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•l 



PSYCHE, 

^A. JOUK-KT-^L OF" EISrTOIv£OLOC3-'5r. 
[Established in 1S74.] 



VOLUME 4. 

18S3-18S5. 



E D ITE D B r 
B: PiCKiiAN Mann. Washington, D. C; G: Dimmock. Cambridge. Mass. 
Albert J: Cook., Lansing. Mich.: Stephex Alfred Forbes. Cham- 
paign, m.: Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany. N. I'.; 
Francis Hcntixgtox Snow. La-jsrence. Kansas; . 
\V : Trelease. Madison. Wise. 



Cambridge. M.\ss.. U. S. A. 

CAStBRjDGE Entomological Cllb. 

1890. 



351S14 

iI9RARV 



DATES OF ISSUE. 



Nos. 


Pages. 


K. 


jf 


Issued. 


105 — 106 


1 — 20 


Jan. -Feb. 


.883. 


5 May 


1883. 


107 — loS 


21 — 40 


Mill. -Apr. 


" 


4 June 


" 


109— no 


41 — 60 


May-June 


" 


12 July 


" 


III — 112 


61— So 


Jiily-Aug. 




14 Sep. 


" 


113—114 


81 — 100 


Sep. -Oct. 


" 


16 Nov. 




US — n6 


101 — 1^0 


Nov. -Dec. 


" 


11 Feb. 


1884, 


117—118 


121 — I 40 


Jan. -Feb. 


1884. 


8 Apr. 


" 


119 


141 — 152 


Mar. 




3 May 


" 


120 


153— '64 


Apr. 




14 June 


" 


121 


165—176 


May 




II July 


■• 


122 — 123 


177—192 


June-July 




23 Aug. 


" 


124—125 


193—212 


Aug. -Sep. 




3 Nov. 


" 


126—128 


2 '3— 236 


Oct. -Dec. 




i6 Mar. 


" 


129-131 


237— 26S 


Jan. -Mar. 


1 885. 


4 Aug. 


" 


'32—134 


269 — 300 


.•\pr.-Jun. 




^5 Nov. 


1886. 


'35—137 


301—328 


July-.Sep. 




ii Feb. 


1887. 


138—140 


329— .IS 4 


Oct. -Dec. 




Jan. 


iSqo. 



For the contents of the volume arranged in alphabetic order of authors, see nos. 4058- 
4300 of the Bibliographical record, on pages 339-350.** 

The following list gives an explanation of the initials appended to the ditfei'ent numeros 
of the Bibliographical record, and at the same time serves as a list of persons who have 
contributed to the record. The number following each name indicates the number of con- 
tributions from each. 

A. K. D. Anna Katheiina Dimmock. 15 H. O. Herbert Osborn. i 

G: D. George Dimmock. 427 //. A R. Henri Albert Robin. 2 

//; E. Henrv Edwards. 50 F. G: S. Frank George Schaupp. i 

R. H. Roland Havward. 9 .S; H. S. Samuel Hubbard Scudder. i 

5; H. Samuel Henshaw. 4 W: T. William Trelease. 27 

B: P. M. Benjamin Pickman Mann. 651 H: W. T. Henrv Ward Turner. 2 

E: L. M. Edward Laurens Mark. 8 5: W. 11'. Samuel Wendell Williston. i 

H. M. Hermann MuUer. i 



^^7 3 ,^. 



PSYCHE. 



;:" ^^? 3^: 1532 A 



.A. JOXJK,nsrA.L OF EKTTOL/IOIL.OG-'S'. 

[Established in 1S74.] 

EDITED BT 

B: PicKMAN Mann, Washington, D. C. ; G: Dimmock, Cainbridge, Mass.; 
Albert J : Cook, Lansing, Mick. ; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal., 
III.; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany., iV. 71 ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Lawrence, Kansas; W: Trelease, Madison, Wise. 

Vol. 4. No. 105-106. 

January-February 1883. 

CONTENTS: 

Advertisements .2 

The Scales of Coleoptera. — George Dimmock ....... 3-1 1 

Introduction to the Fourth Volume ......... 12-13 

Proceedings of Societies. — Cambridge Kntomologic.il Club .... 13-14 

BlBLIOGRAPHIC.\L RECORD, nO. 3101-3161 ......... I.S-lS 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings 19-20 

Pltblished by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS. 20 c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



PS re HE. 



IJnii.— Fcl). iSSj. 



Psyche. A Journal of Hntomolo«y. 

RATES OF Sl'IKSCKIPriOy. ETC. 

PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

y^r- Suhcripliom not dhcontiiiued a>( considered 
rene^ved. 

j?>aa~ Commencing with llie niimero for January 
1883 tlic rale of siibsciiplioii is as /oi/ows: — 

Yearly subscription, entitling the subscriber to 
one regular copy and, if lie desires it, one copy 
printed on one side of thin paper (for pasting 
the titles of the bibliographical record on title- 
slips), postpaid S2- 

Subscription to volume 4 (1883-1885). as above, 

postpaid S5* 

The index will only be sent lo subscriieiy lo the 
whole volume. 

Twenty-five extra copies, without change of 
form, to llic author of any leading article, if or- 
dered at the time of sending copy, . . Free. 

Author's extras over twenty-five in number, 
under above mentioned conditions, each, . 2C. 

Separates, with changes of form — actual cost of 
such changes in addition to above rates. 

^52)- Scientific publications desired in exchange. 

.4niEKT/S/A'G R.ITES, ETC. 
lEKMS Cash— STRicrLY in advance. 
«S~ Only thoroughly respectable advertisements 
will be allowed in PSYCHE and the advertising pages 
will be numbered consecutively with those of reading 
matter. The editors reserve the right to reject 
advertisements. 

Subscribers to PSYCHE can advertise insects for 
exchange or desired for study, not for cash, free at 
the discretion of the editors. 

Regular style of advertisements plain, at the follow- 
ing rates : — 

Uiit9i(lc Inside 
PaKc. I'agcil. 

So. 10 S0.08 

.75 -6° 
1.25 I.OO 

2.25 1.75 

4-0O 3.50 



Per line, first insertion, . 
Eighth page, first insertion. 
Quarter " " " . 

Half 

One . 



Each subsequent insertion one-half the above rates. 
Address Editoks 05 PSYCHE, 

Cambridge, Mass., U.S. .X. 
Subscriptions also received in Europe by 
R. Fkieulander & SOHN. 

Carlslrasse 11, Berlin, .\. W. 



E.\RLr STAGES OF BUTTERFLIES 
WANTED. 
The undersigned desires lo obtain, by exchange 
or othenvisc, from all- pans of the world, eggs, 
caterpillars and chrysalids of Diurnal Lepidoptera- 
Dried specimens are preferred, especially of caterpil- 
lars, which should be prepared by inflation. Corre- 
spondence is invited mth persons engaged in the 
study of the early stages of butterflies. 

S. H. SCUDDER, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

COCCI DAE WANTED. 
The imdersigned is desirous of obtaining, by ex- 
change or othenvise, specimens of as many species of 
the COCCID.^E as possible, for the purpose of making 
a study of the North American forms. Those found 
infesting cultivated plants especially desired. Living 
specimens pieferred when they can be obtained. 
J. Henry Co.mstock, 
Department of Entomology, 

The Cornell University, 

Ithaca, .\. Y. 

GALLS AND GALL INSECTS. 
The undersigned desires, either by exchange or 
otherwise. Galls from all parts of the United Stales. 
He is especially interested in those made by Lepidop- 
tera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Diptera. Correspon- 
dence in reference to Gall grow tlis, or other vegetable 
abnormities, is invited. CHARLES V. RrLEY, 
1700 Thirteenth St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 

TORTRICIDAE WANTED. 
I am desirous of obtaining as many North Ameri- 
can TORTRICIDAE as possible, for the purpose of 
studying this family. I shall be glad lo name and 
return any TORTRICIDAE fonvarded lo me for this 
purpose, save such as may prove new and desirable 
to retain for description. 

Pack carefully, and direct to 

PROF. C. H. I'KRNAI.I), Orono. Mf. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 
Living cocoons, pupae and ova of .-Xmerican lepi- 
doptera bought or exchanged for other species. 1^ 
Monsieur ALFRED VVailly, ( Membre-Lauriial d. 
la Societe d'Accliniatation de France), 

Tudor Villa, T'udor Road, Norbilon, 

Kingslon-on-Thaines, England. 



NORTH AMERICAN FERNS. 

Check lists of the Ferns of North America north 

of Mexico, enumerating 31 genera, 132 species and 

15 varieties, on one octavo page. Will be sent by 

mail on receipt of the price, 15 cents per dozen copies. 

S. Stebbins, Springfield, Mas> 



367270 
•9,0 



FSYCHE. 



THE SCALES OF COLEOPTERA. 



BY GEORGE DIMiMOCK, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



Altho the following paper is mainly 
a description of a few forms of scales 
of coleoptera, on some of which the 
scales have not before been noticed, and 
on others of which they have been more 
or less fullv described, a brief outline 
of the historv and bibliographv of the 
knowledge of the scales of insects in 
general and of coleoptera in particular 
may not be amiss as an introduction to 
these descriptions. 

According to Mayer' and Schneider^ 
the scales of lepidoptera were first 
mentioned, by Fabricius, in 1600, were 
later mentioned by Malpighi, in 1650, 
and since then by many other observers. 
Up to the beginning of the present 
century the literature of this subject is 
of little importance except historically, 
antl I will cite onlv tlie names of 
Bonanni, Lederiiuiller, Reaumur, Rosel 
and Swammerdamm, who made men- 
tion, to a greater or less extent, of the 

' Mayer. F. J. C. Ueber den SLiub der 
Schmetterlingsfliigel. (Allgem. med. Cen- 
tral-Zeit.. 1S60, jahrg. jg, p. 772-774.) Ha- 
ge7i.^ Bibl. entom. 

^ Schneider, R. Die Schuppen an den ver- 
schiedenen Fltigel- und Korpertheilen der 
Lepidopteren. Dissertatio . . . Halis Saxo- 
num. 1878. .\lso (Zeitschr. f. ges. Naturw.. 
T878.) 



scales of lepidoptera in their works. 
During the present century the literature 
of this subject has increased rapidlv, 
and among the authors of leading 
papers which treat mainly or consider- 
ably of the scales of lepidoptera are, in 
chronological order, Deschamps (183^),' 
Bowerbank (1838),^ Craig (1839),* 
Ratzeburg (1840),* de la Rue (1852),' 
Semper (1857)," Kettelhoit (i86o),9 

' Deschamps, B. Recherches microsco- 
piques sur I'organisation des ailes des 1dpi- 
dopteres. (Ann. sci. nat., 1835, s. 2. v. 3. p. 
111-137.) 

* Bowerbank, J. S. On the structure of 
the scales on the wings of" lepidopterous in- 
sects. (Entom. mag., 1838, v. 5, p. 300-304.) 

' Craig, E. On the configuration of the 
scale of butterflies' wings, as exhibited in 
the microscope. (Edinb. philos. mag.. 1S39, 
s. 2. V. 15, p. 279-2S2, fig.) 

'' Ratzeburg, J. T. C. Die Forstinsekten . . . 
Bd. 2. 1S40. 

' de la Rue, W. On the markings on the 
scales of Ama/fiiisia horsfieldii. (Trans, mi- 
cros, soc. Loud., 1S52, V. 3, p. 36-40, pi. 2.) 

* Semper, C. Beobachtungiiberdie Bildung 
der Flugel, Schuppen und Haare bei den 
Lepidopteren. (Zeitschr. f wiss. Zool., 
1S57, V. S, p. 326-339, pi. 13.) 

' Kettelhoit. T. De squamis lepidoptero- 
rum. Dissertatio . . . Bonnae, i860. 



PSYCHE. 



[J;in.^Keb. iSS.1. 



Mayer (iS6o),' Landois (1871), '" and 
Schneider (1878).° Even sixclal 
modifications of scales, called by 
Scudder" androconia, have been foinid 
on the males of a large number of 
butterflies, and have given rise to con- 
siderable discussion in regard to their 
function. Androconia were first discov- 
ered about 1S25 l)y Baillif, wiio termed 
them jiUnnulae. They have been 
discussed since in papers by numerous 
writers, among ^vhom may be men- 
tioned Deschamps', Schneider," Watson 
(1S65-1869),'--" Wonfor (1868-1869),'" 
Anthony (1872),'"-"' Fritz Mtiller 
(1877).''-' Scudder (1S77)." Weismann 

'" Landois. H. Beitrage zur Entwicklungs- 
geschichtc der .Schmettcrlingsfltigel in der 
Raupe und Puppe. (Zcitschr. t". wiss. Zool.. 
1871, V. 21, p. 305-3'6. pi. 23.) 

" Scudder. S. H. Antigeny, or sexual 
dimorphism in butterflies. (Proc. .\mer. 
acad. arts and sciences. 1S77. v. 12. p. 150- 
158.) 

'* Watson, J. On certain .scales of some 
diurnal lepidoptera. (Mem. Lit. and phil. 
see. Manchester, 1S65, s. 3, v. 2, p. 63-70.) 

'^ Watson, J. On the microscopical exam- 
ination of plumules ... (Entom. mo. mag., 
1865, V. 2, p. 1-2, fig.) 

'■* Watson, J. On the plumules or battle- 
dore scales of lycacnidtte. (Mem. Lit. and 
phil. soc. Manchester. 1S69. s. 3. v. 3, p. 12S- 

133. Pl- "-3-) 

'' Wats(fn, J. Further remarks on the 
plumules or battledore scales of some of the 
lepidoptera. (Mem. Lit. and phil. soc. Man- 
chester. 1869, s. 3, V. 3, p. 259-269, pl.5-7.) 

'« Wonfor, F. W. On certain butterfly 
scales characteristic of sex. (Qiiart. journ. 
micros, sci., 1868, n. s., v. 8, p. S0-S3. pl. i; 
1869. V. 9. p. 19-22, p. 426-42S.) 



(1878)-^ and Aurivellius (18S0).-' 
Weismann Ijelieves that it is not impos- 
sible that these scales give out an etherial 
oil secreted by the cells at their bases. 
Without discussing the correctness of 
Weisniann's view, the extensive litera 
tme devoted to the scales of lepidoptera, 
of which 1 have given only the outline, 
shows how broad the subject is. Hut 
how is it with the scales of insects 
other than lepidoptera ? Are forms as 
interesting as androconia waiting the 
search of thoro investigators.'' 

Leeuwenlioek, in 16H0. and Swam- 
merdamni," in the next centmv, figure 
the scales of the wings and botiv of 
Ciilex. and Weismann.'''' in 1S64. speaks 
of scales on Sarcopliaga can/aria. 
These are all tiie references which I 
know to diplera having scales :uh1 1 

" .\nthony. J. The markings on the battle- 
dore scales of some of the lepidoptera. (.Mo. 
micros, journ., 1S72. v. 7. p. 1-3, pl. 1-;.) 

'* Anthony, J. Structure of battledore 
scales. (Mo. micros, journ., 1S72. v. 7, p. 
250.) 

" Miiller, Fritz. Ueber Haarpinsel. Filz- 
flccke und iihnliche Gebilde auf den Fliigeln 
mannlicher Schmetterlinge. (Jena. Zcitschr. 
f. Naturw., 1S77, bd. ii. p. 99-114.) 

*' Weismann, A. Ueber Duftschuppen. 
(Zool. Anzeiger. 1S79. Jahrg. i. p. 9S-99.) 

•' Aurivellius, C. Ueber sekundiire Gesch- 
lechtscharaktere nordischer Tagfalter. (Ui- 
hang till k. Svenska vet.-akad. handlingar. 
iSi*). bd. 5. n :o 25.) 

« Swammerdamni. J. Buch der Natur. . . . 
Leipzig, 1752. 

^ Weismann, A. Die nachembryonale 
Entwickelung der Musciden. . . . (Zeilschr. 
f. wiss. Zool., 1S64. bd. 14. p. 1S7-336.) 



Jan.-Fc-b. iSSj.l 



PSYCHE. 



will aild here to their number, that I 
have found scales upon the legs of a 
species of Ploas from Germany. 

Scales have been examined, but not 
extensiveh' studied, which were ob- 
tained frOm thysauura {Lcpisiiia. ^la- 
chilis and Podura). L. Landois"^ 
speaks of scales in P/itkiriiis. but it is 
evident from his description that they 
are not homologicallv and structurally 
like the scales of Icpidoptera. Leydig,'''^ 
to whose paper I shall have occasion 
to refer later, mentions scales resem- 
bling those of lepidoptei^a on spiders 
of the genus Saltici/s. Claus-^ says 
tlie piiryganidac are " with hairv or 
scalv wings." hut I know of no special 
stu{Iies made upon the scales of these 
insects. As far as I have been able to 
discover, scales have only been recorded 
on hemipterous insects in the case ot 
the curious dimorphic form of Aphis 
acei-is (originally described bv' Thorn- 
ton, in 1852, as Phvllophorus testudi- 
natiis) which is figured and briefly 
described by Packard.-' and have never 
been recorded from hvmenoptera. 

I come now to what is more strictly 
the >ul)iect of this paper, the scales of 

"^ Landois, L. Untersuchungen iiber die 
auf dem Menschen schmarotzenden Pedicii- 
linen. Anatomie des Pht/iin'iis iiigiiiiwlis 
I-each. (Zcitschr. f. wiss. Zool., 1S64, v. 14. 
p. 1-41. pi. 1-5.) 

'^ Levdig. F. Zum fuineren Ban der Ar- 
tliropoden. (MuUer"s Archiv. 1855. p. 376- 
4S0. pi. 15-18.) 

-'• Claus, C. Grundziige der Zoologie. 4te 
Aufl. 1880. 

'" Packard. A. S. Guide to tlie study of 
in.sects . . . Salem. 1869. p. 520-521. 



coleoptera. the literature of which I 
have, as far as possible, seen and 
studied. 

The earliest mention that I have 
found of scales on coleoptera is in 1762, 
by Geot?roy,^* who not only mentioned 
scales on several ctn-cziiionidac, but 
also noticed those of dermestidae and 
scarabaeidae. The next notice of 
scales of coleoptera is in 1773, by Dru- 
ry,-^ ill Ills description of E>itimits 
iiiipcria/is, where he alludes to the 
scales upon this species of curailion- 
idac. In 1777. Lindenberg^" figured 
and brieflv described Entinius iinperi- 
alis and the scales which render it so 
brilliant. In 1 7S0 the same author'^ 
gave quite an extended description, ac- 
companied bv colored figures, of the 
scales of Entiniits. Lindenberg's last 
paper is parth' devoted to a curious 
consideration of the question why in- 
sects and small animals, some of them 
requiring a microscope to reveal their 
beautv. were made even more beautiful 
than larger animals. Since the above- 
mentioned papers were published, manv 

'*' GeoftVoy, E. L. Histoire abregee des in- 
sectes qui se trouvent aux environs de Paris 
... v. I, 1762. [See especially p. 69. 7S-79, 
114, 115, 277. 2S2-283, 2S8. 289, 293. 293. 295 
and 299.] 

"' Drury. Illustrations of natural history 
... V. I. 1773. 

"' Lindenberg. Beschreibung eines bra- 
silischen Riisselkiifers. (Der Naturfonscher. 
lotes Stuck, Halle. 1777, p. 86-87. fig.) 

^' Lindenberg. Ausiuhrlichere Beschrei- 
bung des . . . brasilischen Riis.selkafers, nebst 
einigen Betrachtungen. (Der Naturforscher. 
i4tes Stiick, Halle, 1780, p. 211-220. fig.) 



6 



psrciiH. 



|J:in.— Kill. 1SS3. 



popular descriptions and brief notes 
upon the scales of coleoptera have been 
printed, especially in handbooks for 
microscopists, but the important con- 
tributions to the subject are in Dujar- 
din's Manual for the microscope.^- in 
Deschamps' Researches on the elytra 
of coleoptera'' and lastly in Fischer's 
somewhat extensive dissertation''' on the 
scales of coleoptera, published in 1S46. 
Fischer's dissertation was based upon 
a large collection of coleoptera of Eu- 
rope, which he examined and consid- 
ered by tamilies. He classified the 
scales o( c/irciiliom'dac into four groups 
antl made a fifth group of the kind of 
scales found on AntJircmis. These 
divisions will be considered later, in 
connection with the form and stiiiclinc 
of the scales. 

I will begin the descriptive part of 
mv paper with an explanation of the 
hairs of Cicindela dorsalis, for I wisli 
to say a good deal about scale-like 
hairs in this paper, since the scales 
of coleoptera are simply flattened hairs 
of a more or less complex nature. In 
the progress of this jiaper 1 hope to 
be able to point out ailinities, not pre- 

" Dujardin, F. Nouveau manuel complet 
de I'observateur aii microscope. Avec atlas. 
Paris, 1843. 

** Deschamps, 15. Rccherches microsco- 
piques sur rorganisation des elytres dcs 
coleopttres. (Ann. sci. nat.. 184-;. s. 3. v. 
3. P- 3.H-.S6.^) 

*' Fischer, L. H. Microscopische I'nter- 
siichungen iiber die Kiiferschuppcn. Disser- 
tation . . . Freiburg, 1846, fig. Reprint (Isis. 
1846, V. 6, p. 401-421. fig.) 



viouslv noted, between hairs and scales 
of coleoptera. 

H.VIRS OK CICIXnKI.,\ IlOliS.M.IS. 

The white hairs which clothe the 
sides of the thorax of C. dor.ta/is and 
are abundant upon nearly all parts of 
the under side of this insect, even upon 
its legs and upon some of its mouth- 
parts, owe their white color to the pres- 
ence of air in their interior. 

In transverse section tliese liairs — 
for Ihev are scarcely flat enougli to be 
termed scales — are circular, ellijisoi- 
dal (as in fig. i, d) or with a slight 
tendency to be triangular. The central 




Fig. 1. Hairs of CuiitJi-la Jorstilix: a, from thorax ; 
^, Siiine partly deprived of air; £-, apical end of same; 
<i, transverse section of same; i*, basal end of same; 
^, hair from antenna. Enlargement: «, b and ^, lOO 
diain. ; r, d and e, 300 diam. 

portion is a canal, about one-fourtii the 
di;uneter of the whole hair. :in(l is filled 
with air. This canal is surrounded i)y 
very minute cavities forming a sort of 
pitii-like substance filled with air and 
extending out\\;u-d to tiie outer chiti- 
nous covering of the h;iir. The c;i\ i- 



Jan.— Feb. iSSj.^ 



PSYCHE. 



ties or interstices of the pith-like por- 
tion open into the central canal of 
the hair, hut are prevented from direct 
communication with the outer air by 
the thin sheath of chitin which forms 
the outer covering of each hair. Each 
hair is closed at the apex (fig. i, c) 
by this outer, impervious chitin layer 
and at its basal end (fig. i, e) by a thick- 
ening of the chitin sheath to such an 
extent as to entirelv close the central 
canal, with its surrounding pith-like 
substance, from the outer air. This 
structui'e, together with the mode of 
closing of the basal end, leaves the 
nature of the development of the hair 
verv apparent. It is a closed sacciform 
appendage of the external chitinous cov- 
ering of the insect, as are the scales of 
lepidoptera, coleoptera and diptera. 
The knob formed bv the basal end (fig. 
r, (') of the hair is inserted into a pit 
in the chitin covering of the insect, 
almost exactly as the corresponding 
part of the scales of other insects are 
attached. 

The structural points above described 
were obtained in two ways ; first, by 
sectioning the hairs \\ ith the microtome, 
and, second, by carefull}- observing 
imder the microscope the action of dif- 
ferent reagents on tiie hairs. I obtained 
a few good transverse sections of hairs 
taken from the sides of the thorax, and. 
by examination of these sections, veri- 
fied the existence of an open central 
canal. Fig. i, (/, shows one of these 
sections vviiich was about o.oi mm. in 
thickness anil about 0.02 mm. in aver- 
age diameter, drawn with the camera. 



The expulsion of the air from these 
hairs, when they were broken at any 
point, was readily efiected h\ chloro- 
form or alcohol, and scarcely less readily 
by glycerin, bv turpentin. or even bv 
water, but if the liair had not been in- 
jured at any point the air was not driven 
out by any of these reagents, even after 
several days action. When the air has 
been expelled from a hair, the latter be- 
comes transparent, and is colorless with 
directly transmitted light in all parts 
except where the chitin is thickened to 
close the base ; this chitin is slightlv 
brown. By obliquely transmitted light, 
obtained by Aube's illuminating appar- 
atus, the hairs which have been deprived 
of air exhifiit a slightly bluish shade. 
Fig. I, h, represents a hair of which the 
distal end has l)een deprived of air, the 
part from .v to v is partly deprived of 
air and the basal portion is still filled 
with air. Sometimes, especially when 
glycerin or turpentin is used to expel the 
air, a part of the air will remain col- 
lected in the central canal ( fig. 1 , .v to r) 
quite a while after it has left the cavities 
of the pith-like portion. The clearly 
defined outline of this colimin of air led 
to the suspicion of an open canal, the 
presence of which was later proved by 
sections. 

The hairs from difterent parts of C. 
dorsalis vary little in form and size. 
Those from the thorax and from the un- 
der side of the abdomen are club-shaped 
(fig. I, a and /;), are from 0.28 to 0.35 
mm. in length, and from 0.015 to 0.025 
mm. in diameter. They taper gradually 
and slightlv from the middle toward 



PSYCHE. 



[Jnn.-Kcl.. .SS3. 



hotli ends ; the apex is usually truucated 
(tig. I. c). The basal part forms a 
slight neck just above the point of inser- 
tion (fig. I, e). These hairs are but 
slightly curved, but are so inseited as to 
lie nearlv Hat on the surface of the insect. 
The hairs (tig. i. g) tVom the anten- 
nae are the smallest of the white hairs 
on C. dorsalis. They are only about 
0.07 mm. long antl scarcely o.oi mm. 
in diameter near the base, from which 
they taper to their acute tip. The long- 
est hairs arc those from the labial palpi, 
of whicii the second joint onlv is denselv 
hairv. These hairs are from 0.30 to 
0.30 mm. long, and about 0.015 nun. in 
diameter near their base, from which 
thev taper gradually to a fine, acute 
apex. They are consideralilv curved 
and slenderly filiform. 

Between and u[)oii the hairs of this 
beetle are vellow. amorplious masses, 
quite transparent, and apparentlv secre- 
ted from thesnrt'ace of the insect, altho 
thev mav be remnants of some matrix in 
which the hairs are packed during the 
pupal state of the insect. Fischer men- 
tions substances of apparently similar 
nature in his dissertation, '■' and Ilagen,"''' 
in 1883, further discusses them.- These 
masses on C dorsalis oix&n take beauti- 
fullv clear impressions of the hairg 
themselves, and are insokdile in water, 
alcohol, turpentin. glvcerin or chloro- 
form. 

With the exception of the elytra, lab- 
rum and parts of the mandibles, all 

^ Hagen, H. A. On tlie color and llio 
pattern of insects. (Proc. Amer. acad. arts 
and sciences. 1S8;, v. 17. p. J34-267.) 



white portions of C. dorsalis owe their 
creamy whiteness to the hairs tlescribetl 
above ; these hairs are set on shining, 
cupreous or green-bronze surfaces. 

The hairs upon the sides of the thorax 
of C. vulgaris and C. piiritaua ;ire 
similar in structure and general form to 
hairs from the same region in ( . dor- 
salis. but thev are smaller in C. fiitritana 
(o.kS nun. long bv o.oi mm. in diam- 
eter) and slimmer in C. vulgaris (0.55 
mm. long and about o.oi mm. in diam- 
eter) ; in the latter sjiecies the\ are not 
so abundant. 

Taking the families of cideoptera in 
their svstematic ortier. I examined next 
the scales of 



.\XTHR]:XU.S SCROPini, Mil \K. 

The figuration of the whole bodv and 
even of the legs of this insect is due to 
scales which are not imbricated as are 




Fij;. 2. Scales o{ Anthreiius: a. of A. scrophittariae: 
b, arrangement of same on portion of an elytron ; r, 
scales of .14. T'a/-/«*\ Kniargeinent : o antl r, too (liain., 

by 50 itiaiii. 



the scales of lepidoptera. The basal 
eiul of each scale is inserted in a cavit\ 
which is at tiie bottom of a tunnel- 
shaped deepening of the cliitinous .sur- 
face of the insect, and the scales are 
arranged to a certain extent, altho rather 
irregularly, in lines. Fig. z. b shows 



Jan.— Feb. 1SS3.] 



PSYCHE. 



9 



their order on a portion of an elytron, 
the little circle about the base of each 
scale showing the limits of the funnel- 
shaped depression in which each scale 
is inserted. These scales are about 
0.05 mm. long by 0.03 mm. wide. 
Thev are of three difl'erent colors — 
wliite, light brown and black — and they 
all contain air. These scales were de- 
scribed by Fischer and I introduce and 
figure them here (fig. 3, a) only because 
thc\ furnish a good example of what 
Fischer termed fibrous scales (Faser- 
schuppeii). 

Of other species of dermestidae I 
only examined Dermesfes lardarhts &nA 
Anthrcmts varius^ for I have had access 
to but a portion' of ray collection, which 
I hope to examine more thoroughly 
later. The former species was clothed 
with hairs onlv. 



paring fig. 2, a with fig. 2, c, both of 
which figures are ecjually enlarged. 

At this point may be noted the pres- 
ence of two sorts of hairs on the larvae 
of certain dermestidae, as described by 
De Geer,^" Dujardin^' andThevenet, ^'-'* 
and the existence of scales on the larvae 
of Aitagcttus pcUio, as described and 
figured b\- DujariHn,^^ the latter species 
being, so far as I can discover, the only 
coleopteron from the larva of which 
scales are Ivuown. 

The scarabaeidae contain a number 
of genera in wliich scales are the rule 
rather than the exception, and, among 
them, for the first time, comes the con- 
sideration of brilliantly colored scales, 
those of the genus Hoplia. 



SCALES OF IIOPLIA COERULEA. 



SCALES OF ANTHKENUS VARIUS. 

The figuration of A. varius is due, 
like that of A. scrophulariae, to scales 
which do not lubricate. The scales of 
A. variiis (fig. 2. c) are narrower than 
those of A. scrophitlariae, being about 
0.05 mm. long by 0.015 mm. wide. In 
color thev are either dark brown, yellow 
or white ; and they are striate, but the 
striae, about six in number, are rather 
cibscured bv the presence of much air 
in the scales until the latter are treated 
with liquid reagents. The fine notching 
at the apical end of scales of ^. vai-ius 
is not so evident as it is in those of A. 
scrophu/ariae, as can be seen by com- 



This well-known European insect is 
light metallic blue above and silvery 
beneath, but when deprived of the scales 
to which its metallic coloration is due, 
it is brown. The scales of the elytra 
and upper surface of the thorax are 
imbricated ; those of the abdomen, legs 
and under side are not imbricated. 

The scales of //. coenilea vary in form 
from round to ovate and lanceolate, most 

^ De Geer. C. Memoires pour servir a 

I'histoire des insectes ... v. 4, 1774, p. 

pi. 8. fig. 4-6. 

■*' Thevenet, J. Note sur les polls de la 
larve de rajiihycnini vcrbasci. (Ann. 80c. 
entom. Fr., 1874, s. 5, v. 4; Bull, p. 84, 97.) 

^ Thevenet, J. Note sur les polls de la 
larve du megatoma serra. (Ann. Soc. en- 
tom. Fr., 1874, s. 5, V. 4; Bull., p. 112.) 



lu 



rai'ciiE. 



IJan. — I'eb. 18S3. 



of those from the upper side being 
usually nearly round and smooth (fig. 
3, a), while those of the under side are 
more variable in shape and are always 




Fig. 3. Scales of JJoplia coeruUa: a, from elytron ; 
^, from under side of thorax; r, from femur; d, fine 
structure to be seen in a with high powers. Knlarge- 
ment : a^ b and c^ loodiam.; rf, 5oodi:nn. 

covered with spines or hairs (fig. 3, i 
and c). The scales upon the legs are 
most variable of all in form ; common 
among them are lanceolate forms (fig. 
3. c), covered with fine hairs. The 
average size of the scales is about o. 10 
mm. long by 0.05 mm. wide, and they 
are attached to the insect by a more or 
less prolonged basal portion (fig. 3, 
a-c) ; they lie very flatly pressed upon 
the surface of the insect. 

Most of the scales of tlie dorsal sm- 
face of the thorax and of the elytra, 
when viewed by transmitted light, are 
bright canary yellow, but many of them 
are tinged with carmine red. Viewed 
by reflected light, or upon a dark back- 
ground, the parts before yellow are 
bluish, or dark and nearly invisiiile, 
while all the parts before reddish are 
now dark and more or less indistinct 
(or rarely greenish if they were purplish- 
red before). If the stage of the micro- 
scope is now revolved, and the light to 



be reflected from the scales is thus 
brought from a diflerent direction in 
regard to the scales, some of the parts 
before dark become bright bluish while 
others just before blue become darkened, 
but in no case do parts of a scale which 
were reddish by transmitted light be- 
come bluish by reflected light. If the 
light is not excluded from above the 
stage of the microscope, when examin- 
ing these scales by transmitted light, 
places will be discovered, where the 
scales are injured or where thev are 
turned up at their margins, in which 
bright blue, or rarely green, will be 
seen. In all cases where I speak of 
trarismittcd light I have excluded the 
light from above the stage of the micro- 
scope, and where I speak of reflected 
light I have excluded light from below 
the stage of the microscope. 

If the scales are in any way injured 
or cracked, is they usually are in re- 
moving them from the insect, water will 
readily enter them and discharge the air 
from them. Scales thus treated with 
water are, by transmitted light, sky blue, 
soiuetimes tinged with carmine red, the 
latter color being in portions of the 
scales which had not been thoroughly 
penetrated by the water, for \\ bile the 
\\ ater is entering the scales the)' become 
reddish for a time before changing to 
blue. Hoiling the water a minute 
causes all red to disappear but seems to 
iiaxe no fmther action on the scales; 
their structure is not altered, as the 
water inside such minute cavities is not 
readily boiled. By reflecteil light m;mv 
scales that have been treated with water 
are dark greenish. 



Jan.— Feb. 1SS3.] 



PSYCHE. 



11 



Glycerin produces nearly the same 
effects in these scales as water does ; its 
action is, however, slower and gives 
more opportunity to examine the scales 
during the process of saturation. Light 
transmitted through scales that are 
treated with glycerin is nearly color- 
less, and reflected light from scales 
thoroughly penetrated with glycerin is, 
for the most part, colorless ; sometimes, 
however, it is greenish in spots, and 
these spots are usually where a tinge of 
red remains, when viewed by trans- 
mitted light. 

In absolute alcohol the scales show, 
by transmitted light, a more reddish 
tinge tlian they show in water : in 
chloroform the tinge is more purplish 
than in water, altho the pin'plc is very 
pale ; in turpentin and in oil of cloves 
the scales are transparent and colorless. 
Scales moistened with any of these 
reagents and put over a dark or black 
surface are light metallic green ; if dry 
scales are put over dark surfaces they 
are light metallic blue. Redried from 
water, alcohol or chloroform these scales 
regain their original colors, showing 
that it is a coloration due to the struc- 
ture of the scales and not due to any 
pigment in them. In further proof of 
this I exposed the scales to dry chlorin 
gas and the color remained unaltered. 
Solutions of chlorin or of hypochlorites 
fail to destroy the coloration, for after 
they are washed out and the scales 
again dried the colors reappear as bright 
as at first. 

Drv scales heated slightly over flame 
suddenly lose all their metallic colora- 
tion, anti, while retaining their form. 



become brownish grey by transmitted 
or reflected light ; they are apparently 
charred sufficiently to lose tlieir color 
without having their structure greatly 
altered. 

In structure these scales are readily 
seen to be little flattened sacs ; wherever 
they are injured, especially if they are 
broken off near the base, the edges of 
the upper and lower sides appear dis- 
tinctly. The inner structure of these 
scales is not easily discoverable. They 
appear to be filled with a very delicate 
network (fig. 3, </), which is always 
reddish after the yellow has left the 
scales. If glycerin is used as a reagent 
in treating the scales their reddish net- 
work, even in scales originally yellow, 
remains long after the yellow has dis- 
appeared. The yellow occupies the 
interspaces of the network. The net- 
work itself, under high jjovvers, appears 
as if it were caused by retiform designs 
in reddish oil between the layers of the 
scales, but the fiict of the reappearance 
of the color after treating the scales with 
solvents for oil, e. g., chloroform, 
shciws that it is not oil. From the ap- 
pearance of scales charred to different 
extents I am inclined to think this net- 
work to be formed by thickenings of 
the chitin walls of the scales themselves. 
If this be the case, the thickenings pro- 
ject only inward from these walls, and 
are found in corresponding figures upon 
both upper and under walls of the 
scales. The colors red and yellow by 
transmitted light may exist where only 
the upper or under half of the scale is 
present. 

{To he continued.') 



PSYCHE. 



(Jan.— Feb. iSSj. 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., JAN.-FEB. 1S83. 

Communifalions, exchanffgs and editors* eopi€^& 
should be addressed to Editors of PsyCHE, Cam- 
bridg'e^ Mass. Communications for publication in 
Psyche must be properly authenticated , and no anony- 
mous articles will be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
statements made in their oivn communications. 

Works on subjects not related to entomology will not 
be reviezved in Psyche. 

J^or rates of subscription and of advertising, see ad. 
vertising columns. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE FOURTH 
VOLUME. 

Psyche enters upon its Ibiirtli volinno 
under auspices in many regards more favor- 
able than those which have attended the 
inauguration of earlier volumes. The mate- 
rial support upon which the C.\mbridge 
Entomological Club, as publislier, can 
count, while not sufficient to defray the expen- 
ses of publication, bids fair to leave the friends 
of Psyche with smaller deficits to meet than 
heretofore. The explanation should be made 
that the Club, while devoting all its available 
means to the publication of Psyche, is obliged 
to rely upon private benefactors to make up 
its arrears of funds from time to time; else it 
would be obliged to suspend the execution of 
its work. The Managing Editor, having faith 
in the good-will of his fellow-entotnologists. 
and of patrons of science, assumes the respon- 
sibility of expenditures which exceed the 
resources of the Club. Contributions to the 
Permanent Publication Fund of Psyche are 
earnestly solicited. 

In editorial support the management feels 
especially rich, referring with pride to the 
published list of associate editors. Without 
this support the task of issuing a fourth vol- 
ume of Psyche would not have been accepted 
by the undersigned, who appreciate the dilli- 



culties of performing their part well under 
the pressure of their other occupations, and 
with the limited resources at the command of 
the Cllh. 

Psyche will be devoted, as heretofore, to 
the presentation of entomology in its higher 
and more philosophical aspects. It will 
leave to other magazines the bare descriptions 
of new species, and contests over priority and 
synon^'my, as well as competition for the 
earliest announcement of news. As the offi- 
cial publication of the Cambridge Entomo- 
logical Club, it will contain the minutes of 
the meetings of the Clib, and serve as a 
medium of communication between the 
members. Although the Cambridge Ento- 
mological Club is a society bearing a 
local name, its members are chosen without 
local limitation, and Psy'che will endeavor to 
represent the interests of scientific entomol- 
ogy wherever pursued, and to advance, im- 
partially, the welfare of all societies having 
the same obje ;ts in view. Welcoming to its 
columns origii al articles of a character suited 
to its aims, i will seek to present to its 
readers such notices of. or extr.icts from, 
articles of like character, appearing in other 
publications, as will make it most valuable to 
the philosophic entomologist. Brief items, 
and condensed abstracts of the proceedings 
of scientific .societies in all parts of the 
world, so far as they are related to general 
entomology, would be thankfully received bv 
the editors. Official notices of the times and 
places of meetings of entomological societies 
will be inserted in our column devoted to that 
purpose, free of charge. 

The form of the BiBLioGUArauwL Record. 
being in accordance with the highest thought 
upon the subject in the world.* will remain 
unchanged; but the matter will lie made more 
valuable than heretofore, by the exercise of 
a selection from among the works to be 
noticed by preference. While it has long 
been evident that the space which could be 
devoted to the Record in Psyche was insuffi- 
cient for the publication of complete lists of 

*See Psyche, March iSSo, v. 3, p. 44. 



J:in.— F'eb, iSSjl-] 



PSYCHE. 



13 



even those writings wiiich it would be most 
appropriate to notice, the Editor of the Rec- 
ord has not withheld from publication such ar- 
ticles as came to hand, even though of minor 
importance. He will in the future pre.serve 
these in manuscript, indexed as well as may 
be. for reference, and publish the record only 
of the more important articles. Should 
means, from soiuTes vet unknown, be af- 
forded for the presentation of a complete work, 
none would appreciate the value of it more 
than he. In order to perfect this record, the 
editor respectfully requests that copies of pub- 
lications containing entomological articles 
may be sent by the authors or the publishers, 
or by friends of Psyche, to the Library of 
the Cambridge Entomological Club. 
where they will be at the disposition of the 
subscribers to Psyche, throughout North 
.\merica. under the rules of the Club. 

B : PicKMAN Mann. 

George Dimmock. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 
Caimbridge Entomological Club. 

12 Jan. 1SS3. — The Sgth meeting of the 
Club, the .sixth annual meeting since the in- 
corporation of the Club, was held at 16 Qiiincy 
St., Cambridge, 12 Jan. 1SS3. Nine persons 
(eight of whom were members) were pres- 
ent. 

The Secretary stated that Miss Cora H. 
Clarke had been tran.sferred. 10 Jan. 1SS3, at 
lier own request, from the list of associate 
members to the list of active members. 

The following persons were elected to active 
membership : H : Savage, of Boston, Mass. ; 
Prof Stephen Alfred Forbes, of Normal. 111. : 
W : Hague Harrington, of Ottawa, Canada; 
Prof. G: Macloskie, of Princeton, N.J. ; Prof 
Francis Huntington Snow, of Lawi-ence. 
Kansas. 

The annual reports of the Secretary, of 
the Treasurer and of the Librarian were read 
and approved, the approval of the Treasur- 
er's report being subject to the action of the 
Auditing Committee. 

A motion was carried ■■ that the Club re- 



.sume the publication of Psyche, beginning 
with no. 105, of vol. 4 ( the no. for Jan. 
18S3), and that, w-ith the exceptions herein- 
after stated, vol. 4 be published in similar 
style, typographically and othei'wise, as vol. 3. 

"Exception i. That the price of subscrip- 
tion be raised to two dollars per year, five 
dollars per volume of three years, and that 
subscribers can have, after payment of their 
subscriptions, if the3' so desire, in addition 
to their regular copy, a copy printed on one 
side of tlie paper, for pasting the slips of the 
Bibliographical Record. 

"Exception 2. That the editors to be elect- 
ed be recommended to make the Bibliograph- 
ical Record more current, if possible, and 
to omit publishing the record of notes and 
items of minor value w'hich are contained in 
the popular and daily press." 

Other changes proposed in Psyche were, 
after some discussion. left to the discretion 
of the editors. 

The following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year: President. B : P. Mann: Sec- 
retary. G: Dimmock; Treasurer, S: Hen- 
shaw ; Librarian, C. C. Eaton ; members at 
large of the Executive Committee. R. 1 lay- 
ward and E : L. Mark. 

A motion was carried to elect a managing 
and an associate editor of Psyche, these edi- 
tors to have full power to add to their num- 
ber. B: P. Mann was elected managing edi- 
tor, and G : Dimmock associate editor, for 
the ensuing year. 

The retiring President. Mr. S : H. Scudder. 
delivered his address, entitled "On mesozoic 
cockroaches." The address was a general re- 
view of what is known of cockroaches of this 
age and a comparison of their forms with 
other fossil and living forms. The address 
was illustrated with many figures and with 
numerous specimens of fossils. 

Mr. W : Trelease communicated ( by the 
Secretary) the following note : 

"At the Novembei meeting of the Club, in 
iSSi. I showed a specimen of ant architec- 
ture which w^as furtlier described in Psyche 
for Feb.iSS2. At the time this was w^-itten I 
had forgotten that Mr. Walsh has recorded 



14 



PSYCflE. 



[ Jan.— I'"eh. iSS.i^ 



(Pract. entom.. v. 2, p. 40) cases coristnicted 
bv Mvi mica limohtta? Sav over an aphis on 
Coriiiis s/oliiiii/frii, and bv a Foimica over 
an aphis on Siilix. A case of" the same kind 
on a species of alder is recorded bv Mr. Wni. 
Couper as occurring near Toronto, in Canada. 
Lubbock (Scientific lectures, p. 71) states 
that sometimes the ants even build covered 
wavs up to and over the aphides, which, 
moreover, they protect from the attacks of 
other insects.'" 

Mr. J : G. Jack stated that he had seen 
Vanessa antiopa, with unrolled proboscis, 
apparently sucking the sweet excretion about 
aphides, and had noticed similar actions in 
Limcnilis dissif'iis and L. arlhemh. 

Mr. A. F. Focrste communicated (by Mr. 
W : Trelease and the Secretary) a note con- 
cerning the habits of Alans ociiluliis. This 
note chiefly described the habit of feigning 
death and the reluctancy to spring in this 
species of elateridae. Mr. G : Dimmock 
said he had noticed that A. ocii/u/iis disliked 
to spring. 

Mr. S: II. Sciuider spoke of some speci- 
mens of lepidoptera, in ditVerent stages. 
which were for sale by Dr. W : Wittfeld. of 
Georgiana. Brevard Co., Fla. 

Mr. S: n. Scudder said, in reply to a 
question, that all Aespeiidae spin light co- 
coons, and that a few other butterflies allied 
to the hesperidae spin delicate cocoons. 
From these cocoon-spinning forms there is a 
gradual transition through forms which hang 
their pupae with a loop to forms which sus- 
pend their pupae by the tip of the abdomen 
only. 

9 Feb. 1SS3. — -The yoth meeting was held 
at 19 Brattle Square, Cambridge, 9 Feb. 1SS3. 
In the absence of the President Mr. S: H. 
Scudder was chosen chairman. Six persons 
(five of whom were members) were present. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. S : 
Henshaw, who regretted that he was not 
able to accept the oflice of Treasurer to which 
he had been elected at the last meeting. [Mr. 
B: P. Mann will remaim acting Treasurer, 
therefore, until a new election is held.] 

A proposition to hold a special meeting of 
the Club at Minneapolis. Minn., on the dav 



preceding the meeting of Ihe American Asso- 
ciation for the .Advancement of Science, with 
other propositions in relation to the proposed 
meeting, was referred to the Executive Com- 
mittee with full power to act, but with the 
recommendation that the Committee should 
correspond with Mr. J. A. Lintner. who has 
already been asked to call a meeting of ento- 
mologists at that time and place, so that 
there might be no interference with the 
meeting to be called by him. 

Mr. Mann communicated (through the 
Secretary) some notes in regard to the ar- 
rangements necessary to be made for the 
issue of volume 4 of Psyche, and further 
remarks were made by the Secretary upon 
the saiue subject. 

The following persons were elected to ac- 
tive membership: August F. Foerste.' of 
Dayton, Ohio; C: Diehl Zimmerman, of 
Builalo, N. Y. : Capt. T.J. Mathews, of Gray- 
ville. III. ; Thoodor Pergande. of Washing- 
Ion. D. C. 

Mr. G: Dirimock called attention to a 
paper by Dr. Hermann Henking, entitled. 
'• Beitriige zur Anatomic. Entwieklungs- 
geschichte and Biologic \o\\ Xrombiditnn 
fulig!nosum\\i.\w\." (Zeitschrift f. wissensch. 
Zool.. iSSj, v. ,i7, p. 553-663, pi. 34-36), out- 
lining briefly the scope of the paper, and 
especially noticing a method of coloration 
by an alcoholic borax-carmine solution, as 
described by Dr. Henking. 

Mr. S: H. Scudder exhibited some plates 
from a paper on fossil neuroptera now in 
preparation, and a colored plate to illustrate 
the life-history of a species of lielhiia. (he 
pine-moth of Nantucket. 

Mr. Roland Thaxter called attention to a 
species of Nonagi-ia which he had studied. 
The larva bores in rushes from which it 
probably emerges as pupa. The question of 
how the egg survives the winter in the flood- 
ed and frozen marshes brought out some 
discussion. 

Mr. S: II. Scudder exhibited a large num- 
ber of figures of fossil coleoptera from Flor- 
issant. Col. 



Jmm.— Fell. iSS.i.] 



psrciiE. 



L.iioi-y] 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Authors and societies are requested to for-vard their ivori.'s to the editors tts soon as 
published. The date of publication, given in brachets []. warhs the time at -Mhich the 
-vork ivas received, unless an earlier date of publication is i:noii-)i to recorder or editor. 
Unless other-vise stated each record is made directly from the zvorh that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common oiven name, trs: A: Augustus: B: Ben- 
jamin: C: Charles: D: David: E: Edward: F: Frederic: G: (icorge: H: Henry: 
I: Isaac: J: John: K: Karl: L: Louis: M: Mark: N: Nicholas: O: Otto: P: Peter: R: 
Richard: S: Samuel: T: Thomas: IV: William. The initials at the end of each record, or 
note, are those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



Adolph. E. \'cirlaiifi:;e niittheilung iiber 
die tliigel der dipteren. (Zool. anzeiger. 
13 Nov. 18S2. jalirg, 5, p. 609-610.) 
XaUnx' of the wings of diptera. G: D. (3101) 

Agricultural ant of Texas (The). (Joarn. 
applied sci., Oct. iSSi. v. 12, p. 155,210111.) 

\nlt-^ on tliL- habits ii{ pogonoinyrmex harbatlis. 

G: D. (3103) 

Aiidersoii. Joseph, //•. On the emergence 
of butterrties. (Entoinologi.st. Nov. 1SS2. 
V. 15. p. 260 261.) 
How different butterflies heliave just after leaving 

the pupal skin. G: D. (3103) 

Anderson, Joseph, //-. Singular habit of 
apatnra iris. (Entomologist. Aug. 1S82. 
V. 15. p. iSS.) 
A. iris, after emerging' from pu'pa, hangs to the 

pup;il case with head uppermost for five or six hours, 

then witli head downward a similar time. 

G: D. (3104) 

Ashniead. W : Harris. Another chalcid 
friend of the orange grower. (Florida 
agriculturist, 13 July iSSi, no. 165, v. 4. 
no. 9, p. 65, col. 4-5, 28 cm.) 
Describes coccophagus flavoscutdlum n. sp. parasitic 

on lecajiium helper idum, B: P. M. C3105) 

Ashmead. W : Harris. On the cynipidous 
galls of Florida. Paper no. i. (Monthly 
proc. entom. sect. acad. nat. sci. Philad.. 
May iSSi, p. 9-14.) 

Describes cynips q^vireiis, c. q. baiatoides, c. q. 
'' ' ' . foliata, c. q. lanigf 
Z'lri'tis; note on c. q. Jints. 



finipes, c. q. foUata, c. q. lanigfra =: 5 n. sp.. from quer- 

B- P. M. (3106) 



Ashmead, W : Harris. (.)n the cvnlpidoirs 
galls of Florida. Paper uo. 2. (Monthl\ 
proc. entom. sect. acad. nat. sci. Philad.. 
June 1S81, p. 15-20. ) 

Describes cynips q, cafeslmci froni querciis catt'sbufi: 
c. q. lurnerii and c. q. aqiiaticae Ironi q. aquatica: 
spathcgnsttT q. lauri/oliae, i\ q. confusa and c. q. rngosa 
frnni q. Itiurifolia: c. q. cinerea from q. cinerea ^ 7 n. 
sp.; and sfjiis tytiipidis n. sp., parasitic on spathegasier 
q, laurifohiif. ' B: P. M. C.^io?) 

Ashmead, W : Harris. On a gigantic chal- 
cid '^x inhabiting Florida. (Can. entom.. 
May, iSSi, v. 13. p. S9-90. ) 
Describes smicra gigantea, new species. 

G: D. (310S) 

Ashmead, W : Harris. Injurious and bene- 
ficial insects found on the orange tree.s of 
F'lorida. (Can. entom., Aug. 1S79, ^- i^* 
p. 159-160.) 

Describes acarus? g/overii, aphf-Huus aspidioticoia, 
lecanium phyllococcus and typhlodromus oiliioorus [sic] 
^ 4 new species. ' G: D. (3109) 

Ashmead, W : Harris. On a mite preying 
on the orange scale insect. (Can. entom., 
May 1S79, V. II, p. 93-94.) 
Describes ortbait-s! aspidioii new species, which 

preys upon aspidiotits gloverii. G: D. (3110) 

Ashmead. W: Harris. On a new species 
of a/>///s affecting the pine. (Can. entom.. 
April 1S81, V. 13. p. 67-6S.) 

Describes lachnus austraH, new species from pinns 
austra/is, in Florida. G: D. (3111) 



1 () [3 1 1 2-3 1 26] 



PSYCHE. 



(Jan.— Fill. 1SS3. 



[Ashmead. W: Harris.] The orange pvra- 

lid moth. Anacglis dcmhalh Lederer. 

(Florida agriculturist, 6 July iSSi. v. 4, p. 

60. col. 2-4, 62 cm.) 

Dcsciibcs habitation, habits, iniaijo ami larva of 
tttiatiffis tifmistilfs. B: P. M. (.3113) 

Ashmead, W: Harris. The plum aphis in 
Florida. (^Pacific rural press, 2 July 18S1, 
V. J.;, p. S. col. 4. 30 cm.) 

Describes aphi>^ pnttiirolfiis [sic] n. sp., aiui men- 
tions other «////*i^'/(" Annul nn //■«««.? in I-'Inricia; list of 
insect enemies of aphidae observed; means ayainst 
aphidttt. B:P.M. (3113) 

.' shmead. W : Harris. On some new spe- 
cies of chalcididae from Florida. (Can. 
eutoni., June iSSi, v. 13. p. 134-136.) 
Describes furylmiui Tai,'tihitnihi, ilfraloiiiti Jftiv<i, 
ii.tjut-rii\ d.laniii', d. phcttos, d./oiiutae, -.iwA d. bala- 
[oidt-s = 7 new species. (i: D, (31 14) 

Ashmead, \V: Harris. On two new clialcid 
riios from Florida parasitic upon the lar- 
vae of syrphus flies. (Can. entom., Aug. 
iSSi, v-'i3. p- 170-17J.) 

Describes spulaitginT s^'rphi and pltromaltts quad- 
rimacitlatae, i new species ot clialcidae l)arasitic on 
tile larvae of .v>'r///;'(/<if. A. K. V. (3115) 

Ashmead. W : Harris. Two new orange 
insects. (Florida dispatch, 7 July iSSi. v. 
6, no. 4, p. [i], col. 3, 27 cm.) 

[From the Florida agriculturist.^ Describes spa- 
langia syrphi AwA s. qitadrimacnlatae = 2 n. sp. ])arasi- 
lie respectively on syrphus paisyli'anicus and syrphus 
quadrimaculata. [In manuscript correction by author, 
the name of spalangia quadrimaculatae is chanji^ed to 
pteromalus qHadrimacHlataf.\ B: P. M. C3116) 

Horn, (I: II: Revision of the genera and 
species of the tribe hydrobiini. (Proc. 
Amer. philos. soc, 21 Feb. 1873, v. 13. p. 

118-137-) 

Rev. by G: II: Horn. (6lh ann. rept. 
trustees Peabody acad. sci., for 1S73, 1874, 

P- 93-) 

Rev., by E. C. Rye. (Zool. rec. for 

1873. . . Vail Voorst, Lond.. 1S75. v. 10, p. 

248-249.) 

Tabular separation of the j^enera, svnoplic tables, 
descriptions of the f^enera and species of bfrosuSt chair, 
tarthria, laccohius, philhydrus, tiydrol'iits, liuniocharis, 
Mui hc/upc/tis n. ^. S: //. (3117) 

Le Coute, J : Lawrence. Tabular synopsis 

of the rhvncliofhoia of America. Proc. 

Amer. philos. soc. 5 Jan. 1877, v. 16, p. 

417-424.) 

Tabular statement of the number of (genera and 
species and of the j^eot^rapliical distribution of the 
families and subfamilies, with remarks. S: //. (31 iS) 



Linstow^, O: Coni]iendium der helmin- 
thologie. Ein verzeichniss der bekannten 
helminthen, die frei oder in thierischen 
korpern leben, geordnet nach ihren wohn- 
thieren, imter angabe der organe, in denen 
sie gefunden sind, und init beifiigung der 
literaturqiiellen. Hannover. Iltihii. 1S78. 
t.-p. cover, 22+382 p., 24X1^: t. 17X10. 
8M. 

Contains introduction, willi biblifi^rap!»y ; list of 
animals (including 47 ortlioptL-ra, 4 neumplcni, 7.^ colc- 
optcra, 19 hynienoptcra, 6j; lepidoptcra, 7 diptcra, 6 
IiLMniptL-ra, 3 niyriapoda and loarachnicla) with tlie hel- 
minths which arc found in them. Krec-Iiving helmiiitlis 
and litcratTire concerning: tlicni. Index. G: D. (5119) 

Liutner, Joseph Albert. Description of a 
new species of eudamus. (Can. entom.. 
April iSSi, V. 13, p. 63-65.) 
Describes e, elfctroy new species from Hamilton, 

Ontario, Canada. G: D. C.J120) 

Lintner, Joseph Albert. On the life duration 
of the heterocera, moths. (Can. entom.. 
Nov. iSSt, V. 13. p. 217-220.) 

Rev. (Amer. nat., Nov. iSSi. v. 15. p. 

912.) 

Paper read before the American association for the 
advancement of science, at Cincinnati, Auj>^ust iSSl ; 
containing notes on the longevity of heterocerous lepi- 
doptera. A. A*. D. (3121) 

liOCk^ood, S : Mussel and insect climbers. 

(Amer. nat., Sept. 1S81, v. 15, p. 737.) 

Tile bhick mussel, tiiytilus edulis, climbs in a similar 

manner, with its bvssiis, as does the larva of aspidisca 

saticitlta, with its silk. G: D. (3i2i) 

Marx, G : On some new tube-constructing 
spiders. (Amer. nat.. May iSSi. v. 15, p. 
396-400, fig. 1-8.) 

Describes and figures nests of two species of spiders 
fir which the autlrn- proposes, without describing the 
species, the names tartlttula [sic\ nidi/ex (.^ figured) 
.iiid /.//'*<■;■ (cf and 9 figured). G: D. (J123) 

Mead Theodore Luqueer. I^imciiitis eras 
versus var. Jioiidiiisis. (Can. eittom.. 
.•\pril iSSi, V. 13. p. 79-So.) 
Criticism of II. Strecker's "On a lately described 

s|>ecies of limciiitis*' (Can. entom., Feb. 16S1, v. 13, p. 

.■y.30) [Kec, 2733]. G: D. (3124) 

Meeting of the sub-section of entomology of 
the American association for the advance- 
ment of science. (Can. entom., iSSi, v. 
13: Sept.. p. 179-1S9; Oct.. p. 214-216.) 
Keport of proceedinjis and discussions at the meeting, 
incluuinl^ address of the president, I. Ci. Morris, in full 
(p. 1S4-1S)). ■ A.K.D. (3125) 

Migration of butterflies. (Amer. nat.. July 
1S81, V. 15, p. 577.) 
Notes inif^ration ot'picris inoiiustc in South Carolina. 

a.D. (312,1) 



J^> 



-Feb. 1SS3,] 



PSrCHE. 



[31 27-3144] 1' 



Moffat. J : Alston. \ Calosoma scnitator.~\ 
(Can. entoni.. Jan. 1881, v. 13, p. 1S-19.) 
Lurije numbers of r. scrutator driven asbore on Lake 

Erie; notes on tbeir odorous discbarge. G: D, (3127) 

Moffat, J : Alston. Entomological notes. 
(Can. entom.. Aug. iSSi, v. 13, p. 175.) 
Xole oil tbe occurrence of sapt-rJa favi in lariie 

numbers. A.K.D. v3i.iS} 

Moffat, J : Alston. \^Papilio crcspkoiites.} 

(Can. entom., Maj iSSi. v. 13, p. 115.) 

Noles oil larvae, pupae, and imagos ofy-. irespbonies. 

G: D. (3129) 

Moffat, J : Alston. Swarnrtng of «;-r^///KS. 
(Can. entom., Feb. iSSo, v. 12, p. 37.) 
Assembling- of dauais archippus in grtar numbers 

near Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. G: D. (3130) 

Mojsisovics. August. Leitfaden bei zool- 
ogisoh-zootomischen priipaririibungen fur 
studirende. Leipzig, W. Etigelmann, 1S79 
[Dec. 1S7S]. t.-p. cover, 54-232 p., 24X16. 
t 18.5X11.4. no fig. 8 M. 
Modes of dissecting animals; dissection of arthro. 
poda [p. 1S3-1Q0] especially illustrated by mode of dissec- 
tion of mdolontha vulgaris, of which the heart, male 
and female sexual organs, mouth-parts, and digestive 
system are illustrated. G: D. (313O 

Morris, J : Godlove. [Address as president 
ot" the entomological subsection of the 
American association for the advancement 
of science, at its Cincinnati (Oliio) meet- 
ing (iSSi).] (Can. entom.. Sept. 18S1. v. 
13". p. 1S4-1S9.) 

Obituary notice of S : S. Haldeman, and notice of the 
working entomologists of the United States forty years 
ago; number of entomological students and the e.\teiit 
of their writings now in the United States; notices of 
the entomological journals of North America and their 
special work ; suggestions for the further advancement 
of our knowledge of North American insects and ento- 
mological collections. A. K. D. (3132) 

Moseley, 11. N. Notes on the species of 
pcyipiittts and especially on those of Cay- 
enne and the West Indies. (Annals and 
mag. nat. hist.. Apr. 1879, s. 5, v. 3, p. 263.) 

Gives notes on various species of peripatus, with 
especial reference to the number of pairs of legs. 

Jiff- (3-33) 

[Mliller, Hermann.] Haufiges auftreten von 
chlorops iiiisiita Schrnk. (Entom. nach- 
richten. i Jan. 18S1, jahrg. 7. p. 17.) 
Great periodical abundance of the above species in 

Lippstadt. Germany. G: D. (3134) 

Murray, W : \_Pi:pilio cresphontes.'] (Can. 
entom., June 18S0. v. 12, p. 120.) 
Emergence of /rt//7/(7 tresphontes from pupa in J.in- 

uary. G: D. (3135) 



Myers, Justus Matthew Theobolt. Habits of 
xv/ofrcciiis coiircrffciis. (Amer. nat.. Feb. 
iSSi, V. 15, p. 151.) 
Brief notes on habits of the larva of this beetle, which 



feeds upon red haw \?cralaegns tojmittosa], 

G: D. 



(3 '36) 



Packard, Alpheus Spring, y>. The brain of 

the embryo and young locust. (Amer. 

nat., May"i88i, v. 15. P- ,^7^-379. P'- 4-5-) 

Structure of the brain of young oi caloptcmts spreiiis, 

studied by sections. .\ continuation of author's " The 

brain of the locust" (t^/. c//., April, p. 28^-302, pi. 1-3) 

[Rec. 313SI. 'G: D. (3i.i7) 

Packard, Alpheus Spring,y>. The brain of 
the locust. (Amer. nat., April 18S1. v. 15, 
p. 285-302. pi. 1-3.) 

Structure of tbe brain of caloptentis spretus studied 
by sections. Continuation by author untier title, "The 
brain of the embryo and voung locust" {op. cit.. May, 
p.372-379, pl.4-5) rR«:-3'.37l- <5^- -d. (313S) 

Packard, Alpheus Spring, jr. Scolopeii- 
drclla and its position iii nature. (Amer. 
nat., Sept. iSSi, v. 15, p. 69S-704. fig. i.) 

Discusses structure and affinities of scolapendrella^ 
which the author decides to belong to a suborder of 
tliysajiiira, equivalent in rank to collcittbola and ciTtllra. 

G: D. (3139) 

Ragusa, Enrico. Note su alcuni lepidotteri 

siciliani. (Naturalista siciliano. Nov. 1881. 

an. I, no. 2, p. 36-38. pi. 3, figs. 1-3.) 

Figures and describes a hermaphrodite of rhodoccra 

Cleopatra; notes on some other species of Sicilian lepi 

doptera, and their aberrant forms. G: D. (3140) 

Ragusa, Enrico. \Jn papilio mac/iaon Lin. 
lillipuziano. (Naturalista siciliano, Oct. 
iSSi, an. I, no. i, p. 24, pi. i. fig. 9.) 
Describes and figures a specimen oi papilio machaon 

with an alar expanse of only 42 mm. G: D. C3141) 

Reed, Edmund B.aynes. Cupi-i capiiata. 
(Can. entom.. Aug. iSSi. v. 13. p. 176.) 

.-\buintaiice of iiipcs rapitata in London, Ont. 

A. K. D. (3142) 

V. Reizeustein, L. \ new moth. Smcriii- 

f/iiis ciiblii. (,Scribner's monthly [N. Y.], 

Oct. 18S1, V. 22, p. S64-866, fig.)" 

Describes larva and imago (figured) oi s. cal'lci u. 

sp., feeding on poutederia in Lousiana; list of the 7 

V. S. s]iecies of smcrinthus; systematic relations of this 

species. ' B: P. M. (3143) 

Religious culture of the young. The world 
we live in. Study 22. The animal king- 
dom, except man. Articulates. (Free re- 
ligious index, 17 Nov. iSSi. v. 13, p. 23S. 
29 cm.) 

Qiiestions, selected quotations, and sugg^'stions for 
teaching a class about insects, Crustacea, spiders and 
worms. G: D. (3144) 



1*^ [3'45-3'^"] 



PS rcHE. 



[Jan.— Feb. 1SS3. 



Rupertsberger, Mathias. Uiolo-^ie dcr kiiter 
Euiopas. liine ucbersiclit der biologischen 
liteiatur ge^eben in ciiicni alphabetischen 
personen- iind svsteiuatischen sach-iegis- 
tcr nebst einem'larven-cataloge. Linz a. 
d. Uoiiau. 18S0. t.-p. cover, 12+295 p., 
21.5X14.118X11. Pap.,6M. 

Rev., entitled '• Natnral liistoiv of co- 
leoptera." (Anier. nat.. Ma^' 18S1. v. 1^, p. 

384-) 

Biblio^mphy of tlic writings on tlie biology ol the 
Europt-nii species of coleopter;i, under tiie names of 
the authors and under the names of tlic families, genera, 
and species; notes in regard to tlie best (inures of the 
larvae and p\ipae. A. h, D. (314S) 

Satinders, W : Annual address of the presi- 
dent of the Entonioloj«ical societv of On- 
tario. (Can. entom.. Oct. iS8i,v. 13, p. 
197-205.) 
General account of the late progress of entomology, 

especiallv in an economic direction. A. A'. D. (,^146) 

Saunders, W : Entomology for beginners. 

(Can. entom., June 1881, v. 13, p. 117-119.) 

Describes larva, and figures and describes imago of 

alaus ocillaliis; figures litcauits dama, of which larva 

and imago are described. O: />. (3147) 

Satinders. W : Entomology for beginners. 

The legged maple borer, aegcria aceriii. 

Clemens. (Can. entom., April 18S1, v. 13, 

p. 69-70, fig. 6.) 

Figures and describes larva, chrysalis, imago, and 
borings in wood, of af^tfr/rt «fvr///. (J: D. (.5148) 

Satinders, W : Entomology for beginners. 

'IMie red-humped apple tree cater|>illar. 110- 

tudoiila coticintia. (Can. entom., July 18S1, 

V. 13, p. 13S-140.) 

Describes atul figures mature larva, chrysalis, and 
imago; mode of destroying ttie larvae. 

A. K. D. (3.49) 

Saunders. W: Entomology for beginners. 
The satellite sphinx, phiUtmpclus satilli/iu 
Linn. (Can. entom.. Marcli 18S1, v. 13, 

P- 4>-43. fiS- 4-.S) 

■Figures and briefly describes the larva, pupa and 
Un-A^fnti phitampetlt!' satellitia. G: L>. (3150) 

Schilde, Johannes. Einc hornlose raupe 
von fi>nriii//iiis pofiili. (Entom. nach- 
richten, 15 March 1881, jalirg. 7, p. too.) 

Deformitv ot larva of smrrintlius popttli. 

a: D. (3150 

S[iminond8]. P. L. Insects as food. (Journ. 

of applied sci., 18S1, v. 12: June, p. 82-84. 

102 cm. ; July p. 98-100, 134 cm. ; Aug. p. 

113-1 14, 79 cm.) 

Compiled accounts of the uses of insects as food in 
ancient and modern times. G: D (315a) 



Schonfeldt. . Ein nionstroser prionna 

iiisuhiris Motsch. (Entom. nachrichten. 

15 April 18S1, jahrg. 7, p. 121.) 

Left antenna absent. G: D. (3153) 

Speyer [■•Speier"]. Adolph. Ein iepido- 
pterologischer riickblick auf den sommer 
kes jahres 1S79. (Entom. nachrichten, 18S1, 
jahrg. 7: 15 May. p. 145-152: i June, p. 
157-162.) 
On the abundance of vanfssa cardui and plusia 

gamma during 1S79. G: D. (3154) 

Stein, R: Tenthrcdinologische studien. 
I, Die parthenogenesis von hylotoma 
rosa L. (Entom. nachrichten. 15 Oct. 

18S1, jahrg. 7, p. 2S8-294.) 

Experiments on parthenogenesis of //. rosa; from 
these and other experiments the author concludes that 
probably '*the possibility of parthenogenetic multiplica- 
tion is peculiar to all or at least to most tenthredinidae" 

G: D. (,3.55) 

Strecker. Herman. Description of a new- 
species of trockilium. (Can. entom., July 
1S81. V. 13, p. 156.) 
Describes trochiliitm grandc n. sp., from Texas. 

A.K.D. (3156) 

Tallant, \V. N. {^Terias ni(ippc.'\ (Can 
entom.. May 1881, v. 13, p. 115.) 
Terias nicippe rare about Columbus, Ohio, in 1S79, 

and abundant in iSSo. G: D. (3157) 

Todd. James E. Asihis and liie/litia. (Amer. 
nat.,"Dec. 18S1, v. 15, p. 1005.) 
^.w7n.« captures a /i7v//k/(J. G: D. (315S) 

Todd, James E. Terns as fly-catchers. 
(.\nier. nat., Dec. 1S81, v. 15. p. 1<X)5.) 
Hydrotht-lidofi iariformis catches and eats dragon- 

flies. G: D. (3159) 

United States national museum ( Smith- 
aoiihiii inslitNlioii). \l'(i>/li>ii,'ti>>i. D. C. 
No. 4. Circular concerning the department 
of insects. [Wash.]. 1 Ian. 1S82- i p.. 
25X16. 

Reprint. (Proc. U. S. nat. nuis.. for 
iSSi. 1S82, V. 4; App.. no. 4.) 

Abstract. (Psyche. Feb. [24 MayJ 1S82. 

V- 3- P- 3150 

Notice, bv S. !■'. Baird, of C : V. Riley's private c.l 
lection of insects, deposited in the V. S. national mu- 
seum ; request for contribvition of specimens to the 
museum. B: P. M. (3160) 

Weidinger, G. Libellenschwarm. (Entom. 

n;u-hiieliten, 15 [une iSSi, jahrg. 7, p. 

187-18S.) 

Flight of males of lihfUttla tjttadrimaeu/ata over 
Dresden, Saxony, on 28 May iSSl. G: D. (3161) 



Jan.— Kcl>. iSSM 



PSYCHE. 



19 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITCMS. 

Dk Anton Stuxberg, of Stockholm, has 
been appointed divectoi- of the natural his- 
tory museum in Goteborg. Sweden, to fill the 
place of Prof. A. W. Malm, who died in 
March iSS;. 

Mr. Cei,\rles Fish, of Brunswick. Me., 
has been obliged to give up the .study of the 
fterophoridac and has transferred his col- 
lection of that family to Prof. C. H. Fernald, 
of Orono, Me. 

The necrology for the preceding year, 
which has annually formed a part of the 
Bibliographical Record for each February 
numero of P.syche, will be a part of the 
March numero this year. 

Mr. Henry G. D.vmmer. 93S Broadway. 
St. Louis, Mo., is desirous of obtaining speci- 
mens of lepidcjptcra, including European 
species. Catocalas from the eastern United 
States arc particularly desired. 

•Prof. K. Metschnikoff, the widely 
known author of papers on the embryology 
of insects, has left the University of Odessa, 
Russia, and Prof, W. Salensky of the Uni- 
versity of Kasan is called to fill his place. 

Mr. L- O. How.\rd has found that pyre- 
thruni increases the heart-beat of the larvae 
oi plusia brassictip from its normal rate of 
from 44 to 68 beats per minute to 150 to 164 
beats, after which it subsided to 140 beats 
and just before death to 130 beats per minute. 

An interesting series of papers bv Rev. 
W. \V. Fowler, under the title "Natural lo- 
calities of British coleoptera" is in progress 
in T/ie Entomologht. Altho the species 
treated of are British the methods of collect- 
ing described in the paper make it well worth 
perusal. 

Dr. M. Schlugin recommends, in the 
Zoolog'hcher Auzeigei\ a mixture of paraffin 
and ceresin as an imbedding material in 
cutting sections with the microtome. Cere- 
sin is similar to wax but firmer and more 
tenacious. This mixture is somewhat hard, 
but if a sotter one is desired a little vaselin 
is added. 



Preserv.\tion of HONEY'. Houev, accord- 
ing to A. Vogel, contains on an average one 
per cent of formic acid. Observing that crude 
honey keeps better than that which has been 
clarified, E, Mylius has tried the addition of 
formic acid, and found that it prevents fer- 
mentation without impairing the flavor of 
the honey. — Sci. amcr., iS Nov. 1S82, v. 47, 
P- 3^4- 

The U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture 
authorizes the editors of Psyche to announce 
that copies of his annual Reports for 18S1- 
1SS2 will be sent to any entomologist who 
applies for them. Mr. Mann has made out a 
list of most of the principal entomologists, 
to whom the reports have been sent, and will 
be pleased to see that copies are sent to any 
others whtj may wish them. 

At the meeting of the .\cademy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, 30 May 1SS2, Pro- 
fessor Leidy called attention to the abun- 
dance of the ant Lnsius iiiierjectus in the 
neighborhood of Philadelphia. It is habi- 
tual with this ant to care for an Aphis and 
a Coccus, both of which it guards in flocks. 
He described a particular nest under a flat 
stone, containing six distinct and closely 
crowded groups of the pale yellowish Aphis, 
and five of the red Coccus. — Amcr. nat.. Jan. 
1883, v. 17, p, 118. 

Collecting coleoptera. "The large 
coarse tufts of grass that are to be found in 
almost every field are very productive if cut 
round with a sharp knife, lifted gently, and 
then inverted and shaken over paper. This 
is a very good method of collecting in winter, 
as it is almost certain to produce something, 
if all else has failed. Almost any beetle may 
be found in this way. as the tufts are -favour- 
ite hvbernating places; s-taphyliiiidae, how- 
ever, especially Steui, are the commonest," — 
W. W. Fowler in The Entomologist. Oct. 
1S82, v. 15, p. 231-232. 

Protective ch.\nge of color in a spider. — 
I suppose you know the little flower spiders, 
that conceal themselves in the flowers, and 
seize any unwary insect that may chance to 
come within their reach. I have generally 



20 



PSYCHE. 



[Jnn.— Feb. iSS.t 



found them white and vellow. I suspected 
thev changed their color, and by experiment, 
I find tliat this is so. If I take a white one 
and put it on a sunflower, it will get quite 
vellow in from two to three days. I believe 
they capture almost anything, but they seem 
to be partial to the bees. I found one the 
other day with a wasp, the latter was not yet 
dead, but it was tightly held by the throat 
by the spider. The next day the wasp was 
found lying dead under the flower. — James 
Angus, in Amer. naturalist, Dec. 1882, v. 16, 
p. lOIO. 



NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS. 

The concluding numeros of volume three 
of Psyche, for the publication of which the 
undersigned is responsible, will be issued 
as rapidly as possible. It was deemed, how- 
ever, inadvisable for the club to delay longer 
commencing volume four. As usual, the 
cause of the delay in the issue of Psyche 
has been the lack of good material for pub- 
lication. Articles of the greatest permanent 
value in entomology are hard to obtain for 
the reason that they are not hurried into 
print by their authors to gain priority. 

George Dimmock. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. m., 
on the days following: — 

13 Oct. 1882. 9 Mar. 1SS3. 

10 Nov.- " 13 Apr. " 

8 Dec. " II May " 
12 Jan. 1883. 8 June •' 

9 Feb. '• 

G. Dimmock, Secretary- 



The New York Entomological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July and 
August, but no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry Einv.VRijs, Secretary. 



The REGi'L.VR meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 
Natural History will be held at X. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston. Mass., 
at 7.45 p. m., on the days following: — 

25 Oct. 18S2. 28 Feb. 1SS3. 

22 Nov. ■' 28 Mar. " 

27 Dec. " 25 Apr. " 

24 Jan. 1883. 23 May " 

Edward Burgess, Secretary. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, Pa., will be held 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sts., on the 
days following : — 

14 Oct. 1881. 10 Mar. 1S82. 

II Nov. " 14 Apr. " 

9 Dec. " 12 May " 

13 Jan. 1S82. 9 Jnne '■ 

10 Feb. " 

James H. Ridings, /Recorder. 



The semi-annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. corner of 19th and Race Sts.. Phil.idelphia. 
Pa., on the days following: — 

12 Dec. 1881. 12 June 1SS2. 

James H. Ridings, Recording Secretary. 

The regular monthly meetings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal, Qiie., 
Canada, on the daj-s follow ing : — 

3 Oct. 1882. 6 Feb. 18S3. 

7 Nov. " 6 Mar. " 

5 Dec. " 3 Apr. " 

9 Jan. 1S83. 1 May " 

G. J. Bowles, Secretary. 

The regular meetings of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society will be held at 9 
Broadway, Brooklyn, E. D., N. Y., on the 
days following : — 

28 Oct. 1882. 31 Mar. 1SS3. 

25 Nov. " 28 Apr. " 

30 Dec. " 26 May " 

27 Jan. 18S3. 30 June " 

24 Feb.' " 

F. G. ScilAUPP, Secretary. 



P S Y C 




.A. joxjK,Tsr.A.rj OF EisrTOi^orjOOir. 

[Established in 1874.] 

EDITED BY 

13: PiCKMAN Mann, Washington, D. C. : G: Dimmock, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
Albert J: Cook, Lansing, Mich.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Nor?nal, 
III. ; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany, N. T. ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Lawrence. Kansas; W : Tkei.ease, Madison. Wise. 

Vol. 4. No. 107-108. 

March-April 1SS3. 

CONTENTS: 

Advertisements 22 

The Scales of Coleoptera. — George Dimmock ....... 23-27 

HoMiNivoRous Habits of Lucilia Macellari-\. "the Screw Worm" — Fraji- 

cis Huntington Snow ........... 27-30 

False Dates 3^-5- 

Proceedings of Societies. — Academy of Natural Sciences of" Philadelphia 32 
Necrology for 1S79, iSSo, 18S1 and 1SS2 — Bibliographical Record, no. 

3162-3234 33-3S 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings ........ .39-4" 



Published bv the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. vS. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS. 20 c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



rsrcjiE. 



[Murc'.i— April iSSj. 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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EARLr STAGES OF BUTTERFLIES 
WANTED. 
The undersigned desires to obtain, by exchange 
or otherwise, from all parts of the world, eggs 
caterpillars and chrysalids of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 
Dried specimens are preferred, especially of caterpil- 
lars, which should be prepared by inflation. Corre- 
spondence is invited with persons engaged in the 
studv of the early stages of butterflies. 

S. H. SCUDUER, 

Cambridge, Mass. 



COCCIDAE WANTED. 
The imdersigned is desirous of obtaining, by ex- 
change or otherwise, specimens of as many species of 
the COCCIDAE as possible, for the purpose of making 
a study of the North American forms. Those found 
infesting cultivated plants especially desired. Living 
specimens preferred when they can be obtained. 
J. Henry Comstock, 
Department of Entomology, 
The Cornell Universitv, 

Ithaca. N. Y. 



GALLS AND GALL INSECTS. 
The undersigned desires, either by exchange or 
otherwise. Galls from all parts of the United States- 
He is especially interested in those made by Lepidop- 
tera, Coleoptera, llomoptcra and Diptera. Correspon- 
dence in reference to Gall growths, or other vegetable 
abnormities, is invited. CHARLES V. RiLEY, 
1700 Thirteenth St.. N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 



TORTRICIDAE WANTED. 
I am desirous of obtaining as many North Ameri- 
can TORIRICIDAE as possible, for the purpose of 
studying this family. 1 shall be glad to name and 
return any TORTRICIDAE forwarded to me for this 
purpose, save such as may prove new and desirable 
to retain for description. 

Pack carefully, and direct to 

Prof. C. H. Fernald, Orono, Me. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 
Living cocoons, pupae and ova of American lepi- 
doptera bought or exchanged for other species, by 
Monsieur ALFRED Waii.LV, { Mcmbre-Laur<5at de 
la Sociit^ d'Acclimatation de France), 

Tudor Villa, Tudor Road, Norbiton, 

Kingston-on-Thames, England. 

NORTH AMERICAN FERNS. 

Check lists of the Ferns of North America north 

of Mexico, enumerating 31 genera, 132 species and 

15 varieties, on one octavo page. Will be sent b\ 

mail on receipt of the price, 15 cents per dozen coi)ies. 

S. Stehiiins, Springfield, Mass. 



PSYCHE. 



THE SCALES OF COLEOPTERA. 



BY GEOKGK DIMMOCK, CAMHRIDGE. MASS. 



{Conthiited from page i/.) 



SCALES OF IIOPLIA. 

A few only of the scales from the 
iipjjer side (jf this insect are colorless, 
and, as these seem to be undeveloped 
or immature, I tried no experiments 
upon them. . 

The scales of the under side of H. 
coerulca are purple, purplish red, red, 
bluish and colorless by transmitted light, 
and by reflected light thiy are silvery 
white with a tendency to inetallic green 
in places. The scales of the tip of the 
abdomen, altho really doKsal in position, 
are covered with spines, are mostl}' 
reddish or purple by transmitted light, 
and are metallic green bv reflected 
light. Some of the scales of the leffs 
arc like those from the rest of the under 
surface of tlie insect : others of them 
are lanceolate (tig. 3, c), and colorless 
or milk-white, but covered with longer 
spines or hairs than the more circular 
forms of scales. The hairs of this in- 
sect have line branches, as do the hairs 
of all scarabaeidac. according to Fischer 
and accortling to mv own oliscrvations. 

Water, alcohol, chlorf)form and simi- 
lar reagents render the scales of the 
inidcr side colorless and transparent, 
the colors returning as soon as the 
scales are dried. 



In flner structure the scales of the 
under side are difl'erent from those of 
the upper side in being clothed with the 
before-mentioned spines or fine hairs, 
and in the absence of tlie tine internal 
network, which is here replaced in some 
scales by a more iri'egular internal 
marking of like nature. 

The scales of Hoplia modcsta, from 
this country, are confined to the tip of 
the abdomen and to the under side 
of the insect. They are all gray or 
milk-white by transmitted light, and 
silvery by reflected light. They are 
narrower than those from corresponding 
parts of H. coern/ea. but are otherwise 
alike in structure and need no further 
mention liere. 



SCALES OF POLYPHYLLA. 

The wliitish spots upon the elytra of 
Polyphylla variolosa are produced by 
lanceolate scales, the opake whiteness 
of which is caused by the large amount 
of air contained in them. As they pre- 
sent no characters of special interest not 
to be found in scales of other coleoptera 
described in this paper I have not drawn 
them or further studied them. 



•24 



I'srcuE. 



(March— April iSSf. 



SCALES OF VALGUS S()l'AMIGER. 

Nearly e\ei-v part of I', sqitamigcr is 
covered witli scales which are of two 
colors, an opake dark brown and a semi- 
opake white. The scales are somewhat 
rolled and arc very brittle, so that when 
they are pressed beneath a cover-glass 
npon the microscope slide they usuall}- 
split at the edges. The unbroken scales 
are nearly round, about 0.14 mm. long 
by 0.08 to o. 1 2 mm. wide, and until they 
arc deprived of air but little structure is 
visible. When they are deprived of air 
tiiev are seen to be covered with dense, 
ratlier long hairs, — to be in fact almost 




Ki^. 4. Scillc of Valgus sqiiamiger. Knliir^cd lOO 
(li:ini. 

shaggy. Fig. 4 represents an nnhrokon 
scale tliat has been treated witli alcohol 
to remove the air. The hairs, as will 
be seen by tiie figure, are arranged, 
somewhat rougiily, in transverse or ob- 
lique lines; but what is more curious, 
the basal ends of these hairs seem to lie 
connected, in each line, with one anotii- 
er, and finally eacii of these bands of 
hairs, whicli ma)' contain from two to 
twenty hairs, seems to connect by its 
basal line with a branch going to the 
Ijasal end, or stem, of the scale. These 
brandies unite as thev approacli the 
Ijasal end of the scale imtil the\ form 
one trinik. These ramifications are del- 
icate brown and are beautiful on a ]5re]i- 



aration of the .scales in Canada balsam. 
In fig. 4, which was made too small to^ 
show them correctly, they are propor- 
tionally far too coarse, and are not tap- 
ered as regularly as they should be from 
base to tip. 

I have not found this ramified structure 
in any scales except those of Valgus, 
and in them 1 have not .studied it to any 
extent. It appears as if the cavity of 
the scale, once open and probably open- 
ing into the large hairs, had closed grad- 
ually, leaving channel-like folds betw-een 
the hairs and from them to the stem of 
the scale. These channels are appar- 
ently entirely closed now, altho I made 
no section^ of these scales to absolutely 
prove this point. 



IIAIKS ()!• I'SII.OPTEKA. 

The under si^le of the abilomen and 
other parts of Ps. drummo/idi i\rc cloth^-d 
with brownish-yellow hairs, which are 
set upon a smooth, nearly black surface, 
and consequently the hairs appear of a 
lisrht bronze color. 



I'"i|;. ^. Hair yii Psito/>tfra drtiiiinioniii, Ki'.larjicil 
100 (liatn. 

Seen under the microscope these hairs 
or scales — for they seem to be as much 



March— April 1SS3. | 



PSYCHE. 



■25 



scales as thev are hairs — are sword- 
shaped (see fig. ^), and of a yellowish 
color. Their lengdi is from 0.35 mm. 
to 0.30 inm., their width about o.oi 
mm., and thev are covered with longi- 
tudinal striae, whicli are usualh' about 
o.ooi mm. apart. These hairs or scales 
are easilv seen to contain air bv using 
water or alcohol to drive it out. I in- 
troduce them here only to illustrate this 
somewhat common form of appendage 
intermediate between scales and hairs. 
I have found no other squamiform ap- 
pendages on the limited number of 
Itnprcstidac which I Jiave examined. 

No description has been given, as far 
as I can discover, of scales in elater- 
fdac, altho the generic names Chalcn- 
lepis and Chalcolepiduts. and the spe- 
cific names oi Adcloccra lepidoptera. 
Lacon leprosus, ATeristJuis lepidottis. 
Monocrepidius lepidus^ Cryftohypttiis 
squamifery and others, would implv that 
the presence of scales had been either 
suspected or verified. That the scales 
of elatcridae are interesting in form 
and structure can be seen bv the follow- 
ing descriptions of scales of Chalcolep- 
idiiis, oi A/ans and of an undetermined 
species of European elatcridae. 

SCAI,ES OF CHAI.COLEPIDIUS. 

Nearly the whole surface of C. rithri- 
peini/s, except its elytra, is thickly cov- 
ered with scales, which give to the parts 
thus covered a peculiar metallic or 
bronzed aspect, with colors changing 
trom blue to greenish or reddish. 



Tlie scales from all parts of this insect 
are very much alike, varving little in 
form (see fig. 6, a, b, and c). They 
are all of ovate form, more or less elon- 
gate, with the larger end toward their 
shank or stem, which is nearlv always 
broken off in removing them from the 
insect : thev are verv flat, scarcelv con. 
vex above, but do not rest verv tightlv 
pressed upon tne surface of the insect. 
Their length is from 0.09 to o. i^ mm., 
their width from 0.02 to 0.04 mm., and 
their thickness is about 0.002^ mm. 

These scales when removed and ex- 
amined under the microscope are uni- 
formU" brown, except with verv oblique- 
Iv transmitted light, when they are 
sometimes piu'plish. If, however, thev 
are put u])on a black surface and illumi- 




Fig. 6. Different forms of scales from Chnlinli-pidius 
rubripi'ftnif^. Enlarged lOO diameters. 

nated from above thev are brilliant with 
blue, red anil green, the color depending 
upon the position of the sm'facc of the 
scale with reference to the light. Put in 
direct sunliglit, on a black surface, and 
tiie microscope focussed somewhat above 
them, the light is decomposed in fine lines 
of brilliant blue, green and red, as if 
series of solar spectra \vere drawn up 
near each other, thus indicating striation 
of the scale-surface. The scales ha\e a 
verv slight tendencv to longitudinal fold- 
ing, but no striae, or reallv distinct 



20 



PSYCHE. 



I March— April iSS^. 



folds, are visible upon thcni. The 
shank and a little of the basal portion of 
the scales are hollow ; whether the whole 
scale is hollow I have not determined. 

Treatment with water, alcohol, glyc- 
erin or turpentin iloes not seem to affect 
the scales of Chalcolepidiiis. whicli ap- 
pear to contain no air. They are not 
bleached bv chlorin ble;rt;hin<j reasients. 



SCALES OF ALAU.S. 

The two velvety black spots upon the 
dorsal surface (jf the thorax of yl. ocula- 
tiis, to which this insect owes its specific 
name, are formed of scales, as are also 
all the white portions of the beetle, the 
•ground color of the whole insect being 
a slightly shining black. The same re- 
marks apply to A. my ops, the scales of 
which are like those of ^. ociilatus in 
every respect. 




Fig. 7. Scales oi Aiaits oailatuf:: c, brown scale; b 
anti r, portions of white scales to show cross-bantls; rf, 
transverse section of a brown scale. Enlargement : .i, 
100 iliani. ; /» and f, 300 diani. ; li, 500 diani. 

The form of all the scales of A. ocu- 
latiis is scajjlioid. with the concave side 
towartl the insect. The scales are stri- 
ate on the convex side, but smooth on 
the concave side, Fig. 7, «, illustrates 
their form, the lower end being the one 
attached to the insect. In some cases 



the sliaidv b\ which the scale is attaclied 
is proportionallv longer than is shown 
in the figure. These scales are inserted 
by their shanks in holes irregularly dis- 
tributed in the chitinous covering of the 
insect. The irregular arrangement, pe- 
culiar form and stri:ition, and mode of 
insertion of the scales of A. ocuJatus 
forcibly remind one of the leaves in a 
bed of lily-of-thc-valley {ConvaHart'a) 
when these leaves are blown toward one 
direction by a gentle breeze. 

The scales of A. ocu/atus are all of 
tibout the same size — about o.30 to 0.23 
mm. long by 0.04 to 0.05 mm. wide, and 
0.005 '"'"• i" greatest thickness — from 
whatever part of t!ie insect they are 
taken. Those which form the two 
black thoracic spots are deep brown 
when seen under the microscope, and 
the others are opake white wiien dry. 
The striae of these scales are about 
0.0035 'ii'ii- apart, and converge some- 
what toward each end of the scales. 
The striae of the white scales are a lit- 
tle less distinct than are those of the 
dark scales, the whole white scale, to 
appearance, when viewed with a low- 
power microscope, being covered with 
minute cross-lines, so numerous as to 
give the scale an opake white color. 
Under higher magnifying power these 
transverse lines present an appearance 
as in fig. 7, b and c. The longitudinal 
striae are above the transverse lines, i.e., 
on the convex side of the scales, while 
the cross-lines extend as interrupted, 
transverse bands across the lower f)r 
concave part of the scales. Xo trans- 
verse bands are visible, even after re- 



Mnrcli— April iSS.i. | 



PSYCHE. 



■27 



moving the air, in the brown scales. In gitiulinal striae toward the middle of the 
the white scales the bands usually start scale (see fig. 7, /> and r) ; exception- 
out from or beneath the marginal longi- ally, however, they begin beneath one 
tudinal stria of the upper side of the of the other longitudinal striae, 
scale, and extend beneath the other Ion- {To be contimird.) 



HOMINIVOROUS 



HABITS OF LUCILIA MACELLARIA. 
"THE SCREW-WORM." 



BY FRAXCIS miXTINGTOX SNOW, LAWRENCE. KANSAS. 



I have from time to time had occa- 
sion to note the depredations of the 
screw-worm upon horses and cattle in 
this state, but until recently have not 
received positive evidence of its attacks 
upon human subjects in an)' localitv so 
far north as Kansas. But early in Sep- 
tember, iSSj, I received from Mr. S. 
D. Osborn, the postmaster at Varck, 
in Southeastern Kansas, specimens "of 
the worms which came from the nos- 
trils of Milton Carter." These proved 
to be the larvae of Lite ilia 7nac(;llaria 
Fab., the so-called "screw-worm." 
Upon further inquiry I learned that 
upwards of one hundred full-grown 
maggots escaped from the nose of this 
patient, who finally recovered from the 
serious illness consequent upon their 
ravages. I also ascertained that Mr. 
Carter had long been afflicted with an 
offensive nasal catarrh, which made 
his nostrils an attractive place for the 
oviposition of the fly, and that he had 
fallen asleep in the woods in the day- 
time only a few days before the first 
appearance of the symptoms produced 
by the presence of the larvae. 



.Several other instances of the attacks 
of Litcilia upon man soon came to 
mv knowledge, most of which led 
to fatal results. Among these I will 
select the case attended by Dr. J. B. 
Britton, of Mapleton, in southeastern 
Kansas, who reported it in full at the 
session of the Southeast Kansas District 
Medical Society, in January, 1S83. 
From this report I condense the follow- 
ing account : " On the evening of Au- 
gust 22d, 1S82, Mr. M. E. Hudson 
complained of a peculiar sensation at 
the base of the nose and along the 
orbital processes, which was first fol- 
lowed by inordinate sneezing, and later 
by a most excruciating pain over the 
OS frontis, also invoh'ing the left supe- 
rior maxillary. This patient also had 
sutlered, and was still suffering, from 
an aggravated form of nasal catarrh. 
The discharge was quite purulent, of 
a yellowish color frequently tinged with 
blood, with a disagreeable odor and 
at times intolerably offensive. On the 
24th there was a profuse discharge of 
much purulent matter from the nostril 
anil mouth, when all pain instantly 



2S 



rsrciiii. 



|M;ircli— April iSS.l. 



subsided. This discharge continued 
for three daj's, during which time as 
much as sixteen ounces escaped, in- 
creasing in consistenc}- until it was pure 
pus. Tiie odor becoming much more 
oHensive, his cough was more trouble- 
some and fever increased to such an 
extent as to produce slight delirium for 
twelve hours. What was thrown off 
was with much difiiculty expectorated, 
and was sanious, containing micro- 
scopic particles of osseous matter, to- 
getlier with flakes of plastic exudation. 
The OS hyoidcs was evidently destroyed. 
The patient had spoken with diilicultv 
for thirty-six hours and there was much 
trouble in swallowing. Tlie soft palate 
had evidently given way and there was 
an entire inability to protrude the tongue 
or use it in speech. 

•'About this time a worm similar to 
a maggot dropped from his nose. That 
was the first indication or suspicion that 
there was anything of the kind present. 
There was not, as in some other cases 
reported, any swelling, or movements 
traceable under the skin, nor was there 
at any time any complaint of the patient, 
calculated to lead to a knowledge of 
their presence. After the appearance 
of the first, I expected more, and was 
surprised to see them drop from the 
nostrils and wiggle from the mouth 
without any discomfort to the ]5atient 
until they came in contact with the 
Schneidcrian membrane, when the}' 
ainioyed him greatly, and every efibrt 
was made on his part to expel them ; 
but so soon as expelled, no further 
trouble was manifested until another 



would get into the nostril. Every effort 
was made on my part to discover them 
under tiie tissue, but the soft palate being 
destroyed to a great extent, and the 
palatine arch apparently lowered, it was 
with much difficulty that an examination 
could be made. The worms were 
evidently burrowing under the palatine 
fascia, as it presented a honey-combeil 
appearance and in places patches were 
totally destroyed as large as a dime 
[iS mm.]. They continued to drop 
from the mouth and nose, forced from 
the nostrils by the efforts of the patient, 
for the following fort^-eight hours, 
during which time 327 \vere counted 
and the estimated number exceeded 300. 
At this time the whole of the soft 
palate was destroyed. The patient 
lived four days after the last worm came 
awa}'. 

"I put five of the worms in dry earth 
and in fourteen dajs from the time they 
dropped from the nostril there iiatciicd 
out three flies. 

"Upon a very minute and careful ex- 
amination after death I was astonished 
to find that all the tissue covering the 
cervical vertebrae, as far down as I could 
see by throwing the head back and 
compressing the tongue, was wholly 
destroyed and the vertebrae exposed. 
The palatine bones broke with the 
slightest pressure of the finger. The 
OS hyoidcs \\ as destro\ed and the nasal 
bones loose, only held in position b\' the 
superficial f;iscia. 

"Mv own theory is that the fly depos- 
ited the eggs while the patient was 
asleep, probably the day previous to 



Miircli — \|>ril iSSv 



PSYCHE. 



•>!» 



the peculiar sensation and sneezing first 
complained of. At that time they had 
acquired vitality enough to annoy him 
while in contact with the sound flesh. 
So soon as thev came in contact with 
the unsound flesh, or that aflected with 
the catarrh, being as it must have been 
gangrenous, thev gave no furtlier 
troul)le.'" 

Dr. Britton forwarded to me speci- 
mens of the fly, bred as above stated, 
which I identified as LiiciliamaceUaria 
Fab. In order, however, that there 
might be no possibility of error, I sub- 
mitted them to Dr. S. W. Williston, of 
New Haven, Conn., who corroborated 
tliis determination and furnished the 
f)llowing notes concerning the species: 
■■The specimens arc evidently Lucilia 
( Campsomyia) macellaria Fab., a fly 
common from tlie Argentine Republic 
to Canada, and which from its varia- 
tions has probably received more spe- 
cific names (20!) than any other Amer- 
ican fly. It belongs to the Muscidac 
(true) and is not far from Musca. Their 
hominivorous propensities have gained 
for them the synonyms of Lucilia 
iiominivorax Coquerel, and L. homi- 
iiivorus Cenil (S. America)." 

In the Peoria (111.) Medical Monthly 
for February, 1SS3, Dr. Joshua Rich- 
ardson, of Moravia, Iowa, has an article 
upon •' The screw-fly and its ravages," 
from which I make the following ex- 
tracts: " While travelling in Kansas 
in the latter part of last August a citizen 
of this place had the misfortune to 
receive while asleep a deposit of eggs 
from this flv. lie had been troubled 



for vcars with catarrh, hence the attrac- 
tion to the fly. He returned home a 
few days after the accident and shortly 
after began complaining of a bad cold. 
Growing rapidly worse, 1 was called 
to attend him. Monday, my first day, 
his appearance was that of a man 
laboring imder a severe cold. Had 
slight congestion of the lungs, and 
moderate grade of fever. His nose 
seemed greatly swollen and he com- 
plained of a smarting, uneasy feeling 
in it, and general misery through the 
head. Gave him treatment to relieve 
the congestion and fever. Tuesday saw' 
him again. His nose and face were 
still more swollen, and in addition to 
the other symptoms he was becoming 
slightly delirious and complained a 
great deal of the intense misery and 
annoyance in his nose and head. A few 
hours after, I was sent for in haste with 
the word that something was in his 
nose. I found on examination a mass 
of the larvae of this fly (or "screw- 
worms" as they are commonly called in 
the south) completely blocking up one 
nostril. On touching them they would 
instantly retreat 01 T)iasse up the nos- 
tril. Making a 20 per cent solution of 
chloroform in sweet milk I made a few 
injections up both nostrils, which im- 
mediately brought away a large num- 
ber, so that in a few hours I had taken 
away some 125 of them. By Wednes- 
day evening erysipelas had begun, im- 
plicating the nose and neighboring 
portions of the face. Another physi- 
ci;ui was called. By continual syringing 
with a strcnig antiseptic solution of 



:^^) 



psrciiE. 



I Miirch — April iSS.v 



salycilate of soda, bicarbonate of soda 
and carbolic acid we hoped to drown 
out the remaining hirvac. Hut they 
iiad by this time cut their way into so 
many recesses of the nose and were so 
lhini\ attached that we were unable to 
accomplish much. Finally we resorted 
to the chloroform injections, which im- 
mediately brought away a considerable 
number. Friday I was able to open 
up two or three canals that they 
had cut, extracting several more that 
hail literally packed themselves one 
after another in these fistulous channels. 
His speech becoming suddenlv much 
worse, I examined the interior of his 
mouth and found that a clear-cut open- 
ing had been made entirely through 
the soft palate into his mouth and large 
enough to insert the end of a common 
lead pencil. Saturday the few remain- 
ing larvae jjegan changing color and 
one bv one dropped away. On Sunday 
for tlie first time hemorrhage from both 
nostrils took place, which continued 
at iuteixals for three da\s but was not 
at anv time severe. On this day the 
patient began to improve, the delirium 
and erysipelas having subsided, leaving 
but little or no annoyance in his head. 
In a few days he became able to go 
about home, and even to walk a dis- 
trmcc of half a mile to visit a friend and 
return. I>ut while there he began com- 
plaining of a pain in the neighborhood 
of his left ear, apparently where the 
eustachian tube connects with tiie mid- 
dle ear. It proved to be an abscess. 
Heing already so reduced by the first 
attack, he was unable to withstand the 



second, and died after an illness of 
nearly three w-eeks, com])letely ex- 
hausted b\ his prolonged suHerings. 
Three da\s before his death the abscess 
discharged its contents by the left nos- 
tril. The quantity of pus formed was 
about 2.J ounces [78 grams]. 

"In all about 250 larvae nere taken 
away from him during the first attack, 
and, as the visible results, not only had 
they cut the hole through the soft jial- 
ate, but liad also eaten the cartilage of 
the septum of the nose so nearly 
through as to give him the appearance 
of having a broken nose. The case 
occupied, from the first invasion of the 
fly to its final residt, nearly two months. 
He doubtless would have recovered but 
for the formation of the abscess, which, 
from all the symptoms, was caused by 
one or more of the larvae having foimd 
their way up the left eustachian tube." 

Dr. Richardson also quotes the Rev. 
William Dixon, of Green. Clay C"o.. 
Kansi'.s. as giving the following account 
of liis o\\ n experience : 

'• While riding in his buggy a tew 
years ago in Texas, a screw-fly attacked 
him fl', ing up one nostril. He blew it 
out, when it dashed up the other and 
deposited its eggs l)eforc he was able 
to ex]iel it. Not re:di/.ing the danger 
he did nothing for about three days, 
when the pain became so great that he 
hastened to .\ustin to consult aplnsi- 
cian. His sol't palate was almost de- 
stroyed before the larvae, over 200 in 
number, were expelled." This was 
the only one of twelve cases known to 
Dr. Richardson in which the patient 
recovere<l. 



Murcli— April 188,5. J 



psrcHE. 



31 



P'SYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., MAR.-APR. 1SS3. 



CommitHicationSy exchanges and editors' copies 
should be addressed to Editors of l*i;YCHE, Cam- 
bridge^ Jlfass. Comtfiitnications for pHhtication in 
Ps\ciiE must be properiy authenticated, ard no anony. 
marts articles ^vill he published. 

Editors and contributors are oniy resp'cusible for the 
statements made in their ozvn communications. 

Works on subjects not related to entomology zvill not 
be revinvcd in Psyche. 

For rates of subscription and of advertising, see ad- 
vertising columns. 



FALSE DATES. 

So far a.s our examination has gone, we 
have not learned that is was the custom of 
anv scientific periodical to publish the actual 
date of its issue in a systematic manner, 
before such a practice was adopted in Psyche. 
Whether Psyche was or was not a pioneer 
in this direction is of little importance com- 
pared with the importance of the principle 
tlius illustrated. We are pleased to notice 
the adoption of tliis practice in one and 
another of our contemporaries. Psyche 
has practised it from the outset. 

With the concluding numero of its last 
finished volume (December 1SS2), the Cana- 
diaii eiiiomologL^t began to print, o)i the 
nnmcro. the date of printing of each numero 
of its issue. How much better it would be 
to announce, in one numero, the date of 
actual issue of the preceding! Accidents 
frequently occur, after a signature, or a 
numero, is partly or even wholly printed, 
to dehiv its issue beyond the expected date, 
and the signatures cannot be, in that case, 
thrown away, or their date changed, with- 
out loss or trouble which will rarely be in- 
curred. No reliance, in most cases, therefore 
can be placed on such an annoimcement. 
As an announcement of date of printing 
and not of date of issue, it has no value in 
a question of prioritv. The announcement. 



if intended as a statement of tlie date of 
issue, is positively false, in that it is made 
in advance of issue; however strictly the 
fact may be made subsequently to coincide 
with the announcement. In case, however, 
the announcement is made after the event, 
it has a positive value. 

It is rarely the case that so excellent an 
opportunity oi illustrating the evils of the 
practice of putting the date on the signatiu'e 
to wliich it refers is given, as in the state- 
ments of dates of issue which are appended 
to the last two volumes of the Proceedings 
of the ISoston society of natural history. It 
is probable that a similar discrepancy be- 
tween the pre-announced and the actual 
dates of issue occurs in the issue of the pro- 
ceedings of many other societies, but in 
general there is no means of detecting the 
discrepancy. Even here it is not until two 
or three years after the issue of the first sig- 
natures before the true date of issue is made 
kno\yn. Meanwhile, what misunderstandings 
might arise, either controversially or pri- 
vately, from the erroneous impression con- 
veyed by the dates printed on the signatures! 
It will be noticed, in the lists given below, 
especially from volume 20 of the Proceedings, 
in how many cases the announcement is 
false, and how great, in many cases, is the 
discrepancy. 

Dates of :ictii:il publication of tlic Proceedings of the 
Boston society of natural history, v. 20 and 21, as 
compared witli tlie dates printed on the signatures. 







Volume 20, 










Announced 




Actual date 


D 


iscrepancv 






date. 




of issue. 




in days. 


p- 


1-32. 


Dec. . 


1S7S 


[ 1 Jan. 


1S79]. 


1 


p- 


3,V4S. 


[22lJan. 






1S79. 





p- 


49-So. 


Jan. 




[ S Feb.l 


1S79. 


5 


p- 


Sl-q6, 


Feb. 




[ I Mch.] 


.S79. 


I 


p- 


97-n^. 


Mch. 




\ 4 Apr.] 


1S79. 


4 


p- 


I13.I2S, 


(4] Apr. 






1S79. 





p- 


129-144, 


Apr. 




[i,SJune] 


1S79. 


49 


p- 


145. .60, 


May 




[iSJune] 


1S79. 


iS 


p- 


161-176, 


July 




[ 4 Aug.] 


1S79. 


4 


p- 


177-.92, 


Sept. 




[24 Oct] 


,879. 


24 


p- 


193-20.S. 


1 29I Oct. 






1S79. 





p- 


200-224, 


Oct. 




[20 Nov.] 


1S79. 


20 



rsr( HE. 



[March — April i^.?. 







Annmincci! 


Actual date 


Discrepancy 






date. 




of issue. 


ill 


days. 




225-272. 


(20] Xov. 






1S79. 







27i-2SS, 


Dec. 


■879 


[ 5 Feb. 


iSSo]. 


.-(6 




2S9-304. 


Feb. 


iSSo 


[17 Dec. 


■S79l- 


-46! 




.^05-320, 


Jun. 




[ 5 Feb.] 


iSSo. 


5 




321-352. 


Mch. 




[7 Apr.] 


iSSo. 


7 




353-36S. 


May 




[20 Oct.] 


iSSo. 


142 




3f'9-3S4. 


Aug. 




[20 Oct.] 


iSSo. 


so 




385-400, 


Oct. 




f 3 Nov.] 


iSSo. 


3 




401-416, 


Nov. 


iSSo 


[ 5 Jan. 


iSSi]. 


,36 




417-448, 


May 




[25 Jnnc] 


■SSi. 


25 




449.464, 


June 




[23 July] 


iSSi. 


23 




465-480, 


I23] July 






iSSi. 







4S1.496, 


July 




[ 5 Aug.] 


iSSi. 


5 




497-506, 


Sept. 




f 5 Nov.] 


iSSi. 


36 



Vohinu' 21. 



p. 


116, 


[23] July 


!>• 


■7-32, 


July 


1'. 


33-48, 


[16] Aug. 


p. 


49S0, 


Aug. 


P' 


Sl-112, 


Sept. 


p. 


lI,i-12S, 


Oct. 


P- 


129.144, 


[21] Nov. 


p. 


145-160, 


(2S] Nov. 


p. 


161.176, 


[15] Dec. 


p. 


I77-2OS, 


Dec. 


p. 


209-240, 


[30] Jiin. 


p. 


241.256, 


[7] Feb. 


p. 


257-272. 


Fell. 


p. 


273 28S, 


[10] Mch. 


p. 


289.304, 


[iS] Apr. 


p. 


.305-320, 


[19] May 


p. 


321-336. 


[27] May 


p. 


337-.?52, 


[15] June 


p. 


353-368, 


June 


p. 


.369-3S4, 


[,7] July 


p. 


385-400, 


[6] Sept. 


p. 


401-416, 


[12] Oct. 


p. 


4"7-432, 


Oct. 


p. 


433-44S, 


Jan. 


p. 


449-164, 


[21] Feb. 


p. 


465-475. 


21 Mch. 



iSSi 



1SS2 





iSSi. 





[16 Aug. 


1 iSSi. 


16 




iSSi. 





I 5 Nov. 


1 iSSi. 


66 


[ 5 Nov.] 


1 iSSi. 


36 


[ 5 Nov.; 


1 iSSi. 


5 




iSSi. 







iSSi. 







iSSi. 





[ 7 Jan. 


1SS2]. 


7 




1SS2. 







I1SS2]. 


(?) 


|4 Mch.] 


1SS2. 


4 




ISS2. 







iS83. 







I8S2. 







ISS2. 







1SS2. 





|6Julyl 


1SS2. 


6 




1SS2. 







1SS2. 







1SS3. 





I3N0V.I 


1SS2. 


3 


(5 Feb.] 


1SS3. 


S 




ISS3. 







.883. 






Wc coiniiiL'iui il lo tlic attontioii of the 
editors, not only of the jieriodicaKs inen- 
tioticd, hut also of othei-s, whether it would 
not he well lo adopt the piineiple illustrated 
iiil'sYCHE, of giving, at the earliest oppor- 
tunity, in a systematic manner, the dates of 
i,ssue of parts already issued, and oniittinij 
dates of prospective i.ssiic. 

/.' /'. M. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

AcMJEMY OF Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 

S Aug. iSSa. — The Uev. H : C. McCook 
described the raids of Formica sangiiinca 
upon F. fiisca — raids in which the black 
slaves assist their red masters. Reds and 
blacks shared the labor of raising the young. 
The nests of F./usca, conspicuous in places 
where there vere no red ants, were hard to 
find where Ine latter were common. An at- 
tempt to introduce the red ant into a city 
yard failed through the attacks of the com- 
mon pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitiiin. 

3 Oct. 1SS2 — Dr. Skinner remarked that 
the organ of oftence of the larva of Pafiilio, 
usually believed to be solid, is really hollow, 
rolled in and out upon itself. 

10 Oct. iSSj. — Rev. H : C. McCook pre- 
sented a paper upon the snares of orb- 
weaving spiders, and described four species 
of Epeira. 

31 Oct. 18S2. — Rev. H: C. McCook drew 
attention to the use of ants as insecticides by 
the Chinese, and stated his belief that as no 
American species lived on trees, the proba- 
bilities were against their usefulness for a 
similar purpose. 

7 Nov. 1S82. — Rev. 11: C. McCook pre- 
sented a paper on "Ants as beneficial insec- 
ticides" and advocated the importation of the 
ant used in Cliina for the protection of 
orange trees. 

14 Nov. 18S2. — Mr. Thomas Meehan stated 
that the nest of the wood pewee [ contopus 
vireus ] is held together by cobwebs. 

5 Dec. 1SS2. — Dr. Horn remarked upon 
the singular distribution of the apterous 
water-beetle Amp/iizoa, one species of which 
inhabits California, a second the district 
northward of that state as far as Vancouver's 
island, while a third has been found high up 
in the mountains of Thibet. 

23 Jan. 1SS3. — Dr. Skinner stated that 
Argyiiiiis cybele, instead of carefully deposi- 
ting its eggs, as is usual with hutterHies, 
dropped theni from a distance upon the her- 
bage. — Complied from Aiinr. mil., .\pril 18S3. 
V. 17, p. 462 - 466. 



March — Aiiril 18S3.] 



rsrcHE. 



[3 162-3 1 71] 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Aiif/iofs and societies are requested to forivard their works to the editors as soon as 
piiblislied. The date of -publieation, given in brackets [], marks the time at -vhich the 
work rvas received, unless an earlier date of publication is known to recorder or editor. 
Unless othervjise stated each record is made directly from the work that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the mo$t coiiunoii gix'cn name, as: A: Augustus: B: Ben- 
jamin; C: Charles; D: David; E: Edward; F: Frederic; G: George: H: Henry: 
I: Isaac; J: John; K: Karl; L: Louis; M: Mark; N: Nicholas; O: Otto; P: Peter; R: 
Richard: S: Samuel; T: Thomas; W: William. The initials <it the end of each record, or 
note, are those of the recorder- 
Corrections of errors and notices of omissions arc solicited. 

Ausfust Hellmuth. 



NECROLOGY FOR 1879. 

Additional to Rec, 1501-151S, 1555. 2125- 
2142, AND 264S-2653. 

Berce, Jean Etienne, biog. sketch of. 

Clement, /¥. L. Notice necrologique sur 
Jean Etienne Beixe. (Ann. soc. entom. 
France, 18S0, s. 5, v. 10, p. 177-1S0.) 
Mr. Berce, a lepidnpterist, was b. at Saint Di^, dept. 

Vosges, France, 24 April 1S03 [not 1S02] ; d. 29 Dec. 

1S79, at Paris, France. [5'('<r Rec, 2126.] G: D. (3162) 

Boisduval, Jean Baptiste Alphonse D^chafF- 
our, biog. sketcli of. 

GiRARD, Maurice. Notice necrologique sur 
le Dr. de Boisduval. Extrait du Journal de 
la societe centrale d'horticulture de France, 
3e s^rie, 11, iSSo, p. 422-426. Paris, iSSo. 
6 p., 22X14, t 17X9.5. 
[5« Rec, 2127 (iHrf264S.] G:P. (3163) 

NECROLOGY FOR 1880. 

Additional to Rec, 2143-2168 and 2654- 
^655. 

Guen^e, Achille, biog. sketch of. 

Mabille, Paul. Notice necrologique sur 
Achille Guenee. (Ann. soc. entom. Fr.. s. 
6, V. I, p. 5-12.) 
[.SVi- Rec, 2149.] G: D. {3164) 

Haldeman, .S : Stehman. biog. notice of. 
(Can. entom., Sept. iSSi, v. 13, p. 1S4-1S5.) 

Brinton, D. G. Samuel Stehman Hal- 
deman. (Proc. Amer. philos. soc. Feb. 
iSSi, V. 19, p. 279-2S5.) 

Hart, C:H: Samuel Stehman Halde- 
man. (Penn. monthly, Aug. 1S81, v. 12. 
p. 584-601.) 

Dr. Haldeman was h. 12 Aug. 1S13 at Locust Grove, 
Lancaster Co., Pa. ; d. in Sepl. iSSo, in Chickis, Pa. 
[5«. Rec, 2151.] G: D. (3165) 



Kiesen^wetter. Ernst 
biog. sketch of. 

Kraatz, Gustav. Denkblatter an H. v. 
Kiesenwetter. (Deutsche entom. zeitschr., 
iSSo, jahrg. 24, p. 323-336.) 

Tile above notice includes a list of Kiesenwetter's pa- 
pers. [.S'lV Rec, 2157.] G: D. (3166) 

Kirschbaum, Carl Ludwig. [Biog. notice]. 
(Entom. mo. mag.. July iSSo, v. 17, p. 47.] 
[5W Rec, 2158.] G: D. (3167) 

Mulsant, Etienne. biog. sketch of. 

Felissis-Rollin, J. Notice necrolog- 
ique sur Etienne Mulsant. (Ann. soc. en- 
tom. Fr., iSSo, .s. 5, V. 10, p. 403-412.) 

Locard, a. Etienne Mulsant, sa vie et 
ses oeuvres. Notice biographique. Avec 
portrait. Lyon, 18S2. '(55 p.) 8°. — Zool. 
anzeiger, 19 June 1SS2, jahrg. 5, p. 294. 
B. 2 March 1797, .at Marnand, canton of Thizy, near 
Villefranche, dept. Rhone, France; d. 2 Nov. iSSo, at 
Lyons, France. [.Stv Rec , 2161. j G: D. (316S) 

[Ougspurger, Philibert Friedrich. biog. no- 
tice of. ] (P.syche, March iSSi, v. 3. p. 191.) 
[i'.Y- Rec, 2162.] G: D. (3169) 

Snellen van Vollenhoven. S : Constant, 
biog. sketch of. 

DoHRN, Carl Anton. Snellen van Vol- 
lenhoven, ein gedenkblattchen. (Entom. 
zeitung. . . . Stettin, 1881. p. 371-375.) 
[.SreRec, 216;.] G: D. (3170) 

NECROLOGY FOR 1881. 

Additional to Rec. 2656-2672. 
[Blackburn, J: Bickerton, biog. notice of. ] 
(Entom. mo. mag., Dec. 18S1, v. iS. p. 
164.) 

C[arrington], J: T. John Bickerton 
Blackburn. (Entomologist. Dec. 1S81, v. 
H- P- 301-302.) 
|.V,vRec.,2657.| U: D. ^3171) 



.•!l [3 1 72-3 1 86] 



PSYCHE. 



[March— April iSS^ 



[Blackwall. I :»biog. notice of.] (^Entom. 
1110. iiuiv;. Julv 1S81. V. iS, p. 4.v) 

Cambridge. Octavius Pickaid. John 
I'laikwall. obitiiarv notice. (Entomolo- 
gist, July 1S81, V. 14. p. 145-150.') 
Born 20 Jan. 17S9, at Crunip.saII Old Hall, near Man- 
chester, England; d. II Mav iSSi, at Llanwrst, Wales. 
|&vRec.,26s6.] ■ G: D. (3172) 

DE Chaudoir, Maxiniilien, biog. sketch of. 

S.\Li.i';, Ausj;iiste. Notice necrologique 

.siirle baron Muximilien de Chaudoir. (Ann. 

see. entom. Fr., iSSi, s. 6, v. 1, p. iSi-iSS.) 

Baron de Chaudoir wash. 12 Sept. 1S16, at Iwnitifa, 

nearjitoini, in Wolhynia; d. 6 May iSSl,at Atnclie.les. 

Bains, l*vr(:nees-Orientales, Prance. Saliti gives a list 

of Chaudoir's ertonuiloj^ical papers. S^See Rcc, 255S.] 

O: D. dm) 

[Garueys, \V :, biog. notice of.] (Entom. 
mo. mag., iSSi, v. iS: Nov., p. 144; Dec, 
p. 163-164.) 

C.\KKi.\GTON', J : T. William Garneys. 
(Entomologist. Dec. 1SS2, v. 14, p. 302.) 
[5ft- Rec, 2650.] G: D. (3174) 

[Giebel. Christoph Gottfried Andreas, 
biog. notices of.] (.\mer. nat., Feb. 1SS2, 
V. 16, p. 174.) (Entom. mo. mag., Feb. 
1SS2, V. iS, p. 215.) (Zeitschr. f! d. ges. 
naturw., Nov. -Dec. 18S2. bd. 54, p. 613- 

637-) 

[5fcRec., 26Si.] G: J). (^[75) 

[Gray. J:, biog. notice of] (Entom. mo. 
mag., Jan. iSS2, v. iS, p. 190-191.) 

Entomologist, d. 27 Nov. iS,Si, at Clayfrate, Esther, 
Kn;^land, aj^ed 69 years. ' G: D. (3176) 

[Hensel, Rcinboki, biog. notice of] fZool. 
anzeiger, 14 Nov. iSSi, jahrg. 4, p. 604.) 
(Naturae novitates, Nov. 18S1, no. 23, p. 
192.) 

Once professor in the agricnltiiral academy in Pros- 
kau, Silesia; d. 5. Nov. iSSi, in Oppeln, Silesia. 

(^: D. (3177) 

[Koch, Gabriel, biog. notice of] (Entom. 
inn. mag., March iSSi, v. 17, p. 240.) 
I .v., Uec, 2665.] B: P. M. (317S) 

[Miiiszech, Georges Vandal ia, biog. notice 
of] (Amer. nat. Jan. 1SS2, v. 16. p. 65.) 
(Zoo), anzeiger, 20 Niarch 1S82, jahrg. 5. p. 
148.) 
Coleopterist. d. 17 Nov. iSSi, in Paris, France. 

G: D. (3179) 

[Putnam, Joseph Duncan, biog. notice of.] 
(.Amer. nat., Jan. 1882, v. 16, p. 65.) 
|.9<vRec.. 26rt6.| CI: D. (3180J 



RoUestoa, (j :, biog. notice of 

1-[i.ii\vi;r]. \V[ :] H[ :]. George Rolles- 
ton. (Proc. roy. soc. Lond., Dec. i88i, v. 
33, p. 24-27.) 

Prof. Rolleston was b. at Maltbv, England, 30 July 
1S29; d. iSSi. ■ G: D. (31S1) 



Rosenhauer. Wilhelm Gottlieb, biog. notice 
of 

DoiiRN, Carl Anton. Wilhelm Gottlieb 
Roscnhauer. (Entom. zeitung . . . Stettin. 
18S1, jahrg. 42, p. 4S8.') 
[.S^rRec ,266s.] G: D. (31S2) 

Rotheiibacli. [ohann Christian, biog. notice 
of 

Jaeggi, F. Nachruf (Mitth. schw. en- 
tom. ges., Nov. iSSi [Jan. 18S2]. v. 6, p. 
243-250.) 

Entomolog-ist; b. 6 Dec. 1796, in Alsatia; d. 9 Sept. 
iSSi, in Aarberg, Switzerland. G: D. (31S3) 



DE Rougement, Philippe, biog. notices of 
TuiBOLET, . Philippe de Rouge- 
ment. Notice biographiqae. (Mitth. schv*-. 
entom. ges., Feb. [Mav] 1882, v. 6, p. 257- 
261.) 

Tribolet, . Philippe de Rouge- 
ment. Notice biographique. (Neuchatel). 
1SS2. (15 p.) 8°. — Zool. anzeiger, 19 June 
1882. jahrg. 5, p. 294. 

Prof, de Rougement was b. at St. Aubin, Switzerland, 
17 .Vpril iSio; d. in Neuchatel, 27 May iSSi. Tribolct's 
notice gives a list of de Rougcment's papers. 

G: D. (31S4) 

[Whitman. Allen, biog. notice of] (Boston 
[Mass.] d. advertiser, 14 Nov. 1881, no. 
22S43, V. 138, no. 115, p. 2, col. 2, ^ cm.] 
(Amer. nat., Jan. 1SS2, v. 16, p. 86.) 

B. in East Bridgcw.atcr, Mass., in iS}6; d. Nov. iSSi, 
in St. Paul, Minn. ' G: D. (31S5) 

[Zaddach. Ernst Gustav, biog. notices of] 
(Naturae novitates. June 1S81, no. 12, p. 
104.) (Zool. anzeiger, 11 July iSSi, jahrg. 
4, p. 364.) (Entom. nachrichten. i Aug. 
1S81, jahrg. 7. p. 232.) (Psvche, Julv-Sept. 
iSSi [March 18S2], v. 3, p. "259.)" 

Albri.:cht, p. Prof Dr. G. Zadd.ich. 
Gediichtnisrede geh. in d. phys.-okon. 
ges. Konigsberg. (top.) — Aus : Schrift. d. 
phys.-okon. ges. Konigsberg. jahrg. 22. p. 
1 19-128. — Zool. anzeiger, 19 [une 18S2. 
j:''irg. 5, p. 294. 

Professor of zoology in Konigsberg, Prussia; b. 7 
June 1S17, in Dantzig. ' Prussia ; d. 5 June iSSi, in K" 



igsbeig. 



on. 
G: D. (3iS(i) 



March— April 1SS3. 



PSYCHE. 



[3 '•'^7-3 190] 



NECROLOGY FOR 1882. 

[Balfour, Francis Maitland, biog. notices of.] 
(Athenaeum, 29jul_y 18S2, p. 14S. col. i, 20 
cm.) (Zool. anzeiger, 14 Aug. 1SS2, jahrg. 
5, p. 436.) (Naturae novitates, Aug. 18S2, 
no. 16, p. 152.) (Amer. nat., Oct. 18S2, v. 
16, p. 843.) (Kosmos, 1SS2, jahrg. 6, bd. 
12, p. 39-42.) (Arch. f. mikros. anat., 18S2, 
bd. 21, p. 82S-835.) 

Foster, Michael. Francis Maitland Bal- 
four. (Nature, 3 Aug. 18S2, v. 26, p. 313- 

3H-) 

Griffith, G. Francis Maitland Balfour. 
(Nature. 17 Aug. 1SS2, v. 26, p. 365.) 

Gamgee, Arthur. The researches of 
Francis Maitland Balfour. (Nature, 24 
Aug. 18S2, V. 26, p. 406-407.) 

F. M. Balfour, professor of animal morphology at 
Cambridy^e, England, was killed by a fall on the south 
side of Mont Blanc, 19 July 1SS2; age 30 or 31 years. 

G: t>. (31S7) 

[Belfrage, Giistaf Wilhelm, biog. notice of.] 
(Nature, 22 Feb. 18S3, v. 27, p. 399.) 

Swedish entomologist; d. 7 Dec. 1SS2, at Clifton, 
Bosque Co., Te.xas, where he had resided for several 
years G: D. (31SS) 

[Coriialia, Emilio, biog. notices of.] (Zool. 
anzeiger, 19 June 1S82. jahrg, 5, p. 316.) 
(Naturae novitates, July 1SS2, no. 13. p. 

128.) 

Professor Cornalia, director of the Museo civico in 
Milan, was h. in 1825; d.SJune 1SS2. G: D. (31S9) 

[Darwin, C : Robert, biog. notices of.] 
(Athenaeum, 29 April 1882, p. 541-542, 70 
cm.; 13 May 1882, p. 604-605, 50cm. [lat- 
ter notice includes a list of papers relating 
to Darwin and Darwinism in periodicals of 
England and America].) (Sci. american, 
29 April 1SS2, V. 46, p. 256, col, 2, 27 cm.) 
(Ann. and mag. nat. hist.. May 1S82, s. 5, 
V. 9, p. 402-404.) (Naturae novitates. May 
1SS2, no. 9, p. 95.) (Nature, 1882, v. 26": 
18 May, p. 49-51 ; 25 May, p. 73-75; : June 
p. 97-100; 15 June, p. 145-147; 22 June. p. 
169-171.) (Anier. nat.. June 1S82. v. 16. p. 
4S7-490. ) 

Allen, Grant. Obituary. Charles Dar- 
win. (Academy, 29 April 1S82. v. 21, p. 
306-307, 77 cm.) 

C[.\rrington], J: T. Charles Robert 
Darwin. Obituary notice. (Entomologist, 
May 1882, v, 15, p. 97-102.) 

E[dwards], H : Obituary. Charles Rob- 
ert Darwin. (Papilio, May 1882. y. 2, p. 
8i.) • ■ 

Gray, Asa. Charles Darwin. Biograph- 
ical notice. (Amer. journ. sci. and arts. 
18S2. s. 3. v. 24, p. 453-463 ['-From Proc. 
amer. acad. arts and sci.. v. 17"].) 



[Darwin, C : Robert, biog. notices of.] 
Huxley, T:H: Charles^Darwin. (Na- 
ture. 27 April 1SS2, V. 25, p. 597.) 

Quatrefages, a. (Comptes rendus 
acad. sci. France, i May 1SS2, v. 94, p. 
1216-1222.) Eng. tr. (Ann. and mag. nat. 
' hist., June 18S2, s, 5, v. 9. p. 467-474.) 

The following notices are compiled from the Zoolo- 

Anon. (Ibis, 1SS2. s. 4, v. 6. p. 479- 
484-) 

Bacon, G. W., comp. Life of Charles 
Darwin. With British opinion on evolu- 
tion. London, i?(7'(!«, 1SS2. 52 p., 8°. is. 

DE Candolle, Alphonse. Darwin, con- 
sideree au point de vue des causes de son 
succes et de I'importance de ses travaux. 
(Arch. sci. phys. et nat., Geneve, May 1882, 
s. 3, y. 7, p. 4S1-495.) 

Carus, Julius Victor. Charles Robert 
Darwin. (Unsere zeit, 1882, p. 200-226.) 

Chun, Carl. Charles Darwin [with 
portr.]. (Humboldt, 1SS2, jahrg. i, p. 279- 
^84.) _ . 

Bournie, Edouard. Charles Darwin, 
etude critique. Paris, impy. Chaix, 18S2. 
20 p., 8^. [Extr. de la Revue medic, frang. 
et etrang.] 

Huxley, T : H :, G, J. Romanes, Archi- 
bald Geikie and W. T. T. Dyer. Memor- 
■ ial notices of Charles Darwin [with portr.]. 
Lond., 18S2. [Reprinted from Nature.] 8°. 

Le Roy, J. J. Charles Darwin. Eene 
levensschets. [Tweede, met een levensber- 
icht van Darwin vermeerderde uitgave van 
■'Bondige uiteenzetting van bet Darwin- 
isme."] Deventer, W. llulscher Gfzn, 
18S2. 172 p., S^ fl. 1.65. 

M.\GGiORANi, C. Coninicmorazione di 
Carlo Darwin. (Atti real, accad. Lincei, 
Transunti. 1882, s. 3, v. 6, p. 217-219.) 

Manteg.\zza. p. Commemorazione di 
Carlo Darwin. Pisa, 1SS2, i6°. 

Moleschott, J. Charles Darwin. Den- 
krede. Giessen. 18S2. 8^ 

Proost, M. a. Darwin et les progres 
de la zoologie. Bruxelles, 1SS2. 69 p., S^. 

Rauvvenhoff, N. W. p. Charles Robert 
Darwin. Rede bij de opening der io9de 
algemeene vergadering van bet Provinciaal 
Utrechtsch genootschap van kunsten en 
wetenschapen to Utrecht den 27 Juni 1S82, 
uitgesproken. Utrecht, /,. E. Bosch d- Zoi-ii. 
1S82. 29 p., 8°. 

ScHAAFFHAuSEN, H. Charles Robert 
Darwin. Ein nachruf. [no imprint, no 
date.] [1SS2!] 

SiCARD. Henri. Charles Darwin. Lyon. 
impr. Giraud, 1882. S p., 8°. [Extr. du 
Lyon medical, 7 May 1S82.] 



36 [31SO-3203] 



rsrciiE 



lM:irch— April iSSj. 



TDarwin, C: Robert. Biog. notices of.] 

^ Thomson. O: M- Charles Darw.n. 

(^New Zeal, journ. sci., 1SS2, v. i, p. 133 

'^ToMMASi. S. Carlo Darwin. Napoli. 

1SS2. up-, 8'. ^ • 1 

Williams. S. Fletcher. Darwin and 
Darwinism. ([Yorkshire] Naturalist, ibbJ, 
V. 8: Sept., p. 17-24: O^^'-' I'- .30-4.3-) , 

Zacm.muas, O. Charles R. Darwin und 
die cultiirhistorische bedeutung seiner theo- 
rievomursprungderaiten. Mitbildn. Ber- 
lin, £. 5W<', 1SS2. S3 p., S^ M. 1.20. 
Darwin, naturalist and oriRinator of the '•D^>"v'"';'"" 
tlicorv nf the nri.„'iii of snecics, was b. in Snrcwsbui>, 
En^ ind, ,^ FcK ,S.<,; i. a. D.mn, Beckcnha.n, Kent 
England, .9 April .SS2. G. D. (3'9o) 

TGurlt, Ernst Friedrich. biog. notice of.] 
(Zool. anzeiger, 23 Oct. 1SS2. jahrg. 5. p. 

iVr Gurlt, vcterina.y pathologist and anatomist, and 
cnt,„nXi<i>l a.thor.V. ,3 Oct. '791. "t.DrFnl;:'". "^•:''- 
Griineherl.Ger.nany; d. ,5 Aug. iSS.. n, BcrUn, Oer. 

nKiiiy- 

[Hey. \V:. biog. notice of.] (Entom. mo. 
raag.. Jan. 18S3, v. 19, p. 192.) 

C[AkRiNOTON-], J: T. Obituary. Wil- 
liam Hey. (Entomologist, Dec. 1SS2. v- 
IS, p. 2S7-2S8.) 

Archdeacon Hey, coleoptcrist, was b. at Ockbmok, 
Derbyshire. Enjfland; i. y. Nov. .SS2, at York, Eng- 
lanJ,in the vjnjyear of his age. &• V- (.V92) 

Jobson. I. W., biog. notice of. 

C[arrington]. J: T. J. W. Jobson. 

(Entomologist, March 1SS2. v. 15, p. 71.) 

Entomological collect'.r; d. in LeytM, Englaiid, lO 

Feb. 1SS3. G: D. (319.!) 

[Labrey. Beebee Bowman, biog. notice of.] 

(Entom. mo. inag., June 1SS2, v. 19, p. 

22.) 

-F..J. Beebee Bowman Labrey. (Ento- 
mologist. June 18S2, V. 15, p. 141-142.) 
B JO iunc 1S17, in Liverpool, England ; d. 25 April 
,SS2,at bisley, Cheshire, England ; prepared a work 
illustrating the plumules of some families oi Initterllics. 

[Malm. August Wilhelm. biog. notice of.] 
(Naturae 'novitates, March 1S82. no. 6. p. 
64.) (Zool. anzeiger, 19 June 18S2. jahrg. 
^, p. 316.) 

Sp.\ngberg, Jacob. August Wilhelm 
Malm. (Entom. tids., 1SS2, arg. 3, p. 157- 
159; Rdsume. p. 161-162.) 

Professor Malm, zoologist and director of the Giitc- 
l,<,r<' natural history museum, was li. in 1S21 ; A. ^ March 
iSsZ ill Goteborg, jiweden. G: D. (3105) 

Moss, II :, biog. notice of. 

C[arringi()n], J: T. Henry Moss. 

(Entomologist, May 1S82, v. 15, p. 119. 

Mr. Moss, lepidopterisl, d. at Oldham, Kngland, 17 
April iSSj, at the :ige of 64 years. G: D. {3196) 



[Norman. G :, biog. notice of] (Entom. 
mo. mag., Sept. 1SS2. v. 19, p. 96-) 
Lcpidopterist and hemiptc^rist ; b. ■ J='n- 'ff- '" """• 

Engh.nd ; d. 5 July -SSJ, in Peebles, England. 

FPritchard. Andrew, biog. notices of.] 
^ (Academy, 2 Dec. 1SS2, v. 22 p. 40.. 'ro- 

I X cm ) (Athenaeum. 2 Dec. i8t)2, p. 

7;o; col. I, 2 cm.) (Nattirae nov.tates. 

Dec. 18S2, no. 24.?. 227.)^ (Zool anzeigei. 

S Feb. 18S3, jahrg. 6, p. 80.) (Amer. nat.. 

Feb. 188-5. V. 17. P- ^3>--.V-) 

Microsconistand author upon ■"f"'^"';;;! »"'' ■"'^'='^'^' 
b. in 1S04; a. in l-ondon, England, 24 ^""^^/^f- (3,,^) 

[Putzeys, Jules, biog. notices of.] (Entom. 
^ mo. mag:', Feb. .S82. v. iS, p. 2.5-216. 

(Naturae novitates. Feb. 1SS2. no. 3. p. 31-) 
Zool. anzeiger, 20 March 18S2. jahrg. 5. P- 

148.) (Am'er. nat., April 1882, v. 16. p. 

■?^o-) 

Coleoptcrist; d. 2 Jan. 1SS2, in Brussels Bdginin, in 
the 73rd year of his age. G. V. C3'99) 

FReiuhardt. [ohann Th., biog notices of.] 
^ (Zool. anzeiger. 27 Nov. 18S2. jahrg. 5, P- 

644.) (Naturae novitates, Nov. i8b2. no. 

22Tp. 20S.) (Amer. nat., Jan. 1S83. v. 17. 

Dr. Ueinhardt, professor and l"^P«i°^ '" "','=3^.'"'^ 
of natural history in Copenhagen, d. 23 O^t. ^^-' ^^^^ 

6.'i. 

[Schmidt. Franz, biog. notices of.] (Zool. 

anzeiger. 10 July 1SS2, jahrg. 5, p. 3"4- ) 

(Nalurae novitates, July 1SS2, no. 15. p. 

144.) 

Dr. Schmidt, Icpidoptcrist, d. .5 J"'"^ ;|*7/",J^of: 
mar, Germany. '' ' '^■' 

[Schmidt-Gobel. Hermann Max. biog. no- 
tices of.] (Zool. anzeiger. 23 Oct. 1862 
jahrg. 5, p. .S.S6) (Naturae novitates. Oct. 
1882? no. 21, p. 200.) 

Dr. Schmidt-Giibel, coleoptcrist nnd economic ento- 
niologist, d. .7 Ajig. iSSa, at Klosterneuber^,nearV e„- 
na. Austria, aged 73. "• ^ • " 

[Siewers. C : Godfrey, biog. notices of.] 
(Cincinnati [Ohio] commercial. 8 bept. 
1882. p. 4. col. 8, 18 cm. ; p. 5- c"'- 4- ■ 
cm) (I'apilio, Oct. 1S82. v. 2, p. 145) 
(Psyche. June [13 Oct.] 1SS2. v. 3. p. 3.=;9- 

■^'dirv. C: Obituary. (Can. entom.. 
Sept. 1882. v. 14. p. 176) 

Entomologist; b. 24 May .815. on the island of Santa 
;ru.„iu the Vest luJies: d. 6 Sept. •»-^^;"^'-"( '^"j 



Cni 
Kv. 



Miirch— April iSS.!.] 



psrciiE. 



[3204-3218] 



[Sinclair, Robert W., biog. notice of.] 

C[arrington], J : T. Obituary. Rob- 
ert W. Sinclair. "(Entomologist, March 
1S82. V. 15, p. 71.) 
Entoniol gist; d. in Dublin, Ireland, 2S I.111. iSSi, 

nged 33 years. G: D. (3204) 

[Tarriel, Ernest, biog. notice of.] (Feiiille 
d. jeiines natiiralistes. April 1.SS2, ann. u. 
P- 75-) 

Entoniolosfist ; d. at Rouen, France, in 1SS2, in the 
2tst year ofhis age. G: D. (3205) 

[Thompson, C: Wvville. biog. notice of.] 
(Naturae novitates, March 18S2, no. 6, p. 
64.) (Entom. mo. mag., April 18S2, v. iS, 
p. 264.) (Amer. nat.. May 1SS2, v. 16, p. 

4j,v) 

MosELEY, H. N. Obituary. Sir Charles 

Wyville Thompson. (Academy, iS March 

1SS2, V. 21, p. 196, col. 1-2, 39 cm.) 

In early life a collector of lepidoptera, later a general 

zoologist; b. in Boynside, Linlithgow, Scuthuid; d. 10 

Marcfi 1SS2, in London, England, aged 52 years. 

G: D. (3206) 

[Thwaites, G. H. K., biog. notices of.] 

(Athenaeum, 14 Oct. 1SS2, p. 500, col. 1-2. 

8 cm.) (Naturae novitates. Oct. 1SS2, no. 

21, p. 200.) (Entom. mo. mag.. Nov. 18S2. 

V. 19, p. 143.) 

For a long time director of the botanical garden at 
Peradeniya, Ceylon ; entomologist; d. n Sept. 1SS2, in 
Kandy, Ceylonl in his 72nd year. G: D, (3207) 

[de Tinseau. Robert, biog. notice of.] 
(Feuille d. jeunes naturalistes, April 1SS2. 
ann. 12, p. 75.) 
Coleopterist ; d. at Hyires, France, 1; March 18S2. 

G: D. (320S) 

[Trosohel, Franz Hermann, biog. notices 
of] (Zool. anzeiger, 27 Nov. 1SS2, jahrg. 
5, p. 644.) (Naturae novitates, Nov. 18S2. 
no. 23. p. 216.) (Amer. nat.. Jan. 1SS3, 2, 
17, p. n6.) V. 

Professor of zoology at Bonn, Germany, founder nf 
the "Archiv fur naturgeschichte" ; b. at Spandau, Ger- 
manv, 10 Oct. iSlo; d. in Bonn, 6 [? 4] Nov. 1SS2. 

G: D. (3209) 

Wales. G:, biog. notice of. 

St.mnton, H : Tibbats. George Wales. 
(Entom. mo. mag., Feb. 1885, v. 19, p. 211- 
212.) 

Lepidopterist; d. at Gateshead, Durham Co., Eng- 
land, 30 Oct. 1SS2, in the Soth year of his age. 

G: D. (3210) 

[Westring, Niklas, biog. notices of] (Zool. 
anzeiger. 23 Oct. 18S2, jahrg. 5. p. 556.) 
(Naturae novitates, Oct. 1SS2. no. 20. p. 
19^.) 

Sandahl. Oskar Th. Niklas Westring. 
(Entom. Tids., 18S2, arg. 3, p. 9-12: Re- 
sume, p. 99.) 
Entomologist, especially arachnologist ; b. 13 Nov. 

1707, in Gbteborg, S\veden ; d. 2% Tan 1SS2, in Gijteborg. 

G: D. (3211) 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Coquillett, Daniel W : Notes and descrip- 
tions of a few lepidopterous larvae. (Pa- 
pilio, 26 April iSSi, v. i, p. 56-57.) 
Describes larvae of chamyris cerintha, apalehi 
l>rr/ijiosa, hcHothis Ittteitinctus^y scollopteryx filnttrix, 
ratocala cocfinata, caterva catenaria antl i^Kpitlit'cici 
intfrri(piofa!iriata. H: E. (3212) 

Crotch, G: Robert. On the arrangement of 
the families of coleoptera. (Proc. Amer. 
philos. soc. Phila., 7 Feb. 1873, v. 13. p. 
75-S7-) 

Coleoptera divided into rhynchophora and coleoptera 
genuina; the latter subdivided into keteromera and I'so- 
uii'ra on tiirsal and antennal characters. 

H: W. T. (3213) 

Edwards, W : H : Description of new 
species of butterflies. Chiefly collected 
by Mr. Morrison in 1880. (Papilio, 26 
April 1881, V. I, p. 43-48.) 

Describes as new anihocavis morrisani from Califor- 
nia; and )nt'lit(i€a pcrdiccas^ ;//. folon^ pyrgits philetas, 
copaeodes i-i(nns, pamphila sin's, p. viitrdon, all from 
Oregon. H: E. (3214) 

EdTvards, H : Descriptions of new species 
and varieties of arctiiifae. (Papilio, 10 
March 18S1, v. i, p. 3S-39.) 
Describes as new euprcpia opuliuta, anliu iitror- 

rKpta, a. arliaia yar. bardu, antarctiii J'ttnctata var. 

proha, halfsldnln hl^otSt all from Pacific states. 

H: E. (3215) 

Edwards, H : Notes on the Pacific coast 
species of hcpialus with descriptions of 
new forms. (Papilio, lo March iSSi. v. i. 

Describes as new lupialus rectus, h. aitccps, h. I'nuti- 
lis; suggests tliat many so-called Califnrnian species 
are Init varintinns from one ty|ic. //.- E. (^2i6) 

Edwards, H : Notes on the Pacific coast 
species of orgyia, w^ith descriptions of lar- 
vae and new forms. (Papilio, 26 April 
iSSi, V. I, p. 60-63.) 

Describes as new orffyia gulosa and o, caiia; 
describes larvae n{ o. vetusta and o.gitlosa; contends 
for tije difference of these species, wliich have previ- 
ously been confounded; suggests that o. badia H : Edw. 
and o. uova Fitch. ^ n. autiqiio I^inn. //; E. (^217) 

Edwrards. H : On some apparently new 

forms of diurnal lepidoptera. (Papilio, 

26 April iSSi, V. I. p. 50-55.) 

Describes as new aiithocart's coloradensi's, coenonvfn- 

pha calif orntcav^r. pull a, melitaea dzui'iiellei, m.baroni, 

m. riibicundot m. anicia var. 7vlieeleri, the^la citinio. 

th. spadi.x, th. tielsoni var. exoleta, th. i>iuin\ th. I'rus 

var. fftossir, th. tacfta, Ivcaeiia speciosa 9 '■> the male 

of /. speciosa previously described suggests that ;;/f//- 

iaea baroni -Aw^ m . rubicunda wxi: proh:ihly varieties of 

w. quino Behr. _ H: E. C321S) 



i^ [3^ '9-3^34] 



rsrcHE. 



[Miirch— April iSSj. 



Fernald, C : II : Notes on Fitch's species 
of tortricids. (Papilio, lo March iSSi, v. 
I. P- 36-37-) 

Notices some errors in Fitch's descriptions of moths 
in his reports as state entomologist of New York ; refers 
croesia J>er/.ica»a to tile genus fitycholoma, lozotaenia 
cerasivorana to carofria, :ind arffyrolepia qiu-rcifoliana 
to torlrix; correct error of Miss E. A, Smith in 7th 
rept. of state entomologist of Illinois, concerning 
lortrix Jlacridana. H: E. (3319) 

French, G : Ilazen. Notes on catocala sap- 
///<? Strecker. (Papilio, 26 April 18S1. v. 
I. p. 57-) 

Gives reason for considering catocala saj^pho as a 
distinct species, and announces its capture in Texas, 
Georgia and Illinois. H: E. (3220) 

G-rote. A : Radcliffe. A ckoreutes on silf Ili- 
um integrijolium. (Papilio, 10 March 
iSSi, V. I, p. 40.) 

Describes as new chorctitcs silphiclla, found hv D. W. 
Coquillett in Illinois. Gives description also of the 
larva (quotini; Comiillett), which forms its nest by 
fistening the terminal leaves together. H: E. (3221') 

Grote, A: RadclifTe. Descriptions oi geo- 

metiidac, chiefly collected by Mr. Pilate. 

(Papilio, 10 March iSSi, v. i. p. 40-42.) 

Describes as new plagodis jlosctttaria, aspilates 

gaiisaparia, deilinia glomcraria^ and d. scptemfftiaria^ 

all from Ohio. Jf: E'. (3222) 

Grote. A: RadclitTc. New noctuidae from 
Washington Territory. (Papilio, 26 April 
iSSi, V. I, p. 58-59.) 

Describes as new itiavicstra liqtiida^ Valeria conscrla^ 
liadena semilmiata. Compares w. liquida with m. lila- 
cilia and m. legilima, and //. semilmiata with //. iiiardi- 
iiata. H: E. (3223; 

Grote. A : Radcliffe. New noctuids, with a 

list of the species of oncocnemis. (Papilio, 

10 March iSSi, v. i. p. 33-35.) 

Describes as new ; oiicoctlemis major, o. agitalis, 

hadeita cyviosa, dcva palligcra. Compares o. major and 

o. aqitalis with o. chandlcri, compares //. cymosa with 

h. arctica and (/. palligcra \^ith (/. purpltrigera. Gives 

a list ot the iS North American species ot oncocnemis, 

H: E. C3224) 

Grote. A : Radcliffe. New species of dicnpis. 

chyloiiix and spragiieia. (Papilio, 26 April 

iSSi, V. I, p. 48-50.) 

Describes as new dicopis depilis from Ohio, cliyto- 
nix sensilis from Alassachusetts, and spragueia par- 
dalis from Florida. //: E. (3225) 

Hageu, Hermann August. Papilio ecclipsis, 
a doubtful or lost N. American butterfly. 
(Papilio, 10 March iSSi, v. i, p. 42.) 

Rev., by A. G. Butler, entitled '■ On 
papilio ccclipsis. Linn." {op. cit.. 26 Apr. 
18S1, p. 59.) 

Calls attention to an insect figured under the above 
name by IVtiver in his Gazophylacinm, pi. 10, tig. 6, and 
asks for information on the subject. H: E. (3226) 



Maus. W. llermaphroditen von satitruia 
pavonia L. : carpini S. V. (Entom. nach- 
richten, 15 Dec. iSSi, jahrg. 7, p. 355-356.) 
Notes on hcmaphrodites of s. pavonia. 

G: D. (3227) 

Neumoegen. Berthold Description of a re- 
markable new geometrid. (Papilio, Sept. 
iSSi, V. I, p. 145-146.) 

Describes aspilates viridirufaria from southern Col- 
orado. //• E. (322S) 

Neumoegen. Berthold. A little beauty from 
northern Arizona. (Papilio, Oct. 18S1, v. 
I, p. 149.) 

Describes sphinx {hyloicns^ dollii, a new species al- 
lied to s. seqiioiae Boisd. //; E. (3229) 

Schneider. Friedrich Emil Robert. Die 
schuppen an den verschiedenen fliigel- und 
kdrpcrtheilen derlepidopteren. Dissertatio 
inaiiguralis zoologica ... in Academia 
Fredericiana Halensi cum Vitebergensi 
consociata ad summos in philosophia hon- 
ores rite impetrandos .... [Separat-ab- 
druck aus der Zeitschrift fiir die gesammtcn 
naturwissenschaften, 187S, reihe'3, bd. 3, s. 
1-59, taf. 1-3.] Halis Saxonum, 1S78. t.-p. 
cover, [4-I-] 59 [-I-1] p.. 22X14, t 17X9.7: 
3P1- 

Notice. (Bericht . . . der entoinologie. 
1S77-1S7S, p. 424-425.) 
Discusses the form and size of the scales on different 

|)arts of lepidoptera. G: D. (3230) 

Schroeder, G. Merkwiirdige abnorniital. 

(Entom. nachricbtcn. i Mav iSSo. jahrg. 6. 

P- 94) 

Leistits ritfomargmatiis with a four-jointed hnuich 
on one antenna. G: £>. (3231) 

WiUiston, S: Wendell. \_Erisialis teiiax.] 
(Can. entom., Aug. iSSi, v. 13, p. 176.) 
Occurrence of eristal is tenax in New Haven (Conn), 

Wash. Terr., and Kan. A. A'. !>. C3232J 

■WiUi.'Jton, S: Wendell. The North Amer- 
ican species of co:iofs. (Trans. Conn, 
acad., March. :SS2, v. 4. p. 325-342.) 

.\ccount of all the (15 recognizable and (> irrecogni- 
zable) N. A. species niconops, describing 7 new species ; 
remarks on the specitic characters; synoptical table of 
the American genera of conopidae and of \\ N. A. 
species of r<7/ic/.T. li: P. M. (^2^^) 

Worthington, C : Ellis. Differences without 
(lislinctions. (Can. entom., June iSSi. v. 
13, p. 123-126.) 

Discusses the confusion which exists in the designa. 
tion of varieties of insects; proposes to classit^' actuaj 
varieties as seasonal, climatic, dimorphic, occasional 
and melanic or albinic. G: D. (^234 



March— April iSS.;.] 



PSrCHE. 



39 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

According to the daily press, buffalo 
gnats [Simih'inn sp.] are doing great damage 
to live stock in Deslia and Chicol counties, 
Arkan.'^as. 

The Euffalo society of natural sciences 
has had a bequest from Dr. Haves, said to 
amount to $150,000, which is not, however, 
a\-ailahle at present. 

Prof. J. T. Reinh.^^rdt, who died 23 Oct. 
1S82, is succeeded, in his place as inspector 
of the zoological museum in Copenhagen, 
by Dr. Christian Liitken. 

The French association for the advance- 
ment of the sciences will hold its annual 
congress. 16 August, this year, at Rouen. 
The section of zoology will be presided over 
by Dr. Joiisset de Bellesme. 

Benj.\.min Cooke, for several years Presi- 
dent of the Northern entomological societv 
and later Vice President of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire entomological society, died at 
Southport. England. 4 Feb. 1SS3, aged 66 
vears. 

Count H. zu Solms-Laubach has lately 
published a pamphlet on the origin, domes- 
tication and cultivation of the fig-tree, which 
contains much of interest on the subject of 
caprification. An abstract of the pamphlet 
is given in Neiv Remedies for April 18S3. 

Rev. Henry C. McCook. of Philadelphia, 
is engaged upon an illustrated book on ''Am- 
erican spiders and their spinning work," and 
hopes to have a volume on tlie •■Industry 
and habits of orbweavers" ready b_v midsum- 
mer. — Science. 23 March 18S3. v. i. p. 207. 

The Paper by Prof F. H. Snow in Psy- 
che ( vol. 3, no. gS) on Trngoderma tarsale 
is noticed in the American naiiiralist (or Feh. 
1SS3 (p. 199), where it is stated that this spe- 
cies is "the most cominon museum pest in 
this country." and that it is by far the most 
dangerous enemy to collections of insects in 
Washinijton. D. C* 



Embryology ok the silk-worm. — This 
has been studied by S. Salvatico, who finds 
that the amnion appears as a membrane with 
large nucleated cells like those of the serous 
membrane, but without pigment. The mal- 
pighian vessels originate in the ectoderm. 
He did not note the early appearance of the 
rudiments of the genital glands, which Ava^ 
observed by Balbiani in Tinea criiiella. — 
Amcy. iiat., April 1SS3, v. 17, p. 444- 

Prof. X.wer Landerer writes, in the 
Deiilsc/i-A merikanischc Apotkeker-Zeitung 
for I March 1S83, that "the largest and heav- 
iest grasshoppers are sought out in Arabia, 
Egypt, etc. The wings, feet, heads, etc. are 
torn off and the remaining fleshy part put in 
vinegar and used as pickles. In Abyssinia I 
had such sour grasshoppers prepared with 
aromatic herbs, set before me, and they tast- 
ed finely and would be eaten with appetite 
by all who did not know what they really 
had before them." 

Prof. F. W. Maeklin died January Sth of 
this year at Helsingfors, Finland, at the age 
of 61 years. He was known to American 
coleopterists by his papers on Strongylitim 
and Statira, and by his descriptions of a 
large number of coleoptera (mostly Siaj>ky- 
linidac) from the extreme north-western 
portions of our country. One of his earlier 
and little known papers, a dissertation on re- 
presentative ( vikarierande ) forms among 
northern coleoptera (published in the Swedish 
language, Helsingfors, 1S55) is quite interest- 
ing to American coleopterists, and was trans- 
lated into German by F. von Sacken in the 
Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung for 1857. — 
Amer. iiaturalis/, April 18S3. v. 17, p. 424. 

VVe are indebted to Mr. G. Barricelli. of 
Holden, Mo., for several numeros of his 
'• Silk-culture directory," and for two nos. 
of tlie "American silk and fruit culturist" 
containing articles by him. Mr. Barricelli 
evidently has a good practical knowledge of 
silk-raising, notwithstanding some of the cu- 
rious statements, from a purely scientific 
standpoint, made in his papers. His "Silk- 



lu 



i\sri HE 



I M;ircli— April iSSj. 



culture director^'" is still niorc curious from 
a typographical and literary standpoint. 
Altlio we think silk-raising will not become 
a great industry in this country for years, on 
account of the high price of labor, yet agita- 
tion in the interest of silkworm-raising may 
do good. In families comprising a number 
of otherwise unemployed persons the small 
profits to be doriycd from the rearing of a 
few thousand silk-worms may be worth the 
labor. 

The Deiitsch-Amciikaniiche Afotheker- 
Zeitung, for i March 1SS3. giyes M. Serpin's 
mode of making insect powder from tar. 
'■ The process depends upon conyerting gas- 
tar from fluid into solid condition, but taking 
care that the tar retains all the efficacious 
properties which it had in liquid form. The 
conyersion is brought about by careful heat- 
ing of the tar oyer a moderate coke or coal 
fire to 20^-40" C. A proper quantity of lime 
or finely powdered gypsum is mi.\ed %yith 
it. A puherisable mass is now obtained, 
which is rubbed through a sieve, and after 
completely cooling, the po^vder is mixed 
with amnionic sulphate, ferrous sulphate. 
bits of glass, and sodic sulphate, all in pul- 
yerized condition." 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. m., 
on the days following : — 

13 Oct. 18S2. 9 Mar. 1S83. 

10 Noy. " 13 Apr. " 

8 Dec. " II May •' 

12 Jan. 1883. 8 June •' 

q Feb. " 

G. DiMMOCK, Secretary. 



The New York Entomological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July and 
August, but no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry Euwards. Secrelary. 



Natural History will be held at N. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston. Mass.. 
at 7.45 p. m., on the days following: — 

25 Oct. 1S82. 28 Feb. 1883. 

22 Nov. " 28 Mar. " 

27 Dec. •• 25 Apr. •• 

24 Jan. 1SS3. 23 May " 

EovyARi) Burgess, Secretary. 



The REGULAR meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia. Pa., will be held 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sts.. on the 
days following: — 

14 Oct. 1881. 10 Mar. 1S82. 

II -Nov. " 14 Apr. " 

9 Dec. " 12 May " 

13 Jan. 1882. 9 June '• 

10 Feb. " 

James H. Ridingjs, Recorder. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



The semi-annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. corner of 19th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, 
Pa., on the days following : — 

12 Dec. 1881. 12 June 1SS2. 

James H. Ridings, Recording Secretary. 

The regular monthly meetings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal, Qiic., 
Canada, on the days following : — 

3 0ct. 1SS2.' 6Feb. 18S3. 

7 Noy. " 6 Mar. '■ 

S Dec. " 3 -'^pr- " 

9 Jan. 1S83. I May " 

G.J. Bowles, Secretary. 

The regular meetings of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society will be held at 9 
Broadway, Brooklyn. E. D., N. Y., on the 
d.iys following: — 

28 Oct. 1SS2. 31 Mar. 1SS3. 

25 Noy. " 28 Apr. 

30 Dec. " 26 May " 

27 Jan. 1S83. 30 June " 

24 Feb. " 

F. G. ScHAUPP, Secretary. 



No. 105-106 were issued 5 M.iy 1883. 



psYCHili:;^. 

A. JOXJK.3SrA.L OF- EITTOiMOLOO"^'. 

[Established in 1S74.] 

EDITED BY 

V>: PicKMAx Mann, Washington, D. C. ; G: Dimmock, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Albekt J : Cook, Lansing, Mich. ; Stephen Alfred FoRnES, Norjnal, 
III. ; Joseph Albert Lintner. Albany, TV. T. ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow. Lawrence, Kansas; W : Trelease, Madison, Wise. 

Vol. 4. No. 109-110. 

May-June 1SS3. 

CONTENT.S: 

Advertisements .............. 42 

The Scales of Coleoptera. — Grorg-e Dimtnock ....... 43-47 

On an Egg-parasite of the Currant Saw-fly (Nematus ventricosus) — 

Joseph Albert Lintner .......... 4S-151 

The Tarsal and Antennal Characters of Psocidae — Homajiii Aiig-iist 

Hagen .............. 1^2 

The Chigoe in Africa 52 

Rearing Lepidoptera ............ 153 

Book Notices .............. S3-54 

Proceedings of Societies. — Cambritlge Entomological Club — Linnean Societj 

of London ............. 54 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3235-32S2 S5-.sS 

Entomological Items — Notices to Entomologists — Society Meetings . . . 59-60 



i< 



^K 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridcje, Mass., U. S. A. 



YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS. 20 c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



42 



J\S}X HE. 



[Miiy — ^Jiiiic iSSj. 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomolooy. 

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION, EJC. 

TAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

^fS" Subscriptions not discontinued are con.ud:red 
renewed. 

Tf^r- Commencing taith the numero for January 
1883 the rate of subscription is as follows: — 

Yearly subscription, entitling the subscriber to 
one regular copy and, if he desires it, one copy 
printed on one side of thin paper (for pasting 
the titles of the bibliographical record on title- 
slips), postpaid, S2. 

Subscription to volume 4 (1883-1885). o-t above. 
postpaid, S5- 

The index ivitl only be sent to subscribers to the 
whole -volume. 

Twenty-five extra copies, zoithout change of 
form, to the author of any leading article, // or- 
dered at the time of sending copy, . ■ . Free. 

Author's extras over twenty-five in number, 
under above mentioned conditions, each, . 2C- 

Separates, with changes of form — actual cost of 
such changes in addition to above rates. 

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Terms Cash— strictly in advance. 
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will be allowed in PsYCHE and the advertising pages 
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Subscribers to PSYCHE can advertise insects for 
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Regular style of advertisements plain. atthcfolPow- 
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Address EDITORS OK PSYCHE, 

Cambridge. Mass.. U.S.A. 
Subscriptions also received in Europe by 

R. I'KIEDI.ANDER & SOHN. 

Carlstrasse 11, Berlin. N. W. 



EARLr STAGES OF BUTTERFLIES 
W.iNTED. 
The undersigned desires to obtain, by exchange 
or otherwise, from all parts of the world, eggs, 
caterpillars and chrysalids of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 
Dried specimens are preferred, especially of caterpil- 
lars which should be prepared by inflation. Corre- 
spondence is invited with persons engaged in the 
study of the early stages of butterflies. 

S. H. SCUDDER, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

COCCIDAE WANTED. 
The undersigned is desirous of obtaining, by ex- 
change or otherwise, specimens of as many species of 
the COCCIDAE as possible, for the purpose of making 
a study of the North American forms. Those found 
infesting cultivated plants especially desired. Living 
specimens preferred when they can be obtained. 
J. Henry CoMstock, 
Department of Entomology, 

The Cornell University, 

Ithaca.N. V. 

GALLS AND GALL INSECTS. 
The undersigned desires, either by exchange or 
otherwise. Galls from all parts of the United Stales. 
He is especially interested in those made by Lepidop- 
tera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Diptera. Correspon- 
dence in reference to Gall growths, or other vegetable 
abnormities, is invited. Charles V. Rilky, 
1700 Thirteenth St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 



TORTRICIDAE II A. V TED. 
I am desirous of obtaining as many North .Ameri- 
can TORTRICIDAE as possible, for the purpose of 
studying this family. I shall be glad to name and 
return any TORTRICIDAE forwarded to me for this 
purpose, save such as may prove new and desirable 
to retain for description. 

Pack carefully, and direct to 

Pkof. C. H. l-'EKNALD, Orono, Me. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 
Living cocoons, pupae and ova of .American lepi- 
doptera bought or exchanged for other species, by 
Monsieur ALFRED V\ailly, ( Membre-Laureat de 
la Socid'tt- d'.Acclimatation de France), 

Tudor Villa, Tudor Road, Norbiton, 

Kingston-on-Tliames, England. 



NORTH AMERICAN FERNS. 

Check lists of the Ferns of North America north 

of Mexico, enumerating 31 genera. 132 species and 

15 varieties, on one octavo page. Will be sent by 

mail on receipt of the price. 15 cents per dozen copies. 

S. STEimiNS. Springfield, Mass, 



PSYCHE. 



THE SCALES OF COLEOPTERA. 



GEORGE DIMMOCK. CAMBRinGE, MASS. 



(^Cotifiifitcd fill III pa(^e ^7.) 



The brown srak-s are lustreless ami 
withiiut cross-bands, while the white 
scales, as long as they are filled with 
air. are silvery. I'his I'act antl other 
reasons lead me to believe that the cross- 
Ijands are partial separations of the 
lower lamina of the scale, and are the 
cause of the silvery lustre of the white 
scales. I reserve, however, further dis- 
cussion of the procluction of silver\" sur- 
faces for the last portion of this paper. 

To get at the finer structure of these 
scales transverse sections of some of the 
brown ones were made ; one of these 
sections is shown in f;g. 7. d . Altho 
numerous sections as thin as 0.0035 •'''"n- 
were examined, I could find no longi- 
tudinal canals or passages, but the lower 
lamina of the scale is somewhat more 
transparent than the upper lamina ; on 
the latter portion are the longitudinal 
striae, seen in transverse section in fig. 
7. d. Sections of the white scales are 
similar in form, but are so transparent 
in the fluids in which I was obliged to 
study them that I could find no air 
cavities. 

Treatment with reagents give positive 
proof tiiat both the white and brown 
scales contain air. Alcohol or water 
rapiilh' discharges air from cavities 
within them ; glvcerin expels it onlv less 



rapidh . Scales regain their air readily 
when dried from water or alcohol. Af- 
ter treatment with any liquid the white 
scales become very transparent, showing 
that they contain no coloring matter ; 
when moimted in Canada balsam thev 
are almost invisible. 



KI.MEUIDAE, SPECIES UNDETERMINED. 

Fig. 8 represents the scales from an 
undetermined species of elateridae. 
from Leipzig, Germany. I figure them 
here because I have found in no other 
coleoptera scales of similar form. They 



P<g. S. Scales of an undetermined species of elater- 
idtie: a, seen from ahove ; f\ lateral view. Enlarged 100 
diani. 

are. however, similar in structure to the 
brown scales of A/a //s ocu/a/us. but thev 
liave in addition a prolongation of the 
distal end of the scale into a sort of short 
filament. 



SCALES OF PTINIIS .■'RUTIEUS. 

A species of Ptinus, probably P. rii- 
///z/.?, wdiich was found in great numbers 



1 1 



/'.s ; "( HE. 



i M;iy — ^_|unL- iJvS^i- 



ill ;i ilrv-goods store in Leipzig, Gci- 
niaiiv. funiislics interesting forms of 
sciiles. Tiiis colcopteron Is clothed with 
brown hairs, one of whicli is figured 
(lig. 9, 1) and among liiese hairs are 
scales (fig. 9, a and h). The relative 
size of the hairs and scales of this spe- 
cies of Ptinns may be seen from fig. 9. 
where both are drawn enlargeil 100 di- 
ameters. These scales have from two 
to seven long apical points, are actachcd 
by a little stem at the base, and are 0.06 
to 0.09 mm. in length by o.oi to 0.03 
mm. wide. Their color is liglit brown, 
which is apparentlv produced, for the 
most part, bv somewhat irregular longi- 
tudinal stripes or lliickenings upon the 
inner surface of tine scales. riiese scales 
are lilletl with air. 



improved in depth of color b\- being 
clollied with black scales. The yellow 
stripes upon the thorax are produced en- 
tirclv by vellow scales which are set 
upon a black background. Tiie whole 
riciiness of coloration of C. robiniac is 
produced by the scales with which it is 
clothed, as can perhaps be most strik- 
i'.igh' illustrated bv removing the scales 
from one half of a specimen and leaving 
the other iialf intact. In the same way 
the gromul color of the European Sap- 
crda scalaris is black, its beautifid col- 
oration being due to a dense coating of 
scak-llke iiairs. 



\ 



n 



Fi^. 9. Scnlcs :liul h:iir of /'//;///\ f ruiiluf^: ti-xnAb, 
sc:iU-s from fUlmn • - , liiir ft.. in fUrron. Knlarjfud kk) 
ili:iin. 



SCAI.KS OK Cl.V'ltS ROIilNIAi;. 

NearK ail tile \ello\v sliipes upon C. 
rol>i?iiac owe tiieir entire coloration to 
the scales with which they are covered. 
This can be seen best by scraping all the 
scales from the insect, after which, with 
the exce])tion of the legs and a few yel- 
low stripes on the elytra, it is black. Most 
black [jarts of the insect are. however. 



Fij;. 10. Scale of C/j'/tis rohiniac. EiilaruL-d uxi 

iliaiM. 

rhi' black or brown scales from the 
upper surface of the thorax or from the 
elytra of C. robiniac resemble, at first 
glance, tiiose of Alms or»/:itiis. but 
upon closer examination tliev prove to 
be quite ditferent. Their form is approxi- 
mately an elongated parallelogram (see 
fig. 10), vvitli the shank or point of at- 
tachment at one of the acute angles. 
The striae originate at and near the 
shank and terminate along the opposite 
end of the scale, thus iliiVering entirely, 
in this respect, from the scales of A/aiis. 

The scales of C. robiniac are o. i ^ to 
o. iS mm. long by about 0.02 mm. vyide. 
Under the microscope they are dark 
brown or ligiit yellow, according to 
whether they are from tlie black or yel- 
low parts of the insect. Hoth the yellow 



M:iy— June iSS^J 



PSYCHE. 



45 



Miul tliL- brown scales have the same form 
and structure, and both cont.iin air, as 
can be readily seen by the action of water 
upon them. Neither the brown nor the 
yellow scales can be bleached by chlorin. 
Of the numerous scales of curculioti- 
idac, the family of coleoptera in which 
the possession of scales may be said to 
be alnnst a rule, I haye chosen for es- 
pecial study the 

SCALES OF ENTIMUS IMPERIALIS. 

This species has the most brilliant, 
and, in some respects, the most interest- 
ing- scales and hairs of any colcopteron 
which I haye examined. Nearly its 
whole suffice, above and beneath, is 
covered with linjs or masses of minute 




Fii^. 1 1. Scales of Entimus imperialis: on a, b and c 
vertical lines indicate blue, horizontal lines indi- 
cate carmine red, and oblique lines yellow; where two 
kinds of lines cross, one color is tinged with the other; 
on (/ and c the fine lines represent the finer striation of 
the inner layer of the scales. Enlargement : d, b and f, 
ino diam. ; d and c, 300 diam. 

scales, glistening by reflected light with 
the brightest colors, and these colors are 
heightened by the shining black back- 
ground which the surface of the insect 
affords. Hairs and scales cover its legs, 
and the hairs, as will be seen later, are 
of the same nature as are the scales. 

The form of these appendages is 
extremely variable. Their greatest 
width is about 0.06 mm., and from this 



width gratlations may be foinid down 
to hairs of a diameter of less than o.oi 
mm. Tiie length of such as are typi- 
cally scales (fig. II. a. b and c) is 0.15 
to o. iS mm. The hairs attain a length 
of 1.3 mm. 

Both hairs and scales :ire colored in 
the same way and with the same colors, 
chiefly red, blue and yellow, by trans- 
mitted light, and green and purple by 
reflected light. Whatever the color by 
reflected light, its complementary color 
appears by ti'ansmitted light ; predomi- 
nant is red bv transmitted, and green 
by reflected light. Thus one sees the 
origin of the green color on the colco- 
pteron itself. Green, yellow, red, blue 
and purple often appear on a single 
scale, and these colors change if the 
light is clianged from transmitted to 
reflected ; they are especially bril- 
liant upon a black background. .Some 
scales are of a single color, usually red. 
On figure 11, a, h and c, I ha\'e at- 
tempted, as far as is possible without 
colored figures, to show the distribu- 
tion of colors in three scales. Even 
colored figures would have poorly re- 
presented some of the brilliant variations 
which the scales present. 

More careful miscroscopical exami- 
nation sufficed, even with low powers, 
to show that the scales have the ap- 
pearance of being filled with pig- 
ments, separate colors usually in dis- 
tinct compartments allotted to them. 
Sometimes, however, similar colors, 
like yellow and yellowish red (see basal 
part of fig. II, rt), or like blue and 
purple, are in the same compartment. 
Sometimes there is a tinge of color near 



■u; 



PS re HE. 



[May— Juiu- i«i. 



the margin of a compartment diflerent 
from the color of the midille of the com- 
partment, as in the upper part of fig. 1 1, 
b. The extreme margin of tiie scales 
is always transparent and colorless, and 
sometimes, as if by a flaw, a little 
transparent spot extends into the colored 
portion of the scale, as near the base of 
fig. II, c. At all points along the mar- 
gin where diflerent compartments meet 
the marginal transparent ])ortion seems 
to extend inward, and with higher mag- 
nifying powers a very thin, transparent 
partition can be seen extending between 
the compartments. This jiartition is 
clearly and perhaps too strongly repre- 
sented on fig. II, rf and c. If a part 
of a scale, especially near its base, is 
broken, two edges can be readily seen, 
showing the scale to be hollow, and the 
color sometimes fails near the broken 
edges. Everything indicates pigment 
coloration, but experience with the 
colored scales of Hoplia teaches the 
application of reagents. Treatment 
with the simplest of all reagents, water, 
dispels all the illusion in regard to en- 
closed pigments. Every scale that is 
not absolutely perfect, becomes, in a 
few moments, transparent and almost 
colorless, a slight yellow remaining, the 
water having entered the cracks and 
broken places in the scales. Is the 
pigment dissolved or changed cliemi- 
cally bv the water.' This is negatived 
by a few experiments similar to those 
tried on the scales of lloplia. The 
scales when rcdried from volatile liquids 
regain their f)riginal coloration, the 
same colors and shades in their respec- 
tive compartincnts and locations. C'hlo- 



rin or sulphuric anhydrid (SO^) fails 
to bleach the scales ; acids and alkalies 
do not change their colors. Uninjured 
scales are not penetrated by liquids and 
remain colored in them. The coloration 
is surely due, then, to physical causes, 
that is to some form of interference of 
light. 

The hairs are colored similarly to the 
scales, although the finer hairs apjiear 
to the naked eye, or to a simple lens, 
as silvery white, even when seen on a 
black surface. In the hairs the colors 
often alternate in the same general man- 
ner as tlicy do in tiie scales, but, as is 
usual in the scales, vellow, or yellowish- 
red, is generall)' nearest the basal portion 
of the hair. The external transparent 
sheath or wall of the hairs, correspond- 
ing, as seen under the inicroscope, to 
the transparent margin of the scales, 
varies much in thickness; in some cases 
the coloration fills nearly the whole 
hair, in other cases the channel through 
the hair is very small and consequently 
the color line very narrow in the hair. 
When treated with water or other liquids 
broken hairs are rendered transparent 
in the same manner as injured scales. 

Wiien filled with water the hairs and 
scales still sliow, s')metimjs (juite dis- 
tinctly, the partitions between their 
diilercnt compartments. In rare cases 
liciuiils tail to pass a p irlilit)n, leaving 
one part of a scale or hair colored after 
another part has been rendered trans- 
puent. Thus it is evident that, how- 
ever tliin the partitions may be, tlicy 
are water-tight when uninjured : they 
are, nevertheless, apparently usually 
broken throucrli. the scales themselves 



Miy-Juiif i-iSj.l 



psrcjiE. 



17 



Lieing' so hi'ittle th;it fuw can lit' renioveil 
without breaking. My experiments 
were all m:ide with scales from a speci- 
men dried at least over ten years ; pos- 
sibly a fresh specimen WMukl have less 
brittle scales. 

Further microscopic examination of 
narrow scales and huiis reveals a longi- 
tudinal striation, the striae of which are 
from 0.0015 '^° 0.0020 mm. (or even 
further) apart. This striation, which 
for greater distinctness I will call the 
"coarser striation,'" is present on hairs, 
less marked on elongated scales, and 
not generally observable on broad scales 
(such as represented in fig. 11,/'). This 
coarse striation is visible after the color 
has been removed from the scales and 
hairs by reagents. It is easily seen to 
be external on the cylindric.d hairs, 
extending beyond the colored portion of 
the hairs. 

Still higher magnifying power brings to 
view a second striation, which I will call 
the "finer striation." This striation was 
much more difficult to see than the coarser 
striation, the striae being very delicate 
and onlv o.oooS to 0.0009 mm. apart. 
Unlike the coarser striation, the finer 
striation is more evident on broad scales 
and least evident or not discernilile, at 
least with the objectives at m\- com- 
mand, on narrow scales and oii hairs. 
The finer striation is further unlike the 
coarser striation in following no definite 
direction on the scale, sometimes being 
in one direction in one portion of a scale 
and in another direction in another part 
of the same scale. In any single com- 
partment of a scale the direction of the 
finer striation is approximately the same. 



sometimes a little curved, resembling, 
as seen under the microscope, the fur- 
rows of the finger-tips. In adjacent 
compartments of a scale the finer striae 
are sometimes at right angles to each 
other, though oftener in the same direc- 
tion. I have attempted to represent, 
on fig. II, (/ and c, the finer striation 
upon two scales, but the striae, although 
proportionatelv about the right dis- 
tance apart, are themselves relatively- 
coarser than in nature. The finer stria- 
tion may be at right or at oblique angles 
(probably also parallel) to tiie coarser 
striation. The finer striation is most 
evident in blue or purplish [jarts of 
scales, altho it exists in other parts ; 
probably the darker background makes 
it more plainly visible on blue portions. 
The finer striae appear to be formed of 
rows of dots, but my objectives failed to 
determine this with certainty. The 
finer striation is invisible on scales 
treated with liquid reagents to remove 
the air. 

Both finer and coarser striation are 
found on the under as well as the upper 
sitle of the scales. At tlie edges of the 
scales the coarser striation curves and 
appears upon the transparent border of 
the scales, the finer striation (see fig. 
II, e) curves to meet the margins of 
compartments ; the coarser striation is 
evidently an external, longitudinal plica- 
tion of the scale-membrane, limited in 
extent by the size of the scale itself, the 
finer striation is a plication or figuration 
of the inner side of the scale-membrane, 
limited in extent by the outline of the 
compartment to which it belongs. 
( "To be continued. ) 



48 



rsixiiE. 



[Miiy^um- iS 



ON AN EGG-PARASITE OF THE CURRANT SAW-FLY {NEMA TCTS 

VEiYTRICOSUS). 

nV JOSEPH ALHERT I.IXTNER, AI-RAXV. N. V. 



[Ro:ui before tlio Am -riccin Association for the Advancem2nt of Science, at its Montreal 

mcetins;, 29 Aii£;ust 1SS2.] 



Dr. Asn Fitch, ill iiis 1 3th Animal 
report on tlie insects of New York for 
the year 1S67 (Trans. N. Y. state 
agric. soc. for 1S67, 1S6S, v. 27), p. 
931-933, inaile the following relerence 
to this insect : 

"As none of the 'foreign acconnts 
which we have seen allude to anv para- 
sitic enemy of this currant saw-Hy. it 
seemed (juite improbable that it would 
in this country meet with any such 
enemy, to lighten from us the task of 
combatting it and diminishing its devas- 
tations. But our valued friend J. A. 
Lintner, of Schoharie, greets us with 
the glad tidings that he has di.scovered 
we have such a foe to this formid- 
able scourge. An e^g parasite of this 
saw-fly inhabits our state, an exceedingly 
minute hvmenopterous insect, which 
inserts its eggs into those of the saw-fly, 
that its young ma\- subsist upon and con- 
sume the contents of tiiose eggs. This 
diminutive little fly has probably existed 
liitherlo upon the eggs of somj one of 
our American sa<v-Hics similar in size 
to those of the currant saw-fly ; and it 
has now discovered that the eggs of this 
newly arriveel foreigner are equally well 
adapted to its wants. And so iiiulti- 
]5lied has this little friend of the gar- 
dener become, that in Utica Mr. Lintner 
lliuls that among fifty eggs of a saw-fl\' 
upon a currant leaf, there will not be 
more than four or five that will hatch 
currant worms, all the rest being occu- 



pied b}' the little maggot, the young of 
this parasite. At .Schoharie, also, where 
the saw-fly has arrived more recently 
than at Utica, he linds this parasite 
is now beginning to appear. Every- 
where this little creature is no doubt 
following upon the tracks of the saw- 
flVi and within a very few years after 
the one arrives in any place the other 
will be there also, and will speedily 
become so multijilied as to ijuell and 
extinguish it. This is a most impor- 
tant discovery, and renders it quite 
probable that in this country this cur- 
rant worm can never be but a tempo- 
rary evil. Whenever circumstances 
favor it and enable it to multiply and 
become numerous in any section of our 
country, this little enemy, its mortal foe, 
will speedily be there to subdue and 
stamp it down. Thus nicely are the 
works of nature balanced, and no crea- 
ture is permitted to usurp a place in her 
domain which does not belong to it." 

The specimens of the parasite obtained 
by me, at the time referred to in the 
above notice, were submitted to a friend 
who had made study of the group 
to which they belong, who believed 
tliem to be an undescribed species, and 
was only able to give them a doubtful 
generic reference. Thcv were siibse- 
(|uentl\' destroyed, and from that time 
until the present year (an interv.il of 
fourteen years), although 1 have con- 



May— June 1SS3.J 



rsiXHE. 



4:t 



tinned to searcli for them, I have been 
unable to obtain tiie species. 

Its rediscovery by me the present year, 
and the determination of the species, 
lend additional interest to the notes 
upon it that I made at its first observa- 
tion, at Utica, N. Y., in June iS66, 
and I therefore transcribe them from 
my note-book : — 

I had collected a numlier of currant 
leaves upon which the currant saw-fly 
had deposited eggs, and was counting 
the eggs upon each to obtain the average 
number per leaf, when I noticed an 
occasional brown egg among them, ap- 
pearing somewhat abnormal in shape. 
On placing them under a lens a resem- 
blance to a pupal form was detected. 
I at once suspected the presence of the 
parasite for which we had been hoping. 
Although there seemed to be but the 
merest chance of discovering at large 
an insect so minute as this must neces- 
sarily be, I instituted a careful search 
of the currant bushes in the garden, and 
in a short time had the great gratification 
of discovering a minute speck moving 
among the eggs, which under my lens 
revealed a form which left scarce room 
for doubt of its parasitic character. 
During the day I detected several more 
of the kind upon the leaves containing 
egg-deposits, aflbrding strong evidence 
of their relationship. A few days there- 
after (perhaps a week), in a small phial 
in which I had placed some eggs that 
I suspected of having been parasitized, 
I had the delight of seeing several of 
the familiar forms of my currant-leaf 
acquaintances, and the ruptured pujia 



case^ from which they had evidently 
escaped. 

The following year (1S67) there was 
a marked diminution in the number of 
currant-worms observed, and a corres- 
ponding increase in parasitized eggs. 
Many of the leaves had not been visited 
b\' the parasite, but of those that gave 
evidence of such visit, the yvork of de- 
struction was almost complete, for of 
several leaves bearing each from thirty to 
forty eggs, all but five or six were trans- 
formed into parasitic pupae. 

In June 1S68, 1 was able to make, at 
Schoharie, N. Y.., the following obser- 
vations upon the oviposition of the 
parasite within the eggs of the currant 
saw-fl\' : — 

In a small phial in vviiich hail been 
placetl some parasitized eggs of the saw- 
fly, a male and female parasite had 
emerged. That I might observe their 
actions I introduced a piece of currant 
leaf having upon it some eggs which 
I had just seen deposited. No evidence 
was given that the female yvas aware 
of the presence of the eggs, but after 
several minutes traveling around the 
glass, she moved upon the leaf, and in 
passing over and beneath it, seemed 
to meet with them accidentally. She 
pausetl, and then began a careful inspec- 
tion, walking over them several times, 
and constantly palpating them with her 
antennae. Then, satisfied with her ex- 
amination, she attached herself to one 
of the eggs, appressed the tip of her 
abdomen to it. and remained in this 



50 



rSVLJlE. 



[M;iy— June iSS,^. 



position motionless for the space of two- 
anil-a-lialf minutes, during which time 
an egg, doubtless, was inserted, although 
the pocket lens with which the obsen-a- 
tion was made did not disclose the fact. 
The motion of her antennae then recom- 
menced, and I expected to see the 
operation just w^itnessed repeated upon 
another egg ; but, to my surprise, she 
merely changed position — again applied 
the tip of her abdomen to a different 
part of the same egg, and remained 
at rest for about the same space of time 
as before. Three times I witnessed this 
performance, and it is therefore pro- 
bable that three parasitic eggs were 
placed within the one of tiie currant- 
fly. Unfortunately an interruption ])re- 
vented me from noticing if the remain- 
ing currant-fly eggs were similarly 
parasitized, and the number of eggs in- 
troduced in each ; and much to my 
regret, the eggs were accidentally de- 
stroyed before my observations could be 
made upon their transmutation into 
parasitic pupae. The pupa cases are 
dark brown, disclosing some of the 
outlines of the contained pupae, some- 
what flattened, broader tiian the original 
egg, but of about its length. The in- 
sect is apparently one of the chalcididac, 
having a broad head, long and elbowed 
antennae, ovoid anterior wings, nearly 
veinless, bcautifuUv iridescent, deli- 
catelv fringed and haired ; the posterior 
wings are almost linear ; the abdomen is 
short, not reaching the tips of the wings. 
This year (1868) is probably the 
first appearance of tlie parasite at 
Scholiarie. as I i'<iulcl only discoviT about 



a dozen individuals. Its progress seems 
to be from west to east, corresponding 
with that of the ciurant-worm. 

The rediscovery of the parasite tin- 
present year (18S3) was made in my 
garden at Albany, upon a solitary cur- 
rant bush growing there. The parasitized 
eggs were enclosed in a bottle, and in a 
few da\s the insects emerged. Tiiat I 
might multiplv and aid in the distribu- 
tion of an insect which had already 
shown its capabilitv for usefulness. I 
visited another garden in the city to 
obtain eggs of the currant-fly for para- 
sitization by my confined individuals. 
To mv suiprise, the parasite was here 
found in strong force, for in the ex- 
amination of a long row of currant 
bushes containing many eggs, I could 
not find a single egg-bearing leaf which 
had not been visited, and the destruc- 
tion of the eggs ensured. A large num- 
ber of leaves were collected, each 
bearing perhaps from forty to fifty 
parasitized eggs. Reserving a few of 
these for stud}' and for propagation, the 
remainder were made up in small par- 
cels of about a half-dozen each, and 
mailed to entomological friends in vari- 
ous parts of the United States and 
Canada, with the request that they be 
pinned upon currant-bushes among the 
leaves where the currant-fly eggs were 
to be found. The introiluction of para- 
sites in this manner into localities where 
thev had not previously occurred, has 
been shown to be practicable ; and in 
consideration of the great importance of 
parasitic aid in tiu' destruction ol our 



ny — June iS.S,v j 



PSYCHE. 



ol 



insect pests, I sincerely hope that my 
etlbrts to distriliute this very efficient 
parasite may prove, from observations 
to lie made hereafter, to have been suc- 
cessful. 

Examples of the insect were sent by 
me to Mr. L. O. Hov^'ard, of the De- 
partment of agriculture at Washington, 
a gentleman who has made special 
stnd}' of the family to which it pertains, 
viz., the chalcididae. He informs me 
that there is no doubt of its being the 
species described and named by Dr. 
C. V. Riley in 1S79 (Can. entom., 
Sept. 1879 V. II, p. i6i-i62)as Triclio- 
f^amfna pretiosa, examples of which 
had been reared, at Washington, from 
eggs of the cotton-worm moth, Alctia 
argillacea Hiibn., collected in Alabama. 
The description is reproduced, with 
additional information, in Prof. J. II. 
Comstock's Report upon cotton insects 
(Washington, 1S79), p. 193. It has 
since been extensively reared from eggs 
of the same moth collected in Florida, 
by Mr. H. G. Hubbard. It has also 
been bred at the U. S. Department of 
agriculture from eggs of an unknown 
noctuid moth occurring on orange trees, 
and from Aleyrodes. 

Dr. Riley, from some structural 
features, thought that it might be nec- 
essary to establish a new genus for this 
species and one or two closely allied 
ones, but Mr. Howard finds it to be a 
true Tr i chogramma , as at first referred. 

Another species of the genus, T. 



miiinta Riley,' has been reared from the 
eggs of one of our common butterflies, 
of extensive distribution, Lunenitls 
distppus. Parasitized examples of 
these eggs have given from four to six 
specimensof the minute creature, which, 
notwithstanding its specific name of 
niinuta^ exceeds in size the microsco- 
pic T. pretiosa, the latter being only 
about 0.3=5 mm. in length. 

In connection with the above notice 
of the egg-parasite of the currant-fl}', 
it may be of interest to offer the follow- 
ing note of the oviposition of the cur- 
rant-fly as observed by me, as its method 
has not to my knowledge been previ- 
ously published : 

June 7, 186S. Ncinatits vcntricosits. 
was seen to deposit thirty eggs upon a 
single currant leaf within one hour. In 
the act of ovipositing, it curved the tip 
of its abdomen downward and forward, 
directing its ovipositor toward its head, 
in which position the end of the egg is 
seen to protrude and attach itself to the 
leaf-nervure, when the ovipositor is 
withdrawn, and the egg left in position. 
Moving backward a very little, another 
egg is similarly deposited, and in like 
manner the operation is continued, until 
the leaf has its assigned quota, or the 
supply of eggs is exhausted. The eggs 
produced their larvae on June 14th. 



I Third Annual report on tlw hist-cts of Missouri, 
1S71, p. 15S, fig. 72. 



PS re HE. 



[M:iy — ^June 1SS3. 



THE TARSAL AND ANTENNAL CHARACTERS OF PSOCIDAE. 

ny HERMANN AUGUST HAGEN, CAMISRIDGE. MASS. 



LRoprint rroni Entom. mo. mas 

1>\' .'I mere cluincc I see th:it a .state- 
ment recently pulilished bv me concern- 
ing the tarsal structure of psocidae 
confirms, in a most satisfactory manner, 
that made b}' Prof. Westvvood in 1S57 
(Proc. Ent. soc. Lond., series 3, vol. 
iv, pp. 63, 64) regarding certain coleo- 
pteia. 

Being occupicil with tlie atrophia., I 
was astonished to liinl that the young 
forms have only two-jointed tarsi (in- 
stead of three-jointed, as is found in 
the imago), but the last joint, internally, 
in the middle, shows a more or less 
visible division, where the 3rd joint 
(the median.) will be formed, and just 
below it are one or two small bristles. I 
have observed this in A\_ti-opos'\ dlvin- 
a tori a (reared bv myself), sited nica. 
and olcagina, and also in Hypcrctcs 
tcssc/latus. So long as the young have 
only two-jointed tarsi, the antennae have 
also less joints. Thus, in A. diviiiatc- 



.. June 1S82, V. 19. p. i:;-i3.] 

ria the latter have only 12 instead of 
the 15 of the imago ; in Hypcrctcs the 
proportions are 13 to 33. But, although 
the third (middle) joint of the tarsi is 
produced by a division of the apical, 
it is just the contrary with the antennae* 
In these the two thick basal joints, and 
the apical joint are not divided ; but in 
some species all the intermediate joints 
are so. Hyperetes is in the latter case, 
all the 10 intermediate joints being divi- 
ded in the imago, as I can show from 
prepaiations. It is a remarkable fact 
that the mvstevious Hvperetcs shows, in 
its earlier stages, precisely the normal 
number (13) of joints for the psocidae. 
I am not prepared to give an opinion 
as to this genus. Other genera, such 
as Caecilins., commonlv considered to 
have onlv two-jointed tarsi. ])ossess a 
small aborted third joint, just as occurs 
in many coleoptera. 

C;iml)ricii;e, Muss., ist April, 1SS2. 



The Chigoe in .;\r-RicA. — It is sta- 
ted in Burton and Cameron's " To the 
Gold Coast for Gold" that the chigoe 
( Pulcx penetrans^ has been recently 
introduced and has spread all over the 
West African seaboard and far into the 
interior. At the time of Captain Bur- 
ton's first visit (1S62) it was md<n(>\\ u 



on the west coast ; but now it ranks 
with the indigenous red, wliite and 
black ants, centipedes, scorpions, veno- 
mous spiders and flies of the tzctzc 
group, as among the chief |)lagucs ot" 
that region. — Amcr. iialiiralist . Jime 
1SS3, v. 17. p. 664. 



May— J'lne iSS.vJ 



PSYCHE. 



W.\ 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., MAY-JUNE 18S3. 



Commnnicatfons, exchanges and- editors* copies 
should f't- tiddresst-d to Editoks of Psyche, Cam- 
bi-idge, Mass. Communications for publication in 
P>.VCHE yniist bf properly authenticated, and no anony- 
mous articles rvHl be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
ffntements inade in their own commu?iications. 

IVorl-s on subjects not related to entomology zvill not 
be reviexved in PoVCiiE. 

For rates of subscription and of advertising y see ad- 
7'ertisin^ cnlumns. 



REARING LEPIDOPTERA. 

It will be gratifying to those entomol- 
ogists who recognise the great importance 
of the knowledge of the early stages of insect 
life, to learn of the attention that is being 
given to this department of study by Mr. S. 
L. Elliot, of New York City. For the last 
few years, this gentleman has been indefati- 
gable in his lepidopterological studies, and 
especially in larval collections and breeding 
from the egg. Fortunate in the ability to 
devote his entire time to the work, and actu- 
ated by an enthusiasm that scarcely recog- 
nises the need of any respite from the ab- 
sorbing "labor of love" — very valuableand 
important results have already followed his 
labors. The life-histories of a number of 
rare species have been worked out. New 
species have been discovered, and so-called 
species shown to be simple varieties. Im- 
mense numbers of larvae have been collected 
and reared upon their food-plants, descrip- 
tions of the new forms, with the aid of Mr. 
Henry Edwards, have been taken, and thou- 
sands of perfect insects have been obtained 
for the cabinets of those who prize perfect 
forms. His success in carrying lepidoptera 



through their wintei" pujiation, bv means ot" 
a method and appliances devised by himself, 
has never, we believe, before been equalled. 
Several thousands of pupae have been carried 
through the past winter with scarcely any 
loss except that unavoidably resulting from 
parasitic attack. We know of no one else in 
the United States, who is rearing the larva? 
of lepidoptera so successfully and on so large 
a scale. 

J. A. L. 



ROOK NOTICES. 

It is understood that Mr. Wni. Saunders, 
of London, OntaiMo, has in preparation and 
has nearly completed a volume upon "The 
Insects of our Fruits and Fruit-trees." The 
great need of the intbrmation that this vol- 
ume will present, has long been felt, and it 
is very gratifying to know that the want is 
soon to be supplied. The larger portion of it 
is already in type. Much labor has been be- 
stowed upon its preparation to render it as 
complete as possible and prefectly reliable. 
It will make a volume, as we learn from the 
author, of nearly 450 pages. Almost every 
species noticed will be illustrated, requiring 
for the purpose over 400 figures. It will be 
issued by the well known publishing-house 
of Lippincott & Co., of Philadelphia, in their 
best style, and will be oflfered to the public at 
a price (probably $3) that will bring it with- 
in the reach of all who need it. From the 
distinguislied ability of the author, his famil- 
iarity with fruit-culture, and the special efforts 
made by him to render the volume all that it 
should be, we are confident that it will prove 
to be a standard work upon the subject of 
which it treats, and that it cannot fliil of com- 
manding an extensive sale. J. A. L. 

[Mr. Saunders' book has been issued since 
the above notice was written.] 



The third part of the third volume of the 
Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of 
Natural Sciences, which came to hand in 
April, is devoted to the memory of Joseph 



r)4 



PsrcHE. 



[M;iy — June 1&S,J. 



Duncan I'lilnam, who was foremost among 
the members of that society in securing for 
it a scientific standing as a publishing society. 
Besides the proceedings of the meeting held 
in Mr. Putnam's memory, the letters sent to 
his bereaved i-ehitives by his scientific associ- 
ates, and the resolutions passed by several 
scientific societies upon hearing of his death, 
Prof. Herbert Osborn, with the assistance of 
Dr. H. A. Hagen and others, has prepared 
for publication the notes upon and figures of 
Americon solpiigidac, which Mr. Putnam 
had made, and which now form an interest- 
ing contribution to the study of a heretofore 
neglected family' of American arthropoda. 
To this paper is added a bibliography of the 
solpiigidae, complied from Mr. Putnam's 
by Miss Julia E. Sanders. This bibliography 
comprises 224 titles, with notes, and is ar- 
ranged in chronological order. 

G: D. 
Cambridge, Mass., 14 April 1S83. 



A paper with the title RoxHirdfzati liipok 
(Journal of entomology) has lately made its 
appearance in Pesth, Hungary. It is, how- 
ever, a mistake to bury interesting entomo- 
logical matter in pages printed in a language 
which few outside of Hungary can read. 

G: D. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 
Cambridge Entomologic.vl Cluh. 

9 March 1S83. — The 91st meeting of the 
Club was held at 19 Brattle Square. Cam- 
bridge, 9 March 1SS3, at S p. m. In the ab- 
sence of the President, Mr. S; Henshaw was 
chosen Chairman. Seven persons (five of 
whom were members) were present. 

Tlie additions to the library of the Club 
were announced by the Librarian. 

Mr. G: Dimmock read a paper on "The 
scales of coleoptera," including in the paper 
observations in regard to the scales of other 
insects. Microscopical preparations and fig- 



ures of many tonus of scales were show'n. 
[The paper is now appearing with ilhistra- 
tions, in Psyche.] 

Mr. S: H. Scudder exhibited a figure, by 
Brongniart, of a very large fossil walking- 
stick, described under the name of Tilano- 
phasnia fayoU. 

Mr. S : H. Scudder showed a few photo- 
graphs of regions in Colorado where fossil 
insects had been found. 



LiNNEAN Society of London. 

6 Feb. 1SS3. ... A paper was read "On the 
palling of Tegenaria guyonii and descrip- 
tion of certain organs in the male abdominal 
sexual region," by J. Maule Campbell. Two 
cases were related in which during confine- 
ment the males killed the females after union 
and an instance was also given of an attempt 
to impregnate an immature female which 
was also destroyed by the male. In neither 
case could hunger have been the cause of the 
attack. The writer explained these occur- 
rences and also the accounts of females de- 
stroying males after union on the ground 
"That those instincts which are habitually 
practised throughout the far greater portion 
of the life of the species, and on which its 
existence is dependent would scarcely be sus- 
pended for a longer period than necessary 
for the sexual union." Some of the habits 
of spiders and especially of this species were 
mentioned as bearing on these sexual con- 
flicts, and the specific benefits which would 
arise from them were referred to. The paper 
concluded by a note on some glands situated 
on the convexity of the abdominal sexual 
region. The ducts, considerably convoluted, 
open through transparent tubular spines 
which are arranged transversely to the axis 
of the body of the spider. These organs are 
supposed by Mr. Campbell to be a kind of 
spinning organ. Two papilla-like processes 
below the opening of the genital sinus were 
also described. — Zool. ainriger, 5 March 
1S83, jahrg. 6, p. 127-128. 



M;iy — ^June 1SS3.J 



PSYCHE. 



[3335-3243] 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Authors and societies are requested tn forzvard their -vorks to the editors as soon as 
fubJisked. The date of publieation^ given in braekets [], marks the time at luhich the 
work -vas received, ii/iless an earlier date of publication is knoivn to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherwise stated each record is made directly from the zvork that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common given ?iame., as: A: Augustus; B: Bcn- 
iamiu; C: Charles; D: David; E: Edvjard; F: Frederic; G: George: H: Henry: 
I: Isaac; J; John; K: Karl; L; Louis; M: Mark; N: Nicholas; O: Otto; P; Peter; R: 
Richard: S: Samuel; T: Thomns: W: William. The initials at the end of each record, or 
note, arc those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



Bachmann.O: Leitfaden zuranfertigung mi- 
kioskopischer dauerprciparate. Miinchen. 
R. Oldenhourg, 1879. t.-p. cover, S+196 
p., 24X15, t 17X10; 87 il. Pap., 4 M. 
General instructions for making microscopic prepar- 
ations : p. (vS-90 treats especially of entomological prep- 
aratims. " G: D. (3^35) 

Barrett, C : G. Hints as to the best means 
of rearing larvae of tortricidae. (Entom. 
mo. mag., Jan. 18S3, v. 19, p. 172-176.) 
General directions for rearing the different forms of 

larvae of tortricidae. G: D. \3236) 

Bell, James Thompson. How we captured a 
hornet's nest. (Can. entom.. May iSSi, 
V. 13, p. 114.) 
Hornets {vcspa) killed by injecting; chloroform into 

their nest. G: D. (3237) 

Berg, CArlos. Contribuciones al estudio de 
las cicadidae de la Repiiblica Argentina 
V pai'ses limi'trofes. "(Anal. soc. cient. 
argent., 1882, t. 14, p. 3S-4S.)" 

Separate. Buenos Aires, 1882. t.-p. 
cover, 16 p., 25X16, t iSXii. 

Describes 11 species (from Sonth America and Mex- 
ico) ; 6 are new species as follows ; tettigades papa, 
tympanoterpes elegans, proarna iiru^uayensis, p. mon- 
tevidensis, carineta platensis, and d£rotetti.v (nov. gen.) 
ftifndost'ftsis. G: D. (323S) 

Bergroth, E. Zur geographischen verbreit- 
ung einiger odonaten. (Entom. nachrich- 
ten, 15 March 1881, jahrg. 7. p. S5-S8.) 
Notes on nnmeroiis species nf odonata. 

G: D. (3239) 

Bertholet, A. [Presentation d'une section 
d'lin sapin du Risoud penetree paries four- 
mis.] (Bull. soc. vaudoise des sci. nat., 
Oct. iSSi, s. 2, V. 17; Procfes-verbaux, p. 
35-36-) 
Mode in which species of rampojiotus had formed 

galleries in a spruce tree. G: />.(324o) 



Bethune, C : James Stewart, compiler. In- 
sects of the northern parts of British Am- 
erica. From Kirbj's Fauna boreali-ameri- 
cana : Insecta. (Can. entom., 1870, v. 2 : 
April, p. 76-S2 ; May, p. S9-93 ; July, p. 
105-110; Sept. -Oct., p. 142-145; Dec, p. 
168-176; 1871, V. 3: June, p. 27-32; Sept.. 
p. 88-94, 114-116: Oct., p. 134-137. i,vS-i56; 
Nov., p. 172-176, 186-192; Dec, p. 211-217, 
227-233; 1372, V.4: Feb., p. 31-36; March, 
p. 52-57; May, p. 93-96; June, p. 111-118; 
Aug., p. 151-155; Sept., p. 175-179; Oct., 
p. 196-19S; Dec, p. 231-235; 1873, v. 5 : 
May, p. 96-99; June, p. 115-117; July, p. 
129-132; Oct., p. 193-196; Nov., p. 210-213; 
1375, V. 7: June, p. iog-113; Aug., p. 156- 
159; 1877, V. 9: Aug. p. 14S-156; 1878, 
V. 10 : June, p. 116-I1S; Julv, p 137-139; 
Nov., p. 213-217; 1878, "v. 11: Aug., p- 
146-154; 1881, V. 13: Aug., p. 162-170.) 
Reprint of the parts of \V : Ivirbv's "Fauna boreali- 
americana" . . . which apply to the insects of the north- 
ern parts of British America, together with notes, by 
the compiler, on the species and their synonymy. [.Si't- 
Psyche, Rec, nos. 4S5, 1214, and 132S.] 

A.h'.D. (3241) 

Bieler, S. [Appareil buccal de divers in- 
sectes.] (Bull. soc. vaudoise des sci. nat., 
Dec. 18S0, s. 2, V. 17; Procfes-verbaux, p. 
6.) 

Chieflv concerning tiic trnplii of />ii/e.v. 

G: D. C3242) 

Butler, Arthur Gardiner. Notes on some 
North American lepidoptera. (Papilio. 
July iSSi, V. I, p. 103-106.) 

Describes anceryx edxoardsii z.s a new species, and 
states that the insect known as oejtosanda noctuiformi's 
Walk, is anew species, and that its generic name should 
he catitetht'a', gives comparative una other notes nn ke- 
maris cynoglossum, pterogon clarkiae^ detdamia in- 
scripta, choerocampa tersa, deilephila lineata, philam- 
pelus achetfton, smerinthtis ophthalmicus, sphinx oreo- 
daphne, s. perelegans^ and refers darapsa versicolor Xo 
the erenus ompelophnga. H: E. (,124.,^) 



•■><■• [3^-M-3^55] 



PSYCHE. 



(M:iy— .l"""-' '^'^.i- 



Butler, Arthur Gardiner. Notes on some 
North American lepidoptera. (Papilio, 
Sept. iSSi, V. I, p. 12S-132.) 

Ci'mpunilivL- iioH:s on xyslus- robiniae, alvpia sacra- 
menti.a. ridingsii,copidryas elovcri,gnophaela hofffc- 
ri.g- vermicidata, dahana alnpennis, cU-nnrlmsiihrnsca- 
pits Uptarctia Ulta^ arctia intermedia, a. achata, a. och- 
racia, euchach-s collaris, phrvganidea cali/oniira, 
hem ileura nevadensis, pseudohaxis eglanterina, satiiniia 
ttiendncino, rlisioraiiiha caiifornica, and eulimacades 
^cahlia. Refers ^iiop/iae/a to the arctiidae, section pen- 
copidae, and states that ctenucha ■malsinghamti Ily. 
Eclw =.c.nihroscapus Men. Believes that />A»'j^^n;»((<-« 
californica shovlUl he pl.aced in tlie (axaW^ dioptidae. 
■' H: E. (j244) 

Butler, Arthm- (Jardiner. Notes on some 
North American lepidoptera. (l^ipilio, 
Oct. 18S1, V. I, p. 16S-171.) 

Calls attention to the affinities of the nocluidac, par" 
ticulailv with reference to early stages, and tjives cinn" 
pavative notes of several species. H: E. (,5245) 

Butler, Arthur Gardiner. Notes on some 
North .American lepidoptera. (Papilio, 
Dec. 18S1, V. I, p. 220-223.) 

Notes on geomelridar; thinks metrocampa perlata 
Guen. = w/. margaritata; compares tetrads aegrotata 
of California witli sabulodes dosilheata Guen. of Ven- 
ezuela, and thinks them congeneric; refers thamnonoma 
Iripnnrlaria Pack, to genus lozogramma ; says that 
glaiifoptcrvx caesiata Hiibn. does not exist in United 
States, an(i that our species known by that name is 
undescribed ; tripknsa dubitata Pack, is' not t. diibitata 
Linn. "■ E. (i^l,f^) 

Comstock : J: H : An aquatic noctuid larva. 

Arzama melutiopyga Grote, new species. 

(Papilio, Oct. 1S81, V. I, p. 147-149.) 

Describes larva and habits of arzama melanopyga, 

feedinu upon the leaf.stalks of tlie pond-lily, {niifdiar 

adveita). In this paper .V.-R. Grote gives description 

(quoted by Cocnstock) of the imago of «. melanopyga a.s 

a new species, and compares it with a. diffusa, a. vit/itt- 

fica, and sphida obliquata. H: E. (3247) 

EdvT-ards, H : Description of some new spe- 
cies of N. American moths. (Papilio, June 
1S81, V. I, p. lOO-IOI.) 

Describes as new euleucophaeus sororitts from Lower 
Calif()rnia, plltsia cetsa from Oregon, and xanthothrix 
tieiimoe^eni from California; redescribes gloveria aru 



zonensis Pack., from Arizona. 



(,i34S) 



Edwards, 11 : Descriptions of some new 
species of heteroccra. (Papilio, July i8Si, 
V. I, p. 115-121.) 

Describes as new sphinx libocedrits, anatolmis /tit- 
gens and zercne elegantaria from Arizona, sphinx ittah- 
ettsis from Utah, synedcida valens from Souliiern Utah, 
Ihyridoptcrvx mcadii from Mohave Desert, gorytodes 
pcrsonaria'ivom California, aribates vcrsuttts, o.opipa- 
rus and syneda ocrultii from Te.xas, azelina mnrri^nn- 
aria from Wasliington Territory, ratocala cmilia from 
New York, r. miranda from District of Columbia, and 
svncdttfarela from Florida; finds oribates occupied as a 
generic name, and substitutes gyros for it. 

//; E. (3249) 



Edwards, H : Joseph Duncan Putnam. (Pa- 
pilio, Dec. 1S81, V. I, p. 223-224.) [Rec, 
2666.] 

Biographical sketch of J. D. Putnam, president of 
the Davenport acadeniv of natural sciences; l>. iS Oct. 
iS^i;, in lacksonville.'lll.; d. lO Dec. iSSi, in Daven- 
port, Iowa. M: E. (3250) 

Edwards, H : New genera and species of 
\\\<i i-,v.W\\\ acgei-idae. (Papilio, Nov. 1881, 
V. I, p. 179- 20S, pi. 4[i]-) 

Describes etthagena, lariinda, carmenta and albuna 
as new genera of aegeriidar, and describes as new spe- 
cies trochilimn paeijicum, eultagena nebraskae, bembecia 
sequoiae, b. snpcrba, /aritnda soiituda, sciapteron grae- 
Jii, s. srcpsiformis, s. cupressi, carmenta rllficornis, c. 
viinilta, c. sanborni, c. fraxini, albuna resplendens. a. 
rtlti/ans, a. rileyana, a. artemisiac, a. montana, a. tana- 
ceti, a. 7f^nconrerensis, a. co/oradensis, a. torva, aegeria 
Jlava, a. aurata, a. corni, a. saxifragae,^ a. z'erecunda, 
a. brunneipennis, a. rttbrofascia, a. holli, a. tupini, a. 
perp/exa, a. impropria, a. sex/'asciata, a. corttsca, a. 
aureola, a. consimiiis, a. hyperiri, a. injiruia, a. eiipa- 
torii, a imitata, a- morula, a. koebelei, a. -ivashingtonia, 
a. dccipiens, a neglecta, a. imperfecta, a. hemizoniae, a- 
senecioidcs, a. refulgens, a. opa'lescens, a. noyarnensis, 
a giliae, a. mimuti, a. madariae, a. albicornis, a. prox- 
ima, a. inusitata, a. nicotianae, pyrrhotaenia polygoni, 
p. t'rti^ariae, p. helianlhi, p- achillae, p. tepperi, p. 
eremocarpi, p. nteadii, p. nrthocarpi, p. texana, zeno- 
doxus heueherae, z. potentillac, z. canesceus; describes 
larva of sciapteron syringae. Qiiotes Walker's descrip- 
tions of aegeria pleciaeformis, a. fyramidalis, a. ody- 
neriformis, a. emphytiformis, a. hylotomiformis, a. py- 
ralldiformis, a.sapygaeformis, a.gcliformis, and gives 
colored figm-iiS of all these species except a. pyralldi- 
Jormis. H: •£• (325") 

Edward-, W : H : On certain hahits of lieli- 
coiila ibarititiia. Linn., a species of htitter- 
tlv found in Florida. Read before the lint, 
siib-sect. of Am. Ass. Cinn. j8 Aug. 1S81. 
(Papilio, Dec. 1881, v. i, p. 209-215.) 
Paper read in part before Permanent sub-secUon of 
entomology of A. A. A. S., at Cincinnati, O., iS Aug. 
iSSi. States that, from observations of Dr. W: Witt- 
feld, of Florida, the males n^ heliconia charitnnia attach 
themselves in numbers to the chrysalis of the female 
before emergence, and place themselves in coitu some- 
times before" the whole body of the female has freed itself 
from the shell. //• E. (3252) 

Edwrards, \V: H : Description of a new hcs- 
perian froiu Florida. (Papilio, 31 May 

issi, v. I. p. 78-79-) 

Describes as new pamphlVa straton; compares it with 
p. leonardus and p. arpa. H: E. (3253) 

Edwards W : H : Description of the pre- 
paratory stages of t/iccla hcnrici, Grote. 
(Papilio, Oct. i8Si, v. i, p. 150-152.) 
Describes egg, larval st-agcs and chrysalis tt{ thecta 
henrici. States" that the larva feeds upon the fruit of 
plum-trees \prunus\. If: E (3254) 

Ed-wards, H : A new and roiuarkable bom- 
bvcid moth from .\rizona. (Papilio, Oct. 
18S1. V. I, p. 171-172.) 

Describes .as new euleucophaeus neumoei^eni. 

>/. E. (325s) 



May— June 1SS3.J 



PSYCHE. 



[3256-3270] 



Edwards, H : A new 'genus and some new 
fn ims of North American zygaenidae. 
(Papilio, 31 May iSSi, v. i, p. So-Si.) 

Describes pcnthelrio n. g. zygaenidae^ p. majnscula^ 
p. pan'ula^ gnophae/a vennicii/ata var. ro}2fhiua, ly(o- 
vtarpha constant and /. desertns. M: E. C325''>) 

Edwards, W : H : On pien's bryo7iiae Och- 
senheimcr. and its derivative forms in 
Europe and America. (Papilio. June iSSi. 
V. I. p. S4-99, pi. 2-3.) 

Gives full ;ind careful examination and diagnosis of 
all species or varieties, both European and Americ;in, 
allied to pieris bryoniae, witli comparative notes on 
their resemhla.ncesand probable urisin. Gives iScolored 
fissures, on two plates, of summer and winter forms. 

H: E. (J257) 

Ed-wards, W : H : Some remarks, on the 
alleged abnormal peculiarities of tinrymiis 
myriinr. (Papilio. Sept. iSSi, v. i. p. 134- 
141.) 

Paper read before the Perni.inent sub-section of ento- 
nioloi^y of the American association for the advance- 
ment nf science, at Cincinnati, O., 19 Auir. iSSi. Com- 
bats the opinions expressed bv S : H. Scudder in his 
"The curious history of a butterfly" (Amer. nat., Sept. 
1S72, V. 6, p. 51.^-518) [Kec, ,^274], witli reference to the 
hibernation and other habits nf argynnis inyrina and 
a-bellnua. ' ff:'E. {.^258) 

Fernald, C : II : Notes on '-The tnrh-iridae, 
tiiiciiiac and fferophoridae of South Af- 
rica. Lord Walsingham. M. A.. F. Z. S.." 
&c. (Papilio. Dec. iSSi. v. i. p. 219-220.) 
Xotire of T: di- Grev's [Lord Wal'i'>»l-nml "The 

lorlrirhiae" etc.; explanation < f the svnonvn'^' "f rv^r. 

I,mn Ch-m. = rrrnf<si! 7.i;\\. K:P.M. (.5259) 

French G : Mazen. Larvae of two species 
of eitclea. (Papilio. Sept. iSSi, v. i, p. 
■ I44-I4.';-) 

Describes larvae of ntrlea pnenuJata and e. monitor. 

H: E. i-phn) 

French, G : Hazen. Notes on the larvae of 
some moths. (Papilio, 31 Mav iSSi, v. i, 
p. 81-S2.) 
Describes larva of arclio dernt-ata and cyiuotophoro 

I'Cimpinaria. MlE. (,^261) 

French, G: Hazen. A parasite in aegcria 
syringae. Harris. (Papilio, July 1S81. v. 
I, p. 106.) 
Records the existence of phnengenes ater Cress. 

(fam. ichnenmonidae) in the larva m aegeria syri'ngne. 

H: g. (.5262) 

French, G : Hazen. Some new varieties of 
catocalae. (Papilio. July 18S1. v. i, p. iio- 
III.) ■ ■ 

Describes as new catocala lacbrymosa var. tTe/inii. 
c. lacltryjnoso var. zelica, c. intntbens var. hinda, all 
from Illinois. H: E. (3263) 



Grote, A: Radclifle. Moths collected by 
Prof. .Snow in New Mexico, with list of 
cudriini. (Papilio, Oct. 1881, v. i, p. 174- 
17S.) 

Describes as new halesidota hiherula, q^fodriiia n. 
gen. {dryocainpini), q. diazoma, rhododipsa mini'aita, 
hessiila n.s^en. {norluidae), h.hi.va, emploria ccphisan'a, 
e. fervefactarioy hot is tora/is; notices orcurrencc of 
iy^roiithoccia spra^ufi -.md boiis volupiaiis; gives list 
ot the tribe endfiini, and diagnoses the genera ens- 
riiim^ptirns, mpidryas, e/idryas and ciris. 

H: E. {.^264} 

Grrote, A : Radcliffe. N'^w western moths. 
(Papilio, 31 May i8Si, v. i, p. 75-7S.) 
Describes trioau-mis as a new genus o'( }ioctuidac-An(i 
describes as new species tkyatifa lorata, bomhyria semi- 
circularis, agrotis riodiana, hndetia cinej'orta and trio- 
cjiemis saporis, from Washiuiiton Territory, f/o/ci/iisai- 
la from Colorudo, and mclicUpiria honesta from Oregon ; 
re-describes agrotis h<ti-i/a,\ and points out its distinct- 
ness from (7. r/a7ldes/ifia. //; D. (3265) 

Grote. A : Radcliffe. Note on agrotis ?'e- 
f>ef/fis. (Papilio, Sept. iSSi. v.i. p. 126- 
12S.) 

Endeavors to establish the difference between o^ro/z^ 
re^eiitis and a. messoria; notices other forms resem- 
bling these species, and states that a. cochranii Rilev=: 
(7. rcpentis G. & R., acrouycta populi Riley ^ a. le'pns- 
culina Guen., prodenia autumualis RWiiy :=z laphygino 
fntgipcrda Abb. & Sni,, xylina dnerea Ri]ey = .v. an- 
tentiata Walk., and pr<il.>ably agrotis scandcns Riley ^ 
a. messoi'ia Harr. and plitsia brnsxirar Riley :=^. ni 
Hiibn. H: E. (3266) 

Grote, A: Radclifte. Professor Riiev on 
da km ma. (Papilio. Sept. 1S81. v. i , p. 
142-144.) 

Contends that dahruma is a j^ood genus, in op|)osi. 
tion to a statement of C : \'. Riley tliat it should be 
merffed in zophodia, II: E. C3267) 

Gundiach. Juan. An annotated catalogue 
of the diurnal lepidoptei-a of the island of 
Cuba. Based on Kirbv's Svnonymical cata- 
logue. (Papilio, fiilv 18S1. V. I, p. Ill- 
•"5) 

Enumerates 53 i^ener.l and 145 species of diurn;il le|)- 
idoptera. known to the author to exist in Cuba. 

H: E. (326,$) 

Kellicott. D : Simons. The larvae of rrt/o- 
cala flcbilis and catocala amatrix. (Papi- 
lio, Sept. 1S81, V. I, p. 141-142,) 

Gives full description of larva .and chrysalis of ttiese 
species, r. fiehilis feedin;^^ on carya afhn ;\nd r. untotyix 
on poptilus grandidentata, II: E. ( ^2 kj) 

Langdon, Frank W. Bibliography of the 
Cincinnati fauna. (Journ. Cincinnati soc. 
nat. hist., April 1883, v. 6, p. 5-39.) 

The part devoted to insects, by C ; Dury, contains 
titles, references and notes on papers by James An^'-us, 
C : Dury, A : R. Grote, F : \V. Langdon, J. VV. .Slior. 
ten, C : G. .Siewers, Herman Strccker, y : A. Wardei-, 
A. G. VVethcrhy and Harold B. Wilson.' G: D. (3270) 



^'« [327'-32S2j 



psrciiE. 



[M;iv — June iNS_i. 



Lintner, JoNcpli Albert. Corrections. (Pa- 

pilio. July iS8i, V. I, p. 122.) 

Corrects some trifling errors in Iiis "On some species 
,yK nisoniadcs" {op. (it., .n M;iy iSSi, v. i, p. 69-74), 
lllec, !272j ;incl enunciates an opinion on permanency 
of nomenclature. //■ E. (J27O 

Lintner, Joseph Albert. On some species 

ot' nisoiliiides. (P;ipilio, 31 May iSSt, v. i. 

p. 69-74.) 

Corrections by author, {op. cit.. July 

iSSi, V. 1, p. 122.) 

Describes as new nhoniadcs naevius. n. petroniits, 
li.si>mniis,:\\\ from Flimd.i; gives comnarative notes 
on II. />ro/>ertiii.t, 11. jiiveiiall.i, n. iceliis; eslal>llslies as 
a good species eiuiaimis iicimda Scucld., and notes the 
occurrence in N. Vorl( of fiidaiini.i protriis. 

II: E. (3272) 

Neamoegen. Berthold. A new hemileitca 
from soutli-eastern Arizona. (Papilio. Oct. 
iSSi. V. I, p. 172-174.) 
Describes as new heiiiileiica yavapai; compares it 

witli h. Juno and h. dido. Ji: E. C3273) 

Sciidder, S : Hubbard. The curious history 
of a butterfly. (Anier. nat., .Sep. 1S72, v. 

6, P- 5i3-.S'S-) 

Separate. [Salem. Mass., 5 Oct. i.SyjJ. 

6 p., 24X15, t 17X9.7. 

Germ, tr., by A. Speyer, entitled ■■Self- 
same ijeschichte eines tagfalters" 

(Verb. k.-k. zool.-bot. ges. Wien, iS73,bd. 
23; Abh., p. 145-152.) _ 

Notice, by W: F. Kirby. (Zoril. rec, for 
1872, 1874, 'v. 9. p. 343.) " 

Notice, by E : Burgess. (5th ann. rept. 
Peabodv aciid. ,sci.. for 1S72, 1S73, p. 107, 
108.) 

Crit. rev., by W , II: Edwards, entitled 
'■Some remarks on Ih,' alleged abnormal 
peculiarities of ni'gy -«'■■>' iiiyriiia." (Papi- 
lio, Sep. iSSi, V. I, "p. 134-141.) 
'•Tliere are two sets of individuals [of /»rt'«//(?"v />t'/- 
A>«-'rl, each following its own cycle of changes, appar- 
ently with as little to tlo with tlie other set as if it were 
a diilercnt species ; each set has its own distinct sea- 
sous and thus gives rise to theapparition of two or three 
successive 'broods' in the course of tlie year." Expla- 
n-ation of the relations of these apparent"!, roods. \ For 
further notice, .vr-t- titlr of' .Spcvfr^s transtalion (Rec, 
.V77J-1 ' " '■'■ ■"■ (^■=74) 

Scudder. S: Iluiibard. A new anil unusu- 
ally perfect carboniferous cockroach from 
Mazon Creek, 111. (Proc. Host. soc. nat. 
hist., [6] Sep. 1SS2, v. 21, p. 391-396.) 

Description of etohlattiiio iikizoho. n. sp. 

G: D. ^,275) 

Sctidder, S: Hubbard. Notes on some of 
the tertiary ncnroptera of Florissant, Colo., 
and Green River, Wyoming Terr. (Proc. 
Bost. soc. nat. hist.."[>2] Oct. 18S2. v. 21. 
p. 407-409.) 
General discussion of the tertiary ncnroptera from 

the above regions. G: />. (.^276) 



Scudder, S : Hubbard. Seltsanie geschichte 
eines tagfalters aus dem American natural- 
ist, September, vol. 6, 1872, libers. und tnit 
bemerkiingen versehen von Dr. Ad. Speyer 
in Rbodeii. (Verb. k.-k. zool.-bot. ges. 
Wien. 1S73. bd. 23; 2\.hh , p. 145-152.) 
Separate. [Wien, 1873]. S p., 1 17X 10.5- 
Reprint. (Deutsche entom. zeitschr., 
1875. bd. 19. p. 145-155.) 
Notice. (P.sychc. June 1S75, v. i, p. 78; 

Rec , igo. ) 

Germ, tr., by A. Spevcr, of author's "The curious 
history of a buttertiv" (Ainer. nat., Sep. 1873, v. 6, p. 
513.51S) [Uec, 3274], with an additional note by author. 

G: D. {,5277) 

Spangberg, Jacob. Species jassi generis 
homopteroriim. (Olversigt af kongl. 
vetenskaps-akademiens fdrhandlingar. 1S7S, 
n:o8.) Stockhohu. 1S78. p. 3-40.22X14, 
t 17.5X10. 
Describes 51 (26 new) species ot j'assiis, of which 3 

(J. ntt'laliotits and j. fn^cipennis = 2 new) species are 

from the United .'states, and s {j. pustltlattts and j. 

flai'ireps = 2 new) species are trom \lexico. 

G: D. (327S) 

Spangberg, Jacob. P^ocina Sueciae et Fen- 
niae. Ofversigt af .Sveriges och Finlands 
psociner. (Ofver.<igl af kongl. veten- 
skaps-akademiens fobandlingar, 1S7S. n:o 
2.) Stockholm. 187S. p. 5-29. pi. 1-2, 
22X24. 

Synoptic tables for separating the genera ami species 
o^ psocidai' o( Sweden and Fitiland, with figures to il- 
lustrate the venation of the wings. [Some of the spe- 
cies are also found in the United States.] G: D. (3279) 

Spangberg, Jacob. Homopteia nonnuUa 

americana nova vel minus cognita. (Of- 
versigt af kongl. vetenskaps-akademiens 
fdrhandlingar, 1879, "'^ ^0 Stockholm. 
1S79. P- '7-26, pi. 15-16, 22X14, t 17.5X10. 
Describes and H-^x-xrci. Jassus borcalis (n. sp.) from 
North America and_/". .s^raiiosiis (n. sp.) from Mexic-i, 
besides s])ecies of ^y^jna, pctaloftoda, tfrtiiin, and 
Jdssus from other localities. G: D. (32S0) 

Spangberg, Jacob. Species gyponae generis 
homopteroriim. (Bihang till k. svenska 
vet.-akad. handlingar, band 5, n:o 3. ) 
Stockholm, 1S7S. 76 p., iz% 14, t 17.5 X U). 
Describes g6 (55 new) species of ^j'^o/i^ and notes it 
species iinknnwn to him. The species described an- 
as follows: United States, 10(15 new); Mexico, 16(6 
new) of wliich 2 species are aKo found in South Amer- 
ica; South America. 60 (34 new); and Tahiti (?), 1 new 
species. G: D. (.i-'Si) 

Stretch, R : II. Not.'s on tiie genus cUsiio- 
campa. Curtis. Witli description of new 
species. (Papilio, 31 Mav iSSi. v. i. p. 6^ 
6y.) 

Describes as new chaiocampa froiritis, r. constn'r/n, 
c. strig-osa^ c erosa^ c. Ihorarica: describes larva and 
cocoon of r. californicay r. roust ritta, r. erosn; jjives 
notes and synonymy of r, (/;w(*a'/V7;;/(i und r.ifi.tstrio, and 
records sin|j;ular habit of larva of r. rah'forttica, 

' II. E. (.52^2 1 



M;iv — Jiillf iSSj.J 



Pare HE. 



Oi) 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

Prof. Wiliielm Peters, director ot' the 
zoological museum of the university of Berliiv 
ilied 20 April 1SS3. He was born 22 April 1S15. 
at Koldenbiittel, Kreis Eiderstet. Germany. 

Mr. a. W. p. Cr.\mer nole.s in tlie Bulle- 
tin of the Brooklyn E)ttoniological Socictv 
for April 1SS3. the capture of two specimens 
of Catocala nnijuga on shipboard, in miLi- 
ocean off th? coast of Newfoundland. 

t.N" THE seventeenth annual course of lec- 
tures to mechanics at the Sheffield scientific 
school, New Haven, Conn., lately completed, 
Dr. E. II. Jenkins delivered a lecture on the 
agency of insects in the fertilization of 
rtowers. 

The Extomologic.\l Society of France, 
in its last meeting in February, gave the 
Dollfus prize to M. Bedel, author of the 
"Faune der coleopteres du bassin de la 
Seine," for the part of his work devoted to 
the rhyncophora which appeared in the an- 
nales of the society for 1SS2. 

We .\re glad to see that the Ottawa field 
naturalists" club maintains such activit\'. 
Excursions, the publication of its transac- 
tions, soirees, and prizes for collections and 
original work, stimulate the members to in- 
dustry. Mr. W. H. Harrington is the secre- 
tary, and Messrs. Harrington, J. Fletcher and 
J. B. Tyrrell are leaders in entomology. 

The Worcester (Mass.) Lyceum and 
natural history association held its annual 
meeting 12 May 18S3. From a two and one- 
half column re\"iew of the reports of its 
i-lifterent oflicers, as given in the JVorccslrr 
(hilly spy of 14 May, we learn that Mr, F. G. 
Sanborn gave, during the past year, a course 
of S lessons on entomology to 10 students. 
We are glad to see the progress made by the 
association in popular instruction in natural 
science and we know from personal experi- 
ence the fitness of Mr. Sanborn, who is 
curator of the association's museum, t'or the 
work of exciting interest among voung peo- 
ple in the study of natural history. 



The DfuHrh-Anierikanhchc Apothckcr- 
Zellung, I Apr. iSS,5, jahrg. 4, p, 49, states 
that Dr. E. F. Brush, of New York, recom- 
mends a concentrated tincture of common 
black ants as a remedy for scurvy, or the ants 
themseh'es ma^' be used for that purpose. 
He bases his recommendation on observa- 
tions made among the wood-choppers in 
Maine, who are very apt to be affected with 
scurvy on account of being restricted for 
long times to feeding on preserved food and 
eat masses of black ants as a remed}'. The 
editor of the D.-A, A,-Z, says this is only on 
account of the formic acid contained in the 
ants, and altho it may be the most conven- 
ient way of getting this acid in the woods 
it is not necessary to eat ants for the purpose 
We have lately received the first four nu- 
meros of "Natura. Maandschrift voorNatuur- 
wetenschappen," a new monthly issued by the 
natural science society of Ghent, Belgium, 
The nan)e of J, MacLeod in the list of 
working members of the society, as well as 
the contents of the numeros received, 
promise that the new journal will not lack 
entomological papers. The price of Natura 
is seven francs per year 

Throiush lack of familiarity with the 
literature of the subject, Mr. R. H. Stretch 
has redescribed (Papilio, Feb, [March] 1883, 
V. 3, p. 41-42), the anal appendages of the 
male of Lencarctia acraea. These were 
originally described by \\. K. Morrison 
(Psyche, Oct, 1874, V. I, p. 21-22), who also 
found sitnilar organs in Danais archippns, 
Agroth plecta, and Euplcxia lucipara. This 
organ in Danais is briefly described in E. 
Burgess' ■■ Contributions to the anatomy of 
the milk-weed butterfly. Danais art/iippiis " 
(Boston, 1880). without mention of its 
earlier discoverer. Similar organs have been 
described and figured by C. G, Siewers 
(Canadian entomologist, March 1879, v. 11, 
p. 47-48) who found them in males of Calli. 
morpha interruptomarginata, and concluded 
that they Hided the insect in flight. Siewer's 
article is noticed in the Entomologist's 
monthly magazine. June 1S79, ^'- ^^- P- "> 



/'.src HE. 



1 May — I line tSS(. 



NOTICES TO ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

In accordance with a rcsoUitioii passed at a 
mectinij of the Entomologists in attendance 
at the Montreal itieeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
in August, 1SS2, authorizing me to call and 
"to provide for similar meetings for Ento- 
mological discussions at the future annual 
gatherings of the Association," I herewith 
name Wednesday. August 15th, 3 o'clock, 
p. M.. as the time for the first of the series of 
the Minneapolis (Minn.) meetings, — the 
place of meeting to be named hereafter. 

All interested in Entomology are respect- 
fully invited to attend the ?iieetings and par- 
ticipate in the discussions. 

J. A. LINTNER. 
Albany, June i. 1S83 



A special public meeting of the Cambridge 
entomological club will be held in Minnea- 
polis, Minn., at 2 p. M., on Tuesd.iy, 14 
August, to which meeting all members and 
other persons interested in entomology are 
invited. 

B : PicKMAN Mann. Pics. 

G : DiMMOCK, Sec. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. 111.. 
on the d.iys following : — 

13 Oct. 1882. 9 Mar. 1SS3. 

lo Nov. " 13 Apr. " 

8 Dec. " II May • 

12 Jan. 1883. 8 June •■ 

<3 Feb. " 

G. DiMMOCK. Secretary 



The New York Entomological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July and 
August, but no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry Edwards, Secretary. 



Natural History will be held at N. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston, Mass., 
at 7.45 p. ni., on the days following: — 

25 Oct. 1882. 28 Feb. 1SS3. 

22 Nov. " 28 Mar. " 

27 Dec. " 25 Apr. " 

24 Jan. 1883. 23 May " 

Edward Burge.ss. Secretary. 



The rkgular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia. Pa., will be held 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sis., on the 
days following : — 

14 Oct. 18S1. 10 Mar. 1SS2. 

1 1 Nov. " 14 Apr. " 

9 Dec. " 12 May " 

13 Jan. 1882. 9 June " 

10 Feb. " 

James H. Ridings. Recoider. 



The semi-annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. corner of 19th and Race Sts.. Philadelphia. 
Pa., on the days following : — 

12 Dec. iSSi. 12 June 1SS2. 

James H. Ridings, liecortiiiig Secretary. 



The regular monthly meetings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal, Qiie., 
Canada, on the days following: — 

3 Oct. 1882.' 6 Feb. 1883. 

7 Nov. " (i Mar. '■ 

5 Dec. " 3 Apr. '• 

9 Jan. 1SS3. I M.ay " 

G. |. Bowles. Secretary. 



The monthly meetings of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society will he held in the 
rooms of Wright's Business College, Broad- 
way, corner of Fourth .Street, Brooklyn, 
E. D., the last Saturday of each month ex- 
cept July and August. 

F. G. Schaupp. Secretary. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Societ\ of 



No. 107-108 wore issued 4 June 1883. 



PSYCH e:^'-^ 

A. JOTJTZ.lsrA.l-, OF EISTTOnyCOnijOa-'X'. 

[Rstalilished in 1S74.] 

r.DiTEi^ nr 

R: PicKMAX Mann, Washi}}gto>i. D. C. : G: Dimmock. Cambridge^ Mass.; 
Ai.BF.KT J : Cook. La>ising. Mich. : Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal. 
III.: Joseph Albert Lintner. Allianv, N. 2'. ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow. Lawretice, Kansas: W : Trei.ease, J/arfz.TO«. Wise. 

Vol. 4. No. 111-112. 

Jn.-i-Artjusr 1S83. 

COXTE.\'7\'^: 

Advertisements .............. 6^ 

The Scales of Coleoptera — George Dimmock 63-71 

The Classification of the Tineidae — Vactor Tousey Chambers. . 71-74 

Captures of Feniseca TARquiNius Fabr. — Josef h Albert Lintner ... 75 
Proceedings of Societies. — Entomological Society of London — Zoological 

Society of London — Linnean Society of New South Wales . . . 75~76 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3283-3291 ........ 77-78 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings ........ 79-80 



I'rBLISHEI) MV rilK 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge. Mass.. U. S. A. 



YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS. $2. VOLUME. $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS. Jo c. 

I Entered as second class mail matter.] 



(•)•> 



psn HE. 



[July— Anuust iSSi. 



Psyche, A journal of Entomolotiv. 

KATES OF RUBSCRIPTIOS'. EJL. 

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ffS" Subscriptions not discontinued arc considered 
renewed. 

j)^- Commencing with the numero for January 
1883 the rate of siibsciiption is as follows: — 

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Subscription to volume 4 (1883-1885), as above. 
postpaid %i. 

The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
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Twenty-five extra copies, without change of 
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.ADVERTISING RATES, ETC. 
Terms Cash —strictly in advance. 
«S- Only thoroughly respectable advertisements 
will be allowed in PSYCHE and the advertising pages 
will be numbered consecutively with those of reading 
matter. The editors reserve the right to reject 
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Subscribers to PSYCHE can advertise insects for 
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Regular style of advertisements plain, at the follow- 
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Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Subscriptions also received in Europe by 

R. FRIEULANDER & SOHN, 

Carlstrasse 11, Berlin, N. W. 



EARLr STAGES OF BUTTERFLIES 
WANTED. 
The undersigned desires to obtain, by exchange 
or otherwise, from all parts of the world, eggs, 
caterpillars and chrysalids of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 
Dried specimens are preferred, especially of caterpil- 
lars, which should be prepared by inflation. Corre- 
spondence is invited with persons engaged in the 
studv of the earlv stages of butterflies. 

S. H. SCUDDER, 

Cambridge, Mass. 



COCCIDAE WANTED. 
The undersigned is desirous of obtaining, by ex- 
change or otherwise, specimens of as many species of 
(he COCCIDAE as possible, for the purpose of making 
a study of the North American forms. Those found 
infesting cultivated plants especially desired. Living 
specimens preferred when they can be obtained. 
J. Henry Comstock, 
Department of Entomology, 

The Cornell University, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 



GALLS AND GALL INSECTS. 
The undersigned desires, either by exchange or 
otherwise. Galls from all parts of the United States. 
He is especially interested in those made by Lepidop- 
tera, Coleoptera, Homopteru and Diplera. Correspon- 
dence in reference to Gall growths, or other vegetable 
abnormities, is invited. CHARLES V. RiLEY, 
1700 Thirteenth St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 

TOR TRl CI DA E H A NTED. 
I am desirous of obtaining as many North .Ameri- 
can Tortricidae as possible, for the purpose of 
studying this family. 1 shall be glad to name and 
return any TORTRICIDAE forwarded to me for this 
purpose, save such as may prove new and desirable 
to retain for description. 

Pack carefully, and direct to 

Prof. C. H. Fernald. Orono, Me. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

Living cocoons, pupae and ova of .American lepi- 
doptera bought or exchanged for other species, by 
Monsieur -ALFRED WAll.LY, ( Membre-Laur4at de 
la Soci^te d'Acclimatation de France), 

Tudor Villa, Tudor Road, Norbiton, 

Kingston-on-Thames, England. 

NORTH AMERICAN FER.VS. 

Check lists of the Ferns of North America north 

of Mexico, enumerating 31 genera, 132 species and 

15 varieties, on one octavo page. Will be sent by 

mail on receipt of the price, 15 cents per dozen copies. 

S. Stehhins, Springfield, Mass. 



PSYC^HE. 



THE SCALES OF COLEOPTERA. 



KV GEORCE niMMOCK. CAMBRIDGE, 



( Coiithiucd ft 
GENERAL SUMMARY. 

After the preceding descriptions of 
some forms of scales among coleoptera, 
I wish to consider the subject more 
generallv. First to be considered is the 
question, in what families of coleoptera 
ha\e scales been found. Fischer men- 
tioned scales as occurring in teredvles. 
clavicornes^ latnellicornes and curcti- 
//oiiidcs, — or to use the modern equiv- 
alents for the families in which he found 
scale-bearing species. — in the cleridae, 
ptinidae. derniestidae^ byrrhidae, 
scarahaeidae and ciirciiUonidae. To 
this list I would add with certaintv the 
elateridae, basing this addition on the 
scales of Chalcolcpidiiis and Alans 
described in this paper. According to 
mv views of what constitutes a scale I 
would add fmthcr the cerambycidae. 
and with some doubt the bitprestidae. 
The scales of Clytus robiniac de- 
scribed in this paper, it seems to me. 
can scarcelv be called hairs, altho to 
the naked e\e or to a low-power lens 
they appear like hairs. Thev are too 
much flattened and the striae end in the 
manner in which they do in scales. 
The question whether the sword-shaped 
appendages of Psiloptera drnn/mondi 



out page 4y. ^ 

are really scales or hairs is less easily 
settled but I should be inclined, from 
the arrangement of their striae, to term 
them scales. The form of scale from 
Alans is readily seen, by the figure of 
its transverse section (fig. 7, d), to be 
too flat to be termed a hair, and this or 
similar forms are not uncommon among 
coleoptei'a. 

The question of tiie morphological 
identit\- of scales and hairs of insects has 
been long since settled, so that the ques- 
tion of whether an appendage is a scale 
or hair has little importance. The ex- 
tremely minute spines or hairs upon 
the wings of diptera, hymenoptera and 
other insects are simpl}' another form of 
scales. It is only in insects where cer- 
tain kinds of brilliant coloration have 
l:ieen developed that one finds scales. 
This leads to a consideration of how 
hairs and scales of insects aflect color- 
ation. They mav simply cover a sur- 
face of tiie same color as their own ; in 
such cases hairs mav. according to the 
angle in which thev stand, their abund- 
ance or their length, give rise to ap- 
pearances which we designate as pubes- 
cent, velvety, pilose, sericeous, etc. ; 
scales under similar circumstances may 
give rise to similar appearances, but are 



CI 



i\srciiE. 



I July— Aus"^<l iSS.V 



most often imbricated and usually cause 
more lustre than hairs. Hairs or scales 
nia\ he of a ditierenl color from the 
surface on wiiich they are placed. If 
thev are numerous and opake thev max 
entirely conceal the sm'face on which 
they are inserted, as the white hairs 
hide the bronze surface of the sides of 
the thorax in Cicindela dorsalis. and 
as the white scales of Alans oculatiis 
hide the black surface beneath the rings 
on the thorax ; or they may only partly 
conceal the surface of the insect, giving 
rise to coarser and finer mixtures and 
shades of color. Opake scales, or 
hairs, of more than one color, may cause 
figuration, whether the\ imbricate as on 
the \\ ings of lepidoj)tera, or are separ- 
ated as on Autlirciiiis scrophulariae. 

The possibilities of varying effects 
of color are many with opake scales 
and hairs, but \yith transparent ones. 
especialh if the\' are colored, the effects 
of color can be multiplied still further. 
With hairs the effects are not so re- 
markalde as with scales. The scale, by 
its form, increases the number of la\ers 
of the surface of an insect which are 
available for colorational purpo.ses. 
Where the surface of an elytron had 
previously a cuticular and hj'podermal 
la\er. 1)\' the addition of a scale of tlie 
simjilest type there is an addition ot 
two cuticular and, theoretically at least, 
two hvpodermal or sub-cnticular layers ; 
in all six layers, without counting over- 
lappings of imbricated scales. Some 
of these surfaces may have pigments, 
striae, hairs and other appliances to 
produce colors, and other surfaces may 



ha\e other striae and contrivances to 
act on the colors produced. The nu- 
merous niodilications need not be enu- 
merated here. I have alluded to sjjecial 
effects of coloration in describing the 
scales of different insects and shall 
again refer to some of them when dis- 
cussing the modes by which the scales 
themselves are colored. I max add here 
that the general effect of transparent 
scales is to produce metallic coloration. 

The kinds of coloration in coleoptera 
have been neatly tabulated by Fischer, 
according to the families of these in.sects. 
I translate his table, making in it. a few 
alterations based upon my own obser- 
vations and indicated by italics. i^See 
itext page. ) 

Next to tiie consideration of how the 
color and presence of scales and hairs 
affect the appearance of surfaces to 
which they are attached is the not less 
interesting question of the causes of 
coloration in scales themselves. Rut 
l>efore considering the causes of color. 
propel Iv speaking, a few words are 
appropriate on the causes which pro- 
duce silverx and milk-w hite appearan- 
ces in scales and on insects. Levdig 
was the first, in 1855, to call attention 
to the presence of air between or be- 
neath their chitin laxers as a cause for 
certain silverx' spots an<l scales on in- 
sects. He speaks of air in the fine!' 
pore-canals of Ixodes testudii/i's. gi\ - 
ing these canals a black appearance. 
but causing the whitish grey color of 
the skin. So too he mentions sil\ er\ 
scales on a spider. Sa/ticits. ancl glis- 
tening hairs on another spider. Chibioiie 



July — August iSS,^. I 



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IJiily — Aus:"st iSS_^ 



claitstraria, which appendages owe 
their silvery whiteness to air within 
them. Again he mentions hairs whicii 
contain air on spiders of tlie genera 
Epcira and Thcridiitm. Then fur- 
ther, when considering the insects. Lev- 
dig writes that it is not difficult to see 
that the silvery under surface of Hy- 
dronu'tra pallidum is due to the pore- 
canals being tilled with air. He goes 
on to say " In a similar way the wings 
of Notonecta glatica seem to enclose 
air, and I suspect also that the white 
color of the hairy powder of many 
apJiidae and coccidac is brought about 
by like causes." Further on he writes, 
'■If one regards the color of scales it 
can inhere as diffuse material in the 
substance of the scale itself, or it ap- 
pears under the form of molecular 
pigment, whicli is deposited in the 
cavities of the scales, or finally the 
cavities are filled with air which gives a 
snow-white appearance to the scale." 
Again Leydig writes that when Fischer 
says, in speaking of ''granulation-scales" 
(i. e., such scales as those of Hop/ia 
trifasciata)^ "that the 'upper or gran- 
idatioii layer' dissolved visibly in water, 
but quickly in alcohol or ether, and then 
only the 'striate basal layer' remained, 
the words show that he has certainlv 
seen but incorrectly explained that 
change which the scale undergoes upon 
the loss of air, in so far as he assumed 
a 'granulation laver' which dissolves in 
water !" 

Leydig accounted for silvery glisten- 
ing scales and surfaces, and for milk- 
white coloration among insects, but he 



fails to account for the difierence between 
these two kinds of coloration. The 
white scales of Picris rapac and the 
silvery scales on the under side of the 
posterior wings of Argytniis. idalia 
both contain no appreciable coloring 
matter, and both contain air; both, too. 
are simply milk-white by transmitted 
light. The difference is that there must 
be in tlie silvery scales a polished sur- 
face towards the observer. Ground 
glass does not appear silvery, but what 
is the surface of the sinoothest polished 
plate of glass but finely ground glass .^ 
Ground glass differs from polished 
glass only in degree : in ground glass 
the scratches are so coarse and so 
abundant as to turn most of the 
light-waves into the glass again, where 
thev are lost. In polished glass the 
scratches are still present, but have 
become so small that even the waves of 
light are large in proportion to them, 
and so the light-waves reflect as if from 
a theoretically flat surface. But some- 
thing more than a polished glass is 
needed to reflect much light, for most 
of the light passes through the glass : 
something non-transparent must lie 
behind the glass. In the common 
mirror it is a mercury amalgam : in the 
butterfly's silvery scale it is a la\er of 
cavities filled \vith air. This layer of 
cavities is not transparent for the same 
reason that ground glass is not. If wo 
treat the scale with chloroform it has 
an analogous efiect to that of treating 
the back of a conunon mirror with 
nitric acid, thus dissolving oil' the 
amalgam. In both cases a non-trans- 



July— AiiKii^t 1S83.] 



PSrCHE. 



parent body is converted into a 
transparent one, and a mirror, which, 
whatever be the materials of which it 
is made, if approximately perfect has a 
silverv appearance from the amoiDit of 
reflected light, is rednced to a slightly 
reflecting surface. But let tiie scale dry 
again from its bath, as Fischer apparently 
did not do, and the mirror will again 
appear. Both silvery and milk-white 
colorations are then onlv optical eflects 
produced by reflected light. 

Still another kind of appearance is 
seen in the scales of Hoplia and of 
Entiiniis. These scales are brilliantly 
colored, yet their color is in the one 
case entirely lost, in the other case 
greatly changed by wetting with almost 
anv liquid, but when redried the colors 
reappear with all their previous brillian- 
cy. This coloration also resists all 
forms of bleaching. It must therefore 
be produced by some decomposition of 
light. Whatever acts upon the light 
must be within tiie scale, not upon the 
outside, for all those scales which 
remain perfecth' sealed, so that the 
!ic[uid does not enter them, retain their 
color even surrounded by liquid. This 
proves that the color is not due to 
external striation, where such exists. 
The finer striation of the scales of 
Eiitimus is evidently internal, from its 
relations to the difterently colored 
internal cavities of the scales. Besides 
this striation the interior of the scale 
is evidently filled with a pitli-like 
substance into which liquids enter 
with equal readiness in all directions ; 
this pith-like portion apparently has 



some direct influence upon the produc- 
tion of the coloration, for yvherever 
it is injured or has shrunk away from 
the basal end of a scale there is no 
longer coloration in that place. Perhaps 
it is a necessary filling to cause the striae 
to refract the light, the same as air- 
cavities are necessarv as a backing to 
produce the silvery color in the scales 
of lepidoptera. The striae themselves 
are very fine, but yvhether they are the 
causes of color is hard to determine 
without more accurate instrinnents of 
measurement than I have at m\' com- 
mand. As near as I could tleterniine 
they are 0.0008 to 0.0009 m'"'''- apart. 
The wave length of a ray of light from 
Frauenhofer's A line of the spectrum is, 
according to Willigen, .00076092 mm., 
and the wave length at the H^ line is, 
according to tlie same autlKjrity, 
0.00039713 mm. ; the difference being 
0.00036379 mm., or the difl'erence j^f 
wave length between violet and red 
light. To determine the place in the 
spectrum to which the striae of these 
scales correspond would require, of 
course, much finer measurements. 

The kinds of coloration of scales 
thus far described are what Hagen has 
termed ''optical colors." 

The second kind of coloration is 
what Hagen terms "natural colors," of 
which he distinguishes two kinds — der- 
mal, where '"the pigment is deposited in 
the form of very small nuclei in the 
cell, or in the product of cells, in the 
cuticula," and hypodermal, where "the 
pigment is a homogeneous fatty sub- 
stance, a kind of dye somewhat 



rsrcjii:. 



[July — Aus">> i^^.v 



comlensetl." llagcti lurthcr .says "To a 
certain extent the dermal colors may 
have been derived fnjm livpodermal 
colors, as the cuticula is secreted by tlie 
hvpodermis, and the colors may have 
been changed liv oxidation and air-tight 
seclusion." Like organic colors in 
general, I liave found dermal as well as 
hypodermal colors to be subject to the 
chlorin bleaching processes, which 1 
first applied, in 1875, for the purpose 
of studying the venation of lepido- 
ptera,^^"'"' the onh' difference being this, 
that dermal colors require to be freed, 
bv long maceration, from tlieir prison 
in the chitin. 



Broken scales become colorles 
again .... 



but 



reor;un or 



Thus a distinction between dermal 
and hvpodermal colors is that the 
former bleach only by destruction of 
tlie parts in whicli they are enclosed, 
the latter bleach readily. I do not wish 
to enter here into a prolonged discussion 
of the chemical reactions vvliich are 
similar or alike in dermal and hypoder- 
mal colors, which I hope to discuss 
later, after more experiments, but will 
add a table which I think will serve for 
the separation, imder the microscope, 
of the different kinds of coloration, 

Bv this and other modes of sepai'ation 
I have studied all tlie scales of coleo- 
ptera which I had at mv command, and 

iginal coloration it" driucl 



The color remains until 
the scales bejj^in to ma. 
cerate and lose their 
structural peculiarities .> 



Scales become more 
transparent (if injured), 
but retain some colora- 
tion. .\dd to the wet 
scales some chlorin-'^ 
bleaching" solution and 



Washed with alcohol and 
redried all the undestroyed 
scales return to their original 
coloration. ..... 



Reflected lig^ht shows 
colors complementarv 
to the orif^inal colora- 
tion .... 



()/./,,,./ 



f- I 



Or\ 



Reflected li^ht shows 
same coloration as trans- 
mitted litfht . 



; Dermal 

I coloration. 



Washing with alcohol anil 
redrying causes no further 
change of coloration. 

The lolor disappears, in al most an hour or two, and ( llyfud.rmal 
does not reappear by any subsequent treatment . . ^ coloration. 

I have only found optical and dermal of lepidoptera. optica! coloration, ex- 

(ne\ er hypodermal) coloration ; optical cept where concealed or subchied by 

coloration being common. In the case hypodermal coloration, is somewhat 

MDimmock, G. Bleaching the wings of lepidn. rare, and 1 have ne\er discovered scales 

ptera. (Psyche, Sept. 1S75, v. i, p. 97.99.) I 1 1 i ■ 1 

■lODimmock, G. A method of bleaching wings of ""'•'i'^ (lemial coloiatiou Occurred. 

lepidoptera, to facilitate the study of their venation. ('rins ya-w ocriir in lirilll-mt o-iilH 
(Proc. Amer. assoc. advanc.sci.,iS7S,v.24.p.22S-230.) V ' "'S ni.iy oct-Ul m inuil.mt golll 



juiv-AuuMsi ,ss,,| rsrcjiE. (ill 

colored scak-.s, such as sonu- species of I cannot vet \\lioll\ muleistand win 

P//isia present, but I had none at hand the scales of Icpidoptera (Uscharne the 

to e>;anilnc. ) air contained in them so nnich more 

I max here note an interestinLj object reatiilv. when siilijccteil to treatment with 

on which to trv this mode of color- alcohol and chloroform, than do the 

separation — this object is the head of a scales of coleoptera, while, on the 

freshly killed larva of Smer/i//////s. other hand, water will dri\e out the air 

L'pon the application of strong alcohol from scales of coleoptera much quicker 

the tubercles lose their milkv whiteness than from scales of lepidoptera. There 

from the loss of air. thus proving opti- are several things which might cause 

cal coloration. Chlorin bleaching-Huids these phenomena, but I am inclined to 

rapidlv destroy the green color of the the opinion, \\ithout \v,\x\n\^ proved its 

fluids of the head, proving it to be correctness, that their cause is the pre- 

li\ podernial. wiiile the outer cbitin-shell. sence of more oil in the scales of lejiido- 

or co\ering of the head, resists all ptera than in those of coleoptera. This 

bleaching action, remaining green until would concide with the greater lustre of 

it is macerated. lepidopterous scales, and with other 

After what has been gi\'en alreads in points in their ap|)earance. Perhaps 

the descriptive portion of this j)aper the entrance of the shank of the scale is 

there is little to be said, based on m\ onl\ closed with an oih mass, for I 

own work, in regard to the structure of ha\e ne\er seen the scale of a lepido- 

scales. A point uortln of mention is pteron resist entireh' the entrance of 

perhaps thi>^. that I have foiuid but one fluid, as is often the case \\ ith the scales 

insect having scales or hairs, in which of coleoptera. 

these appendages did not contain more The striae upon scales of lepidoptera 

orlessair. Thisin.sectis CJialcolepidi/is. have long been a subject of in\estigation. 

The elytra themselves.' in man\- cases but. as far as I know, no one, up to iS8o. 

where the\ are white (e.g., in Ciciitdcla published the fact that their striae were 

dorsaJ/'s) , have spaces within them. upon the outside, or upon the side turned 

besules the tracheae. I'eservetl tor air. as awav from the wing. In Burgess' paper 

well as spaces for the fluids of the bodv. on /)i7//n/s." i\\ that \ear. be figures 

When so-called ••blooms" are present, transverse sections of the scales of that 

as upon the dorsal surface of the abdo- butterfly, and calls attention to the fact, 

men of soiue species of Tabaiuis. this Without ha\ ing seen Hiugess' paper, 

liloom is of'ten produced b\ very in the following year. I noticed that the 

minute thin-walled hairs. Where ver\" striae upon the scales of the proboscis 

light colors, and white, whether- milk- of C?i/ex were on the outside, and so 

white or silver\-white, are jiresent in 

... . , -"Burgess, E. Contributions to llie anatomy of 

insects, the existence of an- beneath the j,,^ „,ilk-weed hutterBy, DanmS arckippn.-:. (Anniv. 

Cllticilla is tht" rule. mem. Bost. snc. nat. hist., iSSn.) Sejiarntc, p. rt, note; 

pi. I , fiy. O iintl 6«. 



70 



PSYCHE. 



[July— August iSS.5. 



figured tlieiii in iiiv dissertation^'^ and in 
Psyc/ie.*^ Q\ the transverse section of 
a scale of Alans, figured in this paper, 
it will be seen that there too the striae 
are upon the outer surface. Tlial I 
have foiuul to be the case with the 
principal or external striae, in all beetle- 
scales which I have examined. It is, 
briefly expressed, only the development 
of a mechanical law. which extends to 
many surfaces which shrink by drying 
or cooling. It can be easilv illustrated 
bv partly filling a bladder with water 
and allowing it to dry upon a board. 
The main folds will be, of course, upon 
the exposed upper side, and the longi- 
tudinal ones will be the more prominent. 
Another easv wav to pro\e that the 
striae upon tiie scales of the wings of 
iepidoptera are upon the side away from 
the wing is to take impressions of tlie 
scales upon a surface of collodion. 
These impressions are readily taken by 
pressing quite lightly a dry butterfl\-'s 
wing upon a microscope slide whicli 
has been moistened with a solution of 
collodion in ether. The wing shouUl 
be removed before the collodion has 
become thoroughly dr\-, when beautiful 
impressions of the outer surface of the 
scales will remain on the collodion 
surface, and may be mounted for future 
study. A very little practice will 
enable one to remove the wing at tlie 
proper moment ; if left too long the 
greater part of the scales will be re- 

■i^Dimmock, G. The anatomy of the mouth-parts 
and of tlie suckinj^ apparatus of some diptcra. Disser- 
tation . . . Leipzig university . - . iSSi. 1*1. i, fij>. S, 

12-15- 

't^Dimmock, G. Anatomy of the mouth-parts and 
of the suctorial apparatus of citlex. (Psyche, July-Sept- 
iSSi [7 March iS82|,v. 3, p, 231-241, pi. i.) 



moved hdni liie wing and adhere to the 
coUodicin. ill order to take impressions 
of the luuler sides of scales, the latter 
should be transferred. b\' a process 
described by Berge,^^ and later bv 11. 
Landois,^* and others, to a ])iece of 
paper, and the impression on colloilion 
then taken from these inverted scales. 
The process of transferring the scales 
to paper or other surfaces, first used to 
get prettily colored figures of butterflies, 
consists, leaving out details, in gumming 
the wing of a butterflv upon paper with 
gimi arabic or glue, and, after tiiorough 
dr\ ing. removing the wing. lea\'ing the 
scales attached to tiie paper. From 
sucii '-butterfly pictures" impressions of 
the under surface of the scales can be 
readilv taken. 

By rubbing anilin colors into impres- 
sions of the striae of the scales of insects 
I hope later to gain further knowledge of 
the external configuration of insect scales. 

Fischer, in his dissertation, mentioned 
that branching or notched hairs seemed 
a characteristic of the scarahaeidae. 
and I have only found them in that 
famih' of coleoptera, although, oiUside 
of coleoptera, they are not rare (e. g., 
in BoDihiis and other hymenoptera). 
Among the scarabaeidae this notching, 
or covering of the siu'tace of tlie hairs 
with secondarx liairs. extends also to 
the scales, ami we have some that, like 
those of Iloplia. seen in fig. 3 /' and c 
(p. 10), present the general ajipearance 
of cactus leaves. 

^-'Berge, T. TasclienbucJi Pur kafer- und scliiiiet- 

terlingssammler - . . Stutli^art, 1S47, p. 55-^12. 

it^Landois, II. Xeuc nietliode schmettcrlinijc zu 
copiren. (Zeitschr. f. wissensch, zool., iS'Ki, v. 16, p- 
l.«-l.i-l') 



July— Aiiuiist iSSj.l 



l'S]-( HE. 



71 



There is little need ot" comment upon 
Fischer's classification of scales of 
coleoptera into conchiforni scales 
(Mubchelschiippen), metallic scales 
(Metallilattscluippen ) . granulated scales 
(Granulationsschuppen), piliferous and 
shaggv scales ( Haar- nnd Zottenschup- 
pen) and fil)rous scales ( I'aserschup- 
pen). Levdig. as quoted above, 
destroyed the value ot" the division of 
granulated scales, and I have found that 
the division of fibrous scales owes its 
origin to what Fischer would call "gran- 
ulations," that is to air-spaces, onlv 
that, in this case the granidations are 
arranged longitudinallv in stiipes. I 
can present no new classification t)t 
scales, if such a classification is possible_ 
without stud\ ing more forms. 

Before concluding this paper I will 
adtl a note on the mode which I have 
emplo\ed to gather scales, and some 
other minute objects of like nature, 
together upon one place on a microscope 



slitle. The process consists in putting 
the scales in a drop of some quickly 
evaporating substance — chloroform is 
best for most purposes — on the slides. 
The scales will form in a kind ot 
whirlpool, nearly all the scales finally 
settling down, as the liquid evaporates, 
in one place on the slide. Rapping the 
slide gentlv sometimes aids in the collect- 
ing together of the scales, and the tip 
of the scalpel used to scrape the scales 
from the insect can be washed in the 
drop of chloriform, thus saving every 
scale when they are from a rare speci- 
men from which one desires to remove 
onh' a few scales. 15v inclining the 
slide gentlv, the mass of Boating scales 
can be made to settle on the exact 
centre of the glass. One part of 
Canada balsam added to several hun- 
dred parts of chloroform will cause the 
scales to stick firmlv to the slide. 

( To be continued by a notice of some litera- 
ture seen si>icc preparing the original paper.^ 



THE CLA.'^SIFICATION OF THE TIXEIDAE 



BV VACTOR T()1JSK^■ ClI 

Wv attention has just been calleil to 
an article by Mr. Grote in Papilio, 
vol. 3. On page 43 he writes "I do 
not wish to enter into an argument as 
to the best classification of the tineidae. 
but disagreeing with Mr. Chambers. I do 
not think anv one would take Anaphora 
for anv thing but a tineid : "' and on page 
3S he writes. ".So far as I have studied 
them we appear to be able to classif\' our 
moths under sphingidae — tineidae" , 
&c., itc. naming the families usuallv 
adopted. I refer to this subject because 
the first of these above-quoted passages 



AMBERS. rO\-lN-GTON, KV. 

convex s the impression that I ha\ e stated 
that Anaphora ought to be placed else- 
where than \\\tincidae.-A\\A because the 
second c|uotation gi\es me an opportim- 
ity to write more fully than I have 
elsewhere done as to the classification 
ii'i \\\(t iincidac \ an opportunitN' that I 
desire because two such distinguished 
entomologists as Lord Walsingham 
and Mr. (irote have, very courteously 
of coiu'se, taken me to task for the 
expression of <ipinions as to the 
classification f)f the tineidae which 
are bv them considered more or less 



rs}-<:jiE. 



(July— AiigusI iSS.i. 



heterodox. 1 am not aware that I have 
anywhere expressed such an opinion as 
is hv inipUcation at least attributed to 
me in the above quotation as to the 
position of Anaphora. Mr. Grote 
was. 1 sujipose. thinliing of some re- 
inari<s by me in an article in a previous 
number of Papi/io, which was written 
in response to one by Lord \Valsiu<^- 
hani. Ilis Lordship had stated that 
"It is surelv easier at first sight to sepa- 
rate these [tineid] genera from those of 
other families" &c.. than to locate or 
separate certain other genera of those 
other families, thus seeming to convey 
the idea that there is a something, ye i/c 
sa/s qiioi. about the tineid genei'a 
referred to b\' him wliich made it 
comparativeh' eas\ , "at first sight." to 
refer them to the llncidac ; and if Mr. 
Grote will look at my paper in I'ap/ii\, 
a little ni(jre carefully he will see tliat 
mv remarks upon Anaphora hinge 
upon the words of Lord Walsiugham. 
"at first sight ; " and that while I do not 
deny the tineid atfinities oi Ana phura I 
was unable to see with Lord Walsing- 
ham this indefinable and to me inap- 
jjrcciable something which makes the 
location of the tineid genera among the 
tincidac easy "at first sight" as com- 
jiared with tlu' genera of other families 
mentioned by his Lordship ; ami I 
instanced Anaphora as a tineid genus 
which at iirst sight — by one who was 
unacquainted with it — was more likely 
to be referred to the noctuidac than to 
the tincidie. And I am yet of that 
opinion. There is some':hing in the 
size, form, and color, especialh' of the 
darker species of Anaphora, that "at 



first sight" is much more suggestive of 
the noctnidac than it is even of the true 
thieidae. to which examination shows 
that it lielongs : and if there is anything 
about Anaphora that "at first siglit," or 
"second sight" either, shows it to belong 
to any other section of tincidac than 
that which contains Tinea proper, 
1 don't kno\s what it is. (f there is 
anything under the sun about .liiaphora. 
or for tliat matter about a true Tittca. 
say 7". tapetzella^ which at first sight, 
or upon the most careful examination, 
suggests that it is more closeh' allied to 
Gracilaria. Lithocolletis^ Gclcchia . 
Ccmio.ttoma. or any of the host of 
smaller tincidac than it is to Xoctiia. I 
have failed to detect it, and if no 
resource was left to me but to either 
place Anaphora in noctuidac. or in the 
same family with PhyHocnistis or any 
of the genera of smaller motlis known 
to nie. then I should unhesitatingly 
refer Anaphora to the noctuidac. 
AnapJ/ora no doubt belongs to the 
tincidac. restricted to the allies of Tinea 
by Mr. Stainton in his Insecta Britan- 
nica. V. 3, hut neitiier Lord Walsiug- 
ham nor Mr. (irote uses the name 
tincidac in this sense in the papers 
above quoted. Both, in the papers in 
Papi/io above mentioned. ha\e discard- 
ed even Stephens' distinction between 
tincidac and hypononicntidac. and 
include under the name tincidac all or 
nearlv all of tlie genera included by 
Stephens in both of his families, with 
some others not mentioned h\ him. 
thus placing Ccniiostonia. Nepticnla. 
Tischcria. Pliyllocnisti.t. Aspidisca. 
I Icliodincs. Litliocollctis. Gracilaria. 



-Auttii-'t iSS.v] 



psrcuH. 



.-! 



Gelechia. and a host of other oenera. so 
niini(.M<)us that time fails me to mention 
them, possessing among tliemselvcs tiie 
most varied structure and metamorphoses, 
along-side of Anaphora, Tinea, Rxapatc 
Oc/isci/Zmimcria, &c., as genera of equal 
value in the same famih". the tiiicidae'. 

Lord W'alsingham i.loes indeed, in 
Papilio. refer to certain sub-groups of 
the family iliieidae, but still he e\'i(lent- 
Iv considers them niin<.)r groups and 
looks upon the tineidae as a homoge- 
neous group or family in the same sense 
with uoctiiidae or gcoinetridac. To 
m\- view it (the tineidae of these au- 
thors) is about as heterogeneous a group 
of moths as that would be which shoidd 
contain the liombycidae. nnctiiidacgeo- 
inctridac. tortricidae and pvra/idae 
thrown into one : the species or genera 
cohijjrised in it ha\"e no unity of stiuc- 
ture. habitj metamorphosis, life-history, 
habitat, or ornamentation, and a family 
which comprises the genera referred to 
abo\e (and others ec[uallv heterogene- 
ous) might just as consistently contain all 
lepidoptera heterocera at once : it would 
then scarceh be more mixed that it is 
now. I don't like to dissent from such 
able and distinguished entomologists as 
Lord \\ alsingham and Mr. (jrote. but 
truth is better even than gocid compaiu . 

I have stated elsewhere that I thought 
Stephens" classification of the tineidae 
thoronghh' vicious. This language is 
too strong. I will sa\' rather that I 
think his classification radically bad in 
so much as it gives too much weight 
to the piesence of both pairs of pal|ii. 
and their size — it is too nuicb a palpal 
classification — not consistenth' carried 
out. an<l one which it seems to me im- 



possible to carry out consistently. Still 
it was a step in the right tlirection. and 
infinitely better than, the arrangement 
\yhich places all of the genera know'u 
to .Stephens anil many others in a single 
famih'. The objection to .Stephens' 
arrangement is that it does not recognise 
families enough, and mv objection to 
jNlr. Stainton"s classification is that.it 
recognises perhaps too many. Mr. 
.Stairiton's tinridac (restricted) seems 
to be a good and natural family of ecjual 
or nearly ecjual value with the noctiii- 
dac. but his graci/aridac and litlio- 
colletidae, together with /'/lyl/ocnistis, 
instead of forming two families and 
part of a third, form together a single, 
well defined family. The structiu'e and 
metamorphoses of the larvae and pupae 
seem to me to separate these moths 
from all of the known tineidae. antl to 
unite them in a single natural group 
liaving lamih characters more than 
usualL well marked. \Miether the 
structure of their lar\ ac and pupae are 
the result of evolution from some low'er 
form, or of degratlation from some 
higher one. that evolution or degrada- 
tion has evidently been along the same 
lines in all of the genera included in 
the group, and shows a near relation- 
ship between them as well as a diflerent 
development fnmi ainthing that is 
known elsew here among lepidoptera : 
for the course of development from the 
egg to the imago is dilferent entirely 
from that of all the other groups of 
the ortler. and the eggs themselves are 
of difierent sbaj^e. size and consistency 
from those of all the otiier small moths 
known to me. They form, therefore, 
in m\' opinion, a family at least as flis- 



74 



PSrCHE. 



[July— August 1SS3. 



tinct and well limited as the true titiei- 
dae or even more so. The Jtepticulidac 
seem to me to form another natural 
family. The immense host comprised 
in Mr. Stainton's fiimilies hyponomcii- 
tidae, gelechidae, glyphipterygidae, 
colcophoi-idae. form at least one other 
familw if not more than one, though 
I incline to include the last three, at all 
events, in a single family. A large 
number of genera of his family ela- 
chistidac may probably be included in 
the gelechidae^ but there will still re- 
main many of the others which are 
difficult of location, unless each of them 
shall itself be held of family rather than 
of generic value. Thus Tischcria 
seems to me especiall}' to stand alone. 
Mr. Stainton places it in elachistidae ; 
Dr. Clemens thought it belonged in 
lithocolletidae, an opinion in which I 
also was at one time inclined to concur, 
when looking onl}' to some of the char- 
acters of the imago : but those of both 
larva and imago separate it toto coelo 
from lit/iocolletidae, and those of the 
larva separate it from all other lepido- 
ptera : its labrum and maxillae are as 
much like those of some coleoptera. 
Cemiostoma also is sui generis or rath- 
er sui familiac. Mr. Grote rightlv at- 
taches nuicii importance to the neura- 
tion of the wings, but, judged by this 
test, Cemiostoma seems to me to stand, 
if not alone, at least in no clo.se rela- 
tionship to an}- other genus. Our 
American species, C. albella. even dif- 
fers from the European C. laburnella, as 
figured by Mr. Stainton in Insecta Brit- 
annica, v. 3, in that a/6e//a has the med- 
ian vein of the primaries furcate at the 
base, as well as in other minor respects. 
The pupae are in some respects singular. 



and in the larva the strnctine of the tro- 
phi is as distinct and uuic|uc as it is in 
Tischeria. Mr. Stainton places Cemio- 
stoma in his familv Ivonctidae. along 
with Bitcciilatrix (the affinities of 
which are rather with Ncpticiila) and 
PJiyllociiistis (which I think belongs 
with Corisciitm a.\u] Lit/iocollctis). In 
the same famih' lie ])laces Lvoiictia and 
Opostega. the afhnities of which are 
yet doubtful, the latter probably belong- 
ing near PJiyllocnistis. It seems to me 
that this familv {Ivonetidae) cannot 
stand ; and there still remain, especially 
among the lower genera of elachistidae. 
many forms as to the proper location 
of which I am not aljle to form an 
opinion. But with what sort of con- 
sistency and upon what scientific prin- 
ciples all of these multitudes of such 
diverse structure, metamorphosis, life- 
history, habitat, form and ornamenta- 
tion, can be thrown into a single group, 
the equivalent of a single family of the 
higiier heterocera, I cannot compre- 
hend ; but it seems to me — with the 
greatest deference for such authorities 
as Lord VValsingham and Mr. Cirote — 
that in all of the particulars just enu- 
merated, the insects associated by them 
under the common familv name tinei- 
dac present famii\ characters in varietv 
as great as or even greater than all 
other heterocera combined. 

Like Mr. Grote I do not desire anv 
contioversN on this subject, and have 
written above all that I desire to say or 
shall .say upon it. and here take my fare- 
well of it, hoping that notiiiiig I have 
written will be considered to be in the 
least degree wanting in respect to either 
of the distinguished gentlemen above- 
named. 



July— Auijiist iSS^i.j 



PSrCHE. 



FSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE. MASS.. JULY-AUG. 1SS3. 



CojiimuTiicatio7is^ exchanges afid editors* copies 
should be addressed to Kditors of Psyche, Car/i. 
bridge, Muss. Communications for publication in 
PsvcHK must be properly autheuticaied, and no anonv- 
mous articles zvill he published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
statements made in their own communications. 

Works on subjects not related to entomology T.'ill not 
be revieived in Psyche. 

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CAPTURES OF KENISECA TAR- 
QUINIUS Fabr. 

All example of this butterfly, which is gen- 
erally regarded as a rarity by collectors. \vas 
captured at Center, N. Y. , 25 May 1878. 
liy Mr. O. von Meske — its first observation 
for this locality. It had been taken in two 
instances, many 3'ears ago, by Mr. Charles 
H. Peck, at Bath, near Albany, and had also 
been observed by him in Sandlake, N. Y. , 
and Elizabethtown. N.Y.. flying about bushes 
of alder {Alnns serrulata Ait.). Its appear- 
ance so early in the season seems to indi- 
cate two broods of the species — the second 
occurring, in the state of New York, during 
the first half of August, On the ist day of 
August (1S77) while riding at a brisk paca 
through the Raven Pass in Essex County, 
N, Y., en route to the Adirondack Moun- 
tains, a fresh example of the species was 
swept in my net, fortunately in hand, by 
Mr, Verplanck Colvin, from the back of one 
of the horses. This was but the third ex- 
ample that had come into my possession, 
and the first to display the delicate tracery 
of its under-wings in all its beauty. Subse- 
quentlw and during the two weeks following. 



several specimens (perhaps a dozen) were 
taken by Mr. E. L. Graef. of Brooklyn. L. I., 
at Beede's, head of Keene Valley. They 
were fluttering about the alders, upon which 
probably their eggs are deposited and their 
larvae feed. The locality would seem to be 
a particularly fiivorable one for them. The 
elevation of Beede's above tide water, as 
obtained from Mr, Colvin, superintendent of 
the Adirondack Survey, is 1240 feet [37S M.]. 
—7. A. Lilltlicr. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIE.S, 
Entomological Society of London. 

17 Jan, 1883. — It was announced that the 
prize of £50, offered by Lord Walsingham, 
for the best essay on Sclerostoma syiig-itmiis, 
had been awarded to Dr Megnin, of Paris 
(two competitors) ; no essay regarding 
Sfro/igvliis pt'rg'ydcilis had been received. 

The following officers were elected : — Pres- 
ident, J. W. Dunning; Treasurer, E. Saun- 
ders: Secretaries, E. A. Fitch and W. F. 
Kirby; Librarian, F. Grut. 

5 Feb. 1SS3. — Mr. Billups exhibited an 
exotic orthopterous insect of the family 
lociistiiiae, found living in a hot-house at 
Lee ; it was strongly carnivorous in its habits. 

Mr. Peringuey communicated notes on the 
habits of several South African species of 
Pii/tssns. and especially in connection with 
their powers of crepitating, and carnivorous 
propensities, 

7 March 18S3, — Dr. Sharp exhibited a 
dissection of the prosternum of an Elater, 
and called attention to the peculiar condition 
of the prothoracic stigma, which was closed 
by a perfect trap-door. He thought this 
arrangement might be useful in excluding 
parasites when the beetle was on its back, 
after the manner of its kind. 

2 May 18S3. — This being the 50th anniver- 
sary of the foundation of the society, the 
President read a historical sketch, in which 
he succinctly embodied all points of interest 
concerning its career, and the benefits it had 



7C 



/•.s;( HE. 



[July — August iSS.i. 



conferred upon entomological science in 
general. Only six of the original members 
still survive, viz. : Prof. C. C. Babington, the 
Rev. L. Blomefield, Sir S. S. Saunders, Mr. 
W. B. Spence, Mr. G. R. Waterhouse, and 
Prof. Westwood. He expressed a hope that 
the number of members would be very large- 
ly increased before the end of the jubilee 
vear. In concluding his address, he sugges- 
ted that Prof. Westwood be elected titular 
Life-President of the society, accompanying 
his suggestion by eulogistic remarks on the 
career of our veteran entomologist, and his 
labors in the cause of entomology. This 
was adopted by acclamation. 

The meeting was then made "special," in 
order to consider certain proposed alterations 
in the by-laws. Some of the propositions 
were adopted, others rejected. The chief 
resultant alterations were as follows: — No 
"subscribers" will be henceforth elected : the 
"Transactions" will be sent without further 
payment to all members not in arrear with 
their subscriptions : notice is to be given of 
names proposed to be substituted for those 
recommended for officers and council before 
the annual meeting, such proposed substitu- 
tions (if any) to be notified by circular to 
the members. — Selected from Rntomologisfs 
mo. mogazi)ie. 



Zoological Society of London. 

19 Dec. 1S82.— Mr. Arthur G. Butler read 
a paper in which he gave an account of a 
collection of spiders made by the Rev. Deans 
Cowan in Madagascar. In addition to many 
interesting and singular forms were speci- 
mens of the curious tailed species, Arach- 
noura scorpionidcs from central Madagascar. 
Six new species were described. 

5 June 1883. — Mr. G. French Angas ex- 
hibited a collection of butterflies made during 
a recent visit to the island of Dominica. \V. I. 

A communication was read from the Rev. 
O. P. Cambridge on some new genera and 



species of spiders. Eight spiders, represen- 
ting as man^' new genera, were described : 
two of them belonged to the family Ihcrapho- 
sidae. one to the drassidae, and the others 
to the thomhidae. Three of these species 
were from Ceylon, three from CaflVaria. one 
from New Zealand, and one from California. 

A communication was read from Mr. Her- 
bert Druce, containing descriptions of some 
new species of moths of the families zygat- 
nidac and arctiidae. mostly collected in 
Ecquador. by Mr. C. Buckley. The number 
of new species described was fifty, belonging 
to twenty-four genera. 

A paper was read by Messrs. Godman and 
Salvin, containing remarks on the variations 
of certain species of butterflies of the genus 
Agriiis. — Selected from Zool. anzeiger, 1883, 
jahrg. 6. 



Linnean Society of New South Wale.s. 

25 April 18S3. — Mr. Macleay exhibited 
specimens of a small moth (^tincidae), the 
larva of which was at present creating great 
havoc in the vegetable gardens in and about 
Sidney, completely eating up the leaves of 
the cabbages and cauliflowers, and rendering 
the entire crop utterly useless. The cater- 
pillar, a number of which were exhibited, is 
an active, slightly hairy, green worm, the 
pupa is also green and is fastened on the 
under side of the leaf on which it has fed, 
by a cocoon of beautiful open lace work. 
The rapidity with which this insect seems 
to reproduce itself is most astounding, and 
accounts for the short work it makes of a 
bed of cabbages. The insect was, it is said, 
first noticed last year, and then not in de- 
structive numbers, so that it will probably 
be found to be an importation. 

Professor Stevens exhibited a chrysalis ol 
a Daiiais, secured by a silk line to a leaf of 
an exotic Pelargonium. — Zool. iinzeiger, 9 
lulv 1.SS3. jahrg. (t. p. 37(1. 



JlllV 



-Aiigii^l c.'iSi.l 



rsrc/iE. 



[.1-83-329'] 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Authors iiiid soru'/n's arc rcqucstt-ii to for-vard their zctir/'.'s to the editors us soon as 
pi(blishcd. The date of publication, given in brackets [], marks the time at -vhich the 
xvork -vas received, unless an earlier date of publication is knozun to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherzvise stated each record is made directlv trovt the zvork that is noticed. 

A colon after initial desio-nates the most common giz'en name, as: A: Aug'ustr/s; B: Ben- 
iamin: C: Charles: D: David: E: Edzvard: -F: Frederic: G: George; H: Henry: 
I: Isaac: J: John: K: Karl: L: Louis: M: Mark: 
Richard: S: Samuel: T: Thomas: W: William, 
note, are those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



N: Nicholas: O: Otto: P: Peter: If: 
The initials at the end of each rci ord. or 



Brooklyn entomological society. Brook- 
lyn. A'. }'. Clieck li.st of tlie iiKicro-lepido- 
ptera of America, north of Mexico. Brook- 
Ivn. N. v.. fan. 1S8.!. t.-p. cover, t.-p. 
+ [:!]+ 25 +4 p.. 24 X 15- 
List (if lepido^tera yhobaloctra and of sphtiigidac. 

sfsiniac, zygoemdae. bomhycidae. noctuidae and gfo. 

jiictridae: ennmenlting' about 50S.S species; index of 

sjencra. ' B: P. M. (.?2S.i) 

Bush. Mrs. A. E. Trees attractive to butter- 
flies. (.'Viner. nat.. July 1881. v. 15. p. 
.^72- ) 

Altraition of hutterfiii 



- \~>\ piiiti\ ii/siiTijis. 

G: D. 



Butlerow. .\. Eine beobachtung mehr. 
Deiitscher bienenfreiind. 15 March 1S81. 

jahrg. 17, p. 81-S3.) 

.\jie at which worker liees undertake different parts 
of their work. G:D. (y&s) 

Cambridge. Octavius Pickard. External 
parasites of spiders. ( Entoinologist, Sept. 
1SS2. v. i^, p. 216. ) 

Parasitism n( ticrodaclvla dcgr/icr on various spiders. 

G: D. u?^Sft) 

Neumoegen, Berthold. A new species of 
antarctia from Mount Hood. Oregon. ( Pa- 
pilio, 31 Mav 1881. v. i. p. 79-80.) 
Describes as new anttir< lia rithrit, ,-f 9 '. compares it 

witli n. /;a;r/i/to, Pack. ' H:E. (J2S7) 

Riley, C : V'alentine. Lepidopterological 
notes. (Papilio. Jtily 1S81. v. i, p. lod- 

IIO.) 

Advance reprint of extracts from Bulletin no, 6, U. 
S. entoni. comm. [Rec.,3290], p. 50-5S, 7S, S2-S3; st-ttes 
that plusia hrassicat is not /. ni. and that gortynu 
ftebns=g. nitela; contends that aletia argitlacea Hiibii 
\<, wAWtfi nnomis .xylina of Say; lii\es notes on pt-m. 
pelia grosstilariae. pcnihina vfltToraiia, etirvptycliia 
saligneana. aiichylofcra fragaruie. tortrix cindcrelta 
and OL'ttt rompla: describes the c^y: of the last-named 
specie... //; E. liZ^'i) 



Trelease, W: On the strtictiires uhicli t'a\or 
cross-fertilization in several plants. ( Proc. 
Bost. soc. nat. hist., [12] Oct. iSS2-Jan. 
[5 Feb.] 1S83, V. 21. p. 410-440, pi. 6-S. ) 
Includes notes tin fertili/ation of plants by insects. 

G: D. (j2.Sf,) 

United States entomological commission. 

Btilletin no. 6. General index and supple- 
ment to the nine reports on the insects of 
Missoun. By C : V. Riley. M. A.. Ph.D. 
Wash., 24 Mc'h. 1881. t-p." cover, t.-p.. 17S 
p.. 23X15. 

Extracts, by author, entitled -Lepido- 
pterological notes." (Papilio. July iSSl. v. 
I. p. 106- 1 10.) 

Rev., entitled "Index to Riley's nine re- 
ports on the insects of Missouri." (Anier. 
nat., (let. 1881. V. 15, p. 801.) 

a. Introduction, p. 5.7. b. Tables of contents (if the re- 
[Kirts, p. t;-45. r. Corrections of errata, p. 40.51. d. Notes 
and additions [of tiie more important facts ascertained 
about insects treated in the reports, with later or more 
correct nninenciature], p. 52-63. e. Descriptions of new 
species and varieties [reprinted from tlie reports, witli 
notes and corrections], p. 64-90. f. List of descriptions 
of adolescent states [referring to previously published 
descriptions of the same, when anv e.xist], p. 91-95. g. 
List of descriptions, nnistly amplified, of species not 
new, p. 96-97. h. List of illustrations [arranged in se- 
rial order, desigiiatini; those not original], p. 9S-11S. /'. 
Classified list of illustrations [in systematic order], p. 
119.123. /. General index, p. 125.166. ^. Index to plants 
and food. plants, p. 167.177. /. Errata [in this work], p. 
17S. F P M. (3200) 

United States entomological commission 
\_C: V. Riley. A. S. Packard^ jr.. Cyrus 
Thomas'^ {Department of the ijtterior'). 
2d report for the years 1878 and 1879, '''•^" 
lating to the Rocky Mountain locust, and 
the western cricket ami treating of the best 
means of subdtiing the locust in its perma- 
nent breeding grounds, with a view of pre- 
\enting its mic^rations int^i the more fertile 



[3291] 



PSYCHE. 



[July— Aupiist iSSj. 



portions of the trans-Mississippi country, 
in pursuance of appropriations made b_v 
Congress for this purpose. Wash.. 18S0 
[Mcii. iSSi]. iS+^jj+So p., 17 pi., encli 
plate wit/i I leaf cxphuiation. 24X 15 ; m:iq 
1, //; b pts., each 56X43: map 2-4, 24X31 ; 
iofisr. 

Notice. (Springtield [Mass.] d. republi- 
can. 5 Oct. iSSo. p. 5. col. I, 7 CI1..J 

Extract, entitled 'The Rocky Mountain 
locust." (Colonies and India, 30 April 
iSSi. p. 15, 25 cm.) 

Extract from chap. I'j, by kiley, entitled 
'■Larval habits of bee-flies." (Amer. nat., 
June 1881. V. 15, p. 43S-447, pi. 6.) 

Rev. (Amer. nat., July 1881, v. 15, p. 

.iS^.v';-) 

Germ. tr. ol part ol p. 260, entitled 
'■'Epicauta vittata aus eiern zu erziehen." 
(Entom. nachr., i Aug. 1S81, jahri;. 7. 
p. 228.) 

Separate of chap. 13, author's ed., by 
Rilev, with half-t.-p. cover and half-t-p.. 
entitled "The Rocky- Mountain locust. 
Further facts about the natural enemies of 
locusts." [Wash.]. 1880. 4-p. -i')--~i^- pl- 
16, with I leaf cxpl. of pl.. 23X15. 

Separate of chap. 14. author's ed., by 
Riley, with half-t.-p. cover and half-t.-p.. 
entitled " The Rocky Mountain locust. 
Permanent courses for the government to 
adopt to les.sen or avert locust injury." 
[Wash.], 18S0. +p. 271-322. 23X15: map 
I, ill 6 parts, each 56X43. 

Separate of appendix 2, author's ed.. by 
Scudder, with half-t.-p. cover and half-t.-p.. 
entitled "List of orthoptera collected by 
Dr. A. S. Packard, jr., in the western 
United States in the summer of 1S77." 
[Wash.], 18S0. +p. 23-28, pl. 17, 24X15. 
Separate of appendix 4, author's ed.. by 
Mann, with half-t.-p. cover and half-t.p., 
with same title. [Wash.]. 1880 [iS Mch. 
1881]. -fp. 33-56. 24X16. 

o. T.-p., t:ible of contents, letter (if transniitt:il, pre- 
fiicc, p. i-iS. b. Cliiip. I : Additions to the chrouoloj^^y 
of locust ravaj^es [tor 1S7S and 1879] (by Packard and 
Riley), p. 1-14. c. Chap. 2: The relation <if the locust 
and its ravages to agriculture and the settlenient of the 
territories [plans for reducing the numbers of the lo- 
custs] (byThomas), p. 14-31. d. Chap. 3; Facts con- 
cerning and laws governing the migrations of locusts 
in all countries [with definition of limits and character- 
ization of permanent breeding-grounds, and references 
to literature] (by Thomas), p. 31-72. e. Chap. 4: Hab- 
its or diaracterislics of locusts in all c<umtrics within 
iheir areas of permanent distribution, so far as these re- 
late to llieir movements [phenomena and causes of mi- 
gration] (by Thomas), p. 72-ioS. /. Chap. 5 : InHuence 
of meteorological conditions on the ilevelopment and 
migrations of locusts [with statistical tables] (by Tlio- 
mas), p. 109-155. ^. Chap. 6: The srmthern liiiiits of 
the distribution of the Kocky Mountain locust [with 
historv of locust invasions in New Mexico| (by Pack- 



ard), p. 156-160. //. Chap. 7: S»inimary of locust Highls 
from 1S77 to 1S79 (by Packard), p. 100-163, '"''P -^--t- '• 
Chap. S: The western cricket [habits, ravages, food, 
enemies and parasites of atiabrus purpiiroscens and a. 
siniplt-.x, anatomy and geographical distrdnition of the 
species of ojiabriis (by Packard) ; synopsis of the spe- 
cies of and genera allied to (/«f7^A*«5 (by Thomas)], p. 
163-17S, tig. 1-5. J. Chap. 9: The air-sacs of locusts 
with reference to their powers <if flight (by Packard), p. 
17S-1S3, pl. 1. i. Cliap. 10; Histology of the locust 
{rafoptf/iUf:) and the cricket {aiiabrus) [with bibliog- 
rapliv of the histology ot" insects) (by C : S. Minot), p. 
1S3-232, fig. 6-S, pl. zS- /. Chap. II : The brain of the 
locust [anatomy and histology, witli list of works on 
the internal structure of the brain of Crustacea and in- 
sects] (by Packard), p. 223-243, fig. 9, pl. 9-^S- '"• Chap. 
12: Locust ravages in California [generic and specihc 
characters of catnitula peilitrida: reprint ot original 
descriptions of this species under the names of ot'rf/^fli/rf 
pelhicida^o. atro.x and c. tricarinata\ its ravages and 
enemies ; description of oedipoda obliterata n. sp, ; notes 
on otiabrus haident<tuii and cratypedes putnami\ (by 
Riley and Thomas), p. 242-259, fig. 10. «. Chap. 13; 
Furtlier facts about tlie natural enemies of the locusts 
[retardation of development in epicauta vittata^ and its 
advantages to the species; description (by H : G. Hub- 
bard) of early stages and haliits o( chnulio^nathtts pfilH' 
sylvanicua and of ovip sition and eggs ot' mallophora 
orcina; parasitism <^{ syt^totrhus orens and triodHfs mits 
on eggs of cnmuttla pelhtfida; description and figures 
of larva, pupa and imago of these parasites; review of 
previous knowledge on the habits of larvae of hombvlii- 
(/(7(', and additirin tliereto; great abundance of ^ortZ/K* 
nnd irombiditntt in California in iS'jg;m}f/fiu/a pf//ucida 
attacked by chalcid flies and by larra iarsata; calopten- 
obio ovt'vora =sct'/io {"spiirasi'ori^') /inni-Zir/is} (by Ri- 
ley), p. 259-271, pl. 16. o. Chap. 14; Cour.ses that may 
be adopted by the general government to lessen locust 
injury (by Riley), p. 271-322, map 1. /. Appendix i; 
Miscellaneous clata and replies to circular no. i, p. 3-22. 
y. App- 2: List of the orthoptera collected by Dr. A. S. 
Packard in the western United States in the summer of 
1S77 [describing bradyitotis opimtis, pezotdti.x pacificus 
(tig.)) ^omphorerus ihastaiius (fi^.), circotettix macii- 
laius (tig.), trimerotropis latij'asctatay t similis, t. ruvr- 
iticipes , psiiiidia zvailuin (fii^.) ^ S 11. spp., and figuring 
vii'lauop/us eitiereits, m. dez'astator, in. titlouis, m. pack- 
ardii, pezotetli.x bortkii, cammtla otro.v, arphia frig^ida , 
trimerotropis 7'ittcuiata] (by S : H. Scudderi. p. 21-28, 
pl. 17. r. Ai)]). 3 : Report ofjohn Marten [observations 
made in Iowa, Dakota, Minnesota and Nebraska, in 
1S79], p. 29-33. .■;. App. 4 : lJibIiograi>hy of some of the 
literature concerning destructive locusts [of Kurope, 
Asia, and Africa (by B: P. Mann), with supplementary 
list (hv Thomas)], 'p. 33-56. /. App. 5 : Data concert:- 
ing locusts in Texas [and in Indian Territory, in 1S77] 
(furnished bv A. J. Myer, from signal service records), 
p. 57-61. II. App. 6: On the flight o( locusts [transl. 
by F. P. Spcdford from G. de Lucreliis' "Sulle locustc, 
dette volgarmente bruchi" (Atti del r. istit. iiicorrag. 
alle sci. nat. di Xapoli, iSii.t. i, p. 233-2')9) : incursions 
and ravages of pachytylus migratorias, and incnns 
against them] : Of tlie locusts which desolated various 
provinces of Spain from the vear 1754 until 1757 [transl. 
y F. P. Spoftord ficnn F. Milizia's'ital. transl. entitled 
"Introduzione alia storia naturale e alia geographi.i 
fisica di Spagna . . ." (Parma, 17S3) of \V : Bou Us' 
"Introduccion a la historia natural y a la geografia lisic.i 
de Espaiia" (Madrid, 1775). t. 2, p. 1-24 : habits ot 
raloptnius ita/irus\, p. 63-l'tS. !■. Aj>p. 7: Notes of a 
jtuirney made in Utah and Idaho in ilie summer of 
1S7S, bv A. S. Packard, jr. [ miscellancrus observations 
on occurrence of ca/opicttf4.< spretiis and anabrus sitti- 
//c.vl, p. 69-71. jt'. App. 8: Versin's researches on the 
functions of the nervous systim of the articulate ani- 
mals [transl. by Packard from H : de .Saussure's "No- 
tice sur la vie ct les Merits de Alexandre Versin" (1S06) ], 
p 73-74. v. Index, p. 75.<io. /?.- P. ^f. (320O 



I 



Jnly— August iS'!,!.] 



psr( HE. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

The seventh congress of Russian natn- 
ralists and physicians will be held this year 
at Odessa, from 30 Aug. to g Sept. 

Dr. Hagen notes in the April numero 
of the Entomologist' a mo. magazine, that 
Simitlium. the "black-flv," sucks out the juices 
of chr\salids of Pieris mcnapia. 

The first numero of Zoologische Bci- 
triige, a new German journal, contains a 
paper by Prof Anton Schneider on the de- 
velopment of Sp/iaeriilaria hombi. the curious 
heminth parasitic in Bonihiis-. 

William Alexanuer Forbes, a rising 
English naturalist who has devoted much 
time to entomology, died at Shonga, on the 
upper Niger, Africa, on 14 Jan. 1SS3. He 
was born at Cheltenham. England. 24 June 
18,-5. 

From several parts of Sweden the ap- 
pearance of an unknown caterpillar, which 
consumes the crops, is reported. Its length 
is from one inch to one and a half, and its 
color grev-brown with green stripes. In one 
place it put in an appearance immediately 
aftei" a violent storm with rain. The Acade- 
my of agriculture has despatched an ento- 
mologist to visit the places from which it is 
reported. — Natnre, 5 July 1883, v. 28, p. 234. 
Prof. Phillip Christoph Zfller. of 
Griinliof. near Stettin. Germany, died at that 
place 27 March 1S83. He was born 9 .Vpril 
180S. at Steinheim-on-the-Miirr. in Wiirttem- 
berg. Prof. Zeller was a well-known au- 
thority on miciolepidoptera. some of his 
papers dealing with those of North America. 
An interesting biography of Prof Zeller. bv 
II. T. Stain ton, is given in the Entomolo- 
gist's monthlv magazine. June 18S3. \. iri. 
p. 1-8. 

Mr. Ed.mund Baynes Reed has compiled 
a very convenient ■•General inde.v to the 
thirteen annual reports of the Entomological 
society of the province of Ontario. 1870- 
1882" which has been published by the soci- 
ety. In a few instances the compiler, prob- 
ablv inadvertentlv. has used lower-case ini- 



tial letters for generic names, and often 
lower-case lettei's for specific names derived 
from names of persons, mythological char- 
acters and places. A consistent and general 
use of lower-case initial letters, at least for 
species, would have been still more accept- 
able to the writer. Some errors in ortho- 
graphy and typography occur, but do not les- 
sen the general usefulness of Mr. Reed's 
index. G: D. 

M. FREDEKicq_, of Li^ge. says the English 
mechanic, lately put several aquatic coleoptera 
(including the great water beetle) in ac]ueous 
solution of curare and strychnine in poison- 
ous quantity. A few drops of these liquors 
sufficed to poison a frog in a few minutes. 
The insects, however, lived in them, some 
more than a fortnight, others nearly a month 
(^when the experiment was concluded). These 
coleoptera are certainly sensible to the action 
of curare and strychnine, and the absence 
of symptoms of poisoning in the present 
case must be (the author says) because the 
absorption by the surface of the body and 
the mouth was nil. M. Plateau has previous- 
ly observed that aquatic coleoptera kept in 
sea water do not absorb its salts. — Amer. 
nat.. Aug. 1883. V. 17. p. 903-904 

In the Bulletin of the Buffalo naturalists, 
field club for March of the present year 
(1S83). Prof. D. S. Kellicott. of Buffalo, 
describes and figures a remarkable larva 
which he has this year found parasitic upon 
and destroying nearly all of the galls of Ceci- 
domyia salicis-batatus fhat had foimerlv 
abounded upon some low willows occupying 
waste land near the citv. The larva was 
found to be a species of Platygaster belong- 
ing to the group known as that of the ■•c\'- 
clops larvae," from the great resemblance 
its larvae bear to the crustaceans of the ge- 
nus Cyclops. The peculiar manner in which 
the five-jointed abdomen is folded under- 
neath the body, like that of a cray-fish pro- 
tecting her eggs, makes it a verv interesting 
form. 

We hope that Prof Kellicoft mav soon 
be able to determine the species, if it be one 
tliaf has already been described. 7"- -"!■ /-■ 



rs r( HE. 



[July-All!;. I'i^l. 



In a biiel' paper upon "Insects injurious 
to fruit." bv Mrs. Mary Treat, read before 
the New Jersey state horticultural society, 
at its annual meeting in January last, among 
other items of interest, a statement was made 
of a remarkable collection of "cut-worms" by 
the writer, which ma_v .serve to show the 
value of the same method of dealing with 
these notorious pests, when employed upon a 
larger scale. Some phlox liordering a car- 
riage-way through an orchard of dwarf pear 
trees was observed one morning to be partly 
denuded of its leaves and flower-buds. The 
cause being suspected, it was examined the 
following evening with a light, when "un- 
told numbers of cut-worms were seen among 
the flower-buds." Numerous worms were 
at work on the branches of a plum tree 
beside them. A large number of worms 
were found eating into the just expanding 
buds of the pear-trees. 

The soil around the phlox was examined, 
and the first collection resulted in over a 
pint of worms of various sizes. The best 
time for this search was found to be about 
dusk in the evening, for the worms were 
th; 1 just beneath the surface of the ground. 

•r. A. L. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. m., 
on the days following : — 

ij Oct. 1883. 14 Mar. 1884. 

9 Nov. • II Apr. " 

14 Dec. ' q May " 

II Jan. 18S4. 13 June " 

8 Feb. ' 

G. UlMMOCK. Secretary. 



The New York Entomological Club meets 

twice monthly, except in June, July and 

August, but no special date is fixed for each 

meeting. 

Henry Edwards. Serrr/iirv. 



Natural History will be held at N. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts.. Boston. Mass.. 
at 7.45 p. m., on the days following: — 

24 Oct. 1883. 27 Feb. 18S4. 

28 Nov. '• 26 Mar. •• 

26 Dec. " 23 .\pr. 

23 Jan. 1SS4. iS May • 

Ei)W\Ri) Burgess. Srcreturv. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia. Pa., will be held 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sts.. on the 
days following: — 

12 Oct. 1SS3. 14 Mar. 1SS4. 

9 Nov. " II .\pr. " 

14 Dec. " 9 May " 

II Jan. 1884. 13 June • 

8 Feb. " 

James H. Ridings. Remrdi-r. 



The semi-avnual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. corner of ujth and Race Sts.. Philadelphia. 
Pa., on the days following: — 

10 Dec. 1S83. 9 June 1884. 

|\MES M. Ridings. Recording Serrefarv. 



The regular monthly meetings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal. Q^ie.. 
Canada, on the days following : — 

2 Oct. 1883. 5 Feb. 1884. 

6 Nov. " 4 Mar. " 

4 Dec. " I Apr. " 

8 Jan. 1S84. 6 May " 

(i. |. Bowles. Serrelnry. 



The .monthly meetings of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society will be held in the 
rooms of Wright's Business College. Broad- 
way, corner of Fourth .Street. Brooklyn. 
E. D., the last Saturday of each month ex- 
cept July and .\ugust. 

F. O. ScHAUPP. .Sccre/iirv. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



No. 109-HO were issued la July 1883. 



PSYCH ^—^^ 

-A. J"OXJK.nsr.A.L OF EKTTOIvlOrjOO'X'. 

[Established in 1S74.] 

EDITED BY 

B : PiCKMAN Manx. Washinp-ton. D. C. : G : Dimmock, CamhriJirc, Mass. ; 
Albert J: Cook, Lansing, Mich.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal, 
III.; Joseph Albert Lintner. Albany, N. 71 ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Lawrence. Kansas: W : Trelease, Madison, Wise. 

Vol. 4. No. 113-114. 

Septp;mri-:h-()c ToiiKR 1SS3. 

CONTEXT.'^: 

Advertisements S2 

The Influexce of Meteorological Conditions on Insect Life — Charles 

Golding Barrett [.\bstract by Benjamin Pickman Maini} . . . S3-87 

Salivary Glands in Bees — [Abstract by George Dimmock'\ .... 87-89 

Contribution to the Knowledge of Parasitic Life in Galls — [.Ab- 
stract by Benjamin Pickman Mann'\ ........ S9-91 

Proceedings of Societies. — Linnean Society of London ..... 9--9,3 

London Letter — W. L. D/ftant 9,i-94 

Vactor Tousey Chambers 94 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3-9--3.137 ........ 95-9S 

Entomological Items — .Society Meetings ........ 99-100 




PrBi.isiiED m' TH1-: 

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82 



psrciiE. 



[September — October iSS,?. 



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EAHLl' STAGES OF BUTTERFLIES 
WA.VTED. 
The undersigned desires to obtain, by exchange 
or otherwise, from all parts of the world, eggs, 
caterpillars and chrysalids of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 
Dried specimens arc preferred, especially of caterpil- 
lars, which should be prepared by inflation. Corre- 
spondence is invited with persons engaged in the 
study of the early stages of butterflies. 

S. H. SCUDDER, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

COCCIDAE WANTED. 
The undersigned is desirous of obtaining, by ex- 
change or otherwise, specimens of as many species'of 
the CocciDAE as possible, for the purpose of making 
a study of the North American forms. Those found 
infesting cultivated plants especially desired. Living 
specimens preferred when they can be obtained. 
J. Henry Comstock, 
Department of Entomology. 
The Cornell Universitv. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

GALLS AND GALL INSECTS. 
The undersigned desires, either by exchange or 
otherwise. Galls from all parts of the United States. 
He is especially interested in those made by Lepidop- 
tera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Diptera. Correspon- 
dence in reference to Gall growths, or other vegetable 
abnormities, is invited. CHARLES V. RILEY, 
1700 Thirteenth St.. N. W.. 

Washington. D. C. 

TORTRICIDAE WANTED. 
I am desirous of obtaining as many North Ameri- 
can TORTRICIDAE as possible, for tlie purpose of 
studying this family. I shall be glad to name and 
return any TORTRICIDAE fonvarded to me for this 
purpose, save such as may prove new and desirable 
to retain for description. 

Pack carefully, and direct to 

Prof. C' H. Fernai.d, Orono. Me. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 
Living cocoons, pupae and ova of American lepi- 
doptera bought or exchanged for other species, by 
Monsieur .-M.FRED W'AILLY, (Membre-Laureat de 
la SocIlHiS d'.^cclimatation dc France), 

Tudor Villa, Tudor Road, Norbiton, 

Kingston-on-Thames, England. 



NORTH AMERICAN FERNS. 

Check lists of the Ferns of Nortli America north 

of Mexico, enumerating 31 genera, 132 species and 

15 varieties, on one octavo page. Will be sent by 

mail on receipt of the price, 15 cents per dozen copies. 

S. .Stebhins. Springfield, M.iss. 



FSYCHE. 



THE INFLUENCE OF METEOROLOGICAL COXDITIOXS OX 

IXSECT LIFE. 

BY CHARLES GOLDIXf; BARRETT, PEMBROKE, WALES. 

[Abstract, by B: Pickman Mann, Wasbington, D. C-. from Entoni. mo. mag.. June iSSj, 

V. 19. p. i-S.] 

'•The means employed by nature to a dozen of the hiryae sei'med to possess 

keep species within due bounds — check- sufficient yitality to feed. These were 

ing their inordinate increase or unnec- fetl on potted phxnts, grown in a sunny 

essarv decrease — are so certain and window, wliere they, covered witli 

reliable in their residts, and yet so gauze, ••grew rapidly, feeding with es- 

obscure and difficult to trace in their pecial eagerness when the sun was shi- 

modes of action, that almost any obser- ning on them. The weather happened to 

vations, however slight, which seem to be fine and the sun hot for two or three 



be reliable as data from which to ascer- 
tain these means, are interesting and 
worthy of being put on record. 

'• In every district and eyery climate 
there are evidently manv species so 



weeks just at that time, and one larva 
made such progress that in a fortnight it 
was full-fed, when it spun a very slight 
cocoon on the gauze and turned safely 
to pupa. By this time tyvo more larvae 



peculiarly fitted to it that none of the were full-fed and left the food-plant for 
periodical changes of weather and the gauze, the rest being fully half- 
temperature materially aflect their num- grown, when a change of weather 
hers, and from these little evidence can came, with wind, heavy rain, and a 
be obtained. It is from those species total absence of sunshine. The lar\ae 
which onlv casually and rarely extend were, of course, not e.xposed to the 
themselves from their natural homes rain, but the etiect of the change 
into climates unsuitable for them, or was that those full-fed made no attempt 
from those which are alwa\s to be to spin up, and the rest ceased to feed, 
found in a given locality, but sometimes and in a few days they all fi'll oft" the 
rareh and always varying in numbers, gauze or the plants, dead. Aftei a 



that the most satisfactory evidence must 
l)e expected. 

" In the first class of cases an exam- 
ple occurred to me a few years ago 
which seems very much to the point." 

From eggs of Deiopeia pulchella 
received from the south of France some 
moths were, by great care and assiduity, 
reared to maturity in England, and 
from these were olitained fertile eggs, 
wiiich did\- hatched. Only about half 



fortnight of yvet weather it cleared up 
and the one pupa produced the moth — 
a male. 

'• This seems to supply a key to the 
whole history of the eccentric casual 
appearances" in England. " of this and 
manv other inhabitants of warmer 
climates. In nbedience to some sin- 
gular instinct that impels insects when 
becoming too numerous in their natural 
homes to emigrate to ' fresh fields and 



84 



rsrcHE. 



[September — October 1SS3. 



pastures new,' they, contrary to their 
orilinary habits, cross land or sea, ar- 
riving, of course, very often, in some 
inhospitable clime, where — if not at 
once captured — they very likely soon 
fall victims to some pitiless storm of 
wind and rain. But supposing both 
these risks to be avoided, the moth — 
if an impregnated female — in due 
course lays its eggs, which most proba- 
bly hatch. If the temperature happens 
to be lower or the weather wetter than 
the natural constitution of the species 
is able to endure, the young larvae die 
without even attempting to feed, but if 
matters are more favourable, the strong- 
est of them struggle along, and if fairly 
favoured by the weather a few of them 
may reach the perfect state ; if quite 
unusually fiivored by the weather a large 
proportion of them maj'. do so, pro- 
ducing those remarkable instances of 
the sudden appearance in numbers of 
a species usually rare. Such good for- 
time rarely extends to a second season 
and the species becomes a rarity again 
or is even probably exterminated, to be 
renewed at some future time by the same 
instinct of migration. In cases such 
as these it appears to me that sunshine 
means life, and its absence destruction, 
to the larvae, and that by this simple 
and obvious influence the extension of 
species beyond their assigned limits is 
practically prohibited. 

" It also happens sometimes that the 
immigrant, following instinctively its 
inherited habit, attempts to produce an 
additional brood in the year, over what 
the climate will allow." For instance, 
pupae of the second brood of Colias 



cdusa. in England, showed in Decem- 
ber the \ello\v color of the wings, 
■' which only shows itself when the 
insect is nearly ready to emerge," thus 
••following inherited habit so as to 
hibernate, as they are well known to 
do [on the continent of Europe] in the 
perfect state, but from insufficient 
warmth and sunshine were unable to 
muster sufficient strength," and died. 

Again, in the autumn of 1880, in 
which year there had been a \vonderful 
immigration of Vanessa cardui into 
England, evidently a portion of the 
vast army that migrated across Europe, 
larvae were found tolerably common. 
feeding, at the beginning of October, 
on yoimg thistle plants, close to the 
ground, making their nests among the 
radical leaves, all the tall thistles being 
dead. From some of these larvae two 
pupae were obtained, in doors, 17 and 
20 October, and one imago, 20 Novem- 
ber. •' The rest died. This failure of 
instinct on the part of the immigrants 
surely explains, in some degree, the 
fact that last year [iSSi] the insect was 
more than usnallv scarce, hardlv any 
appearing to have hibernated, and also 
Avhy an insect with such power of 
increase in a suitable climate is so un- 
certain and variable in its a]5pearances 
in one that is unfavorable. 

'• With reference to the second class 
of cases — those in which a species 
always present is periodically common 
or scarce — much has been written. 
excessive rain being usually assigned 
as the cause of diminution in numbers, 
sunshine as the cause of increase. 
Without doubt these causes act to a 



SeptemliLT — October iSSj. 



PSl'CHE. 



very large extent, large numbers of lar- 
vae being actually dro-jj/wd b\- con- 
tinued heavy rain, and others rendered 
liable to disease, but a little evidence 
has come under mv notice, pointing so 
distinctly to another influence of equal 
jjotencv. that I think it well worth 
recording in detail." 

For many years previous to 1S7S 
there had been little or no intense cold 
in Pembrokeshire, owing to the pre- 
<lominance '• through each winter of 
winds from the soutlieast, south and 
west, and especiallv the southwest, all 
coming ofl" a sea kept constantlv warm 
bv the gulf stream. In many places 
fuchsias standing out of doors had never 
been cut down by frost within the mem- 
ory of the inhabitants." Some of these 
plants liatl become trees five or six 
metres high, with trunks of the size of 
a man's leg. Plants usuallv grown in 
greenhouses here flourished in the open 
air. " During these yeans, very mam- 
insects of general distribution [in Great 
Britain] continued to lie either verv 
scarce, or confined to exceedingh' 
restricted localities in this district." 
[Particulars gi\en.] ••Noc/nac (except 
a few universally abundant .species) 
appeared to be almost absent: such a 
dearth of ordinary night-flying species 
I never knew an\'vvhere before. 

" Rut in the winter of 1878. thcie 
w'as a great change. Persistent north 
or northeast winds, intensely cold, froze 
everything up hard, the warm sea air 
was completely expelled, or if a slight 
change of wind permitted a few clouds 
to come over, the rain from them was 
nistanth' converted into ice. with wliich 



the high roads were coated to a thick- 
ness of tliree or four inches [7.6 to 10.2 
cm.], for \\ eeks. 

" The winters of 1S79 '"^'^ 1S80 were 
equally cold, indeetl. the latter was said 
to be the coldest known here for fifty 
years, even the sea sands along the tide 
line were covered ankle deep with ice 
and frozen snow, a sight very rarely seen 
I in this coast. The first of these three 
winters [1S7S-1S79] killed all the 
shrubb\- veronicas and some of the 
simiachs, and the tree fuchsias and 
myrtles above the ground. 

••And now I will give tlie results as 
regards in.sects." 

Lepidoptera wiiich before were ex- 
ceedingly rare became more and more 
abtmdant in 1879, iSSo, and iSSi, until 
in the last year they actually abounded. 
Species previously restricted to a few 
favorite spots spread all along the coast 
or o\er the country. Many Geometrae 
turned up whicli had hardh' been seen 
before. 

•• Hut in Noctiiac. the improvement 
was the most remarkable, as in tiiat 
group the scarcity had been most 
marked." [Mentions numerous spe- 
cies which became abundant.] 

•■Here we seem to have a direct 
example of cause and eflect. but 1 am 
not prepared to say that the eflect al- 
ways arises in the same wav. I think 
there can be no doubt that in the case 
f)f those insects, whose mode of life 
includes the capacity foi hibernation, 
their constitution is greatly strengthened 
and their chance of arriving at maturity 
increased, if the cold of winter is suffi- 
ciently se\ere to induce complete tor- 



80 



rsrciiE. 



|Si-ptcnil>iT— O.lrilier iSS.i. ] 



pidit}-, undisturbed by warm and spring- 
like weather at unseasonable times, 
and this may accoimt for the vast in- 
crease in numbers in species which 
hibernate in the egg state ; it also 
probably has a strengthening effect on 
those which pass the winter as small 
social larvae under a silken tent on the 
ground, or which, like the Nocfitae, 
hibernate in the larva state on the 
ground or among dead leaves, and are 
tempted out to feed by every warm and 
genial evening. 

"On the other hand there can be no 
doubt that mild winters act directly to 
cause the destruction of both hiberna- 
ting larvae and pupae, in two ways. One 
is by encouraging the growth of mould, 
which we know attacks them as soon 
as, from excess of rain or humidity, 
they become sickly ; the other by per- 
mitting the continued activity of pre- 
daceous creatures. These are very 
numerous. Moles continue at work in 
mild winters, instead of burying them- 
selves deep in the ground ; and mice 
are constantlv actixc. These small 
mammalia destroy great numbers of 
Lepidopterous pupae, and they abound 
in this district, as also do birds during 
the winter in an extraordinarv degree. 
As soon as severe cold sets in to the 
north and east, the birds come down 
in swarms to the open fields and shel- 
tered hillsides of this district, and it is 
hardlv necessary to point them out as 
most industrious and persevering de- 
stroyers of larvae. Predaceous beetles 
and earwigs are generally on the alert 
all through very mild winters, and al- 
though they probably do not eat much 



at that time. and. indeed, are not \ery 
plentiful in Pembrokeshire, they must 
destrov many larvae and pupae, having 
little else to subsist ujjon. Hut I believe 
that the mischief done by all these 
added together does not equal that done 
bv the Onisci. 

" During mild winters these crusta- 
ceous vermin increase and multiply, 
and feed, and grow witliout check, till 
in so mild a climate the^■ become a per- 
fect nuisance, pervading everything 
indoors and out. It was hardl\' possible 
to keep them even out of the breeding 
cages, where thev would get introduced 
when verv small and unnoticed — or 
perhaps in the egg state — hunt out and 
destroy every larva and pupa, and grow- 
large and plump without ever siiowing 
themselves above the leaves and rub- 
bish. Doubtless, their industrv out of 
doors was in the same proportion, and 
my impression is that they approached 
very near to completely exterminating 
many species that would naturallv be 
common here. Severe cold seems to 
destrov some of them, for thev are not 
nearlv so numerous now. and it cer- 
tainly puts a complete stop to their 
destructive operations during a time 
when larvae are most especiallv helpless 
and lial)le to attack. To this, witli other 
causes alreadv mentioned. I am inclined 
to attribute the extraordinarv increase 
in numbers of so man\' species during 
the last three seasons, divided liy severe 
winters. The winter now past has 
been mild. and. therefore, a furtiier pro- 
gressive increase camiot reasonablv be 
expected : but I hope that the mischief 
done in one mild winter mav not be 



Stpti.iiihei-()ct..lici- 1S.S3.I PSyCHR. 87 

serious. It is the progressive increase rather rich in tiiose species of Tortri- 

ot destroNers with the decrease of vie- cina which feed and hibernate entirelv 

tinis through successive niihl seasons within tiie stalks or roots of [)huits. 

tiiat is really to be dreaded. ■■ It is worthv of notice, that there 

"As a slight corroboration ot this are a \ erv few species which have 

view, I may mention, that while this ajjpeared nnal.ile to cope with severe 

tlistrict of country is comparativelv poor cold. Lobopliora viretata was tolera- 

in all the species ot which the larvae feed bh cmnmon here during the first three 

and hibernate in any exposed situation, or tour \ears of which I have been 

several species of Noctuae. of which \\riting. but after the first cold winter 

the larvae live underground, are always it liecame scarce, and has since almost 

abinidant. and the countr\ is actualh' disappeared." 

SALIV.ARY (iLAXD.S IN UEES. 

[Abstract ot'a dissLTtatio)i bv Paulus Schienienz.] 

in" Gi-;oii(;H dimmdck. cambridck. m.vss. 

Paulus Schiemenz' dissertation '-Uber not come from the \'entricle. as has been 

das herkommen iles futtersaftes und ilie often suppused. 'Fhe sali\ar\- glands 

speicheldriisen der biene" . . . [Rec. no. are next described, and their secretions 

3337] gives many interesting facts in the and histological structure discussed, in 

anatomy of the hone\-bee and of other the order introduced fur them by Sie- 

bees. The beginning of this paper is a bold. i. e.. as ••s\stem i. 11. 111. i\ and 

historical consideration of the subject. \." 

with a description of the digesti\e tract The gland of s\ stem i ( Meckel's su- 
o^ Apis mellifica. in which the author pramaxillar\' gland) is proxided with a 
follows Plateau's view that the pro\en- reservoir and discharges its strongly acid 
tricidiis serves to arrest the too rapid secretion b\' openings, one <in each side 
flow of the contents of the crop (oi' of the "Schhmdblattclicn" [hypophar\ iix 
honey-stomach, as Schiemenz here ofSavigny]. This gland is absent in 
terms it) into the ventricle. Following cjueens an<l drones. In six species of 
tiie views of Leuckart. in whose labora- BoDibiis this sxstem is well de\eloped. 
tory Schiemenz prepared this paper, the and the author tlescribes various modi- 
author considers that the ileum of the fications in other bees, 
bees, as ot insects in general, has no The glands of s\stem 11 ( Meckel'sglan- 
other function than that of furnishing a dula sublingualis) are in the head, just 
suitable c<inncction between ventiicle aboxe its lower or posterior chitinous 
and rectum, and he decides that the walls, and are easiest prepared bv first 
nutrient fluid used b\ liees to feed their remo\ ing s\stem i. and then the brain. 
i|neen. lar\ae and drones sureK does The diflerent efferent ducts of the parts 



88 



PSYCHE. 



I September — ()etnl>er iSS.^ 



of this system of glands unite on eacli 
side, and the ducts resulting from their 
union join the duct from system iii at 
right angles, forming a cruciform figure. 
The secretion of system ii is slightly 
alkaline and leaves a fatty spot upon 
the test-paper. Qiieen bees ha\e sys- 
tem II similar to that of workers, but 
in drones its place is occupied by a 
mass of yellow fat-cells, which cannot 
secrete and which the author follows 
Pagenstecher in regarding as results of 
degeneration. In the male of Botnbus 
this system occupies nearly the whole 
head, while in the females and workers 
it is less developed proportionally than 
in Apis. System n is present in 
Psit/iyr/is, ]\fcgachile and CoeUoxys. 
but absent in all other bees examined 
by the author, e. g.. in Hylaens., DicJi- 
roa, Dasvpoda, Andrena, Osmia. Ait- 
thidiu7n^ CoUetcs, Melecta and An- 
fliophora. 

System in consists of a pair of glands 
in the anterior part of the thorax, each 
gland having a reservoir, and each open- 
ing by a duct which passes forward in- 
to the head, the two ducts there uniting 
to form the common duct of this system, 
with which (as mentioned before) the 
two ducts of system ii unite at right an- 
gles to form a cross, the combined efl'er- 
ent duct of systems ii and iii forming the 
fourth, or anterior, branch of the cross 
The secretion of the glands of system 
III is slightly alkaline or neutral. In 
queens and drones, particularly in the 
latter, this system of glands is of similar 
structure, but not so strongly developed 
as in workers. The reservoir is diHer- 
entlv proportioned in queen, drone 



and worker, but in the latter its capacity 
is greatest. System iii is not as well 
developed, relatively, in other bees as it 
is in Apis. This system of glands is 
described and figured by Spaulding 
(Anier. nat., Feb. iSSi.v. 15. p. 113- 
119), whom Schiemenz incorrectly 
cites as Hyatt, but whose description 
he rightly says "gives only the crude.st 
outlines and even these inaccurately." 

System iv. described minutely by 
Wolff and noticed by Graber, consists of 
two glands, one on each side, opening by 
a short duct upon the inner side of the 
base of each mandible, and giving out 
a strongly odorous and very acid liquid. 
If a mandible is torn from a bee's head 
the gland usually hangs to the base of 
the mandible as a little sac. In i_|ueen 
bees system iv is very strongly devel- 
oped, in workers well developed, but 
has suffered a degeneration in drones, in 
which the gland, altho still present, 
secretes nothing. System i\' is present, 
more or less developed, in all bees. 

System v. which is not present mApis 
vicllifica^ but exists in Bombus and 
some other genera, consists ot an im- 
paired gland which opens into the out- 
let of the common duct of systems 11 
and in. This system was not very fully 
studied by the author, its function prob- 
ably being only that of lubrication. 

In stn(l\ ing the development of these 
glands, which he considers at length. 
Schiemenz shows that systems 1 anil \\ 
are entirely new formations from epi- 
dermal invagination, system in is partly 
de\eloped from the silk-glands of the 
lar\a. and systems 11 and v' are deri\ed 
later from the duct of system in. 



Scpteintier — October 1SS5. 



PS re HE. 



m 



\\'liile puiSLiiiif; the development of 
these ghinds opportunity was taken ot" 
provino; tiiat Engehnann's so-called 
••neuroid tilaments" (Neuroidtasern ) 
were not of a neural natm^e. 

Under the heading --function" 
Schiemenz treats of some curious views 
that have been advanced bv authors in 
regard to the diflerent salivar\ glands 
of bees. Ranidohr at first mistook sys- 
tem II for an olfactor\' organ and svstein 
III for its continuation in open communi- 
cation with the tracheae of the thorax. 
He later corrected this error. Fis- 
cher thought that system iii was an 
■•insect-knig." VVolfl'and Graber prop- 
erly receive sharp criticism at the 
hands of Schieiiieu/ because thev 



thought that system w \vas a gland for 
moistening an olfactor\- organ beneath 
the lalirum. the place where Wolfl", in 
his wild search for analogies between 
\ertebrates and insects, had located the 
olfactory organ of the bee. Schiemenz 
regards the glands of s3'stem iv as used 
in the preparation of food, and the 
glands of system i as producing, in 
part at least, the nutrient fluid used for 
the larvae. The functions of the other 
systems still remain doubtful. 

As an appendix the author describes 
antl figures the structures of the anten- 
nae of Apis mcllipca. since it is n(jw 
settled that the antennae are the seat of 
the olfactory sense. 



CX)NrRIHUTI()X TO THE KXOWEElXiE OF PARASITIC 

LIFE IX CALLS. 

[Translated, with some change, from G. Fr. Mollers "Bidrag till kannedomen cm 
parasitlifvet i gallapplen och dylika bildninger" (Entom. tidskr. , 1SS2, arg. 3, p. 182-186).] 

B"!' li : IMCKMAX MANX, WASHINGTON. 11. C. 



In his work, Die icIiueui)iont->i dcr 
f'orstinserte/i. bd. 2. p. 217 and 219, 
Ratzeburg gives a list of all the para- 
sites which Tischbein, Nordlinger, Reis- 
sig, and others had hatched from galls 
of species of Cvnips and Ncmains. 
Since Iiowever the list is \erv incom- 
plete as regards our fauna I will here 
give a list of the parasites and inqui- 
lines which I have obtained from such 



not mentioned it is to be understood 
that both males and females were ob- 
tained, and where the cjuantit\- of spec- 
imens is not mentioned that a moderate 
iiumjier were obtained: (a) indicates 
an abundance, (aa) a great adundance, 
and (1 ) a scarcit\' of specimens. 

I. From galls of Cvnips folii. col- 
lected in Scania, September 1S68. 
were raised, in March 1869: — Torv- 



gall-formations during several years' mux vii-idissimiis (r), T. cimriilatiis^ 

continuous investigations. T. flavipes 9 (unique): in April: — 

In the determination of the species I Sy>iergiis vulgaris : in May: — Euryto- 

have followed exclusively Thomson's lua appcudigaster ? (imique). 

Hymc7wptera Sca?idi>/avine and Opu- 2. From galls of Cv'iips longive?2- 

scula entomologica. \\'here the sex is tris, collected in .Scania. September 



90 



/'SIX ///■:. 



(Septcinl.cr— Ort<.ber rSS.i. 



iSjS: were raided, in Mav 1S76 : — 
Torymiis 7ii.nricoriiis 9 (unique). 
Syntomaspls cyaiica, Sy/ier^/ts iicr- 
vosus (a). Platytermus yasciciilatjis. 
Decatomd bigHttata 9 (i')- 

3. From galls of" Lyiiips tcrininalis. 
collected in Blekinge, July 1876, were 
raised, in July 1876: — Torynms viri- 
dissinais (a) .Synergiis facialis. Dcca- 
tonia biguttata ? , Torymus eiicldoriis 
(r), T. citigidatus $ (unique), 
Piatvtertn?(s simplex (r), Cecidosiiba. 
truncata (r) . Megastigmus dorsal is 
$ (unique) ; in February and March 
1877- — Olinx gallarum (aa) ; in 
March: — Sviitomaspis saphiriiia (a), 
Megastigiinis dorsal is (r) ; in May : — 
Eiipclmits iirozoiiiis (r). Cecidostiba 
rligifroiis. 

4. From galls of Cvnips tcrniinalis 
from Oland. collected in September 
1876, were raised, in February to April 
1877: — Sviitoinaspis saphirina (aa) : 
in March: — Pimpla inanis J (r) : 
in April to July : — Megastigmus dor- 
salis : in .\pril : — Synergns ncrvo- 
S//S (a), Tortrix ('1 Grapliolitha putic- 
ticostai/a) (r) . Cecidostiba riigij'roiis. 
laryae of Balaninus villosiis (a). 
Eurytoiiia intermedia; in May: — 
Eiipelmiis itrozoiiits (a), Cecidomyia 
longicortiis J (rather rare), Ceci- 
dostiba truncata (r). C. collar is. 
Eupelmits aziireiis (rather rare) : in 
June : — Tetrastichiis tcr/i/i/ialis 9 • 

Remark. The small lepidoptera and 
diptera which occur here, as \yell as 
the coleo]5terous larxae. are inquilines. 
The little Pimpla has probably been 
raised as a parasite upon the torlrici- 



dae. as also presumably the Tetrasti- 
cliits from the Cccidomvia, analogously 
with its related genus Oxymorpha. 
which liyes parasitically on Cecidomyia 
fagi. The Ettpclmns lia\e perhaps 
liyed as piu'asites in the Cii rciilioAayxsie. 
>. From galls of Cyiiips gemmae. 
from Scania, autumn of 1876, were 
raised, in March 1S77 : — Syiiergjis 
vulgaris (a), Olinx gallarum (a), 
Syntomaspis saphirina (a). 

6. From galls of Cyi/ips {Spat/ie- 
gaster) baccarnm. collected in Scania 
during April and May 1876- 1879, were 
raised, in May 1S76 : — Synergi/s api- 
cal is (r), Eigites antliomyiarnm 9 
(unique); in June 1877: — Eorytnus 
viridissimus (a), Amblymerus crassi- 
cornis 9 (rather rare), A. pediinciili 

9 (rather rare): in March 1S79 : — 
Olinx Julvicrus 9 • '" April: — Syn- 
erg/is thaumacerus $ (unique) ; in 
July: — Torymus viridissimus (a). 
Eiiteliis Iieterotomiis $ (unique), E. 
collar is ^ Sy7iergns vulgaris (;0. /Va- 
tytcrtnns fasciculatns 9 (')• Ormy- 
rns gastris $ (common) 9 (1). 

7. From galls of Cynips ( Trigonas- 
pis) crnstalis, collected in Scania. April 
1S7S ;uul 1879, \yere raised, in June 
1878 : — Synergns tJiautnacerus (a) ; in 
April 1S79: — Syntomaspis fastuosa 
(a) ; in Juh : — Syuerg/is t//aiimacerus. 

Remark. At the end of April 1S7S 
ciuite muiierous indi\idu;ds of Trigo- 
naspis of lioth sexes came forth, when- 
ever Synerg/is exterminated Syntomas- 
pis ; in 1879 not ;i single Prigonaspis 
came torth whenexer lhe\ were exter- 
minated by Syntomaspis. \yhose p;ira- 



Septcmlier— (Ktober iSSj.| 



F.src HE. 



91 



site SvHcrffiis was now present in small 
iinnihcrs. 

S. From galls of C'viiips (Ami rims) 
iiijiator. from Scania. A]3ril 1S77. were 
I'aised in the same month ; — Svnerons 
{ Sap/iolyt/is) connat/is 9 (r). 

9. From galls of C'v/iips (Andricns) 
ciirvator. collected in Scania. Jnne 
1S79. were raised, in Jnh 1S71.) : — /'ia- 
t vtcrniHS fasciculatus. 

10. From galls of Cynips (Andri- 
cns) ram/iii. from Scania, fiine 1S81. 
were raised, in Julv iSSi : — Oii/ix 
Haiiarnw (a), EHtclns tibialis 9. 
Dccatonia incrassata 9 (unique). 

11. From galls of Cynips (Auiax) 
fflcchomae. fro'm Scania, were raised, 
in April 1SS2 : — Torymiis ffiechoniae 
n. sp. 9 (- specimens). 

12. From galls of Cynips {Auiax) 
foi'eigcr on Hieraciian iinibcllation . 
were raised, in 1SS2 : — Decatoma sub- 
iniitica (a). 

13. From hedeguar galls \^RliiHiitcs 
rosae\ on Rosa canina. collected in 
Scania during March iSSi and April 
1SS2, were raised, in May to Julv iS.Si : 

— Cynips (R/iodites) rosae ^ (r) 9 
(a). Ortopciina lutcolator (a): in 
May and June: — Habrocyt/is bcdco-u- 
aris (r) : in June and July : — Torymiis 
hedegnaris (r) : in April to Jime 1SS2 : 

— Ortopelnia int coin tor (a). Torymiis 
bedegiiaris (a); in Ma\ anil June: — 
Eurytoma piibicornis, Rhodites rosae 
9 (r). Aiilax brandti (aa). 

14. From swelling on the branches 
ot Salix capraea. collected near .Stehag, 
in Scania, during Marcli iSSi and April 
1S82, were raised, in Ma\ 1881 : — 



.Vfinatiis vidimtiis (r), Piinpla iiianis 
(P (r). /'. vesicaria ^ (common) 9 
(unique). P. hrevicornis^ P. inandi- 
biiiaris (r) : in Ma\ and June. A'ematiis 
pentandrae (a) ; in June : — Limner ia 
cJirysosticta (aa). Sympieziis scricei- 
coriiis $ (unique) : in June and July : — 
Pfabrocytiis capreae (aa), Eurytoma 
salicis (a) : in April 1882: — Nematus 
pcndaiidrae (a) ; in April and May; — 
Limiicria chrysosticta (a); in May 
and June: — Eurytoma saiicis (a), 
Habrocytiis capreae (r). 

A part of the species of the genus 
Torymiis and of the genera Syntom- 
aspis and Mcgastigin/is are constant 
parasites in galls on oak. like Ortopelma 
and Torymiis bcdcgiiaris in rose-galls 
and Limncria chrysosticta in willoyv- 
galls. The genera Synergiis. Eury- 
toma and Decatoma :ire all secondary 
parasites, that is to say, the\- attack in 
their tin-n the parasites on gall- 
formations and destroy them. The 
other pteromalini { Eiiteliis. Platyter- 
miis, Pfabrocytiis. etc.) are probably 
;dso secondary parasites. In regard to 
Aiiiax brandti. on the other hand, 
which often occurs so numerously in 
bedeguars, it can liardlv be con.sidered 
as a parasite, since all its congeners 
torm gall-like swellings on the branches 
of plants or liye in swollen seed-cap- 
sules, but it m;iy be considered to be 
an inquiline or the possible fellow-build- 
er with R/iodites rosae. The Pimpla 
raised from willow galls of the year 
iSSi haye probabh" all lived parasitical- 
1\ on the larger Xematiis vidiiatiis. 



9-2 



/\srcj/E. 



[SeiJtemluT— October i^*s^ 



F'SYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., SEPT.-OCT., 1S83. 

Communications^ exchattg€S and editors* copies 
should be addressed to Editoks of Psyche, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. Communications for publication in 
Psyche must be properly authenticated, and no anony- 
mous articles Tvill be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
statements made in their ozvn contntunications. 

Works on subjects not related to entomology zvill not 
be reviewed in Psyche. 

For rates of subscription and of advertising, see ad. 
vertising columns. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

LIXXEAX SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

15 Feb. 18S3. — Mr. J. Jenner Weir exhibit- 
ed a perfect hermaphrodite butterfly (/-r- 
ciiena icarits,') and a l.>hie male and a brown 
female of the same species for comparison. 
The hermaphrodite in question possesses two 
spotless blue wings on the left, and two spot- 
less brown wings on the right, thus being 
intermediate in color between the two sexes. 

A paper was read on the manna insect of 
South Australia, bv J. G. Otto Tepper. This 
contains observations on the insect in ques- 
tion, and on the peculiar saccharine substance 
derived from and deposited on various species 
of Rucalyftus trees. 

I March 1SS3.— Mr. Alfred \V. Bennett 
read a paper "On the constancv of insects in 
their visits to flowers." He stated as a sum- 
mary that the different classes of insects show 
very great difference \n this respect. Butter- 
flies show but little constancy except in a few 
instances ; but they would appear to be guided 
to a certain extent by a preference for par- 
ticular colors. The diptera exhibit greater 
constancy, though by no means absolute. .\ 
much greater degree of constancy is mani- 
fested by \.\\t cipidae: and this liccomes all 



but absolute in the hive-bee. It is an inter- 
esting circumstance that this constancy ap- 
pears to increa.se in proportion to the part 
performed by the insects in carrying pollen 
from flower to flower, A much larger num- 
ber of observations is however needed in or- 
der to determine with certainty any general 
law ; and especially a careful microscopic ex- 
amination of the pollen attached to the pro- 
boscis, mandibles, legs, and under side of the 
abdomen and thorax. As respects preference 
for particular colors, the lepidoplera observed 
paid 70 visits to red or pink flowers, 5 toblue, 
15 to vellow. 5 to white : the diptera 9 to red 
or pink. S to yellow. .;o to white ; the hy- 
menoptera 303 to red or pink. 126 to blue. 11 
to yellow. 17 to white. 

There followed a communication "On the 
methodic habits of insects when visiting 
flowers" by Mr. R. M. Christy. The author 
records in detail the movements of 76 insects 
while engaged in visiting 2,400 flowers. He 
tabulates the results and concludes that in- 
sects possess a decided preference for a num- 
ber of successive visits to the same species of 
flower, although this is not invariably the 
case. Most of the observations were made 
on bees, which seem to perform the fertiliza- 
tion of at least one-half of all the flowers 
fertilized by insects in this country. Butter- 
flies as a rule seem to wander purposelessly 
in their flight, nevertheless sonie species, in- 
cluding the fritillaries, are fairly methodic. 
The author believes that it is not by color 
alone that insects are guided from one flower 
to anolher'of the same species, and the sense 
of smell is suggested. Bees, he avers, have 
jioor sight for long distances but good sight 
for short distances. Of 55 humble-bees 
watched. -'6 visited blue flowers ; 12 of the 
bees wore methodic in their visits and 5 not 
so : 13 visited white flowers; 5 were methodic 
and 8 not so : 1 1 visited yellow flowers ; 5 were 
methodic and 6 not so: jS visited red flowers; 
7 were methodic, 9 nearly so, and u not so. 
Mr. Christy inclines to the opinion (though 
admitting paucitv of data 1 that bees in a 



'iepleiiiher— Ocrolier iSS.v] 



PSYCHE. 



!).'! 



flight from tlieir nest confine their visits ex- the secretarv. He details wliat he saw in 

chisivelv or principally to only one species of what may be termed the swarminy of a nest, 

plant. — Selected from Zool. aiizeii^cr. 

IS M.\RCH 1SS3.— Prof. T. S. Cobbold read 

a paper "On Simondsia paritdoxa and on its , MVnf^V T FTTRR 
probable affinity with Sfhaerulai-ia bomhi." 

19 April 1.S83.— Rev. A. E. Eaton gave a Kast nur.wRd. London, 

digest of an extensive monograph of the iULY 6th. 18S3. 

<'/>//('?«(?;/'(/rte, or mayflie-s, Part 1. In this the Perhaps the most interesting information 

subject is prefaced by the historical accounts. to American entomologists is that relating 

and his views of the group generally; the to the progress of Godman and Salvin's 

genera are defined, and a tabular conspectus great work — the "Biologia Centrali-Ameri- 

of the present known species indicated. cana." This has now appeared with most 

7 June 1883. — A short record of observa- commendable punctuality during the last 

tions on the white ants (termites) of Ran- three years, and the following is an abstract 

goon, by Dr. Robert Romanis. was read by of its progress to date. 



Subjects. Authf>rs 

COLEOPTF.RA : 

Adephaga 1 1. W. Bates 

D. Sharp 

Serj-icornia C'.().\\'aterhouse 

Malacodermata H. S. Gorham 

Longicornia H. W. Bates 

Phytopliaga M. Jacoby 
LppinoPTKRA : 

Rhopalocera Godman & Salvin 40^ 

Heterocera H. Drnce. 90 

Rhynchota : 

ileteroptera W. L. Distant 574 

Homoptera \V. L. Distant 56 



Nr. of spe- New spe- New gen- ^-j. ^^ \r. ofspe- Number Page.s 
cies euu- cies des. era des- p|;ites. '^'^^ "'" letter- 

nierated. cribed. Lrihed. " ' figured. fioiires. ntcss. 



812 


-4" 


417 


282 


88 


.?'■> 


498 


''^> 


S.^7 


276 


7,?6 


-43 



I.^ 



175 


"7.=; 


216 


G(, 


66 


U)2 


4" 


4" 


,3- 


208 


221 


192 


258 


269 


--4 


.?5<> 


.574 


264 



134 



14 

464 

4-: 



4"4 



264 
-4 



To tliis may be added the first hymeno- 
pteral contribution of Mr. P. Cameron, which 
has just appeared. This fauna includes the 
whole of Mexico and extends as far south 
as the Isthmus of Darien. Some idea as to 
the extent of the work remaining to be 
completed can he gathered from observing 



the many families and some orders of insects 
which have not as yet been commenced. Mv 
own contribution devoted to the rhynchota 
has only just reached the ra^sidae. but it has 
already dealt with some matters of interest 
to Nearctic entomologists, such as the dis- 
covery of the "Chinch Bug." B/insiis Iciico- 



04 



FSrCHE. 



I Scpti'inher— Oilol'ir iSS,;. 



plans extending southwarti tliioiigli Mexico. 
Guatemala and Panama. 

Dr. Leitner, of Basle, has passed the last 
nine or ten months in thi.s country, studying 
— both in the British Museum and at the 
different private collections — the polymor- 
phism of lucanoid beetles comprised in the 
odontolabidae, with the view to an explana- 
tion of the evolution of the mandibles and 
of the strongly marked sexual dimorphism. 
Dr. Leitner considers the female to exhibit 
(in this case) the archaic type, and his 
memoir will probably be published by one of 
our London societies about the end of the 
year. 

Perhaps at no previous period in the study 
of lepidoptera has so much complete faunis- 
tic work been in the course of publication 
as at the present time. Thus in your own 
country appears the excellent work of 
Edwards on the Butterflies of North America, 
whilst Godman and Salvin are publishing 
their monograph of the rhopalocera of 
Central America, and, tiirther south. Dr. 
Burmeister is doing a similar service for 
the lepidoptera of the. Argentine Republic. 
In London Lang is publishing his "European 
Butterflies" whilst as regards the east, 
Moore's "Lepidoptera of Ceylon." Marshall 
and de Niceville's ''Butterflies of India. 
Burmah and Ceylon." and my own "Rho- 
palocera Malayana" are regularly appearing 
and sufficiently attest the amount of pub- 
lishing energy in this field. 

Very few entomological collections have 
recently been received from the neotropical 
region. Mr. Champion has just returned 
from Central America bringing the remain- 
der of the best collection — in view of the 
number of minute and carefully mounted 
specimens — ever made in the tropics. Dr. 
Angas has brought home from Dominica a 
small but interesting collection, and in all 
probability the next lot of entomological 
novelties from this region will be received in 
.\nierica from \our coinitrvmaii Herbert 



Smith and the other members of his expedi- 
tion. 

»'. L. Dhl.uil. 



^'ACTOR TOUSEY CHAMBERS. 

Born in Burlington, Boone County, Ken- 
tucky. 6 August 1830. 

Died in Covington. Kenton County. Ken- 
tucky, 7 August 1SS3. 

Mr. Chambers made his name familiar to 
the entomologists of North America, and 
widely abroad, by his writings upon the tinci- 
na. and may be reckoned next to Brackenridge 
Clemens as a pioneer in the study of these 
insects in this country. His first paper upon 
the subject seems to have been his "A new 
species of Cemiostomu." . . . [Rec, no. 3-97]' 
published in June 1871, but we find an earlier 
paper of his on a parasited lai'va of Tiopaiii 
Itina, published in January 1S70. His last 
paper appears to be his "The classification 
of the tliieidae," on p. 71-74 of the present 
volume of Psyche. Such of his papers as 
have thus far been recorded in Psyche ap- 
peared in approximately the following chron- 
ological order, the numerals referring to the 
Bibliographical record: 88. 411, 441.337, 339. 

340, 341- 343- 449- S*""- 49i' 1065. io72' '"7,^- 
1090, 1102, 1113, 1129. 1142, 1150. 1156. S51. 
852, S53, 11S5, 1196, 1212, 1239, 1244, 1261. 
139S, 1S66, 186S, 1S67, 1292, 1308, 1326, 1409. 
1370, 1S05, 2269, 2S03. We have still on hand 
the titles of several articles by him. making 
in all at least sixty titles, and many of these 
are in fact series of separate articles, appear- 
ing under the same word-title throughout a 
volume. Mr. Chambers was singularly un- 
fortunate in the treatnient he received from 
his proof-readers, in some of the publications 
where most of his articles appeared, and 
rendered the citation of his articles especially 
dillicult by the similarity which he gave to 
their titles. .\ brief biographical sketch of 
him appears in Science. 24 .\ug. 1SS3. v. 2, 
p. 253-254. Ft: P. M. 



Septcmlier— Octcihcr iSSj.] 



rsrcHE. 



[3292-330,^] ''.^ 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Aut//ors and societies are requested to forward their zvorks to the editors as soon as 
published. The date of publication^ given in brackets [], marks the time at ivkich the 
xvork -was received, unless an earlier date of publication is knovjn to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherivise stated each record is made directly from the -vork that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common gi-cen name, as: A: Augustus: B: Bcfi- 
jamin; C: Charles; D: David: E: Edward; F: Frederic: G: George; H; Henry: 
I: Isaac; J: John; K: Karl; L: Louis: M: Mark; N: Nicholas: O: Otto; P: Peter: R: 
Richard: S: Samuel; T: Thomas; JV: JVilliam. The initials at the end of each record, or 
note, are those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



Bieler. S. [Pieces buccales d'un ganiase 
uropode.] (Bull. Soc. vaudoise des sci. 
nat., Dec. iSSo, s. 2, v. 17 ; Proc^s-verbaux. 
p. 8.). 

Brief note on the troplii of a s;-;unasid mite. 

G: D. (3202) 

Boden, C : J. Pulex feeding on lepidopte- 
rou?; larvae. ( Entomologist. Marcii 18S2. 
V. 15, p. 70.) 

Piile.x irritans observed ^^uckinjf the juices of larvae 
c\'[ ofcophora fiSi-rniospfftf/la and i-ttdrosis finest rella. 

G: D. (33Q.^) 

Borgmann, Hugo. Vorsclilage zur prapa- 
ration. (Entoni. nachrichten. \ Jan. 1881. 
jahrg. 7. p. 13-14/} 
Discussion of proper length of insect pins, and of the 

height at which insects should be placed on tlie pins. 

G: D. (3294) 

Borgmanu. Hugo. Zur anziehungsikraft des 

lampcnlichts aut' nacht-^chmetterlinge und 

andere insecten. (Entoni. nachrichten, 15 

March iSSi, jahrg. 7, p. SS-90. ) 

Gives formula for, and requests observations on the 

influence of elevation above sea-level, of temperature, 

hygroscopic condition, direction of the wind, condition 

of the weather, etc., on the attraction of insects bv lights. 

G: d: (3295) 

Bo'wles. G:J: Entomology for beginners. 

Migratory insects. (Can. entom.. Julv 

18S0. V. i"2, p. 13&-137.) 

Notes on migrations of insects, especially of ^0/0- 
piffitis s/>r,-/us. Jaunia archippu.'i ^\\A pvrameis cardui. 

G: D. (3296) 

Chambers. Vactor Toiisev. A new species 
ot remiostoma. Micro-lcpidopfcra, tiiteiiia. 
(Can. entom.. June 1S71, v. 3. p. J3-25.) 

Describes cemiostotiia a/bella, :i new species, of 
which the larva mines the leaves o( poftulus alba and 
/. dilatata. G: D. (.)2g7) 



Cooke. E : Naphthaline. (Entomologist, 
Nov. 1882, V. 15, p. 263-264.) 

Recommends use of naphthaline (CiuHs) to keep 
mites out of collections. 

G: D. (329?) 

Corbett. II. H. The bad season for lepido- 
ptera. (Entomologist, Oct. 1SS2, v. ic;, p. 
236.) 

Limited number of species, but great number of 
individuals of a few species, of lepidoptera in England 
during 1SS2. G: D. C3299) 

Dalla Torre. K: W. Addenda et corrigenda 
zii Hagens Biblioth. entomolog.. bis 1862. 
(Entom. nachrichten. 15 Pec. 1878, jahrg. 

Additions to and corrections of H. A. Hagen's 
'*Bibliotheca entomologica" [Rec, 3306]. For contin- 
uation, see author's "Addenda imd corrigenda" . . . 
{op. cit.y iSSo, jahrg. 6) [Rec, 3301]," Addenda imd 
corrigenda," . . . {op~. tit., i Feb. iSSi, jahrg. 7, p. 45- 
4S) [Rec, 3302], and "Addenda et corrigenda" . . . 
{op. lit., t June iSSi, jahrg. 7, p. 16^-170) [Rec, ^^03]. 

G: D. (.i3oo) 

Dalla Torre. K. : W. Addenda und cor- 
rigenda zu Hagen's: Bibliotheca entomo- 
logica n. (Entom. nachrichten. 1880. 
jahrg. 6: 15 June. p. 125-129; i July. p. 137- 
140: I Aug.. p. 16S-171 ; I Dec*, p. 261- 
267.) 

Additions to and corrections of H. A. Hagen's 
"Bibliotheca entomohigica" . . . [Rec, .^306], con- 
tinued from author's "Addenda et corrigenda" . . . 
(op. ril., i; Dec. iS;7S. jahrg. 4, p. .524-3jo) fRec., 3300], 
~,fliich set'. G: D. (.1301) 

Dalla Torre. K : W. Addenda imd cor- 
rigenda zu Hagens Bibliotheca entomo- 
logica. III. (Entom. nachrichten, i Feb. 
1881. jahrg. 7. p. 45-48.) 

Additions to and corrections of H. A. Hagen's 
"Bibliotheca entomologica" . . . [Rec, 3306]. Con- 
tinued from author's "Addenda und corrigenda" . . . 
{op. L'it., iSSo. jahrg, 6) [Rec, 3301]: see also author's 
"Addenda et corrigenda" . . . {op. n'f., 15 Dec. 1S7S, 
jahrg. 4, )>. 324-330) [Rec, 3300]. G~: D. (3302) 



'■•t; [3303-331"] 



PSYCHE. 



[September — Octolu-r iSS.;. 



Dalla Torre. K : W. Addenda et con-igendn 

zu llagcii's Hibliotlieca ei.tomologica. iv. 

(EntoMi. nachi-iclUen. 1 June iSSi, jahrg. 

7. p. 163-170.) 

Atlilitions to and corrections of H. A. Hagcn's 
"Bibliollicca cntoniologica" . . . [Rec, 3306). Con- 
tinned from author's "Addenda und corrigenda" . . . 
(op. Hi., 1 Feb. iSSi, jabrg. 7, p. 45-4S) [Rec, 3302); 
see also author's "Addenda etcorrijienda" . . . {op. rit., 
IS Dec. 1S7S, jalirg. .(. p. 3^+-33o) [l<ec., 3300). 

G: D. (3303) 

Dobson. H. 'X..jr. The eftect of heat upon 
iio/odoiifa dictaea. (Entomologist, March 
iSSi, V. 15, p. 6.S-67.) 
Alteration of the normal time of appearance of itoto- 

doiilii liiftafo by the season being milder or colder. 

G: D. (3304) 

Dob.'soii. 11. v.. Jr. I'revention of mould. 

(Entomologist, Nov. 1S82, v. 15, p. 264.) 

Effect of the use of carljolic acid in preventing mold 

in collections, and eflect of evanizing on some Icpido- 

ptera. G: D. (3305) 

Hagen. Hermann August. Bibliotheca ento- 
mologica. Die litteratur uber das ganze 
gebiet der entoniologie bis ziim jahre 1S62. 
2 V. Lpz., IK. Eiigclmann. 1S62-1S63. 
Bd. I. A-M. 1S62. t.-p., 12+566 p. Bd. 
2. N-Z. Mit einem .systematischen sachre- 
gister. t.-p. +512 p. j 24 X 15. 1 1S.2X 1 1. 
Additions and corrections, by K : W. 
Dalla Torre, entitled "Addenda et corri- 
genda zit Hagens Biblioth. entomolog. , 
bis 1S62." (Entom. nachrichten, 15 Dec. 
1S7S. jahrg. 4. p. 324-330.) 

.\dditions and corrections, by K: A\ . 
Dalla Torre, entitled "Addenda und cor- 
rigenda zu Hagen"s: Bibliotheca entonio- 
logica II." (Entom. nachrichten. iSSo, 
jaiirg. 6: 15 June, p. 12,^-129; i July, p. 
137-140; I Aug.. p. 16S-17T : I Dec. p. 
261-267.) 

Additions and corrections, by K : \\ . 
Dalla Torre, entitled ''Addenda und corri- 
genda zu Hagens Bibliotheca entomolo- 
iogica. III." (Entom. nachrichten, i 
Feb. iSSi, jahrg. 7, p. 45-48.) 

Additions and corrections, by K : \V. 
Dalla Torre, entitled "Addenda et corri- 
genda zu Ilagen's Bibliotheca entomolo- 
gica. IV. (Entom. nachrichten, i June 
■ 1881, jahrg. 7, p. 163-170.) 

Bibliography of 18130 writings on entomology, he. 
sides extracts, reviews, 'and translations, by 4766 nameii 
and S^[ anonymous authors, from the earliest times 
down to tlie year 1S6.!, with designation, as a guarantee 
of accuracy,' of the 14334 titles transcribed from the 
wcn-Us theinsclves by the author, and with a minutely 
analytical subject in'dex;list of ly entomological soc- 
ieties, and of the entomological publications of 11 
societies; description of tlie aiithor's methods, and dis- 
cussion of the principles of coTisInicti'ni of the biblio- 
graphy. IS: P. M. (330(>) 



Riley, C : \alentine. The boll-worm alias 
corn-worm. Hcliothis. 11 r mi gem Iliibn. 
(Rept. [U. S.] commiss. agric, for iSSi 
and 18S2. 18S2 [Jan. 18S3], p. H-vWy- P'- 

. I ; pi. 12. fig. I.) (RiLEY, C : V. Report of 
the entomologist . . . [l Dec] 1SS2, p. 145- 
149 [85-S9], pi. I ; pi. 12, fig. I.) 

Advance reprint, from 4th report nf U. S. cntonm- 
logical commission, of section on the food-plants of 
hfliothts ariiif^era, other than cotton ; list of these food- 
plants, and of authorities upon which the respective 
statements are made; liistnry of lirst prottfs of the iden- 
tity <if this species on maize with the s::me on cotton ;_ 
habits of the larvae in their several broods; figures of 
all stages of the insect. /'.■ P. M- (330/) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The catalpa sphinx. 
Sp/iii:x cit/iilpiie Boisd. (Rept. fU. S.] 
commiss. agric, for 18S1 and 1SS2, 18S2 
[Jan. 1SS3], p. 189-193. pi. 13-) (RiLKY, 
C: V. Report of the entomologist. . . [i 
Dec] 18S2, p. 1S9-193 [129-133], pi. 13.) 

Relative excellence of catalpa spcciosa and r. big- 
«fl«/r>/(/c.s- as timber-trees, according to J : A. Warder; 
geographical distribution, habits, ravages and parasites 
of and means against sphinx calalpac; description and 
figures of all stages of this insect; description of sup- 
posed sound-producing organs in pupae of this and 
other species. B: P. M. (330S) 

Riley. C : N'alentine. The clover leaf-beetle. 
Pliytonomiis fiiiicUitiis Fabr. (Rept. [U. S.] 
coi'nmiss. agric, for 18S1 and 1882 [Jan. 
1883), p. 171-179, pi. 10. fig. I.) (RlLEV, 
C : V. Report of the entomologist.... 
[i Dec] 1S82. p. 171-179 [n 1-119]- P'- '"■ 
fig. I.) 

Food-plants and habits of the species oi phylonomiis 
in Europe and United States; civil and natural history-, 
number of annual broods, ravages, enemies and geo. 
graphical distribution of and means against fh. plinf- 
tat/i.^: description and figures of eggs, larva (four 
stages; and pupa of this species; figures (»f imago and 
of injured plant; rcp<M-t, by E. .-X. Schwarz, of ob. 
senatious on this insect in New Yi>rk; liylesiniis In- 
folii seems to feed only on trifoliltm pratfnse: coleo- 
]>tera iinpcn-tetl from Europe lisnallv confined to the 
neighborhood of the Atlantic coa.st. B: P. .V. U309) 

Riley, C: Valentine. The corn bill-bug. 
Splnnophonis robuftiis Horn. (Rept. [U. 
S.] commiss. agric. for 1881 and 1882, 
1SS2 [Jan. 18S3I. p. 13S-142. pi. 7. fig. 2: 
pi. S. fig. 2.) (Riley, C: V. Report of 
tlie entomologist. . . . [i Dec] 18S2. p. 13S- 
142 [78-S2], pi. 7, fig. 2: pi. 8, fig. 2.) 

Ilislorv of earlier observatinns on the species of 
spht-noph'onis \u)\.\r\o\\s\.o niiiizc in the Uniteii St;ites ; 
report of nhservations on .v. rohisfus, by L. O. Howard ; 
habits and ravajfcs of .■^. rolutsftts; description and fipiire 
of larva, puna and imao:o of this species and description 
of larvae of rhodobaemis Irt'iiertmpunflittNs and rhyn- 
chophoriis zittimt-rnian/ii\ and fii-ures ot itna'^o of the 
former; characters distinijuishini,' st>/tfiwp/torns und s. 
r<?hisifts and the fourother speciesallied to it from other 
genera and species. A": /^. M- (.U'") 



Se|>teniber — October iSS^.] 



PSYCHE. 



[33' 1-3327] ■'" 



Riley, C : Valentine. Craiyihin vnlghmgcl- 
lus. (Anier. nat.. Nov. 1S81. v. 15. p. 914- 

915-) 

Records the excessive abundance of this species in 
tlie eastern United States in iSSi ; description of the egg; 
method of oviposition. B: P. M. (3,y i ) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] A disastrous sheep 
parasite. (Amer. nat., Dec. iSSr, v. 15. p- 

A parasite, probably /r;V//(?c/«'(7<?,« ovis, doing great in- 
jury to sheep in Illinois. G: D. {3312} 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] [Dolerus huicoIov.^ 
(Amer. nat.. Julv iSSi. v. 15, p. 574.) 

Statement, by H. Kecnan, that the imagos o{ dole-^us 
iinicolor injured the fruit buds of pear-trees at Quaker 
City, Ohio, by eating holes therein; as this habit in a 
tenthredinid imago seems not to have been observed be- 
fore, the statement is questioned. B: P. M. (3,113) 

Riley, C : Valentine. Effect of drought on 
the hessian flv. (Amer. nat., Nov. 1881. 
V. 15, p. 916./ 

Hot and dry weather dries up and kills cecidoniyia 
disirtfcior and its par:xsites. B: P. M. (3314) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Entomologist tor the 
Pacific coast. (Amer. nat.. Oct. 18S1, v. 
15, p. S21-S22.] 

Notice of attempts niiide to liave a .state entninoioi^ist 
appointed in California. B: P. M. (5315) 

Riley, C : Valentine. Entomoloifv in Bufta- 
lo, N. Y. (Amer. nat.. Nov.'i'SSi, v. i^, 
p. 917.) 

Notice of V. 4, no. i, of the Bulletin of the Buffalo so- 
ciety of natural sciences; list of entomological papers 
therein. B: P. M. (3316) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Exuviation in fliglit. 
(Amer. nat., May 1S81, v. 15. p. 395.) 
Criticises R. McL-tchlan's observation that oli'jro- 
rtettra rhenana casts its subimaginal skin while on the 
win^; describes the process in polymitarcvs alba; ex- 
cessive abundance of the latter s'pccies on the Red 
River of the North [Minnesota], in August 1S77. 

B: P. M. (35,7) 

RUey, C : Valentine. Insect collection tor 
sale. (Amer. nat.. Dec. 1S81. v. i;. p. 
1014.) 

Notice of the collection of coleoptera left by C r Tra- 
hrandt, of New Orleans, at his death. 

B: P. M. (33, S) 

Riley, C : Valentine. Insect enemies of the 
rice plant. (Amer. nat.. Feb. 18S1, v. iv 
p. 148-149.) 

Identities chaleptis trachypygus feeding on roots of 
the rice-plant, and conjectures that other mentioned en- 
emies of rice may be spalacopsh suffusa and ceiltrinus 
concimtus. Rice-plant in India injured by cecidoniyia 



[Riley, C : \'alentine.] Insect locomotion. 
(Amer. nat., Apr. 1S81, v. 15, p. 325. j 

Results of G. Carlet's studies on the order in which 
the feet are moved in the walking of hexapods and ar- 
achnids. B: P. M. (3J2o) 

Riley, C: Valentine. Larval habits of .•i/^e;;- 
ophori that attack corn. (Amer. nat., Nov. 
iSSi, V. 15, p. 915-916.) 

Mentions several species of spkenopkorits injurious 
to maize plants in different parts of the U. S. ; habits 
and ravages of .s, ro^'W.'i/w.v. B:P.M. {3321) 

Riley, C : N'alentine. Migration of butter- 
flies. (Amer. nat.. Julv iSSi. v. is. p. 
.S77-) 

Report, byj. H. Mellichamp, of the eastward flight 
of thousands of p ten's montiste, in small groups of two, 
three or more individuals, on i and z June iSSi, over 
Bluffton, S. C; description of laiva and pupa; larva 
teeds on cleome pentaphylla -AnApolatiisia trachysperma. 

B: P. M. (3322) 

[Riley, C : \'alentine.] Migration of plant 
lice from one plant to another. (Amer. 
nat.. Oct. iSSi. V. 15, p. S19-820. ) 

Exposition of J. Lichtenstein's tlieorv that most «/•//- 
idid(it\ especially gaIl-making/e'W/'/^;^;'«/, live upon two 
different plants in passing through their cycle ot devel- 
opment; cites instances in ^vhich the host-plants are of 
different families. B: P. M. (3323) 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Moths mistaken for 
aletia. (Amer. nat.. June 18S1. v. 1=;, p. 
4S6-4S7.) 
Phtthypena scabra and phoheria atomaris mistaken 

for aletia ar^illat'ea; hibernating habits of the first. 

B: P. M. (33-!4) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The new imported clo- 
ver enemy. (Amer. nat., Nov. 18S1. v. 15, 
p. 912-914.) 

Records occurrence and habits oi pkytonomus puiic 
tains, injurious to trifoUum in New York, describes the 
egg and larva of this species, and gives a list of food- 
plants of the European species of phytonomns. 

^ B: P. M. (3325) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] A new imported en- 
emy to clover. (Amer. nat.. Sept. 1881, v. 
'5. P- 7.=;o-75>-) 
Clover [trifoiiitm} injured by pliytonomil!: punctatus 

at Barrington, N. Y., in July iSSi. " B: P. M. (3326) 

Riley, C : Valentine. A new rice stalk-borer : 
genus-grinding. (Amer. nat.. Dec. 18S2, 
V. 16, p. 1014-1015.) 

Extract from author's "The rice stalk borer" . . . 
(Kept. (U. S.] commiss. agric, for 1881 and 1SS2, 1SS2 
[Jan. 1SS3] [Rec, 3332]), p. 134-13S, with additional re- 
marks; chilo oryzacelltis = dipbry.x prolatel/a; the ge- 
nus diphryx stated by Lord Wals'inghani [T : de Grey] 
to have been founded by A: R. Gi-ote on a mutilated 
specimen (as suspected by the author), with mistake of 
maxillary for labial palpi! B: P. M. (3127) 



!)« 



[3328-3337] 



PSYCHE. 



[September — October 1SS3. 



Riley, C : Valentine. A new species of oak 
coccid mistaken for a gall. (Amer. nat.. 
June iSSi, V. 15, p. 482.) 

Dcscri]ition of kermex j^aHiformis 11. sp., occurring 
on qut-rcHS palustris in the southern and central U. S. ; 
the coccid often infested by ettchmcnsia btif^st-tttita, 

B: P. M. (3328) 



Riley, C : Valentine. The osage orange 
sphinx. Sf/ii>ix liagetii Groie. (Rept. [U. 
S.] cominiss. agric, for 1S81 and iSSi, 1SS2 
[Jan. 18S3]. p. 193-194. pi. 12, fig. 2.) (Ri- 
ley, C : V. Report of the entomologist 
. . . [i Dec] 1882, p. 193-194 [133-134], pl- 
12, fig. 2.) 

List nf insects injurious to maclura aurautitica\ 
geoy:rapbical distribution and classificatoi-y relations 
of sp/it'n.v /ia^eiii; references to other accounts of this 
insect; description and figures of larva and imago. 

B:P.M. C3329) 

Riley, C : Valentine. Other insects injurious 
to growing rice. (Rept. [U. S.] commiss. 
agric, for'^iSSi and 1SS2, 1S82 [Jan. 1SS3]. p. 
13S, pl. 7, fig. 4-5.) (Riley, C : V. Report 
of the entomologist . . . [i Dec] 18S2, p. 
138 [78]. pl. 7, fig. 4-5.) 

Habits and food-plants of laplife-ma frttgiperda; oc- 
currence of certain other insects doinij minor damage 



on rice phmts. 



IS: P. M. (3330) 



Riley, C : Valentine. The rice grub. Cha- 
lepus tiachyfygiis Burm. (Rept. [U. S.] 
commiss. agric, for iSSi and 1S82, 1SS2 
[Jan. 1SS3). P- 128-129, pi. 6, fig. 5.) (Ri- 
ley, C : V. Report of the entomologist 
. . . [i Dec] 1882, p. 128-129 [68-69]. '^pl. 
6, fig. S-) 

Report of L. O. Howard on the habits and ravages of 
and means against chalfpus trarliypvgits; references to 
earlier observations; structural characters .and geo- 
graphical distribution of tlie genera cyclocephala and 
rjiaiepu.^: description ;ind figure of larva and imago ol 
ch.trachypygns. B:P.M. (3331) 

Riley, C ; Valentine. Tlie rice stalk horer. 
Ckilo oryzacellus, n. sp. (Rept. [U. S.] 
commiss. agric, for iSSi and 1S82 [Jan. 
■S83], p. 133-13.V P>- 7. fi,?- i) (Riley, C: 
V. Report of the entomologist ... [i 
Dec] 1SS2, p. I33-I3.S [73-75]- ?■ 3 [i<''7]. 
pl. 7, fig. I.) _ 

Extract, with additions, by author, en- 
titled "A new rice stalk-borer: genus 
grinding." (Amer. nat., Dec 1882, v. 16. 
p. 1014-10x5.) 

Description and figures of lar\'a, pupa and imago of 
cbilo oryzaeellits n. sp. = diphryx prolatflla; report of 
L. O. Howard upon its habits," enemies ancl ravages, 
atul means against it ; structural characters of the genus 
r/i^/zr^v-r stated by Lord Walsmghani [T: de Grev] (as 
suspected by autlior) to have been founded by A ; R. 
Grote on a n'lutilated specimen, with mistake of ma.\il- 
larv for labial palpi. B.P.M. \v,\i) 



Riley, C: \'alcntine. The urena anomis. 
Aiiomis erosa Wwh. (Rept. [U.S.] com- 
miss. agric. for 18S1 and 1SS2, 18S2 [Jan. 
1SS3], p. 167-170. pi. 8, fig. 1.) (Riley, C: 
V. Report of the entomologist ... [i 
Dec]iS82, p. 167- 1 70 [107- 1 10], pl. 8, fig. I.) 
Detailed comparison of eggs of anomis erosa and 
aletia yylina; figures and description of all states of the 
former species; seasons, habits and (ood-plants of this 
insect. B: P. M. (3333) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The vagabond cram- 
bus. Crambiis viilii^ii'iigellus Clem. (Rept. 
[U. S.] commiss. agric, for iSSi and 1S82, 
1S82 [Jan. 1883]. p. 179-1S3, p. 3, pl. 10, 
fig. 2.) (Riley, C:V. Report of the en- 
tomologist . . . [i Dec] 1882, p. 179-183 
[119-123]. p. [167], pl. 10, fig. 2.) 
Civil anil natural liistory of cratitbus i-ul^ii'a^ellns; 
habits, ravages and parasites of and means against this 
insect; description and figures of egg, larva and imago; 
figures of cocoons and injiu"ed grass; description of 
pupa; list of articles written concerning this insect; 
siniilaritv of habits oi crambus 7Vcirritij^fone//i/s of Kng- 
land to liabits of c. vulgiva^eUus. B: P. M. (3534) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The ''water- weevil" of 
the rice plant. (Amer. nat.. June iSSi, v. 

15, p. 482-483.) 

Extract, in author's "The water-weevil. 

Lissorhoptrus simplex Sav." (Rept. [U. 

S.] commiss. agric, foriS8i and 1SS2. 1882 

[Jan. 1SS3]. p. I3"-133-) .(Rilev, C: V. 

Report of the entomologist . . [i Dec] 

18S2. p. 130-133 [7073]-) 

Remarks on the injury done to ricc-plants by the lar- 
vae of chalepus irachypygus^ and by other larvae for- 
merly suspected to be those of spalacopsis suffusa^ but 
now supposed, on the testimony of J : Screven, to be 
larvae of Ussorhoptrus simplex^ letter from J : Screven» 
embodying the above testimony; seasons, habits and 
ravages of the last mentioned '^[)ecies. 

B: P. Af. (3535) 

Riley, C: Valentine. Wliite blast. (Rept. 
[U. S.] commiss. agric. for iSSi and 1SS2, 
1SS2 [Jan. 1883], p. 136-137-) (Ril.EY, C: 
Y. Report of the cntomolotfist . . . (i 
Dec] iSS2.p. 136-137 [76-77].)^ 
I^etter from J : Screven and report from L. O. How- 
ard on the ])henomena and supposed causes of*'wIiite 
blast" in rice plants ; insects found on rice plants; proh. 
able production of white blast by insects. 

B.P.M. (333^^) 

Schiemenz, I'aulns. I'eber das herkonimen 
tk's fiittersaftes unci die speicheldriisen der 
hicne nehst eineni anhange viber das riech- 
organ. (Zeitsch. f. wissensch. zool.. 

Feb. 18S3. bd. 38. p. 71-135. pl. 5-7.) 

Abstract by G : Dimniock, entitled. 
-'Salivarv glands in bees." (Psvche. Sept.- 
Oct. 1883, V. 4, p. S7-S9.) 

History of the subject; description of the salivary 
glands of apj's mfllifica, botnbrts and other bees, and ol 
the digestive tract and olfactory <irgans of (r. meliijira: 
discussion of the development and functions of the dif- 
ferent salivary glands; decides that Engelmann's "neu- 
roid filaments" are not of neural nature. G: D. (3337) 



Stiitumber— October iSS.(.] I\STCHE. i)!) 

ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. the northeast as Cambridge, Mass. On 9 

Dr. I.VMtb Spencer B.mlev. of Albany. Ang. of this year I took a specimen of that 

N. v.. a lepidopterist well known to maiiv "P""''*^ '" Cambridge, and saw another 21 

of our readers, died I lulv 18S3. Dr. BaileV -"^"S- A few days later another was .seen. On 

was born in Albany. N. Y., 25 Feb. 1850. ' "' '"^"S- ^ I'ecei.ved a note from Mr. F. G. San- 

born annoimcing the capture on that day, bv 

The British association for the advance- ;s[,. .^ ,, Xgwton. at Worcester, Mass.', of a 

ment of science met 19 Sept. and days follow- „,„,.„ p crespho»t<;. Another interesting 

ingat Southport. The assembly of German capture which 1 made this year (25 July) in 

naturalists and doctors took place 1S-21 Sept. Cambridge was y„„o„i„ cornia.-G: ' Uim- 

at Freiburg-in-Baden. mock 

Mr. Townend Glover, for a long time Amoxg exchanges lately received for 

entomologist of the United States gover- Psyche special mention ought to be made 

ment. died S September, at Baltimore. Md. „(■ 33 books and pamphlets .sent bv the 

He vyas of English parentage and education, Colonial museum of New Zealand. Among 

butcameto this country when a young man. these is a "Mannal of the New Zealand 

Howard Ayres won the first Walker ™le°Ptera" by Captain Thomas Broun. 



prize for 1SS3, awarded by the Boston society 
of natural history, by the presentation of a 



containing 744 pages. Professor P'. W. 
IIuttf>n writes of it. before the publication of 



„„„a.. „., ti,> ja „i »»■/-> </ A Part 1. in which the number of species 

paper on the development ot Occanthii!. and ' 

•t „, :t T- / r\ rn A \\7 n reaches r-;2i. that it is "a most excellent 

its parasite Ideas. One of the second Walker ■' 

prizes was awarded to William Patton for a «'°'"'*' ™"to''"i"g '°=;o '^Pecies. a large part 

paper entitled -Notes on the development of "^ ^'"'=^' ^''"^ described for the first time, and 

phrvgauidae" Mr. Ayres and Mr. Patton ">^' "° country outside Europe and the 

were students of Harvard university and United States has produced sucn a catalogue." 

4^\ ..; ....... ^a^ t- 1 !■* ' TA .\notber interestina; paper is Protessor 

their success reflects much credit upon Dr. = i ^ 

c r AT,,.i- n,„ „ t ■ t 1 • 1 Hiitton'.-, "Catalogues of the New Zealand 

b. L,. Mark, the present instructor m ernbrv- ^ 

ology at Harvard, who encourages his stu- ^iptera. orthoptera. hymenoptera; with 

dents to carry on original researches. descriptions of the species." 

Mr. F. H. Spr-\gi'e gives ns the follow- 

At the meeting ot the French entomo- . ' ^ j- ' 1 , -j ^ 1 • . 

° ing notes upon rare diurnal lepidoptera which 

logical society, held Tuly 11. Mr. E, Lefevre .',,,... ^ -if 1 

- •' - he has taken the iiast summer in Massachu- 

^u^.,..^,l « 1.....,^ ..^Kt — 4- ..11:...^ t.. r> ^ 



showed a large solitary ant allied to Poiiera 
found about Hong Kong, remarkable for the 
extraordinary development of its mouth 
parts, and for its power of leaping; being 
able, when disturbed, to make bounds of 
twenty to twenty-five centimetres. The 



setts. Griipta faiiiius (a pair), Leverett. 15 

Aug. Limcnitis proscrpina (faded $), 

Holyoke, 8 Aug. Argyiuiis ittlantis (several), 

Leverett. Mt. Tom, Mt. Holyoke. 7-17 Aug., 

appeared much earlier. Euptoiefa clandla., 

Maiden, a fine new $ each of the following 
tatement was confirmed bv the experience , , j t , > o ,. t^- 

. .' . . dates : 17 and 27 July. I Aug.. 7 Sept. yinionia 



of earlier observers. .\s the legs are in no 
way developed for springing, Mr. Lefivre 
vyas inclined to think that it was accom- 



lavinia. Maiden, a fresh pair 21 July, one 

fresh specimen 21 Aug.: Jamaica Plain, a 

,. , , . , . , , new t?. iS lulv; Boston, a new specimen, 

plished in some waybv its buccal orsrans. — „ _ , .• . . , ■ ^, ,a 

„ . r, „; " „, iS Sept. Limrnitii urthemis. Maiden, a 

Science. 14 Sept. iSb?. v. 2. p. 5S6. ' , ,,..■■ n ^ 

^ ■' ' -^ poor 9- > Aug. : Amherst. 2 tair ?. 7 .\ug. ; 

During the last few years Papilio cres- South Hadley. a new g. 7 Aug.; Deerfield, 

///ow/c.s has been taken in Connecticut, but I ^ new J, 17 Aug. Fein'seca fanpiiiuns. 

do not find any record of its capture as far to Leverett. 7 fair specimens. 10 .\ug. ; Deer- 



100 



PS re HE. 



[September— Octohcr 18S3. 



field, 15 fair specimens, 17 Aug. Vanessa 
milbeiti has been abundant in some localities 
about Boston this season. Another rare 
capture was two partly grown larvae of 
Citheionia regalis, at Leverett. 15 Aug. 

Dr. Hermann Muller, of Lippstadt, 
Germany, who has made many interesting 
and valuable contributions to scientific litera- 
ture upon the mutual relations of insects and 
plants, especially upon the fertilization of 
plants by insects, died at Prad, in Tyrol, 25 
.-August. His name heads over fifty titles of 
the bibliographical record of volume three of 
P,SYCHE, and the name of his brother, Dr. 
Fritz Muller, of Blumenau, Brazil, about 
twenty more. Dr. Hermann Muller has con- 
tributed largely to Just's Botaiiischerjafires- 
bcricht, to Nature and to Kosmos ; and, 
among other separate works, may be noted 
his excellent treatise on the fertilization of 
flowers by insects and their mutual adapta- 
tion for that function. The above statements 
convey only an imperfect idea of the amount, 
and almost no idea of the value of the papers 
written by Dr. Muller, whose death will be 
mourned by his numerous correspondents 
and by naturalists in general as the loss of a 
true philosopher in his special field of re- 
search. G: D. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. m., 
on the days following : — 

12 Oct. 18S3. 14 Mar. 1884. 

9 Nov. " II Apr. " 

14 Dec. " Q May " 

II Jan. 1S84. 13 June •■ 

S Feb. ■■ 

G. DiMMOCK. Scrre/ai-Y. 



The New York Entomological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July and 
August, but no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry Edwards. Scctetarv. 



Natural History will be held at N. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston, Mass., 
at 7.45 p. m.. on the days following: — 

24 Oct. 1SS3. 27 Feb. 1S84. 

25 Nov. •• 26 Mar. " 

26 Dec. •' 23 Apr. •' 
23 Jan. 1884. 28 May " 

Edward Burgess, Secretary. 



The regular meetings of the^Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, Pa., will be held 
at S. \V. corner of 19th and Race Sts.. on the 
days following : — 

12 Oct. 1SS3. 14 Mar. 1SS4. 

9 Nov. " 1 1 .\pr. '• 

14 Dec. " 9 May " 

II Jan. 18S4. 13 June '• 

S Feb. ■■ 

James H. Ridings. Recorder. 



The semi-.\nnual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. corner of 19th and Race Sts.. Philadelphia, 
Pa., on the days following: — 

10 Dec. 1S83. 9 June 1S84. 

James H. Ridings, Recording Secretary. 



The regul.\r monthly meetings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal, Qiie., 
Canada, on the days following : — 

2 Oct. 1S83. 5 Feb. 18S4. 

6 Nov. " 4 Mar. '• 

4 Dec. " I Apr. '• 

8 Jan. 1884. 6 May " 

(;. J. Bowles. Secretary. 



The monthly meetings of the Brooklyn 
Entomological .Society will be held in the 
rooms of Wright's Business College, Broad- 
way, corner of Fourth Street, Brooklyn, 
E. D., the last Saturday of each month ex- 
cept Jvdy and .Vugust. 

F. G. Schaupi", Secretary. 



The kegulak meetings of the Entomo. 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



No. IH-112 were issued 14 Sept. 1883. 



P S YC H 




-A. joxjK,nsrjLnL. of ekttoi^oil.oo'Y". 

[Established in 1S74.] 

EDITED BY 

B: PicKMAN ISIann, Washington. D. C. ; G: Dimmock, Cambridge, Alass. ; 

Albert J: Cook, Lansijig. Mich.; Stephen- Alfred Forbes, Normal, 

III.; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany, N. 2'. ; Francis Hunting- 

Tox .Snow, Lazurence. Kansas; W : Trelease, Madison, Wise. 

Vol. 4. No. 115-116. 

Nove.mber-December 1SS3. 

CONTENTS: 

Advertisements 102 

.\ NEW Sexial Character in the Pipae of some Lepidoptera — Joseph 

Albert Lintner 103-106 

Tribute to the memory of John Lawrence LeConte — Clmrles Valentine 

Riley 107-110 

Gills of Insect-Larvae — George Mitcloskie ........ 110-112 

The Screw- Worm Fly, Compsomyia macellaria — Stimnel Wendell Williston 112-114 

Influe.vce of Color ox Insects 114 

TowxEND Glover 115-116 

Proceedixgs of Societies. — Cambridge Entomological Club .... 116 

Bibliographical Record, no. 333S-3353 117-11S 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings 1 19-120 



Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YE.VRLY SUBSCRIPTIONS. $2. VOLUME. $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS, 20 c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



l(l-.> 



PS re HE. 



[November— December iSS,}. 



Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. 

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. PAYAHLE IN ADVANCE. 

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^^~ Commencing with the numero for January 
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Subscription to volume 4 (1883-1885), ai above, 

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The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
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Twenty-five e.\tra copies, without change of 
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Terms Cash —strictly in advance. 
J^f Only thoroughly respectable advertisements 
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Subscribers to PSYCHE can advertise insects for 
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EARLT STAGES OF BUTTERFLIES 
WAITED. 
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Dried specimens arc preferred, especially of caterpil- 
lars, which should be prepared by inflation. Corres- 
pondence is invited with persons engaged in the 
study of the early stages of butterflies. 

S. H. SCUDDER, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

COCCIDAE WANTED. 
The undersigned is desirous of obtaining, by ex- 
change or otherwise, specimens of as many species of 
the Coccidae as possible, for the purpose of making 
a study of the North American forms. Those found 
infesting cultivated plants especially desired. Living 
specimens picferred when they can be obtained. 
J. Henry Comstock, 
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The Cornell University, 

Ithaca, .\. V. 

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PATENT^ 

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KiiKland, f raneo. Oermanv, etc. Hami l!n.,k about 
PiilcMits scut fr.-o. Thirl v-«.vi.n years' o\|.,.ricnco. 
Futcnts obtained tlimuL-li Ml'.V.N ,*; I'O. ar,. noticed 
InthesriKNTiiic a.mkrican. tin- largest, best, and 
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PSYCHE. 

A NEW SEXUAL CHARACTER IN THE PUPAE OF SOME 

LEPIDOPTERA. 



BY JOSEPH ALBERT I.INTXER, ALBAXV, N. Y. 

[Read before the American association for the advancement of science at its 
iVIontreal meeting, August 1SS2.] 



The sexual characters of insects 
have al\va\'s been an interesting study 
to the entomological student, the more 
so as they are the less apparent, and 
discoveral:)le, if to be found at all, only 
as the result of close observation and 
comparison. In the larger proportion 
of insects, in the perfect stage, thev are 
so marked as to leave no doubt of the 
sex when the male and female are com- 
pared. Thus, in the hymenoptera. we 
have the ovipositor in its varied forms, 
often quite conspicuous. In the lepi- 
doptera, among the /wicrocera, there are 
usualh' the more fuUv developed anten- 
nae of the male, and the broader, conical 
and more capacious abdomen of the 
female — featin-es attaining their maxi- 
mum development in the family of 
bombvcidac. In the diptera, there are 
the laiger and more approximate eyes 
in the male, and conspicuous structural 
diflereiices in the antennae and suctorial 
apparatus in some of the families. In 
the coleoptera, there are often, in the 
male, stouter legs, broader tarsi, grcatl_v 
elongated mandibles anil other horn-like 
capital and thoracic processes. In the 
hemiptera,. the vocal organs in the 
cicadiJae, the ovipositor in several of 



the families, and the great sexual differ- 
ences in size and in the presence or 
absence of wings are prominent features. 
In the orthoptera, there are the stridula- 
ting wing-nerves, the extended oviposi- 
tor, and a genital armature greatlv \aried 
in its adaptation to greatly diflering 
habits. And in the neuroptera, dis- 
tinctive male characters are foimd in 
clasping organs, in difterenccs in color 
and in size, the long mandil)les of 
Corydabis^ the abnormal location of the 
intromittent organ xwlibellididaey and in 
the elongated and forcipated genitalia 
of Paiiorpa. 

In addition to such primary features 
as above noted, there are numerous sec- 
ondary ones, wliich do not appear to be 
so dependent upon sex, and many of 
which seem alnicjst to serve no higher 
purpose than that of ornamentation. 
Yet it is reasonable to believe tiiat most 
of these diflerences have their use in the 
economy of nature, and that they aid 
in the continuance of the species. 

Among such minor antigenetical fea- 
tures, may be mentioned, in the lepi- 
doptera, the usuallv more angidated 
wings of the male ; the simple frenulum 
of most of the male Iteteroccra in con- 



104 



PSYCHE. 



[November — December iSS^- 



tnisl with the compound one in the 
female : tlie hairy anterior legs f)f 
Grapta and \'a)icfsa in the >iy»iplia- 
lidac; the long hairs between the costal 
and subcostal nervures, above the cell 
of the iiind wings oi Argytniis^ appear- 
ing, when extended in the cabinet, lilsc 
a long fringe to the inner margin of the 
front wings ; tlie incrassated, black scale- 
patch upon the middle of vein 2 (the 
1st median nervule) of the secondaries 
o(£)aiia/s; the o\oid discal spot on tlie 
fi'ont wings of manv (.>( the ///('r////af ; in 
the hesperidae, the reflexed costal mar- 
gin in most of the Nisoiiiadcs. Eiida- 
ii/tis. and Pvi'ff/is. an<l the tibial epi- 
phvsis' of the anterior legs in all but one 
of our genera: the transverse discoidal 
stigma on the primaries of the larger 
portion of our pamphilas. tiie beautiful 
and peculiar microscopic (often con- 
cealed) scales, or androconia. of manv 
of the butterflies; tlie usually concealed 
pair of extensile anal appendages found 
by Fritz Miiller and others in certain 
glaiicopidae, l>o?iil>ycidae, noctuidac 
and in a Danais ;" each of these indica- 
ting the male sex. Features equallv 
interesting, and alike serving no pur- 
pose so far as known, migiit be men- 
tioned in each of the orders of insects. 

In the earlier stages of insects (egg 
and larxal), sexual features, as would 
naturall)' be expected, are less nunier- 



• Guende ; Hist. n:U. ins., 1S52 — Lcpid.. v. — Nr.ct., 
1, p. XXXV. Speycr: in C;in;i(l. eiitotnol., 1S7S, v. 
10, p. IJ4. Edwards' C;it:il. lep. .\nicr., 1S77, p. 64. 

^ Fril/, iMiiller: N:iture, 11 June 1S74, v. 10, p. 102 
(Psyclie, Mch.-Apr. [9 July] 1S77, v. i, p. 24). Morri- 
son : Psyche [yj Oct. 1S74, v. I, p. 21-22. Siewers ; C;ln:i- 
di.m entomologist, Mcll. 1S79, v, 11, p. 47-4S, llg. 12. 
Stretch : Pilpilio, Feb. 1SS3, v. 3, p. 41-42, lig. 



Otis and less conspicuous. They rarely 
occur in the first stage — that of the egg. 
or more properly, they have not, in 
manv instances, been recognized by us.' 
It was for a long tinie believed that 
in the larva of one of our sp/iiiigidae not 
luifrecjuently met with — Thy reus abbot ii 
— the se.x was so clearlv indicated by 
ditlcrence in color and pattern that it 
could be told at a glance. Of the two 
greatlv diBering forms, the one marked 
with a series of large yellow-green 
patches on the dorstmi extending halt'- 
way down the sides, and with another 
row of smaller subtriangular similarly 
colored spots resting on the prolegs. was 
described by Clemens as the male ; the 
female being reddish-brown throughout, 
with a dark lirown subdorsal stripe and 
numerous short broken striae.^ This 
sexual determination of Clemens was 
accepted by me in my paper upon the 
larvae and pupae of this species in the 
26th Report of the N. V. state museum 
of natural history, p. 114-116. and has 
also lieen followed by other writers. 
That the two tbrms are inilicatixe ot 
sex. has since been denied.^ and it is to 
be presumed that the denials are based 
upon results obtained in rearing them 
to their perfect form. The green- 
spotted larva mav therefore be accepted 
as a dimoiphic form, comparatively 

•* In Phylloxera^ the eggs which are to produce 
mules and femnles in:ly be known by their diflerence in 
si/.e. See Riley's .-Vnnuill reports of the suite entomolo 
gist of Missouri : 6th, p. 41 ; 7th, p. 92, yS; Sth, p. 15S. 

■* Two colored tignres of the larvae in inv possession, 
made by Dr. Clemens, show the sexes the reverse of 
this— the green-spotted one, marked as 9it>eing much 
the larger oi the two. 

li Whitney: Canadian entom)logist, April 1S73, v. 
S. P- 75*76. Grote : A^., May 1S76, 11. 100. 



N'ovember — December 1SS3.J 



PS2T//B. 



105 



rare in m\" own collections and in the 
examples that have come under mv 
observation. 

The youno- collector of insects learns 
ver\- early the simple method of determi- 
ning the sexes of his Luna, Poh phemus, 
Promethca, and Cccropia pupae, and 
of many other bombycid pupae, by 
observation of the comparative breadth 
of their antennal cases. 

A means by which the sex in the 
pupae of tne spliingidae may be infalli- 
bly named, was pointed out by me in 
the Proceedings of the entomological 
society of Philadelphia, iS6_|, v. 3, 
p. 6^4. I have since foimd the same 
characters applicable to the noctuidae 
and to other heteroccra. 

Dr. C. V. Rilev, in the Transactions 
of the academ\' of science of St. Louis, 
1S73, vol. 3. p. 12S-129, and in the 6th 
annual report of the state entomologist 
of Missouri, for 1S73, 1^74, p. 131-132, 
has described and figured sexual diller- 
ences in the pupae of Prouiiha vitc- 
casclla, consisting, mainly, in the great- 
er length of the "dorsal projections" on 
the several segments of the male, in the 
length of the last two segments as com- 
pared with tlu)se of the female (its 
shorter iith and longer i3th), and in 
its less rounded apex. He says : "sex- 
ual distinctions are very rarely observa- 
ble in chrysalids ; but after I had learned 
to distinguish between them. I could 
I'eadily separate the sexes in this case, 
and my judgment was confirmed upon 
tlie issuing of the moths." 

A few years ago I discovered an in- 
teresting feature in the armature of the 
species of Cossi/s. by which the sex 



may at once be determined. I have, 
hitherto, withheld its publication, until 
I had studied others of ourspined pupae 
and could illustrate tliis fcatiu'e b\' proper 
figures ; bvit the opportunity for this has 
not been found, and I accordingly defer 
no longer calling attention to it. that the 
observations of others in possession of 
more abundant material may supple- 
ment the few that have been made by 
me. 

It is known to lepidopterists that 
most of the pupae of the species of 
moths which in their larval stage live 
in the interior of stems of plants and 
trunks of trees (endophytes) , are armed 
upon their abdominal segments with 
transverse rows of teeth or spines, by 
the aid of which, when they are in 
readiness for their final transformation, 
they gradually work their way through 
the outer packing of their gallery and 
the bark, project their anterior segments 
to at least one-thirtl the entire pupal 
length through the opening, and hold 
themselves securely during the eclosion 
of the moth. 

This useful armature in the cossiuac, 
and in such of the aegeriidae as 
I have had the opportunity of ex- 
amining, consists of two rows of 
spines upon most of the abdominal seg- 
ments, dividing them, when seen in 
extension, in three nearly equal parts. 
In Cossi/s robiuiac, the species of the 
rossinae with which we are probably 
the most familiar, these rows occur on 
the fiftli (the first stigmatal segment 
posterior to the wing-cases) and the 
following segments. 

In Cossus qiicrcipcrda alone of the 



GIO 



PSYCHE. 



[November — December 1SS3. 



species known to me, they commence 
in a single row of minute denta- 
tions on the fourth segment. The prin- 
cipal features of this armature are the 
following : — It is always the stronger in 
the male sex — conspicuously so in C. 
robiniae, but less so in C. centcr- 
ensis : the teeth increase in size from 
the fifth to the tenth segment : the 
anterior row is ahvays the stronger in 
each sex ; upon the llfth and sixth seg- 
ments, it does not, in its lateral exten- 
sion, reach below the stigma,^ while 
upon the following segments it passes in 
front of the stigma and quite a distance 
beneath it : the posterior row is discon- 
tinued before reaching the line of the 
stigmata : the teetii show irregularity in 
fonu and size, particularly those of the 
posterior row. 

The sexual distinction above referred 
to, presented in this armature, is this : in 
the male pupae two rows of teeth occiu' 
on segments five to ten inclusive; in the 
female, two rows on five to nine inclu- 
sive. In other words, the male pupa 
shows TWO 7-01VS of teeth on segment 
ten, where the female shows but O'su. 
In each sex, the eleventh and twelfth have 
but a single row. Disregarding, as I 
think we should in onlinary usage, the 
subdivision of what is usuallv known as 
tlie terminal segment, into demi-seg- 
ments, or a segment and a subsegment, 
and that still farther refinement which 
would make of the extreme portion 
an additional segment with full numeri- 
cal designation, then it will serve to 
prevent misapprehension of the parti- 

8 In C. ceiiterensis it reaches below the stigma on the 
sixth. 



cular section showing the sexual teatme, 
if we indicate it as the antepenultimate 
sen-men t. It would be the eleventii, if 
we commence enimieration, as some of 
om- entomologists do, with the head, but 
the tenth, if, as seems to me more pro- 
per, we begin with the first thoracic 
ring. 

Beside the cossinae, this same sexual 
feature occurs in the aegeriidae. I am 
not able to say if it extends througiiout 
the entire familv. At the time of this 
present writing, I have at mv command 
onlv the pupae of Acger/'a exitiosa and 
A. tipuliformis. and it exists in each. 
It probablv occurs in the pupae of 
Zeuzera (one North American species 
described), in which the two rows of 
teeth are found on several of the seg- 
ments, and perhajis also in Hcpiahis, 
the pupae of which (unknown to me) 
are characterized as vcrv similar to 
those of Cossus. 

Another interesting fact connected 
w ith the armatm-e of Cossus is that the 
form, size, and position of the teeth vary 
to so great an extent in the ditlerent 
species, and show such distinctive char- 
acters, as to afford excellent specific 
features.' I would not hesitate to pro- 
nounce upon specific identity, upon an 
examination and comparison of the 
pupal armature alone. 

" For comparison with other species of the cossinae 
it may be stited that an example of C. rtnterensis rf 
lias thirty. ei^ht teeth \n the anterior row of the tenth 
segment, and twenty teeth in the posterior row — the 
latter, in their entire range, occupying a transverse 
sjiace etinal to that of niTic teeth of tlie anterior row. 
Tlie teeth are black, shininy:, irregular in size, and are 
slightly bent upward over their base; their length and 
the distance between their tips exceeds their basal 
width 



Xovembei — December iSS^vJ 



FsrCHE. 



107 



TRIBUTE TO THE jSIEMORY OF JOHN LAWRENCE LECONTE. 



BY CHARLES VALENTINE RILEY, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Dr. John L;i\vrcnce LeConte died at 
his residence in Pliihulelpliia, i^ Nov. 



iSS^ 



Nothini; that we ean sav will 



render the memory of him more lasting 
or more dear, for he acliieved pre- 
eminence in his chosen field of hilior 
and won the love and respect of all who 
knew him. 

LeConte was born in New York. 13 
]Ma_y 1S25, and was graduated M.D. by 
the College of phvsicians and surgeons 
in 1S46. He moved to Philadelphia 
some years later, and after his marriage 
abandoned the practice of medicine. 
He was lieutenant-colonel and medical 
inspect<ir in the United States armv dur- 
ing the civil war and, from 1S7S till die 
time of his death, chief clerk in the 
United States mint at Philadelphia. 

Luckily for American natural science 
his fortune was such that, with these 
two exceptions, he held no positions, 
but was able to de\(ite his time to ento- 
niologv. His chosen specialt}- was the 
coleoptera, and in order to fuUv appre- 
ciate the magnitude of the work which 
he accomplished and the difficulties 
with which he had to contend, it is 
necessarv to consider the state of ento- 
mology in this country as compared 
with Europe at the time he began to 
write, now almost fortv years ago. 
Great activity at that time prevailed in 
Europe in all branches of entomology. 
In descriptive coleopterology Aube. 
Erichson, Germar, Klug, Lacordaire, 
jSIannerheim, Mulsant, Schonherr, Sev- 



ville, Solier, Stephens and others were 
active at that period. Others ecpially 
eminent had died shortlv before and 
many came into prominence shortly 
afterward. Naturalists there were aided 
as well bv the large number of skilled 
and enthusiastic amateurs wdio furnished 
an abundance of material and observa- 
tions, as by the uimierous large libra- 
ries, public museums and private collec- 
tions to which thev had access. Numer- 
ous entomological societies also Iirought 
the workers together, gave stimulus and 
encouragement and ottered ready means 
of publishing. 

How diflerent the circumstances in 
America at that time I In the whole 
country there were no more persons 
scientificallv interested in entomology 
than could l)e found in a single large 
city of Europe. The larger libraries 
were scant of entomological literature 
and there were neitlrer staudan.1 nor 
public collections and but few private 
collections, of limited size. The most 
important of the older collections, viz., 
that made by Thomas Say, had been 
irretrievablv lost through carelessness 
and inditTerence, while other valuable 
collections had shared no better fate. 
Contributions to the knowledge of our 
coleopterous fauna consisted chiefly of 
disconnected descriptions of single spe- 
cies scattered through all sorts of publi- 
cations. -'Can it be wondered at," 
LeConte wrote in one of his earliest 
papers, "tliat there is so much confusion 



](IS 



PSYCHE. 



[ Novemher — December 18S3. 



about the syiionvmv of our species, 
when tliey are publishetl in every coun- 
try of the <;;lobe, but in tiiat in which 
they ought to lie jjubhshed r" The 
thankless task of identitying and cor- 
rectly interpreting these descriptions, 
involving so much labor and patient 
study, was performed almost alone by 
LeConte, and so well that but few spe- 
cies of the older authors remain to-day 
unidentified. LeConte clearlv saw fiom 
the beginning that American coleopte- 
rology could not be so much advanced 
by mere descriptions of new species and 
genera as by conscientious monographic 
work. The munber of such monogra- 
phic and synoptic papers j)ublished by 
him was great. Of special importance 
among his earliest papers are those on 
the pselaphidac ; on the classification 
of the longicorn cqleoptera, and of the 
carabidae ; on the elateridae and on the 
melolonthidae. In 1861 his "Classifica- 
tion of the coleoptera of North Amer- 
ica," prepared for the Smithsonian in- 
stitution, began to appear. This work, 
though left incomplete until recently, 
was indispensible to ev'ery student of 
systematic coleopterology, and neces- 
sitated the publication of the "New 
species of North American coleoptera" 
and the "List of the coleoptera of North 
America," both issued by the Smithso- 
nian institution. 

T lis entomological writing was inter- 
ru])ted dining the civil war, but was 
resumed again in iS6^. From this time 
on he had the cooperation of Dr. (ieorge 
Henrv Horn, who. from tlie beginning 
of his entomological career, was a faith- 
ful co-laborer with LeConte. Indeed the 



friendship and cooperation that always 
existed between these two specialists is 
one of the most pleasing and instructive 
incidents in the history of American 
entomology. LeConte must have felt 
proud of the excellent work done bv the 
younger naturalist, and tiie manner in 
which Horn's more advanced views and 
often more thorough labors — made pos- 
sible by accumulated knowledge and 
material — were accepted, even where 
they undid much of his previous descrip- 
tive work, was one of the truest marks 
of greatness in LeConte. The most 
important papers of this later period 
are those on the classification ot the 
rhynchophorous coleoptera, and more 
especially "The r/ivnc/iop/iora of .\mer- 
ica north of Mexico," b\ John L. Le- 
Conte, assisted by George H. Horn, 
published in 1S76 as vol. 13 of the Pro- 
ceedings of tiie Ameiican philosophical 
society : a work which involved years 
of patient research and the value of 
which has not yet been fuli\' recognized 
abroad. The last important work is the 
second and completed "Classification of 
the coleoptera of North America." by 
LeConte and Horn. 

The list III Dr. LeConte's entomolo- 
gical writings has been carefully com- 
piled (up to 187S) b}- Mr. George Dim- 
mock, in his Special biblography. no. 1, 
and tiic actual amount of his descriptive 
work is well illustrated in Mr. Samuel 
Ilenshaw's "Index to the coleoptera 
clescriiied by J. L. LeConte, M. D." 
An additional paper by LeConte. to be 
])ul)lisiied in the Transactions of the 
American entomological societ\ . was 
about to be published at tlie time of his 



November — December 1SS3.] 



PSYCHE. 



109 



death, so tliat he may viitiiallv be said 
to have died in harness. 

Tliis brief reference to his published 
papers reflects but feebly the eliaracter 
and value of LeConte's life and work. 
Throughout liis writings there is the 
evidence of a calm, dispassionate, well- 
balanced and philosophic mind, which, 
added to their accuracy, made him trom 
an early day the leading authority on 
North American beetles the world over. 
Beginning- \viien the idea of fixity of 
specific type was general, he easily fol- 
lowed the advance of evolutionary ideas, 
conforming his later work thereto, ac- 
quiescing and assisting in the ''sinking" 
of his early species founded on too tri- 
fling \ ariations. 

His non-entumological writings f'\'ince 
cultin-e. bieadth of \ iew and that rarest 
ot qualities in specialists, common sense. 
He was not of the class who decrj' the 
practical application of knowledge as 
ignoble, but lie felt rather that such ap- 
plication to man's wants is one of the 
aims of science. Thus he was always 
interested in the economic bearings of 
his favorite study and made several 
most valuable suggestions in his "Hints 
tor the promotion of economic entomo- 
logy in the United States" and his 
"Methods of subduing insects injinions 
to agriculture." 

He was likewise for some years ac- 
tively interested in endeavors to elevate 
the United States Department of agri- 
culture, and was a candiilate for the 
office of commissioner in 1S77. As 
president of the American association 
for the advancement of science in 1S74, 
and the first president of the Entomolo- 



gical dull of tliat association, he took 
an active part in the attempt to bring 
about uniformity of terminologv and the 
adoption of some general rules of no- 
menclature. He prepared, in conjunc- 
tion with the wiiter, a memorial which 
in 1S75 was signed bv many members 
ot the association praying Congress for 
the creation of a special entomological 
commission on a plan that would have 
been in manv respects preferalile to that 
upon which the United States entomo- 
logical conniiission was finally created 
in 1S77. 

LeConte's taste for natural science 
was evidently inherited, and the family 
name is honored bv several eminent 
scientists still li\ Ing in this countrx' and 
all of them, we believe,, not very re- 
moteh connected. His father was a 
distinguished naturalist, and we were 
astonished at the beauty and accuracy 
of many of his yet unpublished drawings 
and paintings of animals which the son 
once showed us. 

Feyy- contemporary naturalists were 
better or more favorably known abroad 
than Dr. LeConte, and he was the first 
American elected to honorary membei"- 
ship of the Entomological society of 
France. 

At a time when there was no national 
museum, before Dr. Horn had earned 
the fame he so richly deserves, and 
when the Ameiican entomological so- 
ciet\' showed no promise of being able 
to appreciate or properl)' care for his 
valuable collection Dr. LeConte be- 
queathed it to the Museum of compara- 
tive zoology, at Cambridge, where in 
Dr. Hagen's care it yvill form the most 



no 



PSYCHE. 



[November — December 1S83. 



precious systematic part of tlie Entomo- 
logical department. When will our 
National museum fully warrant its name 
by becoming the one legitimate and 
most satisfactory repository of all such 
collections in whatever branch of sci- 
ence ? 

In closing this brief notice of one 
W'hose personal relations and whose ap- 
preciative and instructive correspon- 
dence with the writer during the past 
fifteen vears will ever remain a green 
and pleasant meniorv. we \vould empha- 
size the fact that his writings throughout 
breathe a calm and judicial spirit, void 



of personalitv. The only instance that 
occurs to us where he gave expression 
to ruffled feeling is in the "Synopsis of 
the coleopterous insects of the group 
cicridac which inhabit the United 
States" (Annals lyceum nat. hist. X.Y., 
April 1849, V. 5, p 9-35). \\'i the 
prelude to this paper he indulges in 
some severe reflections on the exclusive 
attitude of the Latin or South European 
countries toward the scientists of otiier 
countries, more particularlv as exem- 
plilicii 1)\ Spinola's work — reflections 
not altogether unwarranted even at the 
present time. 



GILLS OF INSECT-LARVAE. 



BY GEORGE M.\CLOSKIE. PRINCETON, N. J. 

The gills of aquatic larvae of insects These structures have been described 

consist of elastic sacs arising as out- by Reaumur. Leon Dufoiir. Audouin, 
growths of the epidermis and enclosing Oustalet,^ and man\- others. Our pres- 
a system of fine branches from the air- ent purpose is to rectify an error in 
tubes or tracheae, being thus pneumatic their anatom\-, as usually represented, 
branchiae. They vary greatly in the which has inipintant bearings on other 

questions. 

It is usual to describe the laminae of 
the pneumatic gills as containing sys- 
tems of fine tracheal loops, somewhat 
after the (pattern of a plurality of carbon- 
wicks in an Edison lamp. Oustaiet 
says, for example, in tiie Annates des 
sciences natiirellcs (1869. s. 5. v. 11), 
that the branchial laminae ••inehule a 
verital)le chevelu of traclieae folded on 
tlieniselves so as never to reach the 
extremity of the fingers of the glove ;" 
and that they serve as a loose shcatli 



number of the sacs, in the number and 
complexity of the enclosed air-tubes, 
and in their position. In the chnidae 
(of coleoptera) they are simple and 
are distributed ventrally on the abdo- 
men ; in KpJicnicra (of neuroptera) tiiev 
are also simple, and extend from the 
sides of the al^domen ; .sometimes they 
are caudal appendages, and in the 
libellulldae, or dragon-flies, they be- 
come complex, having in some cases 
many sac-like lamellae, and many hun- 
dreds of branches in each, the whole 
structure - planted within the rectum, 
from the walls of which the lamellar 
sacs open like so many pockets. 



1 .\nn. dcs sci. n:it., Zool., 1S52, s. 3, v. 17; 1S62. s. 4, 
V. 17; 1S69. s. 5, V. II ; 1872, s. 5, V, 16. 



November — December 1S83.] 



PSYCHE. 



Ill 



for a trachciil arbuscle (shrubbery) 
whose hist ramifications are not only 
recurved but anastomosed so as to com- 
plete the circuit (i1 plein canal), thus 
forming veritable arches (^anscs). His 
figure agrees with his debcripti\"e repre- 
sentation, showing the very numerous 
ultimate branches of the tracheae as 
completely arched, and his idea evi- 
dently was that there is a capillary cir- 
culation of air in the tracheal tubules 
like tlie capillary circulation of blood 
in the gills of fishes. 

Chun'- correctlv shows that the rectal 
branchiae of Libclliila are outgrowths 
of the [hinilj intestine, having at their 
extremity no epithelial cells, but only 
the intima (or cuticle) enclosing the 
trachea! filaments. The epithelium 
graduallv grows thinner from the base 
towartis the extremitv of the branchial 
laminae, and at length disappears, being 
afterwards represented only l)y the cuti- 
cle. The tracheae divide diclioto- 
niouslv, finally becoming capillary air- 
tubes, which this author also (being 
here inaccurate) supposes to I'eunite 
again into stronger stems. This part 
of his plate is so confused that one 
cannot make out whether the branches 
reunite again or not, and we presume 
that he did not try to follow them to 
their extreiuities. 

In a specimen of these branchial 
laminae which we rolled under the 
cover-glass, we found that the multi- 
tude of tracheal ramifications ended 



2 Chl'N, C^rl. Ueber den bau, die entwickelung und 
physiologische bedeutung der rectaldriisen bei den 
insekten. InauguraUdissertation. . . . Frankfurt a. M., 
1S75. 



caecally ; all were of about the same 
length, their extremities recurved with- 
in the containing sac, and their tips not 
at all swollen, but rounded otf". Thus 
if they were stretched out they would 
form a brusii like the hairs of a horse's 
tail. As they are elastic and the enclos- 
ing sac is distensible, we think it highly 
probable that with each water-inspira- 
tion the sacs enlarge and the tracheal 
spray (having air forced in by the 
forward compression of the large tra- 
cheae) spreads out so as to bring the 
full tide of air close to the tide of water. 
Lton Dufour seems to have had some 
process like this in view when he said 
that each lamella of the branchia of 
Potamophilns is -'probably swollen 
during life by air transmitted by endos- 
mosis." As we understand the case, the 
air is injected into the l)ranchiae from the 
rest of the body by rhythmical contrac- 
tions, and its gases then communicate 
endosmotically with those in the tidal 
water, so as to secure renovation. 

The paper by N. and E. Joly on the 
larva of Prosopistoma^ confirms our 
observation. This larva was supposed 
by Latreille. Dumeril and Milne-Ed- 
wards to be a branchiopod crustacean, 
and is so described in Milne-Edwards' 
Histoirc dcs criistaces (v. 3, p. 558). 
But MM. Joly found out that it w.is 
the lar\a of a coleopterous insect,* and 
thev figure and describe its external 

^ Jol)-, N. and E. Etudes sur le pr^tendu crustac^ au 
sujet diiquel Latreille a cr^e le genre prosopistoma, et 
qui n'est autre chose qii'un veritable insecte hexapnde. 
(j\nn. des sci. nat., ZooL, 1S72, s. 5, t. 16, no. 7, p. 1-16, 
pl- U.) 

■* It is in fact one of the epkemertdaf.. 



112 PSYCHE. (November-Dtctmber iSS.i. 

lraclie;il hrancliiac, slio\\ing thai the licatioiis interposed for the transmission 

branches of the tracheae end caecallv. of air from one system to the other. It 

In tliis case the branches are so few that is not easy, in the living; insect, to 

theii' terminations can be easilv made determine tiie ebb and How directly ; 

out. as the movements occur suiklenly. Iiave 

The importance of tlris anatomical their speed multiplied bv the degree of 

item depends on its bearing on the microscopic amplilication ; and hence 

functions of the whole tracheal system. we are able only to see the rhythmical 

The action of the tracheae is tidal ])eristaltic action, and are left to guess 

rather than bv peripheral capillary at its cause. We lind. liowever. the 

circulation. Here also tlie endings of muscular contractions and expansions 

the ramifications are foimd to harmon- of other parts of the body .synchroniz- 

ize with their internal terminations ing with the pulsations in the gills, and 

along the nervous and digestive tracts, thus explaining how the flux and reflux, 

and in other parts of the tissues which rather than a mere circulation of the 

thev snpplv. We never iiiid a double air, is tlie cause of its renewal. 

system of tracheae with capillary rami- Princeton. N. y.. is Dec. iSSj. 

THE SCREW-WORM FLY. COMPSOMrJA MACELLARIA. 

BY .S.^MUEL WENDELL WILLISTON. NEW HAVEN". CONN. 

In connection with Professor Snow's To these results. howe\er, Mr. J. Bigot, 

article on this ll\ ' it seems worth while of Paris, has recentlv taken exception, 

to give a brief s\nopsis of papers pub- in a note - on Professor Snow's paper. 

lished in the past few years by the able This author's penchant for making .syn- 

dipterologist of South America, Dr. E. onyms himself may perhaps have 

L. Arril)i'ilzaga, of Buenos Aires. From something to do with his wishing to 

bis studies he has ascertained no less than preserve species founded on inade- 

twenty-six diflerent specific names that quale groimds. His argument that "il 

this fly had receixed ! It is possible me semble ftnt liasardeux d'avancer 

that some of these names would applv to (jii^un sciile ct ini'nie espi^cc se 

distinct species were their types exam- retrouve, en permanence, depuis les 

intil. but it is a thankless task to endeav- contins de la Patagonie jusqu'au dcia 

or to make order out of the chaos in des provinces centrales de I'-Xnu'rique 

which Walker, Macquart. antl Robi- du .Nord. \i\ant indilll'remuient si;us 

nean-Desvoidv have involved the subject, les zones torrides. teniperees et moine 

and the result of .\rrib;'dzaga's thorough froides.'" is of little value, when the 

studies can with proprietv be adopted. 

- Bull. £oc. cnlom. France. 12 Sept. 1883. no. 17. p. 



Psyche, Mar.-Apr. 1883, v. 4, p. 27-30. i.S4-'55. 



November — December i 



:•] 



PSrCHE. 



113 



author Iiimself should know that other 
American flies do have a similar range 
of habitat, to sav nothing of the nearly 
allied JShtsca domestica. 

The specimens which Professor Snow 
sent me for examination, although some- 
\vhat injured, certainly seem to me to 
be CoDipsoiiiyia maccUaria (Fal).) E. 
Lch. A. The species mav, with toler- 
able certaint\ , be recognized by its hav- 
ing a bright metallic green or coppery 
color on the abilomen and thorax, the 
latter above with three black stripes ; 
tiic Iiristle of the antennae feathered to 
the tip, and the head, except the eyes, 
chieflv yelliiw. In size it varies from 
seven to ten millimetres. 

However, these systematic details will 
be of less interest than the following, 
which I translate from the Spanish of 
ArribAlzaga^ : 

"During the pleasant days of spring 
or the hotter ones of summer, these flies 
may be seen covering in great numbers, 
now umbelliferous flowers, now all sorts 
of filth ; or, resting, there glistens in the 
SLHilight the iridescent surface of their 
half-opened wings, and the blue, the 
green, the violet, the C(jpper and the 
gold of their metallic colored bodies." 

"Our fly deposits its eggs, commonly 
called ^qiiercsa^ in dead bodies, in 
manure, in fresh meat reserved for food, 
and soon there appear immense num- 
bers of voracious larvae that rapidly 
consume the objects in which has-begun 
their active life. Not content with these 
habits, common to all tlie species of 

•* Anales dc la s<)C. ciciitifica argentiiia, v. lo, p. S0-S4. 



the group to which it pertains, it de- 
posits the germs of its posterity in the 
wounds of men and of animals, at the 
entrance of openings of the human face, 
and, in its anxiety for propagation, will 
deposit them in the wool of sheep." 

"Azara was, I believe, the first ob- 
server who noted cases of human my- 
iasis in South America. Cocpicrel, many 
years later, c;dled the attention of phy- 
sicians and naturalists to the frequent 
anil fatal accidents which this evil pro- 
duces among the exiles of Cayenne : 
according to this author. Dr. Chapuis, 
physician-in-chief of the French marine, 
attended one case in which the larvae 
of C. tnacellaria had penetrated to the 
frontal sinuses, causing the death of the 
patient ; also one very unclean person 
attacked in the nasal fossae and the 
pharynx, who succumbed after he had 
ejected one hundred and twenty larvae. 
There were, as M. .St. Pair observed, 
in the same country, six similar cases, 
of which three terminated in the death 
of the patients after cruel sufferings : in 
two the nose was destroyed, and in the 
last there ^yas a deformation of the ol- 
factor}' organ. In another case observ- 
ed liy AI. St. Pair there were removed, 
by means of injections, more than 
three hundred larvae, but he was 
not able to obtain them all, and the re- 
mainder soon penetrated the ball of the 
eye, destroying the lower eyelid in 
consequence of gangrene, invaded the 
mouth, corroded the gums and laid bare 
the inferior maxillary ; the victim died 
seventeen days after his entrance into 
the hospital." 



14 



PSrCHE. 



[November — DfCcinbcr 18S3. 



After giving records of numerous 
other cases he further adds : 

••To Dr. Lesbini, of C6rdoha, are due 
the better observations upon cases ot 
myiasis prochiced bv C. macellaria. 
Tlie first case presented itself in an old 
foreigner who had an ulcer in his leg 
filleil with these larvae ; the second case 
occurreil in C6rdoba, in a boy of seven 
years, attacked in the left ear ; the third 
a"nd last case \vas in a girl of sixteen 
yeai's, also of C6rdoba. atlected in the 
nasal fossae by the presence of two hiui- 
dred and fifty larvae : all these patients 
were saved." 

'•It is pi'obalile that, attracted by the 
fetid odor of unclean individuals, these 
flies hover over the mouth or the nose. 



and thus deposit their eggs ; some aflirni 
that they at times enter the passages for 
this purpose." 

•■The area of distribution of Conip- 
somyii! macellaria is very great, and 
will be, I believe, yet greater with time, 
since their habits facilitate their trans- 
portation 1>\' man from one region to 
another ; hitherto they have been ob- 
ser\ed in the following countries: Is- 
lands of America (^fiisca macellaria 
F.), X. America ( Chrvsovivia tibialis, 
C. r/icrii/i/iicri. C. cacriilesccns., C. 
decora C. plaei R.-Desv.), Mexico 
(Lucilia hoininivorax). Cuba, Colom- 
bia, Venezuela, Cayenne, Brazil, Peru, 
C'iiili. Uruguay, Argentine Republic 
and New' Holland." 



Influknce of color ox insects. — 
The following extract from the recently 
published second part of \()I. i of 
"Timehri." the Journal of the Royal 
agricultural and commercial .societv 
of British Guiana, so abl\- edited bv 
Mr. E. F. im Thurn, may be of interest 
to our readers. It occurs in an account 
of a visit to Mount Russell in (iuiana. 
by the editor (p. 223) : — 

"That afternoon the Indians of the 
place, seeing our interest in catching 
butterflies, exhibited various clever 
ways of entrapping these insects. To 
catch those of yellow hue, thev picked 
and laid on the ground the flowers of a 
yellow Bignonia (/>'. cl/icka) \ antl 
this proved a most successful plan. 
Equally successful were they when they 
laid decaying banana-skins on the 



ground to attract the large l)lue 
Alorplios ; hut an attempt to attract 
certain red species by displaying the 
ripe red fruit of the faroah plant {Bixa 
orellat/a) was not successful. Then, 
these methods of enticing the insects 
w ere completed by inverting a round 
<)uake (a w ide-mouthed basket of very 
open wicker-work) over the bait, taking 
care to raise the quake so that its lower 
edge was some inches from the ground. 
The butterflies, attracted by the flowers, 
made their wav under the raised edge 
ot the ijuake. and wiien the Indians ap- 
proached flew, not out under the edge 
of the cjuake, but upward into the top. 
where they were captured." — E. C. R.. 
in Entomologist's mo. mag.. June 
1SS3, v. 30, p. 15-16. 



November — December 1SS3. 



PS re HE. 



115 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE. MASS.. NOV.^DEC, 1S83. 



Communications^ exchanges and editors^ copies 
should be addressed to Editors of Psyche, Cam. 
bridge, Afass. Commiinica/ions for publication in 
Psyche must be properly authenticated, and no anotty- 
mous articles -ivill be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
statements made in their 07un communications. 

Works on subjects not related to entomology zuill not 
be reviewed in Psyxhe. 

J^or rates of subscription and of advertising, see ad- 
vertising columns. 



TOWNEND GLOVER. 

Born Aug. 1S12, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
Died 7 Sept. 1883, in Baltimore, Maryland. 

Among the recent deaths of naturalists 
we have now to chronicle that of Professor 
Townend Glover, which occurred in Balti- 
more, Maryland, 7 September 18S3, at the 
residence of his adopted daughter, Mrs. 
Daniel Hopper. 

Prof. Glover w"as born of English parents, 
at Rio de Janeiro, on the nth lor 12th) of 
August 1812, and consequently at the time of 
his death was in his seventy-second year. Me 
received his early education in England, 
completing his studies in Germany, after 
which his roving disposition brought him to 
North America, where, for a time, his horse, 
his rod or gun were almost constant conipan- 
ions. After marriage he settled at Fishkill- 
on-the-Hudson, devoting himself to amateur 
gardening and horticulture, and it was here 
that his tastes for entoniologj' were develop- 
ed. About 1S53 he became connected with 
the Bureau of agriculture, then a division of 
the United States Patent office, spending sev- 
eral years in the south, — at one time visit- 



ing Demerara for the purchase of sugar-cane 
for government experiment, — studying the 
habits of the cotton and orange insects, of 
which little had then been written, besides 
employing his time in other ways. The re- 
sults of these investigations, as published in 
the reports of the Patent office from iS,-54 t° 
1858, are already well known to entomo- 
logists. Just prior to the war. Mr. Glover 
accepted a professorship in the Maryland 
agricultural college, where his great work 
on entomology was begun, he having pre- 
viously learned engraving ofMr. Gavitt, of 
Albany, with this object in view. Upon the 
formation of the . present United States De- 
partment of agricultui'e. he was appointed its 
first entomologist, w"hich position he held 
until the spring of 1S7S. when ill-health com- 
pelled him to rest from his labors. 

An observer contemporaneous with Harris, 
his first writings appeared in the Cultivator 
and similar journals of the time, though the 
great mass of his notes of investigation and 
observation were never given to the world, 
but remained locked in his work on American 
entomology, which he had hoped to complete 
and publish in his life-time. His "work" 
was his dream, and here for years he accumu- 
lated a mass of interesting facts, the publica- 
tion of which, as discovered, w-ould have 
made his name as an observer great indeed. 
Some of these facts have been given to the 
world in his publisheij reports as United 
States entomologist, but the majority were 
withheld from publication, — awaiting the 
completion of his work — until, from time to 
time, many of his interesting discoveries 
were re-discovered and published by the 
army of careful observers who have come 
after him, and the credit has thereby been 
lost to him. Perhaps it was his over consci- 
entiousness which kept him from "rushing 
into print," for he often underrated his own 
judgment in citing the histories of insects 
he had carefully reared and observed, rather 
preferring to give the experience of another 
with full credit, than to use his own material. 



116 



PSYCHE. 



[November — December 13S3. 



Susceptible to the world's praise, he slirnnk 
from its censure, which alone may be given 
as a reason for his never having named a 
species, or, to use liis own words, lieljietl to 
mix up tlie nomenclature. 

Of his labors only those who were inti- 
mately associated with him will ever know 
how untiring and persistent — even methodi- 
cally so — were his efforts. For years, all the 
available moments of daylight, "out of office 
hours," were given to engraving the copper 
plates; the evenings were devoted to writing, 
while into that uncertain limit 'twixt bed- 
time and the time for blowing out the candle, 
were crowded all his mental recreation, 
reviewing of new books, reading the maga- 
zines and the Herald, or, sometimes, even a 
popular novel. 

Whether his work will ever be given to the 
world or not, in its entirety — despite the 
eftbrts of some to belittle it — it is simply a 
colossal encyclopaedia of American entomol- 
ogy, comprising names, derivations from the 
Latin or Greek, and synonyms of thousands 
of species of insects, with histories, food- 
plants, remedies, habitat, etc'., a library in 
itself, complete in detail, and comprehensive 
in inception to a wonderful degree. It is 
now in the possession of the United States 
government, and its great size will doubtless 
be the chief obstacle in the way of its publi- 
cation. 

Charles Richards Dodge. 

The complete set of illustr.ations comprises 273 
quarto pi.Ttes witli 6179 figures, engraved on cojjper 
and covering the following subjects : — 

Plates. Figures. 
Lepidoptera . _ 13S 2634 

Coleoptera 49 1627 

Diptcra 13 520 

Ileniijitera 16 464 

Hymenoptera 10 346 

Orthojitera iS 281 

Neuroptera 7 92 

Cotton and its insects 22 215 

Only 15 complete copies (author's proofs) of the 
work arc in existence, six of which are in Euro])c and 
nine in this country. In general not more than 50 
copies of any work were printed, the text being litho. 
graphed from llie author's manuscript. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTO.MOLOGICAL CLUB. 

13 April 1SS3. — The 9.:nd meeting of the 
Club was held at 19 Brattle .Square, Cam- 
bridge, 13 .April 1S83. In the absence of the 
President, Mr. Hayward was chosen Chair- 
man. Five members were present. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed a collection of 
colored figures of North American coleo- 
ptera, hymenoptera and diptera, drawn by 
Maj. LeConte. and now belonging to Dr. J. 
L. LeConte. 

Mr. G. Dimmock read a paper on "The 
cocoons of Cioiiiis scro/'/iiilaiiae." Tlie co- 
coons of this European species of ciirciilioni- 
rfrtc imitate the fruit of Scrophularia nodosa. 
A sprig of Sciophularia, with cocoons of 
Cionus upon it, was shown. [The paper will 
appear in Psyche, v. 3.] 

Mr. S. H. Scudder called attention to B. N. 
Peach's paper, entitled, "On some fossil 
mvriapods from the lower old red sandstone 
of Forfarshire" (Proc. Roy. phys. soc. 
[Edinb.], iSSi-iSSj. p. 177-1SS. pi. 2) in 
which two fossil mvriapods from the devonian 
of Scotland are described. These two mvria- 
pods {Kampccaiis foifarensh and Archides- 
mu.'i mitcnico/i) arc probably the oldest insects 
known. 



We have received the first seven numeros 
of the Piaclical nntiinilisl. a monthly which 
Ward and Riley have started at Bradford, 
England. It consists of twelve octavo pages 
monthly, neatly printed and in a tasty cover, 
at the remarkably low price of is. 6d.[374c.] 
(postpaid) to the United States, or Canada. 
The publication is ''devoted to the assistance 
and encouragement of lovers of nature," and 
contains interesting original notes on ento- 
mological subjects. The editors ought, how- 
ever, to exercise more care in proof-reading. 
The International news company, of New 
York, are .\merican agents for the sale of 
this paper. 



Nn\'eiiiber — Dercinber iSS^v 



PS re HE. 



[3338-3345] 11' 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Authors and societies are requested to fortvard their zvorhs to the editors as sooti as 
published. The date of publieation^ giz^en in braehets [], marks the time at zvhich the 
worh -zi'as received, unless an earlier date of publication is knoivn to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherzvise stated each record is made directly from the -cvork that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common given name, as: A: Augustus: B: Ben- 
jamin: C: Charles: D: David: E: Rdxvard; F: Frederic; G: George; If: Henry; 
I: Isaac: J: John: K: Karl: L: Louis: M: Mark: N: Nicholas: O: Otto: P: Peter: P: 
Richard: S: Samuel: T: Iliomas: W: William. The initials at the end of each record, or 
note, are those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions arc solicited. 



Packard, Alpheus Spriiii^. fr. Descriptions 
of some new ichneumon parasites of North 
American butterflies. (Proc Boston soc. 
nat. hist. [16J Aug. iSSi, v. 21. p. 1S-3S.) 

Crit. rev., by C : V. Rilev, entitled "Notes 
on microgasters." (Amer. nat.. Aug. 1SS2, 
V. 16, p. 679-680. 

Describes ophion tHyri (fmm eudomu!^ fiiyrus)., 
ramf>ople.\ pieriJicnla (fruni pieris rapaejy ichntitimon 
hunierae (tr in pyriiiitets huntcfa), i. sp., /, tharotis 
(frniu jNtlitaea tharos), wicrngaster carinata (from 
pyrameis atalanta)^ w . pieridis (from pien's rapae), 
m. atalanlae {from pyramei's atalanta), nr . carduicola 
{from p.rariini),m. iutin/tis (from pnpf/i'o as/t-n'as). 
eiicyrtus iiinii (from /. /i/r/iits), culophns thedae (from 
pu|i;i of thcrla calainis), e. saundersii (from pupa of 
s:imc?j, cutt'don antioptu: (from vaufssa a7itiopci). tri- 
iliooriuniua wi}intissti>iu>n (from p-ipHio tiinina) pom- 
pilns sj). (''from grapta iutt-i-ro^atiouis''^), 16 new 
species; and le-descrilics irogus \'-'^tro^ott"'\ ex^f^orius 
(from pupae of f'opi/io), tipanieles h'mrniiidis (from 
/iiniviitis disippits), phron/alus pitpan/ui (from pieris 
f(Tp't'), eiicyrtus iiioutinus (from pupa of cliioiiobas 
semidi'ii), ctilnphux siinidfae (fiom cM. st:nn'dea), tricho- 
gramma minntum {from linifuitis disipptes), and each 
ifenus, except the last, of these p;irasites; compares 
the described species antl i;;eiier:i with others. 

J3: P. M. (j33S) 

Riley, C : Valentine. Tlie false indigo gall- 
moth : -cViih/iia amorphclla, Clemens, (jd 
ann. rept. state entoni. Mo., [Mch.] 1S70, 

P- 13^-13,3. fi.i?- 98-) 

Description and tiijures of e;all, larva and imaa,o of 
ivalshia amorphellti, found on amorjiha fritticosa; 
liibernation of the larva. B: P. M. (5339) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Gall ox\ pelargonium. 

(Amer. entom., Mch. iSSo, v. 3. n. s.. v. i, 

p. 7S. 6 cm.) 

Letter from M.T[reat], with answer; a gall, "14 rowing 
at the base of a healtliy pelargonium,''^ contained 
podura: the gall apparently made bv a mite, and the 
podura undoubtedly feeding on the diseased irall-tissue. 

B: P.M. (3340) 

Riley, C : Valentine. Gall-nuts. (Johnson's 
new univ. cyclop., 1876, v. 2, p. 417,1 fig-) 

Definition of "gall-nuts," formed bv cyulps g'allae- 
tinctoriiie on twigs of qtternis inft'ctoriu: local origin, 
chemical composition, use in the arts. 

B: P. M. C334O 



Riley, C : Valentine. Galls. (Jolin.son's new 
universal cyclop., 1876, v. 2, p. 417-419, 
2 fig.) 
Definitions of " g;iliv;" their variety of t'orin, texture 

and location, tlieir nature and .source. 

B: P. M. (3342) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The misnamed gall- 
moth : euryptychia^ saligneana, Clemens. 
(jd ann. rept. state entom. Mo.. [Mch.] 
1S70, p. 134-135. fig. 99.) 

Description and figure of gall and imago and brief 
description of larva o( eurypiychia saligneana; characters 
of the genus; tliis moth may be an ir.quiline, General 
remarks on the formation of galls by lepidojitera. 

■ B: P. M. (3343) 

Riley. C : Valentine. Notes on microgasters. 
(Amer nat.. Aug. 1SS2, v. 16. p. 679-6S0.) 
Crit. rev, of A, S. Packard, jr.'s "Descriptions of 
some new ichneumon parasites of North American 
butlerllies" (Proc. Boston soc. nat. hist., [16] Aug. 
iSSr, V. 31, p. 1S-3S) [Rec, ^^38] ; synonymical 
notes on juicrogaster canuata [^ut . gelt-chtae var.], 
711. pieridis \\ [= apanteits cougregatus var.pieridizora 
n. var.] m. atalajitae \^a. cotigregatus var.], m, 
\apanteles\ carduicola and m. \a.\ lunatus. 

B: P. M. (3344) 

Riley, C : \'alentine. Notes on North Ameri- 
can microgasters, with descriptions of new 
species. (Trans, acad. sci. St. Louis, [May] 
18S2, V. 4, p. 296-315, 9 fig.) 

Separate. [St. Louis, Mo.], Apr. iSSi. 
i-t.-p. cover-]— 20 p., 33X16. il. 

Sketch of previous knowledge of the North Ameri- 
can bracouidae closely related to 7nicrog-astcr\ ciiarac- 
teristics and habits of'the group; detmition of the genera 
7iiirroplitis, microgasier and apajiteles; description of 
typical larv.a (of apaulelis oletiae) and of cocoons 
and the manner of their construction ; eflect of the pre- 
sence of parasites upon tlie longevity of the host; 
occurrence of secondary parasites in these parasites; 
description, \yith notes on the habits, of the following 
new species: i}tic7'oplitis ceratomiae, in .g'ortynac,ap*ttn- 
tclcs inegathymi, a. cacocciae, a. aleiiae, a. poliius^ a. 
fasstanus, a. iheclae, a. smerinihi, a, acronytiae, a. 
pnh-arri(iu\ and of the following new varieties ; apatt- 
te/i-s liiiienitidis iorm JfaviroufJiae, a. congrtgaius var. 
hemiUucae and var. rufocoxalis and var. scitulus; 
synonymical list of North American species (if these 
three genera heretofore described. B: P. M. (3345) 



11'^ [334*^-3353] 



PSYCHE. 



[November — Deccitiher 1SS3. 



Riley, C: V^tilentiiie. The smaller corn 
stalk-borer. Pcmf>elia ligiioscila Zeller. 
(Rept. [U. S.J coiiimiss. aj^ric, for 1S81 
and 18S2, 1SS2 [Jan. 1883), p. i4-!-i45- P'- 
7, fig. 3.) (Riley, C : V. Report of the 
entomologist . . . [i Dec] 18S2, p. 142-145 
[82-85], pi. 7. fig- 3-) 

Rava2:es, bitbits, seasons, natural history, ^coijraph- 
ical distribution and synonymy of, and means against 
pcmpelia Ugnos^ella; cicscription and figures of lar\'a, 
pupa and imago, of structurui details of moutli-parts and 
antennae of male imago, of markings of larva, and of 
injury done to corn-stalks. B: P. M. (3346) 

Riley, C: Valentine. The sorghum web- 
worm. Nolii sorg/iiclla. new t^pecies. 
(Rept. [U. S.] comniiss. agric. for 18S1 
and iSS2. 1SS2 [Jan. 18S3], p. 1S7-1S9. pi. 
II. fig. I.) (Riley. C: V. Report of the 
entomologist . . . [i Dec] 1SS2, p. 1S7-1S9 
[127-129], pi. II, fig. I.) 

Habits, ravages and classificatory relations of uola 
sorffhiella n. sp.; figures and description of larva, pupa 
antfimago; figures of Jicad of sorghum iniured by tlie 
larva. B:P.M. (3347) 

Riley, C: Valentine. The water weevil. 
Lhsorhopirfis simplex ^ay. (Rept. [U. S.] 
commiss. agric, for iSSi and 1SS2, 1S82 
[Jan. 1883], p. i3o-i33> P'- 6, fig- 4-) C^i" 
LEY, C : V. Report of the entomologist 
. . . [i Dec] iSS2, p. 130-133 [70-73]' P*- 
6, fig. 4.) 

Seasons, habits, ravages, classification and synonymy 
of lissorkoptnis simplex; description and figures of 
larva and imago; incimlcs extract from J. Screven's 
letter in author's "The 'water-weevil' of the rice plant" 
(Amer. nat., June i&Si, v. 15) [Kec, 3335], p. 4S3, and 
extract from a rcp-nt liy L. O. Howard; spalatopsis 
suffiisti and hip/^opsi's Itmniscata boring in steins of 
cficnopodium unthclminiicum. B: P. M. (334S) 



[Walsh, H : Dann a?i<f C : \'alentinc Riley.] 
Galls and their architects. (Amer. entom.. 
Feb. 1S69, V. I, p. loi-iio, 3S9 cm., fig. 78- 
90; p. 144. 3 cm.) 

Definition and classification of ^alls; variety of their 
sizes, shapes, colors, tastes, consistency, situation, 
construction and parentage; accounts of sfnne galls 
made by cynipidae^ recidomyidae, and apliidiuae, and of 
the gall-makers; figures, describes and treats especially 

f galls, of rynips quernts-spougifica, r. q.-itiatits, c. 

.-priiuiis n.sp., cecidomyia sitlicts-strohiloidfs, c. s.- 
_ rassiaiides,c.7'ilis-pomum n.sp., c. z'.-roryioides n.sp., 
pt-mpbigHsvagabimdus.p. r/wis :indg/yp/tiii<i u/mico/a; 
descritics imago of cyuips q.-prmut's n. sp., and of 
pemphigus nlmi-fusus w. sp., and larvae of above new 
species of ceciiiomyid; diniorphisni of gall-makers; 
occurrence of intpiilines and parasites in galls. [Con- 
tinued in authors' " Galls and their architects : 2d article" 
{op. cit.. Nov. iS^>9, y. 2, p. 45-50 ) (Rec. 3350).! 

B: P. M. (3349) 



% 



[■Walsh, B : Dann and C : VaienMne Riley.] 
Galls and their architects : 2cl article. 
(Amer. entom., Nov. 1S69, v. 2. p. 45-50, 
242 cm., fig. 30-32.) 

[Cont. from authors* "Galls .ind their architects'* {op. 
r/V., Feb. 1S69, v. 1, p. loi-iio) (Kec, 3349). ] Defini- 
tion and classification of galls; descriptions and figures 
of galls and larvae and descriptions of images of 
nematus salicis-pomum^ niura s.-ovum, and f. 5.- 
gemina; habits and seasons of these insects and of 
atiihonomus syrophtiriia, hatracht'dra salicipomoneHa 
and nematus nienaiciis^ inquilinous in the galls of mitw/. 
atus s.'Pomum and in other galls; evidences disting- 
uishing gall-in.akers from iiujuilines; balance ()f nature; 
dignity of entomology; reasons for preferring the name 
citxtra s.-gemma to the prior name e. orbitaiis. [Cor.t. in 
authors' article of sjuiie title (o/. cii., Dec. iS69-Jan. 1S70, 
p. 7"-7i) CKec, 3351).] B: P. M. (3350) 

[Walsli, P> : Dann <ind C : \'alentine Riley.] 

Galls and their architects: 2d article. 

(Amer. entom. Dec. iS6y-Jan. 1870. v. 2, 

p. 70-74, 193 cm. fig. 45-47-) 

[Cont. from authors' article of same title {op, cit.* 
Nov. 1S69, p. 45-50) (Rec. 3350).] General remarks 
explanatory of the occurrence ot distinct genera of 
gall-insects on plants of distinct genera ; figures 
and descriptions of galls of cynips guercns-s^miua- 
tor and c. q .-frondosa : nature of these galls and of 
those of c. q.-optrator; seasons of the gall-makers; 
nematns quercicola inquilinous in galls of r. q.-fron- 
dosa; synoptical table of North American genera of 
cynipidae psi'Hides; descrii>tii)n of uuiisirophus n. g. 
{ry?iipidae), and of ^all and imago of a. lygodesmiae- 
pisti/ti n.sp. [Cont. in authors' article of same title (<?/. 
ci'i., Feb. 1S70, p. 103-106) (Rec., 3352).] 

B: P.M. (3350 

[Walsh, TJ: Dann (?//<■/ C : \"alentine Riley.] 
Galls and their architects : 2d article. 
(Amer. entom.. Feb. 1S70, v. 2, p. 103-106, 
144 cm., fig. 68-71.) 

[Concluded from autlu>rs* article of same title {op. 
cic, Dec. iSfSg-Jan. 1S70, p. 70-74 (Rec, 33.';0-] Figure 
and description of the gall ruhi podagra n.sp., made 
by agriins ritjicoliis, of the gall vitis vuinus n.sp., 
niade by baridins sesostris, of the larva and imago of 
the former insect and of the imago of the latter; habits 
and fiKid-plants of and means against these insects; 
history ol the names of the latter and of its g:ill ; brief 
description of gall and of iur.i^n of wadarits ampe/op- 
st'dos n.sp. ; habits of buprestidae. 

B: P. M. (3352) 

[Walsh, R : Dann iduI C : Valentine Riley.] 

The trumpet grape-gall. (Amer. entom., 

Sep. -Oct. 1869. V. 2, "p. 2.%. iScm., fig. 27.) 

Description and figure of galls of ceridomyia z'itis- 

h'iuiis n.sp. [=<*. vitis-viticola], the gall-mafser being 

unknown; enunciation of general law that when one 

gall-insect inhabits a plant, many more species of the 

same genus of insects generally inhabit the same genus 

of plants; occurrence of the same or similar galls on 

several varieties of gra]>c-vines and of related galls on 

leaves of carya and ceitis. B: P. M. (335.0 



Novembi-r-December l&?3- 



PSYCHE. 



119 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 



Mr C T a. Porter published, in tlie 
American 'naturalist for December 1SS3, a 
„ost thoroughly unscientific report on some 
experiments "to test the function of the anten- 
nae of insects. 

The BulUfin d-insectoloffle agricoU for 
Julv-Septen.ber contains an interesting ac- 
count of the exhibition of insects held Last 
July in the palace of industry, at Paris to- 
gether Nvith a list of the prizes and medals 
awarded to exhibitors. 

The November numero of that enterpris- 
ing ma-azine, the Kansas City rer,e-.v, con- 
Jn,, besides other interesting art.c es, not 
pertaining to enton.ology. an agreeable paper 
Lv T. Berry Smith on '-Natural science m the 
,7th centuiv," and an abstract, by Dr. C : \ . 
Riley, on "Emulsions of petroleum and their 
value as insecticides." 

Circular no. i of the Department of en- 
tomology of the New York state musenni of 
natural history, issued by Mr. J. A. Lintner 

in October, contains notes upon the chinch- 
bu.. B/issus Icucof ferns, and its attack upon 
the"-rops of portions of St. Lawrence county 
New York. An enlarged figure of the insect 
and directions for checking its depredations 
are "iven. Whether these insects have done 
'any'^erious damage to crops in Massachusetts 
this year, or not, I do not knows but on .8 
March the low land between Belmont ami 
Cambridge vyas swarming with tliem. G : V. 
\G.MN WE have the unpleasant duty of re- 
cording the death of one of our leading Amer- 

, .\f Dr lohn L. LeConte, 
ican entom )logist,. ui.jon.i 

whose numerous publications on North Amer- 
ican coleoptera have rendered the systematic 
,tudv of these insects so easy, died at his 
hom'e in Philadelphia, 15 Nov. 1S83. 1 he 
December numero of the BnlM,n of the 
Brooklyn cutoniologieal society contains a 
portrait of Dr. LeConte, and an obituary 
notice by Mr. F. G. Schaupp. The notice 
.vliich appears in this numero of Psvc^.E 
was originally written, at the request otDi. 
A. S. Packard, jr.. for the entomological de- 



partment of the American natnyaUst. wliich 
department Dr. Riley has been editing. The 
exclusion of the article by Prof. E : D. Cope 
one of the editors of the Amcrica,t natural- 
ist, against the protest of Dr. Riley, has 
caused the latter's withdrawal from that maga- 
zine The notice having been oftered to 
Psyche with this explanation, we are pleased 
to publish it as a token of the high esteem in 
which we held the late coleopterist, and of 
our appreciation of the competency of the 
distinguished author to write such a notice as 
shall command respect from any journal in 
the land. We had intended to write a notice, 
which we will now omit. 



At \ recent meeting of the French ento- 
mological society. Dr. Laboulbfene instanced 
a cas^e in which dipterous larvae had been 
vomited by a woman thirty-nine years old, 
under the care of Dr. E. Pichatof La Rochelle^ 
Specimens of the pupa, and of the fly hatched 
from them {Cuytoneura stabulans Fall.), 
were exhibited to the society. The woman 
had been troubled for some days with bron- 
chitis and very fetid breath, and finally, after 
a severe attack of coughing, vomited twice^ 
Dr Pichat afterward found in the basin used 
a hundred to a hundred and fifty of these 
larvae; and the circumstances as related by 
him leave no serious doubt of their source 
thouc^h he was not present during the vom.t- 
in- but only called immediately after it. 

This larva, according to Laboulbene, is 
well known, and is ordinarily found in de- 
composing animal and vegetable matter, in 
mushrooms, etc., and has also been reared 
from caterpillars and hymenopterous larvae. 
The possibility of the existence of such flies 
(muscariae) in the human body was formerly 
Lenerallv accepted, but has lately been denied 
by Davaine. Experiments have proved says 
Dr Laboulbene, that such larvae, introduced 
into the stomach of animals by a fistula, have 
been discharged alive in the excrement, one. 
two, or even three days \^W.. - Science. 23 
Nov. 18S3, V. 2, p. 697. 

The eollowing notes upon the medicinal 
use of preparations of Blatta orientals are 



1 1>I I 



PS re HE. 



extracted „o,. a„ abstract given i„ tl,e 
Deutuk-amerikaui^cke ap„i,ukc,-,ci„n,g, i 
Apr. .8&,,jah,.o..4,p. ^^^ ^^ ^ paper b^ T. 
Bogo,nolo«-, published in the St. Petersburg 
med. vochiiisckrift: * 

Bogoniolow fir'st introduced this medicine 
"Uo practice in ,876. I„ the course of the 
last s,x years it has been used .successfuliv 
for dropsy by several pl,ysicians, „.|,ile other's 
have had negative results. Favorable action 
resulted .n 47 per cent, of cases published 
heretofore. Bogomolovv mentions 70 addi- 
tional cases, in .9 of which the medicine was 
admuHstered in powdered foQ,, and in 4, as 
t.ncture. In 19 cases the author brou-^ht 
about profuse perspiration, in 6, cases clear 
increase of urination, and in ,3 cases in 
crease of intestinal evacuation (bv stron-^er 
transudation through the intestinal wallt) 
He had in no case seen .symptoms of irritation 
or other mconvenient accessory action. The 
tincture was prepared by soaking well-dried 
-=.nd pulverized cockroaches in six times their 
weight of 95 per cent, alchohol for two or 
three days in a warm place. Of this tincture 
the author prescribes for adults a tablespoon- 
ful thnce daily, for children twentv drops 
thrice daily. The powder is to be us^d only 
■ncase of emergency, and spoils easilv bv 



(Xovcmber— December jft 



-N-atural History will be held at N. W. corn. 

of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston. Mass 

"t 7-45 P- m., on the davs followino- — 

-M Oct. 1SS3. 21 Feb° 1SS4. 

-^^°'-'- " :!6Mar. " 

'^ J^ec. .' ,3 ,^p^ ,. 

--3jan. 1SS4. ,8Mav " 

Edward Burgess, ' Secret:„y 

^Zt\ r?'"'" '"'"""=' "^ "^« Entomo 
logical Section ot the Academv of Naturi 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, Pa.,-wi,l be held 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sts., or the 
days following:— . "■- tne 

.^ Oct.°8S3. 14 .Mar. ,884. 

9-^'»- " ..Apr. '. 

'+"'^'^- " 9 iMay " 

iijan. 1SS4. .3 June <■ 
8 Feb. " 

JA.MES H. Ridings. Record,^,-. 

The semi-annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S 
W. cornerof 19th and Race Sts., Philadelphia' 
i a., on the days following:— " 

'"«-'SS3. ° 9 June ,884. 

James II. R.dings, Recording Secretary. 



exposure. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS 

IHE REGULAR meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.4c p Z 
on the days following:— ' to i • •. 

12 Oct. 1SS3. ,4 M^, jj,s 

9 Nov. ■' „^^p^ ., 

''^^ec. " gM .. 

It Jan. 1884. nlune - 

8 Feb. ■' 

G. Di MMocK, Secrelaiy. 

The New Vokk E";^^ological Club meets 

twice monthly, except in June, Julv and 

August, but no special date is fixed fo'r each 

meeting. 

He nry Ed wards, Secretary. 
The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



The regular .nonthly meetings of the 
Monue:., Branch of the Entomological So^ 
ety o, Ontario, will be held at Montreal. Que 
Canada, on the davs following •- 

; «'='• 'SS3. 5 Feb. ,884. 

<^N°^- " 4 Mar. '■ 

4l^"- " .Apr. '. 

8 Jan. ,884. 6 May ■' 

G. J. Bowles. Secretary. 

The monthly meetings of the Brooklvn 
tntomological Society will be held in the 

rooms of Wrighfs Business College, Broad- 
wa.v^ corner of Fourth Street, Brooklyn, 
E. D the last Saturday of e.ach month ex- 
cept July and August. 

E- G. SciiAu...., Secretary. 
No. 113-114 were issued 16 Nov. 1883. 






,0i^^^''^^^io^ 



PSYCH 



ScP 2 > ^^^'^ 



^ 




^ joxjK.nsrA.i-j OF eisttodvcoloo^x'. 

[Established in 1S74.] 

EDITED BY 

13: PicKMAx Mann, Washington. D. C. ; G: Dimmock. CaDihridg-c. Mass.: 

Albeut J: Cook. Lansing'. Midi.; Stephen Alfked Forbes, N^ornial., 

I/i.: Joseph Albert Lintner. AU>an\\ N. Z! ; Francis Huntino- 

TON Snow, La~vren.ce. Kansas: W : Trei.ease, Madison. Wise. 

Vol. 4. No. 117-118. 

jANl'ARY-FEIiRrARV I S84. 



COJV7EjV7'S: 

Advertisements . . . . . . . ; . . . . . .122 

Ox THE Life-Histories and Immature Stages of three Eumolpini — 

Sief/icu Alfred JForbcs .......... IJ3-130 

Collection and Preservation of Diptera — Sajiiiirl Wcmhll Willistoii . 130-132 

Museum Pests of Service to the Entomologist — L. (>. Howurd . . . 132 
Proceedings of Societies — Cambridge Entomological Club — Biological 

Society of Washington .......... 133-134 

Bibliographical Record, no. 33,H~340.i • • ij.i-'.y^ 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings ........ 139-140 

Pt'BLISHED by the 

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FSYCHE. 



ON THE LIFE-IIISTORIES AND IMMATURE STAGES OF THREE 

EU^[OLPINI. 

RV STEPHKN ALFRED P'ORBES, NORMAL, ILLINOIS. 



[ With 

The three species to which this paper 
is devoted {Coh'spis brimnea Fab., 
Paria aterriiiia 01i\'., and Scelodcnta 
piibesceHs Mels.),live underground in 
the larval stage, and feed upon the roots 
of the strawberry {Fragarla vesca L.). 
The larvae of all three often occ\n' 
in tlie same localities and situations ; 
thcv are cxtremeh' similar in general 
appearance, two of them [Paria and 
Scelodotita) being, indeed, almost in- 
distinguishable ; and their food-plants 
and food-habits are identical. They have 
consequently not been discriminated 
heretofore, even where they have been 
collected in considerable numbers and 
studied with some care : and their 
life-histories, as far as made out. liave 
very naturally tallen into some confu- 
sion. 

The following account is liased upon 
almost continuous observaticm of one of 
the species, upon breeding experiments 
with all three, and upon numerous col- 
lections of all. made from August 1882 
to December 18S3, mostly in southern 
Illinois, where all are abundant in 
strawberry fields. 

COLASPIS BRUNNKA Fab. 

Literature. 

The first undoubted reference to an 

immature stage of this beetle, which I 

have found, is in the 3rd report of the 

state entomologist of Missouri (C. V. 



Plate /.] 

Riley), for 1871, p. S1-S4, in wliich the 
larva is described and figured, and record 
is made of the fact that it feeds upon 
the roots of the strawberry. A brief 
outline of its life-history is also given, 
but in terms to show that it was not at 
that time distinguished from the larva 
of Scelodoiita. 

In his report as state entomologist for 
the following vear, p. 34, Mr. Riley 
again described this larva from numer- 
ous specimens, antl figured the dorsal 
and ventral aspects of the head, a sepa- 
rate mandilile, and one of the ventral 
segments. The description given of the 
mandible and of the anal segments, and 
the figiu'e of the firmer, do not apply 
exactly to the larva of Colaspis^ and it 
is possible that the specimens upon 
wliicli this second description was based 
belonged to one of the other species. 

In the American entomologist for 
1880, V. 3. p. 243, Mr. Riley repeats 
his origina 1 figures of the Colaspis larva ; 
and this form has since been mentioned 
frequently in various economic publica- 
tions, but without any fui'ther additions 
to our knowledge, eitlier of its characters 
or of its histor}'. The pupa has remain- 
ed hitherto unknmxn. 

Description . 

Larva. (PI. i, tigs. 7-8.) This spe- 
cies is 3 to 4 mm. hmg 1>\' one-half that 
width, white throughout, except the 



12J 



PSYCHE. 



[January — Febrxiari- iSS4- 



liead ;uk1 the first scgiiiciit. wliicli ;iic :i 
pale, yellowisli brown. The first seg- 
ment is leatlierv and smootli above, and 
as long as the two following together; 
but each of the remaining eleven seg- 
ments is marked on the back by about 
three transverse dorsal folds, wliicb ter- 
minate on the sides in large, low eleva- 
tions, pointed-ovate in form (the pointed 
ends being upwards), one to each seg- 
ment of the bod\ except the first and 
the last. 

The first spiracle is larger than tiie 
remaining eight, ami jjlaced between the 
first and second thoracic segments. The 
others arc situated at the lower ends of 
the ovate elevations mentioned above, 
and just within a tortuous longitudinal 
groove, which separates these elevations 
from a series of prominent tubercles 
which extend along the sides, one tuber- 
cle to each segment, ."^till beneath the 
first mentioned row of tubercles is an- 
other longitudinal groove, and a second 
series of tubercles ; and these again are 
separated from the transverse ventral 
ridges bv still anotlier irregular longi- 
tudinal groove. Finallv. the ends of 
these ventral ridges are cut otl' ol>li(jue- 
1\ In a series of grooves, each extend- 
ing from before back\vards and inwards, 
thus forming a fourth series of eleva- 
tions, on a line with the legs. 

In Colaspls. the elev-ations of tliis 
last series have the form of thick, 
fleshy tubercles which project down- 
ward beyond the general ventral surface, 
each bearing about ten hairs of varying 
lengths, the three or four longest of 
which are longer and stouter than anv 



others on the larva. The hairs on the 
ventral ridges between these tubercles 
form an unbroken row. The\' are about 
nine in number, alternately longer and 
shorter, with very many short ones inter- 
mingled : the longest being about as 
long as the corresponding segments. 
The twelfth \entral segment (fig. /E) 
is deeplv and widely emarginate pos- 
teriorlx'. dlyided. in fact, into two 
triangular plates, between which the 
unusually developed thirteenth segment 
appears. These lateral plates are fringed 
\vith spines on the posterior two-thirds 
of their inner margin. The thirteenth 
or anal segment is likewise longitudi- 
nally divided beneath. 

Tiiese two segments taken together 
are about one and a half times the length 
of the preceding one ; and their dorsal 
arches are likewise relatively elongate, 
being scarcely, if at all. shorter than 
the next segment in advance. 

The legs are about as long as the tho- 
racic segments to which they are at- 
tached, and are white, with the excep- 
tion of the clayvs. which are dark brown 
at the tips. They are provided with a 
few slender white hairs, which become 
shorter anil more spine-like toward the 
end of the leg. 

The head is smoolli. somew iiat flat- 
tened in front, with a tew slender, scat- 
tered hairs. The clypeus is trapezoidal. 
and the anterior edge of the labruni 
(fig. 7D) is convex. The antennae 
(fig. 7A) are situated just outside the 
bases of the nianilibles. They are mi- 
nute, w hite. four-jointed, the two basal 
joints short and cpiadrate. the second 



January — Fcliriiary ]S.S4.] 



rsrcHE. 



VI 



and third together as long ;is tlic first. 
The outer distal angle of the third joint 
is continued as a cylindrical process, 
which reaches to the end of the joint 
following. 

The mandibles (fig. 7C) ai'e rather 
n:irro\v (the \vidth being about two- 
thirds the length), strongly curved, 
comp.-uativeh' broad, and obtuse at tip. 
where the\' are emarginnte, or some- 
times trifid. Each l.iears two long, slen- 
der hairs at its outer base. 

The cardinal and basal pieces of the 
maxilla (fig. yBc) are not clearly dis- 
tinct: the maxillary lol)e is stout, round- 
ed at the tip, and convex internally, 
with about ten spines, of var^■ing 
strength, along the inner maigin. the 
two basal ones being very strong, and 
about half the length of the lobe. This 
last extends only a little beyond the 
second joint of tlic palpus. The palpi 
(fig. 7l^'^l' '^''^ prominent and four- 
jointed, the third joint longest, about 
equal to the first and second together, 
and the fourth slender and c\ lintlrical. 

The labium (fig. 7Bb) is thick and 
quadrate, without distinct palpigerou.s 
tidiercle, and bears on its under surface 
two slender, cylindrical, unarticulate 
palpi (fig. 7Ba), which are about as 
long as the third joint of the maxilla, 
and taper slightlv distallw 

P?ipa. The pupa is 3.3 mm. long 
by 2.5 mm. wide; white, except the 
e3'es and the mandibles, which show 
through the outer envelop red or Ijlack. 

The front of the head is set with a 
few long, stout hairs, articulated upon 
slender, conical tubercles: antl three 
similar rows of hairs appear upon tiie 



thorax, one near the anterior border, 
anothei' nenr the posterior, and a third 
intermediate. Six other hairs occur 
upon the scutellum. ;md a row of about 
six or eight borders each one of the 
abdominal segments above. 

The anterior inferior angle of the tibio- 
femoral articulation of each leg bears a 
stout, curved hook, that on the first pnir 
of legs being \"ery small. Each of these 
;uticuIations ts likewise armed with two 
long hairs borne upcni slender, conical 
tubercles. The sheaths of the antennae 
;ire tuberculate externallv 

The posterior segments of the abdo- 
men are peculiarly armed. The last 
(fig. 7F) terminates in two simple, 
incurved hooks, and bears in tront ot 
these a pair of stout lateral spines, 
projecting directly outwards: while a 
similar but smaller pair of backward- 
projecting spines is borne by the penul- 
timate. 

J Jfe- History. 

The imago is said by Dr. Fitch to 
iqjpear in the latter jjart of June, con- 
tinuing through the month of July. Mr. 
Riley, in his third Missouri report, says 
that pupation commences in Ju'ne, the 
lieetles appearing in that month and con- 
tinuing to issue from the grountl until fall 

Larvae of this species were first seen 
bv me in southern Illinois on 19 May, at 
which time tliey were about half-grown. 
On 28 June, full-grown larvae and im:i- 
gos were found in the eartli, in straw- 
berrv fields, the imagos having, of 
course, just transformed. Adults again 
occurred in the earth on y J^dy. but by 
i.S Julv all had emerged. As early as 



i2f; 



PS)-( HE. 



[January — F"cbruary 1SS4. 



4 July they appeared in stubble Hekls. 
and were found iVoni the beginning in 
sweeping the leaves of the strawberry, 
where thev continued common until i 
August. They were also taken in vine- 
yards, feeding upon the leaves of grapes, 
on II Julv. 

Carefid and repeated search in all 
situations suited to their tlevelopniLnt 
failed to discover either larvae or pupae 
again during the year ; and I have no 
doubt that the species is single-broodeil, 
and think that it completes its trans- 
formations, under ordinary circumstan- 
ces, by I August. 

Numerous collections made in Octo- 
ber, November and December, through- 
out the region where these beetles ap- 
peared abundantly earlier in the year, 
failed to discover a single sjjecinien 
among the thousands of hibernating in- 
sects encomitered ; and I am of the 
opinion that this species hibernates 
rarely, if ever, as an imago, but believe 
that it deposits its eggs in late summer or 
autumn, probably in the (.-arth about 
strawberry roots. 

[-"ahia aterrim.\ Oliy. ( PI. i . tig. 1.4.) 
I.iteratiirc. 
The larva of this chr\ scjinelid was 
first noticed in iSSo, in an article b\ 
Prof. A.J. Cook, of Michigan, printed 
originally in several western agricultu- 
ral journals, and later in the report of 
the Michigan state horticultmal societ\ 
tor that year. p. 393. This newspaper 
description was republislied in the 
American entomologist for October 
iSSo. \-. 3, p. 242 243, and a few re- 
marks were added by Mr. Riley, com- 



paring the characters of tlie larva, as 
described by Prof. Cook, with those 
supposed to distinguish Colaspis. 

Prof. Cook's article, in a revised form. 
was also published by the State agri- 
cultural society of Michigan, in its re- 
port tor the vear ending August 31st, 
iSSo. p. 273. Another account of the 
larva, with some additional notes upon 
its habits, was given by the present wri- 
ter in the Transactions of tiie State hor- 
ticultural society of Illinois, for 1882, 
p. 199. and again, in the following year, 
'n a paper on Insects atfecting the 
strawberry, published in the Transac- 
tions of the Mississippi vallev horticul- 
tural society for 1SS3, p. 77 and also 
issued as a separate pamphlet. This 
description was somewhat tuller than 
am preceding, and was illustrated by a 
tigiue of the larva made from a camera- 
lucida drawing, but still insufficient to 
distinguish it clearly from the larva of 
Colaspis. and applying equally well 
either to Paria or to Scclodonta. 

Description. 
Larva. Agreeing closeh in size, 
form, and general appearance with the 
larva of Colaspis. this species ma\ be 
distinguished by the following details: 
The brown hairs of the ventral riilges 
are tew and short, all shorter, in fact. 
than the corresponding segments. The 
ends of these segments are cut otV by 
oblique grooves, antl have the form of 
triangular tubercles, with their apices 
inwards: but these are not raised at all 
above the general ventral surface. Each 
of them bears from five to seven hairs. 
of \yliich about lluee are longer than 



lunu'.irv — Febmarv 1SS4.] 



PSYCHE. 



127 



the others. The hairs of the medinn 
portion of the ridge are separated into 
two groups bv a narrow, median, nalied 
strip. The vent is surrounded hy a cir- 
clet of ten short hairs. All the hairs of 
the last four segments are longer and 
stouter than those preceding ; and those 
of the dorsal surfaces of these segments 
are likewise more nmiierous. The dor- 
sal arches of the last two abdominal 
rings are broken into four prominent 
tubercles, which are sometimes slightK' 
blackened, and bear especially strong 
spinous hairs. 

The eyes are represented by a small 
cluster of a varying number of pigment 
specks, situated at less than the length 
of the antenna above its base. 

The antennae are three- jointed, verv 
short, not twice as long as wide, the 
length of the basal joint being just about 
its width. The cylindrical process of 
the penultimate joint is segmented off, 
forming an apparent accessory article 
beside the terminal one. The clv- 
peus is about as long as the labrum ; 
and upon the middle of the upper sm- 
face of tlie latter are four long hairs, 
arranged transversely ; and at the infe- 
rior edge of the posterior surface are 
eight strong hooks or spines, pro- 
jecting inwards and backwards. The 
maxillary palpi are strong and thick, 
the two basal joints being broader than 
long, the third about as long as wide, 
and the fourth ovate. The tip of the 
third joint extends scarcely bevond the 
c-nd of the blade of the maxilla. The 
latter is not longer than broad, and "is 
armed with about ten stout, blunt spines 
:it its inner margin. 



The general form of the mandibles 
(tig. 6B), seen from above, is triangu- 
lar, the length licing scarcely greater 
than tlie width at their base. The tip, 
seen from beneath, is obtuse and more 
or less conspicuously emarginate, often 
decidedly lobed, in which case the lobes 
are equal. It is never tritid, and never 
acute. Occasionally this bilobate char- 
acter of tiie mandibles is indicated bv a 
longitudinal gioove, which scarcely ren- 
ders the tip emarginate. 

The anal segment of this lar\ a is used 
as a proleg, the grub looping along on a 
smooth surface after the mannei' (jf a 
phalacnid larva. 

Pupa. The pupa may be distin- 
guished b> did'crences in the armature 
of the posterior segments of the abdo- 
men, especially the last (fig. 6A). This 
terminates in a pair of brown, chitinous 
hooks, which cLU've ilorsally, instead of 
inwards as in Colaspis^ each being fur- 
nisliei! \\ith a strong, erect tooth or 
spine arising from the upper side oi the 
l)ase. From the middle of the concave 
margin of each hook springs a long- 
slender hair. The spines in front of 
these anal hooks project directly back- 
wards. This pupa is further distin- 
guished from that of Colaspis by the 
absence of spines upon the anterior infe- 
rior angle of the tibio-femoral articula- 
tion of the first and second pairs of legs. 

T^ife-Hi.'itorv. 

Last April the adult beetles were 
found not uncommonly in strawberry 
tields in southern Illinois, having evi- 
denth lately emerged from their winter 



128 



PSYCHE. 



[January — Fcbruun.- 1SS4. 



quarters ; but the most careful search of 
fields infested by root-worms yielded no 
Paria larvae. On i8 May, the ailults 
were again obtained in considerable 
numbers, bv s\\ee]5inCT the foliage of 
strawberries; and on i :; June a few were 
seen in the ground about tlie roots of 
tlie plants. On 20 Juh , larvae and jni- 
pae of this species were found among the 
strawberry roots, adults also c)ccurring 
on the foliage ; and on 26 Julv all stages 
were sent lue from I^ansing, Alichigan. 

From I to 10 August, larvae, pupae 
and imagos were collected in southern Il- 
linois. On II August, the larvae and 
pupae were noticeably less common than 
before. Init the imagos were no^v• more 
abundant on the leaves, and several were 
taken from cavities in the eartJK Some 
larvae and pupae taken from the ground 
on I August, were kept in earth (after 
carefid studv of the living specimens for 
subsequent identification) initil thev 
transformed, one beetle emerging on i i 
August. 

On 24 August, the earth was ex- 
amined and thrte more adults were 
found. These were the last immature 
examples seen, onl\ scattering adults 
occurring in our collections during Sep- 
tember. October, and November. On 
8 December thev were taken in abun- 
dance under leaves and rubbish on tlie 
giound. iiibernating in the strawberrv 
fields. 

Evidently, here we get no glimjjse of 
a second brood, either early or late. Init 
find the beetles wintering as mature in- 
sects. |3robably laying their eggs in the 
ground in June, the adults appearing 
again late in Jnh and in August. 



ScEi.onoxiw PUBEscE.vs Mels. 
(PI. I. fig. 2.) 

The larva anil pupa of this species 
have hitherto remained unknown. 

Description. 

Larva. The description of the larva 
of Paria aferrima, given above, will 
answer for this species also, point bv 
point, with the exception of characters 
drawn from the mandibles (fig. 5C). 
The tips of these are usually entire, and 
rather obtuse, although rarelv irregular- 
Iv lobed. or trifid, the central lobe being 
then much the most prominent. The 
inner edge of the mandible is excavated 
on the distal third, like that of Paria. 

Pupa. (PI. I, fig. 3.) The pupa 
of this species is indistinguishable from 
that of Paria, except by the tact that the 
terminal hooks of tlie abdomen (fig. 5 
A) are smaller, more slender, destitute 
of the basal spine and of the hair spring- 
ing from the conve.K margin. 

Life-Hi.<torv. 

Mv first specimens of the larva of this 
species were obtained in August 18S2. 
two half-grown individuals and one 
adult beetle occurring in a small collec- 
tion of insects made at that time in 
southern Illinois. On i i September, 
large and small larvae were found de- 
vouring strawberrv roots, and a single 
adult was obtained bv sweeping in the 
field. On 9 November, full-grown lar- 
vae were abundant, all having gone into 
winter quarters in oxal ca\ ities in the 
earth. Thev occurred at various depths. 
from 2.^ lo 10 cm., and often at con- 



);iiuiarv — Ffliruurv 1SS4, j 



J'SrCHE. 



V1\S 



siderable distances from the plants on 
^\ liich they had been feeding. 

Many hnndreds of these larvae were 
nneartiied in November, but not a pupa 
was found, nor a single adult. Two of 
the latter were obtained, however, in 
strawberry fields, in December, showing 
that a sprinkling of them hibernate as 
imagos. That it is only a sprinkling 
was clear, not only from the great mmi- 
liers of matine larvae of this species in 
the ground at the time, but likewise 
from the fact that adults of Paria aier- 
rima were then collected by the linn- 
ilred, although the strawberry roots had 
been much less seriously attacked by that 
species than lj\ Scclodoiita. Earh' in 
the following ^\pril the larvae were still 
secure in their subterranean retreats, no 
pupae vet appearing. On i6 .\|)iil. 
two adults were taken, but these were 
the only ones captured during several 
tiavs of careful and active field work. 

A number of hibernating larvae were 
placed in boxes of earth at this time, for 
the purpose of determining the period 
of their transf )rmations. On 9 May 
they were found still in their winter 
condition, but on 20 May pupation was 
well imder way ; and about half those 
in the held were also now in the pupa 
stage. A thorough search yielded no 
adults, and no young larvae. 

On 7 June, a single adult emerged 
from those under observation, and the 
next day three more appeared. The 
day following, the earth was examined 
carefull}', and fifteen adults were found, 
all but two still in their cells. With 
these were three larvae (one of which 
was dead) and a single pupa. On 15 



Jime, man_y adults were found in the 
ground, in the fields, with lar\ae and 
pupae, but no adults could be got by 
sweeping the strawberry vines, and 
carefid search of previously infested 
fields, made late in Jnl\' and earh' in 
August, yielded but a single imago ot 
this species. 

Adults emerging in the breeding cages 
were observed to feed freely upon the 
leaves of the strawberry, making small, 
round holes though the leaf, of about 
the diameter of their own bodies. 

The above data enable irs to say defin- 
itely that this insect is single-brooded, 
like its congeners; that it hibernates as 
a fidl-grown larva, in oval cells in the 
earth, a few beetles of the preceding- 
brood likewise sometimes surviving the 
winter : that tlu change to pupa occurs 
in May ; and that the adults appear above 
ground in Jinie. In July, doubtless, 
the eggs are laid, probalilv in the groimd, 
the young lar\ae attacking the roots ol 
the strawberr\ in that month and in 
August. 

Comparison of Life- Histories. 

It will now be i;;teresting and profit- 
able to bring together, side by side, the 
life- histories of these three companion 
species. 

We have, in these root-\\orms, three 
related species, attacking the same part 
of the same plant in precisely the same 
way. at the same stage in their develop- 
ment ; and strictly dependent upon this 
plant (as far as is known) for their con- 
tinued existence. They are, moreover, 
all native to the region in which they 
now occur, and have probably ted upon 



l.JU 



PSVLHE. 



[January — February 1KS4. 



the wilil stia\vben\- from time iiiiiiic- 
moiial. 

One would say that here were all the 
conditions of a most determined sting;gle 
for existence, in which one or more ot 
these species must succumb. It is in- 
deed interesting to see how the issue 
is evaded, and an adjustment reached by 
which competition is reduced to a mini- 
mum. The Colaspis larva makes the 
earliest attack upon the plant, beginninu; 
its work upon the root certainly as early 
as the first of ISIay (half-grown indi- 
\ icUials having been taken on the I5tli). 
and liiiishing in June, all being of full 
size and preparing to pupate bv tiie end 
of that month. Next comes Paria. in 
Julv and August, neither extreme of 
its period being exactly defined by our 
observations : and finally comes Scelo. 
doiita^ adidts of which were copulating 
on I July, young larv;ie occurring 7 Au- 
gust. As far as now known, tiie Scelo- 
doiita larva is left in undisturbed pos- 
session during the remainder of the 
year: although there is a lireak in our 
observations for October. Certainh by 
November il lias completed its work, 
and retired, full-grown, and rea<lv to 
transform, into its subterranean cell. 

It seems clear, furthermore, that this 
curious succession of periods i.s related 



to a difference of habit with respect to 
hibernation. Undoubtedly Scelodonta 
winters as a larva, and Paria as an 
adult-. As Colaspis larvae were only 
half-grown on 15 May. they \ery proba" 
blv hatched from the egg that spring; 
and as the adult Colaspis emerged about 
two months before the new brood of 
Paria. it seems hardly possible that 
both could have deyelojjed from eggs 
laid that spring ; but it is much more 
likely that Calaspis hibernates in the 
egg. On this h\ ]5othesis. we shall liave 
the eggs of Colaspis deposited in au- 
tumn, those of 7'aria in spring, and 
those of Scelodonta in midMunmer. the 
first species hibernating in the egg. tiie 
second as an adult, and the third as 
full-grown larva. \\ ith the necessary re- 
sult that their attacks upon their common 
food plant are deli\ered successively. 

The immense advantage deri\ed from 
this arrangement is evident, when we 
reflect that by this means as many of 
rafii of the species are fed upon the sur- 
plus structures and supernumerary in- 
dividuals of the strawberry (that plant 
being a continuous grower), as it would 
be possible to maintain of all three if 
they came into simultaneous competi- 
lion. 



COLLECTION AM) I'KLSKRNW TION OF DIPTERA. 



V.\ SAMl'KI. \\ l:\l)i:i,l, WII.I.ISTON. NKW IIAV: 



I ONN. 



l-'rom tle;ulv purchased experience I 
have learned tiie necessity of care in 
the collection and preservation of into- 
mological specimens, and it ma\ be 



that a tew iiinls will lie ot ser\ ice to 
llie collectors of diptera and similar 
insects. 

For collecting 1 use a c\ auide-bottle. 



January— Feliriiarv 1S84. ' 



PS}-CNE. 



i;u 



^\•llich, altliough objected to by Euio- 
])eaii dipterologists, I liave found the best 
and most convenient. lUit I tlo not 
mean an ordinary cyanide-bottle, for 
specimens collected in such are worth- 
less for scientific or otiier purposes. I 
select several two ounce [60 c. c], wide- 
mouthed bottles of the same form, and 
carefidly line the bottom and >ides with a 
good quality of blotting-paper. Good, 
firm corks are selected, which are inter- 
changeable in the difierent bottles: in 
one of these corks a small hole is made, 
in which it is better to fit a small metal- 
lic ferule; a strip of blotting-paper is 
then coiled witiiin this cavitv, and it is 
over this that a few drops of a solution 
of cyanide of ])otash is poured. It is 
useless to colL-ct flies in a iiare bottle ; 
the insects soon exliale miMsture suf- 
ficient to ruin them. The blotting- 
paper prevents tliis. and the cork can 
readily be removed from one bottle and 
put into another when a sufficient cpian- 
tity of flies is collected. Moisture of 
a/iv kind iii/nrcs /i/is. Some flies, 
such as the hairy honihvliidae, .should 
always be pinned when caught. For 
this purpose a small, tight, pith-lined 
box may be carrieil in the pocket, 
together with a via! of benzine to kill 
the flies. 

In the earlier part of the season man\ 
rare specimens of diptera uKn' be oli- 
tained 1)\ beating. P"or this puipose a 
I emplo\ rather heavier net- wire, to 
which a pointed net of cheese-cloth is 
attached. On such occasions it is neces- 
sary to carry with one a larger bottle 
witli a little cotton-wool in the bottom. 



and a \ial of chloroform in the pocket. 
Hy tlu-usting the end of the net. with its 
contents, for a few seconds into the 
chloroform bottle, one can then remove 
tlie specimens undistmbed. \'ery mi- 
nute flies it is e\pe<Hent to preserxe 
alive in small Itottles filled with paper 
clippings and through the cork of 
which a small glass tube is thrust 
nearly to the bottom. For a collecting 
net, after man\- experiments and fail- 
ures. 1 have found most serviceable a 
simple, rather light, brass wire, soldered 
together to form a ring about 2S cm. in 
diameter and firmly attached to a light 
handle about one metre long. The net 
is made of ver\- coarse bobbinet lace, 
the most serviceatile and. in the end. 
cheapest material. The net should be 
I'eadih handled with one hand. 

For the collection of diptera a few- 
hints liere will suflice. The best sea- 
son in New England is June, yet speci- 
mens may lie collected every month 
\\\ the year. In May and the early part 
of June, beating will give excellent 
results. A little later, patches of black- 
berry {Riilti/s). wild cherry (Priuiiis), 
dogwood ( Conn/s), Canada thistle 
(Cirsiniii). or other melliferous blos- 
soms, will art'ord desirable specimens. 
It is better to let specimens come to the 
collector than to go hastily about look- 
ing for them. I ha\e spent six hours 
about a patch of Coriiiis paniculata 
not ten metres in diameter, and been 
amply repaid. But few specimens are 
found in shady woods ; those few are 
to be sought for there. The favorite 
ijlace for tahaiiidac. as indeed for most 



13-> 



PSrCHE. 



[ Januan.- — Februan- 1SS4. 



flies, is on the bouler of woods, open 
gl.ides, meadow lantls, etc. 

Specimens should not he allowed to 
remain over night unpinned. The 
huge specimens may be pinned through 
the thorax, preferably with japanned ' 
iron pins, Thev should be placed on 
the pin only low enough so tliat the 
head may be grasped with the thumb 
and forefinger without danger to the 
specimen. The -Mings should never 
be spread. Spreading not only renders 
the specimens more difficult to stutlv, 
but it spoils the natural appearance of 
the insects, and is a positive injury to 
them for the cabinet. All tliat is 
necessary is to pusli aside the wings so 
that they will not conceal the abdomen. 
Minute specimens should be pinned 
with fine iron wire from the imderside, 
and then pinned upon small strips of 
thin cork, the uppar surface of whicii 



has been covered with white paper, and 
through the other end of which a pin 
is thrust. Small specimens should 
never be glued to bits of card-board, 
as is commonlv done with coleoptera. 
Only one specimen should be placed 
on the piece of cork. 

The greatest enemy to dipterological 
collections is dust : insects can be 
guarded again.st, but it is difficult to 
exclude dust, unless tight cases arc 
used. Dampness and mildew do often 
much mischief. 

A good dipterological specimen must 
be unruhlicd, unmoistened, not dusty 
nor greasv, and witli tlie wings un- 
spread. It is quite as easy to collect 
good specimens as poor ones and much 
more satisfactory. 

[For other articles on the collection and 
preservation of diptera. see Rec. 157. -},},$, 
3396- 3404 and 3405.] 



MUSKIM ^PESTS OK SERVICE TO THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST. — Trogoderma tarsale 
has heretofore been viewed with un- 
mixed hatred by entomologists, but for 
the last few davs I have been showering 
blessings on the heads of a particular 
colony which had established itself in a 
pill-box containing some hundreds of 
specimens of a pteromalid reared from 
the cocoons of Apanteles aletiae Rilev. 
It is true that nothing but fraginents of 
the pteromalid remained after the Tro- 
goderma liad been at work for a year 
or more, but among these fragments 



I have found a number which illus- 
trate points in the external anatomy 
better than the most careful dissections. 
Certain points concerning tlie form and 
structure of the metanotum — always 
hard to study in the complete insect, antl 
very difficult to dissect out, owing to a 
disagreeable tendency to break through 
the middle as readily as at a suture — 
are admirably exhibited by these acci- 
dental anatomical preparations. Tridy 
it is an ill wind that blows no good, 

L. O. Ho-xard. 
Washinjtton. D. C. 25 Jan. 18S4. 



January — Febniarj' 1SS4.] 



PS re HE. 



i:i:5 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE. MASS.. JAX.-FEB.. 1SS4. 

Communications., exchangees and ediiors* copies 
should be addressed to Editors of Psyche. Cam. 
bridge^ Mass. Communications for puhlication in 
P5VCHE must be properly authenticated, and no anony- 
mous articles ivill be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
statements made in iluir ozvn communicatiojis. 

M'orks on subjects not related to entomology -ivill not 
be reviewed in Psyche. 

For rates of subscription and of advertising, see ad- 
rertising columns. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE EXTOMOLOGIC.\L CLVB. 
( Continued from p- iib.J 

11 May 1SS3. — The 93rd meeting of the 
Club was held at 19 Brattle Square, Cam- 
bridge, II Mav 1SS3. In the absence of the 
President, Mr. S. H. Scudder was chosen 
Chairman. Three members were present. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read 
and approved. The additions to the library 
of the Club were announced by the Secretary. 

Mr. R. Hayward exhibited a specimen of 
C/i/aeniiis tomentosus taken at Milton, Mass.. 
which varied strikingly from the common 
form of this in.sect. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder showed a collection of 
colored figures of insects drawn by Major J. 
E. LeConte. These figures were a continua- 
tion of the collection which was exhibited at 
the last meeting. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder described the habits of 
-Myrmeco/'/iila and gave a history of speci- 
mens previously mentioned as from America. 
Living specimens of young J/, pergandi. 
taken among ants under bark, at Washing- 
ton. D. C., were shown. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder called attention to the 
eleventh part of \V. H. Edwards" -Butterflies 



of North America" and showed specimens of 
eggs and larvae of T^ctnonias itais. 

Mr. G. Dimmock described a mode of 
mounting eggs of insects, or other small ob- 
iects. for the collection, in such a way that 
thev may be examined easily with the micro- 
scope. The eggs or other objects are mount- 
ed in rings of cork between two thin cover- 
glasses such as are used for microscope slides. 
Thus mounted, and sealed with black lac or 
other means, the specimens can be pinned in 
the collection with safety and neatness. 
Specimens can be mounted in Canada balsam 
in these cork rings, in the way described by 
Cameron ( Proc. nat. hist. soc. Glasgow, iSSi- 
iSS:;, v. 5. pt. I. p. 4-7'. who used, however, 
paper in place of cork. Cork is lighter than 
paper, is more convenient for pinning, and 
can be cut easily into rings of different sizes 
with a cork-borer such as is used in chemical 
laboratories. If circular cover-glasses are 
u.sed the cells can be sealed neatly on a turn- 
table for preparing microscope slides. Speci- 
mens illustrating several styles of mounting 
were shown. 

Mr. A. F. Foerste communicated (through 
the Secretarv) a note upon the fluid thrown 
out bv Afiacus luna just after it emerges from 
the chrvsalis. 



BIOLtKSlCAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. 

14 Dec. 1SS3. — . . . .\ paper by Dr. C : V. 
Riiev on -The use of napthaline [sic] in 
medicine and as an insecticide," was read for 
Dr. Riley, in his absence, by Dr. W : S. Bar- 
nard. It was in the main abstracted from 
Dr. Ernst Fischer's --Das naphtalin in der 
heilkunde und in der landwirthschaft .... 
1SS3." Naphthalin [Ck.Hj] was first made in 
iSoS. Nothing was said by Dr. Riley of its 
use in medicine. Its use as a substitute for 
camphor, for killing museum pests, was sug- 
gested in 1S40. Placed in insect boxes, it kills 
acari and psoci, but not other museum pests. 
Experiments were made with it against Phyl- 
loxera -citifoliae in 1S72. Fischer began ex- 



i:u 



PS veil E. 



[January — February' 1SS4. 



periuientirig with it in iSSi. It is a better in- 
secticide and cheaper in its crude form than 
when pure, but is more injurious to plants in 
that form. It has been applied to grape vines 
bv pouring a kilogram of it in a trench froin 
15 to 20 cm. deep near the stock of the vine, 
and then filling the trench with earth. 

Dr. T: Taylor said that he had recom- 
mended the use of naphthalin for killing 
phylloxera about ten years ago. and promised 
to read a paper on the subject at the next 
meeting of the society. He had not placed 
the substance in the ground. 

Dr. W . S. Barnard said that naphthalin 
might prove valuable as an insecticide, if 
made cheap enough and so applied as not 
to injure the plants. He had devised a 
method and apparatus by which those insect- 
icides which are dangerous to plants, such 
as kerosene, cyanide of potassium [KCN], 
and bisulphide of carbon [CS^], might be 
used so as to be safe for the plants and de- 
structive to insects in the ground. These 
substances have usually been applied on the 
surface of the ground or buried shallowly. 
either among the roots or above them, but 
when brought in contact with the roots, in 
strength, they kill them. When applied in 
volatile form they are not so injurious. 
Naphthalin and kerosene especially should 
be placed deep below the roots. The appar- 
atus, which Dr. Barnard names a '-netlier- 
insertor." consists of a tube which is made 
to fit closely around a central solid shaft 
somewhat longer than the tube and pointed 
at its lower end. The tube may have cm 
internal diameter of 15 nin). and the shall 
a diameter of u mm. The upper end of the 
tube expands like a bowl. The upper por- 
tion of the shaft is weighted with a heavy 
ball so disposed that the shaft can be grasped 
above the ball. By withdrawing this shaft 
partially from the tube and then returning 
it with force, as the lower end of the tube 
rests on the ground, both tube and shaft can 
be driven into the ground to an\' required 
deptti. The sliat'l is then wliolh withdrawn 



and the insecticide poured into the tube, by 
\vhich means it is placed beneath the roots 
witliout coming in contact with them. The 
tube is then withdrawn, and the hole made 
bv it filled with earth. The insecticide, being 
volatile, rises through the ground and be- 
comes diffused. With this method of appli- 
cation kerosene is probably superior to naph- 
thalin. 

28 Dec. 1883 —Dr. T : Taylor read a pa- 
per "On naphthaline [sic], itseflectson seeds, 
plants, insects and other animals," describing 
the results of experiments made by him in 
1872 and since. He found that its vapor pro- 
duced asphyxia in various degrees in different 
animals. Winged /'/^i'//o.vc;-« i>iti/oliae viere 
killed almost instantly. Aphides succumbed 
readily when confined with the vapor. Co- 
leoptera resisted its effects several days. 
Imagos of Dorypliora decemlitteata died in 
ten days, but recovered if sooner brought 
into fresh air. Females of Calliphora r>omi- 
torid aborted their eggs and then recovered. 
Flies, bees and wasps were anaesthetized, 
but recovered if soon brought into fresh air. 
Ants and termites were killed by the vapor, 
or were driven away if free to depart. Crick- 
ets, roaches, locusts and other insects were 
driven away. Rats and mice were driven 
. away, and frogs were i-endered torpid. Earth 
worms were driven out of the ground and 
killed by placing naphthalin in the bottom 
of a flower-pot where the worms occurred. 
Insects infesting seeds were killed by enclos- 
ing the seeds in jars with naphthalin. Seeds 
enclosed with naphthalin for two years after- 
wards germinated, though the odor of the 
naphthalin was as strong at the end of that 
time as at the beginning. Three tender 
plants were kept in an atmosphere of naph- 
tlialin vapor for thirty-six hours causing a 
single leaf on two plants to wilt, and not 
affecting the third plant. One hour was 
sufiicient to kill the insects on the plants. 
Naphthalin acts more powcrfulh" when moist- 
ened. 



Junuarv — Febriinrv 1SS4. 



PS re HE. 



[3354-336::] 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

AitthoKS and societies are requested to fortvard their ^vorks to the editors as soon as 
published. The date of publication, given in brackets [] , marks the time at ivhich the 
ivork ivas received, unless an earlier date of publication is known to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherivise stated each record is made directlv from the trork that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common given name, as: A: Augustus: B: Ben- 
iamin: C: Charles: D: David: E: Edward: F: Frederic: G: George: H: Henrv: 
I: Isaac: J: John: K: Karl: L: Louis: M: Mark; N: Nicholas: O: Otto: P: Peter: R: 
Richard: S: Samuel: T: Thomas: /('; William. The initials at the end of each record, or 
note, arc those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



Bassett. Homer Franklin. To American 
naturalists. VVaterbury, Conn., \_Autkor^, 
I Mch. 1S77. 2 p., 26 X 21. 

Request for contributions of speriinens of o;nlIs, direc- 
tions for collecting and transpoitinj^ gulls, information 
about galls. B: P. .If. (.5.554) 

Bassett, Homer Franklin. Descriptions of 
&e\'eral new species of cynifs. and a new 
species oi diastrofhus. (Pi'oc. entom. soc. 
Philad., Dec. 1S64, v. 3. p. 679-691.) 

Describes galls and iniasrosof cy?:/)^.? queram-formosa, 
c. q.-vetitricosa, c. q.-ilicifoliae, c. q.-majalis, c. q..scitti. 
la, c. q.-similis, c. q.-hiria, and diastrophus potetitillae, 
all new species, and galls of c. q .-frondosa and c. q.- 
decidlta, both new species, of which the iniagos are un- 
known ; describes images of r. q..biitatits and<". q.-tithcr, 
and includes description by C : R. Osteu Sacken of 
imago off. q..slrolu'tana; gives biological notes on most 
of these species; c. q.-sittg-ularis :=/-. q..nitbitif>e}inis. 

B: P. iV. (,,355) 

[Bassett. Homer Franklin.] List of North 
American cvnipidae. (Amer. nat.. Mch. 
[24 Feb.] 1S82. V. 16. p. 246.) (Riley. C : 
V. Entomology . . . [Mch. 1S82]. p. 246.) 
Rev.. b_v H. 'F. Bassett, entitled "Ar- 
rangement of N. A. cvnipidae by Dr. 
Mavr." (op. cit.. Apr. [22 Mch.] 1882. p. 
3^9-330- 

List of North American cynipidae as genetically ar- 
ranged by Dr. G. L. Mayr, <if Vienna; comprises 15 
genera (including i subgenus) and 52 species, 

B: P. Af. (3356) 

Bassett, Homer Franklin. New species of 
cynipidae. (Can. entom.. Mch. iSSi. v. i;;. 
P- 5I-.^7•) 

Rev., [bv C: V. Riley], entitled •■Galls 
and gall-insects." (Amer. nat.. May [16 
Apr.] 1S81. y. 1^. p. 402-403.) (RiLEV. C: 
V. Entomology . . . [May iS8i]. p. 402- 
403-) 
Descriptions ot" ^alls and imagos nf cynips guei-cus- 

ivilifomica, r. q.-ag^rifoHae, c, q,~si>tto7'iii and c. q.. 

iiuhija, all new <;pecie^. B: P. AT. {'W^l) 



Brandt. Eduard K. Recherches anatnmiques 
et morphologiques sur le systeme nerveux 
des insectes hv me nop teres, h vmenoptera. 
Comptes rend us de Pacad. des sci. de 
France. iS Sep. 1S76. v. S3, p. 613-616.) 

Separate. [Paris. 1876.] 4 p., 28. 5 X 1;^, 
t 19 X 12.7. 

Eng". transl.. entitled. '"Anatoniical and 
morphological researches on the nervous 
system of hvmenopterous insects." (An- 
nals and mag. nat. hist.. Dec. 1876, s. 4, v. 
iS. p. 504-506.) [Psyche. Rec, no. S74.] 

Studv relating; to 7S species in the adult stage and 22 
larvae. Tlie metaninrphoses have hecn followed in 15 
species. Descrihes llie characters nf the nervous system 
in the ad\dt and the hirvae and proves that the nieta- 
mnrphosis is accompanied bv a coalescence of ganglia. 

H. A. R. (335S) 

See nho the analysis in P-JV<:nE, Rec, no. S74. 

C[laypole] E[ :] W[aller]. The Colorado 
beetle. (Can. entom.. Mav iSSi. v. i^. p. 

Extract troni Bristol [Eng.] iitereuiy,, noting a tine 
of £5 imposed, in England, f"r having- a living Colorado 
beetle [dory^hora defe)n!inevta\. G: D. (3359) 

Collier, P: Report of the chemist. (Ann. 

rept. [U. S.] commiss. agric, for 187S, [22 

Nov.^] 1S79- P- 95-15^0 

Contains statements (p. g6, 97) that analvses had been 
made of the white covering of the eggs of corydahis 
rornutKH, of so-called bondiic acid, and of London pur- 
ple as a substitute for Puris gTeen as an insecticide; (p. 
I ^4, 144) statements of results of these analvses. 

B: P. M. (3360) 

Extraordinary cure. ', Amer. museum . . . 
M. Carev. Aug. 1787. v. 2. no. 2. p. 17S- 

'79-) , 

Issue of 42 worms Irnnj the ulcerated wounds of a 
linv wlio had been iinjinled on a huv fork. 

B: P. M. (3361 ) 

Faxn. A. 15. On the diseases of lepidopte- 
rous larvae. (Entomologist. April 1882. 
"■■■ ^S- P- 73-7.i-) 

Notes from Pasteur, about the diseases called "peh- 
rine" und "flaclierie." G: D. (3,^1^2) 



!•'"' [.S363-337S] 



PSYCHE. 



[January — February iS^*. 



Fauvel. Albeit. Sub jiiclicc! Lcttie ii M. 
J. 1!. (jebin. (Fauvel, A. Aiinuaiie en- 
toiiiologiqiie, iSSo, p. 7.^-S.v) 

Extract, entitled, •Z\iiii ka])itel der varie- 
tatenlabrikation." (Er.toni. iiacbricliten, 
I July 18S0, jalirg. 6, p. 145-1^6.) [Rec, 
2022.] 

Criticizes the general naniin<i nf varieties of insects. 

H: D. C3363) 

Fitch, E : A. External para.sites of spider.s. 

(Entomologist, Aug. 1SS2, v. i,, p. 169-17V 

I fig-) 

Figures ^nd describes /o/y.^/Zr/wr/rt titherosa in several 
stages; coinpiliition from other :uitln»rs on tlie subject. 

G: D. (3364) 

Fitch, E : A, Fixity of tenure by a moth. 
(Entomologist, April 18S2, v. 15, p. 91.) 

Notes a iaeuiocavipa gothica that occupied tlie same 
position on a window-frame for three days. 

G: D. (3365) 

Fowler, \V. W. Water-beetles guided to 
water by sight, and not by other senses. 
(Entomologist, Dec. 1SS3, v. 16, p. 2S6.) 
Water-beetles mistake glass for water. G: D. (3366) 

French, G: Hazen. A new variety of catc- 
cala. (Papilio, Dec. 1881, v. i, p. 218-219.) 
Describes as new cjtocata roblnsnnti var. curvaia. 

H-- E. (3367) 

Frey, Ileinrich. Jacob Boll, ein schweizer"- 
scher naturforsclier. (Mitth. d. schweiz. 
entom. gesells., 18S0. bd. 6, p. 47-51.) 
Obituary notice of Jacob Boll, h. 29 May 1S2S, in can- 
ton Aargau, Switzerland ; d. 29 Sep. 1S80, in Wilbarger 
CO., Texas. S: //. (336S) 

Frost, J. Water-beetles and ligbt reflected 
by glass. (Entomologist. Dec. 1SS3. v. 16, 
p. 286.) 

Water-beetles mistake glass for water. Water-beetles 
possibly carry fisli-spawn from one pond to another, 
thus stocking new ponds. (,'; /). {^^6q) 

Gardner, J. Starkie. Moths attracted by fall- 
ing water. (Nature, 9 March 18S2, v. 2v 
p. 436, col. I, 6 cin.) (Entomologist. Apr. 
18S2, V. 15, p. 96.) 

Notice, [by C: V. Riley], with same 
title. (Amer. nat., Oct. [28 Sep.] 18S2, v. 
16, p. S26.) (Riley, C: V. Entomology 
. . . [Oct. 1882], p. 826.) 

Moths seen flying into the great hor.sc-shoe falls near 
I-j6savatn. in Iceland, attracted by the gleaming of the 
water as by an artificial light. G: /). (^^70) 

Gibbs, T.. Jr. Hermaphrodite Ivcaeiia alcxis. 
(Entomologist. April 18S2, v. 15, p. 89.) 
Record of capliux- of a hermaphrodite sijecimen of 

tyraenii alcxis. 6; D. (3371) 



Giraud, Joseph Eticnne and Alexandre 
Laboiilb^ue. Liste d'eclosions d'insectes 
obserxees )xir Ic Dr. Joseph-Etienne Gir- 
aud, member honoraire. Receiiillie et an- 
notee par M. le Dr. Alexandre Laboulbene. 
(Annal. soc. entom. France. 1877, 'o April 
1878, s. 5, v. 7. p. 397-436.) 

List of 7SS hymenoptera and i coleopteron obser- 
ved by Giraud to be parasites upon insects, with state- 
ment of the names of the respective insects from 
wiiich each was ol)tained. B:P.M. (3372) 

Gray, Asa. How flowers are fertilized. 
(Amer. agriculturist, 1876, v. 35 : Jan., p. 
22; Feb., p. 62; Apr., p. 142-143: iClav, p. 
1S2; June, p. 222; Julv, p. 262; Aug., p. 
303; Nov., p. 3S2-383 ;" 1877, v. 36 Tjan.. 
p. 22-23; I^eb.. p. 62-63; M^T-- P- 10- ; Mav. 
p. 1S2. 

_ -'V series of popular articles on cross and self-fertiliza- 
tion in (lowering plants, including the part played by 
insects in effecting the former. IK; TV (3373) 

[Gray, Asa.] Insectivorous plants, i. (Na- 
tion [N. Y.], 2 Apr. 1874, V, 18, p. 216-217.) 
Correction, {of. cit.. 6 Jan. 1876, v. 22. 
p. 12, note.) 

A historical notice of the insectivorous habits of dio- 
nnen. H'; T. (3374) 

[Gray, Asa.] Insectivorous plants, 2. Na- 
tion [N. Y.], 9 Apr. 1874, V. 18, p. 232-234.) 
A historical notice of the insectivorous habits of dro- 
.fern and sayrafttiia. W: T. (3375) 

Gray, Asa. Insects and plant fertilization. 
uAmer. agriculturist, 1866. v. 25: Mav. p. 
1S6-187: July, p. 257-258; Aug., p. 290-292; 
Sept., p. 324-325: Oct., p. 362; Nov., p. 
400; Dec, p. 437.) 

Discusses the pollination of a number of flowering 
plants, and the part plaved in it bv insects. 

»'■ 7'-(337''>) 

Haase, Erich. D;is respirationssystem der 

-svmphylen und chilopodcn. (Zool. anzei- 

ger, 8 Jan. 1883, jahrg. 6. p. 15-17.) 

.-Viialomical investigations into the respiratory system 

of symphyla and rhilof'odtt. G: 2). (3377) 

Hagen, Hermann August. A mystery in re- 
ference to pioiniha yuccusella. (Can. en- 
tom., July 1S80. V. 12. p. 12S-129.) 

Crit. rev., by C: V. Riley, entitled "Dr. 
Hagcn's inystery." (Can. entom., Dec. 
18S0, v. 12, "p. 263-264.) 

Crit. rev., [by C: V. Riley], entitled 
"A mystery in reference X^o fronitba viircii- 
sella." (Amer. entom.. Dec. 1S80. v. 3. n. 
s., v. I, p. 293. 16 cm.) 

Imagos of supposed tcffflinita YuccasfUa obtained 
from larvae not agreeing with Kiley's descriptions, and 
living in stems of yticcafilamentosa; these imagos have 
ma.\illary palpi like those of /. V'iccasella. [Later ac- 
knowledged to be imagos of (.rodo.Mts dfripfrnn, and not 
to have such maxillary palpi. I B: P..)/. ((378) 



l;iTiuniv — Fel?rn;irv 1SS4.] 



psrciiE. 



L3379-3394] I'''' 



Harding, Martin J. Abnormities in Initter- 
tlies. (Entomologist. Nov. iSS;. v. i6. p. 

-57--.SS-J 

Effect of the attacks of ichneumons and of deficiency 
of foiHi of larvae in producing" deformed buUerriies. 

Harding, Muilin J. \\'liite admir;il hiitterfly; 
curious abnormity. (Pract. nat.. Mav 1S83. 
V. I, p. 58, 5 cm.) 

A bred specimen of /{metiilis sibitfa destitute of tlie 
riglit liind wing. G.- /). (33S0) 

HayTvard, Roland. A note on acmueodeni 
cttltit. (Q^iurt. jomn. Bost. zool. soc. 
Oct. 1S83, \. 2. p. .i6.) 
Aumaeodcra rit/lii common <m flowers of hvpo.yys 

ererla. G: D'. (j.lSi) 

Hayward, Roland. Rare lepidoptera around 
Boston during tbe past summer. (Q^tart. 
journ. Bost. zool. soc. Oct. 1SS3, v. 2, p. 
56.) 

Notes on euptoUta ctandia ami pupilio cresphontes 
from eastern Massachusetts. G: IK (.v^Si) 

Hellins, J : On tbe coloining matter, &c., of 
cocoons of some of the silk-spinning lepi- 
doptera. (Eiitom. mo. mag. .April 1SS2. v. 
iS, p. 260-261.) 

Discusses the nature of certain substances discharged 
by silk-producing caterpillars trom their anus when 
spiiiiuug their cocoon and used bv them to line the co- 
coon, ■ G: D. UjSj) 

Hellins, J : Ichncttmouidae infesting larvae 
of gyrinus iiatafor. (Entom. mo. mag.. 
■Sept. iSSi, V. 18. p. 88-89.) 
Two species of henn'ttlt'!^, Vi pezomadnis and :\ ptfro. 

mains reared from pupae oi jryriniis natiitor. 

G: D. (33S4) 

Hellins, J : On the variable number of 
moults in larvae from tbe same batch of 
eggs. (Entom. mo- mag,, Sept. 1S81, v. 
1 8, p. 86.) 
Records larvae of orjryia nutiqita tliat molted three, 

four, and live times. "' G,- Z*. (J3S5) 

Hoffmeister, August W. [Notes on lepido- 
ptera.] (Can. entom., Sept. 1881. v. 15, 
p. 196.) 

Occurrence and food-plants of melHaea phatton and 
notes on a few otlier lepidoptera, observed at Fort 
Madison, Lee Co., Iowa, in iSSi. A. K. D. (33S6) 

Horn, G : H : [Remarks on the species of 
cicindela of the United States.] (Trans. 
Amer. entom. soc, 1S67, v. i; Record of 
the meetings, p. 2-3.) 

Variations in color and structure of species of r/V/,.:- 
dela; criteria of specific characters in this genus ; lar<re 
series needed for the study of the species. 

B: P. M. (33S7) 



Jaworow.ski, .\nton. Vorlaufige resultate 
ent\\ ickeUnigsgeschichtlicber und anato- 
mischer untersuchungen liber den eierstock 
bei cJtiroHomiis und einigen anderen insec- 
ten. (Zool. anzeiger, 11 Dec. 18S2, jahrg. 
5, p. 6.S3-657.) 

Development i^f the ovaries ni rhrrniioinits and conclu- 
sions based thereon. G: D. (33SS) 

Jenkyns, M. S. Lepidopterous larvae and 
yellow flowers. ( Entonuilogist. Jan. 1SS3, 
"v. 16, p. 23.) 

Partiality of larva of //,57/V?////.s' anai^i-ra and of tw> 
other lepidoptera IVir yellow flowers; cannibalism of 
larva of //. f7/-w;^(*r(7, G: .Z?. (33S9) 

Jenkyns, M. S. Vniiessn in/i'me. Entomo- 
logist. Jan. 1883, V. 16, p. 13-14.) 

Records variatimi in the colors of the pupae of 
~rtt/ivssn ur/i\-,7e iiud asks its causes. G: D. C3390) 

Jones. E. 11. .Vbnormal lar\a of mcUtnippe 
montaiiata. (Entomologist, June 18S3. v. 
16. p. 121. fig.) 

Notice, in [C : V. Riley's] ■■Rare mon- 
str^isities" (Amer. nat.. Nov. [19 Oct.] 
1883. V. 17, p. 1175). 

Figures and descriiicp :i larva of me/nnippcvtoiiianaia 
\vitli developed antennae of the imago. 

G./). (3391) 

Jones, E. II. Hermaphrodite orgvin piidi- 
binida. (Entomologist. June 1883. v. 16. 

P- l.^.v) 

A hermaplirodite orgyia piidibunda, with antennae 
and wings ol the male, and body of the female, deposit- 
ed infertile eggs. G: D. (3392) 

Jousset de Bellesme. — . Experimental re- 
searches on the phosphorescence of the 
glowworm. (Annals and mag. nat. hist., 
April 1880. s. 5. v. 5, p. 345-347.) 
Eng.tr. of— Jousset de Bellesme's "Recherchesexperi- 
mentalcs sur la phosphorescence du lampyre" (Comptes 
rcndus acad. sci. France, 16 Feb. iSSo, v, oo, p. 31S-331) 
[Rec.,3394J. G: D. (3393) 

Jonsset de Bellesme, — . Recherches ex- 
perimentales sur la phosphorescence du 
iampvre. (Comptes rendiis acad. sci. 
France, 16 Feb. iSSo, v. go, p. 31S-321.) 

iVbstract. (Rev. scientifique, 28 Feo. 
1880, an. 9. p. 835, 13 cm.) 

Eng. tr., entitled "Experimental re- 
searches on the phosphorescence of the 
glowworm." (Annals and mag. nat. hist., 
Apr. 18S0, s. 5, v. 5, p. 345-347.) 
The presence of oxygen is indispensable to the actioi 
of the luminous api>aratus of lampyris. Every agent 
which kills the cells immediately arreslsthe phosphores- 
cence. This appears to be due "to the production by the 
protoplasm under the influence of the will of a phospho- 
rescent substance, probablv hydrogen phosphate, 

H. A. R. (3,394) 



1?>« [3395-3405] 



PS re HE. 



( January— February 1SS4. 



Jousset de Bellesme, — . Sur une fonction 
de direction dans le vol des insectes. (Coni- 
ptos leiidiis aciid. sci. France, 8 Dec. 1879. 
V. 89. p. 9S0-9S3.) 

Review? ("Guide dii natural., an. 2. p. 

'--'3-") 

Extract. (Rev. seientifiqiic. 20 Dec. 1S79, 

an. 9, p. 597-598. 12 cm.) 

Dciscripticiii of the mode in which the different orders 
of insects ilirecL Hieir IliLfht; comparison with the mode 
oi directin*^: tiijjht in birds. It is not tlic winijs, but 
other parts of flic bodv, whicli displace the centre of 
aravity. G: D. (3.195) 

Mik, Josef. Ueber das priiparireii der dip- 
tercii [Rec, 2335]. 

Reprint. (Entoni. nachriclitcn, JuW iSSi, 
jahra;. 7, p. 189-206.) 

Notice, [by C: V. Riley], entitled "Pre- 
paration of diptera." (Atner. nat., [3] Dec. 
iSSi, V. 15, p. looS.) (Riley, C: V. En- 
tomology . . . [Dec. iSSi], p. lOoS.) 

Dutch' tr. with additions, by F. M. van 
der Wulp, entitled --OxerMiet prepareren 
van diptera. Naar het hoogdnitsch van 
Josef Mik. (Tijdschr. voor entom.j^ahrg. 
1881-1SS2. deel 2,. p. xci-cix. il.) 

B: P. M. (5.10) 

MoUer. G. Fr. Bidrag till kjinnedomen om 
parasitlifvet i gallapplen och dylika bild- 
ningar. (Entoiii. tidskr.. 1SS2, arg. •;. p. 
182-1S6.) 

Engl, tr., by B : P. Mann, entitled ■■Con- 
tribution to the knowledge of parasitic life 
in galLs." (Psyche, Sept.-Oct. [16 Nov.] 
18S3. V. 4. p. 89-91.) 
Lists of insects otlier than tlie jrall.makcrs raised 

from i»alls of several species of rynipidae, in Sweden. 

B: P. M. (3,i97) 

Osteu Sacken, C : Robert. Biological notes 

on diptera. Article 2nd. (Trans, amcr. 

entom. soc. Mch. 1S70. v. 3. p. 51-54.) 
Additions and correction in author's 

"Biological notes on diptera, article 3d" 

(0/. cit., Dec. 1S71), p. 347. 

Describes gall and imaofo of asphotldylia rmiheckiae- 
consplctlti n. sp., comparing tlieni with related species, 
and describes galls and larvae of the new species 
ccn'domyia sambuci-umbcllicolti, c. caryoe-nucicola^ c. 
titiaecitrina and c. mtercns-majalif:; caOimome advenaf 
parasitic on the asphondylia. B: P. Af. (339S) 

Osteu Sacken, C : Robert. Biological notes 
on diptera, article 3d. (Trans, amer. en- 
tom. soc, Dec. 1S71, V. 3, p. 345-347.) 
Describes imago, abode and transformations oi dip/o- 

sis rcsiuicola n. sp,, and gall of cecidomyia rerasi-Si-i-o- 

titia n. sp. ; seasons of uspjjofidy/ttt monacha; further 

note on reridomyia sambuciitmbetlicola. 

B: P. M. (,!.w) 



Osten Sacken, C : Robert. Biological notes 
on diptera. Galls on solidagn. (Trans, 
amer. entom. soc, Mch. 1S69, v. 2, p. 299- 
303-) 

En nine nit ion and synopsis of North American dipte- 
rous grnlls on solida^o; description of i^^ills ;md imiieos 
of asphondvlia monacha and cecidomyia auUtophila, 
both new species, and of jjall of trypeta poiHa^ all on 
.W/t/rt^fl, with biolo;j;ical notes; generic characters of 
asp/io7idy/ia. ^ JS: P. M. (3400) 

Osten Sacken, C : Robert. La^ioptera 
reared from u ^^wW 011 the <^olden-rod. 
(Proc. entoni. soc. Philad., Feb. 1S63. v. i. 
p. 36S-370.) 

Supplementary note, b_v author, entitled 

\^La$ioptera solidaginh and trypefa soli- 

daginisC\. {op. c//.. July 1863. v. 2, p. 77.) 

Description of fifalls of trypda solidag'itiis and [cury- 

plychia sa/i^ueaiia], and oT evidences of the presence 

of other insects in these ^nlls ; "does iasioptfta produce 

a call for itself?"; description of iniagns of /asioptera 

soiida^iiiis [reared front oralis of the e'lirvpiY^'hia]. 

}/: p. M. ino,) 

Riley, C : Valentine. Chinch bug notes. 
( Rept. [U.S.] commiss. agric, for iSSi 
and 18S2, 1SS2 [Jan. 1SS.3]. p. S7-S9.) 
(Riley, C: V. Report of the entomol- 
ogist . . . [i Dec] 1SS2, p. 87-S9 [27-29 1.) 

Verification of Cyrus Thomas* predictions in relation 
to tlie ravages of Wm'-v//.* Uucoptents in iSSi and 1SS2; 
extracts from correspondence reporting the abundance 
of this insect earlv in 1SS2; letter from J. G. Barlow 
on the weather and the rava,ges of the hlissus in Wash- 
ington county, Missouri, in 1SS2; irrigation, cremation 
and other means against these insects. 

B: P. M. (340 J) 

Riley, C; \'alentine. Gall-insects. (John- 
son's ne\<' universal cyclop.. 1876, v. 2 v. p. 
412-416. [16] fig.) 
Definition of term "gall-insects;" classification and 

habits of these insects, mentioning bv name and giving 

figures of typical species and the galls made by them. 

Dimorphism and met^lgenesis of cynips. 

B: P. Jf. (3403) 

[Riley, C; Valentine.] Preparation of dip- 
tera. (Amer. nat.. [3] Dec. 1881, v. 15. p. 
looS.) (Rii.EY, C: V. Entomology.-. 
[Dec i8Si], p. looS.) 

Notice of I. Mik's "Ueber das prapariren der diple- 
ren" (Verh.1i..k. zool.-bot. ges. \Vien.jahrg. i&So, bd. 
30, p. 35g-57S) (Entom. nachr., July iSSl, jahrg. 7, p. 
1S9-206) fliec, j.;,!.'^ and 351/.]. B: P. M. (3+04) 

VAN DER Wulp, F. >r. Over het prepare- 
ren van diptera. Naar het hoogduitsch van 
Josef Mik. (Tijdschr. voor entom.. jahrg. 
1S81-1S82, deel 2$, p. xci-cix. il.) 

Transl., with additi<ms, of Mik's "ITeber das prapa- 
riren der dipteren" (\'erh. \(..'\f.. /.ool.-bot. ges. Wien, 
jahrg. iSSo, hd. 30, p. 359-378) (Kntonj. nachrichten, 
July iSSi, jahrg. 7, p. 189-206) (Uec, 2,^35 and 3396]. 

i^■ If. ir. (3405) 



Jaininrv— Febrii:iry 1SS4. | 



PSYCHE. 



i;i9 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

Bulletin no. 3 of the Entomological divi- 
sion of the U. S. Department of agriculture 
was issued S Dec 1SS3, and may be obtained 
on application to the U. S. Commissioner 
of agriculture at Washington. 

The secret.-\rv of the Cambridge ento- 
mological club has just published, at his own 
expense, the minutes of the club's meetings 
held during 1SS3. A copy has been sent to 
every active member of the club. 

M. Theodore Goossens has announced 
a memoir to appear in the annals of the 
French entomological society on the eggs of 
lepidoptera. With M. Goossens' long experi- 
ence in rearing lepidopterous larvae this 
paper will be probably a valuable and inter- 
esting contribution to entomology. 

Mr. W. H.-vgue Harrington ha.s present- 
ed a list of 926 species of coleoptera taken 
about Ottawa. Canada, during the past six 
years, to the Ottawa field-naturalists' club. 
The list, when published, will contain about 
1050 species, there being some vet awaiting 
determination. 

Dr. H. a. II.\gen, of Cambridge, Mass.. 
is writing a monograph of the Odoiiata and 
is desirous of obtaining larvae and pup^e of 
these insects, and especially reared specimens 
with notes upon their earlier stages. 

Mr. Hexry Edw.nrds, who started and 
has since edited and published Papilio. has 
transferred that paper to Mr. Eugene M. 
Aaron, who requests that all communications 
and business pertaining to Pafilio be ad- 
dressed to him. Lock Box 2500. Philadelphia. 
Pa. 

Pkof. Berg describes in a late numero of 
Koiinos, how a spider, Uiafoiitia kochii. 
found in Uruguay, uses funnel-formed webs 
to catch tadpoles for food. In the American 
naturalist for November 1876, T, M. Peters 
relates the mode by which a species of spider 
found in Alabama springs upon and captures 
minnows. 



Mr. Willi.wi T'^^es notes, in Science for 
4 Jan, 1SS4, that he kept a spider alive in a 
box without food or drink for 204 days. 

Le Naturaliste canadien, begun Dec, 
1S6S. has just ceased publication, the final 
numero containing an explanation that the 
withdrawal of an allowance of $400 heretofore 
granted it by the government rendered its 
continued publication impossible. 

The World's industrial and cotton cen- 
tennial exposition, which will open early in 
December 1SS4, in New Orleans. La., in- 
cludes in its scope exhibits of useful and 
noxious insects, and should not be forgotten 
by enton.ologists. Further particulars can 
lie obtained by addressing the director gen- 
eral of the exhibition. Mr. E. A. Burke, at 
New Orleans. 

Any person who considers himself com- 
petent to transcribe and to translate into En- 
glish with acciu-acy descriptions of insects 
in dutch, english, french, german, Italian, 
and latin, and has access to extensive entom- 
ological libraries, is invited to communicate 
with Mr. B : P. Mann, at the U. S. Department 
of agriculture, Washington, D,C,, stating the 
price at which he would be willing to do such 
work. 

The Ministry of the interior of the gov- 
ernment of the Argentine Republic, by 
resolution of S September 1883, refused to 
allow Don Julio Lacroze to import into the 
countrv a quantity of grape-vines lying in 
the custom house at Buenos Aires, This 
resolution was founded on a previous deci'ee 
prohibiting the introduction of grape-vines, 
so as to prevent the development of Phyl- 
loxera vitifoliae. — El iiacioual [Buenos 
Aires], 8 Sep. 1SS3, p. i. col. S. 

The friends of the late Dr. Hermann 
Miiller, of Lippstadt, Germany, have under- 
taken to establish a fund to honor the mem- 
ory of Dr. Miiller and to aid his family. 
The fund will be termed the Miiller-fund; 
its revenues will be given to Dr. Miiller's 
widow during her life-time, anti after her 



14(1 



rsrcHE. 



JaiuKiry — Fel>iiijrv lS'^^ 



dealli, lo some descendant of'Dr. Miillei' who 
niav desire to studv natural science, ov to 
some other needy and worthy student of 
natural science from the school at Lippstadt. 
Contributions may be sent to the treasurer 
of the committee on the Miiller-fund, Wil- 
hclm Thurinann. City-treasurer of Lippstadt. 
The undersigned will forward with pleasure, 
to their destination, any sums he may receive 
for the fund, together with the names of the 
givers. 

G : Dhnmork. 

Mr. J. B. Smith prepares his duplicate 
coleoptera in the following manner: — Thev 
are soaked for a week or more in a fluid com- 
posed of ICO grams of alum. 25 of salt, 12 of 
saltpeter, 60 of potash and 10 of white 
arsenic dissolved in 3<xx) grams of boiling 
water. The solution is filtered and when 
cold add to every ten parts four of glycerin 
and one of methyl alcohol. Insects prepared 
in this manner remain soft and flexible and 
can be sent in boxes w-ithout being pinned 
and without danger of breaking. The same 
method could be applied to hemiptera and 
orthoptera, but probably it would not be 
successful with diptera, hynienoptera. lepi- 
doptera, or neuroptera. — Science record. 
Nov. 1S83. V. 2, p. 15-16. 

SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. m., 
on the days following: — • 

12 Oct. 1SS3. 14 Mar. 1S84. 

9 Nov. " II Apr. " 

14 Dec. " Q M;iy " 

II Jan. 1S84. 13 June •' 

S Feb. " 

G. DiMMOCK, Secretary. 



TheNew York Entomological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July and 
August, but no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry Edwards. Secretary. 



Natural History will be held at N. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston, Mass. 
at 7.45 p. m., on the days following: — 

24 Oct. 1SS3. 27 Feb. 1SS4. 

28 Nov. " 26 Mar. " 

26 Dec. " 23 Apr. •• 

23 Jan. 1S84. 28 May " 

Edwakh BtRGESS, Secretary. 



The REGULAR meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia. Pa., will be held 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sts., on tliL- 
days following : — 

12 Oct. 1SS3. 14 Mar. 1SS4. 

9 Nov. " II Apr. " 

14 Dec. " 9 May •' 

II Jan. 1S84. 13 June •• 

8 Feb. " 

James H. Ridings, Recorder. 



The semi-annual meetings of the .\meri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. cornerof 19th and Race Sts.. Philadelphia. 
Pa., on the days following: — 

10 Dec. 1883. 9 June 1SS4. 

James II. Ridings. Recording Secretary. 



The REGULAR monthly meetings of the 
Mojitreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal, Qiic.. 
Canada, on the days following: — 

2 Oct. 1883. 5 Feb. 1S84. 

6 Nov. " 4 Mar. " 

4 Dec. " I Apr. " 

8 Jan. 18S4. 6 May " 

G. J. Bowles, Secretary. 



The monthly meetings of the Brooklvn 
Entomological Society will be held in the 
rooms of Wright's Business College, Broad- 
way, corner of Fourth .Street, Brooklyn. 
E. D., the last Saturday of each' month ex- 
cept July and August. 

F. G. ScHAUPI". Secretary. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



No. Ii:;-ii6 were issued 11 Feb. 1884. 



Fig. 


I . 


Fig. 


2 . 


Fig. 


3- 


Fig. 


4- 


Fig. 


S- 



Fig. 6. 
Fig. 7- 

Fig. S. 



EXPL.WATION OF PlATE I. 

I'aria atcrr i»ia Oliv. 
Scclodoiita p/ibcsceiis Mcis. 
Fiipa of Scc/oi/o//fa puhcscctis. 
Head of Paria ahrr/'ma. front view. 
Larval and pupal structures of Scelodonta. 

A. tip of abdomen of pupa, lateral view ; with ligure of anal hook, 
more' enlarged. B, last abdominal segments of lar\a. \ieueil from 
beneath. C, mandible of larva. 
Larval and pupal characters of Paria. 

.\, tip of abdomen of pupa, lateral view. H. mandible of lar\a. 
Larval and pupal characters of Colaspis. 

A, antenna of lar\a. H. labium and maxillae. C mandil)le. 
D. labruni. E, last abdominal segments of lar\a. \ lewed from be- 
neath. F. tip of abdomen of pupa, ^entral view. 
Larva of (.'olaspis hriiiniea Fab. 



P.tyc/ie, /SS4, z\ ^. 







PSYCHE-'^"!. 




[Estahlishcd in 1S74.] 

EDITED nr 

R : PiCKMAX MAr^N, Washington. D. C. ; G : Dim.mock, Cambridge., Mass. ; 

Albert J: Cook, Lansing, Alich.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal, 

III.; Joseph Albert Lixtner. Albany. N. ?1 ; Francis Hunting- 

To\ Snow, Laxvroicc, Kansas; W : Trelease, Madison, Wise. 



Vol. 4. No. 119. 

March 1SS4. 

CONTENTS: 

Advertisements .............. 142 

Treatment Processes .•\G-\inst Phylloxer.\ vitifoliae — W'illiaw Stchhiiif 

Barinu'ci . . . .• . . . . . . . 143-144 

The First Numero of Thomas Say's American Entomology and Two 

Letters on the Hessiax Fly- hitherto not Mentioned among 

HIS Published Papers — Hermann AHgust Hagen ..... 145-146 
Sound-producing ORgANs in Anomala, Antiionomus, and other Coleo- 

PTERA — )('. H. Pa/ton ............ 146 

Proceedings of Societies — Cambridge Entomological Club ..... 147 

London Letter — 11". L. Diitaiil .......... 147-14S 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3406-3433 ........ 149-150 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings ........ 151-152 

PlBLLSlIED BY THE 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge. Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS. $2. VOLUME. $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS. 20 c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



U-2 



PSYCHE. 



[March 1SS4.) 



Psyche, A journal of Entomology. 

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION. EIC. 

PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

Jp^'^ Subscriptions not discontinued are considered 
renewed. 

^^^ Commencing with the niimero for ^January 
1883 the rate of subscription is as follows: — 

Yearly subscription, entitling the subscriber to 
one regular copy and, if he desires it, one copy 
printed on one side of thin paper (for pasting 
the titles of the bibliographical record on title- 
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Subscription to volume 4 i^iZZyiZZ^), as above, 
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The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
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Twenty-five extra copies, without change of 
form, to the author of any leading article, if or- 
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FSYCECE, 



TREATMENT PROCESSES AGAINST I'lIVLLOXERA VITIFOLIAE. 



BV WII.MAM STEBBIXS BAKXARD, WASHINGTON', n. C. 



The control or destruction ot this noto-, 
rious pest is one of the most prominent 
scientific problems of our day. It h;is 
baffled many experimenters even under 
tile stimidus of a standing prize of 300. 
000 francs ottered by the French goy- 
ernnient. Tlie Piivllc«era commission 
has not yet found a device vvortliy of the 
award. In its reports (i) bisidphide 
of carbon, (3) sulphocyanide of potas- 
sium and (3) submersion by water, 
are recommended as the best remedies 
it has found. The control of the phyl- 
loxera is becoming a serious question 
with the Viticultural association of 
California and the pest occurs more or 
less through the eastern and middle 
parts of our coimtrw On these ac- 
counts every new treatment against it is 
received with interest here and abroad. 

A treatment ilevisetl against the phyl- 
loxera by the writer was reported upon 
last year [14 Dec. 18S3] before the 
Biological societ\- of Washington and 
a pul)lished notice of the discussion on 
remedies for the phylloxera at that 
meeting appeared in Psyche for Jan.- 
Feb. 18S4, y. 4. p. 133-134, in which 
kerosene, applied by the nether-inser- 
tion process, was recommended as su- 
perior to naphthalin. 

Those remarks weie in response to 
communications by Prof. C. V. Riley 
and Prof. T. Taylor setting forth the 



value of naphthalin as a remed\' fir the 
phylloxera. A partial description was 
there given of a nether inserter [without 
its handles and accessories] which I 
had previously constructed for inserting 
kerosene, but which ^yas equally adapt- 
ed for apph'ing naphthalin. (Emitting 
some important details and applications 
of this instrument, it may be added that 
in practice the device has operated with 
perfect satisfaction, as used by me in 
treating infested vines near Washington. 

By the process of nether insertion 
and upward or volatile difliision of that 
most infallible of all insecticides, petro- 
leum. b\' its distillati(jn and upwaiil 
capillary dispersion in the ground, we 
have a treatment not onh' against the 
active insect but likewise against its 
summer eggs, which are also on the 
roots. The insecticides used against 
the active insect have not killed the eggs 
in sufficient number, and the survivors 
have hatched to restock tlie plants : 
hence to destroy both by one and the 
same application makes the treatment 
simple and more complete. 

But the phylloxera also presents it- 
self in a third phase for treatment, viz., 
in its winter eggs, which are ditt'erent 
from the summer eggs and are deposi- 
ted above ground. This brings me to 
another method of diffusing petroleum 
which I devised and reduced to practice 



1-1 -1 



/'.vrr i/E. 



[March 1SS4. 



some \cars since, ami wliicli lias jjroved 
of jjieat value tor freeing the orange 
groves of the scale insects. 1 allu(l<j to 
its emulsification with milk and \\ ater, 
wherel)}' petroleum can he diUiteil to 
anv suitable strength for insecticide 
purposes. The emulsion applied hv a 
brush upon the parts where winter eggs 
are deposited will destroy them. W'lien 
diluted, a spia\" of it ovi-r the entire 
])hint in the winter season will do no 
liarm. The winter eggs should be 
tieated not later than Februarv . The 
millv-kerosene process permits pelrf)- 
leinii to be applied by the ordinarv 
methods for insecticides. Enndsifica- 
tion with milk is also a recourse to 
slow and niilden the intense action of 
the petroleum naphthas w hen placed in 
the ground. 

Petroleum should be spra\ed over 
tlie groimd to destrov scattered eggs, 
and to reach the superficial larvae in the 
soil, but not. wlicn nn<lihited. so as to 
flow imdilfused upon the roots. \\ lion 
gradually disj^ersed above as spra\ and 
when inserted beneath tlie roots, the 
ground itself practicallv dilutes ami 
diffuses the petroleum before it cm 
reach the roots. The netiier-up\\ard 
kerosene diffusion process is the oid\ 
economically practical way, of course, in 
which the deep application of tiie im- 
diluted forms of petroleum can lie al- 
leiTipted with safetv to the phml. I!\ it 
the cheap, crude article and its lighter 
form, the naphthas, become available 
as most valuable agents against tlie pests. 

The nether-kerosene process applies 
likewise as a treatment against all otlier 
root insects or subterranean pests, as for 



example, the .\meiican blight apliid 
\_Scliizoiiei(ra lanii^cra^ the hop root 
gort\na \^Gortv>ia iiiimaiiis\^ root mag- 
gots of the cabbage. &c., the strawberry 
root licetlcs. cicadas, cut-worms, wliite 
gi ubs. wire worms, nests of ants, &c. 
Tints it is seen to have a general appli- 
cation to a wide range of cases hereto- 
fore not satisfactorily treated. 

Besides tiie comi>ined application of 
petroleum and the netlier-insertion pro- 
cess, the latter and the inserters apply in 
comi)ination with many other insecti- 
cides which ha\e more or less efficiencv 
in the cases cited, of wiiicii tlie follow - 
examples may be speciallv mentioned. 
\\7.. : rhigolene, gasolene, naplitha. ben- 
zine, kerosene, crude iietrnlenm, oil of 
tar. tar water, naphlhalin. p\roiigue- 
ous acid, soot, creosote, caibolic acid, 
cres\lic acici. sulphurous aci(b sidpho- 
cvanide of potassium, bisulphide of 
carbon, c\anide of potassium, pyre- 
thruui preparations, he solutions, to- 
bacco decoction, chips and snufl', water. 
gas water, liquid fertilizers, vapors. 
gases or fumes. Tlie relative merits or 
adxantagcs or disadvantages ot tliese 
would involve lenglhv discussion wiiicii 
ma\ U'lW lie post])oned. eacli lias its 
special adaptation. 

Tlie netlier inserters apph am up- 
ward acting insecticiile against anv 
uiuleiground enemies. .Also I iia\e 
provided certain accessories with which 
thev in the same manner applv water or 
liquid manure to saturate the groinul 
against Phylloxera or tlie other pests, 
and to fertilize the ground, to stimulate 
and diet u]) the plant : but tiiese topics 
will be lulK iiotici-d at a later date. 



March ,!*S4.| PSYCHE. 145 

THE FIRST NUMERO OF THOMAS SAY'S AMERICAN EXTO- 

MOLOGY AND TWO LET'I'ERS ON THE HESSIAN 

FLY HITHERTO NOT MENTIONED AMONG 

IHS PI BUSHED PAPERS. 

BV DH. IIEJOI.WX AITtI'ST HAIiEN, CAM BKinCW-;, MASS. 

I liouLjht. ill 18^0. out of the libr:ii'v nviiiL;' text, were printed otT in the year 

of tlie late \V. \'oii Wintheni, in Ham- 1S17, but as the\ were ne\er properly 

liurg, the first nuniero of Sav's American published, it has been thought advisa- 

entomologv. 1817; the first volume lile to include them in the present 

of his American entomologw 1S24; wmk.'" 

and the glossary. 182^. All tliree The little \iilume is printed on the 

are in the original binding and the same paper and same size as vol. i, 

two latter with tlie inscription on 1824; the cover has the same nice vig- 

the title : "To Mr. Win. W. von Win- nette (two Cupids catching insects), 

them from his friend the author." All luit marked vol. i, no. i, and Kneass, 

belong now to the lil)rarv of the Museum Young and Co. etc., which is also re- 

of comparative zoologv. peated on tlie title plate. The title is 

The first nuniero of volume i of the American | Entomology | or | Descrip- 

Amer. entomology, 1S17, is extremely tions | of the | Insects of North Ameri- 

rare ; indeed I have never seen another ea | illustrated by | Coloiu-ed Figures 

copv than mine in Europe or in Amer- | from | Drawings executed trom nature 

ica, and was also assured b\- the best | by Thomas Say | Member ot the 

authority, Mr. S. II. Scudder. that he Academv ot Natural Sciences of Fhila- 

liad never seen a cop\'. Dr. I. L. Le- delphia etc. | (the verses from Stilling- 

Conte, in his edition of Sax's works. fleet as in 1S24) Philadelphia | publish- 

1S59, \-. 1. p. I. note. sa\s : "These ed b\' Mitchell and Ames | W. Brown, 

references are to the suppressed first edi- Printer, Prune Street. | 181 7. — 

tion of the American entomology, which Then follows, p. iii to x, a prelace 

I have never seen." Later, in 1872, entireh dilFerent from that in 1S24. 

when I showed my copy to the late Doc- The six plates have no numero nor 

tor. he answeretl that he possessed a the name of the engraver, exactly as in 

similar copx'. Perhaps my meniorv is volume l, 1824, where the same six 

wrong; at least in the printed catalogue plates are alone not numbered, 

of his library it is not mentioned. I. Papilla Phllenor, with three 

I suppose some details aliout tliis pages of text, marked Plate I (the same 

rare book may not be out of place. numero in 1S24). 

Say. in the preface of vol. i. 1824. p. 2. Gcotrtipes Tlfy/is. with 4 pages 

\ii, says: "Six plates of the present of text, marked PI. II (Scaradaeiis 

volume, together with their accompa- Tltviis, pi. 4. in 1824). 



14<i 



PSYCHE. 



;M;ircli 1SS4. 



3. Nemognatha hiimaculata, witli 
2 pages of text, marked I'l. Ill (pi. 7 
in 1S24). 

4. Notox/is iiioiiodoii, the lower 
fig., and jY. bicolor, with 4 pages of 
text, marked PI. IV {Anthicus bicolor 
and A. ?noiiodon, pi. 10, in 1S24). 

5. Bcrytus spinosits. with 3 pages 
of text, marked PI. V (pi. 14. in 1S24). 

6. Cicindela formosa. and C. de- 
cemnotata, with 4 pages of text, marked 
PL VI, and followed by an index of the 
8 species figured (pi. 18 in 1S24). 

The text in 1S24 is tliroughout difler- 
ent from the text in 1817. mostly short- 
ened,, but scarcely ditVerent for the 
descriptive part of the species. The 
coloration of the plates is mure caretiil 
than in 1S24 and better than in Le- 
Conte's edition. 

The Memoirs of the Philadelphia 
society for promoting agricultm^e. \ol. 
4, Philadelphia, iSiS, 8°, contain two 
letters of Thomas Say. which are not 
mentioned in Doubleday's List of Thom- 
as .Sav's works, nor in LeConte's edition, 
nor quoted by Th. \V. Harris. Dr. 
Asa Fitch states that lie has never seen 
this rare book. The volumes were pre- 
sented to the Library of Harvard college 
in 1849, after Harris had done his work. 
He knew it, but as it contains notliing 
of importance it is not quoted i)y Harris, 
though in one volnme a letter to him is 
found on the cover. 

1. A letter, Sept. 28. 1817, to Hon. 
R. Peters, by Thomas .Say, p. 234-226. 
containing remarks on tiie Hessian H\'. 
on the locust and on corn gruhs. 

2. A letter, p. 236-237, to the same. 
b\' ThoniMs Sa\'. containing remarks on 



the Hessian fly. on Tinea oraiiclla. 
and on cut worms. 

[The references, to these two arliiles, which 
were written out several years since, are 
added in the Bibliographical record, nos. 3430 
and 343 ■—^- /'• ^''l 



.Soi^ND-l'HonUCING ORG.'WS IN Axo- 
MAL.V. An'TIIONOMIS, ANP orilKR 

coLEOl>TER.\. — There is a stridulating 
organ in Anoniala, situated on tiie meta- 
thorax and clvtra, in the same position as 
described by me in Polyphylla (Psyche. 
V. 2. p. 278). Its location is the same as 
that of the elytral organ described by 
Dr. LeConte (Class, col. X. .\.) in 
Trox and Ligyriis, but Dr. LeConle 
failed to notice that the melathorax in 
those genera has on its ascending portion 
(beneath a ridge in Trox) a corresi)on- 
ding pearl\ space, just as it has in 
Polvplivlla; this is in addition to the 
organ on the first ventral, corresponding 
to the third dorsal, segment, in Trox. 
described by Dr. LeConte. My finding 
these organs in mclolontliini and rntcl- 
iiii is merelv accidental : why does not 
some coleopterist study them microsco- 
picalh in all our genera of scaralmei- 
dac? Tlie same organs are present in 
L/'inoni/is and other clateridac. and 
there is, besides, a surface on the ascen- 
ding portion ol the first ventral segment, 
as in Trox. wiiich. as in 'Trox. corres- 
ponds to a second surface on the elytra. 
I find stridulating organs als> in An- 
thonomiis. of the citrciil/onidae. situateil 
as in Aiiiunala . 

W. II. ratio,,. 
Jf'iilvi/iiirv. Co,,,,.. ,J Nov. iSS^. 

|Striil\il;>Iiny; i>r^li»s of colcopter:i lire (K'srrihc*! in 
l>svi iiK. Uff., 11(1. n<yi. I-M4.I 



Mardi 1RS4.I 



psn HE. 



14: 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., MARCH 1884. 

Communications^ exchanges and editors'' copies 
should be addressed to KijiTors of Psvciit., Ctnii- 
bridge^ Mass. Communications for puh/iration in 
P^.\CHE must he f roper! V autheutieoted, and no anony- 
mous articles rvili be published . 

Editors and cojitributors are only responsible for the 
.statements made in their ovjn communications. 

Works 071 subjects not related to entomology v.^ill not 
be reviezued in Psvche. 

For rates of subscription and of advertisings see ad- 
vertising columns. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOI.Ot; IC.\L CLUB. 

( Couthiued frotn p. / J^. ) 

S Jl'ne 1883. — Tlie y4th meeting of the 
Cliib was held at 19 Brattle Square. Cam" 
bridge. 8 June 1SS3. In tlie absence of tlie 
President. Mr. R. I lav ward was chosen Cliair- 
man. Five persons were present. 

Mr. S. H. Scndder reviewed P. H. Gosse's 
"On tlie chisping organs ancillary to genera- 
tion in certain groups of the lepidoptera" 
(Trans. Linn. soc. Lond.. April 1S83. Zool. : 
s. 2. V. 2. pt. 6. p. 26,^-345. pi. 26-33) and 
described the general structure of the genita- 
lia of lepidoptera, giving the nomenclature 
of these parts according to Gosse and accord- 
ing to other authors. [For further notice of 
this review see Sc/'ei/cc. 6 lulv 1S83. v. 2. p. 

Mr. G. Dimmock exhibited a living speci- 
men of B'l/Awi orci/fiiiiis. and described some 
of the habits of that species of scorpion. 
The specimen shown was taken near the 
Arago Laboratory, at Banyuls-sur-nier, Pvre- 
nees-Orientales, France, in Ma\' 1882. 

Mr. R. Havward showed a male specimen 
of If/ivssii ii/ra/ii. and some discussion fol- 
lowed on the comparative rarity of the males 
and females of certain hymenoptera. 



Mr. G. Dimmock said that after repeated 
attempts he had succeeded in making the 
male of Culex drink. The structure of the 
mouth-parts of the male had led the speaker 
to believe that the male mosquito could drink 
aitho it could not bite us and thus get at our 
blood, and by keeping a male without drink 
tor several davs he had had the satisfaction 
of seeing the insect drink water freely from a 
moist cloth. 



The large number of references to galls 
and gall-insects in the Bibliographical record, 
recently, are brought together in answer to 
inquiries from correspondents. We have 
many more on hand, not yet complete enough 
to print in the record, but sufficient for im- 
mediate use. Having brought together, in 
the course of years, by diligent labor, an im- 
mense stock of references, partially indexed, 
we are prepared to supply such to correspon- 
dents, in manuscript. We deem it no more 
than just to recpiire such correspondents to 
pav for the assistance thus rendered them. 
either in kind or in money which m,-iy be ap- 
plied to defraying the expenses of Psyche. 

/?. P. M. 



L(JNDON LETTER. 

East Dllwich. Londox. 
January 5th. 1S84. 
One of the most important and extensive 
contributions to a knowledge of the Japanese 
entomological faima has recently been receiv- 
ed in this country from the hands of Mr. Geo. 
Lewis. This gentleman, having made a no 
inconsiderable collection during a previous 
sojourn in Japan, returned to that country for 
the express purpose of supplementing and in- 
creasing the same, and being an experienced 
British collector was thus enabled to bring 
home a magnificent series of coleoptera. neu- 
roptera and rhynchota. The coleoptera in 
several families have already been treated by 
Messrs. Bates. Gorham and Lewis; the neu- 
roptera have been handled by Baron de Seivs- 



14.S 



/'s )■(///■:. 



[Mirc'i lS<i|. 



Loiigchanp;. and I have jfiven a first report 
on the rl\vnchota, an older of which some 
Japanese nicnibcrs have previously received 
tlie efficient attention of vour own countrv- 
inan, Mr. 1'. R. Uhler. We have no state aid 
to entomology in this country, and our suc- 
cess in the study of the science has always 
been largely indeljted to the voluntary efforts 
of those votaries who possess the love of en- 
tomology combined with the necessary leisure 
and competence to undertake or promote 
such expeditions. 

Ilerr Georg Semper, of Altona, who has 
recently paid us a visit, has informed me of 
his intention to publish a work on the rhopa- 
locera of the Philippine Islands, for which he 
possesses good material in the collection 
made by his brother Prof. Carl Semper dur- 
ing his memorable journey to those islands. 
Another work of this nature is in the press. 
yiz. , a new edition, with much new matter, 
of Mr. Trimen's '-Rliopalocera Afric.ie aus- 
tralis." 

We are still having a very mild winter, re- 
sembling in this respect its immediate pre- 
decessors. It is probable, therefore, that the 
ensuing summer may also follow its recent pre- 
cursors in exhibiting a considerable dearth in 
insect life, as the complaints of lepidopterists 
and other collectors in our entomological 
magazines during the last few years abundant- 
ly testify. The mild, damp winters are well 
known to be destructive to pupating insect 
life, but these do not explain the more diffi- 
cult and interesting problem as to the sudden 
and plentiful appearance in one season of a 
generally scarce and almost unobserved spe 
cies. This is not confined to temperate cli- 
mates, as I have lately received a very forcible 
illustration of the same phenomenon in 
the tropics, /fao-arf/a crisiti lliibn.. a well 
known and handsome member of the satyri- 
t/ae, is not a scarce insect in the Indo-.Mala- 
yan region, though it has hitherto been un- 
recorded from the Malay peninsula. I did 



not meet with it. when residing and collect- 
ing there myself, some fifteen years ago. nor 
have 1 received it since, in numerous collec- 
tions derived from that locality. Last year, 
however, the species seems to have been com- 
mon from Penang to Singapore. I first re- 
ceived two specihiens captured on Penang 
Hill, and sent me as a new species: others 
shortly followed from Province Wellesley, 
with the remark of an experienced collector 
that the species was quite new to the locality : 
and almost simultaneously the Indian mail 
brought me more examples from Sungie. 
Ujong, Malacca and Singapore. 

Kor some years past, owing to the demands 
of foreign institutions, entomological litera- 
ture has reached a pecuniary value that has 
rendered its acquisition by many students a 
matter of some inconvenience and difficulty. 
.\t recent sales, held in London, of the books 
of deceased naturalists, these high prices liavr 
failed to obtain, and we may hope that price> 
may soon be less prohibitory to those work- 
ing entomologists to whom a library of refer- 
ence is a real necessity. 

Mr. Edward Whymper, who paid a visit 
to Ecuador in iSyy-iSSo, where he made a 
considerable collection in natural history, 
especially in regard to entomology, is now- 
writing the account of his journey, which 
will shortly be published. A feature of this 
work will be a scientific appendix giving the 
details and identifications of his collection, 
contributed by a body of specialists who have 
imdertaken this work. The eiitomological 
collection is not very large, but its interest 
and biological importance is due to the fact 
that many of the specimens were collected in 
very high altitudes, and thus contrast with 
those found in the hot, tropical valleys. 

In my previous letter (v. 4, p. 94) the name 
■■Dr. Leitner" should be spelled ■■Dr. Leuth- 
ner. " 

II'. /,. Disl.uil. 



M.ircli 18S4.] 



PSYCHE. 



L3406-3416] 14i» 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Authors and socifi/es arc requested to' for-rard their ivorks. to the editors as soon as 
published. The date of publication^ given in brackets [], marks the time at which the 
zvor/c teas received, unless an earlier date of publication is knoTvn to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherxvise stated each record is made directly from the 'vork that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common given name, as: A: Augustus: B: Ben- 
jamin: C: Charles: D: Dazdd: E: Edzvard: F: Frederic; G: George: II: Fleury; 
I: Isaac: 'J: ^ohn: K: Karl: L: Louis: M: Mark: N: Nicholas: O: Otto: P: Peter: R: 
Richard: S: Samuel: T: Thom<is: IV: William. The initials at the e7id of each record, or 
note, are those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



Gerber, Armand. Conservation des collec- 
tions entomologiques. (Feuille des jeunes 
naturalibtes, i Dec. 1S80, an. 11, p. 30-31.) 
Discusses the merits ot the essence of bitter almonds 
(C<i H'i, COH) and the essence of iiuihaiie. or iiitroben- 
/.ole (Cfi K^, NO-) for keeping collections of insects free 
<.f pests. ■ G: D. (^rt)) 

Illinois state laboratory of natural his- 
tory, Xoroial. Illinois — Director. iSSi- 
/^^^ ( Stephen Alfred Forbes). Report of 
the director of the state lahoratorv of natu- 
ral history, for the two vears, ending June 
30, 1S8I: and June 30, 1S82. [Normal, 
ifll.,Mch. 1SS3.] t.-p. cover, n. t.-p.. 12 p.. 
23 X 15. t iS"x II. 

Report of prog^ress made in the different kinds of 
worlt of the Illinois state hiboratory <»f natural lijstory. 
Considerable space is devoted to the work in branches 
of economic entomoloijy. G: D. {t^a^I) 



Osteii Sackeu, C : Robert. [Lasioplera 
solidaginis and tryf>eta solidaginis.'\ (Proc. 
entom. see. Philad., July 1863. v. 2, p. 77.) 

Note supplementary to author's '*Losioptera reared 
from a gall tin tlie g^olden-rod" {pp. n't., Fcm.>. iSo^, v. i . 
p. 36S-,^70) [Kec, ,^401] ; /a.'n'opiera solidaginis bred 
from galls \vi^ euryptychia satigueana^ on soiidagn and 
similar galls onvfrnonia; trypcta (7.s'/(^r/.\-lj Harris ^/. 
snlidogiiiis F'itch ; it is not certain that this flv makes 
galls on ost,-r. B: P. M. (.^oS) 

Riley, C : \'alentine. Conical galls on 
leaves of wild grape-vine. (Moore's rural 
new-yorker. 28 Aug. 1S69. v. 20, p. 555, col. 
3-4, 12 cm.) 

Brief descri|ilion of galls [i>, cfn'doinyi'a Tifis-vi'ti- 
to/a]; characters of larvae nf rt'cniomyiti. 

B: P. M. (3404) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Covering of egg- 
puncture mistaken for dorthciia. (Amer. 
nat.. July iSSi, v. 15. p. 574. 

In the collection of Asa Fitch the while and rilibed 
waxv material covering* the egg-punctures <■>{ enchophvl- 
Imn hinotafum are labelled as dortlwaia z'ihiirni awA d. 
tetastri. It is doulitful whether any sucb species were 
described by Fitch. B: P. M. (3410) 



[Riley, C : Valentine] Cypress-gall. (Amer. 
entom. and hot.. |nne 1S70. v. 2. p. 244, 19 
cm., fig. 153. J 

Description and figures of gall and description of 
larva and imago of cecidont yia niprt'ssi-annnassii on 
cHpressus '•'thyoides'"' \disii<lio\; figure of breast-bone 
oflarva. ' B: P. J/. (3411) 

Riley, C: Valentine. J)r. HagenV mystery. 
(Can. entom.. Dec. 1S80. v. \2. p. 263-264.) 

Crit. re\'. of II. A. Hagen's "A mystery in reference 
Ui pro'Ntlni j't/crnsi-//a" {op. cit., July, p. 12S-139) | Rec, 
.lil^!- 'he remarks in tliat article are admitted bv Dr. 
Hagen to have been founded upon the confusion of 
prodoMis dcripi'eiis with tfifftirula yitccast'fiu. 

B. /»,.1/. (,,4i2) 

Riley, C: ValcntiriL-. On a gLiU-makinu- 
genus of apionuiat;. (Bull. Brooklvii en- 
tom. soc.. Oct. 1SS3, V. 6, p. 6i-fi2.) 

Separate. [Brookhn. N. Y...1883.] 2 p.. 
-3Xi,v 

List of gall-makitig colenpiera hitherto found in 
North America; descrijition of the new ^euws pndapioii 
and of the gall and imago of/, gallicota n. sp., found 
on twigs nipinus inops; probable lifo-habits, inqnilines 
and jiarasite of this insect. B: P. iM. (3413) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Gail on solidago 
leaves. (Amer. entom.. Nov. 18S0, \ . 3. n. 
s., v. I, p. 278, 4 cm. ) 

Letter from H. Karnes, with answer ; occurrence of 
galls of recidoDiyia t-arhonifera on leaves of solidago 
unnornlisf at Mulberry Corners, Ohio. B: P. M. (3414) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Galls. (Amer. en- 
tom. and bbt., Dec. 1S70, v. 2. p. 372. 3 
cm. ) 

Notice of author's studies on Xortlt American gall- 
ini^ects, and request for specimens and notes uptm that 
subject. B: P. M. C3415) 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Galls and gall-in- 
sects. (Amer. nat.. May [16 Apr.] 18S1. 
V. 15, p. 402-403.) (Riley, C: V. Ento- 
mology. . . [May iSSi], p. 402-403.) 
Review of H. F. Bassett's "Jsew S])ecies tA' ryf/ipidc/c" 
(Can. entom.. Mch. iSSi, v. 13, p. 51-57) [I^^c., 3357 ), 
with additional notes (^n the gall nf tyttips gnt-ycus-cuti- 
fornica; tliis gall found oTi querrns donglasii, and in- 
fested by ozognailiiis cornntns even after it has been 
dried for years ; the cynips produced from it all females ; 
reference to earlier accounts of the gall and of the habits 
oi'thcozognathii.-^. ^ B: /'.J/. {3416) , 



l-'i'* [3417-3433] 



PSYCHE. 



[M;irch 1SS4. 



Riley, C : Valentine. [On galls growing on 

wild sage.] (Trans, acad. sci. St. Louis. 

[July ? 1873], V. 3; Journ. of proc, p. S4.) 

[Vfi-biil couiiniiiiication, 3 June 1S72.] Occurrence of 

three distinct, uiidescribed giills on artemisia tridenttita 

in Ut;ih. J3: P. M. (3417) 

Riley, C : Valentine. Galls made by moths. 

(jd ann. rept. state entom. Mo., [Mch.] 

1S70. p. 132-135, fig. 9S-99.) 

Coiit,iiiis.byC: V. Rii.EV : — Tlic false indigo gall- 
moth ; zvahhia amorphella, Clemens FRec, 3339]. The 
misnamed gall.niotli : euryptychia, saliifueoua. Clemens 
[Kec.,3343]. ' ' B: P. .»/, (34.S) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Galls on eucalyptus. 

(Anier. nat., May [16 Apr.] 1S81. v. 15. p. 

402.) (Riley, C: V. Entomology. . . [May 

iSSij, p. 402.) 

Probable character of two galls occurring; on ait'tt- 
Ivptua gracilis in Anstralia, and described bv R : Mc- 
Lachlan. Ji: P. M. (3419) 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Large asilus fly. 

(Amer. entom. and hot., Oct. 1S70, v. 2. p. 

340,4 cm.) 

Food-habits o{ promachtts vertrbratiis, f>. hasttirdii 
and asiliis missouriensis; occurrence of undetermined 
galls under trees of y«(?r<:K.? «/^fl. B: P. M. (3420) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Mite gall on sugar 
maple. (Amer. entom. andbot., Oct. 1S70, 
V. 2, p. 339. 4 cm.) 

Brief description of gull of acariis aren's-cnnmna n. 
sp., on leaves of acer saccharinum; occurrence of simi- 
lar galls of acarina on plum and cherry. 

B: P.M. C342O 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Mossy rose K'^ll. 

(Amer. entom. and bot., May 1S70, v. 2. p. 

213, 12 cm., fig. 130.) 

Description of gall, larva and imajjo of r/wJi'tfs rosne 
and of larva of a parasite on it; figure of the gall. 

B: P. M. (34") 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Moths attracted by 
falling water. (Amer. nat. Oct. [28 Sep.] 
1882, V. 16, p. S26.) (Riley. C: V. Ento- 
mology . . . [Oct. 18S2], p. S26.) 

Notice of J. S. Gardner's "Moths attracted by falling 
water" (Nature, 9 Mch. 1SS2, v. 25, p. 436) [ Rec, 3370] ; 
gleaming water-falls in Iceland as attractive to moths 
as artificiut light would be. B: P. M. (3423) 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] "A mystery in re- 
ference to prottuba yuccasella.''^ (Amer. 
entom., Dec. 1880, v. 3, n. s., v. i, p. 293, 
16 cm.) 

Grit. rev. of H. A. Hagen*s "A mystery in reference 
to proviiba Vliccasella^* (Can. entom., July iSSo, v. 12, 
p. 12S-129) [Rec, 337S] ; Hagen confounded prodoxua 
decipiens with te^etictda yuccaesdla in his article, and 
published no correction of the error after he found it 
out. B: P. M. (3424) 



Riley, C : Valentine. Oak apple. (Amer- 
cvclop. . . . .VppletDn. 187^, v. 12, p. ^^S-sS9i 
3 fig.) 

Dtscribes galls of cynips Urminatis, c. qitercus-spoir 
gifica and c, querats-inanis. and manner in which they 
are formed ; figures the latter two galls and a parent 
Hv; nature of galls; problems involved in the stiidv of 
g-all-insects. B: P. M. (3423) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Oak gall : cyiiips. q.- 
dicidua Bass. (Amer. entom., Nov. 1S80, 
V. 3, n. s., V. 1, p. 27S. 4 cm.) 
Letter from J. Schneck, with answer; galls supposed 

to be those of cyiiips q.-decidua found on leaves oi qtter. 

CHS muhlelibergn:A .Mt. Carmel, 111. B: P. M. (3436) 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Pithy blackberry 
gall. (Amer. entom., Mch. 1870, v. 2, p. 
159-160, 24 cm., fig. 103.) 

Description and figures of larva and gall of diaslro. 
pints nebitlosnmn-i rubtts; figure of pupa; seasons, guest- 
Ilv {aiila.v syhrstn's) and parasite [eurytoma diastro- 
phi\ <if the diastrophlfi:; the genus dtastrophtts confined 
to rosaceoi-, cyjiips to atpitltj'crae and aittistrophus to 
romposilae. B: P. M. (3427) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] The pod-like wil- 
low gall. (Amer. entom. and bot., May 
1870, V. 2, p. 214, 14 cm., fig. 133.) 
Description and figures of gall of cecidoiltyia sa/icis. 
st'/iqua, figure of larva ; food. plants, synonvmv and des- 
cription of pupa of this gnat. B: P. .if. (342S) 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Prickly rose gall. 

(.\mer. entom. and bot.. June 1870, v, 2. p. 

246, 3 cm. ) 

Brief description of gall of rliodites hicolor on wild 
rose. B: P. M. (3429) 

Say, T: Hessian fly; grain moth : cut worin. 

(Memoirs Phil. soc. promot. agric, 1818. 

V. 4, p. 236-237.) 

Cecidomyia dtsti'uctor oviposits in stubhle of old 
wheat; the *'grain-m(>th" may he tinea granella of 
Europe; the parents of cut-worms probably oviposit a 
the roots of grass. B: P. M. (3430^ 

Say, T : Season of 1S16. (Memoirs Phil, 
soc. promot. agric, iSiS, v. 4, p. 224-226.) 

Cfcidomyia i/ew/rwr/or unknown in Europe; cicada 
st'ptendccim not a locust; "corn-grubs" arc larvae of 
various species of nod ft a. B. P M. (3431) 

[Tepper, F : and E : L : Graef.] Synoptic 

table of lepidoptera. (Bull. Brooklyn en- 
tom. soc, May 1S79. v. 2, p. 5-6, i '(\.%.) 

Synoptic table of species of the genus colias. Cont. 
from op. fit.. Mar. 1S70, v. i, p. Su-oo. 

F. G: S. (343a) 

"Worthiugton. C: Ellis. Two new hesper- 

ians. (Papilio, Sept. iSSi. p. 132-133.) 
Describes :is new eudmtiiis oberon and erycidts 
Okeechobee, lioth from Marco Island. Fla. //; E. C3433) 



March 1SS4. 



PSYCHE. 



151 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

Worcester. Mass, lias a new scientific 
society, tlie Zoological club of Worcester, of 
Avliicli Mr. F. G. Sanborn is president. 

Mr. D. W. CoqyiLLETT, of Anaheim, 
California, lias in view the preparation of a 
monograph of the dipterous family hihioiu'- 
dae. 

Mr. William Buckler, who has descrilied 
the early stages of a large number of British 
lepidoptera, died 9 Jan. 1884, at Lumley 
House, Emsworth, Hants, in his seventieth 
year. 

It m.\y interest entomologists to learn 
that the newly organized American ornithol- 
ogists' union have a committee to consider 
whether the English sparrow {Passer domes- 
ficiis) is on the whole beneficial or injurious 
to agriculture. The committee has issued a 
circular asking answers to questions on tlie 
subject. 

At \ meeting to which the entomologists 
of Washington and Baltimore were invited, 
held at the house of Dr. C: V. Riley, in 
Washington, D. C, on the evening of 29 
February 18S4, and presided over by Rev. 
Dr. John G. Morris, of Baltimore, a resolu- 
tion was adopted unanimously to establish an 
entomological society in Washington and 
vicinity, and a committee was appointed to 
draw up the necessary regulations and to call 
a future meeting for organization. 

B: PiCKMAN Mann, Secietaw. 

The Cornell university ofters to its stu- 
dents "final honors" in entomology, as in 
several other subjects, and under the follow- 
ing conditions, which we extract from "The 
Cornell university register 18S3-S4," p. iii : — 

Entomology. — The candidate must have 
passed, with an honorable average, the regu- 
lar examinations in the subjects of zoology 
(vertebrate and invertebrate), microscopic 
technology, botany (the elementary course, 
including field-work), and entomology (the 
general course, as laid down in the sopho- 
more and junior vears in the course in au^ri- 



culture) ; and must also pass, with distin- 
guislied excellence, a special examination 
upon the results of an investigation of one or 
more special subjects to which he has devoted 
an amount of work equivalent to two hours a 
term for two \'ears. 

The subject for 1SS4 is to be selected from 
the following list : 

(«) The internal anatomy of the larva of 
the Corvdalits coriiiitus Linn. 

(/') The insects injurious to woolen goods 
in the United States. 

(r) The insects infesting apple trees at 
Ithaca. 

((/) The insects injurious to wheat in the 
north-eastern part of the United States. 

New scientific journals are springing up 
with about the same prolificacy, and with 
almost the same prospect of long life, as is 
the case with French political newspapers. 
We have before us the third numero o 
"Random notes on natural liistorv" publish- 
ed by Southwick and Jencks, of Providence, 
R. I., from which we discover the existence 
of a Rhode Island entomological society. 
From the first (March) numero of "Prob- 
lems of nature," to be published semi-month- 
ly at New York, under the editorship of H. 
P. Philbrook, we learn still less. We learn 
that Mr. Winfrid A. Stearns, of Amherst, 
Mass.. proposes to start a monthly journal, 
to be devoted to the interests of Massachu- 
setts natural history, and to be called the 
"Bulletin of the natural history of the state 
of Massachusetts." We can decide better 
upon the merits of this bulletin with a long 
name, after we see a copy of it. Its price is 
one dollar a year, and it is approved and 
aided by the officers of the State agricultural 
college at Amherst. 

Many enthusiasts wish practically to pro- 
mote the natural sciences by publications, 
they can do better by increasing the effective- 
ness of established journals than by wasting 
their energies in overcoming the friction of 
numerous new machines, for each separate 
journal requires as much unproductive labor 
in its merely mechanical working as all com- 
bined would need, while the same energy 
concentrated on one working machine would 
all be utilized. 



i:>-2 



rs]i III-:. 



'I'liE J \MARV luimero of the Deiitsc/ier 
bienenfieumi contains an interesting article 
on Professor R. Leuckart of Leipzig univer- 
sity, with special reference to his contriljii- 
tions to our knowledge of bees. The article, 
which is accompanied by a full-page portrait 
of Prof. Leuckart, was written liy Dr. Oskar 
Krancher, lately a student in Leuckart's 
laboratory. As Leuckart, who is now si.\ty 
years old, has done much excellent work for 
entomology in the midst of his extensive 
zoological investigations, and has been 
the teacher of manj' young zoologists who 
have studied the anatomy of insects, I may 
be pardoned for translating a part of what 
Dr. Krancher truly says of the secret of his 
ability as an educator. "One needs only to 
be present at a single -lecture to discover the 
reason for this extraordinarily large atten- 
dance. Animated diction, eminent gift of 
eloquence, . pleasant, flexible tenor voice, 
knack at experimenting, finally' the gift of 
teaching and explaning in the clearest man- 
ner, these faculties combine to make Leukart 
one of the best instructors of Leipzig univer- 
sity." "In his laboratory he proves himself 
the true 'friend' of the students, now and 
then taking active hold in the tasks of the 
several workers." (i: D. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. ni., 
on the davs following: — 

12 Oct. 1SS3. 14 Mar. 1SS4. 

9 Nov. " II Apr. ■' 

14 Dec. ■' 9 May " 

II Jan. 1884. 13 June " 

8 Feb. " 

G. DiMMOCK, Secretary. 



The New York Entomological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July aiui 
August, but no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry. Edwards, Secretary. 

The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



Natural History will be held at N. \V. cdther 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston. Mass. 
at 7.45 p. m., on the days following: — 

24 Oct. 18S3. 27 Feb. iSS|. ", 

2$ Nov. " 26 Mar. ■ 

26 Dec. " 23 Apr. •• 

23 Jan. 1884. 28 May " 

Edward Burgess, ■5<'c/-c/rti 

The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, Pa., will be held \ 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sts., on the ' 
days following : — 

12 Oct. 1SS3. 14 Mar. 1S84. 

9 Nov. " II Apr. " 

14 Dec. " 9 May " 

1 1 Jan. 1884. 13 June " 

8 Feb. " 

James H. Ridings, Recorder. 



The semi-annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. corner of 19th and Race Sts.. Philadelphia, 
Pa., on the days following : — 

10 Dec. 18S3. 9 June 1SS4. 

J.^MES H. Ridings. Recording Secretary. 



The regular monthly meetings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal. Q^ie.. 
Canada, on the days following: — 

2 Oct. J8S3. 5 Feb. 1884. 

6 Nov. " 4 Mar. " 

4 Dec. " 1 .\pr. " 

8 Jan. 18S4. 6 M:iy •'_ 

(;. ]. Bowles, Secretary- 



The monthly meetings of the •jr;>oMyn 
Entomological Society will be held in the 
rooms of Wright's Business College, Broad- 
way, corner of Fourth Street, Brooklyn, 
E. D., the last Saturday of each nionlli ex- 
cept July and August. 

F. G. ScHAUiM', Sccrct.iry. 



No. U7-113 were issued 8 April 1884. 



^:;>-»"^'* "^-' ^ 



P S YC H m^ 

J^ JOXJK.DNr.iA^L. OF ETSrTO]^OLOC3-"y. 




S.?2>l;m 






[Established in 1S74.] 



EDITED Br 



1? : PicKMAN Mann, lVaskhigto7i. D. C. ; G : Dimmock, Cambridge^ Mass.; 
Albert J: Cook, Lansing., Mich.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal., 
III.; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany^ N. 2^; ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Lawrence, Kansas; W : Trelease, Madison, Wise. 



Vol. 4. No. 120. 

April 1S84. 

CONTENTS: 

Advertisements .............. 154 

The Bibliography of Entomology. Annual Address of the Retiring 
President of the Cambridge Entomological Cluh. 11 January, 1SS4 — 
Beiijamin Pickman Mann. .......... 155-iSy 

Sexu.vl Attraction in Prionus — Anna Katheiina Dimmock ..... 159 

Proceedings of Societies — Cambridge Entomological CUib ..... 160 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3434-3454 ........ 161-162 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings ........ 163-164 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS, 20 c. 

[Entered as second class mail matter.] 



154 



rsrcHE. 



[April 18S4.] 



Psyche, A Journal_of Entomology. 

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION, ETC. 

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^^~ Commencing with the numero for January 
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one regular copy and, if he desires it, one copy 
printed on one side of thin paper (for pasting 
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Subscription to volume 4 {iZZ^^-xZi^) , as above , 
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The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
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COCCIDAE n-ANTEB. 
Tlie undersigned is desirous of obtaining, by ex- 
change or other\vise, specimens of as many species of 
the Coccidae as possible, for the purpose of making 
a study of the North American forms. Those found 
infesting cultivated plants especially desired. Living 
specimens preferred when they can be obtained. 
J. Henry Comstock, 
Department of Entomology. 

The Cornell University, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHN, 
Berlin N. W., Carlstrasse 11. 

Natural History .ind Natural Science Booksellers 
established since 1827. 

Largest stock of the whole Literature of .Natural 
History and the Exact Sciences. 

Apply for classified calalogue in 25 parts (eacli one 
special department of science), price 10 c. each.— 
Just published. Part IX. Entomology 1. (General 
Entomology.^Coleoptera.l 46 p. about 2000 works. 
— X. Entomology 2. (Lcpi<loplera), comprising 
among others the library of the late Prof. P. C. Zcl- 
ler, 30 p., about 1300 works. — XI. Entomology j. 
(Hymenopiera. Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Diptera, 
Hemiptera, Parasita.) 34 p. about 1500 works. 



PATENTS 

MUXN & CO., of tho SciKXTiFir AMr.uirAN, con- 
tinue to act 119 S")Ucttiirs fur JVil^.tts. Cuvt'iits. Tnido 
Marks, Cupyrlfrlits, for tlio t'niied Stati's. Cuiiuda, 
Enplanci, Kninct*. Gprmiiiiv. eic. Hainl Book about 
l*Ati>nts sent friv. Tliirl y-«'v<»n vt'urs' p.viuTlenco. 
PatentsoNtJifiH'd tlimuL'li MTNN .^ CO. ur*' noticed 
In tbc PoiKNTiFK- AMKRlCAN'. tlio Ijir^ost, bost. and 
most wiUuly clrculnted srli-nrillc i»;ipi>r. :f.l.*JOa year. 
Wc'L'kly. Siilcmliii fiiuriiv itii:-. aii'l Intcrt-stinj: In- 
formation. SpL-ciriH'ii i-.'pv (.f ( hf Srieniiflc Aiiier- 
Icnn sent fnc. A-Mn-s MINN \ CO . SiIEXTIFIC 
AUEIUCAN Offlco, a;i Broadway, Now York. 



PSYCHE. 

THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

AXNUAL ADDRESS OF THE RETIRIXG PRESIDEXT OF THE CAMBRIDGE ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL CLUB, II JANUARY 1SS4. 



Fcllo-v JMeml'crs of the Cambridge 

E)!to)]iological Club : — 

I tliank \ou for the honor you were 
pleased to confer upon nie a year ago, 
in electing me to be your president, an 
office which to my regret I could fill 
only in name. I look upon this action 
of yours as a recognition of my interest 
in your work and of my earnest endeay- 
ors to promote it. My absence from 3'our 
meetings has not weakened my deyotion 
to the cause which under your auspices 
I huye sought, din'ing the last ten years, 
tij adyance. 

Ten years of the life of the club haye 
expired, in which the membership of 
the club has enlarged and grown in in- 
fluence. A bright future is before us 
if we only strive in unison to carry out 
the purposes for vyhich our club was 
formed, in the most liberal spirit, giying. 
and trusting for the returns. 

I need not dwell upon retrospect nor 
prophecy. You know the past, and 
vou have the future in your own con- 
trol. 

I welcome this opportunity, dictated 
by custom and by vr)ur laws, to express 



my thoughts upon that part of our work 
as a club witli which I have been most 
concerned. It will not seem to you un- 
natural for me to speak of the Bibliogra- 
phy of entomology, its purposes and 
its methods. I will not go into its 
history, for I prefer rather to consider 
its future. 

We are fortunate in having in our 
midst and reckoning as one of our num- 
Ijer the prince by excellence of the bib- 
liographers of entomology. We count 
also amongst our members others \vho 
have rendered efficient service in this 
useful and laborious art. One can hard- 
h' think of the Cambridge entomolog- 
ical club without thinking of Psyche 
or of Psyche w^ithout thinking of its 
Bibliographical record. We are there- 
fore prepared in an especial manner to 
appreciate tlie importance of bibliogra- 
phical work as applied to the promotion 
of science. 

The need of such work is evidently 
felt in these da}^s moi'e than ever before. 
Since we entered upon our work we 
have seen bibliographical departments 
established as an important feature in 



i.j(; 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1SS4. 



iiKiii\' periodical publications, and some 
such publications cstablishetl, ns Psyche 
was, mainlv for the sake of their bililio- 
graphical departments. 

Bibliography is not a science and 
yet without it the sciences would fare 
hardly in these times. By it the hidden 
treasures of acquired knowledge are 
brought to light. Without it liie ad- 
vance of knowledge would be slow". 
The ever increasing mass of literature 
is a wilderness, which no one can trav- 
erse throughout, into which few can 
penetrate deeply, in whose recesses are 
scattered, with little order, the gathered 
riches of innumerable workers. He 
who would not spend hi.s life in doing 
anew' what has been done before him, 
and often well done, must have access to 
these acquired stores. Without guides 
he would become lost, he would lind 
little of that for which he seeks and in 
the search would lose his time and his 
way. The index is to the traveler in 
this wilderness more than the compass 
to the mariner. It is the guiding hand 
which leads him from store to store, 
and places at his disposal all that he 
wants, or points out to him the empty 
coflcrs yet to be filled. Thus are iiis 
labors spared and his strength saved for 
the work that is yet to be done. 

I presume that 30U all are bibliogra- 
phers, in varied degrees. You have 
your several studies, and you make 
your several indices iii relation thereto. 
You are interested to promote the 
formation of indices of which you may 
make use, or l)v which you may render 
service to others. I have labored long, 
as you know, to construct a bibliogra- 



phy, not so much of any spccialtv in 
entomology, as of the sul)ject as a 
whole. 

We have many bibliographical pub- 
lications at our service now, for the rec- 
ord of current literature. Such works of 
frequent issue as the Zoologischcr anzei- 
gcr and the Naturae novitates serve 
an excellent pinpose for temporary use. 
By them little of value escapes mention. 
Their form and style arc not suited, 
however, to the characteristics of a 
permanent and comprehensi\ e biblio- 
graphy. In tiieir bibliographical de- 
partment they are little more tiian lists 
of writings, without those references to 
reviews, extracts and reprints, which 
serve for the history of literature, and 
which have a more tlian liibliographical ' 
value. They arc not adapted for ready 
reference by means of indices, anil in- 
deed hardly pretend to be more than 
temporary guides to current literature, 
for the especial benefit of those workers 
who are ever tumbling over each other 
in their haste to get at the latest develop- 
ment of science, and to move forward. 

The annual records, such as the Zoo- 
logical record and tlie Zoologischcr 
jahresbericht, are more than biblio- 
graphies in their essential features, but 
less in others. They too give lists 
of titles, but without the bibliographical 
descriptions. The bibliography, such 
as it is, is almost buried in the mass of 
the reviews. These works are not so 
much guides to literature as contribu- 
tions to it. tiiemselvcs requiring guides. 
They treat of the substance of tiie litera- 
ture more than of its form, and tiiis so 
copiously tiiat in the course of years 



April 1SS4.] 



PSYCHE. 



157 



they become like foi-ests themselves, the 
trees indeed planted in rows, but those 
of one kind so far apart and interspersed 
with others, that the}' can only be found 
bv a tedious search. 

I do not wish to seem to find fault 
with these works. I recognize their 
value for the piu'poses of their being. 
I only say of them that they have not 
certain characteristics which they do 
not pretend to have. We have yet to 
finil the bibliography that we need, per- 
manent, complete, limited to bililio- 
graphical simplicity and convenient of 
reference. 

For the early literature there is no 
need to attempt to improxe upon 
Hagen's Bibliotheca entomologica.^ 
ISIy lemarks apply to literature subse- 
quent to that there recorded, including 
such omissions from and corrections of 
that work as occasion may present. 
The time may come in which a sup))le- 
ment to that work will be published, in 
some similar form, supplanting all lesser 
bibliographies, as that has supplanted all 
earlier ones. Until that time the best 
that we can do is to form a current 
bibliography, upon a simple and uni- 
form plan, adapted to serve all the 
\aried purposes which are to be sought 
in such a work. It may seem superflu- 
ous for me to attempt to describe the 
principles upon which I think such a 
^vork shoidd be constructed. 

You have granted me so great liberty 
in the editorial management of Psyche 
that I have been enabled, as improve- 
ments in the form of the bibliographical 

iPsyche, Rec, no. 3306. 



record have been suggested, to put them 
into practice. I am largely indebted to 
mj' principal colaborer in the editorship 
for many of these improvements. Many 
changes have been made and probably 
many others will be made, but the 
essential features have so far remained 
the same throughout. Hagen's Biblio- 
theca served as a model in the beginning, 
and except in detail little change has 
been matle since. 

It is useless in a current bibliography 
to preserve an)' classification of matter. 
In the early volumes of Psyche the 
attempt was niade to bring together the 
whole contents of volumes in a continu- 
ous record, but the disadvantages of the 
plan were foimd to overbalance its ad- 
vantages. In such a plan the whole 
contents of a volume must be held back 
imtil the volume is finished, and other 
works which are connected •with the 
former by cross-references must be post- 
poned to them. This plan has few ad- 
\'antages, moreover, as reference is rare- 
ly made to the contents of works by 
volumes. In later volumes of Psyche 
little or no attempt has been made at the 
classification of matter. 

The whole problem of classifica- 
tion is solved b)' the publication of 
the record in form suitable for the con- 
struction of card catalogs. The only 
feature of the work which is marred by 
the card catalog arrangement is the se- 
quence of the current numeros used for 
the purposes of the index. 

Some persons will choose to arrange 
their card catalogs by subjects, and 
others in chronological order, but I have 



158 



PSYCHE. 



April 1SS4. 



louiid the most convenient air 'n<j;enient 
to lie that hv authors, alphaheticallv and 
with titles arranged alphalielicallv under 
the names of the authors, the index 
being relied on for reference bv subjects 
or in any other manner desirable. This 
requires, so long as the index is made 
by the use of the current numeros, the 
presenation of a copy of the record in 
its original form. 

During the past three years I have been 
engaged, amidst other duties, in writing 
that bibliography of economic ento- 
mology which was projected by the 
United States entomological commission 
in 1881,^ and was turned over to the 
United States Department of agriculture 
upon the extinction of the commission. 
This I have prepared strictlv in accord 
with the methods adopted in Psvche, and 
I have hopes that it may appear so, when 
published. It has been necessarj' to 
index this in large part in advance of its 
publication, and while yet it was in pro- 
cess of formation, so that tlie current nu- 
meros were not yet attached tt) it. Under 
these circumstances the reference has 
been made in every case by the citation 
of the name of the author and of the 
title of the article. This method of 
reference, though less compact than the 
mere citation of a numero, has the ad- 
vantage of being universally applicable, 
wherever the title may be found under 
the author's name. 

The convenience of reference by a 
single series of numeros to the whole 
of the bibliography, however extensive 
it may become, seems to me one of the 

^ circular la of U. S. entoinnIogic;iI commission, Jan- 
uary ist, 18S4. 



most desirable features to be embodied 
in such a work. 

One of the greatest objections to the 
aniUKil records of literature, or to anv 
other partial l^ibliographv. from a bib- 
liographical standj^oint, is in the neces- 
sity, there present, of consulting many 
indices to find all the references to a _ 
single subject. No other form of refer- 
ence is so compact, so definite and by 
so easily understood a S3'mbol, as a sim- 
ple numerical reference. With .such 
means of reference available, new indi- 
ces, coinplete to date, can be published 
from time to time, more readily than 
imder any other circumstances, 

I have now sketched briefly to you a 
few thoughts upf)n the desirable features 
of a permanent, complete, simple bib- 
liography, convenient of reference. I 
have assumed that the characteristics of 
such a bibliography, are to be found in 
Psyche. It is true that the biblio- 
graphical record of Psyche is not com- 
plete, but that is not the fault of its 
plan ; only the misfortune of its circum- 
stances. However umeasonable it mav 
be to hope that these circumstances will 
yet so change, that the record in Psyche 
may be made complete, I still hope it 
may see better days. If I am not astray 
in my appreciation of it, it will at least 
serve as a model. 

I hope yet to sec an index to the liter- 
ature of entomology, which will em- 
body the features I have set forth, or 
better ones. .Such a work could well 
be imdertaken in connection with the 
work of some scientilic station where en- 
tomology is a special feature, and which 
is provided with the necessary means 



April 1884.] 



PSl'CIIE. 



15'J 



tVii- its accomplislinient. And if so but beg you to remember that if not 
undertaken .and carried out, it shordd be felicitous of speech I am constant (jf 



a worlv which couLl he pointed at with 
pride. I would fain see this chil) the 
author of it. 

I would gladlv have contributed to 
voru' nieetiu" a more worthy adtlress, 



heart, and shall ever wisli you prosper- 
ity' and good fellowship in your future. 

Respectfully, 

B: Pick man Mann. 



SEXUAL ATTR.VCTION IN PRIOXUS. 



BY ANNA KATHERINA DIM 

Late in the summer of 1SS3 my atten- 
tion was drawn to the sudilen appear- 
ance of a large number of holes in the 
garden, which, upon closer observation, 
proved to he the exits of numerous 
beetles of tlie genus Prionits. Having 
heard that the attraction of the male by 
the feiiiale was not common among co- 
leoptera, and finding no notice of such 
attraction in' the above-mentioned cole- 
optera, I captui'ed a large female which 
was fount! in the grass with oviposi- 
tor distended and greatly protruded. 
Scarcely had the feniale been secured 
before a male Prioniis appeared ; he 
ran and flew, by alternation, meanwhile 
, rapitllv palpitating his antennae, about 
and around the tent, inside of which the 
female had been confined ; finally, dis- 
covering the entrance to the tent, he flew 
in and lit directly on the screen under 
which the feniale had been put. After 
the appearance of the first male another 
was seen to approach the tent. He 
went through a similar performance to 
that of the first one, finally alighting on 
the cage. In this manner a great man)' 
male specimens of Priotius were taken 
in the course"of an afternoon. On ac- 
count of the presence of so many males 



MOCK, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

a number of females made their appear- 
ance, showing an attraction of the 
female to the male like that above-noted 
of males attracted by females. Instances 
similar to those just described, that is, 
of male insects attractetl by females of 
the same species, ha\e been frequently 
recorded in lepidoptera, especially 
among the bombycidae; but among the 
coleoptera such cases are, I think, more 
rarely met with, the only instance to my 
knowledge being the one originally 
mentioned by Prof. F. H. Snow,'' and 
quoted by Mr. J. A. Lintner.^ Prof. 
Snow found males of Polvpliylla vario- 
losa vigorously scratching the ground 
above places where females were about 
to emerge, presumably guided to these 
places, as Mr. Lintner suggests, by the 
sense of smell, rather than, as Prof. 
Snow supposed, by that of hearing. 

The most remarkable pai't of the sex- 
ual attraction manifested by Prioiius is 
that of the females being attracted by the 
males, a kind of attraction concerning 
which I have founil no notice whatever. 
2 Mar. iSS-f. 

• Trans. Kans. .icad. sci., 1S74, p. 27-2S. 

2 Lintner, ist ann. rept. insects N". Y., 1SS2 [1SS3], p. 71. 



IGO 



PSYCHE. 



[April 1884. 



FSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., APRIL. 1S84. 

Communications^ exchanges and editors^ copies 
should be addressed to Editors of Psyche, Cam. 
bridge, Mass. Communications for publication in 
Psyche must be properly authenticated, and no anony- 
mous articles will be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
statements made in their own communications. 

Works on subjects not related to entomology will not 
be reviewed in Psyche, 

For rates of subscription and of advertising, see ad- 
vertising columns. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 
{Continued from p. 14^.) 

12 Oct. 1SS3. — The 95th meeting of the 
Club was held at 19 Brattle Street, Cam- 
bridge, 12 Oct. 1883. In the absence of the 
President, Mr. S. H. Scudder was chosen 
Chairman. Four persons were present. 

The Secretary announced the reception of 
a box containing a brood of young larvie of 
Pafilio philcnor, in fine condition. The 
Secretary received no clue as to the name of 
the sender, the box having written on it only, 
" Pafilio fhi!cnor,Sia.\.cn Island, June iSth 

1SS3." 

Messrs. Hayward, Sprague, and Dimmock 
announced captures of rarer diurnal Icpidop- 
tera in Massachusetts. [See Psyc/ie, Sept.- 
Oct. 1SS3, V. 4, p. 99-100.] 

Mr. S. H. Scudder made some remarks 
upon fossil species a{ Rapliidia and Inocellla 
from the Florissant Basin, in Colorado. The 
one species of RafJiidia and four species of 
Inocellia differ structurally from living forms. 
One species of Inocellia, not dift'ering struct- 
urally from those found living, has been 
found in amber. 

The Secretary read a letter from Miss 
Eleanor C. Scott, of Flushing, N. Y., who 
inquired in regard to a very small luminous 



insect. None of the members present could 
give information about the insect without a 
fuller description than the one sent. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder announced the death of 
Prof Oswald Heer, of Zurich, Switzerland, 
well known as an author upon fossil insects 
and plants. Mr. Scudder showed a photo- 
graph of Prof. Heer and made some remarks 
upon his works. 

9 Nov. 1SS3. — The 96th meeting of the 
Club was held at 19 Brattle Street, Cam- 
bridge, 9 Nov. 1SS3. In the absence of the 
President, Mr. R. Hayward was chosen Chair- 
man. Three members were present. 

Mr. G. Dimmock read a paper " On some 
glands which open externally on insects," 
illustrating the paper with a few specimens 
of insects having such glands. [The paper is 
published in Psyche, v. 3, p. 3S7-401.] 

Mr. R. Hayward exhibited specimens of 
Bolitothcrus bifiirciis, and called attention to 
the pubescence on the posterior femora and 
on the horns, and to the length of the carina 
of the head, all secondary sexual characters 
of the male of this species. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder made some remarks on 
G. B. Buckton's "Monograph of British 
aphides," of which the fourth volume has 
just appeared. 

14 Dec. 1883. —The 97th meeting of the 
Club was held at the Secretary's house, 54 
Sacramento Street, Cambridge, 14 Dec. 1883. 
In the absence of the President, Mr. R. Hay- 
ward was chosen Chairman. Five persons 
were present. 

The Secretary announced the withdrawal 
from the Club of Mr. T. J. Mathews, of Gray- 
ville. 111., who had written that on account of 
increase in his business he had no time now 
to devote to entomology ; also the withdrawal 
of Mr. A. P. Chadbourne, of Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Mrs. .\. K. Dimmock showed a collection 
representing stages of 38 species of insects 
which are found upon lielula alba, the white 
birch. [An account of this collection will be 
given in Psyclie.'\ 



April iSS4.] 



PSrCHE. 



[3434-3440] 161 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Authors and societies die requested to J'orzuard their tvork-s to the editors as soott as 
fiiiblished. The date of publication., given in brackets [], marks the time at xtjhich the 
7<.'orh zvas received^ unless an earlier date 0/ publication is hnoivn to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherwise slated each record is made directly from the xvork that is noticed. 



most common given 7tame^ as: 

Edward; F: Frederic; G: 

JV: Nicholas; O. 

The initials at the 



M: Mart;; 
William. 



A colon after initial designates the 
iamin; C: Charles; D: David; E 
I: Isaac; J: John; K: Karl; E: Louis 
Richard: S: Samuel: T: Thomas; W: 
vote, arc those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and jiotices of omissions are solicited. 

Lubbock, J : On flowers and insects. (Lub- 
bock, J : Scientific lectures, Lond. and N. 
Y., Macmillan, 1S79, p. 1-30, fig. 1-30.) 
Treats of the cross-fertilizution of nhints :rnd the 

modes by which it is accomplished; rapiuity of visits of 

wasps and bees in collecting honey ; coU)r sense in bees. 

G: D. (343t) 



A: Augustus; B:. Ben- 
George: H: Henry; 
Otto; P: Peter; R: 

end of each record, or 



Lubbock, J : On the habits of ants. (LuB- 

BdCK.J: Scientific lectures, Lond. and N. 

v., Macmillan, 1S79, P- 6S-96, fig. 45.) 

Treats of the metamorphoses, food, domesticated 

unhides and other insects in tiic nest, enemies and mode^ 

of warfare, industry, longevity, association with one 

another, slavery, division of labor, intelligence, engin 

eering, recollection of associates, smell, hearing, sight, 

and coniinunities of ants. G: D. C3435) 



Lubbock. J: On the habits of ants: coti- 
tinued. (LuBBOCK, J: Scientific lectures, 
Lond. and N. Y., Macmillan, 1S79. P' 97" 

137. fig- 4'5-Si-) 

Treats of the absence nf nficction for one anotlier, 
iccniinition of associates, hatred of strang-ers, agriciil- 
turaf skill (exemlipficd by pogovomyrmex barlnitus), 
cooperation, power of coniiininication (compared witii 
that of bees and wasps), power and mode of findiii;^' 
their way (compared witli ttiat (»f bees and wasps), abi- 
litv or absence of ability to ]irodnce and hear sounds, 
and power of discriminating; colors, of ants, ending" with 
a comparison of the advancement amontj dift'crtnt kinds 
of ants to "the three great phases : tlie hunting;, pastoral 
and agricultuial stages, in the history of human develop- 
ment." G: D. (34.VJ) 

Lubbock, f : On plant:^ and insects. (Lub- 
bock, J: Scientific lectufes, Lond. and N. 
Y., Macmillan, 1879, p. 31-67, fig. 31-44.) 
Treats of the use of honey by plants .-)s an attraction 
for Hying' insects, in order to secure cross-fertih'zation, 
and as an attraction for ants, to act as protectors for the 
jilant; structures to keep ants out of llowers ; modifica- 
tions of insects to imitate phmts, and thus escape ene- 
mies; forms and colors of larvae do not depend upon 
those of the matui-e msect, but upon larval habits; rich- 
ness of adaptive modihcations illustrated by a brief des- 
cription of the transformations of sitaris; protective 
coloration of lepidopterous larvae, especially of sphin- 
gidae. [Most of the facts in regard to the hirvae of 
sphingidae are, according to author (p. 52), fi'om Weis- 
mann's '*Studien zur descendenz-theorie. 11. 

G: D. (3437) 



Lubbock, }\ Scientific lectures. Lond. and 
N. Y., Macmillan d- co., 1879. i2-|-iS8 [+ 
adv.] p., il. ; I, pi., 23X14.5, t 17X9.S. cl., 
$2. so. 

Notice. (Nation. i6 Oct. 1879, v. 29, 
p. 262.) 

Rev. (Westminster rev. [Amer. ed.], 
Oct. 1S79, p. 2S7-2SS, 48 cm.) 

Rev. (Amer. journ. sci. and arts, Nov. 
1879, s. 3. V. iS, p. 41S.) 

Rev. bvA. R. W[allace], entitled -'Lub- 
bock's Scientific lectures." (Nature, 7 
Aug. 1S79, V. 20, p. ,335-336: 3Scm.) 
Contains six lectnres, by author, witli following titles, 
ivhich see: — I. On flowers and insects [Rec, 3434], p. 
1-30. — 3. On plants and insects [Uec. 3437] p. 31- 
67. — 3. On the habits of ants [Rec, 3435J, p. dS-96. 
— 4. On the habits of ants ; continued [Kec, 3436], p. 
97-137. — 5 and 6 ["not entomological]. G: D. C343S) 

Miiller, Hermann. Die bedeutung der hon- 
igbiene fiir unsere blumen. [No. 1-9.] 
(Eichstadter bienenzeitung, 1875, v. 31: 15 
Apr., p. Si-82; 15 >Lay, p. 102-104; 31 
May, p. 109-111; 15 June, p. 122-125; 15 
Jul}-, p. 13S-141 ; 31 July, p. 165: 1876, V. 
32: 31 Jan., p. 20-22; i June, p. 1 19-123; 
15 July, p. 176-184.) 

Abstract of nos. 8-9. by H. iVIiiller, under 
full title. (Bot. jahresbericht . . .Just, 1S76, 
V. 4, p. 946, 7 cm.) 

A series of nine articles, as follows: i. The Spren- 
i^el-Darwinian theory of flowers. 2. The adaptation of 
Iiniiiim (ilbiaii to hombufi. 3. The mutual adaptations of 
hcmhiis and flowers which it visits. 4. The gradual 
development of the pnllen-baskets of apis. 5. Gradual 
ctn-related increase in the care for their young, and in 
the pollen-bearing efficiency of tetlthrediuidae, cynip- 
idac, ichneufnoitidae and splic^idae. 6. The care o'f cer- 
tain sphegidae ipompilifs) for tlieir young. 7. What 
bees have inherited from lower liymenoptera, and what 
they have acquired for themselves. 8. Statistical com- 
liarison of the floral activity nf lower liymenoptera. 9. 
Statistical comparison of the floral activity of the lower 
and higher bees. //. M. (3 1.W) 

Miiller, Hermann. Die stellung der honig- 
biene in der blumemvelt. i. (Bienen-zei- 
tnng, 15 Jan. 1SS2, jahrg. 38, p. 22-24.) 
Records the visits of apis iiieUifica to anemophilous 

flowers. ' W: T. (3440) 



1G2 [344 '-3454] 



psrciiE. 



(April lSS4. 



Ormerod, Eleanor A. Effects of warmth 
and surroiiiuliiig atmospheric conditions 
on silkworm larvae. (Entomologist, June 
1SS2, V. 15, p. i;!7-i29.) 
Experiments iijion the effects of temperature and 

wxavi^wxn'nxXK-Arin'^lwmbyx inori. Q: D. (3441) 

P[ackard], A[lpheus] S[pring, y>.]. The 
insects of May. (Amer. nat.. May 1867, v. 
I, p. 162-164. 3 fi."-) 

Figures carpocapsa pnmottetlu, pli^'ifobyotica vittatity 
and conolruchelux 7teilitphar, and gives brief notes on 
many other insects. G: D, (3442) 

Osten Sacken, C : Robert. Dimorphism of 

female blepharoceridae. fEntom. mo. 

mag., Feb. 18S1, v. 17, p. 206.) 

Notice of private letter from F. Miiller, proving 

"three facts, new to the student of hlcpharoceridae: i, 

that male and female do not always have the head and 

tlie front of the same structure; 3, that some species 

may have two forms of females; 3, that one of these 

forms has the organs of the mouth built upon a plan 

different from thelype hitherto described as peculiar to 

the female." B: P. M. (3443) 

Patton. W: Hampton. Description of the 
species of macroph. (Entoin. mo. mag., 
July iSSo, V. 17, p. 31-35.) 

Describes vtacropis ciHata n. sp., and m. pntellata 
n. sp., and varieties of the former; remarks upon the 
criteria nf species in this genus, and iijion tlie distinct- 
ness of the forms hitherto described as separate species 
in Kurope. B: P. M. (3444) 

Renter, Odo Moraunal. Diagnoses quatuor 
no varum pentatomidarum. (Entoni. tno. 
mag., Mch. iSSi, v. 17, p. 233-234.) 

Describes 2 new species of carhula from tlie Amur 
and China, edessa fu^ridorsota n. s]). from Mexico and 
Bogota, and aspongopus ntgroaencus n. sp, from Siam. 

B: P. M. (3445) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Galls on supposed 
dock. (Amer. entom. and hot.. May 1S70, 
V. 2, p. 212, 4 cm.) 

Gdechia gallaU'Rolidaffitiis forms galls on stems of 
solidago; ^asirophysa cyanea breeds on riitttex. 

B.P.M. (3446) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Raspberry gouty 
gall. (Amer. entom., Feb. 1S70, v. 2, p. 
I2.S, II cm., fig. 90.) 

Ravages of and means against ng^rihis ruJtroUiK; 
description and figure of larva. B:P.At. (3447) 

[Riley, C : Valentine.] Raspberry root-gall. 
(Amer. entom. and hot., .Xpr. 1S70, v. 2, p. 
181, 13 cm., fig. no.) 

Description and tigure of gall of rhoJites radintm, 
occurring on roots of r«.¥aavftf and especially a^ rosii; 
genera of parasites raised from it; inleiesl of the ques- 
tion of the manner and extent of parasitizatinn of this 
gall. B. P. M. (34-18) 



[Riley, C : Valentine.] Rose-gall and pupa 

of archippus butterfly. (Atncr. entoni. and 

hot., Sep. 1S70. V. 2. "p. 307, 7 cm., fig.' 189.) 

Figure of pupa of dantiis archippus; brief dcscrip. 

tions of three undetermined s))ecies of galls on rose.lcat, 

doubtless all formed by rhodites. B: P. M. (3449) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The solidago gall 
moth : t^elcc/iiu ^er/l(t('.<o/id(7^/»/s, n. sp. 
(istann. rept. state entom. Mo., [Mch.] 
1S69, p. 173-178, fig- 9M7; Pl- -. fig- I--- 
5-9-) 

Occurrence of galls of trypeta {an'nia) soiida^tnis 
on stems o( solidago 7tcmortiiis; deicription andfig'ures 
of gall, larva anil imago a{ ge/^c/iia gaflat'solidaginis 
and f)f imagns ^^f pirtnef n. sp., enrytoma bo/teri n. sp., 
and hcmitelesf mssonii n. sp. ; description <>t imago of 
t/n'crf>if(isfi'r gcUchiae n. sp., and mention nf phttpia n. 
sp. and ephitiltis n. sp., all these being parasites on tlie 
ge/i-chia; seasons, habits, food-jdants [solidago spp.] 
and geographical diKtribution oi ihtt geUrhia^ and habits 
nfthe piff/ift, hemiteUsf and ttiicrogasU-r and of an 
intruding larva perhaps ai' olu^rfa sp. ; comparison of 
the gt'lc'c/i ia and its gall with cochylis hilarana and its 
gall on arUmisia campestris in 1'" ranee. 

B:P.M. (3450) 

[Riley, C : Valentine] The trumpet grape- 
gall. Viii.'i vificola^O. S. (Amer. entom., 
Feb. 1S70, V. 2, p. 113-114, 19 cm., fig. 76.) 

Reprint of fig-ure of gall figured in [B : D. Walsh 
and C : V. Riley*s] "The trumpet grape-gall'* {op. r/'/., 
Sep. -Oct. iSog, p. 2S) [Rec, 3353], fig. 37, under the 
name of vitis-lituux; this gall previously described as 
thiit o{ ct-rido7i/yi^ viticola; occurrence of similar gall 
in England, on tiUa probably caused by mites. 

B:P.M. (3450 

[Walsh, B : Dann aftd C : Valentine Kiley.] 
An apple growing on a grape vine. 
(Amer. entom., Oct. 1S6S, v. i, p. 28, 12 
cm.) 

Extract from Richmond [Va.] 7i'/iigt with criticism; 
a gall o{ ct'cidomj'iii vitis-pomttm misiaken for an apple 
growing on a grape-vine. [Further accounts of the 
same given in (authors') "'1 he apple growing" on a 
jjrape vine" {op. cit., Nov. iSfiS, p. 54) (Rec, 3453), and 
'^ "Galls and their arcliitects" {op. ni., Feb. 



in (authors') ' 

1S59) (Rec.,3349),p. 106.] 



B:P.M. (3452) 



[Walsh, B : Dann (t//ff C : Valentine Riley.] 
The apple growing on a grape vine. 
(Amer. entom., Nov. 1S6S, v. i, p. 54, 7 cm.) 

The "vegetable phennmenon" described in [authors'] 
"An apple growing on a grape vine" {op. rit.y Oct. iS(vS, 
p. 2S) [Hec, 3453J proved tf> be a gall [described and 
figured as that of cecidomvia viiis-pomnm n. sp., in 
(authors') "Galls and their architects" {ojh. r/V., Feb. 
1S6.,) (Rec, 3349), p. 106]. B: A M. (3453) 

["Walsh, B : Dann and C : Valentine Riley.] 
Oak-leaf gall. (Amer, enlom., Se]>.-Oct. 
1869. V. 2, p. 29, 22 cm.) 

Description of galls of ceridomyia gufrrus-pillular 
and c. g.-[?:<yf)inu-ti'ico]: occurrence i^i tvnipidar wv. 
guests in galls of rtridotnyidac: ditfcrence between lar- 
vae of cynipidac and cccidomyidae; Iranstormations »tf 
cci-idomyia q.-pillulae and of the cynips inquilinous in 
its gall; distinction of the annual antf biennial groups 
v>i qucrcus and of the galls occurring on trees of the one 
or the other group. B: P. M. (3454) 



April iSS4.) 



PSYCHE. 



163 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

The Natural history socictv at Sprinj;- 
fickl, Mass., proposes to begin an insect col- 
lection. 

M. Adriex Dollfus, the editor of the 
Fciiitle deajciiiief- naiiirnti'sfcs, at 35, iiie 
Pierre-Charron, Paris, France, desires to ex- 
change European oiiiscoihi tor American spe- 
cies. 

The January numero of the American col- 
lege directory, published at St. Louis. Mo., 
contains a portrait of Dr. C : V. Riley, of 
Washington. D. C, with a brief notice of 
his life. 

The Dollfu.s prize of the French entom- 
ological society is awai-ded. for the year 1SS3, 
liy M. Ernest Andre, for his work entitled 
"Spdcies des formicide.s d'Europe et des pays 
limitrophes." 

Dh. Grass: has found that flies fed with 
materials which contain eggs of worms leaye 
these eggs in their excrement, and that con- 
sequently meat which was exposed to the vis- 
its of the flies could help in distributing para- 
sites. 

In the November session of the zoolog- 
ical section of the Westfalischer provincial- 
verein fiir wissenschaft und kunst, Mr. Piitt 
showed the crop of a pheasant which was 
full of larvae, about 15 millimetres long, 
belonging to some species of diptera. 
There were 411 larvae in the crop. 

It is announced that the Russian grand- 
duke Nikolai Michailowitsh, eldest son of 
grand-duke Michail, intends to issue in parts 
a fine work under the title "Menioires lepi- 
dopterologiques," the basis for which will be 
his own large collection of lepidoptera. rich 
in species which he collected in the Cau- 
casus. 

We learn from the Entoniologiits inoiit/ily 
magazine that the Ra\' society has accjuired 
the late Mr. William Buckler's drawings of 
the larvK of British macrolepidoptera, to- 
getherwith the voluminous manuscript which 
accompanies them, and they will probably 
form the subject for three or four yolumes of 
the society's publications. 



Dr. H. a. Hagen, in a letter to Science for 
II April 1SS4, shows that the Hessian fly was 
known by that name in the United States be- 
fore the Revolution. Qiiotations are given 
from the minutes of the American philosoph- 
ical society of Philadelphia, as earlv as iS 
May 176S, where the committee on husbandry 
was "to consider whether any method can be 
fallen upon tor preventing the damage done 
to wheat by the Hessian fly." 

In a brief suminary of the European spe- 
cies of lepidoptera with apterous or subapter- 
ous females, by Dr. R. C. R. Jordan, in the 
£niomologisr's montlily magazine for March 
1S84, it is shown that wingless lepidoptei'a 
exist in the following families : /ictcrogynidae, 
nrctiidae, hepialidae, psychidae (all species), 
lifinridac, uocli/idae (one species, Ulochlacna 
iiirta), geometridae, fyralidae (part of the 
females of Aceu/ropiis niveiis, which oviposit 
under water), fortricidac. tineidac. and tal- 
acporidae. 

Dr. Layet, of Bordeaux, has studied an 
eruptive disease to which workers in a large 
vanilla warehouse in that place are subject, 
and found that the disease is caused by a lit- 
tle insect (Acariis) which is found upon the 
outer end of the vanilla capsules. The in- 
sect does not boi'e into the skin, but causes 
the irritation by contact, aided perhaps by 
the mechanical action of acicular crystals 
which are upon the outside of the capsules. 

The poisonous properties of carbon disul- 
phide [CS2] have been investigated bv a 
number of doctors in California. The results 
show that continued breathing of carbon 
disulphide produces derangement. As is 
well known, carbon disulphide has been ex- 
tensively used in the wine-producing districts 
of California against phylloxera, and a num- 
ber of workmen, who were engaged in the 
wine districts, have becomeinsane. — Dculs-cli- 
anier. apotk.-zeitung, /j Feb. 18S4., p, 736. 

The numero of the Entomologist for March 
1S84 contains a note entitled "Description of 
a Pieris new to science. — Pier is spilleri, mi- 
hi. By A. J. Spiller," in Ayhich Mr. Spiller 



KM 



rsn HE. 



[April 1SS4. 



writes "As the insect is not in tlie Cape or 
British museum collections, and is unknown 
to collectors of exotic insects who have ex- 
amined it, and as Dr. Staudinger has pro- 
nounced it to be a new and interesting spe- 
cies, I beg therefore to name it after myself." 
Mr. Spiller may be congratulated on the 
delicacy of the compliment he has received in 
having the species thus named after him. — 
G: D. 

Mk. J. J. Walker, writing, in the Ento- 
mo/ogis/'s monthly magazine foi' March 18S4, 
of I'itcairn Island, that curious little inhab- 
ited island in the Pacific near Tahiti, which, 
although only two and a quarter miles long 
by less than one mile wide, rises to a height 
of 1000 feet above the sea, says : "No butter- 
fly is apparently found on the island, and I 
saw only a few common Tahitian moths; but 
I found, for the first time, the large 3'ellow- 
striped green larva of Choerocumpa crofiis on 
the 'Nono' plant, and a good many living 
pupiB of Sphinx convolvuli (equal in size to 
English specimens) were brought to me, 
having been found in the patches of sweet 
potatoes, of which a supply was then being 
dug up for the ship. Four species of coleo- 
ptera (a Tomicusf , two cossonid weevils, and 
a rhizophagoid .') occurred rarely." 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. m., 
on the days fc^llowing : — 

12 Oct. 18S3. 14 Mar. 1S84. 

9 Nov. " II Apr. ■' 

14 Dec. " 9 May " 

II Jan. 18S4. 13 June " 

S Feb. ■' 

G. DiMMOCK, Secrc/aiy. 



The New York Entomological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July and 
August, Ijjit no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry Edwards, Secrt-iary. 

The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



Natural History will be held at N. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston, Mass. 
at 7.45 p. m., on the days following: — 

24 Oct. 18S3. 27 Feb. 1SS4. 

28 Nov. " 26 Mar. " 

26 Dec. " 23 Apr. " 

23 Jan. 1884. 28 May " 

Edward Burgess, Sccre/aiv- 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, Pa., will be held 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sts., on the 
days following : — 

12 Oct. 18S3. 14 Mar. 1SS4. 

9 Nov. " II Apr. " 

14 Dec. " 9 May " 

n Jan. 1884. 13 June '• 

S Feb. " 

James II. Ridings, Recorder. 



The semi-annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. cornerof 19th and Race Sts.. Phihulel]iliia. 
Pa., on the days following : — 

10 Dec. 1S83. 9 June 1SS4. 

James II. Ridings, Recording Secre/ary. 



The regular monthly meetings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal. Qiie., 
Canada, on the days following: — 

2 Oct. 1883. 5 Feb. 18S4. 

6 Nov. " 4 Mar. '• 

4 Dec. " I Apr. " 

8 Jan. 1884. 6 M^y " . 

(j. J. Bowles, Sccrctarv. 



The monthly meetings of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society will be held in the 
rooms of Wright's Business College, Broad- 
way, corner of Fourth Street, Brooklyn, 
E. D., the last Saturday of each month ex- 
cept July and August. 

F. G. SCHAUPI". Sicrc/,irv. 



No. 119 was issued 3 May 1884. 



PSYCH B: 

J^ JOXJK,lSr.A.I_, OF EnSTTOMIOLOG-"^. 






[Established in 1S74.] 



EDITED D7' 



H: PiCKMAN Mann, WasJiington, D. C; G: Dimmock, Cambridge^ Mass. 
Albert J : Cook, Lansing, JMicJi. ; Stephen Alfued Forbes, Normal, 
III.; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany, N. 2". ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Laivrc?ice, Ka?isas ; W : Trelease, Madison, Wise. 



Vol. 4. No. 121. 

May 1884. 

CONTENTS: 

Advertisements .............. 166 

On the Life-Histories and Immature Stages of three Eumolpini. Cor- 
rective Note — Stephen Alfred Forbes ....... 167-16S 

Protective Secretions of Species of Eleodes — Samuel Wendell Willhton . 16S-169 
A Curious Habit of Callosamia promethea — yohn George Jack .... 169 

Proceedings of Societies — Cambridge Entomological Club ..... 170 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3455-3504 ........ 171-174 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings ........ 175-176 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

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ON THE LIFE-HISTORIES AND IMMATURE STAGES OF 
THREE EUMLOPINI. CORRECTIVE NOTE. 

BY STEPHEN ALFRED FORBES, NORMAL. ILLLN'OIS. 



I regret to li;ne to report a mistaken 
identification of tlie species of Scchr 
doiita mentioned in m}' paper "On the 
life-histories and immatnre stages of 
three cnmolpiiii (Psyche, Jan. -Feb. 
1SS4, V, 4, p. 123-130, pi. I). 

Wiien the imagos appeared in onr 
breeding cages last June (see Psyche, 
V. 4, p. 139), I sent a pair of them to 
Dr. J. L. Leconte. with a request that 
he woulil take the trouble to determine 
them for me ; and mentioned at the same 
time the economic relations of the 
species. 

In his reply, dated June 34, 1SS3, 
from Alexandria Bay, N. Y.. he says: 

"I have examined carefully the speci- 
mens of Gniphops \_Scclodo>ita'\. which 
were safely received just after 1113- ar- 
rival here. I find that they are witliout 
doubt G. pitbcsccns; that species difi'ers 
from allied ones G. ctirtipcnnis and 
G. marcassita. bv the more elongate 
form and by the punctuation being ru- 
gose only at the sides." 

With this decision I. of course, rest- 



ed content, until this month, when the 
reception of specimens of Scclodonta 
collected from evening primrose (yOoio- 
thcra biennis)^ in southern Illinois, in 
the vicinity of strawberry fields, led to 
a review of this determination. It was 
soon evident that these primrose speci- 
mens were of a different species from 
those breeding in strawberries, and had 
also a different life-history, since they 
were taken /// copula., in April, at which 
time the strawberry species was abun- 
dant in the earth, in the larval condition, 
not to appear as adult until June. 

As the primrose specimens agreed 
closely with all accessible descriptions 
of 5'. pubcscens, I enclosed to Dr. G. 
H. Horn a specimen of this lot, togeth- 
er with one from the lot bred from 
strawberry root-worms last June, with 
a statement of Dr. Leconte's previous 
identification of the latter as S. piibes- 
ccns. 

In his replj-, received this morning. 
Dr. Horn determines the jjrimrose spec- 
imen as 5'. puhescciis^ and that from the 



1G8 



I'SrCHE. 



(M:lv iSSi.). 



strawlicny as ^. iiebulosus^ saying fur- 
ther : 

"The names I now give you are ab- 
sokitely typical as fiir as Leconte's col- 
lection goes. Last summer his iiealth 
was so poor and his eyesight so decep- 
tive that I do not wonder that some of 
his comparisons were erroneous." 

VV'lien wc further notice that he was 
separated from his collection when he 



wrote me, it need not surprise us that 
for once Jove nodded. 

So far as tiie paper in Psyche is con- 
cerned, the errors will he eliminated if 
piibcscens is changed to ncbiilosmt 
wherever it occurs, as a reexamination 
of all the collections referred to shows 
that they consist of nchulosus only. 

nlinois stiite laboratory of i.ntural Iiislory, 
17 April 1SS4. 



PROTECTIVE SECl^E'l'IONS OF SPECIES OF ELEODES. 



BV SAMUEL WENDICI.I, WII.I.ISTON, NKW nA\EN. CONN. 



In connection with Dr. G : Dimmock's 
interesting article^ on the glands oi)ening 
externally in certain insects, it may be 
of interest to gi.ve some results of se\er- 
al years' observations of certain tcncbri- 
onidac on the Kansas plains. The 
following species, belonging to the genus 
Elcodcs^ viz., R. acuta, E. S7itura/is, 
E. iricostaia, E. obso/cta, E. cxtricata, 
E. langlcollis, and E. k/sp/7abris, are 
abundant in the regions east of the 
Rocky Mountains, some of them verv 
aiuuulant, antl with one or two exccj)- 
tions, they all, when distmbed, eject a 
pungent, vile-smelling liquid. Perhaps 
the most disagreeable of these, in this 
respect, is E. longicoUis., a beetle about 
two and a half centimetres long, which 
will eject a stream of fluid from the anal 
glands, sometimes to the distanc;; often 
centimetres or more. This liquid has a 
strong, persistent odor, and leaves a 
brown stain upon the skin. Whether 
acid or alkaline in its reaction 1 cannot 

'Psyclic, Sept.-Oct. 1S82 [1 Marcli 1SS4I, v. 3, p. 
3S7.401. 



sa\'. but its effect u]").')n the skin is ver\' 
much like the first solution of carbolic 
acid, though less strong. Several times 
I have had small quantities reach my 
eves. \\ ith disagreeable efibcts. Both 
sc.xes arc equallv pro\ide(l with the se- 
cretion, and, in in.lividuals which have 
not been exhausted, it is directed back- 
wanl with considerable force, as I once 
learneci to ni\ entire satisfaction. I had 
seized a fine, laige pair oi E. lotigicollix 
b\' the thorax and held them up. at 
\\ hat I deemed a safe ilist.mcc, for them 
to eject their vile secretion before plac- 
ing them in my collecting bottle. Lhi- 
fortunatch tliev were provided with an 
unusualiv large (juantitv, and, both eject- 
ing it sinndtaneoush , I I'cceived jt on 
m\ fice and hands. A very noteworthx 
hal)it, moreover, in the species of this 
genus at least, and a constant one is that, 
when approached, they stand almost 
vertically with the abdomen directed n])- 
wards ready the moment they are 
touched, to eject their mephitic secretion. 
Among the species given in the forego- 



M:iy 18S4. 



PSrCHE. 



169 



ing list, 011c (^E. tricostata^ if iiu' nu'iii- 
oiy secves aright) seems to lie entirely 
devoid of this secretion, but yet has the 
same habit of stantiing erect. These 
beetles are the veritable skLniks of their 
order, and tloubtless, like their ill-scented 
superiors, find protection in their com- 
paratively as formidable weapon. Thev 
are apterous, and slow in their move- 



ments, coiuing out from their hiding 
places when the sun is declining, and 
feed upon dead matter or excrements. 
On the hare plains thcj' arc readil}' seen, 
and I doubt not that they find protection 
from birds, and perhaps from skunks 
also, by means of their secretion. 

[For further inlnmiation on this siilijcct, 
see Rec, 1430-] 



A CURIOUS HABIT OF CALLOSAMIA PROMETHEA. 



BY JOHN GEOItGE JACK, CHATEAUGUAY BASIN, V. (J.., CANADA. 



Fon several years I have been very 
much puzzled, in summer, to account 
for numbers of green leaves, some being 
partly eaten, found on the ground be- 
neath trees having long petioied leaves, 
such as luaples and poplars, the jjetiolcs 
of which apparently liad been eaten 
through by some insect. Last summer, 
while in New Jersey, I noticed similar 
occurrences beneath a sweet gum tree, 
Liqttidambar stvrac/JJiia, and upon 
looking for the cause I found that it 
was the work of nearly full grown larvae 
of CaUosamia promcilica, which weie 
feeding on the foliage. The petioles 
of Liqiiida)>ibar leaves are usually 
\ery long (from s to 10 cm.) and quite 
slentler. 

To get at the leaves the caterpillar 
was cither obliged to abandon the 
liranch of the tree and crawl out on the 
leafstalk to the leaf, where it would be 
in a very dangerous position, with 
slight foothoUl, and where it was very 
]irobable that, owing to the w'cight of its 
lioih', it would break off the leaf at the 
node and fall to the ground ; or. the 



caterpillar must contrive to bring the 
leaf to Uself in some way, while still 
keeping a sure foothold on the branch. 
To do this last required a little skill 
and I found that the 'caterpillar was 
equal to the task. Grasping the twig 
firmly with the anal and sometimes one 
or two pairs of the abdominal legs, it 
would extend the remaining portion ot 
its body along- the leafstalk, which it 
commenced eating. As soon as the 
leafstalk was about half eaten through, 
the caterpillar would recede a little and 
eat another place half through or more, 
and sometimes a third place. By this 
time the leafstalk had become so weak- 
ened that the leaf began to droop, and 
the caterpillar, reaching forward again 
as far as possible and grasping the stalk 
beyond the first incision, v^'as able to 
bend it, and, drawing the leaf up to 
itself, eat it without loosing its sure 
foothold on the tree. 

Sometimes the leafstalk was eaten 
through a little too far, or broke oft" in 
bending, which accounted for the green 
leaves foiuid on the ground. 



170 



PSrCHE. 



[May 1SS4. 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., MAY 1S84. 

Communications^ exchnnges and editors^ copies 
should he addressed to Editors of Psyche, Cam, 
bridi^Cy Mass. Communications for pnblication in 
Psyche must he property authenticated , and no anony- 
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Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
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Works on subjects not related to entomology ivill not 
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PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL -CLUB. 

{Continued from p. tbo.) 

Mr. G. Dimmo(|l; showed the two halves of 
a split wing of Attacus recropia, in which 
the two layers of -the wing had been sep- 
arated by the following mode. The wing 
from a specimen that had never been dried is 
put first into seventy per cent, alcohol, then 
into absolute alcohol, and from the latter, 
after a few days' immersion, into turpentine. 
After remaining a day or two in turpentine, 
the specimen is plunged suddenly into hot 
water, when the conversion of the turpentine 
into vapor between the two layers of the 
wings so far separates the.se layers that they 
can be easily parted and mounted in the 
usual way as microscopical preparations on a 
slide. This is an easy way of demonstrating 
the sac-like nature of the wings of insects. 

Dr. II. A. Hagen showed preparations to 
illustrate organs, of undetermined function, 
found on the larvic o(ffom/>/ii<l<tr, lihv.tliiliilnc. 
ncsc/iniddc, but not as yet found on agriouidiie, 
which he believes to be traces of segmental 
organs. The organs in question are little 
cavities or invaginations of the epidermis be- 
tween the seginents. one on each side of the 
median ventral line, on one, two. or three 



abdominal segments according to the family 
to which the larva belongs. Dr. Hagen gave 
a brief notice of these organs in the Zoolog- 
ischcr anzeiger, 5 April 1S80, jahrg. 3, p. 
161. 

Mr. G. Dimmock showed a number of mi- 
croscopical preparations to illustrate different 
points of insect anatomy. 

II Jax. 18S4. — The gSth meeting, the tenth 
annual meeting, and the seventh since the in- 
corporation of the Club, was held at the Secre- 
tary's house, 54 Sacratiiento St., Cambridge. 
II Jan. 1SS4. This meeting terminated the 
first decennial of the Club's existence, the first 
meeting having been heldgjan. 1S74. In tin- 
absence of the President. Mr. C. C. Eaton was 
chosen Chairman. Si.\ persons were pres- 
ent. 

The Secretary announced the withdrawal 
from the Club of Mr. Edward Burgess, of 
Boston, Mass. 

The following persons were elected to ac- 
tive membership : Charles C. Beale, of Faulk- 
ner, Mass.; Willard Loomis Devereaux, of 
Clyde, N. Y. ; Thaddeus William Harris 
(grandson of the well-known entomological 
author who bore the same name), of Cam- 
bridge, Mass.; and John George Jack, of 
Chateauguay Basin, P. C^, Canada. 

The following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year: President, Samuel Hubbard 
Scudder ; Secretary, George Dimmock ; Treas- 
urer, Benjamin Pickman Mann; Librarian. 
ClifTord Chase Eaton ; members at large of 
the Executive Committee, Roland llayward 
and Thaddeus William Harris. B. P. Mann 
waselected managingeditorand G. Dimmock 
associate editor of Psyche for the ensuini; 
year. 

The annual reports of the Secretary, of the 
Treasurer, and of the Librarian were read and 
approved. [See further on.] 

The address of the Retiring President, Mr. 
B. P. Mann, upon "The bibliography of en- 
tomology" was read by the Secretary. [This 
address is printed in full in Psyche, April 
1SS4, V. 4. p. 1 55-! 59-] 



M:iy 1SS4.J 



PSYCHE. 



[3455-3463] '"' 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Author!' and societies arc requested to for-vard their -Morks to the editors as soon as 
fublishcd. The date of publication, given in brackets [], marks the time at -,vhich the 
-vork -vas received, unless an earlier date of publication is ktio-Mn to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherxvise stated each record is made directly from the work that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common given name, as: A: Augustus; B: Ben- 
iamiii: C: Charles: D: David; E: Edivard; F: Frederic; G: George; H: Henry; 
I: Isaac; J: John; K: Karl; L: Louis; M: Mark; N: Nicholas: O: Otto; P: Peter; R: 
Richard: S: Samuel; T: Thomas: IV: William. TJir initials at the end of each record, or 
note, are those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions arc solicited. 



Eraiier, Friedrich. On the metamorphoses 
of hlepli'aroceridae. (Entom mo. mag.. 
Jan. iSSi, V. 17, p. 1S6.) 

Note callinir attcntinu to author's "Kine unbewusste 
cntiieckiinj^ Fritz Miillcr's" (Zool. anzeiger, 2J Mch. 
iSSo, jiiliru, .5, p. 134.1.1SJ [Uec, 1S55] ; botli sexes of 
hh-pharocerafasciata. of Europe, have the eyes close to 
each other. B: P. M. (34SS) 

Buckler, \V : Is the number of moults of 
iL-piclopterous larvae constant in the same 
species.' (Entom. mo. mag., July iSSo. v. 

17. P- 42-43-) 

Remarks on the variety of the number of innlts un* 
(leri^one by hirvae of different species of lepidoptera, 
with solicitation of observations to prove wliether tlie 
number varies in the same species. B: P. M. (3456) 

Cameron, P. On parthenogenesis in the 
tcufhrcdinidac. (Entom. nio- mag.. May 
iSSi, V. 17, p. 271-272.) 

NcmatKs /•avi'diis and ta.xonns ^labratns added to 
the list of parthenoj^cnetic hnthrediniiiac, and complete 
Iiartlienogcncsis proved to occnr in poeciloso7na pnlvcr- 
fitiini and eriocampa ovata, all Scotch species. 

B:P.M. (3457) 



C. Notes from Guatemala, 
mag.. Feb. iSSi, v. 17, p. 



Champion, G : 

(Entom. mo. 
212-2T3.) 

Mention of localities visited and of genera of insects 
1 ncountcrcd hv the author in Guatemala. 

B: P. M. (j45S> 

Eaton, Alfred Edwin. An announcement of 

new genera of the cphemeridae. (Entom. 

mo. mag., 18S1. v. 17: Jan., p. 191-192 ; 

Feb., p. 193-197.) 

Describes ns new genera of cphemeridae: elassoiieit- 
rid. spintiophlebra, fioinoeoiteuria, jolia, rhocnantltits, 
hlaatHnts.iitatiiphtehin, ndetiophlehia.chorolerpes.tkran. 
tiis, Inihropliletua and cixllihaftis, and restricts the 
genera teptophtehia and baelis; astheiiopus^ramtsii. 
rtts; mentions thtj type species of each genxis and des- 
Grilles 5 new species, of whicli liovioennairia satviniac 
is from Central America. B: P. M. (3459) 



Fletcher, J. E. On parthenogenesis in tcn- 
thrediiiidac. (Entom. mo. mag.. Jan. 
iSSi. V. 17, p. iSo.) 

Statement of results of parthenogenetic reproduction 
observed in phytlotoma x-a<^ans, eriocampa ovata, 
/lewicliroa rnta'aud nematitii ciirtispina and in two 
otiier species," not vet determined, oi tcnthredinidae. 

B: P. M. (34fe) 

Forbes, Stephen Alfred, .scf Illinois state labora. 

TOKV or NATURAL HISTOltY^ Z>mv/d?r, lSSl.lSS2. 

Goossens, Tlieodore. Des chenilles urti- 
canteset quelqnes considerations sur I'uti- 
lite des cents pour la classification. (Ann. 
soc. entoin. France, 18S1, s. 6, t. i, p. 231- 

-36-) 

Abstr., entitled. "Jeukende rupsen. 

(Natura, March 1SS3. jahrg. i, p. 83-85.) 
Considers that the spines of liparis and cuethocampa 
are poisonous because of a powder produced by the dry- 
ing of the secretion given out by the evaginable glands 
found upon the dorsum of these larvae; experiments 
made with this poisonous powder; discusses the posi- 
tion n{ cuethocampa among the lepidoptera; remarks on 
tile use of the characters of their eggs in the classifica- 
tion of lepidoptera. G: D. (.M'^O 

Hagen, Hermann August. Ueber ein eigen- 
thiimliches organ in der Begattungstasche 
zweier tineiden und dessen bedeutung fiir 
die befruchtung. (Zool. anzeiger, 9 Jan. 
1S82, jahrg 5, p. 18-21.) 
Anatomy of the genitalia, and especially of the vcsi- 

cula seminalis, in prodcxus 3.ni pronuha. G: D. (.^63) 

Horn, G : H : Synopsis of the colydiidae of 
the United States. (Proc. Amer. philos. 
soc, 19 April 1S7S, V. 17, p. 555-59^-) 
Includes the genera and species of murmidiidae. 

S: H. 

Describes IS new species belonging to the genera 

cicones, dilom'a, endophlaeiis, phloeonemus, co.relus, las- 

coiwlns, anlonium, oxylaemiis, sosy/iis, pyclinmenis, 

bothr:dcres:mi\ phitothermiis. H W. 7". (3463) 



17-2 [3464-3476] 



PS y CHE. 



(May 1SS4. 



Kane, W. F. tie Visnies. Causes of abund- 
ance or otherwise of lepidoptcra. (Ento- 
mologist, Nov. 1SS2, V. 15, p. 245-246.) 
Effects of weather iin thi; ubuiuluncc of lepidopter.-i ; 

observations made in England. G: D. (3464) 

Kellicott, D : Simons. An example of pro- 
tective mimicry. (N. A. entomologist, Oct. 
1S79, V. I, p. 30-31.) 

Notes the habit of the iinago of rhodophora florida of 
lying concealed in the williering Howers of Oenothera 
hiennis, which it closely resenihics in coloration. The 
larvae, which feed on tlie Howers and fruit of the same 
plant, are also protectively colored. IIV T. (.H'^S) 

DE Kerchove de Denterghem, Oswald. 

L'ennemi lie la poninu- ile tcrre. Notice sur 

\ciioiypliora deccmliiicata. IJriixelles, 1S75. 

t.-p. cover, 21 p., I col. pi. v. 25X16.5, t. 

1S.5 X lO-S. pam., 2 fr. 

Statistical notes upon doryphora dccemlhteata; means 
taken by various Eur<»pean governments to prevent its 
introduction, and a discussion of the necessity of pre- 
cautions; other notes; colored figures of different stages 
of (/. decemltJieaia, and figure of imago of d.juHcta. 

G: D (J466) 

Kraepelin, K. Ueber die mundwerkzenge 
der saugenden insecten. Vorliiufige niit- 
theiliing. {7,oci\. anzeiger, 6 Nov. 1SS2, 
jahrg. 5, p. 574-579-) 

Discusses anatomy of sucking mouth-parts of insects ; 
describes and figures the mouth-parts of bombus Icrres- 
Iris, nolonccta glauca and a species of labauiix. 

G: D. (M^T) 

Krancher, L., nf., see Deutscher hienenfkecnd . . . 
I Ucc. jSiG]. 

Krukenberg, C. Fr. W. Vergleichend-phv- 

sio^o^i^che stiidien. 5e abth. Heidelberg, 

iSSi 100 p., 3 pi. 
Rev., by P. Mayer, (Zool. jahresber. fiir 

iSSi, 1S82, p. 3.)" 

Discussion of the chemical composition of and action 
of reagents on the blood and organs of insects.— /'. 
Mayer. [Not seen.] B: P. M. {},\(&) 

La Munyon, Ira W. New hymenoptera. 
( Proc. Nebraska assoc. ad vane, sci, S March 
1877.) 

Separate. [North Platte, Nebr.] [2] p.. 
I 14.2X8.5. 

Describes davisania n. g., d. auglici n. sp., trypoxy- 
Inn sulcus n. sp. [Separate only seen.l 

/>.■ P. M. (i'lfifl) 

La Muuyon, Ira \V. New orthoptcra. 
(Proc. Nebraska assoc. advanc. sci., S Mar. 
1S77.) 

Separate. [North Platte, Nebr.] [i] p.. 
t 14.2XS.5. 

Describes peioletix [sicl Jlavoannulatus n. sp., calo- 
tlenus sani'intinrcpllallis n. sp. | Se]iaratc only seen. | 

/>'.■ P. -V. (J470) 



Laiikester, E. Ray. Limn/i/s an arachnid. 

((.Jtiart. journ. micros, sci., iSSi. v. 21 : 

July. p. 504-54S; Oct., p. 609-649; pi. 28- 

29.) 

Abstract, by P. Mayer. (Zool. jahresber. 

ftir iSSi, 1SS2", p. 5-6.) 

Gives a genealogical tree of arthropoda (copied by 
Mayer), antl discusses the homologies of their segments, 
appendages, tracheae and sinews, defines the arachni- 
da. [nnlseen.] — P. Mayer. B: P. M. (347'1 

Lichteiistein, Jules. Another aptcrotis male 
in the coccidac, dctnif/iococciis aceiis, Sig- 
noret. (Entoin. mo. mag., April 18S2, v. 
iS, p. 250-251.) 
Brief account of the life history of acanthococcus 

aceris, of which the male is wingless. G: D. (3472) 

Lintner, Joseph Albert. On cecidoniyia 
lcgitiiii)iicola, n. sp. (Can. entom., July 
1S79, v. II, p. 121-124.) 

References to accounts of cecidomyia injuring leaves 
of Iri folium in Europe ; substitution of name r. legumi- 
nieola n. sp. for the preoccupied name r. trifolii given 
in author's "The clover-seed fly" . . . {op. cit.y Alch. 
tS79, p. 44-4S) [Rec., 3474]; seasons, history and geo- 
graphical distribution of c. leeutninicola: descrijition 
of imago. B:P.M. (3475) 

Liutner, Joseph Albert. The clover-seed fly: 
a new insect pest. (Can. entom., Mch. 

1S79. ^'- ". P- 44-4.=;-) 

Review, in author's "On cecidomyia 

Icgiiminicola. n. sp." {of. ci/., July 1S79, 

p.' 121-124). 

Habits and ravages and description of larva of ceci- 
doniyia tri/oliin. sp. [The name c. Icffuminienia after- 
ward substituted (p. 121), as the ir.mie r. trifolii was 
preoccupied.] B: P. M. (3174) 

Llewelyn, J. T. D- Results of experiments 
in rearing tcphrositi crepti^cttlaria ami hi- 
iiiidiiliiiiti, with regard to variation. (En- 
tom. mo. mag.. May 1SS2, v. iS. p. 274.) 
Hesnlts of ii;tcrbrccding varieties of tephrosia erep. 
uscnlaria and t, biuudularia in order to obtain speci- 
mens of varieties. G: V. (3475) 

Ludwig, Fritz. Ueber die bcstiiubungsvor- 
richtung und die fliegenfalle dcs luinds- 
kohles, apocyiiiim aiidroiacmifoliitm L. 
(Kosmos, Dec. iSSo, bd. 8, p. 1S2-1S5.) 

Abstract, by H. Miiller. under same title. 
(Bot. zcitung, I Apr. 1S81, bd. 39, c. 213- 
21.4.) 

Abstract, by II. Miiller, entitled "Die 
bestiiubungseinrichtung von apocyntim oti- 
drosiiriiiiloliiim L." (Bot. jahresbericbt . - . 
Just, 1879, v. 7, p. 140. 8 cm.) 

Describes the structure of the fhnvers of apocynum 
androsaemifolium^:\\.\i\ their cross. fertilization hy apis 
and large syrphidae. Snnill syrphfdae and inuscidae 
are unable to renmve the pollen masses, and are hehl 
prisoners in the flowers. H'; T. (347'^'^ 



M:iy 1SS4. 



rsrciiE. 



L3477-34S9] 1' 



McCook, II : Christoplicr. On tlie architec- 
Uire and habits of the cutting ant of Texas, 
(i/tii fcrxH'iis. (Annals and mag. nat. hist., 
June 1S79. s- 5- v. 3. p- 442.) 
"The cutter [aita fervt'»s'\ grasps the leaf with out- 
spread feet aiui makes an incision at tlie edi^e by a scis- 
sor-Iikc motion of her sickle-shaped toothed mandibles. 
She gradually revolves, steadily cutting- as she does so, 
her mandibles tlius describing a circle or the greater 
p )rtion thereof." R. H. (3477) 

McDonald, G. L. Peculiar mistake of dy- 
Ihcus mai-ginulh. (Entomologist, Nov. 
[883, V. 16, p. 263-264 ) 
Dvtii^rus viargtnnlh probably mistakes the glassy 

surface of a greenhouse for water. G: D, (347S) 

McLachlan, Robert. Discovery of the wing- 
ed form oi proso/'isfoina puiictifroiis. (En- 
tom. mo, mag., July iSSo, v. 17, p. 46.) 
Pro.<f>pistofHo prinriifroiix bred to the snh-imago state 
bv A Vavssit;re, and proved to be one of the ephtniteri- 
,fm: ' B: P. M. (3479) 

McLaclilail, Robert. A monographic revis- 
ion and synopsis of the triclioptera of the 
European fauna. Lond., y-. Van Voorst. 
1S74-1SS0. [g parts, cac/i-cvith t.-p. coz'cr.^ 
t.-p., 4-|-523+[Suppl., appendix and in- 
dices] 103 p.- S9 pl--f-t.-p., 26X 16, t 20X ii.i 
,£3. 8s. 

Rev. (Bertkau's Bericlit . . . derentomo- 
logie. 1873-1S74. p. 1S0-181 ; 1S75-1876, p. 
27S-2S0; 1877-1S7S, p. 382-38^; 1879. p. 
158-1:63.) 

Rev., by H. A. Hagen. (Zool. jahresbe- 
richt. 1S79, P- .sSo-sSi ; 18S0, abtheil. 2. p. 
22S-230.) 

Rev., by ]VI. Rostock. (Entom. nach- 
richten, 15 Oct. 18S0. jahrg. 6; I^it. rev., 
p. 72.) 

Gencnil structuii.- of triclioptera ; ijcne icand specific 
cliaraclcrs, and notes on mode of preservation in collcc- 
linns ; descriptions, classification, syiionvmv. lialiits 
and habitats of tlie European species; supplement, con- 
taininic additional notes made while the work was in 
|irno;icss; apjieiidix consisting of a systematic catalog 
of tiie triclH>|)tera of Europe and a discussion of their 
geogTn|)hical distrihntion : index of gei?era and of spe- 
cies. G: D. (31S0) 

McLachlan, Robert. A North American 
spfcit-'S oi (filar. (Entom. mo. mas^.. Aiisj. 
iSSi, V. iS, p. 55.) 
Describe? dilar ainericaims, a new species from Ken- 

(n<kv G: D. (,viS!) 

McLachlan, Robert. Prosopistoma pionfi- 
frons. (Entom. mo. mag.. Oct. i8So, v. 
17, p. 117.) 

Denial of "the former possession of an opinion that 
llie insects \prosopistomn pnnc(ifrons\ mig'ht be an 
e|}henierid suited for a continuous aquatic iiie." 

B: P. M. C31S2) 



McLachlan, Robert. On two new panorfi- 
dae from western Nortii Ameriea. (En- 
tom. mo. mat;., |iilv iSSi, v. iS, p. S'^'o'^- 

3 fig.) 

Describes bitlacus chlorostigma (from Cnl.) and 
panorpodcs ori'gojii:itsi& (from Oreg.), 2 new speci<is, 
and figures their abdominal appendages. G: D. (34S.^) 

M'Rae, W. Prolonged existence of ichneu- 
mon in pupa. (Entomologist, Aug. 1883, 
V. 16, p. 1S8-189.) 
An ichneumonid remained in the pupnl state two 

years beyond tl)e normal time. G: D. (14^4) 

M'Rae, W. Retarded development of sa/iir- 
iiia carphii. (Entomologist, June 1SS2, v. 

15. P- 131-13--) 

A female of sninrnia car/'ifii emerged in April 1SS2, 
from a cocoon made in 1S79; this female seemed to be 
ciitirelv unattractive to males of the same s|iecies. 

■ . G; D. (34S5) 

M'Rae, W. Retarded emergence of sp/iiiix 
/tifiisfri. (Entomologist, Aug. 1S83, v. 16. 

p'- 187-) 

A specimen of sfifiiii.x I '^rustri remained in the pupal 
slate, in a fern-ease kept indoors, from Sept. iSSi to 
April iSS,}. G: D. (34S6) 

Mann, B : Pickman. Bibliography of some 
of the literature concerning destructive 
locusts. (2d rcpt. U. S. entom. commission, 
for 1S7S and 1S79, 1S80: Appendix 4, p. 
33-.SO. ) 

Separate, author's ed., including fC. 
Thomas'] "Supplementary list" (0/. n't.. 
p. 50-55) and [C. Thomas'] "Additions to 
bibliography on the locusts of America" 
{op. fit., p. 55-^6), with above title. 
[Wash.], r8So [iS Mch. iSSi]. 4-t.-p. 
cover + -i-t.-p. + p. 33-56, 24 X 16. [Rec, 
3291 .■.-.] 

List of writings on destructive arri'diodeo of Europe, 
Asia and .^frica, with partial analyses of contents. 

■ B: P. M. C34-?7) 

Martini, W. Spannnadeln. (Entom. nach- 
richten, i May iSSi, jabrg. 7, p. 144-) 
Description of a form of needle siiitalile for use in 

spreadinii: lepidoptera. G: D. (34SS) 

Meinert, Fr. Flnernes munddele. Trophi 
dipterormn. Paa Carlsberg-fondcts be- 
kostning. Kjobenhavn, H. Hageriip., iSSi. 
t.-p. cover, t.-p., 91 p., 6 pi.. 27 X 21, t 19 
X 14.2. 

Historical and general remarks on the trophi of di- 
pteia; more detailed description, with figures, of those 
part.s in cnle.Vy siunilium, mjastor, oligarces., tiMtla^ 
Hmvohio, dtiophits, tabanidae, sithula, tkcreva, teplis, 
c/rtpis, asilus, myopa, stratiomys, dnluhopus^ scaeva, 
rhuigia, en'stalis, stowo.xys, wiisca, vtcsemhrina, ephy- 
dra, gitsirKS, nrelophagns, and nycteribia. The sum- 
mary of general conclusions an9 explanation of the 
plales are in latin. G: D. {34S9) 



171 [3490-3504] 



rSCYHE. 



[M:ly iSS^i- 



Melchert, G. Einige vorschliigc zur priip.i- 
ration. (Entoin. nachrichten, i June 18S0, 
jalirg. 6, p. 116-117.) 
Discusses pinning insects and pricking thcin for 

Ininsportation. O: D. (3490) 

Melvill, J. Cosmo. Cannibalism in pi'eris 
cratcugi. (Entomologist, Jan. 1S83. v. 16, 
p. 15-16.) 

A number of individuals <if fieris cratae^i seen 
suckinj; out tlic juices of a fallen comrade. 

G: £>. (3490 

Menibeers, O. W. U. [/.%•(•«</.]. Insects on 
(lie Halifax. (Florida agriculturist, 13 
Jiil.v iSSi, V. 4, p. 65, col. 3-4, 16 cm.) 
Stxitenient concerning the domestic insect fauna at 

Ormond, Fla. B: P. M. (3492) 

[Metallic casts of beetles.] (Anier. nat., 
Nov. [2S Oct.] iSSi, V. 15, p. 933-934.) 
Description of process for taking metallic casts of 

insects. G: D. (3493) 

Moschler, Ileinrich B. Beitrage zur .schmet- 
terlingsfauna von Surinam. [i.] (Ver- 
handl. k.-k. zool.-bot. gesells. zu Wien, 
1S76, bd. 26; Abb., p. 293-352, pi. 3-4.) 
Notes on lepidoptera from Surinam, South America, 

some of the species being also found in North America. 

Describes new species but no new genera. 

G: D. (3494) 

Moschler, Ileinrich B. Beitrage zur scbmet- 

torlings-fauna von .Surinam, ij. (Verbandl. 

k.-k. zool.-bot. gesells. zu Wien, 1S77, bd. 

27; Abb., p. 629-700, pi. S-io.) 

Notes on lepidoptera from Surinam, South America, 
some of the species l.iing al.so founil in Ninth America. 
Describes the tollowinj; new genera : campylona, eiijo- 
liche, clllimacodes, enlopliofttryx, euxaffa, /epasta, plie- 
tiosi<i,ps€iidapisio$i(i^pseildt'Hi:cro»,psfHiindrvas^i!£ftin 
syrhcsiii and tricypha. O: 'D. (.5495) 

Moschler, Heinricb I!. Beitrage zin- scbmet- 

terlings-fauna von Stn-inani. iii. (Ver- 

1 andl. k.-k. zool.-bot. gesells. zu Wien. 

iSSo, bd. 30; Abb., p. 379-4S6, pi. S-9.) 

Notes on lepidoptera from Surinam, .South America, 

some of the species being also found in North America. 

Desenbes the following new genera: ndyroma, am.i- 

hc/ii^ tttuphoJia, arbiniti, ttrcthiia, hnxnlia, 'htiphana^ cla- 

linn'd, i:la/>ra, ddeiialma, crwsceU^ gobyno^ gonitris^ 

minJor,:, placonia, smyra, syuallssa and Ihdidora. 

G: D. (3496) 

Moschler, Ileinrich B. Beitrage ziu- scbmet- 
Kiiings-fauna von Sminani. iv. (Ver- 
bandl. k.-k. zool.-bot. gesells. zu Wien. 
1S81, bd. 31 ; Abh., p. 393-442, pi. 17-18.) 
Note-son lepidoptera from Surinam, .South America, 
some of the species being also found in North America. 
IJescnhes the lollowing new genera: hlrrliromn, diu- 
slaiKi, hgonm, Iniosta, liopasiii, veoplirida, /lilemia 
Slllgiimia -.xnd lanvodes. GD ((497) 



Moschler, Ileinrich B. Beitriigc zur schmel- 
terlings-fatina von Stirinam. v. Supple- 
ment. (Verbandl. k.-k. zool.-bot. gesells. 
zu Wien, 18S2, bd. 32; Abb., p. 303-362, 
pi. 17-18.) 

Notes on lepidoptera from Surinam, South America, 
some of the species being also foimd in North America. 
Describes the following new genera : alimtra, aniiora, 
asylaect, cliarmodia, eonipj'a, lysana, fliiditia, pry- 
tcria^ strophotenis^ talmenta^ tbagoHa and nlamia. 

G: D. {349S) 

Murtfeldt, Mary Esther. Rose-feeding tor- 
tricidae. The rose leaf-tyer, pcnthiiia 
cyaiiiina, n. sp. (Amer. entom., Jan. iSSo, 
V. 3, n. s., V. I, p. 14-15.) 

List of Q tortricidac injurious to ro$a' description of 
larva, pupa and imago and habits of and means against 
pcnthina cyanana n. sp. 13: P. M. (^499) 

Nusbaum, Joseph. Zur entwickclungsge- 
schichte der austubrungsgange der sexiial- 
driisen bei den insecten. (Zool. anzeiger, 
27 Nov. iSS2,jahrg. 5, p. 637-643.) 
On the development of the excretory ducts of the sex- 
ual ghmds of insects, based especially on a study >f 
lipiturits bacilus,goHiocoUs hologasUr and blatia o'rim- 
t"l's- G: D. (3500) 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Galls and gall-in- 
sects. (Amer. nat., Mav [16 Apr.] 1881, 
V, 15, p. 402-403.) (Riley, C: V. Ento- 
mology . . [May 1SS2]. p. 402-403.) 

Notice ol II. F. Rassett's "New species of rl'Mf/zV^rt," 
(Can. entom., Mch. iSSi, v. 13, p. 51-57) [R™-. iiSli ■ 
ry/tips g.-califortiica occurs on qaercus dtt//g/asii ; its 
gall nourishes the coleopteron ozogiiathus cornulus; 
habits of the latter; svnonviuv of botVi species. 

B; P.J/. (3501) 

Saunders, E : Notes on the hairs of hymen- 
oplera. (Entoin. mo. mag., Feb. i88i, v. 
17, p. 201-202. fig. 1-3.) 

Descriptions and figures of hairs from the eves of 
coelioxys and the tibi;ie of artdrct/ti and bombits; hymen, 
itplern niHIiJcra seem todiller from other hymenriplera 
in having branched or plumose hairs; approximation of 
hairs to scales. B; p. _\f. (3502) 

Wilkinson, Clennell. Vancfsa airdui ia\\h\c 
brooded. (Entom. 1110. mag.. July iSSo. v. 
'7- P- 4.V44-) 

Record of occurrence of a tiecond brood of t'anfssa 
cnrdui in November, in South Wales, the first brood 
having occurred in August; remark, liyC: G. lianxtt. 
on this plienonieiion as '*.„j instinctive attempt at lol 
lowing up the habit of the species in a hotter climate." 

B: P. M. (3503) 

Witlaczil, Emanuel. Zur Anatomic der 
,\pbiden. Vorliiufige Mittheilung. (Zool. 
Anzeiger, i^ Mav 1SS2, jahrg. 1;, p. 239- 

241.) 
Oulline of the general anatomv of up/tidat: 

G: P. (3504) 



M:iy 1SS4. 



PsrCHE. 



175 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

Monsieur A. Delugin, pharmacien, a 
Blois, France, wishes to exchange the French 
species of Doiiacia for those of North Amer- 
ica. 

Mr. IIowakd L. Clark publishes, in 
Random notes on tiatural history, for May 
1SS4, an account of a swarm of Callidryas 
iiiluilc seen in Rhode Island, in 1869 or 1S70. 

Just as this numero goes to press we learn 
of the sudden death of Francis Gregory San- 
born, of Worcester, Mass., well-known as an 
entomologist. He died 5 June 1SS4, at Prov- 
idence. R. I. 

Mr. Anson Allen, lepidopterist, died in 
Orono. Me., S Feb. 1SS4, in the 55th year of 
his age. Prof. C. H. Fernald publishes an 
obituary notice of Mr. Allen in the Canadian 
entomologist for March, 1SS4. v. 16. p. 43-44. 

Mr. S. Schofield, at a late session of the 
Rhode Island entomological society, read a 
]iapcr on experiments made with the eggs 
and larvae of Ccratocampa imfcrialis. The 
mode of fighting among these larvae was 
grapliicall^' described. 

M. Edmond Andre, a Beaune, Cote-d'Or, 
France, who has latel_)' established an agency 
for the sale of entomological publications 
and apparatus, has just issued his fourth 
catalog of books for sale, including a large 
number of French separates. 

Dr. J.\coBS notes two recent cases in which 
the lar\ae o{ Dcymatobia noxialis, a dipteron 
have been found beneath the skin of persons 
who have returned to France from America. 
These cases have been announced in the An- 
nals of the Societe de biologic de France, and 
in the Comptes rendus of the Societe ento- 
mologique de Belgique. 

We regret to learn that Sir Sidney 
Smith Saunders, C. M. G., for many years 
British consul in various Mediterranean ports, 
and a distinguished entomologist, died sud- 
denly on Tuesday evening (15th) at an ad- 



\anced age. He was one, of the original 
members of the Entomological society of 
London, and was a vice-president of the 
society at the time of his death. He devoted 
special attention to the singular bee-parasites 
known as stylopidac. — Natnrc, 17 Apr. 1884, 
v. 29, p. 581. 

The nf.wlv organized Entomological soci- 
ety of Washington has elected the following 
officers: President, C. V. Rile3'; vice-presi- 
dents, J. G. Morris and Geo. Marx; record- 
ing secretary. E. A. Schwarz; corresponding 
secretary, L. O. Howard; treasurer, B. P. 
Mann ; executive committee, the officers and 
W. S. Barnard, P. R. Uhler and A.J. Shaf- 
hirt. Meetings are held the first Thursday 
of each month. 

M. Adrien Dollfus, the enterprising 
editor of the FcuiJlc drs jeiines natnralisfes. 
offers to the subscribers of his paper a prize 
for competitive work in dissection and insect 
anatomy. A sample of the kind of work 
required is gi\'en in the Fcuillc for May, in a 
paper, by Dr. H. Viallanes, entitled "Anat- 
omic et dissection de la larve de libellule," 
with a plate. The subject proposed by M. 
Dollfus is the anatomy of the larva of some 
diurnal leindopteron, and the paper is to be 
accompanied by drawings of the parts. The 
first prize is a scientific work, of the value of 
50 francs, to be chosen by the successful 
competitor; a second prize of 25 francs value 
mav be given. We wish the best of success 
to M. Dollfus, who works with patriotic zeal 
to instil a love of scientific study of nature 
into the readers of his interesting paper. 

G: D. 

Dr. J. A. Osborne writes, in the Rntomnl- 
ogist's monthly magazine for Dec. 1S83, 
among some observations on Zaraea fasei- 
ata. 

"Last year I was not able to say positively 
in which end of the egg the head of the em- 
bryo develops. As the result of numerous 
observations I am now in a position to state, 
that the Iiead of the embryo is found in the 



17G 



PSYCHE. 



[Mny iSS(. 



upper and lower pole of the egg with about 
equal frequency. Often we meet with two 
eggs lying together, evidently laid by the 
same fly with the same orientation, in which 
the heads of the embrjos lie in opposite 
directions. This is in direct contradiction to 
the dictum of Leuckart : 'Der obere Pol des 
Eies beherbergt in alien Fallen das Kopfende 
des Thieres ' (Ueber die Micropile. &c., Mai- 
ler's archlv, 1S55, p. 102). Rare exceptions 
to the rule occur also, as I have already 
shown, in the eggs of Gastrophysa raf/intii." 
The abnormal position of the dorsum and 
venter of the embryo in these eggs is then 
discussed. 

Anew species of trap-door spider, a species 
of Cteniza, has been discovered at San Jose, 
Cal. The common though little known spe- 
cies of southern California is known as C. 
cnlifornica ; and its trap-door nest is usually 
placed in museums beside the tarantula (il/)'- 
^iilc /loi/zii), and erroneously labelled as the 
tarantula's nest. This popular error, by 
which dealers in curiosities generally profit, 
is stranger, since the tarantula is usually too 
large to enter the nest of Cteniza, and itself 
makes no nest, occupying crevices in the 
ground or under stones, spinning a small 
web. — Science, 11 April 1S84, ^'- 3. p. 469. 

SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. m., 
on the days following : — 

12 Oct. 1SS3. 14 Mar. 1884. 

9 Nov. " II Apr. " 

14 Dec. " q May " 

II Jan. 18S4. 13 June ■' 

8 Feb. " 

G. DiMMOCK, Secretary. 



The New York Entomological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July and 
August, but no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry Edwards, Secretary. 

The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



Natural History will be held at N. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sis., Boston, Mass. 
^^ 7-45 P' '"•! on 'he days following: — 

24 Oct. 18S3. 27 Feb. 18S4. 

2$ Nov. " 26 Mar. " 

26 Dec. " 23 Apr. " 

23 Jan. 1S84. 28 May " 

Ed\vard Burgess. Secretary. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciencqs, of Philadelj.hia, Pa., will be held 
at S. W. corner of 19th and Race Sts., on the 
days following : — 

12 Oct. 1883. 14 Mar. 1SS4. 

9 Nov. " 1 1 Apr. " 

14 Dec. " 9 May " 

II Jan. 1SS4. 13 June '• 

8 Feb. " 

James H. Ridings. Recorder. 



The semi-annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. cornerof 19th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, 
Pa., on the days following : — 

10 Dec. 1SS3. 9 June 1S84. 

Iames H. Ridings, Recording Secretary. 



The regular monthly nieelings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal, Qiic., 
Canada, on the days following: — 

2 Oct. 1SS3. 5 Feb. 1884. 

6 Nov. " 4 Mar. " 

4 Dec. " I Apr. " 

8 Jan. 1884. 6 May " 

G. J. Bowles, Secretary. 



The monthly meetings of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society will be held in the 
rooms of Wright's Business College, Broad- 
way, corner of Fourth Street, Brooklyn, 
E. D., the last Saturday of e.ach month ex- 
cept July and August. 

F. G. Schaupp, Secretary. 



No. 120 was issued 14 Icmr 1234. 



PSYCH 







[Established in 1S74.] 



EDITED ny- 



B: PiCKMAN Mann, Washitigton, D. C. ; G : Dimmock, Cambridge^ Mass.; 
Albert J: Cook, Lansing, Afic/i.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal, 
III.; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany, N. 2^ ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Laxvrcncc, Kansas; W : Trelease, Madison, Wise. 



Vol. 4. Nos. 122-123. 

June-July 1S84. 

CONTENTS: 

Advertisements 17S 

On the Nervous System of the Head of the Larva of Corydalus cor- 

NUTUS Linn. — William Chiistofhcr Kiauss ...... 179-1S4 

Sexual Characters in the Chrysalids of Grapta interrogationis — 

Mary Esther Murtfeldt 1S4 

Review ................. 185 

Proceeding^ of Societies — Cambridge Entomological Club ..... 1S6 

BiBLiOGRAp'fycAL RECORD, no. 3505-3550 187-190 

Entomological Items — Society Meetings 191-192 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridce, Mass., U. .S. A. 
YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS, 20 c. 

FEntcred ■a>, second class mail matter.] 



178 



rsrciiE. 



[June— July iSS.). 



Psyche, A Jouriial_of Entomolog-y. 

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Yearly subscription, entitling the subscriber to 
one regular copy and, if he desires it, one copy 
printed on one side of thin paper (for pasting 
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Subscribers to PSYCHE can advertise insects for 
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CALOSOMAS AND CICINDELWAE 
WANTED. 
The undersigned desires to obtain species of 
Calosoma (except C. calidum and C. intjuisitor) from 
all parts of the (world ; also as many species of 
Cicindelidae as possible, especially foreign ones. 
Native coleoptera sent in exchange. 

C. H. F. TOWNSEND, 

Constantine, St. Jo. co., Mich. 



R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHN, 

Berlin N. W., Carlstrasse 11. 

Natural History and Natural Science Booksellers 
established since 1827. 

Largest stock of the whole Literature of Natural 
History and the Exact Sciences. 

Apply for classified calalogue in 25 parts (each one 
special department of science), price 10 c. each. — 
Just published. Part IX. Entomology i. (General 
Entomology. — Coleoptera.) 46 p. about 2000 works. 
— X. Entomology 2. (Lepidoptera), comprising 
among others the library of the late Prof. P. C. Zel- 
ler, 30 p., about 1300 works. — XI. Entomology ^. 
(Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Diplcra, 
Hemiptera, Parasita.) 34 p. about 1500 works. 



PATENTS 

MUNN & CO., of thp SriEN'Trnc American, con- 
tinue to act 119 S«)Iiclt(iia for j'at-'.its. Caveats, Trado 
MurkH, CtipyriRhts. for thu U/iited States, Canada, 
BiiKland, France. Germany, etc. Hand Book about 
Patents sent free. Tliirt v-seven years' experience. 
PatenlsobtJiined Ihn.ui-li Ml.'NN ^S; CO. ure noticed 
Intho SciKNTiric Amlukan. the lar^'est, hc-t.and 
most widely circulated scicnttHc paper. ^i.-HJa year. 
Weekly. Splendid cnKravtiiKs and InterehtinK in- 
foriiijiilnn. Specimen co|iy uf the Sciniiiflc Aiiior- 
Irnii Hint. free. Address MUNN it CO., S<"1ENTIFI0 
AMEUiCAN Olllcc. 2<;i Bruadv\iiiy, Now York. 



FSYCHE. 



ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OF THE HEAD OF THE 
LARVA OF CORTDALUS CORNUTUS LINN. 



IIY WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER KRAUSS, ATTICA, N.Y. 

[With Plate 2.] 

[Extract from n thesis in cntomologVt presented to the Faculty ofthe Cornell university for the 
Baccalaureate in science.] 



The nervous S3'stcm of the head of the 
larva of Co?-ydah/s cornutus Linn., con- 
sists of — 

I. The supra-oesophageal ganghnor 
cerebrum, and nerves. 

3. The crura cerebri. 

3. The sub-oesophageal ganglion or 
cerebellum, and nerves. 

4. The commissures. 

5. Tlie vagus nerve. 

I. The SUPRA-OESOPHAGEAL GAN- 
GLIA, OR CEREBRUM. — The supra-oes- 
ophageal ganglia (fig. i. i) are situated 
in the dorso-cephalad part of the head, 
midway between the tips of the labruin 
and the base of the head. They lie 
dorsad of the oesophagus, and immedi- 
ately entad of the dorsal body wall, be- 
ing separated from it only by thin, deli- 
cate layers of adipose tissue. 

The supra-oesophageal ganglia, the 
probable homologs of the vertebrate 



cerebrum, tlifler greatly from the other 
ganglia or nerve centres of the body. 
They are a compound organ composed 
of two distinct ganglia or hemispheres 
connected together by a short, thick 
commissure on the meson, but are some- 
times described as a single ganglion. 
These hemispheres are similar in out- 
line, having an ovoid appearance. The 
lateral ends of the hcmi,s]ihf'res taper 
into the cerebral nerves. In the two- 
year-old larva, the cephalo-caudal diam- 
eter of the hemispheres is three-fourths 
of a millimetre, and the two together 
attain the length of two millimetres. 

The ventro-latero-cephalad borders ot 
the cerebriun are developed ventrad, 
forming the crura cerebri, which con- 
nect it with the sub-oesophageal gan- 
glion. 

The cephalad extremity of the aorta i.s 
attached to the neurilemma, at tiie can- 



180 



J'SrCNE. 



[ June— July 1SS4. 



dad border of the supni-oesophageal 
ganglia on the meson. The opening of 
the aorta appears as is shown in the 
phite, fig. I. 7, the dorsal wall having a 
forked opening near the attachment of 
the aorta to the neurilemma. 

The supra-oesophageal ganglia are 
supplied by two large tracheae lying 
jDarallcl to the oesophagus (fig. iv, 4) . 
Each trachea sends three branches to 
the ventral side of each hemisphere. 
These branches divide and sub-divide, 
ramifying to all parts of the hemispheres 
(fig. iv). The supra-oesophageal gan- 
glia are covered with a thin, delicate 
curtain-membrane, the neurilemma. 

The cerebral nerves. — The cerebral 
nerves consist of two trunks of nerves, 
which originate from two tracts at the 
lateral apices of the supra-oesophageal 
ganglia. The cephalad tract gives rise 
to the antennal nerve, and also a small 
integumentary nerve, and may therefore 
be called the antennal tract. The caii- 
dad tract gives rise to tlie optic nerves, 
and may therefore be called the oj)tic 
tract. 

The aiitc7i7ial nerve. — The antennal 
nerve (fig. i. 4) arises from the anten- 
nal tract. It extends laterad a distance 
of one and one-half millimetres, and 
divides into a cephalad and a caudad 
branch. 

The cephalail branch (fig. i. 4. (t) 
continues its course laterad, then ceph- 
alad, and enters the antenna, supplying 
it with nerves. It is therefore, prob- 
ably, the tactile or sensor nerve of the 
antenna. 

The caudad Imuich (fig. i. 4. h) con- 



tinues laterad, and enters the muscles o'" 
the antenna in the head (fig. i. 9). At 
the point of entering the muscles it di- 
vides into several small branches. This 
nerve is probably the motor nerve of the 
antenna. Another small nerve (fig. i. 
4. c) arises from the antennal tract, and 
extends laterad a distance of two milli- 
metres ; it then tll\ ides into two branch- 
es. These branches pass dorsad of the 
antennal muscles, and enter the integir 
ment near the retinas of the e^'es. 

The optic nerves. — The optic trinik 
of nerves (fig. I. 5) arises from the optic 
tract. This trunk extends laterad a 
short distance and divides into seven 
distinct branches, the optic nerves. 
These branches continue their course 
laterad, and are distributed one to each 
of the seven retinas. It is an interesting 
fact, that although there are seven ret- 
inas, the external i)arts of only six 
ocelli are develo[)ed. l"he presence of 
the seventh retina and optic nerve can- 
not be doubted, as it was observed in 
many specimens of the one- and two- 
year-old larvae. Fig. vi shows the 
separation of the optic trunk into the 
seven optic nerves. J'lie optic and an- 
tennal nerxes are protected by a cover- 
ing, the extension of the neurilemma 
or theca (fig. Vi. 3) which covers the 
sub- and supra-oeso])hageal ganglia and 
nerves. 

3. The crura cerebri. — The cr ira 
cerebri or the cerebro-cerebellar com- 
missures (fig. IV. 3 and fig. VII. 2) arc 
two cords of nerve matter connecting 
the sub- and supra-oesophageal ganglia, 
and witli them encircle the oesophagus. 



June — July 1SS4.J 



PSYCHE. 



181 



They arise from the ventro-latero-ce- 
plialad portions of tlie supra-oesophageal 
ganglia, and extend ventrad, joining the 
snb-oesophageal ganglion at its doi'so- 
latero-cephalad borders. They are sim- 
ilar in ontline and appearance to the 
commissures of the bpdj'. They pre- 
sent a convexity laterad and a concavity 
mesad, corresponding to the cylindrical 
outline of the oesophagus. 

The crural nerves. — At the points 
of departure of the crura cerebri from 
the supra-oesophageal ganglia, each cms 
gives ort" two nerves, the vagus and the 
clypeo-labral (fig. i. 2, 3 and fig. iv. S, 
9). The vagus nerve will be described 
later as a special part of the nervous sys- 
tem of the head. 

The clypeo-labral ncri'cs. — The cly- 
peo-labral nerves, two in nmnber, arise 
one from each crus near its origin (fig. 
I. 3). They extend cephalad and a little 
mesad. Each gives otf" three small 
liranches in the clypeus, and a fourth, 
long branch whicii extends cephalad to 
tlie base of the labrum and penetrates 
the integument. After giving ofl' these 
branches, the main trunk extends cepha- 
lad into the labrum and may be termed 
the labral nerve. This labral nerve di- 
vides into several small branches near 
the tip of the labrum. The largest of 
these branches enters a labral palpus ( .''), 
or probably a seta. 

The crura cerebri are joined together 
by a cord of nerve matter (fig. vii. 3) 
one-half millimetre from their attach- 
ments to the sub-oe.sophageal ganglion. 
This cord or cross-nerve of the commis- 
svu'es is dorsatl cjf the cephalad pait of 



the sub-oesophageal ganglion, and is 
entirely concealed by it. The cross- 
nerve arises from the commissures and 
like the commissures follows the outline 
of the oesophagus, presenting a convex- 
ity ventrad, and a concavity dorsad. 

3. The sub-oesophageal gan- 
glion, OR CEREBELLUM. — The sub-oes- 
ophageal ganglion (fig. 11. i) is situti- 
ted in the ventro-cephalad part of the 
head, midway between the tips of the 
labium and the base of the head. It 
lies ventrad of the oesophagus, and is 
separated from the ventral body-wall by 
a layer of muscles and by adipose tissue. 
The sub-oesophageal ganglion, the prob- 
able homolog of the verteinate cere- 
lielhmi, differs somewhat from the other 
ganglia. It is iiearly cordate in outline, 
with two apices pointing caudad and 
terminating in the commissures. Its 
cephalo-caudal diameter is one and one- 
half millimetres, and its greatest width 
is one millimetre, in the two-year-old 
larva. It is connected to the supra-oes- 
ophageal ganglia by the crura cerebri, 
and to the other ganglia of the body by 
the commissures. It is covered with a 
thin, delicate curtain-membrane, the 
neurilemma. 

Tracheae also penetrate the body of 
the ganglion, ramifying to all parts. 

The cerebellar nerves. — The cerebel- 
lar nerves consist of a pair each of labial, 
gustatory, maxillary, and mandibular 
nerves, and three other, unnamed pairs 
of nerves. 

The labial nerves. — The labial 
nerves (fig. n. 3) originate from the ven- 
tro-latero-ceplialad borders of the sub- 



182 



PSYCHE. 



[June— July 1SS4. 



oesophageal ganglion, and continue their 
course ccphalad into the labium. At a 
point one millimetre from the ganglion 
two branches are given oft' laterad, one 
from each nerve, which divide into sev- 
eral small branches piercing the integu- 
ment. 

At a point two millimetres from the 
ganglion two branches are given ofi", 
one from each nerve, going cephalo- 
laterad to the integument. 

At a point three millimetres from the 
ganglion the labial nerve separates into 
two large branches, one extending to the 
palpus, and one to the-distal end of the 
ligula. The nerve of the labial palpus 
enters that organ, and near its extrem- 
ity separates into several small branch- 
es. The ligular nerve continues cepha- 
lad into the ligula, and near its extremity 
divides into two or three small branches. 
The nerve of the labial palpus gives off 
a very small nerve at the point of enter- 
ing the palpus. 

The gustatory nerves. — The gusta- 
tory nerves (fig. 11. 2), if they may be 
so called, arise from the ccphalad border 
of the sub-oesophageal ganglion, and 
continue their course ccphalad into the 
ligula, being in close relation to the floor 
of the mouth. At a point three milli- 
metres from the ganglion, at the caudad 
part of the ligula, the nerves meet 
on the meson, forming an arch. The 
dextral nerve sends a small nerve laterad 
about one and one-half millimetres from 
the ganglion, while the sinistral ner\e 
sends a branch laterad one millimetre 
from the ganglion. Tlic two nerves, at 
the point of changing tiieir couise from 



cepiialad to mesad, give olV two branch- 
es, one from each nerve. These 
branchescontinuccephalo-laterad, pierc- 
ing the floor of the mouth. These 
branches also divide into several smaller 
branches. The arch of the gustatory 
nerves gives oft' two small nerves, going 
ccphalad, which unite at a point one 
millimetre from the arch. This united 
nerve divides into three small nerves, 
one going cephalad, and two going 
cephalo-laterad. The gustatory nerves 
and branches are very fine and delicate, 
and are closely related to the integument 
which forms the walls of the labium and 
ligula. 

T/ic fnaxillary nerves. — The maxil- 
lary nerves (fig. 11. 5 and fig. iii) arise 
from the ventro-latero-cephalad borders 
of the sub-oesophageal ganglion as a 
single trunk, which immediately divides 
into four branches. These may be in- 
dicated by the letters a. b, c. d. fig. 11. 
5, and A, B, c, fig. III. 

Nerve A (fig. lii), which is the 
largest of the branches, forks at a point 
about two millimetres from the gan- 
glion. Both branches enter the max- 
illa, going to its extremity, and one of 
them enters the maxillary palpus. 

Nerve b. — This branch ilividcs into 
two branches, three millimetres from 
the ganglion, one branch forking im- 
mcdiatelv and going ce])hal,ul. The 
other branch continues laterad, di\ i(ling 
into several branches which pierce the 
integument. 

iVcrve c. — This branch forks two mil- 
limetres from the ganglion, one branch 
going cephahul to the maxilla, tlie nther 



June — July 1SS4.) 



PSl'CHE. 



183 



branch going caiulad, giving branches 
to the maxillary muscles in the head. 
TIic cephalad branch divides into two 
branches four and one-half millimetres 
from the ganglion, both continuing their 
course cephalad. 

The fourth nerve (fig. 11. 5. d) is a 
very small nerve which divides into two 
branches entering the maxillary muscles. 

77/c mandibular nerve. — The man- 
dibular nerve (fig. 11. 4 and fig. v) 
arises from the dorso-latero-cephalad 
borders of the sub-oesophageal ganglion, 
and continues laterad to the mandibles. 
Before entering the mandibles three 
branches are given oft" (fig. v. 2, 3, 4). 

The first branch (fig. v. 3) gives ofl" 
two nerves which go caudad, entering 
the mandibular muscles. 

The second branch (fig. v. 3) goes 
laterad a short distance, then forks. Tlie 
caudad fork, dividing into two branches, 
enters the mandibular muscles. The 
cephalad branch is united to a long nerve 
going cephalad. This nerve forks one 
and one-half millimetres from the base 
of the mandibles. This nerve extends 
caudad of its attachment to nerve 3 
(fig. V), and enters a muscle. Just 
caudad of its attachment to nerve 3 it 
gives ofl" a very fine and delicate nerve 
which goes cephalad into the mandibles. 
Nerve 4 (fig. v) goes laterad two milli- 
metres, then forks, one branch going cau- 
dad to supply the mandibular muscles in 
the head, tlie other branch going cepha- 
lad into the mandibles. The mandibular 
nerve gives oft" a branch at the point of 
entering the mandibles, two branches 
one and une-fointh millimetres from the 



base of the mandibles, and then forks at 
a point two and one-fourth millimetres 
from the base into two branches, which 
continue their course cephalad. The 
more minute branches of the mandibular 
nerve are shown in fig. v. 

Other nerves. — A small nerve (fig. 
II. 6) arises immediately caudad of the 
attachment of the labial nerve on the gan- 
glion, and divides into several branches 
going to the adjacent muscles. 

From the lateral borders of the sub- 
oesophageal ganglion two nerves are 
given ofl", one on each side, going cau- 
dad parallel to the commissures (fig. n. 
S). These nerves enter the perivisceral 
cavity. 

At the caudad part of the ligula, 
three millimetres from the sub-oesopha- 
geal ganglion on the meson, are at- 
tached two long nerves going caudad 
(fig. II. 7). These nerves are joined 
to the labial nerves by neurilemma 
and b}' two very fine nerves, one on 
each side. At the ganglion each nerve 
gives olT two small, delicate nerves 
which are joined to nerve 6 (fig. 11). 
The main branch continues caudad, liut 
no caudal attachment was found. The 
cephalad attachment of these nerves is 
not shown in fig. 11, having been dis- 
sected away to show the cephalad ex- 
tremity of the gustatory nerves. 

4. The commissures. — The cau- 
dad end of the sub-oesophageal ganglion 
terminates in two large white cords, the 
commissiucs (fig. 11. 9, fig. vii. 4). 
These commissures are similar to the 
commissures of the body, and join the 
sub-oesophageal ganglion to the first 



184 



PSYCHE. 



(June— July 1884. 



thoracic. Each commissure gives oil" a 
nerve tliree and one-half millimetres 
from the ganglion, going caudad. The 
distance of these nerves from the gan- 
glion varies however (fig. 11. o). 

5. The vagus nerve. — The vagus 
ncn'c of Corydalus cornittus arises as 
two nei^ves from the crura cerebri, dor- 
sad of the labial nerves (fig. i\'. 9). 
These nerves pass cephalo-mcsad, form- 
ing two arches, and unite in a ganglion 
on the median line dorsad of the palate. 
This ganglion (fig. i. 3, fig. iv. 2) is 
sometimes called the frontal ganglion, 
and is immediately cephalad of the 
supra-oesophageal ganglion. The va- 
gus nerve departs from the caudad part 
of the ganglion, passes caudad between 



the aorta and the oesophagus, and con- 
tinues on the median line until it reaches 
a point two millimetres caudail of the 
frontal ganglion (fig. iv. 9). Here it 
enters another ganglion smaller than the 
frontal ganglion. This ganglion is also 
situated on the median line between the 
aorta and the oesophagus. Two nerves 
depart from this ganglion, going latero- 
caudad to the siiles of the oesophagus 
(fig. I. 8, fig. IV. o). They continue 
their course caudad until they reach the 
pro-ventriculus, where they divide into 
many branches. 

The vagus nerve gives blanches to the 
aorta in the head, and numerous nerves 
are continually given olVlo the ocsojiha- 
gus. 



SEXUAL CHARACTERS IN THE CHRYSALIDS OF 
INTERR OGA TIONIS. 



GRArTA 



RV MARY ESTHER MURTFEI-PT. KIRKWOOD, MO. 



The publication in Psvche for No- 
vember-December 1SS3, V. 4, p. 103- 
106, of the full text of Mr. Lintner's 
interesting paper on "A new sexual 
character in the pupae of some lepido- 
ptera," reminds me of an observation 
which I made last summer on the chrys- 
alids of Grapta ifitcrrogationis. 

Desirous of obtaining fresh specimens 
of this species., I i)laced about a dozen 
elm-feeding larvae in a rearing cage, 
from which, in due time, I obtained 
eleven chrysalids. These were, in res- 
pect to color and ornamentation, of two 
distinct sorts. The larger proportion 
were of a dull, pale fuscous with darker 



brown lateral stripes, dots and mark- 
ings, without a trace of metallic orna- 
mentation, while four were mucii paler 
in general color, inclining to golilen 
brown, each ornamented with llie eight 
brilliant, pale-golden, papillose dorsal 
spots by which this chrysalis is usualU 
characterized. From each of the pale 
and gilded chrysalids emerged a female^ 
while the seven dark and unornamcnted 
ones gave forth males exclusively. 
This observation may be a mere cor- 
roboration of a well known fact con- 
cerning the sexual characters of the 
species, but if so I have not met with it, 
or it has entirely escaped my memory. 



Explanation ok Pi.atk 2. 

Fig. I. Dorsal view of the head, showing the supia-oesophageal gangli:i and 

nerves. X 6. 

I. Supra-oesophageal ganglia. 2, Fj-ontal ganglion. 3, Clypeo-labral nerve. 
4, Antennal nerve. n, Sensor branch. A, Motor branch, r, Integumentary 
branch. 5, Optic nerves. 6. Oesophagus. 7, Aorta. S, Vagus nerve. 9. An- 
tennal muscles. 

Fisr. II. Ventral view of the head, .showinsj the siib-oesophageal ganglitju and 
nerves. X 6. 

I, Sub-oesophageal ganglion. 2, Gustatory nerve. 3, Labial nerve. 4, Man- 
dibular nerve. 5, Maxillary nerve. 6, 7. 8. Unnamed nerves. 9. Commissure. 

0, Commissural nerve. 

Fig. 111. The maxilla with its three large nerves. Nen'e d^ fig. 11, not shown. 

X 7- 
Fig. IV. Ventral aspect of the supra-oesophageal ganglia, the crura cerebri 

turned cephalad. X 15- 

1. Supra-oesopha^eal ganglia. 2, Frontal ganglion. 3, Crura cerebri. 4. 
Tracheae. 5, Aorta. 6, Optic nerves. 7. Antennal nerve. 8, Clypeo-labral 
nerve. 9, Vagus nerve, o. Vagus nerve. 

Fig. V. The mandible with its nerves. X 7- 

Fig. VI. The separation and dissection of the seven optic nerves. X 10. 

], Optic trunk of nerves. 2, Optic nerve. 3, Neurilemma. 
Fig. VII. Showing principally the cross-nerve of the crura cerebri, the cephalad 

extremity of the sub-oesophageal ganglion having been dissected uwav. 

X 13. 

I, The sub-oesophageal ganglion. 2, Crura cerebri. 3. Cross nerve. 4. Com- 
missure. 



Psyche. JSS4. n. 4. 



Plate 3. 





^ii-.E 



1)5^ C..3Voau,;b. Sa. 3i?ir -h\^M. 



June— July 1SS4.] 



PSYCHE. 



185 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., JUNE-JULY 1S84. 

Communications, exchanges and editors' copies 
should be addressed to Editors of Psyche, Cam. 
bridge, Mass. Communications for publication in 
Psyche must be properly authenticated , and no anony- 
iuoTis articles 7vill be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for ihr 
statements made in their own communications. 

Works on subjects not related to entomology tvill not 
be revieived in Psyche. 

For rates of subscription and of advertising, see ad. 
vertising columns. 

REVIEW. 

More than two years ago we received, by 
the courtesy of Professor J : H : Comstock, a 
copy of his "(A fragment of a) Guide to 
practical work in elementai-y entomology" 
[Rec, 350S]. We were then disposed to 
write a critical review of the pamphlet, as re- 
gards its orismology, but did not publish 
it. We are now favored with a contribution 
from one of Mr. Comstock's pupils, in which 
this orismology is used. We notice, how- 
ever, two deviations, in this article, from tlic 
terms recommended b^' Mr. Comstock, and 
thereby the most serious objections to the 
nomenclature are obviated. These deviations 
are in the use of the adverbial forms cephalad 
and caudad with also an adjectival signifi- 
cance. It seemed to us too absurd for tolera- 
tion to be required by this orismology to 
"speak of the caudal part of the head or of 
the cephalic portion of the tail." If however, 
we speak of the caudad part of the head and 
the cephalad portion of the tail, we only in- 
troduce new words into the language, which 
is always permissible and cannot cause con- 
fusion. Otherwise the introduction of the 
proposed terms cannot cause harm, and maj' 
do good; indeed, if it is found that in any 
way terms may be introduced which are more 
"brief, simple, exact, significant," and more 



widely applicable than former terms, good is 
certainly accomplished. It is proper to say 
that these terms are adopted by Mr. Com- 
stock from a more comprehensive series pro- 
posed by Professors Wilder and Gage, and 
are not original with him. We have looked 
through the article by Mr. Krauss, to which 
we have referred, with the idea of determining 
the necessity for the new nomenclature. We 
do not find any passage where terms formerly 
in use, such as above, below, before, behind, 
would not be as intelligible as the new terms ; 
but, on the other hand, they would not be 
more intelligible except that they are more 
familiar, a difference which disappears with 
use. We do not imagine that any entomolo- 
gist would lay an insect on its back or stand it 
on its head to describe it, using corresponding 
terms descriptive of position, and Mr. Com- 
stock admits that with any system of nomen- 
clature we must first agree what to consider 
the normal position of the parts of an insect: 
that being admitted, the choice is mainly a 
verbal one. The use of the term meson, 
however, and its derivatives, we find to be a 
valuable addition to entomological orismo- 
logy. 

The second chapter of the work is taken up 
with a description of Caloptcnus fcmuyru- 
hrum, unfortunately called a "grasshopper," 
and described as having a "caudal leg" and 
"cephalic wings." The idea of using a 
locust for this illustrative chapter is borrowed 
from Dr. W. K. Brooks. The description 
is excellent; we commend it to teachers 
and students, but think older forms of ex- 
pression could be substituted with advan- 
tage in a sentence like the following, whose 
peculiar terms are based upon the very nat- 
ural assumption that the locust is standing 
on his legs and holding his head in the 
only position it can then assume without 
being pulled oft": — 

"Upon eiicli side joining the pseudo-ventral [lower] 
end nf the suture just described and the pseudo-ventral 
[lower] end of the one which extends pseudo-ventrad 
[downwards] from the compound eye is a well marked 
suture, which forms the pseudo-ventral [lower] border 
of the lateral part of the epicranium."— p. 20. 

B: P. M. 



186 



PSYCHE. 



(June— July 1SS4. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE EXTOMOLOGICAL CLUB. 

(^Continued from p. lyo.) 

Dr. G : Dimniock showed abnormally color- 
ed specimens of Thyrciis ahhotii, ami made 
some remarks upon the causes which ])ro- 
duced their abnormal coloration. 

The annual report of the Secretary for the 
year 1S83 reports the number of active mem- 
bers, I Jan. 1S84, as 32, the number of asso- 
ciate members, 50. Four associate members, 
Messrs. Belfrage, Chambers, Glover, and 
LcConte, who were included in the list of 
mendjers published last 3'ear, arc dead. 
During the year 1SS3 the Club held 9 meet- 
ings; the average attendance was 5.2. 

The annual report of the Treasurer states 
the deficit on volume i of Psyche, for which 
Mr. B. P. Mann advanced the cash, $29.49. 
On volume 2 the deficiency, made up by an 
advance of cash by Dr. G. Dimmock, is $252. 
66. The Club's account for the years iSSo- 
1SS2, during which time Psyche (v. 3) was 
published by Dr. Dimniock, shows a surplus 
of $32.59, which the Treasmer recommends 
to be added to the Permanent publication 
fund. On the account of volume 4 of Psyche 
there is a deficit, i Jan. 1SS4, of $29.90, which 
is made up by advances by Mr. Mann. The 
principal of the Permanent publication fund 
is $224.39, deposited in the Cambridge Sav. 
ings Bank and drawing an annual interest of 
four per centum. 

The Librarian reports almost e.vactly one 
thousand titles in the library', and an in- 
creased list of exchanges for Psyche. 

S Feb. 1SS4.— The 99th meeting of the Club 
was held at 19 Brattle St., Cambridge. S Feb. 
1884. The meeting was called to order by 
the President, Mr. S. H. Scudder, at 7.50 p.m. 
Three members were present. 

The Secretary announced the withdrawal 
from the Club of Mr. William Barnes, of 
Cambridge, and the letters from Messrs C- C. 
Beale, W. L. Devereaux, and J. G. Jack ac- 



cepting membership. The Secretary called 
attention to the fund which it is proposed to 
raise in honor of the late Dr. Hermann Miil- 
ler, of Lippstadt, Germany. 

Dr. G. Dimmock called attention to some 
curious habits of Forficula ainiciiUiria, a 
specimeji of which he had kept in confine- 
ment several months. These insects are 
omnivorous, but apparently prefer insects as 
food, eating their own species greedily. Al- 
tho to all appearances blind, except to the 
presence or absence of light, the specimen 
above mentioned captured fleas (^Piilcx irri- 
lans) with case in a circular enclosure about 
5 cm. in diameter. No notice was taken of a 
flea put in the enclosure until the flea actual- 
ly touched the forficula, when the latter 
would rush after the flea, palpitating rapidly 
with the antennae, and thus keeping on his 
track. If the flea escaped from beneath the 
antennae of the forficula the latter would 
find him again in a moment, and the amusing 
chase would be renewed, to end in the sure 
seizure of the flea in the mouth-parts of the 
forficula. The forficula was a glutton and 
would often eat a large number of fleas or 
other insects in succession, at the end of his 
repast his abdomen being much distended. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited a specimen 
and drawings of an arachnid from the coal- 
measures of Arkansas. Two years .ago Karsch 
figured a similar form from the coal of Prus- 
sian Silesia, under the generic name yl«/A/-«- 
cnmartns, and Kusta has just described an- 
other from carboniferous beds in Bohemia. 
This adds another to the many instances in 
which a new generic type of carboniferous 
arthropods had no sooner been announced 
as found on one continent than it was discov- 
ered on the other. The Arkansas species 
was obtained by Prof T. S. Harvey of 
Fayetteville, and had not been in Mr. Scud- 
dcr's hands a month before a second Ameri- 
can species was found by Mr. R. D. Lacoe 
in the well-known bed of Mazon creek, III. 

Dr. G. Dimmock showed an alcoholic 
specimen of llie larva aiul pupa of I.iiciiniis 
ilama. 



nine— July l*S4-; 



PSrCHE. 



[3503-35 1 :^] 1''^^ 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Authors and societies are requested to forivard their works to the editors as soon as 
published. The date of pitblicatio?i, given i?i brackets [], juarks the time at -vhich the 
■vjork tvas received^ unless an earlier date of publication is knozvn to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherwise stated each record is made directly from the zvork that is ?ioticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most co7nmon given nanie^ as: A: Augustus: B: Bcn- 
iainin; C: Charles; D: David; E: Edward: F: Frederic: G: George; H: Henry; 
I: Isaac; J: John; K: Karl; L: Louis; M: Mark: N: Nicholas: O: Otto; P: Peter; R: 
Richard: S: Samuel: T: Thomas: IV: JVilliam. The initiah at the end of each record^ or 
note, arc those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



Axon. W : E. A. Dipterous larvae in the 
liuman subject. (Entomologist, July 1SS2, 
V. 15, p. 164-165- ) 

Abstract from British medical journal, 1 Oct. iS.Si, in 
regard to the occurrence nf a larva of an unknown dip- 
teron beneath the skin of a ^irl. G: D. (3505) 

Barnard, W ; Stebbins. Eggs o( co?ydalus 
cornutus. (Amor, entom., Jul}' 18S0, v. 3, 
n. s., V. I, p. 17S. 6 cm.') 

Corrobor:ition of conclusions as to the eggs and early 
development of cnryciolns cornutus set forth in C: V. 
Riley's "On the larval characteristics of corydalns and 
chaul lodes''' . . . {Kansas City review of science and in- 
dustry, Sep. 1S7S, V. 3, o. 354) fRec, 3555]; the egg- 
masses of c. cornutus deposited on the vertical, sun- 
exposed faces of rocks over water, at Ithaca, N. Y.; 
eggs hatch at Ithaca during the last half of August. 

B: P. M. (3506) 

Collier, ?: Report of tlie chemist. (Ann- 
rept. [U. S-] commissioner agric, for 1S7S, 
\_2Z Nov.] 1879, p. 95-156.) 

Contains statements (p. 96. 97) that analyses had been 
matic of the white coverinj>; of the e^^s ni corvdalus ror- 
nutits, of so called bonibic acid, and of London jiurple as 
a snbstitute for Paris preen as an insecticide; fp. 134, 
144) statements of results of these analyses. 

S: P. M. (J507) 

Comstock, J 11 : A fragment nf a Guide to 
practical work in elementary entomologv, 
an outline for the use of students in the 
entomological laboratory of Cornell uni- 
versity. Ithaca, N. Y., 18S2. t.-p. cover+t.- 
p., 35 p.. 22X15. 

Notice. (Entomologist, June 1S82, v. 15, 
p. 144.) Rev., by B: P. Mann, entitled 
"Review." (Psyche, June-July 1S84, v. 4, 
p. 185.) 

Consists of chaptir i, "Terms denoting position and 
direction of parts," and chapter 2, "The external anato- 
my ol a grasshopper," of part 1, "Anatomical nomcn- 
clnture," of author's projiosed "Guide to practical work" 
etc., need of and suggestions for the improvement of 
anatomical nomcnclaturo; descripture of the external 
anatnniy o^ caloptenus femur-ruhrum. 

S: P. M. (3SoS) 



Douglas, J : W : Measurements in descrip- 
tive entoniologv. (Entoni. mo. mag., Mch. 
1882, V. iS, P.V36-237.) 

Crit. rev., by R McLacblan, with same 
title, (op. f//.,"p. 237-23S.) 

Crit. rev. of R. McLachlan's "Measurements in des- 
criptive entomology; a suggestion" {op. cit., Feb. iSS2, 
p. 205-207) ; considers the Paris line [2. 25 mm.] a stand- 
ard of measurement for insects, and opposes the use of 
the millimetre as a unit. G: D. (35OQ) 

Frenzel, Johann. Der Verdauungstractus 
der Larve <\Qi^ tencbrio molitor. Vorlaufige 
Mittheiliing. (Zool. Anzeiger, i May 18S2, 
jahrff. 5, p.' 215-217.) 

Anatomical and i)hysiolofrical notes on the digestive 
tract of the larva oi tL-n<'hrio vwliinr. G: />."{35io) 

Haldeman, S: Stchman. History and trans- 
formations of cory/Jnlus cortinhis. (Mem. 
Amer. acad. arts and sci., 1S49 [ f**"- 'S50], 
p. 162-16S, pi. 1-3.) 
Habits and external anatomy (with especial reference 

to the mouth-parts and genitalia) oi coryda/us cnynutna. 

G: D. (3S11) 

LeConte, J : Lawrence. Lists of coleoptera 
collected in 1881 by Dr. Bell and others, in 
the Lake Superior district and in the 
north-west territories, east of the 112th me- 
ridian and south of the 60th parallel. 
(Rept. of progress of Geol. and nat. hist, 
surv. Canada, 1880-18S2, Montreal. 1SS3, 
29C-39C.) 
Gives lists of coleoptera from it places about I,ake 

Superior. G: D. (.^512) 

Leidy, Joseph. Internal anatomy o{ coryda- 
lns loi nufus in its three stages of existence. 
(Mem. Amer. acad. arts and sci., 1S49 
[Jan. 1S50], p. 162-168. pi. 1-3.} 

Describes the digestive apparatus of the larva, pupa, 
and imago of rorydalus cornutus^ and the generative 
.apparatus and nervous svstem of the imago nf the same 
insect. G: D. C;,5ij) 



1S« [35'4-352«] 



PSCYllE. 



[June— July iSS,. 



McLachlan, Robert. Measurements in des- 
criptive entomology'. (Entom. mo. mag., 
March J8S2, v. iS, p. 237-238.) 
Reply to J : \V : Douglas' *'Me.i.suremcnts in descrip- 
tive cntomolojjy" (pp. cit.y p. 336-237) ; the extent to 
which the metric systeni is now used precludes the pro. 
bubility tliat I*:iris or i^nglisli lines will ever become 
genera! standards ot" measurement; the use of Paris 
lines by British writers is especially objectionable. 

G: D. (3514) 

McLachlau, Robeit. Measurements in de- 
scriptive entomology; a suggestion. En- 
tom. mo. mag., Feb. 1SS2, v. iS, p. 205-207.) 
Crit. rev., by J : W : Douglas, entitled 
"Measurements in descriptive entomolo- 
gy." {op. cit., Mch. 18S2, p. 236-237.) 
Urecs British entomologists to use niillimetres as 

units in measurement of insects. G: D. (351s; 

Meade, R. H. Note on parasitic diptera. 

(Entomologist, June 1SS2, v. 15, p. 140-141.) 

Cyrtonenra stabitlati.t, which is said to live generally 

on fun;j;i, is, according to C : V. Kilcy, parasitic on the 

cotton worm, rt/tV/'rt iirgillaci'a. G: D. (351*3) 

Observations on the sagacity of the spider 
(Amer. museum . . . Carey .... Oct. 1791, 
V. 10, no. 4, p. 203-204, 31 cm.) 
Treats of the habits and wcb-buiiding of spiders. 

J3: P. AI. (3517) 

Osborne, J. A. Further notes on partheno- 
genesis in coleoptera. (Entom. mo. mag., 
Nov. iSSi, V. 18, p. 12S-129.) 

Statistics of parthenofjenetic reproduction as observed 
in gastrophysa yaphani and comjjai'cd witll reproduc- 
tion from impregnated females. G: D. (351S) 

Osten Sacken, C ; Robert. Dr. F. Miiller's 
discovery of a case of female dimorphism 
among diptera. (Entom. mo. mag., Nov. 
iSSo, v. 17, p. 130-132.) 

Ctit. rev. of F. Miiller's "Paltostoma torrentiuni. 
Eine miicke mit zweigestaltigen weibchen" (Kosmos, 
Oct. iSSo, jahrg. 4, bd. S, p. 37-42) ; paltostoma torren- 
//«;« pcrliaps nnt a paUosto/na; geographical distribu- 
tion of this genus and of the family btcpharoccridae 
which differs from most otlier families of diptera in 
having the eyes contiguous in some genera and sej>arate 
in others, but alike, so far as known, in both sexes, in 
tliis regard ; references to literature on hlepharoccridae, 

B: P. Af. (3519) 

Osten Sacken, C : Robert. Habits of /low- 
liyliiis. (Entom. mo. mag., Feb. 1S81, v. 
17, p. 2()f)-2n7.) 

Rev. of C ; V. Riley's "On the natural history of cer' 
lain bee-flies, bomhyttidae.^^ (Amer. entom., Dec. iSSo> 
V.3, n.s.,v. [,p. 279-3S3) [Rec. 3536]; food-aninials of 
systofchtts^ Irioditfs -.iwtX boiitbyiitis; summary statement 
of the mode of oviposition of bombyliu.-i, tomatia and 
anthrax, with references to the literattu'e. 

li: I'. M. (3520) 



[Packard, Alpheus Spring.] The horned 
corvdalus. (Amer. nat., Oct. 1S67, v. i. p, 

43'>437. fig- I-2-) 

Fig^irc and general description of lar\'a and imago of 
coryJaius cornuius; Inw grade of its structure; habits 
of larva; es^gs unknown; form and position of eggs of 
siaiis; prol>ably greater abundance of sialuioe at the 
carboniferous period than at present. B: P. M. (3521) 

Parfitt, E : Halictus cyliudrictis carnivorous. 
(Entom. mo. mag., Dec. 1SS2, v. 19^ p. 

162-163.) 

A ny.\\tm( hiilit-tux rylindrirus captured with other 
insects in his mouth. G: D, (3532) 

Parthenogenesis bei kiifern. (Entom. nach- 
ricliten, 15 Jan. iSSi. jahrg. 7, p. 31-32.) 
Abstract of J. A. Osborne's "Parthenogenesis in the 
coleoptera" (Nature, 30 Sept. iSSo, v. 22, p. 509-510). 
In the abstract the species is given as *^ffastropa(ha 
raphaui." ti: V. (3523) 

Peach, n. N. On some fossil myriapods 
from the lower old red sandstone of For- 
farshire. (Proc. rov. phvs. soc. [Edinb.], 
1881-1882, p. 177-1SS, pi. '2.) 
Figures and describes kawpccari.t forfarcnsis and 
arfhidt'Stntts [nov. gen.l macilicoli \l\. spec], appar- 
ently the oldest myriapods known. G: D. (3524) 

Pierce, F. N. Three-winged insects. (Pract. 
nat., June 18S3, v. i, p. 65, 15 cm.) 

Mentions several specimens of lepidoptera which 
lack one posterior wing. G: D. (3525) 

Pike, J. \V. Preservation of fossil insects 
and plants on Mazon Creek. (■'Vinclaiul 
[N.J.] weekly independent". . . ) (Science 
advocate [Atco, N.J.]. Oct. iSSi, v. 2, p. 
57-59, 88 cm.) 
General notes on Mazon Creek, 111., as a source of 

fossil insects and plants. G: D. (3526) 

PlOTwright. C: B. On tnimicry in fungi. 
(Grevillea, Sept. 18S1, .v. 10. p. 1-14.) 
Includes remarks on fungivcfrous insects .and on the 

dissemination of fungi by insect aid. W: T. (3527) 

Poisson, J. Sur deux nouvelles piantes- 
pifeges. (Bull. soc. hot. de France, 12 Jan. 
1877, v. 24, p. 26-31.) 

Abst., by H. Miiller, entitled "Ueber 
zwei nene lallenpflanzen." (Bot. jahresbe- 
richt. . .Just, 1S77, V. 5, p. 750, lOciii.') 

Abst., by Asa Gray, entitled "The be- 
heading of flies by mcntzclia ornnlit." (Bot. 
gazette, Oct. 1879, v. 4, p. 213-214.) 

Describes, as one of the vegetable traps, the bnrbeil 
hairs and interspersed glandular hairs on the llower- 
stalk of mt:utzctia. Flies, attracted by the secretion 
of the first, insert their tongues between the barbed 
hairs, and are unable to remove them. In their elVorts 
to escape thev often twist their bodies from their heads. 

H- T. (352S) 



Julie — July 1SS4.] 



PSYCHE. 



135-9-353'^] 1^'' 



Potato bugs. (New remedies, Sept. iSSi, v- 

10, p. 2S4, 3 cm.) 

Use of "potnto bnjjs" [? doryptiorn deccmtineata\ in 
liomoeopatliic medicine. G: D. (J152Q) 

Ribeaucourt, C. Manuel d'apiculture ra- 
tionelle d'apres les methodes modernes. 
3e edition revne et augmentee. Paris, 
iSSo. t. -p. cover, 126 p., 15X11,111X6.7. 

General work on apicnlture. G: D. (35.^0) 

Riley, C : Valentine. On the curious egg 
mass of corydahis coriiiifiis, Linn., and on 
the eggs that have hitherto been referred 
to tliat species. (Proc. Anier. assoc. ad- 
vanc. sci., for 1S76, 1877, v. 25, p. 275-279, 
I fig.) 

Reprint, by author, entitled "The hell- 
grammite. Coiyda/ris ron/ti/iis, Z.inn. (gth 
ann. rept. state entom. Mo., 1S77, p. 125- 
129, fig. 30-33.) 

Structure ?ind hnbits, description of ceff-masses :\ud 
eggs and of newly-hatchtd larvae of coryJa/rts comutus; 
tggs formerly atirilnited to this species are pmbablv 
those of hclnstoma ^ronde; figure of these eg^s and of 
the imago uih. ^^rovde. B: P. M. (35,^) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The hellgrainmite. 
(Sci. amer., 23 June 1S77, v. 36, p. 392-393, 
120 cm, 3 fig.) 

Structure and habits of corydaius^ cornuims^ descrip- 
tion and figures of egg-masses, eggs, larvae, pupa and 
iniagos of this species; adaptations of sexual structure 
to varying conditions; figure and description of eggs nf 
bclostoma grandc, formerly supposed to be those of c. 
fornuUts. B: P. M. (3532) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The liellgrammite. 
Corvdalus. cornufus. Linn. (Qth ann. rept. 
state entom. Mo., 1S77, p. 125-129, fig. 30- 

Reprint of author's ''On the curious egg mass of 
corvdaliis coniiitus^'' . . . (Proc. Amer. assoc. advanc. 
sci., for 1S76, 1S77, V. 25, p. 375-279), with addition of 
figures of imago, pupa and full-grown larva of ror>';/(7/?/s 
cornulns and of imago and eggs of helostoma g-rande; 
structure and habits, description of ei^g-masses and 
eggs and of newly hatched larvae of corydalus cornu- 
lns; eggs formerly attributed to this species are ^x<:A^- 
nh]Y those oT bi'Iostomn gra/tdc. B: P. M. (3^33) 

Riley, C : Valentine. The hellgrammite flv : 

corydalus co)'7iutus^ Linn. (5th ann. rept. 

.state entom. Mo., 1S73, p. 142-145, fig. 69- 

71-) 

Description and figures of larva, pupa and imago of 
cnrydobts cor7iiitns, and of eggs of bclostoma gra7idi' 
mist.akcn for those of the roryda/iix; description of the 
external respiratory organs of the larva; habits and 
transformations; a'daptation of the jaws of the male 
imago of this species and of IncanuR dnphus. for embra- 
cing the female. B: JP. M. (3534) 



Riley, C : Valentine. On the laivul charac- 
tei'istics o{ corydahis and chauliodcs and on 
the development of corydalus covnutus. 
(Kansas City review of science and indus- 
try, Sep. 1S7S, V. 2, p. 354.) 

Reprint. (Can. entom., May 1S79, v. 11, 
p. 96-98.) 

Reprint. (Proc. Amer. assoc. advanc. 
sci., for 1S78, [14 July.^] 1S79, V. 27, p. 2S5- 
287.) (Riley, C: V. Entomological pa- 
pers. . . . [From the Proceedings (etc.), St. 
Louis, Mo., August, 1S7S.] [Salem, Mass., 
Feb. 1S79.] p. 19-21.) 

Abstract of paper read by the author at meeting of 
American associaticn for th.c advancement of science, 
Aug. 1S7S; characters and economic value of larva of 
t'oryda/us cor7iutiis, with brief indic.ition of characters 
of imago; characters of larva of chau/iodes; description 
of eggs of both geneva; peculiar situation of egg-masses 
of the r(5/'_yrfi7/ws and physical character of their cover- 
ing; desciibes puiticulaily the respiratory apparatus 
and method of respiration of the corydalus larvae. [The 
reprints include a few verbal corrections.] 

B:P.M. (3535) 

Riley, C: Valentine. On the natural his- 
tory of certain bee-flies, bombyliidac. 
(Amer. entom., Dec. iSSo, v. 3, n. s., v. i, 
p. 279-2S3, fig. 147-151.) 

Rev., by C: R. Qsten Sacken, entitled 
'•Habits of bnmbylius" (Entom.. mo. mag., 
Feb. iS8i, V. 17, p. 206-207.) 
Advance reprint and abstract of p. 263-360 of 2d 
report of U. S. entomological commission, chap. 13 
[Kec, 339l«], witli appro.xnnate copies ot i.gs. 1, ib-ig, 
2a, 3, 5a and 7 of pi. 16; larval Iialnts and figures of 
several stages of triodites jjius and sysiocc/iits areas, 
with liistory of their discovery ; description and figures 
of mouth-parts of the larvae; review of previous knowl- 
edge of Iialiits of larvae nT boinhvltidae, witli references 
to the literature; distinctive characters of cells and 
cocoons of pelopocuR and Irypoxyloit; habits of try- 
poxyloji atbitarse; retardation of <levelopnient in para- 
sitic insects. B: P. M, (3S36) 

Roth, Albrecht Wilhelm. Von der reizbar- 
keit der blatter des sogenannten sonnen- 
thaiies, drosera rotiindifolia, longifolin. 
(Beytriige ziir botanik, Bremen, 17S2, theil 
I, p. 60-76.) 

Describes the capture of insects by the leaves of 
dionaca muscipulci, as welt as hy droacra rotrtitdi/u/ia 
and (/. l:}7tgifolin, recording several experiments on 
the latter genus. ir. 7". (,^537) 

Riist, Eine einfache kaferfalle. (En- 
tom. nachrichten, it; April iSSo. jahrg. 6, 
p. 84-85.) 

Mode of constructing a traj), bailed with dead ani- 
mals, for collecting carnivorous and carrion-eating 
coleoptera. G: D. (5538) 



1"'' [3539-3550] 



rsrciiE. 



[June— July iSS). 



Sailg, J. Platyptilia dicltrodaclyla unci [/.] 
beitrami. (Entoni. mo. iii;ig., Nov. iSSi, 
V. iS, p. I4.3-I44-) 

Discu.sses the synonymy ciX ptatyptilja dickrodactyln 
and />. hertramit and gives notes on the early stages of 
/. diclirodartyla. G: D. (35.59) 

Saunders, W : Entomology for beginners. 
The promcthea cmpcror-moth. Callosamia 
fromethca. Drinv. (Can. entom., Dec. 
18S3 [Feb. iSS4]/p. 231-233, fig. 10-13.) 
Figures male and female imago, and larva and cocoon 

oi callosamia promcthca and gives notes upon them. 

G: D. (3540) 

Scudder, S : Hubbard. Tlie cai-boniferous 

hexapod insects of Great Britain. (Mem. 

liost. soc. nat. hist., 1SS3, v. 3, p. 213-224, 

pi. 17.) 

Separate. Boston, June [Oct.] 1SS3. 

t.-p. cover, p. 213-224, pi. 17, 30X23, t 22 

X16. 

Describes hrodia priscotincta and archaeoptilus in- 
ee.na (2 new genera and .*;pucics) and liihosialis hron- 
^uiartii, fossil neuroi)tera; list of carboniferous hexa- 
"JKxls (4 ncuroptera, 2 orthoptcra and 1 coleopteron) 
from Great Britain. G: D. (3541) 

Scudder, S : Hubbard. The fossil white ants 
of Colorado. (Proc. Anier. acad. arts and 
sciences, 1SS3, v. 19, p. 133-145-) 
General notes on fossil tcrmiiina and their distribu- 
tion ; describes i new j^enus and 6 new species, viz.: 
parMcrmcs (n. g^,), p, insi^nis^ p. ha^enii, p. fodinae, 
kodolermes? coloradensis, cuteniws fossariniiy and e. 
mcttdii, all from tertiary beds of Florissant, Colonulo. 

G:n. (3542) 

Siewers, C : Godfrey. Some notes on cole- 
optera for beginners. (Can. entom., July 
iSSo, V. 12, p. 138-139.) 
Modes of collecting and |)rcparing eolenptera. 

O.D- (3543) 

Stanley, II : M. Throui^h the dark conti- 
nent, or the sources of the Nile, around the 
great lakes of equatorial Africa and down 
the Livingstone river to the Atlantic ocean. 
2 V. N. Y., Harper d: Brothers, 1S7S. 
V. I, 14+522 p.; V. 2, 10+566 p.; 23X15, 
t 17X9.7. "With 10 maps and 150 wood- 
cuts" and 2 por. of Stanley. Cloth, $10; 
sheep, $12; half-morocco or half-calf, $15. 
Sold by subscription only. 

Entomological notes, brief and of a popular nature, 
are found in v. 1, as follows : j). 72, precautions against 
white ants {terines.^ ; p. 157 anti 462, most|uilocB [r///c.vj ; 
p. 220-231, general remarks on insects of Musjra island, 
in Victoria Nyanza lake. Vol. 2 contains the following : 
p. S9-C)0, 292, 297, 3:0, 31^, and 361, mo-'iquitnes \culex\ \ p. 
90, name of lake Niyanja Muta Nzigd means "Lake of 
dead locusts"; p. 106, 235, 310 and 361, ants and their 
atUicks; p. 121, honey, white-ants and grasshoppers 
sold in the market at Nyangwc ; p. 13S, ^nyriapoda, oee- 
llcs and ants ; general notes on the insects at llie junc- 
tion of the Luwwa with the u]>per Livingstone river; 
I). 202, and 310, tsets<; and olIu;r (lies; p. 361, the "jigga" 
$ai'copsylla penetraHs\ \ p. 360, ulcerous diseases con- 
veyed ny flies; p. 3S7 bees and their wax at Mowa on 
llic lower Livingstone river. (i: D. (3544) 



Syme, J : Hoswcll. (.)n tlie fertilization of 

grasses. (Journ. roy. hortic soc, 17 Apr. 

■1S72, [1S73], "-s., v.* 4, p. 7-9.) 

Remarks on the maturation of the flowers of several 

genera o{ gramineat-, and on the insects which visii 

these tlowers. Dactylis glomiraiOy psannna annaria 

and glyccria finitans arc v<^ry attractive to hpidopUra^ 

as is evinced by a long list of species taken on their 

flowers. W. T. (3545) 

"Walsh, B: Dann. Fire-blight. Two new 
' foes of the apple and pear. (Prairie farmer. 

6 Sep. 1S62, [v. 26], n. s., v. 10, p. 147-149. 

iS9cm., 7 fig.) 

Definition of fire-blight; this disease not caused by 
attacks of srolytus Pyri, but suspected to be caused by 
attacks of chloroneura malefica and ch. vialiffna; fig- 
ures of these insects and of the ncuralion of the upper 
and lower wings of their allies; distinctive characters, 
habits and ravages of these insects ; synoptical table to 
distinguish the genera typlilocyha^ tinpoasca n.g.f cm- 
poa, diloroiicnra n. g. and erytltroneura; description of 
typhlocyba aurcay t.pallidula^ t. binotata^ empoasca viri- 
desrcfis, i\ ronsobritta, e. oldnsa, cmpoa albicans^ chloro- 
neura abnormis, cli. malefica, ch. maligna^ crythroncura 
australis, e. ziczac and e. octonotata, all new species; 
hemcrodromia sttpcrstiiiosa tound killing an erythro- 
nciira. B: P. Af. (3546) 

["Walsh, B : Dann and Riley, C : Valentine.] 
The apple-root plant-louse. Eriosoma 
{pcjnp/tigns) pyr I. Fiich. (Amer. entom., 
Jan. 1869, V. I, p. S1-S4, fig. 7072.) 
Habits and r.-ivages, description and figures, enentics 
and parasites of and means against schizoneura lani- 
gera: evidences of the presence of this insect in or- 
chards; doubts whether fr/^,?<9«/tt {schizoneura\ pyri is 
the same as e. [.«.] lanigcra; generic difl'erences }>c- 
tween pemphigus and eriosoma; confinement of aphidi- 
dae \o the food-plants peculiar to each; description and 
figure of larva, puparium and imago oi'pipixti radicttm 
n. sp. ^: P- M. (3547) 

[Walsh, B : Dann and Riley, C : Valentine.] 
Tlie asparagus beetle : crioccn's asparagi, 
Linn. (Amer. entom., Feb. 1S69, v. i, p. 
114-115. 77 cm., fig. 94; p. 144, I cm.) 
Introduction into United Stales, natural history, 
ravages and parasites of and means against crtoceris 
asparagi; figure of eggs, larvae and imago of this in- 
sect; importance of asparagus culture. 

B:P.Af. (354^) 

[Walsh, B: Dann c/?/r/ Riley, C : Valentine.] 
The boll-worm, llth'othh arfiiigcra., Hub- 
nor. (Amer. entom., July iS6y. v. i. p. 
:u-2i4, 92 cm., fig. 150-151.) 

Habits, seasons, ravages and food-plants of and 
means auainst heliothis armigera; dctxTipli* 11 and 
fij'.ures oi all stages of this insect. B: P. M. (3549) 

[Walsh, B : Dann and Riley, C : Valentine.] 

The hellgrammite fiy. Corydah's cornu.'us. 

Linn. (Amer. entom., Dec. 1S6S. v. i. p. 

61-62, 71 cm., fig. 56-57-) 

Description of habits and figures of larva, pup:i and 
imago of corydnlus cornutuSj- description and figure of 
Ciius n( be/osfoma i^randft mistaken tor those of this in- 
sect. /?■■ P. Af (3550) 



Juno— July 18S4.; 



PSrCHE. 



191 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

On account of inability to arrange satis- 
factorily the material on hand for publica- 
tion this double numero contains four pages 
less than is usual. This deficiency will be 
made up in the succeeding numero. 

About the middle of June thick clouds of 
dragon-flies, Libcllula quadrimactilata and 
L. rufa, were seen flying east over Moscow, 
Russia. They were at first mistaken for 
locusts. 

We include in the Bibliographical record 
several references to corydalus cornutus, to 
accompany the article by Mr. Krauss, on 
that insect. For earlier references see the 
Bibliegraphical record, no. 46S, 865 q, 971 /> 
1037 A, 1115, 1348, 1401. 

In the Bulletin d'inscctologie agricole 
for M.ay 1SS4 appears the first portion of a 
notice of Dr. C. V. Riley and his work as an 
economic entomologist, written in anticipa- 
tion of his third visit to France this year. 
The notice is entitled "Riley et I'entomologie 
agraire aux Etats-Unis." 

Dr. H : C. McCooK has recently described 
the cocoon of a species of spider which he 
calls, provisionally, Micayia Ihnnictntac- 
The peculiarity of the cocoon consists in its 
being covered with mud, and being suspend- 
ed by a thread beneath fallen boards. The 
cocoons wore found in Illinois. 

Entomology h.\s just suffered a loss in 
the death, at Copenhagen, earlj- in June, of 
Pruf J. C. Schiddte, a well known entomo- 
logical author. Among other entomologists, 
notices of whose deaths we have seen lately, 
are Mr. Edwin Birchall, lepidopterist, who 
died in Douglass, Isle of Man, on 2 May 
1S84, and Mr. William Prest, lepidopterist, 
born 7 May 1S24. in York, England, and died 
7 April 1SS4 in the same town. 

Mr. W : C. Krauss, whose description of 
the nervous system of the head of the larva 
of Coyydalus cornutns we publish at this time, 
attained special Jiiial honors in the subject of 
insect anatomv at his gratluation fi'oni the 



Cornell university on 19 June of this year, 
when he was made a Bachelor of science in 
the departments of science and letters, and 
received a licentiate certificate in the medical 
preparatory course. We hail with pleasure 
the advent to the ranks of the entomologists 
in this country of every member who is not 
content with pinning and exchanging speci- 
mens, describing new species and discussing 
their names, but seeks to advance the knowl- 
edge of their essential structure, relations to 
the rest of the world, and manner of life. 

B: P. M. 

Dr. Fritz Muller, under title of "Butter- 
flies as botanists" notes in Nature for 10 July 
1SS4 that "The caterpillars of Mec/tiuiitis, 
Dircenna., Ccratinia and Ithomia feed on dif- 
ferent species oi solanaccae {Solauum, Cyp/io- 
mandra, Bassovia, Cestrum), those of the 
allied genus Thyridia on Biunfelsia. Now 
this latter genus of plants had been placed 
unanimously among the scrophularincae, till 
quite recently it was transferred by Bentham 
and Hooker to the solniiaceae. Thus it ap- 
pears that butterflies had recognized the true 
affinity of Brtinfehici long before botanists 
did so." Dr. Muller likewise shows that the 
closeaffinity oi Dalechampia and Tragia, two 
genera of eup/iorbiaceae, "had been duly 
appreciated by buttei'fiies," altlin only lately- 
recognized by botanists. 

Prof. Xaver Landerer, of Athens, 
Greece, writes to the Dcutsch-anicrikaiiische 
npotliekci-zcitniig (15 May 18S2, jahrg. 3, no. 

.V P- 134) : — 

"As far as I can determine the manna of 
the Israelites, with which they are said to 
have nourished themselves for forty jears in 
the wilderness, comes from Myriea manni- 
fcra. The manna is known to be secreted 
from openings which are marie in the leaves 
of the tree by a gall-insect, Cynips tnatinipn- 
riix The manna trickles slowly down and 
hardens. The monks collect this manna at 
the present time and eat it as hallowed food. 
Sometimes strangers are honored with a 
small quantity as a present. 



102 



PSYCHE. 



[June— July 1SS4. 



"This manna slioiikl not be confused with 
the Mana-mana, in Arabic Abel Alse ; these 
are earth-nuts {CyJ>crus esculcnlus), which 
are nearly indispensable as food for the poor 
Arab people." 

GuSTAV Weymer describes and figures in 
the Jahresbericht des naturwissenschaftlichen 
vereins in Elberfeld, Heft 6, two hermaphro- 
ditic Icpidoptera. One of them, an A/'citiira 
iris, while reallj a female has various color- 
ation characteristics of a male. The other 
specimen, a Ncmcophila riisstila, has the 
right half female, the left male ; this speci- 
men is the more striking because the male 
and female of this species vary strikingly in 
coloration, size, and form. The same author 
(/. c.) describes and figures varieties of Pa- 
filio machaon, Apatura iris, Limcni/is Si- 
bylla, Vanessa folychloros, Melitaea atkalia, 
Argynnis selene, Arctia caja, Acronycta 
meiiyaiithidis, Hybernia leucofhaearia, and 
Diston straiarius. In the same heft Carl 
Cornelius gives a list of 2304 species of 
coleoptera from Elberfeld and its vicinity, 
adding notes concerning habits and food of 
numerous species and general remarks on 
the coleopterous fauna of the region. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

The regular meetings of the Cambridge 
Entomological Club will be held at 7.45 p. m., 
on the days following: — 

10 Oct. 1S84. 13 Mar. 1885. 

7 Nov. " 10 Apr. " 

12 Dec. " 8 May " 
9 Jan. 1885. 12 June " 

13 Feb. ■• 

G. DiMMOCK, Secretary. 



The New York Entoinological Club meets 
twice monthly, except in June, July and 
August, but no special date is fixed for each 
meeting. 

Henry Edwards, Secretary. 



Natural History will be held at N. W. corner 
of Berkeley and Boylston Sts., Boston, Mass. 
at 7.45 p. in., on the days following: — 

22 Oct. 18S4. 25 Feb. 1SS5. 

26 Nov. " 25 Mar. " 

24 Dec. " 22 Apr. " 

28 Jan. 1885. 27 May " 

Edward Burgess, Secretary. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadeli.hia, Pa., will be held 
at S. W. corner of lyth and Race Sts., on the 
days following: — 

10 Oct. 1884. 13 Mar. 1885. 

7 Nov. " 10 Apr. " 

12 Dec. " 8 May " 
9 Jan. 1885. 12 June '" 

13 Feb. " 

James H. Ridings, Recorder. 



The semi-annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Entomological Society will be held at S. 
W. corner of 19th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, 
Pa., on the days following : — 

8 Dec. 1884. S June 1885. 

James H. Ridings, Recording Secretary. 



The regular monthly meetings of the 
Montreal Branch of the Entomological Soci- 
ety of Ontario, will be held at Montreal, Que. , 
Canada, on the days following: — 

7 Oct. 1S84. 3 Feb. 18S5. 

4 Nov. " 3 Mar. " 

2 Dec. " 7 Apr. " 

6 Jan. 1885. 5 May " 

G. J. Bowles, Secretary. 



The monthly meetings of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society will be held in the 
rooms of Wright's Business College, Broad- 
way, corner of Fourth Street, Brooklyn, 
E. D., the last Saturday of each month ex- 
cept July and August. 

F. G. .Schaupp, Secretary. 



The regular meetings of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Boston Society of 



No. 121 was issued 11 July 1884. 



P S YC H W, 

A. JOXJK.]ISr.A.L OF ElsTTOnyCC 

[Established in 1S74.] 



OC3-Y. ^^o^^ 



EDITED Bl' 

B: PiCKMAN Mann, Washhigton. D. C. ; G: Dimmock, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Albert J: Cook, Lansing, Mich.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal, 
III. ; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany, N. T. ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, La-vrence. Kansas; W : Trelease, Madison. Wi.sc. 



Vol. 4. Nos. 124-125. 



August-September 1SS4. 



CONTENTS: 



Advertisements .............. 194 

Notes ON the Relations of two Cecidomyi.^ns to Fungi — William Trelease ■ 195-200 

\V.\NT OF Symmetry among Insects — Oskar Paul Kranclier .... 200-203 

Food-Plants of Beetles bred in Maryland — Oito Lugger .... 203-204 

Effeot of Cyanide upon Colour 204 

Francis Gregory Sanborn ... 205 

Notice of an Omission from Leconte's Edition of Thomas Say's Writ- 
ings — L. O. Hoivard 206 

A Butterfly attracted by Lamplight — Mary Esther Miirtfeldl . . . 206 

Proceedings of Societies — Linnean Society of London ..... 206 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3551-3590 207-210 

Entomological 'Items — Acknowledgment of Contributions ..... 211-212 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 
VEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS, 30 c. 

FEntered as second class mail matter.] 



194 



PSrCHE. 



[August — September 18S4. 



Psyche, A Jouriial_of Entomology. 

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION, filt. 

PAYAni.E IN ADVANCE. 

^^^ Subscriptions tiot discontinued are considered 
renewed. 

^^^ Commencing xvith the numero for yanuary 
1883 the rate of subscription is as /o//o7vs: — 

Yearly subscription, entitling the subscriber to 
one regular copy and, if he desires it, one copy 
printed on one side of thin paper (for pasting 
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PSYCHE. 



NOTES OX THE RELATIONS OF TWO CECIDOMYIAXS TO 

FUNGI. 

BY WILLIAM TREI.KASE. MADISON', WlSf. 



For i^ome veins, while collecting the 
commoner iiredineae or rust fungi, mv 
attention has been attracted bv certain 
small orange-red insects, that are verv 
treqnent in and aliout some of the sori. 
Thev are most often noticed in the aeci- 
ilia or ciuster-CLips and in those sori 
\\ hich contain nredo-spores. At times 
thev are so alnindant that it is almost 
impossible to collect a specimen of the 
commoner nredo or aecidia! forms with- 
out finding lumibeis of them in nearh 
everv sorus. 

A first ghmce at them suggests that 
the insects mav be some species of 
riirips, hut the resemblance vanishes 
on closer examination. Their motions, 
as a general thing, are less rapid than 
those of Thrifis. and a hand-lens at 
once shows them to be some sort of 
dipterous lar\ ae. With a higher power 
the hreast-lione. ciiaracteristic of ceci- 
ilomyid larvae, is distinctly seen. Vari- 
ous attemjits have been made to bring 
them to maturitw but so far without 
success, so that it is as yet impossible 
to say anything definite about the spe- 
cies to which the\- belons- 



The constant presence of these insects 
on the fruit of the fungi led me to watcli 
their movements from time to time, and 
the reascjn for their presence was soon 
seen in the altered appearance of the 
sori where they were most numerous. 
Their relish for the Spores is entirely 
disproportionate to the size of their mi- 
nute bodies. The fact that they feed 
on the spores aflbrds a simple explana- 
tion of their presence on the aecidial 
and uredo fruits, rather than in the te- 
leutosporic sori of the rusts, since the 
spores of the latter are more frequently 
thick-walled and hard. 

The fungi on which I have most often 
observed the larvae in question are Acci- 
J/inii ca/ad/i. the cluster cup of Ari- 
sa cilia and other aroids. Coleosporiiiin 
soiicJii-ai-vciisis. the common rustof ^4,v- 
tcr and Solidago. and Cacoma iiiteiis. 
the destructive red-rust everywhere 
abundant in spring on leaves of the 
blackberr\ :uk1 raspberry (Rtihtis). 

Mr. C. \'. Rilev informs me that he 
has also found the same larvae on a fun- 
gus (Exolmsidii/iii vacciiiii?') growing 
on Az<7/ra. wmy that the\' have been 



i'.m; 



/'s )■(///■:. 



' Aujiust — Sr]>lcinlicr i^'s^. 



seen absolutely swanning on some tlesli- 
colored fungiiscoveringasqiiash. C?icitr- 
bita. Tlie same, or very similar insects 
occur also in Europe, for M. Patouii- 
lard. speaking of Caeoma eitonymi and 
Accidiitm coiivallariac in the vicinit\ 
of Paris, savs that their spores are fre- 
quently devoured 1)\ a small lar\'a of an 
orange color.' 

Tliese larvae diller in iheir fungivo- 
rons habits from the greater number of 
cecidomvians. which feed on tlie juices 
of phaenogams. causing atrophw as in 
the case of wheat attacked bv Cecidoiiivia 
destructor^ the hessian fly, or the de- 
velopment of galls such as most of the 
cec/doiiividac produce. Some species. 
notal)lv Cecidcniivia tritici. the wheat 
fl\-. feed upon pollen, at least in the 
earlv part of their lives, in this respect 
approaching the species which cat 
spores. Aside tVnm these, there aie 
a few anomalous feeders in the genus. 
Westwood- states, on the authority of 
Vallot. whose work I have been unable 
to consult, that the larvae of one species 
are found on the under side of leaves of 
Chelidoiiiiim, sucking the acari found 
there : and CecidoDiyia bicolor Aleig. 
is said by Macquart to frequent the 
underside of the leaves of Le.otniriis. 
])ossiblv for a similar purpose. 

While the fungus-eating species are 
not sufficiently restricted in their choice 
of food to be classed as entireK' injuri- 
ous or entirely beneficial, they would 

1 Bull. soc. bot. France, %% May iSSo, v. 27, p. 162. 
- Intrrid. to mod. class, insects, v. 2. p. 510. 



naturallv fall among the useful sjjecics. 
Even the golden-rods and asters are of 
some importance to bee-keepers, and 
the onslaughts of the insects on the 
s])ores of the raspberry rust and other 
))arasites of cultivated plants must tend 
to clieck the spread of these fungi, so 
that in a measure they protect the flow- 
ering plants on which thev live, as does 
the species referred to b\- X'allot. 



luitomologists are familiar with cer- 
tain black spots, several millimetres in 
diaiiRtcr, in the leaves of golden rods 
and asters. Silidago lai/ceotata and 
.v. teiiiiifoUa are more frequently 
marked in this manner than other spe- 
cies. These objects are found in the 
ealiinels of economic entomologists as 
the galls of a gnat. Cecidomyia carboii- 
?fc>-<t O. S. They also occur in the 
herbaria of mycologists as fungi, under 
the names Rliytiswa solldagiiiis and 
A', astcris given them a half centur\ 
ago \i\ .Schweinitz. 

On narrow-leaved species of Soh'daoo. 
t'.o-.. .V. hiiiceolata. the spots, visible 
on both siu'faces of the leaf, are some- 
limes almost circular, \arying in diam- 
eter from I to ^. mm. : but more com- 
monly thev arc elongated parallel to 
the axis of tlie leat". so as to I>e ellipti- 
cal or oblnng. TIk'n are nsualK s\ ni- 
metrical. unless the centre is situated 
at one side of the midrib of the narrow 
leaf, in which case the corresponding 
side is necessarily truucateil on reaching 
the margin. The leaf is always slight- 
ly swollen in the discolored spot, liut 



All^ll^.t— Si--|)UiiilHr 1SS4.] 



PSYCHE. 



197 



the cnlartjenifiit occurs so luiifonnh 
in all parts that neither the midrib nor 
lateral nerves are obliterated. Now 
and then spots of the same nature are 
seen on the stem, where thev are more 
irregular than on the leaf, and common- 
1\' occup\ somewhat swollen portions 
cif the internotles. The surface of the 
sp )t is of a dead coal-black, occasion- 
alh' slitihtlv i;loss\' on the nerves. Some- 
times the black passes into a deep pmple 
at the edge of the spot, due to the pres- 
ence of a soluble pig'ment in the diseased 
epitlermal cells, this color chauLjing' 
graduallv into the green of the surroiuid- 
ing leaf. In other cases it is bordered 
b\ a narrow white ring, forjiiing a sharp 
line of demarcation between the black 
on the one hand and the green on the 
other, or more rareh separating the 
black from a purple zone, which grad- 
nalK passes into the green. 

On broader leaved .species, like Soli- 
diii^'ii iiliiii folia and S. caesia^ the spots 
aie mure tVet|uentl\ roiuul or slightlv 
irregular, extending without interrup- 
tion ii\ei' the smaller veins or e\en the 
midrib. Thougii often glistening, the\- 
usualK lack the coal-black appearance 
noticeable on S. laiircolata. and the rea- 
son for this is in some instances detected 
in a \ei\ delicate, whitish membrane, 
cleaih continuous with the wliite or 
\ el low border, w hich covers and modifies 
to a grealer or less degree the lilack of 
the underKing parts. While some of 
ihe spots are no thicker than the unaf- 
t'ected portions of the leaf, others are 
strongh' C(ni\exon one or lioth sides. 

It h:is been suid that .Schweinit/, called 
these fungi, and two species wei i- mad<- 



of them, characterized by their external 
features as follows : — 

2034. Rhytisma soiidaginis, L. v. S., vulgatissiinum 
in (bliis vigentilius .Soliduginis lanceolatae nee .itibi. . . 
R. innatuni, aterrimuni, alisque ullo vein aut nitore, orbi- 
culatiim aut ovatuni, niargine lute" in folio; in pagina 
superiori convexuni, in inferiori concavum ; diametro 
1-6 lincarnni. Saepe phira confluunt — sed apertum non 
villi. 

2035. ■^- l^ijyoii!^, L. V. .S., ravum in folio Solidaginis 
sempervirenti.s. . . R. innatum, aniptiigennni, orbicula- 
turn, gregarium aut subconfluens, convexum in ambabus 
paginis et satis crassum, margine in folio exalbescente. 
Sursum indutum cortice aut veto crassiore fusco-grisea 
fxterinri, demum frustulis soluto, cortice interiori atra, 
intus carbonaceuni. Diametro trilineari. Interdum 
perforatum invenitur, an casu? — ceterum inapertum. — 
Sclizvf'iniiz, Synopsis fung. Amer. bor. (Trans. Amer. 
pliilos. soc, iS.^i, n. s.,v, 4, p. 341.) 

The spots on Asfcr leaves resemble 
those on the broad leaved species of kSo/- 
/i/as^o in their general appearance, and 
var\ e\en on the same plant from plane 
to strongly piano- or bi-convex. The\' 
are either entirely marginless or with a 
while or vellow border from 0.2-3 mm. 
in wi<lth. Occasionallv the border is 
more or less tinged with red ; this is 
especialU the case where it is very 
broad. .As with some specimens of the 
preceding species, the degree of con\-ex- 
it\ increases with age, the central portion 
of some spots being nearly hemispheri- 
cal, Schweinitz at first referred this 
to the t'migus genus Xv/oma. but after- 
ward trairsterred it to R/ivfis»m. and 
characterized it as toUow s : — 

271. Xvloi'ift usti^ris S/,. X. minus nblonguni ten. 
viius snbetliguratnni rugo.suin nigrum opacuni, ambitu 
sHo folium decoloraiis. In foliis vigentibus Asteris 
liadcscanti ct atioruui rarissime. Initio et ipsum veto 
tcnuissinio cincreo sul>lectinn, rugosuin, absque splen- 
doyr.— Si/n'-ritlifz, Syn. fung. Carol. Super., (1S22), 
I'- .XV 

2ox\- /i/iyf'sittii (tsft'ris L. V. S., Syn. Car. 271, passim 
in foliis variorum .\sterum . . Species quam distincta. 
K. innatum cxacte orbiculatum, margine latiusculo exal- 
liesccnte, ambitu lobato, amphigenuni, atrum sed expers 
nitoris. teniuscniuin, ininetulatum : diametro bilineari, 
nrinnun vflo tenni^simo rinerco tectum denium evanes- 



HIS 



rsn HE. 



( Ausust— SciUcmlier 1SR4. 



centc. Dt'hisceiis non iiiilii obviuiii. In |>l;Mit:i \il>i 
nccnrrit plerumque fruquenter infesUlt f(>li;i. -Stlnvein- 
it:, Syn. fuHg. Amer. hnr. {op, cit., p. 241.) 

It li;is been seen tli:it the single or 
double convexity of tbcse galls is not 
available as a distinctive character, al- 
though Schvveinit/. makes use of it. 
One of the most obvious superficial 
characters is tlie presence f)r absence of 
a white, gray or yellow membrane o\ er 
the carbonized portion of the leaf 
I'his, the vehdii of Schweinitz, is iiow- 
ever by no means constantlv absent or 
present in the same species, if we ex- 
cept tiiat on Solidago lanceolata, where 
I have never seen it. On the same 
plant of .,9. nhjtifolia some spots are 
black, while others are invested on both 
surfaces by the vellowisii-white indusi- 
um : and one of the Osten Sacken tvpes 
of the gall of C'cc/doi/ivia carboi/ifcra. 
on a broad leaved Sol/daoo. for an ex- 
amination of which I am indebted to 
the courtesv of Dr. fl. A. Hagen. is 
black above, with a narrow white bor- 
der, while below It is completelv cov- 
ered by a white indusium, broken here 
and there as if by accident. With age 
this membrane freciuently breaks awav. 
luit in the specimens to which the pre- 
cetling statements refer the leaves were 
intact, and its absence was clearh not 
due to removal. 

In their microscopic characters, all of 
these forms show a general agreement. 
The ]>arenchvnia of the leaf is invaded 
by a colorless mvccliuni of thick-walled 
hv])hae. which lives between tin- cells 
and to a certain extent defornrs them. 
It excites little if an\ In pertropin . but 
bv crowding the cells a|)art in its own 



growth causes the slight convexitv of the 
part of the leaf in which it occurs. 
Near the surface the uncelial threads 
become brown, apparentiv as the result 
of some chemical action due to the fun- 
gus, which also attects the siuroiniding 
cells of the leaf, some of which are so 
completeK carbonized that their walls 
are coal-black. In A'. so//d<rn-////s and 
the other exiiuiusiate forms, the epider- 
mis is especialh influenced b\ this 
change, which, however sometimes does 
not extend so far laterallv as in the un- 
derh iug tissue, — a fact which at once 
explains the pale border sometimes no- 
ticed ; the dead but colorless epidermal 
cells at the margin of the spot, filled 
with air. appearing white, and contrast- 
ing stionglv with the carbonized cells 
on the one hand anil with the living ones 
on the other. The indusium of the other 
forms is of a similar nature to this border, 
consisting merelv of the dead epidermis, 
tilled with air: but why the epidermis 
should be blackened in some cases and 
remain colorless in others it is hard to 
say . 

Kroui what precedes it will be seen 
that only two of the three so-called spe- 
cies of Rhvtisma aie certainlv tlistin- 
guishable iu the specimens that 1 have 
examined, \ iz : R. solidaginis. on So- 
lidairo lanceolata and .V. tcmiifolia. 
and A^. astcris (including A'. Idfroi/s) 
on Asfrr and the broader leaved spe- 
cies of Soh'dago.^ Curtis, whose her- 
liaiinni. containing manv .^chweinitzian 
specimens, I have examined, through 

■^ The latter are referred hy Bcrlit-lcy to li. sotiiinjriiiis 
(Grevillea, v. 4, p. S). 



AiiL;ii>t — Sepiouilier [^'^4. 



PS re HE. 



mt) 



the kiiulncss of Professcir W. G. Fallow . 
was evidentlv of the same opinion, for 
his specimens bear only tiiese two names, 
though some of the hxst named species 
occur on Solidag'o. and one, on Aster 
gracilis, agrees very well with the de- 
scription of R. hifrons. Schweinitz. 
also, says of the three so-called species 
•'Tres species antecedentes memorabilcs 
inter se affines sunt."'' The fruit of 
all is unknown. Like that of other species 
oi Rkytisiiia . it does not de\ elop on the 
living leaf, and I have been unable to 
look for it on the fallen leaves late in 
autumn or on the approach of the fol- 
lowing spring. Possiblv. when found, 
it mav ofler a means of distinguishing 
the so-called species more satisfactorih- 
than can be done at present. Both spe- 
cies are widely distributed over the east- 
ern third of the continent, from the (iulf 
.states to Xew Brunswick. 

The discussion of these objects from a 
botanical standpoint may appear to 
some readers imnece.ssarv in an entomo- 
logical journal, but no account of them 
would be complete without it. Turn- 
ing, now. to the entomological side of 
their history, it remains to be said that 
several entomologists have bred from 
them one of the gall gnats — Cecidomvia 
carbonifera Osten Sacken. I. myself, 
have obtained the adult insects from 
what I have called R. astcris. and they 
are to be seen in some of the specimens 
in the Curtis herbarium, which have 
been broken. The Osten Sacken types, 
in the Museum of comparati\e zool- 
ogy, would also undoubtedly be referred 

^ Svn, fuiig;. jVm. bor., /. r.. p. 241. 



to this species b\ a ni\ cologist. With 
the form on Solidago laiiceolata I ha\e 
been less successful, having nex'er ob- 
tained the imago from it ; but in the 
summer of iSSi, while at Woods HoU, 
Mass.. where this form was exceedingly 
common. I examined several hundred 
specimens on this plant, by breaking 
them open, and in every instance a liv- 
ing lar\a. evidenth' a cecidomyid. and 
apparently Cecidomvia carho)iifera. 
was fountl ill the substance of the gall, 
\\ here it hn in a minute cavity. So far 
as I know, therefore, both insect and 
fungus are alwa\s present in these galls, 
to w hichever species they are referred. 
While the slight convexity of the young 
gall is explained by the groA\th of the 
fungus, the hemispherical enlargement 
in many cases, especially on asters, seems 
to be caused b\ the insect, and these very 
thick spots, so far as I have examined 
them, always contain fully grown in- 
sects. 

The first published intimation that 
these spots on Aster and Solidago are 
not simply insect galls or simply fungi, 
that 1 have noticed, is by Mr. W. R. 
(icrard." who. doubting their fungoid 
nature, sent specimens to Mr. C. V. 
Riley, and was told that (at least so far 
as the forms on Solidago are concerned) 
they are the galls of C. carbonifera . 
Professor C. H. Peck also makes a sim- 
ilar statement in one of his later reports 
on New York fungi.'' Interested in the 
subject by these notes. I have examined 



5 Bulletin Torrey bot. cluh, Oct. 1S76. v. 6, p. 114 
[Psyche, Rec, no. 2404]. 



■: 20 Rept. N. Y. Cah. nat. hist., p. Si. 



■200 



rsrcHE. 



Aiiijusl — Septeniher iSJv^. 



a large numljcr (if specimens from ilit- 
ferent parts of the countrv. and \villi(iiit 
exception have denuinstrated their com- 
posite nature. 

This compmnul character of Uie ;j;alls 
implies a clf)se interdependence between 
the fungus and insect. That lilivtisiiia 
solldagtJiis or R. asteris cannot occur 
without the presence of Cecidomvia 
carbonifera. or vice versa, cannot be 
said ; vet I have ne\er seen one without 
the other. Onlv a study of the ilevelop- 
ment of the galls can show wliether tlie 
insect paves the vvav for the fungus or 
lives onlj' in leaves previouslv attacked 
bv the latter ; but the great powers of 
multiplication and dissemination pos- 
sessed bv most fungi incline me to tile 
belief that the former is the case, the 
mvcelium being unable to penetrate the 
uninjured plant, as Hartig has shown to 



be tile case with parasitic species of 
Xeclria. etc. From the carbonization 
of all the species i^i lihvti^nia . it is prob- 
alile that the color of the galls in the 
present instance is due to the fungus. 

The form of fiiiit of the Rlivtisma. 
and the earh development of the galls, 
coultl be easil\ made out liv anv collect- 
ing entomologist or botanist living in the 
eastern states, where the\' occur : and as 
I no longer ha\e access to good material 
these notes aie published in their pres- 
ent incomplete foim to draw attention to 
a verv interesting subject for further 
study.' 

' Sections of an undetermined cecidoinvid j;ull on 
Impatient ftilva^ from Medford, Mass., prepared in my 
lab;iratorv bv Miss L. N. Martin, show a mycelium 
soniewliat similar to that noticed in Astfr and Sotidago 
leaves, and there is also a certain amount of cjlrboniza- 
tion. It will be interesting to observe whether the 
mycelium is always present in this tjall which is not 
vmcommon. 



WANT OY .SYMMETRY AMOXc; INSECTS. 



BV OSKAR PACI. KK A NC'll Kl! . LEIPZIG. (iKKMANY. 



The extraordinary svmnielrv which 
occurs among insects is usuallv liroughl 
prominently forward in most of tlie 
books which treat of entomologv. Xolh- 
ing is pictured more svmmetricalb' than, 
for instance, the structures of bees ami 
ants, or the color of butterflies, which 
latter is prominentlv reputed to have a 
perfectly symmetrical bilateral e(jnalit\'. 
Although there is much truth at the bot- 
tom of all this, although nature in main 
cases works with great s\inmctr\. \ct 
it must not he overlooked that even this 
s\nimetrv is often converted into its 



strict opposite. Siu'elv no observing 
lepidopterologist has. failed to notice 
that the coloiation of tlie wings of his 
favorites is to be recogni/ed as stiictlv 
svmmetrical oiiK in the smallest num- 
ber of cases, that, indeeil. that of one 
side, which certainlv lesenibles that of 
the other in its superlicial aspect, still 
shows main ditl'erences in its details, 
and there is little foundation for assert- 
ing that the\ are s\ mmetrical. I might 
cite innunicrable examples of this, but 
the reader can better see them for him- 
self. This is most plaiiiK shown in tiie 



,\iii»"ust — Se|iteinbcT 1SS4. " 



PSYCHE. 



201 



species of Vanessa, Argynnis, Mcli- 
taea, Arctia^ etc. I have found this also 
very striking in Papilio luachaoii, a 
specimen of wlilch. now in niv collec- 
tion, has a distinct black spot in the first 
vellow area at the tip of the left front 
wing, while, as nsual, there is no such 
spot on the right wing. 

In how diverse a manner nature works, 
moreover, in the diflereiit animals of 
one and the same species, in animals 
which are sought for as so-called varie- 
ties, a striking proof is given bv collec- 
tions which contain often ten or twelve 
or even more specimens of one and the 
same animal. How long one has to 
hunt among duplicates in order to find 
two buttertiies wliich are perfectlv alike ! 
This field of inquiry has interested me 
to an unusual degree for a long time 
and I iia\e had the good fortimc to ob- 
tain man\' interesting results in it. 
Here again Papilio inachaou. Arctia 
caja, different noctuids and geometrids 
(for instance, Abraxas £'ross/f/ariala) , 
have excited my special delight by their 
peculiarly diverse clothing. 

But the so-called gynandiomorphs, 
especially those of the lepidopteia. are 
vet far more remarkable. As is well 
known, these are animals which show 
the coloration and structure of one sex 
on the riglit wings, and those of the 
other sex on the left wings. Of course 
these can only be observed in such ani- 
mals as show some kind of difference 
between the coloration and shape of the 
v\ings. or the form and structure of the 
antennae, in the two sexes. A few 
years ago a g\ nandromorph of Endro- 
mis versicoloya was found liere in the 



neighboring village of Leina. This, 
after various wanderings, is now deposi- 
ted in the Natural history museum at 
Altenburg. Gynandromorphs of Ocne- 
ria dispar, SnieriiitliKS popiill., etc.. 
are not very rare. 1 had an opportunity 
this spring of adding a partial gynan- 
dromorph to my ov\ n collection. I oli- 
tained from a pupa of Aglia tan, the 
"Nagelffeck," a specimen which had 
one antenna male, the other female, that 
is to say, one filiform, the other pecti- 
nate. In its other characters, especially 
in the coloration of the wings, the speci- 
men appears throughout to be a female. 
Finally some attentimi may be be- 
stowed upon crippling among insects. 
My few obser\ations again concern the 
butterffies. Mutilations often occur in 
these on one side only, and on account 
of this imtoitunate circmnstance the 
specimen which had Ijeen so carefully 
nursed as larva and pupa is entirely 
useless for the collection, and is ill- 
iiumoredly thrown aside by the raiser 
unless it is kept in spirits to furnish 
occasion for sulisequent observations. 
The collector is still more displeased 
with those specimens which have the 
wings of both siiles crippled. Even if 
such specimens are not well suited for 
breeding purposes, and so deny \arious 
uses to the one who has raised them, 
yet for other reasons I should not want 
to condemn such a specimen without 
further consideration. In spite of all 
apparent irregularity, nature often works 
quite regularly, as is well shown bv 
the annexed figure. This specimen was 
going to be thrown away together with 
several other cripples, when Mr. Reich- 



202 



FSrCHE. 



; Ausiist — Septcinhcr 1S.S4. 



eit. of Leipzisi^, who had raised it. 
recognized its woiidcrtuUy regular crip- 
pling, and of course spread the specimen 
and so made clearly manifest that per- 
fectly symmetrical incision in the fore 
and hind wings, 'i'iu- undulate nerves 




Fig. 12. Deformed Aporia crolaegi.^ 

of the wings of this specimen appear 
remarkable at the same time, as the 
figure represents. Aporia crataegi. 
\vhich is the butterflv mentioned, is a 
well known species, so that I need not 
sav nincii about it. The caterpillar, 
which is found moderately eommon in 
this vicinity, lives especially on Cratae- 
gus oxyacant/ia. Primus spiiiosa and 
P. domestica, species of Pyriis. etc. 
At the end of five or six weeks from 
the time of hatching of the eggs, the 
caterpillar pupates by fastening its anal 
extremity and then maintaining itself in 
a horizontal position by means of a thin 
thread around the thorax. After four- 
teen days more the butterfly emerges. 

It seeined that it would be interesting 
to ascertain the cause of these regular 
notchings, and so we found in the pup.i- 
case from which this l)utterfly came, that 
the thoracic girdle had been drawn 
exceedingly tense, and so lirnih'. besides, 
that a sort of depression was to be found 

* We are indebted to Mr. Otto Ileiileinann, xyloyra- 
pher in the U. S. Department of agriculture, for llis 
generosity in transferring this illustration to wood, and 
enjjravinff it. [Eds.] 



in the pupa. From this observation it 
is easy to conclude that this was the 
cause of the mutilation that has been 
mentioned, and ^ince the continuous 
pressure was here a perfectly imiform 
one, the irregular development could 
not but be perfect and uniform. Whether 
such a mutilation can also be produced 
artificially with this regularity might be 
learned from oiu' investigations which 
are to be instituted for the purpose. 

.\ single glance at a bee-hive will 
convince one that there are many irreg- 
ularities also in tiie colonies of bees. 
The most regular structures made by 
bees are tiie cells, which, as is well 
known, are so arranged with matlu-mat- 
ical exactitude as to accomplish the 
most with the least material. Worker- 
cells and drone-cells, botli of which 
ser\e at tiie same time as iionev-cells. 
are made in this way, but besides these 
we find three other difl'erent kinds of 
cells in the commonwealth of bees, of 
which we may give the name of hold- 
ing-cells to those which serve to fasten 
the comb all around to the wall of the 
hives or to the frames. They are usually 
only two-thirds formed, the sixth or 
both the fifth and sixth sides of the hex- 
agon of the cell being wtuiting. Tiie 
so-called transition-cells, which consti- 
tute the intermediary lx>tween the large 
drone-cells and the smaller worker-cells 
in one and the same comb show still 
greater irregidarities. They are in 
shape from fotu- to nine-angled, tor tlie 
most part enlircK out ol |)lace and 
warped. I'ndoubtedh the last two 
named kinds of cells, in spite of their 
irresiidaritv. demand our l"ulK"<t admini- 



August — Sqilfiiilicr 1SS4.] 



PSYCHE. 



203 



tiun. since tlicv gi\e proof that the liees 
know how to help themselves nntler all 
circumstances, that thev understand how 
to overcome any obstacle. The most 
irregular cell in the bee-hive is the queen- 
bee cell, in which, as is well known, 
the queen has to pass her youthful 
stages. This queen-bee cell is shaped 
like an acorn, and does uot stand hori- 
zontalh like all the other bee cells, but 



hangs \erticalh . with the opening dow n- 
ward. 

These few quite imperfect remarks 
may serve to call attention to some of 
the so numerous irregularities among 
insects. I hope thev ma\ incite others 
to further new and more interesting 
observations. 

/.eipzii;. /, yiiiw /SSf. 



FOOD-l'LA\ r.S OF BEETLES IJRED IX MARYLAND. 

BY OTTO I.UGGEK, BAI. ri.MOI! E, .Ml). 

[The nuinerns (inserted by the editor) .ire, for the coleoptera, tliose of G; R. Crotcli's ''Clieck list ot the coleo- 
ptera of America, north of Mexico" (Psyche, Rec, no. 43), and, for the food plants, those of Horace Mann's 
"Catalogue of the phaeno^anious plants of the l-Tnited St.ates" .... Where the species of the food -plant is not 
^stated, the nuinero expresses aconjectui^. j 





P>ri'RKSTIOAE. 




3691 


Diccrcii piigionata 


2574- 


3726 


Biiprcstis aprlcans 


365 8. 


,3767 


Chrysobothris azurea 


^579- 


.•-1799 


Ptosima ffihhicollh 


705. 


3801 


.^fiistooeiiiiis siibcvanciis 


2603. 


3814 


Ai;'ri/iis h'coittei 


1053.= 


.■^8^5 


polit IIS 


57.V 



El. AIKRIDAK. 

3S63. Tliarops ohiiqnus 
4260. C'orviiihites z'eriialis 
4310. ■' //a/iia/iis 



4.3 74- 



KlIII'KEKIDAE. 

■S'ir/ii/()/iis pet ro pit ya 



C'ER.\>nntlDAE. 

492 V SplieHostcHiiis taslei 
4941. Sill fldi cum cncujifoi-nie 
4943. Dill ar ins hrcvilinciis 



(^uercus alba. 

Finns mitib. 

Qiiercus coccinea var. tinctoria. 

Cercis canadensis. 

Ostiya \irginica. 

Cornus [florida ?]. 

Robinia ]-)scudacacia (spines). 



2600. I'agus ferrugiuea. 
2660.' Finns.- [strobus.']. 
447. Rhus toxicodendron. 



74. (.^uerciis alba. 



2^74. Qiiercus alba. 

2621 .' .Salix [alba?] 

253S.' Ulmus [americana.?]. 



04 


psycHE. 


4970- 


Oenie rigida 


2658. : 


4977- 


GraciUa minuta 


2610. ] 


50'5- 


Elaphidion tinicolor 


2595- ' 


5025. 


Tylonotiis bimaculatus 


2563- . 


5047- 


Molorchiis bi/riac/i/aliis 


1053? ( 


5070. 


Piirpuriccnus hum oral is 


498? . 


5070a. 


^ var. axillaris 


2579- ' 


5111. 


Calloidcs nobilis 


2316? : 


5113- 


Arhopaliis fiilmiiians 






5'44- 


Cvrtopltortis gibbiilus 


2574- ' 


5>45- 


' ' vcrritcosits 


2574- 


5146, 


TiUotnotpha geniinata 


2574- 


5155- 
5166. 

5225. 


Distenia iindata 
Centrodera decolorata 
Leptura emarginata 






2536- 


5253- 


' ' zebra 


2593- 


5^5^- 


•* cordifcra 


259S. 


5331- 
5343- 


Hetoemis ciiierea 
Acanthoderes mcrrisii 




1 06 1. 


53S1. 
5405- 


Dectes spinosus 
Hippopsis lemniscata 








5457- 


DvspJiaga fpnriipes 


2574- 



[^Aug-usl — September iSS^. 

Piiuis mitis. 

Bctula leiita (band around gin- 

hajTel). 
C^in-Tcus rubra. 
Juijlans nigra. 
Cornus [florida.']; 81S. Amelan- 

chier canadensis. 
Acer [dasycarpum .']. 
Qiiercus cuccinea var. tinctoria. 
Fraxiniis [amtricana .']. 
Qiicrcus. 
Qiierciis alba. 



Pvnis mains. 
Car\ a. 
Ulmus fulva. 
Qiiercus prinus. 
C'astanea vesca. 

Madura aurantiaca. . Morns. 

Nvssa nndtiflora. 
Ambrosia. 
Ambrosia. 
Qiiercus alba. 



.Spermophagidae. 
S464. Bruchus miiniis 



705. Cercis canadensis (seed). 



Effect of Cyaxide upon Colour. 
— A very curious case of artificial col- 
ouring in a butterfly has been sent me 
by a friend. He says that the speci- 
men, a male Gonopteryx \_sic\ rhanini, 
was placed in a spare cyanide bottle, and 
left undisturbed for two years ; l)ut that, 
at some intermediate time, the st<)])per 
was tampered with and not properly 
replaced, so that air was introduced. 
The result is. thai the butterfly is richly 



coloured with crimson along the costal 
area, and partially round the other mar- 
gins of the fore-wings, and lias large 
blotches of the same on the hind-wings. 
Indeed, the only portion of the wings 
w hich is left entirely of the usual brim- 
stone colour is that portion which, in 6". 
cicopatra. is clouded wltli crlvison. — 
Chas. G. Barrett. Pembroke : 9th April, 
18S4. [From Eiitoiii. )iio. ///(TO-. .June 
18S4, V. 21. p. 23.] 



August — September 1884."] 



PSYCHE. 



205 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., AUG.-SEPT. 18S4. 

Communications, exchanges and editors^ copies 
should be addressed to Editors fiF PbYCHE, Cam. 
bridgey Mass. Communications for publication in 
Psyche must be properly authenticated, ajid no anony- 
mous articles -luill be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
statements made in their own communications . 

Works on subjects not related to entomology zvill not 
be reviewed in Psyche. 

For rates of subscription and of advertising , see ad- 
vertising columns. 



FRANCIS GREGORY SANBORN. 

Born iS Jan. 183S, at Andover, Mass. 
Died 4 Jnne 1884. at Providence. R. I. 

Francis (jretjon' Sanborn was the son of 
Eastman and Mary C. L. (Gregory) Sanborn. 
His tather died in 1859: his mother, to whom 
he was ilutil'iil and affectionate, in 1883. Mr. 
.Sanliorn was a devoted and affable friend to 
Ills associates, a genins and a close observer, 
lie used his talents often for the good of 
others, but little for his own worldlv advance- 
ment. His interest in natural history was of 
early development, gi\"ing occasion for re- 
mark and record in his mother's journal when 
he was but little more than three years old. 
It was constant and absorbing. leading him to 
abandon opportunities for private gain, such 
as that of succeeding to his father's practice 
as a dentist, for which he had fitted himself 
and b\' which he might have prospered pecun- 
iarily. 

Mr. Sanborn was widelv known to the en- 
tomologists of the eastern United States, and 
almost constantly engaged in the care orpi'e- 
paration of collections of insects or other 
objects of natural history belonging to public 



institutions or private possessors. He was 
graduated at Phillips academy, in Andover, 
Mass., in 1858. after a six 3'ears' course of 
study interrupted at times on account of ill 
health. In October 1S5S he found employment 
in the Massachusetts State cabinet of natural 
history at the state house in Boston, the 
collection in which, according to Governor 
N. P. Banks, he built up. Here he remained, 
with occasional vacations, until the summer 
of 1865, being also clerk to C. L. Flint, the 
secretary of the Massachusetts State board 
of agriculture. He was engaged in miscella- 
neous work in the museum of the Boston 
society of natural history in 1865 and 1S66 
and as regular assistant from 1867 to 1873, 
ha\'ing particular care of the insects, also 
performing general duties, lecturing, and at 
times acting as secretary. In 1872 he was 
a justice of 'the peace and a member of the 
school committee in West Roxbury, Mass. 
■\t this time also he was instructor in ento- 
mology at the Bussey institution, in Jamaica 
Plain, and lecturerat the Museum of compar- 
ative zoology in Cambridge, but was soon 
afterwards afl'ected with mental trouble which 
caused his seclusion, at private expense, for 
about seven months, at the state hospital in 
Worcester. Here he entered into relations 
with the Worcester society of natural history, 
of which he afterwards became curator, an 
ofHce he held at the time of his death. In 
1874 he was an assistant in tlie Kentucky 
state geological survey, under Professor N. 
.S. Shaler. In 1S76 he was engaged to pre- 
pare the entomological exhibit of the United 
States Department of agriculture for the Cen- 
tennial exposition at Philadelphia. 

lie was a member of the .American asso- 
ciation for the ad\'ancement of science, Bos- 
ton society of natural history, Cambridge 
entomological club. Essex institute, corres- 
ponding member of the American entomo- 
logical society, Entoinological society of 
Ontario, and New York entomological socie- 
t\', and member of other learned societies. 

B: P. M. 



■Mti 



PSYCHE. 



Auiiusi — Septc-mbcr iSS(. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Notice of ax omission from Lecoxte"s 
EDITION OF Thomas Say's writings. — In 
the Journal of the Academv of natural sci- 
ence of Philadelphia, July 1S17, v. i, p. 45- 
4S, Thomas Saj, in an article entitled. 
"Some account of the insect known by the 
name of Hessian fly, and of a parasitic insect 
that feeds on it," describes Cecidomyia de- 
structor and its parasite Cerafltron destruc- 
tor, and gives a short account of the habits 
of each species. This article is reprinted 
correctly in Leconte's edition of Say's writ- 
ings, V. 2, p. 6-7. On p. 63 of the Journal, 
for August 1S17, however, just before the 
explanation to the plate, Say inserted a note 
which Leconte overlooked and which is here 
republished, both as showing a curious mis- 
take made by Say, and to correct the omis- 
sion from the "Complete writings." Say 
says : — 

"I forgot to mention in its proper place 
that the parasitic insect, Cerapbron dpstruc- 
tor, which is so commonly mistaken for the 
Cecidomyia, after the business of propaga- 
tion is performed, throws off its wings as a 
useless incumbrance, in this respect resem- 
bling some species of the genera Formica. 
Termes, &c.. to which it also bears some 
resemblance in point of form and appear- 
ance; this has led many to suppose that the 
Hessian-fly is in reality no other than a 
species of pissmire in its apterous state. 
T. Say." 

Of course Say is mistaken in his statement 
that the wings were shed after copulation. 
It not uncommonly occurs among the pte- 
romaliaae that certain individuals (both male 
and female) have only rudimentary wings — 
mere pads which never become developed 
into wings. This is the case with the species 
under consideration, the relative propor- 
tion of the winged to the wingless individ- 
uals varying with the climate and the 
season. 

/.. O. HiKvcrd. 

X BirrxERFLV Attracted bv Lami-- 
LIGHT. I do not remember any published 
account of the attraction of diurnal lepido- 



ptera by lamplight, except the note by Mr. S. 
H. Scudder in Psyche, v. i. p. 28 [Rec. 
659J, but in two instances I have taken speci- 
mens of the eyed empeior {Apaiiira lyraoti, 
Fabr.) in this way. After ten o'clock of the 
evening of 20 August 1SS2, a perfect, but not 
entirelv fresh, specimen came in at the open 
window of my sitting-room and was captured 
with a butterfly net. The other example 
referred to was taken earlier in the evening. 
but after the lamps were lighted. The close 
proximity of a hackberry tree {Cel/is), on 
which the larvae feed, accounts for the pres- 
ence of these in.sects in the neighborhood, 
but does not give us the key to their unusual 
nocturnal activity. Mary Esther Murt/eidt. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 
LiNXEAN' Society of London. 

20 Dec. 1SS3.— . . . Mr. J. .Maulc Camp- 
bell sliowed the web of a spider i Tegeii(tri<i 
guyonii) which had been spun in the centre 
of a pasteboard cylinder; the peculiarity 
being the manner in which the solid part of 
the web was medially swung; whereas in 
this species of spiders it is more usually on 
the sides of objects. 

17 Jan. 1SS4. — .\ paper was read by .Mr. A. 
D. Michael on the "Hypopus" question or 
life history of certain Acarina. From a care- 
ful series of experiments and observations he 
concludes that — true "Hypopi" are not adult 
animals but only a stage or heteromorphou^ 
nymphs of Tyroglypliiis and allied genera. 
Nor do all individuals become --Hypopi." 
which latter stage takes place during the 
second nyniphal ecdysis. It seems a provis- 
ion of nature for the distribution of the 
species irrespective of adverse conditions. 
■'Hypopi" are not truly parasitic nor confine 
themselves to anv particular insect. A new 
adult form described is called by the author 
Disparipcs liomhi. and he believes there are 
other species of the genus Dormadicus bee- 
parasites admitted to be adults, though it i> 
uncertain if they are identical with Dufovir's 
Trychodactyliis. — Frou) J. Murie in Zool. 
aitzciger. 



Auijust — St-ptcmlttr 1SS4.] 



psycHE. 



[3551-3560] -207 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Authors and societies are requested to forward their ivori's to the editors as soon as 
f<ublished. The date of publication, given in brackets [], marks the time at ivhich the 
xvork was received, unless an earlier date of publication is known to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherwise stated each record is made directly front the work that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common given name, as: A: Augustus; B: Ben- 
jamin; C: Charles: D: David: E: Edward; F: Frederic; G: George; H: Henry; 
I: Isaac; J: John: K: Karl: L: Louis: M: Mark: N: Nicholas: O: Otto; P: Peter; R: 
Richard: S: Samuel: T: Thomas: W: William. The initials at the end of each record, or 
note, are those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



Foerste, Aug. F. Pastinaca sativa proteran- 
clious. (Bot. gazette. Feb. 1S82, v. 7. p. 
-•4. 4 cm.) 

Crit. rev., by VV : Trelease, entitled "Pro- 
tandrj of fasfinaca. {op. cit., Mcb.. p. 26- 
27, 9 cm.) 

The dowers o{ pnsfi'nnt tt sativa are said to be crossed 
by means of "sm.all coleoptera and other insects." 
Other ttmbeUiferae are said to be protnsrvnous. 

-■ If; T. (3551) 

Muller, Hermann. I'eber die befruchtung 

von symplocarpus foctidus. (Bot. jahres- 

bericht . . . Just. 1S79, ^'- 7' P- i.?7- .'> cm.) 

Abstract of \V ; Trelease's "On the fertilization of 

svmplorarpiiS foetidus" (.\mer. nat., Sep. [22 An^.l 

1879, V. i,i, p. 5S0-581) [Rec, i79t]. W: T. (3552) 

Shimer, U: On a new genus in homoptera. 
section monomera. (Proc. Acad. nat. sci. 
Philad.. Jan. 1867, [v. 19], p. 2-11, fig.) 

Crit. rev. in B: D. Walsb's "Tlie grape- 
leaf gall-louse. Dactvlosphaera vitifoliae. 
Fitch" (istann. rept. acting state entom. 
111., 186S) (Trans. 111. state'bortic. soc. for 
1867. 186S, n. s., v. I ; Appendix), p. 21-24. 

Characterises the "supposed new family" dacty/o- 
spliaeridae, and the new irener.a doctylosphnern [type : d. 
irlohosiim n.sp-] and I'/Vt'W.-; [tvpe : /*^M//'///^«.e Ttiifoliae 
Kitclil; describes d. glohofntm n. sp. and d? {viUtts) 
vitifoliae; describes the method used in observinib; 
these insects. 

[P. g-lobosunt ^ Phylloxera rarvafsemen: d? {viiens) 
vifi/i>liae=Pl!. vitifoliae.] ' J3: P. M. (}S5i) 



Shimer, H : The 

' .\nicr. nat.. Dei 

Extract, [by B 
Rilev]. entitled 
beetle. Haltiea 
Illiger." (,\nier. 
p. 158-159, 62 cm. 



wavy-striped flea-beetle. 
■. 1S68. v. I. p. 514-517. 

: D. Walsh and C : V. 

"The wavy-striped flea; 

( phyllotreta ) striolata, 

entom.. Apr. 1S69, v. i. 

. fig. 119.) 

Habits and ravaijes, food. plants and desciiiition and 
J lire of larva .and iniai^o at phyllotreta striolata. 

B: P. M. (.iS54) 



Stillman, J : M. On the origin of the lac 

[Rec. 2792]. 

E.\tract, in Germ, tr., by C. F. Gissler, entitled 
"t-Teber den ursprun^ des schild-lack's." (Deutsch- 
amer. apotheker-zeitiin^, i Dec. iSSo, jahrq-. i, no, iS, 
p. 2, 40 cm.) BP.M. (3555) 

Tasker. J. C. W. Naphthaline versus cam- 
phor. (Entomologist. Oct. 1S82. v. 15, p. 
240.) 
Use of naphthalin i^Clo Hs) recommended as a pes- 

tifuge in collections of insects. G: D. (355^) 

Tilghmaii, F :, 3d. [Hessian fly.] (Anier. 

tarnier . . . Skinner, 20 Oct. 1820. v. 2, ed. 

3, p. 235. 18 cm.) 

Process of ovisposition of ceridomyia destructor on 
wheat, ilcscribed from nature. 'B:P.M. (3557) 

Todd, lames E. On the flowers of solanum 
rostratnm and cassia chamaecrista. ( Amer. 
nat.. Apr. [22 Mch.] 1882, v. 16. p. 2S1-287, 

3 fig-) 

Includes remarks on the crnss-fertilization oisolanum 
rostratnm antl cassia chamaerrista by bombus, which 
visits them for pollen. ' W: T. (355S) 

Towiiseiid, C : H : Tyler. On the variation 
of tlie eljtral markings in cicitidcla $ex- 
i^uttata. (Can. entom., Nov. 1SS3. v. 15, 
p. 205-20S. I fig.) 

Describes the variations in number and arrringement 
of the elytral spots in cidndela sexguttata ^ making 
eight varieties ot them; table to show the relative num- 
ber of individuals of each variet>^ out of forty-nine spec- 
iinens taken during iSS.v G: D. (3559) 

[?Treat, Mary.] A chapter on mites. {Har- 
per's new mo. mag.. Apr. 1S61. v. 42, 
p. 607-614, fig. i-i I.) 

Figures ticarns liomes/irns, a. lactens, a. roseae, a. 
canna-meUifera, a. megarhino^ a. muscida, a. conta- 
giosns, hvdrachna geographical h. globum, h. puteus^ 
imd anatomical details of some of these species; figures 
imago, larva, ovipositor and mandibles of piophita 
rasi'i- with some account of these several insects. 

B: P. ^f. (3560) 



208 [3561-3570] 



rsrcHE. 



[August — Sepleinlter i*S4. 



[Treat, Maiv.] More about spiders. (Har- 
per's new mo. mag.. Feb. 1861, v. 4J. p. 
3-3-3.lv fig- I-2I-) 

Gives tnhirged figures nilycosa gyrophora und fpdra 
prasinus, their eves and nests; eti tntrridtoll sthizopotttt. 
Its nest, estr-bu's, eyes ;ind cl:iwii; ui cluluima Jih'ctf 
and nest: nicpeira jilicex. nest, ejjjj-bag?, eyes and man' 
dibies; K^i ctenits tang-elleiis, wizsX, eyes, mandibles and 
claws; of cUlhioita agaricuSt draxstts pt'rfidttf lycosa 
violacciis and tegfnariu texlura and their nests, niaii<li- 
bles and eyes; oi epeira fasciata^ tluriJioit mitrratitm^ 
phnlattgiuiu sp. and tycosa Hortes^ their mandibles and 
eyes; and of male palpi of tvvo theridion,:\ aegestria, 
\.vjo clotho -And ^n epeira; skives sun e acconnt of these 
species and of epetra diadetna, and of the habits, food 
and lights of some of them. U: P. M. (3561) 

Trelease, W : On the fertilization of svn/ilo- 
cdi piif fociidiis [Rec.. 1794J. 

Reprint, under head, '•Syinflocarpiis foc- 
tiiiiis." (GooD.\LE, G : L. ««(/Spr.\gue, I : 
Wild flowers of North America. iSSo. pt. 
14, p. 120-121.) 

Abstract in F. Delpino's ■'Impollinazione 
e (econdazicne nel cotone e in altre specie'" 
(Rivista botanica. iSSo. p. 45). 

Abstract, by H. Miiller, entitled "I'eber 
die befruchtung von sy»i/i/iniir/>ns focti- 
ifiif.^' (Bot. jahresbericht . . . Just. 1S79, v. 
7, p. 137. 5 cm.) ir.- T. f,y62^ 

Trelease, W : The heterogon^■ of oxalh vio- 

laceu. (Amer. nat., Jan. 1S82 [30 Dec. 

iSSiJ. V. 16, p. 13-iy. 5 fig.) 

The flowers of oxiilis %'iotacca are believed to be 

dinioiphic instead of trimorphic. They are visited for 

nectar by nomada hisignato, ceratina dupla^ Jttgoclilora 

piira, osmia sp., and Kalictiis sp. W: T. (3563) 

Trelease, W : Piotandry of /«.s/'/«(7rff. i Bot. 
gazette, Mch. 18S2. v. 7, p. 26-27. 9 cm.) 

Keinaiks, apropnt, of A. F. Focrste's ^' Pasliiltica sa- 
//'i'.( pioterandrous" {op, r;V., Feb. p. 2\) [liec, ,^551], 
that most itmheUiferae are strongly protandrnnsVand 
states that in Germany the fltiwers of postiiinca are, 
according to Hermann Miiller, visited bv hvmenoptera 
and diptera. If-' T. (3;6.() 

Troop, J. Proterandry in 11/11,1 rvU is ic^iiitie. 
( Bot. gazette, Apr. 1882. v. 7, p. 42, i r cm.) 
The dowers of antaryllis rtgiutte are said to be pro. 

bablv fertilized bv "'some motti with a long proboscis." 

W: T. (3565) 

Verrill, Addison Emory. Additional obser- 
vations on the parasites of man ami the 
domestic animals. (5th nnn. rept. seer. 
Connectictit board agric. for 1871-1S72. 
1872. p. 321-342.) 

Additions to the lists of internal parasites of man. 
cattle, horse, hog and ponltiv, given in anthor's *'The 
internal parasites of domestic annnals" . , . (jth ann. 
rept. [etc.], 1S70, p. 162.256) I Rec., 35691 with corrections 
and additional statements concerning some f>f these 
parasites ; treats mostly of worms, but mentions petiin- 
stoitia selteitii :\<i n para'site of the horse and the occur. 
rencc of dermatahia noxialisT in a woman in Mi^- 
s'ssi|)pi. B. P. M. (356.) 



Verrill, Addison Emory. The external and 

internal parasites of man and domestic 

;inimals. [Hartford, Conn., 1S70.] t.-p. 

cover, 140 p., 23X14. t 17x6.5. ii. 

Keprint, as pamphlet, of antl;or's "The external par. 

asites of domestic animals" . . . (4th ann. rept. seer. 

Crmnecticut board agric, for 1869.1S70, 1S70, p. 72-122, 

fig. i-^S) (Rec, 356S], and "The internal parasites of 

domestic animals" . . . {op. ctt., p. 162.256, fig. 49-^4) 

(Rec, 3569!. 

G.D. (3567) 

Verrill, .Vddison Emory. The external par- 
asites of domestic animals: their effects 
and remedies. (4th ann. rept. seer. Con- 
necticut board agric. for 1869-1S70. 1870. 
p. 72-122, fig. 1-48. (Verrill. A. E. Tlie 
external and internal parasites of man and 
domestic animals . . . [1870], p. i-j'' fig- 
1-48.) 

CHiaractenses the sevcr;il subclasses of insects and 
orders of he.xapods, with illustrations of e.ich; describes 
and figures the ])rincipal species M piiluidaey hippobos- 
ciditf, oi'stridae, triiniridm; pt-dirttlt'daf, inallophaga 
and luarina, which are parasitic on domestic animals, 
with some account of their habits, and of means against 
them, and incntioii ot related species. 

B: P. M. (356S) 

Verrill, Addison Emory. The internal par- 
asites of domestic animals: their effects 
and i-emedies [with discussion]. (4lh 
ann. rept. seer. Connecticut board agric. 
for 1S69-1870, 1S70. p. 162-256. fig 49- 
84.) (Verrill, A. E. The external and 
internal pai-asites of man and domestic 
animals . . . [1870]. p. 51-140. fig. 49-S4.) 

.\dilitions and corrections, by autlior. 
entitled --Additional observations on the 
parasites of man and the domestic ani- 
mals." {5lh ann. rept. [etc]. 1S72. p. 
3-'-34--) 

Cliar;icteriscs the orders rfstodo, trematoda^ acanthn- 
rt'phrhi :ind nemaioda, to which belong the p.ii-nsitii- 
worms (^i mail and domestic animals; ijives a list of 
sninc ol" the more important j>;eneral works on parasilii- 
worms; gives lists oftlie internal panisites of man.doy. 
cat. sheep, cattle, horse, hoii: :ind poultry; describes and 
tigirres the jirincipal 'species ot' these p;irasilfs with 
accounts of their habits, transformations and ravages 
and means against i\\v\\\\ pfntaatoma tatui'otdi'S, whU 
its immature form /. drnfictt/atttm, and ^. ronstrtrtum, 
which are ijiariiia. AX^i here treated of (p. 249-251, fig. 
84), and the discussion (p. 352.256) contains remarks on 
means against ^astfirophi/us cqut bv E. S. IIubb;ird, 
N. Cressy,— Sedgwick and author. " B: P. M. {35<k)) 

[Walsh, H : Dann ^fw^/ Riley, C : Valentine.] 
Tlie cotton armv-wonn. Nodna (a/iomts) 
xyl/fio, Sav. (Amer. entoin:. Jiilv 1S69. v. 
I. p. 209-212. 145 I'm., fisj- 147-149) 
Description and figures of all stages of o/e/ia xy/ina, 
and civil and n;iiural history of this insect, and nieans 
of preventing its ravages, mostly compiled fnun the 
writings of T. Glover and from J. B. Lyman's "Coltnii 
fullnre;" difficulties and dangers in the pursuit o( ob- 
servations in the southern United States; distinctituis 
between various insects severallv termed ''armv-worms.*' 



Alio list— Scptcinhci- 1SS4.] 



psrciiE. 



L.v= 



,1/ '~j.T 



So] 



•im 



[Walsh, B : Uanii and Riley, C : Wik-ntiiiL'.] 
The cliinch buy. JMicropns. leucoptern^^ 
Say. ( Ainer. entom., 1S69, v. i : May, p. 
169-177,315 cm., fig 122; June, p. 194-199, 
221 cm., fig. 1 55-139. ) 

Reprint, with changes, by C: \'. Riley, 
entitled ''The chinch bug: mi'cro/>iis len- 
copfcrus. Say." (2d ann. rept. state entom. 
Mo., [Mch.] 1S70, p. 15-37, fig. i-io.) 

Supreme noxiousness of b/issux hucopterns in tjrain- 
field; past civil history and cause nf former scarcity of 
tliis pest; v:ilue af ;i forc-knowIedg"C of its probalile 
future occurrence ; its hibernation, seasons, oviposition, 
prolificacy, swarming:, migrations, *dimorpIiism and 
ravages, and means agfainst it; its enemies, especially 
hippodamia luaculata, cocrinella miinda, chrvstipa p/o- 
raounda, atiihncori's insi'd/ofnis and orty.v vir^inia7ia; 
distinctions V>et\veen insects having and not liaving 
complete metamor|)linses; difTerences in number of an- 
nual generations and in periods of development of in- 
sects; effects of meteoric conditions on insects; fallacy 
of H: Shimer's theory of the epizootic disease of the 
hhssus, and failure of Sliinier's prophecies. 

B:P.M. (3571) 



[Walsh, B : Dann «;«/ Riley, C : \'alentine.] 
The gigantic root borer. Prioiius latii'ollis^ 
Di'urv. (Amer. entom., Aug. 1S69. v. i, 
p. 231-234. 123 cm., fig. 169-173.) 

Description and figure of lai-va and figure of pupa 
and imago nK prionus laticollis; habits, food-plants, 
ravages and geographical distribution of and means 
against lliis species; difterences between its imago and 
that of p. iwhricornis; figure of inuign of orlhosnma 
cvlindrictiiii ; charaders ot larvae nf /•/■/ofz/dtrr. 

/>■; P.V. (3572) 

[Walsh, B : Dann ni/c/'Riley, C : Valentine.] 
The grape-berrv motli. Peiithina vitivo- 
raiia. Packard. (.'\mer. entom., Mav 
1S69, V. I, p. i-tri19, 74 c"i-. fig- 123.) 

Remarks on the .appearance of new and the disap- 
pearancc of old pests; recent occurrence rti f^ciithitia 
Tt'li'voraita Witdnnis botraiuj} as a pest in grapes; sea- 
sons and haliits of and means against this insect. 

B: P. M. (3573) 

[Walsh, B : Dann luid Riley, C : \'alentine. j 
Imitative butterflies. (Amer. entom., June 
1S69. V. I. p. 1S9-193. 202 cm., fig. 132-134.) 

General exemption of danaidae from ;tnd liahility of 
pU'ridae to the attacks of prcdaceous animals ; attempted 
e.\j)lanation i>f these [ihenf>niena ; protective imitation 
of danaidae by cevt-xin pieridae; tlieoin,- of the origin of 
this imitation; miniicrv of daiiais arrlnppus hy linifti- 
ifis disippus, and consequent pr.)tecti<m nf the latter 
from foes; hibernating habits and description of larva 
of the //'wfv;/V/,s-, figures of tlie larva, pupa, imago and 
hibernaculuiu of this species ; tigurt: of imago of i/rtz/rt/'s- 
anhippi,>.. B: P. M. (3574) 

[Walsh, B ; Dann tfi/d 'Riley, C : Valentine.] 
l>eaty oak-gall. (Amer. entom., Sept.- 
(.)ct. 1S69. ^'- ^- P- -5- H ^""i-- fig- 20.) 
Answer to inquirj'; description nnd figure of the gal! 

\\\' \r\'iiiP'<\ qnrrn(s-fro}tdof:tt. B: P. \f. (.^57^) 



[Walsh, B : Dann r^^;/^/ Riley, C : \'a!entine.] 

The parasites of the human animal. 

(Amer. entom., Jan. 1869. v. i. p. 84-88, 

I So cm., fig. 73-74.) 

General prevalence of parasites in nature; brief ac- 
counts nf pediailus /n/manus, p. cez-vicaiis, p. pubis, 
oc-sints honiinis, piilcw iryiiaiis, p. penetrans, acunthia 
lectnlaria, conoritinus sang'itisuga and aciiriis scabiei, 
and mention of some other articulates parasitic on hu- 
mans; figures and habits of rt-duvms personatus (larva 
and imago), of Europe, and of pirates bignttatus; fig- 
ure of conorhinus sanguisuga; classificatnry relations 
of pidiculino and maltopha^a. B: P. M. {3576) 

[Walsh, B : Dann r^wt/ Riley, C : Valentine.] 
The periodical cicada. (Amer. entom., 
Dec. 186S, V. I, p. 63-72, fig. 5S-64.) 

Extract, from p. 68. by authors, with 
same title, {op. cU.. June 1S69. p. 202. 
7 cm.) 

Discovery of the existence of 13-year broods of 
cicada, and characterisation of tliese broods as a new 
species, c. tredecim; dimorphism of this species and of 
c. septendecim ; seasons, habits, transformations, ovipo- 
siii(m, enemies, diseases, ravages and sting of these 
species, and chronological statement of their several 
known broods. B: P. M. (3577) 

[Walsh, B : Dann and Riley, C : Valentine.] 
Potato hugs. (Amer. entom., 1S6S, v. 1: 
Oct., p. 21-27. fig. 10-19: Nov.. p. 41-49. 
fi.^- 33-48-) 

Remarks on the usu;!! failure of ]iopulnr writers to 
distinguish between the several species of insects in- 
festing the p()tato plant; brief accounts of gortyna 
nitela, bar id ins trinotallis, sphinx quinqiiemaculata, 
tpicnuta vittata. inacrobasis itnicolor, m. miirina, epi- 
lautu pensylvanica, e. marginata, letna triUneaia and 
epitrix atcumeris, treating of the geographical distribu- 
tion, habits, food-plants and seasons ot most of them, 
and giving figures of each in one or more states of 
growth ; full account of doryphora decemlineata^ its 
distinctness from d. jiinrta, its migrations, habits and 
enemies, and means against it; figures of d. decevilin- 
eata and d.juucta \w their several states, and of numer- 
ous enemies of the former; habits of many of these 
enemies; inability of larva of sphinx qtiivquemaculata to 
sting ; distinctness of s. Carolina from this species ; geo- 
graphical distribution of .v. caroUna; characteristics of 
lepidoptera and coleoptera ; vesicant properties of lyt- 
tinae; means against lytttnae; stercoracious larval pro- 
tections ; poisonousness ot larvae of doryphora decemlin~ 
cala: natmal fluctuations in tlie abundance of insects. 

B: P. M. (,,57S) 

[Walsh, B I Dann ninl Riley, C : Valentine.] 
Tlie royal horned -caterpillar. C\-ratocain- 
J^a {cithcronia^ regalh. Fabr. (Amer. 
entom.. .\ns;. 1S69. v. i. p. 230-231. 64 en).. 
pi. I.) 

Description of young and nf t'lill-grown larva and of 
\)\i^ACi{ ceratocaitipii rcgali&; figure nf" larva, pupa nnd 
imago; seasons, haliits, food-plants, sexual difterences, 
odnr and vernacular names of this species; popular 
drcid of it. B: P. M. (.!S70 

[Walsh, B : Dann iiiul Riley, C : Valentine.]' 

A swarm ot butterflies. (Amer. entom.. 

Oct. 1S6.S. V. t. p. 28-29. 34 cm., fig. 20-22.) 

Record of fliglits of swarms of dtinar's archippus; 

figures of lava, jnipa and imago ^i^ this species; iisc/e- 

pins its foor-phint. • B: P. M. (jjSn) 



?!•' [35!^'-359o] 



psyc//E. 



[A«p»ist — Sei>tcnil>cr iS*t,(. 



[Walsh, B : Dann and Riley, C : Valentine.] 
Swarms of ladybirds. (Anier. entom., 
Nov. iS6y, V. 2, p. 55, 13 cm.) ■ 
Occurrence of ciiuntless millions oi coccincHidae in 

Ensrlund ; Ihcir origin and movements. 

B:P.M. (jsSi) 

[■Wa'sh, B ; Dann ami Riley C : Valentine.] 
The true armv-worm: Iciicaiiia titii punc- 
tata [sic], Hawortli. (Amer. entom., 
Jiilv 1S69, V. I, p. 214-217, io6 cm., fig. 
152-155.) 

R;lv;i<^cs and beneficial action of Uucauia unipiiiicta 
in Missouri, in 1S69; favorite localities of occurrence, 
sudden appearance and disappearance, seasons and 
enemies of tins insect; description and figures of larva, 
nana and imaifo: fi<jure of imago of exorista itillitaris. 
' ' B:P.^f. (35S.!) 

[Walsll, B : Dann and Riley, C : Valentine.] 
Wasps and their habits. (Amer. entom., 
Moll. 1869, V. I, p. 122-143,900 cm., fig- 
96-1 12 ; p. 164, I cm.) 

Appendix, by B: D. Walsh, entitled 
"Apjiendix to the article on 'Wasps and 
their habits.' in No. 7." (0/. cit., Apr., 
p. 162-164. 120 cm.) 

General account of the habits of North American 
precbitory hymenoptera, i. e., mutiHidae^ fosxores and 
diploptervga; structural, classificational and sexual 
charactersof these insects ; correspondence of structure 
with liabits, and jjradation of habits in insects as re- 
gards the making of provision for the care of the 
vounji; occurrence of parasites, inquilines and tenants 
of deserted abodes of these insects; fiijures of imagos 
and special accounts of habits of chlorion coernleum, 
hemhcx fasciata, spkex ichneufiiouea, aiintiophila pi'rli- 
penfiis,pe/^sis fontiosa, stizus grattdis, s. sfii'Ct'osiis, f'e- 
lopofus InnaiHS^ agenia boitihycina^ trypoxyloii albi- 
tarse, ceropales rnfiventrif:, etlmt-jus fraterjla^ vespa 
inaaiiatn, and policies rubiginosiix: fij>^ure of imago of 
cr-vt)tus ittnctvis and of several abodes of wasps. 

B:P.M. (3583) 

[Walsh, B : Dann and Riley, C : Valentine.] 
The wavv-striped flea-heelle. Ilaltica 
i^fh\Uolrt'la~) striolata. Illiger. (Amer. 
entom.. Apr. 1S69. v. i. p. 15S-159, 62 cm., 
fig. 119.) 

Habits and ravages, food-plants and description 
and figure of larva and ravages and descriptirm and fig- 
ure of imago of phyllotreta striolata, mostly quoted 
from I! : Shimer's' "The wavy-striped tle,l-beetle" 
(Amer. nat., Dec. 1S6S, v. 2, p. 514-517) [Rcc., 3554) ; 
habits of larva of///, nemorinn. B: P. M. (35S4) 

Watson, J. A. Reputed parthenogenesis of 
anarta myrtilU. (Entomologist, Nov. 
18S2, V. 15. p. 261-262.) 
Record of the hatching of unfertilized eggs i^f anarta 

wyrlilli. " G: D. (35S5) 

. Webster, Francis M. Leaves from my note- 
book. (Our home and science gossip. 
Sept. iSSi, V. 5, p. 103, col. 1-2, 44 cm.^ 
Notes on the food-habits and localities of occurrence 
of numerous coleoptera- ^ B: P. M. (.15^) 



Weismauu, .\ugust. Sludien zur descen- 

denz-thcorie. 2. Ueber die letzten uisa- 

chen der transnuitationen. Leipzig. W. 

Engelmann. 1S76. t.-p. cover, 24+336 p.. 

5 col. pi., 26X 17. t 18X 10. pam., M. 10. 
Rev., entitled ■Weismann's Final causes 

of transmutation." (Amer. nat., Feb. 

1S77, V. It, p. 109-110. ) 
Notice. (Entom. uachrichten. 1 .\pril 

1S77, jahrg. 3. p. 58.) 
Rev., by [F. C] N[oll]. (Zool. garten. 

1S77, jahrg. iS. p. 142-144.) 

"The present \v«rk is divided into four divisions, of 
which the first presents a striking array <»f facts on tlie 
origin of the markings of caterpillars." The author de- 
scribes the nature and imnphologv of the markings of 
larvae of the family spltingida^, their bitUogical value 
and tribal development, concluding that the oldest 
sphtngid cateniillars were without markings; that the 
oldest style oi^ markings were longitudinal lines, the 
later ones oblique streaits, and the last to be developed, 
the spots." — Amer. nat., I. c. The second part dis- 
cusses the relation of changes in the structure of larvae 
to their changes as imagos; variation and dimorphism. 
The fhir<l part treats of the changes of the axolotl into 
amhtystoma. The f<«irth part is on the mechanical 
conce])tion of nature. The plates cr>ntain figures of 
lepidopterous larvae, especially ofs/'/iingidae. [ T : Lub. 
bock's "Scientific lectures".'.. iSjg [Uec, 343S] c<tn- 
tains (lecture z) [Rec. 34.i7) an .abstract of Weismann's 
studies on larvae of sphingidae,] G: £>. (35S7) 

Whitney, C : P. Descriptions of some new 

species of tabnnidac. (Can. entom. Feb. 

1879. V. II, p. 35-38.) 
Crit. rev., by E : Burgess, (o/. c//.. Apr. 

1879, p. 80.) 

Describes fhrysops atclux, cfi. nigrihiiitbo, rh. cnrxitn, 
labantis stiperjatnentarius. t. sptrrria, all new species, 
from New Hampshire, and tabanns dodget n. sp. from 
Nebraska. B: P.M. (35SS) 

v. Wielowiejski, Ueinrich. Stndien i'lber 
die lampyriden. (Zeitschr. f. wissenscb. 
zool., I Nov. 1S82. bd. 37, p. 3^4-428, pi. 

2.V24-) 

Abstract, by E : Burgess, entitled "Lu- 
minosity of fire-flies." (Science, 9 Mch. 
1883. V. I. p. 150, 22 cm.) 

Anatomiciil, physiological and biological considera. 
tions of the luminosity of the imago, larva and eggs of^ 
tampvrts {i. spteiididtila an<f /. noctilitca); anatomy of 
parts' of the related svslenis (nervous, tracheal, etc.); 
historical and literature (30 titles). G: D. (35S9) 

Witlaczil, Emanuel. Zur anatomie der 
aphitlen. (Arbeiten aus dem zool. instit. 
d. univ. Wien und d. zool. slat, in Triest. 
1SS2. bd. 4. heft 3. p. 397-441. 3 pi.) 

Abstract of portions. 1 Blckton, G : B. 
Monograph of British aphides, v. 4. 1SS3. 
p. 142-143.) 

Abslr.. entitled "Anatomy ol aphides." 
(Journ. Roy. micros, soc. Feb. 1SS3. s. 2. 

V. 3. P- 49-.^"-) 

General external and internal anatomy of aphididar 
considered bv different svstcins of organs. 

G: r>. (3S0O) 



Aiigu^it — September iSS4.1 



rsrcHE. 



•211 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

A NKW timgLis has been tound wliich is 
parasitic on DrosopJiila nlgricorni^. Prof- 
C : II. Peck has named the fungus Appemli- 
culci ria cutomoph iitl . 

Mr. a. Balding records, in Niitiire for to 
Jidy 1SS4. tlie capture of dragon-flies (^Pyr- 
rkosoma minium), measuring about five cen- 
timetres in expanse of wing, bv leaves of 
D roserii rotit i/difo/ia. 

A BRIEF memoir of the late Dr. Hermann 
Miiller of Lippstadt. has been written by 
Ernst Krause, the proceeds of the sale of 
which are to be added to the "Miiller Fund.' 
The brochure contains an excellent autotv- 
pic portrait of the deceased, and the memoir 
is accompanied hv a chronological list of 
MuUer"s writings. — Aiiier. natiiinlhi. Aug. 
1SS4. ^"- 18. p. S4S. 

Dr. F. Br.\ui:r gives a brief notice 
f)f parts of the life hislor\- of Hirmonetirii 
obsciira, a dipteron. in the Verhandlungen 
der kaiserlicli-koniglichen zoologisch-botan- 
ischen gesellschaft in Wien, for iSS,;. The 
larva of this species lives in the grub and 
pupa of the Eiu'opean June-beetle. Rkizotro- 
i^'H s s ohtitial /s . 

.-\n e.xcellent idea fo- publications of local 
scientific societies is carried out by the Verein 
fiir naturkunde zu Cassel, in its Bericht for 
1SS3 to 18S4. Over one-half of this Bericht 
is devoted to a list, by Dr. Carl Ackermann, 
of scientific works of all kinds pertaining 
to Cassel and itsvicinity. In the portion of 
the list devoted to the distribution of animals 
is to be tound mention of man\' pajjers upon 
the insect faima of (he above-mentioned re- 
gion. 

At the Montreal meeting of the ISritish 
association ff?i' the athancement of science 
but one entomological paper \\as )-ead- 
Tliis paper. -'A contribution to our knowledge 
ol the fhylopti." was by Prof. Playfair Mc- 
.Murrick, of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. En- 
tomology was better represented at the 
Philadelphia meeting of the American asso- 



ciation for the advancement of science, Dr. 
C. S. Minot read a paper "On the skin of 
insects"; Prof. Geo. Macloskie. on "The 
dynamics of the insect-crust"; Dr. C. V. 
Riley, ''On the hitherto unknown mode of 
oviposition in the carahidae" ; and Lillie J. 
Martin, a paper entitled, "A botanical study 
of the mite-gall found on the petiole of 
yiiglaiia iiigi-a. known as Erineiim aiiomaliim 
Schw. 

At a recent meeting of the Baltimore 
Naturalists' field club, Mr. Otto Lugger gave 
an account of a strange hymenopterous par- 
asite infesting the larva of Tipi/iia. The 
Tiphia lavs its eggs in the larva oi Lacknos- 
tenia fiisca: the larva of Tiphia when nearly 
mature eats the white grub and then spins for 
itself a beautiful silken cocoon. This larva 
in turn is often infested by the lar\a 
Rkipipliiftus pcctiiiatus or R. limtatiis, the 
eggs of which have become fastened to the 
Tiphia, and in this way reach the Tiphia 
cocoon. Mr. Lugger has also found in the 
same cocoons small hymenopterous parasites. 
The order of events in this case appears to be 
that the larva of a large coleopterous insect 
is destroyed by a hymenopterous larva, this 
in turn b\' a coleopterous lar\'a. and this 
again by a hymenopterous larva. — Science 
icctird. 15 .Aug. 1SS4, V. 2, p. 232. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF CONTRI- 
BUTIONS. 

The Cambridge Entomological Cllb 
being so constituted that entomologists in 
all parts of North America may become 
active members thereof and acquire the 
same rights to control its aft'airs and direct 
its policy that are possessetl by members 
resident in Cambridge, expects from North 
American entomologists a support as liberal 
as its constitution. 

Psyche, being conducted under the direc- 
tion of the Club, free from local or partisan 
interests, is likewise entitled to liberal sup- 
port. .Subscribers to Psyche may borrow 
from the library of the Club any works 



•212 



PS IT HE. 



(August— Sci)Unihcr 1SS4. 



which could be replaced in case of loss, upon 
compliance with the simplest condu.ons 
practicable. Thus subscribers who live at a 
distance from libraries may obtain, through 
the mails, the benefit of access to a valuable 
entomological library, constantly increasing 
by means of donations and the receipt of 
publications in exchange for Psyche. 

A Permanent Publication Fund has been 
established by the Club,. the income alone ot 
which is used to assist in defraying the cost 
of the publication of Psyche. As yet the 
fund is too small to furnish the amount of 
income needed. The Club does not hesitate 
to ask the friends of entomology to contrib- 
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Mr. Sanborn having since died, but $60 
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In the Annual reports of the Secretary. 
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published in pamphlet form, are acknowledg- 
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cation Fund, which, with other receipts, 
amounted to a principal of $224.39- ^'"^■--' 
then have been received from :— 
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F. G. Sanborn. Worcester, Mass. . 5-oo 

L. M. Sargent, Boston, Mass .... 5-0" 
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Previously acknowledged .... --4-39 

$269.39 

1? : PicKMAN Mann. 

Treasurer C E. C 

|(3-.cx, Nos. 122-123 were issued 23 Aug. 1884. 



PSYCHf;.^■'-J 

[Established in 1S74.] 
EDITED BY 

B: PiCKMAx Mann, WashingtoH. D. C. ; G: Dimmock, Cambridge, JSIass. ; 
Albeut J ; Cook, Lansing, jSIich. ; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal, 
III. ; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany, N. T. ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Lawrence, Kansas: W: Trei.ease, JMadison. Wise. 

Vol. 4. Nos. 126-12)jk^ 

October-December 1S84. 

COlVTENTS: 

Advertisements 214 

N'oTEs ON THE Habits OF Hypotrichia spissipes Lec, with Description 

OF THE Females — Henry Guernsey Hubbard. .... 215-217 

Drinking Habit of a Moth .......... 217 

Head of Larval Musca : Preliminary Note — George Macloskic . . . 218-219 
Notes on some Coleoptera taken in South Louisiana — C/mrles Henry 

Tyler Toivnsend ........... 219-222 

Index to Entomological Literature — Benjamin Piekmatt Mann . 223 

Parasites of the Larva of Lachnosterna fusca — Charles Valeuline Riley . 224 

Food-plants of Pulvinaria innumerabilis — Benjamin Picktnan Mann . . 224 

Proceedings of Societies — Cambridge Entomological Club . . . 224-226 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3591-3674 ........ 227-232 

Entomological Items. . . . . 233-236 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $3. VOLUME. $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS, 20 c. 

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214 



psrciiE. 



[October — DLceinbcr 1SS4. 



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NOTES OX THE HABITS OF IirPOrRILHIA SPISSIPES 
LEC. WITH DESCRIPTIOX OF THE FEMALES. 

BV HENRY GUERNSEY HUBBARD. CRESCENT CITY. FLORIDA. 



Several years ago I t'ound in Florida 
a male specliiieii of this beetle, impaled 
upon a needle of the long-leave<l pine 
( Piiiiis atisfra/is) which Iiad fallen 
and lav upon the gound with its pointed 
end projecting upwards. The body 
was pierced through the back, between 
the scutellum and the hinge of the ely- 
tron. The wing-cases were spread 
widely open, as in the act of flight. 
Recently a second male, which is caught 
in a precisely similar manner, on the 
entl of a broken grass culm, has been 
sent from Florida to the U. S. Depart- 
ment of agriculture. The beetle is 
so firmly fastened that the long journey 
from Florida has not sliaken it from the 
spear of grass. 

The repetition of this accident in the 
case of an insect of such rare occur- 
rence that it is almost unknown in col- 
lections, suggested to me that the beetle 
might have a mode of flight very difl'er- 
ent from that of related mav-beetles 
(meloloiit/iidac) . This surmise I have 
been able to verify in a manner that 
throws some light upon the habits of 
the beetle. 

One day. last spring, during a light 
shower succeeding a long drought, 
while standing in an open place I be- 
came aware of an insect flying around 
me with great rapiclit}', and with a buz- 



zing noise. Presently I distinguished a 
beetle which I at first mistook for an ab- 
normally active indiyidual oi Euphoria 
{Cctonia) inda. It flew in circles, 
close to the earth, and seemed to be in 
search of something. Finally it made 
a sudden dart into the loose sand, and 
almost immediatel)' disappeared beneath 
the smface. A considerable subterran- 
ean commotion, however, marked the 
spot, and I easily uncovered it at a 
depth of about five centimetres. It 
proved to be a male of Plyfotricliia 
spissipes, and as I took in mv hand, 
a second male, with \\ bich it had been 
locked in combat, disengaged itself and 
flew away. A female, which I fortu- 
nately secuietl, was immediately be- 
neath the struggling males. It would 
seem, therefore, that H\potrichia is not 
entirely crepuscular like its relatives the 
mav-beetles (Lac/tiiosferiia) . but that 
it also flies by day i at least in cloudy 
weather. Its flight resembles that of 
certain cetonians. which flit, hither and 
thither, keeping close to the ground. 
The latter, however, are abroad during 
the brightest noon-day sunshine. The 
bod\'. especially In the males, is very 
thinly chitinizetl, and this, with its 
headlong flight, exposes it to such acci- 
dents as are recorded al)ove. The 
females are exceedingly rare. They can 



I'lC. 



PS re HE. 



[Octnher — Deci-nibcr 1SS4. 



upon occasion make good use of their 
wings, but probably fly only at night, 




KisC- ij. //ypotrichia sjtissijfes Lcc. a, antenna of 
male; l>, antenna of female; c, front tibia of male; »/, 
ditto, female. 

and arc more sul)tcrranean in their 
habits than the males ; this is indicated 
also bv their form, which is heavier, 
more strongly built, and less pubescent 
than in the male. As this beetle has 
hitherto been known in the male sex 
only, I add a description of the female.' 
Description of tlie female. — Coloi' 
piceo-rufous, head and thorax darker ; 
body shining, beneath sparsely pubes- 
cent, above very sparsely covered wifh 
short, stifl". hairs ; head small, convex, 
eyes small, scarcely visible from above ; 
two basal joints of antennae enlarged) 
as in the male, the tlvc following joints 
globular; club etjual in length to the 
five preceding joints, with a conical 
prominence on its outer face ; thorax 
rounded, convex, coarsely punctate ; 
scutellum short, nearly triangular, not 

' Leconte's original description of the male may be 
found in liis "Classification of the coleoptcra of North 
America . . . . pt. r'(Smithsonian misc. coll., 1862 v. 3), 
P- '37- 



roundetl behind ; el\ tra shining, coarsely 
but obsoietelj' punctate, sutural .stria 
well marked ; pygidium much wider 
than long, finely and denselv punctate. 

The female is somewhat larger, more 
elongate and more convex than the male 
and is without the long antl dense 
pubescence so conspicuous in that sex ; 
the bead, and especially the eyes are 
smaller; the thorax is larger, much 
more convex lateralh' and longitudi- 
nally, the base less lobed at middle, 
and is much less denselv and more 
coarsely punctiued ; viewed from above 
the convexitv of the sitles conceals the 
true margin of the thorax which thus 
appears more regularly rounded than in 
the male. The five joints which con- 
stitute the scape of the antennae are well 
separated, and not connate as in the 
male, and the conical projection, which 
in the male appears upon the edge of 
the last joint, and gives to the antenna 
an irregular outline, is centrally placed 
in the female, and, the club is regidarly 
oval in outline. 

The legs of the female are stouter, and 
project rigidly from the bodv. rcc;dling 
the characteristic appearance of the 
orvctiiii, {Oiyctcs. ApJioniis, etc.). 
The front legs are especially fossorial, 
the tibia being very broad, excavate 
within, and armed with three stout teeth 
on the outer edge. The male tibia is 
straighter and narrower, and has onlv 
two teeUi. 

The remarkable sexual difi'erences in 
this species call to mind the still greater 



October — December 1SS4. 



PSYCHE. 



■iV 



dlssimilaritv of tlie sexes in Plcocoiiia . 
which genus has been placed h\ 
Leconte in the distant coprophagous 
series of Lauicllicorns. Qiiite recently 
Gcrhtiicker has pointed out" the close 
I'elationship which exists between 
Pleocoma and the European genus 
Pachvpiis. the latter an undoubted 
nielolonthian. The females in these 
genera resemble each other closely, and 
in both are without wings or wing- 
covers. 

It seems probable that Leconte was 
somewhat misled by the determination 
of a larva described by Osten Sackeii as 
tliat of Pleocoma.^ This larva is sup- 
posed by Gerstiicker to belong to a 
iucanid beetle, Init it \n\\\ with greater 



probability be conjectured to I>e tlie 
larva of a Gcotriipcs. 

Between the females of Hvpotricliia 
and those of Pleocouia evidences of re- 
lationship are not wanting, and as both 
must now be considered members of the 
nielolonthian series, a closer comparison 
than has vet been made will possibh' 
bring tlie two genera into still more in- 
timate relations. The series of genera, 
Hypotrichia. Plcctrodes2iwA Pleocoma, 
exhibits a verv instructive passage from 
a winged insect with active powers of 
flight, as in the male of Hxf atrichia, 
to the degraded, wingless, and wholly 
subterranean female of Pleocoma . 

2 Entom zeit .... Stettin, 1SS3, jilhrg. 44, p. 436. 
^ Tr.inS- amer. entom. soc, 1S74, v. 5, p. 84. 



Drinking Habit ok a Moth.' — 
E. D. Jones describes a remarkable 
thinking habit of a yellow and black 
Brazilian inoth {PantJicra [corr.] par- 
dalai-ia). He found these moths sit- 
ting on the wet stones in small streams 
near San Paulo, sucking up the water 
in a continuous stream, and letting it 
escape in drops from the tibdomen. 
These drops fell at the average rate of 
50 per minute, and as near as he could 
judge of their size, the total quantity of 
water which must thus pass through the 
body of the moth in three hours must 
he a cubic inch, or about 200 times the 
bulk of its own body. Mr. Jones spec- 
ulates on the possible meaning of this 

' Proc. lit. and phil. soc. Liverpool, 1SS3, v. 37, p. 
76-77 ■ 



and asks — •'Can it be that the moth 
extracts nourishment from minute parti- 
cles of organic matter containetl in the 
water.'" He remarks, however, that 
the water of the streams appear verv 
clear and pure, aiul notes that the moths 
seems specitilly adapted for this, habit. 
The tibiae of the hind legs are verv 
thick, and are armed with long hairs.' 
which by their capillar\' action prevent 
the moth being inumersed in the water. 
'T have often,'" he adds, "seen one of 
them knocked down by a little spiu't of 
water splashing over the stone on which 
it was standing, and it recovered itself 
almost immediately without being wet- 
ted in the least." — yourn. ray. micros, 
soc, Oct. 1884, s. 2, V. 4, p. 741. 



"218 PSTCHH. iOctober— December 18S4. 

HEAD OF LARVAL MUvSCA— PRELIMINARY NOTE. 



BY GEORGE MACI.OSKIE. PHINCETON . N. J. 



The tuuscidae are usually said to lKi\e 
headless lai-vae. The real state of 
matters however is that their head is 
buried in their thorax, to be thrust out 
at will during larva-hood, orpermauent- 
Iv in the adult. Some years ago I spent 
fruitless time in attempting to investi- 
gate this structure ; but recent researcii- 
es on the head and proboscis of the adult 
have enabled me to return to the attack 
with greater success. Mr. Walter M. 
Rankin has cut for me some excellent 
transverse sections of the head of the 
larva o(Miisca caesar, and bv their help 
as well as bv teasing I have got the 
following results. 

1. The head has a double skeleton, 
the one independent of the other : ( 1 ) 
a large dark-colored case, figured bv 
Weismann,' consisting of proximal, 
mid-, and distant parts, the distant part 
being the well-known "hooks" (really a 
bifurcated piece) ; (2) a cbitinous arma- 
ture lining the pharynx : outside of the 
pharynx-wall (therefore organically in 
the head) are muscles which join it to 
the larger, dark-colored case. 

2. The dark-colored part represents 
the fulcrum, mid-segment, and the fork- 
ed distal supports of the proboscis of the 
adult. The relation of parts is the 
same as in the adult : the salivary duct, 
made by the union of the ducts of the 
paired salivary glands, enters the mouth 
at the mid-proboscis as in the adult. 

' Zeilschr. f. wiss zool., 1S63-1S66. 



and the longitudinal and transverse mus- 
cles are much as they shall always be. 

3. The '-hooks", or forked distal 
part, appear to be the precursors of the 
upper fork of the adult disti-proboscis : 
they have also inferior processes repre- 
senting the inferior fork of the same. 
Perhaps these hooks are the mandibles. 

4. The armature of the pharynx 
consists of a chitinous sheath lining its 
lumen. On the floor of this are eight 
longitudinal i)ars. which are found on 
cross-section to be hollow, each with a 
longitudinal slit opening towards the 
lumen of the pharynx. 

5. On tracing the pharynx-arma- 
ture to its anterior extremity we find 
that it terminates al)ruptlv bv a rim 
which supports a number of teeth at the 
roots of the longitudinal bars referred 
to. Here we have evidence that the 
longitudinal bars of the larva rejjresent 
the pseudotracheae of the adult ; thev 
open by a long slit, and ha\e transverse 
semi-rings so as to produce a resemblance 
to tracheae, all as in the pseudotracheae. 

6. Hence the slit tubes wliich line 
the pharynx of the larva are itientical 
with the pseudotracheae of the adult ; 
and the swollen '■labella" of the disti- 
proboscis of the adult are the everted 
stomodaeum, whilst its supporting forks 
are probably the mandibles. 

7. The muscular apparatus for open- 
ing the pharynx is as in the adult. Long 
muscles descend from the walls of the 



October— December 1S84/ 



PS2THE. 



219 



fulcrum to the roof of the pharynx, so 
as I1V their contraction to raise the roof, 
to enlarge the cavitv, and to turn it into 
a forcing pump. Wiien tlie pharynx 
is not so distended its roof is arched up- 
wards and its himen on cross-section 
merely a trans\crse slit. Above it — 
within tiie hollow of the arch — is a 
system of radiating muscles which in- 
crease the curvature of the pharynx- 
roof and so close it unless when 
antagonised by the descending muscles. 
8. Ivxcept \)\ the muscles, and at its 



inferior margin, the fulcriun has no or- 
ganic connection with the pharynx. As 
the fulcrum transverses the length of the 
head, free externalh' of the outer wall of 
the head, and free internally of the pro- 
boscis which pierces it though separated 
from it, and as it is enclosed by muscles 
on lioth sides, it must be endoskeletal 
ill its nature, /. c, an ingrowth from the 
exoskeleton, like the endophragms of 
the thorax or the endocranium of the 
head of other insects. 
12 Dec. 1SS4. 



NOTES ON SOME COLEOPTERA TAKEN IN SOUTH LOUISIANA. 



BY CHARLE.S IlEXRV TVI.ER TOWNSENn, t 0.\ST,\NTIXE . MICH. 



The whole of Louisiana has been 
includc<l by Leconte in the southern 
province of his great Atlantic district.' 
It would seem however, upon fin-ther 
consideration of the fauna, that the 
southern strip parallel with the coast 
should be connected with his "'subtrop- 
ical province, including the seacoast of 
Texas" (see map by Leconte) ; which, 
moreover, as he says, "belongs more 
properly to the eastern province of the 
tropical zoological district of Mexico. "- 
It was in what might he called the sub- 
tropical province of the seacoast of 
Louisiana (being a continuation of the 
coast strip embraced in the eastern prov- 
ince of Mexico) tiiat these notes were 

1 Leconte, J : L. The ccileoptera of Kansas and east- 
ern New Mexico; with map showing the entomological 
provinces of North America. Wash.. Smithsonian insti- 
tution, 1S59, p. iv. 

2 Loc. cit., p. iii-iv. 



c<illected. and the observations here 
given made. 

It will be borne in mind that at the 
time of my visit, 29 March to 21 June 
1SS4, a large tract of country near Bay- 
ou la Fourche was overflowed from the 
great crcyasse of March the same year. 
For the identification of most of the 
species to which these notes refer, I am 
intlehted to the kintlness of Dr. G : H : 
Horn. 

Tiie ciciitdc/idac seemed to be near- 
h' alisent or of local occurrence in south- 
ern Louisiana, and not to frequent the 
lowlands of that part of the state. I 
saw only two specimens of this family 
(one larva of Tctracha Carolina, and 
one Ciciudela rcpaitda) in the latitud'e 
of New Orleans. Afterwards I saw 
C. tortiinsa with C. repanda at the 
mouth of Red River. Though I visit- 



■>io 



PS 1 CHE. 



[October — December 1SS4. 



ed Lake Pontchartrain several times in 
the first part of April, and also on 19 
and 20 Jinio. T C(uiUl find no traces of 
Cicindcla at all tliL-n. either on the 
beach or elsewhere. They are proba- 
bly fomid here, however, at other times 
of the year. Not one was to be seen 
in the low country along Bayou la 
Fourche during April, May and June. 
Leaving New Orleans, and going up 
the river. I foinid them more plentiful 
in the higher country in the northern 
part of the state. They occtn' all along 
the river on the sand flats above the 
levee s\ stem and on the sandy inud- 
banks of the lower river. 

Braclivmis tortiiottariiis is abundant 
under old wood in moist places. This is 
a much larger species tiian our northern 
bomliardiers. and emits its explosions 
vigorouslv and with continued frequen- 
cy, causing great pain unless carefully 
handled. Kirbv and Spence state that 
they were informed by M. Lacordaire 
that the burning sensation arising from 
the discharges of the large exotic species 
was so painful that he had often been 
obliged to let those which he had taken 
escape. ° This species may be among 
those to which M. Lacordaire had refer- 
ence; it is certainlv one of the -'large 
exotic species." These beetles have a 
wav of curling the tip of the abdomen 
up so as to eject the burning licjuiil not 
only behind and on each side but also 
frontwards over the back, and it is 
often expelled in drops, and to a con- 
siderable distance. The bombardiers 
all seemed, when a log was rolled over, 

^ Kirby and Spence's Entomology, 7th cd., p. 419. 



to take the alarm from the one which 
first detected the danger and gave the 
signal by emitting its explosion ; for all 
the others, wlierever they might be, 
would follow with their explosions as 
soon as thev heartl that of one of their 
number. By this habit 1 often discov- 
ered individuals that had hidden in holes, 
or under leaves in the dirt. 

In the flooded forest growths near 
Bavou la Fourche I found several of the 
groimd-frcquenting carabidae ( C/ilae- 
iiiits fiiscicoriiis. C. /aticol/is and 
otlicis) imdei' chips upon stmnps tiiat 
rose above the water. So this is 
how the carabs fared in their flooded 
home, taking to stumps and logs in 
default of tiie ground ! Arboreal forms 
of these genera might be produced in 
this wav. if inundation were to prevail 
for a sutHcient length of time and the 
trees themselves continued to flourish 
in tiie water as well as before. Before 
the levee svstem was constructed the 
coleoptera as well as the other animals 
of southern Louisiana were undoubted- 
Iv accu-stomed to tiie periodical immda- 
tions caused In the risings of the 
Mississippi forcing them to seek habi- 
tation elsewhere than on the ground. 
The gro\md-frequenting species that 
survived probablv then took to stumps 
and logs, as in the present instance ; 
while others confined liiemselves to the 
foliage or bark of the trees, wliich 
previouslv had been frequented In them 
onl\- a portion of the time. .\nd thus 
thev lived until the waters subsided and 
allowed them to betake themselves to 
tiieir old retreats. I'erhajis this ac- 



October — December 1S84.] 



PSrCHE. 



221 



counts for the scaicitv of tlie cicindeli- 
dae. and the absence of Calosoma (not 
a spechnen of which could he found) 
in that part of the state. I might add in 
this connection that I also took a pair 
of Endociums manuerheimii, besides 
some cerambycidac {Lcptiira abdomr 
nalis) and some other colcoptera all on 
one stump a good distance out in the 
flooded forest. 

Not a specimen of tlie silphidae was 
taken ; this is undonhtedlv owing- to the 
great numbers of Inizzards, which efiect- 
ually clean up every thing in the shape 
of carrion. 

I noticed that specimens of Dicerca 
obsciira, instead of taking immediate 
fliglit \\ hen alarmed, loosed their hold 
fromtheplants (wormwood \^Artcmisia~\ 
and ragweed \_Ambrosia^ ) to which 
they were clinging, and dropped to the 
ground like weevils ; which is a far more 
inactive mode of escape than that em- 
plo^■ed bv some others of this famiU . for 
example Clirysobothris femora ta . 

Cliauliognathus margiiiatus. whicli 
is very abundant upon patches of blos- 
som in the South, s(?ems to prefer vellow 
flowers, as its color assimilates better 
with the yellow : and upon these it is 
generally' found. Though it is some- 
times found upon white daisies, the stig- 
mata of these are yellow, and help to 
blend the color of the insect with that 
of the flower. I noticed on 17 April that 
many of these insects were intested with 
a little red mite. 

1 took a specimen of Xcoclvtits ery- 
tln-oci'phahis on a tuft of the common 
ragweed \_Ambi-osia artciii/s/aefoh'a~\ . 
18 May. Clinging in the green foliage 



of the weed, this cerambvcid, \vith the 
four bright yellow transverse markings 
of its elytra continuing clear around the 
body, resembled exactly at Jirst sight 
a species of hornet or wasp wdiich has 
the abdomen encircled with yellow- 
bands, so that I hesitated a moment 
before capturing it. Its slender and 
cylindrical form and long legs so like 
a wasp's conibine with the bright 
yellow bands to make up a deception 
calculated to imbue moie animals than 
one with the dread of a concealed sting 
ready to prove eflective should thev have 
the audacit\ to meddle with it. 

I noted an interesting fact relating to 
sexual selection in Desniocenis pallia- 
tus. These beetles ai'e quite abuntlant 
on the elder leaves \_Sambuciis\ in 
April, at this time pairing. On 22 
April I noticed a verv brightlv Coloretl 
pair in coitu upon a leaf, and on another 
leaf right bv them an individual which 
had tlie orange bases of the elytra not 
nearly so bright or deeply colored as 
nsLKil, but looking faded. On 27 April 
I observed a similar instance of a 
brightly colored ]3air \\ ith a dull color- 
ed, lone indi\idual near bv. This 
shows that the dull-colored indi- 
viduals do not st.uid much chance of 
pairing, but that the bright ones select 
each other. Dull ones are not very 
common, and are probably of chance 
occurrence. I noticed that this species 
was much more plentiful on the leaves 
on cold and cloudv days than on warm 
and bright ones. 

One morning, going by a wood-pile. 
I heard something suddenly drop from 
above and strike on one of the lower 



222 



PSrCHE. 



[October — Deceinlter iS*^^. 



sticks ol wood. Supposing it to be a little weevils take up their positions at 

beetle, I looked carefiillv and found a the joints of the elder stalks, and thus 

specimen of Acantliodcres qiiadrigih- easily pass for leat-huds just appearing, 

^//.y, apparently lifeless, hut lively enough and still enveloped in their dark red 

as soon as I picked it up. (ncarlv hlack) outer coverings. This 

This species almost invariably drops is a jerv interesting and efrccti\e decep- 

vvhen approached. In color it assim- tion. 

ilates so well with the whitened l)oards, I took thirty-si.\ specimens oi Ji/io- 
or other old, weathered pieces of wood do/>acf///s jj-pmictatiis. These show 
to which it may be clinging, that it is considerable variation in the elvtral 
often difficidt to detect it. The habit markings. Twenty-three have the thir- 
of dropping and remaining perfectly teen spots more or less clearly defined ; 
motionless for a short time has been eleven have the two posterior and inner- 
acquired by many coleoptcra as a means medial spots united in one marking 
of escape from some of their manv extending over both elvtra ; one has the 
enemies. But in this instance the beetle. two posterior, inner-medial and anterior 
instead of escaping, drew mv attention spots united in one large marking, leav- 
right upon it by this habit. ing only the (;nter-medial on each 

When Mecas inoniaia sees anv one ehtron in its normal form, and having 

approaching towards it, at some distance, the midiile and two posterior protho- 

it generallv takes wing and flies a long racic spots united, leaving the shield 

vvavs ; but if one is verv near and about three-marked; and one is well defined, 

to capture a specimen it usualh diops ii -punctate, having none of the spots 

and feigns death. united, but with the two outer-medial 

Plagiodera scripta was abundant in entirely wanting, 
all stages on some Cottonwood or pop- One day I noticed an individual of 
lar sprouts \_Popnhis ii/on/7/fcra'\ this species upon a plant that had been 
along a ditch on a plantation. The ovi nun b\ a ]5art\' irt" ants. Tiie wee\il 
editors of tlie American eiitoinologist vvas running up and down trying to 
have illustrated several variations in the escape from its hvmenopterous enemies, 
elvtral markings of this species.'' I5nt wiiich l<e])t i uniiiug over it and attacU- 
oflhe forty-three specimens taken bv '"g i'- Alltheuhile it ga\e forth an 
me in Louisiana everv one is of the agreeable scent verv similar to pepper- 
normal form. 1 did not notice that the miiit : agreeable to me. but peiha])s 
species injured anv jilanted cottonw(jods not to the ants, to repel whom it might 
here at this time. liave lieen intended. 'J'he scent ditl 

On stems of elder \_Savihiiats\ "ot seem to arrest the progress of the 

(also taken on young poplar or cotton- ;mts in the least, and the "sheath-wing" 

wood sprouts) the little black Chalco- would probably ha\ e succumbed to the 

dcnnus acneus was quite abundant. ■•vtin-w ings" in the end. had I not 

These hard, finelj- punctured, chunky rescued the former for my collecting 

* Amcricin entfiniologist, l8So, v, 5, p, 160. uOllK. . 



October— Decern her 1S.S4. 



PS re HE. 



223 



PSYCHE. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., OCT.-DEC. 1S84. 

Communication!!, exchaji^es and editors' copies 
should be addressed to Editors of Psyche, Com. 
bridi^c, Mass. Communications for publication in 
Psyche must be properly authenticated, and no anony- 
mous articles ivill be published. 

Editors and contributors are only responsible for the 
flatements made in their ozvn communications. 

Works on subjects not related to cutomologv zvilt not 
he reviewed in Psy-che. 

For rates of subscription and of adTCrlisinff, see ad- 
vertising columns. 



INDEX TO ENTOMOLOGICAL LITER- 
ATURE. 

The time consumed by special students in 
seai-ching tlirough a whole literature t'ov 
those portions of it which bear upon their 
special studies is largeh- wasted. The litera- 
ture of special subjects is so scattered, and 
that of different subjects so intermingled, 
that each student who tries to find for him- 
self what relates to the subjects he is studying 
is obliged to peruse a great deal of literature 
that is not of service to him, far inore. in- 
deed, than that wliich he can use. in propor- 
tion as the subjects he is studying form but 
a fraction of all the subjects treated in the 
literature. Here, as in other fields of labor, 
specialization carries with it economy and 
efficiency. The diligent worker who, labor- 
ing to that end, by comprehensiye methods 
forms an inde.v to all the special subjects 
treated in the literature as he examines it 
finds himself at last able to refer without 
hesitancy or waste of time to all the litera- 
ture which treats of any of these specialties. 
He is then in a position to supply the needs 
of the specialists first mentioned. While 
but few persons are interested in these refer- 
ences as a whole, each specialist finds the 



portion referring to his own field of study of 
great value. Having accumulated an im- 
mense stock of references to the literature of 
entomology, I will furnish references on 
special subjects at ten cents each reference, 
or fifty cents per decade. The system upon 
which these references will be furnished is 
the following. The person seeking refer- 
ences shall send me his list of references 
already obtained; the references I furnish 
will then only be those additional to this list, 
so that no one will have to p,ay for that which 
he already has. If any person finds the 
transcription of the references which he 
already has not worth the saving of the cost 
under this rule, he can not complain of the 
cost of the references furnished him. Extracts 
from and translations of portions of litera- 
ture on desired subjects will also be pro- 
cured on demand. 

The publication of bibliographical records 
in the pages of Psyche and other works and 
the indexing of these records place a consid- 
erable number of references at the disposal 
of specialists without special payment there- 
for. So rapidly as means admit these 
records and indices in Psyche will be en- 
larged. Meanwhile the pages of Psyche 
stand open for contributions from the stores 
of specialists who have already gathered for 
their own use references to the literature of 
their specialties. When it is considered with 
how great labor these lists of references are 
gathered, and how one student after anether 
is obliged to perform this labor anew, for 
\vant of the publication of lists once made, 
it may be seen of how great service to the 
public would be the publication of these 
lists. The very persons who inav be dis- 
posed to depreciate the value of general 
indexes such as mine, for the reason that 
they in their special fields have fuller indexes 
or those most complete to date, ai-e the ones 
who may render the greatest service to their 
fellows-workers by publishing their lists. 

B : PiCKM.^N M.\NN. 
\\'ashington, D. C, Nov. 18S4. 



224 



PSYCHE. 



jOclolier — Deccniher 1SS4. 



Parasites of the lakva of Lachno- 
STERNA FLSCA. Ill an item quoted in 
Psyche, v. 4, p. 211, iVoin Science record^ 
Mr. Otto Lugger is reported as saying that 
''Tiphia la^'S its eggs in the larva oi Lachno- 
sterna fiifca," and the larva "when nearly 
mature eats the white grub." Further, that 
the eggs of Rkipifhortis, a secondary para- 
site, "become fastened to the Tiphia." These 
statements are not strictly accurate. The 
conjecture in my 6th Missouri report,' p. 123- 
126, that the Tiphia larva preys externally 
on that of Lachiiosteriia, I have since veri- 
fied, and of course it begins feeding as soon as 
hatched ; while it would be quite exceptional 
for Rhipiphoyus to lay its eggs on Tiphia. 
The probability, as stated in the report cited, 
is that the eggs are deposited on flowers fre- 
quented by Tiphia, to which the triungulin 
fastens and by which it is carried into the 
ground. It would be interesting to know 
whether Mr. Lugger speaks from observation 
or conjecture. — C. V. Riley, at meeting of 
Kntomological societv of \Va:>hington. b Nov. 
18S4. 



Food-plants of Pulvinaria in.numera- 
BiLis. On p. 338 of J. D. Putnam's "Bio- 
logical and other notes on coccidac" [Psyche, 
Rec, no. 1989], it is stated that Mr. Putnam 
has observed Pulvinaria inniimerubilis in 
great abundance on Acer dasycarpum, A. 
saccharinum, Negnndo aceroidcs and Tilia 
etiropaea, on each of which it thrives well, 
best on the Negiindo, but least on A. saccha- 
rinum. Mr. Putnam knew personally of the 
occurrence of this species also on Robinia 
pseudacacia, Vifis lahnisca and Rhm glabra. 
in the vicinity of infested maples. In one 
instance he found a single undersized speci- 
men, with its "nest," on Vitis riparia, more 
than 800 metres from the nearest infested 
Acer. He adds Ro$a and Fagiis to the list 
of food-plants, on the authority of S. S. 
Rathvon, who found it once on each of these 

I Psyche, Rec, no. 39. 



plants, and mentions with doubtful credence 
the opinions of Emily A. Smith and C. V. 
Riley that they had also found it on Salix. 
Madura, .^uercus, Ulmiis, Platanus, Ribes, 
Euonymus and Ccliis. It undoubtedly occurs 
in very great abundance on Madura hedges 
in Washington, D. C, as I have observed. 
On the 30th of June this year (1SS4) I 
received from F. R. Ralhbun, of Auburn. N. 
Y. . three twigs of C'lmus, gathered on the 
2Sth. in Auburn, bearing re-pectively i, 1 and 
3 specimens of mature Pulvinaria innumera- 
bilis, with fully developed nests, from which 
the larvae have since hatched in great num- 
bers. These all came from one tree. In 
sending specimens previously, Mr. Rathbun 
wrote that "the maples [Acer'\ especially 
have the silky pussys or cocoons to a large 
extent, and tliey are invariably found on the 
under sides of the twigs. Sometimes they 
are arranged thickly, in rows, and again 
singly." Mr. Putnam says "there is enough 
evidence to show that this insect is capable 
of thriving on quite a variety of food-plants, 
and in the cases where it has been directly in- 
troduced from the maple there is no question 
of its identity." The specimens referred 
to in this communication will be deposi- 
ted in the Museum of comparative zoology 
at Cambridge, Mass., where they are more 
certain of good care and of being accessible 
to students than in any other collection of 
national extent in the country. — B: Pick- 
man Mann al meeting of Cambridge ento- 
mological dub, 10 Oct. 1SS4. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

CAMBRIDGE KNTOMOLOGR AL CI.LB. 
( Continued from p. /So.) 
14 Mar. 1SS4. — The looth meeting of the 
club was held at 61 Sacramento St., Cam- 
bridge, 14 Mar. 1SS4. the president. Mr. S : 
H. Scudder, in the chair. 

The secretary announced the withdrawal 
from the club of .Mr. Henry Savage, of lioston , 
Mass. 



October— December, 1884.] 



PSYCHE. 



225 



Mr. S : H. Scudder showed fossil specimens 
and figures of Aiithracomartin, to illustrate 
the remarks which he had made at the last 
meeting. 

Dr. G : DiTiimock showed samples of the 
different grades of Central American cochin- 
eal, carmin of commerce, carminic acid and 
some of its salts. 

Mr. S: H. Scudder exhibited some litlio- 
graphic work and wood-cuts for comparison 
of methods of depicting fossil insects. 

Mr. S: H. Scudder reviewed Part i of A. 
E. Eaton's "A revisional monograph of re- 
cent rp//e>ncii'(ftit'" (Trans. Linn. soc. Lond.. 
Zcol.. s. 2. V. 5. p. 1-77. pi. i-:;4). 

II April 1SS4. — The loist meeting was 
held at 61 Sacramento St.. Cambridge, 11 
.\pril 1SS4. In the absence of the president. 
Mr. T. W : Harris was chosen chairman. 

Mr. H. Hinkley showed several insects, 
among them a larva, jirohabh' that of Eiirro- 
nia imiia. 

Dr. (i : Dimmock showed specimens of 
several curious insects. Among them was 
a Culcx with a parasitic nematod {? Gor- 
i/i'tis) dissected from its abdomen. The spec- 
imen was taken near Leipzig, Germany. 
The parasite was very large, relatively to the 
size of the Cu/cx- No pai-asitic worms had 
been previously recorded from Ciilex, except 
Filariu sa>ii(iunis-hominis. allho Alernih had 
been found in Shmilium reptans^ in Tanypns 
nebulo^u$^x\i\ in a species of Chironomus^ and 
Gordius had been taken from Chironomits 
phi moults. 

9 M.w 1SS4. — The io;nd meeting was 
held at 19 Brattle St., Cambridge. 9 Mav 
1SS4, the president. Mr. S: H. .Scudder. in the 
chair. 

The secretary announced that Dr. C: E. 
Webster had removed his residence to Chica- 
go, 111., and had sent notice of withdrawal 
from membership in the club, to take etfect 
at end of 1SS4. The secretary read a state- 
ment, from the treasurer, of the financial 
condition of the club on i May 1S84. 

Mr. S: H. Scudder made some remarks 



concerning the late Dr. J : L. LeConte, who 
was an associate member of the club. 

Dr. G: Dimmock mentioned certain habits 
of Corixa and Notonecta, a fuller account of 
which will be published later. 

13 June 1SS4. — The 103rd meeting of the 
club was held at 19 Brattle St., Cambridge, 
13 June 1884. the president, Mr. S. H : Scudder 
in the chair. 

The secretary announced the death of Mr. 
Francis Gregory Sanborn, an associate 
member of the club, who died 4 June 18S4, at 
Providence, R. I. Mr. Sanborn was born 18 
Jan. 1S38, at Andover, Mass. 

Mr. S : II. Scudder showed a portrait of the 
late Dr. J: L. LeConte. 

Mr. S ; H. Scudder gave the results of his 
studies upon the "Arachnidae of paleozoic 
formations." Numerous figures and speci- 
mens of fossils were shown. \_Sce Proc. 
Amer. acad. arts and sci., 1SS4. '^' ■ -°' P- '3" 

Dr. G : Dimmock explained an apparatus 
by which he was enabled to rear insects in 
gases of diftei-ent kinds or in detei-minate pro- 
portions of gases and air. 

Dr. G: Dimmock described the way in 
which the red mites that were so abundant 
about Cambridge this year produced the fine, 
light colored lines upon leaves of clover, 
grass and other plants. Leaves which had 
been marked by these mites were shown. 

Mr. R. Hayward stated that an Ojitho- 
plidgus. which he had for some time supposed 
to be a new American species proved to be O. 
luteicoriih from Europe. 

loOcT. 1SS4. — The 104th meeting was held 
at 61 Sacramento St., Cambridge, 10 Oct. 
■ 18S4. The meeting was called to order at 
S p. m. In the absence of the president, Mr. 
R. Havward was chosen chairman. 

The secretary announced the withdrawal 
from the club of Mr. F. C Bowditch. of 
Brookline, Mass. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen made some inquiries in 
regard to the condition and accessibility of 
the librarv of the Club, and offered some 



22G 



PSYCHE. 



[October— December 1SS4 



suggestions in regard to its inanagement. 
After considerable discussion it was decided 
to refer the matter to the Executive com- 
mittee. 

Mr. B : P. JIann presented (through tlie sec- 
retary) a communication upon "Food-plants 
of Pulxnnaria innumcrabilis.^'* [Printed in 
Psyche, Oct.-Dec. 1SS4, v. 4, p. 224.] 

Dr. G : Dimmock showed a large larva of 
some species of oestridac ( .'' Cuiercbra cmas- 
ailator), which had been sent to him bj Mr. 
Leroj II. Sykes, of Suffield, Conn. This 
larva was taken by Mr. Sykes, about 20 Sept. 
1SS4, from beneath the skin of a chip-squirrel 
(Xcimitis s/rin/iis) just at the right of the 
median ventral line near the umbilicus. Mr. 
Sykes thinks the squirrel was a castrated 
male. 

Dr. M. A. Hagen commented upon and 
read some notes from a manuscript journal 
ofChristoph Zimmermann, chiefly concern- 
ing the coleopterist Dr. F. E. Melsheimer and 
his relatives. Zimmermann, who came to 
Philadelphia in 1S32, later visited Melsheimer 
at his home in Hanover, Pa., and describes 
his visit. [See Canadiaji entomologist. Oct. 
1SS4, v. 16, p. 191-197.] 

14 Nov. 1S84. — The 105th meeting was held 
at 19 Brattle St., Cambridge, 14 Nov. 1SS4, 
the president, Mr. S: H. .Scudder in the 
chair. 

The secretary gave notice of the withdraw- 
al from the club of Prof. E. L. Mark, of 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen alluded to some inter- 
esting points in the histology of the rectal 
muscles of a lepidopterous larva, recently 
brought to light by Rev. F.- T. Ilazlewood, of 
Lynn, Mass. 

Mr. S ; H. Scudder exhibited a piece of 
leather-like fabric produced by the larvae of 
some species of Mexican lepidoptera ; and 
also showed seed-capsules of a species of 
PclargoHium,vi\\\c\\ were perforated by some 
insect in escaping from them. 

Mr. S: H. Scudder exhibited a specimen 
of a carboniferous arachnid {Gcntliiiiiiu car- 
bonaria) recently discovered at Mazon Creek. 



Illinois, which was of interest because it w-as 
the first recorded instance of a fossil of the 
order to which it belongs, — the fedifalpi. 
It was described in June last in the Proceed- 
ings of the American academy of arts and 
sciences. Curiously enough, only nine days 
later, another species of the same genus, from 
Rakowitz, Bohemia, was described by Kusta 
under the name Tlielyflionus ho/iemiciis, in a 
paper in the Transactions of the Bohemian 
academy, which has just reached this coun- 
try. This adds still another to the already 
frequent instances of the occurrence of the 
same generic type of arthropods in the car- 
boniferous deposits of Europe and America. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen made some remarks in 
regard to swarming of Atropos divinatorius 
in houses. 

12 Dec. 1SS4. — The io6th meeting was held 
at 19 Brattle St., Cambridge, 12 Dec. 1SS4, 
the president, Mr. S: H. Scudder in the 
chair. 

Mr. S: H. Scudder made some reinarks 
upon a fossil beetle from Ontario, Canada, 
and upon a fossil scorpion from the Silurian. 
This scorpion had been mentioned by Lins- 
trom in a letter to a friend in this country, 
and an extended notice of it will be prepared 
in conjunction with Thorell. This discovery 
is important, as it places the origin of the 
araclnioidca back in the silurian, and because 
of its showing further peculiar characters 
whicli may ally it to the mirostomata. 

Dr. G : Dimmock showed pieces of the ex- 
crement of the larva of Sphinx diNpi/cniriim. 
which are often of excessive length in pro- 
portion to their diameter, in comparison 
with the excrement of other sphingidiic. 
This prolongation of the excrement of the 
larva of this species is coordinate with a 
prolongation of the part of the larva behind 
the "caudal horn." Dr. Dimmock also ex- 
hibited excrement of an undetermined larva 
whicli feeds on Pinus strobiis: the excrement 
consisted of pieces, each made up of three 
spheroids arranged in a straight line. 

Mr. S: H. Scudder reviewed a paper on 
fossil insects, mostly cockroaches, published 
by Moritz Kliver. in Palacontogiaphica for 
1SS3. under the title "Leber cinige neue 
blatlinarien-. zwei dictyoneura- und zwei 
arthropleura-arten aus der Saarbrucker stein- 
kohlenformation." 



OcIoIkt — December 1SS4/ 



PSrCHE. 



[3591-3600] 2-27 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Authors and societies are requested to foriuard their vjorks to the editors as soon as 
published. The date of publication, given in brackets [], tnarks the iijne at -vhich the 
zi'ork was received, unless an earlier date of publication is known to recorder or editor. 
O'nless otherwise stated each record is made directly from the work that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common given name, as: A: Augustus; B: Ben- 
jamin; C: Charles; D: David; E: Edward; F: Frederic; G: George; H: Henry; 
I: Isaac; J: John; K: Karl: L: Louis; M: Mark; N: Nicholas: O: Otto; P: Peter; R: 
Richard: S: Samuel; T: Thomas: IV: JVilliam. The initials at lie end of each record, or 
note, are those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions are solicited. 



Anderson, T. J. The paucitv of neiiropter- 
istN. (Entomologist, Mav 1SS2, v. 15, p, 
117-11S.) 
Some reasons whv there :ire so few students of neu- 

roptcra. ' G: D. (3591) 

Andre'ws, W : Valentine. Tlie cynthia silk- 
worm. (Amer. nat., Aug. 1868. v. 2. )>. 
311-320.) 

Discusses tlie insects wliicli have hcen mentioned nr 
figured as \{ittoa(s\ ryniliia^ and says, "the insect I nni 
writinjr aljoiit is the out- figured, tolerably welJ, in Dun- 
can's Exotic ninths, Plate i^j, fig^. \" Describes' briefly 
the ey,g, four larval stag^es, and cocoon of tliis species, 
which feeds on ailanthus, and discusses its value in 
sericulture. G: D. C5592) 

Andrews, W: \^i!entine. Ravage^ of tlie 
alvpia octomariilata. (Amer. nal.. Feii. 
1S69, V. J. p. 666-667.) 

Reprint, witli slight omissions, in C : \'. 
Riley's "Insects injurious to the grape-vine. 
No. 6" (Amer. entom.. Mch. 1S70. v. 2). p. 
151-15-- 

Notice of a >4r:ipe-vine in Xew Yf*rk city from whicli 
tlie leaves were entirely stripped bv larvae of alypia 
Oitomaculata. ' G: D. (3S9.O 

Annual 'meeting of the Entomological club 
of the American association for tlie ad- 
\ ancement of science. (Can. entom., 
1878. V. 10: Sep. [Oct.]. p. 170-178; Oct. 
[Nov.]. p. 190-192.) [Rec, 1348.] 

Minutes of the meetings of the Entnnio!i>g-ical club 
of A. A. A. S . held 20-21 Auir. [S7S. at St. Louis. Mo.; 
annual address of the president [J. A. LintnerJ ; pro- 
posal of amenilmcnt of constitution ; election of officers; 
coinuiunications and discussions.. 

Coutt'nls further analyzed under folloxviug captions: 
—Entomological ci.lb ['L'tc.].— President, /SjS. 
Annual address [Rec.^Gsoj. — Gkotk, A: R. and 
Wetherbv, a. G. [Exhibition of moths, and on the 
nunilier of broods of certain bomhvcid mi>ths] [Rec, 
3659]. — Smith, Emily A.. «f/ «/. [On the life histr>ry of 
/eraniiim acerieorficts, and on nieans of destroying tins 
and ;.iniilar insects] [Rec, .^670]. -RiLEv. C:'V.' [Ab- 
stracts of some papers proposed to be read to the a-^^so. 
elation] [Rec. 3667].— Li.ntner. J. A.,ef al. [On the col- 
lecting of noctuid mcths bv "sugaring," and on devices 
fnr collecting] [Rec, 3663]. — Smith, Emilv A. [Dam- 
a^e done to oaks by arffyrolepia querctfoliana'] [Rec, 
^669]. — [On instinct or reason displayed bv insects] 
[Rec, 3662]. B: Z'." A/. (3594) 



Anthony, A : Cox. Hydrophilus triangu- 
laris at Swampscott, Mass. (Joiirn. Best. 
200I. soc, April 1S82, V. I, p. 26.) 
Records the capture of hvJrophiltts triaJigttlaris at 

.Swampscott, Mass. " R. H. (3595) 



Anthony, A : Cox. N'ew England philam- 
prli. { [ourn. Best. zool. soc., April 18S2, 
\'. I, p. 1S-19. ) 
Gives a brief account of the lil'e-liistorv of species of 

philainpehis. R. H. (3596) 

Arnhart, Ludwig. [Ein seciindafer sexiial- 
charakter von acherontia atropos.] (Ver- 
handl. k.-k. zool.-bot. gesells. in Wien, 
1S79, bd. 29; Sitz.-ber., p. 54-55, fig-) 
Describes and fijjures an evag-inable organ, of doubt- 
ful function, at the sides of tlie rirst two abdominal seg- 
ments of the male of ncUerontia atropos. G: D. C3597) 

Ashmead, W ; Harris. Antigasicr mirabilis 
in Florida. (Amer. entom.. Jtme iSSo. v. 
3. n. s., V. I, p. 152, 5 cm.) 

Aiitig-aster mirabilis raised from eggs n'imicrocentrum 
rethurve\n Florida; comparison ot <7///t'//KKy sp. with 
figure of ,1 mytilaspidis. B: P. M. (359S) 

Ashmead, W: Harris. Mite preving on 

orange scale. (Amer. entom., Apr. iSSo. 

V. 3, n. s., V. I, p. 106-107, 13 >;ni-) 

Description of eggs, immature stages and habits of 

tyrnglyphit-s gloTerii, which preys upon coccidae on 

fe.ivei' of ( /V;vfy. B: P. M. (3590) 

Ashmead, W : Harris. On tbe red or circu- 
lar scale of the orange, chrysomphalns Jicus 
Rilev ms. (Amer. entom., Nov. 1S80, v. 3, 
n. s., V. I. p. 267-269, 67 cm., fig. 146.) 

Rev. [bv C: V. Rilev], entitled -'New 
species of scale insects." {op. cit., p. 275- 
276. 12 cm.) 

Snperlicial descriptions of egg, larva, and female 
scale of thrysoiuphahtsjicns, with references to the lit- 
erature, remarks on the first appearance of this insect 
in Florida, on its probable origin and spread, its food- 
plants, and natural history, and means against it; figure 
of infested leaf of citrus. B: P. M. (3600) 



•228 [3601-3618] 



PSYCHE. 



[October — December 1S84. 



Austin, E: Payson. Collecting stylofidae. 
( joiini. Bost". zool. soc, April 18S2, v. i, 

p." I2-I3-) 

Describes a dav's collecting oistylofuiae, :it Rcadville, 
Muss. The mates of xenos far outnumber the leniales. 

R. H. (3601) 

Austin, E: Payson. Notes on collecting 
certain biiprcstidae. ( Joiirn. Bost. zool. 
soc, Oct. 1882, V. I, p. 4,v46.) 

Habitats of and modes of collecting bllprestuiae. 

C: f>. (3603) 

Austin, E : Pavson. [Use of air-bnbbles car- 
ried by water-beetles.] (Can. cntoni.. Sep. 
1S79. V. II, p. 176.) 

Reply to an inquiiv bv J ; G. Morris as to the purpose 
served 'In- the globule of air which certain water-hectles 
curry with them when they dive; method ot retention 
of this bubble; its gradtnil disappearance supposed to 
be due to its inhalation by the insect. JB: P. M. (3603) 

Austin, Mrs. R. M. Durlingtonia califoin- 
ica. Torr. (Bot. gazette, Atig. 1S7S, v. 3, 
p. 70-71, 6 cm.) 

Notes the presence of larfie numbers of carnivorous 
larvae in the pitchers of darlingtoria califainica, both 
in summer and winter. W." 7. (3004) 

Bacon, W. D. Season of 1S16. (Memoirs 

Phil. soc. promot. agric, 1818, v. 4, p. 219.) 

Means against cccidomyia destructor. 

B: P. M. (3605) 

Bailey, James Spencer. [Noctuid moths 
coming to sugar and decomposing animal 
matter.] (Can. entom., Nov. 1S79, ^'^ "• P- 
203-204.) 

Replv to inquiry by A: R. Grote whether ciicullia 
ever comes to "su^ar" ; capture of cucuUio and plitaia 
"atsui^ar"; noctuid moths tound feediuijon decompos. 
ins; aifimal matter, especially on partially decomposed 
deer hides. 13: P. M. (3606) 

Balding, G : On the nrticating properties 
of the hairs of liparis chrysorrlica. (En- 
tomologist, Nov. 1SS4, V. 17, p. 256-257.) 
Describes poisonous effects of liairs of chrysalis of 

lifaris chrysorrhea on the skin. G: i>. (3607) 

Barbier, Fr. Education des larves de dytis- 
cid'es. (Feuille des jeiines natnralistes, 
June 1SS3, an. 13, p. 103.) 
Mode of rearing lan'ac of dytiscidai. G: D. (360S) 

Barbour, James. Cultivation of wheat. 

(Amer. farm., 17 Dec. 1S19, v. I. ed. 3. p. 

301-302, 84 cm.) 

"The two principal enemies to wheat are the hessian 
lly and the smut;" discussion of these; hessian tly 
yiecidomyia dcstructor\ first appeared in this locality 
in l7qS; "Lawler" wheat is proof airainst it. 

' li: P. At. (3609) 

Bargagli, Piero. Note intorno alia biologia 
di alcuni coleotteri. (Bull. soc. entom. 
ital., 1SS4, anno 16, p. 92-96.) 
Plititts fur obtained from the nest of vfs/>a cralro; 
notes on other beetles belonjjinjf solely to the Europe- 
an fauna. G: D. (3610) 



Barlow, T : Atropos fiihaloriiif. (Amer. 

journ. agric. and sci.. Oct. 1S47. v. 6, p. 

195-196.) 

Direct testimony that atropos pulsatorius makes a 
tapping noise. B: P. M. (3~"l1 

Barnard, \V : Stebbins. Biicciiltitrix .co- 
coons. (.\mer. entom., Mch. 1880, v. 3, 
n. s., V. I, p. 76, 7 cm.) 

Letter from "W. S. B.," with note [bv C : V. Riley] ; 
hibernation of blicailatri.x pomifoliella; situations in 
which its cocoons are spun. B: P. M. (3612) 

Barnard, \V : Stebbins. Campodea fragilis 
Meincrt. ^Amer. entom., Aug. 1S80. v. 3, 
11. s., v. I, p. 199. 22 cin.. fig. 104-105.) 
Occurence of campodea fragilis and degceria lanugi- 
nosa at Ithaca, N. V. ; food-habits and bvsteinatic posi- 
tion of the Ibrmer; figures of both species. 

B: P. Af. (3613) 



Barnard, W : Stebbins. The cotton worm, 
(Our continent, 22 Mch. 18S2. v. i, p. 93. 
116 cm., I fig.) 



transfoniiatious of the alelia; figures ot larva, pupa ana 
imaijo and of injured cotton plant; habits and migra- 
tions of theima'jooftheo/WlVi,- improvements in devices 
for the applicati<in of poisons to the plants. 

B: P. M. (3614) 

Barnard, W: Stebbins. Dominican case- 
bearer. (Amer. entom.. Sep. iSSo. v. 3, n. 
s., v. I, p. 227, 9 cm., fig. 118 ) 
Food-habits of cosciiwptera domiiticana; fi^rurcs of 
eo-^'S, larva, imago, larva-case and anatomical details of 
this species. B: P. At. (3615) 

Barnard, W : Stebbins. European tussock- 
moth. (Amer. entom.. Mch. iSSo, v. 3. n. 
s., V. I, p. 77, 8 cm.) 

Ravages of ors^yia antiqua and of "canker worms" at 
Ithaca, ~N'. Y., in 1S79; description of egg-mass of the 
or^via: no cocoons of males niscovered. 
"-^ ' B: P. At. (3616) 

Barnard, \V : Stebbins. [Habits o( phyma- 

ta <■;-().««.] (Can. entom., Oct. 1S79. ^'- "• 

p. 196.) 

Carnivorous propensities of pliyviala crosa; pieris 
raitae killed bv it ; habitation of the insect. 

' ■ B: P. Al. (3617) 

Barnard, W : Stebbins. Notes on the devel- 
opment of a blat?k-fly. slmiiliiim. common 
in the rapids arotind jthac.i, N. Y. (Amer. 
entom., Aug. 1S80, v. 3. n. s., v. i. p. 191- 
193, 94 cm., fig. 103.) 

Description of eggs, larva, pupa and imago of siin- 
lllilim sp. ; figures of eggs ; habits of larvae of this spe- 
cies and of iuiagos of the genus; method of raising 
larvae of this species in confinement. B: P. At. (361S) 



October — December 1SS4.] 



PSYCHE. 



[3619-3630] -22;) 



Barnard, W : Stebbins. Parasitic rove-beetle : 
ahockara antUomyiae, Spragiie. (Anier. 
entom., Aug. iSSo. v. 3, n. s., v. i, p. 199- 
200, 13 cm.) 

Occurrence :ind h.Tbits of a lieetle alleged to be aleo- 
cliara anthoifiyiae, at Ithaca, N. Y. B: P. M, (3619) 

Barnard, W : Stebbins. Parthenogenesis in 
orgyia a»ti(/iia. (Amer. entom., Sep. 1S80, 
V. 3, n. s., V. I, p. 227, 6 cm. ) 

Statenic-iit of conclusions drawn from tinding many 
cocoons of the female and none of the male of or^yi'a 
aniiqita in winter and spring;; this species believeti to 
have no enemies, to be perfectly fitted to withstand the 
climate [at llhaca, N. V.], and to reproduce parttienosen- 
eticaliy. B: P. M. (3620) 

Barrett, C : Golding. Notes on Britisli ftei- 
ii/i/iDiidac. (Entom. mo. mag., Jan. 1S82, 
V. iS, p. 177-1S0.) 

Includes notes upon plijtyptila bcrlraDti ^n(\ pteropUo- 
riis iiio/ioiiaclylits, lioth .\mericaii species. 

G: D. (362.) 

Bassett, Homer Franlilin. Arrangement of 
X. .\. cyuipu/ac h\ Di". Mayr. (Amer. nat.. 
Apr. [22 Mch.] 1S82, V. 16, p. 329-330.) 
(Riley, C : V. Entomology . . . [Apr. 1S82], 

P- 3^9-330-) 

Review of [autlior's] *'List of North Americ;in cyni- 
piiiiu-" {op. cii.y Mch. [34 Feb.] 1SS3, p. 246) I Rec, 3356] ; 
Mavr emiiiieriites in liis list prob:ibly less than half the 
^'orth American species oi cynipidae; geographical dis- 
tribution of the genera mentioned; note [by C : V. 
Riiey] on the v:iluc of this list, which will rejilacc, so 
far as it embraces the Nortb American species, that 
given in C : R. Osten Sacken's "Contributions to tlie 
natural history of the cynipidae of the United States . . . 
Article 4th" (Froc. entom. soc. Philad., Mav iS'15, v. 4) 
p. 370-380. B: P. M. (3622) 

Bassett, Homer Fntnklin. [Former injuries 
by pissodes strobi at Wiiterburj, Conn.] 
(Can. entom., Sep. 1S79, v. 11, p. 176-177.) 

Films strobus greatly injured by pissod^a strohi at 
\V;!terbury, Conn., from 1S64 to 1S69. Imt very little 
since. B: P. M'. (3623) 

Bates, H : Waller. Contributions to an in- 
sect fauna of tbe Amazon valley. Lepi- 
doptera : hcliconidae. (Trans. Linn. soc. 
Loud., iS6j. v. 23. p. 49:;-i:;66, pi. ^ v 

56.) 

Extr. [from p. 509]. entitled, '-Mimetic 
forms among insects." (Amer. nat.. Mav 
1S67, V. I, p."i55-i56.) 

Classification, relationship, systematic position, and 
habits of species of keliconidae; discusses mimicry and 
its causes in these and other insects; freedom of the 
hcliconidae from attack on account of their odor given 
as a reason why they are mimicked by other insects; 
discusses reasons for mimicry between species of hcli- 
c'ow/WfT^themselves ; notes on tlie species oi iteliconidae of 
the Amazon valley ; describes the new ^euev^icaUitho- 
iiiia, napeogenes, and melinaea (of the /w/iconzdere) , and 
ilhotneis {oi \.\\c eiyrifiidae). G: D. (3624) 



Beling, Theodor. Beitrag zur biologie eini- 
ger kiifer aiis den familien dascylUdac und 
parnidae. (Verhandl. k.-k. zool.-bot- 
gesells. in Wien. 1SS2, bd. 32; Abh., p. 
435-442.) 
Describes larva :ind pupa r>i elodes coarctiitus^e. serri- 

cornis, pomatinns substriatus, and parmis aiiricu/utus; 

:)nd pupa of limis z-o/A-J/ia?/ mid e. aen<:iis. 

G: D. (3625) 

Berg, Carlos. Analecta lepidopterologica. 

Contribuciones al estudio de la fauna de la 
• Repiiblica Argentina y otros paises ameri- 

canos. (Anales Soc. cient. argent., 1SS2. 

V. 14, p. 275-2S8.) 

Separate , Buenos Aires, 1SS2. t.-p. cover, 

16 p. [t.-p.. p. 275-288], 2c; X 16. t 18.5 

X 10.5. 

Synonyniical and other notes on species n{ heterocera; 
describes 7 new sjiccies, \iz. : oeielitus p/aiensis, mi- 
malio fordiihensist chloridea molochitina, acontia venus- 
ta, eraslria ui(bila, trothisa (tkolpochaft-s) margaritae^ 
iind p/ttsid bo/ioi'/'i^nsis, all from South America. Some 
species of North American nociuidae are noted from 
South America. G: D. C3626) 

Berg, Carlos. Miscellanea lepidopterologica. 

Cuntribuciones al esttidio de la faima ar- 

gentina _v pai.'^es limitrofes. (Anales Soc. 

cient. argent., 1SS3. v. 15, p. 151-169.) 
Separate, Buenos Aires, 1SS3. t.-p. cover, 

21 p. [t.-p., p. 151-169]. 25 X 16, t 1S.5 X 

10.5. 

Synonyinical and other notes on species of hcifrotrra 
{;ill exclusively Soutti American except ciudaphia biro- 
/oralis, wbicli also occurs in North America) ; describes 
new species, viz. : sphiux banito^ psoloptera meiateri, 
dirphia caisa, hypercliiria lama, micratiacus fulviven- 
/ris, rot-fiopela J'tiroaa, chadaca mis^ionum, rhopalodes 
argent ma, tomopteryx vidnariu, and lagynopteryx 
vaidiviana, all from South America. G: D. (3627) 

Bethune, C : James Stewart, ct al. [Food- 
babits of larvae of Colorado potato beetle 
and otber insects.] (Can. entom., Nov. 
1879. V. I r. p. 202.) 

Remarks by C : J. S. Bethune, W: S. Barnard, J. A. 
Lintner, \V : Saunders, S : H. Scudder and J : H : Corn- 
stock, on the feeding of larvae oiJoryphora decemlineata 
cm aschpias and otlier plants and on one anotlier, and on 
tbe carnivorous ))ropensities ot larvae of wof/rt/i/sf and 
lycaenidae^ especially of heliothis armigera; phytopha- 
gic variation nf doryphora decemlineata. 

B: P. M, (362S) 

Blaney, Dwigbt. Entomological notes from 
Laconia, N. H. (Ornithologist and oolo- 
gist. Aug. 1SS4, V. 9, p. 101-102, 20 cm.) 
List of butterflies taken in Laconia, N. H., with notes 

on the habits of ;i few species. G: D. (3629) 

Bo"wditcll, V \ C. Notes on certain coleo- 
ptera. ( |oui-n. Bost. zool. soc. [ulv 1SS2, 
V. I, p. 27-2S.) 

Describes brieflv the transformations of encrada 
kiiineralis; records the hibernation of several br/pres- 
tidae in the loose bark at the foot of the trees and men- 
tions tbe liking for sugar exhibited by purpnricemts 
humeralis. R. H. (3630) 



PSYCHE. 



Biologisclics iiber blut- 

mit bcsonderer beriick- 

mundtlieile. (Schr. d. 

itiing natuiw. kenntiiisse 

, bd. 21, p. 255-273.) 

ni pttlicidae, ntlex, simit/trtw^ 

stomoxvf^, ^tossitui, a.ti/us, 

phthirfasis. G: D. (3631) 



280 [3631-3647] 

Brauer, Friediich. 

saugende insecten 

sichtigung ihrer 

vereins ziir verbrei 

in Wien, 1880-1SS1 

HaMts and mouth-parts 
phlfhotniniix. Inbnitiiiae, 
ciiiiex and />tuiicuhis; on 

Brunner von Wattemwyl, Carl. [Neiies 

organ bei acridiern.] (Verhandl. k.-k. 

zool.-bot. gesells. in -Wien, 1879. bd. 2y: 

Sitz.-ber., p. 26-27.) 

Xoticc of an orjran of doubtful function on the femur 
of certain acrididae. G: D. (.?')33) 

Brush, E. F. Ameisen gegen skorbiit. 

(Dctilsch-amer. apotheker-zeit., i Apr. 

1SS3. jahrg. 4. p. 49, 7 cm.) 

Wood-cliopper.s in Maine eat masses of black ants as 
a remedy for scurvy; a concentrated tincture nf tiie 
ants, or other preparation of formic acid, useful for the 
same purpose. B: P. M. (3633) 

Buckler, W: Description ofthelarva, &c., 
oi /iviiroecia iiictitana. (Entom. mo. mag.. 
Feb. 1882, V. iS, p. 195-197.) 
Describes larva and pupa of hydroecia lu'rtitans. 

G: D. (3634) 

Buckler, W: Some points in the nattiral 
history oi papilio macliaoii. (Entom. mo. 
mag., "April 1SS2, v. iS, p. 244-249.) 
Account of the egg and different lar\-al stages of 

papilio machaott. G: D. (3635) 

Buckton, G: Bo%vdler. Note on the action 
of potassium cvanide on organic colom-ing 
matter. (Entom. mo. mag., Sept. 1SS4. v. 
21, p. 82.) 
The mode by which potassium cyanide acts in killing 

insects dnd in changing their colors. G: D. (3636) 

Bush, Isidor. Phylloxera galls : inconstancy 

in their appearance. (Amer. entom., Sep. 

1880, V. 3, n. s., V. I, p. 226, 6 cm.) 

App.arent change in the preferences of phyiloxera 

vitifoliae for varieties and species of r/V/.f on which to 

produce its galls. B: P. M. C3637) 

Butler, Arthur Gardiner. Descriptions of 
some apparently new species of arctiidae 
from North America. (Entom. mo. mag.. 
Nov. 18S1, V. iS, p. 135-136.) 
Describes arctia dodffei, a. ochreata^ and a. ritoda, 

3 new species. G: D. (363S) 

Cameron, P. On parthenogenesis in tlie 
tciithrt^diiiidae. (Entom. mo. mag.. Get. 
1884, V. 21, p. 103-104.) 
Gives a list of the thirteen British species of Itiitln'e- 

dinidae known to be p.artIienogeuetic. G: D, (3639^ 



[October — December |S34. 



Cameron, P. On a simple method of mount- 
ing objects for microscopic examination. 
(Proc. nat. hist. soc. Glasgow, 1S80-1SS1, 
V. 5. pt. I. p. 4-7.) 

Mode of mounting specimens dry or in Can.ada balsam 
in nieces of cardboard so as to be pinned in a coltectiOD 
of insects ; mode of drying small larvae for preservation 
in c.illections. G: D. (3640) 

Cand^ze, lamest. [La doryphora deccmlin- 
i-/i/(i.] (Ann. soc. entom. Belg., 1S75, v. 
18; Comptes-rendus, p. 12-17.) 

Separate, entitled, " La doryphora de- 
cemliiicata. Lecture faite a la seance du 6 
fevrier 1S75, de la Socicte entomologique de 
Belgique." [Bruxelles. 1S75.] 6 p.. 25 X 16, 
t iS X 10.5.' 

Opposes the prohibition of importation of American 
potatoes into Belgium, claiming that there is little to be 
feared in Kurope from doryphora. G: D. C3641) 

Candfeze, Ernest. La doryphoru decemlin- 
eaUi. Lecture faite a la seance du 6 fevrier 
1875, de la Societe entomologique de Bel- 
gique. [Bruxelles. 1S75.] 6 p., 25 X 16, t 
18X 10.5. 
Separate of author's " fLa doryphora decemlintata\^ 

rAnn. sot. entom. Belg., 1S75, v. iS; Comptesrendus, p. 

12.17) [Rcc, 3641J. G: v. (3642) 

Carrington. J : T. Sallows. (Entomologist, 

April 1S83. V. 16, p. 85-S9.) 

Modes of collecting the insects that frequent the cat. 
kins of sallow [sniix] in England. G: D. (36ft) 

Chapman. T. Note on a dark variety of 
cicindc/ii rtiin/>estris. (Entom. mo. mag., 
April 1867, V. 3. p. 251.) 
Note upon the capture of ficindela campestris var. 

funebris. in .Scotland. 0: D. (3&(4) 

Christy, Robert Miller. Memoranda on in- 
sects in their relation to flowers. (Ento- 
mologist. 18S3, V. 16: July. p. 145-150; 
Aug., p. 177-181.) 
Details of observations upon the methodic habits of 

insects — principally fossorial hvmenoptera — when vis . 

itii.g flowers. ' ' G: D. (3645) 

Ed-wards, II: The caterpillar pest. An in- 
teresting communication from a well known 
actorand entomologist. (Evening telegram 
[N. Y.]. 3 July 1SS3. v. 17, no. 5543, p. 3, 
col. 2, 25 cm.) 
Ravages of and means against orgyia leitrostiffma 

in New Ymk city. B: P. .M. (3646) 

Ed-virards, W: II: Description of the pre- 
paratory stages of piipilio philenor. Linn. 
(Can. entom., Jan. 1881, v. 13, p. 9-14.) 
Describes egg, lar^■a, and chrysalis oi papilio phiUnor. 
See also C: V. Rilev's "Notes on papdio phit*-nor" 
(Amer. nat.. April fj; Mch.] iSSr, v. 15, p. ii-.-iU)) 
[Rec, 366SJ. " G: D. (3647) 



Oct-iber — December 1SS4.] 



PS re HE. 



[3648-3661] 231 



Edwards, W : H: On tlie lengtli of" life 

of butterflies. (Can. entoni.. Oct. iSSi. v. 

13, p. 205-214.) 

Paper read before the American ;iss;oci:ition for the 

advancement of science, at Ciiiciiinnti, i^ Aug. iSSi, 

containing many notes on the longevity ot diurnal lep- 

idoptera. A. K. D. (.^648) 

Edwards, W : H : List of species of the 
diurnal iepidoptera of America north of 
Mexico. Boston. Houghton, Miffliu d- Co.. 
1884. t.-p. cover -f- t.-p. + adv. p. -j" i- P- 
[without pai^inalion]. 32 X 25. t 19.5 X 

I4-5- 

A list of the 612 species of diurnal Iepidoptera of 
America north of Mexico, with their varieties. 

G: D. (3649) 

Entomological club of the American asso- 
ciation for the advancement of science 

— President, iSyS (Joseph Alliert LinliiL'r). 

Annual address. (Can. entoni., Sep. 

[Oct.] 1878, V. 10. p. 171-176.) [Rec, 134S.] 
Increase in the number of known species of North 
American insects witliin forty years ■ progress made 
and making in the knowledge of the life-histories of our 
insects and in the extent and value of entomological 
collections and of entomolofj-ical study and the puhlica- 
ti/)n of its results; the encouragement of entomological 
investigations by the United States government; Com- 
mendation of biological investigations. 

B: P. M. (3650) 

Fauvel, Albert. Anmiaire entomologiqiie 
pour 1S73. Caen, 1873. t.-p. cover, t.-p., 
2 -|- 122 p., 15 X 10, t u X 7. fr. 1.50. 
Contents: — Calendar, with blanks for iiK-inoranda ; 
address. list of coleopterists of France, Beitjium, Hol- 
land, Rhine provinces and Switzerland ; lists of entonio. 
logical societies and periodicals in Enrope; bibIiog;ra|ihy, 
new s]>ecies and synonymy, captures, excursions, habit.s 
of species, and other notes mostly on coleoptera ; modes 
of coUectini^ and preservings insects; necrolos;y; ex. 
chansjes desired and books for sale. G: /'."(3651) 

Fativel, Albert. Aiinuaire entouiologique 
pour 1S74. 2e ann^e. Caen. 1S74. t.-p. 
cover, 140 p., 15 X 10, t II X 7. fr. 1.75. 
Contents of similar nature to those of precedins^ year 

[Rec., 3651]. G: D. (3652) 

Fauvel, Albert. Annuaire entouiologique 

pour 1875. 3e annee. Caen, 1875. t.-p. 

cover, t.-p., 140 p., 15 X 10. t II X 7. fr. 

I-7S- 

Contents of similar nature to those of precedinij years 
[Rec, 3651.3652]. S; Zi.^{36S3) 

Fauvel, Albert. Annuaire entomologique 
pour 1S76. 4e annee. Caen, 1876. t.-p. 
cover, t.-p.. 150 p.. 15 X 10. t II X 7. 
fr. 1.75. 

Contents ofsimilar nature to those of preceding years 
[Rec, 3651-3653 I . G.- Z). (3654) 



Fauvel, Albert. ^Vnnuaire entomologique 
pour 1S77. 5e annee. Caen. 1S77. t.-p. 
cover, 148P., 15 X 10, t 11 X 7. fr. 1.75. 
Contents of similar nature to those of preceding" years 

[Rec, 3651.3654]. G: D. (3655) 

Fauvel, Albert. Annuaire entomologique 
pour 1S7S. 6e annee. Caen, 1S7S. t.-p. 
cover, 137 p., 15 X 10, t it X 7. fr. 1.75. 
Contents of similar nature to those of preceding^ vears 

[Rec, 3651-365;]. G: D. (3656) 

Fauvel, Albert. Annuaire entomologique 
pour 1S79. 1'^ annee. Caen, 1S79. '•"!'• 
cover, 136 p., 15 X ID, t II X 7. fr. 1.75. 

Notice. (Bericlit. . .d. entoni.. 1879, p. 
III.) 

Rev. (Entom. naclirichten. i Sept. 1S79, 
jahrg. 5, p. 233.) 

Contenty ofsimilar nature to those ot preceding vears 
[Rec, 3651-3656]. G: D. (3657) 

Fauvel, Albert. Annuaire entomologique 
pour iSSo. Se annee. Caen, 18S0. t.-p. 
cover, 139 p., 15 X 10, t 11 X 7. fr. 1.7s. 
Notice, bv [F.J K [alter]. (Entoni. nacti- 
ricbten, iSSo, jabrg. 6; Lit. rev., p. 49-50.) 
Contents of similar nature to those of preceding years 

[Rec, 3651-3657]. G: D. (365S) 

Grote, A : Radclifte and 'Wetherby, Albert 
Gallatin. [Exbibition of niotbs. and on 
tbe lunnber of broods of certain bombycid 
niotbs.] (Can. entom., Sep. [Oct.] 1S7S. v. 
10, p. 176.) [Rec, 1348.] 

Exhibition, by A : R. Grote, of .some bombvcid moths 
from Georgia, specifically named; actias lima, samia 
cecropia, ielea polyphemus and saturnia io double- 
brooded in southern United States, but citheronia rcgulis 
only single-brooded there ; statement, by A. G. Wetherby, 
that many ot the above-named moths' are also double- 
brooded in north. western [northern central] United 
States. B: P. Af. (3659) 

Harrington, W : Hague. List of Ottawa 

coleoptera. (Trans. Ottawa field-nat. club, 

1SS3-1S84 [Oct.. 1S84], v. 2, no. I, p. 67-S5.) 

List of 1003 species of coleoptera behmging to 524 

genera .and representing 67 families which were taken 

in or near Ottawa, Ontario. G: X>. (366a) 

Harrington, W : Hague, Fletcher, James. 
and Tyrrell, J. B. Report of the entomo- 
logical branch for the season of 1S83. 
(Trans. Ottawa field-nat. club, 1SS3-18S4 
[Oct. 1884], V. 2, no. I, p. 134-140.) 
Notes on numerous species of insets from Ottawa, 
Ontario, and vicinity; notes are chiefly ujran hymen/i- 
ptera, Iepidoptera, diptera, coleoptera and arachmda. 

G: D. (3661) 



•232 [3662-3674] 



PSYCHE. 



I October— December iSSt- 



Instinct or reason displayed by insects 
(On).] (Can. entoni., Sep. [Oct.] 187S, v. 
10, p. 192.) [Rec, 1348.] 

"Instinct and re.ison differ in degree and not in kind." 

B: P. M. (3662) 

Lintuer, Jo.'sepli Albert, et at. [On tbc col- 
lectino; of nocUiid moths by "sugaring", 
and on devices tor collecting.] (Can. 
entom., Sep. [Oct.] 1S7S, v. 10, p. igi-192.) 
[Rec, 134S.] 

Remarks, by J. A. Lintner, on llie successful result of 
attempts to collect uoctuidae by the process known as 
•'sugarin«i"; by A. G. Wetherby, on the question ot the 
raritv of'curta'in species of insects: and by En.ily A. 
Sniit'h, E. B. Reed and J. \. Lintntr on devices by 
which colleclin-4-boltles niiffht be handled conveniently, 
and on the proper use of lanterns. B: P. M. (3663) 

Moseley, II ; Nottidge. On the sonnd made 

bv the death's head moth, ••achcroiitia 

n'/ropos." (Nature, 20 June 1872, v. 6, p. 

iqi-i,-;. 11^ cm., I fig.; 

' Rev., by .\. W. B[ennctl], entitled "The 

sotind produced by the death's head moth." 

(.\mer. nat. Mch. 1S73 v. 7, p. 173-174-) 

Outline of previous researches to discover the mode 

of sonifaction" of acherontia atropos; experiments by 

which the author is led to believe tiiat "the sound is pro. 

duccd by expiration throui^h the proboscis," the air 

being expelled from a dome-shaped cavity in the upper 

part of the head. G: I>. (3664; 

Packard, Alpheus Spring, Jr. The hessian 

fix. Habits and natural history. (.\mer. 

entom., May iSSo, v. 3, n. s., v. i, p. iiS- 

121, 127 cm., fig. 46.) 

Advance reprint, with slight changes and omissions, 
of section entitled "Habits of the hessian Hy" in 
author's "The hessian tlv. its ravages" . . . (Bull, 
no. 4 V. S. entom. comm.)' [Rec, 2307], p. 12-15, P'- ' > 
seasons and number of broods i\i ceriaotiiyia destructor; 
method ol oviposition; habits of larva. 

B: P. -v. (3665) 

Packard, Alpheus Spring, y^. The hessian 

fly (Amer. entom., June iSSo, v. 3. n. 

s., V. I, p. 140-141, 44 cm.) 

Advance reprint of section entitled "Summary of the 
habits of and remedies against the hessian dy" in 
author's "The hessian flv, its ravages" . . . (Bull. no. 
4 U. S. entom. comm.) [Rec, 2207], p. 3S-39, and of 
paragraph entitled "Probable limits of the hessian lly" 
(/. c, p. 3S) ; summary of the life-history o^ cecidomyia 
destructor; its parasites, present and prospective geo- 
graphical ilistribution, and means it. B: P. M. (3666) 

Riley, C : Valentine. [Abstracts of some 
papers proposed to be read to the associa- 
tion.] (Can. entom., Sep. [Oct.] 187S, v. 
•o, p. 177-178.) [Rec, 134S.] 

Hornia is p.arasitic on bombus, and differs in several 
points from other tiicloiditc; application of vernacular 
names to larva and imago of corydaltts cornutiis; ob- 
jections to A. S. Packard, jr's explanation of the man- 
ner in which bombycidae issue from their cocoons. 

B: P. M. (3667) 



Riley, C : Valentine. Notes on pufilio fhr 
Iriior. (.\mer. nat., Apr.. [25 Mch.] iSSl- 
V. 15) (RlLEY, C: V. Entomology.... 
[Apr. 18S1]), p. 3-7-3^9- fig- i-S- 
Describes egg and newly. hatched lar\a of fapilio 
fhilmor; ligures imago, larva and pupa of this speeiis; 
Its lood-plant {arislolochia) and geographical distribu- 
tion, and its occurrence in swarms. G: D. (366S) 

Smith, limily .Xdclla. [Dainage done to 
oaks bv argytolefia qucrcifnliana.'^ (Can. 
entom!. Sep. [Oct.] 1S7S. v. 10, p. 192.) 
[Rec. 1348.J . 

Statement that oak trees in Wisconsin and Illinois 

are iniured bv the larvae of argyrolrfia qurrclfoliana. 
■ B: P. M. (3669) 

Smith, Emily Adella, ct al. [On the life 
histor\- of Iccaiiium accricortich, and on 
means of destroying this and similar in- 
sects.] (Can. eiitom., Sep. [Oct.] 1878, v. 
10, p. 176-177.) [Rec, 1348.] 

Abstract of communication to Entomological ciub of 
A. A. .\. S., bv E. .\. Smith, with remarks by T t Bass- 
nett and C: \ . Uiley; life-history of Icctnilu'm accricor- 
tich; the use of carbolic acid or of kerosene, applied 
with a tire extinguisher, recoimnended for the destruc- 
tion of coccidae. ' B: P. M. (3670) 

Suffrian, E. Synonymische iniscellaneen. 
30. (Entom. zeitung Stettin. 1S67. bd. 

"28, p. 44.?-449-) 

Compares the varieties of cicindcla sexguttata witli 
those of c. campestris, with especial reference to the 
elytral markings. G: I>. (3671) 

Townseiid, C : II :'T\ Icr. Further remarks 
upon the variation of the elytral markings 
cicindcla tcx-o-iit/a/ir. (Can. entom., 



July 1S84, V, 16, p. 



■.1 



Additiniial remarks in continuation of the author's 
"On tlie variation o! the elytral markings in ctcindela 
se.\\^tittataJ''' (Can. entom., Nov. iSS?. v. 15, p. 205-20S) 
[Rec, 3559], G: D. (5672) 

Trelease, W : The fertilization of aquilegia 
vuli^aris [Rec 2202]. 

Rev., bv T: Meehan, entitled "Fertiliza- 
tion of aqnilciyia.'^ {Amer. nat., Feb. [25 
Jan.] iSSi, V. T^. p. 134-1^^. 4 cm.) 

H'; r. (3673) 

Trouvelot, L: The American silkworm. 

(Amer. nat., 1867, v. i: Mch.. p. 30-3S; 

Apr., p. 85-94; ^I^V, P- M5-H9; pl- .S'^-) 

Description and figures of diftcrent stajjes of telea 

polyphfuius, with an account of its life-history; its 

mode of exit from cocoon", expaiuling of win^s, oviposi- 

tifui. liatchiuij. rate of y^rowth and consumption of tood, 

number of molts, mode of molting", food-pkmls, enemies, 

power of sight m larva, presence of immature eggs in 

larva, structure of silk.glands; eflect of temperature on 

pupae, and of exclusion of air from pupae; figure of 

ophion macrurmny a parasite; processes of silk-cuUurc 

with this species. G: D. (3674) 



October — December 1S84.] 



PSYCHE. 



•233 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

Strawberry plants are damaged in parts 
of Micliigan by Oiior/iyiic/iiis ligiiciis. 

We are sorry to note that Science record, 
which its editor, Mr. J: S. Kingsley, has 
lately improved in many respects, lias sus- 
pended publication. 

F. Mina-Palumiu), in an article concluded 
in the October-November nnniero of" // ?ia/- 
iiraUfid stciliaiio. enumerates 301 species of 
European lepidopteia which feed on oak. 

The extomological club "Iris," in Dres- 
den, has just reawakened to new activity and 
we are in receipt of numero one of its "Cor- 
respondenzblatt" issued for October 1SS4. 

Dr. Ai'GtiST Weismanx of Freiburg has 
been nominated as successor of Prof. K. 
T. von Siebold in the University of Munich. 
Prof, von Siebold has been made an emeri- 
tus. 

At the June (1SS3) meeting of the Lin- 
nean society of New South Wales, Mr. Deane 
exhibited sandstone penetrated by burrows 
apparently dug by some hvmenopterous 
insect. 

A NEW localitv reported to be infected by 
phylloxera is in the vicinity of Caltagirone. 
in Sicily. The same insect has been found 
near Linz, a town on the Rhine not far from 
Coblenz. 

Dr. W. G. Stevensox reports, in the 
Transactions of the Vassar brothers insti- 
tute, 1SS3-1SS4. V. 2, p. 135. a capture of 
Papilio turiins var. glaucns at Ponghkeepsie, 
N. Y., in August 1SS2. 

Phyllo.xera has made its appearance in 
the Pomological institute of Proskau (Sile- 
sia). It is hoped, however, that the spread 
of the disease may yet be prevented. — 
Science, 21 Nov. 1SS4. v. 4. p. 4S1. 



Miss Jennie M. Arms, teacher of natural 
history in Boston, Mass., read a paper on 
•'Observation lessons on insects," at the 
fortieth annual meeting of the Massachusetts 
teachers' association, 29 to 31 December 1SS4, 
in Boston, Mass. 

OXE COPY of no. 4 of vol 2 of American 
entomologist wanted. Also one copy of C : 
V. Riley's 6th annual report of the state en- 
tomologist of Missouri. Riley's 3d report 
offered in exchange or for sale. Address, 
stating price. B : Pickman Manx. Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Ix the meeting of the Entomological so- 
ciety of London, on i Oct. 1SS4, Baron C : R. 
Osten Sacken communicated ''Facts concern- 
ing the importation, or non-importation cf 
diptera into distant lands" in which con- 
siderable curious information about North 
American diptera was given. 

Exchange of Europeax and American 
coLEOPTERA. — Mr. C. F". Lange, of Anna- 
berg, in Saxony, otTers to exchange Euro- 
pean for American coleoptera, and refers to 
Mr. John B. Smith, 290 3d avenue, Brooklyn. 
N. Y., to certify that his specimens are well 
prepared and correctly named. 

Mr. S. II. Sct'DDER's memoir upon Dr. J : 
L. LeConte, read before the National acad- 
emy of sciences, 17 April 1884, published in 
vol. II of the Transactions of the American 
entomological society and as a separate, 
contains a line portrait of Dr. LeConte and 
an accoimt of the ancestr\ of his familv. 

Mr. II. DOXCKIER DE DONCEEL givCS U 

list of the (intliribidae described since the 
publication of Genmiinger and Harold's cata- 
log of coleoptera, in the Compte-rendu of 
the Belgian entomological society for S Nov. 
1SS4. Twenty-four new species and ten 
new genera are accredited to North America. 

Sandstone h.\s been found perforated in 
all directions and to a considerable depth 
b\- an undetermined species of bee in New 



234 



PSrCHE. 



().-t,,l.,r— IV 



fiiibcr iSfif* 



South Wales. Mr. J. Norton exhibited 
specimens of this perforated sandstone, from 
Springwood, Bhie Mountains, at the July 
meeting of the Linnean society of New 
South Wales. 

Mr. a. C. Horner notes in the Entnmo- 
logist for October 1S84 that Ptcrostichiis 
melaiiarins, an English species, attacks straw- 
berries, and T. H. Hart, in the November 
numero of the same periodical, among other 
notes on phvtophagic carabidae, mentions 
having seen "three specimens of Carabiis 
w/o/ffct';/.5 .disputing possession of a half-rot- 
ten apple." 

In a paper read before the Linnean society 
of New South Wales, Oct. 29 last. Dr. Len- 
denfeld contests the views of the French 
physiologists, that the position and move- 
ments of the wings of insects are merely the 
results of the mechanical influence of the 
resisting air, and gives instances where mus- 
cular contraction had been clearly proved. — 
Science, 19 Dec. 1S84, v. 4, p. 562. 

At thk June meeting of the Linnean 
society of New South Wales, Mr. William 
Macleay exhibited, on behalf of Mr. Wilkin- 
son, "a number of //(-//.v-like shells, wound 
spirally round the leaf-stalks of a species of 
Eucalyptus, at Branxton, on the Hunter. 
These shells, though calcareous, were pro- 
nounced not to be the production of any 
molluscous animal, and the general opinion 
was that they must be egg-cases of some 
insect." 

Mr. Ja.mes J. Walker reports, in the 
Ei:/omologhl's monthly magazine for Dec. 
1SS4, that he found Dcrmeitcs vulfinns, Xe- 
crobia riijipcs, Corynctcs violacciis and Al- 
p/iitobiiis picens in amazing abundance in a 
bone-boiling establishment in Sheppev, Eng- 
land. The first species literally blackened 
the whitewashed walls of the rooms, and 
their larvae did much damage by riddling the 
woodwork of the building with holes in 
which they pupated. 



The comi'Csition and properties of the 
light emitted by insects of the Pyrophore 
genus form the subject of a paper recently 
presented to the Paris academy of sciences 
by .'\ubert and P. Dubois. The spectrum of 
the light, examined by the spectroscope, is 
very beautiful, but destitute of dark bands. 
When, however, the intensity diminishes, 
the red and orange disappear, and the green 
and yellow only remain. — Science, 2S Nov. 
1SS4, V. 4, p. 505. 

Prof. A. J: Cook read a i>aper before the 
Natural-history society of the Michigan 
agricultural college, on 12 Sept., on exlra- 
floral nectar. "Bees had been noticed to be 
extensively at work on the heads of grasses. 
These proved to be covered with the sweetish 
secretion due to ergot. The honey made 
from this material was very agreeable to the 
taste, ranking with the best, while honey 
made from the secretions of plant-lice is 
often very poor and disagreeable." 

According to Science for 21 Nov. 1SS4 
(Bulletin, p. 5), at the meeting of the Tren- 
ton natural-history society "Prof. .Vustin C. 
Apgar detailed his experiments with naph- 
thalin on Antlirenns- scropkulariae. Larvae 
left an infested object, and for two weeks 
lived in an air-tight case, in vapor so dense 
that it crystallized on the cover-glass. Even 
then they only apparently died, for, on 
removal, one revived and walked away. 
Herbarium mites were killed in half an hour 
in a tumbler loosely covered." 

The prize ottered by M. Adrien Dollfus 
for anatomical work on insects (see Psyche, 
May 1SS4, v. 4, p. 175) was divided between 
Ph. Francois, of Poitiers, and A. Lameere, 
of Brussels, whose papers were judged equal- 
ly worthy of the prize. M. Franijois' paper 
treated of the anatomy of the larva of 
Vanessa polyc/iloros, and was published, 
with a plate, in the Fenillc ties Jciines nai- 
uralisfes for November 1SS4; Mr. Lameere 
described the anatomy of the larva of Lasio- 



October — December TSS4. 



psrciiE. 



•235 



campa Rotatoria, -Awd his article appears in 
the December niiniero of tlie same period- 
ical. G: D. 

Miss Mary H. Hinckley, in her -'Notes 
on the peeping tVog, Hyla pickcringii, Le- 
conte" (Mem. Bost. soc. nat. hi.st., May 1SS4, 
V. 3, no. 10), p. 317, writes in regard to 
enemies of this species that the tadpoles ''are 
constantlj being lessened in number by their 
enemies, the newts, water beetles, and the 
larvae of the beetles and dragon flies. On 
two occasions I have seen a spider ( Doloinc- 
dcs sexpunciaius) run along the surface of 
the water, suddenly dive, seize, and drag out 
on land a full-grown tadpole of this species; 
the spider coming out dry. CA'identh- as much 
at home in as out of water." 

In the new Hungarian entomological peri- 
odical, Rozmrtijni Ittpok (v. i, p. 171 ; 
Resume, p. 2), Dr. O. Tomosvdry records 
his observations ''that two niyriapods in cap- 
ti\ity. a Litkobius forjicatiis and a Geophilus 
toveohittt^. attacked each other with violence 
but soon withdrew. The latter species, 
during the attack and retreat, emitted from 
the extremity of its abdomen a light of bluish 
violet color, feeble, but nevertheless very 
perceptible in obscure light. This lumi- 
nosity was visible scarceh" a minute because 
the shining animal hid itself beneath the 
leaves at the bottom ot' it< prison." 

At the October meeting of the Natural 
science association of Staten Island. Mr. 
Davis exhibited a specimen of oiie of our 
green grasshoppers, Conoccphaln^ if/ss/'w/h's, 
which he had found without any head, and 
stridulating while perched upon a blade of 
grass. When touched by the finger, the 
insect did not close its wings tightly, as 
usual, but let them remain far apart. It had 
evidently not been long decapitated: for, 
when captured, the muscles in the thorax 
had their normal appearance. But gradually 
the tissues dried, and on the third day of its 
captivity it died without having stridulated 
again, though every means tlujught of \^■as 



employed to induce it. — Science, 7 Nov. 1SS4, 
y. 4, p. 44S. 

The investig.xtions of M. Carlet enable 
him to affirm that the poison-apparatus of 
the hymenoptera is always composed of two 
distinct glandular systems, the one with a 
strongly acid, the other with a feebly alkaline 
secretion. These two systems unite at the 
sheath of the sting. The resultant venom 
is always acid. The action of this venom 
upon some animals, as rabbits, frogs and cer- 
tain beetles, is slight, but the domestic fly 
and the flesh fly are killed immediately by it. 
The inoculation of a fly with the secretion of 
one of the glands does not produce death 
until after a considerable time, but death 
tbilows very quickly if the same fly is subjec- 
ted to a second inoculation, this time with 
the secretion of the other gland. — Aiiur. 
nat., Dec. 1S84. v. 18. p. 1270. 

AfCORDiXG TO J. Murie's report of the 
meeting of the Liunean society of London, 7 
Feb. 1884, printed in the Zoologhcher anzei- 
ger for 3 March 18S4. "Mr. B. J. Lowne gave 
an interesting communication embodying his 
researches on the compound vision of insects* 
He compares the structures of the simple 
ocellus with those of the compound ocellus 
(common in larval insects) and with those of 
the compound eye. The compound eye ac- 
cording to him is but composed of aggrega- 
ted compound ocelli, or the latter in the 
larval insect is merel\ equi\alent to a single 
segment of a compound eye. He refers to 
the development of the compound eye and 
points out that in many larvae during molt- 
ing stages the ''segregate" retina is finally 
replaced by another. He describes a deep 
spindle-like layer in intimate connection with 
the nervous structures and which he regards 
as playing an important part in the phenom- 
ena of compound vision, rather than that 
this kind of vision is soleU' dependent on the 
number of corneal facets." 

Mr. Wood Mason of the Calcutta Indian 
museum has recently drawri up a report on 



230 



psrciiE. 



[October— Dcccmbt-T 1884. 



those insects from which the tea-gardens of 
Assam most suffer. He says the tea-bug or 
'mosquito-blight,' and the tea-mite or 'red 
spider,' are the only two insects which are at 
present known to do such injury as to materi- 
ally diminish the profits of the owners. Both 
these insects pass their whole lives on the 
tea-plant, and have never been found on 
any other plant. Such, at least, is the result 
of the most careful investigation. The mite 
lives in societies on the upper portion of the 
full-grown leaves, beneath an exceedingly 
delicate web which it spins for itself as a 
shelter. It punctures the leaves, and then 
pumps out the liquid contents of the epi- 
dermis. The only remedy which has been 
discovered to check their ravages, and it has 
not proved very effectual, is to sprinkle the 
affected bushes with muddy water. The 
tea-bug is still more destructive, and particu- 
larly to the trees of the milder juice; for 
those which afford a strong and rasping 
liquor enjoy an almost complete immunity 
from its attack. Mr. Wood Mason appends 
to his report engravings of these destructive 
creatures. — Science, 31 Oct. 1884, v. 4, p. 426. 

At the meeting of the French entomolo- 
gical society held 23 July 1SS4, M. G. .\. 
Poujade made the following remarks: 

"Prof. Edouard Bureau has stated (Ann. 
soc. entom. Fr., 1S54; Bull., p. 22) that in 
lepidoptera of the genus Biephos, specimens 
which had been dried six days showed evi- 
dent spontaneous movements of the genital 
organs, which continued two days, but toward 
the last part of the time these movements 
were only produced when the extremity of 
the abdomen was touched. I have observed 
the same peculiarity in a R/iodocera rhamni ^ 
the extremity of the abdomen still moving 
when the rest of the insect was perfectly 
dry. 

A few days ago some one gave me a male 
Lucaiiiis cervits which had been killed with 
vinegar five or six days before ; the flabbiness 
of the joints left no doubt as to the death of 
the animal, — the penis alone, which was 



partly cxserted, had very evident movements 
which lasted two or three days longer. 

These facts, as M. Bureau has said, prove 
the predominance of the genital functions 
above all other functions, and it is not with- 
out interest to compare these observations 
with another well-known fact, the prolonga- 
tion of life among insects that have not 
paired." 

Among xati;ralists who have been more 
or less interested in entomology we have 
lately noticed announcements of the follow- 
ing deaths : Dr. Alfred Edmund Brehm, born 
in 1S29. in Renthendorf, Germany, where he 
died II Nov. 1SS4; well-known as the editor 
of the "Illustrirtes thierleben." Dr. Ernst 
Carstanjen. professor of chemistry in Leip- 
zig university and lepidopterist, died 13 July 
1SS4. in the forty-ninth year of his age. 
Auguste Chevrolat, a Parisian coleopterist 
and author of many entomological papers, 
died 16 Dec. 1S84, in the eighty-sixth year of 
his age. C). J. Fahraeus, a coleopterist of 
Stockholm, Sweden, died in that place, 28 
May 1884, aged eighty-eight. Leopold 
Joseph Fitzinger, zoologist, born 13 April 
1S02, in Vienna, Austria, died 22 Sept. 1SS4, 
in Ilietzing, near Vienna. Dr. Arnold 
Fdrster, professor in Aachin. Germany, and 
hymenopterist, born 21 Jan. iSio, in Aachen, 
died 13 Aug. 18S4, in the same place. A. 
Keferstein. lepidopterist, died 28 Nov. 1S84, 
in Erfurt, Germany. Johann Gottfried Gott- 
lieb Miihlig, lepidqpterist, died 12 .\pril 18S4, 
at Frankfort-a.-Main, Germany, nearly seven- 
ty-two years old. Joseph Antoine ^Laxiini- 
lian Perty, professor from 1S34-1875 in the 
university at Berne, Switzerland, died at 
Berne. 8 .\ug. 1SS4, nearly eighty years old. 
Edmond Tomosvdry, a Hungarian naturalist, 
died 18 Aug. 1SS4, at Deva. Ernst Wehncke, 
a merchant in Harburg. Germany, and a 
specialist in dytiacidac and hydiopliilidae, 
born 15 March 1S35, died 19 Nov. 1SS3. in 
Harburg. 

Nos. 124-125 were issued 3 Nov. 1884. 



[Established in 1S74.] 
EDITED BY 

B: PiCKMAN Mann, Washington. D. C. ; G : Dimmock, Cambridge^ Mass.; 
Albert J: Cook, Lansings Mich.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, Normal., 
III. ; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany^ N. T. ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Lawrence, /iunsas ; W : Tkei.ease, A/atlison, Wise. 

Vol. 4. Nos. 129-131. 

[The numeros for October-December 1SS4 are Nos. 126-12S.] 

January-March 1SS5. 

COIVTENTS: 

Advertisements . 238 

The Insects of Betula in North America — Anna Katherina Dhnmock . 239-243 

Systematic Position of the Genus Apiocera — Daniel William Coqnillctt . 243-244 
The Geological History of Mvriopods and Arachnids — Samuel Hubbard 

Scudder 245-250 

The Double Role of the Sting of the Honey-bee ..... 251-252 

Permanent Mounting of Tracheae of Insects — F. T. Hazleiuood . ■ ■ 253 
Proceedings of Societies — Zoological Society of London — Linnean Society 

of London 253-254 

Bibliographical Record, no. 3675-37S7 . . 255-264 

Entomological Items 265-268 

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PSYCHE. 



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PSYCHE. 



THE INSECTS OF BE TULA IN NORTH AMERICA. 



BY ANNA KATHERINA DIMMOCK, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



My attention was first drawn to the 
number of insects which feed upon 
plants of the genus Betula when I set 
out to malve a collection illustrating the 
different stages of insects found on Be- 
tula alba. I had exhibited stages of 
39 determined species, and intended to 
pulilisii a simple list of these, but so 
man\' additions to the list were found 
later in scattered publications that fur- 
ther notes were added. Finally, after 
the publication of Dr. G : Dimmock's 
'•Notes on ptcrophoridac of Nortli 
America,"' I determined to put the 
notes in the form adopted in that article, 
and to include the American insects of 
the entire genus Betula. The notes 
have steadih' increased in liulk, until 
they now include 107 determined spe- 
cies. This number would be still fiu- 
ther augmented by the determination of 
several species which I have reared 
from Betula alba. Kaltenbach^ gives 
370 European birch-feeding insects, and 
where the same species of insects are 
found in America I have added them to 

' Psyche, Sept. -Oct. 1SS2, v. 3, p. 402-404. 
^ Kalteiibach, J. H. Die pflanzent'einde aus der classe 
der insecten. Stuttgart, 1S74. 



this list. Packard^ enumerates only 19 
species of American insects from Betu- 
la. The numerous bibliographical ref- 
erences here included, which were 
selected from those accumulated in the 
progress of my work, refer generall}' to 
easily accessible works and are not in- 
appropriate in a bibliographical jour- 
nal like Psyche. Most of the citations 
have been verified,— a few are quoted. 
For many of them and for the free use of 
notes I am indebted to my hu.sband. 
Dr. G : Dimmock. We have for sev- 
eral years reared and studied insects 
together, and some of the larvae men- 
tioned in this article will be described 
by him later. My thanks are due fur- 
ther to Prof. C : H : Fernald, Dr. S : W. 
Williston, and Messrs. S: Henshaw 
antl R. Thaxter, for identifying insects 
belonging respectively to the microlep- 
idoptera, diptera, coleoptera, and ma- 
crolepidoptera. 

Quite extended lists of food-plants 
have been compiled in the case ot cer- 
tain lepidoptera, because these insects 
are often reared for pleasure, and be- 
cause an accurate knowledge of food- 
plants is desirable, even for polyphag- 

■■' Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comm., Washin^on, iSSt. 



240 



PSYCHE. 



(Jamiarv — March 1SS5. 



ous species. Here it niigiit be added 
tliat Betula alba is very useful in 
rearing certain polypliagous species, 
since its leaves remain in good condi- 
tion for a long time, and are the favor- 
ite food-plant of many insects. Certain 
polyphagous species, as Attacus cecro- 
pia, do not feed readily on other food- 
plants after having eaten birch. Larvae 
(especially of geometi-idae) of which 
the food-plant is unknown, can often be 
reared successfully on Betula' alba, a 
fact to which I owe my successful rear- 
ing of E)idrofia armataria. 

Orthoptera. 

Phaneroptera curvicauda De Geer (Mem. 
hist, ins., 1773, V. 3. p. 446, pi. 3S, fig. 3). 
This species has been figured, together with 
the structure of its ovipositor, by Riley (6th 
rept. state entom. Mo., 1874, p. 164-166), who 
also gives descriptions of the younger stages, 
and eggs. Miss Murtfeldt (/. c. ) describes 
the mode of oviposition : the eggs are laid in 
the margin of leaves — often of oak — between 
the upper and lower epidermis. Altho 
Riley writes (/. c), "I have had as many as 
five of these eggs deposited in a single leaf, 
in one contiguous row, yet they are more 
often single," yet a single tender \t^i of Be- 
tula alba, taken at Belmont, Mass., measur- 
ing about 8 cm. in length, had the entire 
margin filled with eggs, presumably of this 
species. Only two or three leaves were 
found tlius attacked, and the one of which 
the size is given above contained 102 eggs. 

Caloptentis femui—rubrum De Geer (Mem. 
hist, ins., 1773, v. 3, p. 498, pi. 42, fig. 5) 
often strips the leaves from low bushes of 
Betula alba about Cambridge, Mass. 

Rhynchota. 
Eiiosoma tessellala Fitch (4111 ann. rept. 
[N. Y.] state cab. nat. hist., 1S51, p. 68). 
According to Glover (Rept. U. S. commiss. 



agric, 1876, p. 39) this species has been 
found in Maryland upon twigs of Betula. 

Calliftcrus bctulaecoleiis Riley and Monell 
(Bull. U. S. geol. and geog. surv. terr., 1879, 
V. 5, p. 30-31) [.' ^^ Aphis bctulaecoleiis Fitch 
(4th ann. rept. [N. Y.] state cab. nat. hist., 
1S51, p. 66)]. Said by Fitch and Monell to 
feed on birch leaves. 

Calaphis betulella Walsh (Proc. Entom. 
soc. Phil., Dec. 1862, v. i, p. 301-302). 
Walsh (/. c, p. 302) says this species is 
abundant in Illinois on Betula nigra. 

Atkysatius variabilis Fitch (4th ann. rept. 
[N. v.] state cab. nat. hist., 1851, p. 60) is 
stated by Fitch (A c.) to be "abundant on 
birch trees, in June," and the same author 
states (Ann. rept. N. Y. state agric. soc, 
1858, V. tS, p. 853) that this species punctures 
leaves and succulent shoots of birch. A 
brief description of this insect is given by 
Packard (Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comm., 
1881, p. 128). 

Atkysanus abietis Fitch (4th ann. rept. 
[N. Y.] state cab. nat. hist., 1851, p. 60) is 
stated by Fitch (Ann. rept. N. Y. state 
agric. soc, 1857, v. 17, p. 749) to feed on 
birch. Packard (Bull. 7, U. S. entom. 
comm., iSSi, p. 235) briefly describes tliL 
species and gives Betula as food-plant. 

Atkysanus minor Fitch (4th ann. rept. [N. 
Y.] state cab. nat. hist., 1851, p. 60). Fitch 
(/. c.) writes "Common on birch trees," and 
adds (Ann. rept. N. Y. state .agric soc, 1S5S, 
V. 18, p. 853) that it punctures birch leaves. 
Packard (Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comm., 18S1, 
p. 128) briefly describes this species. 

Atkysanus feiiestratus Fitch (4th ann. rept. 
[N. Y.] state cab. nat. hist., iSji, p. 60) is 
stated by Fitch (/. c.) to be found "on birch 
trees," and (Ann. rept. N. Y. state agric soc. 
185S, V. iS, p. 853) to puncture birch leaves. 
This species is briefly described by Packard 
(Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comm., iSSi, p. 128). 

Tkelia univittata Harris (Treatise on ins. 
injur, veg. , 1842, p. iSo). One specimen 
taken sucking juices of a twig of Betula alba. 
June 1884. This species is found on oak. ac- 



jMiiuury— March iSSS,] 



PSrCHE. 



241 



cording to Harris (/. c), wliere it is common 
in July, according to Packard (Bull. 7. U. S. 
cntom. comm., 1S81. p. 37). 

Eiichenopa biiiotata Say (Appendix Long's 
exped., 1S24, p. 301-302). Common on 
twigs oi Betula alba. Riley (Amer. entom., 
Aug. 1S69, V. I, p 248) says its favorite home 
is Plelea frifo/ium, but gives grape ( Vilis) 
and rt'd-bud (Cercis) as food-plants. Its 
egg is described in Amer. entom., Oct. 18S0, 
V. 3, p. 254. Lintner (ist ann. rept. state 
entom. N. Y., 1SS2, p. 2S1-28S) gives an excel- 
lent general account of imago and eggs, both 
of which are figured. As food-plants he 
adds Celastrus scandens and, upon the au- 
thority of others, Juglans and Robiiiia. 

Bytlioscopus setttiuudHS Say (Journ. Acad, 
nat. sci. Phil., 1S29 [Mch. 1S31]. v. 6, p. 
307). Fitch (4th ann. rept. [N. Y.] state 
cab. nat. hist.. 1851, p. 58) writes "Found 
on birch trees." 

7'/V/^;sy«^'7</«(//.S Fitch (Ann. rept. N. Y. 
state agric. soc, 1S56, v. 16. p. 466-467) is 
normally found, according to that author 
(/. c.) on Juglans cinrrea, but is some- 
times met with also on Betula^ Sal/x, and 
other trees. Packard (Bull. 7. U. S. entom. 
comm., iSSi, p. 88) briefly describes this 
species, and mentions its food-plants. 

DiPTKRA. 

Mallotd posticata Fabr. (Syst. ant!.. 
1805, p. 237). Packard (Guide study ins.. 
1S69, p. 399) figures the pupa and imago of 
this species under the name of Alerodon 
bardiis Say. Lintner (ist ann. rept. state 
entom. N. Y., 1SS2, p. 211-216) gives an ex- 
tended account of this insect, figuring the 
jiuparium and imago, and describing the 
larvae, which were taken from decaying 
birch wood. 

Lotickaea ?polita Sav (Journ. Acad. nat. 
sci. Phil., 1S30, v. 6. p. 188). Reared in 
Cambridge, Mass.. from decaying /'o/j'/o/ws 
betiiliiuis, a fungus parasitic on dead trunks 
of Bftitlir alba. 



Lepidoptera. 

Argvresl/iia gocdaf/ella L,inn. (Syst. nat., 
175S, I'd. /o. p. 897). Fabricius (Syst. 
entom., 1775, p. 664) writes of this species 
"Habitat in alnetis, in betulae gemmis," and 
Ivaltenbach (Planzenfeinde, 1872, p. 604-605) 
states that the larvae of this species live in 
the catkins of Be/ 11 la and Alii/is. Chambers 
(Can. entom., Aug. 1S75, ^'- 7- P- ■44"i4.'i) 
notes the discovery of this species in North 
America, and, after describing the imago, 
adds "The larva feeds under the bark and 
in the young shoots of the birch in March 
and April." A. Balding (Entom. monthly 
mag., Feb. 1885, v. 21, p. 203-206) describes 
the lar\'a, which he found feeding in catkins 
of Betula and Alnus. 

Cryplolechia eo?ifertella Walk. (List lep. 
ins. Brit. mus.. 1864. pt. 29, p. 563). The 
larvae of this species are common upon Be- 
tula alba during August and the early part 
of September. The larva feeds in a rolled 
portion of the margin of the leaf, where pu- 
pation takes place, lasting from three weeks 
to a month. 

Paedl^ca similaua Hiibn. (Samml. auserl. 
vogel u. schmett., 1792, fig. 71). Kaltenbach 
(Pflanzenfeinde, 1S72, p. 602) gives a very 
brief description of the larva of this species, 
which feeds upon Betula. 

Pacdisca trausmissaua Walk. (List lep. 
ins. Brit, mus , 1863. pt. 28, p. 375). The 
larva of this species is common, during Octo- 
ber, about Cambridge, Mass., where it eats 
out the inside of the sterile catkins of Betula 
alba. It hibernates as pupa. 

Paedifca solicitaiia Walk. (List lepid. ins. 
Brit, mus., 1S63. pt. 28. p. 3S7). Fernald 
(Trans. Amer. entom. soc. 18S2. v. 10, p. 40) 
says of this species "Food. — Betula alba var. 
populifolia.^^ 

Serieoris urtieana Hiibn. (Samml. europ. 
schmett., Tort., 1800.', fig. 65). Kaltenbach 
(Pflanzenfeinde, 1S72. p. 601) gives a very 
brief description of the larva, following Zel- 
ler (Isis, 1846, p. 229) and among other food- 
plants mentions Betula. 



242 



PSl CHE. 



I January— March 1885. 



Piiitliiiia iilbiHthuiit Zellcr ( Verhantll. k.-k. 
zool.-bot. gescU. Wicii., jahrg. 1S75, 1S76. bd. 
25; Abli., p. 262-263, pi. S, fig. 12;. A si[igle 
larva taken 4 Sept. 1SS2, at Cambridge. Mass., 
on Betula alba, pupated 6 Sept., and appeared 
as imago 24 May 18S3. This speeies is evi- 
dently two-brooded, as Burgess took the spec- 
imen from which Zeller described the species, 
on 15 Aug., in Massachusetts. 

Pcuthhia dimiiUana SodoiVskv (Bull. Soc. 
imper. natur. Mosc, 1S30, v. 2, p. 73, pi. 7). 
Kaltenbach (Pflanzenfeinde, 1S72, p. 615) 
brielly describes the larva of this species, 
which feeds upon Bctiila a.nA on several other 
plants. 

Piuttliina caprcana lliibn. (Saninil. curop. 
schmett., Tort., iSoo.', fig. 250). Kaltenbach 
(Pflanzenfeinde, 1872, p. 601) compiles a brief 
description of the larva of this species, which 
feeds upon Betula and Salix. 

Eccofsh ?var. of fermundana Clemens 
(Proc. Acad. nat. sci. Phil., i860, p. 356-357). 
Two specimens reared from larvae taken in 
Cambridge, Mass., 17 June 18S3, on Betula 
alba. Pupated about 30 June; one specimen 
emerged as imago 10 July and tlie other 15 
Julv 1S83. Clemens (/. c.) says of E. permun- 
dana, "The larva binds together the terminal 
leaves of Spiraea. It is pale green, touched 
with yellowish at the junction of the seg. 
ments; head and shield black. The larva 
may be taken in the middle of June." 

Eccopsis zclleriana Fernald (Trans. Amcr. 
entom. soc, 1882, v. 10, p. 29) is said by its 
describer to feed upon "Leaves of Betula 
alba var. fopulifoUa." 

I.ozotaenia museuhina Iliibn. (Samml 
europ. schmett.. Tort.. iSoo.', fig. 98). Kal- 
tenbach (Pflanzenfeinde, 1872, p. 601) quotes 
Madame Lienig's description of the larva of 
this species, and states that the larvae, ac- 
cording to Fischer von Roslerstamm, feed 
between leaves of Betula and Salix which 
they have drawn together. Fernald (Trans. 
Amer. entom. soc, 1882, v. 10, p. 13") says, 
"Food. — In Europe, Agrimonia, Genhia, 
Solidago, Achillea, Stachys, Scrophuhnia, 



Rubus, Betula, Salix. Galium, ^uereuf, 
Pyrus and Tilia." 

Cacoecia cerasivoiaua Fitch (Ann. rept. 
N. Y. state agric. soc, 1S56, p. 382, pi. 2, 
fi^- 3)- Fernald (Trans. Amer. entom. soc, 
18S2, V. 10, p. 11) writes of this species, 
"Food. — Cherry, Betula alba var. populi- 
folia." 

Cacoecia rosaceana Harris (Rept. ins. 
injur, veget., 1841, p. 34S). Harris (o/. cit.. 
p. 347-348, and op. cit., 1862, p. 4S0) de- 
scribes the larv.ie of this species. Descrip- 
tion and figure of larva and imago by 
Packard (Guide study ins., 1S69, p. 335, pi. 
8, fig. 12). De.scription of larva, with figure 
of larva, pupa, and imago, by Saunders (Ann. 
rept. Entom. soc. Ontario, 1S73, p. 14). 
Packard (Papilio, Nov. -Dec. 1882, v. 2, p. 
1S2-183) says that he has reared this species 
from Betula alba var. populifolia. the moth 
appearing, in Maine, on the first of Septem- 
ber. Coquillett (Papilio^ May-June 1883, v. 
3, p. loo-ioi) describes the larva carefully 
and gives the names of twenty-four species 
of food-plants. To his list may be added 
Viburnum deiitatum and Philadelphus co- 
ronarius. 

Teras ferrugana Schiffermiiller (Syst. 
verz. d. schmett. d. Wiener gegend, 1776, p. 
12S). Kaltenbach (Pflanzenfeinde, 1872, p. 
600) says, on authority of Treitschke, that 
this species feeds on Betula and more rarely 
on Popiilus and Ahius; Fernald (Trans. 
Amer. entom. soc, 1S82, v. 10, p. 9), on 
authority of Heinemann. adds J^uercus, and 
cites Walsh for authority that the species is 
iuquilinous in galls of Cyuips salicis-strobiloi- 
des. Packard (Papilio, Nov. -Dec. 1S82, v. 2, 
p. 1S2) reared the species from a larva swept 
from Pinus strobus, on which he thinks the 
larvae feed, and gives a description of larva 
and pupa. 

Teras tiiveaua Fabr. (Mant. insect., 17S7, 
v. 2, p. 233). Kaltenbach (Pflanzenfeinde, 
1872, p. 600) says, on authority of Anton 
Sclimid, that the larva of this species lives 
on Betula. 



January — March 1SS5. 



PSYCHE. 



243 



Several species of microlepidopteia which 
are still undeternjined are very abundant on 
Bctula alba, about Cambridge, Mass. Among 
them may be mentioned a case-bearer (? 
Colcophora~), a species having a ridged co- 
toon (^'i Bucculatrix), a species the larva of 
which has a case made of successive rings of 
leaf-epidermis arranged in the form of a cor- 
nucopia, and a large leaf-miner belonging to 
some genus allied to I^ilkocollctis; the larvae 
of the last two species are found very late in 
tlie season, just before the leaves are de- 
stroyed by the frost. 

Opi'rofhtera boreatit Hiibn. (Samml. 
europ. schmett.. Spanner, 1796, fig. 413-414). 
Kaltenbach (Pflanzenfeinde, 1S72, p. 599) 
gives Beiiila and Faults as food-plants of this 
species. Packard (Mon. geom. moths, 1S76, 
p. 199) quotes Newman's description of the 
larva of this species. 

Rhcumaptera hasiata Linn. (Syst. nat.. 



175S. ed. 10, p. 527). Schmiedlein (Naturges. 
deutsch. schmett., 1805, p. 101-102) describes 
the larvae of this species, which he states 
live socially upon birch between the leaves 
which they spin together. Packard (Mon. 
geom. moths, 1876, p. 165-166) quotes New- 
man's description of the larva, in which it is 
stated to feed upon Betiila alba and Myiica 
gale. Kaltenbach (Pflanzenfeinde, 1S72. p. 
413 and 599) compiles authorities for the fol- 
lowing additional food-plants of this species; 
Rhododendron hirsutum, Salix, and Vacciii- 
turn uh'g'ittosum. A larva of this species, taken 
on Betula alba, at Belmont, Mass., 4 Aug. 
1SS3, pupated 14 Aug., and appeared as imago 
17 May 18S4. This is one of the species of 
lepidoptera seen in swarms in parts of the 
White Mts., N. H., where specimens were 
taken from S-14 July 1S74 in the greatest 
abundance. 

^To be continued . ) 



.SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF THE GENUS APIOCEBA. 



BY DANIEL WILLI.VM COQUILI-ETT, ANAHEIM, (AL. 



Ill the Berliner eiitom, zeitschrift foi' 
18.S3, |>. 287-294, Baron Osten Sacken 
gives Ills reasons for placing the genns 
Apiocera among the a.'^ilidae. I am strong- 
ly ofthe opinion, however, that its proper 
phice is among the therevidae — an opin- 
ion which the following facts woiilil 
a])pearto fnlly justify. 

In the Monographs of the diptera of 
North America, part 1, p. 22 and p. 24, 
Dr. Loevv defines the families f(.s(7Mae and 
llierevidae in the following words : 

^'■Asilidae. — Three liasal cells mnch 
piolonged. Third longitudinal vein of 
the wings furcate, the two intercalary 
veins always present. Tliird joint of the 



antennae simple ; under lip forming a 
horny sheath; enipodinm similar to a 
horny bristle." 

•^Therevidae. — Tliree basal cells much 
prolonged ; the two intercalary veins 
l)resent ; third longitudinal vein furcate. 
Antennae with a terminal style of varia- 
ble form, sometimes wanting. No em- 
podium. Under lip fleshy," 

In many of the larger therevidae the 
empodium. or third pulvillus, is present 
in the form of a slender bristle. The 
only character of importance, therefore, 
whereby either of these families maj' be 
distinguished from the other is the struct- 
ure of the under lip or proboscis, which 



•244 



PSYCHE. 



[January — March iSS.;. 



is horny in the asilickte and tlcshy in the 
therevidae ; in other words, in the there- 
vidae tlic proboscis terminates in two 
rtpsliy lips, vvliile in the asilidae it is des- 
titute of lips. 

The genns Ajnocpra possesses all of the 
eiiaracters which Dr. Loew assigns to the 
asiUdac exceiit that the proboscis ends 
in two fieshy lips ; and as this is the only 
character of importance wherein the 
till' ri'ri dap differ from tlie asilidae. it 
naturally follows that this genus must 
be refi'rred to the therevidae. 

The characters which the Baron found 
to be connnon to Apiocera and the sec- 
lioti asilhia (I. <•., p. 'iSD-i!)] j also exist 
in the larger therevidae. with the excep- 
tion of the closed marginal cell ; niore- 
ov(tr, the therevidae agree with Apiorera 
in several of the characters wherein this 
gi-niis differs from the usilina. 'I'hns the 
majoritN' of the therevidae have a verj' 
short autennal style, as in Apiocera : . 
whereas, in the a.tilina the style is usual- 
ly long and bristle-like. In the there- 
vidae. as in Apiocera. the face is very 
objiqne, thus differing widely from Uie 
perpendicular or more or less convex face 
of the a.tilina, with its characteristic mys- 
tax, which is wanting in the therevidae 
and Apiocera. Moreover, the legs of 
Die t/ieri'vidue ami Apiocera are weaker 
than in i\n' a silina., and the tarsal joints 
are long and slender, instead of being 
short and robust. So that, if Apiocera 
Is closely related to the a.silitia. it is still 
moie closely related to the therevidae. 

I admit that some species of Apiocera 
l)car a very close reseniblauce to several 
species of Erax : however, our classifica- 



tion is not based upon a superticial re- 
seml)lance, but upon the presence or 
absence of certain well-marked charac- 
ters. Were we justified in placing the 
genus Apiocera in the fan)ily ai^ilidae 
it would become necessary to remove all 
of the therevidae to this family ; but 
such a course is not at all desirable, as 
the family asilidae is already a very ex- 
tensive one, and the presence or absence 
of lips at the tip of the proboscis is a 
character of veiy easy api)lication. 

There is not an entomologist living 
whoso opinion on any subject relating 
to the dijitera has greater weight than 
that of the liaron Osten Sacken ; and I 
would not have ventured an o|)inion con- 
trary to one expressed by the Haron were 
I not convinced beyond a doubt of the cor 
rectness of my own views. From tin- 
few words which he gives concerning the 
relationship of Apnocera to the therevidae 
it is quite evident that he had not com- 
pared them with the same care that lie 
compared this genus with the asiliva. 

The genus Apiocera is icpresented in 
my collection by twenty-two specimens, 
which were collected in this state (Cali- 
fornia) Some of the males agree in 
all essential characters with Osten Sack- 
en's descrijnion of his ^1. haru.^tie.v. but 
the others differ to such a degree frcuu 
these, and also from each other (there 
being scarcely any two specimens mark- 
ed I'xactly alike) that I am at a loss to 
know whether to regard them .as belong- 
ing to sever.al distinct species, or as 
merely varieties of one very variable 
species ; but 1 iucliiie to the latter view 
of the case. 



January — March 1885.] 



PSYCHE. 



245 



lire and development of the different 
tjroups. 

In the early life of the pauropoda and 
of the diplopoda we have what may be 
fairlv considered a true larval form, in 
which, for a brief period after leaving 



THE GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF MYRIOPODS AND ARACHNIDS. 

BY SAMUEL HUBBARD SCUDDER, CAMBRIDGE. MASS. 
[Eiglitli annual address of the retiring president of tlic Cambridge Entomological Club.] 

As the only subject of a general natiu'e tcresting in the m\riopoda than in either 
to which I have given recent attention I the arachnida or the hexapoda. That 
venture to invite you to review with me these relations are equally puzzling will 
the geological history, first of myriopods appear from a brief review of the struct- 
and then of arachnids. Unusual atten- 
tion has recently been paid to these ani- 
mals, on account of the discovery of 
their remains in formations much ear- 
lier than those from which they had for 
a long time been known, and the rela- 
tion of these discoveries to our previous the egg, the Iiodv, much shorter than in 
knowledge will be best brought out bv after life, is provided with three pairs of 
such a review, and it will, to a certain legs borne upon the anterior segments 
extent.be timely. of the body. These segments are never 

Our knowledge of the moiphology, more full}- provided with legs, though 
systematic position and extent of the most of the segments posterior to them, 
myriupoda has been greatly increased both those which exist dm'ing this larval 
within a recent period. The discovery period and those which originate subse- 
of the minute Paiiropiis Iiy Lubbock, quently, bear two pairs. In the chilo- 
anil the stuth' of this and allied forms by poda, on the other hand, although the 
R\der and others, have led to the estah- appendages of the anterior segments de- 
lishment of the pauropoda as a type of velop earlier than those behind them, 
living myriopods oi equal taxonomic there is no true larval condition, or 
\alue to the two groups of chilopoda perhaps one may say a larval condition 
and d iplopoda which had long been is permanent, in that the same anterior 
looketl upon as the only divisions of the legs become early and permanently 
group. Modern investigations into the developed as organs subsidiary to man- 
structure of the anomalous Peripat7(s ducation, while the segments of the 
have extended our ideas concerning tile hinder part of the body develop onl\- a 
types allied to the myriopoda ; while the single pair of legs. 

strange forms revealed by recent re- The larval condition and resultant 

searches in the carboniferous and devon- more or less highly developed metamor- 

ian faunas have compelled us to recog- phosis of the higher hexapoda have been 

nize a wider range in its structure and looked upon by many as a secondary 

a multiplication of its primary groups. after-development, and one which there- 

The relations of ancient to modern forms fore in no sense gives any clue to the 

of life prove far more important and in- historical ilevelopment of the group. 



246 



PSYCHE. 



[ January — March 1SS5. 



such as we frcqueiitlv lliul niinorcil in 
the embryonic growth of other animals. 
This view seems to be supported by a 
comparison of the modern and ancient 
types of myriopoda. Tiie larval charac- 
teristics of the young of living types of 
myriopoda, marvelously analogous in 
their main features to those of the larvae 
of even the higher hexapoda, are confined 
to the apodal nature of the abbreviated 
abdomen, and more particularly to the 
specialized development of appendages 
on the segments directl}' following tiie 
head. This specialized condition of the 
anterior segments is, in a sense, analo- 
gous to the structure of the thorax of tlie 
hexapoila and is persistent throughout 
life, — in the chilopoda in a marked 
manner, in the other groups by tiie 
isolation of these segments as bearing 
but a single pair of legs. Now nothing 
of this specialization appears in the 
paleozoic types, of which of course we 
know only the mature forms ; but the 
segments following the head difler in no 
point whatever from tiiose of the re- 
mainder of the liiHiy in the character 
and number of their appendages. In 
one type, the archipolypoda, corres. 
ponding in a measure to the living type 
of diplopoda., two pairs of legs are borne 
on every segment ; while in the other, 
the p?-otosyngnatlia, corresponding in 
a similar way to the chilopoda, a single 
pair of legs is founil. If tiien we look 
upon the specialization of the segments 
(or tiie appendages of the segments) 
immediateh- following the head in livins' 
myriojiodan types as a secondary devel- 
opment, or, we may say, as the initiatory 
stage in an acquiring metamorphosis ; 



then we may perhaps consiiler the archi- 
folypoda as the true prototx'pes of the 
diplopoda and possibly also of the 
fauropoda, and the protosy7igvatha as 
the prototypes of the cJiilopoda. 

In tliis view, one principal distinction 
between the modem diplopoda and 
chilopoda is shown to have e-xisted 
from paleozoic times, viz : that in one 
group there are, over most of the body, 
to each dorsal scute two ventral scutes, 
each bearing a pair of legs; in the 
other group a single ventral scute with 
a single pair of legs ; and it becomes 
interesting to inquire whether we can 
disco\er any indication of tiie condition 
of things from which this diversity of 
structures arose, and what was the line 
of development tiirough which it passed. 
It will also help to determine the (jues 
tion, whether the dorsal or the ventral 
scutes of the diplopoda are to be looked 
upon as the homologs of those of the chi- 
lopoda ; or, in other words, wiietiier the 
dorsal scutes of the diplopoda are com- 
pound, or the ventral scutes of the same 
are to be looked upon as subsegmeiits. 

It should be remarked at tiie outset 
that what we know of the embryologv 
of recent types shows that in the diplo- 
poda two pairs of legs, in the chilopoda 
one pair, arise from each original body- 
somite beyond tiie front portion of the 
body. This wouKl indicate that the 
dorsal scutes of the two groups were 
homologous and the ventral scutes of 
tiie diplopoda shoidil be looked upon 
as re]5resenting subsegmeiits. This, 
however, is not the answer indicated 
by the paleontological e\ idence, nor is 
it what we slioidd expect from, among 



Jandury — March 1SS5.' 



PSYCHE. 



247 



other things, the presence of stigmata 
on each of the ventral scutes in diplo- 
foda* All the carboniferous archipoly- 
poda show a clear indication of the 
compound nature ot the segments. Not 
only were the \'entral scutes fai' more 
important and extensive than in the 
modern diplopoda^ hut some at least 
ot the genera bore in acklition tn large 
stigmata outside the legs, a pair of seg- 
mental organs next the medioventral 
line on each ventral scute ; the dorsal 
scute was also distinctly divided into tv\ o 
areas, an anterior and a posterior. In 
some types this latter distinction was 
more marked than in others, in some 
lieing carried so far that under certain 
conditions of preservation one would 
readily take tiiem to be entirelv sepa- 
rate ; and this indeed appears to be 
absolutely the case in the older devo- 
nian forms, from the lower old red sand- 
stone of Scotland. These show an 
apparently complete demarcation of the 
dorsal scutes of each segment as well as 
of the ventral, and present therefijre a 
series of alternating larger and smaller 
segments, the larger bearing all the 
tlorsal cuticular outgrowths, but each 
bearing a single pair of legs. Of this 
primal condition of the Ijodv segments 
the emliivology of modern types gives 
no hint, its earliest indications showing 
nothing anterior to what must have 
been the condition of things wli(.ll\- 
posterior to the paleozoic epoch, at least 
so far as the diplopodan series is con- 
cerned ; nothing anterior, indeed, to the 
fixed condition of the present type. 

*They are only borne in a^eneral nri alternate seg- 
ments in chilopoda. 



This indicates tlrat the present dorsal 
scutes of diplopoda are compound and 
formed of two originally distinct scutes ; 
and that, as a later development of a 
similar sort, the ventral scutes of the 
anterior segments have likewise con- 
solidated and lost each one pair of 
appendages. 

Under this view the line which we 
follow back fi'oivT the chilopoda through 
the frotosviig'natha is tine more nearly 
allied to the simple stock type. Yet it 
is the other line which has been found 
earliest in the rocks, clearly showing 
that the actual origin of the myriopodan 
phylum must be looked for at the very 
first appearance of land animals ; in- 
deed the evidence that some of the 
carboniferous types were amphibious 
may warrant our belief that the type 
may have fairly originated among aqua- 
tic animals. 

Fossil mv^riopoda were first made 
known from the carboniferous rocks, 
when Westwood figured, in Brodie's 
work on the older fossil insects of 
England, the remains of what he sup- 
posed to be a lepidopterous larva. 
There had been indeed earlier refer- 
ences by name merelv to tertiary myri- 
opoda from amber and from Aix (.Ser- 
res), but it was not until the publications, 
thirty years ago, of Koch, Berendt and 
Menge, that the amber species were 
known, and to them liardh- any ad- 
ditions have since been made. In 
1S59 Sir William Dawson published the 
first account of a paleozoic m\riopod re- 
cognized as such, and since iS6S our 
horizon, as regards the older forms, has 
been widened materially by the publica- 
tions of Messrs. Dohrn, Meek and 



248 



PSrCHE. 



(January— M;lrch 18S5. 



Wurtlicii, Peach, Scuddcr. and Wood- 
ward, until to-day the nuniher of lorms 
known from pretcrtiary deposits is nearly 
as great as those from the tertiary. 

The oldest known are those described 
by I'age and Peach from the lower old 
red sandstone of .Scotland — two species 
belonging to the arcJiipolypoda . In 
the carboniferous formation the archi- 
folvpoda culminate, showing a consid- 
erable variety of generic types distinct 
from those of the devonian, and embrac- 
ing nearly thirty species, of whicli by 
far the greater number come from Amer- 
ica, and the few remaining ones from 
Great Britain, with possibly a single 
species from Germany. Four species, 
imperfectly known, which have lieen 
referred to lulus, ami wiiich come from 
the permian of central Europe may be- 
long to the archipolypoda. The only 



mesozoic forms known are the Julopsls 
cretacea of Ileer, from Greenland, 
which is either an archipolypod or a 
diplopod (it is impossible to tell which), 
and the uncertain Geop/iilus proavus 
of Miinster from Solenhofen, which is 
probably to be looked upon as a nereiti 
worm. 

The tertiary species are still known 
almost entirely from the work of Koch 
and Bcrendt, and belong entirely to the 
diplopoda and chilopoda, the larger pro- 
portion to the former. A few species, 
however, have been indicated from Aix. 
a single one described from the brown 
coal of Rott and one from the Green 
River deposits of North America. 

The following table presents a view 
of the distribution of the myriopoda in 
lime. 



Geolgical distribution of myriopoda. 





Paleozoic. 


Mesozoic. 


Cenozoic. 


























-a 






n 





















The fii^urep represent the 
number of species. 


c 
.5 
'c 
p 






a 

'c 


U 




If. 


3 




u 

u 


c 









c 

u 



c 
5; 


Oh 

c 

s 


























































(••') 






•7 










2 


31 


(4?) 













































CO 




-3 

























































The geological history of arachnida, which the order is divisible are rejire- 

as known at the present time, pre- sented in the older rocks, antl these', 

sents some points of interest. Only which are not confined to llie lower 

a portion of the great groups into tvpes, attain a degree of perteclion and 



J:iniinry — March 1SS5.I 



PSYCHE. 



240 



a ilivcrsity of stiiicture inconsistent with 
a belief in our having reached the prim- 
ordial forms of this phylum in our 
retrograde search. 

When, in 1S5S, Bronn published his 
prize essay on the distribution of fossils, 
only two species of pretertiary arach- 
nida were known as such, one from the 
carboniferous and one from the Juras- 
sic formation, and the knowledge of 
tertiary forms was confined entirely to 
the then recently published work of 
Koch and Berendt on the species from 
amber. Since then Menge has in- 
creased somewhat our knowledge of the 
amber fauna, and it includes to-da}' nine- 
tenths or more of the known tertiary 
species. But it is only within the last 
fifteen j'ears that our knowledge of pre- 
tertiary arachnida has been extended 
beyond the description of two or three 
species. The number is still exceedingly 
few — between 20 and 30 species — but 
it is being constantly extended, and the 
abundance of arthropoda brought to 
light in recent years in the carboniferous 
deposits <jf AUier, Bohemia, Scotland 
and Illinois leads us to expect an earl}' 
and consitlerable extension of the list. 
This expectation is strengthened by 
Lindstroni's and Hunter's discoveries of 
scorpions in the upper Silurian rocks ot 
Gotland and Scotland. 

The forms that have been found fossil 
in the earlier formations have proved, 
as might be expected, to belong mostly 
to those having a dense integument, 
and in the two species believed to be 
true araneae, the abdomen was proba- 
bly provided with more or less densely 



chitinoLis dorsal plates. With these 
two exceptions, and a single genus of 
fiedlpalpi, all the paleozoic arachnida 
( onlv a single mesozoic form is 
known) belong either to the scorpio- 
iiidcs or to a peculiar group, the anthra- 
comarti. This group is not found later, 
and the single known species of me- 
sozoic arachnida* is a true Aranca. The 
paucity of remains of arachnida in 
mesozoic strata is somewhat remark- 
able. Besides the species mentioned 
above, only one other has been indicated, 
a species supposed to belong to the 
araneae, from the English Has. 

Thanks to the amber deposits of Prus- 
sia, we know iar more about the tertiary 
history of arachnida than would be 
possible if our sole reliance were on the 
rocks, the latter furnishing us with only 
about double the number of those occur- 
ring in pretertiary deposits. In the 
amber alone occur all the suborders of 
aracluiida, excepting the pcdipalpi 
and the already extinct a?iihracomarti, 
as well as all the families of araneae 
excepting one peculiar to the Jurassic ; 
but in the tertiary rocks neither chelone- 
t//i, scorpioncs nor opilioties have been 
recognized ; of the pcdipalpi., a single 
species is referred to by Serres from the 
niarnes of Aix, but too obscurely to 
take account of it. 

Examining the araneae alone, which 
are far better represented in the tertiaries 
than are the other suborders, we find a 
very large number of extinct genera. 
In all, seventy-one are now known, 

* Palpipes or Phalangites, believed even by Thorell 
lo be .in arachnid, has been shown by Seebach to be a 
stomatopodous crustacean. 



250 



rsrcnE. 



[J;niu;iry — Murch 1SS5. 



sixty-six troin Europe and thirteen from 
America, eigiit being common to both. 
Of tiiese 37 are accounted extinct, 35 
from Europe and 2 from America, and 
none of these have been found on both 
continents. 

In the stratified tertiary deposits the 
same families of araneae are in e\ery 
instance found in Europe and America, 
excepting the dysderides. which family 
has a single representative in America 
and none in Europe. It also appears 
that just those families which are repre- 
sented abundantly in amber are also 
found to some extent in the American 
tertiary fauna, and (excepting, as be- 
fore, the dysderides) in the European 
rocks. 

It is onl}' in the rocks of the temper- 



ate regions of Europe and Nortli Amer- 
ica that any arachnida liave been found 
in a fossil state, and these, so far as the 
indications have any meaning, invari- 
ably point, whether in carboniferous or 
tertiarx deposits, to a warmer climate 
than now obtains in the localities where 
thev occur. This becomes more marked 
when we reach the tertiary rocks and 
can compare the t\pes more closely 
with existing forms, a number of the 
genera, to which, for instance, the amber 
spiders belong, being now exclusively 
tropical. 

The following table gives a general 
systematic view of the distribution of 
arachnida in the diflerent geological 
formations since their first appearance 
in the upper silurian. 



Geological distribution of arachnida. 





Paleozoic. 


Mesozoic. 


Cenozoic. 




The figures represent the 
number of species. 




c 

c3 

*C 

> 

P 




\^ 

"c. 



« 



Q 






CO 

2 
3 
•—1 


[A 


c3 

§ 


a 

33 
9 


.1 


0) 

c 

i 


V 

c 



•6 


'C 
'J 

s 

-a 




A ari 








I 


2 






PViplnnPthi 































16 

8 


























2 














I 
■3 

I 
22 

I 
T- 
$^ 
"7 



























Araneae 


















3 


























1 




















3 


4 


1 








2 




























8 

3 
12 


3 
5 
3 


















.... 1 




















.:.:i 

























January— Mnrcii 1SS5. 



PSl'CHE. 



251 



THE DOUBLE KOLE OF THE STING OF THE HONEY-BEE.* 



Very iinport.iut and liigbl_y interesting 
discoveries have recently been made iu 
regard to a double role [ilayed by the 
sting of the honey-bee. These discov- 
eries explain some hitherto inexplicable 
phenomena in the domestic economy of 
the ants. It is already known that the 
honey of our honey-bees, when mixed 
with a tincture of litmus, shows a dis- 
tinct red color, or in otiier words has 
an acid reaction. It manifests this pe- 
culiarity because of the volatile formic 
acid which it contains. This admixed 
acid confers upon crude honey its pre- 
servative power. Honey which is puri- 
fied l)y treatment with water under heat, 
or the so-called honey-syrup, spoils soon- 
ei', because the formic acid is volatil- 
ized. The honey of vicious swarms of 
bees is characterized by a tart taste and 
a pungent odor. This effect is pro- 
duced by the formic acid, which is 
present iu excess in the lioney. Hith- 
erto it has been entirely unknown in 
what way the substratum of this pe- 
culiarity of honey, the formic acitl in 
the honey, could enter into this vomit 
from the honey-stomach of the workers. 
Only the most recent investigations 
have furnished us an explanation of 
tins process. The sting of the bees is 
used not only for defense but quite 
principally serves the important purpose 
of contributing to the stored honey an 

* Transhited from an article entitled 'Ueber eine 
dnppelrolle des stachels der iionigbicnen" in Deutsch- 
amerikanische apotheker-zeUung', 15 Jan. iSSg, jahrg. 5, 
p. 664; tliere reprinted from ^'Ind. bhitier." 



antizymotic and antiseptic substance. 
The observation has recent!}' been made 
that the bees in the hive, even when 
they are undisturbed, wipe oft' on the 
combs the minute drops of bee-poisou 
(formic acid) which from time to time 
exude from the tip of their sting. And 
this excellent pi-eservative medium is 
thus sooner or later contributed to the 
stored honey. The more excitable and 
the more ready to sting the bees are, 
the greater will be the quantity of for- 
mic acid which is added to the honey, 
and the admixture of which good honey 
needs. The praise which is so com- 
monly lavished upon the Ligurian race 
of our honej' bees, which is indisposed 
to sting — and such praise is still ex- 
pressed- at the peripatetic gatherings 
of German bee-masters — is therefore 
from a practical point of view a false 
praise. Now we understand also why 
the stingless honey-bees of South Amer- 
ica collect little honey. It is well 
known that never more than a very 
small store of honey is found in felled 
ti'ees inhabited by stingless Melipona. 
What should induce the Melipona to 
accumulate stores which they could not 



[ireserve : 



Thev lack formic acid. 



( »nly three of the eighteen different 
known species of honey-bees of northern 
Brazil have a sting. A peculiar phe- 
nomenon iu the life of certain ants has 
always been problematical but now it 
finds also its least forced explanation. 
It is well known that there are different 
grain-gathering species of ants. The 



2r>2 



J\S)X///i. 



I l:iiiii:irv— M:irch i-W^i;. 



seeds of grasses and other plants are 
often preserved for years in their little 
magazines, without germinating. A 
verj- small red ant, which drags grains 
of wheat and oats into its dwellings, 
lives in India. These ants are so small, 
that eight or twelve of them have to 
drag on one grain witli the greatest 
exertion. They travel in two separate 
ranks over smooth or rough ground, 
just as it comes, and even up and down 
steps, at the same regular pace. They 
often have to travel with their booty 
more than a thousand metres, to reach 
their communal store-house. The re- 
nowned investigator Moggridge repeat- 
edly observed that when the ants were 
prevented fi'om reaching their mag- 
azines of grain, tiie seeds began to 
sprout. The same was the case in 
abandoned magazines of grain. Hence 
the ants know how to prevent the sprout- 
ing of the grains, but the capacity for 
sprouting is not destroyed. The re- 
nowned English investigator John Lub- 
bock, who communicates this and sim- 
ilar facts in his work entitled "Ants, 
bees and wasps," adds that it is not 
j'Ct known in what way the ants pre- 
vent the sprouting of the collected 
grains. But now it is demonstrated 
that here also it is only the formic acid 
whose preservative influence goes so far 
that it can make seed incapable of ger- 
mination for a determinate time or» con- 
tinuously. 

It may be mentioned that we have 
also amongst us a species of ant which 
lives on seeds and stores these up. This 
is our Ladua nir/er, which carries seeds 



of Viola into its nests, and, as Witt- 
mack has communicated recently to the 
Sitzungsberichte der gesellschaft natur- 
forschender freunde zu Berlin, does the 
same with the seeds of Verdnica hede- 
raefoUa. 

Syke states in his account of an 
Indian ant, Pheidole ])rovi(lens. that 
this species collects a great store of 
grass-seeds. But he observed that the 
ants brought their store of grain into 
the open air to drj- it alter the monsoon 
storms. From this it appears that the 
preservative effect of the formic acid is 
destroyed b}' great moisture, and hence 
this drjing process. So that amongst 
the bees the honey which is stored for 
winter use, and among the ants the 
stores of grain which serve for food, 
are preserved by one and the same fluid, 
formic acid. 



EDITORIAL NOTK. 

This same theory has been suggested 
many times by our most advanced Amer- 
ican bee keepers. It has been hinted 
that this same formic acid was what 
made honey a poison to many people, 
and that the sharp sting of some honey, 
notably that from bass wood or linden, 
originated in this acid from the poison 
sack. If this is the correct explanation, 
it seems strange that the same kind of 
honey is always peculiar for greater or 
less acidity as the case may be. We 
often see bees with sting extended 
and tippi'd with a tiny drop of poison : 
but how do we know that tliis poison is 
certainly mingled with the honej'? Is 
this any more than a'guess? A. .1. Cook. 



January — March 1SS5.] 



FSrCHE. 



■>w, 



PSYCHIi:. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., JAN.-MAR. 18S5. 

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vertisiug columns. 



PERMANENT MOUNTING OF 
TRACHEAE OF INSECTS. 

I liave succeeded in a very simple wav in 
mounting permanently the tracheal system 
of insects. I dissect out the soft parts and 
.spread them on a glass slide of the usual 
size; let them dry perfectly; then with pen- 
cil-brush give them a good coating of collo- 
dion, after which I melt a little hard, pure 
balsam in a test tube and put it on the object 
with a cover glass applied at once. This is, 
so far as I know, a new method, It is re- 
markable for its results. The intestines, the 
ganglia, and the brain are perfectly magnifi- 
cent. The intestine makes thus one of the 
most beautiful objects for dark-ground illumi- 
nation. The brain shows the most ahim- 
dant ramifications of the trachea, especially 
in tlie immense parallel branches in the rods 
(if the eyes. The ganglia can be floated on 
a cover glass, dried, and mounted in this 
way. The entire process is simple and easy, 
and gives the most satisfactory results. 
There are many points of histological in- 
terest in the brain which are thus demon- 
strated. 

Lviin, Mass. F. T. Hazlexuooii. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOlilCAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

19 June 1SS3. — . . . Prof. E. Ray Lankester. 
F". R. S., read a memoir on the muscular 
and endoskeletal systems of Limulus and 
Scorfio. . . . These investigations seemed to 
confirm Prof. Lankester's previously ex- 
pressed views as to the near affinity of these 
two forms, hitherto usually referred to differ- 
ent classes of the animal kingdom, and to 
justify the association of Limii/us with tlie- 
arachnida. 

18 Dec. 18S3.— . . . Dr. F. Leuthner read 
an abstract of a memoir which he had pre- 
pared on the odoiitolabiiii, a subfamily of the 
coleopterous family liicanidae. remarkable 
for the polymorphism of the males, while the 
females remained very similar. The males 
were stated to exhibit four very distinct 
phases of the development in their mandibles, 
which the author proposed to term "prio- 
dont," '"amphiodont." "mesodont." and "telo- 
dont." These forms were strongly marked 
in some species, but in others w-ere connected 
by insensible gradations, and had been treated 
by the earlier authors as distinct species. 
The second part of the memoir contained a 
monograph of the three known genera which 
constitute the group odotttolabtni. . . . Mr. J. 
Wood-Mason, F.Z.S., read a paper on tlie 
embiidae, a little-known family of insects, 
on the structure and habits of which he had 
succeeded in making some investigations 
during his recent residence in India. He 
came to the conclusion that the embiidac un- 
doubtedly belong to the true orthoptera, and 
are one of the lowest terms of a series formed 
by the familiar acvidiodea. lociistidac. grylli- 
dac, and fthasmatidae. 

I April 1S84. — ...Mr. F. D. Godman. 
F.R.S., read a paper containing an account 
of the lepidoptera collected by the late Mr. 
W. A. Forbes on the banks of the Lower 
Niger, the rhopalocera being described by 
Messrs. F. D. Godman and O. Salvin. and 
the heterocera by Mr. H. Druce. The species 



254 



rsycHE. 



I Janimry— March iSSs- 



of butterflies were fift^- in number, and com- 
prised representatives of all the families of 
rliopalocera hitherto known from tropical 
Africa, except the erycitiidae, a group but 
feeblv developed in this region.— Selected 
from Zoologischer anzeiircr. 



LiNNEAN Society of London. 

21 Feb. 1SS4. — Mr. R. Miller Christy 
brought before the notice of the society a 
series of lepidoptera, hymenoptera, etc., cap- 
tured by him in Manitoba, some of the 
humble-bees being supposed new to science- 
20 March 1SS4. — In illustration of bis 
paper — "A contribution to the knowledge of 
the genus Aiinplic Walker" — Lord Walsing- 
ham exhibited a large and remarkable nest of 
a congregating moth, a species of the genus. 
from Natal. It contained a packed mass of 
cocoons, specimens of the larvae and of the 
mature insect; there likewise was shown a 
living example of a dipterous parasite which 
had emerged from the moth eggs .... 

3 Aprii- 1SS4. — . . . A paper was read by 
Mr. Francis J. Briant, On the anatomy and 
functions of the tongue of the bee (worker). 
The author, after referring to the structures of 
the more conspicuous parts of the endoskel- 
eton and relations of the tongue thereto, 
treats specially of the manner in which the 
bee takes up the honey by its tongue. It ap- 
pears that upon the nature and function of the 
organ in question authorities are by no means 
agreed. Kirby and Spence, supported by Hux- 
ley and partly Newport, aver that the bee sim- 
ply laps up its food; while Hermann MLiller 
and others rather attribute the action as due to 
the terminal whorl of hairs to which the 
honey adheres and therefrom is withdrawn 
inwards. The author of the paper on the 
other hand (from experiment and otherwise) 
is inclined to the view that the honey is drawn 
into the mouth through the inside of the 
tongue by means of a complicated pumping 



action of the organ itself aided by the closely 
contiguous parts. 

6 Nov. 1884.— Mr. R. A. Rolfe exhibited 
and made remarks on examples of British 
oak galls produced by cynipidan insects of 
the genus Ncuinteriis, collected by him 
chiefly at Kew Gardens. He admitted that, 
as a rule, the plan and detail of the galls de- 
pend on the nature of the irritating fluid 
deposited by the insect; but at the same time 
the various species of oak have special influ- 
ence in determining color and often size of 
the galls. 

20 Nov. 18S4. — A paper was read, entitled 
"Notes on the habits of some Australian hy- 
menoptera aculeata" by II. L. Roth. Therein 
he states that the wasps of the genus Pelo- 
poeus {P. laetiis) build their nests on the 
walls, ceilings, legs of chairs, under tables, 
in cupboards, vases, between pictures and the 
walls, on curtains and in all sorts of crevices 
in the house, or on the roof. No place is safe 
from their intrusion. When a cell is com- 
pleted the wasp goes in search of spiders, and 
seizing these, packs their half dead bodies in 
the cell, lays an egg and closes the cell-top. 
Then afterwards rows of cells are added to 
the primary one and dealt with in the same 
fashion; generally finishing with a streaked 
coating of mud, to deceive as to the real con- 
tents beneath. Of the Australian ants For- 
mica rujinigra is both numerous, bold and 
destructive. They destroy the webs of cer- 
tain caterpillars and drive them out, to fall a 
prey to a host of attendant warrior ants. 

Mr. F. M. Campbell exlubited a dragon fly 
caught in September on the left bank of the 
Dordogne from a flight of dragon flies (otlo- 
natii) which were taking a southeasterly di- 
rection ; numbers were observed passing 
continuously for an hour and a half. He also 
drew attention to the steady progressive 
movement of a sphingid moth when placed 
on its back. — Selected from reports by J. 
Murie in Zoofoi^isf/n'r lutzcigcr. 



J:inuary— March 1SS5.J 



PSYCHE. 



[3675-36S3] 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 

Authors and societies are requested to fom'iird their wnrhs to the editors as soon as 
published. The date of publication, given in brackets [], marks the time at xuhich the 
ivorh was receiz'cd, unless an earlier date of publication is knoxvn to recorder or editor. 
Unless otherwise stated each record is made directly from the -work that is noticed. 

A colon after initial designates the most common given name, as: A: Augustus; B: Ben- 
jamin; C: Charles; D: David; E: Edvjard: F: Frederic; G: George; H: Henry; 
I: Isaac; J: John; K: Karl; L: Louis; M: Mark; N: Nicholas; O: Otto; P: Peter; R: 
Richard: S: Samuel; T: Thomas; 11': William. The initials at the end of each record, or 
note, arc those of the recorder. 

Corrections of errors and notices of omissions arc solicited. 



Anderson, Joseph, jr. Urticatiiig properties 
of lepidoptera. (Entomologist, Feb. 1SS5, 
V. 18, p. 43-4.S-) 

Discussion of stinging hairs nf larvae di bombya'dac; 
qiintation of the part of G : Dimmock's "On some 
glands which open externally on insects" (Psyche, 
Sep. -Oct. 1SS2 [1 Mar. 1SS4], v. 3. p. 3S7-+01 ) [Rec, 29S5] 
which pertains to this subject. G: D. (3675) 

Anderson, Joseph, jr. The urticating prop- 
erties of the hairs of some lepiJoptera. 
(Entomologist, Dec. 1SS4, v. 17, p. 275- 

276.) 

Reports that the imagos as well as the larvae of //- 
Paris possess urticating properties, and discusses the 
probable causes. G: D. (3676) 

Balding, G : Urticating properties of lepi- 
doptera. (Entomologist, Feb. 18S5, v. rS, 

P- 41-43-) 

Discusses cause of urtication produced by the I.irv.ie 
of certain bombycidac; quotes portions of G : Dimmock's 
*'On some tjlands wliicli open externally on insects" 
(Psyclie, Sep. -Oct. 1SS2 [i Mar. 1SS4], v. 3, p. 357-401) 
|Rcc-,2yS5]. ■ G; i). (3677) 

[Bertkau, Pliilipp.] Duftappar.tt an schmet- 
terlingsbeinen. ("Koinisclie zeitung". . . ) 
(Entom. nachrichten, i Sept. 1S79, jahrg. k,, 
p. 223-224.) 

Abstract, by E : Burgess. (Psyche, Mardi 
[I May] 18S0", V. 3, p. 32-) 

Describes glandular apparatus on the posterior tibiae 
of hcpialus kecta, to be used in connection with another 
apparatus on the first abdominal segment to distribute 
an odor for sexual purposes. G: D. (367S) 

Bessey, C : Edwin. A new species of insect- 
destroying fungus. (Amer. nat , Dec. [28 
Nov.] 1SS3, V. 17, p. 1280-12S1.) 

Reprint in H. Osborn's " Notes on locust 
parasite" (Bull. Iowa agric. coll.. Aug. 
1S84, no- 2), p. 84-85. 

Describes tlie ^(7r /<:/;/« w stage rtK entomophtkora cal- 
opieni, a new species of fungus parasitic in coloptenus 
differentia! is. G: D. C3'''79) 



Briggs, T. R. Archer. On the fertilization of 
the primrose {primula vulgaris, Huds.). 
(Journal of botany, 1870, v. 8, p. 190-191.) 
Tlie writer does not agree with C : Darwin in his "On 
the specific differences between primula veris, Br. Fl., 
p. Tit/^aris, Br. Fl., and /. e/atior, Jacq. . . . " { Journ. 
Linn. Soc, Bot., 19 Mar. 1S6S, v. 10, p. 437-454) ]^Rec., 
2377] in believing ttiat primula vulgaris is fertilized 
almost exclusively by moths. He hnds the Howers vis- 
ited by anthophora acemoritm , andreiia gwyna?ia, go- 
nepteryx rkamni., and homhylius medius. W: T. (36S0) 

Brongniart, C : Sur un gigantesque neuror- 
thoptere, provenant des terrains houillers 
de Commentry (Allier). (Comptes-rendus 
Acad. sci. France, 31 Mar. 1SS4, v. 98, p. 

83^-833-) 

Brief account of the discovery oi dictyoneura golden. 
Irer^i, :iud notice of its affinities with other fossil ortho- 
ptera. G: D. (3681) 

Camerano, Lorenzo. Ricerche intorno alia 
strnttura del peli-ventose del tarsi dei 
coleotteri. Laboratorio del Regio museo 
zoologico di Torino. (Atti Accad. sci. di 
Torino, 1S79, ^- M> P- ii4S-n^4-) 

Separate. Torino, 1879. t-"P- cover + 
20 p., 2 pi.. 24 X i6, t 15 X 9. 

Notice. (Bertkau, P. Bericht . . . der 
entom. f. 1879, 18S1. p. 260.) 

Describes and figures the tarsal hairs of species 
chosen from twelve families of coleoptera. G: D. (36S2) 

Cand&ze. Ernest. Les mo^iens d'attaque et 
de defense chez les insectes. Lecture faite 
a la seance pnblique annuelle de la classe 
des sciences de I'Academie royale du 16 de- 
cembre 1S74. (Bull- Acad. roy. . . . Belg., 
1S74, s. 2, V. 38, p. 7S7-816.) 

Separate. Bruxelles, F. Hayez, 1S74. 
t.-p. cover, 32 p., 22 X 15, t 15 X 8.7. 

Notice. (Naturalistecanadien. Mar. r87i;, 
V. 7, p. 92-93.) [Rec, 764/).] 
Popular lecture on the means of attack and of defense 

employed by insects. G: D. (36S3) 



■2o(i [3684-3694] 



psrciiE. 



(January — March iSSg. 



Carlet, G. Sur les muscles de I'abdomcn de 
I'abeille. ( Comptes-rendus Acad. sci. 
France, 24 Mcli. 1SS4, v. 9S, p. 758-759.) 
Noincnclatmc i>voposi;(i for the aluloininal muscles of 
nph; tliese muscles, witli the exception of the aliform 
ones which aid circul:ition, liave respiratory movements 
;is tlieir function; these imtvcmeiits take place in the di- 
rection of all three diameters of the abdomen. 

<;.■ D. (J6S4) 

Carlet, G. Sur le vcnin dcs hym^nopteivs et 
ses organes secreteurs. (Coniptes-ieiKkis 
Aciid. sci. France, 23 June 1SS4, v. 98, p. 

1550-1551-) 

Abstract. (Journ. Roj. micros, soc. Oct. 
1SS4, s. 2, V. 4. p. 739.) 

Tlic poison of the stiiiij of hyinenoptcni, altlio acid, 
is the product of n mixture of secretions from two 
ijhincis, one of which |)roduccs stronjjly acid, tlie otlicr 
weak allialine secretion; tiie presence of both tliese se- 
cretions is necessary for the toxic effect of the stinjj. 

G: D. (j6Ss) 

Chambers, \'act<)r Tousev. On the changes 
that take place in the mouth-parts and legs 
of some leaf-mining lepidopterous larvae. 
(Anier. entoni., Nov. iSSo, v. 3, n. s., v. i, 
p. 255-262, 316 cm., fig. 124-137, 139-144.) 

Supplement, [by C: V. Riley], entitled 
"Mandible of lithocolletis gii/fifiiiitil/ii." 
(op. ci't., Dec, p. 394, 7 cm., fig. 138.) 

Description and figures of moutli-parts of hirvae of 
several genera of tincinti; description of chanij^es tliat 
take place in these mouth-parts and in the lei^s, and ap- 
plication of the facts ohscrved to tlie llicory of evolution. 

B: P. M. (.v>S6) 

Chambers, VactorTousey. Waniiering hahit 
of larvae belonging to the genu.s biiccula- 
trix. (Amer. entom., Feb. iSSo, v. 3, n.s., 
v. I, p. 50, 9 cm.) 

Larvae of btttfulntri.v have the liabit of wandering 
away from their food phints, (retpienlly, to ])U])ate, so 
tlnit findinii the pupae on a plant is not evidence that 
such is the food-plant; cocoons of A. foinifoUelta found 
on sambuciia; b. thuiflla and /'. ambrosittt'diti may not 
feed cm thuja and ambrnsia respectively. 

■ B: P. M. (36S7) 

Chapman, A. W. On the preparatory stages 

of certain Florida butterflies. (Can. "entom., 

Oct. 1879, ^'- "' P- 1S9-193.) 

Describes larva and pu|ia ni pnmpfu'/a phv/ens, /. 

brt-ttHS,p. acciitUt ft. iitttcitlala, />. or/'u^ />. ihiaware^ 

larva of/, ffntntkit and euJaitiit^ f>roti-ns, and ey:if of 

p. brHtuR, with notes on food-plants; introductory "note 

and comparisons of these descriptions with those based 

on Abbot's figures, by W; II : Edwards. 

B: P. M. (,i6SS) 

Chapman, I: Sotne observations on the 
hessian fly; written in the year 1797. (Me- 
moirs Phil. soc. promot. agric, 1S26. v. 5, 
P- I43-I.53-) 

History of cecidomyia destntctor^ in Hucks co.. Pa,, 
from i7S6toi7<)o; its natural history and seasons; de- 
scription of it in all stages; precauli'ins a);ainst it. 



Cholodko'wsky, N. Sur Ics vaisseaux de 
Malpighi cliez les Idpidoptires. (Comptes- 
rendus Acad. sci. France, 10 Mar. 1SS4, v. 
98, p. 631-633.) 

Tiiit-ola bisfUitila ( ? ^ tittfa peUiouetld) and tinea 
ntstici'lla have only two Malpif^hian vessels, while their 
larvae have four; this reduction of number of Malpi- 
f^hiaii vessels in the imago is regarded as a kind of peri- 
odic atavism. G; />. (iCxjo) 

Clemens, Brackenridge. American micro- 

lepidoptera. (Proc. Entom. soc. Philad., 

Mar. 1863, V. 2, p. 314.) 

Reprint. (Clemens, B. The //«c/«rt of 

North America . . . Stainton. Lond., 1S72. 

p. 207-221.) 

Ke-describes the genera coUophora^ glyphipUryx^ 
gracilariii^gflcchia; describes the new genus nnxrmara 
and 16 new species of tineina; description of habits of 
imago of strohiaia lex'ipetitlla n. sp., of mines of larvae 
of part-rtopa robiniella^ marmara saiicttUa^ phyllo. 
cnistis lirtodendronella and tischcria querciUlla^ and 
larvae and larval habits of some of the species ; discusses 
tlie species named anacampsia robintella and argyro. 
migfs pseudacidla by Asa Kitch. B: P.M. (3^1) 

Clemens, Brackenridge. American inicro- 

lepidoptera. (Proc. Entom. soc. Philad., 

Aug. 1S63, V. 2, p. 119-129.) 

Reprint. (Clemens, B. The //«r/Hrt of 

Nortli America . . . Stainton. Lond.. 1872. 

p. 222-236.) 

Re. describes the genera ypso/op/ins, dtprexsarta^ fni- 
costomafy and chmiUodus?; describes tUe new genera 
holtocera, brachtloma and homosetia (group of tiitftt)^ 
and 31 new species of thieina; gives synoptical table <»f 
19 species of ^f/tcA/a,* remarks on larval habits of de- 
prfssaria. B: P. M. (3692) 

Clemens, Brackenridge. Micro-lepidopterous 
larvae. Notes on a few species, the images 
of wliicli are prohal)ly undescribed. (Proc. 
Entom. soc. Pliilad., Nov. 1S61. v. i, p. 7^- 

S7.) 

Reprint. (Clemens. B. The ////(,■///« ol 
North AmericTi . . . Stainton. Lond.. 1S72. 
p. 161-17S.) 

Remarks on the characteristic appearance of the 
mines of leaf-miners, and the ease and interest of rear- 
ing leaf-miners; directions for collecting, observing and 
rearing these insects; monthly calendar showinK when 
the larvae mentioned should besought; descriptions of 
mines and habits of larvae of 7 siiecics of colcophora^ 
2 h'thoco/fctis. 2 aspi'disca, 14 tii'piintla, 1 orni.\\ 3 rota. 
sfegii. B: P. M. (3^9.1) 

Clemens, Brackenridge. New American 

micro-Iepidoptera. (Proc. Entom. soc. 

Philad.. Jan. 1S62, v. i,p, 131-137.) 

Reprint. (Clemens, B. The tinvifia of 

Nortii America . . . Stainton. Lond., 1S72. 

p. 179-1SS.) 

Describes the genera oposicga, soimobiaTy iyonetia, 
tenaga n. g., hybroma n. g., and the new species opos- 
tfga albogaierieifa, trkhoinphe olact-Iia, solfnohiaf 
ivaishrlia, nepticula fiiscotibii'/lo, ft. bifuscicHa, n. pla. 
tandldy lyotittia spent hZ/tt, tcnngn ptnitilit-llu, hybrotNtt 
serxuilflifi, dysodta mnr^arilnna; remarks on the hirval 
habits of the soienobi'af and those of a p/ty//ortn'siis^; 
gelt-cfiiaf JJai'ocostcUa is a trichotaf^hc. [The reprint 
omits the description of dysodio warguri/urni.] 

B.P.A/.iiOo^) 



Jatiu;i 



-March 1SS5- 



PSrCHE. 



[3795-3704J 



Clemens, Brackenridge. North American 
niicro-lepidoptera. (Proc. Entom. soc. 
Philad., Mar. 1862, v. i, p. 147-151.) 

Reprint. (Clemens, B. The /««■/«« of 
North America . . . Stainton. Lond., 1S72. 
p. 1S9-194.) 

Description of larv;i, pupa and mint of bedellia sow- 
}}iileutflla, previously described Iiy nuthor as b. stainfott- 
4-llii n. sp.; liabits and allinities of larva and imago. 
Descriptions of mines of nepticula ^httanella and two 
otlier S]>ccies oi ncpticnla in leaves ot flatanus; descrip- 
tions of larvae ot tiie two new species ; directions for 
rearing leaf-mining larvae. B: P. M. (.1605) 

Clemens, Brackenridge. North American 

micro-lepidoptera. (Proc. Entom. soc. 

IMiilati., Mar. 1S64, v. 2, p. 415-460.) 

Reprint. (Clemens, B. The tincina of 

North America . . . Stainton. Lend-, 1872. 

p. 237-256.) 

Re-describes tlie gener;i adela, dasycera; aticsychia, 
iinchisla?; describes the new genera vjalshia, kama- 
dryas, cycloplasis, wilfonui; describes 3 new species of 
/iiii-i.a, 3 of lortriciiiu and crambiis inornateiliis n. sp., 
from Labrador, and 16 new tineina from Unitetl States; 
remarks on other species. [Tlie reprint omits the de- 
scriptions of tlie tortricina and rramhHS.'\ 

B: P. Af. (369O) 

Clemens, Brackenridge. North American 
micro-lepidoptera. (Proc. Entom. soc. 
Pliilad., Dec. 1S64, v. 3, p. 505-520. fig. 1-5.) 
Reprint of p. 505-50S. (Clemens, B. 
The tinciua of North America . . . Stainton. 
Lond., 1S72. p. 257-263.) 

Describes 5 new species oi iineina and 25 new species 
<>t tortrichiii, with some re-descriptions and notes on 
habits; re-describes the genera ditulafy ptycholonia? 
and staranoptycha? (nUioriricina), and figures the neu- 
ratinn of wings and structure of palpi of anchylopera, 
ptycUoloma? and steganoptychnf; synopsis ol the 
groups and list of species hi anrkylopera. [Only the 
portion relating Xo tineina is rejirinted,] 

B: P. M. (3697) 

Clemens, Brackenridge. North American 
micro-lepidoptera. (Proc. Entom. soc. 
Philad., Sep. 1S65, v. 5, p. 133-147, il.) 

Reprint from p. 142-147. (Clemens, B. 
The tiueiita of North America . . . Stainton. 
Lond., 1S72. p. 264-273, I fig.) 

Describes 23 new species and the following 3 new 
genera of tortricina, \\7. ; /cptoria, euryptyrhia, ralli- 
mnsemn; exartema ■:=. sericori^; re-rlescribes the genus 
hatrachedra and describes as new species h. salici- 
pomonello, bnccitlatrix trifascielia and incnnjoria vie- 
diostriatel/a; gives extensive notes, liy B: D. Walsh, 
on the food-habits of the hatrachedra, with description 
of larva ; re-describes _^rffr;7rtr:'(7 vioiacella (re-named 
j^. desmod ifol iella) ; describes imago c>i nepticula sagin- 
ella, with notes on the habits of this species and of buc- 
citlatrix trifascielia; lists and synoptical tables of the 
descrilied species of stigmanota, sericoris, lozotoenia , 
slcgaiinptyclia,gracilaria and ncptimla; figures neura- 
tion of wings and structure oi palpi d lepioris, calli- 
mnscina and hatrachedra. [Only the portion on the 
tineina is reprinted.] B : D. Walsh states, in his "The 
joint worm" (Pract. entom., 27 N(iv, 1S65, v. i},p. 11, 
that euryptychia saligneana was bred from a gall on 
snlidaga. B: P. iM- (360,9) 



Clemens, Brackenridge. No 
ptcryx cphemeraeformis. (Pr 
Philad.. Nov. 1S66. v. 6, p. 2 

Extract. (Clemens, B. 
North America . . . Stainton 
p. 274.) 

Discussion of thu syiioiiymv of " 
fnrmis of Haworth" =i thyridopUryx 
reprint of Stephens' eeneric diagnosi: 
( 111. Brit, entom. . . . H.uist., I.nnd., i 



tes on thyrido- 
oc. Entom. soc. 
121-222. ^ 
The tineina of 
Lonci., 1872. 

'piiinx ipficjnerae- 
ephcmcraeforyitia; 
s of thyridopteryx 
SzS, V. I, p. 145)'. 
B. P. M (3609) 

Qomstock, [ : U : The ;i|)ple maggot. Try- 

pctii ponioitclla Walsh. (Rept. [U. S.] 

commiss. ag?-ic., for iSSi and 1SS2, 1SS2 

[Jan. 1S83], p. 195-198, pi. 14.) (CoM- 

STOCK, J : H : Report on insects for the 

year iSSi . . . 1SS2, p. 3-6, pi. 14.) (Riley, 

C : V. Report of the entomologist . . . 

[I Dec] 1882, p. 195-198 [135-138]. pl- 14) 

Food-plants, ravages and geographical distribution 

of and means against trypeta pomoneUa; localities in 

wliich ravages occur; (fescrii)tion and ligures of larva, 

pupa and imago and of re>piratorv apparatus. 

B P. M. (.5700) 

ComstOCk, J : H : [Cainivoroub hahits of a 
pyralid moth.] (Can. entom., Oct. 1879. 
V. 1 1, p. 196.) 

Carnivorous hatiils <•{ [dn/.-ruitKt coctidivora\. 

S: P.M. (J70.) 

Comstock, J : H : [Habits of species of re- 
tiiiiii injurious to pine trees.] (Can. entom., 
Sep. 1S79, ^- ■ I- P- I7f>) 
Food-haliits of /■<•/;>;/« [yr«.s7rf7«^7] and oi r. {rii^i- 

dnna\. , B: P. M. (sjm) 

Comstock, J : H : Lac insects. (Rept. [U. S.] 
commiss. "agric, for tSSi and 1SS2, 1SS2 
[Jan. 18S3], p. 209-213, pi. 19; pi 20, fig. I ) 
(Comstock. J : H : Report on insects for 
the year 1881 . . . 1882. p. 17-21, pi. 19; pi. 
20, fig. I.) (Riley, C : V. Report of the 
entomologist. . . [i Dec] 1SS2, p. 209-213 
['49-i53]rpl. 19; pi. 20, fig. I.) 
Describes the j^jeneric churucters of carteria and de. 
scribes and fiifures c. lacca, c. larretie n. sp. and c. mex- 
irana n. S|j. ; references to articles on c larca. 

B: P. M. (.,70.0 

Comstock, J :H : Ladybirds. Coccinellidav. 
(Rept. [U. S.] comrniss. agric, for 18S1 
and 18S2, 1882 [Jan. 18S3], P- 204-206, pi. 
iS.) (Comstock. J : H : Report on insects 
for the year 18S1 . . . 1SS2, p. 12-14, P'- iS.) 
(Riley, C : V. Report of the entomologist 
. . . [i Dec] 1S82, p. 204-206 [144-146], pi. 
iS.) 

Habits of coccindlidae; descriptions and figures of 
larva, pupa and imago of cycloncda abdominolis, c. 
sangniiiea, chilocoriis cacti and hippodamia amhigua, 
and of imago of ryrloncda ociilata, coccinclla gninqiie- 
notata var. cnlifomica^ and hippodamia conveniens. 

B: P.M. (3704} 



258 [37o5-.'57'4] 



rsrciiE. 



^Janu:iry— March iSSs- 



Comstock, ): II: Mclhods of destroying 
scale insects. (Rcpt. [U. S.] commiss. 
a-ric, for iSSi and iSSj, 1SS2 [Jan. 1883],- 
p. 206-209.) (Comstock, J : H : Report on 
insects for the vear iSSi . . . 1SS2, p. M"'?-) 
(Riley, C : V. Report' of tlie entomolos^ist 
. . . [i Dec] 1SS2, p. 206-209 [146-149 1.) 

IntrcHliirus letters from S. F. Cliapin and Malthcw 
Cooke, t.i sliow the beneficial cflect of the use ol lye 
•init whale-oil soap anil sulphur as means againsl roc- 
n\i,i,- and lrnmh:\lidii,- on orchanl trees, and the siipen- 
oritv of these substances to kerosene for the purpose; 
method of spraving trees and use of a " bamb.>o exten- 
sion" for carryinf; spray into large trees. _ PrcreclLd liy 
an interjected critical review, by C: V. 1{:'- i"'- 



ilcv. 



"author's edition" of Comstock cinil;lins a reply to this 
review and the "author's edition" of Riley contains a 
reioinder to this reply ; both inserted on fly-slips. 
' B: P. M. (.',705) 

Comstock, ] : II : On a new predaceons lepi- 
doptcrmis' insect. (N. A. cntoni., Oct. 
1S79, V. I, p. 25-29, pi. 4.) 

Description and figures of esfg, mature larva, pupa 
ami iiuamj of diikrumn coccidiv'orii n. sp., prcilalory 
on fidvinariii inuiimciabilix; description ol newly 
hatclled larva; habits and seasons of larva and iinaiio; 
discussion of accounts of parasitic, inquilinons and pie- 
daccous lepidoptcrous larvae hitherto observed. 

B: r. M. (.5706) 

Comstock, J : II : A new wax insect. (Rept. 
[U. S.] coniinis.s. a^ric, for iSSi and 1SS2, 
1SS2 [Jan. 1SS3], p. 213-214, pi. 20, fig. 2.) 
(C()M.sfOCK. J : II : Report on insects lor 
the year 18S1 . . . 18S2, p. 21-22, pi. 20. fig. 
2.) (RiLEY, C : V. Report of the entomolo- 
gist . . . [i Dec] 1882. p. 213-214 [153-154]. 
pi. 20, fig. 2.) 
Description oi rcrornrcn^ n. g. [corn\iai-\ and r. y/zr-r- 

CHI n. sp., from lwii;s of several species of i/iu-rnis; 

description and liirnre of sacs of male and female an<l 

ofbody "t r.in.ile. A": /'. H (37n7) 

Comstock, ]: 11: Note on tlie striictnre of 
mealy hugs. (Rept. [U. S.J conimiss. 
agric.,for"iS8i and 1882, 18S2 [Jan. 1883], 
p. 214.) (Comstock, J: H: Report on 
insects for the year 1881 . . . 18S2, ]). ii.) 
(Riley, C : V. " Report of the entomolo- 
gist.. . [1 Dec] 1SS2, p. 214 [154]) 
Position of openiiifi: of oviduct in dactylopitts^ and 
presumably in other r«rr;«<i.'; anal ring impniperly 
rilled ano-ucnital rin'j;; position and homologv of dorsal 
secretory ol)enim;s. ' -B: J'- M. ^,^^(ii) 

Comstock, J: II: The ocellate leaf gall of 
red maple! Siiiirti occllaris O- S- (Rept- 
[U- S.] conimiss. agric, for iSSi and 1SS2, 
18S2 [Jan. 1883], p. 202-204, pi. 17.) 
4C0MSTOCK, J : II : Report on insects for 
the year 1S81 . . . 1882, p. 10-12, pi. 17.) 
(Riley, C : V. Report of the entomolo- 
gist . .. [i Dec] 1882, p. 202-204 [142-144], 

pi. I7-) 

llnl.iits, ravnares and synonymy n( sciara oreltaris; 
description and figures of Kail, larva and male iniaijo; 
fijiures of cocoon and pupa-skin; habits of sriara and 
of s. lilicoln; description of gall of .t. illicola. 

B P. M. (,i7"9) 



Comstock, J: II: [I'lan of formation ot 
the hiological collection of insects in the 
Department of agriculture at Washington.] 
(Can. entom., Nov. 1S79, v- "' P- -0---03) 
Response of Comstock to rciliiests lor information; 
snhjecl expressed bv title. Remarks ol S: II. Scudder 
on the imnorUince of the formation of a national collec- 
tion at Washinsfton. B: P. M. (37'0) 

Comstock, J : li : The pretty pomace-fly. 
Drosophitii amociia Loew. (Rept. [U. S.J 
commiss. agric, for iSSi and 1SS2, 1SS2 
[Jan. 1883].^. 201-202, pi. 16.) (Comstock, 
J : II : Report on insects for the year iSSi 
...1882. p. 9-10, pi. 16.) (Riley, C: V. 
Report of the entomologist ... [i Dec] 
1SS2, p. 201-202 [141-142], pi. 16.) 

Ilabils and period of development of and means 
against drosnphila amaoia; description and figures of 
larva, pupa and im;i';o and of respiratory apininitus. 

.fi; P. M- (37") 

Comstock, I ; II : Report on miscellaneous 
insects. (Rept. [U. S.J commiss. agric, 
for 1881 and 1882, 1S82 [Jan. 1883], p. 19,5- 
214, pi. 14-20.) (Riley, C:V. Report of the 
entomologist ... [1 Dec] 1SS2, p. 195-214 

[i3.';-i54]. P'- 14-20.) 

.Separate, entitled -'Report on insects for 
the vear 1S81. .Xnthor's edition. From 
the annual report of the Department of 
agriculture for the year 1881." Wash.. 
1882. t.-p. cover + t.-p., 22 p., pi. 14-20, 
23 X IS- 

Consists of the followiuir sub. chapters, all cited under 
the name of J : H: Comstock : —The apple maggnt. 
r<-r/rf<r/>0)/«>«e//</ Walsh [Rec..37<X)|.— The vine-loving 
]ioin;ice-tly. Drosophiln ampi-lophiUt I-oew [ Kec.,.^7i4l. 
—The iiretty pomiice-llv. Dro^ol-lnln nmoeiia Loew 
[Rec, 3711 |. — The ocellale leal gall of red maple. 
Sciara nrellnrh O. S. IKec, 3700I.— I.:idyhirds. Coc 
cincllidiir [Uec-, 3704]. — Methoils of destroving scale 
insects | Rec, 3705). -I-ac insects (Rec, 3703).— A new 
wax insect [Uec, 3707]. — Note on the structure ol 
mealy bugs [Rec, 3708]. B: P. M. (37ii) 

Comstock, J : II: [Spre.id of the Colorado 
potato beetle intoManitoha.] (Can. entom.. 
Oct. 1879, V. II, p. 196.) 
Dnrvpliorii decemliinnla found in Manitoba in 1S71), 



its nio'st northern habitat so far known. 



B: i: M. (3713) 

Comstock, J : H : The vine-loving pomace- 
lly. Dioso/'/iila<impdo/>/ii/iil^nc\v. (Rept. 
[U. S.J conimiss. agric, for 18S1 and 1S82. 
1SS2 [Jan. 1883], p. 198-201, pi. 15.) (Com- 
stock, J: II: Report on insects for the 
year iSSi . . . 1882, p. 6-9. pi. 15.) (Rilky, 
C: v. Report of the entomologist... 
[i Dec] 1882. p. 108-201 [ 138-14 1], pi. 15.) 
Habits and ravages and period of development of and 
means against drnsophiln ampclo/^hilti; description ami 
figures of egg, larva, pupa :inil imago and of respira- 
tory apparatus. B: P. M. {37 1 1 : 



January— March 1SS5.] 



PS re HE. 



[3715-3725] ■■^•'j'' 



[Connecticut board of agriculture.] Poul- 
try. (4th anil. rept. seer. Conn, board 
agric, for 1S69-1S70, 1S70, p. 9-45-) 
Cninniunicalions .ind discussion on poultry-raising; 
includes, on p. 12-13, ^S, 23, 26, 37, 30-36, 41-44, reniarlis 
on insects and worms injurious to fowl, and means 
nirainst tlieni, and on the uselulness of fowl as destrovei-s 
of insects, bv T. S. Gold, P. M. Auguv, VV: H. Brewer, 
II. S. Collins, J. N. Blakeslce, W. A. Browning. N. 
C'rcssv, VV: Plumb,— Hunt, 1. M. Hubbard. 

B: P. M. (3715) 

Connecticut board of agriculture — Ento- 
mologist, 1S72 (Sidney Irving Smith). 
Address of the state entomologi.st [with 
discussion]. (5th ann. rept. seer. Conn, 
hoard agric., for 1S71-72, 1S72, p. 203-234.) 
Vote of thanks for the address, {of. cit., 
P- 235.) 

lv;ivaii;es and usefulness and abundance and disap- 
jicarances of and valid and invalid means against in- 
sects; impnrtance to the farmer ot a knnwledi^c of 
entomolngy ; special account nf sphenopkoriis scu/plih's 
(called .9. zeaL')y s. robustits, brnrtitts obso/^tus;, leuia tri- 
Hncata and (by J. S. Gould) cecidomyia tritici., with 
briefer mention ot numerous otlier insects and of means 
;ig;ainst insects, especially the use of dust or powders 
to kill moist-bodied insects, and the influence of para- 
sites; discussion participated in by — Ri^^s, W. W, 
White, S. W. Johnson, — Danit*tson, J. S. Gould, and 
author. B, P. M. (3716) 

Connecticut board of agriculture — Secrc- 
fiu-y. 4lh aiiniuil report . . . 1S69-70. Printed 
l)y order of the legislature. Hartford, 1S70. 
423 p., [9 pi.], 24 X 15, il. 

Contains a remark on means against deriuotodectes 
oviS:, on p. 126, and articles of entomological contents 
recorded under the following titles: — CONNECTICUT 
iiOAKU OF A<ii<iCui.TUKE.] Poultry [Rec.,3715], p. 9-45. 
— V'KitKU-L, A. E. The external parasites of domestic 
animals ; their eft'ects and remedies [Ilec, 3568], p. 72-122. 
— N'liKKiM., A. E. The internal jiarasites of domestic 
animals; their eftects ami remedies [Rec, 3569], p. 
iC>_'-25*). S: P. M. (3717) 

Connecticut board of agriculture — Secrc- 
fiiry. 5th annual report ... 1S71-72. Printed 
by <jrder of the legislature. Hartford, 1S72. 
3% p., [i] pi., 24 X 15. 

Contains a minute (p. 10) of the election of Sidney' 
IrviuiiT Smith to be entomologist of the Connecticut 
iioard of agriculture, 16 Aug. 1S71, and (p. 13) nf an ap- 
propriati'iii of $200 to him, for investigations of insects; 
aNn remarks (p. 177, 17S, 1S2, 294) on vmcrosila Carolina 
and cut-worms as injuring tobacco plants, and means 
against them; and articles of entttmological contents 
recorded under the following titles: — Connecticut 
no.MO) OF AGKicULTUKK — Eiilomologist^ iSyz. Ad- 
*lress of tile state entomologist [Rec, 3716J, p. 203-234, 
235. — ViCKKiLi,, A. E. Additional observations on the 
parasites of man and domestic animals [Kec, 3566], p. 
3>i^.,2. li: P. lil. (371S} 

Coquillett, Daniel W: Description of noc- 
luid larvae. (N. A. entom., Jan. 1S80, v. 
I, p. 52.) 

Describes larvae of telesilla cincreola, cram bodes 
iulidiformis and adipsophanrs misccZ/ns. 

B: P. M. (3710) 



Darwin, C : ■' Ueher die einrichtungeii ziir 
befruchtung britischer iind ausliindischer 
orchideen durch insecten, und iiber die 
giinstigen erfolge derwechselbefruchtung". 
Stuttgart, 1S62.'" 

Germ, tr., by H. G. Broun, of Darwin's "On the 
various contrivances by which British and foreign 
orchids are fertilized hy insects" . . . [Rec, 237S]. 

W: T. (3720) 

Dewitz, Hermann. Ueber das durch die 
foramina repugnatoria entleerte sekret bci 
glomcris. (Biolog. centralbl., June 1SS4, 
bd. 4, p. 202-203.) 

Discusses the function of tlie adhesive secretion of 
tiic foramina repugnatoria which, in g^loincris are un- 
paired along the middle line of the dorsum. 

G: D. (j72i) 

Doppelrolle des stachels der honigbienen 

(Ueljer eine). Deutsch-amer. apotheker- 

zeitung, ijjan. iSSv jahrg. "jjp. 664, 46cm.) 

Engl, tr., by B: P.'Mann; entitled "The 

double role of the sting of the honey-bee." 

(Psyche, Jan. -Mar. 1885, v. 4, p. 245-24O.) 

From "/«(/. hlalter.^^ RetnarliS on the function of 

the stin^ of apis mcllifica as introducing formic .icid 

into the honey stored in cells, .ind on the prcservntive 

action of the formic acid upon honey. /?; P. J\[. (^^722) 

Emerton, James H : New England spiders 

of the family t/ieriiiiiliie. (Trans. Conn. 

acad. arts and sciences, 1SS4. v. 6, p. 1-86. 

pi. 1-24.) 

Separate. [New Haven, Conn.. 1882.] 

t.-p. cover, p. r-86. pi. 1-24. 2^ >< 15, t 

18 X 10.5. 

External anatomy of the theridii'dae, and literature of 
New England species ; descriptions of 134. New England 
species, with notes on localities of capture and on habits, 
and with nuincious figures; describes S5 new species 
belonging to the genera theyi'dium^ miJ/w/ns, steatoda^ 
eurjfopsis, le/i'safiis, fi/iolcoinma, ceraiifie/Za, cornicula- 
ria, lophoinina, lophocarenum, tvteiicits, ert'goiie, liny- 
phia^ diplosiyla, bathyphauifs, hoiyphayitcs and micro- 
ncta, and to the new genera ceratinopsis, gramnio7iota , 
and spiropnlpus; a new genus, theridula, was made to 
include thcridion sphacrnia Hentz and the European 
theridion gonyffd'iter ^'wxKon. G: D. (3723) 

Fletcher, James. [Correspondence.] (Can. 
entom., Feb. [iS Mar.] 1SS3, v. 15, p. 40.) 
Rev. of T: W. Fylcs' "Notes on a gall mite of the 
nettle tree" . . . (o/^. cit.. Oct. [14 Dec] 1SS2, v. 1,^, p. 
ir>S-iC)9) [Rec, 3727]; identification, ns psyila celttdis. 
»tii>njnay of the insect described in Fyles' article, and 
remarks on the gall, and on the geographical distribu- 
tion of ce/lis occidcntalis in Canada. [For a reply to 
this revie%v, see T : W. Fyles' " The parasite r^i phyl- 
loxera vastairi.x'''' ...{op. cit.. [26] May 1SS3 [Rec, 
37^S]),p.S4.] B: P.M. (372^) 

F[oiirnier?], E[ug.]. [Rev. of] Darwin. 
C: On the various contrivances by which 
British and foreign orchids are fertilized by 
insects, and on the good effects of inter- 
crossing. . . . (Bull. Soc bot. de France, 
Aug. 1862. V. 9. p. 243-246.) W: T. (3725) 



■>m [3726-3734J 



PSYCHE. 



I January — March 1SS5. 



Fyles, T: W. Dcsciiplion of :i dipterous 
parasite of j>liylloxcia viisttitrix. (Can. 
cntom., Dec. 1SS2 [29 Jan. 1SS3], v. 14, p. 

^37-^39- fig- 25- ) 

Cril. rev. in C: V. Rile^''s "Dipterous 

cnoinies of the fhylloxera vaslatrix" {op. 

cit., Feb. [18 Mcli.'] 1SS3, v. 15, p. 39). 

Dfscrijition ami (ij^iirus of larva, pupa and iin.iji:" of 
iiiplosi.</ ^^ntsaator u.sp.; account, liy \V ; Saioulcrs, 
of parasilisni of the larva of this insect in leaf-yalls of 
/■hflloxera vili/oliiin. B: P. M. ( J72O) 

Pyles, T : W. Notes on a gall mite of the 
nettle tree, ccliis occidentalh. (Can. en- 
tom., Oct. [14 Dec] 1S82, v. 14, p. 19S-199.) 

Rev., by J. Flelcber, entitled "[Corre- 
spondence]." (0/. r//., Feb. [9 Mar.] 1S83, 
• V. 15, p. 40.) 

Reply to Fletcher's rev., in anthor's "The 
p.arasile of pitylloxeya va^itiiffx" . . . {of*. 
cil., [26] May 1S83, v. 15), p. 84. 

Rev. in C : V. Riley's "Ilackberry psyl'.id 
galls" (0/. f//., Au}f. [1 Sep.] 1S83, v. 15, 
P- i.';7-i,S9' H- 6-7)'- 

Description of jj^all anil of immature and mature 
staj^es (jf an unnamed "mite" | later determined as p^ylttt 
ct'Uidis.mitmmit\. V: P. M. (,1727) 

Fyles, T : W. The parasite of fliylloxi'ra 
vuflaliix, and the gall insect of the nettle 
tree. (Can. enlotn., ['6] May 1SS3, v. i^, 
p. S3-84.) 

Crit. rev. in C: V. Riley's " Ilackberry 
psyllid galls" (»/. cil., Aug. [5 Sep.] 1883, 
P-'i.>7-i.^y- fi.n- ''-7)- 

Coinnnuiicates notes by II. A. IlngCn on the insects 
des 'ribed as i/;//rt,?/,>:^ ^^'/Vf.v.v/f/or in author's "Uesjiip. 
tiou of a dipterous parasite i^i phylloxeya -vustiitrix^* 
{op. tit., Oec. iSS2 (20 Jan. uS9l], v. i.^, p. 237-239, n^. 
25) I Itec, 372 >J, aiul on tlie "ji'all-niitc" described in 
antlior's "Notes ini a pill mite of the nettle tree, rg/lii; 
oa-identalis** (o/». cit., Oct. [\.\ Dec] lSS2, v. 14, p. 19S. 
199) [Rec, .3727I; tile former insect is a eecidomy'l, 
bat not ccrtandy a tiifilntiis; the latter is identiHeti ,is 
pnylln vemtsta | later detcrniincd to he piirliypxylta c£l^ 
tiih's-mamino]; reply to ]. Fletcher's "fCorrespfui- 
dence|" {op. cit., I'"eb. [iS Mar.] 1SS3, v. 15, p. 40) [ Hec, 
3724], statinj^ that ccltis occidcntolis occurs in Vauilre. 
nil CO., (iuehec, but author has nf)t inct with it at Cow- 
ausville, Missisquoi co., atul criticisinjr theorlhojj^ra]>hy 
of tlie term «/^/ifi'.«. B: P.M. (37-28) 

JaviTorowski, Anton. Uber tlicentwieklnng 
des nickengefasses und speciell der mtiscu- 
latiir bei ciiironomiif und cinigen anderen 
insccten. (Silztmgbcr. d. k. akad. d. vvis- 
sensch. Wicii. 1879, v. 80, pt. i, p. 23S-258, 
pl- ■-.?-) 

Separate. [Wien, 1879.] t.-]). cover, 20 
p., s pl-, 25 X 16, t 17.5 X 10. 

Absti-act, bv P. Mayer. (Zool. jahrcshci-. 
f. 18S0, iSSi, abtbeil. 2, p. 107.) 

Abstract. (Behtkmi, P. Bericlit . . . der 
entoin. f. 1879, 1S81, p. 115.) 
Literature (i() titles); the main conclusions are th:it 
"to each nucleus on the C(Uitractile wall of the dorsal 
vessel beloiiys a muscle-cell, each riuff. muscle consi-,is 
cif two lateral cells which areonly partly u'rown to|,'e(her 
in the median -line, parts of the niusrle.cclls serve as 
"-il''-^ ■' fi: D. (i7;9> 



Keyserliug, Engen. Neiie spinnen aus 

Amerika. [1.] (V'crliandl. k.-k. zool.-bot. 

gcsclls. in Wien, 1879, '"'- -9' Abh., p. 293- 

350, pl. 4-) 

Includes descriptions oi iaczattcxvskia, castianrira and 
stetiorh'HtfS, (3 new gunera of arauehia) ; and rt( cf-cirn 
piiticti/Iata, i\ lui/timort'Jisis and tt'/rir^»a//ia i//inoifnsis 
(3 new species from North Aincrica | United StaU-sj) ; 
re- describes cyrtnrackne rorniff'fra, JilisttJta capitata 
and/", hibcrnaiis, from soutlicrn United Stales. 

O: D. (3730) 

Keyserliug, Eugcn. Ncue spinnen .tus 
Amerika. 2. (Verhandl. k.-k. zool.-bot. 
gcsclls. in Wien, iSSo, l)ii. 30; Abli.. p. 
547-582, pl. 16.) 

Advance notice. (Anicr. nat., June [21 
May] iSSo, v. 14, p. 46S.) 

Notice. (Amcr. nat., Oct. [21 Sep.] 
iSSo, V. 14, p. 740.) 

Includes descriptions of protioiis and anymarhus (2 
new genera of antticina) and of epeirn praArepidit and 
dittyua scdcntaria, (2 new species from .North America 

f United States]) ; rc-dcscrihes meta argyra from Anttl- 
es, Cayenne, and Mexico. G: D. (3731) 

Keysei'line;, Eugen. Neiic spinnen ans 

Amerika. 3. (VerhancII. k.-k. zool.-bot. 

gesells. in Wien. iSSi, bd. 31 ; Abh., p. 

269-314, pl. II.) 

Descrihes 30 new species of nraneina; includes tle- 
scriptions of azi/i'a,, cyrtognatha and Horrauoiiifs (3 
new genera), and nf cpr/rtj cai'iiiim, cariotes j/n'r'ttt7/s 
and /iorniTtot'Ui^.t um'coior (from caves of Ky.) ; iiirtyiin 
vo/iipis, d. To//trr/pt's, xysf/nts iirr/nV/Sf .v. /i-rortt/nSt 
inisumvna imporlnnn, iliotnisux hisfibl'osiis^ and philo- 
dromus /c/itiginosits (from United Suites) ; and sf/euops 
f'nsii/itris (fr<Hu P()rto Rico» W. 1.). G: D. (3732) 

Keyserliug, Eugen. Ncue spinnen aus 
Amerika. 4. (Verbandl. k.-k. zool.-bot. 
gcsclls. in Wien, iSSi, bd. 32; Abb., p. 
195-226. pl. 15.) 

Describes segestrioides^ a new genus of uraueinn, 
pachygnaiha tristriato, from "Itoston," many new spe- 
cies of nraneina from South America, and some from 

"Colorado" [? N. A.]. ' G: D. (3733) 

Kleraeu3iew^icz, Stanislaus. Zur niibercn 
kenulniss der bautdriisen bci tlcn raupcn 
und bci malachius. ( Verba ntil. d. k.-k. 
zool.-bot. gesells. in Wien, 18S2, lid. 32; 
Abbandl., p. 459-474. pl. 21-22.) 

Abstract, by C S. M[inot], cntillcd, 
E]iidermal glands of caterpillars and mal- 
achins. (Science, 9 Nov. 1SS3, v. 2, p. 632. 
17 cm.) 

Literature (10 titles); description an<i figincs of (he 
external glands of the hirvae ol h'pnris d/'spar, icncoinn 
s^i/irisy porthtsiii aurijlnoy paptlio macfinnn, /nrpyiti 
Tiiin/a and Tn»c\tsit io, ami of the evaiiinable glands of 
ihe iiuagr* uf nui/ar/iifis; mention (on his own or others' 
authority) of glands in larvae of orgyin gonost/gtun, 
o. /'ascc'ft'na, lipart's df/ritn, /. rtibca, pnpi/to asttrias, p. 
pddaiirhis, that's poiyxenn^doritia npollo,d. nnu^mosynf; 
m larvae of all European species of vaiicssa^ melttnin 
:\ik\ it rgynn is: and in larvae of /r/^'r)/////^, most r«r«///Vi, 
habrost'oift^ ch-ophana linarinf, oporia cmtuigi^ ntany 
sa/yridoCt apiectn nrbulosa, laicaniit stramini-n^ I. his- 
'*attiat and /. nottngrinidfs; uu!nti<in, on authority o( 
.,ahoull>£:ne, of evaginabje ^lantts on imai^o of oittho. 
comuf fqiustris and tbiit'us tiionu irus. ii />. (37(4) 



i 



Jamiary— March iSSs J 



PSl'CHE. 



[3735-3747] -'i'>l 



Kilnckel d'Herculais, Jules. Recherches 
niorphologiques et zoolo^iqiies sur le sys- 
teine nerveux des insectes dipteres. (Comp- 
tes-rendiis Acad. sci. France, i Sept. 1S79, 
V. 89, p. 491-494.) 

Notice. (Month, jourii. sci., Oct. 1S79, 
s. 3, V. I, p. 703.) 

Abstract, bv P. Maver. (Zool. jahresber. 
f". 1S79, iSSo,"p. 4S3.) 

Abstract, by E; Burgess. (Psyche, 
March [i May] 1S80, v. 3, p. 39.) 
General coiisideriitioiis on the nervous system of di- 
ptera, and on its application to their classitication. 

G.- 2). (373S) 

Kiinstler, J. Sur uiie forme aberrante 
du phylum sporozoa. (Comptes-rendus 
Acad. sci. France, 10 Mar. 18S4, v. 98. p. 

633-634- ) 

Peculiarities and development i)f a S|>eciesof gregarina 
parasitic in tlie intestinal canal i^i periplaneta americana 
[corr.]. G: D. (3736) 

Laboulbfene, Alexandre. .Sur les differences 
sexuelles du coraebtts blfiticiatiis et sui" 
les pretendus cEufs de cet insecte coleoptfei-e 
nuisible au ch6ne vert. (Comptes-rendus 
Acad. sci. France. 25 Feb. 1884, v. 98, p. 
.';39-54i-) 

Notes on the anatomy of the iienitaiia, and on the 
supposed eg^s of coraebtts hifattctattts whicti were found 
to be in reality the expanded ahdotnens of some species 
of acarid {near ivroglyphtts) ; tlie ovoid abdomens of 
these mites contained ei^gs, and called to mind the 
abdomen y\i pitUx penelratts. G: D. (.^737) 

McLachlan, Robert. £■«(«/)'/;«,« galls. (En- 
toni. mo. mag., Dec. iSSo, v. 17, p. 145-147, 
- fig.) 

Crit. rev., [by C: V. Riley], entitled 
■'Galls on ciicalvftus." (Amer. nat.. May 
[i6 .\pr.] iS8i,'v. 15) (Riley, C: V. En- 
tomology . . . [May iSSi]) p. 402. 
Description and tit^ures of galls, supposed to he dip- 
terous, on ettcalypttts g-riicilis, and of galls, supjjosed to 
he lepidopterous (pvralid) on a species o( eitcitlvMtls, in 
Australia. B: P. M. (373S) 

Muellenhoff , K. Die bedeutung der ameisen- 
siiure im honig. (Deutsch-amer. apoth- 
zeitung, i Nov. 1S84, jahrg. 5, p. 494-495. 
32 cm.) 

Abstract of a paper read before 57th assembly of 
German naturalists and doctors, at Magdeburg. Sept. 
1SS4; Honey, when thus sealed in tlie comb, is pre- 
served by formic acid (CH2O2] from the sting of the 
bee, and the bee-keeper can preserve honev that has not 
been sealed in comb by adding this acid;" price of the 
acid, and amount ot it required; consideration of the 
changes which formic acid produces in liDney. 

G: D. (3739) 

Miiller, Fritz. '-Blumen der luft." (Kosmos. 

May 1878. bd. 3, p. 1S7, 10 cm.) 

Note on the agreeable odor of the male of papilio 
g'-''y>- G: D. (3740) 



Mtiller, Hermann. "Asa Gray. Darwin's 
«erk liber die wirkungen der kreuz und 
selbst-bef'ruchtung im pflanzenreiche." 
(Bot. jahresbericht . . . Just, 1877, v. 5, p. 
743, 5 cm.) 

Notice of Asa Gray's "Fertilization of orchids through 
the agency of insects" (Amer. journ. sci. and arts, 1S62, 
V. S4, s. 2, v. 34: July, p. 13S-144; Nov., p. 420-429) 
[Rec, 2410]. II-.- T. (3741) 

Miiller, Hermann. Ueber die besonderen 
beziehungen zwischen pflanzen und insec- 
ten. welche sich auCinseln darbieten. (Bot. 
jahresbericht .. .Just, 1876, v. 4, p. 941- 

94--) 

Rev. of A. R. Wallace's "President's address" of the 
British association for the advancement of science — 
[40th meeting] — Glasgow meeting, 1S76— Section of 
biology [Rec., 2362]. II'; r. (3742) 

Miiller, Hermann. Darwin's werk:" Ueber 
die wirkungen der kreuzung und selbst- 
bclVuchtung im pflanzenreich" und seine 
bedeutung fiir unser verstandniss der 
blumenwelt. (Kosmos, Apr. 1S77, v. i, 

P- 57-67-) 

Rev. of C: Darwin's "The elTects of cross and self- 
fertilization in the vegetable kingdon" [Rec, 2369]- 

W: T. (3743) 

Miiller, Hermann. Die wirkungen der 
kretizungund selbstbet'rucbtung im pflan- 
zenreiche- (Bot. jahresbericht .. .Just, 
1S76, V. 4, p. 936-93S.) 

Ivev. of C: Danvin's "Tlie effects of ci-oss and self-fer- 
tilization in the vegetable kingdom" [Rec, 2369]. 

W: t. (3744) 

Miiller, Wilhelm. ITeber einige im wasser 

I'-bende srhnietterlingsraupen Brasiliens. 

(Arch. f. naturgesch., 1SS4. jahrg. 50, heft 

2, p. 194-212. pi. 14.) 

DfS'T'bes and figures the aquatic larva of cataclysia 
pyrnpislis., a Brazilian pv^alid, with especial reference 
to tl;<r anatomy of its respiratory system, in which oxv- 
t;enation takes phice entirely by traclieal gills ; describes 
tliL- larval case, and the pupa which lias two pairs of 
opun stigmata; exjjlains the building and structure of 
the aquatic pupal case, and how pupal resjiiration is 
possible in it; the larva never leaves its case, feeds upon 
unicellular aly;ae, and lives with its dorsum toward the 
stone to which*the larval case is attached, having its 
ventral surface dark colored and its dorsal surface light, 
while the reverse of this coloration is found in the pupal 
state; notes on larvae of oilier species of the genus 
coUu-Iyf^ta. G: D. (3745) 

Osborn, Herbert. The ash saw fly: sclan- 

dria barda Say. (Bull. Iowa agric. coll , 

Aug. 1SS4. no.*2, p. S0-S3, pi. 3, Bg- 9-) 

Partial life history, habits and parasites of and means 

against srlandria barda, injurious to fraxinus', eggs 

and larvae described. G: D. (3716) 

Osborn, Herbert. The corn root worm : 
diabrofica longicoruis. (Bull. Iowa agric. 
coll., Aug. 1SS4, no. 2, p. 6t-69, pi. 2.) 

Life history of diabrotica loiig^icornis; extent of its 
inji'vies to corn {zea mays) ; much of the account is 
statcfl to be copied from a report bv Prof. S. A. Forbes. 

G: /). (3747) 



•^<!-' [374S-3761] 



rsrcnK. 



[J:iniiary — March 1SS5. 



Osborn, Herbert. An epidemic diisease of 

ciilof/iiiiif dijferentialis. (Ainer. nat., 

Dec. [2S Nov. J 1SS3, V. 17) (Riley. C : V. 

Entomology . • . [Dec. 1883]), p. 12S6-12S7. 

Reprint, and crit. rev. of Riley's note, 

in author's "Notes on locust parasite" (Bull. 

Iowa agric. coll., Aug. 1884, no. 2, p. 83-S6). 

Xoticc of cyttomophlltora Ctilopteitt, a fundus parasitic 

in calopUnits diff't-rcniialis. [.\ nutc by C; V. Kiltiy 

follows, in wliich lie suspects "that the entomophthora 

is a result rather than a cause of disease and debility in 

this case."]. G: D. (374S) 

Osborn, Herbert. External parasites of 
domestic animals. (BiiU. Iowa agric. coll., 
Aug. 18S4, no. I, p. 69-79.) 
General notes on external parasites of vertebrates; 

brief descrijjtive and other notes on certjiin species of 

pediciilidat', mallopluigay sarcoptidae and i.xodidae; 

remedies for difl'ereiit kinds of parasites. G: D. (3749) 

Osborn, Herbert. Gall and blister mites. 

(Bull. Iowa agric. coll., Aug. 1884, no. 2, 

p. 54-61, pi. I.) 

Reprint, with a few alterations and additions, of 
author's " Leaf and gall mites" (Trans. Iowa state 
hortic. soc, 1SS3, V. iS, p. lay-iJS) [Rec, 3753]. 

G: D. (3750) 

Osborn, Herbert. Insecticides and their 
application. (Bull. Iowa agric. coll., .Vug. 
1S84, no. 2, p. 105-107.) 
Brief popular account of the more commonly used 

insecticides and how to use them. G: D. (3750 

Osborn, Herbert. Insects of the orchard. 

(Bull. Iowa agric. coll., Aug. 1884, no. 2, 

p. S7-97.) 

Notes on habits and ravages of27speciesof rliynchoti 
known to infestorch.ards, with bibliographical reterences 
"to the works that contain the jirincipal notes on each 
species." G: D. (3752) 

Osborn, Herbert. Leaf and gall mites. 
(Trans. Iowa state hortic. soc, 1883, v. iS, 
p. 127-135.) 

Reprint, with slight changes, entitled 
"Gall and blister mites." (Bull. Iowa agric. 
coll., Aug. 1S84, no. 2, p. 54-61, pi. I.) 

A popular account of the habits and life-history of 
the phytoptidae; especial mention of phytoptiis pyri 
and ph, quadripes^ and of species on Hfmns, fraxmus 
and negundo. G: D. (3753) 

Osborn, Herbert. Notes on locust parasite. 

(Bull. Iowa agric. coll., Aug. 1SS4, no. 2, 

p. S3-S6.) 

Reprint of author's "An epidemic disease of calo- 
ptenus diffcrentialis^'' \\\\W\ Riley's note] (Amur, nut., 
Dec. [28 Nov.] 1SS3, V. 17, p. 1286-1287) [Rec, 374S], 
and of C: E. Bessey's **A new species nl insect- 
destroying- fungus" {op. cit.t p. 1280-1281) [Rec, 3679], 
with addition of further notes showing tluit entomoph- 
thora calopieni is a true parasite ol the caloptcnus. 
[Contains numerous typographical errors, not in the 
original articles.] G: D. (3754) 



Osborn, Herbert. The pine louse. (Bull. 

Iowa ai^ric. coll., Aug. 1SS4. no. 2, p. 97- 

KJ5, pi. 3, fig. lO.) 

Bibliography, habits, lifc-history, and arthropod en. 
euiies of chernii's pinicorticis. This paper is .in ampli- 
fication of the author's " On a species of plant-lousc 
infestinj; the Scotch pine" (Trans. Iowa st ite hortic. 
soc, 1S79, V. 14, p. 96.107) [Rec, 3756J. G: D. (3755) 

Osborn, Herbert. On a species of plant-louse 

infesting the Scotch pine. (Trans. Iowa 

state liortic. soc, 1S79, v. 14. p. 96-107.) 

Observations on tlie life-history oi ch^rmes pinicor* 

ticis; descriptions of different stages, and notes on 

habits, classificati<ui, and insect parasites of and means 

against this insect. H. O. (3756) 

Osborne, J. A. Caterpillars. (Nature, 2 Nov. 
1S76, V. '15, p. 7, 8 cm.) 

Four out of nine lepidoptera that regularly pupate 
succinctorily succeeded in pupittine; as suspcusi when 
the girdle ot tlie pupa was cut just oeforc pupation. 

G: £>■ (3757) 

Poisoning insects in herbarium specimens. 
(^New remedies, July 1SS2, v. 11, p. 215,9 
cm.) 

Describes a box specially arranged for applying tlie 

vapors of carbon disulphide [CS2J to herbarium speci- 
mens. G: D, (375S) 

Riley, C : \'alentine. Dipterous enemies of 
the phylloxera vastatrix. (Can. entom., 
Feb. [y Mch.] 1S83. v. 15, p. 39.) 

Crit. rev. of T: W. Fyles* "Description of a dipterous 
parasite ci( phylloxera vastatr/x^' (op. r/V., Dec 1SS2 
[29 Jan. 1SS3], V. 14, p. 337-239) [Rec, 3726] ; the char- 
acters given ot diplosis ffrassator are not sufficient to 
distinguish the species; tlie ^alls o^ phylloxera vasta- 
irix [^riti/oliac] are inhabited by another enemy, named 
leitcopis phylloxerae in author's MS.; comparison of 
larvae and pupae of these two diptera. B: P. M. (3759) 

[Riley, C: Valentine.] Galls on eucalyptus. 
(Amer. nat., May [16 Apr.] iSSi, v. 15) 
(Riley, C : V. Entomology . . . [ May 
iSSi]), p. 402. 

Crit. rev. of R. McLachlan's ^^Euealyptus galls" 
(Entom. mo. mag., Dec iSSo, v. 17, p. 145 147) [Rec, 
373S] ; the supposed dipterous galls probably cecitloniy- 
idous; the supposed lepidopterous K'alls prnbablv not 
lepidoptcrous.hut inhabited by a lepidopterons inqui'tine. 

B: P. At. (3760) 

Riley, C: Valentine. Hackberry psyllid 

galls. (Can. entom., Aug. [5 Sep.] 1SS3, 

Crit. rev. of T : \V. Kyles' "The parasite of phylloxera 
vas/atrix, and the y;all insect of the nettle tree" {op. ri/., 
[26] May 1SS3, p. S3-S4) [Rec, 37?Sj ; phylloxera viti- 
foliae has many parasites and eeltis is attached by ntany 
species of gall-insects; description of characters of 
f^achypsy/la n. g. ; figures of galls ni paehypfylla [eel- 
tiiiis] x'enusta and p. c.-matnmay to the latter »>f win'cli 
species belongs the insect described in Kyles' ** .Vf>tes 
on a gall mite of the nettle tree, reltis oeeiaentalis" (op. 
f/V., Oct. (14 Dec] 18S2, v. 14, p. 19S-199) [Rec, 3727I; 
psyllit c.-gratitiig = pachypsylla I'etinsta; Oerivalion 
and orlhrj^raphv of the ijenerfc term eeltis. 

/»".■ PM. (3761) 



J:imi;iry— M;irch iS-SS-J 



PSITIIE. 



[3763-3774] -'G3 



Schilde, Joliannes. Fruhlingsbeobachtungen 
liber die natiiiimmanente erzeugiing der flii- 
gelpracht iind anpassung von schnietter- 
fingen. (Entom. nachrichten, Mav 1S84, 
jahig. 10, p. 141-147.) 

Se'parate. [Berlin, 18S4.] 7 p., 23 X 14, 
t 16 X 9.5. 

The nuttior ari^ues ngainst the views held by Darwin, 
Weisinann, and Lubbock in regard to tlie origin of cer- 
tain types of coloration in buttertiies' wintjs. 

~G:D (3762) 

Scudder, S : Hubbard. The pine moth of 
Nantucket, rctinia frtistrana. (M..\ss.\- 

CHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION 

OF AGRICULTURE. Publications.) Boston, 
A. Williams i& CO., 1SS3. t.-p. cover, 20 
[+ 2] p., I col. pi., 24 X 15, t 17 X 10. 

Notite. (Nation [N. Y.], 19 Apr. 1SS3, 
no. 929, V. 36, p. 341, 5 cm.^ 
Habits and description oi reiitiia fnistrana, ^ new 
species, which attacks piniis rigida in Nantucket, 
Mass.; description and colored ti^ures of the larva, 
pupa and imago, and of twigs oi piuus attacked by tills 
insect; notes on other species of retinia. Appended [p. 
iS-2j] is a notice of and extr.ict from ( : H : Comstock's 
•'llepnrtof the entomologist" (Rept.'[U. S.] Conimiss. 
Hgric. for 1S79, iSSo), p. 233 23S. G: D. (3763) 

Sograff, N. Ztir enibrjologie der chiiopo- 
deii. Vorlaufige mittheilung. (Z*)ol. an- 
zeiger, 6 Nov. 1S82, jahrg. 5, p. 5S2-5S5-) 
Researches on the embryoloi;y of chilopoda, chiefly 

based on two species of ^i'(j/////K.c. G: D. {3764) 

South, Richard. On the urticating hairs of 
some lepidoptera. (Entomologist, Jan. 
1885, V. iS, p. 3-6.) 

Notes on tlie iirtic;ttion produced by larvae, cocoons, 
and possibly by the iniagos of certain lepidoptera, 
amoug which Ujuiris aurijlua, bo77tbyx ruhi and species 
of cnethocampa are especially mentioned; discusses 
causes of tlie urtication ; quotes from T. P. Bigg-With- 
er's "Pioneering; in Brazil," in regard to stinging cater- 
pillars in Brazil. G: D. (3765) 

Speziesfrage (ZurJ. (Entom nachrichten. 
15 Nov. 1S81, jahrg. 7, p. 321-323.) 
Extract (from the Correspondejizhlait der Irmitschia, 
iSSi, no, 10) of tlie report of a lecture, delivered 3 July 
iSSi, in Erfnrt, Thuringiii, by Dr. Schmcideknecht, of 
Gumperila, on the difficultv of defining limits for species 
and varieties, based especially on studies of bombus. 

G: D. (3766) 

Trimen, Roland. Protective resemblances in 
insects. (Entomologist, Feb. 1SS5, v. 18, 
P- ^5-30-) 

Part of an address on mimicry among insects includ- 
ing spiders, delivered at the annual meeting of the 
S'uith African phitosopliical sociutv. G: D. (3767) 

Trouessart, E. L. and Megnin, P. Stir la 

classification ties sarcoptides plumicoles. 

(Coniptes-rendus Acad. sci. France, 21 Jan. 

1SS4, V. 98, p. 155-157-) 

Modifications are proposed in the classification of the 
analgesinae, with some notes on the synonymy of cer- 
tain genera. G: £). (376S) 



Wallace, Alfred Russell, see BiuTibii association 

FOlt THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE— [^bth meeting^ 

— Glasgow meeting, iSyb — Section of biology. Pres- 
ident's address [Rec, 2362]. 

Walsh, B : Dann. The grape-leaf gall-louse. 
Daciylo^phacra vitifoliac, Fitch. (ist 
ann. rept. acting state entom. 111., iSOS, 
p. 21-24.) (Trans. 111. state hortic. soc. for 
1S67, n. s., V. I, 186S; Appendix, p. 21-24.) 
Remarks on the natural restriction of the ravages 
of phylloxera vitifoliae to the leaves of certain species 
and varieties nfvitis, and on the rule that a given spe- 
cies oCap/tididae or coccidoe is generally confined to a 
given siK'cies of plant, and invariably to a given tamily ; 
discussion of the synonymy of dact'ylosphaera globosa, 
the male ot \v\\ic\\\-s, phylloxera raryoeglobiiH ^x\d the 
female is </. [///■] caryaesenten; hamnuieh^tes coruu^ 
hormaphis ham am el id is; description of habits and ot 
gall and insects oft/. [/>//. J caryacsenien n. sp.,- list of spe- 
cies and galls ot daclylosphaera known to the author; 
references to discussions of the characters of the genera 
mentioned. B: P.M. (3769) 

[Walsh, B : Dann a?td Riley, C : Valentine.] 

The joint-worm. Isosoma /lordei, Harris. 

(Amer. entom., Apr. 1S69. v. i, p. 149-15S, 

3SS cm., fig. 113-11S; p. 185, I cm.) 

Ravages, fond-plants and indications of the attacks 

oi isosovta hordei; seasons, habits and parasites, phyto- 

pluigic variation and generic classification of and means 

against this insect; figures of male and female imago; 

figures of male and female imagos of semiotellits chalci- 

diphagits n. sp., eurytoma sp. and decatoma sp., and of 

female iniago of antigaster mirabilis; protective habits 

of variniis insects. B: P.M. (377°) 

Webster, Francis M. Notes from Illinois; 
grain-feedi ng habits of field cricket. (Amer. 
nat., June [20 May] 1S82, v. 16, (Riley, 
C: V. Entomology [June 1SS2] ), 

P- 513-514- 

Reprint, entitled, " Habits of field crick- 
ets." (Sci. amer., 17 June 18S2, v. 46, p. 
3S3, col. 2, 13 cm. 

Notes on grylliis, epicatita pensylvanica^ diabrotica 
Jossata and d. longicornis as destroyers '>f corn {zea 
mays\. G: D. (3771) 

Weir, J: Jenner. Danaine butterflies not 
subject to the attack of mites. (Entomol- 
ogist, July 1882, V. 15, p. 160-161.) 
Spt^cxQ'ioi da?iaidae^nd papilla pa7nmon in collections 
seem to be distasteful to mites; quotations of other 
authorities on the same subject. G: D. (3772) 

Weir, J : Jenner. Effect of temperature on 
lepidoptera. (Entomologist, May 18S2, v. 
15, p. 115-116.) 
Sudden paralyzing of Vanessa urticae by cold. 

G.--D. (3773) 

■Weir, y: Jenner. Note on the use of naph- 
thaline in cabinets for the protection of 
insect collections. (Entomologist, July 
1882, v. 15, p. 165-166.) 
Tlie author warns Icpidopterists against using C : A. 

Blake's cones of naphthalin in tlieir collections. 

G: I> (3774) 



2<!f L3775-37«7] 



I'SILUE. 



I J;lmi:iry— M.ircli 1SS5. 



Weir, J : Jcnner. Notes on the lepicloptera- 
rh piiloccia of Hudson's bay. (Entomolo- 
gist, May iSSi, V. 14, p. 97-100.) 

Notice and crit. rev., [by C: V. Riley], 
entitled "Hudson bay lepidoptera." (Anier. 
nat..July [22 June] iSSi, v. 15, p.572-:;73.) 
(Riley, C:V. Entomology . . . Lfulv 
iS8i],p. 57-!-.i73-) 

List of iL-piiloptera rhopaloceia collected by Walton 
Haydoii, at Moose Factory, St. James' bay, t5rilish 
America, in 1S79 and iSSo; attempt to account lor tlie 
relations of this fannn to that of Europe. 

B: P. M. ( j77S) 

Weir, J : Jcnner. Variations in tlic colour of 
lepidoptera. (Entomologist, Aiitj. 1SS3, 
V. 16, p. 169-176.) 

Discusses tlie various forms of aberrations (hetcro- 
morphisni) in colors of lepidoptera under the names 
albinism, xanthism, melanism, lieteropoecilisin, gynan- 
drochromism, and herniaphrodism ; and tlu- forms of 
constant variation (orthopoecilism) under the names 
ixilymorphism, topomorphism, atavism, dimorpiiism, 
trimorphism and horeomorpliism ; gives examples of 
each of these forms of variation. G: D. (3776) 

"Westhoff, Friedrich. Der maikiifer auf der 

wanderschat't. ( i iter jahresber. d. wesllal. 

prov.-vereiiis f. wissensch. u. kunst. pro 

1S82, 1SS3, p. 9-12.) 

Record of observation o( a j;reat swarm a{ meloloiitha 
vulgaris seen migrating from the west toward the 
east. Gi D. C3777) 

Weyeubergh, H. Sobrc la familia/rt//r/V/(?c 

con descripcion de algiinas niievas especies. 

(Periodico zoologico argentino, 18S1. v. 

3, p. 261-26S, 9-17.) 

Separate. Cordoba, iSSi. t. p. cover-|-p. 

261-26S, 9-17, 23X 17, t 16.5X10. 

List of 53 species of /K//V/tfa^ and their hosts; de- 
scribes, as new species, ccratopkyllus rufnlus (from 
cervus rufus) , c. isidori ( from vespertilio is.idori) , 
pttlex {hectopsyllaf) testudo (from sirix periatn), p. 
nasuae (from uasua socia/is), p. obscnrus (from cmn's 
azarae iin<\ c. gracilis), p. controlaris (from Jelis ton- 
color) and p. cavicola (from cavia Uucopygu). 

O: D. (377S) 

Williston, S : Wendell. An anomalous hom- 
bylid. (Can. entom., Nov. 1879, v. 11, ]). 
215-216.) 

Description of a new species [unnamed] r»f tin- 
thrax, with remarks on anomalons neuraticni in the 
wings of one specimen of this species. 

B: P. M. (3779) 

Williston, S : Wendell. On the classification 

of Nortli Amei-ican diptera. ist paper. 

(Bull. Bi-ooklvn entom. soc, Feb. iSSv y- 

7, p. 129-139. 3 fig.) 

Separate. [Brooklyn, N. Y., 18S5.] t.-p. 

coyer -|- p. 129-139, 22 X 15, t 16.5 X 10. 

General clinracters of the syrphidae; talkie of the 
genera of North American ayrphidae; discusses the 
cliaracters and llieir value in the genera eiirt'rutoinviaf 



merapioidus^ :xn& pelococera . 



G: D. (37S0) 



■Williston, S ; Wendell. Dipterous laryae 
from the vyestern alkaline lakes and their 
use as human food. (Trans. Conn. acad. 
arts and sciences, July 1SS3 [Sept. 1SS4], v. 
6, p. S7-90, I fig.) 

Separate. [New Haven, Ct., Aug. 1SS3.] 
p. 1-4, 23 X 15, t 17.5 X 10.5. 
Account of the dipterous larvae, living in alkaline 
lakes of Nevada and California, which are used as footi 
by Pae-Ute Indians; figure of the larva and description 
of the imago under the name of ephydra caltjornica^ 
imder which n;une A. S. Packard, jr. lias already de- 
scribed larvae presumably uf the same species ; an ac- 
count o( the mode of preparinj; the larvae for lood is 
quoted frtnn a letter by W: U. Brewer. G: D. (37S1) 

Williston. S: Wendell. On the North 
American asilidae {iiiisy/*ogom'n(H'^ laph- 
ri/iac), with a new genus of syrphidae. 
(Trans. Amer. entom. soc, Dec. 1SS3. v. 

Table of genera of North America dasypogonlnae 
and laphrinae; describes one new genus, Ustoniyia^ of 
the dasyfiogoninae, and one, naiistgaster^ of the syr- 
phidae; describes 22 new species oi asilidae and one of 
syrphidae. G: D. (37S2) 

Williston, S : Wendell. On the North Amer- 
ican (isilidae. Part 2. (Trans. Amer. en- 
tom. soc., Jan. 1SS5, V. 12. p. 53-76.) 
Continu:\J.ion ot author's ** On the North American 
asilidae {dasypogoninae, laphrinae)^ with a new genus 
of syrphidae'* (op.cil., Dec. 1&S3, v. 11, n. 1-35) fltec, 
37S2]. Tables ot genera of (7A-;'//'//rtf, ana of species of 
laphria, mallop/iora, promachus^ era.v, and proctacan- 
thus; describes 16 new species and gives numerous syno- 
nymical notes. G: D. (37S3) 

Williston, S : Wendell. North American 
conopidae: slylogtister, dalmantiia^ ouco- 
myia. (Trans. Conn. acad. arts and sci- 
ences, July 18S3 [Sept. 1SS4]. V 6. p. 91-9S.) 
Separate. [New Haven. Ct., Aug. 1S83.J 
p. 5-12. 23 X 15, t 17.5 X 10.5. 
Describes the following new species: stylogaster 

tttglecta, dalmannia picla^ oncomyia modesta, and o. 

baroni; redescribes several species helonnini; tn the 

same genera. Gr'.- 3: (37S4) 

Wilson, Owen S. Remarks on rearin«:j lep- 
idopterous larvae in confinement. (Entom- 
ologLst, Feb. 1883, V. 16. p. 47-4S. ) 

Description of a mode ol rearing larvae of lepidoptera 
ill aiuhovy jars. G: D. (3785) 

Worthington, C: Ellis. A model collecting 
box. (Our home and science gossip, Sept. 
iSSi, V. 5. p. 103, col. :;-4. :^S cm.) 

Description of an excellent tield-collerting box, ca- 
llable of preserving small lepidoptera for a longtime 
limber, and containing several c<»nveniences. 

]i. p. M. C37S6; 

Wright, \V. T. 1 lormaphrodite oiloucf/is 
pottitoiia. (Entomologist. Aui;. 1SS3. v. 
16. p. iSS.) 

Description of a specimen of odonestis potatoria in 
which the right antenna is that of a male and the rest of 
the inscctis female. G- P. (.1787) 



January— M;ucli iSSS-] 



psrcHE. 



•265 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

Dr. a. Gestro, wliose address is at the 
Miiseo Civico, Genoa, Italy, would like a 
correspondent with whom he could exchange 
coleoptera of Italy, New Guinea, and the 
Malay archipelago, for those of North Amer- 
ica. 

o . 

Herr Lehrer Fr.\nz Buzek, in Rako- 
witz, Hungarian Austria, desires to ex- 
change coleoptera and lepidoptera of his 
own locality for those of North America. 
Address as above given. 

AssiST.\NT WANTED. — Dr. C. V. Riley is 
looking for some one experienced in collect- 
ing and mounting insects, to assist in the 
work of the Division of Entomology at the 
Department of Agriculture in Washington. 
Salary according to ability. Applicants may 
address him at the Department. 

South Americ.\n Insects for sale. — 
M. Louisa Ross, Hyde Park, N. Y. , offers 
for sale a 15-drawer cabinet containing ten 
drawers of butterflies, one of moths, one of 
more than 200 beetles, and one variety drawer, 
M South American; one of moths and one 
of butterflies, both North American ; syste- 
matically arranged. Price, $500, which is 
stated to be very much below cost. The 
beetles will be sold for $60, if bought separ- 
ately or with the most rare of the butterflies. 
The other specimens may be sold by the 
drawer. The collection is at the Cooper In- 
stitute, New York City, where it can be seen. 

Staphyi.inidae of Buenos Aires. — Mr. 
F^lix Lynch Arribalzaga has just completed 
a paper, entitled "Estafilinos de Buenos 
Aires," which occupies the first 392 pages of 
vol. 7 of the Boletin de la Academia nacional 
de ciencias en Cordoba, and which is an im- 
portant contribution to the coleopterous 
fauna of the Argentine Republic. The au- 
thor gives descriptions and notes upon iiS 
species (belonging to 58 genera) which are 
found in the province of Buenos Aires. A 
few of the species are North American. 



Entomological club of A. A. A. S. — 

The next meeting of the American associa- 
tion for the advancement of science will be 
held at Ann Arbor, Mich., commencing 
Aug. 26th 1SS5. The Entomological club 
will meet at that place on August 25th 1SS5, 
according to its by-laws; exact locality not 
yet determined. 

Will those members of the club or other 
entomologists who expect to be present 
please notify one of the undersigned, and 
also send in the title of any papers they ex- 
pect to read, and state the length of time 
they expect to occupy, so that a program 
can be arranged.' The exact place and hour 
of meeting, as well as the program so faj 
as fixed, will be published later. 

John B. Smith, Brooklyn, N. Y. , Ckaiimati. 

Herbert Osborn, Ames, Iowa. 

B. Pickman Mann, Washington, D. C. 

Committee. 

Data on annual addresses. The ear- 
lier annual addresses of the retiring presi- 
dents of the Cambridge entomological club, 
of which we publish in this numero that for 
1885, were as follows : — 

1st annual address, by S: H. Scudder, 
Jan. 1878. [5ce Psyche, Jan. -Feb. (14 June) 
1878, V. 2, p. 97-116 (Rec, 1401).] 

2nd, by E: P. Austin, 10 Jan. 1S79- S^See 
Psyche, 1879, v. 2: (14) Mar., p. 217-223; 
(II) Apr., p. 227-228 (Rec, 1434).] 

3rd, by E; Burgess, 9 Jan. iSSo. \^See 
Psyche, Mar. (i May) 1880, v. 3, p. 27-43 
(Rec, 2943).] 

4th, by E : Burgess, 14 Jan. 1881. [Not 
published; see Psyche, Jul. -Sep. 1S81 (7 
Mar. 1882), V. 3, p. 245 (Rec, 2950).] 

Sth, by E: L. Mark, 13 Jan. 1882. [Not 
published.] 

6th, by S : H. Scudder, 12 Jan. 1883. [Not 
published; see Psyche, Jan. -Feb. (5 May) 
1SS3, V. 4, p. 13.] 

7th, by B: P. Mann, 11 Jan. 1884. \_Sce 
P.syche, Apr. (14 June) 1SS4, v. 4, p. 155- 
■.';9-] 



2C,G 



PSYCHE. 



[January — March iSSs. 



Preservation of insects. — To remove 
the verdigris which forms upon the pins 
the pinned insects should be immersed in 
benzine and left there for a time; several 
hours is generally long enough. The ad- 
ministration of this bath cannot be too 
highly recommended for beetlcswhich have 
been rendered unrecognizable b_v grease, 
especially when dust has been mixed with 
the grease. This immersion, of variable 
duration according to circumstances, will 
restore to these insects, however bad they 
have become, all their brilliancy and all 
their first freshness, and the efflorescences 
of cupric oxide will not reappear. This 
preventative and curative method is also 
readily applicable to beetles glued upon 
paper which have become greasy: plunge 
them into benzine in the same way, and as 
gum is insoluble in the liquid, they remain 
fastened to their supports. Pruinose beetles, 
which are few in number, are the only ones 
that the benzine bath can alter; the others 
which are glabrous, pubescent, or scaly, can 
only gain by the process, and they will 
always make a good show in the collection 
. . . — A. Dubois in Feitille lies jcunvs nat- 
uralist cs, March 1SS5, p. 71. 

Necrology. Since our last issue an- 
nouncements of the deaths of the following en. 
tomologists have come to our notice : Constant 
Bar, entomologist at Cayenne, French Guia- 
na, died there in 1SS4. Professor Lauritz Es- 
mark, director of the zoological museum of the 
university of Christiania, died there in Dec. 
1SS4. George Mawson, an English lepido- 
pterist, died 10 Nov. 1S84. L. Rudolf 
Meyer-Diir, who has published articles upon 
entomology since 1S41, died 2 March 18S5, 
at Zurich, Switzerland, aged 73. Louis Au- 
guste Remade Mors, a Parisian entomo- 
logist and civil engineer, died at Paris, 7 
Dec. 1SS4, at the age of 5S years. Major 
Frederic J. Sidney Parry, a London coleo- 
pterist, died i Feb. 1885, at The Warren, 
Bushey Heath, aged 74. Titian Ramsay 
Peale, lepidoptcrist, born Oct. 1799, died 
13 March iSSs- in Philadelphia, Pa. Ed- 



ward Caldwell Rye, a well-known English 
coleopterist, and editor of the Zoological 
record, born in London 10 April 1832, died 
of the small-pox, in the same city, 7 Feb. 18S5. 
Sidney Smith, entomologist and concholo- 
gist, died at Walmer, England, 28 Dec. 1S84, 
aged nearly 80 years. Friedrich Stein, pro- 
fessor in the university of Prague, who was 
born in 181S in Niemegk, Prussia, died 9 
Jan. 1885 in Prague; Dr. Stein was a well- 
known writer upon infusoria, and in earlier 
life the author of a number of entomological 
papers, among which the most prominent 
was one upon the sexual organs and the 
structure of the abdomen of female beetles, 
with nine large plates, published in 1S47. 
The January (1SS5; numero of Rovartani 
lafuk gives a biographical notice, list of 
publications, and portrait of Dr. O. Tomos- 
vdry, whose death we have already noted; 
he was born 12 Oct. 1S52, at Magyar6, Hun- 
gary, and died 14 August 18S4, at D^va, 
Hungary. G: D. 

Upon a peculiar oriental locality 
FOR HONEY.* — Xenophon, in his descrip- 
tion of the " Retreat of the ten thousand," 
says that his soldiers drank barley wine, oinon 
kritys, as it had been introduced into Egypt 
by Osyris 4000 years previously, according to 
the Egyptian tradition, to take the place of 
other spirituous liquors. Sophocles and other 
writers mention this barley wine also. Xeno- 
phon says likewise that his soldiers were in 
the habit of getting drunk by the use of a 
certain kind of honey, and were poisoned by 
it. It seems that the bees suck the nectar 
from the flowers of poisonous plants which 
are found in that region. Such an intoxicat- 
ing, soporific honey is still found there under 
the name of Meli mcnomenon . I have suc- 
ceeded by many tedious investigations in es- 
tablishing the following. I obtained the in- 
formation princiiially through a former pupil 
of mine who is now settled in Kerchasund In 
Persia as a physician and apothecary. 

* Transt.itcd from Prof. Dr. Xavcr Landcrer's "Mit- 
thfihingen aus dcm orient" (Dcutsch-amcr. ajiothckcr. 
ztitiinB, 15 Dec 1SS2, jahrg, 3. p. 582). 



January— March 1SS5.] 



PSYCHE. 



267 



I have already reported to you upon the 
oriental mania for opium. But the opium 
•which is produced for the western countries 
and for China is very little in comparison 
with the domestic consumption. In the dis- 
tricts around Erzeroum, around Kerchasund 
and farther into the Persian districts are to 
be found colossal plantations, whose product 
is almost exclusively used where produced. 

In all probability it is the nectar of these 
poppy plants which gives the honey in those 
regions its toxic qualities. 

Tills honey is used as a soporific for children 
and is employed also against various aftec- 
tions, especially such as arise from improper 
food — sour milk, badly cooked rice, goat's 
milk, etc. — as for instance colic, and often is of 
aid where symptoms of death have already 
.appeared. 

Tlie opium which is collected from the 
poppy plants in those regions contains usual- 
ly 12 percent, and rarely less than lo per cent, 
of morphium. I had an opportunity to see 
such opium in the possession of a Persian 
merchant. It consisted of round balls of a 
few drachms weight which were wrapped in 
goldleaf. This is the kind which is used 
principall}" for smoking and chewing. 

Pupal retreat of Charagia vires- 
CENS. — Mr. G : Vernon Hudson, in an article 
in the Entomologist for February 1885, en- 
titled "Life-history of Chaiagia Tirescem" 
gives some interesting observations in regard 
to the habits of this bombycid from New 
Zealand. The larva bores in the wood of 
living trees, often in that of Aristotelia ra- 
cemosa (New Zealand currant), Olea apetala 
(black maize) and Leftospermnm (manuka). 
When ready to pupate the larva constructs a 
complicate tunnel, described as follows. "It 
consists of a spacious, irregular, but shallow, 
cavity just under the bark, having a large 
opening to the air, which is entirely closed 
with a thin silken covering almost exactly 
(he same shape and size as the numerous 
scars which occur at intervals up the trunks 
of nearly all the trees. Three large tunnels 



open into this shallow cavity; one in the 
centre, which runs into the middle of the 
stem ; and one on each side, which run right 
and left just under the bark. These are 
usually very short, but sometimes extend 
half-way round the tree, and occasionally 
even join one another on the opposite side. 
The central tunnel has a slightly upward 
direction for a short distance inwards, which 
effectually prevents it from becoming flooded 
with water; afterwards it pursues an almost 
horizontal course until it reaches the centre 
of the tree, when it appears to suddenly 
terminate. This, however, is not the case, 
for, if the gallery floor is carefully examined 
a short distance before its apparent termina- 
tion, a round trap-door will be found com- 
pactly constructed of very hard, smooth silk, 
corresponding with the surrounding portion 
of the tunnel so exactly that it almostescapes 
detection. When this lid is removed a long 
perpendicular shaft is disclosed, which runs 
down the middle of the tree to a depth of 
fourteen or sixteen inches [35-40 cm.], 
and is about six lines [13 mm.] in di- 
ameter; at the bottom of this the elongate 
vircsccns pupa sleeps quietly and securely 
in an upright position, the old larval skin 
forming a soft support for the terminal seg- 
ment of the pupa to rest on. The upper 
end of this vertical shaft is lined with silk, 
which forms a framework on which the trap- 
door rests when it is closed : the lid itself, 
being of a larger size than the orifice, which 
it covers, causes it to be extremely difficult, 
if not impossible, to open it from the ex- 
terior, especially when it fits down very 
closely, which is nearly always the case as 
long as the insect remains in its burrow. The 
object of this most ingenious contrivance is in 
all probability, to prevent the ingress of 
insects; blattae, slugs, spiders, and imma- 
ture 'wetas' {Hcmidciiia) are frequently 
found in both central and lateral tunnels, 
but they are quite unable to pass the trap- 
door, and are most likelj' entirely ignorant 
of the existence of the vertical burrow." 



•2(>H 



PSn HE. 



1 J;liiu;try — Miirch 1SS5. 



Metamorimiosks of akctic insects. In 
the chapter entitled, "Das insektenleben in 
arktischen landern," which Dr. Christopher 
Aurivillius contributes to theaccount of A. E. 
Nordenskidld's arctic investigations, pub- 
lished this year in Leipzig,* the author says: 
"Tlie question of the mode of life of insects 
and of its relation to their environment in 
the extreme nortli is one of especial interest. 
Knowing, as we do, that any insect in the 
extreme north has at the most not more lliaii 
from four to six weeks in each year for its 
development, we wonder how certain species 
can pass through their whole metamorphosis 
in so short a period. R. McLachlan adverts, 
in his work upon the insects of Grinnell 
Land, to the difficulties which the shortness 
of the summer appears to put in the way of 
the development of the insects, and expresses 
the belief that the metamorphosis which we 
are accustomed here to see passed through 
in one summer there requires several sum- 
mers. The correctness of this supposition 
has been completely shown by the interest- 
ing observations which (J. Sandberg has 
made upon species of lepidoptera in South 
Varanger, at 69° 40' north latitude. Sand- 
berg succeeded in following the de>-elop- 
ment from the egg onward of some species 
of the extreme north. Oettcis bore, Schn., 
a purely arctic butterfly, may be taken r,.s an 
example. This species never has been found 
outside of arctic regions and even there 
occurs only in places of purely arctic stamp. 
It flies from the middle of June onward, and 
lays its eggs on different species of grass. 
The eggs hatch the same summer; the larva 
hibernates under ground, continues eating 
and growing the next summer, and does not 
even then reach its full development, but 
winters a second time and pupates the fol- 
lowing spring. The pupa, which in closely- 
related forms, in regions further to the south, 

* NouDENSKIoLD, A. E. Studieii und forscliuiigen 
vcranhisst durch meine reiscn iin hohcn nordun. An- 
torisirtc ausgabe. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1SS5. 9 -j- 521 
p., S pi,, maps, O. il. 



is suspended free in the air upon a blade of 
grass or like object, is in this case made in 
the ground, which must be a very advanta- 
geous habit in so raw a climate. The imago 
leaves the pupa after from five to six weeks, 
an uncommonly long period for a butterfly. 
In more southern regions the butterfly pupa 
rests not more than fourteen days in summer. 
The entire development, then, takes place 
much more slowly than it does in regions 
further south. Sandberg has shown, then, 
by this and other observations, that the 
arctic summer, even at 70° N., is not suffi- 
cient for the development of many butterflies, 
but that they make use of two or more sum- 
mers for it. If then more than one summer 
is requisite for the metamorphosis of the 
butterflies, it appears to me still more likely 
that the humble-bees need more than one 
summer for their metamorphosis. With us 
only the developed female lives over from 
one year to the next; in spring she builds 
the new nest, lays eggs, and rears the larvae 
which develop into workers who immediately 
begin to help in the support of the family; 
finally, toward autumn, males and females 
are developed. It seems scarcely credible 
that all this can take place each summer in 
the same way in Grinnell Land, at Sz" N., 
especially as the access to food must be more 
limited than it is with us. The development 
of the humble-bee colony must surely be 
quite different there. If it was not surely 
proved that humble-bees occur at so high 
latitudes, one would not. with a knowletlgc 
of their mode of life, be inclined to believi- 
that they could live under such conditions. 
They seem, however, to have one advantage 
over their relatives in the south. In the 
arctic regions none of those parasites are 
found which in other regions lessen their 
numbers, such as the conopidae among the 
flies, the mutillas among the hymcnoptera. 
and others." 



Nos. 126-12S wt-rc issued irt March 1SS5. 






\^i.Vi.-"i>;.U, 



PSYCHE, 






\^ ^" - 



A. JOXJK.Kr.A.L OF ElSTTOls^OLOG'Y. 

[Established in 1S74.] 
EDITED BY 

B: PicKMAx Mann, Washington, D. C; G: Dimmock, Cambridge, A/ass.; 
Ai.BEiiT J: Cook, Lansing, Mich.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, N^ormal, 
III.; Joseph Albert Lintner, Albany, N. 7! ; Francis Hunting- 
ton Snow, Laiorence, Kansas; W : Trelease, Madison, Wise. 

Vol. 4. Nos. 132-134. 

April-June 1S85. 

CONTENTS: 

Advertisements 270 

The Insects of Betula in North America — Anna Katherina Dimmock . 271-286 
New Solvent of Chitin ............ 286 

Herbert Knowles Morrison 2S7 

Proceedings of Societies — Linnean Society of New South Wales . . . 2S7-288 

Observations on Decapitated Silkworm Moths 288 

Bibliographical Record, no. 37SS-38S4 289-296 

Entomological Items 297-300 

Published by the 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, 

Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. 
YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS, $2. VOLUME, $5. MONTHLY NUMEROS, 20 c. 

fEntered as second class mail matter.] 



270 



PSrCHE. 



[April— June 1885 



Psyche, A Journal of Hiitomology. 

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^^^ Cotnmencing with the nuniero (or January 
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one regular copy and, if he desires it, one copy 
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Subscription to volume 4 (1883-1885), a^ above, 

postpaid 55. 

The index will only be sent to subscribers to the 
xvhole volume. 

Twenty-five extra copies, without change of 
form, to the author of any leading article, if or- 
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Author's extras over twenty-five in number, 
under above mentioned conditions, each, . 2c. 

Separates, with changes of form — actual cost of 
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Terms Cash— strictlv in advance. 
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LITERATURE. 

Having accumulated an immense stock of refer- 
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PSYCHE. 



THE INSECTS OF BE TULA IN NORTH AMERICA. 



BV ANNA KATHERINA DIMMOCK. CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



{Concluded from p 24J.) 



Amp/iidasYs cogirataria Guen^e (Hist. nat. 
d. ins., 1S57, ^- 9' ^^I'sii. et phal., v. i, p. 208). 
Cramer (Bull. Brooklyn entom. see, Aug. 
1SS3, ^'- ^' P- 4S) briefly describes the eggs of 
this species, of wliich about five hundred 
were deposited 3 June. Bowles (Can. entom., 
April 1S71, \'. 3. p. 1 1-12 ) (.Vnn. rept. Entoiii. 
soc. Ontario, 1S71, p. 3S-39) describes a vari- 
ety of the larva which fed on "black currant" 
{^Ribcs Pm'g-nim']. and Goodell (o/. c//., Ajiril 
1S7S, V. 10, p. 67) describes another varietv 
which fed on apple and pear. Lintner (En- 
tom. contrib., no. 3, 1S74, p. 166) briefly de- 
scribes the larva, giving Acer as food-plant, 
and Packard (Guide study ins., 1869, p. 322; 
gives a few notes on the larva, which he states 
feeds upon Ribes aurcitm^ R. I'grossularia^ 
and Spiraea ftomentosa. Pilate (Papilio, 
May 1SS2, v. 2, p. 71) gives "honey-locust" 
{Glcdils.c]ita iriacaiithos^ as food-plant. 
Lintner (Entom. contrib. [no. i], 1869, p. 
64) gives plum as food-plant. To the above 
food-plants may be added Betitla alba, B. 
Icfita, Castaiiea vesca. Salix, and Spiraea 
sorbifolia. The larva varies from pea-green 
to brovvnisli grey or even brownish black in 
general color: as far as noticed the green 
form is from Ribes, Salix and Spiraea, \\h\\& 
those from apple exhibit all the color varia- 
tions; on Betula and Castaiiea the larvae are 
grey. Similar variations have been noticed 
in the larvae of Anip/n'dasys betitlaria, a 
European species. The larvae often rest in 
a partially twisted position, with their rigid 
bodies at a considerable angle from the stem 
to which they cling, thus imitating very 
closely twigs and petioles. The larvae are 
common in New England in [nlv and August ; 



they pupate from the latter part of July to 
September, the pupa hibernating under 
leaves and rubbish. 

Cymatophora crepiiscularia Treits 

(Schmett. v. Europa, 1S27, v. 6, pt. i, 
p. 190). Goodell (Can. entom., Apr. 1S7S, 
V. 10, p. 67) has described the larva of this 
species from a single specimen taken on 
plum, 30 May; pupation took place 6 June, 
and the imago emerged 19 June. In Europe 
this very variable larva has often been reared. 
Herr (Anleitung d. schmett. u. raupen , . . 
1S33, pt. 2, p. 272) gives a good description 
of the larva, and states that its food-plants 
are Aquilegia, Salix, Populus, Aliiiis, Ulmiis, 
Spartium, and Sambucns. Kaltenbach (Pflan- 
zenfeinde, 1872, p. 614-615) writes "A very 
common geometrid whose larva is very dif- 
ferently marked according to its food-plant. 
On Salix Borkhausen found it brownish- 
green, on Italian poplar grey-green, on Alnus 
brownish-grev, on Ulmus lighter green than 
on Salix, on Sambiicus grey-brown, etc. 
Treitschke's specimens reared on plum were 
yellowish. Pupation takes place under the 
ground; the moth appears in two genera- 
tions, in spring from hybernated pupae and 
again in July. The larvae appear in June 
and in September." Kaltenbach {op. cit., p. 
1 10, 234, 302, and 435) adds the following to 
previously' mentioned food-plants : Betula 
alba. Genista, ^uercus, Rubus, Lonicera, 
and Ligustrum. The larva of this species is 
common on Betula alba in eastern Massa- 
chusetts, where it isYound ready for pupation 
as early as the middle of June. Of three 
larvae taken 12 Aug. 1SS2, one pupated 29 
Aug. and hibernated as pupa, tieveloping an 



272 



psrciiE. 



April— June 1SS5. 



iiTiago the next spring; anothei' pnpated 2 
Sept. and died later, and the third pnpated 2 
Sept. and the imago appeared 28 Sept. of the 
same year. Two annual broods of larvae are 
therefore probable in New England, as in 
Germany, but part of the second brood ap- 
parently emei'ge and oviposit in lateautuinn, 
while the rest hibernate as pupae. 

Parafkia siibatomaria Guenee (Hist. nat. 
d. ins.. 1857. ^'' 9> Uran. et Phal., v. i , p. jy.;). 
A larva taken on Beiiila alba, at Belmont, 
Mass., 12 Aug. 1S82, pupated 19 Sept. and a 
male imago emerged 8 Oct. 18S2. This larva 
was mistaken for a young larva of Cynialo- 
fhora crejruscitlaria. Another larva, taken 
on the same species of plant, at Cambridge, 
Mass., 10 Sept. 18S2, pupated 27 Sept. and 
produced a female imago 28 Oct. 1882. A 
third larva taken in Cainbridge, on the same 
plant in the fall of 1SS3, pupated, and would 
have hibernated as pupa had it not been kept 
in a warm room ; the moth emerged during 
the winter. Packard (Mon. geom. moths 
U. S., 1S76, p. 418) writes "The moth has 
been raised by Mr. W. Saunders, of London, 
Canada, from a 'brown geometric larva on 
the pine, the imago appearing June 24th'." 

Rphyra fendtilinaria Guenee (Hist. nat. 
d. ins., 1S57, v. 9, Uran. et phal., v. i, p. 414). 
Packard (Mon. geom. moths U. S. , 1876, p. 
363-364) gives a description, by S. H. Scud- 
der, of the larva and pupa of this species: 
the larva fed on Compfoiiia asflenifolia. A 
larva of this species, taken on Betiila alba, 
at Wachusett, Mass., 26 Aug. 1882. pupated 
28 Aug., and the imago appeared 14 May 18S3. 

Anagoga pulveraria Linn. (Syst. nat., 
1758, ed. 10, p. 521). Hen- (Anleitung d. 
raupen d. deutsch. schmett., 1S33, p. 284) de- 
scribes larva and pupa, and gives Salix cafrca 
as food-plant of this species. Kaltenbach 
(Pflanzenfeinde, 1S72. p. 571 and 59S) gives 
Salix and Be/iila as food-plants. Packard 
(Mon. geom. moths, i87fx p. 488-4S9) quotes 
Merryfield's description of the larva, and 
states, on authority of Goodell, that the larva 
is found on Corylus. 



Eiidropia armatarla Hcrrich-Schaeffer 
(Samml. neuer od. wenig bekannter ausser- 
eur. schmett., 1S50-1S58, pi. 65, fig. 373-374). 
Saunders (Can. entom., Oct. 1871, v. 3, p. 
130131) (Ann. rept. Entom. soc. Ontario, 
1871, p. 38) describes the larva of this species 
which he found on species of Ribes. A fe- 
inale of this species taken 15 June 1883, in 
Cambridge, Mass., was confined over fresh 
twigs of Acer, Ribes riibnim and R. aureuni. 
On 18 June she laid two rows of elongated, 
flattened eggs upon a leaf of ^ff/-; their color 
was light green, but by 20 June they had be- 
come shining carmin-red, which later be- 
came dull-red. The eggs were 0.7 mm. long, 
0.5 mm. wide and 0.4 mm. high, and were 
placed closely side by side in rows, and 
gummed to the leaf. They hatched 27 June. 
The larvae would not readily eat leaves of 
Ribes. but ate, in order of preference, leaves 
of Betula alba, of Acer, and of apple. One 
pupated 2 Aug. 1883 and the imago appeared 
19 Aug. 1883 ; the second pupation occurred 

6 Aug. 1883, but the imago did not appear 
until 3 June 1884; two more pupated 17 Aug. 
1883, both of which produced imagos about 

7 June 1SS4. In this case, of the four larvae 
which succeeded in producing imagos, all 
were subjected as nearly as possible to equal 
conditions, being reared in the same jar, 
upon the same plants, which were kept fresh 
with their stems in water, yet one of the im- 
agos appeared the same fall, only seventeen 
days after pupation, while the three others 
remained about ten months in the pupal 
state. Those reared by Mr. Saunders hiber- 
nated as pupae. 

Eugonia aliiiaria Linn. (Syst. nat., 1758, 
ed. 10, p. 519) [= £■ magnaria Guenee]. 
The eggs of this species are flattened, oblong, 
I.I mm. long. 0.6 mm. wide, and 0.5 mm. high. 
They are of a greenish-brown, somewhat 
polished bronze color, and when laid upon 
a smooth surface are arranged side by side in 
a curve having the length of the abdomen of 
the female moth for its radius. When laid 
upon bark and rough surfaces the eggs are in 



April — June 1SS5. 



PS IT HE. 



•273 



broken, short rows. A single female deposits 
five hundred to six hundred eggs. Oviposi- 
tion takes place in September and October, 
and the eggs hatch in May and June, hiber- 
nation taking place in the egg state, as is the 
case with some other species oi geojnefricftie. 
Ilellins (Entoin. mo. mag., Mar. 1870, v. 6, 
p. J22) gives similar dates for oviposition and 
hatching in England. The larva and pupa 
are described bv Herr (Anleitung d. raupen. 
d. deutschen schmett., 1833, p. 25S) who enum- 
erates the following food-plants : Betiilii^ Al- 
>ttt^, Corvlns a'relitnta, Carpuius hcfuiits, 
inmiis, apple, pear, stone-fruit, and Tilia. 
Ilerold (Teutscher raupenkalender, 1S45, p- 
135) gives Fagiis in addition to the above- 
mentioned trees. Harris (Entom. corresp., 
i86g, p. 320) gives notes on different stages 
of this species. Kaltenbach (Pflanzenfeinde, 
1S72, p. 89, 21S, and 552) adds Acey^ Rosa 
and Popidiis as food-plants. Lintner (Entom. 
contrib.. no. 3, 1S74, p. 165), in a note on 
Etigonia magnaria. gives Syringa vulgaris 
as food-plant. Packard (Mon. geom. moths, 
1876, p. 530) quotes descriptions of larva and 
pupa by Goodell and by Scudder; the former 
entomologist gives Castanea vesca, and the 
latter Betula leiita as food-plant. Roviast 
(Annales Soc. linn. deLyon,ann. i8S2,[iSS3], 
V. 29, p. 340) adds ^ttercus rohur to the food- 
plants. Packard (Bull. no. 7, U. S. entom. 
conim., iSSi, p. 92) repeats Goodell's descrip- 
tion of the larva and pupa, adds one of the 
motli, and further remarks that Scudder's de- 
scription "is so different from Mr. Goodell's 
that I fear it refers to a different insect." This 
is not. however, the case, but the larva is 
very variable in coloration. Worthington 
(Can. entom., Jan. 1S78, v. 10, p. 16) writes, 
'■This larva evidently changes its color some- 
what with different food, as these [larvae] 
closely resemble the bark of this tree 
[maple]." The general coloration may vary 
to match that of the bark of the tree on 
which the larvae feed, but the head, which is 
the part of the larva that varies most, is slate- 
grev, green, or dull red in specimens taken 



from maple. These larvae, having molted at 
least four (probably five) times, pupate from 
the latter part of July to the end of Septem- 
ber; the pupal state lasts from eighteen to 
twenty da^s, the imagos flying from the 
middle of September until the last of October 
in New England. The larvae are not rare 
upon Bcltila alba and B. liitea. 

Ca/ocalii relicta Walk. (List lep. ins. Brit. 
mus., 1857, pt. 13, p. 1192-1193.) Bunker 
(Can. entom.. May 1S83, v. 15, p. 100) states 
that Populus is the favorite food-plant of the 
larva of this species. Hulst (Bull. Brooklyn 
entom. soc, July 1884, v. 7, p. 48) says 
"Food-plant, white birch and silver poplar; 
and probably all species oi Bctiila and Popu- 
lus.'''' The same author (/. r., June 1SS4, v. 7, 
p. 15-16) gives structural characters and 
habits of the larvae of Catocala. The Euro- 
pean C. fraxini, regarded by some authors 
to be a synonym of C. relicta, feeds, as larva, 
on Populus, Betula, Acer, Ulmus, ^uercus, 
and Fraxinus. C. relicta has been reared by 
G : Dimmock, in Springfield, Mass., from a 
full-grown larva taken under circumstances 
which made it almost certain that its food- 
plant was Acer. 

Brephos infans Moschler (Wien. entom. 
monatsschr. , Mar. 1862, v. 6, p. 134-136, pi. i, 
fig. 6). Harris (Entom. corresp., 1S69, pi. i, 
fig. 4) figures the imago of this species. 
Lintner (Entom. contrib., no. 4, 1S7S, p. 227- 
229) gives notes upon the habits of the imago 
which render it almost certain that the larva 
feeds upon Betula. The larvae of the Euro- 
pean species of this genus feed upon Betula 
alba, the larva of Brephos parthenias living 
between leaves that it spins together upon 
high twigs. The imagos of B. infaus are 
not rare about Betula alba, extremely early 
in the spring, both in eastern and western 
Massachusetts. 

Orthosia instabilis Fabr. (Entom. syst., 
'793i ^- 3i P' 119) [= Taeniocampa incerta 
Hiibn.]. Kaltenbach (Pflanzenfeinde, 1872, 
p. 429-430, 550, 640) gives the following food- 
plants for the larva of this species in Europe : 



PSYCHE. 



[ April— June ISS3 . 



Apple, Ulmits, Titia, Salix, .^iicrcns, Fraxi- 
ntis, Betida alba, Popitliis and Carpiiiiis; to 
this list Roiiast (Annales Soc. linn. L^'on, 
ann. 1SS2, [1SS3], n. s., v. 29, p. 315-316) adds 
Amygdalus commiiuh. Crataegus oxyacaii/ka, 
and CcHtaurea jacea. 

Afatela xyliniformis Guen. (Hist. nat. d. 
ins.. 1S52, V. 5, Noct., V. i, p. 56). Thaxter 
(Papilio, Jan. 1S83, ^- 3i P- '7) states that the 
larva of tliis species feeds on Brtiila and 
bhlckberry [Riibus\. 

Apatela hrumomt Guen. (Hist. nat. d. ins., 
1S52, V. 5, Noct., V. I, p. 52). Thaxter (Pa- 
pilio. Jan. 1S83, V. 3, p. 171 states that the 
larva of this species feeds on Bc/iiln, Stil/x, 
and Popiiliis. 

Apatela dactylina Grote (Proc. 13ost. soc. 
nat. hist., April 1S74, v. 16, p. 239). Thaxter 
(Psyche, Mav-June [9 July] 1S77, v. 2, p. t,},) 
gives Bflula and Salix as food-plants of the 
larva of this species. 

Apatela americana Harr. (Rept. ins. injur, 
veg., 1S41, p. 317). Harris {op. cit., p. 317- 
31S) describes the larva and cocoon of this 
species : he writes, '• The caterpillar eats the 
leaves of the various kinds of maple and 
sometimes also those of the elm and chest- 
nut." The same author (Treatise on ins. 
injur, veg., 1862, p. 436-437) figures larva, 
pupa, and imago of this species and adds 
Tilia to the food-plants; and (Entom. cor- 
resp., 1S69, p. 311) again describes the larva. 
In Amer. entom.. April 1S69, v. i, p. 166, this 
species is stated to feed on Populiis t/ilatata 
and P. monilijcra, and Riley (2nd rept. state 
entom. Mo., 1S70, p. 121) gives Bctiila and 
Alniis as food-plants. Coquillett (Papilio, 
Jan. iSSi, v. I, p. 6) describes the larva, and 
gives red oak (^uerciis) as food-plant. Thax- 
ter (Papilio, Jan. 1883, v. 3, p. 17) adds yii- 
glaiis, Fraxhiiis and Platmnis to the recoriied 
food-plants. 

Apatela viilpina Grote (Can. cutoni., Jan. 
1S83, v. 15, p. 8-9). Thaxter (Papilio, Jan. 
18S3. '^- 3i P- H-'.S) describes the larva of this 
species, and gives Pupiili/s and Bctiila as 
food-plants. 



Apatela spinigera Guen. (Hist. nat. d. ins., 
1852, V. 5, Noct., V. I, p. 45). Thaxter (Psy- 
che, March-April [24 Sept.] 1S78, v. 2, p. 
121-122) describes the larva of this species 
and gives as food-plants Riibiis and Betiila. 

Apatela occidentalis Grote and Rob. (Proc. 
Entom. soc. Phil., May 1S66, v. 6, p. 16). 
The larva of this species is described by 
Harris (Entom. corresp., 1S69, p. 311-312), 
who found it feeding on plum, cherry, and 
Pyiiis amciicaiia. Lintner (Entom. contrib. 
[no. 1], iS6g, p. 62) adds apple to the food- 
plants. Saunders (Can. entom., March 1872, 
v. 4, p. 50) describes the larva. Packard 
(Papilio, Nov.-Dec. 1882, v. 2. p. 181) briefly 
describes the larva and pupa. Thaxter (P-sy- 
che, May-June [9 July] 1877, v. 2, p. 35) gives 
Ulmiis as food-plant. A specimen taken on 
Betiila liitea, at Wachusett, Mass., 26 Aug. 
1882, pupated 30 Aug., and the imago appear- 
ed 12 June 1883. This larva, which also ate 
Betiila alba, did not entirely agree in colora- 
tion with Saunders' description. 

Charadra propinquilinea Grote (Trans. 
Amer. entom. soc, Jan. 1S73, ^'- 4' P- '^93'-94)- 
Goodell (Papilio, Feb. 1881, v. i, p. 15) de- 
scribes the larva of this species and gives 
"white birch" as food-plant. Thaxter (Papilio, 
Jan. 1SS3, v. 3, p. 11-12) gives notes on the 
larva, which feeds on Betitla. yiiglaiis, Acer 
and ^iiercits. 

Charadra deridens Guen. (Hist. nat. d. 
ins., 1S52, V. 5, Noct., v. i. p. 35-36). Saun- 
ders (Can. entom., Sept.-Oct. 1870, v. 2, p. 
145-146) describes the larva, and Lintner 
(Entom. contrib., no. 3, 1S74, p. 157) figures 
and describes it. Thaxter (Papilio, Jan. 18S3, 
V. 3, p. II-I2) describes the egg. the seven 
larval stages, and the cocoon ; the larva feeds 
upon red oak (^uerciis), Betiila and L/lmits. 

Cossiis sp. Lintner (Entom. contrib., no. 
4, 1S78, p. 244-245) states that the larvae of a 
Cossus, the pupal cases of which prove to be 
those of some as yet undescribed species, bor^ 
in the wood of Betiila popiilifolia. 

Gastropac/ia americana Harris (Kept. ins. 
injm-. veg., 1841. p. 273-274). This author 



Apri I— JuiH' 1SS5. I 



PsrCHE. 



•21b 



(/. c, and Treatise on ins. injur, veg.. 1S62, 
p. 377"37S) briefly describes the larva, wliich 
he states feeds upon apple, and, on authority 
of Abbot, upon ^iiercus and Fraxinus. Lint- 
ner (Entom. contrib. [no. i], 1869, p. 193), 
*n a note upon tlie larva, gives Bettila as 
food-plant, and later (Entom. contrib., no. 3, 
1S74, p. 154-155) describes the larva, which 
he states to feed on Betttla leiita and Acer. 
Lyman (Can. entom., Aug. 1S74, v. 6, p. 15S) 
describes the eggs of this species. 

Clisiocampa ^ilv<itica Harris (Rept. ins. 
injur, veg., 1S41, p. 271-272) [= C. dissfria 
Hiibn.]. Harris {op. cit., p. 272) describes 
the larva of this species, giving as food- 
plants, .^/lerciis, yitglatis and apple; later 
(Treatise on ins. injur, veg., 1S62, p. 375-376, 
pi. 7, fig. 1S-19) he repeats the description, 
and adds a colored figure of the larva and 
imago, adding wild cherry to the food-plants; 
again he describes (Entom. corresp., 1S69, p. 
292) the larva. Morris (Synop. lepid. N. A., 
1862, p. 326) quotes tiarris's descriptions 
(1841) of tlie larva and imago. Riley (Amer. 
entom., jul\-.\ug. 1870, v. 2, p. 261-265, and 
3rd rept. state entom. Mo.. 1S71. p. 121-127) 
describes eggs and egg-mass, larva and im- 
ago, giving, in addition to the food-plants 
mentioned above, Fraxinus, Tilia, Jfosii, 
Cai-ya, plum, and peach. Saunders (Can. 
entom., July 1872, v. 4, p. 134) repeats Riley's 
figures, and (op. cit.. Aug. 1S77, v. 9, p. 159) 
gives another figure of the larva, adding 
Acer, Ci-ii/ai'giii and Fiffiis to the food- 
plants; later Saunders (op. cit.. Feb. 1878, v. 
10. p, 21-23) gives notes on the eggs of this 
species and of C. americana. and on tiie tle- 
struction of these eggs by mites. Packard 
(Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comni., iSSi, p. 40-41) 
figures ^"g^, larva, and imago, and describes 
the larva and the male and female imagos. 
The larva of this species eats leaves of Betula 
alba. 

Anisota senatoria Abb. & Smitli (Nat. hist, 
lepid. ins. Ga.. 1797, v. 2, p. 113, pi. 57). 
Harris (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 1841, p. 291- 



292) describes the larva, pupa, and imago of 
this species ; the larva, he states, feeds upon 
white and red oaks '\_^nercus sp.]. Morris 
(Synop. lepid. N. A., 1S62, p. 231) describes 
the larva and imago. Harris (Treatise on 
ins. injur, veg., 1S62, p. 405-406) figures and 
describes larva, pupa, and imago, and (Entom. 
corresp., iS6g, p. 298, pi. 2, fig. 9, and pi. 4, 
fig. 12) gives a colored figure of the larva 
and a black one of the pupa. Riley [ ?] (Amer. 
entom., Sept.-Oct., 1869, v. 2, p. 26) states 
that the larva eats raspberry \^Riibtis sp.]. 
Lintner (Entom. contrib., no. 2. 1872, p. 51- 
52) describes the early stages of the larva, 
which, he writes, has four molts (fi\'e stages), 
and feeds on ^iiercris prinoidcs. Packard 
(Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comm., iSSi. p. 45) 
briefly describes the larva, and gives a few 
notes upon its habits. The larva feeds on 
Betula alba. 

Hyperchiria io Fabr. (Syst. entom., 1775, 
p. 560). Harris (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 1S41, 
p. 2S3-285) describes the larva and male and 
female imagos; later (Treatise on ins. injur, 
veg., 1S62, p. 393-396) he adds to the descrip- 
tions figures of the larva, pupa, cocoon, and 
male and female imagos; and still later (En- 
tom. corresp., 1S69, p. 295-297) he gives a 
more extended description of the larva. 
Morris (Synop. lepid. N. A., 1862, p. 220) 
briefly describes the larva. Packard (Guide 
study ins., iS6g, p. 299) gives brief notes on 
this species, under the name of Hyperchiria 
varia Walker. Bethune (Can. entom., Oct. 
1S69, V. 2, p. 19-20) briefly describes the larva, 
and Minot {op. cit., Nov. 1S69, v. 2, p. 28-29) 
describes egg and larva without recognizing 
the species. Lintner (Entom. contrib., no. 
2, 1872, p. 146 1.(9) describes the egg, the six 
larval stages, the pupa, and the cocoon. 
Riley (5th rept. state entom. Mo., 1873, p. 
133) describes egg, larva in its six stages, co- 
coon, and imago of this species, figuring larva 
and male and female imagos; and (Can. en- 
tom., June 1S73, V. 5, p. 109) describes the 
egg in detail. Reed (Can. entom., Dec. 1S74, 



276 



PSYCH I-: 



\ April — June iSSs- 



V. 6, p. 2^7-229, and Ann. ropt. Entom. soc. 
Ontario, 1S74, p. 11-13) repeats Riley's fig- 
ures, and describes the dilVerent stages very 
briefly. Grote (Can. entom., Sept. 1S7S, v. 

10, p. 176) states that this species is double- 
brooded in the south. The food-plants, as 
compiled, in chronological order, from the 
above and from other notices of this species 
are as follows ; Populiis balsami/era, Ultniis, 
Tfifolinm, Zca mays, and, according to Ab- 
bot, Coriiiis and Sassafras [Harris, 1S41]; 
^iicrciis and Robinia Z'iscosa [Harris, 1S69] ; 
Coriiiis Jiorida wnA Liriodeiidion [Morris]; 
Humnlus [Freeman (.\nier. entom., Oct. 
186S, V. I, p. 39)]; Gossypinm and Acer 
[Packard] ; Salix [Bethune] ; Poptilus trcmn- 
loides, Robi)iia pscudacacia, and Ccrasiis 
Tirgiiiiaua [Lintner] ; Amorpku friiticosa, 
Baptisia, Pruniis serotiiia, and currant 
[Riley] ; Coryliis avellana [Reed] ; Befiila, 
Comptoiiia asploiifolia, apple, Lcspcdeza, 
Sympboricarfiis, and Fraxiiiiis [Goodell 
(Can. entom., Sept. 1S77, v. 9, p. iSo)]; 
Prinos verticillatits, Riibiis villosiis and R. 
canadciisis [Goodell {op. cit., Apr. 1S79, v. 

11, p. 78)]; and Trifoliiim pralinsc [Pilate 
(Papilio, May 1SS2, v. 2, p. 67)]. The larva 
also eats Betula albii. 

Attaciis cecropia Linn. (Syst. nat. , 1758, 
ed. 10, p. S09). Harris (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 
iS4i,p. 279-2S0) describes the larva, imago 
and cocoon of this species; later (Treatise on 
ins. injur, veg., 1862, p. 3S5, 387-3S9) he adds 
figures of the larva, pupa, cocoon, and male 
imago; and still later (Entom. corresp., 1869, 
p. 294-295) he again describes the larva. 
Morris (Synop. lepid. N. A., 1S62, p. 223-224) 
describes larva, cocoon, and imago. Trou- 
velot (Amer. nat., March 1S67, v. i, p. 31) 
gives a note on the cocoon. Riley (Amer. 
entom., Feb. 1870, v. 2, p. 97-102, and 4lh 
ann. rept. state entom. Mo., 1S72, p. 103-107) 
describes the eggs, and figures and describes 
the larva, pupa, cocoon, and male imago. 
Sprague (Can. entom., April 1S70, v. 2, p. 82) 
describes the eggs. Saunders (Can. entom.. 



Oct. 1S71, V. 3. p. 149-155) figures and de- 
scribes the larva, cocoon, and male imago. 
Lintner (Entom. contrib., no. 3, 1S74, p. 125) 
describes the young larva. Worthington 
(Can. entom., Sept. 1S76, v. S, p. 165-166) 
notices some color-varieties of the imago. 
Gentry (Can. entom., March 1S77, ^- 9> P- 
41-49) describes the egg, different stages of 
the larva, and cocoon. Grote (Can. entom., 
Sept. 187S, V. 10, p. 176) says this species is 
double-brooded in the southern United States. 
Packard (Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comm., iSSi, 
p. 113) figures the larva. Neunioegen (Pa- 
pilio, Jan. 1SS2, V. 2, p. 18) states that this 
species usually emerges from the pupal state 
at about 5 p.m.; Brodie (0/. c/V., May 1882, 
V. 2, p. 83), on the contrary, states that the 
emergence normally takes place about 10 a.m. 
Riley and others state that the larva has five 
stages, but Wailly (Bull. Soc. acclim. France, 
May 1SS2, s. 3, V. 9, p. 266-267) writes that 
it has six stages. Brodie (Papilio, Feb. 1S82, 
v. 2, p. 32-33) gives a list of 49 species of 
plants belonging to 20 genera on which the 
larva will feed : the genera are Tilia, Acer, 
Ne^iiudo, Priiiiiis. Spiraeii, Crataeffiis, Py- 
riis. Ameliiiic/iier, Ribes, Sambiiciis, i'lmits, 
^i/erciis, Faffiis, Coryliis, Carpiniis, Betula, 
Ahiiis, Salix. and Popiiliis. From other 
authors the following genera are compiled: 
Berbiris, I^iriodeiidron, Syrinsra, Carya, 
Qlcditscliia, Riibiis, Ceanotlnis, Aiiipclopsis, 
CepliaUiiilhiis. Fraxiiius, Vacciiiiiim, and 
Rosa. 

Attaciis prometlica Drury (Illus. nat. hist. 
. . . 1770, v. 2, pi. 11-12). Harris (Rept. ins. 
injur, veg., 1841, p. 280-281) describes larva, 
cocoon, and imago of this species, giving 
Sassafras, wild-cherry, Azalea, and Cepha- 
laiithiis as food-plants: later (Treatise ins., 
injur, veg.. 1S62, p. 390-391) he repeats these 
descriptions, adding figures of the male and 
female imagos. Morris (Synop. lepid. N. A., 
1862, p. 224-225) describes larva, cocoon, and 
imago, and adds I.aiiriis benzoin to the food. 
plants. Trouvelot (Amor, nat.. Mar. 1867, 



Apvii — June 1SS5.J 



PS re HE. 



V. I. p. -51) gives a note on the cocoon, and 
adds Syn'iigii to the tbod-plants. Miiiot 
(Can. entom., May 1S70, v. 2, p. 100) com- 
piles a list of the food-plants of the larva, 
adding to those mentioned above, Beibeyis, 
Bettila^ Acer, ^nerciis, sometimes Thuja, and 
Piiiiis, Faffiis, apple, peach, plum, silvei"-bell 
\_H(tle.sia~\. Riley (4th ann. rept. state entom. 
Mo., 1S7J, p. 121-123) describes the egg, five 
larval stages, and tlie cocoon, and figures 
larva, cocoon, and male and female imagos; 
he atlds [..iriodcndron to the tbod-plants. 
Lintner (Entom. contrib., no. 3, 1S74, p. 126) 
describes egg and young larva. W. H. Ed- 
wards fPsyche, Jan. [27 June] iSSi, v. 3, p. 
i6i, 171-174) discusses the variability in the 
number of molts of A. prometliea, showing 
that it molts, in West Virginia, only three 
times, thus having four stages. Brodie (Pa- 
piiio, May 18S2, v. 2, p. S3) gives a note on 
time of emergence, copulation, and oviposi- 
tion of this species. Saunders (Can. entom., 
Dec. 1SS3, V. 15, p. 231-233) uses Riley's fig- 
ures of larva, cocoon, and male and female 
imagos, and adds Poptihis to the food-plants 
of the larva. 

AiL:ctis polyfliemus Fabr. (Species in- 
sector., 1781, V. 2, p. i58). Among the very 
numerous articles which have been published 
concerning this species the following are 
worthy of citation. Harris (Rept. ins. injur, 
veg., 1S41, p. 27S-279) describes larva, cocoon 
and imago; later (Treatise on ins. injur, veg., 
1862, p. 3S4-3S6) he adds a figure of the im- 
ago, and (Entom. corresp., 1869. p. 294, pi. 
4. fig. 17) a figure of the larva. Morris (Sv- 
nop. lepid. N. A., 1862, p. 226-227) describes 
larva and imago, and [op. cii., p. 209) de- 
scribes the egg, which he mistook for that of 
Smerifit/ms exciircntiis. Tixjin-elot (.Vmer. 
nat.. 1867, V. I, p. 30-38, S5-94, 145-149, pi. 
5-6) gives an extended account of this species 
which he tiled to rear, on a considerable 
scale, for its silk ; he describes the egg, larva, 
pupa, and cocoon, and figures the larva, pupa, 
cocoon, and male and female imagos, as well 
as Op/linn murritrinn . a parasite of the lar\'a; 



he says there are at least six varieties of the 
imagos. Packard (Guide study ins., 1869, p. 
297, pi. 6-7) repeats Trouvelot's figures. Ri- 
ley [.-"J (Amer. entom., March 1S69, v. i, p. 
121-122) figures the imago and describes the 
larva and imago. Riley (4th ann. rept. state 
entom. Mo., 1872. p. 125-129) describes egg, 
larva, cocoon, pupa, and imago, and figures 
larva, pupa, cocoon, and male and female 
imagos: contrary to Trouvelot. who stated 
that there are six larval stages, Riley gives 
the niunber of molts as four, making five 
larval stages. Lintner (Entom. contrib. 
[no. i], 1S72, p. 6) gives a note on the color- 
ation of the eggs, and {op. ci/., no. 3, 1S74, 
p. 152) describes the egg. Gentry (Can. en- 
tom.. May 1874, V. 6, p. S6) describes the 
normal form and a variety of the larva. Grote 
(Can. entom., Sept. 1S78, v. 10, p. 176) states 
that this species is double-brooded in the 
south; Trouvelot (/. c.) was unable to raise 
two broods to maturity in Massachusetts, and 
Brodie (Papilio, April 18S2, v. 2, p. 60) writes 
that, "in long and warm seasons about 50 
per cent, are double brooded, but this is 
against the increase of the species, as cold 
weather usually sets in before the larvae are 
fully matured." Packard (Bull. 7, U. S. en- 
tom. comm., iSSi, p. 48) figures the larva. 
Saunders (Can. entom., March 1882. v. 14, 
p. 41-45) figures and describes the larva, 
pupa, cocoon, and nuile and female imagos; 
he further figures Of'hion mcnriiiuiii. a para- 
site of the larva. Brodie (Papilio. May 1S82, 
V. 2, p. 83) states that normally this insect 
comes from its cocoon at about 11 a.m. 
Wailly (Bull. Soc. acclim. France. May 18S2, 
s. 3, V. 9, p. 265) gives some notes upon the 
larva and imago. A compilation of the food- 
plants r'esults as follows : .^iiercits, U/inus, 
Tilia [Harris, (841 and 1S62] ; Tilia amcii- 
cainj and Rosa [Mai'ris, 1S69] ; Acer, Salix. 
Popiilns, Coryliif, Betiila, Va c c i iii 11 m [Tr^ou- 
velot] ; Carya, yitg/aus nigra. J. chierea, 
Crataegus. (Amer. entonr., 1S69, v. i, p. I2X) ; 
^uercus viretis, [Chambers (Amer. entom., 
March rS70. v. 2, p. 156)] ; apple, quince. 



278 



psrciiE. 



[ April — June iS 



jilum, Pntiiii^ viyginiana^ Plataitus, Gledit- 
scliia [Rilej]; lictida leiita [Young (Can. 
entotn., Oct. iSSo, v. 12, p. 212)]: Htiiiia- 
mclis virginica [Kyle {^op. cit., p. 213)]; 
Castanea vcsca, Fagiis [Wailly (Joiirn. Soc. 
arts, 31 Maich 1SS2, v. 30, p. 52S)] ; Tilla 
enrofaea, Cra/tiegns cocciiiett, C. tomeiitosu, 
C. crnx-galli, Amelanc/iiei- cauiii/e/isis, Ribes 
cyiiosba/i, ^iterciis alba, ^. macrocar/>a, ^. 
1-itbia^ Coiyliis americaiia, C. rostra/a, F'agiis 
fcringiiica, Carpinus americaiia, Osirya vir- 
ginica, Caiya toiiientosa, C. amara, C. alba, 
Betiila tciita, B. excclsa, B. alba, B. pafyra- 
cca, Aliiiis iiicaiia, A. serrula/a, Salix alba, 
S. IiHinuli^, Popitlus. graiididentata, P. tre- 
mii/oides [Brodie (Papilio, April 1SS2, v. 2, 
p. 58-59)]. Cliestnut, as a food-plant, is only 
mentioned by Wailly, who reared tlie larvae 
in England, but they are often found, in east- 
ern Massachusetts, on Caslaiiea vesca. 

Attaciis lima Linn. (Syst. nat. , 175S. ed. 10, 
p. 210). Hanis (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 1S41, 
p. 277-27S) describes larva, cocoon, and ima- 
go, and gives Jiiglans and Carya as food- 
plants; he repeats (Treatise on ins. injur, 
veg., 1S62, p. 3S2-3S4) these descriptions, add- 
ing a figure of the cocoon and imago; later 
(Entom. corresp., 1869, p. 293-294, pi. 4, fig. 
14) he describes and figures the larva, speci- 
fying the food-plants as Carya forcina and 
Jnglaiis ciiierea. Morris (Synop. lepid. \. 
A., 1S62, p. 225-226) describes the larva 
and imago. Trouvelot (Amer. nat.. Mar. 
1S67, V. I. p. 31) gives a note on the cocoon, 
and adds ^iierciis and Pla/iiniis to the food- 
plants. Minot (Can. entom., Nov. 1S69. v. 2, 
p. 27) describes the egg. Riley (4th ann. 
rept. state entom. Mo., 1S72, p. 123-125) de- 
scribes the egg and larva, which he states to 
have five stages, and figures larva, cocoon, 
and imago; among food-plants he mentions 
Liqiiidambar, Fagiis, Betiila, Salix, and 
plum. Lintner (Entom. contrib.. no. 3. 1S74, 
p. 126-128) describes the larva, which molts 
four times. Gentry (Can. entom.. May 1874, 
v. 6, p. 86) describes the normal form of the 
larva, and a variety of it. Bunker (Can. 



entom.. Ajiril 1S75, v. 7, p. 63) mentions how 
to distinguish the cocoon of this species from 
that oi A. polyplieiniis. Rogers (Can. entom. 
1S75, v. 7: Aug. p. 141-143; Oct.. p. 199-200) 
describes egg, larva, cocoon, and imago. 
Thaxter (Psyche, Sept. [10 Nov.] 1S76, v. i. 
p. 194) adds Os/rya X'irginica and Castanea 
to the food-plants of the larva. Saunders 
(Can. entom., Feb. 1S77, v. 9, p. 32-33) figures 
and describes the imago. Grote (Can. en- 
tom., Sept. 1S7S, V. 10, p. 176J states that this 
species is double-brooded in the southern 
United States. 

Drcpaiia sp. A pupa taken 5 July 1SS3. at 
Cambridge, Mass., upon Beliila alba, upon 
which the larva had evidently fed, gave as 
imago. 16 July 1883, a species of Drcpaiia. 

Platypteryx bilincata Packard (Proc. En- 
tom. soc. Phil., Nov. 1S64, v. 3, p. 359). Pack- 
ard (Ac.) writes "Dr. Harris has reared this 
rom the larva, which pupated July 25 ; imago 
Aug. 15." Harris (Entom. corresp., 1S69, p. 
142) gives a crude figure of the larva of some 
American species of Platypteryx?, and Pack- 
ard (Guide study ins., 1S69, p. 293) repeats 
this figure as that of a species of Dryopteris; 
no food-plant is mentioned by eitlier author. 
The European species, Platypteryx lacerliila, 
feeds on birch. The larva of P. biliiieata is 
found upon Betiila alba, in eastern Massa- 
chusetts, about the first of July and again 
early in September ; hibernation takes place 
as pupa in the September brood. Dr. G : 
Dimmock will later describe the egg, larva 
and pupa of this insect in detail, but the fol- 
lowing hotes will sufiice for the recognition 
of the Irva and pupa. The full-jrown larva 
is about 12 mm. long, tapering from the an- 
terior to the posterior end, which latter term- 
inates in a single point, turned upward, in 
place of the anal legs. The dorsal surface of 
each segment bears four tubercles, each sup- 
porting a single short hair. The arrange- 
ment of these tubercles is peculiar : segment 
I has small tubercles arranged thus .. ..; 
segments 2 and 3 each have large tubercles 
arranged •..• (the head in each ca.^e sup- 



April— June 1SS5/ 



PSYCHE. 



279 



posed to be upward) ; segments 4-10 each 
ha\e small tubercles arranged ."•. ; segments 
n-12 each have two large and two small tub- 
ercles arranged • . . • . The slight cocoon is 
made between leaves of the birch which the 
larva has drawn together for the purpose, 
and the pupa within it is denselv covered 
with a white bloom. 

CoeiodasYS iniicortiis Abb. & Sniith (Nat. 
hist, lepid. ins. Ga., 1797, v. 2, p. 165, pi. 86). 
Harris (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 1S41, p. 306-307) 
describes the lar\'a of this species and gives 
as food-plants plum and apple, and adds to 
them, on authoritv of Abbot, Prinos verti- 
cillafiis. Harris (Entom. corresp., 1S69, pi. 
2, fig. 8) gives a colored figure of the larva. 
Payne (Amer. entom., Oct. 1S70, v. 2, p. 341) 
notes that the larva mimics partly dead and 
partly living margins of leaves. Lintner (En- 
tom. contrib., no. 3, 1S74. p. 131) describes 
and figures the larva, adding Corylits ameri- 
cami and PitiiiKS viigiiiiana to the previously 
known food-plants; his figure is copied in 
Amer. nat., Nov. 1S74, v. 8, p. 691-692. Pack- 
ard (Bull, 7, U. H. entom. comm., iSSi, p. 136) 
adds Crataegus to the food-plants. The 
larva also feeds on Beiiila alba. 

Notodonia conciiiiia Abb. & Smith (Nat. 
hist, lepid. ins. Ga., 1797, v. 2, p. 169, pi. 85)- 
Harris (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 1S41, p. 307- 
309) describes larva and imago of this spe- 
cies, and gives as food-plants apple, cherry, 
plum, Rosa and Crataegus; this description 
is quoted by Morris (Synop. lepid. N. A., 
1S62, p. 242), and is repeated with figures of 
larva and imago (Treatise on ins. injur, veg., 
1S62, p. 425-426, pi. 6, fig. 11) and with a 
colored figure of the larva by Harris (Entom. 
corresp , 1869, p. 303, pi. i, fig. 3). Riley 
(Amer. entom., Sept. -Oct., 1869, v. 2, p. 27) 
figures larva, pupa, and imago, and adds pear 
to the food-plants ; Riley's figures are re- 
peated by Saunders (Can. entom.. July 18S1, 
V. 13, p. 13S-140). The larva also eats Be- 
tttla alba. 

Nolodoiita diclaca Linn. (Syst. nat.. 1767. 
ed. 12. p. S26) [=: P/ieiisia rimosa Packard 



(Proc. Entom. soc. Phil., Nov. 1S64. v. 3, p. 
358)]. Lintner (Entom. contrib.. no. 4, 1S7S, 
\). 188-193) gives descriptions of the lar\'ae 
and other notes on this species, for which, 
on authority of Stephens, he gives the food- 
plants Po/^idns. Sali.x. and Bctula. 

Datana ministra Drury (lUust. nat. hist. 
1773, V. 2, p. 25, pi. 14, fig. 3). Harris (Rept. 
ins. injur, veg., 1841, p. 31 1-312) describes the 
larva and imago, and this description is re- 
peated, with the addition of a wood-cut of 
the lar\'a and a colored figure of the imago, 
in his Treatise on ins. injur, veg., in 1S62; 
he gives (Entom. corresp., 1S69, p. 308-310, 
pi. 2, fig. 4) a description with colored fig- 
ure of the larva. Grote and Robinson (Proc. 
^Entom. soc. Phil., 1S66, v. 6, p. 11-12) de- 
scribe the imago and the larva with especial 
reference to distinguishing it from the larvae 
of other species of Dataiia. Harris {I.e.) 
gave as food-plants of the larvae, apple and 
cherry: Riley (Amer. entom., Jnly-Aug., 
1S70. V. 2, p. 263) adds Jiiglaiis nigra; 
and Southwick and Beuttenmiiller (Science 
record, 15 April 18S4, v. 2, p. 133), in a list 
of the food plants of larvae of species of 
Datana, add, for £>. ministra. ^iiercus, 
Coryliis, Carya, Crataegus, Robinia, Betu- 
1(1, Tilia, Castanea, and Fagus. The eggs 
of this species, which are often found in 
groups beneath the leaves of Betuta alba, 
are, at least in eastern Massachusetts, very 
often nearly all destroyed by a minute hy- 
menopterous parasite. 

Limacodes scafha Harr. (Rept. ins. injur, 
veg., 1841. p. 303). Harris {I.e., and Trea- 
tise on ins. injur, veg., 1S62, p. 420) describes 
the species as larva, which he states to live 
on yuglans: later (Entom. corresp., 1869, p. 
300, pi. 3, fig. 8) he figures the larva, and 
adds apple to the food-plants. Walsh (Proc. 
Bost. soc. nat. hist., Feb. 1S64, v. 9, p. 298- 
299) first describes the imago and says, "The 
larva fed on hickory leaves, but I have met 
with two specimens on the button-wood or 
sycamore." Packard (Guide study ins., 1869, 
p. 290 and Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comm., i8Si, 



280 



J'SrCHE. 



1 Apiil— June i8Sj. 



p. 77) briefly describes the larva, cocoon and 
imago, figuring the last. A single larva of 
this species, taken on Bciula alba at Bel- 
mont, Mass, \z Aug. 1S82, pupated 17 Sept., 
and emerged 1 July 1S83. The excrement 
of the larva lias a peculiar form, being cup- 
shaped, with a deep concavity, and coni- 
parativelv thin walls which are somewhat 
shrivelled about the margin in drying. The 
larva, when disturbed, exhales an odor diffi- 
cult to describe. A short time before pupa- 
tion it turns whitish. 

Phobctron pitheciiim Abb. & Smith (Nat. 
hist, lepid. ins. Ga., 1797, v. 2, p. 147, pi. 74). 
Harris (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 1S41, p. 304- 
305) describes the larva and imago of this 
species, stating that the larva feeds on oak, 
and, according to Melsheinier, on wild cher- 
ry ; later (Treatise on ins. injur, veg., 1S62, 
p. 421-422) he adds to this description a poor 
figure of the larva and of the cocoon ; he 
gives a brief note (Entom. corresp., iS6y, p. 
244-245) on the larva. Riley (Amer. entom. 
V. 2 : Sept.-Oct. 1S69, p. 25 ; Oct. 1S70, p. 340) 
gives a good figure of the larva, which he 
states to feed on apple and Siberian crab- 
apple; he later (5tli ann. rept. state entom. 
Mo., 1873, p. 126) gives this species in a list 
of larvae which have urticating power. Lint- 
ner (Entom. contrib., no. 3, 1S74, p. 149) 
describes the cocoon, and adds plum, pear, 
and Coiyliis americaiia to the food-plants. 
This larva is rarely found in eastern Massa- 
chusetts and a little more abundant fn the 
western part of the state ; a favorite food- 
plant is Betula alba. 

Orgyia leiicostigma Abb. & Smith (Nat. 
hist, lepid. ins. Ga., 1797, v. 2, p. 157, pi. 79). 
Harris (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 1841. p. 261- 
263) describes th^ eggs, larva and imago of 
this species; apple and Rosa are given as 
food-plants. The same author (Treatise on 
ins. injur, veg., 1S62, p. 366-368) figures and 
describes the eggs, larva, cocoon, and male 
and female imagos, and adds Ae$riilus liifpo- 
castuHumto the food-plants; later (Entom. 
corresp., 1S69, p. 291) he adds futher Salix, 



Ccl/is and Carya to the food-plants. Fitch 
(ist and 2nd rept. ins. N. Y., 1S56, p. 202-220) 
describes the diflferent stages of this species, 
noting in addition to food-plants mentioned 
above, Ulmiis, Acer, ^uerciis. and plum. 
Riley (ist ann. rept. state entom. Mo., 1S69, 
p. 144-147) figures and describes briefly the 
eggs, larva, pupa, cocoon and male and fe- 
male imagos; the figure of the larva is re- 
peated in Amer. entom., Sept. 1870, v. 2, p. 
306. Saunders (Can. entom., Apr. 1S71, v. 
3, p. 14-15) repeats Riley's figure of the larva, 
and describes the egg and egg-mass. Pack- 
ard (Bull. 7, U. S. entom. comm., 1S81, p. 
239) repeats Riley's figures of the different 
stages of this species. Coleman (Papilio, 
Nov. -Dec. 18S2, V. 2, p. 164-166) describes* 
some variations in the coloration of the lar- 
vae. Clarkson (Can. entom., Sept. 1SS3, v. 
15. p. 16S) mentions that this larva particu^^ 
larly attacks the silver-leaf Popiiliis, and 
calls attention to the fact that ichneumons 
oviposit in cocoons of this species. The 
larva feeds upon Bclitla alba and B. leiita. 
Hyfhanlria textor Harr. (N. E. farmer, 22 
Aug. 1S28, V. 7, no. 5, p. 34). Harris, Rept. 
ins. injur, veg., 1S41, p. 254-255) describes 
the larva, cocoon and imago of this species. 
giving apple and Ulmus as food plants of the 
larva; later (Treatise on ins. injur, veg., 
1S62, p. 357-358, pi. 7, fig. 10-12) he repeats 
these descriptions and adds figures of larva, 
cocoon, and pupa. Morris (Synop. lepid. 
N. A., 1862, p. 344) gives a brief description 
of larva and imago. Harris (Entom. corre*p., 
1S69, p. 360) quotes the original descriptions 
of larvaand imago Riley [.'] (Amer. entom., 
Nov. 1869, v. 2, p. 39) givts as food-plants, 
Carya. Pruniis- 5c;'o//««, apple, crab, Fraxi- 
iiiis, Ulmiis, Salix, .^iicrcii.^, Belula and Pla- 
taniis. Riley (3rd ann. rept. state entom. 
Mo., 1S71, p. 130-132) describes and figures 
larva, pupa, and imago . addirg Juglan!, 
.^/lerc/is, hop-plantain. P/iascoliis and //<■//- 
anihus. Riley's figures are given, with descrip- 
tions, by Saunders(Can. entom., Aug. 1S73, 
V. 5, p. 141-143) and by Packard (Bull. 7, U. S. 



April— June 1SS5 ' 



PSYCHE. 



281 



entoin. comm., iSSi, p. 67). Tlie larvae also 
feed on Svriuga vulgaris^ Ribcs nibnnn, 
and Bctiila alba. 

Spilosoma virgiiiica Fabr. (Svst. entoni., 
Snppl., 1775, p. 437). Harris (Rept. ins. 
injur, veg. , 1841. p. 247-24S) describes the 
larva and imago, stating that the larva feeds 
on leaves oi Plautago, Pisitm. Phaseolits. Zea 
miiys. gramineae, Vitis, Rtbes nibriim and 
-/?. grosfulari'a; later (Treatise on ins. injur, 
veg., 1S62, p. 349-351) he adds a figure of the 
larva and imago, and (Entom. corresp., 1S69, 
p 2S7-288) he describes the larva and pupa. 
Morris (Synop. lepid. N. A., 1862, p. 342- 
343) describes larva and imago. Riley (Amer. 
entom., July-Aug. 1S70. v. 2, p. 272-273 and 
3rd ann. rept. state entom. Mo., 1871, p. 68- 
69) describes and figures the larva pupa, and 
imago, adding to the above-mentioned food- 
plants, ynglans cinerca. Svriuga, Coiiiwlvu- 
lits. Gossypiitm, Heliaiithus, Polygonum, Ver- 
bena and Geranium; he also states that the 
larva has been known -'to subsist entirely, 
from the time it cast its last skin till it spun 
up. on dead bodies of the camel cricket {Maii- 
/is Carolina)" : later (o/. cif., Oct. 1870, v. 2, 
p. 336) he adds Petniiia and Salix to the food- 
plants. Lintner (Entom. contrib., no. 3, 1S74, 
p. 143) describes two varieties of the larva. 
Bates (Can. entom., Jan. 18S0, v. 12. p. 20) 
adds PRnmc.x to the food-plants. Saunders 
i/ip. cit., March 18S0, v. 12, p. 56-57) reprints 
Riley's figures of the larval pupa, and imago, 
and describes them. Packard (Bull. 7. U. S. 
entom. comm., 1S81, p. S8-89) describes larva 
and imago (reprinting Riley's figures of these 
and the pupa) and adds Rhamnna and Piniis 
to tile food-plants. The larva also eats Ani- 
pclopsis quinquefolia, Ulmus amcricana, Bet- 
nla alba. Fuchsia fiilgens. Tropacolum, Pru- 
nus serotina, Syringa 7'ulgaris, I'i/is la- 
I'rusca, Ipomoea purpurea. Pelargonium, 
Jiliirtynia proboscit/ea, Acer saceharinuni, 
Ricinus communis. Lappa officinalis, and 
Nicotiaiia tabacum, but specimens fed on 
Datura nieteloides died soon after. 

Spilosoma Isabella Abb. -Smith (Nat. hist, 
lepid. ins. Ga., 1797, v. 2, p. 131. pi. 66). Har- 



ris (Rept. ins. injur, veg., 1S41, p. 252-253J 
describes lar\'a anti imago givijig Trifolium, 
Taraxacum dcns-leonis, and narrow-leaved 
Planlago as food-plants; to this he adds 
(Treatise on ins. injur, veg., 1S62, p. 355- 
356) a figure of the larva. Walsh [.'] (Pract. 
entom., June 1S67. v. 2, p. 103) gives apple 
as a food-plant of the larva. Riley (Amer. 
entom., April 1870, v. 2, p. 182) figures 
and briefly describes the larva, pupa, and 
imago, mentioning only grass as a food-plant 
of the larva; later (4th ann. rept. state entom. 
Mo., 1S72, p. 143-144) he reprints these fig- 
ures. Riley's figures, with a brief description, 
are again repeated by Saunders (Can. entom., 
April 1873, ^- .V P- 7.v77i •i'''d Ann. rept. 
entom. soc. Ontario, 1873, p. 22-23), ^'"'d 
Westcott (Can. entom., July 1S73, p. 137) 
adds a few notes on the larva. Siewers (Can. 
entom., July 1877, v. 9, p. 127-128) notes a 
few habits of the larva Mann (Psyche, Sept.- 
Dec. 1879 [9 Apr. 1880], v. 2. p. 270) gives 
some notes on the larva. Riley (Amer. 
entom., June 18S0, v. 3, p. 133-134) reprints 
his figures of larva, pupa, and imago, and 
adds some notes on the larva and its parasites. 
Coleman (Papilio, Jan. 1882, v. 2, p. 18) gives 
some notes on the variations of color of the 
larva. Experiments show that the larva 
feeds readily on leaves of the following 
plants : Ricinus comjnunis, Acer sacc/iari- 
num. Viburnum dcnlatum, Lap>pa officin- 
alis. Polygonum persicaria, Tropaeolum 
majus, Vitis labrusca, S] ringa z'ulgaris, S. 
persica, Ampelopsis quinguefdlia, Prunus se- 
rotina, Ulmus americana, Clethra alnifolia, 
Martynia probosciilea, Helianthus annuus. 
Plantago major, Spiraea sorbi folia, Ribes 
aureum and Betula alba; the larva refused 
Solanum nigrum and Apios tuberosa