, a 
determined move was made to regain a complete Saddiicean ascend- 
ancy, Aristobulus, in whom there lived again the spirit of Alexander 
Jannfeus, was made king and High Priest in his brother's room. It 
looked as if the day of persecution and exile for the Pharisees had 
returned, when Antipater the Idtimean induced Aretas king of Nabatrea 
to espouse the cause of Hyrcanus. War broke out between the two 
brothers ; Scaurus, Pompey's lieutenant, who appeared in Syria in B.C. 65, 
favoured the cause of Aristobulus. But Pompey himself, on arriving 
in the spring of B.C. 63, was met not only by Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, 
but also by an influential gathering of the Pharisees who protested 
against the rule of an earthly king. The deposition and capture of 
Aristobulus was the death-blow of the Asmonean dynasty and of the 
Sadducean i>olitical ascendancy. The Sadducean aristocracy suffered 
heavily in the capture of the Temple. The animosity between them 
and the Pharisees did not diminish. In social and religious matters it 
continued to bum fiercely. The Sadducees were an aristocratic clique, 
at the head of which stood the High Priest ; the Pharisees impersonated 
the religious fervour of the masses, guided and directed by the teaching 
of the Scribes. The Sadducees were tenacious of the Mosaic law, and 
refused to accept the expansion which it received from the teaching of 
[he Pharisees ; they had no sympathy with the new development of 
religious thought respecting the resurrection, a world to come, or a 
future retribution. The Sadducees were ready lo make the most of 
their connection with the outside world by political intrigue and com- 
mercial enterprise. The Pharisees on the other hand would have 
nothing to do with the Gentiles. 

When we compare the statements contained in our Psalms with the 
picture of the internal condition of Judtea, we think there can be no 
doubt of their Pharisaic origin. The Psalmist who divides ihe whole 
community into ' righteous ' (Sixaioi), or ' saints ' (oo-ioi), and ' sinners ' 
{(ifiapTujXoi), or ' transgressors ' (wapaVo^oi), seems to have in view the 
opposition between the Pharisees and the Sadducees. 

Thai the Sadducees are designated as 'sinners,' appears from a 
variety of allusions. 

(a) The Psalmist denounces the ' sinners ' for having violently 
usurped and taken possession of the throne of David (xvii. %, 8). 
This is an unmistakable reference to the Asmonean house. That the 


king himself is implicated in * transgression * (xvii. 22) could only have 
been asserted by one who was hostile to the dynasty upheld by the 
Sadducees. The Psalmist includes in his condemnation the nobles 
and princes of the land (xvii. 21); his prayer that the Messiah may 
sweep away * unjust rulers* (xvii. 24, 41) probably reflects his senti- 
ments towards existing authority. The overthrow of the rulers (viii. 23, 
xvii 14) who received *the stranger' into their land is regarded as a 
divine judgment for their iniquities (viii. 15, xvii. 8). 

(3) The complaint is made that these * sinners ' have taken violent 
possession of that to which they had no rightful claim, the reference *^ 
evidently being to the High Priesthood (xvii. 6). In the absence of 
the true lineage, they had laid sacrilegious hands on the sacred heritage ^ 
(viii. 12) from which the Messiah is to eject them (xvii. 26). In these 
allusions we cannot doubt that a Pharisee assails the Asmonean house 
for its retention of the High Priesthood. 

(r) The Psalmist avers that those who discharge the sacred func- 
tions pollute the*holy things and the offerings by their neglect of the 
true observances and by their ceremonial uncleanness (cf. i. 8, ii. 3, 5, 
viL 2, viii. 13, 26, xvii. 51). It is notorious that the Sadducees were 
not so scrupulous as the Pharisees, and did not accept all the rules 
of purification required by the tradition of the Scribes. The Pharisaic 
origin of the Psalms would give especial point to the charges made 
against the Priests of the Sadducee faction in viii. 13. 

(d) The Asmonean princes and Sadducee nobles were as a rule 
more ready than the rest of their countrymen to comply with foreign 
customs. This tendency may easily have received a damaging mis- 
interpretation from their political foes. There may also have been 
too much foundation of truth in the rumours about foul rites and name- 
less horrors. *The sinners' are accused in our Psalms of * secret 
enormities ' for which God has brought judgment upon the people (i. 7, 
ii. 18, iv. 5, viii. 9), and of surpassing the heathen in the wickedness 
accompanying their worship (i. 8, viii. 14, xvii. 17). Whether the 
accusations are true or not, they correspond on the one hand to the 
judgment, which the Pharisees would pass upon any acts of Sadducee 
connivance at Pagan rites, and on the other hand to the low moral 
life, which the last Asmonean kings tolerated at their court. 

The tone of virulent denunciation in Pss. S. iv. and xii. must be 
attributed to some recent injury or affront. But the offenders clearly 
belong to the same class. They are men of influence, they are on the 
Council (iv. i) ; they combine severity in judicial duties with immorali- 
tiet jn private life ; they are full of cleverness, and by appeals to the 




Jaw can justify their actions to the simple-minded (iv. lo, 15); they are 
full of deceit (iv. ii, 26, xii. 1—4); they live and consort with 'the 
saints' (iv, 7), but they are not to be trusted, ihey are all things to all 
men, mere menpleasers (iv, 10). Such language would well suit an 
indignant Pharisee's description of bitter foes, who in his opinion made 
an unscrupulous use of their high position in the land, only studying 
the law in order to delude the people, and ever seeking to ingratiate 
themselves with the Gentile, 

Another element in the Psalmist's accusation against these foes is 
that, in order to compass their own ends of avarice and vice, they made 
desolate whole houses (iv. 11, 13, 15, 23, xii. 2, 4); they dispersed (iv. 
ij, 23) the inhabitants, and 'the saints' were scattered before them, 
they were banished and could no longer dwell in their own land (xvii. 
18). We are forcibly reminded of the action taken by Alexander 
JannEeus and his Sadducee supporters in order to get rid of their 
Pharisee adversaries : perhaps a renewal of the same policy was threat- 
ened when the Sadducees aiiempted to regain their lost authority after 
the death of Alexandra, 

That the Psalmist refers to the Sadducees is perhaps also to be in- 
ferred from the stress laid upon the pride and insolence of his foes, e.g. 
ii, 35, iv. 28, xvii. i6, 46. This would inevitably be an accusation of 
the popular against the aristocratic party. 

Over against 'the sinners' and 'the transgressors' our Psalmist 
sets 'the righteous ' (ii. 38, 39, iii. 3—5, 7, 8, 14, iv. 9, ix. 15, x. 3, xiii. 
5 — 9, XV. 8, xvi. 15) and ' the saints ' (iii, 10, iv. 7, viii. 40, ix, 6, x. 7, 
xii. s, 8, xiii. II, XV. 11, 'saints of God' viii, j8, 'saints of the Lord' 
xii. 8, xiii. 9, xiv. a, g): and it is obvious that if the Sadducees are in- 
tended by the one class, the only class which could thus be contrasted 
with them by a Jew in the middle of the last century B.c, would be the 
Pharisees, That this is the case appears at every turn. Thus, in con- 
trast to the noble and wealthy families of the Sadducees, the Pharisees 
who do not follow afier earthly riches are for the most part 'poor.' 
It is the poor whom God blesses (cf. v, 2, x. 7, xv. 2, xviii. 3). They 
are the true 'fearers of God ' (ii. 37, iii. t6, v. 21, vi. 8, xii. 4, 8, xiii. 11, 
XV. 15), Their fear of God is not for any ulterior purpose of profit or 
worldly advantage, but in simplicity and singleness of heart {ir o-ko-kIo, 
iv. 26, cf. iv. 25, xii, 4). Their religion is not counterfeited for office or 
assumed for purposes of policy like that of 'the profane' and 'the 
menpleasers' (iv. 1); they love God 'in truth' {b/ aXrfiiit^ vi. 9, x. 4, 
xiv. 1). 

In order to appreciate the Pharisaic colouring in the religious 


thought of these Psalms, we propose at this point to review briefly its 
most distinctive features. 

(a) The conception of a Theocracy lay at the root both of the 
religion and of the politics of the Pharisees. Loyalty to this thought 
made them rebellious subjects of the Asmonean princes as well as 
devoted servants of the sacred law. The words * The Lord is King ' 
were the watchword which upheld the Pharisees in the face of Roman 
oppression (see ii. 34, 36, v. 21, 22, xvii. i, 38, 51). 

{p) (i) The sacred *Torah' or Law, which the * menpleasers ' 
handled deceitfully (iv. 10), is God's witness upon earth (x. 5). True 
righteousness is fulfilled in the life that does not swerve from its 
ordinances (xiv. i ). The righteousness of our Psalms is conspicuously 
* the righteousness of the Pharisees.' It is fulfilled in deeds (cf. ix. 7, 
9, xvii. 21, xviii. 9), and especially in deeds which carried out the rules, 
or avoided the violation, of the ceremonial law (iii. 8 — 10, v. 20). The 
neglect of such rules was the contradiction of all righteousness (cf. i. 2, 
3 with 8; viii. 7 with 13, 14. (2) *The righteous' however do not 
differ from *the sinners' only by the performance of mere external 
acts, but also by the spirit of true worship ; and emphasis is laid upon 
the necessity of praise (iii. i — 3, v. i, vi. 6, x. 6, 7, xi., xv. 3 — 5, xvi. 7, 
xix.), prayer (ii. 24, v. 7, vi. i, 7, 8, vii. 7, viii 37, xv. i), and repentance 
(iii. 5, 6, ix. II — 15, xvi.). (3) Although we are not prepared to admit 
that crway(i>yij is necessarily used in x. 8, xvii. 18 in its most limited 
sense, it is possible that these passages, along with such expressions 
as CK /Li€cr<{» iirtara/jL^ytav ra Kpifiara aov in v. i and wapoiKia in xvii. 19, 
may contain some allusion to the Synagogal institutions which were 
the strength of the Pharisaic organization. 

(c) The attitude with which our Psalmist regards the subjugation 
of his country to the heathen is highly characteristic of a Theocratic 
Jew. He does not, as a Sadducee would have done, lament the ex- 
tinction of the Jewish dynasty and the overthrow of hopes for Jewish 
independence or an earthly empire; nor does he denounce with any 
venomous hatred the foreign foe who had been the instrument of his 
country's calamity and disgrace. He regards these troubles and dis- 
asters as the necessary discipline (TraiScia) for the offences of his people ; 
in the face of the humiliation and loss which his country had sustained, 
he justifies God's dealings with men (cf ii. 16, vii. 3, viii. 7, 27, 31, x. 
I — 3, xiii. 6 — 8, xiv. i, xvi. 11, xviii. 4). He asserts that Ck>d has per- 
mitted, nay, has ordained the visitation (ii. i, 15, 24, viii. 15, xvii. 8). 

The Psalmist by his praise of patience and resignation distinguishes 
himself no less from the political fanatics of his own party, who, after- 




wards known as the Zealots, hastened the final downfall of the nation 
(ii. 40, y.. 2, xiv. i, xvi. 15). Not that the Pharisee abandoned all 
hopes for the restoration of his people. That he did not resign himself 
to apathetic despair is abundantly clear from the great strain of 
Messianic hope in xi-, xvii., xviij. But in Ps. S. xvii. it is very notice- 
able that the agent of Israel's restoration is the Messiah himself, un- 
aided by earthly weapons. 'I'lie loyal supporter of the Theocracy is 
ready to wait unti! the lime comes when God shall fulfil His promise 
(vii. 9, xvii. 13, xviii. 6). 

It is true that at the approach of the invader, who executed the 
Divine judgment, 'the righteous' no less than 'the sinners' were 
thrown into consternation (viii. 5, 6, xiii. 4 o «wr«/3^! (?)). But it was 
upon 'the sinners* that the heaviest calamities fell; 'the righteous' 
were protected from harm (xiii. a, 5, xv. G, 8). The prayer of ' the 
righteous' was heard (xv. i, cf. vi. 8); and the intercession of the true 
Israel is represented as averting the annihilation of the race (ii. 

{d) In the matter of Divine Providence and man's free will the 
religious teaching of our Psalms is unmistakably on the side of the 
Pharisees. According to the somewhat questionable assertion of Jo- 
sephus, the Sadducees of his time maintained the absolute freedom of 
man's will, and denied the possibility of Divine cooperation or inter- 
position in things human; the Pharisees, on the other hand, while 
admitting the freedom of man's power of choice, recognised the opera- 
tion of Providence in all human affairs (Jos. Bell. Jud. 11. viii. 14). It 
would be impossible to state the Pharisee position more accurately than 
it appears in Ps. S. ix. 7, 8 (d dfu%, rn tpya ij'^iui' <v tuXoy^ nai (Jovm'a 
TTfi ilmxlj^ Tj/iiov Tov TroL-ijaat SiKatoavvTjv nai aSiKi'nv Iv !pyoi« jjfipiuv ijft(u>" 
■ai ^1" Tg SiKO-iixruvji uov (jricKorrp ufow ayffpanruiv). Man's complete 
dependence upon his Maker in all things is asserted under the striking 
image of Ps, v. 4—6, with which our Lord Himself seems to suppose His 
hearers to be familiar (cf. Matt. xii. 29; Mark iij. 27 ; Luke xi. 21, 22). 

The whole universe is the sphere of Divine operation. God's mercy 
is over all the earth (v. 17, xvii. 38, xviii. 3), and His justice extends 
to every part of the world (viii. 29, ix. 4). The thought of Divine 
mtly brought before us, primarily no doubt with the 
object of reconcihng the devout Jews to acquiesce in the calamities of 
the time, but also by way of contrast to the tyranny and injustice of the 
time (cf ii. 12, 16, 19, 37, iv. 28, viii. 7, 32, x. 6). 

But the universality of Divine mercy and justice in no way affects 
the peculiar relations of Israel with Jehovah. He is the God of Israel 


(iv. I, XL 2, xii. 6, xviiL 6 ; cf. viil 37, ix. 16) and the God of Jacob 
(xvi. 3). Israel is His portion and heritage (xiv. 3). *The seed of 
Abraham ' was chosen abo\'e all the nations, the Divine name set upon 
it, the holy covenant established with the patriarchs (ix. 17 — 20), 
God's love and mercy are alwa)'s towards Israel (v. 21, vii. 8, xviii, 2 — 4). 
Israel is His servant (xii. 7, xviL 23), for whom He hath promised 
blessings (xL 8 ; cf. xvii. 50). Jerusalem is the holy city (viiu 4). 

But it may be doubted whether the Psalmist includes under Israel 
all the children of Israel. To the Psalmist the true Israel is the ideal 
Israel, * the flock of the Lord ' (xvii. 45). It excludes those that dwell 
with the saints in hypocrisy (iv. 7). From them God ^dll deliver the 
true Israel (iv. 27, xviL 51). The true Israel will consist of those that 
'call upon Him in patience' (iL 40), 'that fear Him and love Him in 
sincerity' (iv. 29, x. 4, xiii. 11), 'the saints of God' (viii. 28). 

{e) The doctrine of Retribution, which the Sadducees rejected, 
but which was r^;arded as a cardinal doctrine of the Pharisees, is 
strongly asserted (ii. 7, 17, 30^32, 37, 39, ix. 9, xiil 5, xv. 14, xvii. 10). 

Our Psalms, it seems clear to us, do not limit the principle of 
retribution to the present stage of life. There is to be a day of 
judgement, when the Lord will 'visit' the earth with judgement (iii. 14, 
XV. 14); a day of mercy and 'election' for the righteous (iii. 14, xiv. 6, 
xviii. 6), but of destruction for sinners (xv. 13). We find also stated 
very simply the Jewish teaching upon the Resurrection, which the 
Pharisees held and the Sadducees denied. * The righteous ' will at the 
time of 'the visitation of God' rise again, whether in the body or not is 
not told us; they will rise into 'life eternal' (iii. 16, xiii. 9); they will 
enter into ' eternal joy ' (x. 9) ; happiness will be their inheritance 
(xiv. 7, XV. 15); they will inherit 'the promises of the Lord' (xii. 8). 
These are expressions whose meaning cannot be exhausted by the 
thought of the prolongation of life or of the continuance of prosperity 
on earth. 'Eternal life' is introduced as a justification for Divine 
righteousness: the calamities of the righteous receive an explanation 
in the doctrine of ' the coming age ' (^^'^ D^^P'^). 

On the other hand, the future condition of the wicked is stated in 
terms which leave the reader in doubt whether a doctrine of annihila- 
tion is intended. 'The destruction of the sinner is for ever* (iii. 13; 
cf. ix. 9, xii. 8, xiii. 10). Religious opinion on this subject was probably 
not yet fully formed. Perhaps we should be right in concluding that 
our Psalmist denied ' a resurrection to life ' in the case of the wicked, 
although he did not call in question the continuity of their personal 
existence. Hence, when the righteous shall be remembered mth mercy, 



the sinners will be forgotten (iii. 13, xiv. 10), their memorial will no 
longer be found (xiii. 10); but if their destruction is to be for ever 
{iii. 13), their inheritance is to be Sheol, sn unending portion of 
darkness and destruction (xiv. 6, xv. 11). 

(/) Angels. It is due perhaps chiefly to the simplicity of thought 
in our Psalms, that the doctrine of angels is only once with certainty 
referred to (xvii. 49 <os Xoyoi aylotv). The belief that the heavenly 
bodies were under the control of angelic beings is possibly hinted at 

{g) The Messiah, The finely conceived and fully detailed de- 
SLiiption of the Messiah and His Kingdom contained in Pss. S. xvii. 
^3 — end, xviii. 1— g has naturally excited greater attention than any 
other part of our book. It is in fact as important a piece of Messianic 
literature as any later Jewish books have to show. It may be taken, we 
believe, as presenting more accurately than any other document a state- 
ment of the popular Pharisaic expectation regarding the Messiah, shortly 
before the time when our Lord Jesus, the Christ, appeared. This fact 
alone should have led to its being widely known and carefully examined 
by students of the Gospels: but in common with the rest of the book it 
has suffered unmerited neglect. Nicremberg is the first scholar who 
called particular attention to it, and in his book, De Origine S. Seripturae 
(1641), IK. 39 (p. 341), he prints a Latin version of Ps. S. xvii. 23 — end. 
But we cannot find that after liim any writer has made use of this 
passage before Bengel. 

The Idea 0} the 1 

iia/i in the Psalms of Solomon. 

We propose here to consider 

(i) the main outline of the picture ol the Messiah and His times, 
as represented in our Psalms ; 

(ii) certain distinctive characteristics of the Messiah here described; 

(iii) the special significance of this representation of the Messiah 
(a) in the history of the doctrine, {J>) in the history of the Jewish people. 

(i) The main outline of the picture of the Messiah and His times, 

(a) The lime of His coming. The time of the Messiah's coming is 
known to God only (xvJi. 13, 47). But from the fact that the Psalmist's 
prayer for the coming of the Messiah follows immediately upon the 
description ol the triumph of the Romans, the downfall of the Asmonean 
dynasty, and the calamities of the people, we may infer that, in the ex- 

that, m the ex- 1 


pectation of the writer, the Messiah's coming was likely to be preceded 
by great disasters. 

{p) His origin. He is to be raised up by God Himself (xvii. 23, 
47, xviii. 6). He is to be a descendant of David (xvii. 23). 

(c) His Mission is of a twofold character, destructive and re- 
storative, expressed in the word * purification * (xvii. 25, xviii. 6). 

It is destructive. He is summoned to overthrow the supremacy of 
the Gentiles (c^), to destroy them utterly from out of Jerusalem and 
from out of the borders of Israel (xviL 25, 27, 31). He is summoned 
also to break up the power of * unjust rulers * (xvii. 24) and to drive out 
from the heritage of God *the proud sinners,' who had obtained unlawful 
possession (xvii. 26, 27, 41, 51 ; cf. with 6 — 8). 

By *the Gentiles,' allusion is made to the Romans : by *the sinners,' 
to the Sadducees. 

It is restorative, (a) The kingdom of the Messiah is to be set up 
in the room of the Gentiles and the sinners, and to be established over 
Israel (xvii. 23, 35, 36, 47). ()8) He is to gather together again the dis- 
persed tribes of Israel (xvii. 28, 30, 34, 46, 48, 50). (y) He is to make 
Jerusalem his capital, and to restore the glory of her Temple worship 
(xvii. 33 — 35). (8) He is to make the Gentiles subject to him ; they 
shall bring tribute to him, and shall be converted to the true faith 
(xvii. 31, 32, 34). 

{d) The character of his rulcy spiritual, holy, wise and just. 

It is spiritual. The Messiah king is not an aggressive conqueror 
by force of arms. His administration does not rest upon physical 
power (xvii. 37). His trust is not in the ordinary safeguards of a 
throne, but in Jehovah (xvii. 38). 

It is holy. Holiness and purity are the instruments of his power 
(xviii. 33, 36, 46). His purity from sin is the measure of his authority 
(xvii. 41). He does not tolerate the presence of iniquity (xviL 28): 
all his subjects will be * sons of God ' (xvii. 30), all will be holy (xvii. 


It is wise. With wisdom he is to begin his work of purification 
(xvii. 25), and with wisdom he is to judge the peoples (xvii. 31). God 
endows him with the Holy Spirit and makes him mighty in wisdom and 
understanding (xvii. 42, xviii. 8). 

It is just. Upon this quality, inseparable from that of wisdom 
(xvii. 31), great stress is laid. Justice will attend his work of destruc- 
tion (xvii. 25) and his task of ruling (xvii. 28, 29, 31). Justice will temper 
his might (xvii. 42, xviii. 8), and under his rule no oppression shall 
take place (xvii. 46). His utterance will be mighty to overthrow (xvii. 


27> 39) i t*"' his words will be purer than the gold, and when he ad- 
ministers judgement they will be as 'the words of angels' (xvii. 4S, 49). 

(ii) Certain distinctive characteristics of the treatment of the Messiah 
in the Psalms of Solomon. 

{a) The title 'Christ,' 'Anointed One' (XpurrM, TPT?) is here 
perhaps used for the first time in literature of the expected Deliverer 
of Israel. ' It is not a characteristic title of the promised Saviour in 
the 0. T. It is not even specifically applied to Him, unless perhaps in 
Dan. ix. 25 f., a passage of which the interpretation is very doubtful' 
(Wcstcott, Ep. of SI John, \i. 189). Three limes over this name, 
destined lo play so unique a part, occurs (xvii. 36, xviii. 6, 8) in our 
book. Repeatedly as the word has occurred before in other writings, 
it has always had reference to actual raonarchs then reigning, never 
to an ideal monarch who was to come. 

[b) The Messiah of these Psalms is lo be 'the son of Uavid.' 
The significance of this must not be overlooked. We return to the con- 
ception of the Prophets. Haggai had been the last to point to the lineage 
of David {ii. 2 1^23). Zechariah had emphasised the priestly side of the 
Messianic hope {vi. 11—13). I" ''^^ ''"'^ "f the Maccabees it centres 
in a ' faithful prophet ' ( i Mace. xiv. 41; cf. iv. 46) ; and it is not David 
but Jeremiah who appears in a dream to Judas Maccabeus (z Mace. xv. 
13 — 16). In Ecclesiasticus again (xlviii. 10, 11) it is Elijah the prophet 
who is to 'establish the tribes of Jacob.' The Messianic vocation of 
the house of David, whicli since the Captivity had fallen into the back- 
ground, and under the glorious reign of (he first Asmonean princes had 
almost been lost to view, reappears in these Pharisaic Psalms. 

(f) Tlie Messiah is a vassal-king, not Supreme Sovereign. He is 
only God's vicegerent ujwn earth. Jehovah is 'his Cod' {xvii. 18, 41, 
wiii. 8) ; and Jehovah is his king (xvii. 38) ; his reign will be a blessing 
to the people of Jehovah {xvii. 40) ; he tends not his own, but 
Jehovah's flock (xvii. 45). The Messianic kingdom is not a pure theo- 
cracy : for, although God is at the head of the nation, there is a visible 
earthly king, who is strong because his hope is in God (xvii. 43). 

{d) The Messiah unites the offices of king and priest. There is 
no reference to the priestly order in the description of the Messianic 
kingdom. This omission is of sinailar significance with the assertion of 
'the Davidic lineage.' The son of David is the anointed one, con- 
secrated to the work of purification and to the dispensation of un- 
swerving justice. In this silence with regard to the priestly order, in 
this emphasis on Messianic justice, can we not read the indignation of 



the Pharisee oppressed by corrupt Sadducee nobles, and watching with 
anguished soul the irregularities of a worldly priesthood ? 

(e) The Messiah of this Psalm is not divine. Divinely appointed, 
divinely raised up, endowed with divine gifts, he is ; but he is nothing 
more than man. Neither of supernatural birth, nor of pre -existence in 
the bosom of God or among the angels of God, do we find any trace. 
If he is called Lord (Pxvii. 36), the word is only used of him as it might 
be of an earthly lord. However high the conception of his moral 
character and spiritual qualifications, he is man, and man only. 

(/) To what figure in the history of Israel does he most nearly 
correspond? We answer, to that of Solomon. Was he not *a son of 
David,' the extender of the boundaries of the kingdom, the restorer 
and beautifier of the worship of Jehovah, a receiver of tribute from 
foreign monarchs, who came to see his glory, and distinguished above 
all other princes for wisdom and justice ? In all these particulars we 
see a resemblance between Solomon and the Messiah of our xviith 
Psalm. And contrasts are not wanting. Solomon did sin in multiply- 
ing silver and gold, horses, chariots and ships. That is exactly what the 
Messiah will not do. Solomon was not KaBapo% ivo dfuiprtas : Solomon, 
as we see from the complaints to Rehoboam, was not guiltless of oppres- 
sion. The Messiah will be pure of sin, and will sufifer neither pride nor 

Now in the earlier Jewish literature, the name of Solomon had been 
connected with Messianic aspirations. The Ixxiind Psalm is called a 
Psalm CIS SoXd/xoiv, and in it we have one of the most striking parallels 
to our Psalm. If that description of an idealised Solomon came to be 
attributed to the king himself, as it did, it is conceivable (and more 
than that we are not prepared to claim) that the ascription of the 
present collection to Solomon arose from the similarity of the leading 
Psalm to one that was already known as a Psalm of Solomon or was at 
least associated with his name. 

(^) The description of the Messiah contains several passages drawn 
from the Old Testament, e.g. 

xvii. 26 is based upon Psalm ii. 

„ 34 „ „ I Kings x., Ps. Ixxii. 10, Is. Ixvi 18 — 20. 
» 39 ,» » Is. xi. 4. 
,, 42 „ „ Is. xlii. 6. 

(iii) The special significance of this representation of the Messiah 
(a) in the history of the Doctrine, (^) in the history of the Jewish 
people. (See especially Prof. Robertson Smith's Article * Messiah ' in 
the Encyclopiedia Britannica.) 



{a) The picture of the Messiah in our xviith Psalm marks the most 
notable advance in the conceplion of the Messianic expectation. Here 
for the first lime in Palestinitin hterature, the idea q{ 3. personal Messiah 
is unequivocaily stated. The passage in Daniel (ch. vii.) which offers a 
possible exception is of much disputed interpretation, and the only 
other Palestinian writing of a date anterior to our Psalms that makes any 
reference to a personal Messiah [i.e. the First Book of Enoch {ch. xc. 37, 
38), a document written perhnps about no b.c-]. employs in its descrip- 
tion the vague mystic style of apocalyiitic language, 'And I saw till all 
their generations were changed, and they all became while bullocks, 
and the first one of them [was the word and thai word] was a great 
animal, and had on its head large and black horns.' 

On the other hand the literature of Alexandrine Judaism presents in 
a Sibylline Fragment (Onu. Sibyli. m. 652 etc.), composed probably in 
the last quarter of the and cent, b.c, a remarkable picture of the Mes- 
sianic king : 

Koi TOT at!-' iJtXi'oto 9tot iriiulitt jSutrtAija 
OS iraaav yaiay iravirti im\ifioui kokoio 
ous fiif upn KTtLraM 01s S opKia iriirTa. T^AtVcras. 
mhi yt TaiS tSc'iuS ^ouXois ra'S* iraiTU jroiijo-ti, 
aUa fltoij fityaXoia xitftjiras So'yfMuriv iirBKoi^ .... 
Here the king sent by God, possessing universal power, bringing 
peace, executing judgement, fulfilling the promises, subject to the 
Almighty, is in many respects a remarkable parallel to the representation 
in the Psalms of Solomon. But it is noticeable that later on in the 
same fragment the description of the Messianic kingdom takes no 
account of a personal ruler (766 — 7S3). 

Koi TOTt 5' iiiytpti (SaffiXijioi- (Is a£iui-(« 
aunj yap fityaXoio Btov KpofK JjSJ Koi opxij- 

In our xviith Psalm the description of the expected Saviour is in 
striking contrast to the previous vague generalities of a glorious king- 
dom. The word 'Messiah,' which had hitherto been given to reigning 
earthly types, is appropriated to the personal ideal. The Davidic 
descent is revived from the writings of the people's Scriptures ; and the 
longing for * great David's greater son,' which has no place in Daniel, 
in Enoch, or the Assumption of Moses, perhaps first received from 
our Psalms the impulse, which in the next generation caused Davidic 
descent to be regarded as an essential element of any Messianic claim 
(cf. Mati. ii. s, 6, xxii. 42), 


Second only in importance to this added definiteness in the concep- 
tion of the Messiah's person must rank the spiritual force and moral 
beauty which are here assigned to him. The sin and violence of the 
recent Asmonean rule had perhaps aroused in the mind of the Pharisee 
Psalmist the hope for a sinless ruler, whose weapons would be spiritual 
and whose moral force would be irresistible. 

In this representation of the human Messiah, perfect in holiness and 
taught of God, free from sin and wielding only the weapons of spiritual 
power, we find ourselves brought more nearly than in any other extant 
pre-Christian writing to the idealization of 'the Christ' who was bom 
into the world not half a century later than the time at which these 
Psalms were written. 

(^) Its significance in the history of the Jewish people. The 
vividness and completeness of this Messianic picture are of deep 
historical significance. It marks the revolution which had passed over 
Pfuxrisaic thought since the time, not a century before, when Israel's 
mission in the world was identified only with the fulfilment and dis- 
semination of * the Law,' when the whole duty of *the righteous' seemed 
to be to fear God, to obey the Scribes and to live apart from the politics 
of the nations, when patriotism was satisfied by vague generalities 
respecting Israel's future greatness. 

A complete change of view is presented in our Psalm; and we 
cannot doubt that this was brought about by the political events of the 
century which preceded the invasion of Pompey. The heroic deeds of 
Judas Maccabeus and his brothers had rekindled the ardour of the 
people for a Jewish dynasty and a Jewish kingdom ; and the Pharisaic 
supporters of a Theocracy were powerless, so long as their teaching 
showed no sympathy with this patriotic enthusiasm. On the other hand, 
the deterioration in the character of the later Asmonean princes^ their 
violence and cruelty, alienated the affections of the people : it was hope- 
less to look for Israel's restoration from a dynasty sunk in selfishness 
and cruelty. It is at this crisis that the Pharisaic idea of a Messiah 
king, of the house of David, combines the recognition of the failure 
of the Asmonean house with the popular enthusiasm for a Jewish 
monarchy. The Davidic Messiah is to overthrow the yoke of the 
Gentiles, he is to disperse the Sadducean nobles, he is to establish 
the universal kingdom of Israel upon the eternal foundations of a wise 
and just administration. 

Such a treatment of the Messianic hope must have brought the 
Pharisees an immense accession of moral influence over the people at 
large. It appealed to the patriotic feelings of those who had no power 


to appreciate the abstract beauty of the old legalism. By its liope for a 
'son of David,' it proclaimed the downfall of the Levitical Asiiionean 
house. By its ideal reign of ' wisdom and righteousness,' it asserted 
the fundamental Pharisaic position that tlie Law was supreme. Ii 
united the craving for a Jewish king with the theocratic interpretation 
of Israel's mission to the world ; it expressed the highest aspirations of 
the pious Jew, and satisfied the sense of partisan malignity against the 

In the religious history of the nation, the Messianic representation 
of our xviith Psalm thus marks Che stage, at which Pharisaic thought 
passed beyond the narrow limits of its earlier teaching, and availed 
itself of the popular aspiration for an earthly kingdom. The splendid 
vision of a Davidic Messiah, contrasting naturally with the degradation 
of the Asmonean line, became the source of a religious enthusiasm, 
which corresponded to the teaching of the Israelite prophets, but 
which entailed upon the theocratic party no policy beyond the exer- 
cise of patience, till God should raise up the king, and until then the 
minute observance of His law (cf. Pirqe Aboth i. ii, Shemaiah said, 
Ijjve work ; and hate lordship ; and make not thyself known to the 
government). This hope became incorporated with the life of the 
Jews. And while the mass of the Pharisees contentedly awaited, in the 
discharge of their religious duties, the coming of the king, the more fiery 
and ill-regulated spirits of the patriots saw in every Theudas the personi- 
fication of their expectations, and sought to interpret their own hopes 
in that succession of outbreaks, which culminated in the national over- 
throw of Harcochab's revolution. 

g vii. Place of Wrilhtg, Authorship^ Purpose, Style, Tille, of the Psaliiu 
ef Solnmon. 

(a) Where written I The prominence given to Jerusalem makes it 
probable that our Psalms were composed by a Jew (or Jews) residing 
in the capital. 'The Holy City,' or 'The City of the Sanctuary' 
(viii. 4), is in the Psalmist's estimation the centre of the universe, 
The interest of the great events described in Pss. ii. viii. and xvii. is 
bound up with the unique position of the Jewish capital. The song 
of triumph (Ps. xi.) is to be proclaimed in Jerusalem : the city itself is 
addressed, she is bidden 10 go up and view the restoration of her 
children, and to put on festal attire ; for the blessing of the Lord will 
rest on Jerusalem (xi. 3, 8, 9). It is with Jerusalem that the work of 
the purification by the Messianic ' son of David ' will commence (xvii. 


25) : it is to Jerusalem that the nations of the earth will gather to see 
his glory (xvii. 33). The allusion to the ' profane ' ones, members of 
•the Council' (iv. i), and the description of their vices and crimes in 
Ps. iv. 2 — 15, xii., are best understood of men whose life was spent in a 
city. Similarly the temptations to immorality refened to in Ps. xvi. will 
naturally be associated with the condition of things in an urban population. 

ifi) By whom written f The result of our enquiries has been to 
show that our book had its origin in the Pharisaic Judaism of Jerusalem 
in the middle of the last century, b.c. Whether we have the work of 
more than one writer it is impossible to determine. The difference of 
style to be noted, e.g. in ix. — xv., is largely to be accounted for by the 
difference of subject-matter, and at any rate is not sufficiendy marked 
to supply any certain criterion. 

The conjecture has suggested itself to us at various points in our 
investigation of the book, that the Pharisee writer or writers belonged to 
the order of the priesthood. It would be impossible to draw any line 
which could distinguish the sympathies of a Pharisee priest from those 
of a Pharisee patriotic layman. And we do not pretend to claim that 
the evidence upon which the conjecture rests is of a very convincing 
nature. But our theory invests the Psalms with an additional human 
interest, and we confess that our general impression in its favour has 
grown and not diminished with the progress of our work*. 

It is based upon (a) the prominence given to ceremonial pollution 
(e.g. i. 8, ii. 2, 3, viii. 12, 13, 26) and purification (e.g. iii. 8 — 10, xvii. 25, 
33); {d) the frequent use of thought and language borrowed from the 
priestly writings of Leviticus and Ezekiel ; (c) the tone of jealousy with 
which it is implied that the Temple had passed into hands that had no 
legal right to it, and that the Psalmist would identify himself with those 
from whom its control had been forcibly wrested (e.g. vii. 2, xvii. 6, 7). 

(c) The purpose of the collection. Judging from the character and 
contents of the more important Psalms, we can hardly doubt that their 
object is, in a great measure, polemical ; they are intended to deliver 
the solemn protest of devout Pharisaism against the corrupting influence 
upon the nation of the surviving members of the Asmonean party. 

To the distinctively political Psalms were added those of a more 
general character ; and it is possible that the whole collection was in- 

* It may be a fanciful thought, but no description could better represent our 
conception of the writer of these Psalms than the picture of Symeon in Luke ii. 25 
{koX liod Mponroi ^r iw *lepov<ra\^fA tf 6pofia XvfUibp, koI 6dp0pofTot o9rof dlxaiot 
Kal eifXapifjij wpoaStx^l^^'^^^ irapdKXriair roO *I<i-/>a^X), who must have been 
a man in the prime of life when they were written. 



tended for public or even for liturgical use. The occurrence of ' Selah ' 
(SiaVtV") '" "^'i- 3^1 "viii- lo, if originally part of the text, and not 
introduced out of mere imitation of ihe Canonical Psalter, would go to 
support this vitw. Similarly if the titles of Pss. viii. x, xiv. are genuine, 
ihey would indicate that these Psalms at least were originally designed 
for adaptation to music 

{tf) Style and character. The general character of these Psalms is 
extremely simple and straightforward. They are in a great measure 
based in tone and thought upon the Old Testament Scriptures, and 
this is shown even more in the adaptation of words and phrases than 
in the citation of passages. Written obviously in imitation of the 
Canonical Psalms, the collection preserves throughout the strictly 
Psalmic type of composition. Each Psalm is composed upon a clearly 
defined plan and forms a separate unity. By their simplicity both in 
thought and structure, they were well adapted for popular use. 

In Palestinian literature they occupy in style, as in dale of com- 
position, a midway position between the familiar discourse of gnomic 
philosophy in Ecclesiastic us, and the more imaginative but diffuse and 
wearisome composition of the Apocalyptic writers, e.g. Enoch, 2 Esdras, 
Apoc. of Baruch. 

We cannot claim any high standard of poetical merit for the majority 
of our Psalms. Generally speaking they arc wanting both in originality 
and anistic beauty. But the passage describing Pompey's death is not 
without considerable lyrical force (ii. 24 — 35). Ps. viii. contains, in a 
short compass, a vigorous poetical sketch of the whole historical crisis of 
Pompey's invasion. In Ps. xvii. the Psalmist's conception of the Messiah 
is treated in a passage of sustained energ}' and loftiness of expression. 
The hatred and scorn which have dictated the denunciations of Ps, iv. 
produce a painfully vivid impression, to which the reposeful conlidence 
of nature in the bounty of the Creator, de-'wribed in Ps. v., offers an 
agreeable contrast. 

The writings which, in our opinion, most nearly approach our 
Psalms in style and character, are the hymns preserved in the early 
chapters of St Luke's Gospel (i. 46 — 55, 67—79, ''■ 'o — ^t4i ^9 — 32), 
which in point of date of composition stand probably nearer to the 
Psalms of Solomon than any other portion of the New Te'*iament. 
(t) The title 'Psalms of Solomon.' 
'I'he origin of this title must remain in obscurity. 
The opinion that they were the genuine writings of king Solomon was 
undoubtedly held at one time; but, except from the title, was absolutely 
devoid of evidence in its support. For Whiston's strange view, see p. xv. 


The possibility must certainly be admitted that 'Solomon' may be 
the name of the author, an otherwise unknown Pharisee. 

We entertain however no doubt that king Solomon is the Solomon 
intended, and that his name has been given pseudonymously. Now if 
we accept the pseudonymous character of the title, we have further 
to enquire whether the book received this title from the author, or 
from subsequent copyists or translators. According to the former 
alternative, we must class the collection with other pseudepigraphic 
writings of this period, e.g. the book of Enoch, the Wisdom of Solomon, 
etc., and assume that the writer hoped by the use of a revered name to 
secure a permanent position in literature for his work. Against this 
view it may be urged that, unlike the pseudepigraphic writings just 
mentioned, our Psalms contain no other certain allusion to their reputed 

To us it appears most probable that cop3rists or translators are 
responsible for having ascribed the work to Solomonic authorship. For 
the selection of Solomon's name different reasons might be alleged. 
We have already mentioned (see p. Iv.) that the picture of the Messianic 
king, the son of David, a man of peace, wisdom and might, might have 
given the title to the xviith Psalm, and have been transferred from this, 
the most important writing, to the whole collection. Other reasons 
based upon the contents of particular Psalms, are (i) the possible re- 
semblance of certain passages (e.g. iv. 4 — 6, v. 15— -20, vi. i — 3, ix. 
5—9, xiv. 1 — 3, xvi. 7 — 15, xviii. 12 — 14) to the style of the book of 
Proverbs, and (2) the fact that the subject of Ps. xvi., a thanksgiving 
for pardon after a fall into grievous sensual sin, offered a sufficiently 
close parallel to the traditional close of Solomon's life. 

But we are of opinion that Solomon's name was selected for reasons 
of a much less definite character. Given an anonymous collection of 
Jewish Psalms composed in imitation of the Canonical Psalter, it was 
desirable that they should be known by some definite name. The name 
of David was appropriated to the Canonical Psalter; the name of 
David's son, Solomon, would naturally suggest itself. Although Solo- 
mon's songs had been "a thousand and five" (i Kings iv. 32), Can- 
ticles and two Psalms (Ixxii. and cxxvii.) were all the Hebrew poetry 
that tradition had so far connected with Solomon's name. That the 
remainder of Solomon's writings might have included the present collec- 
tion, would seem to an uncritical age, accustomed to the production of 
pseudepigraphic works, to constitute a very probable supposition. The 
prestige attaching to Solomon's name was so great, that no title would 
be more effective to secure the preservation of an otherwise obscure 



collection of Psalms; and the title did its work. To their name we 
owe the accident of their preservation. In the few extant Mss, which 
contain the Psalms of Solomon, they are found among the sapiential 
writings ascribed to king Solomon. 


The Psalms of Solomon and Jewish Literafurr. 

The book occupies a unique position in the extant Jewish literature 
of the last century before the Christian era. The only other extant 
writings nf Palestinian origin which belong to the same period are the 
Book of Enoch, fragments preserved in the Pirqe Aboth, and possibly 
the Book of Jubilees, representing apocalyptic, gnomic, and Midrashic 
elements respectively. With these it has no similarity in style or 
structure, although it is not without points of contact in its treatment 
of religious thought. 

The Psalmic literature, with which we naturally class it, comprises 
(a) Ecclus. li., (b) Judith svi. 2—17, (c) Tobit xiiL, (d) Luke i. 47—55. 
68 — 79; ii. 10 — 14.30 — 32, to which some would add, (e) the so-called 
Maccabean Psalms xliv., Ixxiv., Ixxix., Ixxxiii, 

The Psalms in Ecclus. Judith and Tobit are possibly only incident- 
ally introduced from other national collections of poetry, and bear 
some general resemblance to the characteristic features of our Psalter. 
But a closer resemblance is presented by the Songs contained in the 
opening chapters of St Luke's Gospel. Both in thought and in structure 
they seem to belong to the same class of literature as the Psahns of 
Solomon: and it is a matter not without interest and importance, that 
our Psalms, which stand closest of all extant Jewish religious poetry 
to the Christian era, are so conspicuously similar to the songs which are 
the earliest writings incorporated in the New Testament Scriptures. 

We come next to consider the question, whether any traces are to 
be found in the Psalms of Solomon of the influence of other writings. 
It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that they are in a great measure 
constructed out of the language of the Old Testament The books 
from which our Psalmist has most frequently borrowed are the Penta- 
teuch, the Psalms, Isaiah and Ezekiel. His method is to appropriate a 
phrase or sentence of Scripture as preft'rable to one of his own coining 
because already sacred and familiar to his readers, and to fuse it with 
his own words, introducing some slight alteration or modification. No 
sign is given of a citation. At a time when all Jewish religious writing 


was based upon Scripture, such acknowledgment would not be neces- 
sary: and in poetry it would not be expected. 

Direct allusions are not as a rule made to events in the people's 
earlier history. The mention of the patriarch Abraham (ix. 17), of king 
David (xviL 5), and of the Babylonian Captivity (ix. i) is exceptional. 

Allusions however of a more indirect nature are fairly numerous. 
Thus in i. 8 ra irpo avroiv lBvy\ is a reference to the wickedness of the 
Canaanites; in ii. 24 there is an allusion to the staying of the plague in 
David's reign (2 Sam. xxiv. 16; i Chro. xxi. 15); in ii. 27 ^k {iJXy the 
ferocity of the Romans is compared with the 'zeal' of Phinehas; in iL 
35 avurrciiv...fcoifiei£Q)v we have an echo from the Song of Hannah 
(i Sam. ii. 6 — 8); in vii. 3, 4 there is an allusion to David's prayer 
that he might fall into the hands of God rather than into the hands of 
his foes (2 Sam. xxiv. 14) ; in viii. 27, 28 and xiii. 4, 5 there seems to be 
a reference to Lot in Sodom; in xv. 6 we have an allusion to the 
Three Children; in xv. 7 to the overthrow of Korah, Dathan and Abiram, 
in XV. 9 to the mark set upon Cain ; in xvi. 7 seqq. some have seen a 
reference to the fall of Solomon led away by 'strange wives'; in xvi. 
II — 15 we are reminded of the story of Job; in xvii. 5 seq. we are 
reminded of Nathan's declaration to David in 2 Sam. viL 11 — 15; in 
xviiL 12 the creation of the 'heavenly bodies' in Gen. i. is referred to; 
in xviiL 4 the story of Joshua at Bethhoron (Jos. x. 12), or of Isaiah 
and the sun-dial of Ahaz (2 Kings xx. 11), or both together, are implied 
in the words, linrayiJ SovXcdv. 

It is not, in our opinion, possible to prove that our Psalmist is 
influenced by Jewish literature not included in the Hebrew Canon of 
Scripture. The language and thought of Ecclesiasticus often illustrate 
our Psalms ; actual correspondences of expression are found ; but the 
agreement is generally to be explained by some passage of Scripture 
from which both writers have borrowed. 

Ek:clus. iii. 25 o a/uuiprcuXos Trpoo^i^ct dfjuapriav i<f> dfjjopTtai^ (v. 5, xxi. i). 

Cf. Ps. S. iii. 7, 12. 

„ ix. 8 arroaTptij/ov 6<fi6aXfJuov aaro yv^aifcos €Vfi6p<l>ov koX p.rj icara- 
fidv6av€ fcaXXo9 aAAorptov* cv xaXXct yuvaucos voWol 
iirXamjOt^aav, Cf. Ps. S. xvi. 7, 8. 

„ xvii. 14 Kttt fi€pU Kvpiov ^IdparjX itrriv (xxiv. 12). Cf. Ps. S. 

xiv. 3. 

„ xviii. 12 iXcos dvOpiOTTOv crri tov rrXtfo'iov avrov, c\cos 8c KvpCov cttI 

irdaav o-apxa. Cf. Ps. S. V. 15 — 17. 

„ xxxii. 12 Kvpio^ Kptnfs ccrrt, kol ovk cctti Trap* avra) S6(a Trpoawrrov. 

Cf. Ps. S. ii. 19. 

J. P. e 


Ecclus. xxxvi. (xxxiii.) 17 Xaoi', mipw, KiKKi\)>.kvov cir' ovd^Ti o-ou. ..oiKT-d'- 
pij<TOy TTokiv dyido'fiaTtii irou, IcpcnnroXjj^ 
Ton-oc KoraTraii/iarDS cov. Cf. Ps. S. IX, 

„ xxxix, 29, 30 ...KOI Ai/ios TQi SaynTtK, . . .GTipimv oSoWw.-.nat 
pon<tnua iKSiKOvaa cis okt$pov dirtPtli. Cf. Ps. 
S. xiii. z, 3. 

„ xl. t4 cv rf a'foT^ai aUTov X^tp"^ (ii^pacftjiTeTai. Cf. Ps. S. V. 14. 

„ xlv. 18 briiraviimiaav avrtp oAAdrptoi ( = DHt for D'HT). Cf. Ps, 
S. xvii 6. 

„ li. 6 ^yyifrtv tiot SawiTOU ^ ^XV ^"^i *''■' *? f""J I""' T** ''T'*''yyW 

olSou Kd'™. Cf. Ps. S. xvi. a. 
This list might be considerably enlai^ed. But the instances already 
given will be sufficient to show the character of the resemblance. 

The most ancient fragment concttined in the Sibylline Oracles iii. 97 
etc. {exc. 295—490) contains expressions, which will illustrate passages 
in our Psalms ; but there is no probability in the view that the Sibyllines 
are actually quoted. 
Orat. Sib. iii. 185 ...trr^avwri -rt jraiSas 

AJerxpoTs iv rryitarru Cf. Ps. S. ii. 13. 
316 "Vofiiftaia yap at hifXtMaclrai Sia fiiaaav, 

SKOpTTirrftoi &t Tc KQi OavaTti'! Koi Ktfiov (<^(£(i. 
Cf Ps. S. XV. 8. 
643 scq. arai^oi Si airaiTK ((tovtiw 

Kai Tiay [liv yvirii T€ koX aypia Gifpia ytutp 
"SiopKuv 8)7Xi}(ro>-ra(. Cf. Ps. S. iv. 21. 
652 se<]. Kat TOT air ijcXumo Bto^ irifupti paaiXija.... 
Cf- Ps. S. xvii. 23, seq. 
702 Ytol 8' av firfaXoio $tov irtpl vaov a.iTavTtt 

'Hinix'<"« ttiiTovr. Cf Ps. S. xvii. 30. 
705 AuT05 yap iTKfTaatit fiovov [ifyaXuit rt jrapairTaf 
Cf. Ps. S. xiii. I 

734 seq. SrtiXov S^ hri TTjvSt irokiv tdv Xaov afiovX 

Cf Ps. S. xi., xviL 34 
770 Kal vovr aBavarov aiiovuiv tuijipoiruvTjf rt. 

Cf. Ps. S. X. 9. 
785 <roi S" OTo-trat iOavarov ^tSs. Cf Ps. S. iii. 16. 
The points of resemblance which have been noticed in the Book of 
Wisdom are of a similar character. (Respecting the instances, in 
which our Psalms have been alleged to borrow from the phraseology 
of 'Wisdom/ see below.) 


The earlier portions of the Book of Enoch present a remarkable 
parallel to the reference in Ps. S. xviii. 1 1 seq. to the ordered course of 
the heavenly bodies. Cf. chap, il i *the luminaries which are in the 
heavens do not depart from their paths, each one rises and sets in 
order, each in its time, and they do not depart from their laws,' and 


In the Jewish literature subsequent to the composition of our 
Psalms, we find no certain trace, except in Baruch v., of the influence 
of this work. (On the resemblance of Ps. S. xi. to Baruch v., see a full 
discussion p. Ixxii ff.) 

On the other hand, there is hardly a single important Palestinian 
writing of the following century, which does not receive useful ilhistra- 
tion from the language or religious teaching of the Psalms of Solomon. 

1. The Parables in the Book of Enoch (cc. 37 — 71) were very 
probably written about rc. 30. The general similarity of thought may 
be illustrated by 

Enoch xli. i the deeds of men are weighed upon scales. Cf. Ps. 

S. V. 6. 
„ xlix. 3 the spirit of wisdom, and the spirit of him who imparts 

understanding, and the spirit of doctrine and of power. 

Cf. Ps. S. xviL 42, xviii. 8. 
„ liii. 7 the just will rest from the oppression of sinners. Cf. Ps. 

S. ii. 39, xvii. 46. 
„ Ivi. 6 And they will ascend and step upon the land of their 

chosen, and the land of his chosen will be before them 

a threshing-floor and a path. Cf. Ps. S. ii. 2. 
„ Iviil 3 the light of everlasting life. Cf. Ps. S. iii. 16. 
„ Ixii. 2 And the word of his mouth slew all the sinners and 

all the impious, and they were destroyed before his 

face. Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 27, 39, 41. 
n 99 8 the congregation of the holy. Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 18. 
„ Ixiii. 8 his judgement does not respect persons. Ps. S. ii. 19. 
„ Ixix. 27 he causes to disappear and to be destroyed the sinners 

from the face of the earth. Cf. Ps. S. xiil 10, xv. 13. 

2. The Book of Jubilees or 'the Little Genesis' (ed. Ronsch), 
written possibly about the time of the Christian era, has no very obvious 
points of resemblance with the contents of our book. The following 
instances show the general similarity of thought and language in the 
Jewish writing of that period : 

Jub. XV. 14 non est super eum signum ut sit Deo sed exterminii et 

perditionis a terri. Cf. Ps. S. xv. 8, 10. 


Jub. I 


29 laudans et confitens Deo suo secundum omnia in latitia. 
Cf. Ps. S. XV. 3—5. 
xxi. 4 quia Deus vivens est et sanctus et fidelis et Justus et ex 
omnibus non est apud eum accipere personam. Cf. Ps. 
S. ii. 19. 
xxiii. 33 et sanctificationem pollueni in abominationibus pravitatis 
et immunditiis. Cf. Ps. S. i. 8, ii. 3, viii. 13. 
„ 25 in die viae non erit illis omne nomen relictum 

super terram, Cf Ps. S. xiii. 10, xv. 13. 
„ 26 et si ascendetur usque ad cjelum, inde deponetur. Cf. 
Ps. S. i. 5. 
xxvii. 9 (tirigentur omnes vise ejus. Cf. Ps. S. vi 3. 
xxxi. 20, 2 1 Et Judse dixit Dabit tibi Deus fortitudinem et vir- 
tutem, ut lu conculces omnes odientes te; princeps 
eris tu, et unus filiorum lucrum. ..erit alienus el 
optinens universam terrara et regiones ; hunc time- 
bunt populi a facie tua et conturbabuntur universe 
gentes. Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 38, 42. 
3. The writings of the New Testament receive from our Psalms 
helpful illustration in certain particulars. 

(a) 'The Songs' embodied in Luke i. ii. 

{b) The expected Messiah is a son of David (e.g. Matt, ii., xxi. 9. 
xxii, 4a — 4s; Joh, vii, 4a; Rom. i. 3; a Tim. ii. 8; Rev. v. 5, xxit. 16). 
Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 

(*■) The description of 'the righteousness of the Scribes and 
Pharisees' (e.g. Matt vi. i — 18). Cf. Ps. S. iii. 

(rf) The metaphor of 'the strong man' (Mark iii. 27). Cf. Ps, 

{(t) The comparison of Divine and human kindness (Luke xi. 5 — 
8). Cf. Ps. S. v. IS, 16. 

(/) Certain phrases e.g. fKXoyi} 'Divine choice' Rom. ix. 1 1 etc., 
cf. Ps. S. ix. 7; KkripovoyLtai lirayytkiai Kvptov Heb. xii, 12, cf. Ps. S, 
xii. 8 ; TO iroifin'oc icupwnj ( = 6t(m i Pet. v. 2), cf Ps. S. xviL 45 ; 
ari'iTTatr^at cEt Ijo^v atiiviov (John V- 29 <Is dvdcmuTiv Jtu^s), cf. Ps. S. 

4. The Apocalyptic work, known as the 4th Book of Esdras, and 
dating from the close of the ist cent a.d., has been considered by 
Hilgenfeld and Geiger to show signs of having borrowed from, or at 
least of being acquainted with, the Psalms of Solomon. We give here 
the passages, which are alleged to show signs of this correspondence. 

{a) 4 Esdr. iii. 8 'et tu non prohibuisti eos.' Cf Ps. S. ii. i Mi 


ovic cfcwXixras. The words in 4 Esdr. are not found in the Latin, 
£thiopic or Armenian versions ; they appear in the Syriac and Arabic, 
where they are used with reference to the fact that the Lord did not 
restrain the wickedness of the Antediluvians. In Ps. S. the Psalmist 
is speaking of the heathen, whom the Lord did not prevent from 
attacking the Holy City. 

ip) 4 Esdr. iv. 25 'Sed quid faciet nomini suo, qui invocatus est 
super nos?' and ix. 22 'et nomen quod nominatum est super nos pene 
profanatum est.' Cf. Ps. S. ix. 18 Ww ro ovo/yu£ ^Tim i<f> VH^h icvpit. Both 
passages have in common the thought which is based upon the Old 
Testament Scriptures, that the Lord had set His name upon His 
people. Cf. 2 Chron. vii. 14. 

(c) 4 Esdr. vL 24 et venae fontium stabunt et non decurrent in 
tribus horis. Cfl Ps. S. xvii. 21 vrjyal avyta^^iOrfuav auovioi c^ aPvaviov 
dv* opiiov v^Xctfv. The stopping of the fountains of the earth is in 
4 Esd. one of the portents preceding the coming of the Messiah ; in 
Ps. S. the fact is also narrated, perhaps as a sign that the Messianic 
times had begun. 

(d) 4 Esdr. vL 58 nos autem populus tuus quern vocasti primoge- 
nitum unigenitum semulatorem carissimum. Cf. Ps. S. xviii. 4 17 iraiScia 
aov i<l> ij/mas (Js viov irptaroTOKov /xovoycF^. The passage in Ps. S. is based 
upon Deut. viii. 5, and the words irpwroroKov /xovoycv^ may very pro- 
bably be a duplicate rendering of one word in the original. The con- 
text in 4 Esdr. is of a different character ; the combination of * primoge- 
nitum, unigenitum,' which is possibly a similar instance of the same 
duplicate rendering, may conceivably be borrowed from our Psalmist. 

(e) The description of the Messiah in 4 Esdras has some points of 
resemblance to that in Ps. S. 

(i) The name * Christ': 4 Esd. vii. 28 filius mens Christus. 
xii. 32 hie est Unctus. Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 36, xviii. 6, 8. 

(2) The work of the Christ : 4 Esdr. xii. 32, 33 secundum impietates 
ipsorum arguet illos et incutiet coram ipsis spretiones eorum ; statuet 
enim eos in judicium vivos et erit cum arguerit eos tunc corripiet eos. 
Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 27 fccu cXey^cu a/LUxprcuXovs ^i' Xoytp KopSCa^ avTiav, 31 KpiviZ 
Xaovs KoX i$yrj. 

(3) The weapons of the Christ not earthly: 4 Esd. xiii. 9 non 
levavit manum suam neque frameam tenebat neque aliquod vas bellico- 
sum...emisit de ore suo sicut flatum ignis... et succendit omnes... 37 
ipse autem filius meus arguet quae advenerunt gentes impietates eorum... 
et perdet eos sine labore per legem quae igni assimilata est. Cf. Ps. S. 
xvii. 37 ov yap cXirtct ivl wnrov kolL dvapdrqv koX t6(ov. It will be observed 


that 4 Esdras brings out in much closer detail the judicial functions of 
the Messiah than does our Psalmist : but that both lay stress on thi: 
pacific character of the Messiah, the xviith of our Psalms asserting the 
sinlessness of the King as the spiritual substitute for material power, 
4 Esdras describing the overthrow of foes by the fire of the Divine law. 
(/) The restoration of the tribes, 4 Esd. xiii. 39 et quoniam vidisli 
eum coUigentem ad se aliain inultitudinem pacificam, hs sunt tribus, 
quje captivte facise sunt etc, Cf. Ps. S. viii, 34 oniHiyay* nj* SuimropQi' 

'Itr^ijX K.T.X., xi. 3 Kot I8« TO tva/a. aov (lt.X., Xvii. 50 <v (rvwiyiuy^ i/ivXiui'. 

The passage in 4 Esdras refers especially to the 1 o Tribes j the passages 
in Ps. S, refer to the Dispersion generally. But undoubtedly in both 
books the Restoration of the Tribes belongs to the Messianic thought. 

We are not disposed to admit that the similarity in these passages 
is sufficiently close to justify the theory that Esdras has borrowed from 
the Psalms of Solomon. In the treatment of the Messianic idea, where 
the similarity is perhaps more definite, tlie resemblance springs from 
general agreement in the religious thought rather than from any special 
obligation of one writing to another. In the other instances tiie 
thought in which the two documents agree is not of a sufficiently striking 
character to render the hypothesis probable. 

Other passages may be pointed out, where our Psalms illustrate 
4 Esdras in phrase or thought, without any trace of closer dependence. 
4 Esdr. iii. iz impietaiera facere plus quam priores. Cf. Ps. S. i. 8. 
„ „ 27 tradidisti civitatem tuam in raanibus inimicorum tuoruni, 

X. 23. Cf. Ps. S. ii. 7- 
„ iv. 23 quem popuium dilexisti. Cf. Ps. S. ix. 16. 
„ V. z8 unicum tuum. Cf. Ps. S. xviii. 4. 
,, „ 30 et si odiens odisti popuium tuum, tuis manibus debet 

castigari. Cf Ps. S. vii. 3, 
„ vii. 1 7 quoniam justi htereditabunl haec, impii autem peribuni. 

Cf. Ps. S. xii. 8. 
„ viii. 5 venis (anima mea) sine voluntate tua et abis cum non 
vis ; non enim data est tibi potcslas nisi solummodo in 
vita temporis exigui Cf. Ps. S. ix. 7. 
„ „ 52 apertus est paradisus, plantata est arbor vitie. Cf. Ps. S. 

„ X. 22 sancta nostra contaminata liberi nostri contu- 

meliam passi sunt. Cf. Ps. S. ii. 3, 13. 
„ „ 50 pulchritudinis decoris ejus. Cf Ps, S. ii. 5. 
5 Esdr, ii. 28 zelabunt gentes et nihil adversus le polenint. Cf. Ps. S. 
vii. 6. 


5 Esdr. XV. 5 iDala...gladium et famem et mortem et iiitcritum. Cf. 

Fs. S. xiii. 2. 
,9 xvL 6 ignem in stipula. Cf. Ps. S. xii. 2. 
„ „ 62 super vertices montium lacus ad emittendum flumina ab 

eminenti ut potaret terra. Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 21. 
5. The Apocalypse of Baruch, composed at about the same date 
as 4 Esdias, has similar points of resemblance with our book. Thus the 
personal Messiah is mentioned by name (xxix. 2, xxx. etc.), and there is 
brief allusion to his judicial and punitive work. 

xl. I Messias meus arguet eum (ducem) de omnibus im- 

pietatibus suis. Ixxii. 2 veniet tempus Messias mei 

et advocabit omnes gentes, et ex iis vivificabit et ex 

iis interficiet. 

The frequent mention of the people's calamities as *castigatio* 

( = iraiScia) introduces a thought very prominent in our Psalms. 

In numerous passages we find expressions, which may be illustrated 
in an interesting way by the Pss. S. 
Apoc. Bar. ix. i purum cor a peccatis. Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 41. 

„ „ x. II vos coeli retinete rorem vestrum neque aperiatis the- 

sauros f]u\nae. xxviii. 5, Ixii. 4. Cf Ps. S. xvii. 21. 
„ „ XX. 3 in penetralibus mentis tuae. Cf. Ps. S. xiv. 5. 
„ „ xli. 3 jugum legis tuae. Cf. Ps. S. vii. 8. 
„ „ xliv. 4 Justus est ille cui servimus neque accipit personas 

fictor noster. Cf Ps. S. ii. 19. 
„ xlviii. 9 sapientes facis orbes coelestes ut ministrent in ordi- 
nibus suis. Cf Ps. S. xviii. 12 — 14 (xix. 2 — 4). 
— 15 dono tuo venimus in mundum. Cf Ps. S. v. 5. 
„ „ li. II pulchritudo majestatis (Ixxxii. 7, Ixxxiii. 12). Cf Ps. 

S. ii. 5. 
„ „ Ix. I permistio contaminationis eorum. Cf Ps. S. ii. 15. 
„ „ Ixviii. 2 decidet populus tuus in calamitatem ut periclitentur 

ut pereant omnes simul. Cf Ps. S. ii. 24. 
„ „ Ixxviii. 2 ut justificaretis judicium ejus. Cf. Ps. S. iii. 3, 

viii. 27. 
„ ,, — 7 misericordia multa colligeret denuo omnes qui 

dispersi sunt. Cf Ps. S. viii. 34. 
,, „ Ixxix. 2 sed neque castigavit nos sicut digni eramus. Cf 

Ps. S. ix. 15, xiii. 8. 
,, „ Ixxxv. 7 adhuc in spiritu sumus et potestate libertatis nostras. 

Cf Ps. & ix. 7. 
„ „ — 9 ut assumamus non ut assumamur. Cf Ps. S. iv. 20. 


» f> 



6. The 'Assumplio Mosis,' belonging to the satiii; class of lilera- 
lure, may also be illustrated from the Psalms of Solomon, although there 
is no appearance of actual borrowing from the latter work. 
Assumpt. Mos. iii. 5 Justus el sanctus Dominus, quia enim vos peccastis 

et nos pariter abducti sumus vobiscum, Cf- Ps. 
S. X. 16. 
,. „ iv. a voluisti plebem banc esse tibi plebem exceptam, 
tunc voluisti invocari eorum deus secus testamen- 
tum quod fecisti cum patribus suis. Cf Fs. S. ix. 


„ V. I partictpes scelerum. Cf. Ps. S. xiv. 4. 
„ — 3 contaminabunt inquinationibiis domum ser\'itutis 
sufe.-.4 aliarium inquinabunl . . .dedecoris mune- 
ribus quK imponent Domino qui non sunt sacer- 
dotes sed servi de servis nati. Cf. Ps. S. viii. la, 
xvii. 6. 
„ — 6 impii judices. Cf- Ps. S. xvii. 32. 

„ „ vi. 8 et occidentis rex potens qui expugnabtt eos. Cf. 
Ps. S. viii. 16. 

„ „ vii. 4 homines dolosi, sibi placentes, exterminatores, 
queruli et fallaces, celantes se. 

>. » — 9 et manus eorum et denies immunda tractabunl, et 
OS eorum loqueiur ingeniia et superdicent Noli tu 
me tangcre ne inquines me. Cf. Ps. S. iv. xii. 

„ „ X. 6 fontes aquarum deficient. Cf. Ps. S. xvii. zi. 

„ „ — 9 faciei te hserere aelo stellarum. Cf. Ps. S. i, s- 

„ „ xi. 12 tanquam paler unicum filiiim. Cf. Ps. S. xiii. 8. 

7. The 'Teslamenla xii. Patriarch arum,' which are perhaps to be 
assigned in their present form to the beginning of the 2nd cent, a.d., 
have not much in common with the Psalms of Solomon. The Messianic 
thought is much more advanced; the Messiah is Divine as well as 
Human ; his priestly functions are more conspicuous than his regal. 
The sinlessness of the Messiah, which is so strongly emphasized in our 
xviith Psalm, receives here also especial recognition, e.g. Lev. ly'. orl t^s 
i<pitHnji^s afiroS (nXn'^ti 7ra<ra a/iapriti. Jud. nS*. iraira u'fiaprut ov)(_ tvpt- 
Bi/atTai iv avrf . 

The following are instances of general correspondence in thought 
and phraseology. 

Reub. 0, ft); oiFi' irpoiri<^tTt KaWoi yuvawHuc. lud. ly'. f-^Si i/ijikfirtii' 

tU (ciXXos yvyaiH^v. Cf. Ps. S. xvi. 8. 
bim. y . CKOKuKTa iv iniiTTtit^ TT]v ^X'7*' ^Of ' Cfi Ps. S. lU. 9. 


Z. ayaoTTcrct yap Kvpios Ik- rw Acvt cJs apxupia, koX Ik tov *Iov8a 
C0S jSoo-iXca 0€0K KOi flu^ponroi^. Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 23. 
Lev. y, cfe if/i€p€Ly irpooTay/tarof tcvpiav Iv t§ iucoMicpuriq. rev Oeov. 
Cf. Ps. S. XV. 13. 
cf. i^^oucru^ o2 Up€i^.,,fui\ifioi ^cXapyvpot vircpi/^KOi, avo/uioc, 
ao-cXycif. Cf. Ps. S. xil, xvii. 6 — 8, 22. 
Jud. ica^ itrovnu cis icaratyiScs ^cvSoirpo^Trai. Ps. S. xvii. 13 (mss.). 
K^. TOV 0COV r^ SucauxrvnTs. Cf. Ps. S. viiL 32. 
icy'. Xifjuiv KOi Aoc/Aov Odvarov koI ^ijj^iav. Cf. Ps. S. xiii. 2, 
XV. 8. 
2^blll. y^ {Iv V7roSfijfi4uriv) KaraTrarno'ti KaTawarq<na/JL€y, Cp. Ps. S. 

il. 2. 
Nepht. ^. OToBfi^ yap Kol fiirptf koi Kavovi naa xruris v^ifrrov. 
Ps. S. V. 6. 
li^/V/. cSs 17 i07(vs aurov, ovtcd koX to ^pyov avrov. 
ii^liil ttSs 17 irpoacpco'19 avrov, ovtcd jccu 17 irpa$is avrov. Cf. Ps. 
S. xvii 2. 

y^ ^Aio$ fcai o-cXifvi; xai affT€p€S oIk dXXounkri ra^iv avrwF. 
Ps. S. xviii. 12. 
Asher a', lav wv 17 ^x^ ^^^27 ^ icaX<p, irao'a wpa^i^ avr^s ^oTti' ^v 
8iicai00i;v27...€av Sc ^ wovrfpi^ KXtirg ro SiaPovXtov, ircura 
irpo^iS a^T^s ^crrii' ^ irovrjpuf^ Cf. Ps. S. ix. 7. 
i'. CDS v&op axfyrjarov. Cf. Ps. S. viii. 23. 
li^/iiil if ytj vfjLw iptffjiMO-ija'a'ai. Ps. S. xvii. 13. 
Joseph /3^. irpo9 ywaixa avaiS^ ^ayovo'ai' rrapavofictv ficr* avr^s. Cf. 
Ps. S. xvi. 8. 
f . fcal diroXco'ci ro fjLvrjfAoawov aov awo r^s y^9. Cf. Ps. S. 
xiii. 10. 
Ben. a. kclL 0CO9 iaKorao'ey avrov. Cf. Ps. S. xiii. i. 

€. idv ^T€ dya$oiroiovvT€s Koi rd axa^apra Trvcvfuira ^cv^crai a^* 

vfuiSv fcal avra ra ^pta ^cv^crai ci^* vfi<uv ^^i/^cvrcs. Cf. Ps. 

S. XV. 9. 

8. The collection of ancient Rabbinic sayings preserved in the 

Pirqe Aboth contains probably materials as old as the Psalms of 


The following extracts derive especial interest from comparison with 
passages in our book. 

Pirqe Aboth i. 3. Antigonus of Soko...used to say, Be not as 
slaves that minister to the lord with a view to receive recom- 
pense; but be as slaves that minister to the lord without a view 
to receive recompense ; and let the fear of heaven be upon 


you. Cl. Fs. S. iv. 36 fiOKOfiuiL ui (fiopovfifvai, rov nvpiav iv UKCUIiy 

Pirqe Aboth i. 17. Shamraai said... 'And receive every man with a 
pleasant expression of countenance ' (iii. 18). Cf- Ps. S. v. 6 
tv iXapoTTfTi. XVI. 1 2 fitra lAopon/Tos. 

— iii. 8. The yoke of Torah. Cf. Ps. S. vii. 8 v><« "to J;i7oV 

— iii. 10, R, Ldzar...said, Give Him of what is His, for thou ami 

thine are His. Cf. Ps. S. v. 5. 

— 21. Beloved are Israel that they are called children of God. 

Cf. Ps. S. xvii. 30 yviafftTai yap avrovi ot( Tarrt^ vioi 6tov 

— 24. Everything is foreseen j and free will is given. And the 

world is judged by grace ; and everything is according to work. 
Cf. Ps. S. ix. 7—15. 

— iv. 3. Who is rich? He that is contented with his lot. Cf. 

Ps. S. v. 18—20, xvi. 12. 

— 31. And He is about to judge with whom there is no iniquity, 

nor forgetfulness, nor respect of persons, nor taking of a 
bribe, for all is His, and know that all is according to plan. 
Cf. Ps. S. li. 19, viii. 27. 

— v, 11—14. Seven kinds of punishments: dearth from drought, 

dearth from tumult, deadly dearth, pestilence, the sword, 
noisome beasts, captivity. Cf. Ps. S. xiii. a, 3, xv. 8. 
9. There is one book and only one of which we can say with cer- 
tainty that it is connected with the Psalms of Solomon. No one who 
has read the Book of Baruch n-ith attention can have failed to notice 
the similarity of its concluding verses (iv. 36 — v. 9) to the xith Psalm 
of our collection. A glance at the two documents will suffice to show 
that they cannot possibly be independent of one another ; and attention 
has been called to the fact by several of those who have edited each 
book. Geiger seems to have been the first; he, as we should be inclined 
to expect, regards Baruch as the earlier of the two. Schiirer (Gesili. 
Jiid. Volkes, 11. 591, 724) looks upon it as the later, while Kneucker 
(Das Buck Baruch, p. 43, etc.) thinks that the two writers borrowed in- 
dependently from the i.xx., and considers that this hypothesis, coupled 
with the similarity of the circumstances in which they lived, will 
sufficiently account for the resemblance. We have already intimated 
that such a view is in our opinion untenable : and we have now to 
examine the extent and character of the parallelisms, with the view of 
ascertaining what is the most reliable hypothesis. 


The most striking resemblances to Baruch occur in xL 3 — 8, and 
will be easily seen firom a glance at the text In view of Kncucker's 
theory, stated above, and by way of clearing the ground, we will next 
set down those passages of the lxx. to which reference appears to be 
made in both documents. 

xL 3 vnfi^ — ^u^iyXov. 
Is. zL 9 ^* ^poc iajn^v iarafitfit^ o cuayycXi{dfiCvot Sutr. 

mil 48c — fcvy>u>v. a«o Po^^ 
Is. xliiL 5 — 6 avo araroXMF aj«) to frripfia <rov, fcal dwo Swrfiw crwo^ 

<r(. ^mS ry Po^^ "Aye. ..rovs viovs f&ov avo r^s woppoi^tv. 
„ xlix. 12 48ov...ovroi avo Po^pd, 
Jer. xiii. 20 oraXa^c rove o^tfoAfiovs crov 1cpov<raAi;/A, kcu 2Sc tovs ^X^ 

,y xxzL (lxx. xxxviiL) 8 2Sov ^y«a Jyw avrovs a«o fioppd koX (rvKo^ 
avTovs ax* {(rxarov r^ y^. 
Ps. CvL (cviL) 3 (rvmfyaycv avrovs avo avaroXoir ical ivcf/MV «cai poppa 

Mu tfoAaotnis. 

Is. xlix. 22 c2s ras mjoovs ap«» to (niaai^fuov fiov, icai o^ovai rovs vtovs crov. 
Jer. xxxL (xxxviiL) 10 oFayyctXarc ch n/oovs ras fiaxpoOtv. 

5. o^ winjka. 
Is. xL 4 iroK opo9 fcal jSovros raxcivw^o-crai. 

„ II ft^tti xay opos ch oSoi^...avroiS. 

6. oi pQwoi 

Is. Iv. 12 ^ yap wf^poawju (cf. v. 4) ^fcXcvo'co^c.ra yoip oprj koI 01 

jSovFOi ^{dXovvTat...Jcai xavra ra ^Aa rov dypov iwiKponjatu 

7. xav ^Xoi^. 

Is. Iv. 12 avTi T17S OTOiP^ ayajSvo'cnu Kvwdpuro'o^ 

Iva wapiX&g. 
Ex. XV. 16 Ictfs Av irapikBfi 6 Xaos o-ov ovros. 

8. Ii^vorcu 'IcpovoroXi;/!. 
Is. lii. I &8vo'at Ttjv urxyy voVf Stcov, «cai crv IvSvaac n^v ^o^ay aovy 'Icpov- 

fci i\aXrja-€v. 
Ps. Ixxxiv. (Ixxxv.) 8 XoXiyo-ci ctpi/n/v Ixl roi' Xewi' avrov. 

Against these parallels let us set the verbal similarities which we 
find in Baruch. 

Bar. V. *Icpovo-aXi7fi...o-Ti7tfi irri rov v^iyXov. 

fcal iSc avvrjyfJL€va ra r€Kva <rov diro ijXtov Svo'/lkSv cuif 


■ Tipr TTopa TOM Ceou aoi. tfj^ofitk^t'. 

tpX""'" <■' ""01 aoM...tpxovTai auvtiy^ii 

i avUToi^v 1 

ai iraf opof ii^i}K6v...ils o/iaXiTfiov, iva. patturj} 
'ltrpa.^K...T^ rov 6<ov Sd£u, 

There can be little room for doubt as to whicli list contains the 
more striking coincidences. We have, naturally, no wish to deny that 
the ultimate source of our documents is to be sought in such passages 
as those quoted from the Lxx. But we do assert that it is unnatural 
lo suppose that we have two independent copyists to reckon with : and 
if this be granted, as we think it must, the question necessarily arises — 
which is the original of the two, and which the adaptation? It is a 
question of considerable importance, inasmuch as it affects the date of 
both books. We are already in possession of the views held by various 
writers as to the date of the Psalms of Solomon, and we have seen tiial 
no critic of note places them later than the ist century B.C. It will 
therefore be only necessary to state the views held by some good 
modern critics as to the date of the Book of Baruch. 

I. Ewald, who, in common with most writers, divides the book 
into two parts (i. — iii. 8, and iii. g — end), places Part I. in the last period 
of the Persian rule, and abstains from assigning a date to Part 11., of 
which he merely says that it is later. 

3. Fritzsche places the book in the late Maccabean period. 

3- K.neucker puts the book in its present form after the destruction 
of Jerusalem by Titus: but, as we have seen, denies the direct connection 
with the Psalms of Solomon. 

4. Schiirer relies on such a connection for assigning a late date to 

With this last estimate we ourselves decidedly agree : and our 
reasons, stated in extettie, are as follows. 

I. The Psalm is concise, well ordered, and logically developed. 
Baruch spreads the same amount of matter over a space just twice as 
large, and, besides, repeats himself. Thus, in iv. 37, v. 5 tSoii Ip^ovriu, 
ip-)(avTa.t a-uvrjyfiivot dwo avaroKuy, we have repetitions of identical words 
with only slight variations. 

Again v. z is an expansion of v. i, for Jerusalem is told to put off 


her mourning and to put on^ not only her beauty, but the fiiirXofs and 
furpa of glory (cf. Ps. S. ii. 22). 

Further v. 5 wwmfiK.^Kox ar^Oi has all the air of an expansion of 
the simple arijOi of Ps. S. 

V. 7 should be particularly noticed in this connection. It is far less 
vivid than xi. 5, 6. Baruch does not tell that God actually did or will 
lower the hills, but that he has appointed to do so : and the simple 
Powol is replaced by the more pretentious expression ^vcs d€yvaoi and 
supplemented by ^cipayycs (from Is. xl); while the common word ira- 
pfX0y gives way in Baruch to the more literary Pa&CfrQ. 

In V. 8y again, it is difficult to resist the conviction that we are 
reading a paraphrase of the more direct words of the Psalm. The 
phrase irav ^Xov cvcoSta?, which is common to both writers, has an ap- 
propriate function in Ps. S. God makes sweet plants spring up at the 
approach of the people. In Baruch it forms an appendix to the Spvfio^ 
woods and sweet plants overshadow Israel : and there is a relic of the 
Psalmist's avcrctXcv in the Trpotrrdyiiari rov Otov of Baruch. 

Further, besides being the more diffuse, Baruch is less well knit 
together than Ps. S. The argument of his prophecy runs thus. 

iv. 36 — 7. Jerusalem is to look about and see her children's return. 

V. I — 4. She is to deck herself with glory, for God will glorify her for 

5, 6. She is to get up on high (for the second time) and look about 
to see her children return — not as they had gone out from 

7 — 9. Their progress is described, and the whole ends abruptly. 

The Psalmist's order is logical. First, the news is announced : 
then Jerusalem, on receipt of it, is to get up on high and see her 
children returning. Their return is described, and then, in order to 
receive them, Jerusalem is bidden to deck herself gloriously, and the 
whole is rounded off with a prayer for the speedy realisation of these 
hopes. Is it likely, or even conceivable, that a concise coherent whole 
of this kind should have been made out of a diffuse disconnected 
passage without distinct beginning or end? Does not the Psalmist 
approach far more nearly than Baruch to the old Prophetic sources in 
respect of simplicity and directness ? and is he not therefore, according 
to all recognised rules of development, the predecessor of Baruch ? 

Two considerations should be added. One, that the tendency to 
amplify is on the whole commoner than the tendency to contract, in 
documents of the poetical (as opposed to the narrative) class. The 


other, that the Book of Barucli is throughout somewhat of a mosaic, 
The posteriority of the prayer of the exiles (i. 15 — iv. 8) to the prayer in 
Dan. ix., and its dependence on the latter, are generally acknowledged. 
This is a matter deserving of a passing notice, notwithstanding the 
large probability that the two halves of the book come from different 

Other resemblances between Ps. S. and Baruch have beer noticed. 
Kneucker (p. 43 n.) gives the following list of parallel passages: 

(i) B. iv. 10, ii; Ps. S. ii. 6, 7, ix. i, referring to the Captivity. 

(2) B. iv. 6, 7; Ps. S. iv. 25, 5raf)opyi(rai, Trofioiuvai. 

(3) B. iv. IS, 16; Ps. S. ii. 8, viii. 16, 24. Foreign captors. 

(4) B. iv. ao; Ps. S. il ai, 12. Jerusalem clothed in sackcloth. 

(5) B. iv. 26; Ps. S. viii. 19. oSol rpaxiiai. 

(6) B. iii. 33, 34; Ps. S. xviii. 11—13. God's ordering of the 
heavenly bodies. 

Perhaps the following additional resemblances of thought and diction 
may be worth noting. In Part II. we have; 

(i) B. iii. 13 Tov without €« (also iii. 3). Ps. S. vii. 8. 

(2) iii. 9 ivToXas fiu^S, iv. I *K t,uirjv. Ps. S. xiv. I vofua tj! tvtTfi 


xvii. J3. 

iii. 10 TD oAAoTpif. Ps. S. ix. r. 

iii. 19, 34 use of tdVos. Ps. S. xvi. 9 MSS. 

iii. 36 laKoi^ Trats \apa.i)\ i/yajnjptviw. Ps. S. 

v. I vdfiot o VKiipyaiv Af rov aiu 

v. 3 lQvo<i oAAorpioi'. Ps. S. ii. 

V. 6 oSk CIS airoiXfuti-. Ps. S. vii. 4. 

v. iz, 31 iiri\aipfw. Ps. S. xiii. 7, 

V. I 7 Ti Swarq, Ps. S. w. 4. 

V. 22, 23, 24, 29, v. 9 fXtijftacnJn] troin/p/cj 

(also iii 35). P.. S. : 

•vtj>ptia-viij. Ps, S. 

In Part I. 

(1) i. 14 l(ayoptvrtai. Ps. S. ix. 12 i^;ijyopta. 

(2) i. 15 Tijl Kup»(>.,,SiKa[(Mniv>j. Ps. S. ii. 16, etc 

(3) ii. 4. Ps. S. u. 6. 

{4) ii. 15. Ps. S. iL 12, vii. 5, 8, viii. 8, ix. 18, etc. 

(S) ii. 27, fTMiKiw of God. Ps. S. V. 14. 

Should this attempt to prove that Baruch (Part II.) is posterior to 
the Psalms of Solomon be accounted a successful one, it will follow that 
a considerable step has been taken towards fixing a Ifrminns ad ijiirm 


for the latter book, and also towards determining the character and 
date of the former. For in that case, Banich II. can have had no 
Hebrew original — it being next door to impossible that an adapter and 
a translator of the same Hebrew Psalm should have hit upon the same 
Greek words to render the text before them. 

But, if so much be true, we are led on to ask, what date can we 
assign to Baruch in its present form ? and the obvious answer seems to 
be, that if Part I. be a distinct composition, it must have been re-edited 
along with Part IL at a time when the Psalms of Solomon had been 
already translated into Greek and had attained some degree of popu- 
larity. We regard it as certain that the Psalms are posterior to the 
Pompeian invasion, and we are consequently forced to the conclusion 
that the only time appropriate to such a re-edition of Baruch as is here 
postulated, is the period after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, 
when such consolatory and hortatory matter as Baruch supplies would 
be most needed and most welcome. 

It follows that the Psalms of Solomon had been turned into Greek 
some considerable time before a.d. 70, and they assume new importance, 
as monuments of Hellenistic Greek of the first century, and as most 
likely anterior in date to the whole New Testament literature. 

The converse of the hypothesis, the view, namely, that the Psalmist 
copied Baruch, lands us in at least one very considerable difiiculty. We 
are forced to allow — in clean contradiction to all our previous investiga- 
tion — that the xith Psalm — and with it almost necessarily the rest of the 
collection — ^had no Hebrew original To those who are not convinced 
by our arguments on this head, the view may seem a tenable one ; but 
even these would, we believe, be forced by the perusal of the documents 
in question to admit that Baruch II. bears throughout the character of 
a composition originally Greek, and not of a translation from the 
Hebrew, the language in which these Psalms were written. 

§ ix. The Probability of a Hebrtiv OriginaL 

If we are right in ascribing the authorship of these Psalms to a 
Pharisee (or Pharisees) residing in Jerusalem, the hypothesis of a 
Hebrew original will naturally suggest itself for two reasons. 

(i) The strict Pharisees took a patriotic pride in maintaining the 
Palestinian dialect and in resisting the encroachments of the Greek 
language: we should not expect a collection of Pharisee Psalms, 
breathing hostility to the Sadducee " menpleasers " (Ps. S. iv.), to 
have been issued in the Graeco-Judaic dialect of the Dispersion. 

(2) It is a reasonable assumption that Jewish Psalms, modelled on 


the pattern of the national Psalier, and possibly intended for liturgical 
use, would have been composed neither in the Judaio-Gteek nor in the 
colloquial Aramaic dialects, but in the Hebrew ; since the Hebrew 
language, by reason of its association with the Jewish Scriptures and the 
Temple sen-ices, never ceased to be regarded as the language of Jewish 

There is therefore an antecedent probability that our present Greek 
text is a translation from the Hebrew ; and in our opinion a close 
investigation of language tends to confinn this supposition. The 
reasons, which we propose at this point to state in favour of a Hebrew 
original, are not all of an equally convincing nature. But, when taken 
in combination, they are sufficient to establish a strong case for the con- 
clusion, at which we have been able to arrive without much hesitation. 

Ai the lime when the Psahns of Solomon were written, all Judso- 
Greek writings reflected the influence of Hebrew or Aramaic upon 
Greek vocabulary and syntax, and in a greater or less degree gave 
proof of the commanding position occupies! by the Alexandrine version. 
It is therefore often a matter requiring very careful and minute investiga- 
tion, whether we have to deal with an original Greek work written by 
a Jew, or with a Greek Version of a Hebrew work. In both cases the 
presence of Hebraisms will be observed. A more comprehensive and 
complex test must be applied, if we are to arrive at conclusive results ; 
but it is obvious that the more skilful the translator was, the more 
difficult is the task for us to distinguish between a translation from 
the Hebrew or Aramaic and a work originally written in Greek. 

Under the following heads we have attempted to group together the 
principal grounds for the hypothesis of a Hebrew original. 

1. There are certain obscure passages in our book, in which no 
conjectural emendation of the Greek text has as yet been successful, or 
seems likely to succeed. It is almost incredible that they can be the 
Psalmist's original composition. The supposition that their obscurity 
has arisen from the defectiveness either of the translation or of the 
Hebrew text, upon which the translation was based, accounts satisfac- 
torily for the appearance of the Greek. Thus, to select the most signal 
instance, xii, r — 4, it appears to us inconceivable that a Greek writer, for 
the most part so simple and intelligible in style as he appears to be in 
our Psalms, should here have written such desperately confused and 
bewildering sentences. On the supposition of a Hebrew original, these 
obscurities may be explained, either on the ground of the translator's 
inability to cope with the difficulties of the Hebrew, or on the ground of 
his having before him a Hebrew text, which was at this point corrupt or 


defective. It is no sufficient answer to plead that the obscurity of this 
passage characterizes the style of only the composer of this one Psalm. 
For (i) the remainder of the Psalm (5 — 8) is comparatively simple 
and straightforward, and (2) analogous, though not quite such puzzling, 
obscurities are to be found elsewhere in our book, and in our opinion 
are capable of receiving a similar explanation, e.g. ii. 13 — 15, iv. 9 — 12, 
V. 15, vii. 8, XV. 9, xvii. 2. 

2. The attempt to apply this solution may be open to the charge 
of a perverse ingenuity, but in some of the following examples, it 
appears to us, the obscurity of the Greek may reasonably be assigned 
to a mis-apprehension of the Hebrew or to errors in the Hebrew text. 

A. Possible errors of translation, e.g. 

i. 4 SicA^oi^^^^ for Si^Xtfc or SccXifXvtfc. ii. 29 tov ccirciv 
(?) = ">31^ 'to destroy' (Geiger). iii. 8 Iv vapaTmofjuari: should stand 
in the next clause with i^iXaa-aro to balance ra7rciva>(rci iv vrj<rr€iq.^ the 
Hebrew word being the same for * guilt' and * guilt-offering.' iv. 13 
c(k>s iyCKria'€ = ^^^l^V. i v. 1 9 drro irarros ov ifjLTr\TJa'€i ^xqv avrov ; a 
misrendering of the relative, iv. 23 oIkov^ iroXXovs avOpiajriav : an error 
for oiKovs woXXoJv dvOptoTTfav. vii. 2 oTi - *?, where *? was used adversa- 
tively. viii. 3 vov apa. (Wellhausen) : the interrogative wrongly here 
used to translate KiDfcC instead of * assuredly.' xiii. 2 Oavdrov dfiap- 
ndXwK Oavdrov = '^^?. parallel to Xifiov: d/iapnoX^v should have been in 
the nom. at head of next clause, xvii. 6 ols for a...avror9 D?<-'i?'8. 

xvii. 9 hravacrnjvai (?) for liravatrnjaai, xvii. 14 Kal rtw^ dpxovTaq...€ls 
ifivaiyfiov for #cai ot apxoKTCs...^(rav cis ifiTraLypjov. xviii. 8 iv o-o^ia 
xvcvfiaros for iv Trvcvfuiri o-o^ias. xviii. 9, 10 wdvra^ avrovs.. ycvcd dyaSrj 
for ycvcav dyaBrjjv, 

B. Possible errors arising from misapprehension of the vowels in 
' unpointed ' Hebrew. 

ii. 26 Kol ovvrcXccr^iTo-oiTai, ^7!] for ^?5^1. 30 tircp iXdxyrrov, W^O 
for TyW. iii. 16 cri, ^^ for "W, cf. Lx. 20, xi. 8, xvii. 51. viii. 3 icpivc? 
avTov for i/fias, ^3PBip^ for ^3P9^. viii. 11 irtpX tovtwv, hJK for n^K. 
xiii. 8 vov^cnfo-ci fiucaiov : no subject : "IP! for 1(p^. xvii. 36 ypLoro^ 

Kvpw, n\n\ ryi^rf for njn; n^mp, 48 iv crwayu^U, nh^ for r^^Xt^. 

C. Possible errors arising from confusion of Hebrew consonants or 
a defective Hebrew Text. 

iL 29 Tov ciirciv, "WDW for TD7="l^Dn7 *to change' (Wellhausen). 
iii. 2 ^oXarc : ^ for *, ^^\ instead of ^TP!. iii. 3 ypifjy6priaov...yprjy6pr)(riv, 
confusion between the roots ^^V and V^'^. v. 15 ^ ^iXw ical 17 avpiov: 
J. P. / 




Dl'n (njjitpov dropped out before ""IDl (?). v. 16 oi! ffxia-tTat iv Sdf*an, 
Din' for "OH", viii. 17 tupivc, I'T for 1*3". xiii, 7 tv n-tpmroXfj, np^a for 
BTO3. xvii. 14 Jv opYp KakXow avTou, I'B' for I'Wt. 

S. It is generally symptomatic of a translation from Hebrew, that 
the structure of sentences is very simple and thai there is a conspicuous 
absence of p^irticles etc expressive of finer shades of meaning. This 
we find in the Psalms of Solomon. 

A. Clauses apparently grammatically dependent on one another 
are treated coordinately, e.g. iv. 8, 9 QVaK(iXuifai...Kal g«aiiixra«v ol 
Sa-ioi, vii. 7 Koi. . .tviKoXtai^ficda Koi . . .hroKavtri}. \X. 18 koi i6ou to 
oM>/ia. . .Koi... KarawavoT}. xviii. 2 01 6<fi0aXiiol in^XcTrovTis nol . . . ov^ 

R. The only conjunction used with frequency is koL We find also 
yap, and less often dXXd. The particle Si is only used some eight 
times (iii. 16; v. 16; xiii. 10, 11 ■ xiv. 7; xv. 15; xvi. ig; xvii. 3). 
The particle 8)} occurs once, viii. 30, and apa once, viii. 3. Other 
particles, e.g. ovv, yt, ^tn-oi, ^([■...Si, jrktjr, are not found. 

Of the conjunctions denoting a cause on is used constantly, and av6' 
(Sf occurs in ii, 3, 15, 39. Temporal conjunctions occur very rarely 
(e.g. oral' iii, 14; xv. 7, r4), iv t^ with the Inf. being used instead. A 
purpose is expressed by 'm, but not often (e.g. ii, 18; v. 8; vii. i ; viii. 
36; ix, 3, 16: xi. 7 ; xiii. 7), the construction of toS with the Infin. or 
Epexegetical Infin. being preferred. Sttok does not occur, nor the 
construction of tk to with the Inf. 

The conditional clause is expressed by idv, e.g. ii. i6 ; v. 5, g, 10, 
12, 15, 19; vii. 4; xvi. II, 13), and once by ti (xviii. 14). We do not 
find av used once ; and the consequently defective method of expressing 
an apodosis is illustrated by ii. 26. 

4. If we may judge from the example of the lxx. version of the 
Old Testament, one marked characteristic of a Greek translation fi-om 
a Hebrew book is the inability to render the meaning of the Hebrew 
tenses; the uncertainty how lo translate the Imperf, being especially 
fruitful of confusion. 

In our Psalms we notice (A) strange interchange of tenses, (B) 
possible traces of the difficulty caused by the Hebrew Impf. 

A. The interchange of tenses, without any marked change implied 
in the action of the verb. 

(l) Pres. Aor. and Ful., e.g. iii. 8 — 10 tjruricc7rTfTai...iii\aaaTO... 
iiL 4 — 7 tTapa)f6ti...wl)tTtu...Tra^€vtTai. 


(2) Aor. and Fut, e.g. ii. 12 cTroiVr^.'fat yvcoo-cTai (? in5!). xvii. 
8 — 1 3 iJpiffKiKrav. . . Kara^aXcis . . . ^XcTo-ct . . . c^pcvn/o-c. 

(3) Aor. and Pres., e.g. IV. 15 €TrX7J<r6rj...ifXTri'7r\aTai. vi. 8 cicnf- 
icovo-c./iTircXcil xi. 4 ^x®iTOi...<rvn7yay€v. 

B. Possible traces of the Hebr. Impf. are to be seen in 

(i) the Fut. Indie, employed very frequently to represent a present 
or continuous state, e.g. ii. 19 o Ow^ ov $avfxd(r€i irpoawirov. iii. 4 ovk 

oXiytafrifrti Sucaxo^. iv. 6 d icvptos pvaerat, v. 12 irpoatawa dpovai, 
V. 14 (TV lo'cucowrg. ix. 5 ov KpvPrjatrtu diro r^s yvoKrccos crov. x. 3 
op^Qxrci (o icvpios). xiii. 8, 9 vovtfenfo'ci...^€MrcTat icvpios. xvii. i jcav^i;- 
crerai 1; ifrvx^ 17/Miiv. xviii. 3 ra wrd (rov hraKOwrtu 

(2) the occasional use of an apparently inappropriate Optative, 
where, on the supposition of its rendering the Hebrew Impf, a good 
explanation is offered : i. 4 SicX^oi for BiriXO€v, iv. 9 koI Sifcauoo-oucv for 
fcoi SifcaioKrovcri, in the sense of cva SiKOKocri. v. 15 Oavfido'tia^ for 
Oavfjuiioiq iv, xvii. 10 €vp€$€irj between airoScoo-cc? and ^Xctto-ci, where 
we should expect cvpcft/o-crai. 51 raxvvai is parallel with pwrtrai, 
xvii. 26 iiuiauiy oXoOpwaoL etc., if Optatives, should possibly have been 
Futures, as <^w(l^c^ d^i/o-c* in w. 28, 29. (Cf. iv. 28 i(dpai 6 ^cd?.) 

5. Familiar features of translation from the Hebrew in the lxx. 
version are (i) 'duplicate renderings' of the same word or phrase, 
(2) words added by the translator to make the meaning of his rendering 

(i) The following list seems to indicate the presence of duplicate 
renderings : 

vL 4 dpeurccov rrovripwy hnyirvltov. viii. 12 KXrjpovofxov Xvrpov/Uvov, 
ix. 12 ^ i^OfU}XoYija'€i Iv i(rfyopiai^, xi. I iv adXiriyyi cn^/uuKrias dyuov. 
xvi. 8 dvwf^tXovs d/xoprtas. xvii. 14 2a>s ivi 17 iOviav <rviJ.fUKT(av. 37 
(Tuvo^ci ^TTiSa?. 48 xpiwriov rifiiov to irpwrov. xviii. 4 irpiarorotcov fJLOvo- 
y€vjj. xviii. 5 dird d/iaOias cv dyvoiq.. 

(2) The following genitives seem to be added for the purpose 
of defining or explaining the substantive which they qualify, without 
however adding to the meaning : 

iii. II cuSiva? fiYfTpo^. iv. 20 /aovuktci drcicvta?. V. 18 crvfificrpii^ 
auropfcco-ia?. Xvi. I jcara^op^ inrvov. xvi. 4 Korrpov imrov. xvii. 9 
dXXdrpioi^ ycvovs i^/iuov. 

6. The LXX. frequently differs from the Hebrew "in respect of 
the number of a verb" (see Driver, No/es on the Heh, Text of the 
Books of Samuel J p. Ixiii.). 



The following instances in our Psalms may possibly exemplify the 
same variation, e.g. ii. 14 irapcStiy/iaiKrQV (?) for jrapi8(iy/u»Tar€i'. iii. 2 
^oXciTc between tuAoycts and <^aXki. viii. 18 ij oSds irou, Stvr* kqI 
lurcXdiTf. xvii. 13 (d (ii't/ioi) ^i^uvwai'. 

7. Possible literal reproduction of Hebrew. Under this head 
must be classed many Hebraisms, which we should expect to find in 
any Judaeo-Greek writing. But while their presence does not prove that 
the Greek is a translation, their absence would be conclusive against it. 

A. r. Substantives, which are the conventional equivalents of 
certain Hebrew words : of this large class we need only give a few 
examples, e.g. 

ii. 3» TO wTTtpoc (nnmt). iii. 7 a'X^cia (n:iD«), iv. 1 ^.'^v^"' 

(tyn). iv. J7 o-to'vSoXov (WsD). viii. tit. «fs vlKof (nWD^). ix. 6 a! 
BiiratotrvKxi (nipnU). ix. 20 IXtT^fixxTvvri (npnS). xii. 7 xa« (inr). XV, 8 
^avatai ("Ol). xvi. 1 ■rarac^opa (™3Tin). Xvi. II oX.yoi^ia (nmXp). 
xvii. 31, x\iii, 10 Iw.'^aX^ ("^^)- xvii, 36 XpioTM (n'Et:). 37 ara^ari^ 

z. The Hebrew use of substantives to express ideas for which 
an adjective would naturally be used in Greek : 

\\. 10 opovou Sofip. iL 21 h/hv^o-Tot (inrpcirtiaf. iv. 15 Xdyott 
twaiiTtpQititaK- vlil. 4 irdXti ayuuT/iaro!. vjii. ig jrvfSp.(i B-Xanjcrcois, xi. 

7 fuAoi- (vuiSiQ*. xiii. 8 uEov aya7njcr€ti«. xiv. 4 fiiitponTTi (rairpiat. xvii. 

8 \nftpj]<fiavt<f oXoXaypaTos. xviii. 6 jjpt'pnv iiiXoy^s. Other genitives 
recalling the Hebraic idiom are iv. 18 fpyov x^'pos (vi. 3; ix. 7; xviii. i). 
viii. 28 oi Strioi roil Otov. xii. 3 Sti-Spa ti'r^pooiinjt. xiv. 14 ra fiJXa 
T^S i|<u^(. XV. 5 KapjTO^ jjti'Xeuii'. xvi. 2 JriiXai ^!iov. Xvii. 17 01 vioi 
r^s Siaftjicijs. xviii. 13 itaipois ulpoiv. 

3. The plural number in the following words is possibly an 
imitation of the Hebrew which they translate ; 

i. 7 ^ diro«pi;<(iois (D'TTllppa). iii. ir uKms {D'^?rj). viii. 9 iv 
KurayaioK (1^ nVBriPS). ix. 13 toU irpotrwirois rjpiuv ('J'59?). Xvii. 19 

o- ip^/ioii (ni^TOl). xviii. 1 1 iw i.ViWo« (D'pi-ip?). 

B. Verbs. 

Besides the peculiarity noticed above in the use of the tenses we 
may obsen-e the following possible traces of a Hebrew original. 

I. The Hebrew idiom of expressing the dependence of one verb 
upon another by putting the second verb in the lofin. : ii. 24 iKavorov 
Toti Iiapvvt<r6at xtlpd trov. V, 6 vpoa&ijirtt tou xXiorainu, vii. 4 opyur- 
Stjuv 70V tnivT*Xi<Tai. 


2. An epexegetic use of the Inf., the verb not standing in any close 
grammatical connection with the previous clause, e.g. ii. 28 iKyiai, 
ii. 40 iroti70'ai...irap€OTavai. iv. II SiaXvo'at. iv. 1 5 oXo^pcvccu. v. 1 1 
iroifiaaaL V. 14 €v<f>pdvai, x. I KaOapva^vat, xv. 7 oXo^pcixrai. xvii. 
19 a-taO^voL xvii. 27 <f>vy€iv. xvii. 34 lp\€uBtu, xvii. 41 ^Xcy^c 
xvii. 50 iSctv (xviii. 7). 

3. The intensive use of the Hebr. Infin. Abs. may possibly 
account for i. 8 lfi€Priha(Tav.,Av P^firjKiMTii. ix. 19 cv BmBiJKy SitOov, 
xvii. 7 i86$aaav iv hoifj. 

4. The Aor. Indie, possibly reproduces the use of the Hebr. Perf. 
to represent an action begun in the past and continued in the present, 
(cf. odi, memini, novi), e.g. i. 2 hrXijaOriv. vii. 9 itniyytiXu}. viii. 37 
i/Xiruroficv. ix. 16 (xiv. 4) iJyaTnyo-av. X. I ifxyiiaOrf (xiv. 5). xiv. I 
iv€T€i\aTO (xix. 2). 

5. The 3rd Plur. in ^i^wvrai (ix. 16), which has no subject 
expressed, may reproduce the Hebr. impersonal use. 

C. The Prepositions. 

aTTo. I. The Hebrew construction of tP and 7 gives the best 

explanation of xvii. 21 dw6 ap;(OVTO$ avnav Koi Xaov ika^ia-Tov. xviii. 13 
a^* 179 i7fi€/9as...«cai l<i>9 alttyos. Similarly xviii. 12 a^* rjtitp^v cis YJii.ipa% 

is a reproduction of nip^i?; D^OJP. 

2. In viii. 13 airo Tracnys dKaOaparioL^ the preposition, in the 
sense of " immediately after," possibly translates IP. 

3. The use of airo in iv. 19 €XXi7n79...aird, v. 5 X^Ji/fcrat diro, 
XvL 8 TO (rvyK€LfJL€VOv QTro, xvii. 13 T^pijfJLiiHrtv airo, xvii. 15 aXXorpoi airo, 
xvii. 41 KaOapo^ ttTTo, can be paralleled in Judaeo-Greek writings, but, if 
our Psalms are a translation, will naturally be explained as the 
rendering of 19. 

4. ttTTo in the sense of * because of' = tP. ii. 39 aTro raTrct- 
VQxrccDS. vi. 4 diro 6pd<r€UiV. viii. 5 ano aKorj^. XV. 6 aTro KaKov ; * from 
before,' ^il9P. viii. 9 diro tUroSov avrwv. xii. 4 aTro tl>ofiovfjL€vuiv Kvpiov, 
XV. 9 airo oo-iwv. 

€19. I. Of time at which an event takes place, as an equivalent of 
^ : vii. 9. xviii. 6 cis i^ficpav. xvii. 23 ccs t6v Katpov. xviii. 1 1 cis 

2. Of the extreme point attained : iv. 20 €« dvdkrf\l/iv 
(?) = nTtSD ny. V. 20 €^9 irkrjap.oy7Jv = V2^. viii. 1 5 €19 /itf^ = l^'^^- 
xvi. 2 €19 ^avarov = HID iy. 

3. Of the purpose • v. 7. xvi. i ci9 jSoiytfctav C^^^). xiv. i 


e« Ifaifv if/Jjav. XV. S £[s O'dJnjpuiV. XVI. 1 1 tis tiriffrpo^ijv. XV11. I 4 tis 

iv. I. In iv. 15, 24 (V iram toutois may verj' possibly render the 
phrase nltH?53. 

2. ff is by far the commonesl preposition used in this book 
(see Index) 1 it is frequently used for the instrument, like 9, e.g. ii. i iv 
Kpup. iii. 9 iv yrjiT-rtuf. x. I (V fuumyi, (xi. I. xiii. 9. xvil. 27, 41.) 
Other prepositions, e.g. tnrip and mipa with the ace. for the com- 
parative {=K). Cf. i. 8. iL 30. V. 6. viii. 14. ix. 17. xvii, 48. 

. 41, etc. KQTi- 

The Negativ. 

reproduced i 

3 irpoCT-oiTTou (= 'J^P) iv, g. xt: 
. 14. .V o^floV'^ ('-''W) "vii. 19. tWn-io. 
. 14. xvii. 5. 
The Hebraic idiom i 

oii...ira'S (xvii. 29). ix. 18 <nj...cis tov ai<ara 
(xv. 6), xiii. 5 <i'u)^.,.iK inilTon' tou'tiuk oiiStH. xiv. 3 (Hjic,..jrti<ras ras 
ij^^s. xvii. 45 ovK...iv ToiJTOts. xvili. 2 ou^ auT«v. 
£, Miscellaneous. 

1. The auras in xvii. i vv uurus jSmriXtus (38, 51) probably 
reproduces the idiomatic use of I*''!. 

2. The phrase irdvTa'; avrovs in xvii. 46, xviii. 9 suggests Qf^. 

3. Kr}pvittTt...(fHovvv (xi. 2): the accus. is probably due to the 
hteral reproduction of ?^p l'5Jp. 

4. In viii. 30 ISov SiJ, where we find 6ij for the only time, the Greek 
probably translates **] fi^"], since **? is in the lxx. very generally 
rendered by 8ij. 

5. The absence of the article before the substantive in ii. 33 h 
ttrxm auVoS rg /ifyaAj, (Shirr \f^). xviii. 7 ytna -rg Ipxof^iyji {«?? "H'^), 
though admitting of frequent illustration from Greek writers, is explained 
very exactly by the Hebrew. 

6. The use of such expressions as ir'tnSpa (ii. 17), Btijflv'''" Tpw- 
unrou (ii. 2 1 , V. 7 ), mix oi^Tcur (xiv. 4), «aru. (xv. 1 1 ), uis Ku't to aV up>^s 
(xvii. 34) is best understood by comparison with the Hebrew equivalent. 

The results of this enquiry are, in our opinion, of a nature to make 
it in the highest degree probable that the book was first written in 
Hebrew. This is the view held by the majority of modem scholars 
who have investigated the subject ; e.g. Geiger. Wellhausen, Schiirer. 

Hilgenfeld {Messiiis Judaeor. Prolegg. xvi., xvii.), however, defends 
the originality of the Greek text. In support of his opinion ("primitus 
grsece scriptos esse censeo hos psalmos ") he cites ii. 36 ■np/ iV aipaviv. 


V. 3 fiiy iropairuaTn/cri/f air* Ifiov. vii. I ot fJU(nj<ravT€^ i7fia$ Staptdv. 
viii. 15 cirorio'cv aurov? ironjpiov oivov oucparov €C9 fJLeBrjy, viii. 39. XV. 14 
cif rov au0va ^povov, xvi. 8 iraKTOs viroK€ifi€iov airo dfiapTia^ av(o^cXov9. 
xvi. 14 A' X**P' o'o.jrpia^ avn}?. xvii. 7 arrl vipov^ avT(av, xvii. 7 ^J' fi€<r<j) 
i$v£v (rvfifUKTiov. xvii. 31. xviii. 10 Sidij/aX/m, It will be seen in the 
notes attached to our text that the greater number of these phrases are 
based on the language of the lxx. version. This however is a fact 
which in no way militates against the theory of a translation. A 
translator, well acquainted with the lxx. version, and translating 
Hebrew Psalms largely based upon the Jewish Scriptures, would 
naturally avail himself of the renderings which had become generally 
recognised. There is nothing in the Greek to make us regard the 
translator as a very gifted or independent scholar. And, this being so, 
we may suppose that he would make use of his acquaintance with the 
LXX. version, wherever an opportunity presented itself. Hilgenfeld^s 
list is for the most part evidence, not of a Greek original, but of 
acquaintance with lxx. renderings. 

Even less conclusive is his other line of argument, according to which 
he claims that our book must have been written in Greek, because 
it contains traces of the influence of the book of Wisdom. Here 
again, we might reply that a translator might employ Greek phrases 
coinciding with, and even based upon, the language of a well-known 
contemporary work. But even this simple hypothesis is seen to be 
unnecessary, when we discover on what very precarious grounds 
Hilgenfeld has asserted the indebtedness of our book to the book of 
Wisdom. The passages which he compares are seven in number ; a few 
words in each case will explain the real character of their resemblance. 

{a) Wisd. i. 1 1 ^vXa^oo-^c roivw yoyyva-fwy ai'w^cXiJ. Cf. Ps. S. 
xvi. 8 airo ofiaprrCas ofon^cXovs. Between the subject-matter of these two 
passages there is no sort of resemblance. The adjective avoH^cXiys, 
common to both of them, is a straightforward word, which was after- 
wards frequently used in the versions of the O. T. 

{d) Wisd. i. 16 awBriKqv iOcyro wpos aiJTOv. Cf. Ps. S. viii. II 
awiOtvTo avToi? crw^Kas /mcTa opKov. There is no resemblance in the 
subject-matter ; the similarity of the phrase employed loses all force as 
evidence of the dependence of one writing upon the other, when we 
note that in the one case we have arvvOTJKrfVf in the other o-w^/yAca? ; in 
the one BiaOai, in the other <rvv$€(r6ai ; in the one ir/wJs with the ace, 
in the other the dative without a preposition. 

(c) Wisd. V. 17 OTi rfj Bt(i^ a'KtirdxT€i aurovs xai tw Ppa\lovi 



i/JTipooTTut cii'rruiv. xix. 8 01 T^ o^ inceirafo/iiviK x"'"'- Cf. Ps. S. xiii. I, z 
8(fni icupiou laiaratri fit, Stfto xupiou itjulrraTo ij^iuv, o j3pa,)(iiiiv Kvpiov 
iawrt j)^9- Tliere is a general resemblance of thought and language ; 
but both passages are such as very naturally expand the thought of the 
Canonical Psalms, e.g. Ps. xcviii. i, cwiii. i6. The use of the words 
8«iia', trutTra^av, ^paxiixiv is clearly based on such passages of Scripture ; 
and their occurrence in a similar context in Wrsd. and Ps. S. hardly 
calls for further remark. 

(li) Wisii. V. 24 ip-qfAioiTti iraaav ttji- y^v ovii/ii'a.. Cf. Ps. S, XVU. 13 

Jipilfumrty i avofUK tiJi- y^v avTuii: The resemblance turns upon the 
correctness of the conjectural reading ili'o/ics. In any case the sentence 
in the book of Wisdom is very general . that in our xviith Psalm is very 
definite. Without denying the possibility that the form of the Greek 
in Ps. S. xvii. 13 may reflect the influence of Wisd. v. 23, it appears to 
us more probable that ihe resemblance is purely accidenlal, the words 
iprjuoio and ayofioi (dvofLia) being of such frequent use. But see note, 
accepting uft^ot in xvii. 13. 

{e) Wisd. vi. z6 tioTaOfia Sijfiov. Cf. Ps. S. iv. 1 1 dv^p ir tvimBtiif. 
vi. 17 iv filTTadfiif KopSiaf. The substantive tv<rrd6tia is not very 
common ; but it is a good word and of regular formation. It occurs in 
both passages in our Pss. with appropriate meaning ; and there is 
no ground for supposing that its occurrence Is due to the influence of a 
passage in Wisdom. 

ro /'■irpif Kilt dpid/ua Koi aTaO/ua Sitraia^. CI. 

t ij /ttplt nvToC Trapa am iv o-Tofl/iw, The two 

1 meaning ; and the word oraf/iiu, which in 

s used in the abstract sense of 'weight,' as a 

:curs in the passage from our book 

in the sense of that which tcsls the weight, ' balances ' or ' scales.' 

{g) Wisd. XV. 2 oTt ao'i A(Ajjyi<r^<fiu. Cf. Ps. S. ix. 16 ori iroi ia-^ttr. 
'I'he similarity here in the words on wui is not so striking as the 
difference between KtKoyiaixtfla and ia/iiv. It is strange that any one 
should refer the words from our Psalter to the book of Wisdom, when 
passages in the O. T., e.g. Ex. xxxiv. 9 koI iaofitOd iroi, are so obviously 
their source. 

The reader will be able to judge for himself how far these passages 
support Hilgenfeld's contention, that the text of our Psalms shows the 
influence of the book of Wisdom. We are inclined to say that a much 
closer verbal correspondence would have to be made out, in order to 
prove that the vocabulary of one book has affected that of another. 

(/) Wisd. ; 
Ps. S. v. 6 5ri ai 
passages are quite distinct i 
the passage from Wisdom ii 
parallel to 'measure' c 


But even if we were prepared to concede this point, which we are 
far from doing, Hilgenfeld's alignment would only prove that the diction 
of the book of Wisdom has left its traces upon our Psalter. It is 
needless to say that this is as likely to happen in a Greek translation 
from the Hebrew as in an original Greek work by an Alexandrian Jew, 
such as Hilgenfeld supposes the author to be. 

In conclusion, in our opinion, the probability, that the Greek is a 
translation from the Hebrew, is not affected by Hilgenfeld's appeal to 
the alleged parallels in the book of Wisdom. 

§ X. The Character of the Greek Translation, 

Hilgenfeld's verdict, that, if a translation at all, it is an excellent one 
(ceterum si grsece versi essent Salomonis psalmi, optime versi essent), 
needs some qualification. Although, as a general rule, the meaning of 
each sentence is simple and clear, there are numerous instances, of 
which we have already given examples, where the obscurity is very 
considerable. In addition to those mentioned above, we may here 
refer to 

i. 6 fcal ovK iJfi'cyicaK iL 6 ^i' 0'^payi3i...c^co'tK iv. 15 itrkija'Orj iv 
irapayofui^ ^i^ avr^. x. 5 17 yuaLpTVpia..,bna'Koir^, xiv. 4 ot rfyiirqaav 
•riiUpav,,,€v fjLiKpoTrjTi aairpias, xvii. 38 iXwU tov ^vvotov cATriSt $€Ov, 

As we have no other version with which to compare it, it is not 
possible to determine its real merits as a translation. Its apparent 
excellence may be due only to the freedom with which the translation 
has been executed. 

The Index Grcecitatis^ appended to this volume, will sufiiciently 
illustrate the characteristics of the not very copious vocabulary employed 
by the translator. The following words seem only to occur in our 
book : avails (xviii. 6), avairripmai.^ (iv. 1 5), avro/jKCo-ui (v. 1 8), firfvurt^ 

("• 25)- 

We do not find elsewhere any precise parallel to the strange usage 
of oKoAi^^is (iv. 20), iiTLarifiov (ii. 26), ircpioToXi; (xiii. 7), a'rffi€i(a<m 
(iv. 2) in these Psalms. 

We give here some lists as samples of the principal words of 
interest to be found in the Psalms of Solomon. 


afivaa-oq (xvii. 21), ayain/(ri9 (xiii. 8), dyiaafwq (xvii. 33), ^8179 
(xiv. 6. XV. 11), aKpaaia (iv. 3), dXdXay/jLa (xvii. 8), aXXorpioriTS (xvii. 


ig), d/ia-Bia (xviii. 5), avaiu^K (ii. 15), ava^a'nj? (xvli. J7), amroAij 
(v. 11), alT(A.qmM)j) (xvi. 4), hVt/X^i/'k (vii. 9), a-irapxrj (xv. 5), airoiJttirio 
(ix. 1), apTrayt"t (ii- 28)1 aTtmia (iv. 20), Q<()(Spos (viii. 13), ^t^ijXiuo-i! 
<i. 8. viii. 24), yoyyw/ios (v. 15. xvi. Il), ypi^'W'"* (i''- 2- "^l- 4), 
Siacnropa (viii. 34- ix. j), SutoroXij (iv. 4), Siao-rpo^ij (xii. 2), BoKifiairta 
(xvi. 14), (icXoyij (ix. 7. xviii. 6), iKtyxpi (x. i), tAtij/icxrvKi; (ix. zo. 
XV, 15). tA.(os (trans.) (ii. 8. xiv. 6), j^yopia (ix. 12), i^o^oXdyi/o-ts (iii. 3. 
ix. 12), ivayytXia. (xii, 8), hrayaiyi^ (ii. 24), i7ttinpo<tirj (ix. 19. xvi. 1 1), 
oriToyiJ (xviii. 14), rfXoyi'a (xvii. 43. Xviii. 6), twrTiifida (iv. 1 1. vi. 7), 
n<iiSia (xi, 7), tXopo'rijs (iv. 6. xvi. 12), Karcuyi^ (viii. 2), «oTQjrar>p7is 
(ii. 20), KaTOO-Tpoi^ij (xiii. 5, 6), «oTU0of,u (xvi. l), «ara*uy.j (V. 2), 
HapTvpia (x. 5), fi.€Taiiiktia (ix. 15), fitiox'/ (xiv. 4), /iiitpanj* (xiv. 4), 
oXiyO^X'" ("i"- >')> a/'oAur/w^ (xi. S), opyapov {xv. 5), opipayia. (iv. 13), 
dtrioTT^ (xvii. 46), wapd&turoi (xiv. 2), Trapakoyurnus (iv. I2, 25), irnpootta 
(xii. 3. xvii. 19), xa'pouKK (xvii. 31). irAoi'ijcrw (viii. 15), ttXijo-hui-ij (v. 2a), 
iroiKiXui (iv, 3), irop«ia (xviii. 12), irptajivnji (ii. 8. xvii. 13), )ruf>yoj3ap« 
(viii. 21), pop/fiaia (xiii. 2), <TaXos (vi. 5), {njiiatria (xi. l), o-kiivSbXoi' 
(iv. 2']), <ritopjr«rfio« (xvu. 20), eromnTpia (v. 18), ciTayiiKyi/ (x. 8. XVII. 
18, 50), cTLfoAAiiyfia. (iv. 4), avi'i&putv (iv. l), irvvray^ (jv. 5), Ta/ueioi' 
(xiv. 5), rawtivuxrii (ii. 39), vwc/MUJTritrrTis (vii, 6), vwonpuri^ (iv. 7), vtto- 
ixovj (ii. 40), iiirooTcur[$ (xv. 7. xvii. 26), tfivpfLos (ii. 15), ijnaarqp (xviil. 
12), xpnTos (tvii. 36. xviii. 6, 8). 

auaftos (x. 5, 9), tutoiio<(iv. 6, etc.), oXAoytnis (xvii. 31), oAoyos (xvi. 
10), avoifptX^i (xvi. 8), dtrtP^s (xiii. 4), ^t^ijAos (ii. 14, iv. 1. viii. 13), 
fii&iKTDs (xvii. 35), lAXijnJs (iv. 19), (juirti^oT (xv. 9), ii'o^oi (iv. 3), jiritun)^ 
(v. 14), eirt(n7/«n (xvii. 32), jj'tru'xfos (xii, 6), Karciyutov (viii. 9), upvijiio^ 
(viii. 9), fiirpioi (v. 20), fioroytnjs (xviii. 4), irtpio-trds (iv. 2), B-pwroTOJiw 

(xiii. 8. xviii. 4), wiiXijpd? (iv, 2), tru/i/ii'mls (xvii. 17), fifupds (xii. i). 

ayia^ui (xvii. 28, 48, 49), aiptTi^ui (ix. 1 7), dvaKaXvirrm (ii. t8. 
viii, 8), avaXayilofiai (viii. 7), airo^Aiiriu (iii, 5), ciiriwicijujtu (vii. l), 
axtxTKOTCvw (lit. 6), a.itX((ufui(. (ui. 7), PapuBvp^im (ii. 10), ^StXitrtrofiai 
(ii. 10), jStjSijXouj (i. 8), StvT(po'<u (v. 15), Suncp.Vu (xvii. 48), SuurriUw 
(ii. 38), Sia^jptu (xvi, 3), Bwduj'u. (iii. 3, 5, etc.), ^kk€it(«. (ii, 30), iKTiXXa, 

(xiv. 3), tVl(r;(iJCi) (xvi. 12), iiaXtitfmi (xiii. 9), lin/iapTai'iu (v. ig), (iairBiviia 

(xvii. 34), i^tp"""^"* ('^v'i- ■■). '£<p>7^'"> (xv. 13), i^iXAiTKo^i (iii, 9), 
iiauBtvita (il, 5), i^ppi^ut (i. 6), tVtKparc'iu (xvi. 7. xvii. 17), ipTifwio 
(iv. 13. xvii. 13), evayytXt'Co/iui (xi. 2), cwftjvtu) (i. 3), tfiftW (ix. 15), 
linSooi (ii. 4), &ifvavpii,ai (ix, 9), ■aTaSvmiTTajui (xvii. 46), miTX[iraim> (ix, 18), 



Karofitpiiia (xvii. 30), Karao-Ki/vdo) (vii. 5), Ki/pvoro-oi (xi. 2), K^rfpoyofxita 
(xii. 8. xiv. 7), kvkXocd (x. i), vvo-o-a> (xvi. 4), waraCw (xvi. i), oAiycDpco) 
(iii. 4), oXi<r^aKci> (xvi. i), oXo^pcvco (xv. 7), o/ioAt^o) (viii. 19), vapa- 
Scty/iartJ^ctf (ii. 14), iropavofica) (xvi. 8), irapcurionrcua (v. 3), Trcpco-rcAAoi 
(xvi. 10), iroifuuVo) (xvii. 45), wpoaKOima (iii. 5, 11), irvpoa> (xvii. 48), CKav- 
&aXi(iii (xvi. 7), o-iccira^ai (xiii. i), o-Kia^oi (xi. 6), a-KopiriCw (iv. 21. xii. 4), 
OTC^OMMD (viii. 19), tmjpi^io (xvi. 12), avfiirapaXafiPdvto (xiii. 4), cvfAft^vpia 
(viii. 10), inrc/nrXcova^<i> (v. 19), viroKpivofAai (iv. 25), -xprfartvoiAai (ix. 11). 

afui (xvii. 13), aTTof (xii. 8), SiairaiTos (ii. 50 etc), curairoj (ii. 8. 
xi. 3)=:afui, ^rrav^a (iv. 15), i$dinva (i. 2), fuiKpdv (ii. 4. xvi. 10), 
cruviyyvs (xvi. 2). 

Some of the chief characteristics in the use of the Prepositions have 
already (pp. Ixxxiii. Ixxxiv.) been considered. The following also 
deserve notice. 

1. The preposition kv is almost as frequently used as all the other 
prepositions reckoned together. {See Index,) 

(tf) It is often used instrumentally : e.g. iii. 9. xiv. 9. xvii. 27, 41. 
xviii. 14. 

{p) It is characteristic of this book to use cv with a substantive 
almost in the place of an adjective : e.g. iv. 1 1 ivZpo% Iv cvora^ciigi 
= av8po9 €voTa^oiWo9. vi. 8 Travros ci' <f>6Pio $€6v = iravros <l)oPovfJL€vov 
$€6v. viii. 28 dpvia iv aKaKla = apvia aicaica. ix. 15 diiaprdvovra% iv 
ficra/jicXcii^ = fj.€Tafi€Xofi€vov^ a/iaproXovs. xviii. 3 irrwxov iv iXirlSi = irni>- 
Xov iXwiiovTOs. 

{c) iv with an abstract substantive is frequently found at the end 
of a sentence, especially in the earlier portion of the book, e.g. i. 8 cV 

p€prjk(oa'€L. ii. 2 cV vTr€prjff>avia, ii. 20 iv icaruiraTT/o-ci. ii. 29, 32. 
iv. 18, 22 iv ari/xii^. ii. 40 iv virofiovjj. 

2. The use of the prepositions is not very regular. 

iirl, iii. 7 ovK avXxl^erai iv oiKt^ tov Sucaiov d/jLopria, c^' dfiapruiv. 
xvii. 14 ca>9 cTTi ^vcfitDv. xvii. 18 ro <nrffjL€lov rov 6€ov im Scicouovs. 
xvii. 4, 12, 23, 35 (cf. ii. 34). 

dwo. viii. 19 tafidXixrav 0801)9 Tpa\€La^ dno ctcrd&n; avrtDV. xii. 4 
(rKopTn(r$€Lrf oard if/idvpiav diro <fiopovp.€Viav Kvpiov. xii. 5 yXwro'a ij/iSvpos 
diroXoLTo dvo 6<TLtav. xvi. 8 vdv to <rvyK€Lp,€vov diro dfiaprias. 

TTpos. vi. 18 cXirt^ctv Trpds. 

/xrro is used (but never <rvv). See Index of Prepositiofis. It is also 
found almost in the sense of the copula, e.g. xvii. 40 ^i^ fro^ixi, fier 
€v<l>po<rvvrf^. 42 cv fiovX-j otvco'ccd? /act* urxuoi koX SiKouoavvrj^. 


S xi. The Date of the Greek Transial'ion. 

r. It will be seen from pp. Ixxii. — Ixxvii. that, in our opinion, 
the Greek version of Psaim S. xi. was the original from which Baruch 
V. was expanded. Now Banicli v. is quoted at length by Irenseusj and 
must have been known and read for some considerable time previously. 
The date, therefore, at whicli the latter portion of Baruch was composed 
and added to the former portion, could hardly have been later than the 
close of the First Century a.d. 

Assuming then that Baruch v. is based upon Ps. S. xi., it is reason- 
able to suppose that the Greek version of Ps. S. .\i. was current for 
some time before it was made use of for such a purpose. On this 
hypothetical irain of reasoning the translation is not later than the 
middle of the First Century a.d. 

II. There is no trace in the Greek of Christian influence at work, 
nur, in our opinion, of Christian glosses. The mention of the ypurroi 
Ki'fjtos does not necessarily imply a reference to Christian thought (see 
note on xvii. 36), nor do the words iv ava^ti ^unuv qvtov contain any 
allusion to a belief in the Second Adveni. (See note on xviii. 6.) 

Indeed we regard it as inconceivable, if the text had been tampered 
with in the interest of Christian doctrine, that the Divinity of the Messiah 
should not have been asserted, and that no reference should have been 
made to liie Death or Resurrection of our Lord in the xviith and 
xviiith Pss. 

III. It is possible that the use of certain words in the Greek may 
further help us to determine the date of the translation. 

iv. 7 iv vTroKpiiTti. This word iiwiixpttrn, occurring in the Lxx. only 
in 2 Mace. vi. 25, becomes frequent in N. T. 

iv. 30 t« dniXr)ipiv. It is unlikely that this word would have been 
used of a wicked man's (evil) end, if the translator had been familiar 
with the technical meaning of 'Assumptio,' which draXr}tjrK obtained 
apparently in the course of the First Century a.d. 

ix. 7. ir iKKoyg. The word, which does not occur in the ucx., may 
possibly be used in the sense of ' Divine Election,' which is found in 
St Paul's Epistles. 

ix. 1 1 xpv*"*^^- The word xpTjOTtuofiai, which does not occur in 
the LXX., is found in i Cor. xiii. 2. 

X, 5. liofmipia. This word is rare in the Utx., /Loprvpiov being 
preferred ; in the N. T. ftapTvpia is more often found than itaprvpiov. 

xii. 8 hrnyytXlmi^ Tbis word CI iSe Phu. viih ji r»nviK« lo the 
Messianic promises coct&hiec in the O. T. Scrpmies does not occur in 
the Lxx., but is frequenihr u><vf in ihe N. T. 

xvi. I Kara/^opm, in the sense ce • oeep sleep * is fouiKi perhaps her? 
for the first time in Judaeo-Greek. It is Aquilas reaodenng tor ?TOTVl, 
Gen. iL 21. 

xvii. iQ vopoucuL Used in the concrete fcH- a communitv of 
sojourners, the word perhaps occurs here for the first time. 

xvii. 36 (xviii. 6, S). Xpurroc occurs here for the first time as a title 
to represent the Personal Deliverer for whom the Jews hoped. 

The evidence is \ery meagre. The presumption howe^-er is strongly 
in favour of the translation having been made between 40 rc. and 40 a.d. 
We are inclined ourselves to assign it to the last decade of the 1st 
cent &c 

It is therefore interesting to observe the similarit>* in phraseolog>* 
between our Psalms and ' the Songs ' in Luke i., ii. 

a. The Magnificat. 

Luke i. 47 cTi T^ &€^ Tw fntrrijpl fAcv. Cf. Ps. S. iii. 7. \*iii. 3Q. 

x\n. 27. xvii. 2. 
„ 48 hr€p\olf€r ctL Cf. Ps. S. X\nii. 2. n/y rarciVwcru*. Cf. 

Ps. S. ii. 39. T7S Bovkrj^ aiVov. Cf. Ps. S. ii. 41. 

X. 4. 
„ 49 hroiqa'iy fiot fityaXa 6 bwaw. Cf. Ps. S. ii. 33. aycof 

TO ovofia avTOv. Cf. Ps. S. vi. 2, 6, 7. viii. 31. XV. 3. 

50 rd cXcos avTov «c.r.X. Cf. Ps. S. x. 4. xiii. 11. 

51 ^ Pftaxfovu Ps. S. xiii. I, 2. SiavouiL Kop&iai avrwv. Ps. 
S. xvii. 27. vrc/n/^vovs. Ps. S. iv. 26. xvii. 8, 26. 

„ 52 Ka$€ik€v K.r.X. Ps. S. ii. 35. xvii. 8. 

,, 53 ircii^aivras cvcirXiya-cF #c.t.X. Ps. S. v. 10— r 2. x. 7. 

Kcvovs. Ps. S. iv. 19. 
„ 54 dvT€Xdp€ro. Ps. S. vii. 9. xvi. 3 — 5. *la'parj\ iraiSos 

(Tov. Ps. S. xii. 7. xvii. 23. fivrftrO^vax ikiov^, 

Epex. Inf. Ps. S. x. 4. 
If 55 Ka^ois...irarcpas TJfjuuv. Ps. S. ix. 19. xi. 8. rep *A)3paafi 

K, T(p <nr€pfiaTi avrov. Ps. S. ix. 1 7. xviii. 4. 

if. The Benedictus. 

Luke i. 68 cvXoytpos Kvpio?. Ps. S. vi. 9. 6 $€oq tov 'IcrpaiJX. 



V. I. xi. I. xviii. 6. ^WKtfaTO. Ps. S. 
ijron;n'li- Xvrpuwrti'. Ps. S. viii. 12, 36. 

Luke i. 6g o-tunjpia. Ps. S. x. 9, 
„ 70 Koflius (AoXijtrtv. Ps. S. 

r™ AowiS. Ps. S. 

8, (^ txBp^f Tj/i-uv. Ps. S. 

wii, 51. Tcui- ^(TowTui;' ijfius, Ps. S. vii. t. 
„ 72 n^i^o'tu...ftvipT^ya(. Epex. Inf. ironiv (\(o« Ps. S. 

vi. 9. Sia.6-gicrii dyiat avrov. P.S. S. vi. 9. 

,1 74 tx ;^fipat Ix^p^v fivaSivTa^. Ps, S. iv. 27. xii 

xvii. 51. 
„ 75 'i" oo-iifnjTi Kai SiKauNrvvi;. Ps. S. x. 6 (xvii. 46). 

Xarpniciv... jvujjrio;' aiTTov. Ps. S. ii. 40. 
„ 77 iv d<^iirti ofi^Tiiav, Ps. S. ix. 14. 

78 a Ji/'c's. Ps. S. xvii. 7. 
,. 79 ^jTi^ai'ai K.r.X. Ps. S. iii. 16. Rpex. Inf. xartv^vmi 

Ps. S. vi. 3. vii. Q. xvi. 9. xviii. 9. 

(c) The Angelic Hymn. 

Luke ii. 10. tiayyiKi(oiiai. Ps. S. xi. 1. 

„ II. XptoTos Ku'pios. Ps. S. xvii. 36. AauiiS, iit supra, 

„ 14. Sofa iv viplaroLi e€w. Ps. S. xviii. 1 1. cvSo^'at. Ps. S. 

viii. 39. 

(rf) The Nunc Dimittis. 

Luke ii. 30 to vuir^piov aov. Ps. S. x, 9. 

„ 32 <^ws fit aTTOKokvipiv iBv^v. Ps. S. xvii. 32. &>fav Xaoi; 

7 'IcrpaijX. Ps. S. xvii. 34, 35. 

Additional Note on Cod. V. 

This note contains the results of Dr Rudolf Beer's collation of the 
Vienna MS. On the merits of the former collation we have said some- 
thing on p. xxxvi. of the Introduction. The list of readings that follows 
will be more eloquent than anything we could add here. 
Ps. i. V gives the number A' but omits the title. 
5. •tffai' apparently corrected to tlmiv. 


Ps. ii. 3. 8<i>pa not ha^, 

4. cvctfScDKcv (contracted) avrois, not cvcu&tf 17 avrocs. 

5. i^ifuoOtf (contracted) not iJTifi€v$vf. 

20. The clauses are transposed, as in P. Kartav. — 8o^« follows 


25. fiTfin^fuSf not 'itr-, 

30. iKK€K€VTrffl€VOVf TlOt -OV, 

iii. I. ''Iva Ti (also iv. i). 

8. i(dpai, 

12. vpoaiOyfKavj not -cv. 

iv. 13. OV dv€(rrq. 

21. (TKopvurOtlrjaaVf not -$rfaxiv, 
V. 16. TO 8^ not 8c4. 

vi. 3. adds vtto Kvpiov $€0v avrov. 

vii. 4. av cvTcXiJ, not ow ivrokj, 

8. ocjcrcipifo'cis, not -nyp-. 
viii. 18. ^ircvKTi), not -av-. 

^2, av o aco9. 

39. GaX€u9rja6fi€0a, not -co-. 

ix. 3. tifiMv, not avraii' (a mistake of Hilg.). 

6. 7. <rov 6 ^cds: ra ic.r.X. 
20. iirl oIkov, om. rov. 

X. I. vkrjOvvaif not -^i^ac. 

6. OO'tOS O KV/>t09. 

9. adHJipiHrvvrfVf not cv^p-. 
xi. 3. CIS a?ra^. 

9. TToiifo'cu, not -^0*01. 

xii. 4. oora. 

xiii. I. ia-Koracrty not hnjinraat. 

xiv. I. ^i' vofu^, 

3. add Tov ovpai'ov with KP(M). 

xvi. 2. i(€xiiOrf, not -ciWiy. 

5. eXoyuro), not AA-. 

1 2. ^lo^crai. 

B a 

1 3. ^i' TTcvia iraiSctai' X/V 

xvii. 9. yci'ovs, not -os. 

20. nji' yrjvf not t^ y^?. 

22. dirtiBivii^ not dXtfi^it^, 

47. avoo'T^o'cu, not -1/-. 


Ps. 3cviii. 9. Karcv^vvac 

KaraoT^crai, not -17-. 
13. kqX \iA% atcGi'Of. 

We have to apologise to our readers for the somewhat clumsy 
arrangement we have adopted. It is due to the fact that several sheets 
had been already passed for the press, and we were unwilling to intro- 
duce further alterations into them. The list is intended, therefore, to 
serve in some sort as a table of Errata. 


>> J- P- 

iplio Cod. A, *aXiii< ry £b\ivuJ* a', abest a V, R, P, M. 

Vs. I. Ar^mttU. Tfae False SecoriC]'. 

I, la. Zion's Prafer, when assailed 
by 'sinners' and Ihreatened with war. 

ih — i- Zion's Confidence. She was 
confidenl that her prayer vrould be heard, 
because she was 'righleous'; and of her 
'righteousness' she thought she had a 
pledge in her material prosperity, and in 
the multitude and wealtli ol her sons. 

6 — 8. Zion's disappointment. Hut 
her conlidenee has proved to have been 
misplaced: her children have abused the 

blessings of pronierity by 'secret' t 
especiallyby violation of 'the holy things.' 
The rsalm here breaks off. The 

:. that Zion, having J 

usneas, could no longer hope for a 

voutnble answer lo her prayer for help. 

Thai Ihe Vsalmist impersonates Zion 
■ue l5rael seems lo be clear from 
■ r(^ nWijr^al /u ml ToXl)* •pwta- 

The allusions contained in the Psalm are 
therefore to matters of national intertal. 

The ciicamsiances under which Ihe 
Psalm was written must depend upon 
Ihe explanation given of w. i> m, 7, 8 
(see notes, esp. on vcr. 1). But the 
close correspondence bolh in thought and 
language With Ps. S. viii. i — 14 is in our 
opinion eonvinciiw proof thai the two 
Psalms refer to the same historical in- 
cidents, and suggests the probability of 
their having been written by the "aimc 
author, (See Introd. to Ps. viii,) 

1 The absence of the heading 'A 

Psalm of Solomon ' in four out of the 

five Mss. is probably due to the fact that 

the general title ' Psalms of Solomon ' 

rendered it unnecessary to preface the 

opening Psalm with an inscription to Ihe 

ic effect. The first canonical Psalm, 

ilaily, has no heading. It is also a 

stion how far any of ihe titles of our 

iloinonjc collection are genuine. 

'Epii)ra..,JvT^tMP«laCui. Thclan- 

guage of this clause seems ti> be based on 

1 Sam. xxii. ;: Ps. xvii. (xviii.) 7, but 

there is no exact reproduction of the tXX. 

The words wpbt—iu, however, occur 

literally in Ps. cx\%. (cxx.) 1. 

b, T<p SXlpATflot |u= VIVJ. cf. Heb. 



!Hos.v. IS. 
' completely.' 
The translation of TVii and Fllp^ by th 
tAsi is very common in the lkx. [e.g. 
Ps. ix. 31 (X. I .). xii. (xiii.) 1. xliii. (xliv.) 
14, xlviii. (xlix.) 10, livii. (Ixviii.) 17, 
Ixiiii. (bcxiv.) 1, 10, 19, Ixiviii. (Ixxbi.) 
5, Ixxxviii. (Ixxxix.) ^^, cii. (ciii.) 5] 
with the meaning of 'in xtemum'i Ihii 
is also the meaning of the other ren- 
dering il, ,'im (e.B. Jcr. iii. •,). The 
rendering' perfectly, 'completely,' which 
has sometimes been defended, is impro- 
bable even in such a passage as Ps. xiii. 1, 
and is unsupported by the analogy of the 
other instances where the word occurs. 
Acconiingly In ibis passngo uhere the 


A Psalm of Solomon. 

I I cried unto the Lord in my sore distress, i 
, when sinners assailed. 

31 ever' is unBuilable, f/i t/\« 
l^will not represent nVj?- The suggestion 
I Umi ({i tAoi is out of ila plnce and should 
\ 'be compared with tit rb tAot in the 
I'^lmcripLon of Ps. liv. (Iv.) (where the 
lutx. blunderal over TVilxh 'For the 
■ Chief Musician'), descnes to be men- 
I tinned. But Ihe phrase probably inter- 
prets some intensive, such as n73? (i 
Chron. *ii. ii), or .tSdS IJf (i Chron. 
swxi. t), both of which are rendered by 
e/i TO-m in the i.xx. Cf. i Thess. ii. i6 

hnMofai. A word of freijueiil occur- 
rence in these Psalms. CT. vii. i, ix. [6, 
xvii. 6. 

d|iaf>TwXoii. TTiis adjective, occurring 
ja limes in Ihcse Psalms, is used with 
especial significanee. It ma; he noticed 
that it is not found in Pss. v.— xi., xviii. 
The l^Mjn'wXal ore especially distinguished 
from the S(«« (e.g. ii. 38. iii. 13, 14. iv. 
g, ;dii, f, 6, 7. 10), al ^<i)9DAfurM tA* 
tifa» nii. t6, iv. 16, XV. 14, 15), and 
fetM (xii. 8, xiv. 1, 4). By this term ihe 
FialmiBt probaliiy refcr.i to the Saddutecs. 
In the days of the Maccabean Rebellion 
il had been used of Hctlenising Jews, 
I Mbcc. ii. 48. 

In view of its special apptication in our 
[ tiook, the reference in the present passage 
"■" ' "'men' must he understood to denote 
Tcl^ious (i.e. Sadducaic) Jews, and 

It the Romans or Ihe heathen. 

Wellhauscn «ees in these verses an epi- 
tome of a whole century of Jewish history; 
the 'sinners' are the heathen, and the 
allusion is to the persecution of Aniiochus 
Epiphanes; the'war' is the Maccabean 
rebellion ; this led to the temporary in- 
dependence of Ihe Jews, extended their 
material power, and established the glory 
of the Asmonean house : their prosperity 
is only external : Zion sees, only loo late, 
the sin that underlies the increase of 
power, and predicts the doom of those 
who do not shrink from profaning Ihe 
most sacred things. 

Perhaps no convincing test can be ap- 
plied to this hypothesis, but is nnl the 
general impression conveyed by the Psalm 
thai of one special crisis, not of a long 
development? The other Psalms in this 
collection give no support lo Wellhausen's 
view. So far lis they are historical, they 
express the emotions consequent upnn the 
recent occurrence of important events. 
To summariie in a Psalm the survey of a 
century's history implies a philosophical 
altitude natural enough in modem times, 
bul foreign 10 the simplicily of thought 
of our Psalmist. 

We have already mentioned that a 
compariKin of Ps. i. with P». viii. t— 14 
shows a striking identity of situation (see 
note on viii. j). In thai Psalm rompey's 
enti7 into Jerusalem is nnmislakably de- 
scribed, and Ihe historical allusions of the 
present Psalm may be I'sipned lo ihe 


liraKova-tTai (lov, on eirXiJcr^v SiKatocrvi^s. 

" tKoyi(Ta.^y}v iv KapSCif, fj-ov 071 errXijo-^v Sitcaiocrui^?, 

Ef T^ ev8r)vyjcrai (i€ koX ttoKvv y^via-dai iv Tftcuoi-;. 

* 6 ttXoGtos avTwv BUK801 cts vaa-av rr)v yrjv, 

Koi ij Sofa ayrtiJi' ews iiT)(a.TQV t^! yijs. 

ilTrav ov fiTj TTe<Tco<rtv. 

" *(ai cfvjSpio-ai' eV rots aya^ow avruip, 

Kol ovK riv(.yKav 

' at dfiapTiai ai/r^ic ev aJTOKpvt^ois, 

Kaytii OVK yBiiv 

a Conj. M. Schmidl. ap. Hilg.' tlTo ■AsowFerot, _ 4 Fabr.conj. SiflXfle. 

9 Kpairir) iroX^u. This expression 
reonlls Ihe npn^l? nmi;! of Jcr. iv. 19, 
xliji. iHeU a. alsoviii. 1. 

The sudden outbreak of war here re- 
ferred to should prolably be idenlified 
with Ihe conflict between Aristobulus and 
Ilyrconus which arose on the death of 
Alexandra (60), or with the hoslllillesconn- 
menced by Aristahulus sfainst Ponipeyi 
while ihe iitler was marching upon Jeru- 
salem (63), Sec Inlrod. 

JiraKo»rrrai. It is noticeable that in 
1 Sam. xiii. 7 V^)^) is rendered by ira- 
KoiaiToi, where the LXX. give a wrong 
rendering of the tenses. Our translator 
possibly borrows from the LXx. of that 
passage. But here we should in any case 
prolixly lightly render it by the luture, 
since the dause is to be regarded as a 
soliloquy following upon Ihe entreaty. 
Schmidl's conjecture (lira droiatTiii is 
ingenious and gives the full sense of the 
passage. Against it however is lo be 
set the fact thai the 1st Per. Sing, in Ps. 
S. viii. J is tlrw not cin. 

GuukUMnlvin. Cf. Ps. xvii. (xviii.) 31 
*al irTairoSiMft fiat rCpuit rari ri^ Si- 
taxoai-ntr iiav and 1 Sam. xxii- 11. The 
character of the 'righteousness' here 
spoken of will be best understood from 
the description of the 'righteous man,' 

a 4XirYur^|U|y Iv NopStf. Cf. Ps. 
cxxxix. (cxI.) 1. where however ihe words 
occur in a dilTerent sense. 

represent a fruitful vine [Ps- cxxvu. 
(cixviii-) 3], where it translates n^H. 
In Job xxi. 9, ol uTkiu ai>rur itSTpioSai, Ihe 
original is ml'^; in Job xxi. 13, oXoi it 
eitaSuii ml tiBiirur, it is 1*?U', and in 
Ps-lxxii.(lxxiii.) t1, aOrai tl inapruKol tat 
ciBjiniurra, it is <1^) in Jer. xii. 1 cie^ 
mtim-nfp. Lam. i. i tvBiirovaiir^n^. 

See also Zech- vii. 7 nWip^oara = Hl^C' 
and Ps. xxix. (ixx-) 7 iy rj liSiirlf fuiu = 
"IrPS. From these instances it is seen 
ttuit Ihe word was used lo represent Ihe 
notion of material prosperily and quiet 

iroXdv Y*W<rS<u hr Wkvoh. The bless- 
ing of many children was. according lo 
the promises of the Law, a reward for 
true obedience- Cf. Ex. xxiii. ij, iG; 

: referri 

the corahination of 44(a 
tXoPtoj he quotes Ps. cxi. (cxii.) 3 Wfa 

ifia^auiiirm ri* ttpair). 

The general lone of the possage seems 
to be caught from Ps. Ixxii. (Ixxiii.) 9 — 

SlA4w. The Optative is a misren- 
dering of the frequenlalive Imperfect in 
the Hebrew. Cf. xvji. 

h this 





1 Suddenly the alarm of war was heard before me. / said, 
\ He will hearken unto me, for I am full of righteousness. 

3 I considered in my heart, that I was full of righteous- 
ness, because 1 was prosperous and had become plenteous in 

4 Their riches were gone' forth into all the world, and their ' 
glory unto the ends of the earth. - "■ 

5 They were lifted up to the stars; they said, We' shall ■^'' 
never fall. 

6 But they waxed haughty in their prosperity, and were not 
able to endure, 

L 7 Their sins were in secret ; and I knew (/ not. 

%nd the rotlowing verse describe the creat 
prosperity of the Jewbh people. It is 
possible Ibat the rsalmist is referring to 
the period of tranquillily in the tcign of 
Alexandra (78— (ig), which was followed 
the Civil War and the intervention 

Cciger, who renders the tense by the 

nture, is mistaken in referring the verse 
to the violent dispersion of the wealth of 
the Maccabein Princes by Pompey and 
their lieing led in captivity lo Rome (fuii 
^drou rfit -y^). This view seems lo 
be shored by Hilgenfeld who adduces 
this verse, along wilh xvii. 6, to show 
how the writer has imitated the Wisdom 
of Solomon, 'is enim (i. 3 sq.) in tialo. 
munis persona filiorum fata It^t' See 
In trod. 

But ihe fact thai this verse is followed 
by ijf'iuftjffiu' Itn tw* irrpur should be 
sufficient to make it impossible that any- 
thing calamitous could be intended in 
the mention of the wide dispersion of 
Jewish wealth. It is the extent of their 
cornmercial undertakings and the fame 
of their richer which arc alluded lo. 
OiAAm would, besides, be a curiously 
inappropriate word to describe a violent 
dispersiOD of wealth. 

a (KtTwtEirrpa*. In the O. T. Ihis 
melaphor is only elsewhere found in fer. 
1i. (xxviii.) y iH/xy lut tuv inTpuur, where 
JffTpu* renders D'^TH? 'skies.' We may 
compare Isai. xiv. 13 'I will exalt my 
throne above the stars of God' (I.XX. 
iritu Ti3>p iffripiiit toB odptwoS ft}ffi» Tic 
Bp6r» Ml-)- 

■Inv. Hilgcnfeld's emendation elwot 
{[St Pels. Sing.) was intended to gel tid 
at the graminatical difficulty in «1 |Ul) 

of the Psalmist. It has apparently ll 
support of the Parisian ms. But the 
Plural gives a good sense: 'In their ex- 
altation they ullered their boastful cry, 
that ihey should never fall,' and receives 
an apposite illustration from the ical([rni> 
in Ps. lxxii.(bcxiii.) 11. Theuseoflhe 
jnl Flur. «! flij Wvuri, by altroclion for 
oO /iii riauixfii, presents a tittle difficulty. 
But it is probably to be accounleil for as 
a very literal rendering o( the Hebrew. 
Compare for the construction Ps. ix, ii. 
Fur the thought of the verse compare Ps. 

Xdx. (XXX.) 7. 

6 ttvPpwav. SeeGen.'ilix. 4i Ezek. 
xlvii. 5 : I Mace. L 18. 

oix 1j)^iwv. The most probable ex- 
planation of this expression is lo be ob- 
tained from a comparison with Jer. xx. 9 
'1 am weary with forbearing, and I can- 
not contain' (lai 01! tCnutat ^tpat = 
SyWl «V]): cf. also Job xxxi. 13! Jer. 
iLi3, >. lo; loelii. II. 

They could not keep Iheir .imbition 
under control; their arrogance knew no 
bonnds. 'The Psalmist is referring lo the 
wealthy Sadducees. 

F.Tbricins' explanation 'decimas, primi- 
tias, sacrificia olTerre omiserunt' has no- 
thing to recommend it: but no doubt 
gave rise to Whislon's 'have brought no 

7 ^ir dTOKpi^ti. As in Ps. ix. 10 
(X. 9), xvi. (xvii.) ,», Uiii. (Ixiv.) 5; 
Elek. viii. u. On the 'secrecy' of Ihe 
UD9 against which the Psalmist speaks, 
see alwi iv. 45, viii. 9, From these pas- 
, ;. ;= ..AA.„, ,hai the allusion Ls lo 

Ihe Jewish aristo- 
> of the Law. 



" ai avofj-iai. aiwwv vvep to wpo aurwi* ePi^, 

8 d».o;iia. V, K, P, M. d/ui/n-Iai A (Cerd.. Fabr.)- 

B. ya\m6c tiJi cftAowdiN TTEpt lepOYcaAHM. 
IT- En tw YnepHttmNCTCceM t(Jn djiapTioKov, ec K/Jtw 

KOI ow« e»«uXv(ras. 

Inscriplio ♦oX/iJt Tiji Za^o»lI* irtpl 'IfpouffaXijj* /J" A d, ul vid„ P, a sinistra 

Entte B supcrw:ri])luiii in Codd. V et K l-taXiiis r^i SaXoniit fi' ripl 'UpovetAiiii. 
abr.): deest in M. 

a Td wpi adrfiv Ih^. This expres- 
sion, if taken in close connection with 
the previous verse, might lead us to sup- 
pose thnt the firimilive inioM/anli here 
meiilioued were Ihe dwellers in Sodom 
(Gen. xix.), whose wickedness is sur- 
passed b^ the sins done "in secret,' the 
sensuoJities intrgdnced into Palestine b; 
the spread of heathen riles. Comp. iv. ^, 
S, ™i- 9. 10, r^. 

On the other hand, if the expression 
be understood generally, wc should com- 
pare Lev. xviii. ij, i8; i Kings xxi. g; 
1 Chr. xxxiii. o- These passages ofier 
the most natural illustration of our verse, 
and in particular the lxx. of Lev. xviii. 
17, iS presents a close parallel, trifra. 
yip ri fiit\&yiiaTa Tavra irali)iiaii ol in- 
ffpuvn n^t yrjr, ai Urm rpArrpiw ufujir, ical 
iuiarti) ij ■511;. (ai Ira /tit rpoirox^^'V ^1"* 
ij 7^ if Ti(i lualiiiit iitiat airifii, 6r Tpiro* 
wpoaiiySuie rail tDviai roii wpi iitwr. 

iptft^harBLV-.-iv pf^iiXiim. For this 
consliuclion compare u. ig. It probably 
represents ihe intensive use of the Inf. 
Abiol. with the Finite Verb in the 

ri i-fM Kwpfov. Cf. ii. 3, viii. 11, 

The phrase pt^tiKovt ra ayia aipiau 
occurs frequently in the LXX. (e.g. Lev. 
xix. 8, xxii. 15; Num. xviii. 31; Ps. 
Ixxiviii. (txxxix.) 40: Eiek. xxii. 16, 
Kiiv. J I, etc.; Zeph. iii. 4; Mai. ii. 11; 

Hie wordi of Lev. xix. 8, where the 
L\X. rendering ISO 8</ae<urai>Ti<i*«ipr(Bi' 
X^^fTBi on Ti. dTia luplou i^fiiiKuai, will 
best explain Ibis cuiicludliig sentence of 
the Psalm. The correspondence of the 
language is so close thai ui all pniliability 

it has been burrowed by our translator, 
and therefore should supply Ihe true in- 
terpretation of t4 Syia Kiiplov. These 
woids might be taken to mean 'the 
sanctuary of the Lord,' for which they 
commonly stand in the LXX.; and this 
translation is followed bj Geigcr {'dai 
fflitig/Aum') ^nd Pick {'tAe Sanciuery'i. 
But both in this verse and in ii. 3 the 
Psalmist is alluding especially to the pro- 
fane and irreverent action of the Jews, 
and of their Priests In particular, in the 
ritual of the sacrifices, as, for example, 
by approaching the allnr when ceremo- 
nially unclean, a form of profanation 
singled out for especinl opprobrium in 
viii. 13, 14. The violation of the Mosaic 
law under this head represented to Ihe 
true Pharisee the extreme of impiety, 
which God would surely not suBcr to go 

Ps. II. Argumenl. 

A. Jerusalem's overthrow (1 — ij). 

(i) The Temple delilcd by the Gen- 
tiles in return for (he profanencss of the 
' sons of Jerusalem ' (1 — j). 

(ii) The inhabitants of Jerusalem cap- 
tives in return for Iheir nnparalleled wick- 
edness (6— n). 

(iii) Their wickedness returns on Iheit 
own heads (13— is). 

B. God's judgement juslified {16— 


(i) He is righteous in visiting the 
people for their siti (16— lo). 

(ii) in humiliating the chosen city (lo 

C. The Inlercession of the holy (14— 

(i) Let not Israel he wholly (. 
sumcd (14 — ^iG). 



1 Their transgressions were greater than tliase of the heathen 
§ihat were before them ; 

9 The holy things of the Lord they Itad utterly polluted, 

A Psalm of Solomon tortceming JcrusaUm. 
I When the sinful man waxed proud, he cast down fenced 
Brails with a battering-ram, and thou didst not prevent him. 

(ii) Let vengeance overtake the op- 
Btessors who overlhrow Jerusalem with 
MVDgery, col judicially (a;— J9). 
'[ D. TTic Divine Answer (30—35). 
. (i) The death and dishunour of Ihe 
|i Oppressor (30. 31 1- 

(li) The doom oX the would-be king 
for ajTt^ance and blJndneia (31 — 35). 

E. The call 10 (ecognisc the true 
King (36-40). 

(1) ThegreatKing(3fi). 

(ii) His mercy and justice (37). 

liii) Hia lovinglcindncss (38 — 4.0). 

F. DoKology (41). 

The ipoker, who refers to himself 
only in *v. 14 and 30, does not identify 
himself with Jcrosalem or Zion. The 
point of view is therefore diflercnl from 
that of Ihe preceding Psalm. The Psalm- 
ist i< the spokesman of the theocra.lic 
party referred to in w. 37, 38, 40, 41, as 
those 'that fear the Lord with under- 
standing,' 'the righleous,' 'that call upon 
Him in patience, 'His servants.' 

The allusions in this Psalm lo historical 
events are of very great importance. 
Their idenli&calioD supplies not only a 
clue to the dale of the composition of 
this particular Psalm, but alsoa'lemiinus 
ad quem ' for the date of the whole col- 

(fl) Jerusalem has lieen at the mercy 
of invaders, her walls have been battered 
down, the sacred altar has been profaned 
[w. I, ]). Jews have been enslaved by 
their oppressors (6, 7). 

This agrees with the occupation of 
Jerusalem liy Pompey, with his siege of 
■he Temple which lasted for three months, 
und its linal capture, followed by the 
mftssacre of Arislobulus' supporters, and 
by his removal alonf with other Jews of 
distinciion into captivity ai Rome. 

(4J The -sinliil maji' (ver. 1), 'ihe 
dragon' (19), whose purpose had been to 
rule the world, who hail set his 'greatness' 
gainst (hat of God (33), is pierced and 

slain in Egypt (30), his body lies nt^lect- 
td, unburied, on the waves (30, 31). 

This description agrees closely with 
the fate of Pompey. tic made a bid for 
supreme power against Cicsari he was 
sumamed 'the Great.' He was treacher- 
ously assasinated on ihe shores of Egypt 
(Sept. 18, 48 B.C.). 

(f) The overthrow of the Oppressor 
heralds the triumph of the lowly (ver. 35). 

It is worth observing that while, as 
ap|>eais from this Psalm, the Jews n.'- 
gaided Pompey as a tyrant, they glorified 
Cicsar on account of bis clemency and 
consideration towards their own race. 
llie concluding burst of triumph in our 
Psalm very prol>ahly indicates the satis- 
faction of the patriot Jews at Ihecumplele 
success of Ocsar's arms. After arrang- 
ii^ n '- " --' ■' '-- 

provision fc „ „ 

province of Syria and dispensing favours 
to the states who had supmirled him 
during his rcceiil campaigns. The special 
privileges which he awaraed lo ihe Jews 
are recorded in Jos. Ant. XIV. x. 1 — jo. 
Il Ls lo this period of ihc Dictator', 
favour that we are inclined to assign the 
composition of Ihis Psalm. 

The Inscription ' concerning Jerusalem' 
is of such a general nature that il is 
hardly likely to be original. The men- 
lion of the 'walls' in ver. 1, and Ihe 
frequent occurrence of the name of the 
city throughout the Psolm (w. 3, 13, 14, 
]o, 14), are quite sufficient to account fur 
the litlc having been added. Jera.salem 
however is personified throughout. There 
is no reference lo 'tWii ; even the 
'walls' of ver. 1 are not the city walls. 

X 'Ev Tf vnpTi^vivcirSv thv i.fa^- 
ntUv. This opening clause is laktii 

from Ps. tx. 13 (x. i). 


^ afi^ijuau eVi to dv<ria<rTrfpi6v a-ov Wvt) aXXor/aut, 

3 Wq Cerda, sed interpr. 'gentes.' 

rumpo]', as the iq>reenlalive of Ihc 
rorcign powur (hal hod reduced Zion to 
servitude, is Ihe petsonificalion of sb, /A^ 
sinner. Thus while iiiapmXai may indi- 
cate all whether Jews or Gentiles, who 
do not Tear God,' tliis estrangement 
from God b concentrated in the man, who 
haa been the inslrumcnl of Jerusalem's 

The reader will be reminded of the 
reference to ihe represcntalive of the 
Romnn Empire in 2 Thess. (ii. 3, 4. A £i~ 
Spwnt r^i itoiiliu, i uiii rijt diruAtlat, 
and 8, i Sroiiin). There were obvious 
reasons why such allusions should be 
miide in guarded terras. 

For other probable references to Pom- 
pey beside those contained in the present 
Psalm, compare viii. 16 t4» dir" iaxirov 
T^ yVt Tif waia/Ta uparaiiT 

- (?} ' 

■ TI' 

The allui-ion here is in all pn>bability 
In the si^c of the Temple by Pompcy. 
lie had occupied the dty of Jerusalem 
without oppoaitioo. But the Temple 
with precipitous sides on S. and E., with 
a ravmc on the W., strengthened at every 
point by massive fortifications, was man- 
ned by the adherents of Aristobulus, who 
otTercd a stubborn resistance. Poinpey 
was compelled to lay r^ular $iege to the 
Temple. Josephus expressly mentions 
that Pompey sent for his siege-train from 
Tyre {Tr/nffpaXiif ;itix<u^i xal Spyana tx 
TvpOB toiuaSirra iwurr^ai xar^piUTBi ri 
lipiy r<Kt nT/x^bXaii), Ant. XIV. iv. 1. 
In order to bring his sii^-train into play 
upon the Temple walls, it was necessary 
to liil up the great dyke which prolecled 
the N., the only vulnerable side of (he 
Temple fortifications. This dyke is de- 
scribctl by Warren in Undtrgraund Jtru- 
salcm (London, 1876), pages 65, 66, 71, 
.Sirabo speaks of il Bs cut out of the rock, 
60 feet deep, 150 wide (xvi. 1). 

'llie allusion to the battering-ram {it 
Kfiuf] becomes a Inithful touch, ft recalled 
a memorable scene — the Roman soldiers 
for the first lime in Jerusalem, and plying 
their 'aries' against the massive masoniy 

^fleeted after a three months' heroic de- 
fence; a breach was made in the walls 
apparently by Ihe destruction of its 
largest tower; and it was the battering- 
ram mentioned by the Psalmist that ac- 
complished for the Romans the fatal 
work against the ix^-pi Te()(if. The 
Roman soldiers led by a son of Sulla the 
Dictator poured in through the breach, 
and a general massacre ensued, ircl ii 
rav fi.Jtx'u^tiaTtn wpoffaxOirror irci^Peli 
i liiyitTO! rwf wipryuH' Kanji^x^i *"' 
■rapif^ii n ^wp(w, lUtxjotTii ^r dI 
roX^/uoi, irpuT-of Si atrwi Kapr^Xiot 
♦oii«T»( ZuXXa «ari viv tik! iavrev ffrpa- 
TtiSmui ixipTi ToS Tilxaus,,,'tioyBv di in 
warra ariirXcw, Ant. XIV. iv. 4. The 
'ballering-ram' appears in Aisyriaii sciil|i- 
tures, and is mentioned in i'.iek. iv. 1, 
Kxi. 11, where the Hebrew D'13 Tarns- 
clearly indicate the same weapons as the 
KpuA and 'arieles' of the Greeks and 
Romans. Tlie l.xx. however does not 
reproduce the word in these passages; 
and apparently only employs Kpiii to de- 
note an engine of war in 1 Mace. xii. 15. 
The name seems to appear in classical 
literature first in Xenophon's Cyrapaaida 
(VII. iv. i), but the thing is' indicated 
plainly enough as in use at the siege of 
Platneo, Thuc. 11. 76. Vitruvius (x. xiii. 
19) describes the various stages of its 
development, and Jo.'iephus, Bill. fud. 
Ill, vii. 19. There is a good representa- 
tion of the machine in use on the Column 
of Trajan. 

The accounts of the capture of Jeru- 
salem by Antiochus Epiphanes (which 
Ewald considers to l>e here referred to) 
have nothing corresponding lo the his- 
torical reminiscence contained in iv tpi^ 
KartpaXe. (1) Josephus states Ihat An- 
tiochus obtained possession of the city 
on the first occasion (i<Sg) diiax'V^, and 
on the second (167) dxirji. (1) The de- 
scription in I Mace. i. 10, ly— 31. 
1 Mace. V. 1 1 does not exclude (he idea 
of a regular assault and defence; but 
certainly implies that the Syric 
querur met with tittle serious ic ' 
ovK iKiikvnt, The Psalmi 



2 The heathen' went up against thine altar, they trampled' 
L it down.^^a, with their sandals in their pride, ^ 


[ lAil Ihe following verse addtessta ihe 
Almighty, but adopts the foirn of nar- 
rative in vv. i, 4, 5. 

Josephus cxpns^sly stales that the suc- 
ceu of the Romans in Ibe siege of the 
Temple was [aigely due [o the pn^ress 
they were able tu make on the Sabbath- 
days, when the beleaguered Jews in strict 
eonf'irmity with iheir tradition discon- 
tinued Lhar works of defence. 

But even such piety was unrewarded ; 
and [he Lord 'hinderEd not' the success 
of the Gentiles. 

For tliigenfeld's theory that \hU verse 
is quoted in 4 Esdr. iii. B l^trs. jlrai.), 
tve Inltod. 

The thought of this clause is expressed 
in 4 Esdr. iii. 39— ji 'ct cxcessit cor 
meam, ijuoniam vidi, quomodo mstines 
COS peccajites et peperciali impie agenti- 
boE et pcrdidisli populum tuum et con- 

oihil nemioi, quomodo debeat derelinqui 
via Jbec Numquid meliora fecit Babylon 
■fuam Sion?' I( wis a very natural ques- 
tion to arise in the mind of the pious Jew. 
How was it ihat, however sinful and re- 
bellions the sons of Jerusalem might be, 
God had suffered the yet more sinful Gen- 
tiles to trample her down ? 

See also Afm. Bar. xi, 1, 1 'nunc 
vero ccce dolor infinitus, et gemitus sine 
mensuia, quia tu (Babylony ecce pros- 
perala e«, el Sion desolata. Quisnnm eiit 
judex de istii? aut cuinam conqueremur 
de lis qiue accideiunt nobis? O Domine, 
quoHmdo stulinuisli ? 

S tli'ffit)<rav drl ri Bua-icwnipiiv irov 
ISn| dXXArpia. The language in this and 
the fullowing verse is an t-cho of I's. 
txxviii. (hxix.) 1 and Lam. I. lo. 

At the capture of the Temple the 
Roman soldiers bursting in cut down the 
priests, who continued lo occupy them- 
selves at the altar in their sacrificial duties 
lo the very hist. The scene ii vividly 
given by Josephus, Aiitiq.Jud. xiv. iv. 3 

ir T^ Itpf- al ii Tpit TCuI evaiau aiSir 

T«i) iiSpav TuO ircpl -njs ^i/xiji «"" i** 
ToC aSi/Boin tQ* ^87 t/iariiiotiiriiir, dtov- 
KoaSirrit iiiroi/.a>ai, lav H 6 ri Hoi 

But tlie event which impressed itself 
most deeply u]ion (he mind uf the Jews 
was (he entry of Pompey and his com- 
panions not only into the sacred pre- 
cincts reserved lor the priests, but even 
into the Holy of Holies, which none but 
the High Priest might enter, and then but 
once a year after special and solemn cere- 
monial acts of purilication. This disre- 
gard of their deepest religious senliments 
was never forgiven by the Jews. Al the 
same time Pompey does not seem to have 
slopped the worship or rifled the treasures 
of the Temple. Cicero pre Jtacca 67 ■ Cn. 
Pompelus aiptis Hierosolymis victor ex 
illo fano nihil attigit.' It is noteworthy 
that the Psalmist makes no particular 
reference lo this violation uf the Holy of 
Holies, but the fact does not militate 
against the hypothesis of a t'ompeian 
date- If aiwthing, it serves lo show that 
the fear of Rome was so stioi^ that any 
more detailed allusions were Telt to be 

1'ac. Nisi. V. g Ronianorum primus 
Cn. Pompcius Juiteos domuit, templum- 
que jure victonn: ingressus est, inde vul- 
gatum nulla intus deflm elligie vacuam 
Eedcm ct inania arcana. Mun Hicrosoly- 
morum diruti, delubrum mansit. 

Josephus [Atllii/. Jud. xiv. iv. 4) 

Sparb' Ti Hi' TO i¥ t^ irplt XP^V "^ 
idpaTor- rapijXSt yip tit rd irrit i 
IIo/i»iti'DJ "Ol Tra* mpi avrir ouit 6\i-)0i, 
nal tlSor San liii BciuTiii yfr tdIi i\>.oit 
dvSpiiTim fl lilmn tom dp^itpfiwi*, 'iivrar 
St rpai/fl)i Tt XptKTTii Kul \i/x'''" iipai 
tai atarBitwu nai rX-ffious ipu/iiTar. ^u- 

/lAriiif dt ilia jiXidiai n\drrtar, oMirbs 
Ij^aro Si-_ ti^r^^Euv, dWa usi ir Toorif t^ 
npl oiVov iflun frpafcr iptr^. Tg te 
ieripat^ taSalpcm rapayyelXai ri lipir 
TUt raoTiXoii tal ri rb/uitB, imipipiir t^ 
6f<f T^v If pumimit drituKit 'TpiEiu>i^ c.r.X. 
SinnoirT^piov. This and not puiiiit is 
the word prefcrreil in the LXX. lo trans- 
late the altar (fUID) of Cod. We find 
^wp.i,t used fre<juenlly of 'high places,' 
perhaps from the similarity of sound wridi 
' bamoih ' fsee Isai 

fiwiuil tptITT 


bim6th'[see Isai. 

V. I, xvi. 11; Jer. 
xix.) 3s. xlviii. fCr. 

rii. 30. xxxii. (Gr. xx 

xxi.) jsi Hoa. X. 8 

; Am. vii. 9], tuid 



i^t^-qKovv to. Sto/aa toO ^eou eV oi'Ofi.tais" 
' ivtKtu TOuTtoif elTref aTToppC^are avra p^aKpav an ip-ov' 
S iUpu V. 

i>r licathcn allats (Ex. x 

1 Chion. x»xi. I i la. xvii. 8, xxvii. 
9; Jer. xi. 13). The word b aliso used 
of ihe disputed altar in Jos. xxii. Ex- 
ceptions are Ecclns. 1. 11, 14; 1 Mace, 
ii. 19. xiiL 8, where the altar at Jeru- 
salem is called paiiUit. 

In I Maccabees /3u>iit [i. 59, ii. 13, 
14, 15, 45, V. OS) is always used of a 
healhen altar. I'he distinction appears 
1 striking - .. 

t iwl rSr pun^ of ^r irl toD 9u»i. 
<umipiov). With this agrees Ihc usage of 

IBvi] dXX^Tpia. This phrase in the 
l.xx. occurs, we believe, only in Ecclus. 
(xxxvi, 1, xxxix. J, Klix. 6). The very 
similar expression dAXirpuH Xaot is 
found in Isai. i. 7, as the Tendering 
uf D*^ which was probably the wora 
used in the original of the present passage. 

KttTipArow. The change of tense from 
aor. to inipf. should be observed here and 

The clause [■> identical in meaning with 
ver. 10 iiwiiiivaii yip IBrti 'lipOMaMin it 
tararBT-iiffn, where the verb and substan- 
tive change places. The verb KarKwart^ 
may be illustrated by Is. IxiiL 18; Dan. 
viii. 13; 1 Mocc. lii. 46, 51, iv. 60: 
J Mace. ii. 18. The eipansioa of the 
image by the words it iiroli^iiaait does 
nut appear to have any parallel In the 
O.T. The 'locus elaasreiis' in the O.T. 
showing that to remove the shoes on ap- 
proaching a sanduaty was necessary is 
En. lii. 5: cf. Test. Zab. g 3. 

For "the trampling under foot', com- 
pare Apoc Bar. xiii. 11 'nunc au tern yob, 
nopuli et gentes, debitores estis. quia toto 
hoc Icmpoic conculcastis terram Jte.' 

iviw^Vi^rla. Cf. xviL if. It is very 
characteristic of the style of our Greek 
translator to close a clause with the pre- 
position fy and an abstract subst Cl. in 
this Psalm vv.j, lo, ig, 31, 3s, 37> 40- 

S ot iilol'I<pov<raAi)|i. For this ex- 
pression, which occurs ahio In ver. lo, we 

hardly tind any parallel in the O.T. ex- 
cept Joel iii. 6 'the children also of 
Judah and the children of Jerusalem have 
ye sold unto the sons of the Grecians." 
(lxX. roit tilodt 'IffXiiwaXitli.) 
On Ihe 'daughters of Jerusalem' see 

tfiUmv Td Ayfa KvpCw. In this &nd 
the following clause the language is based 
upon passages in Leviticus and Ezckiel. 
The Greek of this clause closely resembles 
the LXX. version in Kick. v. 1 1 fw iyw 
X^i nSpiin i niy df6' wr ri ayui M"J 
itiiarai fr win roii ^'KOyfuuri irav, tiyii 
iriiniiai n, xxiii. 38 lui Koi raDra 
^Tolqircb' lUH, ri Sryti, iioii iiiJai/ar, loi ri 
aippari tuiv i^?i\ovr. In both pas- 
sages the term ra (rYid turn translates 
'PlpO 'my sanctuary.' In the present 
passage we are of opinion that, as in i. 8, 
ra 0710 Kvplov refers not to the Temple 
buildings but lo thesacrifices and worship. 
Our reasons are (i) ver. 3 gives the ex- 
planation {irS' ur) of the dishonour to 
the 'altar' described in ver. 1: ()) the 
term is here employed as a parallel tu ra 
jufursu SctD: (3) it is the expression used 
by the LXX. to render the technical Levi- 
lical phrase 'the holy thing of the Loku' 
(n^n^ Bnp) applied lo sacrificial offerings, 
e.g. Lev. xix. S Hi ItBwr avrh, iitofrrlar 
XiiV«Tai, In ra iyia luplov fjSc^iiXuirt. 

Tii S^ -niv Bmv. This expression is 
used by the LX.t. version lo render 'the 

bread of Cod ' (D'nSw DIT^) in Uvit. 
xii. 6 07101 fati^ai Tt} 6ti} afrrvt, tai aO 
|9<jST|Xwirai«i tA Bn»ia rav Stou aiVidv ' rai 
yap Sualat tuptm Siipa tbO Staa adrair 
aimi rpoa^idpouai, not fvei-TCU S7KH, and 
vv.8, 17, 11-13, xxii. 5S- 

Both clauses therefore appear to Lc 
based upon the Levitical laws relating 10 
the priests. It is natural to conclude 
that the Psalmist, ihoagh speaking of 
'the sons of Jerusalem,' is pointedly re- 
ferring to the malpractices and laxities 

IS among the Priests, : 

D be n 

rii. 4] 


3 Because thu sons of Jerusalem defiled the holy things 
I the Lord, attd polluted the gifts of God with iniquities, 

4 For this cause said he : ' Cast ye them* afar oH" from me.' 

[■ Prist und his fimily stood at the head of 
tbe paily. 

4 i.-WQ^( Cr. Sym. Ps. Ixxvii. 
(ixxviii.) oo kbX ar4fi^j/t r^y af^riaeu' 
r^ SqAu^i, Sym. It;, ii. 6 iwifi/it^t. Aq. 


Hie n 

: Plur 

PiDD. lefeis back la ri ayia miplev ajid 
TO MpB roO 8mS in ver. 3. Geiger con- 
siders it a translator's error, and is of 
opinion that ainit would more aptly 

have represented an original DtS'TC'O. 
This is not impossible, and receives some 
support from the similar words in Jer. vii. 
If Kol aTToi^b^u iias dro xpMurdv fwu. 

oiK ibiSaHuv c^ralt. The reading tin 
(ikMdwo' avTta a found in the Patia MS., 
and is lupportetl by the Moscow ms. siii 
ttitSaiar (sic) aimiii, as well as by the 
Copenhagen Ms. duk tutHuttt 7 bvtd7i 
(where however -ic ( = -Ktr) was possibly 
added as a correction, and the presence 
of + is either due to n clerical error or to 
tbe influence of the same MS. from which 
V U derived). 

The other two Hss. (Augsburg and 
Vienna) favour the reading ovi ti^u-... 
ainSt. The Vienna HS. gives «ii« evdiiu 
if ouroti, where the 1) perhaps reproduces 
tlic appearance of an ill(^ble-KEN in the 
poicDt MS. (su Gtaui). The testimony of 
the Augsburg MS. needs to be carefully 
stated. The words in Cerda's edition 
stand thus: otix tiiAMii eiuSlf ^ flUTWt 
ri KdXXor Tip Ad^i cu/tov. Ccrda however 
in his note says: 'perperam scripla hicc 
in gnecu ut legcre nequirem, suspicor 
icriptum aiiiE ci^iMti tuiiAlf.' It !>cems 
' then that on the analogy of the other mss. 
Ltbe reading of A must almost certainly 
E kive contained the common element oui 
y tJttiihi...^; and possibly there may have 
been an erasure or flaw iu the ms. which 
made the Iclter^ illegible. In any case it 
Li an error to cite (as Fritische and Pick) 
-8(1 EuiaSf^ as a MS. reading. 

Ccigcr's conjecture ovk tuatiiBT) avreii 
appears to us very improbable. It intro- 
duces the impersonal construction of the 
Passive with Ihc Dat- of ihe Pronoun 
which would be without parallel in (he 

Lxx. use of tiotbu. Cf. 1 Chron. xxxii. 30 
tixZMn "Eftnlai. 1 Mace. ill. fi^tuoSiifti 
frumpla. xvi. 1 KoJ cuoJitf^ if tuTi x^ffh* 

Hilgenfeld's conjecture oiw «Mwcw ir 
ouVht is much more plau^^ble. It gives 
a very simple and satisfacloiy sense- 
But (1) il diverges froni the Mss. at the 
very syllable (mwi-) where they are una- 
nimoiis: (9) it cunRicts further with the 
evidence of tbe mss., which connect these 
words with rt itdXXoi rji Sofiji oi™i 
and make them a continuation of the 
Divine ullerance: (3) by substituting an 
easy text for an obscure one. it fails to 
account for the 'genesis' of the lexlual 

If we adopted Hilgenfeld's conjecture, 
an exact parallel In thought and word 
would be found in Jer. liv. 11 ciir wpoae- 
vtyKuatw i\amtiTiaiMTa. xot Bmliu aix 
tuSuK^a it Bu'riKt. If in the face of the 
MSS. it were jnstiliable to separate these 
words from ri naXXin r^i Sofiji aurou, we 
should be inclined to snidest oiiir cu'iMwia 
((') aJroii '1 have not prospered them.' 

The chief objection to the reading of 
the text evK tiiiiiiiiitr avrdit j-4 niLXXai t^ 
iiifiji Btlmti, lies in the Perf. tense follow- 
ing liner. An objection however, based 
on the use of tbe tenses in a Iransktion 
from the Hebrew, is not a very serious 
obstacle, when we call to mind the ca- 
pricious manner in which Hebrew tenses 
are rendered in the LXX. A very proba- 
ble conjecture.however.oYK EYioAuiCEN 
AYToTc, wuuldobviale even this dllhcully, 
and preserve the reading of the mss. out 

The origin of the textual confuiiiim 
may be attributed either 10 a flaw in the 
parent Copy, or to an error on the part 
of a scrilw, who, not perceiving that rb 
■liUai was tbe subject of tiuiwur {-ttt), 
endcflvoured to emend the passage. 

« Td KoXXat T^l fi^ni B^TDV. Cf. 

ver. 30 Kdtimnat ri taXkia au'r^t iwo 
dporoo Mv'- 1'he beauty of the Temple 
and ihe glory of its worship are in- 

aSrrci. FritESche changes lo ailniir, 
referring the word lo the offerings and 
gifts. The change is not necessary even 


ovK e^wStt)*cec avToi^ " to icaX.\o; t^s Sof>j5 avTov ' 
igov6€yi^$7) ivQuntov Tov Otov, ijTifi,(odT) £ts reXos. 

*Ot viol KOi al BvyaripK iv al^^aXfuirlq. noyqpa, 
eV <r<ppayiSi 6 Tpaj^ijXo? avrav, iv iTTia^fKO iv tois idvtiTi. 

' KAti Tie AMftpTlaC ftYTuIN enOIHC6M aYToTc- 

oTi eyKaTekiTTiv avroiis «ts ;^€tpas Ka.Ti.<r)(y6vTQii>, 
' aireoTpeijje yap irpostojroj' auroC aTro e'Xe'ou ayrtuc, 
cebi' »cat TTpea-ffvrrjv koI riKva aurtoi" eisaTraf- 

4 oi>K iiiiHio i ai>roii (A) V ; oilic (i'tMiiili» i airdft t4 niiXXoI rfti 4iii7( ajrrvi 
K (-«« ? cotr.) el P (irni. i,): oix ««i«<t» ni™'! rf .dAXo. r^ 3of^i ailr^ M. 
Conj.: Ccrda oAk cAwIJici cfuSff 17 ain-oii: Fabr. oix cituji£0i) ivoSli^ fv aiiro?! : 
Hilgenf. wV cuSaufi 6' outhi (Uh KHU^h. Pick.): Ceig. /tin tvuSMii aurori. 

B Bi>rDC A. V, K,P: oilrw M. Fritisch. conj. 8i>T(i» (iln Pick.)- iji-ifuifln A, K. P. 
M: ^Ti/in-flij V; 7ti^i)Bij conj. Hilg. (ila Geig.)- 

• A^OUI A, Ainu V, K. I', M : tit nia{ A, K, rUrirai V, (P|, M. 


Inimov TxA «««. Cf. 

'none shall 

appear V" "« empty,' 

oJ. d^^o 

ii. ,5; Dt. 

«ll tAtc. See note on i. 1 . 

a 01 viol Kal oX Bvyo'Hpct, i.e. ihe 
cliikirin of Jerusalem. Cf. vv. 3, ij, r,. 

^v aIx)uiX«rC^ Tavi|p^. The odjeo 
live wariipot \5 here iii>cA in Ihc sense uf 

Compare iii. 1 3 lorvipilf t4 imi/ia ciutou. 

in|)iip Jf rail (Bvm'l. This piuage is 
one of great olfscurily. The general 
*cnhc however is clear. The words ex- 
pand ID detail (he 'sore captivity. ' 'The 
sons and daughters' of Jeni»tlem are sub- 
jected to the usual inilignilies perpetrated 

The expression ir ^^payiSt i rpdxv^'t 
avTiiw does not seem tu have any parallel. 
We should lather have exuecleil some 
such expression as t» xXaiif, er ^if or «» 

We interpret the passage on the as- 
sumption that both phrases, it aippayiSi 
and ir itm'^, refer to ba<l|,'es of slavery 
impressed liy brandiug and tattooing up- 
on the [;eck» of slaves. 

Iv o-^poipBi, The 'seal ' of the master 
was impressed upon the neck of the slave. 
For this explanation we cannot adduce 
any support from other literature. But 
we have the fad that many slave.cotlani 
hav« been found " 

scribed with the master's name and some 
such addition a.^ 'Tcnc me, quia fugio'; 
and further we have CDpiou.s references 
tu the branding of slaves' foreheads and 
hands {e.g. Marl. XII. 61, Frons has: 
sligmale non meo notanda est. Petron. 
107, itnplevit Eumotpus frontea utriuK- 
ffxe ingenlibuB liltcns, et nolum fttgi- 
tivorum eptgramma per totat" '---- — 
liberal! manu duxit; cf. Wctsti 

n Gal. I 


Here the r/axv^ >s either u-sed poetic- 
ally for the stave's collar, or, as seems to 
us preferable, it implies that the flesh of 
the slave's neck was marked with the 
master's badge by a process of tattooing. 

iv Ivwrmif. It has been cu<Tomarj 
to render this expression as if it meant 
'publicly,' 'in the sight of the world,' a 
sense in which the words occur in xvii. 
31. Such a translation assumes that the 
adjective is here used adverbially like ir 
0a>i(pv, ir tpvmf, (For the Use of ihc 
adj. with -rirtt see 1 Macc. xii. 37, xiv. 
48, and comp. Sym. Ps. iv. 7 irlffijiiior 
raliftor = n^J.) 

The subsLintive however irlinjiim, 
which is used for a 'badge' (e.g. the 
jlag of a ship, the dei'ice of a coin), seems 
to give here a better meaning than the ad- 
jective. Hesychius(».v.) states that it was 
used of the 'brand' applied to slaves. 
Its use in that sense appears mast ap- 
propriate to the present passage; it is 
then equivalent to ir m-tytuiTi, and de- 
velopes the picture presented under rr 
iT^payiii. For the practice of branding 




5 The beauty of his glory did not prosper tlicm'; it was 
t at nought before God, it was utterly dishonoured. 

6 Her sons and her daughters were in grievous captivity; 
their neck zvas marked with a seal, with the brand of slavery* 
among the Gentiles. 

7 According to their sins he dealt with them, for he gave 
them up into the hands of oppressors, 

8 — yea, he turned away his face from showing them mercy — 
he gave them up, I say, the young man and the old man and 
their children together. 

KannurfyrMV. 'Oppressors or 'ty- 
rants.' Tor this use ol the Parlidple as 
a subslanlive cf. Wisd. x. 1 1 ^i> rXeoriflf 
KOTiirxyifTar. In i Oiron. xi. lo it is 
applied lo David's mighty men ' who 
shawetl Ihemsclves strong with him.' 

B ctirJ0Tpci)it Ydp wpiotMrov a^roii. 
This clause explains how ihc Lord had 
deserted his people. The phrase a*o- 
arpi^m rpivuwiir is the rendering in the 
Lxx. for '3p Tfipil, or "hide the face.' 
so common'ir the O. T,, e.g. Dl. nxxi. 
(x. 11). On another use 

reading ; 
Jff eatiied 
Ihttn not 
The beauty 

daves see 3 Mace. ii. tg, and Bp Light- 
fijot's note on the vTlynara of Gal. vi. 17. 

Geiger's (ranslalion "Ihr Naclien ist 
belaslet unler den Ileiden' i.s due 10 his 
supposition that the col local ion of upparfit 
and trlinijuK is in some way due to Joh 
xiv. 17 iaiipiyim,'! ii imv rai irtiUut iv 
^oXon-l^ (VCffii^^u Si it r> aiwv Trapip-qv. 

Weilhausen renders *im Ring ihr Halii, 
als Schaustlicic unter den Heiden,' which 
is reproduced by Pick 'Their neck in the 
ring, in the sight of the heathen.' But 
a^^aylt means a ' sea].' whether that which 
gives the impression or the impression 
Itself; we question whether il can be used 
as a .synonym for 3<UTu\i(it except with 
the sense of 'a signet,' and even if il 
cojid be, its associiLtjon, in the sense of 
'a ring,' with J Tpaxi)\oi airSur is quite 
out of the question. 

Add here three references all of which 
beu on the subject. 

I • iv. Esd[. X. 1 3. Signaculum (t^pa- 
•/h) Sion quoniam resignata est de gloria 
ana nunc et tradita est in maniUis eonim 
qui nos oderunl. 

1. Acta S. Maximiliani ni>. Ruinart, 
p. 340 (referred to by Ililg.'). Accipe 


colk) poriare. 

3. Sib. Or. t 
Zflfia tt ml TOT 
MaiiiuH. This le 


nihi plumbuu 

i. 144. Of the Cross, 
ravi ^porsTt eippTr/it 
t passage is important. 

crucial words 
brings out the senate of a brand, with 
an obvious allusion lo Ezek. ix. 

7 KOTiL ntt dpaprCat aiinw. The 
thought of retribution is especially pro. 
■niaent in this Fsalm, see 13—15, 17, j8. 
39. Cf. Ps^ cii. (ciii.) 10 ti nara rit 

tfna.rOvi/rti) tli x«tpaf. Cf. Ps. xiivi. 

(xXJIvii.) 33 i Si tipiiK oi iii) iynara^lwB 
oilrir t/f rii x'^poi =''"0. 

In the LXX. the 
phrase i-warrpi^eir rpiaumr is nltnasl 
uniformly found with iri and the gen. of 
the pcTson, from whom the face is avert- 
ed. Here, as often in this coElection of 
Psalms, the simple usage receives a slight 
modification. Instead of the recipient 
it is the act of mercy from which the 
Divine countenance is as it were averted. 
Instead of At' aurai we have ir' iX/mit 
aarSa in the sense of roil ^1) At^irw 

e of fXeoi see xiv. 

reff/rur 017 ro Ac0f yjtiur KiXThwp^iinrivffov- 
vim K.T.k. The accusatives here may 
be explained eilher as the oliject of ly- 
KOTAiTfi' in ver. 7, and therefore in ap- 
LFOsilion to avroA^j Artarpt^i •yap...airui' 
being r^arded as parenthetical, or, as 
the objects of the compaEsion expressed 
in i\liiv in sense of fXf$ien. 

For the clause itself compare xviii. 13 
■4#(lwff«ii yitr tal wptapiTypi ral T/ir«i 
ovi-J* ipa. See Eiek. ix. 6. rim for 
rtatbnim is not common. Cf. .^ym. Ps. 
xxxvii. (xxxvi,) 75 «fo, ;7f«.Vl* (TPl 


[II. 9 

"oTi irovqpa. eVoiJjo-ai' etsctTraf Tov fL-rj aKoveLU. 
'" Kol 6 ovpapo-i iPapv6vii7)<Te, 

" OTi ovK iiroCrja^ ttixs dvOpotno^ iir awr^s ocra i-TToiyjirav, 
'■ KoX yvdia-eraL t^ yrj to. Kptfiard. aov na-vra. ra, Stfcata, [o 

"'O ^eos i<rrq(r€v xous vlaii^ "le/joutroXiJ/i. ew ifnraiyfj.av 
ami TTOpvbtv hf avTjj- 

Tras o irapairopevofxevo^ elcenopeyero KATENftNTi to^ «A(oy- 
cfcffai^oc Tais dvo/xiaL'; avrtHv. 

B til Srai A, K. •tedTof V. (P). 

19 Ti SUaia i Btir (interpung. ila 
i Bii! M, Hilg. FriliBch. Pick. 

la l.m,ti* A, V, K, M, Itrvrt P. 
A, K, P, M, Fikbr. Geig.: iIi ^^roiy^. 
Pick, : Gonjtrc. Lagaide irrl TDfUurDi aEtri), rai c.t.a. : 

TQi i TaparoptuiiiivQi iltrtropiifTe mtrh^ayri tou ^Uou A, K, P, M, Fabr. Gcig.: irai 

i itctropfifTii, 'vrifarn ToBii\lauiriwiu(ot V, Hilg- Frilisch. Pick. : conjee. Fabr. 

ir<tpaTrop*iv6/iB»is, Mtnu^ov, Cerda Mratrov, sed inlerpt. ' jlludeliiint.' 

Toii dHM. aJruf. taBi irelout oirrnl, ircram (sic) toS i)Mnu TapeSci7. jc.r.X. A, 
Fabt.Geig.; loit druji.. aiiTiw, ■oPa ^oiow ncirol dr^aiTi ™D ^Mou, ra/Kl. k.t.X. V, M, 
Hiljj. Frilzsch. Pick.: toii dro^, aihur, tadA fToioui- outdJ' iir^ttiTi roB ^X. iraprf. 
jt.T.X. K, P: conji^c. Hilg. laim pro laSa, Lognctle, laSa irapci(i7f«tTtiro'. 

A? V, K, P, Cerd. Fabr. Geig.): t4 Sfitua. 
(It iii.rai-fiiAf c 

I. V, ilil) 




1 1 iri7»i((H(re^(T<u 
»/ot (TPJ). For rpra^Orr)^ compare 
Philem. 9 TOioin-M u* uii IlnuXH xpnr. 
{9iIti|i, Lam. ii. j i iioiit'i6i)irair tii ripi 
CfoJw Tiiu<Jdpii» ral vptvpvrrfl- rapBiroi 
/mil (oJ rcnrivirM fioi' tropivBiiirav ir alyjta- 

c(a^va( in this book translales "Vy^ 
'logelher,' cf. vet. g. It is used in this 
sense in Dan. ii. 35 rlirt iXirrCrSiiiiat 
ilairai (illnS) rb tVT/iatv, i viSiipot, i 
X't^ii, i Spyvpot, i xpua*'. 

iO Cf. JLvii. 31. 

6 cvpavit t^ofntifmrf. Cf. Jer. ii. g 

^ TTTJ (pE(Xii{aTa. Tlic words are an 
allusion ID the passage in Lev. xviii. 14 — 
30, where 'aliominations' ifiStXvy/iaTa) 
are denounced. Compare especially ver. 
IS 'Ihe 'and ilself vomiletli out her in- 
babilBtili,' and zS 'that the land spue 
not yoa out also, when ye defile it, as it 
spu«l out the oallons that were before 
you,' where the txx. rendering of ' spue ' 
(Kip) is F/Mffoxftfut. The substance ol 

the passage is 
the IransTalor 
rendering ofil. 

11 ^...n 
Hebraism. C 

itr' airit. Cf. i. 8, viii. (4. 

la yrivmi. The future with xal 
is possibly the rendering of the Hebrew 

rd KpfpArd irov iravra ri BCkwa, cf. 
viii. 8. 
A urobahle error in the text of ihe Mss. 
1 of i 0cdi at the end of 
" : bt^lnn" 

point lo the presence of a ' 
8iii however is equally required al the 
opening of ver. 13. We are of opinion 
that i 8f6i oI the end of this verse slipped 
out in an early MS. before the i SiAt 
of the next, i Btii closes ver. [i in the 
Copcnhngen and Paris MSS., but stands 
at Ihe head of ver. 13 in Ihe Vienna 
Augsbure Moscow MS. 

18 "Hiis paswe ofltrs one of Ihe 
chief diRicul lies to be found in the whole 

n. 13] 



9 Because they wrought evil together, to the intent that they 
should not hearken uttlo him : 

10 And the heaven was grieved at them, and the earth ab- 
horred them. 

1 1 For none had done upon it all the things that they had 

12 And the earth shall know all thy righteous judgements. 

13 God set forth the sons of Jerusalem in derision that they 
should be as harlots in her midst ; every one that passed by 
went in unto t/ian before the sun, they made a mock of their 

book. The doubls fell as to the correct 
puDctualion and aiiangemcnt of Ihe 
clauses may be gnthcred from the Ap- 
paniui Ciilieua. The punciuation which 
we have followed (i) has good Ms. auiho- 
tiljr, (ii) seems bust lo suil the original 
slichomelric arrangemenl, (iii) Tumishes 
the means of a iairty adequate Irans- 

Toii vlois 'ItpoimX^ii, See oti vcr. 

d*l(iToi7fiiy. C(.mp. xvii. r*. The 
language seem^ to recall Ezeb. iiii. ^ 
imro^o Siitaxi at tli 6rtiSut/tii' Tt^t 
tfrtai cal ib Cfinuf/iai' ^datui rail x*^'""*- 
Cr. Apoc. Bar. xlviii. 35 'et convcrletor 
bonoT in ignombiam. d humiliabilur 
robur in coniemptum.' 

in\ Topvav Jv aitrg, (ij It is pos- 
sible to suppose that, under a repulsi%'c 
metaphor, the Psalmist represents the 
Jews as an oliject of contempt because they 
liad prosliluled their theocratic honour 
hr commercial gain. The passage then 
will have pdnts of rCKmlilatice to 1 losea 
i., ii. (1} But the more literal inlcrpre- 
lation or Ihe passage is rendered only too 
probable b; the similar iavectives in I's, 
S. viii. 9 — 14. The meaning then is that 
'the sons of Jenisalem' were so sunk in 
■hamelessneis as to minister lo the vile 
licentiousness of the Gentiles within the 
wiklU of Ihe Holy City (cr ai^. 

The expression drrl noprur ir ain-g is 
very awkward. It Lt jast possible that 
the awkwardness is dae to the translator's 
having faithfully rendered a corrupt He- 
brew text, which did not offer any good 
meaning. If we may assume that Ihe 
translator is rendcriog flJIpiiV nCIpl 'in 

the place of her harlots,' a slight allera- 
lion of vowels and the repetition of the 
final letter of nnR, would give a reading 
illWro nijp 'in return for her whore- 
doms' (cf. Eiek. xxiii. 14, 18), which 
would offer a very good and probable 
sense, and would exptain the peculiarity 
of the Greek by the supposition of the 
loss of a single Hebrew letter (i.e. for 
nn). If conjectural emendation be neces- 
sary, this is undoubtedly preferable to 
I^tgarde's arrl npnant aBrif, i.e. ' She 
(Jerusalem) is in the place of a brothel.' 
The word which he suggests is destitute 
of LXX. analogy, .tnd the idea is radically 
false to the spirit of Hebrew poetry. 

The Imperf. of frequency. That the 
participle may be taken with it afrf is 
rendered possible by such a passage as 
Theod. Isai. XKniv, to sflic tirrai o ro/n- 
roptv6iuroi h a«rS (O^ '\^ fM) mrl- 
rawTi ToC iiKlBU. Cf. viii. 8, 

The open shame of the Jews is metrt- 
phorically expressed in language which 
recalls Num. ixv. 4, and the harriar roC 
iiKlau, iwlHU/n toP ijWou, of 1 Sam. xii. 

t»hnt.\M Tats i.rotf.iw.t avrav. The 

subject is 'the Gentiles'; airCit refers to 
the Jews. The iniquities <if Jerusalem 
did not really strengthen her position, 
but only exposed her to the contcni|it of 
the heatben. 

For iiiraiiu cf. Gen. xxxix. i+, 17. 
Pick's rendering: 'Because of the pros- 
titutes therein every passer-by enters. 
Before Ihe sun they flaunted their wicked- 
ness,' make" irrl^Sti, 



[II. 14 

' Kaoa. iTTOiovu avTol, AnsNASTi toy hAi'ot rtipeieirMATicin aSt- 

Kta? avrwi'. 
Kat BvyaTfpeq 'UpovcraXrifi ^t^-rjkoi Kara to KpCfia trov, 
^' txvv Qjf amal efjLiaivov eaura? iv <f)vpfia) d.vap.t^&a^. 
Tfjv Koiktav fj.ov Kot TO a-iT\dy)(ya p.ov irovoi inl toiJtois. 

Eyto StKauotrta (re, 6 Oeoi, iu evBvnp-i Kap8ia^, 
OTt fv Toi? KpifiairC aov tj BiKaiorrvirij <rov, d 6eos" 
'' OTt aTTe'oiUKa? Tot5 a.fiapTti}\ois Kara To. epya avTfUv, 
Kara ra? dpapTCa.'; aiSTtoc ra? irovr)pa.<; cr<^oO/)a. 
'" accKaXin^a? ras d.p.apTia<i auTcoJ', n'a ^ai'^ to Kpipa rrov 
'" egTjXeti/ias ro avTutu dno t^5 y^?- 
o 9e:ic KpiTHc iinaiot Kai ov Bavp-dcrei Trpo'stanov. 

15 aBTBi V. K. P (oWcH A), Fabr. Geig., aij-ai M, Hilg. Frilisch. Pick. 
17 lOTo tpya Fabi. eirote. 
1» 0(6i lam. i) M. 

14 HoSii lirafow atrol. , .iraptSKyiLa- 
Tunui,,.tATmr, It i»i important to dis- 
tinguish the suhjecl ot the iwo verbs. 
According as the Jtws (aiirol) were wont 
to do, even so liy way of retribution the 
Gentiles ciposcil lo the world the iniqui- 
ties of the Jews. 

iwhayn. The same word is used by 
the txx. in 1 Sam. xii. ii. 

in>fifG<iY|ulTiffav. We were at first 
tcmpleii to suggest the reading rapiSny- 

' ', which I Jigorde had already ci 
d ; the subject then beinp " " 
tood, and the verb corresj 
to /ffnjffet>..,(h eitraiyn&r. Hut 1 
tfou follows in the next line, there would 
be an obvious objection to the use of the 
3rd Pcrs. Sing. The meaning too is 
really the same. The Gentiles are carry- 
ing oat the Divine judgement in 'mflking 
nn open show' of Jewish iniquities. 

For wapaSiiyfi'aTttU cf. Malt. i. ig. 
The language and context again recall 
Er.eic, iiii., which in ver. 1 has the words 
jral tapiSti^ai aiT^ jriaai Tit ironist 

Bin^-rJpn 'I*powraXij)i, corresponding 
to ToiSt lAa/n 'lepouiroXfifi in vcr. 1 3. The 
expression 'daughter of Jerusalem' as im- 
personating ihe Holy City is not uncom- 
mon, e.g. Is, xxxvii. 31; Lam. ii. 13, i.s; 
Mic. iv. 8; Zeph. iii. 14; Zech. ix. 9. 
But "(laughters of Jerusalem' are very 
rarely spoken of. The term is a charac- 
leriilic TeBIure in Canticles (e.g. i. <i, ji. 

7, iii. s, 10, V. 8, 16, vi. +, viii. 4). But 
it does not seem lo occur in the prophets 
nor elsewhere in Hebrew poetry ; ' the 
daughters of Judah " {Ps. xcvii. 8), 'the 
daughters of thy people' (Eiek. xiii. 17), 
'the virgins of Jerusalem' (Lam. ii. to), 
are (be nearest approach 10 it. 'The 
daughters of Samaria and Sodom' in 
Kick. xvi. are metaphorically spoken of. 
Tlie humiliation of 'the daughters of 
Jerusalem,' and the rarity of the phrase, 
pVE a special interest to the obvious 
comparison with our Lord's words in 
Luke xxiii. 18, warning them of an im- 
pending calamity surpassing all prcviou'^ 

Pi^XoL Pick's rendering 'profane' 
gives a wrong idea, ttri ri tpiim acu 
gives the hint as to the true significance 
of the retribution for licentiousness. 

IS ivt^iv. Cf. vv. 3, ij. 

tr ^vpi^i dvap^wt. Literally 'in (he 
confusion of mingling.' This might be 
understood to refer (r) either lo idolatry, 
following the strong metaphor of the 
prophets Hosea and Ezekiel (xxiii.). 

(1) c 

} the s 

forms of impurity, (i) 
As the subject of idolatry does not 
occupy the attention of our Psalmist, 
our choice lies between Ihe last two. In 
favour of (1) we may compare 1 Mocc. 
xiv. 3 iii/ui\vnfi'<it ir TOii r^ /ir(/u((oi 
Xpi'ois. This evil nssumeil critical pro- 
portions in Ihe days of Neheminh, and in 




14 According as they were wont to do, even so did the 
Gentiles^ make an open show of their iniquities before the sun ; " Anniii 

and the daughters of Jerusalem were polluted according to ™ ^ 
thy judgement. 15 because they had defiled themselves in t; 
unclean intercourse. ji 

My belly and my bowels pain me because of these things, 

16 I will justify thee, O God, in uprightness of heart j for in 
thy judgements is thy righteousness, O God. 

17 For thou didst recompense sinners according to their 
works, according to their sins that were wicked exceedingly. 

18 Thou didst lay bare their sins, to the end that thy judge- 
ment might appear. 

19 Thou didst blot out their memorial from off the earth. 
God is a righteous judge and respecteth* no man's person. " 


the lime of ihc Mnceabean revolution 
excited ihe grave a|>prehensioiis a\ the 
Biricler Jews. Uul in our book, with the 
exception of this single doubtful allution, 
this source of evil does not seem to have 
been c-specially present lo the mind of 
the Psnlmisl. (3) On the other hand the 
spread cif foul and nnmeless impurities 
accompanying the influence of the outer 
world upon Palestine caased him great 
npprehenslun, and he refers to them le- 
pestedly. k^. i. 7, iv. 4. viii. 10. %i\. 7, 8. 
11 » aim noticeable that the pn»fLgc in 
Leviticus (xviii. i\. 34), to which upon 
IhiE supposition the writer refers, com- 
bines like the present clause the two ideas 
of' pollution' and 'confusion.' This ex- 
planation may be very appositely illus' 
Iraled by a passage in Apoc. Baruch ch. 
li. ' flagitia mysierionim eoruni ct pif- 
uiiilio fontamiiialmiii eorum.' where we 
may conjecture ^i-piibx i,¥aniitiin v/m 
very probably used in the Greek. See 
laler on, viii. 10 [avii^ipu). 

njv KDiXCav yana Kol Ttt vrXawva ^lav. 
For these expressions compare Isai. Kvi. 
It; Jer. iv. 19; Lam. i. 10. Aq. Jer. 
xxxi- (xxviii.) 10 tn iti, touto iixv't'' v 
foMa itmi aiViji. Syni. irafiixS't ^i /rrjf 

1« 'By^ Eiicat^ra «, & Mi. Tbis 
thoucht that the 'pious' should -juslify 
Cod occurs frequently in these Psalms 
(cf. Ki. 5. iv. 9, viii. 7. 17. .11, ix. i). 
The nearest approach 10 it in the O, T. 
is Ps. li. 4 'that thou mayest lie juslilinl 
when thou speakest.' Lam. i. iS. We 
hnd it also in Luke vii. 19 *ihe publicans 
jOSliiied God'(ot nXuru ^Studwru rir 

|L J.F. 

(JHnpt KopSbt. Compare for this 

fhrasc nnd the substance of the verst 
s. cxviii. (cxix.) 7 /fo^oXoy^ffo/iaJ ffoi if 
tiSinfri KOfMat ir rif lii/iaBiiKilrai in ri 
Kpliuxm r^t StKiuairirip «< 

17 dwi 

phatic descriplio 

k.tX For 


pf rt 


fpyti a.itTuii Hal varA tHji* roryjpiop Tuf 
iriTTjUtv/idTwr nuiwi'' nard t4 l/rya rCir 
X«pwr idi auToh, irilat tu irTariSBfiii 
auTiSr ai'roTr. Ixi. (Ixii.) n dwoSiiorii 
4xdfTif itoTd t4 Ipyi oiVoC. 

Toll <i)UfTMXo{t. The reference here 
is clearly not to the soldiers of Pompey 
(ver. 1), but to the sinful members of Ihe 
Jewish community. See note on i. i . 

nti iraviip<lt a'4>i8pa. This use of 
a^Spa is due to the literal reproduction 
of litlp. Compare Eick. ix. 9 jcbI tlirt 
Vfiif /li iiitla TQV tiKOu 'lafatiK tal 'lei3a 
tii)tfyA\vrr<u atpbipa aipiipa, 

18 dviKUulat. The exposure of 
Jewish iniquity descrit)ed vv. i j — i; ha<l 
OS its purpose the explanation of ihe 
Divine visitation. For the use of this 
Ihoughl and phrase cf. viii. 8 AiukSKik^ 
i Stot T&t iiiafrlai auTur irunUir ToO 
^Wou; Job XX. J7 iraiaXd^oi ti airov i 

CdeaaSal ixf T&r 'UpaiiX lal aitaicBXL-^^i}- 
(Ttriu ^ d&ixla 'Etppaiix. 

19 iEii>ju|nii ri |ivTi|iJirwov avn^. 
Cf. iii. 10 0^ •iifitS^triu iwiiiimn'or 




" KaTe'o-Trao-e to toXAos aOr^s diro Opovov So^?, 
(ufetSto-ai' yap €^i^ 'lepoucraXi}^ tV KaraTrar^o-ci. 
" nepiEzcicATo ciiKKOM ttiTt evSu^aTog €if7Tpe7r£ta.5, 
cxniNloN TTfpt TTjv Kei^aXi^f avTrjs auTi crT£<fiavov, 
" TTtputkcTo [ilrpai' Sdf»;s, ^f TT(piJBt}KeP avTT) 6 6t6^' 
'" ec ctTi/xia TO KaWos aur^s diTeppCtfiy} iirl rrju yTjv. 

"-' Kat eyo) etSoi' xai eSc^^iji' roO 7rpo?eoJTOv Kvptov Koi 

iKavoxTOP, Kvpte, tov ^apvve(T0cu X^^P*^ """^^ ^'"^^ i€/30V0'aXi//i 
cc irrayoiyj) eBvoiv, 

' A : conjee. I.agarile irrppl<lrri i: 
iirOTWT^ A, V, K (^), ^laviir/B P PJ, M, Hilfi. (conj.). 

And Ihe same words are found in close 
proxiinily I's. cvili. {dx.) 14, 1^ i) iuaptiit 
T^I liirrpii airoS /tii (f(A(i#0(l>|...a:ai c^- 
Xirf()(uS((i( I* yfji t6 iinuiMitoir airaii-. 

Cf. Dcut. XXV. 6 oiK (faX«0e*r*Tai 
ra S>a|ia oiVdD if liTfnliX. 

a (Ml. An abrupt change from ihe 

A Mi Kpirflt SCiceMt. Ps.vii. [i. Cf. 
Gen. xvlli, ij. 

od Baufulrd. vpj<rHav, i.e. is no re- 
specler of persons, as Acts x. 34 oOii 
tan TpimuroK'^wnji i Sm, The usual 
rendering of the Hebrew phrase by rp6a- 
iiiroi' Xafiffditit is here varied as in Gen. 
xix. It IM iSaiitaaA mv ri -rpSaumu ; 
I^v. xix. tf oii -rniifrcTi aSitor It iplirii- 
Dir \^^TJ wp&aurw ryurxoii, aiiii /£i} ^ai'.- 
/iiff))t ir/iiiritfiro*' Jwdareu; Deut. x. 17 d 


u Pou/ulf*! rpAfftt 

! Prov. 

7 J Jade 16. Cf.Wi 
¥1, BU 7B/1 inrooTtXnTia xpiffiijroi' D 
T)!*!!* Jdrrinjf. The impnitiatily of 
the Divine judgement is perhaps here 

niphasized with 1 side thrust 


30 KOT^nrturt ri KciXXot 

laps here 
Ihe High 

KciXXot a^Ttit 

is clause stands 

p Ufnt- Thii 

in two Mss.. P and M, nRer Karananiatt. 
Bui the arrangement of Ihe other M!f<i. 
appears to us the mote correct one. ?~or 
(i) such a clause wilh a yip would not 
be natural afler h 6ti% ...rpiuiarw. (1) 
The more prosaic clause ^rfHiaiw... 
KorawoHtdti seems lo fallow as an ei- 
planilion of the more poelical but less 
explicit sentence Jtar^rnw) . . , Wf^t : such 
■D anangeinent agree!, with Ihe paral- 


f the clauses often 1 

■> thes. 


{}) According lo the Parisian MS. car- 
IrTaae and ■fpitfiiffaro would sinnd in 
adjoining clauses, the one referring lo p 
Bibs, the other lo'ltptutaXim- hut each 
separated by a clause from its Irue subjed. 

The clause, which is practically equi- 
valent in meaning lo ver. 93, reproduces 
Ihe thought of Ps. Ixxxviii. (Ixxxix.) 45 
rir Bpittt avnS elt t^ 7^ MT^jJ^oJai. 
But the exact meaning of the line is not 
very obvious on account of the Word av- 
rijt. which anlicipaies Ihe mention of 
Jerusalem in Ihe next line. The sen- 
tence 'he lore her heauly from the 
throne of glory' contains no very defi- 
nile meaning beyond that of a queen's 
humiliation generally. It musi not be 
anderstood as equivalent to 'he tore her 
beaulcous form from the Ihronc of gloiy,' 
for it is not implied thai Zion is re- 
moved from her throne, but only Ihat 
she is humiliated while occupying it. It 
is best to regard Ihe clause as an antici- 
pation of ver. 13 and lo understand l>y 
Tu (dXXuf the outward splendour of the 
Zion Queen's magnificence. 

Something is to be said in favour of 
Gcigur's view that aiiT-71 is an error of 
Ihe translator, who having before him 
rmn read rTT^ri ri mlXXot ttMit in- 
stead of rmn rfXXot (Ps. xxix, j ; Prov. 

bifiiaitif^ d^iofffis Vuv. The jihrase 

II. 24] 



20 He cast down her beauty from the throne of glory, for 
the Gentiles brought reproach upon Jerusalem by treading lier 
under foot 

31 She girded herself with sackcloth instead of fair raiment; 
she put a rope about her head instead of a crown ; 

22 She put off the diadem of glory, which God had set 
upon her ; 

23 Her beauty was cast aside in dishonour upon the ground. 

24 And I beheld and I intreated the face of the LORD 
and said ; ' Enough, O Lord ; let not thy hand be any more 
heavy' upon Jerusalem, in bringing the Gentiles upon lur. 

that rhy 

disgrace the thrime of Ihy glory." Cf. 
I Sam. iL 8; Is. xxii. it,. The benuly 
of Ihe qaeen's throne is gone. She 
herself [mis off her glorious Wlire (ver. 

■vilSmv with I9n,. Cf. Ps. txixv. 

(tixxvl) g rirra ri tBni...^iDvaiii lai 
rfiwIKVviiaoi'aif iriliirifa' croc, Kifiit, Kol 
S^iaavait to Smud aov. 
ir KaTomiT^ni. Cf. 1 Kings xiii. 7 

e Ps. Ivi. (Ivit.) . 
' tit traSot rein taTawaTourrii /it; Eliek. 
Kiivi. 4 iytna-To rii i/io»wi^ xaJ tU 
imrarhniia. ToTt JCBTaXii^tiai)' ISmbi 
wtfiiiKKif. Cf. Jcr. xli. 10. 

91 mpttltfiraTe. Tlie subject is here 
changefl. Jerusalem in her humiliation 
Ittys aside her queenly allire, anil puts 
on the symbols of mourning. See Isai. 
iii. 34 Jtc. irrl fiinjjj axo^lif fiiffU" "oi 
irrl Ttv utemi' rljt mpaX^i T«ii xpi"'^" 
^^Ainpvita ticii i)ii ri Ip^a rov coi drrt 

riiKilar. The words Ttifufiimviu, eiiKat, 
rx.""^ ore similarly found together in 
t Kings xxi. 31 koI rrptr^iiffftuTo adgnovi 
twi T^r 6e^6ai ai^rtjir gal iOtaa* ^^Atrfa 
iwi Til xt^tAis avTwr. 

vtixKov. Cf. Is. iii. ]4, XV. j; Lain. 
ii. 10. Aseneih x. f*,a^i aixKot itai 
TtjMefiiaaio t^c dff^i> BW^t, (£Awrt H 

^vtI JvSvuiTOf iinrpmlat. Perhaps 
the allusion here is lo Isai. liL I 'put on 
thy beautiful garments O Jerusalem, the 

rirpihrtuk. Cf. xi. S, xvii. 47. 

The phraseology of our passage closely 
Tcaetnblcs Banich v. i. 1 fili'rai 'Itfov- 
raXi^fi rif VTB\qr tav ■wtwiav\...ii>X Ithv- 
eat Tijr wwrptrtmr r^ rapd tbE BtoS 


tiSra. irtpifloXoC t^i- i 
id rail ^loii tifcuoaivri 

rX(iM'fay,,,i{vTl stm^vov. See 1 

Kings xxi. 39 ; Is. iii. I4. For ar^^urai 
cf. Lam. V. [6 iTrtatv o trri^arot ^^k 

S3 vtpLrikrni. Ex. xxxiii. 6 icsl rqu- 
cfXaiTo (^S^mn) of viol 'lapsQX rjr k6- 
a)iar airCiir; Jon. iii. 6 iral wtpii{\aro 
0'3yn| TTJ* (TToX^ oin-oi; d*' <«wdC mi 
irtptfpiXtTo aaKKof. Bar. iv. 34 ml rt- 
/wfXiS aur^r li iyaX^iafui tJi tdXim- 

|iiCrpav.,.v(pi«T|iEfv, cf. Isai. Ixi. 10 lil 
tun^if rifii40Tif^ iiou iiirpaji. 

The same iningeiy ap]>ears in Ezek. 
xxvi. iti jfaZ d^XoivTat jdr ^Irpac &ri 
Tuf «0aXi3i' oiiTiSi', where the Hebrew 
gives n difTerenl sense. 

Asenelh {x.) wean, a Sidhina and 

sa Iv ilniiff. A frequent expression 
in these Psalms, see ver. 15, 31, 35. 

ditc^Ui] M t4v YTJv. For this pic- 
ture combining rejection and dishonour 
compare Ps. Ixxxviii. (l'""'ii-) 39 'Thou prulaned his crown evfti lo Ihe ground 
(^^tflitXowoi lit rir-nrri iyliurixa ouTrHi), 
Ijm. ii. I 'He halh cast down from 
heaven unlo earth the beauty of Israel' 
(mr^jl^^n' /{ wpuDtl tti -y^ Ufcur^ui 

a« Kal iyi tXBov mX. The Psalm- 
ist is referring lo the vision of Zion hu' 

milialed and di^raced, which had risen 
before his eyes. Cf. viii. 1, 3, 4. 

IS(ijh|v Toii TpMninu Kvpuni. Cf. 
vi. 7. 

For Ihis rendering of the Hebrew 
idiom (D'JD n^n) compare i Snro. xiii. 
1 1 ml ToP rpoaJiwtv ri ~ 


'" Kot trui^e\€(r^o"ovTat, eav jUij crv, Kvpit, eTrtTt/:i^crp5 av- 

Tot! ev opyfj crov 
^ OTi OVK iv ^TjXft) itrol'qiTa.v, aWa. if iinBvfita. ^v\rj<;, 
^ iK^dai Trfv opyrjv avrmv €1% ij/ia; eV apirdyfLari. 

i}9i)»i Dan. ix. i.i «al ofin ^J(i)ftj;K» roB 
wpoadnrmi fv/iov tou SfoO q/iur; i Kings 
Jiiii. 6: Jpr. xitvi^ 19 ( = K»)im. 10 LXX.). 
Ud*»vvi>...Toii K.T.X. For this form 
of Ihe idiom Ihere is no very ohvions 
panllel. Bni the words represent the 
Hebrew rendered in the LXX. by lii«»«wBu 
act (Deut. iii. 16; r Chron. xxi. 15), cf. 
Num. Kvi. 3, ixlr^ i^w (D?f-2-l|, 
Sym. itprcfrv; Deut, I. 6 \iwaini8a 

Ms the ri 
IS howe 

the serlence. "'Aiere is however this cha- 
Turterislic difTerencc, that whereas in the 
O.T. narrative the mercy of God slays 
the hand of ihe destroying Angel, here 
ihe 'pious' Jew. inlercedine directly wilh 
I he Almighty, pi cad slh at sufficient punish- 
ment has been meled out. 

mS pofnivtrSai x^P^ irov. Cf. v. S. 
For this phrase, which literally renders 
the Helirew idiom, compare Judg. i. 15 

'A;ii>|Ua?or ; 1 Sam. V. 6 i^apirSi) 4 X'^P 
•^•fitoo Irl 'AlUTBi; Ps. xxxi. (ixxii.) 4 
JIrt iitUfiat KOi ivjcrit ifiapiiBif Iw' iui 17 
X'ip 001'. From these passages it is evi- 
dent that papirtirSai is here used in Ihe 
Passive and not in Ihe Middle Voice. 
and that 'UfovaaXtitt is in the accusative. 
- - - • " i Ihe 

foltowlng sentence tn.. ftTirliriui which 
serves to cKplain the words, it ajipears 
Ihal actual outrages perMlraled in Jeru- 
salem must be intended; moreover fia- 
piftaOai Xf<P^ "O" J*"! ' IipoivaXqu would 

01 the inhabitants by the Romans. 

The internal evidence is therefore 
strongly in favour of h FraYuryn iffrwr, 
which gives a good and natural sense. 
The word iwayayij acquired a special 
meanin? of 'visitatJon,' in the sense of 
Ihal which is 'brought upon a people or 
individuals by God on account of their 
sin.' Cr. Deut. xxxii. 36 iWt yip ropa- 
XtTiVi/Jravt aiVnH)f kbI (cXtXoiT^t it iwa- 
^itrfp. Prov. iKVii. 10 (Theodot. ) ir iutipf 
iwayuTfTjt (ffoii) = Tyil. Ecclns. ii. j nil 
^!) (TTlArilt tr KOip^ frarfoyiji, iii. 18, 
V. B. X. 13. xxiii. II, XXV. ,4, xl. 9: 
and probably also Isai. xiv. 17 tb6i ir 
irayayi (I'Tpg, ta/i/ivBS tjui) oiir 
Aiwcv. We might therefore translate 
the present words ' by Ihe visitation (con- 
si!;ling) of the Gentiles.' Bui probably 
the simplest rendering is here the best. 
Cf. Lev. xxvL Iff tal fwdfu tip' A^at 
liix'^P'^ i'SucEaar SUt)' StaS-ififf i Ha- 
racb iv. [5 iriiya-yi yip iw' aimiis (Srot 

as Jv^mitav, and not fraifoi. is re- 
quired by the context. The meaning is 
evidently mockery uilh ill usage, as in 

xxii.4; I Chron. X. 4 where ihe Hebrew 
is bjllr"?- Compare 1 Mace. ix. 16 roJ 

ri* 7-^1 iii-xewiuyiUnit roitttat 

(«Td iiigvlmot. The reading #iiinj- 
atut is a mere ilacism. The word ^fvit 
does not seem to occur in Ihe O.T., Ihe 
passages quoted by Tromm in Isai. xiii. g, 
xvi. 6 not giving it in the best text. The 
verb itiftla in Lev. xix. 18: Ps. cJi. (c 
9! Jer. iii. 11 translates the Hebrew 
pression 'to keep anger.' 


11,28] YAAMOI lAAOMnNTOl. 3i 

25 P'or they mocked, and spared her not in their wrath and 
anger and vengeance. 

26 And they' will be utterly conHumed, unless thou, O'i-c. 
Lord, rebuke them in thy wrath, ^"''"' 

27 For they" have done it not in zeal, but in the lust of their ■ i.e. ihe 
soul, GatlUts 

28 That they might pour out their anger against us in rapine. 
Delay not, O God, to recompense it upon their heads, 


1; <ind ii 

xt. <; Sv/iai fal ^ko7 Kol Tapaj^V '(^ ffdXos 
KcU ^Pqi ffaroTou tat fi-^i/ia (vulgo /iq- 
rtafa) xoi Ipii, The verb tiijriu also oc- 

90 Kol wmXHi Ot|u UK I lu. Observe 
the change of subject. So merciless are 
the Gentiles, that the Jews will be utterly 
consumed, unless tlie Lord rebuke them 
(the Gentiles). Hilgenfcld by inliodu- 
Li.^i^ Du before nivTiXurS^iroi^ai impoHs 
L bito the passage a wholly uncalled fur 
'- eliangc in a ^mple sentence. Fiituche 
Mjs 'videluT licribendum ttvyrt^tSiiai- 
luSa, cf. vs. j8.' But the 3rd Pers. I'lor. 
can without any violence to grammar be 
referred to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, 
implied in the mention of the city in ver. 
. 15. We believe that the lranslalioi> 
given above fully expresses the meaning 
of the Greek words. It is not however 
improbable that ^-vmXcvflilvwTai is a 
Iruislalor'a blunder. The Hebrew let- 
_ 4ei5 yjyy are capable of beint; rendered 
■ indiHcrcnt ways according to the punc- 
Ftoation, either passively 115?^] = ai»r(- 
^ V<r»4aMrw) as in Isai. i. iS; Ezek. v. 
II, and very frequently; or transitively 
(iVs?] or *^5"1 ««! avrrt\i<t<,<.a«') as in 
Vs. cxviii. (cxix.) 87. We may con- 
jecture that the translator here rendered 
the lelleis on the supposition that Ihey 
represented the more frequent intransi- 
tive fonn, which would naturally be 
reproduced liy rurrtXeeSiitorTai. If, as 
we are disposed 10 think, the meanil^ of 
the original was 'And Ihey will consume 
w make a full end," the more correct 
Inuislation would have been koI rvrTi. 

twnf.ifrjp. Cf. Ps. ix. s iirtTiM''" 
I Mrtffi Kill dTwXtTO i iatpip, cxviii. 
I (cxix.}ii <ir(rj^7irai vccjiii^veii, where 
""- ! Divine rebuke |^"HfJ) conveys the 

notion of complete overthrow. 

»7 8ti ouk iv lijX^ K.T.X. The Phari- 

of judicial visitation. The work of pun- 
ishment had been carried out not 'in 
leal' for the Lord of righteousness, but 
in the 'lust of their soul,' with savagery 
and wanton rapine. The words it {^Xy 
require explanation (cf. iv. 1). The 
'jealousy' or 'real' (ntOp, i^w) of the 
Lord is frequently spoken of in the 
O.T. as excited or directed in wrath 
against faithlessness and wrong-doing 
(cf. Eiek. V. 13, xvi. 38, 41, xxxviii. 
19 &c.). In our verse it is implied 
that the Gentiles were used as the un- 
conscious insirumcnts of Divine 'ical' 
against Zion, but had gone beyond the 
limits of their mission. The true type 
in (he history of Israel of righteous leal 
was Phinehas. Cf. Num. xiv. 10, i r 
' And the Lord spake unto Moses saying, 
Phinehas, the son of Lleoiar, the son uf 
Aaron the priest, hith turned my wrath 
away from ihe children of Israel, In that 
he was jealous with my jealousy (lxx. 
if Tifi l^Xiitai lau rir l^\or) amon); Ihem 
so that I consumed not the children of 
Israel in my jealousy.' The Gentiles, 
however, though executing the Divine 
gunishmenl, had not been 'jealous with 

e jealousy.' 

hnSv|iff J 

'u^ijoii rji ^vxSi oi'Toi'; Jer 

For the thought here conveyed com- 
pare Zech. i. 15 'And I am very sore 
displeased with the nations that are at 
ease: for I was but a little displeased, 
and they helped forward the affliction.' 
Isaiah's denunciation of Sennacherib for 
forgetting that in his successes he was 
only God's instnimenl of punishment is 
very similar, 1 Kings xxi. jj — is. 

3B 'kx^* '")' ^Ffjl* airmv. For 
this phrase compare Ps. Ixvili. (Ixix.) 


[II- 29 

™Toi) eiTreli/ ■n/i'' rod ip&KONTOc iu art/xi.^. 
^ Kal ouK i)(p6vi(Ta ems eScife /i.ot d 5eoy 

uTrep ikd^tcrrovf i^ovhevo)fi.ivov ivX yrj^ Kal 6aXa,(T(rT)%, 

aa 7oO .ii-trc uoild. Fubr. {Jeig.: conj. Fabr. a«l>, Hilg. <(«<-. Ililg.' (Pick.) 

"111. Hilg. (luxl.), Cerda interpr. dislulil (Hilg. Gcig. FiiUscb. 
i/i-w A, V, K, M, P, Fabr. Geig. ; Hilg. conj. inmifrr'aUin^r , ila 

SO (^(jjii'KrH codd. Hilc. 
Pick.). imKfrTTiixiyor A, V, k. M, P, Fabr. Gefg. : Hilg. conj. i 
Frilzsch, Pick. Inrip cudd. : vr' conj. Hilg. FriUsch. Pick. 6piiiir codd. el cdd., 
conj. Hilg.' ipiiMi (Pick.), rtaxtoroii codd. el edd., nos /Xix""'''- 

Jet. X. 15 (iitxfiui t4» fli'fiiii irev trl IBni 
K.T.\.; Eiek, vii. 8 ;«x™ t*)* d/iTii* >ioi/ 
(Vl a^. 

^v dpirdfiuin. Cr. Ps. lii. (Uii.) II oul 
twt apwiy/iara (713) fifj ^riTofffrre. 

In Ibis ri«i|icct Pompey slood out as 
an hunuuiable exception lo the general 
conduct of Roman conqueiors in tbe 
Ea*t. He ii said lo have left the trea- 
sures uf the Temple untouched. His 
licQlenints were not accastomed to imi- 
tale his forbeanuice. Gabinius, who was 
one of Pompey's strongciit adherents, 
earned an evil notoriety for hia cxce^ive 
extortions during his two years' Procon- 
subhip in Syria 57 — 55, cf. Cicero Pro 
ScEt. 43, Gabinium haurire ^uolidie ei 
paratissimis alque opulentissirois Syria; 
gaas innunierabile pondus auri, bellam 
inferre quiesccntibus, ut eorum veicres 
illibatasque divitias in proTundtssimum 
libidinumsuarutngui^tem profundxt. De 
Prov. Cons. 4; Dio Casa, xxxix. jj, s6. 

Gabinius >vas aderwards put upon bis 
trial for his conduct in Syria, and Ihough 
defended by Cicero was found guilty and 
banished (Dio Cass. xxXlK. j^ — 63). 

K^ XP°>''TI*- "^^ verse is wrongly 
divided. These words addressed in 
prayer lo God are found in Ps. xxxix. 
(xl.) 18, Ixix. (Ixx.) 7, Dan. ix. 19. 

](pov(Iv is found witb toO and the Inf. 
Gen. Kxxiv. lu and Ecdes. v. 3 M x/»- 
ulrgt reO droAovrai avr^ : with the Inf. 
Deut. xxiii. 11 ou xponiU iraiaStai av- 
rrir, Ex. xxxii. i texpinte Muiiofii Karn- 

iiiroBovvai...(lt lu^aXclt. This ren- 
dering of B common Hebrew phrase may 
lie^t be illusti.ilcd by a passage in which 
there is a considerable resemlilancc in 
the language with the present context. 
Eiek. xxii. 31 xol iHx^ ''' '^i' ^"1^' 
lUB ir rvpl 6py^t fav roD rwrtXivaf rdf 

Cf. 1 Chr. vi, 13. 

a» Toii tlmtv. This, the reading of all 
(he Mss., apparently gives no intelligible 
meaning ; compare Ccrda's tendering 
'ul dicant superbiam dtaconis in igno- 

The ingenuity of succes^ve cdilon 
has been taxed to supply a suitable con- 
jecture. Fabricius proposed ISfi* 'nt 
videanl,' which would give a very Ifltnc 
conclusion to roi/ irttotrai ili n^oXii. 
The same may be said of Hitgcnfeld's 
mote ingenious elxfc*, which appears to 
us a very unlikely word to occur here, 
and is only found, according lo Ttomm, 
in the Lxx., Wisd. xviii. 15. 

rp^mr, suggested by Hilgenfeld' and 
adopted by Pick and Wellhauscn, which 
in the LXX. is nearly always (except Ex. 
xvii. 13) found in the Middle ot Possive 
(cf. Judith XV. 1 T(Jttx^»Bi lis ^iiryi^; 1 
Mace. iii. 14 (It lK\vair Koi SciMsr r/n- 
T^ai},' would hardly have been used in 
the Greek of this period in the sense of 
DTpilia or dXXdffffu (cf. Wellh. p. 133). 

The difliculty however receives a sim- 
ple and satisfactoty explanation on the 
supposition of d translator's ermt. (i) 
The Hebrew in? would very naturally 
be rendered by raS ilrttr: but according 
10 a late usage of the language, the verb 
T3T WIS us^ for '10 desitoy,' 'to over- 
throw' (cf. the substantive T^^ ' destrac- 
tion," plague'). ThuswefindiniChron. 
xxii. 10 'she arose and destroyed (Heb. 
1311^1, LXX. Kal iwdiXtae) all the seed 

strength of this an.ilogy we might assume 
tlint "Q"!? should have been tendered 
rw (ttroUffai in the sense of I^K^ 
instead of by nS tiTti*. 


F"- 30] 


39 To turn"' the pride of the dragon to dishonour.' 


30 And I delayed not until" God showed to me that inso- '"''' 
I lent one", lying pierced upon the high-places" of Egypt, made q^^ 
I of less account than him that is least on earth and Sea ; To zay 

, ^ " Perh. 

Tbis expliu 

had It 
vrfrrf^tLax. Cf. vv. i, 1. yel eeased 

ipixarrvt. H is evident that 4 i^ff^- U'ktH 
*o»Io roS ipiKOfTDt or Ihis line is further ij q^ ^^ 
described in tbe next v«se as ^ D^pti aC- ,'^^;^, . 
roll ; and the deliLils 01 Ihe sub&equenl ,, „ 
passage combine to make the identifica- _ 
tion of the SpAnw with I'ompcy almi 

in, suggested first by 
Geiger. seems lo us very probable. 

The chieT objeclion 10 Ihis theory is 
[he rarity of the verb in this setise. And 
it is of courtc a possible explanation that, 
while T>C tlwfi* literally rendered the 
-Qrh of the translator's text, Ihe imV 
itself mighl have been an early corrup- 
tionfotnatb. Bui ofthe two we prefer 
the explanation which ascribes the diffi- 
culty to the translator's error to that 
which has to presuppose an earlier cor- 
ruption of the Hebrew text. 

(ii) But a still more ingenious con- 
jecture on the same lines is put forward 
by Wellhauscn. He assumes thai Tab 
rbrar represents "OK? in ihe Hebrew, 
and in "lOK? he discerns a late Hebrew 
form for Tpp = 1^11? "lo change.' This 
very word occurs in Hos. iv. 7 D"li3JI , 

TpK |i?i^9 'I will change their glory chai 
mto shame,' where Ihc similarity of 
Ihoughl to the present clause is very 
Elriking ; indeed, if the conjecture is cor- 
rect, it is hard to resisl the impression 
that the prophet's words are here repro- 
duced by our Psalmist. 

Between the conjectures of Geigcr and 
Wellhausea it is not easy 10 decide. The 
rarity of "13T in the sense of 'destroy' 
militates against Geigcr's view; the laie 
form of a common word weakens Well- 
hausen's case. We incline to favour the 
l«lter critic, partly on the ground that tdC 

tlwtiw probably represents TbK? more ,- , 

,, u --1. , ,. , 'xpivwro, read by all the MSS., 

naturallythanlST^^paitlyontheground occasioned editors much difficulty. C, 

lagety of ihi 'dragon ' Another 
or 'leviathan' in the O.T. is appUed '^5'"^' 
especially lo Egypt. Cf.pB.licxiii.(ixxiv.) *<^'" 

(in;lV); E»elt. xnix. 3 Itnii liii Irl at 
4Nxpaf^, ^aaiKtv ^lyOwrav^ rir SpdiaMTa 
(D'SriPI) rir fi^Tor riv ;y.toflij>i«o» 4r 
lUaif woTatiQi' airtO, xxxii. 1 Mcvri 

i ir T^ StMarji. But Ihis is no sufficient 
reason for making Ihe present allusion 
apply to Antiochus Epiphanes, as Ewald 

iphor is also used of Nebu- 
&J.r. II. 34Hcb.(.«.iil. 

Ba^u\C»as laTint *», ut Spinur (I^|93) 
frXifiri tV loMar airoS. 

According lo Ihe Apocalyptic method 
of transferring lo Rome the imagery of 
Babylon, the application of 'the dragon' 

the present passaiie. 

ki. The sense is obvious. 'And I had 

re think 
IS differ- 

, _il fromtliatwhichWelihausen proposes; 

TDJ might have been read for Tpll?, 

and by the common change of ' lo 1 a 

reading I'lO? arose, which gave rise lo 

. the rendering toO tlrcu: 

In cither cose Ihe theory of a Hebrew 
|rinal successfully explains Ihe other- 
lintelligible words of Ihe Greek 

difficulty. Lerda 
following the Aug. ms. read ixpi*^"^ but 
translated 'distunt.' Hilgenfeld intro- 
duced ixP^"' in'o his text, and has 
been followed by Frilzsclie, Geigcr, and 
Pick. The difhculty of translation how- 
ever is not to be removed by Ihis ex- 
pedieut, as may be sbown by the ren- 
derings. Geiger 'Und alsbald icigle inir 
Golt seine tichmach,' Pick 'And very 
soon God showed me &.c.,' Wellhausen 
Tjicht langc. da leigtc mir Gott,' in 
none of which is there any attempt lo 
render i^fiiurt* literally. 

" TO (ToifJLa avTov 8i 




Against l-xpinira, besides the absence 
of MS. support, »c find the following 
objectinns: (i) the position ofi St6t next 
to tSafi ihows that, whatever the original 
may have contained, the translator con- 
sidered 6 Btit to be the subject of Kri^i 
especially; had tyjiinrtt been the read- 
ing, we should certainty have ex|]ected 
eiK txfiinircr b Pefe. (j) The constrac- 
tion i^ i}(pii'UTtr {itfr IStiif, when tile- 
rally rendered 'be tarried not until he 
had shown,' makes nonsense; and so fat 
as xp*''^ <■'' concerned there is nothing 
in LXX. or N.T. to show that tuK txpo- 
rifftr !uT IStiit could be used for oCk 
txpi*"" iiiiai or toS Srifoi. {3) The ap- 
parent correspondence of fxp*""" *'''' 
l*i Xpo'^in ol ver. 18 has influenced the 
editors. But surely it cannot lie relied 
on; for (a) the constmclion is altered 
from rov with Inf. to lus with Indie, and 
{i) the solemn prayer ' Delay not 10 
revenge ua, O God' would obtain ■ 
strangely prosaic anticlimax in the state- 
ment that 'God delayed not lo sliow the 
Tsalmixt a vision of revenge.' 

Ifwc accept the text t'xpdvi^-a.ibe sense 
of the passage is that of Dan. ix. 11 'Yea 
whiles I was speaking in ^^yer, the man 
Gabriel... touched me.' The reply came 
at once or after a very short interval. 

We conjecture that the true explana- 
tion is to be derived from the abrupt 
ending of the prayer in vcr. 19, and 
that oil ixf^"'<* ^v i> a mistransla- 
tion of a Hebrew idiomatic expression 
for "before I had ceased,' 'I had not 
yet ceased when' CI Olgt (6 ^l^), or 
■I had addevt no mor^ when' (th\ 

Tijv Sppiy bJtov. This word, here ap- 
plied to Pompcv, is found often in the 
LXX. as the rendering of pK3 both in a 
good and a bad sense, cf. Nab. ii. a ' the 
oftUtitcy of Jacob, as the txnUtncy of 
Isiad,' Eiek. xxxil. 11 'the pride uf 
Eeyptf'Zech.x. II 'the /t^; of Assyria.' 
The feature of its UK in Ibis passage is its 
application to the man who had profaned 
by his pieseoce the Holy of Holies and 
afterwards contested with Ciesar the su- 
preme authority of the Roman world. 

JHKOWTiHkAvf. Hilgenfeld's emen- 

dation ixntKtmifiAf^ intended to im- 
prove the grammar of the passage is 
quite unnecessary. The Accus. Masc. 
is an instance of the common irregular 
constnlclion hktI aittaa, as if r^ 0{9pu' 
abtau had been rkt vppiaTit. 

The use of the word inKinfrrniU'^' 
recalls the LXX. version of the passage 
upon which the present description is 
probably based. Isai. xiv. 19 ai ii 
^*i)(rij ir Twi ipitiy, w! rtxfii cfili\vy- 
IxiriK, lirri ro^X^«■ rrfnjiiTs* (kmhth- 
^imt naxalpiut ir.r.X. It is Ibe word 
used twice hy St John in quoting Zecba- 
riah ; Job. xix. 37 ; Apoc. i. 7. 

twX tiv ipttn Alftnrrvo. For this 
expression a very obvious emendatioa 
iirl rait ipiiiir ktrfumv 'Upon the liorders 
of Egypt ' (ef. t4 Spia Myiwrm, Ea. x. 
1 4 ; I Kings iv. 1 1 a) is suggested by Hil- 
genfetd* and adopted by Wellhausen 'an 
der Grenie Aegyptens.' Pick, who trans- 
lates 'on the mountains of Egypt, ' adds 
the mysterious note, "'tu» ifiwr' so the 
codd., perhaps that the reading was jplw 
'shores,'" where we are unable to under- 
stand the meaning of 'perhaps that,' and 
Pick himself fails to distinguish between 
'shores'and 'coasts.' 

The strongest argument for Ibis emen- 
dation is supplied by Eiek. xi. lo ir ^- 
^if nfiflrSt, irl Tun ipiiM rai 'lirpari\ 
{^■^ ^3J ^J) K/uu iii&t, in which 
verse some copies of the LXX. read 
ifilm: Our translator has possibly fol- 
lowed this passage in the LXX. But 
does not this emendation substitute the 
language of prose for that of poetiy? 
'The borders of Egypt' seems 10 us so 
prosaic as only 10 be justifiable here as a 
quotation from Ezek. li. lO. 

Vr'e prefer to think that the reading of 
the Mss. represents the tme Greek text 
with a special reference to Isai. xiv. ig 
(see above). We do not expect accuracy 
from the poetical llight of alew writing 
probably in Jerusalem. The Psalmist 
may well have based his language upon 
the old Hebrew elegy beginning with the 
words 'Thy glorv, O Israel, is slain upon 
thy high places (1 Sam. i. ig), and it 
is quite possible that the words of the 
original may have been 'rlTl^ *t)^P9 "1> 




31 Even his dead body lying corrupted upon the waves in 
great contempt; and there was none to bury him; 


Although we accepc the Greek lext ipiur, 
we do nol exclude the prohabilily that Ihe 
Greek ItanaUtor may here hive blundered 
or have had lo do with a defective Hebrew 
text. The most natural conjecture would 
be to read DnVO nl«? bj? (cf. Isai. vii. 
iB; 1 Kingsxix. 14) 'by or upon the ri- 
vets of Egypt' instead of D^VO 1^1 ?V. 
The desire lu find a perfectly iiteial 
application of iwl tuv d^hv Afyilrraumay 
be satiBiied by ihc statement of Dion 
Cnssius that Pompey fell by the ' Casslan 
mountain/ ?CL]l- 5 IIoMin^of f^ ^ 
Kp^Ti^Tot irpdrtpof 'PufAaiom vo/uaStltf 
td7r< Koi 'Aya/Utwom a&rir irixaXeiadaij 
rbre, KaBirtp Tit tat h^imt tiir kl-yinirUi* 
^^'X^'roT, Trpttt Tt T^ Ka^ffiip 6pti Kid iv rjj 

imp IXavCoTou JfovSivaiiUvov. Hil- 
genfeld's iiP i\a.jiaTBe, adopted by Pick, 
^vra the sense 'despised by him that 
u least.' A better emendation would be 
iXkx^n for AoxtoT-oi- (= "V^ nj3}) 
in Ihe sense of ' more contemned than 
one thai ii least among the ]>cople.' The 
use of ittip with the ace. as a comparative 

book arc frequent, e.g. i. 8, iv. i, viii. 

The vwip (10) appears to us to re- 
present the accidental repetition of the final 
'm' of 'Mizraira' (E(;ypl), and iya-j^arw 
cfovSaiiiilUnr may repeat the words of Ps. 
cxviii. (cxix.) t+i ni3))...TBlf ■ I am small 
and despibed' (lxx. >cwr(|)M...(al cfau- 
ttntiiUrm), cf. Sym. Isai. liii. i i^ovStrai- 
liirat xoZ cXdxiiTOi artpur. 

Wellhausen's 'verschmiiht, verachlet,' 
seems to .suggest two participles. 

KvpaTMV ■,T,X. Cerila. who thought 
Nebuchadnci2ar is spoken of, understood 
■VI irufiaruv metaphorically. 

Ewald, who thought Antiochus Epi- 
phanes was referred to, was obliged to 
explain ihe passage as a Jew's prayer for 
the doom oF Antiochus. 

But the language is neither that of 
metaphor nor of denunciation; and tl de- 
KTibes circumstances which seem lo suit 

We know that Pompey after the 
It Pharsalia sought refuge in Egy] 
The king of Egypt 1 

defeat 3t Pharsalia sought refuge in Egypt 

' "" ;nt down to \b\ 

Pompey left hi: 

i'ed to ■ ' 

ship in a boat, and u 
He was just rising from his seal in order 
to step on land, when 'he was slabbed 
in Ibe back by Septimius, who had for- 
merly been one of his centurions and was 
now in the service of the Egyptian mon- 
arch His head was cut olf and his body, 

which was thrown out naked on tnc 
shore, was left exposed to all who were 
desirous oF such a sight. His frcedman 
Philip, having waited till public curiosity 
was satisfied, washed the body with sea- 
water, and wrapped it in one of his own 
garments, because he had nothing eli>e at 
hand. The next thing was to look out 
for wood (or the funeral-pile ; and castinc 
his eyes over the shore, he spied the old 
remains of a liihing-boat ; which, though 
not large, would make a sufficient pile 
for a pour naked mutilated body.' (Plu- 
tarch.) One old Roman soldier was 
the only other mourner at this funeral 

I'ompey's head was di.iplayed before 
Cicsar upon the conqueror's arrival in 
Egypt shortly afterwards. 

Wellhausen's rendering ' lerMJimettert 
von den Wogen' indicates the view that 
the Greek translator had given a wrong 
turn to the Hebrew preposilion 3, and 
that the original would be more correctly 
translated 'by' than 'upon.' 

<Ak ^¥ i nimtv. In Pompey's case 
these wonts can almost be understood 
literally. The contrast between the fune- 
ral pile of a few spars from an old boat 
hastily erected by a solitary .servant and 
the magnificent ceremonial attending the 
obsequies of a great and weallliy Roman 
naturally seiicd upon Ihe imagination of 
thejewish poet. 

That a l»dy should be denied the 
decencies of burial, was always ri^rded 
as the height of ignominy. Cf. Ps. 
Ixxviii. (Uxix.) 3 KBl oiix ifi i eirrur; 
1 Kings ix. 10 xal rijr "I.^iMX «™. 

Jer. xxii. ly of king Jehoiakim. 



[II- 32 

ovK IKoyiao-TO on avOpunro'i ecrrt, 

fcat TO VfTTipov OVK iXoyiaaTO. 

*" elTj-ei'' ryto Kvpios ytjs koI 6a\d<rai]^ etro/xai, 

/cat ouK Imyvo} oTi d ^eo? fieya<;, 

KparaLO'i tn kxyf aytoy tiJ Mtrft^^'- 

" av70s yScKJiXeus eVi Toii' ovpavmv 

KoX Kpifwv (Sao-iAeis »cal ap;^as, 

"iNicTiJN e/it els Sdfar 

Kttt KOipltfiiv VTTfpy)<j>a.i'OVS eis dTTtuXeiai' aitociof eV drip-Ca, 

oTt ouK eyvoxrav avTov, 

^ Kat (^c iSere, 01 p.vyt.fjTa.vt'i Trj<i yijs, to Kplpa Kvpiov, 
OTi p-eya<; ^acrtKtv'i Koi SiKaio; Kpivtuv rifv vn ovpavov. 

etc. (_'cr<ia, 1x1, non interpr. 

rg luydXj, A. V, P, M, ^t>(ttn K (?), Fabr. 
lofil^r, ita FnlJ:»;h. Pick. 

82 oiln i\!ryttaro- Sri orBp. {bt 
38 fUir (A ?|, sed vAjrf CcrJa. 
SB nn/ilfuK codd. : cunj. tlilg. 

aa JfevS^uirn' avriv. We lake i 
fiAi (ver. ,^0) 10 be the subject of the 
verb, and aiirA* to be Pompey. Pick on 
the ulhei hand tenders ' Because he had 
dishonoured Him.' This, though of 
coune possible, docs not seem 10 us 
piobablc: (1) avrb* should refei 10 Ihe 
game person as^ a.itia \a vet. jo, 31 ; (j) 
the expressioo iifuiSiiiiiHrtT,.,iTtiii^ points 
back to ver. 19; it describes God's in- 
fliction of the dishonout for which the 
Psalmist ptayed: {3) Ihe words are more 
applicable lo Ihe humiliation of man by 
Divine visitation than to the contcmpluuus 
detiance of God by a man. 

odic &ir<^wn &n d!yflpvir6t Ivrt. 
Cf. Ezek. cxviii. i. 1 'The word of ihe 
Lord came again unio me, saying. Son 
of man, say unto the ptince of Tyre, Thus 
saith the Lord Goo : BecajlM Ihine heatt 
is lifted up, and thou host said, I am a 
god, I sit in Ihe scat of God. in the midsl 
of Ibe seas; yet thou ait man. and not 
God, though Ihou didst set Ihine heart 
as the heart of God, etc' CT. 1 Theis. 

Kal fi CvTcpov OVK JXof braro. These 
winds expand the previous clause: 'he 
considered not that he was a man, he 
considered nol that he had lo die.' L'f. 
Isai. xlvii. 7 'And Ihou saidsl, 1 shall be 
a lady fat ever; so that thou didst not 
ky these things to Ihy heart, neither 
didst remember the latter end thereof 

|l.XX. tM ciirliaBrp ri ?ixoTn). Lam. 
I. g ' She remembered not her latter end ' 
(lXX. avK fiir^Sii taxara Bin-Jl). 

•a Ji(<iiivpiot.,.tff^|iai. Geigerpointa 
out that il is nol staled that he was 'lord 
of heaven and earth,' but that this was his 
ambition. Pompey's aims wete never 
realized. Bui, considering Ihe uncertainty 
of the tenses representing the Hebrew 
imperfect, Ibis pomt musl not be pressed. 

For the spirit of arrogance described in 
this verse cf. Ezek. xxix. 5 'Thus sailh 
the Ix)RU GuD, Behold, I am against 
thee, Pharaoh, king of Kgypi,... which 
hath said. My nver is mine own, and I 
have made it for myself.' 

■al o«K inifym. tutyuranrfii is a word 
that occurs with especial frequency in the 
LXK. version of Kzekiel, and the teadet 
will hove observed how often the Psalmist 
u^ics the language of that Prophet. 

in o St^ |w(ai. It is a suggestion 
worthy to be considered that In these 
words there is an allusion lo Pompey's 
'soubtiquet' of 'Magnus.' ll is God 
alone, says the Jewish I'salmlst, who is 
'Great.' Cf. Deul. k. 17 ' For the LoKn 
your God, he is God of gods, and Lord 
of lords, [he great God, the mighty,' 
Psalm xciv. (xcv.) 3 -For Ihe LoKD is a 
great God.' 

KpanuJt iv tffx"'' »«'"« TJ l»*Tf^ll' 
These words echo a familiar formula, e.g. 
Deut. ii. 19 dDi i^iiyain ck 7^ Aiy&rrt 

I" 36] 



32 for he'* set him at nought io dishonour. 

He considered not that he was a man, and his latter end he 
[ did not consider. 

33 He said: I will be lord of earth and sea; and perceived 
not that it is God who is great, powerful in the greatness of his 

[ strength. 

34 He is king over the heavens and judgeth kings and rulers. 

35 It is he that lifteth me up unto glory, and layeth low 
[ the proud in eternal destruction in dishonour, because they 
f knew him not. 

36 And now behold, ye princes of the earth", the judgement •' 
1 of the LORO, that" he is a great and righteous king, judging '" 
' the whole earth. " 

it rSifxiiBoii TJ lityakjj Hal iw rj x«pj 
ilf^Jiy, jer. jtxrii. ( = LXX. xsxiv.) 5 oVi 

lirrA^. Cf. iiaii. ( = L)tx. xjiiii.) 17. 

■4 adrit PoviXcit iirX. tmv oipavvc. 
Cf. Ps. xi. 4 'TKe Lord's ihront is in 
heaven'; ciii, ig 'The Lord haih esU- 
blUhed his ihronc in the heavens.' 

•S cfvwnv i^ tit Sofav. The rc- 
snmplion of the 15I person is here no- 
liceable. Il would be natural lo see in 
Ihe woiHs an allusion tu the leniporal 
triumph of the Pharisaic party as the re- 
mit of recent political events. Dut inas- 
much as <J( Siiar correspond! to lij iwii- 
tiiMr eJiiruir, the whole verse is best 
UDdentood as standing in immediate 
connection with the reference (o Divine 
judgement mentioned in vet. J4. From 
thU judgement of Uod, the 'pious' Pha- 
risee looks for ' resurreclion unto glory'; 
bat he predicts for the 'proud,' i.e. the 
Sadducees and iheir foreign allies, de- 
Mtnclion with 'shame ajid everlasting 

On the EuHect of the resurreclion see 
note on iii. 16. The use of iiti, the im- 
personation of the true Israel, is to be 
noted in favour of the view that dwrrur 
...lit Ufar refers 10 something more than 
the tesloialion la secular glory. 

ivvrrmv. The language of this veree 
reminds us of Hannah's song; see espec. 
I Sara. ti. 8, where occur the words 
inrrf iwi Tiji winfr'- 

Kaii(ill«>i-. A sinking word lo use in 
the sense of 'liringing down,' 'laying 
low,' which is plainly the meaning re- 
quired here. The strangeness of the ex- 
prewion bu ctused Hilgenfcld to sub- 

stitute (o/iffiir. But for aiilfur nri 
Ht Awui\tia]i it would be hard to lind any 
authority: the passage in Eir. vi. 5 nol 
iK6iuair (rd ffnti^) tisOafivXun is scarcely 
sufficient to warrant its introduction in a 
metaphorical sense here : two olhcr pas- 
sages, I Esd. iv. j, ix. 40, employ the 
word in its literal sisnilication, but else- 
where il seems in tne LXX. lo be used 
in the Middle Voice. 

There is no need to introduce in the 
face of the uss. an insipid prose word 
as a substitute for a vigorous metaphor. 
cot^lffU' occurs in a hostile sense in 1 
Sam. viii. 1 'And he smote .Moab, and 
measured them with the line, making 
them to lie down on the ground' (nx- 
idaaj abroit hd rip' T^r). where il 
renders 2*ZVn. In its literal sense K«- 
filftu- occun I Kings iii. 10, 1 Kings iv. 
II, 39 as a translation of S^PH: It is 
also found in Gen. icxiv. 11 1 Jnd. xvi. 19; 
Nah. iii. 18. 

innpi]^i>ovi. This does not refer to 
the Romans whose bwipij^rta is spoken 
of in vv. I. 1, bat to the .Sadducaic 
princes and their parly; cf. i, 6 t^tpfteaii 
ir Toit iyaffait a&Tur, xvii. 16. 

iimitMar olaiviov. Cf. on iii. 13, xiii. 

Sti odK f^ivwaw aiurov. Cf. 1 Cor. 
XV, .14 djTQwliu' 7i;i SitB nrei fjoimi. 
as K»l yw. Cf. i«. 16. 
o[ )U)urTavtt Tiji 7111. Who are the 

persons thus addressed? They stand in 
distinction from the ol ^optOiirrai rir 
itdpiBf ir iirurHiiiji. They may be the 
princes and leading men of Palestine. 
But we are inclined to ihink that the 
victorious party of C:esar are meant. 
r/fv W odpaviv, i.e. t^ 7^. A com- 

Ot, /or 




[If. 37 

OTi TO eXeos KvpCov CTTi Tous i^o^ou/icVovs auToi' /itra *C/3l'- 

"tou iiACTCIAAi &N6 MecoN otKat'ov kcu afxapT<i]\ov, 
d-TToBovifai. dfiapTui\oi<; €ts Toi* atwi'a tcara ra epya avToii', 
■" Kttt cXti^o-at SiVaioJ' d-rro roTreii'wo-ews o/iapT(itA.ou, 

*' OTl IPHCTOC d KYpiOC TOTc 6ni KftAOYMeNOlL' ftyTliN EN -fnoMONti, 

TTOtT^trai Kara to eXeos auroC rots /xet' ai)ro2, 
nftpecTiiNii Sto, TTOtTOS tNionioN avTov eV icrj(Ui, 
" €■t^tl^HT6c KYpioc tic TON AltJNA ivwTTi.ov Tm> hovKfav avrov. 


as d<'d«uirw A, R, I>, aVi iitaw V, M. 

«0 rw*.-" A, V. M. Fal.r. Geig., tiij^iu K, V. Hilg. Friusdi. Pick. 

41 Tii a«/\u. A, 1', Fabr. Fiiusch. Pick, Tii» am. V, K, M, UJIg. Geig. 
Ccrda om. ^f^iDr^ scd inlerpr. coram. 

Inscriplio: 4raX;idi T^ Za\o/i£ir wtpl SualiM y' A, K et, ut vidclur, P (K omitlit 
7'). V, M om. Inbcript. 

D Ihe L 

man expression 

Job. C'Qmpare also iiar. ¥.30 yip Si 

Silffi rj vt' odptwir riiTj T'/jr ir-qr \afi- 

tn Prov. viii. 18 t^ ir' oipafir renders 
Dinp 'ihc abyss,' 

89 el ^paviuvai riv Kvputv tv iin.- 
m||i^ Uf the expression oJ <pepoi/iunii 
rir Kipatt Ihe Psalmbt iiecnis In initicate 
the 'pious' Pharisees, whose objctt it 
was to maintain ihc punly of theocratic 
principles; cl. iii. 16. v. 11, xiii. n. 

For the addition of fr irurr^jf com- 
\aie the other qualilying phrases, e.g. 
ver. 40 ir vroiiwg, iv. ifi ii cUait^, vi. g, 
X. 4 ir dXifhlf, by whicli the Psalmist 
distinguishes the true fear nnd love of 
God that charocteriicd the Pharisee from 
the mere religious pretence of the oppo- 
site facliun. 

Geiger suggests that a- iritTinj} re- 
presents the musical word 'MascMl' 
(S'3ETD3JandcomiHre«Ps.jilvii. 8 "sing 
ye praises with Hndtrslariding' (mai^. Or 
in a stiiftil fsalm Meb. Mischil). where 
Ihe Ljcx. h»s <fii.\im vottrSn. But (aj 
the phrase 'with a skilful Psalm,' appro- 
priate in connection with 'sityjing," is less 
■ -- -VjljAeaiii. 

the word in the Greek is certainly to be 
connected with ol ipopoiiitvoi, not with li" 
Xoythe, and the qualilication 'with under- 
standing ' added la 'the fear of Ihe LtiRti' 
had, as we suggest, a special signilicance. 
(c) ll should a^ be noticed that ' Maschil,' 
with the cicepdon of the passage quoted 
above, only appears in the muiiical sense 
in the titles of Psalms (i.e. xxaii. xlii. xliv. 
xlT. Iii.— Iv, Ixxiv. Ixxviii. Ixxxviii. Ixxxix. 

Sn ri DMOf.. p«rct Kpf^rot. A sen- 
timent which reappears in a variety of 
forms throughout iheae Psalms. Cf. Ps. 
ciii. 17, 'But the mercy of the Lord is 
from everlasting to everlasting upon them 
that fear him, and his righteousness onto 
children's children.' 

as Tov SuM-nlXok. CL Eiek. xxii. 16 
irifucor iylou ltd pifi^Mv ei Si^ffriXXw, 
Ktd irAfittrov iKaOd^prou ital tov KaSapoS su 
SUfTtXtioi; and sec on iv. 4. 

The discrimination between the 'right- 
eous' and (he 'sinner' is impossible 
under present conditions. It is spoken of 
as that which shall take place in the day 
of the Lord, Mai. iii. iH 'Then shall ye 
return and discern between the righteous 
and the wicked, between him that serveth 
God and him that serveth him not.' 




37 Bless ye God, ye that fear the Lord with understanding : 
for the mercy of the LORD is with judgement upon them that 
fear him, 

38 To separate between the righteous and the sinner, to re- 
compense unto the sinners for ever according to their works, 

39 And to show mercy unto the righteous because of their 
oppression by" the sinner, and to recompense unto the sinner "tir. 
in return for that which he hath done unto the righteous. ^««j 

40 For the Lord is gracious unto them that call upon him ,/ 
in patience, to deal according to his mercy with them that are 
his", that they may stand continually in his presence in strength. '"^"■I*'" i 

41 Blessed be the Lord for ever in the presence of his^V^*"' j 
servants, • 

PSALM in. 

Concerning the fHxhttoui. 
I Why sleepcst thou. O my soul, and blessest not the LORD ? 

The judcetnent beluiigs lo Got). Eiek. 
Kxiiv. 17 'Behold I judge belween caltle 
Uld callle, as well the mm; as the he- 
gnats' {iiab iyii itatptri itiiator rpo- 
^drou Kal irpofSdrou. cpiw loi rpiyar). cf. 
Malt. «iH. 49, XIV. .,1. 

(tiroSovvai. See on ver. 17. 

S9 ctird TaTuwitrii ifaprmXin, i.e. 
because of (lit. from before) the humilia- 
tion which the sinner inflicts upon Ihe 
ahteous. inafiraAnS is Ihe Gen. of ihe 
ijeci, noi of Ihe object. 

For Tarilruirit compare Lam. i. ^ ixtt- 
iftUrSti 'loi^oJtt duo rartififtut oijr^, 
where however airrii is the Cen. of the 

The Psalmist prolmbly refers to Ihe 
oppression which the 'pious' Jews un- 
derwenl al Ihe hands of the Sadducee 

iIvoSouvBi. The I.urd recompensed 
humiliation upon Ihe 'sinner,' cf. Ps. 
CKlvi. (cxlvii.) 6 iraKaiifiiviiir upatii 4 
K6piat Tatiirar H ifcaprwXoid (at Tiji yfti. 

rirfilv, cf ver, 3, 15. 

40 Tots JTwaXmiiiJroif aiMv. Cf. 
in. II. The eipression is praciically 
synonymous with ol ^poiiwrm iy l/wa- 
^lotg. The whole phrase combines Ps. 
cxiiv. (cxlv.) 9 -xf^Tln tipun rttt lrro/i4- 
i-owriip and 18 tYrii xCpioi waair TOiiiwtiia- 
\tviiirait airit, wSm tdii lrtiia\oeii^foa 
if aXijPel?. The 'palience' of the pious 

iew is perhaps conlrasled with Ihe via- 
;nce of the zealot. 

'ffaitjimi. We prefer the Inf.. carrying 
out Ihe idea of ^(pfrrit. to the Opt. 

Nant ti tXcot avrov Totf f*T ndro*. 
The last words are very slraiige, and 
probably Indicate some corruption in the 
text. We conjecture some confiision be. 
tween ' immu' (with him) and 'amm6' 
(his people), ItSp and \e^. 

mfM7TiLvu,,,l* UvmL The Inf. 
rapfsritat we lake to l>e dependent on 
rnijirw. 'To stand before ihe LORU' 
{waptBTirai trarri KVfioir) is Ihe privil^e 
of Ihe Levites (e.g. Deul. (■ 8, xviii. 7) 
and, in Ihe N.T., of the Israel ot Cod, 
Rev. vii. ,5. 

41 The Doiology— «iXoyi|T4* ictpwt. 
Cf. Gen. ix. 16: I.ulce i. 68. 

tmhnov rAf ici\ttv aAni. i.e. Let His 
name and power be praised and held in 
honour wherever His servants are. 

For Ihe IBRD's servants cf. Deul. ixxii. 
3A 5ti KpOftt isipvn rbr Xaov aiirof' tal 
ijJanXijflV''". Ps. 

f. (ex 


of the L»kU represenl the 'pious* Jews 
with whose Cause the Psalmist identifies 
himself. There is possibly a reference 
lo the orthodox priests of the time. 

Ps. UL—ArgmH/n/. 

and to praise the Lord anew (r. i). 

1. The righleons ever pruiselh the 
Loud: he acknowledgeth Divine justice, 


'Y^f^oN KftiNdu ^dkare tw Oeai t&> oii-etw. 

i/iaXXf Koi ypTjyoprjcrov eVt tt/i' yprjyopyjtrif avrov 

oTi aiyadoi; tpaXfio^ rm 6^ia il 6^HC Kapiiic. 

' AiKaioi fLvrifj.op€vov<ri Sta jrai^os tou KVpiov 
iv cfoyjoXoyTjcrei, Kai f SiKatovo-if [cv ati'eo-ei]t Tti Kptpara 

a ^ii\0T( V, K, p. Hilg. Frilzsch. Tick,: <l>i>i\aTt A, M: ^cIXXctc Fab. 
a Ki-pioi; in (Coii.o\<rYieii xal SiKoii^fi codd., Fab. Ililg. FrilLsch. Pick.: Kvplau 
h l^^oXoyififi, Kol Geig. Wcllh. (?). Txl. nos c conjeclurn. 

i>, ciii. (civ.)i ,J. 

9 G|iMV Haivdv ilM^Xart. 1 1 has been 
"uffirat"! (Geigerl thai the Psalmist \yy 
these words is referring to some recent 
event that cnl led for new and specialthnnks- 
giving: and that ihesiibjeel-mallcrorthc 
preceding Pmlm, the death of Pomgey, 
IS the occasion for exaltation on the purl 
orihoaejewa, who welcomed in his fate 
the vindication of Zion's honour. 

On the other hand the words arc based 
on well-known O.T. phmseology, and 
the general tone of the Psalm is social 
and not political. Without excluding the 
possibility of the other view, it is more 
nalural to r^ard the opening words \ 

when he is chastened : he is prepared 
for chaslisemcnl. when he falielh: his 
confidence is in God his Saviour. He 
endeavourelh lo live void of oflence; the 
sins of his houiiehoM he seeketh to put 
away ! for errors of ignorance he makcth 
trespass offering, he faslelh to make 
Bmends; and is cleansed, he and his house 


3. The sinner in trouble raileth and 
is profane; for him there is no hope or 
pity ; bis destruction is for ever, 

The righteous shall rise again, unto 
elemallile (11— ifi). 

This Psalm is of a more general cha- 
racter than the two preceding ones. The 
Psalmist does not introduce himivlf, nor 
is Zion personilied. Kul the description 
of the 'righteous' and the 'sinner'givcsin 
sharp contrast the Psalmist's view of the 
two opposing types of Judaism. Their 
true character U revealed under the disci- 
pline of Divine chastisement (w. 4, i;, [ r, 
>3t 14). Whether this chastisement is 
to be understood to mean the oppression 
of Judiea by Ihe Romans, we have not 
sufficient evidence to determine- 
In two respects the Psalm is of con- 
siderable interest and importance: (1) for 
its description of idea] Pharisaic righte- 
ousness 7^10, (1) for its allusions lo the 
doctrine of the resurrection (13—16), 

Inscriplim. Il is to he otscrveil that 
the Copenhagen MS. does not attach a 
number 10 the title of this Psalm, and the 
mistake in the numeration of the follow- 
ing Psalms is not corrected until Ps- ix. 

The title 'Concerning the Righteous' 
conveys no impression of origin n lily. 

1 \*tai v*)«It. The words recall 
the very different supplication in Ps. xliii. 
(iliv.) 14 lieytfiBifTi- Era tI vwroil nipit; 
Compare the opening verses ofxvi. 

For Ihe address lo Ihe soul ait ifiXirytri, 
cf. 'Uless Ihe Iaikd, O my soul' (iiiU^ei 
n ^vxi l^« Tot ■ilpuM'), Ps. cii. (ciii.) 1, 9, 

fice. a 

: of a 

for song, — the contrast between the 
'righteous' and the 'sinner.' Again, the 
description of o^uun-uXoi is a convincing 
proof to us ihal the thought of Pompey 
IS not in the Psalmist's mind. 

TheGreeklranslalordoesnot follow the 
words of the lxx,, cf. Ps. xxxii. (xixiii.) 
3 lIiraTr ai!r{j fir/ui laitdv, KdAut ^Xbti 
(r aXaXB7^, xxxix. (xl.) 3 ^pa sairot, 
xcv. (xcvi.) I, xcvi. (xcvii.) T. cxlix. 1 
Snart TIfi ruplif ^aita Koir&t, ciliii. (cxiiv.) 
g 1^^ naunji jaoioti ; Isai. xtii. to 
viif^art Tif tupiii Biiror lacnr. 

The plural foXari is sirange, being 
preceded by the singular iwKtit and 
rf\<.7(ri, and followed by iWXX*. (OThe 
transition to the Plural may be a poetical 
license, Ihe Psalmist momentarily ad- 
dressing himself to all oJ ^Pouiiiroi (ver. 
16} just as in vv. 3, 4, 7 he interchanges 
Ittaioi and Hkouk. 

(1) Or, inasmuch as in six out of the 
seven passi^s where 'anew song' occurs 
in the O.T.. the words arc connected 
with an invilalinn in the ind Pers. Plur., 
the translator may very possibly have 
adopted the Plur. unconsciously from the 
fuuiliar language of the Canonical Pialms. 

Ill- 3l 

12 Sit 
for it 
and jus 
(3) Oi 


3 Sing' a new song unto God who is worthy to be praised. 

Sing, yea shout unto him with a joyful noise*, 

for it is good to sing praises unto God with the whole heart. 

3 The righteous ever make mention of the LORD with praise, 

and justify the judgements of the LORD [with thanksgiving] ; 

' Gr. ktep 

I3) Or, as is very possible frtiiii the 
frequent interchange oFi and \ '^T may 
have become ITS!, and the translator's 
■^iAan have perpetuated the error. 

rf viii. igiafrrrdi^lnudan- 
dns (^ril3), as in 9 Sam. xxii. 4: Ps. 
xlvii. (ilviii.) 1. 

Compare xvi. 4 frufJ iw in xhrpoy trrov 
Irt Tiji' -nnrYOfntair aiiroD, 

These very obscure words almosl defy 
translation. Cerdarenders 'vigila ad vigi- 
liam luam (Gr. ejus)'; Geiger, 'erwache 
xu seiner Wache': Pick, 'awate up to 
hj$ walch.' But against these versions it 
is sufficient to observe that ypvyon"" 
must be something quite distinct Trom 
^iiXcuni (cf. Hab. ii. i M TTJt ^vXax^ 
/wu BT^oiiai}. Wellhausen gives more 
accurately "crwadie, da er erwacht ist,' 
i.e. 'be wakeful wilh respect lo, towards 
01 againsi His au-aking.' a quite literal 
translation which gives the only inlelli- 
gible meaning. Thcsenselhen is 'Arouse 
Uiyself from the slumber of apathy, O my 
soul', praise Him who never slumbers or 
sleeps: le' the energy of thy praise 
respond to the unceasing operation of His 
. blesiiikgi.' Cp. Ps.cviii. (cix.) J 'Awake, 
I pralteiy and harp; I myself will awake 
I right early.' 

But we are UTuble lo believe that the 
Gnek can be a true rendering of the 
original. We surmise that the difficulty 
hai sprung from a very probable error 
that arose either inlbe. Hebrew lexl or in 
Ihe translator's rendering of i(, in conse- 
quence of a confusion liet ween the two very 
dnilar Hebrew tools IIV and mi, meaning 
respectively 'to arouse' and 'to shout.' 

■The translation which we give is based 
on the supposition that the original He- 
brew text contained words formed from 
the root VY\ It certainly furnishes a 
more v^tous as well as a more connected 
For according lo 

the o 

t the 

, 'Sing 

j; yea, sing and be wakeful; 
is good to sing luslily,' in which the 
^t dause sta ' 

our rendering Ihe lost clause is forcible 
and natural: 'Sing a new song; yea, sing 
and shout aloud; for it is good lo sing 
lustily.' The 'ahoul' then corresponds 
lo the words 'with the whole heart.' 

The root PIT 'to shout" occurs in Ihe 
ver^, the resemblance of which tu the 
preseni passage has been already noticed, 
Ps. ixxiii. 3 'Sing unto him a new song; 
play skilfully with a loud noise' (.IVIina, 
LXX. i> dXitXay^v). In Ps.lix. (Ix.) lo (cf. 

cviii. 10) ■ Phiiistia, shout ihou (iirnnn) 

liecttuse of me,' the root was misunder- 
stood by Ihe LXX. l/ijil dXU^i'Xw trrri- 
yijitaw. In Ps. luiv. (liv.) 13 'they shout 
for joy (ICrnn'), they also sing' (ttspa- 
{aiTai, mi fip iruFifaiwirir), we find the 
same thought as in the present verse. 

The similarity of Ihe two roots (IW and 
on) will be best illustrated by comparing 
Ps. Kxxiv. (xxxv.) 11 'Slir up thyself 
(rTTpn /fry^pftjTi) and awake to my 
judgement' wilh Ps. xlvi. (xlvji.) s ' Shout 
(Wnri) unio God with Ihe voice of 
triumph' ((iXa\i{aT( t^ Sry iv ipuri 
ayaWiiaiut), Ixv, (ixvi.) i 'make a joy- 
ful noise' (W);) akaKd(aTt), Ixxx. (Ixxxt.) 
I 'Sing aloud. ..make a joyful noise' 
(li;nnaXiiXai«T(); c£ xcv. i.i.xcviii. 4, 

On this supposition we conjecture 
that the original Hebrew had some- 
thing like npi-ip i^ "vnn or -h 'rpnnn 

dX^Xafor ai^T^ /r d\B,\aynv. 

MopSfai. The words are based on Ps, 
cxivii. I 'Praise ye Ihe Lokd: for it is 
good to sing praises unIo our God'; but 
it is clear that the Greek rendering is no! 
taken from ihe LXX. version alriTTi rir 
tifHor, Sri i.ftBii' ^oX^ir* rifi B«f 4fui> 
ijivrSil^ alrriril. 

For /( OXtii xapSiai cf. Deul. vi. 5 
Ayar^aitl lipier rbr Sihf aeu if SXifj Tfli 
tiarotai aof lai i( 0X1)1 rffi ^v^ rrou noI 
H *Xut T^ !vrinnit aov. Ps. ix. i /Jo>u>- 
Xo7i}*o;tol ffm, xi/nt, it iXjj irapJf? ^u- 
Apoc. Bar. Ixvi. i ex loto corde auo et 

tlte appeal for wakefulness. According tc 

^^_ (oc appeal id 


' OVK oAir<upHcei SiKatos niiieYOMcvoe viro Kyplor, 
tJ evSoKia avTov Sia jrairos hiavriav Kvpiov. 
" TTpoaiKOipev 6 StVaios »cat e'Stffat'wo-e toi- Kvpiov, 
cTretre itat aTro^SXeVfi Tt jroi^trct aural o 0eo?' 
* airocTKoirEi^t., Sbcn hJci a-toTrjpia avroiJ. 

tisemenl ns welt ns joy. lanitui'ifiiivi 
'lemcmlicri' as Ps. Isiii. 6 'when 1 re- 
mcmhet Ihet' upon my bed' (txx. tl 
/nrr]^6fti>i<- aov. '^'Fl'13) DM), Tobil 
iv. 5 Ki'plBV ToD flraO i7*cu«p jO'ijuii'iut. 
The more common expression 'make 
menllon of (T?!?!), e.g. Ps. Ixxi. iC; 
Isai. Ixviii. I, l\ii. 6, u geneotly rendered 
in Ihe l.xs. by luitr-iataiitti. 

Iv tea|i0\aYi)<rH. Cf. Vs. xcv. t ■I.ct 
us come before his presence wilh Ihanks- 
giving' (ITT^na, LXK. /» iitftoKtyiati) : 
c. J 'Enler inio his E='ra ""'h Ihanks- 
giving' : cxlvii. 7 'Sing unio Ihe Lord 
with thnnktgiving.' 

(cal EucawiriiV. The reading of ihe 
MSS. and of previous editions (al tttaiw- 
ati seems lo present insuperable objec- 

Accepting the text or Ihe mss.. editors 
have differwi from one nnother on Ihe 

Suestion whether Jiicaiiiffw should be reti' 
ered as a substantive or as a veil). 
[a) Tliose who believe it to be a sub- 
■tontive, punctuate at tov nvplov and 
begin a fresh clause with h l^niuiSoy^ii. 
Thus Cenia retiders 'in confessione el 
juslilin judida ilHus'; and this punclua- 
tiini is adopted by Fabricius, Ililgcnfeld, 
Fritische and Pick. Pick's translation 
'in giving thanks and justifying the judg- 
ments of the Lord' is literal, but ouuiot 
be pronounced free from ambiguity. 
Against this methml of translating the 
words is to be set the dilBculty respecting 
Siiaium. (1) Tlie substantive Suofuo-it 
only occurs once, according to Tromm. 
in ibe L\x.. Lev. xxiv. 11 Smaiittit 
ipKptf) Ilia foTOi r^ wpoini\irif tot t^ 
ifXiiplv, and once in Symmaclius' Ver- 
sion of Ps. xxxiv. 16. It occurs iwice in 
Ihe N.T., in Rom. iv. ij. v. iS. (i) 
The only meaning which it,.,tiKB,iC>ett 
could here give would be 'in confeiision 
and in ihe declaration of iheir justice are 
the judgments of the LoBD.'i.e. the right- 
eous confess Iheir guilt and acknowledge 
the justice of Dtvine punishment. But 

even if this explanation tie accepted, it 
does nol gel over the awkwardness of such 
a clause, in its relation to the immediate 
context ; white Ihe rarity of the substan- 
tive jhcoifwiiii seems to us to make it neces- 
sary to resorl lo some olher way of inter- 
preting the passage. 

(b) With oaaxiltati as a verb, a comma 
is placed at ^{0/10X07^(1, and nai Iciai- 
lirn begins a new clause. The olijec- 
lions are obvious; the Present tense 
and Plural number of lai^iunKiauin are 
followed in ihe immediately ensuing 
pntallet clause by a Future and the Sin- 
gular. Bui the change rr<im the Plural 
to the Singular might be defended by 
e.g. ver. 1 or ver. 7. iv. 7^10! and Ihe 
alteration from Present to Future offers 
no real obstacle, when we reitieml>er how 
irregularly the Tenses are treated" in 
translation from the Hebrev. Oeiger 
adopting this explanation renders ' un<l 
ihrer Jeder preist des Herm Enlschei- 
dungen gerecht,' and Wellhausen gives 
'unJ crkennen seiner Gerichle Gercchtig- 

We fully grant the possibility of this 
iranslalion, "TheriEhteouseverremember 
the Lord with thanksgiving, yea e.tch 
one justilies Ihe judgements of ihe l,oRD.' 
But «c prefer to conjecture that ihe simi- 
larity of the termination in ifO/wXo7i(»-(i— 
tiKniiinti has been the cause of confusion 
in the text. The change of ktaiiiati lo 
IiiEsioiJiri is a very possible restoration of 
the Greek (ext, the altemlion involved 
being very slight, and recovering to the 
verb bolh the Present tense and the Plural 

If further conjecture be not loo ven- 
turesome, we would suggest thai aucoioB. 
irii' [iv alr/iTEi] may have been the original 
nonls, and ihal by an error of sight Ihe 
scribe wrote Sttauniaci, which becajne 
corrected to Jutoniffei. In favour of this 
we would plead the parallelism of the 
clauses, which seem to require the men- 
tion of praise in both memtwrs of ihe 
verse. The words olnih' and ofrwii 


4 The righteous man dcspiseth not the chastening" of the ^ 
PXORD ; his good pleasure is continually before the Lord, c, 

I 5 The righteous stumblcth and justifieth the LORD; he falleth 
, and looketh to see what God will do unto him ; 

6 He gazeth earnestly to see from whence cometh his help'. * 

are frequmlly found associated willi rfa- 
fi^Kvytiadtu and t^aiLokirfusii- 

Ps. xdi.fc) 3 /(ofioXoYcrirde ain-^, olrti- 
■n tA iSra/ui aitiX. i Chion. xvi. 4 col 
(■(o/uiXoydoeni itaJ abi^v nr Ki^of. 1 
Chron. xx. ii i» t^ £pfatr0ai r^i aMfftui 
jtol T^ tlo^wXuYi^diK. Ecclus. xxxix. 15 
(fOUoXffyijdOffflf (!■ alwlati airrtiv. li. 1 
c^o/ioXoT^ira/uil itdi, Kipi-e, ^tusiKtU, nal 
■tf/ow at..,iifiiuiK<r)o!i)tai rif iri/mTl aou. 
I For SiKoww 7& fpliiara see note On 
I «r. S- 

4 <riK dXivwfnlini k.tA. The clause 
in the Greek is based on Trov. iii. 1 1 ' My 
son, despise nol the chastening of the 
L.OBD {vli ixii 6\iyiipri raiSfiat KVptmi},' 
quoted also in Heb. xii. fi; but the re- 
semblance of thought is even closer in 
Job V. ij 'Behold, happy is the man, 
whom God conecleth : therefore despise 
not thou the chastening of the Almighty,' 

6\iytipfif in the LXX. seems only to 
occur m Prov. iii, 11 (DUD). Well- 
hausen's rcnderinE 'Der Gerechte ver- 
liert den Mulb nicht,' seems to lose sight 
of this parallel, and would be better 
suited to i\iyti4'ux''' in 'he sense of 

i| riSoicIa airov Gut vavrdt hrnvtlev 
Evffav. Tliecentralstnscoflhescwords 
is obvious, 'the righteous always linds 
favour with the Lord.' But their pre- 
cise interpretation is not so easy ; and 
the renderings of Cerda 'coroptacentia 
tllius semper coram Deo.' ol Geiger 
'Stels ist seine Lust vor dem Ewigen,' 
and of Pick 'His pleasure is always be- 
fore the Lord,' must be almost uninlel- 
ligilile. Wcllhausen's tnmslation 'denn 
er bleibt doch in Gnade bei dem Ilerin' 
gives the true idea of the clause, without 
however reproducing the Greek, 

There ure two ways of explaining the 
clause. (l) ^ tiSotla aiToO='lhe good- 
will of God towards the righteous man,' 
i,e. ' the favour in which he stands.' This 
use of tHoKCa can be illustrated by Luke 
ii. 14 h drSpiiroij riSotlaf, i.e. aoiong 
men to whom the Divine good pleasure 
*nd kindly &.vour was constantly shown. 

J. p. 

So in this verse 'the Divine good-will 
and Favour towards the righteous man' 
stands like his good angel ever behold- 
ing the presence of the Father which is in 

(1) ri (Mania oi^oC — 'the righteous 
man's good nill and pleasure'; which he 
places, OS it were, at the service of Gml, 
ready to perform His command. 

ft irpoiriKoi^tv...('r*n, *atumbled nnd 
fell.' See Ps. xxvii. 9 ; Is. viii. 1 j ; Dan. 
xi. 19. 

li does not appear that the aor. refers 
to any actual incident; it merely em- 
phasizes the suddenness of the tranalion 
from prosperity to trouble. 

The words must not be understood of 
moral failure in the modem sense of the 
word ' fall.' They denote reverse of tor- 
tune or some great calamity, as in Prov. 
xxiv. 16, 17 'A righteous man fallelh 
seven times, and riseth up again; but the 
wicked are overthrown by calamity. Re. 
joice not when thine enemy fatleth, and 
let not thine heart be glad when he is 
overthrown.' Cf. Ps.xxxvii. 94 "Though 
he fall, he shall not be alterty cast down: 
for the Lord upholdelh him with his 
hand.' cxlv, 19 'The Lord upholdeth 
all that fall.' 

{SlhoUti. Cf. ii. 16, iv. 9, viii. 31. 
Cf. Apoc. Bar. 78 ut juslificarelis jndi- 

iirofikim. For the thought cf. Ps. 
xxxiv. J 'They looked unto him and 
were lightened : and their faces shall 
never be confounded,' 

Observe iro in a compound giving the 
sense of earnest concentration, Cf, hicb. 
xi. 36 iTrifiXeiri, xli. 1 o^ptin^fl. 

e diranmnvH, 'watchcth or look- 
eth forth to see,' Cf. Hab. ii. r c£»a- 
attxiiii Toi titir tI \dX^ii : Lam, iv. 17 

niJaa/ir<' rli I0rot Qi vQlw. Judith X, lo 
irtatirtviir Si aih-V el dripti-nit xlAtm; 
Ps. V. + (Aquila). 

U<v TJfH K.T.X. Cf. Ps. cxxi. 1 ■ from 
whence comelh my help' (ifft* fljti i) 
petite fuv). 


''AXtj^eui TWl' hiKaCcDV n&pi. eeot cwTHpoc avrotv, 

OVK avkiCcrai iv oiKOi tou SiKaCov iMAprfa eif iM4pTf»N. 

' iiTKTKeiTT^Tai Stci jrtu^os roi' oTkov avrov o SiKaios, 

Tov i^apai aSiKtaf. 

eV Trapa.irTtaiJ.ari aurou '^iiAicftro nept ir"©'*'^ 

^'«al* ^N NHcrei* TaneiNtocei tJin yrxf"* aurou. 

7 9tiy (sk) M. 

a /{lipiu P. M. dStilav Ai ropamJtiari, codd. d cdd., nos djufni'. (r t. 

• Om. r^r K, P. M. iy rrfirTelf irat codit. M edd., Dus k«} h nftr. 


7 ilXT[0tui Ti** SikoCh* nfa Btov 
rBTiipoi avTHV. Geigcr renders ' Richer 
sind die Gerechten in Golf,' which is 
adopted by Pick 'Tlie riEliteous are safe 
in God.' But Ihcrc is no reason for lhi« 
inlerference with ihe Greek. "Thesarety 
or security of Ihc riEhteous is or springs 
flora God" is the obvious meaning of 
the woidsi 'ate safe in God' gives a 
collateral but perfectly distinct idea. 
dX^deia is here used in the unusual sense, 
'confidence' or 'security.' The clause, 
Ihat is, sums up the preceding sentences. 
i\-^iM probably translates one aspect of 
i^iHuaak (nilDlt), a word genenUly oc- 
curling with the sense of ' faithfiilnesf,' 
but also used for the 'ttrenpib,' 'con- 
fidence,' and 'firmness' arising from 
trust. Coni[iare Ex. xvi. il 'And his 
hands were steady' (literally 'for failh- 
fulness" LXX. {mtpciiiiiiai). % Sam. xx. 
19 '1 am of them that are peaceable and 
faithful in Israel' {i-iili fl/ti tlprpnKi. rir 
arrifHyiiAT'iKi 'la-pa^X), 

irapd 0toS vwHipof avrfv. Cf. Ps. 
xxiii, •,[r.jiiv.)ohia\ii<litTiu...iKtTiiu>isirypr 
Ta/i4 BtBv tuT^pn afrroO: Ps. cvi. ii; 
Lukei. 47: I Tim. i. t, ii. 3; Til. i 3, 
ii. 10, 13, iii. 41 J Pet. i. 1; Jud. as- 
The title of 'Saviour,' here applied to 
'God' in Hi* dealit^ with 'the right- 
eous,' is generally ^und in connexion 
with the mercies shown to the nation (e.g. 
xvii.i). The true 'Israel' andlhe'right- 

adXCtnu<~ This word is used some- 
times of habitual habitation, as in Job xi. 
ndiiita Si er SwIttj aov fiii ai\ui8i)TU, but 
more generally of 'lodgine for the night' 
i= ' pemoclare, ' as a rendering of I"!, e.g. 
r». XXV. 13 -His soul shall dwelt (I'^PI) 
nt ease' (h i,ya^m\ aiiXwfliJod-ni). Cf. 
Matt. xxi. 17; Luke xxi. .t7- 

D^ofirCa li^' a|Wf»Tlav. These woids 

seem to be based on Iiai. xxx. 1 ' Ihat they 
may add !un to sin' (lXX. ■wpovBiirat 
anafrriai tip' aftaprfat), though less Ob- 
viously than in ver. fi. Cf. Ecclus. v. ; 
upoeBurm ilioprla* t^ i^tapTlau, The 
idea is thai of abundant sin, one follow- 
ing upon another in succession. The use 
of the accusative afier irl may be illus- 
trated by Phil. ii. 17 Ira /iii \Crtit ™i 
Mr^r irxu. 

TTie Rabbins had a saying that ' one 
sin caused another ' (ni'M flTli: rrvau. 
Tanchum. fol. Bj. 1) quoted by Schotigen 
{Nor. Hib. i. si8) ill lUustralion of Rom. 
vi. ig TJEii'«iiJ(i f^i awfilov. 

■ ktevrdanrrvk. iriffr/m^uu, gene- 
rally used in this book with reference Id 
Divine visitation either for purposes of 
punishment or deliverance, has here its 
primary senie of inquisitorial search. 

The righteous man is here represcntcil 
as carrying into practice the language of 
Ps. ci. 7 ' He that worketh deceit shall 
not dwell within my house; He that 
speaketh falsehood shall not be estab- 
lished before mine eyes. Morning by 
morning will I destroy all the wicked of 
the land, etc' 

TOV l£apai d^wfav. The purpose of 
the Irlatt^n. Halfw is used in the LXX. 
for the frequent phrase found in Deul. 
'thou shall put the evil aw.i^ from among 
you' (xvli. 7. 11, xix. 9._xxi. 9, etc.). 

iv nfa.irrifAn avrov. 1 Itese words 
are generally taken in immediate con- 
nexion with oIiKfov. But whether in 
that case ouroC refers to rif pIxo» or to i 
SbiaiBi docs nol appear certain. Geiget 
•bei dessen Falle, explains it 'of the 
transgression of the household'; Certln 
•in lapsu illius (suo),' Wellhausen 'be! 
seiner Uebettrelung" and Pick 'in his 
fall,' explain it of the transgression of 
the righteous man. 

The awkwardness and ol>scurity of the 


III. 8] rAAMOl lAAOMnNTOZ. 35 

7 The confidence" of the righteous comeih from God their ' Cr. 
Saviour, '"""^ 

There lodgetH not in the dwelling of the righteous sin upon sin. 

8 The righteous man maketh inquisition continually in his 
own house to the end that he may put away iniquity; 

With his trespass offering 9 he maketh atonement for that 
wherein he erreth unwittingly, 

and with fasting he afflicteth his soul. 

phrase here used at Ihc end of the verse 
» due in our opiDioo to the Iranslalor 
having probably misapprehended the pas- 
sage. B^ puncIustiTig at ofixlof instead 
of at avTou, u-e suggest that the full 
meaning of the passage can be restored 
without alteration of the text beyond 
chinine Ihe position of iiaf. (i) We be- 
lieve that n ntml^ should be in close 
conjunction with raifu-iuo-Fi (see Ps. xu.v. 
rj), anil that it ntsrA^ rantaaiaa cor- 
responds to it rapamiiiau liAAaare. 
(1} The Hebrew words liatlfilh and 
ashfini are both employed to denote 
either sin and gui'/f or Ihe tin-efftring 
(uld guUl-efftring, accordiag lo the con- 
text. (3) The translator, trioping over 
this amhiguity, has connected Ihe word 
pash^m) in a meaningless manner with 
Ihc previous clause roS ((S^ ojuliir : 
(4) instead of which he should have bi^n 
a fresh clause b/ in tXii^^kXcI^ 'by 
niesns of 1 guilt-offering he Qiaketh 
Uonement for, etc' 

The probability of this view is in- 
creased by the fact that iiiKiantadM iripl 
J-yi*^' 13 <'><' technical term for 'to 
Bwke atonement ' for sins of ignorance in 
Lev. iv. v.; and the means of making 
such atonement was the sin-offering or 
gnilt-ofrering. the names of which were 
lubicct to misunderstanding. 

The technical term irXt)^i;i^X»a is not 
found in this book. On the other hand 
in Eieit. x«ii. 4 it toIi af»aff<» aiiri^ or. 
('t^eat TBpaWrrouoi, we find tapa.- 
Tlmir renders the root 'asham.' which 
possibly occurred here. 

According lo our tendering ' The 
i^teous man' of the Psalmist is the 
strict Pharisee; who not merely pu^es 
tin from his household, but is careful (l) 
to obey the written law by making offer- 
ings for the sins of which he has been 
guilty through ignorance, and (i) to follow 
ihe oral tradition by observing the days 

S J{tXi(o-aTa. ^{iXiiiiKa/iBi, a very com- 
mon word rendering the Vlebiew 'kip- 
per,' is almost exclusively used in Lev. 
and Num. of the atonement made by the 
priest. If we might conjecture from its 
use here that 'the rightcou.s man' in 
this passage It 'the righteous priest' in 
distinction from the ungodly Sadducce 
priesthood, we should oblam a further 
detail ia the picture presented by our 

ir<pl dyvotai. Cf. Lev. v. |8 'the 
priest shall make atonement for him con- 
cerning the thing wherein he erred un- 
wittingly and knew it not, and he shall 
be forgiven. It is a guilt-offering. ' (See 
also Lev. iv. I, 13, 11; v. ij.) The LXX. 
vetslon runs tai /{iXibrrai -wtpl airrov 6 
lipeil wipl T^ iytolaz airoS, ^i 1ty'^"7 
Kal ailrit oiVx gJhi, (al o^tf^crat avT^i. 
ir\iititii\iiai tip w\ti/^i\ilf. 

The same expression is osed by Aquila 
in Num. XV. 7j; xxuv. 11, &c.. where 
Ihe LXX. uses lUeiwloit to denote the 
offences committed unconsciously. In 
Eiek. »!ii, (3 ; xliv. 39 rd rtpl iytalat is 
the LXX. rendering of 'ashSm' the guilt - 

The importance of this offering for sins 
commilled in ignorance can only be ap- 
preciated, when we remember how diffi- 
cult It was for a Jew to avoid contracting 
pollution in the discharge of his daily 
duties OS a citizen. It was this irksome- 
nessofthejewish Law which dictated the 
rnndamenlal maxim of the Scribes 'make 
a fence about the Law.' aitd caused St 
Peter lo speak of it as a yoke 'which 
neither our fathers nor we were able lo 
bear' (Acts XV. 10). 

*Kal* 1* i-TiimCf. The mss. and Edd. 
it r^Ttlf, Kal, For our reading and 
punctuation see preceding note. When 
It raparriitiaTi aJroO was given by Ihe 
translator to the preceding verse, the 
parallelism of the present verse was 


"Vai o Kvpto^ Ka.6apt.ljEi Trawa avSpa oitlov Kai top oTkoc 

" npocre'/coi^tv dfiapTO>\o<;, kclI KaraparaL ^wj^c avroS. 
ttJc -^fiepav y€vi<T€<i3<i avrov koX tuStvas p.yjTp6f;. 
'" npoc^eHKEN i«(.pT(&c e<tr Awapriftc t^ ^(ujj ai/Tou. 
" iiTe<Tev, OTt irovrjpov to TrroS/ia auTou, Kal ov*c dvaoTTj- 

ij dirtaXeta rod dfj-apTtuKov €t5 toc alajfa. 

" Kttl ou fiuTjirdTjiTeTai., oTO-v 4-m<TKiTrrr)Tai Stwai'ous. 

" auTTj /iepi5 Twi' a.p.apT(ii\iav €is tov atw^o, 

'"ol 8e ff>o0oviJ.evoi. Kvpiov dfaari^a-ovTai tic zcohn altJMon, 

fcal H ziuH auTW^ EN (J)uit1 nvpiov koI oy« tKAeiyei ert. 

11 ouTOu post iliJiji' codd.: om. Knli. *«n»t K, P, M. om. A, V. 

la rooaie^iai' K, P. 

IB ovf oyaaHiafTai ^ aTw\. M. 

14 BIkiuot Cerda, sed interpr. ' luslos.' 

TairtLvamii tiJv <|nixiijv ailro*. For 

ibis phrase see Lev. x'.i. 19, 31 ; xiiii. 19, 
31; Isai. Iviii. 51 Ecclus. ii. 17; Judith 
iv. g, in all of which il is found in con- 
nexion with fnsting^ To connecl tV 
n70Tf 1? with TarturtOr rit ifiix^' appears 
to us Ibe most natural arrangement of the 
words: and it is difficult lo resist the 
inipression thai out clause is ba.sed on Ps. 
XXXV. tj '1 afflicted my soul with fast- 
ing' (lxx. mil rranfrDiw ev riTirrd^ t^ 
fuxif fov) : Ixviii. 10 ' When I weirt anJ 
thaslcntd my soul with fasting' (lal a\'*l- 

The tense of Tartinian coming imme- 
diaiely after ifiXtiiTaTo affords a good 
instance of the confusion arising from the 
translation of the Hebrew Inipf., which 

for sins of i^orance, occupies 
here a prominent position in the descrip- 
tion of the religious life of the righteous 
man jand corresponds withlheprominence 
of fasting in ihe picture of Pharisaic ex- 
lemalism, which appears in the Gospel 
narrative, cf. Malt. vi. 6; Luke xviii. 11. 

10 i Kfipwi sokpClK. For ihc 
cleansing which follows upon the act of 
alonementi sec the use <iH\tkiaK«tuu and 
•taOapl^'mLcv. xii. S; xiv. 19, 5j: Eiek. 
xiiii. iG. 

ttjvy. This adjective is used in 

almost a technical sense, cf. viii. tS, 40; 
xii. S [ xiv, 1, 7 as a transUtion of 
'chasld' 'pious." The strictest and most 
theocratic Jews were intended by the 
'pious' (chaaidim). Hence arose the 
title of ' Asidcans,' which was given at 
the time of the Maccabean revolt to Ihe 
section of the people most fanalically 
devoted to the observances of the law (cf. 
I Mace. ii. 34-38). 

"The (haiid is of greater excellence 
than the ^addiq (JJtaioi). Cf. Ihc grada- 
tion : ' Three things are said of nail- 
parings. He who bums them is thaiidt 
He who buries tbem is faiUia; He who 
throws ihem away is raiAa " (Niddah 
1/1 a), Taylor's Saying:) ef Ihe ycwiih 
Fathers, p. 48, n. 14. It is interesting 
to observe that the epithet 'pious,' in the 
passage thus commented on by Taylor, 
IS appUed to one 'Jose the Priest ' : itiun 
in Ihe LXX, is used to designate Ihe 
Levites in Deut. xxxiii. 8 (at t^ AcvI 
(Ire &<rre \tiA tijKain aimv ml oX^nar 

For another rendering of DH'I^ in 
Ihe [.XX. cf. Frov. ii. 6 tSSapaiiitrai, for 
which cf. tiXB^ifl Mie. vii, 1, and Luke 
ii. 35; Aclsii. 5: viii. 3 (xxii. 11). 

■cU rdv alxav avrov. Compare the de- 
scription of Ihe High Fries! in I,.ev. xvi. 
17, 'until he come out and have made 
atonement for himself, and for his house- 
hold and for all the assembly of Israel.' 



10 And the Lord purifieth every man that is holy and his 

11 The sinner stumbleth and curseth his own life, the day of 
his birth and his mother's pangs. 

12 While he liveth, he addeth sin to sin. 

13 He falleth ; verily grievous is his fall, and he shall not 
rise again ; the destruction of the sinner is for ever. 

14 And tlie Lord shall not have him in remembrance, when 
he visit eth the righteous. 

15 This is the portion of sinners for evermore. 

16 But they that fear the Lord shall rise E^ain unto life 
eternal, and their life shall be in the light of the Lord, and it 
shall fail no more. 

11 trpoWmnlrfv d^wpTBtUt. Cotre- 
sponding_Io ver. 5, 

■arofiaTai \f^v aurov, ihe converse of 
eiuaiwire rir itipton. 

Ti)v ii|ii|Mv YfWo^wi. CT. Job iii. 3 
'1*1 ihe doy periali wherein 1 ivaa born,' 

la irptKTihiiHV ii|iaf tCh ^' iiuprCat : 
based on Is. xxx. i ; cf, Ps. Ixix. a;. 

TJ [mq airai. The Psalmist amplifies 
with these words his extract from Isaiah. 
The words of the original probably meant 
■Ihe longer he lived.' 

tS Eir«nv...irTa|iui. Cf. Dotecinver. ;. 

vonipdv, see note on ii. 6 h/ ai-xj*a\iiKl^ 

Kal oi)k ttvarnjg'rr tt i. This expression 
emphasizes the irretrievable character of 
the disaster which overtakes 'the sinner.' 
Cr. Isai. xxir. 10 ' (he transgression there- 
of shall be heavy upon it, and it shall fall, 
and net riu aj^it' ; xiiii, 17'the chariot 
and the horse, the army and the power; 
Ihey lie down together, tiiy shall net 

It cannot be .issened Ihal these words 
entail any reference to a belief in the 
lesurreclion. It is aHer this sentence 
Ihat the view widens, and the eternal 
iBHies of life are considered. 

1) 4viitX(ia Tofl i^MpraXov ttt -rdv 
nlmm. Cf, ii. 3i! "ii- lOi xiv. 6; xv. 
14; xvii. 16. The conliast is given by 
the jtt^ B^unin of ver. 16. The meaning 
of di rir olwra is surely that the doom of 
the wicked is not pronoanced for this life 
only. This passage apd the whole con- 
text contemplate the annihilation of the 
'sinner.' For him there is no hope, no 
mercy, now or hereafter. The resurrec- 
tion of the wicked, so briefly stated in 

Dan. xii. 1, 'and some to shame and 
everlasting conteinpti' for a long time was 
not pan of the Jewish doctrine of the 
resurrection. (Cf. 1 Macc vii. 14 irof 
fiir yip dwiffToffi! ill fw^K oir ?«toi, 
where Antiochus Epiphanes is addressed,} 
Out I'salmist nowhere favours Ihe view 
that any existence worthy of the name 
awaited the 'sinner.' 

It appears to us that lo interuret this 
and the two following lines as if Ibey only 
referred lo the matenal ruin of the i/iap- 
j-ioXoI and the fnistralion of their schemes, 
disrq^rds the force of tit rot aliara here 
and in ver. 15, and renders {bn) oluriDi 
in vet. 16 imintelligible. 

14 ov [Hnjirflijgwrai, sc, i 6iet, which 
is also the subject to irMKHrniTat, 

Crnv hna-tiiwt ipux BmcJoin. The 'visi- 
tation,' which is generally mentioned 
under the aspect of punishment and ven- 
geance, is here alluded to in its merciful 
light. _Cr. Wisd. iii. 7 Mi fr taipy 
twiaKoWTii avTur inXi/i'l'OVVir. Luke i. 
68 ri'\ayyjTot ifiipiO! 6 deat Tov^lapa^\ art 
exEB-jt^^BTO «oi frolti(rri' ^irpinvif rif Xaif 

The teaching of Ihe verse is repealed 
in liv. G iia Touro n '\tpoftldit avTur 
^Jilt Kat atoTDf (at dcwXeia Kol oix 'Iff- 

15 |itp(i. Cf. Ps. xi. 6 'Fire and 
brimstone and burning wind shall be the 
portion of their cup' (ij iiipli roii woniploii 

At riv aUm, 'for clemity,' cf. 13: not 
to l>e weakened down lo 'misfortune 
shall continually be their portion.' 

la at t) ^ofioiy,moi. ttiptav. See 
note on ii. 57. Under this head would 
be included the Bluaim of vv. j, 4, 5, 7 


IV. 'ivarC CTV Kd9r}(rai, fie^rjX^, iv trwc8pCiit, 
€V napavoniai^ napoprizt^N ton eeoN 'IcpiiiA; 


ptio: ifa\iiii T^ 2aXo(i 
deest M. drepuiropiat 

and the ooioi of ver. lo. Il apj)eatE to 
us imiwssiblc not to recccniie in these 
words a reference to Ihc doelrine espc- 
cintly connected with Pharisaic teaching. 
(tnuTTiiirovTiu it* X/u^V tdtjvwv. The 
belief in Ihe resurrection unlo eternal life 
had first Ijeen uncquivocaUy stated in 
Dan. kii. 1, upon which passage the pre- 
sent words are probably based (Theodot. 
ntl ToX\ol Tii* (t»fl«iJorTu» h ■rfi x^^W 

o^« cli DfciSm^i kbI ill alaxi'V' "iu- 
nor). Compare i Macc. vii. 9 rli almiar 
ova^uiru' fcingi ovarr^fi. Malt. xxv. 46 
col aTcXdVefTai ovroi elf KiXoffir aliinor, 
Hi U SUauK th tapr olurior. We cannot 
understand how, in the face of this verse, 
Kabisch (o'ai ^itrU Buck Esra p. 168) 
and Hiliig {Guck. tl. Volkis Israel, p. 
501) should deny the author's belief in 
ihe resurrection, or call him a Sadducec. 
It is itnportani to bear in mind that the 
■eternal life" {fw^ oWi'iDt) so often re- 
ferred to in the writings of the N.T., had, 
half a century before the Christian era, 
been accepted as part of a feature in 
Jewish reli^ous thoaghl. 

Hie insistence on the doctrine of the 
reiurreclion is es[)ecia11y noticeable in a 
Paolm, in which the Pharisee contrasts 
Ihe 'pious' Jew with the Saddueec who 
-" ■'- '-- (Matt. 

lind this 

said there 

ixii. 13; Acta xxiii. 6— 8). 

kpX ^ l<af\ K.T.X. To o 
sliikine clause, so apposite 
with tlie thought of the 
loses all force if the wools ai'aanJdDiTai 
...afurtw and oiiit iitXel^i tri are to be 
taken as denoting material success. 

^ tin) avTMv Iv AhtI KvpCav. Cf Job 
xxiiii. 19. 30 ■Lo,alhhese things doth God 
work, twice, yea thrice, with a man. To 
bring back hts soul from Ihe pit, that he 
may be enlightened with the light of the 
living (or li/e) '; Is. ii. 5. 'Come and let us 
walk in the light of the LoRl>'; Ix. 19, 
■The Lord shall be unto thee an ever- 
lasting light.' Cr. ProT. u. 17 ^utf 

KVpUv ri^ arSfiuwui'. 

The 'light of the Lord' suggests nu- 
merous paralleU in the N.T. ( i Tim. vi. 
ij; Jas. i- 17; ' P«- "■ 9!.' Joh. 1. 5, 7; 
u. g, 10), and the association of 'the 
light' with 'the life' recalls a characte- 
ristic phrase of Johannine teaching (John 
i. 4, j). The 4iah cu^ou stands m con- 
trast to the cicirM fiov, cf. jciv. 6. 

avK 4icX«f4i«i Itn, These words referred 
probably in the original to the ^r nplou 
and are based on Is. Ix. 19, 10, where 
iiXcIniv occurs in the LXX. For tn 
compare Am. viii. 14 'and never rise up 
again' (lal 06 /ti) anwrwiv fri). 

Ps. IV. — Argvmml. 

(i) A denunciation of the typical pro- 
fane person, a member of the nation's 
Council, but no true Israelite, outwardly 
a stern judge of others' sins, secretly & 
profligate of unbridled lust (1 — 6). 

(ii) A prayer, that God would over- 
throw and expose the true character of 
these false professors of Israel's faith, 
passes off into a detailed description of 
the type of men-pileasers,— subtle and 
deceitful, but lascivious, savage, unscru- 
pulous (7—11) and unsparing (i J— tj). 

(iii) A cutse, apparently twofold, is 
pronounced (a) against the individual of 
this type, in his daily life, personal pro- 
jects, and household (16—10) ; (i) against 
the whole class of Jewish men-pleasers, 
that they may come tu a violent end and 
their bodies lie unburied in dishonour; in 
requital for their cruelty and rapacity, for 
their for^etfulness of their God, and for 
their dissimulation towards the true Isra- 
elites (10—15). 

(iv) 'They that fear God' shall be 
blessed: He will deliver them from Ihe 
of the ungodly; lie is just and 

Though not one of the most attractive, 
this Psalm is one of the most important 
in the whole collection. Breathing 




A Psaim of Solomon ngainst the Mcu-pkaien. 

I Wherefore sittest thou, O profane one, in the assembly, 
'when thy heart is far removed from the Lord, and provokest ' 
the God of Israel by thy transgressions ? 

throughout a spirit of intense halted, it 
paints the picldre of the Pharisees' most 
bitler adversaries os viewed from the 
point of view of Ihe 'pious' Pharisee. It 
IS an attack upon the inner life of the 
Sadducaic faction conceived in all the 
malignity of the partisanship prevalent in 
Jodica during the lirst half of the last 
century h.c. 

The writer, whose perwmality is only 
once (i^cii ver. i;) alladed to, identities 
himself with them 'that fear the Lord 
in their innocency.' In this way he dis- 
linguiiJies his own parly from those of his 
countrymen, who, though the]' equally 
claimed to fear the LoKl», honoured Him 
with their lips while theii heart was for 
from Him (i-et.i). 

Thus the objects of his attack are Jem. 
They dwell with the Pharisees (vci. 7), 
llley are of high tank; they sit on the 
nation's supreme Council (ver. i|; they 
dispense justice (w. j, 3) ; they expound 
law (ver. 10). 

But in private life they are lax and 
immoral ; m public they arc Cruel and 
implacable towards their own country- 
men, making Ihem houseless and spread- 
ing misery far uid wide (w. 33, 14). 

The title by which he designates them 
is 'men-pleasers ' (11 — 1,0, and in the 
opening words of the Psalm he addresses 
Ibemcolleclively as 'profane' (wr. 1). 

We have no doubt that the Psalmisl is 
referring to the Sadducees. These in the 
eyes of the Pharisees were 'profane.' 
They numbered in Iheir body the most 
influential priestly (ikmilies, but were 
noloHously lax and negleclfiil in their 
observance of the Mosaic Law. Their 
sympathies lay with the polilica rather 
than with the religion of their country; 
active diplomatists, but indiflerenl to Ihe 
spirit of their faith, (hey seemed to the 
pious Pharisee to profane Ihe mission of 
the chosen people by their secularity. 
These were Ihe lyplcal ■ rs ' 
who sacrificed the higher inteiesls of Ihe 
people to political alliances and schemes 
for a^randisement. They were ready Lo 

break down ihe barriers ot Iheir religion 
in order lo enjoy ihe favour of the power- 
ful. Their religion was a mere tip-ser- 
vice. Their real devotion was given not 
10 their God but lo Iheir dominant Asmo' 

Wellhanseo's conjecture thai vv. u — 
If ate a description of Alexander Jan- 
nanis, who fur 16 years (104— ;8) reigned 
over Ihe Jews and sucecssfiilly overthrew 
Ihe attacks of the Pharisaic party, was 
based on an interpretation of ver. 11 
which we are unable to accept. 

The intense bitterness of ils lone indi- 
cates Lhe Icmporary triumph of the Snd- 
ducecs. Their punishment is the theme 
of a fervenl prayer ; bul as no allusion is 
made lo the judgment already, or likelj 
lo be, inflicted by God Ihroi^ the in- 
stnimenlalily of the heathen, we conclude 
that this Psahn was written before the 
advance of Pompey's army into Syria. 

The barbarous and insolent behaviour 
of this Psalmist's foes in dispersing and 
banishing (13 and 13) their countrymen 
might be an allusion lo the conduct of 
King Alexander Jonmeus and his sup- 
porters, after their victory in 86 when 
they had quenched at a cost of some 
jOiOoo lives Ihe flames of hostile insur- 
rection. But, as we are Inclined lo Ihink 
more probable, it refers lo the lime at 
the close of Alexandra's re^, when 
Ihe Sadducee part; was being restored 
lo favour and power. Aristobulus was 
delermined lo renew the jmlicy of his 
father Alexander, The Pharisees saw 
Iheir influence once more diminishing. 
They recalled Ihe savagery, with whidi 
Alenander Jonnicus celebrated his victory 
{^o^Anl. XIII. 14, 1), and the wholesale 
banishment to which his foes were con- 
signed. 'Ilie Pharisees saw in Arislobulus 
a re|>etiiion of the father's policy. 

For an instance of the cruelty of Alex- 
ander Jann^us we may cile the following 
terrible description from Jos. Aal. JCltl. 
14. 1 jrarafrXrfffaf Zi roAf fli'mrun^droit 

it r^t T^W Hal yoifurei i-^ipnrrp airiir 


[IV-. 2 

o trxXi^pus ev Xoyois KtiTaKpCvaiv dfi.apTii}\ov<i ev KpCaei' 

I V, K, P, M (Fab. conjee): ffrj/Kni 

irX^M ii-T 


aVT^a-jnf (It TtptKroXu^ia, tal rirrur 
li/iOTaTfr liTfOt ISpavtii. ' Zvniificroi yap 
ir a-rin-tif iierd ruv xaAXanfiwr draiTTiiir- 
puaat wpotr^To^ff airrQi* rti dfTaitoffhvt' 
Todj Si raiSat a^vf KtU rdi yvvatKai irt 

- v^Tt 6(a T^ nj( i^f/irtrT05 vrtp^oXrii' 

iviK\Ti6iinu airrir wapi Ti^r 'locSaiuf 
BpaKlSiu. Oi 3i WTUTTpauuhal owoS t6 
" - t npl dimuKirx'WDn ^i>yoi«. 

The SI017 of the Elders and Suunna 
fumuihes anolhei obvious parallel 10 Ihc 
Psnlmkit's description of the unjust judge. 
It is lemjiling to associate that famous 
l^end with 1 
present Psalm. 

The Psalmist denounces the insolence, 
immorality, and avarice for which the 
friends and supporters of a young prince 
like Arislobulus were probably notorious. 
The detailed reference 10 the shameless 
assaults upon the peace and purity of 
home life, seen in w. j, 6, 11, 11, 15, is 
best explained by some recent scandal in 
which the young nobles of the ^adduces 
houses had given deep offence to their 

The title 'Against the Men-pleasers' 
has in alt probability been given to this 
Psalm by copyists. It is not likely to 
have been an original heading; but 
seems to be based upon the use in vv. B, 
10, 91 of A striking and uncommon name, 
ii.) 6 i Bfii iuaubp- 
wutaf 6aTd aj/BfUiirapiaxaH^ wbere the 
translators roust have read ^f\ ' pro- 
fane ones ' instead of IfiTi ' him that en- 
camped against thee.' In the N.T. He 
lind it in the parallel passages Ephes. 
vi. 6 iii\ car' i^aKitottmyjJui in arSpta- 
wipitKtH, Col. iii. 31 iiij it iip0a\iiaiou- 
Xfoii (in anSpitripiaiiti, The verb o»0p«- 
TofKviKiv occurs in Ignatius Kom. ii.i the 
su1<stantive uSpur^trxEia in Justin, 
^/o/. 1. a. 

8p%. TTiis denunciation in the Second 
Person Singular is addressed to the 
body of the Sadducees collectively- The 
Psalmist seems to see before him the 

typical Sadducee, a man of high birth v 
and great wealth, a member of Ihe San- 
hedrin, silting in judgement upon his 

P^i|)u. For this use of the word com- 
pare Kiek. xxi. 15 xai iri> ^^^Xe in/a, 
where the l.xx. and A,V. "profane' ren- 
ders ^n (Aq. rpavpjiTla, R.V. ■ deadly- 
wounded') in llie sense of ?n. It is 
};ciicrally used as in Pa. S. viii. 1,1 uis ip^a 
pifiriXa, for things common or unclean in 
contrast to things sacred and dedicated, 
e.g. Lev. I. 10, Eiek. xiii. 16. We find 
it used of unhallowed and so profaning 
touch In 1 Mace. v. 16 tut ^e^^Xoii x'fi"^- 
As applied to persons, it is found though 
less commonly in classical Greek, e.g. 
Plato, Symfos. 1 1 8 B lol eC ni dXXoi ^irrl 
pi^ijXoi icol 6.-ipotKot, where it represents 
the vulgar man uninitiated into the graces 
of society. 

The pi^\it here is the man who, 
having to represent a holy people and to 
deal with holy things, is himself unholy: 

Pharisees regarded the HIgh-P 
as having been wrongfully usurped by 
the ' unconsecrated ' Asmonean princes. 
The leaders of the Sadducees were also 
defiled with the blood of massacred coun- 
trymen. Compare i. 8, 

■cdOigiRu. Used of sitting in judge- 

fioivi. Acts xxlii. J ral ?!> nBri uptftai fte 
Hard rir »o*w», 

h <nn-fSp(f . This refers to the San- 
hedrin, the great administrative and ju- 
dicial council of the nation, over which 
the High Priest presided. The Saddu- 
cees were here in our Psalmbt's lime in 
a majority, Acts v. 1 7 ; Jos. Ant. xx. g, 
I : they represented the nobility, the tv- 
rarat and ofX'"'"'- The won) is used of 
the members of the Council collectively, 
cf. Matt. xxvi. 59 ol iU ifX^'P*'" "«' » 
vuniipioi SKay, Acts xxii. 30 Toil ^tXi*' 
pta aal tSt tA viitiipivi. Used in this 
sense we may compare with the present 
passage Acts vi. 1 j irorTri ol imBeiiiarK 
if T^ tmcSpiii) (see also Matt. v. 11; Mark 
Jtiv. 55, XT. I ; Luke xxii, M ; John 


JV. 2] 


2 He surpasseth in words, yea in outward show he surpasseth 
J all; he is austere in speech when he condemnetb sinners in 
judgement : 

"L ' ' ' 
The words howevei may hsve a mote 

cnera! applicalion. There was a ' bith 
b' or 'court of judgement' in conoexion 
with evciy synagogue throughout Judu^a. 
There were local auriSpta which decided 
petty cases, and odminisleied justice in 
the district. 
' For the use of irundSpi'iii in ihe lxx. 
k compare Prov. xxii. lo ti^t Ik run- 
M'tflmi Xaiiior...STiir Tdp •:a9tajj ir tarfSpitf 
r (=r^) "■"TBI intia^t (where the Greek 
differs widely from the Hebrew), II is 
possible, though not likely, that it is 
used here in ihis wider sense. At Ihe 
time of the composition of this Psalm, 
there was undoutiledly a senate or ytfiov- 
vis representing Ihe nation, presided 
over by Ihe High Priest, who wns also 
Ihe AsmimeaD Ptince. Shortly aflcr- 
«riuf2s"{s7— sj) this National Council 
was broken up by Uabinlus into 5ve <rin" 
JSpts (Jos. AnI. XIV. I, 4). But through 
the inlervenlion of Julius Csesar (47) the 
nation's Council seems to have been re- 
stored to Jerusalem, and we find Herod 
the Great defending himself as a young 
man liefore the Jewish truriipuir at Jeru- 
salem (jinl. XIV. 9, J—,*), after which 
time aatiliMit came lo be the most com- 
mon title. 

Takit^ into account the political cha- 
ractet of the present Psalm, it is pro- 
bable that the allusion is lo the National 
Council in the discharge of judicial func- 
tions. The word twiiptar was very pos- 
sibly not in use before Ihe lime uf Gabi- 
nius ai applied lo the Council. But 
the ttatislaior livcil at a lime when the 
term had become generally accepted. 
(Cf. OD the whole subject SchLirer, Cach. 

d. yiid. vakis 1. pp. 146-8,) 

Kill it KOftGla vw |iAKp(L* ii^fa-n|Kn' 
A'ri re* KHpCav. A quolaliDD from the 
well-known passage in Is. xxix. 13, died 
by our Lord (Mail. nv. fi, 9). llie He- 
brew runs 'this people. ..have removed 
their heiiTt far from me'; the LKX. version 
has 4 ^ nopifa lifiwr rofi^a irix" bt' 
i/wS. The present clause ^ees with Ihe 
LXX. intransitive rendering ; and as ils 
language is qnite independent of the Alex- 
andrine version, it presumably translates 

a traditional Hebrew lexl, which most 
have had -il^ (PCTV) pIT) ^3^ instead 
of 'l^pprniaVl. This ^ an 'interest- 
ing early testimony in favour of the LXX- 
rendering against Ihe Massoretic vocali- 
sation. For a similar passage compare 
Jer. ii. j Sri axim^ar ir' iiioS. 

vopavoufoif. Cf. viii. 9, xvii. 11. 

mpairytlov t4* Mr 'Ivpa^. Cf. 
Isai. i. 4 nx/HiipyiaaTf rir Ayiih roi) 'la- 
paij\. I Kings xvi. i toB rapopylcoi fM ir 
Twi liaroimi aiiruji', Jer. vH, 18 ««! Iffwft- 
our crorSii StoU itAerpiois Ira wapopyl- 

a 'npiwAt...vir)p WvTot. A pecu- 
liar phrase for which it would be hard lu 
find an exact parallel. The meaning 
however is quiie dear. The impious 
man is exlravagant in virtuous language 
and assumed decorousness of manner. 

For ■wiptiKto\ used in very difFercnl 
senses in the LXX. cf. i Kings xiv. 19 
'And the rest of the Ads of Jeroboam ' 
(loJ Ttptsaor pT)ita 'ItptffiAii), Eccles. vii. 
17 'neither make thyself over- wise' lnnH 
ao^ltu Ttpuiti.]. In Daniel (Theodotion) 
we find 'excellent wisdom' (v. 13) and 'ex- 
cellent spirit ' rendered by ' rifucrif ro^ti ' 
and npM'vv* Trru/ia. It occurs in a de- 
preciatory sense in 1 Mace. xii. 44 ripur- 
aor ^r Kok XiipiHt^ intip wtxp&r tUxtirSai, 
Cf. Edersbeim on Ecclus. xxxiii. 19. 

h vigiuufani- A strange word to use 

n this 


i. Ps. lix. 6 (Hcb. U. 4) Hurnit t«^ 
^opavtUroit e* aiinfiaam = ' thou hast 
given a banner (bj) to Ihem ihal fear 
thee.' Meaning lilnally a 'distinctive 
mark,' il is here applied metaphorically 
lo 'outward demeanour.' 

h ntXijpAt. Compare Gen. vlii. 7 Aa- 
XTfva avToti axXripa., and so Isai. xix. 4 
Kol rapaStiMiu rifi- Atyinrror ttj X'''"* 
aji6purr<iir tupluf o-nXiipuii lai paciXii! 
itjcXiiimI (I'pK^irowru' a&rwr, Matt. xxv. 14 
itiptt, tyrtar irt 5t( vt\iipot d at&putwtn. 

... ... .'.piT™' 

tr€it tii/toi npd Torras Tod% lovialovt^ 
On the other hand Josephus speaks of 
the leniency of the Pharisees {An/- xut. 
lO, 6) iWiiu r( jcol ^uirci i-piji rdi KoXiatti 

' Kal H leip 6YT0Y EN nptiiroic en' ayton 6>s ec ^tXii), 

'oE o^Bakfioi avTov iin. nao-ai/ yvvaiKa dctu StnoroX^s, 
tJ ■yXtoo'tra aiJrou i/ftuSi)? «< (TvvaX\a.yiJ.aTL fi^ff opKov 
" if uvictI Kal iu d-7roKpv(f>ois dfj-apTauei tus oi^X opto^tcos, 
(V o({>9a\p.oi'i airrov XoXet Traciy yvuaLKL iu uTivray^ Ka.Kia<i' 
"ra^^us eia"o8^ cis Trcicrac olKiav ip iXo/jottjti <i)s aKaKo;. 

'''E.^dpai 6 deo<; tovs Iv VTroKpttru tfuvra-i fiera 6a-Co)V, 
if iftdop^ (rapKO<i avTov Kai tt^i'i'^l ttjv ^anju aiJrov* 

S ir' ainr A, V, K, P: iw' oTno. M. con], llilg., Friliich., Pick. 
* oi V. K. r. M : om. A. 
7 bTsijxiffci (sic) Cerdo. 

a xal ^ x<¥'''*' »T^- The dilli- 

cnliy of this leading disappeaia when we 
see Ihal il is adapted from Ihe LXX. ver- 
sion of the Pentateuch. The law te- 
Suircd the witness to be the Hrst to throw 
ic stone at the condemned prisoner ; 
hence this profnne one who wiu foie- 
most in executing punishment was witness 
as well as judge. See Deut. xiii. 9 nol 
al X'V^ 'W 'ffWTOi ir' airir ir w/kIitois 
iwoiTiinu avrir, "vii-^ "al ij jj'ly ^u* 
ItaprdfUiDi frrrw iw' airif i» wpiirtou Swa- 
Turai auTor. The translator evidently 
shaped his sentence by his recolleclion of 
the LXX. rendering of Deut. xiii. 9. iw' 
avrir thus reieiveE a salisfaclory explana- 
tion; the change from Ihe plural l/iap- 
TbiXoiti to the singular of the individual 
instance is quite in keeping with the 
style of our Psalms, cf. vv. 7, 8, to, iil. 

Hilgenfeld could hardly have realised 
the appositeiiess of this allusion when he 
conjectured iV atrnw. His eonjcclure 
has now the support of the Muecow MS., 
whose scribe inirixluced the same emen- 

Ivoxot, 'guilty,' cf. Ex.xxii. 3; Lev. 
IX. 9. Deut. lix. 10 froxot bI^ibti, Job 
XV. i Iraxi" 'I fi-iiu"' cjiliarit bov. 

fa> iroHCiXCf dfiapTiMv. literally 'in 
respect of a varied tissue of sins.' Timi- 
^(a in the Lxx. occurs about 5ve limes, 
always in a literal sense, e^. Ex. xxxv. 
35 irci» IfTfOi ifFxfTtrrwiwt ■wauu'Klat. 

iv dKpaa^il, i.e. in proRigncy and 
sensuality. See on i, 7, S, Ji. 13. This 
word occurs in our Lord's denunciation 
of ihe hypocrisy of ihe Pharisees, Mall. 
xxiii. 35 oiMiI liitit, tpaii/iuTuj lol 4upi- 
vaiBi iwMptTot, St( xtttaft[tT( ri l^udtr 

TOS woTTipiou Koi T7I wopat^SiH lauStr Si 
yilioinnr i^ ipirayiji not anpnii/ai (eslor- 
tion and excess). 

Cf. 1 Cor. vii. j Jii r^r aKfiaaiai li^uv 
'because of your inconlinency.' 

4 at i14iObX|u>1 aJrov. Cf. Job xxxi. 
I fia^fi)!' ieii^Tin Toil d^aVai ^ov tal 
06 nil fTuin^d-u ^ri wapBirer. 

For [he offence by look, cf. Prov- vi 

Mall. V. iS. 


■ 9i 

dvnj 8Ms-TaX,iii, cf. Ei. viii. ij Sdvu 
oiaaroXiir ini lUtor rw iitav XmrC nal ark 
lUtor Tov eoS\iim. Andsee for iioirrAXu, 
Lev. xi. 47 Jia^TriXtti (^'^an^), xxii. -Jl. 
Dt. X. a SUoTfAt (^^3n). The usage 
of the word in Lev- v. 4; Num. xix. 1, 
7, and Ps. Ixv. (Ixvi.) 14 (Sym.J, cv. 


^'Y|ui cf. Isai. Iviii. 6; 




|«fl' spKDV, cf. Lev. V. 4 iam rt» 810- 

ffifiXtl i drBpbiwoi litS' Sptov: Num. xix. 
II i ijnaiiis laTit r^i ■jivx^t aiW-i;i fie0' 

S (v vwktI, cf. Prov. vii. 9 |it?*N3 

iii. 14 secrete 

tr il-iroiEp^i^oit. See on i. 7. 

iv iS^0aX|ioii avTOB XoXtC. Cf. Prov. 

vi. 13 'He U'inkelh with his eyes, he 
speakelh wilh his feel, he niakelh signs 
with his fingers' ( — I.XX. i V aiSrit Irrtdti 
6^Sa\ii^ <ri)|ialr(i Si to61 MAiikii H ir' 
ninsiTi icuTiAiiH') and x. 10. 

irwKTOY^ KaicCat. For ffv»ra7i Com. 
pare Aquila in Ps. Ixxiv. (Heb. Ixxv.) 3 
Srar \i^u ovrTayi)* (HPIQ. LXX. Sraii 
Xd^w ttupir). Symmachus in Ps. IxxiU, 

I IV. 7] 



3 And his hand is first upon the sinner^, as though he were ' 
full of zeal ; *r 

Yet he himself is guilty, because of all manner of wickedness, 
and because of incontinence. 

4 His eyes are upon every woman without distinction ; he speak- 
I eth lies with his tongue when he maketh contract with an oath ; 

5 In the night-season and in secret he sinneth, as if he were 
lot seen ; with his eyes talketh he to every woman, and maketh 

evil compact ; 

6 He is swift to enter every house with a merry countenance, 
as one of the innocent. 

7 Let God destroy them that live in hypocrisy in the company ' 
of the saints, " 

yea, destroy the life of such an one, in the corruption of his 
flesh and in poverty'. 


■nd mil A 




has (I'tTiipitra* ri/rai 
Ttti avrTor/ij ran SioS, where there is 
cither a confusion wilh avn-jvyi.^ at n 
misrenderinc of 7it**linO. A>[uila rea- 
ders n^I by ewro-y^, Eiek. xxii. 9. 
See espec. xxiv. 44 tit yvralnia Trfi avt- 

Toy^t (nipin riB'K), 

• raxW iliriiB^. The consciousness 

of an evil purpose &ot% not make him 

For Ta^vi here cf. Eeclua. xxi. 11 roilt 
ruNMv Toxit lit aUitt>. 

h IXapdniTi, Oniy once in the LXX. 
Prov. xviii. u IXafii Si rafji nupiou l\ap6- 
njra. Cr. Rom. \ii. S 6 i\tar ir IXapir^i, 

The thought of entry wilh a bright ond 
cheerful look, disarming sus])icion, occurs 
also in the lxx. of J__ob xxiiii. 16 tliriXti- 
iferai wpac^wii) Uap^ gun ((•ryop'?. 

SKtutot- Thb word, used sometimes of 
the innocency of the simple, sonielimes 
of the inlegnty of the virtuous, here oc- 
eais in a good sense, c£ Job ii. 3. 

9 'EE^L i etdi..,4*<waXH'<u i Mt. 
Here as in many other places (e.g. xvii. 
s6 Sic) we are met by ihe question, in 
what mood and person are the vert>s 
mennt to be? Fritzsche punctuates as 
if i Biii were the vocative, but in vv. 15 
and 18, where the words recur, he leaves 
it to be understcxid that the 3rd I'crson 

TO*» hf VTOKpfm [arrai (wnt iiHuv. 
From these words it is clear that the 
Psalmist is denouncing his own counlry- 
inen. Outwardly the Sadducees were 
joined with the 'Chasidim' (cf. iii. 10) in 

national worship; but as they made use 
of it as a means of political ascendency, 

their religion was mere hypocrisy. A 
rharisee who was also a priest, would 
have felt this most acutely. 

vvJKpurif. In the LXX. this word oc- 
curs apparently only in 1 Mace. vi. ij 
3iA tV il^^' irriK/wni. In Sym. Jcr. 
xxiii. IS ™4itpwii = npJ^ w»«ptTiji = 
*13n in Job xxxiv. 30 paaiXiiijr irBpuTW 
irrmpiT^ dri JiwKoUot XaoC, xxxvi. ij 
tal ^DJEpiTol xapSlf Tdjeixri Svnir. 

Cf. Aq. Sym. Theodot. Prov. xi. g ir 
STiitan uwwptTin (IHIJ) SiaifSfipa rir 


Is. 1 

cp.™ (D*p;[]). 

fo ^np^ raanht airou Kal Tivff, -r^v 
Jiirjv aArou. If the text is correct, the 

nished by observing that it 
ate repeated in the neit 
the Plural roilt...(C*Ta 

,bly dimi- 

arSparapiaitut is fol- 
lowed by otJToD, (]) the word flTrrat is 
reproduced in ftii^», as in ver. 8 fpya 
occurs twice, (j) the order of the words 
ir ^9opf...iicd ralf Tqr {"u^r buVdu cor- 
resjrands wilh ir farayiXiitn koI /taiTii- 
fn<r)uf Td Iprya oiVoii. 

On the other hand tbere is an obvious 
awkwanincss in aapiit aitnO preceding 
T^p fu^ ai'ToS. The conjectural reading 
ir ^apf tifiKttt avTou tal (ir) wtrif T^ii 
fiiiijt avrei is not without plaasibilily. 

We s-Uf^est that the line in the original 
was more distinct from the preceding 
clauite than the translator has made it 


(IV. 8 

' acaKaXui/«a(. o ^eos ra epya avdptatrav av6po)Trap^c 

iv KaToryiKiiiTi koX ixvKTrjpia-fiai to. ipya avrov- 

" KoX StKatfocraicv ol otrioi to Kplp-o. jqv Otov avruv 

iv T^ i^aCpea-6ai dp.apTOjXov'; diro npo'ieaiTov BiKaCov, 

'" d.vdponra.pi.a-Kov XoKovvra v6p.ov fxtrd Sokov. 

" Kol ot 6(f)9aXp.ol avToiv iv olKta dvSpo^ iv evcrraBela w; 

SiaXucrac (ro<f>iai', *Xa\<ou~'' iv Xoyois irapafoptov 
'" ol \oyoi avTov TrapaKoyia-pol ei5 vp5.^i.v iniOvpCas dZiKov. 

a /iimtTtp'OiniiV, K, 1', M; /liirijpiirtur ?A (Ccrila). 

aia\i!o<u A, K, 1', Fab. iiaXioi 
XoXut nos conj. codd. aXX4^ui> 

The Hebrew would then have nin 
' May God cut olT them that live in hy^- 
crisy...; nu.y his llesh (be consumed) with 
coimptlon, and his life in poveity.' 

On avToS, Sing, aftet Plur., cf. on 

B itvaKaXtiiliai. Cf. ii. i8 lUEiirlAiiihit 
«i d,.^j.i .J™., Job »ii. ; rt M <„. 

Tojj Wmu a>'o«aXi/«T(ii'. The more usual 

dvSpuinip^aican'. See note on the In- 
sctiplion. Clearly a synonym Tor Toin ri 
iwoKpiati iUvTCii. For as ar^puropciriioi 
renders the reading tyn for "lin in Ps, 
liii. 6, and ^R is rendered urocptrqt in 
Job xxxiv. jo. xxxvi. 13, we inay be sure 
thai the two words wroKpiT^i and artpu- 
wiptaimt represent two aspects of one 
character, the dissimulation and the 

i¥ KaroyOtifn ica\ )LUKTi)pur)iy. Com- 
pare Ps. xliii. (xliv.) I4 ISau iiMal AveiIot 
THf ytlriMrai iffiM'y fLwtT^piaftot xal jtars- 

• SiKauSffwoi. The optative here as 
in i. 4 is in all probability due to Ihe 
translator's misojiprehension of the He- 
brew Tenses. The Hebrew Copula and 
ihe Imperfect would have been more ac- 
curately tendered nal (^I^a) Sitaxiiaouat. 

The verse is then seen to express not 
another wish, but the purpaae of the 
prayer which has just been offered. 

For Guiauivv ri KpCpa tdv hou, cf. iil. 
3i K- 

10 XaXniiirTii vA\LOy jutd SiXav. To 
the Pharisee this was one of the chief 
grievances, that Sadducees, as members 
of the Sanhedrin or as Priests, interpreted 
the Torah, for which they had no true 

Bttov, cf. I Pel. iii. ID x'^V reO ^v 

11 Kaloli^hiX|>«\aim*VK.TA. This 
verse is by far the most obscure in the 
whole Psalm. The Greelt as it stands is 
very nearly unintelligible. The Hss. do 
not help us. The chief difficulties are 
concerned with [a] it otic<f aripii : is the 
ir, like tVi in ver, 1;, to be taken in a 
hostile sense? or is 'the house' the object 
of friendly regard ? (*) if iSrraStlf : are 
these words to be taken with ol iI^AiX^ 
airrur or with arlpitJ (f) to what does 
S0II refer, to i^BaX/ul ox inSpiii {d) 
what is the constniction of iioXStiu ? {t) 
the meaning of oAX^Xu* ? Our rendering 
of thb obscure passage requires a few 
words of explanation. In spite of its 
dlFGcuUies and the very different views 
which have been given of it, we feel 
fairly convinced of the correctness of ibe 
solution which we offer. 

{a) ol d<^SaX|uil aikiSv Iv alKf. These 
words are used in a hostile sense. They 
mean practically the same as ol J^AiX^iol 

The change from the singular d/Bpiii- 
riptnw in vet. 10 to oin-dw here, and 
again to oirroil in ver. ij need not sur- 
prise us after the changes of number in 
w. 7, S, 31 and often in this book. 

(6) dv6pii Iv (voToedf. These words 
are (o be taken closely together. In ac- 
cordance with tbc Psalmist's general style 
no particular emphasis rests on dtipn: 
the words it tum-aBtUf micht have been 
rendered by a iiarticijjle (iisraBmrrtt or 
an adjective tmrTaSoi'i, the construction 
here followed being the same as that 
found in vi. 8 iipoiTevxtiii tovtAi ir ^Pf, 
viii. iH Bprfa ir itaKlf. The drSpis ir 


IV. 12] 




i Let God lay bare the deeds of men that are men-pleasers, 
[ yea the deeds of such an one in derision and scorn : 

9 'That the saints may justify the judgement of their God, * *^'- .*''V 
I when sinners are destroyed from before the face of the righteous, „'fS"' 

10 even the men-pleaser when he uttereth law with deceit. 

1 1 And their eyes are toward the house of a man that is 

[ prosperous like a serpent, to pervert wisdom, 'speaking with the *p'- 
words of transgressors : m^fr 

12 His words are words of deceit to the intent that he may 
accomplish his ungodly desire ; 

rimi$df is ihe man enjoying peaceful 
domestic iiecurily. irnoruit a! the subtle 
schemes agnlost his home and happiness. 
(Cf. 1 Mace. niv. IJ iyiiiiaii', tiirrdSTi- 
*ar.) On lAjriWfia see note on vi. 7. 

(f) it S^H. 'lie metaphor is token 
fircnn ibe lemplaiion in Ine ginlen of 
Eden. The niin of the house is com- 
passed by the seduction ol the good-wife, 
tU rpiiir iriBviiiat dSiiDu (ver. 1 2). 

The ill *^i ccmlinaes the description of 
the man-plesser, but Ihc clause i» gram- 
naticnlly independent of the previous 

(<0 ' tioX^ni iro^Cav. The Inf. is 
loosely epexegclic of StfWi, Ibr tqS SiaXSaai. 

For *aWu=Tpi;|. Aq. Ps. Ixixiv. 
(Ixxxv.). Sym. Jer. ««. (nxviii.) 31. 

(c) dXX^Xoi', the reading of the Mss., 
gives no sutisfactory meaning. We con- 
jecture XaXur, the corruption arising from 
the accidental repetition of the lul two 
letters of ffo^a»: thus ANAAAflN 

became AAAAAnN = AAAHAnN. 

The phrase 'speaking with the words 
of belia! ' explains the way in which 
'the men-pleaser' overthrows wisdom, 
like the tempter of old. For XaXur /r 
Mrmi cf. I Cor. ii. 13 a nal \a\oi'iiir oi'it 
fr IiiiuTWt irtpurly^ caplai Xfryni. 

We subjoin certain other renderings: 

gen sind der Schlange gleich in 
Jeden Hause zum Veiderben.iu vemich- 
len des Nachsten Weisheil,' assumes that 
ittph ~ B''lt corresponds to iXA^Xaif = 
intn, and' that i-> <iWa0>I« = 11333, 
which the translator wrongly derived 
from 113 instead of from n33. 

()) Wellhausen civcs 'Deren Augen 
gerichlel sind auf das Haus eines Man- 
nes, der es versleht wie die Schlange 
Gottesweishcit aiifiulosen.' The chief 
features in this translation are, (a) that 
«t i^SeXtiol cih-ur Jr citif denote depen- 

dence upon, ii) that irSpot refers to the 
head of Ihe Asmonean house, if) that ir 
tiimSilf represents an adjective denot- 
ing skill or cunning (did Ihe mnslator 
read |13] for p3] ?), {J) thai for dXXitXur 
he reads iyrfKut = B'n?R, adopting a 
striking conjecture of M. Schmidt s. ror 
Hilgenfeld's note here see Introduction. 
The total alsence from our Psalms of the 
word ayyt\ai and of any reference, save 
one, to intermediate beings, mokes us 
hesitate to adopt the sura^lion here, 

(a) Another possiWc rendering we 
mention here, ' And their eyes are towonl 
(i.e. in a hostile sense) the house of n 
man with fixedness like a serpent 10 over- 
throw the wisdom of their neighbours.' 

ir riarmfftlf at t^t would represent 
the fixity of their purpose, umler Ihe 
image of the unhlinkiT^ gaze of a ser- 
pent; aXXi}Xu> is taken as an incorrect 
substitute for Ti3r ritjalar. 

With this rendering we presume we 
may aisociate Pick's 'And their eyes, in 
Ihe house of a man in steadiness, ate like 
the serpent to destroy.' 

h Mymt •Kvpariymv. On TOfuroMla 
see ver. 1. The adjective ro^nfiat oc- 
curs also in this Psalm w. 13, 11, 17. 
It is foand in conjunction with woriipn 
and AitapTuKit in xii. i, 4. Otherwise 
il is only found in this book in xii. 1, 
3, 4, xvii. 17. 

IS «n4>aXo^ur]Ml, cf. i>i. In i.xx. 
only a Mace. i. J3 wapaKayurit^ Xft"'- 
lUrur tSt rrpl rl|» Na»alar leptar. The 
verb npaXoylpiiiiai is useil for ' to de- 
ceive.' Lam. i. ig aursl il wapfXayl- 
aairb ixf. Gen, xxix. 15, Aq. Sym. Cen. 
xxxi. 7 iraptXoylffaTi /u ('3 '''3l')> ^J""' 
Ps. xliii. (xliv.) 18 o6ii wvpt\ryarAiu8a 
(IJ-fiT) iV tw^KV' ff-v, Aq. Jer. ix. .i 
(4) ml Bcijp ir r^ irXijoJo* aiVoB wnpaXa- 



[IV. 13 

" QVK av€<m) ews hittcqirt a-Kopirifrai ws ec opff>avLa, 

Koi rjpriixiiiiy^v eue/fev iiriOvfiia^ Trapai^ofLOv. 

'* wapeXoyLaaTO iv Xdyois, 07i ovk eorti' opwi' ffai Kplviav. 

^' €ir\-jtT$T} iv TTapavafita. iv raurp. 

«ai 01 o^Bakfiol avrov iirl oIkov irepov 6\o6pevcrai if 

koyoi-s avaTTT€p(Licr€to^. 
ovK ifiTrnrkaTai -q '/'V^t; avrov ev Tratri TOUT015, 

"Fo'OiTO. KvpL€, tJ fiepli; avrov h/ aTipiq. ivcairiov trou, 
TJ efo5o5 auTou eV orevay^ots, 
ffat 7} eicroSos avrov ef ap^' 

" ei' oSvcat? Kol ei> irtvlq. koX diTopla tJ ^wtJ avTou, Kvpu, 
6 UTTi'o? avToiJ a* oSv^at?, 
«ai ^ i^eytp<n.<; avrov n- aTropiaK. 

ai\g ii. 

itarXdofut Frilisdi., Pick. 
airo/i(f (pro dwe/Uaii) P, M. 

., Frilz-scli., Pick. 

iTXij/HJiTEuit (opiirai'irfwi) llilg. 

IS nine dWim] (m IvfKTim. Geiger 
suggesls that iriimt is pqisihly Ihe ren- 
dering of ntjl^ in the sense of 'to stand 
still,' 'cease from action,* as in Jos. in. 
13; 1 Kings iv. 6; Jon. i. if, where the 
LXX. render ftrrq. In Job iv. t6 anl- 
tt-nir is the lxx. rendering of ' il siood 

If we could accept this eiplan.ition, no 
alteration of the lent would be necessary. 
Bui Hilgenfeld's conjcclute dWunj seeros 
most probable. 

Iwf (v(Ki|n o-Kopirfrai. Llletally 'un- 
til he prevailed to scaltct' Or 'succeeded 
in scattering.' This construction wilb 
■irttw is not found in the LXX. or the 

It appear; to us most probable that 

^orr ^tficiTirt is the rendering of nV^7 '^°'' 
ever ' which appears as tit viico; in i Sam. 
ii. i6; Jobixivi, 7; Lam. v. 10; Amos 
viii. 7, nnd as cli tAoi frequently (see 
note on i. i). The more correct render- 
ing would have been ili riXm tun iatip- 
wietr. For a similar error cf. Hab. iii. 


ivi^. For this nse of iit it 

The iranslalor expresses the ihought 
of beieavcment, which is added to thai 
of dispersion, by hi; favourite construc- 
tion of ir with an abstract lubstantive. 
The allusion is to the dispersion and 
banishment of the leading Pharisees by 
the Asmonean house. See Ar^nienl to 
Ihe I'salm. 

For op^vln d. Is. xlvii. S m'Si yrti- 

14 iraptXoyfiraTa, cf. rapaXa-fia/iii in 

Stl oiK ta-nv ipav Kal xpCvo*. These 
wonis recall Ps. ix. 34 (n. 1,^) iTrtr yip 
i» tapilf atroS ai !:iri'rti : xciii. Ixdv.) 7 
ical frTaii oilir tipiTiii ii/pioi, ovSi irur/icci i 
Celt Tw 'loKii^ Eiek. viii. 11 aix ip9 t 
nlpiM. We may compare our Lord's 
words in John viii. 50 fmr i f^TSi" tai 

14 {vXifv^T) iv -wafaitB^la hr roCrn. 

llilgenfeld conjectures ir auXg, in bis 
Inst edition, ATttTntl). Fritische iiraitfa. 
Pick, who reads imuSa., renders 'He 
filled with iniquity besides' ; but as he ci 
hardly translate irraMa by 'tteudes,' he 
seeniK to have adopted Frilzsche's text, 
but to have followed the trantlalion of 

Z I 




13 He never ceaseth to scatter and bereave", and he maketh " Gr. 
desolate for the sake of his wicked desire ; "^ 

t4 He deceiveth with his words, saying, There is none that m 
seeth and judgeth. 

15 He is filled with transgression herein'; '*^ 
and his eyes are against his neighbour's house to destroy it " '"' 

with swelling words of flattery ; 
with all this is not his soul satisfied. 

16 Let dishonour be his portion, O LoRD, in Thy sight ; 

let his going out be with groaning and his coming in with a 
curse ; 

17 Let his life, O LORD, be spent in pain, in poverty and 

let his sleep be in anguish and his awaking in perplexities. 


another editor, pcrhups Wpllhausen's 'er 
ist voller tSosheil dimach noch.' 

We do not see our way towards ac- 
cepting any of the conjeclunil emcnda- 

Jy Tairi] seems to Imply the existence 
of some such word as nttll 'in this 
(fem.).' We su^^l three allemalives, 
jl) nK13 may mean 'in this matter,' cf. 
Ps. xxvii. 5. The sense then would be 
'He is full of iniquity even in this, thai 
hii eyes are against his nclgbbour's hou'ie 
to destroy ii.' (9) The possibility has 
n^mled itself to us that the original 
hu IJlTlK which by accidental trans- 
position of letters became the almost un- 
intelligible nKT3. The word 13 denotes 
'rapine' or 'spoil.' The sense would 
then have been "through transgression he 
was filled with booty, and not only so, 
but his insatiable avarice made him per- 
petually cast about to procure the over- 
throw of fresh households." (j) But 
very probably i* ntit^ has a personal 
reference, and obscurely hints at the wife 
of the d»8))i» « lijTaBilf mentioned in 
TCr. ir. When 'the mnn-pleaser' is 
■ated in iniquity with her, he turns to the 

Iv X^KWt avaTTtpiirtatt. The MSS. 
agree in this reading; and there is no 
^od reason to depart from it. The 
word dnrripafu is very rare; but its 
meaning, which we obtain from the kin- 
dred forms of the word, is very apposite 
10 oar passage. Prov. vii. 1 1 dreirTrp<j- 
jJnj t4 iffTi iti Sawrn = '?\ie is clamor- 
ous (-V^TX) and wilful.' Cant. vi. 4 iwi- 

OTpetpor d^oKluit aov arrrarrlor )iBV 
J(ri aiVol aHrrlpoHrir fU 'for they have 
overeome me' ('Jy-Tl'l). Ecclas. ixxi. 
I «al Iriinui. drarripoOaw i^pmriu. But 
the best illustration of its use is to be 
found in Aristoph. Ava 1436 &e., where 
the whole passage turns upon arampSa 

n thes< 

it oft 

siix ^vlvXaraL ^ i^vX*! Bdrov h iriiri. 
ToiroM: cf. Prov. xiii. is i/iTiiX^ i^ 
f ux4> lu'roE', Eiek. xvi. 38 col tin irtrl- 
ItKu, V. 15 avii ir rmlT-mt (iTrXiJo-fliji, 
Eccles. vi. 3 mJ •Imxv awoii ou rXijffflijirJ- 
rat. For iurluirXaiuii cf. Prov. xxvii. 
10 ^TJt Kol ariSiKtiiL ouk iftri/ir\aPTai. 

la r^vro...^ |upl«. For this curse 
compare especially Lev. xxvi, ; Deut. 
xxviii. 16 &c. ; see also Ps. lx\x. li— »8, 

For this summary of daily life compare 
Ps. cxx. (cxxi,) 8 OT/M»i ^uXifti -ri/t rfiro- 
Uv lou tal rijv l^Kr atv. Is. xxxvii. 

17,..dn()C^. Cf.Dcul. 

yitiar col r^r ftXi/iiar, 11 xaritffli nt 
:upun ir aropl^. Lev. xxvi. 16, 16. 


[IV. 18 

" a^aiptBtty) un'i'os KpoTa.(fxiJv auroiJ in vvktI, 
07ro7reo"ot aTTO irairos epyov j^^ipan' avrov ev aTifiLo.. 
'"(ccvos )(€palf avTov elaekOoi. ets toi' oTkop avTov, 
Kat eXXiTT^s o oiKos ai/xoG otto Trairos ov (p.nXrjtru i^tuy^ifv 

°° if fiov(ocr€L dreKvCai; to y^pas avTOv ets ai'aX'iyt/iii'. 
*' cKopnicecfHCAN adpKe^ iNSptonftpecKtoN iJtto Oijpimv, 
Kai dcri irapavofUM' KO.TevauTt ToO -^Xiou o- art/iia, 

ie <(iriMr/ff(l...x«/>4t P, M, 

IS «udt. Obscure scriptum in A teste Cerila, 'ut Kerfoi potius Icgcretur." 

i^rXfyjti K, P. M. ^nrXTi™ V : i^rX^iaoi A (non t^rTi^a,). 
ai (TJtapirifffltiTiinur K, P, M conj. Hilg.: ati>p7rl(rBj!^tw A, V. 

iTTd Sitplar V, K, r, M : dro\ijpJuj» A. 

18 d^otpiMTi Wvot- Cf. Prov. iv. iG 

For the ihnugtit cf. Gen. xxxi, 40 rol 

/urn, Eslh. vi. I i Si itpiot orlaTiitt roe 
vxrw dwi rou ;8affiX<»it. 1 Mace. W. 10 

Dan. ii. i. vi. 18. 

Kponlw^iv. Perhaps introduced from 
n recolleclion of Ps. cxssi. (cxxxii.) 4 <; 

THE KfiOTittlOl! /UHI. 

dnriMrfowi iliri vuvrdt Ip^iiv, This may 
be rendered either 'let him Tall by every 
work,' i.e. let every deed of h[s be his 
own ruin, or 'lei him fall from every 
work,' i.e. let him fail and fall short in 
every project. 

The lalter. which seems to us the mobt 
probable renderine, expresses the same 
idea as Deut. xxviii. 10 -The Lord shall 
send upon thee cursing, discomfitare, 
and rebuke, in all that thou putlesi thine 
hand unio for 10 da.' 

The ambiguity Is to be noticed in the 
use of the same verb in the passage, on 
which this clause is probably hosed, Ps. 
V. 1 1 iroriaiTiMiar dxi riw Sitt^fXiwr 
airSir. Cf. Ecclus. xiv. 1 Micii/HDi...Si 

19 Kodt X'P"'i>'- for tcrbt in close 
connenion with dirD*i«T«i» cf. Ps. vii. 5 
iroxiaaiiu Upa Awi rur IxBpuir fut levat. 

The curse is that of Lev. xxvi. 10 xol 
foroi (ft jftwv i) Irx^ iliuJ*. 

B>XtirHs...iwi. For this constniclion 
compare Ecclcs. vi. 1 tal bvk Iotw liart- 
par rj <^XV ofi"!!) airi xJjtib* tti» irtBv- 

Lilerally ' everything with which he 
should saliaf? his soul,' or, by a very 
harsh attraction of Ihe relative, 'eveiy- 
thing which should satisfy hii soul.' The 
latter is possible if we may judge from 
the translator's rather similar mistransla- 
tion of the relative ^B'^ in xvii. 6. 

^rux^ representing {?|l} is here, as 
often, used to denote the 'appelitc.' Cf. 
Prov. xiii. ij • Bill the liclly of ihe wicked 
shall wanl' = ^i^al ii int^ut hBctlt, mii 

ao iv (loviJirdi KTBala/t- We conjec- 
ture that the (wo words are a duplicate 
rendering of the same Hebrew word; or 
that in the original they were independ- 
ent of one another, and that, inslead of 
'in the solitude of childlessness,' Ihe 
ideas of widowed solilude and Ihe loss of 
children were kept distinct. Cf. Isai. 
xlvii. g 'These two things shall come 10 
Ihee in one day, the loss of children and 

«ll ikiiX<|4'Lv. This phrase occasions 
some difficulty. di>aXi7^ii Is Dot found 
in the LXX., and in the N.T. occurs only 
in Luke ix. 51 ^r >V •rvfirXtipaOaAii rla 
ilfUpat r^ draX^M^uit aiVoO. In ihat 
passage it is generally assumed that 'the 
days., .that he should be received up' 
must refer to the ascension; an<l con- 
lirmalion of this view seem^ lo be sup- 
plied by ihe use of dvaXa^df ui in 1 Kings 
ii. II Mi (lMXi}>i#fl5 'HXio*...e:( rir oi- 
ptwin, Mark xvi. 19 AtcX^/i^^i; ilt rir 
oeparai: Ecdus. xlix. 14; Acts i. 7 ixpt 
ijt iiii/pat,,,ire\^ti^'ii and w. ii, 11; 
1 Tim. iii. iG dreX^^h; it Ufn. Simi- 
larly dtdXii^it came lo he accepted as 
equivalent lo ' Assumptior ' ' " " " 

I IV. 21.] 


49 ^^1 
he night- ^^^f 

1 8 Let sleep be withdrawn from his eyelids in the i 
I season ; 

let him miscarry with dishonour in every work of his hands ; 

19 Let him enter his house empty-handed ; 

and let his house lack everything wherewith he can satisfy 
[ his desire. 

20 Let his old age be childless and solitary until the time 

of his being taken away'. '3^''" 

2 1 Let the flesh of the men-pleasers be torn in pieces by the ,^0/ (iiV 
beasts of the field, and the bones of transgressors lie dishonoured A"'*^) 

i in the sight of the sun. ^!^^ 

away ftm 

J with Enoch, Moses, Abralmai &c., an& 
■s the Greek rendering of the Rahbinic 
ilTQB ( = disceasus). 

Il is evident however Ihat (his signi- 
licalion is a favourable one ajid implies 
> privilege conferred upon the blessed at 
tb« moment of diamlution. 

Is it applicable to 'death' generally? 
Could it be used in the present instance 
of one who is the object of a curse ? We 

of Luke ix. CI, where il could carry the 
neutral significance which it seems to 
have here. 

We are of opinion thai aniXii^ii is 
used here in a sense quite distinct from 
ill later technical application. It more 
I ptobablf represents the translator's at- 
I tempt to reproduce the Hebrew word 
itif'} with its twofold meaning of 'to 
uplifi' and 'to remove' 

The thought before the Psalmist was 
that of 'removal,' as in xlii. 10 i/iu^ruXol 
tk i^ifsarroi th d»-iJX«a» : the translator 
by taking (he alternative meaning has 

Sven an inappropriate rendering, al- 
ough he enal>les us to see the cause of 
his mistake. 

The word is important from another 
point of view. It helps to determine the 
date and origin of the Creek translation. 
Neither a Jew nor a Christian, acquainted 
with the technical use of dfdXii^i itnd 
d>«X(Mi,3dru, would have employed the 
word in his translation. 

It seems (o be used here for the first 
lime in extant Creek literature. And as 
it appears in the present passage in quite 
a different sense from that in which it was 
shortly afterwards technically employed, 
we are disposed to find In ill iiid\i)ifmr 
n argument for the early date, 

Both io the Greek (?) versions of the 
Jewish writings cited below and in the 
writings of the N. T., the word has 
already received a special application to 
the 'Assumption ut the Blessed,' which 
is quite out of place here. 

The technical use of drilXit^ii in the 
latter part of the ist century A.D. may be 
gathered from the following passages : 
4 Esd. vi. 16 « videbnnt qui rictfli sunt 
homines, qui mortem non guslavernnt a 
nativitate sua: viii. 10 (vid. App. Grit.): 
xiv. 49 et in eis mptus est Ezras et et- 
mmptus est In locum similium ejus. 
Testamenltt xtl. Fatr. Lev. c. 18 tiM 
dvoXiJ^iui abTBu. Assumpt. Mosis X. \% 

Enoch cap. 70. 

91 o-Kopmo4(i]auv. The Augsburg 
and Vienna mss. read nKo^iriaBitniui . 
Hilgenfcld's conjecture of the Optative 
(Tjuj/Krurefljlffiui was required by the 
context, and is found to be confirmed 
by the Copenhagen. Paris and Moscow 

The words in the Greek were perhaps 
su^esled by Ps. lii. (liii.) j Bn h BfAi 
ii.fathp'twt* ioTB i.»9fanraptmwr, cil. 
(cxli. ) 7 iaaioiptisSii tk ikrra ^fiSnitrv.^ 
Tit ^Stir, cf. Ixxviii. (Ixxix.) i tAi ird^at 
Twv ialar ffou Tott B^ploa Ti)t y^. 

The picture of a corpse lying unburjed, 
a prey to the beasts of the field, is com- 
mon in the O.T. as marking the extreme 
of ignominy and desertion. Cf. Dt. xxviii. 
16; t Kings xiv. 11; Jer. vii. 33, viii. 
:, 1, XV. 3; Erek. vi. J, xxix. s, xxxix. 

See also the description in Pi. Sol. ii. 


'piuiTOJu vrroKpi,vofjL€vtiiV, 

KoX dfiap- 

"oTi Tjp-^fiwcrai' oiKovi; iroWov; i 

Koi laKopTTiua.v Iv €Tn6v}j.Ca' 

" Kol ovK ffiini(r$-i}tTav deov, 

xal OVK it^o^rjOrftrav toi- Otov tv iraa-i tovtoi.';' 

™ teat TTaptapyta-au tov 6t6v Kal irapd^vav, 

e^dpaL avToi"; ctto ttJs yrj<;, 

OTi tZ/vx"!? d-KaKOfv TrapaXoyuTfi^ vireKptvovTO. 

"Maraptoi 01 <l>o^ovpa'Ot tov tnipiov hi i 
"o KVpto'i pTc^Tfti auTOVS And ANOpiiintjN ioAfto 

Kal pvcrerai •qp-S.^ dwo wavro^ a-KavSakov irapavofiov. 
" f^dpai, 6 Oeo<; tous TrotoOiTa? ec vvepTjijiai 

OTt Kpir^'i piya^i koI tcparaios xiJpios d ^eos -qfiuiv iu 

'^yeuoLTO, KVpti, TO cXeos <rov int ird.vTa.<i Tov'i ayairaimdi; <re, 

34 iitK^^fiTiSBr (sic) Cerdn. 
SB rapiifvrav (fdpai M (une mlerpuncl.). 
37 ^iJufTH nilraJi Vai A. 

SB, 3ft i/HT^i »L^ac $ (paroiJi. (]q) Kiipioi i Btit iifiMP iv iitaumir^- ila 

SS facKJifma*. Thf ides U Uken 
from Prov. xxx, 17 { = i.xx. xxiv. ji), 
and the l.xx. rendering has clearly in- 
fluenced our tranalilor iifi8a\ Koriiyt- 

vKOKfvvofivwii. See Hole on ver. 

iLlfi. See vet. 13, where these words 
have already occurred. The evil cha- 
rader of ihe Asmonean Prince is repro- 
duced in Ihe Sodduccc nobles who de- 
pended on him. 

wdXXoil* may he due 10 an error of 
copyists for roXXJI*, but is more probably 
an error on the pari of the translator. 

94 oJK liMitv^wav. Another inili- 
cation (cf. ver. 7) that the Psalmist's op- 
ponents were Jews. Cf. Jud. viii. 34 xai 
otK iiwitaByiaav ol ^Ae^ 'IcrpuJiX nvfAav rov 
$aD Toi; ^wroM^-ou aho^!. Ps. Ixxviii. 

fo »dai Toiroii. Cf. ver. i f,. 
SB npAfffwt. See ver. i. 
frafMi{vvav. The two words are al- 

most synonymous, rapo^u, as a ren- 
dering of yVO, seems to have the thought 
of disrespectful conduct added to Lhol of 
provocation. Cf. Num. kiv. 1 1 Ewt Wni 
xapoJiliPd IU li \ain ofiroi; Dt. xxii jo 
iiMTT/M^iJiroiTOi iitl SfoiJt aWoTfiwit xol 
XaTficu0oivti> airroit Kal rapnftVDijfrl fi(. 
Prov. i. 30 (Sym. Theod.). 

^EapBi. It would be possible to ac- 
centuate this as Ihe Aor. Opt. Act. i^ipat, 
llic fact that the same word occurs in 
vcT. ; perhaps indicates its use here in 
the same sense, the denunciation cloMn^ 
with the same prayer with which il 

On Ihe other hand the epcxi^tic jnlin. 
is more characteristic of this class of 
Greek. Cf. v. it,i+. 

dloLKav. See vv. 6 and 11. Unsus- 

¥ 'Cling PharisecK are clearly intended. 
he writer perhaps refers to occa^ons on 
which the Sadducees by a well-assumed 
attitude of devotion to the national reli- 
gion hod lemporanly disarmed the oppo- 
sition of the theocratic Jews. The I^koxk 
of this verse would cotiespund ralher to 


IiV. 29] 
22 Li 



22 Let ravens peck out the eyes of the men that work 

23 Because they have made desolate with dishonour many 
men's houses, and scattered them in their lust ; 

24 And remembered not God, nor feared God in all these 

25 And provoked God to anger and vexed him ; 

that he should cut them from off the earth, because with 
craftiness they beguiled the souls of the innocent 

26 Blessed are they that fear the Lord in their innocency : 

27 The Lord will deliver them from deceitful and sinful men, 
and will deliver us from every snare of the ungodly. 

28 Let God destroy them that work all iniquity with in- 
solence, for a great and mighty Judge U the LoRD our God 
in righteousness. 

29 Let thy mercy, O LORD, be upon all them that love thee. 

the 'M (Prov. i. 4) than to DH (Prov. 

1 the 

90 ot ^i>piiv|uvot riv Kvpiov ht iIks- 
K^f avTBV. Sec note on li. 37 ol ^po6- 
fupot rbv K^ptof iv t^tCTtinTj. 

ixaxdi. (cf. ver. 6, vili. 38, xii. 4) is 
here Ihe innocency of inlegrity. The 
Psalmist contrasts Ibe sincere worship of 
Ibc Pharisee with the lelimon of the Sod- 
ducecs. which in the opinion of the theo- 
cratic Jews wns used as n cloak for their 
■mbitiaas policy. 

We may compare Ps. xxvi. 6 'I wiU 
wash mine hands in innocency ; so will I 
compass thine allai, O Lokd.' ver. 11 
*Bul OS for me I will walk in mine inte- 
grity' {icajt(a). 

17 dvfpi&Tin> SoXCsv Kal duoprvXw. 
A description of the subtle characler of 
the .Sadducee leaders, hnsed on Ps, xliii. 
I 'O deliver me Irom the deceitrul and 
unjust man' {itb iyipiliirou ailtov rul ihi- 
Xjoii ^MToI'fu). cix. 1 ' Deliver my soul, 
O Lord, (rum lying lips and from a de- 
ceitful tongue.' 

^iatn\: the Fut. represents the Heb. 
' ' "'5 continuous action. 

■ rxorSdXdv maayifov, 
■t stumbling block laid by Ihe 
uTigoilty man in Ihe path of the tighleous. 
CCVi. cili. g 'Keep me from the snare 

which Ihey have laid for me, and from 
the gins of the workers of iniquity' (^li- 
Xo^Ar tir ari Trayliol iff aivttrriiaavTti fUK 
nil dwi anafSdiuiir rm (^ofojU^fiw rti* 

>a l{apai. CC vv. 7, g, ij. In ihis 
line if is very probable thai liipat is 3rd 
Sing. Aor. Opt. by the translalor's error 
for jrd Sing. Ful. Ind., which would 
have corresponded With fiivtnu. For 
the same error see xvii. 5 1. 

Tlic &n in the next clause seems Id fol- 
low on assertion rather than an entreaty. 

hr Wfpij^avlf. The wickedness of 
the Sadducee was increased by Che inso- 
lence and arrogance of the nobles who 
stood at the head of Ihe party. The 
Psalmist seems to recall P». xxxi. 13 'The 
Lord preserveth the faithful, and plenli- 
futly rewaidcth Ihe proud doer' (lxx. 

Sti Kpi-p^ f'ty^' pick's rendering 
'Because a great judge and a mighty 

: inislakc lo divide tipKH i Mt iifui*. 
The Psalmist reverts lo the thought of 
Ihe opening verse, the impious man sit- 
ting in judgement in Ihe council. 

S0 TO At d'yawwmti vi. Compare 
the Doxology in vi. 9. 

The Ibought of love to God occurs in 
the passage referred lo in ver. iS, Ps. 
xxxi. 13 ' O love the LoHl), all ye his 
saints.' Compare Dan. ix. 4 6 :fii/\ia(r<M' 
...tA l^tii ffDu T(H> dyaraai m, and Ex. 
XK. 6i Dt. v. 10, vii. 9; Ps. V. u. 



V. Kupte o 6€o<;, aivc'crco tw ovofiart trov iv dyaWida-ei., 
iv n^a-o) i-mtna.p.O'OiV to. KptiiaTa trov to. SiVata" 
'on ot) xprjtTTO^ Kai i\€^ii.(i)v el, Kara^ftvy^ tov TiTtoj^oO. 

'sN TtS KeKpar^'^"! -^e npot trc mh nipAciuinilcHC in' emot' 

IiuctLptio : tfie\iiii Tiji £a\<vulir. (' A? : 
P ? : deest M. 

1 alfira A {Cerda, laadetMr). 

-0 Sro^ aov P, M. 

if trouble. 

Ps. V. Argument. 

I,]. The Exordium. Piaise for Cod's 
justice and mercf. 

3 — i;. The Prayer. 

\a) We pray to God in lime of tr 

4—6. (i) He gires freely ; c 
strong man gives without compulsion ; 
how much more God without whom none 
is strong or rich. 

7 — :o. (ii) He is our God : though be 
seem to refuse, we cannot desist from 
approaching him. 

{6) In time of need itnd hunger our cry 
is to God. 

I [—14. (i) He feeds the birds and 
fbhes; al! that has life acknowledges him 
as Ihe Giver j and in no less degree 
princes, nalions, and even Ihe b^gars, 
receive provision from him, 

(ii) He gives; but not as men give; 

Ij — (7. He gives continually, un- 
grudgingly, to all alike. 

18—11. The answer has lieen given 

lg (a) Blessed is he to whom God 
has given 'the golden mean' in material 
blessmgs ; 

19, to (i) for more than il lends to 
sin; but in il alone is fulness of righte- 

I I {c) The subjects of his Kingdom are 
Iru^ happy. Praise to the Divine King. 

This Psalm is of a simpler character 
than the preceding four. It is not occu- 
pied with the religious or political con- 
dition of the people. The occasion of 
its composition seems to have been a 
drought, which threatened the country 
with a famine. The Psalmist, whether 
writing in bis own name or as the repre. 
sentative of 'the true Israel,' prays for 
the removal of ibis calamity. His pr.iyer 
is based on his perfect trust in the God 
of Israel, who is also the God of the 
whole Universe. 

In ver. 18 the Psalmist seems to have 
received an answer or 10 be assured that 
the answer is coming. It is not great 
wealth, but the means of the subsistence 
'in righteousness' which is God's best 
gift. Perhaps he tacitly conlroMs here 
the wealth of the Sadduceon princes 
with the poverty of the pious Jews. The 
happiness of those that fear God is the 
portion of 'the true Israel'; for Ihey, he 
implies, set not their hopes on a. tcrres- 
iria! dynasty. God alone is their Kii^. 

The Psalm is one of considerable poet- 
ical merit. The language, il is true, is 
largely borrowed from Ihe O.T. But Ihe 
thought is simple and elevated, and the 
arr.Tngemenl of the theme is artistic. 
The succession oi striking ideas repre- 
sented in 4 — 6, II — tj, 15 — 16. 18— JO, 
makes us r^ard this Psalm as poetically 
the most original in the whole collection. 

The Pharisaic origin of the composi- 
tion appears in numerous delails of the 
thought (see notes on vv. 6, S, ig), bul 
more especially in the reference to ^oio- 
airti (ver. 10) nnd to the kingdom and 
kingship of the Lord (vv. ]i, 11). 

Its date we have no sufficient means of 
estimatiog precisely. It is very probable 
that the scardly alluded to should be 
identified with the drought and famine 
mentioned in ii. 9, xvii. 11. The allu- 
sion in the Psalm may be to the drought 
in B.C. 63, recorded by Joscphus, Ant. 

\ k£pu i Btit. cr. iv. iS. 

ntWow. That the Augsburg Ms. read 
alrtru is rendered clear from the fact 
that Cerda not only published it in his 
text (where il might ea-sity have been mis- 
taken for a printer's error), but trans- 
lated it -laudetur nomini 1uo.> He evi- 
dently regarded abrtToi as an error for 
alrcljSu. Had he reail aMtu, he could 




A Psalm of Solomon. 

: O Lord God, I will praise thy name with rejoicing, in the 
midst of them that know thy righteous judgements : 

2 For thou art gracious and merciful, a refuge for the needy. 

3 When I cry unto thee, keep not thou silence from me. 


baldly have avoided renileiing it by 'lau- 
dabo.' Kabticius faithfully preserved the 
reading, which has not however been no- 
ticed in the Apparatus Criticus of the 
editions of ElJlgenfeld, Geigci and Pick. 

ly dvd|iaT( rav. After altcif the ob- 
ject is oFlcn found in the accus., always 
in the N.T. Compare the two passages 
most sinular to the present, Ps. Ixviii. 
(Ixix.) 31 airiaui ri Sivfia TOu 0toi lur' 
Vl^. Ixxxiii. (Ixxxiv.), ciliv. {cxlv.) a Koi 
airivu Ti iraud ffou. See also i Chron. 
x«. 35 TOU alntr ri Sftfta r4 o>ii» ffou. 
On the other hand we find in i Chroti. 
vi. 13 alft!!' Tif lufilif. 

h dvaXXidirn, Ps. xli. (ulii.) S. cf- I's. 
Xliv.(xlv.) i6.xlvi, (xlvii.)i. 

tv f^irt/ JirwrrouivHi' lu Kptiiani mm 
Td StaoM. The phrase undoubtedly con- 
trasls the Pharisee with the scornful Sad- 
ducee and the impatient lealut- The 
Pharisees atone ate irurri/ieroi ri tpl- 
liara. Compare ii. 37 liXvyiiti rif 9fir 
el ^^oilitrai rif Kiptor iy iwiDT-JiuJl. 

" ' Kp(|iaTa ri SIkbui c(. ii. 11, 

I xPf^ • 

^i.) s Sn „ 


Kipit xpwtAi 

Ps. Ixxxv. (Ixx 

jEoJ iruiK^ Kai rowtMn Tcurtr tots fn- 

taXovtl^mit at. ciUv. (cxlv.) 8. 9 oJiri/i- 

^AJi/ KOl AfrJ^CiV KVpiOTi tULKp6dvtlO% Kol 
■aTll+W1(l\ T8V '■THJ^oS. Cf. Ps. ix. 9 

xiv. 6 ^ouXJji- rriirxav tar-^X"'""'* "*■' 
KipicH i\-rlt airei iarw. 

im^it in the LXX. is the commonest 
rendering of '5^ as ir<»i)i is of 1^"^^. 
Thus we find ttuxoi used in such pas- 

> Ps. 

<• ft • This 

cned, and the Lord heard him, and 
saved him out of all his troubles.' xxxv. 
lo 'Lord, who is like unto thee, whiiji 
deliverest the poor ftom him that is too 
itraog for hicnr Ixxii. i 'He shall judge 
...thy poor wiih judgement.' ver. ^ ' He 

Ihe cause of the alliictcd.' 

The words Kara^vyi) tttv im>xoii ate 
the echo of such pa.'isages. But l^cn in 
connexion with t& irpl^iard iiau rh flKoia in 
the pievious line and the epithets xflv™ 
■at AcJHuv, they very piobabty coalain a 
iide-thrust at the misiDanagemenl of jus- 

n Ihe « 

tiy. The Saddacees were harsh and 
cruel (iv. i, j) and unjust (iv. iS). The 
Lord, the people's great Judge (iv. iB), 
judges righteously and is fuit of mercy. 
The poor will find tedtess from him and 
shall find in him protection from the op- 
pression of the rich. 

8 Iv T^ KfKpaifAMu p irpit <t\. Cf. 
Ps. iv. 4 tip<ot tlaaxoOatToi )uiv *V r^j 
itfXptiriiKU lie vpo! adrir. 

)j.i| irapcururin(a7|t dv' 4|i«v. 


: used in the LXX, of i 

' Cease not to cry unlo the lx)RD 
our tiod for us' (mtI ra/wiriunr^jit dip' 
illiSv TM lOi poor xpot nipior Siiy ran). 

The language of the verse is based 
upon Ps xxvii. (xxviii.J i wpij ec M- 
tpafa, i Siln /iov, fiij rapwrtwrjaDi tv' 
^tioi, where ir' iitol is the reading of B 
(Cod. Val.). but di' iiiw is read by bt 
and A (Codd. Sin. and Alex.) and by R, 
T and U (Psall. Vetonense, Turicense 
and Fragm. Londia.). 

The present passage tenders valuable 
support to the reading nV iiioS, Fat, 
aldiough our Psalms were no mote free 
than other writings from the tampering of 
scribes, the obscuiilyof Ihe work aflbided 
its text a certain degree of immunity from 
a fruitful source of erior in transcription; 
and we think there is good reason fot 
assigning the Greek translation to the ist 

For wopoo'unrav cf. also Geo. xxiv. 




*ov yap AiifeTfti ckyAa av0piOTro<; ■irapa. avSpo^ Surarou. 
°Kai Tis X)7i/i£Tai dnu TTOvrmv (av eTrotTjcas, eai' p-rj crv S^Js ; 
'oTi av6p<i>iTo^ Koi rj p(.pl<; avTov Trapa, troi cc crraOpa), 
ov irpoaO^a-et. toO TrXeot'cio'at ira/ia to Kpipa. aov, 6 ^eo'5. 

''En Tip eAfBec9Ai hmac eniKAAecoMeei ce eis jSoij^eiai', 
(cat (TV ov*c a7rooTp€i/»eis t^v Berjcriv ^pc^p, 
on (TV tty o ^eos rpwv, 

7 ill A, V: EtK, P, M: £&HiIg. 


4 od 'yap Xi{\|rtrai. The stnlence is 
based upon Isaj. xlix. 14 'Shall Ibe prey 
be token from Ihe mighty?' The l.xx. 
rendering is u4 Xii^eTol ni ira)>il TfTsn-ot 
ffjiuXa. II is possible that the translatoi 
reproduces the substance of the Hebrew 
without reference to any existing Greek 
Version. Oiherwise he eiiher quotes 
loosely by memory from the LXX. or 
combines the l.xx. rendering with thai 
nf some other well-known version. In 
favour of the fiist alternative is the fact 
that thongli ylyai is occasionally found 


>^ii. 6; 

r Chr. i 

; Ps. 

iii. 1, xiii.3; E«k. 

. [8, 10), the regular word 
in the LXX. to translate 'TiSf is iurarit. 
Quoting from memory the translator 
would nalnrally use the most familiar 

On (he other hand there mieht be cited 
the version of Symmachus which gives : 
(iTi X-q^TiatTai napi ImaTov X^^ii. But 
the resemblance is limited to the words 
ritfii SvrtiTW, and no conclusion can be 
drawn from it. 

It seems lo us most probable that the 
translator made use of the LXX. , but 
inadvertently subsliluled iiTaToD for yl- 

The passage has a further special in- 
IcrcsL llie force of the sentence sug- 
gests that (he words of the prophet had 
become n proverbial expression. Not 
more than a century later we find it used 
and expanded by our Lord in His pamble 
of "the strong man.' Matt. xii. 79 JJ 
ruji SCrarai rii ilirf\0iTr lU rii* tlKlar 

iir fii; wpHroii 8?iff)i toip lax>ip^' • «"' ^irt 
TV' niKiar aiToij Sisprdtrci. Mark iii. 17. 

The armimeot of this and the succeed- 
ing verse IS from the less to the greater. 
You cannot wrest booty from a warrior 
by [brce; neither can you claim it from 

him as 1 right ; but he will be ready lo 

S've of il spontaneously and generously, 
ow much more may you not Irusl in 
the goodness and kindness of God ? He 
who has made all and given us all we 
have, surely will give according to our 

S Uv |m| W 8^. Compare for this 
Ihought 1 Cor. iv. 7 tI It (x'" ' 0^ 

8 En drtpwroi. The verse com- 
pteles and expands the argument. The 
portion of each man is weighed as it 
were in the balances liefore God. None 
can add lo il save by Divine decree. 

The literal translation ' Because man 
and Ids portion are weighe<l in the ba- 
lances before thee, (therefore) he will not 
add lo his abundance contrary lo thy 
judgement,' gives a very lautologicu 
process of reasoning. It is also an ob- 
jection that iuBpwTot and 4 '"p'< afroO 
should thus be treated as separate items 
placed in the same scale. 

According lo our translation Sti dtCfw- 
irei introduces the whole explanatory 
sentence which concludes with wofA ri 
tpl/ia ami, a 8tl». The words tol 4 ffi-t irraB/i^ are first introduced to 
describe the limitation of human powers 
in their relation to the divine, under a 
well-known nielsphor. 

The same thought is repeated in its 
direct and concrete form by oil x/wtrffijdei 
...Kplua tav. The substantive irfipum 
stands at ihe head of Ihe sentence, which 
falls into two coordinate clauses. 

This construction reproduces the com- 
mon Hebrew idiom, which for the sake 
of emphasis places the subject absolutely 
at the head of a sentence, and repeats it 
under ihe form of a pronoun. Cf. Ps. 
xviii. il 'As for God, his way is perfert.' 
civ. 17 'As for the slork, the lir-trees 





4 For no man taketh spoil from a mighty man ; 

5 And who shall receive aught of all the things that thou 
hast made, except thou give it ? _ _ ^ 

6 Verily as for man — his portion' is laid in the balance before ^ 
thee— he addcth not t/tereto nor increaseth' contrary to thy h 
judgement, O God, " 

7 In our distress we will call upon thee for help, and thoUfi 
^ilt not turn away our petition, for thou art our God. 

i» rtaHy^. Not a common word in 
Ihe Lxx. version. Cf. Is. xnviii. 17 i, 

xl. 13 rit Itrriti Ti ifrq irraBii^ «ol t^i 
fVYv; (D>Sa). Eiek. iv. 16^. 

ipToririirae/i^^\)<m:i). Ecclua. 

i iK^ivoi fv trTadfM^ wru8itfi¥. xxvi. 

r iatt ffTa.6fiit rai l^ot iynparoGj 
^n'XV'- Wisil- xi- 51 ri'ta lUrpv "^ 
ipiff/ii^ Koi araB^Atfi fli^rofaf. Cf- At[. 
Prov. xvi- 1 1 vToBfLOi gal i\jyia iUaia, 
The citation from the book of Wisdom 
it U important to observe is included liy 
Hilgcnteld in the list of pa.-a.-iBes which 
he adduces [JUeisiaj Judaair. Proligg. 
p. xvii.) as evidence that the writer of 
the Psalms of ijolomon was acquainted 
with the book of Wisdom. Upon the 
general question the reader is referred to 
the Introduction. Butit seems obvious, (t) 
that bcj/ond the fact that in both passages 
mtSiti^ occurs where the Almighty is 
being addressed, there is no similarity 
of Ihouehl between our context and 
Wisd. XI. 31 ! (i) that the word itself is 
used in different senses in the two pas- 
sages; in Wisd., as in Ezek., it has the 
meaning of 'weight' as a method of 
computation by the side of ' measure,' 
- — ' '- "i.Sol.*- '- "- * - 


of 'the 
■ balance 
^ The r 

for V 

' the 

re general term would lie ir 
\. Cf. Job xxxi. 6 trra^iu yip iv 
..i JiMitf. Ps. lii. (Ixii.) 10 ittuJtft 
•1 Lilat TUB drf/iwirwi' Ir ^wt toD dSix^- 
nu. Dan. v. 17 (Theodot.) 6ttl\, irriBi) 
t* IffV- The passage in Wisdom is 
mach more like Test. Nephth- 1 rdrra yip 
Ir riin ir<ili,iir i Btit Ka\i k.t.\. 

ni irpatrW^va tob irXfowitraL. For 
this common Hebrew idiom cf. Gen. viii. 
11 q6 TtpaaiDTTii roC iruiTptifnii rpi% a&rir 
It-i. E)eut. ixv. 3 iit Si rptaSgt /latn- 
Acts xii. 3 irpoaiStTO (rvXXn^iti'. 

For mfi in the sense of ' ( 
cf. w-opd r&iar Acts xvili. 
however, Ibe npi probably represents 
^e Hebrew ]P with the meaning of the 
comparative- This idiom, which is per- 
haps more generally found with bwkp (e-g. 
Ecdes. iv. 9 i,yi9iii ol S60 iirip riv Ira), 
is common enough in this dialect. The 
preposition, denoting excess, is added I0 

the comparative to give 'greater c: 

siveness-^ (Wine " > -' ' ■ 
1 5 p,ijSiv wKioif 

If this ciplanation is correct, the trans- 
lation of TXtnrdirai wapi tA Hflim ctu will 
be ' to increase beyond that which thou 

9 Iv Tf eX^^frBoi ^iwt. Cf. 1. I. 
The reference is probably to the drought 
(cf. ver. ..) or famine [cf. vv. 10, .»). 
which is the occasion of the supplicatory 

<lt pDllfcuiV. Cf Ps. XXXiV- (XKXV.) 1 

Aii.a'nfii. tit ^aijBeiit lim. liix. {Ixx.) I It 

diroorp^iw niv SJi)<nv. This phrase 
does not occur in the lxx. ; but i*e- 
arpiiptit is very frequent in the sense of 
'refusing' or 'rejecting' when coupled 

The same thought however is expressed 
by different verbs in the LXX., e.g. Ps. 
liv. (Iv.) I kbX lii) bviplijii ri|K iKijad- fwif. 
Iiv. (livi.) 10 laKByiiTii i Seoi Si ait iri- 
mtv" tJj" trpavtax^ iu>v. ci- (ciu) 18 
<aj DiJi i(<iu3trigirfr tV !6fffi* airiir, 

Urja-it is here the most appropriate 
word for prayer, Expressing petition for 
the relief of material wants. 

Sn <ri ill i Btii ^f^v. Cf. ix. 16. 
For (I (not (Ii) we may quote the parallel 
passages, Ps. cxxxix. (cxl.l j ilra t^ 
Kvplv #tAt Ml etfi. cxli. (»lil) to Sti 

iiilgenfeld's conjectore tli is quite out 
of keeping with the thought and argu- 
ment of the Psalm. 




[V. 8 

" fi-tj jSapui^s rrju x^tpft trov iff* y}fia^, 

Lva fi-^ St' dfdyKr)v d.ii.a.pT(afi,fv. 

' Kol lav fi-ij enicTpefi^ic hmSc, ovk a^^/icda, 

aXXa liri tre TJ^ofiev. 

'" idv ydo Trcivdtrta, iTpo$ <re KCKpa^ofiai, 6 6t6s, 

Kol (TV dwtreis /lioi. 

"ji. neTeiNi Kfll toyc IxByac <tv Tpe'<^eis 

€!■ T^ StSoVai (TE UETOl' eV CpiJ/iOtS CtS ANiTOAflN X^OHC, 

6Toi«ACfti xopricwiTi cc ipTJfi^ TTauTL ^wptl. 

'"Km eW Tretfatrwcrt, npdc ce aporci TrpdswTra avroJi', 

"tous BiciAeTc Kai Tou5 ipxoNrac teal Aaoyc tru T/je'i^ets, 

B a;«ipTclF«;M>' (? K) Fab,: a/iipTij^tii A (Cerda) V, P, M. 

9 iiMi% Co(id. : ip4i ^^at FiiUsch. Pick. 

11 x'^*1' A (Cerda; ((t iforoXiir X'^! = '^ ericnta/i pascis). 

See on li. 14 U(U'ijifoii.,.T-oB §a.pi'rea6ai 
Xtijji ffou iirl 'lepouooX^;!. From the 
passaees there refened to, it will be seen 
thit the active voice in this metaphor is 
not found in the 0,T. The rsalmisl, 
who obviouslj bases his use of the me- 
taphor on such O.T. piLssaees a^ Job 
xxxiii. 7 ; Fs. xxxii. 4, would here repro- 
duce theii idiom. We conjecture there- 
fore that the Hebrew ran ^"^ 133i;i h^ 
H-^ papvrBtlii (or fiij pafiiiriirSiii) 4 X'^P 
<,tv instead of ^'j; 1351=) ^(«, which 
represents the reading of the vowels fol- 
lowed by the Greek iranslaloi. As the 
vowels were not wtilten, this was a very 
likely mistake to occur. 

Bi' dMLyKi^v, i.e. on account of the 

Siressurc of necessity arising from want of 
ood. The thought seems to be ihal ex- 
treme physical suffering tempts men to 
lose iheir faith In God and seek relief in 
sinful ways. Sucb was the temptation 
of Job 0ob ii.). The verse will then 
best be illustrated by I'rov, xxx. 8. o 
' Feed me with the food that is needful 
for me. ..lest I be poor, and steal, and 

use profanely the name of my Cod.' Is. 
viii. 9] 'it shall come to pass that, when 
they shall be hungry, they shall fret 
themselves, and curae by iheir king and 
their God.' 

It seems however to us that this ex- 
planation docs not exhaust the full mean- 
ing of the passage. The Psalmist's prayer 
for relief ^om the scourge of famine, lest 
in this dire extremily he should lin 
against God, contains a hidden allusion 
to the laws of cleanliness in matters of 
food, concerning which the Pharisees 
were minutely particular. In limes of 
scarcity, the difficulty of keeping to the 
letter the rules which regulatwl their 
food Iwcame increasingly formidable ; 
and the liability 'to sin,' i.e. to trans- 
gression of the law, was proportionately 




ctvavKiiv. Cf. Ps. 

id Kal 4itixpa^r Trpol nipiBV ir rif B/,ipi- 
aSai airoit, tal Ik rur iu>a7«ur oijruv 

g Kal 4dv ^i| km^T^infi liiull. The 

phrase is undoubtedly based on the refrain 
otPs.lxxix, (Ixxx.) 7, 14, 19 'lumusagam' 
[MuTfi'jiow Tiiat), where it is doiibtfal 
whether the meaning ' restore us to pros- 
perity ' or ' bring us back from captivity' 
IS most appropriate. In the presenl pas- 
sage it can only carry the former meonitig. 
For irtsTpi^ar nsed of Divine reitaratiem 
after discipline, cf.EkMlns.xrlii iifXeotW 

fXntW J 



Iv. !2] 

8 Make not thy hand heavy upon us, that we sin not by 
reason of our sore necessity. 

9 Even if thou turn us not again, yet will we not from 

' ^e- 

e will c 

D thee. 

1 cry, I 


come unto t 
an hungered, i 
thou wilt give unto me. 

11 The fowls of the air and the fishes dost thou feed, when 
thou givest showers in the desert places that the green grass 
may grow up, to prepare food' in the wilderness for every living '' 

12 And if they be hungry, unto thee will they lift their face. 

13 Kings and rulers and nations dost thou feed, O God; 


KVflou lui ■waaai' iripta i\lyxuir nal T<u- 
Stdur rai Mdaiair, lol inerplipaii ut 

Frilische, by his conjectural reading 
not ^iiat, gives a dilTcTciil turn to the 
clause i.e. * If you incline not unto us, &c.' 
and is fuUowed by Pick. 

But as the reading eives a good sense 
and is supported by uie analogy of the 
l.xx. version of Ps. Ix nix. O.XXX.) and Ixxxiv. 
(Ixxxv.) 4, we see 00 sufficient reason for 
inliuducing the preposition. 

It is possible that the original Hebrew 
may have had the sense which Fritische 
pn^oses, since the LXX. in Ps. cxvili. 
(cxix.J 7g give iwivrpc^taahi /it as the 
wndering of '?"*311?; 'convetlanlur ad 

Am >l<|>t{<VA>. Cf. viii. 38 'We will 
not hold off or abstain from approaching 
thee in prayer.' For dWxW"' cf.Johi. i, 
3 irfxiut'O! irb irmrdi FonjpoD rpdy- 
(utTor, Isai. liv. ij iTix"" i'i iiliiov. 

etW 4*1 <ri MofM. Cf. Ps. Ixiv. (Ixv.) 
3 eiaiKovaof rpo^fi'^'^z fxov, Tp6t fft 'ao'a 

10 idv -ydp imnlrM. The thought 
of ihLs verse recalls Ps. cvi, (cvii.) 9 9ti 
ixApraxa ^uX'J" ""5". "al ^'TC^'' Tr""- 
mir iriw\iiffiy AyaBiir. 

11 Til iriniiVfl,,,T(Wi^iI...'utTJv..,dva- 

The occurrence of these words illustrates 
tbe inSuence of the lxx. version on the 
translator, cf. Ps. cilvi. (cxlvii.) 8, 9 t^ 

ir tptai X^P^' '"' X^**!' ^ SovXelf t-uw 
ifOpiliTiiif, Koj SMm ToU mrinvL rpa^iif 
airuir Ktl TOiT ii(wo-(wi tuw KOpdnuit ToTt 
trmoKoviUroit niVii*, Job xxxviii. i$—ij. 
Cf. Matt. vi. 16 for the illustrative 

T(rf+iw. Cf. Ps. culiv. (cxlv.) IS, 16 
Kid air StSi^ rf^ rpo^^ a&rQw iv ti/Katpl^. 
cxiv. (cxlvi.) 7 iiiotra T/ioip^r toii ki- 

■ll dvaroXilv )lXJir|i. A picture of the 
rapid growth of vegetation after a fall of 
rajnin Palestine. diBroXi) is hereused as a 
verb noun, so that these words are equiva- 
lent to r»a drar^XXj x^l. i«t™XJ] in this 
sense does not occur in the LXX. or in 

tTQLplaiu. This might be taken as a 
fresh clause coordinate with ir rifi iiMrai 
irc uiTor. But we prefer to r^ard it as 
explanatory and expressing the purpose 
of ir i/r^itM til (UaToXJii" x^^' Cf. Ps. 
lxiv.(lxv.) lo^i^tdaai H]* rpo^^aliTuu'. 

]^opT^ir|uiiTii is used for 'provender' 
Gen. xxiv. 15, 31, xlii. 17, xliii. I4; Jnd. 
xix. 19; for 'grass' ( = Aq. x^'V) in 
Deut. d. ij, in which sense it may occur 
here, unless it should receive a perfectly 
general application in the sense of 'food' 
as in Acts vii. [ 1 (at oix ijCpiiriioii X'P'^^- 
(UTS oj xaripit ii/iijf. 

18 *p^ irl ApoOoi wpirawa airmi. 
The verse expresses in reference to all 
living creatures the same thought as 
Ps. dii. (civ.) 11 'The young lions roar 
after their prey and seek their meat from 

For ipoihrt »iiAffi«-B airiiy cf. 1 Sam. 
ii. II runspu 70 irponwirai' (lov vpAt 'luo^; 
where in a very different conlexl the same 
thought of trust and confidence underUes 
ihe metaphor. 

IS P(urkX<Il...iifiX<><'TM...Xaoi}t. For 


t XooJ, OpXWTf 

(cat TTTtiJjfov Kttt ■jievrjTOi ij Avli Tis ioTiv, et /ai/ cru, 

'""Kai OT( eiraKovtrg, on Tis xpucrdc ka) ^meiKflc, aX\ t] (TV, 

' V ')(pi)<yT6Ti)'i avOpdnrov hi <f>Ck<i> [^a-ijfi€pop'] Kal avpiou, 
KoX iav Koi ZtvTepuKTQ av(v yoyyvtTfiov, Kal tovto 8av- 


'»* ^(X^j Codd. : ^v ^yj\i^ lli\g^ aal ij affpiiH' Codd.i iw' aOpiov Hi]g. i 

majifi* foJ vitrnTa dvD rur impwa^vrtaif 
airbr. Ixjii. (Iixii.) 11, 1 3 S« ^piitrarn ttui- 
Xit ix x«(^ ivriamv Kaj Wnfra 1} oix 
urTJpxtr ffrnfiif ^fjfftroi urux'"'' «nl ri- 

(litKiv.) u iTTiux*' "li irirTji o(uiain«i» 

14 XP"!*™* *^ iiruut'^t. The same 
words ucGur logether in Ps. Ixxxv. (Uxxvi.) 
5 Sti ri), «)/K(. xiT<?o'Tdi noi ^uin^i: ihe 

Srobabilily ihal Ihe translator was in- 
uencwd by this Faolm is increased on 
our observing in ver. I ttaixavaii' «ui> 
3n iTTWx^' <«>1 *^>|I c'>iJ ^>i| in ver. 1 
™ iXiriforra irl at, in ver. 4. fOippiuior 
T'tfi (tux^ '■"S fciiXoii iroi;, words which 
find their echo in our present conteil. 

dXV ij uwd after n direct or implied 
negative. Cf. Job vi. c lai 3iB(cr^i tu^- 

Luke xii. 51 ovxl. Uyu iplr, aXX' 1} Sta- 
luptapiw. 1 Cor. i. 13 du'top iWa ypi- 
^Ofur lifuv oXX' 4 d anrYi'diffim- On 
dU' f standing for dX\o ij (not oXXa ^) 
and its use as a conjunction see Winer's 
Gr. of N.T. (Moullon's ird ed. p. 551, 
n. 4_t- 
tv^pavoi. The inlin. corresponds with 

Wellhausen transtnles tt^pirai and 
aVoi£m as if ihey had both been Impera- 
tives in the original. But this seems 
to us Id introduce Dnnecessarily a sen- 
T entreaty, which would intenupl 
the description of Divine mercy. The 
thought of Ihe passage seems to follow 
an orderly arrangement: ver. 14 God 
hearkens, fur he is gracious and maketh 
glad ibe heart of the humble by his 
bounteous mercy: ver. 15 man's mercy 

and kiudness are shortlived: ver. 16 
God's gifts are without stint. 

Whatever may have been Ihe precise 
form of Ihe verbs in the original, it la 
more natural to suppose thai they con- 
tinue the previous clause than that they 
introduce a new starting. point in the 
sentence. We are confirmed in ihis view 
when we find the phrase itolytv x<*po 
coupled with xpV^i^^ in the same Psalm 
ciii. (civ.) from which has been borrowed 
Ihe substance of these verses 11 — 15- 
^ ranivafi. Cf. Ts. ci, (cii.) ij irip\t<ftr 

«VT¥^wC|aix<tfHl<raiil(>4X]{v- Com- 
pare ciii, (civ.) j8 inoJfaiTM iW onu nj» 
X«/M ri ainxarra ^wT^lffflfrrc-ai xP'I'Th- 

V.) 16 a 


■ fii* 


1» ij XP'I'"'^"!* Av*p>iiroii. The 

gnnmic charncler of Ihis and the follow- 
ing verse k quite in the siyle of Proverbs. 
When viewed in conjunction with Ihe 
proverbial saying in ver. 4 and Ihe prac- 
tical philosophy of vv. iS— 10, as well as 
with the references to the natural world 
(cf. I Kings iv. 31, 33), Ihis feature in 
our Psalm may well have been under- 
stood to conlinn the claim of Solomonic 

Jv ^Ckf fc.T.X, The ir ^v tilerally 
reproduces Ihe Hebrew 3nh?. tlilgen- 
fcld's conjecture ii ^X4'= 'ileccitrully,' 
"with guile,' from ihe rare adjecltvc 
^ifUi, which does not occur in lxx. or 
N. T. Greek, only deserves notice as a 
remarkable instance of critical perversity. 
The leit gives a fair sense, ihough the 
construction is harsh ; Ihe conjecture is 

Conjcclural emend ation of our Psalmist's 
text has been confirmed by the discovery 




^ and who is the hope of the needy and the 

poor beside thte, U 
gracious and gentle 

H [o-n 

Lord ? 

14 And thou wilt hearken : — for who i 
but thou ? 

Thou makest' glad the soul of the humble by opening thine 'Gr. fi 
hand in mercy. ™^;*J' ' 

15 The kindness of a man is toward hh friend [to-day] and 
to-morrow', and if he should do it a second time without * Gr. a 

idling, even so thou wouldest marvel. ' *"" 

of Mss. (e.g. IV. 11)1 l">' <tic inlroduc' 
Uon of a lexical curiosity like ^X^i, which 
bnot fonnd once in Ihe lxx. Qrlhe N.T., 
into a passage where fUXy give; a rca^in- 
oble sense, is inderensible. Hilgenreld 's 
line, 4 'Xji'irrlmit ijiBfil/wtu It 0i)X^ tal 
Jt' aipaat, a apparently intended to mean 
'man's kindness is deceitful and has an 
eye to the future ; if it is re]>eated, it i& 
a marvellous exception.' 

We feel convinced, however, that the 
second clause of tiie sentence becomes 
almost meaningless unless the fttst clause 
be much more favourable in tone than 
Hilgenfeld's emendation makes it. The 
general meaning we take to lie quite 
Mlisroctory as supplied \n the picsent 
text: *a uaB'% kindness is sliort- lived ; 
with repetition it becomes grudgiuEi if 
not, it is a case for wonderment.' 

There arc two objections to the jiresent 
text; (1) Ihe abruptness of the fiist clause 
If jipifirlmji drSpuwou it i^Kf^ (1) the 
[Ungrammatical construction of the follow- 
^blg words, voj 4 OL^ptof Jiol i^ ■at...fEaZ 
'nOro, emphauzed by the repetitioo of 

The difficulty we conjecture to be due 
either to the error of the translator or to 
the condition of Ihe Hebrew text. 

We believe that the best explanation Is 
to be found in the hjnwthesis that some- 
thing has follen out vrhich formed part of 
the original texL 

Our conjecture is that the word ■ to-day ' 
was accidentally omitted from the Hebrew 
lent, and that the Greek should have run 
^ XP'I'T*^' d»fl(Kiirou ir ^y [ainupm'] 
xol aOpie*. The sense which is thus se- 
cured is very appropriate: 'a man's kind- 
ness toward his friend is forlo-dayand to- 
morrow: but if he ungrudgingly repeats 
it, this is wonderful.' In favour of the 
conjecture we may bear in mind 

(i) that 'to-day and to-morrow" was a 

proverbial Jewish expression (ef. Luke 
>:'i'- 31. 33; Jas. iv. ij) for the present 
and immediate future; 

(1) that Kal before 4 a.dpi» stands in 
need of some explanation when followed 
by another ical; 

(3) that the probability of the Hebrew 
word for 'to-day' of four letters dropping 
out is rendered exceedingly probable by 
the fact of its two last letters being the same 
as the two first letters of the Hebrew 'and 
to-morrow.' The sentence might have 

rumrroi DVn anwa dtkh naiiD, white 

the liability to the omission might have 
been further increased if the Hebrew had 
read 'towards Aii friend,' when the final 
letters of that substantive would almost 
have corresponded with the opening letters 
of 'to-day'; thus. 

^■yiDi Dm injnn vh nnio. 

This appears to us by far the most 
satisfactory explanation ; and the objec- 
tion based on the literal rendering of 
StuTtpiiii disappears when we Rnd that 
(1) SfiiTfii6ij is used not merely of 'doing 
a second time' (e.g. 1 Kings xviii. 34), 
but also of 'repealing' generally (e.E- 
Ecclus. vii. 15 ml iti] Siuripiirjp Xfryw it 
rpoatuxB 'Du): (i) the word HJf!', which 
it translates, is often used of 'indeRnilc 
repetition'; e,g. Prov. xvii. 9 'He that 
harpeth on a matter" (Sym. = i « Sturt- 
piir \lr(of. Th. = KaJ tiurtpar ir iliyif): 
xxvl. 1 1 ' A fool that rcpeateth bis folly ' 
(Hym. Th. irlntTot itin-ipUr irl i^paair-s 

In Deul. vii. ; Aquila's use of Bfm/woi 
is due to a confusion between n)(? and 


Another possible rendering of the M.S. 
text is this: A man's kindness is toward 
his friend, and extends only to Ihe morrow, 
or is deferred to the morrow, whereas 
God's kindness is toward all. He makelh 



[V. 1 6 

'"to Se So/xa (rov ttoXv fiera ^prqarorqTO'; Kai TrXovtriov, 
fcai ov IfTTtv itii ire, Kvpu, tJ AirU, ov i^eiVerai eV Bofiart. 
'' (Vl iraa-av r^v yrjv to eXeos o-ou, Kvpu, iv ^^ototi/ti. 

"Ma«apH)s ou fivrjfLOVEvei, 6 ^eo5 cf a-vfiixerpui. avrap- 

V, K, P, M: ^i«rToi A: ^weerai Cerda, Fabr. ^irti 
avToptclai Hilg. 

1« ri itl V. ^(ffftrn 
Fritocb. Pick. 

IS a^ropimrJat Codd. : 

his sun to shine upon the just «nd the 

dvai •(Offvayun. yeyyi'ci'it is nol a 
common word. It rcndeis rUvfl in 
Ex. xvi. 7, 8, g, ii; Num. xvji. 5. lo. 
and jW in Isai. Iviii. g, and is found in 
Wisd. i. 10, Hi Ecctus. xlvi. lo. We 
have Snv YByyiwfioEl in 1 Pel. iv. o, xi'ptt 
r/oyyvcfMr Phil, ii. 14; and elsewhere in 
the N.T, the word occure only in John 
vii. ij; Acts vi. I. 

■col TovTo Cavfu£o-aat. Cf. Vs. cxTii. 
(esviii. ) ijKoii'irTi* Baufiainl! if A^SaXMoIi 

For the AeoHc 
Acts J 

.( cf. itijXa^iiatio 

18 o£ ^(Ctrrraii 4v U|Uiri. U]ion our 
explanntion of these words must turn our 
oplanation of the areumenl in this and 
Ihe following verses. There are two main 
alternatives of explanation : 

A. According to ihe first, (he argiraient 
is: as contrasted with man's goodness, 
Divine goodness is rich and bountiful ; 
the gifts of God will always be plentifully 
showeml upon the man whose trust is in 
Ilim ; yea and more than that, the whole 
earth partakes of them. This seems to 

lelhe vi 


(a) Frilzsche, who conjecturing ^ilmi 
would appaienlly prefer the reading 'And 
towards him, whose trust is in Thee, O 
Lord, Thou will not be sparing in 


(#} Wellhsusen, who, if he reads ^I> 
nrtu, must regard it as a mistranslalion 
of the original Hebrew, translates as if it 
should have been rendered aix irrcp^ti, 
'und wcsscn Hoffnung auf dich steht, 
Herr, wird keinen Mangel haben an Gute.' 
This gives a belter grammalical sense 
than Fritzsche's, inasmuch as the ante- 
cedent to Ihe relalive clause is the subject 
and not ihe unexpressed object of the 

B. The altcmalivc exphinalion of the 
verse may be expressed as follows: God's 
^fts and merc^ are bountiful ; and they 
who trust in Him have more than enough, 
for they can give abundanlly out of the 
store which He has granted liem. Those 
who Irusl in Him imitate His goodness. 

e6 ^IffCTOi is taken in its literal sense, 
'And he whose trust is in thee, O Lost), 
will not be sparing in his gifts.' So 
Geiger, who however wrongly refers to 
xi. 1. This rendering of ^TSoiau in Oie 
sense of ' 1 am parsimonious ' is not com- 
mon, but might be defended from Jer. 
xxvii. (1) >4 M 4tlaTiirei irl roa Toftiiia- 
rir iiLwr, and Aq. Sym. Prov. xi. 14 j U 
^Hiilitroi ^pnV The thought also might 
be illustrated from the description of the 
opposite character in Prov. xii. 14 Uipwr 
li a ^iS6ntym Bvnit iyflpti Lrxypitr. 

Oat of these rival methods of transla- 
tion we incline to Ibal represented by 
Wellhausen A («). The sense which hu 
rendering gives ^ccs best in our belief 
with the context. We arc not, however, 
aware how Wellhausen arrives at his trans- 

Our own belief is (i) that ^tiatriu is 
the right Greek reading, and that the 
varieties in the lexl are due lo Ihe diffi- 
culties in the way of its inlerptetation : 
(1) that ^IvcToi is the translator's render- 
ing of an inaccurale Hebrew text; i3)tlmt 
whereas *ei«TO< would be Ihc natural 
rendering of Din' 'he will spare,' cf. Deut. 
vii. i6«'«tl<i(raiDin^'l6: Eiek. ix. 10 
nal ou pflstTiu (D^n^tO), Din> was pre- 
sumably in the lexl licfore the traitslalor: 
(4) Ihal DlfV was a co]nist's blunder for 
"OT'he will wanl,' the final letters having 
been transposed, and 1 read for 1: (5) that 
on the supposition of the originiQ text 



16 But thy gifts, according to thy loving-kindness, are boun- 
teous and rich ; 

and he whose hope is in thee, O LORD, standeth not in need of 
gifts'. °Oi-" 

17 Thy mercy, O Lord, is upon all the earth in loving-kind- J^i%'gt/^ 

ness. tforingin 


18 Blessed is the man whom God remembereth with a 
sufficiency convenientybr /«'/«; 



havuig been IfflV, Ihe Greek rendering 
sbould have been bareirfyia or inofHiaa. 

Our explanation of the vetse then be- 
comes ' God'ii gifls are rich and plentiful ; 
Ihe man who trusts in Ihe Lord shall be 
well provided for, he will need gifis no 
morei but God restricts not His love; 
His mercy b toward all the world.' 

Pick's translatioQ of this verse is ' But 
thy gift is large with benevolence, and 
rial. Atm] whoso puttelh his Imst, O 
Lord, in Thee, shkll have no need of 
anything.' iptlini (the reading followed) 
is here rendered as if there were a word 
AfiSiii ' I have need of, ' with ipfiaa 3 sing. 
TBt. 'he shall have need of.' 

For W^...»Xo<lffiw cf. Kviii. j ^ jj/njmi- 
njT aov luri ii^arof rkowsloti itl 'lirpai^X. 
Ftov. xix. 1^ (ari it ri Siita airriA irra- 
ToSiisd aiJr^J. Syin. Prov. lU. 6 col i-Si 
^01 dvjpit SiiutTBi, 

17 M irao«i> TTiv y^v ri IXtJi am. 
We more often find the power than the 
mercy of the Lord described as universal. 
Compare for this expression Ps. xxxii. 
(mcxili.) 5 T06 IMoiH Kiiptov r\^s ^ yfl. 

For the comparison of Divin e and human 
mercf our Psalmist shows a close agree- 
ment with Ecclus. xviiL 11 IXtos ilepJiTai; 
irl TOT r\^aUiy a^raS ' fXrot Si Kvplov tri 

IB ot ]ivj\ftMiti*K t Btdl. The verb 
for 'to renieinbcr ' applied to God is 
Bcnemlly /u^i}ir«u. An exception is Rev. 
iviii. 5 ibI /iiniijjKvffcr 4 fleii to diiJi^- 

The meaning of the clause seems lo be 
' blessed is the man who is the recipient 
of IMvine favour with a humble but con- 
tented lot. On (he other hand a man 
sins who seeks to exceed, apparently by 
unrighteous means, the limit which God 
has assigned him' (cf. ver. 6). According 
to this explanation ir auiifurpif airapte- 
vloi is opposed to M* iwrprt-inrda-s, and 
liatipiet or lunifmrtfii i 9(it to /(aimp- 

Tifu. The latter contrast is not very 
evident at Rrst sight. But it is implied 
ihil the man whom God remembers is a 

te (niutfTpff avTopiMirCai. We can- 
not be fat wrong in supposing that the 
general sense of these words is 'conlenl- 
ment in circumstances sufficing for daily 
rieeds.' Bui it is cot so easy lo determine 
more narrowly their precise significance. 

0-up^i«rp<ii does not occur in the lxx. 
or in the N. T. aiiiiUTpn is found in 
Jer. xxii. I4 iSixoSiiaiviij ataertf dIkw 

atJrapKMrCas is probably introduced as 
an additional interpretative rendering to 
explain iru,i^trpif. Cf. iv. lo irttrlas, 
xvi. I Chrvou. avrapKiala appears to be 
a3rai\ty6)uyor. Hilgenfelci reads ailiaf)- 
K((ai, and Geiger suggests airropEirxlar. 

airaptefla however seems 10 stand in 
the same relation to airipttia and aC'op- 
Kiiv as dirOKtalo lo iroiila and iroitilf, 
and is certainly not lo be rejected from 
the text as an impossible compound, with 
the meaning of 'sufficiency.' The word, 
and indeed the whole phrase, seems lo be 
based on Prov. xxx. 8 'Give me neither 
poverty nor riches; Feed me with the 
food that is needful for me.' (tXdCtw i* 
Ksl wrrlar /ii] >iw Sift, in^Tajsf 3i fioi ri, 
Siorra khI ri. airripii] = Aif. Sprw itpi- 
paanun ixav. Sym. Slairat iitoBTii'.) 

It is interesting to Hnd this proverbial 
maxim so prominently asserted in this 
Psalm. The Pharisees, whose Sadducec 
opponents numbered amongst them the 
H^thiesl of the race, probably dwell 
with special satisfaction on the blessings 
of humble station with conlentment. It 
WHS, we may believe, a recollection of his 
early training, which gives to us St Paul's 
teaching on the subject of 'contentment ' 
in the words of PhiL iv. ii iyi> ylip 
IliaBai hi olt tipi. avri^nfrfl tbu, I Tim. 
vL 6, 8 fcTU' M ■wafi.apit /tfyai -^ taatfitia 


[V. 19 

" edv vntptrKfovdrrQ a avBptaTTO^, i^afiaprdifei., 
^ LKavov TO fiirpiov eu hiKaioirvtrQ, 

' Tj (.xiKoyia Kvpiov ets Tz'k-qa-p.ovijV cc SiKaiotrvi^. 
" (itfipavdrja'ai' ot (f>o^ovp.€i'Oi Kvpiov Iv a.yaBol'i, 
KoX -q )(prq<n6Tr\<i <tov iirt 'icrparjX cv Ty (SatrtXcta (rov, 
"e-fAorHweMH h h6i& kyp'oy. 

OTL aVTO<S Se.C\\£-ii: MMLJN. 


arflflifaai- Fiiliwh. Pick. 


Iteri a^rapKitui,. txfTfS Si Jiarpo^i Kat 
mntiaiuiTa toiH-dit apiia9iiai/u8ii. Very 
similar is ihe senlence, perhaps derived 
from the same source, in the Fi'ri/e Abolh 
IV. 3 'Who is rich? He that is contented 
wilh hi^ lot; for it is said, When thou 
catest the labour of thy hands, happy art 
Ihou, and it shall be well wilh thee'^(Ps. 
cxxviii, 1). 'Happy art Ihou' sc. in this 
world; "and it shall be well with thee, 
EC. in the world to come. ' 

19 hnfrnttovArf^ With the same 
meaning probably as vei, 6 ■w^.toraaat 
Taoa ri ipJ/ia gov, i Siit. 

For the use of the word compare i Tim. 
i. 14 l;*ipar\i6raatr Si ^ X^' ">" "fplo" 

l£B|iapnEm is not found in the N.T. 
In the LXX. it is found intransitively in 
Neh. ix. 33; Hab. li. to; Zeph. i. 18; 
Song of TTiree Ch. j, and often transi- 
tively in the sense of 'moke to sin,' eg. 

SO li fiirfnov. /iriT/uot seems only to 
be found once in the LXX. Ecdua. xxxiv. 
10 ( = xxxi. 31) Ihrrti Ir-rulas trl hrripif 
litrpbf. The adverb ittrpiiin also occurs 
once, in 1 Mace xv. 38 tl U nirAui to' 
IttT^ttt.T^ui^KTir^y tieu In the N.T. 
the adverb occurs once, Acts xx. 1 1 -wapt- 
tMfiviar au firrplai. 

The meaning of ri ^^fw can receive 
no better illustration than Trov. xxx. 8 
'Give me neither poverty nor riches.' It 
represents the position m life freed from 
the temptations peculiartoextreme poverty 
and extreme wealth. 

t4 Uorir b the LXX. rendering of "1 

character of the SiKouminj here spoken 
of is suggested by the other references to 
'rmbteousness' in this book. 

The idea of a little with righteoiuness 
being belter than great wealth and wicked- 
ness is frequently mentioned in Hebrew 
literature. ComparePs. xxxvii, 16 ' Better 
is a little that the righteous hath than the 
abundance of many wicked.' It is a 
common maxim in the Book of Proverbs, 
e.g. XV. 16 'Better is little with the fear 
of the LciRD, than great treasure and 
trouble therewith'; xvL 8 'Better is a 
little with righteousness than great re- 
venues wilh injustice.' 

ij diiXoYfa KvpCav. Cf. xvii. 43. 

tit irXi|ir|uivi)v. This phrase is used 
here in a good sense in connexion with 
the blessii^ of the Lord. In the lxx. 


t w\ff(tiuiHit ; 

nLev. > 


imciency possible ; with 
tiKOtneini, 'the golden mean' amply 
supplies hunnflu wonts. The purely Iij^al 

Thus Ps, lixviii. 15 'He s 
meat to the full' (tineiraiiit a 
auToij efi nXtfaiuir-fyr). Lam. v. 6 'We 
have given the hand to the Egyptians, 
and to Ihe Assyrians to \x satisfied with 
bread ' ( AfTvi-roi limf x^'P^ 'Aaaoip tit 
l-XijiTMiwic auTur]. 

In Ihe N. T. it is found with a bad 
sense in the well-known but diflicuit pas- 
sage. Col. ii. 13 out it Tifi^ tail 'W(i\ 
■rKtpiluKiifi Tilt noftln. R.V. 'against the 
indulgence of the flesh.' 

The present sentence is not without 
obscurity. The words ir rnViii may refer 
back to ri iiirpiai or may point forward 
to tit rXijffM'VV'' ^* ttnauHJiiru. We 
prefer the latter alternative; the second 
clause explains and expands the former. 

tU rXi)ff>i»i]if is then equivalent "" ' 
7if^oi w\Ti<rnoyTi. J 




19 If a man abound beyond measure, he sinneth. _ 

20 Sufficient is a moderate provision with righteousness'; and '*".';."' 
herein is the blessing of the Lord, that a ttian be satisfied in '" ''"'^ ' 

21 They that fear the Lord rejoice in prosperity', and thy ' Of. -*'' 
loving-kindness is upon Israel in thy kingdom. sBrnfm-si 

22 Blessed be the glory of the LORD, for he is our King. 

h SiKnioiruiTi. The 'righlTOusness' of 
the Inie Israclile alone ciui liU the meaauic 
of satisfaction. This 'r^hlcousness' con- 
sisted in trroioK piuma 'living io CDii- 
(brmity with the Law.' It was the due 
perlbrmance of duties, cL Mali. iii. 15 
>tO fulfil all righteouHiess' (irX^p£acu rS.- 
la* BiwiiwiJi')!*}. Our Lord's ministry was 
a constant witness against the unspiritual 
ideal of righteousness set up by the Scribes 
and Pharisees, e.g. Malt. v. 10 'except 
your righteousness shall exceed Iht rightt- 
euiiua of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye 
shall in na wise enter into the kingdom 
of heaven.' But in the same semion He 
reeognizes the existence of those whose 
spiritual yearnings were unsalislied bf 
ihe Pharisee standard of legal perform- 
ance. 'Blessed nre they that hunger and 
thirst after righteousness (tV SmeMtairTiy) 
foi they sh^l be filled' (Matt. v. 6), 
where the itue sailsfaction may be con- 
trasted with Ihe e)i TXi(o-;iw4» of our 
own verse. Our Lord, like the Pharisee 
teachers, laid before the people iheprimaty 
' ' '"'le pursuit of righ" - - .- r 
e kingdom of Go 
The differeni 
teaching and that of the Pharisees layinthe 
fundamen tal concept ion (if 'lichteousness,' 
Ihe Pharisee basing il on obedience 10 ihe 
'letter,' our Lord on the 'Spirit' of holi- 

The passages in Ihe Gospels where it.- 
itoioafrij is mentioned are Malt. iii. 15, 
V. 6, 10, 10, vi. i(?), 33, xxi. 31; Luke 
i. 7s; Johnxvi. 8, 10. 

It is interesting also to observe how 
largely St Paul, the Pbaiisee. deals with 
the Christian expansion of this Jewish 
idea of righteousness,' 

91 td^pdv6i|rav. Fritzsche's emen- 

dation tu^parStlijaar is very possible; cf. 
iv. 11 anapwieBtiritia for irtopwiii$i)aaf, 
)ul Ihe aorist indie may equally well 


oL ^oPoJpivoii N^pwy. Cf ii. 37, iii. i6. 
The theocmtic section of the community. 
Compare Luke ii. 15 i arSpunrot oSroi 

h (tToSoIt. Considering Ihe context 
and the subject of the Psalm, we prefer 
to understand this as an allusion to ' the 
blessings of prosperity, "as in Ps.cvi. (cvii.) 
g 'the hungry soul he Hiteth with good 
things,' ■^ivxif -rtmuenr MrXriair d^oflui' 
(cf.lukei. S3); Jobxxi.:3_r«.rrt.<ra» 
ii 4r (t-yaf wt rit fllw airut : so dva^ 
xvii. 50. 

Another possible rendering would be 
'in goodness' or 'good deeds,' cf. R.V. 
in 1 Chron. vi. 41 si ulal aov cii^^xtFf^rw- 
aar ir iyafftii. 

brV 'Iirpa'^X br rj poinXtlf irou. We 
believe that these two expressions are 
really intended I0 be synonymous ; for the 
change of preposition compare xi. g irt 
'lcpai!\ taL it UpovtaX'/iii. Israel is thus 
not a portion of ihe kingdom, but is the 
Kingdom of God. The true Israel is co- 
extensive with the Divine Kingdom. 'Thy 
loving kindness is towards Israel, even 
Thy Kingdom.' For a description of 
the Divine Kingdom see Ps.cxiv.ii — ij. 

It is bowevei quite possible thai It rj 
fiaaiktlq: aaii may nave been used by ibe 
translator of our Psalmist, in the sense ot 
It TV ^nircXfDffoI vi 'in Thy reign." 

93 tiXa^fivj] 1] U£a NvpiCov. The 
words are probably taken fiom Ezek. iii. 
r3 tCXoy^fx^ftj if Sd^a nvplov eve roO rarov 

airr^ Poo^Xtiii i)pav. .See on xvii. 1, 


[VI. I 

r. 'Yi.Ky.dc EN cAnfii twi caXoMtoN. 
VI. MaKopiO? OfTjp ov M KApif* &YTOf (ToImh eniKaAelcOai 
TO ovoy.a. Kvptov 
° ev Tw fivyjfj.ovevuv avrov t6 6no«6 kypIot ciuflHceT&i. 
'at dSol avrou KftTeTeYNONTai wo Kvpiov, 
Kai TTc^vKayixiva, tpr* xeipwM avrov vtto Kvpiov uiov avrov. 
* djTO 6pd<Ji(i>v TTOVTjpiav iwrrvlfuv aurou ov Tapa^B-^a-erai 

°ev Sui^acrei iroTaptHv koI adXinv OaXacrfrav ov jttotj- 

Inscript. : ^a\;<ii r^ SaXo^uii' ^i- fXxfJi T' A Cetda, 
sinistra parte superBcriplum) V, K, P (? oni. num.): ileesl M. 

3 post x«pu>' oCrToD legunt 6iri tvplov SfoO sirmC K, P, M, oi 

4 buTvvuy A (Cerda). conj. tnJ ^rworlur llilg. rapaxHir' 

5 iriiXu»> A: odXui 
Hilg, Fritzsch. Pick. 

, K, P, M. Cerda. Fabr., Geig. 

A, V. 

f V ''1 interpung. 

iiiXv conj. Lagarde; ita 

Pb. VI. Arvtimmt. 

A. The Blessing of the Prayerful 
Man(ver. i)i 

In prayer is his salvation; he receives 
euL(|]ince and protection in the atTairs oF 
me, he is preserved from menial disqoiel, 
he is uphdd in physical peril (i — }). 

B. The character of his prayer; 

He otTets hii pmyer day by day, in 
the spirit of constancy and ihonlisgiving, 
and omits not intercession for those de- 
peodenl on him (6, 7). 

C. Its answer; 

The prayer of the God-fearing man u 
heard, and so is the request of every &oul, 
whose hope is in (he Lord (S). 

D. noxologv: Ihc Lord is merciful 
to those whose love is sincere (9). 

There is nothing in the present Psalm, 
which can be said to reflect in any marked 
manner the dale or position of the writer. 
It contains no direct atlusion to national 
history, and there are no references lo the 
writer's personal experience. 

It is a eulogy on prayer, and, as such, 
illustrates the importance attached to the 
performance of personal devotion by the 
pious Pharisee. 

It is interesting lo observe how pmycr 
is spoken of asapreservative against super- 
stitious fcsrs (ver. 4). 

The prayer of [letilion is spoken of as 

certain ofrecciving its answer; but special 
prominence is given to its less common 
as[)ecls, the euchoristic and the inter- 

The lone of verses 8 and 9 connects it 
with the religious ]M)etry of the (heo- 

Inscription 'In hope.' This title can- 
not lie said lo be very appropriate. It 
has probably been taken from the words 
<tax9)t i\ri{o6in)t in ver. 8. 

1 imiu.i\. The expression is based upon 
Ps. Ivi. (Ivii.) 7 'my heart isiixed' (uuc. 
trdiaiii tapSla itou) and Cxi. (cxii.) 7 'his 
heart is fixed trusting in the Lord' {tral- 
fii) 4 taoSla uvrvS l\ri(ttr trl rir tSpitm). 

Kvpfou. Compare for the sense gener- 
ally, Ps. xliv. (xlv.) 17 urtiaeiiiitrTat 
(riTaiK) ToC 6r6Mar6, nv: cxviil (cxix.) 
55 i/ir/iaeijr ('m3t),.,T4 Sroiii irov. 

o-trfijiriTiii. The thought is drawn from 
Joel iL 31 'And il shall come lo pass, 
that whosoever shall call on the name of 
the Lord shall be delivered ' (lxx. ical 
Israi xii It ir iriKaMtt^at ri in/ia 
Ku/ilou auieiiatTiu, quoted by St Peter, 
Actsii. ir, and by St Paul, Rom. x. 13). 

3 al i8al...KaTtv9iiivoi>Tai. Cf. Ps. v. 
<9vya, Ik!i 

xxvi. (XX 

ara irS/uiwoii 

ii.) 13 rapi .vptou 



' In hope.' A Psalm of Solomon. 

Blessed is the man, whose heart is fixed to call upon the 
I name of the LORD. 

2 When he remembereth' the name of the Lord, he is' saved. ' 

3 His goings are established of the Lord, and the works of ™ 
his hands are preserved by the Lord his God'. ■"' 

4 By the evil visions of his dreams* his soul is not disquieted. I'l 

5 When he passeth through rivers, yea, through the surge of ' ■ 
the seas, he is not affrighted. o, 

5 t^\« «T<., 

9«vMn<,<iM <A iiol 

^uXflfaoea. Ttt 

ist hiu eKpaLid«l tlie lliouphl 


(xc.) .r "1 . 

■d fpya tA 


601901 ip' 'hfas. which 
phrases of bolh claases in this ver^. 

« d*J ifdrtmv irovi|pHV iwryliav. 
The expression Spamt tnnrfiou is fa- 
miliar from Dan. iv. 6 dxoutrw rqr Spaau 
rev innrriov /lou, Ecclus. xxii. (xKxiv.) j 
ToCro iiara touto opairti hivrriur, upon 
the analogy o( which we shauM heie ex- 
pect awo 0pd<r«iH vorf}pSir i^vwTiur. 

On Ihe other hand we find in Ihe O.T. 
the use or'the vision' side by side with, 
but distinct from, 'the dteitni. Thus Job 
vii. i.| 'Then thou scares! me with dreams, 
and terriliesi me through visions' ( fic^a^iii 
lU ervwrtatt lal 6pi^aat /it tamrkriairiit). 

night' (^iJiriM* ij it lUKtrfi runre/wn)- 
Dan. i. 17 'Daniel had understanding in 
all visions and dreams' (AaK^X evrr/Ktt h 
wdffTiipieiiKaliruwiiloa). Ontheanalogy 
of these expressions we should expect to 
find iri ifidirnuB wouiipiSii icit2 (Vinrvfiiii-. 

There are therefore three ways of ren- 
dering the words: 

(<■) By the evil visions of his dreams. 

(i) By the visions of his evil drcnms. 

(0 By evil visions (and) by his dreams 
[subiiud. Koi). 

It is possible that the two words in 
conjunction may iodicateadouble render- 
ing of the original or the insertion of an 
explanatory gloss irvwrlur. For the ap- 
parently otiose addition of a qualilying 
genitive cf. iv. 10 ittKrtat, v. 18 a--- 
K€alat, xi. t atlfiafflaj. 

oJ TOpaxtiirtrai. Cf. Ps. cxi. (en 

same passage is quoted in ver. i. 

S Iv SiBpilni treraiiuv mI cnlXuv j 
BoAoirirsv. The reading of the Mss. is 
probably correct, atthougli the language 
IS certainly unusual. Lagarde's conjecture 
ad^if gives a good sense, and the possi- 
bility of an error by the addition of n 
to a word standing between irara^uW and 
BaiMiittSr Ls obvious. But there i* no 
absolute need for alteration: and ircIXv 
is not parallel to Siafiaan. 

We might conjecture that ri^ur re- 
presents a wrongly written SaXoffffiSi' in 
some early copy, and that the erasure not 
having been noticed, both wonts v 


e that fli 


may be a gloss on irdXwi', which has found 
its way into the text. But though ailiur 
is almost uncommon enough to lie glossed, 
we cannot at present jtoint to any other 

Elain instance of a gloss in our book, 
lesychius explains it by 4 t^ Ba\iairiii 
tXiSaniai xlrfitra. We are inclined, there- 
fore, to give the benefit of the doubt in 
favour of the Ms. text, and so to treat 
viXur floXaoiriS* as coordinate with rara- 
fuSr. The sense then is 'when he crosses 
rivers and passes through angry seas.' 

h GwPdiriL irDTii|ii*v is based upon 
Isai. xliii. 1 'When thou possest through 
the waters 1 will be with thee' Hit «ia- 
^oirut Si' OSarDi). 

For iniXur ffaXaoffu* compare Ps. 
Ixxxviii. (Ixxxix.) la ml rif aaXav rut 

rcii; Jon. i. 15 (ol fmj 1^ BiAaaiia ix 
ToS ffilXou oiirqi (^BWP). As a trans- 
lation of Q10 rdXoi ' occurs in Ps. liv. 
1, Ixv. (Ixvi,) 9, cxx. (cjLxi.) 3. 



[VI. 6 

' €$aV^<TT7] i^ VTJVOV aVTOV, 

Kol €v\6yr)(rt to ovoy.a. Kvpiov. 

' eV iviTTaOiCq. KaphCa^ avTov i$vp.vrj<T€ to ovofia tov 0€ov 

KOL i&€!J6T} TOU irpOCrcaTTOV KVpiOV TTtpi tiavTO^ TOV OiKOV 

' Kai KVpto^ etCTTjKoutre Trpoa-evjfTJv ■navro^ eV tftoff^ 6eov, 
Kal TTav aiTTffia i^i'X'?' i^vi^ovaij^ ■rrpo<; avrov ctt tTcXcI 

' euKoyrjTO'i Kvpio% o itolwv i\eov Tots ayaTrio(ri,v avTou iv 

Z. yA^M^ic T(i>t CaAOMuJN eiIICTpO(|)HC. 

VII. M^ a7roo-Ki7i'(iItrus ai^' iJ/itUf, o ^eo?, 
iva ^^ eVi^wiTat tJ^ic oI michc*nt€c tj^a? iwpeiN' 

7 tiWaffJ? P. M. 

S filXoT^ru A. Ceida, P'abr. (bfiiecHiatur. ef. V, i). 

Inbcriplio : ^aX^iii t^ SoXd^iuV ^irMTpa#>^t {' A, Cerda ({*' imcTpo^ Fabr.): 
Tw caAoMtON ^¥iifTpii*Si K, I' (K hflbei T' a sinistra parte scriptum); V, ul Hilg. 
referl, ' if-a\n6i, sed a sinistra parte supeiscriptum est r" Tui (TbXobui* iwiarpo^^.' 

It is also the rendering of VJH '"> Sjmi. 
Job xxxix. 14, in Theodot. Eiek. xii. 18. 
uf npT in Sym. Erek. xii. 18, and of 
7VD\ in Sym. Jcr. »v. +, and perhaps of 
D59Ji<lAq.Jer.«lix. ,i(xxi«. «). 

aO <rTaT|6tj<r«Tai. Cf. Job xi. 15 oii 

We cannot see much probability in the 
suggestion that irera^ai and aaXoi 8a\aa- 

the flood' of 
the Roman [>Dwer passing over Syria. 
The i'ealmist 'n speaking of the ordinary 
dangers of travel in the Ea±t, and there 
is no reason to suppose that he is em- 
ploying metaphor. Geiger understands 
the passage 01 floods and rivers as ocenr- 
riog in the righteous man's bad dreams : 
hul this interpretation partakes, to our 
mind, of the grotesque, 
a J{aWvTT|.,,*CUY>|r(. The aori^t 

cf Aq. Sym. Isai. miii. 8 i(vin-taS^ tai 
ttrii ii ^<fxil oiiTou. Jas. i. J+. 

7 hr' iHTiiLefff NopStat oAtov. Cf. 
etoToBiia in Jv. it. The idea of the 
word is 'slabitily.' It is found in VVisd. 

iv. 16 jSoiriXth ^piniuH finmiS^iB S^fMiu. 
1 Mace. xiv. 6 oSt turret tJ)f ^anXtlar (v- 
araSilat Tux'a; TheverbtiiiTTatf^uoccurs 
in Jer. xlix. (xxx.) ji dcajjij*. ;■■' Mnw 
tiirraSaSr (v. 1. itixalor) 'unto a nation 
that is at ease' (VO^). Sym. Jer. xlviL 
(xxix.) 17 .fiffT«fl^« (U^P); and in 
J Mace. xii. 1 oiiK dw avnii tuvraditr. 
xiv. IS tyittiiair, linToBTiair. The adjec- 
tive cuirra^i is found in Ecclus. xxvi. 1 8 
KOJ ir^i ilipaiM ixl sripriM tinraAtSt, 
where the text is very doubtful. 

This is one of the words occurriitg also 
in the Book of Wisdom which Hi^frld 
adduces for his strange argument in be- 
half of the Greek original for this book. 

inrr6Stia. occurs i 
ice in Pi. S. in a 
does not advance 

But the fact 
Wisdom once 
very diflerent 
his theory. See introu. 

U«i^ Toi TpacruTOV KWpiou. Cf, on 

"■ '^■ 

«(pl nvrdt TOV oIkov bAtou. Compare 
'the righteous man' in iv. 8. The present 
passage representing 'the holy man' oScr- 
ing up intercession for the members of 
' ■ i household is clearly bused on Job i. 




6 He riseth up from his sleep, and blesseth the name of the 

7 In the steadfastness of his heart he singeth praise unto the 
name of his God. and intreateth the favour of the LORD for all 
his house. 

8 And the Lord hearkeneth unto the prayer of every one 
that feareth" God; and every request of the soul that trusteth 
in him doth the Lord perform. 

9 Blessed is the LORD that showeth mercy unto them that 
love him in truth, 


A Psalm of Solomaa. ' Of restoration} 
Remove not thy habitation from us, O God, lest they fall 
upon us that hate us without a cause: 

Of, lliat 
pmyilh in 

8 iravrris Iv ^^ip Smv. lliis we lake 
to be etjuivalenl. in the slyk of our Irans- 
lalor, lo B-iu-rAi ^^av^ym Beoy or toC ti 
ipiatf 9<Dv. For other inslances of the 
substantive with in useii as an adjective or 
participle compare iv. 1 1 Aripbt ( 

eil f=i*Spii I 

Q Aprla 

h itaKlf-iptla ItaKct: ix. ii •I'MX*!' if 

S 4 >uipTi>p(a t> raiUf for 4 nafrvpia ^ tr 
voi^ifi: xVL. J T^ fhJri airrou ttt rAy ai^m 
for T<|i i\iti aftroC ti} tit rhr i^ta or T-f 

Fot iw ^e^v compare Apoi:. Bar. xlvi. 
'el subJBCatis iUi& qui in timore sunt 
sapientes et inlelligentes.' 

»v alnjiia. Compare Ps. xix. (xx.) 5 

{XmtoKTTit vfAt aini». The lille of 
the r^in is vety piobabljr based upon 
thii mention of * the hoping ' soul. The 
construction of ('XrlffO' Tp4i is very un- 
usual. The prepositinnB h, M, ill are 
alt frequently found with tXrliiir in LXX. 
and N.T. Greelt. Bui we do not know 
of an instance where rpAi is used with this 
verb. For other grammalical anomalies 
cf. iv. ij, xvii. n. 

(nrtXtL For iiriTeXtiV used of Divine 
completion cf. 1 Sam. iii. i] Splotat kbI 
h-iTtMau: PbiL >. 6 i inii^em . . .t/rfor 
±ya.Bin f iTfrcXArf f. 

9 ■dXnYTrrJ*. Cf. ii. 41. The Augs- 
burg us. apparently had the Imperst. li- 
XoT^u [sic] for fuKoyrlaBu. tiKarrtfrh 
uacd of God in the lost verse of (he Psalm, 
corresponds lo lioiiifiti used of man in 
the Rrst verse. 

TOtt ({'Yaiirwri)'.,.li' ^t|B<ffi. On iy»- 

Tsr cf. iv. 10. i-jariii if iXifieif cf. 
1 John 1 0^ iyii ayanw ir iXTfitlif. 
3 John I iv ryii a7aTCif iv oKriBtl^, 

iv ^XiiSalf. For this phrase delinine 
Ibc character of the love towards Go<C 
compare ii. 56 oJ tt>ofio6titn>i Til xipiar rr 
fwumyip: iv. JO ol fo^iiunn rir niptov 
ir inculf m^riiir. 

Il occurs again in xiv. 1, and may be 
illustrated by Tobit xiv. 7 iiriiiiortiayTii 
TDu 0caO h i^Ti0ilf. 

The Psalmist contrasts the sincere love 
of the pious Jew with the pretence of the 
worldly Sadducee. 

Il is interesting lo compare with the 
praise here given to sincere love of God, 
the passage in the Gospels, where the 
Scribe, who belonged probablv to the 
Pharisees, asserted that sincere love was 
more essential than all whole burnt offer- 
ings and sacrifices. See Mark xii. 31^ 

The Pharisees, joining with the tle- 
rodiEuis. begin their temptation of the 
Lord by nattering His sincerity, ii- 
' ori dXjjflit il not Tij* 
dXridrif SiSAams (Matt. 

SinidXt ollaii 

■xii. r6). 

Ps. VII. ArgiinuHt. 

The Psalm falls into two marked dl- 
'isions, Israel's peril and Israel's secu- 

should not be withdrawn, lest heathen 
enemies lake possession of Zion (i, 1). 
(1) Israel will submit lo the chastening 

68 YAAMOI rAAOMflNTOS. [viT. 2 

' OTL d.TTii><T<ii avTovi;, o deof;' 

fiyj Tj-anjcroTa) o ttoC? a-vratv kk^povofitav dyioff/iaros crov. 

of the Loud 1 for He is merciful: but 
prays not to be given over to the hands 
of men, who have no meicy and would 
utleily destroy (3, 4). 

B. Israel's Security. 

(1) ThepresenceofGcxIisanassuruice 
of mercy, mid (he hope ofdefence(5— 7I. 

(1) He will chasten and correct Israel, 
but not in anger 18). 

(3) For when He lums and takes pity 
upon Israel, He will eilablish ihem ac- 
cording to His promise ((>). 

Owing to the obscurity of the allusions 
in this Iwm, it is impoEtsible to deteitnine 
with any certainty the date at which it 
was composed. 

According to Geiger it was written 
while Pom|)ey was laying siege to the 
Temple of Jerusalem. 

Wellhausea supposes that the events 
referred to arc the attack on Anligonns 
and the siege of Jerusalem by Sosius and 
Herod. His opinion is that the theocratic 
fervour, which this Psalm breathes, is not 
found in the two Psalms (ii., viii.), which 
undoubtedly refer to Pompey's capture of 
Jeruanlem and investment of the Temple; 
and that on the other hand it corresponds 
10 Ihe description of Josephus, Aitt. xiv. 
t6. 9 iitrk ToXX^' fi rpodvtUat ad ffuSot. 
irt rii^TavTOi ■iSpouriihiiiu reu tBttnit, ol 
'lovSaToi Toli ir«pl rir 'HpiMi)!" irTiro\i- 
lavr, KOTaXn^fl^TO ^rrJt toC TfJxow, 
roXXd Tt i^Tiiufar rtiil ri JEfiiyi' loj roXXi 
«ir' ti^iila ToO S^iiav iit ^ixroiiivov rut 
Ktri6niir avToDt ToS 0t<)v. 

Wellhausen's reasons are not however 
in this instance very convincing. It is 
true that Pompey was received within the 
walls of Jerusalem with the consent of the 
citiienB(cf. viii. ij — ii). But the severity 
of his measures during and after the siege 
seem to have titled the writers of both 
Psalms (it., viii.) with terror and indigna- 
tion. The allusion 10 the honour of^the 
Temple in our Psalm (vcr. 1) corresponds 
to ii. t, f. if. and verses 3, 4 may well 
refer to the massacre of Jewish citixens 
described in viii. 13, ancl implied in ii. 
]5, jfi. The fervour of such passages 

crisis as in the past. Now, if Sosius' 
attack is intended, he had been already 
victorious; Herod had been made king; 
and Ihe last prince of the Asmoncan 
House had been made prisoner and 
doomed to death. Surely, if the writer 
had referred to such a period, Ihe fait of 
the Asmonean dynasty and ihe rise of 
the Idumean king would not have been 
passed over in silence. 

What then is Ihe situation described in 
this Psalm? The ist pcrs. plural personal 
pronoun is found in each verse. The 
Psalmist speaks in the name of the true 
sons of Israel, Ihe true house of Jacob 
(w. g, 9). The peril apprehended in Ihe 
first part of the Psalm (i — 4) has passed 
away, when we come to the second part 
(5 — q). In this concluding portion Israel 
is still represented as 'under the rod of 
chastening' (ver. 8); but God's presence 
is still with Israel, He hears, defends, and 
wilt help in His np|>ainted time (ver. 9). 

The peril which had menaced Israel 
had come from those who haled Israel 
without a cause (ver. 1), from those whom 
God had cast aside (ver. 1). The writer 
had feared lest the holy Temple (or dty) 
should utterly fall into their handi 
(vv. 2 — 6); and had prayed that God 
would not deliver the people into the 
hands of the heathen (ver. 3). Let God, 
he says, rather scourge us with a pestilence ; 
then shall we fall inio the hands of a mer- 
ciful God, as David of old. Let us not 
be given over to our enemies, who will 
utterly consume us. The prayer had been 
heard, the peril averted, and, though 
chastened, Israel hoped in her God. 

It may be fairly questioned whether . 
those 'who haled Israel without cause, 
whom God cast off' are to be identified 
with ' Ihe heathen ' of ver. 3. We would 
hazard the suggestion that ISrtmy in 
ver. 3 refers to ibe Romans, and that al 
luaiiiramt ^jini lliiip<ir,„iwui(ru avroit 
(w. I, ]) describe the High Priest's party, 
the Sadducees, who haled their country- 
men the Pharisees, and were themselves, 
in the writer's opinion, rejected of God 
for having usurped the sacred ofGces. 

The recent invasion of Pompey is. wc 
believe, the occasion of the Psalm. The 
hnstilily of the Sadducees and the power 
of the Romans were the immediate cause 


IVll. 2] YAAMOI IAA0M{1NT0S. 69 

2 Nay, as for them whom thou hast cast off, O God, let not 
their foot tread the inheritance of thy sanctuary. 

or alarm. But the duiger is 
pey h>d not destroyed "theii place and 
nation." The pious Jews may look for 
the aecomplishmeni of a still greater 
deliverance, when the necessary chastise- 
ment (or sin is overpast. 

Inscription. Literally 'of turning,' 
either transitively in the sense of 're- 
storation' (cf. eviffrp^^iti in v. g), or in- 
transitively in the sense of ' conversion ' 
as in xvi. 1 1 tit i-wutrpo^riir [cf. eri.- 
oTpffhw Luke xxii. ji). Id the former 
alternative it would lie an (tiinpo^ 9tav, 
in the latter an iriarpa^ 'Iir/io-^. See 
the title Ttjt iwiirrpotp^s 'A770I9U «ai 
ZaxapUtu of Ps. CKi. (cxii.). The general 
sense of the Psalm, and espedally the 
concluding verse, favour the former view, 
which is supported by the useof firurrfi^fM 

1 Mil il«™rm|i™ri|>. In the parallel- 
ism of the two portions of this Hsaim, 
these words find their counlerpatt in ver. 
5 el" r^ narooioifoi* ri traiii vtii. 

The withdrawal of Divine favour from 
Israel is expressed under the image of 
Jehovah's departure from Zion. 

Cf. Ps. xxxvii. (xxxviii.) 11 ^r, iJ.ara- 
Uvpt Mi 'v/Kt ■ a St6i itou, itri aroar^ 

triOirm T\fXv. Cf. i, 1, ix. 16. 
sL|un{ravm^|iatS»p«dv- Thephrase 
fuatit iwptir is based on Ps. Ksxiv, (ixxv.) 
19 fii) irixapiliivir imk ol ixSfiaitorr/t (mm 
/laralut, ol fuirsirrT^i ^ iwptli C^ '3!K) 
quoted in John xv. 15. A very similar 
.expression occurs in Ps. xxxvu. (xxxviii.) 
'iQ ijr^TiSii'Bjfirai' ol itamrrit fit aiiicas 
l^t^ '^pb), and as the first clause in 
our verse recalls Ps. xxxvii. (xxxviii.) ii, 
it is very possible that our Psalmist here 
recurs in thought to the same Psalm. If 
*o, the translaior has shown his iodepeo- 
dcnce of the UXX. version by the use of 
the word iuiftiii insteail of iainwt. 

The Hebrew TpB* 'wrongfuily,' ■ false, 
ly,' occurs in both the above passages in 
(he sense of 'without justification, 'im- 
merito' and can thus tie represented by 
jMpd* 'gratuitously ' 'ira/^, which gene- 
nlly readers D^n e.g. i Sam. xix. 5, 

Pom- 7i Aq.Jobii. 3; Aq. Sym. Th. Prov.x 

19, 1 

The Psalniisteither refers to the Gentiles 
or, as appears to us more probable, those 
of his own countrymen, i.e. the Saddncees, 
who were opposed 10 the theocratic party. 

3 StIi dwdo"!*. If the Gentiles gener- 
ally are intended, the writer speaks of 
them as 'cast off' or 'rejected by God' 
in contrast to the Israelites, whom God 
had chosen lo be His own people. 

If the Sadducees are inlendnl, the pas- 
sage implies that the High PriesI and his 
bmily were virtually rejected by God for 
having wrongfully usurped possession of 
the Holy Place. Cf. xvii. &-8. 

The explanation of the words fri ix<h- 
gia aimit is not quite obvious. We 
may safely assume that £ti translates the 
Hebrew '3. If this conjunction occurs in 
a causative sense 'seeing that,' 'because' 
(^StiJ. iii) wv.rr^i.ra will give the result 
of the aigumeni, 'therefore let not &c.' 
But '^ is also used in an adversative sense 
equivalent to 'minime vero,' 'nay but,' 
generally after a negative in the pre- 
ceding clause. 

Both renderings of '? are possible in 
this passage; the translator by his render- 
ing tfri selected ihe one which was more 
u^ual and obvious, but far less forcible. 
The lersenebs and abruptness of the 
clauses, given by the adversative render- 
ing of '9 would have been much more 
appropriate 10 words of slrong emotion. 

The sense then of the original was, we 
believe, 'Nay but thou surely hasl re- 
jected them I let not then theit foot tread 
the Holy Ground.' 

Instances are frequent in the LX\. 
where this shade of meaning in the con- 
junction '3 has been obscured by the 
rendering in, e.g. Job xxxi. 18 'Nay, 
from my youth he grew up' (Jt-i iit 
ttbTtftoi fiou iiirpt^r}; Ps. xliii. (xliv.) 
]2 'Vea, for thy sake we are killed' (£ri 


. (ex 

»■) 4 

V.3IJ t Kings ii. 31; Ps.xi 

'But there is forgiveness with thee' (Sri 
rapi a« 6 IXatiiM isTir). 

For dri^u cf. Ps. xUi. (xliii.) 1 Ira rt 
avwau fLi; xliii. (xiiv.) 9 rati U iriAru 
■ol KKT-saxWii 4mb>i Ixxili. (Ixxiv.) 1 Ira 
rf BTugu, i Slit, eh rtkoli 



[vn. 3 

' irii iv OeXTQiiari < 

(Cat /iij Sw? eOvemp. 

' eac yap aTTOtrTctXT^g OdvaTov, 

(TV dNTC^Hi auTW nepl r), 

KoX ovK opyurd^crg tov trutreXeVat ij^as. 

'"Ei" T^ fcaracTKTjvoi)^ to ovofko. (tov iv fxeao} Tjfi.wi' 

* Koi OVK lO-^lJ<7Ct TTpds tJ^CI! C^COS, 

OTt tru u7repao"7rto"Tiys ■>y/i(i»J'. 

' jcai T)fifL<; eTnKa\€cr6fj.tda. at., 

KoX <rv iiraKovfTQ T^yxwc- 

'ort crv otKTeipijVtis to yeuos 'ltrpaT}\ els tov aliova, 

KoX OVK dirwa-fi- 

Kol 7jfA(lS VTTO CvyOV (TOV TOV aiui'd, 

KaX [wTTo] lida-Tiya TratSeias uou. 

4 ffi> e»TiXfl V, K, -17 r, M (ita Hilg. conj., Fritz5ch. <n> /wfXti) : aix iiToX^ A, 
Cerda, Fabr. Geig. (? Wellh.). 

5 oltTtip^tit K, 1*. M. Hiig. Geig. FrilZich. Pick., olicnipiitM A, V, Cerda, 

irou rir alGya (oni. t(i) A. V. K. M. Cenla, Hilg. Geig.. ffou cit rfa. afwa 

&r6) L'odd.: irwi /ioanya conjee Lagarde, FHrisch. Pick. 


Bui sup]>osing, as wc prefer ro do, Ihat 
[he Sadducees are referred to, then we 
see the reason of irnTcir being used rathet 
(ban lararaTcif : itwilldenote the habitual 
Iread of the Priests in the courts of the 
Sanctuary, not the downlreoding by the 
healhen. J[ seems lo be used in this way 
in viii. 13, and may best Iw illuslraled by 
Isai. i. ri rlf yip jfrf^nrnE rai^a /( ruv 
X^ipur tfuiv; roTtiv t^ bvXi^ fiov v.r.X., 
xxvi. 6 irai raTTJffowri* hotbIh irMti np^iar 
noJ TOTfuiii*, where mrtir renders DDT. 

The Psalmisi denouncea the men, who, 
having illegally usurpeil the highest offices, 
polluted the sacred plncc by ihcir conslanl 

■tXiuovoulav dYuicr]uiiT^ rov. Cf. Ps. 

i. (l««v 

ircssion tXiiiioyoiiia ayidetMrvt 
iccur in the LXX., but we may 
rsTDi ayiia/uiTa^ (Ell. in. 8; 

So) ; ri\a iyidiruariH (Ecclus. 

xlix. 7): dpei d7i<l<r;iaroT Ps. 

•■i.)S4- , 

The allusion h'ere is to Ihe Temple. 

8 tv BA-^^tC irou nfSniirov ^)iAf. 
For the Divine PAijiw cf. Ps. xtix. 
(xxLJij furi, ir T^ PfX^BT-i airaS.j nifnt, 
ft rf SeX^jiari aou rapiirxoii T<f xiMri 
fuu S6rainr. The heal comment on the 
words is aRbtiled by Jer. n. 24 rolJfu. 
rof ^mSi "'C' iX^f ^f KpLrci piol /j^ ir 
BatHf tra /x-^ iUyovt iitias iriu)|irtl(' 

But the thought both of (his and the 
following verse is drawn from ] Sam. 
xsiv. 14. Tliere is the same avowal of 
sin, and the same readiness to submit 
to any chaalisemenl inflicted by Ihe l..ord 
rather than lo suffer from the cruel ven- 
geance of 1 human foe. Compare 4 Esdr. 
V. 30 'El si odiens odisti populum luum, 
tuis manibns debel casti^ui ' ; Kcdus. n. 






3 Do thou chasten us in thy good pleasure, but give us not 
ipver to the Gentiles. 

4 For if thou sendest pestilence, thou wilt give charge to it 
concerning us, for thou art merciful, and wilt not be angry zvith 
us to consume us altogether. 

5 Whilst thy name doth dwell in our midst, we shall find 

6 And no nation shall prevail against us, seeing that thou art 
our defence. 

7 When we call upon thee, thou wilt hearken unto us, 

8 For thou wilt have pity for evermore on the house of Israel, 
and wilt not cast tlwm off. 

And as for us, we are beneath thy yoke for evermore, and 
ientath the rod of thy chastening. 

. The Kciroans are probably re- 

■fairi w. 

I- 4 icli>...diroff-rt(Xj|f Mvarov. ffiram 
liiere reptesenls 1^"^ 'pestilence,' as in 
- «vi. 7i ;fax«r«\ci ed-BTW. Jer. 
6, Etek. vi. 11 (ilaKiT^i^ Aq. Sym. 
hdiMv). xii. iG, xiv. ig. Amos iv. lO. 
1 Chr. TU. 13. 

ri ImXj. Thia is probably Ihe right 
reading! Hilgenfeld's conjectate is con- 
HnDitl by the Copenhagen and Paris 
HSS. The cause o[ the various reading 
was probably an error in transcription : 
the medial i of ittiXti having been acci- 
dentally changed too. ffi) before fiToXir was 
changed to ml*. Compare CYCNTtAm 
with cynentoAhi. 

For the Greek phrase compare Ps. xc. 

ci.) 1 1 Sti ToTt iyfAiHi ai^oC irrtXdrti 
wtfl aou. 

ovK 6py\ff^irT^ TOfl (rvvnXio-cu i^^S. 
A comparison with ii. 16, mU rvi'Ti\(fd^- 

the Divine wrath and ihe ferocity of 
hunuu) foe<i. 

For the menning cf. Lev. ixvi. 4.4 
'neither will I abhor them to destroy them 
utterly.' Baruch iv. 6 irfia^ri roa 
Itftau- o6k tit awiiXiiaf. 

For ToO lurrMirai see Eiek. sxii. 31 

fwu Toil aur-tf\4<rat. 

a 'Br r^ NaTarKi]voSv ri avofid b-dv. 
laTaontijcou is here iisfi intransitively, cf. 
Eiek. iMii. 7 ir olt .antnijrm^ ro 6n- 

iofthelransiliveuse 'cause 
Indwell,' see Jet. vii._i]; Neh. i. 9. 

a lirxv<r« irp^ lifiot. ' prevail against,' 
cf. xvii. 44. See Ps. xii, (xiii.) + ^>i rort 
((rg i ix^po' Mov 'IffXi^a ^P^' <>i"'Dr. 
Dan. vii. »l nJ K^pat wtu'o (iroi« iniXt- 
fiov (i«rd Tur iytun lol Six"" •'P*' "iVoiJt. 
1 Chron. xiv. ti ;iq xarurxMaru ir^ ci 

ivtpairwurnjfl, a common word in the 
Lxx., e.g. Ps. xxvii. (xxviiLl 7 nipiot 
Pt7,e6! ^v xal irtpaBwirrii, ^ou ('JJIJJ. 

. Ixx 

1 c'f Sfit 

™ (rtin? -Bx^). 

inriiKairi'rTi imiir (lljll^) '^ ^ ^^i- 

7 Kal '4|utc...Kal o^. The (wo co- 
ordinate clauses beginning with laJ pro- 
bably reproduce (he flebrew idiom ol the 
tenses, =when we. ..then ihou &c., cf. 
viii. iS- 

The thought is based upon Solomon's 
prayer at ihe dedication of the Temple, 
I Kings viii. 30 &c 

a ri ■'limit 'Irpa'^X. Wellhausen's 
'lies Nameos Israel' is presumably a 
misprinl for ' des Saniens Israel.' 
■ hor ri yroi 'Up. = 'the seed of Israel,' 
instead of t6 ariptia 'Ivp., see Jet, xxxviiL 
(xxxi.) 36 Koiri ytm 'lapa^X (^KTB" IHt) 
raiJaerai yfr4ir9ai. 

oitc ^mie^. See on ver. I. 

v*i Iv/iv mni. Cf. xvii. 31. These 
words uf the I'salmist 'we arc beneath 
ihy yoke for evermore' deserve especial 
.iltention. The ineinphor of the yoke 
is not found in the U.T. with the pos- 
sible exception of Lam. iit. 17 'It is good 
for a man thai he bear the yoke in hii 


[VII. 9 


' KaT€v0we.l<; Tjfiai; in Kaipai aiTiXjji^ew? trou, 

Tou i\trj<raL tov oIkov 'laKii>0 ei? "jjiepav iv t} eirr)yy(i\<i> 

H. Y^^^oc Tcot c4\0MtijN elc nTkoc. 
Vm. ©Xti^tv fat <t»a)NiiN no^ewoY hkoyce to ous /^oyi 
<ti(ONHN c^AiTirroc Tj;^oiJO-T/! <rij6ayi)c xat oktOpov 

9 Kanuffirttt Codd., Ccrda, Fahr. (dirigri), Gcig. : noTei^ivfii Lagarde, Hilg. 
FrilEsch. Pick. 

trrryi^^" V, K, P, M i ^rarvE^x' (f A) Cerda. 
Inscriptio: fa\tiia tv SuXo/imp ctt ^fitai ij' A, ^. T. SoX. <J| fliiM f ' V, V, f' 

The present passage therefore offers the 
onl]' certain instance in Jewish literature 
previous to our Lord's time, in which ' ihe 
yoke' is employed as a metaphor for the 
service of Jehovah. 

Our Lord's words 'Take my yoke 
upon you, and Icam of me, &c. ...For my 
yoke is easy' (Mall. xi. 19), with which 
we naturally illustrate our passage, sug- 
gest two things, (1) that the metaphor 
was a proverbial one, (i) that He con- 
trasts His yoke with some other yoke 
that the Jews were familiar with. For 
both these observations we find remark- 
able confirmation. The 'yoke' seems to 
have been a metaphor especially applied 
to the service of the Law at least as early 
as Ihe Christian era. Thus we find in 
Pirqe Aboth iii. 8 [ed. Taylor) ' R. Ne- 
chonyiah ben ha-Qanah said, Wboso re- 
ceives upon him the yoke of Thorah, they 
remove from him the yoke of royally (i.e. 
burden of tBxation)and the yoke of worldly 
care 1 and whoso breaks from him the yoke 
of Thorah, Ihey lay upon him the yoke 
of royally and the yoke of worldly care.' 
The yoke of Thorah clearly here means 
devoted study of, and attention to, the 


similar use of this metaphor for the 
Jewish law appears in Apoc. Bar. xli. 3 
' quia ecce video multos ex populo tuo, qui 
reeesserunt a sponsionibus tuis el projece- 
runl a se jugvm legis luae' The Apostle 
KI Peter therefore makes use of an almost 
technical term, when he warns the first 
Christians not to impose the yoke of the 
Jewish law upon Gentile converts. Acts 
IV. 10 ' Now therefore why tempi ye God, 
that ye should put a yoke upon tne neck 
of the disciples, which neither our fathers 
nor we were able to bear?' St Paul loo 

employs the same metaphor when he 
reproaches the Galatian Church »-ith Iheir 
relapse into Judaism, Gal. v. 1 'be not 
entangled again in a yoke of bondage.' 

These passages show that our Lord in 
Matt. xi. jg, 30 contrasted the service 
which He otTered with the burden of 
minute legal observance — the yoke, as 
it was proverbially called — which Ihe 
Scribes and Pharisees laid upon Ibepeople. 
It is of this yoke that the Pharisee wrilei 
of our Psalm is speaking. He claims with 
pride that the true Israelites are under 
God's yoke; that yoke is His Law, and 
under it stands every Jew that fears God. 

Schotteen {Nor. Hibr. 1, 115 — ijo] 

J notes other Jewish uses of this metaphor 
om Rabbinical and Talmudic lilerature, 
e.g. 'The yoke of God' Schemoth Rabba 
.{0, fbl. iiTj. 'Because the ten tribes 
refused to bear the yoke of God, came 
Sennacherib on them.' Yaiknl Ruben 
fol. 30, I. 'The 'Massa' or burden of 
Agur (Prov. xxi. 1) is so called because 
he took or bore on himself the yoke of 
God.' 'The yoke of the kingdom of 
heaven.' In ^racholh fol. id. 9 it is said 
of the man who eats before asking a bless- 
ing 'after that he has vaunled himself, 
he taketh upon him the yoke of the king- 
dom of heaven.' Cf 'The yoke of pre- 
cept,' Berachoih fol. 13. 1. 'Why in the 
Prayers do ihe words 'Hear, O Israel,' 
precede the words 'And it shall be if thou 
nearkencst, &c.'? Ans. 'Becaose a man 
RrsI receives the kingdom of heaven, 
and afterwards the yoke of the precept.' 
Targ. in Thren. iii. 17 'It Is good for 
a man Ihal he accustom himself to bear 



9 Thou wilt establish' us in the time appointed, when thou ' P'- 
shalt succour us; and s/talt' have mercy upon the house ofi'^, 
Jacob on the day wherein thou didst promise them fulp. 

VIII. i] 

»9 The 
shalt su 
Jacob 01 
I Dis 
of a trur 


A Psalm of Snlomon : For the chitf Musician. 

Distress and the sound of war hath my ear heard, the sound 
of a trumpet proclaiming slaughter and destruction ! 

Kol [i^] )uCvTiYa irtuSdas <rsu. If 

[he clause iilerally leproduces the origi- 
niil, we must clearly sujiply ftri before 
fiiiimys. aiid preserve the pacatlelis-m with 
iri fvyi' »Du. Cf. sviii. 8. We suspect 
that some word bad dropped out of the 
Hebrew lexl. 

Another possible conjecluie is lo place 
B full slop after ofuKi, oiid to cend nai 
lni^TXii TtuSrlai nu Ka,rtv@v*t\t %iwx 
jr.r.X. The syllable x-bi- immediately 
IbllawiQg would account for (he error of 
wiiting; and faurriTa having once found 
iti way into the text, the words would 
necessarily be connected with the pre- 
ceding clause. In favour of this con- 
jecture is the position of Tiv oJuira at the 
end of the sentence, 

ydnrrvfo. iniLSdat inni. Sec xvi. 4. Cf. 
Frov. ixii. 1 5 fiafilUt ii cat raiif la iMXpdr 
!«-' aural. Ecclus. xxii. 6 /tieTiyis H til 
ruAeta iv rarrl Koipt^ vo^a. The Hi- 
Tine chnsliscment becomes not only a 
discipline but a privilege, cf. 'I'obil xiii. 
14 /mxapioL rdrrfli dJ SrSpuwu ot iwl vot 
Xinr^fliJffoiTtti (tI itiaaa na iiitTxibr 

cf. Ps. ci. (cii.) Tj Sri .atpi, roB al- 
(T(tf>^(U ai>T17r, Sti TIttI fOtpbl. 

Vat drrl\i)^ii ^ ' tbe act of taking 
ooolhcr's part,' "succour," cf. Ps. xxi. 

IxKxiii. (Ixxxlv.) J. IxxKviii. (Ixxiix.) i8. 
Ecdus. xL IJ ta6fi^ TrpotStiiixTTi irrt- 
Xt^ui. 1 Mace. XV. ; iirTiK-^tan rtiia- 
rSat nfii roG Kupioii. 1 Cor. lii. 18 irri- 
Xi^cu, and the use of the verb iiniXaii,- 
/Suofuu, e.g. Luke i. 54 irTt\ifiiTalapaTiK 
WBitit a&Ttv (Is. xli. 8, 9). Acts xx. 35. 

•Lt itlfifQ.v. For the preposiiion cf. 
xvii. 33 fit icatptfr, xviii, 6 tit Tj^Upar 
i\i<iv...fii ijiUpaf ^iiXii>^. 

Ps. VIII. Argtimenf. 

A. I — 14. The Coming Visitation, 
and its Cause. 

B. ij— 16. The Uieat Delusion, and 
its Consequence. 

C. ^7— 31- God's Ways justified to 
the Heathen and to Israel. 

D. 33—39- The Prayer oflhe Saints. 

E. 40,41. Doxology. 

There can be little doubt as to the 
historical events, lo which allusion is 
made in this Psalm. The writer de- 
scribes the effect produced upon him by 
the rumour of war, which was sweeping 
npoo Jerusalem from a distance (i— ^S). 
The man who is the instrumenl of the 
Divine visitation comes 'from the ends of 
the earth' and his blows are terribly 
powerful (16]. The princes of Tuda:a 
receive him with open arms, assist his 
march into their land, admit him within 
the walls (iS— lo). Unce esUblished 
there, he shows his real character by 
massacring the leading people and caliy- 
ing off numbers of captives (13, 34). 

This description corresponds closely 
enough with the capture of Jerusalem by 
rompey and his conduct after storming 
the Temple (see on Ps. ii.}. 

The resemblance of this Psalm lo Ps. 
ii. is very close. Numerous expressions 
(see espec 8, 11, 13, 14, 18) are repealed 
almost verbally from Ibis Psalm by Ihe 
writer of Ps. ii., which judging from Ihe 
reference lo Pompey's death we assume 
to be the later composition of Ihe two. 

The writer represents Ihe same section 
of the Jewish community. .Speaking of 
himself in the early portion of the Psalm 
(1, 3, 4 — 7), he relapses into ihe ist 
Pers. Plur, in the latter portion (30, 


[Vlll, 2 

' ffxov^ X.aov iroXXov (us avefiov ttoWou tr^odpa, 

(ijC KATAIfic nrpOC TTOWOU (JiepoWMOr il' epMMOY- 

' Koi fhrov [«/] Tp Kaphlo. jiov ttov apa Kpivel avrou 6 6e6^ ; 
'c^i^w TjKovcra- tv 'Hpova-ak-rjii. voktL ayiaa-fj.aTO';. 
''cYNCTpfBH T] dc4>Yc fi.ov awo aKorjs, 
rrap€kv$T] yovaTO. fiov. 
" i^o^~q9r) T) KapZia p.ov, 
i-ti.piy,6» TA oCTft fLOV ia<; Xivov. 


'the saints of God' (i8). 

The mention of the sudden alarm of 
war, with which the P&alm opens, recalls 
Ps. i. I. The wriicr's denunciiiion of 
thoie, whom he had believed to be 
T^hteous {ver. 7) and found to be guilty 
of secret abominations (9— 'o) reminds 
us of Vs. i. 3, 7, and of ii. 13—15. The 
fact that sinlulneas is particulaily identi- 
fied with the profanation of sacred rites 
and the disi^ard of sacrificial duties 
(ill 13, ij, 16]. reminds us of such 
passages as i. S, iL ^ At the same 
time it reveals the priestly function of 
many of these offending Sadduceei, and 
enpiesses the hotrui of the Pharisees at 
the nt^ligence and imjiiely of their foes. 
The reader should notice especially ver. 
11, where aUusion is made to the ille- 
gitimate claim of the Asmonean house 
to the High i'rieslhuod. 

Inscription. iLt vCxat, a. rendering of 
TVtxh, -To theChicf Musician' which is 
found in Theodotion's version, Ps. xii. 

We conjecture that this title has been 
borrowed from the Canonical Psalms by 

1 ^uvrfil '■vM|iav. Cf. i. ■>. 

The pasaagc seems to be based on Jet. 
iv. 19 oil attaiHfiotAaij ifrt ^^iivi^y traX- 

\i)jj>v Kit raXaiwuiplat aintTfHii^tir iwi- 


9 lUavfiMni. Cf. on ivii. ij. 
The simile of a storm or whirlwind in 
the desert is applied to the approach of 
waibyjer.iv. ,1,13. 

■aiyli see Jer. iv. 13 in KaraiyU 
I a^oO, and compare Isai. xxi. 

I in taToiyii Si' ip^iiav MXtfoi, !{ Ip^im 
(p^lUrii it yS'- txix. 6 iriettiHi yip 
foTat lieri, Pporrlii Kai anHfav lai ^flM^t 
/iryiyiit^ naraiylt ^tpofLim itoX ^\o^ rvpbt 

wOp Hin (at ui i«iTfu7ii ri apiiara airoS. 
Prov. i. 17 iiu)lm .ataiylii (n^D?). 

■ ['*) T^ itopSt^ |u». (c, which the 
MSS. omit, has probably dropi>ed out by 
Homoeoleleu ton after (tvor. ciTTOMeNTH. 

iroi ipa, Kpivil aMv i Mt; (1) A 
very natural explanation of this nod the 
following verse assumes a dialogue to 
take place. The Fsalmisi asks in his 
heart, where shall be the place of judge- 
ment? The reply is given hioi — by whom, 
we are not told-— that il will be in Jeru- 
salem itself. Tlie ^uriir of ver. 4 15 the 
voice, which makes answer to his ques- 
tion ; the words tr 'ItpoiraaXiiii r6\ti 
ayiiapjsToi are the substance of the 
reply. The i.Kin)t of ver. 5 refers to 
the hearing of these words. 

{1) A quite different interpretation is 
suggested by Wellhausen's translation 
'gewiss wird uns Goll riehlen woUen!' 
'Einen Last horle ich in Jerusalem.' raC 
ifia is then an erroneous rendering of 
KS'{|t which, instead of asking the ques- 
tion 'where?,' should have been rendered 
'snrely,' e.g. Gen. xxvii. 33; Jud, ix. 38; 
Jobxix. J^i Is.xix. J. 

On hearing the sounds of the approscb- 
ing tempest of war, the Psalmtst first 
rpcogniies what it means; 'Assuredly 
Uod sends his judgement upon us.' An 
alarm within Jerusalem itself reveals to 
him that the Holy Cily is to receive the 
heaven-sent chastisement: he is then 
overwhelmed vrilh terror. 

It is an objection to the interrogative 
Tpf ops that the Psalmist should enquire 

[ should enquire | 

vin. 6] 



2 It is the sound of a mighty people as of an exceeding 
mighty wind ! It is as tlie tempest of a mighty fire rushing 
through the wilderness'. 

3 And I said in my heart, Surely' God will judge us*, 

4 I heard a sound in Jerusalem, the city of the sanctuary*. 

5 My loins were broken at the hearing thereof; my knees 
were loosed ; 

6 My heart was afraid ; my bones were shaken like flax, 



■ Gr. him, 
i.e. Iki 

* Oi, Ikt 
Holy City 

the plaie of judgemenl, before he has 
apparently realised thai it is judgement 
which is bein|r carried oQl. 

On the other hand, the adverb 'as- 
suredl]'' gives the note of recc^ition 
that the storm about to break is judicial. 
The Hebrew would be the same in each 
case, IIQEXP" MQ'K; and as Ihe shade of 
meaning according to this su^cation is 
preferable, we have no hesitation in sup- 
poEingthat the translalcir took the wrong 
alternative by rendcritig the words in- 

Kfo/A aMv. We have left lo Ibis 
point the explanation of oMi'. Ooes it 
refer to Xadu taXXoD? or to 'Tirpa^X un- 
derstood? or tu name person undefined? 
The last alternative we may dismiss at 
once. The first is obviously not appro- 

K'ate; it is not the judgement on Ihe 
imans or on Pompey, which is con- 
templated in this Psalm. Can however 
avrir refer to "Iffpa^X, as the dweller in 
Jerusalem mentioned in the next line? 
Such an interpretation gives the sense 
of the passage, but the harshness of the 
constmction constilutes an obvious dif- 

A probable explanation is afforded by 
the amlriguily of the Hebrew pronominal 
BufGx, which in the word here used 
ISSDE'' would be the same for the jrd 
Sing. Masc. as for the isl Pers. Tlur. 
The Greek translation might be either 
Kptrti avTOf or itpwri ijfias according to 
the context. If we suppose thai the 
Psalmist meant 'where then shall God 
judge uif and that the translator mis- 
taking the sense rendered it npuKi auri*, 
we can see a( once how the obscurily has 
arisen. Now Ihe Psalmist, in prayer and 
soliloquy at the close of the I'salm, makes 
frequent use of the ist Pers. Plur. Pro- 
noun and does not refer to himralf indi- 
vidually. Here then, where he records 
a short soliloquy, he might naturally 

speak of Israel as 'us,' although in the 
descriplifc natiation before and afler he 
speak), of himself in the singular. 

■riXti, (LYuCdiiarot. See on vli. j. Cf. 
Elcclus. ilix. 6 ietwipiirar i«X(irr^ TiXir 

S rwiTpfpii i^ iv^ii |tou. For this 
and ike following clauses cf. Jer. xiiii. Q 
avyfrplffi i} iiapSia ;iov i¥ i/itl, iaixXfCS-^ 
rdfra ri, dura Imii. Ezek, mi. 6 KaX ei 
vU (UBpwiTov KaTmnivaiar iv awT/nPg 

oo a«x 


Enoch, ch. Ii. 3 'And a great trem- 
bling took bold of me, and fear seiied 
me; my loins were bent and were 
loosened, and my whole being melted 
tomlher' (trans. Schodde). 

The loins were the seat of strength. 
Cf. Test. XU. Pair. Napht. ^ iroit^ir 

iwi iKo^t. Cf. Hab. iii. i mtptc 
ilaatiiiiia tV ito^ iroii (oi itpopifiyn. 
For dT4= 'because of cf. Isai. vi. 4 
{■TTipBTi ri InrtpBvpoy iri rrit ^ii>r^i 


nptXufti] ^vard )iov. Cf. x<'^< t^"- 

^mi Koi 7ii'nTo Tapa\t\v)iira. Isai. 
nxxv. 3; Kddus. XXV. ,3; Hcb. xii. II- 

8 I^piihi 1^ KupSfa ym. Cf. Job 
xmvi. 34 (ixxvii. I) «ol irb Tafrnji Jra- 
pdxff't TJ tapiia /*ov Kal irrfi^&ij in roQ 
Tbwov aJr^,. Ps. xxvi. (xxvii.) 3 .J ^. 
ptlBtttrerni t, mptla iicv. 

irapdx^f rd 6e^ jiov. From Ps. vi. 
i iTopAx^ rd iari /loB. Cf- Hab. iii. 
16 ila^}t9e TpA)iai ch ti dord ftai/ lai 
viniiiTiMh J.OU irapixBil il *fii fov. 

at Wyov. The Psalmist amplifies the 
quotation by his own simile- Cf. i Kings 
xiv. 15 (lipiM vXiifA rir 'tirpaiiX xaBi 
KifittTai A KiXoftat iw np Otan. Matl- 


[viii. 7 

o.v€\oyi< to. KpifLara roi) ^eov airo (n"io"CQ)S oupoMju 
KOI y^s. 
dSiKaiiua-a tov 8e6v 4p rots KpIiwaciN avrou rots *tt' aIwnoc. 
' dv€Kd\v>l)€v 6 df6<; To.^ dfi-aprCa^ avruu ivavrtov tov lyXtou, 
cycw Tracra ij y;^ rd KpCfi-ara tov Beou ra OLKaia. 
' if Karayat'ots Kpv^ioK at TrapavofLiai airt-tov ev iiapop- 

'"uios /i€Ta firjTpo';, koX iraTTjp p.tTa 9vya.Tpo^ cynecIiyponto" 
" ifiOiyaivTO eKicroc rY'**'''^ Tot n\Hc[oN auTou, 
iTweatuTO avTol<i a-wdijKa^ p-era. opKov vtpl tovtcou' 

•J naTifevraiVir CodJ., irartu0LVDiHru> Frilzsch. Pick., ilrw KaTfii0i»D»iv (M), 

S TOV T)\tau : am. rou Fnbr. 

9 in rapopryurtuf jUng. cum vcrsu g, A? V, 1 
vers, lo M cl Hijg., ila Fritzsch. I'ick. (Cerda e 
7i«';il|i^ TBpa^^ Hilg.* 
-- rXTBfou A (Cetda). 
■ ■ " M.: a^elf 
u repi To&nt 
lUTi SpKou- wtpl Tufrniir A (?) Cerda, Fabr. Geig. 

7 <Iirav ' KaTfv6<n>ovo-iv iSolt svrav Iv 
SLKouKTiivTi. The Psalmist endeavours 
to nUay hi:i Icnrs by leUccIing that the 
dwellers in Jenualem 'duect theii ways 
in righteousness,' and that, though they 
may be Iried by temporary discipline, 
they will be presetv^ on account of 
their righteousness and the city saved 
for the sake of 'the lighleous' to he 
found in it {ct Gen. xviii.). Bui the 
Psalmist is destined to be cruelly unde- 
ceived. The people are not 'directing 
their ways in righteousness': they are 
given over to seciet sin, which had been 
unknown to him. The position of the 
writer is therefore the same in this I'salm 
as that occupied by the writer of the 
ist Psalm. In Ps. i. i, i we have the 
1 Ps. 

curily.ljasedon the 'righteousness' of his 
countrymen, corresponds to the present 
verse; in Ps. i. 7, 8 the discovery of 
their secret sins and unsurpassed abomi- 
nalions, which prepares the Psalmist for 
the inevitable visitation, corresponds 10 
Ps. viiL 9—14. 

For xaTeuBvi'iiuffit see note on vi. j, 
and cf. Apoc. Bar. Ixxvii. j si ergo di- 
a abibitis etiam 

vos, sicut abienint fralres vestti. 

The 3td Pers. Plur. refers lo the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem mentioned in 

Wellhausen renders 'Ich sprach: die 
Frommen — ihre Wege siod Gerechtig- 
Iteilswege.' This is plausible, and derives 
support from ot^rwr in vei. S, which seems 
10 presuppose a Fluial substantive in a 
previoiui clause. The Psalmist then 
merely consoles himself with the thought 
thai 'the upright' will be preserved on 
account of 'their righteousness,' for this 
was the teaching oT all the past judge- 
ments of God. To obtain this meaning, 
VV. assumes that iiaTrB0vroSau' is a wiong 
rendering by the translator for Ihe ad- 
jective D'T^i "the uptight.' 

The existing rendering however gives 
a good sense. A comparison with i. 3 
IXayiad/i.Tii' ir lapiif /lov Uri irMifS^r 
iiKiuoiiiaTii, where Zion is speaking is an 
exact parallel to the present clause, and 
renders any change in the reading un- 

The Ful. tense KartvevraOinr repre- 
sents the frccjucnlaiive «nie of the Heb. 

For Hilgenfeld's tlmr 

aioBuaa. J 




7 I said, Surely they direct their paths in righteousness". ^^^^'*. 
I considered the judgements of God from tiie creation of the rigitltiidr 

heaven and the earth ; I Justified God in his judgements which "•aji u i« 
have been of old. ^f^"" 

8 God laid bare their sins in the sight of the sun ; all the earth 
hath learned the righteous judgements of God. 

9 In secret places beneath the earth were their iniquities 
that provoked /ii'/i to anger*: ' '^' 

10 The son with the mother, and the father with the daughter'' 
wrought confusion : 

11 They committed adultery each one with his neighbour's 
wife ; they covenanted thereto with oaths one with another : 


'I spake lo Ihcm thai directed their ways 

thing favourable can be said. 

AvAirtur4,lf.i\». &m\irfittpjii. is not 
found in the LXX. and occurs once only 
in the N.T. Heb. xii. 3 6jia\ir,liTairBt y!ip 
Tir TOCBLTi^ &wofitfirf7jis6Ta...iiiTt\oyltir, 
Sym^Ps. Ixxvi. (Isxvii.) 6 <iMXo7,fo^ji» 
(TQlflll^ rii iiitipox tilt rpiarat. 

iiri K-rlowf. Cf. Deut. iv. 31; Ezek, 


'3. I*. 


JStKolwra riv dtiv. Cf. 17. 3I1 ii- 16, 

Toi« Kpt^airw a^TOv TOtt dir* 
>ot- Cf. Ps. cxviii. (cxix.) ji ("Mni- 

(tv>K^in|nv a St^ tit d|M|>Tfai 
•V- See ii. 18 oreidXir^ai t&i auRp- 


trarrlov Tov i^XIov. Cf. i 

yij t4 xpI^HiTd ffoii rirTa ri lltaia. 

9 tv KamyafaLi Kfiu^oit. For tt 
lensualilie* secrclly practised by Ihe Jew 

16 naTiiTiiia iujpaipa. For tpinplott cf. 
Wisd. ivii. 3 XaySirny yip M^foM-o irt 
KplnpalMt iiiaprifiaair. 

ly npopyt^y^ We prefer to include 
these words in the sentence of verse 9, 
as if thev were eqiiiviilent to rapopyi- 
lirruy. Cf. note on iroi^Jt ;- 1>6Pv 
(-ri. 7). 

(1) The eipres-iion is general; secret 
iniquities provoked the Lord to anger, 
and, after this preliminary statement, 
they are described in detail. 

(1) A comparLson with iv. i, ■' rapa- 
Hifjau wapapyl(ur tbh Biiir 'Ivpaij^, sup- 
ports this interpretation. The sitnilarity 
of Ihe phrase there used and the gener^ 
corresfmndcnee in ihe wickedness de- 
scribed in Ps. iv. with what is described 
in these verses shows that Ihe same 
Sadducee foes are intended. 

10 Mt |>«nl )niTpi« - . , uwitipovn . 
This use of the verb is probably taken 
by ihe translator from the LXx. of IIos. 
iv. 14 avTol tLtT^ rwr Topi'cuv tTLVc^porro, 
Cr. Ezek. xxii. 6 lioi ol d«irrov>'»« oboi' 
'IiTpa^X tnaaTOi rpit rndt auyytKii ai-rou 
avPt^upoiTO if ffol Druft kitxiia^tf al/xa. 

11 JiuHXMTO. The clause expresses 
the substance of Jer. v. S tfoaraj M 
•Htf yVfoiKa roD rXtjirlor avrou i](ptfi^L^. 
For the change of tense liioix^'ro...vuiri- 
Barre, cf. ii. 1 n*^/3i|ira». . .nomfdfow. 

The verse expresses in more general 
terms the indictment of iv. 4 — fi, 1 1 — 

myJSnTO afrratf a■w^■tat (urd IpKov 
inpl Tourav. The line repeats the sub- 
stance of iv. 4 ij •fKHirta. ainCir '^(uUft Iv 
avvaWi.yfi.a.Ti, fitB' SpKvv. 

The allusion is not quite clear. The 
meaning may be, as in iv. 4. thai Ihey 
pledged the otths which belonged 10 Ihe 
agreement of lawful marriage. 

Or the allusion may be to the test of 
unfaithfulness described in Num. v., ac- 
cording to which Ihe priest administered 
■|he water of bitterness' lo a woman 
charged with infidelity. Tiiis was ac- 
companied by an oath, ver. ji 'Then 
the priest shall cause ihe woman to swear 
with the oftlh of cursing, and 
shall say unto the woman, ' 
make thee a curse and an oi 
thy people.' 

Ihe priest ^^H 

rhe toKD ^H 

ilh among ^^^| 



''m ayia tov 6eov StT^pTra^ov, ovk 61 


" ivaTOVv TO dv<Ti<x(Trqp\.ov Kvptov (XTTO irdiTT}'; dKa$ap<Tia<!, 
Kal cv 4it>6iptp atfj.aTO'i ip-icuvov ras 6v(rCa^ ws *f/)e'a ^e^TjXa. 
" ou TTapekiTTOV dp-apTiav, t)v ovk i.TToiq<7av vrrtp to. iOvt}. 

If the priests who administered the 
curse Ihemselves were the aduUerers, the 

force of this allusion to 'the oalh ' is 
greatly inlensified, and the fact thai priests 
are clearly alluded to \a vet. ii seems 
to add probability to this striking ex- 

The meaning of rrpl To/i-ur remains 
obscure. Geiger connects wtpl mirar 
wilh the following sentence 'far this 
cause"; but there is no logical sequence 
of thought combining sensual vice and 

It might be rendered 'for this end' 
i.e. 10 compass their evil purpose, lii ri 

On the strength of Ezek, Kvi. 59, where 
raSra is the ixx. tendering for njK, 
it is tempting to surest a, confiiEiion of 
n^K = i/)4 'a curee' wilh fl^t* = TaCra 
'these things,' especially as in the LXX. 
at Num. V. II the Sptat and ipi occur 
together JtoJ ipitei o lifitin tJ]» ymfoTna ir 
TCif ipxHt T^ ipal TafTi7t iroj Spii D 

itipuLi^ «.r.X. 

Upon this hypothesis either the true 
rendering would have been ineri Spfuiy 
dpit Or /UT^ ifKou KoX apat ; or, very 
possibly, irrjrf Tuiraa' reptescnls a dupli- 
cate rendering of ittri, Spuev. 

According 10 Wellhausen this clause 
begins a fresh sentence and inlroduces 
the subject of the wrongful position of the 
High- Priestly family. 'Besides this' (lu- 
dem) they (the Jews) made a covenant, 
bartering away the Holy things, referring 

the Asmonean I-Iouse describe 

S(;iu>.<( rot ri,> JAfu iji- ip<,v\(Cirii 


rrwaiifictvai rdyra ravra Kol Hp OIKIUO' 
sii/TIt iitl T<iy Tiurir ijf ffiWiT^pljiJf Tifi 
tOvtt ah-oC Koi l^ilfyrttai Torri Tpirip 
ifHaai Toy \air a^oC. 

la Ttit iyia, TOV SfoG Sii^pvotov. The 
Psalmisl passes away from the charge of 
sinliil sensuality to that of sacrilege, 

Ttl &yia Tofi 0ioO ns an object of iiap- 
vdfttv may mean cilker ' the sacred things ' 
in the sense of things dedicated, gifts, sacri- 
fices &c. (cf. ri irr^Ml^n, vcr. i6), with 
which the priests enriched themselves 
making a spoil of them, or the temple, 
which the Asmonean Princes had taken 
violent possession of. 

The former interpretation has the lup- 
port of i. 8 t4 a7ia tvpltu, ii. 3 t4 iyia 
Kvplov..,Ti Sapa TDV Stov, and is favoured 
by the use of the Imperf. Si-^prator, de- 
noting continuous practice. 

The latter interpretation gives acommon 
meaning of rtt ^710 and agrees well with 
the short following clause, aix tyrot nXq- 
prir6pjiv Xurpaviidnni. It was a principal 
cause of the hostility of the Pharisees 10 
the Sadducees, that the Asmonean house 
had set aside the legitimate lineof the 
High Priest and had assumed to them- 
selves the power and dignity, which the 
office conferred. 

Geiger surely takes a wrong view of 
i\Tjpor6iun (which he supposes to trans- 
late C'tfl*), when he asserts that it can 
have no meaning here in the tense of 
'inheritor'; and supposes the Hebrew 
word to have been used in the sense of 
'disin heritor' or 'expeller.' 'Und keiner 
war. der vertrieb, der rettete' i.e. there 
was Done to drive out the spoiler, none 
to save the spoiled. 

This rendering loses sight of what seems 
to us to be the most significant point in 
the passage. 


VIII. 14] 




12 The holy things' of God they took for spoil; and there was' O'. '*< 
no inheritor to deliver out of their fiand. yP"^ 

(3 They went up to' the altar of the LoKD ^vlien they wfre*^'-''*^ 
_/>/// of all uncleanness; """ ' 

yea, even in their separation they polluted the sacrifices, eating- 
them like profane meats. 

14 They left not a sin undone, wherein they offended not 
above the heathen. 

The thipi)r6tu)t is Ibe Inie heir; he is 
the 'ga'fl. the kinsman, who should lake 
upon himself the rights and Dbligations of 
the inheritance. The inheritance is re- 
presented by t4 Syia tov tvplav. The 
Imeheiis, the rightful linengeof the High 
Priest, had been ejected. Strangers had 
entered into violent possession, and there 
was no 'kinsman,' no 'go'el' to deliver 
it Dul of theit hand. 

ic\j)pariiuit occurs in the LXX. as a 
translationoft^'in Jud. xviii. j; 1 Sam. 
D». 7; Jer. viii. 10; Mic. i. 15- The 
vord Stti is rendered in Ruth iv. by 
itTXWTiii, but the verb is reproduced in 
the LXX. by pitfuu (e.g. Is. >l]i "* 
9 lirrsXirrpsw, and especially \in 
iliii. I, I4, xliv. ii). 

It appears lo us very possible that «Xii- 
peri/iovXin-iioPfihiou me a duplicate tender- 
ing of the same word , KXifpaiofAov repre- 
senting the rightful ciaim of the 'goel.' 
XvrpouiUrw his effectual act of deliverance 
or redemption. 

We conclude Ihat the original Hebrew 
nui either S*^ t^' I'M) 'and there wa.^ 
no inheritor re<leeming.' or, aft seems to 
OS very probable, ?ft] ]^^ 'and there 
was no redeemer' ot 'go'el.' 

The form of Ihe sentence recalls Ps. 
vii. 1 liij BvTOf Xirrpolin^Kiv ^T/Si aiiilanroi 

ci. /<rru- '/f t5i x*')^' "i'tJ* (J't? piS 

18 hrdTew. On warth = ' tread with 
frequency,' see note on vii. 3. It is evi- 
dently here used to denole constant at- 
tendance, and has no sense of trampling 
ander foot, such as is found in lararaTtii 
(ii. 1). 
<£iri mf^nn ilKa0ap<rtai. A harsh con- 
ion; the jireposition drf seems " 
^1 the idea of pncst-, /•rafolmg fr 

scenes of every possible pollution to their 
holy avocation. That is, they did their 
work of sacrifice bcnng full of all unclean- 
ness. coming straight, as it were, /rem 
that which deliled to the holy allar. 

li is [Ktaible also to include in this 
rendering the temporal significalion. The 
work at the allar came immediately after 
(dird) deeds of uncleajiness; there was no 
intervening period of purification, nay 
more, ei'en whUe [iir) uncleanness was still 
on Ihem, they partook of consecrated food. 

hi i^&^ dCpATDt. The technical ex- 
pression m the I.XX. for the impurity 
descrilied in Lev. xii. i — 8, »v. 19 — 33; 
Eiek. xvHii. 6. The iv of the actual Con- 
of uucleanncss is conlrasled wilh 

5/uue.g. theiri. 

rd* hirCai. The Levitical 
rule strictly prohibiteil the allendance of 
Ihe unclean at the feasts and saciiiices. 
Cf. Lev. XV. 31 'Thus shall ye separate 
the children of^ Israel from ihcir unclean- 
ness; that they die not in their un- 
cleanness, when they defile my taber* 
nacle that is in the midst of them.' The 
presence of the ceremonially unclean at 
the feasts and sacrifices was apparently 
connived at by Ihe Sadducee pnests; and 
such laxity shocked and incensed the 
strict Pharisees. 

Kpfa piBriXa. This phrase 


miiia nam tar 

I dUI 

^^^W(v.l. IojXw). 

14 iii4p Td »W). Cf. OQ i. 8 «l dw 

)ilax ain-Ju iwtp t1 Tpo vktQ* tSfii, tpt- 

15 te4paTO>BdTots..,irXavijaviM. The 

words are taken almost literally from the 
LXX. of Isai. xix. 14 niiiNBt lap itipaatr 
aiJroIl xkCmo TXwVfwi (D'fflJ? f^n, lit. 
'a spirit of pervetscness") mti i-wXiriiea.r 
A/7urTw,..iii xXnuBTtti 4 lueiwi. The 
folly of Ihe princes of Egypt as depicted 
by Isaiah is borrowed by 

.s depicted i 

.'riler as an 


[viii. 15 

" Ata TovTO EKepiCEN aytoTc o ^eos nNeyM* nAiNHcecoc, 
e'ndriceN auToTs noTHpioN oTnot Mpi.Toy eU fiidr^v. 
^'-qyayt tov an icr)(a.Tov t^s yij?. ^o** Tto-tovra KparaiM^, 
" tKpivt Tov TToXffxov iwl le/JovcroXi}^ Kai tt)v yrju avrrj^. 
" aTT^in-qa-au avrai oi ap)(oin-£i; Trj<; yrjs fj-era ;^apas, 
eiTTov avT^- evevKTTJ r dSos trou, Sevre, eicreX^ere /ler' 

IS JifiTiUtr ai^rmi A, V, K, M, Fabr. oiVoilt P, Geig. Hilg. FriUsch. PicL 

IS (parfpJn A. ifiaraiA V, K, P, M. 

IB irtvKf^ V, K, P, M, conj. Lagarde, itn Hilg. Geig. Frilach. Wellh. PicL 

illuslration of theperversily of ihe Jewish 
nobles in welcoming ihe representative of 

Test. Xtl. Patr. Dan q ts Tvei/iaTa 
rji rXin7t a»oTp avToCn,..irS,» rrtB/ta 
w^irtlt TanjCiJiriTai. 

A strange use of rtiS/ia r>ai^(ui oc- 
curs in Jer. iv. 11 where il renders nn 
T\t 'a ho) wind' (Aq. rwiuiia \a)iini- 
Sirm. Sym. rrtOfui Kadaaiym). jErome's 
Iranslfttion is 'vfitlus ureits sive raris,' 
where "roris" is probably a mistake for 
'erroris' and is intended to represent the 

(ntnrtv airoti won^pMV otvov <licp<i- 

Tou. TheM words again are based on 
the LKX. in Ps. Ixxiv, (Imv.) 9 on 

XOT-^D* if ](«pi KVpIoU O&OV djIpdTOU 

rX^pcf KipiiSiiarm, and Jer. xxxiU 1 
( = Heb. nxv. .5) Xi^. Ti ^orifuw «ii 
ofreu To5 hcpiTto Toitov 4r X'^P^' *""'■ '"' 
xoritrrxdmiTdMrii, In the first ot these 
passages the R.V. rendering of the He- 
brew is 'For in the hand of Ihe Lord 
there is a cup, and ihe wine foameth 
(or, ii rtd)i it is (iil! of mixture,' where 
■the wine fo«melh"(TDri 1'^) corresponds 
to ob'sii inpirav. In the passage from 
Jeremiah the R.V. rendering is. 'Take 
the cup of the wine of this fury at tny 
hand,' where 'the cup of the wine of this 
fury' (nttln nOnn '"n D13) suggested 
the words used by the Psalmist in the 
present passage. 

The translator has given the LXX. 
rendering of aphrase in familiar use. 

«t»(JftTy. This maybe rendered either 
'with a view 10 their being drunken' or 
'until Ihey are drunken.' 

The latter rendering, which is the more 
probable, may be iUustialed by Ht^. i. 6 

hritre roi nit th iiJStit ('ye drink and are 
not filled with drink'). 

Ezek. xxxix. 19 Kal rUa$t aliia ils 
liiBif ('and drink blood until ye be 
drunken,' R.V.). 

. . The phrase is used not so much with 
Ihe purpose of conveying the idea of the 
remoteness of Italy from Palestine as of 
reproducing the language of the prophets, 
in predicting the coming of the Babylo- 
nians, e.g. Jer. vi. 13 liai XaSi tpxf^ai 
iwh jSofi^ irai IBini i^eyffidTieorTai dr' 

■tiv iraCovra xpaTaua^. We do not find 
any close parallel in the LXX. to this de- 
scription of Pompey. 

The expression i raiair is used of the 
king of Assyria, IsaL xiv. ig 'the roil 
thai smolc thee is broken'=:LXX. tvtt- 

Ewald, who finds an allusion to Anti- 
ochus Epipbanes in this verse, explains 
ir' ;<r)[drDu rjjt yijs as referring to the 
departure of Antiochus from Rome to 
the throne of Syria. If applicable la 
Antiochus Epiphanes, the description if. 
even more appropriate to Pompey 1 and 
the brilliant succession of victories which 
Pompey won in Asia Minor and Syria de- 
serves the title of i toIiw (>«t(Uu>i, a world- 
conqueror, better than the che([uered 
fortune of Antiochus' campaigns or even 
the ferocity of his tyranny. 

17 txpHitTiv nSkuLOr. Inhazardingthe 
translation 'he decreed Ihe war.' we are 
obliged to confess that we have found no 
certain authority for it either as a Greek 
or as a literal rendering of a Hebrew 




VIII. 18] 

15 For this cause did God mingle for thorn a spirit of error, 
he made them to drink of the cup of unmixed wine until they 
were drunken. 

16 He brought him that is from the utmost part of the earth, 
whose stroke is mighty'"; 

17 He decreed" war against Jerusalem and her land. 

1 8 The princes of the land met him with Joy ; they said unto 
him. Blessed is thy path ! come ye, enter in with peace. 

" Gr, tkat ' 

" Conj. 

Kptva was commdnly used of 'deciding' 
or 'delennining' n conlest by arms or 
lili)^lion. Geigcr tenders 'licschied <len 
Krieg.' Wellhnusen 'beschlossden Krieg." 
Pick -he dclemiined wnr.' 

The unasua] phrase may however arise 
Efom some early confusion in the read- 
ing. In Ihe absence of any coniimiation 
of the usage in our text, we venture to 
Edggest a conjectnie which supplies a 
good explanation of our text. 

(a) It is evident that Hftrt rir w6\e- 
liar does not indicate actual hostilities, 
but the preparation for Iheni. The next 
verse shows that the conflict was averted 
by Ihe submission of the ifxorrn. The 
meaning that we should expect would be 
'he made ready' or 'declared the war.' 

(i) Itpirt iranalaies jn; 'he judgeth 
or will jadge' (e.g. Gen. xlix. 16 and 
passim). But as the word fS' 'hemakelh 
ready' is what we should naturally expect 
in the prcKnl passage, we conjecture that 
J'3' by an error of a scribe may have been 
changed to injj of this very error a 
probable instance is presentetl by Etelc. 
vii. 14 'They have blown the trumpet 
and made all ready ' which is rendered in 
the LXX.aaKrliraTt iv aikrern Kai ipUaTl 
{Sym. Theod. iTBi^rarn Heb. J'?.!)). 

(<■) Upon this assumption the right 
I tfsnstalion of the original Hebrew would 
I have been ^rof^fe ror riXiiuir. 

IS diijoninv aiSr^ ot ipx'"'^^ '"i* 
Wf lUTilxiHHi'l' These words, according to 
Ewald, represeot [he poity in Jerusalem 

who supported the Helleniring policy of 
Anliochus Epiphanes and opened to him 
the gates of Jerusalem, cf. Joseph. j4n/. 

. J iiiax^l Xaji^«i -rijf iriXu , 

foil i-fxiaipiSnwi ijaar. 'Eyipatiit li aSron 
Tuy 'lipoaaMiuiir ftriittroi, roWain ini- 

tutTH iroKKi. <ri 

It cannot be denied that this descrip- 
tion by Josephus of Kpiphanes' seizure of 
the city agrees in a temarliable manner 
with the general impression produced by 
the main outlines of (he present passage 

■i— »4- 

But the general description given by 
the poet applies equally, if not more, 
closely 10 the occupation of Jerusalem 
by Pompey; and various details men- 
tioned by the Psalmist seem to receive 
tbeii only possible explanation from the 
supposition of the Pompeian invasion. 

In the present verse it should be noted 
that Ihe meeting of the foreign conqueror 
and the welcome extended to him by ol 
iLpXOTtt T^t -/Ti are mentioned before 
the fact of liis arrival in Palestine. This 
small point corresponds with Josephus' 
description of the action both of the two 
brothers Hyrcanus and Anstobulus, and 
of the leading citiiens. Each of the rival 
princes invoked Pompey's aid, while Pom- 
pey was stilt at Damascus land at the some 
lime a strong deputation arrived from Je- 
rusalem soliciting that Pompey would give 
the kingdom to neither claimant; for it 
was contrary to the laws of the people 
that they ^ould be ruled by a king. 
These appeals to Pompey will amply ex- 
plain the term dntmtd'iu'. 

Seejos, ^n/. XIV. iil. s. 

Imiim). Thiswordoccursin the Lxx. 
Jer. XX. 14 ifi/pa h 5 (rtii tu fii^ tarw 
triutrii (Aq. Sym. tiXoyiitiiyij— I'"!?). 

It is clearly the preferable reading in 
this passage. iiravKT^ o{ the Augsliurg 
MS., rendered 'dilalata' (i.e. enlarged) by 
Cerda and Fabricius, has no other au- 
thority and gives a very artiliciat turn to 
the words ofgreetiiig. 


[VIII. 19 


" (UjiaXiiTav c5Sou5 rpajfctas diro etcro&ov avTwv, 

■qvoi^av TTvXas ivl 'l(povcra\T)fj„ 

i(TT€<j}di'ai(rav T€t)(Tj aur^s- 

*" elaijXOev cos Trarqp eis oIkop v'loiv avTOv fier tlp^mj^, 

ecTTTjtre tows ttoSc? avToO /itrd atri^aXeias ttoXA'^s, 

" (tareXajSero Tas iTvpyo^dp€i<; aur^s »fal to rei^os iepov- 

(ToX-qp. ■ 
™ oTi 6'eo5 Tiyayai avTov /tera aa^aXeias ei" rp TrXa^jiret 

" ttTTdJXecrti' dp-)(OVTas amaiv koX ndi^a ao^ov in ^ov\j}, 
EiEX6E rd afMA T(oc olKOVfTinu IfpovtTaXi^p uic tiwp *"*- 

ao ;»Td otr^Xflal V, K, P, M, ^er' ds^aXclai A. 

18 (iu^ivw oGoAt Tpax>Cai. Cr, 

. A. The words of welcome lo the 
tKued on the language of 


Kal r<rra> rdrTu Tct rcoXii ill cieitai tal 4 
Tpaxtia fly rtSla (cf. I.uke iii. 5), For 
J^ittWfw cf. Is. iilv. 3 J(ni i^Xifl. Sym. 
Ps. v. 9 i^iXiffw (TCI?) C^x/kwWp MO" 
H^ A36>' irou and ^v d/uiX^. Sym. Ps. 

^fvoif av iHiXat t<r\ ' IqM)viraX.i)ti. The 

eiptessioii irilXot ftrl miisl lie observed. 
It IS not to be regarded as idcnlical with 
TiXat 'Ifpowtt^^ii, 'the pates of Jetusft- 
lem.' 'The gales lu Jenisaleni' are Ihe 
appioachcs 10 Jerusalem ; ihe passes and 
roads, which admitted an army lo the 

Geiger, who admits this more obvious 
tendering into his Imnslalion, expresses 
his dissalbfaction with it on the pound 
that Ihe clause presents no adequate 
parallel to ira^r *6\as. He therefore 
suggests thai the Hebrew words should 
ralber have been rendered 'they lurrcnder- 
eJ [he walls or fortresses,' the verb "^ffH 
'lo crown' having in Ihe Chaldee the 
sense of 'abstulil.' 

30 (UniXBtv ■« iraTi]p. Only at this 
point do we reach the aclual entry of the 
conqueror within the walls. The writer 
does not concern himself with the delays 
caused by the action of Arislobulus and 
his supporters. Pompey and his army 
encampe<t at Jericho. Aristobutus ollet- 
ed to surrender, but had no control over 
his followers in Jenisalem, who shut the 
gales against Gnbinius, Pompey's 

Pompey against Jerusalem [/In/. > 
4 xi\tiiH-Tos Si na^Ttitaii ropaSiSifai Ti 
ipdiurra nil T«ii ^pevfiiiixpii irurT/\Ktir 
rj ia-trtoO x"Pli rapalUxiaSai Si IXXui 
direlpjiTo, xtWeroi tiir iSwrarairxfiSi' St 
Anx-iir^y (11 'lipoviXuU")- 

4crT<^vaMrav Tttxi Avrrjt. Tlie festal 
decoration of the city, as Pompey drew 
near, is obviously the meaning. The 
words recall Ihe description of Ihe national 
celebration at Ihe fitbt feast of Dedication 
1 Mace. iv. ^7 Kol xaTiKSafitjcai' tA jtrarck 
rpiiraror toO raoO VTI^irois XP""^' ""i 
dffTtSlo'iroif ji.T.^. 

inlensihed by fear. The partisans of 
Aristobntus seiied Ihe Temple and its 
fortifications; the others threw open the 
gales, and placed in Pompey's hands the 
possession of Iheir city and the disposal 
of their crown (ol Si trtpw. it^iutnt rV 
aTpanbr Irtxrlpurar Iloiiirijfv Tijr re riXir 
tat ri jSoffftno, AhI. XIV. iv. j). 

Pompey entered the dly as its lord and 
patron 10 defend it from those who wished 
Arbtobulus the usurper to be their King 
and High Priest. 

trrtfrt -nit vi6at avrov. Compare 

VIII. 23] 



19 They made the rough paths even before their entering in, 
I they opened the gates that led unto Jerusalem; her walls they 
I crowned with garlands. 

20 He entered in, as a father enterelh into his sons' house, in 

He established his feet and made them very firm". " 

21 He occupied her strongholds.^yfrt, and the wall of Jenisa- '" 
I km. ™ 

22 For God led him in safety, because of their blindness. 

23 He cut off their princes and every wise councillor; he 
[ poured out the blood of the dwellers in Jerusalem like the water 
[ of uncleanness. 

Ps. xxi. (xxxi.) 9 tOTr^af it lipoxupiii 
TiH>t vMei lui. Kxix. (il.) 3 (HJ fffntcrcr 
iwl rirpa* toM tASoi /lau. 

This brings u^ Id ihe laii stage of I'oinpcy's 
ocGupalionof Jeni&alem. Admitted with- 
ia Ihe walls, he wu compelled to reduce 
the Temple and the adjacent fortificaiions 
by si^e (see Pb. ii.). Thcit capture, it 
appears to us, is indicated in this line. 

KB-nXaBrro. Cf. Num. mi, 31; 1 Mace. 
1. 11; 1 Mace I. 11. 

Td« 'TvpYopdput afrri)t. Cr. Ps. oxi. 
(cxxit.) 7 itol tiSiirla ir t«i vupyoSipt' 
viw miu {where wupyi^apii renders I1D71S 

This majr possibly refer 10 the citadel 
or 'Bans' which lay to the north of the 
Temple, cf. Neh. ii. 8 artyitai rdi r6\ai 

Mol ri Tttxot. Cf. ii. I. 

Hilgenfeld quotes Omi>\\ji, fffif. VI. 6; 
ipse (Pompeius) conlinuo subscculus el 
a palribus urbe susceptus, sed a plebe 
muro templi repulsus, oppugnationem 
ejus intendiL 

a bloody revenge upon tKe leaders of the 
Arislobulus party. Cf. Jos. /Int. xiv. 
iv. 4 not TO*! alrleu) loC toW^iou rif xt. 
W.H Sirxp^iaaTo. Btll. Jud. I. vii. 6 ical 

udm av^ir h povX-g. Leading mem. 
bers of the Sanhedrin are clearly intended. 
The supporters of Aristobulus must have 
been largely represented in the National 
Council. It is impossible otherwise lo 
account for the success and influence of 
Arisiobuius. That they numbered a- 

mongsl them the moil important of Ihe 
priests, is a natural cooclusion lo be 
drawn from the Temple being held by 
the party, and by the priests having con- 
linued their functions throughout the 

If^X** ^ i^W 'i^*' ■^X' 'I*P' '^''^ 
massacre of the Jews by the Roman 
soldiers has almost escaped notice in the 
chronicle of horrors which Jerusalem 
has experienced. Josephus speaks of 
11,000 Jews slaogbtered in the siege and 
capture of the Temple. Jos.^ jIhI. xiv. 
iv. s 4ti/pov Si ^f ird>-ra droTXlbf. jcai 
rrir \evSalijt tt Mtf M> 'Pu^uf at ti !>r' 
SM-iiXurirjipa/rTa' tUtii^tir^ tar a tpiiii- 
rrliK iauToiil Ififiirrv lal vdp inimt tJt 
rat eitlat inwiturparrt, to >i*4jm«i tap- 

'Pwiialidr St wiyv dXiyoi. Cf, Be/l. Jud. 

tfivM...49 SSvp dKahuHrfot. For the 
metaphor it BJup, cf. Ps, Ixxviii. (lixix.) 

'I(^tvaXV> which passage the I'salmisi 
hsd probably in his mind. 

He has amplified the melaphor from 
un Mup to liii DIup (LcaSajHfai according 
lo his practice of introducing his own 
words into (he quotations from Scripture, 

For one of tbe earliest instances of 
the occurrence of this melaphor, see 
Raerds ef Iht Peal. taA Series, vol. 1. 
p. 85 "An Erechite's Lamenl' line 3, 
'Blood is flowing like water in Eulbar, 
Ihe house of ihy oracle." For Biup i«a- 
Ba/wlat = the water Used in removing un. 
cleanness, see Num. aii. 9 Mwp pamir^u, 
xxxi. 13 Mup iTruTfuC. 



[VI 11. 24 

" air^yaye tous uious ffat ra? 6vyaTfpa<i avroii', as eyo'- 

inj<rav if ySejSjjXwuet. 
" eiroLy)<Tav Kara, ra? a.Kadap<Tia<; avraju, xa^w? 01 Trarepcs 

"ifi.ta.vav lepova-aX-qfi, Kai ra Tj-yiaa-piua tw ovo/xari Tou 

"'ESiKai&j^ d ^eo? ef TOi? KpLfiaatf avrov iv rots 
"^Kat ot oo"toi Tou ^tou toe ipNffl, ef dLxAKl^ ev p.4<T(a avrtov 

24 dirij'ya'yi Toiit visit Nal rdl 9v- 
VBWfMS avTwv. The Inst delsil in the 
descriplion of (he conqueroi's dealings 

i/ia ml TTttBtpltt 'ApumftoiXav. j ^ir^' 
7eT<i a {til 'Pii^iTi-) unk r^i ■ytveat nal 

'ApitfTipouXw ieiiiiinai'. Oia yip iivar 

6t^ ffi^yaripti 

Tf-ywot ffwtitofilfETo lU 'Pii»ni» aM" Tail 

The cnptives from Jetiisalem swelled 
the number who were led in thousands 
through Rome on (he occasion or the 
celebration of his great triumph (61). 
Plutarch mentions thai Mhe cnpiives who 
walked in the procession (not to mention 
the chief of the pirates) were the son of 
Tigranes, king of Atmenin, Zosima the 
wife of Tigranes, Arislobulus the king of 
Judea, &c. &c.' 

We lenm also from Philo's De Lega- 
liimi ad Caium how numerous the 
Jewish captives were in Rome during 
the reign of Tiberius. And it con hardly 
be questioned thai the great majoril}' of 
these had been brought to the capital 
either by Pompey or by his lieutenants. 
Phil. Ltgat. ad Cai. % 13 Twt oili' i,-Wi- 
Uxrrt tJjp iiifo.» lou Tt^ptwt rorauoS 
fuy dXijr T^ Piififji droTop.'^p, "^t o6k 
iiytili KaTtJipiiivTit eaJ oUoviitriir rfAi 
'IwiaXvr; 'PwiiaiH H riaw «J wKfimit 
iiirt\tv8fpu8irrcr <tl^i\arm yip ixfitr- 

iiimte. A" ry Xa^ airou di (lt^\iMrai 
B^oS. See i. 8. 

in ^PiiKiLati seems here to mean 'in 
the time when they disregaj-dcd all laws 
of ceremonial cleanness.' 

Looking back over these nine verses 
it ia worth while noticing hnw closely 
we can identify the various details of 
the description on the assumplioti tb«t 
Pompey is the foreign invnder. 

Thus in vei. 16 we have the far off 
place of his birih, and his tremendous 
victories over Tigranes and Mithridates : 
in ver. 17 he is yet at a distance In Syria 
when he determines upon a campaign in 
which Palestine is included; in ver. 18 
his attention is attracted to the aBain 
of Jerusalem by the rival applicants and 
the representatives of the people, who 
all load him with gifls and flattery and 
hail him as their nation's deliverer ; in ver. 
ig his match into Palestine is iMnducted 
without opposition, the fortresses that 
barred the way are one after another 
surrendered without a blow, he fiuaJly 
enters Jerusalem amid public acclama- 
tion; in ver. 10 he stands among the 
people as Ihcir father to assist them and 
compose their differences; in ver. it he 
captures by force the Temple and its 
fortiFications; in ver. 11 his success is so 
complete and the folly of the people so 
perverse, that it is as if God himself were 
guiding him on his way; in ver. ij his 
relentless character shows itself towards 
those who tried In thwart him : princes 
and councillors are put to death. Jeru- 
salem Hows with blood ; and in ver. 14 
the climai is reached in (he final scene, 
where this Deliverer of the people carries 
olf into ca]itlvity thousands of their sotw 
and daughters. 

3ft iteitipw. The connection of 



24 He carried away their sons and their daughters whom 
they had begotten in tkeir defilement. 

25 They had done'-* according to their uncleanncss, even as" Gt. rfi^ 
their fathers did, 

26 They polluted Jerusalem and the things that had been 
dedicated unto the name of God. 

27 God hath been justified in his judgements upon the nations 
of the earth, 

28 And the saints of God are as innocent lambs in their 

this and the following verse with the 
section that has just closed is nol obvious. 
They seem to belong oioie naliually to 
the deBcriplion of Jewish vice in vv. 
S — 14. The most probable explanalioo 
ii Ihit the P&almisi here b^ni a. re- 
capitulation of his theme. Verses ij, 16 
Himmorize the provocations of the peo- 
ple, vv. 17 — 31 lesiify the equity of Di- 
vine visitalion. The connecting ihought 
ID this veise with the previous sentence 
iithe captivity of 'the sons and daughters' 
of Jerusalem- Just as "iheir fathers' had 
done wickedly and been carried captive 
to Babylon, so thejewsot this generation 
bad done according to their uncleanness 
and had been carried away prisoners to 
II Rome. Wellhausen explains el waripis 
m of the preceding ceneration who had 
^committed the High-Priesthood into the 
p bands of the Asmonean Princes- Bui 
I so literal an interpretation of o! Tor^pci 
atruir seems to us to be a needless and 
prosaic limitation of the sense- 

powraMin l/da 
ri. A^ia xuploa, i^^iiXmr ri dwpa 
Toii dioC. In all these passiiges a special 
reference seems to be made to the potlu- 
tioD of the SBcrihces and sacred gifts by 
[n'iesls who were neglectful of the I>e- 
vitical ceremonial. It is therefore in- 
teresting 10 riole the similarity of the 
phraseology of these passages with the 
. LXX. of Levlt. ixL xxii-, which deals 
Lwilh the ceremonial purihcation of the 
KaODS of Aaron, e-g. ver. 6 17101 (torrai 

\ th! BfoS avrOr : ver. 1 1 {i Icpcdi b ^u) 
01! 3t(9.j\Mr« t4 ^>iaflfH(.M roil OmD 
aiiroO. ixli. 1 sv ff(pTi>,uaov<it ri lueii-a 
r6 Lyav futu iaa airroi ayia^owi pjji' iyit 
xrjpm: ver. 3 rat ivppuros Si in Tposi\8-a 

, dn warrit tou nrip/iaTOt lifiwr *p4c ri 

ayia iSa'a Sr avtafwiru' ol viol 'Irrpo^X ra 
Kvpi<fi nai Tj d<adap<ria nOrov ir' aurif ^, 
f^oKodpfi'ff^traL Tl ^VJC^ iKtimj iir ifutS, 

A guo<l illustration of our passage is 
afTorded by Assumpt. Mos- v. i, 4 et 
contaminabunt inquinationibus domum 

latem Dei, sed quidam altarium inqui- 
nabunt de(decoiis) muneribus quie 11 

J, qui 
sen servi oe servis 
Ttf 6i'6fiaTi TOU Btoi 


It sacerdotes, 
,ti. t4 ijyua/Ui'a 
e equivalent to rd 

Cf. i 

■ +. Si 

(pC|uuriiV avToO hi rots Hvtvi 
Tq< Tfijl. i-e. when He sends His judge- 
ments upon the nations of the earth, 
God's justice is seen and acknowledged, 
even t.y His saints who are in the midst 
□r the calamities which He sends. How 
much more, the Psalmist seems to argue, 
when He sends His judgements upon His 
own chosen people, must Hisiainis praise 
Hi:> name and recogniie the righteous 
dealing of Hia chastisement. 

aa ot SiTLOi ToO Btofl. Cf- on iii. 10, 
iv. 7- For the expression in the Psalter 
.« I.hl. (XII.) ,. «x<. («..i.) .3 fa 

■^ dfvla Iv (iitaKlf Iv fiaif avTc!iv. 
For the translator's use of ir ifuxlf in- 
stead of the adjective inatt see note on 
vi.8. The words very possibly contain an 
allusion to Lot (cf. 2 Pet. ii. 7), hut the 
language of the simile is based probably 
upon Jer. xi. ig tyii 3i us ipri<ir Anaitor 
iydf^aBt TDv B6tir6ai. It Was 00 doubt 
one in familiar use- lis occurrence here 
is interesting as aSbtdlng a nearly con- 
temporary illustration of the figure of 
speech employed by our Lord when 
addressing His disciples. Matt- x. 16 
lioti iyii iviKTiWu bum ua xpiflora tf 
liiaif Unuv. Luke x. 3 ui iprv ir lU- 

86 YAAMOI SAAOMfiNTOZ. (vill. 29 

'" aiceT05 Kvpio'i 6 KpLviuv TTO-a-av ttjv yrjv iv OiKatx»(Tvv^ 

""tSou Si), o 6eo<i, eSeifas -qfiXv ro Kpifia <tov ei/ Ty oikoli- 

ocrOiq) a-QV. 
^' elSoc 01 6<f>&a\fj,ol avrav to. Kptfiaja. crov, 6 ^€o?, 
eSiKaidJira^ei' to 6noma trov to entimo^ eis oKUKas' 
"oTt cril c' ^£05 T^5 SiKaiocrui^5, Kplvtav tov '\crpo.r)\ iv 

" 'ETTiOT/je'l'Oi', d ^€05, TO cXco! trow t^' ^/xas koI oi*ctci- 
pT)<rov TjfLa^, 
" crvvdyaye thn iidciropAN 'IcpahX /xct' eXe'ou wat -)(p-qfTTO- 

" OTl T/ TTlOTtS O"0V fie^ Tlp,<iJV, 

KoX T^/ieZ? itricXrjpvi'afJ.ev tov Tpd)(7j\ov rjfKDV, 

Kai <ri/ 7raiSeur^5 -qfiKav et, 

*■/*>} virepiBffs ij/icis, o ^eos ■qiJ.oti', 

Zva fir/ KaTairly i^p-ai eBi'i], p-TJ 6ntoc AYTpoY«eNOY. 

UFTTQT' A? (Cerdi). (Xatou P. 



A similai melaphor is employed fay 
the wriler of Enoch, Ihroughoul his 
vLsioD of hiael's history ch. Ixxxix. &c. 

SchotlgeD {/for. Hdi. l. 97) cilcs a 
Rabbinic saving from Tanch. ibl. 10, 1. 
Hadrian said to Rnbbi Jehuda: 'Great i« 
the sheep that stands Brin among seventy 
wolves,' He answered: 'Great is the 
Shepherd who rescues and protects il, 
bill smileth the wolves iff the presence of 
I he Lord.' 

^9 atvcrit. Cf. iii. i ry 6t^ 

i ■tplvw woir»» Tijv Yfjv. Cf ii. I 
Possibly a reminiscence of Gen. xviii. 15 

If so, the prol)abilily that the exampfe of 
lj)t underlies w. 17, 18 is Ereally ' 

For the contents of the verse cf. Ps. 
9 (al ainhx Kptrii -rtiv lAKavidti^r it Sita 

80 tSoJ U. Cf. 9 Sam. vij. t I 
a, (KJ r\fri) iyii ica™«u i, of,v "I 
i-«i, the only place in the h\x., according 
to I'rumm, where il occurs. It is not 

found in Ibe N. T. 

Cf. Aq. Job xiii. 15(1"), l8(KJ-ryJ3). 

^filv, emphatic. God who judeelh 
the whole earth righteously (ver. 19) is 
righteous when He scndeth judgemeals 
upon Israel. 

ai ol d^BoXual hAtmv. All the hss. 
read aitrfii. Al tirsl sight we should have 
expected 4ftur in a sentence occurring 
between fjtifn ij^ur and ^SiciuiiffBuw, 
and Wellhausen lioldly translates 'unsere 
Augen.' In support of this conjecture 
may be cited ix. .^ , where the t*ss. show 
a confusion bflwecn ii/iiir and airiM, mi 
the advantage of the reading is obvioui, 
since il maintains the continuity of thought 
from the preceding verse. 

The reading of the Mss. is however 
capable of a good explanation; 'the eyei 
of the Gentiles look upon thy judgements, 
bm il is we, the saints of God, who not 
only beheld but ju.slilied his ways.' The 
o^wr of this verse must then be under- 
stood like the airut of ver. 18 10 refer lo 
the ri Mrq of ver. ij : or even to the 
subject of w. »5, »6, tne prolatie Jews. 

Vlll. 36] 



29 The Lord is worthy to be praised that judgeth all the 
earth in his righteousness. 

30 Behold now, O God, thou hast shown to us thy judgement 
in thy righteousness. 

31 Our" eyes have seen thy judgements, O God; we have"T*'' 
justified thy name that is honoured for evermore. 

32 For thou art the righteous God, that judgeth Israel with 

33 O God, turn thy mercy upon us and have compassion 
upon us. 

34 Gather together the dispersed of Israel with mercy and 

35 For thy faithfulness is with U3; and when we stiffen our 
neck, thou dost chasten us". " ^^ "' 

, 36 Forsake us not, O our God, lest the heathen should swallow J^^. 
t Us up, and there be none to deliver : andihou 

Suiuiia^fui'. See on ver. 17. 
ti 5vo|ui tA lim|Uiv. Cf. Dl. nxi 

read DtX? for D01. 
I SB Bti o*. This clause may be taken 
In three different ways; (i) as the sum- 
mary of the foregoing sentences = 'for Ibou 
•It the God of righteousness;' (1) as an 
intiodaction to ver. 33 = ' Seeing Ihal thou 
art..., therefore turn;' {3} as epexegelicof 
iBiitauiiaafir>' = 'VJc justified Thy name... 
thai Thou art the God of righteousn 
The last method seems to be 
suitable to the context. 
6 tfit riji SiKaiioa-iytfl. Cf. Vs. 

tv iruEfff. Cf. Ecelus. iv. r 
Paaarlaei [eo^a) airir ir r(uJ[i> c 
Seeonvii. J, 4, e, X, 3. 

the gaihering ti^tht 
I biaeiites see note on xi. 3, 4; and for 
If luuirapi see ix, 1 ; John vii. 35. 

Compare for this passage Is. xlix. 6 

rV Jtawpdi' Toii 'Iff)>af|X /riarpijf'ai. 

1 Fs. cxlvi. 1 rii Siosrapit roi 'IffpoJjX 

The general tenour of the passage may 
be illustrated by Apoc. Uar. Ixxtviii. 7 
Si enim hiec ita feceritii semper reconia- 
bitur vestri is qui omni tempore pollicilus 
est pro nobis illis qui pra^lanliores nobis 
eiant, quod odd in perpeluam oblivisce- 
. Ktnr, aut derelinqueret seruen nostrum. 

sed miierUordia Piulla colligfril litHue 
eimrn gut ditpersi runt. 

as i)«Ca-rwo^u. ir(<r7-K is here used 
in thesenseof'faithfidness.' the quality of 
one who keeps faith and fulfils a promise; 

but cf. Lam. iii. jj nWii if ''ffrii rou, 
'great is thy failhrulness.' The Hebrew 
naitSU is ill the Psalter generally rendered 

Kdl ^(Mts...Ko,l otJ. Cf. on Wi. 7. 

toT«Xnpivoii«v. For the phrase 'to 
slilTcn the neck' 
XIX. 8 iiT) aK\iipirTiTt T^i oopJIat iiii-wt (v. 6 
TBirt Tpaxh^'"^ ufiur, as the Hebr.). Neh. 
ix. 16 ^(riiXi)/iiWB» ™ Tpijn^w nhw. 
Jer. vii. 16, xix. 15. In all these pas- 
sages the words 'as yoar fathers' ac- 
company the phrase and point back lu 
its Deulerooomic use, Deul. x. :6 rir 
rpi-x^Xor 00 aikiipvriirt. 

38 |j,i| ixqiiGni, Hi. 'do not overlook 
us and neglect us. 

The word irtpiitttr is found in the LXx. 
with this its natural signtficaliDn, as in 
pcut. xiii. I nil liiir rir ixiax" "0 iBt\- 
p»0 mu ^ TO 'rpi^arot aiirgO irXai>iii/ura 
.irriiSv irtpliT,, afir4 (DriP ^5^50^1). 
Vs. !iv. (Iv.J J xai MV iwt^Sv' *^' S<^'» 

^v f'pjrT^o Dh'nri-'?((i), 

j6 "the Lord 
for your salies' (lal 
irtptOc xipaa'^ •i)h'; ISITI.*!)! where the 
Greek word is either an intcntioiial modi- 


[viit. n 

" KoX (TV 6 Oc6<i -^fiiHv 0.71 dp^yj^, 

Kol iirl tre -^kiria-afifv, Kvpie. 

" Kal Tj/xet? ovK a.<f)e^6fj.t$ti crov, 

OTi )^r)crTa to, Kpip-aTO. uou €^ ij/ias. 

"■^fi.ii' Kal Tols TeKvois 17/i.cov ij evSoKta el<; top altova, 

Kvpie (TOJTTjp Tfj^wv, ay cA\{Y8Hcri«e9& in t6n AiioNa j^povov. 

* Aiveros Kvpios ev toX% Kpip.a.<riv avrov iv aTOfiart octav, 
'^ Kal (TV €vkoyr)fievo^, 'icr/aa^X, vno Kvpiov eis tov alcoi/a. 

IX. 'Ev tw a.Tra)^6ijpai 'IcpaijX a/ aTTOiKecri^ et? yrjc 
^i* Tw dTTOoT^fai auTOUs aTTO KTpfoT Tof AyTptocAM^NOY auTous, 


i A Cpaenc delelum' Cerda, qui conj, i 

Q potlus fd (cf. Job xxv. 6) 

iftiilKB<L V, K, P, M: om. om A (Ccrdn). Fabr. 'forte irT>iiiit«a.' 
a« (roXei'fl>Mo;<((*a V, K, P, M, Hilg. Gtig. Frilisch. Pick, aakioeiiaiinfea 
,, Fabt. Wellh. 
40 ibrrdiA, Ccrda ('/iArr,"jij/u/«j'). 
1 dirouniirl^ P. 

lication of the Hebrew oi has arisen from 
a confusion of the root ~QV H'ilh the pre- 
position in /p. 

the Romans, we may compare Ihe cn- 
prcssion of drcati, which the chief priests 
and (he Phamees uttered at a later peritx!, 
'the Romans wiJl come and take away our 
place and tmlion' (John li. 47, 4S). 

For tararl^, cf. Num. xvi. 3+ /i^roTt 
Karaxiji ijim] i) 7^. Lam. ii. lA 8iiJ»i«fcw 
iri at ffri/ia otTu™ wirrit ol ix^P^^ ffou... 
Kol cItot irBTeTlaMti> aiVijr. Hab. i. t^ 

H1I SvTo* XuTpjrojUmni. See note on 
ver. n. Observe m^ in the hypothetic 
clause 1 but in ver. 11 oit trros stales 
the fact. 

87 i fc&i ^|uv ^ir ^x*!*- Possibly 
a reminiscence of Hab. i. ii auxl iri a>' 

For air' dfixH' 'of old' referring lo 
God's earliest dealings with the chosen 
people, cf. Ps. Imiiii. (Ixxiv.) a /u'^flnrrL 
Tfjt avrayvYfii job fli (<Tflitw aw opx^- 

as avK^HyM 

The n 

tiing 1 

irill not 


from following thee: we wilt not cease 

lo call upon thee; for our _. 
Thy righteou.sness is complete." Cf. Pg. 
cxiit. 101 '1 have not turned aside from 
thy judgements.' 

XP<)VTcL Cf. Ps. cxviii. (csiii.) 39 i4 
yip KptnaTairov XP'l<rra. 

^^uiv here i 
is striking 10 compare tbem with the 
selfprontninced curse of Ihe people in 
Malt, lixvii. 15 ™l arotpietii rat i \ait 
(Iirap T4 a^ aiiroC i^' i)ii£.t tal rt-i rd 
riaa iiitu». Cf. Acts ii. 39 iiur yap 
isTw ^ franfUo not TOit ^iirmi iiiuni 

1) (iSoita. litmia is used here as usual 
of the Divine favour and good-will. See 

It is not clear whether -^ ci)4aila ex- 
presses an assertion or a wish, whether 
we should supply larat (^orirj or tlij 
[ItTiii), The point miLsl be detennined by 
the reading lo be adopted in the following 
clause, aa\ivStiao)tiffa ot va>itv6T)rwiH8a. 

Kvpw (rarr^p ^l'">'' '^f' I^- ^l>i>- It 
iyui i dcis (Ol ait tari wapi^ //ibu riilitr. 
li. 16 yyiiaji Bti iyii xipiot i iriifi4i» at. 
Ecclus. li. 1 airioBi " ' 

•"M J 

IX. .] 


37 And thou art our God from the beginning, and upon thee 
have we set our hope, O LORD. 

38 And we will not depart from thee, for thy judgements are 
gracious towards us. 

39 Upon us and upon our children be thy good pleasure for 
ever, O Lord our Saviour, that we be not'* moved again for ever. " 

40 The Lord is worthy to be praised in the mouth of his 
saints for the sake of his judgements, 

41 And blessed art thou of the LORD, O Israel, for evermore. 

A Psalm of Solomon : 'For a rebuke.^ 

1 When Israel was led away captive into a strange land, 
because' they departed from the Lord which redeemed them ; ' 


iniX(v<T](ri)u9a. The Ind. is 10 DC 
expected after ou. The fonn traXiuSij- 
ffuntSa is in all pcobabiliir a mere 

For the words cf. Ps. ix, 17 (x. 6) av 
lii) onXfipflS, xiix. (xxx.) 7. iv. (xvi.) 
8 Ira fij) raXeutfu e(i rir oiufo. cxi. 
(cxii.) 6 (Ji ri* oluro au ffaXcufTifferot. 

Itv riv olavs j(fi6vav. Cf. xv. 14 lii 
t4ip ofurn xporof. The idiom is found 
in the LXX. e.g. Ex. niv. 13; Is. xiii. 10; 
and is frequent in the other versions, Aq. 
Symm, Tneod. 

40 nlvtrit iidpioi. Cf. ver. 19. 

iv Toii KpC^omv avra«, i.e. on nccount 
ot the justice of his judgemcnls. 

41 Kal <ri «dXo7i||Uvoi. The usual 
doxology ii, expanded by the blessing 
pronounced on Israel, for which cf. Num. 
Ti. 16, xxiv. 1 i Deut. xxvi. ts- So l-s. 
iiu 9 ToS Mifiiau ii aurqpla col ^rl riv 
\aar aoi/ -ii tiXryla aov, xxviii. (xxix.) It. 

For ii\rniiinii..,vri KVflou cf. Gen. 
xxiv. 31 eilXoyrrJi «pJou (v. 1, fipHn) 
where Procop. in Col. Niirph. p. igg 
says ro "&Pfau.hii l-jifi- ijilXo^Tj^mi iiwo 
xvplau (Field's /I'm. I. 39). 

Pb. ix — Argument. The Psalm ap- 
pears to fall eatily into three parts. 

ses the 

good or bad. 

(") 7—10. Every man makes his own 
fate. Righteousness results in life; ini- 
quity in death to the doers. 

(^) II — 15. He who has sinned, 
however,— as Israel has done— ^may still 
hope for pardon if he repents. 

III. 16—19. 

Since, then, God is forgiving will He 
not have mercy upon Israel, in remem- 
brance of His ancient choice and cove- 
ninl? IJod is their hope, may He shew 
(hem mercy. 

The general character of the Psalm is 
historical and religious, not political. It 
deals with very much the same topics, 
and in much the same strain as the last 
[larl (v. 17 — 41) of Ps. viii.; and it is 
more relrospeclive than any of the other 

1 Whatever the probnbility that the 
first Psalm contains a retrospect over a 
long period of years, there can be no 
doiilit that here the Babylonian captivity 
is referred Lo. 

airB](^^. Cf. 1 Kings 
xxiv. ij oirrra-yf «ft liromolac (^T^fl 
njlJ), 16 ^a.ft* ouroii...^«rou((»-iiup 

''ll-D«'3*l). Cf. 'children of the 
' y' ulet o»wii(iFitti, Eir. vi. :6, 
I liiroirT. We have rendered 'be- 
cause' in preference (o 'when' a.s it .seems 
obvious that the reafion for the captivity 
is being given, not the moment when it 
took place. 



[IX. 3 

^ ciTT£ppL<}tr}<rau aTTO KKT}povofiia^ ■^i cSwkci/ auTois Kvpio<; 

if nauTL edvei, 
CTTi otaffTTOpa Tov lcrpa.Tj\ Kara to p'rjp-o- 70v ueov, 
'1n\ iiKAiweijic, o ^eo5, ei- Tp Sixaioo-ui^ trov eV raw 

* OTi (TU KpLT'^? (lt/cato5 tVi iraj/ras tows Xaovs ttjs y^?. 
*ov yap Kpv^-^a-eTai cltto Trj<; yfwtretos O"ow Tra; Troittii' Kcuca, 
" Kol al BiKaiofTvi'ai twv dtrtwc crov iviamov aov, Kvpif 
Kal TTOV Kpv^ri(T€Tat av9punro<i diio rfj'i yvwato}^ trov ; 

' 'O ^eos, TO. €pya rifj.av €P eKXoyrj Kal cfoufft^. TJJi 

TOV TTOtijo-at SiKatoavinji' koI aZiKiav iv e/>yoi5 ^^ipdv 

' KoX if T'fj SiKaiocTiJi^ (TOV eniCK€nT^i yIotc ANeptiintuN. 

"o noiwy SiKcuoa-vvrju 6j}fTavpLt,ti ^(DrjV iavrw trapa KvpCat, 

Kal 6 TTOtiov dhtKa auros atrios t^s 'I'^^5 cf dirajKeiq,- 

a i}i itfl V, K, P, M, n A. 

8 a^ui* ecid. Hilg.' Frilisch., cott. Hilc.^ iiiiuiv 

8 lol i-gii V, K, P. xol oi; A. 

r^T TTi^ciJi aov 6 d€6j V, K. 
7 ifowlf V, (?) K, P, M, Hilg. conj., ila Fi 
Fabr. Gcigcr. 

ipra itfxQw bi c^Xiry^ A. 
B irt^tirrcii A. 

uUf M. 

A, V, K, r, M. 

lisch. Pick, ^iouirdi A. Ccrda 


XuTpMro^Uvov. Not, 
XuTpoi/nfrBv—ffaei, but aa in ueui. xiu. j 
TOU Xurpuffo^crou frc in rip joLiXeJai. The 
deliverance from £gypl is mcanl hcrci as 

a iim^l^tfrav — tv iravrl Itvu. We 

have lalten Ihcae wotiis logethei, in Ihe 
belier lh.ll Ihe pa^isage is a ieminii<cence 
of Deut. iv. 17, Jiairrfpei' KCfnos I'juaf 
in Torrl IBytu This passage is. in fact, 
the ^ita rav Btmi referred lo just aflcr- 
wards, as receiving its fullilmenl. The 
strong woid dnil^irTu is piobablf taken 
(romjer. ivi. 13 (a2 irofifii^ ufiai an 
' ' ''ofi^f"^ 

4 NpiT^. ii. 19, 36, iv. iS. 

5 For the omniscience of Ihe Al- 
mijihly cf. ii. 18, vjii. 8, xiv. 5. 

The closest porallel is to lie found in 
Job xmiv. 12 oiSi frrcu tAitm toO itpv- 
pfr'iu -nlit imuiBrTat ri Srana. The se- 
quence of ihought should be noticed. 
V. 5. i. God sees sinful actions, 
6, a. and righleaus nnesi 
6, 6. where then shall a man be 
hidden from this knowledge ? 


'■ 3-! y-fiy oi out tjix^ '" 

8«uriropiI. See on viii. 34. 

■ Iva EiKaLut^ .sec on ii. 16. The 
language liere closely resembles that of 
Ps. I. 6 (U. 4), dirui Bi- Juiuu^^i i' toii 

• a. M.II. vi. I-, ,,.,<,m [»] 
Hjii SiKoioviyif (v. 1. iXtiiitnalitrfi) b/i^ 
11.1] xoifi liixpoeBfr TUt (u-flpiiruB". , . . (1) 
irar oic '^Ji i'^i-tluxrOritr k,t.\.,..\^ 
tol 6 rarip sou 4 pUirwv tr Tip Kpinrrf 
areSiiafi tv. This passage finds an 

Li] lustration in our Psalm, if, 
ble enough, JixiuDa'tti'iu here 
n the special sense of alms^ving. 
c preferred to let the more general 
rendering 'lighleoua acts' stand ii ' 



IX. 9] 



2 They were cast away among every nation, from out of the 
inheritance which the LORD gave them : that Israel might be 
dispersed according to the word of God ; 

3 That thou mightcst be justified, O God, in thy righteousness 
by reason of our transgressions. 

4 For thou art a just Judge over all the peoples of the earth. 

5 For there shall not be hidden from thy knowledge any one 
that doeth evil, 

6 And the righteous acts of thy saints are before thee, O 
Lord ; and where shall a man be hidden from thy knowledge ? 

7 O God, our works are in our choice, yea, in the power of 
our own soul : to do either righteousness or iniquity in the works 
of our hands. 

8 And in thy righteousness dost thou visit the sons of men. 

9 Whoso doeth righteousness layeth up for himself life at the 
Lord's hand : and whoso doeth wickedness is guilty of his own 
soul to destroy it. 

it is the equivalent of HiJl^; once (Ez- 
iii. lo) it ^ands for P^V. The passage 
in Ecclus. is worth quoting, iXX' ^ 
ouTH 63/iptj D^iom iLr ai itKOiOffvrat oix 
iwiXriaBiiiiiui. Here again ihc ideft of 
l\tot occurs in close conocclion with that 
of righteousDess. 

Anolher document as yet inediled in 
which the plural occurs with some fre- 
quency, is tlie Greek lent of the Testa- 
ment of Abraham. 

The general conclusion of the fore- 
going is that we seem to be justilied in 
attaching ihe special meaning of 'works 
of mercy' lo JuoioirLvai in this passage. 

KoX TO*. A reads (ol 06, which is 
probably a reminiscence of v. j oi yip 

text, but a;^ a foci, to Ihe Jewish mind 
the acts included would be of two kinds 
principally: (a) ceremonial observances, 
(*) works of mercy. When Ihe authors 
(or author] of 4 Esdras and Apoc. IJaiuch 
speak of 'a treasure of works iaid up wilh 
Ibe most High' (Esdr. vi.- 50), or "ihe 
treasures wherein is gathered together the 
rigkleeutn^ss (iustitia, doubtless = Jhniiu)- 
ffv«i) of those that have been justified 
in Ihe world (creatura),' or even when 
our Lord speaks of 'laying up treasure 
in heaven,' the works and the treasure 
would alike mean to their immediate 
hearers such definite acts of charity as 
are enumerated in Matt. iiv. 35—46. 
Similar works are those of which St 
James speaks (ii. [4sqq.) as is manifest 
from the enamples he there gives, and 
Ihe reward which God sends even in this 
life lo the doers of Ihem. forms ihe main 
subject of the Book of Tobit. See also 
9 of this Psalm. 

Mail. vi. i=An)- 
il only from olher 
ire particularly from 
verse 1, and from 
:ribes have conspired 

r. g of tl 

hat iaavwvr^ 
fiovin) is obvious 
considerations, but 
the emphatic olr i 
the fact that later 
to substitBle iKenf-- for tui. 
On the Hebrew equivalents and LX 
rendcringi see Dr Hatch's statement 
Bssayl on Biblical Greek, p. 49 sqq. 

iKoiM-vtoi in the plural occurs ni 
times in the LXX. (ace. " "^ ' 

by A never occurs 
parallel lo this is V\ 

on p. OS. 

e form read 

B The 

u diffe 

^^^ piwigeiocc 

The a«a«mt»ij of God in this latter 
passage is justice, impartiality. That of 
the righteous in v. y is practically the 
same as the iuaunSirai of V. 6 ; and the 
contrast between 6 ToiaG* JtiioiDrvrijr and i 
irDiwi> iiita will he well illustrated by such 
chapters as Ezekielnviii.and iixiii., where 
various acts of each kind arc specified. 

tip^vpfln [itttv. See above on v. 6 
reff. 10 Esdras and Banich. In the O. T. 


'" TO. yap KpCfiara KVpCov ev BiKatocrvvy Kar avSpa kol oTkov. 
" rivt ^/DTjoTciJcrg, d Beos, el /^^ tois iiTiKa\ovfi.€yoi^ Toi* 

Kvpiop ; 

"oTt aIcx'Jnh mmTn /cat toTc npoctinoic T]fj.cov irepl airdi'Twu. 
" Koi Tifi d<f)iQa€t dfiapTiai;, ei /x^ rots ■qp.aprqKoa-i. ; 
"Sifcaioi/s euXoyTjtret? xat out evdvuel^ wepl oju rjfj.apTov, 
KoX rj xpi^oTOTiys <Jov TTtpl a}i.a.pTiivoi>Ta<i iv p.eTap.{Ktia. 

'" Kat vvv (TV 6 d^os, fat Tj/iet5 [oj Xaos of jjya7r7/(rasi 
rSe »cai oiKTeipou, 6 ^eos 'lcrpar)\, 07t trot eV/iev, 
Kttt ^^ ttTTOOTTjtrTjs eXeof trou a^* i^^wc, 
ijia /i.^ tTrt^(uM"at Tj/itf 
" OTi tru jipeTtfTQ) TO fTiiipp.a ' A^paoip. irapa Trdfra rd tdi^, 

IS ^JofioXoypjun V. K, P, M. ijuXovJirti A. 

IS loi 4m<i[— <'<"'< fiw om. A. Per homreut. d $(^, 

oiJ V, K, P. ooS A, M (?). 

dTwniffiri- diwTit9-(« A. 
17 iptTiaa V, Cerda Gr. ^^T«re, Lai. cIcK's'J- t'abt. iipinaa.!. 

rapi om. A, V j supplevit Fabr. 

we liave similar language in I'rov. ii. 7 
S^avfi^ti ToEi KaTopflouffi oHriiplai', and 
Mmilai thouglil in Tob. iv. 9 (ii) d 
propts of almBgiving, Sijia. -ykp irioSiv 

muKL NvpCa is uxaclly the 'apud il' 
lissimum ' of Esdra^. 

oErLot tip ijnijt^t The word ofT-tot 
seems lo occur only once in Ihe canonical 
books, 1 Sim. ixii. 11 lyv tl/iX alnot 

Bel and the Drt^n, v. 4) wc have 

t» diraKttfi hy destroying his soul — be- 
cause be (ieslroys it. 

10 ni ^dp Npt^Ta, The connection 
is this: the good man reaps life, the bad 
mail death, /tr Gcxl is jual and distin- 
guishes between man and man, between 
house and house. Cf. ii. j8 nv iut- 
artWiu iri. lUaeir iualou lal d^nprwXoG. 

■caT* dvSpa Kol olvav. See iii. <), to. 
where the ideai are ihroughoul similar to 
those here and in v. 11. We should get 
a simpler sequence of thought were we 
Ti change places with v. ii, 
gire no support to this. 

II xpi]<rTti>o(uu, n 


No i' 

found in the 
dii. 4 ^ ifir^i 
ier authority 

([uoled for it, so that the occurrence of Ibe 
word may serve towards determining the 
dale of this Vcnion. 

13 KakpCo-ii. The subject of (he 
verb is Ciod : this is determined by Ihe 
closeiy similar passage iii. 10. Cf, also 

t)! Auoprfois, 'inlhecitae ofsin.' 
kr i£apaXoyit<nt etc. ' by means of 
here practically equivalent 10 'on con- 
dition of.' The i'l'X^'' f' tinj^'^eytjati 
is equivalent to •I'lixV' H^fi^oXoymlitv'i'- 
Cf. ArSpis iv tiitTa9<lf iv. ii, rarrit ir 
*ij8v vi. 8, Ii imprupia. If tit^ip x. 5. The 
readily of A inoKay^jan should be noted. 
This form is not found in the l-XX. or 
N.T. Diod. Sic. |XVH. 68) has it in the 
sense of 'confeaiion' and it is not unlikely 
to be correct here, but is unsupported by 
other Mss. iv ^inofOua h in all proba- 
bility a duplicate rendering of tr ifpiio- 
\<rnati, cT. Job ixii. ti, l.xx. i^iiyofiia 
= .Symm. /(onoXii^iru' ; iiKiil 16 LXX. 
ii:irfaplt.= Theodot. /irri ^f oftoXoYiiim't. 


rx. 17] 



10 For the Judgments of the LORD are in righteousness 
according to each man and his house. 

1 1 With whom wilt thou deal graciously, O God, save with 
them that call upon the LORn ? 

\2 He will cleanse the soul that hath sinned', if it make con- "p'-.'" 
fession and acknowledgment'. "mfi^dot 

13 For upon us and upon our faces is shame because of all inadmaio- ! 
titese things. ledgmmt 

14 And to whom will he forgive sins, save unto them that 
have committed sin ? 

15 The righteous thou wilt bless and wilt not correct them 
for the sins that they have committed : and thy kindness is 
toward them that sin, if so be they repent'. !• «^/"ff. 

16 And now thou art our God, and we are the people 
whom thou hast loved : behold and have pity, O God of Israel, 
for we are thine, and remove not thy mercy from us, that they 
set not upon us. 

17 For thou didst choose the seed of Abraham before all the 

„ . _B Indei), Wld Ihc verb ifa-yo/miu 
ID Pi. xxxi. (xxxii.) 5 iXi-^Qptisa lar' 
i^xfii r^ 6j/QttXvf ^oif t^ ictfpil^. The ar- 
gnment is ; Cod forgives sins. To whom 
then? Naturally to those who have com- 
mitted them. There i& hope, then, for 
the sinner. 

IS alrxiivi|. The language seems to 
be ba»d on Dan. ix. 7 koX iuur ij alirxiyi 
Tou rpcatirov. .Another variiition is found 
in Bar. ii. 7 ^tur H lal toU nriitfif 
illiiir 4 o'^t'in) Tur rpoaiiwiiir, where the 
plural of irpia(iiror occurs as in this 

14 >t^fT))ii occurs again only in Ft. 
ivii. There il is found thrice. In V. 19 
tuid 4; il clearly — to allow. In v. ri two 
renderings are possible, 'to let go' and 
'to forsake.' See further in /o<-. d^i^vai 
ilMpTlat occurs with some frecjuency in 
the LXX., e.g. Exod. xxxii. 31 ; Ps. xxv. 

15 ovK rihivtit. The uncompounded 
verb causes some little difficulty. The 
meaning required is -thou wilt not exact 
the full penalty,' 'wilt correct them with 
judgment.' In this sense il is also found 
m 3 Mace. iL 1 7 fi4 itSiriirji% i)^t I' rf 
ijcaeaptlf laitt tHirjii ^fui it fit^Xuiati 
(cf. tietrih 3 Mace. iii. tB i> eialxu/ to5 

Elsewhere in the unc. it Ls almost syno- 
nymous with itoTH^ifwii, and stands for 
a process which was eminently de.'iirable, 
and desired by Ihe just man. 

lUToiiatLa. Only in Hos. xi. 9. The 
ir here again expresses the condition 
under which God s goodness visits the 
sinner. Sec note on ver. n. ripl i/iafi- 
rduiwraj it ti^ra/uMf might have l)een 
e<[ual1y well rendered ripi iitapTiii\i>{it 

On the importance of 'repentance' in 
the doctrinal system of the Rahbins see 
Pirft Aboth IV. 15, ' R. I.i'eier ben 
Jacob said ... Repentance and good works 
are as a shield against punishment,' with 
Taylor's note (Sayingi 0/ Iht jmiish 
Fathers, p. 84). The verse reminds us 
of the distinction between 'the just' and 
'the sinner. ..that repented' (Luke x v. 7, 

16 ilY^TTje-at. For the oorisi cf. Ixai. 

xiiii. 4 h'^ « tyixT,™ (Ti!i?n«). 

hnSmrmi. The subject is not expressed. 
The jnl Plur. is here used indefinitely, 
reproducing the Heb. idiom. Cf. Gen. 
XXIX. 1 imknint, 1 Kings i. 1 f>rn^(£- 

17 iJp<Tf«-». Only in \ 


, KVpi€, 

Kai ov KaTanavoT) ets toi' alinva. 

'" hf BiaBi^KT) Stc'^ou Tois TTa.Tpa.uiv -qpaiv nepl -^fiav, 

"'tov Kvptov -q ekeejfioiTvvr} ctti tou oikov 'lo"pa^X eti; tov 


/XtijUMrrH'ij li A, V, Fabr. e(c. ; 
' V, K, P, M. 
il tri add. A ■ri\ot. 



li K. P. M : . 

irfpM. Cr. Etclus. iixiii. n (iijivi. :7) 
Ai^of Xnon, icii/iif. MiXiui^i'oi' ^r' ivi- 
fiai-l aoii. Is. xliii. 7, Ixiii. ig. Jiui. li. 7. 

■oU OJ KaTUwavir^ df -riv olai'a. 
This, the reading of al! mss,, can only 
bear one meaning. Thou will nol dnist 
for ever — desist, that i^ from setting thy 
name upon us, or fiom choosing us. 
Geiger 'and nicht wiisl duablasscn ewig- 
lich.' Wellh. 'und wirst nichi ewiglich 
feiern.' Pick 'wilt not desist for ever,' 
But it seems exceedingly doubtful if tara- 
rxilmiuu will bear this meaning. In the 
Lxx. it is used in several ways, e.g. of 
God resting from hii works (in Gen. i.), 
of any one leaving off doing a particular 
thing (but always with a participle, 
icai/roiPiT« XaXwr Clc), transitively cj 
giving rest from enemies, etc., and of 
making a thing cease, destroying it. But 
no close parallel to the sense wanted 
here is to be found. 

There is an obiious correction however 
which has something in its favour. If 
we read cy f'"' oy, we get the meaning, 
'Ihou wiit abide or rest for ever,' and it 
is in favour of this, that we find Jerusalem 
spoken of as the ■rardravo'ii of God ( Ps. 
cxxxi. (cxKxii.) 14 a6ni it tari'wa.virit luv 
til <US»a nUhiM' iSSe Kontiiica, flri Slpm- 
ttiiiTfr aMpi), a passage which is on the 
whole very like the one before ils. Com- 
pare also Ecclus. xnxiii. 13, (xxxvi. 18) 
OlxT^PVioy *i\iJr irftiaitaTin eaxi '\tpov- 
saXjjfi, ToXui KanaiaiiiaTit tm. In these 
/e have a similar expression. 

» TV'I 

qrob tI Si 

li/avi)itur An)0iiffj^(0a. The principal 
objection to this reading is that we still 
have to supply something in translation. 
Nothing is said of the place where God 
is lo dwell. In spite of this we believe 
that the emendation gives a more intel- 
ligible meaning, and with more correct 

Greek, than the common text. 

The reading of the MSS. might be illus- 
trated by Aquila's rendering of Jer. 
nii. (xuviii. ) 36. itot-yf t4 trtipiLa, 'Iff/wljX 
mTKnioTi toO >i^ cEroi IBm iniirtir nev. 
The sense then would be 'and wilt not 
suffer it (thy name} to cciise/fi>« anting 

10 W SiohJK^ Biikni may possibly 
represent the Hebrew inlin. absolute, 
'verily Thou didst covenant.' 

tvuTTpo^, again only in xvi. 1 1 . See 
on v. 19, and tne title of vii. Here it 
has an intransitive senEC, = 'the turning 
again,' not 'the restoration.' The 'cove- 
nant' forms, of course, a very common 
theme with O.T. writers. It occurs most 
prominently perhaps in Gen. xv. iS Ji^- 
Btra liptm t^ 'Appa/i Siaev'W- X<7W. 
Tf vripiuiTt rav'tiiru rif yfir tovttf. 
Cf. alio Jtr. «xi. (.unviil.) 3, ^ .«ri 
TTtw BuiB^irrfr i^ tuBifiip' rotr ra-Tpiaof 
««■». xxxiv.(.li.) 13; Neh. ix.8. 

ao The form of this verse gives a 
possibility of two renderings. It may 
be either a statement or a wish. But the 
latter seems most probable. A verse of 
similar form (xiL 7) is continued by means 
of optatives. 

It is very noticeable that Psalms ix. 
— xii. each of them contain a verse pre- 
cisely similar in form. In ix. x. xi. tnch 
a verse ends the P.salm. In xiL it ii 
supplemented by a further prayer. In 
the rest of the collection the endings 
are dissimilar, only iv. ig resembles 
this, and there again it is a wish, not ■ 
statement, being introduced with -fhnnrt. 

Tou mipCov ^ tX«||UKnna| is probably not 
the same as tou nvplati ii A(i>> in xi. 9. 
The i\tT)iun!ini of the Lord is his riglU- 
eouinai displayed in mercy: iXoifuwiV^ 
represents ^i^V in the original (see 
note on ver. 6 and the special signifit 
of lutaaeini). Another itistance 


' IX. 20] 




, _0 Lord ; and thou 

8 And didst set thy 
■ wilt abide' (iw/cw^ ;« for ever. nct'f' 

19 Of a truth thou didst covenant with our fathers con- ,-, ,/";^_ 
cerning us: and in thee will we trust when our soul is turned Gr. u-Ui 
unto thee. '"""' 

20 Let the mercy of the Lord be upon the house of Israel 
for everlasting and world without end. 

I in this book in xv. 15 where see note. 
Compare Deul. vi. is koI ^Xeij/ioirfrij 
(ng^in) ftf™ ^l^- Ps. xxiii. (xxiv.) 5 
oirrM X^/iittTOi luXtfylaii rapd tvploti «ol 

oiiTiiC. Don. ix. 16 (yfM, tV TSaif cXri}- 

;, lix. 16. So also i\enttiwii»ij 
t b the lendeting of Symmachus in Ps. 
(xxxv.) 11, and of Abulia in Ex. 
, ; Apoc Bar. xliv. 14 ' et a niiseti- 
eordia non recessetunl.' , 1 

rf»T4vali«.itallr.-iriD'?11I7as in 
i. 8, 9. Cf. Ex. IV. r8 ir akSam. Kol In. 
>na. xii. J rlt Toit aJA-ot tal In. 

7 This is by far Ihe most diffieull 

■ern in the Psilni. The text is un- 

crtain, and a doubt attaches lo the mean- 

I tag. Let us first consider the queslion 

\ connected with (he text. 

First, we find that Ccrda'a MS, (A) 
read iiuvala, and Hilgenfeld suggested 
Ihe dative ffowrf? which is adopted by 
Fritischc. The question is one where we 
derive lillle help from MSS. No variants 
are recorded from Fritische'a text hy any 
other of our authorities, but the Copen- 
h^en MS. does not insert iolas subscript 
or adscript : of the Vienoa ms. we cannot 
ipeak from ocular inspection. The matter 
must be decided on consideration of in- 
trinsic probability. 

What are the two renderings? 

o. Ti IpYa ■i\fiv kf htXoxn loil Ifyy- 
ffi^i Trjj i|(. il|Lav. 'Our works are in 
" end uponi ihe choice and are subJEd 
10 tne aulnorily of our soul.' 

etFCU «■» »fow£f TwJt would mean, no 
doubt, 'lo be under the control, aulho- 
i>t7> Jurisdiction of some one.' In Acts 
L 7 Christ speaks of the times and seasons 
which Ihe Father hath put hi ri ISUf 
t^ovtif. In Acts V. 4 Peter says to 
Ananias, of his land, oi/x' i' 1^ "V ^fowl? 
tr^f%ti These instances are, it seems 

to us, sufficient lo show that the dative 
in this pa.'isage will give a sentence which 
is Eramroatical and leyilimale. 

Now turn to the actual reading of the 
MSS. These give us a different con- 

Tift '{"Otn* ^1"''' ^°* '*oiii)nk. Two 

renderings are possible. <a) Our deeds 
are in our own choice, and Ihere Is au- 
thority (power) belonging to our soul to 
do good or evd. (;9) Our deeds are by 
Ihe choice (of God) and (at the same 
lime) we have power, etc- The point lo 
be noticed is that (a) gives the sa~ '" 

a fori 

patently conflicting statement! 

The rendering m| joins toD tsi^oiu lo 
iiouala ; at least this is the most natural 
though not the only way of Ireating the 
words. This construction is quite pos- 
sible. We find it e.g. in Luke x. iij 
i^vvlar ™0 raTitr Iriru t^uv. 

Objections which may be brought 
against the translation are (i) it leaves 
Ihe words w itXv^ somewhat obscure. 
as being without definition or limitation: 
and (1) it gives fwa coordinate clauses 
with the auxiliary verb undeialood in 
each ; which ii harsh. 

Is Ihe rendering (j9) possible? Can 
the simple words jr enXoYf mean 'de- 
pendent on God's choice ' = predestined? 
In favour of Ihis translation is the fact 
thai in Pirai Aboth ill. 14 (ed. Taylor, 
p. 73) we have the same paradox very 
similarly expressed. 'Everything is fore- 
seen ; and freewill is given. And the 
world is judged by grace: and everything 
is according lo work.' It will, we think, 
also appear that the use of the word 
ixXoyr) elsewhere in this book, and in 
N.T., points in the same direction, it- 
Xoyij is not a txx. word at all. Il occurs 
in Aquila, Isa. iiii. 7, once in Sjmm. 
Isa. Kxxvii. 14 and once in Theod., ibid., 
each lime meaning 'the choicest.' bat 
Tromm docs not quote iL It occurs 



KoX eKVK\iS0T) dno ooov TTovqpS.^ Iv fida-Tiyi, 
KadapicrO-^vai dno dfiaprias tou p/t} * irXTjBvvd^vai*. 

1 Myxf- it^ni^v K. r. M. 

ixi't\ti$T]. itu\iSti venit in metilem Fi. 

tal taBofHiT^iiiu codd. Hilg. Geig. Fr. Pick. roD Kaflopio-efli'oi conj. Hilg.' 

xXijeC»ai P: T^TjSiiKiiV, K, M: rXtjeSroi A : TXiifffl^»Bi Hilg. Fr. Pick. 

once marc in Ihis book, xviii. 6 iti i)iiipiw 
irtoTfii. where ihe rercrence can only 
be In God's choice, whether Ihe words 
mean Tor the day which Cud shall 
choose' or ' for Ihe dny when God chooses 
Israel.' In N.T. it is found se\-en limes, 
and in each case il is Ihe Divine choice 
not the human choice that is alluded to. 
Fonr of the seven passages are in the 
Epistle to Ihe Romans, the work of one 
who had been a Pharisee of the Pharisees 
and whose evidence is therefore of im- 
portance in this connection. Rom. ix. 
1 1 speaks of 17 ™t' iK\iry1ji' rpiSirit tbu 
Sravt ici. ^ ^t/ifia kut ticXoy^ x'^/ktot 
■ffyami. Similarly' in xi. 7 and iS God's 
fiXay^ al Israel is referred to. In 1 
Thess. t. 4 tl3iTH.,.T^r ii\irfiir i/iiir, 
a Pel. i_. 10 ^ffala* rfp- tX^ir ital («Xo- 
7i4* iftuK TtHttaBat. Lastly, Acts ix. 15 
^ves the well-known phrase ani-Di en- 
XoT^i. II is. then, a word applied to 
God's choosing or predestination, and to 
that only, in the N.T. On the other 
side we have the fact that where the 
verb futJyotiai is used in the LXX. il 
^plies indifferently to mao's choice or 
God's (e.g. 1 Sam. xniv. 11 and i Chr. 
Kxi. to, ri, itXtitu ttmrf). liut this 
does not seem very convincing agaltist 
Ihe evidence adduced above from N.T. 
The one objcttion which, to our mind, 
really has force lies in the extremely 
unemphatic, cursory way in which the 
doctrine would be slated, coupled with 
the doubt whether Ihe words h (iXorp 
must not of necessity have been so de- 
lined as to prevent the pcssibilily of their 
being joined to (Joiwla. 

Il may be well however to cite some 
passages from Jewish literature which 
bear on the question of free will. 

Jos. B. y. ]]. viii. 14 says 4>api>rai(H... 
(j/up^rn TC (al 8t^ rpoadrraivi ravra 
jfol ri itif itpimiv t4 iliaia, xa) ji^, jtaTO 

^aifitai a (It luaoTor toj nji- eliiapii^Tir. 
AnI. Xllt. v. g, oJ fiir itt fttpuroiH nrb. 
KoX 06 rdfra r^f tltiapti^fjjt rTfai \i- 
7Binri» tpyer, rati i" if! iavnU iripxei*, 
aviA^tdnif Tt tal ofi yitcaSai, XVIU. 1. 3 
" ' "Si litiapiUfj) t4 ir ' ' " " 

f toi *=^oar«) tCSi T 

rtu" Soi^oM T(fi 0tip upaaiv yfiriaBm nal 
rip inflfiji pov^kevTifplt/i ical tut dif6piiwut 
TV flfXiSiraiiTi TpiWT£"P<'* f^i tpf-r^! ^ 
taxla!. Ecclu^ XV. 11—10 Mij etvyi 
hi Iii nf/xw airAjTfl*. i "yip fiilirtiva', 
06 rotirtif MiJ rfiriit, Sn aitat in trXa- 
riiBrr...Kal i^tir a^it ir x«pl SiafiouXtov 
airou. xvii. 6 Aio^oi^Xwf nal yXCiaffttM^ 
tal d^etAw'n i^B tal tapSlar ISuii jio- 
•iHieSai airoii, xxxvi. 13 — 11; wt niXAt 
nrpapJtMft iy X^*P^ AuroC, raaai al idol 
aiToC jtBTo T^r ivSoKta* aiJrop- eBrun Sr- 
ffpuroi ir X"pi 'I'"'' '(KQ<rai'Tot atrraij, 
AroSoStai awsft Kari r^w tplinii ahvD. 

The passages from Josephus express 
exactly Ihe view of (he words quoled 
from Pirge Alialh, and also that which 
our renderitig of the verse would give. 
They go therefore to increase the pcoba- 
bility ihal this rendering is the correct one. 

Pa. \.— Argument. 

Here again a threefold division of the 
Psalm is obvious. Tlie ftflh verse stands 
by itself, but may be taken to lead over 
from what precedes to what follows. 

Verses i — 4. Cha.stening is a true 
blessing : and God will not alway be 

5. This is the teaching of the written 
Law, and Ihis is the meaning of God's 

6—8. Al present the chastening is 
heavy upon Israel, but the day of glad- 
ness will come, and all will acknowledge 
nt once the justice and mercy of God. 

g. May that day of gladness come to 

TilU. It is probably the hopeful lone 


X. I] 


A Hymn of Solomon. 

I Blessed is the man whom the Lord remembercth with 
reproving: and he is fenced about' from the way of evil by 
affliction, that he may be cleansed from sin, lest he abound " 
therein". " 



(if ihe IhinI division of (he Psalm Ihot 
has led the (lalei) wrilei nnhese [illes In 
call it s H)-Tnn. 

1 The words closely rcsemlile two 
pasiages in O-T^ Job v. 17 ^andpioi ii 
bSpumt 5r ifKryiir 6 nvpiDt, and Ps. xciil. 
(xciv.) [1 itatdpua i SrBpuroi tr ir eh 
ruStvOTit, mJpif. Cf. Prov, iii. 1 1. 11. 

The blessedness of affiicdon is the sub- 
ject of iii. xiii. 6 sqq. and liv. Is not 
Ihi.s a Iheme singutaily suitable 10 n lime 
when resistance to the Roman inwcr 
was in constant contemplalion ? The 

Sioas Pharisee fccc^iscd it as a higher 
uly lo accept the troubles of his lot ns 
coming by Dkine appointment and work- 
ing together for his good: the Zenlot 
flirty, though not rtgtmied by him with 
altdl and abhorrence as were the Sad- 
dtuiees. have yet, lo his mind, not chosen 
this lietler part. They ore nut at iirtia- 
mrrn waiStlar, but still they aie not ol 

fXcyxt ofly here and in ix. Tii. f- 
Xtynit, the reading of Par. in this place, 
is very nearly as common in the lxx. 

JmncXMi). Frilische had thought of 
nibstituling iitu\i6ii, but on second 
thoughts refrained from correcting what 
ms a truislalot's error. He does not 
explain further. Of Ihe renderings given 
; above 'be is turned away from' finds 
bvonr with Cerdn, who renders ' devia- 
vit.' His note is ingenious : he com- 
pares the fashion of turning a person 
round and round in order to confuse him 
and make him forget a path. This, he 
gays, was done tu a bride in Roman 
times, when she led her father's house. 
What must really decide the question, 
however, is the evidence of the lxx. 
The word occurs a good many times and 
b used in several senses. Those which 
favour Cerda's interpretation are the 
frillowing: Exod. xiii. 18 'God led Ihe 
people about,' lol IttxXiiMiiv i Beit rbt 
Xoiv, Deut. xxxii. 10 MKkuna airlit, kbI 

twtdStvaa avTir — a strong instance, as the 
idea of chastening is connected with it. 
There may be possibly one or two olhen 
which have escaped us. On (he other 
hand, by far the commonest meanings of 
the words are 

a. to surround, usually in a hostile 
manner, like besiegets, but sometimes 
by way of defence, e.g. Ps. ixxi. (xxxii.) 
ro Tir Si i\wl{orra Jwl nipioi (\(oi Kii- 
tXiivtt, xc. (xci.) 4 SwXif fBK\iiaci ai 4 
dXi^ita ai>n>i;. 

p. (o go round, (15 Jos. vi. 7 nwtXul- 

The N.T. uses of the word all come 
under one of these Iwo heads. As fir as 
numbers go then, the passages in which 
(viiMui=lo encompass are much the 
strongest, but the parallel in Denlerono. 
my is extremely suggestive, and the idea 
of 'turning aside by means of a scourge' 
entails no mixture of metaphor, llie 
same cannot be said of ' encompassing or 
fencing about with a scou^e.' 

KaBofHo^vot. The succession of moods 

rives a hardly tolerable construction, 

rXiitfiT— (i^opur^^ai, but Hilgcnfekl's 

would b 

omission of nol may be defended on 
(be ground of (he similarity esisiing be- 
tween K&l and MAS. The cpexegelic Inf, 
is quite in chanicler with the Greek of 
(his hook. We prefer ei(her of these to 
iKoBafieBit, hut are unwilling to intro. 
duce any alieralion into out text. 

r\ti6Svai. If this reading be accepted, 
thai of A (TXijSfiiiBi) may lie altribulcii 
to itacism, and in any case llilg.'s con- 
jecture is less sa(isfaclory than the text 
given here. irX^ffuru is used intransi- 
tively quite often in the lxx., and 
especially often does the word occur in 
cotmection with iittiai. inoiiliu or ifiap- 
rial ; cf. Prayer of Manass. 9 ir\ii0wiw 

Ifthe reading irXijS3tai must liechitnged 

fHj iMal it 





[X. 2 

XPHCTOC rap <i KYpiOC 

' 6p6ci<T€i yap dSou 

Kol ou SuKTTpiipci kv TTa.ihf.ia.. 

* Kol TO cXcos Kvpiov CTTi TOW5 ayttTTWi^as auroc o* dXT^^cia, 

Ktti pvyja-ff^iTeTai KiJptos Twi' SovX.iui' aiJrou e^ e\«i. 

°'H fiapTvpCa kv vofiot iiA9HKKc aIionIoy. 
■^ fxapTvpla Kvpiov knl oSous dpBptanwv kv kniCTKOiry. 
" i[K4ioc kaI ocioc KYpioc yj^cuc ev Kptp-amv avrov ei% TOC 

(tat *I<rpa^X alviim to oco/ia KvpCov ev evfftpoavvy 
^ Kal ocioi i^opoXoy-qtrovrai cn ekkXhcI* Xaou, 
(cai TTTCo'x^ovs eXerJo-et d ^fds ef ev^poa-vvj} ']a-par)k- 
'oTi )(pr)(rT6<; Kal iX^'^poti/ 6 ^eos ei? TOf aidtKa, 
/cai trufayuyat 'icpaiJX Sofao-ouo^i to ouopa KvpLov. 

alrrit. Cerdii airSir meiuio^e. 

ihrioi i lolpioi V. P. M. om. I A, K. 

K/iiumir. ila code], omisso ^, tjuod ab Hilg. que 

1 sequitur Fr, suppMui. 

at all. surely il woulil be lietter In read 
•wKiiBivd^TaL, which unilea the character- 
islics of both nXifiutai and xX)^5>'<". cf. 
1 Sun. xiv. 1 1 ■wKifivtBiiyai (v. L :r\i|- 
6v*at), Ecclus. xvi. i Ti\ii6vria<n (v. I. 
TXi)0iweu<»)' xxii. .:(. Ps. xixii.{xl.) II 
^irXijSuFflnffaip (ai ofo^Joi) trip t4i Tyjix"' 
T^t Kt 00X71 tu>v. 

a 'A voluntary submissiun to God's 
chastening is ihe true way 10 realising 
ihc uses of it.' The language here is mo- 
delleil on Is. 1. 6 tSv yuTo* iimi Uaica tli 
luiirriyai (cf. Prov. x\x. ig), and Ihe Greek 
recalls the LXX. version of 'I am ready 
to hall.' Ps. xixvii. {ixxviii.) 18 /yi> Wi 
>aanfat (IDX?) frai^i. For the latter 
clause of ihe verse compare ii. 40, xiv. i, 
xvi. 15. 

• The affliction sent will not lie so 
severe as lo Force the righteous into sin, 
cf. V. 8. 

■JptiMm. Cf. Prov. iii. 6 Ira dpSiyroitS 
Til iSait am, x. g iianTp/^ur rdt iSoii 
afrsti. The thought is not unlike that of 
I Cor. X. 13 'God is faithful, who will 
nol suffer you to be teiii|>led above that 

i. cf. ii. < 

psalms, vi 

and meanit^ 

of this verse are not obvious al first si^l. 
Il is especially the second clause which 
causes difilicull^. 'The Lord,' it has juit 
been said, ' will have mercy on Hb ser- 
vants.' This is the fact to which the law 
of the everlasting covenant bears witness. 
The Lord will yet choose Israel. This 
is plain enough: with regard to the se- 
cond half (ii napT. — ingmiwi) We arc al 
liberty to lake it either as a separate 
statement, or as explanatory of q tiajir. 
in the line before. This latter rendering 
we prefer. The verse may then be para- 
phrased after this sort, 'The ultimalepar- 
|>ose of God's constant watching over (aitd 
visitation of) men is that he may test and 
have mercy upon His servants, and to 
Ibis the law of Ihe Eternal Covenant 

fafrrvpla,. The use of this form ax 

[It. 8] 



2 He that prepareth his back for stripes shall be cleansed: for 
the Lord is gracious unto such as patiently abide chastening. 

3 For he will make straight the ways of the righteous: and 
will not pervert tlum by his chastening, 

4 And the mercy of the LORD is upon them that love him 
in truth: and the Lord will remember his servants in mercy. 

5 The testimony is in the law of the everlasting covenant : 
the testimony of the LORD is over the ways of men, when he 
visiteth' litem. ^ Gr. in 

6 Righteous and holy is our LORD in his judgments for i''-n/''"'<"*. 
ever: and Israel shall praise the name of the Lord in gladness. %'"^'' 

7 The saints also shall give thanks in the assembly of the 
people : and God will have mercy upon the needy in the t/aj of 
gladness of Israel. 

For gracious and merciful is God for ever; and the con- 
gregations of Israel shall glorify the name of the LORD. 

According to 

es in the LXX. 


d^e of Ibis ' 

Tromm, il occi 

(Gen., Ps., Frov., Siiacb, and 

whereas impripwi' is useil wel 

In the N.T. on ihe other hand Ihe use 
of tutarvpla considerably exceeds ihal of 
fuprupnw. It is an especially Johonnine 
word, nccuiring 14 limes in the Gospel, 

7 times in the Epistles and 7 times in the 
Apocalypse. The only passage in the 
LXx. resembling this is in Ps. iviii. (xlx.) 

8 17 fiapTVpitL KVpiov Tctfr^. 

The later versions often use /laprupfa 
where the LXX. has /lapTiinor, e.g. Ps, 
xcii. (iciii.) s. i-tx- J* fiaf/rvpii itov= 
Sym. al ftaprvptai eev, cxviii. (cxix.) !>;, 
I.XX. /ia/n-up/ii»=Aq. Sym. iiafmpiHy. 

Eia^^Ki) oUlvioi. Ps. ex. (cxi.) 9 in- 
TtfXara tli rif aJwra rV Sta&fiair a^ov. 
Ecclus. xiv. 1 7 i^ -Ap itiaPijxir dr' oIutDi, 
BatoTif inrrfa»5. Bar. ii. 3J rrrieu oSnett 
SiaSiiiigi' aJiteiar. 4 Esdr. iii. 15 dispo- 
Tt dixisti 

n umqunm derclinquero 

Ivdnvicmrf. 'oversight' 
are the two possible renderings here. In 
bolh LXX. and N.T, Ihe lallet meaning 
is the commoner. In the first sense it 
occurs several times in Numbers, e.g. iv. 
ifi -fi iTtasorfi Tiff ffiJjF^. The differ- 
ence in essential meaning is not very 
I great here. God oversees (he ways of 

men and this implies some kind of 'visi- 
tation ' according to their works. In xi. 
1, 7 Ihe rendering 'visitation' is un- 
doubtedly the correct one. 

• Cr. Ps. cxviii. {cxix.) 141 rd iiap- 
ripti aou iitaaatrTi tit rif aliln. 

For SUatoi xol Sffiot icipuii d, Fs. cxlv. 
17 iltam iiipioi ir riaaii rait iSoit aimB 
Ktd Sffwi (• »Siri» Toil f/ryait aimC. 

7 We lake these verses to apply to a 
somewhat vague and distant future. The 
litppaairii'lfpa^X is the "day of gladness' 
for Israel to which nil Ihe later Jews 
looked font'ard. See for the expression, 
Ps. cv. (cvi.) f, ToC (u^/Ku-fffircu ir Tg 

iv JitNXi|<rtf Xaov, The clause is very 
similar to Ps, cvi. (cvii.) ^1, 31 i(»iu\e- 
yjjffiffdto' Tt^ Kvpltfi ri i\kn ai/roO...A^«r- 
aiTUaai avri* iv iK'Xtiaiit XooC (Vnp3 
DP), where Cod. K reads hK^vilaiu 

ixiAifaia occurs here only in Ihe 
Psalms. No technical sense attaches to 
it. cf. Ps. cxlix. I i) atmaii ainD it litiiKii- 
ai^ ivlur, 

«T«xo^ tXttCv. only of men in the 

For the reference to 'the poor' cf. v. i, 

wwyil recur 

In the two former places it simply means 
'assemblies,' 'gwherings.' Inivii.5oit = 
Ihe gathering together of the tribes out of 
Ihe dispersion. Here il is purely gcneml. 


[X. 9 

*Tov Kvplov tJ (Toyrqpta eV oIkov 'icrpaiJX eis eT<(»pocTNHN 

i&. Tcoi caAomiIin £[c npocAoKf&N. 
XI. SaAnlciTE 6N ZiiJN en cftAnirr' cHMAcfac ayiMV, 
^ ia]pv$aT£ h> ']£pov(ra\-f)fi. ijioii^v e-i&rr^>^^2ovfNO\, 
OTt -qKeqtTfv 6 ^eos 'ifr/^a^X iv Tp eViCT*co7rp aurwi'. 
' irTt]6i, '\fpov(Ta\yjfj., e*' tT"^"9. 

*cai TAe Ta T€Kva. <rov and &m&to>iwn k&I Sycwion cynhtm^na 
elcdira^ vtto Kvptov 

• (u^poin^iir, ita Ccrda ct edd. fai^pevirtp- A, V, K, P, M (cu^>p. pin Ey^ip.). 
a irliipa^i>. codd.: Fab. Geig. rAr tejwiiX Hilg. Fr. Pick (trpitXl !). 

• ciiSrofV, K. 

S See 

For rod I 


eanipla cf. 

(v^po4Hivi]v. Cf. Is. xm 

Banich iv. iq ^df« u/uc t-^* aliifioK 
tf^pwili'i)!' /IO-4 T^i ffii)ri|(iia( ilpful*. 

The reading of Ihc MSS. aaiPfuMirri* is 
inadmiu^ibU, and musl be explained as 
an 'insigne mendum' (Ccrda) in ihe 
archetype of our U!>s. ta^fotOyii in the 
LXX, seems only lo occui in i Mace. iv. 
37 aJid 4 Mace. i. 31 (au^pmnini iarir 
iwiKpirna Tur iwtSviuur): in the N.T. 
only Acts xxvi. ij and i Tim. ii. g, ij. 
We should not expect to fin<I it coupled 
with ofuviei in a doxology. 
Ps. XI. — Argiimtnt. 
The Return of the Dispersed ones. 
1, 1. The news announce><. 
3. Call lo Jenisalem. 
4—7. The return described. 
S. Jerusalem bidden lo rejoice in 

9. A prayer for the s[i«edy realisa- 
tion of Ihese hopes. 

For a discussion of the relation of this 
Psalm lo the conclusion o( the Book of 
Baruch, see Introd. p. Ixviii. 

The subject of the Psalm— the restora- 
tion of I.srael— is one of peal inleresi, 
and this particular document occupies a 
middle position between two farms of 
treating it. This is not Ihe place for an 
exhaustive essay upon the development 
of Ihe idea. We can only point here to 
several documents which represent differ- 
ent stages of it. Amos (11.), Ihe two 
parls of the Book of Isaiah, Zephnniah 
(iii.), Jeremiah, the Ueulcronomist, E;c- 

kicl, Haggai are among those who have 
spoken most clearly on the subject, and 
among them all it is, of courrie, the 
'second Isaiah' who stands preemi- 

These seers all of them speak of a dis- 

peision or captivity, either generally or in 
certain definite regions (as Is. si.), which 


he gathered again. The captive 
' ihoiight of as being col- 

lected together in any one pli 

A furtber ckss of writings still deala 
in general terms and copies the old mo- 
dels, but adds certain supernatural details. 
To this belong our Putlm and the ind 
part of Baruch. 

Next, we find certain documents which 
presuppose a popnlar belief ihat Ihe ten 
(or nine and a half) tribes would all re- 
turn tr^ether from some distant land 
where they lived as a well-defined and 
independent community. Such arc 4 
Esdras xiii. 40— ;o, Apoc. Baruch luvii. 
tg etc. (for the present siluation of the 
gj tribes), Commodianus, Inslmct, II. i.. 

Matthew (Matan, CeffJUfli of the Hely 
Apeillis. p. 4S) [A slighl error of the 
translator (las long obscured Ihe m 


For mediaeval Jewish developments of 
this lost belief, where less emphasis is 
on the glory 


|Xi. 3] TAAMOI SAAOMtlNTOX. 101 

9 Let the salvation of the Lord be upon the house of Israel 
Imnto everlasting joy*. V' 


A Psalm of Solomon: ^Unto expectation} 

Blow ye the tnintpet in Sion, yta the holy trumpet of 

2 Proclaim ye in Jerusalem with the voice of him that 
bringeth good tidings, that' God hath had mercy upon Israel: ' 1 
he hath visited them. 

3 Stand up on high, O Jerusalem : and behold thy children 
gathered from the East and the West together by the LORD. 

■nd prosperily of the separated tribes, 
Kce Eiscnmenger, Ealdtckta yudtHthum 
II. cap. X. Tbe p]issages there quoted 
ftoro a, certain 'Book of Eldad the Dan. 
lie' (printed at Venice in 154.4 along 
with a 'Chronicle of Muses') arc |)ai1icu- 
larl]' innractivc. The title of this booli 
ii logj^tiTe of older relation ships. 

The lines in Commodian's Carm. Apal. 
aHbrd so close a parallel 10 ihe words of 
our Psalm in some cases that we may as 
well quote Ihem here in a connected 

Hie erit populus. qui nunc est 
extra reposlus; 

■~" fiuvio repelet in lerra Ju- 

Cum ipsis et Domini 


Excipere sinclos ipsa creali 

Omni loco fbnies exsurguni e s 
Qua graditur poputus Sum: 

^^ letrare cielesti, 

^^^ Umbram illis faciunl nuhes n 

^^■tflr a 

^^B El ne faligeniut, subsiernuni 


i ill OS angel us 
:i fid urn prfEslel 


~\ Commodian it quoting either of our 
docaments here 11 is almost certainly 
Kmich, and not the Psalm, especially as 
in 1. 367 he quotes Bar. iii. 36, 37. But 
it is plain from the lines thai precede 

ihuse ijuoied above, that he had some 
other Apocryphal source by him as well. 

1 mlXiriYY^ a^|uu>(ai dYfitv. m;- 
;uiirfB is in Lev. xiv. to etc. the LXX. 
rendering of ilj^. In Num. xii. 6 we 
have the phrase at (TilXrtry" ^^ ffij/ui- 
siSu, cf. 1 Chr. xiii. 11; i Mace. vii. 45. 
In Joj. vi. 7 the same Hebrew word is 
rendered by Xtpix, — ifrk tUKmY^ait iepdt. 
The juxtaposition of these expressions 
suggests the question whether the two 
words (rj|>HiirJoi and i-yia* here may not 
be both equivalents of one word 73^' in 
the Hebrew. See on viii. 11. 

In any case the sense is obvious 'the 
great year of Jubilee for Israel has come.' 

Joel ii. I, "Blow ye Ihe trumpet in Zion 
and sound an alarm {•cmi6ia.ti\ in my 
holy mountain' is the original of the 

3 ^»in)v, the accus. alter irnf^\iiTt, Is 
peculiar. It is probably a literal repro- 
duction of the Hebrew phrase H\p TSJin. 
cf. E«. xixvi. 6, Eir. i. I, X. 7. 

(liafyiXitaiUrau. So Is. xl. g b c!i- 
ayyt\iX'>lvt¥'n £iwr, and Nahum i. ij. 

Cr. Is. Iii. 7 uii nUn ete-yyeXtjVfi^iou 

ivuTKOTif, see on x. g. This kr\six>wit 
is such an one as Zacharias means when 
in Luc. i. 68 he says 'God hath visited 
and redeemed His people' (also i. 7S). 
cr. I Pel. ii. 11 if WpC itiominti, 
Wisd. iii. 7 tt caip^ ^rimioir^i. See also 

., and Assumj: 
especlu quo respici 

. Mos 

3S Dominus 

'(PL#ijnv...'Ia7K»iX. Hilgenfeld cor- 
rects i* to Tic quoting Isai. xlir. 13 In 
^i\iitaa It 8cAi rdr 'Irfia^X. As the verb 


[XI. 4 

*<lnd Boppa £pxo^TM Tjj tii^porrvVQ Tov 0eov ayrw, 

4k Niicu)N M4Kp6eeN iTvv^yayev auTous o 5eo5. 

°6pH ui|fTjXa ^TanekuctN et; owaAicMdN ai/rois. 

'ot BoYNoi etjivyov diTO ticroSou aurw!', 

ot Spvfj.ol ia-Kia-crav aurots eV Tp TrapoSw aiVwf 

' TTttc ^\ov eiJwSta? ai'tVeiXei' auTots o 9eos. 

ii/a n&peXflh' 'l<Tpa^X tf iiriaKOTTj} So^s ^eou aurwi'. 

'^NiYCAi, 'UpOYCAAfiM, Ta lixaTia t^S ioinc coy, 

CTOi/iatroc r^v crroXiji/ toC aytatrjuaTos crov, 

OTt o ^eos iXaXTjaev a.yo.Oov 'la-pa-qX et? tov aituca Kai ert. 

" TTOi^crai Kvpi05 a e\aXi^(rcc esrl 'icpo'^X *cai iv 'Upov- 

ai'aoTT<rai Kvpio^ tov 'ItrpaTjX cV oNOMftTi IoIhc aytot- 
Tou KVpCov TO eXeos eVi roc 'ltr/)a^X ety toi" atcui'a *cat eTi. 

iB. TtOI CaAoMCON 4n ^^WCCH1 nftpiNOMUJN. 

XII. KTpie, pfcfti THN yvxHN MoY avro ai/Spos 
ino r^i^ccHc nApanoMoy *cai tjiLdvpov, 
Kol AaAoYCKC yeYifi Kat iiiAii. 

a 8(«)imJ a. (inlpriiirap I'. 

e iyaBi i>, M. 

• A per linmueolcl. omitlil vurbn ir dyo/xaTt U{. — firpa^X. 

jXciii b not elsewhere found wElh the 
prep, ir, we must suppose that ir either 
repreBcnts the translator'* attempt lo 
renderaHebrew preposition (e.g. 7K^ 3)i 
or has carelessly been subsliCutctl for rir, 
the eje of the scribe passing on to /• t^ 
trmtori, or being confused by the last 
syllable of iiXhiair. If ir be retained, 
we must explain the words as = ' had 
compassion in respect of or 'among 
Israel.' Cf. ituAaytir ir, Mt. x. 31 and 
Winer's note m Grant. <•/ N.i: Gr. Pi. iii. 
sec. xixii. 3. 

• fWdmf, cf. ii. 8. 
4 faxovTu T^ td^porivu. The use 
of the dative is very peculiar. We should 
expecl either Ir ei^paair^ (cf. x. 7) or 
(ut' ti^poainit (cf. xiv. 18), as always 
apparently in the LXX. e.g. i Chron. xi. 
98 iriatpt^ wai ir^p 'loiSe. ir ciiM"'' 
tfCiig, Isni. xxxv. 10 Sfowrii' rii Tiiir >mt' 
ffi^poffllcift. Perhaps our text is defec- 
tive : the rj may be the repetition ai the 

tast syllable of Ipx"""' a"'' '^ "iiy '""'* 
falli-n out before tv<^p. 

For the sense cf. Isai. 1x1. 7 kcu tu^ipe- 
crr^Fij alu/rioi inrip jce^oX^f avrvjr- 

S (ts jiwXlo^i^, cf. Isai. xlv. 1 jpq 
aiuLKiSi (nnX), Sym. Ps. v. 1 ifuiXurNi 
(TB"n). Ecdus. xxi. 10 MJi,..ui/uiX.B,i<n, 
in Udar. In Mic vii. 11 tit inaXttiiir is 
a mistranslation. 

a Jo-MtoffiLV, cf. J Esdr. 1. 10 'prop- 
ter xslus foil is arborum vos lexi.' 

For aiaJla cf. Job xl. r? ffndfWTCU 
Si ir auT^ lirdpa, )tfyd\a air ^aid^uwi, 
tai nXuwjj iyptv. 

7 |Aov (i«>8to». Only here and Ba- 
ruch. But cf. Enoch, c. 14 'fraErant 
trees, ' B si(<n of Divine blessing. 

e The tiisrobitii; of Jerusalem (ii. 11) 
has been already casually referred lo. 
Baruch (see above) seems lo unite these 
two passages. 

ffToXi|v Tol a,ftAr\uim. a-iiaaim 
usually in Iheie Psaluis "' 


XIL l] 



4 From the North they come in the gladness of their God : 
from the islands afar off hath God gathered them. 

5 Lofty mountains did he make low: yea eveti unto the 
plain before them. 

6 The hills fled before their entering in, the woods gave them 
shelter as they passed by. 

7 Every tree of sweet savour did God make to spring up 
before them: that Israel might pass by in t/ie day when the 
glory of their God shall visit them. 

8 Put on, O Jerusalem, the garments of thy glory: make 
ready thine holy apparel, for God hath spoken comfortably 
unto Israel, world without end. 

9 The Lord perform that which he hath spoken concerning 
Israel and concerning Jerusalem. 

The Lord raise up Israel in the name of his glory. 

The mercy of the LORD be upon Israel, world without end. 


Of Solonwn: ^Concerning the tongue of the wicked,^ 

I O Lord, save my soul from the wicked and evil man : from 
the tongue that is wicked and lying, and that speaketh false 
and deceitful words. 

tified place vii. 3, viii. 4. arfiaa\kb\ (xvii. 
33) the process of sanctification. Here 
* holiness' is probably a just rendering, 
*the robe that is a sign of thy holiness.' 

kyia. vroKii is the regular expression 
for the priest's robe in Exodus. 

IXdXi|(rfv dyaO&v 'lo'paijX. Generally 
with a preposition e.g. Num. x. 29 kv- 
pun iXdKffffc KoKd, w€pl*l<rpari\, i Sam. 
XXV. 30 cXdXi^rey ayoBd, irl trc, Ps. 
Ixxxiv. (Ixxxv.) 9. Jer. xxxix. (xxxii.) 42 
wdm-a rd dvo^d d iXdXtfea ir* auroOs, 

• lvl...iv. We believe that no dis- 
tinction of meaning between these pre- 
positions can be maintained here. Cf. 

V. 31. 

h dv6|fcaTi Sd(T|S, ' by once more making 
his name to dwell among them' seems 
to be the meaning of this phrase. Cf. 
vii. 5. 

For 6ifOfia 5(^rfs cf. Ps. Ixxi. (Ixxii.) 19; 
Is. Ixiii. 14; Dan. Add. iii. 39. 

Ps. XII. — Argument, 

I — 4*. A Prayer for protection against 
the slanderers. Their ways are described. 

4*> — 8. May they reap that they have 
deserved, while the peaceable and God- 
fearing inherit the promises. 

The text of this Psalm presents some 
extremely difHcult problems. We have 
succeeded, we think, in presenting a co- 
herent whole, but we cannot pretend 
that we are entirely satisfied with our 

The Psalmist, or some friend of his, 
has evidently suffered at the hands of 
some accuser, as did the son of Sirach at 
an earlier time. It is natural enough to 
suppose that this accuser was a Sadducee, 
and that he had brought ruin and per- 
haps death on some prominent Pharisee 
by laying information against him at the 
court. Further than this we cannot un- 
dertake to go. 

1 The thought and form of this verse 
as well as of V. 3 is taken from Ps. cxix. 
(cxx.). In V. 3 of that, we have Ki5/xc, 
j>\)<rax rV ^^x^iv fiov dxb x^^^^^^ ddUojy 
Kal drb y\iixr<rris SoXlas* Further on in 
v. 4 the 'coals of fire' are connected with 
the deceitful tongue, and in v. 5 the words 
o^bUM Sti rj rapoiKla fiov ifuiKpvvSri contain 
two coincidences of vocabulary with our 
Psalm. The last resemblance we shall 
cite is that of iro\4/Jiow /a€ 8(jjp€dy (v. 7) 
with ip wo\4fjufi V. 4 here. 


104 yAAMOl SAAOWnNTOI. [xil. 2 

^eV TTotijo-ei 8tatrT/)0(^s ot Xoyoi rrj^ yXwcroTjs avSpos 

iromjpov ■ 
(5c7re/j ei* aX^ "Yp avdirrov kaAamhn avTov 
rj vapoiKLa avTov, ' * ifnTpTJaat* o'kov^ Iv ykoHTcr'g i/fcuSci, 
eKKo^ai 8o'5/)a €v<j>po(TvvT)^, <l>\oyi,iov(rr}s [■yXtocrtnjs] napa- 


S rapoiria conj. Hilg. : ita Wellb. 

j^x-sn(rai conj. Hilg.' Wcllh. ^/irXwrai A, V, Fab. Geie. Hilg- iiaXiaM 
K, P, M. Fr. 

^Xoyifixiffiii codd.: *Xoyl ^\'>ut conj, Hilg." Well h.(?l. #Xo7ifoiWt iXiiovw 

^ntvpM. Eccluii. V. i^ 
Oupbi, XKviii. r5 <f'i9vi^r 

See on V.J. i <j,iBi:pLj;un. 

the arrangement, that these words ought 
lo be joined to the preceding verse, 'the 
tongue that gpeakelii deceithilly for the 
accomplishraenl of pervcisity.' So Well- 
hausen, ' Zuiige die redet...iDit ihrer 
Vcrdrehun^kunit.' We have in (his par- 
licukr instance retained (he puncluaiion 
of earlier editors. For other clauses be- 
ginning with tr, see iv. 7, vi. ;, viii. g 
etc. and v. 5 of tlii^ psahii. 

Suwrpn^' ooly occurs (in LXX.) in 
Prov. ii. 14 x"'/""'"' ^f' &auTpa#H """Hi 
and nowhere in N.T. 

finrip ttif. The comparison of the 
tongue to fire is a commonplace of most 
literatures. See the commentators on 
James iii. 5 [liab ^Mnv rS^ ^Xldiv SKifr 
AriwTcc KoX 4 ^XSa-aa rup), and jiarticu- 
iarly a fragment of Euripides (Ino 6, ap. 
Sloh. Flor. xli. i). 

Cf. Prov. xvi. 17 irl rdii ^oitoS x*'" 

i(iiAil|Hl». For this metaphor cf. Joel 

li. S lit ((HJl'ij ^XbT*! TllfO! JUTOTfllO^))! 

taSiiair. Zech. xii. 6 wt XaviroJa irupit 
^p taXi^iJ. Wind. iii. 7 lii inriipe^pfi t* 

a, S ij TopoLKta aiVrov. These 
words we join on to the preceding verse. 
The division adopted by earlier editors 
is perfectly justifiable, but we venture to 
think thai our use of Tapoitfa gives more 
point ID Ihal wonl. The vicinity of the 
evil man Is like that of fire lo a threshing- 
llooi, destructive and dangerous lo Ihe 

last degree, -ind the three clauses that 
follow expand the statement in ditferenl 
ways. Each of them is introduced liy 
what might be either an optative or infi- 
nilive, but we venture lo think thai the 
infinitive gives by far the l>est sense here. 
It is 10 M taken as epex^^tical of the 
preceding verse. 

A similar donbl as to the mood of va- 
rious verbs exists in several places in 
these Psalms, notably in xvii. 16, 17, 
xviii. 5, 9. But in passages such as xt. 
7i 14 the infinitive is understood. 

Cr. also ii. 40, iv. 1 r, v. tt, 14. vii, 
34. Im])era(ives and optatives which 
are undoubted occur iv. i;, 16, and in 
Ihiri Psalm (xii.) 4, 6, xvii. ji. xviij. 6, 
but it is noticeable thai here the Donilna- 
live is carefully supplied. 

Now what sense does the text of ear- 
lier editors attribute to v. 3? Cerda ren- 
ders Ihui ' Vicinia eius implebit donioi 
in lingua Kdsa, ut percutiat arbores 
inflammanle lietilia Iransgressoris. 4, 
Confundc domos iniquas etc' 

Fiilzsche by his punctuation joins the 
sentence viryx^oi— ^iCivwrt to the infini- 
lives which precede il, and this arrange- 
ment we have, wilh some hesitation, 
adopted. Probably his translation would 
have been something of this kind. 'Lei 
his vicinity {ill houses with his false 
longue. Let it cul down the trees which 
his wicked delidit setlelh on fire. Let 
it confound the houses of tran^ressors in 
strife with slanderous lips.' 

We submit that this is confused and 
inadequate, thai VfiirXi^ai gives no tole- 
rable sense, and that the words ti^p. 
ip\ay. rapar. are also exlremely strained ; 
r6il>poriri not occurring elsewhere in 
this book save in a 

XII. 3] 



2 The words of the tongue of the evil man are for the accom- 
plishment of frowardness: even as fire in a threshing-floor, that 
burneth up the straw thereof, so is his sojourning among nun : 

3 That he may set fire to houses with his lying tongue, attd 

cut down the trees of gladness with the flame of Air wicked '' Ct. e'' 

. _^ _^_^_ ihai itUeth 

do not doubt ihnt Hiigcnfeld's cmenda- 
tiob ^Tp^ai is correct. It is simple, for 
il only aJleis one leller, substituting uae 
liquid sound for another; and seems ob- 
vious, for il carries on the metaphor of 
the preceding verse, and ranges far better 
with [he following verbs, which arc both 
of a 'hostile' sense. 

Ilia other conjecture, however, va- 
pDivla for irapsufa, which Wellhuusen 
adopts ('seine Lust'), is no improvement 
on the present text. 

Further, we consider it almost certain 
that the words itrifa li^ptvitTii form 
one expresuon and that they signify the 
I tune thing as the i6\a. t^ fW$i of xiv, i, 
\ I.e. the s^nts. The exact expression 
does not occur in the LXX., but cf. Ei. 
xxxi. lA, iB {iiXa liipiua, npiitiaai r^ 
rpu^Ti. The proximity of Ihe wicked 
man tends la cut down and burn up these 
trees of gladness — llic saints of God. 

But, i? we join the two words Hiiiin, 
r6^. closely together, the two that 
foUow — ^Xoyifb^ffTff Tiapa:rbtMv — are left 
without a visible governing noun. Il 
would be possible lo tninslale — and per- 
haps Fr. means this — ' the trees of wick- 
ed inAammalory joy.' but this explann- 
lion does not commend itself lo us. tio 
rendered, the clause would correspond 
lo what follows, but not to what pre- 

An alteration iu the text appears to us 
inevitable, and there arc two which are 
more |iossible than the rest : (a) we may 
read trofXtiVct (a tinBl c having drop- 
ped out before avyxi^) and render * Irees 
of gladness which get on fire the wicked:" 
\fi) we may suppose that Ihe original 
snbjecl of #Xiry. Tapav. has accidentally 
disappeared, and that that subject was 
yXiiimtp. This is, as a matter ut fact, 
what we do adopt: the rendering of {a) 
is so very like nonsense that we are un- 
willing to altiibule it to the writer ; while 
un the other hand a copyist tnay easily 
have been induced, by Ihe occurrence of 
four genitives in a row, tii^p. ^Xpy. »a- 
par. 7\(6vir. , and by the frei^uent recur- 

rence of f\uiTta b 
Psalm, to suspect ll 
the line had crept ii 

by mistake, and tc 

Hilgenfeld's conjecture 0X07! {^Xeui 
is a very ingenious one. It contains 
almost all the elements of ipXoyi^oiaiii, 
and has only one ihine against it— that it 
imports a new word, iTiongh by no means 
an uncommon one, Into the vocabulary of 
our Psalmist. 

We are by no means sure llut the 
clause n^x'o' — 'i'fBvpv'ii forms part of 
the same sentence with the above. It is 
a little difficult at first to see why the 
rapita/ui should confound Ihe ropaiA- 
liam atnvt, and accordingly Wcllhausen 

Eroposes to read xopari^on ('hciratuc- 
isch'): but, if il is to be joined to v. 3, 
the sense may very well be that the 
slanderer will not scruple to set ihosc of 
hU own oariy by the ears {it toM/i^i), 
and that there is no real 'honour omot^ 

irapoiKfa. The word occurs again in 
these Psalms, xvii. 19, where il seems 
undoubtedly to bear the meaning of >a 
body of sojourners' (see iu /of.). In the 
LXX. it is fairly common, and Is used in 
several ways of the iouuie/it of Jacob, 
of the dwelling-placi of the wicked, and 
of a ioJBunt in any spot. In N.T. it 
twice means sojourn. Anyof these senses 
will suil our passage: that which we have 
adopted is agreeable to the lilerai mean- 
ing of the word. 

Ecclus. xxi. 18 has a very similar 
thought. VLaKbia T^r iavroa '^"X^ ^ 
^i0vpHur Hal it Tapoi«)(ni laarfiiiacnku 

ipTpTJirat oCKOug. liiat a verb of hos- 
tile sense is required here is suggested by 
such a passage as iv. 13 fip^nwaar rfmui 
roX\«>i atepdntur, and cf. Ecclus. xxviii. 
J4 yXCiaaa, Tplrt oiJlfat utyKn-iniiir Kard' 
OTpe^c. Frov. xxix. 8 aripii Umiwi i^i- 
KaiKtar v6Xir. 

IkkmHu. Cr. Dan. iv. iWHi^rerd 
StrSpar. Jer. vi. 6 tnKOiliw ri JilXo airr^. 
The ideas of cutting down and burning 
occur together in Malt. iii. lo SirSpai.., 



[XII. 4 

' a-vY)(<[ai Ttapavo^LOV^ oiKows eV TroXe/tw ^^et'Xto-i ifiidvpol^. 

MaKpvvai. 6 deo'; o-tto o.Ka.Kwi' yeiXi; TTapavofjuuv ei/ diropia, 
Koi cKopniceelH (Jcta \^i.6vpttiv dno "^o^oufievwc KVptov 
' iv iTvpi (^Xoyos yXaJtrcra i/fi^upos aTrdXoiTO diro 6(rCwp. 
' tfivXdtai Kvpio^ i^iv)(rjp 7j(ri5;^tof p.Lcrovcrai' aStVous, 
Kat Karev^upat fcupto? afSpa TroiotlcT-a ilp-qirqv iv oiK(it. 
Wov Kvpiov 7/ a-fiiTTjpia. iwi 'laparjk nalBa avrov eis to*" 

' Kai iniiAoiNTO oi ftMipTwXol and npocoinoy KVpLOV aira.^, 
Kai. otrioi Kvpiov K\i}povop.-q{Tat,€v cirayyeXwt? KVpiov. 


A raparituiit coa\. Wellh. 
dvA Kaxiir M. 

Kvpav. itifHiir conj. Cerda. 
B arof. cliairaf conj. Hilg. 

1 ivt:traei V, K, M, P, Ililg- Fr. iawiatun A (Ccrda 'concilUuit'). irittwasi 
conj. Fabr. i^irran conj. Geig. luiiarigi conj. Wellh. 

(»i6irrirai (Col eJi 'iip jSctXAcTCU, and Juh. 

4 OKopTurMi). Cf. iv. II. 

5 »Sp ^vvif. 5 limes in l.xx. e.g. 
Is. Iivi. If, .-iko 7 The&s. i. 8 cr *t</<i 
0XeTii iiSiimi itHtT)air, 

Ps. xi. (xii). 4- i iio\aBpriaai nipun 
wirra ri X<'^1 ^^ M\ia (al Y\u«irai' 

Orac. Sib. iii. 760 aurit cat rifii ^X/- 
f (cer x«^f '4' ^fot irSpur. 

diri^iTO livd ivtuv. dri — Trum .1- 
mong,' where i( might have been ex- 
[Kcleil ; bul ihe sense of separation is 

a ^v\a£<u. Cr. Ps. IxKxr. (Ixxxvi.) 
] .piJXaioi- Tjjf y/xrx^ ^u. 

■I^TVJ^\m. Isai. Ixvi. j ^il tot rani- 
tir Kal V'^X'Bi'- Compare Ihc contrast 
of ijaifx'" and TXwiriritJqt in Ecclus. xxv. 

pirjl ariifnTiu toT) TOiaiVii' ilp^^. 
7 Wellhausen conjectures thai this 
: should change places with the fol- 
ic on the analogy of I'salms 

'IrpaijX mtSa avrov. Cr. Luc. i. 54 
diTtXiiiaeTD 'lapaiiX i-otJii aAmi!. The 
common enprcssion is latii^ Tcui ^ir. 
Cf. also Is. ill. 8. 

8 aTdXoHTa. Apparently here again 
we have an intimation that Ihe wicked 
have no part in "the life' lo come. See 
on iii., XIV. 6. The words of this curse 
recall Ps. ix. 3 droXoCi'Tai iri rpMiiwtv 
aov, and Ps. Ixvii. (Ixviii.) 1 dirdXouTO ol 
afiaprtiiKol iri wpafiirov tqv Otou. 

Airof. In the sense ot^ia, cf. f/rdxaf 

ii. s. 

KXi]povo|Mi<r<un' IxaYY^tat. A phrase 
savouring more of N.T. phraseology. 

It does nol occur in the UCX., bat cf. 
Helh vi. 11 Tit SUi ilirTiut..,t\tipwr- 
ItoviiJrwr riki ^varycUai (see Westcolt Bti 
lot.). Also xi. 9 (13) and Gal. iii. ig 
mi' /■wayytUai' i:\iipciiiiiia. Clem. I Cor. 
\a' kppaiji...6wat xXtrpovg/i^'!! rlt tray- 
-ytXIai ToE Btm. 

Have we not here the first instance in 
extant Jewish litcratore where Ihc ex- 
pression ' Ihe promises of the Lord ' sums 
up the assurances of the Messianic Re- 
demption ? 


<iui. I] YAAMOI SAAOMtlNTOI. lo; 

4 And put to confusion the houses of the wicked by kindling 
strife with slanderous lips. 

Let God remove far from the innocent the lips of the wicked 
by bringing them to want t and let the bones of slanderers be 
scattered far from them that fear the LORU. 

5 Let the slanderous ton[;ue perish from among the saints in 
flaming fire. 

6 The Lord preserve the quiet soul that hateth the un- 
righteous: and the Lord direct the man that workcth peace in 
his house. 

7 The salvation of the LoKD be upon Israel his servant for 

1 And let the sinners be destroyed from before the face of 
the Lord together : and let the saints of the LORD inherit 
the promises of the LoRD. 

A Psalm of Solomon: 

I The right hand of the LoRD overshadowed me: the right 
hand of the Lord spared us. 

Fc XIU.—Arpuntnl. 

I— J. The righleous were preserved 
when ihe sinners were slain liv a sudden 
visitation : far this mercy Ihcy 

4 — 8, The ungodly prince was in 
tear. For trouble mcsrvs very different 
Ihir^lo the ungodly and lo the righteous. 

^ — II. Their ullitnate bles, ton. dilTer 
widely. Life is tn store for c 
lion for the other. 

In this Psalm we cotne back to tbv 
now familiar contrut between the jKcain 
and ituipm\Bi, or. as wc prerer to put il, 
between Pharisee and Sadduccc. Uut 
here a new feature is introduced. Be- 
Hdes the mention of the sinners in general 
terms we have one particular represcnla- 
■" ; singled out— i dire^. 
f iv,T„ ™.,'- 

which is described as sword, famine, 
pestilence and noisome beasts — in tlie 
phraseologn' of Etekiel. Now these 
words are susceptible either of a literal 
interpretation — in which case any closer 
approximation to dating the document is 
out of the question— or of a metaphorical 
one. And if this latter be the case then 
it is natural lo fix, as for example Well- 
hausen has fixed, upon the Roman inva- 
aon as the event here alluded to. If, 
again, the Romans are intended by the 
' noisome beasts' then one of the two 
Asmonean princes, whose conte*! brought 
on their invasion, may well be il inp^ji. 
And of the two Arislobulus, whose sup- 
porters shut themselves up in the Temple 
and for three months defied the armies of 
Pompey, is more obviously appropria 
than hiB brother and lival, John Hyrc 
nus. There is little local colour in the 
Psalm, and its chief object seems to lie 
to point out that, though Pharisee and 
Sadducee had alike borne the brunt of 
the visitation in varying degrees, whatever 
it was, yet, in the case oT the Pharisee, 
nil would work together for good, while 
foi the Saddiicee the result would be 
death here and annihilalioo hereafter. 



[XIII. 2 

T^fxai d-rro poMtaiAC oumopevQ- 

6 Bp&xltuM Kvpiov 

ajTO ^iMof Ktu e&N^TOY dfi.apTiokaii', 
"GHptft evSpafiov avTots honhpa, 

€C TOIS oSoUfTtl' aVTtiiv tTtWoC tTCLpKQ.'i aVToil', 

Koi if Tail fivXais avToJv i6\oiv otTTO. awoJi'" 
KoX €K TOUTiav a.-nd]n(iiv kpftva-aro iJ/Aas Kvpio<;. 

*'ETapd)(df] 6 d(r€^-q'i 8ta to. ■napa.wrfupa.To. avrov, 
MHnOTe cYMlIAp^AHcl)e^^ piTa Tav a.papT(i>\(tiV 

"on hlivi} KiTftCTpOctlfl TOU i-WapTtoAOY, 

/tat ou;^ d\p£Tai StKai'ou e« TrduT(i>v ToyTWf oiJSe'c* 

°OTi ou^ d^ota 7j TratStta TaJc SiKaCaiv ec dyyoLtf,, 

Kai 7) KaracTTpoijir) ti^v apaprwXaiv. 

' kv wepLOToXyj iraiheveTai. SiVato?, 

Lva MH enn&p^i d dpapTwKo^ tw BiKatqi' 

a iioCa-iP. Cerda verlil 'viis.' 

4 offt^if, tonj. (f) Wellh. (fiffe|3i?i. _ B a^(T(u. <W<T«i V. 

a Karatrpoji^ V, K, P, M. KaTafi/ie^ri A scd Cerda ubique 'subuersio.' 

The opening verses iralieale that the 
'rijjhleous' had been shielded from Ihe 
licrcojl shock or the vJsilAtion, and it 
may be noted that the prjcslly order — 
identical with the Sadducee— had been 
those who bad suffered most in the Pota- 

1 Uilgeofcld cilcs in Ulnstmtion Wisd. 
V. 1 7 Sn rg jcfifi ffKtricti airtis nil Tif 
tipaxlori irtpaawtc! airwi; xix. S ti rj a^ 
eMTatifUM x"^- Sib. Orac. iii, 705 
ai>r4f lip ttitrivtit fiWi. Add to these 
Ps. xcvii. (xcviii.) i {ruwtr airi ^ Jtftil 
ainv not i ^paxlw o aytm aiiroii. dvii. 
(cxviii.) 16 hfid (uplov Df.»j« /u, «.f.& 

B BoiViItou djiapruXav- A strange ex- 
pression, suggesting a iranilatoc'ii mtat. 
Does not fl»d™ = 'peslLlence' (t^'^) ? 
And should not the word 'sinneis' open 
Ihe next clause? 'As for sinners — evil 
beasts tan upon them.' This gives point 
to luri rrjf iiiipTiaKSir in vcr. ^. In this 
explanation we lind that Wellhausen haEt 
anticipated us. 

a, S The list of plajues here is taken 
from such uasiages as 1^:. iiv. 17 where 
the expression ^iii^ifa ii(X4dru trl rqi 
771 expltun-i the tiarepuminft, Cf, IjBv. 
xxvi. ; Ti\iim oi Ji(Xcitirgr4(. ii ira- 
fff^W.) ip' i/iAi ri S^flla ri iypia r^t 

■y^l. Ei. v. 17 iJoTiwTtXui ^xl ff( Xi/ii* 
iral (^F)p<a iroi'iipd. Ectlus, xl, <j Airarai 
■a! altin, lal {/hi ioJ jio/i^x^ia, ^ira7ur}>sl, 
Xifi^c «ai aerrpifciia xsj |Ud<rTi{. irl raih 
ilra^wvl iKTlaeii Taura nvra. 

^pCa ■wovtipd is a. common enpiession 
in the LXX. or Ewkid. Cf. Lev. x«vi. 6. 

iSivm — |iv\(u. I's. Iviii. 6 rdt ^Xai 
Tu^ Xtavrur iiuii4e\aatt i xipios. Fi. 
XXX. If /«j(<''P*' "!*' iWiiTBi ^(i iral rdi 

4 i ^n^^l. There is no variant in 
the Mss. (ihuugh we should remember 
that in many minuscule hands the initial 
a- and iv- are almost indistinguishable], 
but the word is aira£ \ty6/tttor in the 
book. Partly un this account, perhaps, 
but mainlf, no doubt, owing to the diA- 
culties which the retention of it causes, 
Wellhausen alters it to tiatp/ii 'the pious 
man.' There is a certain plausibibty in 
this reading. There is a plain allusion 
in the wording and matter of this and 
the next verse W the story of Lot: the 
words niwtTi (TufK-a/nXq^f^ occur only 
tn Gen. xix. 17 tit to 6pvt viifou u-twort 
ffufirafuXii^p, and the word KaTaarpe^ij 
is used to de»:ribe the fate o( Ihe cities 
of the plain. Gen. xix. ig iC'tTtiXt 
rir Aiiir in /liatv rfi (arairrpa^TF. Cf. the_ 
late reading in 1 Pet. Ji. 6 lara^rpo^g 


pJllll. 7] 




2 The arm of the LORD saved us from the sword that passed 
through : from famine and from the plague of the sinners. 

3 Noisome beasts ran upon them : with their teeth they rent 
the flesh of them, and with their Jaws they brake their bones in 
pieces ; and out of al! these things did the Lord save us. 

4 The ungodly man' was troubled because of his transgres- ' c<i 
sions: lest he should be taken along with the sinners, ''"" 

5 For fearful is the overthrow of the sinner: and of all these 
things nothing shall touch the righteous. 

6 For the chastening of the righteous which have sinned 
ignorantly, and the overthrow of the sinners are not alike. 

7 The righteous is cha.stened secretly'; that the sinner may'^', 
not rejoice over the righteous. 


^aWipHiCT. Now, it may he Ksked, 
can we suppose that the writer would 
compare Loi to on do-t^it? U not 
ttaipip ht more apptopriale to hi; 
posit ioD ? 

It is a Birong point tuo that the word 
TapaiTii/uira is only used in this liook o( 
the sins of the nghfrom. See iii. 8, 
xiii. 9, which are the only other places 
where the word occurs. 

On the other hand, compare Ihc fol- 
lowing coincidences with the text of Job 
in this and the following verses, Job xv. 
loraia ^m iatpoSi h -pporTlSi, ixi. 
17 ai fiiif St dUa lol dircfSuK Mxtat 

PO^l), X 

1. 7<I. 

rtp Y, K 


Sifijl sc. mC 'Ii^. 

It is difficult to find a historical place 
for Ihe tivtfiit, but in other respects the 
reading gives a far smoother sense. It 
would, however, be against our critical 
principles to alter a word which gives nn 
adequate sense ami is supported by all 
MS. evidence, 

A similar list of plagues associated 
with the dfrc/Jfii occurs in Ecclus. ixxii. 
19. 30 rSp (at x^i^i^i '^ \'iiM Kat Sini- 
— --" — -' — tli iiSUtiair fuTivroi- 

%cepoit ixripiU 

!, nal 

9 tv BYVoIf,. Sec for this r 
iii. 9. 

7 iv -irfpuTToXfl. The word occurs 
nowhere in the l.xx. or N.T, and no 
other instance oF its use in Hellenistic 
Greek is known to os. In Classical Greek 
it!i one meaning seems In l)e Ihe decking 
oat of a corpse for buriftl. 

We have therefore to deduce a proba. 
ble meaning of the word from the verb 
mMTM-u, This has three lending uses, 
(ij ofdecking out a corpse, (ii) of wrapping 
round and so concealing, (iii) of protect- 
ing or defending. Either of the last two 
yield a possible sense for rfptoroX^. 

Previous editors have usually thought 
thai the sense should be ' in secret ': and 
the only objection to this rendering is the 
difficulty of attaching a real meaning to 
Ihe sentiment. In other Psalms, e.g. xvii., 
Ihe sufferings of the righteous are de- 
scribed and dwell upon. The fact that 
righteous men like Job had suffered, and 
that not secretly, was well known to the 
writer, so that we feel some hesitation in 
crediting him with an assertion of the 
contrary here. Still Psalm xv. may lie 
cited to confirm the interpretation. 

The only other passage where this 
writer uses xtpirriWu (xvi. 10) certainly 
cannot b«ir the meaning of 'i-o«(d'<i/m^«/.' 

The alternative rendering derived from 
the third senae of xipHrrflAu would lie 
'with r^ard,' i.e. with the view of cor- 
recting the righteous and preventing him 
from erring so that the enemies of the 
Lord might blaspheme — which would 
give a clear and practical sense. A col- 
Uteral sense, whose correctness seems 
more doubtful, is 'with reservation,' 'spa- 
ringly.' This sense is we think confirmed 
by vii. 34. 

It is tempting to suggest thai the trans- 
lator has here renderw the Hebrew text 
wrongly, perhaps rending nt^JQ 'a co- 
vering" [ = naTonotiiir Isai. Ixi. 3I inatead 
of O^ 'aliltle.' If thisconjeclurecouUI 

[XIIT. i 


' OTi vovOerrja-^i. Sixaioc ws vlov ayaTnJirews, 
Kol y iratSei'a aOrou (os rrptnTOTOKOv 
"on ^etVerat KiJ^tos T(3i' ocrtwf avrou, 

" Tci TrapaTmSfiaTa avriHi' eiAAeifet ew TraiScia- 
tJ yctp i|(u^ Tii)i' SiKat'oii' €i; 701" aiwi/a, 
'" diJ.apTti)kol Se dpO-^tromai. eis oTrwXetai', 
fcat ouv tvptd-qinrixi, p.yy)p6<rvi'ou aurwv tVf 
" eVi Sc rows ocrwjus to eX.€05 Kvplov, 

KOI CTTl TOUS <fiO^OVfJ.a'OV<i aVTOV TO fkeot avTOV. 
lA. Y^NOC Tiol C&AoM(^N. 

XIV. ritcTTos (nJpios Tois dyawciicriv auron if akqOeta., 

Tois TTOpevofi€vots El' StKaioiTiJj^ TTpoaTa.yp.d.Tiiiv aVTOV, 

tv v6p<a £i>s €N6TeiA&TO ij^ii- €15 7wfiN -^p-Qv, 

"oo-tot Kvpiov t,rjcrovTai Iv avr^ ci5 roc aioica. 

d trapdoenTO^ Kvpiov, to. ItAa tmc zwmc o<rtoi aurou; 

a Geig. Fr. Pick. 

jam corr. Hilg.'. 


be mnintuin^, we would coin[iare Luke 
xii. 48 SapiJofTai iXfTiti as giving Ihe 
sense ufllii; original in our |)assage. 

tnfiflLftt. Cr, Ps. KKKviL {ixKviii.) 
1 7 M^orf inxi'pi'vl fiw oi <x^j>i>' !">'; 
niso xli. 11, and Ecdus. xiiii. 3. 

B vovSmftTii. No suliject is ex- 
]ire!>»^d. The Greek requires us lo sup- 
ply Beii. The translaior probably mis- 
took n Passive for an Active verb, rdding 
"IB" for TpJI- The clause should have 
run rovBrr^diiatTat JNnoiot ut vlil (tYar^ 
ffiwt. The idea of the verse is drawn 
riom Dcul. viii. 5. 

Cf. Wisd. li. 10 TtiTBM ply yip iit 
roHip KBudcrSir ilonl^iaaat: alsoxvi.Sand 
Judith viii. 17, cf. Joseph. AhI. lit. iv. i 
ltulv^,..Tiir Stit M4^l)v..,^4^(«'0al Ti- 
nvplar 0611 dflor fiiy rCiy i(tDiapTTiiUruy 
alar ii ol raripft ^il Kiuffiatf ToFt rfpiHJd 

uliv d-yaiT^o-HW. Cf. Gen. xxii. i \ipt 

t4» iJi* irou rim dyawTirir Sr ^Ji^ffBi. 
Zech. nil. lo cA^wrai larci-iv, lU ir' 
a-yantTy, lol Murij^ijiriM'Tai oJi''ri)>', an 
irl T<f -rpuTOTomf, compare also Ps. .S. 

wpwTirTJKOV. Cf. Ex. iv. it ittln rpu- 
nfriKDi i/ou '1tpaT)\. 

S tfoXt^Hi. Sec on ii. ig. Ps. I. 
(li.) f /^iDitiil/ar ri dvilfiiiful ftov. and 1 1, 
and Is. xlili. ij. 

10 (»ow. Cf.Jobxviii. ijTi 
tuniiiiavnif airaC iroXotTO /« 79*, Pa. ix. 

11 Here we linit a close resemblance 
to the words of the Magnificat, Luc. i. 50 
tal t4 ^XfM airiiS tit 7«Kdi nal yirfiii 
ToTi ^^ei>^r«t oMr. 

Ps. XlV.—Argum,nl. 

I — 3. Goil's unchanging faithfulDesg 
to those who are faithful lo Ilim. Their 
consequent security from trouble. The 
result of God's ancient promise to Israel. 


XIV. 2] 



8 For he will admonish the righteous as a beloved son : and 
his chastening is as a: man cliastetieth his firstborn. 

9 For the Lord will spare his saints, and will blot out their 
transgressions with his chastening : for the life of the righteous 
is for ever. 

ID But sinners shall be taken away unto destruction : and the 
memorial of them shall no more be found. 

1 1 But upon the saints is the mercy of the LORD : yea" upon " Gr. and 
them that fear him is his mercy. 


A Hymn of Solomon, 

1 Faithful is the LORD unto them that love him in truth: 
even unto such as abide his chastening ; who walk in the right- 
eousness of his commandments, in the law* according as" \\&^Ox,even 
commanded us for our life. ^^^ ^gf^t- 

2 The saints of the LORD shall live therein* for ever: the^^'J;^^, 
garden of the Lord, even the trees of life, such are his saints. , q^ 


4 — 7. The insecurity of the sinner. 
His secrets are known to God, and his 
end is destruction. In which he affords 
a contrast to the righteous. 

The Psalm is little more than a 
paraphrase of the ist canonical Psalm, 
with which it should be compared. The 
comparison of the righteous to a tree 
occurs in both places, as well as in 
several other Psalms and in Job. 

1 Cf. X. 3, 4. The thought is the 
same as in Deut. vii. o koX ypiinrii art 
Kupiot 6 OeSt <rov ovtos OeoSf Oeit Tiffrof, 6 
^vk&aeioif dioB'^ici^w koI (Xeot rclis ayartao'af 
avrdif Kol roif ^v\iff<rovci rdf irroXiLt aurov 

ZiKakor6)n\ irpoaraYiuCrttv. The 
righteousness consisting in the observance 
of the enactments of the law. Cf. Lev. 
xxvi. 5 iay rois TpoaToeyfuuriy Tope&ifaOe 
Kol rdf iPToKas fiov ^vkofferiaOe. i Kings 
viii. 62 oeitat TopeueeOcu iv rdis rpwrriy- 
fiaauf (tlrroO xal <^vKajjffet» ivroKas avroD. 
Ez. xxxiii. 15 eV xpoarieytuiri (tnjs dia- 
Too€6rfraif Luke i. o. 

w v6^. Cf. Bar. iv. i avrrf 17 BlpXos 
Tpwrrayfuerwp rov Oew Kcd 6 p6fiot vmip- 
X^ir elt rinf alwa* TCWTts ol /c/xiroOyret 
avrfpf eh i^iarip. Ecclus. xvii. i r , xlv. 6 
p6fu» jlir$f. 

See also Deut. xxx. 20, Ps. cxxxiii. 

Hilgenfeld's conjecture itn^ofufi is sup- 
ported by the reading of M, and the 
word is used in the Prologue to Ecclus. 
and in Acts xix. 30, and i Cor. ix. 21 
(ypofios Xpurrifi. If adopted it renders our 
conjecture ^, on which we lay no stress, 

But iv rdfiifi is a very natural phrase 
for our Psalmist to use, as an explanation 
of iw 8iK, Tpoa. It is also implied in 
ver. 2, i^ffotn'ou iv ainf, 

els \»^v if|Miv=*That we should live 
therein,' or *that He might preserve our 

2 k¥ a^f is either #r Kvplt^ or iv vofitp. 
If ivvo/ufi is the right riding, there can 
be no doubt that ev aurf refers to xvpcof. 
The life of the saints is through the mercy 
and in the presence of the Lord. 

But more probably i'lffffovroi iv aim} 
refers back to iv v6fufi...elt ^(oijv ^fiQv, 

(^Xa rjjs lo^TJ^* A not uncommon 
metaphor m Proverbs, e.g. iii. 18. Cp. 
also Is. Ixv. n irard yap ros i^fUpas toG 
^vKov TTfi jiiTTf (vovTcu oi Tifiipai Tov \aou 
fjLov, 4 Mace, xviii. 16. 

The Tap&lkiffot rw 0€oO occurs in Ez. 
xxxi. 8, and xxviii. 13, and Rev. ii. 

» Or, in 


[XIV. 3 

OYK iK\\\-q(rovTai irda'a^ Tie HMep*c to? OYpftwo?; 

OTi ■^ MEplc KoX ij KkripovofLio. Tou PcoC eoTiv d 'icr/JttTjX. 

* Kai on OTTcoc o! dfiapTcoXol koi irapa.vop.oi, 
0% rfya.irrj<Ta.v -^pepav en ^eTO^^ dpaprta^ aiiriav, 
hi piKporqTi. (ranpCa^, iv i-jridvfiia auTfui', 
"xal ovK epu^fTOrjfTav tqv 0eov- 

OTL oiol dvdpatiTOiU rf^f^cTai, eVtuTrioc auToO oia Trairo?, 
(fat taamsTa KttpSt'as tVi'oTaTat vrpo tou y(.via-9ai. 
"Sta TOVTO 77 KKr)pnvopia avT^v o-Bt)^ koI ckiStoc kaI intiAeiA, 
Kol ovv evptdr)(rovTai. iv rjpipq. l\4ov BiKaCoif 
'01 8« oo"tot Kvptov K\-qpovop.-qaov(TL tfiiifv iv ev^parruvy. 

le. yaAmiIc Ttoi cdAoMojN met (jlific. 

XV. 'E^i T4> eMBerSAl me eireK&Aec&MHN to ovopa KYploy, 
eJs PoT)6€iav -^XTTUTa tov 6eov 'laxti^S xat laiadrfv, 
' OTi iXirl't Kal KajaifnTyrj Ttui' ;TTai;^(oj> (Ti), d ^eo?- 

a ToOoflparoB V, K, P. nS d¥6p,iTov {arov pta ovpov) M;om. A. 

■i\ill»ra(ila. Cerda vjliose rXifws^iJa. 
4 in( om. Cerda: idem in scholus nolat se vocem pnclermisisse p.irliin dclclnm 
qanni pro voce exclamalionis hrtbucrilt ut viii. J7- 

/uitpimrn cuilct. (A (uijiAniTf)- >i«pJTirn conj. Ililg. {Ft. Pick.). 

a ^^itftfirt\. cr. rrov.xii. 3 ol SJ 

II. Jer. xlii. (ulix.) 10 ^iTtusu u/iii sal 

Tdl ^li^pOit TDD oiipavov. 

The expres- 
sion occurs in rs.^ i^ixxviii. (Uxnis.) 30 
TO!" Spdrar outob ui toi if/i^/mt rou oiJ- 
parav, and Bor. i. 1 1 Ita iair ol rilUpai 
airrur ui ol ^^pot Tev aiiparou. 

^ |upU. Cf- EccIiLS. xvii. 13 iitfAi 
xvplav 'Iff/MflX ^ittIv, and Deut. ixxii. 

4 oix otrtu (p t6). 
Ps. i. + dJx "^-'^ ■>! i"^">. oint 
ifYchnjoaw. The aor. is Ihe 

dYanf ^(t^pav seems [o mean, con- 
tent themselves with the day's enjoyment, 
lovE this present world. The phrase 

nosi iiKe It IS inni in rs. it: 
1 3 avaTUv TiiUpat ISiir iya0it. 

laid on the shortness 

at the pleasure. The iju/pa answers to 
/uii(j4ri|t in the next clause. 

TTiis is why we have preferred to 
render dyarSr 10 l« conlcnl with, instead 

iv |UTn^ dpofWas ajrav, cf. As- 

sumpl. Mos. V. I 'in r^es participes 

pNptfn|i. This is the rending of all 
MSS. whereas Tupdrip gives a iToubtruI 
sense and is nowhere found iu the lxx. 
The i.s,"(. version of Susanna v. i^ 
affords an excellent illustration of what is 
meant by lunpinit here. Daniel sajt lo 
one of Ihe elders, to kilAXot vr jfr^nffftft 
ri luipi (Tifluula, the lusl whose enjoy- 
ment lasts so short a time, and whoie 
lieing as well as its end is corTupliun. 
Evidently we have here again an allusion 
to those secret sins of which the Psalmist 
has already spoken (iii., iv., viii.}. 

S Sn may be either a separate state- 
ment exptainmg why they ought to have 

XV. 2] 



3 The planting of them is rooted for ever : they shall not be 
plucked out all the days of the heaven : for the portion of tJu 
Lord and the inheritance of God is Israel. 

4 The sinners and transgressors are not like them, which were 
contented with a day while they were partners together in sin : 
yea^ with a short space of corruption in fulfilling their lust 

5 And they remembered not God, that* the ways of men are * Or./pr 
known before him continually: and he knoweth the secret 
chambers of the heart before they had their being. 

6 Therefore is their inheritance hell and darkness and de- 
struction : and they shall not be found in the day of mercy for 
the righteous. 

7 But the saints of the Lord shall inherit life in gladness. 


A Psalm of Solomon: WUh a song. 

1 When I was in trouble I called upon the name of the 
Lord: I trusted in the God of Israel for help, and I was 

2 For thou art the hope and refuge of the needy, O God ; 

remembered God, or a pointing out what 
they ought to have remembered about 
Him. We do not feel that the one ren- 
dering is intrinsically less probable than 
the other, but certainly in a majority of 
cases the former is the only admissible 
sense for arc in these Psalms. 

TOfiUSa KopSUis, cf. Apoc. Bar. xx. 
3 *in penetralibus mentis tuar,' and Prov. 
XX. 17, 30 TOfueea KOiSLai, 

vpd TOW ^fWv^at (Gen. ii. 5 irp6 rov 
y€94a0ai ivl rjjit 7^) may refer either to 
the man or to the chambers of his heart. 

Cf. Enoch, cap. ^. 11, *Thou knowest 
everything before it comes to pass' (tr. 

Cf. generally Jer. L 5 vpb rod fie TX&aou 
ff€ iw KOiKlq. ewlarafial ae, 

6 OTcrfros. Ps. xxxiv. (xxxv.) 6 yei'17- 
BTJrta ff 6d6t airwi^ CK&roi kqX 6\lff0rifAa, see 

XV. II. 

oix c^p t frqirovr m . Job xx. 8 wrwep 
€»&r»iw...oit firi fvpeS^t and Ps. ix. 18, 
xxxvi. (xxxvii.) 38. 

IX^ Sucau»v, transitive as in ii. 8. 
*The day of mercy to the righteous' we 
understand to be the resurrection in the 
Messianic consummation. The wicked 
will not partake in it, but their souls will 
continue in Sheol, in darkness and doom. 

J. p. 

7 KXi|povo|&cEy ttnfv, we Bnd this ex- 
pression in the mouth of a true Pharisee, 
the rich young man, in Mk. x. 17 r{ 
iroc^croi tpa s'cinjy altaviow KktipwoiiJiaia ; cf. 
Matt. xix. 39. 

Ps. XV. — Ar^nitnt, 

1 , 3. The call to praise God. 

3 — 8. The reward of praise, viz. safety 
from the destruction that follows sinners. 

^ — 1 4. The other side of the picture : 
misfortune in this life and annihilation 
after it are the lot of sinners, 

15. while the righteous inherit eternal 

The Psalm treats of the same theme as 
iii. and xiv.: the contrast between the life 
and destination of the righteous and of the 

1 Cf. Ps. xvii. (xviii.) 7, cxix. (cxx.) 
I, and Ps. S. i. i. 

2 Lit. I trusted for the help of the 
God of Jacob. The trouble in which the 
Psalmist found himself is not more par- 
ticularly specified, but very probably the 
occasion is the same as that of Ps. xiii. 
In both we have references to famine, 
sword and pestilence, and in both the 
righteous have been preserved, while the 
sinners have suffered. In this Psalm the 
writer appears to lay special stress on 



[XV. 3 


' Tis yap ltrxv€L, 6 ^eos, el fiyj efo/ioXoyTjcracr^ai croi Iv 

dkyjOeia. ; 
' Koi Ti SwfaTos a.v6pwiro<;, ft prj i$oij.o\oy^iraa-8ai T<a 

ovofiaTi trov ; 
'i/<aX/ioi' KOi aicov met' tijific iv evijipoirvin) KapBCa^, 
Kapndfj xerAe'toM en opraNip MpMOCMCNtji yX.dxT'OT^?, 
a-nap-)(y)v j^eiXe'wi' aTTO "apifftc ocfac *fat Siftatas; 
"o JTotwv ravra of c&AeYei^ceTAi elc t6k aIuina airo KaKOV, 
(^Xof TTVpo'; KoX opyrj aZiKtuv ov)( ai^eTctt auroS, 
' oral' i^eXdrj eVi a/ici/jraiXou? airo Trpaatairov Kvpiov, 
6\o9pf.v(rai TTaa-av vnoaTacriv dpapTiokiov 
'oTi TO CHMcIOM Tou 9eov eni Stxat'ous ei5 traiT-qptav, 

Al/wdc KaI pOMct(*i& Koi flANiTOC fiaKpOf tLTTO SlKaCiOV 

' ^€V^ovraL ydp ai^ StdiKo/xcVov *7roXe^iou* otto ofjtoiv, 
KftT&iiuiEerai Se ap.apT<ijKov<; Kft) KATftXiH'ceT&i. 
KoX ovK iK^tv^ovrat. ol iroioCrres dvop-lav to Kpip.a. KvpCov, 
(US un-o TToXe/xt'oii' ip.TT€ipoiV KaTaX'r}<f>d^trovTat, 


praise as a means whereby safely may 
be secured. "Prnise" in the moulh of a 
Pharisee may well be taken to mean 
lilureical praise — altenlion, in fact, ici the 
religious duties which the sinners had neg- 

tXvCt. Cf. V. 7. 

a Frilische'a correction of t( for rh is 
quite uncalled for, and thoueh assimilating 
ihc clauses in foim does, in fact, destroy 
Iheir parallelism. There is here, loo, s 
jjeoeral resemblance to the opening verws 
of the fifth Psalm (v. s). 

4 t( SvKa-rit. Bar. iv. i j tyii Si ri 
Sura-rii ffo^etjirai i/ur ; 

5 divot only occurs Rve limes in 
the LXx. (Tromm). vii. in Esdr., Neh., 
Snp. and Ecclus. Cp. Ps. tiviii. (Ii".) 
HJ altliru Tit Sraim roD tiai >uiu ^ft' 

A comparison with Ps. S. iii. i, i 
suggests the conjecture that col obor here 
should be lawir as there; the change is 
infinitesimal, but, however probable, we 
do not venture to introduce it into ihe 

K^piriv X'J^* (OICIBP 3'J). Is. Ivii 
{,(TheodoI.).Wfi..»,opiri»X"Wui'. Hof 

Also Hell. 

Cf. Prov. xviii, lo 

SpYdvov. 1 Sam. vi. 5 iii6pyiiiiiH.iiipiiav- 
tUreit if l^x^'- I1 Job Kxi. 11 Aquila 
gives dpyiroB for 3JW, where the Lxx. 
has ^aXfiaC, and Symmachus mBipai. 
In Ps. cxxxvi. (cxxxvii.) 1 rA Bfryors 
i}*ii». = «'riW» 'our harps.' 

■tirap)(i\v XHXIav. not synonymous with 
Kttpwir x'l^^"' : it is the la^rifiriai efffting 
of the first-fruits (=0^0^ npflp). lo 
which we have a parallel in Ecdus, xxxii. 
8 li^ SMUpiwni i,itD.pyiyf X"P^' '""^ 

dird MopSfai. In this usage we more 
generally find i,... capita, (cf. Ps. S. iii. 7) 

Ko^lot iaiat. Prov. iiii. 11 Kipiot 
dyar^ 6ffiai piapSlai. 

a Tawra. Our punctuation here diffcti 
from that of Fritzsche. He connects the 
whole of ver. 5 with ver. 4, at the end of 
which he places a comma. We make the 
question end with ver. 4, and the accusa- 
tives of ver. 5 will then depend on rwwr, 
being all in opposition to roDra. 

ed oxJuiAiia-rrai. From Fs.ix. 17(1.6) 
06 ^i) soDtfiiBii iwi ytnas cfi ytni* btu 

XV. 9] 



3 For who, O God, is strong save to praise Thee in truth ? 

4 And wherein is a man able, save to give thanlts unto thy 

5 A psalm and praise with a song in gladness of heart: the 
fruit of the lips with the well-tuned instrument of the tongue : 
the firstfruits of the lips from a holy and righteous heart ; 

6 He that doeth these things shall not be removed for ever 
by evil: flaming fire and the wrath against' the ungodly shall ' 
not touch him, 

7 When it goeth forth against the sinners from before the face 
of the LOKD, to destroy all the substance' of the sinners. ' 

8 For tile mark of the Lord is upon the righteous unto their 
salvation. Famine and the sword and pestilence shall be far 
from the righteous. 

9 For they shall flee from the saints as an enemy that is 
pursued : but it shall pursue after the sinners and shall overtake 
them : and they that work wickedness shall not escape the judg- 
ment of the Lord; they shall be overtaken as it were by mighty 
men of war. 


(oirgD. Thcie can be little doubt that 
d»4 raally = ^4 here. Hardly any use of 
H prepobitioD need surprise us in dealing 
witb a writer of this sump. Cf. Ps. xiv. 

AXd(nptft. See xii. 5 for the converse, 
and cf. \%. xliii. 51 ^Ni{ ad KxraKatnttt ae. 
An allusion to the Stor^ of ihe Three 
Children niay underlie this. 

dpyn rfS^tin'. Gen. objeel, exactly 
puallel to t\tn Sualm xii. 6. But dSfxuF 
may alio be understood as a genitive of 
ihe sub), i 'the wrath of the ungodly' 
would then allude (o the fury of Ne- 
buchodneizar (Dan. iii. 19). 

«*x '"I:""- ""■■ s- ^ 

V VTOoTont. In the LXX. this word 
occurs some 19 limes in very various 
senses. Twice it means a camp, else- 
where a firm ground or foundation: once 
irriimait {W = means to nipport life. 
Node of these meanings are admissible 
here. Two which are given in our text 
and margin do tiolh appear possible. The 
first, tuislaiicc, is confirmed by Jer. n. 17 
^vf/Tforia IfuSir -Hf Irwiaraalr aau, and 
especially Deut. li. 6 tal i-Sffac aiTu* rij* 
irwivToira' (Wpl) ''^ /"r' airuir, of 
Korah. The second, cimfiJtttce or ixptc- 
taliim, is Ihe commoner sense in N.T., and 
is found in LXX. Ts. xxxviii. (ixxis.) 8 «al 
4 iwicToait lAov itafA eei iara, Rulh i. 

f, haft J 

II fan liot inharaatt toG ytiiiiB^iu in 
arSpl. Sec also 1 Cor. ix. 4, xi. i; ; Heh. 
iii. 14. A third, remnaiil, might be sug- 
gested. It is important because it occurs 
in Job (xxii. jo) (( M iii^le^ V vt6- 

The word occurs again in our Psalms 
(xvit. 16) in a connection so similar lu 
this passage thai Ihe meaning may (airly 
be taken as identical with this. 

8 T& a-i|futov, from Ez. ix. 4 Ui iTi|- 
fiEw ^i-i ri lUriirrii riur iripuy rar irara- 
frm^ii'rciir. This in its turn may be a 
reminiscence of Ex. xii. 13 Imu ri al/ia 
6iur it an^iif. of the blout on Ihe lintel. 
Cf. Rev. vii. 3 axpi of a^pvi\aaiua -rai^ 
IiMJXoi/t rsS few ^iiur iiri tut fieri^ur 

\vfat, etc. See on xiii. 1. iv. (v.) 
Esdr. XV. 5 gladlum d faniem et mortem 

• We have lo justify Ihe somewhat 
alartling emendation introduced into the 
text. It will readily, we think, be ac- 
knowledged ihat the lext, as il has been 
hitherto read, is unsatisfactory. It would 
be very lame lo say that a famine and 
other things would flee from the righteous, 
as if they (the righleous) were a bmine 
lieilig pursued ; so that it seems some 
change is required. We believe that the 
key to ihe requisite alteration is to be 
looked for in the following verse, which 



[XV. lO 

" TO yip CMMEfoN TTjs aTTwXetos enl toy MerioTtoy at/roty, 
" Koi 17 K^Tjpoi'Ofjila Tail' ajuapTOiXdJc i.udiKe\». kaI ckotoc. 
Kat ai dvofLLai avToiv SiiS$ovTai avToi/-; e(us aBov koltoi, 
"^ Kky^povofiia. avrSiv oO^ €iJpe5i70"erat rots reVfois axnoiv 
" di ydp dvo^tai. 4^€p-r]fX(a<j-ovai.v oiKOV^ dfiaprotXtof, 
Kal dlToXovi^aL 01 afiapTCoXot ec HMepa, Kpi(r€(os "YP'OY ei5 

Tof alaiva, 
"oTav iiTia-KdiTT-qTai. 6 Beo-; Trjv yy)v iv Kpt/iaTi avrov, 
aTToSoGcai apapToiXal^ €t5 tov aiwfa ^povov. 
"01 8e (fio^ovp-epoi tov Kvpiov iKerjd-^a-ovrai iv avrrj, 
KoX ^'^(TOVTaL if TJj iKvqp.o(Tvvj] TOV 6eov avriav. 

ir. ^t'ft^Mlic TW1 Ca\OMLbN elc ftNTlAHyiN. 
XVI. 'Ec TW NYCTiJftr YYX"" "Or aTTO KVplOV, 

Trapd p.LKp6v (uXtV^tra ev Kara^opa uttvov 

10 r^t driohffat. A Cim, rQf. 

11 dfDfifai nfrur codd.: A ins. airar, non, ut dicU Pr., omjtlit. Fabi. om. 

Inscriptio deeal in M. 
1 Karatt-ee^ A, V, K, M, Cerda. 

Karaifiopf P, Cerda CQnj. queen seqq. Fabr. Lagarde Hilg. Geig. Fiitzsch. 
Wellh. Pick. 

points the contiast between the righteous 
and the sinner. The case of the laller is 
the opposite of thai of ihe righteous. The 
sense clearly is, that while plagues flee 
rrom Ihe righteous us if they {the plagues) 
were being pursued, they will pursue Ihe 
ungodly as does an enemy in wm. We 
believe tlien that the point of comparison 
hclwccn the clnuses lies in toX(»Jqi)'. 
The plagues which follow Ihe sinners 
like enemies are themselves chased away 
from the righteous as if by enemies, and 
some case of the word wo\iiiun must 
underlie the Xi*u>u of the pre^nl text. 
Several forms are possible. The ^.implest 
mode of expression would be in Sniii6iitvei 
»oX/fiuti, the most elnborate (suggested 
by Mr W. G. Headlam) ut Jiuni^Kvoi iwb 
reXiubiB. That which we print in the text 
stands midway between the two. We 
conjecture the genesis of Ihe present read- 
ing to have been something oF this kind : 

miFtnkcn for 

we get 

ilUlKOUENOY \(e)|MOT. 

The same, almost, holds good for the rend- 
ing Siuniiuroi ifi rBXc/ilov, which has 
the further advantage of not suddenly and 
harshly introducing a genitive Bbsolule. 

For the reading of the MSS. cf. Job r. 
ao if Xt/iif fi^fferai trr it 6a^iTov. 

mToS<iimu. Cf. Ps. xvii. (xviii.) 38 
KUTaiiiilu tbIt ix^l"^' f"* '■>' taraXlt- 
\toBoi. xxxiv. (xxxv.) 6 Syyttin rvfitov 
■ i.!t. Ixx. (Ixx' ■ 




Ptov. xiii. 

OLKi. Toh 

Si SiKalovt naraX-iifiTiu eyaSd. 

l)i>irt(pi*v. For Ihe habit of this writer 
to change his verbs from plural to sin- 
gular without changing his subject, com- 
pare iv. ;— IS. 

l^riiim occurs once in Tobit (v. $). 
For the meaning of traXc/iIiiw liartipu* cf. 
itSita.ypi(vot w6\tfar Cant. iii. B; 1 Chr. 
V. 18 ; SiSasrit roXifiQv t MaCC. iv. 7. 

10 Compare Ex. ix. 4 (cited above] 
and Gen. iv. 18 lOtra dlpiDi i Biit irir^KuiF 
r^ Katf. 

XVI. l] 


10 For the mark of destruction is upon their forehead, 

1 1 And the inheritance of the sinners is destruction and 
darkness: and their iniquities sha.Il pursue them as far as hell 

12 Their inheritance shall not be found of their children. 

13 For their iniquities shall lay waste the houses of sinners : 
and the sinners shall perish in the day of the Lord's judgment 
for ever, 

14 When God visiteth the earth with his judgment to 
recompense the sinners unto everlasting. 

I s But they that fear the LORD shall find mercy therein : 
and shall live in the righteousness' of their God. • 

A Psalm of Solomon : ' For help.' 
I When my soul slumbered and fell away from the Lord, 
//«■// had 1 well nigh slipped in the heaviness of sleep : 


11 iM f&OU K^TW. Cf. FS. IlIXV. 

n;nrifl. Pio¥.xir.i4'fromhelib«neatli' 

(n^p'TinpTj). Is. xiv. 9 (nni5p SSs?'). 

Lcclus. li. 6 eireYiit flov cdrw. 

Cp. xiv. 6. The future of Suita is the 
onl^ one ot the middle tenses used in an 


'shall n. 

la oCNevt ^ffTifxnv- See iv. 3 j, xii. 

^|Upa KpCrtKi Kvpfov. We lind fiitiiM 
tplatat denoting the final Judgement iit 
Judith xvi. 17 itdptM rayTotpiTup iiSir^ei 
airolit it ^liipt f/AaiaH, and often in the 
N.T. (e.g. Matt. x. 15, xi. 11; 1 Pel. iii. 
■j; I John iv. 17). The commooet phrase 
IS TUiipa KVfAm, as in Amoa v. 18 ; Joel ii. 
11; I Cor. V. j; 1 Fet. iii. lo, 11. Here 
the two phrases are combined j but il is 
not improbable that the translator, iinding 
njn^ Di", Introduced the explanatory 

14 trav truK f irrnTaL, iii. 14. 

ILiraEavvai, ii. 3^1. 

til tAv alava ^p&vm. Cf. viii. 39. 

10 ft(i||tos^vi]. Nu doubt a render- 
ing of Dpi jt. As is Weil known, the lxx. 
fluctuate between l\triiu>eainj and imaio- 
\ u equivalents for this word. See for 

further remaik^ the note on ix. 6 and 
Hnlch.i'jwj'jiK AWiVa/Oia;*, p. 49sqq. 
We have here preferred to render the word 
' righteousness. ' 

Ps. Wl.—Argumtnl. 

I . Thank^ving for deliverance. 

{a) I, 1. The Psalmist's peril; the 
apathy of some deadly sin. 

(i) i-fl. He had perished, if the 
Lord by timely chastisement had not 
roused to consciousness, and delivered 

1, Prayer for continuance in holy 

(a) S~g. That the thought of God 
may reign in the heart and overcome all 
Heshly lusts. 

(b) 9. That the Divine rule may 
order life and practice. 

(() 10. That truth may ever adorn 
speech, and anger be put awaj. 

[d) II, ti. That under trial there 
may be no murmuring, but a spirit of 
patience and brightness. 

^. Poverty a Divine chastisement. 

(fl) iji 14. Heavy ia the chastise- 
ment by poverty which assails a man's 
bodily comforts. 

[b) ij. The righteous will endure 
the test and will find mercy. 

This Psalm contains no allusion (D 
events of national importance. The use 
of the ist Pers. Sine., which is found in 
each of the first twdve verses, relates lo 


[XVI. 2 

'[ej'] Tw {laKpau diro Oeov, 

nap' oAftoN ei6i(v9H h M'tl'^ ^OU etc Bi.Nd.TON' 

(TWerri'S nr^wN ^ior fUra dfiapToXov, 

*' cf T^ Suv€)(8rjyai t(iv)^-^v {lov aiTo Kvplov dtov 'l(rpaT)\, 

ei fiTj 6 KYpioc ANTeAiBETd moy tv eAiei ft^Tof eic ton &lLJNft. 

a T^J jKupii' diri fltuC coild. Ceig. Hilg. iii 71J )iaJCp3»a( n( (vel /k t^ lUttpdr lu 
tZvoi) cooj. Fritzach.Ju Pick, trry ra^ia" conj. ^chmidl, (Hilg.^ Wellh.)- 

HiXiB^ V, K, P, M, Hilg. (conj-J, FtiUsch. Tick, iffx-^l A, Fnbr. 

I'osl (fiiiifTTid FriUsch. conj. ^c 
a ;(«< (post iMTlKipCTo) M. 

the feelings and experience of the writer. 
It dews not iiDtKiH>imte ihc nation. 
This is shown not so much by the peni- 
tential character of the Psalm as by the 
description of the temptations to which 
Ihe writer is expoled in daily life (7 — 1 1 ). 

We may gather that the Psalmist, like 
David of old, bad fallen into some deadly 
sin. He mighl well have been con- 
demned to perdition along with the 
sinne-^ (1. S). His conscience slept (,J: 
his soul had wandeied for from Uod 
(1, 3). But Ihe LoRU had mercy on 
him : by Ihe sharp spur of trial the Lord 
restored him to wakefulness and deli* 
vered him from utter downfall (3, j). 
We may suppose that perhaps the Psalm- 
ist's sin, like Ilavid's or Solomon's, had 
been one of seosuBlity, and accordinj^ly 
the Prayer wliich he olTers opens with 
special supplication that he might l>e 
saved from ^uch a fall (7, 8). 

The trial, which had awakened the 
Psalmist to B sense of his sin, had been 
that of sudden poverty (13 — 15). Like 
the patriarch Job, his faith was tested by 
discipline in the llesh nnd by the removal 
of bodily comforts. But 'the righteous' 
is sustained by the thought that [rouble 
is of God to prove his soul and that even 
in adversity he will find mercy. 

It is possible that the poverty and pri- 
vation lo which the Psalmist alludes may 
have resulted from the capture and occu- 
pation of Jerusalem by I'ompey, or again 
they may have been inflicted Dpon the 
pious Pharisee by his opponents Ihe Sad- 
ducees (cf. iv. 13, »3). 

Eilhei expknation would account for 
its includon in our collection. 

Professor Stanton, in his Jcvihk and 
Christian Mtsiiah, points to this Psalm 
as one which might be (illy put into Ihe 
mouth of Solomon, and a^ being the 

strongest instance of perBonlficaiion in 
the book. We should, however, bear in 
mind that the ultimate repentance of So- 
lomon was always a nuitler of grave dis- 
pute among the Jews. 

Imeriptiett. The title dt d^rlXij^w 
has probably been taken from the words 
iPTtXii^tro, ii»TiXi(]rT«p, 6mL\i.^v in vv. 

TBi<r (n?'?^ A.V. and R.V. mell- 

ll is used 

in Ps. Ixiv. (Ixivi.) 7 i-i iinTip.ifr%^ 
aw, h ilia 'loci^, Irirraiar el irt^t^ 
nirtt TO*i rwirort...Prov. xxJv. 33 iUyar 
»iWTiiiu {n\y^ DTP)- Jer. KxiU. w nw- 
rafiwTai rvarayiJit airrSit (a diRerent read- 
ing from the Ileb.) : Prov. vi. 4 lafii 
i-raivirriiiii. Aq. Sym. Thco. n/OTvyiiiif 

The preposition dro is used by a 'con- 
slructio pnegnans.' The clause combines 
the double thought of the soul's tethai^ 
and its removal from God. 

irapd pMpiv *lXC04T)au. The idea 
comes from Ps. Ixxii. (kxiii.) i lii,aS St 
npi lU/piii' laaKfi'BTtaaii aj rbia. tapi, 
/iUfiir, cf. Eiek. xvi. 47. 

ir Kam^ap^ Smm. Kara^opft is Cer- 
da's conjecture for the reading of Ihe 
text of the Mss. (aTa^ofi^. The latter 
was a much commoner word, and was 
very likely lo be substituted by accident. 

■tBTO^opd is Aquila's translation of 
nip?.^ 'a deep sleep' in Gen. ii. )lj 
Prnv. xix. Ij; Js^ xxix. lo. It repro- 
duces the IhouKlit of being 'borne or 
weighed down' with sleep, B Sense in 
which itara'pipai occurs e.g. in Acts xx. 9 

XVI. 3] 



2 When / WHS far from God, within a little had my soul been 
poured out unto death, yea I /tad been hard unto the gates of 
he!! in the company of the sinner 

3 What time my soul was departed from the LORD the God 
of Israel, 

If the Lord had not helped me through his mercy that 
abideth for ever. 

a [Jv] Tip iioKpitv diri tmv. The MSS. 

agree in the reading ti^ fxaKpi^ drA, 
which is extremely harsh. 

If we may draw nny cunclusions from 
the parallclLsm of w. i iUid j. the clause 
shotild begin with Ir ti} nnd wt Inf. cor- 
responding with ir Tif rvcToim and it 
T^ Siiwfxfi^ai. We accept the conjec- 
ture thai if has fallen out after uwrav. 

Fritische conjectures /> t(J! luuprrai /u 
iri or ir T^ liat/iir nf ilrai iwi. Against 
lUUpOrat it may be objeclcd (hat the aor. 
ot tMKpin-i is used in this Psalm (vei. n) 
with a transitive meaning, and that in the 
Active this is by tar its commonest um in 
the LXX. 

M. Schmidt makes an ingenious con- 
jecture in his suggestion uf ir r^ raptor. 
The simiUrity ot the letters is certainly 
in its favour, and the meaning of the 
word''to be numb' corresponds well with 
ir Tip rurriiiu. We are not however 
prepared to adopt it, partly perhaps be- 
cause it is otmost too ingenious but chiefly 
becauM the word in the utx. is very rare 
(Gen. xxaii. as. 3'; J°t> ""i"- '9 ^'y 
according to Tromm; also Theoilot. in 
Job ixxiii. ri)}, and in none of these pas- 
sages is eniployed in a metaphorical sense. 

If ir Tif pjitfiij' dxi S*ofi needs con- 
jectural amplilicntion, we would suggest 
that words have dtoppeii out which in 
eluded the verb that was qualified by 
laxfAt. The verbs that are commonly 
associated with liatpir are Awixtvt and 
4#WTi»ai. An error of sight may have 
occasiofied a scribe to pass from ire- to 
dvS in such a clause as ir t^ ftatplut dro- 
arrjnix irh to6 BaS: snd the omisiion of 
iheverb would have facililaledthedropping 
of the ir after Hirroii. 

«m' iXfYB* Jttxvhl' The reference is 
still to Ps. hxi.. (Iwiii.) i »ap' 6\l-,or 
ii<Xy^ t4 Sia^iuiTi /lov. 

On the expansion of the quotalion by 
the words lit BiraTBr, see note on our 
Psalmist's method viii. G, 

For rap- dUyor ( = Di;i?3) cf. Prov. v. 
14 rap' SKlyor {■fir6itiir. 

For i^txi^ i i"^^ cf Lam. ii. ii ir 

r$ iKX""^!*^ ^"X^' airiir tls niXrw ^iq- 
ripwr airiir. The passage Isai. liii. i>, 
'he poured out his soul unto death,' may 
have originated the phrase in oui verse. 
But in that caiie the translator has followed 
the Hebrew and not the utx. {rapitdB^ 
fit eirarar ^ ^uz<) a^oi^. 

inHYyul. FrilrschesayB"poslffviir)T'''* 
fortasse addendum ^f." The verb must 
be supplied for purposes of iranslation. 

TTie thought is taken from Ps, cvi. 
(cvii.) r8 «ol ifTTwar (uji ti3» mXiHr rev 
ffaririiv, and closely resembles Ecclus. Ii. 
6 Ityjtatr lot ftudrov q ^ux^ itou, nal q 
fui^ /uu Iff irircyyuf ^Bav jidrbf. Cf. Ps. 
Ixxxvii. (liixviii.) 4 cot 4 [u^ lua rif jijjj 

For xilXcu (i&u compare Job KXiviti. 1 7 
aroiyorrai ti 0*01 ^^^ Tv\m SardTOv w- 
Aupal W ^Soii liirTti at Irrniar. Ps. \x. 
14 6 ifli"iv ixl iK 7wr iti/Xeiv tov Barirov, 
Is. xlxviii. 10 i-fii etwa ir Tif Ei/iti riu* 
^/iipur /UB 'Er ifiXon fiSou, tarahtlifn^ ri 
f nj ri irlXmra. 

Though Hades is here mentioned as 
virtually a synonym for dealh, the addition 
of the words fwrd iiiapria\oO show that it 
is not used in JIs neutral sense of a place 
of departed sprits, but as a description 
of the future abode of the wicked. Cf. 
xiv. 6. 

8 tv T^ BuMxBiiviu. A rare use of 
the word, which may be illustrated by the 
difficult passage in Wisd. xviii. a xai toC 
turtjcS^rat xiptr idiarTo (A.V. 'and be- 
sought them pardon for that they had been 
enemies,' where some render 'and asked a 
favuurof them that they would withdraw'). 
The idea is that of 'eslrangemenl from' 
05 the result of "difference with;' il may 
be exemplilied by ] Mocc. iii. 4 Zlftur H 
ri!...iurixfft ^ 'PXifP'irtpi-'^ friTijr 
rA^nr iyoparofiiai, where 'difference' has 
developed into 'conflict." Our version, 
'departed,' is to be laken in its older 
sense, which lone survived in the well- 
known wards "till dealh us dcDart.' 

^mUpfTo. See on -^ 


[XVI. 4 

*ivv^i ^e (US KtvTpov Ittttov cttI t^v yprt}y6pT)(Tiv aurov, 
6 ctuTHp K*,l ASTi^HnTwp MOY tv TTttiTt Kaipt^ icraxre /ic. 
'cioMoAorHcoMdl coi, o ^eos, oTi dvTeXdfiov fj.ov etc ciothpian, 
Koi OVK eAoflcu) fi€ META Ttuv afiapTOiXtHi' eh arraikeiat/- 
" fi.7} dTToarjayfi; to eXeos trou ott e/ioC, o Seos, 
fiT^Se T^p fi.vqpt)v crov d-rro KopStas (mov ews davdrov. 
' iniKpdrrjrrop p-ov, 6 l9eos, ajro dpaprias Troi'Tjpas, 
Kal aJTo nda-r)^ yvvaiKO? TTOinjpd^ (TKavSaXtlov<n}^ d^pava.- 

S iXeyiffoi V, K, P, M, Hilg. (conj.), Geig. Frilisch. Tick. iXf^oyWa A, Fab. 

Tu IX^ aiiToS (ti T^ alava. There 
can be very little doubt ihat tls rit aliuya 
should be token with IXitK, and thai the 
referenceis to the welt-known refcain ' Foe 
his mercy endutclh for ever,' Sn tit rir 
o/wva ri l\m airaS, e.g. Ps. cxxxv. 



Strictly therefore the Greek should have 
run T<f i\in airaS nf rlt rir oJura. On 
the absence of the arlicle as a character- 
istic of our tianslalor's style, see note on 
vi. 8. 


spur of trial an<i sufTcriiig. 

Fur rit<rrru compare Ecclus. xxii. 19 i 
viaaar iipffaXtiir carofet Siipaa, (al i 
nJootip safiaiat ixlialret arrrftw"'- 

■it nirrpov (inroii. It seems to us very 
piolrable that the word tmrov has been 
added by the translator as an exjilanatory 
gloss on tirrpoi; just as in vcr. 1 Dwrov 
seems to have been added to expt^n lara- 
^apd, and in xv. 13 splaeut to explain 
ntUpa nplav. 

We associate the KirTpny or 'goad with 
the ox 01 the ass but not with the horse. 
C£ Pro*, xxvi. 3 uffirep fiairrii tir*-^ kbI 
tlrriiv* inf: Ecclus. xixviii. 15 unuxiitu- 
vat i- Kp«n nt^rr/Bv, <«- "."-.-.- 
Ecdes. xii. 1 1 Xa7« ai 


c dis;>o5cd to think (1) thai the 
Hebrew had the meaning ' He pricked 
me as toilA a goad ; ' but that, as is often 
the case, the preposition oF the inslrti- 
ment not being expressed, it was over- 
looked by the translator: (i) Ihal the 
translator s addition of the trrov changed 
the image from that of the ox, driven 
by the goad, to that of the horse, urged 
by Ihe spur. 

But the simile ur 
horde's spur' applied 
obviously repugnant to the poeli 

the Almighty is 

of the sul)ject, even . . 
grinlol that nitTpw was ever used for a 

It is found in Prov. xxvi. 3 as a Itans- 
lation of il^'Q 'bridle.' 

We believe thai the Psatmist's meaning 
would have been expressed by {>uf^ fu un 
iw KtrriKf. 

The Psalmist describes himself as the 
ox at the plough, that needed lo be 
pricked on with the goad. 

fcrl Tjv if(npfipip-iv aJTov. See on 
iii. 1. The meaning is clear. 1'he goad 
is apfilied Ihal the heo-il of burden may be 
alert ant) wakeful lo obey the master's 

On aiar^p cf. viii. 39, 

dvnXifnnip. Cf. Vs. xvii. (xviiL) 3 
Kifiat BBiniiiiii /lov xol arnAqfirru^ fiMr : 
liii. (liv.) 6 fol i KipiM MnXit^nrr-wp T^ 
i-<^t fiai): Ixxxviii. (lixiUx.) 1J $161 IIMI 
cat irriK^nimiip r^i ffumjpfat luiv, 

a i£i»i«XirrV°l^°^-'^^- Cf. Matt, 
xi. 35 iiviia\oyiAiiai o« Ttirtp iiipic reC 
ot^oFOu Koi Ti\t Y^i an ftpv<liat n.r.X. 

There is a very similar pasmge to thin 
in Ps. cxvii. (cxviii.) 11 iitnoKiry^Qiial 
ff-oi Srt tfliKovait futv nai i-fitw lau tU 

At irBTi|pIav cutrespiiniling lo ti'i di-i^i- 
iitiar in the next clause. For the opposi- 
tion of the two words see I'hil. i. iS ijnt 
iarhi aura:, Mttia itriAtial i'lxCir H aw- 

ot!ic tKeylra |u urra tAv duBfn-oXBV At 

dmiXtuv.' The'desti 
of as the portion of (he sinners can hardl) 
be <tislinguished frnm the violent end, 
which was regarded as their just rctribu- 

XVI. 7] 

rAAMOl 1AA0M11NT02. 

4 He pricked me as a man prickcth his hurse, that I might 
watch unto him. 

He that is my saviour and helper at all times preserved me. 

5 I will praise thee, O God, because thou didst help me 
unto salvation, and didst not reckon me with the sinners for 

6 Withdraw not thy mercy from me, O God, and take not the 
remembrance of thcc from my heart until I die. 

7 Keep me, O God, from abominable sin', and from every ' Conj,, 
wicked woman that layeth a snare for the simple ; straJgt 


10 JlfUlprul^ol ik dpSf/ao'Tat tiidtiiXtiiw. 

This thoughl apjieaia in ihe phraseology 
of Si Paul in such pasaoiges ns Rom. vi. it 
tA Tt\ot iffliwr 0araToi. Phil. jii. 19 iSr 
ri tAoi drdiXiia, where the Aposlle em- 
ploys Ihe current terras of Pharisee theo- 
Wy without adding any precise dehnition 
onneirdevelopnient in Christian leaching. 

The hinguage is trased upon Isai. liii. 11 

TU^xJiff') (ft flwttTol' ^ ^vyiloiToij Kol if TBft 


i. {!« 

9 III) airoo-nioTjs to (Xadt irou. See 

■niv |iviiiii]v crou, ' the memory and le- 
collcclion of ihy goodness.' The Hebrew 
"QX ii more often rendered by ii'lU^iruroi', 
but ibe use of M*"!*") may be illuslraled 
by P.. ,xix. (x«.) s, .c.i. (xcva.l „ nl 
IfmoXirrtutBt T^nriutji t^i ayiaairiitBiTBi, 
Cxliv. (cxlv.) 7 M*^V' "0 i-Xijflotfi rSt 
IV fffpfl^KTBI. Aq. Ps. 


c. 6»< 


7 nrmpdriia^ fwv. For i-rapaTfTr 
see 00 ivii. 17. A Mrange word to occur 
in the present context. Its use in the LXX. 
ia either intransitive in the sense of pre- 
vailing, e.g. of the flood, Gen. vii. 18, 
a; Sym. Gen. vll. 10, 14; of famine, 
:d. xli. j8, xlvii. 10; or Itansitive, with 
a gen. in the sense of ruling over, e.g. Eir. 
iv. 10 twtiiiaToOiTri JXiji rijt fawipat toC 
waraiuO. i Mace. x. 51, xiv. 17 /■ r^ 
Xiipoi. Aq. Gen. i. 16 (al friKpanlruaaw 
{'(Tf:\) and j8. Ps. ciji. (c«.) » ^:- 
Kpirii (pT!) f'f™ Tiir ix^pSt sav. Hos. 
xi. ii(»ii."0;».«p«TSr(Tl). 

If the text is correct, the word is used 

\e of 'hold fast,' 'sircng- 

Ihen,' 'ptoiect,' translating plOD- It 

occurs in the versions of Aq., Sym. and 
Th. in Isai. li. 18 /rutpaTur, translating 
p>IP!!3 (LXX. atTiXap,^ari/i.a'ot). Cf. Aq. 
Sym. Jer. !i. (xxvii,) 11 iwiKparfytart 

We should rather have expected a word 
like /yipirqvay (ct. Ex. ix. 1 dWa trt 
iyKpariU oiJToiJ) with the appropriate 
meaning 'withhold,' 'keep back,' or 
avyKpirritar. Cf. Sym. Ps. xvi. t- 

im ifofrrUxt iravi|pdi, Kal dm irdoip 
ywuiKit K.T.X. A little awkwardness 
arises from the words lot iri riinji yu- 
raitit roinfpii following after dwi aimp- 
Wat toyTiii&i. The expression ' and from 
every wicked woman ' seems to presuppose 
some reference to a specific class just 

The passage reminds us of Proverbs 
vii. 5 Jra at rjj/)^D liii yiwoixii itAoTpiai 
Kai iroin)pa,i: and it is a suggestion, which 
seems to u^ very plausible, that instead of 
6./\».C we should read tA\OTp\&C, 
the error arising from the confusion be- 
tween M and AA and from the transposi- 
tion of pT for Tp. 

If this reading were accepled, the 
J'salmist would lirst have singled out 
' the wicked strange woman,' before be 
passed OD to speak of ' every wicked 
woman that layeth snares for the simple.' 

In favour of this suggestion it will be 
remembered that the term 'strange wives' 
is especially used with reference to Solo- 
mon, I Kings xi. I Hal tKa^i jirriuKai 
aXXm-pini, and ver, 8. Sec Eir. x. 1, 10, 
&c. ; Neh. xiii. »6, fj. Again iJAvrpla is 
used absolutely as an equivalent of wiprtj 
in Prov. v. lo^j) itoXit IcSt wpii iXXoTpiiu/ : 
vi- 14 iro Siafia\^ y\iiiainjt dWoTplat 
(R.V. 'from the flattery of the stranger's 
tongue'}. Cf. Prov, v. 3 yvrauit r^ip 
(nTJ), where Aq., Sym. and Theodot, 


[xvi. ; 

' ical fir) aTTa.Ti]cra.T(ii fif koXXos ywaLKo^ Trapavo/xoucnjs, 
Koi *TiS.v TO fTvyKtijitvov* dvo dfJiapTias ai'wt^eXous. 

KOI Ti iiABHwari fiov cc 77? ^i^/xg irou iiA+y^aioN- 

S vavT« ^a«;/iA'otr codd. et edd. : iJroiciua/iA'oti CODJ. Hilg.': tsf tA nvyiid 

have aXXiiTpJai : xxii. 14 vrifui TOfiai'J^ti 
(^rt^[ 'fl) Aq. Th. laXoi-piM. 

inciiivSBXi{oiln|C. The verb iri:a»iaM- 
fcir in the LXX., according to Tromm, is 
found only in Ecclus. ix. 7, xxiii. 7, 
xxxii. 16. Bui see Dan. xi. 41 col 
nUai <rirarJaXi(r0^Dri-B> ^h^T). Aq. 
Prov. iv. II. Is. kI. 30, Iiiii. 13. Cf. 
?s. cxl. (c»li.) I) iwi ^KotBdkuir !■«■ /p>a. 
lofUiibii' tV aiDfUa*. Sym. I's. Ixiii. 
(ULv.) 9 itai Mirror JiX<ffa» aW|r {ffl^'trp'J) 



' ihe simpleton.' See Prov. 
vii. 7 811 fo Hg rw a^piiiur Titrat rtartar 
iwSffj ippfi'&r: \x. 16 ii Eitru' I'fivv a0f»- 

e u,'^ dLimTiirclTa iw KiiXXot vvrai- 
Kif. Numerous illnslrations of thi.s sen- 
timent might be taken from gnomic wril- 
ings, e.g. Trov. vi. 15 (iij at ruijffji ndX- 
Xon ^TiSufilo, Ecclus. ix. 8 iriirrjK^f 
6^9bX/i^ dri -yiiaiiif F^>iip0oV| Kai fii] 
(BTa^iirfiu'E iidXXoT dXXArpioii- A' (dXXft 
Ti'vainit xoXXoi ^TXojJlhjirav, x\v. -ii »iJi 
irpiKfitVirjjj iiri liXXoi 7uFni«4t, .Susan. 36 
ri fdXXol ii^jTrinja^ /it. 

mv ti a-vyictCiuvov airi afiofrHat <Im>- 
^(Xovt. The reading of the Mss. vavr6i 
Mnwu^ciu cannot in our opinion be 
retained. Geiger renders 'Noch Je- 
mands, dcr sieh von hcilloser Siinde lic- 
herrschen lassl.' and k fallowed by Pick 
'Nor of any, who is controlled by un- 
profitable sin.' But it is clear that the 
wonls Tarrii Orauntifpot' orb i/jopriaf 
d.tupi\tOi are extremely periphrastic if 
dependent upon xiiXXoi, and introduced 
a» a parallel to ywaiKbt raparofioia^. 

Wellhausen renders freely 'und keinc 
Eingebung nichlsniitziger Siinde,' as if 

Duld read . 
sense of 'every submission or surrender 
to,' literally, 'and everything sulxlued 

It does not appear to us that 'that wliich 

is subject to or subdued by vanity ' con- 
stitutes a natural parallel to nAXor 711- 
Fcuitii, and a further minor objection 
arises from the use o!Ari. 

In conjecturing rSv t4 iri^Kiliifror we 
introduce a very slight change into the 

text, i.e. TTANTOCtr'* ^°' TTANTOCT- 

nOK. The reading we adopt gives a 
wide and appropriate meamn); to the 
clause. The sentence then rana: 'Let 
not the beauty of woman deceive me, 
nay, let not anything deceive tne that is 
composed (thai consists) of empty van- 
ity.' As in the preceding verse, the spe- 
cific source of danger is mentioned fw- 
fnre the general class to which it belongs; 
while the preposition irh reproduces the 
Hebrew [p in its partitive sense. 

It may be objected that avytii/au does 
not occur in this sense In either the 
LXX. or Ihe N.T. But its use in this 
sense is so general in Greek writers that 
we cannot admit Ihe force of an objec- 
tion, which in the case of an unusual 
word would be decisive against its intro- 
duction as a conjectural reading. 

otird dfoprCat (vu^tXint. The prepo- 
sition iwi, which here represents |0, 
here takes ihe place of ix (^f), which is 
the ordinary construction after iriiymifut. 

ilvt>^>Xi]i In the sense of ' unprolitable ' 

^ iJmrtp wrAf \i^pot xal iru^r\^, Jer. 
Ji. S <b1 orlttu Iru^xXout iropfiStattr, 

dfU^tXS. Wisd. i. M ^vXiiaeSt toItw 

The expression 'unprofitable sin' calls 
for some remark. 

It is noticeable that )J(<I is rendered 
by Aqnila in Ps. v. 6 ovu^nor (LXX. 
droMfa^t, vi. 9 ri™,*.W. (LX.\. ir^plaw). 
xiv. 4, ««xvi. 13, Iv. 4, Ivi. 8.Job iv. 9 
(LXX. t4 drera), Prov. xxii. 8 (LXX. 
Kata), xiviii. 3 aru^^i (LXX. atulal'). 


XVI. 9] 



8 And let not the beauty of an ungodly woman beguile me, 
nor aught that consisteth in sinful vanity*. 

9 Establish thou the works of my hands in thy word', and 
preserve my goings in the remembrance of thee. 

Aq. Is. Iviii. 9 XaXowrra cUw^cX^, 
Hos. xii. 8 (9) dpiopekks adr^ reading 
)^ for pK, Am. L 5 ayoy^eXoGt (lxx. 

w), Jer. iv. 14 OMU^Xtlas eov nfi)H\. 

On the strength of this evidence it 
seems to us probable that either iftcLprUis 
ww^Xovf is a double rendering of |^K, 

or the translator has added the adjective 
fltrw0«XoDf in order to define d/xapWaf 
more closely in accordance with the 
shade of meaning attaching to )^. 

9 rd ^ya rmv XH^^ F^^^* ^^* Sym. 
Ps. xviii. 1. 

Iv kSrff o^v. The reading in this 
passage is very uncertain, (i) I'he Augs- 
buTg, Vienna, Copenhagen and Paris 
MSS. agree in readmg ^r rdwtfi aov. It 
may be questioned whether any satisfac- 
tory sense can be obtained from this 
reading. Geiger adopts it and translates 
*in demer Gegenwart,* on the assump- 
tion that t6iwos is here employed to trans- 
late thpt^ * space* or * place in its Rab- 
binical application to the Deity. Dr 
Taylor in his note on *maqom' {Sayings 
of the Jewish Fathers^ p. 53) quotes from 
Jalqut 117 where it is said that God is 
called * Place,' because He is the * Place 
of the world and not the world His 
place.* He also mentions the fact that 
the Rabbins laid stress on the numerical 
values of the letters of the Tetragram- 
maton, and of the word *maqom* being 
identical, i.e. 186. 

The passage from Philo De Somn. Lib. 
I. (vol. I. p. 630, ed. Mangey), which he 
quotes, indicates that r6irof was inter- 
preted by Jewish teachers in this mysti- 
cal sense at a time very little later than 
the date of the composition of our 
Psalms. The passage deserves close at- 
tention : TfaxCn hk iwiwoetrai r6wor dwa^ 
fUp X*^ ^^ a(itfiaTos ^inrexXiypw/u^ri;* 
«rard St&repw 9i Tp&wow 6 $€ios X&yoSt ^r 
iKT€T\i^puK€P 8\ow Ik* 5\uif dauffidrois 
Swdtuauf aMs 6 Oeot. ' elioy* 7dp, ifftftrly 
*t6p rinrWf o5 tWrjiK€i b Beds roG 'lapa^X* 
...icard 5i rpLrw ffrjftAOfdfJLerw a^rof 6 
$€0$ KaKeircu r6iros, rtf Ttpiix^^ M^^ ^^ 
SKa wepUxfffBtu 9i Tp6s firfiei^bs drXws, 
Kol rif Karaipvy^ r(a¥ avfiwdi^Tur aCriar 

eZrcu, KoX iTtidrfwep a&r6s iari x*^pa ^av- 
ToO Ktx'ifpil'^iin iavTow koI ifufKpbfiewot 
fi6p<fi iavT(^....6 diTKrpiis, odx itwarrq, r6- 
iry, olht T(} iKT€T\ifpwfi4p(i^ 6w6 ffibftaros 
$iriflTo0...ovT€ T(} TpLr(^ KoX dplffT(fi...aXKd 
rf ftiirtfi X&ytfi $€l((^ rd dpiara v^rryov- 
fUwtfi Kol Sea wpoff^opa rots Kaiptis dya9i- 


If rbrtfi is to be retained as a trans- 
lation of the Rabbinical *maqom,* we 
should prefer to explain it not (as Geiger) 
as denoting *the Almighty* {6 Beos), but, 
in accordance with this passage of Philo, 
as a term for the Divine Logos (0 Bcios 
\6yos). The sense then would be, * Esta- 
blish the works of my hands by Thy Di- 
vine Logos.* 

To this rendering there are obviously 
two strong objections : (a) it is not to be 
expected that the technical terms of Philo's 
teaching would be introduced in our Psalm, 
whose religious tone is of a simple and 
practical character; {if) a Rabbinic ex- 
planation of *maqom' fails to make Kared- 
Owoy iv rinrtfi <rov a suitable parallel to iy 
ri fiMT^fiig (Tov dta^i'Xo^oi'. 

(3) Hilgenfeld's conjecture, iv 06/3^ 
<roVf adopt^ by Fritzsche and Pick, has 
the support of the Moscow MS. Here, 
however, as elsewhere, the Moscow MS, 
seems to have adopted an emendational 

0<$/3y gives an excellent meaning, and 
corresponds quite suitably to pur^P^V* ^ut 
it appears to us that the weight of 
transcriptional probability tells against 
<f>6^ l)eing the right reading. A parallel 
might be cited from iv. Esdr. xvi. 71, 
where the MSS. read 'eritque locis locus.* 
Here an original 06/3of for totos is pro- 

(3) Hi!genfeld*s conjecture, iy rwry 
aov *nach deiner Regel' is ingenious. In 
the LXX. rvToj occurs in Ex. xxv. 40; 
Am, V. 26, and frequently in the New 
Test. ; but such an expression as iy TiJiry 
<rov addressed by a Jew to God, in the 
sense of *cord rby tUbya <rou, or icord rify 
bfiolufiriy aov will require more authority 
than we have been able to find before its 
admission into the text could be justi- 

' Lit. UH' 



' Gr. in 

thy place ; 
in thy 



'" ri}P yk<u<Tija.v fiov koX to, x^^^V /^"^ ^ X-oyots dKrjdetai, 
opyrfV /cat Bvfiov aXoyov fiaKpaf ttoCtjctov ott ifLOV, 
" yoyyva-fJ.ov koI oXt'yo</(Uj(tai' if OXt^ci fj.a.KpvfOP air ifiov, 
iav afj.apTTqaii> iv tw it« iraiScueti' els ivtoTpotfyjv. 
'' €i38oKt^ Se /icTix iXapoTT^ros imqpi^ov rr^v ^l/v^TJi/ p.ov, 
ec Tw iui<r)(y<Tai ae tiji' i/fu^fTJf /xou dpK^aei p-oi to Sodev 
'^OTi icLP fL-q (TV ii'L(T)(ya~Q';, tU v^i^tTai iv neni^ nAiiei&N, 
" iv T<u ikeyx^crOai i/iu;^^i' ei^ )(€ipl trcnrpias ain-t]<; ; 

7; doKifiacna aov ec a-apKi avrov . 

11 nnJeilev A (Ccrda). 

12 evSoilf (am. ir) cmid. Fab. Geig. 
ins. (V Frilisch. Pick, (sine nota). 


ei ircvias- 

» r»f? A, edd. 
o-lp Wcllh. conj. 


ButseeOrig. Hex. (ed. Field) Gen. xlvii. 
26 ph^ StaltUum. O'- eil rpiarayiui, 
AAXw rii Tiirw. Ex. xii. 43 T^. O'- 
i riltas. 'hXKa%' i rurot. 

{+) We venture lo conjeclnre ^f \47v 
(or Xariy) ffDu. In favour of this reading 
we may fairly claim tranBcriptional pro- 
bability. There is a wellH»lablislied 
instance in » Kings xk. ii tin f/f ranat 
(Heb. -a-l) if ait titi^ir aiVrni 'E^(I<l(, 
where the various reading Xiyot is surely 
(he iiriginal rendering ; tcStoi might indeed 
be there regarded as an inlerprelflltve 
rendering, but it is more natural to assume 
that it is a transcriber's error for Wvoi 
{Aofoc . Torroc). If Aofw or Aopt*) 
were accidentally changed to Aonoj, the 
alteration to Tonto would tollow natu- 
rally. Another possible suggestion is 
NOMLO, a word ol^en interchanged in ibe 
Mss. with Aofio. 

Siap^liaTO. Cf. Fs. cxviii. (cxin.) IJJ 
ri iio^i^rd /loii KareliBiwiir KOTd ri \iyiir 

10 irtpCimiXov. See note on wtpi- 

sc of unreasoning, is 
sniy in Wisd. Jii. 17 
ur fiiwr, and ill the 
II : Jude 10. Cf, 

But 6fyii^ SXirjar probably repieseots 

found in the 
iXoya ipwiTi 

the same Hebrew words as ipyi) i^'po"" 
in Prov. xxvii. 3. 

11 ivffKrfit. Cf. Joh. vii. 11: Acts 
vi. li Phil. ii. 14; I Pel. iv. g. 

jXi'yDi^Ca. This word renders the 
Hebrew expression 'shortness of ipirit,' 
i.e. impatience. Ex. vi. g oix tla^navottr 
Mwurn iri r^ JXiyosf'Ux'af ' Num. xii. 4 

The d\i7D^.ix« is the nn "iVi? ' brevis 
spititu,' i.e. 'hasty of spirit' in I'rov. xiv. 
19. Cr. I Thess. V. 1 4. iMyi'fii'x<" 
meaning 'fainlhearled' renders Hft^SJ ^1 
in Prov. xviii. 14, and 6\tyo>puxtti' 'to 
faint' occurs in Jonahiv.8(e;^pn;i). Cf. 
Isai. liv. 6. 

The Psalmist prays that a compUin- 
itig spirit may be taken from him, that he 
may not oflend by murmuring, and im- 
patience at the discipline and chaslisement 
which is sent him on account of his sin in 
order to reclaim him. This is clearly the 
meaning of the pa.ssage: and it can hardly 
be doubted that the translator has tended 
to confuse the sense by placing Or ijiop- 
T^u before ir rip ce raiitiuv. 

For the thought generally, cf. Ecclus. 
X. 18 (Lat-) vir prudeiis ei disciplinatus 

ttmrrpa^, See ix. 19. 
IS (Mwcfa luni IXapJnfroi. The 
ind cheerfulnes* 



10 My tongue and my lips do thou guard about with the 
words of truth; anger and senseless wrath put thou far from me. 

U Murmuring and faintheartedness in the time of affliction 
remove thou far from me, when for my sin' thou dost chasten * 
me to the end T may be restored. ''' 

12 But with goodwill and cheerfulness uphold thou my soul ; 
when thou strengthenest my soul, I shall be satisfied with that 
thou givest me. 

13 For if thou strengthenest not, who can abide chastisement 
tn poverty ? 

14 Seeing that a soul is rebuked by the corruption thereof; 
thou dost prove a man in his fiesh and in the affliction of 

ii8aKCf = ^^^. Cf. e.g. Prov. xxxi. 
13. Aq. Th. h PoiiXi. Sym. in flrt^ 

Uiifdnjt. Cf. Prov. xviii. ii Aaj9f Si 

Sym. Th. render cAimiat {lix. ii to 
iXapar aiVoC^Aq. Sym. Th. liSatla). 

vnfpifov. Luke xiii. 31 IwiirTpi^ai 
arriptaw Toin dfltX^Di'T crou. 

(tpiUirn uoi. Cr. Num. li. 11 (li) tiA- 
para •al ^11 ettmyTiaovTat Bwroft ini ifi- 
tiaii aiVwi; 4 iror to S^oi ttJ! SaAdsnii 

la -Kl l^^mu tv nvfa TaL&iav. 
The PsalmiFt here specifies Ihe chastiu:- 
tnenl which God had »enl upon him, the 
sudden loss of riches. The mss. differ a.s 


{a) According [o the reading of Ihe 
Copenhagen, Pons and Moscow MSS., ir 
reWf follows (^{eroi: Ihe sen^ then is 
'Who, being tilreiidy in poverty, will be 
nble in abide chastisemenl ?' 

o the readinn .. .'._ 
(rlf fol- 
lows riuttiai-: me sense tnen is. 'Who 
will be able to abide the chastisement 
which comes thiough poverty?' 

We prefer the formet rendering; er 
irn'I{i = T(i'4i iSt' It suits belter the pre- 
ceding verse. Thai vcnte ended with the 
thought, 'if Thou givest slrenglh, I shall 
be satisfied with Ihe lot, however poor it 
be, which Thou ordaioest.' The present 

verse replies: 'but if Thou dost not give 
strength, where b the hope of the poor 
man, when correction coniielh upon him, 
yea when his soul is rebuked by the re- 
collection of his frail martal nature?' 

There is no reason to follow WeU- 
hausen, who would omit in riyl^ aX' 

14 &JYX«r4<u. Compare for the whole 
passage Ileb. xii. 4 — 1 3. 

Iv X"P^ B-airplat avTT|s. Cf. Job Vlii. 4 
Air4aTnXnt er x"W (l*o>Jai ai^il*. For 

SoKLiuurCa. This word is found in the 
LXX. in Ecclus. vi. IE un XlSst SoKi^ia- 
irlat laxiipoi Imai iw' ah-^, and in the 
N.T.. lleb. iii. 9 du irilpaaar oi raTiptt 
in&r it Sofi/iwiif (-in Ps. xciv. (xcv.) 9 
iioillioffaf), Sym. E«.-k. xxi. 13 {i8) »al 

til iropKl avTov, The pronoun outoG 
following a^er •f'l'x^ nioy be illuslraled, 
as Gciger suggests, by Lev. ii. i Or H 
^vx^ T^poo*pipTl flufpWp... atidSaiKa tanu 
TO sapor avToB, V. I iir ti itujcfl ini/ir^ 
...tal o6t8I /idprui, Num. xv. iS. The 
masc. in these passages lilemlly repro- 
duces the Hebrew. 

It is possible thnt auroC implies in the 
present passage the use of C^ as a 
masc. substantive (cf. Geo. ii. 19, ilvi. 
95, Num. ixxi. iS). But it seems to us 
more probable that it is an instance of a 
'conslructio kbtA aii/tnr.' The word 
^uxb is used for an individual; and in 
close connexion with ffipj the tmnslalor 
naturally passes lo the use of the personal 

tv eXli(F« wreloi. The example of the 


126 f AAMOI lAAOMfiNTOZ. [xvi. 15 

"eV Tw vTTon^lvai SiKaiov iv toutoi; fXfijd-^aerat vtto Kvpiov. 


XVH. Kypie, fru awro? B&ciAfrc 

N elc t6n aIuna icai 

OTi o- trot, d ^eds, Kav;^Tjo"€70t tj 'pvxr} tJ/xojv. 

Inscriptio decit in M. 

palriacch Job is clearly the point of ihe 

It may be objected Ihitt ^ Sklim rt- 
flat does not balance it aapti outou, and 
that we should have expecled some such 
cxpre»iion ai rV tmi avoAHi ai>roii. 

Bui Ihe prejwsition tr does not refer to 
ihe sphere of Icial so much as to its >p- 

Kinted inslniment. A man is Iried by 
i own fioil nature and by the sufTecingi 

IS iy rf il*ap«Ivai SIkoiov. Fot the 

reward of mercy vouchsafed to the lighl- 
cnus that patiently endure, cf. Is. Iiiv. ^ 

l^aX/uJ T)iiiir clSw 0(0* irX-^r <roS tal ri 
Ipya cw i rn^irni Tb!i vwaiUnivaiy fkttt, 
Dan. xii. ii luitifua j Lro/i/rur, Lam. 
iii. 15 oyaMr i:(/iioi roit iixBiittavatr hi'tAi'. 
The opposite of ihrs spirit of patient 
endurance is expressed by Ps. cv. (cvi.) 
13 fTcf^wBi', f»rtafl»To Tiir Ipywir auroS, 

For the attitude of the Ifcawi under 
chastisement cf. iii. ,t — 6. If the writer 
has the instance of job before his mind 
as the typical righteous man who pati* 
enlly endured sulTering. we should com- 
pare Jas. V. II rJjf wrojioi^i* 'IcijjS 1iko6- 
aiTI lai ri r/Xot KVfiati tlSert, hi woKi- 
a-rXoTX'^i ciTTi* i Kilpiot ical idmli^iiaii. 

hr TCMCroif , not with vwniititai, but with 
iX(i)S^<Tai, Even in the midst of these 
ttoulila, the 'righteous" man, like Job 
of old, shall find that the Lord is mer- 

Ts. X\'ll.—j4r£vmtn/. 1—4. /alra- 
Hiiclim. The LontJ is Kinc. The hopes 
of men generally resemble their own life, 
short and fleeting: the hopes of the tnie 

(°1 5 — II- The Lord made choice of 
David and his seed to reign over Israel. 
Sinners made the Divine decree of none 

effect. They have detolated David's 
throne. God will recompense them and 
will not alterly forsake His elect 

(*) 13-1J. The insUument of Di- 
vine visitation is the 'ungodly' man; he 
will massacre and banish foes. Ai a 
stranger, he will practise idolatries in 
Jerusalem, and Jews shall surpass the 
heathen in abominations. The sunti 
flee for their lives and are desmiiled ; the 
heavens and the earth stand aghast at 
the wickedness from which none either 
high or low are exempt, 

a< — 49. Tht Kingdem o/the Messiah. 

(fl) 11, — 31- Prayer for the reign of 
David's Son, to destroy the heathen from 
out of the land and gather t<^ther again 
the true Israelites. 

{b) 31—46. The description of Hi« 
reien and rule. 

Its holiness will be the wonder and 
glory of the world. 

Its strength will not be in material 
force but in the trust in God. 

Wise, strong and sinless, the King 
shall prevail, and in His righteousness will 
suffer none of H is subjects to be oppressed. 

pure and just. 

fo and 51. Epilaguf. Such are the 
davs of the Messiah: the Lord hasten 
His coming. The Lord is King. 

This long Psalm is Ihe most important 
in the whole collectloa. The special in- 
terest attaching to it turns upon the his- 
torical allusions in the earlier portion 
(5 — i^) and the description of the Messi- 
anic King and Kingdom, which occupies 
the whole of the latter portion of the 
Psalm (13— JJ)- 

The historical allusions are as fol- 
lows; sinful men have usurped Ihe IlirtKie 
of David (6t 7); for this God sends pun- 
ishment upon them by the hand of a 
stranger, who will render to them accord- 
ing to their deeds (8—10). But God's 

xvir. i] tAAMOl lAAOMONTOS. 127 

i; The righteous man, if he continue steadfast, shall therein 
find mercy of the Lord. 

PSALM xvn. 

/I Psalm of Solomon : -with a Song unto the King. 
I O Lord, thou art our King henceforth and even for ever- 
more, for in thee. O God, our soul exulteth. 

(levaslRtes Israel, alajring some, oiling 
others lo 'the far west' (13. 14I; because 
he i& a stmnger, he is guiliy of presump- 
tion and idolatry; the lews themselves 
cmulnlc and surpass Ihc heathen in wlck- 
eiiness (ij — 17). The pious arc scattered 
&r and wide (18, tg|; famine and drought 
add to the horrors of the tiuie (jo, 11). 
All ore sinful ; common people, judges, 
and the kini; himself. 
These references are best understood, 
I when ihey ace ei:pllined as foltows : the 
f warpers ore the house of the Asmoneans, 
who look to themselves the ihrone of 
David as well as the High Priesthood of 
Aaron, Aristobulus I. (105 — 104) being 
the lirsl who assumed the royal title 
The 'stranger' who carried out the Di- 

ple led to a terrible slaughter (vcr. ij), 
Aristobulus and his family were led pri- 
soners to Rome, where they adorned 
Poropn's triumph (14). Pompry vio- 
lated the Tem}>]c. but his presumption 
was due to the ignorance of a foreigner 
(16, 17). The mention of drought and 
famine about this lime agrees with the 
ststements in Pss. S. ii. lO, v. 11, 11 &c. 
The title of 'king' in ver. 11 refers lo 
HjTcanut II. 

No other idcntilieatians cnn be recon- 
ciled with the various statements con- 
tained in this passage. The 'lawless' 
man has been said to be Antiocbus, He- 
rod or Titus. The allusion to a Jewish 
king makes a reference to Antiochus 
Epiphancs and Titus imposuble: the 
mention of banishment lo 'ihc far west" 
does not agree with the action a\ Anti- 
ochus or Herod: the e^lrangemenl from 
the Jewish religion (15) is not apjilicable 
to Herod; the mention of mercy (ver. 11), 
and the implied survival both of city and 
people (ij Sc), eonfliels with the view 
that Titus is referred lo. 

We conclude then ihat Ihis Psalm, tike 
others in this collection, was composed 
not long after the capture of Jenualem 
by Pompey. 

The allusions to the Messianic King 
give a vivid debCriplion of the hopes of 
the Pharisees half a century tiefore the 
coming of Christ. The details will come 
under observation in the commentary. 
The reader however should carefully ob- 
serve (1) the two external characleriitics 
of the Messianic reign, the overthrow 
and exclusion of the heathen (aji *7> 3' 
&C.) and the restoration and reunion of 
the tribe (18, 30, 48), (1) the weapons 
of the Messiah's power, holiness, laith, 
wisdom and justice (15, »7, 33, 39, 41 

1'he writer identifies himself with the 
inle Israel (cf. the 1st Pens. Pron. 1—4, 
^i 9> iji iji .'>>)• He implies Ihe enst- 
ence of corruption and wickedness in his 
own people; the oppression by the Gen- 
tiles; the persecution of the pious; and 
thegenerat oppression. 

itie prayer for the days of the Mes- 
siah contains no insinuation of a resort to 
physical force or insurrection. The faith 
of the )Hous Pharisee has not dt^nerated 
10 the fanaticism of the zealot. 

How it shall come to pass is not a 
matter for consideration. But the king- 
dom of Israel shall be established through 
holiness over the whole world. The 
Ibrone of David shall be set up, and 'the 
Son of David.' the Anointed of the Lord, 
shall administer justice, a holy prince of 
a holy people, ruling as it were on behalf 
of Cod the King of kings. 

The picture is ideal, and is based on 
the thought, which is the refrain of the 
whole Psalm (1. 4. iK 5')' that the 
Lord himself is Israel's King, that He 
is faithful. His kingdom is for everlasting. 
and in the appointed day He will restore 
the ihrone to Israel. 

Imrripiiim. For fitr' i^yp See note on 


[xvii. 2 

" Koi 7is o )(p6vo<; ^wij? avOpc^nov e/rt Trj<; y^? ; 
Kara rov -^povov avrov koX ly eXiris ai^rou ctt' auroi'. 
^T7/ietS 8e Ikiriovp-iv eVt ^toi- roc (ToiTrjpa. T}p<i>v, 
OTt TO Kparos tov ^eofj r](i<uv ei? toi' aiwa, ^cr eXeou, 
'xat tJ ^aaikeia tov $cov -qfi^v et? toi* atwca erri ta 
it3N» ev KpitTft. 

°Su, Kvpt€, HpETfcu) TOI* AftylA /SacriXc'a eVt 'icrpa^X, 
Kfit o-u LJMocac auT^ wept To£i cnlpMAToc aurow elc tcJn 

70U /iTj EKAelneiN airiva-VTi. crov ^o<rtXetac avrou. 

" jfat cf 7a« dpapTiaii; ^/iwr eTraviirrqcTav -qplp afj.apT(o\ol, 

ot? ouK ejnjyyei'Xw, //.era /Si'a? d^eiXovro, 

4h^>' ^< r< 

8, 4 art Ti tpoTDi 
per hijmceotel. verbis ; 

S ^oAtfM A, P, Cerd, Fab. Frilisch. Pick, 

(SiwRfw V, K, M. Hilg. Geig. 
a JTBrr'f^u A (Cerd.). 

a/ui™ f»l ri Jfffij fi 

M (omi 

Tf ponXit mighl be lakeo in apposi- 
lioii to TIP ZaXo^iun'. but it is better to 
r»ard il as a reference to (he cliief fealute 
ofthe Psolm, the Messianic King (ver. 33). 

1 vi aiMt PwnXrit ^M'v. The aCrrit 
reproduces the Hebrew idiom. CI. Vs. 
Uliii. (lliv.) 4 vt (t nWl i ^aoiXnii /loii 
('3^5 Wn-nFUf). 1 Chmn. xvii. 16 

The thought ofthe Kingship of Jehovah 
over Israel is found in nuiuerous places in 
the O.T.: Ex. xv. 18; Ps, xliv. 4, Ixxiv. 
i], xciii. I, xcvii. i, xdx. t: Is. xiii. ii. 

In the present Psalm cf. vers. 4, 38. jt. 

Srt Jv rel. The Sri in this cUuse is not 

in the LXX. 

Kavxijcrrnii, The ful. probably repro- 
duces the Hebr. Imperf. The rendeiing 
by the Ful. makes good sense, as it woidd 
denote the future endtation oFthe faithful. 
But in a clause parallel to ai ah-Ai Pairi- 
\iij n^/tw*, the tense employed iviil natur- 
ally indicate a corresponding continuity. 

For KauxairBai b 'lo glory in,' sec 
especially St Paul's usage, e.g. Kom- ii. 

1 Cor, V, ti, X. 17, xi. 11, xii. 9; Cal. vi. 
13! Phil. iii. 3; iThesa.i. 4. Intwoof 
these passages, 1 Cor. i. 3 1 : i Cot. x. 1 7, 
he refers lo Ibc passage in the LXX. ver- 
sion, where tairxaaSai renders 3 TJOnn. 
Jer. ix. 13, 34 Xfyn tipm M^ mii- 

navxiaBiii 6 laxvphi iy rf brxii a^roB. jtoj 

afiroO, i\y i) /f tovti/i navxieSu i ««ig£(i- 
Itiroi iriwiEiv xal -fU'iiacciv 6ti ^71^ tl/u 



17. 13. ■ 

I Cor. 

In the Psalms it is found but !«ldoni in 
the l.xx. version. It occurs with the 
simple meaning of exultation as b trans- 
lation of ]*7y in Ps. v. 12 Kol Kavx^ornn 
if aol el AyarSifTii ri tro/ti am, and of 
Py in cxlix. J Kauxiaoiirai Seai t» Ufg 
taX d'yoXXuion'Tai (cf. xciii. (iciv.) 3). 

the LXX. IS very generally used for Dip* 
'days,' e.g. Isoi. xxxviii. 5 'behold, I will 
odd unto Ihy days fiHeen year«'=i8o^ 
TpoirrfCif/u -wpot rht xp^'" <"»' Strarim 
trti! Ixv. 10 'nor an old man that halh 
not Riled his days ' = rot ■wptspinti tt out 

■bI ■i\ tX«'U...jir' avTJv. The mcanin); 
of this line is obscure. 


are a quolalion, the strange position of J^^ ,^„ 
irl ri (en, Iw Hfilef- afier rlj rfi- aluita ,^ ^^^ 



^V1I. 6] YAAMOt ZAAOMflNTOI. 129 

2 And what is the time of man's life upon the earth? Even 
according to the measure of his time, so is his hope in him'. ' ^""^"l" 

3 But as for us, we will hope in God, our saviour, for the '/Ifr^' ' 
might of our God endureth unto everlasting with mercy, 

4 And the kingdom of our God is unto everlasting over the 
heathen in judgement. 

5 Thou, O Lord, didst choose David to be king over Israel, 
and didst swear unto him touching his seed for ever, that his 
kingdom should not fail before thee. 

6 But when we sinned, sinners rose up against us ; they fell 
upon us and thrust us out : even they, to whom thou madest no 

promise, took away our place with violence*. ' 9f','*^' 
' ' which Ikim 
. — — didsl nai 

(i) Geiger, who carries on the question 
(al rli la the end of the verse, and puis a 
comma after xp^™ a^n', renders ' Und 
was ist des Menschen LeberiBeit auf Erdetl 
icii Veii-Ieich lu seiner Zeil, da<i!i er seine 
lIofTmine alif sie sent?' ir' ai-rir then 
refers to 6 xi'^"" {^' i"^' But this dis< 
linclion between i xfi^" M' 'the mortal 
life,' and TBr^pirtii ainO 'his time' (=his 
eternal life), is quite artntrar]'. and has no 
support from other writings. 

(j) Wellhouscn gives • Was ist die 
Dauer von eines Menschen Leben auf 
Erden! Ebenso kurz ist auch die lIoIT- 
nung auf ihn!' In proportion as man's 
life on earth is short, so limited is the 
hope or trust which can be placed in a 
man. it' ah-w is then equivalent to tr' 
bSpiara', just as i\itli tOtaS is for Avif 
ipSptiirov. In other words, 'men gene- 
rallypul their hope in man; but IheTiopc 
is truisitoiy, for every man's life Ls short.' 
This seems belter than to refer avriir lo 
Xpi'in, since i-w' SrBpiamar supplies the 
naluriil antithesis to frl foir (ver. 3). 
The text however is probably corrupt ; 
or the translator was in difficulties. 

8 4|uti Ei The true Israel is dis- 
lingu bned from mankind (&'0fHi>roi) gener- 
ally by the fact of resting their hope upon 

The conception of the universal an 
eternal Kingdom has been illustrated froi 
Ihe Sibylline Oracles: Sib. Orac. in. 4 
^offiXria luyierrl 'Affarirau paatXijoi it 
Ar&ptlrrourt ^aM«T<u : j66 'al Tirrt S t^t 
■Yipfi fiairA-^av its atijrai ncEvTii Fir' it 

B ■Aprrdm. 

Cf. ■>: 


Cf. ii 

19. The title of 'Saviour' is here used 
m Ihe sense of ' National Deliverer,' as is 
evident by the reference lo ri ISrt) b 
Kplaii in the next verse. 

oUtvo. These words reproduce such pas- 
sages as Ps. cxiiv. (cilv.) 13 ij paai\tla 
sou pa^Afta wiirur Ii3* alarm. Dan. 
vii.i7 Ktd ii paat\tla airroC jSo^iXiln a/uiiot. 
If we may assume that these words 

J. P. 

an Eternal throne lo Da 
oaih. Is refened Ic 

See especially 1 Sam. vu. j t;s. Umtvui. 
(bcxxix.) 4. Ii iSiimra &awl3 rf S«<)Xy >Hiu 
tiin ToS alwnt Jmiiiiffu ri frtptia crov cnl 
olKeto/i-^aai tli yrnir mtl TOct* rif 8p6ror 
mv: cixti. (cxxxii.) ■ r, ii Ahiv Kvpum 
Tifi iaufia i.\ie<MVi. loi oil uv iScr/i^ti 
eJMir 'Et tapKev 7-71 ttiXlai ffou Si(cronoi iwi 
rir Bpiva* trDii.,,tal oJ i<(ot airrw¥ Iwt a/u- 
yo% JtaeioCwai <»l rir ep6ror aott. I Mace, 
ii. 57 AauW ir ti} f\ttf aC-roS kii\iilK»'hii,iiat 
eparm ^aviXdai tit alCm atCmot. Rectus. 
xlv. JJ. 

For the house of David cf. Orac. Sibyll, 
111. 588 "Ran U Tit ^v\ii paeA-fiiat, ^1 
yAiof foTiu 'AiTaiffToi-. 

Tipl ToS o^r^ptkarol k.t.X. Cf. As- 
mmpiiii Mosis ill. el jusjurandum ouod 
jurasli eis per te, tie unquam dcncial 
semen eorum a terra quam dedisli illb. 

e il|UpnAol. It IS important for the 
understanding of Ihe whole passage lo 
dclermine Ihe application of this word. 
See note on i. i. 

Ii is nol used of Aotiochus Epiphanes 
and his army, nor of Pomjiey and the 
Romans, nor of Herod and hi» followers; 


' Koi ovK i86$aaav t6 fiNowi cot Td e 
eOtuTo pa,(rt\€i.ov atni. w/zous o.vTtav, 

Kal cri), 6 ^tos, narABftAETc avrows, 

KOI apci; t6 cnepMft arfuiN awo rijs y^s, 

'eV Ttt) eniiNftCTHNdi ailrots avBpwTTOv iAAoTpioN yo'OUS r)fi,Q>v. 

'° Kara ra avToiv Anoiioceie auTOiS, o ^eos' 

evptOtiy) auTOis Ka,TA ta epr* auTftJc. 

7 rt IvTc^ h Siiff (»tfTo A, V, K, M, Cerd. Fab. Ililg. Geig. 

TO Iru^ar- iy Sifj; fSoro. 1', Frilisch. Pick. 
O 7A'ow A, (Cerd.), V. P, M, Hile- Fritisch. Getg. Pick, : 7e»o» K, (?) F»b. 

*«S» V, K. P, M, Hilg. Gcig. Friusch. Pick. : iipir<* A, (Cerd.), Fab. Cerd. 
conj. BripiT&v. 

for the 'sinnem' are carefully dlstin- 
guiihed in ver. g from the forciEners. 

ll is clearly used of native Jews, who 
(i) usurped power which did doI belong 
to them (ver. 6), (j) did not pve the due 
honnur tu the nation's God, which was 
to have been expected from iheni (vet. 7). 
'.1) g'^'ipe'l at monarchical authority (ver- 
8). This description exactly tallies with 
the Asmonean house, who, having usurped 
the High Priesthood, made it subMrrve 
their political purpotes, and in the reign 
of An.slobulus assumed the title of King, 
to ihe great offence of the Tlieocratic 

In what way howei-er ore we to under- 
stand the Psalmist's slntemcDt that the 
'tinners' rose up against 'us,' attacked 
'us,' Sc? We believe that he repre- 
sents not only I the Phorisees, but ihe 
priests, who had been alienated by the 
setting aside of the legitimate line of the 
High Priesthood. It is noteworthy that 
the fourfold rcpetilion of the i^i Pm. 
Pron. is followed by the menlio 
spoliation olt .AipfO-erra. 

For the possibility of the 1 
in^ to a priestly house sec note on 111. 7, 

oti oik hn]YyiOu>...d^<{XaVTO. We 
make no doubt that by this clause is 
intended the assumption of the High 
Priest's office and of the royal title by 
the Asmoncan Princes. 

The literal translation of the clause is 
'they to whom thou madesl no promise, 
with violence look away from us our 
honour' (subaud. ^/wi Trgr ri;ij)r ^^v). 
The sense is obvious ; those who were 
not of the house of Aaron look by force 

n of this 

the position and privileges of Ihe sacred 
family. The Greek however is not withoal 
difficulty in consequence of the absence of 
(d) the anleeedcnl to the relative clauae, 
{i) the object of the verb d^lXorro. 

The awkwardness of the construction 
affords good ground for the conjecture 
thai ofi is the rendering of Di|l7..."l^, 
which in this case should have been 
translated by f or a..,ai>riNT, 'that which 
thou diiist not promise unlo them, they 
took by force.' 'This explanation accoanis 
for the dative oh, gives a suilabte object 
to d^fXorro, and preserves the general 
sense of (he passage. 

7 JSJ{tumv.. fv &S(i|. Fritische, fol- 
lowed by Pick, connects Mfp with Mwro 
in the following clause. 

For Mfu compare i. 8 
tfic^\u«ai',,.^ ptpii\6ffti; ix. lo^r Jta- 
e^KT, Siidou, 

t4 SvOfid o^v t4 lvTi|iav. Cf, Dt. 
ixviii. 58 OoPfiiraiu t4 a»oMO t4 trrmtr 
ri Bavii,affTOv tdDto. 

In Ps. Ixxi. (Ixxii.) 14 Ml ?KTyior t4 
itoiia aifT^v hfjitav aimi, ire/ai seems 
to be an error fur al/ia. 

We understand these words to mean, 
thai the Sadducee parly preferred a 
woriiily monarchy to the Kingdom of ' 
Jehovah. The Theocralic parly con- 
sidered that Jehovah was the King of 
Israel, and thai no mere man ^ould 
receive ihe lillc. 

pao-fXaov is here used for the ofRce and 
power of the King. Cf. » Mace. IL 17 rf 
/Soffrtfiw nai TO Itpirrviui. Wisd. L I4 
oBri jiaou pairi.\aer trl fijt. It is some- 

xvri. lo] 



7 And they esteemed not thy glorious name in any honour; 
they preferred a kingdom to that which was their excellency. 

S They laid waste the throne of David with a tumultuous 
shout of triumph. 

But thou, O God, didst" cast them down, and remove their 
seed from off the earth, 

9 When there arose* against them a man that was a stranger 
to our race. 

10 According to their sins didst* thou recompense them, O 
God ! jiea. it befell' them according to their works. 

didil raise 

times used for the emblems of the rtEal 
power, the crown 01 ihc throne, C£ 
1 Sum. i. to ; I Kiiics xiv. 8 (A) 1 1 Chron. 
xxiii. Hi Wisd. V. 17. 

i.vr\ Gilnia axrin. Lilemllr, 'in the 
place of that uhich was their exallatiun.' 
Cr. I Mace. ii. 40 lol TO O^ot air^ 
iirrpiip^ tit HrBm. B^oi would then be 
used almost in the sense of i CI|lwTDt. 

Oui rendering gives its fiit] meaning lo 
itrl, which other translators have taken 
10 mean 'because of or 'in,' as if=3. 
Thus Geiger, 'setiien sich die Krone »uf 
in ihrem Uebermulhe.' Wellhausen, ', 
ihrem Stoli.' Pick, 'because of their 
pride.' G«iger quotes Gen. xlvii.ig. But 
the author of the Greek version of these 
Psalms, who shows such a predilection 
for the prepo^tion tr, U not likely to 
have rendered 3 by inrl. His use of 
arri in other passages, ii. 3, 13, ij, 11, is 
rare, but always with the full sense of 
'instead of," or 'in the place of (^nrU!!). 

anflict between Hytcanus II. and 
AristobuluE, which preceded the advance 
of i'ompey into Palestine. But it is belter 
10 explain il more generally as an allusion 
lo the vain anil amiiitious jralic^ of the 
A-smonean ptinces, impoverishmg the 
couniry and weakening iheir own le- 

. Ox.l>.) J 

Innfif^vtn iXa^dfiiaTat. A difficult 
phrase to reproduce in English. The 
two words combine the ideas of in- 
solent pride and ihe clamour of victory- 
While Ihey shouted for Iriumph, the 
(irinces were desolating the city of David. 
aXiXayiia does not seem to occur in the 
LXX-, except, ace. to Tromm, 1 Sam. iv. 6 
(v.l.). We have iiXaXo7nii = nplTi;! Ps. 
iii. (Iixxix.) \C /taKifioi Xoii i 71- 

IniffKi^ d^alKayiiOf, Cf. Ps. xxvi. t E, XKKii. 
3. xlvi. (, cl. 5. 

icaTa^aX<tt...<lp(It. These future tenses 
are almost certainly examples of (he trans- 
lator's inability (o render (he Hebrew 
Impf. accurately- For (i) they stand be- 
tween the ■^p^/iuffa)' of ver- 8 and the /{t- 
p«i)nwt...oijt i^i^ir of ver. 11, (i) ihey 
refer to the lime tnenlioncd in ver, g, li 
Tifi iraraiTTiiKu a^Tois jt.r.X- 

NaTaPoXtCt. The Asmonean niunatchy 
practically ceased afier the capture of 
Jerusalem by Pompey. 

9 hn,vaa-n\i/c.i,. The previous clause 
would have led Ui to expect the transi- 
tive (ToiiaoT^ai, ckplanatory of koto^- 
Xtff anil iptit. 

SuBfttvor dXUTpM* Y^avt iffiav- Not 
unnaturally these words have been takoi 
to allude lo Herod or his father Antipatet, 
who were Idumeans. But the descnplion 
lower down (rs, 16) makes ihii identiiica- 
tionoulof the question, if, as we think, the 
same petson is indicated there as here. 

Pompey is clearly referred lo. 

Fat irSpiana Mi&rpior cf. Dt. xvli. 
15 oC iur^'o laroffT^at irl ataurir i*- 
Oponrop aW&TfKOv. 

The yfvfin iiii.Qr is not wanted after 
dXXArpiar and follows awkwardly after 
atraa. It has all Ibe appearance of a 
translator's addition. 

10 dvoSiJmi. For the tense note 
on ver. 8. For Ibe thought of retribu- 
tion sec Li. ;, 17. 

flpiBi£i| auTOlc. The optative is in all 
probability to be regarded as an errone- 
ous rendering of the Hcb. Irapf., cf. i. 4, 
iv. g. The two verbs are coordinate. 

In the l.xx. the Pass, of tiplatu fol- 
lowed by the dal. often renders the He- 
brew idiom 'to be found of = ' lobe pre- 
sent to,' Cf. 1 Chron. xxviii. 9 ^4* fif 

ria-p ttirtii, tviit^^tTtti irot. Is, Ixv. 1 
lipiSipi TSir iiit fij) ^aihn>>, Jer- Xxix. 





" Kara. to. ^pya. avrtuv eXeiJtrei avToi><i d dto<;, 
e^pevvr]<r€ ro trirepfia ai/rtui' Kai ovk ai^irJKev awous'. 
"7rt(7T05 O KVpiO'i tV TTaCTL TOl? KpCpacTiv avTov ots TTOiel 

""HpriAMocEN d a.vep.0% t^v yrfv rfp-oiv and eNoiKOifNTtoN 

Tj^ovttrai' ve'of fcat TTpeafivTrjv Kai TCKua aurof a/ia* 

"ei* dpy^ KaXXoi^s avrov ffaTre'trretXei' aura e&JS ejrl Svo"/iWf, 

Kai rows a.p-^ovTa.<i tt}^ yij? ets iiivavypov, Koi ovk i^iitraTO. 

la oil V, K, P, M, Hilg, Geig. Ftilisch. Pick, ri A, (Cerd.), Fab. 

la ireimt cotld. Fab. Geig. Sroiun coni. Ewald, quein seq. Hilg. Frilisch. Pick. 

if^taa» A, V, K. Fab. Geig. iJ0dFiae» P, M, Hilg, Ftiusch. Pick. 
14 fv dpTH i^ivt conj. Hilg.' (Pick.). 

14. But this usage seems to occur espe- 
cially in D good sense. 

Mere 4vprf4[i] aiWxiIl seems 1i> be equi- 
valcnl tu evfxSitirtTai aurni or tirpifiouttr, 
cf. Deul. xxi. 17 irh rdrrun (jr or «i)- 

11 4XtrirH...<fT|p<jin]n. The uncer- 
tainly of the tenses is here well esempli- 

There are two ways of interpreting this 
verse, according as 4\eJiatt is understood 
ironically or literally. (1) Ironically. 
His mercy towards Ihem is according to 
their works ; their works are evil ; there- 
fore he punishes Ihem. He searches out 
alt their mce ; none can escape ; he 
leltelh none of them go (aix d^^ci' aii- 
To^i). Thus the Lord ts just in a.11 his 

(i) Liltrally. But where Iheir works 
are not evil, he sheweth mercy; he tri- 
eth and searcheth out the whole race. 
If ihcrc is any gowl in them, he sparcth 
Ihem, and dolh not forsake Ihem utlcTly 
(oili d^nr aih-oi)t). Thus the Lord's 
justice is shown in all his judgements. 

In favour of (l), it should be observed 
that the lone of denunciation in vv. 8 — 10 
is maintained ; Hfftmita is commonly 
used in a hostile sense ; e.g. i Mace iii. 
5 lol itlafyr ixlnuim if((Mi*i», ii, afi Jiol 
iit^avt caJ <fi|pciin.iv roi>( ^oui 'loila.. 
For oiit d^Nfv avnrilt cf. Ps. civ. ig 
KQ.i fXwref al^r^f dp^uf \aau nal ^^xtr 
aMr, 1 Mace. xiii. ig «al tiK li^cEr rir 
'Iwtddor. (In the sense of 'to forgive' 
i^'q/u is only found with the dative of 
the person forgiven.) 

We prefer (]) however, on the ground 

that the lone of irony does not appear to 
correspond with Ihc general style of our 
Psalmist, and that the transition from de* 
ntinciation to the declaration of mercy is 
explained by Pompey's treatment of Hyr- 
canus II, who was left in occupation of 
the High Priesthood. 

^(ptvvds is used of careful inquisitive 
search Ps. Ixiii. (Uiv.) 7 iitipniniirar dra* 
Mi<u; i((\tnr iifptvrivra Hrptwiitti, 
not always in a hostile sense. Prov. ii. 4 
ml in Btjaaiipalit iiiptvr^jit oMir, Lom. 
iii. 39 iit/Kur^ ^ iSii V**. I Pel- i- 
10. For ^iip in the sense of ' desert,* 
'abandon' cf. Jer. xii. 7 i^tjia rV '^V 
pom/day /lav, tcclus. vi. »6 tai htupariit 
yirifunt fii) d^^ a^r. 

If it were not for 4Xtife-M we should 
piefer the sense given by (1), which de- 
rives support from the use of iitptiirir 
and d^i^oi. 

The difticulty is not lessened by the 
transition from the and Pers. Sing. Id the 
3rd Pers. Sing. Ac^irci. 

18 i dvquf. Alt the uss. read i 
Sri^t. Ewald's conjecture 6 Ifouot has 
commended itself generally 10 the Editon. 
The change from e to is very slight, 
and the application of the title i iroiiat 
lo Pompcy as the representative of the 
heathen adversaries of Jerusalem would 
be quite appropriate, Cf. 1 Thcss. ii. 8 
TbTt ii-onaXi^^eroi i dro/u». 

For &e/«it used technically of the Gen- 
tiles, i.e. those without law, cf. Acts ii. 
aj Jii X"P^ iri^uir: t Cor. ix. ai : Is. 
i. 7 ^/ni^tJrai KartaTpa/i/Uni irt AaCr 

In our opinion Ihe reading of the MSS. 


1 1 According to their works God had' compassion upon 
them; he sought out their seed diligently and forsook them not 

12 Faithful is the Lord in all his judgements, which he doeth 
upon the earth. 

13 The tempest' hath laid waste our land that none should 
inhabit it ; they destroyed both young and old and their little 
ones together. 

14 In the fury of his wrath' he sent them away even unto the 

And the princes of the land he turned into derision, and 
spared them not. 

iiuituices of change from Singular (o 
Plur^, e.g. iv. 7, •), 10. 

vfey xot K.T.X. See ii. 8, where with 
(he eiceptioD of tlairai far ofia the 
same words occur. 

1« hr dpYTI KiXXout. The combina- 
tion of miXXot wilh (f ipyi is very 
stiange. Obviously it is used in quite 1 

i iriiut ahooltl be adhered lo. The 
Psalmist refers to the Roman a I lack 
ondei the similitude oC a devastating 
tempest. Cf. itiiuv toXXoD, viii. 1. In 
Is. xxviii. iS, ig, the same metaphor is 
used of an invader ; and in the great 
wind which in the Conflict of Adam, 
Bk iii. X. 15, sweeps over the earth to 
destroy idols, we have a somewhat similar 

Compare also the memlon in Jos. Ant. 
XIV. ii. » of a great tempest of wind 
which devastated the land shortly before 
the dale of this boolt. 

inti Ivoutedtmiv avnjv. Cf. Jer. Ii. 
(lUv.) 1 not ISai tlaar lpi)iuii iri /taliiM; 
which expresses generally the sense of 
'And, behold, this day Ihey are a desola- 
tion, and no man dwelleth Ihereiu.' 

The use of (fntiUia with dro is not com- 
mon ; it occurs with the sense of ' to de- 
prive ^ in Bar. iv. i6 Kal dwh ruv dv^- 
Hfiar ripr liit^n ijfi4fiu<rar, on the analogy 
of which passage we might reader the 
present clause * they robbed our land of 
her inhabitants.' 

But T^ Y^r -riiiuf seems to demand ihe 
primary meaning of ijfiq/iuocs, 'laid 

probably a Hebraism = 3 |{n' J'Btp ' with- 
out Inhabitant,' a, in Isai. vi. 1 1 lur an 
ipij/ibtdi^ffl r6\tit rapi t6 /i.^ Karouteiffffai 
f3^' I'KC) 'ai stioi vopa t6 iiij ibtu 
arSpiirevt (Wfif I'KQ). 

■^^rvmv. We prefer this reading to 
ii^di>iff(i>. which has all Ibe appearance of 
being a mere correction of a harsh con- 
slruciion. The devasialing wind is the 
metaphor for Koman armies, and Ihe 
Plural is very naturally employed kstcI 
fftptav. The Iransilion from i^pi^/uhrec 
to ^ipiiwv may be paiaUeled by other 

different ! 

: from that i 

Ueiger considers it to be a rendering 
of n^^i;i used in the sense of I^TI = ' in- 
solence,' quoting Isai. x. 11; cf. Zcch. 
xii. ;. Wellhausen probably explains the 
word in the same way, ' Im Zorn und 
Uebemiulh.' Pick renders 'in his jealous 
fury,* without however suggesting the 
reading it ifyi f^Xom ai>ri>i; which his 
translation might be taken to indicate. 
The gen. idUoi/t qualifying Jfryn ■m}' he 
illustrated by W'lsd. v. [6 ri itiSiiiia tw 

We suggest another explanation of 
jtdXXoi'i airrov. (1) These words literally 
retranslated give us V5I. (>) After U 
ojjyj we should expect Si'(io3 ailroii = 'in 
the hlry of his wrath,' cf. Lam. ii. 3 
suiriK}iAVtv if ipyi 8v)ioB airrat wSt nipat 
'lo-poijX. (j) II appears to us thai I'DW 
■ his wrath ' was by an easy error in one 
letter Written I'D' 'his beauly.' (4) The 
translator rightly rendered I'B' by taX- 
\avi a&raO; but it he had the Irue reading 
before him. be would have rendered it by 
SufUiO oiVroS, Our translation 'in the fury 
of his wrath' conjecluraliy restores [he 
original meaning, Most probably we 
should supply i flfii before l(awiirTtiXty. 

ai-ri Vat iiA tmruMv. Pompey sen! 
off Aristobulus and his family to adorn 
the triumph at Rome. See Introd. 

KrilEsche says 'scribendum lun iri 


[xvil. 15 

"tv aXXorptOTTjTi o e'^^pos enofHCSN ■ftp"* *■«[*(«, 

Kttl ij Kaphia. avTov aXAoTpta otto to5 ^eou ^/xwi/, 

"xai TTOLtna ocra cVoiT^iref eV lipov<ra\r)fi, 

KiOirfc »cai Ta €9nh eV TCU5 jro^-cci Tois Peot? awrtSv. 

"jcat e7T£Kpa.Tovv avriav ol viol rij^ SiadiJKi]^ ii* Wctp 

idvatv cymmIktion, 
©■fn HN o noitJN cv ai^TOiS cc /leVo) 'icpoucraX^/i lAeoc kaI 


" efftvyov diT avrtuv ol ayaTrwtrcs trwotywya? ovitav, 

ia% cTporeli eienericeHCaN (iTro koIthc avTtov 

'"cnAftNiiNTo CN epHMoic, (TcoBijviU i/wj^a? avrwi- otto »ca»cow, 

Kal tImion «/ oi^da\/xoL9 Tra/JoiKt'as V'^'i aiiTcuafi^vr) ef 

16 rroliiffar conj. Kilg." 

iKTiuii, cf. I Mace. V. 18, nisi interpres 
mitecisinum admisit.' But we need not 
hesilale to retain the rending or the mss. 

Kal Toit dpj(OVTa(. Stricllf spmlcing 
the accusalive is by zeugma after oir;- 
»T«\w. Bui in ^1 probability this ac- 
cusative case is due to an error of (be 
translator, who did not perceive that 
there was a fresh clause, being misled by 
the absence of a verb. 

<ts Jiiiraivi'liv then does not express 
that the rulers were sent to mockery, but 
that the rulers becatat a laughjiig-slock. 
The fh gives a common ttse of J, as in 
f ii b*aitaf>Iai, tit •/iXiiira, etc. ; CK ii. i ^. 

It is possible that /^vai>iiii> may refer 
to the degradation of being led in the 
conquerors triumph. 

IS Iv dXXoTpt&Twn. The Psalmist 
deals leniently wilh ■ the adversary.' His 
'insolence' Ifiri/nipaiia) is explained to 
be due lo his foreign origin, and to the 
fact of 'his heart' licing strange from, 
i.e. ignorant of, the Jewish God. 

The Psalmist, we make no doubt, is 

18 mli-nL «ra liro{i]Ofv. The &ra 

les not seem to be wanted in the clause; 
requires us to supply (Voii^o-w a 

But Pompey's freedom from avarice 
and consideration for the religion and 
worship of the Jews had commanded the 
respect of the people. He is therefore 
not vindictively assailed 1 his profanity Is 
ascribed to his ignorance. 

ilXXorpfa (tiri tod SmC H^av. The 
adj. aW&rptet is found with a gen. of 
the object, and not elsewhere with aw6, 
(hough the verb aWttrpiiu has this con- 

Is 9aa a corruption in the text for jtria? 
And is it intended that Pompey offered 
sacrifices to the God of Israel in Jem- 
Salem, following the ordinary ritual of 
the heathen in their own cities? 

Kati% Kal nl (9vt\. Neither AntipMer 
nor Herod would have acted thus in 

17 twrnpirtim. For Iraparta see 
noteonxvi. 7. Here the sense is that the 
Jews aufilid and surpaistd the heathen in 
the outrageous excesses of idolatiy (per- 
haps = JO Plin). 

Another explanation of the word is lo 
rt^ard it as a rendering of "3 PTQ-J with 
the sense of 'join oneself to.' So Gei- 
ger, who quotes 1 Kings ix. g 'laid hold 
on other gods;' Prov. iii. 18 '^e is a 
tree of life lo Ihem that lay hold upon 
her;' iv. 13. He however explains tlie 
line to mean that the Jews laid hold 
of (i.e. banded themselves with) the 
hrathen against their own counliymen, 
referring aiVrwi to litj). A more naluni 
interpretation would refer oSnia* to Ole 
heathen gods and practices, which the 
Jews 'laiSholdof.' 

ol viol rni Sia^mtt. Not a common 
phrase. Cf. E^ek. xxx. j >ai irdrrit ol 



XVII. 19] 

15 In that he was an alien, the adversary wrought insolence, 
and his heart was alien from our God. 

16 And all things whatsoever he did' in Jerusalem, he iV/VConj. 
even as do the Gentiles in their cities unto their gods. fCi^rtd 

17 And the children of the covenant that dwelt in the midst riififier- 
of the mingled people surpassed them*, there was none among /•""""^ h^ 
them in the midst of Jerusalem that did mercy and truth. 'Or, (lave 

18 They that loved the assemblies of the saints fled from ^"^ 
them : they were scattered as sparrows from their nest. ot, gei the 

19 They were wandering in desert places, that their lives "• 
might be preserved from harm; and precious in the sight of" 
them that were sojourners was one life saved from among them. 

Acts iii. 1; iiiuit tun uIbI riS» Tpv^nrrur 
(ot T^i ihaS^ii^t ^% SttSfra i Siii i.t.X. 

imav oii|1|Uktmv. Clearly b rendering 
of T^_ a. Jet. i»»u. (Heb. n*v.) 15 
«d rirra, roit cvii^nTon,, xxvii. (Heb. 
ii.) 17 K(U T6r •riiifiKTa' t^ i* lUtf air^t. 
We nnd for the some word irliatrot used 
as a subsL in Ex. xii. 18 *al iri/uKni 
TiAit aunwipTi oi>r«i. Cf. Eiek. x«. s 
quDted above. 

Here It U very possible that iSnar ti 
either an alternative rendering or inlro- 
dufed explanatorily, cf. xvi. 1 tara^ap^ 
l>i»ou, thTficr (inrou. 

IXmt Kal aXijSnav. Cf. Jos. ii. 14 
'deal kindly and Inly' (lXX. wiuitsm... 
tkiat taliX'^eitw); Ps. Ixxxiii. (Ixxxiv.) 
la D7I Anr lal [i\q0«ai- ayar^ tipioi. 

la innwi«r<(A* Arlmv, 'the assemblies 
oflhe Mints 'or 'thegnlhcringsK^etherof 


' Cf. P; 

either ge: 
cf. Ecclui 

cxlix. t 

ivYiiryal 'Icui^^, 
liv. 18. 

1 8 it cvfayvyii Kop/, i 

For the opposite 
cf. Ecclus. XXI. 9 OTwnreioi' ffiwiry*^*'* 
niwayiiryJl itifUM, Apoc ii. g, iii. 9 two- 

til o-rpttvKa. The metaphor is per- 
haps borrowed from Ps. x. (xi.) i ittra. 
raffTtvQv rrt ri Sprj wt arpovdiar, 

iJnrtTa<rtT]irav. We should have ex- 
petled ((imfirat. Cf. Hcclus. xliii. 14 

dire ■e(rT](. ioItt) here seems to be 




InJ' . , 

'the dwelling-place of jackals.' 
ve[7 probable that our IraiuUtor 

Fusing rrpavffal and STpauBla has adopted 
KOhTir from this passage! 

19 ^XsMnTO. Cf. Heb. xi. 38 ir 
ipittitais rXanLfievoiM 

raOfjvtu. The infin. is epex^etic of, 
but stands in no strict grammatical con- 
nexion with, /rXmwi'TO. 

tiiuen' h J^hXiuitt. Cf. Ps. cxv. 
(civl.) 15 rl^iiM (VarrU tvplau 6 eitan, 
Tiii ArW a/iTiZf. For Tl»aei= 'rare' cf. 
I Sam. iii. 1 p^iai KUfileti i* Ttuoc ir raTi 
■4#i^(jiui inflnu!. 

-rapoucCnt for tuv irajiolxuv, the ab- 
stract for the concrete. The sense is 
that the community of the Jews dispersed 
in other countries regarded as a rare ami 
precious thing any one life saved from 
the perils which Jerusalem oflered both 
from the Romans and from fellow-coun- 

We have here perhaps the earliest in- 
stance of vapniila applied to a eaittmu- 
tii/y temporarily sojourning in a strange 
land. As a title for the Jewish sojourners 
in foreign lands, it represents a different 
(.hade of thought from ittunpi. As 4 
IiEUTTopd they are describeil in their re- 
lation to (heir fatherland; as t\ rapoula 
they are described in their relation to the 
countries in which they sojourned for a 
time until the day of Israel s restoration. 
Cf. Ecclus. Prol. ol it tJ xapatuff . 1 PeL 
i. I TraptTiHiitoa Staaropit. Its occur' 
reiice in the present passage is of especial 
interest, since it shows that the use of 
vapwla for 'a body of sojourners' was 
an accepted Jewish one beiure il became 
generally adopted in the language of the 
Church. See Bp Ijghtfool's note on 
Clem. Ef. ad Cor. i., where however 
the present passage is not mentioned, 
ant] where the eaniest instances quoted 



[XVIT. 20 


OTl iN^CXtN O OYpANOC TOU Cxilftl fCT^N £ni TlIN f"", 

"nHrAl cynecj^Gmcan auoviot. i^ aBtccwn airo opeaiu vijnjkaiv 

OTi of" "5" Cf awroTs nonLN Aikaiocynhn kaI Kpiwa, 

OTTO ap^ovTo^ avTuiv koX \_^<^f\ Xaou eXa)(t(rrou ei' Trda"[} 

ofiapTLtf. ■ 
^6 /SacnXevs a- irapavonCtj., Kal 6 Kpinjs C" awei^ei'^. 
/cal d Xaos eV dpapruf. 

°'l8c, Kvpte, KoX ANiCTHcoN A^ToTc TOJ' BaciAea avTCui', 
utof AayI^, eU Tov KCLipov ov olSa? <tv, 6 Ot.o'i, 
ToC ^ao-tXeOirat ewi 'itrpa'^X TraiSa ffov, 


so A odpavdi ]', M; om. £ A, V, K. 

frJ Tj)F r5- V, K, P, M. T^ -rti A. 

91 fUT DOli EOnj. 

aa h iwaeilf V, K, p. M: (* i\r,9elf A: HUg. conj. o.!* ii- ikyiOtlf. il» 
Fritisch. Pick. Conj. it aatpil^ (ieig. 

aa oEIit V, K. tliei A. oUai P, M, (Hilg. conj.)- 
a« li^Or codd. (A ^x^, lic), Fabr. ^xi^' 

IV. 13. 

Wahl's C/avii Afiecr. qaoles as exam- 
ples of wapB»ila = ol rdpoixot, 3 Mace. vi. 
36 Kol ititvii' iptadiuroi rcpi ToiiTiar Bta- 
pin inl raaar rijf rapoiKlar airril* fit 71- 
Ffttt. vii. rg ^tI rji- t^ lapOHJat aiW-ur 
Xpiror efl^pDiri^B'iii'i : but mistakenly. Us 
in bolh cases wapoiila refers to the pe- 
riod and coDclition of ri rapniciiv, as in 
Acts itiii. 17. 

la another passage Ecclus. kvj. S, oit 
iptlanTa rtpl -nj^ rapoixlas Aujt, oBl i^f- 
XiljaTO, \( ■wapeigla^iA ripoiKOi, it is in 
the sense of 'neighbours" not of ' lempo* 

Ceigct's conjectuie that ir i^ffaX^wt 
irn^KHjiIai is a mistranslation of 'jlf^ 
DniJt^ 'imAngcsLchte dcrSchrecknissc' 
does not iieem to be either foicible or 
poetical enough to justify acceptance. 

aO nco|>irvr|i^. The substantive dues 
not seem to occur in the lxx. For atap- 
rllu, cf. Ecclus. xlviii. 16 iaKopirlaBtvar 
ir iriiiTj; r^ yi, 1 Mncc. Vii. 6 Kol ^ai 

ittipwivar irh riw yji ^^uw, 

(iWvxfv i oipayit. Ko( thb drought 
and consequent famine, see Joseph. Aill, 
XIV. 3. 

The iame famine here spoken of has 
been mentioned in ii. 10. 

For aWffxO'. cf. Hagg. i. 10 Jul toSto 
iri^fi i nipatis dri Ipiaov, Ecclus. xlviii. 
3 in \&ni Kvplw iri^x'^' vdparir. 

ai in^...l^i.fiivvwv. This phrase 
is a variation of inryal rSt i^ffffou in 
'^ and r^jyal rw** AfiCff' 

* Dt. I 

■ perennial (D'jri'Kt) springs,' cf. Ps. 
Uxiii. (Ixxiv.) 15 iiitparas roTO/Hii^ 'SSip, 

(ip'(( nhr!j). Amosv.7+(n^^t3|j?p 

jn'K ^055). The line probably de- 
notes the two sources of waterj (i) the 
sprioga. which were unfailing il 

XVII. 34] 


20 Over all the earth were they scattered and driven by 
lawless men. 

For the heaven ceased to drop rain upon the earth, 

21 The fountains were stayed, the everlasting _/o««/«i«j that 
spring out of the great depths and from the high mountains : 
because there was none among them that did righteousness and 

From their ruler to'" the vilest of the people, they were'"'' 
altogether sinful. 

23 The king was a transgressor, and the judge was dis- 
obedient, and the people sinful. 

33 Behold, O Lord, and raise up unto them their king, the 
son of David, in the time which thou, O God, knowest, that he 
may reign over Israel thy servant ; 

24 And gird him with strength that he may break in pieces 
them that rule unjustly. 

aquanini deficient, et fliimina exarescent. 
4 Esdr. vi. 14 Et venu; fontiuni slabunl. 
Test Levi. 4 uSdrur i^paiyo^ouf. 

troMV SiKa,Loa-£vi]V Hol Kplpa. Ct. 
Eiek. xviii. s it or^putoi it lirrai il- 
xcuot, i TMuir ilpi^ iiai Imaaiaiirjir, Ps. 
cxviii. {cxix.) 1 1 1 ixolT^o. tfiita ad iucu- 

dwi dfvovTM . , . Xaav iXaxlTTOv. A 
very ptobibic instance of a Hebrew idi- 
om imperrectly understood; ' fiotn iheii 
prince to the very least of the people,' 
I.e. both their prince and the dregs of 
[he mob. Cf. Jonah iii. 5 iri /ityaXav 
oih-iBi" lait fiutfioD tt&Tuy, Very possibly 
lui should be supplied here; in xvtii. ij 
it was omitted by A and b^ older 
editors. The idiom in the lxx. is ^ne- 
rally given by ivb.,.Kal luz (cf. Ex. ix. 
ij, Jo9. vi. II, 1 Sam. XV, j). 

Geiger, who also explains the difli- 
culty of the passage as due to a misap- 
prehension of the Ileb. prep. ]Q, con- 
nects iiri J(>3to>T<n afiriS* with the pre- 
vious clnase, ' Kciner. , . iibte mehr als iht 

as i pair iXiif. The Asmonean Prince, 
referring to Hyrcanus II. 01 Aristubulus 

hf dvitSiC^. Four of the mss. give this 
reading in place of ^t iXififi^ which was 
so unintelligible that Ililgenfeld's con- 
jectural insertion of oOx was accepted by 

Fritzsche {?), Wellhausen 'inBestechlich- 
keil,' and Pick, while Geiger suggested /r 

Amtdtia is not found in the L 

t has described. 

only one possible remedy for ii : the King 
promised long before, of the true ancient 
kingly lin< 

the wording of the appeal many 
parallels can be cited. Tlie promise 
originally made to David is in 1 Sam. 
vii. .1. In Jet. xxx. 9 we have rf» A. 
^criWa aifril* d*iurT^iij aitrofi. Cf. Eiek. 
xxxiv. 13, xxxvii. ij ; and, as perhaps 
the earliest in date, Amos ix. 1 1 iraar^iMi 
TTjy mririiir tou A. t)j» xfxrBwwai'. 

NUpiv >v olSof. Cf. Zech. xiv. 7 i^ 
il/tipa itdn} -frmtTti ry Kvplif. A refer- 
ence 10 the old promise is indicated. 

34 iwilavoy occurs once in 1 Mace, 
and in Acts xxvii. 1 7. The usual LXX. ex- 
pression is wiin[uiry6nu iimuui, Ps. xviii, 
38, 43. In Is. xi. the Messiah is girded 
with righteousness and faithfulness. 

(paiirai. Cf. Num. xxiv. 17 ffpaisti 
TBiJt ipxyiy^ Hiiifi. The corrupt Sad- 
ducean princes are to be cast down. 


[xvn. 25 

" Kaddpiaoi' 'I epou£raX^/x aTro iOvoiv KaTaTTaTOVvrmv iv 

* efojtrat dfiapT(o\ov? dno KXT^poro/xiaSi 

€KTpi}l>ai. viTepT}(f>aytai' ap.apTa>\av, 

(OS cK£-fH KepiMetoc CN piBic,> ciiHpiY cYNTpl^K&i vda-ai' VTTO- 

(TTaa-tv avTwu- 
^ o\o9p€v<rai, ^dtn) irapauop.a en Adri|t ct<Jmatoi; fttfof. 
EN &nei\H avTOV i^vyCLv c6v7} a-JTo TTpoumtiov avrov, 
KoX iKey^ai. dp.a.pTOiXov'i cf Xoyoj /ca/jSt'as avTWV. 

KoX Kpifd ^vXas Xaou Tfyiaaufvov viro KVpCov Oeov avrov. 
"* Kal ovK a<f)7J<TeL (LiiKl^N ec p.i(Tta avrav ajAiceHKai, 
Kai oy K&ToiKHcei Tras dudpimroi p-CT avrdip elBws /caKiac 
" yi-wereTai, yap aiJrous oTt TracTes t'ol 6«oy avTaJf tio"!, 
fcai KaTap-epCtrci. auroi)? Ic rats i^uXais a^rwi' cttI t^s t^'- 
^' Ktti nApoiKoc KOI iAAoreNftc ov TrapoiKTj(T€i avTOts cri- 
Kpiftl Xaous Kcit e^i^ ev iroiftia. StwaiooTJyijs auroS. ii*- 

SS Gcig. cunj. tttBaplaai, 

d|iapr«\uii' A, M. i)iapru\out V, K, 1 



rfpTj^i^ai'. i^iaor 

27 dXoBpiUalu V, F, M. 

tiirti\j V. K, (Hil^. conj.). ii»AXp A. (Cerda '1 
1' cl M omillunt (* aveiX; rpomirav airoC, 

SO KaTa/upimi V, P, M, Hilg. Geig. FriUSch. Pick. 
ta'aiicTplaii A, fi, Fabr. 

■1 Wn) lat Xaoiii A. 

9< The Romans ate to disappear 
from Ihe Holy C!ly. Cf. ii. j. 

A noteworthy point in this verse ii Ihe 
apparent coordination of the three words 
IriAfia, ffi>01a, iiroiKrvri). The fii^l 
does not, and we think was never in- 
tended tui ranee with the other two. It 
is a striking instance of the Iranilator's 
fondness for ir: here he is led into an 
enlrcme awkwardness of expression there- 
by. Tlic a.%yndeton adds to the obscurity. 
Cf, generally, v. 13. 

sa l^iM-aii. We are again confronted 
here by Ihe question, Are these verbs to 
be taken as Optatives or Inlinitives 7 
The uss. usually declare (as here) for 
the lalter. We believe that the former is 
correct in this place, and that the Optative 

has realty (he force of the Future. The 

Infinitive would be entirely unobjection- 
able, were it not for the intervening ctawe 
V. 17, ir iTit\i,..ilivytir Mnj..., which 
introduces a new subject. Two MSS. 
(M, P) have fell the difficulty and m« 
it by omitting ibe clause. I'hat was not 
really necessary. We can still retain the 
words, and construe the verbs as Infini- 
tives: only the resultant text is very- 
clumsy; whereas the Optative gives an 
easy construction in v. 17, and an easy 
iransitionlo the Futures of v. 18 sqq. 

ixTDf^L. Ecclus. xxxiii. 8, and often 
clsewhcie in this connection. 

Tlie punctuation and teit 1 

XVII. 3i] 



25 Purge Jerusalem from the heathen that trample her down 
to destroy her, with wisdom and with righteousness. 

26 He shall" thrust oiit the sinners from the inheritance, ''''■■■ ^'*> 
utterly destroy the proud spirit of the sinners, and as potter's „^g, 
vessels with a rod of iron shall he break in pieces all their accents, 
substance". ^'' 

27 He shall destroy the ungodly nations with the word of his "-?'' ""'' 
mouth, so thai at his rebuke the nations may flee before him, 

and he shall convict the sinners in the thoughts of their hearts, 

28 And he shall gather together a holy people, whom he shall 
lead in righteousness; and shall judge the tribes of the people 
that hath been sanctified by the LORD his God. 

29 And he shall not suffer iniquity to lodge in their midst; 
and none that knoweth wickedness shall dwell with them. 

30 For he shall take knowledge of them, that they be all 
the sons of their God, and shall divide them upon the earth 
according to their tribes. 

31 And the sojourner and the stranger shall dwell with them 
no more. 

He shall judge the nations and the peoples with the wisdoi 
of his righteousness, Selah, 

jrepa/i^uT avwTpi^LI airroi/i. The Irans- 
Istor here, as elsewhere, shows, as we 
ihouM expect, close familixriljr with the 

irttirrvrvt. Cf. On xv. 7. 

The clause is from Is. xi. 4. This 
pajisage is slill mure closely copied in v. 
39, which see. 

37 iv imvXn. A reason has already 
been assigned for the omission of lliis 
clause by M, P; on the relation between 
these two Mss. see Inlrod, Cr. Hab. iii. 
II ir drtiX^ dXiTiiircit y^, and Is. liv. 9, 

The 3rd clause is reioarkable. Sinners 
are to be convicted by the 'word of their 
heart,' i.e. the testimony of (heir con- 
science, cf. Luke i. 51 Sttntbiiwietr iiwt^- 
i^itom aiorolf icapaiai aiirair. The ex- 
pression, though not the idea, belongs 
more to ihe N,l'. sphere of thought : cf, the 
received text of John viii. 9 inri t$i aura- 
8ii«a« AeTxiw***' The story of David's 
conviction, 3 Sam. xii., and the passt^ 
Is. xxxiii. 1 1 are tvro only uf several 0-T. 
illuslrationi of Ihe thought here. 

as When all the dcslniclive work of 
Ifae Messiah is over, his consttuclive (unc- 
tions begin. First his subjects are lo be 
pthered, and then their freedom from 


alien pollution secured. Is. xi. 12 avriiti 
Toi, iTo\<,fUyavt 'IipaiiX etc. 

o^'yi''"™'' I" Ex. »i. 8 of Moses, 
wis 6 Xoai toil DO ti d^TTV- In Kiekiel 
in/nrYovinuas is the [eguln.r word for 

Kpivii ^Ut. Cf. Luke : 


wi^TBt : 

i. ro itoi airroB uiol flew fCrrtif. Also 
Deul, xiv. I riai itrrt Kvpiov roS «»u 
bltiSir. We might compare the words of 
oui Lord in John x, 14 ('I know my 
sheep, and am known of mine'), which 
arc particularly appropriate here, for in 
V. 45 the metaphor of the good shepherd 
is employed by this writer. 

KaTofuplrn. Ueut. xix. 3 (t^t) ^ 
mniupliH 0« Kuptoi i Bibt odu. Also 
Num. xxxii. iS; Ezek. xlv. 8; Ecclus, 
xxxvi. „; Ps. Uvli. ,s (Sym.). 

The reading (?) of A laTa/trTplm would 
be an error by ilacism for naTatitTffijvti. 
Cf. Amos vii. 17 i> Y' "" '' 'X'"^ 
■raTajneT/njflnuerai . 

■1 liie idea of the 'stranger in the 
gales 'has become inloterable to the Jew 


[XVII, 25 


Tov 'l€pov<ra\TJ[i dwo iSi 

KaTairaTOWTOiy «' 

" t^aiTCLL dfj.apT(o\ovs diro fcXTjpoi'o/i.ias, 
ixTpi^ai VTTepr)<i>a.viai/ dfiapToiXwi/, 

cos CKCYH K£p&WetoC EN piBii^ Ciihip^ CTNrpi'CA! TTOO'Ol' UTTO" 

aracrtf avriav 
^ okodp^vaai e&irr] napdvofxa en Aofiii ctomatoc ayTor. 
CN anei^hi aOroi; ^vytXv ^Ovt) awo npoamTrov avrov, 
Kol eXey^at a^aproiXow? cc Xoyco /capSias auTOJC. 
™ «at (rupdin Aaon ayioc, oy iiJiMrHceTai £v hiKaioirviq}, 
KoX Kpivti (^ijXds Xaou -qyiaa-fiaiov vtto KVpiov dtov avTov. 
'" KoX ovK d(fyt)aei. iiiKlAN ep p^liroi avTotP a-f^iceHMM, 
KoX OY K&TtKKHcei Tras dvOpoino'i ptr avTOiv tiSw? KaKtav 
" yp(i}(TtTai. yi/3 ai/rou5 oTt vaPTt? rioi eeof auTtuy eicri, 
Ktti KaTaptpia-(.i avrov; tv rais <f>v\ai<; avTuiu tin tt)s y}^- 
" Kol nipoiKOc Kttt iXAorenftc 01! Trapoi-icqati. auTOts ert" 
Kpivu Xaous Jcai c^tTj ei- (TO^ia StKatotrijrjjs auroiJ. i'A- 

S0 Gcig. conj. 

apiapTuKur A, M. aiiap'''''^'^ ^' '^i I*' C'l 

a7 dXaeptHaoi V, P, M. 

nifiXpV, K, (Hilg.conj.). dwiW^A. (Cctda '1 

1' ct M omiltutlt if iri^y T/Bniiroii aurov. 

aO naniupiatt V, P, M. Hilg. Lieig. Fritzsch. Pick. 

ta-raiictiAea A, K, Fabr. 
ai I9ni col Xaoui A. 

om. iia.<liaKfia M. 

ir((ni^oirfnf. i^iooTiifX. 

as 1'he Romans nre to dUappesr 
from the Holy Ciiy. Cf, ii. 1. 

A noteworthy point in ihis verse is the 
apparent coordination o( Ibc three words 
druAcM, itd^'b, iitmoeifii. The /irsi 
does not, and we think was never in- 
tended to, range with tlie other two. It 
\i a striking instance of the translator's 
fondness fur ir : here he is led into an 
eitreme awkwardness of eipreaaion there' 
by. The asyndeton adds to the obscurity. 


Eially. I 


as ^MTdiL. We are again confiunted 
here by the question. Are these verbs to 
be taken as Optnttves or Inlinitives ? 
Tile Hss. usually declare (as here) for 
the latter. Wc believe that the former is 
correct in Ihis place, and that the Optative 

has really the force of the Future. The 
Infinitive would be entirely uoobjeclion- 
able, were i( not (or the intervening clatue 
V. 17, l* dT»Xg,..^fyrw IBni..., which 
introduces a new subject. Two MSS. 
(M, V) have felt the dilEculty «aA met 
it by omitting the clause. That w«i not 
really necessary. We can still retain the 
words, and construe the verbs as iDfioi- 
tives: only the resultant le!:t is vei; 
clumsy ; wbcreas the Optative gives an 
easy construction in v. 97. and an easy the Futures of v. iB 3M- 

iKTot^/a^ Ecclus. sxxiii. 8, and oRen 
elsewhere in this connection. 

The punctuation and text of P deserre 
a passing notice. 

At oKfvi] mpa|U m , IVom Pi. iL 9 wm- 


25 Purge Jerusalem from the heathen that trample her down 
to destroy her, with wisdom and with righteousness. 

a6 He shall" thrust out the sinners from the inheritance, '' 
utterly destroy the proud spirit of the sinners, and as potter's ^ 
vessels with a rod of iron shall he break in pieces all their m 
substance". ' 

27 He shall destroy the ungodly nations with the word of his . 
mouth, so that at his rebuke the nations may flee before him, 
and he shall convict the sinners in the thoughts of their hearts, 

28 And he shall gather together a holy people, whom he shall 
lead in righteousness; and shall judge the tribes of the people 
that hath been sanctified by the Lord his God, 

29 And he shall not suffer iniquity to lodge in their midst; 
and none that knoweth wickedness shall dwell with them. 

30 For he shall take knowledge of them, that they be all 
the sons of their God, and shall divide them upon the earth 
according to their tribes. 

31 And the sojourner and the stranger shall dwell with them 
no more. 

He shall judge the nations and the peoples with the wisdom 
of his righteousness. Selah. 

;uu>Eii alfToif ir ^|93y 7>J'7r'^ wt satin) 
Ktpaiitiiit ai/wTfiiiftn a^TOui. The (nms- 
Utor here, as elsewhere, shows, as we 
should expect, close famitiarily wiih the 

vir6imu'it. C 

The clause is 
passage is still n 
39, which see. 

97 h dvtiM. A reason has already 
been assigned for the omission of this 
cLiuse by M, P; an the relation between 
thrae two Mss. see Introd. Cf. Hab. iii. 
1 1 ir intKj i\iyiiifftis T$r, and Is. )i«. 9. 

The Jid clause is remarkable. Sinners 
»ie to be convicted by the 'word of their 
heart,' i.e. the teslimony of their Con. 
science, ef. Luke i. 51 Sitfftigwmii brept;- 

olien pollution secured. Is. x 
Tai>t iwaKaiUrtn'Itpa-fiK etc. 

wat b \aot trov av trv Atpijy^. 
<t^ijyo";«TOi is the regular 

•lapeUi a 

The e 

received text of John viii. 9 Irri rQi 1 
IV'xn Arrx^^HK. The story of David's 
conviction, 1 Sam. xii., and the passage 
Is. xxxiii. 1 1 are two only of <«veral O.T. 
iUuslrationi of the thought here. 

as When all the destructive work of 
the Mes-siah is over, his constructive func- 
tions beeiD. First his subjects are to be 
EUhered, and thm their freedom from 

of Moaes, 
In Eiekiel 
word for 


lb. liv. I 

i. 10 inl airtH vlel 0coO [Sirroj. Also 
Deut. xiv. 1 Tloi Ivre Kuplev ToB 8av 
i/iiir. We might compare the words of 
our Lord in John h. 14 ('I know my 
sheep, and am known of mine'), which 
are particularly appropriate here, for in 
V. 45 the metaphor of the good t>hcpheid 
is employed by this writer. 

KUToiuptTn. Deut. xii. 3 (Ttjc) il» 
iaTaiupl[fi ff« Ki/Hos i $tit trou. Also 
Num. xxxu. iSj Ezek. xlv. 8; Ecdus. 
xxxvL 13; Ps-lxvii. ij (Sym.). 

The leading (?) of A laTaiAiTplaa would 
be an error by itaciam for KaTaiierpfitti, 
Cf. Amos yii. i j ^ -jt? trou « axoiriifi 
KarofUTfpj ff^atTtu. 

81 The idea of the ' stranger in the 
gates'has become intolerable to thejew 


[xvii. 32 

*'Kal i^ei Xaous tOviov SouXevcli' aurw inro tyyov avroiJ, 
"xat KaBapicrti. lepov<ra\T)iJ. kv dyiacrfiai, dc Kai to in 


■"ep;^e(r^at c^vtj aTr aKpov 7^5 y^s i*6<N rfiN ioiftN avrou, 

<}>epoyTe<; itjpa tous i^ird^ir^KOTas v'iov<; avr^s, 

" Koi lieTN TftN idJaN KTploY, ^j/ cSo'fao-£i' avrrjv ^eos' 

Kttl auTOS ^atriXevs SiVaio; Kal iiiihrdc utto 9eof cff' 
" Kai ovK ioTiv aSiKici cc rai? ■^fi.epai.^ avTOv if p.€a-(i> avrtov. 

sa riv «'-p.o>. SotioH V, K, P. M : om. t(1* KLViof A. 
8« ^;bi.t« a, V, K, P, Fabr. 

^(porrat M (?con.), conj. Hilg. (Frilisch, Pick). 

Geig. conj. ^panTa. 
as ll/aiot xal MaiiTis F: rel. ooi. (ol. 

of this period. He desires nothing more 
than to sec (he land reserved for the 
chosen race atone. Ttiat this exclusive- 
iiess made a deeply uiibvourablE im- 
pression on the stranger who came in 
cunlBct with him, is too familiar a topic 
to bear enlarging upon. For O.T. fore- 
shadowings ot Ihis, sec Joel iii. 17 (of 
Jerusalem) a'X\oy<Kit ai l<(\iiirarTai li' 

dXXoYanjt is Ik very common word in 
Leviticus, e.g. xxii. 10 where rdpoucot 
also occurs,— anotlier of many cases where 
onr writer se4:ms to show a familiarity 
with Ihc Lxx. version of that book. 

We see from the second clause of the 
verse that the nation are not to be de- 
stroyed; though excluded from residing 
in the land. ITiey will look to Judaea 
as their centre and to Messiah is their 

hi p-o^l^ Ei,KBuir<vi|t. This is merely 
another way of writing cr ire^? ir Bi- 
Kaiotir-ji, V. iB. In these verses the 
Messiah appears as a second Joshua, In 
Ibe next division be is a second Solomon, 

BiadnXua, omitted by the Moscow Ms. 
Very likely il is not genuine, any more 
than the other one in Ps. S.xvili. lo, where 
we believe that a longer pause ought lo 
be expressed. Il may have been put in 
in both places by the man who wrote the 
titles of our Psalms, in order to assimilate 
ibem more closely in outwurd form lo the 

Davidic collection. Against 

fact that only two arc to be found in the 

whole book. 

If genuine, ihey point to a liturgical 
use 01 these Psalms, of which we have no 
other Irmce. 

aa This Messianic dominion over the 
Gentiles is dwelt upon in Ps. Ixxii. 1 1 etc. 
{rorra ri (Sn/ iavXrvcmnrni airif). Is. 
Ixvi. I Zech. xiv. : Unn. vii. (14). Com- 
pare for the language, Zeph. iii. ig roC 
itv>ii/icir aCiTif inri fi^^ lya, and on 
fi'yi* see notes on Ps. vii. 8. 

In ihe later literature (4 Esdt. xiii. ; 
Apoc. Bar. Uxii.) the &te predicted for 
the Gentiles is far less mild. Most of 
them are to perish, and all who are left 
are to be enslaved. This, too, Is the idea 
of such a writer as Commodian (who 
draws from Jewish sources), /uj/r. II. i, 
Carm, Apol. ton. 

tv tmo-^jif. Geiger translates 'durch 
Unterwerfung der ganien Erde,' ajid re- 
gards i-Ktsiauf as parallel to fvYiv Just as 
in Ps. ii. 6 it corresponds to v^fiaylf. We 
cannot agree with him. Il seems to us 
for simpler to assign its usual sense to 
iiiuH)iiif of ' conspicuous,' and to regard 
the clause as an allusion to Is. ii. a (Mi- 
cah iv. r), 'The mounlain of Ihe Ixird's 
house shall be established in the top of 
the mountains, and shall be exalted above 
Ihe hills.' 

It has been suggested lo us that it 
iir\ai)iut both here and in ii. 6 has tlie 


XVII. 36] 



32 And he shall possess the nations of the heathen to serve 
him beneath his yoke; and he shall glorify the LORD in a place 
to be seen of the whole earth ; 

33 And he shall purge Jerusalem and make it holy, even as 
it was in the days of old. 

34 So that the nations may come from the ends of the earth 
to see his glory, bringing as gifts her sons that had fainted, 

35 And may see the glory of the Lord, wherewith God hath 
glorified her. 

And a righteous king and taught of God is he f/mt reigiuth 
over them ; 

36 And there shall be" no iniquity in his days in their midst, " 
for all shall be holy and their king is the Lord Messiah". " 

sftme meaning, ihal of ' publicily.' 
prefer however !□ Ihink Ihal, while 

1 explains the present passage, the 
word in ii. 6 has a more cOQcrele mean- 
ing and is a substantive [ = irrl-yitA). 

S8 i.-fvuryi% means here accnrding 
lo Geiget 'the slate, as well as the pro- 
cess, or sanctificalion." The cleansing 
here spoken of refers mainly to the sanc- 
tuary. The Messiah, like Judas Macca- 
baeus, will reestablish the splendour of 
the old Solomonic worship. Cf. 1 Mace 
iv. 36— 41. 

■t KoX rd iw' iipx<il. Cf. Is. \.i6 'I 
will restore Ihy judges as at the first and 
thy counsellors as at the banning.' ii. 
6 (lxx.) inTbiir'affxTp, xliii. 13, Ixili. lo, 
Hab. i. II, Zech. lii. 7. 

84 This verse is a condensation of 
several passages in Isaiah, notably Ixvi. 
18—10 {rd te<'T,...igfiu<n nal tiparrai T*r 
»6iiv,uiv...Kaliiovai roh dSA^oi^i i/iif 
it rirrur tw iSiiiir Iwpet tufiifi). See 
also ch. I1. and Ezeh. xixvii. 18. 4 Esdr. 
xiii. aliqui adducenles ex eis qui ofTeie- 

ieair4<Mtv occurs Only (?) in Ps. Uiii. 
(Isiv.) 9 as a various reading. 

The change of the text from ^/parrn 
to ^ipetrat {Ililgenfeld, Frilische) is a 
needless allemlion. 

85 GtSsKTdt Wd turn. See Is. Ilv. 
ij (quoted aliove on v. 30). The word 
is not very cotnmon. It occurs in i Mocc. 
iv. 7 SiBoirrai inX^^ou etc. The merely 
human nature of the Messiah is here not 
obscurely indicated. There is, we think, 
a considerable pause in the sense be- 
tween the first and second clauses of this 
verse. The airol are not the Gentiles ; 

such prophecies as Jcr. ixiii. 6. The 
iSula may have special reference to the 
unorthodox practices, or the oppression, 
of the then reigning dynasty. 

" ' ipression nxjrii mJ/Mot, 

I ihe 'crux~of the whole 

which have been or 
may be held concerning it. 

a, Ii may be a correct rendering of 
the original Hebrew. 

p. It may be a mislranslalion of the 

7. It may be a Christian perversion 
of the text. 

(a) We hold that either this view, or 
that mentioned nent in order, is perfectly 
tenable. The main diiliculty lies in Ihe 
procuring evidence lo show that the word 
KCpios, which so uniformly represents the 
Dame of God, could be applied lo one 
who, as appears from the context here, 
is merely man. The following pas.>iflges 
seem to point lo the possibility of this. 

(i) Lam. iv. JO 'The breath of our 
noslriU, Ihe Anointed of Ihe Lord (LXX. 
jcpiarii KifHOt) is taken in their pits.' The 
LXX. are here guilty of a mislranslalion, 
bul their mistake points to Ihe currency 
of the expression. 

(3) Ps. cix. (CK.) I ttrrr xipMi rif 

KVpllfi /IQU. 

(3) Ecclus. Ii. 10 iiriiaXiirin^ lipuv 
raripa roC mpiov iwv. Here a Christian 
corruption has been suspected, but per- 
haps unnecessarily. 

(4) Luke ii, 11 (the Angel lo the 



[XVII. 37 

" ov yap eXmel ejtI 'nnoN nil ftNiBiTHn (cal t6$ov, 

*rat *TrX,OMJts* ou <rvvd$€i cXTrSa? cts -qfLepav TroXqtou. 
87 ToXXoii cixtd.: SrXiHi conj. Hilg. (Fritzsch.). idem dXXoit, ■u^roii. wK^oa 
tXwiita codd. Hilg.* conj. inliat. 

Shephetds) ff-omjp, Ji ;ijru> Xf*^*" "'■ 
pui. It should be noticcil )ha[ thb part 
of St Luke's Ga&))el hiu a specially bc- 
braistic colouring, imd that wc are here 
dealing with an announcement made to 
men who were expecting a. Mesuah. It 
ma; be aigued that the Angel would 
speak of him in tenns corresponding lo 
the expectation of hint, and under a 
name by which he was known. 

(5) By way of illustration we may add 
Is. ilv. 1 olh-w A^n itifMot i Peii ts/ x/"- 
rrr^ fuv Kipif. For in the Epistle of 
Barnabas, xii. ri we find that passage 
quoted in this form lal rdXiv ^'T« a&na 
'Hirabi' 'tlwtr t6p<ot rf XP"'^V P"" '"- 
piif.' A coTTCspondine perversion is found 
in some Latin auihoniies. Uebhardt and 
Hamack in lee. refer to Ten. adv. yu- 
dates c. 7, ads. Praxtam 11. 18, Cypr. 
Tatim. 1. 11. This comiplion lends a 
certain colour lo (he idea that a Chris- 
tian scribe has altered a word in our 
Psalm. It is not absolutely Impossible 
that the change of Kiijx^ to EupJ^i may 
have been mode by a Jew, on the au- 
thority of Pi. ex. 

To summarise oui evidence. We Itnd 
that the expression xp""it tipita is once 
applied to a king (by mistake), and once 
In Ihe expected Messiah (in St Luke}, 
that riprn is possibly twice applied to 
the Messiah, and, lastly, that xp"^o> 1^ 
piot is by no means a distinctively Chris- 
tian expression, occurring, as it does, only 
once in N.T. 

It may very well be the cose, we think, 
that the phrase is here a correct render- 
ing of the Hebrew, and that the word 
K< represents not, of conrse, Jehovah, 
hut p*TK, a word which might very pro- 
perly lie applied lo a supreme conqueror 
of earthly origin. 

(^) The second theory mentioned 
alMve has however met with more sup- 
port than this. It is that the disputed 
expression is a reminiscence of the LXX. 
rendering of Lam. iv. jo (f . supra), and 
that here, as tjiere, Ihe Hebrew original 
WHS r^nj 0'?^, not', coasequently, the 

Greek oughi to be xfiflrii nvfim. The 
supporters of this theory would for the 
most part maintain that Ihe lexl should 
not be altered. Imt ihat it is to l>e rqprd- 
ed as a mistranslation. Tliose who do 
nol believe in a Hebrew original of the 
book, see in this mistake a conhiiniilion 
of their vi«w, holding thai the writer U 
directly quoting the LXX. of Lam. iv. 30. 
So Hilg., who calls the hypothesis of a 
raislranllation ' mera hariolatio.' 

There is a good deal to he said in fa- 
vour of this tlieoty. First, there is the 
undoubted rarity of the expression xp^rrAf 
xiptm. Sftondly, there is the analogy 
of this same book. Ps. xviii. (} tr ird£n 
XpurroC ainim (sc. fffoD) and 8. Thirty, 
ihe comparative frequency of Ihe phrase 
XpM^dt Kvplev whether, as in earlier lite- 
rature, applied lo the king (e.g. 7 Sam. 
i. 14), or, as it was later on, to the Mes- 
siah (Luke ii. 16) tan Sr ISf tAf Xpiarir 
Kvpiou (of Simeon). 

This view has the support of Ewold, 

(7) A third hypolbcsii has to be men- 
tioned. It is that which sees in xpwnti 
tipiBt either a Christian corruption of x> 

upporl from the 
quotation found in Barnabas {v. sKfira). 
But we believe we have shown sufficient 
reason for thinking that xp""*' fifiiet tl 
by no means an emphatically Christian 
phrase. It should be borne in mind, 
moreover, that this is the one and only 
phrase in the book to which any suspi- 
cion of the kind has attached, although 
few books of the lime and class lo whi^ 
this belongs have escaped the charge of 
Christian interpolation; so that a very 
strong case would have to be mode out 
before we could admit Ihe validity of the 
cha^;e here. It would be necessary lo 
show, j'Utr alia, why the interpolalor 
did not insert any other single Christian 
touch into Ihe Psalmist's description ; it 

XVH. 37] 


37 For he shall not put his trust in horse and rider and bow, 
nor shall he multiply unto himself gold and silver for war, nor 
by ships shall he gather confidence for the day of battle. 

would have been no harder, surely, to 
insinuale some allusion here lo the birth 
and life of our l^ord or lo his death, 
Ihan it vna to insert the celebrated 
words iri {ilXov in Ps. icv. (xcvi.) lo. 

It is & little diflicalt lo separate this 
theory from the \iiat. Several critici (e.g- 
Geigcr) merely believe the translator 10 
have been a Christian ; while another 
(Graeli, Gesth.d.^udcn. iii. (ed. i)p. 4J9 
not. qaoled by Hilg,} used to assign P^s. 
xvii., xvUi. to a Christian author entirely 
on the strength of this phrase. Obvi- 
ously the most tenable form is that held 
by Geiger, alihough. as we have already 
said, we do not think that the hypothesis 
of Christian interference with the text is 
really needed. 

The names Anointed, Christ, Messiah 
occur with some frequency in the Apoca- 
lypses. Enoch 48, 10, 53. 4 (both limes 
in ihe Parables), 4 Esdr. vii. iS, 9, lii. 
jj, Apoc. Bar. sp, 3 and often. 

91 This verse points lo the contrast 

between the old Solomon and his future 

antitype, and shows how the latter would 

obey Ihe letter of Ihe Mosaic Law, and 

t so realise Ihe Pharisaic idea of [he good 

The chief passage in the Law which 
bears upon this point ii Deul. xvii. iG, 
17 Aiirt Bii T\yfivrti iairtf tTmr...Kal nil 

See also Is. xxxvi. 9 ol »(»oiftSrej i-w' 
Ai-yitrTlaii ill Imror laj dva^Ti)*, and 
Ps. xliii. (iliv.) 7 Bu yip irl rv ^^(V I"'' 
iXwiH, and, generally, the accounts of 
Solomon's wealth and splendour in t 
Kinei x. Here, as in Deul. xx. i and 
Ezek. X!«ix. 10 tinror lal drafiinir, 
impd-npi is the rendering of 3^1 'cha- 

The last tine is the only one which 

eraenls any particular difficulty. It will 
seen tbai the uss. all read roXXoif. 
To this we lind ourselves unable to at- 
tach a satisfactory sense; it is a very 
strained phrase if intended to stand fur 
'mulltludes.' Variousimprovementshave 
iKcn allempled. Geiser's is perhaps as 
good as any. lie thinks the wonir is a 
mistTonUalion of &*3*]7 = oichcrs, and 

refers to a similar mistake in Jer. xxvii. 
(I. Keb.) 19 rapayyiaoTr ^1 BapvXOn 
roXXoIi, D*?-!. We see an objection to 
this in the fact thai it would be a mis- 
placed recurrence lo a matter already 
touched upon (cp, rifv above). Hil- 
genfeld offers three conjectures, fXXwi, 
xaXTofi, SrXou, of which the last is 
adopted by Ftiiische. It may be sup- 
ported by a reference lo a Chr. xxxii. 5, 
where it is said of Hciekiah nartania- 
aey JSrXa roUd, and to 1 Kings x. where 
Solomon's StXo xP""^ ^'^ described. 

We have ventured to surest tXdImi 
as an emendation which comes closest 
to Ihe 'ductus liieninim,' and yields a 
cood seiue. The Messiah will not ga- 
ihet 'hopes' (i.e. mcrccnory troops or 
supplies) for the day of war in ships. 

But we further conjecture that the 
peculiar expression iriwdfti iXrlBat is a 
duplicate rendering, an attempt on Ihe 
part of the translator lo combine the two 
well known meanings which are found 
with n\p and its derivatives. Thus ttur- 
a(tt corresponds to the Niphal usage 
'to be gathered together.' iXrISat In 
Ihe Piel 'to trust. ' The substantive 
nipD occurs with the sense of 'hope' 
in I Chion. xiix. 15, Eir. x. 1. Jer. 
xiv. S, xvii. 1^, 1. 7, and of 'a gatlicT- 
ing together' m Gen. i. 10, Ex. vii. tg. 
Lev. XI. 36, 'a troop' in 1 Kings x. a8. 
In Jer. 1. (xxvii.) 7 DO'0^2fi[ flpD 'the 
hope of their fathers,' the LXX. version 
gives T^ ffvuyayifTi roUt traripat airrOr, 
apparently reading njpD. Similariy the 
present passage preserves Ihe translator's 
uncertainly between the vocaliialion of 
nji?? ( = oi»df«) and njpj yx»-l*ai). 
Compare Zech. ix. i] njPHn *1'P^ = 
UCX. Wo/iuu rip ffWBTuT^. 

Foreign eammtnt had been a foremost 
source of strength and also of weakness 
to Solomon, and naval ^aarfare had be- 
come prominent since his time; lo cither 
of these one might expect an allusion 
here. The various 'sinews of wax' would 
then be all represented in the verse. Re. 
cent events would have impressed upon 
the Jews the importance of naval strength. 
Pompcy's victories in the East had been 

[XVII. 3S 1 



" Kvpio^ avTos jSatrtXcuy avrov, cXttis tov SwaToC eXm 

Kol Ae^trei Tracra rd e^nj evta-mov avTOv hi ^6/3i 

" evXoy^rret Xaov nvpiov iv <ro(f>ia fier evfjipoo'vyrjs, 

" Kal avTos KO.Qapo'; oltto dpapTta.<; tov ap\f.iv \aov /xeyaXou, 

e'Xeyfat ap-)(ovra.<; «at tfapai dpapT(i}kov<; hj la-xy'i \oyov. 

" Kat outc ao"^€nj(jet o' Tat? ijpfpcn,^ avTov ejrt P€tu auToy, 

OTt d ^£0! Ka.TtLpyd.(Ta.TO avTov SvfaTov (v nNeyMftTi ftr'<(J. _ 

KoX coijidN ev BoY^^i cYNEcetoc p.i.T icxYoc Kat iiKftiocfi 

" KoX euXoyia Kvplov fier avrov iv tcr^ui.*, 

xat oiJif daOeirqtm tj cXttis ai^rou cin Kvptov, 

** ifttt T15 Suvarai TTpoq aurdi' ; 

lo^v/jos tf epyoi5 aurov koI Kpa.7aio% ev ^6^(a Biov, 

"noiMilNUJN t6 noiMNloN Kvpiov if TrtoTei Kal Si/caiotnJi^, 

KoX ovK d^ijerei daBev^a-aL iv avrots iv rg vop/g avratv, 

■8 (Xr^Ei codd. ; ittV Hilg. conj., M Fritzsch. Pick. iUyia Sdiinidt «p. 


41 e^ifioi codd. cfapai, Hilg. 

41 Di!( ^d(rV«' 4 Arit (M [ta ioterpung.). 

44 Jul' artf conj. Hilg. 

preceded by the success of bi« armada 
over the pimtes that hod been the terror 
of shipping in the Eastern Mediiem- 

slirced up ' piratical expedil 

{rA veipaHjpia rk iv Ba\6,Trs to&top tlv^i 

rbr ffwrnjo-oiTa, Jos. j4n/. XIV. iii. il. 

Hilg. refers to 4 Esr. xiii. 9 'non leva- 
vil manum suam neque frameain tenebal 
neque aliquod vas bellicosum.' 

A further su^estton (due lo Hilgen- 
fetd), that far A*Mat we should read 
iirwliai, need not be considered more 

>8 ici!pu>t aM% K.T.X., see on v. i. 

IXirff k.tA. Here again we have a 
ditficoll expression, which, if the Greek 
may be taken as a fair equivalent of ihe 
original Hebrew, can be explained on the 
inuogy of Aripit b eiaraerlf (iv. ti) 
etc., ihe wofis iiwaToC iXrlSt ftoB l*ing 
taken as one expression, equivalent [o 

IiHTsP Sii r^ iirl Tie Stir ArMot. This 
may seem a strained construction. Gei- 
get Tcsloces the original Hebrew, and 
renders it 'Gott liissl den Starken ting«- 
fahrdet weilen.' Wellhausen assumes a 
different grouping of the words in the 
original, and renders " Der Herr !st 
Kiinig, das ist sein Verlrsuen, er ist stark 
in der HofTnung auf Goll, der wird 
Cnade geben. Al!e Volket werden vor 
ihra in Farcht sein." 

&t^m. This, the readingof the Mss., 
yields, we think, a preferable sense 10 
ihe less decided ffrfiea of Hilgenfeld 
(Fritzsche etc.). The author does not 
here or elsewhere mean 10 devote Ihe 
Gentiles lo entire reprobation. This 
again is a note of early dale. 

A^j«, Ihe conjecture of Schmidt, is 
ingenious ; but we find Afyfai in w. 17 
and 4I U5ed of i^wprnXoi and Sfx""""- 
nol of Iffii- If any change in the text 
were needed 10 give the idea of ver. 17 
(ftrffuftra. Iffyii iropilKiMa. "f might siig- 

XVII. 45] 


38 The Lord himself is his King, and the hope of him that 
is strong in the hope of God. 

And he shall have mercy upon all the nations that come before 
him in fear. 

39 For he shall smite the earth with the word of his mouth 
even for evermore. 

40 He shall bless the people of the LORD with wisdom and 

He himself also is pure from sin, so that he may rule a 
mighty people, and rebuke princes and overthrow sinners by the 
might of his word. 

42 And he shall not faint all his days, because lie leanetk upon 
his God; for God shall cause" him to be mighty through the" 
spirit of holiness, and wise through the counsel of understanding, " 
with might and righteousness. 

43 And the blessing of the Lord is with him in might, and 
his hope in the LORD shall not faint. 

44 And who can stand up against him ? he is mighty in his 
works and strong in the fear of God, 

45 Tending the flock of the Lord with faith and righteous- 
ness; and he shall suffer none among them to faint in their 

gest dXoiJire( = liitatahit. But Ihe Wn; 
here are nol rapAmiia, and mercy to the 
(ientile is an independent and oiiginnl 

89 Verbally taken from Is. xi, 4. 
For the literal mterprelation see 4 Esdt. 
xiii. and later Apocalypses. The words 
(It a(fi»« are added after the fashion of 
our Psalmist, in order slightTy to vary 
the borrowed words, 

41 KoSapJi. Geiger cites Prov. xx. 

J{tIs rap/r^iiaerm taSupos dm iro 
uapriuii';) and Jobxiv. 4. Another point 
of contrast lo the old heroes of the Jewish 
monarchy, David and Solomon. ' He 
that ruleth over men must be just, ruling 
in the fear of God.' 

IXJ^JaL. So above, v. 14, and Is. li. 

43 tv irMv|iaTL (lY^>. This expres- 
sion conveys, as Geiger says, no idea of 
a personal being 1 it is explained further 
on in the same verse by povMi evrireiiii, 
and most fully by a reference lo Is. xi. 

aurtafiin, mOiia ^vXijt koI lirxOm, mv/ia 
ynivtuis xaj eiaiptlca. The expression 

occurs in the LXX. several times, Is. Ixiit. 
to, II ; DaiL iv. 5, vi. 15 ; Susanna 44. 

The rest of the verse is a paraphrase 
ofla. xi. J. 

44 Ti% Sivd,TaL wfkdf. Cf. IV. 1. 1. 

Kparoi^ hi ^'Pf Kupiov 

(.«v,) , 

- 4.«tlow 

48 iroi|itt£vi»v. ThcKing as shepheril 
of his people. This idea appears not un- 
frequently in the Old Testament, e.g. in 
Micaiah's vision, 1 Kings ixii., Zceh. xi. 
Jehovah or the Messiah is more ofien 
thought of under this image. Cf. Ps, 

loifiyiof ai^ToiJ, and Ei. ixxiv. passim. 
Micah v. 4 lal iret/iafci ri tdI/iwoi' aiiroi' 
it laxi'i Kopiot. 

It is inlereitiog loo to make the ob- 
vious comparison between this and our 
Lord's description of Himself as the 

In Enoch's vision (c. go) Ihe Messiah 
is himself one of the herd, its protector 
and leader. 

dir4<yij(raL. Cf. Ps, ev. (civ.) 37 oit 
ijr tr Tall ^uXoIt aiiriui' avffirCn: 




[xvir. 46 

€u avTOi';. 

'" Avrr/ tJ evirptireia tov jSacrtXtw? 'icrpai^X,, iji- cyt-w o ^eos, 
ai'ctoT^crai auroi' ctt' 'icrpa^X, TraiSeiicrai avrof. 
"ya p-qfiara avrov rrenypww^Na ynep xpYcfoN TifiiOV to 


ev (Tvvayayya'i'i SiaKpivei Xaous, <j>v\a^ ■qyuta-p.tvotv 

" 01 Xoyot avTov tos Xdyot ayioii' ei* /xeVcu Xaui- rfyiaafL^tov, 

°" fiaKapiOL ol yivofiEVOL if rats ^pepai<; CKeicats, 

lieTN Ti Araei 'I(ry3a'^X er trvi'ayw'j'g (f>v\wp, a ■JTOt-^iret O 

"Ta;^ufai o ^eos «rt 'IcrpaijX to eXeos awTov, 
pvdtTai, tJjUcis aTTO d.Ka6ap(iia<; c^dpav ^e/SiJXcoi 
KYP'oc auTOS BaciAerc hmlon etc rdw AltJNfc icai en. 

SI iOtftai 

A, V. K. M. B(if(i P. 

codd. ataariivai Fabr. lUiurT^iu Hilg. etc. 
dil. Fsbr. conj. jiisu. Fntzsch. conj. ^uro. 

4a There will be no further oppression 
from the wicked Sndducaean ' shepherd 9.' 
Cf. El. xlv. S lal oi «TaSu.aoTeiiBO«Iiv 

\al,v iiou. 

tcimt avTcnSt. A literal rendering 
of D^S cf. xviii. 9. 

Tiie reading of P, afljn for <£fci, intro- 
duces a Cresn and n less appropriate 
metaphor. Num. xxxiv. 7 lol oijijfli. 

47 AEtt) ^ avirp^mia. Perhaps there 
is a conscious reference to Samuel's words 
(1 Sam. viii. m), 'Hiis will be the 
manner oflhe king that shall reign over 
you.' The word finpiTreia is probably 
a reminiscence of Ps. xdi. (xdii. 1) 6 
riptet ipatl\ti-(!Bi, tiitpirav ttfiiaart ; 
seePs. S. ii. 11. 

iratStvirai aJMv, sc, -rbv iSKor'lapaijK. 

4a, 48 are an amplification of the 
word raiJtiVai. The people will be 
chastened and kept pure by the divine 
purity of iheir ruler. 

imrvpupA'a. Cf. j Sam. xxii. 31 (Ps. 
xviii. 31) rb fi^lta tvplov iparaiir rnra- 
paiUrar, Prov. ixx. 5. Ps. xviii. {lix.) 1 1 
triOufATjrh i/wtp xp^'ov "^ \L8w rf^flv 
raXuf . Comp. also Ps. xL (xii.) 7, cxviii. 


(ciix.) 139; Prov, viii. 10 brip xpo^ler It- 
SomnasfUtor, ig trip xpv^^ot intl Xltfcr 

For t4 rpCrror, probably a dnplioJe 
rendering of rl/uof, cf. Sym. Ps. cxviii. 
(cxix.) l',Sxpv^lo-irpurri!«, (t^plZnfD). 

Iv o-uvafsrwCt. 'Assemblies' for the 

fiurpose of judgment, instruction, and the 
ike, not technically used, Deut, KKziii. 
J KXilpomiiJat truraywyaii 'loici^. GeigcT 
well compares Ps. txxxi, (Ixxxii.) I. 

SiaKpivit, as Ps. xlix. (1.) 4. See obo 
Joel iii. 11; Gen. xlix. 16; Ez. xlvii. 11. 

+iiUt. Cf. our Lord's promise to the 
Twelve, Luke xxii. 30. 

Il may be questioned whether ii awa- 
yuyaii is not a wrong tmnslation, the 
translator reading n^ltt^ which, if read 
n4*1)J9, would give thesenseof 'by means 
of the lesliraony," i.e. the Law. This 
would assert the Law to l>e the Messianic 
rule of judgment. 

4B Kiyet i'^Un. No doubt, as foi- 
mer critics have said, Syioi here are the 
angels. Ps. Ixxxviii. (Ixxxix.)6 i» imtXij. 
irtf i-ylut, 8 iv PauXf dylur. Dan. iv. 
10. 14 ftp mJ 07101, ^^a iylmr, Job T. 
I aryAuv i-Won. (D'r^fJ), »v. ij irar^ 

XVIL si] 


46 In holiness shall he lead them all, and there shall no pride 
be among them that any should be oppressed. 

47 This is the majesty of the king of Israel, which" God " Perh. 
hath appointed" to raise him up over th: house of Israel, to'"*"" 
instruct him. "'''■■ '^' 

48 His words shall be purified above fine gold, yea, above 
the choicest gold. 

In the congregations will he Judge among the peoples, the 
tribes of them that have been sanctified. 

49 His words shall be as the words of the holy ones in the 
midst of the peoples that have been sanctified. 

50 Blessed are they that shall be born in those days, to behold 
the blessing of Israel which God shall bring to pass in the 
gathering together of the tribes. 

51 May God hasten his mercy toward Israel! may he" deliver "Gt, jU 
us from the abomination of unhallowed adversaries ! *"''' 

The Lord, he is our king from henceforth and even for 

dyluv. Deut. ixiiii. t 
holy ones.' Cf. Enoch 1. 9, 

SO In this verse Hilg. sees an indi- 
calion that our author knew the third 
(oldest) book of the Sibylline oracles, 
and consequently wrote in Greek. Sib. 
or. iii. 371 w |Mi«^<mH, finror ft i% 
Xpirar laatTOt irrip. But surely the sen- 

thoDsands of in the fear of God. 



in xviii. 7. Cp. Ps. cxxvii. 

tSaa tA a-)>a0d 'IfpovaaXin 

lii. 11 fiud^cii 6 irTBiUtani ml ^aeia. 

Ecclus. xlviii. II. 

Bl There seems no occasion for 
Fritzsche's correction of jtvacriu to ^- 
aatTo. Geiger calls the Heb. original a 
precatory Imperf. ?'¥, cf. Ps. ivii. 
(iiviii.) 18 — »o. Notice Ihe prominence 
given to the 'uncleanness of the oppres- 

The Psalm ends with the same thought 
that began it. The Lord is the true 
King of Israel, whoever may be its lem- 
porary rulers. 

Ps. XVIII. Argumml. 

I — J. God is loving to Israel. It is 
as their Father thai He punishes them 
for their good. 

G^io. May this correction avail to 
cleanse them in the day of visitation, 
when the Anointed shall rule over (hem 

3. The praise of 
seen in the order of 
n their courses obey 


]. 36. eaipla, Swaisiniyi], l^it 
31, 41. ^§SiH xvii. 16. KO- 
ctc. xvii. 15, 33. naKipiOi etc. 
^AjSy etoS xvii. 44, and com- 

III. 9 


The first section of the Psalm (vv. i— j) 
reminds us of Ps. v. more jiartJcularly. 
Comp. V. 13, 16, 17 with xviii. i — 3. 

In verse 4 wc have an expression re- 
minding us of xiii. 8. 

The first two sections of the Psalm are 
logically enough connected. After ver. 10 
however there is a complete change of 
Bubject. And the new subject is never 
brought into any semblance of connec- 
tion with what has preceded, but is left 
hanging in the air. No one will, we 
think, be able to resist the impression 
that the Psalm as it stands is a fragment. 
The further question has occurred to us : 
is it one fragment or two? It will be 
seen that we think this latter alternative 
highly probable, and have suggested as 

10 — 2 



[xvill. r 

iH. >ci\M6c tJji CftAoMtoN in\ toy Xpicof Kfploy. 
AV III . Kvpte, TO €Xeos aov in) ra epra twv \€tpcay 

(TOV elc TdN &IiI>r*ft, 

'tJ j(p7]aT6ri)i; srov fuera. Sd/xaro? ttXouctiow ewl 'lo-/)a*^X' 
ol d+eiAwot COT eniBAenoNTec ctt' avra, KOi oux uoTCprJo-ci 

e^ avrtov, 
'ri JtTii coy eTraKova-ei, eic i^HCN 7n"a)j(o{' ei/ eXTTiSi' 
TO Kpifiard trov kiii Tracrav T'^u y^p fier kkeov, 

* KOI Tj dydm} (rov cttI (Tiripfia A^paafi, vlov^ 'itrpai^X' 
•q iraiSeCa. trov erj) ^/xas w? vlou irpofTOTOKov fiopoyev^, 

* diTQcrTp€jf/ai ij*uj()ji' vttJkoop otto dfiaOiai ev dyvoCa. 

'KadapLaai. 6 ^€os 'l(Tpar)\ eis r)p.tpav Ikiov iv ev\oyC^, 
CIS TJfi^pav eKXoyijs h> dvd^ei ypunov avrov. 

Inscriplio deesi in M. 
a (£ niTTuir (V vei Ti t{ ovriS' conj. Hilg.' 
« codd. uioD. Fsbr. vJoAt, iU edd. 

S ofiaSlai V, K, P, M, Hilg. s^uipPfai A (Cerda 'lb imperilia'). afut/n-Iat 
Fabr. (notal "Gr. apctcala") FriUsch. 
oytslf. drolf M. 


_ne'E evidence is invalidated by the fact 
that it DinitB all titles and subscript ions. 
We at once admit the practical aWnce 
of external support, for we lay little iilrcss 
on the evidence of M. It seems to treat 
the verses in question exactly as it does 
the ind half (33—51) of Fs. xvii. But 
we 6nd it difficult tu conceive how the 
subject of the last verses is to be brought 
round to that of the lirst : we cannot help 
seeing that vv. i — 10 form a complete 
whole 'teres atque rolundus,' and we find 
no such complete change of subject in- 
troduced in any other of these Psalms as 
is entailed here. We think it highly pro- 
bable that at least a leaf had disappeared 
at the end of the archetype of our pre- 
sent copies, and very likejy much more 
than a leaf, Such an archetype would of 
course represent an earlier stage of the 
text than did the Codex Alexandrinus. 
fact we know about thnt copy is 
that it contained eighteen Psalms and no 

be divorced from the xviii"^; we lay &t 
more stiess on the assertion that that 
Psalm as we have it is incomplete. 

I The first five verses are composed 
chielly of what may be called the com- 
monplaces of these Psalms, Most of 
the phrases can be paralleled &oin tfae 
Old Testament, and most of the parallelB 
have already been cited more than once. 
Thus for ver. i we have Ps. cxiiv. (cilv.) 
g d1 alKTipiuA airou lui irdrra t\ tpya 

a For vcTTie a sec Ps. S. v. 16. P», 
xi. ; el j^aXiiol ai>reu tli rir rinrra 
iToPMramir. Zcch. Iv. to. 

The words Koi oix inTtp^au H a**^ 
are capable of bearing two meanings, 
'there shall none of them come to want,' 
or 'be hicking.' The latter is perhaps 
commoner in the lxx. and the former 
more probable here, cf. Ps. xxii. (xxliL) i 
oiSiii lit iirrtiHiaci, kxxiii. (Ixxiiv.) 1 1 c^ 
biTTefy/jtrrt rd iyad^ rHr rap^vofUptxt ir 
itHKlf, as against Ps. ixxiii. (xxxiv.) lo 
oix tarty inrrtffril'a roil ipo^uiAimt aATir^ 
which rcprcBenis what we take to be d« 
sense of the verse before us. 

a Cf Ps. xxxiii. (xxxiv.) 16 t1 vra 
aCrroa lit SlTftv avtoO, t Chron. vi. 40 t4 

xvill. 6] TAAMOI lAAOMnNTOI. 

A Psalm of Solomon touching the Lord Meisiah. 

1 O Lord, thy mercy is upon the works of thine hands for 

2 Thy goodness is upon Israel with a bounteous gift : yea 
thine eyes look upon thy works' and none of them shall come to 

3 Thine ears will hearken unto the prayer of the needy that 
hopeth in thee; thy judgments are upon all the earth with 

4 And thy love is toward* the seed of Abraham, even the 
sons of Israel: thy chastening is upon us as upon a firstborn 
son only-begotten, 

5 To convert the soul that is obedient from simpleness and 
from sins of ignorance'. 

6 The Lord cleanse Israel for the day when he shall have 
mercy upon them and shall bless them': even for the day of 
his appointing when he shall bring back' his anointed. 

' Gi. fntn 


Ct. a" 

t«iKowni. Sttictly we should have 
expijcled lirajaiiitrTai., but It is ptobable 
thnt the text hetc is correct. It is known 
that the active form diofsu is a feature 
or AleiaDdrioE Greek. It is found — 
though not oniversally— in the LXX. (Is. 
vL g dxog inaiattt etc.). and sometimes 
in N.T. We cannot cite examples of 
traxaimi, but there is no reason why 
the form used for the simple verb should 
not have been extended to its compounds- 
See Winer. Gr. of N.T. Git. p. 99. 

Hilg. in loc. cites Ex. iv. i» uUt rfa- 
Tironii lau 'Iirpa^X, and 4 Esdr. i\. 58 
DOS aulem populus tuus qaeni vocasti 
primogenitum, unigenitum, aemulatorem 
carissimum. This last passage is particu- 
larly noteworthy. 

VTBXoC {v &w(8t, probably another 
parallel to dvJpAf ir efsraSti^ iv. II, 
roeaninc 'the needy thai hopeth in thee.' 

A CL xiii. S and the passages (already 
died) in Fs. Ixxxviii. (Ixxxix.) 17 111L7UI 
upanlrretDr fl^ojuu oAriii, xxi. (itxii.) 11 
ix X''P^' (ur6t Tdr lionoyenj luv, Ecclus. 
xxxvi. 11 'IspaJiX 3i> rpuToylinti iittotuati. 

ft BmJKOot, used, it seetns.onlyin Pro- 
verbs by the LXX. Another instance of 

i{ir»(rrp<4Fai, cf. Ei. xxxiii. 14 dro- 
CTpi^ti Arb Tijt Afxapriat a^oD. 

(CjMiSfat- 'i'his is practically the read- 
ing of all uss. If A is correctly repre- 
sented by Cerda, which may be consi- 
dered doubtful, still its reading i/iapSiat 
retains the characteristic of o^wflat; and 
Cerda's renderine 'imperilia' seems lo 
show thai he undecalood [his latter word 
to be intended. Mo&l likely a/iapeim is 
a misprint. The meaning of awi ofia- 
eiat iw iryvoip seems to be that Ihe an- 
leomedaess of the soul is exemplified by 
■'-- --— of ignorance which it eommils. 

of mercy in 


'Or. day 

of choosing 

iH bring- 


For a.. .. 

nSl«, Eccles. ii. 
Sym. Ps. xlviii. i 

• TheVJitJpaJ 

different aspects. 



lu and i^pipa licXoY<il 

thing consLdered in I wo 
The first is the T]pJpa 

iv. 6, the day when God 
will visit and have mercy on the righte- 
ous : it is therefore seen here from the 
point of view of those visited. The other 
expression refers to the same day looked 
upon from God's point of view, ^^po 
iK\t/y^ — nufbt ir olSat isi, t 0iif (xvii. 

iv dv^n xpiVTOv adrov. The verse 
just cited (xvii. 13) contains in its ear- 
lier clause what is probably the best 



[xvili. 7 

fiaKaptot 01 yivofieuOL tv rots T^^epats e^ttvats 
lieiN TA &r&9a Kvpiov, a irof^tret yevt^ rn tp)(Ofj.eiq), 
'vno pd^Sov TraiScias xp'ctoy ktp'oy eV ff>o^o) deov avrov, 
€V co<]i[^ nNeywTOC (cat iiKftiocyNHC koX Icxyoc. 
* KaTtvdvva.1 avSpa iv cpyots SLKaioiTvvr}<; j>a^(a Beov, 
KaTacTTyjtTai, jrai^as avrous a/ ^o^w Kvpiov. 

[XIX.] ""'Meyas d ^€os >J/iw 


Ktti ej'Sofos eM ■JYiO'Tois 

ft KaraiTTiTirai ita Ai V, K, P (sed Cerdu la G[. mrwrrqrai). Fabr. mToirrifi'at. 
mirotmiffa. M. iti Hilg. Fr. (Pick.), 
nii/i/ov. M npUf. 
lO M om. Sia^aX^ sed ita Interpungit quasi Psnlintu hit verbis (inirclur, et 

seqnealem versum lilcni majuscula incbtut. 

commcnlaiy on this interesting phraK. 
'iriBTiiiior ai>T«i Tit fiairiXia adrHr, 
vHr Aauli etc. But dra^ii, the word used 
here, is a more definite one than the dvii- 
OT'^aiyf o{ that passage. We ore at 
liberty to assign to it a somewliat more 
pccise meaning, that namely of 'bring- 
ing again' or 'bringing up,' which our 
text and maigin suggest. The first of 
these renderiags would iodicate a belief 
on the part of the writer in a doctrine 
which we know to have been anlerior to 
his time^the prc-exisience of the Mes- 
siah. Such a belief is first hinled at in 
Dan. vii. 13, and is plainly slated in the 
3Dd Parable of Enoch (xlviii. j), what- 
ever may be the date of that document. 

mate a similar belief, without dwelling 
on it, and later instances might be mul- 
tiplied. Those given cover our period. 
The present passage is at must only a 
bint of the wnler'a belief. 

The Messianic ideas of the xviilh 
Psalm, however, show no trace of any 
mystical doctrine of the kind, if we ex- 
cept (he difficult phrase xp^''^ icipioi. 
They resemble closely those of Enoch 
(the First Book, c. xc 3;, 3S), among 
later writers, and of the first part of 
Isaiah , among earlier ones. The Messiah 
is, as we have seen, the conquering hero 
and restorer of Ihe nation, sprung of Da- 
vid's line. He t& taught of God. anoioted 
of God, full of the spirit of God, it is 
true; but of any closer relationship, of 
any snperhaman origin, there Is not a 

word. Vet in the xviilh Paalm Ihe Mes 
siah and his times are so fully Irealed 
thai, if the writer eolettained a belief thai 
the deliverer was more than man, he cer- 
tainly ought to have said so. In the ^c 
of such an omission we find il difBeull to 
believe that the single word drafif here 
contains alt thai the writer had to say on 
so important a subject. We Bfe com- 
pelled 10 believe Ihat Sta^i is sinuily a 
rather more detailed equivalent of drA- 
arriaiKr, and thai any such thought as Ihat 
of ' bringing the firsl-l>^ollen again into 
the world' ;s inadmissible here. 

XpMTTOv aitraii. On Ihe relation of 
this phrase 10 ■xpu'Tit xiipioi see on xvii. 

7 Cf. ivii. 50 and reff. there. 

■V<w4 Ti 'PX'l^ni- Cf. Ps, xii. (xni.) 
31, 31 oray^fX-fyirTiu rif xeplif 4 ytrtA 

ipxpiiimi (N13" : -n-b), \xx. (ixxLj 18 r-f 

d* i»OYyriXtii...TB ■J*»<9 ^g ipx*!'^ 
(K13' isaS 11-6), M i Esdr. i. 3S testcw 
poputi venienlis giaciam, and 3;. The 
analc^ of these expressions and of the 
leclinical Hebrew pbiase N3n uflSiJ 
= 'aei-um veniens' forbids us to jcrin 
Ihe three last words of ver. 7 with ver. 6 
and construe ipxi/^t'Tl ^i ^|9^, x 
Frilzsche's punctuation would lead us 

a iv6 pi^Sav. Our objeclion to 
Wellhausen's ingenious rendering "An 
Slelle der Zuchlruthe Irill der Gesalbte 
des Ilertn" (which assumes Ihat ori 

XIX. i] 


7 Blessed are they that shall be in those days ; for they shall 
see the goodness of the LORD which he shall bring to pass for 
the generation that Cometh, 

8 Under the rod of the chastening of the Lord's anointed* in ' Or. 
the fear of his God: in the spirit of wisdom and of righteousness '"'■'" 
and of might, 

9 To direct ez'cry man in the works of righteousness with the 
fear of God ; to stablish them al! in the fear of the Lord, 

10 Yea to make t/ietn a good generation in the fear of God in 
the days of his mercy. Selah. 

1 (ii) Great is our God and glorious, dwelling in the highest, 

= nCIFI Ghould have been translated ifri) 
lies in the eironeous conception of the 
Messiah thai results from it. It will be 
remembered thai in Ps. S. xvii. 16, 47 (he 
Messiah is to wield the rod of chastening 
a^inst Jew and Gentile alike. In our 
view the verse siroplj extends the de- 
scription of "the coming generation" 
vhich will be subject to " the rod 
of chastening," as bdeed the subsequent 
verses clearly indicate. We believe that 
this clause IS connected with the pre- 
ceding rather iiot4 Birtew than in any 
more formal way. The best parallel 
expression is to be fonnd in viL S tai 
iflittt irli iir/ir sou [tjt] T&r oJi^a, etc. 
The auxiliary verb laomu has to be 
supplied here, and no verb of motion 
(such as ipxPiiir^) is needed. 

The grammatical coostruction is of the 
loosest kind, and must be explained upon 
the principle of coordination not of snb- 
ordination of sentences. 

)U)ioTov KupCou. See on ivii. 36. 

kr vo^Cf wtbfaTot. The rendering 
of tliese words 10 their present order is 
out of the question, Whatever meaning 
Ihcy do yield is practically identical with 
that in our text. We hardly think that 
an original reading h ■ntiita.n taplat 
ever existed, but obviously that is what 
is required in iranslatit^g. 

NaT(ii6S)«i . . . KaTOOTijvai. Hilg. 
and Fritzsche take these verbs as Opta- 
tives. We believe them to be Infinitives, 
on the ground thai, when a wish is 
expressed, this writer most frequently 
inserts the subject. 

The actions of individuals are to be 
directed by the coming Deliverer, and 

thus the whole community is to be broi^ht 
Into the condition of fearing the Lord. 

The lecond clause is consequent upon the 

vilvTat afroit. 

indication of the ee 

10 ynii AyaSff 

vii. ^6. A brief 
perhaps in loose ap- 

IPs. XIX.] 

1 (11) The theme of the order and 
regularity of Creation, especially as seen 
in the movements of the heavenly bodies, is 
a favourite one with Jewish writers. The 
conception of any physical law restraining 
or ordering their movements is not natu- 
ral to the mind of man in a primitive 
state. Doubtless the stars were looked 
upon in the tirst instance us divinities 
possessing volition and persormlily. They 
went in their particular course because 
they liked it : and there was no reason 
why they should not deviate from it 
or move in another direction. They 
influenced the minds and destinies of 
men, and were themselves subject to 
interruptions in their courses, whether 
from the attacks of the Great Dragon 
(Job ill, 8) or from other causes. 

But soon it was realised that the move- 
ments of the stars could not possibly be 
regarded as arbitrary, and that some su- 
perior intelligence was directing their 
movements; and the next stage of belief 
concerning them, which does not ma- 
terially differ from Our own, is probably 
represented by the familiar name ofje- 
hovah Sabaoth, the Lord of hosts. The 
hosts are in all proliability the sentient 
armies of heaven marshalled and directed 
by the constant caje of Jehovah. But 



[XIX. 2 
laptov cuf) 

'"^'o StdTafas a* ■iropiitf. <tHiicTHp*c ei? i 
Tj/i.e/3&)i/ eis ■^fj.epa';, 

' '"' cv ^o';S^ ^eoG 7j dSos auroif »ca^' iKacrrr/v -qfifpav, 
*4.' i5c HMtpAc eKTicEN avTov<; o ^€os koI ews aiuco;, 
•""/fai ov/f €TT\air^dT](rav &<!>' hc tiMepac ^kticen ai/roiJ?' 
OTTO yevttov ap)(aioii' ovk aTrifTTrja-av dira oSov ai/roiv, 
ei /xt) d ^eos eveTeiA.aTo aurois eV iinTayfj SovXiuu ax/rov. 


m- IxoyciN eiTH a. 

A, V, K, *a?L^ol S-aefi&TOt (SoX. K), iij'. (xoirniy Itn, 
om. lubscriptioneoi M. 
P ^'a^^lol iToXofuDtToi Sdtaoitriii IxBinrw ?rjj Tpimofra 

. Trtoi iril* S.i^ (om. K, V), 
(scilicet A pro A Itgit). 

still they are thought of as possessing life 
uid will of their own, und as being ca- 

eble of disobedience to their Ruler, 
imp. Pi. cxlvii. 4 He tellelh the number 
of the stars : he calleth them all by their 
nmnes; Is. xl. j6 He calleth them all by 
name.., not one faileth; also Baruch ill. 
3J^+1 Ecclus, xliii. 5—7, 10. For the 
disobedient stars, the doTipts r\ariJTtu 
ofjnde 13 see Enoch xviii. 11—16 (ij) 
■The stars that roll over the lire are they 
that have transgressed the command of 
God before their rising, because they did 
not come forth in then lime.' Cf. also 
«i. 3-6. 

The next stage of the conception is 
that which reg^s the stars as in the 
cha^e of angeU, but as being themselves 
inanimate bodies. This is the view we 
find in the second great section of the 
Book of Enoch, that of the Parables 
(xliii. 1, 'these come according to the 
number of angels'). The first writer of 

Enoch does indeed partly lean towAids 
this theory in so far that he assigns a 
particular leader, Uriel, 10 all the hea* 
venly bodies. 

ll seems at Rist sight that the view 
which identitied stars with angels must 
be a reversion to the earliest conception, 
but wc believe that in reality it is a late 
view and grew out of the belief mentioned 
just above which assigned particular stars 
to particular angels. We are not certain 
how far it is to be pressed as alTecling 
the interpretation of Rev. i. jo "The 
seven stars are the ancels of the seven 
churches," Bui we think thai at any rate 
the view set forth in the Enochian Pa- 
rables must have some bearing on (hat 

But the B 

point which deserves 
m with this passage of 
the Psalm is the similarity of the lan- 
guage here with that of the Parables of 
Enoch, especially c. xli. ; '1 saw.. .the 

XIX. 4] 



2 {12) Even he that hath appointed the lights of heaven i 
their course unto times of seasons from everlasting unto ever- 
lasting': and they have not transgressed from the path which ' Gr./m 
thou didst command them. ilay u 

3 (13) In the fear of God is their course every day, since '■'' 
the day when God created them even unto everlasting, 

4 (14) And they have not erred since the day when he 
created them : from the generations of old they have not de- 
parted from their path, except God commanded them at the 
precept of his servants. 

sun Dnd moon, ..and Ihcir fixed course, 
and how ibey do not leave their course, 
and how they add nothing to their course, 
and take nothing from it, and preserve 
their fidelitj one with the other, remain- 
ing steadfast in their oaths.' It seems 
most liliely that both writers drew a 
distinction between Ibe two great lu- 
minaries and the body of the stars, re- 
garding the former as personalities, the 



that the author of the Parables and the 
author of our Psalm are moving in much 
the same circle of ideas. 

^•Krrrjpat. This is the word used of 
the sun and moon in Gen. i. 14, as dis- 
tinct from the stars. It occurs again (of 
lhemoon)inEcclus. xliii.7. InWisd. xiii. 
1 we hnd ^wrr^^i abjianiti distinguished 
from tit\op SoTpar. In Phil. ii. 15 (ill 
^iuuT^pet tf ii6aiuf), and Rev. XJtL 1 1 (i 
^irriip aiirqf), the application is less 
distinct. But in Test. xii. Patr., Levi 14, 
we have a good instance of the specific 
use, i/ut! ol ^uo-r^fxi r«i oipatBV, ' 

ol Enoch it would doubtless be common 
in that book. The passages quoted point 
to the (act that here our author is referring 
specially to the sun and moon. 

iropfta, used of the sun b Ecclits. xliii. 
5. Cf. Hab. iii. 6 wtptlat alarlai airoS. 
For the whole verse ef. Apoc. Bar. xiviii. 
9, 10 el sapienles facis orbes eelcsles ut 
mini^lrent in ordinibus suis. Excrcilus 

8 (IS) There can be no doubt that 
the reading «l1 tut alijua Is far superior 
to the ordinary one, which yields no par- 
ticular sense. For the o 

4 (14) Here, as Cerda remailts, is an 
obvious allusion to the "factum Josuae,' 
and also, as Hilg. adds, to the miracle 
wrought for Hezekiah. Allusions to 
definite incidents in the 0. T. history are 
sufficiently uncommon in our book to 
merit notice when they so occur, ll 
is almost inconceivable that the whole 
book should have ended with this un- 
explained reference. Not one of the 
other Psalms is destitute of some sort of 
daxol<^ or rounding off, save the first, 
and in that case there is the possibility 
already alluded to that it ought to be 
more closely connected with Psalm ii. 

In the cose before us, we prefer the 
suggestion that the last leaf of the arche- 
type had disappeared at a very early date. 

The Subscription merits a word ; it will 
be noticed that A V K P have a stichotnelric 
note; A K and V attributing 1000 finj to 
the book, P 30. It is obvious, we think, 
that P or its predecessor was copied from 
an uncial or semi-uncial archetype; that 
the scribe mistook A for A and inc ' ' 
expanded the numerics! ngn i 


The Odes of the Pistis Sophia. 

The accompanying five Odes of Solomon have been already referred 
to in the Introduction. For the sake of completeness, rather than in 
the hope that we have succeeded in throwing much light upon their 
meaning, we have included them in this volume, in a new form. It 
seems appropriate to include them thus in an appendix, inasmuch as 
we have seen that the evidence points to their having, in company with 
other compositions of the same sort, originally occupied that position 
(Introd. p. xx). 

They have been already published several times; first by Woide in 
his (posthumous) Appendix ad Codicetn Alexandrinumy p. 148 (Thebaic 
and Latin); next by Fred. Miinter, Bishop of Seeland, in 181 2, Odae 
gnosticae Salomoni tributae\ by Ideler, Psalterium Coptice 1837, p. 243; 
by Max Uhlemann, Grammaticae CopHcae Ruditnenta (Nos. iii. and v.); 
in Migne's Diet, des Apocryphes^ L s.v. Salomotty in French only; and 
in Schwartze and Petermann's edition of the Pistis Sophia (Berlin, 
1 851) in Thebaic and Latin : probably also by others. In the Comptes 
Rendus de FAcademie des Inscriptions, 1872, p. 347, M. R^villout 
quotes two of them. 

We have attempted to render them into Greek, and have subjoined 
by way oi apparatus criticus a statement of the more important differences 
between the renderings of Schwartze (S.) and Woide (W.). We especially 
crave the indulgence of our readers for this part of our work : and we 
should particularly value any suggestions as to the improvement of our 

It is necessary to state, for the benefit of those to whom the 
Pistis Sophia is unfamiliar, the manner in which these Odes are 
introduced into the text of that book. They occur at intervals in a 
long series of hymns (called /xcravouu) which are recited by the Pistis 
Sophia at various stages of her progress upward, through and out of 



the chaos. Our Lord is represented as detailing the adventures of dl^ 
Pistis Sophia, and as quoting the hymns of thanksgiving or supplication 
which she utters. At the end of each, He pauses, and asks for an 
explanation of the hymn. Hereupon, one of the Apostles, or of the 
holy women who form His audience, steps forward and says, "Thy 
power of Light formerly prophesied by means of David (or Solomon) in 
his (e.g. SSth) Psalm, saying..." Then follows the text of one of the 
Canonical Psalms or one of these Odes : after which our Lord 
expresses His approval, expounds the application of the Psalm to the 
situation, and proceeds with His narrative. It is to be noticed that 
these five Odes of Solomon are quoted in precisely the same form as 
the Psalms of David; in the case of these latter the text and number 
of the Psalm are always correctly given : and no author save these two 
is referred to. Hence, the impression left with the reader is that a real 
collection of Solomon's Odes is being used, and that the Odes were not 
simply written for the occasion. On the question of the possible origin 
and extent of this collection something has been already said (lotrod. 
L c). The idea that the Odes may have been simply written to fill a 
place in the text of the Pistis Sophia derives slight support from the 
existence of one or two such Odes in other Coptic Apocr^'pha. e.g. one 
sung by David in Hades on the occasion of the Virgin's birth, which 
will be found in R^villout's Apocryphes Coptes du Nouveau Testament, 
p. 5. Against it is the evidence drawn from Lactantius and the Sticho- 
metries (Introd. p. xix), and the lack of any special appropriateness 
in the Odes themselves. 

The spaced words in the Greek are those which are found in Greek 
in the original text of the Pistis Sophia, 

p.73(M4). i. Recited by Salome and prefaced with these words : " tua 

vis eTrpo^r)T€ViTev oHm per Solomonem dicens." 

I, i^ofj,o\oy^iTO/iai aoi, /cvpie, Sti tri) ei o 6e6'i /ton' ^7 ^e 

iyKaTaXiTrrj-i, Kvpi€, OTt ab el ^ eXiri'i nov. 
'pouS. 2. eSwKii'i fJ,OL TO Kpifia rrov* Sapedv, kui Sieipu\ti)^0i}p 

3. nea-oiev al KaTaSttOKOVTeit p.e Koi p.ij iBoUv pe. 

4. ve<j>e\T] <tk6tov^ ical 6p,i^^ aepoi dirtica,\v-<^ai tqv^ 6*^- 

BaXp.QV'; avTuv. 


5. a-tcoTurdelrfaav* koX fi^ tBoiev to ^c39, fi^firore KaTaXdjScoV' 'P?- Ij^"* 
, (Ixix.) 34 

6. y€vr)0^T<a to Biafiovkiov avr&v cfc dadiveiav kclL a ^J/T 
efiovXevaav eiriaTpe^droi hrl K€<f>a\rjv avrSv" fiovXrjv* ^fioiikev- 9 i, povXy 
aav Ka\ firj yevoiro avrot^. 

7. ivC/effcav avrod^ Swarol, kclI & irapeaKevaaav KaKw^ 
(Tweireaav hr avrov^. 

8. 1; ik iXirU fiov iirl Kvpiov, icclI ov (l)o/3fjdi]a'o/icu, Siori av 
el 6 deo^ fiov, Kal 6 aarijp fiov. 

ii. Recited by the Virgin: "tua vis luminis €7r/>o^i;T€t/(r€i;p.75("6)' 
de his verbis olim per Solomonem in eius decima nona ode et 

1. o Kijpio^ iirl K€<f>a\r)^ fiov Stnrep arri^vo^ KaX ov firj 
')((DpuT0£ aw avTov' hrXix^V^ /^* ari^avo^ dXr^dela^, ^(r\e^ 

2. 01 KXdSoi cov i^vrevOf^aap iv ifiol, Biori, ovtc iiroiqaav 
crri^avov ^pov koX fit) pXaardvovra. 

3. dXXd ^y^ hrl rf}^ K€<f>aXr}^ fiov^ Kol av^dvtf in ifiov. 

4. oi Kapirol aov irX^pei^ koI riXeioi' iirXffpddtja-av rfj^ 
acDTTjpia^ GOV, 

1 or oifK aT0j3aX(tf aMy. 

2 irolrjffay pKaar&i^w toiJj ifX. k.t.X, S. 

iii. Recited by Peter: "tua vis luminis errpo<l>ijT€va'€v olim p.84(i3i). 
per Solomonem in eius ^aU, 

1. €^rjX0€v 97 dwoppoia Kal iyivero eh irorafiov fieyav KaX 

2. Kol iiretnrdaaro irdvra^ avrov^ Kal viriarpe^v iirl rov 

3. Kal OVK Xayvaav rov ovyKXeiaaL avrrjv eh XaKKOV^ ovBk 
€49 TOTTOW TuXaTOfiTj/jApov^, ovSk tjSvvavTO a-vXXajSeii/ avrrjv al 
rix^ai T&v avXTutfifiavovrcDV rd iSaTo, 

9 a ^To ^ f sc. fluvios vel aquas W. 



4. KarJiyOi] etj)' SXijf Tijv yj^v, Koi avrif eTreXd^ero train 

5. eTTiav 01 avatrrpei^otievoi iv y^ avvSpip. itr^ftrdi] Kol 
BieKvdt} TO 2(^05 ai/Ttui', SoSevro^ avroK "TTOtov a0 xr^XoO. 

6. (laKapioi 01 SiaKovot exeivov tov ttotov, ot; iwttrrevBtj 
TO uBtop TOV Kvpiov. 

7. eTreoTpaijnjaav tA xetX-jj rd ^pd, ivurjfyBitaav oi cicXeXy- 

iarepetoBrjaav at -^v^^at rcSv aTio&iBopToiv to wvevfta, tov fi^ 

8. icaT£aTd6i}<Tav tA fieXi] ra •jrapaXeXv/teva' iSodt} Itrj^vv 
TT/ irappJiaia avrmp, xal ^ws to(? 6<f>0a\/WK auriBi'. 

g. Zti irtii'Tes ai/rol ihriov r^ rrtoTripuiV tou Kvpiov, «ai eca)- 
Btjaap ev tSari ^toijs eh rof alai/a. 

4 Tdl'l 

V iSirt 

a ol drairrp. bibenint ver^antes si 
7 ^ux4i. ^i/xi) eiicienles balilutn 
• quod isti omnes cognovere se 
Domini W. 

Orancs HqiuiE W. 
arenam aridam S. qui habitabant in W. 
animae proiectae n vento W. 
Domino S. quia illi bibcrunt falulem 

16(149). 'V. Recited by Thomas: "tua vis luminis eVpo^ijTewro' 
olim per Solomonem filium Davidis in eJus pSais." 

1. eppi;a07}v ex rmv BetTfLtiv /ioic i-rri ae, KVpie, Kariipvyop, tri 
av ^; CK Sel^ioii' ^01;, ffm^tap fie- Kal etnvrrd'i /le xal dvTeXdffov fiov. 

2. iictiiXva'ai Tov<i fia^ofievou^ tear iftov. koI ov^ evpiOriaau' 
3- S(OT( TO irpoauTroi/ aov r)f fier ifiou Koi eppiiaaro fte iv 

4. KaTT}iTj(yv0r}v (ptoTTiov ToiJ irXif^ou? koI efe^ij^ijv 

5. iyevofiJiv ofi.oto<; fioXvffSip evdiriov avrav. 

6. iireyeneTo fj.01 Bvvafw -rrapn. aov xal dvTeXdffeTo fiov. 

7. iirt e0T}Ka<i Xv-)(vov'i ix Sefitoc ftov xal ef dpiarepSv, tou 
ptifSiv elvai irKoreivov xvxXp fiov. 

1 tK «cfiuv = W. dextraS. 
7 ToC iii,Sir. So S. nam 

puncluation of the Ms, 

L orbalus Iod 
r iriv it-urii. This rendering follows Ihe 


8. iatceiraad^ fie rp aKia rov ikiov^ cov, kcu hreveSiidfjp 
aroKfiv rifilav. 

9. 17 Se^ui aov dvir^ae fie, koX cu[>eT\£V air ifiov iracrav 

10. ivKTyydrfv iv rp dkrfdela aov, Kal eKadapUrOrfv ry 
BiKaioaiJVfj aov, ifiaKpvvffrfO'av air ifiov oi iydpol fiov, Kal 
iBiKaiwdrjv t§ ^PV^'^^'^V'^^ ^^^9 2ta 17 dvairavah cov €t9 rdv 
al&va rov al£vo^. 

8 et ftii super vestes pelliceas S. et fui coelestis, induius vestimentis honoriBds W. 
10 eica^ap/o-^^i/r. purgatus S. humiliatus W. 

V. Recited by Matthew: "tua vis luminis €7r/wi^i7T€V(r€i/p.99('55)- 
olim in ^S^ Solomonis." 

1. o Kara/^arfdv fie etc r&v av<a rowtov t&v hrovpavltov, avro^ 

fie Kon^yayev et^ tov^ iv r^ xdrto orepewfiaTt^, ^0efU\ltpS. 

2. o rd iv fiiatp d7roaT^<ra^ Kal SiSd^a^ fie irepl avrwv. ^payyt 

3. 6 iuLfTKopiriaa^ roi^ iyjSpov^ fiov Kal rot)? dvrtBlKOv^. 

4. o Sov^ fiot i^ ova lav iirl rd Sea fid rod Xvaai avrd, 6 
Trard^a^ iv Tff X^^P^ f^^ '^^^ SpdKOvra rdv €7rraK€if>a\ov, 

5. 6 Karaari^aa^ fie eirdvta rrj^ pi^V^ avrov rov iicrpl'^ai ro 
airepfia avrov, 

6. Kal [70/)] aif ^9 fier ifiov rov fforfffeiv fioi iv iravrl xaip^. 

7. irepieiroLria'aro fie ro 6vofid aov, 

8. fj Be^id aov dirdtkeae ro ^dpfiaxov rov pXaa^rjfiov, 
9* V X^^P ^^^ dfidXurev oSov roi^ Triarot^ aov, 

*I0. iKvrpdaan avrov^ ix r&v rd<f>a>v Kal i^rfyar/e^ avrod^ iK 
fUaov r&v Trrmfidrwv, 

1 qui deduxit me S. Duxit me W. qui duxit...ille duxit ChampoUion. 
super caelum S. coelestibus W. 

et duxit me sursum in locis quae in fundamento inferiori S. et duxit me in loca 
quae in valle deorsum W. 

a qui abstulit ibi S. Sumpsit hue (rpoffijrfaycp) W. 

erudivit ea W. docuit me ea S. 

5 evellerem S. deleam W. 

6, 7 in omni loco circumdedit S. W. We join it on to the preceding verse. 

• stravit S. direxit W. = icoTflJ^wei'. 

10 TTtafidTiop, cadaveribus S. sepulchrorum W. /i^iifielwif. 


I T. iireKa^ov Ttoi' ootwv twv veKpiav. eveSvaa^ a 
Kal roi^ firj ictvovfiet'ot^ eSa/ea<i ivepyeiap ^ta^i. 

12. iyivera eV a^Oapala t} oiaii <rov, KaX iir t^ vpaadnrtp < 
StcXi/ffa; tAv almva erov 

13. Zva. hioKvB^aiv 01 ti 
^(8? iTOV SnrXaaiaaffj/ cttI Trdvra^ a 

14. KaTEo-Tfjffas ^1" ovTots to ttXoCto? < 
Kal iyeuovTO £t; KOTOiKtfiTUi arftav. 

XI qui baud movent se dcdisti iis S. 

1> perniciei expen S. incorrnpdbilitas W. 
duxisti luum otwra in pemiciem S. super p< 
14 conslruxisti luam opulentiam per eos S. 

dedisti iU W. 
: divitios tuns super eo| 3j 


Ode i. is a colourlt^ composition, 
eotitiining nothing essentially Gnostic, 
and resembling lo a ceitoia extent the 
Psalms of Solomon in being almost a 
cento from the Canonical Psalms. There 
are, however, few actual coincidences of 
language. Ver. 3 is taken from Ps. Ixviii. 
(Ixix.) 34. The Ode as a whole resembles 
Ps. ucvi. (ixvii.). It may he originally 

Ode ii. should he another fragmenl of 
thai quoted by Lactantius— the ' xixlh 
Ode.' — Here alone is a number given. 

The Virgin, be it noted, is the reciter 
here, and the Virgin ia the subject of 
Laclantius'a quotation. "Very possibly the 
present fragment may refer to her, and to 
the overshadowing of her by the Holy 
SptriL The 'fruits of righteousness' 
might in that case be taken lo signify oui 
Lord, the Word full of grace and truth. 
In any cose, this is probably a Christian 

Ode iii. is also Christian, and the 
employment of the lerm dirAppHO :,eems 
lo stamp it as Gnostic. Bat we cannot 

see that there is anything unmistakably 
Gnostic in the doctrine. The imagery 
employed is that of Ezek. xlvii., and of 
our Lord's words concerning the living 
water: and the thing described seems to 
be the preaching of the Gospel, which 
no human effort can avail to hinder, and 
which brings life and health to the in- 
habitants of a thirsty heathen world. If 
our theory of these Odes is correct, we 
have here a hymn of the second century 
at latest, and one filled with Johannine 
phraseoli^ and ideas. 

Ode iv. may possibly be Jewish, though 
the verse rather militates against such 

The original of the curious expression 
in ver. 8 is tgTKlt U)«.&.p (shten shaar) 
meaning lilernlly 'garments of leather': 
but in a document in Zooga (Cat. Codd. 
Copt. p. 574) it is used of the g.irments of 
the wealthy. Hence our freer rendering. 
As a description of deliverance the Ode 
may be compared to Ps. S. xiii. 

Ode V. The ciptessions 'heavenly 
places,' ' the things that \ 



midsti' etc. remind us of the phraseology 
of G)lossians and Ephesians. This Ode 
more than any of its companions has the 
air of being written to occupy its present 
place in the text of the Pistls Sophia. 

V. 4. Cf. John XX. 73. 

ibid, * The seven-headed dragon. * 
This verse would be appropriate in the 
mouth of the * woman clothed with the 
sun,' Rev. xii. It carries us into the 
region of apocalyptic imagery. 

V. 10, II. The original of these 
verses is to be sought in Ezekiel's vision 
of the dry bones. 

II. Cf. Ps. ciii. (civ.) 30 'when thou 
lettest thy breath go forth they shall be 
made, and thou shalt renew the face of 
the earth.' 

We should like to take this oppor- 
tunity of calling the attention of our 
readers to two other fragments of the 
Psalmic literature, which have hitherto 
received but slight attention. They are 
to be found among certain apocryphal 
Syriac Psalms published by the late 
Professor Wm Wright in the Proceedings 
of the Society of Biblical Archcuology 
(1887, ix. pp. 157 — 166). These Psalms 
arc five in number, and are found in two 
MSS. of the 17th and i8th centuries 
respectively; the first in the University 
Library at Cambridge, the second at the 
Vatican (Cod. Syr. 183). In both they 
are attached to a work by Elias (Bp of 

Peroz-Shabhor or al-Anbar, dr. 910 a.d.) 
called the * Book of Discipline. * 

The first of the five is the well-known 
* Psalm cli' in a text slightly differing 
from the ordinary Greek form. 

No. 1 is *the Prayer of Hezekiah 
when enemies surrounded him.' 

No. 3 'when the People obtained 
permission of Cyrus to return home.' 

No. 4 'spoken by David when he was 
contending with the lion and the wolf 
which took a sheep from his flock.' 

No. 5 * spoken by David when return- 
ing thanks to God, who had delivered 
him from the lion and the wolf, and he 
had slain both of them.' 

Of these Psalms, the two last seem 
to be modelled on the first. They are 
quite short, and apply exclusively to the 
situations indicated in their titles. The 
'wolf,' which appears in all three, is a 
mistake, as the editor points out, for the 
more familiar bear. 

With the second and third of the 
Psalms, however, the case is different. 
They are longer compositions, which seem 
to possess some antiquity and to lie 
originally Jewish in character, and have 
no particular application to the circum- 
stances which their titles prescribe. They 
resemble rather markedly the general 
tone of the Psalms of Solomon. 

We had prepared a Greek rendering 
of them, but have decide<l not to include 
it in the present volume. 

J. p. 




11. i-jreXa^ou raiv oaTmv TmvveKpaiv. evkhvaa'i avTa irwfia 
Kal TO(f fi->} Ktvovfievoii; eSmxat ivipyetav ^tot}^. 

12. iyiveTo iv d(f>0apa-ia t) o6d? aov, koX iv rat -Trpoiraiiro} 
SieKvaa'i riir alaivti aov 

13. tva Bia\v0ttia-iv o! Trtiprev Kol avaKaiviaOwatv KaX 
<f>w^ aov inr\ainaa$7J iirl irdi/ra^ avTovs. 

14. KOTCffTijffa^ iv avToli to ttXoOto? aov, 
Kal iyepovTO elv Karoiicijaui ayiav. 

11 qni Imud movent se dedisti lis S. ne commovcontur, dedi 

la perniciei eipers S. incomiptibiliias W. 

duxisti tuum tticira in pemiciem S. super pem. W. 

14 constmicisti (uam opuleDtiam per eos S. convertisti divitUs 


Ode i. is a colouiless composilion, 
containing nothing essentially Gnostic, 
and lesembling to a ceitaln extent the 
Psalms of Solomon in being almost a 
cento from the Ciaonical Psalms. There 
are. howevfr, few actual coincidences of 
langusigc. Ver. 3 ia taken from Pa. Ixviii. 
(Ixix.) 34. The Ode as a whole resembles 
Ps. ixvi. (xxvii.). It ma; be ongiaally 

Ode ii. should be another fragment of 
that liuoted by Lactantios — the 'lixth 
Ode.' — Here alone is a number given. 

Tbe Viigin, be it noted, is the reciter 
here, and tbe Virgin is tbe subject of 
Lactantius'a quotation. Very possibly the 
present fragment may refer to her, and to 
the overshadowing of her by the Holy 
Spirit. The 'fruits of righteousness' 
might in that case be taken to signify our 
Lord, tbe Word full of grace and truth. 
In any case, this is probably a Chrislian 

Ode iii. is also Christian, and the 
cmplojinent of the term iwippaia seems 
|o stamp it as Gnostic. Bui we cannot 

see that there is anything unmistakably 
Gnostic in the doctrine. The imagery 
employed is that of Ezek. xlvii., and of 
our Lord's words concerning the living 
water: and the thing described seems to 
be the preaching of the Gospel, which 
no human effort can avail to hinder, *nd 
which brings life and health to the in- 
habitants of a thirsty heathen world. If 
our theory of these Odes is correct, we 
have here a hymn of ibe second centai7 
at latest, and one tilled with Jotumnine 
phraseology and ideas. 

Ode iv. may possibly be Jewish, thou^ 
the last verse rather militates against such 

The original of the curious csiprelsion 
in ver. 8 is U)tHn ig&a.p (shlen shaar) 
meaning literally "garments of leather': 
but in a document in Zocga {Cat. Cedd. 
Copi. p. i74) il is used of the garments of 
the wealthy. Hence our freer rendcrinff. 
As a description of deliverance the Ode 
may be compared to Ps. S. xiii. 

Ode V. The espressions ' heavenly 
places,' 'the things that were in the 



midst/ etc. remind us of the phraseology 
of G>lossians and Ephesians. This Ode 
more than any of its companions has the 
air of being written to occupy its present 
place in the text of the Pistis Sophia. 

V. 4. Cf. John XX. 13. 

ibki. 'The seven-headed dragon.* 
This verse would be appropriate in the 
mouth of the 'woman clothed with the 
sun,' Rev. xii. It carries us into the 
region of apocalyptic imagery. 

V. 10, II. The original of these 
verses is to be sought in EzekiePs vision 
of the dry bones. 

II. Cf. Ps. ciii. (civ.) 30 'when thou 
lettest thy breath go forth they shall be 
made, and thou shalt renew the face of 
the earth. * 

We should like to take this oppor- 
tunity of calling the attention of our 
readers to two other fragments of the 
Psalmic literature, which have hitherto 
received but slight attention. They are 
to he found among certain apocryphal 
Syriac Psalms published by the late 
Professor Wm Wright in the Proceedings 
of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 
(1887, ix. pp. 157 — 766). These Psalms 
are five in number, and are found in two 
MSS. of the 17th and iSth centuries 
respectively; the first in the University 
Library at Cambridge, the second at the 
Vatican (Cod. Syr. 183). In both they 
are attached to a work by Elias (Bp of 

Peroz-Shabhor or al- Anbar, cir. 910 a.d.) 
called the ' Book of Discipline. * 

The first of the five is the well-known 
'Psalm cli' in a text slightly differing 
from the ordinary Greek form. 

No. 1 \s 'the Prayer of (lezekiah 
when enemies surrounded him.* 

No. 3 'when the People obtained 
permission of Cyrus to return home.' 

No. 4 'spoken by David when he was 
contending with the lion and the wolf 
which took a sheep from his flock.* 

No. 5 * spoken by David when return- 
ing thanks to God, who had delivered 
him from the Hon and the wolf, and he 
had slain both of them.' 

Of these Psalms, the two last seem 
to be modelled on the first. They are 
quite short, and apply exclusively to the 
situations indicated in their titles. The 
'wolf,' which appears in all three, is a 
mistake, as the editor points out, for the 
more familiar bear. 

With the second and third of the 
Psalms, however, the case is different. 
They are longer compositions, which seem 
to possess some antiquity and to 1)e 
originally Jewish in character, and have 
no particular application to the circum- 
stances which their titles prescribe. They 
resemble rather markedly the general 
tone of the Psalms of Solomon. 

We had prepared a Greek rendering 
of them, but have decided not to include 
it in the present volume. 

J. p. 





For prepositions sec Index II. 

'AjSpad/Lt ix. 17, xviii. 4 

dpwTffot xvii. II 

dyaOdt i. 6, iii. a, v. 21, xi. 8, xvii. 50, 

xviii. 7, 10 
dyaWlaais v. i 
dyawdta iv. 39, n. 9, ix. 16, x. 4, xiv. 

I, 4, xvii. 18 
dydTif xviii. 4 
oydriTtf'tt xiii. 8 

dyid^^a viiL 36, xvii. 18, 48, 49 
dylafffjuL vii. 7, viii. 4, xi. 8 
dyiourfx6t xvii. 33 
a7tot i. 8, ii. 3, viii. 11, xi. i, xvii. 18, 

36, 42, 49, xviii. 4 
dlTvoca iii. 9, xiii. 6, xviii. 5 
dyut viii. 16, 17, xvii. 46 
fSrft xiv. 6, XV. II, xvi. 2 
dSucUi iu 14, iii. 8, iv. 18, ix. 7, xvii. 

dSiKot iv. II, ix. 9, xii. 6, xv. 6, xvii. 14 

Afyvrrot ii. 30 

oTAta viii. 13, 23 

aZi^rr^t iii. i, viii. 39, 40 

a/r^(i) V. I, X. 6 

a&ot XV. 5 

olper/^ ix. 17, xvii. 5 

aXpbf V. 13, xiii. lOt xvii. 8 

alirx^V ix. 13 

afnfiui vi. 8 

afrtot iv. 3, ix. 9 

tUxfULXt^ta ii. 6 

a^cdr ii 38, 41, iii. 13, 15, vii. 8» viii. 

7» 31* 39* 4if ^* i^ ^o, X. 6, 8, xi. 
8, 9y xiL 7» xiiL g, m, i^ 3, xv, 6, I3« 
14, xtL 3» xrii. I, 3, 4« 5t 39k S't 
xviiL ip 13 

cMbvios ii. 35, iii. 16, x. 5, 9, xvii. 11 

oKaBapala viii. 13, 23, 35, xvii. 51 

djcoucla iv. 36, viii. 38 

^oicof iv. 6, 35, xii. 4 

curoi^ viii. 5 

dxadw i. 3, ii. 9, viii. i, 4 

oKpcurla iv. 3 

cur/wrot viii. 15 

dxpot xvii. 34 

aX(iXa7/ia xvii. 8 

oXi^cta iii. 7, vi. 9, x. 4, xiv. i, xv. 3, 

xvi. 10, xvii. 17 
dXXd ii. 37, v. 14 
oXXt^Xctfi' iv. II (?) 
dXKoyan/js xvii. 31 

aXX6r/Kot ii. 3, ix. i, xvi. 7, xvii. 9, 15 
oKKorpi&nit xvii. 15 
dXoyot xvi. 10 
oXciit xii. 3 
a^ xvii. 13 
dfjLaSla xviii. 5 

d/MpTd»ta iv. 5, V. 8, ix. 14, 15, xvi. 11 
dftdfiTfifUL xvii. 10 
dfiaprla i. 7, ii. 7, 17, 18, iii. 7, I3, iv. 3, 

viii. 8, 14, ix. I3, x. i, xiv. 4, 8, xvii. 

6, 31, 33, 41 

dftapTuX^ i. I, ii. i, 17, 38, 39, iiL 11, 
i3» »v. 3, 9, 37, xii. 8, xiii. 3, 4, 5, 6, 

7, 10, xiv. 4, XV. 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, xvi 
3, 5, xvii. 6, 36, 37, 41 

(va/3cUrw ii. 3 

dMopdrris xviL 37 

(2rd7in9 v. 8 

iMOKaK^rrw ii. 18, iv. 8, viii. 8 

ar((Xi|^(f iv. 30 

difmKoylfo/uu viii. 7 

II — 2 



waiUaoif ii. 38 

avd/a^ct ii. 15 

SMO^it xviiL 6 

OMairripwrts iv. 15 

wdima xiL 1 

ovarAXw xi. 7 

ayaroXi^ v. 11, xi. 3 

w€fios viii. 3, xvii. 13 * 

ctrev iv. 4, v. 15 

ay^w xvii. 30 

apiip iii. 10, iv. 11, v. 4, vi. i, ix. 10, 

X. I, xii. I, 2f 6, xviii. 9 
dpBpunrdficffKos iv. Tit., 8, fo, 11 
dvOp<aros ii. 11, 32, iv. 8, 11, 33, 37, v. 
4» 6, 15, 19, ix. 6, 8, x. 5, xiv. 5, 
XV. 4, xvii. 3, 9, 19 
wUmifu ii. 35, iii. 13, 16, xi. 9, xvii. 13, 47 
dyolyut v. 14, viii. 19 

dvofila i. 7, ii. 3, 13, ix. 3, xv. 9, 11, 13 

difofwt xvii. 30 

oufTiKafipayofJUU xvi. 3, 5 

avrtXi^Trwp xvi. 4 

(2fWXi7^(t vii. 9, xvi. Tit. 

diKiHpeXj^s xvi. 8 

ardTW viii. 34* ix. i 

axaifTdia viii. 18 

axa^ xii. 8 

axapx^l XV. 5 

flhras ix. 13, xiii. 3 

dxardta xvi. 1 

dxclOeia xvii. 33 

dretXi^ xvii. 37 

dxiyoMTi ii. 14, xvii. 5 

dr^oy V. 9, viii. 38 

axopXixu iii. 5 

dxoSldiafxi ii. 17, 38, 39, xv. 14, xvii. 10 

dxoiKcola ix. i 

dx6Kpv<l>ot i. 7f iv. 5 

dx6\Kvfu viii. 33, xii. 5, 8, xv. 13 

axoxlrrta iv. 18 

dxopla iv. 17, xii. 4 

dxo^lxTUi ii. 4, 33, ix. 3 

axoaxriwdta vii. I 
diro<riroirct^a; iii. 6 
dT(KrrAX(u vii. 4 
dxoaTp4<^ ii. 8, v. 7, xviii. 5 

dxTOfiai xiii. 5, xv. 6 
dxtaOita vii. 3, 8 

d»(6X«o ii. 35, iii 13, ix. 9, xiii. 10, xiv. 

6, XV. 10, 1 1, xvi. 5, xvii. «5 
dpd iv. 16 
dpa viii. 3 
dpTfCfuw xvii. 37 
fSpir^w xvi. 13 
dpiiAiia XV. 5 
dp»lop viii. 38 
dfixayfui ii. 38 
a^oTot xviii. 14 
«V)rf "• 34» viii. 37, xvii. 33 
dpX^ xvii. 4 1 

d^X<^ V. 13, viii. 18, 33, xvii. 14, 31, 34, 41 
eure/3t(t xiii. 4 

da$€Pita xvii. 43, 43, 45 

dffTpw i. 5 

our^dXeia viii. 30f 33 

drcKpla iv. 30 

oti/a/o ii. 33, 39, 33, 35, iv. 16, 31, 33 

dTifi6(a ii. 5 

ai}X<^i» iii. 7, xvii. 39 

adpiov v. 15 

a^apKctrfa v. 18 

d4t€up4u iv. 18, xvii. 6 

a^aWfcu xvii. 13 

d^teSpos viii. 13 

o^iTYOVAiat xvii. 38 

d^lvfJi* ix. I4i xvii. 11, 39, 45 

wfUffTiifu iv. I, 13, ix. I, 16, xvi. 6, xviii. 14 

d/ftptav xvi. 7 

papvdvfUut ii. 10 

papinna ii. 34, v. 8 

/ScurfXeia v. 3 1 , xvii. 3, 5 

paaiXeioy xvii. 7 

jSoatXcJjj ii. 34, 36, v. 13, 33, xvii- i, 5, 

^«. «3. 35» 36, 38, 47» 5i» xvii. Tit. 
PcuriXeOia xvii. 33 
p8€\6ffaia ii. 10 

p^pijXos ii. 14, iv. I, viii. 13, xvii. 51 
/3f/397X6ai i. 8 

/3c/3t(X(iyatt i. 8, ii. 3, viii. 34 
pia xvii. 6 
/Sodoy i. I 
porjBcUi XV. I 

/5o/¥« xi. 4 

/SouXi} viii. 33, xvii. 43 

pow&t xi. 6 



/Spax^r xiii. 2 

7ered xviii. 7, 10, 14 

7^e0'it Hi. II 

yewpdta viii. 34 

T^yot vii. 8, xvii. 9 

yrj i. 4, ii. 10, 11, 13, 30, 33, 36, iv. 35, 

V. 17, viii. 7, 8, 16, 17, 18, 17, 19, 

ix. 14, xiv. 14, xvii. 2, 8, ii* 13, 14* 

«o, 30, 32, 34, 39, xviii. 3 
yrjpas iv. so 
ylypofjuu i. 3, iv. 16, 39, xiv. 5, xvii. lo, 

50, xviii. 7 
yiywiiiaKta ii. 11, 35, viii. 8, xvii. 30, 47 
7X(^0'a iv. 4, xii. Tit., i, 9, 3, 5, xiv. 5, 

xvi. 10 
yvCtaii ix. 5, 6 
yviorrbt xiv. 5 
yoyyvfffji&s v. 15, xvi. 11 
761'M viii. 5 
ypriyopiu iii. 3 
yfnrybprriavi iii. 3, xvi. 4 
7vnJ iv. 4, viii. 1 1, xvi. 7, 8 

Aav(d xvii. 5, 8, 33 
6in<M V. 7, xviii. 3 
diUyvfu ii. 30, viii. 30 
8€w6s xiii. 5 
bMpw xii. 3 
de^id xiii. i 
diofMi ii. 34, vi. 7 
dcDpo viii. 18 
8€UT€p6w V. 15 
didfiaait vi. 5 
diapijfui xvi. 9 
dia^/n; ix. 19, x. 5, xvii. 17 
ditucplpta xvii. 48 
dia\jLf(a iv. II 
dtarcuT^t ii. 40, iii. 8 
diaTop€6ofiai xiii. 7 
diapirdiia viii. 13 
^cuTTopd viii. 34, ix. i 
duurriWu ii. 38 
duuTToki^ iv. 4 
dia<rrp44Ka x. 3 
btfUTTpWprfl xii. 3 
diar<£a'0'(iy xviii. i3 
dtarlSii^ ix. 19 

8ia^pu» xvi. 3 

dui^elpw ii. 31 

dto^vXdrrw xvi. 9 

&d^aX/ia xvii. 31, xviii. 10 

diSoKT^i xvii. 35 

d(^Au V. 5, 10, II, vii. 3, xvi. 13 

8UpX0fJL€u i. 4 

dlKOios ii. 13, 36, 38, iii. Tit., 3, 4, 5, 7, 

8, 14, iv. 9, v. I, viii. 8, ix. 4, 5, x. 3, 

6, xiii. Tit, 5, 6, 7, 8, xiv. 6, xv. 5, 8, 

xvi. 15, xvii. 35 
ducauHT^rf i. 3, 3, 4, ii. 16, v. 33, viii. 

7> 29» 30f 32» ix. 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, xiv. i, 

xvii. 31, 35, 38, 31, 43, 45, xviii. 8, 9 
ductuSuf ii. 16, iii. 3, 5, iv. 9, viii. 7, 37, 31, 

ix. 3 
did!)K(a XV. 9, 1 1 
doKifuiffla xvi. 14 
d6\iot iv. 37, xii. I 
86\ot iv. 10 
ddfia V. 16, xviii. 3 
Wfo i.'4, ii. 5, 30, 33, 35, V. 33, xi. 7, 

8, 9, xvii. 7, 34, 35 
^o$<l^rf X. 8, xvii. 7, 33, 35 
dovXeduf xvii. 33 
dovXos ii. 41, X. 4, xviii. 14 
dpdKtaw ii. 39 
dpvfjiAt xi. 6 
dCwafuu xvii. 44 
dvf'ar^t XV. 4, xvii. 38, 43 
dvc/xSs xi. 3, xvii. 14 
Staped^ vii. I 
dupoif ii. 3, xvii. 34 

iw e.g. ii. 36 
eyiraraXe/Toy ii. 7 

^(^yof i. 8, iu 3, 34, vii. 3, 6, viii, 14, 37, 
36, ix. 3, 17, xvii. 4, 16, 17, 35, 37, 

3'»3«. 34» 38 
e^ xviii. 14 

elTor i. 5, ii. 39, viii. 3, 7, 18 

elp-fiPfi viii. 18, 30, xii. 6 

chaucodu vi. 8 

(Iffdxa^ ii. 8, 9, xi. 3 

elffipxofjuu iv. 19, viii. 18, 30 

etffodos iv. 6, 16, viii. 19, xi. 6 

cUrwope^ofiai ii. 13 

^Kcurrot viii. 11, xviii. 13 

1 66 


ixeiyot xvii. 501 xviii. 7 

ixKewTiut ii. 30 

iKKXriiTla X. 7 

iKKSwrca iv. 93, xii. 3 

ixXelTta iii. 16, xvii. 5 

eicXoTi^ ix. 7, xviii. 6 

iKvirafuu xvii. 18 

err^w xiv. 3 

ixTpl^ta xvii. 36 

iK<f>€6yii> XV. 9 

^«rx^w ii. 38, viii. 33, xvi. 3 

Adxt^TOf ii. 30* xviL 31 

iXeyfUt, x. r (?) 

Aeyxo* ix* Tit., x. i 

i\iyX^ xvi. 14, xvii. 37 

i\e4ta ii. 39, vii. 5, 9, x. 7, xi. 3, xv. 15, 
xvi. 15, xvii. II 

iXerifJioa^ri ix. 30, xv. 15 

Aei^fUtfy V. 3, vii. 4, x. 8 

IKeof ii. 8, 37, 40, iv. 39, v. 14, 17, vi. 9, 
viii. 33, 34, ix. 16, xi. 9, xii. 11, xiv. 6, 
xvi. 3, 6, xvii. 3, i7i 51, xviii. i, 3^ 6, 10 

AXiTiJt iv. 19 

iXwl^ta vi. 8, viii. 37, ix. 19, xv. i, xvii. 

3> 37 
iXxls V. 13, 16, vi. Tit., xv. 3, xvii. 3, 

37» 38* 43» xviii. 3 
ifiTcuyft6f ii. 13, xvii. 14 
ilixai^ta ii. 13, 35 
ifiTeipos XV. 9 
ifirlfiTXijfu iv. 15, 19 
cfixlfivprffu xii. 3 
hi^Tiov iii. 4, viii. 8 
Irdo^s xviii. 11 
iydvfjM ii. 31 
M6ofjuu xi. 8 
^yexey ii. 4, iv. 13 
ipiffX^ta xvi. 13, 13 
i¥w.Kiui xvii. 13 
bfoxoi iv. 3 
iwraOBa iv. 15 

A'tAXo/acu vii. 4, xiv. i, xviii. I3, 14 
(pTifws viii. 31, xvii. 7 
iv&imoif vi. 4 
buitinw i. 3, ii. 5, 40, 41, iv. 16, ix. 6, 

xiv. 5, xvii. 38 
i^aifM iii. 8, iv. 7, 9, 35, 38, xvii. 41 
if^oKclffM ii. 19, xiii. 9 

i^fiaprdtfu v. 19 

i^iffTTitu vi. 6 

^^Tu^a i. 3 

^(avooT^XXw xvii. 14 

i^offBofiw xvii. 34 

i^(y€paa iv. 17 

e^epeuvdctf xvii. 11 

i^e/nifUca xv. 13 

i^ipXOfJLCu XV. 7 

i^ijyopta ix. I3 

e^iXcCo-ffw iii. 9 

^(odot iv. 16 

i^ofuikoyiofiai x. 7, xv. 3, 4, xvi. 5 

i^fioKdyriatt iii. 3, ix. 13 

i^vdepdbf ii. 30, 33 

e^vOtpita ii. 5 

i^owrta ix. 7 

^(vj3^^tf i. 6 

i^vfiMita vi. 7 

i^<a$iu xvii. 6, 36 

eiro77eX/a xii. 8 

^vaTY^XXo/iai vii. 9, xvii. 6 

iwayufYfj ii. 34 

iraKodia i. 3, v. 14, vii. 7, xviii. 3 

iwoMiaTapMi xvii. 6, 9 

iT€VKT6t viii. 18 

ixtpXhrti} xviii. 3 

^irc7(r(6<rirw ii. 33 

^(ecKi^t v. 14 

iTiOvfda ii. 37, iv. 13, 13, 33, xiv. 4 

ixiKoKiofJuu ii. 40, v. 7, vi. i, vii. 7, 

ix. II, XV. I 
hriKparita xvi. 7, xvii. 17 
ixlffijuos ii. 6, xvii. 33 
iiriffKiirTopMi iii. 8, 14, ix. 8, xv. 14 
ixiffKOir^ X. 5, xi. 3, 7 
ixlffTafuu V. I, xiv. 5 
hriffHiini ii. 37 
ivurrp4<^ v. 9, viii. 33 
ixi<rrpo4r/i vii. Tit, ix. 19, xvi. 11 
^tToyiJ xviii. 14 
^TircX^d) vi. 8 

ixirlOrjfu i. i, vii. i, ix. 16, xvii. 6 
ixiTifJu&u ii. 36 
ixiTpkx^ xiii. 3 
exixcUpw xiii. 6 
^/ryov ii. 17, 38, iv. 8, vi. 3, ix. 7, xvi. 9, 

xvii. 10, II, 44, xviii. 19 



ifnifiot V. II, viii. 3, xvii. 19 

iprj/iUa iv. 15, 23, xvii. 8, 13 

ipXOfJML xi. 4, xvii. 34, xviii. 7 

itrxfiTOi i. 4, viii. 16 

Irepot iv. 15 

in iii. 16, ix. 10, xi. 8, 9, xiii. 10, xvii. 

troiyui^ v. 11, x. 9, xi. 8 

iroquit vi. i 

iitayythlj^fML xi. 9 

eddoxfa iii. 4, viii. 39, xvi. is 

€d$rpf4(a i. 3 

tiO^bi ix. 15 

eiB&nit ii. 16 

ei^XoY^w ii. 37, iii. i, v. ««, vi. 6, viii. 41, 

ix. 15, xvii. 40 
cUKoytiris ii. 41, vi. 9 
eCXoyla v. 10, xvii. 43, xviii. 6 
€0od6w ii. 4 » - 

e^irp^reia ii. 11, xvii. 47 
€vplffK(a xiii. 10, xiv. 6, xv. 1 2 
evardOfia iv. 11, vi. 7 
€if<ppai9ta V. 14, 71 
c^poai^il X. 6, 7, 9, xi. 4, xii. 3, xiv. 7, 

XV. 5, xvii. 40 
eiiaiia xi. 7 
^X^/)6s xvii. 15, 51 
^X« xvii. 31 
l«j i. 4, 5, iv. 13, xvi. 6, xvii. 14 

J z. 

piw IV. 7, V. II, XIV. 1, XV. 15 
irjXot ii. 17, iv. 3, 7, 17 
firy6i' vii. 8, xvii. 32 

^inj iii. u, II, 16, iv. 7, 17, ix. 9, xiii. 9, 
xiv. I, 1, 7, xvii. « 

{jcw iii. 6, V. 9 
17X101 ii. 13, 14, iv. II, viii. 8 
ijIxifM iii. II, vii. 9, xiv. 1, 4, 5, xv. 13, 
xvii. 36, 37, 4«, 50, xviii. 6, 7, 10, 11, 

i3» '4 
i^X*^'' xii. 6 
i^^w viii. I 

0d\cur(ra ii. 30, 33, vi. 5 

Oiparot vii. 4, xiii. 1, xv. 8, xvi. 

2, 6 
ddm-iJ ii. 31 

0avfjLdl;u ii. 19, v. 15 

BiXfjfui vii. 3 

eedc i. I, ii. 3» i3> '<5, 19, 12, 28, 30, 
33» 37» iii- «» 5» 7. >v. i, 7, 8, 9, 24, 
25, 28, V. I, 6, 7, 10, 13, i8, vi. 7, 8, 
vii. I, 2, viii 3, 7, 8, I2, 15, 22, 26, 

27, 28, 30, 31. 3«> 33» 36» 37. >x. «, 3» 
7, II, 16, X. 7, 8, xi. 2, 4, 7, 8, xii. 4, 
xiv. 3, 5, XV. I, 2, 3, 8, 14, 15, xvi. 
2. 3* 5» 6, 7» xvii. I, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 
15, 16 {0€ol), 23, 28, 30, 35, 38, 42, 
44» 47. 50» 5»> xviii. 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 

'3. 14 
Bijptop iv. 22, xiii. 3 

OriiTavpl^ ix. 9 

(^Xow xiii. 3 

BXlfitif i. I, V. 7, XV. I 

$\i}f/tt viii. I, xvi. 11, 14 

BpaAta xvii. 34 

Bp^oi ii. 20, xvii. 8 

Buydrrip ii. 6, 14, viii. 10, 24 

Bv/x6s ii. 25, xvi. 10 

Bwrta viii. 13 

Bwriaan/jpiop ii. 2, viii. 13 

'IaiC(6j3 XV. I 

^det^ ii. 24, 36, viii. 30, ix. i6, xi. 3, 

xvii. 23, 34, 35, 50, xviii. 7 
*l€powraX'^/i ii. Tit., 3, 14, 15, viii. 4, 17, 

19. «i» «3f ^6, xi. 2, 3, 8, 9, xvii. 16, 

>7. «5. 33 
ixoi'^t V. 20 

IkopSw ii. 24 

iXaf)^i7f iv. 6, xvi. 12 

Ifidnoif xi. 8 

&a ii. 18, V. 8, vii. i, viii. 36, ix. 3, 16, 

xi. 7, xiiL 7 
harl iii. i, iv. i 
tmrot xvi. 4, xvii. 37 
*lffpa'^\ iv. I, V. 21, vii. 8, viii. 34, 41, 

ix. 12, 16, 20, X. 6, 7, 8, 9, xi. 2, 7, 9, 

xii. 7, xiv. 3, xvi 3, xvii. 5, 23, 47, 

50, 51, xviii. 3, 4, 6 
trrrifu ii. 13, viii. 20, xi. 3, xvii. 38 
IffXvpdt xvii. 44 
i^Xpf "• 33» 40. xvii. 24, 41, 42, 43, 

xviii. 8 
UrX^ XV. 3 



Ix^^t V. II 

KoBd ii. 14 

KaOapl^ia Hi. 10, ix. 12, x. 1,1, xvii. 35, 

33, xviii. 6 
KoBapds xvii. 41 
KoBiifiai iv. i 
KaOUrni^u. xviii. 9 
KoJdiSn viii. 35, xvii. 16 
Kcuy^t iii. 1 

Koip^s vii. 9, xvi. 4, xvii. 33, xviii. i3 
ffoic^a iv. 6, xvii. 19 
KOic^f ix. 5, XV. 6, xvii. 19 

KaXdfii; xii. 7 

xdXXof ii. 5, 30, 27, xvi. 8, xvii. 14 

KapSia i. 3, iii. 2, iv. i, vi. i, 7, viii. 3, 
6, xiv. 5, XV. 5, xvi. 6, xvii. 15, 17 

Kapwdt XV. 5 

/carajSdXXcu ii. i, xvii. 8 

Kardyaios viii. 9 

icara7A(iis iv. 8 

KaradiibKca xv. 9 

xara^vycurrci^ xvii. 46 

Karcuylt viii. 3 

KaroKpltfU) iv. 1 

icaraXa^ij9<£y(ii viii. 21, xv. 9 

Karafxcplj^ca xvii. 30 

/cararaWdi ii. 2, xvii. 25 

icarairdn7<r(S ii. 20 

KaraxaOta ix. 18 

Karard'ai viii. 36 

Karapdofuu iii. 11 

KaTouaKipfbu) vii. 5 

/carcurT(i<u ii. 20 

KaToarpwprfi xiii. 5, 6 

KaTa<popd xvi. i 

xara^ir^ v. 2, xv. 1, xvi. i 

KariyavTi ii. 13, iv. 21 

icaTf/yydfw xvii. 42 

icareu^i^yw vi. 3, vii. 9, viii. 7, xii. 6, 
xvi. 9, xviii. 9 

KOTurxiJw ii. 7 

KOLTOiKiia xvii. 29, xviii. 1 1 

/cdrw XV. II 

K&bi iv. 19 
K^PTpoy xvi. 4 
K€pafui&i xvii. 26 

K€fHUf¥vtii via. 15 

Ke0aXt( ii. 31, 38 

KiipAffau xi. I 

KktiptufoiUia xii. 8} xiv. 7 

4rXi7poyoA<(a vii. 3, ix. 3, xiv. 3, 6, xv. 1 1 , 
13, xvii. 36 

KkfipoifbiMt viii. 13 

ico(X/a 11. 15 

KOifdiia 11. 35 

Ko^nj xvii. 18 

Khpa^ iv. 33 

Kpa^ V. 3, 10 

icparcu6t ii. 33, iv. 28, xvii. 44 

Kparaius viii. 16 

KpoTot xviL 3 

Kpavyfj I, 3 

Kp4at viii. 13 

/cpfAia ii. 12, 14, 16, 18, 36, 37, iii. 3, iv. 
9, V. I, 6, viii. 7, 8, 37, 30, 31, 38, 40. 
ix. 10, X. 6, XV. 9, 14, xvii. I3, 21, 
xviii. 3 

Kplpu) ii. 34, 36, Iv. 14, viii. 3, 17, 29, 
32, xvii. 28, 31 

K/K6f ii. I 

Kplait iv. 2, XV. 13, xvii. 4 

Kpirr's 11. 19, iv. 28, ix. 4, xvii. 22 

Kp&ra<f>os Iv. 18 

KpATTui ix. 5, 6 

Kp6<fnos viii. 9 

KTil;io xviii. 13, 14 

#cr/<rts viii. 7 

KV/cX6w X. 2 

/cv^ia ii. 21 

KYpiOC i. I, ii. 3> 24. 26, 33, 36, 37, 40, 
41, iii. 1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 16, Iv. I, 16, 17, 
26, 27, 29, V. 1, 13, 16, 17, 21, 32, vi. 
I, «i 3» ^* 7f 8, 9, viii. 13, 39, 37, 39, 
40, 41, ix. I, 3, 6, 9, 10, If, 18, 20, 
X. I, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, xi. 3, 9, xll. I, 
4, 6, 7, 8, xiii. 1, 1, 3, 9, II, xiv. i, 2, 
7, XV. I, 7, 9, 13, 15, xvi. I, 3, 15, 
xvii. I, 5, 12, 23, 38, 33, 35, 36, 38, 
43» 45. 5i» xviii. i, 7, 8, 9, Tit. (ii. 33 
of a man). 

KuXi^u) ii. I 

XaX^di iv. 5, 10, II, xi. 8, 9, xii. i 
\afipdpw V. 4, 5 



Xo^T V. 13, viii. 3, ix. 4, 16, x. 7, xvii. 

21, M, 27, 28, 31, 32,40, 41, 48, 49 
Xifc^s xiii. 2, XV. 8 
\(yor viii. 6 

Xo7/^)AUtt i. 3, ii. 32, xvi. 5 
X670f iv. 2, II, 12, 14, 15, xii. 2, xvi. 

9, 10, xvii. 27, 39, 41, 49 
\\rrpUi viii. 12, 36, ix. i 

/iOKOfKOf iv. 26, V. 18, vi. I, X. I, xvii. 

50, xviil 7 
tuLKfMM ii. 4, iv. I, XV. 8, xvi. 10 
fuucp60€i^ xi. 4 
fMKp6¥v xii. 4, xvi. 2, 1 1 
fxaprvpla x. 5 
yAjari^ vii. 8, x. 1,2 
tUyat ii. 33, iv. 28, xvii. 41, xviii. 11 
fieyunw ii. 36 
fi^^il viii. 15 

fupls iii. 15, iv. 6, v. 6, xiv. 3 
fi«r6t ii. 38, vii. 5, viii. 28, xvii. 17, 29, 

fieratiiXcia ix. 15 

firroxh xiv. 4 

fUrpios V. 20 

fUrunrw xv. 10 

fiiT^^ xvi. 6 

fufpuffit ii. 25 

fi^0T€ xiii. 4 

/iijn^p viii. 10 

fjuabKif ii. 3, 15, viii. 13, 26 

/LUic/)6t xvi. I 

fUKpdrrfs xiv. 4 

fufurifjirKU iii. 14, iv. 24, x. i, 4, xiv. 5 

fuffiw vii. I, xii. 6 

^lirpa ii. 22 

fu^ifififl xvi. 6, 9 

fUftifiovi^w iii. 3, V. 18, vi. 2 

tuftifjubtfww ii. 19, xiii. 10 

fjuHxdu viii 11 

fAWoyerris xviii. 4 

fiAifiaffis iv. 20 

fivKTriptff/A6s iv. 8 

fU^Xij xiii. 3 

I'^ot ii. 8, xvii. 13 
i^ot xL 4 
miiTTtla iii. 9 

I'lffdci) iv. 13 

PiKos viii. Tit. 

ro/ii} xvii. 45 

v6fios iv. 10, X. 5, xiv. I 

pov$€Tiu xiii. 8 

pOv ii. 36, ix. 16 

riJ| iv. 5, 18 

p^ffu xvi. 4 

I'uoTfi^ xvi. I 

vQtop X. 2 

(i^Xoi' xi. 7, xiv. 2 

6Ws vi. 3, viii. 7, 18, 19, x. i, 3, 5, xiv. 5, 

xviii. 12, 13 
6dodt xiii. 3 
6iwri iv. 17 
6$€v iii. 6 

otSa L 7, xviii. 23, 29 
olxiuf viiu 23 
oUla iv. 6 
oZxof iii. 7, 8, 10, iv. 15, 19, 23, vi. 7, 

vii. 9, viii. 20, ix. 10, 20, x. 9, xii. 3, 

4, 6, XV. 13, xvii. 47 
olKTtlpta vii. 8, viii. 33, ix. 16 
otpot viii. 15 
6\€0pos viii. I 
6\lyos xvi. 2 

6\iywpvx^ '(VL II 

6X(7wp^w iii. 4 

6\ia0cUpti> xvL I 

6\o0pe6uf iv. 15, xv. 7, xvii. 27 

SXos iii. 2 

6fia\li^ viii. 19 

6/^1X10-/1161 xi. 5 

6fJLPVfu xvii. 5 

5/btocot xiii. 6 

6i«i6<iYa ii. 20 

dvofia V. I, vi. 2, 6, 7, vii. 5, viii. 26, 31, 

ix. 18, X. 6, 8, xi. 9, XV. i, 4, xvii. 7 
SpcLffit vi. 4 

6pdw iv. 5, 14, viii. 30, 31 
iprpufw XV. 5 

6p7^ ii. 25, 26, 28, XV. 6, xvi. 10, xvii. 14 
hpBbta X. 3 
BpKos iv. 4, viii. 1 1 
6po% ii. 30, xi. 5, xvii. 21 
dp^xufla iv. 13 




i^uH w, le, Hr, 7f «^ viri. A ^ n. ^ 
X, ^, 7, sH. 5, ^ uii. % f a, nv. «, 7^ 

^#1 ii f f, xviL f6 

irrim rr« if. Tin. ^ xjL 4« xtiL j 

^«r iii« t4f %r, 7, 14 

>^^<i Wf iL f e, ^ j6, vuL jt xvii. jo 

•^ viii, if xTni« 3 

•^wf xiv, 4 

^^^■V"^ i*"' 4« 5» »«• ■;• Mt '^ 7f xviL 

19, xriii. t 
6^ iv* If 

woiiMa viL 8, viiL 31, x. t, 3, xiii. 6, 8, 

9, xiir. f , xri. 13, xTiii. 4, 8 
ra43<vn^ Tiii. 35 

rai^«^ iiL 4, vii. 3, xiii. 6, xvi. 1 1, xvii. 47 
ra2f xiL 7, xrii. 13 
ra(M viis. 16 
vapafialMtt xviii. 11 
wapalbuyiuLTl^itt ii. 14 
ra^d3ci^of xiv. 1 
wap«Lic\ifai$ xiii. Tit, 
wapciKilwtt viii. 14 
wapoKoyi^otuu iv, 14 
rapoXoyc^li^f iv. 11, 15 
ra^X^f# viii. 5 
wapoMOfUtt xvL 8 

wtLpeufOfda iv. 1, 15, viii. 9, xvii. 32 
vapayoftot iv. 1 1, 13, ii* ty, xii. Tit., i, 

3, 4, xiv. 4, xvii. «7 
vaparo/MtJofuu ii. 13 
wapawTUfia iii. 8, xiii. 4, 9 
waffoaiwwdw v. 3 
wapipxofMu xi. 7 
waplffTTifu ii. 40 
rdpoiot xi. 6 
TapotK4<a xvii. 31 
rapoiWa xii. 3, xvii. 19 
rdpoiKCs xvii. 31 
rapo^i6¥ia iv. 15 
irafiopyll;iif iv. i, 15 
irapopyifffUt viii. 10 
rfiff i. 4, ii. 40, iii. 4, viii. 8, 13, 23, 39, 

ix. 1, 4, 5, 17, xi. 7, xiii. 5, xiv. 3, 5, 

XV. 7, zvi. 4, 7, 8, xviL 16, so, 3I9 26, 
^ JO* js* J^ 46, XiviiL 3. 9 
:vn. 39 
Xv vm. 13 
Tm. 10^ «Ok Sf, ix. 19 
▼. lOw 11 
wipift V, 13 

iv. 7, 17, xvi. 13, 14 
iL ss 
vi^Mmptc n. 11 
w «f i0 0m iv. 1 
vc^itfTAJUf xvL 10 
v^irrtX^ xiiL 6 
wtftri^mu iL 32 

VCIWlfo ▼. II 

vi^TY xvii. 31 

wUtwXi^u u 3, 3, iv. 25 

vfvTw i. 5, iiL 5, 13 

vitfT&f viii. 35, xvii. 45 

n#rof xiv. 1, xvii. 12 

vXoMiitf xviL 19, xviiL 14 

wXaaniais^ viiL 15, 22 

wXttmdtu V. 6 

vXiyA^Mtf X. I, xvii. 37 

wX^aUm viii. 11 

rXif^/ion^ V. 30 

vXocbr xvii. 37 

wXoOffwt V. 16, xviii. 2 

vXotrrof i. 4 

vrevfia viii. 15, xvii. 42, xviiL 8 

woUta ii. 7, iiL 5, iv. 38, viii. 14, 25, ix. 
5, 7, 9, xi. 9, xii. 6, XV. 6, 9, xvi. 10, 
xvii. 12, 15, 16, 17, 21, 50, xviiL 7 

wolrj^ts xiL 2 

voiKtKia iv. 4 

ToifiaUfu xviL 45 

woiiuflov xviL 45 

iroX^/uot XV. 9 

ir6Xe/ior i. 2, viii. i. 17, xii. 4 

ir6Xif viii. 4, xvii. 16 

woK^ i. 4, ii. 31, viii. 2, 20 

xoviw ii. 15 

wovyip6% ii. 6, 9, iii. 13, vi. 4, x. i, xii. i, 
2, xiii. 3, xvi. 7 

xofttla^ xviii. 1 2 

TopeCofitu xiv. 1 

rrfpyiy ii. 13 

roro^ifo vi. 5 



TOTTfpioif vm. 15 

worl^w viii. 15 

wov viii. 1, ix. 6 

iroCt vii. 1, viii. 10 

Tpa^it iv. 12 

Tpeffp&nis ii. 8, xvii. 13 

TpoadoKla xi. Tit. 

wpwrtvxh vL 5 

vp<HrK6TTu iii. 5, 11 

Tp6<yTayfia xiv. i 

rpoffTlBriiu iii. 12, v. 6 

TpoaufTov ii. 8, 19, 34, iv. Qt v. i3t vi 7, 

ix. 13, xii. 8, XV. 7, xvii. 17 
Tpwrot iv. 3, xvii. 48 
TpwroTOKos xiii. 8, xviii. 4 
uroita vi. 8 
TT&fM iii. 13 

irrctfx<^< V. 3, 13, X. 7, XV. 2, xviii. 3 
iri^Xi; viii. 19, xvi. 1 
«i;p viii. 3, xii. 3, 5, xv. 6 
Tvpy6papis viii. 21 
Tvp6ti> xvii. 48 

j)a^^% xvii. 26, xviii. 8 

^Aui ix. 2, xvii. 48 

/kjl^w xiv. 3 

^fji^mta xiii. 2, xv. 8 

^6ta iv. 27, xii. i, xiii. 3, xvii. 51 

ffdKKOS ii. 21 

(ToXet/w viii. 39, xv. 6 

(rdXoy vi. 5 

ffaXriy^ viii. i, xi. i 

ffoKTlj^ta xi. I 

ffarpla xiv. 4, xvi. 14 

(Tii^ iv. 7, 21, xiii. 3, xvi. 14 

aiintiffla xi. I 

(nifuTop XV. 8, 10 

aJifitUiMns iv. 2 

(Ttdiipeot xvii. 20 

Cuify XL I 

o'ffoydaXljW xvi. 7 

cric^daXoi' iv. 27 

ffK€wdl;iu xiii. I 

(Tffeuos xvii. 26 

o-icia^ xi. 6 

(TffXijpof iv. 2 

<r«rXi7/M^» viii. 35 

ffKoprlj^ta iv. 13, 21, xii. 4 

ffKopfWifflA&s xvii. 20 

ffKdroi xiv. 6, xv. 1 1 

ffKvKw v. 4 

^o0to iv. II, xvii. 25, 31, 40, xviii. 8 

(To^^f viii. 23, xvii. 42 

ffvipfM ix. 17, xvii. 5, 8, 11, xviii. 4 

(TvXdyxi'a ii. 15 

ffraOfiSs V. 6 

omi^w xviL 20 

(rr€yay/ji6s iv. 16 

(rW0apot ii 21 

<rre^ap6u viii. 19 

ffTTiplj^it xvi. 12 

(rroXi) xi. 8 

^pia viii. 40 

<rrpov0lov xvii. 18 

(nryKcr^^at xvi. 8 

irvyxi*i> xii. 4 

ffv/JLfUTpla V. 18 

ffdfjifUKTot xvii. 17 

(TVfiirfl^MiXafi^Sayw xiii. 4 

ffVfi4f6fHa viii. 10 

<rwd7w viii. 34, xi. 3, 4, xvii. 28, 37 

ffwayuyn x. 8, xvii. j8, 48, 50 

ffwiXKayfM iv. 4 

(r^veyyvs xvi. 2 

aupiUpiov iv. i 

<r6i^ffit xvii. 42 

ffwix*^ xvii. 21 

awOfiKfi viii. II 

crwToyiy iv. 6 

(TurreX^w ii. 26, vii. 4 

ffwrlBrifu viii. 11 

ffwrplfita viii. 5, xvii. 21 

o-^ttTi} viii. I 

a^odpa ii. 17, viii. 2 

ff^payls ii. 6 

<rxoufUi9 ii. 21 

o-c^j^tf vi. 2, xiii. 2, XV. i, xvi. 4, xvii. 19 

iXiaiia ii. 31 

ffioriip iii. 7, viii. 39, xvi. 4, xvii. 3 

ffUTTipUi iii. 6, X. 9, xii. 7, xv. 89 xvi. 5 

rafueiop xiv. 5 
raireii^f v. 14 
TaTtofoia iii. 9, xi. 5 
Tairdvtacit ii. 39 



Tapaffffia vi. 4, viii. 6, xiii. 4 

rax^» xvii. 51 

Tttxwj iv. 6 

retxot ii* if viii. 19, a i 

riitpw i. 3, ii. 8, viii. 39, xi. 3, xv. 11, 

xviL 13 
rAof i. I, ii. 5 
rlSrifu ix. 18, xvii. 7 
rfXXw xiii. 3 
rlfuot xvii. 19, 48 

Wf iii. 5, ix. II, 14, XV. 3, 4, xvii i, 44 
t6^ xvii. 37 
Tpdxi^os ii. 6, viii. 35 
r/MXvt viii. 19 
rpi^uf v. II, 13 

OPfHS ii. 30, 31 

05ctfp viii. 33 

6€rot v. II, xvii. 20 

vi6s ii. 3, 6, 13, viii. 10, ao, 14, ix. 8, 

xiii. 8, xvii. 17, 23, 30, 34, xviii. 4 
0/wof iii. 1, X. Tit., xiv. Tit. 
inr€paffTieTfp vii. 6 
\nr€fni^(i¥€6ofiai ii. i 
OweprfipfUfla ii. i, 29, xvii. 8, 15, 36, 46 
vw€pri<f>ayos ii. 35, iv. 18 
vwepopdta viii. 36 
[^e/>irXcora^w v. 19 
vw^x^ xvu 13 
VT^iroos xviii. 5 
inrrof iv. 17, 18, vi. 6, xvi. i 
vwpwa lu. I 
vwi^fui ii. 3 
vro^d^¥Vfu xvii. 14 
^TOKplpo/MU iv. 22, 25 
OroKpicit iv. 7 
vTOfUpio x. 2, xiv. I, xvi. 15 
vTofiopii ii. 40 
vxioTOffis XV. 7, xvii. 26 
vffT€p4(a xviii. 2 
vffTepoy ii. 32 
v^XJt xi. 3, 5, xvii. 21 
v^urrot xviii. 11 
v^of xvii. 7 
v^w i. 5 

fptdvuf ii. 18 

^liofuu ii. 25, V. 16, xiii. i, 9, xvii. 14 

<f>4pia i. 6, viii. 2, xvii. 34 

^e&ya xi. 6, xv. 9, xvii. 18, 27 

4f0ofA iv. 7 

^of V. 15 

0Xov/^ xii. 3 

0X6{ xii. 5, XV. 6 

4t6pos vi. 8, xvii. 34, 38, xviii. 8, 9, 10, 13 

^poO/iat ii. 37, iii. 16, iv. 24, 26, v. 21, 

viii. 6, xii. 4, xiii. 11, xv. 15 
^vXdaffu vi. 3, xii. 6 
^v\-/j xvii. 28, 30, 50 
^vpM^s ii. 15 
^in-e^a xiv. 3 
^xaif'n viii. i, 2, 4, xi. 1 
0ctft iii. 16 
^w^rffp xviii. 12 

Xa/n viii. 18 

XCiXos xii. 4, XV. 5, xvi. 10 
Xdp ii. 7, 24, iv. 3, 18, 19, V. 8, 14, vi. 
3, ix. 7, xvi. 9, 14, xviii. i 

XoprcLCfM V. II 

■XJftlcreOia ix. 11 

X/>^^^•dl ii. 40, v. 2, 14, viii. 38, x. 2, 8 

XPVrroTTis V. 15, 16, 17, viiu 34, ix. 15, 

xviii. 2 
Xpurros xvii. 36, xviii. Tit., 6, 8, atways 

with K(tpMi% -w) 
X/>oW^w ii. 28, 30 
Xp6yot viii. 39, XV. 14, xvii 2 
Xpvffloy xvii. 37, 48 

^tiXXw iii. 2 

^aXf(5s iii. 2, xv. 5, Tit. i. ii. iii. iv. v. 

• • • • 

VI. VII. viu. IX. xin. XV. XVI. xvu. xviii. 

^evdi/t iv. 4, xii. i, 3 

4fidvp6i xii. I, 4» 5 

fwxn ii. 17. "i- i» 9f iv. 15, 25, v. 14, vi. 
4, 8, ix. 7, 9, 12, 19, xii. I, 6, xvi. i, 2, 
3, 12, 14, xvii. I, 19, xviii. 5 

ipiri XV. Tit., 5, xvii. Tit. 
(&d^ iii. II 
iapa, xviii. 12 

«J iv. 3» 5» "» i3> viii. 2, 6, 13, 23, 28, 

xiv. I, XV. 9, xvii. 26, 33, xviii. 4 
ow'irep xii. 2 



If 3> 4* 9* >o> ii> i^* I3> i4t i5> 
xvii. I. 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, ii, 14, 15, 16, 

17, 19, II, 11, «5, 16, 17, 18, «9, 
30, 3I1 3»» 33» 36, 38, 40» 41. 4«» 
43. 44. 45. 46. 48. 49. 50. xviii. 

3. 5. <5, 7,8, 9, 10, II, II, 13, 14 
iri Ace. ii. 1, 13, 14, 37, iii. 1, 7, n, 

»v. 3. 4. 15. «9» V. 8, 9, 15 (?), 16, 
17, II, viii. 17, 19, 33, 37, 38, ix. 

4, 18, 19, 90, X. 4, 5, 9, xi. 9, 
xii. 7, xiiL 11, xv. 7, 8, xvi. 4, xvii. 

^. 3. 4. 5. i«. ^3. 35. 37. 44* 47. 5i. 
xviii. I, 2, 3, 4 

Gen. ii. 11, 30, 31, 34, xi. 3, xv. 10, 

xvii. 1, 14, 10, 30 

Dat. ii. 15, vi. 7, ix. 1, xvii. 41 

ftat Gen. i. 4, 5, xv. 11, xvi. 6 

Kord Ace. ii. 7, 14, 17, 38, 40^ viii. 25, 

ix. 9, 10^ xvii. 1, JO, II, xviii. 13 

fjLcrd Gen. ii. 15, 37, 40, iv. 4, 7, 10, 

V. 16, viii. 10, II, 18, 10, 27, 34, 

35, xiii. 4, XV. 5, xvi. 1, 5, 12, xvii. 

6, 19, 40, 42, 43, xviii 1, 3 

ira/M Ace. v. 6, ix. 17, xvi. 2 

Gen. iii. 7, v. 4 

Dat. V. 6, ix. 1 7 

«-€/>/ Ace. ii. ir, ix. 15 

Gen. iii. 9, vi. 7, vii. 4, viii. n, ix. 

i3» i5» '9. "V"- 5 
ir/)6 xiv. 5 

vp6f Ace. i. I, V. 3, 10, ii, vi. 8, vii. 6, 

xvii. 44 
Owip Ace. i. 8, iv. 2, viii. 14, xvii. 48, 

xviii. 8 
ut6 Acc. ii. 36, vii. 8, xvii. 32 
Gen. ii. '30, iii. 4, iv. 21, vi. 3, viii. 41, 

xi. 3, XV. 9, xvi. 15, xvii. 20, 28, 35 





i. 14 

xviii. 13 

3 Sam. 

vii. 13 

xvii. 33 

viii. 3 

xvii. 31 

xii. II, 13 

ii. I3t 14 

ix. 26 

ii. 41 

xxii. 7 

i. I 

xix. 17 

xiii. 4 

». 31 

xvii. 48 


>x- 34 

xi. 8 

xvii. 30 
M 39 

I Chron. 

xxviii. 10 

f. 5 

XV. 16 

xL 7 

3 Chron. 

, vi. 16 

» 5 

xvii. 14 

ii. 19 

tt 40 

xviii. 3 

xxxii 8 

xviii. 13 

M 41 

V. 31 


v. 18 

• •• 

m. 9 


vi. II 

xvii. 3 

xxi. 6 

I. 8, 11. 3, viii. 36 

xi. 14 

>f «9 

xxii. ID 

xvii. 31 

xxvil 7 

• •• 

xiu. 5 

xxvi. 5, 


33 xiii. 3, 3, XV. 8 

xxxiii. 30 

iii. 16 


xxi. 6 

xi. I 


i. 4, 6 

xiv. 4, 5 

xxiv. 17 

xvii. 34 

ii. 9 

xvii. 36 

XXV. 4 

ii. 14 

• • • 

111. 5 
iv. 4 

xvi. 3 
V. 3 



• •• 

ill. 3 

V. 9 

vi. 3 

vii. 9 

xiv. I 

vi. 3 

viii. 5 

ix. 99 


vii. 3 

» i« 

X. 8 

*» 40 

n 13 

ii. 19 

M 17 

n 19 

ix. 3 

iii. 3 

xiii. 9 

iv. 3 

.. n 

• • 

n. 1 

xvii. 7 

>* 3 

" «7 

XV. 6 

n 15 

xvii. 9 

M 3« 

ii. 8 

ft 16, 


» 37 

xi. 7 

xvii. 48 

xviii. 5, 


». 7 

• •• 

xin. I 

*» I 

xxxii. 9 

xiv. 3 

xiv. 5 

XV. 6 

xxxiii. 1 


xvii. 31 

xvii. 3 
.. 7 

xvi. 4 

i. I, V. 7, XV. 


I Sam. 

ii. 8 


>• 31 

xvii. 48 

vii. 8 

V. 3 

„ 38 

XV. 9 

xii. 11 

V. 33, xvii. I, 51 

xxiii. 5 
xxviii. 10 

• •• 

in. 7 
xvii. I 

7 Sam. 

ii. 72 

v. 13 


iv. 17 


XV. 5 

xxxiii. 16 

xviii. 3 



Psalms xxxiv. 6 

*> 19 
XXXV. 15 
xxxvi. 13 
xxxvii. 17 

n 18 

xliiL 5 
». 7 

xlvi. 7 

Hi. 6 

Hii. 5 
Ivi. 8 
Ixi. 3, 7 
Ixiv. 10 
Ixvii. 3 
Ixviii. 15 

Ixxii. 9 
IxxiiL 13 

» J4 
Ixxiv. 9 
Ixxviii. I 

n 3 
Ixxix.S, 19, 
IxxxiiL 19 
Ixxxv. 5 
Ixxxviii. 3, 




>f 40 

Ixxxix. 17 


xcvii. I 

c 7 
cii. 10 

dii. 98 
cv. 97 
cvi. 3 

» 3»» 3« 
ex. 9 

cxi. 7 

cxvii. 16 

cxviii. 5 

xiv. 6, XV. II 
vii. I 

IIL 9 

vi. 3 
xiii. 7 
X. 9 
xvii. I 

M 37 

• • • 

111. I 
xvii. 4 
xiii. 9 

iv. 91, xii. 4 
xvii. 9 
vi. I 
xvi. 4 

V. II 

xii. 8 

ii. 98 

XV. 5 

xvi. 9 

xvii. 1 

ii. 99 

viii. 15 

ii. 1, 3 

M 3' 
90 V. 9 

xviii. 9 
V. 14 
4, xvii. 5 





XVI. 4 

xviii. 4 

xiv. 3 

i. 8 

vi. 3, xvi. 9 

vii. 4 

xiii. 9 

xvii. 99 

iL 7, 17, xvii. 10 

V. 14 

xvii. 8 

xi. 3 

X. 7 

»» 5 
vi. 7 

xiii. I 

xvi. 5 

vi. 3 

Psalms cxviii. 98 

xvi. I 

>f 59 

viii. 7 

If "I 

xvii. 91 

» 133 

xvi. 9 

ft 140 

xvii. 48 

cxix. I 

i. I, v. 7, XV. I 

» 9 

iv. 97 

» 9f 4> 5 

xii. I, 3 


ui. 6 

cxxvii. 5 

xvii. 50, xviii. 7 

cxxxii. 3 

xiv. I 

cxxxv. I, etc. 

xvi. 3 

cxxxix. 9 

i. 3 

cxiiv. 9 

ii. 40, xviii. i 

» 13 

xvii. I 

*> 16 

V. 14 

» 17 

X. 6 

,, 18 

ii. 40 

cxlvi. 8, 9 

V. ri 

cxlviiL II 

.» 13 

Proverbs iii. 11 

• •• 

111. 4 

iv. 16 

iv. 18 

viii. 10, 19 

xvii. 48 

xiii. 18 

xvi. 13 

*i «i 

XV. 9 

XX. 97 

xiv. 5 

xxii. II 

XV. 5 

xxiv. 59 

iv. 99 

Isaiah i. 4 

iv. I 

ii. 6 

xvii. 33 

• •• 

lu. 94 

ii. 91 

xi. 9, 3 

xvii. 49, xviii. 8 

». 4 

» «7. 38 

xiv. 19 

ii. 30 

xix. 14 

viii. 14 

xxi. I 

>f 9 

xxix. 6 

9f 9 

M 13 

iv. I 


iii. 7, 19 

XXXV. 10 

X. 9 

xxxvi. 9 

xvii. 37 

xl. 4, 1 1 

xi. 5 

M 9 

f> «» 3 


xvii. 45 

xiii. 10 

• •• 

111. 9 

xliii. 5,6 

xi. 3 




xlix. 34 

V. 4 


xviii. 6 

viii. 13 


X. 3 

xxi. 6 

t> 5 

liL I 

XL 8 

xxii. 36 


liii. 11 

XVI. 3, 5 

xxiii. 38 

» 3 

Kv. 13 
Iv. \1 

xvii. 35 
xi. 6, 7 

xxix. 3 
xxxiii. 14 

n 19 

xviii. 5 

Ivii. 15 

xviii. II 

xiv. 8 

xviL 46 

f. 19 
Ix. 19, 10 

XV. 5 
iii. 16 


xii. 3 

... ^ 
lu. 16 

Ixi. ID 

iL 33 

.« 11 

xviii. 7 

Ixv. 49 

xiv. 3 

Ixvi. 18 — 10 

xvii. 34. .3.S 


i. 10 
xiv. 3 

xvii. 30 

XV. 5 


iv. 13 
M 19 

• •• 

Vlll. 3 

i. 3, iL 15, viii. 1 


• • 

11. I 

xi. 1 

V. 8 

viii. II 

** .^ 

xii. 3 

xiii. 90 

xi. 3 

» " 

XV. 13 

xxiii. 9 

• •• 

Vlll. 5 

» 3« 

vi. 3 

xxviii. 9 
xxxii. I 

viii. 15 


V. 18 

XV. 13 

xxxiv. 5 

"• 33 

ix. II 

xviL 33 

xxxvii. 9 

xvii. 33 

xxxviii. 8, ID 

xi. 3. 4 


V. 4 

t» 45 

xlix. 10 
li. 2 

xiv. 3 
xvii. 10 


i. 7 

ii. 40 
xi. 3 


i. 10 

• • • 

111. If. 
V. 8 

". 2. 3 
xiv. I 

viii. 13 


• ■ • 

111. 13 

xvii. 37 


i. 10 

„ 20 


• • • 

111. 13 

V. 33 

V. II 

• • 

»>• 3 


iv. 10 

xviii. 3 

»» 17 

xiii. 3, 3, XV. 8 

xii. 6 

xii. 3 

ix. 4 

XV. 8f 10 

xiv. 17 

xiii. 3, 3 


ii. II 

i. 8 

xviii. 5 

xvii. 31