(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Archaeologia aeliana, or, Miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity"

Sr 



ABCHJEOLOGIA 



OB, 



RELATING TO ANTIQUITY. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPOtf-TYNE. 



18. 



1861. 



NEW SERIE6. 




NE WCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 
WILLIAM DODD. No. 5, BIGG MARKET, 

lCD BY J. Q. FORSTER, CLAYTON STREET. 
1861. 



ARCILEOLOGIA JBLIANA: 



OB, 



RELATING TO ANTIQUITY. 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

NEW SERIES. 

VOLUME VI. 




NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 
WILLIAM DODD, 5, BIGG MARKET. 

PRINTED BY J. G. FOSSTER, CLAYTON STREET. 
1865. 



CONTENTS. 



FAQB 

ROUTINE BUSINESS OF THE SOCIETY AND MINOR MATTERS, passim. 

ROMAN HORSB-SHOE (with illustrations.) MR. CLAYTOK .... 3 

CORRUPT ORTHOGRAPHY OF LOCAL NAMES. MR.TURNER, DR. BRUCE, AND 

MR. CARR . 5, 11 

NORTH AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. MR. WHITE 6 

INSCRIPTION ON THE FONT AT BRIDEKIRK. REV. W. MONKHOUSB . 8, 107 

THE BRIDLINOTON SLAB. MR. CAPE 11 

MS. OF GOWER'S CONFESSIO AMANTIS. DR. CHARLTON 12 

ANDIRON FOUND NEAR KIELDER. THH DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND . . 14 

CHICHESTER CATHEDRAL AND BP. NEVIL. MR. THOMPSON .... 14 

STOUP FROM EBB'S NOOK.. MR. HINDE ' . .16 

BOOKBINDING, TEMP. HENRY VIII. DR. HOWARD 16 

OLD RECIPES. DR. CHARLTON 17 

EXCAVATIONS AT CORBRIDGE. DR. BRUCE 18 

ON THE TEMPERAMENT AND APPEARANCE OF ROBERT BURNS. Ma. WHITE . 22 

WINSTON (with illustrations.) 24, 62 

CONTRACT FOR A PRIVATE COACH. MR. JAMES CLEPHAK .... 26 

OLD BARBER'S BASIN 28 

JEDBURGH FLAGS. MR. WHITE . .28 

JACOBITE RELICS OF 1715 AND 1745 DR. CHARLTON 29 

^ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS. DR. CHARLTON 34 

LINHOPE CAMP. MR. COULSON 37 

THE HOSPITALS OF GREATHAM, GATESHEAD, AND BARNARDCASTLE. MR. 

BROCKETT 38 

GOLD ORNAMENT FOUND IN NORTH TYNEDALE. DR. CHARLTON ... 48 

THE WEAVERS' TOWER. MR. FENWICK 48 

NOTES OF A TOUR IN SCOTLAND. MR. WHITE 49 

ROMAN CARLISLE. DR. BRUCE 62 

HALTWHISTLE AND THE ROMAN WALL 63 

ANTIQUE MANTLEPIECE, AT WINTRINGHAM, NEAR ST. NEOT'S.- THE REV. 

JAMES EVERETT 66 

ANCIENT CHIRURGERY 68 

DOCUMENTS TOUCHING STAINTON IN THE CRAGS. MR, BROCKETT ... 69 

THE SAXON INSCRIPTION AT BECKERMONT. THE REV. F. ADDISON . . 60 

THE BECKERMONT INSCRIPTION (with sketches.) PROFESSOR STEPHENS . . 191 

DURHAM ABBET YARD. MR. TRUEMAN 62 

VOL, vi. A 



iV. CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

WARKWORTH CHANCEL (with illustrations.) REV. J. W. DUNN ... 62 

WHICKHAM CHURCH 63 

THE CAPTURE OF BP. BEAUMONT IN 1317 66 

A LIST OF SCOTTISH NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN WHO WERE KILLED AT 

FLODDEN FIELD. MR. WHITE 69 

THE ROMAN BRIDGE OF CILURNUM (with plan and view.) MR. CLAYTON . 80 

EOMAN AND ETRUSCAN ITALY. DR. BRUCE 86, 90 

HIGHAM DYKES AND HERPATH. SIR W. C. TREVELYAN, BT. . . 88, 89 
SILVER RELICS COLLECTED BY MR. GARNETT ....... 97 

SHERIFFS OF NORTHUMBERLAND. MR. HINDE ...... 98 

INVENTORY OF THE GOODS OF WILLIAM MORE, ESQ. SIR W. C. TREVELYAN, BT. 104 
REVERSE OF THE SEAL OF DUNFERMLIN ABBEY DR. CHARLTON . . .106 
SOME NOTICE OF THE CORBIDGE LANX. RT- HON- LORD RAVENSWORTH . .109 
ROMAN FIGURE FROM CARLISLE. DR. BRUCE . . . , . .115 
SCARCITY OF COFFEE IN NORTHUMBERLAND. MR. SWAIN . . .116 
PRUDHOB CASTLB . . . . . . . . . .116 

OVIKGHAM 122 

SHACKLES FROM GATBSHEAD . . . . . . . . -126 
NEW PERCY SEAL ....-.... 125,164 
THE SOUTH POSTERN OF THE CASTLE . . . . . - . .126 
THE ORKNEY RVNES (with illustrations.) DR. CHARLTOW - 127, 184 
SALVAGE FROM THE MELTING-POT REV. JAMES EVERETT . . . .147 

SOUTH TRANSEPT OF ST. JOHN'S CHURCH. MR. SPOOR 148 

EARLY REMAINS AT BIRTLEY, NEAR HEXHAM. REV. GEO. ROME HALL . . 148 
ANCIENT BREVIARY DR. CHARLTON . . . . . . . .149 

BELLINGHAM DEEDS MR. EDW. MILBURN . . . . . .151 

ALTARS TO ANTENOCITICUS DISCOVERED AT CONDERCTTM. DR. BRUCE . 153, 161 

THE BENWELL ALTARS. MR. CLAYTON. 197 

THE LESLEY LETTER MR. CLEPHAN . . . . . 156 
PRINGLE THE EJECTED MINISTER. MR. FRANCE > . . . 162 

THE NAG'S HEAD INN, NEWCASTLE . . 163 

ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE NAG'S HEAD INK. MR. CLEPHAN . -165 
BRITISH REMAINS FROM ALLENDALE AND WEARDALE . . -168 
THE BENWELL DISCOVERIES. MR. RENDAL . .169 

THE OGLE SHRINE .,._* 174 

NOTES ON THE REV. JOHN HORSLEY. MR. HINDU .. 174 
ROMAN DOVER AND WALKER . . . . . 183, 184 

HOUGHTON-LE-SPRING CHURCH 186 

CHESTER-LK-STREET CHURCH -188 

THE ARMS OF WYCLIFFE 192 

RUNIC LEGENDS FROM COQUET ISLAND AND MONKWEARMOUTH . . . 195, 196 

THE MATFEN UMBO 196 

ROMAN COINS FROM CRACKENTHORPE AND BORCOVICUS. MR. CLAYTON . 196, 200 
ROMAN CARICATURE OF CHRISTIANITY (with facsimile.) DR. CHARLTON . . 198 

THE WORKS OF PRIOR CASTELL 201 

LACUSTRINE SETTLEMENTS IN SCOTLAND (with illuatrations.) LORD Lo- 

VAIKE 206 

CHANTRY AT MITFORD 212 

BRANCEPETH CHURCH . 213 



CONTENTS. V. 

PAGE 

THE MINSTRELS' GALLERY, EABT CASTLE (with illustrations.) MB. AUSTIN , 214 

WARKWORTH AND ALNWICK 217 

JOIE SANS FIN 220 

MURAL NOTES. DR. BRUCE 220 

FIBULAE FROM BORCOVICUS. MR. CLAYTON 225 

EARLY PRINTING IN NEWCASTLE. MR. HINDE , 228 

ABSTRACT OF WILL OF CHRISTOPHER MILBOURNE. DR. CHABLTON . . . 232 

COINS OF AELFRED AND BURGRED FOUND AT GAINFORD 233 

THE EARLIEST COINS OF DURHAM 234 

NOTICE OF A FIND OF COINS AT THE SHAW Moss, NEAR HESLEYSIDE . . 238 



ARCH^EOLOGIA ^ELIANA. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 
4 FEBRUARY, 1861. 

Jo Jin Hodgson Hinde, Esq., V.P. in the Chair. 

OFFICERS AND COTJNCIL. Patron : His Grace the Duke of North- 
umberland, K.G. President: The Right Hon. Lord Eavensworth. 
Vice-Presidents : Sir Charles M. L. Monck, Bart., Sir Walter Calverley 
Trevelyan, Bart., John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., and John Clayton, Esq. 
Treasurer : Matthew Wheatley, Esq. Secretaries : Edward Charlton, 
Esq., M.D , and the Eev. John Collingwood Bruce, LL.D. Council : 
The Rev. Edward Hussey Adamson, the Rev. James Raine, and Messrs. 
Robert Richardson Dees, William Dickson, John Dobson, Martin Dunn, 
John Fenwick, William Kell, William Hylton Dyer Longstaffe (Editor), 
Edward Spoor, Robert White, and William Woodman. Publisher : Mr. 
William Dodd. Auditors : Messrs. R. R. Dees, and Robert White. 

NEW MEMBERS. Mr. John James Lundy, F.G.S., Primrose Hill, 
Leith ; Mr. D. H. Goddard, Bank of England, Newcastle. 

DONATIONS OF BOOKS. From Messrs. Sothely and Wilkinson. Cata- 
logue of Reprints and Facsimiles, illustrative of Early English and 
Shaksperian Literature, for Sale. From Mr. John Evans, F.S.A. His 
paper on Flint Implements of the Drift. 

INDEX. Resolved, that in future the Annual Index shall be enclosed 
loosely as part of the number of the Archasologia JEliana following the 
completion of each volume. 

ANNUAL MEETINGS. Resolved, that the Annual Meeting in future 
be in January the day to be afterwards fixed in order to afford to 
those gentlemen who are compelled to be in Parliament in February, 
an opportunity of attending. 

ORIENTAL SEAL, The Rev. E. H. Adamson exhibited a curious 
oriental seal, the matrix and impression being both in earthenware, 
closed up, and presenting a filbert-like form. It had been found at 
Benares, and he had been informed that upon fracture he would find 
the seal, which proved to be the case. 

NEW SERIES VOL. VI. B 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



ANNUAL REPORT. 

IN presenting the Forty-eighth Annual Report, the Council has to 
congratulate the Society on its effective state. The activity of former 
years has shown itself during the past twelve months with undiminished 
vigour ; the Monthly Meetings have been well attended, and the objects 
of antiquity exhibited and discussed have been of great interest ; while 
several valuable donations have been made to the library and to the 
museum. Besides the books contributed by members, among which we 
may name some valuable works presented by Sir \Y. C. Trevelyan, 
Bart., of Wallington, the Society has received some valuable gifts of 
books from foreign countries, and especially from Norway and Denmark. 
It is pleasing to find that the labours of the antiquaries of the North of 
England are thus recognised in far distant lands, and that one of the 
papers published in the Society's transactions has been translated into 
Danish, and published in the journals of the North of Europe. It has 
been too generally supposed that this Society devotes its attention 
exclusively to Roman antiquities ; but while it recognises to the fullest 
extent the valuable remains of that great people, which are so abundant 
in this locality, it can confidently point to its published Transactions in 
proof that Mediaeval archaeology is not forgotten. In truth, so far from 
being slighted or despised, by far the greater part of the Transactions is 
occupied by Medieval antiquities, and this especially will be seen to be 
the case in the volume just completed for the present year. The 
Council feels that while each archaeologist labours hard in his own 
particular department, others of the members are so imbued with the 
true antiquarian spirit, that they will readily appreciate and honour 
the researches of those who work in other parts of the vast field of 
antiquity. Although the Society has not this year been favoured with 
any elaborate papers on Roman antiquities, yet the researches and 
examinations now being carried on at the Roman Bridge at Chesters, by 
one of the Vice-presidents, Mr. Clayton, have led to most interesting 
results, many of which are as yet not made known, but the Council 
feels that those of the members who had the opportunity, in August 
last, of examining these remains, will be fully convinced of their im- 
portance, and of the interest that the account of them, when completed, 
will excite among archaeologists. Some further steps have been taken 
by the Council towards providing ground for the proposed museum, and 
it is hoped that ere an another year has elapsed this most desirable 
object will be accomplished. During the past twelve months the 



ROMAN HORSE-SHOE. 3 

Society has received an accession of fifteen new members, while very 
few have retired or been removed by death. The Society, however, has 
sustained a serious loss in the decease of its venerated President, Sir 
John Edward Swinburne, Bart., one of its original members and most 
liberal patrons. It was by Sir John Swinburne's influence and aid 
that the noble work of the Rev. John Hodgson, the History of North- 
umberland, was given to the world ; and though of late years, from his 
great age, he was unable to attend in person the meetings of the Society, 
he continued to the period of his decease to take the liveliest interest 
in its progress. The Society has this year elected but one honorary 
member, Signer Montiroli, of Rome, the distinguished successor of the 
Comrnendatore Cavina in the superintendence of the vast works still in 
progress at Alnwick Castle. 



ROMAN HORSE-SHOE. 

ME. CLAYTOX has presented, as from Mr. Challoner, an iron horse- shoe, 
found at Condercum. It is, he believes, the first object of the kind 
which has been found here. 

The points of the shoe are brought into very neighbourly contact. 
ME. TTJENEE thinks that it would allow of expansion of the horse's hoof; 
ME. GEEGSOX, the very reverse. One deems it superior to modern shoes ; 
the other, a very bad shoe indeed. 

[The shoe has been submitted to a practical smith, who pronounces 
it to be a good one, having a concavity to receive and relieve the foot. 
The points are turned the reverse way to those now used. 

ME. CLAYTON observes that Mr. Way 1 speaks of " the sculpture of the 
triumphal car found at Vaisons, near Avignon, and now in the museum 
at the latter place, which supplies undeniable proof in regard to the 
disputed question concerning the use of horse- shoes by the Romans, 
attached by nails as in modern times. In this curious sculpture the 
hoof of one of the horses drawing a biga shows the extremities of four 
of the nails passing through the hoof, and the shoe is distinctly seen, 
precisely resembling that of modern times." ME. ADAMSOK produces 
the papers by Mr. Rogers and Mr. Pegge. 2 In these the classical evi- 
dences on the subject are minutely gone into, and they will repay 
perusal. Mr. Rogers thought the earliest instance to be depended 
upon of shoeing horses in the present method was part of a horse-shoe 

1 17 Arch. Journal, 258. 2 3 Archaeologia, 35. 



4 EOMAN HORSE-SHOE. 

which was buried with Childeric I. in 481. The horse appeared from 
the shoe to have been small. The earlier instances of shoeing seemed 
to this writer, to be consistent with and better explained by a plating 
over the hoof. Mr. Pegge apprehends that the shoeing of horses was 
veiy far from being a general practice amongst the ancients, but that it 
was sometimes done, especially in later times. He quotes Montfaucon's 
statement that Eabretti, among the great number of horses which occur 
in ancient monuments, never saw more than one that was shod, though 
he made it his business to examine them all, and that therefore the 
iron shoes on the horses' feet on an Etruscan tomb were a rare par- 
ticular. And he thinks that the variations in practice are quite intelli- 
gible, as many sorts of work may be performed by horses without 
shoeing, especially in some regions, and as the inhabitants, in a thou- 
sand places abroad, though they have horses, know nothing of shoeing 
them, to this day. The question whether the shoeing was by nailed 
shoes or platings he leaves open, but quotes Yossius's wonder that the 
Eastern mode of shoeing with leather coverings, if the sole were stuck 
full of nails, does not supersede the injurious mode of shoeing by means 
of nails driven into the hoof. 

Our member, MB. "WHEATLEY, naturally remarks that the paved roads 
of the Romans in this country would almost necessitate the use of shoes. 
But Mr. Pegge quotes a remarkable passage where Xenophon recom- 
mends for hardening the horses' hoofs that the stalls should be pitched 
with stones of the size of the hoofs, and that the place where the ani- 
mals were curried should be strewn with boulder stones. 3 He thinks, 
from classical passages, that asses and mules were not unfrequently 
shod, and were more used than horses, which may account for small- 
sized shoes, if nailed shoes are meant. And it is probable that horses, 
like warriors, if we may judge from armour, were formerly smaller. A 
very small sort of horse- shoes have been frequently found in ploughing 
ing Battle Platts, near York, given as the scene of the battle between 
Harold and the Norwegians in 1066. 

The blacksmith to whom the present shoe was shown at once recognised 
: ts similitude to several that he used to plough up near Plessy, in North- 
umberland. But the medieval horse shoe seems generally to have re- 
sembled the modern one. The curious seal of Ralph Marshall or Farrier 
of the Bishoprick of Durham is added to the illustration for the purpose 
of comparison. 3 ] 

3 " Then were the horse-hoofs broken by the means of their prancing, the prancing 
of the mighty ones." (Judges, v. 22.) " Had the horses' feet been shod either with 
iron or brass, they could not have been broken by prancing." (Pegge.) 




/uli tat 

YVARKWOHTH 




CORRUPT ORTHOGRAPHY OF LOCAL NAMES. 



COBBUPT OBTHOGBAPHY OF LOCAL NAMES. 

MR. TURKER has produced an official trace of the Ordnance Survey, East 
of Newcastle, upon which Bow's House, St. Peter's, (named after Mr. 
Bow), is written Rose House : and 

DR. BRUCE has exhibited examples of the register of authorities for 
names kept by the department, in the following form : " List of 
names as written on the plan : Yarious modes of spelling the same 
names : Authorities for those mode of spelling : Situation : Descriptive 
remarks, or general observations which may be considered of interest." 
For the spelling of Hartburn, are cited the " Yicar of Hartburn, Per- 
petual Curate of Cainbo, Netherwitton Deed of Endowment, Overseers 
in Circular 190, Whellan's History, 1855, Mackenzie's History, 1825, 
[no mention of Hodgson's], List of Begistrars' Districts, Population 
Beturns, 1851, Clerk of the Peace, Meresmen for the Parish, Modern 
Divisions of County, List of Benefices." For Hertborne, "Valor 
Ecclesia., Hen. VIII." for Hertburn, Taxatio Ecclesia., P. Nich." For 
Cambo, " Poor Bate Book, Tithe Plan, Estate Plan, Tho. Gow, agent, 
Mr. Geo. Bichardson, meresman, Clerk of the Peace, Whellan's His- 
tory, 1855, Mackenzie's History, 1825, List of Begistrars' Districts, 
Population Beturns, 1851, Modern Divisions of the County." For 
Camhowe, "Ancient Divisions of the County." 

It is Besolved, at the instance of Mr. BALPH CARR: That a Committee 
of the undermentioned gentlemen, viz. : the Chairman (Mr. Hindo), 
the Clerk of the Peace for Newcastle (Mr. Clayton), the Clerk of the 
Peace for Northumberland (Mr. Dickson), himself, and the Secretaries 
of the Society, be appointed to prepare a list of such names of places in 
Northumberland as seem to be at present carelessly and improperly 
spelt, and appear susceptible of easy and obvious improvement from the 
usage of past times. That such list be laid before the Society, to the 
intent that, if approved of, it be laid before the Officers of the Ordnance 
Survey, and recommended for their adoption in the completing of the 
Ordnance Map. 



NORTH AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 

MONTHLY MEETING, 6 MARCH, 1861. 
John Fenwiclc, J?sq., V.P. in the Chair. 

DONATIONS or BOOKS, &c. By Sir Walter Trevelyan, Bart. The 
First, Second, Third, and Fourth Eeports of the Lords' Committees on 
the Dignity of a Peer of the Realm ; and Appendix No. 1, to the First 
Report. By the Author. The Hexham Chronicle, or Materials for a 
Modern History of Hexham. A Hundred Years Ago, or the Hexham 
Eiot. By Joseph Ridley, Hexham, 1 861 . By the Archaeological Insti- 
tute. The Archaeological Journal, 65, 66, 67, 1860. By the Canadian 
Institute. The Canadian Journal, N.S., No. 31, Jan-, 1861. By the 
Kilkenny Archaeological Society. The Society's Proceedings, Nos. 28, 
29, 30, for July, September, and November, 1860. 

Mr. Henry Watson, through Mr. "White, exhibited a small Spanish 
copper coin, of Charles II., 1680. 



NORTH AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 

ME. "WHITE has read a letter addressed to Mr. Brockie, of Sunderland, 
by Mr. David Wyrick, of Newark, Licking co., Ohio, and dated 8 Sep., 
1860, and exhibited the plans and drawings referred to in it. One of 
them represents in great detail a strange and vast assemblage of earth- 
works near Newark. On one of the sides of an octagon enclosure, an 
oak-tree, cut down thirty years ago, exhibited 1 130 annual rings. These 
remains were loosely engraved from the examination of Caleb Atwater, 
in 1820, and Plate XXV. of the first volume of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute's Publications contains a more detailed, but still very inexact repre- 
sentation by Squier and Davis, to which, however, we refer our readers 
for some notion of them. It appears that the small circles are mostly 
accompanied by a singular depression, called a well by Atwater. Mr. 
Squier says that these were bone pits, the decaying of their contents 
causing the depressions. The determination of Mr. "Wyrick to investi- 
gate the similar objects near Newark was well known ; and in excavating 
one of them he turned out two pebbles, one round, the other of a long 
bottlelike appearance, marked in the present Hebrew characters, with 
sacred words signifying "Most Holy" (Exodus xxix. 37, xxx. 10, 29, 
36, &c.), "King of the Earth," "Law of Jehovah" (Exodus xiii. 9, 
I Chron. xxii. 12, &c.), and "Word of Jehovah" (Jeremiah i. 4, 11, ii. 
1, &c.) Mr. Wyrick, however, does not seem to see the probability of 



NORTH AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 7 

this being a hoax, though he acknowledges its after- deposit by some 
stray Hebrew ; for his theory is, that the earthworks are older than the 
family of Israel. He afterwards found pottery and mica, and indica- 
tions of decayed matter, but nothing sepulchral. 

The works are of clay, quite different from the earth on which they 
stand. 

One of the drawings represents what Mr. Wyrick considers to be an 
artificial lake, near Utica, Licking co., of 100 acres in extent, caused by 
damming up a stream. It has a uniform level, and no visible outlet. 
A neighbouring but smaller lake of about 20 acres, when drained, ex- 
posed stumps of trees in situ. 

He also mentions a circle of clay mounds round a well or cistern of 
water, the whole being covered with a pile of stone. On the removal 
of some 50,000 loads of stone, for the banks of a reservoir and other 
purposes, the well and the clay mounds were found. One of them was 
opened in Mr. Wyrick's presence, about seven years ago, and yielded a 
coffin. It was part of an oaken log, hollowed out apparently by first 
using hot stone, and then chopping out the charred wood with a stone 
or copper axe, or some dull tool. The outside was finished in the same 
way. The comn seemed to contain portions of the skeletons of three 
individuals, one a child, another middle aged, the third aged. About 
the place of the breast, or where the folding of the hands might be, 
there lay ten copper rings, of between 3 and 4 inches diameter, as if 
made of copper wire, and a locket of black hair. The bottom of the 
cofiin appeared to have been lined with some coarse fabric. It was im- 
bedded in water 12 inches deep, on the top of a hill 500 feet above the 
level of any stream, on a sort of frame of wood, and covered with clay 
and mortar, or sun-dried brick, exceedingly hard to dig. 

Inscriptions are mentioned in Indiana, and perhaps elsewhere, as 
common, and thought to be Phoenician. 

There is a drawing of a mound, with numerous burials and layers of 
charcoal and wood partially charred. Above and below is red earth as 
if the charcoal had been covered with the earth when burned. The 
oldest burials yielded the firmest bones. The Editor has no means of 
verifying the contents of this curious paper. The writer regrets his 
want of books on ancient monuments and languages, and hints that 
donations of them addressed for him to the care of the Smithsonian 
Institution, "Washington City, or of D. Appleton & Co., N. Y., would 
be well bestowed. 



INSCRIPTION AT BRIDEKIRK. 

INSCRIPTION OX THE FONT AT BRIDEKIRK. 
BY THE REV. W. MONZHOUSE, B.D., F.S.A. 

THE Rev. Mr. Haigh's copy of the Bridekirk Runes, published in the 
Archseologia .^Eliana, seems to me to be the most clear and perfect of 
any that I have seen ; and suggests a different reading to any yet given 
to the inscription. 

I would observe that, in this copy, the punctuation is well denned and 
uniform ; it therefore demands that great weight and authority should 
be attached to it. A due attention to this rule would prevent that 
capricious running together of words into each other, which is found in 
many of the translations. 

We generally find that Runic inscriptions only record the names of 
the individuals who made them, and the object for which they were 
made, so the one at Bridekirk begins with the sculptor's name, "Ri- 
kurd." The following Runes "he me," are so distinct that there is no 
difficulty in admitting them in their plain English meaning. 

The last word of the first line is "igrogte," and in this word, I read 
the fifth Rune as " g " and not " c," as it is given in all the other ver- 
sions, which softens the pronunciation without at all affecting its mean- 
ing. This is the usual form of the " g " in Runic alphabets, as may be 
seen in Worsaae's Primeval Antiquities, p. 115. The "i" or "y" 
prefix was the common form of the early English writers, although it 
is now obsolete. Chaucer uses it passim, as ywent ybless'd ygetten, 
&c. The same author uses the word " wroghte," for our modern 
"wrought," which spelling brings "igrogte" very close home to our 
own vernacular. The Anglo-Saxon form is "worhte," which bears not 
nearly so close a resemblance to it. 

As some mark of conjunction would be necessary between the two 
lines, I assume the character ' 7 ' to represent the copula ' and' l 

1 admit that it is neither a Norse nor Saxon Rune, but if we refer to 
the Plemlosen inscription in "Wormius, p. 147, we shall find a sign -j- 
concerning which he says ' ' hanc literam pro Voce ' aug ' (and) positam 
reor ;" so we may consider the copulative sign in Runes to be some- 
what irregular and arbitrary. 

So far, it has all been plain sailing. I now, however, venture to differ 
from former translators, without at all claiming infallibility for my own 
version. 



INSCRIPTION AT BRIDEKIRK. 9 

The Runes "to this" begin the second line; 2 then we read "RD," 
which is so punctuated on the font as to make it one independent word. 
Now "RD" per se means nothing. I therefore suppose it to bean 
abbreviated form of " Richard," on the principle that when proper 
names are Tepeated in Runic inscriptions, Wormius says they are com- 
monly abbreviated. 

Grimm also notices the contractions in this inscription when he says 
mele allreviaturen angelracht many abbreviations are used. 

I also venture a different interpretation to the next word, which I 
read "ger," and as I take the punctuation to be my guide, I read this 
also as a separate and independent word. 

It was the practice of sculptors of Runes to abbreviate whenever they 
could do so, and in the fifty or sixty examples given us by "Wormius 
he is obliged in numerous instances to supply the contractions that are 
met with, and sometimes in a manner not at all satisfactory to himself, 
as his expressions "legendum censeo," " vera a3nigmata," &c., plainly 
denote. I may state, with respect to " ger," that there is not a more 
common word in Runic inscriptions, in some form or inflection. "We 
have it in gar, giua, gerd, gerde, gard, gerdi, &c., which are translated 
sculpsit, fecit, struxit. Also "giera lit," Jieri fecit, and I shall now 
give one or two examples of its application. 

In a district called Holm, Wormius gives an inscription, p. 482, 
Oilastr mihi Bunas fecit, "gerd." Again on a bell, " Gudman gerde 
mig," Gudman me fecit ; and on Thyre's Monument, erected by her 
husband Gorm, is this expression, "Kubl gerd, " tumulum fecit. But 
inasmuch as Gorm died before his queen, in order to avoid an an- 
achronism, "Wormius translates " gerd," praparari curavit, " caused to 
be made beforehand ;" and I claim this word to be good English in the 
sense here given. It is used by Spencer, who says . 

" So matter did she make of nought 
To stir up strife, and garre them disagree." 

and by Barbour, in this passage 

That they the ship in no maner 
Myeht ger to come the wall so ner. 

and in many parts of Cumberland and Westmoreland in the present day, 

1 A similar contraction for et is familiar to record readers. Ed. 

2 At the moment of going to press, when communication with the writer is impos- 
sible, it is observed that Mr. Haigh's drawing (see vol. i., 182, 192) adds the letters 
<ome" and two dots before we reach the letters read " RD." If taken as a separate 
word, they may not affect Mr. Monkhouse's view, and he may have omitted by an 
oversight to mention them in express terms. Ed. 

VOL. VI. C 



10 INSCRIPTION AT BRIDEKIRK. 

there is no word in more common use than " gar," to make or compel 
a thing to be done. 

" Er me brogte " are the concluding words, which I render " before 
lie brought me." The word " er," as spelt in the Eunes, is written in 
the sarae way by Chaucer, and the meaning given to it in the Glossary is 
" before." In order to find a propriety for it in the inscription, it is 
only necessary to suppose the font to have been made and engraved 
anywhere else than at Bridekirk; that Eikard, in short, made it at some 
other place before he brought to its present position. This supposition 
creates a kind of necessity for the appearance of " er " in the context. 
Thus, I think, we have established a claim to another plain English 
word. 

I may remark on the concluding word "brogte," that in all the copies 
which I have seen, the Eunes are the most clear and distinct ; neither 
do the copies at all differ, but are perfectly identical with each other. 
This word is also plain English, and I would remark to those who have 
a tendency towards an Anglo-Saxon version, that the past form is 
" brohte " in that language without the " g ;" consequently, that it does 
not so much resemble the word as it stands on the font as our own 
word " brought." 

I therefore would thus read and translate the inscription : 

Eikard . he . me . igrogte . 7 

To . this . Rd . ger . er . me . brogte. 

Eicard he me wrought, and 

To this Ricard carved me, before he me brought. 

That it was "carved to this" especial purpose and object to serve 
as a baptismal font is clearly proved by the representation upon it of 
the baptism of our Saviour. 

As I have not been writing this paper in any spirit of controversy, 
but simply with a view to promote enquiry, and elicit the truth with 
respect to this Sibylline scroll, which has formed the subject of dis- 
cussion for the last two hundred years, I have therefore carefully ab- 
stained from entering upon any criticism, with respect to the theories 
and opinions of others, and the same indulgence which I have extended 
to former writers upon this vexed question, I hope may be hereafter 
extended to me. 

Hanc veniam petimusque damusque vicissim. 



THE BRIDLINGTON SLAB. 11 



THE BRIDLIWTON SLAB. 

MR. CAPE, of Bridlington, through Mr. Brockett, has presented a rubbing 
of the very curious palimpsest sepulchral slab in the Priory Church 
there, representing, with architecture and animals, a fox and a bird 
striving to obtain the contents of a narrow-necked jar. There are 
engravings of this stone from a drawing by Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, 
the discoverer of its remarkable character, in Archseologia JEliana, vol. 
2, 4to series, p. 168, and in Prickett's Bridlington Priory Church. 

Mr. Cutts, in his Manual of Sepulchral Slabs, considers the design as 
a strange travesty of an early Christian emblem, two birds drinking out 
of a vase or cup, which is found on many slabs in the catacombs, and of 
which mediaeval examples occur at Bishop stow, near Lewes, and on the 
upper face of the font at Winchester. He calls the bird at Bridlington 
a goose. 

Dr. Lee, of Caerleon, has the matrix of a little seal presenting a 
grotesque very similar to that at Bridlington, and throwing considerable 
doubt upon any connection with the old Christian symbolism of the 
catacombs. A cock and a hare are striving to obtain the contents of a 
tripod vessel, and the legend is 

HER IS tfA MARE 
BOTE COK POT HARE. 



CORRUPT OBTHOGBAPHY OP LOCAL NAMES. 

MR. CARR, in resuming this subject (see p. 5.), has read a letter as to 
the name of Cullercoats, from Mr. Sidney Gibson, (who agrees with Mr. 
Carr in thinking it had some reference to Culfer, a dove, as the monks 
liked pigeon-pie as well as piety,) and has prepared a skeleton map of 
Northumberland, in which the proposed restorations are noticed, ley for ly, 
law for ley in the case of hills, cote for coat, lotle for bottle, ope for op, 
oe for o, am or ham for um, in Mindrum. The form g'ham, to denote 
the peculiar soft pronunciation of such words as Ovingham, has already 
been officially adopted, and the present changes have been approved by 
the Society's Committee. As to Cullercoats, indeed, Mr. Hinde feared a 



12 CORRUPT ORTHOGRAPHY OF LOCAL NAMES. 

change until some evidence of the spelling cotes was adduced. The 
name did not occur early, and one of Mr. Carr's friends suggested that 
the corruption was in the first syllable, for what was a coat without a 
collar ? 

There are some difficulties in preserving the sounds op and lottle in 
the changes. It does not seem advisable to apply liam to the place cor- 
ruptly called Glororum on Greenwood's map, and Glororim in the Book 
of Rates. Armstrong has it as Glower-o'er-him, and the same form oc- 
curs more than once in Durham. Dr, Raine humorously used to say 
that the Roman antiquaries ought to build a theory on the name 
It must be Gloria Romanorum ! In Durham, we have other names of 
the same class, " Glower-at-him," and " Glower-at-all." 



MONTHLY MEETING, 3 APRIL, 1861. 
John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

DONATIONS OF BOOKS. From the Archceological Institute. The Arch- 
aeological Journal, JS"o. 68. From the Kilkenny Archaeological Society. 
Their Transactions. From the Able Cochet. A Report on the Flint 
Implements found in the Drift. 

NEW HONORARY MEMBER. The Rev. Dr. Hume, of Liverpool, the 
founder of the Lancashire and Cheshire Historical Society, and author of 
some valuable papers on Roman Roads and Stations, in their Transactions. 



MS. OF GOWER'S CONFESSIO AMANTIS. 
BY EDWARD CHARLTON, M.D. 

THE fine folio MS. of Early English Poetry, exhibited by Lord Ravens- 
worth (our President) at a former meeting of the Society, proves to be, 
as was then surmised, an early perfect copy of Gower's Confessio Amantis. 
Manuscript copies of this once celebrated oJd English poem, are to be 
found in several of the public libraries in England. The Bodleian, for 
instance, contains not less than ten manuscripts of the Confessio Amantis ; 
but there are very few in private hands, and of the Bodleian and British 
Museum copies there are few so perfect as the one before us. In this 
volume nearly the whole poem is to be found. Of all the exceptional 



MS. OF GOWER'S CONFESSIO AMANTIS. 13 

losses we most deeply regret that of tlie first leaf of the prologue, 
as it -would have thrown possibly some light upon the date of the 
volume. In some of the earlier copies, Gower give an account of 
his having been induced by King Richard II. to write this poem ; the 
King having met him one day upon the Thames, when, calling him into 
the royal barge, he enjoined him to write some fresh poem. In the 
later copies he makes no allusion to this circumstance, but merely 
states, in his dedication to Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, one of 
the chief opponents of King Richard, that he finished it in "the yere 
sixteenth of King Richard," or 1392-3. 

The MS. before us is a fine folio, in excellent preservation, written 
throughout in double columns, with illuminated initial letters. We 
consider both the illuminations and the writing to be of the early part 
of the fifteenth century, perhaps even as late as 1 450, or nearly half-a- 
century after Gower's death. Near the end of the prologue we have 
an illumination of the statue in Nabuchadonosor's vision. In the pro- 
logue we are startled by the date 1390 in red letters; but it appears, on 
examination, to refer to the subject of the text, viz. the schism of Avig- 
non of that date. About sixty lines of the conclusion of the prologue, 
and also three leaves of the first book, are wanting in this copy. The 
MS. has evidently, at a very early period, been bound by some ignorant 
workman ; and many of the leaves displaced, for directions, especially 
in the fifth book, are given in a very early hand, for the rectification of 
his blunders. The larger illuminations are at the commencement of 
each book, except at the commencement of the sixth. "With the seventh 
book begins the handwriting of a different scribe. The Saxon character 
for tli is here omitted occasionally, and the illuminations are of different 
character. The vellum, too, for the space of about nine leaves is much 
thicker and less worn. At the end of about ten folios, the old hand- 
writing begins again, and it would therefore seem that a part of the 
seventh book had been lost, but had been replaced by a cunning scribe 
before the art of illumination became altogether extinct in England. 1 
The end of the seventh book and the commencement of the eighth are 
also wanting. Few, however, of the manuscript copies of Gower are 
complete. 

[The writing throughout is tall and regular. Some additions must be 
noticed. In the margin of one leaf is a couplet, in an early hand, which 

1 This cunning scribe miscalculated his space, and the last leaf of his -writing is a 
mere slip introduced to bring his matter up to the re-commencement of the old 
hand. 



14 ANDIRON FOUND NEAR KIELDER. 

may well be that of Edward IV.'s step-son, or some of the Thomas 
Greys of Northumberland. 

" Like as thys reson doth devysse, 
I do my selfe yn same wysse. 

" GRAY T." 

On two other leaves are these inscriptions in Elizabethan penman- 
ship : ".John Gouer wrotte this Booke with his owne hand. John 
Gouwer wrott Bocke with his oune haunde, a poett Lawriet P r ME, 
WILLIAM MEATCAFE." 

On the blank leaf preceding the commencement of the poetic matter, 
is this entry, probably of Jacobean date : " Prances Tomsone, of West- 
mester, servant to the Kiuge's ma' tie, dwelling in Longe Diche by the 
Hank in Sword." 

And above it, in an earlier hand : "John Gower wrott this booke, 
poeett Lawrrett." ED.] 



ANDIRON FOUND NEAR KIELDER. 

THE DUKE OF NOBTHDTOEIILAND has sent for exhibition an andiron, dis- 
covered 8 feet deep in the moss near Kielder during the cuttings for the 
Border Counties Railway, on March 1, 1861. It presents no very obvi- 
ous evidences of date. The iron is sharp and uncorroded, a fact which 
may be explained by the circumstances of its deposit. Mr. WHITE thinks 
that it is not very ancient, while Dr. CHAELTON admits that ancient 
forms of objects were preserved for a long time in the western districts. 
The pattern, certainly, is old and peculiar. The form is that of a bar, 
simply ornamented with a kind of herring-bone incisions, connecting two 
upright standards ; both are of the same height, with the iron curled 
round into horns for plain goatsheads. Thus the andiron seems to have 
been used near a fire in the middle of a room to support the wood 
laid to burn, like the similar object which remains in situ upon the 
hearth in the centre of the hall at Penshurst, Kent. The latter object 
is figured in the Illustrated London News of 13 April, 1861. 



CHICHESTER CATHEDRAL AND BISHOP RALPH NEYIL. 

MR. EDWAKD THOMPSON has exhibited a rubbing of the only brass in 
Chichester Cathedral, a late but not uninteresting memorial. A civilian 
and his lady kneel before a desk on which are open books. Six sons 



CHICHESTER CATHEDEAL AND BISHOP RALPH NEVIL. 15 

accompany him, eight daughters her. Arms, a pheon. " Here vnder 
lyeth the bodies of M r William Bradbridge who was thrice Maior of 
this Cittie, and Alice his wife, who had vj . sonnes and viij . daughters, 
which Will'm deceased 1546, and this stone was finished at y* charges 
of y e wors 11 M Alice Barnham, widow, one of y e dau trb of y e said "W m 
Bradbridge, and wife of the wors 11 M r Francis Barnham decased, Shrive 
and Ald r ma' of Londo' in 1570. Fynyshed in Ivly 1592. A. (pheon) B." 
Our readers must now be referred to Professor "Willis's admirable ob- 
servations on the architectural history of the Cathedral, clearing away 
all former essays on the same subject. We may, however, with Mr. 
Thompson, remind them of St. Wilfrid's early connection with the see 
of Selsey, the precursor of Chichester, and its interesting details, as 
related by Beda. One of the bishops, Ralph Nevil, is said to have 
been of the Durham family of that name, and to have been born at Raby. 
However the former position may be as to collateral relationship with 
the maternal ancestors of the devils of Raby, the latter can hardly be 
supported. He occurs by the name of Nevil in 1213, and died in 1 244. 
Now Isabel, sister of Henry de Nevil, did not become his heir until his 
death in 1227. She was wife of Robert Fitz-Meldred of Raby, whose 
son, Geoffrey Fitz-Robert, assumed the name of jNevil. In Burton's ex- 
tracts out of the Yorkshire Pipe Rolls, preserved at Burton Constable, 
we find under 11 Hen. III. (1227), Robert Fitz-Meldret, who had for 
wife Ysabel, sister and heir of Henry de Neovill, accounting for 200 
marks for his relief of the lands of which Henry died seised. 



MONTHLY MEETING, 1 MAY, 1861. 
Matthew WTieatley, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

DO^ATIOJSTS OF BOOKS. From Lord Tallot de Malahide. Catalogue 
of the Antiquities of Animal Materials and Bronze in the Museum, of 
the Royal Irish Academy, by Dr. W. R. Wilde. From M. Boucher de 
Perthes. L' Abbevillois," 1 6 Avril, 1861, noticing the Flints in the Drift. 
From Signer Montiroli. Ragionamento del Foro Romano e de' Prin- 
cipali suoi Monumenti dalla fondazione di Roma al Primo Secolo dell' 
Impero del Cav. Camillo Ravioli Osservazioni sulla topografia della 
parte meridionale del Foro Romano e de' suoi piu' celebri Monumenti 
dimostrata in quattro tavole ed illustrata du una veduta generale dell' 
architetto Giovanni Montiroli, Roma, 1859. (The two treatises are 
bound together.) From the Canadian Institute. The Canadian Jour- 
nal, K S. 32, March, 1861. 



1 6 STOUP FROM EBB'S NOOK BOOKBINDING, TEMP, HEN. vm. 



STOTJP FBOM EBB'S NOOK. 

MR. HINDE has sent for presentation what he takes to be a holy- water 
stoup. He found it in excavating the ruins of St. Ebba's Chapel at 
" Ebb's Nook," near Beadnell, a few years ago. An account of the 
excavation was given at the time by Mr. Albert "Way in the Journal of 
the Archajological Institute. An old font was also found. The stoup 
is much weather-worn, and consists of a simple oblong block of stone, 
the two ends being sloping, and the square top, so formed, hollowed into 
a small basin. 



BOOKBINDING, TEMP. HEN. VIII. 

DR. J. J. HOWARD of Lee has sent for presentation a rubbing from the 
cover of a volume printed in 1510 by Jehan Petit, and entitled " Hero- 
doti Halicarnassei Thurii Historic." It now belongs to Charles Baily, 
Esq., E.S.A., and on the title is inscribed the quaint name of " Obadiah 
Ghossip." 

Obverse. The arms of Henry VIII. France and England quarterly, 
surmounted by an arched crown. Supporters, the dragon, allusive to 
the descent from Cadwaladyr, and a greyhound not collared. Above 
the dragon a sun and the arms of St. George. Above the greyhound 
the moon and stars, and the arms of the city of London. 

Reverse. The double Tudor rose, surrounded by two scrolls, in- 
scribed : 

Hec . rosa . virtutis . de . celo . missa . sereno . 

Eternu . florins . regia . sceptra . feret . 

The scrolls diverge at the base to enclose the pomegranate erect and 
slipped of Granada, the badge of Katharine of Arragon, placed under 
the rose. Above one of them is the sun, over the other is the moon and 
stars. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for May, 1861, some other Tudor 
bindings are described with points in common. There the same legend 
occurs, and the angel supporters are found flanking the royal shield 
as well as the badge. They were the supporters of France. In one of 
these bindings the arms of France and England, so supported, are in- 
paled with Katherine's : Quarterly, 1 and 4, Castile and Leon ; 2 and 
3, Arragon and Sicily ; and on a point in base the pomegranate for 
Granada 



OLD RECIPES, 17 



OLD KECIPE3. 

DE. CHARLTON has exhibited two thin but closely written manuscripts, 
enclosed in a cover formed of two leaves of an older and illuminated 
book. .One of these objects is a treatise on drawing, differing in no 
material degree from Peacham's Gentleman's Exercise, published in 
1634, and probably not earlier in date. The other is entitled " Obser- 
vations or Notes for Cookerie, gathered from experienced cookes, with 
other notes and obsarvations, Februarii, Elizab. R.R. 36, ao. Dni. 1593." 
Many of these are amusing by their minuteness of detail. Thus a cock 
to be stewed, to renew the weak, must be a red one, and boiled with 
two or three pieces of old gold. Others raise a laugh by their extreme 
nastiness. The following extracts may interest the numismatist, the 
admirer of Bluff Hal, and the collector of seals and old books ; while from 
some elaborate precedents for feasts are severed more moderate ones, 
which may give a tolerable idea of the ordinary fare offered by the hosts 
of olden time. 

To make one sleepe, geaven by Mr. Doct. Caldwell. Take white pop- 
pie seede the weighte of a Frenche crowne, which is vij d in silver 
weight now currant, &c. 

A sawce for a rosfed rabbet, used ~by King Henrie the viij th . Take a 
handfull of washed parcelie. Mince it smale. Boyle it with butter 
and verjuice upon a chaffingdishe. Season it [with] sugar and a litle 
peper grosse beaten. When it is readie put in a fewe fyne crummes of 
white breade amongst the other. Let it boyle againe till it be thicke. 
Then lay it in a platter, like the breadthe of three fyngers. Lay on 
eche syde one rosted conie, or moe, and so searve them. 

To make redd sealinge ivaxe. Take to three poundes of waxe, three 
ounces of cleare turpentine in sommer, in winter take fower. Melt 
them togather with a softe fyre. Then take it from the fyre and let it 
kcele. Then put in vermelion verie fynelie grounde, and sallet oyle of 
eche one ounce, and mixe them well together, and it wilbe perfect good 
waxe. 

To make redd or greene sealinge waxe. Melte a pounde of waxe and 
towe ounces of turpentine togather, and when they be well molten, then 
take from the fire the same, and put to them one ounce of vermelion while 
it is lukewarme, and stirr it well togather in the keelinge, and then 
make it up in rooles. And in like maner shall yotie make greene waxe 
by putting vertgrease into it. Note, yf youe will take towe partes of 
rosin, and one parte of turpentine, addinge to it vermelion, as is afore- 
said, it will make the waxe the better. 



13 EXCAVATIONS AT CORBRIDGE. 

JBookes of Cookerie. A. Boke of Cookrie gathered by A. "W. and 
ncwlie enlarged, etc., and prentted, 1584. The Good H us wiffes Jewell, 
found out by the practise ot Th. Dawson, etc., Io8o. The Closett or 
Treasurie of Hidden Secrettes, with sundrie additions, etc., 1586. The 
Good Huswiffes Handmaid for the Kitchin, with Good Huswiffes 
Clossett, etc., 1588. The Hospitall for the Diseased, with manie 
excellent medicines, gathered by T. C. etc. [In addition to these, 
may be added the reference of a recipe for alluring pigeons to a dove- 
house by means of the scent of a roasted dog stuffed with cumin, and 
the hanging of " a great glasse in the toppe of the lover, and three or 
fower lokinge glasses within the dovehouse by some of the hooles." 
The quotation is : " Probatum, and taken out of the boke entitled a 
Thousande Notable Things of Sundrie Sortes. Libro septimo, cap. 42."] 

For Fleshe Days at Dinner. The First Course Pottage or stewed 
brothe, boyled meate or stewed meate, chickens and bacon, powdered 
beiff, pies, goose, pigg, rosted beiff, roasted veale, custarde. The Seaconde 
Course Rosted lambe, rosted capons, rosted conies, chickens, pehennes, 
baked venison, tarte. 

The First Course at Supper A sallet, a pigs petitoe, powdered beiffe 
sliced, a shoulder of mutton or a breast, veale, lambe, custarde. The 
Second Course Capons rosted, conies rosted, chickens rosted, larkes 
rosted, a pie of pigeons and chickens, baked venison, tarte. 



EXCAVATIONS AT CORBRIDGE. 

DR. BRUCE gives some account of recent excavations at the singularly 
irregular Roman station at Corbridge. By consent of the landowners 
the Duke of Northumberland, Mr. Beaumont, and the Trustees of Green- 
wich Hospital a labourer had been placed by Mr. Cuthbert of Beau- 
front at the service of Mr. Coulson (whose services had been so useful 
and carefully directed at Bremenium), for the purpose of making investi- 
gations at Corbridge. He accordingly tapped the "Watling- street, and 
ascertained for the first time the point where it struck the station on 
the south side. It was about 20 feet wide, of the usual convex form, 
and duly paved, but deprived of its curbstones. In the county of Dur- 
ham, it is described as having been furnished with footways on each side, 
but at Corbridge the singular adjunct occured of another road of the 
same width running alongside at the west of the paved way. This 
second road was unpaved, merely gravelled. Mr. Coulson was led by 
this discovery to the place of the north abutment of the bridge, which 
presented itself in very great decay. Only the core remained, all the 
facing- stones having been removed. The southern abutment was already 



EXCAVATIONS AT CORBRIDGE. 1 9 

well known, and the occurence of the northern one proves the general 
accuracy of Mr. Maclauchlan's conclusion that, whatever might be the 
oiiginal course of the Tyne, the Roman remains would probably % be 
found crossing its present course obliquely. Mr. Coulson has also cut 
through the station wall in one place, and in digging into the interior 
of the station found a semicircular apartment with something like a seat 
round it. Dr. Bruce adds that the church is almost entirely con- 
structed of Eoman stones, which occur especially in the tower. At the 
back of the church a sculpture of the boar which characterised one of 
the legions is built in, and an altar is inserted at the back of the Hole 
Farm, but is illegible. Mr. Gipps, the vicar, has antiquities dug up 
between the church and the house of Mr. George Lowrey, surgeon 
part of an inscription and part of an altar. Urns and bones have there 
been found, and the conclusion that here was the cemetery is strength- 
ened by a headstone which Mr. Lowrie presents to the society. It is 
inscribed. 

IVLIA. MATjL, . , 
NA. AN. VI. IVL. 

MARCELLINVS 
FILIAE CAEISSIME. 

" Julia Materna, aged 6 years. Julius Marcellinus has erected this stone 
to his most dear daughter." A person of the name of Quintus Elorius 
Maternus occurs on an inscription found at Housesteads. 

Mr. Clayton is, it seems, continuing his excavations at the bridge of 
Cilurnum. Mr. Maclauchlan conjectured that this bridge also went 
diagonally across the stream. The recent explorations have not verified 
that position ; yet the archasological surveyor was guided by sticks in- 
serted when the water was low by Mr. Elliot, an intelligent fisherman, 
to mark the sites of piers. Dr. Bruce suggests that this curious dis- 
crepancy might be occasioned by the fact of there having been two erec- 
tions of differing periods, and that the fisherman had got some sticks in 
the piers of one, and others in those of another. To this person the 
doctor was indebted principally for the plan of the bridge in his work on 
the Roman "Wall. He laid down stone by stone as the water allowed 
him. In that plan the bridge does not present a diagonal direction. 



20 GIFT FROM THE " THOMAS BELL LIBRARY." 



MONTHLY MEETING, 5 JUNE, 1861. 
John Fenwickj Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

DONATIONS OF BOOKS. From Lord Londeslorough. An Illustrated Cata- 
logue of Antique Silver Plate formed by Albert Lord Londesborough, 
now the property of Lady Londesborough, by Frederick AY. Fairholt, 
F.S.A. For private reference. 1860. From the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland Their Proceedings, Vol. III. Pt. 2, 1861. From 
the Rev. J. Everett. Earnes's Guide to Dorchester, and a lithographic 
view of the remarkable Earth-works at Maiden Castle, about two miles 
distant from that town. 

Gift from the " Thomas Sell Library. 11 

The members are agreeably surprised and gratified by a large 
and unexpected increase to their stores 100 volumes having been 
placed on their table by the family of the late Mr. Thomas Bell, each 
volume being labelled with the following inscription : " This Volume, 
with one hundred others, from the ' Thomas Bell Library,' is presented 
to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, as a memorial 
of the late collector's interest in the Society from its foundation to his 
death." 

The collection is in a great measure of a manuscript character, the 
labour of Mr. Bell himself, and comprises, as will be seen by the sub- 
joined schedule, matter illustrative of very varied branches of the topo- 
graphical and domestic history of Newcastle and the North of England. 
The collections relative to the Town Moor and the parish of St. John's 
are peculiarly minute and interesting to the Newcastle antiquary. Mr. 
Clayton points out a ludicrous piece of latinity relative to the Powder 
Plot in the Old MS. of Latin Discourses. "Oratioin Conjurationem 
Sulphuream habita in Templo B. Marias, Nov. 5, 1652." 

A special vote of thanks was carried by acclamation for this interest- 
ing memorial of an accurate and painstaking lover of antiquarian lore. 

A list of the volumes presented follows : 

NEWCASTLE. St. Nicholas' Parish. The Church, 8vo, 2 vols. The 
Burial places in the same Church, 8vo. Inscriptions in the Church- 
yard, copied by T. G. Bell, 1832, 8vo. Vicar Smith, 8vo, 3 vols. 

St. Johns Parochial Chapelry. The Church and Parochial Chapelry, 
8vo, 4 vols. The Church, small 4 to. The Burial-places and Grave- 
stones in the Churchyard, 1763, folio. -- Monumental Inscriptions, 
8vo, 3 vols. The Pews, 4to. The Organ and Organist, 4to. The 
Afternoon Lectureship, 4to. The Sunday Evening Lectures, 4to. 
The Sunday Schools, 8vo. The Churchwardens, Overseers, and other 
Officers since 1 660, with Minutes of the Vestry Proceedings, oblong. - 
Church Rates, folio. 



GIFT FROM THE " THOMAS BELL LIBRARY." 21 

Dissenters' Chapels. Postern Chapel, 8vo. Clavering Place Chapel, 
8vo. Groat Market Chapel 8vo. 

Miscellaneous. Town Moor, 8vo, 4 vols. Catalogue of the New- 
castle Theological Library, discontinued 1825, 8vo. Two copies of 
the Eev. Tho. Maddison's Anniversary Sermon in the Trinity Chapel, 
on Monday, 7 Jan. 17GO, 8vo, 2 vols. Musical Festivals, of 1778 
(4to), 1814, 1824, 8vo, (one vol. marked ''Concerts/') 6 vols. Mem- 
oranda relative to the Town, 8vo. MS. Report of the Trial, Watson 
v. Carr, 1823 (for Sykes's print), 4to. Imposition of a County Hate 
in Newcastle, 4to. Visit of Wellington, 1827, 4to. Corporation 
Mirror, 1829, 1832, 8vo. Fever in Newcastle, 1803, 8vo. J. M. 
Bell's Report of the Newcastle Poetic Society, >vo. Lunardi's Bal- 
loon Accident, 8vo. An old MS. of Latin Discourses of the 17th 
century, and copies made in the 1 &th century of some of the Newcastle 
Charters, 8vo. Proceedings on the Death of the Duke of York, 8vo. 

Radical Monday, 1821, 8vo. Sale at the Mansion House, 1836, 
8vo. Athena3um Report of the Meeting of the British Association, 
1838, 4to. Newcastle Elections, 1774 (including Northumberland), 
1777-80, 1796 to 1820, 1812, 1818, 1820, 1826, 12 vols. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. Northumberland Poll Books, 1747-8, three edi- 
tions, 4 vols. Treacherous Combination Displayed, or a Temporary 
Meal for the Freeholders of Northumberland, 1775, 8vo. Account 
of the Office of Sheriff of Northumberland, 8vo. Northumberland 
Election, 1826. Memoranda relating to the County, 8vo. Lords, 
Knights, &c., in Northumberland and Durham, who compounded for 
their Estates, 8vo. Index of Places, &c., named in Horsley's Map of 
Northumberland, 8vo. Alnwick Castle and other Poems, New York, 
1836, 8vo. Liber Feodarii, from the Lawson MS. 1584, afterwards 
printed by Hodgson in his Northumberland, 8vo. Thomas Bates' s 
Letter to the Bishop of Durham concerning the Sale of Ridley Hall 
Estate, 1830, 8vo. 

DURHAM:. Rules for Durham Gaol, 1819, 4to. Rules for Quarter 
Sessions at Durham, 1820, 4to. Addenda to Surtees's Durham, 4to. 

King James's Hospital, Durham, 4to. A Sermon preached at 
"Whickham, 1732, by Taylor Thirkeld, M.A., on Almsgiving, New- 
castle, 8vo. The Act for Improving the Navigation of the River 
Tees, 1808, 8vo. Day's Observations on the Durham and Sunder- 
land Railway, 8vo. Messrs. Dodd and Bell on the River "Wear, 1 794, 
1816, small 4to. Examination of Thomas Jones, Bankrupt, late a 
Partner in the Wear Bank, 8vo. 

MISCELLANEOUS. Chapman's Reports on the Carlisle Canal, 1818, 8vo. 

Dodd's and Chapman's Observations on Railways, &c., 8vo. Ac- 
count of the Cholera in the North, 1832, 8vo. Local Poems by Frier 
and Ferguson, 8vo. Tho. Charlton Sykes's Essay on the Stage, 8vo, 
MS. The Battle of the Bards, in Five Poems, with Notes by Tho. 
Bell, 1802, 8vo, MS. Hints for a better Parochial Registration, by 
John Bell, MS., folio. Dr. Matt. Stewart on the Distance of the Sun 
from the Earth, Edinb., 1763, 8vo. Jonathan Thompson's Political 



22 THE TEMPERAMENT AND APPEARANCE OF ROBERT BURNS. 

Tracts, Newcastle, 1786-89. 8vo. A Fiscal MS. of J. R. Wilson, 8vo. 
Spirit of the Times, 1801 ; MS. of Epigrams, &c., 2 vols. His- 
tory of a Tithe Cause tried at York, 1815, between the Rev. Reginald 
Bligh, Rector of Romaldkirk, and John Benson, by Bligh, 8vo. 
Montgomery v. Doubleday & Co. 1825, 8vo. 



ON THE TEMPERAMENT AND APPEARANCE OF 
ROBERT BURNS. 

BY ROBERT WHITE. 

IN exhibiting these two Autograph Poems by Robert Burns, there are 
some observations deduced from them, which I would bring before the 
notice of the Society, respecting the temperament and appearance of 
the Scottish poet. 

In every case of comparison there are exceptions ; but, on an average, 
I perceive that when a person is of a sanguine temperament, and espe- 
cially of a florid complexion, his handwriting is large and free, and 
generally it will be seen to increase in size and be flowing if his 
hair have a light reddish tinge. A gain, when the bilious temperament 
prevails, and the eyes and hair assume the hue of the raven's wing, we see 
the handwriting tend to be small, stiff, and confined, though very distinct 
in all its parts. We have, therefore, between these classes, and parti- 
cipating in them less or more, all the complexions we see, and hence 
the infinite variety and forms of handwriting. 

From what we read of Robert Burns, we learn that he had dark eyes 
and hair, and a very dark complexion. A young woman observed, that 
if any of her sex were seated near the poet, keeping her ears shut and 
her eyes open, there could be no danger of her falling in love with him. 
One would almost be induced to think he must have been of the bilious 
temperament, that his eyes were jet black and he had crisp black hair. 
This supposition, however, dees not agree with the manner and form of 
his handwriting. By examination of these specimens, and they are 
even written in a smaller character than others I have seen and possess, 
it will, I believe, be admitted they are nothing like what we might 
expect to see from the hand of a bilious man. His father was of a 
dark complexion and inclined to be bilious, but his mother had reddish 
hair and beautiful dark eyes. Keeping, therefore, all these details in 
view, we are led to believe that Robert Burns was not of the bilious, 
but of the sanguine temperament, although approaching so near to the 
former, that it might be almost difficult to distinguish whether he ac- 



THE TEMPERAMENT AND APPEARANCE OF ROBERT BURNS. 23 

tually bordered on the very line between them. His eyes therefore, I 
presume, were not clear black, but of deep brown ; his hair inclining 
to a yellow tinge in his infancy, but of dark auburn as he advanced 
in life, and his complexion agreeing with and assimilating to these ap- 
pearances. With this view of the man and the poet, the handwriting 
appears to be in perfect keeping, and I throw out the opinion that it 
may obtain the consideration of those who know physiology, and are 
able to handle a subject of this kind, whereby we may judge more ac- 
curately of the passions, the tendencies and the genius of the greatest 
of all our Scottish poets. 

I am not in this place prepared to refute the calumny and censure from 
different quarters which have been directed against the memory of this 
most remarkable man. His failings ought rather to awaken our sympa- 
thy ; for when we consider the vital influence which his writings have 
produced upon his own countrymen and others over the wide world, I 
do not hesitate to regard him as the most gifted individual of his day. 
"We are gainers by what he left us and not losers, and it becomes us to 
be grateful for what he accomplished. Indeed, he has himself fur- 
nished the best reply to his detractors in the quantity of verse he pub- 
lished, both in poems and songs, and the numerous letters he wrote 
from the commencement of his authorship down to the close of his life, 
and that was comprised in the brief course of only about ten years. 
During that period he had the business of a farm, first at Mossgiel and 
afterwards at Ellisland, to occupy his attention ; while at the latter 
place, and also at Dumfries, he had the responsible duties of an excise 
officer to perform over several parishes. This he accomplished to the 
approval of the higher authorities, for his accounts were kept in such 
excellent order, that it is said old Maxwell of Terraughty, a rigid and 
determined magistrate, once observed, "Bring me Burns' s books. It 
always does me good to see them : they show that a warm, kind-hearted 
man may be a diligent and honest officer." It was therefore only in 
his leisure hours that he could apply himself to original composition ; 
and when we examine what he produced by bulk alone, apart from the 
pith and spirit he infused into whatever he wrote, we feel justified in 
saying that no dissolute man could have accomplished an equal amount 
of labour, for at such intervals the pen must have been scarcely ever 
out of his hand. 

[The two poems exhibited by Mr. White have been printed. One is 
the "Monody on Maria E. ;" the other, " Country Lassie."] 



24 WINSTON. 



WINSTON. 
Br W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 

ME. H. M. SCAETH, of 15, Bath wick Hill, Bath, having called my at- 
tention to the head of a Saxon cross at "Winston, and sent some rough 
sketches of it, and facilities having since been kindly afforded by the 
rector for rubbings of its two sides, they are now submitted to the 
Society. The stone, which was lying loose in the churchyard, has been 
placed for safety in the entrance hall of the Rectory-house. 

Independently of the interest of its ornaments, w r hich are of a character 
unusual in this part of the country, its occurrence at Winston is topo- 
graphically important. It proves beyond all question the early exist- 
ence of Christian worship at the place. Winston, as a name, does not 
occur until immediately after the Conquest but, both before and after- 
wards, we have, among the possessions of the see of Durham, the name 
of Heacliffe, which, whether it be identical with a still earlier Ileclif, or 
not, does not, for historical reasons, seem to have been Cliffe, in York- 
shire, or for similar reasons, and from the contemporary occurrence of 
Acleia for Aycliffe, to have been the latter place. The manor-house 
of Winston manor, and some part of the demesne lands are document- 
arily called Heighly, and pronounced Hikely, and with Winston or this 
part of it, Heacliffe is probably to be identified. 

The fragment is part of the transverse bar of an upright cross, with 
a border of beads, probably in imitation of the jewels on cruciform orna- 
ments of gold. On one side, is a circular centrepiece, also beaded, and 
the appearance of a stag hunt, two stags, a dog, and perhaps a spear 
head being the objects visible. The edges, which are not shown here, 
present very rude knotwork. On the other side, we have in the centre 
a singular group, which may be thought to resolve itself into a figure 
reclining on a harrow or gridiron ; if the latter, St. Lawrence is pro- 
bably indicated. His effigy on a seal from a brass matrix in the hands 
of Mr. Abbott, of Darlington, marked * SAVNCTE LAVEE^C. is produced 
for comparison. Near him is a bunch of the conventional grapes so 
common on these crosses, and thought to refer to the true vine, and at 
each end is a niche with a figure. Of one only the head is left ; the 
other is perfect, and seems to be praying to a small cross of St. Andrew, 
which is curiously incised on the border of the niche. 

It is a coincidence, possibly nothing more, that the church is dedicated 
to St. Andrew. The hill on which it stands seems to have been sliding 







sWKg*?^;3a 

*f3^3l?L? ffc>"^ 




WINSTON. 25 

away on the south side, as the appearance of a priest's door is above 
the present level. The church has recently undergone much refacing 
and alteration. The original portions left, namely some Avails of the 
chancel, and the piers and arches which open into the south and only 
aisle of the nave, are plain work of the second half of the twelfth cen- 
tury. The piscina is more ornate. It is a trefoiled niche, the cusps 
knobbed, and the chamfered moulding ornamented with pellets or nut- 
meg ornaments. The western bay of the nave is marked off, by the 
western pier being of double thickness. The belfry was very plain. 
It had two bells in Edward VI. 7 s time. A. picturesque turret has now 
supplanted it. The font has rude sculpture round its bowl, possibly 
copied in comparatively late times from a medley of Norman and 
Mediaeval originals. There are fabulous beasts, foliage, and window 
tracery. 

In the south wall of the chancel is now built in a slab of the thir- 
teenth century, with the toothed ornament on its chamfered edges. I 
had only time to secure a rough sketch of the lower part of the cross, 
and its attendant martlets and sword, but I have supplied the deficiency 
from a drawing by Mr. "Walbran, and a fair idea of the stone will be had. 

Mr. "Walbran also perpetuates on his lithograph (intended for his 
uncompleted History of Gainford) a small piece of Saxon knotwork like 
the edge of a cross, which I did not notice. 

There are some small brasses, of which rubbings are produced. A. 
slab at the east end of the south aisle bears the marks of a civilian's 
effigy, with the following inscription on a brass label : 

Of yo r charite pray for y e Soulle of Richard Mafon y e whyche 
defefyd y e ix day of May in y e yere of o r lord M v xxxij oil 
whofe Soulle Jhu pdon. 

In the chancel is an earlier label of brass, engraved by an ignorant 
or careless workman. 

Hie iaeet dns Johes purlles cappllan 9 qui . obiet xxvj die april 
A dni M CCCO Ixxxxviij". 

These inscriptions are very loosely printed in the county histories. 
The chaplain probably officiated at the little chapel near Heighley Hall, 
of which the last remains had been removed before Surtees's publication. 

He reports that the following brass, which now lies near the pulpit 
in the nave, had been lately discovered in an old lumber chest in Win- 

VOL. VI. D 



26 CONTRACT FOR A PRIVATE COACH. 

ston church. There are peculiarities in its engraving not noticed by 
the historian. The legend is in small capitals. 

Here lieth the body of M rs ary Dowthwhet davghter of George 
Scroope Esqvire and wife of JIr -Iolm Dowthwhet of West- 
holme who in Childbed died the xxviij th daye of November 
1606. 

The inscription laid down by the last of the Dowthwaites, which 
'Surtees saw on a coarse stone in the floor of the nave, and which in 
fact now lies between the nave and south aisle in a broken state, is only 
repeated in order to note the injuries it has suffered in removing the 
ceiling of the nave, for the substitution of an open roof of stained deal. 
The monument is interesting from the impression it seems to have made 
beyond anything else in the church on the gentle mind of our topo- 
grapher. The pith of it is now missing or hidden from view, and is 
supplied in brackets. 

[Here, was buryed the] Body of John Dowthwaite of West- 
holme Gen 1 who dyed Sept br [16, 1680, aged 80 years. 

Here lyeth the body of John Dowthwaite his grandson, who 
dyed June 11, 1707, aged 23 years, 5 months, and 16 days, 
son of Barnard Dowthwaite of Westholme, Gent., now] 
liveing, the last Heir Male of y e Familye Owne r8 of West- 
holme above 200 years. 

"Of Barnard himself, who was buried 5 Jan. 1714, uUimus suorum, 
no monumental memorial (says Surtees) is left. There is something 
plainly and coarsely touching in the epitaph enumerating the years, 
weeks, and days of his only child's existence; something speaking even 
in humble life of extinguished hope, and of a damp mildewed feeling 
of the total extinction of the race of respectable yeomanry, who had 
f been owners of Westholme above 200 years.' " 



CONTKACT FOR A PRIVATE COACH. 

OUR old friend ME. JAMES CLEPHAK, with kind recollections of the 
retrospective tendencies of his Northern friends, has addressed the fol- 
lowing note to the Editor " Whilst I was resident in Leicestershire, 
I accompanied some friends to Beaumanor, the seat of "William Perry 



CONTEACT FOR A PRIVATE COACH. 27 

Herrick, Esq., on Charnwood Forest, our errand-in-chief being to see a 
family coach of 1740. Mr. Herrick was kind enough to offer me a 
lithograph of this curious relic, and also a printed copy of the coach- 
maker's contract ; and as I was already in possession of both, I said so, 
and proposed to him that I might place his copies in the hands of the 
Society of Antiquaries, in Newcastle ; to which he cheerfully consented." 

To Wm. Herrick, Esg*. att Beau Mannor. In LougKbrough Bag. 
Leicestershire. 

London 8ber y e 28 th 1740. D r Sir, I carry'd the arms Miss Gage 
sent to the coach makers and the other side is the charge of the whole 
which I hope you'l like, I am sure I have done as if it had been my 
case and I dare say the man will finish it as it should be and at the 
time he promissed ........ All friends here joyn in 

humble love to you & all friends, and I am, D r neighbour, Y r8 , &., 
C. HAETOPP. The coach maker wants to know the colour of the lineing. 



AN ESTAMATE OF A CoACH TO BE MAJ)E FOR WM. HAEEICK, 
BY E. Hi-ELEE. 

1710, Octo : To a new coach to be made with the best seasoned tim- 
ber, the doors to be arched, the body to be neatly runn, the ends of the 
bottom, sides, corner pillars, and asticks round the glasses to be neatly 
carved, colouring and varnishing the body olive colour, painting thereon 
a sett of shields, hightned in gold, and a sett of armes, and crests, cover- 
ing the body with the best neats leather, the vallons whelted and drove 
in archess, to be lined with any colour' d cloth except scarlett, a seat 
cloth y e same of the lining, a woosted triming to the inside, the seats 
quilted and tufts to them, 2 door glasses and canvasis in the doors also 
a strong sett of main and save braces, a sett of cross and collar braces, 
a neat carriage carved answerable to the body, and a strong sett of 
wheels, colouring the carriage and wheels bright red and olive colour, 
varnishing them with vermillion, gilding the shield, and painting the 
crest on the hind cross barr, and boxis under the inside seats, all to be com- 
pleted in a workmanlike manner for seventy three pounds ten shillings, 
73. 10. To a new sett of splin trees, a spear barr and splin tree, a 
drage chain and drage staff, and straps and buckles, ll. 16s. To a 
budget to hang under the coachmans seat, a hammer, a pair of pinchers, 
a cold chisell, 24 clouts, 12 linspins, and hurters, and 200 of clout 
nailes, IL 12s. To 4 new harness made with the best neats leather, a 
brass plate on the edge of housing, crest housing plates, brass watering 
hooks, starrs, and screwd rings to ye head stalls double bard bits and a 
sett of reins, 12/. To a large winscott trunk to go between to the fore 
standard plates, handles, and a lock to it, ll. 2s. To a new cover for 
the coach made with fine barriss, ll. 5s. 92Z. 5s. 



28 OLD BARBER'S BASIN. JEDBURGH FLAGS. 

MONTHLY MEETING, 3 JULY, 1861. 
John FenwicJc, sq., KP., in the Chair. 

DOXATIOK-S or BOOKS. JBy Mr. 0. Roach Smith. His Letter on Anglo- 
Saxon Remains discovered recently in various places in Kent. From 
the Rev. C. H. Hartshorne. His Itinerary of King Edward the Second, 
1861, for private distribution. From the Archaeological Institute. The 
Archaeological Journal, No. 69, 1861. From the Town Surveyor. 
Reports of the Town Surveyor and the Surveyor of Eoads, Scavenging, 
and Nuisances of Newcastle, for 1859 and I860. Remarks by the Town 
Surveyor and Inspector of Nuisances on an article in the "Builder," 
headed " Condition of our chief towns Newcastle- on- Tyne." 

JEWISH SHEKEL The Rev. James Everett exhibits a shekel of the 
usual types the pot of incense and Aaron's budding rod. 

FRENCH MS. Dr. Charlton exhibits a French MS. of the fifteenth 
century, containing the Hours of the Virgin and a Legend in French of 
>St. Margaret. The border is of gold foliage, with small subjects occa- 
sionally introduced among it, and there are some large miniatures of 
Tery superior execution. 

ASSEMBLY ROOMS. Dr. Charlton also exhibits the original broadside 
List of Proprietors of the New Assembly Rooms, at Newcastle, 1787. 



OLD BARBER'S BASIN. 

THE Society, with pleasant reminiscences of Don Quixote's helmet, 
agrees to purchase from Mr. John Bell a fine example of the old barber's 
basin, composed of white pottery with blue flowering. Mr. Wheatley 
thinks it probable that the necessity of washing the flowing honours of 
the present day will reintroduce the use of the basin. 



JEDBURGH FLAGS. 

Ma. WHITE produces facsimiles in silk, half size, of three flags con- 
nected with the Weavers of Jedburgh, and preserved in the museum 
there. All are nearly 6 feet long, of green silk, with white ornaments, 
and all have the addition of the shuttle of the craft. One, of oblong 
shape, with a thin St. Andrew's cross, and a rose at the intersection of 
its limbs, is dated 1661. Another, of pennon shape, has St. Andrew's 
cross only, and is said to have been at the battle of Killicrankie. The 
third is also decorated with the same cross, and in spite thereof, and in 
spite of its colour, bears the inscription: "Taken from the English 
at Bannockburn, 1314." 



JACOBITE RELICS. 29 



JACOBITE RELICS OF 1715 AND 1745. 
BY EDWARD CHARLTON, M.D. 

CONSIDERING the important part played by the gentry of Northumber- 
land in the rising of 1715, it seems strange that so few remains of that 
eventful period have come down to our time. In truth, however, both 
parties, that of the Hanoverians and that of the Stuarts, were anxious 
to hide from the public eye all traces of that year. The Jacobites dared 
not retain about their houses evidences of their having been concerned 
in the plot or in the actual warfare that ensued ; and hence it is, that 
so few letters or documents have been preserved implicating any of the 
Northumbrian gentry at either of these periods. There cannot, how- 
ever, be a doubt but that for nearly a hundred years after the Revolu- 
tion of 1688, several of the country gentlemen of Northumberland kept 
up more or less correspondence with the members and adherents of the 
exiled family. The few relics of the period above alluded to that we 
exhibit this evening have been entrusted to us by the relict of one 
whose ancestors were always devoted adherents of the Stuarts, and 
one of whose ancestors the individual alluded to in the letter we 
produce took an active and prominent part in the rising of 1715. 
These objects were found hid away in a lumber room, in the house of 
Sandhoe, whither they had no doubt been brought from Reedsmouth, 
the seat of the family of Charlton of the Bower and Reedsmouth from 
an early period. The family is descended from Hector Charlton of 
the Bower, who in the sixteenth century set at defiance the interdict 
laid upon North Tynedale, for the raid into the Bishopric of Durham. 

William Charlton of the Bower and Reedsmouth, generally, from the 
first named possession, known as Bowrie or Bourie, took, as we have 
said, an active part in the rising of 1715. He was afterwards pardoned, 
but this was not the first time that Bowrie had been in trouble with 
the Government. 

On the 21st of February, 1709, he quarrelled with Hemy "Widdrington 
of Bellingham (?) about a horse, 1 as there was a horse-race that day on the 

1 In these times the penal statute by which no papist was allowed to possess a 
horse of tho value of more than five pounds was strictly enforced. In 1745, Sir Wil- 
liam Middleton of Belsay seized the horses at Hesleyside ; and in the Leadbitter 
family there is a tradition of the devices resorted to to preserve a valuable horse belong- 
ing to the then owner of Warden. The horse was first hid in the wood that borders 
Homer's lane, but having been heard to neigh when a picket of soldiers was riding 
by, it was thought dangerous to leave him there. He was accordingly brought back 
to Warden, and was lifted by cords up into the loft above the cart-horse stable, and 
there a chamber was built round him of trusses of hay and straw. His neighing 
here would of course attract no attention, unless the soldiers were actually in the 
stable. 



30 JACOBITE RELICS. 

Doddheaps, close to Bellingham. They adjourned to a small hollow south 
of the Doddheaps called Reedswood Scroggs, and which we can remem- 
ber well as having been pointed out to us many years ago. The ash trees 
in that fatal hollow had not then been cut down ; indeed, they were 
standing till within a few years, and served to mark the spot. Here the 
combatants fought, and Bowrie slew his opponent. He is said by one 
tradition to have been taken "red-handed," as William Laidley (aw?) 
of Emblehope, who witnessed the fight, hastened to the Doddheaps, and 
alarmed the people, who seized the offender. We are inclined, how- 
ever, to believe that Bowrie escaped on horseback, and that same night 
reached the residence of Nicholas Leadbitter, of Warden and Wharmley. 
He was concealed in the house at Wharmley, and walked the floor all 
the night in his heavy boots, to the surprise, and no doubt somewhat 
to the annoyance, of his host and his family. He subsequently obtained 
tha pardon of Queen Anne, under the great seal, for this chance medley ; 
and this document we are enabled by the kindness of the relict of the 
last Charlton of the Bower, and herself a Leadbitter of Warden, to ex- 
hibit this evening. 2 Widdrington's body was buried before Charlton' s 
pew door in Bellingham church, under this inscription, now hidden by 
pew-work : " The Burial Place of Henry Widrington of Butland, Gen- 
tleman, who was killed by M. William Charlton of Eeedsmouth, Feb- 
ruary 23rd [21st?] iu the' Year of our Lord, 1711." [1709 or 1710?] 
It is said that on this account Bowrie would never again enter the sacred 
edifice. It therefore seems that Bowrie was probably a protestant, or 
at least had temporarily conformed, and this is the more probable, as 
we find in Patten's History of the Rebellion that his name is not entered 
as a papist. On the other hand, he is not designated a protestant, as are 
the other " rebels;" so we may fairly conclude that Bowrie had no religion 
at all. His brother Edward is said by Patten to have recently become a 

2 The crown by pardon could frustrate an indictment, but not an appeal of death, 
which was the private suit of the wife or male heir for atonement life for life. 
This could only be discharged by release, and Widdrington's widow must have been 
induced to discontinue her proceedings, which certainly were commenced by her. 
Matthew Eobson and William Robson, two yeomen of Bellingham, were pledges for 
the prosecution; and Marmaduke Constable of Everingham, co. York, bart., Thomas 
Handasyde of Pall Mall, co. Middx., esq., Roger Fenwicke of Dilstone, co. Nd., esq., 
and Nevill Ridley of Sohoe, co. Middx., esq., were bail for Charlton. There was a 
sort of reference to Bishop Crew to examine into the circumstances and report. One 
of the records in the action of appeal states that William Charlton, of Readsmouth, 
gent., was attached to answer Elizabeth, widow of Henry Widdrington, gent., who was 
wilfully and of malice aforethought assaulted and murdered by Charlton at Belling- 
ham, at the hour of 3 p.m. on the twenty-first day of February, 8 Anne, [1709-10]. 
The mortal wound was given near the left pap by a sword. Death immediately 
ensued, and Charlton fled, and was pursued from township to township until [he was 
taken.] The papers, which are incomplete, are among the Allgood MSS. Ed. 



I 



JACOBITE RELICS. 31 

papist, having married a person of that persuasion. However we find 
that Bowrie' s lands are registered as a catholic's under the penal statutes 
in 1723. Be this as it may, Bowrie left no legitimate issue, and the 
children of Edward Charleton, his younger brother, succeeded to the 
estates. Edward Charleton had married the relict of Errington of Wai- 
wick Grange, originally a Miss Dalton of Thurnham, and Bowrie is said 
to have been anxious that his illegitimate daughters should be brought 
up under her care. She demurred under the plea that that they were 
protestants and she catholic, but Bowrie told her to make them what 
she liked. These ladies afterwards lived long in Hexham, and are re- 
membered by persons yet living. They continued staunch Jacobites to 
the very last. On the first relaxation of the penal laws, about 1780, 
King George III. was for the first time prayed for publicly in the ca- 
tholic chapels in England. The instant his name was mentioned, the 
Miss Charletons rose from their seat and moved out of the chapel, and 
this they continued to do all their lives. We know not who were the 
friends by whose intercession Bowrie obtained his pardon from Queen 
Anne. It is probable that the occurrence was regarded in the light of 
a mere brawl, and tradition gives us as one of the circumstances strongly 
urged in his favour, that alter Widdrington had fallen, he threw his 
own cloak over the dying man before he rode away from the scene. 

"We next hear of Bowrie as engaged in the rising of 1715, but the 
details of his exploits on that occasion have not come down to us. He 
behaved, it is said, bravely at Preston, but we do not know when he 
was relieved. In 1745, Bowrie was imprisoned as one suspected of fa- 
vouring the Stuarts. It is said that this was done by his own friends 
to keep him out of mischief, for he must then have been well advanced 
in years. We produce the original warrant for his commitment, signed 
by Cuthbert Smith, then Mayor of Newcastle, and dated November 1st, 
1745. Bowrie no doubt felt his imprisonment keenly, and did his best 
to obtain his release. He seems to have applied to Collingwood of Chir- 
ton for this purpose, and we produce that gentleman's autograph an- 
swer, regretting his inability to do anything for him. 

Dear Sir I rec d the favour of yours with no small concern, and am 
very sensible how uneasy your confinement must make you. I should 
be glad if it were in my power to put an end to it by admitting you to 
bail, and hoped the transmitting above such informations against you 
as had come to my knowledge, together with your own examination, 
might have procured leave to bail you ; but, instead of that, the Duke 
of Newcastle told us in his answer that it was not proper to admitt you 
to bail I own I thought that answer cruel, unless it were occasioned 
by some further charge against you, which you must be the best judge 



32 JACOBITE KELICS. 

whether probable or not. As you stand committed by the Mayor of 
Newcastle, the Bench of Northumberland cannot aid you, and as the 
Mayor is acquainted with the Duke of Newcastle's directions, I am apt 
to think he will not act contrary to them. I will, however, communi- 
cate your letter to him, and do you all the service I am able, but am 
afraid that you must apply to the Duke of Newcastle for leave for the 
Mayor to bail you before that step can be taken 

This is the trew state of your case, which I thought it not improper 
to make you acquainted with, that you might be apprized I want pow r er 
more than inclination to relieve you ; for as I wish and hope you will 
prove innocent, I hereby sympathize with you in your suffering, and 
am, as I always have been Dear Sir Your real friend and humble 
servt., ED. COLLINGWOOD. Chirton, June (?) 12, 1746. 

Prom this time we do not learn much of him, save what has come 
down by tradition of his rough and roystering disposition. In 1736, 
James Tone, steward at Hesleyside, writing to Edward Charleton of 
Hesleyside, who had then, on the death of his father, succeeded to that 
property, speaks thus of Bowrie. "We have preserved the remarkable 
orthography of the letter : 

" Bowrry Charlton wass all wayes vearry a-Bousiffe and scornfull 
man to my Master and would a made him foudelled and sould him 
deare Bargains and abused him when he had done." 

No doubt the old squire was rough and rude, and fond of his cups. 
Among the articles we exhibit to-night is a Venice glass, of which there 
were several at Sandoe House, with a rose and oak leaf engraven on 
the bowl. Between these is a single star, to which, when the King's 
health was given, the loyal Jacobite placed his lips, and drank his 
Majesty's health "under the rose." 3 Another glass, of which but very 
few now remain, has Prince Charles's head and bust, with the motto 
" Audentior Ibo." Another huge Venice glass has on it the inscription, 
" Pero, take your advantage" which may however have been only a 
drinking word of the old squire's. No doubt Bowrie, after his release, 
continued to cherish the memory of the Stuarts, and perhaps to plot a 
little in their favour when an opportunity occurred. Nothing was more 
likely than that he and his family should love to collect memorials of the 
Stuarts, and accordingly we show a mull, dated 1745, with the inscrip- 
tion, " Oh Charlie, ye've been lang a cummin !" a pair of the well 
known Jacobite silk garters, woven probably at Lyons, with the inscrip- 

3 The star is exactly under a large full-blown rose, which doubtless symholises the 
claimant of the crown himself. There are two buds, greater and lesser, on the same 
branch, perhaps intended for Prince Charles and the Cardinal of York. 



JACOBITE RELICS. 33 

tlOn, " COME LET US WITH 01STE HEAHT AGKEE TO PEAT THAT GOD MAY 

BLESS P. c. ;" and a pincushion bearing the names of the victims of 1746 
on the Jacobite side. 4 We suspect these pincushions to have been like- 
wise made at Lyons, or somewhere abroad. 

The last relic connected with these times that we have to show is a 
letter written evidently by a conspirator, and couched in the most am- 
biguous terms. The original is directed to Mr. William Bell, super- 
visor, Hexham ; but there can be little or no doubt but that it was 
intended for no such servant of King George, as the individual addressed 
in the letter itself is termed Dr. Cambray. This was no doubt a nom 
de guerre, and we have no means of knowing who was the Pontifex 
Maximus. Nor do we believe that Wylam is the real place spoken of 
as the place of meeting appointed. 

D r Cambray, I had yours, and nothing could give greater pleasure 
than to hear that our generous and worthy friend Bowrie is still able to 
bend a Bicker. Long may he live to teem a Cog, and (while he dis- 
dains the little superficial formalitys of our modern Gentry or those that 
would be thought such) to receive his friends with the old undisguised 
and Gentlemanlike hearty welcome. 

The proposal he made concerning Carmichael is of a piece with the 
general ten our of his benevolent sentiments towards the honest or indi- 
gent part of mankind. 

When he takes his flight from among your Northumbrian mountains 
towards the Elysian fields, he'll scarcely leave a fellow. Nor am I so 
partial to the Calidonian hills as to believe they ever produced a man of 
more hon r and honesty. 

* Of white satin with hlue tassels at the corners. The inscriptions are printed from 
copper- plates, and the names run in circles round a centre, in which is a douhle rose 
displayed, and the inscription round it, MART : FOB : K : & cou : 1746 : (Martyred 
for king and country, 1746.) 

/ Inner -5%.~Earl Kilmamock. Earl Derwentwater. Ld. Lovat, Ld. 
/ Balmorino. 

Second- Ring. T. Deacon. Syddale. T. Chadwicke. G. Fletcher. J. Berwick. 
Ja. Bradshaw. J. Dawson. 

Third Ring. P. Taylor P. Lindsey. A. Kennedy. J. McGregor. A. 
Parker. P. Keir. L. Read. The Revd. T. Coppock. T. Park. A. Blyde. 
Outer Ring. J. McGenis. J. Thompson Murray. Mayrie. Sevenson. 
McDonald. Dempsey. Connolly. Endsworth. Sparks. Horn. D. Morgan, 
Esqr. C. Gorden. McKenzie. J. McClain. 

/ Inner Ring. Col. Townley. Sir L. "Wederhurn. Sir A. Primrose. F. Buch- 
annan, Esqr. I. Hamilton, Esqr. 

Second Ring. M. Deliard. C. Gorden. Cap. McDonald. Cap. Wood. Cap. 
Leith. Cap. Hamilton. Dan. M. Daniel. 

Third Ring. I. Wallis. Henderson. I. McNaughton. I. Roehothom. H. 
Cameron. I. Innis. I. Harvie. D. Fraizer. B. Mayson. Donald M'Donald. 
Outer Rmff.'hQ Revd. R. Lyon. Rol. Clavering. G. Reid. Eaton. Heys. 
Brady. Ogilvie. Roper. Brand. Swan. Holt. Hunter. Mitchel. Nichol- 
\ eon. Matthews. Hint. 

VOL. VI. E 



34 JACOBITE 'RELICS. 

Carmichael is a good honest lad, but infected with that damned Scots 
disease never to spare his [property?], or his purse where friendship or 
necessity calls. Notwithstanding, he has three callants will receive no 
arguments instead of a dinner, and the good wife, a yell [?] Kid in her 
Killting ; so that if the aifair could he carried on, I would willingly 
contribute my mite, but I want courage to beg for a Countryman. 

If you see Bowrie offer him my warmest good wishes, which extends 
to the tenth generation after him. Accept the same for the bairns, espe- 
cially Bessy Bell, for I have had none to talk nonsense to since she left 
me. Tell her Madam Badrous has a pair of bonnie bairns, and swears 
revenge on her for diserting her office, as she was formerly nurse. Make 
my compliments to her Ladyship with all the havings you have, and 
believe me to be with paternal as well as pastoral affection, D r Cam- 
bray, Yours while PONT. MAX. From the face of the Deep Waters, 
July 1 7th, 1750. 

P.S. I almost dayly see men from South and North, intirely strangers 
to the habitation of the Young Goodman of Bellnagih : only they tell 
me his father alone knows where he is, assures them he is well, and de- 
sires they may be content and ask no more questions. Tom of Lubeck 
is here from Lond : and greets you kindly in the covenant ; he intends 
to kiss your hands at Wylam Sunday comes a week, where I must at- 
tend the conclave, but if he's diverted by his friends I shall give you 
notice. Mention the honest Bp. to Bowrie ; he was once his guest 
upon the Bellingham tramp. [Address.^ To Mr. AVm. Bell, Super- 
visor, Hexham. 

The character of Bowrie here given is in all probability a tolerably 
correct one. The writer hints at his somewhat rough and unpolished 
manners, but bears testimony to his good heart. The allusion to the 
" Young Goodman of Bellnagih " is evidently meant for the Young 
Prince Charles, by the old Stuart soubriquet of the " Gudeman of Bal- 
lengeich." It would have been curious indeed if we could have ob- 
tained a report of what was discussed at the conclave at "Wylam, but no 
short-hand writer was present at these secret meetings to take down the 
dangerous words uttered or the treasonable toasts drank by the Jacobite 
squires of Northumberland. 



ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS. 

DB. CHAKLTON has exhibited a priest's chasuble of the modern open- 
sided form, rounded at the foot of both front and back, and the accom- 
panying stole and maniple. They belonged to the Brandlings, and 
when that family broke up their residence at Felling, were purchased 
by Mr. Michael Dunn of Salt well. They are chiefly composed of 



ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS. 35 

some older vestment of velvet, probably crimson once, but now of a 
light brown colour, on which are sewn religious badges, all of the same 
peculiar device. It consists of a full-blown pink rose, displayed 
and slipped. The flower is bordered with silver, and its circular 
centre is of silver and gold thread, in which the gothic monogram of the 
virgin, JM ift, occurs. From this centre springs a second stalk ending 
in a white flower seen in profile, the petals of which hang over the top 
of the rose and, near the centre, are fringed with black, presenting a 
sort of series of ermine spots. The centre itself is worked with tlj'c in 
gold thread and is surmounted by rays. As the work seems older than 
the introduction of the passion flower from America, the flower may be 
presumed to be a lily. 

The back of the chasuble is decorated with a large Latin cross of silk 
and silver embroidery. It probably contains portions of two orfrays. 
The centre limb contains single saints, under debased tabernacle work. 
1. (St. James the less?) His right hand holds a short raguly staff, pro- 
bably intended for a club. 2. A virgin. 3. St. Bartholomew with his 
flaying knife. In the arms of the cross are couples of saints, clumsily 
drawn and worked, standing between twisted pillars, which have sup- 
ported canopies now cut away. 1, 2. St. Matthias or St. Bartholomew 
with a hatchet shaped knife, and St. James the Great (?) with a sceptre- 
like top of a staff, of the same colour as the robe, and probably intended 
to pass over it. 3,4. St. John t the Evangelist, young, goldenhaired, 
and beardless, without emblem, but with the right hand uplifted as if 
accompanying an address; and St. Peter, who holds his key. The 
faces of the these four figures are left in the canvass, not worked with 
silk as those in the long limb. They seem to have come from a dif- 
ferent vestment. The short front of the chasuble has only a centre 
row of figures, similar to those in the centre row of the back. 1. A 
virgin. 2. A virgin holding a book. 3. St. Andrew with his cross. 

The maniple and stole have been remounted and bordered. They 
only exhibit portions of the velvet and badges, with small crosses of 
dark brown velvet stuck upon their ends. 

Dr. Chaiiton has .also submitted to the Editor two other modern 
chasubles, not requiring any notice of their principal textures, which 
are quite recent, but containing crosses formed of old orfrays. In 
one of them the workmanship much resembles that found in the 
chasuble exhibited. In the upright limb of the cross are saints. One 
bears the Agnus Dei (St. John Baptist) j another, young and yellow- 
haired, carries a chalice in his right hand, and blesses with his left. 
There is something like a black insect in the cup. If it were a 



36 ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS. 

spider it is the emblem of St. Herbert, Bishop and Confessor ; but the 
face reminds one of the representations of St. John Evangelist, who 
carries a cup with a winged serpent issuing from it. Besides, the 
attire is not that of a bishop, and the juxtaposition demands an apostle 
or superior saint. Probably the indications now seen are the fastenings 
of a serpent sewn on and now lost. 

From the next saint, more elderly, the left hand and any emblem 
has decayed. At the foot is St. Peter with his key. In the limbs of 
this cross are two figures facing each other, and without nimbi. One in 
a plain open-sided gown like a modern chasuble, lined with ermine, and 
in a high mitre-like cap of ermine, is in a dictatorial self-satisfied 
attitude. The other places his hand upon his breast submissively, 
and wears a gown short in front, and a sort of short sleeve appears only 
on the left arm. This last figure wears a hat, turned up in front. The 
faces of all these figures are principally the linen foundation. The 
Pharisee and the Publican of the parable appear to be the persons re- 
presented. 

In the orfrays hitherto noticed, the foundation is mostly covered 
with silk stitches. Gold and silver threads are sparingly introduced, 
except as the back-grounds on which the saints are placed. The archi- 
tecture is clumsy. The next cross of orfrays is probably much earlier. 

The foundation is of silk now a pale pink and on this the] designs, 
cut out of other silk, are sewn. The outlines and fibres of the leaves 
and stalks which run like a diaper over the back ground are of gold 
and silver tambour, and spangles are introduced to form quasi-flowers. 
Gold and silver tambour is also extensively used in the nimbus and 
other parts of each figure, and composes the black-letter inscriptions on 
scrolls which surmount the figures in lieu of tabernacle work. Each 
figure is on a kind of throne placed on a green turf sprinkled with 
flowers. The legends are indifferently spelled and some of them are 
much mutilated by the cutting up of the orfrays to fit them into their 
present position. The three down the central limb read Ad dextram dei 
pair omnipotent! inde uen turns est iu. uivos et portions of the creed : 
" Ascendit ad ccelos, sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis. 
Inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos." At the foot of this limb 
is a portion of a scroll, which contained the sentence relating to Pilate, 
[su]i pon[tio~]. Of the scrolls around the figures in the arms of the 
cross too little is seen to warrant an application of the remaining letters? 
but their style is precisely the same as that of the others. The figures 
are dressed in robes of blue, spangled with stars, and of course represent 
Persons of the Trinity, but no nimbus contains any cross. The figure 



LINHOPE CAMP. 37 

under the second of the above scrolls is aged, and 'plainly is intended 
for God the Father. His right hand is wanting, and his face is turned 
to the dexter. The others all look to the sinister. 

Since submitting the above vestments, Dr. Charlton has exhibited 
another chasuble, the property of his brother, at Hesleyside. It is also 
of the modern form, but is framed out of one probably more ancient 
then any of those already described. Its designs are of gold thread 
sewn upon crimson velvet both very bright and beautiful but, if they 
have been cleaned and resewn, they must have been done so before the 
cutting down into the present shape, as the mutilation of the pattern 
by the last process is only too apparent. The principal design is the 
Virgin and Child supported by angels, within a glory. Beneath this 
is the lily of the Virgin in a pot. The field is strewn with devices of 
very common occurrence on mediaeval vestments, and of the styles figured 
by Mr. Hartshorne, in his papers on English Mediaeval Embroidery, in 
the Archaeological Journal. They are four- winged cherubim on wheels, 
double-headed eagles, and fleurs-de-lis, freely and beautifully conven- 
tionalized. This precious relic formerly belonged to the family of 
Hodgson of Tone Hall, near Bellingham. Two of the male members of 
this house were out in the Eebellion of 1715, and two of the daughters 
acted as aides-de-camp to the Earl of Derwentwater's force. 



LINHOPE CAMP. 
PROM MR. WM. COULSON TO ME. CLAYTON. 

A WONDERFUL camp it is surrounded with two walls, The outer 
wall is about 10 feet thick, and the inner one about 5 feet. In the in- 
terior of the camp are a great number of circular dwellings. These 
dwellings have two entrances generally, one facing the east and the 
other the west ; the entrance to the east being flagged for 6 or 8 feet 
inwards, and the rest of the dwelling laid with large stones and covered 
over with gravel or small stones. About the sides is a little elevation 
as if for sitting or sleeping on. "What is very remarkable, we have not 
been able to discover any traces of fire in any of these dwellings. "We 
have opened four or five of them. There appears to be an arrangement 
of dwellings on the east and north sides of the walls of a different shape. 
In some of them we have discovered traces of fire charred wood 
and in one of them some broken pottery of a very coarse kind. We 
have found two querns of extremely rude make, but not perforated. 
One of them is sandstone, and must have been brought from some dis- 



38 THE HOSPITALS OF GREATHAM, 

tance, as there is no sandstone near this place. We have four gateways, 
but not opposite each other, and, curiously enough, guard-houses inside 
of each gateway, the same as in Roman camps, hut of the most rude 
kind. There are gateways both in the inner and outer circles, and 
guard-houses to all of them. At about 200 yards to the east of the 
above camp is another group of dwellings, and arranged in the same 
manner : and, a little to the north-east, about 300 yards on the side of 
a hill, is another stronghold with the dwellings arranged and defended 
much in the same manner. There are, also, a great many inclosures, of 
several acres, which no doubt have been for the keeping of cattle. In- 
deed, for upwards of three quarters of a mile to the east, inclosures can 
be traced out. We have opened two three small barrows, but found 
nothing. Linhope, July 1st., 1861. [The excavations are at the cost 
of the Duke of Northumberland, and occupy the more immediate atten- 
tion of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Field Club.] 



THE HOSPITALS OE GREATHAM, GATESHEAD, AND 
BARNARDCASTLE. 



the curious collections relating to Sherburn Hospital which are 
printed in the Allan Tracts, is a Royal Commission issued 13 Nov. 35 
Eliz. (1593) to the Earl of Huntingdon, the Bishop of Durham, Tho- 
mas Calverley, chancellor of Durham, the Dean of Durham, Sir "William 
Hutton and John Selby, knights, Robert Taylboys, Henry Anderson, 
the Archdeacon of Durham, the Chancellor to the Bishop, Clement Col- 
mor and Thomas Burton, doctors of laws, John Clopton, Robert Bowes, 
jun., and George Erivel, esquires ; three to be a quorum. The Queen 
has heard that many colleges, hospitals, almshouses, and other rooms 
and places in her realm, founded for the charitable relief of poor, aged, 
and impotent people, are decayed and impoverished ; and that the pos- 
sessions and revenues thereof, and other lands, money, and chattels 
given for other like good and charitable uses, are unlawfully and un- 
charitably converted to the private lucre of some few greedy persons. 
She is moved with godly zeal to have all such poor, aged, and impotent 
people, and especially soldiers and mariners who have been or may be 
maimed in the wars for maintenance of true religion and defence of her 
and their native countries, relieved and maintained. She has a princely 
care that those colleges, hospitals, and almshouses, and those lands, 



GATESHEAD, AND BARNAKD CASTLE. 39 

moneys, and chattels shall be employed according to the meaning of the 
givers, and all enormities reformed. She empowers the commissioners 
to hold inquisition by verdict of twelve or more lawful men, and exam- 
ine evidences and administer oaths to witnesses, and to certify into 
Chancery. She commands her sheriff of the Bishoprick of Durham to 
cause the appearance of honest freeholders of his bailiwick by whom the 
truth may be known. But the commission is not to extend to any col- 
leges, halls, or houses of learning within Cambridge or Oxford, concern- 
ing their order or government, save as what lands or profits have been 
given thereto for the maintenance or relief of almspeople or such poor 
people, or amending of bridges or highways, or for exhibition or main- 
tenance of poor scholars. 

The following is a brief summary of the matters referred to in the ar- 
ticles of enquiry, which are also printed : 1. Nature of the foundation 
generally. 2. Inmates. 3. Eevenues, their application. 4. Pa- 
tronage and rules. 5. Names, ages, behaviour, and other allowances of 
the inmates. 6. Grants by her Majesty of rooms in reversion. 7. Yi- 
sitors and visitations. 8. Fees, pensions, and payments to officers other 
than the poor. 9. Monies appointed by Henry YIIL, Edward YL, 
Mary, or Elizabeth, upon the] endowment of any college or cathedral 
church for alms, repairs of bridges or highways, or exhibitions for scho- 
lars. 10. Other donations for the relief of poor people or other godly 
and charitable uses in the Bishoprick. 11. Custody of the evidences. 
12. All other matters concerning the premises. 

Mr. Allan proceeds to print the inquisition dated 4 May,- 36 Eliz. 
(1594), so far as relates to Sherburn, and he takes care to embrace some 
curious matter touching the burdens on the Dean and Chapter for alms 
and repairs of highways and bridges, Barnard Gilpin's charity at Hough- 
ton, Squire's almshouse nigh the mote of Durham Castle, and the Spittle- 
house on the common belonging to the borough of Eramwellgate. 

"With this exception, no use, we believe, has been made by topo- 
graphers of this important return. A signed and sealed duplicate of it, 
by the courtesy of its possessor, John Bowes, Esq., has been made 
available for examination. It consists of two membranes stitched 
together and is written closely and minutely. The arrangement is 
somewhat perplexing, the answers for all the hospitals being given 
under each article, and consequently no continuous view is presented of 
any foundation. In the extracts which follow, completing the good 
work which the antiquary of Grange began, the evidence is marshalled 
under each hospital, but no alterations are made in the spelling or the 
language except that the Roman numerals are reduced to Arabic, the 



40 THE HOSPITALS OF GREATHAM, 

contractions expanded, and the technical and repeated statements that 
( 'unto such an article the jurors say and find" omitted. 

As (with the exception of the commencement and conclusion of the 
record) the portions given by Allan are not reprinted, (the modernization 
of the spelling in his copy being of small account at so late a period), 
the only variations of importance must be noticed. For " Daytale 
men," in Art. 3, as to Sherburn Hospital, read "Day talemen." (Qu. 
if the word " taleman" ever occurs for hirings otherwise than by day.) 
In the Cathedral alms-money, under 1586, for " 8 s . 6 d ." read " 13". 
ll d .;" under 1588, for "19 s ." read " 19 d .; " under 1590, for "8 s ." 
read "13 8 .;" In the accounts of money for highways and bridges, 
for "Mawnton" read " Nawnton ; " under 1590, for "J" read "J;" 
after 1592, add " Anno finito, 1593. Allowed to Mr. [Clement inter- 
lined, Doctor erased~\ Colmor then threasorer, 20 1 ., 10 1 . 12 d . whereof 
is nowe -paid to Doctor Hutton theisorer, to be bestowed the next sum- 
mer." In the note of highways and bridges to be repaired, for " West 
Oxes Pasture" read ""Westo Oxes Pasture;" for "jjTeviH'fl Cross" 
bis, read " Nevelle Crosse;" for "on this side Cotton" read "of this 
side Cotome;" for "at the bankside towards (blank) Barns" read "of 

the bancke side toward er barnes; " for " Hedworth Bridge " 

read "Hedworth Bridges." In Gilpin's charity, for "six years ago" 
read "ix yeares ago." In Squire's charity, for "Squire" read 
"Esquier;" for "Howdcll" read "Yowdaile." In the Spittle-house, 
for "the Burrough of Eramwellgate " read "the Broughe of Durham," 
the words "of Durham" being interlined. 

It does not necessarily follow that all these variations are more 
correct in our Streatlam codex, but it must_ be remembered that it is a 
duplicate original. 

Inquisitio Indentata capta fait apud Dunelm. quarto die mensis Maii, 
Anno Regni serenissima3 doming nostrae Elizabeths, Dei gratia Anglia?, 
Fraunciae, et Hibernise, Regina3, fidei defensoris &c., tricesimo sexto : 
coram nobis Tobia Matthewe sacra? theologize professore, Decano Dunelm. 
Cathedralis Ecclesiea Christi et Beatse Maria? Yirginis, Thoma Calveiiey, 
armigero, cancellario Dunelm., Clementi Colmor, legum doctor e, Rever- 
end! in Christo patris Domini Matthei divina providentia Dunelm. Epis- 
copi in spiritualibus cancellario, et Johanne Pilkington, sacrce theologies 
baccalaureo, arcJiidiacono arcliidiaconatus Dunelm. [_et Roberto Boives, 
armigero, erased], virtute commissionis dictce domina nostra Regina liisce 
prescntilus annexce, per sacramenta duodecim proborum et Icgaliion Jiomi- 
num lilerorum tenentium infra Episcopatum Dunelm., 1 videlicet, Henrici 
Heighington, generosi, Eoberti Earrowe, generosi, Richardi Heighington, 
generosi, Edwardi Hudspeth, yeoman, Anthonii Shawdforth, yeoman, 
1 The words in Italics are omitted by Allan, 



GATESHEAD, AND BARNARDCASTLE. 41 

Thomas Wood, yeoman, Radulphi Maison, yeonian, Johannis Dobson, 
3'eoman, Johannis Swalwell, yeoman, Thomae Peerson, yeoman, "Willelmi 
Thomson, yeoman, et Johannis Butterie, yeoman. Q,ui juratores, (ut 
prefertur), jurati de fideliter inquirendo omnia et singula totamque 
materiam in quibusdam articulis commissioni predictae annexis contenta 
et specificata, secundum tenorem et effectum eorundem articulorum et 
sub modo et forma in eisdem descriptis, super sacramenta sua dicunt et 
presentant articulatim protit scquitur. 

1 . Upon the first article they say that they do finde that there are 
scituate in the Bushoppricke and county of Durham fower hospitalles, 
one comonly called and known by the name of Sheerburne House, ane 
other by the name of Greatham Hospitall, ane other by the name of 
Sanct Edmundes, nighe Gateshead, and the fourth by the name of St. 
Johns Hospitall, in Barnardcastell. 

Concerning GREATHAM HOSPITALL, they finde that the said hos- 
pital! standeth in the Towne of Greatham, nighe unto the River of 
Teese, within the County of Durham. And that the Maisters of the 
same ought to be Maisters of Arte, clergie or laymen att the discretion 
of the Bushoppe of the diocese of Durham for the time beinge. And 
that the same hospitall was founded by Robert Stichehill, Bushoppe of 
Durham, Anno Domini 1272, 2 In honorem Dei, Beatae Marias, et Sancti 
Cuthberti, by the name of the Maister and Breathren of the Hospitall 
of Greatham, of which foundacion they do finde noe chaunge. 

2. The Hospitall of Greatham was founded for men such as were 
poore, impotente, and not able to releyve themselfes, and borne upon 
the landes belonginge to the Bushoppe of Durham, and for releyving 
of way fairinge men att the maisters discretion. 

3. There belongeth to the same the Towneshippe of Greatham, the 
tennantes wherof in tillage havinge leases (whereof the most parte are 
pretended to be maide by Thomas Sparke, 3 laite maister there, in the 
tenth year of her Majesties reigne, for ninetie and nyne yeares,) to paie 
yearly rentes, in all amountinge to 59 1 . 9 s . 2 d . The cottaiges there 
(wherof the most part is paide in worke in harvest tyme) do yearlie 
paie the rente of 10 1 . 16 d . The tieth corne of Greatham rented at 13 l . 
by yeare, and the tieth corne of Claxton 3 1 . by yeare, which is in lease. 
The arable grounde of the demaine of the said Hospitall were heretofore 
(as appeareth by ane accompte maid by the said Mr. Sparke) valewed 
to 12 d . the acre, amountinge in all to 16 1 . 3 8 ., a third part wherof lieth 
yearly lee, and the other husbanded with great charges. The medowe 
groundes likwise was valewed to 4 s . ech acre (wherof beinge in number 
40 or therabout, the valewe extendeth to 8 1 . yearlie. The pasture 
groundes also (valued to 3 s . 4 d . ech acre) amountinge to 1 6 1 . 5 s . 4 d . Upon 
which demaine the Maister therof (as his predecessors Maisters therof 

2 See the circumstances of this foundation, 3 Archaeologia JEliana, 8vo. series, 77, 
and the works there referred to. 

3 His initials still remain on the hospital buildings, in conjunction with the arms of 
Bp. Tunstall. 



42 THE HOSPITALS OF GREATHAM, 

have heretofor done) kepeth the stocke belonginge to the said hospitall, 
vidzt. 30 draught oxen, 15 milke kyne and a bull, 12 draught horses, 
10 twinters, 6 calves, 10 score sheepe, wherof fowrscore lambes, 40 
swine, besides 20 quarters of bigge, .... quarters of ^ heat, 8 quarters 
of peese, corne sowen upon the grounde, with waine geare and housholde 
stuffe, the valewe wherof the nowe Maister standeth bound in 300 1 . to 
the Bushoppe of Durham and his successors to answere att the tyme of 
his death, notwithstandinge all casualties, reparacions, and necessarie 
expenses. All which the premisses ar to be imployed upon the Mais- 
ter' s hospitalitie and the daily releii^of the Brethren and other necessary 
officers and laborers within the said hospitall, and stipendes and waiges 
yearly dewe, vidzt. to 13 Breathren, besides diet and tier in the bro- 
ther house, 14 1 . 4 s . To 4 or expectinge Brethrens places havinge no diett, 
4 l . To a porter, besides diett, 28 s . To a clerke of the chappell, besides 
diett and liveries, 40 s . To the bailif of the liberties, bysides diett and 
liveries and a horse meat by patente, 40 s . To the cooke, besides diett 
and liveries, 40 s . To ane under cooke, besides diett, 16 s . To a butler, 
besides diett and liveries, 30 s . To a baker and a brewer, besides diett 
and liveries, 53 s . 4 d . To a horse keper, besides diett and liveries, 40 s . 
To a landresse, besides diett, 40 s . To 4 woman servauntes, besides 
diett 3 l . 10 s . To a sheephirde, a nowtehirde, a slaughter man, and a 
swinehirde, besides diett, 5 1 . To 16 poor laboreinge men about hus- 
bandrie, besides diett, 26 l . besides many other necessarie laborers which 
ar used daily. To a steawarde or overseer, besides diett and liveries, 
40 s . To two servinge men, besides diett and liveries, 4 1 . To Mr. Tho- 
mas Calverley, a lawier, for his councell, by patente, a horse grasse and 
40 s . To a minister, beinge vicar of the parish of Greatham, for sayeinge 
service twise a day, besides diett, 40 8 . Besides the day lie relief of poore 
and wayfairinge men. The propertie, possession, and use of the pre- 
misses as aforsaid ar now and by the space of three yeares last or 
more have been in Henry Dethicke, Maister of Arte, Maister of the 
said Hospitall, who duringe that tyme haith receyved and taken the 
revenewes and profittes of the premisses and imployed them as afore- 
said, as also by the space of seaven yeares next befor the said three 
John Kingsmale, then Maister of the said hospitall, did. But they find 
nothinge assigned or appoynted there for mendinge of bridges or high- 
ways, or exhibicion to schollers, or any other uses then befor are ex- 
pressed. 

4. The Breathren of Greatham Hospitall ar admitted and placed by 
the Maister and .Governour therof, and removed accordinge to ther 
behaviers, and undergo such orders as by the said Maister shalbe sett 
doune. 

5. The names and aiges of the 13 Brethren, as they be comonly 
called and taken, are as followe : John Dickinson about 70 yeares of 
aige, Robert Sanderson about 87 yeares of aige, Thomas Butterie 
about 40 yeares, Robert Bellerby about 30, George Revely about 50, 
Ralph Dawson about 50, Gerrerde Speed about 40, Thomas Swin- 
banke about 80, Roland Lasingby about 60, John Worme, about 73, 
Roland Richardson about 80, Edward White about 68, and William 
Foster about 68 yeares, all beinge poore, old, or lame, not havinge 



GATESHEAD, AND BARNARDCASTLE. 43 

any other allowance in any other colledge or house provided for the 
poorc, and ar comonly resident unlesse upon great occasion att there 
earnest they be absence by the Maister's licence, savinge that the said 
Robert Bellerbie beinge a very lame man, by licence of the Maister 
absented himself, in whose place one John Sparke a very poore man 
haith. his relief, and fower expectinge places of Brethren, vidzt : Robert 
Blunt a blinde man, Robert Whit about 80 yeares of age, George Taylor 
about 80 years, and John Hume about 70 yeares of aige, ar releyved 
there, with which fower the said Maister thinketh himself overcharged ; 
and tuchinge the behaviors of the said Brethren, George Revelyis vehe- 
mently suspected of incontinencie with one Elizabeth Robson, Gerrard 
Speed is founde by verdict of a jury to be a fighter, and Edwarde 
White a most unquiett person, given to swearinge and extraordinary 
drinkinge in ailehouses, havinge sufficient with the residewe in the said 
hospitall, whose disorders the said Maister hopeth to reforme, and he 
doth the residewe hereafter. 

7. The said Bushoppe is visitor of Greatham Hospitall, and haith 
visited the same by himself or his comissioners twice att the least with- 
in theise ten yeares. 

8. They do not finde that any fees, pencions, or payments have bene 
given, paid, or allowed to any person, out of anie of the said hospitalles, 
or the possessions, revenewe, and profittes therof (other then to the 
poore therof) duringe ten yeares last, savinge only out of Greatham 
Hospitall, wher such pencions and paymentes ar yearely paid to such 
persons, and for such causes as are specified upon the .third article of 
this inquisition 

1 1 . The said Henry Dethicke, nowe Maister, haith the custody of all 
such evidences as were left in the said hospitall att the death of Mr. John 
Kingsmill lait Maister there, and it is supposed that the Maisteres here- 
tofor of that hospitall have had the custodie of all evidences, charters, 
and writinges therto belonginge. 

Concerninge THE HOSPITALL OE SAKCTE EDMUND NIGHE 
GATESHEADE, they finde that the same hospitall standeth att the 
upper end of Gatesheade, [nigh Gateshed inserted^ in the countie of 
Durham. And is comonly called and known by the name of the Hos- 
pitall or Pree Chappell of Sanct Edmund, Kinge and Martir. 4 The 
Maisters and Governors therof are and have bene clergie men and 
spirituall persons, and is said to have bene founded by one of the 
Bushoppes of Durham : But in what tyme or by which of the said 
Bushoppes, or by what name of fundacion or incorporacion, or whether 
there haith bene any chainge frome the first fundacion they cannot 
finde. 5 

4 This is the King James's Hospital of the present day, and distinct from the 
Hospital of St. Edmund the Confessor, which was united with the Nunnery of New- 
castle and fell with it. The first mention of it which has occurred to us is in Bp. 
Kellaw's grant in 1315, of "the custody of the Hospital of St. Edmund, king and 
martyr, in our vill of Gatesheued," then vacant, to Sir Hugh de Lokington, chaplain. 
(Kellaw's Reg. 146.) 

8 Bp. Hatfield, in 1373, granted several tenements in augmentation of the hospital. 
(1 Hutch. 457, e Rot. B. Hatfield, Sch. 4. .NO. 10.) 



44 THE HOSPITALS OF GREATHAM, 

2. The poor of the Hospitall or Free Chappell of Sanct Edmundes, 
nigh Gateshead, are and have bene indifferently of both kindes as men 
and women. 6 But whether sicke or wholl, lepers or way fairinge, so 
they be poore, needie, and indigente, is note respected. 

3. There belongeth to the same a demaine lyeinge att the said hos- 
pitall, 7 and a parcel! of grounde called Shotley Bridge, 8 all which amount 
to noe more then the vale we of 10 1 . of auncient rente, wherof 13*. yearly 
is assigned for the reliefe of everie poore Brother and Sister there, and 
the residewe to the mainteynance of the said Maister and reparacions of 
houses belonginge unto them. As for other rentes, revenewes, somes of 
money, leases, goodes, and chattalles, ther is none, and therfor noe allow- 
ance att all eyther for diett to the said Brethren and Sisters, or to the 
said Maister, or for mendinge of bridges or highwaies, or for exhibi- 
cions to schollars or the like. The revenewes and profittes wherof have 
for theise ten yeareslast past, bene taken upp by Mr. Richard Hodgshon 
and Mr. William Riddell of Newcastell upon Tyne, merchant, and 
there assignes, by vertue of a lease to them made by John Wodfall, 
clerke, lait Maister of the same Hospitall or Free Chappell, and the 
Brethren and Sisters then of the same, who have imployed the same 
quarterly (as haith bene accustomed) to the maynteynance and relief of 
the said Maister and Brethren and Sisters. The staite, propertie, pos- 
session, and occupation of which premises by vertewe of the aforsaid 
lease, doth as yett remayne in the handes of the aforsaid Richard Hodg- 
eon and William Riddell, or ther assignes. 

4. The poore people of the Hospitall of St. Edmundes are and have 
bene admitted and placed att the discretion of the Maister ther offor 
the tyme beinge, and by them removed, corrected, and punished. But 
whether they ought so to have bene, or by what rules and ordinances 
they should be chosen, placed, and governed, by reason of the losse of 
the evidences and writinges belonginge the same, they cannot finde. 

5 There be three poore persons mainteyned and releyved in or about 
the said Hospitall or Free Chappell of St. Edmundes, whose names and 
aiges are as followinge, Johne Dunninge, about the age of 70 yeares, 
Robert Pawlinge, about the aige of 76 yeares, and Allice Pickeringe, 
about the aige of 56, who are daylie and continually resident and 
abideinge in and about the said hospitall, havinge no allowance nor 
reversion of any allmes-rome in any other colledge, hospitall, or house 
for the poore. 

6 King James's charter describes it as having consisted " de uno magistro et tribus 
fratribus." It was thenceforth to consist " de uno magistro et tribus viris pauperibus." 

7 In Hatfleld's Survey both hospitals are mentioned, and the Gateshead possessions 
of the one in question, then as now, seem to have comprised the Claxtons estate ad- 
joining the hospital and the Friars Goose estate on the Tyne, or some interest therein. 
''Magister Hospitalis S. Edmundi regis tenet unam placeam pro quodam chamino 
habendo ab hospitali usque le Frergos, per parcum Domini ibidem, et reddit, &c. 4<#." 
Bp. Nevil granted a licence to the Master to work coals in the hospital lands, and lead 
them to the Tyne, over the Bishop's soil, paying to him and his successors 100s. per 
ann. (Rot. Pat. A., 8 May, 4 Nevil.) 

* " Et unum clausuram apud Shotle-brigge in predicto comitatu palatino Dunelm." 
(King James's charter of refoundation.) 



GATESHEAD, AND BARNAKDCASTLE. 45 

7. The said Bushopps are and for a longe tyme have bene taken and 
reputed to be visitors of the Hospitall of St. Edmundes, and have ac- 
cordingly visited the same in the ordinarie visitacions, which is com- 
monly ech third yeare. 

11. John Wodfall, clerke, lait Maister of Sanct Edmnndes Hospitall 
aforesaid, 9 about seaven yeares ago was putt in truste with the kepinge 
and custodie 'of the charters, deedes, evidences, and writinges, both of 
the erection and fundacion of the landes, revenewes, and possessions of 
the said hospitall or free chapell, who deceased about the} said tyme in 
London or therabout (where he then had his abode), since which tyme 
what became of the said charters, deedes, and evidences, cannot be 
known. 

Lastlie, concerninge ST JOHFS HOSPITALL IN" BARNARD- 
CASTLE, they find that the same standeth in the Towne of Barnard- 
castle and county of Durham And is called by the name of the 
Hospitall of Sanct John Baptiste, and nowe is and by the space of 
manie yeares hath bene of her Majesties and hir most noble projenitors 
gift and donacion, as ap pendent to her highnes castel and manor of Bar- 
nardcastle aforsaid. The Maister therof ought to be ane ecclesiastical! 
person. And the same hospitall is supposed to have bene founded by 
one of the Balolls, 10 sometyme Lorde of Barnardcastle aforsaid. 

2. There haith bene usuallie mainteyned in the said hospitall three 
olde poor women only. 

3. There is belonginge to the same one capitall mansion house and 
divers other houses thereunto adjoyninge and belonginge, and thre 
score ten acres or thereabout of arable lande, medowe, and garthes, with 
16 pasture gaites, all which are scituate and lyeing within the towne 
feildes and precinctes of Barnardcastell aforesaid, vale wed in her Ma- 
jesties Court of First Fruites to 53". 4 d . Also belonginge to the said 
hospitall one tenemente lyeinge in Ovington, within the county of Korth- 
umberlande, conteyninge by estimacion 21 acres of ground or therabout, 
lait in the occupacion of "William Sucrties and Thomas Lumley, valewed 
to 5 s . by yeare ; one tenement lyeinge att the Hullerbuske, in the oc- 
cupacion of John Hodgeson, valewed to 10 s . : Item, ten acres of grounde 
and 1 2 pasture gaites or therabout, lyeinge within the demaine groundes 
of Selerby, in the occupation of Henry Brackenbury, valewed to 10 s : 
Item, 7 acres of ground or therabout, lyeinge nighe Barnardcastle in a 
place called Seweinge Flattes, valewed to 3 s . 4 d . : Item, one house in 
Barnardcastle towne which James Dente and Roger Dente do nowe in- 
habitt, valewed to 3s. or theraboutes. Item, paieable yearely by her 
Majesties auditor and receyver in theise partes to the said hospitall 
fourth of the revenewes of the lait monasterie of Rivers, in Yorkshiere, 
26 s . 8 d . Item, payable more by them yearly forth of their receiptes 
which one George Hogge doth now discharge out of his office and haith 
allowance therof, 4 s . 4 d . Item, belonginge to the said hospitall, as by 
auncient deed doth appeare, all the tieth hay of Bywell, in Northum- 
berlande, with the tieth of the milnes and fishinges of the same towne, 

9 Clement Colmoi-e, one of the commissioners, -was master 4 June, 1587. 
1(1 It is said to have been founded by the elder John Baliol in 1230, but the evi- 
dence is imperfect. See 3 Hut. 273. 



46 THE HOSPITALS OF GREATHAM, 

whorof nothinge haith been receyved a longe tyme. The clenre vale we 
of the said hospitall as it is in the Court of First Fruites, is 5 l . 15 s . 8 d . 
The revenewes and profittes of all which the premisses, or the most 
part therof one John Thomson, nowe dwellinge in the said hospitall, 
haith by the space of theise ten years last taken and receyved by auc- 
thoritie and vertewe of a conveyance made to him, as he confesseth, by 
one Edmunde Threasorer, alias Edmunde Sheites, nowe remayuinge att 
or about London or her majesties courte, who after the death of one Sir 
Richard Lee, clerke, lait Maister of the said hospitall, in or about the 
fourth yeare of hir majesties reigne, procured patentes from hir majestic 
of the maistershippe therof to himselfe duringe his life under the name 
of Edmund Threasurer, clerke, which patentes withal his right to the 
said hospitall the said Edmund within two years after his said graunte 
did convey and sett over to the said Thomson for the somme of 40 1 . to 
him therfor paide, by vertue and colour of which sale and conveyance 
the said Thomson haith spoiled and defaced the said hospitall and man- 
sion house, entitleinge himselfe and his eldest sonne to the same under 
a shewe and pretence of tenant right or custome of the country. t)uringe 
which tyme the said Thomson understandinge of ane other maister ap- 
poited by her majestic to the said hospitall, and doubting of his own 
title as it seemed, did entertayne one Henry Maison, a solicitor in the 
common lawe, to procure him some better assurance therof, which Mai- 
son and one William Waller, in or about the moneth of December, in 
the 33 th year of her highnes reigne, have procured the said hospitall in 
fee farme for 2" a yeare to themselfes and there heires by way of a pre- 
tended concealmentc, under color wherof they and diverse others in there 
names have entered into the said hospitall and members therof, and the 
same, with all the profittes therof, have altered and converted and yett 
still do to there owne private use, contrary to the good and charitable 
ordinance and usaige of the said hospitall heretofore. Since which 
tyme, vidzt. in or about the moneth of Februarie and March, 1592, the 
said Maison and Waller, for there better and more firine assurance in 
the premises, have procured a lease for three lives of the said hospitull 
and all the members therof at the handes of one Charles Farraiule, who 
had a lait patente of the maistershippe of the same, which patente, to- 
gether with the evidences and recordes of the said hospitall, upon the 
sealinge and deliverie of the aforesaide, were delivered over unto the 
handes of the said Maison and Waller, wherin they ar yett icmayn- 
inge as is supposed. 

4. The poor women which have bene in the hospitall of St. John 
Baptist aforesaid have bene chosen by the Maisters thereof, till the 
death of Sir Richard Lee, lait Maister there, and since his death by 
the aforenamed John Thompson, occupier of the said hospitall. 

5. There ought to be three poore woman mayntayned in the said 
hospitall. But they cannot finde anye such number there residmge 
nowe. 

6. They cannot finde anie grauntes maide anie persons 

to have any rome in reversion of the prese. t possessors in anie of the 
said hospitalles. 

7. For the hospitall of St. John Baptist, they do not find that the 
same haith bene visited of longe tyme. 



GATESHEAD, AND BARNARDCASTLE. 47 

11. They do fynde that the evidences and recordes therof were 
delivered over, as is aforesaid, to William Waller and Henry Maison 
aforesaide ; and further that the abovenamed John Thomson, as he 
deposeth, delivered to one Richard Garnett, dwellinge beyonde London, 
ane old evidence of that hospitall, which the said Thomson toke to be the 
fundacion of the same hospitall, and that remaineth still with Garnett. 

And further, tuchinge any matter conteyned in the said articles, or 
any of them, the said jurors cannot finde. In cujus rei testimonium tarn 
commissionarii antedicti, quam juratores supranominati huic inquisition! 
sigilla sua apposuerunt. Dat. Dunelm. die et anno prius supra scriptis. 11 
TOBIE MATTHEW (Seal of aims : a lion rampant, quartering 3 chevrons, 
a mullet of six points in the centre of the shield. The remaining seals 
are indistinct or cut off). THOMAS CALV'LEY. CLEMENT COLMORE. 
JHO' PILKI'GTON. HENRYE HEIGHINGTON. ROB'T FARROW. RYCHARD 
HEIGHINGTON. THOMAS PEARSON. EDWARD HUDSPATTHE. JOHN SWALL- 
WELL. THOMAS WOOD. Win. Thomson -f- his m'k. Jho' Buttery M 
his m'k. Raph liaison's -]- m'k. JHON DOBSON. Anthony Shawd- 
forthes -|- nrk. 

Collacione fa eta fideli, concordat hsec inquisitio supra scripta cum 
altera parte ejusdem indentata per commission arios in eadem nomin- 
ates (ut haec est) subscripta et sigillata ac in Cancellario serenis- 
simaB dominaD nostra3 Reginse unacum commissione et articulis 
origin alibus ejusdem dominaB Reginae eidem annexis transmissa. 
Ex. p. THO. KING, notar : publicum, scribam in executione 
ejusdom commissionis per commissionarios eandem exequentes 
assumptum. 



MONTHLY MEETING, 7 AUGUST, 1861. 
John Clayton, JKsq., V.P., in the Chair. 



DONATIONS OF BOOKS. From the Rev. H. M. Scarth, M.A. His Re- 
marks on some Ancient Sculptured Stones still preserved in this island, 
and others once known to exist, particularly those recorded to have 
stood in the cemetery of the Abbey of Glastonbury, with a plate of the 
fragments at Hackness. Taunton, 1861. - From the Royal University of 
Christiania. Solennia Academica Universitatis Liter aria3 Regiae Prederi- 
cianaB ante L annos conditaB, die 1 1 Septembris, anni MDCCCLXI. Cele- 
branda indicit Senatus Academicus Christianise, 1861. From the 
Canadian Institute. The Canadian Journal, N.S., 34. From the Kil- 
kenny Archaeological Society. Their Papers and Proceedings. No. 32. 

NEW MEMBERS. George Crawshay, Esq., Haughton Castle. 

ENGLISH COIN. Mr. Henry Barton exhibits one of Wolsey's York 
groats, found by himself at Sowerby Parks, Thirsk, about 1841. 

11 These signatures are somewhat incorrectly given by Allan's copy. 



48 WEAVERS' TOWER. 

LIBRARY CATALOGUE. Resolved, at the instance of Mr. Appleton, 
that the Printing Committee confer with Mr. Dodd, who kindly offers 
his services in the preparation of the long- wanted catalogue of the 
Society's library, and report on the subject generally. 

DURHAM SEALS. Mr. Longstaffe exhibits a sulphur cast of the mag- 
nificent seal of the literary chancellor, Bishop Bury, probably the most 
chaste and beautiful medieval seal in existence, obtained from Mr. H. 
Laing, of Elder Street, Edinburgh, seal-modeller : also a number of 
e 1 -trotype impressions of Durham seals, from the extensive cabinet of 
Mr. Trueman, of Durham They embrace all the earlier episcopal seals, 
commencing with the curious saucer-shaped one of Bp. Carileph, and 
the celebrated conventual seal, in which a Roman gem, engraved with 
the head of Jupiter Tonans, serves for that of Saint Oswald. 



GOLD ORNAMENT POUND IN NORTH TYNEDALE. 

DR. CHARLTON has exhibited a sketch, drawn from recollection, of a 
golden object found in the district of the North Tyne. By an unfor- 
tunate neglect, he had remained uninformed of the discovery, until, after 
a fortnight's exhibition for sale in the shop of Mr. Joel, silversmith, 
Newcastle, this article of treasure trove had been consigned to the 
melting-pot in July. Its weight was 1 7 pennyweights, and its form 
that of a bow, with the points turned inwards, its centre being twisted. 



THE WEAVERS' TOWER. 

MR. FEXWICK has drawn the Society's attention to the possible destruc- 
tion of this remaining portion of the fast-disappearing town- wall of 
Newcastle. It is threatened by the erection of a police station. He 
remembers the circuit of the whole wall, and how it was occupied by 
the military during the last French war, the towers forming a sort of 
guardhouses. MR. CLAYTON believes that the plans of the Corporation do 
not involve the demolition of the Weavers' Tower. THE SOCIETY deems 
it right, by a memorial in favour of the preservation of the tower, to 
fortify the hands of gentlemen willing to maintain any interesting fea- 
tures of Newcastle. By a singular barbarism, the Pink Tower was 
levelled to make way for a part of the John Knox Chapel. It was a 
characteristic and picturesque object, and would have formed a touch- 
ing and suggestive feature had it been incorporated with the pacific 
building to which it succumbed. 






NOTES OF A TOUR IN SCOTLAND. 49 



NOTES OF A TOUR IN SCOTLAND. 
BY ROBERT WHITE. 

UP Dee- side, a little west of Lumphanan station, and upwards of twenty 
miles west of Aberdeen, I observed a moated mount formed for defence 
against hostile neighbours. The top is flat, and may be about fifty 
yards in diameter, widening down to the base, and the fosse round it, 
about thirty yards wide, is filled with water. A low stone dyke runs 
around the edge of the summit, but this is of modern erection, and no 
traces of buildings are seen upon it. I also noticed a mount of similar 
construction up the river Don, near the railway from Aberdeen to In- 
verness. 

The battle-field of Culloden is a lofty and wide-rounded moor, nearly 
all now in a state of cultivation, about five miles north-east of Inverness. 
It is nearly level on the top, ascending gently to the south-west, and 
may extend about three-quarters of a mile. Standing upon it, we see 
on the east a higher range of heathy hills, while, to the north, the eye 
wanders over the broad expanse of the Moray Firth and the eastern 
coast of Ross-shire. On the west, the Firth narrows towards Inverness, 
branching up into Loch Beauly, among dark mountains, while Ben 
"Wyvis soars above them at a distance of twenty miles. I was fortunate 
in having the company of two young gentlemen, Mr. Kennedy and Mr. 
Simpson, from Dundee, while examining the field ; and Mr. Monro, the 
gamekeeper at Culloden House, very obligingly pointed out to us the 
several places of interest. Prince Charles occupied the highest point of 
the moor to the south-west, about half a mile or more from the Duke of 
Cumberland, who mounted, it is said, a very large stone, two yards high, 
and five in diameter, near to the public road ; and the battle was fought 
on the space between them. An old cottage is still standing amid a 
crop of oats, which was occupied by an aged lame man when the contest 
commenced ; and a cannon ball having struck the pot on the fire in which 
his food was cooking, he drew to his bed and lay there till the battle 
was fought. At the edge of the enclosure, among the corn, Mr. Monro 
showed us a well where a chief of the clan Macintosh was killed. 
Being attacked by the English dragoons, he defended himself with his 
dirk and claymore so bravely, that when his body was discovered, about 
sixteen of his foes lay dead around him. Robert Chambers records the 
circumstance with some variation, quoting from a note at page 200 of 

VOL. VI. H 



50 NOTES OF A TOUR IN SCOTLAND. 

"Cromek's Bemains," and giving the name of the Highlander as Golice 
Macbane, saying that he killed thirteen of the enemy. The public road 
runs over a slight elevation on the west side of the field, consisting of 
several acres that have hitherto escaped the levelling ploughshare. On 
the edge of this ground, towards Inverness, a large quantity of stones 
are collected, and a very rough foundation laid for a pyramid to com- 
memorate the slain ; but not being put together in accordance with the 
good taste prevalent in the nineteenth century, the erection, very pro- 
perly, has been discontinued. Eastward again from this spot, on the 
opposite side of the road, among the stunted heather, appear the 
trenches, stretching due north and south, and graves all green with 
grass where the brave Highlanders who fell there repose. On our 
way to Inverness, we came to an old man, breaking stones, who had seen 
several men that were present at the battle, but they disliked to hear it 
mentioned. 

On our course from Inverness, through the Caledonian Canal, we 
passed on our right a ruined castle, which had belonged to the clan of 
Macdonells. Still further on, we observed a small obelisk at a well on 
the margin of the loch, which had been erected to preserve an incident 
of the following tragedy : The young chief of the Macdonells had been 
murdered by a distant branch of the same family ; a vassal of the old 
chieftain went to avenge the deed, and killed a father and his six sons. 
Cutting off their heads, he conveyed the latter as a present to his lord ; 
and, on passing this well, he washed the seven bloody trophies therein, 
that by their cleanly appearance they might be more acceptable to the 
receiver. Such was the outline of the tale as it was told me in sight of 
the memorial. 

On the eastern side of the bleak and rocky island of lona, whence we 
see Staffa on the north, is a cultivated piece of land comprising about 
twenty acres ; some cottages and dwelling houses are upon it. But the 
principal objects of interest are an old monastery or nunnery, and 
church, both unroofed, about three hundred yards from each other ; and 
near to the church is an old burying ground, about fifty yards square, 
with a chapel in it, of which the roof is also gone. In this place of the 
dead are either seven or nine rows of graves, closely packed together, 
one containing the remains of above forty early kings of Scotland, four 
Irish monarchs, and eight Norwegian princes. The gravestones here 
are very numerous ; indeed, some of the rows are nearly covered with 
them. But in the ruins of the monastery, and especially in the church, 
and also in the chapel of the burying-ground, are a large number of 
sculptured stones, all in a state of decay, but exhibiting much artistic 



NOTES OF A TOUR IN SCOTLAND. 51 

beauty. Not many are of freestone, the chief portion being of a slatey 
character, partaking of the common rag stone, upon which workmen 
sharpen their tools. Halfway between the monastery and church, close 
by the footpath, is a tall ancient cross, and in the garth of the church is 
another magnificent cross, covered to the top with old moss, and not less 
than fourteen feet high, placed in a huge pedestal of red granite, the 
corners of which are all rounded by the action of the sea air. Well 
might Dr. Johnson be deeply impressed with the appearance of this 
hallowed spot ! I had one regret on viewing it, which was, that in 
Britain we have Antiquarian Societies all over the land, and an Archae- 
ological Institute, and among these bodies no attempt has, to my know- 
ledge, been made to throw a roof over some suitable portion of these 
ruins, and gather the remaining monuments under it, that they may be 
preserved to future times, telling those who come after us what was 
done in lona during the early period of our church history. 

The lighter departments of our literature have charms, however, for 
us, equally powerful as carved stones. I landed at Greenock to see the 
last resting place of "Highland Mary," the girl who caught attention, 
and drew forth some beautiful strains from the great national poet of 
Scotland. A large and very beautiful monument is placed at the head 
of her grave. On journeying to Ayr and Alloway Kirk, I made free to 
intrude upon the privacy of Misses Agnes and Isabella Begg, nieces of 
Robert Burns. Two months ago, I exhibited in this room specimens of 
the bard's handwriting, and drew thereby an inference respecting his per- 
sonal appearance. Accordingly, it was with no small satisfaction that I 
learned, from the lips of these amiable members of the Burns family, the 
correctness of my supposition, for his eyes and hair were not black, but of 
dark brown. I also visited the poet's daughter, Mrs. Thomson, at 
Hope Cottage, near Glasgow, and thought I discovered, in her eyes and 
brow, much of the intellectual expression we see in the portraits of her 
father. Charles Dickens himself is not more remarkable for this pecu- 
liarity of countenance. 

When at Glasgow, I could not forbear going over to Stirling, and, in 
company with my two young friends, Mr. Kennedy and Mr. Simpson, 
for we still kept together, I walked once more over the ground at Ban- 
nockburn. "We were again so fortunate as to meet Mr. Laird, game- 
keeper on the estate, another frank and intelligent man, who pointed 
out to us several localities connected with the history of the battle. 
What I learned only tended to confirm my opinion of the great talents 
Robert Bruce possessed as a consummate general. In case of defeat, he 
had done all he could to preserve the remainder of his army ; but for- 



52 ROMAN CARLISLE. 

tune at last smiled upon him, and he became, through the means he 
possessed, the instrument of saving his country from foreign dominion. 

[Mr. White also described the stool or rather bench of repentance 
preserved in the west church of Greenock. Dr. Bruce has seen the 
rebuke administered in Glasgow. The punishment is permitted by law 
in England, but its enforcement and its white sheet and other accom- 
paniments are fading into tradition.] 



ROMAN CARLISLE. 

DR. BRTTCE has given some information and exhibited sketches obtained 
from Mr. Henry T. "Wake, of Scotby, of some Roman remains discovered 
in May last, on the site of Mr. Thomas Blair's house, near the " Journal" 
office in English Street, Carlisle ; in rebuilding which office, it will be- 
remembered, former discoveries took place. There are three inscribed 
stones. One with a sunk square at the top, evidently for the reception 
of statues of the goddess-mothers, the Pates, is inscribed in two lines : 

MATRIB. PARC PRO SALVT SAXCTIAE GE3IINAE. 

Another, a votive altar, with the name IA^VAEIVS amongst other 
lettering, is very mutilated. The third, though mutilated, has a perfect 
inscription : PARCTS PROBO DONATALIS PATER, v. s. L. ivr. 

The coins found are corroded and unimportant ; one seems to be a 
small brass of the Lower Empire. Among the fragments of Samian 
ware is one stamped . . AEMELIANVS. Some large oak cisterns, puddled 
with clay, brought from a distance, have also been found. The two 
first were supposed to be coffins, but a third proved to be 6 feet square ; 
Their boards were about 1J in. thick, and were fastened together with 
wooden pegs. 

In the same street some other relics of Rrman dominion had also been 
found not long before. There was a little glass lachrymatory, entire, 
and many fragments of Samian and other pottery ; among them the 
following : A mortarium with spout, a large piece, stamped in two 
places with AVSTIMANV. A Samian mortarium, with a hole through it, and 
a lion's mouth, through which the liquid ran. A piece of a vessel made 
of a dark slate-coloured material, glazed, and very hard and thin, 
slightly ornamented with diagonal dashes placed close together, and, 
to Mr. "Wake's eye, of finer pottery than the best Samian ware that he 
had seen. 



HALTWHISTLE AND THE ROMAN WALL. 53 



COUNTRY MEETING, 23 AUGUST, 1861. 



HALTWHISTLE AND THE KOMAN WALL. 

THE church of Haltwhistle forms the first object of curiosity. 1 It is 
described as being wholly Early English (modernisms excepted), with 
three elegant lancets in the east end, and trefoiled sedilia. On the left 
of the altar lies a recumbent figure, minus the legs, but still displaying 
the well known corn-sheaves and fess of the Blenkinsops on his shield. 
On the right is the remarkable tombstone figured, under the fourteenth 
century, in Boutell's Christian Monuments. On the dexter of a flori- 
ated cross is a sword with a shield bearing the arms of Blenkinsop, on 
the sinister a pilgrim's staff and scrip, the latter charged with a single 
corn-sheaf. Partly behind a pew on the left is another stone possessing 
some interest, as marking by some uncouth rhymes (printed in Bell's 
Ehymes of Northern Bards, 210) the resting place of Bishop Bidley's 
brother, " the laird of Waltoun." The pews of the seventeenth century 
have had their terminations sawn off, and the church generally has suf- 
fered not a little. 

There are at least two other attractions in Haltwhistle. One, the Castle- 
hill, a natural mound of earth, with a wall on its southern side, but 
furnished with a picturesque camp by throwing a barrier round the top 
to the east, north, and west. The other, a fine peel-house, said to be 
the manor-house, situate " on the north-eastern side of the village, on 
the slope of the bank above the bum. On the south-west corner of 
this building is a small projecting turret, with peep-holes ; a winding 
stone stair leads up to the second floor, which consists of thin stone flags 
laid upon massive wooden rafters," 

These are Mr. Robert White's words, and let him describe the beau- 
tiful scenery awaiting the progress of his brethren along the Haltwhistle 
Burn. "At a rapid turn, among rocks gleaming out amid the green 

1 See Hodgson, part 2, vol. iii., 123, as to the remains of an earlier cemetery, where 
it is supposed that a former church stood. " In all old authorities the name is com- 
monly written Hautwysel, Hautwisel, or Hautwysill." The church is dedicated to 
St. Aidan, the first bishop of Lindisfarne. 



54 HALTWHISTLE AND THE ROMAN WALL. 

trees which shadow them, may be seen the stream, coloured by the 
moss whence it has come, and brawling over the stony channel till its 
waves are whitened into foam. On the upper side of the bridge, look- 
ing down, is another lovely prospect. The water glides onward till, at 
a short distance, it washes the bottom of a grey rock, whose summit 
reaches a bank, which is covered with heather, at this season in full 
bloom and beauty." 

Where this pretty rivulet crosses the Stanegate, a large temporary 
encampment of the Romans is reached. Here they have had a quarry, 
and Mr. Clayton tells the tourists that on a removal of earth some years 
ago, from the upper part of the rock, he saw the inscription LEGW vi, 
Tiictrix. He gave directions to have the inscription preserved, but the 
next time he passed it was gone. Let antiquaries copy while they may. 

Diverging from the burn, the Wall is reached at the Cawfields mile- 
castle, which was excavated by Mr Clayton, its owner, more than ten 
years ago, and ^revealed that these little forts had wide and massive 
portals opening to the north as well as to the south. But massive as 
the masonry is, some of the stones have recently been overturned, a fact 
not surprising when we consider how merciless is the destruction in 
later piles, and of holier associations, by Northumbrians, but not by 
uneducated ones. To the present paragraph might well be appended 
the words which closed the last. 

The Wall is measured at Cawfields, and found to be in width 8 feet 
9 inches. Proceeding westward, the north of the crags is taken, and 
their massive grandeur much enjoyed. A nd now the burn is again 
reached, cutting the Wall, and is not fordable. This is a misadventure 
which none of the party, not even Mr. Clayton or Dr Bruce, have ex- 
perienced before. So the bridge must again be reached, and the tra- 
vellers return to the Wall on the western side of the stream. At 
Haltwhistle Burn-head Mr. Campbell indicates, in the wall of an out- 
house, a centurial stone, bearing two rude lines of inscription, seemingly 
o LOGVS SVAVI. A stone similarly inscribed is in Mr. Clayton's posses- 
sion at Chesters. So a centurion, Logus Suavis, has commanded a troop 
engaged on the building of the Wall, and his name is perpetuated in 
the stones designating the commencement and termination of each por- 
tion of the great undertaking. 

-3Ssica, or Great Chesters, is reached. Mr. Lowes receives his visitors 
with all hospitality, and shows two carved stones which have been dug 
out of the station. He says that, some years ago, parties would come and 
dig holes in the ancient works under the shade of night, and depart before 
daylight. Here, too, Mr. White has something to say, but his reflections 



HAL WHISTLE AND THE ROMAN WALL. 55 

on the Roman sway bend to tho laws of rhyme and measure, and are ad- 
dressed "To a Friend on visiting the Roman Wall." They will doubt- 
less one day appear in a collection of his effusions. Meantime we must 
again resort to his prose, more useful if not more elegant, and with him 
" pass Cockmount, and ascend still higher on the north side of the "Wall, 
till we see for several hundred yards the barrier, consisting of eight and 
nine courses of stone, reaching above the head of Dr. Bruce when he 
stands close to it. The loftiest point is the summit of Walton Crags, 
about 860 feet above sea level, and from here the view around in every 
direction is delightful. Solway Firth stretches up into the level land 
to the west, like a waving stripe of silver. Wide moors extend far to 
the north, making one sigh for the fair fields arid fertile plains of the 
southern counties of England. Descending abruptly from this eleva- 
tion, the excursionists approach Walton and its surrounding scenes, 
'hallowed by the early footsteps of the martyr Ridley.' King Ar- 
thur's Well, close to the ruined Wall, with some carved stories lying 
about it, is visited. Passing over the ' bright blue limestone which 
covers the whin rock,' some chive garlic, which grows wild here, is 
pulled and tasted. Then Walton, with its old memories, is left behind, 
and we press forward by a road that runs on the sunny side of the 
' Nine Kicks of ThirlwalT to the station of Magna, or Carvoran." This 
was visited by the Society two years ago, and need not be reverted to. 
The tourists proceed to Gilsland, and dine there before their return to 
Newcastle. 

Mr. White observes that " those who wish to see the Roman Wall in 
its best state of preservation cannot do better than go by rail to Green- 
head, where they can examine the ruins of Thirlwall Castle, and the 
station of Magna, pass over the Nine Nicks of Thirlwall, examine Wal- 
ton, and ascend the crags above it to the north-east ; then descend to 
Great Chesters, and see Cawfields Mile -castle. If tired here, they can 
turn down to Haltwhistle ; but if they have nerve and strength left, 
they can advance on to Borcovicus, seeing the Northumberland Lakes 
as they proceed, where they will be much gratified, and then bending 
southward to Bardon Mill, the train will take them up, and convey 
them homeward on their way." 



5C AN ANTIQUE MANTLEPIECE, 



MONTHLY MEETING, 4 SEPTEMBER, 1861. 
John Fenwiclc, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

DONATIONS. From Mr. C. Roach Smith. Reponse de M. Boucher de 
Perthes aux Observations faites par M. E. Robert sur le Diluvium du 
Departement de la Somme. By Mr. Edward Thompson. A Prussian 
coin of 1703, found by him on the Leazes. By the Rev. James 
Everett. A rubbing from the brasses on the gravestone of Sir John 
Radcliffe in Crosthwaite church. 

BUEMESE IDOL. The Rev. E. Hussey Adamson sends for exhibition 
an ancient figure of the Burmese Idol, Gaudama, brought home by his 
brother, Captain Adamson, 37th Grenadiers, M. N. I., who was stationed 
sometime at Tongoo, where it, with several others, was dug out of a 
pagoda which was demolished in the construction of some new fortifi- 
cations. 

LIBBARY CATALOGUE. Resolved, that a Catalogue of the Society's 
books, prints, and drawings be forthwith prepared by Mr. Dodd, and be 
printed to range with the Archasologia JEliana, extra copies being 
printed off for sale. 



AN ANTIQUE MANTELPIECE, AT WINTRINGHAM, 

NEAR ST. NEOT'S. 
BY THE REV. JAMES EVERETT. 

AT Wintringham, near St. Neot's, in Huntingdonshire, is an old 
house, with from five to six hundred acres of land attached to it. The 
house has been considerably renewed at one end, and entirely so in the 
front. One of the large projecting mantlepieces, curiously carved 
with letters and figures, is still entire, of which I took a drawing in 
July, 1845. Several of the old timbers, panellings, mouldings, &c , are 
also to be seen, with the original staircase. In connexion with the lat- 
ter, and forming part of it, is a curiously constructed place, which, un- 
less pointed out, would escape the cursory notice of a stranger. It goes 
by the name of " the Priest's Hole ; " and, according to tradition, was 
the place in which the priest was wont to conceal himself in "troub- 
lous times." It will admit of a person standing upright in it, with his 
hands and arms pinioned by his side ; and there he might hear all that 
might be said in the adjoining rooms, together with the feet of persons 
passing to and fro, without suspicion. 



AT WINTRINGHAM, NEAR ST. NEOT'S. 57 

Tradition also states, that Elizabeth was here during the reign of 
Mary. The building has all the appearance of having been a religious 
house. The house, barn, stables, and garden, all surrounded by a moat, 
still filled with water, occupy not less than an acre of ground. Found- 
ations of other buildings, now covered with grass, are traceable on the 
outside of the large moat, with a moat of their own, evidently connected 
with the house, which tradition marks out as the site of the chapel. 
The original dove-cote, nested from top to bottom on four sides, occupies 
its ancient position ; and other out-buildings bear the marks of great age. 

The earliest date on the old mantlepiece is 1567; the probability, 
therefore, is that if any portion of the carvings are to be considered 
commemorative of Elizabeth's visit or temporary residence, they must 
have been executed after her ascension to the throne, whatever might 
have been the period of her visit, the initials being inappropriate during 
the reign of her sister Mary. The persecutions endured by Elizabeth, 
her confinement at Woodstock, and removals from place to place, are 
matters of history. 

The letters "R.P." and "E.P." on the mantelpiece are, in all proba- 
bility, the initials of the names of two of the family of the Paynes, male 
and female, who formerly possessed the property. Sir Walter Mildmay 
might be a successor of the Paynes, as they in reading from left to 
right may be supposed to take precedence. The date below his 
name, may denote either the date of the carving, or the period of his 
entering upon the property. 

The main features of the mantelpiece are two armorial panels. The 
first presents the royal arms, France (the fleurs-de-lis arranged 1 and 2 
instead of 2 and 1) and England quarterly. At the sides of the base 
are the letters l * E. R." Above the shield is a sort of a cap of liberty upon 
which is a small cross, and at the sides of this an inscription on a scroll 
or curtain attacked by a serpent : DNV . A . DNO SPALM 112. Below the 
shield is spies . MEA . IN . DEO . EST. To the right of the above is the other 
coat : Per fess nebulee, in chief some bird (a martlet or chough ?) in 
base a greyhound's head couped. Above the shield : SIB, . WALTER . 

MILDMAY . A. DNI. M.D.LX.VII. Below it I VEKITAS . VINCIT . OMNTA. 

The arms given to Sir Walter in Glover's ordinary are : Per fess 
nebulee, argent and sable, three greyhounds' heads counterchanged, col- 
lared gules, studded gold. To the left of the royal arms are some other 
panels. On two crown-like objects are the initials R.P. and E.P. Below 
the former is NOSSE (nosce] TEIPSVM ; below the latter MEMENTO . MOEI . 
Next to Mildmay 's coat is an ascending scroll inscribed TENET . COPVLA . 
IEEVPTA . AMPLI (ample?} below which the date 1567 is repeated. 

VOL. VI. K 



58 ANCIENT CHIRURGERY. 

From the new edition of the Monasticon, we find that the Prior of 
St. Neot'sheld extensive possessions in Wintringham, and an inquisition 
of his possessions taken 13 April, 44 Edw. III., heads them by mention- 
ing that he "has at Monkesherdwyk and Wyntryngham, in the same 
parish of St. Neots, a messuage called Monkesgraunge, which same 
messuage is worth nothing yearly beyond reprises. The fruits and 
herbage there are worth yearly 18 d . The same prior holds there 720 
acres of land, &c." In 1536, Henry VIII. granted to Sir Eichard 
Williams, alias Cromwell, the site of the monastery and all his messu- 
ages, lands, &c., called the demesne lands of the monastery in the towns, 
fields, parishes or hamlets of Seynt Neds, Wynteringham, and Harde- 
wyke. Sir Henry Cromwell, his eldest son and heir, "the Golden 
knight" and the grandfather of the Protector, was highly esteemed by 
Elizabeth, who slept at his seat of Hinchinbrook in 1564. And, in 
1597, Francis Cromwell, Esq., of Hardwick, died seised of " the site of 
the monastery of St. Neot's (called 'the Fermerie'), and 80 acres of 
pasture at Great and Little Wintringham ('the Birches'), held of the 
crown by military service." 



AKCIENT CHIRTJBGEKY. 

THE Society of Barber-Chirurgeons, with Chandlers, of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, have presented their startling collection of old and deadly surgi- 
cal weapons wherewith the lieges were of old tormented, to our anti- 
quarian museum. Among them are " cauters actual" to burn the ends 
of the veins after amputation, a process much commended in cases of 
putrefaction above " knitting " with the ligator by Dr. Peter Lowe in his 
"Discourse of the whole art of Chyrurgerie," published in the early 
part of the 1 7th century. The curious may refer to this book for repre- 
sentations of the old instruments and all the horrors of their application. 
Above the case in which the specimens are hung is a spirited carving of 
the insignia of the fellowship. 

AKMS. Quarterly : 1 and 4, Black, three silver fleams ; 2 and 3, 
Silver, a red rose crowned and seeded in gold. Between the four quar- 
ters, a red cross of St. George, charged with a golden lion passant 
guardant. 

CBEST. A gold opinicus with, wings indorsed. 

MOTTO. De prescientia Dei. 

SUPPOBTEBS. Two red panthers, spotted with black, gorged and 
chained in gold. 



DOCUMENTS TOUCHING STAINTON IN THE CRAGS. 59 

Some differences will be found between these bearings and those of 
the London Company. It would be very desirable if the local evidences 
of the burghal heraldry were collected. Walker and Richardson, in 
their compilation, professedly reduced the arms of the companies to the 
descriptions in Edmondson's Heraldry, forgetting the honesty of local 
distinctions, and the variations of the London coats at different periods. 

Besides the instruments, the gift comprises a wooden case. The door 
is painted with a grisly skeleton, and when opened discloses " An Ab- 
stract of Orders to be kept and observed among the Fellowshipp of Bar- 
ber Chirurgeons, "Wax and Tallow Chandlers, in Newcastle upon Tine." 
Two columns respectively comprise those found " in the Book of Orders," 
and those " in the Ordinary." 



DOCUMENTS TOUCHING STAINTON IN THE CBAGS. 

EXTEACTED BY W. H. BllOCKETT FROM THE SlEEATLAM MuNTMENTS. 

THE second of these is important in connection with the pedigree of 
the Headlams given in 4 Surtees's Durham, 98, 99, and gives the 
curious addition of Alanson to the grantor's name. The third is a 
more satisfactory buttress than any of the somewhat similar documents 
there quoted to the authenticity of the remarkable memorandum printed 
in 3 Surtees's Durham, 266. The latter, bearing internal evidence of 
a date after 1474, is only quoted from "Johnson's MSS.," and perpetu- 
ates a " foul rebuke" administered by the bishop's justice itinerant, be- 
fore 1457, in the session at Sadberge on the Hyll, to the parson of 
Rombaldkirk, who had taken unlawful seisin of Stainton without let- 
ters of attorney, and swore that the estate he took was lawful, in sup- 
port of a feoffinent alleged to have been made by " Henry Hedlem, 
and his atturney Jak Godwyn." We have not seen any charter of feoff-* 
ment from Henry de Hedlam, but it probably occurs in the Streatlam 
archives. Among them is a release, as if the feoffment was thought to 
have been duly made. The seal is gone. The writing is peculiar, as 
if the writer rested on the right hand part of the point, instead of the 
left one as usual in mediaeval caligraphy. Perhaps it is the hand- 
writing of Jack Godwin himself. An abstract of it forms our first 
document. Eppilly succeeded Laton at Eomaldkirk in 1432, 

I. A.D. 1415. Pateat universis per presentes quod ego, Henricus de 
Hedlam, remisi, relaxavi, et omnino, pro me et heredibus meis, quietum 
clamavi Thomse Sourale de Castrobernardi et Johanni de Eppilby ju- 
niori, capellanis, totum jus et clameum quso habeo, habui, seu quovis- 



60 THE SAXON INSCRIPTION AT BECKERMONT. 

modo habere potero, in omnibus terns et tenementis meis, redditibus et 
serviciis, commoditatibus proficuis communis et juribus quibuscumque, 
cum omnibus suis pertinenciis, qua3 habui in villa et territorio de Stayn- 
ton in le Karres. Ita vero quod nee ego, &c. Et ego, &c. warantizabi- 
mus, &c. In cujus, &c. Hiis testibus, Domino Johanne de Laton, 
Rectore Ecclesia3 Sancti Rumaldi, Radulpho Cradock, Johanne Jamez, 
Johanne Cok, Thoma de Nesham, cum aliis. Datum apud Lirtyngton, 
die Lunaa proxima ante festum Sancti Gregorii papse, anno regis Henrici 
quinti post conquestum Anglise tercio. 

II. A.D. 1439. Sciant presentes et futuri, quod ego Johannes Alanson 
de Hedlam, dedi, concessi, et hac presenti carta mea confirmavi, Galfrido 
de Hedlam filio meo et "Willelmo Belasys de Henknoll consanguineo meo 
omnia terras, tenementa, redditus, et servicia mea, quee habeo in villa 
et territorio de Hedlam, et in villis et territoriis de Ingilton et Stayn- 
toninle Cragges. Habenda predictis Galfrido et "Willelmo, heredibus 
et assignatis eorum, imperpetuum, de capitalibus dominis feodorum 
suorum, per servicia inde debita et de jure consueta. Et ego vero pre- 
dictus Johannes et heredes mei omnia warantizabimus. Hiis testibus, 
"Willelmo Pudsay, vicomite Dunelm., Henrico Alwent, Johanne Morton 
de Morton, Johanne Bedale de Killerby, et multis aliis. Dat. apud 
Hedlam, sexto die mensis Maii, anno regni regis Henrici sexti post con- 
questum Anglise septimodecimo. 

III. A.D, 1442. Be it knawen to all maner of men that thir presentes 
Beys or herys that I sir Robert Bower prest of Bernardcastell was confes- 
seure to Jak Godwyn of the same towne knawleged to me on his dede 
bed that he neuer deliuerd possession of none land that was Henry 
Heidlames in Staynton in le Cragges and the forsaid Henry stode full 
in possession the day of his dede. And for alsmekill as it is mcclfull 
and nedfull euer ilk cristen man to here witnes to trewth, I the forsaid 
sir Robert to this beforesaide put to my scale. "Witnes sir John Bower 
prest Willyam Bellacyse and Henry Crostwayte. Made at Bernard- 
castell the fourt day of may the yere of kyng Henry the sexte efter the 
conquestum twenty. 



THE SAXON INSCRIPTION AT BECKERMONT. 

UNTIL the publication of Mr. Haigh's reading of the remaining words on 
one of the two broken crosses in the churchyard of St. Bridget's, Beck- 
ermont, Cumberland, the monastery of Paegnalaech, at which Tuda, 
bishop of Lindisfarne, died in 664, was generally supposed to be identical 
with the Pincanhalch where Archbishop Eanbald held a synod in 798, 
and consequently^ with Eincalech, the modern Einchale, 1 

1 See the authorities in 3 Archaeologia JEliana, 4to series, 103, and Reginald's Life 
of St. Godric, Surtees Society, 69, 70. 



THE SAXON INSCRIPTION AT BECKERMONT. 61 

Mr. Haigh, as will be remembered, 2 read the inscription 

Hir tsegsed Here enclosed 

Tuda soaear Tuda bishop, 

Quselm-ter The plague destruction 

foran fsels e- before, the reward 

rxnauuang- of Paradise 

as aeftser after. 

Thus Beckermont was identified with Paegnalaech. 

But, at the Carlisle Congress of 1859, Mr Maughan proposed the fol- 
lowing version : 

Hir baekne Here beacons 

tiida setah two set up 

qehen Arlec queen Arlec 

for sun Athfe for her son Athfeschar. 

schar bid urra Fray for our 

saula souls. 

A discrepancy more ludicrous can hardly be conceived. Yet Mr. Haigh' s 
drawing gives a perfect legend, and Mr. Maughan says that the inscrip- 
tion is almost perfect, and the only doubtful part the t of setah, which 
might be a d. He traces his queen's name in Arlecdon, a few miles 
south-east of St. Bridget's. 

The REV. FKED. ADDISOIST, of Cleator, in the immediate neighbour- 
hood, has exhibited to our Society two very careful rubbings of the in- 
scription, agreeing in all respects with each other, disagreeing materially 
in the perfect sculptures from both of the above readings, and exhibiting 
an amount of decay in the inscription, and consequent uncertainty of 
any reading, which was not anticipated. His conclusion is, that the 
reading has not yet been discovered. 

Such a communication from a local observer unwedded to a theory 
is deserving of every attention, and it will be well at present not to rely 
upon the inscription as an evidence. The Editor has submitted the rub- 
bings to Mr. Haigh, but he was unable, without having a cast, to explain 
the apparent discrepancies between them and the squeezed paper he re- 
ceived from Dr. Parkinson. 

In the number of the strokes the rubbings much resemble the en- 
graving in Lysons's volume devoted to Cumberland, though the curves 
in that publication are far from being correct. The first line or two of 
the inscription may be wanting, and the remainder begin in the middle 
of a sentence. The differences between the more perfect parts, as 
rubbed, and the former readings are obvious. 

2 See 1 Arch. JEliana, 8vo, 149. 



62 THE WINSTON CROSS. 

The fourth of the letters in the first line appears to have been 
properly read by Mr. Haigh as T. Judging from its shape there 
and apparently at the end of line 3, there is no room for its arm 
in the supposed word TTJDA. At the close of the same line there is a 
stroke fewer than in Mr. Haigh' s drawing, and other material varia- 
tions. The third line seems to end in ET. A careful investigation of 
the stone by a competent authority may detect misconceptions of the 
more perfect parts of these rubbings and supply omissions of worn de- 
tail. A cast of the inscription was exhibited at the Carlisle Congress 
by Mr. John Dixon, bookseller, Whitehaven. 

MR. DIXON, since the foregoing remarks were written, has kindly for- 
warded his cast, which amply bears out the accuracy of Mr. Addison's 
rubbings. 



THE WINSTON CROSS. 

ON showing the Saxon fragment from "Winston (figured at p. 24) to Mr, 
Haigh, he offered a much more probable explanation of one side than 
that which suggested St. Lawrence. He thought that the harrow- 
shaped object was the chair or seat on which a figure is seated, looking 
to the dexter. Only the lower part of this figure, which is dressed in a 
long robe, is visible. The figures in niches are placed in a relation of 
adoration to him. There is a sitting figure on a chair of plainer form 
on one of the Sandbach crosses in Cheshire. (See Lysons's Cheshire.) 



DURHAM ABBEY YARD. 

MR. TRTTEMAN has exhibited an electrotype facsimile of a curious object 
discovered in an interment in the Cathedral burial ground, like a 
small handle, or a loop to be fastened with a padlock. It bears the 
French maxim : peul 



WARKWORTH CHANCEL. 

THE REV. J. W. DUNN has exhibited a cast of a small incised inscription 
on the interior jamb of the old priest's door in the chancel of Wark- 
worth. By his directions it has been carefully preserved in the recent 
repairs of the church. The letters seem to form Hewyh, or some such 
word, in a mediaeval cursive hand. Does the surname ITeivison give 
the key to its meaning ? The commencing letter is at first sight rather 
like a b, but we believe it to be a capital H. (See Lithogram, p. 4.) 



WHICKHAM CHURCH. C3 



WHICKHAM CHTJKCH. 
BY W. HYLTON DYEK LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 

" THE church of Whickham shows much antiquity in architecture, 
and very little beauty." So Hutchinson wrote in 1787, and in his time 
the whole nave was ill-lighted" but he probably used that expression in 
a different sense to that in which we may now too truly employ it, for 
he speaks, as if in distinction, of the chancel having been lately " repaired 
and sashed" But however small may be the claims of the venerable 
edifice to graceful symmetry, it forms by no means an unimportant link 
in the valuable chain of evidences existing in this county for the archi- 
tectural history of the twelfth century, so full of wonders. The an- 
nouncement of a " restoration," taking the word in the technical or cant 
meaning now applied to it, is sufficiently alarming when it refers to an 
old church, as, in that case, it generally signifies a process by which 
11 the ark that binds two ages, the ancient and the young," is stripped 
of that wholesome office, and made to differ in no very perceptible de- 
gree from the last bran-new chapel "in the Gothic style" its artistic 
tone and adjuncts vanished, and its interesting sculptures supplied by 
copies and imaginary supplies of departed detail which may be right or 
may be wrong, and which proceed from as much feeling as that which 
would suggest the retracing of Shakspere's signatures. 

But, grievous as have been the deeds of this sort in the county pala- 
tine, it does not appear that any evil intentions exist at Whickham. 
The walls and windows and northern arches have been so altered and 
tampered with, that they have lost all their original character, and the 
north part of the church generally is said to be unsafe. A more satis- 
factory reason for its removal and reconstruction is to be found in the 
inadequacy of decent accommodation for the worship of the village 
population. The north wall (remodelled or rebuilt in the Perpendicular 
period) is to be supplanted by an additional row of arches opening into a 
second north aisle. Of the picturesque effect of this happy mode of en- 
larging a church, a good notion may be obtained from the plan of the 
beautiful Galilee at Durham. The windows in the other parts of the 
building, which have either been stripped of their tracery, or given way 
to the most barbarous substitutions, will be altered for the better, and, 



64 WHICKHAM CHURCH, 

if we understand the matter rightly, the only portion of the old fabric 
to be left untouched will be the chancel arch, the arcade separating the 
south aisle, and the modest tower. 

These, however, are the only really valuable portions of the 'edifice. 
The chancel arch, which is accompanied by a hagioscope or squint to 
give a sight of the ceremonial in the chancel to the inmates of the north 
aisle, is of the Norman period, with scolloped cushion capitals and a 
sort of polypetalous flower filling each of their vacant spaces. The 
Norman style is, at the best, more curious and quaint than elegant, 
and therefore it would be useless and foolish to supply these certain 
evidences by any valueless copies, For, albeit the originals display 
deep cuttings in their centres, these very cuttings afford a suggestion of 
the appearance presented by the church when a screen separated the 
nave from the chancel. This screen was, we believe, taken away to 
form a side board or for some such use. It seems to have been accom- 
panied by the customary seats, for Hutchinson says that " the chancel 
is divided from the nave by stalls." 

The four arches of the south aisle are circular, without moulding, 
save a slight chamfer on their edges. Each pillar is a simple cylinder, 
with a square abacus, the abrupt effect of the corners of which is soft- 
ened by four stiff and peculiarly moulded ornaments projecting from the 
circular capital. One at least of the capitals has the nail-head ornament. 
They are well worth the preservation with which they are to be hon- 
oured, and are interesting relics of that age of transition between Nor- 
man and Early English, in which "the jolly bishop," Pudsey, figured 
so largely as a patron of the arts. The arches on the other side, which 
are to come down, are similar, but the capitals are plainer and without 
the corner ornaments. They have been much mutilated, and the re- 
semblance of one of them to a plain classical capital may only be the 
effect of tampering. The pillars show indications of rude marbled co- 
louring ; and above all the arches in the church are strange additions of 
sculptured or stucco casts of countrified cherubs' heads. 

The tower seems to be rather more advanced in style. The form of 
its belfrey windows is not common in the district. It consists of two 
lights rising into square-headed trefoils. 

The roof is covered with good lead, as it ought to be. 

The first mention of "Whickham (spelled "Quicham" or Quykhara,") 
is in Boldon Buke, 1183, but the place then had a full compliment of 
villans, and the chancel arch at least is of older date. "We need not 
therefore despair of the occurrence of early sculptured stones during the 
demolition of the doomed portions of the structure. 



WHICKHAM CHUECH. 65 

Near the Gibside pew an ugly pinfold at the east end of the south 
aisle is placed the classical tribute of Robert Surtees, James Raine, 
and Chas. Geo. Young (famous names) to the memory of John Taylor, 
born in this parish of honest parents, a skilful and elegant genealogist, 
who had the misfortune in 1822 to die at Edinburgh, and be buried in 
the churchyard of the West Kirk. No memorial to him there was per- 
mitted, and any removal of his remains was also stoutly resisted. Sur- 
tees wrote a verse or two on the occasion, printed among his poems 
published by the Surtees Society. 

A s Hutchinson truly observes, the west end of the church is " crowded 
with galleries, thrown into four angles." In the centre of these erec- 
tions are two boards, curiosities in their way, one informing us that the 
gallery was erected in 1711 at the charges of the descendants of the old 
villans, to wit " the coppiholders of this parish;" the other, that eleven 
years afterwards, 1722, it was " beautified" by the churchwardens, 
whose names of course are duly set forth. There are numerous funeral 
hatchments witli the arms of Carr, Clavering, Blenkinsop, and other 
local names. There is also a funeral hatchment for King George III. 
These are attractive to the herald, give an agreeable ancestral air to the 
building, bespeaking of the respectability of the parish, and contrast 
favourably with the uninteresting blankness of newer erections. "We 
hope that they may be retained in some nook of the renovated pile. 

The font is ancient, but not deserving of any particular remark. The 
pulpit-cloth and altar-cloth, though not very old, are sufficiently so to 
excite observation. The pulpit cloth has the letters J. C. repeated in 
cipher, the date 1720, and the inscription, "Ex dono Dna3 Jane Cla- 
vering." The altar-cloth has the impaled arms and the crests of Bowes 
and Blakiston, with the initials E. B., referring to Dame Elizabeth 
Bowes, the heiress of Gibside, who died in 1736. 

The monument of Dr. Thomlinson, who seems never to have been 
weaiy of talking about his charities, is well known, and the other 
monumental features of the place may be seen in the pages of Surtees. 
He appears to have been amused with the slabs of the Hodgsons (stated 
to have been Quakers), in which, like some others of early date in the 
churchyard, the inscriptions run round the stones. These were, upon 
a cursory view, reported as the monuments of two Knights Templars. 
They are of the reign of Charles II., and placed at the west end of the 
churchyard, and an additional inscription states that they were removed 
out of a field at the west end of Whickham in 1784 by Mr. Eobert 
Hodgson, a druggist of London, " as a memorial that his ancestors were 
inhabitants of this parish and had lands of inheritance therein, as may 



66 CAPTURE OF BISHOP BEAUMONT. 

be seen by the division of lands made in the year 1691, under the name 
of Luke Hodgson, M.D., grandfather of the said Robert Hodgson." A 
singular mode of perpetuating a testimony of title. 

The above notes, written during the last hours of the homely appear- 
ance which the church has so long presented, or rather, perhaps, during 
the first hours of its dismantling, may form a useful record at this time. 



THE CAPTUKE OF BISHOP BEAUMONT IK 1317. 
BY W. HYLTON DYER LONGSTAFFE, F.S.A. 

SOME confusion having arisen as to the place of this event, which has 
been located as far north as Hett, and as far south as Aycliffe, I have 
been induced to examine the authorities, and I come to the conclusion 
that ^Rushyford is entitled to the preference. The apparent discre- 
pancies, curiously enough, arise out of contemporaneous evidences. 

10 Sep. 1317. King Edward II., narrating, the outrage to the pope, 
states that the bishop was proceeding to Durham for the purpose of 
being consecrated on Sunday, the feast of S. Cuthbert, Sep. 4, and that 
on Thursday, Sep. 1, the robbers, who attacked the travellers, came 
about the first hour of the day, out of a CERTAIN WOOD, distant FROM 
THE TOWN OF DERLINGTON, six OR SEVEN" MILES (leucas) : and that he, 
the king, on hearing of the matter, had come to York, and would do 
his best, &c. (Fcedera, nov. ed., ii., 341.) 

1 1 Sep. The king, writing to the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle, 
and commanding those who owed service to repair to York, places the 
event in a certain place NEAR (juxta) TO HETT within the liberty of the 
lishoprick of Durham. (Rotuli ScotiaB, i., 177.) 

20 Sep. The king issues a proclamation for the satisfaction of the 
realm, promising full punishment for the offence, which he places AT 
ACHE within the liberty of the bishoprick of Durham. (Fcedera, nov. 
ed., ii., 342.) 

30 Sep. The king, providing for the safety of Yorkshire, speaks of 
the assult as AT ACLE in going towards Durham. (Rotuli ScotiaB, i, 179.) 

Graystanes, the local historian, writing not later than 1333, agrees 
with the letter of Sep. 10, in dating the intended consecration on the 
feast of S. Cuthbert in September, and the attack on the feast of S. 
Giles, Sep. 1, and states that Gilbert de Midelton and his armed men 
met the bishop elect AT THE RUSHY-FORD (Vadum Cirporum), BETWEEN 
FERI AND WODOM. (Hist. Dunclm. Scriptores Tres, 100.) 



CAPTURE OF BISHOP BEAUMONT. 67 

A passage in Leland's Collectanea, in substance, coincides with the 
last authority. The words are BETWEEN FEET AND WOTTOUN. (Ed. 
priina, torn, i., pars, ii., pag. 335.) 

Hollinshed places the event ON WINGLESEON MOOE.E, near unto Dar- 
in g ton. 

Stowe's account is not clear, "but the impression left upon the mind 
that he considered the moor mentioned by his predecessor to be to the 
south of Darlington may not be correct. He says that when THEY CAME 
NEAR TTNTO THE TOWN OF DERLiNGTON, certain roller 8 1 breaking out of A. 
VALLEY, Gilbert Middleton and Walter Selly leing their captains, sud- 
denly set upon the family of the cardinals and of Lodoivike ON WIGELSE- 

DEN MOORE. 

The only modern author worth quoting on the subject is Robert 
Surtees, who was of course, by reason of vicinity, familiar with every 
foot of the ground. " At the Rushyfbrd, midway betwixt the small 
villages of Woodham and Ferry hill, the road crosses a small and sullen 
rivulet in a low and sequestered spot, well calculated for surprize and 
the prevention of escape. In Rymer's Foedera, the robbery is said to 
have taken place at Ai'le, perhaps Acle, i.e. Aycliffe, three miles south 
from Rushyford, where the passage over the Skern would be equally 
convenient. The exploit might furnish no bad subject for a border 
ballad, ' The Bishop's Raid.' " 

Referring to Graystanes, or the summary of his account in Raine's 
Auckland, for much curious sequel of the incident, I may assume as 
bases : 1. That the king was writing from hurried narratives, perhaps 
of foreign or south-country retainers of the bishop, who had continued 
their journey to Durham, and had passed by Darlington, Aycliife, and 
Hett :- 2. That Graystanes, a Durham man, writing when matters had 
settled down, was more likely than the earlier narrators to be precise : 
3. That, therefore, his account, if at all capable of reconciliation with 
the former ones, should be accepted : 4. That the Aile of Surtees, and 
possibly of the old edition of Rymer, and the Ache of the new. edition, 
are mistakes for the Acle of the Rotuli Scotiae, and, consequently, that 
Aycliffe is meant ; the Isle, which has not unreasonably been suggested 
to me as the place meant, lying east and not north of Woodham, and 
not being likely to attract the notice of passing travellers on the great 
north road : 5. That Winglesdon or Wiglesden Moor is "Windleston 
Moor, and that "Wodom or "Wottoun is Woodhain : 6. That the medias- 
val mile or leuca is one mile and a half of our computation. On this 
head the evidence collected in Ducange's Dictionary and Kelhain's 
work on Domesday Book appear to be decisive. 



68 CAPTUEE OF BISHOP BEAUMONT. 

Thus guided, we find that 6 leucce from Darlington would be 9 miles, 
and 7 would be 10J. ISTow Rushyford is 9j, and the expression " 6 or 
7" is most accurate. How faithfully it fulfils the conditions of the spot 
is well brought out by Surtees. 

Although it is a full mile further from Hett than from Aycliffe, yet 
it is much nearer to it than to Darlington ; and a foreigner, baiting at 
Hett, might not unnaturally trace the distance back from that place, 
instead of forward from the good town, which, though forewarned, he 
had foolishly left, and call Rushyford near to Hett rather than so many 
miles distant from Darlington. 

Again, the words, " at Acle" are not very preposterous; for the 
parish of Aycliffe includes "Woodham, and exists up to, or nearly up to, 
Rushyford. The village of AyclifFe was the largest place of any note 
through which the travellers had passed. 

The description " between Ferry (now known as Eerry Hill) and 
"Woodham" is of course strictly correct. 

As to the moor mentioned by Hollinshed and Stowe, Rushyford is in 
the township of Windleston, and one of the chroniclers must have had 
good local evidence before him. 

It is submitted, therefore, that Rushyford, and no site nearer to Hett 
or Aycliffe, is reajt{y the scene of action, and that Mr. Clephan may 
safely lay " The Bishop's Raid " at that well-known spot, redolent of 
many honest recollections of the glories of coaching days. He, the 
said local poet, has truthfully remarked to me that our early reports of 
events were comparatively unpublished, and, consequently, often remain 
uncorrected, for w T e have not always a Graystanes. 

It may be observed in conclusion, that the name of Rushyford occurs 
in English before the period of the raid. 

In the grant of the manor of Woodham (" Wodum"), by Prior Richard 
[Hoton? 1289-1307] to Thomas de Whitworth, in the 13th century, 
(3 Surtees, 418,) the boundaries commence u a forthe versus Acle-moie 
quod ducit a Windleston usque Derlyngton per petras ex parte oriental! 
via3," and proceed along the confines of "Windleston "usque rivulum 
versus Chilton-more ex parte occidentali le Resliefforthe" and so round 
by this rivulet, and the Skerae, and ZFo^omburn, back to the first 
mentioned forth or road. It is curious to notice that in the words of 
this charter which are printed in Italics, we have all the names, except 
Hett, mentioned by the authorities in describing the scene of "The 
Bishop's Raid." 



CONTENTS OF PART XVIII. 

PAGE 

Routine Business of the Society and minor matters, passim. 

Annual Report 2 

Roman Horse-Shoe (with illustrations.} MR. CLAYTON 3 

Corrupt Orthography of Local Names. MK. TURNER, DR. 

BRUCE, AND MR. CARR. . .. 5,11 

North American Antiquities. MR. WHITE . . . . . . 6 

Inscription on the Font at Bridekirk. KEY. W. MONKHOUSE, 8 

The Bridlington Slab. MR. CAPE 11 

MS. of Gower's Confessio Amantis. DR. CHARLTON. .. 12 

Andiron found near Kielder. THE DUKE or NORTHUMBERLAND. U 

Chichester Cathedral and Bp. NeviL MR. THOMPSON .. u 

StOUp from Ebb's Nook. MR. HINDE 16 

Bookbinding, Temp. Henry. VIII. DR. HOWARD . . . 10 

Old Recipes- DR. CHARLTON ., .. 17 

Excavations at Corbridge. DR. BRUCE ... ..' .. . is 
On the Temperament and Appearance of Robert 

Burns. MR. WHITE 22 

Winston (with illustrations.} MR, LONGSTAPFE . . . . . . 24, 62 

Contract for a Private Coach. MR. JAMES CLEPHAN . . . . 20 

Old Barber's Basin 28 

Jedburgh Flags. MR. WHITE 28 

Jacobite Relics of 1715 and 1745. DR. CHARLTON, . . . . 29 

Ecclesiastical Vestments. DR. CHARLTON . . . . . . 34 

Linhope Camp. MR, COULSON .. 37 

The Hospitals of Greatham, Gateshead, and Barnard- 
castle. MR. BROCKETT 38 

Gold Ornament found in North Tynedale. DR. CHARLTON 48 

The Weavers' Tower. MR. FENWICK 48 

Notes of a Tour in Scotland. MR. WHITE 49 

Roman Carlisle. DR. BRUCE .. 52 

Haltwhistle and the Roman Wall . . 53 
Antique Mantlepiece, at Wintringham, near St. Neot's. 

THE REV. JAMES EVERETT . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 

Ancient Chirurgery .. 58 

Documents touching Stainton in the Crags. MR. BROCKETT 59 
The Saxon Inscription at Beckermont. THE REV. F. AD- 

DISON . . . . . . . - . . . . 60 

Durham Abbey Yard. MR. TRUEMAN. . . 02 

Warkworth Chancel (with illustrations.) REV. J. W. DUNN. . . 62 

Whickham Church. MR. LONGSTAFFE .. 63 

1 he Capture of Bp. Beamount in 1317. MR. LONGSTAFFE 66 

gs* With this Part are enclosed the Title, Contents, and Index, to Tolurae V. 



Monthly Meetings the first Wednesday in every month, at the Castle of Newcastle- 
uji'Hi-Tyne. The chair will be taken at 7 o'clock. 

Communications for the Archseologia JEliana may be addressed to the Editor, W. H. D. 
LONGSTAFFE, ESQ., 3, Ravensworth Terrace, Grateshead.